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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



TWENTY-SIXTH MEETING 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT CHELTENHAM IN AUGUST 1856. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 
1857. 



PRINTED BY 

HICHARD TAYLOR AND WILLIAM FRANCIS, 

RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from aommencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxiii 

Table of Council from commencement xxiv 

Officers and Council xxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxvii 

Corresponding Members xxviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxviii 

Report of the Kew Committee xxx 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xxxviii 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxxix 

Synopsis of Money Grants xlii 

General Statement of Sums paid for Scientific Purposes xliii 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee xlvi 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xlvii 

Address of the President xlviii 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report from the Committee appointed by the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, at the Meeting in Liverpool, in September 
1854, to investigate and report upon the effects produced upon the 
Channels of the Mersey by the alterations which within the last fifty 
years have been made in its Banks 1 

Interim Report to the British Association, on Progress in Researches 
on the Measurement of Water by Weir Boards. By James 
Thomson, C.E 46 

Dredging Report. — Frith of Clyde. 1856 47 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1855-56. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S. &c., Savilian Professor of Geometry 
in the University of Oxford 53 

Photochemical Researches. By Professor Bunsen, of Heidelberg, and 
Dr. Henry E. Roscoe, of London 62 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

On the Trigonometry of the Parabola, and the Geometrical Origin of 
Logarithms. By the Rev. James Booth, LL.D., F.R.S. &c 68 

Report on the Marine Testaceous Mollusca of the North-east Atlantic 
and neighbouring Seas, and the physical conditions affecting their 
development. By Robert MacAndrew, F.R.S 101 

Report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the 
Mollusca of the West Coast of North America. By Philip P. 
Carpenter. {With Four Plates) 159 

Abstract of First Report on the Oyster Beds and Oysters of the Bi'itish 
Shores. By T. C. Eyton, F.L.S., F.G.S S68 

Report on Cleavage and Foliation in Rocks, and on the Theoretical 
Explanations of these Phaenomen^ — Part I. By John Phillips, 
M.A., F.R.S., G.S., Reader in Geology in the University of Oxford. . 369 

On the Stratigraphical Distribution of the Oolitic Echinoderniata. By 
Thomas Wright, M.D., F.R.S.E 396 

On the Tensile Strength of Wrought Iron at various Temperatures. 
By William Fairbairn, F.R.S. &c 405 

Mercantile Steam Transport Economy. By Charles Atherton, 
Chief Engineer of Her Majesty's Dockyard, Woolwich 423 

On the Vital Powers of the Spongiadae. By J. S. Bowerbank, F.R.S., 
F.G.S. &c 438 

Report of a Committee, consisting of Sir W. .Tardine, Bart., Dr. 
Fleming, and Mr. E. Ashworth, upon the Experiments conducted 
at Stormontfield, near Perth, for the artificial propagation of Salmon 451 

Provisional Report on the progress of a Committee appointed at the 
Meeting in Glasgow, September 1855, to consider the question of the 
Measurement of Ships for Tonnage, consisting of the following 
Gentlemen ;— Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. John Wood, Mr. Allan 
Gilmore, Mr. Charles Atherton, Mr. James Peake, and Mr. 
Andrew Henoerson (Reporter) 458 

On Typical Forms of Minerals, Plants and Animals for Museums 461 

Interim Report to the British Association on Progress in Researches 
on the Measurement of Water by Weir Boards. By James 
Thomson, C.E 462 

On Observations with the Seismometer. By R. Mallet, C.E. , M.R.I. A. 462 

On the Progress of Theoretical Dynamics. By A. Cayley, M.A., 
F.R.S 463 

Report of a Committee appointed by "The British Association for the 
Advancement of Science," to consider the formation of a Catalogue 
of Philosophical Memoirs 463 



CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 

Mr. J. T. Graves on the Polyhedron of Forces 

. — — on the Congruence nx:==n+l (mod p) 

Mr. H. M. Jeffery's Two Memoirs. —I. On a Theorem in Combinations. 

n. On a particular Class of Congi-uences 

Professor Stevelly on a New Method of Treating the Doctrine of Parallel ^ 

Lines ' ' ' 

Mr. H. R. Twining's Models to iUustrate a New Method of teaching ^ 

Perspective 

Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

Mr. A. Clatjdet on various Phsenomena of Refraction through Semi-Lenses 

producing Anomalies in the Illusion of Stereoscopic Images « 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on some Dichromatic Phsenomena among Solutions, and 

the means of representing them 

Mr. W. R. Grove on the Stratified Appearance of the Electrical Discharge. . 10 

Sir W. S. Harris on the Law of Electrical and Magnetic Force 11 

Mr. J. C. Maxwell on the Unequal Sensibility of the Foramen Centrale to 

Light of different Colours ^^ 

on a Method of Drawing the Theoretical Forms of Faraday's 

Lines of Force without Calculation 1" 

on the Theory of Compound Coloui's with reference to 

Mixtures of Blue and YeUow Light 12 

Mr. James Nasmyth on the Foi-m of Lightning 14 

Rev. Baden Powell on Fresnel's Formulae for Reflected and Refracted 

Light ^^ 

Mr. W. Symons on a Modification of the Maynooth Cast Iron Battery 16 

Professor William Thomson on Bellman's Method of observing Atmospheric 

Electricity ; • • 1' 

Mr. E. Vivian on Printing Photographs, with suggestions for introducing 

Clouds and Artistic Efiects 1° 

Mr. WiLDMAN Whitehouse on the Construction and Use of an Instrument 

for determining the Value of Intermittent or Alternating Electric Currents 

for piirposes of Practical Telegraphy 1^ 

_— on the Law of the Squares— is it applicable or not 

to the Transmission of Signals in Submarine Circuits ? 21 



vi contents. 

Astronomy, Meteors, Waves. 

Page 

Professor Chevaxlier on the Tides of Nova Scotia 23 

Mr. Richard Greene's Working Model of a Machine for polishing Specula 
for Reflecting Telescopes and Lenses 24 

Professor Hennessy on the Physical Structiu-e of the Eai-th 26 

Dr. Edward Htncks on the Eclipse of the Sun mentioned in the First Book 
of Herodotus 27 

Mr. J. C. Maxwell on an Instrument to illustrate Poinsot's Theory of 
Rotation 27 

Professor Plazzi Smyth on the Constancy of Solar Radiation 28 

Professor G. Johnstone Stoney on a Collimator for completing the Adjiist- 
ments of Reflecting Telescopes 30 

Mr. J. Symons on Phtenomena recently discovered in the Moon 31 

Rev. W. Whewell on the reasons for describing the Moon's Motion as a 
Motion about her axis 31 

Meteorology. 
Mr. Thomas Dob son on the Causes of Great Inundations 31 

on the Balaklava Tempest, and the Mode of Interpreting 

Barometrical Fluctuations 36 

Mr. Welsh on a Model of a Self-Registering Anemometer. Designed and 
Constructed by R. Beckley, of Kew Observatory 38 

Mr. R. Garner on a remarkable Hail-Storm in North Stafibrdshire. With • 
some Casts of the Hailstones 39 

Professor Hennessy on Isothermal Lines 39 

on an Instrument for observing Vertical CmTents in the 

Atmosphere 40 

Dr. John Lee on Negretti and Zambra's Mercurial ^Minimum Thermometer. . 40 

Mr. John Phillips on a New Method of making Maximum Self-Registering 
Thermometers 41 

Mr. Henry Poole's Observations with the Aneroid M^talliqiie and Thermo- 
meter, during a Tour through Palestine, and along the shores of the Dead 
Sea, October and November 1855 41 

Rev. C. Pritchard on a Meteor seen at Cheltenham on Friday, August 8th . . 47 

Rev. T. Rankin's Continuation of Meteorological Observations for 1855, at 
Huggate, Yorkshire 47 

Mr. B. Stewart ou a Thennometer for Measuring Fluctuations of Tempera- 
ture. Communicated and described by IVIi-. Welsh 47 

Mr. E. Vivian on the Climate of Torquay and South Devon 48 

Mr. J. Welsh's Instructions for the Graduation of Boiling-point Thermo- 
meters, intended for the Measurement of Heights 49 

Captain Woodall on Barometrical and Themiometrical Observations at Scar- 
borough 49 

CHEMISTRY. 

Dr. Thomas Anderson on the Composition of Parafline from different sources 49 

Professor Brodie on a new combination of Carbon, Ox3'gen and Hydrogen, 
formed by the Oxidation of Graphite ; and on the Appearance of Carbon 
xmder the Microscope 50 



CONTENTS. "^^ 

Page 

Professor F. Grace Calvert on the Incrustations of Blast Furnaces 50 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Salts actually present in the Cheltenham and 

other Mineral Waters 

on Nitroglycerine ^^ 

Mr. John Hobsley on the Conversion of Tannin into Gallic Acid 52 

on a New Method of instituting Post-mortem researches 

for Strychnia 

_^_ on Testing for Strychnia, Brucia, &c 53 

on a New Method of extracting the Alkaloids Strychnia 

and Brucia from Nux Vomica without Alcohol 54 

, -»s Experiments on Animals with Strychnia, and prohahle 

Reasons for the Non-detection of the Poison in certain cases 55 

Mr. J. B. LA^^'ES and Dr. Gilbert on the Products and Composition of 

Wheat-Grain 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam on the Detection of Strychnine 55 

Rev. W. IVIiTCHELL and Prof J. Tennant on a Series of Descriptive Labels 

for Mineral Collections in Public Institutions 57 

Ml-. William Odling on the Alkaline Emanations from Sewers and Cess- 
pools 

. -^ on the Detection of Antimony for Medico-Legal 

Purposes 

Mr. W. R. Pearson on the Compounds of Chromium and Bismuth 58 

Mr. Charles Pooley on Engraving Collodion Photographs by means of 

Fluoric Acid Gas ^^ 

Rev. C. Pritchard on the Gases of the Grotto del Cane 58 

Professor A. Voelckeb on the Corrosive Action of Smoke on Building Stones 58 

on the Composition of American Phosphate of Lime . . 58 

on Basic Phosphates of Lime 58 

Mr. W. Sykes Ward on Albumiaized CoUodion 58 

Mr. P. J. WoHSLEY on a New Process for Making and Melting Steel 59 

Mr. Henry Wright on the Use of the Gramme in Chemistiy 60 

GEOLOGY. 

Lieutenant Ayton on Gold in India "" 

Mr. William H. Baily on Fossils from the Crimea 60 

Mr. J. S. BowEBBANK on the Origin of Siliceous Deposits in the Chalk For- 

J.- ....... DO 

mation 

Rev. P. B. Brodie on some New Species of Corals in the Lias of Gloucester- 

shire, Worcestershire, and Warwickshire 64 

on a New Species of Pollidpes in the Inferior Oolite near 

Stroud, in Gloucestershire 

Professor James Buckman on the Basement Beds of the Oolite 64 

on the Oolite Rocks of the Cotteswold Hills 65 

Mr. R. Etheridge on the Igneous Rocks of Lundy and the Bristol District. . 65 
Professor Harkness on some New Fossils from the ancient Sedimentary Rocks 

of Ireland and Scotland 

on the Jointing of Rocks • • • • 65 

on the Lignites of the Giant's Causeway and the Isle of Mull 66 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 

Professor Hbnnessy on the Relative Distribution of Land and Water as affect- 
ing Climate at different Geological Epochs b(! 

Dr. H. B. HoBNBECK on some Minerals from the Isle of St. Thomas 60 

Mr. Edward Hull on the South-easterly Attenuation of the Oolitic, Liassic, 
Triassic, and Pennian Fonnations 67 

Mr. J. Beete Jukes on the Alteration of Clay-slate and Gritstone into Mica- 
schist and Gneiss by the Granite of Wicklow, &c 68 

Mr. J. E. Lee on some Fossil Fishes from the Strata of the Moselle 69 

on an Elephant's Grinder from the Cerithium Limestone .... 69 

Mr. M. MoGGEiDGE on the Time required for the formation of " Rolled Stones" 69 

Mr. Chahles Moohe on the Skin and Food of Ichthj-osauri and Teleosam-i . . 69 

on the Middle and Upper Lias of the West of England 70 

Sir R. I. MuHCHisoN on the Bone Beds of the Upper Ludlow Rock, and base 
of the Old Red Sandstone 70 

Mr. Robert Mushet on an ancient Miner's Axe recently discovered in the 
Forest of Dean. Li a letter to Richabd Beamish, Esq 71 

Professor Owen on the Dichodon cuspidatus, from the Upper Eocene of the 
Isle of Wight and Hordwell, Hants 72 

• on some Additional Evidence of the Fossil Musk-Ox (Bubalus 

moschatus) fi-om the Wiltshire Drift 72 

on a New Species of Anoplotherioid Mammal {Dichohine 

Ovinum, Ow.) from the Upper Eocene of HordweU, Hants, with Remarks 

on the Genera Dtchobune, Xiphodon, and 3ficrotherium 72 

on a Fossil Mammal (Stereognathus Ooliticus) from the Stones- 
field Slate 73 

on the Scelidotherimn leptocephalmn, a Megatherioid Qua- 

diTiped fi'om La Plata 73 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the Beekites found in the Red Conglomerates of Torbay 74 

Professor H. D. Rogers on the Correlation of the North American and British 

Palaeozoic Strata 75 

on the Origin of Saliferous Deposits 75 

Mr. J. W. Salter on the Great Pterijgotus (Seraphim) of Scotland, and other 

Species 75 

on some New Palaeozoic Star-fishes, compared with living 

Forms 76 

Mr. H. C. Sorby's Description of a Working Model to illustrate the formation 

of " Drift-bedding " (a kind of false stratification) 77 

on the Magnesian Limestone having been formed by the 

alteration of an ordinaiy calcareous deposit 77 

on the Microscopical Striictui'e of Mica-Schist 78 

Rev. W. Symonds on some Phenomena in the Malvern District 78 

on the Rocks of Dean Forest 78 

Mr. E. Vivian's Researches in Kent's Cavern, Torquay, with the original MS. 
Memoir of its first opening, by the late Rev. J. MacEnery (long supposed 
to have been lost), and the Report of the Sub-Committee of the Torquay 
Natiu'al History Society 78 

Captain Woodall on the Evidence of a Reef of Lower Lias Rock, extending 
from Robin Hood's Bay to the neighbourhood of Flamborough Head 80 

Dr. Thomas Wright on the OccuiTence of Upper Lias Ammonites in the 
(so-called) Basement Beds of the Inferior Oolite 80 



CONTENTS. IX 

BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

Botany. 

Page 
Mr. C. C. Babington on a supposed Fossil Fucus found at Aust Cliff, Glou- 
cestershire 83 

Professor Buckman's Notes on Experiments in the Botanical Garden of the 
Royal Agricultui-al College 83 

Professor Gregory on New Forms of Diatomacese from the Firth of Clyde. . 88 

Professor Arthur Henfrey on the Development of the Embryo of Flowering 
Plants 85 

Rev. Professor Henslow on the Triticoidal Forms of JEgilops, and on the 
Specific Identitjr of Centaurea nigra and C. nigrescens 87 

Professor G. B. Knowxbs on the Movements of Oscillatoriae 88 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay on the genus Abrothallus, De Nrs 88 

Dr. MiCHELSEN on the Flora of the Crimea 90 

on the Geography of Breadstiiffs 90 

Mr. Charles W. Peach on the Natural Printing of Sea-Weeds on the Rocks 
in the vicinity of Stromness, Orkney 90 

Zoology. 

Mr. Joshua Alder on some New Genera and Species of British Zoophytes 90 

Mr. Spence Bate on a New Crustacean, Monimia Whiteana 91 

Professor J. H. Corbett on the Acalephse, with respect to Organs of Cir- 
culation and Respiration 91 

Mr. Robert Garner on the Pearls of the Conway River, North Wales, with 

some Observations on the Natural Productions of the neighbouring Coast . . 92 
Professor Goodser on the Moi-phological Constitution of Limbs 93 

on the Morphological Constitution of the Skeleton of the 

Vertebrate Head 93 

on the Morphological Relations of the Nervous System in 

the Anniilose and Vertebrate Types of Organization 93 

Mr. Albany Hancock on the Anatomy of the Brachiopoda 94 

Mr. W. E. C. Nourse's Suggestions for ascertaining the Causes of Death in 
Birds and Animals 97 

■ on the Medical Indications of Poisoning 97 

Sir Thomas Ptttt.lipps on an instance of Instinct in a Caterpillar 97 

Mr. B. W. Richardson's Recent Researches on the Cause of the Fluidity of 
the Blood 98 

Mr. J. Samuelson's Experiments and Observations on the Development of 
Infusorial Animalcules 98 

Dr. Shaw's Description of the Ajuh, a kind of Whale, found by Dr. Vogel in 
the River RenuS (Central Africa) in September 1855 98 

Dr. Augustus Waller's Experimental Researches on the Eye, and Obser- 
vations on the Circulation of the Blood in the Vessels of the Conjunctiva, 
of the Iris, of the Ciliary Ligament, and of the Choroid Membrane, during 
life, as seen under the Compoimd Microscope 100 

Dr. Thomas Williams on the Mechanism of Respiration in the Family of 
Echinidse 101 

on the Fluid System of the Nematoid Entozoa .... 101 



X CONTENTS. 

Miscellaneous. 

Page 

Rev. L. Jenyns on the Variation of Species 101 



GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Mr. Egbert Austin's Report of an Expedition to explore the Interior of 
Western Australia 10-5 

Dr. W. B. Baikie on recent Discovery in Central Africa, and the reasons 
which exist for continued and renewed Research 105 

Professor Buckman on some Antiques found at Cirencester as Evidence of the 
Domestic Manners of the Romans 108 

The Aechdeacon of Caedigan on the Site of Ecbatana 108 

Mr. R. Cull on a more positive Ivnowledge of the Changes, both Physical and 
Mental, in Man, with a view to ascertain their Causes 108 

Dr. L. K. Daa on the Varanger Fiord 108 

on the Torenic System of the Ugrians (Finns), Albanians, and 

other Populations 108 

on the Relation of the Siberian and Armenian Languages .... 108 

Mr. J. Babnabd Davis on the Fomis of the Crania of the Anglo-Saxons .... 108 
Mr. A. G. FiNDLAY on some Volcanic Islets to the South-East of Japan, in- 
cluding the Bonin Islands 110 

Mr. F. D. Hahtland on Vesuvius and its Eruptions ; illustrated by a Col- 
lection of Drawings by W. Baylis Ill 

on the most Ancient Map of the World, from the Propa- 
ganda, Rome Ill 

on Vesmdus and its Eruptions Ill 

Professor Hennessy on the Homolographical Maps of M. Babinet 112 

Captain Ieminger on the Ai'ctic Current aroimd Greenland 112 

Dr. E. K. Kane's Report on his Expedition up Smith's Sound in Search of 

Sir John Franklin 113 

Colonel A. Laxe, an Original Letter from General Mouravieff 113 

Rev. Dr. D. Livingston's Retiim Journey across Southern Africa 113 

Mr. John Locke on a New Route to India — the Syro-Ai-abian Railway .... 114 

Dr. D. Macpherson's Researches in the Crimean Bosphorus, and on the site 
of the Ancient Greek City of Panticappeum (Kertch) 115 

Mr. Ja^o:s Nasmyth on the Plastic Origin of the Cuneiform Characters, and 
its Relation to om* own Alphabet 118 

Dr. John Rae on the Esquimaux 119 

Captain Sphatt on the Route between Kustenjeh and the Danube 119 

Captain Charles Sturt on recent Discoveries in Australia 119 

Mr. E. Vivian on the earliest traces of Human Remains in Kent's Cavern .... 119 



STATISTICS. 

Lord Stanley's Opening Address 122 

Mr. T. Barwick Lloyd Baker's Statistics and Suggestions connected with 
the Reformation of Juvenile Offenders 128 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Mr. RicfiARD Beamish's Statistics of Cheltenham 129 

Rev. C. H. Bbomby's Suggestions on the People's Education 130 

Mr. Samtjel Bbo'wn on the Advantages to Statistical Science of a Uniform 
Decimal System of Measures, Weights, and Coins throughout the World . . 133 

Maey Cabpentee. (of Bristol) on the Position of Refonnatory Schools 
in reference to the State, and the General Principles of their Management, 
especially as regards Female Refonnatories 134 

Mr. Edward Clibbobn on the Tendency of European Races to become extinct 
in the United States 136 

Mr. J. ToTVTNE Danson on the Diversity of Measures in the Corn-Markets of 
the United Kingdom 137 

on the Connexion between Slavery in the United States 

of America and the Cotton Manufactui'e in the United Kingdom 137 

Dr. Louis Kb. Daa's Table of the Lapps and Finns in Norway, according to 
the Census Retm-ns of 1845 and 1855 138 

Mr. Vincent Scully's Table showing the Poptdation of Ireland at diiferent 
intervals from 1603 to 1856, vsdth Causes for Periodical Increase or Decrease 142 

Mr. J. TowNE Danson on the WiiTal Peninsula, and the Growth of its Popu- 
lation during the last fifty years in connexion with Liverpool and the Man- 
chester District 143 

Mr. James William Gilbaet on the Family Principle in London Banking. . 143 

Dr. W. Neilson Hancock's Definition of Income in Economic Science com- 
pared with the existing Taxes on Income 144 

Mr. R. Thompson Jopling on the Mortality among Officers of the British 
Army in the East 144 

Mr. R. G. Latham on the Distribution of the Albanians, politically 145 

Mr. William Newmabch on the Former and Present Plans of disposing of 
the Waste Lands in the Australian Colonies 146 

on the Credit Mobilier and other recent Credit 

Institutions in France 146 

Lieut. -General Sir C. W. Pasley's Plan for Simplifying and Improving the 
Measures, Weights, and Money of this Country, without materially altering 
the present Standards 146 

Dr. M. Roth's Aphoristic Notes on Sanitary Statistics of Workhouses and 
Charitable Institutions 149 

Ml'. H. W. RuMSEY on the Territorial Distribution of the Population, for pur- 
poses of Sanitary Inquiry and Social Economy 151 

Dr. John Stbang on the Progress, Extent, and Value of the Porcelain, Earth- 
enware, and Glass Manufacture of Glasgow 153 

on the Money-rate of Wages of Labour in Glasgow and the 

West of Scotland 155 

Mr. W. M. Tabtt on some Statistics bearing upon the Relations existing 
between Poverty and Crime 159 

Professor R. H. Walsh's Deduction from the Statistics of Crime for the last 
Ten Years 159 

on the Present Export of Silver to the East 161 

Mr. R. Monckton Milnes's Concluding Address 161 



CONTENTS. 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Page 

Mr. H. Bessemer on the Manufacture of Iron and Steel without Fuel 162 

Mr. W. Clay on the Manufacture of the large Wrought-Iron Gun, and other 

Masses of Iron made at the Mersey Iron Works, Liverpool 162 

Major V. Eyhe on the Application of Corrugated Metal to Ships, Boats, and 

other Floating Bodies 162 

Dr. Greene on a Method of uniting Iron with Iron or other Metals without 

welding, invented by M. Sisco of Paris 162 

on a New Railway Break, invented by M. Sisco of Paris 162 

Professor Hennessy on the Inundation of Rivers 162 

Mr. F. M. Kelley's Explorations through the Valley of the Atrato to the 

Pacific in search of a Route for a Ship-canal 162 

Mr. \V. A. Mackfie on the Patent Laws 164 

Mr. R. Methuen on the Management of Mercantile Vessels 164 

Dr. SiBBALD (Livei-pool) on a New Plan for a Ship Communicator 164 

Mr. W. Smith on Improved Mechanical Means for the Extraction of Oil, and 
the Economical Manufactm-e of Manm-es from Fish and Fishy Matter .... 164 

Mr. George Rennie on the Quantity of Heat developed by Water when 
violently agitated 16-5 

's Experiments to determine the Resistance of a Screw 

when revolving in Water at different Depths and Velocities 169 

APPENDIX. 

Mr. Samuel Highley on Crystallogenesis, and the Equivalent in the Mineral 
Kingdom corresponding to Geographical Distribution in the Animal and 
Vegetable Kingdoms 172 

Mr. J. B. Lawes and Dr. J. H. Gilbert on some points connected with Agri- 
cultural Chemistry 172 

on the Composition of Wheat-Grain, 

and its Products 173 

Mr. Henry Dar-\vin Rogers on the CoiTelation of the North American and 
British Palseozoic Strata 175 

Index 187 



OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are,— To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry,— to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one n- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of tiie Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1856. * 



XVIU RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. /4t reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the OfH- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transacfions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether, not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees sliall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 



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II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former j'ears. 

Dillwyn, Lewis W,, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart.,F.R.S. 

Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.R.S. 

Adams, J. Couch, M.A., F.R.S. 

Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airv.G. B., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 

Alison, Professor W. P., M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 

Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.U.S. 

Arnott, Neil, M,D., F.R.S. 

Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 

Babbage, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Babington, C. C, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd, Esq. 

Balfour, Profes.sor John H., M.D., F.R.S. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Bell, Professor Thomas, Pres.L.S., F.R.S. 

Beechey, Rear- Admiral, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 

Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.R.S. 

Boyle, Rt. Hon.D., Lord Justice-Gen', {dec''). 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 

Brewster, Sir David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S., Principal of the United College of 
St. Salvator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.G.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.R.S. 

Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brunei, Sir M. L, F.R.S. (deceased.) 

Buckland, Very Rev. William, D.D., F.R.S., 
Dean of Westminster, (deceased). 

Burlington, William, Earl of, M.A., F.R.S. 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. (deceased). 

Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.R.S. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 

Cathcart, Lt.-Gen., Earl of, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., Professor of Di- 
vinity, Edinburgh, (deceased). 

Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.R.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. (deceased). 

Clark, Rev. Prof., M.D., F.R.S. (Cambridge). 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 

Gierke, Maj.S.,K.H.,R.E.,F.R.S. (deceased). 

Clift, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Close, Very Rev. Francis, M. A., Dean of Carlisle. 

Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colqidioun, J. C, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 

Conybeare, Very Rev. W. D.,Dean of Llandaff. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Crurn, Walter, Esq., F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 

Dalton, John, D.C.L. , F.R.S. (deceased). 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Daubeny, Professor Charles G.B.,M.D., F.R.S. 

DelaBeche, Sir Henry T., C.B., F.R.S., Di- 
rector-General of the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom, (deceased). 



I Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased), 
j Ducie, The Earl, F.a.S. 
Dunraven, the Earl of, F.R.S. 
Egerton.Sir P. de M. Grey, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (deceased). 
Enniskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Faradav, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Fitzwiliiam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 
Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 
Fox, Kobert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Graham, T., M. A., F.R.S., Master of the Mint. 
Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (deceased). 
Gray, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Grove, W. R., Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hamilton, W. J., Esq., For. Sec. G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir William R., LL.D., Astronomer 

Royal of Ireland, M.R.LA., F.R.A.S. 
Harcourt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 
Harrowbv, The Earl of, F.R.S. 
Hatfeild,'vVilliam, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D., President of Queen's 

College, Belfast. 
Henslow, Rev. Professor, 1\LA., F.L.S. 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. William, LL.D., 

F.L.S., Dean of Manchester, (deceased). 
Herschel.SirJohnF.W., Bart., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 
Hey wood, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hill, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.R.LA.(dec<'). 
Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Ibbetson,Capt.L.L.Boscawen,K.R.E., F.G.S. 
Inglis,SirR.H.,Bart.,D.C.L.,M.P.,F.R.S.(dec.) 
Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S.E. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Johnston, Right Hon. William, late Lord 

Provost of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Prof. J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S, (dec-i). 
Keleher, William, Esq. (deceased). 



Kelland, Rev. Professo)' P., M.A. 

Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S. 

Lansdowne, Henry, Marquis of, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Lardner, Rev. Dr. 

Lassell, William, Esq., F.R.S. L.&E. 

Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 

Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh. 

Lee, Robert, M.D., F.R.S. 

Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, late 
Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., F.R.S. 

Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased). 

Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Listowel, The Earl of. 

Lloyd, Rev. B., D.D., Provost of Trin. Coll. 
Dublin, (deceased). 

Lloyd, Rev. H., D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.L. & E. 
V.P.R.LA., Trinity College, Dublin. 

Londesborough, Lord, F.R.S. 

Lubbock, Sir John W,, Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 

Luby, Rev. Thomas. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A., F.R.S. 

MacCullagh, Prof., D.C.L., M.R.LA. {deC^). 

Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 

MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 

Malcolm, Vice-Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B.(dee>i). 

Maltby, Edward, D.D., F.R.S., late Lord 
Bishop of Durham. 

Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Meynell, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 

Middleton, Sir William F. F., Bart. 

Miller, Professor W. A., U.D., F.R.S. 

Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 

Moillet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 

Milnes, R. Monckton, E.sq., M.P. 

Moggiidge, Matthew, Esq. 

Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 

Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 

Moody, T. F., Esq. 

Morley, The Earl of. 

Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 

Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 

Murchison, Sir Roderick L, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. 

Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Rev. J, P., LL.D. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. (deceased). 

Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.G., M.A., 
F.R.S. (deceased). 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 

Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 

Orpen, John H., LL.D. 

Osier, Follett, Esq., F.R.S. 

Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S. 

Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., -^LP. 

Peacock, Very Rev.G.,D.D.,DeanofEIy,F.R.S. 

Peel,Rt.Hon.SirR.,Bart.,M,P.,D.C.L,(dec<'). 

Pendarves, E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Phillips, Professor John, M.A., F.R.S. 

Porter, G. R., Esq. (deceased). 

Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Ramsay, Professor William, M.A. 

Reid,Maj.-GeneralSirW.,K.C.B.,R.E.,F.R.S. 

Rendlesham, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.P. 

Rennie, George, Esq., F.R.S. 

Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S. 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D., C.B., F.R.S. 



Ritchie, Rev. Prof., LL.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Robinson, Rev. J., D.D, 

Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., F.R.A.S. 

Robison, Sir John, Sec.R.S.Edin. (deceased). 

Roche, James, Esq. 

Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 

Rosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Ross, Rear- Ad. Sir J. C, R.N., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rosse,W^ilIiam,Earl of, M.A. , F.R.S., M.R.LA, 

Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 

Russell, James, Esq. (deceased). 

Russell, J. Scott, Esq., F.R.S. 

Sabine, Maj. -General, R.A.,Treas. &V.P.R.S. 

Sanders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Sedgwick, Rev. Professor Adam, M.A.,F.R.S. 

Selbv, Prideau.x John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

Sliaipey, Professor, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.So 

Smith, James, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Spence, William, Esq., F.R.S. 

Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.R.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich, (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt., M.P., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
St. David's, C. Thirlwall, D.D., Lord Bishopof. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., Sec.R.S. 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 
Strickland, Hugh E., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H.,M.P., F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Vice-Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. John James, B.A. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Thomson, Professor William, M.A., F.R.S. 
Tindal, Captain, R.N. 
Tite, William, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Tooke, Thomas, F.R.S. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. (dec'^.) 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Tyndall, Professor, F.R.S. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Walker, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Warburton, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N., F.R.S. 
Webster, Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
West, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
WharnclifFe, John Stuart, Lord, F.R.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 
Whewell, Rev. William, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Charles J.B., M.D., F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Wills, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
AVoollcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (deceased). 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., Pres. R.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Yates,J. B.,Esq.,F.S.A.,F.R.G.S.(deceased). 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1856-57. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I.MuRCHisoN,G.C.S'.S.,F.R.S. The Very Rev. GeorgePbacock,D.D., Dean 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. ■* of Ely, F.R.S. 

PREStDENT. 

CHARLES G. B. DAUBENY, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Hon. M.R.I^., 

Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
The Earl Ducie, F.R.S., F.G.S. Soc, Director-General of the Geological 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, G.C.S'.S., Survey of the United Kingdom. 
D.C.L.,F.R.S.,F.G.S.,F.L.S.,V.P.H.Geogr. Thomas Barwick Lloyd Baker, Esq. 
The Rev. Francis Close, M.A. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 
The REV. HUMPHREY LLOYD, D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. L. & E., V.P.R.LA., 
Trinity College, Dublin. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
The Rt. Hon. the Lord Mayor of Dublin. Sir William R. Hamilton, LL.D.,F.R.A.S., 
The Provost of Trinity College, Dubhn. Astronomer Royal of Ireland. 

The Marquis of Kildare. Lt. -Colonel Larcom, R.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 

The Lord Talbot de Malahide. Richard J. Griffith, LL.D., M.R.LA., 

The Lord Chief Baron, Dublin. F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT DUBLIN. 
LuNDY E. FooTE, Esq., Secretary to Royal Dul)lin Society. 
Rev. Professor Jellett, Secretary to Royal Irish Academy. 
W. Neilson Hancock, LL.D., Secretary to Statistical Society, Dublin. 
LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT DUBLIN. 
John H. Orpen, LL.D. 
ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
Bell, Prof., Pres.L.S., F.R.S. Lyell, Sir C, D.C.L., F.R.S. SHARPEY,Professor, Sec.R.S. 
Darwin, Charles, F.R.S. Miller, Prof. W. A., M.D., Stanley, Lord. 
Gassiot, John P., F.R.S. F.R.S. Stokes, Professor, F.R.S. 

Gray, J. E., Ph.D., F.R.S. Owen, Professor, F.R.S. Tite,W., U.P., F.S.A.,F.R.S. 

Grove, William R., F.R.S. Price, Rev. Prof., F.R.S. Walker, Rev. Prof., F.R.S. 

Heywood, James, Esq. RAWLiNSON,ColonelSu-H.C., Webster, Thomas, F.R.S. 

Hutton, Robert, F.G.S. K.C.B., F.R.S. WROTTESLEY,Lord,Pres.R.S. 

Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. Rennie, George, F.R.S. Yates, James, F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
neral and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi- 
dents of former years, viz. The Earl FitzwiUiam. Rev. Professor Sedgwick. Sir Thomas M. 
Brisbane. The Marquis of Lansdowne. The Earl of Burlington. Rev. W. V. Harcourt. 
The Marquis of Bieadalbane. Rev. Dr. Whewell. The Earl of EUesmere. The Earl of 
Rosse. The Dean of Ely. Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Sir Roderick I. Murchison. The 
Rev. Dr. Robinson. Sir David Brewster. G. B. Airy, Esq., the Astronomer Royal. General 
Sabine. WiUiam Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. The Earl of Harrowby. The Duke of Argyll. 
GENERAL SECRETARY. 
Major-General Edward Sabine, R.A., Treas. & V.P.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
13 Ashley Place, Westminster. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

John Phillips, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Reader in Geology in the University of 

Oxford ; Magdalen Bridge, Oxford. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 

William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., York. Professor Ramsav, M.A., Glasgow. 

C.C.Babington,Esq.,M.A.,F.R.S.,Camdnd'ye. Robert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S., Manchester. 
William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., Swansea. 

John H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipswich. 

Wilham Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Bristol. Robert Patterson, Esq., U.^.l.k.., Belfast, 

Robert M'Andrew, Esq., F.R.S., Liverpool. Edmund Smith, Esq., Hull, 
W, R. Wills, Esq., Birmingham, James Agg Gardner, Esq., Cheltenham, 

AUDITORS. 

William Tite, Esq., M.P. Edwin Lankester, M.D. Jame» Yates, Esq. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXVll 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
CHELTENHAM MEETING. 

SE: nON A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. — Rev. R. Walker, M.A., F.R.S., Reader in Experimental Philosophy, 
Oxford. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir William Snow Harris, F.R.S. ; Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. ; Rev. B. Price, M.A., Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy, 
Oxford; Rev. W. Whevk^ell, D.D., F.R.S., Master of Trinity College, Cambridge; 
Lo.'d Wrottesley, M.A., President of the Royal Society. 

/Secretaries.— Prof. Stevelly, LL.D. ; C. Brooke, BA., F.R.S. ; Rev. T. A. South- 
wood, M.A., F.R.A.S,, Head Master of Civil and Military Department, Cheltenham 
College; Rev. J. C. TurnbuU, M.A., Head Mathematical Master, Cheltenham College. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICULTUREAND THE ARTS. 

President. — B. C. Brodie, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Oxford. 

Vice-Presidents. — N. S. Maskelyne, F.G.S., Reader in Mineralogy, Oxford; W. 
Gregory, F.R.S. E. ; Thomas Graham, F.R.S., the Master or' the Mint; Thomas 
Anderson, M.D., F.R.S.E., Professor of Chemistry in the University of Glasgow. 

Secretaries. — Philip J. Worsley, B.A. ; Professor Voelcker, Royal Agricultural 
College, Cirencester; J. Horsley, Esq. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President. — Professor A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S., and Local Director of the Geological 
Survey of Great Britain. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., Woodwardian Professor 
of Geology in the University of Cambridge ; J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.R.S., Local 
Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland ; The Earl Ducie, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Rew. P. B. Brodie, M.A., F.G.S.; Thomas Wright, M.D.,F.R.S.E.; 
J. Scougall, F.E.I.S., M.C.P., Master, Modern Department of the Cheltenham 
Grammar School; Edward Hull, F.G.S. ; Rev. R. He|)worth, B.A. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Thomas Bell, F.R.S., President of the Linnean Society. 

Vice-Presidents. — Rev. L. Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S. ; Robert Ball, LL.D., Treasurer 
of the Royal Irish Academy, Director of the Museum in University of Dublin ; J. E. 
Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S.; John H. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., Professor of Botany 
in the University of Edinburgh ; Rev. J. S. Henslow, M.A., Prof, of Botany in Uni- 
versity of Cambridge; George Busk, F.R.S., F.L.S. , Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy and Physiology to the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 

Secretaries.— E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; J. Buckman, F.L.S., F.G.S., 
Professor of Botany, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester ; J. Abercrombie, M.D. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Colonel Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., F.R.S. &c. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir John F. Davis, Bart., F.R.S. ; Sir Roderick Impey Mur- 
chison, F.R.S., Director-General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom; 
Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., M.A., F.R.S.; General Sir George Pollock, Bart., 
G.C.B., F.R.G.S.; Colonel Philip Yorke, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Norton ^haw, M.D., Sec. Roy. Geogr. Soc. ; R. Cull, F.S.A,, Hon. 
Sec. Ethnol. Soc. ; F. D. Hartland, F.S.A., F.R.G.S. ; W. H. Rumsey, F.R.C.S. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Lord Stanlej', M.P. 

Vice-Presidents.— T. Tooke, F.R.S. ; John Strang, LL.D. ; W. Tite, M.P., F.R.S, • 
J.Towne Danson, F.S.S. ; James Heywood, F.R.S. ; W. Farr, M.D., F.R.S. ' 

Secretaries. — William Newmarch, Hon. Sec. Statistical Society, London ; W. 
Neilson Hancock, LL.D. ; Edward Cheshire, F.R.G.S. ; Rev. C. H. Bromby, M A • 
W. M. Tartt, M.S.A. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — George Rennie, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — John Taylor, F.R.S. ; Andrew Henderson, Esq. ; J. G. Appold 
F.R.S. ; James Nasrayth, C.E. ; William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
Seeretaries.—Chmka Atherton, C.E. ; B, Jones, Jun. } H. M. Jeffery, M.A. 



XXVUl 



REPORT — 1856. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 
M. Babinet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 
Prince Charles Bonaparte, Paris. 
Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evreux). 
Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 
Chevalier Bunsen, Heidelberg. 
Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 

Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 

Professor Encke, Berlin. 

Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 

Professor Esmark, Christiania. 

Professor G. Forchhammer, Copenhagen. 

M. Leon Foucault, Paris. 

Prof. E. Fremy, Paris. 

M. Frisiani, Milan. , 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 

Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 

Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Berlin. 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 

Prof. A. Kblliker, Wurzburg. 

Prof. De Koninck, Liege. 

Professor Kreil, Vienna. 

Dr. A. Kupifer, St. Petersburg. 



Dr. Lament, Munich. 

Prof. F. Lanza, Spoleto. 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Baron de Selys-Longchamps, Liege. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von MiddendorfF, St. Petersburg. 

M. I'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

M, Morren, Liege. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordengsciold, Finland. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin, 

Professor PUicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Prof. Retzius, Stockholm. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Baron Senftenberg, Bohemia. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve, Pvlkowa. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 

Dr. Van der Hoeven, Leyden. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Gottingen. 
Professor Wartmann, Geneva, 



Report of the Council of the British Association as presented 
TO THE General Committee at Cheltenham, August 6th, 1856. 

a. The Council have the satisfaction of reporting the continued efficiency 
and progress toward higher usefulness of the Observatory at Kew, which, 
while it fulfils the original object of its foundation, and readily takes up 
original research, is now a point of reference for Standard Instruments in 
meteorology, and auxiliary to the national service. 

b. In conducting this establishment, the Council have in previous years 
had the great benefit of the cooperation of the Royal Society, and the Re- 
port of the Committee of the Observatory, which is now laid on the table, 
will show that this highly valued cooperation is continued. The Members 
will learn from the Report the final result of the Correspondence between 
the Committee of the Observatory and the Authorities of the Board of 
Public Works, concerning the repairs of the building and the laying-on of 
gas. The disadvantages which might have resulted from the unexpected 
issue of this correspondence have been removed by the prompt liberality of 
the Council of the Royal Society, who have advanced the necessary funds 
for immediately supplying the Observatory with gas. 

c. The Council suggest to tiie General Committee to tender its cordial 
thanks to the Royal Society for the effective assistance thus given to an In- 
stitution in which both the Royal Society and the British Association recog- 
nize a powerful instrument of philosophical research. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXlX 

d. The Council have the pleasure to forward another Report from the 
vigilant Committee which asserts the interests of Science in Parliament. 
By what means of a public nature the Progress of Science can be accelerated 
and assured ; — the Benefits of Science applied and extended ; — the Position 
of the Cultivators of Science amended; — these questions must strongly interest 
the Association, which, at the outset, declared its purpose to strive for the 
removal of all impediments of a public nature by which Science is retarded. 
Recommending this Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the approba- 
tion of the General Committee, and the important subjects which it opens 
to the serious deliberation of the Members, the Council beg to express their 
readiness to be instrumental in maturing and putting into action any mea- 
sure which the Association may deem suitable, and in obtaining the coope- 
ration of other scientific bodies to bring it to a good issue. 

e. The Council may congratulate the Association on the progress made 
toward the fulfilment of the 7th Recommendation in the Report of their 
Parliamentary Committee for 1854-5 — "That an appropriate building, in 
some central situation in London, should be provided, at the expense of the 
nation, in which the principal scientific societies maybe located together:" — 
Burlington House is now devoted to the use of the Royal, Linnean, and 
Chemical Societies — a result due in a great degree to the prudent and per- 
severing efforts of the Royal Society. 

f The General Committee will learn with satisfaction that, according to 
the Report of the General Treasurer, the Funds belonging to the Associa- 
tion, and invested in the names of the Trustees, amount to £5000. The 
Council suggest that it is desirable, for many reasons, to maintain a reserve 
of this iiind, sufficient to meet unexpected contingencies, which may arise in 
consequence of efforts for the advancement of science. 

g. The Council have added to the List of Corresponding Members the 
following Foreign men of Science : — 

Dr. F. Cohn, Breslau. 
Prof. E. Fremy, Paris. 
Prof. A. Kdlliker, Wurzburg. 
Prof. F. Lanza, Spoleto. 
M. Morren, Liege. 
M. E. Peligot, Paris. 
Prof. Retzius, Stockholm. 

h. The Council have received Letters of Invitation to the Association to 
hold its next Meeting in Dublin ; from 

The Board of Trinity College, Dublin; 

The Royal Dublin Society ; 

The Royal Irish Academy ; 

The King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland; 

The Geological Society of Dublin ; 

The Lord Mayor and Municipal Council of Dublin. 

t. The Council has this day received Letters of Invitation to the Associa- 
tion to hold its next Meeting in Manchester ; from 

The Manchester Geological Society ; 
The Statistical Society of Manchester; 
The Manchester Athenagum ; 
The Town Clerk of Manchester. 



XXX REPORT — 1856. 

k. It was resolved — 

That the cordial thanks of the Council be tendered to the Lord Wrottesley 
and the Officers and Council of the Royal Society, for the promptitude 
with which they have responded to the request of the British Associa- 
tion, in granting the sum of £250 for the purpose of lighting the Kew 
Observatory with gas. 

Report of the Kew Committee, presented to the Council of the British 
Association, August 6. 1856. 

The Committee beg to submit the following Report of their proceedings 
since the meeting of the British Association at Glasgow : — 

The instruments and apparatus sent by the Committee to the Paris Exhi- 
bition were returned to the Observatory in December last. The total expense 
incurred by the Committee in connexion with the Exhibition amounted to 
£202 : 7*. 1 Id., exceeding by £62 : 7s. 1 Id. the sum of £140 granted by the 
Board of Trade. This balance has since been repaid by the Board. 

At the last Meeting of the Association, your Committee presented a Special 
Report relative to their application to Her Majesty's Government for the use 
of two acres of land contiguous to the Observatory, and the lighting of the 
building with gas, — such applications having been made in consequence of 
the recommendation of the General Committee at the Liverpool Meeting. 
The Association is still compelled to pay the high rent of ten guineas per 
acre for the land. The Committee fully expected that this year they should 
have been enabled to report that the expense of lighting the Observatory 
with gas would have been defrayed by t!ie Government. The President of 
the Board of Works at first intimated to the Committee that the subject 
would receive consideration, and subsequently that he would consider the 
propriety of including the amount in the estimates for the present year. On 
further application, however, this has been refused. A copy of the corre- 
spondence is annexed to this Report. 

Your Committee have, however, the gratification of reporting, that on a 
representation of the circumstances being submittec^ by the Council of the 
Association to the President and Council of the Royal Society, the sum of 
£250 from the Wollaston Fund was immediately placed at the disposal of 
the Committee, in order that no further delay from the want of funds should 
take place in effecting the long-desired object. 

Much as the Committee may regret the refusal of the Board of Works to 
grant their request, they gladly avail themselves of this opportunity to express 
to Lord Wrottesley and the Council of the Royal Society their thanks for 
the prompt manner in which the intimation was made to them that the money 
had been voted. Jt affords another proof how ready the Royal Society has 
ever been to forward and assist scientific investigations. 

Mr. De la Rue has made a preliminary examination of one of the Huy- 
genian object-glasses, namely, that of 122 feet focal length, and, so far as 
he has hitherto been enabled to judge, it would appear that this object-glass 
defines with tolerable precision ; but he is not yet able to say whether it 
will be desirable to go to the expense of erecting the tower for celestial 
observations. 

A paper by Mr. Welsh, descriptive of the Kew Standard Barometer, and 
of the apparatus and processes employed in the verification of barometers, 
has been communicated to the Royal Society by the Chairman, and is now 
being printed in the Transactions of the Society. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXH 

The following statement shows the number of meteorological instruments 
which have been verified at Kew during the past year : — 

Thermo- Baro- Hydro- 
meters, meters, meters. 

For the Admiralty and Board of Trade .... 360 90 100 

For the Portuguese Government 12 

For Opticians and others 170 35 

Total 530 137 100 

On February 5, the Committee resolved, — " That, in consideration of the 
number of Barometers already verified at Kew having been sufficient to 
defray the preliminary expense of apparatus, the charge for verification shall 
in future be reduced to five shillings each instrument." 

Arrangements have been made with Messrs. Adie, Casella, and Negretti 
and Zambra, to have on hand a constant supply of verified marine meteoro- 
logical instruments, and the Public may be supplied through any respectable 
Optician in London or the country at the following prices : — 

For a Marine Barometer £4; 4 

For a Set of Six Thermometers 2 2 

Since the last Report, the Committee have disposed of 60 standard ther- 
mometers, graduated at the Observatory. Of these, 14 have been made for 
Mr. Hopkins, to be employed in his experiments on the eff"ect of pressure 
upon the melting-points of solids. The charge on account of the graduation 
and distribution of these thermometers is arranged with the Government 
Grant Committee of the Royal Society, and consequently does not appear in 
the financial accounts of the Kew Committee. 

A self-recording Anemometer, for measuring the velocity of the wind on 
the plan of Dr. Robinson, has been completed at the Observatory by Mr. 
Beckley : it is erected upon the dome, and has been in regular operation since 
the 1st of January. Its performance is most satisfactory, the delicacy of its 
indications being so great, that during the last six months the whole period 
of "calm," as shown by the registrations, has been only fotir hours. It has 
not yet been possible to erect an apparatus for registering the direction of 
the wind, on account of difficulties arising from the anticipated use of the 
dome for the solar photographic telescope. The direction of the wind has, 
however, been observed five times daily from an ordinary vane. 

Mr. Beckley has since submitted to the Committee a model of a new 
arrangement for a self-recording Anemometer, in which the registration of 
both the direction and velocity of the wind (and also the fall of rain if 
desired) is obtained upon a single sheet of paper. This arrangement is much 
more compact in its design and less costly in construction than any other 
with which the Committee are acquainted. Mr. Beckley 's model will be 
exhibited, and a description of it communicated to this Meeting. 

A series of monthly determinations of the absolute horizontal force and 
of the magnetic dip was commenced in January, with instruments provided 
by General Sabine from his department at Woolwich. Some difficulties 
have been experienced by Mr. Welsh in the observations of the absolute 
horizontal force, owing to imperfections in the usual mode of suspension of 
the magnets during the observations of vibration. These difficulties he 
hopes soon to overcome by employing reversible collimator magnets, and by 
an improved mode of suspension. 



xxxii REPORT — 1856. 

A convenient apparatus has been constructed at the Observatory for the 
determination of the effect of temperature on magnets : with this apparatus 
the temperature coefficients of the magnets employed at the Toronto Obser- 
vatory have been obtained. The scale of the unifilar, and the dimensions 
and weights of the inertia rings employed at the same Observatory, have 
been determined with reference to the Kew standards of length and weight. 

Two dip circles, one for M. Hansteen of Christiania, and the other for 
Dr. Pegado of the Meteorological Observatory of Lisbon, have been ex- 
amined and compared with the Kew instrument before being sent to those 
gentlemen. A 30-inch transit inslrument, lent by General Sabine's depart- 
ment, has been erected in the south window of the old transit room. A 
clock by Shelton, the property of the Royal Society, is used with it. 

Owing to alterations required in the dome in order to adapt it to the use 
of the solar photographic telescope, it has been necessary to remove the large 
electrical apparatus of Mr. Ronalds. An apparatus of smaller size, but on 
the same plan, has been erected on the side of the dome, by which atmo- 
spheric electrical phfenomena can be determined in the same manner as 
heretofore. A new vane has also been constructed, having an indicating dial 
within the dome. 

Dr. Halleur, who had for about six months assisted Mr. Welsh in the 
Observatory, having been appointed to a professorship in the New College 
of Engineering at Calcutta, left the Observatory in September last. 

In February, the Committee, on the recommendation of Professor J. D. 
Forbes, engaged Mr. Balfour Stewart of the Edinburgh University, as 
Assistant Observer, at a yearly salary of £80, with residence in the Obser- 
vatory. Mr. Stewart commenced his duties on March 1. The Committee 
regret having to report that the Observatory will shortly lose the services 
of this gentleman, who has recently been appointed an assistant to Pro- 
fessor Forbes : he will leave the Observatory on October 1, previous to 
which the Committee hope to be able to appoint a successor. 

The Committee refer with pleasure to an ingenious thermometer devised 
by Mr. Stewart, in which advantage has been taken of the difference of ca- 
pillary force and friction in two tubes of different capacity connected with the 
same bulb, to measure the sum of the fluctuations of temperature. The in- 
strument has been made at the expense of the Committee ; a description of it 
has been communicated by Mr. Stewart to the Royal Society, and is printed 
in its " Proceedings." 

Mr. Welsh reports most favourably as to the general attention evinced by 
Mr. Beckley and Mr. Macgrath in the discharge of their respective duties. 
Mr. Beckley 's talent as a mechanical engineer renders his services of great 
value in an establishment where instances constantly occur of work requiring 
the highest skill being promptly and correctly executed : the assiduity of 
Mr. Macgrath has been such as to merit the entire approbation of Mr. Welsh. 

Your Committee cannot close this Report without again recording their 
high opinion of the unremitting care and attention, as well as of the ability 
which has ever been displayed by Mr. Welsh, as the Superintendent of the 
Observatory ; during the past year he was compelled for upwards of six weeks 
to be in Paris, in order to arrange the delivery of the valuable scientific appa- 
ratus forwarded at the request of Her Majesty's Government by the Committee 
to the Paris Exhibition ; but his arrangements were such, that the general 
business of the Observatory was not in any way suspended during his absence. 

Your Committee have finally to report, that the total expenses of the Ob- 
servatory during the past year amount to £557 : \s. 9d. In consequence of 
the Committee having received during the year the sum of £221 : 7*. 8d. for 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. X5CX1U 

the verification of meteorological instruments, they have in hand a balance 
amounting to £260 : 4s. 6c?. ; they do not consider it therefore necessary 
to apply to the Association for a larger sura than £350, to enable them to 
meet the expenses of the ensuing year. 

By order of the Committee, 

John P. Gassiot, Chairman, 

22 July, 1856. 

Correspondence. 

" Clapham Common, December IStli, 1855. 

"Sir, — In the interview with which you favoured the deputation from the 
British Association this day, you kindly explained that you had no power to 
order the Works such as we required to be executed for the Observatory in 
the Old Deer Park, Richmond, without the sanction of the Lords of the 
Treasury, and you suggested the advisability of my briefly explaining to you 
by letter the position in which the Association stands as regards the Building, 
as also of defining the exact object of our application previously to your 
submitting the same to their Lordships. 

" The Building was placed at the disposition of the British Association 
by Her Majesty in 184'2 for scientific purposes ; it has ever since been used 
for those objects, the entire expense of the Establishment being paid by the 
Association, without receiving any assistance, pecuniary or otherwise, from 
Government. 

" The Committee has obtained permission from the Hon. Charles Gore, 
Chief Commissioner of Woods and Forests and Land Revenues Department, 
to have gas-pipes laid along the pathway through the Park to the Observatory 
without any cost or indemnification being required by his department, pro- 
vided the work is done in the winter months ; and the more immediate object 
of the application of Colonel Sabine and myself was to request you would 
order at the present time the gas-pipes to be laid on to the Observatory in 
order that the Building may be properly lighted, such lighting being indis- 
pensable for the carrying out various scientific investigations, and thus 
enabling the Committee to fulfil with greater efficacy the purposes for which 
the Building was originally granted by Her Majesty to the Association. 

" I may add, that the funds of the British Association consist of the con- 
tributions of its members; from these limited means the Council have most 
liberally expended of late years an annual sura of £500 for the Observatory, 
but it being unable to meet this increased expenditure, which would not ex- 
ceed £250 (the estimate is £200), the Committee has been induced to make 
this application, which we hope will not be refused. 

" In respect to the repairs alluded to by us, we merely desired to explain 
that some repairs were indispensable to preserve the Building, which, if 
promptly attended to, would probably save a much larger outlay at a future 
period. 

" The Building co\x\6. perhaps remain in its present state for a short period, 
but a trifling outlay, the extent of which could be easily ascertained by the 
Government Surveyor, would be all that at present is required. The Com- 
mittee considered it their duty to point this out for your consideration. 
" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) "J. P. Gassiot, 

Chairman of the Kew Committee, 
British Association." 
" The Right Hon. Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., M.P., 
Chief Commissioner of Works, Public Buildings, &c. &c." 

1856. c 



XXXIV REPORT — 1856. 

" Office of Works, &c., Dec. 20, 1855. ■ 
" Sir, — I am directed by the Chief Commissioner of Her Majesty's Works, 
&c., to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated the 18th inst., relative 
to certain works considered to be necessary by the British Association at the 
Observatoi-y at Kew, and to inform you that the subject will receive consi- 
deration. " I am. Sir, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " Alfred Austin, Secretary." 

" J. Gassiot, Esq." 

" Office of Works, &c., Jan. 5, 185C. 
" Sir, — Witli reference to your letter dated the 1 8th December last, request- 
ing on behalf of the Kew Committee of the British Association that gas-pipes 
may be laid on to the Observatory at Kew, and that certain repairs may be 
also done to that Building at the expense of this Department, I am directed 
by the Chief Commissioner of Her Majesty's Works, &c., to acquaint you 
that he has caused an estimate to be made of the cost of the Works required 
by the Society, which amounts to a large sum, and that there are not any 
funds voted by Parliament out of which such cost can be defrayed. 

" I am however directed to add, that the Chief Commissioner will consider 
the propriety of including the amount in the estimates of the ensuing year. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " Alfred Austin, Secretary" 

" J. Gassiot, Esq." 

"Clapham Common, May 19th, 1856. 
** Sir, — I duly received the communication from your office, of 5th of last 
January, stating that you had caused an estimate to be made of the cost of 
the Works required at the Observatory in the Old Deer Park, Richmond, 
and that you would consider the propriety of including the amount in the 
annual estimates. 

" I have been informed that the usual estimates have been voted by the 
House of Commons : — may I therefore beg the favour of your acquainting 
me, for the information of the Kew Committee of the British Association, 
whether it is arranged that the laying on of the gas to the Building, and 
effecting the necessary repairs should now be commenced ? 

" Permit me also to explain that it would be very advisable, in order to 
prevent additional outlay, that no further time should elapse as to the repairs 
of the Building. " I have the honour to remain. Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) "J. P. Gassiot, 

Chairman of the Kew Pommittee" 

" The Right Hon. Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., M.P., 
Chief Commissioner of Parks, Palaces, &c. &c." 

" Office of Works, &c., May 27, 1856. 

" Sir, — I am directed by the First Commissioner of Her Majesty's Works, 
&c., to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated the 19th inst., request- 
ing that you may be informed whether it is arranged that the works for 
laying on gas at the Observatory at Kew, and for the necessary repairs, 
should now be commenced. 

" In reply, I am directed to call your attention to a letter addressed to you 
by this Board on the 2nd of June last, to the effect that there would be no 
objection to the use of gas at the Observatory, but that the whole of the work 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXV 

connected therewith must be done by, and at the expense of, the Kew Com- 
mittee of the British Association, and to the satisfaction of this Board's 
Officer in charge of the district. 

" I am to add, that this communication was made to you before the First 
Commissioner came to this Office, and that he was not made aware of it 
when he gave directions for the letter of the 5th January last to be written 
to you, in which he informed you that he would consider the propriety of 
including the cost attending the laying on gas and performing the repairs 
therein referred to, in the Estimates of the ensuing year. His attention 
having now been directed to that communication of the 2nd June last, he 
is of opinion that the decision of the Board thereby conveyed must be ad- 
hered to, and that he is unable consequently to undertake the laying on gas 
at the Observatory, or to incur any portion of the expense attending it. 

" With regard to the repairs referred to in your letter, the First Com- 
missioner desires me to state that he will shortly communicate with you upon 
the subject. " I am, Sir, 

" your most obedient Servant, 

" Alfred Austin, Secretary" 

" J. Gassiot, Esq." 

"Clapham Common, June 3, 1856. 

" My Lord Duke,— At the suggestion of Col. Sabine, I forward your 
Grace a copy of a correspondence I have recently had with the Board of 
Works relative to the lighting of Kew Observatory with gas. 

" The letter alluded to of 2nd June 1855, and a copy of which I enclose, 
is printed in the Report of the Kew Committee. I may also state that 
in an interview with Sir B. Hall, on 18th last December, both Colonel Sabine 
and myself explained the particulars of my former correspondence with the 
Board of Works ; this has possibly escaped Sir B. Hall's recollection, for we 
left him with the impression that he would grant our request ; and this was 
further confirmed by a letter received from Mr. Austin, on January 5th, vfho 
in reference to our application says, ' the Chief Commissioner will consider 
the propriety of including the amount in the Estimates of the ensuing year.' 

" I cannot therefore but feel much disappointed at the result, which, if 
confirmed, will prevent the Committee from carrying out those scientific 
researches they have in contemplation. 

" Hoping your Grace may induce Sir B. Hall to reconsider the applica- 
tion, * "I have the honour to be. My Lord Duke, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

"J. P. Gassiot, 

" His Grace the Duke of Argyll, Chairman of the Kew Committee." 

President of the British Association." 

" Clapham Common, July 17, 1856. 

" Sir, — I duly received your reply to my last letter of 19th May, and 
having communicated to the President and Council of the British Association 
your final determination not to incur any portion of the expense of laying <m 
gas to the Observatory, I have now the pleasure of informing you that the 
Royal Society has, from a small fund bequeathed for scientific purposes, 
most liberally placed the sum of £250 at tlie disposal of the Kew Committee, 
in order that the work may be no longer delayed. 

" I have respectfully to request you will be pleased to give the necessary 
directions to the Officer in charge of the district, referred to in Mr. Austin's 
letter of 27th May (but whose name, designation, or address I have no 

c 2 



XXXvi REPORT — 1856. 

means of ascertaining), in order that the Committee may be informed by 
him in what manner the work must be done to his satisfaction. 

" From what took place at the interview with which you favoured General 
Sabine, Mr. Welsh, and myself on 18th of last December, as well as from 
the tenor of the letter addressed to me by Mr. Austin on 5th last January, 
the Committee fully relied on the necessary amount for the proposed work 
being included in the Estimates ; they regret that any circumstance should 
have arisen to prevent your carrying your intentions into effect, for although 
the amount may appear trifling, in comparison to many sums voted on such 
occasions, it is nevertheless a large item in the income of any scientific 
Society supported entirely by voluntary subscriptions ; and considering that 
the British Association already devotes the large sum of £500 per annum 
for the support of the Observatory, the Committee could not anticipate that 
the cost of laying on gas to a building the property of the Crown, would 
have been refused by your Board. 

" I have only to add, that, although nearly two months have elapsed since 
the date of Mr. Austin's last letter, and upwards of sixteen months since the 
subject was first communicated to your Board, I have not received any com- 
munication relative to the repairs, some of which are absolutely necessary 
for the preservation of the building. 

*' Regretting that you should have been troubled with so long a corre- 
spondence on this subject, " I have the honour to be. Sir, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 

" J. P. Gassiot, 
Chairman of the Kew Committee, 
British Association." 
" The Right Hon. Sir Benjamin Hall, Bart., M.P., 

First Commissioner of Public Works, &c. &c." 

" Office of Works, &c., 25th July, 1856. 
" Sir, — I am directed by the First Commissioner of Her Majesty's Works, 
&c., to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 17th instant, stating that 
the British Association will, out of a grant of money made to them by the 
Royal Society, lay on gas to the Observatory at Kew, and requesting that 
the necessary orders may be given to the proper officer of this department 
on the subject, and also calling attention to the state of repair of the Building ; 
and I am to inform you, in regard to the laying on of the gas, that the Board 
request that the Committee of the Association will, as soon as they shall be 
prepared to commence the works, communicate with Mr. Starie, the Officer 
of this Department, who has the charge of the Kew District, and who is in- 
structed to attend from time to time to see that the works are performed to 
his satisfaction. 

" With regard to the repairs I am directed to state that, upon further con- 
sideration, a question has arisen which renders it necessary for the First 
Commissioner to submit that subject to the Treasury, and that upon recei- 
ving their reply, the First Commissioner will communicate further with the 
Committee. 

" I am. Sir, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 

" Alfred Austin, Secretary^* 
" J. P. Gassiot, Esq." 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



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03 



xxxviii REPORT — 1856. 



Report of the Parliamentary Committee of the British Association to 
the Meeting at Cheltenham in August 1856. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows : — 

We have the pleasure of announcing that one very important subject to 
which our labours have been directed has been materially advanced since 
the date of our last Report; we allude to the juxtaposition of the Scientific 
Societies of London in a convenient and central locality. 

The main building at Burlington House has been placed by the Govern- 
ment at the disposal of the Royal Society, on the understanding that they 
accommodate the Linnean and Chemical Societies with rooms therein ; and the 
West Wing will be converted into a capacious Hall, which is to be occu- 
pied by the Royal Society at all times when it is not required for the 
examinations and public meetings of the University of London. 

We trust that the period is not far distant in which permanent accommo- 
dation will be afforded to all the principal Scientific Societies in buildings to 
be erected near the same site, and in pursuance of some general plan. 

Your Committee, however, anticipate most important advantages to Science 
from the present partial adoption by the Government of the principle of 
juxtaposition ; and our Chairman has in his address to the Royal Society on 
the occasion of their last Anniversary, alluded to the benefits likely to accrue 
from this salutary measure. 

In the same Address also will be found a Summary of our labours since 
our complete organization in 1851, a perusal of which will show to what 
extent the proceedings of our Committee have justified the anticipations of 
those who promoted its formation. 

During the past year two subjects have been referred to us, viz.: — 

1st. The question of the expenses incurred by Scientific Institutions not 
incorporated in appointing new trustees of their property, when vacancies 
occur. And, 2ndly. We were requested by your Council in January last 
to support an application to Parliament, in reference to lighting Kew Ob- 
servatory with gas, when made by the Chief Commissioner of Woods. 

The first subject above adverted to has been considered by us, and we 
shall resume its discussion when an opportunity offers for remedying the 
evil. 

With respect to the second, we must refer to the Report of the Kew 
Committee for an explanation of the reasons which have made it impossible 
for us to render that species of assistance, which was contemplated at the 
time when the reference was made to us. 

The most important subject of our last Report, viz. the question " whether 
any measures could be adopted by the Government or Parliament that would 
improve the position of Science or its Cultivators? " has since its discussion 
at Glasgow been again considered by us ; and during the last Session of 
Parliament it was brought before the House of Commons by Mi'. Heywood, 
as an individual Member of the House, and not as representing your 
Committee. 

The discussion of our Report by the Committee of Recommendations at 
Glasgow in September last, the result of the debate which took, place in 
the House of Commons on the occasion last referred to, and subsequent 
communications with Members of the Legislature, have combined to 
convince us — 

1st. That men of science have as yet formed no definite opinion 
on the important question raised in the Report. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XXXIX 

And 2ndly. That until such a result be attained, it is improbable 

that any important improvement will be effected iu the position of 

Science or its Cultivators either through the agency of the Government 

or Parliament. 

It is desirable therefore that some measures should be adopted, which 

may be instrumental in inducing scientific men generally to apply their minds 

to the consideration of these questions, and to agree upon some definite 

proposals : — We therefore recommend that the subject should be again 

brought before the Committee of Recommendations. Meanwhile the General 

Committee will be gratified on learning that the importance of the question 

has been recognized by the Council of the Royal Society, who have referred 

its consideration to the Government Grant Committee. That Committee 

have appointed a Sub-Committee, consisting of the President and Officers 

of the Royal Society and seven other Members, who will meet on the 7th 

of October for the purpose of discussing the subject prior to the reassembling 

of the Society after the recess. 

Your Committee recommend for the consideration of the General Com- 
mittee, whether it would be expedient to relax the rule by which vacancies 
in our Committee must be filled up exclusively from Members of the British 
Association, so far as to admit Members of either House of Parliament, who 
have advanced the interests of Science. 

Your Committee also recommend that two vacancies in our body, caused 
by the non-attendance of the Earl Cathcart and Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, 
Bart., during two consecutive years, be filled by the election of the Earl of 
Burlington and Lord Stanley, Member of Parliament for King's Lynn. 

25 July, 1856. Wrottesley, Chairman. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Cheltenham Meeting in August 1856. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary of 
the Committee, except there be a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of £350 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment and providing for the continuance of Special Re- 
searches at Kew. 

That Mr. F. Osier be requested to continue his reduction of Anemome- 
trical Observations ; with £20 at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. W. Fox be requested to make further Experiments on the 
Temperature of deep Mines in Cornwall; with £10 at his disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor N. S. Maskelyne, T. F. Hardwich, and Mr. J. D. Lie- 
wellyn, be a Committee, with power to add to their number, for the purpose 
of drawing up a Report on the chemical nature of the image formed in pho- 
tographic processes ; with £10 at their disposal. 

That Professor Anderson be requested to complete his Report on the com- 
pounds of Platinum and the allied metals with Ammonia; with £10 at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Mallet be requested to continue his Investigations on Earth- 
quake Waves ; with £50 at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Phillips and Professor Ramsay be requested to construct a 
Vertical Column of British Strata, to accompany the Map which has been 
prepared for the Geological Section ; with £1 5 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Patterson, Professor Dickie, and Mr. Hyndman, be a Committee,. 



Xl REPORT — 1856. 

with power to add to their number, for the purpose of Dredging in the 
neighbourhood of Belfast ; with £10 at their disposal. 

That the Rev. C. P. Miles, Professor Balfour, Dr. Greville, and Mr. C. 
Eyton, be a Committee to report on the Dredging of the West Coast of Scot- 
land ; with £25 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Williams, Professor Bell, and Dr. Lankester, be a Committee 
for the purpose of completing a Report on the British Annelida, with £25 at 
their disposal. 

That Mr. Archer and Dr. Dickinson be requested to report on the Vege- 
table Imports of Liverpool ; with £10 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. Keddie and Mr. Michael Connal be requested to report on 
the Vegetable Imports of Liverpool; with £10 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Henslovv, Professor Phillips, Sir W. Jardine, Mr. C. C. 
Babington, Professor Balfour, Professor Owen, Dr. Hooker, Mr. J. S. Bower- 
bank, Rev. M. J. Berkeley, Professor Huxley, and Dr. Lankester, be a Com- 
mittee to report on the best manner of selecting and arranging a series of 
Typical Objects illustrative of the three Kingdoms of Nature, for Provincial 
Museums; with £10 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir W. Jardine, Bart., and Mr. Ashworth, be requested to continue 
their observations on the Growth of Salmon ; with £10 at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That the Rev. P. Carpenter, Dr. Gray, and Mr. C. C. Babington, be a 
Committee to complete the Report on the Mollusca of California; with £10 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Madame Ida Pfeiffer be requested to report on the Natural History 
of Madagascar ; with £20 at her disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. G. Rennie be requested to continue his experiments on the pro- 
duction of Heat by motion in fluids ; with £20 at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. A. Henderson, Mr. A. Anderson, 
Captain Sir E. Belcher, Mr. J.R. Napier, Mr. J. Thomson, C.E., Mr. W. 
Ramsay, C.E., Captain J. O. Owen, and Sir W. Jardine, Bart., be requested 
to continue the investigation as to the statistics and condition of Life-Boats 
and Fishing-Boats ; as to the principles on which such boats should be con- 
structed ; the essential conditions of their successful use; and the manner of 
establishing them round the coasts ; with £5 at their disposal for the purpose. 

Not Involving Grants of Money. 

Parliamentary Committee. 

That copies of the two last Reports of the Parliamentary Committee be 
transmitted to each Member of the Genera! Committee, with a request that 
opinions maj^ be expressed as to the important subject " whether any 
measures could be adopted by the Government or Parliament that would 
improve the position of Science and its Cultivators," and that such opinion be 
forwarded for the consideration of the Council before the 20th of September. 

That the Rule by which vacancies in the Parliamentary Committee must 
be filled up exclusively from Members of the British Association, be so far 
relaxed, as to admit Members of either House of Parliament who have 
advanced the interests of Science. 

That two vacancies in the Parliamentary Committee, caused by the non- 
attendance of the Earl Cathcart and Sir J. V. B. Johnstone, Bart., during 
two consecutive years, be filled by the election of the Earl of Burlington, 
and Lord Stanley, M.P. for King's Lynn. 

Title of Section Y. 
That the ' Section of Statistics ' shall in future be entitled ' The Section of 
Economic Science and Statistics.' 



RECOMMENDATIONS OP THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xll 

Involving Applications to Government or Public Institutions. 

That the application to Government for an Expedition to complete our 
knowledge of the Tides be renewed. 

That the application which was made to the Government in September 
1852, concerning the great Southern Telescope, be renewed. 

That a deputation, consisting of Sir 11. I. Murchison, Sir H. Rawlinson, 
General Sabine, Professor Owen, Professor Bell, Dr. Gray, Mr. Macgregor 
Laird, Dr. R. Latham, and Dr. N. Shaw, be requested to wait upon Her 
Majesty's Secretary for Foreign Affairs, to urge the desirableness of sending 
out an annual expedition to the Niger, at the period of the rising waters of 
that river (which has been proved to be the most healthy season), as proposed 
by Dr. Baikie, supported by the Royal Geographical Society, and advocated 
by persons deeply interested in establishing a regular commercial intercourse 
with the inhabitants of that portion of Africa. 

That a Memorial be presented to the Admiralty, praying for the publica- 
tion in a simple, uniform and complete shape, tabular and descriptive, of the 
results of the Trials of Her Majesty's Steam Ships. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. Andrew Henderson, Mr. John Scott 
Russell, Mr. James R. Napier, and Mr. Charles Atherton, appointed to con- 
sider the question of the Measurement of Ships for Tonnage, be requested 
to continue their investigations ; that the following names be added to the 
Committee, The Right Hon. the Earl of Hardwicke, Mr. Arthur Anderson, 
Rev. Dr. Woolley, Mr. Wm. Mann, Mr. George Frederic Young, Captain 
J. O. Owen, Professor Woodcroft, and Mr. James Perry ; and that they be 
requested to inquire into the defects of the present methods, and to frame 
more perfect rules for the measurement and registration of ships; and also 
as to the adoption of a standard unit for estimating the working power of 
engines, instead of the present nominal horse-power, in order that a correct 
and uniform principle of estimating the actual carrying capacity and working 
power of steam-ships may be adopted in their future registration. 

(N.B. In this Recommendation the Committees of Section F. and Section 
G. concurred.) 

That the Earl of Harrowby, Lord Stanley, Mr. William Fairbairn, 
Mr. Thomas Graham (Master of the Mint), Mr. James Heywood, Mr. 
Commissioner Hill, General Sabine, and Mr. Thomas Webster, be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of taking such steps as may be necessary to render 
the Patent system of this country, and the funds derived from inventors, more 
efficient and available for the reward of meritorious inventors, and the ad- 
vancement of practical science. 

Applications for Reports and Researches, 

That Mr. Cayley be requested to complete his Report on the Progress of 
Theoretical Dynamics. 

That a Committee, consisting of General Sabine, Professor Phillips, Sir 
James C. Ross, Mr. Robert W. Fox, and Rev. Dr. Lloyd, be requested to 
undertake the repetition of the Magnetic Survey of the British Islands. 

That Dr. Miller be requested to complete his Report on Electro-chemistry. 

That Dr. Price be requested to complete his Report on Commercial 
Varieties of Iron. 

That Professor Buckman and Professor Voelcker be requested to continue 
their researches into the Effects of External Agents in the Growth of Plants. 

That Mr. Rennie be requested to prosecute his experiments on the Velo- 
city of the Screw-propeller, and report on them next year. 



ilii REPORT — 1856. 

That Mr. Win. Fairbairn, C.E., be requested to continue his Report on 
Boiler Explosions. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. James Thomson, C.E., and Mr. Wil- 
liam Fairbairn, C.E., F.R.S., be requested to continue their investigations on 
the Friction of Discs in water and on Centrifugal Pumps. 

That Mr. James Thomson, C.E., be requested to report further on the 
Measurement of Water by Weir Boards. 

Communications to be printed entire among the Reports. 

That Dr. Booth's Memoir on the Geometrical origin of Logarithms be 
printed entire in the Reports of the Association. 

That Mr. Etheridge's List of the Fossils from the Lias Bone Bed be 
printed entire in the Report of the Association's Proceedings. 

That the Communication of Dr. Wright, on the Echinoderniata of the 
Oolite, be printed entire in the Reports of the British Association. 

That Professor Goodsir's Paper on the Morphological Constitution of the 
Skeleton of the Vertebrate Head be printed entire in the Reports of the 
Association, with such Illustrations as may be necessary. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Cheltenham Meeting in Aug. 1856, with the 

name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Committee, is 
entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory. £ s. d. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying expenses 350 

Mathematics and Physics. 

OsLER, F. — Reduction of Anemometrical Observations 20 

Fox, R. W. — Observations on Subterranean Temperature. ... 10 

Chemical Science. 

Maskelyne, Prof. — Chemical Nature of Photographic Image 10 
Anderson, Prof. — Compounds of Platinum and other metals 

with Ammonia 10 

Geology. 

Mallet, R. — ^Earthquake Wave Experiments 50 

Phillips, Prof. — Section of British Strata 15 

Zoology and Botany. 

Patterson, R. — Dredging near Belfast 10 

Miles, Rev. C. P.— Dredging on the West Coast of Scotland. 25 

Williams, Dr. — British Annelida 25 

Archer, T. C. — ^Natural Products imported into Liverpool . . 10 

Keddie, W. — Natural Products imported into Glasgow 10 

Henslow, Prof. — Typical Forms for Museums 10 

Jardine, Sir W. — Propagation of Salmon 10 

Carpenter, Rev. P. — MoUusca of California 10 

Pfeiffer, Madame Ida. — Natural History of Madagascar . . 20 

Mechanics. 

Rennie, G. — Production of Heat in Fluids 20 

Hendprson, Andrew. — Life-Boats 5 

Grants 36620 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlui 



General StatemetU of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes. 



1834. 
Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 



s. d. 









