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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



TWENTY-THIRD MEETING 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT HULL IN SEPTEMBER 1853. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1854. 



PRINTED BY 
EienAUB TATLOE AND WILLIAM FBANCIS, 

BED LION COUET, FLEET STBEET. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association .* xiii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xvi 

Table of Council from commencement xviii 

Treasurer's Account xx 

Officers and Council xxii 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxiii 

Corresponding Members xxiv 

Report of Council to the General Committee xxiv 

Repoi't of the Parliamentary Committee xxxi 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxxiii 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxxv 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xl 

Address of the President xli 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1852-53. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford 1 

On the Physical Features of the Humber. By James Oldham, Esq., 
Civil Engineer, Hull, M.I.C.E 36 

On the Rise, Progress, and Present Position of Steam Navigation in 
Hull. By James Oldham, Esq., Civil Engineer, Hull, M.I.C.E — 45 

Experimental Researches to determine the Strength of Locomotive 
Boilers, and the Causes which lead to Explosion. By William 
Fairbairn, F.R.S S3 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

Provisional Report on the Theory of Determinants. By J. J. Syl- 
vester, F.R.S 66 

Report on the Gases evolved in Steeping Flax, and on the Composition 
and CTlconomy of the Flax Plant. By Professor Hodges, M.D 67 

Thirteenth Report of a Committee, consisting of H. E. Strickland, 
Esq., Professor Daubeny, Professor Henslow, and Professor 
LiNDLEY, appointed to continue their Experiments on the Growth 
and Vitality of Seeds 67 

On the Chemical Action of the Solar Radiations. By Robert Hunt, 
Esq , 68 

Observations on the Character and Measurements of Degradation of 
the Yorkshire Coast. By John P. Bell, M.D., Hull 81 

First Report of the Committee, consisting of the Earl of Rosse, the 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, and Professor Phillips, appointed by the 
General Committee at Belfast, to draw up a Report on the Physical 
Character of the Moon's Surface, as compared with that of the Earth... 81? 

Provisional Report on Earthquake Wave-Transits ; and on Seismome- 
trical Instruments. By R. Mallet, C.E=, M.R.I.A. (In a Letter 
to the Assistant-General Secretary.) 86 

On the Mechanical Properties of Metals as derived from repeated Melt- 
ings, exhibiting the maximum point of strength and the causes of de- 
terioration. By William Fairbairn, F.R.S. &c 87 

Third Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phaenomena. Catalogue of 
recorded Earthquakes from 1606 b.c. to a.d. 1850 (continued). By 
Robert Mallet, C.E., M.R.I.A 117 



CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Mathematics. 

Page 
Mr J J. Sylvester on the Expressions for the Quotients which appear in 
tiie application of Sturm's Method to the discovery of the Real Roots of an ^ 
Equation 

Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

Sir David Brewster on the Production of CrystaUine Structure in Crystal- 

hzed Powders by Compression and Traction 

, . on the Optical Pha;nomena and Crystallization of Tour- 
maline, Titanium, and Quartz within Mica, Amethyst, and Topaz 3 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Angle to be given to BinocularPhotographic Pictures 

for the Stereoscope 

on the Practice of the Daguerreotype '^ 

Professor Helmholtz on the Mixture of Homogeneous Colours o 

Professor Matteucci on the Distribution of Electrical Currents in the Rota- 
ting Disc of M. Arago 

on the Magnetism of Rotation in Masses of Crystalhzed 

Bismuth 

on the Magnetism of Rotation developed in very small 

Insulated MetalUc Particles 

Professor Phillips on Magnetic Phaenomenain Yorkshire (> 

Professor Pltjcker on Magnetism ' 

Dr. AsTLEY P. Price on a new Photometer -^ 

Mr. W. J. MAcauoRN Rankine's General View of an Oscillatory Theory of 
Light 



Mr. J. D. SoLLiTT on the Composition and Figurmg of the Specula of Re- 
flecting Telescopes 

Mr. Cornelius Varley's Description of a Graphic Telescope 10 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. J. J. Waterston's Observations on the Density of Saturated Vapours and 
their Liquids at the Point of Transition 11 

■ on a Law of Mutual Dependence between Temperature 

and Mechanical Force 11 



Astronomy, Sea Currents, Depth of Sea. 

Dr. George Buist on the Currents of the Indian Seas 12 

Mr. James Nasmyth on Drawings of the Moon 14 

Professor Phillips on Photographs of the Moon 14 

Rev. William Scoresby on the Surface Temperature and Great Currents of 
the North Atlantic and Northern Oceans 18 

on Deep-Sea Soundings and Errors therein from 

Strata-Currents, with Suggestions for their investigation 22 

Meteorology. 

Mr. W. J. MACauoRN Rankine on a proposed Barometric Pendulum for the 
Registration of the Mean Atmospheric Pressm-e during long Periods of Time 26 

Mr. William Gray on a Concentric Iris, as seen from the ridge of Snowdon, 
near the summit, on the morning of the liJth of June 1853, about an hour 
after sunrise, projected upon the clouds floating along the sides of the Moun- 
tain 26 

Mr. William Lawton on the Meteorology of Hull 27 

Rev. T. Rankin's Meteorological Summary for 1852 of Observations at 
Huggate, Yorkshire 32 

;— Continuation, across the Country, of the Thunder and 

Ram Storm, which commenced in Herefordshire on September 4th, and ter- 
minated on the Yorkshire Wolds on September 5th, 1852 32 

■ Notice of a terrific Thunder-Cloud on the Wokls, Septem- 
ber 26th, 1852 32 

Mr. R. Russell on the Action of the Winds which veer from the South-West 
to West, and North- West to North 32 

Mr. J. K. Watts on Parhelia observed at St. Ives 33 

Mr. John Welsh on the Graduation of Standard Thermometers at the Kew 
Observatory 34 



Strength of Materials. 

Professor Eaton Hodgkinson on the Elasticity of Stone and CrystalUne 
Bodies 36 



Trigonometrical Survey. 

Sii- John Burgovne on the progress made in the Publication of the Trigo- 
nometrical Survey 37 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHEMISTRY. ^"^ 

Professor T. Andrews on a Simple Instrument for graduating Glass Tubes. . 37 

Professor Balfour's Exhibition of British Lichens, containing Dyeing Lichens 37 

ChevaUer Claussen on the Effect of Sulphate of Lime upon Vegetable Sub- 
stances 38 

Rev. Thomas Exley on the Cause of the Transmission of Electricity along 
Conductors generally, and particularly as apphed to the Electric Telegraph 
Wires 38 

Dr. John P. Gassiot on the Decomposition of Water under Pressure, by the 
Galvanic Battery 39 

Mr. John Hall Gladstone on the Corrosion of Iron-built Ships by Sugar 
Cargoes 41 

on the Spontaneous Decomposition of Xyloidine 41 

Mr. W. R. Grove on the Conduction of Electricity by Flame and Gases .... 42 

Professor Johnston on the Origin and Composition of the Mineral called 
Rottenstone 42 

Note on the Formation of Magnesian Limestone 42 

on the Properties and Composition of the Cocoa Leaves 43 

on the Causes, Physical and Chemical, of Diversities of 

Soils 43 

M. Kukla's Description of some new kinds of Galvanic Batteries 44 

Mr. G. Lowe's Note on the Advantages arising from the Purification of Coal- 
Gas, by the Apphcation of Water in an Instrument called "The Scrubber". . 45 

Mr. T. J. Pearsall on Changes observed in Wood from the Submerged 
Forest at Wawne in Holdemess 45 

on Crystals from the Sea-coast of Africa 45 

on Lime Flowers, or pecuUarly formed Substances from 

the brickwork of one of the Reservoirs of the Hull Water-works before final 
completion for use 45 

Dr. AsTLEY P. Price on the Emplojonent of Pentasulphate of Calcium 
as a Means of preventing and destroying the O'idium Tuckeri, or Grape 
Disease 46 

on a New Method for determining the Commercial 

Value of Oxide of Manganese 47 

on a New Method for determining the Amount of 

available Chlorine contained in Hypochlorites of Lime, Soda, or Potash .... 48 

Mr. J. D. SoLLiTT on the Chemical Constitution of the Humber Deposits . . 49 



GEOLOGY. 

Dr. J. Blake on the Comparative Richness of Auriferous Quartz extracted at 
difi^erent Depths from the same Lode 50 

Professor Buckman on the Cornbrash of Gloucestershire and part of Wilts . . 50 

Mr. E. Charlesworth's Notice of the curious Spiral Body in certain Fossil 
Sponges, and of several other remarkable Fossils from the Yorkshire Strata 51 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. Henry Denny on the Remains of the Hippopotamus found in the Aire 
Valley Deposit near Leeds 51 

Professor Johnston on a Chemical Cause of Change in the Composition of 
Rocks 62 

Mr. George G. Kemp on the Waste of the Holderness Coast 53 

Professor Phillips on the most Remarkable Cases of Unconformity among 
the Strata of Yorkshire 53 

on the Dispersion of Erratic Rocks at higher Levels than 

their Parent Rock in Yorkshu-e 54 

on a new Plesiosaums in the York Museum 54 

Rev. T. Rankin on the Formation of Boulders 54 

Professor Sedgwick on the Classification and Nomenclature of the older 
Palaeozoic Rocks of Britain 54 

Mr. H. E. Strickland on Pseudomorphous Crystals in New Red Sandstone 61 

Mr. Wyville T. C. Thomson on some AjTshire Fossils 61 

Mr. R. W. TowNSEND on Refiacted Lines of Cleavage seen in the Slate Rocks 
of Balh rizora, in the Coimty of Cork 61 

Mr. Charles Twamley on a singular Fault in the Southern Termination of 
the Wai'wickshire Coal-field 62 



BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY. 
Botany. 

Professor Allman on the Structure of the Endochrome in Conferva Linum . . 62 

on the Utricular Structure of the Endochrome, a Species of 

Conferva 62 

Professor J. H. Balfour on some New Plants 63 

Professor J. Buckman's Notes on the Growth of Symphyhim officinale in the 
Botanical Gardens of the Royal AgricvUtural College 63 

Mr. B. Clarke's Additional Observations on a New System of Classifying Plants 63 

Mr. Robert Hunt on a Method of Accelerating the Germination of Seeds . . 63 

Dr. Astley p. Price on the Pentasulphide of Calcium as a Remedy for Grape 
Disease 63 

Mr. J. D. SoLLiTT and Mr. R. Harrison on the Diatomacea; found in the 
neighbourhood of Hull 63 

Mr. W. Somers on a New Alga 63 

Zoology. 

Professor Allman on the Structure of Hydra viridis 64 

on the Structure of Bursaria , . . . 65 

on the Structm-e of the Freshwater Poh-p, Hydra viridis. . 66 

Mr. Spence Bate on the Morphology of the Pycnogonidae, and Remarks on 
the Development of the Ova in some Species of Isopodous and Amphipodous 
Crustacea 66 

Dr. J. Blake on the Physiological Action of Inorganic Substances introduced 
dircctlv into the Blood 66 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Mr. W. C. Domvillb's Notices of some Living Aquatic Birds at Santry House, 

near Dublin 66 

Mr. P. Duncan on the Nature of Ciliary Motion 66 

Dr. R. Fowler on the Influence of the Cu-culation of the Blood on the Mental 
Functions 66 

Mr. John Gould on a New Species of Cometes, a Genus of Humming-Birds 68 

Mr. John Hogg on the Artificial Breeding of Salmon in the Swale 68 

Dr. F. R. Horner on some Discoveries relative to the Chick in Ovo, and its 
liberation from the shell 68 

Dr. Lankester's Notice of Jelly Fishes 69 

on Photographic Plates and Illustrations of Microscopic Ob- 
jects in Natural History 70 

Mr. C. W. Peach's Note on the Habits of Fish in relation to certain forms of 
Medusae 70 

Professor Phillips's Notes on a living Specimen of Priapulus cavdatus, 
dredged off the Coast of Scai'borough 70 

Dr. Peter Redfern on the Connexion between Cartilage and Bone 71 

Rev. Francis F. Statham on a curious Exemplification of Instinct in Birds 71 

Mr. H. E. Strickland on the Partridges of the Great Water-shed of India. . 71 

on the Mode of Growth of Halichondria suberea .... 72 

Mr. Robert Warington on Preserving the Balance between Vegetable and 
Animal Organisms in Sea Water 72 

GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Sir C. Anderson on the Influence of the Invasion of the Danes and Scandi- 
navians, in Early Times, on certain Localities in England 73 

Mr. Charles Beckett on the Dialects North and South of the Humber 73 

M. Herman C. Dwerhagen, Substance of a Topographical Essay on the 
Navigation of the Rivers " Plata," " Parana," " Paraguay," " Vermejo," and 
" Pilcomayo " 73 

Mr. G. Windsor Earl's Sketch of the Progress of Discovery in the Western 
Half of New Giunea, from the Year 1828 up to the Present Time "JQ 

Mr. A. G. FiNDLAY on the Currents of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans 76 

Prince Ern. Galitzin on the Manners and Customs of the Yacoutes 80 

Capt. Walter Hall's Proposed New Route between the Atlantic and Pacific, 
by the River Maule in Chili g2 

Mr. John Hogg on Iceland, its Inhabitants and Language 82 

Lieut.-Gen. Jochmus' Notes on a Journey to the Balkan, or Mount Hsemus, 
from Constantinople ^4 

Dr. R. G. Latham on certain LocaUties not in Sweden occupied bv Swedish 
Populations, and on certain Ethnological Questions connected with the 
Coasts of Livonia, Esthonia, Courland, and Gothland 86 

; — ; Ethnological Remarks upon some of the more remarkable 

Varieties of the Human Species, represented by individuals now in London. . 88 

on the Traces of a Bilingual Town (Danish and Angle) in 

England gc( 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Don M. B. La Fuente's Observations on the Pro\dnce of Tarapaca, South Peru 88 
Mr. T. K. Lynch's Notes of an Excursion to the supposed Tomb of Ezekiel . . 89 

Rev. C. G. NicoLAY on certain Places in the Pacific, in connexion with the 
Great-Circle Sailing 89 

Mr. Augustus Petermann on the Interior of Australia 89 

Mr. R. W. Plants on a Second Journey to St. Lucia Bay, and the Adjacent 
Country in South-East Africa 90 

Professor Rafns on Contributions to the Ancient Geogi-aphy of the Arctic 
Regions 91 

Rev. T. Rankin on the Brigantes, the Romans, and the Saxons in the Wolds 
of Yorkshire 91 

Mr. Trelawny Saunders' Inquiry into the Variations of Climate within 
the Tropics, in connexion with the Vertical Action of the Sun and the actual 
Motion of the Earth, especially with reference to the Climate of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria in North Australia 91 

Rev. W. Scores BY on the Popular Notion of an open Polar Sea. Is it the 
Fact ? 92 

Capt. TiCKELL on late Siureys in Arracan 96 



STATISTICS. 

Mr. Francis Bennoch on some suggestions for an improved system of Cur- 
rency and Banking 9/ 

Mr. Edward Cheshire on the Results of the Census of Great Britain in 1851, 
with a Description of the Machinery and Processes employed to obtain the 
Returns 98 

Mr. Edward Cheshire's Statistics relative to Nova Scotia in 1851 102 

Prof. Paul Chaix's Summary of the Census of Switzerland 102 

Dr. Henry Cooper on the MortaUty of Hull in the Autumn of 1849 102 

on the Prevalence of Diseases in Hull 103 

Rev. A. Hume on the Education of the Poor in Liverpool 103 

Mr. James Edvtards' Electoral Statistics of the British Empire 107 

Mr. John Locke, Ireland's Recovei-y ; or. Excessive Emigration, and its Re- 
parative Agencies 107 

Rev. F. O. Morris on Progressive, Practical, and Scientific Education 107 

Dr. Henry Munroe's Statistics relative to the Northern Whale Fisheries from 
1772 to 1852 109 

Mr. F. G. P. Neison's Analytical View of Railway Accidents in this countiy 
and on the Continent of Europe in the twelve years from 1840 to 1852 .... 109 

Mr. William Newmarch on new Supplies of Gold 110 

Mr. Theodore Wm. Rathbqne on a proposed Plan for Decimal Coinage . . 112 

Rev. James Selkirk on the Causes, Extent, and Preventives of Crime ; with 
especial reference to Hull 112 

MECHANICS. 

Mr. J. F. Bateman's Description of some of the large Valves and other 
Machinery which have been employed for the discharge of Water at the 
Manchester Waterworks 113 



CONTENTS. ^^ 

Page 
Col Chesney on the Tubular or Double Life-boat, invented by Henby 

Richardson, Esq. of Aber-Himant, Merioneth J J^ 

Mr. A. Crosskill on Reaping Machinery • • • • 

Mr. William Fairbairn on the Progress of Mechanical Science. Address 

delivered on the opening of the business of the Section J 

Mr J. A. FoRSTER on Improvements in Organ Machinery H? 

Mr. Joseph Hopkinson on the Steam-Engine Indicator 118 

on a Patent Safety Alarum for Steam-Boilers .... 119 

on an improved Compound Patent Safety-Valve for ^^^ 

Steam-Boilers V" 

on an improved Patent Steam-Engine Boiler desig- 

nated the Greatest Resistance Steam-Boiler 

Mr. George Locking's brief Description of Locking and Cook's Patent Ro- 

tatory Valve-Engine, and of its advantages 

Mr. Richard Roberts on certain Improvements in the Constmction of Steam 
Ships, Life-boats, and other Vessels; also m Steam-Boders, PropeUers, 

Anchors, Wmdlasses, and Metalhc Casks 

Mr. Bernard Samuelson on Recent Improvements in Machines for Tilhng ^^^ 

Land 

Rev. W. ScoRESBY on Railway Accidents by Collision, and Suggestions for ^^^ 

their Prevention 

Rev. Francis F. Statham on the Consumption of Smoke in Furnaces and 

Manufacturing Premises • 

on Railway CoUisions, with Suggestions for then: 

Prevention .' ' 

Mr. James Thomson on an Experiment^ Apparatus constructed to determme 

the Efficiency of the Jet Pump ; and a Senes of Results obtamed 130 

Mr. W. Sykes Ward on an Electric Semaphore for Use on Railways 131 

Capt. F. Wilson on a New Wheelbarrow 

TOO 

Index I.— To Reports on the State of Science • • • • ^'*^ 

Index II.— To Miscellaneous Communications to the Sections 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Editors of the preceding Notices consider themselves responsible only for 
the fidelity with which the views of the Authors are abstracted. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OP 

THE ASSOCIATION. 

OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES, 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They ai*e eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 



XIV RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from lf?31 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

8. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 18S9, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845 a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The pJace 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XV 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether, not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees sliall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire, 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affiiirs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 



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1853. 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Acland, Professor H. VV., B.M., F.R.S. 
Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 
Adams, J. Couch, M.A., F.R.S. 
Adare, Edwin, Viscount, M.P., F.R.S. 
Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem 

broke Hall, Cambridge. 
Airy, G. B.,D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 
Alison, Professor W. P., M.D., F.R.S. E. 
Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 
Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.R.S. 
Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
Babbage, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 
Babington, C. C, Esq., F.R.S. 
Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. 
Balfour, Professor John H., M.D. 
Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. 
Bell, Professor Thomas, F.L.S. , F.R.S. 
Bengough, George, Esq. 
Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 
Bigge, Charles, Esq. 
Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 
Boileau, Sir John P., Bavt., F.R.S. 
Boyle, Right Hon. David, Lord Justice-Ge- 
neral, F.R.S.E. 
Brand, William, Esq. 

Brewster,SirDavid,K.H.,D.C.L.,LL.D.,F.R.S. 

Principal of the United College of St. Sal- 

vator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 

K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Brunei, Sir M. L, F.R.S. 

Buckland, Very Kev. William, D.D., Dean of 

Westminster, F.R.S. 
Burlington, William, Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., 
Chancellor of the University of London. 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. 

Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.G.S. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph. 

Cathcart, Lt.-Gen. Earl of, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., late Professor of 
Divinity, Edinburgh. 

Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., Sec. R.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

Clark, Rev. Prof., M.D., F.R.S. (Cambridge). 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. 

Gierke, Major Shadwell, K.H., R.E., F.R.S. 

Ciift, William, Esq., F.R.S. 

Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. 

Cony beare,Very Rev. W. D., Dean of LlandafF, 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wqllace, Esq. 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. 

Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 

Daubeny, Prof. Charles G. B., M.D., F.R.S. 

De la Beche, Sir Henry T., C.B., F.R.S., Di- 
rector-General of the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom. 



Dillwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. 

Durham, Edward Maltby, D.D., Lord Bishop 

of, F.R.S. 
Egerton, Sir Philip de M. Grey, Bart., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 
EUesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. 
Enniskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Fitzwilliam, Charles William, Earl, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. 
Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. 
Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 
Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Graham, Professor Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
Gray, John E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. 
Gray, William, jun., Esq.,- F.G.S. 
Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. 
Grove, W. R., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Hamilton, W. J., Esq., Sec.G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir William R., Astronomer Royal 
of Ireland, M.R.l.A. 

Harcourt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A., F.R.S, 

Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 

Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 

Hanowby, The Earl of, F.R.S. 

Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 

Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 

Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D., President of Queen's 
College, Belfast. 

Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. William, late 
Dean of Manchester, LL.D., F.L.S. 

Herschel, Sir John F. W., Bart.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 

Heywood, James, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Hill, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 

Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.R.LA. 

Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 

Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 

Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 

Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 

Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 

Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 

Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Ibbetson,Capt. L. L. Boscawen, K.R.E., F.G.S. 

Inglis, Sir Robert H.,nart.,D.C.L.,M.P.,F. R.S. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. 

Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 

Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 

Jerrard, H. B., Esq, 

Johnston, Right Hon. William, Lord Provost 
of Edinburgh. 

Johnston, Professor J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 



Keleher, William, Esq. 
Kelland, Rev. Professor P., M.A. 
Lansdowne, Henry, Marquis of,D.C.L,,F.R.S. 
Lardner, Rev. Dr. 
Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 
Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., P.R.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh. 
Lee, Robert, M.D., F.R.S. 
Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, Speaker 

of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Liddell, Andrew, Esq. 
Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Listow^el, The Earl of. 
Lloyd, Rev. Bartholomew, D.D., late Provost 

of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Lloyd, Rev. Professor, D.D., Provost of 

Trinity College, Dublin, F.R.S. 
Londesborough, Lord, F.R.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 
Luby, Rev. Thomas. 
Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A., F.R.S. 
MacCuUagh, Professor, D.C.L., M.R.I.A. 
Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal. 
MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 
MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 
Malcolm, Vice Admiral Sir Charles, K.C.B. 
Manchester, James Prince Lee, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Meynell, Thomas, Jun., Esq., F.L.S. 
Middleton, Sir William F. P., Bart. 
Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 
Moillet, J. D., Esq. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 
Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 
Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 
Moody, T. P., Esq. 
Morley, The Earl of. 
Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 
Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 
Murchison, Sir Roderick L, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Nicol, D., M.D. 
Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 
NorthumberlandjHugh, Dukeof, K.G., M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. 

Norwich, Edward Stanley, D.D., F.R.S., late 
Lord Bishop of. 

Norwich, Samuel Hinds, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. 
Orpen, J. H., LL.D. 

Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S. 

Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Osier, Follett, Esq. 

Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 

Peacock, Very Rev. George, D.D., Dean of 
Ely, F.R.S. 

Peel, Rt. Hon. Sir Robert, Bart., M.P., 
D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Pendarves, E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Phillips, Professor John, M.A., F.R.S. 

Porter, G. R., Esq. 

Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Professor W., M.A, 

Reid, Lieut.-Col. Sir William, F.R.S. 

Rendlesham, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.P. 



Rennie, George, Esq., V.P.R.S. 

Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S. 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ritchie, Rev. Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 

Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., Pres. R.LA., 

F.R.A.S. 
Robison, Sir John, late Sec.R.S.Edin. 
Roche, James, Esq. 
Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 
Rosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Ross, Capt. Sir James C, R.N., F.R.S. 
Rosse, William, Earl of, M.A., M.R.LA., 

President of the Royal Society. 
Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, James, Esq. 
Russell, J. Scott, Esq., F.R.S. 
Sabine, Col. Edward, R.A.,Treas. & V.P.R.S. 
Saunders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Sandon, Lord (the present Earl of Harrowby). 
Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Professor Adam, M.A.,F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 
Spence, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Staunton, Sir George T., Bart., M.P.,D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
St. David's, Connop Thirlwall, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., F.R.S. 
Strang, John, Esq. 

Strickland, Hugh Edwin, Esq., F.R.S. 
Sykes, Lieut.-Colonel W. H., F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., late Vice-Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. John James, B.A. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Tindal, Captain, R.N. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Walker, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Rev. Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Warburton, Henry, Esq., M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N. 
West, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, John Stuart, Lord, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 
Whewell, Rev. William, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Charles J.B., M.D.,F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M. A., F.R.S. 
Wills, William, Esq. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Woollcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

b2 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from Ist of September 

RECEIPTS. 

£ s. d. 
to Balance brought on from last account 237 9 11 

Life Compositions at Belfast and since 118 

Annual Subscriptions at Belfast and since 241 1 

Associates' Subscriptions at Belfast 510 

Ladies' Tickets at Belfast 292 

Composition for the Reports 5 

Dividends on Stock 101 18 10 

Interest on Cash at Belfast 8 1 10 

From the Sale of Publications, viz. — Reports, Catalogues of Stars, &c 201 9 11 



£1715 1 6 



JOHN P. GASSIOT, i ^ ^.^ 

> Audttors. 
WILLIAM HENRY SYKES.J 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



1852 (at Belfast) to the 5tlj of September 1853 (at Hull). 



PAYMENTS. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 
For Sundry Printing, Advertising, Binding, Expenses of Meeting 
at Belfast, Petty Disbursements made by tlie General Trea- 
surer and Local Treasurers 216 16 10 

Balance of Account for Printing Report of the 20th Meeting ... 175 9 6 

Printing Report of the 21st Meeting 422 2 9 

Engraving, &c. for the Report of the 22nd Meeting 117 12 6 

Salaries, 12 Months 350 

Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory 165 

Grant for Experiments on the Influence of Solar Radiation 15 Q o 

Researches on the British Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Balance at the Bankers 224 12 5 

Balance in the hands of the General Treasurer and Local Trea- , 

surers 3 7 6 

227 19 11 

£1715 1 6 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1852-53. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I.MuRCHisoN,G.C.S'.S.,F.R.S. The Very Rev. GeorgePeacock.D.D., Dean 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. of Ely, F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

WILLIAM HOPKINS, Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S., F.G.S., Pres. Cambr. Phil. See. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Charles Frost, Esq., F.S.A., Preadent of 
the Hull Lit. & Philos. Society. 

William Spence, Esq., F.R.S. 

Lt.-Colouel W. H. Sykes, F.R.S. 

Charles Wheatstone, Esq., F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor of Experimental Philosophy in King's 
College, London. 



Tlie Earl of Carlisle, F.R.S. 

The Lord Londesborough, F.R.S. 

Michael Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry in the Royal Institu- 
tion of Great Britain. 

Rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., Wood- 
wardian Professor of Geology in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
The Earl of Harrowby, F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
M.A. F.R.S., Rev. William AVhewell, D.D., F.R.S., 
Hon. M.R.I.A., F.G.S., F.R.A.S., Master 
of Trinity College, and Professor of 
Moral Philosophy in the University of 
Cambridge. 
William Lassell, Esq., F.R.S. L. & E., 

F.R.A.S. 
Joseph Brooks Yates, Esq.,F.S.A ,F.R.G.S. 
LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT LIVERPOOL. 
Joseph Dickinson, M.D., Great George Square, Liverpool. 
Thomas Inman, M.D., 16 Rodney Street, Liverpool. 



The Lord Wrottesley, 

F.R.A.S. 
Sir Philip De Malpas Grey Egerton, 

Bart., M.P.,F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Richard Owkn, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 

F.G.S. , Hunterian Professor of Anatomy 

and Physiology in the Royal College of 

Surgeons of England. 



LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT LIVERPOOL. 

Robert M'Andrew, Esq., F.R.S,, 84 Upper Parliament Street, Liverpool. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Grove, William R., F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, Esq., M. P. 
Hutton, Robert, F.R.S. 
Horner, L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Lankester, E., M.D., F.R.S. 
Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 
Lemon, Sir C, Bait., F.R.S. 



Miller, Prof. W. A., M.D., 

F.R.S. 
Oxford, Bishop of, F.R.S. 
Powell, Rev. Prof., F.R.S. 
Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 
RoYLE, J. F., M.D., F.R.S, 
Stokes, Professor, F.R.S. 



Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 
Babington, C. C, F.R.S. 
Bell, Prof., Pres.L.S., F.R.S. 
Daubeny, Prof.,]\LD.,F.R.S, 
DELABECHB,SirT.H.,F.R.S. 
Forbes, Professor E., F.R.S. 
Gassiot, John P., F.R.S. 
Graham, Professor T., F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
neral and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi- 
dents of former years, viz. The Earl Fitzwilliara. Rev. Dr. Buckland. Rev. Professor Sedgvrick. 
Sir Thomas M. Brisbane. The Marquis of Lansdowne. The Earl of Burlington. Rev. W. 
V. Harcourt. The Marquis of Breadalbane. Rev. Dr. Whewell. The Earl of EUesmere. 
The Earl of Rosse. The Dean of Elv- Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Sir Roderick I. Mur- 
chison. Sir Robert H. Inglis. The Rev. Dr. Robinson. Sir David Brewster. G. B. Airy, 
Esq., the Astronomer Royal. Colonel Sabine. WiUiam Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. 
GENERAL SECRETARY. 
Colonel Edward Sabine, R.A., Treas. & V.P.R.S., K.R.A.S., Woolwich. 
ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
John Phillips, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., York. 
GENERAL TREASURER. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 



William Gray, Esq., York. 
C. C. Babington, Esq., Cambridge. 
William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. 
J. H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. 
WiUiam Sanders, Esq., Bristol, 
W. R. Wills, Esq., Birmingham. 
Professor Ramsay, Glasgow. 

J. P. Gassiot, Esq. 



LOCAL TREASURERS. 

G. W. Ormerod, Esq., Manchester. 
J. Sadleir Moody, Esq., Southampton. 
John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., Swansea. 
J. B. Alexander, Esq., Jpsivich. 
Robert Patterson, Esq., Belfast. 
Edmund Smith, Esq., Hull. 



AUDITORS. 
C. C. Babington, Esq. 



Lt.-Col. Sykes. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXUl 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
HULL MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President.— The Dean of Ely, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— W. R. Grove, Esq., F.R.S. ; Colonel Sabine, F.R.S. ; Rev. Dr. 
Scoresby, F.R.S.; Professor Stokes, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Stevelly ; Benj. Blaydes Haworth, Esq.; J. D. SoUitt, Esq.; 
John Welsh, Esq. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President. — J. F. W. Johnston, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Durham. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. Wra. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S. ; Dr. Andrews, M.R.I.A., 
F.R.S.; Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S.; J. P. Gassiot, Esq., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Robert Hunt ; Thomas J. Pearsall, Esq., F.C.S. ; Henry 
Spence Blundell, Esq. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Sedgwick, F.R.S., &c. ^ 

Vice-Presidents.— James Smith, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; H. E. Strickland, Esq., 
F.R.S., &c. 

Secretaries. — Professor Harkness, F.G.S. ; William Lawton, Esq. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — G. A. Walker-Arnott, LL.D., Professor of Botany, University 
of Glasgow ; Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries. — E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. ; Robert Harrison, Esq. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Robert G. Latham, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Capt. Sir J. C. Ross, R.N., F.R.S. ; Rt. Hon. Lord Londes- 
borough, F.R.S. ; John ConoUj-, M.D., F.E.S. ; Colonel Chesney, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Richard Cull, Esq. ; Norton Shaw, M.D.; Rev. H. W. Kemp, B.A. 

SECTION F. STATISTICS. 

President. — James Heywood, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Thomas Tooke, Esq., F.R.S. ; F. G. P. Neison, Esq., F.L.S. 

Secretaries. — William Newmarch, Esq. ; Edward Cheshire, Esq. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

PresWen^— William Fairbairn, Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof. Hodgkinson, F.R.S. ; George Rennie, Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 

;:;Secre#anes.— James Oldham, Esq., C.E , M.LC.E. ; James Thomson, Esq., 
A.M., C.E. ; Wm. Sykes Ward, Esq., F.C.S. 



XXIV 



REPORT — 1853. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 
M. Babinet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Philadelp/iia. 
Professor H. von Boguslawski, Breslau. 
Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evreux), Paris. 
Professor Braschmann, Moscotc. 
Chevalier Bunsen, Heidelberg. 
Prince Charles Bonaparte, Paris. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
M. Dufrenoy, Paris. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsriihe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor Esmark, Christiania. 
Professor G. Forchharamer, Copenhagen. 
M. Frisian!, Milan. 
Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 
Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 
Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Berlin. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Professor Kreil, Prague. 
M. KupfFer, St. Petersburg. 



Dr. Langberg, Christiania. 
M. Le Verrier, Paris. 
Baron de Selys-Longchamps, Li^ge. 
Dr. Lamont, Munich. 
Baron von Liebig, Munich. 
Professor Gustav Magnus, Bet-lin. 
Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 
Professor von Middendorff, St. Peters- 
burg. 
Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 
Dr. N. Nordengsciold, Finland. 
Chevalier Plana, Turin, 
M. Quetelet, Brussels. 
Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 
M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 
Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 
Professor H. D. Rogers, Philadelphia. 
Professor W. B. Rogers, Virginia. 
Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 
Baron Senftenberg, Bohemia. 
Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm, 
M. Struve, St. Petersburg. 
Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 
Dr. Van der Hoeven, Leyden. 
Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen. 
M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 
IVofessor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



Report of the Proceedings of the Council in 18.52-53, a8 presented 

TO the General Committee at Hull, Wednesday, Sept.7th, 1853. 

" 1. With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Belfast, the Council have to report as follows : — 

" 2. The Committee appointed for the purpose of ' considering a plan by 
which the Transactions of different Scientific Societies might become part of 
one arranged system, and the records of facts and phaenomena be rendered 
more complete, more continuous, and more systematic than at present,' has 
obtained from the greater part of its members written communications em- 
bodying their respective opinions on the subject in question, and it is pro- 
posed that on the return from Italy of Professor Thomson, the originator of 
the resolution, these communications shall be discussed and a report pre- 
pared. 

"3. On the request of the General Committee being communicated to the 
President and Council of the Royal Society, it was ordered by them that the 
Huyghenian object-glass of 123 feet focus should be mounted as an aerial 
telescope in the same manner as when employed in 1719 by Pound and 
Bradley. The superintendence of the mounting has been undertaken by 
Mr. De la Ruo. 

" 4. In conspqiience of a communication from the President of the British 
Association to the President and Council of the Royal Society, a Committee 
was formed for the purpose of taking such steps as they should deem most 
desirable to procure the establishment in the Southern Hemisphere of a Te- 
lescope of large optical power for the observation of the southern nebulae. 
The Committee consisted of the following persons ; — The Earl of Rosse, Pre- 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXV 

sident of the Royal Society, Chairman ; Lord Wrottesley, Sir John Lubbock, 
Bart., Sir John Herschel, Bart., the Dean of Ely, J. C. Adams, Esq., 
G. B. Airy, Esq., Sir David Brewster, E. J. Cooper, Esq., W. Lassell, Esq., 
J. Nasmyth, Esq., John Phillips, Esq., Rev. Dr. Robinson, and the Officers and 
Council of the Royal Society. The Committee have conducted their pro- 
ceedings partly by meetings and partly by printed correspondence; and 
having decided on the nature and size of the Telescope and the mode of 
mounting which they deemed most advisable, they appointed a deputation to 
communicate with the Earl of Aberdeen, with a view to obtaining the sanc- 
tion of Her Majesty's Government, and the requisite funds for the construc- 
tion of the Telescope ; the Council have learned with satisfaction that the 
Deputation was very favourably received by Lord Aberdeen, and they have 
reason to entertain the hope that the necessary funds for the construction of 
the Telescope will be included in the estimates presented to Parliament in its 
next session. 

"5. The resolution of the General Committee recommending that the 
publication of the Townland Survey of Ireland, upon the scale of an inch to 
a mile, should be accelerated, has been communicated to the Master- General 
of the Ordnance, and a favourable reply received. 

"6. In compliance with the resolution directing the Council to solicit the 
cooperation of the Royal Society in meteorological investigations attainable 
by balloon ascents, a communication was addressed to the President and 
Council of the Royal Society, which was most cordially received, and four 
such ascents have been made under the direction of the Kew Observatory 
Committee, by the aid of funds placed at their disposal by the Royal Society. 
A highly satisfactory account of these ascents, and of the results obtained, is 
given in a communication to the Royal Society, drawn up by Mr. Welsh by 
whom the observations were conducted, of which communication 500 copies 
have been presented to the British Association. 

" 7. Respecting ' a series of experiments on a large scale on the thermal 
effects experienced by air in rushing through small apertures,' a representa- 
tion, as recommended, has been made to the Royal Society, and a grant of 
£100 from the Government Fund at the disposal of the Royal Society has 
been made to Messrs. Thomson and Joule, for the necessary apparatus. 

" 8. The recommendation of the General Committee, that, in the event of 
a survey of the Gulf stream being undertaken, provision should be made for 
investigating its zoology and botany, has been communicated to the Hydro- 
grapher of the Admiralty and favourably received. A proposition from Dr. 
Bache, Director of the Coast Survey of the United States, for a joint survey 
of the Gulf-stream by the United States and Great Britain, having been 
addressed to the President of the British Association since the Belfast meet- 
ing, has been forwarded to the Hydrographer of the Admiralty, and has given 
rise to the following correspondence : — • 

" '^Dr. Bache to Colonel Sabine. 

" ' Washington, October 20, 1852. 

" ' Dear Sir, — In the report of the proceedings of the recent Meeting of 
the British Association, over which you presided, I observe a recommendation 
which refers to a ' Survey of the Gulf-stream.' A systematic survey of the 
Gulf-stream at and below the surface, for hydrographic purposes, was com- 
menced in connexion with the survey of the coast of the United States, under 
my direction, in 184'4, and has been continued, as means served, each season 
since, and we have now carried the examination by sections perpendicular to 
the stream from off the capes of New York to Cape Hatteras. Might it not 



XXVi REPORT — 1853. 

be useful to connect the work proposed by your Association with our labours ; 
and if so, who is the proper person to address in regard to the matter ? Will 
you oblige me by informing me in tliis matter? 

" * Yours truly and respectfully, 

" ' A. D. Bache.' 
" 'Colonel Edward Sabine, 
President of the British Association.' 

" ' Colonel Sabine to Rear- Admiral Sir F. Beaufort, K.C.B., Hydrographer. 

" ' Woolwich, November 10, 1852. 

« < Sir, — I beg leave to enclose the copy of a letter which, as President 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, I have received 
from Dr. Bache, Director of the Coast Survey of the United States of North 
America. 

" ' The recommendation of a ' Survey of the Gulf-stream,' referred to by 
Dr. Bache, is contained in the accompanying address of the President at the 
commencement of the Belfast Meeting of the British Association ; the para- 
graph (page 19) is marked, and is to be taken in connexion with the pre- 
ceding paragraph, referring to the correspondence which has recently taken 
place between the British and United States Governments and the British 
Government and the Royal Society of London, on the subject of a conjoint 
investigation into the currents and temperatures of the ocean by the ships of 
both nations under their respective hydrographic offices. 

" ' It is possible that the British Government may have acceded to the pro- 
position to this effect made to them by the Government of the United States, 
and strongly recommended in the report wliich the Earl of Malmesbury re- 
quested from the President and Council of the Royal Society ; and that the 
department of the Admiralty over which you preside may have received 
directions to communicate accordingly with the Hydrographic Office of the 
United States; in this case you may be able to inform me at once to whom 
I should recommend Dr. Bache to address himself. 

" ' Should, however, no such directions have yet issued, it appears to me 
most desirable that I should place Dr. Bache's letter in your hands, to be 
communicated, should you think proper to do so, to the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty ; manifesting as it does, the desire which is felt by a gentle- 
man in his high official position in the United States, to cooperate with the 
British Navy in accomplishing a ' systematic survey of the Gulf-stream for 
hydrographic purposes,' in consonance with the general plan proposed by the 
Government of the United States to Her Majesty's Government. 
" ' 1 have the honour to be. Sir, 
" ' Your obedient Servant, 

" ' Edward Sabine, 
" ^President of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science.' 
" ' The Hydrographer of the Admiralty.' 

" ' Hydrographic Otfice, Admiralty, May 5, 1853. 
" ' Sir, — I have to thank you for the Copy of Dr. Bache's letter, which 
shows how rapidly every useful jiroject in art or science is taken up in the 
United States, and then how energetically it is pushed forward. With 
respect to its immediate subject, you have long known that a thorough 
examination of the Gulf-stream has been, in my estimation, an object of great 
importance to navigation, and you may be therefore sure that whenever, and 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIIi. XXVll 

by whomsoever it may be undertaken, no effort of mine will be wanting to 
contribute to its success. 

" • I confess, however, that I do not at once perceive how the two countries 
could profitably cooperate in the work ; but there is no use in discussing the 
modus operandi till the Admiralty think proper to give me some direct orders 
to consider and report upon the subject, which has not yet been done. 
" ' I have the honour to be. Sir, 

" ' Your most obedient Servant, 
" ' Colonel Sabine, H.A., " ' F. Beaufort, Hydrographer^ 

Woolwich.' 

" ' London, May 6, 1853. 

" 'My dear Sir, — I have this day received, and at once transmit to you 
a copy of, the British Hydrographer's reply to my letter of November 10th, 
1852, enclosing a copy of your letter to me on the subject of a joint survey 
of the Gulf-stream by the United States and this country. You will see by 
Sir Francis Beaufort's letter that he fully concurs with you in recognizing 
the great importance to navigation of such a survey, and that no effort on his 
part is likely to be wanting to contribute to its success, whensoever it shall 
be undertaken. 

" ' You have probably seen by a discussion which took place in the House 
of Lords, on Tuesday the 26th of April, that Lieut. Maury's proposition for 
an extensive system of Hydrographical inquiry, to be carried out conjointly 
by the ships of the two nations, has been favourably received by Her 
Majesty's Government, and the measures required for British cooperation are 
now under consideration. 

" 'The part which this country might take in a survey of the Gulf-stream 
must necessarily be under the direction of the Hydrographer ; and conse- 
quent on instructions received by him from the Admiralty. It is to be 
inferred from Sir Francis Beaufort's reply that it does not consist with the 
practice of his department to communicate to the Admiralty the fact that the 
Director of the Coast Survey of the United States has expressed a desire to 
undertake the survey of the Gulf-stream conjointly with Great Britain. 
Under these circumstances the best suggestion which I am able to make to 
you, in reply lo your question to whom your proposition should be made, is, 
that you should take the same course which Lieut. Maury has done, viz. that 
the proposition should proceed through your own Secretary of State, and the 
American Minister in this country, to Her Majesty's Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, by whom it will be communicated to the proper executive 
Department, and an official reply returned. 

" ' I think that I may safely and confidently assure you that any assistance 
which the British Association for the Advancement of Science can give in 
furtheranceof a proposition of so much scientific as well as maritime import- 
ance, will be most readily given. 

" ' Believe me, most sincerely yours, 

" ' Edward Sabine, 
" ' Dr. A. D. Bache.' " < President of the British Association' 

" 9. An application, as directed by the General Committee, has been made 
to the Master-General and Board of Ordnance to supply instruments for 
measuring the direction and amount of earthquake vibrations in the Ionian 
Islands, and instructions have in consequence been issued for the construction 
of the necessary instruments. 

" 10. With reference to the resolutions regarding the Agricultural Statistics 
of Great Britain, the Committee appointed to carry out the wishes of the 



xxviii REPORT — 1853. 

General Committee have reported to the Council, that having ascertained 
that measures having those objects in view had already been adopted by Her 
Majesty's Government, they have confined themselves to an expression of 
satisfaction therewith, and of readiness to afford any practicable aid on the 
part of the British Association. 

"11. On the subject of a grant in aid of the publication of Mr. Huxley's 
zoological and physiological researches in H.M.S. Rattlesnake, the Council 
have to report that the application made in the last year by the Presidents 
of the Royal Society and of the British Association to the Earl of Derby, 
has been renewed in the present year to the Earl of Aberdeen by the Earl of 
Rosse, on behalf of both institutions. No reply has yet been received. The 
Council desire to take this occasion of calling the attention of the General 
Committee to the want which has been felt in this instance, as in many others, 
of suitable and systematic arrangements on the part of Government for the 
due publication of the results of scientific researches executed at the public 
expense by naval officers acting under the instructions of the Admiralty. 

" 12. The Council, having been directed by the General Committee to take 
into consideration the expediency of procuring copies of M. Dove's Maps 
and Memoir on the Distribution of Heat over the Surface of the Globe, made 
arrangements for obtaining from M. Dove 250 copies of the maps from the 
original stones, and have directed them to be bound up with a translation of 
M. Dove's Memoir, presented by Colonel Sabine, to be disposed of to mem- 
bers of the Association at the cost price of the plates, the printing, and the 
binding. 

" 13. In reference to the resolutions respecting the proposed cooperation 
of the British Association in recommending to Her Majesty's Government, 
in conjunction with the Royal Geographical Society, the examination of a 
portion of the eastern coast of Africa, the exploration of the countries around 
the river Magdalena with a view to their natural products, and the ascent of 
the river Niger to its source, much delay was experienced from the circum- 
stance that no papers whatsoever relative to those subjects were given at the 
close of the Belfast Meeting to the Assistant General Secretary, and that the 
Council were unable subsequently to procure such memorials, embodying 
such statements of the objects and grounds of the recommendation, as it is 
the practice of the British Association to obtain in all cases of application 
to Government and to the East India Company. The subjects were thus 
necessarily left in the hands of the Royal Geographical Society. 

" 14. The Council have great pleasure in expressing their conviction of 
the increased and increasing usefulness of the establishment at Kew, and 
subjoin the report which they have received from the superintending Com- 
mittee. The Council recommend a continuation of a grant to this establish- 
ment to the same amount as in the last year. 

" 15. The Council have been informed that the invitations formerly re- 
ceived by the British Association from Liverpool and Glasgow, to hold the 
meetings of the next two years at those places, will be renewed by deputa- 
tions appointed to attend at Hull for that purpose. They have also been 
informed that it is the intention of the mayor, aldermen, and citizens of 
Gloucester, to present on the same occasion an invitation to the British 
Association to hold an early meeting in that city." 

The Report of the Kew Committee, signed by J. P. Gassiot, Esq., Chair- 
man, referred to in the Report of the Council, was read and ordered to be 
entered in the Minutes. It is as follows ; — 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXlX 

" Eeport of the Kew Committee of the British Association for 1852-53. 

'• Since the last meeting of tiie British Association, the Kew Committee 
have completed the series of balloon ascents which they had contemplated — 
four ascents in all having been made, viz. on Aug. 17, Aug. 26, Oct. 21, and 
Nov. 10, 1852. A Report of these ascents was communicated by the Kew 
Committee to the Council of the British Association, on the 29th Nov. 1852. 
A detailed account of the experiments, with a discussion of the general results, 
having been prepared by Mr. Welsh, was communicated in April last, by the 
Council of the British Association, to the Royal Society, and has since been 
printed in the Philosophical Transactions. At the request of the Council of 
the British Association, the Royal Society have granted to them 500 copies 
of the paper for distribution among their members ; 50 copies have been 
presented to those gentlemen who took a part in the experiments, by making 
contemporaneous meteorological observations or otherwise. The remaining 
copies will be distributed to the purchasers of Dove's Isothermal Lines. 
The sum of 26 U. 2s. 5d. was granted by the Royal Society, from their 
Wollaston Fund, to defray the expense of these ascents. 

" Of this sum 243/. 2s. 5d. was expended, leaving a balance of 18/., which 
has been repaid to the Treasurer of the Royal Society. 

" The Committee have, up to this time, been enabled to supply seventy 
thermometers, graduated under their superintendence by Mr. Welsh. 

" All the applications yet received have now been complied with, except 
three or four for instruments of unusual construction or extent of graduation. 

" On the 30th of May, 1853, the Committee passed the following reso- 
lutions : — 

" ' 1st. That in order to facilitate the comparisons of thermometers with 
the standard at Kew, the Committee are prepared to furnish such instrument- 
makers as may apply to them with a standard thermometer at the charge 
of 1/. 

" ' 2nd. The Committee are prepared to receive thermometers and to 
furnish a table of their errors, provided such thermometers are forwarded to 
Kew free of expense. — It was subsequently resolved that the charge for the 
verification of such thermometers should be 3s. 6d. for each instrument. 

" ' 3rd. That as there are many very carefully recorded series of observa- 
tions made with thermometers that have not been previously verified, the 
Committee will also be prepared (on receiving applications from the ob- 
servers) to furnish the results of a comparison with the Kew standard. Such 
instruments to be forwarded to the Observatory free of expense.' 

" The above resolutions having been forwarded to the editors oi i\\eAthe- 
nceum and the Literary Gazette, were kindly noticed by them in their re- 
spective journals, but with one exception (by an optician for a thermometer) 
no further application has been received by the Committee. It is, however, 
very probable that when such facilities for the correction of observations 
made with imperfect thermometers are more generally known, further appli- 
cations will be received. Except to those who have been actually engaged 
in reducing such observations, it is almost impossible to conceive the amount 
of comparatively useless observations that have been and are now daily 
recorded, owing to the imperfect instruments employed. 

" During the past year a very considerable portion of the time of Mr. Welsh 
has been occupied in the arrangement for and the discussions of the results 
of the balloon experiments, and as he has no one to assist him in the carrying 
out of any meteorological observations, the amount of general work in the 
Observatory during the past year has necessarily been much less than in 



XXX REPORT — 1853. 

previous years ; at the same time it will be seen that the expenditure has 
been proportionately diminished. The total amount is 159/. lis. Id., ex- 
clusive of the sum expended in the ascents, which, as has already been stated, 
was wholly defrayed by the Royal Society. 

" The Committee suggest that, with regard to the balance in hand, the 
same principle as that hitherto adopted should be continued, viz. that the 
balance from former years should be still held at the disposal of the Kew 
Committee (in the event of its being re-appointed), in addition to the usual 
annual grant of 200/. Tiie strict ceconomy with which the funds have been 
hitherto used is a sufficient guarantee that no unnecessary expenditure will 
be incurred. 

" The Committee recommend that an application should be made to the 
Commissioners of Woods and Forests for the temporary use of a small por- 
tion of the ground near the Observatory for the erection of suitable places 
for observing ; the expense would be very trifling, while the position of the 
Observatory, in the centre of 450 acres of a level field, combined with its 
near proximity to the metropolis, renders it in every respect a most suitable 
place for the carrying on those scientific researches which are so intimately 
connected with the objects of the British Association. 

'" During the past year, an application has been received by the Council 
of the Association for a portion of the electrical apparatus belonging to the 
Association for the use of the Observatory at Toronto. This application was 
referred by the Council to the Committee. The following is an extract from 
their Minutes, ^th August, 1853 : — ' Read a letter from Capt. Lefroy to Dr. 
Royle, dated Woolwich, 21st July, 1853. Resolved, that as the electrical 
apparatus referred to in Capt. Lefroy's letter is a portion of that constructed 
by Mr. Ronalds for the carrying out of his original experiments in atmosphe- 
rical electricity, and in which the British Association has always taken so 
much interest, the Committee cannot recommend that any portion of it should 
be withdrawn from the Observatory, more particularly as Mr. Ne^\ynan could 
supply a more perfect apparatus under the superintendence of Mr. Ronalds 
at a comparatively trifling cost.' 

" Part of the Government Grant placed at the disposal of the Royal Society 
having been entrusted to the Meteorological Sub-Committee, they have been 
enabled to prosecute their experiments for the improvement of meteorological 
instruments, and have, in furtherance of this object, obtained from M. CErt- 
ling a set of standard weights, made under the direction of Dr. Miller, with 
especial reference to facility of intercomparison. They are now in the hands 
of Prof. Miller, of Cambridge, for verification, and he expects in the course 
of about a montli to have the trials of them complete. These weights con- 
sist of the following — a standard pound of gun-metal thickly electro-gilt; a 
set of weights for ordinary use made of the same material, viz. 
1 of 7000 grains. 1 of 700 grains. 

1 „ 4000 „ 1 „ 400 „ 

1 „ 2000 „ 1 „ 200 „ 

2 „ 1000 „ 2 „ 100 „ 
A set of platinum wire weights for the smaller subdivision — 

1 of 70 grs. 1 of 7 grs. 1 of •? gr. 1 of '07 gr. 

1 „ 40 „ 1 „ 4 „ 1 „ -4 „ 1 „ -04 „ 

1 „ 20 „ 1 „ 2 „ 1 „ -2 „ 1 „ -02 „ 

2 „ 10 „ 2 „ 1 „ 2 „ -1 „ 1 „ -01 „ 

The standard scale, prepared by Messrs. Troughton and Simms, is awaiting 
Mr. Sheepshanks' leisure for comparison with the bars in his possession. This 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXXI 

scale is composed of a brass rolled bar, about 41 inches long, 1^ inch wide, 
and half an inch thick — the standard 3'ard is laid down between two gold 
pins, inserted for the purpose, and the interval of 36 inches is marked off on 
them by two fine lines ; near an edge of the bar, 40 inches subdivided into 
tenths, have been marked off, and one-tenth has further been divided into 
hundredths of an inch. 

" Application having been made from the Hydrographer to the Admiralty 
for advice as to the thermometers to be supplied to Her Majesty's Navy for 
meteorological observations to be made at sea, the Committee have under- 
taken to recommend and provide a specimen of the form of instrument they 
consider best adapted for the purpose, and experiments are now being made 
by Mr. Welsh, with this object in view. 

" Lieut. Maury, of the United States Navy, has also requested the opinion 
of the Committee upon the best form of a Marine Barometer, and the subject 
is now under their consideration. 

" The Standard Barometer is not as yet mounted, but two tubes of an inch 
in internal diameter, have been boiled at the Observatory, by Messrs. Negretti 
and Zambra, under the inspection of the Committee, and the mounting is 
shortly expected to be completed. 

" The Committee cannot close their report without expressing their high 
estimation of Mr. Welsh's services. The constant and unremitting attention 
to his duties, combined with the ability he has always evinced in their dis- 
charge, entitle him to the warmest thanks and individual support of every 
member of the British Association. 

" John P. Gassiot, 

" Chairman." 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee of the British Asso- 
ciation, TO the Meeting held at Hull, in September 1853. 

" The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows: — 

" The subjects to which the attention of the Committee has been directed, 
since the date of their last Report, are — 

" 1. The extravagant rates of postage charged on the transmission of pre- 
sentation copies of scientific works to correspondents in foreign parts ; and 

" 2. Lieut. Maury's Scheme for the improvement of Navigation. 

'* As to the first, Mr. Heywood moved, in the House of Commons, for a 
copy of the return, which has been already printed by order of the House of 
Lords, on the motion of Lord Wrottesley, showing the great amount of the 
rates now levied on the postage of letters to foreign countries (and such 
communications as those above alluded to can only be sent as letters by the 
existing regulation), and the same return was produced and printed accord- 
ingly. This return is No. 32 of the sessional papers of the House of Lords, 
and No. 142 of those of the House of Commons. 

" Your Committee likewise solicited and obtained an interview with the 
Postmaster-General, on the 13th of July, and directed his attention to the 
statements contained in the letter to Lord Malmesbury, of last year, on this 
subject, and to the facts disclosed by the above-mentioned returns ; and a letter 
was subsequently written at Lord Canning's request, embodying in writing 
the observations which had been already addressed to him orally in this be- 
half. Lord Canning seemed to admit the hardship of the case, and the fol- 
lowing letter, which was afterwards received from Colonel Maberly, contains 
the substance of the answer given by him to the Deputation : — 



xxxii REPORT — 1853. 

" • General Post-Office, August 2nd, 1853. 

" ' My Lord, — The Postmaster-Geoeral has had under consideration your 
Lordship's letter of the 22nd ultimo, aud I am directed to inform you that 
he considers it would be difficult to establish any special regulation for the 
transmission of scientific works only, through the post, to and from foreign 
countries at a low rate of postage. 

" ' Lord Canning's attention, however, has been directed for some time to 
the importance of entering into arrangements with the several foreign coun- 
tries, with which this department is under convention, for the purpose of 
extending to these countries, as nearly as circumstances will permit, the pro- 
visions under which printed publications generally may be forwarded by 
post, at a cheap rate, to a large number of Her Majesty's colonial possessions 
abroad ; and I have to state that his Lordship is already in correspondence 
on this subject with the Prussian post-office, acting on behalf of the greater 
part of Germany ; and that he will take care that this point is borne in mind 
in any future negotiation with foreign post-offices. 

" ' I have the honour to be, &c., 

" ' W. Maberly.' 

" Secondly. The subject of Lieut. Maury's plan, for making hydrographical 
and meteorological observations at sea, by the co-operation of the principal 
maritime nations, was referred to your Committee by your Council on the 
29th November, and also by Colonel Sabine, your President ; and, at the 
meeting of the Committee on the 11th of February, Lord Wrottesley was 
requested to call the attention of the House of Lords to this very important 
scheme. This was accordingly done on the 26th of April, and Lord Wrot- 
tesley thought it right on this, the first occasion of an appeal to Parliament, 
to take advantage of the opportunity that afforded to him to make some 
remarks on the advantages arising from the cultivation of abstract science, 
and on the duty of protecting and fostering a pursuit from which this country 
more especially had derived such inestimable benefits. On the 13th of July 
Sir Robert Inglis, in the House of Commons, as representing your Commit- 
tee, again urged the importance of Lieut. Maury's plan on the attention of 
Government, and the reply of Admiral Berkeley not being deemed satisfac- 
tory, your Committee solicited and obtained an interview with Sir James 
Graham on the 18th of July, on this subject. The Deputation consisted of 
the Chairman, the Earl of Harrowby, the Earl of Rosse, the Bishop of Ox- 
ford, Sir Robert Inglis, and Mr. Hey wood, assisted by your President, Col. 
Sabine, and Sir Roderick Murchison, who were invited to accompany the 
Committee. Sir James Graham stated he was prepared to issue instructions 
to captains of men-of-war to take the temperature of sea-water, and that he 
would send Capt. Beechy to Brussels on the 23rd of August to confer with 
Lieut. Maury, who had arranged to meet at that time and place representa- 
tives of many of the maritime powers of Europe ; he also stated to Sir 
Robert Inglis, on another occasion, that he was willing to cooperate with the 
United States Government by sending a vessel to explore the ocean between 
the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. He stated, further, to the Depu- 
tation, that he was not yet prepared to recommend to the House of Com- 
mons the establishment of a separate department or office, for the purpose of 
receiving, reducing, and coordinating the observations made either by ships 
of war or the mercantile marine. The Deputation, in reply, expressed their 
regret at this determination, and showed that unless an office of this kind 
were provided, it was in vain to expect that observations would be made, and 
that, if made, they would be productive of little or no benefit to navigation 



nfiSEAtlCHES IN SCIENCE. XXXui 

OP science ; and they called attention to the fact that valuable hydrographi- 
cal and meteorological observations had already been made by scientific 
naval officers, and had produced no fruit, owing to the want of a provision 
for their collation and reductioa. Your Committee entertain a confident 
hope that when the attention of merchants and shipowners h£is been com- 
pletely awakened to the wonderful results which have flowed from the adop- 
tion of the system in question in the United States, and when they perceive, 
as they cannot fail to do in the course of time, how materially their pecuniary 
interests are likely to be advanced by its unreserved adoption, that they will 
either attempt to carry it into effect themselves without aid from any other 
source, or make such an appeal to the Government as it will be difficult to 
resist ; and symptoms of such a movement have already exhibited them- 
selves. Your Committee are happy to be able to conclude their report with 
an announcement that the Council of the Royal Society have, by a Resolu- 
tion dated the 17th of February last, recognized the importance of the step 
taken by the British Association, in appointing a Committee of Members of 
the Legislature to watch over the interests of science. 

" Wrottesley, 

" Chairman." 
" 24th August, 1853." 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Hull Meeting in Septembek 1853. 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of 36200 be placed at the disposal of the Council for the 
maintenance of the establishment of the Observatory at Kew. 

That the Committee appointed to investigate the physical aspect of the 
Moon be requested to endeavour to procure photographs of the Moon, from 
telescopes of the largest size which can be made available ; with ^625 at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That the expense of certain thermometers constructed for the inquiry on 
Conduction of Heat, by Professor Forbes, amounting to £,\ : 2s., be paid. 

That Dr. Hodges be requested to continue his investigations on Flax ; with 
a620 at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Rankine, Mr. Fairbairn, Dr. Robinson, Professor Hodgkinson, 
and Mr. Ward, be requested to continue the Report on the Cooling of Air 
in Hot Climates ; with ^620 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Fairbairn be requested to prepare a Report on the effects of 
Temperature on Wrought Iron Plates; with jCIO at his disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Mr. Mallet be requested to continue his Experiments on Earthquake 
Waves ; with 3^50 at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Lankester, Professor Owen, and Dr. Dickie, be a Committee to 
draw up Tables for the registration of periodical phenomena ; with £\0 at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Lankester, Professor E. Forbes, and Professor Bell, be requested 
to assist Dr. Williams in drawing up a Report on British Annelida ; with 
^610 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Hyndman, Mr. Patterson, Dr. Dickie, and Mr. Grainger, be 
requested to carry on a system of Dredging on the North and East coasts of 
Ireland; with ^eiO at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Daubeny, Professor Lindley, and Professor Henslow, be re- 
quested to continue their experiments on the Vitality of Seeds ; with £5 IDs 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

1853. 



XXXiv REPOBT — 1853. 

That the Committee for providing a large outline Map of the World, be 
re-appointed, with the addition of Sir James Ross and Dr. R. G. Latham ; 
with £1!^ at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not ijivolving Grants of Money or Application to Government or Public 
Authorities. 

That Lieut.-Colonel Portlock, Professor James Forbes, Mr. Mallet, Mr. 
Phillips, Dr. Robinson, Colonel Sabine, and Professor Stokes, be requested 
to consider and report upon the best form of apparatus for registering the 
direction and amount of earthquake vibrations. 

That Colonel Sabine be requested to prepare a Report on the principal 
magnetical results obtained at the magnetical observatories. 

That Dr. Gladstone be requested to continue his inquiries on the influence 
of light on the vitality of plants. 

That Mr. Robert Hunt be requested to continue his investigations of the 
chemical action of the solar rays. 

That the following Gentlemen be a Committee to report on the best means 
of preserving pyritous and other specimens of organic remains which are 
liable to decomposition, viz. J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., Professor Johnston, 
J. E. Lee, Esq. 

That Mr. Spence Bate be requested to give a Report on the present state 
of our knowledge of the lower forms of British Crustacea. 

That the Kew Committee be requested to furnish a Report to the Coun- 
cil, on the definition of the boiling-point of water at present adopted in this 
country for the thermometric scale; and that the Council be requested to 
communicate with the President and Council of the Royal Society, should 
any change in that respect be deemed desirable. 

That Professor Johnston be requested to furnish a Report on the relations 
of Chemistry to Geology. 

That the following papers, with the consent of the authors, be printed ia 
full in the Transactions of the British Association for the year 1853: — 

W. Fairbairn Esq. — Account of experimental researches to determine 
the Strength of Locomotive Boilers, and the causes which lead to 
Explosions. 
James Oldham, Esq. — On some of the Physical Features of the Humb^r. 

. . On the Rise, Progress, and Present Position of 

Steam Navigation in Hull. 
J. P. Bell, Esq., M.D. — Observations on the Character and Measure 
ments of Degradation of the Yorkshire Coast. 

That Mr. John Frederick Bateman, C.E., F.G.S., be requested to Report 
on the state of our knowledge on the supply of water to towns. 

That the thanks of the British Association be given to the Parliamentary 
Committee, for the unceasing attention they have paid to the interests of 
science, both in communications to Government, and in proceedings in the 
Houses of Parliament. 

The Members of the British Association have learned with satisfaction 
that it is the intention of Government to direct, that ia future, daily meteoro 
logical observations shall be made at sea, in correspondence with the plan 
adopted by the Government of the United States, on the suggestion of Lieut. 
Maury, and to take such further steps, in reference to the Mercantile Marine 
of Great Britain, as may be best suited to stimulate and encourage the 
Masters of British merchant ships to take interest in investigations by which 
the times of passage between different ports have already, in many instances,, 
been materially shortened, and which may lead to other results of the great 
est importance to practical navigation. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXXV 

The British Association entirely concurs in the opinion, that to make the 
observations thus contemplated serviceable for the purposes for which they 
are designed, it will be necessary to make provision for their co-ordination, 
and for deriving from them the instruction which they may be capable of 
yielding, primarily for the advantage of navigation, and secondarily for the 
benefit of science. 

In this view the General Committee requests that the Council will com- 
municate on the subject with the Parliamentary Committee, and will take 
such steps, either by deputation to Government or otherwise, as may appear 
to them desirable. 

That as very great inconvenience is frequently occasioned by the injury 
or destruction of instruments and specimens arriving from Foreign parts, 
arising from careless re-packing at the Custom-House, it be referred to the 
Council to consider of the best mode of obtaining a remedy for the evil. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Hull Meeting in September 1853, with the 
Name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Committee, is 
entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory. £ s. d. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying Expenses 200 

Physical Science. 
Earl of Rosse. — Committee to investigate the Physical aspect 

of the Moon 25 

FoaBES, Prof. — Expense of certain Thermometers constructed 

for the inquiry on Conduction of Heat 4 2 

Chemical Science. 

Hodges, Prof. — Investigations on Flax 20 

Rankine, Mr. — On the Cooling of Air in Hot Climates .... 20 
Fairbairn, Mr — On the Effects of Temperature on Wrought 

Iron Plates 10 

Geology. 
Mallet, Mr. — Experiments on Earthquake Waves 50 

Natural History. 
Lankester, Dr. — Tables for the Registration of Periodical 

Phenomena 10 

Lankester, Dr. — On British Annelida 10 

Hyndman, Mr.— Dredging on the North and East Coasts of 

Ireland 10 

Daubeny, Dr. — Vitality of Seeds 5 10 

Geography and Ethnology. 
MuRCHisoN, Sir R. I — Large outline Map of the World .... 15 

Grants £379 12 



c2 



XXXVl 



REPORT — 1853. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account bf Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 

£ 8. d, 



£ s. d. 
1834. 

fide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyolog)' ... 105 

^167 
1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology... 105 
Therraometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-conti- 
nued Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



.£434 14 



29 
100 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 89 5 3 

Vitrification Experiments ... 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations ... 30 

Barometers 11 is 6 

.€918 14 6 
1838. "^^^^ 

Tide Discussions 

British Fossil Fishes 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (con- 
struction) 

Cast Iron (strength of) 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (preservation of) 

Railway Constants 

Bristol Tides 

Growth of Plants 

Mud in Rivers 

Education Coram i ttee 

Heart Experiments 

Land and Sea Level 

Subterranean Temperature .. 

Steam-vessels 

Meteorological Committee... 

Thermometers 



100 

60 

19 1 10 

41 12 10 

50 

75 

3 6 6 

50 

5 3 

267 8 7 

8 6 

100 

31 9 5 

16 4 





£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 

Vitiification Experiments ... 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste ... 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue... 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall.. 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies ... 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum ... 22 
Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 







10 





2 





18 


6 


11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature... 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies ... 7 
Meteorological Observations 52 
Foreign Scientific Memoirs.. 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Phse- 

nomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations ... 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 














7 

















13 


9 



.£1546 16 4 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXVll 



£ s. d. 
1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

MudinRivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) ... 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations ... 61 18 8 
Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh .. 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations ... 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

^1235 10 11 



1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia ... 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (British Association 

Catalogue of) 110 

Railway Sections l6l 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 



£ s. 
Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dy- 
namometric Instruments.. 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds ... 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds .. 8 1 

Questions on Human Race.. 7 9 

.€1449 17 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomencla- 
ture of Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue ... 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 
Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations at Kingussie and 
Inverness 77 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 
Anemometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at 
Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 
Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light ... 18 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture and Sundries ... 133 

Experiments by Captive Bal- 
loons 81 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological No- 
menclature 10 

UncoveringLowerRed Sand- 
stone near Manchester ... 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds... 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) 10 





















12 


8 


























6 





12 


2 


8 


10 








16 


1 


4 


7 


8 

















18 


3 














4 


6 


3 


8 









XXX vm 



REPORT — 1853. 



£ s. d. 
Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on 

British Fossil Mammalia.. 100 
Physiological operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on 

the Forms of Vessels 1 00 

Reduction of Observations 

on the Forms of Vessels.. 100 
Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 



^1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations 

at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland .... 100 

Revision of the Nomencla- 
ture of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obser- 
vatory 56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 

in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 16 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary 
Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 

Earthquakes 1842 23 11 10 

Researches into the Struc- 
ture of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and MoUusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas, 1842 100 

Geographical distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon 

and Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu,.., 10 



£ s. d. 

Experiments on the Vitality 
of Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Researches on Exotic Ano- 

plura 15 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the inter- 
nal Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mo- 
rin's Instrument, 1842 ... 10 3 6 

.^981 12 8 



1845. 

Publication of the British 

Association Catalogue of 

Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 

Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 

at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 

Observations at Plymouth 25 
Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 15 
For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 
Gases from Iron Furnaces... 50 
Experiments on the Actino- 

graph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 

Shells 20 

Exotic An oplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 
Physiological Action of Me- 
dicines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 18 43 15 14 8 

.£830 9 9 

1846. 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



XXXIX 



Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 
Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

Researches in As phy xia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain... 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1 844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Researches on Atmospheric 

Waves 3 

Capti ve Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human 

Race 1844 7 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality at York 12 

^685 16 









16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


8 



6 3 







1847. 

Computation of the Gaus- 
sian Constants for 1839... 50 

Habits of Marine Animals... 10 

Physiological Action of Me- 
dicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Researches on Atmospheric 
Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observato ry 107 8 6 
^208 5 4 



1848. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Researches on Atmospheric 

Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

j€275 1 8 

1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 



£ s. d. 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phsenomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations 13 9 

.^159 19 6 

1850. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transitof Earthquake Waves 50 

Periodical Phaenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

. €345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) 309 2 2 

Experiments on the Theory 

ofHeat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phsenomena of 

Animals and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

.£391 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland... 15 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates ... 10 
.£304 6 7 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory -165 

Experiments on the Influence 

of Solar Radiation 16 

Researches on the British 

Annelida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast 

of Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 



xl REPORT — 1853. 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings. 



On Wednesday, Sept. 7th, at 8 p.m., in the Saloon of the Mechanics' In- 
stitution, Colonel Edward Sabine, R.A., V.P. and Treas. R.S., resigned the 
office of President to William Hopkins, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., who took 
the Chair at the General Meeting, and delivered an Address, for which see 
page xli. 

On Thursday, Sept. 8th, a Soiree took place in the Music Hall, at the 
Public Rooms. 

On Friday, Sept. 9th, at 8 p.m., in the Saloon of the Mechanics' Institu- 
tion, John Phillips, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., delivered a Discourse on some 
peculiar Phgenomena in the Geology and Physical Geography of Yorkshire. 

On Saturday, Sept. 10th, at 9 p.m., a Soiree took place, by invitation of 
the Mayor of Hull, in the Station Hotel. 

On Monday, Sept. 12, at 8 p.m., in the Saloon of the Mechanics' Institu- 
tion, Robert Hunt, Esq., delivered a Discourse on the present state of Pho- 
tography. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 14-, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting of 
the Association wn^ held in the Saloon of the Mechanics' Institution, when 
the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of Money for 
scientific purposes were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Liverpool *. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 20th of September, 1854. 



ADDRESS 

BT 

WILLIAM HOPKINS, Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S., F.G.S., 

Pkesioent of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 



Gentlemen of the British Association, 
Before I proceed to those remarks which I may have to address to you on 
matters of science, let me avail myself of this opportunity of expressing to 
you the sense I entertain of the honour which you have conferred upon me 
in electing me to the Presidency of the Association. When this high office 
was first proposed to me, I could not but feel the importance of the duties 
attached to it. I felt, also, that there must be others who had higher claims 
to the honour than myself. But I was aware how frequently difficulties will 
occur in the immediate appointment to such offices of the persons most com- 
petent to fill them ; and, after having been invited to the office by those best 
qualified to decide such points, I conceived it right not to shrink from its 
responsibilities, but at once to accept it, with the determination of performing 
the duties it might impose upon me to the best of my ability. I have had 
the less hesitation in adopting this course from a knowledge of the effective 
and ready assistance which I should always receive, not only from our excel- 
lent Secretary, Mr. Phillips, but also from my predecessor in this Chair, who 
is so intimately acquainted with the whole working of the Association, to 
which he has rendered so long and so cheerfully such invaluable services. 
After thanking you, Gentlemen, as I do most sincerely, for the high compli- 
ment you have paid me, and assuring you of my best efforts in the cause of 
the Association, I proceed to lay before you such statements and remarks on 
scientific subjects as have presented themselves most prominently to my own 
mind for this occasion. In doing this, I cannot but regret my inability to 
do justice to many subjects which might be interesting to you ; and, indeed, 
the limited time for which I should be justified in demanding your attention 
to an oral communication, will oblige me to omit, this evening, several even 
of those points which I was prepared to bring under your notice. 

Astronomical research still continues to prove to us how much more 
populous is that portion of space occupied by the solar system than was 
suspected only a few years ago. Between the 23rd of June, 1852, and the 
6th of May, 1853, nine new planets were discovered, of which seven have been 



xlii REPORT — 1853. 

found since the last meeting of the Association. Of these nine planets, our 
countryman, Mr. Hind, has discovered four. The number now known, ex- 
clusive of the large planets, but including the four old asteroids, amounts to 
twenty-six, nor have we any reason to suppose that we have yet approximated 
to the whole number of these minor planetary bodies. All those which have 
been recently recognized appear like stars of magnitudes not lower than the 
eighth or ninth, and are consequently invisible to the naked eye. The 
search for them has now assumed, to a considerable extent, a more systematic 
form, by a previous mapping of the stars up to a certain magnitude, and 
contained within a belt of a few degrees in breadth on either side of the 
ecliptic. Any small planet will in the first instance be inserted in the map 
as a small star, but will on the re-examination of the same area some time 
afterwards, be recognized in its true character from the fact of its having 
moved from the place in which it was first observed. This mapping of the 
ecliptic stars from the eighth to higher magnitudes is still comparatively 
limited ; nor has the length of time during which any one portion, perhaps, 
of the space been thus mapped, been sufficiently great to ensure the passage 
through it, within that time, of any planet whose period is as long as the pos- 
sible periods of those which may yet remain unknown to us. Analogy would 
therefore lead us to conclude in favour of the probability of their number 
being much greater than that at present recognised. All those which are 
now known lie between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, but many may exist 
more distant and of much smaller apparent magnitudes ; and thus almost 
the same careful telescopic research may be necessary to make us acquainted 
with some of our planetary neighbours as with the remoter regions of space. 
Nor is the telescopic mode the only one by which we may detect the existence 
of remoter planets ; for as Uranus betrayed the existence of Neptune, so 
may the latter hereafter reveal to us the retreats in which some more distant 
member of the system has hitherto hidden himself from the observation of 
man. 

There would seem to be a tendency in the human mind to repose on the 
contemplation of any great truth after its first establishment. Thus, after 
the undisputed reception of the theory of gravitation and the complete ex- 
planation which it afforded of the planetary motions, men seemed to think 
little of any further revelations which the solar system might still have to 
make to us respecting its constitution or the physical causes which it calls 
into operation. The recent discovery, however, of so many planets shows 
how imperfectly we may yet be acquainted with the planetary part of the 
system ; and the continual discovery of new comets seems to indicate that in 
this department still more remains to be done. These curious bodies, too, 
may possibly have to reveal to us facts more interesting than any which the 
planets may still have in reserve for us. The experience of these latter 
bodies, if I may so speak, is more limited, and their testimony, consequently, 
more restricted. But they have already told us a noble tale. In moving, 
as they do, in exact obedience to the law of gravitation, and thus establishing 
that law, they have affirmed the highest generalization in physical science 
which it has been accorded to the human mind to conceive. At the same time 
the approximate circularity of their orbits prevents their passing through those 
varied conditions to which comets are subjected. Thus, while the latter 
obey, in common with the planets, the laws of gravitation, they frequently 
present to us, in their apparent changes of volume, form, and general cha- 
racter, phaenomena the explanation of which has hitherto baffled the inge- 
nuity of astronomers. One of the most curious of these phaenomena has 



ADDRESS. Xliii 

been recently observed in Biela's comet. This comet has a period of about 
six years and a half, and has been observed a considerable number of times 
on its periodical return to the neighbourhood of the sun. It appeared in 
November 1845, and in the following January the phaenomenon alluded to 
was observed for the first time. The comet had become divided into two 
distinct parts with separate nuclei. Sometimes the one and sometimes the 
other appeared the brighter till their final disappearance. The elements 
of the orbits of these twin comets were calculated by Professor Plantamour, 
from observations made at Geneva in 1845-46, assuming them to be unin- 
fluenced by each other's attractions. The correctness of these elements 
could only be determined on the next return of the comet, which took place 
in the autumn of last year, one of the nuclei having been first seen by Signor 
Secchi at Rome, on the 25th of August, and the other on the 15th of Sep- 
tember. The subsequent observations made upon them show that the ele- 
ments of the orbits, as previously calculated from the Geneva observations, 
were far from exact. A complete discussion of all the observations which 
have been made on these comets during their last and previous appearances, 
is now in progress by Professor Hubbard, of the Washington Observatory. 
The distance between the two nuclei was much increased on their last ap- 
pearance. Judging from the apparent absence of all influence and sympathy 
between these bodies, it would seem that their physical divorcement, though 
without known precedent, is final and complete. 

Stellar astronomy continues to manifest a vigour and activity worthy of 
the lofty interest which attaches to it. Bessel had made a survey of all stars 
to those of the ninth magnitude inclusive, in a zone lying between 45° of 
north and 15° of south declination. Argelander has extended this zone from 
80° of north to 31° of south declination. It comprises more than 100,000 
stars. Last year was published also the long-expected work of M. F. G. W. 
Struve, containing a catalogue of stars observed by him at Dorpat, in the 
years 1822-43. They are principally double and multiple stars, which had 
been previously micrometrically observed by the same distinguished astro- 
nomer. Their number amounts to 2874; the epoch of reduction is 1830. 
The introduction contains the discussion of various important points in 
stellar astronomy. 

Notices have been brought before us, from time to time, of the nebulae ob- 
served through Lord Rosse's telescope. This noble instrument, so unrivalled 
for observations of this kind, continues to be applied to the same purpose, 
and to add yearly to our knowledge of the remotest regions of space into 
which the eye of man has been able to penetrate. Almost every new obser- 
vation appears to confirm the fact of that curious tendency to a spiral arrange- 
ment in these nebulous masses, of which mention has so frequently been made. 
To those persons, however, who have neither seen the objects themselves, nor 
careful drawings of t':em, a mere verbal description must convey very indi- 
stinct conceptions of the spiral forms which they assume. I have therefore 
had the drawings made, which are suspended in the room for your inspection. 
They will convey to you at once an idea of the spiral forms alluded to. I am 
indebted to the kindness of Lord Rosse for the use of the original drawings, 
and for these large and accurate copies of them to our excellent Secretary, 
Mr. Phillips, who, with his usual ready activity in the cause of the Associa- 
tion, has had them prepared for the purpose of this evening. Most of them 
are representations of nebulas which have been very recently observed. 

Two pairs of these are respectively drawings of the same object, the larger 
one of each pair representing the nebula as seen through the large telescope, 



xliv REPORT — 1853. 

the other as seeu through a smaller one of Lord Rosse's of only three feet 
aperture. You will observe how little resemblance there is between them, 
except in the external boundary, and how entirely the characteristic details of 
the larger drawings are lost in the smaller ones ; and if I had exhibited to you 
drawings of some others of these nebulae, as seen by previous observers with 
inferior telescopic power, it would have been still more obvious to,you how 
necessary are telescopes with large and perfectly ground mirrors for the de- 
velopment of the real character of these astonishing and enigmatical aggre- 
gations of stars. 

It is for this reason that it has been thought desirable to have the nebulae 
of the southern hemisphere examined with higher telescopic power than has 
hitherto been brought to bear upon them. You are aware with what a noble 
devotion to science Sir J. Herschel spent several years at the Cape of Good 
Hope in the examination of the southern heavens ; but his telescopic power was 
limited to that of a reflector of 18^ inches aperture. It is now proposed to send 
out to some convenient station in the southern hemisphere a reflecting tele- 
scope, with a mirror of 4- feet aperture. Mr. Grubb, of Dublin, has under- 
taken to construct such an instrument (should the plan proposed be adopted) 
under the general superintendence of Lord Rosse, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Lassell, 
and one or two other gentlemen. The general construction of the instrument, 
and the best mode of mounting it, have been decided on with careful delibe- 
ration, after consulting all the best authorities on the subject. 

These important preliminaries being agreed upon, and an estimate of the 
whole expense of the instrument having been made by Mr. Grubb, the depu- 
tation appointed for the purpose proceeded to wait on Lord Aberdeen, to 
ascertain whether the Government were willing to bear the expense which 
the plan proposed would involve. His Lordship expressed himself, without 
hesitation, as favourable to the undertaking; but said that, since it involved 
a grant of money, it would be necessary to consult the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, who, supposing him to take a favourable view of the subject, 
would probably bring it before the House of Commons among the estimates 
of the ensuing year. With this answer the deputation could not be otherwise 
than perfectly satisfied, nor could they fail also to be gratified by the perfect 
courtesy with which they were received. Judging from ail we know respecting 
Mr. Gladstone's enlightened views on subjects of tiiis nature, and the favour- 
able manner in which the House of Commons has always received proposi- 
tions for the advancement of science, we have, I tiiink, every reason to hope 
that my successor in this Chair may have the satisfaction of announcing to 
you another instance of the liberality of the Government in their acceptance of 
the plan proposed to them. In such case, the result, I doubt not, will afford 
another proof that the Association is doing effectively what it professes to do 
as an Association for tlie Advancement of Science. 

The refinement of modern methods of astronomical observation has be- 
come so great, that astronomers appear very generally to think that a higher 
degree of refinement in the calculations of physical astronomy than has yet 
been attained is becoming necessary. Mr. Adams has been engaged in some 
important researches of tliis kind. He has corrected an error in Burckhardt's 
value of the moon's parallax ; and he has also determined to a nearer approxi- 
mation than that obtained by Laplace, the secular variation in the moon's 
mean motion. The former investigation is published in an Appendix to the 
Nautical Almanac for 1856; the latter has been very recently presented to 
the Royal Society. 

Before I quit this subject, I may state that an ' American Epbemeris and 



ADDRESS. xlv 

Nautical Almaliae fof 1855' has been published this year. It is the first 
American Nautical Almanac, and is considered to reflect great credit on the 
astronomers of that country. It is under the superintendence of Lieut. C. 
H. Davis, assisted in the physical department by Professor Peirce. 

No one has contributed more to the progress of Terrestrial Magnetism 
during the last few years than my distinguisiied predecessor in this Chair. 
Formerly we owed theories on this subject much more to the boldness of 
ignorance than to the just confidence of knowledge ; but from the commence- 
meut of the systematic observations which Colonel Sabine has been so active 
in promoting, this vague and useless theorising ceased, to be succeeded, pro- 
bably ere long, by the sound speculative researches of those who may be 
capable of grappling with the real diflSculties of the subject, when the true 
laws of the phaenomena shall have been determined. Those laws are coming 
forth with beautiful precision from the reductions which Colonel Sabine is 
now making of the numerous observations made at the different magnetic 
stations. In his Address of last year, he stated to us that the secular change 
of the magnetic forces was confirmed by these recent observations, and also 
that periodical variations depending on the solar day, and on the time of the 
year, had been distinctly made out, indicating the sun as the cause of these 
variations. During the present year, the results of the reduction of the ob- 
servations made at Toronto have brought out, with equal perspicuity, a va- 
riation in the direction of the magnetic needle going through all its changes 
exactly in each lunar day. These results with reference to the sun prove, as 
Colonel Sabine has remarked, the immediate and direct exercise of a magnetic 
influence emanating from that luminary ; and the additional results now 
obtained establish the same conclusion with regard to the influence of the 
moon. It would seem, therefore, that some of the curious phaenomena of 
magnetism which have hitherto been regarded as strictly terrestrial, are really 
due to solar and lunar, as much as to terrestrial magnetism. It is beautiful 
to trace with such precision these delicate influences of bodies so distant, 
producing phaenomena scarcely less striking either to the imagination or to 
the philosophic mind, than more obvious phaenomena which originate in the 
great luminary of our system. 

New views which have recently sprung up respecting the nature of heat 
have been mentioned, though not in detail, by my two immediate predecessors 
in the chair of the Association. They are highly interesting theoretically, 
and important in their practical application, inasmuch as they modify in a 
considerable degree the theory of the steam-engine, the air-engine, or any 
other in which the motive power is derived immediately from heat; and it is 
correct theory alone which can point out to the practical engineer the degree 
of perfection at which he may aim in the construction of such machines, and 
which can enable him to compare accurately their merits when the best con- 
struction is arrived at. 

A theory which proposes to explain the thermal agency by which motive 
power is produced, and to determine the numerical relations between the quan- 
tity of heat and the quantity of mechanical effect produced by it, may be termed 
& Dynamical theory of heat. Carnot was the first to give to such a theory a 
mathematical form. His theory rested on two propositions which were re- 
garded as axiomatic. The first embodied the abstract conception of a per- 
fect thermo-dynamic engine, and has been equally adopted by the advocates 
of the new theory of heat. Again, suppose a given quantity of heat to enter 
a body by any process, and thereby to change its temperature and general 
physical state ; and then, by a second process, suppose the bodv to be re- 



Xlvi REPORT^— 1853. 

stored exactly to its primitive temperature and condition, — Carnot's second 
fundamental proposition asserts that the quantity of heat which passes out of 
the body into surrounding space, or into other bodies, in the form of heat, 
during the second operation, is precisely the same as that which passed into 
the body during the first operation. This view does not recognise the possi- 
bility of heat being lost by conversion into something else, and in this parti- 
cular is at variance with the new theory, which asserts that heat may be lost 
by conversion into mechanical effect. To elucidate this distinction, suppose 
a quantity of water to be poured into an empty vessel. It might then be 
asserted, that, in emptying the vessel again, we must pour out just as much 
water as we had previously poured in. This would be equivalent to Carnot's 
proposition with respect to heat. But suppose a part of the water while in 
the vessel to be converted into vapour ; then it would not be true that in 
emptying the vessel, the same quantity of water, in the form of water, must 
pass out of the vessel as had before passed into it, since a portion would have 
passed out in the form of vapour. This is analogous to the assertion of the 
new theory with regard to heat, which may be lost, according to that theory, 
by conversion into mechanical effect, in a manner analogous to that in which 
water may be said to be lost by conversion into vapour. But the new theory 
not only asserts generally the convertibility of heat into mechanical effect, 
and the converse, but also more definitely, that, whatever be the mode of 
converting the one into the other — and whether heat be employed to pro- 
duce mechanical effect, or mechanical force be employed to produce heat— 
the same quantity of the one is always the equivalent of the same quantity 
of the other. This proposition can only be established by experiment. Rum- 
ford, who was one of the first to adopt the fundamental notion of this theory 
as regards the nature of heat, made a rough attempt to determine the rela- 
tion between the force producing friction and the heat generated by it ; but 
it was reserved for Mr. Joule to lay the true foundation of this theory by a 
series of experiments, which, in the philosophical discernment with which they 
were conceived, and the ingenuity with which they were executed, have not 
often, perhaps, been surpassed. In whatever way he employed mechanical 
force to produce heat, he found, approximately, the same quantity of heat 
produced by the same amount of force, the force btir.g estimated \n foot- 
pounds according to the usual mode in practical mechanics, i. e. by the motive 
power employed in raising a weight of 1 lb. through the space of 1 foot. 
The conclusion adopted by Mr. Joule is that 1° Fahr. is equivalent to 772 
foot-pounds. 

These results are unquestionably among the most curious and interesting 
of those which experimental research has recently brought before us. When 
first announced some ten or twelve years ago, they did not attract the atten- 
tion which they deserved ; but more recently their importance has been fully 
recognized by all those who cultivate the department of science to which they 
belong. Of this Mr. Joule received last year one of the most gratifying 
proofs, in the award made to him by the Council of the Royal Society, of one 
of the medals placed annually at their disposal. It may not be known to 
many of you that we have in Mr. Joule a pupil, a friend, and fellow-towns- 
man of Dalton. 

This theory is in perfect harmony with the opinions now very generally 
entertained respecting radiant heat. Formerly light and heat were regarded 
as consisting of material particles, continually radiating from luminous and 
heated bodies respectively; but it may now be considered as established 
beyond controversy, that light is piopagated through space by the vibrations 



ADDRESS. Xlvii 

of an exceedingly refined ethereal medium, in a manner exactly analogous 
to that in which sound is propagated by the vibration of the air ; and it is 
now supposed that radiant heat is propagated in a similar manner. This 
theory of radiant heat, in accordance with the dynamical theory, of which I 
have been speaking, involves the hypothesis, that the particles of a heated 
body, or a particular set of them, are maintained in a state of vibration, 
similar to that in which a sonorous body is known to be, and in which a 
luminous body is believed to be. At the same time there are remarkable 
differences between light and heat. We know that light is propagated with 
enormous velocity, whether in free space or through transparent media; 
sound also is propagated with great rapidity, and more rapidly through most 
media than through air. Heat, on the contrary, whatever may be the velocity 
with which it may radiate through free space, is usually transmitted with 
extreme slowness througii terrestrial media. There appears to be nothing in 
light analogous to the slow conduction of heat. Again, the vibrations which 
render a body sonorous have no tendency to expand its dimensions, nor is 
there reason to suppose that luminous vibrations have any such tendency on 
luminous bodies; whereas, with the exception of particular cases, heat does 
produce expansion. It is principally from this property of heat that it becomes 
available for the production of motive power, as, for instance, in the expan- 
sion of steam. These phaenomena of the slow conduction of heat, and the 
expansion of heated bodies, are proofs of differences between light and heat 
not less curious than the analogies above indicated. They must, of course, 
be accounted for by any perfect theory of heat. Mr. Rankine has written 
an ingenious paper on a molecular theory of heat; but before any such theory 
can be pronounced upon, it will be necessary, I conceive, to see its bearing 
on other molecular phaenomena, with which those of heat are in all probability 
intimately connected. Prof. W. Thomson has also given a clear and com- 
pendious mathematical exposition of the new dynamical theory of heat, 
founded on Mr. Joule's principle of the exact equivalence of heat and 
mechanical effect. This is not, like Mr. Rankine's, a molecular theory, but 
one which must henceforth take the place of Carnot's theory. 

Before leaving this subject, I may add that Prof. Thomson and Mr. Joule 
are now engaged in further experiments, which will serve to elucidate the 
new theory of heat. Some account of the commencement of these experi- 
ments has already been brought before the Royal Society. 

Many years ago Gay-Lussac made an ascent in a balloon for the purpose 
of making observations on the air in the upper regions of the atmosphere ; 
but it is only very recently that systematic observations of this kind have 
been attempted. Last autumn four balloon ascents were made by Mr. Welsh, 
under the guidance of the distinguished aeronaut Mr. Green. Attention was 
chiefly directed to the determination of the pressure, temperature, and moist- 
ure of tlie air at different altitudes. The decrease of temperature in ascend- 
ing was very irregular, being changed even, in some cases, to an increase ; 
but the mean result gives a decrease of 1° Fahr. for every 348 feet of ascent, 
agreeing within 5 or 6 feet of the result obtained by Gay-Lussac. The latter 
gentleman ascended 23,000 feet ; the greatest height attained by Mr. Welsh 
was 22,940 feet. A repetition of similar observations in ascents made from 
different points of (he earth's surface could scarcely fail to lead to valuable 
information for the science of Meteorology, 

An immense contribution, of which brief mention was made by my prede- 
cessor, has been made within the last ievr years to this science, by the publi- 
cation of Prof. Dove's Isothermal Maps, giving us the temperature of the 



xlviil REPORT — 1853. 

lowest portion of the atmosphere (that which determines the cUmdte of every 
region) for nearly all accessible points of the earth's surface. An immense 
number of thermometric observations had been made at fixed stations, or by 
travellers in almost every part of the globe, but were lying comparatively 
useless for want of adequate discussion. This task was undertaken some 
years ago by M. Dove. It was not merely a task of enormous labour, but 
one requiring great critical acuteness and sound philosophical judgement, and 
these qualifications M. Dove brought to his work, which has resulted in the 
excellent maps alluded to, accompanied by a considerable amount of letter- 
press, full of interesting generalizations, and written in the genuine spirit of 
inductive philosophy. 

His maps present a great number of isothermal lines, i. e. lines passing 
through all those places which, at an assigned period of the year, have the 
same temperature, each line indicating a particular temperature differing by 
a few degrees from those of the adjoining lines. Besides a large map giving 
these lines for January and July, the months of extreme winter and summer 
temperature, there are smaller ones giving similar lines for all the different 
months. An English edition of these maps has been just published. 

We may easily conceive how a great ocean current of warm water from 
the tropics may affect the temperature of the atmosphere in the colder re- 
gions into which it may penetrate, but it is only since the publication of 
these maps that we have had any adequate idea of the extent of this influ- 
ence, or been able to appreciate fully the blessings conferred on the shores of 
North-western Europe, and especially on our own Islands, by the Gulf-stream. 
This great current, though not always under the same name, appears, as you 
are probably aware, to traverse the Atlantic in a north-westerly direction 
till it reaches the West India Islands and the Gulf of Mexico. It is then 
reflected by the American coast, and takes a north-easterly direction to our 
own shores, extending beyond Iceland into the North Sea. It is to the 
enormous mass of heated water thus poured into the colder seas of our own 
latitudes that we owe the temperate character of our climate ; and not only 
do the maps of M. Dove enable us to assert distinctly this general fact, but 
also to make an approximate calculation of the amount to which the tem- 
perature of these regions is thus affected. If a change were to take place in 
the configuration of the surface of the globe so as to admit the passage of 
this current directly into the Pacific across the existing isthmus of Panama, 
©r along the base of the Rocky Mountains of North America into the North 
Sea — a change indefinitely small in comparison with those which have hereto- 
fore taken place — our mountains, wiiich now present to us the ever-varying 
beauties of successive seasons, would become the unvarying abodes of the 
glacier, and regions of the snow storm ; the beautiful cultivation of our soil 
would be no longer maintained, and civilization itself must retreat before the 
invasion of such physical barbarism. It is the genial influence of the Gulf- 
stream which preserves us from these evils. Among its effects on our 
climate I may mention one which may not be without its local interest along 
this coast, especially for those who may wish to visit it during the winter for 
health as well as for pleasure. The temperature of the atmosphere to the 
north of this island is so ameliorated by the Gulf-stream in the depth of 
winter, that the isothermal lines for the month of January along the whole 
eastern coast of Great Britain and the opposite western coast of the continent 
run north and south instead of following their normal east and west direction, 
thus showing that Scarborough, or any watering-place on the same coast much 
further to the north, enjoys as temperate a climate in the depth of winter as 



ADDRESSi xlix 

the coast of Kent. Itl Ihe Gaily spring, however, it becoiiles considerably 
colder than on the latter coast. 

My predecessor in his Address informed us of an application made to our 
government by that of the United States, to adopt a general and systematic 
mode of observing pbijenomena of various kinds at sea, such as winds, tides, 
currents, &c., which may not only be of general scientific interest, but may 
also have an important bearing on navigation. The plan proposed by Lieut. 
Maury, and adopted by the American government, is to Jiave the required 
observations regularly made by the commanders of vessels sent out to sea. 
I am happy to be able to state to you that our Admiralty have given orders 
for similar observations to be made by those who have command of English 
vessels; and we trust also that proper persons'wili be appointed withoutdelayfor 
the reduction of the mass of observations which will thus soon be accumulated. 

The science of Geology may be regarded as comprising two great divisions 
' — the physical and the palaeontological portions. The former may be subdi- 
vided into its chemical and dynamical branches. The chemical department 
has never made any great progress, though abounding in problems of first- 
rate interest — such, for instance, as the formation of coal, the segregation of 
mineral matter constituting mineral veins of all descriptions, the processes of 
the solidification and crystallization of rocks, of the production of their jointed 
and laminated structure, and many others. Interesting experiments are not 
altogether wanting on points such as these, but not such as to constitute, as 
far as I am aware, a positive foundation and decided progress in this branch 
of the science. The problems, doubtless, involve great difficulties, both as 
regards the action of the chemical agencies themselves and the varied con- 
ditions under which they may have acted. The accomplished chemist alone 
can combat the difficulties of the former kind, and the geologist those of the 
latter. Both these characters must be united in any one who may hope to 
arrive at the true solution of these problems. We cannot too earnestly in- 
vite attention to this branch of geology on the part of those best qualified to 
contend with its difficulties. 