£167 



1836, 

Tide Discussions 163 

Biitish Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Therraoraetric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 3 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



^-918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railv?ay Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 



£ s. d. 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments 9 4 7 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 7 2 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 4 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 18 6 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 16 6 

Animal Secretions 10 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 

£1595 11 

1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 Q 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phseno- 

mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 

. £1546 16 4, 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 



Mechanism of Waves 144 2 I Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 | Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



xliv 



REPORT — 1856. 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs C2 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals •... 2 

JE1235 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race ....jj 7 

jei449 



s. 


d. 


5 





19 


6 



































1 6 
12 





18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 11 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 

17 6 

5 











10 







8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie andlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation ofthe Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 



3. 


d. 














6 





12 

8 


2 
10 



16 




1 


4 
8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 



11 









5 



8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Obsewatory 56 7 3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlv 















Influence of Light on Plants...... 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 11 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 -^ 12. 

£981 



£ s. 





7 

2 


15 10 
12 3 



3 



Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 16 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 16 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 







30 18 11 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 

Meteorological Observations a 

Inverness 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 H 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 




15 14 



jg830 9 9 






7 
3 
3 
8 19 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 



£685 16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory •• 107 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



£208 5 4 



Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants . -• 15 

£275 1 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phae- 

nomena 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations ••• 13 





2 5 

8 1 





10 
9 



£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 



xlti 



REPORT— 1856. 



"^ £ s. d. 

Periodical Phsenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores ■■■ 25 

£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 

Theory of Heat 20 

Periodical Phaenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 



9 7 



1852. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ...233 17 8 
Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 

lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 



£ s. a. 

1854. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax II 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phae- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

'£380 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon H 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnol'ogical Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 

1855 £500 OJ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Phaeno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 



GENERAL MEETINGS. xlvii 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, Aug. 6th, at 8 p.m., in the College, the Duke of Argyll 
resigned the office of President to C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., Professor 
of Botany in the University of Oxford, who took the Chair at the General 
Meeting, and delivered an Address, for which see p. xlviii. 

On Thursday Evening, Aug. 7th, a Conversazione and Musical Promenade 
took place at the Pittville Spa. 

On Friday, Aug. 8th, at 8\ p.m., in the College, Col. Sir H. Rawlinson, 
F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on Recent Discov6ries in Assyria and Baby- 
lonia, with the results of Cuneiform Research up to the present time. 

On Saturday Evening, Aug. 9th, a Conversazione was held in the College. 

On Monday, Aug. 11th, at 85 p.m., in the College, W. R. Grove, Esq., 
M.A., F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on the Correlation of Physical Forces. 

On Tuesday, Aug. 12th, at 5\ p.m., the Members dined together in the 
Music Hall of the Royal Old Well, the President, Prof. Daubeny, in the 
Chair. 

On Wednesday, Aug. 13th, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place in the College, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, 
and the Grants of Money for scientific purposes, were explained to the 
Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Dublin*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 26th of August, 1857. 



ADDRESS 



CHARLES DAUBENY, M.D., F.R.S., 

Professok of Botany in the University of Oxford. 



Gentlemen of the British Association, 

Exactly twenty years have elapsed since the time when, as one of the Local 
Secretaries of this Institution, at the Meeting held in Bristol, it became my- 
province to lay before the Members present a Report on the progress of 
Physical Science, more especially with reference to the subjects that had 
been treated of in the last volume of our Transactions. 

And it was with no assumed feeling of humility that I expressed on that 
occasion my lively sense of the responsibility of the task imposed upon me, 
and of my own feeble qualifications for its execution. 

It is, however, with a much more pervading consciousness of my defi- 
ciencies that I appear at the present time, when, addressing you as the Pre- 
sident of this great Body, I see before me similar duties committed to me to 
discharge. 

On the former occasion, indeed, I was at least encouraged by the reflection, 
that however eminent those who had preceded me in the drawing up of such 
reports might have been, — and doubtless there were amongst them some of 
our most valued associates, — still, as the task had up to that time been con- 
fided to the Local Secretaries, it was one to which persons of humbler preten- 
sions might aspire ; nor was the general Body likely itself to be compromised 
by any remarks that emanated from one of its subordinate Officers. 

But I now stand before you in quite a different capacity, following as I do 
in the wake of a long train of distinguished individuals, several of whom, 
indeed, as was the case with my own immediate predecessor, added to the 
recommendation of extensive scientific and literary attainments, the prestige 
of exalted rank and eminent social position ; whilst of the remainder many 
had been peculiarly marked out for such a post, either on the ground of 
their own contributions to Science, or on that of the depth and range of 
their information in some of its highest departments. 

In my own case, on the contrary, I cannot but feel, that this important 
office has been imposed upon me, chiefly on account of my position as the 
Senior amongst the Professors of Physical Science in a neighbouring Uni- 



ADDRESS. Xlix 

versity, which doubtless deserves the gratitude of this Association, for the 
support rendered to it, when such fostering care was most needed, in the 
infancy of its existence. 

And if other reasons for the selection are sought for, I would refer it also 
to the accident of my birth, and to the partiality of my friends in the County 
where we are now assembled, to whom I flatter myself it may be a matter 
of satisfaction, to see thus distinguished, an individual whom they regard 
as one of themselves, and one too who owes his position in life, and his capa- 
bility of indulging in those studies which here engage us, mainly to the good 
fortune of attaining, in the University alluded to, a Gloucestershire Fellow- 
ship. 

With respect indeed to any personal claims I have to prefer for occupying 
60 distinguished a post, the most that could be alleged in my behalf is the 
having from the commencement of this Association done what I could to pro- 
mote its success, and to enlist others in its service ; persuaded, as I have ever 
been, that it could not fail to prove a most efficient instrument for the further- 
ance of scientific objects, not only through the direct influence of its Meetings 
in promoting a friendly intercourse and a free interchange of opinions amongst 
those devoted to kindred pursuits, but also indirectly, by engaging the Public 
in various useful undertakings, which Science indeed might have suggested, 
but which the Nation alone was capable of carrying into effect. 

And that these anticipations have been borne out by the result, would 
now seem to be generally admitted from the fact, that other Societies, since 
organized in this country with a view to similar objects, have been uniformly 
framed after its model, and conducted upon principles which they have 
borrowed from this Institution. 

It is indeed rather remarkable, that the first idea of an Association of such 
a kind should have suggested itself only a year after death had deprived us of 
our three most distinguished philosophers, — for who had we then left to com- 
pare, with Davy for the brilliancy and importance of his discoveries; with 
Young for the singular union of almost universal acquirements with ad- 
mirable powers of invention ; and with Wollaston for an acuteness of mental 
vision, which gave him the same advantage in the pursuits of science, which 
the Naturalist armed with a microscope has over the unassisted observer? 
Just as in the animal ceconomy the vis medicatrix naturce sometimes makes 
an extraordinary effort to repair the damage inflicted by injury or disease ; 
so it would seem, as if Science, conscious of the loss she had sustained in the 
almost simultaneous extinction of her three brightest luminaries, endeavoured 
to make good the deficiency, by concentrating into owe focus those that yet 
remained, to light her onwards on her path. 

At any rate, the progress which the Natural Sciences have made since 
that period, although doubtless attributable to several concurrent causes, is 
a fact which must not be overlooked in estimating the services rendered 
by this Association to the cause of human advancement ; nor can I in 
any better manner point out its value, than by bringing before your notice 
some of the additions to our knowledge which have been made since I last 
addressed you, especially considering, that not a few of the discoveries to 
which I shall allude were either first announced, or have been made the 
subjects of discussion, at our several Meetings. 

Beginning then with Chemistry, as the subject with which I am most 
familiar, let me remind you, that at a period not much more remote than 
the one alluded to, all of it that could be quoted as really worthy the name 
of a Science was comprehended within the limits of the mineral kingdom. 

1856. d 



I REPORT-^1856. 

Here at least the outline had been traced out with sufficient precision — 
the general laws established on a tinn basis — the nomenclature framed with 
logical exactness — the facts consistent with each other, and presented in a 
scientific and luminous form. Thus a philosopher, liice Sir Humphry Davy, 
who had contributed in so eminent a degree to bring the science into this 
satisfactory condition, might, at the close of his career, have despaired of 
adding anything worthy of his name to the domain of chemistry, and have 
sighed for other worlds to subdue. 

But there was a World almost as little known to the chemists of that 
period as was the Western Hemisphere to the Macedonian Conqueror, — 
one comprising an infinite variety of important products, called into exist- 
ence by the mysterious operation of the vital principle, and therefore placed, 
as was imagined, almost beyond the reach of experimental research. 

This is the new World of Chemistry, which the continental philosophers in 
the first instance, and subsequently those of our own country, have during the 
last twenty years been busy in exploring, and by so doing have not only 
bridged over tlie gulf which had before s-eparated by an impassable barrier 
the kingdoms of inorganic and of organic nature, but also have added pro- 
vinces as extensive and as fertile as tliose we were in possession of before, to 
the patrimony of Science. 

It is indeed singular, that whilst the supposed elements of mineral bodies 
are very numerous, the combinations between them should be comparatively 
few ; whereas amongst those of vegetable and animal origin, where the ulti- 
mate elements are so limited in point of number, the combinations which 
they form appear almost infinite. Carbon and hydrogen, for instance, con- 
stitute, as it were, the keystone of every organic fabric ; whilst oxygen, nitro- 
gen, and less frequently sulphur and phosphorus, serve almost alone to build 
up their superstructure. 

And yet what an infinity of products is brought about by ringing the 
changes upon this scanty alpliabet ! Even one series of bodies alone, that 
known by the name of the Fatty Acids, comprises several hundred well- 
ascertained combinations, founded however upon a single class of hydro- 
carbons or compound radicals, in which the carbon and hydrogen stand to 
each other in equal atomic proportions, and are in each case acidified by 
the same number of equivalents of oxygen. 

These acids are all monobasic, or combine with only one proportion of 
base; but add to any one of them two equivalents of carbonic acid, and 
you obtain a member of a second series, which is bibasic, or is capable of 
forming two classes of salts. 

The above therefore constitute a double series, as it were, of organic acids, 
the members of which are mutually related in the manner pointed out, and 
diflfer from each other in their mode of combining according to the relation 
between their respective elements. But already, by the labours of Hofmann 
and of other chemists, two other double series ot acids, the one monobasic 
the other bibasic, mutually related exactly in the same manner as those above, 
have been brouglit to light ; each series no doubt characterized by an equally 
numerous appendage of alcohols, of aethers, and of aldehydes, to say nothing 
of the secondary compounds resulting from the union of each of these bodies 
Avith others. 

Hence the more insight we obtain into the chemistry of organic substances, 
the more we become bewildered with their complexity, and in investigating 
these phaenomena, find ourselves in the condition of the explorer of a new 
continent, who, although he might see the same sun over his head, the 
same ocean rolling, at his feet, the same geological structure in the rocks 



ADDRESS. 11 

that were piled around him, and was thus assured that he still continued a 
denizen of his own planet, and subject to those physical laws to which he 
had been before amenable, yet at every step he took was met by some 
novel object, and startled with some strange and portentous production of 
Nature's fecundity. 

Even so the chemist of the present day, whilst he recognizes in the world 
of organic life the same general laws which prevail throughout the mineral 
kingdom, is nevertlieless astonished and perplexed by the multiplicity of new 
bodies that present themselves, the wondrous changes in them resulting from 
slight differences in molecular arrangement, and tlie simple nature of the 
machinery by which such complicated eifects are brought about. 

And as the New World might never have been discovered, or, at all events, 
would not have been brought under our subjection, without those improve- 
ments in naval architecture which liad taken place prior to the age of 
Columbus, so the secrets of organic chemistry would have long remained 
unelicited, but for the facilities in the methods of analysis which were 
introduced by Liebig. 

Before his time the determination of tlie component elements of an organic 
substance was a task of so much skill as well as labour, that only the most 
accomplished analysts — such men, for instance, as my lamented friend Dr. 
Prout in this country, or as the great Berzelius in Sweden — could be de- 
pended upon for such a work ; and hence the data upon which we could rely 
for deducing any general conclusions went on accumulating with extreme 
slowness. 

But the new methods of analysis invented by Liebig have so simplified 
and so facilitated the processes, that a student, after a few months' practical 
instruction in a laboratory, can, in many instances, arrive at results sufficiently 
precise to be made the basis of calculation, and thus to enable the master 
mind, which is capable of availing itself of the facts before it, to breathe life 
into these dry numerical details, — ^^just as the sculptor, by a few finishing 
strokes, brings out the expression of the statue, which has been prepared for 
him by the laborious chiseling of a number of subordinate workmen. 

And as the established laws and institutions of the Old World have been 
modified — may I not say in some instances rectified? — by the insensible influ- 
ence of those of the New, so have the principles that had been deduced from 
the phaenomena of the mineral kingdom undergone in many instances a cor- 
rection from the new discoveries made in the chemistry of the animal and 
vegetable creation. 

It was a great step indeed in the progress of the Science, when Lavoisier 
set the example of an appeal to the balance in all our experimental re- 
searches, and the Atomic Theory of Dalton may be regarded as the necessary, 
although somewhat tardy, result of the greater numerical precision thus in- 
troduced. 

But no less important was the advance achieved, when structure and 
polarity were recognized as influencing the condition of matter, and when 
the nature of abodyVas felt to be determined, not only by the proportions of 
its component elements, but also by their mutual arrangement and colloca- 
tion — a principle, which, first illustrated amongst the products of organic 
life, has since been found to extend alike to all chemical substances what- 
soever. 

Formerly it had been the rule to set down the bodies which form the con- 
stituents of the substances we analysed, and which had never yet under our 
hands undergone decomposition, as elementary ; but the discovery of 
cyanogen in the first instance, and the recognition of several other com- 

d2 



lii REPORT — 1856. 

pound radicals in organic chemistry more lately, naturally suggest the idea, 
that many of the so-called elements of inorganic matter may likewise be 
compounds, differing from the organic radicals above mentioned merely in 
their constituents being bound together by a closer affinity. 

And this conjecture is confirmed by the curious numerical relations sub- 
sisting between the atomic weights of several of these supposed elements ; 
as, for example, between chlorine, bromine and iodine ; an extension of the 
grand generalization of Dalton, which, although it was unforeseen by the 
Founder of the system, and therefore, like Gay-Lussac's theory of volumes, 
raio-ht very possibly have been repudiated by him, had it been proposed tor 
his\cceptance, will be regarded by others as establishing, in a manner more 
conclusive than before, the soundness of his antecedent deductions. 

What, indeed, can be a greater triumph for the theorist, than to hnd that 
a law of nature which he has had the glory of establishing by a long and 
painful process of induction, not only accommodates itself to all the new 
facts which the progress of discovery has since brought to light, but is itselt 
the consequence of a still more general and comprehensive pnncip e, which 
philosophers, even at this distance of time, are still engaged ;n unfolding ;- 

It is also curious to reflect, that whilst the bold speculations of Democntus 
have been realized by the Manchester philosopher, the reveries of the 
alchemists derive something like solid support from the minute investigations 

Ol Ills SLlCCGSSOVS* 

We may remark indeed as not a little remarkable, how frequently the 
discoveries of modern days have served to redeem the fancies of medieval 
times from the charge of absurdity. r- i 

If the direction of a bit of steel suspended near the earth can, as General 
Sabine has proved, be influenced by the position of a body like the moon, 
situated at a distance from it of more than 200,000 miles, who shall say that 
there was anything preposterously extravagant in the conception, however 
little support it may derive from experience, that the stars might exert an 
influence over the destinies of man 1 and when we observe a series of bodies, 
exhibiting, as it would seem, a gradation of properties, and, although as yet 
undecompounded, possessing a common numerical relation one to the other, 
who will deny the probability, that they are composed of the same consti- 
tuents, however little approach we may have as yet made towards the art ot 
resolving them into their elements, or of forming them anew ? 

Organic chemistry has also considerably modified our views with respect 

to chemical affinity. , , r i ^ -^u 

According to one view, indeed, which has been supported of late with con- 
siderable talent and ingenuity, the law of elective attraction, to which we 
ha-e been in the habit of referring all the changes that are brought about 
by chemical means, is a mere figment of the imagination ; and decomposition 
may be accounted for, without the interference of any such force, by re- 
garding it simply as the result of that constant interchange which is supposed 
to be Soing on between the particles of matter —the atoms even of a solid 
body being, according to this hypothesis, in a state of intessant motion. 

But passing over these and other speculations which have not as yet re- 
ceived the general assent of chemists, let me advert to others of an older date, 
possessing, as I conceive, the strongest internal evidence in their favour, which 
the case admits, from the harmony they tend to introduce into the chaos ot 
facts which the late discoveries in organic chemistry have brought to light. 

Amongst these, one of the most generally received, and at the same time 
one of the most universal application, is that which represents the several 
combinations resulting from organic forces, as being put together according 



ADDRES8. 



liii 



to a particular model or type, which impresses upon the aggregate formed 
certain common properties, and also causes it to undergo change most 
readily, through the substitution of some other element in the place of one of 
those which already enters into its constitution. 

And this principle, having been established with regard to one class of 
bodies, has since been extended to the rest; for it now begins to be main- 
tained, that in every case of chemical decomposition a new element is intro- 
duced in the place of one of those which constituted a part of the original 
compound, so that the addition of a fresh ingredient is necessarily accom- 
panied by the elimination of an old one. 

The same doctrine, too, has even been extended to the case of combination 
with a body regarded as elementary, for here also the particles are considered 
as being in a state of binary combination one with the other, owing perhaps 
to their existing in opposite electrical conditions, and therefore possessing for 
each other a certain degree of chemical affinity. 

Thus, when we unite hydrogen with oxygen, we substitute an atom of the 
latter for one of the former, previously combined with the same element. 
The type therefore remains, although the constituents are different. 

When, in the formation of alcohol, we combine the oxide of the compound 
radical sethyle with water, there is still only a substitution of the former for 
one of the atoms of water previously united together, two and two ; and 
when we form aether, we eliminate the second atom of water, and replace it 
by another atom of the same compound radical. Thus the type of water 
still remains, although none of the materials of the original fabric continue ; 
or, if I may adopt the metaphor of a building, although the original bricks 
which composed the structure may have been all replaced by other materials, 
the latter, however ditfering in their nature, always correspond, in point of 
shape, dimensions, and number, with the parts of the edifice which have been 
removed to make way for them. 

It is on this principle that Professor Williamson has propounded a new 
theory of aetherification, regarding the process as resulting from the alternate 
replacement of hydrogen by sethyle, and of sethyle by hydrogen, in the 
sulphuric acid concerned, — a view, which best harmonises with the composi- 
tion of the new aether he hit upon in the course of his investigations. 

The same principle may even be extended to bodies of the same type as 
ammonia ; for inasmuch as this body is made up of a union of an atom of 
nitrogen with three of hydrogen, it is easy to conceive that a variety of 
different compounds might be formed by the substitution of one, two, or three 
atoms of other radicals for the same number of atoms of the original 
hydrogen. How beautifully this idea has been carried out in the recent 
researches of Hofmann, and how happily it serves to elucidate the formation 
of the various vegetable alkaloids, which, from their energetic action upon 
the animal ceconomy, have of late excited so much interest in the public 
mind, is sufficiently known to those who are chemists, and could not be 
rendered intelligible to those who are not, without entering into details which 
would be out of place on the present occasion. 

I must not, however, pass over this part of the subject without remarking, 
that the adoption of Professor Williamson's othyle theory would establish a 
still nearer analogy between the constitution of organic and of mineral com- 
pounds than is at present recognized, since in that case alcohol and aether 
would stand in the same relation one to the other, and belong to the same 
class or series, as the acids and their salts. 

These views, however, and others having reference to the same subject, 
are now under discussion, and I hope in progress of being worked out bj 



IlV REPORT — 1856. 

the able chemist above alluded to, whose promised Report on this subject, 
had it been ready for this Meeting, would have superseded the necessity of 
the above Remarks. They have also engaged the attention of ray distin- 
guisiied successor in the chair of Chemistry at Oxford, who has published 
some elaborate researches bearing upon the questions here mooted, whilst on 
the Continent they have been taken up by several of the most eminent 
chemists of tlie day, sucii as Gerhardt, VVurtz, and Cahours. 

Should they ultimately win their way to general reception, they must tend 
to bring about an entire remodeling of our views, both with respect to 
organic and inorganic compounds, and render that reform in our nomen- 
clature which I pressed upon the attention of the Chemical Section at our 
meeting in Ipswich, more than ever a matter of urgent necessity. 

Many, however, perhaps of my present audience may not have advanced be- 
yond that initial stage of all speculation, which contemplates external objects 
solely as they affect themselves, and not abstractedly in their relations to 
each other ; and to such it may be more interesting to consider those 
practical results bearing upon the arts of life, which have either been actually 
deduced, or may be anticipated as likely to accrue, from the discoveries in 
question. 

Of these perhaps the most important is the possibility of forming by art 
those compounds, which had been formerly supposed to be only producible 
by natural processes, under the influence of the vital principle. The last 
two years have added materially to the catalogue of such bodies artificially 
produced, as in the formation of several species of alcohol from coal gas by 
Berthelot, that of oil of mustard by the same chemist, and the generation of 
taurine, a principle elaborated in the liver, by Strecker. 

And if the above discoveries should strike you at first sight rather as 
curious than practically useful, I would remark, that they afford reasonable 
ground for hope, that the production of some of those principles of high 
medicinal or ceconomical value, which nature has sparingly provided, or at 
least limited to certain districts or climates, may lie within the compass of 
the chemist's skill. 

If Quinine, for instance, to which the Peruvian bark owes its efficacy, be, 
as would appear from recent researches, a modified condition of ammonia, 
why may not a Hofmann be able to produce it for- us from its elements, as 
he has already done so many other alkaloids of similar constitution ? 

And thus, whilst the progress of civilization, and the development of the 
chemical arts, are accelerating the consumption of those articles, which 
kind Nature has either been storing up for the uses of man during a vast 
succession of antecedent ages, or else is at present elaborating for us in that 
limited area, within which alone the conditions would seem to be such as to 
admit of their production, we are encouraged to hope that Science may 
make good the loss she has contributed to create, by herself inventing arti- 
ficial modes of obtaining these necessary materials. 

In this case we need not so much regard the exhaustion of our collieries, 
although Nature appears to have provided no means for replenishing them ; 
nor even be concerned at the rapid destruction of the trees which yield the 
Peruvian bark, limited though they be to a very narrow zone, and to a 
certain definite elevation on either side of the equator. 

Already, indeed, chemistry has given token of her powers, by threatening 
to alter the coui'seof commerce, and to reverse the tide of human industry. 

Thus she has discovered, it is said, a substitute for the cochineal insect, 
in a beautiful dye producible from guano. 



ADDRESS. 



Iv 



She has shown, that our supply of animal food might be obtained at a 
cheaper rate from the Antipodes, by simply boiling down the juices of the 
flesh of cattle now wasted and thrown aside in those countries, and importing 
the extract in a state of concentration. 

She has pointed out, that one of the earths which constitute the principal 
material of our globe contains a metal, as light as glass, as malleable and 
ductile as copper, and as little liable to rust as silver ; thus possessing pro- 
perties so valuable, that when means have been found of separating it ceco- 
nomically from its ore, it will be capable of superseding the metals in coin- 
mon use, and thus of rendering metallurgy an employment, not of certain 
districts only, but of every part of the earth to which Science and Civilization 
have penetrated. 

And may I not also say, that she has contributed materially towards the 
advancement of those arts in which an agricultural county like this is espe- 
cially interested ? 

Who has not heard of the work of Baron Liebig, which, at the time of its 
first appearance, made such a sensation throughout the country ; and stirred 
up the dormant energies oi' the agricultural public, not less thoroughly, than 
the subsoil plough, of which he explained the advantages, elicited the latent 
treasures of the land ? 

It is not often that the same individual has reaped a high reputation, at 
once by establishing general principles in Science, and by rendering popular 
their application to practice. 

Oersted, the father of the science of Electro-chemistry, and our own 
Faraday, who has done so much to develope its principles, left to Wheatstone 
the invention of the telegraph ; Dalton, the propounder of the Atomic Theory, 
did nothing to improve the manufactures of the city in which he resided; 
and the contrivances which have rendered the steam-engine generally appli- 
cable to practice required a combination of tlie distinct talents of a Black 
and a Watt, the one to explain the theory of latent heat, the other to apply 
it to the ceconomical generation of steam. 

But Baron Liebig stands equally distinguished for his ingenuity in de- 
vising new methods of analysis, for his originality in propounding great 
theoretical principles in Science, and for his happy talent in applying these 
principles to purposes of practical utility. 

Like his countryman Goethe, his mind seems to have passed through 
three phases ; for his ingenious methods of analysis were appreciated, before 
his views on the relation between organic substances, his doctrine of com- 
pound radicals, and the consequences flowing from his researches in vege- 
table chemistry, came to be generally admitted ; and the latter had already 
taken root in the minds of chemists, and had established for him a very high 
reputation among his fellow-labourers in Science, before his attempts to 
apply his principles to agriculture and to physiology made his name so 
celebrated, as it has since been, amongst the public in general. 

It is well known, that a controversy has been going on for some time past 
between this distinguished foreigner, and certain experimental agriculturists 
of our own country, with regard to the principles upon which the manuring 
of our land ought to be regulated. In this dispute, however, you will not 
expect me to take part ; for it would be obviously improper on the present 
occasion, that I should avail myself of a little brief authority to influence the 
public on either side of a much-debated question; and, indeed, on any other, 
it might be deemed an act of presumption in an individual, <rho can prefer 
no claim either to the extensive practical experience of the one, or to the high 
scientific eminence of the other, to take upon himself to adjudicate between 
two such conflicting parties. 



Ivi REPORT — 1856. 

But I may be permitted to remark, that whilst some points of difference 
between them still remain open for further investigation, a much nearer 
correspondence of opinion exists with respect to others, than the public in 
general, or even perhaps the disputants themselves, are inclined to allow. 

In so far, indeed, as concerns the relative advantages of mineral and 
ammoniacal manures, I presume there is little room for controversy ; for 
although most soils may contain a sufficiency of the inorganic constituents 
required by the crop, it by no means follows that the latter are always in an 
available condition; and hence it may well happen that in most cases in 
which land has been long under cultivation, the former class of manures 
becomes, as Baron Liebig asserts, a matter of paramount necessity. Now 
that the same necessity exists for the addition of ammoniacal manures can 
liardly be contended, when we reflect, that at the first commencement of 
vegetable life, every existing species of plant must have obtained its nourish- 
ment, solely from the gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, and from the 
mineral contents of the rock in which it vegetated. 

The only divergence of opinion therefore that can arise, relates to the 
degree of their respective utility in the existing state of our agriculture, and 
to the soundness of Baron I,iebig's position, that a plant rooted in a soil well- 
charged with all the requisite mineral ingredients, and in all other respects 
in a condition calculated to allow of healthy vegetation, may sooner or later 
be able to draw from the atmosphere whatever else is required for its full 
development. 

And does not, I would ask, this latter position derive some support from 
the luxuriant vegetation of the tropics, where art certainly contributes nothing 
towards the result? and is it not also favoured by such experiments as those 
carried on at Lois Weedon in Northamptonshire, where the most luxuriant 
wheat crops have been obtained for a number of consecutive years without 
manure of any kind, simply by following out the TuUian system of stirring 
up and pulverizing the soil ? 

How, too, are we to explain that capacity of subsisting without any artificial 
supply of ammonia, which IMr. Lawes is led by his experiments to attribute 
to turnips, and other plants of similar organization, unless we assume that 
the power residing in the leaves of absorbing ammonia from the air may 
render plants, in some cases at least, independent of any extraneous aid ? 

Be this, however, as it may, there is at least a wide distinction between 
this opinion, and the one attributed to Baron Liebig by many, who would 
seem to imagine, that according to his views, ammonia, if derived from arti- 
ficial sources, was in a manner useless to vegetation. 

As if it could be a matter of any moment, whether the substance which 
in both cases afforded the supply of nitrogen, and which in both cases also 
was primarily derived from the decomposition of organic substances, had 
been assimilated by plants directly upon its being thus generated, or had 
been received into their system at a later period, after having been diffused 
through the atmosphere 1 To suppose that Baron Liebig should have attached 
any moment to this distinction seems inconsistent with many passages in 
his work, in which, although the paramount importance of mineral manures 
may be insisted upon, and the success which had in certain cases attended 
the use of one compounded only of mineral ingredients may be put forward 
as a motive for further trials, the utility of ammoniacal substances in all their 
several forms is at the same time distinctly admitted. 

Still the practical question remains, whether, admitting the theoretical 
truth of Baron Liebig's position, a larger expenditure of capital will not be 
required for bringing a given farm into a condition to dispense with ammo- 
niacal manures, than for procuring those materials which contain that ingre- 



ADDRESS. Ivii 

dient ready for use. And here experimental researches, such as those con- 
ducted on so extended and liberal a scale by Mr. Lawes and Dr. Gilbert, 
come in aid of theory. They stand, as it were, midway between the abstract 
principles which Science points out to the farmer, and the traditional usages 
with respect to his art, which have been handed down to him from one gene- 
ration to another. They bear the same relation to the farmer, which the 
records of the clinical practice in a large in6rmary do, to the general princi- 
ples of medicine expounded by the modern physiologist. 

It is true, that the experience of a particular hospital may not at all times 
coincide with the anticipations which science holds out; but this discrepancy 
only suggests to us the imperfection of our present knowledge, and is not 
allowed to disturb the confidence of the physician in principles already esta- 
blished on incontrovertible evidence. On the contrary, whilst he modifies 
his practice from time to time by the experience he has gained by actual ob- 
servation, he feels at the same time the fullest conviction, that these results 
will be found eventually reconcileable with the general principles, which a 
still more extended series of induction may have established. 

I need not occupy your time by applying the same method of proceeding 
to the recent researches alluded to, but I will carry the analogy between the 
science of Agriculture and of Therapeutics one step further. You may recol- 
lect, that in a Report on the progress of husbandry, drawn up some years ago 
by one of the most enlightened and zealous promoters of the agricultural 
interest in Great Britain, now, alas I deceased, it was asserted, that chemistry 
had done nothing for the farmer, except in teaching him to use sulphuric 
acid with his bones, and to take advantage of the refuse flax liquor, formerly 
thrown away and wasted. 

Now a statement of this kind, although it might be literally true in the 
narrow sense in which the author doubtless intended it, namely, as referring 
merely to the introduction of new specifics or recipes into farming, was 
calculated, when put forth on such high authority, to foster that tendency in 
the human mind to which we are all more or less prone, that of sparing our- 
selves the trouble of thought and reflection in shaping the course of our con- 
duct, by leaning blindly upon certain rigid and unvarying rules alreadj-- 
chalked out to us by others. 

It was this propensity exercised upon moral subjects which has encumbered 
our libraries with those vast tomes on casuistry, in which the conduct to be 
pursued in each imaginable casie of conscience was attempted to be pre- 
scribed; it was this which has driven many a patient to fly from the regular 
practitioner into the arms of the homoeopathist, who professes to have a glo- 
bule ready to meet every possible symptom. 

Grant that Science has as yet supplied us with only two infallible receipts 
for the improvement of our land, the agricultural chemist may derive courage 
from the reflection, that medicine too, since the days of Hippocrates, has 
lighted only upon two or three specifics for the cure of disease ; and that the 
most enlightened physicians of the present day, in the spirit which we would 
fain see actuating the leaders of the agricultural body, depend not upon the 
efficacy o^ nostrums, but upon their sagacity in referring the varying condi- 
tions of each case which comes before them to those principles of physiology 
which modern Science has established. 

And has not Science also unfolded principles which may be called in to 
aid and direct the practical labours of the agriculturist ? 

I need not go further than the works of Baron Liebig for an answer to 
this question. I may appeal, for instance, to the extensive employment of 
guano at the present time, first introduced in England in consequence of his 



Iviii REPORT — 1856. 

suggestions : I may refer to the substitution of mineral phosphates for bones, 
founded upon his explanation of the sources from which the latter substance 
derives its efficacy as a manure : and 1 may allude more especially to his 
refutation of the humus theory, to which even the great Saussure gave his 
adhesion, and the reception of which was calculated to vitiate, not a few pro- 
cesses only, but the entire system of our husbandry. 

But whilst we do justice to those comprehensive views on agricultural 
science which have shed a new lustre upon the name of Liebig, let us not 
forget the practical researches which have been carried on in our own 
country ; and especially those conducted under the auspices of the Highland 
Society by Dr. Anderson ; at our own Agricultural College by Prof. Voelcker; 
and, through the aid of the lloyal Agricultural Society, by their consulting 
chemist, Mr. Way. And, although in alluding to the labours of the latter, we 
may be bound to confess, that in one of the latest and probably the most 
important investigations undertaken by him, that namely on the absorptive 
qualities of clay with reference to ammouiacal salts, he had been anticipated, 
so far as the principle goes, by the German Professor, who announced the 
fact many years before in his work ' On Chemistry applied to Agriculture*,' 
yet experience has often shown that a principle may lie dormant long after 
it was enunciated, until its truth is rendered palpable to the senses by a 
series of practical researches expressly directed with a view to demonstrate 
its general applicability. 

Baron Liebig has himself remarked, that as a plant, in order to thrive, 
must receive its i'ood, not in a concentrated form, but reduced to a certain 
state of tenuity by being diffused through water; so an abstract truth only 
makes an impression upon the mind and feelings, when presented to it 
properly diluted, turned, as it were, inside out, examined under every 
aspect, and decked out with all the accompaniments of dress, ornament, and 
colour. 

Then, indeed, as the seed, when implanted in the ground and taken root, 
is able to cleave asunder the hardest rocks, and that, as the ohl proverb says, 
all without noise ; so likewise the truth will at length in its own good time 
begin to germinate, and gradually conquering all obstacles, establish lor itself 
a footing in the mind of the public. Let us not therefore withhold our meed 
of approbation from those who have worked out for us any useful scientific 
principle, even though the germ may be traceable to some other quarter ; 
conscious that it is to its being brought thus prominently forward, and, as 
it were, forced upon the attention of the public, that we owe its general 
reception and its reduction to practice. 

But it is time to hasten on to certain other departments of Natural Science. 

In Botany and Vegetable Physiology it cannot perhaps be said, that whole 
provinces have been added to the domain of the Science since the period 
alluded to, as we have seen to be the case in our review of the progress of 
chemistry. 

Even so long ago as the year 18S2, the elder DeCandolle, who, if not the 
most original or the most profound of the botanists of his day, was at least 
the most conspicuous for the wide range of his information, and for his 
happy talent of imparting it to others, published that admirable work on 
vegetable physiology, which even at the present time is capable of serving 
as a most useful guide in many branches of the subject. 

And yet what a mass of important information has been brought together 
since that period I 

* P. 57, Eng. Trans. 



ADDRESS. lix 

The improvements in the microscope which have since taken place, render 
us familiar with particulars relating to the structure and functions of the 
vegetable creation, which the ruder methods of investigation before resorted 
to would never have revealed to us. 

We owe to them the interesting discoveries of Brown and Adolphe Brong- 
niart, as to the mode in which the pollen is brought into immediate contact 
with the ovules, by means of the tubes which it protrudes by a prolongation 
of the innermost of its two investing membranes. Thus much at least appears 
to be fully ascertained ; but in alluding to the observations of others who 
have endeavoured to push their scrutiny still further, it becomes me to speak 
with more diffidence, inasmuch as the office which the pollen discharges in 
the act of fecundation is still a matter of dispute, between such men as 
Schleiden and Schacht on the one side, and Hofmeister, Moll, &c. on the other. 

Whilst, however, this controversy continues, it is something at least to 
know, that the vivifying principle, whatever it may be, is actually transmitted 
to the part where its influence is to be exerted, and not kept apart from it, 
as we were formerly compelled to assume, by that long intervening plexus 
of fibres or tubes which constitutes the style. 

. To the microscope also we owe all that is as yet known with respect to the 
reproductive process in cryptogamous plants, which are now shown to possess 
a structure analogous to that of flowering ones in respect to their organs of 
reproduction ; not, indeed, as Hedwig supposed, that parts corresponding to 
stamens and pistils in appearance and structure can be discovered in them, 
but that, as the primary distinction of sexes seems to run throughout the 
vegetable kingdom, new parts are superadded to a structure common to all 
as we ascend in the scale of creation, until from the simple cell, which, in 
consequence of some differences of structure to our eyes inappreciable, ap- 
pears to exercise in one case the function of the male, in another of the female, 
as is found the case in certain of the Confervse, we arrive at length at the com- 
plicated machinery exhibited in flowering plants, in which the cell containing 
the fecundating principle is first matured in the stamen, and afterwards trans- 
mitted through an elaborate apparatus to the cells of the ovule, which is in 
like manner enveloped in its matrix, and protected by the series of investing 
membranes which constitutes the seed-veissel. Thus, as Goethe long ago 
observed, and as modern Physiologists have since shown to be the case, the 
more imperfect a being is, the more its individual parts resemble each other 
— the progress of development, both in the animal and vegetable kingdom, 
always proceeding from the like to the unlike, from the general to the 
particular. 

But whilst the researches of Brown and others have proved, that there is no 
abrupt line of division in the vegetable kingdom, and that one common struc- 
ture pervades the whole ; the later inquiries of Suminski, Hofmeister, Unger, 
Griffith, and Henfrey, have pointed out several curious and unlooked-for 
analogies between plants and animals. 

I may mention, in the first place, as an instance of this analogy, the ex- 
istence of moving molecules or phytosperms in the antheridia of Ferns and 
other Cryptogams, borne out, as it has been in so remarkable a manner, by 
the almost simultaneous observations of BischofF and Meissner on the egg, 
confirmatory of those formerly announced by Barry and Newport; and by 
the researches of Suminski, Thuret, and Pringsheim, With respect to the 
ovule of plants. I may refer you also to a paper read at the last Meeting of 
the Association, by Dr. Cohn of Breslau, who, in bringing tliis subject before 
the Natural History Section, adduced instances of a distinction of sexes which 
had come under his observation in the lower Algse. 



Ix REPORT — 1856. 

In like manner a curious correspondence has been traced between the 
lower tribes of animals and plants, in the circumstance of both being subject 
to the law of what is called alternate generation. This consists in a sort of 
cycle of changes from one kind of being to another, which was first detected 
in some of the lower tribes of animals, a pair of insects, for example, producing 
a progeny differing from themselves in outward appearance and internal 
structure, and these reproducing their kind without any renewed sexual union, 
the progeny in these cases consisting of females only. At length, after a 
succession of such generations, the offspring reverts to its primaeval type, and 
pairs of male and female insects of the original form are reproduced, which 
complete the cycle, by giving rise in their turn to a breed presenting the 
same characters as those which belong to their own progenitors. 

An ingenious comparison had been instituted by Owen and others between 
this alternation of generations in the animal, and the alternate production of 
leaves and blossoms in the plant; but the researches to which 1 especially 
allude have rendered this no longer a matter of mere speculation or inference, 
inasmuch as they have shown the same thing to occur in Ferns, in Lyco- 
podia, in Mosses, nay, even in the Confervas. 

We are indebted to Professor Henfrey for a valuable contribution to our 
Transactions in 1851 on these subjects, given in the form of a Report on 
the Higher Cryptogamous Plants ; from which it at least appears, that the 
proofs of sexuality in the Cryptogamia rank in the same scale as to com- 
pleteness, as those regarding flowering plants did before the access of the 
pollen tubes to the ovule had been demonstrated. Indeed, if the observations 
of Pringsheim with respect to certain of the Algae are to be relied upon, 
the analogy between tiie reproductive process in plants and animals is even 
more clearly made out in these lower tribes, than it is in those of higher 
organization. 

It also appears, that the production in Ferns and other Acrogens of 
what has been called a pro-embryo ; the evolution of antheridia and arche- 
gonia, or of male and female organs, from the former; and the generation 
from the archegonia of a frond bearing spores upon its under surface, is 
analogous to what takes place in flowering plants in general ; where the seed, 
when it germinates, produces stem, roots and leaves ; the stem for many gene- 
rations gives rise to nothing but shoots like itself; until at length a flower 
springs from it, which contains within itself for the most part the organs of 
both sexes united, and therefore occasions the reproduction of the same seed 
with which the chain of phsenomena commenced. This is the principle 
which a learned Professor at Berlin has rather obscurely shadowed out in 
his Treatise on the Rejuvenescence of Plants, and which may perhaps be re- 
garded as one at least of the means, by which Nature provides for the stabi- 
lity of the forms of organic life she has created, by imparting to each plant a 
tendency to revert to the primaeval type. 

To the elder DeCandoUe we are also indebted for some of our most philo- 
sophical views with respect to the laws which regulate the distribution of 
plants over the globe, — yiews which have been developed and extended, but 
by no means subverted, by the investigations of subsequent writers ; amongst 
whom Sir Charles Lyell, in his ' Principles of Geology,' and the younger 
DeCandolle, a worthy inheritor of his father's reputation, in his recently 
published work on Botanical Geography, have especially signalized them- 
selves. But it is to the late Professor Edward Forbes, and to Dr. Joseph 
Hooker, that we have principally to attribute the removal of those anomalies, 
which threw a certain degree of doubt upon the principles laid down by 



ADDRESS. 



ixi 



DeCandolle in 1820, in his celebrated article on the Geography of Plants, 
contained in the ' Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles,' where the derivation 
of each species from an individual, or a pair of individuals, created in one 
particular locality, was made the starting-point of all our inquiries. 

These anomalies were of two different kinds, and pointed in two opposite 
directions: for we had in some cases to explain the occurrence of a peculiar 
flora in islands cut off from the rest of the world, except through the medium 
of a wide intervening ocean ; and in other cases to reconcile the fact of the 
same or of allied species being diffused over vast areas, the several portions of 
which are at the present time separated from each other in such a manner, as 
to prevent the possibility of the migration of plants from one to the other. 
Indeed, after making due allowances for those curious contrivances by which 
Nature has in many instances provided for the transmission of species 
over different parts of the same continent, and even across the ocean, and 
which are so well pointed out in DeCandoUe's original essay, we are com- 
pelled to admit the apparent inefficiency of existing causes to account for the 
distribution of the larger number of species ; and must confess that the 
explanation fails us often where it is most needed ; for the Compositae, in 
spite of those feathery appendages they possess, which are so favourable to 
the wide dissemination of their seeds, might be inferred, by their general 
absence from the fossil flora, to have diffused themselves in a less degree than 
many other families have done. And on the other hand, it is found, that 
under existing circumstances, those Composite, which are disseminated 
throughout the area of the Great Pacific, belong in many cases to species 
destitute of these auxiliaries to transmission. 

But here Geology comes to our aid ; for by pointing out the probability of 
the submergence of continents on the one hand, and the elevation of tracts 
of land on the other, it enables us to explain, the occurrence of the same 
plants in some islands or continents now wholly unconnected, and the exist- 
ence of a distinct flora in others too isolated to obtain it under present cir- 
cumstances from without. In the one case we may suppose the plants to 
have been distributed over the whole area before its several parts became 
disunited by the catastrophes which supervened ; in the other, we may re- 
gard the peculiar flora now existing as merely the wreck, as it were, of one 
which once overspread a large tract of land, of which all but the little patch 
upon which it is now found had since been submerged. 

Upon this subject, however, our opinions may in some measure be swayed 
by the nature of the conclusions we arrive at with respect to the length of 
time during which seeds are capable of maintaining their vitality ; for if after 
remaining for an indefinite period in the earth they were capable of germi- 
nating, it would doubtless be easier to understand the revival, under favour- 
able circumstances, of plants which had existed before the severance of a 
tract of land from the continent in which they are indigenous. An inquiry 
has accordingly been carried on for the last fifteen years under the auspices of, 
and with the aid of funds supplied by, this Association, the results of which, 
it is but fair to say, by no means corroborate the reports that had been 
from time to time given us with respect to the extreme longevity of certain 
seeds, exemplified, as it was said, in the case of the mummy-wheat and other 
somewhat dubious instances ; inasmuch as they tend to show, that none of 
the seeds which were tested, although they had been placed under the most 
favourable artificial conditions that could be devised, vegetated beyond a 
period of forty-nine years ; that only twenty out of 288 species did so after 
twenty years ; whilst by far the larger number had lost their germinating 
power in the course of ten. 



Ixii REPORT — 1856. 

These results, indeed, being merely negative, ought not to outweigh such 
positive statements on the contrary side as come before us recommended by 
respectable authority, such, for instance, as that respecting a Nelumbium 
seed, which germinated after having been preserved in Sir Hans Sloane's 
Herbarium for 150 years; still, however, they throw suspicion as to the 
existence in seeds of that capacity of preserving their vitality almost indefi- 
nitely} which alone would warrant us in calling to our aid this principle in 
explaining the wide geographical range which certain species of plants affect. 

Let us then be content to appeal to those ingenious views which were first 
put forth at one of our meetings by the late Professor Forbes, and which 
have since been promulgated in a more detailed and systematic form by the 
same distinguished naturalist. By the aid of the principles therein laid down, 
he was enabled to trace the flora of Great Britain principally to four distinct 
sources, owing to the geological connexion of these islands at one period or 
other with Scandinavia, with Germany, with France, and with Spain ! And 
it was by a similar assumption that Dr. Joseph Hooker explained the dis- 
tribution of the same species throughout the islands of the Great Pacific, 
and the contiguous continents, tracts which, as Darwiii had shown, were 
formerly united. Nor is this mode of explanation limited to the case of the 
above regions ; for in the ' Flora Indica,' which important work I regret to find 
has been suspended after the appearance of the first volume. Dr. Hooker, in 
conjunction with his fellow traveller. Dr. Thomson, has discussed the same 
problem with regard to the whole of India, extending from AfTghanistan to 
the Malayan peninsula. 

And amongst the many services rendered to the Natural Sciences by these 
indefatigable botanists, one of the greatest 1 conceive to be, that they have 
not only protested against that undue multiplication of species, which had 
taken place by exalting minute points of diflPerence into grounds of radical 
and primary distinction, but that they have also practically illustrated their 
views with respect to the natural families which have been described by 
them in the volume alluded to. They have thus contributed materially to 
remove another difficulty which stood in the way of the adoption of the 
theory of specific centres, — I mean the replacement of forms of vegetation in 
adjoining countries by others, not identical, but only us it should seem allied ; 
for it follows from the principles laid down by these authors, that such ap- 
parently distinct species may after all have been only varieties, produced by 
the operation of external causes acting upon the same species during long 
periods of time. 

But if this be allowed, what limits, it may be asked, are we to assign to 
the changes which a plant is capable of undergoing, and in what way can we 
oppose the principle of the transmutation of species, which has of late ex- 
cited so much attention, and the admission of which is considered to involve 
such startling consequences? 

I must refer you to the writings of modern physiologists for a full discus- 
sion of this question, and may appeal in particular to the lecture delivered 
before this Association by Dr. Carpenter at our last meeting. All that I 
shall venture to remark on the subject is, that had not Nature herself assigned 
certain boundaries to the changes which plants are capable of undergoing, 
there would seem no reason why any species at all should he restricted within 
a definite area, since the unlimited power of adaptation to external conditions 
which it would then possess might enable it to diffuse itself throughout the 
world, as easily as it has done over that portion of space within which it is 
actually circumscribed. 



ADDRESS. bciii 

Dr. Hooker Instances certain species of Coprosma, of Celmisia, and a kind 
of Australian Fern, the Lomaria procera, which have undergone such striking 
changes in their passage from one portion of the Great Pacific to another, 
that they are scarcely recognizable as the same, and have actually been re- 
garded by preceding botanists as distinct species. But he does not state 
that any of these plants have ever been seen beyond the above-mentioned 
precincts ; and yet if Nature had not imposed some limits to their suscepti- 
bility of change, one does not see why they might not have spread over a 
much lai^er portion of the earth, in a form more or less modified by external 
circumstances. 

The younger DeCandolle, in his late admirable treatise already referred 
to, has enumerated about 117 species of plants which have been thus dif- 
fused over at least a third of the surface of the globe ; but these apparently 
owed their power of transmigration to their insusceptibility of change, for 
it does not appear that they have been much modified by the effect of climate 
or locality, notwithstanding the extreme difference in the external conditions 
to which they were subjected. 

On the other hand, it seems to be a general law, that plants, whose organi- 
zation is more easily affected by external agencies, become, from that very 
cause, more circumscribed in their range of distribution ; simply because a 
greater difference in the circumstances under which they would be placed 
brought with it an amount of change in their structure, which exceeded the 
limits prescribed to it by Nature. 

In short, without pretending to do more than to divine the character of 
those impediments, which appear ever to prevent the changes of which a 
plant is susceptible from proceeding beyond a certain limit, we seem to catch 
a glimpse of a general lavv^ of Nature, not limited to one of her kingdoms, but 
extending everywhere throughout her jurisdiction, — a law, the aim of which 
may be inferred to be, that of maintaining the existing order of the universe, 
without any material or permanent alteration, throughout all time, until the 
Jiat of Omnipotence has gone forth for its destruction. 

The will, Avhich confines the variations in the vegetable structure within a 
certain range, lest the order of creation should be disturbed by the introduc- 
tion of an indefinite number of intermediate forms, is apparently the same in 
its motive, as that which brings back the celestial Luminaries to their ori- 
ginal orbits, after the completion of a cycle of changes induced by their 
mutual perturbations; it is the same which says to the Ocean, Thus far 
shalt thou go, and no further; and to the Winds, Your violence, however 
apparently capricious and abnormal, shall nevertheless be constrained within 
certain prescribed limits — 

Ni faciat, maria et terras coelumque profundum, 
Quippe ferant rapidi secum, verrantque per auras. 

The whole indeed resolves itself into, or at least is intimately connected 
with, that law of symmetry to which Nature seems ever striving to confirm, 
and which possesses the same significance in the organic world, which the law 
of definite proportions does in the inorganic. 

It is the principle which the prophetic genius of Goethe had divined, long 
before it had been proved by the labours of physiologists to be a reality, and 
to which the poet attached such importance, that the celebrated discussion 
as to its merits which took place in 1820 between Cuvier and Geoffrey St. 
Hilaire so engrossed his mind, as to deprive him, as his biographer informs 
us*, of all interest in one of the mostportentous political events of modern days 

* Lewes' Life of Goethe, vol. ii. 



Ixiv REPORT — 1856. 

which was enacting at the very same epoch, — I mean the subversion of the 
Bourbon dynasty. 

It is indeed not less calculated to subserve to the gratification of our 
sense of the beautiful, than to provide against too wide a departure from 
that order of creation which its great Author has from the beginning in- 
stituted ; and, as two learned Professors of a sister kingdom have pointed 
out in memoirs laid before this Association, and have since embodied in a 
distinct treatise*, iiianifests itself not less in the geometrical adjustment of 
the branches of a plant, and of the scales of a fir-apple — nay even, as they 
have wished to prove, in the correspondence between the form of the fruit 
and that of the tree on which it grows — than in the frequent juxtaposition of 
the complementary rays of the spectrum, by which that harmony of colour 
is jjroduced in Nature, which we are always striving, however unsuccessfully, 
to imitate in Art. 

The law, indeed, seems to be nothing else than a direct consequence of that 
unity of design pervading the universe, which so bespeaks a common Creator — 
of the existence in the mind of the Deity of a sort of archetype, to which His 
various works have all to a certain extent been accommodated ; so that the 
earlier forms of life may be regarded as types of those of later creation, and 
the more complex ones but as developments of rudimentary parts existing in 
the more simple. Here too we may perhaps trace an analogy with His dealings 
with mankind, as unfolded in His Revealed Word ; from which we find, that 
the earlier events recorded are often typical of those more modern, and that 
Christianity itself is in some sense a development of the Jewish dispensation 
which preceded it. 

I should apologize for dwelling so long upon the two departments of natu* 
ral knowledge to which I have hitherto confined myself, were it not that 
other sciences of a still higher rank than those treated of had been discussed 
so fully in the Discourses of former Presidents. 

Whilst indeed this is the first occasion, save one, in which a Chemist has 
had the honour of occupying the Chair of the British Association, it has on 
no former occasion fallen to the lot of a professed Botanist to be thus distin- 
guished. I have therefore consulted alike my own ease, and what was due to 
the Sciences themselves, in making Chemistry and Botany the principal themes 
of my discourse. Leaving, then, to the gifted friend who will discourse 
before you next Monday evening " On the Correlation of Physical Forces," 
the task of connecting with those Powers of Nature that manifest themselves 
in the phsenomena of chemical attraction or of cell-development, the im- 
ponderable agents which form the proper subjects of branches of Physics not 
here dwelt upon, and thus establishing the existence of that common brother- 
hood among the Sciences, which furnishes the best plea for such Meetings 
as the present, I will only further detain you by noticing one other field 
of inquiry, in which I have ever felt a lively interest, although it has only 
been in my power to bestow on it a casual attention, or to cultivate one 
limited portion of the wide range which it embraces. 

Indeed Geology, the Science to which I now allude, has, during the last 
twenty years, made such rapid strides, that those who endeavoured from an 
early period of life to follow at a humble distance the footsteps of the great 
leaders in that Science, obeying the impulse of such zealous and ardent 
spirits, as the one — now, alas ! by the inscrutable decrees of Providence, lost 
to his friends and to Science, — who constituted the Head of what was once 

* Typical Forms, by M'Cosh and Dickie. 



ADDRESS. 



Ixv 



called, I hope not too grandiloquently, the Oxford School of Geology, — have, 
if I may judge of others by myself, been often distanced in the race, and 
when they endeavoured to make good their lost ground, found themselves 
transported into a new, and to them an almost unknown region. 

Thus the thorough exploration which has taken place of the Silurian and 
Cambrian systems, through the exertions of two of our oldest and most 
valued Associates, has added a new province — ought I not rather to say, a 
new kingdom ? — to the domain of Geology, and has carried back the records of 
the creation to a period previously as much unknown to us as were the annals 
of the Assyrian dynasties before the discoveries of Sir Henry Rawlinson. 

I might also be disposed to claim for the recent investigations of Botanists 
some share in fixing the relative antiquity of particular portions of the globe, 
for, from the floras they have given us of different islands in the Great Pacific, 
it would appear, that the families of plants which characterize some groups 
are of a more complicated organization than those of another. Thus whilst 
Otaheite chiefly contains Orchids, Apocynese, Asclepiadeae and Urticeae ; the 
Sandwich.Islands possess LobeliacPEe and Goodenoviae ; and the Galapagos 
Islands, New Zealand and Juan Fernandez, Compositas, the highest form 
perhaps of dicotyledonous plants. 

In deducing this consequence, however, I am proceeding upon a principle 
which has lately met with opposition, although it was formerly regarded as 
one of the axioms in geology. 

Amongst these, indeed, there was none which a few years ago seemed so 
little likely to be disputed, as that the classes of animals and vegetables which 
possessed the most complicated structure were preceded by others of a more 
simple one ; and that when we traced back the succession of beings to the 
lowest and the earliest of the sedimentary formations, we arrived at length 
at a class of rocks, the deposition of which must be inferred, from the 
almost entire absence of organic remains, to have followed very soon after 
the first dawn of creation. But the recognition of the footsteps and remains 
of reptiles in beds of an earlier date than was before assigned to them, 
tended to corroborate the inferences vvhich had been previously deduced 
from the discovery, in a few rare instances, in rocks of the secondary age, of 
mammalian remains ; and thus has induced certain eminent geologists boldly 
to dispute, whether from the earliest to the latest period of the earth's history 
any gradation of beings can in reality be detected. 

Into this controversy I shall only enter at present, so far as to point out 
an easy method of determining the fact, that organic remains never can 
have existed in a particular rock, even although it may have been subjected 
to such metamorphic action as would have obliterated all traces of their pre- 
sence. This is simply to ascertain, that the material in question is utterly 
destitute of phosphoric acid ; for inasmuch as every form of life appears to 
be essentially associated with this principle, and as no amount of heat would 
be sufficient to dissipate it when in a state of combination, whatever quantity 
of phosphoric acid had in this manner been introduced into the rock, rau^ 
have continued there till the end of time, notwithstanding any igneous ope- 
rations which the materials might have afterwards undergone. But as the 
discovery of very minute traces of phosphoric acid, when mixed with the 
other ingredients of a rock, is a problem of uo small difficulty, an indirect 
method of ascertaining its presence suggested itself to me in some experi- 
ments of the kind which I have instituted, namel}', that of sowing some kind 
of seed, such for instance as barley, in a sample of the pulverized rock, and 
determining whether the crop obtained yielded more phosphoric acid than 

1856. e 



Ixvi REPORT — 1856. 

was present in the grain, it being evident that any excess must have been 
derived from the rock from which it drew its nourishment. 

Should it appear by an extensive induction of particulars, that none of 
the rociis lying at the base of the Silurian formation, which have come before 
us, contain more phosphoric acid than the minute quantity I detected in the 
slates of Bangor and Llanberris, which were tested in the above manner, it 
might perhaps be warrantable hereafter to infer, that we had really touched 
upon those formations that had been deposited at a time when organic beings 
were only just beginning to start into existence, and to which, therefore, the 
term Azoic, assigned to these rocks by some of the most eminent of our geo- 
logists, might not be inappropriate. 

The proofs of the former extension of glaciers in the northern hemisphere, 
far beyond their actual limits, tend also to complicate the question which has 
at all times so much engaged the attention of cosmogonists with respect to 
the ancient temperature of the earth's surface ; compelling us to admit, that 
at least during the later of its epochs, oscillations of heat and cold must have 
occurred, to interfere with the progress of refrigeration which wa^ taking 
place in the crust. 

On the other hand, facts of an opposite tendency, such as the discovery 
announced at our last Meeting by Captain Belcher, of the skeleton of an 
Ichthyosaurus in lat. 77°, have been multiplying upon us within the same 
period ; inasmuch as they appear to imply, that a much higher temperature 
in former times pervaded the Arctic regions than can be referred to local 
causes, and therefore force upon us the admission, that the internal heat of 
the nucleus of our globe must at one time have influenced in a more marked 
manner than at present the temperature of its crust. 

On the causes of this increased temperature, whether local or cosmical, 
much elaborate research has been brought to bear, by Sir Charles Lyell in 
his celebrated ' Principles of Geology,' and by Mr. Hopkins in his Address to 
the Geological Society. 

The most extensive collection of facts, however, having reference to this 
subject, is contained in the Reports on Earthquake Phsenomena, published 
by Mr. Mallet in our Transactions, supplying, as they do, data of the highest 
importance to the full elucidation of the subject. For although the evidence 
I have myself brought togetiier in ray work on Volcanos might be sufficient 
to establish in a general way the connexion of earthquakes with that deep- 
seated cause which gives rise to the eruptions of a volcano, yet our interest 
is thereby only the more awakened in the phaenomena they present, — ^just as 
Dr. Whewell's inquiries into the local variations of the Tides were valued all 
the more in consequence of the persuasion already felt, that lunar attraction 
was their principal cause. 

But if earthquakes bring under our notice chiefly the dynamical effects of 
this hidden cause of movement and of change, those of volcanos serve to 
reveal to us more especially their chemical ones ; and it is only by com- 
bining the information obtained from these two sources, together with those 
from hot springs, especially as regards the gaseous products of each, that we 
can ever hope to penetrate the veil which shrouds the operations of this 
mysterious agent; so as to pronounce, with any confidence, whether the 
effects we witness are due, simply to that incandescent state in which our 
planet was first launched into space, or to the exertion of those elective at- 
tractions which operate between its component elements, — attractions which 
might be supposed to have given rise, in the first instance, to a more ener- 
getic action and consequently to a greater evolution of heat, than is taking 



ADDRESS. Ixvii 

place at present, when their mutual affinities are in a greater measure 



Within the last twenty years much has been done towards the elucidation 
of this problem, through the united investigations of Boussingault, of Deville, 
and above all of Bunsen, with respect to the gases and other bodies evolved 
from volcanos in their various phases of activity ; the results of which, how- 
ever, do not appear to me to present anything irreconcileable with that view 
of their causes which was put forth many years ago in the work I published. 

Whilst, however, the latter is offered as nothing more than as a conjectural 
explanation of the phaenomenain question, I may remind those, who prefer the 
contrary hypothesis on the ground that the oblate figure of the earth is in 
itself a sufficient proof of its primaeval fluidity, that this condition of things 
could only have been brought about in such materials by heat of an intensity, 
sufficient, whilst it lasted, to annul all those combinations amongst the 
elements which chemical affinity would have a tendency to induce, and thus 
to render those actions to which I have ascribed the phEenomena, not only 
conceivable, but even necessary consequences, of the cooling down of our 
planet from its original melted condition. 

In the nearly allied Science of Geography, several important undertakings 
have been set on foot, and some interesting discoveries made since the period 
of our last Meeting. 

1. Dr. Kane has extended Arctic discovery, through Smith Strait, at the 
head of Baffin Bay, to about 3 degrees nearer the Pole. 

2. Mr. Kelley has announced the result of several independent surveying 
expeditions despatched by him to the Valley of the Atrato, with a view to the 
formation of a great navigable channel through Central America, between the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. When Humboldt directed attention to this region 
fifty years since, he had only uncertain reports to guide his anticipations ; and 
these surveys have been the first to throw actual light upon this region. 

S. An expedition has been despatched to North Australia, for the purpose 
of exploring the interior and tracing the extent of the northern watershed. 
Its arrival at the mouth of the Victoria River has already been announced. 

4. It is pro{>osed, by the Geographical Society, to despatch an expedition 
to Eastern Africa, to explore the extent of the inland waters known to exist 
there, and if possible to discover the long-sought sources of the Nile. 

5. Explorations have been undertaken in the Rocky Mountains, by several 
parties in South America, in the Pacific, and elsewhere : these, however, are 
far too numerous to be particularly alluded to. 

Such are a few of the additions to our knowledge which have been made 
in the course of the last twenty years in those sciences with which I am 
most familiar. 

Whilst, however, the actual progress which has taken place in them is in 
itself so satisfactory, the change which the sentiments of the public have 
undergone, with respect to their claims to respect, affi)rds no less room for 
congratulation. 

If our attention is turned to the metropolis, we see rising up around us 
establishments for the advancement of Physical Science, of which our ances- 
tors would scarcely have dreamed the possibility. 

I may instance the School of Mines, first placed under the management of 
our late Associate, Sir Henry De la Beche, and now presided over bj Sir 
Roderick Murchison, as a convincing proof of the improved feeling on such 
subjects entertained by the Government of this country. 

e2 



Ixviii REPORT — 1856. 

I may mention also another proof of a greater appreciation of the claims 
of Science, in their having departed from the practice which had prevailed 
ever since the death of Sir Isaac Newton, of regarding the Mastership of Her 
Majesty's Mint a purely political appointment, and in conferring it, as they 
have done on the two last occasions, as a reward for scientific eminence. 

It is also gratifying to find, that the attention of the Legislature has at 
length been seriously called to consider what measures of a public nature 
might be adopted for improving the position of Science and its cultivators, 
and that the Royal Society has appointed a Body of its Members to receive 
suggestions on that subject, and to report upon it, in order that a matured 
plan may be presented to Parliament to meet this object at its next Session. 

Nor, if we extend our glance to the Provinces, need I go further than 
the neighbourhood of our present place of meeting, in order to point out as 
many as four active clubs of naturalists, who sustain as well as diflPuse an 
interest in our pursuits, by frequf nt meetings, and by investigating, in com- 
mon, the physical peculiarities of their respective neighbourhoods. 

In this very county, too, we have lately witnessed the first example of an 
Institution founded for the express purpose of communicating to the rising 
generation of farmers, that scientific as well as practical instruction, the union 
of which is admitted by every enlightened agriculturist to be essential, for the 
purpose of deriving the fullest advantage from the natural resources of our 
soil. Nor can I help feeling an honest pride when I reflect, that this Esta- 
blishment, which has since risen to such imporlance, and is celebrated 
throughout the land as the best training school for youths destined to hus- 
bandry which England affords, should have emanated from the members of 
a little club existing in a neighbouring county-town, endeared to me by 
long associations, Irom its near proximity to the place of my birth, and the 
home of my earliest years. 

Turning, too, to the University to which I belong, in which a few years ago 
our pursuits were hardly regarded as integral parts of academical instruction, 
we now find in it at least a recognition of their importance to have taken place, 
and Classical Literature no longer disdaining to own as her Sisters, the Studies 
which engross so large a part of the attention of the public in general. 

Nay, the Academic Body has lately devoted no small portion of its 
revenues towards the erection of a Museum, intended to comprehend under 
one roof all the appliances for research, as well as all the means of instruction 
which can be required in the several branches of Natural Philosophy. 

The extension, indeed, which is now given to the name in the language of 
naturalists, and even by the public at large, is in itself an indication of 
correcter views than were formerly entertained with regard to the uses of 
such Establishments. 

Few, for instance, have such a notion of a Museum as Horace Walpole 
gave utterance to at the close of the last century*, when he defined it "a 
" hospital for everything that is singular— whether the thing has acquired 
" singularity from having escaped the rage of time — from any natural oddness, 

« or from being so insignificant that nobody thought it worth while to pro- 

" duce any more of the same." 

Nor will it be possible to ridicule these Institutions, as an eminent member 
of my own University, even within my recollection, was temptid to do, in 
alluding to the little Institutions of the kind set up in some of our pro- 
vincial townsf. 

" The stuffed ducks, the skeleton in the mahogany case, the starved cat and 

* Fugitive Pieces. t Sewell's Letter to a Dissenter, 1834. 



ADDRESS. Ixxi 

" rat which were found behind a wainscot, the broken potsherd from an old 
" barrow, the tattooed head of the New Zealand chief, the very unpleasant- 
" looking lizards and snakes coiled up in the spirits of wine, the flint-stones 
" and cockle shells," &c., will no longer be seen jumbled together in hetero- 
geneous confusion, as might have been the case at the period alluded to. 

The Ipswich Museum has set an example, which I have no doubt will be 
generally followed, of selecting for such Institutions a series of types illus- 
trative of the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms; and a Committee of 
this Association is now employed in the useful undertaking of preparing a 
list of objects calculated to illustrate the different forms in nature, and thus 
rendering our provincial Museums no longer mere rareeshows, but places 
where the masses may receive instruction in all branches of Natural History. 

But the Oxford Museum aims at much more than is usually understood 
by that title. Its central area, indeed, may be regarded as the Sanctuary of 
the Temple of Science, intended to include all those wonderful contrivances 
by which the Author of the Universe manifests himself to His creatures; 
whilst the apartments which surround it, dedicated as they will be to lectures 
and researches connected with all branches of Physical Science, may repre- 
sent the chambers of the ministering Priests, engaged in worshiping at her 
altar, and in expounding her mysteries. 

In turning too to this Association, the reception Avith which it is now 
greeted in the course of its migrations through the various portions of the 
United Kingdom, is not less encouraging as an augury of the future pro- 
spects of Science. 

Our Body, indeed, may now be said to have passed unscathed through 
that ordeal to which all infant undertakings are exposed, and which even its 
great prototype, the Royal Society of London, at its commencement, did not 
altogether escape. And the best proof that such is the case, will be found in 
the different manner in which it is received by the public in general. 

Twenty years ago the invitations sent us proceeded, either from places like 
the Universities expressly dedicated to learning, and therefore peculiarly 
called upon to lend a helping hand to Science ; or else from Cities, in which 
the predominant occupations brought the mass of the population into inii- 
mediate and constant connexion with scientific processes. 

Now, on the contrary, we have seen the two principal Centres of fashion- 
able resort — the favourite retreats of the wealthy and noble of the land — 
vieing with each other in their eagerness to receive us ; and an almost purely 
agricultural County greeting us with the same hearty welcome as that which we 
had heretofore received from the commercial and manufacturing Communities. 

Twenty years ago it was thought necessary to explain at our meetings the 
character and objects of this Association, and to vindicate it from the denun- 
ciations fulminated against it by individuals, and even by parties of men, 
who held it up as dangerous to religion, and subversive of sound principles 
in theology. 

Now, so marked is the change in public feeling, that we are solicited by 
the clergy, no less than by the laity, to hold our meetings within their pre- 
cincts; and have never received a heartier welcome than in the city in which 
we are now assembled, which values itself so especially, and with such good 
reason, on the extent and excellence of its educational establishments. 

It begins, indeed, to be generally felt, that amongst the faculties of mind, 
upon the development of which in youth success in afterlife mainly depends, 
there are some which are best improved through the cultivation of the 
Physical Sciences, and that the rudiments of those Sciences are most easily 
acquired at an early period of life. 



)xx REPORT — 1856. 

That power of minute observation — those habits of method and arrange- 
ment — that aptitude for patient and laborious inquiry — that tact and sagacity 
in deducing inferences from evidence short of demonstiation, which the 
Natural Sciences more particularly promote, are the fruits of early education, 
and acquired with difficulty at a later period. 

It is during childhood, also, that the memory is most fresh and retentive ; 
and that the nomenclature of the sciences, which, from its crabbedness and 
technicality, often repels us at a more advanced age, is acquired almost 
without an effort. 

Although, therefore, it can hardly be expected, that the great schools in 
the country will assign to the Natural Sciences any important place in their 
systems of instruction, until the Universities for which they are tlie seminaries 
set them the example, yet 1 cannot doubt, but that the signal once given, both 
masters and scholars will eagerly embrace a change so Ci^ngenia! to the tastes 
of youth, and so favourable to the development of tiieir intellectual faculties. 

And has not, it may be asked, the signal been given by the admission of 
the Physical Sciences into the curriculum of our academical education ? 

I trust that this question may be answered in the affirmative, if we are 
entitled to assume, that the recognition of them which has already taken 
place will be consistently followed up, by according to them some such sub- 
stantial encouragement, as that which has been afforded hitherto almost 
exclusivelj^ to classical literature. 

Our ability to accomplish this, with the means and appliances at our com- 
mand, does not, I think, admit of dispute. 

Happily for this country, the conservative feeling which has ever prevailed 
amongst us, and the immunity we have enjoyed from such political con- 
vulsions as have affected most other European nations, maintain in their 
integrity those Academical Establishments, which, as Monsieur Montalembert 
has remarked, are, like our Government and our other Institutions, a magni- 
ficent specimen of the social condition of the middle ages, as it at one time 
existed throughout the whole of Western Europe. 

They are Institutions, indeed, which foreigners may well look upon with 
envy, but which when once destroyed, it is hopeless to expect that Govern- 
ments, engrossed as they are with the interests and politics of the day, will 
ever think of restoring. 

Thanks to their existence, it rarely happens, that a student, in Oxford at 
least, who has distinguished himself in his classical examinations, fails to obtain 
some reward for his past exertions, and. if he require it, some assistance to 
enable him to continue them in future. 

And this, too, be it observed, has been the case, even whilst the natural, 
although perhaps mistaken partiality of our founders, for their native counties, 
for the parishes in which their estates lay, or for their own collateral descend- 
ants, greatly curtailed the number of fellowships which could be bestowed 
on merit. 

All, therefore, that seems wanted, now that local preferences seem on the 
point of being removed, is, on the one hand, a more equal distribution of the 
existing emoluments between the several professions, and, on the other, the 
admission of the claims of the sciences received into our educational system, 
to share in the emoluments which, up to this time, have been monopolized 
by the Classics. 

And as it is far from my wish to curtail the older studies of the University 
of their proper share of support — for who that has passed through a 
course of them can be insensible of the advantages he has derived from 
that early discipline of the mind which flows from their cultivation? — I 



ADDRESS. Ixxi 

rejoice to think, that when the Legislature shall have completed the removal 
of those restrictions which have hitherto prevented us in many instances 
from consulting the claims of merit in the distribution of our emolu- 
ments, there will be ample means afforded for giving all needful encourage- 
ment to the newly recognized studies, without trenching unduly upon that 
amount of pecuniary aid which has been hitherto accorded to the Classics. 

In anticipation of which change, I look forward with confidence to the daj'^, 
when the requirements at Oxford, in the department of Physical Science, will 
become so general and so pressing, that no Institution which professes to 
prepare the youth it instructs for academical competition will venture to risk 
its reputation by declining to admit these branches of study into its educa- 
tional courses. 

Indeed the example has already been set in many, as I understand to be 
the case with the noble Seminary within whose walls we are now assembled, 
as well as with that older Establishment, which, under the energetic manage- 
ment of its present head master, has become its worthy rival as a training 
school for the Universities. 

At any rate, I trust the time has now passed away, when studies such as 
those we recommend lie under the imputation of fostering sentiments 
inimical to religion. 

In countries, and in an age in which men of Letters were generally tinc- 
tured with infidelity, it is not to be supposed that Natural Philosophy would 
altogether escape the contagion ; but the contemplation of the works of crea- 
tion is surely in itself far more calculated to induce the humility that paves 
the way to belief, than the presumption which disdains to lean upon the 
supernatural. 

It is not, indeed, without an excusable feeling of exultation that in sur- 
veying the triumphs of modern science, we see 

" An intellectual mastery exercised 
O'er the blind elements ; a purpose given ; 
A perseverance fed ; almost a soul 
Imparted to brute matter ;" 

or that we repeat to ourselves the words in which the poet apostrophizes the 
philosopher, — 

" Go, wondrous creature ! mount where Science guides, — 
Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides ; 
Instruct the planets in what orbs to run, 
Correct old Time, and regulate the Sun." 

Nevertheless, if we pursue the line of thought in which the same author 
indulges, we shall be compelled to ask ourselves, not without a deep sentiment 
of humiliation, even whilst contemplating the highest order of intellect which 
the human race has ever exhibited, — 

" Could he, whose rules the rapid Comet bind, 
Describe or fix one movement of the mind ? 
Who saw its fires here rise, and there descend, 
Explain his own beginning, or his end ?" 

When indeed we reflect within what a narrow area our researches are 
of necessity circumscribed, when we perceive that we are bounded in space 
almost to the surface of the planet in which we reside, — itself merely a speck 
in the universe, one of innumerable worlds invisible from the nearest of the 
fixed stars — when we recollect, too, that we are limited in point of time to a 
few short years of life and activity — that our records of the past history of 
the globe and of its inhabitants are comprised within a minute portion of the 



Ixxii REPORT — 1856. 

latest of the many epochs which the earth has gone through — and that with 
regard to the future, the most durable monuments we can raise to hand 
down our names to posterity are liable at any time to be overthrown by an 
earthquake, and would be obliterated, as if they had never been, by any of 
those processes of raetamorphic action which geology tells us form a part of 
the cycle of changes which the globe is destined to undergo, — the more lost 
in wouder we may be at the vast fecundity of Nature, which within so narrow 
a sphere can crowd together phaenomena so various and so imposing, the 
more sensible shall we become of the small proportion, which our highest 
powers and their iiappiest results bear, not only to the Cause of all causation, 
but even to other created beings, higher in the scale than ourselves, which 
we may conceive to exist. 

" Think thou this world of hopes and fears 

Could find no statelier than his peers 

In yonder hundred million spheres ? " 

It is believed, that every one of the molecules which make up the mass of 
a compound body is an aggregate of a number of atoms, which, by their 
arrangement and mutual relation, impart to the whole its peculiar properties ; 
and, according to another speculation which has been already alluded to, 
these atoms are not absolutely motionless, but are ever shifting their position 
within certain limits, so as to induce corresponding changes in the properties 
of the mass. 

Indeed it has been imagined, that the production of different compounds 
from the same elements united in the same proportions, may be one of the 
consequences resulting from the different arrangement of particles thereby 
induced. 

If this hypothesis have any foundation in fact, what an example does it 
set before us of great effects brought about by movements which, to our 
senses, are too minute to be appreciable : and what an illustration does it 
afford us of the limited powers inherent in the human race, which are never- 
theless capable of bringing about effects so varied, and to us so important ; 
although, as compared with the universe, so insignificant ! 

We also are atoms, chained down to the little globe in which our lot is 
cast; allowed a small field of action, and confined within definite limits, both 
as to space and as to time. 

We, too, can only bring about such changes in nature, as are the resultants 
of those few laws which it lies within the compass of our powers to investigate 
and to take advantage of. 

We, too, can only run through a certain round of operations, as limited in 
their extent, in comparison with those which lie within the bountis of our 
conception, as the movements of the atoms, which serve to make up a com- 
pound molecule of any of the substances around us, are to the revolutions of 
the heavenly Luminaries. 

And as, according to Professor Owen, the conceivable modifications of 
the vertebral archetj'pe are very far from being exhausted by any of the 
forms which now inhabit tiie earth, or that are known to have exi.-ted here 
at any former period ; so likewise the properties of matter with which we are 
permitted to become cognizant, may form but a small portion of those of 
which it is susceptible, or with which the Creator may have endowed it in 
other portions of the Universe. 

We are told, that in a future and a higher state of existence, the chief 
occupation of the blessed is that of praising and worshiping the Almighty. 
But is not the contemplation of the works of the Creator, and the study of 
the ordinances of the Great Lawgiver of the universe, in itself an act of 



ADDRESS. 



Ixxiii 



praise and adoration ; and, if so, may not one at least of the sources of 
happiness which we are promised in a future state of existence, one of the 
rewards for a single-minded and reverential pursuit after truth in our present 
state of trial, consist in a development of our faculties, and in the power of 
comprehending those laws and provisions of Nature with which our finite 
reason prevents us at present from becoming cognizant ? 

Such are a few of the reflections which the study of Physical Science, cul- 
tivated in a right spirit, naturally suggests ; and I ask you, whether they are 
not more calculated to inspire humility than to induce conceit ; to render 
us more deeply conscious how much of the vast field of knowledge must ever 
lie concealed from our view — how small a portion of the veil of Isis it is 
given us to lift up — and therefore to dispose us to accept, with a more 
unhesitating faith, the knowledge vouchsafed from on high, on subjects 
which our own unassisted reason is incapable of fathoming. 

" Let us not, therefore," to use the language of a living prelate, " think 
scorn of the pleasant land. That land is the field of antient and modern 
Literature — of Philosophy in almost all its Departments — of the Arts of 
Reasoning and Persuasion. Every part of it may be cultivated with advan- 
tage, as the Land of Canaan when bestowed upon God's peculiar people. 
They were not commanded to let it lie waste, as incurably polluted by the 
abominations of its first inhabitants; but to cultivate it and to dwell in it, 
living in obedience to the Divine laws, and dedicating its choicest fruits to 
the Lord their God." 



1856. / 



REPORTS 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



I 



REPORTS 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report from the Committee appointed by the British Association fot 
the Advancement of Science, at the Meeting in Liverpool, in Sep- 
tember 1854, to investigate and report upon the effects produced 
upon the Channels of the Mersey by the alterations which within the 
last fifty years have been made in its Banks. 

Your Committee have to report, that for the purpose of securing a satis- 
factory solution of the questions submitted to their investigation, they deemed 
it expedient to refer different portions of the inquiry to individual members 
of their body, in the following manner :— . 

1. Mr. George Rennie, to trace historically the important' projections into 
the river, and reclamation of large areas of land which would exclude the 
entry of water. 

2. Mr. Joseph Boult, to show important changes in the bottom, including 
the channels and outlets of the river, so dividing the work that it may illus- 
trate the effects of the above-named encroachments. 

3. Mr. Henderson, to compare the tides of the present period with the 
tides registered by Mr. Rendell. 

It has been thought desirable to present the reports of these gentlemen to 
the Association unabridged, as affording the best solution of the subject 
which has yet been prepared, and your Committee will therefore only refer 
to the more salient points of the inquiry, and to the conclusions to be drawn 
from the information laid before them. 

Mr. Rennie's report is accompanied by copies of the following valuable 
documents : — 

1. Report of Messrs. Wilkin relative to the navigation and conservancy o^ 
the River Mersey, 28th April 1840. 

2. Area and content of water in the River Mersey, from Blackrock to 
Woolston Weir, above W^arrington, at certain tides, below and above Liver- 
pool Old Dock sill, by George Rennie, 18th May 1838. 

3. Index of the engineers' and surveyors' reports who have reported on the 
estuary and River Mersey. 

4. First and second Memorial of the Mayor, Aldermen and Burgesses of 
the Borough of Liverpool, April and September 1839. 

5. Letter from H. M. Denham, R.N., to the Corporation of Liverpool, 
27th September 1836. 

6. Statement of the Town-clerk as to the rights of the Mayor, Aldermen, 
and Burgesses of Liverpool to the lordship of Liverpool, comprising the 
River Mersey up to the bridges and strand at Liverpool, Toxteth Park, Bir- 
kenhead, and Wallasey. 

1856. B 



2 REPORT — 1856. 

7. Letter from William Lord, R.N., to the Chairman of the Conservancy 
Committee, 23rd March 1840. 

8. Letter from William Lord, R.N., to R. Radcliffe, Esq., 3rd April 184.0. 
The history of the Mersey is well detailed by Messrs. Wilkin down to the 

date of their inquiry. From their report it appears that until 1818 there 
was no check or control exercised by any authority over encroachments upon 
the tidal area of the river. In that year the Corporation of Liverpool, whose 
jurisdiction extended from Hoylake to Hesketh jBank on the Ribble, and all 
over the River Mersey to Warrington and Frodsham Bridges, and who had 
authority to remove any obstructions to the navigation, " be it the ground 
or soil of the King's most excellent Majesty, or any other person or persons, 
bodies politic or corporate whatsoever," called in Mr. Whidbey, of Plymouth 
Breakwater,to examine the encroachmentswhich had been made on the estuary 
at different parts, and to lay down some general principles as to its future 
preservation. Subsequently Mr. Rennie, Sen., and Messrs. Chapman, Giles, 
Walker, Mylne, Stevenson, and George and John Rennie, reported in con- 
firmation of the general principles laid down by Mr. Whidbey. They may 
be briefly stated as follows : — " That tide harbours are deep or otherwise in 
proportion to the quantity of water which flows and ebbs through their 
channels, and that to embank portions of the tidal area is to diminish that 
quantity of water and consequently to injure the harbour." So completely 
had these principles been contravened in former days, that it appears from 
Mr. Rennie's calculation of the area and content of water in the River 
Mersey (No. 2), that the original tidal area was 36,500 acres, of which 
13,440 acres were then (1838) lost to the tideway, being enclosed marshes. 

The very elaborate survey of the Mersey, from the Blackrock to Woolston 
Weir, which was prepared about thirty years since by the late Mr. Giles, 
C.E., for the Corporation of Liverpool, is an invaluable and unique docu- 
ment. As it is plotted to an adequate scale, and furnishes data for determining 
the extent of any changes, either in the area or depth of the river, since that 
date. As, however, the survey has not yet been repeated, your Committee 
have been unable to investigate the changes in that part of the Mersey : 
there is reason to believe that some of them have important relations to the 
well-being of the river, and the great interests in either shore. Amongst 
others, the mutations in the Devil and Pluckington Banks, and the waste of 
various portions of the shore are the most remarkable. 

Unfortunately, Mr. Giles's survey did not include the outer estuary or. 
Liverpool Bay ; of this frequent and excellent surveys have been made 
during the last twenty-three years by Capt. Denham, and his successor Lieut. 
Lord, who, as marine surveyors to the port, exercised unceasing vigilance on 
the changes within the sphere of their observations. Mr. Boult's attention 
has been espacially directed to the alterations recorded by these surveys, 
and to the influence which may have been exercised upon those alterations 
by the dock-works of Liverpool and Birkenhead, and by meteorological phae-, 
nomena. The changes in the areas and positions of the several banks have 
been laid down in coloured outlines, upon the accompanying charts* A, B, 
and C, and the alterations in their cubical contents and in the average areas 
of the sea channels, as far as they can be approximately ascertained from the 
surveys, are recorded in the tables D, E, F, and G. 

From these it appears that there has been a progressive, though irregular, 

* Of these charts it has been found desirable to publish Chart A. only ; as the scale to 
which the illustrations are necessarily restricted is too small to permit distinctness in the 
several contours. 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 3 

increase in the sizes of the banks, the growth having been both lateral and 
vertical ; some of the fluctuations are very remarkable ; that the average 
area of the northern, channel remains very stationary, though in places the 
mutations have been considerable ; and that there has been a diminution of 
average area in the Rock Channel, arising from a deposit of silt at the 
eastern end. This channel is the oldest known entrance into the Mersey ; 
it is laid down by Captain Collins in his survey of 1689, who says of the 
northern channel (by way of Crosby and Formby) that it is not buoyed or 
beaconed, and so not known. There appear to be grounds for serious ap- 
prehensions that the Rock Channel may be irrecoverably lost, if due pre- 
cautions are not adopted in good time. 

There have been extraordinary fluctuations in the seaward entrance of the 
northern channel within the period embraced in this inquiry, and at this 
present time another great change is being accomplished, namely, the sub- 
stitution of the Queen's Channel for the Victoria Channel, inteimediate 
between the latter and the Zebra Channel. 

There is reason to believe that the growth of the banks and the silting up 
of part of the Rock Channel have been much promoted by the abstraction 
of area which has taken place for dock purposes ; nor is this surprising when 
we find the extent of this abstraction, and the important part of the river, 
especially in relation to the Rock Channel, where it has been made. 

Between 1846 and 1859, or in six years, it seems that as much as 500 
acres have been enclosed for the dock-works of Liverpool and Birkenhead, 
and the result apparently confirms the correctness of the principle laid down 
by Mr. Whidbey and other eminent engineers who have reported upon the 
river, as indicating the consequence of diminishing the scouring power of 
the last of the flood and the first of the ebb, the situations of the abstractions 
referred to being in parts of the river which are occupied by those portions 
of the tidal waters. 

It appears from Mr. Boult's researches, that the change of direction in the 
channels is not so much the result of the direction of the dock walls as of 
alterations in the size and position of the sand-banks ; alterations which seem 
to be due to the permanent loss of scouring power, by abstraction of tidal 
area ; to the temporary increase of that loss from drought ; to the temporary 
accession of scouring power from freshes; and to the drifts of sand by the . 
winds to which the bay is peculiarly exposed, and which are the prevailing 
winds on this part of the coast. The extent of this sand-drift is so great, 
that, since Collins's survey, the eastern shore of the estuary appears to have 
advanced westward as much as one-half the width of the northern channel, 
or about 1000 yards. 

It is possible that the deterioration of the Rock Channel is to be ascribed, 
in part, to the erection of the new north wall at Liverpool. It is built on 
the Bootle shore, almost immediately opposite the junction of that channel 
with the northern channel, and directly across the direction of the tidal 
stream in the Rock Channel. Therefore, the flood-stream entering the river 
by that channel is suddenly checked by this upright wall, and is deprived of 
the space formerly allowed by the sloping Bootle shore for gradually changing 
its direction into that of the main course of the river and the northern 
channel. 

It was observed by Messrs. Whidbey, Chapman, and Rennie, in their 
Report to the Corporation of Liverpool in 1822, that " all channels through 
which water flows must be of a magnitude proportionate to the quantity 
^rhich passes them, and anv increase or diminution of that quantity will 

»2 



4 REPORT — 1856. 

enlarge or diminish the channel, unless when formed of materials so hard that 
the strength of the current is not able to remove them." The truth of this 
observation is strikingly confirmed by the remarkable waste of the clay cliffs 
of the Cheshire shore of the river at Seacombe and Egremont. This has 
been observed for many years past ; but, according to the evidence which 
accompanies the report of Mr. Walker, C.E., printed by order of the House 
of Commons, 23rd June 1856, it has greatly increased within the last ten 
years, or since so much of the tideway on the opposite shore has been 
abstracted for the north dock- works. 

The result of the inquiry, so far as your Committee have been able to 
prosecute it, shows the vital importance of a strict conservancy of the River 
Mersey in all its tidal area, in order that it may be preserved for the vast 
commerce centered on its shores. There is no doubt that injury — to a great 
extent irremediable — has been already inflicted, not only upon some of the 
owners of property on its margin, but also upon the river itself, more espe- 
cially upon its approaches. Your Committee conceive that the nature and 
extent of this injury should be determined as accurately and as speedily as 
possible ; that the trade on this river is vastly too important in its relation to 
the national prosperity, for the subject of this inquiry to be left to a committee, 
however zealous, which is unendowed with pecuniary resources, and dependent 
for information upon the researches of gentlemen actively engaged in official 
and professional occupations ; and that the result of such an investigation 
would be highly beneficial to the science of harbour engineering. The 
scientific value of the information so acquired would be greatly enhanced 
were the phasnomena of all our tidal harbours subjected to similar research. 
It is not unreasonable to expect that the ultimate result would give greater 
certainty as to the influence of projected works upon the well-being of the 
harbours with which they are associated ; and relieve the Legislature from 
the responsibility of sanctioning un'dertakings the destructive or conservative 
eflects of which, at present, are often very speculative. 

Harrowby, Chairman. George Rennie. 

P. M. Grey Egerton. Andrew Henderson. 

R. I. MuRCHisoN. Joseph Boult, Secretary, 
F. W. Beech EY. 



Report on the past and present state of the Estuary of the Mersey within the 
last seventy years, as derived from historical records, and according to the 
maps, charts, and reports of different Engineers, and ivhich have been laid 
before the Committee appointed by the British Association at its meeting at 
Liverpool, September 1 854, to investigate and report upon the same. By 
George Rennie, F.R.S. 

The early history of the Mersey, previous to the beginning of the present 
century, is confined to the uncertain statements of tojjographical writers such 
as Lcland, Gough, King, Ormerod, Mortimer, and others; and the charts of 
Captain Collins in lf;S9, and by M'Kenzie in 1760. 

According to the original constitution of the charters and grants made 
from tiine to time to the borough of Liverpool, the boundaries of that port 
were adopted by a commission issued 19th July, 32 Charles II., which i-ecited 
an Act passed in the 14t]i year of the then king's reign, tor "preventing 
frauds and regulating abuses in the Customs ;" and also an Act of the 1st of 
Elizabeth. It was settled in November 1680, that the boundaries of the port 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 5 

of Liverpool should be "from the Red Stones on the point of Wirrall south- 
erly, to the foot of the Ribble water in a direct line northerly, and so upon 
the south side of the said river to Hesketh Bank easterly." These limits 
were adopted in the Dock Act of Anne, and subsequent dock acts, as the 
limits of the crown revenues, and have been adhered to down to the present 
time. The limits of the old borough and parish of Liverpool bordering on 

the Mersey are thus defined, viz " The western boundary commences at 

low-water mark of the River Mersey, where a brook, called Beacon's Gutter, 
enters the river, and continues thence southward along the low-water mark 
of the said river, to the centre of a certain slip or basin called Etna Slip. 
The southern boundary commences from the centre of Etna Slip, and runs 
from thence to the eastward, across the southernmost end of the Queen's 
Dock. The northern boundary returns along the Beacon's Gutter, to the 
beforementioned low-water mark of the river." The 8th of Anne, 1709, 
defined the limits of the port of Liverpool to extend as far Jis " a certain place 
in Hoylake called the Red Stones, and from thence all over the River Mersey 
to Warrington and Frodsham Bridges." These boundaries and rights of the 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses to the lordships of Liverpool, comprising the 
River Mersey up to the bridges and to the strand at Liverpool, Toxteth Park, 
Birkenhead, and Wallasey, are fully explained in the accompanying statement, 
No. 6, as also in the second memorial of the Liverpool Corporation to the 
Admiralty, No. 4. According to a statement made by Mr. RoUet, surveyor 
of Wallasey embankment, at the fifth meeting of the Architectural and 
Archaeological Society of Liverpool, in 1854, the sea had formerly effected 
a direct entrance into the valley of the Mersey through its present channel, 
from which, he believed, it had been separated previously by a diluvial deposit 
of clay, boulders, and sand, and that after it had so effected its entrance, its 
progress, in forming a deep channel, would be gradual. In proof of which 
he cited the authority of Captain Collins, " That great ships belonging to 
Liverpool put out at Hyle, or Hoylake, part of their lading until they are 
light enough to sail over the flats of Liverpool." 

The charts of Collins and M'Kenzie, although taluable as records, can 
scarcely be depended upon. The first authentic survey of the port of Liver- 
pool, by Captain George Thomas, in 1813, and published in 1815, and the 
subsequent and more accurate surveys of Denham, in 1833 and 1837, and of 
Lord, in 1840, 1841 and 1852, are proofs of the anxiety evinced by the 
Corporation of Liverpool to employ officers of the Admiralty in recording 
accurately the actual state of the banks and channels, and the changes which 
have taken place between those periods. These are very fully detailed in 
the accompanying report of Mr. Boult, who has taken more than usual pains 
to compare the different plans with one another and with Captain Thomas's, 
and has shown in contour and coloured lines the remarkable changes which 
have taken place in the sea banks and channels at the entrance of the Mersey. 
These changes show the necessity of causing annual surveys to be made, as 
set forth in the report of Messrs. Mylne and Rennie, in 1837. 

The history of the Mersey is also well detailed in the accompanying report 
of Messrs. John and George Wilkin. Those gentlemen show that, in 1818, 
Mr. Whidbey, of Plymouth, was the first whose assistance was called in by 
the Mayor and Corporation to examine the encroachments which had been 
made on the estuary in different parts, and to lay down some general princi- 
ples as to its future preservation. Subsequently, Mr. Rennie, sen., Messrs. 
Chapman, Giles, Walker, Mylne, Stevenson, and George and John Rennie, 
reported in confirmation. Extracts from the reports of some of these engi- 



S REPORT 1856. 

neers will show how their predictions have been corroborated, and how 
necessary it was to fi-ame and constitute a Commission of Conservancy. This 
was done upon the principles laid down by Messrs. W. C. Mylne and George 
Rennie, in their report of 1837, as also from the assistance of the marine 
surveyor. Lieutenant Lord. 

The general principles laid down by Messrs. Whidbey, Chapman and 
Rennie, in their report of 1822, to the Corporation of Liverpool, were — 

" That all channels through which water flows must be of a magnitude 
proportional to the quantity which passes them ; and any increase or dimi- 
jiution of that quantity will enlarge or diminish the channel, unless where 
formed of material so hard that the strength of the current is not able to 
remove them." 

Mr. Whidbey says, in his report of 1818, "Tide harbours are deep or 
otherwise, in proportion to the quantity of water that flows into them from 
the esa, and the fresh water that comes down from the interior. The greater 
the quantity of water, the greater will be the depth, from the eff'ect which 
the increased body of water will have in scouring the bottom at the time of 
the ebb tide, and carrying out the sullage." 

Again, with reference to embankments, Mr. Whidbey says, — 

" It is evident that if a certain portion of either side of a river or harbour 
be embanked, and the tide be prevented from flowing over it in its usual 
way, a diminished quantity of water will flow in from the sea equal to the 
cubic contents of what has been embanked, and consequently there will be a 
less quantity to ebb out ; and the scouring effect being thereby lessened, it 
will be rendered incapable of carrying out to sea the sullage and alluvious 
matter washed down from the country, with the same force as before the 
embankment was made." 

The same principle was advocated by Messrs. Chapman, Rennie, Walker, 
Giles and Stevenson, in all their subsequent reports relative to encroachments, 
and to obstructions made to the free flow of the tide by piers and jetties. 

The very accurate survey and maps of the estuary made by Mr. Giles for 
the Corporation, by the recommendation of the late Mr. Rennie, is one of 
the most valuable records of any harbour in existence. It forms, in fact, the 
standard for all future surveys, with reference to any changes which may 
take place. 

The annexed is a catalogue of the reports which have been made by the 
engineers and surveyors of the Mersey. The calculation of the area and 
contents of the estuary of the Mersey between the Blackrock at entrance, 
and Woolston Weir above Warrington, as shown by the annexed tables, 
No. 2, are taken from Mr. G. Rennie's report of 1838. 

Captain Denham, the surveyor to the port, in his report of 1836, gives his 
opinions on the causes of variations of the Devil and Pluckington Banks, and 
expresses considerable doubt how far their removal could be effected by 
jetties projected from the Cheshire shore. 

Lieutenant Lord, who succeeded him as surveyor, in his report of 3rd April, 
1840, proposed a similar remedy. The question had been previously dis- 
cussed, and remedies proposed, by former engineers. Lieutenant Lord's 
report of the 23rd March, IS^O, entirely coincides with the opinion of former 
engineers in the necessity of preserving the whole of the estuary and its 
tributary streams from encroachments, and the necessity of guarding the 
shores from the action of tlie winds and waves by defences of stone, and that 
the limits of high-water margin should be accurately defined. 

As regards the tides, these have been accurately defined for a long period 



THE RIVER MERSEY. f 

by Mr. Giles, in his great survey ; and the very valuable observations on the 
rise and fall of the tides in the Mersey, from Formby Point to Warrington 
Bridge, taken during the years 1840, 1841 , 1842, and 1843, by Mr. Rendell— 
as shown by the diagrams in the first and second volumes of Mr. Thomas 
Webster's work, 1848, 1853 — leave . nothing to be desired in point of 
excellence. 

With such records, the Commissioners of Conservancy have only to 
impress upon their surveyors the necessity of making frequent inspec- 
tions of the whole of the estuary, and annual surveys of its banks and 
channels, so that this invaluable port shall be maintained, in future, in its 
full integrity. 

Mr. Boult's report, which accompanies this, enters most fully into the 
details of the changes which have taken place in the direction and depths of 
the sea channels. The increase or diminution of the sand-banks, from the 
first publication of Captain George Thomas's map, in 1815, down to 1854, 
accompanied by an elaborate table, showing the average cubical contents of 
the Great Burbo, Brazil, and North Bank, and the banks of Formby, Taylor, 
Jordan, Mud-wharf, Middle, Little Burbo, and Outlying, and East Hoyle, 
from which it will be seen that in 1840 there is a slight decrease from 1837; 
for the years 1846 and 1852 a considerable increase; and a slight diminution 
in 1854. These tables are analysed with great minuteness by Mr. Boult; 
and the accompanying charts, in colours, illustrate distinctly the variations*. 
The valuable meteorological and historical information which Mr. Boult has 
brought forward, entitle him to the best thanks of the Committee. 

London, July 18, 1856. GEORGE RENNIE. 

No. 1. — Report of the Messrs. Wilkin relative to the Navigation and Con- 
servancy of the River Mersey. 

Spring Gardens, 28th April, 1840. 
Sir, — We have the honour of referring to our letter of the 18th April, 
1839, in which we observed, that much more information than we at that 
time possessed would be wanting to enable us to make a final report on the 
state of the River Mersey, and for recommending such measures for the 
improvement of the navigation, and for preventing further encroachments on 
its shores. 

This inquiry has caused much labour and attention on our parts, 
Mr. George Wilkin having been almost entirely occupied in this business 
from the beginning of the month of March 1839, and having spent nearly 
three months in Liverpool for the purpose of communicating with those 
most competent to render us assistance. We were unable to proceed without 
a regular survey, and for that purpose, at our recommendation, the Corpora- 
tion employed Mr. Eyes to make an accurate report and survey of the shore 
within the port of Liverpool (No. If), which contains the description and 
customs in each township, showing whether the same is a manor, or reputed 
manor, and whether courts are held, and whether any, and what, claims are 
made to the shore, or any privileges exercised therein. The names of the 
proprietors of land adjoining the beach, the encroachments made thereon, 
and the enclosures of marshes over which the tide formerly flowed in the 
upper part of the river, which exceed 13,000 acres. 

We beg leave to represent, that the obstructions to the navigation of the 

* See note, page 2. 

t The figures in Messrs. Whidbey's report refer to documents which are not printed 
with it, 



I REPORT — 1856. 

Mersey having of late years been the subject of much complaint, attracted 
the attention of the Corporation of Liverpool, who have, from the year 1818 
to the present time, in their anxiety to improve the navigation of the river, 
expended large sums of money in consulting the most eminent engineers, 
and in obtaining their reports, opinions and surveys on the state of the river; 
viz. in the year ISIS, the late Mr. Whidbey, the contractor of the Break- 
water at Plymouth ; in 1832, a second report from him, in conjunction with 
Messrs. Chapman and John Rennie; in 1823, by Mr. Chapman ; in 1826, by 
Mr. Whidbey, and Messrs. George Rennie and Giles; in 1826, a second 
report from Mr. Giles; in 1827, by Mr. Robert Stevenson, also by Messrs. 
"Walker and Mylne; in 1826, by Captain Denham, R.N., and in'l837, by 
Messrs. Mylne and G. Rennie. The late Mr. Telford, Messrs. Nimmo and 
Fowls have also been consulted by the Corporation and reported thereon 
(No. 2). 

It appears from the evidence (No. 3) taken before a committee of the 
House of Commons in the session of 1838, on a bill of the Grand Junction 
Railway Company, in which they proposed to erect a bridge over the 
Mersey at Runcorn, and to take a branch of the railway over it (which was 
rejected), tiiat the area of the Mersey from Black Rock at the Mouth to 
Woolston Weir above Warrington Bridge (where the tide ceases), is 2f?,062 
acres, over which, at a 22-feet tide, 736,945,215 tons of water flow, and 
that no less than 13,440 acres of marshes have been abstracted from the 
tideway, equal to about 25 millions of tons of water, calculated at the same 
tide. 

For the purpose of more clearly showing the want of a proper authority to 
control and improve the navigation of the Mersey, we have thought it de- 
sirable to make extracts from the Reports of the engineers ; all of whom 
are of opinion that the principal causes for obstructing the navigation of the 
river are the embankments made for enclosing large tracts of marsh lands 
over which the tide formerly flowed ; the numerous piers, jetties and che- 
vrons which impede the flux and reflux of the tide, and decrease the water 
space. They observe, that all the channels through which water flows must 
be of a magnitude proportional to the quantity passing through them ; that 
if a certain portion of either side of a river or harbour be embanked, and the 
tide be prevented from flowing over it in its usual way, a diminished quan- 
tity of water will flow in from the sea equal to the cubic contents of what 
has been embanked, consequently there will be a less quantity to ebb out, 
thereby decreasing the scouring effect, and preventing the suliage and allu- 
vial matter being washed down with sufficient force to prevent the old chan- 
nels becoming choked up. 

They further state, that the preservation and improvement of navigable 
channels depend entirely upon the flux and reflux of the tide and the dis- 
charge of fresh waters, which cause an eff'ectual scour. That in no case can 
there be too much backwater, it being well known that a number of rivers 
and harbours have been ruined from the want of preserving the backwater. 
Two harbours are noticed by Mr. Whidbey, viz. Portsmouth, as having 
been seriously injured, and Rye, as having been entirely ruined by encroach- 
ments on the mud land. 

jReport dated llthJuhj, 1818 (No. 2). — Mr. Whidbey says, the Mersey is 
an inlet of the sea, rather than a river, being kept open entirely by the 
quantity of water that flows into it, and not by the trifling streams which it 
receives at Warrington and Frodsham Bridges ; that tidal harbours are deep 
or otherwise in proportion to the quantity of water that flows into them from 



THE BIVER MERSEY. » 

the sea, and the fresh water that conies down from the interior ; the greater 
the quantity of water, the greater will be the depth from the effect which 
the increased body of water will have in scouring the bottom at the time of 
the ebb tide in carrying out the suUage. 

He observes, that if all the mud lands above and below Ince, and above 
and below Runcorn, were embanked, leaving a channel only for the waters 
that come from the country to discharge themselves, the total ruin of Liver- 
pool would be the consequence. The backwater would be so much dimi- 
nished that the scouring effect would be destroyed, and the sand driven in 
towards tlie entrance of the Mersey by the violence of the north-west and 
western gales, would in time accumulate beyond the possibility of removal. 

He alludes to an Act passed in the 46 Geo. III. cap. 153, for protecting 
harbours and navigable rivers, but considers it does not go far enough, and 
thinks the Corporation should lose no time in obtaining an Act giving them 
the necessary powers for the preservation of the harbour of Liverpool, re- 
serving to the Mersey and Irwell Company all powers granted to them 
under their Acts. 

He further observes, that it is a prevailing opinion, that if water-courses 
be narrowed, the channels through which the water has to run will become 
deeper ; which would be the case if the water always ran one way, being pro- 
duced from springs in the country ; it must be discharged into the sea some- 
where, therefore the more it is confined the deeper will be the channel 
through which it runs, but the contrary will be the case where the tide runs 
in and out every twelve hours. 

Report dated ^Bth May, 1822 (No. 2).— Messrs. Whidbey, Chapman and 
John Rennie state, that on a careful examination between Runcorn and 
Fidler's Ferry at high and low water they found large tracts of marsh land 
without the present line of banks, and serving as important receptacles for 
backwater. On the banks and shores they observed numerous jetties, erected 
for the protection of the land against the violence of the current, extending 
in many instances much further than necessary, and for the most part ope- 
rating as injurious impediments to the tideway, which, by obstructing its 
course, diminish its velocity, and allow time for the alluvial matter with 
which it is impregnated to be deposited and form banks and shoals highly 
injurious to the navigation, particularly mentioning one at Halton, and 
another near the old Quay Canal entrance. The Ince Ferry Quay has also 
an injurious effect, but they do not recommend its removal, on account of its 
absolute necessity for the purposes of commerce, but that openings should 
be made through it in various places, and arching them over. Several other 
jetties are detrimental, and should be removed. 

They also recommend that no time should be lost in obtaining sufficient 
powers to enable the Corporation to have the complete conservatorship or 
control of the river Mersey and all its branches, to the end that when any 
encroachments are making by jetties, embankments or otherwise, they may 
have full power to cause them to be removed. 

In obtaining the powers here recommended, they'conceive there can be 
little or no difficulty, for all the leading interests of the country are combined 
in the necessity of maintaining and improving the navigation of the port of 
Liverpool, and none more so than the adjacent landholders, the value of 
whose estates must necessarily rise and fall with the population of this great 
commercial emporium, which is certainly of far greater importance to them 
than any advantage that can be derived from the acquisition of any land 
over which the tide flows. 



10 REPORT — 1856. 

Report dated 26th June, 1826 (No. 2). — Messrs. Whidbey, G. Rennie and 
Giles make strong observations on the jetties, piers and chevrons from Fid- 
ler's Ferry to Halton Point, which they think should be removed. They 
also notice the land embanked by Sir R. Brooke, and the encroachments 
made by the Mersey and Irwell Company, also at Ince Quay, Tranmere Bay, 
Wallasey Pool, and Seacombe. 

They recommend that a quay or other boundary-line along the whole of 
the shores of the river Mersey and its inlets within the influence of the tide, 
should be accurately defined upon plans confirmed by Parliament. In order 
also that this important object may be effected in the most conciliatory and 
equitable manner, it should as far as possible be concerted witii the land- 
owners upon the principle of compensation lor such lands as may be required 
for that purpose. 

Report dated ith October. 1826 (No. 2). — Mr. Giles is of opinion, that by 
the means of a shore and river- wall such a uniformity of flood and ebb cur- 
rent will be established up and down the river as to produce tlie best scouring 
effect of the tide and land waters, and particularly upon the ebb tide, which 
will be directed more forcibly upon the south-east end of the Liverpool 
shore than at present, so as not only to prevent a further accumulation of 
bank, but most probably to lessen the present extent and height of it. That 
the further result of forming such uniform lines of shore and river-wall will 
equalize and distribute the currents more over the river above Liverpool in 
particular, so as to prevent in a great degree the accumulation of mud and 
other sediment under the river-walls, and at the entrance to the docks gene- 
rally, and at the same time render the navigation of vessels more direct and 
easy than can be the case through the various partial forces of currents and 
eddies of the present tideway. 

Report dated December 1826 (No. 2). — Messrs. Rennie and Giles have 
given particular consideration to the sea channels, and to the river from Black 
Rock to Runcorn, and from thence to Woolston Weir, where the tide ceases. 
They say it is admitted by all intelligent and impartial men, that the pre- 
servation and improvement of the navigable channels of a river depend en- 
tirely upon the flux and reflux of the tidal waters, and the discharge of 
fresh waters, and that these have the most powerful effect during high spring 
tides and rainy seasons in scouring and deepening the channels through 
which such waters must flow. It is scarcely possible that a case can exist 
where a port or river can have too much backwater. There is a material 
tendency of the flood tide to drive in from the sea portions of sand, and a 
similar tendency of the inland waters to bring down sand and alluvial matter, 
and these find upon some parts of the shore of a river places and eddies 
where certain depositions of them will take place, and thus diminish the 
capacity of the river to that degree as will nearly balance or bring into 
equilibrium the content of water in the river with the power or force of 
currents which that content will produce both in its flowing into and ebbing 
out of the river. Taking it therefore as an axiom that no such thing can 
occur as a harbour having too much backwater, except what may be pro- 
duced occasionally by mountain torrents, but not by the reflow of tidal waters, 
the general principle that the tide of a river, particularly in the upper parts 
of it, should be carefully protected by all possible means, is applicable in its 
fullest extent in the case of the Mersey, the fact of there being no excess 
of backwater in the Mersey having been fully ascertained. 

It is too obvious to need argument, that water ebbing from the higher 
parts of the Mersey is infinitely more valuable than from the lower parts foB 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 11 

the purpose of effecting a scour ; the water from the highest parts having 
to run through the greatest length of the navigable channels in its passage 
to Liverpool, and afterwards through the sea channels at a period when the 
tidal waters have considerably ebbed, and when those channels are narrowed 
within the banks that enclose them. 

The centre of Liverpool is about three and a half miles above the mouth 
of the river, while Runcorn is nearly twenty miles ; the value, therefore, of 
the tide at Runcorn compared with that at Liverpool (taking it only at the 
relative distance between those places), is nearly as 5 to 1 ; but it is also 
beneficial in a manifold degree in consequence of its operating so much 
more powerfully to scour the bed of the channels at Liverpool and the sea 
channels than any water can do which is discharged from situations nearer 
the mouth of the river in the early parts of the ebb tide. Another circum- 
stance may be cited in favour of preserving the tidal waters at Runcorn, 
and particularly upon the flat stones near to the level of high water. The 
fact has been proved by Mr. Giles, that the spring tides actually rise one" foot 
and a half higher at Runcorn than at Liverpool, consequently any enclosure 
of such shores at Runcorn must be exceedingly injurious. 

Too much vigilance therefore cannot be exercised in preserving the tidal 
waters at Runcorn, and also in having it discharged by the natural ebb of 
the tide. 

Report dated 30th January, 1827 (No. 2). — Mr. R. Stevenson states, as a 
principle which ought to regulate all operations upon the banks of rivers, 
that backwaters, are essential to the preservation of such rivers in a navi- 
gable state ; and with regard to the Mersey, he is of opinion that the great 
influx and reflux of tides into this estuary every twelve hours is what alone 
preserves the Horse and Formby Channels in their present navigable state. 
To the preservation of these channels all the arguments relating to the back- 
water resolve themselves. An alteration in the depth or direction of these 
channels might be attended with consequences most serious to Liverpool, 
encumbered as its entrance is with sand-banks of a great extent. 

He also recommends that the jurisdiction of the conservators should 
follow the high-water mark in all its gambols, though trenching sometimes 
upon one side of the estuary and sometimes upon the other, and that they 
should take the most prompt cognizance of all works undertaken upon the 
ebb, or between the points of high and low water. He conceives that a 
distinction should be made between works intended for the legitimate pur- 
pose of navigation, and those which have for their object the acquirement 
of firm ground at the expense of the backwaters of the river. 

Report dated 2>\st January, 1827 (No. 2). — Messrs. Walker and Mylne 
state that the Mersey is only deeper at Liverpool than at Warrington, be- 
cause the greater quantity of water at Liverpool requires a greater area to 
pass it. If the tide was excluded, the Mersey at Liverpool would by the de- 
posit of matter brought down from the interior soon diminish to the same size 
as at Warrington, and the entrance from the sea would soon sand up, leaving 
space sufficient only to pass the water of the river in this diminished state. 

Report dated 21 th September, 1836 (No. 2*). — Captain Denham says, the 
progress of Pluckington Bank, since 1828, has been a horizontal increase 
of 210 yards abreast of Brunswick Basin, abreast of King's Dock 123 yards, 
and abreast of Duke's Dock only 40 yards. Its respective elevations he 
cannot quote between these dates, but since 1834< he finds it grown up one 
foot off Brunswick Dock, two feet off Brunswick Basin, three feet off Duke's 
* Reprinted at length in No. 5 herewith. 



i2 REPORT — 1856. 

Dock, and one foot off Canning Dock, during which its low-water margin 
has yielded 50 yards directly off Brunswick Basin. Simultaneous with this 
two years' fluctuation, the Devil's Bank has warped 143 yards towards the 
eastern shore, lowered in altitude four feet, but elongated towards Plucking- 
ton Shelf 250 yards, so that the spit of the Devil's Bank and Pluckington 
Shelf is within one-fourth of a mile of uniting with each other, — an event to 
be feared, seeing that the Devil's Spit has elongated two-thirds of a mile in 
eight years, but which should be averted with all anxiety, for in the space 
between them being shoaled up to a bar of six feet instead of fifteen, the 
Garston branch of the Mersey will scour its way through the Swatchway 
just above Otter's Pool, dividing the Devil's Bank from Eastham Sands, and 
join the main column of ebb stream down the Cheshire side of the river. 

Report dated March ] 837 (No. 2). — Messrs. Mylne and G. Rennie state, 
that from a rough estimate of the quantity of land which has been em- 
banked out of the river above Runcorn, and which is still under the level 
of ordinary spring tides (or 22 feet on the Old Dock Sill), the present water 
surface only amounts to one-fifth of the whole. Below Runcorn the marshes 
of Widness, Ditton, Frodshara, Stanlow, and Wallasey, amount to nearly 
one-half the whole ; or in other words, the total quantity of land embanked 
out of the Mersey exceeds the total quantity of water surface. In laying 
down quay lines in the Mersey, the following principles should be ad- 
hered to : — 

1st. To preserve to the fullest extent the receptacles for the tide water. 

2nd. To designate the boundaries by mere stones placed at intervals. 

3rd. To have power to excavate and improve the bed of the river. 

4th. To prevent encroachments, whether by embanking lands or accumu- 
lating matter by means of jetties. 

5th. To prevent jetties, or other open or solid works of any kind, from 
being projected into the river without the consent of the Conservators. 

6th. To prevent ballast or other solid matter from being thrown into the 
river. 

7th. To raise and remove wrecks or other obstructions. 

8th. To cut off or remove projecting points of rocks, without prejudice to 
existing interests, buildings or jetties which may tend to obstruct the 
free effect of the current of the tides ; and to erect quay walls or other 
works which may assist the operation or diversion of the tide for the 
general benefit of the port. 

They conclude by recommending a Commission of Conservancy, not only 
for the benefit of the port, but the public in general. 

For the remedy of the evils mentioned in their reports, the engineers all 
recommend that the conservancy should be vested in the Corporation of 
Liverpool by Act of Parliament, with powers to remedy these evils, and to 
render the navigation as perfect as circumstances will admit. 

We have been induced to make these copious extracts from the reports, 
as they so clearly point out the difficulties attending the navigation of the 
river, and the probability of tlie most serious consequences following, if 
powers are not given to the Corporation by Act of Parliament, to improve 
the navigation. We have personally inspected the state of the river, and 
are perfectly satisfied with the correctness of their reports and observations 
thereon, and are convinced that the navigation is yearly becoming more 
difficult, and that the obstructions will continue to increase if Parliamentary 
provision is not made for its improvement, perhaps to the ultimate ruin of 
the port. 



THE BIVEB MER9EY. 13 

The Corporation of Liverpool brought the state of the river under the 
special consideration of the late Mr. Huskisson in the year 1828 ; that emi- 
nent statesman gave the subject his most serious consideration : he viewed 
with alarm the numerous encroachments making, which he considered would, 
if allowed to go on, at no very remote period in all probability prove highly 
prejudicial to the navigation, and was persuaded that a Commission of Con- 
servancy should be without delay appointed, consisting of not more than 
three Commissioners, including the Mayor of Liverpool, to be constituted 
by Act of Parliament, or by the Crown, reserving to His Majesty the powef 
of appointing additional Commissioners if it should hereafter be found ne- 
cessary. That his suggestions were fully approved by Lord Lowther, then 
Chief Commissioner of Woods and Forests, and by Mr. Arbuthnot, the 
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, appears from the Correspondence 
(No. 4). His melancholy death occurred before the business was finally 
arranged. And by the reform of corporate bodies, and from other causes, 
no effectual measure was taken till the session of the year 1837, when a bill 
was brought into Parliament by the Corporation of Liverpool, which was 
objected to by Government in consequence of the extensive powers sought 
for, and was consequently withdrawn on the understanding that the subject 
should be hereafter taken up by the Board of Trade. 

The public bodies most materially interested in the navigation of the 
Mersey, are the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, the Duke of Bridgewater's 
Canal, the River Weaver Navigation, the Ellesmere Canal, and the Sankey 
Canal Companies. We have understood that objections have been raised 
by some of these companies to the Corporation of Liverpool having a pre- 
vailing interest in the conservancy. For the purpose of meeting the wishes 
of these most important and highly respectable bodies, and also those 
of the influential, commercial, and agricultural interests connected with the 
Port of Liverpool, or the River Mersey, we have personally waited on the 
Mayor of Manchester and the town authorities of Warrington, and the 
gentlemen taking the most prominent part in the management of the Canal 
and Navigation Companies. We have also seen the Earl of Sefton, the 
auditor of the Earl of Derby's estates (both of these noble lords having 
considerable estates adjoining the river), Mr. Potts of Chester, on the part 
of several landowners on the Cheshire shore, as well as for the Ellesmere 
Canal Company, for whom he acts, and other landed proprietors having 
property adjoining the Mersey. We think it proper to annex notes of the 
observations made (No. 5), from which it will appear that they all concur 
in the propriety of an effective Conservancy being appointed, but some of 
them express a strong feeling against the Corporation of Liverpool being 
invested with more power than what is given to other public bodies, and the 
Mersey and Irwell Company only seemed inclined to contribute to the ex- 
pense of the Conservancy. 

It is our desire to pay every respect to the opinions of these highly re- 
spectable and important companies, and to meet their wishes if possible; 
but we cannot lose sight of the correct view taken by the late Mr. Huskis- 
son, that if the Conservancy was too numerous it would probably be ineffec- 
tive ; and we cannot therefore recommend that the Commission should, in 
the first instance, exceed four, though we should much prefer its being 
limited to three only, viz. the Mayor of Liverpool for the time being, with 
power to nominate one of the Aldermen to act for him in case his public 
duties should engage too much of his time ; one of the Dock Trustees, 
and one on the part of the public conversant with the state of the river; 



14 REPORT — 1856. 

to communicate with the Board of Trade on all points affecting the 
navigation. 

If it should be considered advisable, a fourth Commissioner may be 
appointed, — the Canal and Navigation Companies to make this appoint- 
ment from one of their body. 

The Corporation of Liverpool propose to bear two-thirds of the expense, 
and the Dock Trustees the other third. The Conservancy can, in our 
opinion, only be efficiently formed by a public Act, in which powers may 
be given to the Board of Trade for increasing the number of Commissioners, 
if hereafter found necessary; — or to commence by a Commission from the 
Crown, as suggested by Lord Lowther to Mr. Huskisson, obtaining when 
necessary increased powers from Parliament. 

The Conservancy of the River Thames appears to have been first ap- 
pointed by charter in the third year of the reign of James L, and after- 
wards extended by several Acts of Parliament from the reign of George IIL 
We would take the liberty of recommending that tlie powers of the Con- 
servators of the Mersey should assimilate, as nearly as circumstances will 
admit, to those of the Thames ; and that the shore of the river or of the 
sea within the Port of Liverpool should not be vested in them, but should 
remain in the Crown, or in other persons legally holding the same, and 
should not be taken or used by the Conservators without permission or 
purchase. Nor should the Conservators be authorized to interfere with the 
extensive enclosures of the marshes above Runcorn, or in the River Weaver, 
which are of a very ancient date ; nor with the numerous jetties, chevrons 
(unless they are longer than necessary, and obstruct the navigation of the 
river), or other encroachments ; but that their operations should, in the 
first instance, be confined entirely to the bed of the river, in scouring the 
same with proper machinery, and in making new channels and removing 
obstructions. 

It is not for Liverpool alone that a Conservancy is wanting, nor for the 
Navigation Companies connected with the Mersey : it is of equal importance 
to Manchester, and all the other manufacturing towns in Lancashire, 
Cheshire, Yorkshire and Staffordshire, and to the general commercial and 
shipping interests of the kingdom. If the measure is properly carried into 
effect, it will be beneficial to the interests of the community at large. 

We have thought it advisable to request the Corporation of Liverpool to 
state their views as to the plan of operations iu the event of Conservancy 
being granted. 

The Town Clerk has favoured us with two letters from Lieutenant Lord, 
R.N. (No. 2)*, the marine surveyor of the port, to the chairman of the Con- 
servancy Committee. He recommends that the lines of high water should 
be accurately marked and defined, and that no future encroachments should 
be allowed without authority. That the edges of the banks, which in the 
upper part of the river are composed of earthy sward, should be protected 
by a facing of stone or other suitable material, to prevent any part from 
being carried away by the tide. This, he says, would render permanent a 
scouring force of water, which would maintain the sea-approaches in an 
effective state, and it would then remain to watch the changes that might 
arise in the sand-banks in the river and its approaches, and to adopt such 
timely remedies as might be necessary. He refers particularly to the dredg- 
ing operations which were so successfully carried on for a period of ten 
months during the last year, by which means a most valuable channel was 
* Nos. 7 and 8 herewith. 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 15 

opened at a small expense ; — that its success depended entirely on the 
column of water running out of the Mersey on the ebb tide, and to a mi- 
nute attention to what was taking place in that region. 

He considers the natural formation of the Mersey admirably adapted for 
scouring and keeping open the sea-channels, if encroachments are not 
allowed to be made on its banks ; but he doubts the propriety of scarping 
or removing rocks. 

We cannot venture to give an opinion as to the most practicable mode of 
improving the navigation. The Conservators will (if appointed), as a matter 
of course, consult the most eminent engineers as to the best means of 
proceeding ; but we think the navigation would be much improved if the 
plan of dredging with machinery, so successfully adopted in the Victoria 
Channel, was followed up in the river. It is most desirable to make it ap- 
parent to the Navigation Companies, to the landowners, and to all other 
parties interested, that in appointing a Conservancy the public good only is 
looked to, and that there is no intention whatever to interfere with private 
interests, which will be duly preserved and protected. 

If the President and Lords of the Board of Trade be pleased to approve 
of a Conservancy being established by Act of Parliament, we will prepare 
a bill founded on the practice in the River Thames for their Lordships' 
approval, making special provisions for preserving the rights of the Mersey 
and Irwell Company, and those of all other Companies connected with the 
River Mersey. 

We also beg to send a statement delivered to us by the Town Clerk of 
Liverpool, with a map of the river (Nos.6 and 7), showing the rights of the 
Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses to the Lordship of Liverpool, comprising 
the River Mersey up to Warrington and Frodsham Bridges, and the Strand 
at Liverpool, Toxteth Park, Birkenhead, and Wallasey, which the Corpora- 
tion wish to be noticed in our Report ; from which it appears that the 
I8th Section of the Act of the 2nd George III. cap. 86, authorizes them as 
Trustees of the Docks, by authority from twenty- five of their body, to re- 
move such nuisances as may be necessary for improving, scouring, and 
keeping open the navigation from the sea as far southwards as the Lordship 
extends; and by the Dock Acts of the 39th George III. cap. 59. sec. 29, 
and 57 George III. cap. l^S. sec. 80, their water-bailiff and harbour-master 
have special powers over vessels, wrecks, and obstructions. It would there- 
fore seem that Parliament intended to give powers to the Corporation 
which are not considered sufficient to constitute an efficient Conservancy. 
We have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient Servants, 

(Signed) John Wilkin. 

Dennis Le Marchant, Esq, George Wilkin. 



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THE RIVER MERSEY. 



17 



No. 3 Index of the Engineers' and Surveyors' Reports who have reported 

on the Estuary and River Mersey. 

Extract of Mr. Rennie's report as to any one dock, 1809. 
Mr. Whidbey, ditto, 1818. 

Late Mr. Rennie's ditto, on Ditton Embankment, 11th October, 1819. 
Ditto, Messrs. Whidbey, Chapman and Rennie, upon tlie lines of wharf 
walls at the south and north ends of the docks upon Pluckington Bank, 1822. 
Mr. Telford on Mersey and Irwell Works, 29th January, 1823. 
Messrs. Telford and Nimrao on same subject, 1823, 
Ditto, on Mersey and Irwell Navigation, June 1823. 
Mr. John Rennie, jun., in reply to above Report, July 26, 1823. 
Mr. Whidbey on ditto, July 14, 1823. 
Mr. Chapman on ditto, July 18, 1823. 
Messrs. Whidbey, Rennie and Giles, 1826. 
Mr. Giles proposed Conservancy line, 1826. 

Messrs. Rennie and Giles on Conservancy of River generally, 1826. 
Messrs. Whidbey and Giles, afterwards J. Walker, on Embankments, 
14th August, 1826. 

Messrs. Stevenson, ditto, ditto, 1827. 
Messrs. Walker and Mylne, ditto, 1827. 

Messrs. G. Rennie, James Walker, R. Stevenson, F. Giles, and W. C. 
Mylne on Viner's Embankment and Lice's Quay, 1827. 

Messrs. Telford, Stevenson and Nimmo, on new sea-ports in Rivers Dee 
and Mersey, with a ship channel, 1828. 

Mf. Chapman's Report on the effect on the navigation of River likely to 
result from works, 1823. 

Mr. George Rennie on the effect of New Brighton Pier, 8th December, 
1834. 

Captain Denham on Mr. Lace's projection, and Pluckington Bank and 
Devil's projection, and proposing a I'iver wall, 1836. 
Report of Messrs. Mylne and Rennie on Mersey, 1837. 
Letter from Lieut. Lord, recommending mode in which the Conservancy 
should be effected, 1840. 
Second letter ditto, 1840. 

Captain Evans on River Mersey, May 29, 1844. 

Mr. George Rennie on Seacombe Pier and Pluckington Bank, 17th No- 
vember, 1844. 

No. 4. — Conservancy. First and Second Memorial. 
To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and to 
the Right Honourable the Lords Commissionei's for the Affairs of Trade. 

The Memorial of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough 
of Liverpool, 

Sheweth, — That your Memorialists, as representing the town and being 
the owners of the Lordship of Liverpool, comprising the Port, are most 
materially interested in the maintenance, preservation, and improvement of 
navigation of the River Mersey. 

That the entrance to the River Mersey is by three principal channels, 
formed in the midst of numerous sand-banks and shoals, frequently shifting 
and increasing. 

That in other parts of the river there are dangerous banks and shoals, 
and that in particular extensive banks have formed opposite the entrance of 
the docks, threatening the most dangerous consequences. 

1856. c 



18 REPORT — 1856. 

That for years past the general state of the river has been most critical 
and alarming. 

That the principal causes of this state of the river are, as your Memorialists 
believe, the impediments oflered to the flux and reflux of the tidal waters 
and the diminution of water space above the town, by the enclosure from the 
river of large tracts of land. 

That your Memorialists have for many years vainly endeavoured to obtain 
some eflScient protection for their own and the public interests in the vesting 
of the conservancy of the river in commissioners with adequate powers, your 
Memorialists fearing that unless vigorous measures were adopted, the Mersey 
would become, like the Dee, the Lune, the Exe, and many other rivers, no 
longer navigable for vessels of burden. 

That your Memorialists, from the year 1818 to the present time, have, at a 
very heavy expense, caused frequent surveys and reports upon the state of 
the river to be made, namely, in 1818 by the late Mr. Whidbey, the con- 
structor of the breakwater at Plymouth (v/hose Report contains a concise 
and clear view of the then state of the river, and of the deterioration to be 
anticipated from the causes before mentioned); in 1822 by the same gen- 
tleman in conjunction with the late Messrs. Chapman and John Rennie; in 
1823 by Messrs. Telford, Nimmo, Whidbey, Chapman, Rennie, and Fowler; 
in 1826 by Mr. Whidbey and Messrs. George Rennie and Giles; in 1827 by 
Messrs. George Rennie and Giles, and afterwards by Messrs. James Walker 
and W. C. Mylne; in 1828 by Messrs. Telford, Stevenson, and Nimmo ; in 
1835 by Mr. George Rennie; in 1836 by Commander Denham, R.N. ; and 
in 1837 by Messrs. Mylne and George Rennie and Walker. 

That these Reports prove in the most unquestionable manner the 
absolute necessity for active and incessant superintendence, and they also 
incontestably prove the changeable ciiaracter of the river and its ap- 
proaches. 

That in the beginning of the Session of last year a Bill was brought into 
the House of Commons to empower the proprietors of the Grand Junction 
Railway to amend their present line, by forming a new line of railway by 
crossing the River Mersey three to four miles below the town of Warrington, 
by a bridge at a place called Fidler's Ferry. 

That your Memorialists, fully sensible of the importance of the proposed 
measure, were with great reluctance compelled to offer to it all the oppo- 
sition in their power, inasmuch as the proposed bridge would have been 
injurious to the trade and navigation on the river, and would have interfered 
■with the flux and reflux of the tide. 

That this Bill was rejected in committee so far as related to the intended 
bridge. 

That your Memorialists on this occasion off'ered evidence as to the past 
and present state of the river. 

That from the evidence thus given, your Memorialists have extracted 
portions comprising part of the Reports already referred to, which they lay 
before your Lordships, and to which they earnestly and respectfully solicit 
your attention. 

That one statement in particular proved before the committee was as 
follows : — 

" The present area of the River Mersey, from the Black Rock at the mouth 
to Woolston Weir above Warrington Bridge, is 23,062 acres, over which, at 
a 22-feet tide, 736,94'5,215 tons of water flow, and that no less than 13,440 
acres of marshes have been abstracted from the tideway, equal to about 
25,000,000 tons of water, calculated at the same tide. That the remaining 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 19 

salt marshes were, about the year 1822, only 1897 acres, from which further 
abstractions have since been made." 

That in further corroboration of your Memorialists' representation, they 
lay before your Lordships the following Report of Lieutenant Lord, R.N., 
the Marine Surveyor of the Dock Trustees : — 

" Marine Surveyor's Office, February 1839. 

" My attention having been called to the fluctuations going on from time 
to time on the banks and shores of the Mersey and its embouchure, I beg to 
state that all those conversant with the navigable channels of the river are 
aware that frequent and sometimes very sudden changes take place in the 
sand-banks and navigable waters of the same. That such fluctuations are 
going on continually is strongly evidenced by the Marine Surveyor's Report 
in 1836, by which it appears that between the years 1828 and 1886 the 
horizontal increase of Pluckington Bank was 210 yards abreast of Brunswick 
Basin, 123 abreast of King's Dock, and 40 abreast of Duke's Dock ; and that 
between the years 1834 and 1836 it had grown up one foot at Brunswick 
Dock, two feet off Brunswick Basin, three feet ofl" King's Dock, three feet 
off Duke's Dock, and one foot off Canning Dock; whilst its lower water 
margin yielded 50 yards during the same period. Thus threatening to be- 
come a serious obstruction to the entrance of Brunswick, King's, and Duke's 
Dock. 

" It also appears from the same statements, that the Devil's Bank and Spit 
had considerably elongated during the above period. 

" In a remoter region, namely, the sand-banks at the entrance of the port, 
such as the Great and Little Burbo, Jordan Flats, &c., the changes have been 
still greater, as was fully evinced in the survey carried on last summer, as 
compared with that of 1835. 

" In no part is this more strongly exemplified than in the Half-tide Swash- 
way and the New Channel. 

" In the former the Old Channel has filled, leaving a dry bank at low water, 
and another channel has scoured itself where we had formerly a dry bank; 
whilst in the New Channel there has been a gradual warping and filling 
up for the last four years, leaving now a navigable channel of only 130 
fathoms wide, with 1 1 feet at low water, where we formerly had a channel 
half a mile wide with 12 and 13 feet. 

" Taylor's Bank has also considerably spread to the north-west during the 
above interval, and various other alterations have taken place in the contour 
and altitude of the banks. 

" In conclusion, I would state it to be my conviction that the encroachment 
on the bed of the river, by the reclaiming of land, &c. at its upper part, cannot 
be too strongly deprecated, as it must evidently diminish tiie backwater, on 
the scouring effects of which the very vitality of the entrances to the port 
depends, besides altering and diverting the stream of the river into new and 
often injurious channels. 

" I have the honour, &c., " W. Lord." 

That your Memorialists, in the language of their late lamented representa- 
tive the Right Honourable William Huskisson, " feel convinced, from facts 
and personal observation, that if the system of encroachment and nuisance 
which has prevailed for many years in the Mersey is not effectually checked, 
so as to give full scope for the natural flux and reflux of the tidal waters, 
the Port of Liverpool will, in the course of no very long time, be as much 
choked up as those of Chester and Lancaster now are." 

Your Memorialists therefore, iu conclusion, earnestly urge on the attention 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1856. 

of your Lordships the necessity for immediate measures for the future pro- 
tection of the navigation of the River Mersey, an object of increasing and 
anxious interest to your Memorialists, and one in which the eountry at large 
is deeply concerned. 

And your Memorialists will ever pray, &c. 
Liverpool, April 1839. 

Second Memorial, September 1839. 

To the Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and to the 
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners for the Affairs of Trade. 

The Memorial of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough 
of Liverpool, 

Sheweth,— That your Memorialists presented in May last, through the 
members of the borough, a Memorial to your Lordships, setting forth the dan- 
gerous state of the River Mersey, from the numerous and shifting banks and 
shoals, the causes for this state, the endeavours hitherto ineffectually made to 
obtain efficient protection, the necessity for incessant superintendence, the 
immense area already abstracted from the tideway, and other grounds, as 
inducements for the interference of your Lordships, in order to the establish- 
ment of a Commission of Conservancy ; which ?rIemorial was accompanied by 
extracts of evidence taken before a Committee of the House of Commons in 
the session of 1838, in the Grand Junction Railway Bill, as to the past and 
present state of the river. 

That your Memorialists are anxious to receive the opinion of your Lord- 
ships upon the prayer of their Memorial, and (venturing to assume that a 
Bill to be brought into Parliament in the ensuing session will be directed or 
sanctioned by your Lordships) more particularly as to the preliminary ques- 
tion, whether such Bill ought to be public or private, inasmuch as in case 
the latter be deemed by your Lordships to be preferable, tiie necessary notices 
must be forthwith given, and other parliamentary proceedings be taken in 
conformity to the standing orders ; and, as whatever course of proceeding 
your Lordships may recommend, immediate meetings with parties concerned, 
proprietors along the banks of the river, ought to be held, in order as much 
as possible to remove misunderstanding and consequent hostility on their 
parts. 

That your Memorialists would respectfully urge on your Lordships' con- 
sideration, that the plan of a public bill would be the preferable course ; for 
even the notice of a private bill, and the deposit of maps showing a line of 
causeway along, or, as many would suppose, over estates on the banks of the 
Mersey, creates such alarm in the minds of the proprietors interested, as to 
make it exceedingly difficult and almost impossible afterwards to explain 
that the proposed measure is one for the public good, and for the benefit 
rather than to the injury of individuals. 

That your Memorialists have, through their officers, lately had the advan- 
tage of conferences with Mr. Wilkin, one of the officers of the Woods and 
Forests, and with Mr. Wilkin, junior, both lately dispatched by that Board 
to Liverpool, at the instance of your Lordships, to take preliminary steps on 
the subject of the Conservancy ; and your Memorialists believe that these 
gentlemen, who have given considerable attention to the subject, and have 
taken great interest therein, concur in opinion with your Memorialists and 
their officers, that a public bill is the proper measure to be recommended, 
but that, however that point may be determined, another session ought not 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 



2i 



to pass over without a bill, public or private, being brought into Par- 
liament. 

Your Memorialists therefore pray the immediate consideration and direc- 
tion of your Lordships on the matters submitted. 

(Copy.) 

No. 5. — Letter from H. M. Denham, R.N., to the Corporation of Liverpool, 
27th September, 1836. 

Marine Surveyor's Office, Liverpool, Sept. 27, 1836, 

Sir, — Pursuant to a request to the following effect, — " That I would 
furnish a plan of that part of the river opposite the property of Mr. Lace 
and others, and a report and statement of the variation in Pluckington 
Bank and the adjacent parts," — I took every opportunity afforded by the 
tides and M'eather to produce the results set forth in this report and the ac- 
companying plans, which will evidence how necessarily the question involved 
an actual re-survey of the whole region between the Rock Lighthouse and 
where the river ceases to be navigable at low water, viz. Garston and 
Eastham ; for on no less datum than the most recent tests as to the causes 
and effects of the river's deflection could I presume to give an opinion, which, 
on the one hand, might involve capita! already embarked in projections, or, 
on the other, incite the sanction of its conservators as respects those projec- 
tions. I can, however, now assert, that so distant is the primary cause and 
impetus of the river's deflection (on its eastern margin) from those projections 
between Knott's Hole or Dingle Point and the southern extremity of the 
Dock Estate, as to entirely absolve the works of Messrs. Lace and others 
from any ill effects. 

Provided, that it be a sine qua non such jetties shall be subject to a 
boundary-line on the strand, laterally with the low-water margin as deline- 
ated on the Plan, such line to constitute the face of all projections, and 
(until connected with the shelving rocks at Dingle Point) to have 100 yards 
of face wall always at right angles to the southward of the southernmost 
offset. 

In this stipulation it will appear that I admit the deflecting effect of any 
offsets upon the ebb stream, although north of Dingle Point. So I do ; but 
it is so slight, in comparison with the position and continuous diversion of 
that point, that if we abstain from interrupting the downset of the recover- 
ing water-level (feeble as it is) after rounding Dingle Point, by direct off- 
sets, then we shall direct that feeble portion of stream ya^V/y and beneficially 
down the face of the docks. 

Thus much. Sir, applies to the question of Mr. Lace's projection, or any 
others in the limits quoted. 

I now beg to report on the nature of Pluckington and Devil's Banks ; to 
elucidate which, I submit a plan of the features of the river between the 
Rock Lighthouse and Garston, upon four inches to the mile, whereon the 
course and velocity of the flood and ebb stream are portrayed, the former 
in red and the latter in blue ink, showing that Pluckington owes nothing to 
the flood-tide deposit, but that on the course of the eastern column of the 
ebb does that deposit depend, and that course depends on Dingle Point; for 
by practical tests on each half-hour of ebb from high to low water, we 
perceive its inclination to follow the trend of shore until within 100 yards 
of Dingle Point, which becomes so decidedly the point of deflection, as to 
hurry it into the deep-water column with such impetus as to blend with it, 
and divert the whole obliquely towards Birkenhead, whereby the tidal stream 



^ REPORT — 1856. 

off the southern portion of docks, especially King's, Queen's, and Brunswick 
"Docks, becomes so weakened as to permit the sand held in solution to deposit 
thereat, besides being too weak to bear away the silt driven forth from the 
several dock sluices. The first effect of this diversion manifests itself in 
the formation of a shelf of sand varying from three to ten feet under water, 
that springs from abreast of the rocks under Mr. Lawrence's wall one-third 
of a mile southward of the Potteries, trending obliquely towards Birkenhead 
.until abreast of the southern extremity of the Dock Estate, where it forms an 
elbow one-third of a mile towards the centre of the river, and then trends 
to St. George's Dock. This shelf, therefore, narrows the river capacity at 
low water to nearly one-half what it appears to be at Rock Ferry and 
Brunswick Dock, and then the visible Pluckington springing obliquely from 
the southern extremity of the Dock Estate, and forming an entrance off 
Brunswick off-tide entrance at an offset of 270 yards into the river, whence 
it trends into St. George's Dock, lateral to and within thirty yards of the 
margin of the shelf. 

This bank outlays King's Dock Basin also 270 yards, varying from six 
feet to one foot in height above low-water level. Its highest part is off 
Duke's Dock, where it outlays fifty yards less, but drives up ten feet ; off 
Canning Dock it outlays above 120 yards, and drives up to six feet four 
inches, then gradually narrows at an elevation of two feet, until uniting with 
the base of George's Pier-head. 

Taking the progress of this bank since 1828, which is marked by a green 
shade on Plan, we have a horizontal increase of 210 yards abreast of Bruns- 
wick Basin, abreast of King's Dock 123 yards, and abreast of Duke's Dock 
only 40 yards. Its respective elevations I cannot quote between those dates, 
but since 1834, I find it grown up one foot off Brunswick Dock, two feet 
off Brunswick Basin, three feet off King's Dock, three feet off Duke's Dock, 
and one foot off Canning Dock, during which its low-water margin has 
yielded fifty yards directly off Brunswick Basin. Simultaneous with this 
two years' fluctuation, I find the Devil's Bank to have warped 143 yards 
towards the eastern shore, lowered in altitude four feet, but elongated 
towards Pluckington Shelf 250 yards, so that the spit of Devil's Bank and 
Pluckington Shelf are within a quarter of a mile of uniting with each other, — 
an event to be feared, seeing that the Devil's Spit has elongated two-thirds of 
a mile in eight years, but which should be averted with all anxiety ; for on 
the space between them being shoaled up to a bar of six feet instead of 
fifteen, the Garston branch of the Mersey will scour its way through the 
Swatchway just above Otterspool, dividing the Devil's Bank from Eastham 
Sands, and join the main column of ebb stream down the Cheshire side of 
the river. I therefore earnestly propose, that, with reference to the curvi- 
lineal boundary set forth for the future projections between the Dock Estate 
and Dingle Point, a river-wall should be extended in connexion from forty 
yards within the low-water edge of the Knott's Hole rocks, scraping the 
edge of those rocks, and preserving a gentle concave along the low-water 
margin of the shore. This wall would produce a most sensible effect on 
the first 400 yards' advance, by presenting a cutwater edge to the down 
stream, instead of allowing the whole body of water to drive against the 
north cliffs and rocks of Dingle Point, and then jerked off with an impo- 
verished impetus at nearly right angles to its wonted and natural course. 

Its further extension might be subject of convenience of funds, &c., under- 
standing that as it progressed south-eastward, more decided guidance and 
impetus on the ebb stream would be afforded, the destructive undermining 
of the cliffs and consequent dissemination thereof on the banks obviated, 



THK RIVER MERSEY. 23 

a°d much valuable frontage redeemed; for, supposing it carried up to 
Otterspool, an area of 616 acres would be produced ; and if up to Garston, 
1590 acres. 

The Jillifig up would not concern our tidal object ; on the contrary, the 
circulation of water within would avoid the displacement of 2,702,018 cubic 
yards of tidal water in first enclosure to Otterspool, and 72,000,000 in the 
whole enclosure. The contemplated enclosure between the Dock Estate and 
Dingle Point will embrace 346 acres area, and 11,024,444 cubic yards of 
water, for the total of which displacement I should not be tenacious of per- 
mitting of a close wall and filling up the strand within it, notwithstanding 
the assumed obvious advantage to property. 

I will conclude this Report, Sir, by begging it may go hand in hand with 
the local and general Plans herewith submitted for elucidation to the mind's 
eye of those gentlemen concerned in the conservation of the Mersey and 
Dock approaches. Of the latter it need only be said, that, whilst placing 
dock sills between four and nine feet of low-water level, a bank should be 
contemplated with much jealousy that not only precludes taking up early 
anchorage near the Southern Docks, but that threatens to elevate itself 
above the level of those sills, except in the guttering course of the gate 
sluices. 

I ought to add, that we need not wait the connexion of a boundary wall 
from the Docks to Dingle Point before striking out the eutivater wall south- 
ward, but act independently and effectively by Dingle Point, by first project- 
ing on the rocks 100 yards in a south-west direction, and then vigorously 
working towards Otterspool. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

H. M. Denham, R.N,, 
Marine Surveyor to the Dock Trustees 

To the Worshipful the Mayor of Liverpool. 

No. 6— Statement of the Town Clerk as to the Rights of the Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Burgesses of Liverpool to the Lordship of Liverpool, com- 
prising the River Mersey up to the Bridges and to the Strand at Liver- 
pool, Toxteth Park, Birkenhead, and Wallasey. 

1. The title of the Corporation to the Lordship of Liverpool, comprising 
the River Mersey up to the Bridges, 

The Corporation, as purchasers from the grantees of King Charles the 
First, are seized in fee of the town and lordship of Liverpool, and all the 
customs, anchorage, and key or keel towl of the water of the Mersey, of 
which over the whole of the river up to the Warrington and Frodsham 
Bridges the Corporation are, and ever since their purchase have been, in the 
receipt and enjoyment. The lordship comprises the river up to the bridges. 

By the Liverpool Dock Act, 2 Geo. IIL c. 86. s. 18, the Corporation, as 
" the Trustees of the Liverpool Docks," have the following express powers : — • 

" And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that it shall and 
may be lawful to and for the said trustees, their agents, servants or work- 
men, when and as often as occasion shall require, well and sufficiently to 
cleanse, scour, open, deepen, widen or straighten, rake up or cut through 
any banks, shoals, flats, shallows, dock sluices or guts in the said harbour of 
Liverpool, or leading into the same from the sea, as the same trustees, or 
any twenty-five or more of them, shall think proper and necessary for the 



24 REPORT — 1856. 

better securing, maintaining, and preserving a free, open and perfect navi- 
gation into and through the said harbour of Liverpool, and to dig, cut, re- 
move and take away any sand, gravel, rocks, stones, anchors, cables, timber 
and other things, wrecks of ships, or other vessels, or any other obstructions 
or impediments to the navigation leading into and being within the said 
harbour of Liverpool from the sea or mouth of the said harbour, and so far 
southwards as the liberties or lordship of the Corporation of Liverpool ex- 
tend, be it the ground or soil of the King's Most Excellent Majesty or any 
other person or persons, bodies politic or corporate, whatsoever." 

2. The property of the Corporation in the Strand at Liverpool and part of 
Toxteth Park. 

The Corporation of Liverpool are the owners of the freehold of the whole 
of the strand, forming the river front of the ancient borough, such owner- 
ship so far as respects the docks now standing vested in them in their 
capacity of " the Trustees of the Liverpool Docks," by virtue of appropria- 
tions under the Dock Acts. As to the small dock of the Trustees of the late 
Duke of Bridgewater, that property, with certain limited privileges over the 
strand, is leasehold for lives, with a right of perpetual renewal on payment 
of a small fixed fine, the Corporation still owning the freehold in reversion. 
Of the title of the Corporation there is, from 1670 downwards, the strongest 
proofs, by grants, leases, and various other acts of ownership, as in 1828 
was fully admitted by the Duchy of Lancaster, Mr. Wyndham then being the 
Duchy Solicitor. Upon this occasion extracts from the Corporation Records, 
with three explanatory maps, were laid before the Duchy. 

Of the strand in Toxteth Park, so far as the Liverpool Docks extend into 
that toM'nship or extra-parochial place, the Corporation, principally in their 
capacity of " the Trustees of the Liverpool Docks," are also the owners of 
the freehold by purchases from Lord Sefton and others under the Dock 
Acts. 

The docks of the trustees and the river-walls were all made under acts of 
Parliament. 

3. The property of the Corporation in Birkenhead and Wallasey, 

The Corporation by purchases are entitled to their land at Birkenhead 
and Wallasey in fee, with the rights of the lords of the manors to the shore 
of the Mersey. The only erections (called by Mr. Eyes encroachments) 
made since the purchases of the Corporation are parts of the public road, 
viz. where that road crosses Gill Brook, and where it crosses Bridge End, 
and one other erection, the unauthorized act of a tenant. All the other 
erections on the shore were made by prior owners. 

(Copy.) 

No. 7- — Letter from T^ieut. Wm. Lord to the Chairman of the Conservancy 

Committee. 

Marine Surveyor's Office, Liverpool, 
March 23rd, 1840, 

Sir, — Referring to those points to which it is most desirable the attention 
of the Conservative Commissioners of the River Mersey should be primarily 
directed in the event of conservative powers being obtained from Parlia- 
ment, I would premise, that the existence and maintenance of the sea chan- 
nels leading to the port, vitally depend on the preservation of the back- 
water which the Mersey and its tributary streams afford ; that this body of 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 25 

water is liable to daily diminution by various encroachments, and, if not 
protected, will be materially lessened, the effect of which would undoubtedly 
be, the sanding and filling up of the sea channels, leading ultimately to the 
ruin of the port. 

The first object therefore worthy the attention of the conservators, would, 
in my opinion, be the preservation of the backwater as it at present exists, 
and to take care that for the future it was not trenched on or diminished. 

To effect this object, it would, I think, be desirable that the limits of the 
high-water margin of the river should be accurately marked and defined, 
and that no subsequent encroachment should be allowed on the bed of the 
river, either in the shape of reclaiming land from its banks, or by allow- 
ing any projections into the stream of the river without the sanction of the 
Commissioners. 

It is a well-known fact, that considerable encroachments have in former 
times been made on the bed of the Mersey by the reclaiming of land in the 
upper part of the river, and such operations cannot, in my opinion, be too 
strongly deprecated ; and I may here add, that it is to this very cause, viz. 
the enclosure of land in its upper part, that the filling up of the channels in 
the estuary of the Dee is very generally attributed. 

Having defined the high-water limits, it would, I think, be very desirable 
that the edges of the banks (which in the upper part of the river are com- 
posed of an earthy sward) should be protected by a facing of stone or other 
suitable material ; the destructive fretting away and undermining of their 
margins and consequent dissemination thereof on the banks in the river, and 
its embouchure, would thus be obviated. 

Having thus secured and rendered permanent a scouring force of water 
equal to that we now possess, and which there is every reason to believe is 
capable of maintaining the sea-approaches of the port in as effective a state 
as they now exist, it would only remain to carefully and vigilantly watch the 
changes that might arise from time to time in the sand-banks in the river and 
its approaches, and should circumstances render it necessary, adopt such 
timely remedial measures as the urgency of the case or the operations of 
nature might suggest. I may here remark, that the dredging operations 
which were so successfully carried on during a period of ten months last 
year in the Victoria Channel, and by means of which a most valuable chan- 
nel was opened to the port, depended for their success entirely on the column 
of water running out of the Mersey on the ebb tide, and a minute attention 
to the changes which were naturally taking place in that region; and should 
any future fluctuations take place in that or other quarters, it may again 
become requisite to adopt artificial measures to improve or preserve the 
approaches to the port. 

The natural formation of the River Mersey is, I think, admirably adapted 
for the purpose of scouring and keeping open the sea channels, provided 
that formation is not altered and distorted by encroachments on its banks. 
The upper part of the river, between the Dingle Point and Weston Point, 
forms as it were an immense inland lake of eleven miles long by two and a 
half broad, the latter being the average width between Eastham and Garston, 
and Dungeon Point and the Cheshire shore. At the Dingle Point the river 
contracts, and between the Cheshire shore and Liverpool, from the south to 
the north end of the docks, it constitutes a narrow gorge of only half a mile 
width and considerable depth, through Avhich the calculated waters of the 
upper lake are disgorged with a velocity of as much as seven miles per hour 
on the ebb tide ; and though it is true that this impetus is materially dimi- 
nished by the time it reaches the sea at the outer bars of the shallows, still 



26 REPORT — 1856. 

if we can preserve the same column of water and strength of current which 
we now possess, I see no reason to apprehend the outer approaches of the 
port sanding or tilling up. 

The scarping, or removal of rocks, in the river should not, I think, be 
undertaken without due consideration of the effects likely to be produced 
by so doing, and should, in my opinion, be avoided as much as possible. 

In conclusion, I would beg to remark, that I think the new dock proposed 
to be formed to the westward of the Salthouse Dock, and the carrying out 
of the river-wail in that quarter, so as to form a continuous line with the 
other docks, will be a great and decided improvement to the navigation of 
the river. 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) Wm. Lord, 

Marine Surveyor to the Port. 
To the Chairman of the Conservarwy Committee. 

(Copy.) 

No. 8.— Letter from Lieut. Wm. Lord to R. Radcliffe, Esq. 

Marine Surveyor's Office, April 3, 1840. 

Dear Sir, — Since I last wrote to you on the Conservancy affairs, it has 
occurred to me that two or three piers judiciously run out between Garston 
and the Dingle Point, might produce a good effect in preventing the great 
oflPset of the tide from the Dingle Point, and conducting it along the line 
of the docks, by which some portion of Pluckington Bank would doubtless 
be got rid of. 

Havine had some conversation with the Dock Surveyor on the subject, 
I may ad"d that he fully concurs with me on this matter, which may be 
worthy the attention of the Conservancy Commissioners, should such be 
appointed. 

The expense of the erection of such piers would not, I apprehend, be 

very great. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) Wm. Lord. 

R. Radcliffe, Esq., Town Hall. 



Report upon the changes in the Sea Channels of the Mersey, as recorded by 
the Surveys tahen and published within the last fifty years ; and which 
surveys have been laid before the Committee appointed to iiivestigate and 
report upon the same, by the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, at its meeting in Liverpool, September 1854. By Joseph Boult. 

The charts of the Mersey having been usually prepared when important 
changes had taken place in the channels, the investigations of those changes 
could not be arranged by epochs of time, and therefore the periods which 
the charts themselves prescribe have been adopted. 

For the purpose of this inquiry it may be conveniently assumed that the 
true mouths of the river are at the outward extremities of the sea channels. 
The streams of tide running inland through these sea channels unite into one 
great stream between the north dock-works of Liverpool and New Brighton. 
After passing the towns of Liverpool and Birkenhead, through a narrow 
gorge — which in places is as much as 10 or 12 fathoms deep, at low water 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 27 

of ordinary spring tides — the river rapidly widens into a very extensive reach 
or reservoir, soinetimes called the upper estuary ; from which the tide, after 
sending an offshoot into the Weaver, passes into the upper reaches of the 
river through the smaller gorge of Runcorn-gap. After traversing a series 
of reaches and gorges of less and less importance, and surmounting a low 
weir at Howley-Ioeks (Warrington), its further progress is finally barred by 
the Woolston-weir of the Mersey and Irwell navigation. This weir is about 
four miles above Warrington ; twenty-two miles above the Rock Point, New 
Brighton ; and thirty-four miles above the bar of the Victoria Channel. 