The dynamical, or, more strictly, the mechanical department of the science, 
has received a much larger share of attention. In fact, almost all theories 
and speculations of geologists, independently of organic remains, belong to it, 
and a large portion of the work of geologists in the field has been devoted to 
the observation of pliEenomena on which it treats. Phceiiomena of elevation 
— those immediately resulting from the action of the subterranean forces 

which have so wonderfully scarred and furrowed the face of our globe 

have been made the objects of careful research. It is to this probably violent 
and desolating action that we owe the accessibility of the mineral sources of 
our mining districts, as well as all those exquisite beauties of external nature 
which the mountain and the valley present to us. The absence of all order 
and arrangement would seem, on a superficial view, to be the especial cha- 
racteristic of mountainous districts, and yet the nicer observations of the geo- 
logist has detected, in such districts, distinct approximations to general laws 
in the great dislocations and upheavals in which the mountains and the valleys 
have originated. The more usual law in these phaenomena consists in the ap- 
proximate parallelism of all those great lines of dislocation and chains of 
mountains, the formation of which can be traced back to the same geological 
epoch. That this law is distinctly recognizable throughout districts, some- 
times of many hundred miles in extent, is clearly established, but some geo- 
logists contend that it may also be recognized as prevailing over much larger 
geographical areas than any single geological district presents to us. M. Elie 
1853. d 



REPORT — 1853. 

de Beaumont was the originator, and has been the great advocate of this ex- 
tension of the theory of parallelism. He extends it, in fact, to the whole sur- 
face of the eai'th, using the term parallelism in a certain modified sense, to 
render it applicable to lines drawn on a spherical instead of a plain surface. 
Mis theory asserts that all great lines of dislocation, and therefore all moun- 
tain chains originating in them, wherever situated, may be grouped into 
parallel systems, and that all the lines or mountain chains belonging to any 
one system were produced simultaneously by one great convulsion of the 
earth's crust. This theory has been advocated by him many years, but he 
lias recently published his latest views respecting it, and has made an im- 
portant addition, which may, in fact, be regarded as an independent theory. 
Each of the parallel systems already mentioned will have its cJiaracteristic 
direction, to which all the lines of that system are parallel. This new theory 
asserts that these characteristic directions are not determined, as it were, by 
accident or chance, but that they have certain relations to each other, so that 
the respective systems to which they belong are disposed over the earth's 
surface, according to a distinct symmetrical arrangement. For the details of 
this curious theory I can only refer to the author's work, or to the analysis 
which I gave of it last February, in ray address to the Geological Society. 1 
feel it right, however, to add, that after an attentive examination of the sub- 
ject, the evidence adduced by M. de Beaumont in support of the last-men- 
tioned theory has failed to convey conviction to my own mind. With re- 
ference to the parallelism of contemporaneous lines of elevation, no one, I 
conceive, will deny the truth of M. de Beaumont's theory in its application 
to many geological districts of limited extent ; but it will probably be the 
opinion of most English geologists, that, in attempting to extend it to districts 
far remote from each other, he has overstepped the bounds of legitimate in- 
duction from facts with which we are at present acquainted. Every one, 
however, who studies M. de Beaumont's work, in whatever degree he may be 
disposed to adopt or reject the theoretical views of that distinguished geolo- 
gist, will admit the ability and the knowledge which he has brought to bear 
on the subject, and the advantages which must result from the ample discus- 
sion which he has given it. 

One favourite subject of speculation in the physical branch of geology has 
been, at all times since the origin of the science, the state of the interior of 
our planet, and the source of the high temperature observed at all consider- 
able depths beneath its surface. The terrestrial temperature at a certain 
deptii in each locality (about SO feet in our own region) remains constant during 
the whole year, being sensibly unaffected by the changing temperature of 
the seasons. The same, of course, holds true at greater depths, but the 
lower we descend the greater is this invariable temperature, the increase 
being proportional to the depth, and at the rate of 1° Fahr. for about every 
60 or 70 feet. Assuming this rate of increase to continue to the depth of 
.50 miles, we should arrive at a temperature about twice as great as that 
necessary to fuse iron, and sufficient, it is supposed, to reduce nearly the 
whole mass of the earth's solid crust to a state of fusion. Hence the opinion 
adopted by many geologists is, that our globe does really consist of a solid 
shell, not exceeding W or 50 miles in thickness, and an interior fluid nu- 
cleus, maintained in a state of fusion by the existing remains of the heat to 
whicli the whole terrestrial mass was originally subjected. It might, at first 
sight, appear that this enormous mass of molten matter, enclosed in so thin 
a shell, could scarcely be consistent with the general external condition and 
temperature of our globe ; but it is quite certain that the real external tem- 



ADDRESS. U 

perature and this supposed internal temperature of the earth are not incon- 
sistent with each other, and that no valid argument of this kind can be urged 
against the above hypothesis. 

The above estimate, however, of the thickness of the earth's solid crust 
entirely neglects the possible effects of the enormous pressure to which the 
terrestrial mass at any considerable depth is subjected. Now this pressure 
may produce effects of two kinds bearing directly on the question before us. 
In the above calculation, terrestrial matter, placed at the depth of 40 or 50 
miles, witli a pressure of more than 200,000 pounds on the square inch, is 
assumed to be fusible at the same temperature as if it were subjected merely 
to the ordinary atmospheric pressure ; Avhereas the temperature of fusion may 
possibly be very much increased by such immense pressure as that I have 
mentioned. In such case, the terrestrial matter may be retained in a solid 
state at much greater depths than it otherwise would be — i. e. the solid crust 
may be much thicker than the above estimate of 40 or 50 miles. Again, in 
this estimate, it is assumed that heat will pass as easily through the most 
superficial portion of the earth's mass, as through the compressed portions 
at considerable depths. Now, in this assumption there is, I think, a great 
a priori improbability, and especially with reference to those superficial rocks 
in which observations on the increase of terrestrial temperature in descend- 
ing have generally been made ; for these rocks are, for the most part, sedi- 
mentary strata, which in general, independently of the effect of pressure, are 
doubtless worse conductors than the older, more compact, and more crystal- 
line rocks. But if heat passes through the lower portions of this terrestrial 
mass with more rapidity than through its uppermost portion — i. e. if the cow- 
ductive power be greater at greater depths — the temperature at considerable 
depths must increase more slowly as we descend, than it is observed to in- 
crease at the smaller depths to which we can penetrate, and consequently it 
would be necessary, in such case, to descend to a greater depth before we 
should reach the temperature necessary to produce fusion. On this account 
therefore, as well as from the increased temperature of fusion, the thickness 
of the earth's crust may be much greater than the previous estimate would 
make it. 

It has been for the purpose of ascertaining the effects of great pressure, 
that Mr. Fairbairn, Mr. Joule, and myself have undertaken the experiments 
in which we have for some time been engaged at Manchester. The first 
object in these experiments is the determination of the effect of pressure on 
the temperature of fusion of as many substances as we may be enabled to 
experiment upon. We expected to meet with many difficulties in the use of 
the enormous pressures which we contemplated, and these expectations have 
certainly been fully verified ; but we wei-e also satisfied that those diflSculties 
might be overcome by perseverance and patience, and in this also we have 
not been disappointed ; for I may now venture to assert that our ultimate 
success, with respect to a number of substances, is beyond doubt. M^ithout 
the engineering resources, however, at Mr. Fairbairn's command, success 
would have been hopeless. 

At present our experiments have been restricted to a few substances, and 
those of easy fusibility ; but I believe our apparatus to be now so complete 
for a considerable range of temperature, that we shall have no difficulty in 
obtaining further results. Those already obtained indicate an increase in 
the temperature of fusion proportioiial to the pressure to which the fused tnass 
is subjected. In employing a pressure of about 13,000 lbs. to the square 
inch on bleached wax, the increase in the temperature of fusion was not less 

d<2 



lii REPORT — 1853. 

than 30° Fahr,, about one-fifth of the whole temperature at which it melts 
under the pressure of the atmosphere. We have not yet ascertained the 
degree in which the conductive power of any substance may be increased 
when solidified under great pressure. This point we hope to investigate with 
due care, and also to determine the effects on substances tlius solidified, with 
respect to their density, strength, crystalline forms, and general molecular 
structure. We thus hope to obtain results of general interest and value, as 
well as those which may bear more directly on the questions which first sug- 
gested the experiments. 

Among researches for determining the nature of the earth's crust at depths 
greater than those to which we can penetrate, I must not omit mention of 
Mr. Mallet's very elaborate Report on Eartiiquakes, contained in the two 
last volumes of the Reports of the Association. His Earthquake catalogue 
is preceded by an account of some very interesting and carefully conducted 
experiments on tiie transmission of vibrations through solid media. These 
results will be found of great value whenever the subject of earthquakes 
shall receive that careful attention which it so well deserves. Insulated 
observations, and those casual notices which are now frequently given of 
earthquake plisenomena, are utterly useless for scientific ])urposes. There 
are no observations which more require to be regulated by system and com- 
bination than those of the phajnomena in question ; and I sliould rejoice to 
see the influence of the Association exerted for this purpose, when some 
efficient mode of proceeding shall have been devised. 

Some of the most interesting of recent discoveries in Organic Remains are 
those wliich prove tiie existence of Reptilian life during the deposition of 
some of our oldest fossiliferous strata. An almost perfect skeleton of a 
reptile belonging to the Batrachians or Lacertians, was lately found in the 
old red sandstone of Morayshire. The remains of a reptile were also disco- 
vered last year, by Sir Charles Lyell and Mr. Dawson, in tiie coal-measures 
of Nova Scotia ; and a Batrachoid fossil has also been recognized in British 
coal shale. But the most curious evidence of tlie early existence of animals 
above the lower orders of organization on the face of our globe, is that 
afforded by the footprints discovered a siiort time ago in Canada, by Mr. 
Logan, on large slabs of some of the oldest fossiliferous rocks — those of the 
Silurian epoch. It was inferred from the more imperfect specimens first 
brought over, that these footmarks were tliose of some reptile, but more per- 
fect examples, afterwards supplied by Mr. Logan, satisfied Prof. Owen that 
they were the impressions of some animal belonging to the Articulata, pro- 
bably a crustacean. Thus the existence of animals of the reptile type of 
organization during the Carboniferous and Devonian periods is clearly esta- 
blislied, but no evidence has yet been obtained of the existence of those 
animals during tiie Silurian period. After the discoveries I have mentioned, 
however, few geologists will perhaps be surprised should we hereafter find 
that higher forms of animal life were introduced upon the earth during this 
early period than have yet been detected in its sedimentary beds. 

Many of you will be aware that there are two theories in geology which 
may be styled the theories of progression and non-progression respectively. 
The former asserts that the matter which constitutes the earth has passed 
through continuous and progressive changes from the earliest state in which 
it existed to its actual condition at the present time. The earliest state here 
contemplated may have been a fluid, or even a gaseous state, due to the 
enormous primitive heat of the mass, and it is to the gradual loss of that 
iieat that the progressive change recognized by this theory is chiefly attri- 



ADDRESS. Ilif 

buted. The theory of non-progression, on tlie contrary, recognizes no primi- 
tive state oF our planet differing essentially from its existing state ; the 
only changes it does recognize being those which are strictly periodical, and 
therefore produce no permanent alteration in the state of our globe. With 
reference to organic remains, the difference between these theories is exactly 
analogous to that now stated with reference to inorganic matter. The theory 
of progression asserts that there has been a general advance in the forms of 
organic life, from the earliest to the more recent geological periods. This 
advance must not be confounded, it should be observed, with that progressive 
development, according to which animals of a higher organic structure are 
but the improved lineal descendants of those of tiie lowest grade, thus abo- 
lishing all distinction of species. It is merely meant to assert that the higher 
types of organic being are far more generally diffused at the present time, 
and far more numerous and varied, than they were at the earlier geological 
periods ; and that, moreover, at the earliest of those periods which the geo- 
logist has been able to recognize, some of these higher types had probably 
no existence at all. The theory of non-progression does not recognize the 
gradual advance here spoken of. 

Each successive discovery, like those I have mentioned, of the remains of 
animals of the higher types, in tiie older rocks, is regarded by some geolo- 
gists as an addition to the cumulative evidence by which they conceive that 
the theory of non-progression will be ultimately established ; while others 
consider the deficiency in the evidence required to establish that theory, as 
far too great to admit the probability of its being supplied by future disco- 
very. Nor can the theory derive present support, it is contended, by an 
appeal to any properties of inorganic matter or physical laws, with which we 
are acquainted. Professor W. Thomson has recently entered into some very 
interesting speculations bearing on this subject, and suggested by the new 
theory of heat of which I have spoken. The heat of a heavenly body placed 
under the same conditions as the sun, must, it has been said, be ultimately 
exhausted by its rapid emission. Tliis assertion assumes tlie matter com- 
posing the sun to have certain properties like those of terrestrial matter with 
respect to the generation and emission of heat ; but Professor Thomson's 
argument places the subject on better grounds, admitting, always, the truth 
of the new theory of heat. That theory asserts, in the sense which I have 
already stated, the exact equivalence of heat and motive power ; and that a 
body, in sending forth heat, must lose a portion of that internal motion of 
its constituent particles on which its thermal state depends. Now we know 
that no mutual action of these constituent particles can continue to generate 
motion which might compensate for the loss of motion thus sustained. This 
is a simple deduction from dynamical laws and principles, independent of 
any property of terrestrial matter which may possibly distinguish it from that 
of the sun. Hence, then, it is on these dynamical principles that we may 
rest the assertion that the sun cannot continue for an indefinite time to emit 
the same quantity of heat as at present, unless his thermal energy be reno- 
vated from some extraneous source. The same conclusion may be applied 
to all other bodies in the universe which, like our sun, may be centres of in- 
tense heat ; and hence, recognizing no adequate external supplies of heat to 
renovate these existing centres of heat. Professor Thomson concludes that 
the dispei'sion of heat, and consequently of physical energy, from the sun 
and stars into surrounding space without any recognizable means of recon- 
centration, is the existing order of nature. In such case the heat of the sun 
must ultimately be diminished, and the physical condition of the earth there- 



liv REPORT — 1853. 

fore altered, in a degree altogether inconsistent with the theory of non-pro- 
gression. 

Mr. Rankine, however, has ingeniously suggested* aw hypothesis according 
to which the reconceiitration ol' heat is conceivable. Assuming the physical 
universe to be of rinite extent and surrounded by an ahsolute vacuum, radiant 
heat (supposing it to be propagated in the same way as light) would be in- 
capable of passing into the vacuum, and would be reflected back to foci cor- 
responding to the points from whicli it emanated. A reconcentration of heat 
would thus be effected, and any of tlie heavenly bodies which had previously 
lost their heat, might, on passing through these foci, be rekindled into bright 
centres of radiant heat. 1 have alluded more particularly to tiiis very inge- 
nious, tliougli, perhaps, fanciful hypothesis, because some persons have, I 
believe, regarded this view of the subject as affording a sanction to the 
theory of non-progression ; but even if we should admit its truth to the 
fullest extent, it may be deemed, I think, entirely inconsistent with that uni- 
formity and permanence of physical condition in any of the heavenly bodies 
which the theory just mentioned requires in our own planet. The author of 
this hypothesis did not possibly contemplate any such application of it ; nor 
am I aware how far he would advocate it as really applicable to the actual 
constitution of the material universe, or would regard it as suggesting a pos- 
sible and conceivable, rather than a probable, mode of counteracting the 
constant dispersion of heat from its existing centres. He has not, I think, 
attempted to work out the consequences of the hypothesis as applied to light, 
to which it must, I conceive, be necessarily considered applicable if it be so 
to heat. In such case the foci of the reflected heat would be coincident 
with those of the reflected light, proceeding originally from the same lu- 
minous bodies. These foci would thus become visible as the images of stars ; 
so that the apparent number of stars would be constantly increasing with the 
increasing number of images of each star produced by successive reflexions. 
This will scarcely be considered the actual order of nature. It would be 
easy to trace other consequences of the application of this hypothesis to 
light ; but I would at present merely state that my own convictions entirely 
coincide with those ol' Prof. Thomson. If we are to found our theories 
upon our knowledge, and not upon our ignorance of physical causes and 
phasnomena, I can only recognise in the existing state of things a })assing 
phase of the material universe. It may be calculated in all, and is demon- 
strably so in some respects, to endure under the action of known causes, for an 
almost inconceivable period of time; but it has not, I think, received the im- 
press of eternal duration, in characters which man is able to decipher. The 
external temperature and physical conditions of our own globe may not, and 
probably cannot have changed in any considerable degree since the first 
introduction of organic beings on its surface ; but I can still only recognise 
in its physical state, during all geological periods, a state of actual though of 
exceedingly slow progression from an antecedent to some ultimate state, on 
the nature of which our limited powers will not enable us to offer any con- 
jecture founded on physical research. The theories, even, of which I have 
been speaking, may probably appear to some persons as not devoid of pre- 
sumption; but for many men they will ever be fraught with deep speculative 
interest; and, let me add, no charge of presumption can justly lie against 
them, if entered upon with that caution and modesty which ought to guide 
our inquiries in these remote regions of physical science. 

I feel how imperfect a view I have now submitted to you of recent scien- 
tific proceedings. I have given no account of the progress of Chemistry, 



ADDRESS. It 

Practical Mechanics, or of the sciences connected with Natural History ; nor 
have I spoken of Ethnologj-, a science, which, though of such recent date, 
is become of great interest, and one which is gccupying the minds of men of 
great learning and profound research. I can only hope that the chair wliich 
I have now the honour to occupy, will, from lime to time, be filled by men 
qualified to do full justice to these important sciences. What I have now 
said, however, may serve to convey to you some idea of the activity which 
pervades almost every department of science. 

I must not conclude this address without some mention of what appear 
to me to be the legitimate objects of our Association, or without some allu- 
sion to circumstances, calculated, I think, to give increased importance to its 
general working and influence. 

There are probably few among us of whom the inquiry has not been made 
after any one of our meetings — whether any striking discovery had been 
brought forward ; and most of us will also probably have remarked that an 
answer in the negative has frequently produced something like a feeling of 
disappointment in the inquirer. But such a feeling can only arise from a 
misapprehension of what I conceive to be the real and legitimate objects of 
the British Association. Great discoveries do not require associations to 
proclaim them to the world. They proclaim themselves. We do not meet 
to receive their announcement, or make a display of our scientific labours in 
the eyes of the world, or to compliment each other on the success we may 
have met with. Outward display belongs not to the proceedings, and the 
language of mutual compliment belongs not to the language of earnest- 
minded men. We meet, Gentlemen, if I comprehend our purpose rightly, to 
assist and encourage each other in the performance of the laborious daily 
tasks of detailed scientific investigation. A great thought may possibly arise 
almost instantaneously in the mind, and the intuition of genius may almost 
as immediately recognise its importance, and partly foresee its consequences. 
Individual labour may also do much in establishing the truth of a new prin- 
ciple or theory ; but what an amount of labour uiay its multifarious applica- 
tions involve I Nearly two centuries have not sufficed to work out all the 
consequences of the principle of gravitation. Every theory, as it becomes 
more and more perfectly worked out, embraces a greater number of phaeno- 
mena, and requires a greater number of labourers for its complete de- 
velopment. Thus it is that when science has arrived at a certain stage, 
combination and co-operation become so essential for its further progress. 
Each scientific society effects this object in a greater or less degree, but 
much of its influence may be of a local character, and it is usually restricted 
by a limited range of its objects. Up to a certain point no means are pro- 
bably so effective for the promotion of science as these particular societies, 
which devote themselves to one particular branch of science ; but as each 
science expands, it coi os into nearer relations with other sciences, and a 
period must arrive in this general and progressive advance, which must 
render the co-operation of the cultivators of different branches of science 
almost as essential to our general progress, as the combination of those who 
cultivate the same branch was essential to the progress of each particular 
science in its earlier stages. It is the feeling of the necessity of combination 
and facility of intercourse among men of science that has given rise to a 
strong wish that the scientific memoirs of different societies should be ren- 
dered, by some general plan, more easily and generally accessible than they 
are at present — a subject which I would press on your consideration. It is 
by promoting this combination that the British Association has been able to 



Ivi REPORT— 1853. 

exert so beneficial an influence by bi-inging scientific men togetiier, and thus 
placing, as it were, in juxtaposition every society in the country. But how 
has this influence been exercised ? Not assuredly in the promotion of vague 
theories and speculative novelties, but in the encouragement of the hard daily 
toil of scientific research, and by the work which it has caused to be done, 
whether by its influence over its individual members., or on the Government 
of the country. Regarding our Association, Gentlemen, in this point of view, 
I can only see an increased demand for its labours, and not a termination of 
them, in the future progress of science. The wider the spread of science, 
the wider will be the sphere of its usefulness. 

We should do little justice to the great Industrial Exhibition, which two 
years ago may be literally said to have delighted millions of visitors, or to 
the views of the illustrious Prince with whom it originated, if we should 
merely recollect it as a spectacle of surpassing beauty. It appears destined 
to exercise a lasting influence on the mental culture, and therefore, we may 
hope, on the moral condition, of the great mass of our population, by the 
impulse which it has given to measures for the promotion of general educa- 
tion. We may hope that those whose duty it will be to give effect to this 
impulse, will feel the importance of education in Science as united with 
education in Art. An attempt to cultivate the taste alone, independently 
of the more general cultivation of the mind, would probably fail, as it w'ould 
deserve to do. I trust that the better education which is now so universally 
recognized as essential to preserve our future pre-eminence as a manufac- 
turing nation, will have its foundations laid, not in the superficial teaching 
which only aims at communicating a few curious results, but in the sound 
teaching of the fundamental and elementary principles of science. Art 
ought assuredly to rest on the foundation of science. Will it, in the pre- 
sent day, be contended that the study of science is unfavourable to the culti- 
vation of taste ? Such an opinion could only be based on an imperfect con- 
ception of the objects of science, and an ignorance of all its rightful in- 
fluences. Does the great sculptor or historical painter despise anatomy? 
On the contrary, he knows that a knowledge of that science must constitute 
one of the most valuable elements of his art, if he would produce the most 
vigorous and characteristic expression of the human figure. And so the 
artist should understand the structure of the leaf, the tendril, or the flower, 
if he would make their delicate and characteristic beauties subservient to 
the objects either of decorative art, or to those of the higher branches of 
sculpture and painting. Again, will the artist appreciate less the sublimity of 
the mountain, or represent its characteristic features witli less truthfulness, 
because he is sufficient of a geologist to trace the essential relations between 
its external form and internal constitution ? Will the beauty of the lake be 
less perfectly imitated by him, if he possess a complete knowledge of the 
laws of reflexion of light? Or will he not seize with nicer discrimination all 
those varied and delicate beauties which depend on the varying atmosphere 
of our own region, if he have some accurate knowledge of tiie theory of 
colours, and of the causes which govern the changeful aspect of mist and 
cloud? It is true that the genius and acute powers of observation of the 
more distinguished artists may compensate, in a great degree, for the want 
of scientific knowledge ; but it is certain that a great part of the defects in 
the works of artists of every description, may be traced to the defect of 
scientific knowledge of the objects represented. And hence it is that I ex- 
press the hope that the directors of the important educational movement 
which is now commencing with reference to industrial objects, will feel the 



ADDRESS. Ivii 

necessity of laying a foundation, not in the complicated details of science, 
but in the simple and elementary principles which may pla^e the student in 
a position to cultivate afterwards, by his own exertions, a more matured 
acquaintance with those particular branches of science which may be more 
immediately related to his especial avocations. If this be done, abstract 
science will become of increased estimation in every rank of society, and its 
value, with reference at least to its practical applications, will be far better 
understood than it is generally amongst us at the present time. 

Under such circumstances, Gentlemen, the British Association could not 
fail to become of increased importance, arid the sphere of its usefulness en- 
larged. One great duty we owe to the public is to encourage the applica- 
tion of abstract science to the practical purposes of life — to bring, as it were, 
the study and the laboratory into juxtaposition with the workshop. And, 
doubtless, it is one great object of science to bring more easily within reach 
of every part of the community, the rational enjoyments, as well as the ne- 
cessaries of life ; and thus not merely to contribute to the luxuries of the 
rich, but to minister also to the comforts of the poor, and to promote that 
general enlightenment so essential to our moral progress and the real advance 
of civilization. But still, Gentlemen, we should not be taking that higher 
view of science which I would wish to inculcate, if we merely regarded it as 
the means of supplying more adequately the physical wants of man. If we 
would view science under its noblest aspects, we must regard it with refer- 
ence to man, not merely as a creature of physical wants, but as a being of 
intellectual and moral endowments, fitting him to discover and compreltend 
some part at least of the laws which govern the material universe, to admire 
the harmony which pervades it, and to love and worship its Creator. It is 
for science, as it leads to this contemplation of Nature, and a stronger sense 
of the beauties which God has spread around us, that I would claim your 
deeper reverence. Let us cultivate science, Gentlemen, for its own sake, as 
well as for the practical advantages which flow from it. Nor let it be feared 
lest this cultivation of what I may term contemplative science, if prosecuted, 
in a really philosophic spirit, should inspire us with vain and presumptuous 
thoughts, or disqualify us for the due appreciation of moral evidence on the 
most sacred and important subjects which can occupy our minds. There is 
far more vanity and presumption in ignorance than in sound knowledge ; 
and the spirit of true philosophy, be it ever remembered, Gentlemen, is a 
patient, a modest, and a humble spirit. 



1 



REPORTS 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1852-53. By the 
Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian 
Professor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

In submitting to the British Association a Sixth Report on Luminous 
Meteors, I have to acknowledge the valuable contributions of the same 
scientific friends who have on former occasions so extensively aided the 
objects of the Association in keeping up this record ; which, it is to be hoped, 
may eventually prove of some service, by the accumulation of facts to illus- 
trate the laws, and thence the origin and nature, of these remarkable phse- 
nomena. 

I could indeed have wished that it were in my power now to have entered 
upon some kind of classification, at least, of these perplexing appearances, 
on which to have founded perhaps some conjectural hints towards their 
theory ; but the pressure of other avocations has for the present hindered 
the prosecution of a design, which I, nevertheless look forward to taking 
in hand at no distant period. 



August 31, 1853. 



1853. 



REPORT 1853. 



I. Older Observations 



Date. 


Hour. 


Appearance and 
magnitude. 


Brightness 
and colour. 


Train or sparks. 


Velocity or 
duration. 


1839. 
Nov. 8 

1851. 
Aug. 26 


h m 

1 a.m. 
Local mean 
solar time. 

8 25 p.m. 

Dresden 

time. 


When first seen = 
2 diam. of 3) ; in- 
creased and length- 
ened till it vanished. 


Golden yellow, 
so bright 
that small 
type could 
have been 
read by its 
light ; con- 
tinued near- 
ly uniform. 

Rather bril- 
liant. 


Sparks issuing from the 
top, as shown in the 
sketch, into which the 
object ultimately resol- 
ved itself. 

Drew a short and not very 
brilliant tail. 


Duration about 
sec. or a lit 
more. 

Described an arc 
about60°in3s< 




1 1. Conti7iuation of Catalogue of 1 


1852. 

Aug. 8 

9 


h m 3 
10 16 

9 45 

9 38 10 

9 39 3 
9 40 7 

9 48 

9 53 30 

10 5 

10 31 
10 5 21 

10 14 

10 16 30 

10 17 10 

10 22 
10 23 30 


— to Arcturus 


Colour of Arc- 
turus. 

Colourless ... 
Blue 


Long continued streak ... 
Long continuous train ... 
Train 


0"5 sec, rapid ., 
0-5 sec, rapid .. 
2 seconds 

H second 

About 3 sees. „ 

2 seconds 

2 seconds • 

3 seconds „ 

2 seconds 

2\ seconds ..,.^ 

1 second ti 

3 seconds • 

4 seconds v 

3 seconds .u 

2^ seconds ...» 








Blue 






Blue 






Blue . 










= lst mag 

= 3rd mag 

=3rdmag 


Bright 


Considerable train 


Blue ... 




Blue 




Blue ... 




= lst mag 

= lst mag 


Bright 


Train 


Very brilliant. 
Bright 


Bright train, visible 5 sees, 
after meteor had disap- 
peared. 

Train 






Bright 


Considerable train 









A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. S 

of Luminous Meteors, 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



reetion N. by E. 
altitude about 50°. 



)ved in a nearly horizontal 
direction at an elevation of 
ibout 50°, first appearing at 
!i Uttle S. of E. 



GreatestApparent motion, 
as seen from Gi. 
braltar House, 
vertically up- 
wards. As seen 
by Dr. Myrtle, 
from a point near 
Hope Park Cha- 
pel, almost per 
pendicularly 
downwards from 
N. to S. 



Gibraltar House, 
near Edin- 
burgh. 



David Rankine 
and Mrs. D. 
Rankine. 



MS. comm. See 
Appendix No. 1 



Dresden. (Ob 
served at the 
north end of 
the old bridge 
over the Elbe.) 



J. W. 
Ph.D. 



Mallet, 



MS. comm. 



Luminous Meteors from the Report of 1851-52. 



bra direction of Polaris, start- 
ing at;(;Bootis, passing across 
■y and ( Bootis. 

bra 1° above (p Andromeda, 
passing across ;^ Andromeda 
to near 78 Pegasi. 

I;teor from star marked H 19 
Camelopardalis, on Bardin's 
globe, to near Polaris. 



l)m near ^ to ji Ursaa Majoris 
bm Polaris perp. to point 3° 

ibove horizon. 
l)m 2^° above Polaris towards 

W. point of horizon. 
I))m ^ Cephei to near y Ursae 

Minoris. 
I)ra midway between a. and /3 

Ursse Majoris to point 4° be. 

low n of same constellation, 
ibm S Bootis to near Arcturus 
bm I Ursac Majoris to near 

Arcturus. 

bm near i Ursae Majoris to- 
wards Arcturus 8°. 
bra X Lyra; to J distance to 

Gemma Coronas Borealis. 
ifcm Deneb. to between X and 

u Lyrae. 

bm 4° below Polaris to i Ursae 
Majoris. 
hm /3 Cassiopeiae to ? Cygni.. 



Greenwich mean 
time is given. 



Blackpool 

Ibid 



Castle Doning 
ton, Lat. 52' 
51' 23"-75 N., 
Long.l°18'42" 
W. 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



Ibid. 
Ibid., 



Ibid., 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



E. J. Lowe 
Id 



Mr. W. H.Leeson 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



b2 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



1852. 



Aug. 



10 



16 or 17 
21 



Hour. 

h m s 

10 30 0... 

10 31 0... 

10 54 0... 

11 1 5... 
11 3 0... 
11 9 0... 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



= 2nd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 

= 1st mag. 



= 4th mag. 
= 2nd mag. 
= lst mag. 



9 21 0... =4thmaK. 



9 24 40... 

9 36 0... 

9 38 10... 

9 40 0... 

9 48 0... 

9 58 10... 

9 58 12... 

10 5 30... 

10 33 0... 

10 50 0... 

10 57 30... 

9 40 0.. 

9 22 0.. 

9 41 0... 
10 3.. 
3 p.m. 

9 8 p.m. 



= 3rd mag - 

= 4th mag , 

= 4th mag 

= 4th mag , 

= 2nd mag 

= lst mag 

= 2nd mag 

= lst and 3rd mag..., 



= lst mag 

= 2nd mag 

larger than 1st mag. 

= lst mag 

= 4th mag 



= lst mag. 
= 4th mag. 



Sharpwhistlingsound 
No explosion. 

3rd mag 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Very brilliant 
Blue 



Reddish 



Blue 

Very bright ... 
Muchbrighter, 

Red 

Blue 

Red 

Red 

Bluish 

Blue 

Very brilliant , 

Blue 

Blue 



Very brilliant 

Bright 

Dazzling 

Very bright . . 
Blue 



Blue. 
Blue. 



A dark object 
seen to fall. 

Yellow 



Train or sparks. 



Train vis. 7 seconds after 

meteor had disappeared 

Train , 



Train vis. 2^ seconds , 



Train 

Considerable train 



Small train 

Considerable train 



First left a train 



Train visible 13 seconds... 

Small train 

Train visible 41 seconds... 
Train visible 6 seconds 



Traiu visible 8 seconds 



Velocity or 
duration. 



2 seconds. 
2 seconds. 



Slow. 



3 seconds 

2 seconds 

3 seconds 

1 second 

H sec 

2 seconds 

1 second 

2 seconds , 

2| seconds 

2^ seconds 

2 seconds 

3 and 1^ seconds. 



3 seconds.. 

2 seconds. 
5 seconds. 

3 seconds. 
3 seconds. 



2 J seconds 
li second 



Very rapid 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 5 


Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


From just above Polaris to 

a, Draconis. 
From 2° West of Polaris to 

X, Ursae Majoris. 

From a Lyrae perpendicular to 
horizon 15°. 

From <s Lyrae to near Deneb . . . 

From ? Ursae Majoris to near 
Cor Caroli. 

From I Ursae Majoris towards 
Arcturus 30°. 

From $ Draconis to midway be- 
tween \ and y Draconis. 

From 4° West of Polaris to near 
y Ursae Majoris. 

Prom 2° above Polaris to near y 
Ursae Majoris. 

From 5° below /3 Ursae Majoris 
perpendic. to horizon. 

From Arcturus to near y Ser- 
pentis. 

From near £ Ursae Majoris to 
near Cor Caroli. 

From just below Alt&ir, down 
Milky Way about 9°. 

From |3 Cygiii down Milky Wav 
10°. 

Pwo from near Deneb towards 
n Ursae Majoris. Former dis- 
appeared just below that star, 
latter at about ^ distance. 

From 4° below Polaris to near 
S Ursae Majoris. 

From just below Polaris to near 
a Ursae Majoris. 

From & Cassiopeiae to near De- 
neb. 

From midway between n and 6 
Draconis to u llerculis. 

From y Bootis to midway be- 
tween Arcturus and Cor Ca- 
roli. 

From y Draconis to midway be- 
tween a. and /3 llerculis. 

From 3° East of « Lyrae to near 
(t Serpentarii. 

At <35° to the ground from 
N.E. to S.W., supposed about 
60 or 80 yards distant. 

From about 23 Pegasi and tra- 
velled about 12° towards Del- 
pbinus, passing 2° South oi 
K Pegasi. 





Castle Doning- 

ton. 
[bid 


Mr, W. H. Lee- 
son. 
Id 


Mr. Lowe's 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. comm. 
Powell. 

Mr. Lowe's 


MS. 

to Prof. 

MS. 


Three other meteors 
at the same in- 
stant and nearly 
in same direction. 

During next 15 mi- 
nutes no less than 
20 meteors were 
seen. 

A flash of lightning 
at this instant. 


[bid 


Id 


[bid 


Id 


[bid 


Id 


Two others at the 
same time, small. 


[bid 


Id 


[bid 


Id 




[bid 


Id 




[bid 


Id 




[bid 


Id 


Another at the 
same instant. 


[bid 


Id 


bid 


Id 




[bid 


Id 


20 others in less 
than 5 minutes. 

26 others were seen 
in the next 15 
minutes. 

25 otliers during 
next 7 minutes. 


[bid 


Id 


[bid.... 


Id 


Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


8 othersduringnext 
half hour. 


Ibid 


Id 


ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id, 


After a thunder- 
storm and rain 
had ceased. 


Wendlebury, Ox- 
fordshire. 

Observatory, 
Stone Vicarace 

Lat. 
51°47'57"-03N 

Long. 
0° 52' 16"-35 W 


Rev. W. L. 
Brown. 

F. V. Fasel, Esq. 





REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and Brightness 
masnitude. and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1852. 
Aug. 22 



27 

29 
31 

Sept. 3 



h ra s 
9 30 p. m, 



9 44 p.m. 
10 13 30.. 

10 8 p.m. 



9 35 p.m. 
9 19 p.m. 

8 26 15.. 

8 31 p.m. 
8 36 15.. 



1st mag Orange. 



4th mag. 
2nd mag. 



White 
Blue... 



A splendid meteor, 
brighter than a star 
of the 1st mag. 

2ud mag 



As large as Capella . . . 



1st mag. 



White . 

White . 
Yellow . 

Yellow. 



3rd mag. 
2nd mag. 



8 p.m. 

8 17 p.m. 

8 26 p.m. 

9 49 p-m. 
9 14 p.m. 

9 18 30... 



3rd mag. 
2nd mag. 



3rd mag. 
2nd mag. 



3rd mag. 
1st mag. 



7 26 p.m. 

9 2 p.m. 

9 34 p.m. 

9 36 pm. 
9 47 p.m. 

9 50 p.m. 

10 22 p.m. 
10 25 p.m. 
U 1 30.. 



r\s large as Mars. 



3rd mag 

Very bright, 1st mag. 
3rd map; 



Blue... 
White 



Colourless 
Red 



White . 
Wliite . 

Orange. 
Yellow . 



Red 



White 
Blue... 
White 



2nd mag. , 
4th icag. , 

2nd mag. 



3rd mag. 
3rd mag. 
1st mag. 



Blue.... 
White . 

Orange. 



Blue.... 
Blue.... 
Orange. 



Moderate. 



Short train 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Long train which did not 
disappear for 2 seconds. 



Slow. 



Moderate , 
Moderate . 



Long train 



Train 



Train 



Slow .... 

Rapid .... 
Moderate. 



Rapid 



Long train 



Rapid . . . . 
Moderate . 



Train which did not disap- 
pear for 2 or 3 seconds. 



Rapid .... 
Moderate. 

Moderate. 



Train 
Train 



Short train 



Long train 



Rapid .... 
Moderate . 
Rapid .... 



Rapid , 

Very rapid 



Moderate . 



Rapid .... 
Rapid .... 
Moderate . 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. f 



Direction or altitude. 



rom 2° S. of x Pegasi, passed 
within 4° E. of Markab and 
disappeared at 82 Pegasi. 

rom y to /S Andromedae .. 

rom near /3 Cygni down to- 
wards S. 

rom « Cassiopeiae to y Ursx 
Minoris. 

rossed Cassiopeia from W. to 

E. 
rom ti Ursae Majoris to 15 Ca- 

nis Venaticorum, or within 3° 

E. of Cor Caroli. 
rom ti Pegasi, crossed Lacerta 

and vanished in the Milky 

Way about a- Cygni. 

om Delphinus and went about 

3° northward. 
rom about 4° N.W. of Polaris 

and proceeded in a direct line 

to the Pointers ; it vanished 

within 5° of a Urs. Maj. and 

about 1^° N.E. of \ Dra- 

conis. 

h>m^ across n Pegasi 

'rom « to very near t Cephei... 



■rom «• Pegasi to Scheat .. 
■rom a Cygni to nearly y Dra- 

Gonis. 
'rom /} to 7 Andromedae . . 
tom about 4° E. of a Lyrae to 

y Draconis. 
'rom midway between as Andro- 

medae and Scheat, and pro 

ceeded about 4° south, when 

it entered a cloud. 



I'rom « Andromedae and pro- 
ceeded 2° south. 

?irom n Aquarii and went about 
4" S.S.W. 

hrom Delphinus to p> Aquarii... 



General remarks. 



Place. 



, Stone 



Bright train 



It increased in size 
as it proceeded 



Stone 

Highfield House 

Observatory. 
Hartwell 



Stone 



Ibid., 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Highfield House. 
Stone 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



The train was bead- Ibid 

ed, and, after its entering the 
cloud, appeared very much like a 
rocket; itwas ofabrightred colour. 



hma Scheat to Markab 

'worn y Aquarii, and proceed 

ed a few degrees S.E. 
From X Andromedae to half-way 
I between « Andromedae and 

Scheat. 
From 4° above the Pleiades and 

went to the Pleiades. 
From a few degrees E. of Fo 

malhaut and went towards it. 
'From 3° W. of Algenib to nearly 

y Piscium. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid 
Ibid. 

Ibid 

Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Observer. 



F. V. Fasel, Esq. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
Rev. C. Lowndes 



F. V. Fasel, Esq, 
Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 



E. J. Lowe, Esq 

F. V. Fasel, 
Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 

Mrs. Reade 

F. V. Fasel, 
Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id 

F. V. Fasel, Esq, 



Reference. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



1852. 
Sept. 9 



10 



12 



Hour. 



h m s 
8 40 

8 50 

8 52 

8 56 

9 

9 4 

9 10 

9 15 

8 39 

8 30 

8 42 

8 42 30.. 
8 44 

8 58 

9 

4 15 a.m. 



4th mag. 



4th mag. 
4th mag. 



3rd mag. 
2nd mag. 

1st mag. 



8 28 



8 59 45. 



9 8 30... 



9 8 35.. 

9 9 

9 16 

9 28 30.. 
9 32 

9 35 10.. 
9 40 

7 56 p.m. 

8 1 p.m. 

9 2 p.m. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Orange. 



mag. 
mag. 
mag. 
mag. 



Small 
Small 



Small 

= « Arietis 



Luminous appearance 
round ; increased in 
size for 30 or 40 se- 
conds.then decreased 
and disappeared for 
a minute, then re 
appeared of same 
size as at first and 
disappeared 2 or 3 
times. 

3rd mag 



2nd ma.a;. 



= 3rd mag. 



= 3rd mag. 



= 3rd mag. 
=3rd mag. 

= 4th mag. 
=4th mag. 

= 4th mag. 
= 3rd mag. 

1st mag. ... 
3rd mag. . . . 



3rd mag." 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Orange. 
Orange. 
Orange. 
Orange. 
Orange. 
Orange. 
Orange. 
Orange. 

Orange. 



Red 



Colourless 
Colourless 

Colourless 

a Arietis . . . 

Bright white ; 
another ob 
server blue ; 
another ob- 
server says 
it tinged the 
dark part of 
the moon 
with a red 
dish light. 

Yellow 



Yetlovr . 



Blue. 



Bhie. 



Deep red . 
Blue 



Blue. 
Blue. 



Blue. 
Blue. 



White 

Bluish white 



Bright blue . 



Train or sparks. 



Streak 



Streak 
Streak 
Streak 
Streak 
Streak 
Streak 
Streak 
Streak 

Streak 



Long tail . 



Train 
Train 



Train 

Without train 



Surrounded by luminous 
haze, but no rays. 



Tail 



Long continuous tail 



Train 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Moderate. 



Moderate . 
Moderate . 
Moderate . 
Moderate . 
Moderate . 
Moderate . 
Moderate . 
Moderate. 

Moderate . 



2 seconds. 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid ... 
1 second 



Stationary. Vanish-' 
ed finally at 4-45 



0'5 second 



2 seconds, slow .. 



2 seconds. 



2 seconds. 



1 second .. 
H second 



1 second ., 
li second 



1 i- second 
1 second ., 



Slow 

Moderate . 



Rapid 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 9 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Through jS Pegasi 



l^ear « Audromedaj 

Hear y Andromedse 

!fear a Cassiopeiae 

i^^ear /S Cassiopeiae 

iMear » Pegasi 

jMeara Persei 

Near Aquila 

Prom * Andromedae through 

T Piscium. 

Perpeudic. down from 30' E. of 

» Aquarii, passing E. of 

X Aquarii. 

From f Cassiopeiae across near 

Polaris and above n Ursas Mi- 

I uoris. 

jUpwards through y Cassiopeiag 

■Perpendicular down from 

! u Aquilfe. 

jPerpendicular down through 
' i y Aquarii. 
„|Fell perpendic. down through 
I' a, Arietis. 

^lAltitude estimated at 30° or 35 
I , at a little distance from the 
, j moon (estimated altitude pro 
' bably too great). 



Manysmall meteors; 
the point from 
which they di- 
verged was near 
^ Cassiopeiae. 



Broke into two and 
then disappeared. 

After the disap. 
pearance one ob 
server saw ^ oc- 
cupy nearly the 
same place, but 
there were many 
clouds. 



Highfield House. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Four Oaks, Staf- 
fordshire. 



JFrora a. Coronae Borealis to 
about 5' N. of s Bootis. 

Immediately below y Androme 
daj to ^ Piscium. 



From n Herculis to near Has Al 
gethi. 

jFrom s Aquilae to near y Tauri 

I Poniatowski. 

JJFrom Algenib to s Pegasi 

JlFrom near | Draconis to 3^' 

' below » Draconis. 
JlFrom Delphinus to near Altair 
JFrora 6 Tauri Poniatowski to 

ij a, Serpentarii. 

,.,|From Z, Cygni to near ;3 Cygni . 

,(lFrom /3 Bootis to i Coronae Bo- 

\ reahs. 

.iJFrom Algol, and went T S.W. 

,jFrom a Urs. Min. to a Urs, 

1 Maj. 
J From 18 Persei to « Persei ... 



Other small ones 
Greenwich Mean 
Time is given. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Id. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Several friends of 
LordWrottesley 



Observatory, 

Beeston. 
Ibid 



E. J. Lowe, Esq, 
Id 



Ibid 

CastleDonington 

Lat. 
52°51'23"-75N 
Ibid 



Id 

Mr. W, H. Lee- 
son. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid., 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Id. 



Stone 
Ibid... 



Ibid., 



H. Smith, Esq. . 
J. Oliver, Esq..., 

Rev. J. B. Reade 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. communicated 
from Lord Wrot- 
tesley to Prof. 
Powell. 

See Appendix, No, 
2. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



10 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1852, 
Sept. 12 



13 



h m s 
9 5 p.m. 



9 31 p.m. 
9 40 p.m. 

10 8 p.m. 

11 59 45... 



Larger and brighter 
than X Lyrae. 



Red 



1st mag. 
3rd mag. 



3rd mag 

= 2/.. Ill-defined edge, 



Red .... 
White . 

Orange. 
Blue.... 



12 2 



= 3rd mag. 



Yellow. 



16 



17 



12 3 

8 30 p.m. 



10 15 p.m. 

10 19 p.m. 

8 16 p.m. 



8 35 p.m. 



9 12 30 

p.m. 
9 55 45 

p.m. 
10 4 30 

p.m. 



10 11 25 

p.m. 
7 46 p.m. 



Small ... 
3rd mag. 



Yellow .... 
Yellowish. 



2nd mag., 



1st mag. and brighter 

than a, Aquilae. 
2nd mag 



White . 
Red .... 
Orange. 



2nd mag. 



Red 



2nd mag.. 
2nd mag.. 
2nd mag., 



3rd maor. 



1st mag. and as bright 
as a. Lyrae. 



Yellow . 
Orange. 



Train 



Long streak. 



Streak 



Streak 

A few above it. 



Train 
Train 
Train 



YeUow 

Orange 

Blight blue ... 



Train 



Train 



Rapid 



Moderate . 
Rapid .... 



Rapid . . . 
1 second 



Instantaneous , 



Instantaneous . 
A few seconds . 



Moderate 
Moderate 
Very rapid 



Train very much like the 
brush of a fox's tail. 



Rapid 

Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 



Train 



Moderate. 
Very slow. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 11 



Direction or altitude. 



)in the head of Draco, and 

proceeded about 7° in a line, 

which, if produced, would 

pass between » and ? Dra- 

conis. 

)m Algol to Algenib 



)m about 12" N. of a- Capri- 
Borni and proceeded to a,^ Ca- 
pricomi. 
)m a little below Cassiopeia, 
,nd moved from S. to N. 
Dm 18 Piscium through | An- 
iclromedae to just /3 Androme 



Appeared to be verj' 
low. 



Irpendic. down from 5 Capri 
corni. 

rpendic. down from » Ceti... 
tout 45° from Canis Minor, 
whence it moved off horizon- 
tally towards S.E. 



!om a Lyrae to » Herculis 
|om K Sagittae to s Aquilae 



om about 5° N.E. of Aries, 
moved in a parallel line with, 
and passed just below « and 
/3 Arietis and »> Piscium ; it 
vanished at about 14° from 
the point it started from, 
om 8° W. of Delphinus, and 

' proceeded about 5° from W. 

itoE. 

J]om Cassiopeia to y Andro 
medae. 

. 'om 5° below Aries, and pro 
jceeded 20° from N. to S. 

iom a Persei to Algol 



■om about « Aquarii, and went 

'5°S. 

I'om about 4° S.E. of « Ceplici, 

and moved from W. to E. as 

far as 3 Lacertoe. 



General remarks. 



Stone 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid., 



Gradually increased 
in size, from a 
mere point to "4 
at opposition. 



The evening was 
calm and clear. 
The Via Lactea 
formed a com- 
plete arch from 
S.E. to N.W. 
Fahrenheit 46° ; 
Barometer 29-60 



It appeared very 
low, and crossed 
a very low cloud 



It appeared very 
low. 

After the bead had 
disappeared, the 
train remained 
visible for half a 
second, and the 
extremity of it 
disappeared last; 
it was rather 
high. 



It appeared low . . . 



Place. 



Beeston 



Ibid., 



Ibid 

North Dalton 



Stone 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



F. V. Fasel, Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 
F. V. Fasel, Esq 

Rev. J. B. Reade 
E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Observer. 



Id. 



Id 

Rev. Thomas 
Rankin. 



F. V. Fasel, Esq. 



Id 

Id 

Rev. J. B. Reade. 
Id 



F. V. Fasel, Esq, 
Id 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



12 



REPORT 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1852. 
Sept. 17 



18 



20 



h ni s 

7 54 30 

p.m. 



10 1 p.m. 

10 1 p.m. 

11 19 p.m. 
8 55 p.m. 

8 58 40 
p.m. 

9 10 45 
p.m. 

9 25 57 
p.m. 

9 26 p.m. 

9 27 46 

p.m. 
9 32 40 

p.m. 

9 35 50 

p.m. 
7 34 15 

p.m. 
9 5 p.m. 



2nd mag. and very 
bright. 



3rd mag. and as bright 
as a star of the 2nd. 



Light orange. 



Train 



Orange. 



Long train 



3rd mag. 



Bluish, but not 
very certain. 



2nd mag., 
3rd mag. , 

2nd mag. , 



Red . 
Blue. 



Train 



Train 
Train 



2nd mag., 



As large as a tennis- 
ball, and with a per- 
fect disc. 



3rd mag. 



Very bright, 1st mag. 
3rd mag 



Orange. 

Blue . 
White . 

Yellow . 

Yellow . 
Blue . 



Train ... 
No train 



Train 



Train 

Thin train 



9 48 25 
10 3 
23 9 56 p.m. 

10 56 p.m. 



24 



3rd mag 

1st mag 

2nd mag 

4th mag 

2ce size of J/. 
3rd mag 



3rd mag. 



7 20 50 
p.m. 



Yellow 

Blue 

White 

Bluish 

Colour of Tf.. 
Reddish .... 



Train 

Train yellow .. 

Long train 

Very thin train 

Long train 

Train 



The head was a splash 
of flame, 4 times 
the size of Mars. 



White 
Red ... 



Moderate 



Moderate . 

Rather slow. 

Very slow . 
Rapid 



Moderate 



Slow. 



Very slow, 
about 3 sees, di 
ration. 



Moderate 



Rapid .... 
Moderate 



Slow 

Moderate .,,, 
1 sec. duration. 
Moderate .... 

Slowly 

Rather rapid . 



Short train Very rapid 



Long train with sparks . . . 



Rather rapid .. 



i 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



13 



Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


unabout5°S.ofs Urs. Min., 
ind proceeded 14° due N.W. 

m about 3° S. of ? Andro- 
nedse, passed below Algenib, 
ind went as far as 
t Piscium. 

im about 6° S. of « Andro- 
nedae passed above Algenib, 
md disappeared at about 
1 Piscium. 

im ;g Draconis to exactly 
s Urs. Maj. 

>m half-way between « Cygni 
md a Cephei, and went very 
lear to S Draconis. 
impDraconis, passed between 
laod /3 Cephei, and disap- 
)eared at | Cephei. 
im i Pegasi, and went about 
f S.E. 

im about ;3 Tauri, passed 
)elow the Pleiades, and dis- 
ippeared a little below Sa- 
turn. 

im ^ Draconis, passed 
'through », and vanished at 
' Draconis. 


When in the mid- 
dle of its course 
it disappeared for 
about i a second; 
so that its train 
was divided into 
two parts. 

It was rather low... 

Appearedlow. This 
evidently is the 
same meteor as 
theprecedingone 

Its speed decreased 
as it proceeded. 


Stone 

Ibid 


F. V. Fasel, Esq. 
Id 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 


Hartwell 


Mrs. Reade 

F. V. Fasel, Esq. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 

F. V. Fasel, Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 
F. V. Fasel, Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id 


Stone 

Ibid 




Ibid 


Head blue; train 

orange. 
It was very low and 

described a line 

curved towards 

the earth. 


Ibid 


Ibid 


Ibid 




Ibid 


hm 37 Lyncis ; moved in a 
,!4.E. direction, and disap- 
peared behind the house. 
)m •» Urs. Maj., and went 10° 
,;owards Cor Carol! . 
)m « Bootis to Arcturus 

)m a Aquilse to within 10° 
,)f the horizon. 
()m 6° W. of /3 Cassiopeiae, 
md went to (i Cassiopeiae. 
! alt. of 45° horizontally from 
;S. to S. 

i)m about « Cephei, and went 
! ibout 10° due N. through a 
:irrus cloud. 
f)m about 5° S. of /3 Cassio- 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Rev. J. B. Reade 

& F. V. Fasel. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 

Rev. C. Lowndes 

F. V. Fasel, Esq. 

A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
Id 


Train 7° in extent.. 


Stone 


Hartwell 




Ibid 




Highfield House 

Observatory. 
Ibid 


It appeared high... 

It passed under a 
high cirrus cloud 

This magnificent 
meteor was very 
well seen. 
ame at a station ab 
ount perfectly agree 
noon, which was th 
ht as our satellite v 


Ibid 


Rev. J. B. Reade 
& F. V. Fasel, 
Esq. 

Id 


leiaj, and went 6° W. of 
» Andromedae. 


Ibid 


ibout 7 Bootis. 

^3. Mr. Fasel also saw the s 
Rev. Mr. Reade, and his ace 
;hat, in the absence of the i 

• lave shown with as much lig 


out 400 yards dis 
s with the above 
en 11 days old, t 
?hen 3 or 4 days 


tant from that of 
he further adds, 
ais meteor would 
Did. 













14 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or i 
duratiou. i 



-4 



1852. 
Sept. 25 



h m s 
8 35 p.m. 



29 



Oct. 5 



11 22 58 
p.m. 



9 11 4 

p.m. 
10 32 p.m. 



7 48 p.m. 

7 36 34 
p.m. 

8 9 17 
p.m. 



12 



8 22 31 
p.m. 

10 42 26 
p.m. 
8 22 p.m. 

8 26 



Large meteor 



Reddish 



Slow 



Larger than a star of Orange, 
the 1st mag., and 
as bright as Capella. 



3rd mag. 
1st mag. 

2Dd mag, 
2nd mag, 



2nd mag.; it increased 
from the 2nd to the 
1st mag. 



1st mag 

1st mag 

Small, 3rd mag, 
2nd mag 



Light blue . . . 
Deep orange .. 

Orange red . . . 
Yellow 



White 



Long red beaded train, in 
the shape of a double 
convex lens, or having a 
lenticular form. 



Train 

Beaded train 

Very long beaded train 
Train 

No train 



Rather slow.i...r> 



Rapid .... 
Slow 

Moderate 
Moderate 

Slow 



Yellow . 



Short train 



Moderate 



Red 



Beaded train 



Slow 



Blue 



Blue ; increa- Train of sparks emanated 
sed in bril-l when at its greatest bril 
liancy from bancy. 
a point. 



Train soon vaul 
ed, and met 
diminished t( 
point and dis 
peared- 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



15 



Direction or altitude. 



est to South. 



om /3 Cassiopeiae to 
I near a Cygni. 

B. This was very well seen, 
the observer happening just 
to look in that very spot when 
the meteor started 



om about 6° S. of a Arietis to 

about X Ceti. 

om about S Urs. Maj., passed 

just below X Draconii, and 

vanished between Mizar and 

a Draconis. 
lorn about <y Urs. Min. to 

Lyrse. 
lom Polaris to within 5° E. of 

y Draconis, and 10° N. of 

« Lyrae. 

JlDm about ^ Urs. Maj. to 
ijwithin 2" of X Urs. Maj. 



Was a very singular 
object; appeared 
at first as large 
as a star of the 
1st magnitude ; 
then shot some 
distance, and in- 
creased much in 
size; shot a se- 
cond time, and 
still increased ; 
then divided into 
and fell in 3 por- 
tions ; gave 
strong, brilliant, 
and sparkling 
light. Weather 
cloudy ; drizzling 
rain, and very 
oppressive from 
heat. 
very|The train appeared 
almost like the 
train of a rocket, 
and was visible 
for 2 sees, after 
the disappear, 
ance of the head. 



|)m about 1° S. of /3 Ophiuchi 

and proceeded a short di 

stance to the N. 
bra about 6° N. of 7 Cassio- 

peise to Polaris. 
I:)m Lyra, passed between 3 

»nd 4° W. of Altair. 
Am (3 and y Ursae Minoris 
^pelow head of Draco 

i 



General remarks. 



The first half of its 
course was 
curve towards a 
Urs. Maj., and 
the other half 
was in a direct 
line to X Urs. 
Min. ; its path 
resembling 
sickle. 



Path nearly parallel 
to last, and mo- 
tion direct in both 



Place. 



St. Ives, Hunts . 



Observer. 



J. King Watts... 



Reference. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. PoweU 



-<r 



0-----0 



--0 



stone 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Victoria Park 

London. 
Ibid 



F. V. Fasel, Esq, 



Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

H. Smith, Esq.. 



C.V.Oliver, Esq, 

F. V. Fasel, Esq, 
W. R. Birt, Esq, 
Id 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
MS. 
Ibid. 



16 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance 
aud magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1852. 
Oct. 12 



h m s 
8 40 p.m. 



Fine globular meteor. 



18 
20 
23 

Nov. 3 



8 42 p.m. 

6 58 p.m. 
21 a.m. 

7 6 5 
p.m. 

7 21 45 
p.m. 

7 31 21 
p.m. 

7 9 58 

p.m. 
6 7 30 

p.m. 

9 22 10 
p.m. 

9 44 p.m. 

6 11 44 
p.m. 

6 18 44 

p.m. 
6 22 35 

p.m. 

9 8 47 

p.m. 
9 11 57 

p.m. 
9 15 7 

p.m. 
9 21 8 

p.m. 

9 23 38 
p.m. 

10 5 9 
p.m. 



Small 



Gradually in- 
creasing in 
size and bril- 
liancy from 
a point till 
= v., and 
of greater 
brightness. 
White tin- 
ged with yel- 
low. 

Blue 



Motion slow .„ti 



1st mag. 
1st mag. 



3rd mag., but as 
bright as a star of 
the 1st. 

3rd mag 



As large as Mars, and 
even rather larger. 



1st mag. 
1st mag. 
1st mag. 
1st mag. 
3rd mag. 



Orange. 
Blue . 
Yellow . 
Blue . 



Instantaneous flash. 



.A 



Long blue beaded train 
which gradually disap- 
peared. 

Train 



The same co- 
lour as Mars 



WTiite .. 
White .. 
Orange.. 

Red 

Reddish 



Train of small blue beads, 



A continuous train 2' 
length, and of the same 
colour as Mars. 

No train 



Moderate . 

Slow 

Slow 



1st mag. . 
2nd mag. . 

2ud mag. , 
1st mag. , 
1st mag. . 
1st mag. , 

1st mag. 
3rd mag. 



Long beaded train 

Train 

Train 

Train 



Yellow . 
Orange . 



No train 
Train ... 



Deep orange.. 

Yellow 

Orange 

YeUow 



Red . 
Blue 



Slow 

Slow 

Rapid 

Slow 

Slow 

Moderate 

Very slow. 
Moderate 



Long train 

Train 

Train 



Train ... 
No train 



Slow... 
Slow... 
Rapid 
Slow... 



Slow.., 
Rapid 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. l7 



Direction or altitude. General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



ised across « Persei towards 
Dapella, eclipsing the star; 
luddenly disappeared. 



Motion direct, very 
similar to me 
teor of Aug. 10, 
1849. 



Victoria Park 
London. 



W. R. Birt, Esq 



MS. 



ae distance above Pleiades. 



m S Urs. Maj. to the chord 
f the arc formed by n and y 
Jrs. Maj. 
m a Orionis to within a few 
egrees of Rigel. 

m 3° E. of A. Draconis to 
'ithin a degree of v Urs. 
laj. 

m exactly half-way between 
and I Herculis to exactly 
alf-way between » and 
[erculis. 

n about 2° W. of a Her- 
jlis to very near x Ser^ 
entarii. 
n 1° N. of » Persei to Algol 

n ? Cephei to a little beyond 

Cephei. 

n between a and t Aurigae 

I & Aurigse. 

n 55 Lyncis to within 2° of 
Geminorum. 

u half-way between a and /3 

ephei to half-way between 

and I Draconis. 

n 35 Muscae Borealis to 21 

H. 348. 

ja half-way between ^ and y 

raconis to half-way between 

and n Herculis. 

ja y Draconis to within 5° 

' « Lyrae. 

:JQ about /3 Delphini to ^out 

■' beyond y Aquite. k 
[]a Algenib to about 15° due 
i juth. 

ra about ^ Cygni, passed 
I ;tween y and s Cygni, and 
I Lnished at <p Cygni. 

1 between ? Persei and < 

iirigte to » Aurigaj. 

1 Aldebaran to a few degrees 

mth. 



Retrograde 



ibid. 



Stone 



The middle of the 
train vanished 
last. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



3537 



Ibid., 

Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 

Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Id. 



C. Oliver, Esq.... 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
F. V. Fasel, Esq 

Id 

Id 



F. V. Fasel, Esq. 

& Rev. J. B. 

Reade. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 



F. V. Fasel, Esq. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 



Id. 



C. Oliver, Esq.... 
F. V. Fasel, Esq. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 
lb 



18 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



1852. 
Nov. 3 



Hour. 



h in s 
10 23 10 

p.m. 
10 58 43 

p.m. 



Ill 20 40 
p.m. 
8 20 p.m. 

8 9 p.m. 



Appearance 
and magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



1st mag 

Larger than a star of 
1st mag., and as 
bright as Aldebaran. 



Blue . 
Orange 



19 



24 



3rd mag 

2nd mag 

Seemed about the size 
of Jupiter. 



10 32 

9 16 12 

p.m. 

12 23 36 

p.m. 
12 26 15 
p.m. 
8 51 p.m. 



Train or sparks. 



No train 



Very long continuous 
train, which seemed 
to have a little 
swelling in the 
centre, like the vi. 
bratioii of a string. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Slow. 
Slow. 



Blue 

Orange-red ... 



Train 



Slow 

05 sec 

Very rapid 



27 
Dec. 8 



Larger than Vega . . .Colour of Vega 

1st mag Orange 

2nd mag 

3rd mag 

1st mag 



As large as a Lyrse . 



YeUow . 
Blue . 
Yellow , 



Long streak. 

Train 

Short train . 
Short train . 



Brilliant red. 



9 3 12 

p.m. I r» , ,. , 

10 49 p.m. =to a star of the 1st Reddish, very 
(Dublin mag. | bright. 

time.) 



10 57 p.m. 



A mere spark 



10 p.m. 
9 Small .. 

10 20 1st mag. 



1 sec 

Slow 

Very rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 



Short train 

No train or sparks 



About 9p.m 
(Greenwich 
time.) 



Apparent size of nu^ 
cleus= Jupiter. 



Red 



Nucleus bright 
white ; train 
reddish. 

Brightness 
steady. 



Slow 

Passed over ab 
15°inlior28t 



Lasted perhaps 
sec. ; did 
move over n 
than 4° or 5° 



Streak . 



Slowly . 
Slowly . 



Train of reddish sparks ; Moved about 9' 
diverging; length=di- 2^ sees, 
stance between two of 
the three large stars in 
Orion's belt ; breadth at 
end of train = one-third 
of length. 



A few sees. Much smaller 
before thei 
above. ! 



None 



Somewhat 
rapid thani 
above. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF l.UMI>fOUS METEORS. 19 



Direction or altitude. 



•om about 2° S. of y Trianguli 

to a Arietis. 

cm 2° S. of Aldebaran to a 

Ceti. 



om 3° E. of » Tauri to fr' 

Orionis. 

,om direction of Vega, passing 

between /3 and y Herculis. 

om V Urs. Maj. in the direc 

tion of Capella through a 

cloud. 

om between x and 3 Cygni, 
passing through | Lyrae. 
om between a and ji Aurigse 
to within 2° S. of S Aurigse. 
om Polaris to S Draconis 



Aurora borealis 

Itdisappeared about 
half-way in the 
thickest part of 
the cloud. 



om Markab to i Pegasi .. 

om 4° N. of I Aurigse, and 
went 5° due N. 



lorn 1° N. of I Urs. Maj. to 1° 
N. of ^ Urs. Maj. 
<>peared at an elevation of 
labout 45°, and moved down 
wards in a path forming an 
angle of 8° or 10° with the 
vertical, and slightly curved 
towards the vertical. 
Ititude 70° in the W. ; moved 
Ivertically. 



Jititude 15° from S.W. to- 
wards W. 

Jtitude 20° due E. perpendicu- 
lar down to vrithin 5° of 
liorizon. 

Kititude when it first made its 
ippearance past the angle of 
a house, between 25° and 
30° ; direction East ; moved 
inearly in a great circle to- 
wards the S. point of the ho 
irizon, and disappeared behind 
some trees. 

Iwae nearly the same as the 

Above. 



General remarks. 



Stone 
Ibid... 



Ibid. 



Observatory, 

Beeston. 
Stone 



Observatory, 

Beeston. 
Stone 



In the absence of the 
moon this would 
have proved a fine 
meteor. 



Several small 



Several small ones.. 



Place. 



F. V. Fasel, Esq. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Near Glasnevin, 
about i a mile 
to the north 
of PubUn. 



Ibid. {In the 
village of Glas 
neviu.) 



Highfield House 

Observatory 
Ibid 



Ibid,. 



Rosebank,4railes 
S.E. of Glasgow 



Observer. 



Id 

E. J. Lowe, Esq, 
J. Oliver, Esq.... 

E. J. Lowe, Esq 

F. V. Fasel, Esq 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id 



F. V. Fasel, Esq. 

J. Oliver, Esq.... 

J. W. Mallet 
PhD. 



Id. 



A. Lowe, Esq. 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



4 



Ibid. 



Mrs. David Ran- 
kine. 



MS. com. to Prof. 
Powell. 



Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. com. 



Id. 



Ibid. 



c 2 



20 



REPORT 1853. 



Date, 



1852. 
Dec. 12 



17 



Hour. 



h m s 
A few min 
after the 
large me- 
teor. 
4 50 .. 



1853. 
Mar. 



11 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Much smaller 



5 



5 3 



A remarkable cloud in 
S.E. emitting red 
flashes with a hiss- 
ing sound, advan- 
cing towards N.W., 
scintillations more 
rapid. 
Ball of light in middle 

of cloiid=^diameter 

of 5. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Doubtful 



8 5 p.m. 

7 44 

8 

12 15 ..... 



12 to 13 



2111 34 30 



29 



Dull red 



Large meteor 

= 4th mag. ... 

4th mag. . . . 

twice mag. . . 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Very rapid 



Tail 5 or 6 times diameter, 
emitting flashes. 



White 

Yellow 

Orange 

Straw-colour . 



Sparks . 



Long continuous light 



= size Sirius twice as biight 

as Sirius, blue 



30 



55 p.m. 
20 p.m. 
May 5 11 14 



23 p.m. 1st mag. and as bright 
as Capella. 

Small luminous me- 
teor. 

Large meteor 



10 

17 

June 611 

July 511 
10 



15 

57 

20 p.m. 



50 p.m. 
15 



= 1st mag. 



Bluish-white 

Verj' faint . , 

White 

Orange-red . 



= lst mag. .. 
= 3 times "4 



Small 

Much larger than '4 



Descended rapidlj 
detonating an 
hissing. 

Approached fb 
shore throwin 
off portions; ni 
cleus suddenl 
exploded, givin 
out bright light, 

Quick 



0-2', slow.. 
0*5', slow.. 
0-2% rapid 



Long train 



2*5 sees. 



Moderate . 



No spai-ks ... 
Without stars 



Colourless 

Bluish 

White 



Without appeqdage;^ 
No sparks 



White 

Very bright 
blue. 



Slowly 

0*5 sec, slowly 



No sparks 
No tail 



1 second v 

Slow , 



Rapid 

Motion slow 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 21 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



jpeared in S.W. at an alti- 
tude of about 45° ; moved 
towards the N.W. point of 
the horizon. 



imediately belovF pointer of 
Ursa Major 10° North. 

(er 20' in space, from 16 Argo 
Navis towards Sirius. 

(•er 3" in space, from /3 Andro- 
medae towards Saturn. 

]om direction of Arctui-us 
tlirough S Bootis to y Dra- 
conis. 

J)parently meteors at great di- 
stance. 



bwly from -^ Cancri, passed 
,1° N. of S Cancri through » 
JHydrae to 1° S. of 31 Mono- 
hcerotis. 

lorn about 3° N. of j Cancri to 
about n Hydrse. 
iom Gemini to Leo 



^om Ursa Minor to west . 



lorn i Hydrae northward to- 
wards horizon for 5° at an 
angle of 45°. 

J an angle of 45° easterly from 
N.E., altitude 15°. 

'»rpendic. down from ^ Bootis 

iom zenith down to south 



jom Ursa Major downwards.. 
i path produced backwards "j 
would pass through Arc- \ 



jturiis. 

1 



Mass fell into the 
sea, causinggreat 
spray, &c. 



St. Ives, Hunts. 

Observatory, 

Beeston. 
Ibid 



Ibid. 



There were several 
spurts of light mo- 
ving over 2' to 3' of 
space and under a 
6th mag. star. 
Passed beneath 
nearly full ([ . 



A globe meteor 



Jttpiter Arcturus 



Rosebank, 4 miles David Rankine, 
S.E. of Glasgow. Esq. 



MS. com. 



Near Dover . 



J. King Watts, 

Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq, 

Id 

Id 



Ibid., 



Id. 



Ibid. 



Stone 



Victoria Park, 

London. 
St. Ives, Hunts 

Highfield House 
Observatory. 



Observatory, 

Beeston. 
St. Ives, Hunts. 



Ibid 

LongWhatton, 
near Lough- 
borough, Lei- 
cestershire. 



F.Higginson, 
Esq., R.N. 



Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, 
vol. vi. No. 94, 
p. 276. 



J.Oliver, tlsq.... 

W. R. Birt, Esq. 

J. King Watts, 

Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq, 

J. King Watts, 
Esq. 

Id 

Rev. K. Swann 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell. 
Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. comm. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. comm. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



REPORT 1853. 



Date. 



1853. 
July 



Aug. 



28 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



h m s j 

10 15 \^n. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



11 29 
11 30 
11 31 
11 32 
11 33 
310 18 



7 9 48 35... 



9 58 



= 3rd mag. , 
= 4th mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 

= 1st mag. 
= 3rd mag. 



10 12 31. 
10 30 p.ra 
(Greenwich 
time.) 



Very bright 

blue. 
Very bright 

blue. 
Very bright 

blue. 
Very bright 

blue. 
Very bright 

blue. 
Very bright 

blue. 
Orange 



Train or sparks. 



= 4th mag 

One-third of the 
moon's apparent 
diameter. About 
as bright as the 
moon's surface. 



9 22 p.m. Small, 3rd mag. 



9 41 p.m. 



9 53 p.m. 



9 56 p.m. 3rd mag 



Verv small Faint 



No tail. 
Streak . 
Tail .... 
Tail .... 
Tail .... 
Tail .... 
Streak 



Blue . 



Blue. 



Blue... 
White 



Train, 3 seconds . 



None 



Piercingly 
bright. 



Very small 



Faint 



Fluctuating in 
its brilliancy. 



9 58 p.m. [Between 3rd and 2nd 
I mag. 



10 19 p.m. ^Larger than <?, at op- 
position nearly = 



Bright 



Very bright 
with yellow 
tinge at its 
extinction ; it 
commenced 
as a small 
star, increa- 
sing rapidly 
in brilliancy. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

1*5 second 

H second 



1 second 



2i seconds ... 

Visible for less thi 
one second, dl 
ring which it d( 
scribed an arc ' 
about 15°, disaj 
pearing behiii 
some trees. 



Rather slow. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 23 



Direction or altitude. 



rpendic. down due S., alt 

when first seen 45°. 

im midway between a and \ 

Pegasi towards s Pegasi. 

im 67 Pegasi towards S- An- 

Iromedae. 

im above j3 Cassiopeia: 



im 1° S. of S Bootis perpeu- 

lic. down. 

e S.E. pei-pendic. down.. 



im the direction of t Cassio- 
leise starting from above a. 
Vndromedae, passing down 
rith a S. inclination and pass- 
ng 1° N. of a, Androraedae. 
m y Ursse Majoris, half-way 
Delphinus. 

)m /S Ursse Minoris to i° 
ibove Polaris. 

m /3 Cassiopeiae to s Lyrae... 
st seen at an altitude of about 
tO°, moved downwards nearly 
dong a portion of a great cir- 
ile, connecting the pole with 
;he S.W. point of the horizon. 



)m near a Cassiopeiae towards 
Andromedae. 

dway between Polaris and a 
. ersei towards Ursa Major. 



ross the same line about 
hree-fourths of its length 
rem Polaris and one-fourth 
rom a, Persei. 



>m Camelopardalis about 2° 
ibove or south of Polaris to 
the body Ursa Minor. 
? Polaris, where it became ex- 
tinguished. It shot from a 
point some distance below and 
to the east. 

lom about midway between a 
Cassiopeiae and a, Persei to- 
wards the south, parallel with 
the horizon. 



The above angles 
were estimated 
by the eye. 



General remarks. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Castle Donington 
Ibid 



This star appeared 
as if it just im- 
pinged on the 
earth's atmo 
sphere. 

The path of this star 
sensibly inclined 
to that of the 
former, the two 
very similar 
character. 



Globular; just pre- 
vious to its ex- 
tinction it ap- 
peared to bend 
towards the hori- 
zon, a common 
feature in this 
kind of falUng 
star. 



Place. 



Highfield House 
Observatory 

Observatory, 
Beeston. 

Ibid 



Ibid 

Rosebank House, 
Cambuslang, 
about 4 miles 
S.E. from Glas- 
gow. 



Victoria Park, 
London. 



Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Ibid., 



Ibid., 



Ibid., 



Observer. 



A. S. H. Lowe 

Esq. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq, 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 



Mr. W. H. Lee 

son, Esq. 
Id , 



Id 

David Rankine, 
Esq. 



W. R. Birt, Esq, 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Reference. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
MS. com. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell. 
See App. No. 3. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



24 



REPORT 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1853. h m s 
Aug. 8 10 28 p.m. 



10 38 p.m. 



10 46 p.m. 

9 13 p.m. 
9 20 p.m. 
9 25 p.m. 
9 43 p.m. 



10 p.m. 
10 2 p.m. 
10 9 p.m. 



Small, 3rd mag. 



Between the 3rd and 
2nd mag. 



Brightest as it 
crossed the 
meridian, di- 
minishing in 
brightnessat 
either end of 
its course 



A very faint train 



3rd mag. 

2nd mag. 
3rd mag. 



5th mag 

= 1/. ; it increased ra 
pidly from a mere 
point. 



5th mag. 



Bright 



Very faint. 



Between Srd and 2nd 

mag. 



= Mars 



Red 



10 21 p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 
10 34 p.m. 

10 43 p.m. 
10 43 p.m. 

10 49 p.m. 
10 54 p.m. 



3rd mag. 



2nd mag. 
2nd mag. 



3rd mag. 



3rd mag. 
1st mag. 



Bright 
Bright 



Very rapid ,« 



Sparks . 



Train 



Faint 



Very bright . 



Faint train 
Faint train 



Rapid 



Rapid 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 25 



Direction or altitude. 



•om the line joining Polaris 
and a, Persei to the body of 
Ursa Major near a Ursse Ma 
joris. 

rem Cassiopeia through Ce- 
pheus to the head of Draco 



•om the northern meridian to. 
wards a Ursae Majoris an up 
ward motion. 

•om the tail of Ursa Major to- 
wards Arcturus. 
:om Polaris to /3 and y Ursae 
Minoris. 
•cm /5 and y Ursse Minoris to 
? Ursae Majoris. 
ear the line joining s Cassio 
peiae and a, Persei about 5° lie 
low ( Cassiopeise towards the 
star. 



etween t and s Cassiopeise up- 
wards. 

bout 2° below or north of 
Polaris towards Ursa Major. 

om Algol directly towards 
the horizon. 



om Cassiopeia through Ce- 
pheus to n and 6 Draconis. 

:ross a and y Ursae Majoris 

to Canes Venatici. 

■om y Cassiopeiae, between 

and /S Cassiopeia;, towards 

Cygnus. 

jst below a Persei downwards 
rossed the line joining Cas- 
siopeia and a, Persei. 
. Camelopardalis, about 10° 

below Polaris towards Ursa 

Major. 

om ^ Ursse Majoris towards s 

Bootis. 



General remarks. 



Victoria Park, 
London. 



Ibid., 



This star appeared 
as if almost ap 
proaching the 
earth and quickly 
separated into 



This meteor burst 
and separated 
into two portions, 
thus — 



Serpentine path 



An instant after the 
last. 



Curved path very 
low in the atmo 
sphere. 



Place. 



Ibid., 

Ibid.. 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid. 



Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid, 

Ibid. 
Ibid, 



Observer. 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 
Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell. 
See App. No. 3, 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Id. 

Id, 
Id. 

Id, 
Id, 

Id 

Id 



Reference. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



26 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1853. 
Aug. 9 



h m s 
11 2 p.m. 



11 7 p.m. 
1 1 8 p.m. 

11 12 p.m. 

11 18 p.m. 

11 26 p.m. 
11 32 p.m. 



= Jupiter. 



3rd mag. 



4th mag. 
3rd mag. 



4th mag., small 
3rd mag 



11 42 p.m. 



Aug. 10 



9 45 30.. 
10 52 10.. 

10 59 50.. 



10 7 .. 
10 18 31... 



10 22 30.. 
10 36 



From 

10 5 to 

11 5 
From 

10 30 tiU 

12 p.m. 



10 30 p.m. 



=3rd mag. 
= lst mag. 

= lst mag. 

= 3rd mag. 
=4th mag. 

= 4th mag. 

= 1st mag. 

55 meteors 



Fine train 



Faint 
Bright 

Faint 



Sparks only 



Faint train 



Blue 

Very bright . . 

Very brilliant. 



Train 

Train, 7 seconds . 



Train 



Blue. 
Blue. 



Blue 

Very brilliant 



Train, 8 seconds 



One with train. 



17 meteors were no- 
ticed, 3 or 4 were of 
1st mag. 



1st mag. and as large 
as Jupiter. 



10 28 
10 29 



= 2nd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 



Bluish 
Bluish 



Streaks 
Streaks 



2 seconds. 

3 seconds. 

2 seconds. 

2 seconds. 

3 seconds. 

2 seconds. 

3 seconds. 



Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



27 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



om a line joining Polaris and 
Capella, two-thirds from Po 
laris to Ursa Major. 

om Polaris towards Capella 
to the east of the line join 
ing them. 

lout midway on a line between 
Cassiopeia and Perseus to- 
wards a line joining Polaris 
and Capella. 
om about midway between 
Polaris and Capella towards 
Ursa Major, 
om the zenith, between 
Cygnus and Cepheus across 
the head of Draco to Bootes 
om Polaris across o and i 
Draconis towards Hercules, 
tout midway between Polaris 
and « Persei towards 
Persei. 

K)ut half a degree under or 
north of Polaris to about the 
same distance under /S Ursae 
Minoris. 
om a Cassiopeiae to near a 
Andromedx. 
sm Z Cygni to near Altair ... 



'}om ^Lyrae perpendic. towards 

.horizon about 15°. 

')om » to * Cygni 

■lorn /3 Aquilse to Scutum So- 

bieski. 
"Jom « Andromedse to near /S 

• Cassiopeiae. 
-torn ^ Pegasi to 3° below Del 

.pbinus. 



Curved path lost be- 
hind the houses. 



Another at same in 
stant, as if in con- 
tinuation. 



2 others at same in 
stant, nearly in 
same path. 



J lese 17 meteors were chiefly 
under Cassiopeia and between 
Uis. Maj. and Pegasus. 

45appeared near a Persei 



iN.B. It is probable that this 
ijteor will have been noticed 
^d observed at other stations. 

"'lom through « to i Aquilae . 
"!;rpendic. dovrn with slight in- 
chnationto S. passing through 
.j« Pegasi. 



A greater number 
would have been 
noticed if there 
had been more 
observers. 

It was accompanied 
with a distinct 
report on its dis- 
appearance. 



11a Welhngton 
Street, Victoria 
Park, London. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

CastleDonington 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Haverhill 

Stone 

Ibid 



[vatory 
Beeston Obser- 
Ibid 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 



Mr. W. H. Lee. 

son. 
Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

W. W, Boreham, 
Esq. 

Rev. J. B. Reade 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell 
See App. No. 3. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



MS. See App. No. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Id. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



28 



REPORT 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
inagtiitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1853. 
Aug. 10 



h m s 
12 50 ... 



= 2nd mag. 



Bluish 



12 51 .... 

12 51 30. 

12 59 .... 

13 30. 

13 1 .... 

13 1 20, 

13 2 .... 

13 3 .... 

13 3 80, 

13 10 .... 

13 14 .... 

13 15 ... 



13 19 .... 
13 22 



= 2nd mag. 
= lst mag. 
= 4th mag. 
= 2nd mag. 



= 2nd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 



= 5th mag. 



= 3rd mag 

=3rd mag 

= 1st mag. hating in- 
creased from a point 
as it progressed. 

<=3Td mag 



Bluish 

Bluish 

Bluish 

Bluish 

Bluish 
Bluish 
Bluish 

Bluish 

Bluish 
Bluish 
Blue... 



Blue. 



= 3rd mag; 
= 1st mag. 



Blue. 
Blue 



11 



13 24 
13 30 



9 15 



= 2nd mag. 



Blue 



= lst mag. 



Blue 



Streaks 



Streaks 

Streak . . 

Streak . 

Train ., 

Train ., 
Train ., 
Train .. 

Train .. 

Stream., 

Tail 

Streak . 



Streak , 



Tail 
Tail 



Tail 



Tail 



Instantaneous , 



Instantaneous .,• 



0-2 second 



Instantaneous . 

Instantaneous . 

Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous , 

Instantaneous .., 

0*3 second .... 

Instantaneous . 

0-3 second, dis 
peared at m 
brightness. 

Instantaneous .. 



Instantaneous , 
Instantaneous . 



Instantaneous . 



Instantaneous , 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 29 



Direction or altitude. 



om 15' N. of Capella through 
& Aurigae. 



General remarks. 



)m slightly S. of Polaris per 
l^pendic. down. 
"J rough Vega towards ft Her- 

culis. 
Ii-pendic. down from 1° W. of 

Polaris. 
Trough Vega towards it Her- 

3ulis. 

I)m y through S Aquilse 

l)m y Cygni towards ^ Cygni. 
trpendic. down from 1° N. of 

V Delphini. 

trpendic. down through apass 

' lug W. of X Cygui. 

5)m X to r Cassiopeise 
)m « through 25 Pegasi 

l)m a through ft Aquilas 



bm 1° W. of a, Delphini near- 
" ;.y perpendic. down incMnin? 

Jsv. 

:ne path as the last meteor 
|>m Vega through x Lyrae . 



^ne path as last meteor 

■Rght flash in E. under clouds, 
' Probably a meteor, 
[rpendicular down inclining 
: KV.j and passing 2° N. of C 



All meteors diver 
ged from a point 

situated near /3 Cas 
siopeiae. Those 
meteors near Cas 
siopeia much 
shorter tracts 
All fell down ex- 
cept near Cassio- 
peia, where some 
were horizontal. 
From W. of Del 
phinus they in- 
clined W., and 
from S. of Del 
phinus inclined 
to S. The me- 
teors not sobright 
as usual. Many 
spurts of light, 
probably very di 
stant meteoi's. 



Place. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



Much cloud, being 
nearly overcast 
until 10'', and 
quite overcast 
after IS" 45"". 



Most meteors gave 
point of diver- 
gence near jS 
Cassiopeise, yet 
several showed 
another point 
near Polaris. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid., 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid., 

Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid., 



Observer. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Id. 



Id. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid- 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



30 



REPORT — 1853. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1853. 
Aug. 11 



12 



23 



h m 
10 10 



11 2 

12 10 



12 14 
12 19 



12 19 15 

12 19 30 
12 22 

12 25 

12 28 

12 28 2 
12 28 3 
12 33 
12 34 

12 41 
12 41 15 

10 12 5 
p.m. 

11 4 p.m. 



12 
9 40 



= 3rd mag. 

= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 



= 3rd mag 

Increased rapidly from 
6th to 1st mag. 

= 3rd mag 



Blue 



Blue 
Blue 



Blue 



Tail 



Tail 
Tail 



Tail 



= 3rd mag. 
= 3rd mag. 

= 3rd mag. 

= 4th mag. 

= 4th mag. 
=4th mag. 
= 2nd mag. 
= 2 lid mag. 



= 2nd mag. 
= 2nd mag. 
4th mag. ... 
1st mag. ... 



= -n-. 



28 



9 41 30 
10 25 p.m. 



= 1 st mag. star 
= n 



2', as bright as 
Istmag.star, 
yellow. 

Blue 



Many streaks, being 30' 
long and 10' broad. 



Blue . 
Blue . 

Blue . 

Blue . 

Blue . 

Blue . 

Blue . 

Blue . 

Blue . 
Blue . 
Yellow . 
Red .... 



Streak 

Streak 
Streak 

Streak 

Streak 

Streak 
Streak 
Streak 
Streak 

Streak 
Streak 



Short train 



= 11. , blue 



Separate stars . 



Blue 

Bright bluish. 



Separate stars . 
Train 



Instantaneous , 



Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 



Instantaneous . 



Streak remained 
10 sees. 



Instantaneous,.^ 

Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 

Instantaneous . 

Instantaneous . 

Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 

Instantaneous , 
Instantaneous . 

Moderate 

Moderate 



1-2 sec. 



0-7 sec. 
Rapid . 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 31 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



irpendicular down through S 
Cassiopeiae. 

ime path as last meteor . . . 
■om ? Pegasi through 
Aquarii. 

;rpendicular down from /3 
Cassiopeise. 
om t Ursse Majoris to about 
No. 11 Canis Venatici : ap 
pearance of streak left in 
the sky. 

jrpendicular down from Po 
laris. 

om V Draconis to t Herculis. 
i'om X Draconis towards ! 
Ursae Majoris. 

om » through (p Ursse Ma- 
joris. 

om n Draconis, moved 5° in 
direction of /3 Bootis. 

same track 

third in same track 

om t to (p Cassiopeise 

•om 1* N., and 1° above 

Persei horizontally towards 

(i Triangidi. 

om midway between s and « 

Aiirigae tlu-ough A. Aurigae. 

om direction of Polaris, pass- 

ing across Capella. 

•ossed a Cephei 



NobriUiant meteors 



om 1° W. of fi Andromedae to 
A. Andromedae. 



iveral small meteors 

;11 slowly perpendicular down 
passing exactly across Jupiter 



•It 



;11 slowly perpendicular down, 
passing nearly across ? Ursse 
Majoris. 

[iagonally across Ursa Major, 
from « to 7, a little below 

I them. 



It rose upwards, 
and seemed to 
describe an orbit 
convex to the 
earth. 

Much cloud 

This was an as- 
semblage of se 
parate bodies, 
constantly be- 
cominglargerand 
brighter, disap- 
pearing at maX' 
imum brightness 
at about 3° im- 
mediately be- 
neath Jupiter. 

Much cloud and 
haze. 



Beeston 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Stone . 
Ibid 



[vatory, 
Beeston Obser- 
Ibid 



E. J. Lowe, Esq 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Rev. J. B. Reade 

F, V. Fasel, Esq. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid., 



Id. 



Stanhope Street, 
Hyde Park. 



MissC.E.PoweU 



Ibid. 



Verbal statement. 



32 REPORT—- 1853. 



APPENDIX. 

No. 1 — Extract of two letters to Professor Powell from W. J. Macquorn 
Rankine, Esq., enclosing one from Dr. Myrtle. 

" 59 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, June 6, 1853. 
" Sir, — Enclosed I beg leave to transmit to you a register of three luminous 
meteors observed on the 12th of December 1852 ; and also a register of one 
observed in 1839, which I have prepared from some sketches and memo- 
randa that had lain forgotten amongst other papers until now. It is evident 
that the latter was an object near the surface of the earth, and indeed, less 
than a quarter of a mile from the place of observation. 

" The sketch is as nearly as possible a fac-simile of a pen-and-ink sketch 
made by one of the observers on the same morning, which I have now in 
my possession. 

" I am, &c., 

" W. J. Macquorn Rankine." 

" 59 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, 6th July, 1853. 

" Dear Sir, — Enclosed I beg leave to send you Dr. Myrtle's account of 

the luminous object seen near Edinburgh on the 8th November, 1839 

.... It is difficult to determine the real path of the object. I formerly came 
to the conclusion, that it must have moved nearly in a parabola, situated in 
a plane passing through Gibraltar House, and must have gone almost directly 
over the house ; but the appearance described by Dr. Myrtle, of an object 
moving almost vertically downwards, is inconsistent with this supposition. 

" With respect to the fact of its having seemed to Dr. Myrtle to disappear 
behind Salisbury Crags, I may mention, that the ridge on which Gibraltar 
House stands, as shown in the enclosed plan, might readily be confounded 
with part of Salisbury Crags when seen from the westward during the night. 

" The apparent size of the object, as seen by Dr. Myrtle, viz. somewhat 
larger than Venus, compared with its apparent size as seen from Gibraltar 
House (nearly twice the diameter of the moon), shows that it must have been 
very near the latter point. 

" I am, &c., 

" W. J. Macquorn Rankine." 
" The Rev. Professor Powell." 

Enclosure. — Extract of a letter from Dr. Myrtle to Mr. Rankine. 

" Edinburgh, 24 Rutland Street, July 5th, 1853. 
"I was returning about one o'clock in the morning from Newington, when 
on looking towards Salisbury Crags I observed a bright luminous meteor, to 
appearance more than twice the altitude of the Crags, falling in a somewhat 
perpendicular direction with considerable velocity towards the Queen's Park 
and the valley eastward from the Ci'ags : it had for a short time, though some- 
what larger, very much the colour and appearance of the planet Venus, and 
I really took it for a planet till I observed its motion : when it had fallen to 
about the third part of its course as observed by me, it suddenly began to 
emit sparks, which was continued throughout the remainder of its course, 
decreased in size, and at last disappeared behind the Crags. 

" John Young Myrtle." 
« W. J. M. Rankine, Esq." 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSRRVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 33 
Mr. Ranldne's Sketch of the appearance of the Meteor, Nov. 8, 1839. 

/ /jY" 'n^\ [This sketch is an exact copy of one hastily 
.,.4.v„. J f r , J- A }■ '^'^iM/i made bv one of the spectators atGibraltar 

At the end of 5 sees, disappeared. (^ vv^ //Y J/| House/almost immediately after the ap- 

r>Vj^-i pearance of the meteor. — W. J. M. R.] 



At the end of 4 sees. 



Appearance at the end of 3 sees. 



Appearance at the end of 2 sees. 



Appearance at the end of 1 sec. 

Appearance when first seen twice 
the apparent diameter of the 
moon, on a level with Gibraltar 
House O 



Salisbury Crags ; the summit of 
which is about 300 feet above the 
valley at the base of the slope, and 
is situated about a quarter of a mile 
N.N.E. from Gibraltar House. 




B. Top of a wall which hides the valley from 
Gibraltar House. 

a. Marshy valley, into which at the time 
in question, the drainage of the Old Town 
of Edinburgh was discharged by an open 
sewer, and used to irrigate land. 



a. 



"Si 



SALIS Bll RY 
CRAGS 




1853. 






D-MVRTLE [Hope Park Chapel is about a 
quarter of a mile to the W.S.W. 
of Gibraltar House.] 



34 



REPORT 1853. 



No. 3. — Projection of the paths of 22 shooting stars, observed between 9 and 
12 P.M., of the 9th of August 1853, at 11a Wellington Street, Victoria 
Park, London. 

On inspecting the projections, it will be seen that the line of divergence 
extended from the Pole towards the constellation Cassiopea, and between 
this constellation and Perseus ; all the paths in the neighbourhood of these 
constellations were short. The general sweep from Cassiopea and Perseus 
is across the Pole to Ursa Major and Bootes, which agrees with the passage of 
the Earth through a group of cosmical bodies, the observer commanding a 
view of those on the left of the Earth's path ; those in that part of the heavens 
towards which the Earth was advancing, were seen, as might be expected, 
to move in different directions. — W. R. Bikt. 



Mr. Birt's diagram of meteors, August 9, 1853. 




' Mgol 



No. 4. — Letter from W. W. Boreham, Esq. to Professor Powell. 

" Haverhill, Sept. 1, 1853. 

" Dear Sir, — I send a diagram of the approximate paths of 55 meteors seen 
in one hour on the evening of the 10th of August; there was nothing re- 
markable seen during that time either by myself or Mrs. Boreham, except 
perhaps that the meteor marked * left a train of light which was visible for 



i 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 35 

30 or 40 seconds, at lO*" 40"" ; and that it faded away at both ends some time 
before it became invisible in the middle. 

" I am, dear Sir, yours most truly, 

" W. W. BOREHAM." 

" Prof. Baden Powell, S^c. S^c." 

Mr. Boreham's diagram of meteors, August 10, 1853. 
North. 



W. 




E. 



South. 

55 meteors, Aug. 10, 1853, from lO*" 5" to U'' 5" : the right ascension of 

the zenith = 19'' 52™. 

No. 2. — Extract of a letter from Lord Wrottesley to Professor Powell, 
October 12, 1852. 

". . . . On finding that Venus occupied nearly the position assigned to the 
meteor, I at first felt tolerably well satisfied that Venus was the object seen ; 
but then there can be little doubt that it must have presented very extraor- 
dinary appearances to excite so much notice ; besides, (G. W.'s) account is 
inconsistent with an ordinary appearance, however brightly it may have shone. 
Meteor. Again, the drawing of (W. H.) (annexed) adds to the 
difficulty, and makes me doubt whether it could be 
Venus at all. It appears by the Nautical Almanac, 
that the time specified, or 16^^ on the morning of 
the 10th, astronomically, 

D's^=&i'59'" D= + 20°15' 
?i?l=8''22'" D=-|-15°44'. 

d2 



36 REPORT — 1853. 

Assuming these quantities, I find roughly by a celestial globe, that the two 
were 10° apart, or a distance about equal to that between a and o, the two 
upper stars of the Great Bear, .... which does not at all accord with the 

drawing, or with the description of J. C. H I think there is little 

doubt that the time was later than that mentioned, .... for otherwise J he 

moon's altitude would have been much less than that mentioned At 

the time mentioned, the moon had only about 12° of altitude Tiiere 

can be little doubt also, that all the observers saw Venus ; and I think the 
descriptions may be reconciled with each other, and with the fact that it was 
really a meteor, by supposing that when the meteor vanished they saw Venus 
and took it for the meteor they had been observing ; of course, however, 
there is great doubt about this, and the balance of probability is in favour 
perhaps of Venus having been the object seen, with some peculiar halo 
surrounding her; but, as I said, the drawing is decidedly opposed to this 
supposition " 



On the Physical Features of the Humber. 
By James Oldham, Esq., Civil Engineer, Hull, M.I.C.E. 

[A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 

In consenting to prepare a paper to be read before the British Association, 
I have felt some degree of hesitation, believing that there are many gentle- 
men who, from their learning, research, and leisure are much better qualified 
to do justice to the subject than myself. However, as a paper of this descrip- 
tion may be a text or theme on which to ground a discussion, and thereby 
call forth the views and opinions of others, I the more willingly venture 
to submit my remarks. 

The Humber is properly an estuary or arm of the sea, in which the tide 
reciprocates, and forms the mouth of some extensive rivers. Its length is 
about 40 miles; 9 miles of which at its entrance from the sea, average 
about 6 miles in width, and the remaining 31 miles a little more than 2 
miles. It contains a total tidal area of about 80,000 acres. 

From Hull to the sea, the direction is about S.E., and from Hull inland 
its course is about W. 

For the purposes of navigation, the Humber possesses great advantages ; 
and notwithstanding the extensive sand-banks and shoals, the main channel 
as high as Hull is good and capable of admitting ships of the largest class. 
The depth between Hull and the sea at low water, spring-tides, is from 10 
to about 4 fathoms. Above Hull, to the confluence of the Trent and Ouse, 
the depth varies from 4 to 1 fathom. 

The spring-tidis rise about 22 leet, and neap-tides 15 feet, on an average; 
and according to a note on Mr. Halls Chart of the Humber, the former run 
at the rate of 4 to 5 knots per hour, and the latter from 2^ to 3 knots per 
hour. 

I do not intend to touch upon the chemical properties of the water of the 
Humber, as that subject will be treated by a gentleman well qualified to do 
it justice; but I may remark, that the water ol the Humber is charged to a 
great density with the alluvial mud of its shores, even to saturation. This 
brings me to the geological formation of the Vale of the Humber, which 
consists of clay, silt, chalk, lias, and gravel. The clay and silt formations 
prevail to the greatest extent, being found on the whole of the shores, except 



ON THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE HUMBER. 37 

at Hessle and Barton, where the chalk appears* ; at Brough and Whittnn, 
where we have the lias ; and at Paiill, where a fine bed of gravel exists. 
Where the alluvial formation exists on the shores of the Huniber, it also ex- 
tends, more or less, for several miles inland; and from observations I have 
made, I find that the average level of the surface of the shores of the Hum- 
ber is about the average surface rise of all tides, and that the average fall of 
tides below the surface of the land is about 17 feet. 

I may remark here, that we find land in the Vale of the Humber much 
lower than that immediately adjoining its shores; for instance, the Sutton 
and Waghen Carrs, where changes have taken place very different to any 
that we find in other low districts. Being engaged in drainage works on 
these Carrs, I had an opportunity more particularly of noticing the pecu- 
liarities of the district. The upper surface is peat, to the depth of 2 or 
3 feet ; and below this, to a considerable depth, occurs a dense mass of 
trees of almost every description, but particularly alders, yews, and other 
varieties, which it is impossible could have grown and flourished in swamps. 
Some were erect as when growing, but the greater portion were lying in 
every possible position. Some were in so perfectly sound a condition, as to 
be capable of being converted into walking-sticks, while others fell to dust 
on being exposed to the air. The only conclusion that I can come to is, 
that this district was once high land, but by some great convulsion of nature, 
the whole had settled down to its present level, and for a long period of time 
formed an extensive lake. These Carrs were not thoroughly drained until 
1835. That the tides of the Humber extended over a much greater surface 
at one period of time than they do now, there is not a doubt ; for during the 
operation of cutting some of our large drains, which discharge into the Hum- 
ber, the tidal deposits were very obvious ; and I would particularly allude 
to the Holderness drain, some of the works of which I have just referred to, 
and which discharges itself into the Humber at Marfleet. The section in 
this drain was most remarkable in illustration of the fact. 

The Humber is not only important as a navigation, but it is also the great 
outlet or natural drain of a very extensive portion of England, receiving the 
waters of the Trent, the Ouse, and other rivers and streams ; and the low 
point to which the tide falls, gives facilities for the perfect and natural drain- 
age of nearly all the land in its vicinity ; for we have comparatively little 
land the surface of which is not above low-water mark ; and I can state with 
confidence, that were the drains of sufficient capacity, and their beds and 
sluices placed low enough, we have no lands in the neighbourhood of the 
Humber, or any part of the East Riding of Yorkshire, that might not be per- 
fectly drained. At the present moment there are districts of many thousands 
of acres, within a few miles of Hull, utterly disgraceful to the present state of 
science and agriculture. I need only name the neighbourhood of the Market 
Weighton Canal, and the Vale of the Foulney, which might be perfectly 
drained at a comparatively small cost per acre. 

Great changes have taken place, and are now taking place on the shores 
of the Humber. In some districts large tracts of land have been encroached 
upon by the tide, and have totally disappeared, whi st in other parts con- 
siderable accretions are forming. 