In the first instance, the phsenomena of the upper estuary, and those of the 
\nter estuary or Liverpool Bay, may be most conveniently considered apart; 
the results of their investigation can afterwards be combined. 

Liverpool Bay. — The earliest authentic survey of Liverpool Bay, published 
within the period assigned to this inquiry, is that of Captain George Thomas, 
R.N., which was taken in 181S, and published in May 1815. The next 
authentic survey is that of Captain H. M. Denham, R.N., in 1833. Both 
these surveys were made by order of the Admiralty, in consequence of the 
great anxiety and alarm experienced by the local authorities, arising from 
the important changes which took place in the channels prior to each of the 
above dates. 

The changes of the later period continuing, — they were in fact the precur- 
sors of the substitution of new outlets for the old ones, — the surveys were 
repeated by Captain Denham, in 1835 and 1837. 

North Channel. — On comparing the charts of 1813 and 1833, it appears 
that at the former date the Northern Channel, which Avas previously divided 
into two portions, called the Crosby and the Formby Channels, maintained 
an even course until it had passed Crosby Point, where it separated into two 
outlets; one over a bar, with from one to eight feet of water, into the old 
Formby Channel, in which were from one and three-quarters to six fathoms; 
and thence over another bar seaward with from one to eight feet of water. 
The other outlet, called the South Channel, was to the southward and west- 
ward, and passed between the Jordan and Great Burbo Banks, having from 
two to six fathoms, diminishing on a seaward bar to 7 feet. In this survey 
Formby Bank is insulated and covered at four hours' tiood. 

Formby Bank. — In 1833, twenty years later, Formby Bank had attached 
itself to the main shore ; and the old Formby Channel was almost land-locked, 
and had no communication with the Crosby Channel, except over a 6-foot 
bar, between Jordan and Formby Banks. The depth of water on the seaward 
bar of this channel had increased in places to 13 feet. 

New Channel. — The South Channel of Thomas's survey appears to have 
shifted upwards of a mile to the southward, and acquired nearly a true east 
and west bearing ; and had a bar with 10 or 11 feet of water. It was called 
by Denham the New C'iannel. 

Zebra Channel- — Between the Formby Channel and the New Channel 
another outlet was opened, having a minimum depth of 2 I'eet, and called the 
Half-tide Swatchway, or Zebra Channel. 

Mad Wliarf. — Mad Wharf, a large bank adjoining Formby Point to the 
northward, had elongated upwards of 2200 yards in that direction, and its 
area considerably enlarged. 

Many changes took place in the position and magnitude of the minor 
banks adjoining the seaward entrance of the Northern Channel ; some of 
which, as the "middle patch," nearly disappeared ; whilst others enlarged 
their area, or sprang altogether into existence. 

Victoria Channel, — Between the survey of 1833 and those of 1835 and 



28 REPORT — 1856. 

1837, the differences chiefly consist of the changes which accompanied the 
partly natural and partly artificial formation or readjustment of the new- 
channels ; they found their issue in the formation of that which is known as 
the Victoria Channel. 

West Channel. — A similar examination of the Western Channel, divided 
into two portions called the Rock and the Horse Channels, will show the 
following changes. 

Rock Channel. — In the above-named period of twenty years the banks 
north of the Rock Channel were enlarged and consolidated ; the Brazil Bank 
and Burbo Sand were united to the Great Burbo Bank, and the patch, which 
at the earlier date divided the Rock Channel at its junction with the river 
into two portions, was itself divided, and one piece added to Burbo Sand, the 
other to the main shore. 

At the western extremity of the Rock Channel, near its junction with the 
Horse Channel, its width has been contracted about 400 yards ; the accretions 
are partially on Dove Spit, but chiefly on the western point of Great Burbo, 
now called the North Spit. At the bar of the Rock Channel, Thomas gives 
soundings of one-third fathom (or 2 feet) seaward, and of one and two-third 
fathom (or 10 feet) on the Liverpool side. In 1833 Denham gives 2 feet 
on the bar, and 3 feet on the Liverpool side, showing a diminution of 7 feet 
in the latter. 

Denham's soundings are unaltered in 1837. 

Hoylahe. — In 1689, the date of Captain CoUins's survey, the big ships put 
out part of their lading in Hoylake, that they might sail over the flats into 
Liverpool ; at that time the depth of water in the lake ranged from two and 
a half fathoms to seven fathoms, and William III. was able to embark his 
army for Ireland. 1 24 years afterwards, Thomas records the range as reduced 
from one fathom to four fathoms ; and twenty years later it appears upon 
Denham's first chart as closed by a bar, the pools on either side of the bar 
having been reduced in width to about one-half of that of the lake in 
1813. 

Hoylake joined the W^estern Channel at the junction of the Horse and 
Rock Channels. 

Horse Channel, — Whilst these changes have taken place, the direction of 
the Horse Channel has been slightly varied by additions to the north-eastern 
extremity of East Hoyle Bank. 

Dock Extensions. 1803 to 1836. — According to information obligingly 
furnished by Mr. J. B. Hartley, one of the engineers to the Committee of the 
Liverpool Docks, the works constructed between 1803 and 1836 comprised 
the Prince's Dock and Basin ; the Waterloo, Victoria, and Trafalgar Docks ; 
the Clarence Dock ; the Clarence Graving Dock and Clarence Half-tide 
Dock, and the Salisbury Dock, northwardly ; the widening of the George's 
and King's Piers, and the construction of the Manchester Basin, Canning 
Half-tide Dock, and Albert Dock, centrally ; and the widening of the Queen's 
Pier and the construction of the Eagle Basin and river craft dock, the Union, 
Coburg, and Brunswick Docks, the Brunswick Graving Docks, the Brunswick 
Half-tide Dock, and the Dockyard, southwardly ; and the space abstracted 
from the river by these works comprised an area of about 156 acres. 

These works have been almost entirely constructed since 1813. 

Meteorological PhcBnomena. — There are no reliable meteorological obser- 
vations of the period 1813 to 1837. The following notices of storms of 
wind and rain are compiled from the annals appended to Gore's Directory 
of Liverpool : — 

1802. — A dreadful hurricane ; considerable damage done by sea and land ; 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 29 

the tide rose 6 feet higher than the calculation in the time-table. Sefton 
Church lost about 5 feet of its spiie. January 21. 

There appears to be a lapse in this portion of the chronicle, as the next 
record is in 

1818. — A continuance of stormy and boisterous weather during February 
and March. 

1821. — A most dreadful storm experienced in the town. November 30. 
1822. — The pilot-boat No. 4 lost on Salisbury Bank (in the Dee estuary), 
in a dreadful storm. December 5. 

1823. — A very violent hurricane ; several chimneys blown down ; several 
vessels blown on shore in Bootle Bay and other parts of the river. Decem- 
ber 3rd. More serious accidents happened from this storm than from any 
other since the memorable one in the year 1560. 

1824. — The equinoctial gales set in with such violence that many of the 
steam-boats from the opposite ferries, which usually cross in six or seven 
minutes, were more than two hours on their passage. March 4. 

A dreadful storm ; much damage done in the Prince's Dock by the vessels 
driving against each other. October 26. 

1829.— A dreadful storm of thunder and lightning and rain; continue 
from 3 p.m. to 8 p.m. July 24. 

A very violent storm of wind and rain, which flooded Whitechapel and 
the neighbourhood (the site of the old pool) to a much greater extent than 
had been experienced for many years. The sewer in the Old Dock burst, 
and carried several yards of wall into the dock. August. 

1830. — Alarming thunder-storm, with heavy rain ; much damage in White- 
chapel, &c. ; many houses in the higher parts of the town flooded. July 30. 
1831. — Liverpool visited with one of the most tremendous falls of rain 
recorded in its annals. The consequences were very disastrous. 

1832. — Tremendous storm of wind ; several ressels were wrecked, and 
many lives lost. October 8. 

1833. — Dreadful storm of wind and rain for two days, which produced 
great mischief on shore, and a very melancholy loss of life at sea. 
November 29. 

A storm more severe than that of November 29th, much more property 
being destroyed. The tide rose fromlihe proper height of 17 feet 5 inches 
to 26 feet ; the piers and wharves were overflowed, and much damage was 
done to the public works, north and south. December 31. 
1834. — Violent gale on the night of Sunday, December 7. 
1835. — A very violent storm, in which many vessels were driven onshore 
and wrecked. February 22. 

1836. — The 'John Welsh,' Captain Woodhouse, from Savanilla, lost in a 
hurricane, on West Hoyle, July 29. 

During a severe gale, the ' Heyes,' for Barbadoes, and the ' Febo,' for 
Palermo, were lost; and the ' Sandbach' and several other vessels got on 
shore ; several pilots were taken to sea. December 22nd and 23rd. 

Since 1837 the surveys of Liverpool Bay have been conducted by Lieu- 
tenant Lord, R.N., lately marine surveyor to the Dock Committee; they 
were published in the years 1840, 1846, 1849, 1852, 1853, and 1854. 

Northern Channel. 1840. — On comparing the survey of 1840 with that 
of its immediate predecessor of 1837, it will be seen that the Northern 
Channel had undergone important changes. They were as follows : — 

Crosby Channel. — The length and direction of that portion of the Crosby 
Channel which lies between the Rock Lighthouse and the Crosby Light- 
vessel had been very slightly altered ; and its area had remained very much 



30 REPORT — 1856. 

the same as in 1837 ; but the average depth had been reduced from 31 feet 
to 30 feet. 

Between the Crosby and Forinby Light-vessels the direction of the channel 
had undergone considerable alteration, the Formby vessel, in 1840, having 
been moved nearly 600 yards westward ; the area and depth increased, the 
former from 15,600 yards to 17,500 yards, and the latter from 26^ feet to 
27 feet. The average of the whole channel from the Rock Lighthouse to 
Formby Light-vessel being an area slightly increased, and a depth sta- 
tionary. 

Victoria Cha7inel. — The change in the direction of this channel had been 
very great; the Bell Buoy, which indicates its entrance from the sea, having 
been moved, in 1840, nearly 2000 yards to the north of its position in 1837. 
The depth of water on the bar iiad been reduced from 12 feet and 13 feet 
to 10 feet and 11 feet. 

Zebra Channel This channel had been advanced to the westward of its 

former position, and had increased its minimum depth from 2 feet to 3 feet 
on the fairway track. 

Formby Bank. — This bank had been slightly moved to the eastward, and 
considerably elongated to the northward, the elevation of its surface much 
more varied, some portions having been considerably higher and others 
lower than they were in 1837 ; the elongated portion may be specially noted 
as having been entirely "wash." On the whole, however, the volume of the 
bank appears to have been diminished nearly one-third ; the cubic contents 
of the bank, in 1837, having been nearly 10,000,000 yards, and in 1840 
rather more than 6,500,000 yards. 

Mad Wharf. — In this bank there had been little change. 

Great Burbo. — The area of this bank had been enlarged, and its volume 
increased from about 58,500,000 yards to about 62,000,000 yards. 

Western Channel. — The eastern portion of this channel, called the Rock 
Channel, had been reduced in length about 500 yards, and in average depth 
1 foot; its area had been reduced about 580 yards, making the average loss 
on the three years equal to 6 per cent, per annum. 

The depth of water on the bar reduced from 2 feet to 1 foot; and the first 
sounding on the Liverpool side of the bar from 3 fee t to 2 feet. 

The sailing direction of the Horse 'Channel remained unaltered ; but the 
North-west Light-vessel at the seaward entrance of the channel had been 
removed in 1840 about 250 yards north of its position in 1837. 

East Hoyle. — The bar in Hoylake, forming part of this bank, had in- 
creased in area, and grown up to 2 feet and 3 feet above low-water level ; 
but, notwithstanding this accession, the area and altitude of this bank had 
been diminished; and its volume reduced from nearly 81,250,000 yards 
to rather more than 73,500,000 yards. 

Dock Extension. — No works of importance were constructed during the 
period under investigation. 

Meteorological Phenomena. — In the continued absence of recorded sci- 
entific observations, reference is again made to the precarious information 
in ' Gore's Annals,' from which the following notices are compiled : — 

1838. — The British ship ' Athabaska,' bound to Quebec, totally lost on 
West Hoyle during a gale; all on board perished. April 17. 

1839. — A terrific and most destructive hurricane visited Liverpool on the 
evening of January 6, and continued with little intermission till the following 
afternoon. The destruction of life and property was very great; and there 
was scarcely a part of the town in which some fatal accident did not occur. 
The loss of life amongst the shipping was awful. The North-west Lightship 



THE RIVER MERSTEY. 31 

was driven from her moorings and brought into port. Two New York 
packets, outward bound, were lost upon the North Bank (part of the Great 
Burbo, in the Rock Channel). The ' Brighton,' from Bombay, was wrecked 
near the Middle Patch Buoy, in the same channel. The ' Harvest Home,' 
from St. Thomas, was lost on Mad Wharf. 

Northern Channel. 1846. — Between the years ISiO and 1846 consider- 
able changes had occurred, though, on the whole, less remarkable than those 
which took place between the years 1837 and 1840. 

Crosby Channel. — That portion between the Rock Lighthouse and the 
Crosby Light-vessel had not undergone much change ; its direction had been 
altered by removing the light-vessel nearly 200 yards to tlie eastward ; the 
average depth had remained nearly stationary at 30 feet. The average area 
had slightly increased from 18,000 yards in 1840 to 18,840 yards in 1846. 

That portion between the light-vessels had undergone greater change. 
Its length had been increased about 400 yards, the average depth reduced 
to 26 feet; the average area increased about 1000 yards. 

Notwithstanding the change in the position of the Crosby Light-vessel 
above-mentioned, and the removal of the Formby Light-vessel nearly 400 
yards to the northward, the direction of the channel in 1846 was parallel to 
its direction in 1840. 

The average of the whole channel from the Rock Lighthouse to Formby 
Light-vessel is a depth diminished from 29 feet to 28^ feet, and an area in- 
creased nearly 700 yards. 

Victoria Channel. — The direction of this channel had been altered by the 
change in the position of the Formby Light-vessel above-mentioned, and by 
removing the Bell Buoy about 500 yards westward. The average depth of 
water on the bar had slightly increased, the various soundings having been 
10 feet, 11 feet, and 12 feet. 

Zebra Channel. — The minimum depth on the fairway track through this 
channel had been increased from 3 feet to 6 feet. 

Formby Bank. — The area of this bank had been slightly enlarged, and 
the elevation very considerably increased, the volume having been nearly 
13,000,000 yards 'in 1846, against rather more than 6,500,000 yards in 1840. 
The position had been nearly stationary ; there had been a slight elongation 
northwards and a slight movement eastwards. 

Mad Wharf. — This bank had sustained considerable loss of area by 
abrasion on the north-western margin ; but this loss had been partially com- 
pensated by increase of elevation, the change in which had been very great. 
The volume in 1846 had been nearly 5,750,000 yards, against 6,500,000 
yards in 1840. 

Great Burbo. — The area of this bank appears to have been unaltered, 
taken as a whole, though there had been considerable local changes. The 
elevation had been a good deal reduced, and, consequently, the volume ; the 
difiFerence is represented by 59,750,000 yards in 1846, instead of 62,000,000 
yards in 1840. 

Western Channel. — The eastern portion, or Rock Channel, had recovered 
300 yards of its length in 1837 ; the average depth had been stationary, and 
the average area slightly increased. The soundings at the bar had been un- 
altered. In the Horse Channel East Hoyle Bank had advanced towards the 
north-east, and the North-west Light-vessel had been moored about 300 
yards to the westward. 

East Hoyle. — In area this bank had remained pretty stationary, but the 
loss in elevation had reduced the volume from upwards of 73,500,000 yards 
to under 72,000,000 yards. 



32 REPORT — 1856. 

Liverpool Dock Extension. — These dock- works comprehended the Nelson, 
Bramley-Moore, and Wellington Docks; the Wellington Half-tide Dock, the 
Sandon Dock, the Sandon Graving Dock, and the Sandon Basin ; altogether 
a tidal area of about 117 acres. 

Meteorological Phcenomena. — From observations recorded in the War- 
rington Museum and Library, for the use of which the Committee is indebted 
to Mr. Glazebrook Rylands of that town, it appears that the fall of rain in 
ISi^ (the earliest year perfectly recorded) was 23'73 inches; in ISiS, 30"12 
inches ; and in 1816, the year of the survey, 30-29 inches. 

In ' Gore's Annals ' the following facts are noted : — 

1841. — Terrific thunder-storm. The spires of the churches of St. Michael's 
and St. Martin's-in-the-Fields struck. August 24-. 

284-3. — A great storm during the night of January. 13. Houses and 
buildings were unroofed. The damage done to the shipping in the river 
and outside the harbour was very great, and many lives were lost. 

ISi^. — The dock receipts for the last week were much greater than were 
ever received in any one week, and considerably more than double the 
receipts of the corresponding week of last year. The long prevalence of 
easterly winds in some measure contributed to produce so large an item. 
June 13. 

Northern Channel. \M9 The survey of 1849 does not exhibit any 

marked changes beyond the consolidation of some of the outlying banks 
near the junction of the Victoria and Zebra Channels; as, for example, that 
of the Taylor's Bank and Jordan Flats. It appears to have been prepared 
to show an alteration in the fairway track through the Victoria Channel, in 
consequence of a shift westward of Little Burbo Bank. The positions of the 
Bell Buoy and of the Formby and Crosby Light-vessels remained unaltered. 

The average depth of water on the Victoria Bar had been slightly re- 
duced. 

Dock Extension. — The Huskisson Dock, the most northernly of the 
Liverpool Docks, and the Birkenhead Docks, had made considerable progress 
since the survey of 1 846. 

Meteorological Phcenomena.~T\\e Warrington tables record the rain-fall 
during the interval between the two surveys, as follows: — In 1846, 30*29 
inches; in 1847, 36*71 inches; in 1848, 33*75 inches; and in 1849, 33*98 
inches. 

In Swineshaw Brook, a feeder of the Tame, which is a branch of the 
Mersey, the rain-fall recorded by Messrs. Peter Clark, F.R.A.S., and J. F. 
Bateman, F.G.S., Mem. Inst. C.E. (Memoirs of the Literary and Philoso- 
phical Society of Manchester, page 17, vol. ix. second series), was as 
follows: — 1845, 59'8 inches, "possibly registered too high; in other places 
the fall just an average;" 1846, 42*6 inches, "and this year was consider- 
ably below the average;" 1847, 49*35 inches, "this year was about the 
average, in some places above." 

Survey, 1852. — The chart of 1852 shows that considerable and important 
changes had taken place since the survey of 1846, with which that of 1849 
may be considered in the main identical. The re-survey of the bay at the 
latter period, as before observed, seems to have been confined to the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Victoria Channel. 

The following comparison, therefore, is instituted between the surveys of 
1846 and 1852, a period of six years. 

Northern Channel — Crosby Channel. — The principal changes which had 
taken place in that portion of the Crosby Channel between the Rock Light- 
house and the Crosby Light-vessel, were its elongation, and the consequent 



THE RIVER MERSEY. j33 

removal of the Light-vessel about 2000 yards north-westwardly of its position 
in 1846; the diminution of its average depth from 30 feet to 29 feet; and 
the diminution of its average area from ISjS^O yards to 17,500 yards. 

The direction of this portion of the channel had been slightly altered, as 
indicated by the change in the position of the Light- vessel. 

In that portion of this channel between the two Light-vessels, the changes 
had consisted of the removal of the Formby Light-vessel about 750 yards 
north-westwardly; an increase of the average depth from 26 feet, in 1846, 
to 28 feet in 1852; and a diminution of the average area from 18,600 yards, 
in 1845, to 16,450 yards in 1852. 

In its whole length, the Crosby Channel during this period had been 
elongated about 500 yards ; its average area diminished from 18,443 yards to 
17,126 yards; and its average depth nearly stationary, but slightly increased. 

The change in the position of the Crosby Light-vessel appears to have been 
occasioned by the growth of a large elbow upon Great Burbo. The Formby 
vessel appears to have been moved partly for the same reason, and partly 
from a change in the position of Little Burbo, on the northern side of the 
Victoria Channel. 

Victoria Channel. — The position of this channel had again undergone 
very great change, the Bell Buoy having been removed about 1000 yards to 
the southward, or nearly midway between its positions in 1840 and 1837. 
The average depth of water on the bar had been very much the same in 
1852 as in 1849, that is, rather less than in 1846. 

Zebra Channel. — The minimum depth of water in this channel had 
increased from 6 feet, in 1846, to 7 feet in 1852; in other respects it had 
remained without material alteration. 

Formby Bank. — This bank had been enlarged by the accession of the 
Jordan Bank, and by its OM'n increased elevation : in 1846 the volume of 
Formby Bank was nearly 13,000,000 yards; and that of Jordan Bank 
1,500,000 yards, making a total of 14,500,000 yards ; in 1852 these quantities 
were respectively 1 1 ,000,000 yards and 4,750,000 yards, or a total of 1 5,750,000 
yards. Its position had been stationary. 

Mad Wharf. — This bank had sustained a slight loss of elevation ; but this 
had been compensated in volume by an extension westward, the entire con- 
tents having been nearly 6,500,000 yards in 1852, against nearly 5,750,000 
yards in 1846, the former quantity being very nearly identical with that of the 
same bank in 1840. 

Taylor Bank. — Taylor Bank and Jordan Flats, the former of which in 
1833 had no existence, and the latter at that date of very minor importance, 
had not only united in 1849, but in 1852 had largely increased in volume; 
and in the same period had moved into close proximity with the united 
Formby and Jordan Banks. During the period since 1833, Little Burbo, the 
Middle, the West Middle, and other outlying banks had either been depressed 
below low-water level, or had disappeared altogether. 

Great Burbo. — This bank had undergone material alterations since I846j 
one of which was the extraordinary growth of the north-east angle in Crosby 
Channel before-mentioned ; other important changes of outline may be 
noticed on inspection of the cliarts ; perhaps the most remarkable alteration 
is the increase of bulk, arising partially from enlarged area, but principally 
from increased elevation ; and it is to be observed that this additional eleva- 
tion is generally diffused over the whole bank. In 1846 the volume of this 
bank had been calculated to be about 59,750,000 yards; in 1852 it had in- 
creased to 69,500,000 yards. 

Western Channel. — In 1852 the Rock Channel had again undergone a 
1856. D 



34 REPORT — 1856. 

slight elongation; the average depth had been reduced to 13 feet instead of 
14- feet, as in IS-tG; but the average area had been nearly stationary. The 
entrance from the Horse Channel had been slightly contracted. The sailing 
direction for the Horse Channel had been altered a quarter of a point, 
in consequence of a movement of East Hoyle Bank towards the north- 
east. 

East Hoyle. — This bank had also acquired a considerable increase of bulk, 
arising from additional elevation. Its volume in 1846 had been nearly 
72,000,000 yards, in 1852 about 84,500,000 yards. 

Dock Extension Since 1846 the Huskisson Dock, Liverpool, had been 

completed, and the north wall so far advanced as practically to exclude the 
tidal water ; by these combined works about 355 acres have been abstracted 
from the river. 

In the same period the works at Birkenhead had made great progress ; 
and the stank or dam across the Great Float, and the walls of the north and 
south reserves constructed ; by these an additional area of 150 acres had been 
taken from the tidal area of the river, — making a total abstraction of 
upwards of 500 acres. 

Waste of Miver Margin. — On the Cheshire side of the river, between 
Seacombe Point and Sea Bank (Liscard), the waters of the river within 
eight years have encroached upon the land to an extent, estimated by Mr. 
Macpherson, the late surveyor to the Wallasey Board of Health, now of 
Edinburgh, at 1 1,350,810 cubic feet ; which, at an average height of 40 feet, 
represent 6^ acres. 

Meteorological Phcenomena From the Warrington tables, it appears that 

the rain-fall, between 1846 and 1852, was as follows: — 



1846=30-29 inches. 

1847=36-71 „ 
1848=33-75 „ 
1849=33-98 „ 



1850=27-79 inches. 
1851=31-48 „ 
1852=41-46 „ 



In ' Gore's Annals ' the following only are recorded : — 

1846. — Dreadful storm in the town and neighbourhood, great damage 
done. November 20. 

1850. — Ship 'Providence,' bound for Africa, lost in the channel during a 
severe gale of wind. October 7. 

Survey, 1853. — This survey appears to have been confined to the imme- 
diate vicinity of the Victoria Channel, to show the alterations in the fairway 
track, occasioned by changes intermediate between the surveys of 1852 and 
1854. 

Survey, 1854. — Northerii Channel. — The survey of 1854, like those of 
1849 and 1853, appears to have been very partial, and has been confined 
to the vicinities of the Victoria Channel and of the Rock Channel; the 
leading line through the former had become more tortuous, though the posi- 
tion of the Bell Buoy and the Formby Light-vessel had been unaltered. The 
depths of water on the bar had slightly increased, the soundings being 
11 feet, 12 feet, and 13 feet. 

The average area and average depth of the Crosby and Formby Channels 
had not undergone any important change. 

Zebra Channel. — The direction of the Zebra Channel had been slightly 
altered, having acquired a more westwardly bearing, and the average depth 
of water considerably reduced ; the minimum sounding was 6 feet in 1854, 
against 7 feet in 1852. 

New Channel. — A new swatchway, now known as the Queen's Channel, 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 



35 



had been opened through the shoals, intermediate between the Zebra and 
Victoria Channels, having a minimum depth of 9 feet. 

The Banks. — No material change had taken place in any of the banks, 
except that Little Burbo had been sunk below low-water level, with sound- 
ings of from 2 feet to 5 feet, and that the bulk of Taylor's Bank and Jordan 
Flats had been slightly reduced. 

Western Channel. — The eastern portion of the Rock Channel had been a 
good deal contracted, principally by enlargement of the foreshore at New 
Brighton. The average area in 1854 had been reduced 200 yards, or about 
four per cent, per annum. The average depth had remained pretty stationary. 

Meteorological Phcunomena. — From the Warrington tables, it appears that 
the rain-fall at Warrington had been — 

In 1852=41-46 inches. 
1853 =28-25 „ 
1854=27-18 „ 

From the tables printed with Mr. Osier's paper " On the Self- registering 
Anemometer and Rain-Gauge in the Liverpool Observatory," published in 
the Reports of the Association for 1855, p. 128, it appears that the rain-fall 
at Liverpool had been — 

In 1852=31-53 inches. 
1853=22-42 „ 
1853=22-11 „ 

It will be observed that there is a very great difference between the 
records for Liverpool and Warrington, the proportionate difference for each 
year being very similar; and it is to be noted that it is the fall in the up- 
country which is most likely to produce changes in the channels of the river, 
through the agency of freshes. 

The Liverpool tables for the first time furnish definite information upon 
the phaenomena of wind. From them it appears that the point out of the 
whole sixteen from which the wind blows for the greatest number of days 
throughout the year is S.S.E., and therefore it has been said by Mr. Osier 
that in Liverpool the prevailing winds are from that point. In the absence 
of explanation, or without very careful explanation of the tables, this state- 
ment is likely to convey an erroneous impression : if, instead of comparing 
point with point, we take the five points from N. to W. both included, we 
find that in 1854 the winds from this quadrant blew for as much as half 
the year, or for as many days as the winds from all the other points taken 
together. In the other years there is a preponderance of the same points, 
though not to the same extent. The relative hourly velocity for the winds 
from this quadrant is also greater than for those from other points. 

If reference be made to the table (p. 142, vol. 1855) which exhibits the ex- 
treme pressure of the wind in pounds per square foot,and the greatest horizontal 
motion of the air between any one hour and the next following hour, for all 
the gales during the four years of which observations are recorded, in which 
the pressure has reached \5 pounds per square foot, it will be observed that 
in thirteen cases in which the velocity has exceeded fifty miles per hour, four 
of them were from S. of W., attaining velocities respectively of 71, 70, 53, 
and 51 miles per hour; the remainder being from W. to N.W., having 
velocities varying from 51 to 5& miles per hour. It may also be observed 
that of eighteen cases in which the pressure exceeded twenty pounds on the 
square foot, four of them were from the S. of W., the pressure being respect- 
ively 42 lbs., 42 lbs., 23 lbs., and 22 lbs. ; the remainder ranged from W. to 
N.W., and had pressures varying from 21 lbs. to 43 lbs. 

o2 



36. REPORT — 1856. 

On reference to * Gore's Annals,' we find in 1852 tlie town and neighbour- 
hood visited by a severe storm. December 2.5th. 

1854. — Violent hurricane visited Liverpool Feb. *7th and 8th. On refer- 
ring to the last-mentioned table we find that the " severe storm," December 
25th, 1852, was from W.S.W., the greatest velocity seventy miles per hour, 
and the extreme pressure 42 lbs. per square foot ; and that it was repeated 
on the 27th of the same month, blowing from S.W., the greatest velocity 
seventv-one miles, and the extreme pressure 42 lbs. We also find that the 
"violent hurricane," Feb. 17th and 18th, 1854, was, on the first day, from 
N.W., the velocity fifty-six miles, the pressure 27 lbs, ; on the 18th, from 
W.N.W., the velocity also fifty-six miles, the pressure 31 lbs. The same 
table shows that during the years 1852 to 1854 there were several other 
storms, of which ' Gore's Annals ' have no mention ; as, for example, Feb. 
26th, 1853, from N.N.W., the velocity sixty miles, the pressure 33 lbs.; 
and Jan. 26th, 1854, from W., the velocity fifty-three miles, the pressure 
43 lbs. 

In estimating the influence of the wind in producing changes in the sea 
channels, it must be recollected that Liverpool Bay is peculiarly exposed to 
winds ranging from W. to N., and sheltered from all other winds. 

It is not intended in this Report to lay down any precise theory for the 
solution of all the observed phsenomena of Liverpool Bay ; the collection of 
the facts recorded in the [)receding portion of this Report, and in the charts 
and tables by which it is accompanied, has been so recently completed as 
entirely to preclude their satisfactory digest into any such hypothesis. In- 
deed these researches, so far from furnishing a complete analysis of the data 
upon which any trustworthy theory can be founded, give occasion to regret 
that the various changes which the estuary has undergone were not more 
fully recorded than they have been prior to 1833; and it is especially to be 
regretted that the phaenomena of meteorology should have been so much 
neglected in this district. The valuable records of the Liverpool Obser- 
vatory, as well as those of the Warrington Museum and Library, it is to be 
hoped, will supply the requisite information to future inquirers. 

In recording the previous observations on the changes in the bay, the 
earliest survey within the period of inquiry has been assumed as the starting- 
point, and succeeding phaenomena are noted in chronological sequence; it is 
now proposed to retrace the inquiry, in order, as far as practicable, to reduce 
effects to their proximate causes, important facilities being derived from the 
less imperfect data of the more recent periods. 

On comparing the surveys of 1854 and 1852, it was observed that the 
changes were almost entirely confined to the increased tortuousness of the 
Victoria Channel, the continued silting up of the Zebra Channel, the opening 
of the Queen's Channel, intermediate between the Zebra and the Victoria, 
and the contraction of the eastern portion of the Rock Channel with a con- 
sequent diminution of its average area. During this period there was no 
abstraction of tidal water space for dock purposes, and consequently no re- 
duction from that cause of the scour. In 1852 the rain-fall was about 50 per 
cent, above the average. In 1853 and 1854 the fall was about an average 
in each year. In the latter year, 1854, the wind was more than usually in 
the range from W. to N. 

It may be observed that as the influence of freshes in a tidal river is 
greatest when the ebb tide is low, their efi'ects in the Mersey will be more 
apparent in the northern channel and its branches than in the western chan- 
nel, because the direction of the latter is almost at right angles to the course 
of the river, whilst that of the former is continuous ; the bar which crosses 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 3? 

the western channel at its junction witli the river will also tend to weaken 
the scour of the water when the tide is low. 

It appears f.jien that the freshes of 1852, in passing down the northern 
channel, were deflected by the banit called Taylor's Bank and Jordan Flats, 
on to the N.E. elbow of Great Burbo, itself of recent formation ; after 
passing that elbow the ebb took the direction due to the impetus down 
Crosby Channel, moditied by the influence of Taylor-Jordan Bank combined 
with Great Burbo, passed over the shoals between the Zebra and Victoria 
Channels, and opened up the svvatchway now known as the Queen's Channel. 
The channel thus initiated by the freshes of 1852 was deepened by the con- 
tinued action of the ebb tide throughout that year and the following, until 
in 1854 we find the Queen's Channel formed, the Zebra silting up from the 
loss of the water which then passed by the new channel. On the Victoria 
Bar, again, these freshes had won a slightly increased depth of water. 

The contraction of the Rock Channel may be due to the drift of sand 
promoted by the N.W. wind. 

The most remarkable gales of the period 1852 and 1854 are those of De- 
cember 25 and 27, 1852, from the W.S.W. and S.W., from denudation by 
which the Cheshire land would protect the sand-banks; February 26, 1853, 
from N.N.W. ; January 26, 1854, from W.; and February 17 and 18 of the 
same year, fi-oni N.W. and W.N.W. 

Very important changes have been recorded as having taken place between 
the years 1846 and 1852. They may be briefly described as consisting of 
the enlargement and consolidation of all the banks, with the bare exception 
of Mad Wharf, the increased size being in great measure due to increased 
elevation; the elongation of the Crosby Channel, chiefly in that part between 
the Rock Light and the Crosby Light-vessel ; and the diminution of the 
average depth and area of this portion of the channel, accompanied by a 
slight alteration in its direction ; in that part of this channel, between the 
Crosby and Formby Light-vessels, the depth was considerably increased, but 
the area diminished ; the changes in the channel were occasioned by the 
growth of the north-east elbow of Great Burbo, and an accretion on the 
western side of the Taylor-Jordan Bank, both of which had taken place 
principally after the 1849 survey. 

On reference to the Warrington tables, we find that, in 1846, the rain-fall 
was slightly, but very slightly, below the average of twelve years ; in the 
three following years it was above the same average, particularly in 1847> 
when the excess was about 16 per cent. ; in 1850 the fall was 10 per cent, 
below the average, and in 1851 slightly above. It appears then, that during 
the years 1848 and 1849, and particularly in 1850, the banks had grown in 
directions to produce, in 1851, those changes which rendered necessary the 
survey of 1852. The increased depth of the channel between the lightships 
above mentioned, seems due to the contracted width of that part, consequent 
upon the enlargement of the banks. 

We have no record of the phsenomena of wind during this period, and 
therefore can only conjecture that the horizontal and vertical growth of the 
banks are effects to which the prevailing winds may have been accessory, 
assisted by the loss of scour caused by the extensive dock-works of Liver- 
pool and liirkenhead. 

The change in the positions of the light-vessels and of the Bell Buoy was 
made after 1849. The depth of water on the Victoria Bar remained sta- 
tionary. 

In the Zebra Channel the depth of water had increased between 1846 and 
1849, when the rain-fall was rather above the average; and between 1849 
and 1852 the depth had diminished again. 



88 REPORT — 1856. 

In the Rock Channel the average depth had been diminished, and the 
average area stationary. 

As it was during this period that the greatest amount of tidal area taken 
between two surveys was abstracted, the occasion is favourable for consider- 
ing the influence of works of that kind upon the sea channels. According 
to the evidence of Mr. Rendel, C.E., House of Commons, 1844- (see 'Ports 
and Docks of Birkenhead,' by Thomas Webster, M.A., F.R.S., Barrister-at- 
Law, 1848, p. 77), high water of an 18-foot tide is I'' 25" later at Warring- 
ton Bridge than it is at the Prince's Pier, Liverpool, where it is 35" later 
than at the Formby Light-vessel. And from Mr. Joseph Bouit's observa- 
tions at W^oolston Weir, four miles above Warrington, that on 8th March 
last, in a 21 -foot tide, high water was 1^ 50" later than was recorded by the 
tide-gauge at George's Pier, Liverpool. It follows, therefore, that the water 
which formerly covered the space now enclosed must have passed out to sea 
on the top of the ebb tide, whilst the flood tide was yet rising in the upper 
reaches of the river. 

The loss of depth in the Rock Channel appears to indicate that the abs- 
traction of the tidal area has been prejudicial. The surveys since 1833 
indicate a progressive, though irregular, tendency towards the silting up of 
this channel; and there are facts which render it probable that the efl'ects of 
diminished scour should first be manifiested here. 

The tidal establishment is earlier at the North-west Lightship, or entrance of 
the western channel, than it is at the Bell Buoy, or entrance of the northern 
channel ; though the difference is very slight, it is sufficient to give a bias to 
the stream of tide, as is shown by the experience of bathers on the shore just 
above the junction of the Rock Channel with the river, who find that with 
a young flood there is a current out again to sea by the northern channel. 

The same also appears from the experiments of Mr. Enfield Fletcher, C.E., 
and others with floats. These were liberated at Wallasey Pool, on the ebb 
tide, for the purpose of ascertaining in what time the water from the pool 
-would reach the Victoria Bar; but all the floats, without exception, went 
down the Rock Channel and grounded upon Dove Spit. 

This result may, in part, be due to the attraction of the Cheshire shore. 
The bias with the ebb would, however, be confined to the upper stratum of 
the water; the impetus of the current to sea naturally giving to the main 
bulk the more direct course by the northern channel, in preference to the 
almost right-angled deflection down the western channel. 

Whilst the Rock Channel has been losing depth, the depth of water in the 
northern channel, considered in its whole length from the Rock Lighthouse 
to the Bell Buoy, is almost undiminished since 1833. The loss on the Vic- 
toria Bar may be due to the diversion to the part of the stream formerly by 
the Zebra, now by the Queen's Channel. But for the elevation of the banks 
and of the bottom of the Rock Channel, and of the south part of the Crosby 
Channel, it is difficult to assign any other cause than the loss of scour at the 
first of the ebb, and the influence of the prevailing winds in drifting sand 
from the coast. 

As respects the Rock Channel, the influence of the new north wall in 
Bootle Bay is very likely to agg^ravate the tendency to silt up, as it tends to 
impede the advance of the flood tide through that channel by substituting 
for a shelving shore a nearly perpendicular face almost at right angles to the 
course of the flood. 

The influence which the direction of the enclosure walls may have upon 
the course of tide has yet to be considered. 

It appears that between 1846 and 1849, during which these works were 
in progress, there was no alteration in the direction of any of the channels; 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 39 

and that between 1849 and 1852, these works being still in progress, the 
direction of the Victoria Channel was so altered that the Bell Buoy waa 
removed about 1000 yards westward of its position in 184-6 ; and that in the 
upper or southern portion of the northern channel there had been no 
changes in the fairway track beyond those consequent upon the elongation 
of the part between the Rock Lighthouse and Crosby Light-vessel. 

The change in the Victoria Channel is probably due to the lengthening of 
the Crosby Channel, which has been attributed to the growth of the sand- 
banks ; and it does not appear that the extension of the dock walls had yet 
been productive of much eifect on the direction of the sea channels. 

Between 1840 and 1846 the most remarkable of the recorded changes are, 
a large increase in the size of the Formby Bank ; a slight diminution in those 
of Great Burbo and East Hoyle, principally in elevation ; and a slight dimi- 
nution in the depth of the Crosby Channel, principally in its northern part. 

There was a remarkable drought in 1844, the rain-fall at Warrington 
having been about 33 per cent, below the average of twelve years. There 
was also an extraordinary continuance of easterly winds in this year. No 
remarkable meteorological phaecoinena are recorded for the preceding year. 
The large increase in the size of Formby Bank, and the loss of elevation in 
East Hoyle and Great Burbo, are possibly to be ascribed to the influence of 
the wind. 

In 1840 to 1846 the Liverpool dock- works abstracted about 117 acres of 
tidal area in northern works. 

Between 1837 and 1840 the most remarkable change in the northern 
channel is in the direction of the Victoria Channel, as indicated by the 
removal of the Bell Buoy about 2000 yards northwards, accompanied by a 
loss of 2 feet of water on the bar. According to a letter of Lieut. Lord's 
of October 8th, 1839*, the dredging operations had deepened the water on 
the Victoria Bar to 15 feet. On the survey of 1840, that depth was reduced 
to 10 feet and 11 feet. In the period of 1837 to 1840 there had been a loss 
of depth in the southern portion of the Crosby Channel, and a similar gain 
in the northern part of the same ; a considerable reduction in the size of 
Formby Bank, equal to 30 per cent. ; an increase in the Great Burbo ; a loss 
of half the depth on the bar of the Rock Channel, and a loss of average 
area in the same channel equal to 6 per cent, per annum ; and a diminution 
in the area and elevation of East Hoyle. 

There were no important dock-works during this period. 

There are no meteorological observations which throw light upon the 
cause of these changes beyond, — 1st, the fact that there were great floods 
in 1839 in various parts of Great Britain, by which much injury was occa- 
sioned to the hay and other crops; and though the local ' Mercury' of the 
date has no record of floods in the Mersey, there may have been freshets ; 
and, 2nd, the vivid recollection of the terrific and destructive hurricane from 
the S.W., which visited the town and port on the 6th and 7th of January, 
1839, during which the North-west Lightship and many of the buoys in the 
chaimel were washed from their moorings, and several vessels were wrecked. 

The following curious sequence is deduced from the foregoing obser- 
vations : — Phaenomena and Productive Date of 
date thereof. interval. survey. 

Gale, January 1839 1839 1840 

Drought 1844 1845 1846 

Freshes 1847 1848 1849 

Drought 1850 1851 1852 

Freshes 1852 1853 1854 

* In the ' Liverpool Mercury' of that month. 



40 REPORT — 1856, 

Between 1833 and 1837 was perfected that remarkable change in the 
northern outlet of the Mersey, of which Capt. Denham has recorded so many 
important particulars in his ' Sailing Directions,' and in communications to the 
Association. But there is such a complete dearth of observations upon the 
changes which preceded the opening of this new outlet in 1833, and upon 
the meteorological phaenomeua by which they were preceded, or accom- 
panied, that the result of any detailed inquiry must necessarily be extremely 
precarious. The same observations apply to periods immediately subse- 
quent and precedent to Capt. Thomas's survey in 1813. The general 
features of the consolidation and enlargement of the principal sand-banks, 
and also of the eastern shore of tiie estuary, may be observed upon this 
survey, and also upon all the authentic surveys since that of Capt. Collins in 
1689. It is also remarkable that the low-water margin of the eastern shore 
appears to have advanced westward to an extent fully equal to one-half the 
width of the northern channel as laid down by Collins, or 1000 yards. 

From a report of Mr. George Ilennie, C.E., to the Corporation of Liver- 
pool, in 1838, it appears that at that time upwards of 13,000 acres had been 
abstracted from the tidal area of the river, the original extent of which is 
estimated at about 35,000 acres, and these abstractions were principally in 
the upper part of the river. Since then no important abstractions have been 
made without the sanction of Parliament. 

The tidal area appropriated to the dock purposes of Liverpool alone since 
1650 amounts to 784' acres, exclusive of the open basins ; of these, 4'70 acres 
have been appropriated within the last fifteen years. 

From the foregoing remarks it appears that the changes in Liverpool Bay 
are to be attributed principally to the influence of freshes, droughts, wind, 
and the reduction of tidal area ; and that remedial measures adopted for the 
maintenance or improvement of the approaches should be specially designed 
to cooperate with these forces. 

It may perhaps be thought that sufficient consideration has not been given 
to the very large amount of silt, which, according to Capt. Denham, in his 
paper in the 'Reports' of the Association (1837), is being constantly 
washed down by the river and deposited in the bay. 

The attention of the Committee has so far been confined principally to the 
phgenomena of the bay. Captain Denham supposed the silt to be derived 
from the shores of the upper part of the river, where there is no doubt that 
the tidal water continues to encroach upon the land. From the geological 
formation of this land, a large proportion of the silt must consist of clay and 
mud, with but a very small proportion of sand. The former, from its levity, 
is mostly conveyed away by the ebb tide, a thin deposit being only temporarily 
left upon the sandy shores and banks of the upper and lower estuaries, which 
is either dried up and dissipated by the wind, or removed by those neap tides 
which are too low to be able to continue the encroachments of the spring tides. 
Two local changes seem to require special notice before concluding this 
Report : — 

1st. The waste of the clay cliff's in Cheshire, from Seacombe Point to 
North Egremont, which has now been going on to a considerable extent and 
for some years. This, there can be little doubt, is a consequence of the North 
Dock-works of Liverpool, by which the river has had its channel much con- 
tracted, and has naturally sought its equivalent from the opposite and weaker 
side. 

2nd. The waste on the Cheshire shore, adjacent to Leasowe Castle, west- 
wardly. According to Mr. RoUett, the acting-surveyor of the Wallasey Em- 
bankment, under the surveyor to the Corporation of Liverpool, this waste has 
averaged 6 yards per annum for nearly thirty years past. It is, however, con- 



THE BIVER MERSEY. 41 

fined to a small lineal extent of the coast, about two miles. The situation is 
one that is now very much exposed to the flood tide through the Horse Chan- 
nel, especially in N.W. winds. The geological formation is entirely alluvial, 
consisting of sand, peat, and clay. It is, in fact, the site of part of the so- 
called suijuiarine forest of Wirral. 

When Hoyle Lake was in existence, the flood tide advancing in two 
streams — one through the lake, the other through the Horse Channel — met 
at this place, and their united stream ran up the Rock Channel. It may be 
assumed that the influence on the beach of the stream through the Horse 
Channel was mitigated by the stream through Hoyle Lake, by which it 
was deflected into the Rock Channel. As the lake was silted up the influ- 
ence of the stream was gradually weakened, until it was entirely lost by the 
closing up of the lake. The enlargement of the west spit of Great Burbo 
has also assisted to give to the stream through the Horse Channel, a more 
direct set upon the beach. About thirty years ago the late Mr. Giles, C.E., 
constructed an embankment upwards of 100 yards above high water spring 
tides. The seaward slope is now submerged every tide; and as it was not 
designed for such a situation, it has been occasionally broken through, almost 
entirely reconstructed and considerably raised. 

Great watchfulness is exercised by those who have charge of the embank- 
ment; for if the sea were to make good its entrance through any breach, 
a large tract of meadow country, nearly 3000 statute acres, would be sub- 
merged in their whole extent to the docks at Birkenhead. 

These meadows are part of the tidal area which had been reclaimed, and 
was formerly submerged through Wallasey Pool. 

Liverpool, August 1856. Joseph Boult. 

[With respect to the tables D, E, F, and G, by which this Report is ac- 
companied, it should, perhaps, be observed that they are to be regarded as 
only approximations to the truth, and not as representing the absolute areas 
of the channels, or volumes of the banks; and they are merely intended as 
gauges for comparing the growth or decline of the various features included 
in them. The truth of the observation would be apparent to all who had 
inspected the surveys ; it is recorded here for those who have not had the 
opportunity of doing so.] 

The Report was illustrated by the following charts and tables : — 

A. — Plate I. Admiralty Chart of Liverpool Bay, corrected to 1847, with 
Contours from Surveys bv Collins, 1689 ; Eyes and Fearon, 1756 ; Thomas, 
1813. 

B. — A Chart of the Approaches to Liverpool, by Lieut. Lord, R.N., 1852, 
with Contours from Denham, 1837; Lord, 1840; and Lord, 1846. 

C. — A Chart of the Approaches to Liverpool, by Lieut. Lord, R.N., 1854 ; 
with Contours from Lord, 1852. 

D, E, F. — Tables, showing the average depth below low water of ordi- 
nary Spring Tides, and the average sectional Area of the Crosby and Rock 
Channels, computed from the Surveys of 1837, 1840, 1846, 1852, and 1854. 

G. — A Table, showing the average Volume of the Banks above Low 
Water of ordinary Spring Tides, computed from the Survej's of 1837, 1840, 
1846, 1852, and 1854. 

H. — A Plan exhibiting the space abstracted by the Corporation of Liver- 
pool from the Tidal Water of the River Mersey during five successive 
Periods, comprised between the years 1650 and 1843, compiled from authen- 
tic Documents and actual Survey. 

J. — Sections of Part of Great Burbo Bank, on Planes parallel to a Plane 
passing through the Leasowe and Formby Lighthouses. 



42 



REPORT— 1856. 







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44 REPORT — 1856. 

Iteport -upon the effects produced upoji the Channels of the Mersey by the 

alterations which, during the last jifty years, have been made in its Banks, 

071 the Tides of the prese7it period compared with the Tides registered by 

Mr. Rendel in June 1844. By Andrew Henderson. 

It may be premised that the discussion on the subject, in June ISM, was 

with reference to the proposed bill for establishing docks at Birkenhead ; it was 

urged by Liverpool authorities that this would reduce the level of the river 

by abstracting so large an area as 150 acres. The state of the river, then, 

may be based on the tidal observations of Mr. Rendel at six stations, giving 

diagrams of height of tide from Victoria Bar to Warrington Bridge, as 

follows : — 

TIME AND HEIGHT OF HIGH WATER. 
Datum, Prince's Bock Sill {six feet beloto the Old Bock Sill), taken from Mr. Rendel's 

Biagrams. 
Spring Tide, June 3, 1846. June 10, 1844, Neap Tide. 

Time. Height. Time. Height, 

h m ft. in. h m ft. in. No. 

1. Formby Point 12 20.. 23 4 6 50.. 17 9.. 1. 

2. New Brighton .... 12 30 .. 23 .... 7 .. 17 7 .. 2. 

3. Prince's Dock 12 50 .. 23 8 .... 7 10 . . 18 2 . . 3. 

4. EUesmere Point 1 10 . . 24 7 7 40 .. 18 7 . . 4. 

5. Runcorn. 1 25 . . 25 4 . . . . 8 . . 19 . . 5. 

6. Fidler's Ferry 1 50 . . 25 2 8 55 . . 18 10 . . 6. 

7. Warrington Bridge. . 2 30.. 2510 940.. 18 8.. 7. 

These observations were taken simultaneously ; and it may be seen that, 

at the Prince's Pier, which is in the narrowest gorge of the e.stuary, the tide 
heaps up 8 inches and 7 inches in the two miles from New Brighton. The 
velocity of the flood tide at Seacombe is recorded as 721 1 feet per second, 
the width of the Mersey being there reduced to 3060 feet, and the sectional 
area 184,622 feet, it being altogether a gorge at that point defined by the 
Prince's Dock wall on the one side, and the natural rock of Seacombe on 
the other. 

This has been aptly designated the neck of the bottle, extending one mile 
ft'om Egremont Ferry to Seacombe Ferry, where the Mersey is half a mile 
broad to Prince's Pier, extending about one mile to the old fort before the 
Stanley Dock was begun in 1844, at which time the mouth of the Mersey 
bottle was between Egremont and the old fort, from whence a curved wall 
half a mile east to Beacon's Gutter was built in 1833, the north shore to 
Rimrose Brook (some three and a half miles) forming with the shore from 
Seacombe to New Brighton what may be termed the funnel for filling the 
bottle of the Mersey. 

These positions are exhibited on the map appended to the Report of Mr. 
James Walker, C.E., to the conservators of the River Mersey, on the effects 
of the new north river-line of the Liverpool docks on the Cheshire shore, 
published June 1856, pp. 306, with abstract notes of evidence. 

As these documents contain much valuable information bearing on the 
effects produced on the channels of the Mersey by the alteration made in 
its banks, the following extracts are given, premising that the complaint was 
the waste of the Cheshire shore about Egremont. The Report states, there 
is no reason to doubt that an increase of damage has taken place and is con- 
tinuing, and that the Liverpool dock walls are the principal cause. 

" One thing is certain, that the Liverpool dock trustees have acquired since 
1844 an area of not less than 500 acres of land from the river; upon this 
they have made splendid docks, and are now proceeding to add to them for 
the benefit of the country, on a greater scale than they have hitherto done. 



THE RIVER MERSEY. 45 

" That the proper remedy for the prevention of further waste is a river 
wall or other similar protection, from Seacombe to New Brighton ; and that 
the dock trustees, in consideration of the damage done and of their having 
already occupied 500 acres of the Mersey, and proposing to occupy in a few 
years 150 acres more, which will increase the waste on the Cheshire shore, 
may be reasonably expected to take the protection into their consideration. 

" That the effect which dock walls on the Liverpool side have had, or 
are likely to have, in deepening the navigation of the Mersey or its entrance 
channels, does not amount to much more than a tendency." 

The evidence of Capt. Cook, Superintendent of Pilots, states, " There are 
now four channels, viz. the Rock or Horse, Victoria, Queen's, Zebra or 
Eastern Channels. Large vessels enter by the Victoria Channel. The 
Queen's improves, but not yet log-lined. Not very important to have very 
deep entrances into Liverpool, as the heavy ships enter the docks. 

ft. in. 

Depth on Victoria Bar at lowest tide 10 

Lift of tide 31 

High water, spring tide 41 

Depth of water upon Bar, neap tide 18 6 

Of tide 15 

Depth on the Bar, high water neaps 33 6 

West wind raises the tide 5 or 6 feet, east wind cuts the tide as much. As 
regards the effects of the dock walls already built upon the navigation of 
the river, Mr. J. Hartley, Lieut. Lord, and the dock-masters assert that 
there has been no perceptible difference in the height of the tides for many 
years, the old tables of depth upon the sills of the docks being still found to 
be the correct guide, and the velocity, so far as they can observe, being un- 
altered." 

Some witnesses considered that the tides rose vertically 2 feet higher at Sea- 
combe, but no gauge having been kept, the impression may have arisen from 
the greater effect, or in " consequence of the lash of the waves upon the 
Cheshire side being heavier," since the last built portion of the " dock wall 
is placed so as to meet the waves that are brought by the westerly gales 
through the Rock Channel." 

This is shown on the Plan attached to the Report ; and the Report states, 
" It is also to be expected that the rebound will be increased when the gap 
which at present leaves a portion of Bootle Bay open to receive the seas, shall 
be filled up by a wall, as I presume is intended." 

A reference to the Plan will show that the filling up of this gap would 
not only greatly increase the evils complained of at Seacombe, but cause the 
Rock Channel to silt up in a few years, as Hoylake has done ; and should 
the wall be extended to Rimrose Brook, as proposed in 1858, enclosing 
150 acres, it will greatly reduce the flow of water into the Mersey by con- 
tracting the entrance between the fort on the Rock Point and high water 
at Bootle Bay, distant 1-i- mile or 2700 yards. The map shows the present 
end of wall to extend 900 yards across the entrance to a river wall of 250 
yards towards a gap of 700 yards, thus reducing the entrance between the 
river wall and the Fort on Rock Point to 1800 yards, with a bulb between 
Seacombe and New Brighton, where the sea and tide through the Rock 
Channel deflected from the Liverpool wall are wasting the shore. The only 
remedy for this being, as stated in the Report, " the construction of a wall 
4000 yards long from Seacombe to New Brighton." 



46 REPORT— 1856. 

From opposite Seacombe the Liverpool dock wall extends 4000 yards to 
the gap in Bootle Bay: by ending it there, only a curved line, similar to that 
in 1833, shown in the Plan, with a sloping sea-wall, would allow the sea to 
expend itself in Bootle Bay as heretofore, and act as the eastern side of the 
funnel of the Mersey, the Rock Channel forming the western. 

The effects these alterations may have had on the levels of the tides in 
the Mersey, since they were recorded by Mr. Rendel in ISi^, we have no 
means of comparing, as it will be seen by the before-mentioned table ; they 
only relate to two tides of that year, which are so much affected by the 
wind as to form no criterion, it requiring the average of a long period to 
establish any change in the mean height and flow of the tide. 

We are indebted to Lieut, Lord for the only reliable results derived from 
the observations of the self-registering tide-gauge at George's Pier, Liver- 
pool. The discussion of two years of these tidal observations, 1854—55, by 
Mr. Burdwood, of the Hydrographer's Office, Admiralty, gives the following 
mean : — 

Datum, Old Dock Sill. Establishment {High Water, full and change) 
\\^ 35"* Greenwich time. 

High xvater : — ft- in- 

Springs.' — Average height above the sill .... 18 

Neaps 12 2 

Loto water : — 

Springs. — Average height below the sill .... 8 
Neaps 2 4 

Admiralty, 2nd June 1856. J. BuRDWOOD. 

Lieut. Lord's diagrams furnish the levels of high and low water, direction 
and force of the wind, and height of the barometer every day in the year, as 
well as an intermediate line indicating the ordinary sea-level as averaging 
6 feet above the old dock sill. 

As these observations are to be continued at several stations on the Mersey, 
we may look upon them as the basis of future observations on the changes 
in the level and flow of the tides in that river. 

Mr. Rendel's diagrams are very useful, as recording the tidal wave in 1844 
as well as the relative time of high water at the Bar, New Brighton, Prince's 
Dock, Runcorn, Fidler's Ferry, and Warrington Bridge. 

From information obligingly furnished to the Committee by Mr. Fereday 
Smith, Mr. R. Skay, and Mr. Edward Johnes and other sources, we may 
confidently contemplate the establishment of a record of the tides of the 
Mersey, both at Ellesmere and other points, with reliable data and informa- 
tion on the important subject. 

Cheltenham, 12th August 1856. Andrew Henderson. 



Interim Report to the British Association^ on Progress in Researches 
on the Measurement of Water by Weir Boards. By James 
Thomson, C.E. 

Belfast, August 6, 1856. 
Having at last year's meeting of the Association read in the Mechanical 
Section a short paper on the Measurement of Water by Weir Boards, and 
having been requested by the General Committee to prepare a Report on 
the same subject, I beg now to state that 1 have in the meantime been col- 



WBIR BOARDS. — FRITH OP CLYDK. 4? 

lectiDg information for the purposes of that Report. My professional en- 
gagements have occupied me necessarily so much as to oblige me to defer 
for this year the detailed prosecution of the subject and the preparation of 
the Report in full. I have, however, the gratification of stating, that, with 
special reference to the researches entrusted to me by the Association, the 
President of the Athenaeum of Boston, United States, Mr. Thomas G. Gary, 
has generously sent to me, with the request that it be presented to the 
British Association on his behalf, a valuable book, containing accounts of 
experiments recently carried out on a very grand scale in America on the 
measurement of large bodies of flowing water by means of Weir boards and 
by other methods. 

The work is entitled ' Lowell Hydraulic Experiments,' by James B.Francis. 
In reference to the experiments, Mr. Gary, the donor of the book, states in 
his letter to me, " These experiments, made under the direction and at the 
expense of the associated companies of Lowell, near Boston, who employ 
Mr. Francis as the engineer for their cotton and woollen factories, have cost 
about £4000 sterling ; and they make part in a series of investigations which 
have cost those companies £15,000." 

In the Report which I hope to submit to the British Association, I shall 
have much occasion for reference to these important experiments, and for 
this purpose I think it right to retain the book in my hands at present. 

As the expenses incurred in reference to the researches have been but 
small, and chiefly for the procuring of books, I do not desire to draw for 
them on the fund of £1 liberally placed at my disposal by the Association ; 
and as my intention is, not to conduct experiments on the subject myself, 
but chiefly to give a review of the most important experiments and deduc- 
tions which have been made by others, I do not think it necessary to ask 
for a renewal of the grant. 



Dredging Report. — Frith of Clyde. 1856. 

At the last meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science, held in Glasgow, the following resolution was adopted: — 

" That a Gommittee, consisting of the Rev. G. P. Miles, M.D., Professor 
Balfour, Dr. Greville, and Mr. Eyton, be requested to report on the 
dredging of the West coast of Scotland, and that the sum of £10 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose." 

Of the Gommittee only two members have been able to devote any 
time to the object contemplated, viz. Dr. Greville, and the Rev. G. P. Miles. 
The latter, having engaged a residence on Holy Island, Lamlash Bay, was 
joined by the former on June 9th, when both were prepared to commence a 
systematic course of dredging, and to give up their whole time, for several 
weeks, to the work. They had provided themselves with the Government 
charts, and with such books on the different departments of marine zoology 
as were likely to be of service ; they had also everything requisite for the 
preservation of specimens ; and they had at their command a small yacht*, 
and a stout four-oared cutter f. So far, therefore, as material was concerned, 
the Gommittee had armed themselves for a vigorous campaign. 

In the arrangement for their plan of proceeding, the Committee took into 

* This vessel was lent to the Rev. Mr. Miles (on the condition of his paying the expenses 
of fitting her out) by Alexander Melville, Esq., Glasgow, 
t The property of Dr. Carpenter, Holy Island, Arran. 



^8 REPORT — 1856. 

consideration the terms of tlieir instructions; and they came to the conclusion 
that it would be impossible to draw up a satisfactory Report in the course 
of a single season. They do not regard a mere enumeration of the forms of 
animal life, as observed from time to time by different individuals, as the 
object contemplated by the Association, but rather some account of the 
distribution of those forms in the estuary and Lochs of the Clyde, coupled 
with some efforts to render our knowledge of the Fauna more complete. It 
appeared to them that the most proper course would be for the Committee, 
not to aim too suddenly at issuing a general Report, but rather to present, 
for some time to come, an annual statement of their labours. By a judicious 
change of head-quarters, they would be enabled, in successive seasons, to 
pursue their investigations in a way best calculated to promote the ultimate 
views of the Association. 

The naturalist's dredge has been used in the Clyde for some years by 
various persons, but, as far as is ascertained, without any special plan ; and 
although in many instances notes have been preserved, the existing materials 
for a full Report are utterly insufficient. Of the different localities, Lamlash 
Bay has, perhaps, acquired the greatest reputation. It occurred therefore 
to the Committee that it would be peculiarly desirable to ascertain, with 
some precision, the extent and distribution of the forms existing in this sec- 
tion of the Clyde — stating whether they are rare or frequent in these parts. 
They hoped to accomplish this end with comparatively little trouble, as they 
had repeatedly dredged over portions of the same ground on former occa- 
sions ; and, further, they had the experience of Major Martin and of the late 
Rev. Dr. Landsborough to assist them. Other places in the vicinity of 
Lamlash Bay were marked out for examination, with special reference to 
Kilbrennan Sound, on the west side of Arran, which, it is believed, has been 
unexplored by the scientific dredger. 

To their exceeding regret the Committee have to state that they had 
scarcely made their arrangements before the weather became adverse. Rain 
and wind — the latter often rising to a gale — set in, and continued, with a 
few exceptional days, throughout the months or June and July, that is, from 
the moment they were prepared to commence oppratiocs until the last day 
at their disposal previous to the Meeting of the Association. The precarious 
position of the dredger could not be more forcibly illustrated. During the 
first month scarcely more than one day in each week would admit of the 
dredge being used, and, altogether, there were oxi\^ fifteen days available for 
the prosecution of the work, which was sometimes attempted when the seve- 
rity of the weather made it all but impracticable to sail the yacht, and when 
the employment of the four-oared cutter would have been impossible. The 
intended visit to the west of Arrau has consequently been postponed ; and, 
under these disastrous circumstances, the unfortunate Committee found 
occupation, in spite of rain and wind, in searching the pools and coast at low 
tide, and in collecting the littoral nudibranchs, echinoderms, crustaceans, &c. 

The ground explored by the dredge embraces, as marked in the accom- 
panying map* (Plate II.), the following well-defined localities: — The south 
side of Brodick Bay, from Invercloy to Corriegills, in depths varying from 7 
to 25 fathoms ; the entire area of Lamlash Bay, from Clachland Point to the 
north end of Holy Island, and from the south end of Holy Island to Kings- 
cross Point ; the eastern, or outer side of Holy Island, from Hamilton's Rock, 
near Clachland Point, to the most southern point of the island, in from 30 to 
6 fathoms ; and from Fullarton's Rock to Whiting Bay. 

The subjoined Tables give the results of the labours of the Committee: — 
* The map is an exact copy of the Government Chart. 



DREDGING. — FRITH OF CLYDE. 



49 



Species. 
Actnaea testudinalis . . ■ ■ 

virginea 

Anomia ephippium 

Aplysia hybrida 

Aporrhais pes-pelecani 



Artemis exoleta . . . 

lincta 

Astarte sulcata . . . 
Buccinum undatum 

Cardium edule 

echinatuni . . . 

Norvegicum . 



Cerithiura reticulatiun 

Chiton asellus 

— ruber 

Circe minima 



Corbula nucleus .... 
Crania anomala .... 
Cylichna cylindracea 

Cypraea Europaea 

Cyprina Islandica . . 
Dentalium entalis . . 



Emarginula reticulata. 

Eulima polita 

distorta 

Fissurella reticulata. . . 
Fusus antiquus 1 

Islandicus J ' " " 

Kellia rubra 

suborbicularis. . . 



Lamellaria ? ... 

Lima hians \ 

• Loscombii J ' ' ' 

subauriculata ... 

Littorina Neritoides T 

littoralis I- 

littorea J 

Lyonsia Norvegica . . . 



Mactra solida "I 

subtruncata j 

Mangelia Leufroyi "1 

linearis J 

rufa, var. Ulideaua 



■ teres 



Modiola Modiolus . . 
Montacuta substriata 



Table I. — Mollusca. 

Station. 
Littoral — Holy Island, &c.. . 
Laminarian zone. 
Generally diffused. 
Rock-pools, Holy Island, &c. 
Generally diffused — Deep 

water. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Lamlash sands. 
Lamlash Bay. 
Deep water between Holy Is- 

laud and Clachlaud Point. 
Generally diffused. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Between Holy Island and 

Clachland Point. 
Ditto. 

Ditto 

Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Lamlash Bay 

Between Holy Island and 

Clachland Point. 
Ditto! 

Ditto y 

Ditto J 
Ditto. 

" Near FuUarton's Rock, in 
L about 20 fathoms. 

Littoral 

Lamlash Bay 

Littoral — Holy Island. 
^ North end of Holy Island in 
L about 10 and 15 fathoms. 

Near FuUarton's Rock 

Holy Island, &c. 

Between Holy Island and 
Clachland Point. 
[Lamlash Bay and off Holy 
[ Island. 

r Between Holy Island and 
[ Clachland Point. 
Between FuUarton'sRock and 

King's Cross Point. 
Between Holy Island and 

Clachlaud Point. 
Lamlash Bay. 
North end of Holy Island . . 



Remaris. 
Abundant. 

Not uncommon. 

Only dead shells obtained. 



Adult specim^pe rare. 



Not uncommon. 



Only dead shells. 
Common. 

Near the north end of Holy 
Island in from 10 to 30 
fathoms. 



Attached to Lichina pygmaa. 
Found inside dead shells of 
Artemis exoleta. 

The nests of L. hians in this 
locality are very abundant. 
Only single valves foimd. 



Scarce. 

Only one specimen obtained. 

Three specimens obtained in 
from 15 to 25 fathoms. 

On the spines of Spatangus 

purpureus. 
Immature and scarce. 



Mytilus eduUs Round the coast 

Nassa incrassata. 

reticulata Generally diffused. 

monilifera I J Between Holy Island and N. monilifera scarce. 

Montagu! J l Clachland Point. 

Ostrea edulis Lamlash Bay by Holy Island. 

Patella athletica "1 

pellucida |- Holy Island, &c. 

vulgata J 

1856. B 



50 



REPORT — 1856. 



Species. 
Pecten raaximus . 



opercalaris 

striatus 1 

tigrinus J 

Pectunculus glycimeris ... 

Philine aperta 

Pholas crispata 

Pileopsis Hungarica 

Pleurobranchus ? ... 

Pilidium fulvum "I 

Psammobia Ferroensis ?■ • • • 
Puncturella Noacliina J 

Purpura lapillus 

Rissoa striata 

Scaphander lignarius 

Tapes decussata 

Tellina donacina 

Terebratula caput-serpentis 

Teredo Norvegica 

Thracia phaseolina 

Trichotropis borealis 



Trochus alabastrum . 

cinerarius . . . 

~— Magus 

millegranus. . . 

turnidus 

umbilicatus . . . 



Table I. {continued.) 

Station. 

North endof Holy Island; also 
near FuUarton's Kock. 

Throughout the district .... 
f Between Holy Island and 
[ Clachland Point. 

North eud of Holy Island. 

Throughout Lamlash Bay . . 

Near Lamlash Pier. 

North end of Holy Island. 

Holy Island at low water . . 

North end of Holy Island. 

Littoral. Holy Island, &c. 

Generally diffused. 

North end of Holy Island. 

Holy Island, &c. 

North end of Holy Island. 

Ditto. 

Holy Island 

North end of Holy Island. 
Between Holy Island and 
Clachland Point. 

Lamlash Bay 

North end of Holy Island. 

Near the pier, Holy Island. 

North end of Holy Island. 

Ditto. 

Holy Island, &c., littoral . . 



Remaris. 
Scarce. 

Abundant in certain localities. 

Scarce ; dead shells of P. 

tigrinus not uncommon. 

Not uncommon in any part. 



Found four individuals under 
stones : probably they are 
P. membranaceus. 



Fine specimens of the tubes 
obtained from the wreck of 
the old pier. 

Dredged by Mr. Eyton. 



T. umbilicatus is the common 

shell of these shores. 
T. zizi/jMnus is scarce. 



zizyphiuus North end of Holy Island 

Turritella communis Ditto. 

Venus casina Ditto. 

fasciata Ditto. 

ovata Ditto. 

striatula Ditto. 

Table II. — Nudibranchiate MoUusca. 

Species. Remarks. 

Doris bilamellata 1 f Found under stones at low water on Holy 

tuberculata J \ Island, &c. Common. 

Eolis Drummondi Ditto. Not uncommon. 

Goniodoris nodosa Ditto. One example found on Holy Island. 

r Dredged (probably a new species) in about 15 

Lomanotus .' -^ fathoms between Macdonald's Hotel, In- 

[ verclov, and C'orriegills. 
Polycera quadrihneata \ Lamlash' shore. 



Triopa claviger 



r 



Table III. — Crustacea. 



Species. Station. 

Carcinus Maenas Holy Island, &c 

Cancer Pagurus Ditto 

Ebalia Pennantii North end of Holy Island 

Eurynome aspera Ditto 

Galathea Generally diffused 

Hippolyte varians Lamlash Bay. 

Homarus vulgaris Everywhere round shore . . 

Hyas araneus Generally diffused. 

Inachus Dorsettensis Ditto. 

Pagurus Bernhardus Ditto. 

— Prideauxii Ditto 



Palaemou Squilla Rock Pools . . 

Paudalus annulicorois Lamlash Bay. 



Remarks. 
Abundant round these shores. 
Ditto. 

Not very uucommon. 
3 or 4 specimens obtained. 
All immature examples. 

Tolerably abundant. 



Always accompanied by 

Adamsia palliata. 
Common round the coast. 



DREDGING. — FRITH OF CLYDE. 51 

Table II. (continued.) 
Species. Station. Remarks. 

Porcellana longicornis North end of Holy Island. 

platycheles Littoral. Holy Island, &c. . . Abundant round the coast. 

StenorhynchusPhalangium. . Generally diffused Not common. 

Table IV. — Echinodermata. 

Amphidotus cordatus Generally diffused Common. 

Asterias aurantiaca Near FuUarton's Rock Only two specimens obtained. 

Asterina gibbosa Littoral. North end of Holy Under stones in a pool. 

Island. 
Chirodota digitata Near the Pier (south side), Infrom 15 to about 6 fathoms. 

Holy Island. 
Comatula rosacea Pier, Holy Island, and Fullar- Abundant in about 8 to 1 5 fms. 

ton's Rock. 

Cribella oculata North end, Holy Island. 

rosea Ditto Rare. 

Echinocyamus pusillus .... Generally diffused. 

Echinus miUaris Ditto. 

sphaera Ditto. 

Goniaster Templetoni Ditto. 

Luidia fragiUissima Ditto. 

Ophiocomabellis Ditto. 

granulata Ditto. 

rosula Ditto. 

Ophiura texturata Ditto. 

Palmipes membranaceus .... Between Holy Island and Rare. 

Clachland Point in 25 fms. 
Sipunculus .' Lamlash Bay. 

SEfp^r/or"} ••■• North end, Holy Island. 

^Tubtnf''} GeneraUy diffused. 

Table V. — Zoophyta. 
Species. Remarks. 

Actinia bellis, (Gsertner) 1 / Common in the pools and round the whole 

coriacea J \ coast. 

crassicornis Dredged in about 25 fathoms north of Holy 

Island. 

mesembryanthemum Common everywhere. 

Adamsia palliata Frequent — always with Pagurus Prideattxii. 

Anthea cereus On Zostera marina, Lamlash Bay. 

Antennularia antennina Near FuUarton's Rock. 

Cellepora pumicosa "I f The corals are generally diffused in deep wa- 

ramulosa I i ter (from about 20 fathoms) outside of 

Skenei J L Lamlash Bay. 

Campanularia dumosa. 

Flustra fohacea. 

Halecium halecinum. 

Laomedea geniculata On stones and dead shells. 

Lepralia annulata . . . . = Ditto. 

hyalina Ditto. 

Malusii Ditto. 

Peachii Ditto. 

trispinosa Ditto. 

violacea, var. cruenta On stones and dead shells in deep water, be- 
tween Holy Island and Clachland Point. 
Also between the south end of Holy Island 
and FuUarton's Rock : several specimens. 

Plumularia pinnata Lamlash Bay. 

Salicornaria farciminoides Common, outside of Lamlash Bay. 

Sertularia tamarisca. 

The Committee have deemed it advisable, for the present, to omit the 

following classes — Cirripedia, Annelida, Acalepha, and Poriphora ; also the 

Sessile-eyed Crustaceans ; nor have they even attempted to search for the 

microscopic forma included in the Infusoria and Rhizopoda. 

e2 



52 REPORT — 1856. 

Among the Nudibranchiata, a species of rare beauty was obtained when 
dredging in Brodiciv Bay, between Invercloy and Corriegills, in from 10 to 
15 fathoms. As it could not be identified by the Committee, a sketch taken 
by Dr. Greville was forwarded to Mr. Alder, who replied, — "The beautiful 
Nudibranch you have found is a Lomanotus, and probably new; but of this 
we could not be certain without a careful examination, and I shall therefore 
be glad to avail myself of your kind offer to send the animal alive. I dredged 
a minute Lomanotus (only quarter of an inch long) in Lamlash Bay in 1846, 
whicli is figured in the 6th Part of our Monograph, under the name of 
L.Jiavidus. I think it can scarcely be the young of this large species*. 
Since the completion of our work, we have received from Mr. Thompson of 
Weymouth, a somewhat similar Lomanotus, white, Avith orange processes, 
and about an inch long. Yours differs from them in the length of the vela- 
filaments and the expansion at the posterior extremity, and also from the 
latter in the large size of the tentacular sheaths. The only British specimens 
of this new genus we have yet seen have been in a sickly state, and only one 
of each kind, so that any additional information concerning them is desirable. 
Perhaps if you should be dredging again in Lamlash Bay alter the receipt 
of this you will be so good as to keep a look out for the small L.Jiavidus. 
It was dredged in shallow water among scallops, very near to the Holy 
Island. The only specimen of Doris planata yet found I also got there." 

The Committee have to add, with deep regret, that this apparently new 
form of Lomanotus, having been placedybr safety in the vivarium, has disap- 
peared, and, although the tank was emptied for a thorough search, no trace 
whatever could be found. Two unsuccessful attempts have since been made 
to .secure another specimen by dredging in Brodick Bay. 

To conclude : — The result, in a general point of view, of the Committee's 
present and previous researches, added to those of other parties, as far as they 
are known, is, that although Lamlash Bay contains many interesting forms,most 
of the rarer ones are so exceedingly scarce as to cause considerable disappoint- 
ment to the collector. The naturalist who wishes to secure a series of cabinet 
specimens, especially of shells, and to obtain a store of duplicates in return 
for his expenditure of time and money, must seek other localities. For 
example, with regard to the more interesting Mollusca inhabiting the Lami- 
narian zone and deeper water, Lima liians, with its curious nests, can alone 
be pronounced abundant. It may be obtained in any quantity. Pecten 
tigrinus comes next in order, but an entire day's dredging, in the most 
favourable ground, would scarcely produce more than half-a-dozen good 
full-sized specimens. In the course of several days' dredging this season, 
single specimens only of Lyonsia Norvegica and Pilidium fulvum were 
secured; of the Eulinife, only two of Eiiliina polita and a solitary specimen 
of E. distorta; of Chemtiitzia none; of Trichotrojiis borealis one.; of Odos- 
tomice none; of Rissoce only the common species; of Muugelice, one of 
M. Leiifroyi, three of the rare 31. teres, a few of the common M. linearis, 
and one of M. riifa, var. Ulideana ; of Cylichna; none, except two or three 
poor specimens of C. cylindracea ; of Philine none, except P. aperta. It is 
remarkable that species, which usually are not accounted at all scarce, are 
represented sparingly in this part of the Clyde district. Mr. Barlee, well 
known as one of the most practical couchologists and indefatigable dredgers 
in Great Britain, visited the Committee, and, having dredged over the best 
ground! for two days, came to tiie conclusion that Lamlash Bay is remark- 
ably deficient both in MoUuscan forms generally and in the number of indi- 

* The species dredged by the Committee was 2 inches in length. 

t That is, from Hamilton's Rock, near Clachland Point, to the North and N.E. end of 
Holy Island, in from 35 to 15 fathoms. Also in the vicinity of Fullarton's Rock. 