• The chalk at Hessle appears above high-water. At the entrance of the Humber Dock at 
Hull it is 1 10 feet below the surface. At the " Cato " Mill, a quarter of a mile north of the 
entrance of the old dock, it is about 64 feet below the surface. At Mr. Hodge's mill, a mile 
north-east from the north bridge on the Holderness road, and three-quarters of a mile from 
the bank of the Humber, it is 84 feet below the surface ; and at Sunk Island Church it is 110 
feet below the surface. A section of a boring made at this place by Easton and Amos in 184J 
is shown in PI. II. 



38 REPORT — 1853. 

First, as to the waste of land. It is difficult now to form an idea of what 
was once the greatest extent of the tidal waters of the Humber ; but no doubt 
they flowed over districts at present in fertile cultivation, forming deep bays 
only limited by hills and rising ground ; and it is equally difficult to tell what 
have been the narrowest limits of its channel. We have living witnesses to 
testify of a much more contracted channel than now exists, and tradition, if 
not maps, can verify still greater changes. 

Commencing at A on the Lincolnshire side at the confluence of the Trent, 
and proceeding to Whitton at B, the land is alluvial, and easily affected by 
the action of the water, and therefore subject to continual change ; at one 
time accretions of hundreds of acres forming in a few months, and then being 
as speedily washed away. Whitton is, for some short distance, protected by 
the lias formation, and therefore is not liable to rapid change, except that of 
deposits of sand-banks along its frontage, so as occasionally to prevent en- 
tirely the approach of vessels to its landing. From a point near to Whitton, 
to another a little to the east of Ferriby at C, including a distance of about 
six miles of coast, very extensive ravages have taken place ; and in my own 
recollection and knowledge of the shore, and from facts I have obtained, not 
less than 200 acres have been lost during the last forty or fifty years, so that 
the line of coast at this locality forms a considerable bay, but filled in, in 
some measure, by an island, to which I shall have again to refer. I met with 
one individual at Wintringham, who informed me, that in one field of 14 
acres he had constructed, within the space of about twenty years, seven new 
banks, and only about S^ acres now remain. Another field, of about 17 
acres, is now reduced to about 2 acres. It is a tradition, that about 100 
years ago pei-sons could make themselves heard and understood, between the 
ancient Roman Ferry at Brough and the Ferry opposite. It is now more 
than a mile from Brough to the nearest point on the opposite side. Of 
course, water being a better conductor of sound than land, some allowance 
should be made on that account. At a little more than a mile east of Fer- 
riby Sluice, at D, the chalk of the Lincolnshire Wolds appears, and for a[ 
short distance protects the foreshore. Here are two very extensive quarries 
for procuring chalk, where it is shipped for the purpose of being used for 
protecting the banks of the Humber, as well as for forming the foundations 
of roads and other works. From the Barton chalk quarry, throughout the 
whole of the remaining line of the Lincolnshire coast, it is, with scarcely an 
exception, alluvial, and liable to, and undergoing changes, except where pro- 
tected by engineering works : and that part of the coast of the Humber is 
not without its massive and magnificent works of art ; as at Ferriby Sluice, 
New Holland, and Grimsby. 

Having thus noticed at something like railway speed the Lincolnshire coast 
of the Humber, from the Trent to the sea, we will now go back to the con- 
fiuence of the Ouse, and survey in like manner the Yorkshire shore to the 
sea at Spurn. 

Starting, then, at Faxfleet at E, we pass the entrance to the Market 
Weighton Canal, Bromfleet, &c., to Brough at F, a distance of about 5| 
miles, the line of coast forming a rather deep bay to the north. The forma- 
tion is rich alluvial soil, and is easily washed away by the action of the tide 
and the somewhat rough seas of the Humber; and during the last sixty or 
seventy years, it is well known that a large area of land has been lost in this 
district, and there is now great danger of still more serious destruction, as 
the sea-banks are all but undermined. For many years an island existed 
along nearly the whole extent of the bay, to which I shall have to refer here- 
after. The land for many miles adjacent to the Market Weighton Canal is 



ON THEPHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE HUMBEB. 39 

remarkable for its fine beds of clay, having a depth of from 30 to 40 feet, 
with scarcely a pebble, or other foreign matter of any kind, to be found. 
Near the surface is a stratum, varying from 5 to 8 feet in thickness, from 
which the beautiful white stock bricks are made, and which are now beco- 
ming so celebrated. Clay suitable for white bricks is found in other parts of 
England, but I believe neither so extensive in quantity nor so fine in quality ; 
and shortly the clay of this district will be more fully developed by the intro- 
duction, through an enterprising gentleman, of Beart's patent process of brick- 
making. At Brough, the old Roman Ferry, we have the oolite and lias, 
which for a short distance more efiectually repel the action of the water, and 
thereby preserve that part of the Yorkshire coast, and give to it somewhat 
of a projecting form ; and for the next 4 miles, although there is the light 
alluvial formation, yet generally the coast is of a harder and more gravelly 
character, and, owing to a somewhat better natural protection, it suffers less 
than almost any other part of the Humber, except where we have rock forma- 
tions. At G, at Hessle, we find along a small extent, the white chalk, similar 
to that on the opposite coast of Lincolnshire. From the Hessle chalk quarry 
to H at Hull, a distance of about 5 miles, we have the low alluvial coast, 
and, like the rest, subject more or less to waste. Along this district, in the 
year 1357, an order was made to raise the road from Hull to Anlaby, as a 
tide of unusual height had taken place. I quote from Thompson's ' Ocellum 
Promontorium ' the following remarks : — 

" In the year 1357 (30th Edward III.), the king, being informed that the 
tides of the river of Humber and Hull did flow higher by 4 feet than they 
had wont to do, by which the road and the lands between Hull and Anlaby 
were overflowed and consumed, directed an old ditch to be cleansed and 
made wider, and from thence a new ditch to be made of 24 feet in breadth, 
to extend through the pasture of Miton unto the town of Hull, by which 
ditches the said waters at every tide might pass to and fro ; and he directed 
that the said road should be made much higher.. . . . From this statement by 
Dugdale, founded on records of undoubted authority, to which he refers, it 
appears probable that the waters of the Humber at that time passed to and 
fro, over the lowlands, between Hull and Anlaby. It is certain, however, 
that the ditches were left open to the Humber, and that the waters at every 
tide passed to and fro in them." 

" This aera deserves to be remembered, on account of the extraordinary 
rise of 4 feet in the flowing of the tides of the Humber. The destruction of 
the banks" (if there were any), "and the consequent overflowing and da- 
mage of the lands, for many miles on both sides of the Humber, in Lincoln- 
shire and Yorkshire, must have caused great distress in the country. It does 
not appear that any special record is left of the sufferings of the inhabitants 
of the adjacent districts ; but if the tides in the Humber were to rise at the 
present time 4 feet higher than usual, and continue to flow to that height, 
such persons as live on the low lands adjoining the Humber may form some 
judgment of the difficulties which they might find in saving their lives and 
their property." This clearly shows that at that time there were no banks 
to this part of the Humber, and that the high or spring-tides flowed freely 
over the raar.<!hes. 

It is not necessary that I should enter into any statement of the noble 
works of the Hull Dock Company, as the members of the Association have 
had the opportunity of inspecting them. These act more or less as a defence 
against the ravages of the tide, and have also been the means of a very con- 
siderable accretion to the frontage of the port. 

Proceeding onwards, we have for a distance of about 6 miles low alluvial 



40 REPORT — 1853. 

land (protected in a very inefficient manner from the violence of the waves, 
which along this portion of the coast concentrate in great force), till we 
arrive at I, at Paull ; and for a short length of coast, we find the excellent 
gravel frontage of High Paull giving again a firmer defence, and producing 
a prominence to the line of coast, thus acting very much as a breakwater for 
the softer land in its immediate vicinity. From Paull to the south-eastern 
extremity of Sunk Island at J, and thence to the north-eastern point of the 
island at K, comprising a distance of about 12 miles, the whole is a fine allu- 
vial soil, and of comparatively new formation, but still subject to changes 
and damage by the tide, and in some places considerable loss has occurred. 

The only remaining part of the coast of the Humber is by Welvvick, Wee- 
ton, SkefHing, and Kilnsea, and thence by the long neck or promontory to 
the Spurn at L, being about 11 miles. From Welwick to Kilnsea, the coast 
under some circumstances of wind and tide is much exposed and damaged, 
and the banks are kept in repair at considerable expense. The neck of land 
from Kilnsea to the Spurn Head is exposed to the fury of the North Sea on 
the one side, and to the action of the Humber on the other side, and between 
the two is suffering materially, and will of necessity soon be entirely swept 
away, unless works of importance and efficiency are carried out. It would 
be out of place in this paper to enter into a description of engineering works 
already executed, or which may be required for the maintenance of so im- 
portant a barrier ; and instead of grants of tens, hundreds of thousands should 
be made, or to a certainty the whole of the Spurn Head will be swept away, 
and that speedily. Should there once be a low-water channel formed through 
the neck (which was very nearly the case a short time ago), I will not under- 
take to say what evil effect would follow to the navigation of the Humber, 
and the valuable tracts of land on its shores; and there is no doubt, that 
were an important change of this nature to take place, such as I have de- 
scribed, others perhaps equally disastrous would follow. 

I now proceed to remark upon the islands, accretions, and deposits, and 
the changes that are continually taking place in the channels of the Humber. 
I shall commence at the upper or western extremity, and notice the principal 
accumulations as I pass down towards the sea. 

For many years an island or mud- bank existed in the deep bay between 
Brough and the entrance to the Market Weighton Canal, between E and F, 
about 2 miles in length, and of considerable width, having a large portion 
of its surface covered with marine or salt-water grass, and leaving between 
the island and the Yorkshire shore a navigable channel for river craft at 
high water, called the Broomfleet Hope. For some years I had frequently 
noticed this island, and had devised a plan for attaching it to the main land, 
and silting up the channel, and by an embankment to shut out the tide, and 
thereby secure to the Crown a valuable tract of land. I reported the exist- 
ence of this island to the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Woods, &c., and 
received directions, in conjunction with Mr. Thomas Page, the engineer, to 
examine and report thereon. On the 21st of August 1846 we proceeded to 
inspect the locality ; but on our arrival we found that a great change had 
taken place, and that the island was fast disappearing. Mr. Leaper, a farmer 
living near to the island, informed us that during the last four months (prior 
to that time) 100 acres of the grass, or best part of the island, had disap- 
peared, and that only about 30 acres remained. He also informed us that 
formerly persons were in the habit of driving cattle across the channel at low 
water to graze on the island; but when we visited the place, we found 27 
feet in the channel at low water. In a very short time after this the whole 
of the island had disappeared, and had formed itsolf into two gieat masses in 



ON THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE HUMBER. 41 

other parts of the Humber, one a little above Hessle, and the other at or 
along the foreshore at Whitton. Since then the whole of the Whitton por- 
tion has moved, and is forming on the old site of the island just described. 

The next accumulation I have to name is the island formed on " Ferriby 
Sand or Old Warp," on the Lincolnshire side, a little above Ferriby Sluice. 
About the year 1820, 1 believe, no part of the island had appeared above 
ordinary tides ; but soon after that time the island formed rapidly, and about 
thirteen years ago a person of the name of Read, finding it in a fit state to 
be embaniied, (that is, the vegetation had so far progressed as to present such 
a surface of available land as to make it worth the expense of shutting out 
the high tides which then overflowed the surface) applied to the Commis- 
sioners of Woods, &c. for a lease to rent and occupy the island, and from 
that time to the present it has been under agricultural management. The 
surface within the embankment contains about 80 acres, but there is beyond 
the banks more than double that quantity, on which cattle can graze at low 
water. From the time the island assumed its present state, or rather its 
climax of magnitude, a very deep channel existed between it and the Lin- 
colnshire coast, which was generally used by river steamers coming down at 
low water ; and during all this time the current has impinged with great 
severity on nearly the whole of the coast from Wintringham to South Fer- 
riby, causing a serious loss to Lord Carrington, Sir John Nelthorpe, and 
others. Here, again, changes are going on, and instead of the deep channel 
on the south of the island, the current has taken a direction from about 
Brough to Ferriby on the north side of the island, leaving the south channel 
comparatively shallow ; and I am also sorry to add, considerable loss is taking 
place to the east end and north side of the foreshore of the island, and I 
shall not be much surprised if, before very long, the whole island should take 
its departure. 

The upper part of the Humber is liable to and experiences great changes, 
both as regards the sand-banks and the channels ; but as we descend and 
approach Hull, and below Hull towards the sea, we find fewer changes, and 
less liability to the sand-banks and channels shifting, and we have no accre- 
tions of importance on either side until we have passed High Paull ; and the 
first I have to notice in order is what was formerly called Cherrycum Sand, 
but now Cherry Cobb Sand, about 5^ miles in length, and varying from 
about half a mile to three-quarters of a mile in width. This tract of land, 
which contains about 1800 acres, was embanked from the Humber about 
the year 1770, and is the property of Sir C. A. Constable, Bart., and the 
Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy. To the east of this lies the valuable 
estate of Sunk Island, the property of the Crown, containing about 7000 
acres. It has a line of coast towards the Humber of about 6f miles, ex- 
tending from Stone Creek at M, to what is termed the North Channel at 
K. The first, or most early account we have of Sunk Island, is, I believe, 
at the time of Charles I., when it contained about 7 acres, and was then 
a mile and a half from the Yorkshire coast, having a navigable channel 
between it and the main land, through which ships of considerable burthen 
could pas?. The earliest map showing Sunk Island is the one by Captain 
Greenvile Collins, Hydrographer to His Majesty, in his work called ' Great 
Britain's Coasting Pilot,' surveyed by order of Charles II. 

Immediately after this period we find the island rapidly to increase, and 
I shall here make an extract from a Report made by the Commissioners of 
Woods and Forests a few years ago, which is as follows : — " This estate has 
been gradually formed by the accretion of the warp or soil deposited by the 
River Humber. It was first granted on lease, on the 18th of December, 1668, 



42 REPORT — 1853. 

to Anthony Gilby, Esq., for a term of thirty-one years, at a rent of £5 per 
annum, when it was described as containing 3500 acres of drowned ground*," 
(that is, land over which the tide generally flowed,) " and a stipulation was 
inserted in the lease for the embankment by the lessee of 100 acres or more, 
within the first ten years of the term ; but the difficulties attending the under- 
taking were so great, and the expense so heavy, that in the year 1675 the 
lessee presented a petition to His Majesty, stating his inability to proceed 
with the same (having then succeeded in embanking not more than 20 acres), 
unless he should have a grant made to him of the Crown's reversionary 
interest in the property, which fortunately was not complied with ; but it 
was thought reasonable under the circumstances to accept a surrender of the 
lease, and to extend by a new grant the terms to ninety-nine years, at the 
same rent. Under that lease considerable progress was made in the embank- 
ment, particularly by the exertions of Mr. William Gilby, a descendant of 
the original lessee ; as it appears by a survey that had been made of the estate 
in the year 174'4, that 1500 acres had been embanked, and that the estate 
was divided out into farms. In the 5'ear 1755 a third lease of the estate was 
granted, on payment of a fine of £1050, at the old rent of £5 ; and in 1771 
a fourth lease was granted to Mrs. Margaret Gilby, for a term expiring on 
the 15th of March, 1802, on payment of a further fine of £1550, and at a 
rent of £100 per annum. Some time before the expiration of the last-men- 
tioned lease, a survey of the estate was made by order of the late Surveyor- 
General of Crown Lands, when it appeared that the quantity of land then em- 
banked was only 1561 a. r. l-l- p., no addition having been made since the 
year 1744 to the quantity brought into cultivation ; but the surveyor reported 
that above 2700 acres of new ground were fit for embankment, the expense 
of which was estimated to amount to £8940 18s. He certified at the same 
time, that when the work should be completed, the property would be worth 
about £3400 per annum ; and it was finally agreed that the estate should be 
granted to the Rev. John Lonsdale and others, in trust for the representatives 
of the original lessees, subject to a stipulation on their part for the embank- 
ment, at their own expense, of the new ground, containing 2700 acres, above 
referred to (which was estimated to cost about £10,000), for a term of thirty- 
one years from the 5th of April, 1802, at a rent of £704 2s. 6d. for the first 
year of the term, which lease expired at Lady-day 18S3. The Commis- 
sioners and the old lessees not agreeing on a new lease, an arrangement was 
made with the then tenants or under-lessees to become separate lessees under 
the Crown." The Report goes on to say, that " On the survey made of the 
estate in 1833, it was certified that the land in actual cultivation contained 
no less than 5929 a. 1 r. 13 p. of land of excellent quality, then divided into 
fifteen farms, beside some small holdings by cottagers and others. It is 
believed that further extensive embankments may shortly be undertaken 
with success." 

Without quoting further from the Report, I will briefly state that a further 
embankment has taken place in 1850, under my direction as engineer to the 
Commissioners of Her Majesty's Woods and Forests, of nearly 700 acres of 
most excellent land ; so that now we have altogether of land within the banks, 
secured from the tides, and also available grass beyond the banks, little less 
than 7000 acres, and a prospect of still further increase. 

During the last few years great improvements have been made on the 
island, in constructing roads, drains, &c. The land is of the most valuable 
kind for agricultural purposes, and requires very little manure for many 

* Seven acres of which only was then embanked. 



ON THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE HUMBER. 43 

years after it is embanked. Before dismissing the subject of Sunk Island, I 
would make a remark on the new accretions. When the land, or rather 
mud-bank, has nearly reached the usual surface elevation, the first vegeta- 
ble life it exhibits is that of samphire, then of a very thin wiry grass, and 
after this, some other varieties of marine grass ; and when the surface is thus 
covered with vegetable life, the land may at once be embanked ; but if it is 
enclosed from the tide before it obtains a green carpet, it may be twenty 
years before it is of much value for agriculture, for scarcely anything will 
grow upon it. There is another feature of interest, particularly to agricul- 
turists, which I will take the liberty of naming, — I refer to the productive- 
ness of accretions in this locality, viz. that within a very few years after the 
land has been embanked, a natural and luxuriant covering of white clover 
makes its appearance, giving an undoubted proof of the richness and capa- 
bility of the soil. 

In addition to Cherry Cobb Sand and Sunk Island, about 400 acres of 
new accretions have been added to Patrington, and a considerable portion to 
Ottringham, Welwick, and other places in the immediate neighbourhood ; 
and though I have not been able to ascertain the exact quantity added to 
those places, I know it to be considerable, so that in round numbers we have 
an increase between the year 1668 and 1850, when the last embankment was 
made at Sunk Island, of about 10,000 acres, accumulated between Paull and 
the Spurn. It is a question. Where does it come from ? Some are of 
opinion that it is brought into the Humber by the flood-tide, being the soil 
washed down by the sea along the Holderness coast ; while others are equally 
confident that the soil from the sea-coast never enters the Humber, but that 
it is brought down from the shores of the Humber itself. From the best 
observations I have been able to make, I find that the deposit does not take 
place either at the flood or at the ebb-tide, or yet at any time when the water 
is in motion ; but only at high-water, when it is in a quiescent state, and the 
quantity left is just in proportion to the depth of the tide at the time. Now, 
if the deposit be brought down the river, the only quiescent state it could 
have when so brouglit down, would be at the turn of the tide at low water, 
and therefore no accumulation could take place such as we have been de- 
scribing, at least from that direction ; for immediately the current begins to 
form with the flood, the whole of the loose deposit is again set in motion. 

Taking, therefore. Sunk Island as the point for consideration at the time 
of high water of spring-tides, where is it likely the mud could come from 
which is found in suspension above the surface of the land ? We have seen 
that the ebb could not deposit it, because of the current and the lowness of 
the surface of the water ; then finding that the deposit does take place, and 
can only take place at high water, if it does not come from the sea, whence 
can it come ? Somewhat further to illustrate this theory, I will make one 
other observation. I have already shown that the accretions of Sunk Island 
and the immediate vicinity amount to about 10,000 acres. Now, according 
to the statement made in the valuable publication by Professor Phillips, ' On 
the Rivers, Mountains, and Sea Coast of Yorkshire,' 2^ yards on an average 
are lost by the incursion of the sea annually, between the Spurn and Brid- 
lington ; and this I fully believe. I have during the present year tested the 
waste at Hornsea, and found that during the last forty-four years the average 
loss was 7 feet 1 inch and three-tenths. Taking the length of coast so acted 
upon at 40 miles, we have a loss during the 182 years prior to 1850 of up- 
wards of 6000 acres ; and making the allowance due to the difl^erence in 
cubic contents, the clifl" along the sea coast being much higher than the 
depth of the bed of the Humber, where the Sunk Island accretion has taken 



44 REPORT — 1853. 

place, the 10,000 acres' gain within the Humber will very fairly account for 
the loss of 6000 acres on the sea coast. If, therefore, the great accretions of 
Sunk Island and its immediate neighbourhood are not formed by the loss ot 
the land on the shores of the Humber, what becomes of the loss from the 
foreshores of the Humber thus washed away? My answer is, that a large 
amount of it may pass up the rivers Trent, Ouse, Don, &c., and find its way 
on to the extensive tracts of land so wonderfully improved of late years by 
what is termed " warping," i. c. by the process of admitting the tidal water 
by means of sluices on to the surface of the land, carrying with it a heavy 
charge of mud, which on the turn of tide is left on tiie land. By this process 
the most worthless land has been rendered the most fertile and valuable. 
When therefore we take into account that tens of thousands of acres have 
been thus improved by an average depth of 2 or 3 feet of this rich 
matter, the question of where does the lost land of the Humber go to is in 
some measure answered. I may mention that I have known land put under 
the process of warping, on which, in about two and a half years, an average 
depth of deposit of 3 feet has taken place ; and within a year or two alter 
tiie tides have been shut out, the land is brought into tillage, and crops of 
corn growing. By this process, thousands of acres of extensive swamps in 
the Vale of the Humber might, at a comparatively small cost, become valu- 
able and profitable. i r ^.u u 

I have only now briefly to notice the currents and channels ot the Huin- 
ber ; and as I have already stated that the principal changes taking place m 
the mud and sand-banks are above Hull, so also, and as a matter of course, 
is it with the currents and channels, and so rapid and frequent are they, that 
it can scarcely be told twenty-four hours beforehand where the channel may 
be. Below Hull the currents and channels are more fixed and steady, and 
it is only occasionally that any material change occurs. It may not prove 
uninteresting for a moment to trace the direction of the current, as it more 
generallv proceeds downward. . 

The streams of the Trent and Ouse unite above Faxfleet Mess, having 
come in contact at about right angles with each other, and there being little 
difference in the volume and force of each, their united force would naturally 
produce an angle of about 45 degrees ; and so we find it to be the case. 1 he 
greater bulk of the stream passes along in front of Whitton, and finding a 
hard surlace, can make very little impression on the beach,— continues in 
the direction of Brough, and again meeting with the same hard formation 
(lias), is pitched ofi" in the direction of Ferriby, and again is repelled by 
the chalk of that district in the direction of Hessle, where meeting with 
another hard face it is again diverted, and proceeds in the direction of a little 
below Barton. Leaving on its north what is termed the Hessle middle, and 
passing New Holland, it takes the direction of Hull and the deep bend of 
Marfleet and Hedon, until it feels the hard gravel formation of High Faull, 
when it is directed again to the Lincolnshire shore close in by Kelhngholme 
and Stallingborough, and thence to the north side of the Burcom, south ot 
the Middle Sand, and north of the Bull to the sea. This is not an engineer- 
ing subject for discussion, or a great deal might be said on the improvement 
of the navigation of the Humber by embankments and other works. Much 
has been said on the question of depositing mud in the Humber, dredged 
from the docks. As a general principle, I think it is right that nothing 
should be deposited in navigable rivers, or indeed rivers ol any kind ; but 
with reference to the mud taken out of our docks, I am of opinion that no 
part of it ren.ains in the channel where discharged from the barges, for had 
this been the case and the deposit remained, we should have had an island 



ON STEAM NAVIGATION' IN HULL. 45 

opposite Hull before now ; and I maititain that no particle of it either does 
or can remain in the channels of the Humber. But if, as persons affirm, it 
must settle somewhere, and the deposit does take place on tlie foreshores, it 
will do good instead of harm, for it would thereby tend to contract the capa- 
city of the navigable space, and deepen the channels. The Humber is now 
too wide for the volume of water passing down it ; but contract its width, 
and just in proportion as that is done, the depth will be increased. Some 
time ago I had an opportunity of closely examining the foreshore in front of 
the Pottery at Hull, where the Hull Dock Company had been in the habit 
for many years of depositing the mud from the docks ; but instead of any 
accumulation, I found the hard blue clay, and in some places extensive beds 
of peat, but not the least deposit of mud, for at this part of the Humber we 
have a strong current which at once sweeps away such light matter. 

This noble arm of the sea is no longer to be left to its own uncontrolled 
sway, but is now and will henceforth be under the vigilant eye of a con- 
servator, whose chief business will be to see that no damage is done to it. 
It would have been more satisfactory had the powers of Captain Cator (who 
has the honour of being the first conservator) extended over its two great 
fingers also, the Trent and the Ouse, and that authority were given to exe- 
cute extensive works for their improvement. 

It is with great pleasure that I would refer to the admirable manner in 
which the beacons and buoys are arranged and managed by the Corporation 
of the Hull Trinity House ; and I have heard it remarked by a Captain in 
the Royal Navy, that nothing can be more beautiful than the way in which 
the lights and buoys of the Humber are disposed for its safe navigation, even 
by perfect strangers. 

The Map on Plate II. is constructed to include on a smaller scale the 
information preserved by a chart of the Humber from the sea to Barton, 
by Captain Greenvile Collins, Hydrographer to the King, surveyed about 
1687, showing the site of Sunk Island as it then existed, and the Ordnance 
map of the Humber, with portions of the Ouse and Trent. On this are 
shown the accretions of Sunk Island, &c., the loss on the sea coast, the mud 
and sand banks in the channel, and the dock works of Hull, Grimsby, and 

New Holland. , . t^ i a 

To this is added a section of a boring at Sunk Island, by Easton and Amos, 

184.6. 

Hull, September 7, 1853. 



On the Rise, Progress, and present Position of Steam Navigation in 
Hull. By James Oldham, Esq., Civil Engineer, Hull, M.I.C.E. 

[A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 

In every new discovery, whether of Science or Art, it is seldom that the 
thought or idea is confined to one individual and to one place ; but the all- 
wise Creator has caused the same thoughts and feelings to be at work, and to 
become developed in different minds, and it may be in widely separated places 
at the same time, so that it is often difficult to determine by whom and where 
the first discovery originated. It would appear as if some of those rich 
treasures were too precious to be entrusted to one single individual, a con- 
trary arrangement securing to the world the benefits contemplated. 



46 REPORT — lfi53. 

In the rise or commencement of steam navigation, like all other discoveries 
and inventions which have answered and succeeded in the application, many 
persons are found to claim the honour of that which may or may not be their 
due. Now, in reference to the first discovery of propelling vessels by steam- 
power, we have, amongst others, the following countries as claimants, viz. 
England, Scotland, America, and Italy. It is not my intention to enter into 
any lengthened statement of the claims of different places, but briefly so, in 
order to show that Hull was among the first. 

On the 21st of December, 1736, Jonathan Hulls took out a patent for a 
steam-boat, which was, without doubt, the very first attempt that was ever 
made to apply steam for the purpose of navigation ; at least we have nothing 
older on record. Hulls, as is well known, published his letters-patent, and 
a description of his invention, illustrated by a drawing, in 1737> which he 
entitled a " Description and Draught of a new invented Machine for carry- 
ing vessels or ships out of, or into any Harbour, Port, or River, against wind 
or tide, or in a calm." 

It appears from a paper of Professor Renwick of New York, published in 
Weale's edition of " Tredgold on the Steam-Engine," that the first attempt 
to propel boats by steam in America was made in the year 1783, by Fitch 
and Rumsey ; but it was not until 1807 that it was made to perform with 
success by Fulton. In Scotland, about the year 1788, a trial was made at 
Dalswinton to propel boats by steam, by Mr. Patrick Miller of that place ; 
and again, an experiment was made on the Forth and Clyde Canal, by the 
same person, in 1789, and it is said with good results; but from some cause 
or other, Mr. Miller appears to have abandoned the thing altogether. About 
this time, a person in Italy, of the name of D. S. Serratti, also proposed the 
application of steam to the purposes of navigation. 

In 1801 and 1802, Mr. William Symington constructed a steam-boat for 
towing vessels on the Forth and Clyde Canal, but nothing of importance re- 
sulted from the experiment. 

To come a little nearer home, it will be gratifying to many to hear that in 
Hull, about the year 1787, experiments were made on the River Hull by 
Furnace and Ashton, in the propulsion of vessels by steam-power. Furnace 
and Ashton built a boat which plyed on the river between Hull and Beverley 
for some time, and answered exceedingly well. In consequence of the good 
results of their experiments, they built a much larger vessel and engine, and 
sent the whole to London to be put together and finished, after which it was 
subjected to the severest tests, and gave the greatest satisfaction. This ves- 
sel was bought by the Prince Regent (afterwards George IV.), who had it 
fitted and furnished as a pleasure yacht ; but it was soon afterwards burnt, 
having, it is supposed, been set on fire by persons who were afraid that such 
an invention would be injurious to their calling. 

The Prince was so much pleased with the invention and ingenuity of Fur- 
nace and Ashton, that he granted them a pension for life of ^70 a year each. 
Furnace was a native of Beverley, and Mr. Ashton was a medical gentleman, 
having been articled to the father of the late W. and C. Bolton of this place, 
but I do not know whence he came. 

The steamer was on the paddle principle, propelled by a steam-engine, to 
which was attached a copper boiler ; and this, I regret to saj% is all I can 
give in detail as to the construction, and I also regret to add, that all from 
whom I obtained information are now no more. My father, himself an en- 
gineer, who knew the vessel from personal inspection, gave me the best 
information. The late Mr. Matthew Collyford Banks (whose father, Roger 
Banks, made the principal part of the machinery), although a boy, witnessed 



ON STEAM NAVIGATION IN HULL. 47 

the performance of the vessel, and assisted in the construction of the engine, 
&c., and he gave me information on the subject. The late Mr. William 
Bolton, to whom allusion has been made, and the late Captain Joyce, who 
had the command of the boat, were both well acquainted with the circum- 
stances, and communicated to me facts relating to the invention and perform- 
ance of the steamer. 

Thus I hope I have, by this brief introduction, established the claim of 
Hull to be ranked amongst the first in the introduction of this wonderful in- 
vention, which has become so indispensable to the requirements of the world, 
and so beneficial to mankind. It was not before the 12th of October in the 
year ISl*, that the first steam-boat began to ply on the Humber as a great 
palpable fact, when we were all in some degree excited by the novelty of 
seeing the "Caledonia" commence running regularly between Hull and 
Gainsborough, 

Thus while all Europe was involved in war and confusion, and empires were 
rising and falling. Science was quietly at work ; and this, one of the most im- 
portant discoveries ever made for the worlds' benefit, was struggling into life 
and activity. 

The following is the first notice I can find in the Hull papers on the sub- 
ject of steam-boats, which I copied from the "Rockingham" of the 15th of 
October, ISl'i: — "The steam-boat Caledonia, lately arrived here, has during 
the week been exhibiting her capabilities on the Humber ; and it appears 
that, with both wind and tide strong against her, her speed is considerable. 
On Wednesday she went off for Gainsborough, and the weather being favour- 
able, reached Burton Stather in the space of an hour and a half, travelling at 
the rate of 1 4 miles an hour." 

I also copied the following from the same paper of the 13th of May, 1815 : 
— " The ' Caledonia,' a steam-packet, we understand last Saturday went from 
hence up the River Ouse to Naburn, about 4 miles from York, with intention 
of proceeding to that city, but the lock was not sufficiently wide to admit of 
her passing through it. The packet had arrived from Hull on the same day, 
making the whole distance in that time, 122 miles." No doubt it is intended 
to convey the fact, that the whole distance from Hull to Naburn Lock and 
back to Hull, traversed in one day, was 122 miles. The " Caledonia" was 
followed by others of a more improved construction ; the " John Bull," the 
" Humber," the " British Queen," the " Mercury," " Dart," " Rockingham," 
and others. The " Humber" was advertised in the Hull papers on the 25th 
of August, 1815, to run between Hull and Selby in five hours, and to carry 
best-cabin passengers at 65., and fore-cabin passengers at 4^. each. 

Having established the safety and utility of steam-boats on rivers, the next 
idea was to try them on the sea, but many were the doubts and fears ex- 
pressed at so perilous an undertaking. However, notwithstanding the warn- 
ings and prejudices of nautical men, in the year 1821 our highly respected 
and enterprising townsmen, Messrs. Brownlow and Co., were the first to send 
out sea-going steamers from Hull, to run between Hull and London ; and 
the first ship they flespatched was the " Kingston," the engine of which was 
made by the late Overton and Smith of this place. This is supposed to have 
been the first gea-going steamer plying on the east coast of England. The 
owners had great anxiety and expense at the commencement, but they per- 
severed, and have triumphed in no small degree, for they have now of one 
kind or another about fourteen steamers*. The " Kingston" was followed 
by the " Yorkshiremau," "Prince Frederick," "London," &c. From that 
time to the present the fleet of both river and sea-going steamers has con- 

* Ten sea-going ; four river. 



48 REPORT — 1853. 

tinually increased, and we have now a goodly number plying in almost every 
direction ; those within the Humber running to the tollowing places, viz. 
Grimsby, New Holland, Barton, Ferriby Sluice, Gainsborough, Goole, 
Thome, Selby, and York ; coasters, to London, Yaimouth, Lynn, Wisbeach, 
Newcastle, and Leith ; foreign parts, St. Petersburgh, Christiania, Gotten- 
burg, Hamburg, Zwolle, Rotterdam, Antwerp, &c. 

Many of our finest steamers, both of wood and of iron, have been built in 
Hull ; and in justice to my scientific fellow-townsmen, I must say that they 
have displayed so much talent in the art of steam-ship building, as to secure 
for themselves a large amount of respect and commendation. There is, how- 
ever, with some exceptions, a great want of public spirit and bold enterprise 
in Hull, or I do not fear to say, it might have become one of the first places 
in Britain for shipbuilding ; but it is never too late to amend. As a localit}', 
there is every facility for Carrying on an extensive business; its position in 
reference to the north of Europe cannot be surpassed. The fine level shores 
of the Humber give facility for constructing building-yards and patent slips 
to any extent, and the ready communication with the iron, timber, and coal 
districts all combine to point out the advantages we possess, almost beyond 
any other place in the United Kingdom. 

Many important improvements in the form and construction of steamers 
in Hull have taken place since the commencement here ; and although we 
cannot boast of a John Scott Russell, a Robert Napier, and a John Laird, 
yet we have the advantage of their experience and science in many fine 
specimens of their build belonging to our port ; and I may assert, that the 
lessons of those gentlemen will not be lost upon us. 

Hull, too, has contributed its share in the improvement of the steam-engine, 
as applied more particularly to navigation; for it was the late Mr. Witty, of 
the firm of Todd and Witty of Hull, who first adapted the oscillating cylinder 
to practical uses, which is now so generally applied to steam-boats. I do 
not mean to say that Mr. Witty applied his oscillating engine to steam-boats, 
but he did upwards of thirty years ago set one to work in a manufactory at 
Hull of six or eight horse-power, which continued for several years, fully 
answering the purpose. After this it was that the invention was applied to 
marine purposes by Penn of Greenwich, and others. Some of Penn's beau- 
tiful engines may be seen on board the " Harlequin," " Columbine," and 
" Atalanta," running between Hull and Gainsborough ; also, on the same 
principle by Robinson and Russell, on board the " Manchester," and by 
Messrs. Rennie on board the " Sheffield," Hull and New Holland steamers ; 
and by our own townsmen, Brownlow and Pearson, on board the beautiful 
new ship the " Eagle ;" and Messrs. Earle, on board the " Minister Thor- 
becke." I have been more particular in giving this detailed statement as a 
tribute to the memory of poor Witty, who, like many others, had few to sup- 
port and encourage him in his just claims while living. 

I have great pleasure in referring to another highly important invention by 
a townsman, which, although not yet applied to marine engines, no doubt 
shortly will, and must be, and which bids fair to take an important stride in 
their improvement, — I mean Messrs. Locking and Cook's patent rotary-valve, 
the invention of William Cook of this place, a working engineer. It is 
already fitted to a pair of engines, and fully answers, if it does not exceed, the 
most sanguine expectations formed upon its merits. As the principle will be 
fully explained by Mr. Locking, I will not at present say more about it, except 
that I hope to see it in general use, applied to marine, locomotive, and fixed 
engines. 

Looking back at what has been done in steam navigation, and the rapid 



ON STEAM NAVIGATION IN HULL. 49 

strides effected during tlie last forty years, what may we not anticipate a few 
years hence ? When the first trials were made ordinary land-engines were 
applied ; now we have the most compact engine imaginable : then paddles 
were the only system of propulsion ; now the screw in a variety of forms 
is rapidly taking the lead : formerly we had only wooden boats, now iron 
ones. Thus year after year we are advancing and improving. I think it 
probable that the time is not very far distant when steam-boats, of one 
descrption or other, will almost if not entirely supersede sailing vessels. 

Tables of Statistics. 

The following tables show the present position of Hull in regard to the 
steamers which belong to, or trade from the Port : — 

(A.) Sea-going steamers belonging to the port. Total tonnage, 9277 ; horse- 
power, 2799 ; averaging 3'31 tons per horse-power. 

(B.) River steamers belonging to the port. Total tonnage, 2218 ; horse- 
power, 1135; averaging 1'71 ton per horse-power. 

(C.) Sea-going steamers belonging to other ports, but trading to Hull. 
Total tonnage, 5909 ; horse-power, 2236 ; averaging 2'61 tons per 
horse-power. 

(D.) River steamers trading to Hull, but belonging to other places. Total 
tonnage, 1156; horse-power, 426; averaging 2*71 tons per horse- 
power. 

(E.) An account showing the progressive increase or decrease of tonnage 
on steam-vessels, foreign or coastwise respectively, from 1840 to 
1852 inclusive. 

The total number of steamers trading to Hull amounts to eighty- one, 
of the aggregate burthen of 18,560 tons, and 6596 horse-power ; averaging 
on the whole 2'81 tons per horse-power ; giving also an average on the total 
number of steamers of 229*38 tons each. 

Note. — 66 paddle-steamers and 15 screw steamers = 81. 
Hull, 7th September 1853. 



1853. 



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1 



ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 53 

Experimental Researches to determine the Strength of Locomotive 
Boilers, and the Causes which lead to Explosion. By William 
Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

[A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 

A DIFFERENCE of opinion having arisen between a gentleman high in 
authority and myself concerning the causes of an accident which took place 
through the explosion of a locomotive engine at Manchester, on the Eastern 
Division of the London and North- Western Railway, I deemed it necessary 
to institute a series of experiments, not for the purpose of confuting the ar- 
guments of others or confirming my own, but to determine the real causes 
of the explosion, and to register the observed facts for our future guidance 
in guarding against such fearful catastrophes. 

After a careful examination of the boiler a few hours subsequent to the 
explosion, I found one side of the fire-box completely severed from the body 
of the boiler, the interior copper box forced inwards upon the furnace ; and 
with the exception of the cylindrical shell which covers the tubes, the whole 
of the engine was a complete wreck, as exhibited in Plate I. fig. I. 

Mr. Ramsbottom, the Locomotive Superintendent, in his Report to the 
Directors, states that " the engine in question was made l)y Messrs. Sharp, 
Roberts and Co. in the year 1840, has been worked at a pressure of 60 lbs. 
per square inch, and has run in all a distance of 104,723 miles, a great part 
of which has been either entirely without load, or nearly so. As the cylin- 
ders are only 13 inch diameter, it has been for some time too light to work 
any of our trains; and ha^s therefore been chiefly employed since 1849 in 
piloting the trains through Standedge tunnel, along with another engine of 
the same size, which is now at work. 

" The fire-box was originally ^^ths of an inch thick, and is now a little over 
-^ths of an inch ; and from its excellent condition, might well be supposed (as 
indeed it was by Mr. Sharp, of the firm of Sharp Brothers and Co., who 
inspected it a few days after the accident) to have been recently put in new. 
It is perfectly free from flaw or patch, and would certainly have run at least 
100,000 miles. The same may also be said with respect to the outer shell, 
which is nearly of the original thickness. The engine had been in the 
repairing shop the three months previous to the accident; and the iron fire- 
box stays, about which so much has been said, were tested by the hammer 
in the usual way, and were considered, both by the workmen and the foreman, 
Wheatley, to be all sound. When originally made, they were y^ths in 
diameter, and were equal to a strain of at least ten times the force they had 
to sustain. With the exception of one stay, which was on the top row, the 
one most reduced from oxidation was half-inch diameter; and supposing the 
hold on the copper box to have been good, it was capable of resisting a strain 
of rather more than 6^ times the working pressure, equal, say, to 390 lbs. 
per square inch. The only point therefore which could admit of doubt as 
to the safety of the boiler, was with respect to the hold which the stays 
might have in the copper box ; but it appears, from experiments which I 
have since made, and which are about to be repeated by Mr. Fairbairn, that 
from the force required to pull some of the old stays out of a copper plate 
similar to the fire-box, into which they had been screwed by the old threads 
only, and not riveted, the boiler could not have burst under a pressure of 
less than 300 lbs. per square inch. One of the old stays, which had had the 
thread partially damaged from being ripped out of the copper box by the 
explosion, was screwed by hand into a copper plate, by the old thread, to a 



54 



REPORT — 1853. 



depth equal to the thickness of the fire-box plate, but not riveted, and it 
required a dead weight of 8204; lbs. to pull it out ; and as each stay has to 
support a surface of 5 inches, X 5f inches, say 27 square inches only, it fol- 
lows that a pressure of 820i-r-27= 303*85 lbs. per square inch would have 
been required to strip it. 

" Another stay, which had not been stripped by the explosion, but M'hich 
was screwed out of the old box, was similarly treated, and required a force 
of 9'184 lbs. to strip it, equal to 340 lbs. per square inch," 

Since the experiments here referred to were made, 1 have repeated them 
with great care ; and taking into account the tensile strength of the stays — 
in their corroded state — of the side of the fire-box, which to appearance was 
the first to give way, I find that a force of 380 lbs. upon the square inch 
would be required to eifect rupture; and the results of the experiments on 
the resistance of stays screwed into the copper fire-box fully confirm those 
already made by Mr. Ramsbottom. Assuming therefore that the ends of the 
screws were riveted, and sound in other respects, we may reasonably con- 
clude that a strain of not less than 450 to 500 lbs. upon the square inch 
would be required to strip the screws, or tear the stays themselves asunder. 
I have founded these facts upon the experiment of the resisting powers of 
the iron stay screwed into a portion of the copper cut out of the ruptured 
fire-box, and another experiment of a similar stay first and then riveted, as 
shown in the annexed sketch. 

The stay marked A, f ths of an inch in diameter, in the first experiment 
required a force of 18,260 lbs. = 8*l tons to 
strip the screw, and draw it out of the cop- 
per; and the stay B, of exactly the same 
dimensions, but riveted over the end, re- 
quired a force of 24,140 lbs.= 10'7 tons be- 
fore it was dislodged*. Taking therefore 
the mean of those experiments, including 
those of Mr. Ramsbottom, and we arrive at 
the results given above, namely, a resisting 
power of 785 lbs. on the square inch, to burst 
or produce fracture in the stays and side of 
the fire-box. 

In locomotive engines of more recent con- 
struction, where the stays are thicker and 
formed into squares of 4 to 4| inches, the 
resisting powers will probably be increased to 
850 or 900 lbs. on the square inch, that is, 
7 or 8 times the working pressure. 

On a careful examination of the fire-box 
and every other part of the boiler, it was 
found that the stays and copper were perfect, 
and that they were able to sustain a pressure much exceeding 207 lbs. upon 
the square inch, as given in the following table. 

In these experiments, the top of the fire-box sank a little, owing to the 
breakage of a bolt of one of the cross-bars ; but the fire-box stays were quite 
perfect, and to every appearance would have sustained nearly double that 
pressure. If the fipe-box stays had been new and the top well-stayed, it is 
more than probable that a force from 800 to 900 lbs. on the square inch 
would have been required to cause rupture. 




Vide Experiments in the Appendix. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 55 

As much stress has been laid upon the weakness of the stays which unites 
the Bat surface of the boiler to the sides of the fire-box, the following ex- 
periments clearly indicate that the fire-box stays are not the weakest parts 
of a locomotive boiler, and that we have more to fear from the top of the 
furnace, which under severe pressure is almost invariably the first to give 
way. Great care should therefore be observed in the construction of this 
part, as the cross-beams should not only be strong, but the bolts by which 
the crown of the fire-box is suspended should also be of equal strength, in 
order that no discrepancy should exist, and that all the parts should be pro- 
poi'tioned to a resisting force of at least 500 lbs. on the square inch. 

Finding our knowledge with regard to the power of resistance of locomo- 
tive boilers to strain exceedingly imperfect, I availed myself of the present 
opportunity to determine by actual experiment the laws on which these 
powers are founded ; and for this purpose the Directors of the London and 
North- Western Railway Company placed in my hands an engine of the 
same age, constructed by the same makers, and in every respect a fac-simile 
of that which exploded. This engine was subjected to hydraulic pressure 
as follows: — 

Experiment made May i^th, 1853, (o determine the Resisting Powers of the 
Fire-box and Exterior Shell of No. 2 Engine on the Eastern Division of 
the London and North Western Railway. 

In this experimenti the boiler was furnished with a valve, A, of exactly 
1 inch area, and a lever of the annexed dimensions, as per sketch, fig. 3. This 

Fig. 3. A 




lever, 15 : 1, gave as the weight upon the valve 35 lbs., and having suspended 
the scale, which indicated with the lever 50 lbs., the following results were 
obtained : — 



56 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table I. 



Number 


Weights per 




of pounds 


square inch 


Remarks. 


on 


upon the 




scale. 


valve. 




Lever 


350 




Scale 


500 


This engine was the same age, and had run about the 


i 


57-5 


same number of miles as the exploded engine. The 


1 


650 


fire-box was considerably sunk or bulged, and the 


u 


72-5 


rivets as well as the stays much weakened. The en- 


2 


800 


gine had been at work since 1840. 


2^ 


87-5 




3 


95 




34 


102 5 




4 


1100 


With this pressure a leakage was observed at some of 


H 


117-5 


the joints. 


5 


125-5 




5h 


132-5 




6 


1400 


Leakage increased. 


6| 


147-5 




7 


155-0 




74 


162-5 




8 


1700 


Leakage still increasing. 


84 


177-5 




9 


185 




94 


192-5 




10 


200-5 




104 


207-5 


With this pressure one of the bolts of the cross-bar over 
the fire-box broke, which caused the experiment to be 
discontinued, as the leakage was greater than the 
force-pump could supply. 



From the above, it is evident that the boiler which led to these experi- 
ments could not have burst under a pressure of less than 300 to 350 lbs. 
upon the square inch, as the failure of a single bolt in one of the cross- 
bearers above the fire-box, under a pressure of 207 lbs. on the square inch, 
was not the measure of its strength, but one of those accidental circum- 
stances which is calculated to weaken, but not absolutely destroy its ultimate 
powers of resistance. I have been led to this conclusion from the fact of 
finding the upper part of the fire-box in every respect perfect. After the 
removal of the pressure of 207 lbs. on the square inch, and comparing these 
experiments with the appearance of the crown of the ruptured fire-box, I am 
confirmed in the opinion that steam of high elastic force must have been 
present to cause the disastrous explosion which eventually occurred. 

Again referring to Mr. Ramsbottom's Report, he states, — "That it has 
been objected that the steam could not have been raised from 60 lbs. per 
square inch, the pressure at which the safety-valve was blowing off before 
being screwed down, to the pressure stated by Mr. Fairbairn in twenty- 
five minutes ; but although I do not go all the way with Mr. Fairbairn as to 
the strength of the boiler, I find, from experiments made upon a boiler of 
somewhat similar dimensions, and placed as nearly as possible under the 
same circumstances, that the steam was raised from 30 lbs. per square 
inch to 80 lbs., as shown by Bourdon's steam-gauge according to the 
following scale, namely, — 



ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 



57 



Safety-valve screwed down 3 


1 


20 = 30 lbs. 


per square 






3 


2 


30 = 35 








3 


3 


45 = 40 








3 


5 


00 = 45 








3 


6 


15 = 50 








3 


7 


20 = 55 








3 


8 


30 = 60 








3 


9 


30 = 65 








3 


10 


30 = 70 








3 


11 


30 = 75 








3 


12 


20 = 80 





uch. 



These experiments, although perfectly satisfactory as regards the time 
required to raise the steam (under ordinary circumstances of the engine, 
standing with the fire lighted, and the usual quantity of coke in the furnace) 
from 30 up to 80 lbs. on the square inch — it was nevertheless considered 
desirable to repeat them through a still higher scale of pressure and tempe- 
rature, and to ascertain, not only the exact time, but the ratio of increase, 
and the corresponding temperature of the steam in the boiler as the pressure 
progressively increased. For these objects, two delicately constructed ther- 
mometers were prepared by Mr. Dalgetti, and having adjusted Bourdon's 
pressure-gauge by a corresponding column of mercury, and an engine having 
been placed at my disposal, the following results were obtained : — 

Experiment made May 1th, 1 853, to determine the rate of Increased Pressure, 
Temperature of Steam, S^c. in a Locomotive Engine with the Safety-valve 
screwed down and the Fire under the Boiler. 

Table II. 







Tempera- 


Tempera- 


Mean 




Time. 


Pressure. 


ture, No. I 


ture, No. 2 


tempera- 


Remarks. 






gauge. 


gauge. 


ture. 




h m 
2-44 


11-75 


243 


243 


243°00 




2-45 


1415 


247 


246^ 


24675 




2-46 


16-35 


251 


251 


251-00 




2-47 


1925 


255i 


255 


255-25 




2-48 


2235 


260 


259^ 


259-75 




2-49 


25-75 


264 


264 


264-00 




2-50 


28-95 


268i 


268^ 


268-37 




2-51 


3215 


273 


273 


273-00 




2-52 


35-75 


277 


277 


27700 




2-53 


39-95 


282 


282 


282-00 




2-54 


44-25 


286i 


2864 


286-37 




2-55 


48-35 


291 


291 


291-00 




2-56 


52-75 


295i 


2954 


295-37 




2-57 


57-75 


300 


300 


300-00 




2-58 


63-75 


304^ 


3044 


304-25 




2-59 


68-95 


308^ 


309 


308-75 




300 


74-75 


313 


313 


313-00 




301 


80-35 


318 


3174 


317-75 




302 


87-25 


322 


322 


32200 




303 


93-95 


326^ 


326 


32612 




304 


101-15 


331 


331 


331-00 




305 


108-75 


335i 


335f 


335-62 




3 06 


111-75 








This experiment was lost, the 
thermometers not indicating a 
higher temperature. 



58 REPORT — 1853. 

Let us now endeavour from this table to discover the law expressing 
the relation between the time and pressure, or between the time and tem- 
perature *. 

The observations being made at intervals of one minute of time, and the 
furnace being maintained at the same intensity, it may be presumed that the 
quantity of heat communicated to the water was uniform, or that there were 
equal quantities of absolute heat communicated to the boiler in equal times. 

The column of pressures gives the successive augmentations of pressure at 
equal intervals, and the column of temperatures gives the corresponding 
augmentations of heat as indicated by the thermometer. 

The column of pressures shows that the increments of pressure, in equal 
intervals of time, increase with the temperature ; thus at or near '260° the 
average increment of pressure is at the rate of 3'1 lbs. per minute ; at or 
near 282°, it is 5*4 lbs. per minute; and at or near 326°, it is 7"1 lbs. per 
minute. 

Mr. Ramsbottom's table of experiments indicates a similar result; thus at 
or near 268° the average increment of pressure is at the rate of 4 lbs., 
whereas at or near 304° it is at the rate of 5 lbs. per minute. 

The law, therefore, expressing the relation of time and pressure does not 
appear to admit of assuming a simple form. But the case is different with 
respect to the law expressing the relation of time and temperature. Thus if 
T=temperature in degrees, and ^=the time in minutes at which this tem- 
peratui'e is observed, estimated from the commencement of the experiments, 
then 

T=axt+b (1) 

will give the relation between T and t with great precision where a and b 
are constants, whose values, derived from these experiments, are a=4*44 and 
6= -486. 

For example, let #=166, then 

T=4-44 X 166-486=251°, 

which exactly corresponds with the tabular value. 
Again, let <=180, then 

T=4-44 X 180-486=313-2 ; 

in this case the tabular value is 313°. 
Again, let <=18.5, then 

T=4-44 X 185-486=335°-4 ; 

in this case the tabular value is 335°*6. 
From this formula we find 

.= I±m (2) 

4-44 ^ ^ 

If <(=the number of minutes which elapse between the temperatures T 
and Tp then we find from 29 (I), 

T,-T=4-44/, ; (3) 

which shows that (he temperature increases with the time ; and presuming 
that the heat of the furnace remained constant, this formula also shows that 

* I am indebted to my friend Mr. Tate for tUe mathematical analysis of this question. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 59 

equal increments of absolute heat produce equal increments of sensible tem- 
perature as indicated by the thermometer. 

To determine the time, estimated from a given pressure, at which the 
boiler would burst, — 

1st. Let the given pressure be that of the atmosphere, and let the boiler 
be able to sustain 240 lbs. pressure per square inch. 

From an experimental table of pressures and temperatures, we find 240 lbs. 
pressure to correspond to 403° temperature, and 15 lbs. pressure to 212° 
temperature ; hence we have by formula (3), 

403—212 .„ . , 

t, — = ^43 minutes, 

' 4-44 

which is the time in which the boiler would burst, estimated from the time 
at which the water begins to boil. 

2nd. Let the given pressure be 60 lbs- per square inch, and the boiler- 
pressure 240 lbs. per square inch, then 

405—296 —2^'\ minutes. 
' 4-44 

3rd. Let the given pressure be 60 lbs. per square inch, and the boiler- 
pressure 300 lbs., then 

422—296 _2g ^jnutes, 

' 4-44 

which is nearly the time in which the boiler experimented upon would burst. 

These facts appear to be sufficiently conclusive to enable us to judge of 
the dangers to which people expose themselves under circumstances where 
the necessary precautions are not taken for allowing the steam thus gene- 
rated with the fire under the boiler to escape. The great majority of acci- 
dents of this kind have arisen during the time the engines are standing, pro- 
bably with the safety-valve fastened and a brisk fire under the boiler. How 
very often do we find this to be the case in tracing the causes of these 
melancholy and unfortunate occurrences I 

The statements contained in the earlier part of this paper regarding the 
strength of the stays of the fire-box would have been incomplete if we had 
not put those parts of a locomotive boiler, comprised in the flat surfaces or 
sides of a fire-box, to the test of experiment. 

This was done with more than ordinary care ; and in order to attain con- 
elusive results, two thin boxes, each 22 inches square and 3 inches deep, 
were constructed ; the one corresponding in every respect to the sides of 
the fire-box, distance of the stays, &c., the same as those which composed the 
exploded boiler ; and the other formed of the same thickness of plates, but 
different in the mode of staying, which, in place of being in squares of 5 inches 
asunder, as those contained in the boiler which burst, were inserted in 
squares of 4 inches asunder. In fact, they were formed as per annexed 
sketch (Figs. 4 and 5), the first containing 16 squares of 25 inches area, and 
representing the exploded boiler, or old construction ; and the other, with 
25 squares of 16 inches area, representing the new construction. 



60 



REPORT — 1853. 

Fig. 4. 




oooooooooooooo 



o 


o 


o 1 


1 em 


=== __ . -- 




1 o 


O V, 

* — ^- 


^i 



oooooooooooooo 



Fig. 5. 




oooooooooooooo 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o-^ 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



o 


o 


o o 


—e- 


_^^^ 


«fce-: 


i o 


o 


O Oi ■■ 


i o 


o 


Q-^-P^ 



o 
o 
o 
o 
-0- 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



oooooooooooooo 



ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 



61 



To the flat boxes thus constructed, the same lever, valve, and weight were 
attached as used in the previous experiments ; and having applied the pumps 
of a hydraulic press, the following results were obtained : — 

Table III. 

Experiment \st. — To determine the ultimate Strength of the Flat Surfaces 
of Locomotive Boilers when divided into squares of 25 inches area. 



Number of 
experiments. 


Pressure in 


Swelling of 




pounds per 
square inch. 


the sides in 
inches. 


Remarks. 


1 


245 


+ 




2 


275 


+ 




3 


305 


+ 




4 


335 


+ 


The box representing a portion of the flat 


5 


365 


+ 


surface of the side of the fire-box of a 


6 


395 


+ 


locomotive boiler was composed of a cop- 


7 


425 


+ 


per plate, on one side half an inch thick, and 


8 


455 


•03 


an iron plate on the other three-eighths 


9 


485 


•03 


of an inch thick, being the same in every 


10 


515 


•04 


respect as the boiler which exploded, and 


11 


545 


•05 


according to the dimensions exhibited in 


12 


575 


•05 


the drawings, fig. 4. 


13 


605 


•06 




14 


635 


•06 




15 


665 


•06 




16 


695 


•07 




17 


725 


•07 




18 


755 


•07 




19 


785 


•08 




20 


815 




Burst by drawing the head of one of the 
stays through the copper, which from its 
ductility offered less resistance to pressure 
in that part where the stay was inserted. 



The above experiments are at once conclusive as to the superior strength 
of the flat surfaces of a locomotive fire-box, as compared with the top, or 
even the cylindrical part of the boiler; but taking the next experiment, 
where the stays are closer together, or where the areas of the spaces are only 
16 instead of 25 square inches, we have an enormous resisting power; 
a force much greater than anything that can possibly be attained, however 
good the construction, in any other part of the boiler. 



62 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table IV. 

Experiment 2nd. — To determine the ultimate Strength of the Flat Surfaces 
of Locomotive Boilers when divided into squares of 16 inches area. 



Number of 


Pressure in 


Swelling of 




experiments. 


pounds per 
square inch. 


the sides in 
inches. 


Remarks. 


1 


245 






2 


275 






3 


305 






4 


335 




The flat box on which these experiments 


5 


365 




were made has the same thickness of plates 


6 


395 




as that experimented upon in the preceding 


7 


425 




table, viz. one side of copper half an inch 


8 


455 




thick, and the other of iron three-eighths 


9 


485 




thick. The only diflFerence between the 


10 


515 


•04 


two is the distance of the stays, the first 


11 


545 


•04 


being in squares of 25 inches area, and the 


12 
13 


575 
605 


•04 
•06 


other in squares of 16 inches area. 


14 


635 


•06 




15 


665 


•07 




16 


695 


•07 




17 


725 


•07 




18 


755 


•08 




19 


785 


•08 




20 


815 


•08 




21 


845 


•08 




22 


875 


•08 




23 


905 


•08 




24 


935 


•08 




25 


965 


•09 




26 


995 




From 995 to 1 295 lbs., the swelling or bulge 


27 


1025 




on the side was inappreciable. 


28 


1055 






29 


1085 






30 


1115 






31 


1145 






32 


1175 






33 


1205 






34 


1235 






35 


1265 






36 


1295 


•09 




37 


1325 


•09 




38 


1355 


•10 




39 


1385 


•11 




40 


1415 


•11 




41 


1445 


•12 




42 


1475 


•13 




43 


1595 


•14 




44 


1535 


•16 




45 


1565 


•22 




46 


1595 


•34 




47 


1625 




Failed by one of the stays drawing through 
the iron plate after sustaining the pressure 
upwards of 1 J minute. 



In the above experiments, it will be observed that the weakest part of the 
box was not in the copper, but in tlje iron plates, which gave way bj' strip- 
ping or tearing asunder the threads or screws in part of the iron plate at the 
end of the stay marked a, fig. 5. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 63 

The mathematical theory would lead us to expect that the strength of the 
plates would be inversely as the surfaces between the stays ; but a comparison 
of the results of these experiments shows that the strength decreases in a 
higher ratio than the increase'of space between the stays. Thus, according 
to the mathematical theory, we should have — 

Ult. strength 2nd plate per sq. in. = strength 1st plate Xff 

=815xf|=1273 lbs. 

Now this plate sustained 1 625 lbs. per square inch, showing an excess of 
about one-fourth above that indicated by the law. 

This is in excess of the force required to strip the screw of a stay -j-^ths 
of an inch in diameter, such as those which formed the support of the flat sur- 
faces in the exploded boiler. 

It will be found that a close analogy exists throughout the whole experi- 
ments, as respects the strengths of the stays when screwed into the plates, 
whether of copper or iron ; and that the riveting of the ends of the stays 
adds to their retaining powers an increased strength of nearly 14 per cent, to 
that which the simple screw affords. The difference between a fire-box stay 
when simply screwed into the plate and when riveted at the ends is there- 
fore in the ratio of 100 : 76, nearly the same as shown by experiment in 
the Appendix. 

It is desirable, therefore, that we should ascer- Fig. 6. 

tain the strain exerted on each stay or bolt of 
the fire-box. 

Let A, B, C, D, E, F represent the ends of the i d C 

bolts or stays ; Oj, Og, O3, O4 the centres of the O O O 

squares formed by the bolts. Suppose a pressure o^ °q 

to be applied at each of the points Oj, O^, O3, O4 ^ * r^ 

equal to the whole pressure on each of the ^^ ^ ^ 

squares, then the central bolt A will sustain one- '^ "^ 

fourth of the pressure applied at Op also one- ^ ^ ^ „ 

fourth of the pressure applied at O^, and so on ; ^ j, j, 

so that the whole pressure on A will be equal to 
the pressure applied to one of the square sur- 
faces. Hence we have — 

Strain on the stav of Table III.= ^^^^^^ =9 tons. 

2240 

Strain on the stay of Table IV. = ^625x16 __^^^ ^^^^ nearly. 
•' 2240 '' 

The stay in the latter case was yl^'^^ ^^ ^" '^^^^ ''° diameter ; hence the 
strain upon one square of section would be about 13 tons, which is con- 
siderably within the limits of rupture of wrought iron under a tensile force. 

In the experiments here referred to, it must be borne in mind that they 
were made on plates and stays at a temperature not exceeding 50° of Fahr- 
enheit ; and the question naturally occurs, as to what would be the differ- 
ence of strength under the influence of a greatly increased temperature in 
the water surrounding the fire-box, and that of the incandescent fuel acting 
upon the opposite surface of the plates. 

This is a question not easily answered, as we have no experimental facts 
sufficiently accurate to refer to ; and the difference of temperature of the 
furnace on one side, as compared with that of the water on the other, in- 
creases the difficulty, and renders any investigation exceedingly unsatisfactory. 



64 



REPORT — 1853. 



Judging, however, from practical experience and observation, I am inclined 
to think that the strengths of the metals are not much deteriorated. My ex- 
periments on the effects of temperature on cast iron* do not indicate much 
loss of strength up to a temperature of 600°. Assuming therefore that 
copper and wrought iron plates follow the same law, and taking into account 
the rapid conducting powers of the former, we may reasonably conclude that 
the resisting powers of the plates and stays of locomotive boilers are not 
seriously affected by the increased temperature to which they are subject in 
a regular course of working. This part of the subject is, however, entitled 
to future consideration ; and I trust that some of our able and intelligent 
superintendents will institute further inquiries into a question which involves 
considerations of some importance to the public, as well as to the advancement 
of our knowledge in practical science. 



Appendix. 



In order to test with accuracy the tensile power of the different descriptions 
of stays used in locomotive boilers, and to effect a comparison between those 
screwed into the plates and those both screwed and riveted, it was deemed 
expedient to repeat Mr. Ramsbottora's experiments on a larger scale ; and 
by extending the tests to copper stays as well as iron ones, it was consi- 
dered that no doubt could exist as to the ultimate strength of those simply 
screwed, the tensile powers of the stays themselves, and the relative difference 
between those and the finished stays when screwed and riveted on both sides 
of the fire-box. 

The large lever and requisite apparatus being at hand, the experiments 
proceeded as follows : — 

Experiments to determine the Ultimate Strength of Iron and Copper Stays 
generally used in uniting the flat surfaces of Locomotive Boilers. 



Experiment I. — Iron Stay, fths of an inch in dia- 
meter, screwed into a copper plate fths of an 
inch thick. 



No. of ex- 
periment. 


Weight in 
pounds. 


Kemarks. 


Lever 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


9,860 
11,540 
13,220 
14,900 
16,580 
18,260 


With the last weight, 18,260 lbs. = 8-1 
tons, the threads in the copper plate 
were drawn out or stripped after sus- 
taining the weight a few seconds. 




* Vide the Transactions of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
vol. vi. p. 406. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF LOCOMOTIVE BOILERS. 



65 



Experiment II.— Iron Stay, fths of an inch in 
diameter, screwed and riveted into a copper 
plate fths of an inch thick. 



No. of ex- 


Weight in 




periment. 


pounds. 




Lever 1 


9,860 




2 


11,540 




3 


13,220 


When the last weight, 24,140 lbs. 


4 


14,900 


= 107 tons, was laid on, the head 


5 


16,580 


of the rivet was torn off; and the 


6 


18,260 


stay, along with the threads in the 


7 


19,940 


copper, was drawn through the 


8 


21,620 


plate. 


9 


23,300 




10 


24,140 






Experiment III. — Iron Stay, fths of an inch in 
diameter, screwed and riveted into an iron plate 
■Iths of an inch thick. 



No. of ex- 
periment. 


Weight in 
pounds. 


Remarks. 


Lever 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


9,860 
13,220 
16,580 
19,140 
20,780 
23,300 
25,980 
26,660 
27,940 
28,760 


"With the last weight, 28,760 lbs. 
= 12-5 tons, the stay was torn 
asunder through the middle, both 
screw and plate remaining perfect. 




Experiment IV. — Copper Stay, fths of an inch 
in diameter, screwed and riveted into a copper 
plate fths of an inch thick. 



No. of ex- 


Weight in 




periment. 


pounds. 




Lever 1 


9,860 


With 11-540 lbs. the body of the stay 


2 


11,540 


was slightly elongated. 


3 


13,220 


Elongation considerably increased 


4 


14,900 


with 14,900 lbs. 


5 


16,265 


Broke with 16,265 lbs. = 7-2 tons, 
after sustaining the load upwards of 
three minutes. 

Ultimate elongation, 0'56 inch in a 
length of 3 inches. 




It will be observed, on comparing the results obtained from the above 
experiments, that iron plates and iron stays are considerably stronger than 
those made of copper. It may not be advisable to have the interior fire-box 
made of iron, on account of its inferior conducting powers and its probable 

1853. F 



66 



REPORT — 1853. 



durability ; but so far as regards strength, it is infinitely superior to that of 
copper, as may be seen by the following 

Summary of Results. 



No. of ex- 
periment. 


Breaking 

weight in 

tons. 


Resistance 
per square 
inch in tons. 


Ratio, Experiment III., the iron stay and iron plate taken as 1000. 


III. 

I. 

II. 

IV. 


125 
81 

107 
7-2 


277 
18-8 
23-6 
161 


1000 
1000 

1000 
1000 


1000 Iron and iron. 
648 Iron and copper screwed. 
856 Iron and copper screwed and riveted. 
576 Copper and copper screwed and riveted. 



On the above data, it will be found that the iron stay and copper plate 
(not riveted) have little more than one-half the strength of those where both 
are of iron; that iron stays screwed and riveted into iron plates are to iron 
stays screwed and riveted into copper plates as 1000 : 856; and that copper 
stays screwed and riveted into copper plates of the same dimensions, have only 
about one-half the strength of those where both the staj's and plates are of iron. 
These are facts in connexion with the construction of locomotive, marine, 
and other description of boilers having flat surfaces, which may safely be 
relied upon, and that more particularly when exposed to severe strain, or 
the elastic force of high-pressure steam. 



Provisional Report on the Theory of Determinants. 
By J. J. Sylvester, F.R.S. 

I TRUST that I may stand acquitted of any want of respect to the British 
Association, in having failed to be ready with the Report which last year 
they did me the honour of confiding to me, on the Theory of Determi- 
nants. A circumstance has occurred since the last meeting, which seems 
to render such report less necessary or useful than at that time it appeared 
to be, as I have been informed that a complete compendium of all the methods 
and results of this theory is shortly forthcoming from the hands of a fellow- 
countryman, Mr. Spottiswoode, in the journal of M. Crelle, which is access- 
ible to the whole mathematical world. This and the pressure on my mind 
attendant upon multifarious occupations and numerous original researches, 
may, I hope, serve as a sufficient apology for being unprepared with the 
report. The much vaster subject of Invariants, which includes the theory of 
Determinants as its simplest case, has at present no chronicler or editor ; and 
if the Association would think it desirable that a summary of the progress 
so far made in it should be collected, and be not unwilling to commit to my 
charge the execution of it, 1 should have pleasure in accepting the task, pro- 
vided the period for its completion were previously understood to be not 
necessarily limited to the period of a single year from the present time. 

26 Lincoln's Inn Fields, September 3, 1853. 



ON THE VITALITY OF SEEDS. 



67 



Report on the Gases evolved in Steeping Flax, and on the Composition 
and (Economy of the Flax Plant, By Professor Hodges, M.D. 

The investigations directed by the Association at the Belfast Meeting with 
respect to the gases evolved in the steeping of flax and the composition of 
flax straw are in progress, and will be reported at the next meeting. The 
gases of the fermenting vat have been analysed by the methods of Professor 
Bunsen, and have been found to consist of carbonic acid, hydrogen, and 
nitrogen. No sulphuretted hydrogen has in any case been detected. Several 
analyses of the proximate constituents of the dressed fibre and of its inorganic 
ingredients have been made, which show that a considerable amount of the 
nitrogenized and other constituents of the plant are retained in the fibre, even 
after steeping and dressing have been employed to remove the structures 
unsuitable for textile purposes. 



Thirteenth Report of a Committee, consisting ofH. E. Strickland, 
Esq., Professor Daubeny, Professor Henslow, and Professor 
LiNDLEY, appointed to continue their Experiments on the Growth 
and Vitality of Seeds. 

The portions of each kind of seed set apart for this year's sowing were from 
tliose gathered in 1845, and are consequently of kinds which have been twice, 
previously, subjected to experiment, first in 1846, and secondly in 1848. 

The circumsiances under which they were sown were similar to those an- 
nually resorted to ; nevertheless many have failed and appear to be exhausted, 
or nearly so, as will be seen by reference to the annexed Register : — 



Name and Date when gathered. 



1845. 

1. Ailantus glandulosa 

2. Alnus glutinosa 

3. Alonsoa incisa 

4. Beta vulgaris 

5. Browallia data 

6. Chrysanthemum coronarium 

7. Cytisus albus 

8. Eccremocarpus scaber 

9. Fagus sylvatica 

10. Fumaria spicata 

11. Gaillardia aristata 

12. Gleditschia triacanthos 

13. Iris, sp 

14. Knautia orientalis 

15. Lopezia racemosa 

16. Lymnanthes Douglasii 

17. Petunia odorata 

18. Schizopetalon Walkeri 

19. Secale Cereale 

20. Spartium Scoparium 

21. Tagetes lucida 

22. Viscaria oculata , 

23. Xeranthemum annuum , 

24. Zea Mays 

25. Zinnia grandiflora 



No. 
sown. 



50 
150 
100 

75 

50 
150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

20 

50 
150 

50 
150 

50 
200 

200 

150 
150 
100 
100 
100 



No. of Seeds of each 
Species which vege- 
tated at 



Ox- Cam- 
ford, bridge. 



Chis- 
wick 



Time of vegetating 
in days at 



Ox- Cam- Chis 
ford, bridge, wick 



95 




20 
45 


16 


30 


24 



9, J '40 to 
''"'t 100 

40 



16 



■ 25 



301 
30/ 

15 

30 
27 



Weaklj' and 
yellow. 



Weakly. 



Weakly. 
Weakly. 



Weakly. 



F 2 



68 REPORT— 1853. 

On the Chemical Action of the Solar Radiations. 
By Robert Hunt. 

[Second Report.] 

Note. — [In the former Report a division was made between the analytical 
examination of the solar spectrum by absorbent media, and the chemical 
results obtained from the spectra which had been thus subjected to absorp- 
tion. It has been found inconvenient, in the examination of the woodcut 
illustrations, to have constantly to refer from page to page when comparing 
the chromatic with the chemical effects. This arrangement has, therefore, 
been altered in the present Report, and the chemical spectrum is given imme- 
diately after the description of the luminous spectrum. In all other respects 
the same order of arrangement is maintained ; the numbers attached to the 
glasses, &c. remain unaltered, and where new specimens have been introduced 
they have been numbered in continuation. This remark applies also to the 
paragraphs, so that reference from one to the other, when required, will be 
made without difficulty. The uncertain state of the present summer, and 
the small amount of sunshine with which we have been favoured, has greatly 
retarded the progress of this investigation.] 

(70). The Chemical preparation employed in the series of experiments 
which I have now to describe, was the iodide of silver as obtained on the 
ordinary iodized paper, rendered sensitive by the mixture of gallic acid and 
nitrate of silver. As, however, I find that nearly every variety of paper, and 
certainly, every different manipulation, gives rise to an alteration in the scale 
of sensibility, it becomes important that I should describe exactly the charac- 
ter of the paper employed. 

A very hard and uniform paper of Turner's was selected ; its surface 
being beautifully pressed, and presenting a fine ivory character. It was first 
washed with a solution of sixty grains of nitrate of silver to the fluid ounce 
of distilled water, and dried ; then with a solution of thirty grains of the 
iodide of potassium to the fluid ounce of water. After standing for a few 
minutes, each sheet was placed in a large vessel of water, and allowed to soak 
for about half-an-hour. After this, being hung by one corner, it was allowed 
to dry in a warm room ; if the atmosphere was moist, at a short distance 
from the fire. 

This paper was placed upon the screen on which the spectrum obtained 
fell, after it had been submitted to the action of the medium under examina- 
tion. Everything being carefully adjusted, the paper was washed rapidly 
by a wide flat brush, with the following mixture : — 

Saturated solution of gallic acid 40 drops. 

Nitrate of silver, thirty grains to fluid oz. of water. . 10 drops. 

The action was, in most cases, allowed to continue for a few seconds only, 
and the image developed itself slowly in the dark, without any subsequent 
application of the developing fluid. 

(A.) Series of Yellow Glasses (continued). 

(71) 6o. Pure yellow. Colouring matter Carbon. — The visible spec- 
trum is reduced by the violet and indigo rays ; the orange blends with the 
yellow, which is consequently much extended (a slight extension arises also 



I 



I 



ON THE CHEMICAL. ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 69 

from the reduction of the green space) ; the illuminating powers of the out- 
standing rays are but very slightly diminished. 

(72) 60. Chemical action commences in the mean yel- Fig- 35. 
low ray about '20 above a! ; it extends, in the first instance, 
over a space equal to '10, forming a patch of a semi-metal- 
lic lustre with an olive-grey colour ; this action is continued ~ | 
for another equal space, but the impressed space has more 
of a brown hue ; these gradually blend into one nearly cir- 
cular spot. From about '30 above a', a second action com- 
mences, independently of that already described ; and indi- 
cating, as it appears to me, a set of rays of distinct character. 
Beyond this, at about '60, another oval forms, which con- 
tinues and extends to "15, or sometimes, if the sun is very ^ 

bright, to '20 beyond a. This space, equal to -60, is in 
every respect very broadly distinguished from that which is produced between 
the lines C and F of Fraunhofer. It is characterized by a light, cloudy 
brown colour, which deepens a little in colour beyond the luminous Ym. .36. 
rays of the ordinary spectrum, when it is somewhat suddenly shaded 
off. The action may be well represented by two ovals, one consider- 
ably larger and longer than the other, which overlap ; and it would 
appear that the change of colour observed in the upper section of the 
lower space is due to this involved action of two sets of rays. In the 
chemical spectrum described (52), obtained after the absorptive action 
of a medium yellow glass (6), No. 18, an indication of precisely similar 
peculiarity was obtained on the collodion plate, although at that time 
sufficient importance was not attached to the difference. 

(7S) 74. Yellow, hy Iron. — The least refrangible rays are scarcely at all 
influenced by this glass ; the orange is slightly extended upon the red ; and 
the yellow in a similar manner encroaches on the green rays. The green 
rays are, however, very decided, and beyond them there still appears an out- 
standing line of blue, or rather dark indigo ; but beyond these no further 
rays are visible. 

(74) 74. At the most refrangible edge of the yellow rays the chemical 
action begins ; and it may be at once described as extending to the very edge 
of the space occupied by the visible rays of the unabsorbed spectrum. In 
this, as in the spectrum from the carbon yellow glass (7 1 . 72), 

a like dissimilarity was observable between the action of the S- 37. 

two ends of the chemically active rays, although not to the 
same extent. The lower space, which commences about 
•40 above a' and extends to above -60, is a pale gray spot, 
with a well-defined outline. The upper space, commencing 
at 'S5 above a' and extending completely up to a, is much 
broader than the first, less perfectly defined, and of a brown 
colour of the same character as that already described. 

After several experiments, in which the periods of exposure a_ 

were much varied, it was proved that no chemical action 

took place actually in the yellow rays when this glass was employed. 

(75) 65. Lemon Colour, hy Silver. — This very transparent glass does 
not exert any peculiar influence on the most luminous rays of the spectrum, 
beyond giving a peculiar whiteness to the yellow ray ; but produces a very 
decided effect upon those which are least luminous at the most refrangible 
end. Beyond the green rays a broad fringe of clear dark blue is still evident, 
being the whole of the indigo ray, slightly altered in its colour by this ab- 
sorptive medium ; the violet, however, being entirely wanting. 



f 



70 REPORT — 1853. 

(76) 65. The chemical change is confined to a space 

between the mean yellow ray of the spectrum, near the Fig- 38. 

line E, or "25 above a', and the upper verge of the green ray, 2_ 

or "70 above a' ; the oval being usually from '42 to "45 in 

length, a narrow neck extending upwards. Upon close ex- j, 

amination, it is apparent that, even in this shortened chemical || 

spectrum, we obtain indications of the two actions already >^ 

described. m| 

(77) 66. Pure bright yellow, by Silver By this w^ 

glass the blue rays ai-e completely obliterated, and the green ^^ 

rays somewhat shortened ; but all the least refrangible rays 
are preserved in their purity, with the exception that the orange rays are some- 
what reduced, and appear as a well-defined band, of more brilliancy than when 
seen without the interposition of this medium ; and much white light is seen 
ill the yellow ray. In observing natural colours through this glass, the 
absorption of all the blue rays, and those beyond, becomes very sensible. 

(78) 66. In this case the chemical change occurs over the space covered 
by the most luminous rays, the orange, yellow, and the least refrangible green. 
It is comprehended within a space equal relatively to the cor- Fig. 39. 

rected length of the spectrum of about one-third of an inch, «_ 

and within these limits are discoverable three defined ac- 
tions, differing in the intensity of the effect produced, and 

of the resulting colour of the impression ; the lower space Mik 
corresponding with the upper orange ray being several ||||| 
shades lighter than that darkened by the yellow ray, and WW 
again, the action of the green is far less intense. Where the 
gradations of shade are very slight, it is not easy to speak ^■ 

decidedly as to their character ; but the least refrangible 
space may be described as gray ; the next in order, and by far the most in- 
tense, as an iron-gray or brotize; and the next as a pure broivn. There were 
sometimes indications obtained of a central line of action, extending from the: 
green up into the blue rays ; but this was always exceedingly faint, and only 
to be found when the atmosphere was clear and the sun very bright. 

(79) 15. Straw-yellow. Silver stain upon one surface only. (Par. 5, 
First Report, 1852.) — It will be seen, by reference, that this glass cuts off a 
considerable portion of the violet rays, leaving the other rays without any 
considerable change. 

An impression of this spectrum on collodion was not obtained, therefore 
the present one on iodized paper is not comparable with any previous im- 
pression. 

(80) 15. Action commences at '20 above a!, and extends Fig. 40. 
over the more luminous space with the greatest intensity ; 
then the action suddenly weakens over the limits of the 
green rays, growing more intense under the action of the ~ 
blue and indigo rays. A still more decided weakening of 
chemical activity occurs at about -18 below a, from which 
space unto -20 beyond a, a faint indication of action is con- 
tinued. Thus we have here two very remarkable maxima 
and minima; the former in the yellow and blue rays, and 
the latter in the green and violet rays, and beyond them. 

(81) 16. Deep xellow, Carbon. — For chromatic ana — 
lysis see Par. 4, First Report ; and for chemical action. Par. 
51 ; the preparation then employed being a highly-sensitive collodioa'i 
plate. 



ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 71 

(82) 1 6. The chemical action is weak, and the resulting Fig. 41. 
impression after long development is far from strong. The 
changes are, however, remarkable. In the very centre of 
the yellow ray a faint spot is produced ; then all action 
ceases until about '60 above a', a faint indication of che- 
mical change again begins to be visible. This is continued 
as a mere long oval stain, of pretty uniform intensity, to 
rSO, when all action terminates. On the collodion plate 
we have a very striking example of protective action, which 

is not apparent on the iodized paper ; and on the former W 
preparation the action is continuous from the point at which ^, 

it commences to that at which it terminates. 

(83) I J. Deep yellow, /row, fig. 3, par. 8, First Rep. — The oblitera- 
tion of the blue, the violet still continuing visible, is the most remarkable 
characteristic of this glass. 

(84) 1 7. A slight indication of chemical change com- Fig- 42. 
mences in the yellow ray, -18 above a'. This forms even- 
tually a well-defined oval equal to '12; from this point ex- 
tends a narrow neck, over which the chemical change is ^ 

exceedingly slight; then a well-defined oval extends to I'SO, 

with a slight interruption to its intensity and contraction at 

the extreme edge of the violet. Slight diSerences of colour 

are observable along this oval ; its general tone is a bright 

pure brown ; but where the blue rays should have fallen, 

there is a tendency to a gray ; and along the longitudinal 

centre of the image, it would appear as if some more ener- ^, 

getic power had been in operation. " 

(85) 18. Medium yellow. Charcoal, par. 6, First Report; and for che- 
mical action on collodion plate, see fig. 21, which shows a most extraordinary 
amount of action beyond the visible spectrum, par. 52. 

(85) 18. The chemical action on the iodized paper is Fig. 43. 
limited to two well-defined spaces ; one, the most intense, a 
dark oval over the point of greatest luminous intensity, 
equal to '20, commencing at "15 above a' and terminating 
at '35 a'. Between this point and the most refrangible 
violet there is no effect, the paper remaining quite un- 
changed ; then at the extreme verge of the luminous spec- 
trum a weak chemical action commences, which extends to 
1*20. This is singularly weak, except in the mean space 
about -10 above a, where the influence of the chemical rays 

is more decided. 

(86) 67. High orange, Silver. — The luminous spectrum is nearly re- 
duced to red and green, a faint line of yellow alone appear- . 

ing between these two ; the orange rays are completely ab- 
sorbed, and the green losing much of its blue, appears of a 
peculiar pale colour ; no rays visible beyond the green. 

(87) 6y. Although this chemical spectrum differs in some 
respects from others already described, yet it exhibits pecu- 
liarities which are, to a certain extent, common to all the 
actions which have yet been obtained through yellow me- 
dia. The chemical change commences and is most decided 
in the yellow ray, where an olive-brown oval is rapidly 
formed. At '70 above a' the second chemical change 
occurs, forming a brown oval, which extends to 1*30. These 
two ovals are connected by a very faint neck, which is only 




72 REPORT 1853. 

visible when the exposure to the spectrum has been prolonged, or the sun- 
shine is very intense, and the atmosphere clear, after rain. 

(88) 68. a. Orange, Silver. — All the more refrangible ordinary rays 
are very decidedly obliterated, and even the green somewhat shortened ; but 
in the place of the blue and violet rays there is observable some red. The 
yellow and orange are considerably reduced, the red standing out in great 
brilliancy. 

(89) 68 a. A very singular result is obtained when the Fig- 45. 
prismatic rays are subjected to the absorptive action of this ^ 
medium. A faint spot makes its appearance in the yellow 

space, and in the point of maximum luminous intensity. No 

other action than this occurs within the limits of the visible £L 

spectrum ; but about -40 beyond a, a yet fainter spot of 

chemical action makes its appearance. Thus we have in 

this example evidence of two sets of chemical rays which 

have a very much greater penetrating power, relative at least 

to the yellow media we have been examining, than any of ^ 

the others situated in those parts of the spectrum which are w 

usually referred to as possessing the greatest chemical ^' 

power. Other examples of a similar description will be 

noticed. 

(90). Yellow, hy Carbon. — This glass, which is of a brownish colour, 
and without much brilliancy, allows the free permeation of all the rays below 
H. When the sun has been very brilliant, a slight shade of violet is visible 
beyond the line H. The red of the violet is, however, nearly obliterated. 

This yellow medium gives a very decided and in- 
tense chemical spectrum. The action commences at '25 "S- 46. 
above a', and continues of an olive-brown colour to "50, 
the oval formed at first gradually passing into a band. 
Then a larger oval is formed, which extends to 1"50, and 
sometimes still further. The overlapping of these, as pre- 
viously noticed, is very apparent in this spectrum, and the 
colours of the upper oval and the lower prolonged space 
were as different as any which have yet been noticed. 
There were also some evidences of those internal actions 
which have been previously observed, but there was much 
uniformity in the colours and characters of the inner and 
outer images. 

(91) 68. Orange-coloured glass, Silver. — Possess- a^ 

ing in a remarkable degree the false dispersion observed by 
Mr. Stokes. It reflects from one side, when placed on a piece of black 
velvet, a peculiar bluish-green light; or when placed on a sheet of white 
paper, the scattered light partakes of that mixture of blue and brown which 
is ordinarily distinguished as a puce. 

Of this variety of glass, Mr. Stokes makes the following remarks in his 
memoir ' On the Change of Refrangibility of Light': — "Orange-coloured 
glasses are frequently met with which reflect from one side, or rather scatter 
in all directions, a copious light of a bluish-green colour, quite different from 
the transmitted tint. In such cases the body of the glass is colourless, and 
the colouring matter is contained in a very thin layer on one face of the plate." 

This is not always the case ; in the glass with which the present experi- 
ment wa"? made the colouring matter, silver, is diffused throughout the mass. 
The peculiarity in question is produced on one surface by exposing it to the 
influence of the flame of burning wood. 

Mr. Stokes continues : " As this phenomenon was supposed by Sir John 



I 




ON THE CHEMICAL. ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 73 

Herschel to oiFer some analogy with the reflected tints of fluor-spar and a 
solution of sulphate of quinine, I was the more desirous of determining the 
nature of the dispersion. It proved on examination to be nothing but false 
dispersion, so that the appearance might be conceived to be produced by an 
excessively fine bluish-green powder contained in a clear orange stratum, or 
in the colourless part of the glass immediately contiguous to the coloured 
stratum. The phenomenon has therefore no relation to the tints of fluor- 
spar or sulphate of quinine. It is true that the very same glass which dis- 
played a superficial reflexion of bluish-green, when examined by condensed 
sun-light, exhibited also, in its colourless part, a little true dispersion, just as 
another colourless glass would do. But this has plainly nothing to do with 
the peculiar reflexion which attracts notice in such a glass." The spectrum 
transmitted through this glass is shortened by the loss of the violet, indigo, 
and nearly all the blue rays ; some rays are, however, still visible beyond 
the green, which assume a reddish colour. The orange rays are extended 
into the yellow, with which much white light is mixed, and thp least refran- 
gible rays lose some of their illuminating power. 

(92) 68. The chemical action of the rays which Fig. 47. 

permeate this glass is confined exclusively to the ^ - 

central space of the yellow rays. On the first ex- 
posure a mere indication of change was the only 

evidence which was obtained ; by allowing the 
action, however, to continue for a few minutes, _ a 

taking care that the spectrum still fell upon the «* 

same space, a decided olive-brown oval spot '10 in ^ "^ 

length was obtained ; this was deepened by still pro- a/ 

longed exposure, but not enlarged. 

(93) 69. Yellow, by Carbon (?). — Beyond the green rays the blue rays 
are still very distinct, although much reduced in their intensity of illumina- 
tion. The least refrangible rays are not much affected by the absorptive 
powers of this medium, although the pure brightness of the yellow is con- 
siderably diminished. 

(94) 69. The changes which occur take place slowly, and even after a 
prolonged exposure of many minutes, they do not arrive at 

any considerable degree of intensity. A very faint action Fig. 48. 

is observable in the space covered by the yellow rays ; this — 

action producing a weak gray patch of a similar character 
to those already described (72). This commences at -20 
above a\ and extends to about -50; but it here blends in so 
gradually with the broader brown oval, that it is not pos- 
sible to determine exactly where the former ends. A second 
oval overlaps the first, and this one extends to the line H in 

the violet ray. There is no trace of any action beyond the 

luminous spectrum. 

(95) 72. Yellow, by /row.— This glass obliterates the „. .g 
violet and indigo rays, but the blue space is still visible of ^^' ' 
a reddish hue, but the light very faint ; a thin line of pure ~ 
blue is, however, still visible immediately at the edge of the 
green ; the least refrangible rays sufier great loss of their 
illuminating powers. 

(96) 72. This spectrum extends from '30 above a! nearly 
up to the end of the luminous spectrum. The colour 
throughout is more nearly uniform than in the other exam- 
ples. Still there is a reduction of the chemical force at -eo ; 



74 REPORT 1853. 

near which, around the edges, an action is again indicated by a colour some- 
what different from that produced at the lower end. 

(97) 70. Yellow, hy Carbon. — This glass obliterates all the rays above 
the green, and reduces the illuminating power of the least refrangible rays 
very greatly ; the red rays alone pass the glass with tolerable intensity. 

(98) 70. An exposure to a very concentrated spectrum Y\%. 50. 

for three minutes is insufficient to produce any change „_ 

upon the iodized paper. By prolonging the exposure to 
five or eight minutes, taking precautions to secure the fixed- 
ness of the solar image, a space corresponding to the mean 
yellow and the green rays becomes faintly coloured ; and 
upon examination, even within this slight impression, varia- 
tions in the intensity of action are apparent. 

(99) 73. Deep Yellow, hy Iron — The illuminating ^, 

power of the outstanding rays is very much reduced ; the • 

red, yellow, and green rays are alone distinctly seen ; the green passes 
through various shades until it reaches a black, far up in the space previously 
occupied by the blue rays. 

(100) 73. Chemical change commences at -70, and extends both upward 
and downward from this point with nearly equal degrees of intensity, the 
centre of action continuing well defined. At -50 above a! Fig. 51. 
another action is established, and a similar well-defined spot 
at -50 beyond a. Over the space occupied by the violet 
and Sir J. Herschel's lavender rays, there is a space upon _ 
which no chemical change takes place for a long time ; but 
about ''2.0) beyond a a faint spot makes its appearance, which 
is followed after a while by another a short distance above 
it. This breaking up, as it were, of the spectrum into small 
circles of chemical action cannot but be regarded as curious. 
At present we are not in a position to offer any explanation 

of the phaenomena. At length the three principal spots be- ^, 

come united by continuous necks, over which, however, the 

chemical action is weak. 

(101) 76. Yellow, iy Cariow. — Red, yellow, and green Fig. 52. 

are the only colours of the spectrum which pass this glass, ■ — 

and these are considerably reduced in brilliancy. Beyond 
the green, the space of the other rays is distinguishable 
rather by its blackness in contrast with the other illumi- 
nated spaces, than by any other indication. ^ 

(102) 76. We have here another example of the che- 9 
mical action being confined to the most luminous rays ; the 

whole space darkened being equal to -10, and with the ex- a_ 

ception of some slight shading off" at the edges of the oval, 
the colour is uniform. 

(103) 77. Yellow. — The blue rays are changed by the blending with 
them of the red of the violet, which are but little altered. The green rays 
are still visible, but they lose much intensity by the loss of their blue. The 
yellow ray also suffers considerably in its intensity, and indeed the red and 
orange are lowered in intensity. So that all the spectrum suffers rather in 
its general illuminating power, than in any actual destruction of a particular 
ray. 

(104) 77. The impressed spectrum in this instance bears a close resem- 
blance to others obtained, after the incident beam has permeated yellow 
media. At the least refrangible end the colour is an olive-brown, and an 




ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 75 

elongated oval is well made out. This effect is pro- Fig- 53. 
duced by the yellow and the lower green rays, and occupies 
a space of about "30 ; then a fainter impression is visible on 
the paper, and over the space upon which the blue and in- 
digo falls there is an enlargement in width of the image, 
and the colour is a pure brown. The action is continued - 
over the violet and lavender spaces as an interior dark oval, 
and it extends in diminished intensity to 1*50, when it sud- 
denly ceases. 

(105) 78. Yellow, by Coke. — The entire length of the 
spectrum is scarcely at all reduced, but the blue and violet 
rays blend, forming one band of a faint reddish blue ; the 

green rays are somewhat lengthened ; the yellow rays are g^ 

mingled with the orange. 

(106) 78. The difference between this and the former spectrum (104) is 
rather in degree. The image is as nearly as possible the same in all its 
parts, but that the chemical action extends to the lower point ; it can indeed 
be traced down into the orange ray. 

(107) 79. Uranium glass, Canary -yellow. — This is the peculiar yel- 
low glass which is employed in the manufacture of toilet bottles and other 
ornamental articles, which transmits a pale yellow light, and disperses an 
unusual green light. Upon this quality depends its extensive use in orna- 
mental glass manufacture. In my experiments I have employed a slab of this 
glass, the thickness of which is 1 inch, its width 2^ inches, and its length 
4^ inches ; and independently of some striae, the glass was of a pretty uni- 
form character throughout. This slab enabled me to operate respectively 
through the several thicknesses of I, or 2^^ or 4^^ inches, and thus to deter- 
mine with very great exactness the thickness of this medium through which 
the chemical rays would pass. If a block of this glass, which is a canary- 
yellow when we look through it, is placed upon a piece of black velvet, and 
we look at it, it appears of a fine yellowish green colour ; this green light 
wanting, however, transparency, and exhibiting more the character of a 
gleam of monochromatic light piercing through a mist. 

If we throw upon the face of this glass a condensed pure spectrum, and 
look through the sides of it, so as to observe the passage of the rays, its 
powers of internal dispersion become distinctly visible. From the fixed line 
b we find this dispersion commences, but few of these rays are enabled to 
penetrate through the 1-inch thickness of the glass. A little above F a 
minimum point is very observable, and from this point the dispersion of the 
rays becomes very decided ; and some of these green rays, when the light is 
good, penetrate the glass. This green-dispersed light is visible for a con- 
siderable distance beyond the ordinary spectrum ; the entire space which has 
usually been designated as the invisible chemical rays, is rendered luminous. 
[For a more detailed examination of the optical properties of this glass, I 
must refer to Professor Stokes's Memoir ' On the Change of Refrangibility 
of Light,' in the Philosophical Transactions for 1852.] 

The ordinary spectrum which permeates this glass is but slightly altered in 
its character, the condition of the rays after having undergone absorption by 
this medium being as follows : — Beyond the green ray appears a band of a 
brownish hue, from the mixture of red with blue ; then the blue appears 
again with considerable brightness. On looking at the coloured fringes pro- 
duced by the prism, and interposing the uranium glass, it is evident that both 
blue and violet rays do permeate. 

(108) 79. The chemical effect produced by the solar spectrum after it has 



• 



76 REPORT 1653. 

undergone absorption and dispersion by the uranium glass is not a little re- 
markable, and requires to be studied with much care. Before each experi- 
ment with this glass, it was my practice to obtain an impression from a very 
pure concentrated spectrum which had not been subjected to any absorption ; 
the object of this being to determine exactly the relation which the chemical 
spectrum after absorption and dispersion bore to the unabsorbed image. 
This was necessary, as it was found there were many variations, from day to 
day, in the chemical powers of the several spaces corresponding with the 
coloured rays. Under all circumstances there was the same general character 
in this impressed spectrum pj 54 

after absorption as in many 

of those already described. . . 

The action was divided A jm. 

intotwowell-definedspaces. ji WR 

The rays which are che- "" ^^ 

mically active from the 

mean yellow rays up to the 
blue produce a well-defined 
image varying in inten- 
sity : first a dark-olive 
oval, and above this we 
have a second brown oval. 
This, however, stops short 

of the end of the visible ^- 

spectrum, terminating in the mean violet ray. Measurement according to 
the scale I have adopted throughout gives the following result. The first 
image in the figure represents the normal chemical spectrum : — 

First indication of chemical action above a' '15 

Point of termination of the first oval „ '55 

Commencement of second oval „ '50 

Termination of second oval „ '90 

Entire length of the image formed within the limits ofl __ 
the visible spectrum j 

A space without any chemical change, equal to '45, then occurs. This ap- 
pears to agree with the extreme violet ray and the lavender ray of Sir John 
Herschel, and the lines of Becquerel and Stokes beyond. Beyond this, that 
is, at •45 above a', the most refrangible limits of the known spectrum, a third 
oval forms, the entire length of which is -iO ; so that the whole length which 
undergoes chemical change is 'US, with the interruption of the action above 
H to about Mr. Stokes's lines /. If the spectrum is made to pass through 
the width of the block of uranium glass, which is 2^ inches, the action 
beyond the spectrum is entirely obstructed ; but over the space covered by 
the most luminous rays chemical action goes on, with an intensity nearly 
equal to that whiclf is produced when the thickness of the slab about 1 inch 
only is used for absorption. The third figure in the woodcut represents the 
result which is obtained. 

(109) 79. Bromide of Silver instead of the iodide of silver was employed. 
The differences are not remarkable between those impressions and those 
already described, as being obtained on the iodized paper. The first oval 
of the spectrum after absorption descends rather lower, and shows a very 
decided action, due to the yellow rays, superior to that shown when the iodide 
is employed. When the rays are made to pass through 2^ inches of the 



ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 



77 



uranium glass, although all the more refrangible rays are absorbed, these 
rays, corresponding with the most luminous, still continue very energetic. 

Fig. 55. 



• 



• 



Fig. 56. 



Red Series. 
Pale ruby, by Gold. 
(110) 8 1 a. Thelower rays of the prismatic spectrum are but little changed; 
the upper portion of the green rays become a dark olive, passing into a brown, 
and having but very small illuminating power ; then the blue again comes 
out in much brilliancy, and the violet rays are unaffected, except that the 
red is rendered superior in intensity to the blue of those rays. 

(Ill) 82. Pale rvby, by Gold. — The action on 
the luminous spectrum is as nearly as possible that 
exhibited by 81a. 

(112). The chemical action of the glass 81 is 
shown in a, fig. 56. It commences in the blue 
rays, and extends upwards to the end of the violet, 
and downwards by a slight neck to the yellow ray, 
where it extends slightly in width. There are in- 
dications of a protecting action around the entire a b r 

spectrum. The chemical actions of the rays which ~ 

permeated 82 were somewhat different, as is shown 

in fig. b. The spot corresponds with the yellow ray ; above this, over the 
green, there is no action for a space equal to nearly -20, when it again com- 
mences, and entirely ceases at the end of the luminous spectrum. In this the 
protecting band is entirely wanting. 