DREDGING. — FRITH OF CLYDE. 53 

vlduals which actually exist there. Among the Echinodermata, the only- 
species of any interest that is really abundant, in certain defined localities, 
is Comatula rosacea. Nor is Goniaster Teinpletoni unfrequent, that is, iialf- 
a-dozen examples may be procured in a successful day's dredging. The 
same may be said of tJraster glacialis. More rarely brought up is Liiidia 
fragillissima, especially of full size. Professor Allman and his party did 
not succeed in finding more than one adult individual during two days' 
dredging with the Committee. At the same time specimens measuring from 
4 to 6 inches across are often seen at low water both at Lamlasli and in 
Holy Island. Only one specimen of Pahnipes membranaceus (immature) has 
been taken this season. And of the Holothuriadse not one has occurred 
except Chirodota digitata, of which two examples came up in the dredge, 
in from 15 to 6 fathoms, near the house on Holy Island. With respect 
to the Crustaceans, the rarer forms of Podophthalma are poorly repre- 
sented^. Nor is there much to report of Zoophytes, for both Anthozoa and 
Polyzoa are remarkably deficient with the exception of a few of the com- 
monest kinds, and even some of those most generally distributed appear to 
be wanting altogether. 

In closhig this necessarily meagre Report, the Committee take the oppor- 
tunity to make some observations on the expenditure connected with dredg- 
ing operations. Boats must of course be hired, with crews, according to 
circumstances. In some localities, a stout boat, with a couple of men, may 
get through some work in fine weather, and with a depth of water not ex- 
ceeding lb or 12 fathoms. But if the dredge be constantly down the labour 
is severe, and the occasional assistance of the gentlemen, whose time ought 
to be otherwise employed, will be required. Four men are not too many, 
and, in some states of the weather, they are necessary. The charge for a 
boat and two men cannot be set down at less than from 5s. to 6s. a day. 
At Laralash the usual charge is 7.". Qd. For deep-sea dredging, and indeed 
for the examination generally of the more exposed parts of the Clyde, 
whether in shore or at a distance, a small sailing craft is indispensable — such 
as a common herring boat — with a crew of four men, the cost of which 
would be about £4 a week. This, Mr. Barlee — the Committee could not 
quote higher authority — has found to be quite efficient. With such a vessel 
having a boat in tow, dredging may be carried on when oars would be use- 
less. From the above statement of the absolute outlay inseparable from 
dredging operations when conducted on a useful scale (omitting altogether 
the cost of material, its wear and tear, and various contingent expenses), it 
will be evident that a grant of £10 will go but a short way in the hands of 
an active Committee. 

On behalf of the Committee, 

Charles Popham Miles 
(Incumbent of St. Jude's English. Church, 
Holy Island, Lamlasli Bay. Arran, N.B. Glasgow). 

August 1st, 1856. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1855-56. By the Rev. 

Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S. S^c, Savilian Professor of Geometry 

in the University of Oxford. 
Since my last report to the British Association I have received but a very 
small number of communications of meteor observations, but among these 
will be found one or two of remarkable interest as presenting very peculiar 
features. 

I am chiefly indebted, as hitherto, to Mr. E. J. Lowe. 



54 



REPORT — 1856. 



Date. 



1853. 
Sept. 30 



h m 

11 15 

(g.m.t.) 



1855. 
Feb. 21 



Aug. 11 



Hour. 



11 15 



10 15 p.m 

(g.m.t.) 



11 30 p.m 



Dec. 11 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Round, = *lst mag., 
magnitude dimish- 
ed and disappeared 
as if merely from 
distance. 

Pear-shaped, =§ of 
moon. Afterwards 
burst at the lower 
part into a number 
of fragments which 
disappeared. 



About double of 3 
Form doubtful. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



White 



Lustre like 
quicksilver. 



White 



A bright light behind 
the hills preceded 
the rising of a bright 
body like the full 
moon. Gradually 
diminished to 
small star. 



1856. 
Jan. 7 



8 10 p.m. 
(Commence- 
ment not ob 
served : only 
noticed by 
reflexion on 
snow which 
covered the 
ground.) 

4 55 p.m. 



4 55 p.m 



4 55 p.m 



4 55 p.m. 



Round, well-defined, 
diam. = 30'. 



Train or sparks. 



Continued about 1 
sec. (not observed 
at commence- 
ment). 



None observed 



Rays proceed 
ing from it 
on all sides, 
not shooting 
out but stati- 
onary. More 
red than f . 
Brightness 
obscured the 
stars, " like 
a crimson 
moon." 

Intensely 
bright, pale 
violet. 



Velocity of 
duration. 



2 or 3 sees. 



About Iw second . 



Continued till 1 
a.m., rising slow- 

ly. 



Tail of red sparks 



Clear round disk, 
somewhat less than 
the moon. 



A ball of fire, burst 
without noise. 



With a flash 
like light 
ning. 



Disappeared very 
suddenly after 2 
sees. 



Left behind a 
vapour." 



' column of 



A bright vertical line emit 
ting sparks brighter than 

n. 



Exploded at the end of a 
long slanting fiery train, 
which remained, length 
5'. 

A small white cloud, re- 
mained about ^ hour, 
then vanished. 



After 5 minutes,ll 
curved and waving f 
for 10 minutes, 
then horizontal 
and vanished. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 55 



Direction or altitude. 



Moving rapidly upwards to- 
wards zenith. 



i'rom N.E. to S.W. Altitude 
azimuth determined after- 
wards. 



General remarks. 



Atmosphere clear, 
daytime. 



No sound or explo- 
sion. 



Ditto 

lat.56°13'5"N., 
long. 12" 2=^-6 W. 



Meteor 


Apparent zenith 
distance. 


Azimuth. 


Appeared ... 

3m-st 

'Disappeared 


70° 37' N. 
57° 40' 
47° 30' 


20° 59' E. 

7° 48' 
10° 49' 


1 







it middle of course azimuth S. 
Alt. 45° (estimated by eye). 
Course E. to W., nearly ho- 
rizontal, wavering about 15°. 

Low altitude, nearly S.W 



Atmosphere heavy, 
so as to conceal 
stars, and give 
the meteors a ne 
bulous aspect. 

Many shooting 
stars during the 
time. 



20°. W. alt. 30°. Moving 
almost horizontally from E. 
to W., slightly descending in- 
clination about 7°. for about 
15°. 



rom 25° to 30°, 5° W. of S., 
nmediatelv under h 



bout 30° 



Near Bellahous 
ton, 2h miles 
S.S.W" from 
Observatory 
Glasgow. 

TilUngton, near 
Petworth. 



Air calm. Below 
the clouds. See 
App. No. 1. 



Sky very clear . 



Ditto 



Place. 



Balgrummo,near 
Leven, Fife- 
shire. 



W. J. Macquorn 
Rankine. 



Mrs. Ayling, and 
friends. 



1 mile S.of Edin- 
burgh. 



Redhill, Reigate 

St.Thomas's Hill 
near Canter 
bury. 



Stone near Ayles- 
bury. 



Bonchurch 



Observer. 



W. Swan, Esq. .. 



Mr. D. Wallace 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



MS. letter to Lord 
Wrottesley. 



Professor C, 
Piazzi Smyth. 



Mr. Carrington 
and Mr. Good 

Mr. Masters ... 



Mrs. Smvth. 



Miss Sewell. 



Reference. 



Proceedings of the 
Royal Society of 
Edinburgh, Mar, 
5, 1854. 

Ibid. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 

See Appendix, No. 
1. 



Letter from Mr, 
Carrington. 

Kentish Gazette, 
See Appendix, 
No. 2. 



MS. See Appendix, 

No. 4. 



MS. 



56 



REPORT 1856. 



Date. 



1856. 
Jan. 



Hour. 



h m 
4 55 p.m. 



4 55 p.m. 



Appearance 
and magnitude. 



A ball of fire darted 
down and suddenly 
disappeared. 



Shot downward a lit- 
tle obliquely and 
exploded. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Throngh about 8' 
of space. 



Extremely Leaving a brilliant fiery 
brilliant. train, gradually became 

faint, and expanded in 
5 minutes; appeared like 
a thin fleecy white cloud 
Left abandoflightchanged 
through various forms 
(see diagram, Appendix, 
No. 3.) for 10 minutes 
Also a progressive mo- 
tion through about 4° 
towards E. 



Luminous Meteors observed in 1855-56, 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1855. 1 
Sept. 4 8 30 p.m.] = 1st mag.* 



Oct. 7 
14 



Nov. 8 

30 

Dec. 6 

19 
21 



8 32 

8 50 

9 13 



7 55 

8 27 



For first half path = 
3rd mag.*, then gra- 
dually increased till 
= 2nd mag.* 

2ndmag.* 

About four times ap 
parent size of ^ 
oval in form. 



8 53 



6 56 

5 35 p.m 

6 13 a.m 
4 50 



= 3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 



Red 

Colourless 



Colourless 



Red ... 

Yellow 
Bluish 



Train 

Streak 

Train , 

Tail 

Train 

Narrow streak, visible after 
meteor vanished. The 
streak was visible both 
sides, the break at the 
same time. 



Rapid , duration 0**2 
Instantaneous .. 



Instantaneous . 



Slowly, duration 1 
sec. 



Riipid 

Motion rather slow, 
duration 3 sees. 



2nd mag.* Yellow 



Very large, somewhat 
like a flash of hght- 
ning. 

= Jf 

= C 

4 times size of V- 



Aslightasday, 
long sha- 
dows cast. 

Colourless, in- 
creased in 
brightness 
as it pro- 
gressed. 

Light as noon- 
day. 

Blue 



Train 



Leaving a long streak of 
light. 



Streak left for a consider- 
able time. 

A single ball with well-de- 
fined edges, no stream- 
ers. 



Rapid 



Lingered 2 sees. .. 



Very rapid, dura-i 
tion 0-5 sec. 



Duration fully 10 

minutes. 
Slow, duration 4 

sees. 



I 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 5 7 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



little W. of S., point of ex- 
plosion about 22^ alt. 



In daylight, sky 
clear. 



Hartley Rectory, 
Hants. 



Oxford , 



Rev. J. T. Plum- 



A friend of Mr. 
G. A. RoweU 



MS. letter to Mrs, 
BeU. 



Letter from Mr, 
Rowell. See Ap- 
pendix, No. 3. 



.y E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S., F.G.S. 



am Polaris perpendic. down . 
hrted on W. edge of Galaxy, 
falling perpendic. down from 
'5° below the altitude of Atair. 
Ill perpendic. down from cen- 
tre of Ursa Major. 

iarted S. of Galaxy, 15° below 
lAtair, moved downwards. 



.)wn through the Pleiades .., 
Iarted at altitude of 80^, fall- 
ing perpendic. down to with- 
in 10° of W.S.W. horizon. 



om below Polaris towards the 
East, downwards at an angle 
of 50°. 

11 downwards, bursting due 
S.E. at an altitude of 45°. 

om /3 Andromedae, passing 1° 
below y Pegasi, vanished in- 
stantaneously. 



11 down in N.W. from an al- 
titude of 40°. 



Star-like on the 
edges, when it 
passed over half 
its track, it sud- 
denly disappear- 
ed, and almost 
immediately re- 
appeared 0^° 
lower. Thisbreak 
was devoid of the 
streak, which re- 
mained after the 
meteor had va- 
nished. 



Obser'', Beeston 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid.. 



Obser'^, Beeston 
Nottingham Fo- 
rest. 



Very bright . 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Obser^, Beeston 



Highfield House 

Observatory 
BulweU 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq, 

F. E.Swann,Esq, 



Id. 



An assistant to 
E. J. Lowe. 



Id. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

G. Allcock, Jun., 
Esq. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. SeeAppendis 

No. 5. 
Ibid. 



58 



REPORT — 1856. 



Date. 



1855. 
Dec. 



1856 
Jan. 2 



Feb. 



Hour. 



h m 
A large met 

5 40 p.m. 
1 1 p.m. till 
11 30 
Many meteo 

11 22 p.m. 

12 40 a.m. 
12 45a.m: 

10 10 a.m. 



A large met 
7 15 p.m. 

11 16 p.m. 

7 p.m. till 
9 p.m. 

12 3 a.m. 

7 45 p.m. 



7 55 p.m. 
7 55 p.m. 



eor seen. 

= 2nd mag.* 

Several small with 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Bluish 

Colourless 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mae.* 



Colourless 
Colourless 
Colourless 



eor seen at Chelmsfor 
Small 



d, cloudy here. 
Colourless ... 



13 



Mar. 8 
April 3 



May 30 



1 7 30 
a.m. 



12 60 a.m. 
1 23 a.m. 



1 27 a.m. 
12 5] a.m. 



= 2nd mag.* 



Red 



= lst mag.*.., 
= 2nd mag.* 



A splendid meteor 
k size of moon 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd raag.* 

= lst mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 
= .3rd mag.* 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Streak 
Train 



Long streak . 
Long streak . 
Long streak . 



Rich scarlet.. 

Colourless . . 
3rd mag.* 



Green, orange 
andredjvery 
brilliant. 



Blue. 



Colourless 
Yellow 



Blue... 
Bluish , 



Train or sparks. 



Streak 



Train 
Train 



Streak 



Streak 
Streak 



Streak ... 
No train 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid 



Slowly, duration 
sees. 



2 sees., slowly..,. 
Rapid 




Duration 2 sees 
rapid. 



Instantaneous ....■ 



Rapid 

Duration 1 sec. 



Dirration 1 sec. 

Rapid, diu-ation 0"I 
sec. 



A CATAIiOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 59 



Direction or altitude. 



r ra «■ Herculis to ,» Herculis. 
but Polaris 



fm Castor down towards E. . 
?pendic. down from |8 Cygni 
?pendic. down from Dragon's 

lead. 



rpendic. down to 1° above 

' Saturn. 
Fim y Andromedae to within 
I', and to N. of /5 Arietis 



General remarks. 



Obser'^, Beeston 



A loud report in S 
lasting 3 sees, 
somewhat differ- 
ent to thunder: 
could it be the 
bursting of a me^ 
teor ? 



Place. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid., 

Ibid., 



E)m No. 28 to No. 5 in Mo- 
loceros. 

Pived through Pegasus to- 
rardsthe zodiacallight (which 
tTas brilliant), near y Pegasi, 
fading near the edge of zo 
iiacal light; on bursting sud- 
Jenly increased considerably 
in size but not in brightness. 



Many small meteors 



liwnwards at an angle of 45°, 
passed 5° S. of Orion's belt. 
This meteor, when first seen, 
was green, then changed to 

I orange, and then to red. 
These changes took place 
suddenly without altering the 
size of the meteor. 
ssed through Saturn, fell 
down at an angle of 50° to, 
wards W. 

rpendic. down in Cassiopeia. 
MizontaUy towards N., passed 
through a Cygni. 
)wn towards N.W., passed 
through Gemini. 
om a Coronse, passing 5° be- 
low Arcturus. Like a spark, 
Apparently very low. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 

Ibid.. 

Ibid.. 

Ibid., 

Ibid., 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid., 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid.. 
Ibid., 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 



Observer. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid, 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



60 REPORT — 1856. 

APPENDIX. 

No. 1. — Extract from Prof. C. P. Smyth's communication. (Meteor, Dec. 
11, 1855.) 

" It was apparently below the clouds, for they were thick and compact 
cirrostrati in all that part of the sky, shutting out all the stars and reflecting 
the glare of distant iron-works ; and the meteor showed no symptoms of shining 
through the cloudy medium, for it was well-defined. The clouds were such 
as have an altitude of four to five miles attributed to them, and have a very 
scattering effect on rays of light passing through them, and must have been 
composed of frozen particles ; one or two stars were hazily seen through the 
clouds in the S. and S.W." 

No. 2.— Meteor, Jan. 7, 1856. 

" To the Editor of the Kentish Gazette. 

" Sir, — This evening, at a quarter before five o'clock, being at St. Thomas's 
Hill, near Canterbury, I was struck by what appeared a rocket in brilliancy, 
but with sparks more compacted than usual. I ran to a position where no 
trees intercepted my sight, and was astonished to find a bright vertical line — 
[to appearance about 6 ft. long and 2 in. wide] * — in the south, immediately 
under Saturn. 

" There was no cloud near it, or indeed, on the whole hemisphere at the 
time. Its brilliancy exceeded that of the planet, and it seemed to emit light 
in the manner of a gilded snake. 

" It continued about five minutes with this aspect, when its form began to 
change, and showed a bold curve in its centre, with a deflection at each ex- 
tremity ; at this time, a bright, waving, thread-like tail became visible, and 
very soon after a similar vermiform appearance in the opposite direction was 
to be seen at the top. As the body, so to speak, curved, so 1t appeared to 
become broader, and in about 10 minutes the general direction was changed, 
for it had lost its vertical direction, and was just acquiring a horizontal one. 

" It was not till this time that its nature could be defined ; but now it 
showed that it was a thin cloud, and it finally passed away without leaving 
a trace behind. 

" I am, Sir, yours truly, 
7th Jaauary, 1856. " William Masters." 

No. 3. — Diagram of meteor, January 7, 1855, accompanying Mr. Rowell's 
letter. 



\ t 







I 

No. 4. — Extract of a letter from Mrs. Smyth. 

" January 1855. 

" On Monday the 7th instant, as I was returning homeward from the 
northward with a friend about a quarter before five o'clock p.m., my friend 
suddenly exclaimed, * There is a rocket ! ' pointing to the southward in the di- 
rection of the Chiltern Hills. She saw it explode at the lower end of a long 
and rather slanting fiery train. 

* The part in brackets is given as communicated. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 61 

« The sky being very clear, it was still bright day-light. Supposing it only 
a rocket, although a gigantic one, we resumed our conversation, but the sta- 
tionary character of the train again attracted our attention, though we ascribed 
it chiefly to the stillness of the air, or not quite so oblique. After 
upwards of five minutes it gradually became less dense, as if the 
fiery flakes or atoms receded from each other. Then it gradually 
assumed the appearance of a series of very bright small clouds 
at sun-set, only the brightest side was turned to the eastward. 
Elevation of the phaenomenon above the horizon at first about 
35°. Length of the train about 5°. When the train became dis- 
membered it seemed to have risen higher in the atmosphere, by 
some 10°. 

I regret much from the wrong impression, tKat I did not take 
more accurate notes of this very bright meteor, as it proved to be. 

No. 5. — Extract of a note from Mr. Lowe. 

" I beg to enclose you sketches and description of the remarkable meteor 
(No. 10 of the foregoing Catalogue) which was seen here on the 19th of De- 
cember 1855, at e** 13° A.M. 



F"g-1- MF M^J Fig. 2, 





" The meteor was first seen in N.N.W., moving towards the W. Fig. 1 
represents the appearance when at the brightest, at which time it more closely 
resembled a brilliant flash of lightning than a meteor ; the light, for the mo- 
ment it lasted, equaling that of day. When first seen it was not far distant 
from the position of H 17 Camelopardi, and moving downwards to midway be- 
tween Capella and fj. Persei. The size was about that of the apparent diameter 
of the moon. There was no noise of explosion heard. After the meteor 
itself had vanished, a belt of light, similar to that of a comet's tail, was visible 
along the whole path of the meteor ; this gradually became less bright, and 
after a short time the lower portion was curved towards the east. Fig. 2 
shows its first appearance, and fig. S when curved ; later it assumed the form 
of fig. 4, and afterwards of fig. 5 ; when it nearly approached that of a cir- 
cular band ; the upper portion never moved its position in the heavens. Fi- 
nally, on breaking ujj the base of the circle disappeared first. It was visible 
fully ten minutes. A falling star of about the 1st magnitude crossed over 
the band horizontally from W. to E., starting near Capella and moving 
towards e Cassiopeise. 

" The night was cloudless with a cutting E.S.E. wind. 

" E. J. Lowe." 

No. 6. — Extract of a note from Mr. Lowe. 

" Observatory, Beeston neai- Nottingham, 
July 25, 1856. 
" From the appearances presented in the several large meteors seen at the 
end of last and at the beginning of this year, it appears evident to me that 



62 



REPORT — 1856. 



these bodies are not self-luminous. The light seems to be owing to the me- 
teor, instead of the light of the meteor ; probably the great speed causes a pe- 
culiar property of the upper regions to ignite, at the instant of ignition being 
an intense blaze, and then subsiding into a phosphorescent flame, which may 
linger for a length of time and be wafted along by currents of air, as was the 
case in several instances. In the case of the meteor of Dec. 19, 1855, it moved 
over 1 8^° in less than a second of time ; it cannot therefore be supposed that 
the meteor itself could be within 5° of this path 10 minutes afterwards. Now 
if we suppose the meteor burst at this point (which to me seems improbable), 
it must have burst in a medium where light could shine, and if so it is as easy 
to suppose some substance should be ignited, as the meteor itseli' should blaze. 
The intense brightness is too great fur reflected light. „ p j j „ » 





Fig. f^. 



Fig. 5. 



Photochemical Researches. By Professor Bunsen, of Heidelberg, 
and Dr. Henry E. Roscoe, of London. 

We had the honour of laying before the Chemical Section of the British 
Association at the Glasgow Meeting, a short account of a series of experi- 
ments which we had undertaken with the view of becoming more nearly 
acquainted with the laws which regulate the chemical action of light, and of 
obtaining, if possible, a measure for this action. 

These experiments, the continuation of which has been assisted by a 
grant from the Association, have been extended during the present summer 
months, and we beg to lay before the meeting, in a short report, the chief 
results as yet obtained. 

The method employed by us for measuring the chemical action of light is 
founded upon the well-known fact that chlorine and hydrogen combine when 
exposed to light. The employment of this reaction as a measure of the 
chemical action of light was proposed and practically carried out by Dr. 
Draper of New York in 184'4', to whom belongs the great credit of first 
having attempted to obtain a measure for this action. A number of experi- 
ments instituted for the purpose of testing the accuracy of the instrument 
proposed by Draper, assured us, however, that not only for observations 
extending over a considerable period of time, but even for those of short 
duration the indications of the instrument were not reliable. The possibility 
of obtaining exact photometrical results with a mixture of chlorine and hy- 
drogen, depends upon the fulfilment of various conditions which in Draper's 
tithonometer have not been regarded. Of these conditions the two most 
essential are — 

1. The constant composition and purity of the gaseous mixture. 

2. Constant pressure exerted upon the gas. 

It is easy to show from the laws of gas absorption that the method em- 



PHOTOCHEMICAL RESEARCHES. 63 

ployed by Draper for evolving the sensitive gas never could have furnished 
it of constant composition. 

Draper's instrument consists of a siphon tube, of which one limb is short 
and closed, and the other longer, narrow and open at top. The long limb is 
furnished with a scale, the shorter one has two platinum wires melted into 
the glass near the bend. The whole of the short, and part of the long limb, 
is filled with hydrochloric acid saturated with chlorine, and by means of an 
electric current the acid can be decomposed and the gases collected in the 
short limb. According to Draper no gaseous chlorine is evolved during the 
electrolysis of hydrochloric acid ; the hydrogen, however, set free at the 
negative pole passing through the liquid displaces some of the chlorine held 
in solution, and thus a sensitive gas is obtained and collected in the shorter 
siphon limb. The composition of this gas cannot, however, be constant, for 
according to the law of gas absorption, when a mixture of gases is collected 
over water, the free gas cannot possess a fixed composition before a certain 
relation between the volumes of the dissolved gases has been attained. Until 
this equilibrium has ensued, a continuous interchange between the volumes 
of free and dissolved gases must take place, and in the case of the tithono- 
meter this equilibrium is not even approached. Another more considerable 
source of error in Draper's instrument lies in the difference of pressure to 
which the gas is subjected during the experiments, arising from the gradual 
fall of the liquid in the longer limb in proportion as the sensitive gas is 
acted upon by the light. 

Having assured ourselves that the indications of the tithonometer cannot be 
relied on, the necessity of obtaining an instrument in which the foregoing 
and many other essential conditions are fulfilled, became apparent. The 
first object therefore was to obtain a gas consisting of equal volumes of 
chlorine and hydrogen of constant composition. This object we attained 
(contrary to Draper's express statement) by the electrolysis of aqueous 
hydrochloric acid. Exact volumetric analysis convinced us that as soon as 
the acid is saturated with the two gases, in accordance with the laws of ab- 
sorption, the evolved gas consists exactly of equal volumes of chlorine and 
hydrogen, unaccompanied by oxides of chlorine, or hydrogen or other im- 
purities. After many fruitless attempts, we have at length constructed an 
apparatus in which the second, and all other required conditions are satisfied, 
and by means of which we have been enabled not only to obtain a relative, 
but even an absolute measure for the chemical action of light. 

This apparatus, represented in PI. III., is constructed entirely of glass, 
and consists essentially of four parts : firstly, a tube (a) containing carbon 
or platinum poles i'astened on platinum wires melted through the glass, 
serving for the electrolytic decomposition of the aqueous hydrochloric acid ; 
secondly, a set of bulbs for washing the gas, furnished with a glass stopcock 
for shutting off the supply of gas; thirdly, a small flattened glass bulb (c) 
containing water, in wliich the gas is exposed to the action of the light; and 
fourthly, a capillary tube (d) furnished with a millimetre scale, on which the 
diminution of volume caused by the absorption of the hydrochloric acid is 
accurately observed by the advancing column of water. Each of these 
pieces is fitted air-tight into its place by ground-glass joints, so that no 
caoutchouc or other organic substance comes in contact with the sensitive gas. 

In this arrangement the pressure is rendered constant throughout the 
whole apparatus by raising or depressing the exit tube dipping into the 
bottle (e) filled with water, and by means of the horizontal absorption tube 
(d) the pressures before and after the experiment do not differ by two milli- 
metres of water. 



64 REPORT — 1856. 

A series of experiments conducted with lamp-light for the purpose of 
testing the accuracy of the instrument, gave the following results: — 

As soon as the atmospheric air has been completely expelled from the ap- 
paratus by the electrolytic gas, and the equilibrium between the amounts of 
gas absorbed by the water, and the fiee gas established, an action is observed 
on exposing the gas to the light. This action, however, does not commence 
immediately on exposure to the light ; a short time elapses before the absorp- 
tion of the water in the tube (d) begins, but this soon takes place, showing 
that the combination eiFected by the light in the vessel (c) has commenced. 
This absorption becomes gradually quicker until a certain rapidity is at- 
tained, after which the action continues regular as long as the source of 
light remains constant. This peculiar phsenomenon, to which we have given 
the name of Photochemical Liduction, is one of great interest and import- 
ance, and as the study of this branch of the subject has occupied our pai'- 
ticular attention, the results obtained will be subsequently detailed. 

On passing more gas through the apparatus and again isolating the 
mixture, the same phaenomenon is observed, with the difference, that the 
constant action is larger than in the former case, that is, the gaseous mixture 
has become more sensitive. In this way, by continuing to lead the gas 
evolved from successive portions of hydrochloric acid through the apparatus, 
the action brought about by a gas flame of the same dimensions increases 
regularl)', until, after having continued the operation for several (from 12 to 
18) hours, the amount of action effected by the flame remains constant. 
The apparatus has then attained its maximum degree of sensibility, and, as 
we shall show, always gives comparable results. Before this maximum 
action is attained, upwards of 5000 cub. cent, of gas must be passed through 
the apparatus, which contains only about 2 cub. cent, of water requiring 
saturation. Observations made with the apparatus thus prepared, showed 
that the light from a gas lamp concentrated by a lens produced always 
exactly the same amount of action on various days and with fresh gaseous 
mixtures evolved from different portions of acid. These experiments sufficed 
to show that our apparatus was capable of producing reliable and accurate 
results. We next determined the limits of concentration between which the 
hydrochloric acid can be used, and experiment showed that the amount of an- 
hydrous acid contained in solution must not diminish to 20 per cent., as the gas 
evolved from an acid of that concentration nolonger gives the maximum action. 
Having assured ourselves that the apparatus gave, under these circum- 
stances, comparable results, it became necessary to examine whether the 
heat evolved from the combination of the gases, and more especially the 
heat radiated from the source of light, had any appreciable efl^ect upon the 
indications. By comparing the relative volumes of the vessel, in which the 
insolation takes place, and the absorption tube, it was found that a rise of 
less than 0°"04; Cent, in the mass of the gas would cause an expansion of 
1 millimetre on the absorption tube. Hence the apparatus is not only a 
photometer, but also a very delicate air-thermometer. In order to prevent 
any of the rays of radiant heat from expanding the gas, the insolation-vessel 
was placed behind a double metallic screen furnished with a metallic cap 
fitting over the vessel. The rays of light fell on the gas through an opening 
in the screen filled by a layer of water contained between two plate-glass 
surfaces. By filling the apparatus with atmospheric air, it was proved that 
with this arrangement the source of light may be placed within a few inches 
of the gaseous mixture, without the radiant heat interfering in the least with 
the indications. The sources of exterior error arising from radiant heat 
having been thus removed, it only remained to determine whether the heat 



PHOTOCHEMICAL RESEARCHES. ^ 

evolved from the slow combustion of the chlorine and hydrogen exerted any 
perceptible action upon the instrument. 

On suddenly cutting ofF the light from the sensitive gas, the action is 
found not to cease immediately. This absorption, after the exclusion of the 
light, may be owing to three causes. 

1. The combination of the gases may continue for a short time after the 
removal of the light. 

2. The hydrochloric acid formed may not be instantaneously removed by 
solution in the water. 

3. The decrease of volume may be produced from the whole gas cooling 
down, owing to the heat of combustion no longer being added to it. 

Experiments undertaken to determine which of these three suppositions 
was true, showed that this contraction could be almost completely accounted 
for, from the decrease of temperature of the gas, proving therefore that the 
first two assumptions were groundless. This contraction is so small that it 
does not in the least degree interfere with the accuracy of the observation. 

In order still more fully to test our apparatus, an arrangement was made 
by means of which a small jet of coal-gas could be brought within different 
measured distances of the sensitive mixture, and the amount of the decom- 
position effected measured. The results thus obtained showed most exactly 
that the chemical action varied inversely as the square of the distance from 
the source of light, proving that the chemical rays obey the same general 
law as the visible rays, and affording another evidence of the accuracy of 
the results obtained by this instrument. Observations made with this ar- 
rangement also showed that exactly the same action was effected by the 
flame, placed at the same distance, at different times extending over a period 
of one month. The amounts of action effected by the same flame on various 
days from the 12th to the 26th of June, were 13-99, 13-8.S, 13-76, 13-84. 

Photochemical Induction. 

Chemical affinity, or the force which causes different bodies to unite and 
form chemical compounds, is in every particular case a certain definitive, 
unalterable quantity, which like all other forces (and matter itself) can 
neither be created nor destroyed. Hence it is incorrect to say that, under 
certain circumstances, a body attains an affinity which under other circum- 
stances it loses. All that can be said in such a case is, that the body at one 
time follows the chemical attraction, and at another time is retarded by 
forces acting in an opposite direction. This opposite action may be con- 
ceived to be a resistance similar to that occurring in friction, or in the 
passage of electricity through conductors. This resistance is overcome 
when we facilitate the formation of a precipitate by agitation, or when che- 
mical action is brought about by increase of temperature, catalytic action, 
or insolation. The existence of such a resistance presupposes a certain com- 
bining power, which may be measured by the amount of combination caused 
by the unit of force in the unit space of time. 

The act by which this resistance is overcome, and the state reached in 
which combination take* place, we have called Chemical Induction. The 
laws Avhich regulate the action of chemical affinity, when this resistance is 
fully eliminated, are as yet entirely unknown to us ; and although the solution 
of tliis, the most important problem in our science, appears at present so far 
removed, it is at least desirable that facts should be found which may form 
starting-points in this new field of research. The interesting relations in 
■which the phsenomena of photochemical induction stand to these questions, 
have induced us to examine this part of the subject with particular attention. 

1856. F 



66 REPORT — 1856. 

The circumstance that the combination of chlorine and hydrogen does 
not take place immediately on exposure to the light, was observed by Draper 
in 184'4. This was explained by him on the supposition that the chlorine, 
by exposure to the light, was transformed into a permanent allotropic modi- 
fication which differed from ordinary chlorine by possessing greater com- 
bining power. We have convinced ourselves that this explanation of the 
phsenomenon is incorrect, and have proved that it is connected with actions 
of a very peculiar nature which may be classed together under the terra of 
Chemical Induction. 

A number of experiments made with both diffuse solar and lamp-light, 
with different mixtures and various masses of sensitive gas for the purpose 
of determining the inductive action, showed that the times which elapse until 
the action begins, and until the maximum action is attained, are very different. 
We therefore next proceeded to examine the various causes which might 
influence the amount of the induction. First, the relation between the 
inductive action and the mass of the gas; secondly, the eflFect produced on 
the inductive action by variation of the amount of light, with a constant 
volume of gas; thirdly, the effect produced on the inductive action by 
allowing the gas to remain in the dark ; and fourthly, the action of small 
quantities of foreign gases upon the induction. 

Experiments carried on with the view of answering the first of these 
questions, showed that the inductive action, or the transition of the gas from 
the inactive to the active state, was retarded by increase of the mass of gas. 
A larger volume of gas had to be insolated for a longer time than a smaller 
volume before the maximum action ensued. 

The influence of the amount of light on the rate of the inductive action 
was proved to be very great. The time required for induction diminished 
with increase of the amount of light, and in a quicker proportion than the 
increase of light. 

On allowing a sensitive mixture, which had already been insolated, and 
had attained its maximum action, to stand for some time in the dark, it was 
found that upon readmission of light the action did not begin again immedi- 
ately, but a new induction was necessary before the maximum action was 
attained. Hence the change effected upon the gas by the light is not a per- 
manent one, for after the light is withdrawn, the gas returns to its original 
inactive state, and requires as long an insolation before the maximum action 
is again reached as in the case with the original gas. This fact is of itself 
sufficient to disprove Draper's statement that this active condition of the gas 
when once brought about by the action of light is permanent. We have 
also convinced ourselves by experiment, that the supposition of a non-per- 
manent allotropic modification of either gas as an explanation of this phae- 
nomenon is untenable. The gases evolved by the electrolysis of hydrochloric 
acid were collected separately, and after each gas had separately traversed a 
tube which could be exposed to direct solar rays, the gases were allowed to 
mix, and were then passed into the apparatus. On examining the action of 
lamp-light on the mixture, no difference in the rapidity of the action could 
be perceived between the sensitive gas, the constituents of which had been 
separately exposed to direct sunlight, and that which had not been previously 
insolated. From these experiments it is seen that the explanation of the 
phsenomenon of photochemical induction is not to be sought iu any 
allotropic modification of either gas. 

The effect produced by the presence of small traces of foreign gases upon 
the induction is very remarkable. We have found that the sensibility of 
the gaseous mixture depends entirely upon the absence of every trace of 



PHOTOCHEMICAL RESEARCHES. 67 

foreign gas. The retarding action of oxygen upon the mixture is the most 
marked ; the addition of one per cent, of this gas to the chlorine and hydro- 
gen mixture reduced the amount of action to -g^gth ; and the presence of a 
mere trace of this gas (probably not more than loVoth per cent.) diminished 
the action to one half of the normal amount. Excess of either chlorine or 
hydrogen was found to act in the same manner, but not to such a remarkable 
extent. This retarding action of oxygen accounts for the very great length 
of time which it is necessary to lead the gas through the apparatus before 
"the maximum action is attained. 

The diminution of the sensibility of the chlorine and hydrogen mixture 
when foreign gases are present, gives a very accurate measure of the cata- 
lytic action effected by such gases. 

The simple relations which exist between the amount of hydrochloric acid 
formed by the action of the light and the time of exposure, and amount of 
light, were first observed by Draper. We have confirmed his results in this 
respect, and have proved that both laws hold good for diffuse solar as well 
as for lamp-light. The relations are the following : — 

1. The amount of chemical action effected by a constant source of light 
is directly proportional to the time of exposure. 

2. The amount of chemical action effected by the light in equal times, is 
directly proportional to the amount of light. 

(These laws are of course only applicable when the phaenomena of induction 
have been fully eliminated.) A third relation which we have established is, 
that the amount of chemical action varies inversely as the square of the di- 
stance between the source of light and the sensitive mixture. 

The experimental diflSculties which accompany the examination of the 
relations existing between the amount of action and the mass of the gas, are 
of so peculiar and considerable a nature, that although we have been occu- 
pied for more than a month upon this branch of the subject, we have not as 
yet succeeded in arriving at the law which regulates the action. We have, 
however, already proved that after the light has passed through a certain 
depth of the gas, it is no longer capable of causing a combination to take 
place ; and we have further proved that the depth at which the light ceases 
to act upon the mixture is very different for light from various sources. 
Differences in this respect have not only been found in light from different 
sources, but the diffuse solar light reflected from a perfectly cloudless sky is 
found to differ, not only in the quantitj, but also in the quality of the chemi- 
cal rays according to the sun's altitude. These interesting observations are 
not complete, but the results as yet obtained give promise of further import- 
ant I'elations being established between the nature and amount of the 
chemical rays falling upon the earth's surface at various periods of the day. 

Reduction of the Chemical Action of Light to an Absolute Measure. 
The difficulty of obtaining any constant terrestrial source of light threw 
great obstacles in the way of reducing the chemical action of light to an 
absolute measure. The normal source of light which we have chosen for 
the calibration of our instrument (fig. 1 ), is a flame of pure carbonic oxide gas 
streaming from a large (3 millims in diameter) platinum burner, and issuing 
under a constant pressure of half a millimetre of water. By measuring the 
volumes of gas burned by different-sized flames and observing the chemical 
action produced, it was found that even with the homogenous flame of carbonic 
oxide, the chemical action increases in a greater ratio than the volume of 
gas burned. This relation between the action produced and the volume of 

f2 



68 REPORT — 1856. 

gas burned, we have determined by accurate experiment, so that between 
certain limits we can calculate the amount of action produced by burning 
the unit volume of gas issuint; at a given rate. We call the unit amount of 
action for any instrument that produced by burning a cubic millimetre of 
carbonic oxide at the distance of one millimetre from the sensitive gas, issuing 
under the above-mentioned circumstances. 

The interesting relations of the reflexion, absorption, and polarization of 
the chemical rays, we hope to have the honour of laying before the Section 
on a future occasion. 

Heidelberg, August 5th, 1856. 



On the Trigonometry of the Parabola, and the Geometrical Origin of 
Logarithms. By the Rev. James Booth, LL.D., F.R.S. &)C. 

[A Communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 

When engaged, some years ago, in researches on the geometrical properties 
of elliptic integrals, the results of which appeared in two memoirs printed in 
the Philosophical Transactions for 1852 and 1854, 1 was led to discuss a par- 
ticular case of a cardinal theorem in the theory of elliptic integrals. Cer- 
tainly no discovery was anticipated in matters so long known and thoroughly 
investigated as the theory of logarithms and the properties of the parabola. 
The propositions I now bring before the Section are, I believe, entirely new ; 
and as they open a field of research in a department of geometrical science 
studied by every mathematician in the course of his reading, I thought the 
discussion of them might not prove unacceptable to the Mathematical Section 
of the British Association. 

Section I. 

I. Let the angles w, tp, and x^ which we shall call conjugate amplitudes, be 
connected by the equation 

tan w=tan0secx+ tanxsec^ (1) 

Hence to is such a function of ^ and x as will render 

tan l_(j), x] = t^'" sec x+ tan x sec (j>. 
We must adopt some appropriate notation to represent this function. Let 
the function [^, xl be written (^-"-X) so that 

tan ((p-'- x)= tan ^secx+ tan xsec^. 

This equation must be taken as the definition of the function ^-^X' 
In like manner we may represent by tan (<{>-rx) the expression 

tan (j) sec x" tan x sec f. 
From (1) we obtain 

sec w=sec(0-^x)=sec 0secx4- tan^tanx (2) 

If we now differentiate the equation 

tan 0) = tan ^ sec x + tan x sec 0, 
we shall have 

— — . sec w= ^ ■ . sec (p sec yH — tan 6 tan x 

cos W cos m cos V 1 

r*' • • (2) 

T fon A. fan *, _1_ _ A,_ 



-)- "'*" ^ . tan tan x H — -^ sec ^ sec x I 



cos'(j) cos X 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OP THE PARABOLA. 69 

Adding these expressions together, and introducing the relation established 
in (2), we find 

dig _ d<^ I <^X (5) 

cos W COS (p COS X 

This is the differential equation which connects the amplitudes w, ^, and x- 
As w, ^, and x are supposed to vanish together, we shall have by integration, 

r_rf<u_^r_rf^ r_^. ^5^ 

J cos (1) J cos ^ J cos X 
or in the more compact notation, 

(* sec w(?w=lsec0c?^ + i'secx«?X • (^)* 

Hence if w, ^, and x are connected by the relation assumed in (1), we shall 
have the simple relation between the integrals expressed in (5). 

II. If in (1) we make the following imaginary substitutions, that is to 
say, put '^— Isina for tan^, '^^— lsin/3 for tanx. 'V— Isiny for tan w, 
cos a for sec 9, cos /? for sec X) cos y for sec w, and change -^ into + and -r 
into — , we shall have sin y= sin(a+/3) = sinacos/D+ sin /3 cos a, the well- 
known expression for the sine of the sura of two arcs of a circle. 

We shall show presently that an arc of a parabola measured from the 

vertex may be expressed by the integral j*sec0(/y, Q being the angle which the 

normal to the arc at its other extremity makes with the axis, or the angle 
between the normals drawn to the arc at it? extremities. 

-■- and -r may be called logarithmic plus and minus. As examples of the 
analogy which exists between the trigonometry of the parabola and that of 
the circle, the following expi-essions in parallel columns are given ; premising 
that the formulae marked by corresponding letters may be derived singly, 
one from the other, by the help of the preceding imaginary transformations. 

In applying the imaginary transformations, or while tan is changed into 
V— 1 sin tp, sec into cos (p, and cot^ into — V—\ cosec 0, -^ must be 
changed into +, and -r into — ; as also \sec(j)df into ^-v — If. 

The reader who has not proceeded beyond the elements of trigonometry 
may assume the fundamental formula as proved. He will find little else that 
requires more than a knowledge of plane trigonometry. 

* The relation between the conjugate amplitudes lo, <p, and x, was originally obtained in 
this way. In the theory of elliptic integrals, any three conjugate amplitudes are connected 
by the equation 

cosa) = cos0cos X— sin0 sinx 'V 1 — i^sin- w 

» is called the modulus. When we make i=0, we get 

cos w = cos cos X — sin sin % ^'^ '^= 0+X i^^ the trigonometry of 
the circle. When we take the complement of 0, or make i = l, we get 

secw= sec ^ sec x+ tan tanx '^^ '^ = <p-^x 
in the trigonometry of the parabola. Whence, as above, 

tan oj = tan sec x+ tan x sec 0. 
•f- I hardly need to remind the advanced reader, that this is the imaginary transformation 
by which we are enabled, in elliptic functions of the third order, to pass from the circular 
form to the logarithmic form, or to pass from the properties of a curve described on the sur- 
face of a sphere to its analogue described on the surface of a paraboloid of revolution. See 
the author's paper " On the Geometrical Properties of Elliptic Integrals," in the Philosphical 
Transactions for 1852, pp. 362, 368, and for 1854, p. 53. 



70 



REPORT — 1856. 



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ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OP THE PARABOLA. Jl 

Since sec(^-L^)=sec^0 + tan^^, and tan(^-'-^)=2tan0sec0, 

sec (^ -^ <^) + tan (<l>-^<t>)= (sec <j) + tan (py. 
Again, as 

sec (^ -i- -*- ^) = sec (^ -•- ^) sec + tan (^ -*- ^) tan ^, 
and 

tan (^ -L ^ -L ^) = tan (0 -L ^) sec ^ + sec (0 -L ^) tan 0, 

it follows that 

sec(<j>-^(j)-^(p)+tan(({,-^<p-^(j))=(sec(j>+t&n(py, 

and so on to any number of angles. Hence 

sec((j)-^(p-^(p...to n(j>) + tan ((l>-^(p-^(p ... to w^)=(sec0 + tan<^)". (6) 
Introduce into the last expression the imaginary transformation 

tan0= V — lsin0, 
and we get Demoivre's imaginary theorem for the circle, 

cos/i^+z^/— 1 sin«(^={cos0+ V'— 1 sin^}". 
This is a particular case of the more general theorem 
sec(a-J-/3-Ly-LS-J- &c.) + tan(a-L/3-^y-J-S-i- &c.) 

=(sec a+ tan a)(sec /3+ tan /3)(sec y + tan y)(sec S+ tan S) &c.* 

In the circle, 

i±jggi- , / l+sin2^ , . 

l-tan(/. V l-sin20 ^V 

Accordingly, in the parabola. 



1 + >v/3i sin ^ _ /H- V-l^tan(0-J-^) ^ ^ ^ , . 
1 — -/lllsin^ ^ 1 — V^tan(0^0)" 

2 sin 20 — sin 

tan" 6 = „ ■ ^^ I — r- 

'^ 2sm20+sm 



tan (0-^0) 
In the circle, 



2sin20— sin40^ /"hM 



• . ,_ 2tan(0-^0)-tan (0-^0-^0-1-0) ,^^v 

^'° ^^ 2 tan (0-L0)-f tan (0-1- 0-^0^0) '''^^^ 



hence in the parabola, 

In the circle, 

cos 20= cos* — sin*0, (cc) 

hence in the parabola, 

sec (0 -1-0)= sec* 0— tan* (yy) 

In the circle, 

X Q J. <> sin (0-f-v) sin (0— y) ,,,^. 

tan^0— tan^y = — yLl-M. ^Z — az . .... (dd) 

^ ^ cos^ cos^ X 

therefore in parabolic trigonometry, 

c 

sec" sec" x 
In the circle, 



sln^0-sin^X = ^^^^^^^^l^^^/^^ 0^) 



taui>=./lE^^ (ee) 

V l-hcos20 ^ ^ 

* Hence cos(a-|-/3-|-y-i-5-|-&c.)-|-A/^sin(a-|-;8-f-7-f-5-|-&c.) 
=(cos«+A/^siua)(cos/3-l- V'^sinj8)(cosy-|- V^ siny)(cosJ-i-V—l8itt^)&c« 



^2 REPORT — 1856. 

Accordingly, in the trigonometry of the parabola, 

^ V sec(<p-^f) + l 
If 

sinj, _ sin(f-x)^ (kk) 

tan;// sin(x— ;^)' 

it is easily shown that tan cp, tan x^ and tan \p are in harmonic progression. 

Hence it follows in parabolic trigonometry, that if 

tan(/) _ tan(9^-rx) (^-k) 

tan;|/ tan(x-r;//)' 

sin (p, sin x, and sin \// are in harmonic progression. 

Let w be conjugate to \p and to, while w, as before, is conjugate to f 
and x- Then we shall have 

tan w = tan (f-'-X'^^)' 
or 

tan (^ -^ X "^ */') = *^^" ^^'^ X ^^^ 4' + tan x sec 4' sec 

+ tani//sec0seex+ tan (^tan xtan;]/ (n;) 



and 



sec (0-'-x-'-^)=^sec0sec x seci^+ see^ tan x tan ;// 

+ secxtan )//tan + sec )//tan tan X (p) 

. , , , ix sin rf)+ sin Y+ sin \I/+ sin (ftsin Y sin J/ . ^ 

Sin((p-^X-^V)= ^ r^ ■ ' , . ^ r^ — r-^, • . ((T) 

1 +sinxsinv/'+sin ;f/sm0+sin0sinx 



whence in the trigonometry of the circle, 

sin (<p + x+ */')— S'" ''OS X ^'^^ 4' + ^''" X '^o® 'I' ^*^-'' 

+ sin >//co5 0cosx~s>n0sinxsin ;// (p) 

cos (^ + X + 4') — COS cos xcos \|/ — COS0 sin x^in \p 

— cos X sin i// sin 0— cos i// sin sin X (i") 



tan U + y + -J,)-^ tan (/.+ tan x+ tan ;^- tan <fi tan x tan ;// 
' 1 — tanxtan;^— tan i^tan^— tan^tanx 



(«) 



We have here a remarkable illustration of that fertile principle of duality 
which may be developed to sucli an extent in every department of pure ma- 
thematical science. 

The angle ^-^0 may be called the diqjlicate of the angle 0, the angle 
(p-^f-^cf) the triplicate, and the angle (f-'-ip to n terms) the n-plicate of the 
angle (p. 

The reader will observe that in this paper the signs -■- and -r connect the 
angular magnitudes of tiie parabola, while numerical quantities are connected 
by -J- and — . Thus in the circle, we have f + x and a + h indifferently, while 
in the parabola we must use the notation ^-'-x or ^-rx, but a + b or a—h, 
as in the circle. 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 



73 



Section II. 

IV. An expression for the length of a curve in terms of a perpendicular/? 
let fall from a fixed point on a tangent to it, and making the angle d with a line 
passing through the given point or pole, is found in most elementary works, 
namely s=^pdd+i. In the following figure, 

jo=ST, e=VST, «=PT. 

Fig.l. 




Let n(>rt . 6) denote the length of the arc of a parabola whose parameter 
is 4»i, measured from the vertex to a point at which the tangent to the arc 
is inclined to the ordinate of that point to the axis by the angle 6. When 
m=l, the symbol becomes 11(0). 

In the parabola whose equation is i/'^4;}nx, the focus S is taken as the 
pole, and therefore p:=m sec d : while PT, or t^m sec d tan d. 

The arc of a parabola, measured from the vertex, may therefore be ex- 
pressed by the formula 

n(»j . 6)=m sec tan 6 + m I sec 6 dd. 

The difference between the arc and its subtangent t may be called the 
tangential difference. 

For brevity, and for a reason which will presently be shown, the distance 
between the focus and the vertex of a parabola will be called its modulus. 
Hence the parameter of a parabola is equal to four times its modulus. 

V. Let n(m . lo), U(m . ^), U(m . x) denote three parabolic arcs VD, VB 
VC, measured from the vertex V of the parabola. Let, moreover, to, tj), and 
X be conjugate amplitudes. Then 

n(»i. w)=»itan oj sec w+wifsec wrfw 



n(»j .0) =wjtan0 sec^ + mj sec^i 



>. 



(V) 



n(OT.x)=»i tan^secx+^j sec^^^x 

Whence, since Jsecwrfw =Jsec^c?^ + ("360 x^^X' because w, ^, and x are 
conjugate amplitudes, we get, after some reductions, 

n(»j. (!>)— n(m.^) — II(»J.x)=2»^tanwtan0tanx. . . (8) 



^4 REPORT — 1856. 

It is not difficult to show that 

tan w sec w — tan (p sec ^ — tan ^ secx=2 tan w tan (j> tan )^. 

Substitute for tanw, sec w, their values given in (1) and (2). Write 
(sec^ — tan" 0) and (sec^x~t^°"x) ^^r 1, the coefficient of tan sec ^ and 
tan X sec x io the preceding expression, and we shall obtain the foregoing 
result. 

VI. Let y, J/', y" be the ordinates on the axis of the parabola of the ex- 
tremities of the arcs n.(m . w), n(m . (p), and U(m . x)- Then y=2m tan w, 

y =2 m tan 0, y"=2m tan x- Therefore 2m tan w tan ^ tan x = ^MJ^. 

We have therefore the following theorem : — 

T/ie algebraic sum of the three conjugate arcs of a parabola, measured 
from the vertex, is equal to the product of the ordinates of their extremities 
divided by tlie square of the semiparameier. 

To exemplify the preceding theorem. Let 

1 Vl 

tanw=2, t3M<p=-^, tanx= -o— ' 

then /- V5 ^„„ _ 3 

secw=v5, sec ^=—^5 secx— -3-; 

and these values satisfy the fundamental equation of condition, 

tan w= tan sec x+ tan x sec 0. 
Now 

n(m . w)=»n2 V'S +«» log (2+ v/5) 

n (m . 0) = m -^ +m log(^ — ^ j 

n(m.x)=wi-^ + mlog(^ 2~/* 

Hence, since log (2+ V~5)= log( i±^ j + log ( ^"'" )> we shall have 

n(m.w)— n(»w.0)— n(m.x)=»iV5; .... (9) 

and m, V5'=2m tan w tan <p tan x- 

VII. If we call an arc measured from the vertex of a parabola an apsidal 
arc, to distinguish it from an arc taken anywhere along the parabola, the pre- 
ceding theorem will enable us to express an arc of a parabola, taken any- 
where along the curve, as the sum or difference of an apsidal arc and a right 
line. 

Thus, let VCD be a parabola, S its focus, and V its vertex. Let 

VB=n(»i.0), VC = n(m.x), VD=n(»i.w), and let^^^^=/«. Then (8) 

shows that the parabolic arc (VC + VB) = arc VD— A ; and the parabolic arc 
VD-VB=BD=VC+/«. 

VIII. When the arcs U(m . (p) and n (m . x) together constitute a focal arc, 

or an arc whose chord passes through the focus, 0-|-x= -, and h is the ordi- 
nate of the arc VD. Accordingly we derive the following theorem : — 

Any focal arc of a parabola is equal to the difference beticeen the conjugate 
apsidal arc and its ordinate. 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 75 

Fig. 2. 




The relation between the amplitudes ^=r|—x) and w in this case is 

siven bv the equation sin 2<b= ^^^^'^ . Thus when the focal chord makes 
° ^ ^ 1 — cos W 

an angle of 30° with the axis, we get cos w=i, or y=\Om. Here, therefore, 
the ordinate of the conjugate arc is ten times the modulus. 
IX. When ^=X' (8) is changed into 

n(OT.w)— 2n(m.^)=2mtanwtan"^; .... (10) 

or as tan w=2 tan </> sec 0, see (?j) of III., 

n(m.w) — 2n(m.0)=4mtan^<^sec^ (11) 

Let ^=45, then n(»».-^ is the arc of the parabola intercepted between 

the vertex and the focal ordinate; and as sec w=sec(^-J-0)=sec20 + tan^0, 
we shall have, since tan 0=1 and sec 0= V^, sec w=3 ; therefore 

n(m.sec-i.3)-2nf»»-y=4'mV2. 

Now as sec a)=3, tan w=2 »/% and the ordinate Y=4m'/2^we may there- 
fore conclude that the parabolic arc, whose ordinate is ^mV% diminished by 
this ordinate, is equal to the arcs of the parabola between the focal ordinate 
produced both ways, and the vertex. 

X, It is easy to give an independent proof of this particular case without 
the help of the preceding theory. 

The length of the parabolic arc whose amplitude is 45° will be found by 
the usual formula to be 



n(»w.^j=W'/2+OTlog(l+A/2); 



76 REPORT — 1856. 

and twice this arc is 

2n(m.^)=?w2V'2 + ?wlog(3+2\/2);since(l+\/2)2=3 + 2V2. 

The parabolic arc whose amplitude is sec-^ 3, is found in like manner to be 

n(m.sec-i3)=»i3.2'/2 + mlog(3+'/2). 
Subtracting the former equation from the latter, 

n(m.sec-i3)— 2n(«».^)=4m\/2. 
Now the ordinate Y of the parabolic arc whose amplitude is sec~' 3 is equal to 

2m.2'/2=4'm'/2, 
therefore jj(m . sec"' 3)-m{m.^\ =Y. 

It is easily shown that 4»j \^2 is the radius of curvature of the extremity of 
the arc whose amplitude is 45°. 

XI. To find a parabolic arc which shall differ from twice another parabolic 
arc by an algebraic quantity, may be thus exemplified. 

Let tan = 2, tan w = 4 V^S, 

sec = V 5, sec w= 9, 

then n(m .sec-i 9)=»w36'V/5 + »ilog (9 + 4 i^S) 

2n(wJtan-i2)=2wj 2 4/5 + m log (2+ ^^5)% 

Consequently, since (2+ '/5/=9 + 4V'5, 

n(?w.sec-'9)— 2n(»J.tan-i2)=;w32\/5=2mtanwtan^0. . (12) 

XII. We may in all cases represent by a simple geometrical construction the 
ordinates of the conjugate parabolic arcs, whose amplitudes are <(>, Xj and w. 

Let BC be a parabola whose focus is S and whose vertex is V. Let 

Fig. 3. 




■VS=w; moreover, let VB be the arc whose amplitude is f, and VC the arc 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 



11 



•whose amplitude is x* At the points V, B, C draw tangents to the parabola; 
they will I'orm a triangle circumscribing the parabola, whose sides represent 
the semi-ordinates of the conjugate arcs VB, VC, VD. 

XIII. We know that the circle circumscribing this triangle passes through 
the focus of the parabola. Now 

VT=»?tan0, VT'=»itanx» T'A=m tan ^secx» TA=m tan^sec^; 
hence 

T'A + TA=m(tan ^sec x+ tan xsec<|)), 
therefore 

mtanw=T'A + TA. 

When VB, VC together constitute a focal arc, the angle TAT' is a right 
angle. 

The diameter of this circle is m sec ^ sec x- 

The demonstration of these properties follows obviously from the figure. 

XIV. It may be convenient, by a simple geometrical illustration, to show 
the magnitude of the functions sec(0-'-x) and tan (^-^-x)- 

Let SV=»J, ASV=x, BSV=0, the line AB being at right angles to SV. 
Through the three points ABS describe a circle. Draw the diameter SC, 
and join the point C with A and B. Let fall the perpendicular CT. 

Fig. 4. 




Then »Jsec(0-Lx)=SC + CT, and m tan (0-i-x)=AC + CB. 
Moreover also it follows, since sec(0-J-x) + tan (0-i-x)=(seC(^+ tan^) 
(sec X + tanx), as has been established in (6) of (III.), that 

»i(SC + CT+AC + CB)=(SB+BV)(AS+AV). . . (13) 

Of this theorem it is easy to give an independent geometrical demonstration. 
We have manifestly also 

CT(SC + m+SA+SB) = (AC + AT)(BC + BT). . . (14) 

XV. Let w be the conjugate amplitude of w and \p, while w is the conjugate 
amplitude, as before, of and x- Then as 

fsec wc?w = i sec w £?a» + V sec ^rfi//, and Tsec wc?w=f sec^rf^ + fsecx^^X' 



78 REPORT — 1856. 

we shall have 

fsecwrfw=ysec0rf0+Vsecx<^X + p^^'/"^^ 5 • • • (1^) 
and if U(m,w), n(»i.^), n(m.)^), and n(m . v//) are four conjugate para- 
bolic arcs, 

n(m.w)-n(m.(p)—U(m.x) — Tl(m.\P)= 

2wtan(^-Lx)tan(0-J-v^)tan(x-^4'). • • • • (16) 
which gives a simple relation between four conjugate parabolic arcs*. 

When there are five parabolic arcs, whose normal angles 0, ^, »//, v, Q, are 
related as above, namely 

we may proceed to obtain in like manner a formula which will connect five 
parabolic arcs, whose amplitudes are connected by the given law. 

XVI. To exemplify the foregoing formula. Let us assume the following 
arithmetical values for the angles w, (j), x^ 4' '• — 

- 10 + 4^^5 1 V^ , ^ 

tan w= , tand)=-, tanv= , tan 4-= ;^> 

3 ' ^2 2 3 

_ 84-5-/^ . v/? 3 I 5 

secw=^iZ___:^ sec (6= ^, secY=_, sec 4/=—. 

3 2 '^ 3 

Hence 

n(»i.tan-'ri^^ilA^ I j=m(20+9\/5) + w— + mlog(6 + 3i/5) 
Il(m . tan- |) = m^+mlog (1+^) 

\ 2 / 4 ^V 2 / 

/ 4\ 20 

ni m.tan-1- 1= m — + mlog3. 
V 3/ 9 ^ 

* This latter theorem may be proved as follows : — Since w is conjugate to w and i//, we 
shall have by (8), 

II(»w .w) — n{m.oj) — U(m .Tp) = 2m tan H tan w tan >// ; 
and since w is conjugate to (p and x> 

n(OT. w) — n(m .0) — n(w . x) = 2?ntan w tan (/>tan ^. 
Hence, adding these equations, Tl(m . oi) will disappear, and 

n(»n.<j) — n(m.0) — n(m. x) — n(m.i^)=2m tana>[tana(tani^+ tan^ tan x}- 
Now tan w = tan (w-i-v^). 

Therefore tan w = tan w sec >//-)- tan >// sec w. 

But tan w = tan sec x+ tan x sec 0. 

Substituting this value in the preceding equation, and multipl}'ing by tan xp, 
tan oi tan ;// = tan <p sec x sec j/; tan vp-)- tan x sec sec »// tan ^/z 

+ sec <p sec x tan^ i|/+ tan (p tan x tan^ \p, 
and 

tan tan x = sec^ xp tan tan x — tan^ >// tan tan x^ 
Consequently 

tan hi tan ^-\- tan (p tan x = (sec 4' tan ^ -|- sec ^ tan i|/) (sec x tan »//+ sec i// tan x) 
= tan (0-i-i|') tan (x-'-'/'), and w = 0-|-x. 



(IV) 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 79 

Now adding the three latter equations together, and subtracting the sum from 
the former, the logarithms disappear, for 

.og(L±_!^) + log(^=) + >og3= log[3 . (l±f^) (£^)] 

= log(6 + 3'/5); Cl8) 

consequently 

U(m.u)—U(m.<p)-n(m.x)—Tl(m.^P) 

sincetan(rf.-^x)=2, tan (<^-L4/)=^±i^, and tan (x-^>//)= ]^±AzI^ 

6 6 

XVII. Let, in the preceding formula (16), ^=x='/') ^"d we shall have 
n(m.(D) — 3n(m.(^)=2mtanX0-J-x) = 16mtan^0sec^^. 

We are thus enabled to assign the difference between an arc of a parabola 
whose amplitude is w = (^-^0-^0) and three times another arc. 
If in (ct) (III.) we make ^=j^=;p, 

tanw=4tan^0 + 3tan^ (20) 

Introduce into this expression the imaginary transformation 
tan(^= V—i sin 6, change -■- into +, 

and we shall get sin 30=— 4 sin^9 + 3sin d, which is the known formula for 
the trisection of a circular arc. (20) may therefore be taken as the formula 
which gives the trisection of an arc of a parabola. 

XVIII. The following illustration of the triplication of the arc of a para- 
bola may be given : — 

Take the arcs whose ordinates Y and y are 4w2 and m respectively. Let 
w and (j) be the amplitudes which correspond to these ordinates ; then as 

Y=2mtan o3=4;m, tana)=2, secw=\/'5; 
and as , ^- 

y=2mtan0=m, tan^=-, sec0=__?* 

Now these values of tan uj and tan satisfy the equation of condition (20), 
namely 

4 tan' ^ + 3 tan 0= tan w. 
But 

n(m . tan-1 2)=m2 V's+m log (2+ V^S), 

and / , _ 1\ 1 V'5 , , fl + ^5\. 

ll\m .t&n-^-^J = m^~^ + m.]ogy — ^— I , 

and three times this arc is 

3n(m . tan-^ ^\ = }njV5 + mlog(2+ -/s), 

since /H-V^^\' /- 

Subtracting this latter equation from the former, the logarithms disappear, 
and we get 

n(m.tan-i2)-3n(m.tan-i^j = ^^i^ = I6OTtan^0sec'f . (21) 



80 REPORT— 1856. 

Now as the radius of curvature R is equal to the cube of the normal divided 

by the square of the semiparameter, 11= — ^, since N = 2m sec w. We 

4 
have therefore the following theorem : 

The arc of the parabola ivhose ordinate is equal to im, or to the abscissa, 
diminished by the radius of curvature of its extremity, is equal to three times 
the arc ivhose ordinate is m, or one fourth that of the former arc. 

It is evident that the cliord of the greater arc is inclined by an angle of 45 
to the axis, or the ordinate is equal to the abscissa, while in the lesser arc the 
ordinate is four times the abscissa. 

This is the point on the parabola up to which the ordinate is greater than 
the abscissa; beyond this point it is less than the abscissa. 

XIX. Another example of the triplication of the arc of a parabola, or of 
finding an arc, which, diminished by an algebraic quantity, shall be equal to 
three times another arc, may be given. 

Let 

3 
tan0=— , tanw=18, 

-/Is _ /— 
sec(fi= , sec w = 5 V 13. 

These values satisfy the equation of condition, 

4 tan^ + 3 tan 0= tan w. 
Hence 

n(»i.tan-i.l8)=OT90. VIs + w log (18 + 5 VlS) 

n(»i.tan-»-j =m—^ +rn\og\-^ j; 

and three times this arc is 

Sn (wi . tan- 1 1) =^^^ + m log ( 1 8 + 5 ^TS), 

(?±^)^=18 + 5^T3. 
Therefore subtracting the latter equation from the former, 
n(/w.tan-q8)-3n('m . tan-i = »»!£i^^=16m(^|)'(^) . (22) 

XX. To find the arc of a parabola which shall differ from 7i times a given 
arc by an algebraic quantity, may be thus investigated : — 

Let be the amplitude of tlie given arc, then 

n(m.(^)=msec(/) tan + ??i log (sec ^ + tan <f), 

and n times this arc is 

7iW{m . (p)=nm sec (p tan f+mlog (sec + tan (p)". 
Let -•-(/) -^0 -J- to w terms =il>, then 

n(m.*)=msec$tan $ + m log (sec 4> + tan $). 



since 



ON THK TRIGONOMETRY OP THE PARABOLA. 81 

Now sec* + tan$=(sec^+tan0)", as shown in (6). Hence 

n(m . *)— wn(m . <p)=m[sei'. 4> tan ^—71 sec <{> tan <^]. 
Let seC(j) + ta.T\<p=\, then sec4> + tan 4>=X'', and 

sec^=^±^\tan^=^i=^. 
We have also sec *= — !- , tan 4>= . Hence 

U(m . <P)-nTl(m . ^)=m |-(^^"-X-='")-^(X^ - X-^)!. . . (23) 

3 5 

-, sec^=-, X=2. Then 

n(m . *)-3n(m . .^)= ^ /'liiV. 



3 5 

Let ^^=3, tan (6=-, seC(i)=-, X=2. Then 



When w=4, 



n(m . $) -4n(m . ^)= »2 ^ • ^^ • ^^"^ ■ 



210 

and so may n be taken any other integral number. 

XXI. The equation (20) affords a very simple mode of expressing the real 
root of a cubic equation. 

Let the cubic equation under the ordinary form be a^+px-=-q. 

Let the parabolic equation tan^a)+ — tan u=— — be written 

4. 4, 



hence 



Sw3 Wi^ 

tan^w+ tan w= — tan £2, 

4 4 



3 2 in 2. r^ 
p= -mr, g= — tan Q.. 

4 4 



Now since the value of x found by the ordinary methods is 

we shall have 

2a;=m \/sec£2+ tanii— »2 -v^secil— tanii, . . . (24<) 
and 



-=Vf' — I.VI- 



When the sign of jo is negative, the solution must be sought in the trigo- 
nometry of the circle. 



Section HL On the Geometrical Origin of Logarithms. 
XXIL In the trigonometry of the circle we find the formula 

cv— f„„a tan^^ tan^^ tan^S , „ , . 

d— tan ^— —_ + ___ ;^-+&c (a) 

1856. ' G 



82 REPORT — 1856. 

And if we develope by common division the expression 



_i cos0_ _ e( 1 + sin- + sin^ 6 + sin" + &c.), 

co80~l-sin'0 ^ ^ 



and integrate, 

C dd C a^n • fl , sin' 6 sin* sin' ^ , « „ ,u\ 

I =1 sec0a0=sin + -f 1 -__+&c. . . (b) 

JCOS0 J 3 5 7 

If we now inquire what, in the circle, is the magnitude of the trigonome- 
trical tangent of the arc which differs from its subtangent, by the distance 
between the vertex and its focus ; or, as the subtangent is in the circle, and 
the focus is the centre, the question may be changed into this other, what is 
the trigonometrical tangent of the arc of a circle which is equal in length 
to the radius? This question would be answered by putting I for ;& in (a), 
and reverting the series 

, , ... tan¥l) tan¥l) tanYl) , „ , . 

l = tan(l)-— A_Z+ -^ ^ + Scc. . . . (c) 

By this process we should get, in functions of the numbert of Bernoulli, the 
value of tan (1), as is shown in most treatises on trigonon)etry. 

Let us now make a like inquiry in the case of the parabola, and ask what 
is the value of the subtangent of the amplitude which will give the difference 
between the arc of the parabola and tliis subtangent equal to the distance 
between the focus and tlie vertex of the parabola. Now if be this angle, 
we must have n(m . d)—m sec tan 0=m. But in general, as shown in IV., 

n(m . 0)— m sec tan d=m Isec dd. 

We must therefore have, in this case, Vsec Odd=l. If we now revert the 

series (b), putting 1 for f sec Odd, we shall get from this particular value of 

the series, namely , -a, sin^0 sin^ sin'O , ^,>. 

'' l = sm0H -— -L — — - J. — — - + &c., . . . (d; 

3 5/ 

an arithmetical value for sin 0*. This we shall find to be sm 0=^- -, e 

e' + e-' 

being the number called the base of the Napierian logarithms. Hence 
sec 0+ tan 0=e ; or if we write e for this particular value of to distinguish 
it from every other, 

sec e + tan € = 6 = 2-718281828, &c (25) 

We are thus (for the first time, it is believed) put in possession of the 
geometrical origin of that quantity so familiarly known to mathematicians — 
the Napierian base. From the above equations we may derive 

secf=e' + e-^ tane=^-^'' (26) 

2 ' 2 ^ ^ 

or tan 6=1-175201192, whence e=-8657606, 

or €=49° 36' 49". 

*= sin 6, then 

"{l-mxej \ ^3 + 6 + 7^9 / 

or 

/l+j«n0\ ^ /l+sine\»^^ HencMed+tane-.. 



J 



ON THE TRIGO>fOME'rRY OF THE PARABOLA. 



83 



The corresponding arc of the parabola will be given by the following series: — 

n(?n . e)=2/«ri + — + — ^ + &C.1, 

^ ^ L 123 ^ 12:345 ^ 1234.567 J 



123 ' 12345 1234567 

since the subtangent in this case is equal to m sec e tan e= — (^^ — e~^)- 

4 

XXIII. If we now extend this inquiry, and ask what is the magnitude of the 
amplitude of the arc of the parabola which shall render the difference between 
this parabolic arc and its subtangent equal to n times the distance between 
the focus and the vertex, we shall have, as before, by the terms of the question, 

n(m .6) — m sec tan d=nm. 
But, in general, n(m. 6) -m see 6 tan d=m^ sec Odd; 
hence we must have 

n=: rsec6rf0 = log(sec9+tan6), or sec0+ tan 0=e". 

Now we may solve this equation in two ways; either by making n a given 
number, and then determine the value of sec + tan d, which may be called 
the base; or we may assign an arbitrary value to sec 0+ tan 9, and then 
derive the value of fi. Taking the latter course, let, for example, 

secO + tan0=lO, then«=loglO; 

or putting S for this angle, secS+tang=10 (27) 

Hence as every number whose logarithm is to be exhibited must be put 
under the form sec 0+ tan 0, which is of the form l+x, since the limiting 
value of sec is 1, we discover the reason why in developing the logarithm 
of a number, the number itself must be put under the form 1+x, and not 
simply under that of x. 

XXIV. Given a number to find its logarithm, may be exhibited by the fol- 



Fig. 5. 



lowing geometrical construction 

Let SVP be a parabola. Through 
the focus S draw the perpendicular SQ 
to the axis VS. Through V let a tan- 
gent of indefinite length be drawn, 
which may be called the scalar. On this 
tangent take the line VN to represent 
the given number. Join NS, and make 
the angle NST always equal to the 
angle NSQ. Draw TP at right angles 
to TS. This line will touch the para- 
bola in the point P, and the arc of the 
parabola VP diminished by the sub- 
tangent PT, or the tangential difference 
for the arc VP, will be the logarithm 
of VN. 

The line SN makes the angle (— + -] 

with the axis of the parabola. 

When SN'=VS= the unit m, the angle N'SQ is equal to half a right 
angle. Hence the point T in this case will coincide with V. The parabolic 
arc therefore vanishes, or the logarithm of I is 0. When sec 0+ tan = 1, 
0=0. 

When the number is less than 1, the point N will fall below N' in the 
position n. Hence wSQ is greater than half a right angle. Therefore T 
will fall hehw the axis in the point T' ; and if we draw through T' a tangent 

g2 




84 REPORT — 1856. 

T'p, it will give the negative arc of the parabola Vp, corresponding to the 
number V?^. Fractional numbers, or numbers between + I and 0, must 
therefore be represented by the expression «i(sec ~ tan 0), since tanfl 
changes its sign. 

When the number is 0, n coincides with V, and the angle NSQ in this 
case is a right angle. Tlierefore the point T' will be the intersection of VT' 
and SQ. Hence T' is at an infinite distance below the axis, and therefore 
the logarithm of +0 is — go . 

Hence the tangential difference due to the amplittide 6, is the logarithm of 
the number sec 6 + tan 6. 

Consequently it follows that negative numbers have no logarithms, at least 
no real ones ; and imaginary ones can only be educed by the transformation 
so often referred to, and this leads us to seek them among the properties of 
the circle. For as always lies between and a right angle, or between 
and the half of +7r, sec + tan 6 is alicays positive ; therelbre negative num- 
bers can have no real ov parabolic logarithms, but they may have imaginary 
or circular logarithms ; for in the expression 

log{cosS-+ V^sinS}=^V'^, (28) 

we may make ^= (2m + 1)^-, and we shall get log( — l)=(2w+l)7rv' — 1- 
Hence also, as the length of the parabolic arc TP, without reference to 
the sign, depends solely on the amplitude 0, it follows that the logarithm of 
sec — tan is equal to the logarithm of sec ■\- tan 0. We may accordingly 
infer that the logarithm of any number is equal to the logaritiim of its reci- 
procal, with the sign changed, since (sec 0+ tan 0) (sec 0— tan 0)=1. 

When is very large, sec + tan 0=2 tan nearly. It follows, therefore, 
if we represent a large number by an ordinate of a parabola whose focal 
distance to the vertex is 1, the diiference between the corresponding arc and 
its subtangent will represent its logarithm. 
Since VT + TP > arc VP, therefore 

VT > arc VP-TP > log VN. 

Hence VT or tan is always greater than the logarithm of (sec + tan 0) in 
the Napierian system of logarithms. This may be shown on other principles : 
thus 

sin--+cos2i+2sin^cos— l + tan|. 

^ , , „ 1 + sin 0_ 2 2 2 2 2 

sec0+tan0= — — 



COS0 --«_sin=l l_tanl 



COS" — ^... -^- - ^ 

2 2 2 



a 

Let tan —=M. Then 
2 



log(sec0+tan0)=log(i±H)=2(^«+^ + ^ + ^&c.), 



2tan — 
and tan0= '^=2{u + u^ + w- + u^+ &c.). 



1-tan-- 



Hence tan >- 1 og (sec + tan 0), 

or ^~" is always greater than the logarithm of ?«. 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 85 

XXV. Let ^ sec (j) cf(p=p, \ sec x<'^X— 9 ' then as 

fsec<i>rfw=f sec ^rf^+ f secy <^X> ^^^ (5)' 
\ sec (od<i)=p + q, and w=(^-'-x* 

Hence it' f be the amplitude which gives the tangential difference =p, and 
X the amplitude which gives the tangential difference =g, ^-^x i^ the am- 
plitude which will give the tangential difference =p + q. In the same way 
we might show, that if ;// be the angle which gives this difference =r, 
(0-i-X-J-i//) is the angle which will give this difference =p + g+r. 

Let a be the amplitude of the number A, and p its logarithm ; /3 the 
amplitude of the number B, and q its logarithm ; r the amplitude of the 
number C, and c its logarithm. Then 

A=seca + tana, B=sec/3+ tan/3, C = secy+tany, 
and log A=p, log B=q, log C=r, or 

p+q + r= log A + log B + log C. 
We have also 

ABC = (sec a + tan a)(sec ^ + tan j3)(sec y + tan y) 

= sec (a-i-/3-Ly) + tan (a-^/3-^y). 

Now as j9 is the logarithm of sec a+ tan a, q the logarithm of sec /3+ tan /3, 
r the logarithm of sec y+ tan y, 

p + q+r is the log of sec(a-L/3-^y)+ tan(a-L/3-i-y), or of A B C, 

as shown above. We may therefore conclude that 

log (ABC)=log A + log B + log C (29) 

XXVI. If e be the angle which gives the difference between the parabolic 
arc and its subtangent equal to ?n, (e-'-e) is the angle which will give this 
difference equal to 2m, (e-^e-'-e) is the angle which will give this difference 
equal to 3m, and so on to any number of angles. Hence, in the circle, if ^ 
be the angle which gives the circular arc equal to the radius, 2^ is the angle 
which will give an arc equal to twice the radius, and so on for any number 
of angles. This is of course self-evident in the case of the circle, but it is 
instructive to point out the complete analogy which holds in the trigonome- 
tries of the circle and of the parabola. 