(113) 83. Red, by Copper. — The spectrum appears reduced to red and 
yellow, both well-marked and broadly separated by dark spaces ; beyond the 
yellow a broad dark band appears, and then a set of green rays of slight 
illuminating power. After long examination, some red violet rays appear 
visible beyond the green. 

(1 14) 83. After the most prolonged exposure, it is impossible to detect any 
evidence of chemical action. 

(115) 84. Reduces the spectrum to the red rays with a faint line of yellow, 
and beyond this a line of a dark green, quite a dark olive. The spectrum 
being projected on a screen having passed this glass, appeared merely as 
one red spot. 

(116) 84. No chemical action even after the longest exposure. 

(117) 85. Red, by Copper — This glass reduces the spectrum to a band 
of red of considerable brilliancy, and a band of yellow light ; by carefully 



78 REPORT — 1853. 

excluding all extraneous light from the eye and gazing at the spectrum fixedly 
for some time, a trace of the green ray, nearly black, is rendered evident. 

(118) 85. Neither of these three glasses show the slightest transparency 
to the chemical rays. Not only is there no effect produced by the action of 
the most concentrated spectrum, but the most sensitive calotype paper may 
be exposed for many hours to an intense sunshine under them, without show- 
ing the least signs of chemical change. 

(119). To the photographic artist this fact is of considerable importance, 
since it gives him the means of excluding absolutely all the chemically active 
rays, still allowing a sufficient quantity of light to pass to enable him to work 
without any inconvenience. Yellow glasses have frequently been employed ; 
— the results shown, however, in this Report prove thenecessity of examining 
with great care the yellow glass which is used, as it is not the question of in- 
tensity of colour, but of the physical character of the colouring agent, that 
regulates the transparency or opacity of the glass to the chemical rays. 

Quinine Solution. 

(120). From the interest attached to the peculiar property of the solution of 
sulphate of quinine in water by means of dilute sulphuric acid, to bring into 
view a set of rays bej'ond the violet, of a beautiful celestial blue colour, cor- 
responding with those produced by the canary-yellow glass, I became anxious 
to examine the influence of it on the chemical rays. This became the more 
important, since it had been asserted that the ordinarily dark chemical rays 
had been rendered visible, and this brought forward as an additional proof 
of the identity of the rays producing luminous and chemical phsenomena. 

(121). The solution employed was that recommended by Mr. Stokes, as the 
best for observing the peculiar phaenomena o^ fluorescence, as it has been 
named, consisting of one part of the sulphate of quinine to 200 parts of water. 
For the purpose of ascertaining if any greater degree of absorption was pro- 
duced by using a more concentrated solution than this, experiments were 
made with such as contained as much as six times this quantity of quinine ; 
but unless this is distinctly stated, it will be solutions of the first-named 
strength which were employed. 

(122). A plate-glass trough was used, and being first filled with distilled 
water, the length and general character of the prismatic spectrum were care- 
fully observed and determined. The trough was then filled with the before- 
mentioned solution of sulphate of quinine, the result of which was sufficiently 
remarkable. The ordinary rays of the Newtonian spectrum passed the solu- 
tion freely, and formed a well-defined image upon a screen placed to receive 
them. According to the strength of the solution employed, so more or less 
of the violet ray was cut off. The absorptive action on the other rays was 
quite inappreciable. From the mean violet ray diminishing, however, towards 
the end of the ordinary spectrum, the fluorescent rays penetrate the solution 
1 inch in thickness, forming a stream of a beautiful celestial blue passing 
across the fluid ; beyond this, over a space often nearly equal to the length 
of the ordinary spectrum, the new rays continue in view, but in no case 
penetrating the fluid. Mr. Stokes's observations may be quoted in confirma- 
tion of these conditions : 

" In the case of a solution of sulphate of quinine of the strength of one 
part of the disulphate to 200 parts of acidulated water, it has been already 
stated that a portion of the rays which are capable of producing dispersed 
light passed across a thickness of 3 inches. On forming a pure spectrum, 
the fixed line H was traced about an inch into the fluid. On passing from 
H towards G, the distance that the incident rays penetrated into the fluid 
increased with great rapidity, while on passing in the contrary direction it 
diminished no less rapidly, so that from a point situated at no great distance 



ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 



79 



beyond H to where the light entirely ceased, the dispersion was confined to 
the immediate neighbourhood of the surface. When the solution was diluted 
so as to be only one-tenth of the former strength, a conspicuous fixed line, 
or rather band of sensible breadth, situated in the first group of fixed lines 
beyond H, was observed to penetrate about an inch into the fluid. On pass- 
ing onwards from the band above-mentioned in the direction of the more 
refrangible rays, the distance that the incident rays penetrated into the fluid 
rapidly decreased, and thus the rapid increase in the absorbing energy of the 
fluid was brought into view in a part of the spectrum in which, with the 
stronger solution, it could not be so conveniently made out, inasmuch as the 
posterior surface of the space from which the dispersed light came almost 
confounded itself with the anterior surface of the fluid." 

(123). The mode of operating was the same as that already described, but 
that the experiments were made with very difl'used, and exceedingly concen- 
trated spectra. The object of this was to determine if the less powerful rays 
were more liable to absorption than those the energy of which had been 
exalted by concentration. Hence the various spectra obtained varied in 
length from 1 inch to 6 inches. 

(124). The annexed woodcut (fig.57) has been copied by the wood engraver 
with very great care from the actual spectra obtained. [This indeed has been 
done with all the figures of spectra in this, the quinine series.^ The space 
from a! to a was the exact length of the visible ordinary spectrum, and under 
the conditions of the experiment, i. e. a weak sun and a difl'used image at a 
great distance from the slit through which light was admitted, the chemical 
impression obtained through the trough filled with distilled water was pre- 
cisely that represented. When the quinine solution was substituted, the 
second image was the result. 
(12.5). A weaker solution of the sulphate of quinine was employed, and with 

a brighter sun than the former, with a 
less difl'used spectrum and longer ex- 
Fig. 57. posure ; the singular elongation of the 
image down into the orange rays, as 
shown in fig. 58, was the result. My 
arrangements for keeping the solar 
image fixed being imperfect, there 
was some motion in a horizontal direc- 
tion, which has given an increased 
thickness to the impressed spectrum. 





80 



REPORT — 1853. 



(126). Avery intense spectrum was 
produced by a good achromatic lens 
employed in my camera obscura for 
photographic purposes. The result- 
ing chemical spectrum without the 
interposition of any absorbed me- 
dium was that shown in fig. 59 ; the 
second image being the result of the 
interposition of the quinine screen, 
the exposure in each case being pre- 
cisely one minute. Upwards of 
twenty spectra were obtained in the 
same morning, and, as a constant re- 
sult, the above woodcut maj' be re- 
garded as a faithful representation. 

(127). I was anxious to ascertain 
the relative differences between the 
spectra obtained on the iodide of 
silver and those impressed on the 
bromide. The paper was first 
washed with a solution of bromide of 
potassium, 117 grs. to six ounces of 
water; then with nitrate of silver, 
170*57 grains to three ounces of 
water. The spectrum being care- 
fully thrown on the paper by nice 
adjustment of the prism, &c., it was 
washed with weak gallo-nitrate of 
silver, the spectrum being shut off ' 
by an opake screen. The screen 
being removed, the luminous 
image was allowed to act for one 
minute, and was then again ob- 
structed. Fig. 60 shows the che- 
mical image of the spectrum 
which had not undergone any 
absorption, and the second that 
which was obtained when the 
quinine trough was interposed. 

(128). It has been repeatedly ^ 
stated that the rays at the most — 
refrangible end of the luminous 
spectrum were rendered chemi- 
cally inactive by the quinine solu- 
tion. When bromide of silver is 
employed, this, as is shown in fig. 
60, has been a constant result ; 
but in no case where the iodide of 
silver has been employed has this 
been found to be the case. 

(129). In conclusion, I may state, 
that M'ith a view of determining 
by another method the extent to 
which the chemical action of the 
solar radiations were obstructed ^' 



Fig. 59. 



1 



Fig, 60. 



DEGRADATION OF THE YORKSHIRE COAST. 81 

by the quinine solution and the uranium glass, the following experiments 
were made : — 

My photographic camera was carefully adjusted to embrace a somewhat ex- 
tensive view, comprehending a granite-wall and trees in the foreground, the sea 
in the middle distance, and a town with an extensive range of hills beyond. 

The first view, a very perfect one, was obtained on calotype paper in 
fifteen minutes. The glass trough filled with water was then placed in front 
of the lens, and the paper exposed for the same time as before. The view 
was not so intense, the radiations from the distant objects and the green leaves 
of the trees suffering the most by absorption ; a very distinct image never- 
theless resulted. 

The glass trough was filled with the quinine solution. There was very 
little difference between this and the image obtained when the water was 
employed, although it was exposed no longer than the others (fifteen minutes). 
The impression was somewhat redder, and the foliage less perfectly made 
out : the distant town and land was well made out. The block of uranium 
(canary-yellow glass) was now interposed, expecting, since through this 
medium the extra spectral rays are very active, that an equally good result 
with that obtained through the quinine would have been secured. The 
image obtained in fifteen minutes was very imperfect ; it required a consider- 
able time for its development, and the picture eventually was little more 
than an outline of the objects. 

Some peculiarities, which are not easily explainable, are indicated here ; 
for an examination of which I must, however, wait until sunshine and leisure 
enable me to resume my researches. 

(130). M. E, Becquerel has stated, " The most refrangible rays are the 
most absorbable," and " that when any part of the luminous spectrum is 
absorbed or destroyed by any substance whatever, the part of the chemical 
rays of the same refrangibility is equally so " (Comptes Rendus, tom. 
xvii. p. 883). 

The results I have recorded show that this is not a constant result. This, 
and the peculiarities, now first observed, of the influ£nce of absorbent media in 
developing a chemical force in the most luminous rays, are left for further 
examination with this passing remark. 



Observations on the Character and Measurements of Degradation of 
the Yorkshire Coast. By John P. Bell, M.D., Hull. 

(A Communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.) 

In speaking of the degradation of land on the Holderness coast, it is not 
my intention to construct a lengthened history of its former condition, 
neither shall I enter into a detail of theoretical plans proposed for prevent- 
ing its further waste. There cannot be a doubt that the process of waste 
and destruction of this remarkably fertile district had been going on long 
antecedent to any traditional or written history. We find, however, on 
record a lamentable catalogue of losses on this coast ; one field after an- 
other has been swept away, and one township after another has disappeared. 
The village of Auburn has gone, the towns of Hartburn and Hyde, both at 
one period flourishing places, exist no longer. Owthorne has lately yielded 
to the same fate ; the ancient church of Withernsea has long since disap- 
peared, and its successor, built in 14'34, is dilapidated and deserted. Fur- 
ther southward, Kilnsea Church exists no longer ; the last portion of the fabric 
1853. G 



82 REPORT — 1853. 

(heing part of the tower), according to the parish register, " fell down the 
cliff into the sea, Februarj^ 1, 1831," and the village itself is rapidly fol- 
lowing. Camden mentions Pennismerk and Upsal, townships or hamlets in 
Holderness, neither of which remains at the present day. Nor have the en- 
croachments of the deep been confined to the sea coast of Holderness, for 
within the Humber we find that considerable tracts of land have been swept 
away, as for instance, Redmare, Frismerk, Tharlesthorpe, Potterfleet, Raven- 
ser, &c. The ivhole of the Yorkshire coast, south of Flamborongh Head, 
is being continually wasted by the encroachments of the sea; and it is a 
startling consideration, that in the course of a few years, if the same pro- 
cess continue, other towns and villages now flourishing and fertile are doomed 
to follow. The rate of loss, however, throughout the line is not uniform ; 
the piiysical features, and the geological composition of the cliffs, the set of 
the tide, and other minor causes influence the degradation to a greater 
or less degree. 

Unfortunately there exist but few scanty records of actual measurement 
from certain and existing points to the sea. 

In Tuke's Map of Holderness there are however a few such admeasure- 
ments taken in the year 1786, and I have been able to collect from authentic 
sources others of later date; namely, some made in the year 1836 by my 
late lamented friend George Milner, Esq., F.S.A., on whose accuracy I can 
most implicitly rely; and I have also been kindly furnished with others made a 
few days ago, by my friend John Malam, Esq. of Holmptou Lodge, 
Holderness. 

I have endeavoured to obtain measurements in a due easterly direction 
from the different fixed objects to the edge of the cliff; in cases where such 
measurement is not specified, the line most direct to the sea has been taken. 

From these records it would appear that the cross at Atwick in 1786, was 
distant from the edge of the cliff" 946 yards. In December 1836 it was 
S14: yards, thus showing a loss of 132 yards in fifty years, or an annual 
average loss of rather more than 2^ yards. At the present time it is but 
770 yards distant from the edge of the cliff" ; so that during the last ™ 
seventeen years there has been a waste of 44 yards. The annual average loss 
therefore has continued at the same rate. The entire loss during the last 
sixty-seven years has been 176 yards, giving an average of rather more than 
21 yards annually. 

Tuke says the east end of Hornsea Church in 1786 was distant from the 
sea 1133 yards. In 1836 it was only 1000 yards distant from high-water 
mark, showing a deficiency in fifty years of 133 yards, and making an 
average loss in this immediate neigabourhood of 2f yards, or 8 feet annually. 
It is now but 942 yards from high-water mark, so that there has been a loss 
of 58 yards in seventeen years, being at the rate of about 3^ yards per 
annum; or taking the loss of the last sixty-seven years, there will be found 
to have been an annual average waste of nearly 3 yards. 

Aldborough Church in 1786 was 2044 yards from the sea; it is now 
1910 yards, so that 134 yards have disappeared in sixty-seven years, giving 
a loss of exactly 2 yards annually. 

Tunstall Church in 1786 was 924 j'ards distant from the cliff; it is noM^ 
758 yards. The loss therefore in sixty seven years has been 166 yards, 
giving an annual average M'aste of about 2|^ yards. 

Holmpton Church in the year 1786 was distant from the sea 1200 yards ; 
it is now 1120, so that in sixty-seven years 80 yards have gone, averaging 
about 1^ yard annually. 

The most rapid waste, however, is that going on at Kilnsea. The greater 



DEGRADATION OF THE YORKSHIRE COAST. 



part of the church fell in the j'ear 1826, and the last fragment totally disap- 
peared in 1831. In April last I visited this place, and found the sea then 
making great ravages; several houses had gone, others were partly destroyed, 
and quite unfit for habitation. 

The Blue Bell Inn in that village, which was built in the year 184<7, was, 
according to a stone which I saw, and which had been fixed in the wall of 
that building (during the course of its erection), 534 yards from the sea; 
but when I visited Kilnsea on the 1.5th April last, it was only 491 yards 
from the edge of the cliff'; thus showing that 4 J yards had been swept 
away during the last six years, giving a yearly average loss of land of about 
7^ yards. 

The other day I received a letter from Mr. Malam, in which he says, 
that since I was there the cliff has been carried away considerably ; that he 
has remeasured the distance from the inn to the cliff", and finds it now but 
488 yards I It would thus appear that a considerable difference exists in 
the amount of waste of land along this coast, it being the greatest at Kilnsea 
and the least at Holmpton. 

The line of coast to which my remarks apply, extends about forty 
miles, and is now losing an amount of rich agricultural soil of 2^ yards 
annually. If, however, we take the rapid waste of Kilnsea into account, the 
yearly loss would average 3 yards. My friend, who resides at Holmpton, 
attributes the comparatively small amount of loss at that place to the height 
of the cliffs north and south of Holmpton, which project and break the 
force of the tide ; the beach is also of a concave form. 




XJi/" 






He says, " the fall nf the clay or earth at the base of the high cliffs is 
to the extent of hundreds of thousands of tons more than where the cliffs are 
low." The removal of this fallen cliff" must necessarily take a much longer 
period (and so protect the coast for a greater length of time) than 
where the land is low, and the sea does not meet with such an opposition. 
In fact, the falling of the high cliff's acts in the same manner as the in- 
tentional deposit of earth would do in preventing the encroachments of 
the sea. A farmer named Blushill, who has resided at Holmpton 
for the last forty years, told me that more land had been washed away in 
that locality during the past year (1852) (especially between the months of 
October and December), than had ever been the case in so short a time 
during his recollection. 

He is the owner of some fields close to the sea, and calculates that 
something like 25 yards have been lost from his fields within tiie last two 
years, and he believes that equally large quantities have been lost towards 
the south of Holmpton. 

Whilst speaking of this immense loss, I would incidentally remark, that 
such statements as the foregoing should be received with great caution, 
and not without thorough investigation. However honest in themselves 
such statements may be, they may nevertheless lead to very erroneous 

g2 



84 REPORT — 1853. 

conclusions. The source of fallacy I conceive to be this : — the base of the 
cliff first yields to the attrition of the gravel and washing of the ocean ; thus 
an undermining or'scooping process necessarily takes place, and for many 
months or years a very large portion of what may be called table-land, is 
held by an exceedingly precarious tenure ; so that it not unfrequently 
happens that one or two severe storms take off several yards of surface 
from any particular farm or district, and these losses are then recorded 
as having occurred within a very limited time ; whereas, in truth and fairness, 
they ought to have been spread over a number of years, commencing with 
the washing away of the base. 



First Report of the Committee, consisting of the Earl of Rosse, the 
Rev. Dr. Robinson, and Professor Phfllips, appointed by the 
General Committee at Belfast, to draw up a Report on the Physical 
Character of the Moon's Surface, as compared with that of the 
Earth. 

I. The Committee, having received their instructions in September 1852, lost 
no time in assembling, by invitation of the Earl of Rosse, at Parsonstown, 
where with the assistance of Colonel Sabine, at that time President of the 
Association, they made preliminary examinations of the moon, by the power- 
ful telescopes of the Earl of Rosse, and formed plans of further proceeding in 
conformity with the results of these examinations, and the individual expe- 
rience of the members of the Committee. 

II. Taking as a general basis for the work to be done, the much-valued 
maps and treatise of Madler and Beer, it appeared to the Committee desirable 
to procure a new set of drawings or surveys of selected parts of the lunar 
disc ; to suggest certain conditions of representation, with reference to the 
illumination of these parts, and to propose a uniform scale for the drawings. 

The suggestions offered, as some help to observers on this subject, were 
the following : — 

" 1. For the acquisition of correct Ideas regarding the form of any part 
of the lunar disc, an examination of it under at least three aspects appears 
indispensable. 

a. A little (one hour ?) after the sun rises on that part of the spherical 
surface. 

b. When the sun is on the meridian of that part. 

c. A little (one hour?) before the sun sets upon it. 





" By this arrangement each part of the surface may be delineated and de- 
scribed under three directions of incident sun-light, two of them (a and c) 
suited by long shadows to discover the inequalities of level, and the other 
(U) aiding by a vertical incidence to make apparent the unequal reflective 
powers and different colours which characterize the different lunar regions, 



THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 85 

and the systems of brilliant stripes which are connected with certain lunar 
forms. 

" 2. The ' age of the moon,' when a drawing is made, should be stated to 
the second decimal of the day, because a knowledge of this epoch is essential 
to a right estimation of the angle of incident light under which the observa- 
tions are made. Probably the observer will find it convenient to prepare 
beforehand a table of the moon's age, corresponding to each hour of mean 
solar time. The mean solar time of the place at the beginning and end of 
each observation should also be stated. 

"3. Among the chief points to be attended to are — 

a. The steepness of slopes, which may perhaps be best determined by 
noting the time at which they began or ceased to be illuminated gene- 
rally. 

h. In ring mountains the difference of level between their exterior 
and interior bases. 

c. The curvature of their interior, whether greater or less than that 
of the general surface. Some of them are much raised in the centre, as 
is evident by the shadows which these parts throw. 

d. Whether the brilliant stripes are elevated above the ground where 
they pass, and the angle of illumination at which they disappear. 

e. Slopes, height, and breadth of the soft ridges in the Maria. 

f. External fragments round ring mountains. 

g. Relation between mass of wall and area of depression {i. e. would 
the wall fill up the hollow). 

" 4. In delineating the appearances on the moon's surface, the Committee 
think the observer must be encouraged to employ various methods. For a 
general view of the proportional areas, more accurate than any sketch. Pho- 
tography may be employed. To steady the work, and reduce it to a uniform 
scale, rnicrometrical measures will be required. In some cases, where these 
cannot be supplied by the observers separately, they may be obtained at one 
of the observatories. In drawing by the eye the Camera lucida is available, 
if the telescope has an equatorial movement by clock — a condition not only 
desirable, but perhaps indispensable for perfect delineation. 

"5. For convenience of comparison, it appears desirable to recommend 
that one uniform scale should be employed in the delineations. Though it 
may seldom be practicable to employ on the moon a power of 1000, the 
Committee recommend that the drawings should in no case be made on a 
smaller scale. If the distance of the paper from the eye be assumed at 10 
inches, a circular space on the moon's surface one mile across will be repre- 
sented with only a diameter of about one-twentieth of an inch. For objects 
which require larger representation, the ordinary scale may be doubled or 
tripled. 

" 6. Both in drawing and describing it appears desirable to employ the 
method of Beer and Madler, who draw the moon as she appears in the in- 
verting telescope, but describe the relative situation of her parts by reference 
to her poles as northern and southern, and sides as east and west, in corre- 
spondence to the nearest cardinal points of the earth. 

" 7. It is found by trial that Sepia drawings are well-suited for representa- 
tions of the peculiarities of the moon's surface." 

It is requested that the drawings and descriptions, which may be prepared 
in conformity with these suggestions, may be forwarded by post to Professor 
Phillips, Assistant-General Secretary of the British Association, St. Mary's 
Lodge, York. 



86 REPORT — 1853. 

III. The Committee next endeavoured, by circular, to obtain the coopera- 
tion of a limited number of gentlemen, whether in the British Islands or in 
foreign parts, who by their possession of instruments of adequate optical 
power, habits of astronomical observation, and available leisure, might be able 
and willing to undertake definite parts of the great task which they hoped to 
see accomplished. 

IV. To these letters, the replies which have been received offer in general 
very satisfactory assurances of cooperation ; and in some cases useful addi- 
tional suggestions and notices of interesting facts are added. In particular, 
the author of'Der Mond," besides assuring the Committee of a general de- 
sire to cooperate in their labours, states the degree in which, since his appoint- 
ment to the Observatory at Dorpat, he has been able to extend his former 
observations on the " light streaks" of the moon, an object to which the Com- 
mittee had ventured to specially direct his attention, and instances the di- 
stinction which he has already made between the " light spots" which vanish 
in lunar eclipses, and those which remain visible and even grow more distinct 
in the shadow, except where it is deepest. 

The Committee do not, however, feel it to be proper now to report the 
special views and limited progress of their members, beyond placing before 
the Association one drawing of the Mountain Gassendi — on the scale proposed 
for the whole survey — made from a telescope mounted at York by one of 
their members. 



Provisional Report on Earthquake Wave-Transits ; and on Seismome- 
trical Instruments. By R. Mallet, C.E.,M.RJ.A. {In a Letter 
to the Assistant-General Secretary.) 

The grant of £50 made in 1850, for measurement of earthquake wave- 
transit, has been wholly expended, in addition to a sum a good deal exceeding 
its amount, upon the experiments on transit made at Kiiliney Bay and 
Daikey, as reported in the last volume but one of our Transactions. Prior 
to the conclusion of the above experiments I had made some progress in the 
construction of a self-registering seismometer, upon principles already placed 
before the Association. 

Within the last year other unavoidable occupations, and the work of 
preparing and discussing the large Earthquake Catalogue, have much 
interfered with the progress of the seismometer: I expect to be able at 
the meeting succeeding the present to exhibit the instrument, or perhaps to 
have had it previously set to work for a time. 

Galvano-telegraphic combinations recently brought into use, and especially 
the beautiful arrangements for simultaneous astronomical transit observations 
adopted by the Astronomer Royal, leave no room to doubt that any dif- 
ficulties in applying such methods to seismometry may be fully overcome. 

The great Earthquake Catalogue, due almost wholly to the devotion and 
labour of my eldest son, Dr. John William Mallet, has been entirely completed 
and discussed, and the results reduced to curves. The first portion of the 
catalogue is already printed in the last volume of our Transactions, and ail 
the remainder is ready for press, and with the discussional results can 
appear in the volume for 1853. 

At the meeting of the Association, September 1852, a grant of £50 was 
made to me for the purpose of extending experiments upon earthquake 
wave-transit, availing myself of the mining operation sin progress at the quar- 
ries of Holyhead Harbour. With a view to carrying out this design, I have 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 87 

been in communication with James M. Rendell, Esq., V.P. Inst. C.E., the 
Engineer-in-Chief of the Works, and have derived from him every aid that 
could be desired. I have also been in communication with the Astronomer 
Royal, with a view to obtaining the use of some time measuring instruments, 
and derived some useful suggestions from his experience in arrangements 
analogous to those proposed. I expect therefore early next spring to proceed 
with these experiments at Holyhead. 

I cannot close this brief report without congratulating our fellow-workers 
in Physical Geology upon the increased attention now given toseismological 
observation and reseai'ch, to which the several reports published by the 
British Association, and by various authors, have no doubt been instrumental ; 
the arrangements, now understood to be in progress under the Board of Ord- 
nance for earthquake observations in the Mediterranean, are a welcome sign 
of progress. 



On the Mechanical Properties of Metals as derived from repeated 
Meltings, exhibiting the maximum point of strength and the causes 
of deterioration. By William Fairbairn, F.R.S. S^c. 

This inquiry was undertaken at the request of the British Association, to 
determine certain anomalous conditions which present themselves in castings 
when produced from the same iron in successive meltings. It is a generally 
acknowledged opinion, that iron is improved up to the second, third, and 
probably the fourth meltings ; but that opinion, as far as I know, has not 
been founded upon any well-grounded fact, but rather deduced from obser- 
vation, or from those appearances which indicate greater purity and increased 
strength in the metal. 

Those appearances have, in almost every instance, been satisfactory as 
regards the strength ; and the questions we have been called upon to solve in 
this investigation, are, to what extent can these improvements be carried 
without injury to the material ; and \yhat are the conditions which bear more 
directly upon the crystalline structure, and the forces of cohesion by which 
they are united. 

In the following research I have endeavoured to supply these desiderata ; 
and having in the course of the inquiry made a careful selection of the 
material, the subjoined experiments were instituted, and from which some 
curious and interesting results were obtained. In preparing the iron, coke, 
and flux requisite for ensuring sound castings, it was found necessary, for 
the sake of comparison, to have them cast under circumstances precisely the 
same ; and in order to ensure, as nearly as possible, perfect uniformity in the 
castings, a furnace was prepared for the express purpose, and from 18cwt. 
to a ton of No. 3 Eglinton Hot-blast iron was melted and run into bars and 
pigs with 388 lbs. of coke, and 224 lbs. of lime as a flux. 

The proportions of coke and flux were carefully observed in the first and 
throughout the whole of the subsequent meltings. They were accurately 
weighed every time the furnace was charged, and each charge was made 
under the same circumstances, and as nearly as possible with the same quantity 
of blast. In the first melting, three or four bars, each 5 feet long and 1 inch 
square, were cast, and the remainder of the iron fused was run into pigs, and 
preserved for re-melting along with the fiactured bars used in the first ex- 
periment. In the succeeding experiments, the bars and pigs were prepared 
and re-melted in the same way ; and thus, by a continued succession of re- 



88 REPORT — 1853. 

meltings, ne constant reproduction of tlie same metal was carefully preserved, 
and that under the same circumstances of fusion, as respects coke and flux, 
as those previously melted, until the whole of the metal was exhausted. 

In these consecutive meltings, it will be observed that the same quantity 
of coke and limestone was used, but at each separate process the quantity of 
iron was diminished until the waste and the abstraction of a few specimen 
bars — reserved each time for the succeeding experiments — had exhausted 
the quantity with which the furnace was originally charged. These pre- 
cautions became the more essential, as any admixture, or any change in the 
furnace might alter the conditions under which the castings were produced, 
and thus render them to some extent abnormal for those researches and 
points of comparison which, under all the circumstances, it was necessary to 
observe. To avoid these discrepancies, the furnace was retained of uniform 
dimensions, of nearly the same temperature, and having the coke and lime- 
stone carefully weighed at every charge; the castings were, by these means, 
obtained from a uniform system of treatment maintained from the beginning 
to the end of the process. 

The bars derived from each successive melting were placed upon two iron 
brackets, a, a, exactly 4 feet 6 inches apart, screwed to the sides of a 
wooden frame of the form and dimensions shown in the annexed figure. 

On the centre of the cross bar A the socket b was fixed, and through this 
socket the rod c, screwed on the top end, was passed. This rod had a slit at 
the bottom to admit the bar ; and the wheel D having a nut in its centre and 
fitting the screw, the scale with the weights B could be raised or lowered 
upon the middle of the bar according as the weights were successively laid 
on to measure the deflection, or taken off to ascertain the defects of elasticity 
or permanent set. 

The pig iron used in these experiments, and from which the following 
results were obtained, was No. 3 Eglinton Hot-blast. From its blue tinge 
and large crystalline structure, it had the characteristics of No. 1 more than 
No. 3 ; and judging from its appearance, it indicated a ductile and superior 
quality of iron ; probably of more value for its working properties than its 
powers of resistance to strain. This .property in the metal was not how- 
ever objectionable, as it enabled us to continue the experiments through a 
longer series of meltings before it arrived at the point of maximum strength, 
and those chemical changes which affected the formation of its crystalline 
structure. Under the circumstances, and considering the objects to be at- 
tained in the research, it was probably as good a selection as could have been 
made for such an inquiry. 

For the purpose of ascertaining progressively the effiect of the load upon 
the bars, it was considered expedient to lay on weights not exceeding 56 lbs. 
at a time, and by careful attention to the gauge and the scale made in the form 
of a wedge, and divided into the tenths and hundredth parts of an inch, the 
deflection produced upon the bar was ascertained with the utmost accuracy. 
Reading off the deflections was accomplished with great care; and in order 
to indicate the amount of permanent set produced by the different weights 
as they were laid on, the scale was screwed up at every second or third in- 
crease of the load, and applying the scale to the gauge, the defects of elasti- 
city were easily determined, and recorded in the Tables in the usual way. 
Having thus selected the metal and prepared the apparatus, the experiments 
were proceeded with as exhibited in the following Tables. 



90 



REPORT— 1853. 



Experiments to determine the resistance of Cast-iron bars obtained from 
repeated Millings to a transverse strain. 



Table I 


— Eglinton Iron, 


No. 3, Hot-l.last 


. First Melting 




Experiment 1. 


Experiment II. 


Experiment III. 


Section of bar 1x1-02 in. 






Distance between the sup- 


Section of bar 1 x 1 in. 


Section of bar 1^01 Xl'Ol in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Weight of bar 16 lbs. ; 5 ft. 
long. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


in lbs. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•12 


+ 


32 


•12 




32 


•10 




88 


•23 


+ 


88 1 -25 


+ 


88 


•24 


+ 


144 


•35 


•02 


200 


•55 


•01 


144 


•39 


+ 


200 


•52 


+ 


312 


•85 


+ 


200 


•56 


+ 


256 


•66 


•03 


368 


1-01 


+ 


256 


•74 


+ 


312 


•81 




403 


M4 


+ 


312 


•93 


+ 


368 


ro4 


•04 


424 


1^20 


+ 


368 


113 


•01 


396 


1^14 


•043 


452 


126 


•03 


424 


1^34 


•03 


424 


1-20 


-f 


473 


1-33 


•04 


480 


broke. 




438 


r23 


+ 


487 


r38 


+ 








452 


1-25 


•044 


501 


r43 


■05 








466 


1-26 




522 


1^48 










473 


broke. 




536 


broke. 










Ultimate deflection 1-28. 


Ultimate deflection P54. 


Ultimate deflection 1^51. 


Broke near the centre 


Broke in two places at 


Broke at the centre after 


whe.i laying on the last 


the centre, and at 7i inches 


sustaining the load two mi- 


weight, 473 lbs. 


from that point. 


nutes. 



The fractured ends of these bars (when viewed with a microscope) are 
remarkable for great uniformity of texture. In the Hrst melting they had 
changed their appearance entirely from the pig in their crystalline structure, 
the crystals being much more minute and of greatly increased density, 
as may be seen on reference to the column of specific gravity below. 

Results reduced to those of bars 1*00 in. square. 



Experiment 1 , bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
sujiports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 



Specific 
gravity. 



6^969 



Mean. 



6-969 



Breaking 
weight (6). 



Ultimate 
deflection 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



463 
536 
470 

489-2 



1^27 
154 
151 



588 8 
825^4 
709-7 

705^6 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



91 



Table II. — On the same Iron. Second Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1 X 1*02 in. 


Section of bar -99 X 1 in. 


Section of bar 1 X 1 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 




Deflec- 


Deflec- 


^ . , , ! Deflec- 


Deflec- 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 


Deflec- 


Weight 
in lbs. 


tion in 


tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


tion in 


tion, load 


tion in 


tion, load 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•11 




32 


•12 


+ 


32 


•08 


4- 


88 


•21 


+ 


88 


•26 


+ 


88 


•22 


+ 


144 


•42 


-U 


144 


•45 


+ 


144 


•38 


+ 


200 


•59 


+ 


200 


•64 


+ 


200 


•56 


+ 


256 


•76 


-1- 


256 


•81 


+ 


256 


•73 


+ 


312 


•95 


+ 


312 


1^01 


+ 


312 


•91 


+ 


368 


M6 


•02 • 


368 


broke 


+ 


368 


Ml 


+ 


396 


1-26 


+ 








438 


1-37 


•01 


424 


1-37 


•03 








466 


1-51 


•04 


452 


r39 


broke 
after the 
load had 
remained 
on 5 rain. 








487 
494 
508 


1^58 

1^62 

broke 


•06 


Ultimate deflection 1-48. 


Ultimate deflection 1^19. 


Ultimate deflection 1-67. 


Broke near the centre on 


Broke 16^ in. from centre 


Broke at the centre after 


laying on an additional281bs., 


when the last weight was 


sustaining the weight about 


or 452 lbs. 


laid on ; a flaw in the casting. 


a miuute. 



The above bars have nearly the same appearance in their fractured sections 
as those experimented upon in the last Table : the same uniformity in their 
granulated structure was observable ; as also in the appearance and colour 
of the crystals, which were nearly the same in every respect. 



Results reduced to those of bars I'OO in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 
weight 



Ultimate 
deflection 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact, 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



6^970 



4431 
374^7 
508 



r48 
1-19 
r67 



655-7 
4452 
848-3 



6^970 



441^9 



1-446 



639 



92 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table III.— Third Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1 X 1 in. 


Section of bar 1 X 1 in. 


Section of bar 1 x 1^01 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•08 


+ 


32 


•10 


+ 


32 


•11 


+ 


88 


•26 


+ 


88 


•27 


+ 


88 


•27 


+ 


144 


•44 


+ 


144 


•46 


+ 


144 


•46 


+ 


200 


•65 


+ 


200 


•66 


+ 


200 


•67 


•02 


256 


•85 


+ 


256 


•87 


•01 


256 


•84 


+ 


312 


1^06 


•01 


312 


M8 


+ 


312 


MO 


•04 


340 


M7 


•015 


368 


1-32 


•05 


340 


r22 


+ 


368 


1^30 


+ 


396 


broke 




368 


1-38 


•08 


382 


r37 


+ 








382 


1-44 


•10 


396 


broke 










396 
403 
417 


1-51 

1-55 

broke 


+ 
+ 


Ultimate deflection 1-42. 


Ultimate deflection 1^43. 


Ultimate deflection r61. 


Broke 6in. from the centre 


Broke at the centre in a 


Broke near the middle of 


as soon as the last weight 


few seconds after the weight 


the bar when the last weight 


was laid on. 


was laid on. 


was laid on. 



No change was observable in the crystallization of these bars, excepting 
only in the colour, which is a dull grey, with less lustre than the first and 
second meltings ; in other respects the constituents of the iron appear to be 
the same. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1*00 in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 

weight 

(*)• 



Ultimate 
deflection 

(rf). 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



6-886 



396 
396 
412-9 



6-886 



401-6 



r42 
1-43 
1-61 



1^486 



562^3 
566-2 
664-7 



596-7 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



93 



Table IV.— Fourth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1-01 x 1-05 in. 


Section of bar 1 X 1-02 in. 


Section of bar 1^ 


X99in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between 


the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 


in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


32 


•09 


+ 


32 


•06 


+ 


32 


•06 


+ 


88 


■22 


+ 


88 


•19 


+ 


88 


•21 


+ 


144 


•37 


+ 


144 


•34 


+ 


144 


•39 


+ 


200 


•54 


+ 


200 


•51 


+ 


250 


•75 


+ 


256 


•70 


+ 


256 


•69 


+ 


340 


104 


+ 


312 


•86 


+ 


284 


•77 


+ 


368 


114 


•01 


368 


broke 


+ 


326 


•88 


•02 


382 


1-20 


•02 








354 


•98 


+ 


396 


1-26 


4 








382 


1^08 


•03 


410 


1-30 


•03 








396 


113 


+ 


431 


P40 


•04 








410 M8 


+ 


452 


1^50 


•05 






424 broke 


+ 


466 


broke 




Ultimate deflection l-Ol. 


Ultimate deflection 1*22. 


Ultimate deflection 1*55. 


Fracture showed a large 


Broke 7 in. from centre; 


Broke near the 


middle ; 


air-bubble. 


not very sound. 


quite sound. 





These bars gave indications of greater hardness, particularly at the 
corners, where the crystals were more compact, and rather more porous in 
the centre of the fracture. Colour the same as the last bars. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1*00 in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 
weight 



Ultimate 

deflection 

(d). 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact, 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



6^938 



347 
415^6 

477-7 



101 
1-22 
1-55 



350^4 
508^0 
740^4 



6-938 



413-4 



120 



520-8 



94 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table V.— Fifth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


EXPERIMKNT 3. 


Section of bar 1"1 X I'Ol in. 


Section of bar 1-01 X 1 in. 


Section of bar •99x1-1 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. G in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 tt. 6 in. 


Weight 


Deflec- Deflec- 
tion in tion. load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 




inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•06 


+ 


32 


•08 


+ 


32 


•08 


4- 


88 


•19 


-+- 


88 


•23 


+ 


88 


•29 


+ 


144 


•36 


+ 


144 


•38 


+ 


144 


•40 


+ 


200 


•53 


+ 


200 


•57 


+ 


200 


•58 


+ 


2.J6 


•70 


-f 


256 


•75 


+ 


256 


•75 


+ 


312 


•86 


+ 


312 


•95 


■02 


312 


•91 


+ 


368 


107 


+ 


368 


1-14 


+ 


368 


115 


•02 


396 


1-18 


•03 


396 


126 


+ 


424 


1-37 


•04 


438 


1-37 


•05 


424 


1^39 


•05 


452 


broke 




452 


1^43 


+ 


452 


1^52 


•07 








459 


1^46 


•06 


459 


1-55 


+ 








4G6 


broke 




466 


broke 











Ultimate deflection 1-48. 


Ultimate deflection 1-57. 


Ultimate deflection 1-46. 
Broke as «oon as the last 


Broke at the middle; quite 


Broke at the middle; frac- 


weight was laid on ; fracture 
sound and good. 


sound. 


ture clean and sound. 



The fracture from these bars — fifth melting— presented rather more lustre, 
accompanied with a blui.sh tinge. The interior crystals larger than those at 
the corners and round the edges, which were firm and more compact. 



Results reduced to those of bars TOO in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 

weight 

(*)• 



Ultimate 
deflection 



Product I) X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



6^842 



418^5 
4613 
415 



6-842 



431-6 



1-48 
1^57 
1-46 



1503 



619^3 
724-2 
605-9 



648-6 



ox THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



95 



Table VI.— Sixth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1 X '99 in. 


Section of bar 1 X '98 in. 


Section of bar 103 X 98 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- Deflec- 
tion in tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•07 


+ 


32 


•08 


+ 


32 


•06 


+ 


88 


•21 


+ 


88 


•24 


+ 


88 


•19 


+ 


144 


•37 


+ 


144 


•39 


+ 


144 


•34 


+ 


200 


•54 


+ 


200 


•57 


+ 


200 


•50 


+ 


256 


•70 


+ 


256 


•73 


+ 


256 


•68 


+ 


312 


•87 


+ 


312 


•91 


+ 


312 


■85 


4- 


338 


105 


+ 


368 


broke 


+ 


368 


104 


+ 


410 


1^22 


•02 








396 


114 


+ 


445 


1^35 


+ 








410 


1-20 


+ 


459 


1-41 


•04 








424 


1-26 


+ 


473 


1-48 


•05 








438 


1-31 


+ 


487 


broke 










452 


broke 


+ 


Ultimate deflection 1"54. 

Broke in the middle after 
sustaining the weight for 
about two min. ; very sound. 


Ultimate deflection 1-07. 


Ultimate deflection 1-35. 


Broke 2 in. from centre; 
slight flaw. 


Broke when laying on the 
last weight ; slight flaw. 



The whole of the bars from the first up to the sixth meltings are soft, and 
work freely under the file. The crystalline structure of those in the above 
table exhibit a closely granulated texture round the edges and corners of the 
bars, the same, or nearly so, as those in the last tables. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1*00 in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 
weight 



Ultimate 

deflection 

(d). 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



6-771 



491-9 
375-5 

447-7 



1-54 
107 
1-35 



757-5 
401-7 
604-4 



6-771 



438-7 



1-32 



579-0 



96 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table VIL— Seventh Melting. 



Experiment 1. 

Section of bar 1^04 X 1-02 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 2. 

Section of bar 1025 x 1-02 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 3. 

Section of bar 1^02xl-02in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


32 
88 
144 
200 
256 
312 
340 
368 


•07 
•21 
•37 
•53 
•69 
•87 
•97 
broke 


+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
•02 


32 
88 
200 
284 
340 
382 
417 
438 
459 
487 
536 
592 


•06 
•18 
•49 
•72 
•90 

ro3 

115 

r23 
rsi 

1-44 

1^64 

broke 


+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
•02 
+ 
+ 

•04 
•1 


32 
88 
144 
200 
256 
312 
368 
396 
424 
452 


•06 

•19 

•34 

•51 

•68 

•87 

1^07 

1^19 

1-30 

broke 


+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
•01 


Ultimate deflection 1 ^04. 

Broke at centre ; slight 
flaw in one corner. 


Ultimate deflection 1^90. 

Broke in the middle ; very 
sound. 


Ultimate deflection 1^38. 

Broke 2^ in. from centre ; 
slight flaw. 



The general appearance of these irons is increased density in the fracture, 
with finely granulated edges, and increased hardness at the corners. On 
comparing these bars with those from the first and second meltings, an evi- 
dent change has taken place in the closeness of the granulated structure and 
increased hardness of the iron over the whole of the exterior surface of the 
bars. Colour the same as the last. 



Results reduced to those of bars TOO in. square. 





Specific 
gravity. 


Breaking 

weight 

(J). 


Uhimate 

deflection 

id). 


Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 


Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 

supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 

supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 


6 iu. between 
6 in. between 
6 in. between 


6-879 


346^9 
566-2 
434-4 


1-04 
1-90 
1-38 


360^7 

1075^7 

599^4 




Mean 


6-879 


4491 


1-44 


646^7 



ON THE MECHANICAL, PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



97 



Table VIII.— Eighth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 

Section of bar ^02x I'Ol in. 

Distance between the snp- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ExPERIMENr 2. 

Section of bar 1^02 X 1-02 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 3. 

Section of bar 1^01 X 1-02 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


32 
88 
144 
200 
256 
312 
366 
410 
438 
466 
494 
522 


•08 

•22 

•38 

•54 

•72 

•91 

114 

1-30 

1^42 

1-55 

1-74 

broke 


+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
•01 
•03 ' 

+ ! 

•07 
•15 


32 
88 
144 
200 
256 
312 
368 
424 
452 
480 
508 
522 


•06 

•19 

•35 

•51 

•70 

•86 

1^08 

131 

144 

1-57 

1-70 

broke 


+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
•02 
•03 
•05 
•08 
•13 


32 
88 
144 
200 
256 
312 
368 
424 
480 


•07 

•20 

•37 

•54 

•71 

•91 

M2 

1^38 

broke 


+ 

+ 
4- 

+ 
+ 
•04 


Ultimate deflection 1-88. 

Broke in the middle, frac- 
ture very sound. ! 

i 


Ultimate deflection 1^82. 

Broke after sustaining the 
weight rather more than one 
minute; sound. 


Ultimate deflection r56. 

Bar sound ; broke in the 
middle. 



In the eighth melting there appears to be no particular change from those 
in the two last tables. The bars continue to retain their compact form, with 
probably some slight increase in the densities of the exterior surfaces of the 
bars. No perceptible change in the colour. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1 •OO in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 
weight 



Ultimate jProductdx 

deflection j'^'^'-P^^' 

, ,■, of resisting 

^ ^' impact. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 

1853. 



7025 



306-6 
501-7 
465^9 



1^88 
1^82 
1^56 



952^4 

913 

726-8 



7-025 



491-3 



r753 



861^2 



98 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table IX. — Ninth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1-01 X I'Ol in. 


' Section of bar 1-01 X 1-01 in. 


\ Section of bar 1^02 X 1*01 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


! Distance between the sup- 


j Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•08 


+ 


32 


•06 


+ 


32 


•07 


+ 


88 


•21 


-r 


88 


•19 


+ 


88 


•22 


+ 


144 


•33 


+ 


144 


•32 


+ 


144 


•34 


+ 


200 


•47 


+ 


200 


•47 


+ 


200 


•49 


+ 


312 


•75 


+ 


256 


•62 


+ 


256 


•64 


+ 


396 


100 


+ 


312 


•77 


+ 


312 


•80 


+ 


424 


11 


•01 


368 


•96 


+ 


368 


•97 


+ 


480 


1-29 


•02 


424 


115 


+ 


424 


115 


+ 


508 


1-38 




508 


1-46 


•03 


480 


1-34 


+ 


522 


1-43 


•04 


536 


1-56 




508 


145 


+ 


556 


r53 


•06 


571 


1-75 


■07 


536 


broke 




564 


hroke 




578 


broke 










Ultimate deflection 1*56. 


Ultimate deflection 1-77. 
Broke 2^ in. from middle 


Ultimate deflection 1-53. 


Broke as soon as theweight 
was put on ; sound. 


as soon as the weight was 
laid on ; sound. 


Very slight flaw. 



The cohesive texture appears to increase, as the granulated surface of the 
fracture in all the three bars seem to indicate. There is greater uniformity 
in the crystals, which in these bars are very compact. No material change 
in the colour, which is gray, with a slight tinge of blue. 



Results reduced to those of bars l"00in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 

weight 

(A). 



Ultimate 
deflection 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



7.102 



7^102 



552-8 
566-6 
520-2 

546-5 



1-56 
1-77 
153 

1-62 



8625 

1002-8 

795^9 

885-3 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



99 



Table X.— Tenth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


1 Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1-01 x I'Ol in. 


Section of bar 1^03xl-01 in. 


Section of bar 105 X I'Ol in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


32 


•06 


+ 


32 


•06 


+ 


32 


•05 


+ 


88 


•19 


+ 


144 


•31 


+ 


88 


•15 


+ 


144 


•32 


+ 


256 


•58 


+ 


144 


•29 


+ 


200 


•49 


+ 


312 


•72 


-f 


200 


•41 


+ 


256 


•63 


+ 


368 


•85 


+ 


256 


•58 


+ 


312 


•77 


+ 


424 


100 


+ 


312 


•72 


+ 


368 


•93 


+ 


480 


119 


+ 


368 


•87 


+ 


452 


P21 


+ 


536 


l-3o 


+ 


424 


104 


+ 


508 


1^40 


+ 


578 


1^49 


•02 


480 


1^22 


+ 


536 


1-51 


•015 


613 


164 




536 


141 


01 


550 


157 


+ 


634 


173 


•05 


564 


1^52 




564 


broke 


+ 


641 


broke 




broke 






Ultimate deflection 1-62. 


Ultimate deflection 1^74. 


Ultimate deflection 1*52. 


Broke in the middle after 


Broke in the middle while 


Broke in the middle after 


sustaining the weight half a 


putting on the weight ; 


sustaining the weight half a 


minute; sound. 


sound. 


minute ; sound. 



This melting and the next present perfect uniformity throughout the 
whole surface of the fracture. The porosity in the centre has entirely dis- 
appeared, and the remarkable feature of these castings is, that of a firm 
grained iron, rather hard, but susceptible of being worked under the chisel 
and file. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1*00 in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 

weight 

(6). 



Ultimate 
deflection 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact 



Experiment 1 , bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports I 7-108 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 



Mean . 



7-108 



552-9 
616-1 
531^8 

56G-9 



1-62 
1-74 
1-52 

1-626 



895-6 
1072-0 
808-3 

921-7 



H 2 



100 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table XI — Eleventh Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 

1 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 103 X 101 in. 


Section of bar 1^04 x 1^03 in. 


Section of bar 1x1 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 1 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 1 Deflec- i 
tion in tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


inches. 


removed. 


inches, removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•05 


+ 


32 


•04 


+ 


32 


•06 


+ 


144 


•24 


+ 


144 


•32 


-j- 


88 


•15 


+ 


256 


•54 


+ 


256 


•58 


+ ' 


144 


•23 


+ 


368 


•78 


+ 


368 


•85 


+ 


200 


•42 


+ 


424 


•93 


+ 


424 


•97 


+ 


256 


•54 


+ 


480 


1-08 


+ 


480 


109 


+ 


312 


•68 


+ 


536 


1^23 


+ 


536 


1^24 


+ 


368 


•83 


+ 


592 


1^39 


+ 


592 


]^38 


+ 


424 


•95 


+ 


620 


1^48 


+ 


648 


1-53 


•01 


480 


1^12 


+ 


648 


1-55 


+ 


662 


1-57 


+ 


564 


134 


+ 


662 


1^58 


+ 


683 


1-65 


+ 


634 


1-57 


+ 


676 


broke 


+ 


690 


broke 


+ 


662 


broke 


+ 


Ultimate deflection 1-61. 


Ultimate deflection 1^66. 


Ultimate deflection 1^64. 


Broke in the middle after 
sustaining the weight 40 
seconds. 


Broke after sustaining the 
weight one minute. 


Broke in four places just 
as the weight was laid on. 



The bars from this melting are so nearly similar to those from the tenth 
as scarcely to require a description. They present the same uniformity in 
their crystalline structure, accompanied with rather a lighter gray colour. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1 •GO in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 

weight 

(6). 



Ultimate 

deflection 

(rf). 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

E\i)eriment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

M ;ar. 



7-113 



7-113 



649^8 
644^1 
662 

651-9 



1-61 
1-66 
1-64 

1-636 



1046-1 
1069-2 
1085^6 

1066^5 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



101 



Table XII.— Twelftli Melting. 



Experiment 1. 

Section of bar 101 X I'OS in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 2. 

Section of bar 1^03 X 1-02 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 3. 

Section of bar 1^03 X 1-02 in. 
Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


32 
144 
256 
312 
368 
424 
480 
536 
592 
620 
648 
676 


•07 
•18 
•57 
•70 
■82 
•97 
111 

r25 

1-39 

r46 

1^54 

broke 


+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 


32 
144 
256 
368 
480 
592 
676 
711 
739 
760 
781 
795 


•06 

•26 

•49 

•72 

•97 

1^23 

143 

l-b7 

1^62 

1-68 

P72 

broke 


+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
-•08 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 


32 
144 
256 
368 
424 
480 
536 
592 
648 
676 
690 
704 


•06 

•26 

•52 

•79 

•90 

1-02 

M7 

r30 

1^45 

1^56 

1-60 

broke 


+ 

+ 

+ 

-•02 

+ 

+ 
-•05 

+ 
-•08 

+ 

+ 


Ultimate deflection 1-60. 

Broke in the middle ; 
quite sound. 


Ultimate deflection 1^77. 

Broke in two places ; one 
fracture at the middle, the 
other 8 in. from that point. 


Ultimate deflection r63. - 

Broke while testing the 
deflection. 



There is a marked difl'erence in these bars when compared with those from the earlier 
meltings. Their resisting powers to strain have been nearly doubled, when compared with 
those obtained direct from the pig, or from the second, third, or fourth meltings ; and 
upon a careful examination of the fracture by the microscope, the same indications of a 
strong adhesive force is observable, accompanied with a finely-grained texture, which the 
fracture of each bar presents. The colour is a light gray. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1"00 in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 
weight 



Ultimate 
deflection 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Expeiiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



7160 



649-8 
756-7 
670 



160 
1-77 
1-63 



7^160 



6921 



1-666 



1039-6 
1339-3 
1092-1 



1153 



102 



REPORT 1853. 



Table XIII.— Thirteenth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 

Section of bar 1-03 x 1-03 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 2. 

Section of bar 1-03 X 1-02 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 3. 

Section of bar 1^03 x 1-03 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
iu lbs. 


Deflec- Deflec- 
tion in tion, load 
inches, removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- Deflec- 
tion in tion, load 
inches. 1 removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


32 
144 
256 
368 
424 
480 
536 
592 
648 
676 


•06 

•28 

•55 

•82 

•95 

MO 

1-25 

1-40 

1-56 

broke 


- o'5 


32 
144 
256 
308 
480 
564 
592 
620 
648 
662 
676 
690 


•05 
•27 
•51 
•75 

ro3 

1^28 
1^34 
1-42 
1^52 
1^57 
1^61 
broke 


-•04 
-•08 


32 
144 
256 
368 
424 
480 
, 536 
1 564 
592 
620 
634 
648 


•06 

•30 

•58 

•87 

1-02 

1^18 

r34 

1-42 

1^51 

1-61 

1-65 

broke 


-•04 
'-•'62 

o'ob 


Ultimate deflection 1-62. 
Fracture 2^ in. from cen- 
tre ; sound. 


Ultimate deflection 1^64. 
Broke iu the middle ; very 
sound. 


1 Ultimate deflection 1*68. 

Broke in the middle on 
taking the weight; sound. 



This iron presents a singular admixture of exceedingly sharp angulai- crystals, closely 
packed upon each other, and so tightly compressed as to give indications of great hardness. 
This is, however, not the case, as it yields to the action of the file, but not without difliculty, 
by taking the sharp edge of the teeth. In other respects it is a strong close-grained iron, but 
inferior to the twelfth melting, which is rather more ductile and more elastic. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1*00 in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 

weight 

(4). 



Ultimate 

deflection 

id). 



Product * X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



7'134 



6371 1-62 

656-6 1-64 

610-7 I 1-68 



7-134 



634-8 



1-646 



1032-1 
1076-8 
1025^9 



1044^9 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS, 103 

Table XIV. — Fourteenth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 

Section of bar r03 X 1-01 in. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 2, 

Section of bar 1^06 X 1^01 in. 
Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Experiment 3. 

Section of bar TOl X l^OSin. 

Distance between the sup- 
ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- Deflec- 
tion in tion, load 
inches, removed. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 
inches. 


Deflec- 
tion, load 
removed. 


32 
144 
256 
368 
424 
480 
536 
564 
592 
620 


•05 

•26 

•52 

•78 

•92 

\-0b 

1-21 

1-29 

1-37 

broke 


+ 
+ 
+ 
-•04 

+ 

+ 

-•05 

+ 
+ 


32 
144 
256 
368 
480 
536 
564 
592 
606 
620 
634 
648 


•05 

•25 

•46 

•71 

•97 

1^12 

M9 

128 

1^31 

134 

1^37 

broke 


+ 

+ 

+ 

-•04 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 


32 
144 
256 
368 
452 
508 
536 
550 
578 
592 
620 
634 


•07 
•31 
•57 
•87 
110 

r25 

135 
1^39 
1-47 
1-52 
159 
broke 


+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 


Ultimate deflection 1^43. 

Broke in two places ; one 
sound, the other faulty. 


Ultimate deflection 1^49, 

Bar sound; broke in the 
middle. 


Ultimate deflection 1^62. 

Broke in the middle as 
soon as the weight was put 
on. 




The bars from this melting are something like their prede- 
cessors in the last table, close and hard, with pointed angles 
rising on the surface of the fracture. This is a hard iron, very 
diflScult to work, and indicates brittleness when subjected to 
blows from a hammer. In its powers to resist impact it is how- 
ever more ductile than might otherwise be supposed, as the 
deflections were considerable, and not much inferior to those in 
the last two tables. Colour a hght sparkling gray, as exhibited 
in the annexed figure. 



Results reduced to those of bars TOO in, square. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft, 6 in, between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



Specific 
gravity. 



7^530 



7^530 



Breaking 

weight 

(d). 



595-8 
605-2 
609^4 



603^4 



Ultimate 
deflection 



V43 
1-49 
1-62 



Product * X 

d, or power 

of resisting! 

impact 



852 

901-7 

985^4 



1^513 



912-9 



104 



REPORT — 1853. 







Ta 


BLE XV. 


— Fiftee 


nth Melting. 






Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1-03 X 1-03 in. 


Section of bar 1-04 X 1^01 in. 


Section of bar 1^03 X 1-02 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


in lbs. 


inches. 


removed. 


^" 1^^- inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•04 


+ 


32 


■05 


+ 


32 


•05 


+ 


144 


•18 


+ 


144 


•21 


+ 


88 


•15 


+ 


256 


•37 


+ 


200 


•32 


+ 


144 


•25 


+ 


368 


•56 


-•05 


256 


•41 


-•02 


200 


•35 


+ 


424 


broke 




312 


•49 


+ 


256 


•45 


+ 








368 


•60 


-•03 


284 


•51 


+ 








396 


•64 




312 
326 
340 
354 


•56 
•59 

•61 
•65 


+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 


Ultimate deflection 0-64. 


Ultimate deflection 0-64. 


Ultimate deflection 0-G5. 


Bar sound ; broke in the 


Broke 1 inch from the 


Broke in the middle after 


middle while laying on the 
weight. 


middle; sound. 


carrying the weight 40 sees. 




On comparing the resisting powers of the iron from this melting 
with that of the last, it will be found that a sudden and rapid de- 
cline of nearly one-half the strength has taken place. Referring 
to the drawing of this iron, it will be observed that all the four 
corners have become silvered with a fine white frosted surface, 
which fully accounts for the brittle nature of the bars, and the 
consequent loss of adhesion in those parts furthest from the 
neutral axis ; and in which, when exposed to a transverse strain, 
is the principal strength of the bar. Colour a light gray, sur- 
rounded with four triangles of white silvery iron at each corner, 
as seen in the figure. 

Results reduced to those of bars TOO in. square. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. C in. between 
sujiports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



Specific 
gravity. 



7-248 



r-248 



Breaking 

weiglit 

(b). 



399-6 
376-9 
336-9 



3711 



Ultimate 
deflection 



0-64 
0-64 
0-65 



0-643 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact 



255-7 
241-2 
218-8 



238-6 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



105 



Table XVI.— Sixteenth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1-03 X 1-01 in. 


Section of bar 1^0 x 1-01 in. 


Section of bar ] ^02 x 1'03 in. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. . 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•03 


+ 


32 


•04 


+ 


32 


•04 


+ 


88 


■10 


+ 


88 


•14 


+ 


88 


•10 


+ 


144 


•21 


+ 


144 


•24 


+ 


144 


•18 


+ 


200 


•29 


+ 


200 


•33 


-01 


200 


•26 


+ 


242 


•35 


+ 


j 228 


•38 


+ 


228 


•34 


+ 


270 


•39 


-03 


1 256 


•42 


+ 


256 


•38 


+ 


298 


•41 


+ 


I 284 


•46 


-•03 


284 


•42 


+ 


305 


•44 


+ 


' 312 


•51 


+ 


312 


•46 


+ 


319 


•47 


-•05 


326 


■54 


+ 


326 


•48 


+ 


333 


•49 


+ 


340 


•57 


+ 


340 


•49 


+ 


347 


•52 


+ 


347 


•59 


+ 


354 


•52 


+ 


368 


broke 


+ 


354 


broke 




368 


broke 




Ultimate deflection 0-56. 


Ultimate deflection 0^60. 


Ultimate deflection 0^53. 


Broke in the middle ; bar 
sound. 


Broke in the middle after 
sustaining the weight half a 


Broke 2 inches from the 
middle while laying on the 


minute. 


weight ; sound. 




l(«ulL^J^ 



In this melting the process of deterioration goes on rapidly ; 
the whole surface of the fracture (with the exception of a circle 
of closely granulated gray iron, about one quarter of an inch in 
diameter) is a white silvery formation pressing hard upon the in- 
ternal core of gray iron, as shown in the figure. The most re- 
markable feature of the process is the fine frosty appearance of the 
external surface of the bars, and the extreme hardness of this 
portion of the metal, on which the best cast-steel makes no im- 
pression. 



Results reduced to those of bars 1*00 in. square. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



Specific 
gravity. 



7-330 



7-330 



Breaking 
weight 



353^7 
350^4 
3501 



351-3 



Ultimate 
deflection 

id). 



0^56 
0-60 
0-53 



0-566 



Product b X 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



198 

224-2 

185-5 



198-1 



106 



REPORT — 1853. 



Table XVII,— Eighteenth Melting. 



Experiment 1. 


Experiment 2. 


Experiment 3. 


Section of bar 1-03 X 1-02 in. 


Section of bar 1-03 X 1-03 in. 


Section of bar 1-03 x 104. 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


Distance between the sup- 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


ports, 4 ft. 6 in. 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


Weight 
in lbs. 


Deflec- 
tion in 


Deflec- 
tion, load 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


inches. 


removed. 


32 


•03 


+ 


32 


•04 


+ 


32 


•03 


+ 


88 


•10 


+ 


88 


•11 


+ 


88 


•08 


+ 


144 


•18 


+ 


144 


•18 


+ 


144 


•14 


+ 


200 


•27 


+ 


200 


•26 


+ 


200 


•20 


+ 


256 


•35 


+ 


256 


•34 


+ 


256 


•28 


-03 


270 


•38 


+ 


284 


•39 


+ 


284 


•34 


+ 


284 


•40 


+ 


298 


•41 


+ 


298 


•36 


+ 


298 


•42 


+ 


312 


broke 




305 


•37 


+ 


312 


•45 


+ 








312 


•38 


+ 


326 


•47 


+ 








319 


•39 


+ 


340 


•48 


+ 








326 


■41 


+ 


354 


broke 
















Ultimate deflection 0-49. 


Ultimate deflection 0-43. 


Ultimate deflection 0-41. 


Broke 2 inches from the 


Broke 3 inches from the 


Broke in the middle after 


middle while laying on the 


middle while laying on the 


sustaining the weight 2 mi- 


weight; sound. 


weight ; sound. 


nutes ; sound. 




The above completes the series on the transverse strengths 
as weU as the working powers of this iron, which after these 
repeated meltings are really of little value. Such iron 
may be of some use in mixing with the finer and more fluid 
descriptions of iron ; but its obdurate, brittle, and uncertain 
character renders it totally unfit for purposes in connection 
with the useful arts. Appearance white and silvery over the 
whole surface of the fracture. See figure. 



Results reduced to those of bars TOO in. square. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Breaking 

weight 

(b). 



Ultimate 

deflection 

(d). 



Product b x 

d, or power 

of resisting 

impact. 



Experiment 1, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 2, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Experiment 3, bar 4 ft. 6 in. between 
supports 

Mean 



7^385 



336-9 
2940 
307-2 



0-49 
0-43 
0-51 



1650 
126-4 
156-6 



7^385 



312-7 



0476 



148^8 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



107 



The slight deteriorations and loss of strength from the first up to the 
eighth melting, and the progressive and striking increase which took place 
from the eighth up to the maximum* or the twelfth melting, indicate some 
curious and interesting pheenomena in the fusion of cast iron. It will be 
observed that after the first melting, there is a steady and progressive de- 
crease of strength till the fourth melting, when it again begins to rise and 
keeps steadily on the ascent till the thirteenth melting, when it again begins 
to decrease, at first progressively up to the fifteenth, when it suddenly falls 
from 603 to 371, and from this again downwards to the last or eighteenth 
melting, when it falls as low as 312; and at which time the iron becomes 
perfectly useless, from its flinty hardness and its obdurate nature in resisting 
the attacks of the hardest steel. 

The general summary will, however, exhibit the peculiar properties of the 
irons produced from each melting. Some of them, but more particularly 
those towards the close of the experiments, presented appearances in their 
sectional fractures of an extremely curious character. These I have en- 
deavoured to describe at the bottom of each table ; and I now refer to the 
following summary, where the results of each experiment will be found ta- 
bulated in the order in which they were made. 

General Summary of Results. 



No. of 
melting. 


No. of ex- 
periment 
and bar. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Breaking 
weight. 


Mean 
breaking 
weight. 


Ultimate 
deflec- 
tion. 


Mean 
ultimate 
deflec- 
tion. 


Mean 
power of 
resisting 
impact. 




fl." 




f 463-7 




ri-271 






1. 


J. 2.}. 

L3.J 

fl.' 


6-949 


\ 536 
[470 
f 443-1 


-490 


< 1-54 . 
1.1-51 
fl-48'^ 


1-44 


705-6 


2. 


J. 2. . 
[3. 
fl.' 


6-970 


- 508-0 
374-7 
'396 


-441-9 


■I 1-67 I 
[1-I9J 

f 1-42'^ 


1-446 


638-98 


3. 


J. 2. . 
[3. 
fl.' 


6-886 


^ 396 
412-9 
'347 


-401-6 


■ 1-43 I 

1-61 J 

'l-0l1 


1-486 


596-7 


4. 


■{ 2. - 

[3. 
f 1.' 


6-938 


^ 415-6 

477-7 
'418-5 


► 413-4 


■ 1-22 I 

1-55 J 

'1-48-1 


1-26 


520-8 


5. 


\ 2. - 
[3. 
f 1." 


6-842 


■ 461-3 
415 

'491-9 


► 431-6 


- 1-57 [ 

1-46 J 

'1-541 


1-503 


648-6 


6. 


■^ 2. ^ 

Ls.J 

fl.1 


6 771 


- 375-5 
447-7 
'346-9 


■ 438-7 


■ 107 [ 
1-35 J 
1-04] 


1-32 


579-0 


7. 


<2.}- 
[3.J 
fl.1 


6-879 


■ 566-2 

434-4 

'506-6 


.449-1 


■ 1-90 I 
1-38 J 

'1-881 


1-44 


646-7 


8. 


1 2. ). 
L3.J 
fl.1 


7-025 


■ 501-7 

465-9 

'552-8 


► 491-3 


^ 1-82 I 

1-56J 

'1-561 


1-753 


861-2 


9. 


■^ 2. ^ 
U-J 
fl.1 


7-102 


■ 566-6 

520-2 

'552-9 


-546-5 


■ 1-77 y 

1-53 J 
1-621 


1-62 


885-3 


10. 


fl.1 


7-108 


- 616-1 

531-8 

'649-8 


-566-9 


■ 1-74 i 

1-52 J 

'1-611 


1-626 


921-77 


11. 


i 2. [ 

l3.J 


7-113 


■ 644-1 
662 


-651-9 


■ 1-66 [ 
1-64J 


1-636 


1066-5 



108 



REPORT — 1853. 



General Summary {continued). 



No. of 
melting. 


No. of ex- 
periment 
and bar. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Breaking 
weight. 


Mean 
breaking 
weight. 


Ultimate 
deflec- 
tion. 


^[ean 
ultimate 
deflec- 
tion. 


Mean 

power of 

resisting 

impact. 




r 1, 1 




f 649-8 


1 


[1-601 






12. 


1 2. I 

L 3- J 
f 1. 1 


7-160 


\ 756-7 
[670 
f 637-1 


1692-1 


1-77 

[ 1-63 J 
f 1-621 


1-666 


1153 


13. 


\ 2. \ 
L 3. J 

r 1- 1 


7-134 


\ 656-6 
[610-7 
f 595-8 


1 634-8 


[ 1-68 J 
f 1-431 


1-646 


1044-9 


14. 


\ 2. \ 
L 3. J 

r 1- 1 


7-530 


\ G05-2 

609-4 

f 399-6 


■ 603-4 


\ 1-49 \ 
[ 1-62 J 
f 0-641 


1-513 


912-9 


15. 


1 2. ^ 
L 3. J 

r 1- 1 


7-248 


\ 376-9 

336-9 

f 353-7 


■ 371-1 


\ 0-64 \ 
[0-65] 
f 0-561 


0-643 


238-6 


16. 


■ 2. ^ 
3. J 


7-330 


\ 350-4 
350-1 


.351-3 


\ 0-60 \ 
[ 0-53 J 


0-.'>66 


198-8 


17. 


The 17th 


melting was a failure, the iron being too stiff to run into bars. 




r 1- 1 




[336-9 


1 


r 0-49] 




18. 


[t] 


7-385 


\ 294-0 
[307-2 


Ul2-7 


\ 0-43 \ 
[ 0-51 J 


0-476 148-8 



Forming an abstract of the above' faljle, an'd taking the mean of the break- 
ing weight, deflection, &c. of all the esjiefiments, we arrive at the following 
results : — 

Ultimate Results as derived from the whole of the melting.*'. 



No. of 


Specific 


Mean 
breaking 


Mean 
ultimate 


Power to 
resist 
impact. 


meltings. 


gravity. 


weight 
in lbs. 


deflection 
in inches. 


1. 


6-969 


490-0 


1-440 


705-6 


2. 


6-970 


441-9 


1-446 


630-9 


3. 


6-886 


401-6 


1-486 


596-7 


4. 


6-938 


4J3-4 


1-260 


520-8 


5. 


6-842 


431-6 


1-503 


648-6 


6. 


6771 


438-7 


l-3'20 


579-0 


7. 


6-879 


449-1 


1-440 


646-7 


8. 


7-025 


491-3 


1-753 


861-2 


9. 


7-102 


546-5 


1-620 


885-3 


10. 


7-108 


566-9 


1-626 


921-7 


11. 


7-113 


651-9 


1-636 


1066-5 


12. 


7-160 


692-1 


1-666 


1153-0 


13. 


7-134 


634-8 


1-646 


1044-9 


14. 


7-530 


603-4 


1-513 


912-9 


15. 


7 248 


371-1 


0-643 


238-6 


16. 


7-330 


351-3 


0-566 


198-5 


17. 


lost. 








18. 


7-385 


312-7 


0-476 


148'8 



The above constitutes the results as obtained from the whole series of 
meltings, and it will be observed that the maximum of strength, elasticity, 

&c. is 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



109 



&c. is only arrived at after the metal has undergone twelve successive melt- 
ings. It is probable that other metals and their alloys may follow the same 
law, but that is a question that has yet to be solved, and that jirobably by a 
series of experiments which would require a considerable amount of time and 
labour to accomplish. 

Having effected the experiments on the resistance of these metals to a 
transverse strain, I next availed myself of a large wrought-iron lever and a 
strong cast-iron frame, mounted for other researches, to ascertain their relative 
powers of resistance to compression. This powerful apparatus had a lever 
17 feet long, 12 inches deep, and 2| to nearly 3 inches thick, and tapered to 
about 5 inches deep at the extreme end, where the weights were suspended. 
This will, however, be better understood by the foregoing figure, which ex- 
hibits the iron frame, lever, scale, weights, &c. by which the experiments 
were effected, and the results in the following Tables obtained. A is the 
lever, B the cast-iron frame, and C the shelf with a solid column below, 
over which the specimen to be crushed was placed between two perfectly 
flat steel discs at a. The column D was inserted under the shoulder of the 
lever resting upon the specimen and upper disc, and retained in its vertical 
position by the guide-plate E ; the metal cubes were crushed by adding 
weights of 56 and 28 lbs. at a time to the scale F. 

In this way the whole of the specimens were crushed ; and in order to pre- 
vent the weight falling so as to injure the fractured parts, a stop was placed 
under the lever at G to receive the fall of the lever and scale when fracture 
ensued. 

On the Resistance of Cast-iron, derived from repeated Meltings, to the Force 
of Compression. 

The extraordinary results obtained from the foregoing experiments on a 
transverse strain, induced a further extension of them to that of compression, 
or the resisting powers of the metals in their different stages of successive 
meltings to a force tending to crush them. This was a work of some diffi- 
culty, as we found by repeated trials that our apparatus was not sufficient 
to crush 1 inch cubes, and particularly those of the higher meltings, which 
required a force of upwards of 90 tons to the square inch to produce frac- 
ture. Finding the power of the lever inadequate for this purpose, the cubes 
were reduced from 1 inch to a base of three-fourths and five-eighths of an 
inch; and having fixed the fulcrum of the lever equivalent to a force of 
100 tons, the experiments were proceeded with consecutively in the order of 
the meltings, as exhibited in the following Tables. 

Experiments to determine the comparative resisting powers of cast-iron cubes 
derived from repeated meltings, to a force tending to crush them. 

Experiment I. — First Melting. 



No. of ex- 
periment. 




Dimension 
ofspecimen 
in inches. 


Weight 
laid on in 
pounds. 


Resistance 
in tons. 


Resistance 

per square 

inch in 

tons. 


Remarks . 


Lever 1 
2 
3 
4 


f cube 


9,940 
54,580 
56,268 
58,056 






Marked Experiment IL 

/ Crushed after sustaining the load a 
\ few seconds. 


25-9 


46-0 



110 



REPORT — 1853. 

Experiment II. — Second MeltiiiE 



No. of ex- 
periment. 


Dimension Weight 
of specimen laid on in 
in inches, pounds. 


Resistance 
in tons. 


Resistance 

per square 

inch in 

tons. 


Remarks. 


Lever 1 

2 
3 


f cube 9,940 
1 54,580 
' 55,476 






From Experiment V. 

r Crushed at once when the weight was 
\ laid on. 


24-7 


44-0 



Experiment III. — Second Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 


f cube 


9,940 
54,580 






From Experiment VI. 

r Crushed before the whole of the load 
< was laid on ; 54,000 lbs, would pro- 

[ bably be nearer the crushing weight. 


24-3 


43-2 



Having made two experiments on the second melting, it will be necessary 
to reduce them to the standard of one experiment = 43*6 tons per square 
inch, which may be taken as the mean resistance of the second melting. 

Experiment IV. — Third Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 



I cube 



9,940 ! From Experiment VII. 

51,790 23-1 41-1 Crushed with this weight. 



Experiment V. — Fourth Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 


f cube 9,940 
51,342 






From Experiment XIL 1 
/Crushed when laying on the last 
\ weight. 


22-9 


40-7 



Experiment VI. — Fifth Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 
3 


fcube 


9,40 
51,342 
51,790 






From Experiment XIV. 

/ Crushed at once when the full weight 
\ was on the lever. 


23-1 


41-1 



Experiment VII. — Sixth Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 


1 cube 


9,940 
51,790 






From Experiment XVIII. | 
/ Crushed in the same way as last ex- 
\ periment. 


23-1 


411 



Experiment VIII. — Seventh Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 
3 


f cube 


9,940 
51,342 
51,566 


1 


From Experiment XXI. 
Crushed with this weight. 


230 


40-9 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 
Experiment IX. — Eighth Melting. 



Ill 



No. of ei- 
periment. 


Dimension 
of specimen 
in inches. 


Weight 
laid on in 
pounds. 


Resistance 
in tons. 


Resistance 

per square 

inch in 

tons. 


Remaiks. 


Lever 1 
2 


f cube 


9,940 
51,790 






From Experiment XXII L 
fThis specimen gave evident signs of 
rupture with this weight, and iilti- 
mately gave way after sustaining it 
for about twenty seconds. 


23- 1 


41-1 



















Experiment 


■ X.— Ninth Melting. 


Lever 1 
2 
3 


J cube 


9,940 
51,790 
69,430 






From Experiment XXV. 
Crushed with this weight. 


31-0 


551 



The great weight required to fracture the specimens in this experiment 
gave rise to suspicion that something might be wrong with the apparatus or 
the weights on the lever. On careful inspection everything was found cor- 
rect, and it appeared difficult to account for the discrepancy. On examina- 
tion it was however found to be a closer and harder metal than its prede- 
cessor, and comparing this with Experiment XXIII. on the transverse strain, 
it will be found, from the deflection, that the former is softer and more ductile. 







Experiment 


XL— Tenth Melting, 


Lever 1 
2 
3 


f cube 


9,940 
51,790 
72,790 






Fiom Experimeut XXVIII. 
Crushed. 


32-5 


57-7 



Experiment XII. — Eleventh Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 
3 


i cube 


9,940 

54,580 
87,060 






From Experiment XXX IL 
Crushed. 


38-3 


69-0 



Experiment XIIL — Eleventh Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 
3 


f cube 


9,940 
54,580 
89,076 






From Experiment XXIII. 
Crushed. 


39-7 


70-6 



The ultimate crushing force of the two last experiments, both from the 
eleventh melting, are 

8Y, 
89,( 

which may be taken as the force required to crush the eleventh melting. If 
we compare the last three experiments with their respective tables, we shall 
18.53. I 



),076 Ibsi} ^^*"' ^^'^^ ^^" 



112 



REPORT — 1853. 



find this iron of a high order as regards strength ; whether viewed in its 
power of resistance to compression or a transverse strain, it is alike conclu- 
sive in its measure of strength. In both cases it was approaching its 
maximum power of resistance, as may be seen on comparing the three last 
experiments with those from which the iron was taken in the other. 

Experiment XIV. — Twelfth Melting. 



No. of Ex- 
periment. 


Dimension 
of specimen 
in inches. 


Weight 
laid on in 
pounds. 


Resistance 
in tons. 


Resistance 

per square 

inch in 

tons. 


Remarks. 


Lever 1 
2 
3 


1 cube 


9,940 
54,580 
92,212 






From Experiment XXXV. 
Crushed. 


41-1 


731 


Experiment XV. — Thirteenth Melting. 


Lever 1 
2 
3 


f cube 
» 


9,940 
54,580 
83,252 






From Experiment XXXVII. 
Crushed. 


371 


660 



In the three last experiments the specimens were indented to a depth of 
about the 40th part of an inch into the solid steel plates, and this may ac- 
count for the comparative weakness of the thirteenth melting, as the spe- 
cimen in the last experiment did not lie solid upon the plates. 

Experiment XVI. — Fourteenth Melting. 



Lever 1 

2 

- 3 


f cube 


9,940 

54,580 

120,884 






From Experiment XLIL 
Crushed with this weight. 


53-9 


95-9 



From the great weight required to fracture this specimen — nearly 100 tons 
to the square inch — I find on examining the fracture that the iron was so 
excessively hard as to make indentation into the steel plate to a depth of 
nearly one-twelfth of an inch. The colour was a whitish gray, and harder 
than cast steel. 







EXPERI 


ment XVII.— Fifteenth Melting. 






9,940 
54,580 






From Experiment XLIII. 


2 










3 


" 


67,124 


29-9 


76-7 


Crushed. 



The increased weight required in the previous experiment induced 
change in the size of the remaining specimens, which were reduced to five- 
eighth-inch cubes. 

On examination we found this specimen to contain a band of exceedingly 
white hard iron, the interior of a bluish tinge, and much softer than the 
corners or the outer edges. This will account for the comparatively smal 
weight which produced fracture in this when compared with the previous ex- 
periment. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OP METALS. 
Experiment XVIII. — Sixteenth Melting. 



113 



No. of Ex- 
periment. 


Dimension 
of specimen 
in inches. 


Weight 
laid on in 
pounds. 


Resistance 
in tons. 


Resistance 

per square 

inch in 

tons. 


Remarks. 


Lever 1 
2 
3 


f cube 


9,940 
54,580 
61,748 






From Experiment XL VII, 

[This specimen was crushed; one side 
\ soft and the other hard. 


27-5 


70-5 



The seventeenth melting failed in the casting, the metal being too stiff to 
run into bars. 

Experiment XIX. — Eighteenth Melting. 



Lever 1 
2 
3 


f cube 


9,940 
54,580 
77,060 


34-4 


88-0 


r Crushed after making a deep indenta- 
j tion into the steel plates on both 
L sides. 



In this experiment the pressure was so great as to cause an adhesion of 
the two metals, the specimen being so closely incorporated with the plates 
as to require a hammer to effect the separation. 

Collecting the results obtained from the foregoing experiments into a 
table of resistances to pressure, we have, in these resistances, derived from 
the different meltings a remarkable uniformity up to the ninth melting, and 
from that to the twelfth ; which it will be observed is the maximum point 
of strength in the resistance to a transverse strain. From this point there 
is a steady increase of resistance to compression. This is again pro- 
gressive, until it reaches the maximum, or the fourteenth melting, where its 
powers are doubled, and from this again to the eighteenth melting its resist- 
ing power decreases, as may be seen by the following abstract of results. 

Abstract of Resistances from the foregoing Experiments. 



Number oi 
meltings. 


Resistance to 
compression 
per square 
inch in tons. 


Remarks. 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11} 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
18 


44-0 
43-6 
41-1 
40-7 
41-1 
41-1 
40-9 
41-1 
551 
577 

Mean69-8 

731 1" 
66-0 i 
95-9 
76-7 '■ 
70-5 
88-0 


In this experiment the cube did not bed pro- 
perly upon the steel plates, otherwise it 
would have resisted a much greater force, 
probably 80 or 85 tons per square inch. 



x2 



114 



REPORT 1853. 



On a careful examination of the drawings which exhibit the line of frau- 
ture of the cubes derived from the different meltings, it will be observed 
that up to the tiiirteenth melting the whole of the specimens appear to yield 
at one and the same line of fracture, namely, by wedges which are split, or 
which slide off diagonally at an angle varying from 52° to 58°. This appears 
to agree with the experiments of Professor Hodgkinson on the mechanical 
properties of iron obtained from the hot and cold blast *. In speaking of 
the angle of the wedge he states, that " We have seen that when bodies 
are subjected to a crushing force, their fracture, if they do not break 
by bending, is caused by the operation of a cone or wedge, which seems, 
under various circumstances, to slide off at nearly a constant angle. If a 
prismatic body, as for instance a short cylinder, be subjected to a crushiug 
force, there seems no reason why fractures should take place one way more 
than another ; there is usually, too, in soft irons a bulging out in every di- 
rection round the cylinder, which shows that it is equally strained all round ; 
a matter which is otherwise exemplified in fig. 8. If, then, the cylinder be 
longer than the wedge, or than the two cones, which are always in operation 
at the ends during crushing, it is evident that the angle of the wedge and 
cones, which is the same, will depend upon the nature of tlie material, and 
the cones nmst be isosceles. Cylinders longer than the wedge usually slide 
off in one direction without showing the cones." 

The resisting powers of iron, stone, and other materials to a crushing 
force, have been ascertained by various writers; but the most accurate and 
extensive — excepting only those of recent date — are probably those by Mr. 
George Rennie. Rondelet made a considerable number of experiments on 
stone and wood of various kinds; but those by Mr. Rennie appear to be 
the most conclusive, and give evidence of the great accuracy with which 
Mr. Rennie's experiments were conducted. Professor Hodgkinson took up 
the subject where Mr. Rennie left off; and the experiments recorded in the 
preceding Tables are to a great extent analogous with those by Rennie and 
Hodgkinson. It may be interesting, for the sake of illustration, to compare 
them. Taking the mean of the different meltings as shown in the follow- 
ing Table, we have an approximate ratio of the forces required to crush 
cast iron under the separate forms which indicated the experiments made 
by Mr. Rennie, Mr. Hodgkinson, and myself. 





Crushing 

weight per 

S(juare inch 

in tons. 


Mr. Rennie's experi- 
ments. 
Crushing weight per 
square inch in tons. 


Mr. Hodgkinson's experiments. 

Crushing weight per square 
inch in tons. 


Mean of eight consecutive"! 
meltings J 

Mean of five meltings, from "1 


41-9 
64-3 

82-8 


69-8 
Mean of eight exps. 

79-3 
Mean of five exps. 

79-5 
Mean of five exps. 


64-9. Devon No. 3. 
Hot blast. 

36-7. Coed-Talon No. 2. 
Hot and cold blast. 

55-5. Carron No. 3. 

Hot and cold blast. 


Mean of fonr meltings, from'j 
thirteen to eighteen, omit- 
ting the seventeenth J 




630 


76-2 


52-3 





The comparisons will therefore stand as the numbers 76, 63 and 52. The 
discrepancies observable in the different experiments may be accounted for j 

* See Report on the Properties of Hot and Cold Blast Iron, Transactions of the British \ 
Association for the Advancement of Science, vol. vi. 



ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS. 



115 



in those by Mr. Reniiie, which were evidently made on small specimens, 
which being cast of such limited dimensions invariably produce a hard 
casting exceedingly difficult to crush ; and as those of Mr. Hodgkinson 
were made, the first from Devon No. 3, an exceedingly hard and rigid iron, 
and the others from the Carron No. 3, a comparatively strong iron, and 
the Coed-Talon No. 2, hot blast, a soft, fine working iron, the difierences 
under these circumstances may be easily accounted for. 

The Eglinton No. 3 iron, from which the results of the different meltings 
were obtained, is very similar in character, but rather stronger than the 
Coed- Talon No. 2. Up to the eighth melting it will be observed that the 
ordinary power of resistance to a crushing force, namely, about 40 tons to 
the square inch, is indicated. Afterwards, as the metal increases in strength, 
from the eighth to the thirteenth melting, a very considerable change had 
taken place, and we there have 60 instead of 40 tons as the crushing force. 
Subsequently, as the hardness increases, but not the strength, double the 
power is required to produce fracture. 

From these results we arrive, in round numbers, at the following con- 
clusions, viz. — 

Crushing force in tons 
per square inch. 

1st. In cast iron derived from consecutive meltings,"! 

we have up to the eighth m«hing the ordinary > = 40 
powers of resistance. J 

2nd. From the eighth to the thirteenth melting, or"^ 

nearly the point of maximum strength, the \ _ 
power of resistance to strain has increased 
more than one half. 

And, lastly, from the commencement of deteriora- 
tion, from the thirteenth to the eighteenth melt- 
ing, and in which the eastings present a hard V = 80 
silvery fracture, the powers of resistance are | 
doubled. J 

These facts are the more interesting as they exhibit some curious pbasno- 
mena in connection with, not only the mechanical properties of iron, but 
their chemical affinities ; and my friend Professor C. Calvert, of the Royal 
Institution of this city, having kindly undertaken to analyse a few of the 
most remarkable samples of the experiments, I attach the particulars as 
follows. 

In ihe analyses of these irons, Mr. Calvert observes that the gradual in- 
crease of silica in the irons as they are progressively reunited are well 
deserving of attention ; as also, the increased quantity of sulphur and carbon, 
of which it will be observed by the following results that the increase in all 
the three substances is progressive from the first to the last meltings, as 
under. 



60 





Per-centage of 
Silicium. 


Per-centage of 
Sulphur. 


Per-centage of 
Carbon. 


Remarks. 




•77 
1-75 
1-98 
2 22 


•42 
•60 
•26 
•75 


2-76 
2-30 
3-50 
375 




Eighth melting 

Tenth melting; 

Eighteenth melting . 



In the above analyses there appears to be this remarkable fact, that the 
increase in the quantity of silicium is much greater than appearances would 



116 REPORT— 1853. 

indicate up to the tenth and twelfth meltings ; but it is probably not more 
than what might naturally be expected from the number of meltings and the 
quantity of limestone used each time as a flux. This flux, when in contact 
with the iron at a high temperature, would part with a portion of its silica, 
or, what is equally probable, the iron would take up its equivalent at each 
melting, and thus bear out the fact recorded in the table of the increase and 
relative importance of this constituent. 

As respects the sulphur, the surprise is that the increase is not greater, 
and that more particularly when the quantity contained in the fuel used is 
considered. In this constituent we are led to the conclusion that a gradual 
absorption from the coke must have taken place from the commencement to 
the end of the process, and in this view of the question the quantity taken 
up by the iron at the diflPerent meltings should have been nearly the same. 
This is, however, not the case, as we find the tenth melting of a purer quality 
by '34! than the eighth, and '^Q less than those of the eighteenth melting. 

In the relative increase of the quantity of carbon * there is not that dis- 
crepancy, as in the absorption of this constituent there is not a uniform but 
a variable increase; and from the first to the last melting there is an increase 
from 2*76 to 3'75, or nearly one per cent. 

The cliemical properties of these difl!'erent meltings are somewhat peculiar 
in character, and appear to be entitled to further investigation, and that by 
abler and more intelligent heads tlian my own. On some future occasion I 
hope to induce some of my chemical friends to take up the subject, and 
nothing will give me greater pleasure than to furnish the necessary facilities 
for such an inquiry. 

* Mr. Calvert states, in his note attached to the analyses, that the quantity of carbon 
contained in the specimens was determined in the usual way ; but the process adopted, 
although the best in use, was not calculated, in his opinion, to enable him to state the real 
amount of carbon in each specimen. 



Third Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phcenomena (continued). 
By Robert Mallet, C.E., M.R.I.A, 



1853. 



118 



REPORT 1853. 



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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PH.ENOMENA. 




120 



REPORT 1853. 






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n the Frioul many houses were throvni down. ( 
V. Hoflr (quoting Cotte) gives the date 10th 
June. 




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Accompanied by a violent hurricane -.• 

Accompanied by a noise like the jolting of a cart. 
The windows shook during the shock, and a 
ball or balls of firewere observed intheheavens. 
V Hoff, quoting Cotte, gives the date Oct. 20. 
Attended vrith a rumbling noise. The day was 
gloomy and perfectly calm, wind south, ba- 
rometer at 29-8 in. and thermometer in the 
shade 37''-3. Some china on a chest of drawers 
was moved an inch or two. Furniture was also 
moved, at Dover bells were made to sound, 
and at Calais loaves were thrown off the 


shelves in the bakers' shops, v. Hott, quo- 
ting Cotte, gives the date Nov. 24, 8^ a.m. 
, The houses were cracked and bells sounded o: 
themselves. At the observatory the shod 
was supposed to be vertical, as a plumb-lin« 
of 10 feet in length was not moved, and i 
i compass needle of 1 foot long deviated but 3' 
; The air was calm. A shock is mentioned a 
' 8i> 10"' A.M. of this day at Calais, Dunkirk 




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. Two violent shocks, o 
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195 



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of Java, vol. ii. p. 
d. p. 7 ; Verhan- 
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6 Juin et 4 Aout. 


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ON THE FACTS OF EARTHQUAKE PHiENOMENAt 



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NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

On the Expressions for the Quotients which appear in the application of 
Sturm's Method to the discovert/ of the Meal Roots of an Equation. Ey 
J. J. Sylvestkr, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

Many years ago I published expressions for the residues which appear in the 
application of the process of common measure to fx and f'x, and which constitute 
Sturm's auxiliaiy functions. These expressions are complete functions of the factors 
of/x and of differences of the roots of /«, and are therefore in effect functions of the 
factors exclusively, since the difference between any two roots may be expressed as 
the difference between two corresponding factors. Having found that in the prac- 
tical applications of Sturm's theorem the quotients may be employed with advan- 
tage to replace the use of the residues, I have been led to consider their constitution ; 
and having succeeded in expressing these quotients (which are of course linear func- 
tions of x) under a similar form to that of the residues, i. e. as complete functions of 
the factors and differences of the roots of/ar, I have pleasure in submitting the result 
to the notice of the Mathematical Section of the British Association. 

Let hih^hg A« be the n roots offx. 

Let Ciabc.l) in general denote the squared product of the differences of 
a, b, c. . . .1. 

Let Zi denote in general Sf (^ As,... . h^.), where di, 62,... di indicate any com- 
bination of t out of the n quantities a,h, c,.. , I, with the convention that Zq=\, 

Zj=n ; and let (i) denote ^ {l-(-(— 1)'}, being zero when i is odd, and unity when 
t is even ; then I find that the tth quotient Q, may be written under the form 

Q,=;pJ . {x-h,) + ,^,{x-h,) + &c +.Vl{x-h^), 

where in general 

Zy2 72 <72 



» e 



"7 va '72 rji 



x^i;(he,he^....hei_,)x(h^-he,XK-^e,) (A.-Aj.,,;}. 

1853. 1 



2 REPORT — 1853. 

f'x 
If we suppose - — , by means of the common measure process, to be expanded 

under the form of an improper continued fraction, the successive quotients will be 
the values of Qj Qj . . . . Qn above found. 

The successive convergents of this fraction will be 

JL Qa Q0Q3-1 . A 

Qi' Q,Q,-1 ' QAQ3-Q1-Q3' ' fa' 

The numerators and denominators of these convergents will consequently also be 
functions of the factors exclusively. They are the quantities the sum of the pro- 
ducts of which multiplied respectively by fx and f'x produce (to constant factors 
^res) the residues. The denominators are expressible very simply in terms of the fac- 
tors and the differences of the roots ; and their values under such forms were pub- 
lished by me about the same time as the values of the residues in the Philoso- 
phical Magazine ; the expression for the numerators is much more complicated, but 
is given in my paper, " The Syzygetic relations," &c., in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions. 

By comparing the expression for any quotient with the expressions for the two 
residues from which it may be derived, we obtain the following remarkable identity : — 

Z._jXZ,., i.e. ^^(hji,....hi_,)x:zi:(h,L....ki) 

■=iP' + iPl + iPl+ +,P„- 

When the roots are all real, we have thus the product of one sum of squares by the 

product of another sum of squares (the number in each sum depending upon the 

arbitrary quantity t), brought under the form of a sum of a constant number (n) of 

squares, which in itself is an interesting theorem. 

The expression above given for Qj leads to a remarkable relation between the 

f'x 
quotients and convergents to •'- — 

Let it be supposed, as before, that 

fx_ I 1 _J. 1 

fx Q,«— Q«a?— Qs*— Q„(*)' 

and let the successive convergents to this continued fraction be 

N.Cx) ^,{x) NaCa;) N„(a;) 

D,(a;)' D,{x)' D,{x) D»' 

where the numerators and denominators are not supposed to undergo any reduc* 
tions, but are retained in their crude forms as deduced from the law 

N,=Q, N,_,-N,_„ 

D,=Q,.D,_,-D,.,. 

Ni (x) being 1, and D, (x) being Q, (x), then it may be deduced from the pub- 
lished results above adverted to that 

D.W= ^r 5"' ^ {K{hM-hed {x-he,) (x-he.,) ...(x-he,)}. 

Hence 

ry2 "72 '72 

= ^■•-'- '•-=' ^'-'^+' D,_, (K) ; 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 3 

and we have therefore 

73 174 74 rfi 

i^e— ,7 • „4 '74 74 '-'t-lV'eJ' 

and consequently 

Q.=4^- i^ fK- s{(D,_,(^,)>.(.-;i,)}, 

^,- ^i_4 ^W + 1 

which is the general equation connecting the form of each quotient with that of the 
denominator to the immediately preceding unreduced convergent in the expansion of 

"— under the form of an improper continued fraction. 
/« . . 

If instead of the denominator of the unreduced convergents, the denominators of 
the convergents reduced to their simplest forms be employed, the powers of Z in the 
constant factor will undergo a diminution. The essential part of this theorem 
admits of being stated in general terms as follov*rs : — 

" If the quotient of an algebraical function of x by its first dilFerential coefficient 
be expressed under the form of a continued fraction whose successive partial quo- 
tients are linear functions of ar, any one of these quotients may be found (to a con- 
stant factor pres) by taking the sum of the products formed' by multiplying each 
factor (« — h) of the given function by the square of what the denominator of the 
immediately antecedent convergent fraction becomes after substituting in it for x the 
root corresponding to such factor." 

P.S. Since the above was read before the British Association, the theory has been 
extended by the author to comprise the general case of the expansion of any two 
algebraical functions under the form of a continued fraction, and has been incor- 
porated into the paper in the Philosophical Transactions above referred to. 



Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

On the Production of Crystalline Structure in Crystallized Powders by 
Compression and Traction. By Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., Sf V.P.R.S. Edinb. 

The author had found that by pressing certain crystalline powders against slips of 
glass, sometimes smooth, sometimes roughened by grinding, with the clean broad 
blade of a knife or spatula, and drawing it along, he could give to the mass of 
powder thus treated the same polarizing action on light possessed by large crystals 
of the same kind ; and which could be given to annealed glass and other non- 
crystalline substances by mechanical compression, but which they lost when 
relievid from the compressing force. The author then gave an enumeration of the 
crystalline powders in which he had succeeded by this compression and traction in 
producing this polarizing structure, — distinguishing those in which the glass over 
which they were so distributed required to be rough, from those in which it might 
be used smooth. He also enumerated the powders which he had tried, but in which, 
he had not succeeded in producing the same effect. 



On the Optical Phcenomena and Crystallization of Tourmaline, Titanium, 
and Quartz within Mica, Amethyst, and Topaz. By Sir D. Brewster, 
K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., ^ V.P.R.S. Edinb. 

The author, after stating that crystals of titanium within quartz had been long 
known and attended to, drew attention to the fact that regular crystals of tourmaline, 
titanium and quartz had been discovered by him within mica, amethyst and topaz } 
that in some instances these crystals had been found grouped in very regular 
figures, and that the groups of crystals were sometimes distributed over what were 

I* 



4 REPORT — 1853. 

obviously surfaces of inner crystalline forms of exactly the same shape as the entire 
crystal, from which the author drew inferences as to the original growing of the 
crystal. He also entered into an examination of some of the optical peculiarities of 
these crystals. 

On the Angle to be gwen to Binocular Photographic Pictures for the Stereo- 
scope. By A. Claudet, F.R.S. 

Mr. Claudet's paper, which was illustrated by several stereoscopic Daguerreotype 
pictures, went to establish some rules for the angle at which the photographic pic- 
tures must be taken in order to produce, without exaggeration, the best effect of 
relief and distance. The angle depended on the size we wished to give to the model 
and the distance at which we were looking at it, so that pictures taken at the 
same angle might produce different effects of relief and distance if they were exa- 
mined more or less amplified, and the converse might produce a contrary effect. To 
exemplify the relation between the stereoscopic effect and the dimensions of the 
image, Mr. Claudet observed, that when we look at objects with a double opera-glass, 
which magnifies say four times, we have four times less relief and less distance than 
■when we look at them with the naked eye ; and that when we turn the opera-glass, 
looking through the larger end, we diminish considerably the dimensions of objects 
and increase considerably the relief and distances. Mr. Claudet entered into some 
considerations of the principles of binocular vision, in order to explain the causes of 
perfect vision, with relief and solidity, which we obtain with two eyes. The photo- 
graphic image being the representation of two different perspectives, we must, when 
we look at them in the stereoscope as we do in looking at the natural objects them- 
selves, converge more or less the axis of the eye according to the plane on which 
the objects are represented or really situated. Therefore we make the same effort, 
and we have the same sensation, when we look at photographic pictures, as when 
■we look at the objects represented. When we look at a single picture with two 
eyes, we have less relief and less distance than when we look at the same picture 
■with one eye, because with one eye we have the natural effect we are accustomed to 
feel when we look at the natural objects with one eye, while, if we look at the single 
picture with two eyes, we have on the two retinae the same image with the same 
perspective, which is not natural, and the eyes have not to make the usual 
effort for altering their convergence according to the plane on which the object 
observed is situated. This inaction in the convergence of the eyes destroys in some 
measure the illusion of the picture, because the same convergence for all the objects 
represented gives an idea that they are placed on the same plane. The angle of the 
two binocular photographic pictures may be larger than the natural angle of vision, if 
■we suppose that the reduced model is examined at a small distance. If we have 
before us, at 2 or 3 feet, a model of our friends of the size they appear to be at 20 
or 30 feet, we have a greater effect of relief than if we were looking at them at 20 
or 30 feet, and this effect, instead of being a defect, is more artistic and satisfactory. 
We may reduce the model as much as we like, and look at it at the smallest distance 
possible ; but in order to preserve the proper proportion between the stereouropic 
effect of the nearest and furthest planes, we must take the photographic pictures 
with object-glasses having the longest focus possible. It is only when we employ, 
too, lenses of short focus that the stereoscopic effect is unnatural, being exaggerated 
for the more distant planes and reduced for the nearest. 



On the Practice of the Daguerreotype. By A. Claudet, F.R.S. 

This morning was devoted to Photography ; the Section having requested Prof. 
R. Hunt and Mr. Claudet to arrange the means of exemplifying all the processes at 
present employed. By the aid of the local photographic artists, this was accomplished 
in as satisfactory a manner as the suddenness of the occasion would admit of. Mr. Hunt 
explained all the processes on paper and on glass, while Mr. Claudet exhibited the 
manipulatory details of the Daguerreotype. A great number of very beautiful speci- 
mens of the art were exhibited. Two views in particular, executed by Messrs. Ross 
and Thomson of Edinburgh, of an unusually large size, were most remarkable for 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 5 

the perfection of every part. There was not anything new given in the discoveries 
or ehcited in the discussion which ensued, but from the crowded state of the Section, 
it appeared to excite much interest to the end. 

On the 3/ixture of Homogetieous Colours. 
By Professor Helmholtz, Konigsberg. 

The author pubUshed a year ago experiments on the mixture of homogeneous 
coloured light, which seemed to prove that there are only two colours in the solar 
spectrum capableof being combined into white, namely, yellow and indigo. He has 
repeated these experiments, following another method, similar to that lately described 
by M. Foucault, for obtaining larger fields equally dyed with the mixture of two 
homogeneous colours, and has found that there are more pairs of complementary 
colours in the spectrum. These colours are situated at both ends of the spectrum, 
~on one side from red up to a yellow shade, a little greenish, — on the other side 
from violet up to a blue shade, also a little greenish. The shades, however, in the 
middle of the spectrum, in which the green preponderates, cannot give white with 
any other homogeneous colour. Their complement is purple, and must be com- 
pounded by violet and red. The complementary colour of red is greenish-blue, — of 
orange, sky-blue, — of yellow, indigo, — of greenish-yellow, violet. 

The author found, moreover, that the complementary colours are arranged in the 
spectrum in a most irregular manner. As the breadth of the differently-coloured 
bands in prismatic spectra depends not only on the wave-length, but on the sub- 
stance of the prism, he refers the following results to interferential spectra, where 
the distance of two colours is proportional to the difference of their respective 
wave-lengths. If you pass with an equal velocity through the different colours of 
such a spectrum, the shade is altered very slowly at both its extremities on the red 
and violet ; but in those parts where the complements of red and violet are placed 
in the greenish -yellow and greenish-blue, the shade alters very rapidly, so that the 
distance of extreme red and golden-yellow is about ten times greater than the 
distance of their complementary colours, greenish-blue and sky-blue. 

The author observed two circumstances in these experiments which had prevented 
him in his former experiments from finding other complementary colours than yellow 
and indigo. At first, according to the pecuhar distribution of complementary shades 
in the spectrum, the said colours were able to give a larger white spot than the 
others. Secondly, it appeared to be very diflicult to the human eye, which is not 
quite achromatical, to find and to keep the right focal length for objects illuminated 
by two kinds of homogeneous rays of very different refrangibiUty . Indigo and yellow 
are of less different refrangibility than any other pair of homogeneous complementary 
colours, and are therefore easily combined. Others, as red and greenish-blue, on 
the contrary, are united in the same field of the retina with great difficulty. 

Finally, the author gave some remarks on the best method for bringing the whole 
variety of colours into a system. He stated that Newton's coloured disc appeared 
to be the most simple and complete manner. Some points, however, are to be 
changed. First, not only the seven principal colours of Newton must be arranged 
on the margin of the disc, but the whole infinite number of them existing in the 
spectrum, so that complementary colours are placed on the opposite ends of the same 
diameter. Secondly, the two ends of the spectrum cannot meet together, but must 
be separated by an interval, where the complementary colour of the green shades, 
namely purple, is to be intercalated. The commonly received theory of three prin- 
cipal colours includes a restriction of Newton's method, contradictory to the author's 
former experiments. 



On the Distribution of Electrical Currents in the Rotating Disc ofM. Arago. 
St/ Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 
After the discovery of the induction between the electro-magnet and the closed 
conducting circuit, Faraday conceived the idea of applying the extremities of a 
galvanometer upon a disc of copper revolving in the neighbourhood of a magnet. la 
this way he found the electric currents, which were developed by the induction 
of the magnet, upon the disc, of which the points change successively according to 



6 REPORT — 1853. 

the distance from the magnet ; and, by having recourse to the law of electro-mag- 
netism, he arrived at an explanation of the magnetism of rotation of M. Arago. The 
author, after giving some further historical details, proceeded to point out how per- 
plexing were the phsenomena arising from the abrupt and numerous changes of 
direction. He then proceeds to state his own conception of the subject, and to 
detail the experimental researches which he had founded upon them ; draws general 
conclusions from the experiments ; and has drawn up a simple and perspicuous 
diagram, indicating the poles of the magnet, the revolving disc, and the curves 
which show the neutral points upon the disc, and those indicating the directions of 
the tangential forces, or those giving to the disc the tendency to revolve, and all of 
which he finds to have a fixed relation to the position of the poles of the magnet and 
the velocity of the rotation. The memoir is to be published entire. 

On the Magnetism of Rotation in Masses of Crystallized Bismuth. 
By Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

The apparatus used by the author consisted of an electro-magnet caused to 
revolve by clockwork ; and the body to be submitted to the action of the electro- 
magnet was suspended between its poles. Sometimes he suspended it by a fine 
silver wire, and determined the force of torsion, when equilibrium took place, the 
body being usually suspended in water to check its tendency to vibrate. Sometimes 
he used a single thread of cocoon silk, and the forces developed were measured by 
counting the number of uniform rotations which took place in a given time. The 
author first describes certain preliminary experiments which he made with this 
apparatus. He suspended solid spheres of copper, and hollow spheric shells, of 
exactly the same diameter, formed by the electro-plate process, between the revolving 
poles, and measured the force by torsion. With a full sphere weighing 59'80gr., 
and a hollow one weighing 10'85 gr., he found the torsions in the proportion of 
1 :0*71. With spheres of a less size the differences were less than these. The 
author concludes from this that the internal shells of metal, on which the induced 
forces are less, serve to discharge the currents developed in the exterior shell ; and 
that an analogous effect shows itself in many other cases of magnetism of rotation. 
The author also submitted to the same apparatus a cube, formed of very thin square 
laminae of copper, insulated from each other by layers of varnish ; when this cube 
was suspended a few centimetres above the electro-magnet, so as to have its con- 
stituent laminae horizontal, it experienced no action from the magnet; but when its 
laminae were vertical it received a very rapid motion of rotation ; in this latter case 
the currents induced having the power to develope themselves freely, and circulate 
on each lamina, which cannot take ))]ace in the former case. In his experiments 
with crystallized bismuth compared with amorphous masses of the same substance, 
he found, — 1. That the forces developed by the revolving electro-magnet are greater 
for the amorphous masses of bismuth than for the crystallized metal ; 2. that the 
forces developed in the masses of crystallized bismuth are greater when the cleavages 
are disposed vertically and perpendicularly to the planes of the currents of the 
electro-magnet, than when these cleavages are placed horizontally. 

On tiie Magnetism of Rotation developed in very small Insulated Metaliic 
Particles. By Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

On Magnetic Phcenomena in Yorkshire. 
By John Phillips, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The author proposed, in this communication, to place on record some measures of 
the direction of magnetism in Yorkshire, and some inferences touching the relation 
of magnetism to the physical geography of the district. The magnetic declination 
from the true meridian is at this time about 24° to the W. of North at York, and is 
slowly diminishing. The magnetic inclination from the vertical, measured in the 
plane of the magnetic meridian, is now at York 70° 10', and is diminishing about 
2'*54 in a year. This result is obtained by comparing many careful observations 
between 1837 and 1853. 
. In tracing the lines of equal dip over the large area of Yorkshire, the author ems 



i 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 7 

ployed the results obtained at forty stations distributed over the whole, and he 
arranged these for a final conclusion in groups and lines related to the great natural 
features of the county. By the method of least squares it was found that the Isoclinal 
lines made with the meridian, on the average of the whole county, angles of 70° 31' 
to the east of north ; that the rate of maximum augmentation of dip was, on a line 
at right angles to this, 'SSS parts of a minute of dip for one geographical mile. But 
on examining by the same method, or by a simple graphical process, the direction of 
these lines in diflferent parts of the county, it was found that they were bent into 
large curves, so as to^retire southward across the great vale of York-, and to advance 
northward on the hilly regions to the west and east of this vale, but especially turn- 
ing up northward in the country between Flamborough Head and the mouth of the 
Tees. 

Besides other ways of viewing these phsenomena, the author called attention to 
the probable effect of the inclination of the strata, which by varying the direction of 
maximum pressure, as in the case of anticlinals and synclinals, would necessarily 
affect by a similar variation the direction of the suspended needle ; and he proposed 
as a new and curious question, the possibility of seeing, by help of the magnetic 
needle, through the parts of the crust of the earth near the surface, so as to trace the 
deep-seated axes and centres of movement, which by no other way could be made 
sensible to the geologist*. 

On Magnetism. By Professor PliJcker, Bonn. 

By repeating Dr. Faraday's experiments on diamagnetism six years ago, I first 
observed that a piece of charcoal suspended between the two poles of a magnet was 
either repelled or attracted, according to the distance from the poles. The same day 
I observed the same phsenomenon, when I substituted a prism of tourmaline for the 
piece of charcoal ; but these phsenomena, similar as they are in appearance, were 
produced by quite a different kind of magnetic action. I made a communication to 
the British Association, when I attended the Swansea meeting, on the particular 
action of a magnet on crystals, but I did not speak then on the other class of 
phsenomena, the transition from magnetic attraction into diamagnetic repulsion, 
which takes place on mixed bodies when the power of the magnet increases. I had 
deduced from a long series of facts, that by increasing this power the action on dia- 
magnetic bodies augments more rapidly than the action on magnetic ones. I believe 
it is a mathematical law, and being such a one, whatever may be its physical 
interpretation, is out of the reach of attack ; but I had not the satisfaction to see it 
generally adopted, therefore I undertook last summer a new series of experiments, 
which will give, I think, to that law a more universal character and a more distinct 
description. 

The experimental results I immediately obtained may be represented best by curves, 
giving for the different bodies I examined the law according to which the attraction 
produced by the electro-magnet varies with the intensity of the current made use of. 
If the induced magnetism were always in the same ratio as the inducing power, if 
there were no resistance against further magnetization either in the electro-magnet 
or in the body examined, that curve must be a parabola ; on the contrary, if the 
body were saturated with magnetism, it would be a straight line. Now by examining 
different substances, I got curves passing through all intermediate steps from one 
limit to the other one. Nickel is nearly saturated when I make use of one single 
element of Grove ; the hydrate of oxide of cobalt presents, under the same condi- 
tions, scarcely any resistance against magnetization. The resistance is also very 
small in oxygen ; it is very small too in bismuth and phosphorus, the two diamag- 
netic bodies I examined, wherein the repulsion by the magnet is to be substituted 
for the attraction exerted' on magnetic substances. Then comes oxide of nickel, 
oxide of iron, iron, cobalt, and at last nickel. 

From the curves I have spoken of, we may deduce others giving the intensity 

* In the discussion which followed, Prof. Pliicker confirmed .the truth of the supposition 
of Prof. Philhps, that such magnetic effects would follow from the varying direction of maxi- 
miun pressure, but whether the effects would be sensible must be settled by experiment. 



8 REPORT — 1853. 

of the induced magnetism in the different substances for any inducing power of the 
electro-magnet. All these curves will be very nearly represented by the equation 

M ^ I 
— =: tan — , 
c k 

M being the power of the magnet, I the intensity of the induced magnetism, and 
Ic and c two constants varying from one substance to another. The curve will be 
transformed into a straight line parallel to the axis when t)ie substance is saturated 
•with magnetism ; it will be an inclined straight line when there is no resistance 
against magnetization. Between these two straight lines are placed all our new 
curves. 

The Professor deduced the following conclusions : — 

1. For every substance, either magnetic or diamagnetic, there is a particular law, 
according to which the intensity of induced magnetism is determined by the inducing 
power. 

2. There is for every substance a limit of magnetization, to which it approaches 
more or less rapidly by increasing the power of the electro-magnet. 

3. The curves for diamagnetic bodies ascend very rapidly, much more rapidly 
than the curve for iron does. By means of these curves we may find in what pro- 
portion bismuth, for instance, is to be mixed with iron, so that the mixture may, 
by a given power of the magnet, be neither attracted nor repelled. 

4. An eminent German philosopher explained all diamagnetic phsenomena by ad- 
mitting that there is in diamagnetic substances no resistance to magnetization ; 
but his theory cannot hold, the curves for bismuth and phosphorus ascending more 
rapidly than the curves for most of the magnetic substances, but not so rapidly as 
the curves for oxygen and hydrate of oxide of cobalt. The Professor was much 
inclined to believe that all bodies retaining magnetism, as steel does, and, accord- 
ing to his experiments, also oxygen, oppose a very small resistance against magnetiza- 
tion. So may be explained in a more satisfactory way what has been improperly 
called " coercive force." 

5. There is, generally speaking, no specific magnetism, as there is a specific 
weight, a specific heat. The specific magnetism varies with the power inducing 
it. Cobalt is more magnetic than iron when we make use of one of Grove's elements ; 
but by giving to the current an intensity four times greater, the magnetism 
of cobalt becomes only i^ths of that of iron. Let the magnetism of iron be one 
million ; then by employing the stronger current and also the weaker one, the diamag- 
netism of the bismuth will be in the first case 39, in the second 23"6 ; while 
Professor Weber, making use of a much smaller inducing power, found only 10. So 
we may also, partly at least, explain why Edm. Becquerel gives for the magnetism 
of oxygen a number ten times less than Prof. Piiicker found, while his number agrees 
pretty well with the approximate estimation of Dr. Faraday, who employed nearly the 
same inducing power as he did. 

6. The Professor does not know what magnetism and diamagnetism are ; but the 
curves for diamagnetic bodies being included on both sides by curves for magnetic 
substances, he thinks there is no difference at all between the magnetic and diamag- 
netic states of bodies, except that the conditions inducing these two states are oppo- 
site ones. 

7. After having obtained his results, he was highly surprised by learning that a 
French philosopher, Lallemand, had deduced from experiment the law according to 
which the intensity of an induced current is dependent on the intensity of the in- 
ducing one. He found for this case exactly the same law that Prof. Piiicker got for 
magnetic induction. Though we do not know what an electric current really is, 
by supposing that I.allemand's law and Pliicker's are true laws of nature, not merely 
laws of approximation, we may conclude that magnetism and galvanism are one and 
the same agency of nature. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 

Specific Magnetism. 

Intensity of the current Intensity of the current 

= 1. =4. 

Iron 1000000 1000000 

Cobalt 1008900 912200 

Nickel 465700 350900 

Oxideofiron 758 954 

Oxide of nickel 286 405 

Hydrate of oxide of cobalt 2178 5015 

Bismuth 23-6 39-03 

Phosphorus 16-45 27-31 



On a New Photometer. By Astley Paston Price, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

The object sought in this modification of the Photometer is the combination of 
the two images usually obtained when estimating the difference of intensity' between 
two sources of illumination, and by so doing facilitating the valuation of the difference 
betweeen the light to be determined and a recognized standard. 

The Photometer is so constructed that the rays of light, after passing through 
orifices at either side of the instrument, impinge on two mirrors placed at an angle 
of 45° ; by such an arrangement, when an observation is made the two images are 
united, which facilitates the comparison and permits the more easy approximation 
to neutrality. 

The orifices may be of any desired form ; those which have been adopted are either 
oblong apertures covered with tissue paper, placed, on the one side horizontally, and 
on the other perpendicularly, or two semicircular discs may be substituted ; in the 
former case the two are united and crossed at right angles, and in the latter a circu- 
lar disc is obtained. It is obvious that any design may be adopted, the object being 
that the resulting combination shall afford facility of comparison. 



General View of an Oscillatory Theory of Light. 
By W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., F.R-S.S. Loud, and Edin. 

The author endeavours, while retaining the whole of the mathematical forms of 
the undulatory theory of light, to render the physical hypothesis which serves as its 
basis more consistent with itself and with the known properties of matter. Light, 
according to the undulatory theory in its most general sense, consists in the propa- 
gation of some species of motion amongst the particles of the luminiferous medium, 
the nature and magnitude of which motion are functions of the direction and length 
of certain lines transverse to the direction of propagation. According to the existing 
hypothesis of vibrations, this motion is a vibration of the atoms of the luminiferous 
medium in a plane transverse to the direction of propagation. In order to transmit 
motions of this kind, the parts of the luminiferous medium must resist compression 
and distortion, like those of an elastic solid body ; its transverse elasticity being 
great enough to transmit one of the most powerful kinds of physical energy with a 
speed in comparison with which that of the swiftest planets of our system is appre- 
ciable, but no more, and its longitudinal elasticity immensely greater ; both these 
elasticities being at the same time so weak as to offer no perceptible resistance to the 
motion of the planets and other visible bodies. The author considers that it is 
impossible to admit this hypothesis as a physical reality. He also points out the 
difficulties arising from certain inconsistencies in the present theory as to the rela- 
tion of the direction of vibration in polarized light to the plane of polarization. 

The author then proposes what he calls the hypothesis of oscillations, which con- 
sists mainly in conceiving that the luminiferous medium is composed of detached atoms 
or nuclei, distributed throughout all space, more or less loaded with atmopheres of 
ordinary matter, and endowed with a species of polarity, in virtue of which three 
orthogonal axes in each atom tend to place themselves parallel respectively to the 
three corresponding axes in every other atom ; and that plane-polarized light con- 
sists in a small oscillatory movement of each atom round an axis transverse to the 
direction of propagation, and perpendicular to the plane of polarization. The square 



IP REPORT — 1853. 

of the velocity of propagation of such a movement would be proportional directly to 
a coefficient depending on the rotative force, or polarity of the particles in a given 
space, and inversely to a coefficient denoting the sum of the moments of inertia of 
the luminiferous atoms in a given space, together with their loads of atmosphere, 
round the axes of oscillation. The author shows that it is necessary to suppose that 
the coefficient of polarity, for transverse axes of oscillation, is the same in all sub- 
stances and for all directions ; and that the variations in the velocity of light depend 
wholly on the variations of the moments of inertia of the luminiferous atoms, with 
their loads, in different substances and round different axes. The coefficient of 
polarity for longitudinal axes of oscillation must be supposed to be very great com- 
pared with that for transverse axes. How powerful soever the polarity may be which 
is here ascribed to the luminiferous atoms, it is a species of force which must neces- 
sarily be wholly destitute of effect in producing resistance to compression or distor- 
tion ; so that it is no longer necessary to suppose the luminiferous medium to have 
the properties of an elastic solid. 

The author deduces from this hypothesis the known mathematical laws of the 
wave-surface, of the intensity and phase of reflected and refracted light, and its 
plane, circular, and elliptic polarization, and of all other phaenomena to which the 
existing theory has been applied, the equations being identical in form. 

0?i the Composition and Figuring of the Specula of Reflecting Telescopes. 
By J. D. SoLLiTT, Hull. 

The author of this paper was of opinion that all makers of reflecting telescopes 
cast their metals too low in tin. He thinks they ought to be made in proportion to 
the true atomic weights of the two metals, which would give 32 parts of copper to 
17*4 of tin; and if this composition be found too difficult to work, it is easily 
reduced without injuring the colour of the metal by the addition of one or two parts 
of nickel. Such a composition he uses, and finds that the light reflected from it is 
perfectly white; and when the telescope is made, b. front view one, very nearly equal 
in quantity to an achromatic of the same aperture. He further observed that the 
pores may be taken out of a composition containing them by the addition of. 
metallic arsenic, he also repudiated the practice of fluxing the metal vath the salts of 
potash or soda as being highly injurious. In polishing he uses extremely hard 
pitch, so hard that no impression can be made upon it with the edge of a knife ; 
and the polishing powder (either putty or colcothar) he grinds very fine on a slab, 
and uses only a very small quantity, but works it down on the pitch for a very long 
time, and in order to obtain a very fine polish only puts the powder on the tool once. 
He prefers dividing the surface of the pitch by ten concentric circles, with six, eight, 
or ten radii, the radii being made gradually wider towards the edges of the tool ; 
and for the size of the tool, to produce a true parabolic figure, adopts the fol- 
lowing formulae : Let D = the diameter of the metal, d =: the diameter of the tool, 
and F = the focal length of the metal ; then, if worked with the metal below, 

d=:D— , or if the metal be above, d=T>-\- r^; in either case the metal will 

F-l-D F 

come oflF a true parabola, provided the pitch be of sufficient hardness and the powder 
worked down a sufficiently long time to produce a high polish. 

Description of a Graphic Telescope. By Cornelius Varley. 

The author drew attention to the imperfections and difficulties experienced in 
using the Camera Lucida, and then exhibited and described his instrument. The 
stand of it united great portability with complete steadiness j and the instrument 
itself, which had something of the appearance of a telescope, could be adjusted so 
as to focus the image exactly at the spot where the pencil was to delineate it, and 
the direct view of the point of the pencil easily caused to trace the picture to be 
drawn. The object-end also of the instrument could be turned round so as to place 
on the paper any portion of the landscape before the artist which he wished to deli- 
neate ; or, if his object were to take the inside of a building, he could take the ceiling, 
or roof, floor, or any portion of the sides, at pleasure. The Graphic telescope can 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. H 

give images of every size useful to an artist, up to the largest panoroma ; by this Mr. 
Horner traced the great panorama of London from the top of St. Paul's. The exist- 
ence of this instrument caused the Colosseum to be built. Through this instrument 
original sketches may be printed from. By taking the flat speculum from the ob- 
ject-end the images will be given the reverse way, and thus suited to trace direct on 
stone. 



Observations on the Deiisity of Saturated Vapours and their Liquids at the 
Point of Transition. By J. J. Waterston. 

The chief object of the author in these experimental researches was, to ascertain if 
the low density in saturated vapours holds good up to that point when, according to 
M. Cagniard de la Tour's interesting researches, the liquid condition seems to 
terminate suddenly. The observations were made on the same principle as those 
which were the means of detecting the general law of density, the details of 
which have been communicated to the Royal Society. The tubes used by the 
author were from 2 to 3 inches in length, filled with the same liquid in different pro- 
portions and sealed at the blowpipe. The author then described the method used 
in graduating them, and the simple graphic principle employed in calculating the 
density of the vapour and of the liquid; the same strictness not being required in 
these researches as in those detailed in the paper above referred to in which the 
strict method of computation is given. The author then described his mode of 
heating the tubes, which is by suspending them by a brass wire frame in a glass 
funnel about 3 feet long, 1 inch diameter, and y\th of an inch thick, fixed vertically 
over anArgand cocoa-nut oil lamp. The brass wire frame being slipped with the 
tube into the top of the funnel, kept it in the middle of the current of heated air 
about 4 or 5 inches below the top of the funnel. The liquid volume in No. 1 tube 
being noted, the tube was taken out and the thermometer put exactly into its place. 
The mercury quickly rising, the temperature is noted after it had become steady. 
The thermometer being then removed, a second tube. No. 2, was slipped into the 
same place and its transition volume noted ; then removed, and the thermometer 
substituted and noted as before. This was the general course of observations ; 
when the temperature had to be carried above 600°, a funnel only 18 inches long was 
used. The state of the liquid in the tube was closely examined by means of a 
watchmaker's lens, and could at all times be seen distinctly by transmitted light. 
One set of tubes were of hard Bohemian glass, one-eighth of an inch bore and one- 
fiftieth of an inch thick. These sometimes burst when the pressure was calculated 
to be about 400 atmospheres, if the laws of density and pressure hold good at these 
extreme points. The force of the explosion was quite what might be anticipated : it 
was as if the liquid, which never exceeded three grains in weight, had been ful- 
minating powder. The thick glass funnel was shattered into small fragments 
immediately opposite the tube. Other sets of tubes were of soft glass, one-twentieth 
of an inch thick and one-fifth or one-sixth of an inch bore. None of these burst ; at 
a very high pressure one merely gave way, breaking across into three pieces as if cut 
by a file. The author then gave the details of his experiments in a tabulated form, 
each noting the low temperature and volume, the maximum volume and temperature, 
and the transition volume and temperature, with notes of the successive appearances 
noted in the liquid at its surface and in the vapour. The surface of the liquid at one 
stage always assumed a flat form, showing cessation of capillarity ; often assumed 
a conoidal form, wasting at the apex ; sometimes two surfaces showed themselves ; 
the conversion currents seen clearly in the early stages often changing into zigzag 
motions of spherules of vapour at the transition point. In this way the author ex- 
amined sulphuric sether, alcohol, sulphuret of carbon, distilled water, chloroform, 
dichloride of sulphur, anhydrous oil of turpentine, acetic acid, and sulphuric acid. 



On a Laio of Mutual Dependence between Temperature and Mechanical 
Force. By J. J. Waterston. 

The author began by stating that the experiments performed by MM. Gay-Lussac 
and Wetter, and agairi by MM. Clement and Desormes, to discover the ratio of 



12 REPORT — 1853. 

temperature evolved by a small compression of a volume of air to the diminution of 
temperature required to produce the same condensation under a constant pressure, 
although originally intended to supply the data required by La Place in his peculiar 
views on the transmission of sound, have also been employed ■with good effect in ad- 
vancing the physics of gases with relation to temperature and mechanical force. 
The ratio is in fact approximately an initial or differential ratio, which affords the 
means of obtaining integrals that express simple laws of great importance. The ex- 
periments of MM. Clement and Desormes have shown that the value of the ratio is 
constant throughout a considerable range of temperature and density ; and Mr. Ivory 
proved that it is constant under every change of density anq,temperature as long as 
the laws of Marriotte and of Dalton and Gay-Lussac are maintained, or the air- 
thermometer is an exact measure of heat (Phil. Mag., 1827). The mathematical 
reasoning is much simplified by reckoning all temperatures from the zero of gaseous 
tension. This zero by M. Rudberg's experiments, confirmed by Magnus and 
Regnault, is situated at minus 461° upon Fahrenheit's scale, or minus 273°"89 Cent. 
To save circumlocution, the author calls this the g temperature. This g temperature 
of a gas is a definite and essential quality belonging to it, to be classed with its 
density, volume and pressure. The author then proceeds to lay down the dif- 
ferential equations, simplify their expressions by the results of experiments, and 
state the final equations deduced by integration, from which he draws the following 
conclusions: — 1. When air is compressed or dilated, the g temperature varies as 
the cube root of the density, and the tension as the fourth power of the g tempera- 
ture or cube root of the fourth power of the density. 2. The mechanical force 
exerted by a given quantity of air while freely expanding from one density to 
another is proportional to the difference of the cube roots of these densities, or to 
the difference of their g temperatures, and the fall of temperature is proportional to 
the force expended. 3. The mechanical force exerted upon a given quantity of air 
while compressing it from one density to another is proportional to the difference of 
the cube roots of these densities, or to the diffei-ence of their g temperatures, and the 
rise of temperature is proportional to the force exerted. 4. The total force exerted 
by a volume of air while expanding to infinity is equal to its tension acting through 
three times its volume and the limit of its g temperature while thus expanding 
in zero, and the same reasoning applies to compression. 5. The total mechanical 
force exerted by a volume of air while expanding to infinity is proportional to its 
G temperature. 6. A given quantity of air while expanding under a constant 
pressure from one temperature to another exerts a mechanical force equivalent to 
one-third the difference of temperature, and the quantity of heat required to change 
the temperature of air under a constant pressure is four-thirds that required to effect 
the same change of temperature with a constemt volume. Hence the author shows 
that 1 lb. raised through 600 feet is the mechanical equivalent of 1° of heat applied 
to 1 lb. of water; but if 0-267 be the specific heat of air under a constant pressure, 
800 feet will be the number equivalent to 1° of heat, which is the number ex- 
perimentally deduced by Mr. Joule. The author notes this as perhaps the simplest 
example of that correlation of natural forces brought to light by the elegant researches 
of Mr. Grove. 



Astronomy, Sea Currents, Depth of Sea. 

On the Currents of the Indian Seas. By George Buist, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Water in motion is found to exercise two classes of agencies on the surface of 
our globe : — first, a destroying one, levelling and throwing down continents and 
mountains, transferring them to the depths of the ocean, either to be raised gra- 
dually by those mysterious elevations now in operation or upheaved by violent 
cataclysms, such as seem so frequently to have burst asunder the crust of the 
earth ; and second, a destroying and reconstructing agency as in the case of the 
Gulf-stream, redressing the equilibrium which it had just before disturbed — trans- 
ferring the heat of the torrid zone to mitigate the rigour of the northern temperate 
and polar regions, and eating away the roots by which the icebergs would have 
remained for ever anchored, and so enabling them to transport themselves to cool 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 13 

the tepid waters of the tropical seas. With the first of these, which has been so 
fully treated of in the Geological Section, we at present have no concern ; and it is 
to the second that attention is proposed to be directed. One cubic inch of water, 
when invested with a sufficiency of heat, will form one cubic foot of steam — the 
water before its evaporation, and the vapour which it forms, being exactly of the 
same temperature, though in reality, in the process of conversion, 1700 degrees of 
heat have been absorbed or carried away from the vicinage, and rendered latent or 
imperceptible ; this heat is returned in a sensible and perceptible form the moment 
the vapour is converted once more into water. The general fact is the same in the 
case of vapour carried off by dry air at any temperature that may be imagined, for 
down far below the freezing-point evaporation proceeds uninterruptedly, or is raised 
into steam by artificial means. The air, heated and dried as it sweeps over the 
arid surface of the soil, drinks up by day myriads of tons of moisture from the sea, 
as much indeed as would, were no moisture restored to it, depress its whole surface 
at the rate of 4 feet annually over the surface of the globe. The quantity of heat 
thus converted from a sensible or perceptible to an insensible or latent state is 
almost incredible. The action equally goes on, and with the like results, over the 
surface of the earth as over that of the sea, where there is moisture to be withdrawn. 
But night and the seasons of the year come round and the surplus temperature thus 
withdrawn and stored away at the time it might have proved superfluous or in- 
convenient, is reserved, and rendered back as soon as it is required ; and the cold of 
night and rigour of winter are modified by the heat given out at the point of con- 
densation, by dew, rain, hail, and snow. There are, however, cases in which, were 
the process of evaporation to go on without interruption and without limit, that 
order and regularity might be disturbed, which it is the intention of the Creator, 
apparently for an indefinite time, to maintain, and in the arrangements for equalizing 
temperature the equilibrium of saltness be disturbed in certain portions of the sea, 
and that of moisture underground in the warmer regions of the earth. 

Thirty-six years ago Sir John Leslie pointed out that the waters discharged by 
the rivers of southern Europe were not sufficient to supply the Mediterranean with 
store enough for vapour for the countries on its shores, and that the immense 
amount drawn off by the arid borders of Northern Africa, which from Alexandria 
westward suppHed nota single rivulet, required to be provided forby an inward current 
from the outer ocean through the Straits of Gibraltar. Founding apparently on 
this. Sir Charles Lyell, in his geological work published in 1832, assumed the filling 
up of the Mediterranean with salt ; and a doctrine about to be shown in conflict 
with a first law of hydrostatics which nothing can upset, is still retained amongst 
the dogmata of orthodox geology without anything whatever to support it. The 
error seems to have been fallen into from the assumption that the water at the 
surface of the sea would remain in its place exposed to the action of the sun until 
evaporated up to the point of saturation, and only begin to descend on being 
transformed into solid salt, in which condition it would remain of course accu- 
mulating in the recesses of the sea. In point of fact, however, the instant the upper 
stratum of a fluid becomes one atom lighter than that beneath, it inevitably begins 
to descend, all other portions following it according as additional gravity is acquired 
by them. So soon as this mass of brine grows high enough to run over the barrier 
of the inland sea, it must, as a matter of necessitj% flow outwards to the external 
ocean, where no such brine existed, and mingled with the average of the sea. It is 
matter of easy demonstration, that without some such arrangement as this, the Red 
Sea must long ere now have been converted into one mass of salt ; and its upper waters 
at all events, being, on the other hand, known in realitj' to differ at present but little 
in saltness from those of the southern ocean. Here we have salt water flowing 
in perpetually through the Straits of Babelmandeb to furnish supplies for a mass of 
vapour calculated, were the strait shut up, to lower the whole surface of the sea 
8 feet annually, and even with the open strait, to add to its contents a propor- 
tionate quantity of salt. But an under-current of brine, which, from its gravity, 
seeks the bottom, flows out again to mingle with the waters of the great Arabian Sea, 
where, swept along by currents, and raised to the surface by tides and shoals, it 
is mingled by the waves through the other waters which yearly receive the enormous 
monsoon torrents the Concan and the Ghauts supply, becomes diluted to the proper 



14 REPORT — 1853. 

strength of sea water, and rendered uniform in constitution, by the agitation of the 
8torms which then prevail. Flowing back again from the coasts of India, where 
they are now in excess, to those of Africa, where they suffer from perpetual drainage, 
the same round of operations goes on continually ; and the sea, with all its estuaries 
and its inlets, retains the same limit, and nearly the same constitution, for un- 
numbered ages. Capt. Haines, in his survey of the Arabian seas, describes the 
perplexing currents betwixt the Straits of Babelmandeb and Cape Aden ; strong 
bands of inshore currents sixty miles in breadth or so running in one direction, 
while similar bands of an outward current run in the opposite direction ; and 
currents similarly turbulent and irregular are found at the mouth of the Persian 
Gulf. Dr. Buist has no doubt that both may be explained on the principle so 
well laid down by Dr. Scoresby in reference to the Gulf-stream, where the tropical 
current running northvvard meets and intermingles with the polar one running 
southward. Speculating on these matters some j'ears since, Mr. Maury, of the United 
States Observatory, had, from a totally different series of considerations, come 
to exactly the same conclusions as these Dr. Buist had arrived at. So eager was 
this distinguished observer to follow up the subject, that he afterwards oflFered 
a sum equivalent to 300/. annually for the collection of information at Bombay 
to enable him to construct for the Indian seas wind and current charts, similar 
to those he had constructed for the Northern Atlantic, and these, it is under- 
stood, are now in a state of great advancement. The money was respectfully 
declined; some Bombay merchants having undertaken to provide for his use, at 
their own charge, the information desired, conceiving that it was enough that 
British traders should receive from America a survey of the currents of the English 
seas in the East without at the same time accepting funds from a foreign state which 
the British Government had failed to provide. Such were looked on as the advantages 
likel)"- to accrue from the labours of Mr. Maury, that an estimate was published, 
showing that, assuming the statement of the Royal Society to be correct, maps and 
sailing directions for the Eastern seas, such as had been provided for the Northern 
Atlantic, would save to the ports of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay from a quarter 
to half a million annually in freights. 

On Drawings of the Moon, By James Nasmyth, F.R.A.S. 

These magnificent drawings of the moon, three in number, were exhibited and de- 
scribed, in the absence of the author, by Prof. Phillips. The first was a drawing of the 
moon's visible surface 6 feet in diameter. The two others were drawings, on a larger 
scale, of two particular portions of the lunar mountains. They were executed in a 
very peculiar style, white on grey ground, with shadows, wiuch conveyed a very clear 
conception of the relief and depressions of the several parts of the surface. Mr. 
Phillips described several of the ring mountains, mountain ranges, and other pecu- 
liarities of the surface as depicted upon them. In particular he drew attention to 
long narrow bright lines, like the meridional lines on a globe, which in some places 
were seen to stretch across a large portion of the disc. He stated the ingenious expla- 
nations of these features given at a former meeting by Mr. Nasmyth, and the experi- 
ment which he had devised to illustrate the cause and nature of them. Mr. Nasmyth 
held them to be fissures filled up by some very dense or highly reflective mineral sub- 
stance which had been forced up from underneath the solid crust of the moon by the 
same agency which had produced the cracks or fissures as they were seen to traverse 
hill and valley, mountain and crater, in nearly unbroken lines, regardless of surface 
inequalities, which facts appeared to Mr. Nasmyth to justify and confirm his conclu- 
sions as to the nature and cause of these bright radiating lines. Professor Phillips 
stated that these lines were only seen when the light of the sun fell in particular angles 
upon them. If he were to offer a conjecture as to their origin, he would say that they 
originated in some peculiarity of the reflecting surface of the moon, by which the 
peculiarities of what lay below the surface were manifested. 

Oil Photographs of the Moon. By John Phillips, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The fascinating processes of Photography can perhaps be hardly ever more use- 
fully applied than in fixing on metal, paper, or glass pictures of objects which are 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 15 

known or supposed to be variable, — the law or rate of such variation being put as a 
problem to be determined. The moon, our friendly satellite, is exactly in the condi- 
tion to require this kind of investigation ; and if photography can ever succeed 
in portraying as much of the moon as the eye can see and discriminate, we 
shall be able to leave to future times monuments by which the secular changes 
of the moon's physical aspect may be determined. And if this be impracticable, if 
the utmost success of the photographer should only produce a picture of the larger 
features of the moon, this will be a gift of the highest value, since it will be a basis, 
an accurate and practical foundation for the minuter details, which, with such aid, 
the artist may confidently sketch. 

When, therefore, at the Ipswich Meeting of the Association, the 2-3-inch Daguer- 
reotype of the full moon, which had been taken by Professor Bond from the great 
Achromatic of Cambridge, U.S., was shown to astronomers, their gratification was 
extreme. Humboldt possesses one of these curious light-pictures of the moon, of 
2 inches diameter, prepared by Mr. Whipple, of Boston, U.S., in which the so-called 
seas and annular mountains are clearly distinguished*. 

The Committee, to whom the Association, at its Belfast Meeting, committed a 
Survey of the Physical Aspect of the Moon, were not negligent of this powerful aid 
to an accurate drawing. The great telescopes of Birr, which in regard to light, defi- 
nition, and steadiness, offered the greatest temptations to this trial, were at the 
disposal of the Committee ; and to them, and the genius of their noble owner, we 
must probably look for photographs of the moon on the largest scale, and with the 
deepest contrast of light and shade. But they are not yet mounted equatorially, and 
in the mean time I thought it useful to try the power of my own 6^-inch achromatic, 
the work of our excellent artist Cooke, which is driven equatorially by very equable 
clock movement in the open air. 

Before my attempt was made, some trials were made by Mr. De la Rue and others, 
but I am not able to say what is the value of their results. 

Though prepared in some degree for this experiment in the commencement of this 
year (1853), it was not-^ill the middle of July that I was able to submit an excited 
collodion surface to the concentrated rays of the moon. On the 15th and 18th of 
July, with my friend Mr. Bates, 1 obtained the pictures now presented for considera- 
tion. They prove beyond a doubt that the research is of a useful and practicable 
kind, and, if I mistake not, will be followed by far better things. 

In the expectation that this will become a favourite object of inquiry among phO' 
tographers, I solicit a few minutes' attention to some of the conditions of the problem, 
for, without a right notion of the thing to be done, much disappointment will attend 
the trials. 

First, it must be remembered that, as moon-light is fully 100,000 times weaker 
than sun-light, and only appears to us bright in consequence of the general dark- 
ness around, photographs can only be taken quickly by very sensitive surfaces. The 
moon's image in the telescope has not, indeed, really more actinic effect on the silver 
surface than some of the duller terrestrial objects which are slowly depicted in the 
camera. On a highly sensitive collodion, the feeblest radiants operating for the 
shortest time produce some effect ; but firm impressions can only be had by the 
integration of these differential quantities. In the telescope which I employ, with a 
sidereal focus of 1 1 feet, the moon's diameter, as traced on the collodion, is about 
li incht ; and the aperture being 6^ inches, the light of the moon's image is aug- 
mented about 26 times as compared with the brightness of the object seen directly 
by the eye. The time required for this image to be firmly impressed doei not 
exceed 5 minutes, when the moon has a maximum south declination, and an 
elevation of only 12°. 1 think it probable that when her declination is at a maxi- 
mum to the north, and I employ the most sensitive collodion, she will draw her 
own likeness in my camera in 1 minute, with sufficient firmness for printing. | 

* Kosmos, iii. part 2. 362. 

t The moon's mean diameter being -j-j-pth of her mean distance from the earth, the 
mean diameter of her image on my collodion plate would be r2 inch, but the actinic focus is 
on the outside of the focus for white light 075 inch. 

§ Since this was written many trials have been made ; the result being that a picture, 2 
inches in diameter, may be taken by using the Huyghenian eye-piece in 30 seconds. ] 



16 REPORT — 1853. 

In the great mirror of Lord Rosse (6 feet in diameter), having a sidereal focus 
of 52 feet, I saw a moon-image, of extraordinary beauty, or rather magnificence, 
nearly 6 inches across. The light received on this image (supposing the loss by 
reflexionequalto that by refraction)* was -^ of that on mine, so that the picture 

might probably be impressed on a collodion surface in one-fourth or even one-sixth 
of the time required on mine ; or in the same time as on mine, it would give a twice 
magnified image (-v/'i), viz. a moon 12 inches across. I confidently believe that 
the master of this mighty engine will make it do its work. 

I now turn to a different view of the subject, which is, however, of fully equal 
importance ; viz. the nature of the movement by which the telescope must be 
made to follow the moon. The clock now usually employed, with centrifugal 
balls, I find quite equal to follow star, sun, or moon, by an easy variation of its 
rate. The moon's motion in her orbit is variable, but not so much variable as to 
require in a few minutes any differential rating of the clock set by trial to her 
mean rate for the hour. It must, however, be accurately set to this rate, for, 
otherwise, in direct proportion to the magnifying power, will be the brush or 
indistinctness of every meridional outline, and the equatorial extension of ever)' part 
of the picture by an angular quantity (in) expressing the clock error. The moon 
has never, at two succeeding moments of time, the same declination ; and except 
about the epochs of greatest north and greatest south declination, her change of de- 
clination is sensible in a few minutes. Except at these times the change of her 
declination is sensible in the picture obtained by an exposura of even 5 minutes ; 
as may be seen by the photograph of 15th July, where the north and south edges 
are brushed, and the craters appear elongated in a meridional direction, the western 
edge remaining quite sharp. This difficulty might be practically overcome by a 
piece of mechanism connected with the clock, giving to the telescope a slow motion 
in declination (-h or — ) proportioned, in a given short time, nearly to the number of 
hours from the nearest epoch of greatest north or greatest south declination. 

The image obtained by the photographer should not only be perfect, but must be 
taken on a surface quite fine and true, so as to bear magnifying by eye-glasses. In 
this particular, at present, only the silver-plate and the collodion film on glass have 
claims to approbation. 1 am not able to report at present the possession of such 
perfect images, as to bear any but very low magnifiers ; but this imperfection of the 
images will probably diminish or vanish by further trials, or by the aid of more 
fortunate experimentalists. 

Supposing our photographic power to be raised so much as to copy on silver, 
glass, or paper, all that the lens can show, what will be the picture presented under 
a magnifying eye-glass ? Let us assume in the case of Lord Rosse's telescope, 
a first image of 12 inches in diameter, and that it will bear magnifying eight times. 
This will be equivalent to 96 inches diameter for the moon, and about — of an 
inch for a mile. The physical maps of Yorkshire which I now exhibit in comparison 
are on nearly the same scale (— th of an inch to a mile), and if inspected at a 
distance of 10 inches will give a fair notion of the apparent magnitudes of objects on 
the moon on this condition, which nearly expresses a magnifying power of 1000. 
It is obvious therefore that by such means we may have a record of the moon's 
physical aspect under every phase of illumination, under every condition of libration, 
nearly as we should see her at a distance of 240 miles, undimmed by more than a 
few miles of the strata of the earth's atmosphere. We should see and measure on 
the glass or the metal, her mountains and valleys; her coasts and cliffs; her glens 
and precipices ; her glacial moraines, escars and sand-banks ; her craters of eruption, 
of upheaval, or explosion ; her lava streams, and the scattered heaps projected from 
the interior. We should spy out the various actinic powers of the difl'erent parts 
of the surface, compare these with theiV obvious reflective powers, and thus come to 

* The loss of illuminating power is greatest by reflexion; but there is no course of expe- 
riments known to me from which it can be determined what is the proportionate loss oi pho- 
tographic power in reflectors and refractors. It seems probable that reflectors should be more 
efficacious than achromatics, which are suited, as mine is, to astronomical observation. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



17 



some reasonable conjectures on the mysterious light streaks which radiate from 
some of her mountains. 

To what degree of minuteness shall we see the objects ? This question has not been 
much considered with reference to photography, or the kind of objects which the 
moon exhibits. If we assume that one minute of angle :s a good general rneasure 
for the visibility of areas presented to the eye, and therefore that areas are visible at 
a distance about 3000 or 4000 times as great as their diameters, an area on the 
moon, 70 miles across, can besee«by the naked eye; magnifying this 1000 times, we 
may see an area on the' moon t^Su of a mile across, or 370 feet. But though a 
spot of such dimensions can be seeii, it cannot be defined under such a power as 
square, circular, elliptical, or triangular. 

To be thus clearly defined, so as to be positively drawn or described, its diameter 
must be such as to subtend nearly 3' of angle ; so that to be clearly defined to the 
naked eye, black spots on a white ground must have a diameter of about j^ of 
radius=200 miles, and under the magnifying power of 1000, 4rT=-r of a Di'le 

^ lOUO 5 

= 1056 feet. 

But this calculation applies to black spots not greatly varying in their diameters. 
We have on the moon many cases of entirely different figures, arched, or 
triangular shadows, long streams of light, and long stripes of darkness. I was 
much impressed while at Parsonstown with the minuteness of some of the ' rillen,' 
as the Germans call the narrow deep often winding clefts, such as those about 
Aristarchus, and the much finer ones on the north-east of the Mare Humorum, of which 
I have made drawings. On returning home, I made some trials of the visibility of 
narrow spaces, as compared with square areas of the same breadth. The results, which 
are of a kind to encourage greatly our surveys of the moon, appear in the sub- 
joined table, and indicate that black narrow spaces not exceeding 12 feet in width, 
are within the magnifying power of the great Rossian reflector. To what extent 
the photographic power of the instrument is competent to define such shadows, 
or the mechanism which must be employed to follow them exactly, are points for 
experiment to settle. As far as the eye is concerned. Lord Rosse's mirror has light 
enough for such a power, but the eye is more sensitive than collodion. 



Description of black area on white 
ground. 


At how many diameters' 

distance it was visible 

to the ej'e. 


At how many diameters it was 
defined by the eye. 


1. Square, one inch 


3000 
3840 
4560 


1200 
1200 
1200 
Above 3000 

/Above 4000, seen as 
L long narrow spaces, 
r Above 6000, beyond the 
< limit of my measured 
I ground. 

12,000 

15,320 
35,000 


2. Square, half inch 


3. Square, quarter inch 


4. Long space, one inch across ... 


5. Long space, three quarters'! 

of inch across / 

6. Long space, half of inch 






7. Long space, quarter of inch "1 

across J 

8. Long space, eighth of inch 






9. Long space, thirtieth of inch ... 









Hence it appears that linear spaces may be noted as such to three, five, ten, and 
even thirty times the minuteness with which spots can be well defined. The 
distinctness of very narrow ' rillen' is thus accounted for, but at the same time 
it appears that the breadth they seem to bear is merely the ' optical,' not the 
' physical' breadth. If we apply the last measure to the moon, we find that very 
narrow and very dark spaces (' lines' in ordinary language), less than seven miles 
across, on the moon, would be visible to the eye, through a really ' clear' atmo- 
sphere. By applying to a small portion of the moon, Mr. Dawe's process of 
scrutiny by small apertures, and a power of 1000, black bands 12 vards across might 

1853. ' 2 



18 REPORT 1853. 

be seen, and if a power of 3000 could under such conditions be effective, 12 feet 
bands might be visible. How much of this the really/ unclear' condition of our 
atmosphere will allow to be realized, remains to be determined by experiment. 



On the Surface Tempei'cdure and Great Currents of the North Atlantic and 
Northern Oceans. By the Rev. William Scoresby, D.D,,F.R.S, L.l^E., 
Cor. Mem. of Institute of France, &jc. 

The currents of the ocean, exerting as they do so great an influence on the condi- 
tion of the air, the earth, and of the sea itself, constitute a subject of very important 
consideration in [ihysical geography, and, indeed, in general science ; and they are 
specially interesting as a compensating instrumentality against the extremes of con- 
dition to which the fervid action of the sun in the tropics, and its oblique and inferior 
action in the polar regions, tend, — an instrumentality serving not only to moderate 
the extremes of temperature, but to render the general surface of the earth more 
favourable for the comfort and benefit of its inhabitants. 

Our knowledge of the great currents of the ocean has hitherto been mainly derived 
from the observations of navigators on the differences found betwixt the ship's 
actual position during the voyage, as determined by celestial observations, and that 
of the daily reckoning from the course steered and distance run. The results of 
observations of this nature, extensively collected and collated, are found in the labours 
of Major Rennell, Lieutenant Maury of the United States Navy, Mr. Findlay, &c. 

Dr. Scorest)y then noticed the errors to which this mode of investigation is ordi- 
narily subject from defects in the log, compass action, and steerage of the ship — all 
of which are liable to render the determinations uncertain unless where numerous 
observations are found accordant, or those in diflFerent voyages made mutually cor- 
rective. 

The process he had used, affording data for the present paper, consisted mainly in 
the observing, during the progress of the ship, of the differences occurring in the 
surface temperature of the ocean, which in many cases were such as to give unques- 
tionable indications of currents coming from different regions, though not generally 
serving to determine the exact direction or velocity. . 

His observations would refer, in the first instance, to the currents nf the North 
Atlantic, as indicated by thermometric changes and peculiarities within a belt of 
ocean about 220 miles in average width, extending in a VV. by S. direction from the 
eptrance of the English Channel to Long Island, proximate to New York. 

Four transatlantic passages made by himself, with numerous voyages by Captain 
Jos. Delano, a scientific American and excellent observer, who had furnished him 
with the results of many of his researches, had supplied the materials for the present 
determinations. These materials, extending to about 1400 observations (usually 
taken six times a day) on the temperature of the sea, being placed on a chart along 
with the projection of the ship's track on each voyage, were then tabulated, and the 
leading indications finally represented in a diagram (Plate I.) before the Section. 

Of thirteen passages tabulated, seven were made in the spring of the year, two in 
summer, one in autumn, and three in winter. Taking the middle day of each pas- 
sage, the mean day at sea was found to be May 18-19, a day fortunately coincident, 
with singular nearness, with the probable time of the mean oceanic temperature. 

The results indeed thus derived could not be considered as complete, nor the 
normals of surface temperature in the different sections of the route conclusive ; yet 
they exhibited, in certain particulars, facts of considerable interest and importance. 

The mean surface temperature of the whole range of observations was 56°, the 
mean temperature nf the air in the same passages (the result of 1000 to 1500 obser- 
vations) being 54''"2, indicating the prevalently received fact of the general superiority 
of the temperature of the sea over that of the atmosphere. 

Though the observations were not sufficient for conclusive determinations of the 
effects of latitude and season on the surface temperature, yet they obviously yielded 
something sufficiently proximate to be not unworthy of notice, especially for the early 
part of the passage westward, from longitude 12° to 36° W., and latitude 50° to 46°. 
And within this limited range, the observations under discussion seemed, in respect 
of latitude, to indicate an increase of the surface temperature, steering W. by S. from 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 19 

the English Channel, of about three-quarters of a degree for each degree of latitude 
southward in winter, and a change of about a degree of surface temperature for each 
degree of latitude in summer. 

In regard to the effects of season (taking the average) within the same portion of 
the transatlantic passage, there appears to be a range of 9° or 10° ; the highest being 
about 61° in July and August, and the lowest 51° to 52° in January and February. 
The analyses of the observations on the various passages yielded, as to changes in the 
surface temperature, betwixt 12° and 30° W., something like the following series :■ — 

Jan. 52 Feb. 52 March 52-8 

April 53-8 May 56 June 59 

July 61 August 61 Sept. 60 

Oct. 59 Nov. 55 Dec. 53 

The atmospheric changes for the same range of ocean may thus, perhaps, be 
proximately represented : — 

Jan. 43 Feb. 45-5 March 47-5 

April 51 May 56 June 59-5 

July 63 August 61 Sept. p8 

Oct. 54 Nov. 50 Dec. 45-5 

In specifying the general results of all the observations on the oceanic temperature, 
we find the first and leading fact to be, a division of the transatlantic belt into two 
characteristic portions of nearly equal extent, differing, in a striking and singular 
manner, both in their ordinary temperatures, their extremes, and their changes. ^ 

Thus for nearly half the passage across from England, that is, as far as longitude 
38° W., in a W. by S. direction, the surface temperature was not found to descend 
below 50° even in the winter passages, nor to rise in any part of the year (as far as 
the observations go) higher than 66°. But on reaching 42° W. a temperature of 44° 
was met with, and at 48° to 50° W. longitude a minimum of 32° was not uncom- 
mon, with a maximum sometimes reaching to 69°. Further west, in 58° to 60° 
longitude (the mean latitude being about 42° N.), along with a minimum tempera- 
ture ranging from 32° to 42°, a maximum was found as high as 74°. From this 
meridian to 72° W. similar differences of temperature, except near the American 
coast, were found to be prevalent. 

In regard to mean differences of the extremes of temperature, taking the averages 
of all the observations within meridians of 2^ in width, the results are still more 
striking ; for in the first half of the passage, going westward, we find a meanrange of 
surface temperature, for each 2° of longitude, of only 11°*3 ; whilst in the western 
half the mean range extends to 29°'7. Within the first half, too, where the extremes 
of temperature of the whole section were found to differ only 19°, the difference 
betwixt the highest and lowest temperature observed in the second or westerly half, 
reached to 42°. 

This diversity of temperature clearly pointed out the two great and well-known 
oceanic currents— one from the tropics, the other from the Polar regions — meeting, 
coalescing, and interlacing within the range of the belt of waters referred to ; the 
former current yielding an occasional warmth of 20° to 22° above the mean atmo- 
spheric temperature, and the latter a frequent cold as much below it. 

But the phaenomena may be rendered more intelligible and instructive if we note 
the appearance and trace the progress of the more marked alternations in sailing 
from the English Channel westward ; say from longitude 12° W., in the mean latitude 
of 50° N., to that of 72° W., in the 4 1st parallel. This belt, extending to 60° of 
longitude, may be conveniently taken in six decimate sections, as represented in 
Plate I., several of which, it will be seen, afford peculiar and characteristic differ- 
ences. 

The first three of these decimate sections exhibit, for the most part, a striking 
uniformity of character ; for as far, at least, as longitude 38° W. no particular in 
the differences of surface temperature strikes us, except a gradual rising of the means, 
within two degrees' space, from 52°-9 to 58°'7, during a descent in the mean lati- 
tude from 50° to 46° N. But in longitude 38° to 42° W. the range of oceanic tem- 

2* 



20 REPORT — 1853. 

perature obtains the first marked increase, indicative of a slight action of a current 
from the southward. 

In the fourth decimate section, 42" to 52° W., however, the indications respect- 
ively of the two great currents of the North Atlantic become striking and charac- 
teristic. Beyond the meridian of 42°, where the cold current from the north becomes 
first decided, an increase of its ptevalenc)', gradually becoming more and more con- 
spicuous, is observed. Thus in the two degrees' space, from 42° to 44° W., the 
somewhat low temperature of 44° was only observed in one out of //nV/een passages ; 
but in the next two degrees a like moderate fall of temperature (about 7^ below the 
mean) occurred in three or four of the passages ; in the next meridional stripe, cold 
water was met with in eight of the passages (four or five falling from 10° to 16° 
below the mean) ; in the next, the cold water occurred in nine or ten passages (six 
falling 10° to 24° below the mean) ; in the next stripe, longitude 50° to 52° W., the 
cold water was met with in eight passages (five falling 12° to 22° below the mean). 

Within the same section, 42° to 52° W., very perceptible marks of an ascending 
tropical current occurred, yielding, in alternations with the cold water from the north, 
an occasional warmth of 66° to 68°. The prevalency, however, of the occurrence 
of warm water in this position of the Atlantic appears from the observations tabu- 
lated to be in reverse order (when sailing westward from longitude 42°) to that of 
the cold current ; the first two-degree stripe presenting a rise of from 63° to 68° in 
six passages ; the next, a rise of similar extent in five ; the next, a smaller rise in four ; 
the next, less marked in three ; and the last, 50° to 52° W., in four, but still less 
marked. Hence from these observations it appeared, that the greatest prevalence of 
the polar currents (betwixt 42° and 52° W.) is within the meridians of 46° and 52°, 
and of the warmer current in 42° to 46° W. 

It is within this meridional section mainly, corresponding in its central part with 
the eastern edge of the great bank of Newfoundland, in which the icebergs and drift 
ice from the north are usually met with ; so that the prevalence of a descending 
polar current obtains actual demonstration. 

The fifth decimate secfion, reaching from 52° to 62° W., is found to be equally 
characterized by peculiar phaenomena as the one preceding it. The general preva- 
lence of the descending polar current is shown by the minimum temperature of each 
meridional space of 2°, ranging betwixt 32° and 42°, with a mean of the five minima 
of 37°'2. The prevalence of an ascending current from south-westward is, in like 
manner, shown by the occurrence of a maximum surface temperature ranging betwixt 
63° and 74°, with a mean of the five maxima of 68°"9. 

But the characteristic features of this fifth decimate section were found to consist 
in the sudden7iess of the changes of the surface temperature and the various alternations, 
indicative of singular interlacirtgs of warm and cold water. 

In a passage in the " Patrick Henry" in May 1844, made by Dr. Scoresby, these 
sudden and alternating changes were remarkably prevalent. Thus when in longi- 
tude 57° 0' W. (lat. 41° 31' N.) the surface temperature, at 8 a.m. of May l7tb, 
was found to be 60°-5 ; but after sailing W.N.W. (true) 10 miles, it was found to 
be 50°, and at noon 16 miles further on the same course 46°. At 2 p.m. of the 
same day, longitude 57° 55' W., the sea was still at 46°; but at 4 p.m., after 15 
miles' sailing W.N.W., it had risen to 57°, and in 15 miles further in the same 
direction it was found to have fallen to 42°! The next day. May 18th, presented 
further remarkable changes. At 8 a.m., longitude 59° 52' (latitude 42° 8' N.), the 
surface temperature was 46°; but at 10 a.m., 15 miles W. ^ S., it had risen to 
61°, a change of 15° in two hours ! At midnight, again, of the 19th-20th the sea 
was at 50° ; four hours afterwards, 26 miles to the S.W. by W., it was 63°. 

Within this decimate section the cold or polar current was found to be chiefly pre- 
valent in the first and last of the two-degree spaces, but the most so in the last, that 
is, in longitude 60° to 62° W. ; and the most prevalent examples of the Gulf-stream 
appeared within the meridians of 58° and 62° W. 

The sixth and last section of the belt of waters traversed in the transatlantic pas- 
sages under discussion, is found to be chaiacterized, especially within the three 
westernmost spaces, 66° to 72° W., by a singular depression of the surface tempera- 
ture generally, the mean temperature of all the observations registered on the chart 
being 49°'4, and of the last three stripes 46°'7. As some of the voyages, however. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 21 

here failed, the mean of the registered observations may be a little too low ; but the 
obvious deduction nevertheless remains untouched, of the descent of a polar curient 
within the tract of the Gulf-stream by the coasts of New England. 

The relations of the Polar current aiid Gulf- stream, as thus indicated by the analyses 
of thirteen transatlantic passages generally, change, it should be observed, materially 
•with the seasons of the year. Thus the descending Polar current, which appears so 
prevalent within the western half of the belt of waters referred to in the discussion 
of the whole of the voyages, is found to be of comparative small importance in the 
summer and autumn passages, whilst the Gulf- stream is then the most predominant. 
Hence the shifting of the upper margin of the Gulf-stream northward at these sea- 
sons, as popularly understood, obtains very decided confirmation. 

In the results thus derived from the discussion of original observations on surface 
temperature of the North Atlantic, there will be found a general agreement with the 
conclusions of many other observers ; but these now communicated, it is presumed, 
will be found of some importance as to the specific information yielded in respect of 
the belt of waters referred to. The indications, too, of a variety of effects from the 
meeting of contrary currents, are perhaps as conclusive as they are in some respects 
remarkable ; for from the results now obtained, taken in connexion with a few 
auxiliary facts, we may safely infer the following varieties of operation derived from 
the meeting of the polar and tropical currents within the track discussed : — 

1. Strata Currents, consisting of a continuance of the respective currents after 
meeting in or near their original direction, by the overlaying of the denser waters 
from the North by the warm water of the Florida stream. Of this characteristic 
we have the most striking evidence in the observations of the Coast Survey of the 
United States, by intersections of the Gulf-stream. Thus in tracks across the stream 
having a general surface temperature of 80° to 82°, a depression of 10° to 15° was 
usually found at depths not exceeding 120 fathoms ; of 20° to 25° at depths short of 
500 fathoms ; and in cases of 700 fathoms and upwards, a reduction sometimes of 
about 40° below the surface temperature ! So that the existence of strata currents 
in this region of research — the Gulf-stream flowing above and the polar current 
below — seems to be unquestionable. 

2. Interlacing Cm-rents — where the polar and tropical currents on meeting seem to 
run past each other in repeated alternations of comparatively small breadth, in the 
manner of the fingers with the clasped hands — were strikingly shown in the rapid 
and great changes of the surface temperature within the fifth decimate section ; and 
there is reason to believe that in these interlacings the edges of the respective waters 
flowed past each other with little intermingling, as if guided by walls in separate 
channels. 

3. Deflected Currents— where currents on meeting from different but not exactly 
opposite quarters, as, for instance, from the S.W. andN. — are partially or mutually 
deflected into an easterly direction, so as to give rise to certain branches falling, as 
to one, on the southern coasts of Europe, and, as to the other, on the Noiway and 
Spitzbergen shores. This species of mutual action in dense streams of water may 
find familiar illustration in places where the ebb-stream from a river falls into the 
tide-stream of the coast — the former pushing away the other, and each for a time 
pursuing a separate deflected course, with but little apparent intermingling. 

4. Passing Currents — where they run in parallel but opposite courses, and over 
separate ground — as in the distinctive Gulf-stream, in its general body, and the inshore 
polar current running within it over the St. George's and other American banks. Of 
the distinctiveness of the inshore polar current. Dr. Scoresby adduced this very 
striking evidence, — 1st, that in observations on the temperature at the surface and 
bottom on the St. George's Bank made on one of his voyages, the surface tempera- 
ture was, with trifling difference, maintained below : thus in latitude 40° 43', longi- 
tude 68° 35', the surface and the bottom, in 35 fathoms water, were both (May 22) at 
the temperature of 46° ; and nearer the shore, in 69° 39' W., when the surface was 
at 47°, the bottom in 39 fathoms was at 45° ; and 2ndly, that the New England and 
New York pilots remark, in regard to an inshore current guided by the direction of 
the wind, that the current running south-westerly under a north-easterly gale is much 
stronger than the contrary current urged by a south-westerly gale. 

In regard to the surface temperature and great currents of the Northern Ocean, 



22 REPORT — 1853. 

Dr. Scoresby could on this occasion only briefly touch. The discovery, in personal 
researches near the western coast of Spitzbergen, of comparatively ■warm water, 
increasing in warmth with the depth, he had long ago set foith, in the ' Account of 
the Arctic Regions,' as an indication of the extension of a branch of the Gulf-stream 
into the Icy Seas of Greenland ; whilst the descent of apolar current, as indicated by 
the general set to the south-westward of the Greenland ices, had in the same work 
been amply proved and illustrated. This south-westerly drift from the east side of 
Greenland, associated with the southerly set out of Baffin's Bay, sufficiently explained 
both the cold surface temperature met with in the researches of the present paper, 
and the occurrence so prevalently of icebergs and drift ice in and near the meridians 
embraced by the banks of Newfoundland. And it might be reasonably inferred, 
perhaps, that both the position of these banks and the characteristic differences of the 
currents within the fifth and sixth decimate sections, so fully discussed, would have 
their true explanation in the consideration of the polar currents descending in two 
branches — the main one by the east coast of Newfoundland, the westerly and smaller 
one by the Strait of Belleisle. 

Connected with this subject, it is very interesting to trace the ceconomy and beneficial 
effects, as in many respects most obviously elicited, of the currents of tte ocean. 
For here we find, as in all the Creator's works, the striking marks of benevolent 
design in the ordering and Controling of the most subtle, or apparently vaguely 
acting agencies, to the benefit of the earth and its inhabitants. Of such indications 
nsay be noticed : — 

1. The grand ceconomy of oceanic currents in their equalizing tendency on the 
extreme temperatures of the difl^erent regions of the globe, from which the climate 
of the British Islands, for example, notwithstanding some minor disadvantages, 
derives such marked benefit in the diminishing of the range of temperature. 

2. The maintaining, by the reciprocating currents, of the equable saltness of the 
ocean, and so preventing the dift'erences in evaporation from the surface in the 
tropical and polar regions from destroying the characteristic quality of the salt sea. 

3. The production by current eddies of sand-banks, favourable for the habitation of 
fishes, of which the banks of Newfoundland may be pointed to as characteristic 
examples. 

4. The mingling of the waters of all regions of the globe, and the manuring, as it 
were, with fresh soil, of the great pastures of the creatures inhabiting the ocean. 

5. The carrying away of large portions of the ice-formations of the higher lati- 
tudes for dissolution in a warmer climate, thus preventing the entire polar regions 
being filled with ice, and that ice being gradually pushed forward and maintained by 
its direct action on climate, which so might have rendered large portions of the now 
temperate zones uninhabitable or unsuitable for man. 

6. And, in order to the due operation of counter and reciprocating currents betwixt 
the equatorial and polar regions, we must not overlook the a-conomic design obvious 
in the distribution and configuration of the continents of the eastern and western 
hemispheres, betwixt which we find two great meridional channels permitting a free 
circulation of waters betwixt the two continents on opposite sides of the globe, and 
running, not improbably, from pole to pole ! 



On Deep- Sea Soundings and Errors therein from Strata- Currents, with 
Suggestions for their investigation. By the Rev. W. Scoresby, D.D., 
F.R.S., Corresp. Institute of France, t}c. 

No long time has elapsed since the notion was very prevalent among seamen, that 
it was impossible to sound the ocean beyond the depth of a very few hundreds of 
fathoms. It was imagined that in water exerting a superincumbent pressure on the 
plummet greater than the weight of metal, no sounding-lead would sink ; a curious 
notion, which could not have been otherwise than a delusion, unless the water of the 
sea had been indefinitely compressible, so as to have become of equal density, at 
least, with that of the metal of the plummet. 

There is a difficulty, however, though of a very different nature from that just 
noticed, in respect to' the obtaining of correct information in very deep soundings, 
which seems, from the confidence given to recent experiments, to have been 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 2$ 

altogether overlooked. To this difficulty, and the errors likely to be produced 
thereby on the determination of depths, it was one of the objects of the author 
of this communication to elucidate and establish. 

He did not refer, however, to cases where the depths were not very profound, or 
where the time occupied by the descent of the plummet was inconsiderable ; for he. 
Dr. Scoresby, had frequently reached depths of near a mile, or even more than a 
mile, in the Greenland Seas — at a period when such soundings were novel or 
unprecedented — with results, owing to peculiar and favouring circumstances, he 
believed, perfectly satisfactory. But far otherwise than satisfactory, as he expected 
to be able to show, must be some of those extraordinary soundings of recent years, in 
which depths of five, six, or nearly eight miles were supposed to be established. 

If the sea were a stationary body, or if its currents were uniform movements 
of the entire mass of waters from the surface to the bottom, then the plummet 
mi^ht be fairly expected to take a direct and perjiendicular course downward, so 
that the length of line run out would be the accurate measure of the depth sounded. 
But if in the place or region of sounding, strata-currents, so prevalent in the Main 
Ocean, should be running in different directions ; or, what would have the same 
effect, if one stratum of water, say a superficial stratum, should be at motion and the 
main body below at rest, no correct results could be derived from the experiments 
referred to, where the time occupied in the running out of the line extended, in some 
of the more interesting cases, to many hours. 

Under such circumstances, during the passage of the plummet through strata- 



currents, the line, it must be obvious, would be carried away in its different portions 
by the movements of the water, for which the tendency to assume a perpendicular 
position below the point of surface-suspension could afford no adequate corrective. 

Thus suppose the surface-stratum, W, to be running westerly, and the lower 
stratum, E, easterly (or at rest) with a difference of velocity of two miles an hour. 
The descent through the first portion, where the vessel would participate in the 
action of the current, might be quite perpendicular ; but on the entering of the 
plummet into the lower stratum, the lead and line would be carried, or, in relation 
to the surface position, appear to be carried eastward, at the rate of two miles in the 
hour. Hence in the case of the experiments of Captain Denham, whore the descent 
in the last four miles required above an hour and a half of time per mile, the 
plummet might be carried some miles away from the perpendicular, so as to 
occasion a very large error in the depth apparently determined. In respect to 
Captain Denham's deep-sea soundings, indeed, the error assumed is but conjectural, 
depending on the circumstance of the actual existence in the place of experiment — 
latitude 36° 49' S., longitude 37° 6' W. — of strata-currents. But in some of the 
deep soundings attempted in the Gulf-stream, where, in the difference of the 
temperature above and below (some 46°), we have conclusive evidence of strata- 
currents, the determinations must, it is to be believed, have been more or less 
inaccurate, probably greatly erroneous. 

In regard to the proportion of error — being without data both as to the flow 
of the different currents, and the measure of resistance, under the circumstances, 
afforded by the water to the attainment of a perpendicular position by the plummet — 
no satisfactory estimate can be offered ; but that a considerable resistance would be 
presented against the corrective tendency of the plummet, so that the line, however 



24 REPORT— 1853. 

thin, would be greatly carried away, evidence from analogous facts may be satis- 
factorily adduced. 

Thus, the manner in which the deep-sea lead is carried awaj-, and the deter- 
minations rendered uncertain, when soundings are attempted in depths only of 
50 to 100 fathoms, from a ship having but very little headway, might alone justify 
the asserted grounds of probable error on the deep-sea soundings referred to. 

But further evidence of resistance in water, against the assuming of a straight 
position of a rope or line, under tension, where it may have been previously thrown 
into a curve, may be derived from some striking facts in the author's personal 
experience whilst engaged in the Northern Whale Fishery. Let the annexed 
diagram be supposed to represent one of these characteristic cases, where a boat is 
seen with its bow in contact with a large field of ice. 



A whale, it is assumed, has been harpooned from this boat, which, as in such 
circumstances generally happens, retreats for shelter beneath the ice-field, drawing 
out the line with great force after it. Having pursued its original course beneath for 
a distance probably of a mile, the necessity for respiration induces its return. Its 
probable course may be shown by the line in the diagram, one end of it being 
attached to the boat, and the other, by means of a harpoon, to the whale here 
represented as having risen to the surface astern of the fast-boat. A few minutes 
previous, perhaps, to the reappearance of the whale, the line attached to the boat, 
which might have been for some time in a state of quiet or unaltered tension, is, by 
a second eflfort of the entangled animal, powerfully withdrawn, so that the boat may 
be pressed against the ice, as at first, with a force, possibly, equivalent to that of a 
ton weight ! Yet, in this case, whilst the direction of the action on the boat is ahead, 
say, northward, the actual place of the whale exerting this singular energy, may be 
asteiii, or southward, the resistance of the water on the line preventing its taking a 
straight direction, and causing it to sweep round a body of water in a circuit, 
something after the manner of resistance of a more solid material. 

Observing this curious fact whilst he, the author of the communication, in very early 
life occupied the station of harpooner in the Greenland Fishery, he successfully availed 
himself of it for facilitating the capture of whales which might have been "struck" 
by any of his associates. In the case of a whale being harpooned in " clear water," 
where the "fast-boat," unencumbered by ice, was free to follow the course of the 
entangled animal, the practice of the other pursuers, as they might successively come 
up to assist in the capture, was ordinarily to distribute themselves in different angles 
in considerable advance of the fast-boat. But he, noting carefully the cessation of the 
advance of the original boat, which often happened, or its gradual deviation from the 
course at first pursued, was accustomed to take up a position either astern of the 
fast-boat, or wide upon its biam on the side towards which the deviation tended, 
calculating that the resistance of the line by the water would cause the direction of 
the boat's deviation to lag far behind that of the whale. The result was so satisfac- 
tory, that in a large majority of cases, where the rule applied, his boat was found 
so near the wounded animal on its reappearance at the surface, that he was most 
frequently successful in striking the second harpoon. 

Hence, under such variety of illustration applicable to the case of deep-sea 
soundings in the regions of strata-currents, it appeared to be an inevitable result. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



25 



that the sounding-line in these attempts must be so carried away with the moving 
strata of waters as to render the length of line run out a verj' imperfect indication of 
the depth reached by the plummet. 

Dr. Scoresby next proceeded to communicate his plan for the determination of 
surface-currents, and relatively of strata-currents. 

The ordinary mode of determining the set and velocity of currents — by the 
differences betwixt a ship's position on each day's run as determined by celestial 
observations and the "dead-reckoning" — is necessarilj' and obviously very uncertain, 
often entirely delusive. None of the elements of the log and reckoning are or can 
be correct ; the distance run, the compass course, the steerage of the ship, are all 
more or less inaccurate. The author's own experience had afforded numerous 
cases in practical navigation of great and remarkable differences betwixt the day's- 
reckoning and celestial observations, such as might have been taken as indications of 
currents of considerable influence, where, it was almost certain, the main differences 
were really due to bad steering (when scudding or sailing with the wind on the beam 
or quarter) ; to errors in the distances indicated by the log, or to peculiarities or 
changes in the ship's local attraction. 

No doubt broad determinations as to great and decided currents, and proximate 
results by means of multiplied observations on currents of moderate velocities, are 
derivable from the ordinary process ; but for really satisfactory results, far more 
accurate and conclusive processes need to be instituted. And it would be well 
deserving of an enlightened government of a maritime country like ours to employ 
some of their smaller war- vessels, and so to afford useful and instructive practice 
to junior officers, in investigations concerning currents, and particularly strata- 
currents. And for such investigations certain modes, Dr. Scoresby believed, might 
be made easily available, calculated to yield much valuable and interesting informa- 
tion on this important subject. 

Two leading processes were then described as appearing to be applicable to these 
determinations : — 

1. The planting in particular positions in the ocean, from an attendant vessel, 
buoys with flags, kept in their places by a resisting apparatus below the surface, 
which may be denominated a airrent-measurer, and determining, after a night's 
interval, for instance, the changes of their position from celestial observations. 

A convenient construction of the current-measurer, 
with a view to portability of stowage, might be a double 
oblong frame of iron, attached by a transverse pin as a 
hinge, by the middle of each, so as to allow of their being 
spread out as vanes in a vertical plane, or placed flat on 
each other when not in use. These frames, which might 
be 6 or 8 feet in length by 2 or 3 in breadth, being covered 
with linen, would, when sunk in the water, as indicated 
by the annexed figure, afford sufficient resistance, pro- 
bably, for all the purposes contemplated. 

2. Placing, during a calm, a small boat in the water, 
constructed for the purpose, light, and slightly resisting 
of motion, with the current apparatus for the determination 
of the relative set of strata-currents. — The current-mea- 
surer, attached and suspended by a small wire run off a 
reel fixed in the bow of the boat, might be let down to 
various depths in succession, with a register-thermometer 
attached at each new depth, when the motion of the boat 
and its direction, as shown by the position of a surface- 
float or buoy, would, after but short intervals of time, 
indicate, proximately, the relative motions of the surface- 
water and the water at the several depths of the resisting 
apparatus below ; whilst the register-thermometers might 
give useful information on the extremes of temperature of 
the various sections of water passed through. 

By these arrangements information would be obtained as to the following 
particulars : — 

By the surface-buoy (1) we should ascertain, if the weather were sufficiently calm. 





26 REPORT — 1 853. 

the motion of the surface-water ; by the movements of the boat, (2) the relative 
motions of the surface-water, and that at the depth of the current-measurer, at the 
first trial ; an indication of the changes at other depths ; and, on reeling in the wire, 
the highest and lowest temperature would be shown at each of the depths examined 
(that is, when the changes were in one way, as from warm to cold), and thus the 
several results might be compared with the SKr/ace-temperature taken at the com- 
mencement, and at each change of depth. 

The cases in which such experiments would be the most interesting, would pro- 
bably be found in places of the ocean where great differences of temperature are met 
with at comparatively moderate differences of depth. In some of the positions 
examined, for instance, by the officers of the United States Coast Survey, the tem- 
perature was found to sink, from about 80° at the surface, sometimes to 70°, or even 
65°, in depths not exceeding 120 fathoms, and down to 64° or 63° (near 20"^ lower 
than at the surface), in depths of 120 ranging to 480 fathoms; whilst a tempera- 
ture as low as 44°, or less, was met witli at the depth of about 700 fathoms. Now, 
in such cases — cases pievailing extensively within and about the edges of the Gulf- 
stream, or within the changes of surface-temperature in the transatlantic passage — 
we should probably obtain by the processes described results of no ordinary interest 
and importance. 

The results, it must be admitted, could only be proximate ; for the boat, moved 
by the deeply-sunk current- measurer, it is obvious could not follow vertically above 
it ; but under the action of an obliquely ranging wire, when both boat and wire must 
present a force of resistance, the boat must take a position behind. Yet, if the cur- 
rent diflFerences were considerable in velocity and direction, perhaps experiments 
continued for a few hours at a time, and repeated under a due variety of circum- 
stances, might afford data for mathematical determinations of resistance and cor- 
rections. And, in certain cases, in regions where the great oceanic currents overlay 
one another, like those from the Polar Seas and the Tropics, conclusions abundantly 
satisfactory might, no doubt, be realized. 



Meteorology. 



On a proposed Barometric Pendulum, for the Registration of the Mean 

Atmospheric Pressure during long Periods of Time. By W. J. Macquorn 

Rankine, C.E., F.R.S.S. Loud, and Edinb. 

The author proposes to use the variations of the rate of a clock to determine the 
mean barometric pressure during long periods. 

For this purpose the clock should be regulated by a centrifugal or revolving pen- 
dulum, part of which should consist of a siphon barometer. The rising and falling 
of the mercury would affect the rate of the clock ; so that from the number of revo- 
lutions of the pendulum in a given time might be deduced approximately the mean 
height of the mercurial column during that period. 

The author investigates the formulae to be used for this purpose, and points out 
the nature and mode of determination of the corrections required for temperature, 
obliquity of the barometer, and centrifugal force, and also for the difference between 
the square root of the mean of the squares of the barometric heights, which is the 
quantity ascertained in the first instance, and the mean of the heights, which is the 
quantity sought. 

On a Concentric Iris, as seen from the ridge of Snoivdon, near the summit, 
on the morni»g of the \$th. of June 18.53, about an hour after sunrise, pro' 
jected upon the clouds floating along the sides of the 3Iountain. By 
William Gray, Jun 

The iris continued in sight about an hour, becoming gradually depressed into the 
shadow thrown by the mountain on the clouds. 

When first seen the colours were exceedingly brilliant, and exhibited four concen- 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. B^ 

trie ranges of the prismatic colours nearly perfect, ranging from violet in the centre 
to a fourth circle of violet forming the outermost distinct circumference ; faint indi- 
cations of a fourth circle of red were occasionally visible beyond it. 
The Irish Sea seen in the distance. 



On the Meteorology of Hull. By William Lawton. 

After describing the instruments used and their situation with regard to the town 
and surrounding objects, the author referred to the observations themselves, which 
consist of three separate series. 1st. The observations on temperature of Dr. 
Fielding, late of Hull, extending from 1831 to 1836 (both inclusive), left in the 
form of a chart. These have been reduced to their numerical value and placed in a 
tabulated form. 2nd. Mr. Lawton's observations of a general character, commen- 
cing with January 1849, and still continued. 3rd. The Literary and Philosophical 
Society's observations, commencing with 1851, and also continued. 

The following table headed Atmospheric Pressure, represents the mean barometrical 
observations for each month and for the year. The first three columns are the 
results of the author's observations taken daily at 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. The first 
column represents the average highest monthly maxima for the years 1849, 1850, 1851 
and 1852 ; the second column the average lowest monthly minima ; and the third 
column the mean monthly height for the same period. 

The fourth and fifth columns give the highest and lowest readings for each month 
from the Philosophical Society's Register, and the sixth column of the same table 
the mean of each month for the year 1851, which closely coincide with Mr. Lawton's 
observations for the same period. The mean height of the barometer for December 
of that year was the greatest yet registered, being 30*34 ; the Philosophical Society's 
30'264. By a reference to the third column containing the mean height on the 
average of four years from 1849 to 1852, it will be perceived the readings are the 
highest in February, March and September, and lowest in January, October and 
November. 

The mean heights of each of the four years observed have not varied above "05 of 
an inch. 

To this table are added the results of four years' observations made at Wakefield 
by W. R. Milner, Esq., Surgeon, during the same period, and kindly furnished 
by that gentleman. 

Table L — Atmospheric Pressure. 



January... 
February 
March .... 
April....... 

May 

June 

July 

August .... 
September 
October.... 
November . 
December . 



1849 to 1852. 



Max. Min. Mean. 



30-51 
30-62 
30-61 
3038 
30-39 
30-31 
30-31 
30-35 
30-53 
30-50 
30-48 
30-58 



30-46 



29-37 
29'34 
29-48 
29-47 
29-64 
29-76 
29-61 
29-65 
29-37 
29-22 
29-16 
2942 



29-45 



29-98 
3012 
30-14 
29-99 
3007 
30-06 
3004 
30-02 
30-14 
29-96 
29-94 
30-07 



30-04 



1851. 



Max. 



30-356 
30-478 
30-446 
30-248 
30-612 
30-386 
30-240 
30-466 
30-696 
30-498 
30-424 
30-608 



30-455 



Min. 



29-162 
29-436 
28-846 
29-426 
29-702 
29-632 
29-322 
29-622 
29-368 
29-128 
29-308 
29-600 



29-383 



Mean> 



29-740 
30 018 
29-713 
29-904 
30-064 
30074 
29-900 
30090 
30-242 
29-624 
29-919 
30-264 



29-963 



1849. 


1850. 


1851. 


1852. 




30-04 
29-818 


30-06 

29-807 


30-06 
29-824 


30-01 
29-728 


Hull. 
Wakefield. 



Bearing in mind the daily fluctuations or tides of the barometer, which it is stated 
by Professor Phillips rise at York twice to maxima, about 9 or 10 a.m. and p.m.. 



28 



REPORT 1853. 



and sink twice to minima about 4 a.m. and 4 p.m., Mr. Lawton referred to the 
observations, to see how far such ebb and flow of the mercurial column was borne 
out. In his own observations taken at 9 a.m. and 6 p.m. there was no evidence of 
such fluctuation ; but in the Philosophical Society's Register taken at the time of the 
greatest ebb and flow, the mean of the morning readings in each month of the yeai- 
is in every case above the mean of the afternoon readings, as will be seen by the 
following Table. 

Table II. 



Mean height of Standard Barometer, 25 feet above high water. 


1851. 


10 A.M. 


4 P.M. 




29-753 
30025 
29-723 
29-909 
30-064 
30.108 
29-902 
30-099 
30-255 
29-854 
29-921 
30-271 


29-727 
30-012 
29-720 
29-899 
30-063 
30-038 
29-898 
30-082 
30-229 
29-846 
29-916 
30-257 






April 


May 

June 

Julv 


August 








December 


Mean 


29 990 
29-972 


29-972 




Difference | '018 


! 



From observations on atmospheric pressure we pass to those on its temperature, in 
illustration of which the following Table (III.) has been constructed. The first 
four columns are the results of four years' observations, from 1849 to 1852. The 
second four columns are Dr. Fielding's observations, from 1831 to 1836 ; to these are 
added a third table, copied from Professor Phillips's recent work on the Mountains, 
Rivers, &c. of Yorkshire, giving the average highest daily and lowest nightly tem- 
perature for each month at York, from 1812 to 1818 inclusive. 

Table III. — Temperature. Average Daily Maxima and Minima. 





Hull, 1849 to 1852. 


Hull, 1831 to 1836. 


York. 




Daily 
Max. 


Nightly 
Min. 


Daily 
Var. 


Mean 


Daily 
Max. 


Nightly 
Min. 


Daily 
Var! 


Mean 


Ann. 
Max. 


Ann. 
Min. 


Diff. 


January 

February .... 
March 


42-8 
46-4 
48-2 
53-6 
59-4 
66-7 
68-7 
660 
60-J- 
52-8 
470 
43-9 


360 
36-9 
39-2 
40-0 
45-0 
51-2 
53-8 
54-7 
49-9 
42-3 
38-4 
38-5 


6-8 

95 

9-0 

136 

14-4 

15-5 

14-9 

113 

11-0 

10-5 

8-6 

5-4 


39-3 
41 2 
43-7 
469 
52-2 
59-0 
61-2 
60-3 
55-4 
47-5 
42-7 
41-2 


41-7 
44-8 
47 9 
522 
59-7 
65 9 
690 
67-6 
62-8 
57-0 
47-1 
44-8 


33-9 
35-2 
36-6 
39-3 
46-1 
49-9 
52-3 
51-9 
48-6 
44-9 
37-9 
36-2 


7-8 
9-6 
11-3 
129 
136 
16-0 
16-7 
15-7 
14-2 
12-1 
9-2 
8-6 


37-8 
40-0 
42-2 
45-7 
52-9 
57-9 
60-6 
59-7 
55-7 
50-9 
42-5 
40-5 


38-16 
43-26 
45-77 
51-54 
158-31 
' 64-79 
67-70 
! 64-81 
61-99 
53-34 
46-03 
39-53 


29-29 
32-60 
34-69 
37-49 
44-29 
49-07 
52-69 
5104 
48-73 
4304 
36-24 
31-11 


8-87 
10-66 
1108 
1405 
14-02 
1572 
1501 
13-77 
13 26 
10-30 
9-79 
8-42 




June 


July 


August 

September. . . 

October 

November... 
December... 


Mean... 


54-8 


438 


11-0 


49-2 


55 


42-7 


12-3 


48-9 


j 52-93 


40-85 


1208 



A comparison ot these three tables shows during the summer months considerable 
uniformity ; but during the colder months of the year the effects of the German 
Ocean and of the Humber in raising the sea temperature are manifest. This compari- 
son of temperature between Hull and York would have been more satisfactory had 
the observations been made during contemporary years. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



29 



To the combined influence of the Sea and the Humber in mitigating the heat 
of the summer day and softeniog the cold of the winter's night at Hull, a third 
may be added, namely, the large surface area of water, which in the form of spacious 
docks and harbour occupy a space of from CO to 70 acres. The effect of this 
area of water passing through the centre of the town must be in summer to absorb 
heat, which houses, streets, or dry ground would reflect into the atmosphere, and in 
winter to communicate during the night a portion of the heat absorbed during the day. 

It is to be much regretted that no data whatever exist as to the temperature of 
the docks, the Humber, and the sea washing the Yorkshire coast, a blank in meteo- 
rological science which the author hopes to fill up. 

It may next be interesting to show the extreme monthly maxima and minima 
registered at Hull. For this purpose Table IV. is constructed, showing the highest 
and lowest monthly maxima and minima from the observations of Dr. Fielding and 
Mr. Lawton, to which is added a similar table again copied from Professor Phillips's 
work before mentioned. 

Table IV. — Extreme Monthly Temperature. 



Hull, Ten Years. 


York, Seven Years. 




Highest 

Monthly 

Max. 


Lowest 

Monthly 

Min. 


Diff. 


Highest 

Monthly 

Max. 


Lowest 

Monthly 

Min. 


DifF. 


January 

February ... 


47-0 
47-5 
50-8 
55-2 
651 
70-6 
73-4 
71-6 
66-7 
60-6 
50-4 
46-7 


31-8 
29-5 
31-4 
370 
42-8 
47-6 
48-9 
48-8 
45-9 
40-7 
32-7 
340 


15-2 

180 
19-4 
18-2 
22-3 
230 
24-5 
22-8 
20-8 
19-9 
17-7 
12-7 


42-6 
471 
510 
561 
59-9 
71-8 
729 
66-2 
63-5 
58-2 
51-8 
42-3 


210 
271 
31-3 
35-2 
39-9 
46-4 
512 
49-4 
460 
37-9 
311 
29-7 


21-6 
20 
19-7 
20-9 
20-0 
25-4 
21-7 
16-8 
17-5 
20-3 
20-7 
12-6 


April 






July 


August 

September . . . 

October 

November.... 
December ... 



From this table the influence of adjacent waters in raising the temperature of 
January and December, at Hull, compared with the same months at York, is more 
ajiparent. 

Following this table is another. Table V., also of extremes, which is formed from 
Dr. Fielding's observations alone, by taking the highest and lowest point registered 
on any day in each month of the six years. 

Table V. — Dr. Fielding's Extreme Temperatures. 



1831 

to 

1836. 


Highest 

Point 

registered. 


Lowest 

Point 

registered. 


Diff. 


January 

February ... 


56-5 

54-5 

64-5 

67 

77 

82-5 

81-5 

85-5 

75 

71 

605 

56-5 


21-5 

24 

27-5 

28-5 

29 

34-5 

38-5 

38 

34-5 

3;i 

21-5 

23 


35 

30-5 

37 

38-5 

48 

48 

43 

47-5 

40-5 

41 

39 

33-5 




May 


June 


July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 



The temperature of 85-5, in Table V., was registered on the 10th of August, 1835 



90 



REPORT — 1853. 



The highest point reached, in my own observations, was on the 7th of July, 1849, 
83°; the lowest on the IQth of February, 1853, 18°^ 

The greatest daily variation I have registered occurred on the l6th of May, 
1852, 33°. 

Table VI. is also copied from Professor Phillips's work before named, so far as 
regards Halifax, York, and Keyingham. For the purpose of comparing our local 
climate, at particular seasons, with that of Halifax, situated in the Yorkshire hills. 
York in the valley, and Keyingham in the Holderness level, Mr. Lawton has added 
Hull. It will be' seen that'in the cold month of January Hull has the warmer cli- 
mate, April and July rather colder, October rather warmer. 

Table VI. — Mean Temperature. 





i 

HaUfax, 1 York, 
2 Years, i 25 Years. 


Keyingham, 
2 Years. 


Hull, 1 


4 Years. 


6 Years. 


10 Years. 1 

1 


Jamiarv 369 348 

April 45-4 47-6 

July 60-5 620 

October 505 48-2 


38-6 
44-6 
620 
49-4 


39-3 
46-9 
61-2 

47-8 


37-8 
45-9 
60-6 
51-9 


38-4 
46-2 
60-8 
50-2 



The author concludes his observations on temperature by giving the mean annual 
temperature of each ten years observed, likewise the general annual mean deduced 
therefrom, with the greatest and least annual means observed, these again being 
compared with York, Wakefield, Malton, Keyingham, and London. 



Table VII. — Mean Annual Temperature. 



1831. i 1832. 

48-4 48-6 


1833. 


1834. 1835. 

511 49-4 


1836. 


1849. 


1850. 


1851. 


1852. 


48-3 


47-9 50-2 


49-8 


48 47-8 



Mean annual temperature 49° ; greatest Sl'^"! ; least 47°'8. 

Mean annual temperature at Hull, on the average of 10 years, 49 

York, „ 25 „ 48-2 

Wakefield, „ 5 „ 48-6 

Malton, „ „ 47-6 

„ „ Keyingham, „ 2 „ 48*8 

„ „ London, ,, „ 51"8 

Mean temperature of Hull from January to June, 46°'6 

,, ,, July to December, 51°*5 

Difference 4°"9 on the average of 10 yrs. 

We now proceed to consider the humidity of the climate of Hull, which in this 
respect will bear a favourable comparison with most places in the British Isles ; the 
east coast, from about the mouth of the Thames to near the Tyne, being in general 
considerably drier than the midland, western, or southern portions of England. The 
results of observations made at Hull on the fall of rain, evaporation, and hygro- 
metrical condition of the atmosphere, are shown in the annexed table. 

The fall of rain is given on the average of four years, the evaporation on the ave- 
rage of two years. The hygrometrical observations are taken from the Philosophical 
Society's Register for 1851. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 

Table Y III.— Humidity. 



31 





Rain. 


Evaporation. 


Hygrometer. 


Depth in 
inches. 


Days of 
Rain. 


Mean Temp. Me.in amount 
Dew-point. I of Humidity. 


January 

February 

March 


1-32 

•49 

•82 

•63 

•61 

217 

2-90 

1-95 

2-53 

1-77 

1-71 

1-41 


130 

7-66 
11-66 

8 
13 

833 
11-33 
11 

8-75 
16 

1275 
12-25 


•15 
•13 
•19 
•56 
•71 
•75 
1-04 
•96 
•52 
.25 
-02 
•10 


39 

38-8 

38-7 

39-6 

47 

53-2 

53-3 

55 

50-8 

48 

34 4 

34-2 


0-914 
0-928 
0-872 
0-816 
0-832 
0-796 
0-801 
0-789 
0-812 
0-847 
0-852 
0911 






July 


August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




18-31 


133-73 


5-38 


44-5 


0847 



The raia here indicated in the four months from February to May will not, it is 
presumed, represent the average fall if a longer period was taken. It is probable, 
however, that in Hull, as in most other places, the average fall of rain is the greatest 
during the latter half of the year. 

The fall of rain during the twelve months from J^ily 1852 to June 1853, in 
inches, was 25'84. 

The last table, being a synopsis of the meteorology of Hull, is sufficiently expla- 
natory to need no further elucidation. 

The author, however, calls the attention of observers to the last column, ' Clear 
Nights,' which is a register of those nights that were either apparently, or from 
actual trial, found to be suitable for telescopic observation, and is therefore an 
approximate indication of the astronomical climate of Hull. 



Table IX 


.- 


-Results 


of Meteorological 


Observations taken at Hull. 




Barometer. 


Thermometer. 


Rain. 


Weather. 


1g 




lit 




1 
•3 

i 


£ 


1 
3 


1^ 


1 "t 


1849 


30 04 


50-2 


9 


11-93* 92 


67 


65 


138 


13 i 365 


1850 


3006 


49-8 


loy 


14-57 97 


59 


60 


122 


9 347 


1851 


30-06 


48 


13 3 


15-15 85 


38 


86 


124 


10 343 


1852 


3001 


47-8 


10^8 


20-36 76 


59 


78 


118 


4 334 


Winds. 
















1 




















"5 






!5 








i CO 


to 


Ml* 
«• 1 






03 


a 




la' 


H 
Z 
Z 


1 




li 

° 




SI 


1849 


13 


3 


25 


96 


1 3 


43 


3J 8 


5 '30 


4 


2S 


4 


33 


4 


74 


10 




361 


lOlt 


1850 


16 


1 


30 


... J 


3 9 


46 


816 


3 34 


2 


24 


1 


35 


2 


38 


8 




346 


147 


1851 ,20 


8 


28 


104 


8 6 


48 


1322 


6 19 


3 


10 


3 


26 


20 


37 


8 


851 


335 


138 


1852 29 


1 


14 


3( 


8 4j3() 


...il9 


3 40 


1 


25 


1 


26 


» 


35 


10 


767 


321 


140 


368 Northerly. 60t Westerly. 437 Southerly. 396 Easterly. 



* From August to December inclusive. 



f From January not registered. 



32 REPORT — 1853. 

la conclusion, Mr. Lawton presents a few facts referring to the chief meteorological 
features of the present year. The mean temperature of February was 32°'2, being 
9° below the average of the past four years. The lowest of the month was 18°, the 
highest 38°. Snow fell on eighteen days. 

The mean temperature of Marcli was 35°"4, being 8° below the average of the 
same period. Snow fell on twelve days. 

During a considerable portion of March, April, May, and June, easterly and 
north-easterly winds prevailed. The fall of moisture was also in excess, being, 
during the first six months of the year, in inches, 5"47 above the average of the pre- 
vious four years. 

The atmosphere, during the months of June, July, and August, was unusually 
cloudy. 

No thunder-storm worthy of note has occurred in this neighbourhood during the 
present year. 

But in the summer of 1851 thiinder-stormsof extreme severity occurred on the 21st 
June, 29th July, 13th and 17th of August. The one on Saturday the 21st of June 
continued from 3"30 to 5'30 p.m., during which there fell in inches 1'68 of rain, the 
heaviest fall of many years. The storm of the 29th of July continued from 5"30 to 7 
P.M., and was remarkable for the long continuance of vivid fork and sheet lightning 
prior to rain descending; the quantity of rain in inches was 76 hundredths, which 
fell in about one hour. That of the ISth of August was accompanied by a terrific 
and most destructive bail-storm. 

Meteorological Sum7nary for 1 852 of Observations at Htiggatey Yorkshire. 
By the Rev. T. Rankin. 

Continuation, across the Country, of the Thunder and Rain Stonn, which 
commenced in Herefordshire on September \th, and terminated on the 
Yorkshire Wolds on September 5th, 1852. By the Rev. T. Rankin. 

Notice of a terrific Thunder- Cloud on the Wolds, September 26th, 1852. 
Sy the Rev. T. Rankin. 