Hence the amplitude which gives the difference between the parabolic arc 
and its subtangent equal to the semiparameter is given by the simple equation 

sece'+tane'=e2 (30) 

And more generally, if e" be the amplitude which gives the difference between 
the parabolic arc and its subtangent equal to n times the modulus, we shall 

^^^^ sece''+tane'' = e» (31) 

In the same way it may be shown that if e^ be the angle which gives the 

difference between the parabolic arc and its subtangent equal to -th part the 

modulus, we shall have i^ 

sece^+tane^=e" (32) 

Let the difference be equal to one-half the modulus, then w=2, and 
^ec €(+ tan e^=e . 



86 REPORT — 1856. 

This is easily shown. 

Let e^-i-e^=e. Then sec(e^-^e;)^sece=sec°ej+ tan-e^, and 
tan (ey-^ey)= tan e=iisece^tan e^. 
Therefore sec ( e^ -^ e^) + tan (e^-'-e^)=sece+tane=e= 

sec* e^ + tan^ e^ + 2 sec e^ tan e, = (sec e^ + tan e^)". 
Hence sec6(+ tan e;= V^e (33) 



2 ' 
taii(e-^e)=tel^, 8ec(e^e)=^l±^; 

tan(e-Le-^6)= ^ ~^ -, sec(e-^e-^e)= ^ "'^^ ; 
tan(€-^e-L- to n terms)= ' sec(e-Le to n terms)=^ — -S — 

Therefore 2 sec e tan e= tan (e + e) 

2sec(e-Le) tan (e-Le) = tan (e -^ e ->- e -^ e), 
and generally • 

2 sec(e-^e-'- to « terms) tan (e-^e-^ to « terms) = 

tan (e-^e-^e-'-e-^ to 2w terms). 

Now 2 sec (e -■- e -i- to n terms) tan (e-'-e-^ ton terms) is the portion of the 
tangent to the curve intercepted between the axis of the parabola and the 
point of contact whose amplitude, or the angle it makes with the ordinate is 
(e-L-e-^ to n terms;, while tan (e-^e-^e-^e-^ to 2n terms) is half the ordi- 
nate of that point of the curve whose amplitude is (e-^e-^e-^e to 'in terms). 
Hence we derive this very general theorem : — 

That if tivo points be ttiken on a parabola such that the intercept of the 
tangent to the one between the point of contact and. the axis shall be equal to 
one-half the ordinate to the other, the amplitudes of the two points tvill be 
(e-i-e-L to « terms) and (e-^e-^e-^e to 2n terms) resjjectively. 

This theorem suggests a simple method of graphically finding a parabolic 
arc whose amplitude shall be the duplicate of the amplitude of a given arc. 
Let P be the point on the parabola whose amplitude is given. Draw the 
tangent PQ meeting the axis in Q. Erect VT at the vertex = PQ. Through 
T draw the tangent TP', the amplitude of the arc VP' will be the duplicate 
of the amplitude of the arc VP, or {d-^Q-^ to n terms) and {B-^d-^ to 2n 
terms) will be the amplitudes of VP and VP' respectively. Vv'e may there- 
fore conclude that in the circle 

2cos(<i + 0+ to n terms) sin (9 + 9+ to n terms) = 

sin(0 + e + + to 2w terms). 

XXVIL In the trigonometry of the circle, the sine of the arc, which is x 
times the radius, is given by the formula 

x^ x^ x' . 

sm x^=x • -I , &c., 

123 ^ 12345 1234567 

and the cosine of the same arc by the formula 
cosa;=l- — + 



12 ' 1234 123456 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OP THE PARABOLA. 87 

This suggests the analogous theorem, that if ^ be the angle or amplitude 
which gives the difference between the parabolic arc and its subtangent, or 
the tangential difference equal to x times the modulus, or the distance of the 
focus from the vertex, we shall have 



and 



tan i,'=-x-\ 4- 4- , &0., 

123 ^ 12345 ^ 1234567 

sec^=l + — + — +-^^,&c (34) 

12 ^ 1234 ^ 123456 

But (Lacroix, ' Traite du Calcul Differentiel et du Calcul Integral,' vol. iii. 
p. 442) the first of these two series is equivalent to 



and the latter to 



iience 

When X is small, tan ^=jr. Let the angle I be divided into an indefinitely 

large number n of parts, so that ?= — -1---1- — ^ to n terms. Then 
° ' ^ n n 71 

X XX 

sec - = 1 , tan - = - ; 
w ' n n 

and as 

sec (« -^ a -i- a -■- to « terms) +tan(a-'-a-'-a-^tow terms) = (sec a + tan a)" 

1+ - j , but sec^+tan^=e*. 
Hence when n is indefinitely large, 

Tu like manner, 

These theorems, given in Price's * Treatise on the Infinitesimal Calculus,' 
vol. i. p. 32, are the limiting cases of the very general theorem established 
in (6). 

XXVIII, To represent the decimal or any other system of logarithms by 
parabola. 

The parabola which is to give the Napierian system of logarithms being 
drawn, whose vertical focal distance m is assumed as the arithmetical unit, 
let another confocal parabola be described having its axis coincident with the 
former, and such that its vertical focal distance shall be m'. The numbers 
being set off, as before, on the scalar, which is a tangent to the^ Napierian 
parabola at its vertex, the differences between the similar parabolic arcs and 



88 



REPORT — 1856. 



their subtangents in the two parabolas will give the logarithms in the two 
system.s, of the scmte number drawn upon the scalar ; for as all parabolas, like 
circles, are similar figures, and these are confocal and similarly placed, any 
line drawn through their common focus will cut the curves in the same angle, 
and cut off proportional segments. Hence the two triangles SPT and Srarr 
are similar, and the tangential differences PV — PT and zsv—wt are propor- 
tional to 4m and 4//*', the parameters of the parabolas. 

Fig. 6. 




Let log denote the Napierian logarithm, and Log the decimal logarithm of 
the same number. 

Draw the line ST, making the angle e with the axis such that sec e + tan e^e. 
Then as PV— PT : wr— or : : m : m', and PV— PT=m=l, since e is the 
base of the Napierian system; and ■urv—mT=^L,og e on the decimal parabola, 
therefore 

m : Log e ::tn : m', or m'= Log <?. 

We may therefore conclude that the modulus of the decimal system is the 
decimal logarithm of the Napierian base e. 

Draw the line ST'makingwith the axis an angle ^,suchthatsec2 + tanS= 10. 
Now 

P'V-PT' : ctV-c/V : : m : m': 
but 

P'V— PT'=mIoglO, hence ot'z>— ■zzrV=m'log 10. 

Now in order that 10 may be a base, or in other words, in order that its loga- 
rithm may be unity, we must have ra-'y- •zEr'r'=m' log 10=»i ; or if m=l, we 

I 
must have m'log 10^1, or m'=-, r— • ; that is, the parameter of the Deci- 
mal parabola must be reduced compax'ed with that of the Napierian parabola 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 89 

in the ratio of log 10: 1. Hence, as is well known, the modulus m' of the 
decimal system is tiie reciprocal of the Napierian logarithm of 10. 

It is therefore obvious, that as any number of systems of logarithms may be 
represented by the differences between the similar arcs and their subtangents 
of as many confocal parabolas, the logarithms of the same number in these 
different systems will be to one another simply as the magnitudes of the para- 
bolas whose arcs represent them, that is, as the parameters of these parabolas. 
Accordingly the moduli of these several systems are represented by the halves 
of the semiparameters of the several parabolas. 

The Napierian parabola differs from the decimal and other parabolas in 
this, that the focal distance of its vertex is taken as the arithmetical unit, and 
that the scalar line on which the numbers are set off is a tangent to it at its 
vertex. 

Hence if m, the vertical focal distance of the Napierian parabola, be taken 
as 1, the vertical focal distance m' of the decimal parabola is . 4342 &c., or 
if m=l, m'— .4342 &e. 

XXIX. In every system of logarithms whatever, the logarithm of 1 is 0. 

For when the point T coincides with V, the corresponding point r will coin- 
cide with V, whatever be the magnitude of its modulus m'. It is obvious that 
the circle whose radius is unity is analogous to the parabola whose vertical 
focal distance is unity, and that the Napierian logarithms have the same 
analogy to trigonometrical lines computed from a radius equal to unity, which 
any other system of logarithms has to trigonometrical lines computed from a 
radius r. As we may represent different systems of trigonometry by a series 
of concentric circles whose radii are I, r, r' &c., so we may in like manner 
exhibit as many systems of logarithms by a series of confocal parabolas 
whose focal distances or moduli are 1, m', m" &c. The modulus in the 
trigonometry of the parabola corresponds with the radius in the trigonometry 
of the circle. But while the base in the trigonometry of the parabola is real, 
in the circle it is imaginary. In the parabola, the angle of the base is given 
by the equation sec0 + tan0=e. In the circle, cos 04- a/— 1 sin0=e®V^^; 
and making 0=1, we get 

cos(l)+A/^risin(l)=eV^ (35) 

Hence, while e^ is the parabolic base, e'^~ is the circular base. Or as 
[sec e + tan e] is the Napierian base, [cos(l)+ a/^ sin(l)] is the circular 
or imaginary base. Thus 

[cos (1 ) + V^ sin (l)]a=cos Sr+ ^T-i sin ^. 

We may therefore infer, speaking more precisely, that imaginary numbers 
have real logarithms, but an imaginary base. We may always pass from the 
real logarithms of the para bola to the imaginary logarithms of the circle by 
changing tan into V —\ sin ^, sec into cos ^, and e^ into e^~^ 

As in the parabola the angle is non-periodic, its limit being \k, while in 
the circle ^ has no limit, it follows that while a number can have only one 
real or parabolic logarithm, it may have innumerable imaginary or circular 
logarithms. 

Along the scalar, which is a tangent to the Napierian parabola at its vertex, 
as in the preceding figure, draw, measured from the vertex, a series of lines 
in geometrical progression, 

OT(sec + tan 0), ;w(sec + tan 0)^ ?w(sec + tan 0)^ m{sec + tan 0)». 

Join N, the general representative of the extremities of fhese right lines, with 
the focus S. Erect the perpendicular SQ, and make the angle NST always 



90 REPORT — 1856. 

equal to the angle NSQ. The line ST will be =m sec d, the line ST^ 
=msec(0-L0), the line ST^^ =m sec (0-^0-^0), &c., and we shall likewise 

have 

VT=wtan0, VT^=w/ tan (0-^-0), VT;,=>Mtan(0-L0-i-0), &c. 

This follows immediately from (6) of III. ; for any integral power of 
(sec + tan 0) may be exhibited as a linear function of sec 6 + tan 9, 
writing for 0-^0-1-0 ... &c., since 

sec(0-J-0-L0-i-0&c. to ?«0) + tan(0-L0J-0-^0&c. tow0)=(sec0 + tan0)". 

Hence the parabola enables us to give a graphical construction for the angle 
(0_L0j-0 &c,) as the circle does for the angle (0 + + &c.). 
I XXX. The analogous theorem in the circle may be developed as fol- 
lows: In the circle SB A take the arcs 

AB=BB,=B,B,^=B„B,„ ... &c. =2^. 
Let the diameter be D ; then 

SB=Dco9.&, SB,=Dcos23^, SB,(=Dcos3^ ... &c., 

and 

AB=Dsin:&, AB(=Dsin2&, AB^, = Dsin 3^ ... &c. 

Now as the lines in the second group are always at right angl es to those 
in the first, and as such a change is denoted by the symbol V—l, we get 

SB + BA = D{cos&+ v/^siiid}, 

SB; + B^A=D{cos2^+ -v/^^sin25-} = D{cos&+ V-lsind}''; 
SB;; + B,,A=D{cos3a+ \/^sin3^} = D{cos^+ V^ sin*f&c. 

SB^+B„A=DCcosn3'+ i/ITi sinw^] = D[cos.&+ \/^siua]"- 
When the points B', B" fall below the line SA, the angle becomes negative, 

and we get 

SB' — B'A=cos.&— v/ — Isin^ 

SB" — B" A= cos 2^— V^ sin 2b= [cos ^— V^ sin b^- 

Therefore 

log(SB + BA)=log(cos*+V-lsin&)=^V-l. . . .(36) 

Let ^=1, then 

log[cos(l)+\/-lsin(l)]= V —1. 

Hence generally ^ \^^^ is the logarithm of the bent line whose extremities 
are at S and A, and which meets the circle in the point B, ASB=.&. 

It is singular that the imaginary formulae in trigonometry have long been 
discovered, while the corresponding real expressions have escaped notice. 
Indeed it was long ago observed by Bernoulli, Lambert, and by others — the 
remark has been repeated in almost every treatise on the subject since— 
that the ordinates of an equilateral hyperbola might be expressed by real 
exponentials, whose exponents are sectors of the hyperbola ; but the analogy, 
bein'' illusory, never led to any useful results. And the analogy was illusory 
from" this; that it so happens the length and area of a circle are expressed 
by the same function, while the area of an equilateral hyperbola is a function 
of an arc of a parabola, as will be shown further on. The true analogue of 
the circle is the parabola. 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 

Fig. 7. 
H 



91 




XXXI. There are some curious analogies between the parabola and the 
circle, considered under this point of view. 

In the parabola, the points T, T,, T,„ which divide the bnes 
m(secd+t2Lud), m[sec (0-^0) + tan (0^0)] 
into their component parts, are upon tangents to the parabola. The corre- 
sponding points B, B„ B, in the circle are on the circumference of the circle. 
In the parabola, the extremities of the lines m(sec d + tan 0) are on a right 
line VT • in the circle, the extremities of the bent lines are all in the pomt A. 
The analogy between the expressions for parabolic and circular arcs will 
be seen by pStting the expressions under the following forms :— 
Parabolic arc — log (sec 0+ tan 0) - subtangent =0, 
Circular arc + log (cos 0+ ^/~l sin 0)^~i- subtangent =0. . (37) 
The locus of the point T, the intersections of the tangents to the parabola 
with the perpendiculars from the focus, is a right line ; or in other words, 
while one end of a subtangent rests on the parabola, the other end rests on a 
right line. So in the circle ; while one end of the subtangent rests on the 
circle the other end rests on a cardioide, whose diameter is equal to that ot 
the circle, and whose cusp is at S. SPA is the cardioide. ^ . ^ ^ „ 
The length of the tangent VN to any point N is »w(sec + tan 0) = 2wi tan«, 
when is very large. The length of the cardioide is 2D sin 3-. 

XXXII The radius vector of a circle whose radius is r, drawn from any pomt 
on the circumference, and making the angle with a diameter drawn through 
this point, is given by the equation p=2r cos 0, and since the coinciding per- 
pendicular from this point as focus on a tangent to a parabola ^sp=m sec 0, 
it follows that pp=2mr, a constant quantity. Hence tlie curves are polar 
reciprocals one of the other. The circumference of the circle passes through 
the focus of the parabola. . ,. , , i 

The centre of the circle is the pole of the directrix of the parabola. 
As the extremities N of all the numbers measured along the sccdar are on 
a right line VN, the reciprocals of these points will all pass through the 
point A, the pole of the scalar VN. 



92 



REPORT — 1856. 



The point T<r on the circle is the pole of the tangent PT to the parabola, 
and the point P on the parabola is the pole of the tangent -mr to the circle. 

As the parabolic arc VP— PT is the logarithm of the number VN, so the 
circular arc Atzr is the logarithm of the bent line Atsr+nrS. 




The locus of the point r, the foot of the perpendicular from S on the tan- 
gent to the circle at cr, is a cardioide whose cusp is at S, and whose diameter 
is that of the circle. 

While the circle is the 2)olar reciprocal of the parabola, the cardioide is its 
inverse curve ; for the cusp polar equation of the cardioide is |0=2r(l + cos0), 

2w2 
while the focal equation of the parabola is p^= -j— ; -; hence p|0^=4m^ 

Since the parabola and the circle are reciprocal polars one of the other, the 
circumference of the circle passing through the focus of the parabola, we 
have been able by the help of this reciprocal circle to give geometrical repre- 
sentations, as in XII. and XIV., of the properties of the trigonometrj' of the 
parabola. 

There is this further analogy between the properties of the circle and those 
of the i^arabola, — that as the arc which is equal to the radius subtends no 
exact submultiple of any number of right angles, however large, so in the 
parabola the angle or amplitude which gives the tangential difference or 
logarithm equal to the modulus is incommensurable with any number of right 
angles. In the former there are 206265 seconds, in the latter there are 
178575 seconds*. 

The theorem given above, that a parabola is the reciprocal polar of a circle 
whose circumference passes through its focus, suggests a transformation 
which will exhibit a much closer analogy between the formulae for the recti- 
fication of the parabola and the circle, than when the centre of the latter 
curve is taken as the origin. 

XXXIII. Let SB A be a semicircle ; let the origin be placed at S ; let the angle 

* It is worthy of investigation to ascertain whether any relation can be found between 
the angle or arc (1), and the angle e which gives the tangential difference equal to the mo- 
dulus in the parabola. 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARABOLA. 93 

ASB=^; and let D, as before, be the diameter of the circle. Through B 
draw the tangent BP ; let fall on this tangent the perpendicular SP=p, and 
let BP, the subtangent, be equal to t. 

Now asj9=Dcos"S, and <=Dsin ^cosS^, as also the angle ASP=2S-, if 
we apply to the circle the formula for rectification in IV., we shall have 
the arc 

AB=s=2DJcos2^6?^— Dsin^cosS- (38) 

The subtangent to the circle, which is exhibited in this formula, disappears 
in the actual process of integration ; while in the parabola, the subtangent 
which is involved in the differential is evolved by the process of integration. 

As in the parabola, the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent bisects 
the angle between the radius vector and the axis of the curve ; so in the 
circle, the radius vector SB drawn from the extremity of the diameter, bisects 
the angle between the perpendicular SP and the diameter SA. 

It is easily seen that while the line SB makes the angle with the axis, the 
line SP makes the angle 26, and the perpendicular SR on the tangent to the 
cardioide makes the angle 30 with the axis. 

Hence if we take the reciprocal polar of the cardioide, the line drawn per- 
pendicular to the tangent at any point on the curve trisects the angle between 
the axis and this radius vector. Consequently the polar reciprocal of the 
cardioide is a curve, such that if a point be taken anywhere on the curve, 
and a perpendicular be drawn to the tangent at this point, it will trisect 
the angle between the axis and the radius vector drawn to the point of con- 
tact. Hence the reciprocal polar of the cardioide enables us to trisect an 
angle, in the same way as a parabola gives us the means to bisect it. 

XXXIV. To determine the tangential equation* of the reciprocal polar of the 
cardioide. The radius vector u of the cardioide being connected with the 
polar angle 6 by the equation u=r(l + cos 6), and p being the perpendicular 

on the tangent of its polar reciprocal, we shall have — = — (I + cos 6). 

Let jO= — , then as cos d=p^ and — = -/IMV, ^ and v being the tangential 
coordinates of the curve, we shall have 



Consequently l(p^y^)-p^y--p^(^+y^)=o (39) 

is the tangential equation of the reciprocal polar of the cardioide. The 
common equation of the cardioide, the cusp being the pole, is 

l(^+f)-rxy-f^(x'+f)=0. ..... '(40) 

The reader will observe, that the equation between the coordinates x and 
y of the cardioide is exactly the same as the equation between the tangential 
coordinates E and v of the reciprocal polar of the cardioide. 

XXXV. The quadrature of the hyperbola depends on the rectification of 
the parabola. 

Through a point P on the parabola draw a line PQ parallel to the axis 
and terminated in the Tertical tangent to the parabola at R. Take the line 
RQ always equal to the normal at P, the locus of Q is an equilateral hyper- 
bola. For x=2m sec <^, and as before y=2m tan 0, therefore 

x^—f=im?, . (41) 

* Tangential coordinates, p. 70. 



94 



REPORT — 1856. 



the equation of an equilateral hyperbola whose centre is at V, the vertex of 
the parabola, and whose transverse axis is the parameter of the parabola. 

The area of this curve, the elements being taken parallel to the axis, or 
the area between the curve and the vertical axis passing through V, is 
found by integrating the value of xdy. 
Now 

iC=2m sec ^, and y=^^m tan 0, 
therefore 

\xdy^=^'^nr y^ec^ ^d^^=%ri\rti sec ^ tan + mJsec <^ (/^J. 

But it has been shown in IV. that 

n(m . 0) = m sec tan (/> + m \ sec <^ df. 



Hence the hyperbolic area VAQR = 2mll(m. 0). 



(42) 



Therefore as the hyperbolic area is equal to a constant multiplied into the 
corresponding arc of the parabola, the evaluation of the hyperbolic area 
depends on the properties of logarithms. 

It also follows, from what 
has been established in the pre- 
ceding part of this paper, that 
hyperbolic areas may be multi- 
plied and compared according 
to the laws which regulate pa- 
rabolic arcs. 

Let (p and 6 be the angles in 
which the normals to the cor- 
responding points of the para- 
bola and the hyperbola cut the 
axis, then if (p and 6 be these 
angles, it is easily shown, since 
VQ = normal at Q, that 

tan 0= sin 0. . . (43) 

This expression will enable 

us to express the hyperbolic 

area in terms of the angle which 

the normal to the hyperbola 

makes with the axis instead of 

the parabolic amplitude ; for as the parabolic amplitude is related to the 

normal angle of the hyperbola 6 by the equation tan 0=sin (p, 

n t , , 2 tan Q x oo 

2 tan <b sec A = r- = tan 20, 

^ ^ l-tan'e 




and 



Now 



sec 0-1- tan 0= v/ sec 20 + tan 20. . . . 

n(jw . 0)=m sec0 tan + m log (sec -j- tan 0), 

or, substituting for the preceding values of 0, 

2n(»i . 0)=m tan 20-f-»J log (sec 20-f tan 20); 

but taking the amplitude 20, 

n (m . 20)= m sec 20 tan 20 + m log (sec 20 + tan 20). 



(44-) 



I 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OF THE PARA.BOLA. 95 

Hence, subtracting the former from the latter, 

U(m . 20) — 2n(m .^)=m tan 20 (sec 29 — 1 ). 

Accordingly, 

the hyperbolic area = mU.(m . 20) — m^ tan 20 (sec 20 — 1 ). . (45) 
Since 

2 tan 20 =2 tan (p sec ^, 
we have , 

20=0-L^ '. (4.6) 

Hence the normal angles and of the corresponding points of the para- 
bola and hyperbola are so related that 

20=0-J-^, 

whence we might at once have inferred the relation established in (44), 
namely 

(sec + tan 0)2= sec 29+ tan 20. 

The points P and Q on the parabola and hyperbola respectively may be 
called conjugate points. They are always found in a line parallel to the 
axis. 

If through the points P and Q on the parabola and hyperbola we draw 
diameters to these cu7-ves, they will make angles with the normals to them at 
these points, one of which is the duplicate of the other. 

For these angles are 20 and ^ respectively, 

but 2d=(p-^<l>. 

XXXVI. Let P„, Pj, P^, Pg, P4 . . . P«-i, P„ be perpendiculars let fall 
from the focus on the n sides of a polygon circumscribing a parabola, and 
making with the axis the angles 0, 0, 0-L0, 0-^0 -J- 0, 0-L 0-1- 0-1- 9, ... to 
n terms respectively. 

Let 



(47) 



then 


sec0 + tan0=M, 






sec(0-L0) + tan(0-i-0)=M^ "1 
sec(0-i-0-i-0) + tan(9-^9-'-9)=MU ' ' ' ' 


sec(0-i-0-J- 


. . . to n terms) + tan (9-i-9-^ to n terms) =m« 


Hence as 


2P,=w(m' + m-') 






2F3=m(u'+u-^) 


• • • f • 


_. we shall have 


2P^.s=m(«» +«-»), . 




k 


2 . 2 . P„ . Pi = »l2 («»» -h M-») (m> + M- 


m 


=m''[(u»+^ + u-(^+^)) + (u'^-'^ + u-(''-^'>)]> 


K 


2P„.P,=m(P„+i + P„_,); 


1 


P,=»»6ec0, 





(48) 



96 

therefore 



REPORT — 1856. 

Pn+l + Pra— 1 



sec0P„ 



(49) 



or any perpendicular multiplied by the secant of the first amplitude, is an 
arithmetical mean betioeen the perpendiculars immediately preceding and 
folloiving it. Thus, for example. Po=/h, Pi=m secO, ?„=»« sec (fl-'-fi), or 



m + ffi sec(0-L0) 
sec m sec % = —^ 



but 



sec(0-i-0)=sec=0 + tan=0; 
hence the proposition is manifest. 

Again, as hence 

2Po=»i(m" + w''), 2.2.PoP, = wjXm' + ?<-^ + 2<^ + m-0 

2P,=»2(m + m-i), 2 . 2 . Pi P2=?m-(w^ + m-* + m' + ?<-') 

2Po=?«(m- + m-2), 2 . 2 . Pg P3=»r(««' + M-^ + M' + M-0 

2P3=;«(m='+m-3), 2 . 2 . P3 P4=mXM? + «-7 + M» + M-i) 



(50) 



2P„ = »l(2<" + ?<-"), 2.2.P„-i P„ = »lX«^«-J+M-C2«-') + ?<l + 2i-l). 

We have, therefore, adding the preceding expressions, 

2[PoPi + P,P. + P2P3 + P3P4 .... Pn-.P«]= , ^ ^ 

(51) 



»j[+P, + P3+P5 + P7 .... P2„-i + (n)P,], 

or ttvice the sum of all the products of the perpendiculars taken two by two up 
to the nth, is equal to the sum of all the odd perpendiculars up to the (2n—l)th 
+ n times the first perpendicular. 

Thus, taking the first three perpendiculars, 

P^=w, Pj=»isec0, P2=wsec(0-L0)=m(sec^0 + tan0), 

P3=7n sec (0-^0-L0)=wi(4' sec'0— 3 sec 0) ; 

then the truth of the proposition may be shown in this particular case for 

2CPoP, + P.P2] = 4»»'sec^0=wi(P, + P3 + 2PJ. 

Again, since 

2P2„=»i(m2» + m-2»), 

and 

4P^=»iX«^»+2 + «-2«), 
we shall have 

2P;— m'=mP2» (52) 

Thus, for example, tivice the square of the perpendicidar on the fifth side of 
the polygon diminis/ied by the square of the modulus, is equal to the tenth 
perpendicular midtiplied by the modulus. 

In the same way we may show that 

4.P^-37n=P,.=?MT3„. 

Let n^=5 and m=l, then four tiines the cube of the fifth perpendicular, 
diminished by three times the same perjyeiidicular, is equal to the fifteenth per- 
pendicular, or to the perpendicular on the fifteenth side of the polygon. 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OP THE PARABOLA. 



97 



XXXVII. Since 

log u=u—u~^ —i(u- —u-'^) + ^(u^— u-^)—^(u^ —u-^), &c., 



and as 



while 



M-«-i = 2tan0, ti'—u~^=2tar\(d-^e), 
M«— M-»=2 tan(e-L0-L0-Lto n terms), 

M=sec + tan d. 



We have therefore 

PV— PT 

logu=: =tan0-itan(0-L0) + l.tan(0-^0^0, &c.). (53) 

We may convert this into an expression for the arc of a circle by 
changing -"-into +5 tan into-v^ — 1 sin, and the parabolic arc into the circular 
arc multiplied by i/'—l. 

Hence, since PT in the circle is equal to 0, 

- = sin0-isin29 + isin3e— isin40, 

a formula given in Lacroix, ' Traite du Calcul Differentiel et du Calcul 
Integral,' torn. i. p. 94. 

XXXVIII. In the trigonometry of the circle, the sines and cosines of 
multiple arcs may be expressed in terms of powers of the sines and cosines of 
the simple arcs. Thus 

cos 29= 2cos=0— 1 

cos 30= ^cos^e— 3cos0 

cos 40= Scos-*©— 8 cos- 0+1 

cos 50= 16 cos' 0—20 cos^ + 5 cos 

cos 60= 32 cos« 0—48 cos* + 18 cos- - 1 



"1 



sin20=sin0(2cos0) 

sin30=sin0(4<cos2 0— 1) 

sin 40= sin (8 cos' 0—4 cos 0) 

sin 50=sin (16 cos* — 12 cos''0+ 1) 

sin 60=sin (32 cos' 0—32 cos' + 6 cos 0). 

Hence in the trigonometry of the parabola, 
sec(0-L0)=2sec'0— 1 
sec (0-i-0-J-0)=4. sec' 0—3 sec 
sec (0 -L -L -I- 0)= 8 sec* 0— 8 sec- + 1 
sec(0-L-0-i-0-L0-i-0)=i6sec'0— 2Osec'0 + 5sec0 
sec(0J-0-L0a-0-i-0-L0)=32sec«0-48sec*0+18sec20-l 



tan (0-L0)=tan (2 sec 0) 
tan (0-i-0-J-0)=tan (4 sec" 0—1) 
tan (0-i- 0-1- 0-1-0)= tan (8 sec' 0—4 sec 0) 
tan (0-1- 0-1- 0-1- 0-1-0)= tan (16 sec* 0-12 sec- 0+1) 
tan (0^0-i-0-i-0-L0a-0)=tan (32 sec' 0— 32sec'0+6 sec 0) 

The preceding formulae may easily be verified. 
1856. '^ ^ J ^ 



(54) 



M55) 



98 REPORT — 1856. 

If we add in the above series any two corresponding secants and tangents, 
the sum will be an integral power of sec + tan 8. 

Thus sec(d-^e) + tan (6 -^6)= (sec 6 + tan 0)% 

Again, since in the circle 

cos 0= cos 
2cos2 0=cos20 + l 
4;cos^0=cos30 + 3cos0 

8 cos^ 0= cos 40 + 4 cos 20+1 
and [-(56) 

sin 0=sin 

2sin2 0=— COS20 + 1 

4 sin3 0=— sin 30+3 sin 

8 sin^0=cos 40—4 COS 20 + 3. 

Hence in parabolic trigonometry, 
sec0=sec 
2sec-0=sec(0-^0) + l 
4 sec5 0= sec (0-^0-^0)+ sec 30 
8sec*0=sec(0^0^0^0)+4sec(0-«-0) + l 1,(5Y) 

tan 0=tan 
2tan-0=sec(0-L0)-l 
4 tan' 0=tan (0-l0-i-0)-3 tan 
8 tan* 0=sec (0^0^0-i-0)-4 sec (0-l0) + 3. 
XXXIX. The roots of the expression 

2;2»_2a2;» + l=0 (58) 

maybe represented under the form cos A+ ^~1 sin A, when a is Zmthan 1. 
This has long been known. It is not difficult to show that when a is greater 
than 1, the roots may be exhibited under the form 

sec A + tan A (59) 

Since a is greater than 1, let a=sec0, and let be divided into n angles 0, 
connected by the relation 

J.0 j-^ ^(j) &c. =0; (60) 

and it has been shown in (6) that 

sec(<p^(j>^(t>-^<l> to n<i>) + tan ((j>->-(p^<p -^f to n(p) = (sec <p + tan (j>y. 

Let sec ^ + tan ^=M, then 2sec0=M' + M~S 
and therefore 2 sec0=2sec (<^J-0^./.-^to «.^)=m» + m-". 
Substitute this value of 2 sec in (58), and we shall have 

Z^n _ (m1 + ?f-«)2» + 1=0, 

or resolving into factors, 

(5-0 ("""""0=" ^''^ 



ON THE TRIGONOMETRY OP THE PARABOLA. 99 

Now finding the roots of these binomial factors by the ordinary methods, 
we shall have, since M=:sec + tan <p, 

«==(sec^+tan <p) (multiplied successively into the n roots of unity) 1 
and (sec ^ — tan (p) (multiplied successively into the n roots of unity). J 

We are thus enabled to exhibit the 2n roots when a >1. 
Thus, let n=3, then the equation becomes 

^8— 2 sec 00' + 1=0, 
and 

consequently the six roots are 



and 



(sec0 + tan0)M, =^ j> 

(sec0-tan0)|^l, =^ j- 



(63) 



By the same method we may exhibit the roots when a is less than 1, or 
a=cos 0. 

XL. We might pursue this subject very much further, but enough has 
been done to show the analogy which exists between the trigonometry of the 
circle and that of the parabola. As the calculus of angular magnitude has 
always been referred to the circle as its type, so the calculus of logarithms 
may in precisely the same way be referred to the parabola as its type. 

The obscurities which hitherto have hung over the geometrical theory 
of logarithms are, it is hoped, now removed. It is possible to represent 
logarithms, as elliptic integrals usually have been represented, by curves de- 
vised to exhibit some special property only ; and accordingly such curves, 
while they place before us the properties they have been devised to represent, 
fail generally to carry us any further. The close analogies which connect 
the theory of logarithms with the properties of the circle will no longer appear 
inexplicable. 

To devise a curve that shall represent one condition of a theory, or one 
truth of many, is easy enough. Thus, if we had first obtained by pure ana- 
lysis all the properties of the circle without any previous conception of its 
form, and then proceeded to find a geometrical figure which should satisfy 
all the conditions developed in the theory, we might hit upon several geome- 
trical curves that would satisfy some of the established conditions, though 
not all. That all lines passing through a fixed point and terminated both 
ways by the curve shall be bisected in that point, would be satisfied as well 
by an ellipse or an hyperbola as by a circle. That all the lines passing 
through this point and terminated both ways by the curve shall be equal, 
would be satisfied as well by the cusp of a cardioide as by the centre of a 
circle ; but no curve but the circle will fulfil all the analytical conditions of 
the theory of the circle. 

In the same way, no curve but the parabola will satisfy all the conditions 
of the arithmetical theory of logarithms. 

The equilateral hyperbola gives a false analogy and leads into error, because 
to base the properties of logarithms on those of the equilateral hyperbola 
leads to the conclusion that negative numbers have real logarithms. 

H 2 



100 REPORT — 1856. 

Tte foregoing theory decides a controversy long Carried on between 
Leibnitz and J. Bernoulli on the subject of the logarithms of negative num- 
bers. Leibnitz insisted they were imaginary, while Bernoulli argued they 
were real, and the same as the logarithms of equal positive numbers. Euler 
espoused the side of the former, while D'Alembert coincided with the views 
of Bernoulli. Indeed, if we derive the theory of logarithms from the pro- 
perties of the hyperbola (as geometers always have done), it will not be easy 
satisfactorily to answer the argument of Bernoulli — that as an hyperbolic 
area represents the logarithm of a positive number, denoted by the positive 
abscissa+.r, so a negative number, according to conventional usage, being 
represented by the negative abscissa— .r, the corresponding hyperbolic area 
should denote its logarithm also. And this is the more remarkable, because 
by Van Huraet's method the quadrature of the hyperbola itself depends on 
the rectification of the parabola, as shown in XXXV. All this obscurity is 
cleared up by the theory developed in the text, which completely establishes 
the correctness of the views of Leibnitz and Euler. 

It is somewhat remarkable in the history of mathematical science, that 
although the arithmetical properties of logarithms have been familiarly known 
to every geometer since the time of Napier, their inventor, or rather dis- 
coverer, no mathematician has hitherto divined their true geometrical origin. 
And this is the more singular, because the properties of the logarithms of 
imaginary numbers are intimately connected with those of the circle. No 
satisfactory reason has been shown why this should be so. The logarithmic 
curve which has been devised to represent one well-known property of loga- 
rithms, is a transcendental curve, and has no connexion with the circle. 
Neither has any attempt been made to show how the Napierian base e, an 
abstract isolated incommensurable number, may be connected with our 
known geometrical knowledge. Had the circle never been made a geome- 
trical conception, the same obscurity might probably have hung over the 
signification of tt, which has hitherto concealed from us the real interpreta- 
tion of the Napierian base e. 

This affords another instance, were any needed, to show how thin the veil 
may be which is suflicient to conceal from us the knowledge of apparently 
the simplest truths, the clue to whose discovery is even already in our hands. 
The geometrical origin of logarithms and the trigonometry of the parabola 
ought, in logical sequence, to have been developed by Napier, or by one of 
his immediate successors. They had many indications to direct them aright 
in their investigations. So true it is that men, in the contemplation of remote 
truths, often overlook those that are lying before their feet ! 

I have shown in this memoir that the theory of logarithms is a result of the 
solution of the geometrical problem to find and compare the lengths of arcs 
of a parabola, just as plane trigonometry is nothing but the development of 
the same problem for the circle. I have shown, too, elsewhere*, that elliptic 
integrals of the three orders do in all cases representthe lengths of curves which 
are the symmetrical intersections of the surfaces of a sphere or a paraboloid 
by ruled surfaces. These functions divide themselves into two distinct groups, 
representing spherical and paraboloidal curves, and by no rational trans- 
formation can we pass from the one group to the other. The transition is 
always made by the help of imaginary transformations, as when we pass from 
the real logaritiims of the parabola to the imaginary logarithms of the circle. 
When we take plane sections of those surfaces, that is to say, a circle and a 

* " Researches on the Geometrical Properties of Elliptic Integrals," Philosophical 
Transactions for 1852, p. 316. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NOETH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 101 

parabola, the theory of elliptic integrals becomes simply common trigono- 
metry, or parabolic trigonometry with the theory of logarithms. 

These views will suggest to us the reflection, how very small is the field 
of that vast region, the Integral Calculus, which has hitherto been cultivated 
or even explored ! When we find that the highest and most abstruse of 
known functions, not only circular functions and logarithms, but also elliptic 
integrals of the three orders, are exhausted, " used up," in representing the 
symmetrical intersections of surfaces of the second order, who shall exhibit 
and tabulate the integrals of those functions which represent the unsymme- 
trical sections of surfaces of the second order, or generally those curves of 
double curvature in which surfaces of the third and higher orders intersect ? 
Considerations such as these but add fresh evidence to the truth, how small 
even in mathematics is the proportion which the known bears to the 
unknown ! 

Cheltenham, August 8, 1856. 



In revising this memoir for publication among the Reports of the British 
Association, I have supplied several numerical examples to illustrate the theory. 
I have added some new theorems, such as the curious properties of the 
polygon of n sides circumscribing the parabola, p. 95 ; the theorem which 
connects the corresponding points of the parabola and the equilateral hyper- 
bola, p. 94 ; a new trigonometrical form for the roots of a cubic equation, 
p. 81 ; and the geometrical expressions for the 2n roots of a trinomial equa- 
tion, in the excepted case, by the help of parabolic trigonometry, p. 99. 
I have also made a few other additions, and several corrections. — J. B. 

The Vicarage, Wandsworth, Nov, 10, 1856. 



Report on the Marine Testaceous Mollusca of the North-east Atlantic 
and neighbouring Seas, and the physical conditions affecting their 
development. By Robert MacAndrew, F.R.S. 

In the following Report, prepared in compliance with a wish expressed by 
the Committee of the Natural History Section of the British Association at 
the Glasgow Meeting last year, I have endeavoured to embody the results 
of personal research, obtained principally by means of the dredge, at various 
intervals during the past twelve years. 

The field of my labours has extended from the Canary Islands to the North 
Cape (about 43 degrees of latitude), and with reference to the following 
Tables, it should be explained that when a species is stated to extend north- 
wards to the latter, or southwards to the former of these limits, it is not to be 
inferred that it does not range further ; and this it is more important to bear 
in mind, because a large proportion of the Mollusca inhabiting the coasts of 
Finmark are known to be widely distributed in the Arctic Seas, while a con- 
siderable number of the Canary species extend to, and in some cases attain 
their maximum of development in, the tropical region. 

It is hardly necessary to add, that even within the district to which my 
observations have been confined, many species of mollusca are recorded to 
have been obtained which it has not been my good fortune to meet with or 
identify, and that of all such I have taken no note. 



102 



REPORT — 1856. 



"C ^ 



-e 


o -S 


^ 


.-ti « 


St! 

o 




X! 


•3 g.S 


P. 


^ "Sbo 






rs 


^^o 


a 


§:1 


?. 


§ s ^ 



s a s 



a °< 



^3 



2 fl-a 
2 « a 






3 3 3 — 



"o '^'a tj 



til 1 



2 a a 



s >• - - 

O 03 aj <13 ,i; 

a "111 



s a 

-§1 



X 3 .-S 3 



C u %> J3 









0:80 
o a •« 

05'-'' o 

O "*" *^ <N 
I— I 00 uO ^ 



a 3 



■3 
S 



"to 

■s§| 

•3 ^"g' 



;as 



5 3 



2 s :5 



o -a M 
_ tc >-> 

^ O b 



: ^ 
^ 13 

It 

"^ =" 
-r"3 kI 

SKI E 

cs - 
>> 3 j3 ii a 



«* '2 1- 

S ■« 3 M - -S m" 

'O • e- j; « " 









X 






•^^ cS fl (U i* _3 

ij .23 3 « 5- cij 

2 »-. rt 7? 5 > 

A u u 9 cu ia 



_^ in . e 

p c £ ^5 rt- 

■S _? -S M « 



!•« ^ 



4°:^; 



<i'^=a 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 



103 




104 



REPORT — 1856. 



-3 o 



a c. ^ 



2 8 



-; .1- ,1- -^ O 



Ji ^ i: 



3 a 



'O 'o "^ '^ "^ 

s a a a a 



S 3 =s 5 r- 
3 -3 g: ;S 3 



P-i .b 



o is ,ca 
I— I .« '*-■ 



o ,ca 
-" C3 o ^^ 
o o r-< o 

o o *^ o 
■^ "*^ «n ■" , 

CO ro — I CO 



-73 'c; 

s •= 


g 




a 


'• J 












1 1 

5 ^- ^ -• 


% 1 


S 




C3 

to 


2 s 
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Additional Observations which could not be conveniently embodied in the 
foregoing Table. 

Saxicava arctica, Lin. — Absent from no district witliin the range of my re- 
searches, but is much more frequent and larger in tiie northern than in 
the southern latitudes. The large solid variety, now living only in the 
Arctic seas, is found dead (fossil ?) in deep water on the coasts of 
Scotland. 

Gastrochaiua modiolina. Lam. ; Gastrochisena cuneiforrais, Lam. — Not ha- 
ving been able to detect any specific difference between the British spe- 
cimens and those from the south of Europe, 1 treat them as identical. 
In the Canaries the specimens are smaller and inhabit greater depths 
than in other localities. 

Ceratisoleu legumen, Lin. — Is of much smaller size in southern localities ; 
frequent at Malaga, but not eastward in the Mediterranean. 

Donax anatinus, Lam. — I have dredged abundantly from 15 fathoms on the 
Dogger Bank, a remarkable exception from its ordinary habitat. 

Donax venustus, Poli. — Is closely allied to Donax a7iatinus, of which it 
takes the place at Lisbon, Mogador and in the Mediterranean ; in latter 
associated with D. truncidtis. 

Tellina solidula, Pulleney. — Is reported to be frequent in the Mediterranean, 
but I have never met with it south of Britain, 

Mactra subtruncata, Da Costa. — There are two distinct varieties (? species), 
the one larger, solid and strongly rudely striated concentrically, is sub- 
littoral, and most abundant on some of the Scottish shores ; the other, 
small, smooth and thin, is more generally distributed, both as regards 
depth and climate. 

Venus striatula, Don. — On the Mediterranean coasts of Spain and to the 
southward, it is comparatively rare and confined to deep water ; in the 
British seas it frequents all the zones of depth. 

Astarte arctica. Gray. — A valve obtained from west of Zetland, 50 fathoms, 
by Prof. E. Forbes and myself, and recorded in the ' British Mollusca,' 
is in my possession, and I have every reason to believe it to be fossil. 
The reasons which induce me to believe that this species is not an actual 
inhabitant of the British seas are, that it is a shallow-water species, 
very gregarious, and not met with on the coast of Norway, south of 
the Arctic Circle. 

Astarte compressa, Mont. — Subject to great variety in form, size, &c. I be- 
lieve A. Banksii to be only a variety of this species. 

Kellia suborbicularis, Mont. — I incline to think that there are two species in- 
cluded under this name, if not, they are well-murked varieties ; the one 
smaller, more orbicular and more pellucid ; the other much larger, more 
elliptical and, when fully grown, less transparent. It is the last which 
is found imbedded in very fine mud contained in dead bivalves. 

Cardium edule, Lin. — Varies greatly in size, form, number of ribs, &c. 
Near Tunis a narrow neck of land divides the bay from a shallow salt- 
water lake, at the head of which the city of Tunis is situated ; on the one 
side of tiiis neck of land (that facing the bay) all the specimens of Car- 
dium edule were strong, triangular, and with few ribs, while on the side 
towards the lake, they were thinner, wider and much more numerously 
ribbed. The northern varieties attain the largest size. 

Modiola Petagnae, Scacchi — In shallow water in the harbour of Carthagena, 



1 



I 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 135 

free. In the Canary Islands, at 12 to 15 fathoms, small and distorted, 
imbedded in NuUipore. 

Crenella discors, Lin. — The largest British specimens I have obtained were 
on the north coast of the Isle of Man, 10 fathoms. At Southampton 
the pale green variety is frequent about low-water mark, adhering to the 
leaves of Zostera marina. Near Tromsoe in Finmark it is most abundant 
in beds covering the under surfaces of ledges of rock. Though reported 
to be found in the Mediterranean I have not met with it south of the 
British Channel, and believe it to have been confounded with C. costu- 
lata by Mediterranean authors. 

Lithodomus caudigerus, Sotv The authors of the ' British MoUusca ' state 

that this is a South American species. It is frequent on the coast of 
Asturias, Bay of Biscay, also at Faro iii the south of Portugal, at low 
water burrowed in limestone rocks, but not found in the south of Spain 
or Mediterranean, where its place is occupied by L. dactylus. I have 
never obtained them together in any locality. 

Pecten Jacobseus, Lin Notwithstanding that this species is named after the 

Saint of Compostella, I have not been able to detect it on the coasts of 
Galicia, or the north of Spain. 

Pecten Danicus, Chem. — This species would appear to have been formerly 
much more abundant on the west coasts of Scotland than it is at pre- 
sent; as the number of dead valves bears no proportion to that of living 
specimens. It is met with throughout the Hebrides, but is most fre- 
quent in Loch Fyne, the normal form in mud at about 70 fathoms, the 
smaller and strongly striated variety upon hard ground at about 40 
fathoms. It is extremely rare in Finmark, and I only met with small 
dead specimens north of Drontheim. 

Pecten Islandicus, Milller. — Is doubtless extinct in the British seas, though 
dead valves are frequent in the Firth of Clyde, Hebrides, Zetland, 
Murray Frith and North Sea. In Norway, north of Drontheim, it is by 
far the most abundant species of Pecten. 

Anomia ephippium, Lin. — Unlike most testaceous mollusca, which only re- 
quire to be better known to be esteemed as delicacies for the table, the 
Anomia is not to be eaten with impunity. On one occasion, having 
sent my yacht round from a neighbouring port to that of Villaviciosa in 
Asturias, where I purposed joining her after an excursion inland, my 
crew, having been told that there wfere oysters in the harbour, determined 
to dredge on their own account in my absence, and procured abundance 
of the Anomia in large agglomerated masses. Seeing by the complexion 
of the animals that they were not cof/tMon oysters, only one of the men 
would venture upon eating them, and he suffered in consequence severe 
vomiting, &e., with swelling of the abdometi, from which he did not 
entirely recover for two or three days. 

The most beautiful yellow and purple varieties are found in the sunny 
seas of the Mediterranean. 

Ostrea edulis, Lin. — Subject to much variation, tvhich has occasioned the 
making of one or two questionable species, and rendered uncertain the 
limits of its distribution. The common English or Welsh oyster is, how- 
ever, certainly abundant and of excellent quality at Redondela, situated at 
the head of Vigo Bay ; and I have likewise dredged it off Cape Trafalgar 
in sand, and off Malaga in mud, but have not noticed it further eastward 
in the Mediterranean. 

Chiton fascicularis, Lin. ; Chiton discrepans, Brown. — I must acknowledge 
my inability to discriminate satisfactorily between these species. 



136 REPORT — 1856. 

Chiton cancellatus, Sav. — Is more nearly allied to C. Bissoi of the Mediter- 
ranean than to C. asellus, of which it has been supposed to be a variety. 
Chiton fulvus, Wood. — This fine species differs as much in its habits as in 
ajipearance from its European congeners. It enjoys greater powers of 
locomotion than any other Chiton of my acquaintance, creeping freely 
in the sand between tide marks in Vigo Baj% where it is very abundant, 
and where several were found adhering to the chain cable every time 
it was raised from our anchorage abreast of the town of Vigo. It is, 
nevertheless, extremely local, not recorded to be obtained in any locality 
but those I have named, unless from Patagonia, whence there are spe- 
cimens in the British Museum under another name, but in no way to be 
distinguished from the present species. 
Chiton Cajetanus, Poll. — Inhabits the Mediterranean and Bay of Biscay, but 
has not been detected in any intermediate locality, nor on the south 
coasts of Spain. 
Patella vulgata, Lin. — Becomes a local species on the northern coasts of 

Norway, and I did not meet with it in Finmark. 
Patella pellucida, Lin. — The distribution of this species is regulated by that 
of the Laminaria, on which it feeds. It is not unfrequent in the north 
of Spain ; is absent from the south of Spain and Mediterranean, but 
unexpectedly appears again in the harbour of Mogador, where it is of 
small size. In high northern latitudes it is much paler in colour. 
Patella Gussonii, Phil. — Among some hundreds of dead specimens I only 

took one or two living, and these were upon a deep-water red fucus. 
Calyptrsea Sinensis, Lin. — I have never obtained British specimens in less 
than 8 or 10 fathoms, whereas on the coasts of Spain it is generally 
found about the sea margin, and in shallow water. 
Trochus crenulatus, Phil. — I believe to be specifically distinct from T. exi- 
gutis, is subject to great variation in colour ; the grey variety is more 
common to the eastward. 
Trochus millegranus, Phil. — Of this species there are two very distinct 
varieties, of which the smaller and more conical inhabits the Mediterra- 
nean and south coast of England and Wales, while the larger is common 
to the north-west coasts of Britain and Norway. 
Rissoa abyssicola, Forbes. — A specimen received from Captain Spratt, 

dredged by him in 3,50 fathoms, about 40 miles from Malta. 
Turritella communis, Risso. — The ordinary British form is wider in propor- 
tion and possesses fewer volutions than that of the Mediterranean. A 
large variety with numerous volutions is found in Cork Harbour and in 
Bressa Sound, always in shallow water, while the ordinary variety in- 
habits all the zones of depth. I have taken white specimens of both 
the forms, consequently absence of colour is not always the consequence 
of great depth. 
Couus Mediterraneus, Brug. — Is very frequent at Lancerotte, but does not 

extend westward to Teneriffe or to the Salvage or Madeira Islands. 
Purpura lapillus, Lin. — Though generally littoral, inhabits the depth of 8 or 
10 fathoms in certain localities, and in these cases undergoes consider- 
able modification of form; from deep water and mud, it is large and 
fusiform, from 8 fathoms and rough ground the specimens are beauti- 
fully imbricated. 
Ringicula auriculata, Menhe.—Ki Vigo, the northern limit of its range, it 
attains the greatest dimensions and is very abundant, but not striated as 
in the Mediterranean and Madeira. 
Nassa trifasciata, A. Adams. — Most abundant at Vigo, but smaller than in 



ON MOLL.USCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 



137 



the Mediterranean ; in latter district it undergoes considerable variation 
in colour. 

Fusus gracilis, Da Costa. — Notwithstanding the opinion of Middendorf, 
adopted by Forbes and Hanley, that this is only a variety of F. Islandicus 
of Chemnitz, I am quite satisfied of the contrary after obtaining the 
true Fusus Islandicus in the neighbourhood of the North Cape, It 
was from about 100 fathoms, and measured 4-^ inches in length, while 
adult specimens of Fusus gracilis from the same locality did not measure 
more than 2^ inches in length. 

Spirula Feronii, Lam. — This shell, possessing a peculiar aptitude for floating 
on the surface of the sea when dead, is liable to be drifted to localities 
very remote from its native habitat. A chance specimen has occasion- 
ally been picked up on the shores of Britain ; on the south coast of the 
Bay of Biscay it is still rare, is more frequent at Gibraltar and Malaga, 
and abundant in the Canary Islands. I am not aware of its having been 
found in the eastern Mediterranean. 



The following Table M'ill be of assistance in a comparison of the Geographi- 
cal range of the species and the number obtained in each of the districts. 



Species. 






2S 



Acephala. 

Xylophaga, Turton. 

dorsalis, Turton 

Pholas, Lin. 

dactylus, Lin 

parva, Lam 

crispata, Lin 

Candida, Lin 

Pholadidea, Leach. 

papyracea, Solander .. 
Clavagella, Lam. 

sp. ined 

Gastrochsena, Spengler. 

modiolina, Lam 

cuneiformis. Lam 

Pandora, Lin. 

rostrata, Lam 

obtusa, Leaeh 

Lyonsia, Turton. 

Norvegica, Chem 

arenosa, Moller 

Thracia, Leach. 

phaseolina, iam 

villosiuscula, Macyill. 
pubesceiis, Pulteney . 

convexa, Wood 

distorta, Mont 



138 



REPORT — 1856. 



species. 



ZE 



Acephala {continued). 
Periploma, Schum. 

prsetenuis, Pulteney 

Saxicava, F. de Bellevue. 

arctica, Lin 

rugosa, Lin 

Panopsea, Menard de la Groye. 

Aldrovandi, Menard 

Poromya, Forbes. 

granulata, Xyst and TFesten 
dorp 

Koreaii (Embla), Loven 

Nesera, Gray. 

cuspidata, Olivi 

costellata, Desk 

abbreviata, Desh 

obesa, Loven i.... 

Corbula, Bruyuiere. 

nucleus, iam i.... 

rosea, Brown i.... 

SphjBnia, Turton. 

Biagbaini, Turton ■.... 

Mya, Lin. 

truncata, Lin 

arenaria, im« !.••• 

Solen, Lin. 

siliqua, Lin 

ensis, Lin 

marginatus, Pulteney ..... 

pellucidus, Pennant ........ 

Ceratisolen, Forbes. 

legumeu, Lin 

Solecurtus, Blainville. 

coarctatus, Gmel. ;.... 

caiididus, Renieri 

strigilatus, Lin i.... 

Syndosmya, Recluz. 

alba, JVood 

prismatica, Mont 

intermedia, Thompson ..... 

Renieri, Brown 

tenuis, Mont ;.... 

Scrobicularia, Schumachef. 

piperata, Gmel. 

Cottardi, Payr 

Donax, Lin. 

anatinus, Lutn ■... 

trunculus, Z.m 

venustus, Poli «... 

politus, Poli 

Ervilia, Turton. 

castanea, Mont 

nitens ?, Afon^ ..•. 



P S 



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2S 



ON MOLliUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 139 



Species. 



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Acephala (continued). 
Mesodesma, Desk. 

donacilla, Desk 

Psammobia, Lam. 

vespertina, Chem 

tellinella, jf/flOT 

costulata, Turion 

Ferroensis, Chem 

costata, Hanley 

Gastrana, Schumacher. 

fragilis, Lin 

Tellina, Lin, 

crassa, Pennant 

balaustiua, Lin 

donacina, Lin 

pygmasa, Phil >.. 

incarnata, Lin 

tenuis, Da Costa 

fabula, Gronovius 

solidula, Pulteney 

proxima, Brown 

distorta, Poli 

serrata, Brocchi 

pUlchella 

Costa;, PA?^ 

planata, Lin 

punicea?, Lin 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

Liitraria, Lam. 

elliptica, Xam < 

oblonga, Chem. ,> 

Mactra, Lin. 

rugosa, Chem 

solida, Lin 

elliptica, Brown .., 

subtruncata, Ba Costa ... 

stultorum, Lin 

helvacea, Chem 

Petricola, Lam. 

lithophaga, Retzius 

Venerupis, Lam. 

irus, Lin 

Tapes, Muhlfeldt. 

decussata, Lin. .i 

puUastra, Wood 

virginea, Gmel, 

aurea, Gmel. 

mtem, Scaechi 

geograpliica, Lin 

florida, Lam 

Beudaiitii, Payr. 

Lucinopsis, Forbes. 

undata, Pennant 



140 



REPORT — 1856. 



Species. 



Acephala {continued). 
Artemis, Poll. 

exoleta, Lin 

lincta, Pulteney 

Cytherea, Lam. 

chione, Zm 

Venetiana, Lam 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

Venus, Lin. 

verrucosa, Lin 

casina, im 

striatula, Don 

gallina, Zm 

fasciata. Da Costa 

ovata. Pennant 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

Cardita, Brug. 

calyculata, Brug 

trapezia, Lin 

squamosa, Lam 

sulcata, Brug 

corMs, Phil. 

Isocardia, Lam. 

cor, Lin 

Astarte, Sow. 

arctica, Gray 

sulcata. Da Costa 

compressa, Mont 

triangularis, Mont 

incrassata, Broccki 

fusca. Desk 

crebricostata, Forbes 

elliptica. Brown 

bipartita, Phil 

sp. ined 

Circe, Schumacher. 

minima, Mont 

Cyprina, Lam. 

Islandica, Lin 

Galeomma, Turton, 

Turtoni, Sow 

Leptou, Turton. 

squamosum, Mont 

convexum. Alder 

Montacuta, Turton. 

substriata, Mont 

ferruginosa, Mont 

bidentata, Mont 

Kellia, Ihirton. 

suborbicularis, Mont. ., 

corbuloides, Phil. 

complanata, P/ii/. 



•a ^ 
- fa 



ss 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 



141 



Species. 



e a 

o a 



3S 



Acephala {continued). 
Kellia, Turton. 

rubra, Mont 

Pythina, Hinds. 

sp. ined 

Ungulina, Daudin. 

oblonga ?, Daudin , 

Diplodonta, Brown. 

rotundata, Mont 

apicalis, Phil. 

Lucina, Bruguiere. 

borealis, Lin 

spinifera, Mont 

divaricata, Lin 

flexuosa, Mont 

leucoma, Turton , 

Sarsii?, Phil 

ferruginosa, Forhes .... 

bullata, Peeve 

columbella, Lam 

transversa, Phil. 

digitalis, Lin 

pecten. Lam 

sp. ined , 

sp. ined, 

sp. ined. ? 

Cardium, Lin. 

erinaceum, Lam 

aculeatum, Lin 

echinatum, Lin 

rusticuui, Lin 

ciliare, Pewre 

edule, im 

nodosum, Turton .... 

fasciatum, Mow< 

pygmaeum, Bon 

Suecicuni, Reeve 

Norvegicum, Spengler . 

papillosum, Poli 

punctatum, Brocchi .... 

minimum ?, P/«^. 

elegantulum, Miiller .... 

sp 

Chama, Lin, 

gryphoides, Lin 

Solemya, Lam. 

Mediterranea, Lam 

Yoldia, Miiller. 

pygmaea, Munster 

lucida, Bland 

limatula. Say 

Leda, Schumacher. 

caudata, Don 

pernula, Miiller 



* 




* 




* 




*.' 


*? 


* 


* 


* 





142 



REPORT 1856. 



Species. 



S 
- a 
I5 E 



SS 



Acephala (continued). 
Leda, Schum. 

emarginata, Zam 

striata, Lam 

Nucula, Lam. 

nucleus, Lin 

nitida, .So?*; ,, 

radiata, Hanley 

decussata, Sow 

tenuis, Mont 

corticata, Moller 

Limopsis, Sassi. 

pygnijea, Phil. 

Pectunculus, Lam. 

glycimeris, Zm. ........... 

violascens, Lam 

Siculus, Reeve 

pilosus, Lam 

Area, Lin. 

Noae, Lin 

tetragona, Poli ,.. 

barbate, Zm ,..,•• 

antiquata, var. ?, Poli . . 

lactea, Lin .,,., 

nodulosa, Loven. .......... 

raridentata, S. Wood 

obliqua, Phil. 

navicularis, Bruff 

imbricata, Bruff 

diluvii?, Lam 



Modiola, Lam. 

modiolus, Lin 

tulipa, Lam 

phaseoliua, P/iil. .. 

barbata, Lin 

Petagnae, Scacchi .. 

sp. ined 

Crenella, Brown. 

discors, Lin 

marmorata, Forbes 

nigra. Gray 

vestita, Phil 

costulata, Jfmo 

rhombea, Berkeley., 

decussata, Mont. .. 
Lithodomus, Cuvier. 

dactylus, Cuvier .. 

caudigerus, Sow. ., 
Mytilus, Lin. 

edulis, Lin 

minimus, Poli 

Afer, Gmel. ........ 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 143 



Species. 



Acephala {continued). 
Pinna, Lin. 

pectinata, £m 

muricata, Poli 

rudis, Lin , 

Avicula, Brug. 

Tarentina, Lam 

Lima, Brug. 

subauriculata, Mont. 

sulculus, Loven 

Loscombii, Sow 

liians, Gmel. 

fragilis, Seacchi 

squamosa. Lam 

inflata, iflw 

excavata, /. C. Fab 

Pecten, O. F. Muller. 

varius, Lin , 

niveus, Macg 

^\mo, Pennant 

striatus, Muller 

tigrinus, Miiller 

Danicus, Ckem 

similis, Laskey 

maximus, Lin 

Jacobaeus, Lin , 

opercularis, Lin 

Islandicus, Muller 

polymorphus, Bronn 

hyalinus, Po/i 

sulcatus, Lam 

glaber, Lin , 

testae, Bivon 

pes-felis, Lin ,.., 

gibbus ?, Lin 

Groenlandicus, Sotv 

corallinoides, D'Orb....... 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

Spondylus, Lin. 

gaedaropus, lAn 

Anomia, Lin. 

ephippium, Lin 

patelliformis, Lin 

striata, Loven 

aculeata, Miiller 

Ostrea, im 

edulis, Lin 

plicatula ?, Phil. 

Crania, Retzius. 

anoraala, Miiller 

Rhyncbonella, Fischer. 

psittacea, Chem 



■fi a 

o c 

2;e 



144 



REPORT — 1856. 



Species. 



ZE 



Acephala {continued). 
Argiope, E. Deslongchamps. 

decollata, Chem 

Neapolitana, Scacchi 

cuneata, Risso 

cistellula, Searles Wood 
Megerlia, King. 

truncata, Lin 

Terebratulina, D'Orb 

caput-serpentis, Lin 

Waldheimia, King. 

cranium, Gmel 



Pteropoda. 

Spirialis, Eydoux &; Sotileyet. 

Flemingii, Forbes 

Macandrei, Forbes i^ H. . 



Cuvieria, Rang. 

coluranella?, Rang 

Creseis, Rang. 

recta, Lesueur 

striata, Rang 

subulata, Quog S( Gaimard 
Hyalea, Lam. 

tridentata, iam 

trispinosa, Lesueur 

vaginella, Cantraine 



gibbosa. Rang .. 
Atlanta, Peron. 

Perouii, Lesueur 
Oxygyrus. 

Keraudrenii 



Gasteropoda. 

Umbrella, Chem. 

Mediterranea, Lam 

Tylodina, Rajinesque. 

citrina 

Aplysia, Gmel 

hybrida, Sow 

Patterson! 

ocellata 

Philine, Ascanius. 

aperta, Lin 

quadrata, Searles Wood 

scabra, 0. Midler 

catena, Mont 

punctata, Clark 

pruinosa, Clark 

Smaragdinella, A. Adams. 

Algii'a, Hanley 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 145 



Species. 







a a 




a S 




3 c 


o 

T3 


a^a 






u O 


to 




o 


-=1? 


(=H 







Gasteropoda {continued) 
Scaphander, Montfort. 

lignarius, Lin 

librarius, Loven , 

Amphisphyra, Loven. 

hyalina, Turton , 

Cylichna, Loven. 

cylindracea, Pen 

truncata, Mont 

obtusa, il/ore^ 

mamillata, Phil. 

umbilicata, Mont 

fragilis, Jeffreys 

alba, Loven 

Akera, O. F. Muller. 

bullata, Mail. 

Hanleyi, A. Ad. 

Bulla, Lin. 

hydzXis, Lin 

Craneliii, Leaeh 

ovulata, Phil. 

sp. nov.? 

sp. nov. ? 

sp. nov. ? 



striata, Brug 

ampulla ?, iira 

TornateUa, Lam. 

fasciata. Lam 

Auricula, Lam. 

alba, Jeffreys 

denticulata, Mont 

Ferminii, Payr 

Pedipes, Adanson. 

sp 

Chiton, Lin. 

fascicularis, Lin "i 

discrepans, Brown J 

Hanleyi, Bean 

ruber, Lin 

cinereus, Lin 

albus, im 

asellus, Chem 

cancellatus. Sow 

laevis. Pen 

marmoreus, O. Fab 

fulvus, Wood 

Cajetanus, Pali 

Rissoi, Payr 

siculus, Gray 

Foil, Phil. 

Canariensis, Webb 8f Berth. 

alveolus, Sars 

sp. ined 



1856. 



146 



REPORT— 1856. 



Species. 


.2^ 
a a 

II 

o a 


1 

1 

(-4 

Q 


1 
o 


o 

P3 


a 

•a 

o 

■c 

o 
1^ 


a 

60 

3 

s 

CM 


T3 

a . 
Ǥ 

■« s 

o ."S 
o 


o 


■a 
1 

s 
O 


2 

a 


o 


Gasteropoda {continued). 
Dentalium, Lin. 

entalis, im "1 

tarentinum, Lam J 


* 


* 


* 


* 


* 
* 


* 
* 


* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


* 

* 

* 


* 
* 

* 


* 
* 


* 

* 












sp. ined 










* 




sp. ined 


* 








Siphonaria, Poli. 
Algesira, Quot/ 


Gadinia, Gray. 

Garnoti, Payr 














Afer ?, Grat/ 














Acmaea, Esckscholtz. 

testudinalis, MiiUer 


* 
* 


* 
* 


* 
* 

* 


* 
* 


* 
* 


* 


* 

* 
* 
*? 


* 

*? 


virginea, MiiUer. ..^^ 

Lepeta, Gray. 

ancyloides, Forbes 


caeca, Miiller 


* 


* 
* 
* 


Pilidium, Forbes. 

fulvum, Miiller 


Patella, Lin. 


aerulea, Lam 


* 
* 

* 

* 


* 
* 

* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


athletica. Bean 






* 


* 






crenata, D'Orb 










guttata, D'Orb 


















aspera. Lam 














* 


*? 


Lowei, D'Orb 














scutellaris. Lam 














* 


Candei, D'Orb 














tenuis, Dillwynn 


















Gussonii, Costa 


















* 

* 

* 


nigropuiictata, Lam 














* 


* 
* 


pellucida, Lin 


* 
* 


* 


* 
* 


* 
* 


* 
* 




Pileopsis, Lam. 

Hungarica, Lin 





* 

* 

* 
* 

* 
* 


Crepidula, Lam. 

unguifortnis. Lam 


gibbosa, Defr 














Calyptraia, Lam. 

Sinensis, Lin 








* 

* 
* 


* 

* 
* 


* 
* 


Emarginula, Lam. 
reticulata. Sow 


* 


* 


* 


rosea, Bell 


cn.%%3., J. Sow 




* 


* 


elongata, Costa 




pileolus, Michaud 














sp. ined 














Puncturella, Lowe. 


* 


* 


* 

* 


* 


* 


* 


* 
* 


* 
* 


* 


Fissurella, Lam. 

reticulata, Don 


rosea, ZflOT 























ON MOLLUSCA OP THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 147 



Species. 



3,^ 



o c 



SS 



Gasteropoda {continued). 
Fissurella, Lam. 

gihha, Phil. 

lanthina, Lam. 

communis, Lam , 

prolongata, Blainv 

exigua, Lam 

sp-? 

Scissurella, D'Orb. 

crispata, Flem 

Bertheloti, B'Orb 

angulata, ioDen 

Haliotis, Lin. 

tuberculata, Lin 

lamellosa, Lam 



Adeorbis, Searles Wood. 

subcarinatus, Mont 

Margarita, Leach. 

helicina, O. Fab 

undulata, Sow , 

alabastrum. Beck 

cinerea, Couthovy , 

Trocbus, Lin. 

zizyphinus, Lin 

conulus, Lin. 

granulatus, Bom 

striatus, Lin 

Montagui, Gray 

millegranus, Phil. 

exigiius, PuUeney 

crenulatus, Phil. 

tumidus, Mont 

cinerarius, Lin 

umbilicatus, Afon^ 

magus, Lin , 

lineatus, Costa 

canaliculatus, Phil. 

fanulum, Gmel. , 

fragaroides. Lam 

indecorus, Phil. , 

%iv\cYi, Webb Sf Berth. ... 

Richardi, Payr 

Laugieri, Payr 

SP 

Vieillotti, Payr , 

Jussieui, Payr , 

articulatus, Lam 

divaricatus, Lin 

dubius ?, PAi? 

sanguineus, Lin 

vUlicus, Phil. 

Bertheloti (Monodonta), 
D'Orb. 



l2 



148 



REPORT — 1856. 



Species. 


V C 

ca ca 

II 
^% 

t, s 

o c 


a 

53 

B 

s 


o 
in 


13 
§ 

o 


■3 

VI 
^-< 





to 

* 
* 


T3 
C . 
« C 

"Is 

Vi ^ 

.-g 

Is 

* 
* 
* 

* 




ea 
U) 



* 
* 


H 
— 

a 

ca 



* 

* 
* 

* 


2 
s 

ta 

* 

* 

* 



* 

* 

* 
* 

* 


Gasteropoda {continued). 

Phasianella, Lam. 

pullus, Lin 






* 


* 


* 


intermedia, Seaccfd 






Vieuxii, Payr 












Turbo, im. 

rugosus, Lin 










* 


* 


sp. ined 










Neritina, Lam. 

viridis, Lin 














* 
* 


Truncatella, Lowe. 

tnincatula, Drap 














Skenea, Flem. 
planorbis, 0. Fab 


* 


* 
* 


* 








sp. ..,,,, 


sp 


Rissoa, Frem. 

striatul a, iWbn# 








* 






* 

* 

* 


* 
* 


lactea, Mich 








* 
* 

* 




Zetlandica, Mont 






* 


* 
* 


crenulata, Mich 






Beanii, Hantey 






* 


abyssicola, Forties 






calathus, Forbes 8f Hantey... 
granulata, Phil 




* 




* 

* 

* 
* 

* 








sculpta, Phit. 






* 


* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 
* 

* 
* 


* 
* 

* 

* 

* 


* 


* 


* 
* 

* 




punctura, Mont 






cost&ta., Adams 








striata, Mo7it 


* 

* 


* 
* 


* 

* 


parva, Costa "I 


interrupta, Adams j ' 

costulata, Atder 


rufilabrum, Atder 






* 
* 


lahiosa, Mo7it 






semistriata, Mont 






rnbta, Alder 








cingillus, Mont 






* 
* 

* 


* 
* 
* 








vitrea, Mont 







* 


* 
* 

* 




* 
* 


* 

* 


ulvcB, Pennant 


* 


* 


Barleei, Jeffreys 


violacea, Desm 






nionodoiita, Bivon 










Bruguieri, Payr 












auriscalpiuin , Lin 















Montagui, Payr 














Desmarestii, Forbes 














Canariensis, Webb iSf Berth. 
sp. ined 


























*** 




sp. ined 














sp. ined 


















Lacuna, Turton. 

pallidula, Costa 




* 


* 

* 
* 


* 
* 
* 


* 












puteolus, Turton 




vincta, ilfore< 


* 


* 





4 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 149 



Species. 



§» 



o.S 



gS 



Gasteropoda (continued). 
Lacuna, Turton. 

labiosa, Loven 

crassior, Mont 

Solarium, Lam. 

luteum, Lam 

stramineum, Gmel. 

pseudoperspectivum, Brocc. 
Bifrontia, Desk. 

zanclsea, Phil , 

Fossarus, Philippi. 

Adansoni, Phil. 

Littorina, Fer. 

neritoides, Lin 

littorea, Lin 

littoralis, Lin, 

rudis, Don 

tenebrosa, Mont 

saxatilis, Johnston 

patula, Jeffreys 

Syriaca, Phil. 

striata 

Scalaria, Lam. 

Turtonis, Turton 

communis, Za?w 

clathratula, lfo»^ 

Groenlandica, Chem 

lioyem, A. Ad. 

Tre velKana, Leach 

crenata, Zm 

pseudoscalaris, Brocchi , 

cochlea, Sow. Jun , 

Webbii, D'OrS 

Macandrei, Forbes, MSS. 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

Vermetus, Adanson. 

gigas, Bivon 

glomeratus, Lin 

corneus, Forbes 

Caecum, Fleming. 

trachea, Mont 

glabrum, Mont 

elegantissimum. Carpenter., 

Searles-Woodii, Carpenter. . 

vitreum, Carpenter 

Aclis, Loven. 

ascaris, Turton 

supranitida, Searles Wood.. 

sp. ined 

? Genus uncertain. 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 



150 



REPORT — 1856. 



Species. 


11 
11 

11 


1 

1 


13 

S 

•3 
o 


"3 

1 

pq 


"3 

a, 

CO 

o 

o 
IS 


t 

2 
1 


.3 S 


i 


S 

s 




o 


Gasteropoda (continued). 
Turritella, Lam. 

communis, Risso 


* 


* 


■* 


* 


* 


* 


* 

* 

* 
* 


* 
* 


* 


* 


* 
* 

* 

* 


triplicata, Brocchi 


Mesalia, Gray. 

brevialis, Lam 










striata, A. Ad 












Aporrhais, Aldrovandus. 
pes-pelecani, im 


* 
* 


* 


* 

* 

* 


* 
* 


* 


* 






pes-carbonis, Brangniart ... 
Tnforis, Deshayes. 

adversa, Mont 


perversa, fir!<^ 






* 


* 


* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 


* 


* 

* 

* 
* 

* 


* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 
* 


Macandrei, A. Ad. 


* 


« 




* 

* 
* 


* 
* 


Cerithiopsis, Forbes. 

tubercularis, Mont 


Cerithium, Brug. 
reticiilatum, Costa 




* 
* 


* 


* 


metula, Loven, 


* 


lacteum, PAj?. 


angustinum, Forbes 














vulgatum, Brug 












* 


fuscatum, Costa 












Stylina, Fkm. 

sp. 














Eulima, Risso. 

polita, Lin 


* 


* 


* 

* 


* 
* 
* 


* 




* 
* 
* 

* 




distorta, i)e«A 


siibulata, Donovan 






* 


* 


bilineata, Alder 


* 


* 


* 




* 

* 

* 
* 

* 

* 

* 

* 


nitida, iam 


sp. ined 














Chemnitzia, D'Orb. 

elegantissima, Mont 








* 


* 


* 
* 

* 


* 
* 

* 

*** 

* 

* 

* 
* 
* 
* 


* 



* 


rnfa, Phil. 








formosa, Jeff. 








* 
* 
* 
* 

* 


* 
* 
* 
* 

* 


fenestrata, Forbes 8f Jeff. ... 








fulvocincta, Thompson 






* 


scalaris, Phil. 






nifescens, /'ories 




* 


* 
* 


indistincta, Mont 




sp. ined 


* 




sp. ined 


Eulimella, Forbes. 

acicula, Phil. 






* 
* 
* 

* 


* 






affinis, Phil 


* 


* 
* 






SciUae, PAjV 


Odostomia, Flem. 

conoidea, Brocchi 




* 
* 
* 
* 


*■■ 


* 


acuta, /e^. 






spiralis, Mont 






* 

* 






interstiucta, Mont 










conspicua, Alder 








* 


plicata, Mont 


* 


% 


* 


* 















ON MOLLUSeA OP THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 151 



Species. 



■S a 



j3!2; 



S 
s 

2;s 



2S 



Gasteropoda {continued). 
Odostomia, /'/em. 

obliqua, Alder , 

glabrata, Muhlfeldt , 

unidentata, Mont 

tricincta, /e^. 

Velutina, Flem. 

laevigata, Lin 

flexilis, Mont 

Lamellaria, Mont. 

tentaculata, Mont 

perspicua, Lin 

prodita, Zoi)«j 

sp. ined 

Sigaretus, Lam. 

haliotideus, Lin 

Natica, Lam. 

monilifera, Lam 

nitida, Bon 

sordida, Phil. 

helieoides, Johnston 

pusilla, Gould 

Montagui, Forbes 

clausa, Sow 

aperta, Loven 

intricata, Don 

textUis, Reeve 

oUa, M. De Serres 

millepunctata, Lam 

GuUleminii, Payr 

macilenta, Phil. 

porcellana, Webb ^ Berth 

Sagrana, D'Orb 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

Ovulum, Lam, 

patulum,Pe« , 

spelta, Lin , 

carneum, Lin.., 

? acuminatum, Brug 

Erato, Risso. 