On the Action of the Winds which veer from the South- West to West, and 
North- West to North. By R. Russell. 
In almost all the violent storms which occur in the British islands, the currents 
above seldom coincide with those at the surface of the ground, which statement also 
often applies to ordinary weather, when there is little atmospheric disturbance. On 
previous occasions, Mr. Russell had endeavoured to show that many of the phe- 
nomena of our storms would ultimately be explained by the mutual action of the 
under and upper currents. He had never seen an instance of a British storm that 
admitted of being explained on the rotatory theory, and he thought this theory 
altogether erroneous as applied to our high latitudes. A south-east current in the 
upper regions of the atmosphere seldom occurred in Britain, but south-east surface 
winds were common in moist and rainy tracts of weather. In these circumstances, 
however, an upper current of S.W. overlies the S.E., and supplies it with rain. Di- 
rect E. winds, prevailing not only at the surface, but ;it those atmospheric heights 
where the cirrus clouds are formed, aie much more common than from the S.E., 
and undivided currents from the N.E. are still more frequent. A west wind seldom 
or never blows below when an east wind prevails above ; but on the contrary, it is 
very common for a S.W. current to prevail above, when a N.E., E., or S.E. wind 
may blow furiously below. The solution of many of the primary phaenomena of 
those storms which commence in Britain with easterly winds and terminate with 
westerly or northerly winds, is to be found in the mutual action of the upper and 
lower currents moving in different directions, and not in the principle of rotation. A 
current from the N.W. at the surface of the earth never blows for any length of 
time with an upper current from the S.W. ; but in certain tracts of weather, it is 
very common for a S.W. under-current to prevail, while a N.W. or N. wind is 
blowing above. It has been noticed that gales begin to blow from the S.W. or S., 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 3S 

and afterwards veer round by W. with great violence to N.W. or N. The advocates 
of the rotatory hypothesis find a solution of this by supposing that at those places 
where the wind veers from S.W. by W. to N.W., a vast body of air is in a state of 
gyration from right to left, and in a state of translation from S.W. to N.E. 
TTie centre of rotation is supposed to lie far to the north of the stations where 
the wind goes through these points. This is a very plausible explanation of 
the veerings, and is always adduced in support of the rotatory hypothesis, in 
favour of which much may be said in one class of storms, but in these there 
can be no rotation, as the S.W. wind flows in one broad stream over the island, 
and no observations can be found to indicate a recurring of the S.W. wind. 
In the class of storms where the wind goes through the course of S.W., W . 
to N.W., an upper current from the N.W. prevails. The veering, Mr. Russell is 
of opinion, may be accounted for in the same way as variations in the summer 
months, which arise, he thinks, from an intermixture and interchange which is 
effected along the course of the wind, the hot air rising up and the cold air de- 
scending. A similar phenomenon is to be seen in the commingling of water. 
This, too, he believed, affords a proximate explanation of many of our easterly gales ; 
and so the reversal of the lower current by the heat of the sun during certain states 
of our atmosphere in summer is maintained bj' the constant ascent and descent of 
the air of the two opposite currents, so far as the south wind extends. Every gust 
of the breeze must be considered as the effect of vertical gyrations caused by air of 
different specific gravities. As soon as the sun lessens his heat, the disturbing 
influences are diminished, and at last night brings a calm at the earth's surface, 
while the north current above still flows on. The length of time which the wind will 
blow from the S.W. is very uncertain. It commonly varies from eight to forty- 
eight hours, and in some cases it continues for days. The wind at once turns round 
to the N.W., when the barometer again begins to rise. The cause of this change of 
•wind to the N.W., he believed, is merely the upper current resuming its sway at the 
surface of the earth by putting the thin stratum of air which has been flowing from 
the S.W. into the same course as the current above. The temporary eruption 
of the S.W. wind, which has been heated over the warm ocean and replenished by 
moisture, appeared to him to be a parallel phaenomenon to the southerly breezes 
which play over our island during the day in summer when the N. wind is prevailing 
above. These dry breezes are daily called into action by the solar rays disturbing 
the equilibrium of the air in the lower depths of the atmosphere where rarefaction 
takes place. In this manner, then, may the moist S.W. winds from the Atlantic be 
hurried over the continent of Europe, and when once set in motion they possess a 
self-sustaining force in mingling with the dry cold current which overstratifies them. 
Although it may be against general theory and beUef, he thought that the returning 
polar current in our latitude is much more frequently from the N.W. than from the 
N.E. Both Mr. Green and Mr. Mason were of opinion, from their aeronautic 
experience, that in whatever direction the wind might blow at the surface of the 
earth, at 10,000 feet the current was invariably from some point between N. and W. 
This opinion was no doubt carried too far, but it clearly showed the frequency of 
the N.W. wind above the lower currents. Many of the storms which begin to 
blow from the S.W. and veer round to N.W., are apparently caused by the mutual 
action of two currents from these quarters stratified over one another. In these 
storms, too, the bEirometer does not usually give much warning of their approach ; 
indeed the mercury will sometimes be actually on the rise when cirrostratus cloud, 
the precursor of the S.W. wind, is already formed along the western horizon. On 
the contrary, the storms which come on with easterly winds give notice of their 
approach by a fall in the mercury. In conclusion, Mr. Russell observed that the 
extraordinary change of the wind from S.W. to N.W. had been noticed by Shak- 
speare, and he had some very beautiful lines on the subject, which Mr. Russell 
quoted. 

On Parhelia observed at St. Ives. By 3. K. Watts, F.R.G.S. 

These beautiful phaenomena were «een on Tuesday, the 15th of February, 1853, 
from about IS*" 20"° p.m. to 2'' 30"" p.m. The wind at the time was north-west, 
very slight; barometer, 29'65 ; thermometer, 31°. The morning was clear, with a 

1853. 3 



34 REPORT — 1853. 

slight frost, and about noon a thin haze came over and covered the sun, which still 
shone with considerable power ; and there were a few scattered light clouds. At the 
time stated above, four mock suns, or parhelia, were very visible, situated at equal 
distances in a circle round the true sun, two being in the same vertical with him, 
and two in the same horizontal range. These displayed splendid prismatic colours. 
Shortly afterwards two other mock suns appeared, of a pale white light, in the 
same horizontal range with the true sun and two of the bright mock suns. Each of 
the mock suns appeared as large as the true sun, and through him and the four hori- 
zontal mock suns a stream of pale white light passed to a considerable distance be- 
yond the outside ones. The au- 
V y thor gave a diagram, as below. 

The circle in which the two outer 
parhelia were placed was only about 
three-fourths formed ; the diagram 
showed it exactly twice the size of 
the inner circle; immediately above, 
to the north, was an inverted arch. 
The inner circle and outer partly- 
/^K x'/n /^^ /\~\ /V\ formed circle were of a light brown 

' ' "E colour on the outer edges, and of 

a violet-red on the inner. The in- 
verted arch was of white light, ha- 
ving the outer edge tinged with red. 
The long streak was of white light, 
which passed through the true sun 
and the two parhelia on each side 
of it, and to a considerable distance beyond the two outside ones. The wind being 
scarcely perceptible, the haze hung over the sun for a long time. The phsenome- 
non was in full splendour for upwards of two hours ; and it was a considerable time 
afterwards before all traces had disappeared. 




On the Graduation of Standard Thermometers at the Kew Observatory. 

By John Welsh. 
In the year 1851 the Committee of the Kew Observatory, impressed with the 
importance, in meteorological investigations, of possessing thermometers of a better 
class than those hitherto procurable from opticians, took steps with the view of 
producing such instruments, under their own superintendence, for distribution to 
institutions and individuals who might require accurate standards of reference. The 
Committee were furnished with the information necessary to carry out their inten- 
tions by M. Regnault of Paris, who had been accustomed to construct his own 
thermometers by a method proposed by himself, and with an accuracy previously 
unknown: they were also supplied, under his directions, with the requisite apparatus. 
It has been assumed by physicists that at all temperatures, as high at least as that 
of boiling water, the apparent expansion of mercury in a glass envelope is uniform 
for equal increments of heat. A mercurial thermometer may therefore be called a 
standard instrument when the divisions of its scale correspond everywhere to equal 
volumes of the contained fluid, and when the readings are known for the tempera- 
tures of melting ice and of water boiling under a certain barometric pressure. If the 
tube were perfectly uniform in its bore, it would only be necessary to make a scale 
of equal parts between the freezing and boiling-points, and to extend the division 
above and below these points ; but as perfect tubes are in practice not procurable, 
it becomes necessary, in dividing the scale, to make allowance for the variations in 
the tube's capacity. These variations are obtained by carefully measuring a short 
column of mercury (1 inch or less in length) as it is made to pass along the tube 
by successive steps, each of which is as nearl)' as possible its own length. In 
the thermometers constructed according to M. Regnault's process, the divisions do 
not represent degrees of the ordinary scales of temperature, but are of an arbitrary 
value, differing for each instrument, and requiring separate tables for each ther- 
mometer to convert the scale readings into degrees ; the divisions at all parts of the 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 35- 

scale being equivalent to equal volumes, although their lengths may vary very consi- 
derably. Mr. Welsh described a raodification which he had made in M. Regnault's 
process, by which he has been enabled to divide the scales of the thermometers gra- 
duated at Kew at once into degrees, the readings being afterwards subject only to the 
small errors of manipulation, and such errors as arise from the unavoidable changes 
■which take place in the zero-points of all thermometers. The freezing-points are de- 
termined in the ordinary way by immersion in well-pounded ice, from which the water 
is drained off as it melts. The boiling-points are determined by the apparatus 
devised by M. Regnault, in steam, whose elastic force is exactly equal to that of the 
atmosphere at the time, a correction being made for the difference of the barometric 
pressure from the adopted standard pressure. The boiling-points, besides being 
determined for the usual position of a thermometer, with the stem vertical, are also 
observed in a similar apparatus with the stem horizontal ; so that, if the instrument 
should ever be used in any other than the vertical position, the proper correction may 
be applied. The difference between the boiling-point of a thermometer, in the two 
positions, is found to be from 0°"2 to 0°5 Fahr., according to the thickness of the 
glass and the form of the bulb. After the graduation of a thermometer has been 
completed, its accuracy is examined by a subsequent calibration with a longer column 
of mercury. If the length of the column, with reference to the scale divisions, 
is everywhere the same, the graduation is considered good ; but if any difference is 
found to exist, a more complete examination is made by using columns of different 
lengths, each of which is nearly an aliquot part of the range of the scale, the remain- 
ing errors being deduced from these measurements by the method adopted by Mr. 
Sheepshanks for the thermometers used in connection with the national standard 
yard. It is, however, seldom that any appreciable correction is found needful. It 
has long been known that the freezing-point of a thermometer is not constant, but 
rises by a considerable amount during the first year after its construction. There is, 
however, another peculiarity in thermometers which is less known. If a thermo- 
meter, after having been for some weeks exposed to the ordinary temperature of the 
air, is placed in melting ice, its freezing-point will be, for example, 32°'2 ; if the bulb 
is then put for two or three minutes into boiling water, and soon afterwards again 
placed in ice, the reading will no longer be 32°'2, but will have fallen to nearly 32°'0 : 
if in a day or two it is again placed in ice, the freezing-point will have risen a little 
— about 0°'l; and if again tried, after two or three weeks, the freezing-point will 
be found to have acquired exactly the original position of 32°"2. This has been found 
to be the case with every thermometer examined at Kew, whatever was its age ; the 
difference in the freezing-point, before and after boiling, being about 0°'17 Fahr., and 
varying inappreciably in different instruments. This peculiar displacement of the 
freezing-point seems to be owing to a temporary alteration in the dimensions of the 
bulb caused by a considerable change of temperature ; the glass, after having been 
expanded by heat, requiring a week or two to contract to its original size. It appears, 
therefore, that the alteration in the freezing-point of a thermometer depends upon two 
separate causes, the one being a slow contraction of the bulb, continuing for many 
months but ultimately ceasing, and the other a temporary alteration in the dimensions 
of the bulb, produced by a sudden and considerable elevation of temperature, which 
disappears in two or three weeks. The rise in the freezing-point of ordinary ther- 
mometers is probably due to a combination of both these causes ; for if a thermo- 
meter has its freezing-point set off' soon after being blown and filled, there will be, 
first of all, the comparatively rapid contraction of the bulb due to the great heat to 
which it has lately been exposed, and afterwards the more gradual contraction which 
continues for several months. The author recommended opticians, instead of 
" pointing off" their thermometers immediately after being filled, to allow them to 
rest for a month or six weeks, so as to avoid at least the first great change which 
occurs ; but of course the longer they are kept the better. Mr. Welsh mentioned 
another fact which he had observed in thermometers. He took about fifteen ther- 
mometers, and, after carefully ascertaining their freezing-points, kept them exposed 
to the temperature of boiling water for about 60 hours, allowing them afterwards to 
cool very slowly. It was then found that the freezing-point had been permanently 
raised in all of them by about 0°'3 to 0°'4 Fahr. The effect of a subsequent suddeii 
elevation of temperature was exactly as before, to lower the freezing-point by nearly 

3* 



36 REPORT — 1853, 

0°'2 ; the reading which was found after the long-continued boiling being again 
restored in about a fortnight. He was not yet prepared to say whether any eflfect 
is produced by the boiling in the way of bringing the freezing-point of a newly- 
made thermometer to a permanent position, irrespective of the temporary altera- 
tion caused by a sudden elevation of temperature. 



Strength of Materials. 



On the Elasticity of Stone and Crystalline Bodies. 
By Professor Eaton Hodgkinson, F.R.S. 

It is generally assumed by writers on the strength of materials, that the elasticity 
of bodies is perfect so long as the material is not strained beyond a cei'tain degree. 
But from the experiments I made several years ago, at the instance of the British 
Association, on the strength of hot and cold blast-iron (vol. vi.), I was led to con- 
clude that the assumption was very incorrect, as applied to cast iron at least ; and 
further experiments rendered it probable that it was only an approximation in any. 
Among the bodies of most value in the arts, cast iron holds an important place ; 
and I found that bars of that metal, when bent with forces, however small, never 
regained their first form, after the force was removed ; and this defect of its 
elasticity took place whether the cast iron was strained by tension, compression, or 
transverse flexure. I subsequently found that in the first two strains (by tension 
and compression), the straining force might be well represented by a function 
composed of the first and second powers of the change of length produced, — thus, 

w=ae— Je^ 
w=-a'c — h'(?, 
where w is the weight applied, ethe extension, c the compression, and a, a, b, b' 
constant quantities. If the elasticity were perfect, the part depending on the second 
power must be neglected. The necessity of a change in the fundamehtal assump- 
tions for calculating the strength of materials may be inferred from the fact, that in 
computing the breaking weig?it by tension, from experiments on <?-aMsverse flexure and 
fracture, we obtain the strength of cast iron three times as great as from numerous ex- 
periments I have found it to be. The formulae of Tredgold give this erroneous 
result, and those of Navier are in accordance with them. 

Stone. — To obtain the elasticity of stone, I had masses of soft stone, obtained 
from various places, sawn up into broad thin slabs, 7 feet long, and about 1 inch 
thick. They were rubbed smooth, and rendered perfectly dry in a stove, and were 
bent transversely in their least direction by forces acting horizontally. The slabs, 
during the experiments, were placed with their broad side vertical, and had their 
ends supported, 6 feet 6 inches asunder, by friction rollers, acting horizontally and 
vertically. It resulted from the experiments (as shown in a former volume of this 
Association), that the defects of elasticity were nearly as the square of the weight 
laid on ; or consequently, as the square of the deflexion nearly, as in cast iron. The 
ribs never regained their first form after the weight was removed, however small 
that weight had been. From other ribs of stone, obtained from various localities, 
and broken transversely by weights, acting vertically, and increased to the time of 
fracture, the ratio of the deflection to the weight applied was found in various 
experiments to be nearly as below :- 



02 


•01 


•02 


•018 


•02 


•027 


•035 


•012 


•022 


•023 


■022 


•032 


05 


•0125 


•033 


•024 


•024 


•035 


•07 


•014 


•036 


•027 


•025 


•038 


•09 


■015 






•026 




•11 


•016 











The ratios represented by the numbers in each vertical column, are those from each 
separate rib of stone ; and they would have been equal if the elasticity had continued 
perfect, but they were increasing where the weights were inci'eased in every instance. 
The change shown by these experiments to be necessary would increase con- 
siderably the mathematical difficulties of the subject ; and the difficulties would be 
greater still, if the change of bulk and lateral dimensions in the bodies strained were 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 3^ 

included, according to the conclusions of Poisson, or the experiments of Wertheim, 
which are at variance with each other. But these last changes are so small in the 
bodies I am contemplating, that they may be neglected for all practical purposes. 
Thus, from my experiments, the utmost extension of a bar of cast iron, 50 feet long, 
is about 1 inch, or ^^dth of the length, and therefore the change of lateral dimen- 
sions of the bar being only a fraction of this eotjdth, according either to Poisson 
or Wertheim, it is too small to need including. The experiments from which I 
deduced the utmost extension of cast iron, are given in the ' Report of the Com- 
missioners on the Strength of Iron for Railway Purposes.' If the body strained 
were wrought iron, brass, or others of a very ductile nature, the change of lateral 
dimensions might, in extreme cases, be included. I beg to mention, with great 
deference, that the profound work of Lame, lately published, ' On the Mathematical 
Theory of Elasticity,' in which the elasticity is considered as perfect only, does not 
appear to apply to such bodies as I have here treated of. 



Trigonometrical Survey. 



Communicaiion from Lieutenant- General Sir John Burgoyne, G.C.B., 

Inspector- General of Fortifications, regarding the progress made in the 

Publication of the Trigonometrical Survey. 

O. M. 0., Southampton, September 5, 1853. 

The labours of the Ordnance Survey Department have been directed during the 
past year to the determination, according to the theory of minimum squares, of the 
most probable corrections to be applied to the angles of the principal triangles. 

This process, which is a most laborious one, involving the solution of about 1300 
equations of condition, is now well advanced, and every exertion is being made to 
hasten its completion. Until it has been finally completed the computations of 
distances cannot be properly undertaken, for it must be borne in mind that the trigo- 
nometrical operations of the Ordnance Survey embrace a connected triangulation, ex- 
tending through the length and breadth of the United Kingdom, which must be con- 
sidered as a whole, in deducing the results. 

Besides preparing for the publicatiou of the principal triangulation, the Ordnance 
Survey Department are about to publish a volume of Levels in Ireland, and another 
of the Meteorological Observations made at the Ordnance Survey Office near Dublin, 
the printing of both works being at the present time in progress. 

L. A. Hall, Lieut. -Colonel Royal Engineers. 



CHEMISTRY. 



On a Simple Instrument for graduating Glass Tubes. 
By Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S., M.B.LA. 

This instrument is intended to supply the chemist with a means of accurately gra- 
duating his glass measures of capacity. The divisions admit of being varied in length 
to the j7;ooodth of an inch, so as to allow the graduation to be adapted to the changes 
In calibre of the vessel. They are obtained by the action of a micrometer-screw, 
1 inch long, on a wooden block on which a standard scale is firmly fixed ; but the 
details of the construction could not be rendered intelligible without a figure. Scales 
exceeding 3 feet in length may be divided by means of this instrument, which the 
author has very successfully employed in the construction of thermometers for delicate 
investigations. The dividing instrument itself, and a thermometer graduated by its 
aid, were exhibited to the Section. 

Exhibition of British Lichens, containing Dyeing Lichens. 
By Professor Balfour, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

They were collected and prepared by Dr. Lindsay, and consisted of specimens of 
Roccella tinctoria, R. fuciformis, Lecanora tartarea, Scyphophorus pi/xidatus, and Cla- 



38 REPORT — 1853. 

dotiia raiiffiferiiia. Along with the Lichens, the various dyes which they furnished by 
the action of different reagents were exhibited. Prof. Balfour also exhibited speci- 
mens of Pohjpod'unn alpestre, which he stated was common in the Scotch highlands, 
although only recently pointed out as a British plant by H. C. Watson, Esq. 



On the Effect of Sulphate of Lime upon Vegetable Substances. 
By Chevalier Claussen. 

About six weeks since I was engaged in making various experiments on the effect 
of sulphate of lime upon vegetable substances. A portion of the substances then 
used by me was thrown carelessly aside, and upon returning to my experiments about a 
fortnight afterwards, I was surprised to find that decomposition had not taken place in 
those parts of the vegetables which had been subjected to the action of the sulphate, 
while those which had not been so treated were completeh' decayed. Among the 
articles experimented upon were a number of potatoes, each of which was affected by 
the prevalent disease ; some of these remain sound to the present daj', the others 
have some time since completely rotted awaj'. Subsequently, I procured some more 
potatoes, and also some beet-roots, the former being, as far as I could judge, all 
diseased. I divided the potatoes into three portions. One lot I placed in a vessel 
with a weak solution of sulphuric acid, and from thence I placed them in a solution 
of weak lime-water. In the second lot the process was reversed, that is to say, the 
potatoes were first placed in the lime-water, and then in the acid. The third lot was 
left untouched. Ten days afterwards I examined the potatoes, and found, as I 
expected, that the potatoes which had not been treated with the sulphate were rapidly 
decaying; those which had been first placed in the solution of lime and then in the 
acid were more nearly decomposed ; while those which had been treated in the mode 
first described remained as sound as when first taken in hand. Upon being cut open 
the diseased part of the potatoes was not found to have spread internally, and the 
flavour of the root was in no degree affected by the application of the process, nor do 
I think that its germinating power was injured by the effect of the sulphate. The 
effect upon the beet-roots was similar to that produced upon the potatoes, and which 
would seem to be somewhat analogous to that of galvanizing metals, viz. protecting 
the substances from the effect of atmospheric agencies. 1 may add, that muriatic 
and other acids have been employed by me on other occasions with equal success, the 
only agents required appearing to be those which will most readily produce a sulphate 
in contact with the substances required to be preserved. As at present it does not. 
appear that any means can be successfullj' adopted to prevent the potato from beco- 
ming diseased while in the ground and arriving at maturity, it would certainly be of 
immense advantage if anything could be discovered by the use of which the roots 
when taken up could be prevented from that absolute decay and irreparable loss to 
which potatoes affected by the disease are liable. The results which 1 have described 
seem to me to point to the possibility of arresting this loss. How far the plan sug- 
gested may be practicable or applicable upon a large scale, my present very pressing 
and numerous engagements have hitherto prevented me from ascertaining. I do not 
think that any insuperable difficulty exists with respect to the application of the pro- 
cess. The acid employed by me was very weak, about 1 part to 200 of water; the 
lime-water was about the consistency of milk. The materi;ils are not therefore 
expensive; and when the value of the crop to be saved is taken into consideration, 
it would be a matter well worthy of being tested by some of those extensive growers 
of potatoes in the county in which the British Association is now holding its sittings. 
For my own part, I should be most happy, if by any suggestion of mine I had merely 
been the instrument of directing the attention of scientific men to the subject of the 
possibility of preserving from total destruction a vegetable so valuable and so indispen- 
sable as the potato. 

On the Cause of the Transmission of Electricity along Conductors generally, 
and particularly as applied to the Electric Telegraph Wires. By the 
Rev. Thomas Exley, A.3I. 
From phgenoraena, I infer the existence of an element in great abundance, which I 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. SSk 

call electrogen ; the proof will be given in a work which I hope speedily to publish, 
in which 1 have clearly proved that each tenacious atom attaches to its sphere of 
repulsion a number of aetherial atoms, such that the sum of their forces is exactly equal 
to that of the atom to which they are attached. These are luiiformly disposed, and 
therefore, as Newton has shown, have the same effect as if placed in its centre : this 
may be called the attached atmosphere. 

Circles being described on each of these as centres, with the radius of an aetherial 
atom, and a sphere concentric to the tenacious atom, touch them internally, and an- 
other externally ; then between the attached atmosphere and the inner sphere will be 
a spherical shell equal in thickness to the radius of the aetherial atom, less the diameter 
of the tenacious atom ; the aetherial atoms in this shell are all repulsive and equal 
together to the attraction of the tenacious atom, and hence it may be called the neutral 
shell. After this succeeds another shell, whose thickness is equal to the diameter of 
the central atom ; in this the setherial atoms begin to attract more and more from the 
concave to the convex side, to the surface of which the united actions bring an atmo- 
sphere of electrogen ; the electrogen is abundant, so that by the pressure of the atmo- 
sphere the centres are within the spheres of each other's repulsion. The difference 
of conducting power will be found in the difference of these shells. 

Suppose two tenacious atoms the force of one ten times greater than the force of 
the other, but its sphere of repulsion ten times less ; calculation gives the repulsive 
force between the centres of its attached atmosphere, which force in one million 
times greater, and shows its diametrical shell contains ten times more atoms crowded 
in a space many times less, the difference being chiefly on the convex side. Hence 
electrogen cannot by any moderate force enter its diametrical shell ; it will be a con- 
ductor, because the electrogen easily floats on its surface. A moderate force will 
bring electrogen into the shell of the other, which will prove more or less an obstruc- 
tion to the passage of electrogen ; it will therefore be a non-conductor and an electric. 

Suppose, now, the balls of a long conductor brought near the sides of a charged 
electric. Tiie electrogen, tending outward from the positive side of the electric, affects 
the contiguous air to the conductor, and along it to the negative side, where the 
effect is increased by the tendency of electrogen to supply the defect on that side ; when 
brought to the striking distance, a spark passes from the positive side and another 
to the negative side, and the equilibrium is quickly restored from both sides towards 
the middle of the conductor, although it pass but to a short distance. The passage of 
the spark is quite different from the conducting of the fluid; in the spark a body of 
electrogen forces its passage in a prepared direction, but a current is propagated along 
a conductor from atom to atom. Thus, in the wire of the electric telegraph, by the 
action of the galvanic apparatus, the lines of electrogen along the sides of the wire are 
affected through the whole length, and as there is a continual supply from the appa- 
ratus, the whole line is at once and continually put in motion, each atom of electrogen 
taking place of the next through the whole line, so that the apparatus causes the 
passage of the atoms nearly at the same time to proceed at the other end, distant 30, 
50, 100, or 1000 miles; a greater distance requiring of course a greater intensity 
of galvanic action. It ought not to excite surprise that these effects are so readily 
produced, when we consider that the wire of itself, in certain positions, without any 
galvanic apparatus, would convey electricity to the earth, to which in high latitudes 
it always has a tendency to move along any conductors in the air ; hence the air itself 
assists the transmission, which would be instantaneous, and of equal amount in every 
part of the wire, were it not for want of perfect conductibility ; as soon as electrogen 
begins to enter at one end, an equal portion tends to go off at the other end, the cur- 
rent being at once produced in the atoms which occupy its whole length. 

On the Decomposition of Water under Pressure, hy the Galvanic Battery. 
By John P. Gassiot, V.P.R.S. 

It is a well-known law, long since discovered by Dr. Faraday, that whatever may 
be the liquid electrolysed by the galvanic battery, and whatever may be the size of the 
electrodes used, the same amount of chemical decomposition takes place in each cell 
of the battery ; if water is placed in any number of separate vessels, connected by 
platinum electrodes with each other, and thus introduced within the circuit of a gal- 
vanic battery, the same amount of the mixed gases will be evolved from each vessel. 



40 REPORT — 1853. 

If, instead of allowing the gases to escape from each, such vessels are closed, a very 
considerable amount of pressure is obtained. The late Professor Daniel many years 
since experimented with a closed glass vessel, as did Dr. Leeson, but in each instance, 
before any great pressure was obtained, the vessels broke with very considerable vio- 
lence. 

Will Faraday's law hold good under extreme pressure ? Is there any point at 
which the pressure will recompose the hydrogen and oxygen evolved by the electrolysis 
of water ? Is there any point at which water under such pressure will cease to be 
electrolysed? and will it, under such circumstances, continue a conductor? 

All these questions appear to me to be well worthy of examination ; and although 
the experiments I have hitherto made are far from being conclusive, they prove that, 
as far as I have been able to obtain apparatus of sufficient strengtli to withstand the 
pressure, water does continue to be electrolysed according to the law of Faraday, and 
that the gases under such a condition do not recombine. 

My first experiments were made in glass tubes ; in each end I inserted a platinum 
wire, and filling the tube with diluted water slightly acidulated with pure sulphuric 
acid, the ends of the tubes were closed by mechanical pressure. A voltameter con- 
structed on the principle of Mr. Martyn Roberts, and a galvanometer were introduced 
in the circuit of a battery consisting of 10 small cells of Grove's. Many experiments 
were made with such and similar apparatus, but all the tubes brokelong before any great 
amount of pressiu'e had been obtained. 

Finding it was useless to expect any results from using glass, I then attempted the 
experiment with metal. 

Into a copper tube, a hole of J inch diameter, and about f inch long, was bored. 
This v?as insulated by being placed on a piece of dry leather, a platinum wire attached 
to a platinum plate being introduced into the copper vessel, which had been previously 
filled with diluted water slightly acidulated. 

The air from the water had been carefully extracted by boiling under a good 
air-pump; as before, I used 10 cells of a small Grove's battery, a galvanometer and 
a Roberts's voltameter being introduced iu the circuit, and the circuit completed by 
making the copper vessel negative and the platinum wire positive ; when 10*5 of the 
mixed gases had been evolved in the voltameter, the tube burst with considerable vio- 
lence ; taking the capacity of the tube at ^^ths of a cubic inch, the pressure thus ob- 
tained was about 525 atmospheres. 

Since that period I have had an apparatus constructed by which I can collect the 
amount of gas from the vessel in which it is confined, for unless some mode could be 
devised by which this could be effected, no satisfactory result could be expected. 

In all my previous experiments I calculated on being able to collect the gases by 
opening the vessels under water, but finding it indispensable that the apparatus should 
be much stronger, and consequently larger, I was compelled to use other means. 

The apparatus in which my experiments have since been conducted, were constructed 
entirely of platinum encased in solid pieces of gun-metal about 6 inches in diameter. 

The first had a capacity of -j^ths of a cubic inch. In one experiment, after 103 
cubic inches of tlie gases had been evolved, a loud explosion took place ; the concus- 
sion was so great as to extinguish the two gas lamps in my laboratory ; my assistant, 
who was observing the apparatus, saw a sudden appearance of light as of a flame 
round the upper part of the apparatus as the gas escaped, the leather washer driven 
out in perfect shreds, and from the upper valves being perfectly dry, no gas had 
escaped previous to the explosion. 

On testing the platinum vessel by nitric acid, I found it had burst, the acid acting 
in the copper through the platinum ; this fracture must have taken place at the time 
of the explosion, as the wire attached to the upper part, which was the negative elec- 
trode, would otherwise have had a coating of copper, whereas it was perfectly clean. 

The above experiment will give a pressure of 171 atmospheres. 

Another apparatus was then constructed, having a capacity of -j^jths of a cubic inch. 

I will not occupy the time with any detailed account of experiments which have now 
occupied me some years, as after an accident I have often been detained for months 
before I could obtain another apparatus, but I will briefly describe two which may be 
interesting to this Section of the Association. 

In the first, after 110 inches had been evolved in the voltameter, I opened the 
valve of the apparatus, and collected the same quantUy which had been under pres- 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 41 

sure ; the capacity of this vessel being -j^ths of a cubic inch, gives a pressure equal to 
275 atmospheres. 

In the second experiment an explosion took place when 179 cubic inches had been 
evolved by the voltameter; the concussion was so loud that a friend who was in the 
laboratory likened it to the report of a company of soldiers firing with blank cartridge. 
The leather (placed between two portions of the apparatus to ensure insulation) was 
forced out with such strength as to pass through the hat of my assistant, who was about 
4 feet from the apparatus. 

In this instance, presuming that the whole quantity of gases as evolved in volta- 
meter had also been evolved in apparatus, we obtain the enormous pressure of 447§ 
atmospheres. 

In one experiment we have an undoubted pressure of 275, and in the other a cal- 
culated pressure of 447 atmospheres, at which water is electrolysed and conducts with- 
out apparently offering any extra resistance to the current, for during the whole of 
these experiments the needle of the galvanometer remained steadily deflected. 



On the Corrosion of Iron-built Ships by Sugar Cargoes. 
By John Hall Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

The author stated that his attention had been drawn by his brother, Mr. George 
Gladstone, to the fact that the owners of iron-built vessels object to sugar cargoes, on 
account of the rusting of the metal by the saccharine juices that exude from the casks; 
and this had led to a chemical examination of the reaction then instituted. It was 
found that when pieces of iron were placed in bottles containing a solution of cane- 
sugar, the metal at the edge of the liquid soon became deeply corroded, but that 
which was permanently immersed in the fluid remained bright for a considerable 
time. The solution soon gave indications of the presence of protoxide of iron, which 
absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere was speedily thrown down as the red sesqui- 
oxide, leaving the sugar free to dissolve a fresh quantity of iron, the precipitated 
oxide in the mean time forming a deposit. After eighteen months, the liquid was of 
a deep red-brown colour; it became pale blue with ferrocyanide of potassium, black 
■with sulphuret of ammonium ; alkalies produced no precipitate ; nitric acid peroxi- 
dized it. A portion dried and analysed gave 2078 parts of metallic oxide to 100 of 
combined sugar, which is almost exactly in the proportion expressed by the formula 
Cjj Hji Oji, FeO. The author, however, considered that this might differ from the 
true composition by an equivalent of water. No such iron compound could be 
formed by direct combination. In vain was it attempted to dissolve any freshly- 
precipitated and well-washed oxide of iron in a solution of sugar; and almost equally 
unsuccessful was the attempt to do so when the oxide was liberated by means of 
potash in the presence of sugar itself. It was found that under all circumstances of 
dilution or quality of the sugar solution, iron was attacked ; the presence of zinc in 
contact with the iron did not prevent its being acted upon ; nor was there any marked 
difference when the salts of sea-water, or the nitrates, sulphates, or chlorides of the 
alkalies were added to the solution. No other ordinary metal was found to be so 
easily acted upon as iron. Copper was very little affected by the sugar. Lead was 
slowly attacked, indications of the presence of its oxide in solution being obtained 
after three days' exposure. Tin appeared to give the binoxide. Zinc was little 
aftected when alone ; it seemed to be dissolved more quickly when in contact with 
iron. It is doubtful whether mercury was touched by the sugar solution ; silver 
certainly was not. The author regretted that his experiments did not suggest any 
method by which the corrosion of iron ships by sugar cargoes might be prevented. 
They showed rather the strong disposition to combine that there is between the two 
substances; and how a small quantity of sugar may eat continuously into a large 
sheet of iron. The attention of chemists was especially drawn to the fact that the 
iron enters into combination with the organic matter, not when it has already been 
oxidized, but only when in a metallic condition, rendering the action, as would be 
imagined, more complicated. 

On the Spontaneous Decomposition of Xyhidine. 
By J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
This was a description of the changes that had taken place in a specimen of xyloi^ 



42 REPORT — 1853. 

dine, made by treating arrow-root with nitric acid of specific gravity 1-5. After re- 
maining about six years unaltered, this specimen suddenly began to give off gases, 
and in a few weeks' time nothing remained of the original xyloidine, but in its place 
a light brown viscid liquid. 

After describing the various chemical substances of which this decomposed mass 
consisted, the author proceeds, " We may suppose that the decomposition of this 
sample of starch xyloidine has taken place in somewhat of the following manner : — 
some of the peroxide of nitrogen has split up into nitric oxide and nitric acid, whilst 
a small portion of the nitrogen has combined, as might be expected, with some of the 
hydrogen of the compound to form ammonia, and a larger quantity has combined 
with carbon and hydrogen to form prussic acid. During this process oxygen must 
have escaped as such, or combining with carbon have passed off as carbonic acid, or 
it may have been consumed in the formation of the slightly acid principle which has 
been described as found in considerable quantity among the resulting solids. 

" Whether the ammonia and the nitrous fumes have reacted upon one another 
■with the formation of nitrogen gas and water, I know not. 

" The separation of so much carbon in the form of cyanogen must be looked upon as 
the principal cause of so much water being produced, for the viscid mass is essentially 
a strong aqueous solution of the organized bodies. A very large portion of the starch, 
freed from its combined nitric acid, has remained in a gummy condition, perhaps as 
dextrine, though it was certainly not of the variety colourable by iodine ; whilst the 
change had advanced further with another portion, and it was converted into sugar. 
These substances, with traces of a bitter principle, and of a singular odoriferous sub- 
stance, were the only products of decomposition, at least as far as I could detect." 



On the Conduction of Electricity hv Flame and Gases. 
By W. R. Grove, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

A somewhat extended series of researches has been recently carried out by 
M. Edmond Becquerel with a view to determine the conducting power of flame and 
of hot ail'. These investigations have led M. E. Becquerel to conceive that he has 
proved the conducting power of both for electricity. The apparatus employed was a 
platinum tube, with the conducting wire passing through it. Mr. Grove has adopted 
a somewhat different arrangement. This consisted of a glass tube, with two copper 
wires inserted through corks at either end ; from these within the tube proceeded a 
piece of platinum wire, which, by connexion with the battery, could be brought to a 
state of intense ignition. In this state these were adjusted at the distance of -^'jjth 
of an inch apart, and then connected with the powerful voltaic combination of 
Mr. Gassiot. Notwithstanding the proximity of the wires, no trace of electricity 
could be detected as passing through the interposed stratum of heated air. Mr. Grove 
inclined to the opinion, that the effect described by M. Becquerel was more analogous 
to the disruptive discharge than to conduction, as it was stated not to take place until 
the solid bodies arrived at red heat, and then to be increased by attenuating the gases, 
though at temperatures below that point ; no degree of rarefaction allowed any elec- 
tricity to be transmitted. 

On the Origin and Composition of the Mineral called JRoitensfotie. 
By Professor Johnston, M.A., F.R.S. L. .^ E. 

Note on the Formation of Magnesian Limestone. 
By Professor Johnston, M.A., F.R.S. L.^ E. 

The author produced specimens of magnesian limestone formed by deposition from 
a spring near the village of Neesham upon the northern banks of the Tees. This 
limestone possessed the colour, general appearance and porous structure of the lime- 
stones of the county of Durham, and contained as much magnesia as some of the 
purer beds of magnesian limestone in tliat county. From the production of this 
limestone he reasoned as to the deposition of dolomitic limestones in general, and the 
relative probability of the two theories which ascribe their magnesia to the impreg- 
nation of previously existing limestones, either by sublimation from beneath, or by 
percolation from above. He considered both agencies inadmissible as general causes, 
and was favoiu'able to the view that as a general rule magnesian limestones were de- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 43 

posited from aqueous solution, though occasional impregnation of previously existing 
rocks by percolation was by no means unlikely. 

On the Properties and Composition of the Cocoa Leaves. 
By Professor Johnston, M.A., F.R.S. L8fE. 
After describing the remarkable physiological properties of the leaves of this plant, 
the author explained that they yield to aether a peculiar volatile resinous substance 
possessed of a powerful odour, in which the peculiar virtues of the leaf are supposed 
to reside. The plant is as jet to be obtained in too small quantity in this country to 
admit of a complete chemical examination of the substances which the leaves contain. 

On the Causes, Physical and Chemical, of Diversities of Soils. 
By Professor Johnston, M.A., F.R.S. L. 8f E. 

In this paper, the author, assuming as a general rule that the materials of which 
soils are composed are derived from the rocks on which they rest, and that therefore 
the agricultural is very materially dependent upon the geological character of a 
country, showed how physical and chemical influences subsequently interfered almost 
everywhere materially to modify the agricultural indications of geology. 

I. Among physical influences, he showed — 

1. How the flatness of a country and the absence of outfalls causes the rain-water 
to stagnate, covers it with bogs, and obliterates the agricultiu-al influence of the rocks 
beneath. 

2. How high and sloping lands yield their finer particles to the rains which fall 
upon them, to be borne down to lower levels. Thus the granites yield their felspar 
and the red sand their fine marls, and thus from the debris of the same rock, often 
extending over large areas, regions of very different soils are established. 

3. How along the line of ancient or existing water-courses, a ribbon of varying 
breadth is found in every country, upon which the soils consist of these fine matters 
separated and sorted by the action of water, and possessing agricultural characters 
more or less different from those which naturally belong to the geological formations 
on which they rest. And these differences become the more marked along the courses 
of great rivers, or of such as descend from great distances, and flow through various 
geological formations, of which they wash out, bear away, and intermingle ihe debris. 

4. How along the shores of the sea, successive elevations of the sea establish upon 
the same geological formation belts of sand, very unlike in agricultural value. 

These remarks were illustrated by an agricultural map of New Brunswick ; and the 
conclusion the author endeavoured to establish was, that the physical geography, the 
hydrography, and periods of elevation of a country were scarcely less important than 
its geological structure in determining the agricultural value of its surface. 

II. Among important chemical influences, the author mentioned as of much weight — 

1. The production of acid matters in the soil wherever vegetation existed. Such 
acid matters are constantly produced wherever vegetable substances undergo decay 
in the surface soil, and sometimes in such quantity as to render the soil sour to test 
paper. These acids are washed downwards by the rains which sink into the soil. As 
they descend, they dissolve out of the soil such earthy substances — lime, alumina, oxide 
of iron, &c. — as they are capable of taking up, and these they bear away with them 
in a fluid form wherever they flow. Thus they gradually establish differences, both 
chemical and physical, between the upper and under portions of the drift or rocky 
debris from which the soils are formed, and at last render the uppermost layers in 
which the plants grow, totally different in its agricultural character from that which 
belongs to the original unaltered materials themselves. Hence the thin non-calcareous 
soils which cover the chalk and other limestone format ions — the constantly recurring 
necessity for the re-addition of lime to cultivated land — the benefits from bringing up 
new soil from beneath, and of many other agricultural practices. 

2. The firing of the forests in new countries, where hot summers scorch vegetation 
and raging fires spread their devastations sometimes over thousands of square miles. 
Such fires are almost invariably attended by sti'ong winds, which bear away the ashes 
of the burning wood to immense distances. Thus in a single day all that the trees 
have been extracting from the soil during a whole half-century is swept away ; even 
the surface soil itseu is sometimes scorched and swept bare. After a time a new 



44 REPORT — 1853. 

vegetation springs up to suffer the same fate ; it may be in another half-century, and 
thus a constant chemical robbing and exhaustion of the soil takes place. Thus bar- 
renness at last overspreads regions which are naturally fertile, and which rest upon rocks, 
the debris of which naturally yield the materials of a rich agricultural surface. Such 
results of burning are often observed in North America, and the author advanced the 
fact as one of personal observation which he had been led thus chemically to explain. 
The general conclusion to which the author arrived was this, — that while the geo- 
logy of a country has certain broad and undoubted direct relations to its agricultural 
value, yet when we follow the subject into detail, these relations become more and 
more indirect ; other influences, cjiemical and physical, come into play and assume 
the character of leading agencies, and as we investigate them more and more closely, 
we almost seem to lose sight of geology altogether. 



Description of some new kinds of Galvanic Batteries, invented by 
M. KuKLA of Vienna. 

The combination used in one of these is antimony, or some of its alloys, for a nega- 
tive plate, with nitric acid of specific gravity r4 in contact with it, and unamalga- 
mated zinc for a positive plate, with a saturated solution of common salt in contact 
with it. A small quantity of finely powdered peroxide of manganese is put into the 
nitric acid, which is said to increase the constancy of the battery. 

The alloys of antimony which M. Kukla has experimented with successfully are 
the following : — 

Phosphorus and antimony. 
Chromium and antimony. 
Arsenic and antimony. 
Boron and antimony. 

These are in the order of their negative character, phosphorus and antimony being 
the most negative. Antimony itself is less negative than any of these alloys. The 
alloys are made in the proportions of the atomic weights of the substances. 

All these arrangements are said by M. Kukla to be more powerful than when 
platinum or carbon is substituted for antimony or its alloys. 

In this battery a gutta percha bell cover is used over the antimony, and resting on 
a flat ring floating on the top of the zinc solution, this eflfectually prevents any smell, 
and keeps the peroxide of nitrogen in contact with the nitric acid solution. 

When a battery of twenty-four cells was used, M. Kukla found that in the third and 
twenty-first cells, pure ammonia in solution was the ultimate result of the action of 
the battery, but only water in all the others. 

This experiment was tried repeatedly, and always with the same result. 

A battery was put into action for twenty-four hours ; at the end of that time the 
nitric acid had lost j^ths of an ounce of oxygen and \t)x of an ounce of zinc was con- 
sumed. Now as one quarter of an ounce of zinc requires only 0*06 of an ounce of 
oxygen to form oxide of zinc, M. Kukla draws the conclusion that the rest of the 
oxygen is converted directly into electricity, and this view he says is confirmed by the 
large amount of electricity given out by the battery in proportion to the zinc con- 
sumed in a given time ; in the above battery each zinc plate had a surface of 40 square 
inches. 

The addition of peroxide of manganese does not increase the efiect of the battery, but 
it makes it more lasting ; the peroxide of nitrogen formed in the bell cover taking 
one atom of oxygen from the peroxide of mnnganese. This is evident from only the 
oxide of manganese being found in the battery after a time. In the salt solution no 
other alteration takes place than what is caused by the oxide of zinc remaining in a 
partly dissolved state in the solution. 

For this battery M. Kukla much prefers porous cells, or diaphragms of biscuit 
ware, as less liable to break, and being more homogeneous in their material than any 
other kind. 

This battery is very cheap, antimony being only 5d. per lb. wholesale, and the zinc 
not requiring amalgamation. 

The second arrangement tried by M. Kukla was antimony, and amalgamated zinc 
with only one exciting solution, viz. concentrated sulphuric acid. This battery has 
great heating power, and the former great magnetizing power ; it however rapidly 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 45 

decreases in power, and is not so practically useful as the double fluid battery, which 
will last about the same power for fourteen days, when the poles are only occasionally 
connected as in electric telegraphs ; certain peculiarities respecting the ratio of inten- 
sity to quantity when a series of cells is used, have been observed, which differ from 
those remarked in other batteries. 

M. Kukla, on directing his attention to the best means of making a small portable 
battery for physiological purposes, has found very small and flat Cruikshank batteries, 
excited by weak phosphoric acid (1 of glacial phosphoric acid to 20 of water), to 
be the best; phosphoric acid being very deliquescent, and forming with the zinc, 
during the galvanic action, an acid phosphate of zinc. A battery of this description 
does not decrease in power very materially until it has been three hours in action. 

Note on the Advantages arising from the Purification of Coal- Gas, by the 
Application of Water in an Instrument called " The Scrubber." By 
G. Lowe. 

On Changes observed in Wood from the Submerged Forest at Wawne in 
Holderness. By T. J. Pears all, F.C.S. 

"While the agricultural drainage was cutting, the remains of a forest was found, 
principally consisting of gigantic pines. Sections of the timber having been obtained 
for the Hull Philosophical Society, they were carefully piled away ; some days after- 
wards they were found giving a peculiarly penetrating and setherial odour, showing 
that some great changes were taking place ; after they were separated from each 
other, it v/ecs found that some of these timbers had crystals of a waxy appearance and 
inflammable character attached to the wood. 



On Crystals from the Sea-coast of Africa, By T. J. Pears all, F.C.S. 

The crystals here shown were obtained by Capt. Mitchell of the Merchant Ship 
• Frankfield,' while searching the coast of Africa between Saldanah Bay and the island 
of Ichaboe for guano deposits. 

The crystals are of carbonate of lime, enclosing sand; 15 to 20 per cent, sand are 
obtained from some specimens. 

The crystals are very hard and have sharp cutting edges, so as to make it a painful 
task to walk upon them. The beach was covered with crystals to the extent of miles ; 
about three miles was walked over, but it seemed as far as the eye could reach, and 
was half to one mile in breadth. Some of the specimens are from 4 to 5 inches in 
length, showing a thickness of half an inch, and from 2 to 3 inches across the plane; 
the report given was that some of the crystals protruded up from the sand so far as 
to wound the ankles and legs without great care in walking over. 

Some crystals seem to be opake, with the sand enclosed, except at the edges ; 15 to 
20 per cent, of sand is obtained from portions of crystals; carbonates of lime and 
magnesia with small quantities of saline matter. Common salt principally can be 
obtained by breaking them up in distilled water. They are extremely soluble in 
diluted nitric acid. 

Mineralogists and chemists are perfectly well aware of the stony substance called 
'Fontainbleu Sandstone,' where the sandstone is found having forms of crystals of 
carbonate of lime ; these crystals now exhibited show the fact of sand of the beach en- 
closed without altering the general form, and also that the crystal has at its base 
adapted itself to the sand and other crystals. 

These specimens show the great facility on that coast of producing mineralized 
crystals, and also suggests the opportunities constantly offered to intelhgent mer- 
chant seamen, of bringing home specimens of great interest which are uncommon in 
most parts of the world, except in some places, where they may visit, and where there 
may be abundance. 

On Lime Flowers, or peculiarly formed Substances from the brickwork of one 
of the Reservoirs of the Hull Water-works before final completion for use. 
By T. J. Pearsall, F.aS. 
These strange productions were found on one side of a reservoir, neither at the 



46 REPORT— 1853. 

end nor on the other sides; the brickwork with the mortar and cement had not pro- 
(lerly set, and when the first quantity of water let into the reservoir was withdrawn, 
these substances were found upright on the brick slope; they consisted of irregular 
tubes terminated by a sort of expansion or bulb. They stood erect in many cases, 
from the joints of the brickwork having strange shapes ; but some closely resembled 
tulips, the tube having a sort of bulb about the size of a small egg ; some of the tubes 
were found prostrate, that showed they had attained the altitude of 14 to 18 inches. 
They were all of a gray-white colour, of a rough exterior; inside the tubes and 
bulbs they were much whiter, and the substance appeared in concentric layers; they 
were formed, it was supposed, from the soft mortar, by the pressure of the water and 
filtration of fluids and air tlirough (he side, as on that part of the reservoir the whole 
excavated earth had been thrown up more than 20 feet above the surface of the water 
in the reservoir. 

These substances at their base showed the tubular portions attached to the brick- 
work, the mortar, and the cement ; they dissolved readily with effervescence in diluted 
nitric acid. 

These substances were not observed until the water had been withdrawn, they 
were then found in parallel lines to an extent of 150 to 200 feet, and so numerous 
that a small cart might have been filled with these brittle exudations. However much 
the pressure of water and the passage of air and gases might have in some way contri- 
buted to these forms, one learned naturalist had considered it probable that some species 
of Flustra might have lent its assistance to some of the shapes. Mr. Pearsall stated 
he had not heard of similar formations. 



On the Employment of Pentasulphate of Calcium as a Means of preventing 
and destroying the Oidium Tuckeri, or Grape Disease. By Astley 
Paston Price, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

Of those substances which have been employed to arrest the devastating effect* of 
this disease, none appear to have been so pre-eminently successful as sulphur, whether 
employed as powdered or flowers of sulphur, or by sublimation in houses so affected. 
But notwithstanding the several methods described for its application to the vines, I 
am not aware that any has, or had, appeared prior to 1851, when these experiments 
were instituted, by which sulphur might be uniformly distributed over, and become to 
a certain extent firmly attached to the vines. 

Three houses, situated at Margate in Rent, in the vicinity of the one in which 
the disease first made its appearance in England, having been for five consecutive 
years infected with the disease, and notwithstanding the employment of sulphur as 
flowers of sulphur, no abatement in its ravages could be detected, I was induced to 
employ a solution of pentasulphide of calcium, a diluted solution of which, having been 
found to act in no way injuriously to the young and delicate shoots of several plants, 
was applied to the vines ; the object in view being that the pentasulphide should be de- 
composed by carbonic acid, and that 4 atoms of sulphur, together with the carbonate 
of lime formed, should be deposited in a uniform and durable covering on the stems 
and branches of the vines affected. Although but few applications were made, the 
stems became coated with a protective deposit of sulphur, and the disease gradually 
but effectively disappeared, insomuch that the houses have been, and now are, entirely 
free from any disease or symptoms of infection. 

The young shoots are in no way affected by its application, and the older wood 
covered with the deposited sulphur continues exceedingly healthy. 

The specimens exhibited to illustrate the durability and pi-otective influence of the 
deposited sulphur were from vines which in the autmnn of 1851 were covered with the 
disease, but which since the autumn of 1852 have received no further treatment. 

The vines in the immediate neighbourhood, and adjoining one of the houses, are 
covered with the disease, but, notwithstanding their close proximity, no indication of 
the disease has at present been detected in either of the three houses. 

A solution of pentasulphide of calcium is prepared by boiling 30 parts by weight of 
caustic lime with 80 parts by weight of flowers of sulphur, suspended in a sufficient 
quantity of water ; heat is applied until the solution has acquired a dark red colour, 
and the excess of sulphur ceases to dissolve. The clear solution is drawn off, and after 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 4? 

dilution with water maybe applied to the vines by means of either a sponge, brush or 
sj'ringe. A saturated solution of pentasulphide of calcium may be diluted with from 
12 to 20 times its volume of water previous to being employed. 



On a Neto Method for determining the Commercial Value of Oxide of 
Manganese. By Astley Paston Price, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

It is well known that several methods have been described for determining the 
commercial value of oxide of manganese, that is to say, for estimating the amount of 
available chlorine capable of being obtained from a given sample of manganese. 

There are, however, certain practical inconveniences attendant on the employment 
of many of these processes, most of them demanding an amount of time and manipu- 
lation which it is most desirable to obviate. 

The method I have for some time employed, and which I have found to give accu- 
rate results, is based on the conversion of ai'senious into arsenic acid by means of 
chlorine, and the transformation of arsenious into arsenic acid by the employment of 
a solution of hypermanganate of potash. 

The specimen of manganese under examination is dissolved in a normal hydro- 
chloric acid solution of arsenious acid ; and the arsenious acid remaining unchanged 
into arsenic acid is determined by a standard solution of hypermanganate of potash. 
In employing a solvent containing a reducing agent, it will be found that the solution 
of the oxides of manganese is materially facilitated, and may be effected at a low 
temperature in a very short space of time. 

In adopting this method, some difficulties presented themselves : — • 

On dissolving arsenious acid in hydrochloric acid, terchloride of arsenic is given 
ofi^ and it becomes difficult to obtain a correct normal solution. This difficulty is 
avoided by dissolving the arsenious acid in a solution of caustic potash, and then 
adding the alkaline solution to an excess of hydrochloric acid. 

Another difficulty occurred in effecting the solution of the oxide of manganese in 
the ai-senical solution, as in proportion to the elevation of temperature does the loss 
of terchloride of arsenic increase. This source of error is prevented by employing a 
dilute acid solution of arsenious acid, and adapting one of Will's nitrogen bulbs, con- 
taining a solution of potash, to the flask in which the oxide of manganese is dissolved. 
Any terchloride of arsenic which may pass over is there effectually retained, provided 
solution be effected at a low temperature. The normal solution of arsenious acid is 
made by dissolving 113'.53 grs. of arsenious acid, corresponding to 100 grs. of per- 
oxide of manganese, in a solution of potash, and then adding hydrochloric acid until 
the solution occupies 100 measures. 

A standard solution of hypermanganate of potash is obtained by diluting, for 
example, .5 measures of the normal solution of arsenious acid, corresponding to 5 grs, 
of peroxide of manganese, and then determining the number of measures of the solu- 
tion of hypermanganate of potash that are required to transform the arsenious acid 
therein contained into arsenic acid. 

These two solutions being obtained, an estimation of the value of a specimen of 
oxide of manganese may be expeditiously and accurately made. 

Ten, or any number of grains of the specimen under examination, are placed in a 
small flask, to which 10 or more measures of the normal arsenical solution are added, 
and to the flask is adapted one of Will's nitrogen apparatus, containing a solution of 
potash. The flask is then placed in a water-bath, or a gentle heat is applied until 
solution is effected. The contents of the flask, after having been allowed to cool, are, 
together with the solution of potash, transferred to a larger flask, and diluted with 
water. The amount of arsenious acid remaining unchanged is then determined by the 
addition of the standard solution of hypermanganate of potash, and the quantity thus 
indicated being deducted from the number of grains of arsenious acid employed in the 
first instance, will give the value of the specimen submitted to analysis. 

In order to obtain correct results by this method, it is of course necessary that the 
hydrochloric acid and the potash employed should be free from sulphurous or nitric 
acid, or any other reducing or oxidizing impurities. 



48 REPORT — 1853. 

On a New Method for determining the Amount of available Chlorine con- 
tained in Hypochlorites of Lime, Soda or Potash. By Astley Paston 
Price, Ph.D., F.C.S. 

Numerous as have been the methods proposed for determining the available amount 
of chlorine in bleaching powder and other hypochlorites, there is not one that I am 
acquainted with by which correct and expeditious determinations can be made. The 
following method is based on the known reactions of hypochlorites of lime, potash or 
soda, and hypermanganate of potash, on arsenious acid, the former of which reactions 
has, as is well known, been frequently proposed as the principle of many ingenious 
chlorimetric processes. The application of hypermanganate of potash to the estima- 
tion of iron and other substances having been attended with such good practical results, 
I am led to anticipate that the extension of its application to the estimation of chlorine, 
in the manner hereafter described, may tend to simplify the manipulations, and curtail 
the time now requisite for determining the commercial value of the hypochlorites in 
the several conditions in which they are met with and employed in the arts. The first 
point to be attained, in the correct estimation of bleaching powder, is to effect complete 
solution without endangering a loss of available chloi'ine. This may be effected by 
weighing a given quantity of the specimen under examination into a large flask, and 
adding a normal solution of arsenite of potash or soda in such quantity that an excess 
be always present, and after dilution with water, gradually pouring in during agitation 
an excess of hydrochloric acid. A normal solution of arsenious acid is obtained by 
dissolving 139-63 grs. of arsenious acid, corresponding to 100 grs. of chlorine, in a so- 
lution of potash or soda, and diluting the solution with water to 1000 measures. If 
50 measures of this normal solution be measured into a flask, and after dilution with 
■water be acidified with hydrochloric acid, and to it be carefully added from a graduated 
burette a solution of hypermanganate of potash until the solution acquires a decided 
pink colour, the value of the solution of hypermanganate of potash will be obtained, 
as the number of measures employed will correspond to 5 grs. of chlorine. Having 
obtained a normal solution of arsenious acid and a standard solution of hypermanga- 
nate of potash, the commercial value of the hypochlorites of lime, potash or soda may 
be most easily determined. 100 grs. of the bleaching powder under examination are 
placed in a flask graduated to 1000 measures; 500 measures of the normal solution 
of arsenious acid are then added, and after dilution with water hydrochloric acid is 
gradually poured in until a slight excess has been employed. The solution is then 
made up to 1000 measures. If 100 measures of this solution be now transferred into 
a large flask, and after dilution with water, a standard solution of hypermanganate of 
potash be gradually added from a burette until the solution assumes a distinct colora- 
tion, the number of measures employed will indicate the amcmt of arsenious acid re- 
maining unchanged into arsenic acid, which quantity being deducted from the amount 
of arsenious acid originally employed will give the proportion of available chlorine 
contained in the sample of bleaching powder. Thus supposing that 10 grs. of bleach- 
ing powder had been employed, and that 50 measures of the normal solution of arse- 
nious acid, corresponding to 5 grs. of chlorine, had been added, and that 30 measures 
of the standai-d solution of hypermanganate of potash, corresponding to 3 grs. of chlo- 
rine, had been necessary to transform the excess of arsenious into arsenic acid, then 
the 10 grs. of bleaching powder would have contained 2 grs. of chlorine, or the value 
of the specimen would be 20 per cent. 

Instead of employing 1 00 grs. of bleaching powder, and proceeding as before men- 
tioned, any number of grains may be taken, — 30 grs. I have found to be a very con- 
venient quantity, — which being placed in a flask, a known quantity of the normal 
solution of arsenious acid is added, and after dilution with water, a clear solution is 
obtained by the addition of hydrochloric acid. To this a standard solution of hyper- 
manganate of potash is added, and from the number of measures employed the value 
of the sample under examination is determined. With a small amount of practice, 
the estimations may be made in a very expeditious manner, and the results obtained 
I have hitherto found to be most satisfactory. 

In the estimation of the commercial value of the hypochlorites of potash or soda, 
the amount of available chlorine will be indicated in the same manner, and with the 
same degree of accuracy, as the determination of the value of bleaching powder. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 49! 

On the Chemical Constitution of the Humher Deposits. 
By J. D. SoLLiTT, Hull. 
By far the largest constituent part of the Humber mud is an exceedingly fine sand, 
the particles of which are so minute as almost to float in water, and being of 
such a quality as to render the whole perfectly unstable and liable to be moved about 
by the slightest motion of the water ; many of the particles of this sand, when examined 
by a powerful microscope, appear to have their corners worn down by the attrition of 
one particle against another so as to be reduced to nearly a globular form, and great 
numbers of those particles are so small as not to be more in diameter than a fourth part 
of that of a globule of human blood, or about jj^dth part of an inch : hence the sand 
which forms about 75 per cent, of the Humber deposit is, so far as relates to its particles, 
almost in the condition of a fluid easily displaced and driven about by every tide, both 
when it rises and when it falls. The author stated that in a gallon of water taken from, 
the Humber when the water was agitated by the tide either running up or down, there 
were from 315 to 320 grs. of this above-named fine deposit, and that it was so exceed- 
ingly fine, as not all to have settled at the end of ten hours from the taking of the 
water from the river. 

The first sample of the deposit, of which is given the analysis, was taken about 
eight miles above Hull, namely, at 

Brough, 

and consisted of sand moderately fine 77 

Alumina 6 

Carbonate of lime 6 

Carbonate of magnesia , 1 

Soluble salts 2 

Oxide of iron 2 

Organic matter 6 

Too* 

The second, taken at four miles above Hull, viz. at 

Hessle, 

and consisted of very fine sand 75 

Alumina 7 

Carbonate of lime 6 

Carbonate of magnesia 2 

Soluble salts 3 

Oxide of iron 2 

Organic matter 5 

100 
The third at 

Hull, 

and consisted of very fine sand 71 

Alumina 7 

Carbonate of lime 6 

Carbonate of magnesia 2 

Soluble salts 5 

Oxide of iron 2 

Organic matter 7 

100 
The fourth sample was taken on the opposite side of the river, at 
New Holland, 

and consisted of fine sand fi9 

Alumina , 13 

Carbonate of lime 5 

Carbonate of magnesia 1 

Soluble salts 4 

Oxideofiron , 2 

Organic matter „ 6 

"100 
1853. 4, 



50 REPORT — 1853. 

The fifth aample was taken four miles below Hull, at 

Paull, 

and consisted of sand 82 

Alumina 4 

Carbonate of lime 3 

Carbonate of magnesia, a trace 

Soluble salts 5 

Oxide of iron 1 

Organic matter 5 

lUU 
The sixth sample was taken at 

Grimsby, 

and consisted of fine sand 76 

Alumina 10 

Carbonate of lime 2 

Soluble salts 5 

Oxide of iron 3 

Organic matter 4 

100 

This sample contained no carbonate of magnesia. Mud taken three or four miles 
below Grimsby, is nearly all sand, and of a much coarser kind. In some places it 
is a mixture of the coarse sand with a little of the finer deposit of the Humber, which 
is found at all the places higher up the river. 



GEOLOGY. 

On the Comparative Richness of Auriferous Quartz extracted at different 
Depths from the same Lode. By Dr. J. Blake. 

The writer stated that no shaft had yet been made in California deep enough to 
test the correctness of the opinion that auriferous lodes diminish in value as they 
descend, but he described a circumstance which seemed to confirm that view. A 
horizontal mass of auriferous quartz was discovered in Grass Valley, which measured 
60 yards by 45, and was from 6 to 18 inches thick ; in the centre it was depressed 
10 yards below the surface, its edges cropping out all round. Everj' part of this 
mass had been removed, and was found to contain 1 oz. or 1^ oz. of gold to the 
ton ; some part was extremely rich, affording 60 oz. to the ton. No continuation 
of this quartz vein could be found in the valley or surrounding hills, but at some 
distance above a similar vein occurred in which the proportion of gold was much 
smaller. In another locality a more than average amount of gold had been obtained 
from a lode which appeared to have been the upper part of a vein. The writer had 
never heard of ' nuggets ' being found in mining operations. 



On the Combrash of Gloucestershire and part of Wilts, 
By Professor Buckman, F.G.S. 

This stratum was described as not more than 8 feet in thickness, but covering 
considerable horizontal area. The relative productiveness of soils on the ' cornbrasb' 
to those on the ' stonebrash ' was represented to be as follows :— 

Inf. Oolite. Great Oolite. Cornbraah. 

"Wheat 15 20 25 

Barley 25 30 40 

Oats 25 ...... 36 45 

Analyses of the rocks themselves, made by Dr. Voelcker, show that the combrash i 
richer in two important elements, viz. sulphate of lime and phosphoric acid .— 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. St 

Inf. Oolite. Great Oolite. CorabrMh, 

Carbonate of lime... 89-20 95-346 89-195 

Magnesia '34 -739 '771 

Sulphate of lime ... -09 '204 -241 

Oxide of iron.. 

Alumina 4-14 1-422 2-978 

Phosphoric acid -06 -124 -177 

Soluble silica 2-75 1-016 1-231 

Insoluble sand 3'27 -533 4-827 

Alkaline salts not determined. 



99-85 99-384 99-420 

The cornbrash frequently abounds in fossils ; out of sixty-five species collected 
more than half were bivalve shells. The author expressed his opinion that certain 
oolitic Terebratulse (viz. T. digona, obovata, lagenalis, ornithocephala) should be con- 
sidered as forming only one species, at the same time admitting that these form? 
characterized particular strata and localities. He also pointed out that nearly half 
the bivalves, and six out of eight sea-urchins, were identical with species found also 
in the inferior oolite, but not in the intervening great oolite. 



Notice of the curious Spiral Body in certain Fossil Sponges, and of several 
other remarkable Fossils from the Yorhshire Strata. By E. Charles- 
worth, F.G.S. 

Mr. Charlesworth exhibited a diagram of a specimen of Choanites Kmigi, 
described by Mr. Cunnington at a former meeting of the British Association, and 
stated that he had formerly doubted the correctness of Mr. Cunnington's account, 
but now agreed with him that the spiral body was an essential part of the sponge. 
The remarkable fossils were an Inoceramus from the chalk, and a coprolitic-lpoking 
substance from the lias. 



On ike Hemains of the Hippopotamus found in the Aire Valley Deposit near 

Leeds. By Henry Denny, A.L.S. (^Communicated by T. P. TbaiBi 

F.L.S.) 

During the last year, in a brick-field near Leeds, have been discovered the remains 
of the Hippopotamus. From the specimens already placed in the Museum of tha 
Leeds Philosophical Society, it appears that the bones have belonged to not less 
than three individuals. Of these, two were adults, but of different size, their molars 
being considerably worn. The youthful condition of the third is shown by the 
canine teeth being perfectly smooth and pointed, and by the apophyses having 
separated from the metacarpals and vertebrae. 

These remains were found at a depth of 9 feet in a bed of clay, and 20 feet above 
the present bed of the river. This bed of clay, along with sand and gravel, which at 
distances of even a few yards pass and repass into each other, constitute an extensive 
flat deposit in the lower valley of the Aire, commencing a little above Leeds, and 
extending along the valley of the Aire, varying in breadth from one to three miles, 
until it becomes continuous with a similar deposit in the valley of the Calder. 
Pursuing the course of the Aire further towards the sea, we find the plain which the 
river traverses becoming wider, and at length continuous with the flat district of th^ 
lower part of the Ouse, and of the Trent, and of the other tributaries of tha 
Humber. 

At Leeds this flat valley formation rests upon the outbreak of the coal measures. 
It consists of clay, sand, and gravel, irregularly deposited under the varied in- 
fluence of currents and eddies, and forming in the neighbourhood of Leeds a deposit 
averaging from 10 to 20 feet in thickness. The gravel is chiefly formed of millstone- 
grit and other sandstones, with occasional portions of mountain limestone, from th» 
strata traversed by the river in the upper part of its course. 

Along with the remains of Hippopotamus have been found in this valley deposit, the 
bones of the Elephant, of two bovine animals, apparently the Bos latifrons and 

4* 



50 nEPORT — 1853. 

Bos primigenius, of the Cervus Elaphus, Equus Caballus, Capra Hircus ?, and Stis 
Scrofa. Associated with them are laid horizontally the trunks of trees, as the oak, 
fir, and others, and hazel-nuts. ^ 

On a Chemical Cause of Change in the Composition of Rocks. 
By Professor Johnston, M.A., F.R.S. L. ^ E. 

Tlie first example of a chemically altered rock adduced by the Professor, was the 
rottenstone of Derbyshire, a light and porous substance used chiefly for polishing 
metals, and stated in Phillips's ' Minei*alogy ' to be composed of silica, alumina, and 
carbon. It is obtained from a ridge known as the Great Fin, on the right-hand side 
of the road from Bakewell to Buxton. This ridge is covered with "drift" 10 or 20 
feet thick, consisting of brown clay, with fragments of black marble, chert, and rotten- 
stone. The rottenstone is so soft wliilst in the soil that the spade goes through it 
readily, but it hardens on exposure ; the holes from which it is dug are sometimes 
only 2 feet deep, at others from G to 8 feet. On examining a series of specimens, Pro- 
fessor Johnston found that whilst some were homogeneous, others had a nucleus of 
black marble; he then treated specimens of the black marble with weak acid, and 
found that on the removal of the carbonate of lime, there remained from 30 to 35 per 
cent, of a siliceous substance perfectly like the natural rottenstone. He concluded 
that there existed in the soil some acid which penetrated it and dissolved out the cal- 
careous matter of the rocks below. The agent in this case might be said to be the 
carbonic acid of the air brought down by rain ; but there were instances not capable 
of explanation by this agency alone, and attributable to other acids, which are con- 
stantly being produced luider certain conditions and exercise a much wider influence. 
The acids he alluded to were those which are produced naturally and everywhere by 
the decay of vegetable matter. The bottoms of peat bogs present verj' strong evidence 
of the action of acids; the stone and clay are bleached and corroded, only siliceous 
and colourless materials being left. The source of the acid is here the same as in the 
former instance ; the vegetable matter growing on the surface produces in its decay 
acid substances which exert a chemical action on the subsoil, and escape by subterra- 
nean outlets, cai'rying away the materials dissolved in their progress. Another instance 
■was aflPorded by the mineral Pigotite, formed in the caves of Cornwall by water dripping 
from the roof; this water contains a peculiar organic acid, derived from the soil of the 
moors, which dissolves the alumina of the granite and combines with it. The organic 
acids are very numerous and differ in composition, but agree in producing chemical 
action upon rocks. They are produced over the entire surface of the earth, especially 
over uncultivated tracts, and are among the means pi'ovided by nature to dissolve the 
mineral food of plants; they are also amongst the chief causes of the exhaustion of 
soils. The author then alluded to Professor Way's examination of some of the green- 
sand strata of Surre}', known as firestone, — a light and porous rock, containing 
silica in a soluble state. It was well known that common sandstone, quartz, or rock 
crystal were not acted upon by potash or soda at ordinary temperatures ; but of the 
firestone 30 per cent., and sometimes .50 or 70 per cent., may be dissolved. In all 
such cases the silica must have been originally in a state of chemical combination 
■with lime, alumina, or something else, which has been subsequently removed. The 
silica in the rottenstone was soluble, but he had never met with instances of black 
marble in a bedded state converted into rottenstone. He believed, however, that a 
similar cause, operating over a wide area, and during a long period, had produced the 
altered condition of the firestone. Professor Johnston then alluded to the nodules of 
phosphate of lime in the greensand and crag, and suggested that the phosphorus had 
been derived from animal remains in higher strata, dissolved out by acids, and re- 
deposited at a lower level. The last example was the Jireclay of the coal-measures, 
8 stratum almost imiversally found beneath beds of coal. It differs from the other 
clays both in colour and composition, being whiter, and containing less of those sub- 
stances which acid bodies could dissolve, viz. the earthy bases, which would render 
the clay fusible in fire ; the condition of the fireclay might be accounted for by the 
action of acids developed during the production of the vegetable matter now forming 
coal. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



53 



On the Waste of the Holderness Coast. By George G. Kemp. 

The writer computed the actual waste on this coast at from 1^ to 4 yards per an- 
num, the amount varying with the conditions of the shore and the direction of the 
currents. The average loss of land amounted to 33 acres annually ; whilst the de- 
struction of public and private roads, houses, and churches, was not less injurious. 
The causes of the waste are, the action of frost and rain producing falls of the cliff, 
and the agency of the sea in removing the beach and making hollows at the base of the 
cliffs. To these was added another, viz. the removal of the shingle for ballast, mend- 
ing roads, paving streets, building walls, and a variety of other purposes. At Horn- 
sea, 500 tons of beach had been removed in a week, and near Spurn Point 1000 tons 
had been taken in a day. The floor of the beach was thus lowered, and the natural 
defence of the coast removed. Mr. Kemp urgently recommended that a grant 
should be obtained from Government to repair the breaches which the sea had made, 
and that the removal of the shingle should be absolutely prohibited. 

[Mr. Kemp has, since the Meeting, added to his paper the following series of Mea- 
surements taken along the line of the Holderness coast, from Spurn Point, and 
continued to Flamborough Head, of objects from the nearest point of the cliff. 
Magnetic variation 24° 19' West.] 



Place. 



Object. 



Direction. 



Distance. 



Kilnsea 

Easington 

Holrapton 

Withernsea 

Tunstall 

Ringbrough (Farmstead). 

Hilstou 

Aldborough 

Aldborough 

Mappleton 

Hornsea 

Hornsea 

Atwick 

Skjpsea 

Ulrome 

Barmston 

Wilsthorp House 

Hilderthorpe House 

Mainprize's Farm-House, 
near South Pier, Brid- 
lington Quay. 

Ocean View, eastward of 
Bridlington Quay. 

Railway Bridge, Sewerby 

Sewerby 

Flamborough 



Blue Bell Inn, N.W. 

corner to the cliff. 
Church, S.E. corner... 
Church, N.E. corner... 
Church, N.E. corner... 
Church, N.E. corner... 
Waggon Shed, N.E. 

corner. 
Church, centre. East 

end. 
Church, S.E. corner.. 
Church, N.E. corner.. 
Church, N.E. corner.. 
Church, N.E. corner.. 
Church, N.E. corner.. 

Cross, S.E. corner 

Cliff House, North-east 

corner. 
Church, S.E. corner . . . 
Church, S.E. corner... 

Barn, S.E. corner 

House, E.S.E. corner.., 
House, S.E. corner ... 



House, S.E. corner 

West corner, under the 

arch. 
Church, S.W. corner. . 
Old Tower, centre 



East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East-north-east... 

East 

East 

East* 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

East 

South-east 

South-east 

South-south-east 

South-south-west 
South-east.... 



yds. ft. in. 
525 2 5 



905 

1118 2 1 

381 2 

737 1 

230 



456 

957 



1117 1 10 



1943 2 1 
1966 



988 

828 

176 1 

1817 3 

1826 

155 1 

310 2 

61 1 9 



115 2 
264 



455 1 
953 2 3 



* To a datum line drawn from the east end of the road near the Marine Hotel on the 
north, to the margin of the cUff opposite the end of the road at Hornsea Burton on the 
south. 



54 KEPORT — 1853. 

On the most Remarkable Cases of Unconformity among the Strata of York- 
shire. By Professor Phillips, F.R.S. 



On the Dispersion of Erratic Rocks at higfter Levels than their Parent Rock 
in Yorkshire. By Professor Phillips, F.R.S. 

The Professor stated that in a comparatively uiodern geological period, every part 
of Yorkshire, below the level of 1500 feet, was covered by the waters of a glacial 
sea. icebergs appear to have floated over the whole of this district, depositing 
where thev melted, or were overturned, the materials brought from the higher hills, 
which at that time were partly covered by glaciers. Amongst these were blocks of 
stone from Cumberland and the North Riding, now found perched on the limestone 
hills. Some of them must have come over the Pass of Stainmoor, a height of 1440 
feet, and been thence radiated over all the eastern parts of Yorkshire. A remarkable 
case of local distribution occurred in the country of Ribblesdale, where in several 
places, as on Feizer and Giggleswick Scar, the blocks of ' Horton Flag ' (Carabro- 
Silurian) were found perched on broad surfaces of limestone resting on these flags. 
On the east side of Ribble, above Langcliffe and Settle, there were large blocks near 
the summit, 150 or 200 feet above the level of the rock from which they were 
derived. At Long Scar, blocks of limestone lay on the hills immediately over their 
source. These erratic blocks were not much water-worn, and must have been trans- 
ported by ice ; no violent rush of water would have accomplished it. He believed 
the glacial movement to have been one of Continental elevation and depression, occu- 
toying a long period of time, and that the assigned depression of 1500 feet affected 
the land far up towards the north, and to the east and west, but ceased, or grew 
knuch less, towards the south. 

On a new Plesiosaurus in the York Museum. By Professor Phillips, F.R.S. 

It was a curious circumstance, that each of the three great Plesiosauri lately dis- 
covered in Yorkshire belonged to distinct and undescribed species. One of these, 
described by Mr. Charlesworth at a former meeting, was now in the possession of 
Sir P. Crampton, in Ireland ; the other two were in the York Museum. One of 
them was 18 feet long, and had a very small head ; the other was nearly equal in size 
to the large Plesiosaurus of the Kimmeridge clay. Its head is 42 inches long, and 
tnuch narrower in proportion than in the other species ; the neck is much shorter, 
being only half as long in proportion as in the P. dolichodeirus. The paddles are 
6 feet in length, and offer analogies to Pliosaurus. The vertebrae are like those of the 
other species ; the teeth slightly different. It was found in Lord Zetland's works, 
at Lofthouse, on the Yorkshirs coast. 



On the Formation of Boulders. By the Rev. T. Rankin. 

The writer's observations were made in some of the valleys on the Scotch borders, 
with the view of exciting Mr. Hopkins to re-examine the theory which he had em- 
braced with some hesitation, and whether it be tenable. Mr. Rankin endeavoured 
to explain the phsenomena of the boulder formation by a general deluge, and subse- 
quent river-action. 



On the Classification and Nomenclature of the older Pala:ozoic Rocks of Britain. 
By the Rev. Professor Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 
The term Palaeozoic includes all the known fossiliferous rocks from the Permian 
to the lowest Cambrian. It is separated into three natural divisions : — 1st. Lower 
division, including all deposits which have been called Cambrian and Silurian. 
2nd. Middle division, including the Old Red Sandstone ; and the whole Devonian 
series, of which the lowest group appears to be wanting in the English sections. 
3rd. Upper division, including the Carboniferous and Permian series. If the old terms. 
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary, be retained, the three above-named divisions make 
up the Primary System of Britain ; and to these divisions, collectively, the author 
applies the term Palceozoic System. They do not interchange species with the fossils 



J 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



5$ 



of the Secondary System, including under that term all deposits from the Triassic to 
the Cretaceous. They are characterized by Graptolites and many peculiar genera of 
Corals, by a vast abundance of Brachiopods, by Trilobites, and by peculiar forms of 
Cephalopods. On the other hand, a few species are continued through a great as- 
cending series of groups, from the Cambrian to the Carboniferous ; and between the 
successive primary or palaeozoic groups, it is very diflScult, and sometimes (in the 
actual state of our information) impossible to draw a well-defined line of separation. 
Hence (although all the types of organic life, from the oldest palaeozoic to the modern, 
belong properly to one Systema Natures) it is convenient for description to regard 
the palaeozoic fauna as a sufficiently distinct Systema Naturce to have a separate 
aame as a system. 

In vindication of the previous statements the author quotes the following exam- 
ples of fossils which have a wide palaeozoic range : — 

Favosites alveolaris, from the Bala group to the Devonian inclusive. 

gothlandica „ „ „ Carboniferous „ 

Hexopora fibrosa „ „ „ Devonian „ 

Spirigerina reticularis „ „ „ Devonian „ 

Leptagonia depressa „ „ „ Carboniferous „ 

and he doubts not that several other species might be added to the list. 

After these preliminary remarks the author gave the following Tabular Views. 



Upper 
division. 

Middle 
division. 



[ill. 



iBt. Tabular View of the British Palxozoic System. 

Permian series. Divisible into three subordinate groups. 
Carboniferous series. Divisible into three or four subordinate groups. 

Devonian 
series. 



Lower 
division. 



5. Ludlow group. 



4. Wenlock group. 

3. Bala group or 

Upper 

Cambrian. 

2. Festiniog group. 

1. Bangor group. 



' 8. Petherwin group. 

7. Caithness group? [perhaps, capable of further subdivision. 
6. Plymouth group, without any ascertained base, and therefore, 
~ d. TUestone. 

c. Upper Ludlow. 

b. Aymestry limestone. 
II. Silurian J L a. Lower Ludlow. 

d. Wenlock limestone. 

c. Wenlock shale. 
b. Woolhope Umestone. [Umestone. 

a. May Hill sandstone and Pentamerus 

b. Upper Bala — Caradoc sandstone and 
shale; Hirnant and Bala limestones; 
flagstone and conglomerate, &c. &c. 

a. Lower Bala — dark slates, flags, grits,&c. 
I. Cambrian f ^ Arenig slate and porphyry. 

b. Tremadoc slate. 

a. Lingula flags. 

c. Harlech grits. 

b. Llanberris slates*. 
a. Longmynd slates. 

This tabular view (chiefly derived from the Welsh sections) agrees very nearly with 
one published by the author in the 2nd Fasciculus of the Palaeozoic fossils in the 
Cambridge Museum, two changes only having been introduced : 1st, the Longmynd 
slates are arranged provisionally with the lowest or Bangor group ; for they form 
the oldest group (not metamorphic) in the Cambrian and Silurian country, and by 
the gentlemen of the Government Survey they are regarded as the base of what is 
here called the Bangor group. 2ndly. The May Hill sandstone and Pentamerus 
limestone are now cut off from the Caradoc sandstone, and placed at the base of the 
Wenlock group. Some of the reasons for this latter change were given in a paper 
read before the Geological Society of London, Nov. 3, 1852, and are now published 
in No. 35 of the Journal of the Geological Society of London (Aug. 1853). 

The previous tabular view is derived from the sections of Siluria and Cambria. 

* This sub-group (Llanberris slates) is of great thickness, and includes several bands of 
slates and hard grits which are below the great quarries of Nant Francon and Llanbeiiis. 
These quarries are immediately under the so-called Harlech grits. . 



56 



REPOET — 1853. 



Upper 
division. 



IV. 



The following is in like manner derived from the sections of Cumberland, Westmore- 
land, N. Lancashire, and a part of Yorkshire : — 

2nd. Tabular View of the British Palxozoic System. 

f V. Permian \ \b. Magnesian limestone andcongloraerate. 

■ L a. Coarse red sandstone and conglome- 
" <f. Upper carboniferous. [rate*. 

c. Millstone grit. 

b. Lower carboniferous (" Yordale series"). 
. a. Great scar limestone. 

Coarse red conglomerate and red sand- 
stone, here and there of great thick- 
ness, and always unconformable to the 
older groups; but discontinuous, and 
often thinning out or disappearing al- 
together. 

c. Tilestone and red calcareous flagstone. 
b. Grits and coarse flagstone, without 

transverse cleavage. 



Middle fill, 
division. I 



series. 

Carboni- 
ferous 
series. 



Devonian " 
series. 



Lower 
division. 



Group from 
Benson Knot, 
south of Kendal, 



through hirkby ^ ^_ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^.^^^ occasional 



Moor to the 
Lune, called 
Kirkby Moor 
group. 



Ireleth slate 
group. 



4. Coniston grit. 

Coniston lime- 
stone group. 

Green slate and 
porphyry. 



transverse cleavage ; north of Kendal 
Fell, forming a passage into the 
lower group. 

II. Silurian ' [d. Coarse striped slates alternating with 

series. \ beds of gritstone, much contorted and 

of great thickness. 
c. Great or Upper Ireleth slate ; no traces 
of Aymestry limestone. 

b. Ireleth limestone in a discontinuous and 
concretionarj' form. 

a. Lower Ireleth slate. 
^Coarse hard gritstone, conglomerate, and 
thin bands of slate. Collectively of 
great thickness. 
"3. Coniston lime- J *. Coniston flagstone and calcareous slate. 
\ a. Coniston limestone and calcareous slate. 
r Great beds of roofing-slate, &c., alternating 
I indefinitely with porphyry, trappean 

■i. conglomerate, trap-shale (shaalstein), 

I &c. Collectively of enormous thick- 

[ ness. 

^d. Some rare examples (probably in the 
upper part of this great group) of 
I. Cambrian , black slate with fucoids and grapto- 

series. ' lites. 

c. Masses of gritstone, rarely of coarse 
texture. 

1. Skiddaw slate. ■{ b. Mountain masses of black slate, with 
veins of quartz ; not effervescing with 
acids. 
a. Beds of porphyritic chiastolite slate, 
passing (when near the granite) into 
chiastoUte rock, and beds which are 
[_ entirely metamorphic. 

In this tabular view (derived from actual sections in the north of England) the Skid- 
daw slate may be put on the same parallel with the old slates of the Longmynd. The 
older roofing-slate of the second group (e. g. the slates of Borrowdale) may be (pro- 
visionally) compared w ith the Llanberris and Nant Francon slates of the Welsh 
section. In the mountains of Cumberland w^e have found no trace of the Lingula flags, 
or of the Tremadoc slates with their subordinate beds of granular magnetic iron ore. 
But the green slate and porphyry (of group second) are the exact counterpart of the 

* A still higher group (c) of the Permian series, not here noticed, is found in Nottingham- 
shire and the southern part of Yorkshire. It is composed of gypseous red marls and thin- 
bedded limestone. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 6^ 

slates and porphyries of Arenig and Cader Idris. In Cumberland, the porphyritic 
impress is so far continued in the ascending section, that the Coniston limestone 
(group three), at the south end of the countj% becomes interlaced with the highest 
beds of the second group. Hence the second group of this second tabular section 
appears to represent, with a different mineral type, both the Festiniog and Lower 
Bala groups. The Coniston limestone is identical, in structure and fossils, with the 
Bala limestone; and the Coniston limestone and flagstone represent (as to thickness, 
in a degenerate form) the whole series of upper Bala rocks (36 of the 1st tabular 
view). 

Continuing this comparison through the upper or Silurian series, we may safely 
identify the great zone of the Coniston grits with the more sterile portions of the 
May Hill sandstone (Wenlock group, 4o). A part of the Ireleth slate group (5o, 
5b, 5c), however different in structure, is in the exact place of the upper p?rts of the 
Wenlock group (i.e.4b,4c,4d). The upper stage of the Treleth group (5rf), together 
with a portion of a higher stage (6a), is in the place of the Ludlow stage (5a). And, 
lastly (excepting a few beds at its base), the sixth group (of Benson Knot, Kirkby 
Moor, &c.) unequivocally represents the upper stages of the Ludlow group (5c 
and 5c?). 

If we assume the approximate truth of these identifications, it must be obvious 
that the Cambrian sections are palseontologically more perfect than the Cumbrian, 
and are therefore more fit to supply us with the means of a correct classification and 
nomenclature. 

Returning then to the Cambrian series as defined in the first tabular view, the 
author remarks upon its enormous thickness, its unambiguous development, its 
physical characters, and its organic remains ; whereby it is very widely separated 
from the overlying and generally nnconforinahle Silurian series. If the May Hill 
sandstone be struck off from the inferior groups with which it has been classed in 
the ' Silurian System,' it becomes (as in the tabular view) the paleeontologica!, as 
well as the physical base, of the ' Silurian System.' For in the May Hill sand- 
stone the great palseontological, as well as the great physical, change takes place, 
whereby the Silurian and Cambrian groups do admit of a clear separation. The 
Cambrian series is paheontologically quite as distinct from the Silurian as is the De- 
vonian from the Carboniferous. 

While the May Hill sandstone, with a perfect Wenlock group of fossils, was classed 
under one name with the Caradoc sandstone, which has a perfectly Cambrian group 
of fossils, no wonder that Cambrian and Silurian rocks should have been regarded 
as of one palseontological type. Now that this erroneous nomenclature and classifica- 
tion has been corrected, the author does not believe that the two series (Cambrian 
and Silurian) will prove to have in their fossil lists more than six or seven per cent, 
of common species. M. Barrande's investigations in Bohemia give not more than 
about five per cent, of species common to rocks which answer to those which are here 
called Cambrian and Silurian. Mr. Hall's investigations in New York give, for that 
great region, a still smaller per-centage of such common species. An examination of 
all the fossils derived from the lower division of the palaeozoic rocks in the north of 
England, after they have been separated into two great groups— one representing all 
fossils found below the Coniston grits, and the other representing all the fossils found 
from the Coniston grits inclusive, up to the base of the old red sandstone, — gives (out 
of a total of J 65 species) not more than three and a half per cent, of species common 
to the two groups*. 

After these facts, the author contends that there is now no rational ground of 
dispute either as to the classification or nomenclature of the great groups of strata 
which form the lowest division of the British Palaeozoic series. 

The nomenclature here presented has the priority in time. The physical sequence 
was made out (as to all essential points) by the unassisted labours of the author, 
who first adopted the name Cambrian for the vast groups which form the so-called 
Cambrian series. The nomenclature is not only palaeontologically right, but is geo- 
graphically true and congruous ; for every rock of which the true place had been 
determined by the author of the ' Silurian System' is still called Silurian ; while 

* Several sections from Wales and Cumberland were exhibited in illustration of the clas- 
sification here vindicated ; but they are necessarily omitted in this abstract. 



68 REPORT — 1853. 

the vast (and generally unconformable) inferior groups, which collectively are found 
in Cambria, and are assuredly not found collectively in any Silurian section, are 
still called Cambrian. 

The preceding classification places the Silurian series on its true physical and true 
palfeontological base ; but it does exclude from that series the shelly sandstones of 
Caer Caradoc, and the calcareous flagstones of Llandeilo. 

To confirm the preceding conclusion, the author then went on to a discussion of 
certain sections examined (by Professor M'Coy and himself) immediately before the 
meeting of the British Association at Hull. They were prevented from extending 
their examination to the sections of Builth and Llandeilo by a very vexatious acci- 
dent ; and their joint remarks, so far as they appear in this abstract, relate to sec- 
tions at the south-west end of the Longmynd, and to sections through the typical 
Caradoc sandstone, where it forms a well-known terrace, ranging from the banks of 
the Onny to the banks of the Severn. 

(1.) Sections of the Pentamerus Limestone and May Hill Sandstone of Norbury and 
Linley. — From these rocks (which rest unconformably on the old Longmynd slates) 
they obtained the following fossils, the species determined by Professor M'Coy : — 

* Ptilodic/ya lanceolata, as at Dudley. 

* PalcBopora interstincta, common to Cambrian and Silurian. 

*Favosites multiporatus, ditto. 

*Petraia bina, as in Wenlock limestone and May Hill sandstone. 

* , unnamed species, same as at May Hill. 

*Encrinurus punctatus, common to Cambrian and Silurian rocks. 

Pentamerus loevis'] . , , . ,.,, , , 

,, Mn almost mcredible abuudance. 

— — oblongus J 

*Lept(Bna transversalis, as in Wenlock and limestone of Woolhope, Dudley, &c., 

and May Hill sandstone. 

* euglypha as in Wenlock limestone, and Dudley. 

*Orthis elegantula, common to Cambrian and Silurian. 

* pecten, ditto. 

* Davidsoni, as at Wenlock limestone of Walsall, and sandstone of May Hill. 

** Spirigerina reticularis, common to Cambrian, Silurian, and Devonian. 

* Litiorina octavia, as in Wenlock limestone. 

Upon this list it is remarked, that out of fifteen species eight have not yet been 
found, except in the Wenlock group or its equivalents ; and that of the remaining 
seven species, one ranges through both the Silurian and Devonian series, while the 
other six belong to species already known to be common both to Cambrian and Silu- 
rian rocks. On the other hand, all the types hitherto regarded as exclusively cha- 
racteristic of Cambrian rocks are wanting. Hence the author (along with Professor 
M'Coy) arranges the Pentamerus limestone, &c. of Norbury at the base of the Wen- 
lock group, and cuts it off from the Caradoc sandstone. He further remarks, that 
those fossil species which are admitted to be common to the Cambrian and Silurian 
rocks, appear chiefly to abound in the uppermost beds of the Cambrian series ; as 
also in the May Hill sandstone, which is the true base of the Silurian series. In other 
■words, the common species abound in the very beds where we should expect to find 
them. 

(2.) Section of the Onny in descending order. — The lower parts of the river banks 
were under water during the author's visit to the country along with Professor 
M'Coy ; but the following facts were partly supplied by excavations which had been 
kindly made, at the author's request, by Mr. Duppa of Cheyney Longville, in places 
out of the reach of inundation. 

In the first excavation, 200 yards above Stretford Bridge, abundance of the fol- 
lowing fossils :— 

Graptolites Ludensis. Calymene tuberculosa. 

Odontochile longicaudata. Cardiola interrupta. 

Between this locality and the following is a change of surface, and no rock is 
distinctly seen for some hundred yards. This is the place where we might expect 
the May Hill sandstone and Pentamerus limestone. 

About 300 yards above Longville Bridge the following fossils ate abundant, with' 
out intermixture of the above-named species : — 



a 



TBANSAOTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 09 



Orthis calligramma, ^ 
— — elegantula, var. a. 

parva, t exclusively Cambrian. 

Leptmna sericea, 

quinguecostata, J 

Spirigerina reticularis, Cambrian to Devonian inclusive. 
In a second excavation, 30 yards higher up the river, occurs a bed with innume- 
rable specimens of Trinucleus. Still further up the river, the well-known Caradoc 
beds of Horderley. 

In this section, therefore, the highest beds are undoubted Wenlock shale, the 
lowest are undoubted Cambrian (Caradoc sandstone of the Bala group), and the in- 
termediate May Hill group is lost. These facts do not invalidate, but, so far as they 
go, confirm the conclusion drawn from the Norbury section ; and tend to prove that 
the author was in error, when, in a previous communication, he placed the Penta- 
merus beds within the limits of the Caradoc group (paper read before the Geol. Soc, 
Nov. 3, 1852). 

(3.) Sections of Shineton, 8fc., where the terrace of Caradoc Sandstone approaches the 
right bank of the Severn (Map of the' Silurian' System). — As the author was pre- 
vented from examining these sections, he gives verbatim the notes upon them by 
Professor M'Coy: — 

" (1.) Close to Shineton Church, olive shales on the roadside j dip about 35° E. 
of S. at about 30°, containing — 

Agnostus pisiformis (as at Llandeilo, &c.), in gr at abundance ^ 

Olenusi Isame as at Hollybush) (PhiUips' Malvern Section, see his Memoir, 

p. 55.) 
Asaphus ?, undetermined fragments. 

Cytheropsis Aldensis (as at Aldens on the Stincher, N.B.). 
Siphonotreta micula (as at Wellfield, Builth, and at Pentre, N. of Llangynyw). 
" All the above are Cambrian types. 

" (2.) Over the above, and also over some black shales with a few traces of JFlwct 
and Orthoceratiies, in Belswardine Brook, several thin beds of Pentamerus limestone 
and May Hill sandstone occur (dip about 50° E. of S. at 20''), full of — 
Hemithyris hemisphcerica. 
Pentamerus lievis. 

oblongus. 

Petraia (unnamed species, same as at May Hill and Malvern). 
" (3.) One mile W. of Harley, olive-coloured shales like those at Shineton, with 
nearly the same dip and direction, are overlaid (with a small unconformity) by very 
coarse unfossiliferous May Hill conglomerates (exactly like those forming the base 
of the May Hill sandstone near the top of May Hill), seen in numerous openings 
extending along the road to Church Preen. 

"Beneath the above conglomerates, in the large quarries at W. edge of Round Nursety 
near Harnage Grange, the Caradoc sandstone and limestone are found, both dipping 
10° E. of S. at about 20°, and full of .the following fossils : — 

Orthis expansa, ^ 

all exclusively Cambrian." 

J 

These sections (at Shineton, &c.) had been previously examined, in detail, by 
Mr. Salter, whose list of fossil localities w,as kindly communicated to Professor 
M'Coy and the author before their visit to the country. 

The conclusion from the above facts seems to be inevitable. The great (and sup- 
posed) typical section of Caer Caradoc and Wenlock Edge is not, probably, a con- 
tinuous, but a broken section ; and the conglomerates, grits, Pentamerus limestone, 
&c. (which overlie the Olenus shales) must here (as at the Malverns) be cut off from 
the Caradoc terrace, and arranged with the Wenlock group, as in the above first ta- 
bular view. 

From all the above facts, as well as from facts previously published, the author 




60 REPORT — 1853. 

concludes, that in no part of Wales, or the adjacent counties, is there any one con- 
tinuous unbroken section through which we can ascend from the Cambrian to the 
Silurian groups. There is a physical break between them ; and in very near coordi- 
nation with that break (often marked by a discordancy of position) there is a great 
change in fossil species. The author showed the bearing of these views on the sec- 
tions from the Ciea Hills to the Longmynd, and on similar sections from the vicinity 
ofLlandeilo ; and from both districts drew confirmations of his conclusion, //i«< all the 
oldei- groups of North and South Wales, and of a part of the Silurian district, up to the 
base of the May Hill sandstone, must retain the name ' Cambrian,' which has the 
claim of priority, is geographically true, and palieontologically right. 

The author, after referring to the history of the investigations into the Silurian 
and Cambrian systems, remarks that he never had the expectation of establishing, by 
the evidence of fossils, a separation between Cambrian and ' Lower Silurian' rocks, 
which has been attributed to him. He had from the first a contrary opinion, founded 
both on sections and fossils. 

That the fossils of the whole Bala group and the fossils of Snowdonia were iden- 
tical with the fossils of the so-called Lower Silurian groups, was certain long before 
there was any matter of dispute about the Paleozoic nomenclature ; but that was 
considered by the author as no reason for extending the Lower Silurian nomenclature 
over all the older groups of Wales. It was, however, a very (jood reason for keeping 
the Lower Silurian nomenclature in abeyance ; and pretending to no strictly defined 
nomenclature of Lower Silurian or Upper Cambrian rocks, till it could be permanently 
fixed both by true sections and corresponding groups of fossils. That period it has at 
length reached through the determination of the May Hill group ; which group was 
introduced, or immediately preceded, by great physical movements indicated here and 
there by great masses of conglomerate, by great groups of rock with a new physical 
type, and generally in a position discordant to the Cambrian series ; and at the same 
time by a great change in the organic types ; i. e. by the sudden disappearance of 
the undoubted Cambrian types, and by the sudden appearance of undoubted Silurian 
types. Such phsenomena may well be considered as the prelude to a new system or 
a new series of physical groups demanding a separate name. The scheme of no- 
menclature and classification, given in this communication, does not deprive the 
' Silurian System ' of a single stratum or a single group of fossils which belong to it 
on a right and natural interpretation of the sections. At the same time, the original 
Silurian map is on this scheme not greatly changed. The groups of Caer Caradoc 
and Llandeilo become indeed absorbed in the upper Cambrian groups, among which 
they find their true geographical and true sectional place ; but the greater part of the 
rocks hitherto called Caradoc sandstone still have their place in the map of Siluria 
under another name (May Hill sandstone). The remarkable groups of Tortworth 
and the Usk ; all the groups of May Hill and Woolhope ; all the Silurian groups on 
the west side of the Malvern Hills (with an almost evanescent exception at Holly 
Bush) ; the groups of Abberley, Presteign, Aymestry, and Ludlow ; all these groups 
will remain almost untouched, or with one new Silurian colour for the May Hill beds. 
A distinct colour for the May Hill sandstone must appear at the base of Wenlock 
Edge. Further north the changes in the Silurian map will be more considerable ; 
but it will be compensated, for the loss of certain Cambrian groups, by a large ex- 
tension of the May Hill sandstone through the chain of the Berwyns, and thence, as 
in the Government map (iu which it is laid down under the erroneous name of " Middle 
Silurian"), to the sea near Conway. 