Isevis, Don 

Cyprsea, Lin. 

Europea, Mont 

pulex, Solander 

candidula, Gaskoin 

spurca, Lin 

pyrum, Lin 

moneta, Lin 

lurida, Lin 

Marginella, Lam. 

miliacea, Xam 

clandestina, Brocchi ,.,.,.. 
guancha, D'Orb,..,., 



*? 



152 



REPORT 1856. 



Species. 



00 ^ 



Gasteropoda {continued). 
Marginella, Lam. 

secalina ?, Phil 

glabella, Lin 

sp. ined 

Mitra, Latn. 

columbellaria, Scaceki .. 

ebeneus, Lam 

Savignii, Pat/r 

fusca, Swains 

lutescens, Latn 

zebrina, D'Orb 

sp. ined 

sp 

Cymba, Erod. 

olla, Lin 

Lachesis, Risso. 

minima, Mont 

Defrancia, Millet. 

pyramidalis, S^roM 

linearis, Mont 

purpurea, Mont 

Phileberti, Michaud 

Lefroyii, Mich ■ 

reticulata. Brown 

Bela, Leach. 

turricula, Mont 

Trevelliana, Turton .... 

mitrula, Loven 

rosea, Sars 

rufa, Mont 

septangularis, Mont 

Mangelia, Leach. 

.'HolboUii, Mo&r 

?nana, Xowera 

teres, Forbes 

gracilis, Mont 

nebula, Mont 

laevigata, Phil 

bracbystoma, Phil. .... 

striolata, Scacchi 

costata, Pen 

attenuata, Mont 

elegans, Scanehi 

Vauquelina, Payr 

secalina, Phil 

grana, Phil 

rugulosa, Phil. 

nana, Scacchi 

crispata, Cristof. 

rudis, Phil. 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 

sp. ined 





s 


H 






£2- 




m 


r; 






o 


^ 


ji 


• — 


■e 






n 


^ 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 



153 



Species. 



2;E 



Gasteropoda {continued). 
Mangelia, Leach. 
sp. ined. 



nivalis, Loven 

balteata, £eeA 

Conus, Lin. 

Mediterraneus, Brug. 

papilionaceus, Brug. . 
Columbella, Lam. 

rustica, Lin 

scripta, Lin 

minor, Scacchi 

eribraria, Lin 

Broderipii, Sow 



ined. 



sp, 

sp. ined 

Dolium, Lam. 

galea, Lin 

Cassidaria, Lam. 

echinopiiora, Lin 

Cassis, Lam. 

sulcosa, Lam 

saburon. Lam 

Purpura, Lam. 

lapillus, im 

hsemastoma, im 

viveratoides, Webb 8f Berth 
Ringicula, Desh. 

auriculata, Mont 

Nassa, Lam. 

reticulata, Lin 

incrassata, Miiller 

pygmsea, iajw 

variabilis, Phil. 

prismatica, Brocchi 

mutabilis, Lin 

neritea, im 

grana, Lam 

tiifasciata, ^. ^<?. 

glaberrima, Gmel. 

corniculum, Olivi 

Terebra, Lam. 



sp 

Buccinum, Lin. 

undatum, Xm 

Dalei, /. Sow 

Humphreysianum, Bennet 

f usif orme, Brod 

cyaneum, MUller 

sp. ined 

Fusus, Lam. 

Islandicus, Chem 

gracilis, Costa , 

propinquus. Alder 



154 



REPORT 1856. 



Species. 



Gasteropoda (continned) 
Fusus, Lam. 

Berniciensis, King 

autiquus, Lam 

Norvegicus, CAem 

contrarius, Zom 

Syracusantis, Lin 

corneas, Lin 

pulchellus, Phil. 

rostratus, Olivi 

craticulatus, PM. 

moroccanus 

sp 

Trophon, De Montfort. 

clathratus, Lin 

muricatus, Mont 

Barvicensis, Johnston .... 

Gunneri, Love'n 

craticulatus, Fab 

Trichotropis, Brod. 

borealis, Sow , 

Caucellaria, Lam. 

cancellata, Lam 

assimilis, Sow 

sp. iued 

sp. ined : 

viridula (Admete), O'Fab.... 
Triton, Lam. 

nodiferus, Lam 

corrugatus, Lam 

cutaceus, iflw 

olearius ?, iw 

scrobiculatus, Lam 

pilearis, Lam 

tuberosus, Lam 

Ranella, Lam. 

Ije vigata, Lam 

Pisania, Biron. 

D'Orbignii, Payr 

maculosa, Lam 

Typhis, Montf. 

Sowerbii, Brod. 

Slurex, Lin. 

erinaceus, Lin 

trunculus, im 

brandaris, Lin 

corallinus, Scacchi 

Edwardsii, Payr 

cristatus, Brocchi 

torosus, Lam 

sp. ined 



t; s 

o c 



Cephalopoda. 

Spirula, Lam. 
Peroiiii, Zam. ... 



5^ 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 



155 



Number of species enumerated : — 

Acephala, 275; Pteropoda, 14; Gasteropoda, 460: Total 750. 
Number of species obtained in the most northern district (Finmark and Nordland) : — 

88 Acephala, 100 Gasteropoda ; total 188 species, of which 

160, were found as far south as North Drontheim. 

„ „ Scotland. 

„ „ British Channel. 

„ „ North of Spain. 

„ „ Portugal. 

„ „ S. of Spain & Mediterranean. 

„ „ Mogador. 

„ ,, Canary Islands. 

„ „ Madeira. 



72 Acephala, 88 


Gasteropoda 


= 160 


64 


71 


II 


= 135 


50 


43 




1 


= 93 


37 


36 




J 


= 73 


35 


, 25 




, 


= 60 


35 


24 




1 


= 59 


19 


15 




, 


= 34 


8 


8 




, 


= 16 


6 , 


, 4 




, 


= 10 



Of 83 Acephala and 93 Gasteropoda =176 species from the coast of North Drontheim— 

77 Acephala and 80 Gasteropoda= 157 found as far south as Scotland. 

„ British Channel. 

„ North of Spain. 

„ Portugal. 

„ Mediterranean. 

„ Mogador. 

„ Canary Islands. 

„ Madeira. 

„ north as Nordland and Finmark. 



60 


, 51 , 


= 111 


45 


43 


= 88 


41 


, 30 


= 71 


41 


29 , 


= 70 


23 


, 18 


, = 41 


16 


11 


= 27 


10 


, 8 


= 18 


69 


82 


, =151 



Of 117 Acephala, 1 Pteropod, and 142 Gasteropoda= 
Scotland — 



: 260 species found on the coasts of 



97 Acephala, 103 Gasteropoda =200, extend south to the British Channel. 

„ North of Spain. 

„ Portugal. 

„ Mediterranean. 

„ Mogador. 

„ Canary Islands. 

„ Madeira. 

= 153 extend as far north as Drontheim. 

„ Nordland and Finmark. 



81 


86 




= 167 


76 


69 




= 145 


76 


65 




= 141 


47 


46 




= 93 


36 


36 




= 72 


26 


25 




= 51 


70 


83 




= 153 


59 


72 




= 138 



Of 122 Acephala, 136 Gasteropoda =258 species from the south coast of England — 

103 Acephala, 114 Gasteropoda =227, are found as far south as the North of Spain. 

„ Portugal. 

„ Mediterranean. 

„ Mogador. 

„ Canary Islands. 

„ Madeira, 

north as Scotland. 

„ Drontheim. 

„ Nordland and Finmark. 



98 


94 


= 192 


98 


90 


= 188 


59 


59 


= 118 


45 


48 


= 93 


30 


33 


= 63 


91 


99 


= 190 


51 


49 


= 107 


46 


42 


= 88 



Of 94 Acephala, 123 Gasteropoda = 21 7 from the north coast of Spain, including Vigo — 

88 Acephala, 95 Gasteropoda =183, are found as far south as Portugal. 

„ Mediterranean. 

„ Mogador. 

„ Canary Islands. 

,, Madeira, 

north as South of England. 

,, Scotland. 

„ North Drontheim. 

„ Nordland and Finmark. 



86 


89 


= 171 


49 


61 


= 110 


35 


46 


= 81 


22 


34 


= 56 


81 


91 


= 172 


62 


66 


= 128 


38 


38 


= 76 


30 


33 


= 63 



156 



KEPORT 1856. 



Of 90 Acephala, 74 Gasteropoda 
88 Acephala, 65 Gasteropoda 



= 164 species of Mollusca from the coast of Portugal — 
= 153, extend to the S. of Spain and Mediterranean. 



54 


47 


= 101 , 


, as far south as Mogador. 


37 


40 


= 77 


, „ Canary Islands. 


24 


27 


= 51 


, „ Madeira. 


75 


54 


= 129 , 


, as far north as North of Spain. 


67 


38 


= 105 


, „ South of England. 


45 


27 


= 72 


, „ Scotland. 


28 


, 14 , 


= 42 


, „ North Drontheim. 


21 


. 11 . 


= 32 


„ Nordland and Finmark 



Of 184 Acephala, 7 Pteropoda, 233 Gasteropoda, 1 Cephalopod=425 species from south 
of Spain and Mediterranean — 
91 Acephala, 6 Pteropoda, 116 Gasteropoda, lCeplialopod = 214, extends. to Mogador. 



69 
46 
122 
109 
99 
73 
42 
33 



100 
64 
120 
103 
82 
57 
26 
20 



= 176 


, Canary Islands. 


= 117 


, Madeira. 


= 243 


, N. to Portugal. 


= 213 


, North of Spain. 


= 181 


, S. of England. 


= 130 


, Scotland. 


= 61 


, North Drontheim. 


= 53 


, Nordland & Finmark 



Of 44 Acephala, 64 Gasteropoda=108 species obtained at Mogador — 
20 Acephala, 38 Gasteropoda =58 extend southward to the Canary Islands. 



10 
43 
36 
31 
27 
21 
14 
11 



27 
45 
34 
32 
24 
16 
7 
5 



=37 are found in Madeira. 
= 80 extend North to the Mediterranean, 



= 70 
= 63 
= 51 
= 37 
= 21 
= 16 



Portugal. 

North of Spain. 

South of England. 

Scotland. 

North Drontheim. 

Nordland and Finmark. 



Of 78 Acephala, 9 Pteropoda, 179 Gasteropoda, and 1 Cephalapod=267 species of Mol- 
lusca obtained in the Canary Islands — 
48 Acephala, 5 Pteropoda, 86 Gasteropoda = 139, were found in Madeira. 



73 


6 


108 


„ 1 Ce 


[)halapod=188 r 


each 


Nwd. to Mogador. 


73 


6 


„ 104 


„ 1 „ " =184 




,, Mediterranean. 


53 




67 


„ 1 „ =121 




„ Portugal. 


49 „ 




60 


„ 1 „ =110 




,, North of Spain. 


45 „ 




46 


= 91 




„ South of England. 


33 „ 




32 


= 65 




„ Scotland. 


16 „ 




13 


= 29 




„ North Drontheim. 


10 




9 


= 19 




„ Nordland & Finmai-k 


Of 56 Acephala, 6 Pteropoda, 107 Gasteropoda =169 species 


from Madeira — 


48 


^.cephala, 


5 Pteropoda 


, 86 Gasteropoda= 139, are 


found in the Canaiy Islands. 


10 


f, 


»i 


27 „ = 37 




Mogador. 


46 




6 


64 


= 116 




INIediten-anean. 


24 




)i 


27 


, = 51 




Portugal. 


22 






34 


= 56 




North of Spain. 


30 


,, 


») 


33 


= 63 




South of England. 


26 


ij 


)> 


25 


= 51 




Scotland. 


10 






8 


= 18 




North Drontheim. 


6 


„ 


>> 


4 


= 10 




Nordland and Finmark. 



To judge of the marine Mollusca of the Azores from the few species 
received from thence, they appear to be generally identical with those of the 
Mediterranean, except a very few species not identified, and several littoral 
species, such as Littorina striata, Mitrafusca, Miira zehrina, Pedipes, which 
are not European, but common to Madeira and the Canary Islands. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC, ETC. 157 

Concluding Observations. 

The acephalous or bivalve Mollusca possess generally a capacity to exist 
through a greater bathymetrical range than univalves, several species of the 
former being to be found in all the zones of deptii from the margin of the 
sea to a hundred or more fathoms, and it is these same species which are most 
widely distributed geographically, as might indeed be reasonably inferred, it 
being evident that the depths of the ocean can be comparatively but slightly 
affected by changes of temperature and of climate, and that, consequently, a 
species removed to a distance northward or southward from its most congenial 
habitat, would encounter less change in climatal conditions by seeking a 
greater depth. 

Those species which inhabit a great vertical range, such as Saxicava arctica, 
Venus striatula, Venus ovata, Lucina borealis, &c., have generally their max- 
imum of development and attain their greatest dimensions in shallow water ; 
and I call the attention of geologists to this fact as it may occasionally be of 
service in determining the depth at which strata have been deposited. An- 
other importantpoint, deserving attention on account of its bearing on geology, 
is the modifications of growth, incident to all the ijidividuals taken from a great 
depth, as compared luith individuals of the same species taken from a moderate 
depth. Some of these vary in different species, but the general characteristics 
of deep-water specimens are deficiency of colour and of solidity, and small- 
ness of size. 

Northern species generally diminish greatly in size as they approach 
southern latitudes ; but the converse of the rule cannot be so generally applied 
to southern species, for while some of these are smaller, others increase in 
dimensions as they approach the northern limit of their range. As examples 
of the latter, 1 may mention Ringicula auriculata and Mactra rugosa, which 
attain their maximum size in Vigo Bay, Haliotis tiibercidata in Guernsey, and 
Tellina balaustina in the West of Ireland and the Hebrides. 

To give an idea of the comparatively small number of species existing in 
high northern latitudes, I may mention that I obtained 50 per cent, more of 
species in the Canary Islands than in the northern provinces of Norway, 
although I bestowed at least thrice the amount of time and labour in dredging 
the latter, under more favourable circumstances, and through a greater range 
of latitude. 

The correct division of the marine Mollusca into provinces, or as they are 
called " Faunas," is a subject deserving consideration, as it may be of assist- 
ance to us in our endeavours to become acquainted with the laws regulating 
the distribution of species. 

The Arctic and Tropical faunas are tolerably well defined by the zones 
after which they are named, except that the former, on the European side of 
the Atlantic, recedes a few degrees within the Arctic Circle, in consequence 
of the current which sets northward along the coast of Norway. It is the 
division of the temjierate zone into the Boreal, Celtic, and Lusitanian or 
Mediterranean provinces, which offers some difficulty, and I take the liberty 
of submitting the fellowing suggestions with reference to it. 

Two sets of Mollusca of very different type advance from the sub-arctic 
and sub-tropical regions towards each other. In the course of their progress 
each loses by the way many of its most characteristic members, which one 
after another become extinct, so that when they reach their point of contact, 
the species are comparatively few in number, and not the most characteristic 
of their northern or southern origin. In order to remedy this state of things 
and to accomplish an equable distribution of Mollusca throughout the tem- 
perate zone, it is necessary that there should exist an intermediate fauna, 
pervading more or less the ground occupied by both the others, and having 



158 REPORT — 1856. 

its principal development at their point of meeting, and this I believe to be 
neither more nor less than what actually occurs. The point at M'hich the north 
temperate or boreal, and the south temperate faunas meet, I conceive to be 
about lat. 50°, or at the British Channel, which marks the limit of some of 
the most characteristic northern forms, viz. Buccinum undatum, Fusus 
antiquus, Cyprina Islandica, &c., as well as of the genera Haliotis, La- 
chests, Cah/ptrcea, Venerupis, Gastrochccna, Auricula, and numerous species 
of southern type. Supposing my view to be correct, it is at once seen why 
there can be no peculiar species in the Celtic (or as I would rather call it), 
the English or intermediate fauna. It is difficult to lay down an exact line 
of division between one animal province and another, the transition being 
gradual; but I would consider the "intermediate" fauna to be contained 
between the 45th and 55th parallels of latitude, which will include the larger 
portion of the Bay of Biscay and a considerable part of the North Sea. All 
species which attain their maximum of development within these limits I 
would consider legitimately to belong to it, and among the most characteristic 
of these may be mentioned Purpura lapillus, Natica nionilifera and iV. nitida, 
Trochus zizyphinus. Lacuna piiteolus, L. pallidula, all the British Pholades, 
Mactra solida, Tellina ctassa, Pecten opercularis, P. pusio, and Venus stri- 
atula. 

Although, as already stated, the transition from one fauna to another takes 
place gradually, the change is much greater at certain geographical points 
than at others, and the neighbourhood of Cape St. Vincent is remarkable as 
the northern limit on the Atlantic coast of about a hundred southern species, 
including the following genera : — 

Solemya. Siphonaria. Ranella. Conus and 

Cardita. Sigaretus. Mitra. Cyprsea (except the 

Chama. Crepidula. Columbella. sub-genus Trivia). 

Spondylus. CancoUaria. Pollia. 

Though Cardita and Mitra reappear in the Polar seas represented each by 
a single species, and Cancellaria under the form Admete. Cymha extends 
to the neighbourhood of the rock of Lisbon ; Hingicula to Vigo ; Triton, 
Turbo, Cassis, and Lithodomus to Asturias ; Adeorbis, Haliotis, CalyptrcBa, 
Lachesis, Gastrochcena, Venerupis, Galeomma, aui.i Avicula to the south 
coast of England. 

The circumstance of so many characteristic forms disappearing at Cape St. 
Vincent, may perhaps be accounted for by the change which there takes place 
in the direction of the coast and consequent set of the current. It will be 
noticed that the disappearance of species is all in one direction, and that the 
point in question is not known to form the southern limit of a single species; 
also that nearly all the genera enumerated as not passing it are to be found 
six or seven degrees further north in the Mediterranean. 

A circumstance analogous to what occurs at Cape St. Vincent takes place 
about the South of Scotland with reference to northern forms of Mollusca. 
Of 135 Norwegian species which extend to Scotland, no less than 42 are 
absent from the South of England ; and this fact is, I conceive, to be explained 
by the change in the nature of the sea-bottom, which may also account for 
the circumstance that many species, and among them the peculiarly northern 
forms of Trichotropis, Cemoria, and Pilidium, are common to the coast of 
Norway and the Hebrides, and even extend as far south as the Clyde, 
while they are altogether absent from, or but very rarely found upon the east 
coast of Scotland. 

The Mediterranean fauna may be considered a branch of the north tem- 
perate Atlantic, agreeing with it in its general character, though possessing 
some peculiarities, a natural result of its isolated condition. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 159 

Report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the 
Mollusca of the West Coast of North America. By Philip P. 
Carpenter. ka^b/L 

1. The duty of preparing a Report " On the present state of our know- 
ledge of the Mollusca of California," was entrusted to the writer simply in 
consequence of an opportunity which accident had thrown in his way, of 
obtaining accurate information on the Mollusca of one spot only on the 
Pacific shores of N. Ame'rica. Almost entirely destitute of technical know- 
ledge, and living at a distance from collections and libraries, he would not 
have ventured to undertake it but for the promised aid of one, whose early 
death, just as he was entering on that field which seemed of all others most 
adapted to develop his peculiar powers, still leaves a most deeply-felt void 
in Malacological and Geological Science. This spot is neither politically 
nor conchologically in California, strictly so called, but belongs in its fauna 
to the province which culminates in the Bay of Panama and extends south- 
wards to Peru ; while many shells of the real Californian fauna extend north- 
wards towards Behring's Straits, and are found on the Asiatic coasts in the 
Okhotsk Sea. This Report will therefore take cognizance of all that is known 
of the Mollusca of the West Coast of North America, from the Boreal shores 
to Panama. 

Before results can be obtained of permanent value, and general deductions 
drawn from them that shall bear on the great questions of the condition of 
our globe in this and previous ages, it is necessary that the foundations 
should be laid by patient and accurate examination of every minute point in 
our inquiries : else, as the wrong measurement of a degree nearly prevented 
Newton's elimination of the great law of gravitation, so the deficiency or 
hasty examination of details respecting particular species and their abodes, 
may lead the great master-minds of science to erroneous conclusions, which, 
through their well-earned influence, retard rather than stimulate the progress 
of future research. It is proposed therefore — (1) to state the physical con- 
ditions, and the cautions to be observed in the inquiry ; (2) to present the 
different sources of information in historical order ; and (3), after tabulating 
these geographically and zoologically, to draw such inferences as the present 
state of our knowledge may warrant*. 

* On receiving the request of the Association, I issued a circular seeking information as to— 

1. What species are found on the north-east shores of the Pacific, especially at Vancoaver's 
Island. 

2. What near the mouth of the Columbia river, and in the Oregon territory. 

3. What near San Francisco and Monterey. 

4. What near San Diego. 

5. What along the Pacific shores of the peninsula to Cape St. Lucas. 

6. What at La Paz, Guaymas, and other stations i7i the Gulf of California. 

7. What at Acapulco and other stations along the coast towards Panama. 

8. What species of land and freshvirater shells are found in different parts of Oregon, 
California, and West Mexico. 

And, in order to compare with these, as to — 

9. What species are found on the eastern (Atlantic) shores of Mexico. 

10. What at the Galapagos. 

11. What at the Sandwich Islands (distinguishing what are brought there from other 
places). 

12. What in Polynesia. 

13. What /ois27 species are found in the Tertiary deposits of the United States, which 
may throw light on the existing Pacific species. 

This circular was sent to every accessible station on the West N. American coast, and to 
naturalists in this and foreign countries. The replies are on most points extremely meagre : 
but I have pleasure in recording great obligations to Hugh Cuming, Esq., for the most liberal 



160 REPORT — 1856. 

2. Perhaps no region in the world is so well adapted for the study of the 
geographioal distribution of MoUusca as the W. coast of N. and S. America. 
Shut out from the vast Indo-Pacific province which reaches to the Sandwich 
and Marquesas Islands by an uninterrupted body of water almost equal in 
extent to the whole Atlantic Ocean, on the other side barred against all 
admixture with the Caribbean Sea by the mighty bulwark of Central Ame- 
rica and Darien, it presents the least indented line of coast that the world 
can show, from the frozen ocean of tlie north to a southern promontory 20° 
south of the lowest extremity of the old world. Even the land fauna is sepa- 
rated from that of the bulk of the continent by the great chain of the Andes 
and the Rocky Mountains, and by the arid climate which prevails over a 
large portion of its extent. Here then we enter upon a new type of marine 
life, almost entirely distinct from those with which we have been familiar in 
the Atlantic, Indian and Polynesian waters; in which we can pass, on each 
side of the equator, from tropical to boreal conditions, with the most satis- 
factory regularity. All that we miss is the presence of more oceanic islands ; 
the solitary group of the Galapagos presenting data of unusual interest, to 
be noticed afterwards. 

3. The tropical region of marine life extends much further north than 
south of the equator. This is accounted for by the direction of the equato- 
rial current, which, striking upon the swelling coast of Peru, sweeps round 
the great Bay of Panama and Central America, and following the north- 
westerly direction of the coast, is naturally driven up the narrow Gulf of 
California, where, even at Guaymas, in lat. 27°, are found the conditions of 
equatorial climate ( Gould). The long promontory of Lower California, from 
lat. 23°-32°, offers a natural impediment to the further northward passage 
of moUusks ; while the current which flows southwards, parallel to the 
shores of temperate America, seems to convey many boreal species below 
the latitude at which we should have expected them. The zoological tem- 
perate zone therefore is curtailed in the northern and extended in the 
southern hemisphere. 

4. The following are recorded as the physical conditions of places which 
have been made the special seats of observation.— .Panama. At the head 
of an extensive bay, with a reef consisting of " ledges of trachytic rocks, 
with flat and concave surfaces, and gently sloping, precipitous, or shelving 
sides." Each has its appropriate species, as have also the loose pieces of 
rock, according to their size, distance from each other, and amount of inser- 
tion in the sand. On the fine sand beaches, Oliva, Tellina, Donax and 
Dosinia abound. On trees a little above half-tide level are found Pur- 
piirce and LittorincB ; with numerous VeneridtB, Columbellce, Neritina picta 
and Area grandis among the sticks and moss-like algae beneath. On ledges 
of smooth basaltic rocks abound Littorince, Fissurellce, and SiphonaricE. In 
a mangrove thicket at high-water mark occur Cerithidece, Cyrena, ArccB, 
Polamomya:, Melampi, and "overhead, Littorina pidchra, almost as rare as 
beautiful." The ordinary tides are 16-20 feet, very rarely 28 feet, leaving 
many square miles of sea-bed exposed at the ebb. The bay contains several 

and unrestricted use of his unrivalled collections, and the benefit of his experience and judg- 
ment ; to Dr. A. A. Gould, of Boston, U. S., for the transmission of the whole of his valuable 
materials, including lists and collections; to R. M'Andrew, Esq., F.R.S., for the use of his 
collections and library; to R. D. Darbishire, Esq., B.A., of Manchester, and Sylvanus Han- 
ley, Esq., B.A., for aid in the identification of species ; to Dr. J. E. Gray, Dr. Baird, and 
S. P. Woodward, Esq., of the British Museum, for their assistance throughout; to Prof. Dr. 
Dunker for special help in the Mytilidae, W. Clark, Esq., in the Csecidae, and L. Reeve, Esq., 
in the Patellidje ; and generally to friends and naturalists who have freely contributed mate- 
rials at their disposal. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NOKTH AMERICA. 161 

steep islands, of which the best known is Taboga (C. B. Adams, Pan. Shells, 
pp. 19-21). — Mazatlan. On the north side of the bay is a "long neck of 
narrow hills, [of primitive rock,] their sides exhibiting projecting crags and 
deep indentations which the ocean has been lashing for ages. On the south 
are rocky islands, but towards the south-west the harbour is open to the 
broad Pacific, whence at times the sea rolls in with great fury " {Bartlet£). 
The harbour is in some places choked with shoals of large Pinnce, whose 
sharp edges cut the boats (Belcher). Station has often much more to do 
with the distribution of species than mere latitude : e.g. Venus gnidia is 
found in muddy places from Peru to the Gulf of California, but is not 
found on the prolific sandy floor of Acapulco harbour, where it is replaced 
by the sand-loving V. neglecta. In some sandy situations, the dredge may 
be used for hours without the smallest success ; while in others, where the 
floor is varied, a short search will procure more than fifty species (Hinds). 
— California. Along the coast of Upper California are primitive rocks, 
chiefly granite and syenite. Near Santa Barbara are cliffs of shell limestone, 
perhaps 200 feet high ; but their contents have not been recorded. Brooks 
with hot springs issue from the primitive rocks, and there are abundant 
traces of huge geological convulsions (Nuttall), The peninsula is of vol- 
canic rock, anjd exhibits great diversity of climate. When, near Cape St. 
Lucas, the thermometer stands between 60° and 70°, it may be found, near 
the northern extremity, at the freezing point. The muddy marshes near 
San Diego, &c., appear to be very prolific in bivalves ; as are the rocks in 
Acmcece, which seem to culminate on this coast, whence they were first de- 
scribed by Eschscholtz. " Observations on some points in the Physical Geo- 
graphy of Oregon and Upper California, by Jas. D. Dana," will be found in 
' Silliman's American Journal of Science and Art,' series 2, no. 21, May 1849, 
p. 376. 

5. The Gulf of California (often, even in books of great pretension, 
strangely called a bay) was discovered by a vessel detached from the expe- 
dition of Cortez in 1533 (Dana), (1534, teste Hibbert). It was the Sea of 
Cortez, and the Vermilion Sea of the early Spaniards. It is about 700 miles 
long and from 40-120 wide. About the year 1697* it was colonized by a 
party of Spanish Jesuits, who founded Loreto, La Paz, and San Jose on its 
shores. The earliest shell known from its waters was the pearl oyster (Mar- 
garitiphora fimbriata, Dkr.), to obtain which, about the seventeenth century, 
the Spaniards employed from 600 to 800 divers ; the value of the pearls ob- 
tained annually being estimated at 60,000 dollars. So exhausting was this 
traffic, that the fishery is now almost entirely abandoned. Occasionally, 
however, a ship-load of pearl shell is sent to Liverpool, and sold for manu- 
facturing purposes. Among the sweepings from one of these loads was found 
the finest specimen known of Placunanomia pernoides, remarkable for its 
reappearance on the Gambia coast. There appears to have been a treaty 
with Spain as far back as 1786, allowing of some trade between this country 
and the Mexican shores ; but there is no trace of much intercourse before 
the Declaration of Independence in 1821. In 1826 a direct treaty was 
formed between England and Mexico, and from that time the Californian 
and W. Mexican coast has ceased to be a terra incognita to English natu- 
ralists. Still, however, our knowledge of the shores and deep waters of the 
Gulf (especially of its northern extremity), and of the peninsula of Cali- 
fornia, is most fragmentary. The present Report contains the first account 
at all verging towards accuracy and completeness, of the fauna at its mouth. 
The 117 species collected on the shores of Upper California by our country- 
* Hibbert: 1642, Blackie, Imp. Gaz. 

1856. M. 



162 REPORT — 1856. 

man Mr. Nuttall, incomplete as it is, remains the best list of that interesting 
district ; and in spite of the old-established English settlement near the 
Columbia River, it was left to the United States' Exploring Expedition to 
make us even moderately acquainted with the shells of the Oregon district. 
Of the abyssopelagic species in Oregon and California, we have only the 
very limited collections of Belcher and Hinds ; and of the minuter forms, 
which in the British fauna are 31 per cent., in the Panama fauna 13 p. c, and 
in the Mazatlan fauna no less than 39 p. c. of the whole number of species, 
we cannot reckon more than half-a-dozen names. 

6. It might be thought that, in order to obtain suitable lists of the Mol- 
lusca inhabiting particular localities, all that was necessary would be that 
shells should be brought from that locality, and then described. But such 
is far from being the case. A few of the principal causes of error, both as 
regards habitat and description, will be noticed, in order that suitable cau- 
tion may be observed in judging of the materials to be presented. 

7. Errors respecting habilat. — A large part of the shells in collections have 
been brought from the seats of trade. Either persons at home, in their com- 
munications with friends at sea-ports, request that shells may be sent back ; 
or sailors bring them as an article of commerce. In both cases, the greatest 
number of specimens is collected from all sources, and no dependence what- 
ever can be placed on the results. Thus, well-known East Indian, Philip- 
pine, and Polynesian shells have been sent from Acapulco and Mazatlan ; 
and coast shells from various latitudes, including the Sandwich Islands, 
occur in the Oregon collection of Lady K. Douglas. It is well if sailors and 
captains do not add to the confusion by mixing together shells picked up at 
different places on the voyage. Nor do the errors end here. When they 
pass into the hands of dealers, it is rarely that the least attention is paid to 
their locality. They are mixed in drawers in every possible confusion, and 
instances have not been rare of traders coining habitats to suit the supposed 
taste of their customers. Even when they have their eyes open to the im- 
portance of accuracy, such are the circumstances of confusion attendant on 
the management of their business, that correctness is rarely to be ex- 
pected. 

8. But even if collections have been made on a single spot by a traveller 
of ordinary and even of conchological attainments, errors may arise from 
shells imported in ballast, &c., and dropped on the shore. Adhering and 
burrowing littoral shells may thus be found alive in places foreign to their 
native seas. This may account for a specimen oi Acmcea pelta, abundant at 
Oregon, being found with the Mazatlan Limpets ; and for Liitorina aspera 
being given by Prof. Forbes in his zoological map as the characteristic spe- 
cies of the Oregon instead of the Mexican fauna, specimens having probablj' 
reached the northern collectors in the same wajr. As an aid to detect these 
errors, it is very desirable that shells should be retained without being sub- 
jected to the usual acid treatment, as the accretions, or the minute shells 
among the dirt, will often decide a point that the shell itself will not deter- 
mine. Thus, a small specimen of Fissnrella Barbadensis was separated from 
a boxful of F. virescens (a variety of which in the young state it closely 
resembles) by a minute Spiroglyphus and coral which seem peculiar to the 
Atlantic Seas. Thus also specimens of Ostrea ii-idescetts with their Placu- 
nanomice were confirmed in their African habitat, from the minute shells 
between the laminae, which agreed with the African and differed from the 
Panamic types. How many of these ballast species have found their way 
into the well-searched British shores, is patent to the readers of Forbes and 
Hanley's Hist. Brit. Moll. It is said that even the great Mediterranean 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE "WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 163 

Triton has been dredged with the animal in, off the coast of Guernsey*. 
It is therefore very desirable that collectors should have a general acquaint- 
ance with the shells of a variety of distinct provinces, in order that they 
may be prepared to detect errors when they arise. For this purpose also 
the formation of local collections in public museums is very greatly to be 
recommended t- 

9. It might be thought that all sources of error would be avoided, when 
competent naturalists themselves collect shells in their original haunts. But 
when different places are visited, it is not always possible, in the confinement 
of a ship, or amid the confusions of land travelling, to pack and tabulate 
accurately the results of each branch of inquiry : or, supposing these errors 
guarded against, intermixings may still take place in the unpacking and dis- 
tribution of specimens. Moreover, when shells are left loose in cabinets, 
and the information is supplied by ticket only, a variety of interchanges may 
very unexpectedly take place. Such errors are most serious when they take 
place in the collections of naturalists deservedly noted for their accuracy; 
because whatever appears in their cabinets is naturally regarded as of un- 
questionable authority. Thus, a Ceylon shell ran an imminent risk of being 
described as from Mazatlan ; and specimens were found bearing one locality 
on the ticket affixed to them, and another on a ticket within. Thus, also, 
Prof. Adams notes;]: having received a Pleurotoma zonulata from Mr. 
Cuming, as from the Philippines. Indeed, after the vast collections made 
by that gentleman in so fruitful a locality, it was natural that shells should 
be often assigned to this habitat, unless a contrary were known. The " China 
Seas" or " Eastern Seas" of Lieut. Belcher are also supposed to have in- 
cluded many chance acquirements; among othevs, Dosinia Dimkerihovai\ie 
Panamic, and Semele rubro-lineata {j=- simplex) from the Californian fauna. 

10. All these errors, from whatever source derived, find their way into 
the monographs, sometimes with additions by the writers themselves, and so 
become perpetuated. Some authors, even in our own country as well as in 
France, are not strict in regard to geographical boundaries. " Central 
America" and " West Columbia" are used generally for the tropical portions 
of the W. American coast, and " California" for any stations north of Aca- 
pulco, either in the Panamic or the San Franciscan province. Mr. Reeve, 
indeed (under Patella venosa, pi. 10. f. 18), extends W. Columbia south- 
wards to include the Isle of Chiloe, in lat. ^?°, just as Valenciennes and 
Kiener extend Peru northwards to include Acapulco. By mistake, Mr. Sow- 
erby, jun., refers a Panama shell to Jamaica, when he cites Prof. Adams's 
Cerithium validmn, and gives as tiie habitat oi Pattella nana and albofasciata, 
P. Z. S. 1841, p. 52, "ad insulam Panama, Philippinarum." 

11. Another class of errors arises from confounding places which bear 
the same name. Thus St. Vincent's may be either the island in the West 
Indies or on the Guinea coast, according as it is used by Guilding or Tams. 
San Bias may be either the near neighbour of Mazatlan in the Gulf district, 
or it may be D'Orbigny's locality in Patagonia. And San Juan may be 
either the bay on the Gulf side of the Peninsula of California, in lat. 27°, or 
the Straits of San Juan de Fuca (or Fuaco), near Vancouver's Island. It i» 
believed that in Kellett and Wood's collections, the words de Fuca have 

* Some may attribute a solitary specimen of Trochus conulus found by Mr, Bean at Scar- 
borough to a like importation. 

•|" Prof. E. Forbes had been collecting materials for a series of such collections at the University 
of Edinburgh. It is hoped that they may yet be made available for the purposes for which 
they were designed. 

% Pan. Shells, p. 144 ; so also Omphalitis Californiciis, ticketed " Moreton Bay," Mus. Cum, 

m2 



164 REPORT — 1856. 

been added to papers from the former place; e.g. in Cyprcea arabicula, 
(Bristol Mus.) and Planaxis iiigritella, both of which belong to the Gulf 
fauna. In Mr. Reeve's account of Hinnites gigatiteus, Gray, the shell is 
quoted from " California and the Straits of Juan Fernmidez," pi. 1. sp. 2. 

12. The errors of one collection, or of the author, are not confined to 
books, but are continually repeated in public and private collections. It is 
important, therefore, when shells are named from the monographs, that the 
copied locality should be distinguished, say by marks of quotation. When 
the locality of the actual specimen is known on authority, this may be under- 
lined ; and, where practicable, the authority should always be added. 

13. Errors of nomenclature. — But supposing that the original materials 
have been collected with perfect accuracy (and for the reasons above stated, 
those collections are the most reliable which have been made by competent 
observers on single spots or unmixed districts), a vast variety of errors will 
probably arise before their nomenclature is suitably established. 

First, the works in which shells are described are inaccessible to ordinary 
students. This arises in part from their being so expensive, that even pub- 
lic museums are often unable to procure them ; and in part from species 
being described in local journals or loose tracts, which either do not find 
their way at all into general scientific literature, or do so with such tardiness 
that their effect is simply to introduce the confusion of synonymy, and, by 
appealing to an earlier date, to upset the labours of those who would most 
thankfully have been spared the responsibility of description. This almost 
limits the satisfactory production of original works to those who have frequent 
access to the capital. 

14. Or, supposing the books obtained, the materials are found in so ill- 
assorted a state, that the student's time is frittered away in finding out where 
to look. It is customary with some writers to describe new species from any 
genera or any localities, without the least regard to order. Thus every stu- 
dent at work on the shells of any district is obliged to wade through the 
"centuries" of new shells described by Philippi in the ' Zeit. f. Mai.,' for 
fear of overlooking an already published species. Or even when the genera 
are monographed, the species are generally arranged either by accident or to- 
suit the supposed elegance of the plate ; instead of either grouping them 
zoologically, so as to exhibit allied species side by side, or else geographi- 
cally so as to bring the species from each district together. For want of 
some such help, whole hours, which might have been spent in advancing 
science, may be wasted in hunting for a single Cotius, a Voluta, a Helix, or 
a Mitra. As a help to the determination of species, the more minute divi- 
sion of large genera is by no means to be opposed ; the Lamarckian genera 
being to our present knowledge of species and animals what the Linnaean 
groups were in the times of Lamarck. It is greatlj' to be regretted that 
many of the divisions proposed of late years have been named in utter 
defiance of the principles of nomenclature which the British Association 
recommend, and which are generally received by the naturalists of this and^ 
other countries. 

15. But supposing the materials found, it then appears that most of them' 
are in so unsatisfactory a state that allied species cannot be discriminated.- 
Some writers recomnund short descriptions to save time ; but much more 
lime is lost in the end by the errors to which they give rise. If any one- 
will study the synonymy of the CalyjitrceidcB in the British Museum Mazatlan 
Catalogue, they will i)e able to form some idea, though a very partial one^ 
of the labour that has been thus entailed. The consequence is that the 
same name is often quoted by different writers for very different shells. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 165 

which is a much greater evil than the giving of several names to one species. 
Until, therefore, existing species are tabulated in such a way as to be recog- 
nizable by students, it would appear a less evil in a doubtful case to de- 
scribe a fresh species, than to run a probable risk of affiliating a different 
shell to a species already constituted. 

16. Those identifications therefore are by far the most satisfactory which 
are made by a comparison of types. But even here the student must exer- 
cise caution. For if any one had searched last year for the types of Brode- 
rip's Calyptrccidce (so obscure to the many who have not access to the plates 
in the 'Transactions'), he would have found not only two of those species 
nameless, and in imminent peril of re-description, and that too as from dif- 
ferent localities from those recorded in the 'Proceedings' ; but he might have 
observed the same name of Broderip given to two distinct species, neither of 
which was the shell figured in the ' Transactions,' which still appears under 
another name. On searching also for the types of shells described in the 
'Proceedings,' within a few weeks after they had been communicated, the 
names indeed were found, but fastened to very diff'erent shells from what the 
author had intended. All these errors had arisen from the number-tickets 
with the shells referring to the catalogues having been misplaced. 

17. As human life is so short, and those who have the inclination for 
scientific pursuits have generally so little leisure, it is a serious evil when so 
large a proportion of that little has to be devoted to the labour of making 
out the errors of predecessors. We therefore venture to suggest some points 
which may be worthy of the consideration of the leaders in science. First, 
whether the Government, which often spends large sums in the production 
of important and expensive works, might not spend a portion of that sum in 
presenting copies, or selling them at a reduced rate, to the various free mu- 
seums and libraries in the country. Secondly, whether the British Associa- 
tion (which has already catalogued the stars), or some other public body, 
might not undertake the work of cataloguing the existing species in different 
departments of natural history*. And thirdly, whether' a general registry 
office could be agreed upon by naturalists of all nations, which might have 
branch stations in the various capitals, and to which Latin copies of all de- 
scriptions of new species should be sent, by every naturalist who wished to 
retain the rights of priority ; to be accompanied by information where the 
type specimen was to be found. 

18. But the foundation-point of all our inquiries must be the discrimi- 
nation of species themselves as they exist in nature. And here those labour 
under great disadvantage who can only consult the " especes de cabinet" in 
which, for the sake of saving room, single or very few specimens are exhi- 
bited ; since, in the case of variable species, it is quite easy to pick out 
several extreme forms which shall apparently be even more distinct than 
those which all allow to be separate species. Every description therefore 
which is founded on single or extremely few specimens must be regarded as 
only provisional, till their circumstances of variation are known. And 
he, perhaps, is doing more useful work, who has obtained materials by 
which a full knowledge of the variable powers of moUusks may be attained, 
than he who only describes a number of single independent forms. Those 

* Or if this should be regarded as too great a work, the preparation of cheap digests of 
species like Mr. Hanley's admirable ' Recent Bivalve Shells,' and figures intermediate 
between those of Wood and the Monographs, are greatly to be desired. Now that Mr. Wood- 
ward's text-book is making the study of MoUusks so popular, the need for such books of species 
is becoming extensively felt. The publication also of cheap abstracts of expensive books, such 
as are given in the ' Zeit. f. Mai.,' would be of great service to students. 



166 REPORT — 1856. 

who would study species in a comprehensive manner might advantageously 
consult the canons given in Dr. W. B. Carpenter's Researches on Orbitolites, 
'Trans. Roy. Soc' 1855, pp. 226-2;!0. It must not be expected, however, 
that creatures (comparatively speaking) so highly organized as mollusks, 
should assume such abnormal forms as the lower animals and plants. Often 
indeed one species will greatly vary, while another, closely allied, is constant 
in its characters; or differences will be found between the shells of a single 
species, which in another tribe would justly entitle them to generic separa- 
tion. No general rules therefore can be given to guide the student. But it 
is required of him that he should faithfully use all the materials at his com- 
mand ; not being satisfied with an examination of particular forms, but care- 
fully working- through those shells especially which many would cast aside 
simply because they were puzzling, or were not fine specimens. Those 
whose work lies mainly among picked collectors' shells are recommended to 
study the series of fossils arranged by Prof. E. Forbes in the Museum of 
Practical Geology, and the large suites illustrating particular species in the 
British Museum Mazatlan Collection. 

19. It is, however, by no means recommended that we should abstain 
from describing new forms, because it may afterwards be discovered that 
they are conspecific with others previously found. The great point is, that 
we should be guided in those matters that are least known by the experience 
gained by studying carefully ascertained species in their varied develop- 
ments ; and that we should not desire the maintenance of species simply 
because they have once been published, when further light assigns to them 
a subordinate place. Those vvriters are therefore not to be blamed who 
have multiplied species simply from a want of sufficient materials. Thus 
when C. B. Adams described as five distinct species the Ccecum pygmcEum, 
diminutum, monstrosmn, eburneum, und Jirmatum, which seem only stages in 
the development of the same shell, he did carefully, according to the then 
state of knowledge, what a naturalist of less accuracy would have passed 
over as one shell, simply from not having found out the differences. But 
when the further discovery of many hundreds of individuals proves that they 
are identical, a higher point of knowledge is reached, according to which all 
examinations in the same group may be henceforth interpreted till some yet 
higher generalization is attained. 

20. But when species are constituted or disregarded, simply in obedience 
to a theory, injury is done to the progress of science. Thus a recent author 
on the British Fauna appears unwilling to believe in the existence of species 
other than what occur on the South Devon coast ; and accordingly unites 
together many which have been constituted by the most accurate naturalists, 
but which, from their northern station, he had not an opportunity of study- 
ing. And on the other hand, the principal American conchologists, having 
assumed a theory that no species can be found in two distinct provinces 
unless we can see a way by which they may have moved from one to the 
other, forthwith proceed to describe as new everything which makes its ap- 
pearance on an unexpected side of the coast. Undoubtedly it is by far the 
most easy way of studying a fauna merely to consult those works which 
apply to that fauna, and to describe as new whatever is not found therein ; 
but we must beware lest we be forcing Nature into our own form. Now, 
just as we give a species already constituted the benefit of a doubt, till we 
be fairly able to prove its identity with anothei-, so we may suppose shells 
different from opposite coasts, till we can prove them the same. But, in the 
language of the late Dr. Binney*, " until the question of the identity of 

* Terrestrial and Air-breathing Molluscs of the United States, edited by Dr. Gould, Boston, 
1851, vol. i, chap. 3. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 167 

these closely allied species has been decided by their anatomy, we believe 
it to be perfectly safe to adopt this axiom, — that species, tohencesoever 
derived, possessing the same characters, are identical. We view this to be a 
more rational course than to consider them to be the analogues of each 
other; a convenient but very indefinite mode of expression, which may be 
used to cover every degree of similitude, from a general analogy to a close 
affinity hardly admitting of distinction*." 

21. As far as facts already ascertained justify us in drawing any conclu- 
sions, it would appear that while the shells in each of the great provinces 
throughout the world are in the main remarkably distinct from each other, 
there are in each fauna (1) many shells which are parallel with those from 
other seas ; (2) some which are nearly ubiqviitous, and often extend far 
back in geological age ; and (3) others which, though by no means widely 
diffused, reappear very unexpectedly in far-distant seas. Thus Philippi and 
Hanley quote shells common to the Mediterranean and Australia; Mr. 
Cuming finds the British Lucina horealis and Nassa incrassata at the Philip- 
pines ; u., J -^ven Mr. Hinds can trace no difference between a Necera of the 
China Seas and the European N. costellata. As to the line of demarcation 
between species and varieties, that must remain in many cases a matter of 
individual opinion. Those who, with Prof. Adams, can speak of the different 
species of Man (Conch. Contr. p. 87 ; a view more congenial to the "pe- 
culiar institution" of the stripe-flagged United States than to the readers of 
Prituhard's Physical History), may be expected to constitute species of 
shells on characters which to others will appear of secondary importance ; 
while those who have been in the habit of examining large multitudes of 
specimens will take a larger view of the probable extent of specific variation. 
These differences will be taken into account in comparing the works of one 
naturalist with another. 

22. Having thus shown the grounds of caution in using the materials by 
which a knowledge of local faunae is to be derived, we proceed to examine, 
one by one, the sources of information which have been discovered with 
regard to the MoUusca of the two great divisions of the West N. American 
fauna. The localities to which they principally refer may be arranged as 
follows : — 

I. Boreal Fauna, a. Circumpolar. Icy Cape, lat.f 70'6°. Behring's Straits, on 

the Arctic circle. " Behriug Sea." 
B. Asiatic. Sea of Okhotsk, with the Schantar Is., 55°. Kurule Is., from Japan 

to Kamtschatka. Petropaulovski, 52' 5°. Cape Lopatka, 51° : from which 

the Aleutian Is. extend to 
c. American. Prom. Aliaska. Those most explored are. Is. Kodiak, 57° ; Oona- 

lashka, 54°; Atclia, 53°. Norfolk Sound in King George's Archipelago. Sitcha, 

58°, in the parallel of the Hebrides. 

II. Temperate Fauna, a. Oregon. (Parallel of France.) Vancouver's Is. 49°-51°, 

with Nootka Is. and Sound; separated on the south from the mainland (of 
which the extreme point is Cape Classet) by the Straits of San Juan de Fuaco, 
at the S. end of which is Ft. Nisqually, 47°. At the mouth of Columbia River 
are Townsend and Discovery Harbour, 46°. Up the river is Ft. Walla Walla. 
R. Willamette flows upwards into the R. Columbia, near Ft. Vancouver, 46°. 
B. Upper California^ (Parallel of the Mediterranean.) " Colonie Russe," or Bo- 
degas, 38°. San Francisco and R. Sacramento, 37'5°. Monterey, 365°. Sta 
Barbara, 34°. Is. Catahna, 34°:|:. 

* Vide Prof. Agassiz on the " Geographical Distribution of Animals," in the ' Christian 
Examiner,' Boston, March and July 1850. 
t The degrees are only given approximately. 
X Another Is. Catalina is in the Gulf. 



168 REPORT — 1856. 

c. Peninsula of Old or Lower California, 23-32°, Pacific Shores. (Parallel of the 
Canaries.) San Pedro, near Is. Catalina. San Diego, 33°*. Bay of Magda- 
lena, with Is. Margarita, 24-5°. Cajje St. Lucas, 23°. 

III. Tropical Fauna, a. Gulf District. (Tropic — ?32°). a. Californian Coast. 
Cape Palmaf, 23'6°. La Paz, 24°. Is. and Cape San Jose, 25° J. Loretto and 
Bay of San Juan, 26-5°.§ Gulf San Miguel, 29° ||. b. Mexican Coast. Guay- 
mas, 28°. Lobos Is. 27°ir. Mazatlan, 23° (with the Is. Crestin, Ciervo, Per- 
mano, Venado, &c.). Is. Tres Marias, 22°. Isabella Is., between these and 
San Bias, 21-5°. 

B. Mexican and Central American District. (Parallel of Senegambia.) Revillagi- 
gedos Is. 18°, not yet searched, perhaps connected with the Gulf fauna. Aca- 
pulco, 17°. Gulf Tehuantepec, 16°. Sonsonati and Guaconiayo (or Guaya- 
moco), 14°. Gulf of Fonseca or Conchagua, 14°. Realejo or Real Llejos, 13°. 
Gulf of Papagayo, 1 1°. Gulf of Nicoya, 10°, with Punta Arenas within the 
Gulf, and Cape Blanco at the entrance. Gulf of Dulce**, or Bay of Costa Rica, 
w ith Is. of Cana and Pueblo Nuovo, 9°. Bay of Montijo and Bay of Honda, 8°. 
Is. of Quibo, 7°. 

c. Panama District. (Parallel of Liberia.) The town is in lat. 8° 49', and in the 
Bay are the Is. of Taboga, Rey, Perico, San Jose, and Sabogatf. 

D. Ecuador District. Atacamas, with Cape San Francisco +J, 1° N. Bay of Ca- 
raccas, -5° S. Is. Plata, 1°. Gulf of Guayaquil, with Punta St. Elena, Punta 
Arenas and Is. Puna, 2°. Payta, 5°. 

E. Galapagos or Tortoise Is., on the equator in long. 90°, consisting of six large 
and seven small islands ; those most quoted are, Charles Is., James Is., Albe- 
marle Is., Chatham Is., and Hood's Is.§§ 

2f}. Scarcely any mention is made of W. American shells by Linnaeus, 
Chemnitz, and the older conchologists generally. A very few handsome 
species from the Panama province, such as Oliva porphyria, &c., had found 
their way into European collections and books, perhaps tlirough the pearl 
oyster trade ; or even, it may be, introduced indirectly through East Indian 
commerce. But our first direct acquaintance with the shells of the Panama 

* The shells of this place rank somewhat better with Lower than with Upper California, 
with which it is locally and politically connected. It was the first settlement on the coast, 
having been founded by the Jesuits in 17C9. There is another San Diego in the Gulf of 
Tehuantepec. 

t Not to be confounded with Cape Palmar, on the equator, in long. 80° ; nor with Cape 
Falmas on the Guinea coast, where are islands (St. Thomas and St. Vincent) liable to be 
associated with the Antilles. 

X There is also a San Jose between the two capes at the end of the promontory, and 
another in the harbour of San Francisco. An island of the same name is in the Bay of 
Panama. 

§ Besides this station and the Straits of De Fuca, there is a San Juan on the opposite shore 
near Guaymas ; another near San Bias; a Point on the coast near Lake Nicaragua ; and a little 
island between Is. Catalina and San Diego. 

II There is another San Miguel near the Bay of Fonseca, in long. 8S'5°j also a port in the 
Bay of Panama, lat. iS° 10' ; and an island outside Sta Barbara. 

^ Not to be confounded with Lobos Is., Peru. 

** Another Gulf of Dulce opens out of the Bay of Honduras. 

■ff This is quoted by Prof. Adams as a corruption of Taboga. It is, however, marked in 
the charts as a very small island, N.W. of San Jose and one-third of the distance between 
that and Taboga. A river Chiriqui is also quoted as in the Bay of Panama. Perhaps it is 
near the town of the same name in Veragua. There is another Chiriqui between Greytown 
and Chagres. 

tJ There is a Bay of San Francisco in Lower California on the Pacific side, in lat. 30°, and 
another near San Miguel within the Gulf. Also a Bar of the same name in the Gulf of Tehu- 
antepec. 

§§ Another Hood's Is. is in lat. 21°S., long. 135° W. Which of these is the "Lord Hood's 
Is." often quoted in Mr. Cuming's Coll., is not known. It is possible that some species be- 
longing to the Galapagos fauna have been passed over, from their being assigned to the Poly- 
nesian station. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 169 

province is due to the French botanist, Joseph Dombey. He arrived in 
Peru in 1778, and brought home several shells, of which eight species are 
described by Lamarck*. {C. B. Adams. ^ 

24. The earliest authentic collections, however, made on the Pacific shores 
of N. America were obtained by the celebrated Baron Humboldt and his 
companion M. Bonpland. In 1803 they reached Peru, whence they sailed 
to Acapulco. It is to be regretted that they did not themselves describe the 
shells they brought. They were seen, indeed, by Lamarck, who described 
eleven species from them; but the detailed account was entrusted to M. Va- 
lenciennes, and was not published till 1833, the descriptions having been 
written in Nov. 183 If. In vol. ii. of " Recueil d'Observations de Zoologie et 
d'Anatomie Comparee, faites dans I'Ocean Atlantique, dans ITnterieur du 
Nouveau Continent, et dans la Mer du Sud pendant les annees 1799-1803, 

* An important aid in the understanding of the Lamarckian species was given by M. De- 
lessert, who published a magnificent volume of plates entitled " Recueil de Coquilles decrites 
par Lamarck dans son Hist. Nat. des An. s. Vert, et non encore figurees. Paris, 1841." A 
copy may be seen in the library of the Linn. Soc, and a list of species is given by Menke in 
his ' Zeit. f. Mai.' June 1844, pp. 83-95. 

t The following Table may aid the student in deciding questions of priority : the lists 
being given in the approximate order of collection ; the order of publication being very 
different. 



£a< 



Date of 
Expedition. 



Date of 
Publication. 



§a 



1778 

1 1803 

1822-1825 
1823-1826 

1 1825-28 

1826-1836 

1826-1833 
1827-1830 



Lam. A.s.V. 

r Do. 

1 Voy. 1833 
1826-1830 
1829-1833 

J 1829 Z.J. 

1 1839 Voy. 



1839 



1834-1835 
1836-1837 



1 1836-39/ 



1836-39 
1836-1842 



1839-1842 
1843-1844 



1846-1848 
1848-1849 
1848-1850 



1850 
1854 



1856 



1847 
1832-56 

1832 Blainv. 

1833 Duclos 
1836,37 
1847-51 

Desh.1839-40 

Voy. 1846 

rZ. P. 1843 

tVoy. 1844 

1846- I 

1847-51 

1846 
1851-56 

1847 
1850-51 

1850 

1856 

1850 

1852 

1856 

1855 

1856 



} - 

Coquille 

>• Blossom 

Adventure 
and Beagle 

} I 

Bonite 
> Venus \ 

V Sulphur 

U. S. Expl. 
Exp. 



Mexic. war 
Pandora 



Dombey 

Humboldt and Bonpland. . 

Lesson 

Eschscholtz 

Beechey and Belcher 

|- Capts. King and Darwin 

D'Orbigny 

Cuming 

Botta 

Nuttall 

Eydoux and Souleyet 

DuPetitThouars,Chiron, "I 
La Perouse J 

Belcher and Hinds 

^Wilkes, Couthouy 

Middendorflf 

(Philippi) 

Jewett, Green, and Rich... 

Melchers 

Melchers 

KeUett and Wood 

Reigen 

Wilson 

C. B. Adams 

(Sailor) 

Blake and Webb 

Bridges 



Gal, 



170 



REPORT — 1856. 



par Al. de Humboldt et A. Bonpland ; Paris, 1833," will be found the 
" MoUusques, decrites par A. Valenciennes," pp. 217-339. Several of the 
shells are from the East Indies ; and of those assigned to Acapulco, many- 
appear to have crossed the Pacific by the agency of man. The list of Aca- 
pulco shells, however, as it appears, is as follows :— 



Page. Plate. 

222 48 
221 50 



219 48 
236 50 



245 55 

247 56 

267 
273 
263 
264 

275 
276 

277 

278 
278 
279 



Fig. 

2a,b. 
'6a,b,C) 



1 a,b,c. 
2. 



\a,h. 
\a,b. 



282 

252 56 2 a, b. 



271 

334 

334 

334 

307 

308 57 

336 

336 

337 

338 

269 
269 



4 a, 6. 



270 ... 
265 57 



3a,b. 



Tellina petalum, Val. Acapulco. Almost exactly like T. solidula. 
4. Donax radiata, Val. Pacific shores of equatorial America. 

This appears to be either D. punctatostriatus, Hani, var., or 

D. Conradi, Desh., probably the latter; but the description 

is not sufficiently accurate to claim priority. 
Venus succincta, Val. Acapulco. Probably = Anomalocardia 

subimbricata. Sow. or V. neglecta, Gray. 
Anodonta glaiica, Val. Acapulco. Appears exactly to accord 

with Anodon ciconia, Gould, except that it is said to be white 

within. Perhaps desciibed from a single specimen. 
Bulimus undatus. Lam. Mexico. =.Orthulicus zebra, Miill. 
BuUmus Mexicanus, Lam. Mexico. The shell described in B. M. 

Maz. Cat. p. 177- no. 234, may be the young of this species. 
Haliotis Californiana, Val. California. 

Turbo peUis-serpentis, [quasi] Val. Acapulco. = Te^fwZa p., Mawe. 
Nerita textilis, Linn., Lam. Acapulco. 
Nerita papilionacea, Val. Acapulco. Differs from the last in 

having fewer ribs, and granulations on the lip. Lat. '83. 
Turritella gonostoma, Val. Acapulco, [Jun.]. 
Turritella leucostoma, Val. Acapulco. 
Cerithium musica, Val. Acapulco. Described from one sp. long. 

1 "25 : said to resemble C. literatum, Brug. (not Born and Gualt.). 
Cerithium granosum, Val. Aca]julco. Probably a Cerithidea. 
Cerithium stercus-muscarum, Val.* Acapulco. 
Cerithium fragaria, Val.* " One sp. fished at Acapulco," plaited 

like Fasciolaria, resembles C. lima, long. 1" + . Comp. Fer^a^ws 

gemmatus, Hds. jun. 
Cerithium varicosum, [quasi] Val. Probably Cerithidea varicosa, 

Sow.t 
Paludina carinata, Val. " Mexico :" on which side of the moun- 
tains is not stated. 
Tectarius coronatus, Val. Acapulco. 
Cyprcea radians. Lam. Acajjulco. 
Cypraa arabicula, Lam. Acapulco. 
Cypraa Lamarckii, Duel. Acapulco. 
Strombus troglodytes. Lam. Acapulco. 
Strombus cancellatus, Lam. Acapidco. 

Conus regius, Brug. &. ham. Acapidco. =:C. princeps, hinn. 
Conus lineolatus, Val. Acapulco. Like the last. 
Conus cinctus, Val. Acapulco. Like C. hycena. 
Conus scalaris, Val. Acapulco. The recent analogue of C. de- 

perditus. Lam. 
Solarium granulatum. Lam. Acapulco. 
Solarium granosum, Val. Acapulco. " The living analogue of the 

Italian fossil, S. millegranum." 
Solarium bicanaliculatum. Val. Acapulco. 
Natica Bonplandi, Val. Acapulco. =A^. patula. Sow. teste Val. ; 

but ])robably a distinct sjjecies, as it is described " callo sub- 

diviso." 



* These species are not noticed by Sow. jun. in his recent Monograph. His '^ C. granosum, 
Kien." is an Australian species, like C. corallium; and his " C. musicum, noh." is like C. vulga- 
tum, but from the Cape de Verd Islands. 

t C. Huviioldti, Val. = C, Pacificum, Sow. teste Jay. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. l7l 

Page. Plate. Fig. 

332 Mitra babea, Yal. Acapulco. 'Resembles M. Vulpecula, Szc. 

286 Fasciolaria canaliculata, Val. Acapulco. 'Siesemhles F. tulipa. 

Long. 2-33. 

286 Fasciolaria rugosa, Y&l. Acapulco. Long. '42. Probably a young 

Latyrus. 

283 Turbinella ardeola, Val. Acapulco. =T. castus, Brod. Accord- 
ing to Val. the Leucozonia [Monoceros] cingiilata was not 
brought by Bonpland, as Lam. supposed. 

334 Oliva testacea. Lam. Acapulco. 

334 Oliva volutella, Lam. Acapulco. 

334 Oliva zonalis, ham. Acapulco. 

310 Cassis centiquadrata, Val. Acapulco. 

311 Cassis doliaia, Val. Acapulco. 

312 Cassis testiculus, Linn. Acapulco. (W. Indian.) 

313 Cassis coarc^aia. Wood. "West shores of South America, near 

Acapulco." In p. 338, the author again refers to Acapulco as 
in South America. [= Levenia c, Gray.] 
323 Harpa scriba, Val. Acapulco. 

326 Malea* latilabris, Yal, Acapulco. " =:Buccinum ringens. Wood." 

327 Malea crassilabris, Yal. Acapulco. Described from a single sp., 

and probably a var. of Malea ringens. 

328 Buccinum leiocheilos, Val. Acapulco. 

329 Co/Mm6eZ/a, allied to rMsfica. Acapulco. Doubtless C./«sea^a, Sow. 

330 Columbella strombiformis, ham. Acapulco. 

331 Columbella gibbosa, Yal. Acapulco. " =: C. strombiformis, paiTS, 

Sow. Gen. f. 1." Appears to be a variety of the last, and not 
C. major, as it is described with a yellow border to the aper- 
tui-e, and white spots on the back. 

331 Columbella costata, Val. Acapulco. Possibly = Jwac^js coro- 

nata. Sow. 

314 Purpura patula, lAxm. Three individuals were labelled " South 

Sea" by Bonpland ! Val. confesses that no difference can be 
traced between these and the W. Indian shells. 

315 Purpura undata, ham. A.ca.pvlco.^P.biserialiSy'Bla.iny. Val. says 

that he has compared this shell with the Lamarckian type, but 
confesses that his description (according to him, by a lapsus 
calami) does not agree. Kiener figures the P. undata, Lam. 
for a different W. Indian shell, and is probably right. 

316 Purpura speciosa, Val. Acapulco. =P. centiquadra, Val. MS. 

= P. triserialis, Blaiuv. 

316 Purpura canaliculata, Val. Acapulco. Long. -(jQ. 

317 Purpura semi-imbricata,ha.m. Acapulco. 

318 Purpura (Monoceros) crassilabrum. Lam. Acapulco. 

287 Fusus turris, Val. Acapulco. Like F. colus. Long. 6*. 

288 Fusus cancellatus, Val. Acapulco. Like Trophon fenestratus. 

Long- 1"42. 

290 Fusus l-Iagellanicus, Gmel,ha.m. (Trophon). "=T.Jimbriatum, 

Mart, S. America and Acapulco." [?] 

291 Py7'ula patula, Bvod. Acapulco. 

292 Pyrula vespertilio, Gmel. (Murex).=P.carnaria, Enc. Acapulco, 

294 Pyrula (Ficula) reticulata, ham. "S.America." 

295 -Py™^«{^«cM/a)^coic;es, Lam. "With the preceding at Acapulco." 

^^^ Pyrula spirata, ham. Acapulco (Bonpland). 

304 Tritonium kcBmastoma, Yal. Acapulco. Very like p«7eare, Linn. 

305 Tritonium macrodon, Yal. Acapulco. Like the last. 

306 ... ... Tritonium decussatum, Val. Acapulco. Like Distortio anus. 

297 Ranellacrumenoides,Blamv. "=R.crumena, Brod. Zool. Jovtm 

Suppl. pi. 11. fig, 2." 

■ * Although this genus is properly defined in Latin, Messrs. H. and A. Adams (Gen. vol. i. 
p. 196) lay it aside in order to introduce an unknown name, Cadium, previously given by Link! 



172 REPORT 1856. 

Page. Plate. Fig. 

298 Rmiella ffranifera, ham. Acapulco. 

299 Murex radix, Gme\. Acapulco. 

300 Murex tricolor, Yal. = M. reffius. Swains, (recte). 

301 Murex bicolor, Yul. := M.i-epius, Schuh. 8i Wagn. {male). "Vf'ith 

the last at Acapulco." 

302 Murex erinaceoides, Val. Acapulco. 

This list, being the largest known from Acapulco, would have been ex- 
tremely valuable, could it have been depended on for accuracy. But (1) the 
presence of several well-known E. Indian and other foreign shells (supposed 
by Prof. Adams to have been obtained from the inhabitants, the relics of 
former trade with the Philippines) endangers the authenticity of others, 
unless there be further confirmation. And (2) the description of the species, 
although set forth with not a little display, is performed in so loose a man- 
ner, that it is impossible to speak of them with confidence without an inspec- 
tion of the types. It will be seen that the author adopts a course, too com- 
mon among French naturalists, of changing the specific when he alters the 
generic name, appending his own authority for the species ; and that when 
two authors have used the same name for a shell, instead of preserving the 
right and re-naming the wrong, he has given his own names to both .species. 

25. In the " Voyage autour du Monde sur la Coquille, pendant les annees 
1822-,5, par L. I. Duperrey, Paris, 1826" (plates only), the following are the 
only two species connected with this province : — 

" Moll. pi. 11. f. 1, 1', Natica glauca, Humb. Peru :" =: iV. patula. Sow. 
"Moll. pi. 15. f. 2, 2 A, Calyptrcea Adolphei, Less.," has the animal _<j{*esented 
in the reversed position : = Crepidula dilatata. Lam. 

From the text (not seen) are quoted, among others — 

P. 421. No. 198 (1830), Patella scurra. Less. 
P, 419, Patella clypeaster. Less. 

26. The earliest known collector on the North-west shores of America 
was the justly celebrated Dr. Johann Friedr. Eschscholtz, Professor and 
Director of the Zoological Museums in the University of Dorpat. He ac- 
companied an expedition in the Russian ship Predpriaetie, commanded by 
Capt. Kotzebue, during the years 1823-6, which, after sailing round Cape 
Horn, and visiting the Bay of Conception in Chili, proceeded by the Sand- 
wich Islands to Kamtschatka, reaching Petropaulovski June 22, 1824'. 
Thence they proceeded along the north-west coast of America to Sitcha, and 
in October and November to San Francisco and the Rio Sacramento, In 
the following year they again sailed by the Sandwich Islands to Norfolk 
Sound, Sitcha ; thence to Manilla ; and returned via St. Helena. During 
this time Eschscholtz collected 2400 species belonging to all divisions of the 
animal kingdom ; including 10 sp. of Cephalopoda, 172 Gasteropoda, 45 
Lamellibranchiata, and 28 Tunicata*. The description of the new species 
was commenced by Eschscholtz in the " Zoologischer Atlas, enthaltend Abbil- 
dungen und Beschreibuugen neuer Thierarten, Berlin, May 1829 ;" but he 
died of nervous fever. May 7, 1831, at the early age of 37 years. The work 
was brought to a conclusion in the year 1833 (from the author's MSS.) by 
Dr. Martin Heinrich Rathke, who appears to have succeeded him in the 
chair at Dorpatf. The following is the brief list of the species bearing on 

* The plants collected during the expedition appear to have been described by Eschscholtz 
immediately after his return, in the Memoires de I'Acad. de St. Petersbourg, vol. x. p. 281— 
292 (1826), " Descriptiones plantarum novae Californise, adjectis florum exoticorum analysibus." 

f An analysis of the MoUusca in this work is given by Menke in the Zeit. f. Mai, May 1844, 
pp. 70-76. 



2 


10 


9 


2 


11 


9 


2 


11 


9 


3 


16 


15 


3 


17 


15 


3 


18 


15 


4 


14 


19 


4 


15 


19 


4 


15 


19 


4 


16 


19 


4 


16 


19 


4 


17 


19 


5 


16 




5 


18 


23 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. IJS 

our present, inquiry. The descriptions are in Latin, the localities accurately- 
recorded, and the work illustrated with plates which are tolerably charac- 
teristic. 

Part. Page. Plate. Fig. 
2 10 9 1. Murex monodon,'Esch. Sitcha. = If. /opiate, Gmel. teste Rve. 
=:M'. tripterus. Lam. teste Sow.:=ikf. alata, Chemn. teste Sow. 

2. Murex ferrugineus, Esch. Sitcha. = M. lactuca, var. (Midd.). 

3. Murex lactuca, Esch. Sitcha. 

4. Murex multicostatus, Esch. Sitcha. =Trophon clatkratus, Jjinn. 
teste Midd. 

1. Pleuropus pellucidus, Esch. South Sea (Pacific), near Equator. 

5. Creseis cornucopice, Esch. South Sea, near the " niedern Inseln." 

6. Creseis caligula, Esch. South Sea, near Equator. 

1. Eolidia pinnata, Esch. Sitcha. 

2. CavoUna crassicornis, Esch. Sitcha. 

3. CavoUna subrosacea, Esch. Sitcha, on Fuci. 

4. Glaucus Pacificus, Esch. Intertropical Pacific. 

5. Glaucus draco, Esch. Equatorial Pacific. 

6. Phylliroe Lichtensteinii, Esch. Pacific, west of Sandwich Islands. 
Acmaa. Animal and shell described. 

4. Acmeea mitra, Esch. = Patella scurra. Less. = Scurria mitra. 
Gray, Gen. =lLoftia pallida. Gray, Zool. Beech. Voy. Sitcha. 
This shell is very abundant on the coasts of Chdi (Cuming), 
and is also common near Monterey (Nuttall), but is not found 
in tropical America. 

5 18 Acmeea mammillata, 'Esch. Sitcha. = Scwma mitra, var. teste 

Phd., Midd. 

5 19 Acm.aia marmorea, Esch. Sitcha. = SramamiVra, var. teste Midd. 

6 19 24 3. Acmeea cassis, Esch. Sitcha. The northern analogue of P. 

deaurata, Gmel., from the Magellan Straits. Probably = P. 

exarata, (Nutt. MS.) Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 19. sp. 47 : var. pi. 24. 

f. 62 a, b. Oregon, Lieut. Baskerville. ? =P. Mazatlandica, 

Gray. 
5 19 Acmeea pelta, Esch. Sitcha. = P. leucopheea, (Nutt. MS.) Rve. 

Conch. Ic. 34. 101. -f P. monticola, Nutt. MS. (= P. monticolor. 

Jay, Cat. 2QAA)-[-P.strigillata, (Nutt. MS.) Jay, Cat. 2881. 
5 19 23 \-3. Acmeea scutum, Esch. Sitcha. (Chili, Bolivia, Peru, D'Orb.), 

= A. patina, var. teste Pliil., Midd. 
5 19 24 7,^- Acmeea patina, Esch. Sitcha. =P. mammillata (Nutt. MS. non 

Esch.), Rve. Conch. Ic. 42. 140. + P. tessellata, (Nutt. MS.) 

Jay's Cat. 2885.+P.fenestrata, (Nutt. MS.) Rve. C. I. 38. 121. 

+ P. verriculata, Rve. C. I. 31. 87. Cahfornia. + P. cinis, Rve. 

C. I. 24. 60. Monterey, Hartweg. ? + P. Nuttalliana, Rve. C. I. 

30. 81. Oregon. +P. Cumingii, Rve. C. I. 16. 37. Valparaiso, 

Cuming, teste Rve. : " never took it," Cuming, teste seipso. 

Monterey, Harfwe^, teste Mus. Cuming. l-\-P. diaphana (Nutt. 

MS.) Jay, Cat. 28. 3, non Rve.+Loitia pintadina, pars, Gould, 

Exp. Sp. p. 9 : V. B.M. Maz. Cat. p. 207. no. 265.* 

* The above extensive citation of synonyms is the result of (1) the study of Eschscholtz's 
diagnoses: — (2) The judgment of them by Philippi, after seeing the types, as recorded in 
Zeit.f.Mal.\8'i6,-p.l06-S :— (3) The fully recorded judgment of Middendorff in the Mal.Ross. 
and Sib. Raise, in locis : — (4) The careful and repeated examination of Mr. Nuttall's shells, 
(a) in his own collection, aided by his recollection, and with the full concurrence of his judgment; 
(6) in Dr. Jay's catalogue; (c) in Mr. Cuming's collection, as received from Nuttall, through 
Jay, and figured by Reeve : — (5) The comparison vpith these of Dr. Gould's specimens, col- 
lected on the same coast by the officers of the United States' Exploring Expedition and of the 
Mexican war: — (6) The examination of the types of Mr. Reeve's species in the Cumingian 
collection : — (7) The interpretation of all the above by the experience derived from the 
repeated and most careful examination of many thousand (at least 15,000) Limpets in the 
Mazatlan collection. It is oflfered as an approximation to the truth. It is a subject of great 



174 REPORT 1856. 

Part. Page. Plate. Fig. 

5 20 Acmtpa radiata,Esch. Sitcha. =.(i.^ersoH«,juii.testeMidd., non 

Phil. 
5 20 24 \, 2 Acmcea persona, Esch. Sitcha. = P. Ore^owa, (Nutt. MS.) Rve. 

Conch. Ic. pi. 3(). sp. 112. + P. umbonata, (Niitt. MS.) Rve. 

C. I. 35. 107. + P. pileata, (Nutt. MS.) Jay, Cat. 2861. 

?^ Lotiia jiunctata. Gray : teste Midd. (non Quoy & Gaim.) 
5 20 24 4, 6 Acmcea ancylus, Esch. Sitcha. ;= A. persona, teste Midd., non 

Phil.* 
5 20 23 1 ,^ Acmcea digitalis, 'Esc\i.\ 
5 21 23 5 Fissurella aspera, Esch. Sitcha. ?:= F. densiclathrata. Reeve. 

Besides these, Philippi in Zeit. f. Mai. 1847, p. 11.^), describes Modiola 
Calif orniensis, E.sch. from a specimen brought by Eschschoitz, and by an 
accident inscribed by him Pholas Californiensis in the Dorpat Museum. It 
is intermediate between Lithojjhngus dactylus, Sec, and L. ciimamomeus, 

27. The "Catalogue of the Shells contained in the Collection of the late 
Earl of Tankerville, with Appendix containing descriptions of many new 
species, by G. B. Sowerby, Loud. 1 825," is a very interesting document, both 
as showing how few shells from the West N. American coast were then known, 
and also how early some of the most remarkable, as Crepidula adunca, 
Lucapina crenulata, and others, had found their way to this country. The 
following shells belong to our present subject of inquiry; those having page- 
references being properly described in the appendix. 

Page. No. Page. No. 

iv. 226. Donax transversus. rare sjiecies, as we have never 

ii. 116. Mactra elegans (figured). met with another specimen." 

„ 208. Lucina punctata. Mart. iii. pi. 66. f. 733. 

„ 284. CythereaauraDtiaiSonthSeas). xvi. 1786. Str ambus (p-anulatus. 

vi. T9(3. Fissurella crenulata. xx. \792. Strombus gracilior. 

„ 808. Siphonaria ffigas {Ptniama,). xxi. 1826. Cassis coai-ctata. "We believe 

„ 814. Calyptraa extinctorium [non it to be a New Zealand shell." 

Lam.]. xxi. 1824. Cassis ringens. "Forms a good 

„ 8\b. Calyptraaspinosa. genus, nearer in natural affini- 

vii. 828. Crepidula adunca. ty to Do?»h», to which D.joo- 

„ \2\3. Haliotis Crucherodii. mM?n also should be referred." 

„ 1214. Haliotis Calif orniensis , and „ 1843. Purpura columellaris. 

others, „ 1844. Purpura bicostalis. 

xiii. 1418. Planaxis planicostatus (Gala- „ 1888. Monoceros cymatum. 

pagos). „ 2002. Columhella strombiformis, 

„ \40\. Turbo bicarinatus {figured). „ 2253. Cyprcea pustulata. 

xvi. 1553. Fasciolaria princeps. „ 2263. Cyprcea radians. 