The author then compares with the results of his investigation the nomenclature 
and classification adopted in the publications of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain, in which only those lower groups which are without fossils are ranked as 
' Cambrian'. He objects to the extension of the meaning of ' Llandeilo rocks,' so as 
to make them comprehend the Upper and Lower groups of Bala ; and to the use of 
such a term as ' Middle Silurian,' embracing the May Hill and Caradoc sandstones. 
The distinction of these two sandstones was first made out in the Cambridge Mu- 
seum by Professor M'Coy, after a detailed examination of the Cambrian and Silu- 
rian fossils collected by the author ; it has since been confirmed by an examination of 
sections in the field ; and the author believes there is no alternation of Cambrian and 
Silurian rocks, no confusion of these separate groups, and no well-defined great 
' middle ' group, blending the characters of the two extremes. He claims the right 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 61 

to suggest to the Government Survej' a return to the nomenclature •which he was 
the first to propose, and of which he now vindicates the justice and propriety. 

In this way (and this way only) can there be an end of controversy. The groups 
will have their first names, and their right geographical names. While the rocks of 
Cambria are called Cambrian, the rocks of Siluria will be called Silurian ; and not 
so much as one single bed of rock will be seen out of the limits of the true Silurian 
colours of the Geological map, of which bed the right place had been fixed in the 
original sections and details of the ' Silurian System.' 

Finally, the author contends that the most recent and mature works of great Con- 
tinental and American palaeontologists (such as Barrande, D'Orbigny, Hall, Rogers, 
&c.) do not invalidate, but confirm, the views here communicated to the British As- 
sociation. These authors have not, indeed, ever entered on any formal discussion of 
British palaeozoic nomenclature. They have taken the British groups and names as 
they found them published ; and naturally left their final adjustment to British geo- 
logists. But they have presented the data in a form clearly showing the general 
equivalency of the so-called ' Lower Silurian ' to the Cambrian rocks ; and the re- 
sults which they have obtained appear, not only to the author of this communica- 
tion, but also (as he can aflSrm) to some of the great American geologists themselves, 
to confirm in all important points the physical and palaeontological separation between 
the Cambrian and Silurian series. 

The author ended by stating, as an excuse for the very great and unusual length 
of his paper, that he believed it, out of comparison, the most important communica- 
tion he had ever made to the British Association. It contained historical and geo- 
graphical details, and several illustrative sections (of which little or no notice is taken 
in this abstract), and exhibited conclusions derived from evidence, the unfolding of 
which had taken many years of hard field-labour. And as some of its conclusions 
were still controverted, they were, on that very account, specially fitted for a calm 
discussion in the Geological Section (of the British Association), in which he had, at 
this meeting, the honour to fill the Chair, 



On Pseudomorphous Crystals in New Red Sandstone. 
By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.G.S. 

These pseudo-crystals were cubical projections from the under surfaces of laminsB 
of white sandstone, of the age of the red marls, and had been detected at various 
localities in Gloucestershire, Nottinghamshire, and Cheshire. They might have been 
formed in cavities left by the decomposition of iron pyrites, or by the removal of 
crystals of common salt. That the latter was really the case seemed evident from 
some of the specimens, in which the faces of the cubes were concave, and exhibited 
concentric lines. The author inferred that the crystals of salt were formed on, or in 
the mud of the shore, during a temporary exposure to the sun, and being again 
covered by the sea, the crystals had dissolved, and their form had been assumed by 
the material of the next succeeding deposit. 



On some Ayrshire Fossils. By Wyville T. C. Thomson, LL.D. 

Dr. Thomson exhibited a collection of fossils from the Lower Silurian (or Cam- 
brian) rocks, on the South bank of Girvan Water, in Ayrshire : they were obtained 
by breaking up the rock, and still retained their natural surfaces in very great per- 
fection ; whereas, fossils of the old rocks in general only retain their real surfaces 
when developed by the weather. 

On Refracted Lines of Cleavage seen in the Slate Rocks of Ballyrizora, in 
the County of Cork. By R. W. Townsend, M.A., M.R.I.A. 

The author exhibited a diagram representing the surface of some Devonian rocks 
near Cork, in which the angle of the cleavage planes changed slightly on passing 
from the argillaceous layers to those of a more arenaceous character. — [The subject 
had been already examined by Prof. Phillips, and discussed at the Meeting of the 
British Association at Cork, in 1843.] 



62 REPORT — 1853. 

On a singular Fault in the Southern Termination of the Warwickshire 

Coal-field. By Charles Twamley, F.G.S. 
This narrow coal-field is described as extending from Polesworth, near Taraworth, 
to Sow, three miles east of Coventry. At the Victoria Colliery, near Bedworth, the 
coal-seams lie nearly together, with very thin partings, and measure from 8 to 10 
yards. At Polesworth the seams are widely separated, forming, with the interposed 
strata, a thickness of more than 70 yards. The fault described is in the Victoria 
Colliery ; the coal lies at the depth of 225 yards, dipping S.W., 12 inches in the 
yard. In driving a gate-road southerly a fault occurred, the coal-seams being cut 
off in succession ; the top one disappearing first, and the bottom one last. The road 
was continued on a level, through fractured rocky shale containing coal fossils, for 
about 120 yards, when the coal-seams were again met with, in the same order in 
which they disappeared : the bottom one first occurring and the top one last ; but 
the dip had increased from 12 to 20 inches in the yard. The interval in the top coal 
was 180 yards wide; in the bottom coal 120 yards, and in a band of ironstone 
below the coal 80 yards. The level at which the coal reappears is 22 yards higher 
than it would have been but for the fault. A headway was driven upwards 60 
yards, and a shaft sunk downwards 40 yards in the shale, without finding a trace 
of coal. The fault has an irregular N.W. and S.E. course at right angles to the 
dip of the beds. 



BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY. 

Botany. 



On the Structure of the Endochrome in Conferva Linum. 
By Professor Allman, M.D., M.R.I. A. 

The cells of this plant are filled with a deep green endochrome, which when 
liberated from the cell and examined under a power of about 150 linear, is found to 
be composed of exceedingly delicate utricles, filled with homogeneous green matter 
which surrounds a central nucleus-like body. The form of this body is peculiar, 
being that of a more or less circular disc, with a thickened ring-like margin, and 
generally bent irregularly on itself. lodme, by turning it blue, proves it to be a 
starch-granule. In one or two instances, the endochrome-utricles were found after 
the application of iodine, with their green contents contracted towards one side, and 
the starch-granule lying free in the otherwise empty portion of the utricle. In some 
cases two or three starch-granules were found in a single utricle. 

It frequently happens that the utricles become ruptured, probably by the endos- 
mose of water, or by the actual solution of their very delicate walls, and thus liberate 
their contents ; the starch-granules were then seen to float away perfectly free upon 
the field of the microscope. In none of the utricles could any true nucleus be 
detected. 

Besides the simple utricles with their green contents and starch -granules, others 
were not unfrequently met with of a larger size, and filled with a brood of smaller 
Utricles, exactly similar to those just described ; like them filled with homogeneous 
green contents, and containing a nucleus-like starch-granule. 

It is thus proved, — 1. That the green matter in Confei-va Linum is immediately 
contained in distinct cells or utricles. 2. That it surrounds in each utricle a, pecu- 
liarly formed starch-granule. 3. That these utricles are themselves the product 
of parent utricles, in whose cavity they are formed ; the endochrome of Conferva 
Linum thus possessing an independent organization by which it is enabled to mul- " 

tiply itself within the filament. 

On the Utricular Structure of the Endochrome, a Species of Conferva. 
By Professor Allman, M.D., M.R.I.A. 

The plant which constituted the subject of the communication, is closely allied to 
Conferva linum, and the author showed that the deep green endochrome, when libe- 
rated from the cell, is seen to possess a very definite utricular structure. Each utriols 
is filled with homogeneous green matter, which surrounds one or more peculiarly 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 69 

formed starch-granules. In many instances, utricles were met with of a large size, 
and filled with a brood of secondary utricles, each containing homogeneous green 
contents, surrounding a nucleus-like starch-granule. 

On some New Plants. By Professor J. H. Balfour, M.D. 

Notes on the Growth of Symphytum officinale in the Botanical Gardens of 
the Royal Agricultural College. By Professor James Buckman, F.G.S. 
During some experiments on plants of Stjm'phytwn officinale, the common comfrey, 
and S. asperrtmum, the comfrey cultivated in the Gardens, the author was struck with 
the resemblance of the two species ; and gave an account of certain intermediate forms, 
which led him to the conclusion that these plants were one and the same species. 

Additional Observations on a Neio System of Classifying Plants. 
By B. Clarke. 

On a Method of Accelerating the Germination of Seeds. 
By Robert Hunt. 
This communication was merely a recapitulation of the results obtained by 
the author, and fully communicated in Reports published in former volumes. Its 
object was to introduce a letter from Messrs. Lawson and Co. of Edinburgh, who 
stated that by adopting the plan of cutting off the luminous rays by the use of 
cobalt blue glass, as recommended by Mr. R. Hunt, they succeeded in obtaining 
healthful germination far more rapidly than under ordinary circumstances. They 
had constructed a house glazed with blue glass, and in this all their seeds were 
tested. This practical application of a scientific discovery was of the utmost value 
to them. Tropical seeds under the same circumstances were found to germinate in 
a few days, -whereas in ordinary conditions many weeks were required for the 

completion of the process. 

On the Pentasulphide of Calcium as a Remedy for Grape Disease, 
By Dr. Astley P. Price. 

On the DiatomacetB found in the neighbourhood of Hull. 
By J. D. Sollitt and R. Harrison. 
It was the purport of this paper to show how exceedingly rich the vicinity of Hull 
is in those beautiful forms of living atoms called Infusorial shells, or Diatomacese, 
upwards of 145 species having been found and examined by the authors of the paper. 
The contents of the paper not only went to show the beauties of those formations, hut 
also the great value of some particular species as test objects for microscopes, parti- 
cularly the Pleurosigma attenualum, P. slrigomm, P. elongatum, P. qiiadratum, 
P. fasciola, &c., the delicate markings on each of which had been first discovered by 
the authors of this paper, and their superiority, above all others, as test objects pointed 
out. The paper then went on to show tlie errors into which the Rev. W. Smith had 
fallen with regard to the number of markings in the inch on each of those delicate 
coverings, and also the impossibility of the markings being the result of internal 
Btruoture. It was likewise stated, that in making a large drain in Holderness for the 
purpose of taking the water from the low lands into the Humber, an immense bed of 
fossil DiatomacesB had been discovered, which bed consisted of almost 100 different 
species, but generally of the smaller kinds ; and that in examining tlie matter taken 
from a large submerged forest on the Holderness coast, an immense number of fossil 
freshwater Diatomacese had been found, although the sea washes over the same at every 
tide, clearly showing that the forest had been overthrown by some great run of fresh 
water long before the sea had reached the point which it now has. 1'lie paper con- 
cluded by the authors entirely disagreeing with those naturalists who wish to place 
these living forms in the vegetable kingdom, the motions of many of them being more 
rapid in proportion to their size than that of several larger animals. 

On a New Alga. By W. Somers. 



64 REPORT — 1853. 

Zoology. 

On the Structure of Hydra viridis. 
By Professor Allman, M.D., M.R.I.A. 

The author had been recently led to examine Hydra viridis, with special reference 
to its alleged non-cellular structure, as maintained by Ecker, and has arrived at con- 
clusions entirely opposed to those of the German physiologist. 

Hydra viridis, like all the other Hydroid zoophytes, is composed throughout]of two 
distinct layers ; to the external of these the author gives the name of ectoderm, and 
to the internal that of endoderm. When examined under slight pressure and with a 
power of about 100 diameters. Hydra viridis may be seen to possess throughout the 
whole thickness of its substance a multitude of clear spaces, which at first look like 
cells, but by a careful examination may be satisfactorily proved to be mere vacuoles. 
So far Ecker is right in asserting the existence of vacuolae in the tissues of Hydra, 
but he is (juite wrong in his opinion as to the relation of these vacuolae to the inter- 
vening substance. The vacuolee of the endoderm may be seen to be separated from 
one another by multitudes of green spherules, to which the characteristic colour of the 
species is due ; and it is the appearance thus presented which has led to the erro- 
neous belief that the spherules are imbedded in a continuous semifluid matter in 
which the vacuolce are excavated. 

By a little manipulation, however, the tissue of the endoderm may without 
difficulty be broken up into detached portions, each almost always containing one, 
or occasionally more of the clear vacuolse, surrounded by green granules, and isolated 
hy a distinct though extremely delicate cell-membrane. It is therefore evident that 
the substance which separates the vacuolae of the endoderm is not continuous, but 
is contained as cell-contents in true cells, that the vacuolae are excavated in this 
protoplasm, and that the green spherules are imbedded in it. The cells themselves 
appear to possess but a verj' weak union among one another ; they are easily sepa- 
rated by a slight force, and on becoming free, immediately assume a spherical figure 
without any trace of their having been previously united into a tissue. 

Those endodermal cells which present a free surface in the gastric cavity are 
deficient in green spherules, but contain a large vacuola, with one or more brown 
granular masses, which appear to be immediately included in a small secondary cell, 
in which they are probably elaborated by a true secretory action; they may perhaps 
he fairly assumed as representing the biliary secretion in the higher animals. Whether 
the cells, however, which thus constitute the gastric surface of the endoderm are 
entirely destitute of green spherules, the author could not positively assert : it is 
certain, that in the disintegration of the endoderm, several cells are liberated con- 
taining both green spherules and brown granular masses, the latter immediately in- 
cluded in minute secondary cells, but from what part of the endoderm they were 
derived he could not determine. The cells which thus constitute the immediate 
walls of the stomach, cannot be viewed as forming a third layer distinct from the 
endoderm. 

The green spherules possess an exceedingly definite form, and the author was of 
opinion that they must be viewed as cells. They present in their interior a lighter 
coloured space, which appears sometimes circular, sometimes somewhat fiask- 
shaped, and sometimes triradiate, a difference perhaps depending on the difference of 
aspect in which it presents itself to the eye. 

The structure of the ectoderm differs in no essential point from that of the endo- 
derm, except in the fact that its component cells are totally destitute of green sphe- 
rules and brown granules, while one or more thread-cells, each immediately enclosed 
in a secondary cell, constitute their characteristic contents ; besides the thread- 
cells they contain homogeneous colourless contents with vacuolae. 

Hydra is certainly destitute of cilia on any part of its external or internal surface, 
and yet weak currents may be distinctly seen in the fluid in contact with separate 
portions of the endoderm. It appeared to the author that the true cause of these 
currents is to be sought for in certain chemical changes, which, by virtue of their 
vital endowments, these cells, Uke secreting cells generally, effect in the fluid in con- 
tact with them. 

In the tissues of Hydra viridis nothing beyond the elements now mentioned could 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECnONS. 65 

be detected. There is no trace of nervous or muscular tissue, and the high degree of 
contractility presented by the animal, must be an endowment of its simple cellular 
structure, but whether residing in the membrane of the cells or in their contents, or 
ia both, we have not yet sufficient facts to enable us to determine. 



On the Structure of Bursaria. 
By Professor Allman, M.B., M.R.I.A. 
In this communication the author advocated the unicellular structure of the true 
Infusoria as maintained by Siebold. The phsenomena presented by Bursaria incon- 
testably prove it to be a solitary cell with an inversion of its wall at one spot, 
constituting a deep horn-shaped depression, which terminates behind in a blind 
extremity. The whole of the external surface of the animalcule is thickly set with 
vibratile cilia, and within the horn-shaped depression, along the entire of its convex 
side, there runs a broad band of vibratile organs, which appear to be very delicate 
plates rather than cilia. 

The contents of the Bursaria-cell are remarkable. Under slight pressure and a 
magnifying power of about 100 linear, the whole of the interior appears at first to 
be composed of a cellular parenchyma. It is, however, easy to convince oneself that 
this appearance of cells is due to the presence of simple vacuolae, thickly distributed 
through a semi-fluid granular substance. When by rupture of the external wall, 
a portion of these cell-contents escapes into the drop of fluid in which the animal is 
placed for observation, it may be seen to possess the property of immediately as- 
suming a definite outline ; it generally acquires a nearly spherical figure, and with a 
number of contained vacuolse, it then so exactly resembles a parent cell with second- 
ary cells in its interior, as to be very likely to give rise to erroneous views of the 
structure of the animalcule from which it had been liberated. It is not easy to 
decide whether the masses of escaped cell-contents possess a power of independent 
motion ; there is reason, however, to believe that such power is really possessed by 
them, and that it manifests itself in slight changes of shape, which after consider- 
able intervals may be witnessed in them, and which cannot be referred to any purely 
mechanical cause. In the unmutilated animal a movement of the contents may 
be frequently seen through the transparent cell- wall, during which the vacuolae con- 
stantly change their relative position to one another. 

In the midst of the cell-contents is a sinuously bent cylindrical body of a yellowish 
colour, and somewhat granular structure ; it is solid, and appears to lie quite free in the 
surrounding substance. It is to the homologues of this body in so many Infusoria, 
that Ehrenberg has so variously attributed a digestive or reproductive function, or 
that he has assigned some undefined glandular office. Siebold, however, has certainly 
indicated its true signification when he supposed it to represent the nucleus of the 
unicellular solitary cell, forming the body of every true Infusorial. 

In a well-fed Bursaria, masses of alimentary matter may be seen enclosed in little 
cavities scattered through the substance of the animalcule. These cavities seem to 
have no definite position, and there appears to be no doubt whatever that they are 
mere vacuolse temporarily excavated in the substance of the cell-contents, for the re- 
ception of the alimentary matter. Their contents, when presenting any definite form, 
may be seen to consist chiefly of minute Desmidieos or DiatomacecB or Infusoria, but 
most usually the cavities contain nothing but granular brownish masses. The author 
'■ had not succeeded in witnessing the actual reception of food, and could not state, 
from direct observation, how this gained admittance to the interior ; there seems 
I little doubt, however, that it is first carried into the horn-shaped depression, through 
I whose walls it is then forced into the interior of the animalcule, and when once in- 
I troduced into the semi-fluid cell- contents, each little alimentary mass forms around 
it a vacuole. In this vacuole digestion goes on, and during the continuance of the 
process each may be seen to contain, besides its solid contents, a transparent colour- 
\ less fluid. The temporary digestive vacuolse seem capable of formation in any part of 
! the cell-contents ; they are the so-called stomachs of the advocates of the polygastric 
structure of the Infusoria, 

I While engaged in the examination of specimens of Bursaria, it occasionally hap- 
pened that a minute pyriform body, with a ciliated surface and vacuolated structure, 
became detached and swam rapidlv away. The definite form of this little locomo* 
i 1853, ■ S 



66 REPORT — 1853. 

tive body renders it exceedingly unlikely that it was a fragment accidentally torh 
from the surface of the Bursaria. It is probably either a gemma or an embryo set free 
by the manipulation employed in the examination, but to what exact part of the 
parent animal it is indebted for its origin, the author could not satisfactorily discover. 

On the Structure of the Freshwater Polyp, Hydra viridis. 
By Professor Allman. 
It had been stated by Ecker and Kblliker that these creatures possessed no cells, 
but were composed of a mass of granules between which occasional vacuolae occurred. 
He had succeeded in observing thiit tlie whole of the structure of the Hydra was cel- 
lular, and no exception to the general law that regulated the existence of organic beings. 

On the Morphology of the Pycnogonidce, and Remarks on the Development 
of the Ova in some Species of Isopodous and Amphipodous Crustacea. 
By Spence Bate. 

On the Physiological Action of Inorganic Substances introduced directly into 
the Blood. By Dr. J. Blake. 
The paper detailed a continuation of the author's experiments on this subject. The 
salts employed in this series of experiments were those of alumina and iron, where 
the same result followed ; the action of the medicine was regulated by the isomorphism 
of the substances administered. 



Notices of some Living Aquatic Birds at Santry House, near Dublin. 
By W. C. Domville. 

On the Nature of Ciliary Motion. By P. Duncan. 

The author detailed what had been done by English observers on this subject, and 
came to the conclusion that the cause of the bending and returning of the cilium resided 
in the cell-wall of the cell which sustains the cilia, and that to a greater or less extent 
the whole of the cell- wall is contractile. 

Of the Influence of the Circulation of the Blood on the Mental Functions. 
ByB.. Fowler, M.D. 

This is a practical question, for as the whole body of an animal is a secretion from 
the blood of its parents, is kept in repair and rendered sensitive and contractile by the 
blood, and in ratio of its purity, and as all we can know of the external world is by 
inference from the subjective sensations impressed on our organs of sense, it is obvious 
that our knowledge must be dependent on tlie fitness of the bodily organs for being 
adjusted by the mind, and receiving impressions from existing objects, analogous to a 
telescope which must be adjusted by the mind of the astronomer, and reflective or 
refractive of the im])ressions it receives. 

Cretins, unfitted for the functions of life by impure air and insufficient food and filth, 
are restored by removal to pure air, wholesome food, cleanliness, and exercise. Bvit 
the result is obviously i-eferable to the agency of the blood; man, therefore, is a coil, 
secreted by his parents and actuated by vitality and animated by mind. 

I have in former papers, read in this Section, adduced facts to prove that vitality 
and mind are forces, and in correlation with the physical forces. Alike to these, 
their jmanifestation is in ratio of the fitness of their coils. The circulation of the blood 
is in a real coil of tubes, it is the oxygen of the decarbonized blood which excites the 
propulsive motion of the heart and arteries. The stimulating eifect of the oxygen 
may be fully estimated by the pain it excites on an abrased surface or cut, and the 
sufierin" of a person i-ecovering from suspended circulation. The nitrous oxide gas 
is described by Sir H. Davy to have excited feelings of extended touch. It is still 
the opinion of some persons, that the impulse given to the blood by the heart is the 
only impulsive force actuating the circulation, but there are facts adduced by the late 
Sir Charles Bell, to prove that the muscular coat of the minute arteries assist in 



TRANSACTIONS OF THK SECTIONS. 67 

working the functions of secretions, and that in the instances of tears, saliva from 
conceptions of food, and many other instances well-known to physiologists, that minute 
arteries are excited by retransmissions from conceptions. 

May not the flow of blood through the capillaries be accelerated by the electricity 
evolved from the chemical affinities of oxygen with the carbon ? 

In the year 1792, while making experiments on frogs and rabbits, and some experi- 
ments with zinc and silver suggested by Galvani's discovery, I divided the nerve of 
one of the legs and tied the crural arteries of the others ; the muscles whose arteries 
were tied soon lost their contractility, while those whose nerves were divided, but 
whose arteries were not compressed, were excitable for months after the nerve had 
been divided. From these facts I inferred that the blood and not the nerves influ- 
enced communication by the brain, and was the source of both sensibility and con- 
tractility. The frogs were kept in a large pan of water renewed every day, and their 
skins as little injured as could be avoided ; but when the skin was lightly brushed so 
as to excite the sensitive extremities of its nerves, a blush was seen on its surface, and 
the muscles were excitable by zinc and silver in contact with the trunk of the nerve 
and with each other. 

This appeared to me then, as now, a proof that both sensibility and contractility 
were communicated analogous, as it now seems, to the sensitiveness communicated to 
Talbotype paper by chemical preparation. May it not be by the blood projected to 
the eyes of cats, owls, and all animals who seek their prey in the dark, that the retina 
is rendered sufficiently sensitive to the smallest degree of light ? 

The late Sir William Herschel says, in one of his astronomical papers, that he always 
sat in a moderate light, and without moving his eyes, so that the retina might recover 
its sensibility before he looked into his telescope. We grope our way from a bright 
sunshine to a diorama, but all is light when we return, and the sensibility of the 
retina has been revivified by the blood, and the absence of exhausting light. As it is 
with the eyes, so I infer that it may be with the brain, the organ employed by the 
mind to effect the thinking functions. 

Blood, says Sir A. Cooper (Guy's Reports), was seen to flush the surface of the brain 
(perceivable from the loss of a part of the skull and dura mater) with every change of 
thought, even the most indifferent ; and any one may have observed that the scalp 
is overheated and the brain sensitive of an accelerated circulation in it when the mind 
has been long and intently thinking, that with every thought there is a retransmission 
or projection of blood, not only to the brain, but also to the part whose functions are 
required for action. 

We have proofs in such cases as those described by Dr. Yellowly in the Medical 
and Chirurgical Transactions, and others, so ably commented on by Sir Henry 
Holland. 

The sensibility communicated by the blood in a like case appears to me the efficient 
cause of consciousness. I have thus far spoken with reference to the red arterial 
blood only. The venous black blood injected into the brain by Bichat. destroyed life ; 
and Sir A. Cooper could also suspend all its phenomena by pressure on the carotid and 
vertebral arteries. Now since all the blood in patients in cholera is black, how is it 
that their consciousness is not suspended ? Mr. Magendie, in his able pamphlet on 
cholera, says that the intellect of one patient continued clear for more than two hours 
after the pulse in the wrist had ceased to beat. I asked him how he reconciled this 
fact with those recorded by Bichat ; he answered, " My friend Bichat, if living, would 
have to write that paper over again." May not the following aid our conception of 
two facts so seemingly incompatible? The skull cannot probably contain more blood 
at one time than at another, but the proportion of the venous blood may be abnormal, 
and by its congestion and pressure (as the finger on the denuded brain of the beggar) 
render a patient comatose. In cliolera there is no pressure by venous blood, for all 
the fluid parts of the blood have been discharged from the bowels. 

That conceptions are more vivid when we are in such a state of excitement 
as to accelerate the circulation of the blood in the organs in which conceptions are 
produced, as in emotions, passions and intensely pleasurable or painful sen- 
sations, cannot but have been noticed by all who can and do give their attention to the 
operations of their own minds. The painter seems to see on his canvas such a con- 
ception of the face ; he by trying to paint the lover sees " his mistress where she has not 
been," and such conceptions are the object of most illusive appearances. Appear- . 

5* 



66 REPORT — 1853. 

ances luminous to the eye ave evidently from an excited state of the minwte abstract 
arteries of the retina and brain, and I much suspect that the vivid coruscations of 
light, said to have been seen issuing from the poles of magnets in the dark, are caused 
by a like excited state of the minute arteries of the retina and brain. 

On a New Species of Cometes ; a Genus of Humming-Birds. 

By John Gould, F.R.S. 

The author gave an interesting account of the family of humming-birds, and of the 

species which were new in his collection. Of the genus Cometes, to which the new bird 

belonged, two species had already been described, the C.Spargmutrus and C.Phaon, 

and he proposed for the third species the name of C. Mossia, after its discoverer. 



On the Artificial Breeding of Sahnon in the Swale. 
^^ John Hogg, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

In the latter part of the autumn of 1851, two or three gentlemen of Richmond 
caught with a net three or four male and female salmon when they were observed to 
be about to deposit their roe and milt in the gravel-beds which they had made in the 
river Tees. They expressed into a vessel with fresh water some of the roe from the 
female salmon, and afterwards did the like with the milt from the males. They 
returned the fishes to the river. After shaking together the roe and milt, they in a 
day or two deposited them so mixed in beds in the gravel of a small stream, tributary 
to the Swale near Richmond, and carefully staked off the ground with thorns and 
■whins to prevent the access of small tvouts, minnows, and other fishes, which would 
have greedily devoured the roe. In the spring of the following year 1852, the gen- 
tlemen were happy to find that some fry of the salmon had emerged from the roe or 
ova so artificially fertilized and deposited ; and the experiment, in fact, succeeded. 
Again, on Christmas Eve of last year, 1852, the same gentlemen obtained from the 
river Tees some more male and female salmon, and expressed from them respectively 
some roe and milt. These were conveyed to the Swale, or one of its tributaries near 
Richmond, and the result was, this spring (.-Vpril 185.3), still more satisfactory, inas- 
much as many of the ova produced a fine stock of healthy fry. These active gentlemen 
and practical ichthyologists, to whom the author referred, consider that they have now 
the means of ensuring a supply of that noble and useful species, the salmon, in the 
waters of the Swale. That beautiful river, as it is satisfactorily recorded in the Annals 
of Richmond, had many years ago an annual supply of salmon ; but owing to the 
erection of a mill-dam some years since between Richmond and the sea, the free access 
up and down the Swale was prevented, and consequently the salmon took to other 
rivers. The removal of the dam, at least for a portion of the season, will this year be 
effected. The author also communicated a similar important fact respecting the arti- 
ficial breeding of the common trout; as he with pleasure learnt this spring that 
Major Wade, of Hauxwell Hall in this county, had during the last autumn and the 
April of this year, been equally successful with the ova and milt taken from female 
and male trouts. Mr. .J. H ogg then made a few observations on the facility of this me- 
thod of the artificial propagation of fishes ; and trusted that it only required to be better 
known to secure a more universal adoption of it, which would stock many of our rivers, 
lakes and waters throughout the kingdom, and consequently prove a source of wealth 
to poor persons, and give an abundant supply of delicious and wholesome food to all 
classes. By the same method the roe and milt might be obtained and conveyed in 
proper boxes filled with water and some gravel even to distant places, — probably, in 
time, to many of our colonies in foreign climes, and so be a ready means of exporting 
as well as of importing different species. 



On some discoveries relative to the Chick in Ovo, and its liberation from the 
shell. By F. R. Horner, M.D. of Hull. 

The author observed, that the chick in ovo had ever been a deeply interesting sub- 
ject of investigation to the physiologist as well as to the naturalist, both of this and 
of other countries, inasmuch as, from the facility of observation, it so admirably 
illustrated the order of development and gi-owth of the various organs and parts of 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 69 

the body. After describing the usual phsenomena observable in the egg during the 
last forty-eight hours of its incubation, as well as at the period of hatching, Dr. Horner 
stated that the special object of his comnjunication was, to announce the discovery of 
the true nature of the sound which is heard within the egg during the last two days 
of incubation ; and also to show what is the exact mode by which the chick breaks 
the shell. 

The opinion so universally held, not only by amateurs and breeders of poultry, but 
also by natui'alists and physiologists, that the tapping, or more correctly speaking, 
crackling sound, heard in the egg on the twentieth and twenty-first days of incuba- 
tion, were caused by the efforts of the chick to break the shell, he proved to be 
erroneous, by the following experiments : — first, by breaking a hole in the large end 
of the egg, when the bill of the chick was seen to be quite stationary, and never 
coming in contact with the shell, though the sound referred to continued before; 
secondly, that the sound was heard in other instances before the bill had emerged 
from the folds of the membrane which envelopes the chick, and consequently, there- 
fore, could not be then used to break the shell ; and thirdly, by enlarging the aper- 
ture in the shell first made by the chick so as to isolate the bill, and prevent the pos- 
sibility of its coming in contact with the shell, when still the same sound continued 
t» be produced as before, thus proving that the sound heard within the egg was not, 
and could not be produced by the bill of the chick breaking the shell. 

On examining a recently-hatched chick, by placing the ear and also the stethoscope 
on its breast and sides, a precisely similar sound was identified as had been heard 
within the egg. Thus, observed the author, )ny inquiry was complete, viz. that the 
sound heard within the egg during the last two days of incubation is not caused by the 
tapping, or by any other mode of contact of the chick's bill with the shell, but that it is 
truly respiratory, and produced by the transmission of the air through the lungs ; in 
other words, that it is nothing more than the natural respiratory sound of the chick. 
Such explanation receives also collateral testimony from the discovery of physiologists 
that air first enters the lungs of the chick about the end of the nineteenth day, viz. 
at the very period at which this sound, truly respiratory, first begins to be heard; — 
and yet more, the author ascertained that the frequency of the respiratory act 
accorded with the repetition of the sound within the egg. The action of the heart ia 
a newly-hatched chicken, he observed, was so rapid, that it could not be counted; 
whilst its impulse and sound were discerned with difficulty. 

The opinion that the shell is broken by a cutting, or scraping motion of the bill, 
through the agency of the pointed horny scale at its end, was shown to be fallacious, 
as the membrane which lines the shell is in the first instance left entire, while the 
shell itself without has been chipped or broken off. The author then observed that 
the shell is really broken, bit by bit, and with apparent ease, by a healthy chick ; and 
generally by a single smart blow only, though in some instances the blow is imme- 
diately repeated, or double ; that each strike of the bill is made with considerable 
power impinging with force against the shell, as is not only seen, but also felt and 
heard, by placing the ear against the part when broken ; that when the period of 
hatching approaches, the chick, which previously had occupied but two-thirds 
of the egg, now raises itself in the shell by a hustling struggling motion; and by 
thus unpacking, as it were, of itself, acquires more liberty for its efforts of liberation 
from the egg. He explained that the reason why the shell is always broken by the 
chick from left to right, is, because, the chick is so packed in the shell that its head 
always reclines under the left wing, and on the leftside of its body, so that it can only 
work and turn with facility towards that side. 



Notice of Jelly Fishes. By Dr. Lankester, F.R.S. 
The observation was made on the coast of SuflFolk, between the rivers Orwell and 
Deben, on the 5th, 6th, and 7th of August last. Their numbers were so great as 
seriously to interfere with fishing operations, and every receding tide left the shore in 
many places covered with them. The most common species was the yiurelia aurita, 
next to this Cyanea capillafa. A few individuals of Rhizostoma Pulmo were also 
taken. Noctiluca miliaris was so abundant, that a hand-net was soon filled on carry, 
ing it over the surface of the water. At night the water was brilliantly phospho- 
rescent. 



70 REPORT — 1853. 

On Photographic Plates and Illustrations of Microscopic Objects in Natural 
History. By Dr. Lankester. 
The object of the author was to draw attention to Photography as a means of pro- 
curing accurate copies of objects of natural liistory, more especially of those only seen 
by the microscope. The disadvantage of drawings in natural history was, that they 
more often represented the views of the author than correct delineations of the object. 
This was so much the case with drawings of microscopic objects, that the representa- 
tions of different observers of the same thing could hardly be recognized as similar. 



Dr. Lankester exhibited a series of drawings of the British Freshwater Polyps, 
executed by Prof Allman, which he stated were intended to illustrate a work on this 
subject to be published by the Ray Society. Among these Avere several new species, 
and he especially called attention to one of these, which seemed to be an exception to 
the general law tliat the polypidom of the polyp-bearing animals is fixed. In this 
case the polyp stalk possessed the power of moving, as well as each individual member 
of the mass. 



Dr. Lankester read the ' Report of the Committee for the Registration of the 
Periodic Phasnomena in Plants and Animals.' Registration papers filled up had been 
received from M. Moggridge, Swansea ; Miss Llewellyn, Llangewellach, Glamor- 
ganshire ; G. H. M. Sladen, Ninfield ; W. C. Nourse, Clapham ; W. C. Domville, 
Santry, Co. Dublin, Ireland. These papers would be published probably in the next 
volume of the Transactions of the Association. In connexion with the registration 
of the phoenomena of life, as affected by changes in the weather, &c., Dr. Lankester 
called attention to an effort that was now making to register the occurrence of disease 
in conjunction with the state of the weather. 



Note on the Habits of Fish in relation to certain Forms of Medtisce. 
By C. W. Peach. 
The author had observed at Peterhead that the young of the whiting and pollack 
frequently sought safety from their pursuers in the umbrellas of the various species of 
Medusae. He especially mentioned the Cyanea aurita, and also a species called 
C. mscripta by Templeton. He thought this clearly proved that the Medusae did not 
destroy fish for food, as had been sometimes supposed. 



Notes on a living Specimen of Priapulus caudatus, dredged off the Coast of 
Scarborough. By John Phillips, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

The specimen, of which drawings were exhibited to the Section, was sent alive to 
the author by Mr. John Leckenby of Scarborough, in the month of February 1853. 
It was kept in life three weeks, by renewing of the sea water, with sea-weed and sand. 
The animal was never observed to make any special efforts to take food, though on 
the affusion of fresh sea-water, faecal matter was ejected from the anal opening near 
the base of the plume. In the sunshine it became active, drawing in and exserting 
the anterior proboscis, quickly and even suddenly ; opening and again contracting the 
large caudal plume ; bending, extending, and shortening the body without any settled 
order of changes. The diameter was variable in every part, but near the base of the 
plume it was sometimes thrice as large as at other times. When in a state of great- 
est activity — a few days after it arrived in York, — agitation of the vessel occasioned 
some disturbed contraction of the plume ; the penicilli of this appendage would con- 
tract separately on being touched ; after repeated contacts, the whole would be shut 
up so as to resemble a narrow papillated rachis. The surface of the whole body is 
annulaled ; the rings (about forty) being prominent on the body, but only marked by 
lines (above sixty) on the proboscis. These rings and lines are ornamented by 
numerous small prominences, papillary and blunt on the body, mucronated, a little 
recurved and horny on the proboscis, where they are ranged in twenty-four beauti- 
fully exact lines, continued to the centre of the variable disc which terminates the 
proboscis. When the proboscis is drawn inward, the disc becomes folded, so as to- 



TRANSACTIONS Of THE SECTIONS. 71 

represent, in some degree, the oral aspect of a Cyprsea, and the skin between the 
mucronated lines is curiously folded and packed. 

The skin is translucent enough to show, during the retraction and exsertion of the 
proboscis, internal movements manifested by shady parts pushed far forward and 
backward ; but these movements are disguised by the partial opacity caused by many 
white narrow longitudinal bands, which being collected togetlier to closer proximity 
in one particular band, make there a narrow continuous ridge, terminating near the 
anal opening. 

The plume when expanded shows, on each of its penicilli, a roughly papillous sur- 
face ; the papillae, being examined, are found often to be long, conical, and sometimes 
covered with finer prominences or thread-like parasites. The expansion and contrac- 
tion of this plume — doubtless the respiratory organ — is probably connected with an in- 
ternal cavity filled with a watery fluid, but the author has deferred a strict dissection 
of the interior till other specimens should be placed at his disposal. He proposes 
the following specific character: — 

Priapulus caudatus, Fleming. — P. corpore cylindrico, annulato, antice proboscidi- 
fero, posticfe ramoso-penicillato ; proboscide lineis (24) longitudinalibus dentiferis, 
signato ; papillis corporis ovato-conicis ; penioillorum papillis acutis conicis. 



On the Connexion between Cartilage and Bone. 
By Peter Redfern, M.D., Lond., 8^c. 

The author described in detail the nature of the structure of bone and cartilage at their 
junction, and pointed out that the relation between them is much more intimate than is 
generally supposed, and that it accounts satisfactorily for the characters of disease of 
the articular surfaces of bones. It shows likewise the actual passage of cartilage into 

bone. 

On a curious Exemplification of Instinct in Birds. 
By the Rev. Francis F. Statham, B.A., F.G.S., Walworth. 

The author stated that his communication partook more of the nature of an anec- 
dote than of any elaborate disquisition. He made some references to the theory of 
the facial angle, as indicative of the amount of sagacity observable in the animal race, 
but expressed his conviction that this theory was utterly at fault in the case of birds ; 
many of those having a very acute facial angle being considerably more intelligent than 
others having scarcely any facial angle at all. Size also seemed to present another ano- 
maly between the two races of beasts and birds ; for while the elephant and the horse 
were among the most distinguished of quadrupeds for sagacity and instinct, the larger 
birds seemed scarcely comparable to the smaller ones in the possession of these attri- 
butes. The writer instanced this by comparing the ostrich and the goose with the 
wren, the robin, the canary, the pigeon, and the crow. The author then proceeded 
to describe in detail the particular case of instinct which formed the subject of his 
paper. It referred to the poisoning of two young blackbirds by the parent birds 
when they found that they could neither liberate them nor permanently share their 
Captivity. The two fledgelings had been taken from a blackbird's nest in the garden 
of S. Swonnell, Esq., of Surrey Square, London, and had been placed in a room over- 
looking the garden, in a wicker cage. For some time the old birds attended to their 
wants, visited them regularly, and fed them with appropriate food .; but at last, getting 
wearied of the task, or despairing of effecting their liberation, they appeared to have 
poisoned them. They were both found suddenly dead one morning shortly after 
having been seen in good health ; and on opening their bodies, a small leaf, supposed 
to be that of Solamtm nigrum, was found in the stomach of each. The old birds im- 
mediately deserted the spot, as though aware of the nefarious deed befitting their namer 

On the Partridges of the Great Water-shed of India. 
By H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 

The author drew attention to a new Part of Mr. Gould's Birds of Asia, in which 
the genus Telraogallus was illustrated. These birds had been correctly named, as 
they truly partook of the characters of the genera Tetrao and Galliis. Specimens of 
these birds were now alive in the Gardens of the Zoological Society of London. 



72 REPORT 1853. 

On the Mode of Growth of HaWchondria suberea. 
Bi/ H. E. Strickland, M.A., F.R.S. 

This species of sponge, which is frequently ohtained by dredging, has long been 
known for the peculiarity of its habitat. It is found investing the surface of old dead 
univalve shells, which ot'ten present the appearance of being actually converted into, or 
replaced by, the substance of the s.ponge ; for we find that the spiral cavity of the 
shell is continued through the sponge for a considerable number of volutions, and is 
always inhabited by some species of hermit crab. This has been explained by Dr. 
Johnstone, in his ' History of British Sponges,' who supposes that the sponge by some 
means dissolves, or absorbs, the larger volutions of the shell, and only leaves a small 
portion of the apical volutions undestroyed. On carefully examining some specimens 
which I lately dredged up, 1 found reason to believe that the sponge does not, as sup- 
posed, remove any portion of the original shell, but merely prolongs its spiral volutions 
Ijeyond their original extent. It is true that the enveloped portion of shell is often 
corroded and imperfect; but this is owing to its having been in a dead and decayed 
condition before the sponge began to grow : for in other cases the shell is sound, 
full- sized, and with a perfect mouth ; and yet the spiral cavity is continued beyond it 
for several volutions, through the substance of the sponge. In a specimen now pro- 
duced is a perfect shell of the Nassa macula, a small species of univalve ; and yet the 
sponge has grown to such an extent as to suggest the idea of having been modelled on 
the much larger species, Na.isa reticulata. The continuation of the spiral cavity 
through the sponge is evideritly due to the presence of the hermit crab, round whose 
spiral body the sponge continues to grow, beyond the margin of the original shell. On 
first noticing this peculiarity, it occurred to me that it might throw light on the very 
remarkable spiral tube, filled with flint, which perforates certain fossil sponges from 
tbe chalk, as described by Mr. Charlesworth in the Geological Section. It appears, 
however, that the tubes in the fossil sponges do not taper, like those which in the 
recent sponge are modelled on the continually enlarging body of the hermit crab, and 
consequently the nature of the former structure still remains to be explained. 

On Preserving the Balance between Vegetable and Animal Organisms in 
Sea Water. By Robert Warington. 
The public were first indebted to Mr. "Warington for a statement of the conditions 
in which animals could be kept in fresh water without changing the water. It is not 
suflicient that there be plants alone ; but where the higher animals such as fish are kept, 
it is necessary that some beings should exist which will feed on the decaying vege- 
table matter. This desideratum is supplied by the various forms of phytophagous 
MoUusca. The author's success with fresh water led him to try experiments with sea 
water, and the results of his investigations were given in this paper. The most im- 
portant fact established was, that marine aninials could be kept in sea water without 
changing in the same manner as in fresh. The conditions of the existence of sea- 
water creatures are, however, much more varied than those of fresh; hence the dif- 
ficulty had been proportionally great in arriving at a successful issue. The nature of 
the plants in the first place is a matter of importance. The author found that the 
green sea-weeds answered better than the red or brown. In introducing animals they 
should be healthy and uninjured. Those should not be put together which devour each 
other. Ciabs, especially the common crab, are very destructive ; so are gobies, bleu- 
nies, and rock-fish. The sea water should be kept of a proper gravity. It should be 
about 1-026 at a temperature of 60°. Rain or distilled water should be added from 
time to time to supply any loss. All dead animal or vegetable matter of any kind 
phould be removed. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 7$ 



GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

On the Influence of the Invasion of the Danes and Scandinavians, in Early 

Times, on certain Localities in England. By Sir C. Anderson. 
Having lately visited Denmark and the northern parts of Europe, the author 
had been much struck with the similarity pervading the Danish and English 
languages, and he had thought it might not be deemed superfluous if he ventured 
to lay before the Meeting some of the results of his inquiries. The similarity he 
ascribed to the influence which the Danes possessed when they made a conquest of 
this island, and planted themselves as settlers in it. Sir Charles proceeded to give 
several examples in support of his assertion. 

On the Dialects North and South of the Humber compared. 
By Charles Beckett. 
Mr. Beckett commenced by observing that the boundaries of English counties 
were various, and often arbitrary, the most natural being rivers. The river Hum- 
ber, from its width and length,'has always formed a most distinct boundary, not 
only between two diflferent counties, but also between two classes of peasantry, 
difl^ering much in many respects, — in origin, physiognomy, manners, conformation, 
and dialect. Abundant evidence exists of Danish origin in the names of towns 
and villages in both counties; no less than 212 places terminating in "by" in 
Lincolnshire, whilst in the north and east ridings of Yorkshire 135 of the same 
were found. This termination always points out a Danish origin. Several other 
Danish names of places, persons, and things, are also found. The distinction 
between the peasantry north and south of the Humber cannot escape the attentive 
observer. The Lincolnshire peasant is somewhat more phlegmatic, his physiognomy 
less marked and acute, and the face more oval in form than that of the York- 
shireman. His manner is more amiable and polite, but less decisive and acute. 
This harmonizes not only with his own appearance, but, singularly, also with the 
general mildness of the aspect of the landscape around him. These inquiries are 
the more interesting, because the progress of civilization, increased travelling facili- 
ties, and the lapse of time, all tend rapidly to efface ethnological distinctions. The 
successive irruptions of the Roman, Saxon, Danish, and Norman people into this 
country, were analogous to the warping of low land by successive tides ; the exist- 
ing language being a rich alluvium left by them all. Yorkshire has probably several 
dialects; Lincolnshire, two, according to Halliwell, the north and the south. 
Both agree in the broad pronunciation of many syllables — as, for instance, 
changing one into two : as, sea, sea-ah ; seat, se-at ; beast, bee-ast. Both use many 
archaic words, each county, however, having its own. The intonations and 
inflexions of the voice vary also in the two counties. But the chief difference hes in 
the relative value of the two vowels i and o. These are rendered ei in Yorkshire, and 
double or long i in Lincolnshire : as, wife, weife, wiife ; life, leife, iiife, respectively. 
These apparently trivial difl'erences are in fact sufficient to change the whole character 
of the vernacular speech. The o also has similar varieties ; thus in Yorkshire we 
have now, noo, and thou, thoo. In Lincolnshire these would be thaou, naou. Some 
other characteristics were also mentioned. On the whole the Lincolnshire dialect 
is more soft and agreeable, contains fewer obsolete words and accents, and ap- 
proaches more nearly to pure speech. The paper closed by inquiring how far 
climate and the social history and progress of the two counties might have operated, 
along with some difl'erences of origin, in leading to these probably transient eth- 
nological distinctions. 

Substance of a Topographical Essay on the Navigation of the Rivers " Plata," 
" Parana," " Paraguay," " Vermejo," and " Pilcomayo." By Herman 

C. DwERHAGEN. 

In 1828 M. Herman C. Dwerhagen published some observations on the immense 
importance of the free navigation of the river Plata and its various ramifications to 
the Republics of Buenos Ayres and Bolivia, which, he complains, met with no 



fi REPORT 1853. 

attention either from natives or foreigners, because they were unacquainted with 
the geography of both these Republics. This consideration has induced him to 
publish a map, which, although on a small scale, he considers sufficient for the 
object he had in view, although it only contains the names of the chief towns 
and such places as the navigation of the rivers lead to. The author states 
that the navigation of the river " Plata" would eternally unite the territories of 
Buenos Ayres and Bolivia, as it is navigable from its mouth in 35° S. latitude, to 
the junction of the Jauru with the Paraguay in 16° S. latitude, being an inland 
navigation of 19° in extent ; the principal provinces in Bolivia, which would be directly 
benefited by the free navigation of the Paraguay (a branch of the River Plata), are 
Moxos, Chiquitos, and Santa Cruz de la Sierra. 

These extensive territories, the most fertile in Bolivia, about 43,000 square leagues 
in extent, produce little or nothing at present, compared with what they might 
produce if they had an outlet for their products, which consist of sugar, rice, coffee, 
indigo, cocoa, cotton (that of Moxos being one of the best in the world), grain, 
many kinds of valuable drugs, and amongst them bark, dyewoods, tobacco, canes, 
numerous kinds of wood of the most beautiful description, hides, tallow, &c,, 
articles which cannot on account of their bulk be sent over the Cordilleras to a 
port on the Pacific, as the expense of the carriage would exceed their value on their 
arrival there. The author considers these territories as the most choice in the Republic, 
and in proof states that they met the especial favour of the Jesuits, and have now 
the advantage of being peopled by industrious and intelligent Indians ; and all that 
is wanted is the introduction of steam-navigation to bring forth the natural capabi- 
lities of the country, and to produce a most extensive commercial intercourse betwixt 
the States of Buenos Ayres and Bolivia, in lieu of the present slow mode of com- 
munication by vessels. These are sometimes made fast to a tree for a fortnight 
waiting for a fair wind, during which time the whole extent of the navigation might 
be accomplished by a steam-vessel ; so that a large territory, now producing but 
little, might, by having proper stations on the Paraguay and the aid of steam 
navigation, become productive in the most extraordinary degree, and greatly in- 
crease its population. At present, the only port which Bolivia turns her attention 
to is Lamar, alias Cobija, on the Pacific, but by the plan now under consideration, 
the intercourse with Buenos Ayres and Europe would be made easy and constant, 
and the navigation round Cape Horn avoided. The passage from Buenos Ayres to 
latitude 16° 20', that is, to the mouth of the river Jauru, might be made in about 
a fortnight as soon as the navigation of the river should be properly understood, 
allowing the same rate of time as is required for an equal distance on the river 
Mississippi, and the return would be effected in less than half the time. The mouth 
of the Jauru is on the same parallel of latitude as the town of Santa Anna, the capital 
of the province of Chiquitos, and distant from it about 70 leagues, and is a much 
less distance from various other towns of the same province. From the capital of 
Matagroso it is about 73 leagues, and about 100 leagues from the nearest towns in 
the province of Moxos. 

This steam navigation being once established, the inhabitants of Bolivia might 
with ease bring all their own products down to Buenos Ayres and Montevideo, and 
take back in return such articles as they might require, all of which would be 
found at either place at reasonable prices. All these remarks apply with equal force 
to the noble river Pilcomayo, which is navigable nearly as far as Chuquisaca and 
Santa Cruz de la Sierra ; thus by means of this celebrated river, which runs through 
a most fertile country, supplies of sugar, coffee, cotton, tobacco, &c., and in fine 
all the products of the East and West Indies and Brazil, everything which 
nature is capable of producing within the tropics, might be received. The navigation 
of the Pilcomayo is said to be obstructed by three falls, which might perhaps be 
remedied ; but if not, such steam-boats would have to be constructed as would 
navigate betwixt them, and proper arrangements made to facilitate the transhipment 
of the goods from one steam-boat to another. All this would attract the attention of 
the Indians and bring about a trade with them, for they would soon begin to cul- 
tivate all kinds of tropical productions ; in addition to this, on the banks of this river, 
honey, wax, skins, and many other articles are to be found, besides the finest wood 
in the world ; and in fine, the navigation of the " Pilcomayo" would more rapidly 
promote the civilization of the Indians of the Chaco, and of that part through which 



TRANSACTIONS 'OF THE SKCTIONS. tA 

it ruiis than all the attempts of the last three hundred years. Thus the whole of the 
IrSne Republic would have an active commerce with that of Bolma, which would 
be furnished with all the products of the world, and m return would give her own. 
feS TnhabHants of the^astern side of Bolivia it would be more advantageous to 
make their purchases at Buenos Ayres rather than at any port on the PacAc be- 
Susethy would be able to reach Buenos Ayres more conveniently, and quite at 
S ease and be certain of finding there everything they wanted, and cheaper than 
n the ports of tL Pacific, the number of vessels which arrive at Buenos Ayres 
beinfso much greater. The traffic in gold and silver can only be carried on bene- 
ficaUv from the ports on the Pacific, but all merchandise of any bulk is most ad- 
vanta^eousW trans^ported by the rivers, and generally where the property goes there 
goes the owner also. The foreign trader will always prefer the river Plata, and be 
Content wiTh half the gain which he might make in such places as Arica and Lamar, 
as the reTurns would be so much quicker as to make him ample amends It may 
be said that by means of the new canal by the river St. John and lake Nicaragua 
an acte commere may be established with Bolivia by means of Puerto Lamar but 
a vessd from Europe or from the United States of America would reach the river Plata 
as soon as it couW the mouth of the river St. John. This canal wi 1 enter the 
Pacific in about 11° 30' N. latitude, from whence a new voyage is to be com- 
menced fm Port Lamar, during which time the cargo, which may be shipped to Buenos 
Avres direct, will have been placed on board the steam-boat and arrive much quicker 
at^Sant^Annror Chuquisaca. Some people imagine that Bohvia ni.ght have an 
active commercial intercourse by means of the river Bini or Rio Grande, branches 
of the SSit Maranham; but in the first place, the distance is much greater from 
?L th?e provincerS'La Plata. Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Chiquitos and even 
Moxos • secondly, these rivers run through deserts and countries inhabited by 
™es' and filled with clouds of insects and other things wh^ch torment mankind, 
and the alrbreathed in such voyages is pestiferous; thirdly, the greater part of the 
vearitrans, and immediately' after a shower the sun bursts forth with such ex - 
Jessive power as to open the upper works of the vessels, and before they could 
5each the mouth of the Maranham great part of their cargoes would have perished 
Now if all these difficulties are attendant on the descent of the river, how much 
would they be increased in the ascent, which would require double the time; and 
wha human frame could stand such a trial? for the heat being excessive to begin 
with wSd be increased as the voyage was prolonged, the navigation bemg con- 
Snued under the equator, so that none but the most hardy Indians could support 
J wherearthe descent of the rivers to Buenos Ayres would have exactly the contrary 
effert as a more genial climate would be approached with extraordmary rapidity. 
The river Vermejo is navigable nearly as far as Tarija, and which, by means of its 
branches, brings us in contact with Jujuy and Salta, which was ascertained by Don 
Francbco Gavfno de Arias in 1789, Don Juan Adrian Cornejo in 1790, and Don 
Pablo Soria in 1827 ; they all three descended the nver, and reached the Paraguay 
without difficulty, the first in February, the second in May and June, and found 
S less than th^ee varas of water. The advantages which the free navigation of 
this river would be to the Argentine Republic are incalculable, for a steam-vessel 
would be able to reach Oran in twelve days, or even perhaps nearer to Tarija. What 
a stimulus would this be to cultivate the rich territory of the three provinces Tarija, 
Salta and Tucuman ! and these would have a direct interest in the tree navigation of 
the Vermejo" as they all border on the said river, and they now produce nee sugar, 
grain ind go, cofFeJ. wax, honey, tobacco, woods of all sorts, dyewoods, leather 
Ss skins, &c.; but these articles are abandoned, although not for want of 
h nd . because in those provinces very good Indians are to be had. who come from 
Chaco of their own free will to work for moderate wages The province of Paraguay 
alone is capable of producing an enormous quantity of tropical products, besides 
many other important and useful articles ; and as soon as ever person and proper y 
become respected and secure, there will be no want of individuals "^^ady to engage m 
so lucrative'a business as steam-navigation will aflford.j^ ^"^/-'^-^^ 3\^J^///, •' "^J 
known and almost abandoned will be enlivened by a brisk trade, and the territory 
through which they run will acquire a very increased value owing to their quick 
and efsy communication with the sea. It would also be to the interest of Bi^il to 
allow the products of that country to be exported from one or two ports of Mata- 
groso situate on the Paraguay. 



76 REPORT — 1853. 

A Sketch of the Progress of Discovery in the Western Half of New Guinea, 
from the Year 1828 tip to the Present Time. By G. Windsor Earl. 

This paper is a continuation of an essay on the same subject by Mr. Earl, which 
appeared in the Transactions of the Geographical Society in 1837. In 1849 the 
Dutch war- schooner Circe was sent by the Netherlands Government to explore the 
north coast of New Guinea, for the purpose of choosing a site for another settlement. 
Port Dory and the trading ports on the shores of the Great Bay were investigated ; after 
which the Circe proceeded to the eastward along the coast, intending to examine 
Port Humboldt, but contrary winds prevented her from entering the bay, after having 
arrived within a few miles of the head. Nevertheless, the information collected was 
considered sufficient to authorize the establishment of a settlement, and a garrison, 
consisting of burghers, or native militia, was fixed there in the early part of 1852. 
Mr. Earl is of opinion that this settlement is likely to prove useful to shipping em- 
ployed in the traffic between India and the west coast of America, as the neighbour- 
ing coast has hitherto afforded no place of refuge for distressed vessels, which is so 
much the more necessary from the savage character of the inhabitants. The only 
discovery of importance made during the voyage of the Circe was between Dobie 
and the Arimoa Islands, where the low land, through an extent of nearly 100 miles, 
was found to be the delta of a large river, called Ambermo by the natives, which, 
from the immense quantity of alluvium that has been deposited' at its mouth, form- 
ing a shallow bank, extending many miles out to sea, may be a river of importance, 
affording access to the interior. Some mountains were seen far inland from the 
mouth of the river, which were conjectured to be the same lofty range seen from 
the south-west coast in 1828, and supposed, from their white appearance, to be 
covered with snow. A lithographed sketch of this range, by one of the artists 
attached to the Dutch Expedition of 1828, accompanied the paper. 

On the Currents of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 
By A.G. FiNDLAY, F.R.G.S. 

The progress of meteorological science having been pre-eminently fostered by the 
British Association, it was thought that one hitherto much neglected, but very im- 
portant branch of it, would form a fitting subject for their consideration. When it is 
remembered that of the surface of our planet, the proportion of water to land is at 
least 391 to 100, or nearly four times greater in area, and that the phaenomena of 
the atmosphere must be exhibited much nearer their normal condition at sea than 
on land, amid the infinite variety of terrestrial disturbances, the nature of oceanic 
circulation must be allowed to be of no small importance in the generalization of 
atmospheric phaenomena, and the distribution of climate. 

Yet this branch of natural science has had as yet but few votaries. The labours 
of Lieut. Maury at the National Observatory of the United States have of late 
drawn attention to it, and it is hoped that England may enter into an honourable 
rivalry in this domain of science. It was, however, with deference urged that the 
labours of our American brethren had not, as yet, added much to our knowledge of the 
North Atlantic currents, as it was left to us by the personal labours of Major Rennell, 
who gave us the first memoirs on the subject as it now stands in 1778 and 1793. 

It is with the currents of the North Atlantic only that we are tolerably intimate, 
but even this knowledge is imperfect, for we know nothing of submarine or subsurface 
currents, though such knowledge is greatly attainable. Of the other parts of the 
wide world of waters we are in great ignorance, and it is in the Pacific, the Asiatic 
Archipelago, and the Indian Ocean that the real harvest of maritime meteorology is 
to be gained. 

There are several difficulties in the formation of an entire system from the labours 
of Rennell ; the waters constantly setting into the Sargasso Sea, the origin and con- 
tinuance of the North African and Guinea currents and of the Arctic currents are 
not satisfactorily explained by him, but by analogy with the Pacific currents and 
further observations, these anomalies may perhaps be removed. 

The Arctic current setting southward out of Baffin's Bay and between Iceland and 
Greenland, passes down Labrador and Newfoundland, and turns to the westward in 
soundings along the coast of the United States as far as Cape Hatteras, in opposition 
to the direction of the Gulf-stream ; this was first explained by Mr. Redfield in 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 1^7 

1838. The warm Gulf-stream closes in with the land in its northern progress at 
Cape Hatteras, and the line between this and the cold inner currents is a nearly 
perpendicular wall of warm and cold water in juxtaposition. At the banks of 
Newfoundland the Arctic current flows beneath the Gulf-stream and transports 
icebergs into its warm waters. Another feature of the Gulf-stream lately elicited 
by Bache and other officers of the U.S.N., its bifurcation off Cape Hatteras, may be 
attributed to the recurving of that portion of the equatorial current which flows 
to the northward of the Bahamas. Between Porto Rico and the Bermuda Islands, 
some singular phaenomena were observed in May 1850 by Lieut. Walsh, U.S.N., 
the currents at the depth of 126 fathoms flowing in opposite directions on consecu- 
tive days, generally with greater velocity, and always different in direction to the 
surface current, indicating a sort of eddy. The Gulf-stream does not stop at the 
Azores, as was supposed by Rennell, but a portion is propelled toward the Bay of 
Biscay, and producing the temporary Rennell's or 'thwart- channel current, and 
probably impelled by the prevalent S.W. wind, it reaches the western shores of the 
British islands and the coast of Norway, causing the climates of these countries to 
be in marked contrast to those of Greenland and Labrador in the same latitudes. It 
also reaches the S. and W. shores of Iceland, as shown by Capt. Irminger of the 
Danish Navy. The portion which strikes the coast of Portugal passes southwards, 
forming the North African current, and south of Cape Verde and Cape Roxo it 
turns to the westward into the great equatorial current, and does not probably form 
the initial portion of the Guinea current flowing eastward into the African Bights. 
The equatorial current, with less regularity on its eastern side, but constantly on 
the western, flows from east to west within the tropics, and the northern portion 
forms the commencement of the Gulf-stream ; that southward of Cape S. Roque on 
the Brazil coast, flows southward as the Brazil current, whence it is deflected to the 
eastward as the Southern Connecting Current across the Atlantic into the Indian 
Ocean south of the Agulhas Bank off the Cape of Good Hope. The Agulhas cur- 
rent flowing to the west around the Cape, and then along the west coast of Africa 
northwards to the Bight of Biafra, enters the southern portion of the equatorial 
current, which flows in opposition to and in juxtaposition with the Guinea current. 
The waters thus circulate around the parallels of lat. 30° in each hemisphere, the 
central portion of the North Atlantic on this line being known as the Sargasso (or 
weedy) Sea. 

The Guinea Current, a warm stream setting to eastward, or in opposition to the 
equatorial currents, along the coast of Guinea as far as Fernando Po and Princes' 
Island, has been attributed to a prolongation of the North African current ; but 
why this latter should turn to the east instead of to leeward or to west has not 
been explained. It was here affirmed to be an independent stream, originating in 
mid-ocean, in the zone of equatorial calms, between the N.E. and S.E. trade-winds, 
and the true character of which is cleared up by the existence of a similar current in 
the Pacific, which was first placed on the charts laid before the Meeting, and pre- 
sently alluded to. 

In describing the currents of the Pacific Ocean, we enter upon comparatively a 
new subject; but from a collection of observations arranged on the charts laid before 
the meeting some new features and extended knowledge may be established. It may 
be asserted, however, that the waters of the Pacific do not appear to move with 
so great velocity and apparent regularity as in the North Atlantic, and this espe- 
cially so in its south-western portions. The southernmostmovement is in the Antarctic 
current, moving with a velocity apparently of 10 to 35 miles a day from southwards 
towards the north and east, down to lat. 33° or 34° S. Of many particulars we are 
still ignorant, which is to be regretted, as it has an important bearing upon the track 
of our Australian homeward-bound ships. It is analogous to the Southern Con- 
necting Current in the Atlantic, and, as has been demonstrated by Duperrey, it 
strikes the west coast of Patagonia about the parallel of Chiloe, one portion passing 
south and east around Cape Horn, and carrying the drift-wood to the Falkland 
Islands, and even 900 miles eastward of them. This current also flows past Tristan 
d'Acunha to the E.N.E., and also past the islands south of New Zealand. The 
northern branch of this cold antarctic current is a remarkable one, and was first de- 
monstrated by Humboldt in 1802, and hence called the Peruvian or Humboldt's 
Current. It is a moving mass of cold water, of great depth, moving northwards 



78 BBPORT — 1853. 

along the American coast, as far as Cape Blanco, whence it is deflected to the 
W.N.W. towards the Galapagos Islands on the equator, where it produces some 
singular effects : there appears to be a constant struggle between these cold waters 
and those of the very warm counter current to the northward. Henceforward this 
current must be considered as forming the initial portion of the great South Equa- 
torial current, which flows in a westerly direction between 4° N. and 26° S. But 
in its progress it has many variations, in its eastern portion, and especially among 
the archipelagos in the central portion of its course. Notwithstanding these ex- 
ceptions, which cannot be further noticed in this abstract, it assumes the true character 
of a strong westerly stream about the islands north-east of Australia, and a portion 
passing to north-west by the New Hebrides and New Caledonia, has been termed 
Rossel's Drift; but this portion is not constant. It runs strongly past the north 
coast of New Guinea, but between the neighbourhood of the New Hebrides and 
Torres Strait there does not appear to be any well-marked current. A portion of 
the South Equatorial Current, south of New Caledonia, is turned to W.S.W. to- 
wards the Australian coast, and thence descends to the southward, a warm stream 
of 1 or 2 miles an hour, to the southern part of Australia, where it turns eastward, 
joined by the current through Bass's Strait and south of Van Dieraen's Land. 
Thus, on a minor scale, it resembles the Atlantic Gulf-stream or the Brazil current, 
and appears to circulate around the space between New Zealand and Austraha. 

The Northern Equatorial Current flows from east to west in the Pacific, between 
lats. 10° N. and 24° N. There is a paucity of observations on the eastern portions 
of its course, and it has no well-marked commencement, as is the case with the 
Southern Equatorial Current ; but it is strong and regular in many portions of its 
progress, and it may be traced with great exactness through the various ranges of 
islands which it traverses (the authorities for which were cited) ; and having brought 
the great mass of tropical waters across the breadth of the North Pacific, and, as is 
the case with the southern portion, with a gradual augmentation of heat, it has been 
usual to consider that it then passed onwards through the Asiatic archipelago. But 
in giving a connected view of the Pacific currents, it is confidently stated that some 
very important branches of the subject have been entirely overlooked, or only slightly 
hinted at. Two currents, at least, of immense magnitude have not yet appeared on 
our physical charts, and were placed for the first time in a Directory for the Pacific 
Ocean, in 1851, by the author. The authorities and details for these currents were 
laid before the meeting. One of these is a great belt of water lying under the zone 
of tropical calms, and flowing to the eastward ; and a second was a Gulf- stream of 
the Pacific, hinted at by M. Tessan in 1837-44 as perhaps existing in the central 
portion, but which was here traced to Japan, and hence named the Japanese 
current. 

The Japanese current is a continuation of the Northern Equatorial Drift, which 
being obstructed by the Philippine Islands, turns to the northward towards the 
Loochoo Islands and Japan, off the south coast of which it is a most violent north- 
easterly stream, as was demonstrated from the Japanese charts of Von Siebold and 
Krusenstern, the observations of Capts. King and Gore, Krusenstern, Broughton, and 
others. Its further course is manifest from the dense fogs entered by Capt. Beechey, 
anditreaches the shores of Kara tschatka, as shown by M. de Tessan. Japanese junks 
have been drifted and wrecked on Kamtschatka, on Kodiack, at Oregon, and at the 
Sandwich Islands— all evidences of the easterly set, and we have the observations of 
Admiral Du Petit Thouars, as recorded by M. de 7"essan, for its central portion. 
On its reaching the shores of America, it turns to southward, like the Gulf-stream, 
andflowing southwards past the coast ofCahfornia, a portion continues towards central 
America ; but the chief portion re-enters the equatorial current past the Sandwich 
Islands — a fact proved by the pine timber of N.W. America drifting on to the 
eastern sides of that archipelago. This current, here imperfectly developed, it is 
true, must be an important assistance to vessels proceeding from China towards 
Oregon, California, or Panama, following as it does the great circle route between 
these places. It is thus shown that the waters of the Pacific circulate around the 
parallels of 30° N, and S. as axes. 

Between these two systems of revolution there exists another important current, 
here named the Equatorial Counter Current, from its relation to the great tropical 
or westerly drifts on either side of it. It is an easterly stream setting across the 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. ^9 

entire breadth of the Pacific between the latitudes of 4° or 5° and 10° North. Only 
one small portion of its course had been previously noticed. Without quoting the 
observations here, it may be stated that, proceeding from west to east, the remarks 
and experience of Krusenstern, Duperrey, Liitke, Hunter, Wilson, the U.S.. Explo- 
ring Expedition, Du Petit Thouars, the Prussian ships Mentor and Princess Louise, 
Liitke again, the Dutch frigate Koerier, Beechey, and Vancouver, besides other facts 
drawn from natural phaenomena, will demonstrate its almost permanent existence ; 
and these observations are almost all authentic, and above suspicion. 

The current system which thus centres at Panama is most singular, and, as far as 
known, is unexampled : the only approximation to a similar position is in the Bight 
of Biafra. We have here the waters of the equatorial counter-current, frequently 
those of the Peruvian current from the southward, and of the Mexican currents 
almost always from the northward. The outlet as a surface current to these great 
masses of water does not seem to have been detected as yet. 

In assigning a cause or combination of causes for these mighty operations, we are 
met with many and, at present, insuperable difl5culties. Our knowledge of many 
most material facts is most incomplete. We know little or nothing of the maximum 
density of sea water. Dr. Marcet places it at a temperature of 22° Fahr., M. Erman 
at 25°, Col. Sabine at 42°, and Sir James Ross at 39°"5. The latter states that the 
zone of equal density arising from temperature is in a mean lat. of 56° 26' S. 
Whatever may be its maximum density, it is certain that we can sink a sounding 
weight to an enormous depth (8| miles of line having been run out), but the author 
did not admit the experiment as satisfactory, and concludes that it has not informed 
us of the depth of the ocean. We know little of the ratio of absorption and radiation 
of heat — a most powerful cause. The effect of the rotation of the earth is difficult to 
be calculated without these additional elements, nor can the accumulated action of 
tides, if any, be estimated, though more exact and extended observations will doubtless 
enable us to integrate all these sources of motion, and assign to each its amount of 
action. 

The action of the wind, it was maintained, was the chief and efficient source of 
surface current action, and a diagram of the trade and passage winds was offered to 
explain this. Thus the north-east and south-east trade-winds, blowing towards the 
equator, impel the surface waters in the same direction ; but the winds meeting, neu- 
tralize each other as to horizontal motion, and rise up, depositing their great moisture 
in the deluges of the equatorial rains. From the fact of the unequal distribution of 
land and water in the two hemispheres, — in the south the proportion being 100 land 
to 628 water, and in the north 100 to 154, — this line of junction is to the north of 
the equator ; thus the mathematical and atmospheric equators do not coincide. The 
countries in south latitudes are as remarkable for dryness as those in north are for 
wetness; and Panama, lying in this junction, is inundated with rain during the 
northern summer, — sufficient water falling to feed the high level of any canal that 
may be made with locks. 

From the waters being impelled thus to the western side of each ocean, it might 
readily be argued that the Atlantic would be several feet higher than the Pacific, 
and such was formerly supposed to be the case ; but engineering operations have 
shown that they are sensibly the same ; and this equality of level must be owing to 
the compensative efi^ect of the equatorial counter-current. 

The great utility of a proper knowledge of ocean currents may be made evident by 
an example. A ship sailing from Shanghae in China to Panama, may in ignorance 
follow the apparently direct course, a distance of 8982 miles ; but her voyage would 
be extended by adverse winds and currents (the latter 600 or 800 miles) to the 
extent of not less than 1800 or 2000 miles. But if our acquaintance were more 
complete, and analogy be borne out by facts, by taking a proper course, of about 
9500 miles, she would be assisted 900 miles in her course by current and fair 
winds, — thus making the unknown voyage 11,000 miles, and that on correct prin- 
ciples 8600, a difi"erence worthy of being appreciated in this commercial age. Again, 
as to the influence of ocean currents upon commercial products. The famous Sea 
Island cotton of the United States owes its superiority to the warm waters of the 
Gulf-stream flowing past these sea islands. The trade-wind, passing over the Gulf- 
stream, and absorbing its saline vapours, deposits them on the sea coasts in ques- 
tion, and causes the peculiar growth of the long-stapled sea- island cotton. The 



80 REPORT— 1853. 

north-east portion of Australia is now looked at with great interest as a site for 
colonization. It may be predicted that a similar climate will be found there ; the 
ocean, being abnormally warmer than the land, will favour the growth of cotton, as 
it does on the east coast of the United States. 



Manners and Customs of the Yacoutes. By Prince Ern. Galitzin, Cor- 
responding Member of the Royal Geographical Society of London. TranS' 
lated and communicated by Dr. Norton Shaw. 

The Yacoutes among themselves are known by the name of Sokha. It is be- 
lieved that they are of Tartar origin, which fact is confirmed by the similarity of 
the tongues, as well as by a great number of usages common both to the Yacoutes 
and to the Tartars. They live partly in that region of Siberia, the centre of which 
is the town of Yacoutsk ; and partly also in the different districts of the Yeniseisk's 
government. Their stature is middling, their complexion swarthy, and their hair 
black. 

As wealth among the Yacoutes consists in numerous flocks, from this circum- 
stance it follows that they take care to live dispersed in small groups of two or 
three yourtes, so as to have at hand sufficient pasturages. A certain number of 
these little villages form a notchlegh, administered by a kniazetz or small prince. 
Several notchleghi compose an oulouse, which is governed by a golova : these different 
functions are elective. The inhabitants of a notchlegh call themselves tjonobout, or 
of the same kind. When they make an election, each elector deposits his vote in a 
box divided in as many compartments as there are candidates ; then the votes are 
counted, and the candidate who has obtained the largest number is proclaimed. 
Besides, it is always in the power of the governed to depose the chief with whom 
they are dissatisfied, in order to proceed to a new election. The district of Yakoutsk 
contains six ouloiises, with a population of about 40,000 ; there are besides, about 
30,000 yacoutes settled in the government of Yeniseisk and in other parts of Siberia. 

Their little boats made with the birch-tree's bark, called vefotchki, are constructed 
with much skill ; the seams, after having been laid on with tar, become waterproof. 
Besides this, they make use of a kind of canoe, made with the trunk of a tree. la 
the building of it they begin by making on one side of the trunk a longitudinal cleft, 
which does not quite extend itself to the extremities ; this cleft is next widened gra- 
dually by means of wedges larger and larger, so as to make a sloping opening, 
which, when wide enough, forms the interior of the small craft. In order to render 
it more spacious, sometimes they add side-planks at the upper part. 

The winter's yourtes of the Yacoutes have the form of truncated pyramids. They 
are square. To construct them, they make use of poles fixed in the ground in an 
inclined position, and they spread on them a mixture of dung and soil. The roof is 
flat and made with planks of birch-tree's bark, which possesses the property of being 
almost inaccessible to rottenness. Seldom any floor is to be found. The hearth or 
tchouval occupies the centre ; above there is a chimney made with planking laid on 
with clay. This dwelling, however light be its construction, is sufficiently warm to 
be able to live in it in the winter season ; besides, it offers the advantage of being 
constantly ventilated by means of the hearth, which being always lighted, purifies 
the air. During the summer months, the Yacoutes construct for their use teraporaiy 
yourtes without hearth in the localities to which they remove in the hay-harvest 
season. There is a Yacoute among the wealthy of the country who possesses as 
many as 1000 horses. However, being impossible to gather a sufficient quantity of 
hay for feeding all of them, the owner feeds only a certain number of them ; the 
others wander about and get grass and moss by removing the snow with their fore- 
hoofs. 

The tail forms an indispensable part of the costume of the Yacoutes ; both men 
and women wear it so long, that in order to support it they tie it behind round the 
waist. The summer costume of the men consists of a kaftan (a Turkish vest) de- 
scending to the knees, made with China tissue or with cloth, lined all round with 
some stuff of a showy colour. For their feet they have boots with a soft sole. The 
Sarama is a kind of buskin made with horse-hide which is waterproof. Trowsers 
of reindeer-skin, a cap and gloves which have only the thumb, complete their gar- 
ment. This costume is common to both sexes. In winter, for the simple kaftan. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. Bl 

they substitute a furretl dress. They wear also torbases or furred boots having the 
hair outside. During this severe weather the traveller puts on a large riding-coat, 
called sana'iak, made with reindeer-skin, having equally the hair outside ; he applies 
upon his forehead, cheeks, and ears, pieces of fur made on purpose, and surrounds 
his knees with soutouvi or bands. The furred robe which the women wear in winter, 
is called parJca. It is made with reindeer-skin, and has the form of a long shirt. 
The sleeves and the collar are trimmed with furs of the finest quality. The dress 
of the wealthy Yacoutes is often very expensive. 

The Yacoutes are kind and officious; hospitality towards strangers is one of 
their virtues. At the same time they are suspicious, mistrustful, and timid. When 
occasion requires it, they are extremely sober, and a little sora or sour butter 
suffices for their nourishment ; but as soon as necessity has ceased to compel them, 
they become such gluttons as to render it difficult to give an idea how far their 
gluttony goes. A Yacoute is capable of devouring an extraordinary quantity of 
meat ; but cares Uttle about its quality or its freshness. The entrails of the animals 
and the ox's hide are aliments which do not cause him any disgust. To eat a fresh 
ox-hide, they are satisfied with putting it for a little while under hot ashes in order to 
make the liair fall off. Fat in a liquid state is one of their most exquisite dainties ; 
they feed upon it without measure. Among them the faculty of being able to eat 
much is considered as a kind of merit fit to draw upon them respect. It is not 
uncommon to hear them say, when they praise some one of their people, "outio 
asatchi khisi 1" namely, that man there eats well. 

The chamans or sorcerers continue to exert a great influence on this credulous 
people. They feign to entertain relations with the souls of the dead, and by this 
means often extort from the relatives of the dead, with the pretence of obeying 
an injunction come from the other world, furs and even cattle. It is well known 
that these jugglers give themselves up to the practice of gross sorcery. 

The Yacoutes have for the bear a kind of superstitious fear ; they believe that in 
this animal the spirit survives the body. In spite of this, they do not scruple to 
shoot a bear and to eat its flesh ; but it is by observing certain forms which they 
suppose have the power to turn aside the witchcraft. Imagine some Yacoutes 
travelling, and in crossing a forest that they should meet a bear. All begin by 
taking off^ their caps, lavishing upon him many salutations, and calling him by 
the name of (i/ioiie (lord), of worthy old man, of good father, and so on. In the 
meantime they beseech him, in the most humble terms, to allow them to continue 
their journey, assuring him, that instead of forming any bad design against his 
lordship, on the contrary, they entertain the greatest respect for him. But whilst 
addressing these fine words to the animal, our cunning Yacoutes go forward, choose 
a tree suitably situated, in order to be safe from behind, and then shoot the animal 
dead. This first point settled, they make haste to skin it, and having cut it into pieces 
without breaking the bones, which they put aside (it will soon be seen for what rea- 
son), they cook the said pieces. During the preparations, a man of tlie same party 
has taken care to knead witli clay lightly moistened, a little statue representing 
Boenai, the Great Spirit. The meat being cooked, the caldron is raised in address- 
ing a prayer to Boenai and to the Spirit of the forest. According to the beHef of 
the Yacoutes, each forest is placed under the direct influence of a spirit. Then they 
sit down round the smoking soup, and each of the guests takes care to pour on the 
fire the first spoonful of gravy. Then the feast begins. Whilst it lasts, the guests 
often apostrophize the ghost of the bear which they have thus despatched. " No," say 
they, " don't believe us capable of having perpetrated such a murder. Among us, 
poor Yacoutes, the art of making guns and deadly balls is unknown. They are 
either some Russians or Toungouses who have done the evil deed." After the repast, 
the bones of the animal are carefully put together, wrapped up with the idol in a 
piece of birch-tree bark, and then hung up to a tree. " You see it well," they go on 
repeating during the ceremony, " far from being murderers, it is on the contrary we 
who gather together here the bones of this bear killed by others." 

Marriage is performed without any kind of ceremony. When a Yacoute wishes 
to obtain the hand of a girl, he must agree with the father respecting the price to be 
paid for her ; this purchase-money is called the kolim. The wedding and the banquet 
which accompanies it, take place in the house of the father-in-law of the bridegroom, 
but at the expense of the latter. The rejoicings are prolonged twice twenty-four 
1853. 6 



82 REPORT — 1853. 

hours. During the Jcourourne (banquet) they drink a quantity of Jcoumise, a kind of 
fermented beverage made with mares'-miik ; more rarely brandy distilled from corn, 
which is scarce and consequently expensive. They eat horse-flesh, beef, and moles 
as dishes of the first course. As a second course, they serve on the table a dish 
filled with drippings. This is considered the most refined dainty. The khamiak, 
which is a large spoon, goes all round, and each guest drinks plentifully of the nec- 
tar. There are some gluttons among them, who, after having crammed their stomach 
with meat, are still capable of swallowing a hundred spoonsful of melted fat. The 
bridegroom cannot take away his bride until the kolim has been wholly paid for; 
otherwise sbe continues to live with her father. Sometimes the debt is only dis- 
charged by instalments, paid at long intervals, and at each of these instalments, the 
husband comes to spend a few days with his wife. 

Proposed New Route between the Atlantic and Pacific, by the River Matde 
in Chili. By Capt. Walter Hall. 



On Iceland, its Inhabitants and Language. By John Hogg, Esq., M.A., 
F.R.S., L.S.,R.G.S. Sfc, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society of Lite- 
rature. 

The author commenced this paper by observing, that the large volcanic land on 
the western boundary of Europe, surrounded by the North Atlantic Ocean, and 
partly within the Arctic Circle, is only known in England under the inhospitable 
name of Iceland. The like inhospitable name of ' Ullima Thule ' having been by 
some geographers assigned to it, he showed that there was no reasonable foundation 
for such an opinion. Mr. Hogg said, if what Solinus stated was correct, viz. " that 
Thule was five days' sail from Orkney," he conceived that one of the Feroe Isles 
would better correspond : but, on the other hand, Tacitus, in his account of the 
circumnavigation of Britain, writes, that the Orkneys were then discovered, and 
" from thence Thule was visible," — consequently Mainland, the chief of the Shetland 
Isles, which is quite mountainous, would very probably be the land there discernible. 
No Roman remains have been found in Iceland ; but if that nation had extended its 
conquests to its desolate shores, they would doubtless have continued their explora- 
tions to Greenland and the northern coasts of America. Such however was not 
the case. And since the island itself, as far as is yet known, is altogether volcanic, 
it may not have been in existence at that early period ; but, like the ancient Isle of 
Thera (hodie Santorin), or that very modern one lately called " Graham Islet," ia 
the Mediterranean, it may have sprung up through volcanic agency, subsequently 
to the time of the Roman Empire. History does not state when Iceland was first 
discovered, and nothing certain is known of it till the ninth century of our aera; 
though from the Icelandic Annals it would seem that it had been before then tem- 
porarily inhabited, perhaps, as some have asserted, by the Irish. 

The author briefly gave a description of the settlement there by the Norwegians, 
or Nordmenn of Scandinavia. He then more fully pointed out its geographical 
position, and compared its form and extent with those of Ireland, obsei-ving that if 
the latter island could be moved so as to bring its present east side with the point 
called "Wicklow Head," due south, the general appearance of Ireland and Iceland 
would better agree. He showed that both islands possess many fine bays, inlets, or 
fiords, and havens ; also many rivers, lakes, and tracts of bog or marsh. Iceland 
is however very much less fertile, and is more covered with lofty mountains, which 
attain to between 6000 and 6500 feet in height. Those termed in Icelandic 
Jiikulls, i. e. 'ice mounts,' occupy the central parts of the island, and run out to 
the N.W. and N.E. From their melted snows and glaciers, the Geysers and other 
intermittent hot-springs are principally supplied. 

Mr. Hogg then compared the population of the two islands, and noted that 
although Ireland had been during some years, previous to the census in 1851, 
reduced about 20 per cent, by emigration and other causes, still it numbered rather 
fewer than 6,661,840 souls ; and the city of Dublin itself estimated somewhat above 
238,300, whereas Iceland, once possessing 100,000 inhabitants, now reckoned only 
48,000 over its whole superficies, and the entire population of its capital Reikjavik 
does not exceed 500. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 83 

This comparative account sadly exhibited the deserted state of a country very 
similar to Ireland in its natural dimensions. The interior or central parts of Ice- 
land are not inhabited, and are but little known to the traveller. 

The author, after describing the general aspect of the island, and its total want of 
trees, added a brief description of Mount Hecla, and its three somewhat conical 
summits. As the poets of Grecian antiquity had dedicated one of the tops of the 
Bifid Parnassus to Apollo, and the second to Bacchus, so he conceived the Skalds 
or Bards of Iceland ought to have assigned the first summit of the Trifid Hecla to 
Odin, the second to Frea (Friga), and the third to Thor. 

According to the recent survey and measurement of Prof. Bjcirn Gunnlaugsson, 
the altitude of the highest top of Hecla is 4961 Danish feet, or somewhat above 5100 
English feet. A brief description by a late traveller of the view from one of its 
summits was given. 

The author alluded to the wonderful Geysers, and other boiling springs, which 
after certain intervals spout jets of water and steam high into the air, and proved 
that some of them had existed for at least six centuries and a half. 

Then followed an account of the climate in summer and winter ; the aurora 
borealis, and other meteorological pheenomena ; also of the continuance in June and 
July of sunshine during the night, and of the want of it in the day through the cor- 
responding period in December and January. 

An enumeration of some of the chief volcanic products and minerals was made j 
and the poverty of vegetation, the few wild emimals, and those which are domesticated, 
were noticed. 

Next, concerning the ethnology of the Icelanders. These were characterized as 
a plain, but well-made, not very robust race, of good height, with reddish hair and 
blue eyes. They are short-lived, content, and moral, although much addicted to 
drinking. They are naturally lazy, phlegmatic, and not very hospitable. Profess- 
ing Lutheran tenets, they are religious, fond of their native land, and well-educated. 
Crimes are very rare. Owing to the severity of the climate, they are warmly clad; 
both sexes wearing old-fashioned garments of a coarse dark cloth, Wadmal. The 
houses, or rather huts of the lower class, are low and miserable, and from the 
scarcity of timber, are mostly built of lava. They are very filthy and want fresh air. 
Fuel is scarce ; peat, as well as the remains of fish and birds, are its substitutes. 

Their diet consists of salt fish, fermented milk, rancid butter ; also train oil is 
much esteemed. Salted mutton is used, and fresh fish in summer. Wheaten bread 
is scarcely ever to be had ; sometimes barley cakes are eaten, but the usual bread of 
the peasantry is made from the poor flour of the Iceland Lichen {Cetraria Islandica), 

In summer travelling is efl^ected on horses ; in winter in sledges, which are the 
only carriages known. ■ ^ - 

The occupations of the Icelanders are chiefly breeding horses, catlle and sheep ; 
fishing for cod and seals, and in certain rivers for salmon ; salting and drying fish and 
mutton. Much attention is given to the care of Eider ducks, their down being a 
most valuable export. Little is done in commerce as yet, except by the Danish 
merchants. The other principal exports are dried salt fish, fish roe, pickled mutton, 
skins, fur, wool, feathers, train oil, and tallow. Brandy and salt, with most of the 
other necessaries of life, are imported; so are manufactured goods. 

Nearly all the lower classes can read and write ; and in every hut is found the 
Bible. During their long winter, the Icelanders spend much time in reading, at 
which season both sexes knit and weave. Small plots of ground are here and 
there cultivated for gardens, in which some common vegetables are with difiiculty 
grown ; there are no corn-fields ; only meadows and pastures in the valleys ad- 
joining upon lakes and streams. 

The Icelanders have several diseases, which are very fatal*, and vast numbers of 
the children die when infants. 

Mr. Hogg made mention of the Icelandic language, which is the original Nor- 
wegian, or Norse, scarcely at all altered by length of time, or contact with other 
nations. It belongs to the Scandinavian branch of the great Teutonic family of 
many ethnologists ; or, according to Jacob Grimm, it forms a dialect of his fourth 
division of the Germanic language. The author is more inclined to esteem it, with 
Rask and later authorities, a sister language, rather than a mere cognate dialect of 
* Dr. Latham obser\'ed (after the paper was read), that, according to Dr. Schleisner, the 
temperature of the blood of the Icelander is sensibly higher than that of any other European. 

6* 



84 REPORT — 1853. 

the German. It is characterized by the absence of aspirates and gutturals, and thus 
possesses a softer sound and pronunciation. 

This dialect of the Scandinavian remained unchanged, whilst that of the Danes 
having altered much, it could no longer be termed Donsk Tunga, ' Danish tongue,' as 
the language which prevailed throughout the North and in Iceland was at first called. 
It then came under the appellation of Norraena Tunga, the ' Northern tongue,' or 
Norse, that afterwards designated more especially the Norwegian dialect. The 
latter continued the same for a long time, while that of Sweden soon altered. In 
the ninth century the Norwegian colonists took into Iceland their language, where 
it continued in its purity for ages. But the ancient dialect in Norway at length ex- 
perienced a great alteration in consequence of the union of the country with Denmark, 
and thus Norwegian and Danish soon assimilated and became the same. 

Consequently, the original Norwegian, which still continued to be used in Ice- 
land, obtained a new and more fit title, viz. Islenzka Tunga, the ' Icelandic tongue.' 
Indeed, this identical language is now so little altered, that the lower class of Ice- 
landers still read and understand the Sagas and ancient Eddaic poems. 

The author said, " want of time forbade him from adding any particulars con- 
cerning the structure or grammatical peculiarities of the Islenzka Tunga : " he there- 
fore concluded by giving some examples of Icelandic words, for the purpose of show- 
ing how similar they are to the corresponding vulgar words still spoken by our com- 
mon people in this part of the north of England. These had most likely been in- 
troduced by the Nordmenn— or Northmen of Scandinavia under the general term 
of Danes — when they spoke the same original Norwegian as the Icelanders do, during 
their invasions in the ninth and tenth centuries of this portion of Northumbria. 

According to Adelung (Mithridates, vol. ii. p. 305), Von Troil, in his 'Letters 
from Iceland,' has reckoned four principal dialects (hauptmundarten) of the Ice- 
landic. These, however, the author apprehended, only present very slight differences, 
except in the sea-ports where many Danish words are used, inasmuch as the same 
pronunciation prevails throughout the island, and is found to be, even among the 
lower class, nearly identical. 

Mr. Hogg illustrated his observations by pointing out the localities mentioned 
on two recent and beautiful maps of Iceland from the collection of Icelandic maps in 
the possession of the Royal Geographical Society of London. These are entitled 
"Uppdrattr Islands," and were executed under the direction of Mr. O. N. Olsea 
from the measurements of Mr. Bjorn Gunnlaugsson, Professor of Mathematics at 
the College of Bessastadt in Iceland. They were published in 1844 and IS49 by the 
Islenzka Bokmentafelag, or Icelandic Literary Society at Copenhagen. 



Notes on a Journey to the Balkan, or Mount Hccmus, from Constantinople. 
By Lieut. Gen. Jochmus. Drawn up and communicated by John 
Hogg, M.A., F.R.S., L.S., R.G.S. ^c, For. Sec. R.S.L. 

Previous to the reading of this communication, Mr. Hogg stated, that the author 
is Lieut." General Jochmus, a native of Hamburg, long an officer in the army of the 
Sultan, and afterwards Minister for Foreign Affairs of the administrator of the Ger- 
manic Empire. It describes a journey to the Balkan from Constantinople, which was 
undertaken in October 1847; but the notes were written in that capital in January 
1848. Time did not allow of the full reading of this valuable communication, and 
therefore Mr. J. Hogg was only able to submit to the Section certain passages from 
the "Notes" themselves, but he gave a preliminary sketch of the route pursued by 
the author, and of the principal objects of his journey. 

Many defiles and passes of the noble Balkan range, the Mount Hsemus of anti- 
quity, so named, probably, from at/xof, a wooded district, and now called in Turkish 
Emineh Dagh, which rises to about 6000 feet above the sea, were correctly described, 
particularly that portion which extends from Burgas on the Black Sea to Tirnova, 
the capital of Bulgaria ; also along the coast of that sea to Varna, the former Odes- 
sus, and thence through the territory of the ancient Triballians to Silistria (Duro- 
sterum) on the right bank of the Danube. 

The General was enabled to determine some portions of the Balkan which were 
either before uncertain, or altogether unknown, and likewise to correct in several 
places the great Austrian staff map. Indeed, be has shown that there are no less 
than thirteen practicable defiles, besides many cross-roads, between the pass of Ke- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 85 

zanlik and Cape Emineh, and not five only, as Von Hammer enumerates. And he 
observed that " the most extraordinary fact is that Marshal Diebitsch, as well as 
Darius, crossed the Hasmus by roads unknown to that most learned historian of the 
Turkish empire." 

General Jochmus likewise establishes several ancient localities where Darius halted 
with his army. At Bunarhissar, near the Kuchuk Balkan, he unsuccessfully searched 
for the ancient inscription with the letters like " nails," mentioned by Herodotus 
(Melp. c. 91), and which Abdallah Aga described to him as being "in ancient 
Syrian or Assyrian (Eski Souriani)," and which he "maintained having seen in the 
Tekeh every day for upwards of the eight years which he passed there as a Der- 
vish," But he seems to have been more fortunate in finding the clear streams of 
the Teams, near the latter town, and which have been incorrectly named Teara Sugi, 
or 'Teara's Waters,' by Von Hammer. He has identified the ancient river Artiscus 
of Herodotus with that now named Teke, near the new Bulgarian colony of Dewlet 
Agatch, in the former territory of the Odryssse. 

Mr. Hogg said it was one of the chief objects of the author to ascertain the line of 
march and operations of Darius through this country, and he dwelt on the following 
passage : " Darius crossed the Bosphorus on a bridge of boats connecting the two conti- 
nent at the site of the present new Castles of Asia and Europe (see Gibbon, and Herod. 
Melp. c. 87), encamped successively at the sources of the Tearus (Bunarhissar), and 
on the banks of the Teke, or Artiscus (at Dewlet Agatch), and following the 
direction of Burgas and Achioly, and subjecting the sea-towns, he passed after- 
wards the Balkan by the defiles parallel to the sea-coast from Mesivria to Jowaa 
Dervish, moving from south to north, by the same roads which were chosen by 
Generals Roth and Riidiger, and by Marshal Diebitsch himself, who proceeded from 
north to south in 1829. The Russians also in 1828, and Darius about 2300 years 
before them, passed the Danube ' at that part of the river where it begins to branch 
off' (Melp. c. 89), that is, near the modern Issatscha." 

The route to the Great Balkan, the true Hsemus range, which General Jochmus, 
looking to the nature of the country, supposes that Alexander the Great took in his 
march from Amphipoiis to the Danube, he has fixed, where Alexander must, either 
at Bogasdere, or at the entrance of the neighbouring valley Charamd^re, at the foot 
of one of the wildest gorges of the Balkan, have fought the battle with the 
Thracians, as is recorded by Arrian (lib. i. c. 1). The aspect of those defiles, the 
steepness of the mountains in parts of that ascent of the Balkan, and the distance 
from Amphipoiis, caused the author to arrive at that conclusion. 

But as to the site of the battle between Alexander and the Triballians, which 
occurred about 335 B.C., the General, exploring the country to the west of Varna 
on the Black Sea, says, " the Parawadi river runs nearly parallel to the Hsemus and 
to the Danube, and considering that from Varna, as well as from Parawadi, the 
distance to Silistria is computed at twenty-four hours, or three days' march, there 
can be no doubt but that the Parawadi river is the Lyginos described by Arrian 
as 'distat id ab Istro, si quis .(Emum versus proficiscatur, itinere tridui.'" The 
Lyginos is not stated by the historian to flow into the Ister or Danube, as the great 
Austrian map and other authorities have made it, "at Dshibra Palanka, between 
Nicopoli and Widdin, opposite to some islands. It is this collateral circumstance 
of the islands at the mouth of the Dshibra Palanka river which most likely caused 
the error, for Arrian speaks of an island of the Lyginos." 

From an examination of the district adjoining upon the two lakes of Devno to 
the west of Varna, General Jochmus is persuaded that the isthmus between those 
lakes, a little west of Buyuk Aladin, is the ground of Alexander's action, it being 
" formed into an island by the two principal outlets of the Parawadi, or Lyginos 
river, which traverses" both the lakes. 

Further, the General has thus determined Alexander's line of march and exploits 
from Macedonia to the Danube. He thinks he proceeded "from Amphipoiis 
(Emboli), leaves Philippi (ruins of Filibfe) and Mount Orbelus on its left, crosses 
the Nesus (Carasu), and following the high road by the present Fereshik, Dimotika, 
Kirklissia and Aidos, gets to the foot of Mount Hiemus, where he arrives ' on the 
tenth day.' Here he fights the action with the Thracians at Bogasdere, or Charam- 
dere, forces these defiles, and crosses the Haemus (Balkan) by the main road to 
Parawadi, ' on the Lyginos.' From Parawadi, Alexander moves by the present 



S6 REPORT— 1853. 

high road straight on to Silistria, but hearing of the retreat of the main body of the 
Triballians towards 'the island of the river (Lyginos), whence Alexander had departed 
the previous day,' he countermarches also in search of the enemy, whom he meets 
and defeats on the grounds between the two lakes of Devno. Thence he arrives ' in 
three days' on the Danube (at Silistria), crosses that mighty river, defeats the 
Getse* ; repasses the Danube, and undertakes his expedition against the Agriani and 
Paeoni." (Arrian, Exped. lib. i. c. 1-5.) " It remains," continued the author, 
" to be observed, that whilst the Getse, who in the time of the expedition of Darius 
against the Scythee (Herod, lib. iv.) lived south of the Danube, are found by 
Alexander already on the left or northern bank of the river, in the fertile plains of 
Wallachia, the Triballians, on the contrary, hold the former territories of the Getae 
as far south-east as Varna." 

It is therefore "seen that Alexander has passed in his march on Silistria the 
Kamshik at Koprikoi, and the Lyginos at Parawadi, at the same points chosen by 
Marshal Diebitsch in his reverse operation from Silistria, against the defiles of the 
Balkan after the battle of Kulerdja and the capture of Silistria. Arrived at Kopri- 
koi, the Russian array strikes off to the east, and forces those passes of the Haemua 
chosen by Darius, because it lay in the plan of the Russians, as it did formerly in those 
of the Persians, to occupy first the ' sea-towns,' before continuing their operations, 
— Darius from south to north, Marshal Diebitsch from north to south. Nature has 
so strongly marked the best amongst the difiicult passes of the Heemus, that, at the 
distance of very many centuries, the three great commanders are found to operate 
by the same lines." 

General Jochmus, returning to Varna from the isthmus between the upper and 
lower Devno lakes, his guide " indicated the grounds, north of the village of 
Jenishekoi', as the scene of the great battle of the 10th November 1444, a.d. Two 
tumuli were pointed out to him by the denomination of Sandshak Tepe, and Murad 
Tep^. They are about the centre of the line which Sultan Murad's army of 40,000 
men must have occupied." The last named Tep^ he holds " to be the spot where 
that Sultan had ordered the lance with the treaty to be exposed to the sight of his 
indignant army, and where King Wladislaw's head was planted by its side. The 
Sandshak Tepe is the neighbouring mound, where, according to the Turkish war- 
custom, the great imperial standard was displayed." 

The ground there, as laid down in a plan in Hellert's French translation of Von 
Hammer's 'History of the Ottoman Empire,' was found to be "altogether fictitious;" 
and it is a very incorrect representation of the "battle of Varna." The General 
then gives further details of this great battle, and describes the present condition of 
the fortifications of Varna. He also mentions the attack of the Russians in 1828. 

General Jochmus made many remarks of a military nature respecting the chief 
positions, towns, and stations in this part of the Turkish dominions ; and also many 
accurate personal observations on the routes and natural features of the Balkan, 
which contribute a valuable addition at this time to our present knowledge of that 
mountainous range. There are likewise interspersed throughout his communication 
many interesting accounts of the political condition and manners of the different races 
whom he visited. 

Three neatly drawn and coloured plans illustrated the paper ; the first, a map of 
the Great Balkan from Varna to Tirnova, and from Varna to Burgas on the Black 
Sea, with the names written in Turkish ; the second, a " Sketch of the Ground 
near Varna, 1847," showing the lakes, sites of the battles, tumuli, &c. ; and the 
third gave a " Sketch of the marches of Darius and Alexander to the Danube, 
and of the passage of the Balkan by Marshal Diebitsch." 



On certain Localities not in Siveden occupied by Svjedish Populations^ and 
on certain Ethnological Questions connected with the Coasts of Livonia, 
Esthonia, Courland, and Gothland. By R. G. Latham, M.I). 

A short pamphlet 'On the Remains of Swedish Nationality in Esthonia and Livonia,' 
by Aug. Sohlman {Om Lemningar af Svensk NationaUtct uti Estland och Liffiand), 

* "According to Barbie du Bocage, near a place opposite to Silistria, where now is the 
village of Kornizel." 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 87 

gives an account of certain Swedish populations in the islands, and along the shore, 
between Reval and Memel. In Rogo, Odinsholm, haifNucko, half Worms, parts 
of Dago, Runo, and a portion of the coast near Roslep, the population is Swedish 
both in language and appearance. In Nargo, the other half of Worms, half Nucko, 
and a few spots on the opposite coast, there are Swedes and Esthonians mingled. 
In Manno, Kynb, parts of Osel, Moon, Dago, and patches of the continent, the 
present population consists of Esthonians who have displaced Swedes. The earliest 
notice of these Swedes is in the laws of the town of Hapsal, a.d. 1 294. Henry the 
Lett mentions Swedes in Reval. The local names are Swedish, — Stoorby, Soderby, 
Lyckholm, Kluttorp, Parsaker, &c. ; so are the personal,— Knuter, Mats, Lars, 
&c. Runic letters are used in their calendars. Thursday is an unlucky day to 
begin work on ; Friday a lucky one for marrying,— notions pointing to Freya and 
Thor. Superstitions and legends are numerous. Dialects not fewer than 5 ; privi- 
leges neither a few nor unimportant. 

A colony of these Swedes from Dago has been transplanted to the parts near 
Berislav, in the government of Cherson ; their localities being Schlangendorf, Mil- 
hausendorf, Gamle Svenskby, and Klosterdorf. The date of this is recent ; that of 
island occupations uncertain. Probably it belongs to the 9th, or 10th, or llth. 
centuries, t. e. the great epoch of the Scandinavian piracy. 

Going beyond the details of these small localities to the ethnology of the neigh- 
bouring parts of the continent at large, we find that the displacements have been 
inordinately great. The Prussians and Lieflanders belong to Prussia and Livonia 
(Liefland) 'only as an Englishman does to Britain, and they are Prussians and 
Livonians only as Englishmen are Britons. They occupy countries that originally 
belonged to Liefa and Prussians, just as the Angles occupied countries which were 
originally British. The true and original Liefs (Livonians) were Finns, of the same 
branch with the present Esthonians ; indeed, a few true (Finns) Liefs exist, at the 
present time, in Livonia. The Livonians, however, commonly so called, are Letts, 
or Lithuanians. The true Prussians were Letts or Lithuanians ; the present Prussians 
are Germans. How far, then, did the area of the Finn population akin to the 
Liefs and Esthonians originally extend ? Certainly into Courland ; possibly at a 
very early period (some centuries b.c.) to the mouth of the Elbe. And how far 
extended the Lithuanian area ? Into West Prussia at least. If so, and if the west- 
ward extension of the Finns be real, the direction of the Lithuanic must have been 
from some part of the interior of Europe towards the coast. Did Lithuanian tribes 
cross the Baltic ? The general tendency of opinion is to attribute all the commercial 
or piratical activity of the Baltic tribes to the Scandinavian branch of the Germans. 
The foundation of this doctrine is the name Goth. Few hesitate to consider the Goths 
of Gothland (isle and provinces), the Jutes of Jutland, and the Gothones (Guttones) 
of East Prussia as populations bearing a name essentially the same. Few doubt 
about this name being German, and applied to Germans. Yet this fact, upon which 
so much turns, is more than doubtful, a. No Germanic population can be shown 
to have borne a name like g-i, previous to its having occupied the country of some 
non-Germanic population, so-called ; so that the Germans of the several Goth 
countries were Goths only as the Englishman is a Briton, i. e. not at all. b. The 
population to which the term g-t can be shown to have been most unequivocally 
and undoubtedly applied is Lithuanic («. e. the old Prussian of the country of the 
Guttones, Gothones, or Gythones). Reduce the inferences derived from this 
erroneous assumption to their proper dimensions, and then consider the ethnology 
of Scandinavia. The two provinces of Gothland, the island Gothland, the Goth- 
land (so to say) of the Guttones, must be placed in the same category. But the 
Guttones can no longer be made German, on the strength of their name. The 
evidence of their Germanic character is reduced to the single fact of their being 
found in the ' Germania' of Tacitus. This is not sufficient to stand against the pre- 
ponderating facts in favour of their being Lithuanians or Prussians. The author 
believes that Scandinavia (in the first instance Finn) received two streams of 
occupancy and conquest ; one Lithuanic for Gothland, &c., and one German, that 
spread from Norway southwards and eastwards. The chief proofs of this lie in the 
admitted facts of Scandinavian ethnology interpreted diflferently. There are numerous 
Lithuanic words in the Scandinavian language ; there are the political and other 
peculiarities of the Goth-lands ; there are elements common to the two mythologies. 



88 UEPORT — 1853. 

&c. Admit nothing but Finns and Genuans, and all these points are difficulties. The 
hypothesis of Lithuanic as well as a German conquest accounts for them. Jutland 
was probablv a land of Lithuanic settlements, intermixed with Slavonic ones from 
Pomcrania, &c. 

Htlmologicul Bemurhs itpon some of the more rcmarhablc Varieties of the 

Human Species, reprcsnitcd hy individuals now in London. By R. G. 

Latham, M.D. 

llie Zulus. — Tlicse belong to the CaftVe family. Between this Caffre family and 
the true Negro a broad line of demarcation is often drawn. The individuals io 
question make this line doubtful. They are certainly intermediate both in shape 
and colour. This is the most important point in their ethnology. 

The Ear ihmen.— These are Bushmen who occupy a tract of which the geological 
character supplies natural caves which serve for habitations. In this sense only are 
they Earihmeii, as opposed to the ordinary Saab (Bushman). They are Bushman- 
Troglodytes, or Troglodyte- Bushmen. 

Australians.— Height', 5 feet 10 inches, and 5 feet 9 inches. Lower extremities 
inordinately thin ; so much so as to show that the illustrations of Dr. Prichard are 
no exaggeration. Hair, somewhat more crisp and curly than is expected from the 
current descriptions. Language, Cowrarega. 

The Jstecs.— No offspring of parents like themselves, nor yet likely to be the 
parents of offspring like themselves ; consequently no specimens of any new race 
(so-called). Probably from the part of South America to which they are referred. 
Their likeness to certain outlines on Mexican monuments not accidental. This ac- 
counted for by supposing that the physical or social conditions of the locality 
to which they are attributed, favour such degenerations as they exhibit; the 
tendency to them being endemic. In the point nearest to their attributed locality 
of which any notice is in print. Gage found the people ill-shapen and goitrous. At 
the same time their appearance is not that of the Cretins of Europe : of these they 
are the American analogues. An intermixture of Spanish (or other) blood, as 
suggested by good authorities, would most easily account for certain points (e. g, 
the hair) in which they differ from the American Indian, and approach the 
Spaniard, Jew, &c. It is doubtful, however, whether the assumption is necessary ; 
at the same time it is compatible with the present view. The existence of Indians 
in a state of independence for one of the frontiers of Vera Paz is an actual fact. 
The Lacondona Indians are in this predicament. They are also inaccessible. The 
existence of Casas Grandes in the locality to which the Astecs are attributed is 
likely. Upon the whole it is believed that'they come from a locality where certain 
tendencies to degeneration are and have been endemic, and where there may be soine 
architectural remains, and some vestiges of independence, — facts which, even if 
adopted, by no means imply the truth of the so-called nariative of Velasquez, or 
the details of the history of the two children. As to the name Aztec, they are only 
Astecs, so far as they represent an outlying portion of the Astec empire as opposed 
to Spanish America. 

On the Traces of a Bilingual Town (Danish and Angle) in England. 
By \\. G. Latham, M.D. 

The termination of local names in -hy CNevf-btj as contrasted with New-/on) is 
the chief characteristic of Danish, as opposed to Angle, or Anglo-Saxon, occupancy. 
There are other forms equally characteristic ; one of those is -caster, as opposed to 
-cesier and -Chester. Lan-caster is Danish; Lan-c/ie«/fr (Ciren-ces^er) Anglo-Saxon. 
Danish Northampton is divided from non-Danish Huntingdonshire by the river 
Nene. On this stood the Roman Durobrivje, partly (probably) on the one side of 
the water, partly on the other. This gave us two Roman castra. The modern forms 
of these two castra are, on the Northamptonshire (Danish) side, Caistor (not Chester); 
on the Huntingdonshire (Angle) side, C/iester-ton (not Caster-ton). 

Observations on the Pravince of Tarapaca, South Pent. 
By Don M. B. La Fuente. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 89 

Notes of an Excursion to the supposed Tomb of Ezekiel. By T. K. Lynch. 

The traveller arrived at Kiffell on the 4th of May, 1848, a palace which was tra- 
ditionally supposed to be the burial-place of the prophet Ezekiel. After traversing 
many miles of ground, he at last came in sight of the fort, which he entered, and 
requested to be conducted to the tomb of the prophet. The chief of the inhabitants of 
the town, who were few, consequently accompanied him to the place, and, having tra- 
versed a spacious court, they entered a large hall, supjjorted on two rows of pilastered 
columns, and in the recess at the extreme end of the hall was a case resembling that 
of a gigantic opera-glass, which contained a copy of the five books of Moses. The 
whole of this precious manuscript was written on a single scroll, which, for conve- 
nience sake, was rolled into one case as it was uncovered from another. Leading 
out from this hall, on the south side, was a littie dark chamber, which contained the 
tomb itself — ' the very grave of Ezekiel ' — enclosed in a wooden case, which was 
covered with English chintz, by no means of the finest texture or newest pattern. 
Above the tomb arose the spiral dome, which internally was handsome, gilt and 
enamelled, and was illuminated by many small lamps, kept constantly burning, 
suspended over the sarcophagus. Around this hall, besides several small dark 
closets for private devotions, there was another mysterious chamber, which was 
lighted up by a single lamp, and contained three graves, said to be those of the 
principal Jews who accompanied Ezekiel. 



On certain Places in the Pacific, in connexion with the Great-Circle Sailing, 
By the Rev. C. G. Nicolay, F.R.G.S. 



On the Interior of Australia. By Augustus Petermann. 

At a time when the exploration of the unknown interior of Australia was earnestly 
thought of, the probable character of that extensive region became a subject of 
particular interest and of legitimate inquiry. Scarcely one-third part of Australia 
could be said to have been even partially explored, and by far the largest portion 
was therefore entirely unknown. This unknown interior of Australia had frequently 
been a matter of speculation, at first founded on very few facts. But as our 
knowledge increased, and actual facts became more numerous, the theories had been 
modified. One of these hypotheses was, that the interior, to a certain extent, 
consisted of a shoal sea. It was in 1814, only forty years since, when the ex- 
ploration of inner Australia might be said to have been systematically commenced, 
that Mr. Oxley, the first Surveyor-general of New South Wales, a man of acknow- 
ledged ability and merit, pushed his investigations into the interior of that 
continent. By tracing down the rivers Lachlan and Macquarie, he was checked 
in his progress westward by marshes of great extent, beyond which he could 
not see any land. He was therefore led to infer that the interior was occupied by a 
shoal sea, of which the marshes were the borders, and into which the rivers he had been 
tracing discharged themselves. This opinion was probably supported by the fact that 
the mouth of the largest of the Australian rivers, the Murray, had been overlooked by 
Capt. Flinders, and was not discovered till fifteen years after Mr. Oxley's discoveries, 
by Capt. Sturt. In 1845, Mr. Eyre, one ofthe most distinguished explorers of Australia, 
announced that he had arrived at dift'erent conclusions, namely, that the interior would 
be found generally to be of a very low level, consisting of sand alternating with many 
basins of dried salt lakes, or such as were covered only by shallow salt water or mud, 
as was the case with Lake Torrens. He also said that it was more than probable 
there might be many detached, and even high ranges, similar to the Gawler Range, 
and that, interspersed among these ranges, intervals of a better or even of a rich and 
fertile country, might be met with. In 1850, Mr. J. B. Jukes, in his valuable 
work on 'The Physical Structure of Austraha,' stated his opinion to be that the 
interior consisted of immense desert plains, which seemed to extend to the sea coast 
round the Gulf of Carpentaria on the north, to that ofthe great Australian bight on 
the south, and to stretch along the north-west coast to Collier Bay. The general 
opinion at present entertained on this point seemed to be very similar to that of 
Mr. Jukes, excepting, perhaps, that it was thought that the deserts did not reach so 
far to the north, and the northern parts were copsidered to consist of some fertile 



90 REPORT — 1853, 

and promising regions. The chief grounds on which these deductions had been 
made were the known facts as to the climate and meteorology of Australia, and the 
absence of large rivers and other features. It was well known that the Australian 
colonies were subject in summer to occasional blasts of what is called the hot wind, 
from its extremely high temperature. This hot wind always blew from the interior; 
in New South Wales and Tasmania, its direction being from the north-west, and 
from the north in Port Phillip and South Australia. The breath of this wind was 
like the blast from a fiery furnace, increasing the mean temperature of a summer's 
day, on the westerly side of the eastern Cordillera, 40° ; on the eastern side, both 
in New South Wales and Tasmania, 25° to 30° ; and while during the hot wind 
the thermometer rose to 100°, or even 115° in the shade, with the southerly squall 
there was sometimes a sudden fall of full 40° in the course of half or even a quarter 
of an hour. This wind swept up from the interior clouds of dust and sand, some- 
times intermixed with gritty matter, large enough to strike with painful acuteness 
on the face. Count Strzelecki, while sailing from New Zealand to New South 
Wales, was prevented from making the harbour of Port Jackson for two successive 
days, by the violence of this hot wind. Though sixty miles from the shore, the 
heat exceeded 90°, and the sails of the ship were covered with a small powder by 
the breeze. The hot winds were, indeed, identical with the sirocco blowing from 
the great Sahara of Africa, and similar winds in other parts of the globe. It had 
been justly said that these hot winds, experienced in the southern parts of Australia, 
could have no other origin than by a current of air blowing over some large expanse 
of burning desert, and our knowledge of the adjoining regions entirely corroborated 
this assumption. The discoveries of Capt. Sturt, in his last expedition in particular, 
indicated the very nest and hot-bed of the winds. The situation of Capt. Sturt's 
desert was such that there was good reason to think its influences would extend to 
the whole of the coasts, even to those of W^estern Australia, which were the furthest 
from it, namely, about 1350 geographical miles; unless the wind blowing from it 
were inteixepted or deflected in the intervening spaces by mountains, or else 
ameliorated by countries of different character. The influence of the hot winds 
from the Sahara had been observed in vessels traversing the Atlantic at a distance 
of upwards of 1100 geographical miles from the African shores by the coating of 
impalpable dust upon the sails. Mr. Petermann proceeded to describe the results of 
his investigations, which tended to point to the supposition that a great part of the 
interior of Australia consisted of sterile deserts ; that the Torrens Basin and Sturt's 
Stony Desert formed the centre of the largest of these deserts, which probably ex- 
tended from 200 to 300 miles around the latter, and that a fringe of 200 to 300 miles 
extended all along the great Australian bight to Western Australia, and along the 
western coast as far as the Gascoyne Basin, or even the river Fitzroy. It also 
appeared to him that the whole of north-west Australia, north of Fitzroy River, as 
far as the head of Carpentaria Gulf, was a region of the most promising character, 
and that from this region a spur of more or less elevated land extended as far as 
the cluster of mountains discovered by Sir Thomas Mitchell, which gave birth to 
many beautiful rivers flowing in all directions of the compass. This spur would 
necessarily form a bar between Sturt's desert and the Gulf of Carpentaria. It 
seemed to him most probable that this promising district of north-west Australia 
extended far to the south, to the middle of the continent, and be5'ond it, at least to 
the latitude of Gascoyne River. One significant fact supported the latter opinion, 
and that was the occurrence of large trees which had been floated down the rivers 
of north-west Australia, and found at their debouchures, — an occurrence unknown 
in snuth-western Australia. In conclusion, Mr. Petermann said that by taking his 
suggestion in connexion with the proposed expedition of Mr. Ernest Haug, he could 
not but hail with lively satisfaction the determination by which it is hoped a portion 
of this extensive and promising district would be explored and laid open for the 
benefit of mankind. 

On a Second Journey to St. Lucia Bay, and the Adjacent Country in 
South-East Africa. By R. W. Plante. 

Having explored the coast in the neighbourhood of St. Lucia Bay, Mr. Plante 
was desirous of going beyond that district. In the journey of which this paper 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 91 

was a notice, he lost no time in getting to that district ; and with only one deviation 
to the Unga range of mountains, he passed through the Zulu country, arriving at 
the river Umfaiosi in one month from Natal, in company of a party of about 200. 
From this point they proceeded on foot. Two days from Umfaiosi brought them to 
an arm of St. Lucia Bay ; here they had to ford the water, at a place two miles in 
width, and breast deep. The maps of this part of the country represented the mouth 
of the bay as communicating with the sea, whereas it runs into the river Umfaiosi. 
The bay was estimated at about eighty miles in length, and of an average width of 
eight or ten miles. Flamingoes, ducks, cormorants, and other water fowls were 
found on its banks. After four days' journey along the banks, they diverged into 
the woods, where there were large numbers of land shells, and five or six new kinds 
of trees, the timber of which might prove commercially valuable. Two days from 
the bay took them into the Araatatu country, a small tribe allied to Padua, and 
principally distinguished from the Zulus (who are chiefly a pastoral people) by sub- 
sisting more extensively on the produce of their gardens. Next to this tribe were 
the Amutangus, a more powerful tribe, who combined the occupation of agricultu- 
rists and hunters. In the latter character they were particularly successful, even 
against the largest animals. The tilling of the ground was principally left to the 
women, who worked very successfully. Their basket manufacture also might vie 
with that of any country. The people were well- formed, and exhibited a high de- 
gree of civilization, rarely found in these districts. The next five days' travelling was 
highly monotonous ; when they crossed the Pengola, and entered the Makasan country, 
a district seldom visited by the white man. The Makasans were very friendly, 
but very poor, through having been at war for two years with their neighbours. 
Dwarfs are very common in the district ; one, who was a kind of factotum to the 
late king, being only 3 feet 7 inches high, though beautifully proportioned. Idiots, 
apparently from sun-strokes, were also very common. An error on the maps was 
noticed here. The river Pengola did not run into the sea, but into another river, 
called the Uzatu, so that the author asserted that no river or other water could enter 
the sea between Umfaiosi and Delagoa. The range of the Drachimbirgo here came 
in view, and, at the point where the author turned back, they were not more than 
fifty miles from the sea. After travelling about 300 miles from the Umfaiosi, 
they found a wood with a stream of water running through it. Sickness becoming now 
prevalent in the party, it was determined to return to Natal, which was efi^ected 
with much diBSculty, owing to the rivers having swollen to such an extent as to 
make it hazardous to cross them. However, this was accomplished by the assistance 
of the oxen, who were good swimmers, the author twisting the tail of one of them 
round his wrist, and guiding its progress with his other hand. 

On Contributions to tlie Aiu lent Geography of the Arctic Regions, 
By Professor Rafns. 

On the Brigantes, tfie Romans, and the Saxons in the Wolds of Yorkshircm 
By the Rev. T. Rankin. 

An Inquiry into the Variations of Climate within the Tropics, in connexion 
with the Vertical Action of the Sun and the actual Motion of the Earth, 
especially with reference to the Climate of the Gulf of Carpentaria in 
North Atistralia. By Trelawny Saunders, F.R.G.S. 

The prevailing opinion on tropical climates regards the whole area within the 
tropics as equally objectionable to European constitutions. But the evidence of 
Capt. Stokes and others on the climate in the Gulf of Carpentaria proves that the 
range of the thermometer in that region contributed to render it peculiarly 
healthful. The thermometer had been observed as low as 50°, the air cold and 
bracing, and the effect on health, under great deprivations, had been proved to be 
excellent. It was a fundamental idea, in regard to the distribution of temperature, 
that it graduated from a line adjacent to the equator towards the poles. Mr. Saun- 
ders proposes to show that the relative duration of the sun's vertical action within 
the tropics produced five distinct zones, presenting characteristic and distinguishing 
features. The passage of the sun's vertical action between the tropics described a 



92 REPORT — 1853. 

continuous spiral line on the earth's surface. In passing over the 3J° adjacent to 
each tropic, the sun was vertical within that extent of latitude for sixty-three suc- 
cessive days. He was vertical for only one-sixth of that time over the same extent 
of latitude' in any other part of his course. The result was, a band of deserts under 
each tropic around the earth, with exceptions which arise only from preponderating 
local causes. He was vertical for thirty-five days between the parallels of 10° and 
20° in passing to the tropic, and after the interval of sixty-two days already 
mentioned, he again passed vertically over the same latitudes in thirty-four days. 
After leaving 10° on the passage towards the adjacent tropic, he did not return to 
it again until 130 days had transpired, within which period he had been twice vertical 
over the latitudes between 10° and 23°. But when he left 10° on his passage across 
the equator, to the more distant tropic, he did not return to the same latitude until 240 
days had passed away. He did not return to either tropic until 36.5 days had elapsed. 
The excessive heat under the tropics arose from the long continuation of his vertical 
action, while he was over them. His absence from the equator never exceeded 185 
days, and for that period only when he left it to go to Cancer and back. In 
passing to Capricorn and back, he occupied only 180 days. This difference was 
suggestive. Now for the result, 'i'he two extreme torrid regions under the tropics 
had been already noticed. The equatorial region is characterized by constant 
warmth and excessive humidity, producing exuberant vegetation and animal life in 
abundant varieties ; the temperature being subject to very little variation. The 
regions between it and the torrid deserts, from which the vertical sun was absent 
for a lengthened period, present the most attractive inducements for the occupation 
of the human race. Lakes and rivers abound. The earth there yields abundantly, 
but the vegetation is free from the excessive development of the equatorial zone. 
The temperature varies between wide extremes. 

On late Surveys in Arracan. By Capt. Tickell. 

On the Popular Notion of an open Polar Sea. Is it the Fact? 
By the Rev. W. Scoresby, D.D., F.R.S. ^-c. 

As far as historical records may guide us, the notion of an open sea at the Pole 
appears to have been the suggestion of Robert Thome, of Bristol, about the year 
1527, which led to the despatching of an expedition of two ships with the view of 
finding a passage northward to India. It resulted in the loss of one of the ships and 
the failure of the other. 

After this, at least eiyht other attempts of a similar kind, taking the line of direc- 
tion generally betwixt Spitzbergen and Greenland, were made ; all of which, termi- 
nating with the expedition of Captain Buchan in 1818, signally failed. 

The Hon.Daines Barrington, however, who held the opinion and urged the "pro- 
bability of reaching the North Pole" by navigating the same route, brought forward 
an extraordinary collection of instances in support of his views, in which very high 
latitudes within the Polar Sea were asserted by diflferent adventurers engaged in the 
whale-fishery, to have been reached. These records, supported by the opinion and 
arguments of the late Sir John Barrow in respect to an open sea around the Pole, 
and more recently by several of our arctic adventurers and writers on arctic research, 
have led, in connexion w ith certain theoretic considerations, to the conclusion, now 
popularly received as a fact, of "the open navigable Polar Sea." 

This conclusion, however, as Dr. Scoresby believes, cannot be maintained on the 
principles and arguments by which it is assumed to be supported; on the contrary, 
he ventures to undertake to show, not only that these considerations are inconclu- 
sive, but that the facts or statements for the most part adduced are far more con- 
sistent with the more natural inference of the existence of perpetual ices around 
the Poles. 

The most convenient and satisfactory course for him. Dr. Scoresby, to pursue, in 
the discussion of the subject of his present communication, might probably be to 
take up the several reasons for an open Polar Sea, as put forth in series by Mr. Pe- 
termann, in his pamphlet on the ' Search for Franklin,' who has compendiously 
combined the whole argument. 

] . Amongst the reasons adduced in support of the popular theory, Dr. Scoresby 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 93 

first noticed the records of advances into extremely high latitudes collected by the 
Hon. Dairies Barrington, — If these records were facts, or if a small portion of them 
could be so established, of an open sea being found by many whalers up to latitudes 
82° and 83°, and in certain specified cases, to 86°, 88°, 89° and 89i°, then might it 
be difficult to controvert the popular theory. But none of these records. Dr. Scoresby 
beUeved, had the authority of actual celestial observations registered in and de- 
rived from the journals of intelligent navigators kept at the time. On the contrary, 
they were mainly — the more remarkable asserted advances perhaps wholly — derived 
from hearsay testimony, or recollections of the adventurers after intervals of many 
years. As to the utter unsatisfactoriness, or delusiveness, of evidence of this kind, 
where a great or remarkable adventure was sought to be established. Dr. Scoresby 
gave some curious examples, — showing, on the one part, the almost inevitable ten- 
dency to assume an extreme conclusion ; or, on the other part, — from the peculiar 
defectiveness in calling up, by special effort, long-faded memorial impressions, — the 
doubtfulness and the proneness to inaccuracy of such recollections. And in support 
of this tendency to error, instances were not wanting, in the records referred to, 
where the statements could be actually disproved, — as in regard to the asserted 
advance of a whaler, in 1773, to the latitude of 82°, the very year when the rigidly 
examined condition of the Greenland ices by Capt. Phipps demonstrated the im- 
possibility of advancing beyond 80° 48'. 

2. As to mild weather being found at Cherie Island, and other places, far northward, 
contiguous to the open ocean, in winter. — This fact, which is by no means a general 
one*, is distinctly due to the prevalence of southerly winds, or winds coming from 
the proximate open ocean, on the occasions referred to — an incident which had a 
striking parallel during the early part of a recent winter in our own island. An 
effect, then, derived from a source operating to the southward, can obviously yield 
no evidence of the condition of the climate near the Pole, any more than the fact of 
the water of a river flowing past us, which might happen to be warm, could justify 
the inference that the temperature of the sea into which it flows must also be 
warm ! 

3. The finding of open sea on the northern coasts of Siberia and Nova Zembla, in 
winter. — To the application of this fact by Mr. Petermann, in reference to his project 
of the practicability of a winter passage eastward along these shores. Dr. Scoresby 
■was not called upon to remark, but only to object to any conclusion being drawn 
from such a fact,— on certain occasions experienced, — with respect to the condition 
of the Polar Sea far northward. The open water discovered, incidentally in winter, 
in these situations, was probably due to a previous prevalence of southerly gales 
setting the ice off the land. For as the polar ices afford, on their seaward margins 
especially, innumerable spaces amid the separate pieces, either open or occupied 
only by thin and easily crushable masses, there is always a yielding of the ice, in 
regions not confined by land, to the influence of whatever gales may blow heavily 
and continuously. For by reason of the hummocky character of a great proportion 
of the ices, — the hummocks having, in many cases, large surfaces, with an elevation 
often rising to 20, 30, or even 50 feet, and so acting as sails — the wind exerts a 
powerful influence in drifting the general body of ice away from land, or sections of 
lighter ice from heavier, whenever the wind blows in the proper direction. Under 
such an action of wind, and under like circumstances, he. Dr. Scoresby, had often 
witnessed the drifting away of great bodies of ice from land, or drift-ice from field- 
ice, with a result in opening out a cZear navigable sea of the most surprising cha- 
racter. In some cases, a heavy field, previously pressed upon by a pack of drift-ice, 
has thus been cleared on its leeward side by a gale blowing off it, so as, in 24 to 48 
hours, to leave a clear sea to leeward as far as the eye could discern from the mast- 
head. 

Hence no conclusion in favour of the theory of a navigable Polar Sea can be main- 
tained on the occurrence of open water to the utmost extent of vision on the face, 
whether northward or otherwise, of any particular coast. A southerly gale blowing 
hard off a Siberian or Nova Zemblan shore, might suffice, after two or three days' 
continuance, to clear away all ice not affixed to the shore, to the distance of very 
many leagues. For a pack of drift-ice, if of great extent, is always capable of com- 
pression under the force of heavy gales, even when containing no considerably 
* See Account of Arctic Regions, vol. i. 335-8. 



94 REPORT — 1853. 

openings, by reason of the compacting of the innumerable pieces, and the squeezing 
up of the smaller masses upon the larger, or upon each other. 

4. As to the rise of temperature in northerly gales, in winter, observed by several of 
our arctic navigators in regions westward of Baffin's Bay. — This very partial fact (par- 
tial as to the region where it has been experienced) has been applied as an argument 
in favour of the theory of an open Polar Sea, — as if indicating a sea to the north- 
ward of far greater warmth in winter than that of Regent's Inlet or Barrow's Strait. 
But, it will be obvious, on the principle of the rotatory character of storms — a fact 
now generally admitted — that the rise of temperature when the gale was from the 
north would prove nothing in favour of the theory of a mild climate about the Pole ; 
for the rise of temperature would be explained on the obvious principle that that 
portion of the air had recently blown from the reverse direction, and probably had 
gained its warmth from the open ocean. 

But a rise of temperature might perhaps be urged as a fact belonging to northerly 
winds generallj', and not limited to the case of storms. If so, the argument, to be 
worth anything, in favour of a mild climate near the Pole, would require that the 
fact should be the same in all other meridians of similar latitudes. But the fact is 
not so. In the meridians of, and proximate to, Spitzbergen, where the sea is 
navigable farther north than elsewhere, the northerly winds are prevalently colder 
than the southerly. This fact, as to the months of April, May, and June, his (Dr. 
Scoresby's) published records of temperature, extending to some seventeen years, 
decidedly proved. The spring temperature, in the 80th and 81st parallels, he had 
invariably found was the lowest in northerly gales. Thus, in an extreme case, which 
is noted in his published journal of 1822, the temperature, April 29th, latitude 
80° 30', which, with a southerly gale, was at 32°, fell, on the gale shifting to the 
north, to —2°, a change of 34° in 16 hours! The foundation of the argument, 
therefore, for a mild climate near the Pole, is here completely removed. A rise of 
the winter and spring temperature, with north winds, at Melville Island, latitude 
74°, cannot prove a mild climate near the Pole, when a. fall of temperature in spring 
(the winter not being observed) near Spitzbergen, latitude 80° to 80^°, occurs with 
the winds from the north * ! 

5. As to the discovery of open and apparently interminable sea in Queen's Channel 
and Smith's Sound, which have been assumed to be respectively entrances to an open 
Polar ocean. — This assumption, Dr. Scoresby was prepared to show, was altogether 
gratuitous. Capt. Penny, in the summer of 1851, sawopen water to the extent of vision 
northward, from Baillie Hamilton Island. But such an opening-out of waters within 
straits, or channels, or sounds, was, in the arctic regions, the common result of sum- 
mer warmth, under corresponding hydrographical and ' cographical configurations 
and conditions, and therefore proved nothing in respect to an open Polar ocean. He 
(Dr. Scoresby) could point to the opening-out in summer of the bays, sounds, and 
channels of Spitzbergen, Greenland, and the regions further west, as a very general 
fact, and the exhibition of what deceptively appeared to be immense seas of open 
water, as an usual occurrence, in certain positions of the Greenland Sea, much 
further north than the sea seen by Capt. Penny. 

Nor does the open water seen by Capt. Inglefield northward of Smith's Sound 
afford any real ground for the asserted conclusion, that it was the entrance or com- 
mencement of an open Polar sea. The latitude here reached was 78° 28', being 
but 45 to 50 miles further north than the marvellous attainment of Baffin in I6l6. 
Beyond this, from N.E. to N.W., Captain Inglefield contemplated only an unen- 
cumbered sea. But what did the observed facts prove? From the mast-head of 
the Isabella, which could only command a view of the horizon of about 9 miles, or 
of ordinary floating ice, perhaps 10 or 11 miles, no ice was to be seen northward. 
Up to latitude 78° 38' thtre was, therefore, a clear sea; but in 79° there might have 
been impenetrable ices. And this, it is almost certain, was the fact ; for some of the 
men, as Capt. Inglefield tells us, saw an ice-blink to the northward, a sure indica- 
tion of compact ice witliin 20 or 30 miles. No rational argument can be grounded 
on such a fact as this. An apparently open sea, with not a sign of ice northward, 

* The obser\'ations of Capt. Maclure of the winter temperature at Banks' Land, in relation 
to the direction of the wind, have yielded a completely neutralizing result of the argument 
here discussed, — the greatest rise of temperature being found to be with east winds, not with 
north. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THB SECTIONS. 96 

is prevalently found near Spitzbergen in spring and summer, in a much higher 
latitude —in 79° or even beyond 80° N. This sea is often closed in, in the spring 
of the year by a barrier of ice of 100 to 150 miles in width to the southward. On 
passing the barrier for the first time, and then saiUng northward for two or three 
degrees of latitude without interruption, the navigator might naturally infer a con- 
tinuance of the open sea, not improbably to the very Pole. But experience would 
soon teach him that the promising navigation was but limited; and certainly, betore 
he reached the latitude of 81°, or thereabout, he would be stopped by impenetrable 
and apparently interminable ices. , . ^ , , . , ^v .. 4.u 

The reasonable induction from what Capt. Inglefield witnessed was, that the ap- 
parently open sea north of Smith's Sound was but another expansion of Baffin s Bay 
after the manner of that succeeding to Davis's Strait, and that the open water was 
due to the same circumstance,— the proximity of land, as Capt. Inglefield actually 
observed, on both sides. Had the opening seen been the margin of an open Polar 
ocean as it was assumed, the gale which drove the Isabella out of the Sound, south- 
ward, should have raised waves of 20 to 30 feet in height, of which, it is believed, 
there was no semblance. , . ^ . „, , j ., 

6 As to the profusion of animal life met with m Queen s Channel, and other open 
waters amid the arctic lands, considered as a proof of a melioration of climate in 
proceeding northward.— This popular inference, it may be satisfactorily shown, is 
utterly inconclusive. For if the clear openings amid the northern ices just referred 
to are demonstrably referable to the proximity of land, then the apparent mildness 
of climate must naturally be explained, not by the assumption of an increase of 
warmth with an increase of latitude, but to the form and contiguity of land. If this 
were not so, then the profusion of animal life should increase, or at all events con- 
tinue, in advancing in the highest attainable latitudes, whether land was there or 
not. 'But the fact is not so. When, in summer, the coasts of Greenland and Spitz- 
bergen for example, are swarming with aquatic birds and other creatures, let a ship 
proceed to the highest attainable latitude north-westward of Hackluyt's Headland, 
Spitzbergen, and ice will be found in the 80th or 81st parallel, with a greatly dimi- 
nished quantity of birds and other animals ; and let the navigator push his ship as far 
as possible into the northern ice, and he will soon, probably, find himself fast beset, 
and with few living creatures— possibly almost none— to cheer his solitude. This 
is a fact which, more than once, has been realized by personal experience,— a fact 
conclusive in the way of proof that the profusion of animal life rae'c with in the ad- 
ventures of our arctic voyagers, was not due to improvement of climate by reason 
of advance towards the Pole ; for in the greatest advances northward which have 
ever been made far away from land, animal life becomes less and less profuse, until, 
in extreme cases, it almost disappears. So dependent, indeed, is the warmth of the 
arctic summer generally on the proximity of land, that when, in the bays of Spitz- 
bergen, or the inlets, such as Scoresbv's Sound, of Greenland, the weather may be- 
come absolutely hot, characterized by the appearance of living moths, and even 
mosquitoes, the temperature a few leagues out from the land will rarely be found 
higher than, perhaps, 45°. , ■, • .. 

The assumed increase of animal life northward, so strongly urged in a recent 
annual report of the Geographical Society, and otherwise, as a proof of a mild cli- 
mate near the Pole, cannot be sustained,' therefore, as a general fact. It is not the 
fact in regard to the highest latitudes that may be reached, nor is it the fact as to 
the region about Wellington Channel ; for no instance appears ever to have been met 
with there, in the higher latitudes reached in that region, at all comparable to the 
wonderful extent of animal life which he (Dr. Scoresby) had shown in his publi- 
cation on the ' Franklin Expedition,' pp. 68, 69, to have been met with in Regent s 
Inlet, three or four degrees further south. Hence this argument also necessarily 
falls with the failure of the assumed fact. 

7. As to the large quantify of the Greenland ices annually drifted away to the south- 
ward, and dissolved,— Si fact from which it is argued that an open sea should be left 
behind near the Pole.— But this inference depends on the assumptions, for which 
there is no foundation, of these being ices coming from the Pole, and that the ices 
annually produced around the Pole are cleared away year by year. On the contrary, 
the more probable inference is, that these ices are merely the excess of the winter 
production, by the severe frost of the north, carried ofiF, under the wise and gracious 
oeconomy ordained by the Creator, in order to prevent that vast accumulation of icea 



96 REPORT— 1853. 

around the Pole which otherwise might be thrust southward, in process of time, so 
as to render some of the loveliest regions of the earth uninhabitable, or unfit for the 
production of those vegetable fruits, or for yielding those admirable conditions of 
temperate climates, on which so much of human well-being and happiness depend. 

The arguments for an open Polar sea thus far met, include. Dr. Scoresby believed, 
the chief of those popularly relied on, and it would be tedious to add more. But 
the positive reasons for a contrary conclusion might require, on such an occasion, 
some little consideration. 

And first, he might notice the grand and unquestionable fact of the extremely low 
average temperature of the Polar regions as a powerful reason for assuming the 
existence of perpetual ices in the far north. The mean annual temperature of 
latitude 78°, near the western coast of Spitzbergen, has been shown, by personal 
researches, published in 1820 in the 'Account of the Arctic Regions,' to be as low 
as about 17°, or 1 1° below the freezing temperature of sea- water; whilst in the more 
enclosed regions westward, such as those of Melville Island, Regent's Inlet, &c., the 
existence of a mean annual temperature of about 30° below the freezing of sea-water 
has been determined. The normal temperature of the North Pole, too, estimated in 
the 'Account of the Arctic Regions' at 10°, and reduced still further by M. Dove 
to 2°"3, must naturally lead to the inference of an accumulation of ice, rather than a 
lacking of ice, in regions immediately surrounding the Pole. 

But the theory, after all, of the non-existence of an open Polar sea, has the most 
decided confirmation in these unquestionable facts : — 1st. That of the many expedi- 
tions expressly sent out with the view of reaching the Pole, or passing beyond it, 
not one of them ever attained by sailing as high a latitude as 81° N. 2nd. That 
all the experience of the Hull whalers, comprising within the last 80 years, as 
Mr. Munro has shown, 1949 ships (including repeated voyages), has yielded no 
fact to prove an advance within the 82nd parallel ; and 3rd, that in a personal 
experience of 21 years, wherein the highest attainable latitude was proceeded to 
in seven to nine different voyages, no advance beyond the 8lst parallel was ever 
made but once, when the extraordinary position of 81° 30' was reached. And when 
Captain Parry reached some 70 to 80 miles beyond this, it will be remembered that 
from 81° 6, on his advance, the further distance was effected by ice-travelling. On 
the return of the party, indeed, they were able to take the water with their boats far 
northward of where they had left it, and gained open water in 81° 34'; but the fact 
could not fairly tell against the foregoing views, as no doubt this special penetrability 
of the ice was due to the proximity of islands on the north-east of Spitzbergen, 
whose apparent termination in the high latitude (80° 40') to which they have been 
traced is by no means their certain limit. 

Everywhere else, as already shown, an impenetrable barrier of ice has always op- 
posed the advance of the navigator in the latitude of 80° to 81° — a barrier, as it 
appears in the early spring, so compact and continuous as to have led him, the 
author of this paper, to suggest, so long ago as the year 1815, the probabihty of 
access to the very Pole itself being had, by a transglacial journey. On the original 
suggestion of the scheme, favourably as it was received by scientific men in Scot- 
land, it met with discouragement, and even contempt, from others in England. The 
attempt of Capt. Parry, however, in 1826, though necessarily failing because of the 
season of the year in which it was undertaken (the height of summer), proved how 
much the public opinion had changed on this subject ; whilst a letter, long after- 
wards published by Sir John Barrow, went completely to show that the opinion was 
now held by the gallant officer himself, that a continuity of ice exists from the 81st 
parallel northward, and that the reaching of the Pole by ice-travelling, if commenced 
at the favourable season, was by no means an improbable nor very difficult under- 
taking. Such a project, indeed, it was evident, might be defeated, if the course were 
interrupted by mountainous land ; but lofty ices, the accumulation of ages, might 
not improbably occur, — an idea which on the first suggestion of the scheme he had 
mentioned, which since then has had such singular support in the discovery of the 
vast cliffs of seaborne ices by Sir James Ross, in the antarctic regions of the globe*. 

* Since the readinj; of this paper a letter has been publislieil in the ' Athenaeum ' by a 
gentleman wlio had been surgeon in a Hull whaler in 1837, stating that the ' Truelove ' had 
gone to about 82° 30' North ; but on inquiry being made at Hull of the owners of the ship and 
others, the statement was found )!of to be verified ; the mate of the ship, the chief surviving 
officer, affirming that their highest latitude was below 8 )°. — W. S. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 97 

STATISTICS. 

Some suggestions for an improved system of Currency and Banking. 
By Francis Bennoch. 
Having explained the nature of money, and the kinds of money that are, or have 
been, in existence in England — viz. gold, silver, and copper coins, — bank notes ex- 
changeable on demand vtrith gold coins at a fixed rate of price in these notes, — and 
notes in which the gold coins were left free to find their market price, — he showed 
that gold coins were only legal tender so long as they were of proper weight, and 
that silver and copper coins could only be considered as tokens, because they were not 
intrinsically worth what they circulated (or. He then argued that the pound ster- 
ling had perpetually varied in its metallic value. The gold pound in 1352 weighed 
360 grains, in 1552 it weighed 174 grains, in 1650 it contained 140 grains, in 1750 
129 grains, and in 1850 it was only 123 grains. So that the pound sterling in 1850 
was only one-third the weight it was in 1352. As it had been found necessary to 
reduce the weight of the sovereign from time to time to bring it to bear a relative 
value with silver, so now the question would arise, when gold was becoming more 
abundant, whether we should increase the weight of the sovereign or decrease 
the weight of the silver. He contended that, inasmuch as our great national debt 
and every existing contract meant in reality so much weight of gold, it would be 
most unfair to the debtor classes to increase the weight of the sovereign. Every 
increase of an eighth to the weight of the sovereign would in reality increase the 
national debt by one hundred millions of pounds sterling. He next proceeded to 
show the advantages and disadvantages of our present system, and explained the 
third kind of money of which this country had some experience from 1797 to 1819. 
Instead of permitting the Bank of England to issue notes, he would have all issues of 
legal tender money under the control of Parliament, and that it should be limited to 
an amount equal to the annual taxation. Instead of the Government issuing, as now. 
Exchequer bills, on which were issued Bank of England notes, he would recommend 
the issue of Exchequer notes, which would circulate as money, and finally be received 
back into the Exchequer in payment of taxes. This money being for State purposes, 
there might also be a system of commercial money to work in harmony with it. All 
banks issuing paper should be obliged to place in the hands of the Government, securi- 
ties which could not be touched so long as a single note was in circulation, and as each 
note would bear a uniform stamp, indicating its security, there would be abundant 
faith — runs upon banks would never be made, and panics could seldom, if ever, 
occur. The object in this discussion was not for the section to consider what money 
was, but what money ought to be. Should it be value in itself, or the representative 
of value? A metallic currency could never be depended upon for the due perform- 
ance of its important functions ; when most needed as money, it was liable to be 
exported as an article of commerce, or broken up for purposes of manufacture. 
Under a paper money system properly arranged, such as had been suggested, all 
sudden changes of value would be avoided, and panics unknown. The essence of 
money was that it should expand and contract, so as to meet every emergency with- 
out any violent action. National prosperity would be secured, because our money 
would have the security of the nation. Growing prosperity meant increase of trade. 
Increase of trade demanded extended circulation. Every advance in wages, or in 
the price of commodities, required more money to pay for the same quantity of la- 
bour or material than had been before necessary. The greater the amount of indus- 
trial operations, the larger the sum of money required to pay the wages. Under 
our present system, this necessarily withdrew bullion from the Bank ; reduced the 
quantity of notes issued ; created financial alarm ; discounts were advanced in rate ; 
manufacturers and merchants sold their goods at a reduced price to obtain the money 
needed ; a diminution of production followed, and ultimately mills were closed and 
hands thrown out of work. So that out of the highest possible prosperity, our 
system of money managed to manufacture the direst adversity, and through panics 
to lead to pauperism. Mr. Bennoch concluded by declaring that a metallic 
currency was merely barter, and that a paper currency, based on national property, 
was the wisest that could be adopted, inasmuch as it constituted nineteen-twentietbs 
of our present system ; but that twentieth part had the power to disturb the whole. 
1853, 7 



98 



REPORT — 1853. 



Mr. Cheshire (one of the Secretaries) read a communication from Lady 
Bentham, widow of the late Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Bentham, on certain 
statements contained in a paper read before the Statistical Section at Belfast in 
September 1852, entitled ' Statistics of Portsea and Portsmouth Dockyard,' commu- 
nicated by the Portsmouth and Portsea Philosophical Society, and published in the 
quarterly Journals of the Statistical Society in June and September of the present 
year, in which her Ladyship corrected some inaccuracies relating to the dockyard. 

On t?w Results of the Census of Great Britain in 1851, toith a Description of 
the Machinery and Processes employed to obtain the Returns. By Edward 
Cheshire, one of the Secretaries of the Section. 

The author commenced by reciting the onerous duties of the Registrar-General. 
The objects of the census were explained, and the machinery employed to take it. 
Great Britain was apportioned into 38,740 enumeration districts, and to each of 
them a duly qualified enumerator was appointed. The author illustrated the extent 
of this army of enumerators, and the labour of engaging their services on the same 
day, by stating that it would take lOJ hours to count them, at the rate of one a 
second, and that the army recently encamped at Chobham would not have sufficed 
to enumerate a fourth of the population of Great Britain. The boundaries of the 
enumeration districts, and the duties of the enumerators, were defined. The num- 
ber of householders' schedules forwarded from the Census Office was 7,000,000, 
weighing 40 tons. The processes employed to enumerate persons sleeping in barns, 
tents, and the open air, and in vessels, were severally explained ; also the means by 
which the numbers of British subjects in foreign States were obtained. The precau« 
tions taken to secure accurate returns were recited ; they involved the final process 
of a minute examination and totaling, at the Census Office, of 20 millions of entries, 
contained on upwards of 1^ million of pages of the enumerators' books. The latter 
were nearly 39,000 in number. The boundaries of the fourteen registration 
divisions were traced, and the plan of publication of the census was explained. The 
number of persons absent from Great Britain on the night of the 30th of March, 
1851, was nearly 200,000 : — viz. army, navy, and merchant service, 162,490; and 
British subjects resident and travelling in foreign countries, 33,775. The various 
causes of displacements of the population were recited ; and the general movement 
of the population on the occasion of the Great Exhibition was alluded to.* The 
number of visits to the Crystal Palace were 6,039,195, — and the number of persona 
who visited it was 2,000,000 ; nevertheless, the landing of only 65,233 aliens was 
reported in the year. The population of Great Britain in 1851 is subjoined : — 



England 

Scotland 

Wales 

Islands 

Army, Navy, and Merchant Service 

Total 



8,281,734 
1,375,479 

499,491 
66,854 

162,490 



10,386,048 



8,640,154 

1,513,263 

506,230 

76,272 



10,735,919 



Total. 



16.921,888 

2,888,742 

1,005,721 

143,126 

162,490 



21,121,967 



In illustration of this 21,000,000 of people allusion was made to the Great Exhibi- 
tion. On one or two occasions, 100,000 persons visited the Crystal Palace in a 
single day, consequently 211 days of such a living stream would represent the num- 
ber of the British population. Another way of realizing 21,000,000 of people was 
arrived at by considering their numbers in relation to space : allowing a square yard 
to each person, they would cover 7 square miles. The author supplied a further 
illustration by stating that if all the people of Great Britain had to pass through 
London in procession four abreast, and every facility was afforded for their free and 
uninterrupted passage for 1 2 hours daily, Sundays excepted, it would take nearly 
3 months for the whole population of Great Britain to file through, at quick march, 

* It is atated incidentally in the census, that in 1845 a million and a half of people on the Continent visited, 
in pilgrimage, the Hols/ Coal at Trdves. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



fowr deep. The excess of females in Great Britain was 512,361, or as many as 
would have filled the Crystal Palace 5 times over. The proportion between the 
sexes was 100 males to 105 females, — a remarkable fact, when it was considered 
that the births during the last 13 years had given the reversed proportion of 105 
hoys to 100 girls. The annexed statement exhibits the population of Great Britain 
at each census from 1801 to 1851 inclusive : — 



Years. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1801 


5,368,703 


5,548,730 


10,917,433 


1811 


6,111,261 


6,312,859 


12,424,120 


1821 


7,096,053 


7,306,590 


14,402,643 


1831 


8,133,446 


8,430,692 


16,564,138 


1841 


9,232,418 


9,581,368 


18,813,786 


1851 


10,386,048 


10,735,919 


21,121,967 



The increase of population, in the last half-century, was upwards of 10,000,000, 
and nearly equalled the increase in all preceding ages, notwithstanding that millions 
had emigrated in the interval. The increase still continued, but the rate of increase 
had declined, chiefly from accelerated emigration. At the rate of increase prevailing 
from 1801 to 1851, the population would double itself in 52^ years. The relation 
of population to mean lifetime and to interval between generations was then dis- 
cussed. The efiFects of fertile marriages and of early marriages, respectively, were 
stated ; also the result of a change in the social condition of unmarried women ; 
likewise, the effect of migration and emigration, respectively, on population ; the 
effect of an abundance of the necessaries of life was indicated, and, on the contrary, 
the result of famines, pestilences, and public calamities. The terms "family" and 
"occupier" were defined, and some remarks, by Dr. Carus, on English dwellings, 
were cited. The English (says the Doctor) divide their edifices perpendicularly in 
houses, while on the Continent and in many parts of Scotland the edifices are 
divided horizontally into floors. The definition of a " house," adopted for the pur- 
poses of the census, was " isolated dwellings, or dwellings separated by party walls." 
The following table gives the number of houses in Great Britain in 1851 : — 



England 

Scotland 

Wales 


Inhabited. 


Uninhabited. 


Building. 


3,076,620 

370,308 

201,419 

21,845 


144,499 

12,146 

8,995 

1,095 


25,192 

2,420 

1,379 

203 


Islands 

Total... 


3,670,192 


166,735 


29,194 



About 4 per cent, of the houses in Great Britain were unoccupied in 1851, and to 
every 131 houses, inhabited or uninhabited, there was one in course of erection. In 
England and Wales the number of persons to a house was 5*5 ; in Scotland 7*8, or 
about the same as in London ; in Edinburgh and Glasgow the numbers were re- 
spectively 20-6 and 27*5. Subjoined is a statement of the number of inhabited 
houses and families in Great Britain at each census, from 1801 to 1851, — also of 
persons to a house, excluding the islands in the British seas : — 



Years. 


Inhabited Houses. 


Families. 


Persons to a House. 


1801 


1,870,476 


2,260,802 


5-6 


1811 


2.101,597 


2,544,215 


5-7 


1821 


2,429,630 


2,941,383 


5-8 


1831 


2,850,937 


3,414,175 


5-7 


1841 


3,446,797 


(No returns.) 


5-4 


1851 


3,648,347 


4,312,388 


5-7 



The number of inhabited houses had nearly doubled in the last half-century, and 
upwards of two million new families had been founded. 67,609 families, taken at 

7* 



100 



REPORT — 1853. 



hazard, were analysed into their constituent parts, and they gave some curious re« 
suits. About 5 per cent, only of the families in Great Britain consisted of husband, 
wife, children, and servants, generally considered the requisites of domestic felicity; 
while 893 families had each ten children at home, 317 had each eleven, and 64 had 
each twelve. The number of each class of institution, and the number of persons 
inhabiting them, are annexed : — 



Class of Institution. 


Number 
of Insti- 
tutions. 


Number of Persons inhabiting them. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Barracks 


174 
746 
257 
149 
118 
573 


44,833 
65,786 
24,593 
9,753 
5,893 
27,183 


9,100 
65,796 

6,366 
11,251 

5,754 
19,548 


53,933 
131,582 
30,959 
21,004 
11,647 
46,731 






Lunatic Asylums ... 
Hospitals 


Asylums, &c 


Total- 


2,017 


178,041 


117,815 


295,856 



Of these 295,856 persons, 260,340 were inmates, and 35,516 officers and servants. 
The excess of males in the prisons arose from the fact that crime was four times as 
prevalent among males as among females. The number of the houseless classes, 
t. e. of persons sleeping in barns, tents, and the open air, on the night of the census, 
was 18,249. The following table gives the number of these classes, together with 
those sleeping in barges and vessels : — 



Persons sleeping in 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 




10,395 
7,251 
4,614 

48,895 


2,529 
2,721 
3,663 
2,853 


12,924 
9,972 
8,277 

51,748 


Barns 

Tents or open air ... 
Vessels 


Total... 


71,155 


11,766 


82,921 



It was mentioned as a curious trait of gipsy feeling, that a whole tribe struck their 
tents, and passed into another parish, in order to escape enumeration. The com- 
position of a town was next described; also the laws operating upon the location of 
families. The number of cities and towns, of various magnitudes, in Great Britain 
was 815 : — viz. 580 in England and Wales, 225 in Scotland, and 10 in the Channel 
Islands. The town and country population was equally balanced, — 104 millions 
against lOJ millions. The density in the towns was 3,337 persons to the square 
mile; in the country, only 120. The average population of each town in England 
and Wales was 15,500 ; of each town in Scotland, 6,654. The average ground area 
of the English town was 4f miles. The manner in which the ground area in Great 
Britain was occupied by the population was illustrated by a series of squares. The 
adventitious character of certain towns was alluded to ; many had risen rapidly from 
villages to cities, and had almost acquired a metropolitan character. In 1851, Great 
Britain contained 70 towns of 20,000 inhabitants and upwards. There was an in- 
creasing tendency of the people to concentrate themselves in masses. London 
extended over an area of 78,029 acres, or 122 square miles, and the number of its 
inhabitants, rapidly increasing, was 2,362,236 on the day of the last census. The 
author illustrated this number by a curious calculation : — a conception of this vast 
mass of people might be formed by the fact, that if the metropolis was surrounded 
by a wall, having a north gate, a south gate, an east gate, and a west gate, and each 
of the four gates was of sufficient width to allow a column of persons to pass out 
freely /our abreast, and a peremptory necessity required the immediate evacuation of 
the city, it could not be accomplished under four-and-twenty hoars, by the expiration 
of which time the head of each of the four columns would have advanced a no less 
distance than seventy-Jive miles from their respective gates, all the people being in 
close file, four deep. In respect to the density or proximity of the population, a 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



101 



French writer had suggested the term " specific population," after the analogy of 
"specific gravity," in lieu of the terms in common use, "thinly populated" and 
" populous." The statement annexed exhibits the area of Great Britain in acres 
and square miles, the square in miles, the number of acres to a person, of persons 
to a square mile, and the mean proximity of the population on the hypothesis of an 
equal distribution : — 



England 

Scotland 


Area 


Square 
(in miles). 


Acres to a 
Person. 


Persons to 

a square 

mile. 


Proximity 
of Persons 
in yards. 


In Acres. 


In Square 
Miles. 


32,590,429 

20,047,462 

4,734,486 

252,000 


50,922 

31,324 

7,393 

394 


226 

177 

86 

20 


1-9 
6-9 

4-7 
1-8 


322 

92 

135 

363 


104 

197 

162 

99 


Wales 


Islands 


Great Britain... 


57,624,377 


90,038 


299 


2-7 


233 


124 



The 624 districts of England and Wales classed in an order of density, ranged from 
18 persons to the square mile in Northumberland, to 185,751 in the East London 
district. In all London there were 19,375 persons to the square mile. In 1801, 
the people of England were on an average 153 yards asunder; in 1851, only 108 
yards. The mean distance between their houses in 1801 was 362 yards; in 1351, 
only 252 yards. In London, the mean proximity, in 1801, was 21 yards ; in 1851, 
only 14 yards. The number of islands in the British group was stated at 500, but 
inhabitants were only found on 175 on the day of the census. The early history of 
the more celebrated of the islands was given. The population of the chief of the 
group. Great Britain, had been given. Ireland contained 6,553,357 inhabitants ; 
Anglesey, the next most populous island, had 57,318 inhabitants ; Jersey, 57,020 ; 
the Isle of Man, 52,344 ; the Isle of Wight, 50,324 ; Guernsey, 29,757 ; eight islands 
ranged from 22,918 to 5,857; seventeen from 4,006 to 1,064; fifty-two from 947 to 
105, and the remaining 92, downwards to an island inhabited by one solitary man. 
The shires, hundreds, and tythings were traced to Alfred the Great ; the circuits to 
Henry the Second. The terms "hundreds" and "tythings" had their origin in a 
system of numeration. The number of reformed boroughs in England and Wales 
was 196, and contained a population of 4,345,269 inhabitants. Scotland contained 
83 royal and municipal burghs, having a population of 752,777 inhabitants. The 
difficulty of tracing the boundaries of the ecclesiastical districts, and consequently of 
ascertaining correctly their population, was shown. The changes in the ancient 
boundaries of counties and other divisions were alluded to, and the paper concluded 
with a general summary of the results of the census. An appendix contained tables, 
showing the population and number of houses, distinguishing whether inhabited, 
uninhabited, or building, in England, Scotland, Wales, and the Islands respectively, 
at each census from 1801 to 1851; the same, in 1851, for each of the 14 registra- 
tion divisions ; for each of the 36 districts of London ; and for each county in 
England and Wales, and in Scotland ; also the population of each county in England 
and Wales, and in Scotland, at each census from ISOl to 1851, and the increase of 
population in the last half-century ; the area in acres and square miles, the number 
of persons to a square mile, of acres to a person, of inhabited houses to a square 
mile, and of persons to a house, for each county in England and Wales, and in 
Scotland ; the population and number of inhabited houses in the counties, and par- 
liamentary divisions of counties, in England and Wales, and in the counties of 
Scotland, including and excluding represented cities and boroughs or burghs, also 
the number of members returned ; the population of each island containing above 
100 persons; the population and number of inhabited houses in each of the 815 
cities, boroughs, and principal towns in England and Wales and in Scotland, di- 
stinguishing the municipal and parliamentary limits ; the number of each class of 
public institutions in England and Wales, Scotland and the Islands, and the number 
of persons inhabiting them ; the number of births and deaths, and the excess of 
births over deaths, in England and Wales, for each of the ten years of J 841-50; 



102 REPORT— 1853. 

and, finally, the number of persons who had emigrated from Great Britain and Ire- 
land in each year from 1843 to 1852 inclusive, and the destination of the emigrants. 

Statistics relative to Nova Scotia in 1851. By Edward Cheshire. 
The author commenced by a short sketch of the history of Nova Scotia ; he defined 
the boundaries of the province, and described the geographical features of the country 
and its climate. The census of 1851 gave a population of 276,117, and exhibited a 
remarkable equality between the sexes, viz. 137,677 males to 138,440 females. A 
statement of the social condition of the people showed an excess of 3678 widows 
over widowers, or 160 per cent. — a result arising, probably, from the risks incurred 
by the men (10,000 in number) engaged in the fisheries. The bachelors exceeded 
the spinsters by 2367, or 4 per cent. The spiritual wants of the people were well 
provided for, there being one clergyman to every 1000 of the population, but a 
lawyer and a doctor to every 2000 only. The number of afflicted persons in the 
colony was as follows : — BUnd, 136 ; deaf and dumb, 230 ; idiots, 299 ; lunatics, 
166; total 831. Deafness and dumbness were 35 per cent, more prevalent among 
men than among women, and idiotcy 43 per cent. The number of Indians and 
coloured persons in the colony was 5964. As regards land, 5,000,000 acres were 
available for tillage, of which only 1 in 26 was under cultivation. The following 
statistics relating to the fisheries possess interest at the present time : — Number of 
vessels employed, 8 1 2 ; their tonnage, 43,333. Numberof boats, 5l6l; men, 10,394; 
annual value of smoked herrings, 217,270Z. ; number of nets and seines, 30,154; 
annual value offish oil, 17,754?. ; quantity of salmon, I669 ; shad, 3536 ; mackerel, 
100,047 ; herrings, 53,200 ; alewives, 5344 (the five latter are in barrels). Mining 
was an important branch of employment. Manufactures and shipping were respect- 
ively passed in review ; and the author concluded with a sketch of the constitution 
of the province, and a statement of the various religious denominations : the latter 
showed that one-eighth of the inhabitants were of the Established Church, and that 
one-fourth were Roman Catholics. 



Summary of the Census of Switzerland. By Prof. Paul Chaix. 

On the Mortality of Hull in the Autumn of IS^Q. 
By Henry Cooper, M.D. Lond. 
This paper was prepared from the official documents of the late Mr. Thorney (to 
whose memory the reader paid a tribute of thanks and deep regret), and of Mr. Chat- 
ham. Tables were shown to exhibit, first, the total number of cholera and diarrhoea 
cases — the former, viz. I860, or 1 in 43 of the whole population ; the latter 256, or 1 
in 355. The number of cases occurring in males was 885; infemales, 975. Yet allowing 
for the difference of number between the excess in the whole population, the female 
mortality was the greatest, one male having died to I'l female ; while, in the whole 
population, there is one male living to 1"14 female. The diarrhoea return showed 
no difl^erence in the number of the sexes. The cases were next analysed as regEU°ds 
age, and it was shown that in cholera the infant mortality, though very high, was 
not higher than that which occurs from ordinary causes of death at the same age. 
The greatest mortality, compared with the annual average, appears to have occurred 
in the prime of life (from 30 to 35), where the ordinary mortality is very low. There 
is also an excessive mortality about 60 ; while the greatest immunity seems to be 
enjoyed from 15 to 25, and from 40 to 60. In diarrhrea the important feature is 
the great excess of infant and old age mortality. The localities in which there had 
been the greatest mortality were indicated by marking each death upon a map in the 
place in which it occurred. The map was tinted in shades, showing by deeper shades 
the parts of the borough where the levels were the lowest, and in which, therefore, 
the hygienic condition, as regards moisture and drainage, might be presumed to be 
the most defective. Three principles were found to govern and determine the position 
of the greatest mortality — the level, the density of the population, and their physical 
and social character. These points were illustrated by specifying certain localities, 
in which the number of markings showed the disease to have been rife. The last 
analysis shown was that of occupation, which showed several curious results. The 
general inference from this analysis was that 1738 of the labouring classes, and 122 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 



103 



of the gentry, traders, and well-to-do classes had suffered ; and, assuming the former 
class to amount to 67,000, and the latter to 13,000, it follows that 1 in 40 of the 
labouring class, and 1 in 131 of the well-to-do class were victims. 



On the Prevalence of Diseases in Hull. 
By Henry Cooper, M.D. Lond. 
A few remarks were premised on the state of mortality in Hull, which has never 
been stated oflScially for the whole borough, as the parts for which it has been 
given have been separated in the returns, so as to give results likely to lead to false 
impressions. Hull, including the Humber, St. Mary's, and Myton registration 
districts, is given in one return ; Sculcoates, including the two Sculcoates, in an- 
other ; the whole parish of Sutton, of which only part is in the borough, in a third, 
and Drypool and Southcoates in separate returns. But the term " Hull " is popu- 
larly applied in an extended sense to the whole borough ; so that the rate of mortality 
of the part so named in the returns, and which, on several accounts, yields more 
than its average of deaths, is erroneously attributed to the whole. The rate 
given for Hull is 1 death in 29 ; for Sculcoates, 1 in 42 ; when the borough in 
its entirety is taken, the rate is 1 in 33 ; and there is reason to believe that in 
the present season it is considerably below this. Tables were then shown to 
exhibit the relative prevalence of eight of the most common diseases not neces- 
sarily fatal, viz. fever, rheumatism, pulmonary ^diseases, dyspepsia, neurosis, 
cachexias, uterine diseases, and diarrhoea. These tables were founded on a 
calculation of 21,712 cases of these diseases presenting themselves at the medical 
charities of the town during a period of ten years ; and the proportion per cent, of 
each disease to the whole number observed, noted under each head. A great preva- 
lence of chest affection, of dyspepsia and rheumatism is found to exist, and fever is 
a comparatively rare disease. A second table shows, by curves, the prevalence of 
the four more important of these diseases, viz. pulmonary diseases, dyspepsia, rheu- 
matism, and fever, and the effect of the seasons of the last ten years upon their 
intensity. Pulmonary diseases, commencing high, rise to their culminating point 
in May, then fall to their minimum in August, and again rise to the average winter 
level. Dyspepsia, coinciding with pulmonary diseases, in its time of attaining its 
height, rises to a much higher point, and falls rapidly through the autumn. Rheu- 
matism has its maximum in winter, with an exacerbation in August and November ; 
— fever is singularly equable and remarkably low for a large town, not favourably situ- 
ated nor well-drained ; its maximum is also in May or April. Zymotic diseases were 
excluded from the calculation, as the cases are not received into the hospital, and 
not treated in the dispensaries in such proportion as to give anything like an ade- 
quate idea of their prevalence. The results tallied very accurately with the practical 
expeiience of medical men, which thus acquired confirmation and exactness from the 
application of the numerical method. 

On the Education of the Poor in Liverpool. 
By the Rev. A. Hume,Z>..C.Z, L.L.D., F.S.A. 

I. Population of the Borough,— The borough consists of five great portions, the 
parish or ancient parliamentary borough, and four adjacent townships or portions 
of townships. From a moderate estimate of the addition to the population since 
the last census, the present population of the borough and of each of its constituent 
parts is reached. The result is shown in the following table : — 





Increase 
from 1841 
to 1851. 


Population 
in 1831. 


Probable 
increase 

since. 


Estimated 

present 
population. 


Parish of Liverpool. 
Toxteth-park 


35,343 
19,708 
12,242 
16,662 
5,625 


258,346 

59,941 

22,002 

25,833 

9,893 


8,836 
4,927 
3,061 
4,165 
1,406 


267,182 
64,868 
25,063 
29,998 
11,299 


Edge-hill 




Kirkdale 


89,580 


376,015 


22,395 


398,410 



104 



REPORT 1853. 



Again, the town is situated on the side of a hill rising from the riverside; the in- 
habitants of the lowest portion consist mainly of the poorest or utterly destitute 
classes, those of the middle portion of the middle or less afHuent classes, and those 
of the townships of persons who are wealthy, or at least in comfortable circum- 
stances. The first and most necessitous of these sets may be estimated at 180,000; 
hence there are about 87,000 in the second, and 132,000 in the third. 

II. Educational Demand. — It is estimated from careful inquiry that two-thirds of 
these, though not all belonging to the class "poor," take advantage of the education 
which is provided for the poor, or which is not self-supporting. Hence, the children 
in a mixed population of about 266,666 require to be provided for. The writer has 
also found from a statistical inquiry on the spot, that in a mixed population, exactly 
25 per cent, are of the ages most likely to attend school, viz. from 3^ to 12. Thus 
the educational demand is fixed at 66,666. 

III. Educational Supply. — This was examined under the four heads of (1) Church 
Schools, (2) Protestant Dissenters' Schools, (3) Roman Catholic Schools, (4) Ge- 
neral Schools, or those unconnected with any religious denomination. By all 
sections of the community the details had been furnished with great readiness. 

The Church Schools consist of two kinds, those that are practically so, e. g. con- 
nected with public institutions, and those which are formally so, e. g. connected 
with district churches and their congregations. The following table shows the 
special eflforts of the church in the education of the poor : — 





i 
■| 

'■B 
"S 
6 
Z 


Population. 


Existing Schools. 


Schools required. 


1 


Accommo- 
dation. 


Popula- 
tion. 


1 

s 


Tempo- 

rai7 
schools. 


Popula- 
tion. 


Liverpool parish.. 

Toxteth-park 

Edge-hill 


31 
6 
3 
5 
1 


267,182 
64,868 
25,063 
29,998 
11,299 


20 
6 
2 


10,010 

2,660 

1,350 

2,220 

150 


182.882 
64,868 
19,063 
19,998 
11,299 


11 

1 
1 

13 


4 
1 


84,300 

6.000 
10,000 




Kirkdale 






46 


398,410 


33 


16,390 


298,110 


5 


100,300 



The rate of progress in the founding of these may be seen from an examination of 
only ten years. It is one school and a half annually. 

In 1843, there were 23 district schools, 

„ 1846 „ ,. 27 „ 

„ 1853 „ „ 38 „ 

The accommodation and attendance at the schools of Protestant dissenters was 
derived from a statistical return made in the beginning of the year. Including 
Jews and Latter Day Saints, indeed all who are not either Churchmen or Roman 
Catholics, the attendance is 3895, and the accommodation 4869. 

The following table shows the same facts respecting the schools of the Roman 
Catholics, and at the same time exhibits the rate of their increase. Of the three 
which are' given separately two were to be opened in 1853, superseding a part of the 
existing accommodation, and the last is yet in progress :— 



1816 

1828 
1830 
1833 
1846 
1846 
1847 



Present 
Accommodation. 
Copperas-hill (500 original accommo- 
dation) 880 .... 

St. Patrick's, Park .1200 .... 

Seel-street 750 .... 

St. Antonv's 625 .... 

St. Vincent de Paul 500 .... 

St. Joseph's 375 .... 

St. Mary's, Ray-street 625 



1849 ... Holy Cross 650 



880 
1200 
620 
500 
500 
300 
500 
700 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. lOS 

1850 ... Sisters of Mercy, Mount Vernon 500 400 

1850 ... Spitalfields 238 190 

1852 ... Eldon-street 312 250 

1852 ... St. Anne's, Edge-hill 800 400 

1853 ... Edgar-street... (1200— 300)=900 
1853 ... Fontenoy-street(l450— 700)=750 
1853 ... St. Francis', Everton =820 

2470 

1850 ... Blackstock-street 738 590 

The schools under general management afford accommodation for 4451. 
We can now obtain a connected view of the entire provision that has been made 
for the education of the poor in the town. It is the following : — 

1. Church Schools — Districts permanent 16,390 

„ ,, „ temporary 1,021 

„ „ „ Not in District Schools 3,075 

20,486 

2. Protestant Dissenters' Schools 4,869 

3. Roman Catholic Schools 8,193 

4. General Schools 4,451 



Total accommodation... 37,999 

We can also compare the supply with the demand, in the form of an ordinary 
account : — 

Total school accommodation required, per previous calculation 66,666 

Ditto ditto provided from all sources, per actual enumeration. ..37,999 
Balance still required to meet the deficiency 28,667 

66,666 

The general result is, that the entire community have yet discharged little more 
than half their duty on this subject, the existing accommodation amounting to only 
57 per cent. 

IV. Distribution of Educational Facilities. — The facts connected with this part of 
the subject cannot but leave a painful impression on the mind ; for it is found that 
the local accommodation in schools is in inverse ratio to the necessities of the town. 

The following facts refer to Church Schools. (1) Of fifteen ecclesiastical districts 
in the townships, thirteen have permanent schools ; of sixteen districts wholly or 
partially in the middle portion of the town, twelve have permanent schools ; of fif- 
teen districts in the lowest part, embracing nearly the whole of the perishing poor, only 
eight have permanent schools. (2) Of six districts in the lowest portion of the town, 
forming a continuous belt from north to south of nearly two miles and a quarter,no< one 
has a permanent set of schools connected with it. Thesecontain almost all the merchants' 
offices in the town, and some of the principal shops ; the Town-hall, Custom-house, 
Exchange, Post-office, railway station, and eleven or twelve of the docks. It is a 
fact worth knowing that four of these districts are connected with churches built by 
the corporation. (3) If the Exchange flags be taken as a centre, and a semi-circle 
be described with a radius of 800 yards, it will contain five districts wholly and 
seven partially, and will comprise a population of 70,000. Of these, four have no 
schools whatever ; two have only temporary ones, and exactly the half are perma- 
nently provided for. (4) A stranger entering the port, can walk from the landing- 
stage on the river right up through the heart of the town, to Everton and Edge- 
hill, without passing through a single district that contains a permanent set of 
schools ! 

The schools of Protestant Dissenters are in general very ill-placed ; for the schools 
follow the chapels, and these are removed from time to time, following the more 
respectable portion of the population. Hence, of the 4869 for whom they provide 



106 KEPORT 1853. 

accommodation, only 350 axe provided for in the lower part of the parish or among 
the perishing masses of the population ! 

In general, the Roman Catholic schools are very well placed ; and the same may 
be said of those that are of a general character. 

The distribution of school accommodation is exhibited in the following table : — 

Parish. 

To\(Tiship8. Upper Part. Lower Part. Total. 

Church schools 6,380 4,700 5,310 16,390 

Dissenters' schools 1,981 2,538 350 4,869 

Roman Catholic schools . 2,500 2,080 3,613 8,193 

General schools 1,131 850 2,570 4,451 



11,992 10,168 11,843 33,903 

Population (general) 131,228 87,182 180,000 398,410 

Estimated number of poor 52,075 44,591 170,000 266,666 

Ratio of education I ^ .^^, ^ i^ ^ . , .^ ^^ ^ i^ g 

among the poor j 

Thus, if each of the three great divisions of the town be regarded as a separate 
unit, the school accommodation in the townships and in the upper part of the parish 
is almost sufficient ; while that in the lower part of the parish is between a third 
and a fourth of what it ought to be. The better parts of the town, some sections of 
which do not possess a single poor family of the most destitute class, have educa- 
tional facilities almost thrust upon the people, until the noble feeling of self-de- 
pendence is endangered, if not gradually broken down. On the contrary, in that part 
of the town where the " people are destroyed for lack of knowledge,'' though its 
necessities amount to two-thirds of the whole, the various religious communitias 
have provided for it only seven, thirty-two, and forty -four per cent, of the i hotel 

In one of the more respectable portions of the Borough, the township of Everton, 
there are public institutions capable of accommodating nearly 2000 pupili, independ- 
ent of about thirty private schools. All these are self-supporting. For the poor there 
is school accommodation to the extent of 3,350 ; while an increase is in progress, 
amounting to 1,270. Now, a school accommodation for 4,620 of this class, repre- 
sents a mixed poor population of 18,480, and a general population in this township 
of nearly 37,000. It is probable that Everton will not contain this number till 
about the period of the next census ; so that ivhile the really poor are perishing in 
ignorance, one of the best parts of the town is over-schooled. Three sets of schools in it, 
built by Protestant Dissenters, Churchmen, and Roman Catholics respectively, have 
cost about ^10,000, and afford accommodation for 2,600 pupils; but they lie in a 
straight line, the entire length of which is 230 yards I 

V. Remedies Suggested. — These followed naturally from the previous statement of 
facts. They were, (1) that the Church should establish a set of schools in every 
ecclesiastical district of the town which is not so provided for ; (2) that Protestant 
Dissenters should combine to establish schools in the most neglected parts of the 
town, which might be denominational but not congregational ; and (3) that the 
Roman Catholic schools, and especially those under general management, should be 
increased in number. Efforts of this kind, if well-sustained, would bring up the 
supply nearly to an equality with the demand, 

VI. Support. — The irregular distribution of funds in school buildings is more 
than equalled in this matter ; for as a general fact the merchants do not subscribe 
to educate those near their offices, but those near their residences. Hence while the ne- 
cessities of district A are ten times those of district B, the school subscriptions for B 
are obtained ten, twenty, or thirty times as readily as those for A. In other words, 
if the two districts are to be brought to the same educational level, the labour in the 
one case is 200, 300, or 400 times as great as in the other : — that is to say, while 
something or even much may be done, educational equality is a practical impossibi- 
lity. This arises from treating parts of a great town, which only ser\'e partial pur- 
poses, as if they were complete wholes. 

While the voluntary system in education affords a very unequal relief, it imposes 
a most unequal burden. As the facts now stand, the intelligent and benevolent man 
is heavily taxed for the possession of virtues that are somewhat rare, while the 



TRANSACTIONS OF THB SECTIONS. 



loiir 



ignorant and selfish man, who has perhaps added rudeness to his negative in the case 
of some strong appeal, is rewarded for the coarseness of his moral sense by a per- 
petual exemption from claims. It has been estimated that so many as 15,000 persons 
ought to subscribe in Liverpool for the promotion of education, and that not more 
than 2500 actually do so. In eighteen Church District Schools there are 8180 chil- 
dren educated, and the entire subscribers are only 810. Probably not more than 
1200 churchmen in all subscribe to any school whatever. For the education of 7000 
Roman Catholic children, there are not fifty principal subscribers ; the remaining 
expenses are met by the children's pence, congregational collections, and very small 
contributions. The writer of the paper, therefore, is anxious to see the system of 
Local Rates introduced, the working of which may be inferred from the following 
analysis of persons rated to the relief of the poor in the borough : — 





Kated 
under 


^8 and 
under 
;€'12. 


^12 and 
under 


3^20 and 
upwards. 


Total. 


Parish of Liverpool.. 
Toxteth-peirk 


8,323 
4,999 

993 
1,093 

307 


12,679 

2,904 

1,486 

1.140 

596 


9,408 
2,540 
1,153 
1,367 
520 


12,270 
1,206 

977 
1,180 

301 


42,680 

11,649 

4,609 

4,780 

1,724 


Edge-hill 




Kirkdale' 




15,715 


18,805 


14,988 


15,934 


65,442 



A brief comparison of Liverpool with New York showed that the educational facts 
are much more satisfactory in the latter ; and it appeared that, in Massachussetts, 
90 per cent, of all those who ought to be at school attended in the summer, and 
75 per cent, in the winter. 

Electoral Statistics of the British Empire. By James Edwards. 

Ireland's Recovery ; or. Excessive Emigration, and its Reparative Ayencies. 
By John Locke. 

The panic caused by the potato-blight and famine of 1846 gave the first impulse to 
the exodus. Within six years, ending 31st Dec. 1852, 1,313,226 persons have emi- 
grated from Ireland. 1851 was the culminating year of the exodus, which, since that 
period, has been decreasing in geometrical ratio ; although the remittances from 
emigrants have increased from ^990,000 in 1851 to J?l,404,000 in 1852. 

The three principal reparative agencies : — 1. Decrease of pauperism concurrent 
with general diffusion of employment. 2. Establishment of civii and social order> 
evidenced by decrease of crime. 3. Increasing solvency of the landed proprietary, 
concurrent with improvement of agriculture. 

1st. Total Poor-law expenditure of 1852 one-fourth less than that of 1851. 
Successful results of the workhouse industrial system, and general improvement of 
the labour market. 

2nd. Decrease of crime, 28^ per cent, in 1852 less than in 1851. Exemplified 
in the moral improvemciit of the peasantry of Tipperary and Limerick. Economic 
results anticipated.. 

3rd. Ruined condition of the landed interest previously to the famine. Beneficial 
eflFects of the Incumbered Estates' Commission, by establishing a middle class, by 
encouraging investment of British capital, and immigration of British farmers into 
the south and west of Ireland. Improvement of agriculture, and increasing number 
and solvency of the landed proprietary. Conclusion. Providential design of 
emigration. 

On Progressive, Practical, and Scientific Education. 
By the Rev. F. O. Morris, B.A. 
The author commenced by mentioning various proofs which had come under his 
own observation of the instability and insuflSciency which at present characterized 



108 REPORT — 1853. 

Mechanics' Institutions, almost the only existing means for the education of the 
adult population. He corroborated his statements by reference to similar remarks 
made in the report of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutions, by the Mayor 
of Chester and the Rev. H. Gunn at the recent conversazione of the Lord Mayor 
of London. He then noticed that a beginning had been made for such an advance 
as he advocated, by the Act just passed for extending the operation of the Public 
Libraries Act of 1850 to Ireland and Scotland, so that tovpn councils and boroughs, 
the population of which exceeded 10,000, can now adopt proceedings to establish 
public libraries and museums throughout the United Kingdom. He also remarked 
upon the aid at present afforded to national and other schools as a step in the true 
direction, and argued that government aid, instead of giving any establishments an 
eleemosynaiy character, gave them a status and a position rather likely to be overrated 
than otherwise. 

He went on to point out some of the ways in which it seemed to him that govern- 
ment assistance might possibly be furnished, not only to a general museum of art in 
the metropolis, but to all country towns, in proportion to their own contributions 
either by subscriptions or a rate, as afforded at present to schools for the young ; 
first premising that he thought it a thing of far more importance than it might at 
first sight appear, to devise some good name by which such establishments should be 
called. It is obvious that the name of Mechanics' Institutions is no longer applica- 
ble to those associations, which nevertheless continue to bear it — actual mechanics 
form but a minority of their members. Possibly part of their failure may have been 
caused by this " defect of title," — the name " National Colleges " might perhaps be 
suggested as the natural sequence of the " National Schools." 

Acting, then, on the principle already adopted in regard to grants to schools in 
proportion to local funds raised, he would have in London a general British Museum 
of all works of art as well as the one that already exists for the works of nature — 
one whose library, specimens, casts, patterns, models, plans of houses, apparatus, 
maps, illustrations, and examples of all hints for improvements should be easily ac- 
cessible to the community at large, on conditions similar to those already adopted 
by the sister institution for admission and inspection — it should be a source of 
example, advice, instruction and communication. All this of course implied a larger 
annual educational grant, and a tenfold amount to that at present voted would in 
all probability by the elevation of the people tend to their comfort and well-being 
in various ways, and so to their being more universally beneficial to and not a burden 
upon the state. He would then desire to see throughout the country buildings of 
respectable or where possible of handsome appearance, and at the same time adapted 
internally to the convenience and comfort of those resorting to them. These buildings 
should, if carried out to a complete extent, contain a museum, library, reading-room, 
lecture-room, room for philosophical experiments, and various other adjuncts care- 
fully enumerated ; a taste for scientific pursuits would be fostered by the sight of 
specimens of natural or artificial objects; the first sight of a butterfly or a bird 
might excite the dormant spirit of a Le Vaillant or Audubon, or the mode] of an 
engine some otherwise " inglorious " Fulton or Watt. Lecturers should be appointed 
and partly paid by government, and a certificate of attendance on a three years' course 
of lectures, and of adequate proficiency at the close of each year after due examina- 
tion, might be a ground for a diploma for a license to lecture. 

The true and legitimate result of thus raising the mental culture of the people at 
large is to elevate and refine the mind, and make it more susceptible of high and holy 
impressions. The discoveries of Herschel do not lead men to disbelieve in God, 
nor do the compositions of Haiadel act as a hindrance to the singing of His praise 
in worship. 

Mr. Morris further advocated a large provision for the healthy and rational amuse- 
ment of the people in connexion with the foundations he had been speaking of, and 
after complaining of the low state of the taste of the people at large, showed that it 
must be raised by general and not by individual means. A little knowledge is then 
only a dangerous thing, if it be rested in as the end instead of being used as the 
means to further imorovement. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 1Q9 

SiatisHes relative to the Northern Whale Fisheries from 1772 to 1852. 

Bi/ Henry Mukroe, M.£>., M.R.C.S., L.S.A.^c. 
The first attempt by the English to capture the whale was in 1594. The Hull 
merchants fitted out ships for the whale fishery as early as 1598, and at a very early 
period discovered Jan Mayen or Trinity Island. The British legislature, to encourage 
the prosecution of the whale fisheries, enacted in 1749 that the original bounty of 
20s. per ton should be increased to 40s. per ton. In the year 1785, ^€94,558 were 
paid in bounties. From 1796 to 1821, a period of 25 years, the number of vessels 
sent out increased to 64, the largest number ever sent. From 1821 to 1833 the 
number of vessels sent out began to decline, owing probably to the year 1821 being 
a disastrous one, 10 vessels having been lost. The year 1833 is the most prosperous 
recorded, 27 ships bringing home the great amount of 5024 tons of oil, being on the 
average of 186 tons per ship, whilst the average return per ship for the last 80 
years was only 88 tons. During the last 80 years 194 ships have been fitted out 
for the fisheries. Out of this number 80 have been lost, and six more taken in war- 
time. Some of the ships have been as often as 58 voyages to the fisheries. For 10 
years between 2000 and 3000 sailors were annually sent in the whaling ships ; for 
40 years above 1000 were sent at the average of 44 men per ship. During the period 
of 80 years the Hull whaling ships have taken 85,644 men ; on an average of 1070 
per year. During the period of 80 years the returns of oil per year have varied from 
5 tons to 7976 tons of oil. The largest cargo of oil brought home was 285 tons. 
During the last 80 years the gross amount of oil broughthome was 171,907 tons. The 
highest price obtained for oil was in 1813, when it was sold as high as ^55 per ton, 
and the lowest about 1805, when it was sold for ^20 per ton, being on the average 
of ,if 30 per ton for the last 80 years. The greatest amount of money realized in 
one year by oil and bone was ^318,880. For 12 years the amount returned was 
above .£200,000 per year, and for 16 years above ^100,000. The gross value of oil 
and bone brought home from the whale fisheries for the last 80 years amounts to 
^6,847,580, being on the average of ^85,594 per year. The average success of 
each ship for the last 80 years was ^3,513 per annum. 



An Analytical View of Railway Accidents in this country and on the Con- 
tinent of Europe in the twelve years from 1 840 to 1 852. By F. G. P. Neison. 
The paper was illustrated by a series of elaborate tables, showing the average fare 
per mile for each class, the number of passengers who have travelled by each class, 
the moneys received from passengers by each class, the total mileage of each, the 
average distance travelled by passengers in each class, the average distance 
travelled by all classes of passengers, and the total number of miles travelled 
by all the passengers collectively in each year. For fiist-class passengers the 
minimum scale of fares was charged in the year 1846, but for the second and 
third class passengers the minimum charges were made in the year 1847. Under 
these dates the scale of charges gradually and pretty uniformly decreased, but since 
then they have fluctuated at a somewhat higher price, and are recently showing a 
tendency to increase. The average distance travelled by the passengers was shown 
by the tables to be yearly becoming less and less. This is particularly observable in the 
second, third, and parliamentary classes since the year 1844. In the period of 1844-4/ 
the distance travelled by all classes was 17"7 ; in 1848-51 it was 16'3 ; and in 1852 it 
had diminished to 15'8 miles. A most important feature shows itself in connexion 
with the operation of cheap fares, not only on the average distance travelled by each 
passenger, but also on the number of passengers. In the parliamentary class the 
average distance exceeds that for either the third or second classes, and the number 
of such passengers since 1847 (the period within which the parliamentary trains may 
be said to be in regular operation) exceeds that of all the other classes with the 
exception of the second class, and in the year 1852 very nearly equalled the number 
of the second class ; while in the last year the mileage of the parliamentary class 
actually exceeded that of the second class by 13,500,000 miles. In the period of 
1840-51 the number of railway passengers was 478,488,607, of whom 237 were 
killed and 1,416 injured, showing a ratio of I killed in 2,018,939. and one injured 
in 337,916. Of engine-drivers, stokers, and guards, the number killed was 275, 
and the injured 274, out of 40,486, showing a ratio of 1 killed in \77> and 1 injured 



110 REPORT~1853. 

in 148. Number of porters and other servants, 359,683, of whom 683 were killed 
and 343 injured; the ratio being 1 killed in 527, and 1 injured in 1058. During 
the years 1844-51, 7,044,469,484 miles have been travelled by passengers, and 176 
deaths have happened through accidents from all causes. Hence one passenger has 
been killed for every 40,025,395 miles travelled. Supposing a person to be alvyays 
in motion on a railway, and travelling at an average speed of 20 miles per hour, in- 
cluding stoppages, he would travel 175,200 miles yearly, and he must constantly 
travel 228 years to be killed by accidents from all causes. The period for which he 
must constantly travel to be killed by accidents from all causes under the control or 
the companies is 490 years ; and he must be constantly travelling 426 years to be 
killed by accidents from causes beyond the control of the companies ; but if the 
person is supposed to travel 12 hours only per diem for each of the 365 days in the 
year, then in 456 years he will be killed by accidents from all causes ; in 980 years he 
will be killed by accidents from causes under the control of the companies ; and in 
852 years he will be killed by accidents from causes beyond the control of the com- 
panies. Of the 237 passengers killed in the period 1840-51, 103 were killed by 
causes beyond, and 1 34 by causes under, the control of the companies. Of the 1416 
persons injured, 188 were injured by causes beyond, and 1228 from causes under, 
the control of the companies. It was a popular error to suppose that third-class 
passengers were the principal sufferers from railway accidents, the fact being that 
the greatest proportion of accidents took place among the first-class passengers. 
Taking the number of persons travelling, the number of miles opened, and judging 
of the fact by every test, it appeared from the tables that there was a gradual 
diminution in the loss of life on railways ; and, without any wish to defend the 
management of railway directors, Mr. Nelson considered it satisfactorily proved that 
there was a great improvement in the railway system. As an instance of the rash- 
ness of passengers, he stated that three persons had been killed, and seven injured, 
by leaping from the train while in motion, for their hats. The tables show that the" 
deaths from collisions and from trains running off the line, which have constituted 
a large portion of the whole, have been diminishing, while deaths from passengers 
falling from the trains had scarcely varied. The death from axles breaking in the 
four years 1840-43 formed 8 per cent, of the whole ; but since 1844 not a single 
death has happened from this cause ; and in regard to death from the breaking of 
other parts of the machinery none have taken place since 1847. The deaths occasioned 
by passengers jumping from trains while in motion have much increased since 
1840, as well as the deaths from passengers mounting trains while in motion. The 
deaths from causes beyond the control of the companies form 54*8 per cent, of the 
number of injuries ; but the deaths from causes which arc under their control form 
10'9 per cent., so that the tendency of accidents which may be considered to arise 
from details of management is to inflict bodily injury rather than occasion death ; 
for out of every 100 injuries about 11 deaths happen, while among the accidents 
due to causes within the influence of the passengers themselves, for every 100 injuries 
55 deaths take place. In the period 1840-43 the deaths from causes under the 
control of the companies was 62*50 per cent, of all the deaths ; in 1844-47 they were 
51 "56 per cent. ; and in 1848-51 only 43' 16 per cent., so that it was evident that the 
class of accidents under the control of the several companies was decreasing in rela- 
tion to the total accidents in a most satisfactory and very rapid manner. Referring 
to the German railways, Mr. Nelson gave the following results for the years 1848, 
1849 and 1850 : — length of railways open, 8480 miles (English) ; number of 
passengers, 51,713,297; number of miles travelled, 1,155,436,890. During this 
period only one passenger was killed, and 14 injured ; 53 railway employes were 
killed, and 88 injured. 

On new Supplies of Gold. By William Newmarch. 
The quantity of new gold produced in California and Australia to the end of 1852 
is equal to at least 10 per cent, of the total quantity of gold existing in Europe and 
America in the early part of 1848, or immediately previous to the first appearance 
of the Californian supplies. We have seen also that the annual production of gold 
from all sources, — which in 1848 was equal to 2 per cent, on the total quantity of 
gold then existing in Europe and America, — had risen in 1852 to 7 per cent, on that 
quantity. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. IH 

So far the whole, or nearly the ■whole, of the new supplies of gold have been 
absorbed as coinage in America, in this country and Australia, and in France. And 
not only has there been a large increase of the gold coinage in these countries, but 
the amount of the convertible paper circulation — probably in each of them, certainly 
in three, viz. England, France and Australia — has been considerably increased within 
the last twelve months ; and it appears that the increase in the circulation of coin 
and paper has arisen almost wholly from a prior increase in transactions. It is a 
question, however, for investigation, whether the absorption of the new gold as coin 
can proceed to a much greater extent without affecting the value of gold as compared 
with a larger or smaller number of commodities. 

In this country there has been, since the summer and autumn of last year, a 
marked increase in the price of several descriptions of commodities ; and it does not 
appear that that increase of price can in all cases be adequately explained as concerns 
the commodities themselves by considerations of supply and demand ; nor, on the 
other hand, does it appear that we are justified by the evidence in attributing to the 
influence of the new supplies of gold any extensive or decided influence in raising 
prices in this country. The facts, however, do justify us in believing that the new 
supplies have certainly begun — indirectly and perhaps directly also — to operate in 
this country in a manner which does, and will, lead to higher prices. 

As regards wages, the indirect and direct operation of the new gold in establishing 
higher rates is manifest and unquestionable ; and since the autumn of 1852 the rise 
in the wages of artisan and manual labour in this country is equal to between 12 and 
20 per cent. 

It seems to be established by the evidence, that whatever efifects may have been 
produced in the United Kingdom, in raising wages and prices and in extending and 
increasing trade, have been accomplished by means of reductions in the rate of dis- 
count and interest and by advances of capital, and not in any way through the 
medium of the circulation. It appears also that the eff'ect of the new gold in de- 
pressing the rate of discount was essentially of a temporary character, and was con- 
fined to the period during which the new gold was lodged, chiefly in the Bank of 
England, in its progress from the mines to the general markets of the world. 

Since those temporary efl'ects have disappeared, the increased demands for capital, 
excited by the low rates of discount and arising out of an extending trade, have 
raised those rates to fully their previous height. 

In the Australian colonies the eff'ect of the new gold has been to add the stimulus 
of a very low rate of interest, and of an abundance of capital, to the other great and 
manifold causes of rapid development which they previously possessed. 

And, generally, we are justified in describing the efifects of the new gold as almost 
wholly beneficial. It has led to the development of new branches of enterprise, to 
new discoveries, and to the establishment in remote regions of populations carrying 
with them energy, intelligence, and the rudiments of a great society. In our own 
country it has already elevated the condition of the working and poorer classes ; it 
has quickened and extended trade ; and exerted an influence which thus far is bene- 
ficial wherever it has been felt. 

Such are the conclusions justified by evidence and facts. 

There still remain the conclusions which seem to be justified by speculation, and 
these may be compressed within a smaller compass. 

Apparently there is good reason for believing that the future results of the new 
supplies of gold will be, on the whole, not less devoid of evil than they have been 
hitherto. There seems to be no authority for expecting that, under contracts now 
existing, creditors will be sacrificed to debtors ; that the recipients of fixed incomes 
will be hopelessly impoverished ; or that capital will cease to command a reasonable 
rate of interest. On the contrary, the great revolution pursues its course so gradu- 
ally ; it is moderated and checked in modes so infinite and subtle, and moulded by 
influences too delicate to be laid bare by any appliance of statistics ; — that, so far as 
we can judge of the future by that which now occurs around us, we may contem- 
plate without fear a change in the economical condition of the world, — new and 
startling, doubtless, — but already adjusting itself, without shocks or convulsions, to 
the expanding intelligence and resources of mankind. 



112 REPORT— 1853. 

On a proposed Plan for Decimal Coinage. By Theodore Wm. R athbome. 



On the Causes, Extent, and Preventives of Crime ; with especial reference to 
Hull. By the Rev. James Selkirk, 3I.A., Chaplai7i of the Hull Gaol. 

The subject of crime in the country in general is in these days attracting the 
attention of all classes of society. The causes of crime are almost the same every- 
where, and may be reduced to a very few. 

I. (1) The most prolific source of crime is beyond all doubt drunkenness. Testi- 
monies to the truth of this are borne by judges, magistrates and gaol chaplains, and 
others who have had opportunities of investigating it. In 1851, 10,000 persons who 
were tried at assizes and sessions in England were brought into that deplorable 
condition by drunkenness, and upwards of 50,000 were summarily convicted in the 
same year by the magistrates from the same cause. 

In the last three years in Hull 1325 cases of drunkenness have been taken before 
the magistrates, and more than 1000 other cases of crimes chiefly occasioned by the 
same vice. 

(2) Another source of crime is the neglect of children by their parents. This will 
be obvious to all who are in the habit of visiting the streets inhabited by the more 
degraded part of the population, whose children, in ignorance, dirt and rags are beg- 
ging about the streets. Besides this, the filthy and confined and ill-ventilated state 
of the abodes of this class has a tendency to promote crime, from the absence of all 
possibility of decency and self-respect. 

(3) A third source of crime is the numerous low and ill-regulated places of amuse- 
ment, which are particularh' attractive to, and frequented by, the lower orders. As 
one proof of this it may be mentioned that the chaplain of the Preston House of 
Correction sent officers to visit one of these places, and their report describes 700 
boys and girls collected together to have their bodies poisoned with smoke and drink, 
and their minds poisoned with ribaldry and obscenity. Unhappily these places are 
numerous in Hull, and attended by youth of both sexes. 

(4) The associations formed at low lodging-houses is another source of much crime. 
It is here that destitute and profligate persons are brought together in dense masses, 
and spend their time chiefly in corrupting each other. 

II. The Extent of Crime. — The average number of committals every year in 
England is about 115,000, and in Scotland about 24,000. The average number of 
murders in the last ten years does not seem to have increased. It is about 67. 
Compared with the increase of the population, very grave offences are rather dimi- 
nished than otherwise. The greatest number of crimes are