„ 1672. Murex brassica. „ 2290. Oliva porphyria. 

%is..l703. Murex monodon, Mart.iii.pl. „ 2295. Oliva angulata. 

105. f. 980, 987. xxiii. 1984. Terebra strigata. "It is ex- 

,, 1673. Murex regius. tremely rare, only a few spe- 

,, \67 5. Murex radix. cimens having been brought 

xvi. 1614. Pt/rM?0! ventricosa. "We be- from the Panama." 
lieve it to be an extremely 

regret that Mr. Reeve, in describing the Limpets of the West N. American coast, did not avail 
himself of the previous labours of Kscbscholtz, MiddendorfFand Menke in the same diiection. 
If an author professes that he cannot understand the labours of his predecessors, he is not 
bound to add to them; but if he builds on their foundation, without making that foundation 
his own, he cannot expect the stability of his edifice. 

* Philippi regards /I. radiata-\-ancylus as forming quite a distinct species from A. persona. 
He thinks that the locality-tickets have become misplaced, and that it is really from Chili. 
He affiliates, from type, ^.punctata, D'Orb., which does not appear in the B.M. Cat., and 
was not seen in his collection. There is no reason why the species should not reappear on 
the Chili coast, as ^1. patina and S. mitra seem to do. Middendorff confirnis the northern 
localities. 

"j* Judging from the figures and descriptions of this shell, I should have regarded it as the 



ON MOLIiUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 175 

28. The next expedition furnishing results belonging to our present sub- 
ject of inquiry was the " Voyage to the Pacific and Beiiring's Straits, per- 
formed in H.M.S. Blossom, under the command of Capt. F. W. Beechey, 
R.N., F.R.S. &c., in the years 1825-28." Capt. Beechey was principally 
assisted^in the collection of MoUusca by Lieut. Belcher. Unfortunately it 
was not at that time thought necessary to mark the locality of specimens ; 
and for a large proportion we have to depend on general notes or the me- 
mory of the collectors. Of several very interesting species, however, the 
locality was carefully preserved. A series of specimens having been pre- 
sented to the Zoological Society, the new species were described at the 
request of the Society by Messrs. Broderip and Sowerby in the Zoological 
Journal, vol. iv. 1829, pp. 359-379, with Latin diagnoses and a plate. As 
this list is valuable, both from its not being mixed with other collections and 
from the known accuracy of the writers, it is here presented entire. 

Page. 

359. Nucula arctica ; a few sp. in Vatcha Bay, Kamtschatka. PI. 9. f . L 

360. Mactra pallida, San Bias. 
„ Mactra suhglobosa. 

361. Corbula rostrata. 

„ Corbula gibbosa ; 1 sp. Icy Cape. Page- ^^- ^S- 

„ Solen acutidens, Chinese Sea (Loo Choo) Z.B.V. 153 43 2 

„ Solen tenuis, Northern Ocean. 

362. Solen altus. Northern Ocean. 

„ Tellina Burneti, Mazatlan. PI. 9. f. 2. 

363. Tellina edentula, Behring's Straits „ 154 < .. » 

„ Tellina alternidentata. Icy Cape „ 153 44 5 

„ Tellina inconspicua. Icy Cape. 2 sp „ 153 41 6 

= T. Grcenlandica, Beck, MS. 

„ Tellinides purpureus, Pacific. (Real Llejos, Cuming.). ... „ 153 42 2 

364. Cytherea rosea, San Bias „ 151 43 7 

„ Venus gnidia, San Bias „ 151 41 3 

„ Cyrena Mexicana, Mazatlan. " In Mr. Sowerby's Coll." 

The type appears to have been lost. 

365. Astarte crassidens, Icy Cape. 1 sp. 

„ Astarte lactea, Icy Cape „ 152 44 12 

„ Area grandis. 

„ Area gradata, Mazatlan „ 152 43 1 

366. Cardium Belcheri ; 3 sp. taken north of Isabella Is. in the 

entrance of the Gulf of California, 15 fm. PI. 9. f. 3. 
„ Cardium radula (resembling C. muricatum). 
„ Cardium punctulatum. 1 sp. 

367. Cardium Dionceum, Is. in S. Pacific „ 162 42 6 

„ Cardium graniferum, Mazatlan : 6 inches in mud. 

„ Cardium biangulatum . . .'. „ 152 42 5 

368. Cardium boreale. Icy Cape. 

„ Chiton albolineatus, Mazatlan „ 149 40 4 

„ Chiton Loochooanus, Loo Choo. 

„ Chiton vestitus, Arctic Ocean „ 150 41 14 

369. Vermetus pellucidus. Probably the young of V. ehurneus, Rve. 
„ Patella Mexicana, Mazatlan. Long. 9 in. 

„ Dentalium semipolitum. (Like D. nebulosum.) 

„ Bulla culyculata, Pitcairn's Island. 

370. Crepidula incurvata, Kamtschatka. 
„ Fissurella Mans, Valparaiso. 

„ Emarginula crenulata. 

young of ^. persona, which is sometimes deeply ribbed, sometimes nearly smooth. Both 
Philippi and Middendorff, however, regard it as a well-distinguished species. 



176 REPORT — 1856. 

Page. Paje- ?'• Fig. 

3/0. Littorina squalida, Northern Ocean. Resembles L. littoreus. 

371. Margarita umbilicalis. Northern Ocean. 

„ Margarita striata, Northern Ocean Z.B.V. 143 34 11 

„ Sigaretus coriaceus, Northern Ocean : Cape Lisbon Bay. 
„ Neritina alata, Taheite. 

372. Natica pallida, ley CaY>e „ 136 34 15 

„ Natica otis, Mazatlan. Comp. N. Galapagosa „ 136 | .^^ ^ 

f 34 3 
„ Natica clausa, North Sea, Sabine „ 136 < gy g 

„ Mitra crassidens. 

373. Harpa gracilis. 

374. Trichotropis bicarinata, 10-15 fms. Between Cape Lisbon 

Bay and Icy Cape. PI. 9. f. 4-8. 

375. Trichotropis borealis, Melville Is. : 1 sp. Lieut. Belcher, Icy 

Cape. 
„ Buccinum boreale, Kamtschatka. 

376. Co/MM&eZZa cos^eZZaf a. "Panama and Coast of Africa," Gray. „ 129 36 9 

„ Nassa luteostoma := N. Xanthostoma, Gray „ 127 36 3 

„ Ricinula elegans. (Very like R. arachnoidea.) 

„ Ranella nana. 

377. Murex ducalis, near Mazatlan. = M. brassica, Lara „ 108 33 1 

Pyrula patulaj'Paci&ci^^T. melongena,\sir. n.\G\\,T!iLuk.\ 1 1 c / 34 10 

Cat. 62.) j " ' ^^ \ 35 1,3 

378. Fusus lapilliis. Pacific. = Buccinum subrostratum. Gray, 

WoodSuppl.rrPyraZas., Gray, Z.B.V „ 115 36 15 

„ Fmsms pallidus, Mazatlan. "A Fusus from the Calcaire 

grossiere near Paris presents no observable mai-ks of 

difference." „ 117 36 14 

„ Pleurotoma tuberculifera. North of Isabella Is., entrance of 

Gulf of California. 

379. CowM5 arcMfl/MS, near Mazatlan. 1 =C. regularis,\av „ 119 36 22 

„ Conus interruptus, near Mazatlan. Resembles C. purpu- 

rascens „ 119 33 2 

„ Oliva gracilis „ 130 36 21 

In a continuation of this paper (Zool. Journ. vol. v. pp. 46-51) are found 
the following species : — 

Page. 
46. Chelyosoma Macheayanum. Arctic Seas, on stones. 
New genus (Tunicata), described. 

48. Cytherea planulata. Near Mazatlan Z.B.V. 151 43 6 

49. Venus decorata. Hab.? Mus. Sow. Brought home in 

the ' Blossom.' PI. Suppl. 40. f. 3. 

The duty of describing the MoUusca of the ' Blossom' was undertaken by 
Mr. (now Dr.) J. E. Gray, who considered it a suitable occasion not only 
for introducing descriptions of MoUusca collected in the Pacific Ocean about 
the same time by Capt. Lord Byron, Mr. Fryer, and the Rev. — Hennah, 
and presented by them to the British Museum ; but also for giving a com- 
plete account (so far as materials then served) of the animals of the various 
genera. This course delayed the completion of the work for nine years ; 
and it was at last only by entrusting the revisal and completion of the MS. 
to Mr. Sowerby, that Capt. Beechey was enabled to publish the work in 
July, 1839. For the reasons above stated, the " Zoology of Captain Beechey 's 
Voyage : Molluscous Animals and their Shells, by J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c., 
London 1839," is more valuable as a contribution to general conchological 
and malacological knowledge than to the furtherance of geographical studies. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 177 

The following is a list of the additional species described, so far as they may 
be supposed to belong to the West N. American province ; the references to 
the species already described by Brod. and Soiv. being appended to the 
former list. The diagnoses are in English ; the plates beautiful and accu- 
rate, sometimes, however, too highly coloured. 

Page. Plate. Fig. 

108 33 4, 6. Murex vitulinus [? non La.m.l^Vitularia salehrosa, King, Zool. Journ. 

V. 347. 

109 Murex acanthopterus, "Lam. 165 = M. monodon, Esch. =M. phyllo- 

pterus, Sow. Gen. non Lam. = M. foliatus, Wood =M. purpura 

alata, Chemn. Pacific, N. Zealand, &c. [!] + M. trigonularis, Cab. 

Lam. (filed down)." 

109 Murex monodon. Sow. Tank. Cat. no. 1703. 

109 Murex regius, Panama. 

109 Murex radix, V&TosciQtk,. 

109 Murex radix, " wide-variced var. further north."=ilf. nigritus, Phil, 

-\-M. ambiguus, Rve. 

109 J ^' ^^^^^^ brassica. Lam. " Further north still." 

110 Tritonium Chemnitzii. " =Murex argus, var. Chemn." 

112 Follia hmmastoma. =^Pisania sanguinolenta. Duel. 

113 Turhinella rigida. Gray in "Wood Suppl. 

114 Turbinella castanea, 'Pacific. 

114 Turbinella cerata. Gray in Wood Suppl. 

117 Fusus angulatus. North Sea. 

117 Fmsms Sa6J«i, North Sea. 

117 Fusus venfricosus. 

117 Fusus glacialis, Arctic Ocean. 

117 i'Was /ormca^MS, Gmel., Icy Cape. 

118 36 13. Fusus lamellosus, Icy Caipe. 

118 Fusus muUicostatus, Escii. Northern Ocean. 

119 Conus Ximenes, Panama. 

122 34 5. Harpa rosea crenata. = H. crenata, Swains., Pacific. 

124 Monoceros grande. Facile. 

124 Monoceros punctatum. Pacific. 

124 Monoceros lugubre. Sow. Gen. f. 3. = M. cymatum, (Soland.) Sow. 

Tank. Cat. z=Buccinum denticulatum,-\-B. amatum. Wood Suppl. 
Pacific. (Cahfornia, on rocks, teste Reeve.) 

125 Monoceros maculatum=^Buceinumbrevidentatum,GvayixvWoodL^\x'^^\. 

= Purpura cornigera, Blainv. Pacific. [Mr. Gray assigns no 
reason for changing his own previous name.] 

6. Buccinum angulosum. Icy Cape. 
... Buccinum polaris. Icy Cape. 
19. Buccinum tenue. Icy Cape. 

... Columbella cribraria, Lam.= C. mitriformis, Brod. and King. 
25. Oliva zonalis, Lam. 
23, 27. Oliva undatella. Lam. 

... Olii>a lineolata. Gray. =Voluta Dama, Wood Suppl. 4; 37. ?Peru. 
... Oliva volutella. Lam. 
... Aragonia hiafula, [Gray, not] Lam.=:Oliva festacea, Lam. S. Amer. 

2. Natica borealis. North Sea, Sabine. 

4. Natica suturalis. North Sea, Sabine and Beechey. 
... Littorinafasciata,"? Vacific. 
14. Trochiscus Norrisii, Sow., Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd series. 

1 . ILottia pallida. Pacific. = Acmcea mitra, Esch.f 

* From this page to the end, the work is edited by Mr. G. B. Sowerby, principally from 
Mr. Gray's MS. 

t As Mr. Gray quoted the Zool. Atl. in the earlier part of this work, it is remarkable that 
he did not adopt Eschscholtz's genus Acmcsa, instead of Lottia, which, with others in the 
same work, appear only one step removed from the nonsense names of Adanson. 
1856. N 



127 


36 


128 




128 


36 


129 




131 


36 


131 


36 


131 


... 


131 




132 




136 


37 


136 


37 


139 




143* 34 


147 


39 



151 


41 


151 


43 


152 


44 


152 


44 


152 


42 


152 


42 



178 REPORT — 1856. 

Page. Plate. Fig. 

148 39 12. Patella Mazatlandica, Mazatlan. This species did not occur among 
the iBvriads of limpets lately sent from the same place. It closely 
resembles AcnuBa cassis, Esch., and may really have come from the 
North. 

150 41 15. Chiton tunicatus, Wood. Sitcha (teste Reeve). 

150 41 \6. Chiton articulatus, Sow. Vroc.Zoo\.Soc.l832. San Bias, under stones. 

150 41 17. CAi^OTi se/05MS, Sow. P. Z. S. 1832. Guacomayo. 

150 43 9. Chama echinata, Brod. Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. i. p. .306. pi. 39. f. 5-7. 
The specimen figured iu these books, and in Chen. Conch. 111., as a 
very old individual of Ch. echinata, is proved by the series in the 
B.M. Mazatlan Coll. to be a comparatively young shell of Chama 
frondosa, var. Mexicana. V. Cat. p. 87. no. 121. 

8. Venus neglecta. Central America, in saudy mud. 
5. Venus biradiata. Found abundantly at San Bias and Mazatlan. = C. 

squalida, Sow. = C. Chioncea, Alke. 
10. Astarte Banksii, Northern Seas. 

9. Astarte 1 striata, Northern Seas. 
4. Cardita crassa, Acapuleo. 
7. Cardium Panamense, Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1833, p. 85. Sandy mud 

at Panama. The specimen here figured can hardly be distinguished 

from the young of C. proceruni. 
152 42 3. Pectunculus inaqualis. Sow. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 196. Sandy 

mud at Panama and Real Llejos. This is not the shell usually 

known by this name, and is accordingly quoted by Krauss for a 

S. African species. 
154 44 A.Tellina proxima,V>vowa.,M.'&. Arctic Ocean. 
154 44 8. Mactra similis, Gray, MS. Northern Seas. 

The following species are added on the authority of Mr, Reeve, in bis 
Conch. Icon. : — 

Plate. Spec. 

9 62. Fissurella Lincolni,Gva.y,Conc\\.l\\.^.7 .noAVIAAO. Monterey, BeZcAer. 

6 27. Turritella sanguinea, Rve. California, Mus. Belcher. 
11 42. Murex imperialis, Swains. Zool. Ill, series 2. vol. ii. pi. 67. Mud banks, 
Isabella Is., Cal., Belcher. 

29. In the '* Supplement to the Index Testaceologicus, by W. Wood, 
F.R.S. &c., London, May 181^8," are figured several shells (principally with- 
out habitats) which belong to the West N. American fauna, and which were 
probably collected by Capt. Lord Byron, Rev. — Hennah, &c. Those 
which are recognized are as follow : — 

Plate. Fig. 
2 1. Donax sculpellum, B.M. 
2 6. Venus subrugosa, Mawe. Panama. 

2 11. Area pectiniformis, B.M. Closely vesembling Pecttmculus ineequalis. 

3 6. Conus gradatus, Mawe. California. 

3 7. Cyprcea arabicula, (Mawe) Lam. South Seas. 
3 3. Bulla decussata, Mawe. Panama. {Ficula.) 

3 26. Valuta harpa, Mawe. 

4 36. Valuta ccerulea, Mawe. = Oliva valutella. Lam. 

4 37. Valuta Dama, Mawe. S. Sea. =; 0. lineolata. Gray. 

4 1. Buccinum ringens, B.M. = Malea crassilabris, Val. 

4 5. Buccinum coarctutum,M.a.\\e. {Cassis.) 

4 6. Buccinum Rudolphi, Mawe. = Purpura columellaris, Lara. 

4 10. Buccinum brevideniatum, Mawe. (Monoceras.) 

4 12. Buccinum armatum, Mawe. 1=: Manoceros lugubre. 

4 13. Buccinu7n tectum, Mawe. [Cuma.) 

4 15. Buccinum Planaxis, Mawe. =^Planaxis laticostata,Sow. 

4 18, Buccinum sirombiforme, B.M. = Columbella strombiformis, Lam. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 17^ 

Plate. Fig, 

4 23. Buccinum roseum, B.M. = Harpa rosea. 

4 24. Buccinum minus, B.M. ^ Harpa minor. 
4 1. Strombus gracilior,'&.M. 

4 13. Strombus galea, B.M. 

4 14. Strombus galea, jun. 

4 21. Strombus granulatus, B.M. 

5 3. Murex rigidus, B.M. {Lathirus.) 

5 13. Murex regius. Swains. South Seas. 

5 15. Murex ceratus, Mawe. {Lathirxis.) 

5 19. Murex aculeatus, Mawe. = il/. dubius. 

5 1. Trochis undosus, Mawe. California. (Pomaulax.) 

5 2. Trochus unguis, Mawe. California. ( Uvanilla.) 

5 3. Trochus olivaceus, Mawe. S. Sea. {Uvanilla.) 

6 4. Trochus pellis-serjjentis, M&we. Panama. (Tegula.) 

5 17. Trochus Byronianus, B.M. Sandwich Is. [?] {Omphalitis.) 

5 23. Trochus filosus, B.M. 

6 44. Turbo Jiuctuosus, Mawe. {Callopoma.) 
6 45. Turbo saxosus, Mawe. {Callopoma.) 

8 2. Neriia patula, B.M. {Natica.) S. America. 

8 4. Nerita ornata, B.M. S. America. = iV. scabricosta. Lam. 

8 2. Patella poculum, B.M. = Trochita radians, Lam. 

8 3. Patella Peziza, B.M. = Crucibulum spinosum, Sow. 

8 4. Patella scutellata, B.M. = Crucibulum imbricatum, Sow. 

30. In the Voyage of the Astrolabe to the Australian and East Indian 
Seas during the years 1826-1829, of which the " Zoology" was published by 
MM. Quoy and Gaimard, Paris, 1830-35, there does not appear to have 
been a single species collected identical with any from N. America. A list 
of the MoUusca is given by Menke in the Zeit. f. Mai. for March 1844, 
pp. 38-48. The same result appears in East Indian and Polynesian voyages 
generally, which therefore have not been collated. 

31. In the "Description of the Cirrhipeda, Conchifera, and Mollusca in 
a Collection formed by the Officers of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, em- 
ployed between the years 1826-1830 in surveying the southern coasts of 
S. America, including the Straits of Magalhaens and the coa.st of Tierra del 
Fuego, by Capt. Philip P. King, R.N., F.R.S., assisted by W. J. Broderip, 
Esq., F.R.S.," given in the Zool. Journ. vol. v. 1832, pp. 332-349, occur 
very unexpectedly descriptions of the following species : — 

No. 44. Ampullaria Cumingii. Is. Sabago, Bay of Panama, in a small hill stream. 

Received from Mr. Cuming. Mus. Brit., King, Brod. 
„ 57. Murex salebrosus. Hab. ? Mus. King, Sow. 
„ 60, Triton scaber. Fished up with the anchor in Valparaiso Bay. Mus. King. 

32. The most comprehensive and accurate materials for the knowledge of 
the tropical Pacific fauna, are to be found in the collections made by Hugh 
Cuming, Esq. In the year 1827 that gentleman set out on his first great 
conchological voyage, and remained till 1830, exploring the West coast of 
America, at various stations from Chili to the Gulf of Fonseca or Conchagua, 
in lat. about 13° N. He also visited various of the Pacific Islands, and 
especially the Galapagos group. Mr. Cuming is the first collector on record 
who took notes, as accurate as was thought necessary, of the results of his 
dredgiugs. It is cause for the greatest regret that a systematic account of 
this expedition has never been published. The new shells brought home 
have indeed been to a great extent described in the Proc. Zool. Soc. and 
figured in the Monographs of Sowerby and Reeve. Of these the particulars 
of station and habitat have been recorded. But not only has the student to 

n2 



180 



REPORT — 1856. 



wade through a number of works, at the risk of overlooking what belongs to 
his purpose : he has also to find that many of the genera have never yet 
been examined; and that, while new species are tabulated, the localities of 
those before known are not given. If materials are yet accessible by which 
lists could be published of all the shells found by Mr. Cuming at different 
places, separately, with pai'ticulars as to their frequency, as well as station, 
such a work would be among the most valuable contributions to geographic 
zoology yet given to the world. All notes of habitat recorded in the Proc, 
Zool. Soc. 1832-1836, may be considered as very authentic*. After the 
interruption caused by the second and great expedition of Mr. Cuming to 
the Philippines, there is of course a possibility of error from the accidental 
interchange of tickets belonging to different species. It is right to state that 
the services rendered to malacological science by the researches of Mr. Cuming 
are only equalled by the urbanity and readiness with which he allows the use 
of them to scientific inquirersf, and to which the author is under very 
peculiar obligations. 

The following are the species observed in the Proc. Zool. Soc. Wherever 
the localities or stations given in the illustrated Monographs differ from these, 
the statements in the Proceedings must be regarded as of most authority. 



Proc. Zool. Soc. — Cuming. 



Station. 



Depth 
in fms. 



Locality. 



25 Chiton t Goodallii, Brod. 
251 Stokesii, Bro(f. ... 



Is 



u. s. & rock-ledges 
exposed situations 
on stones 



26- 

27 
27 
28- 
28- 



• limaciformis, Sow. 

■ Elenensis, Soto. .. 

• setosus, Soiv 

■ scabriculus, Sow. . . 

■ retusus, Soiv 



under stones 

exposed situations 

under stones 



29|Placunanomia CnmingiijBrod. i 

29(Dentalium tesseragonum, Sow... 
30 CarocoUa quadridentata, Brod... 



in mud, on dead 

bivalves & corals 

sandy mud 

woods 



1. w. 
1. w. 
l."w. 



I" 
10-16 



James Island, GaUapagos. 

Ditto ditto. 

Panama, St. Elena. 
Guacom., Inner Lobos Is. 
Pan., St. Elen. 
Guacomayo. 
Guac, Puerto Portrero. 
Ditto ditto. 

Gulf of Dulce. 

G.Nocoiyo, P.Port., Xipix, 
G. Dulce. 



* It is necessary, however, to use even these with caution ; as, in the papers purporting to 
describe shells collected by Mr. Cuming, species are introduced from places vfhich he never 
visited. All shells quoted from the Gulf of California, Acapulco, and stations north of the Bay 
of Fonseca, are of this class. These were obtained, but not collected, by Mr. Cuming, and are 
therefore liable to the errors of his informants. A remarkable instance of the way in which 
mistakes arise will be found in P. Z. S. 1833, p. 3fi, where Mr. Sowerby, in describing " shells 
collected by Mr. Cuming," states that " detached valves were picked up on the sands at Real 
Llejos and Mazatlan." In Mr. Reeve's Monograph, which is supposed to be of perfect accu- 
racy in all matters relating to the Cumingian Museum, we read that " a few odd valves of 
this species were found by Mr. Cuming on the sands at Real Llejos and Mazatlan." 

f Mr. Broderip, in commencing the description of the shells collected by Mr. Cuming in 
his great expedition to the Philippines, 1836-40, deservedly writes (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1840, 
p. 84), — "Mr. C, by his accurate notes, and the open publication of the places where every 
one of the multitudinous species and varieties collected by him was found, has mainly assisted 
in making a complete revolution in this department of the science, and has done more towards 
giving us data for the geographical distribution of the testaceous Mollusca than any person 
who has yet lived." 

X Perhaps the first notice of Mr. Cuming's labours occurs in a "Description of several new 
species of Chitones found on the coast of Chili in 1825, with a few remarks on the method of 
taking and preserving them, by John Frembley, R.N." (Zool. Journ. vol. iii. 1828, pp. 193- 
205). Among others, the author describes Chiton Cumingsii, "after his friend Mr. Cumings 
of Valparaiso, whose zeal in the pursuit of this interesting science will, he is persuaded, soon 
make a large addition to our present stock." In connexion with this paper should be read 
another, by the Rev. Lansdown Guilding, B.A., in the Zool. Journ. vol. v. pp. 25-35, "Ob- 
servations on the Chitonidse : St, Vincent, May, 1829." In this paper, the germs Acanihopleura 
is properly characterized. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 181 



1832, 
Page, 



Fboc. Zool. Soc. — Cuming. 



Depth 
in fois. 



Locality. 



31 
32 
33 
50 
51 
51 
51 
52 
52 
53 
53 
54 
54 
54 
54 
55 
55 
55 
55 
55 
56 
58 
58 

59 

60 
105 

105 
113 
113 
113 
114 
114 
114 
115 
115 
115 
115 
116 
116 
116 
116 
116 
116 
117 
117 
117 
118 
118 



118 

118 
118 
119 
119 
119 
119 
125 



Bulinus translucens, Brod. 

Fasciolaria granosa, Brod 

Voluta Cumingii, Brod. 1 sp. 

Cancellaria solida, Sow 

— buUata, -Sow 

— mitriformis, Sow 1 sp. 

— goniostoma, Sow 1 sp. 

— clavatula, Sow 

— obesa, Sow 

— cassidiformis, Sow 

— acuminata, Sow 

— buccinoides, Sow 

— indentata, 5oM) 

— hsemastoma, 5o!<) 

— cbrysostoma, 5ow 

gemmulata, Sow 

— decussata, Sow 

— bulbulus, Sow. . . .2 sp. juD, 

Scalaria diadema, Sow 

Cardita Cuvieri, Brod, 1 sp, 

— varia, Brod. 

Chiton dispar, 5ow 

— Columbiensis, Soiv 



on trees 
mud banks 



sand 

mud 
sandy mud 

sand 
sandy mud 



sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 



sand 

sand 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

sand 



hirundiformis, Soiv. 



al. 



Stilifer Astericola, Brod. .. 
Bulinus vexillum, Brod. [ 

ternans, Bed, teste /ay] 

— Fanamevsis, Brod. 

Columbellapulcherrimaj&w.lsp 

harpiformis, Sow. 

bicanalifera, Soio 

coronata, Sow 

lyrata, Soiv 

elegans, Sow 

turrita, Sow 

ivilya, Sow 

rugosa, Sow 

fluctuata, Sow 

lanceolata, Soiv 

maculosa, Sow 

haemastoma, Sow 

xaria, Soto 

' scalarina, Sow 

? pyrostoma, iSow 

? m&nra, Sow 

? livida, /Sow 

fuscata, -Sow 

costeUata, &te 1 sp, 

guttata, <Sow. " Long well 

known, but not aware that hi 

therto described." = Buccinum 

cribrarium, Lam. ... 
varianSj.S'ow. "First brought 

by Capt. Cook, in Endeavour." 

angularis, Sow 

castanea. Sow 

major, Sow 

procera, -Sow 1 

pygmaea, -Sow 

unicolor, -Sow. .-. 

Bulinus nux, Brod, 



sandy mud 

fine sand 

under stones 

under stones 

under stones 

in Asferias Solaris 
("trunks of large 

\ trees 
ditto 
sandy mud 
on dead shells 
sandy mud 
under stones 
iinder stones 
sandy mud 

coarse grav.&s.m 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 
fine coral sand 
sandy mud 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 



under stones 



under stones 

ondeadsh., sdym 

on bushes 



9 

8-10 

12 



7 

15 

16 

12 

7-15 

10-16 
8-10 

10-13 
8-10 

\i 

6 
shore 
1. w. 

I. w.j 



}•■ 



10 
10 
10 



10 



6-8 



16 



10 



Is. King & Saboga, B. Pan. 
Pan. 

Gulf of Fonseca. 
Real Llejos, St. Elena. 
Payta, G. Nocoiya. 
Pan. 

Conchagua, San Salvador. 
Pan., Pay. 
G. Duke, P. Port. 
Pan. 
Guacom. 

Rl.Lj.,Iqui.,Callao,P.Port. 
Pan. 
Gal. 

Pan., St. Elen. 
G. Nocoiya. 
Pan., P. Port. 
Real Llejos. 
James Is., Gal. 
G. FonsecEU 
Gal. 

Is. Saboga. 
Pan. 

Chatham Is., Gal., Ancon, 
Lobos Is., Payta, Peru. 
Ld. Hood's Is., Gal. 

Is. King and Saboga. 

Ditto ditto 

G. Duke. 

Pan. 

Gal. 

Pan. 

Pan., Chiriqui. 

Guacom. 

B- Mont., St. El. 

Pan. 

Pan., Xipix. 

G. Nocoiyo. 

Gal. 

Guacom. 

Gal., Pan. 

Pan. 

Pan., Chiriqui. 

Pan., Gal. 

Pan., Gal. 

Pan. 

Pan., St. Elen., M. Xti. 

Pan. 

Pan. 



" Galapagos (Hood's Is.).' 

Pan. 

Real Llej. 

Is. Muerte. 

Pan. 

St. EL 

" Gal. (Hood's Is.)." 

Charles Is., Gal. 



182 



REPORT — 1856. 



1832. 
Page 



Peoc. Zool. Soc. — Cuming. 



Depth 
in fms. 



Locality. 



173 Cancellaria uniplicata, Sow. 2sp. 

173 Ovulum avena, Sow 

173 inflexum, Soio 1 sp. 

174 aequale, Sow 

174 Murex recurvirostris, Brod 

174 erosus, Brod 

175 pumilus, Brod. 

175 nucleus, Brod 

175 \ihex,Brod 

176 oxyacantha, Brod 

176 nitidus, Brod 1 sp 

176 horridus, Brod. =M. Boi- 

vinii, Kien 

177 lappa, Brod 

179 Ranella muriciforinis, Brod.... 

179 caelata, Brod 

185 CypiEea Pacifica, Grai/ 

185 rubescens. Gray 

185 Maugeri, Gray 

194 Ranella pyramidalis, Brod. 1 

= !Muiex anceps, Pfr. ... j'" 

195 Cardita laticostata. Sow 

195 radiata, Soiv 

195 affinis. Sow 

196 Pectunculus inaequalis, Sow 

196 assimilis, Sow 

196 Capsa altior, Sotv 

196 ,var 

198 Nucula polita. Sow 1 sp. 

198 costellata. Sow 

198 gibbosa, 5ow 

198 , var 

199 Amphidesma rupium, Sow f 

199 , var. .'. I 

200 punctatum, Sow l^sp. 

200 Neritina latissima, Brod 

201 globosa, Brod. = N. inter- 
media, var. teste iffe.+N. tri- 
toneasis, Guil. teste Soiv. 

intermedia, Sow -l 

, var 



sand 



10 



201 
201 

201 



sandy mud 
under stones 
under stones 
fine coral sand 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
cleft of rock 

sandy mud 
rocky bed 
loose gravel 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 
under stones 

on reefs 

sand 

muddy sand 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

sandy mud & grav. 

coarse gravel 

thin mud 

sand 

sandy mud 

soft mud 

mud 

coarse grav. in co- 

ralreefs, &in rocks 



• picta, Sow. 



Spondylus dubius ? = S. prin- 

ceps, var. Brod 

Triton lignarius, iJrorf. 

— tigrinus, Brod 

— lineatus, Brod 

— gibbosus, Brod 

— scalariformis, Brod 

Turbinella tuberculata, Brod. ... 

— armata, Brod. 

Conus tiaratus, Brod. = C. mi- 1 

nimus, Linn. var. teste Rve. j 

— nux, Brod 

— Archon, Brod 

— purpurascens, Brod 1 

— gladiator, Brod J 

— Orion, Brod. 



on rocks in river 



on stones m moun- 
tain stream 
in rivulet 

mud bank partially 

overflowed with fr. 

water ; abundant 

on shells 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

coral sand 

coarse sand 

coarse sand 

under stones 

on coral reef 

on sand in small 

ponds of sea water 



6-12 



8-12 
12 



6-12 

6-12 

6-12 

10 

8-12 

12 

5 

7 

10 

5 

12 






sandy mud 

sandy mud in 

clefts of rocks. 

soft sand in ditto 



10 

7-12 
11 

6 

7 
10 



12 



Pan. 

Conchagua. 

G. Dulce. 

Pan. 

G. Nicoiyo. 

Pan. 

Gal. 

Gal. 

St. Elen., Pan. 

Real Lleijos. 

Real Lleijos. 

St. Elen., Pan. 

St. Elen. 

B. Mont. 

Pan. 

Gal. 

Gal. 

Gal. 

Pan., Ulitea. 

Rl.Llej.,Pan.,St.El.,Guac. 
Pan., Salango. 

Mont., G. Nocoiya. 
Pan., Real Llej. 
B. Guayaq., P. Port. 
G. Nocoiyo. 
Tumbez. 
Pan. 
Pan. 
Tumbez. 
G. Nocoiyo. 
Ld. Hood's Is. 
Gal. 
Gal. 
Real Llej. 

Chiriqui (Nicoya, Sow.). 

Is. Lions, Bay Mont. 
San Lucas, Gulf Nocoiya. 

Pan. 



Gulf of Tehuantepec. 

Porto Protrero & Panama, 

Guacomayo. 

Galapagos. 

Panama and Monte Xti. 

Bay of Montijo. 

Galapagos. 

Elizabeth Is. 



Galapagos. 

Galapagos. 
Bay of Montija. 

Panama. 

Real Llejos. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THK WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 183 



1833. 
Page. 



55 

82 
83 
83 
85 

124 

18 
19 
19 
20 

20 

20 
21 
22 

21 
34 



Pboc. Zool. Soc— Cuming'. 



35 

35 

35 

35 

35 

36 

36 

37 

37 

71 

72 

72 

72 

73 

74 

134 

134 

135 

135 

135 

135 

135 

136 

136 

137 

137 

137 

138 

138 

138 

138 

139 

139 

139 

139 

183i. 



Conus princeps 

Cardiutn Cumingii, Brod.. 

procerum, Sow 

planicostatum, Sow.. 
Panamense, Sow 

Orbicula Cumingii, Brod.. 

Byssoarca illota, 5ow 

truncata, Soiv 

Area tuberculosa, Sow 

concinna, Sow 



— emarginata, .Sow 

— ioTmois., Sotv 

— multieostata, Sow , 

quadrilatera, Sow. [=gran- 

dis jun.] , 

— labiata. Sow 



Cumingia lamellosa, Sow. 



Corbula nuciformis, Sow. 
- bicarinata, Sow 



biradinta, Sow. 



- nasuta. Sow 

- ovulata. Sow 

tenuis, Sow 

Bulinus rugiferus, Sow 

unifasciatus, Sow 

corneus, Sow 

Triton reticulatus. Sow 

Bulinus discrepans. Sow 

calvus, Sow 

uslulatus, Soiv 

unicolor. Sow 

Jacobi, Soiv , 

Pleurotoma unimaculata, Sow. 

clavulus, Sow 

oxytropis. Sow 

albicostata. Sow , 

bicolor, Soto 



- splendidula, Sow 

- bicanalifera. Sow 

- rugifera, (Jow 

■ aterrima, j'ow.* 

• nigerriraa, Sow 

■ corrugata, .^ow 

■ escentrica, Sow 

■ iucrassata, Sow 

• duplicata, ;S'ow 

■ unicolor. Sow 

• granulosa. Sow 

■ variculosa, ;5'ow 

■ nitida, Sow 

hexagona, Sow 1 sp. 



soft mud in rocks 

sandy mud in ditto 

satidy raud 

coarse sand 

fine sand 

sandy mud 

on lower sides of 

stones in sandy m 

under stones 
on St. & AviculcB 
roots of mangroves 
coarse sand 



Depth 
in fiuB. 



Euliraa interrnpta, Sow. 
— acuta, Sow 



sandy mud 
sandy mud 

in hard clay \ 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

mud and sand -j 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

under scoriae 

under lava 

und. decayed grass 

under stones 

under bark 

on dry grass-tufts 

on pieces of lava 

on dead leaves 

under scoriae 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

fine coral sand 

under stones 

sand 

Sue coral sand 

sandy mud 
fine coral sand 
under stones 
sandy mud 
muddy sand 
coral sand 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

sand 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

coarse sand 
coarse sand 



12 
4-6 

13 

10 

1. w. 
' 6 



1. w. 
12 



12 



7 

1. w. 

deep w. 

7-17 

3-8 

7 

10 
M" 

12 



Locality. 



8-16 

17 

13-20 

6 

"8 

6 
10 

6 

6-10 

10 

6 

6-10 

10 

6-10 

8 

10 

10 

13 

11-13 
13 



Panama. 

St. Elena and Monte Xti. 

Gulf of Dulce. 

Real Llejos. 

Guacomayo. 

Panama. 

I Payta, St. Elena, Pau. 

Gulf of Nocoiyo. 
Galapagos, Ld. Hood's Is. 
Real Llejos. 
Gulf of Nocoiyo. 
Atacamas, Real Llej., Xip., 
Panama, and Gulf of Calif, 
Gulf of Tehuantepec. 
Ditto. 

Real Llejos. 

Tumbez and Real Llejos. 

Payta. 

Panama. 

Real Llejos ; also fossil 

near Guaj'aquil. 
Pan.,Rl.LIej.,Carac.,St,El 
("hiriqui. 
Bay of Caraceas. 
Xipix. Jun. G. Nocoiyo. 
Xip.,B.Mont.,Carac.,B,LLj, 
Bay Montijo. 
James Is., Gal. 
Charles Is., Gal. 
Real Llejos. 
Gal. 

Conchagua. 
James Is., Gal. 
Charles Is., Gal. 
Is. Perico, Pau. 
James Is., Gal. 
.Monte Xti, Guac, Salango 
B. Montija. 
Pan,, Port. Portrero. 
Gal. 
Pan. 
Gal. 
Gal. 

B. Montija. 
Galap. 

Monte Cliristi. 
Pan. 

B. Mont., Port. Portrero. 
Galap. 

Pan., Mte Xti. 
Port. Portr., B, Mont. 
Pan. 

B. iMont., Pan. 
B. Mont. 
B. Mont. 
Guacomayo. 

G. Nocoiyo. 
B. Montiji. 



* N.B. Fl. rustica, i'oM>. = thiarella, Val. teste Jay. 



184 



REPORT 1856. 



1834. 
Vase. 



Proc. Zool. Soc. — Cuming. 



18 Conus Luzonicus, var. 

18 brunneus, JFood 

19 diadema, Soiv. 

19 regalitatis, Sow. 

21 Gastrochfena ovata, Soiv. 

truncata, Sow 

brevis, Sow 

rugulosa, Sow 

hyalina, Sow 

Calyptraea rudis, Brod. .. 
corrugata, Brod. .. 



21 
21 
22 
22 
35 
35 

351 varia, Brod. 

36 (Calypeopsis) imbricata, 1 

Brod. {Sow.) J 

36 ( — ^) lignaria, Brod. 

36 ( ) var 

36 ( ) tenuis , Brod. 

37 ( ) serrata, jBrorf. 

37 (Syphopatella)sordida,Broa(, 

39 (Crepidula) unguiformis, / 

Lam 1_ 

40 ( ) excavata, Brod. . . , 

40 ( ) urenata, Brod 

40 ( ) margmaMs, Brod.... 

40 ( ) squama, Brod 

47 Petricola robusta, Sow 

47 amygdalina, Sotv 



69 



Pholas cruciger, Sow. 



125 
125 
125 
126 
126 
127 
128 
148 
148 
149 
150 
150 
150 
150 

1835. 



calva, Gray, MS., 

, var. nana 

acuminata, Sow. 

curta. Sow 

cornea. Sow 



r adult 



clefts of rocks 

clefts of rocks 

clefts of rocks 

sandy mud in do. 

on Spondyli 

on coral rocks 

on Spondyli 

in pearl oysters 

in pearl oysters 

with the last 



under stones 



Depth 
in fms. 



Locality. 



on St. in sandy m, 

under stones 
on shells in s. m. 
onliv.shellsinm.s 
on dead sills., mud 

on stones, sand 

inside dead shells, 

sandy mud 



on sh. sandy mud 

stones & shls. s. n: 

under stones 

in rocks 
in pearl oysters 
r soft sandstone 
■< soft stone 
|_ hard clay 



Lyonsia picta, .Sow < 

Fissurella obscura, Soto 

virescens, Sow. [non F. vi- 

rescens. Guild. =Barbadensis, 
var. teste Sow.'] 

nigropunctata. Sow 

macrotrema. Sow 

— ' — microtrema. Sow 

inaequalis. Sow , 

pica, -Sow 

Panamensis, Sow , 

crenifera. Sow 

Chama frondosa, Brod. 

, var. 5 

imbricata, Brod 

, var. a 

producta, Brod 

corrugata, Brod 

echinata, Brod.* 



hard stones 
hard stones 
limestone 
soft stone 
trunk of tree 
attached to parti- 
cles of sand 
under stones 

■ exposed situat. 



Hipponyx radiata, Gray (non 
besh.) = H. Grayanus, Mke. 



under stones 

under stones 

under stones 

dead shells 

dead shells 

under stones 

on coral rock 

on pearl oyst. s.m. 

on pearl oysters 

rocks and stones 

on stones, s. mud 

stones 

oil rocks 

y on rocks 



1. w. 
l.'w. 

17 

3-7 
3-7 
3-7 

14 

6-10 

"4 

9 

6-11 

12 

1 4-10 

6-8 
6-10 

6-n 

3-6 
i-tide 
1. w. 

13 

12 
1. w. 
1. vr. 

1. VT. 

1. W. 
1. W. 

}" 

shore 
1. w. 



shore 

shore 
6-8 
6-10 
shore 

17 

10 
3-7 
1. w. 

10 
1. w. 
1. w. 



Gal. 

Gal., Puert. Portr., Pan. 

Gal. 

Real Llejos. 

Is. Perico. 

Is. Plata. 

Is. Perico. 

Galap., Lord Hood's. 

Galap., Lord Hood's. 

Lord Hood's Is. 

Pan., Real Llej. 

Guacom. 

Gal.,Ld.Hd'sIs.,Is.Muerte 

Pan. 

Real Llejos. 

Chiloe. 

Samanco Bay. 

Real Llejos, Is. Muerte. 

Pan. 

Pan., Chiloe. 

Real Llejos. 

St. Elena. 

Pan., Is. Muerte. 

Pan. 

Pan., Is. Muerte. 

Gal., Lord Hood's Is. 

Is. Puna, Guayaq. 

Bay Caraccas. 

G. Nocoiyo. 

Is. Perico. 

Pan. 

Pan. 

Is. Lions, Veragua. 

Chiriqui, Veragua. 

Is. Muerte. 

Galap. 

Pan. 

Galap., Lobos Is. 

Gal., Lambeyeque, Lob. Is 

Real Llejos. 

Gal., Guacom. 

St. Elena, Galap. 

Panama. 

Real Llejos. 

Is. Plata. 

G. Telmantepec. 

Ld. Hood's Is., Pearl Is. 

Galap. 

G. Tehuan. 

Real Llej. 

Puert. Portr. 



Pan., Galap. 



* The old sp. spoken of are the young oi Ch. frondosa, var. The young are Ch, coralloides,Uve, 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 185 



1835, 
Page. 



Mouretia stellata, Soiv. [comp 
Gadinia pentegoniostoma] .., 

Siphouaria costata, Sow \ 



7 
21 
21 
22 
23 
23 
41 
41 
42 
43 
44 
44 

45 
45 
46 
46 
46 
84 
84 
84 
93 
94 
95 
95 
96 
96 

109 

109 

109 
194 
194 
194 

194 

1840, 

139 

1841 

51 
52 

1842. 
49 

197 

1843, 

23 
208 
210 
213 

185 
30 
154 
156 
160 

166 



Pboc. Zool, Soc— Cuming-. 



maura, Sow 

Venus Columbiensis, Sow 

subimljricata, Soiv. 

multicostata, Sow... 
Cytherea unicolor, Sow... 

concinna, Sow 

Venus histriouica, Sow... 

— fuscolineata, Sow..., 

— discors, Sow 

— crenifera, Sow 

— ornatissima, jBrorf. ...Isp. 

— pulicaria, Brod. [ = cingu- 
lata, Lam. teste Sow.'] 

Cytherea tortuosa, Brod. 

affinis, Brod. 

Dioue,var. /3. = C. lupinaria 

vulnerata, Brod 

axgentma., Sow 

Pinna rugosa, >yow 

maura, Sow 

tuberculosa, Sow 

Pandora brevifrons, Sow 

Buccinum modestum, Poivis 

Nassa nodifera, Pow 

festiva, Pow 

pallida, Pow 

scabriuscula, Pow. 



Pecten subnodosus. Sow. i '^'^^•P- 
|_var.y 



magnificus, Sow.l ^^^ 



tumidus, Sow. 

Mitra tristis, Swains 

effusa. Swains 

Tiara foraminata, iS'jfams. 

luta lens, U^ood 

— muricata, Swains 



var.y 



=Vo 



Murex plicatus, Sow.jun.. 



Ranella nana, Sow. Jtt«. .... 
— albofasciata, Sow.jun., 



Siphonaria characteristica, Rve. 
Vermetus eburneus, Rve 



Lima angulata, Sow.jun 

Natica Panamaensis, Reel. 

uberina, Val.inHumb 

Gallapagosa, Reel. [? = N 

Otis, Z.fi.K.] 

Pleurotoma cedo-nulli, Rve 

.Cyclostoma giganteum, Sow 

iTerebra aspera, Hinds 

elata. Hinds 

ornata, Gray (P.Z.S. 1834 

P-62) 

|— — aciculata,/frf5. (quasi Za/w/ 



V on rocks 

on rocks in ex- 
posed situations 
on rocks 
coarse sand 
fine sand 
coarse sand 
coarse sand 
fine sand 
muddy sand 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

sand 
sandy mud 

[■ sandy mud 

sandy mud 

sandy mud 

soft mud 

sandy mud 

sand-banks 

sand-banks 

muddy banks 

muddy banks 

sand 
muddy gravel 
coral sand 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud \ 
and coral sand J 

coral sand i 

sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

1 sandy mud and 

} gravel 
sandy mud 

coarse sand 

coarse sand 
coarse sand 



sandy mud 

fine sand 

muddy sand 

coral sand 

sandy mud 

■woods 

sandy mud 

coarse sand 

coral sand 

(mud 



Depth 
in fms. 



Locality. 



1. w. Real Llej. 

|- 1. w. Guacom. 

Pan. 

1. vi • St. Elena. 

13 P.Portr.,Acap.[Calif.,S'ow.l 

1. w. G. Pan. 

6 Real Llej. [Xipix., Sow.l 

10 Pan. 

1. w. Real Llej., St. Elena. 

13 Guacom. 

6-9 Guacom., St. Elena. 

1. w. Payta, St. Elena. 

10 Pan. 

Chiriqui and Tumaco. 

6 Pan., Xipix. 

10 Xipix. 

5 Tumbez. 

6 Real Llej. 
1. vf. G. Nocoiyo. 

Is. Rey, B. Pan. 
Pan. 
Pan. 
10 Pan. 
7-17 B.Mont. 
6-10 Gal., Pan. 
6-10 Pan., St. Elen. 
6 Pan. 
12 Bay Mont. 
10-17 /Is- Plata. 
^ ^' IGulfTehuant. 

6 Galap. 
17 Is. Plata. 

6-10 St. Elena, Salango. 
6-10 St. Elena, Galap. 
12 Guacom., Galap. 

■ 6-14 St. Elena, Is. Plata, Pan. 

6' Galap. 

12 G. Nocoyo. 

7 Panama. ["Ins. Philip."] 
10 Panama. Ditto. 

Pan. 



12-20 Pan. 
10 Pan. 
5 Casma, Peru. 

Albemarle Is., Gal. 

10 Pan. 
Panama. 
6-10 Pan., Mte Xti,, St. Elen. 
15 Bay Mont. 
5-7 Gal. 

Panama, Hinds.) 
Xipix. (Acapulco, Sonso- 
nati, Hds.) 



186 



REPORT — 1856. 



Pboc. Zool. Soc. — Cuming. 



Depth 
in ims. 



Locality. 



1/ 

59 
60 
61 

61 

62 

70 

71 

142 

144 

144 

147 

147 

148 

121 

121 

12 

51 

51 

52 

1845. 
11 

11 

15 
15 

17 

107 

42 

129 

130 

139 

139 

142 

53 

59 

1846. 

117 
119 

1848. 

41 

97 

49 

1849. 

116 
117 
134 

1850. 

154 

185 

109 
110 

1855 

173 
183 



Lithodomus plumula, Hani., 
Tellina Cumiiigii, Hani 

— rubescens, Hani 

— regia, Hani. 

— lacerideus, Hani. 



— princeps, Hani 

— insculpta, Hani. 1 sp, 

— felix, Hani 

— gubernaculum, Hani 

— elongata, Hani. 

— Dombei, Hani. 

— plebeia, Hani. 

— aurora, Hani. 

— liiberna, Hani. 

Triton pagodus, Rve 

— pictus, Rve 

Scalaria mitrseformis, Sow.jun. 
Columbella rugulosa, .S'ou) 

— atramentaria, Sow 

nigricans, Sow 



in Spondyli 

coral sand 

sandy mud 

coarse sandy mud 

soft sandy raud 
sandy mud 

soft sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

sand 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

soft sandy mud 
sandy mud 



under stones 



Artemis simplex, Hani. 

sinia Dunkeri, Phil-I.. 

— subquadrata, Hani. 
Donax navicula, Hani. . . 



[ = Do- 



gracilis, Hani -^ var. *, 

var. c. 

assimilis, Hani 

Ostrea Colurabiensis, Hani 

Glandina obtusa, Pfr 

Helix spirulata, Pfr 

Nystiana, PJr 

Littorina aspera, Phil. 

porcata, Phil 

? aberrans, Phil 

Mitra gratiosa, Rve 

gausapata, if»e 



rocks 
leaves of bushes 
trunks of trees 



high exposed rocks 

rocks 

coral sand 



Chama Panameusis, Rv*. 
— Janus, Rve 



Planorbis Pananiensis, Dk 

Cyprt-ea puUa, Gask. (described 

1846, p. 24) 

Turbo saxosus, Rve 



on stones 
on large Jvieulce 

in streams 



Anomia fidenas, Cray 

— adamas. Gray 

Tornatellina Cumingiana, P/r. 



on PinncB 
on Av. marg. 



Phos turritus, A. Ad.. 



coral sand 



Nassa angulifera, A.Ad. 
— nodicincta, A.Ad.. 



Scintilla Cumingii, Desh. 
Erycina dubia, Desh 



5 

3 

5 

3 
6-10 

7 

3 

12 

7 

10 
C-11 

1. w. 



■|-tide 



-tide 
7 
10 



l.w. 
9 



6-10 



10 

7 



Pan. 

Guacom. 

Pan., Tumbez. 

Reel l.lej. 

Tumbez. 

Chiviqui. 

Tumbez. 

Chiriqui. 

Pan. 

Real Llej. [Thes.) 

Chiquiqui (Chiriqui, Sow. 

Pan., var. Tumbez. 

Real Llej. 

Pan. 

Pan., Gu.iyaq. 

Bay Montija. 

Galap. 

Guacom. 

Galap. 

Ghatliam Is., Galap. 

Galap. 

Pan., St. Elen. 

St. Elena. 

Gulf Nicoya. 

Bay Guayaq. 

Chiriqui. 

Caraccas. 

Pan. 

St. Elena. 

Real Llej. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Conchagua. 

Galap. 

Pan. 

Gal. 

Gal. 

Pan. 
Gal. 

Pan. 

Gal., Guay. 

W. Columb. 

Pan. 

Gal., Lord Hood's Is. 

Real Llej. 

Pan. 



Gal. 
Gal. 

Panama. 

Is. Muerte, Guayaq. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 187 



The following species occur in Reeve's Conchologia Iconica, from places 
visited by Mr. Cuming, and were probably collected by that gentleman. 



Sp. 



Depth 
in fms. 



Locality. 



2 

33 

49 
25 

68 
29 

43 
86 
31 

552 

61 
99 



12 


99 


12 


49 


11 


57 


2 


9 


3 


14 


11 


60 


9 


43 



Lucina punctata . 
- fibula 



- ebnrnea 

- cornea [Mysia, H. Sf A. Ad.l 

- calculus 

Cardium biangulatum [ = magnificum, 

Desh.'\ 

— graniferum 

— censors 

Fig. a, b. Pecten ventricosus, Soiv. Thes. 

= P. tumidus, Sow. P. Z. S., non Turt. 
Helix uncigera, Petit, Guer. Mag. Zool. 

1838, pi. 113. 

Fig. a,b. Patella diaphana, Rve 

Fig. a, b. striata, Rve. [as of Quoy 

Sf Gaim., but quite distinct from their 

species, which is given afterwards 

under the same name.] 

Fig. a, b. Patella stipulata, Rve 

Turbo squamiger, i?we. ...-. 

Strombus galeatu3 = S. crenatus, Sow. ... 

- granulatus 

- gracilior 

Chiton sulcatus 



sandy mud < 

sandy mud 
coarse sand 
coarse sand 

coral sand 



l.w. 

6 

1. w. 

11 

10-13 

10-13 

17 



sandv mud 



6-11 



— crenulatus 

Chiton hirundiniformis 



reefs 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
under stones 

under stones 



7 
l.w, 
6-8 
6-12 
below 
l.w. 
ditto 



,347, 



Turritella nodulosa, King, Z. J 
=T. papillosa, Kien. 

— fascialis, Rve , 

— rubescens, Rve 

Cypraea fusca, Gray 

nigropunctata, Gray, Z. J. iv. 11 

= C. irina, Kien. 
Conus varius, Linn. 1170. [Rve. pi. 12, 

non 13, sp. 58.] 

Var. j3. = C. pulchellus, Slow, not 

Swains. = C. interruptus, Wood, 

Suppl. 

Pleurotoma cineta, 7fi;e.=modesta, Sow 

Fig. a, b. Natica unifasciata, Rve. [? not 

Lam.'] 
Purpura Carolensis, iJwe. [= triangularis, 

Blainv.] 

columellaris. Lam 

planospira, Lam 

alveolata, Rve 

undata, Rve. [ =biserialis, i3/flmw. 

non Rve., var. Non undata, ia»M. =fas- 

ciata, Rve. pi. 9. f. 45.] 
Ricinula heptagonalis, Rve. P. Z. S. 1846 

[? ubi]. 

alveolata, Kien. [comp. Purp. alv.] 

contracta, Rve 

^-^ zonata, Rve 



sandy mud 

coarse sand 
coarse sand 



6-10 



under stones 



clefts of rocks 



sandy mud 
mud banks 

under stones 

exposed rocks 
exposed rocks 
under stones 
under stones 



under stones 



l.w. 

8 
l.w. 

1. w. 

l.w. 



l.w. 



l.w. 



under stones 



l.w. 



Panama. 

St. Elena. 

Philippines. 

Pan., St. Elen. 

G. Nicoya. 

G. Nicoya. 

Is. Plata, St. Elena. 

G. Nicoya, Xipix. 
St. Elena, Guacom. 
St. Elen. ,&c., Philippines, 

Panama. 

Cent.Amer. (C«»j.,A'eW.) 
Galapagos. 



Panama. 

Gal. 

G. Nicoy. 

St. Helena and Gal. 

St. Elena and Pan. 

Ld.Hood'8&Jas.I.,Gal. 

Pan. 

Korean Archip.,BefcAer; 
teste Rve., Gal. ; and 
Peru, teste Cum,. 

Gulf Dulce. 

B. Mont. 

B. Mont. 

Gal. (also B. Guayaquil, 

Gal. [teste Sow.) 

Philippines. 

Gal. 



Real Llej. and Is. Annaa. 
Pan. 

Charles Is., Gal. 

Gal. 

James Is., Gal. 

Pan. 

St. Elena. 



Pan. 

Pan. 

Pan., St. Elen. 

Charles Is., Gal. 



188 



REPORT — 1856. 



U 



32 



Sp. 



37 



16 


65 


17 


72 


16 


124 


22 


176 


1 


3 


6 


40 


8 


56 


9 


15 


11 


17 


14 


29 


20 


49 


2 


6 


5 


27 


3 


7 



157 



Cassis tenuis, Gray, in Wood, pi. 8. f. 4, 
= C. Massenas, Kien. 

— coarctata, Sow., Wood, f . 5 

Oniscia tuberculosa, Sow. Gen. p. 2 

Buccinum Coromandelianum, Lam 

— biliratum, Rve 

— nigrocostatum, Rve 

— •- pulchrum, Rve 

— cinis, Rve 

— pastinaca, Rve 

Monoceros grande, Gray, Z. B. V. p. 124, 

= Purpura Grayii, Kien. 

cingulatum,Zajn. = Buc. pseudodon, 

Burrows. "Quite inseparable from the 
present group :" [except by the Lathy- 
roid plaits, and the Turbinelloid opercu- 
lum, which /u«M.had already described.] 

Triton Chemnitzii = Cassidaria setosa, 
Hds. [? ubi]. 

Sowerbii=T. lineatus, Sow 

reticulatus ? = Murex reticulatus, 

Dilltv. = T. turriculatus, Desk. = Tnto- 
nium intertextum, Pfr.—T. reticulatus 
Mediterraneus, Sow. 

Mitra attenuata, Swains 

sulcata. Swains 

Voluta harpa 

Fissurella Mexicana 

rugosa 

Ohva Julieta 

splendidula 

polpasta. Bud 

kaleontina 

Turbinella varicosa 

nodata, il/flr/. = Murex rigidus, Wd. 

Fasciolaria salmo. Wood [Pyrula, Gray], 
= F. Valenciennesii, Kien. 

Fig. 157, 163. Murex alveatus, Kien. 
p. 24. pi. 46. f. 2. 



sandy mud 

crev. of rocks 
clefts of rocks 



Depth 
m fms. 



under stones 



under stones 



crev. of rocks 
clefts of rocks 

sandy mud 
sandy mud 



rocky bottom 

fine black sand 

sandy mud 

under stones 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 
sandy mud 

crev. of rocks 



under stones 



6 
1. vy. 
1. w. 



l.w. 
1. w. 



l.w. 

6 
l.w. 

13 
6-12 



l.w. 



l.w. 



Locality. 



Gal. 

Gal. 

Gal. 

Coromandel, Panama. 

Gal. 

Pan. 

Gal. 

Gal. 

B. Mont. 

James Is., Gal. 

Pan. 



Pan. 



Gal. 

Mediterranean, Gal. &c. 



Is. Cafia, Centr. Am. 
Mouth of Chiriqui, Ve- 
st. Elen. [ragua. 
Real Llej. 
Gal. 

Real Llej. 

Is. Tobago, B. Pan. 
B. Mont., Veragua. 
B. Guay., Gal. 
Gal. 
Pan. 
Real Llej. 

Pan. 



The following species, to which is appended the authority of Mr. Cuming, 
are figured in Sowerby's Conchohgical Illustrations. 



No. Fig. 



Locality. 



119 

J26 

31 

25 



17 



Fissurella gibberula, Lam 

Bulinus princeps, Brod. Z. P. 1832 [?ubi. =zebra, van] 

— eschariferus. Sow 

rugulosus, Sow 

Jacobi, Sow .f 

ustulatus. Sow t 

Murex dubius, -Soif. = M. aculeatus. Wood 

Cypra;a suffusa. Gray [ = C. armadina. Duel, teste Kien.] 

Ovulum fequale. Sow 

Conus tornatus, Brod. [Xipixapi, teste Brod. P. Z. S. 1833 

p. 53.] 
Amphidesma pulchrum, Sow. [B, Caraccas, teste Sow. P. Z. S 

1832, p. 57.] 
Neritina pulchra, Soiv 



Panama. 

Gonchagua. 

Galapagos. 

Galapagos. 

Galapagos. 

Galapagos. 

Panama. 

Galapagos. 

Panama. 

Panama. 

St. Elena : var. Panama, 

Panama. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 189 



The following species occur in Sowerby's Thesaurus Conchyliorum, on 
the authority of Mr. Cuming. 



No. Page. Plate 



Fig. 



Locality. 



12 
15 

51 

38 

118 

36 

38 

76 

48 
52 
53 
21 

69 

71 

70 

85 

169 



86 



129 
163 

284 



479 

529 

576 
577 

577 
618 



179 
179 
178 
182 
186 



39,40 

41,42 

112-13 
71 

42 
153-5 



99 


16-19 


112, 


108-9 


115 


217-18 


123 


71 


123 


76 


123 


77 


127 


12 



59,77 

60 

48 

155-6 
280-2 



Lima angulata, Sow 

- arcuata. Sow < 

Columbella cribraria, Lam 

Terebra frigata, Hds.='Y. gracilis. Gray. 

Tellina virgo, Hani. P. Z. S. 1844, p. 143 

Marginella coerulescens, Lam. = M.. pru- 

num, Gmel. [not M. sapotilla, Hds.'\ 

Ovulum gibbosura, Lam 

"1 Neritina Michaudii, Reel. Rev. Zool. 1 
J 1841, p. 315. J 
Bulla Quoyii, Grat/, MS 

- nifolabris, A. Ad. 

- punctata, A. Ad 

Cytherea undulata, Sow.jun. = C. planu- 

lata, var., Sow. sen. 
Cerithium ocellatum. Sow. [not Brug."] 
= C. in-oratum [non] interruptum, Gd. 

— nebulosum, Soto 

= C. maculosum, Kien. 

— adustum. Sow. non Kien 

? = C. maculosum, var. 

— Gallapaginis, A. Ad. 

?= interruptum, Mie. 

— varicosum, Sow 



u. coral 
sdy. m. 
s. 
,sd. 



cor. sd. 
fine sd. 
sdy. m. 
sdy. m. 



Panama. 

Ld. Hood's Is. 

Panama. 

Pan., very common, 

Galap. 

Cbii-iqui, W. Col. 

Panama. 

Panama. 

Panama, 

Galap. 
Galap. 
Panama. 
Salango. 

Gulf Cal., Galap. 

Galapagos. 

Galapagos. 

Galapagos. 

RealLlejos, atroots 
of mangroves. 



33. At the very time that Mr, Cuming was prosecuting his researches on 
the West Coast of South America, the Chevalier Alcide D'Orbigny was 
engaged in a similar exploration of the continent generally, from the years 
1826-1833. In July 1833, he reached the Pacific coast at Arica, whence he 
proceeded to Callao, stopping at Cobijo, Islay, and Arequipa. Thence he 
returned to Eui'ope via Valparaiso. The result of his labours is described 
in the " Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale, le Bresil, la Republique 
Orientale d'Uruguay, la Republique Argentine, la Patagonic, la Republique 
du Chili, la Republique de Bolivia, la Republique de Perou, execute pen- 
dant les annees 1826-1833, par Alcide D'Orbigny. Mollusca, Paris, 1847." 
Among the services rendered to malacological science by Dr. Gray*', it is 
not the least that he has obtained the type specimens described in this work 
for the British Museum, where they may be seen by students on application. 
The sea-shells are frequently by no means in good condition, in which re- 
spect they contrast most unfavourably with the magnificent specimens brought 
in such abundance by Mr. Cuming ; nor is the identification of species always 
to be relied on. In the Calyptrseidae especially, M. D'Orbigny has added to 
the confusion which was before characteristic of the nomenclature in that 
interesting but unfortunate family. Both the specimens and the work, how- 
ever, are extremely valuable, especially from the materials afforded for a 
comparison of the faunae of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts ; and the publi- 
cation of a cheap catalogue of them by Dr. Gray, Oct. 1854, enables ordi- 

* Perhaps the attention now given to the animals of Mollusca, and the reform of systems 
founded on the shells alone, are due to the labours of Dr. Gray more than to any other man 
living. It is a source of unfailing regret that the benefit of his works is very much overlooked, 
in consequence of his not conforming to the principles of nomenclature published under the 
auspices of the British Association (Reports, 1842, pp. 105-121). 



190 REPORT — 1856. 

nary students to make use of the information they afford. But in the part 
of South America to vvhicli our present inquiries are directed, which is mainly 
from Panama to the Bay of Guayaquil, it does not appear that M. D'Orbigny 
himself traveled. The shells quoted from this coast were principally col- 
lected by M. Fontaine, or copied from the descriptions of Mr. Cuming's 
stores. Those which are connected with the West North American pro- 
vince are as follow. The numbers refer to the " List of the Shells of South 
America in the Collection of the British Museum. 1854'*." Some notes are 
added on doubtful species, from a study of the specimens. 

No. 

279. Turritella Broderipiana, D'Orb. Peru, Payta. 

^ T. goniostoma, Val. 
301. Natica glauca, Val. =■ N. patula, Sow. Peru, Payta. 
320. Cyprffia iiigropuuctata. Gray. Payta. 
345. Columbella lanceolata. Sow. Peru, Payta. 
356. Purpura hEemastoma, Latn. Brazils. 

These specimens are of the P. Floridana tyj^e, punctured like the Mazatlan 
P. biserialis, but with the tubercles not developed. Some of the shells 
appear to be the true P. unclata, Laui. 

359, scalariformis, Blainv. Guayaquil. 

= Cuma kiosquiformis, var. 

365. bicostalis. Lam. Brazils. 

Very Uke No. 364, which is probably the true P. undata of Lam., not of 
Val. and C. B. Ad. 'Whether the Lamarckian P. bicostalis be this shell, 
or an E. Indian species, as supposed by Blainv., is not known. Reeve 
assigns the name to the Mazatlan shell. 

373. Cerithium varicosum. Sow. Guayaquil, 

374. Montaguei, D'Orb. Guayaquil. 

(Quite distinct from Cerithidea varicosa.) 

4ff]. Calyptrsea (Calypeopsis) quiriqmna, D'Orb. Chili; Conception. 

=(Tablet 555) C. rugosa, Desh., var. Probably a form of Crucibulum spi- 
nosum. 

408. ( ) rugosa, Desh. Chih, 

= C. liynaria, Brod., non C. rugosa. Less. Tablet 558 is the extreme form, 
lignaria ; 557, intermediate between that and 555. 

409. ( ) imbricata. Sow. Peru ; Payta. 

= 0. rugosa. Less., not Desh. Tablets 559, 560 are the true Crucibulum 
imbricaium : 561, ?do. var. Broderipii; 556, ??do. var. Cumingii, 

410. ( ) auriculata, D'Ori. Peru; Payta. 

= Crucibulum spinosum, Sow., not P. auriculata, Chemn. 

411. (Trochatella) trochiformis, D'Orb.=^T. radians. Lam. Chili and Peru. 

412. ( ) mammillaris, D'Ori. Peru; Payta — Guayaquil. 

= Galerus unguis, Brod., not G. mammillaris, Brod. 

415. Crepidula aeuleata, Gmel. Brazils ; Patagonia. 

416. Patagonica, D'Orb. Patagonia. 

Probably = C. dilatata, var. Some species are perhaps C. tiivea, var. 

417. protea, D'Ori. East coast; Patagonia; Brazils. 

Tablet 573, probably dead specimens of C. incurva, or onyx, or both. 
,, 574 „ „ C nivea. 

419. foliaeea, BrofZ. Bolivia. 

Possibly a var. of C. dilatata ; like C Lessonii of C. nivea. 

420. arcuata, Brod. Peru ; Payta. 

Probably = C. dilatata, var. 

440, Acmsea scurra. Less. Chih, Arica (on Fucus). 

:= Scurria mitra, Gray, from Less, and Esch. 

441, scutum, EscA. Chih; Bolivia; Peru. 

=A. patina, var. 

449. Patella maxima, D'0r5. Peru; Payta. 
=P. Mexicana. 



ON MOLLUSOA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 191 

No. 

482. Pholas curta, Sow. "Ecuador; Isle de los Leones." 

This island is in Veragua, teste Cuming. The shell is probably copied. 
545. Donax radiata, Val. [?] Peru ; Arica. 
587. Venus planulata. Sow. Chili ; Coquimbo. 

607. Solangensis, D'Orb. Ecuador; Xipixapi. 

= Cytherea radiata. Sow. 

608. Pay tensis, D'Orfi. Peru; Payta. 

= Cytherea affinis, Brod. 

610. neglecta. Gray. Peru; Payta. 

611*. Californiensis, Brod. (non Conr.) Peru; Payta (Fontaine). 

776' Ostrea aequatorialis, X)'0r6. Ecuador; Guayaquil; Is. de la Luna. 

34. M. Paul Emile Botta, who has since acquired such deserved reputation 
for his Assyrian researches, appears to have been a naval surgeon in early 
life, and is quoted by French writers for several shells belonging to the W. 
American faunas. The habitats assigned are in some instances correct, but 
error has evidently crept into others. 

Pyrula bezoar. Lam. China. " California, Botta." Blainv, Ann. Nouv. du Mus. 

p. 234 No. 68 

Purpura chocolatta. [S.America.] Cahiomia, Botta 240 80 

— ^ cornigera [= Mon. brevidentatum. Gray'], Mazatlan, Botta, 

(fragment) 213 28 

— ^ fusiformis. N. Guinea, Lesson Sf Garnot. Mazatlan, Botta. 229 61 

M. Botta's shell, if from Mazatlan, is probably the allied 

Fusus pallidus. 

triangularis. Mazatlan, 1 sp 223 466 

triserialis. California, 1 sp 226 53 

spirata. Sandwich Islands 252 105 

■ columellaris. Chili 220 40 

— — costata. Mazatlan, 1 sp 231 63 

Pleurotoma maura. Mazatlan Kiener 59 37 

Bottee. Mazatlan, 1 sp Kiener 26 33 

35. M. Blainville, in his Monograph of Purpura, " Nouvelles Annales du 
Museum," 1832, vol. i. pp. 189-263, besides the species brought by M. Botta, 
describes the two following, of which one, probably both, are from the West 
N. American coast. This accurate work, which does not seem to have been 
fully understood by recent English authors, or allowed priority by writers in 
his own country, contains a very interesting analysis of the geographical 
distribution of the tribe. 

Page. No. PI. Fig. 

238 75 11 11. Purpura biserialis = bicostalis, Bwe. ; not P. bicostalis, JLaTre. 

teste Blainv. 
232 65 1 1 9. ■ costularis. Lam. closely resembles Murex nux, Rve. 

36. In Guerin's Magasin de Zoologie for May 1833, appear figures and 
descriptions of the following shells, by M. Duclos. 

PI. Fig. 

22 1. Pui'pura sanguinolenta, DmcZ. =PolHa hfemastoma. Gray. 

22 2. truncata. Duel. =Monoceros muricatum. Chili. [!] 

(Voy. Yen. pi. 9. f. 2, 2a.) 

tl 3. nympha. [?=costata, Blainv.] 

1 5. kiosquiformis. N. Holland. [!] 

1 6. angulifera. [=Cuma tectum.] 

2 8. ceutiquadra, Val. MS.= speciosa, Val. Voy. Ven.= triserialis, Blainv. 

20 Oliva polpaster. Duel. [?=Cumingii, Rve. var.] Panama. 

t This plate and the next are marked " Ann. Sc. Nat. vol. 26." The writer says that 
they are from the vol. for May 1832. 



192 



REPORT — 1856, 



37. In the "Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History 
of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of 
Capt. Fitzroy, R.N., 1832-1836: by Ch. Darwin, M.A., F.R.S., London, 
1839," chap. 19, pp. 4'53-478, is an extremely interesting account of the 
zoology of the Galapagos (which were visited in Sept. 1835), particularly of 
the reptiles; but no lists are given of the shells collected. The list of the 
Galapagos MoUusca, drawn out by Mr. Darwin with the assistance of Mr. 
Cuming, was unfortunately not preserved ; and the collections were distri- 
buted without any catalogue having been made of them. 

38. Perhaps the earliest specimens of U. Californian shells seen in this 
country were those sent from Oregon by Lady Katherine Douglas (now Lady 
K. Wigram). It w"0uld appear that that lady procured shells wherever she 
could, as some are well known to be from the Sandwich Islands, and many 
belong to the Gulf Fauna. The collection therefore needs careful sifting 
before it can be regarded as of any geographical authority. It contains, 
however, several very interesting and new shells, which have not even yet 
been found again by subsequent travelers. The following are the species 
that have been observed. 



Lutraria maxima. Mid. Calif, and Co- 
lumbia R. = Tresus maximus, Gray. 

=:Mactra maxima, Rve. C. I. 1 ; 4. 
Tellina nasuta, Conr. R. Col. 
Tellina inquinata, Desh. 
Tellina, like Dombeyi. R. Col. 
Saxidomus squalidus, Desh. Cal. and R. 

Col. " Copiapo, Chih," Desh. in B. 

M. Yen. Cat. p. 188. no. 5. 
Saxidomus Nuttalli, R. Col. 
Chione neglecta. Gray. Cal. and R. Col. 
Chione ruder ata, Desh. Cal. 
Trigonamactroides \lradiata,]wa^. Cal. 
Mactra similis. Gray. 
Cardium Nuttallianum. Fort Simpson. 
Mytilus ? edulis. Cal. and R. Col. 
Mytilus Californianus, Conr. [?]. 
Pectunculus Californicus. 
Pectunculus, like maculatus. 
Sjwndyhis ? 
Placunanomia cepio. Gray, Cat. Anom. 

B. M. p.ll.no.6. " Califoniia, Lady 

Katherine Wigram." 
Placunanomia alope. Gray, Cat. Anom. 

B. M. p. 12. no. 7. " California, Lady 

Katherine Wigram." 
Anomia lampe, Gray, Cat. Anom. B. M. 

p. 19. no. 14. " California, Lady 

Katherine Wigram." 
Chiton Sitkensis, Rve. (nonMid. =SfeZ- 

leri. Mid.) Cal. 
Katherina Douglasia, Gray = Chiton tu- 

nicatus. Sow. Cal. 
Haliotis rufescens (and others). 



Ziziphinus Jilosus. 

Turbo fluctuatus. 

Nerita ? scabriuscula. 

Neritina picta. 

Hipponyx, sp. ind. 

Turritella goniostoma. 

Cerithium maculosum. 

Trivia siiffusa. R. Col. 

Trivia Solandri. 

Torinia areola, Desh. [?] •.=T. variegata, 

Maz. Cat. p. 407. 
Natica bifasciata, Grajr. 
Natica, like maroccana. 
Neverita, sp. ind. 
Cancellaria reticulata. Lam. (appears a 

worn C. urceolata). 
Oliva Ivenulata. 
Olivella lineolata. 
Mitra, like tristis. 
Columbella, Yike. fuscata. 
Columbella heemastoma. Sow. Cal. 
Columbella strombi/ormis. Sandw. Is. [?] 
Columbella castanea. 
Columbella pygmma. 
Purpura crispata, resembles lapillus. 
Purpura crispata, varieties. Cal. &R. Col. 
Purpura Conradi, Nutt. R. Col. 
Purpura, n. s. (smooth, like Buccinum). 

Cal. The same species ap])ears as 

" W. Coast America, Hinds." 
Nassa tiarula, Kien. =fegula, Rve. 
Fusus carinatus. " Labrador." 
Fusns Diipeiithouarsii. 
Murex trialatus. Sow. 



39. During the years \SM-5, Thomas Nuttall, Esq., for many years Pro- 
fessor, of Natural History at Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S., visited 
the then almost unsearched shores of California, by a journey across the 
Rocky Mountains under the escort of a trading company. Although his 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THK WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 193 

object was principally botanical, his love of natural science induced him to 
collect all the shells he could meet with ; and with such good success, that 
many of his species have net to this day been again discovered. The pecu- 
liar interest attaching to his researches is, that he did not visit any part of 
the coast north of Oregon or south of San Diego. There is no danger, 
therefore, of any admixture with the shells of the Gulf district; and his 
collections may be regarded as the type of the Californian fauna strictly so 
called. Leaving the American shores, Mr. Nuttall visited the Sandwich 
Islands, whence be only brought one species belonging to the American 
fauna, viz. Hipponyx Grayanus, on a Pinna. On his return to the United 
States, via Cape Horn, the description of the marine shells was undertaken 
by Mr. T. A. Conrad, and of the land and freshwater species by Mr. Lea. 
The latter gentleman communicated his paper to the American Philosophi- 
cal Society, where it will be found in the ' Transactions,' vol. vi. ; Mr. Conrad 
read his paper before the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, in 
Jan. and Feb. 1837. It is published in the second part of the ' .Journal ' of 
the Society, vol. vii. pp. 227-268*. Although headed " Descriptions of New 
Marine Shells, from Upper California, collected by Thomas Nuttall, Esq.," 
it also contains not only descriptions of several of Mr. Nuttall's Sandwich 
Island shells and Hinnita JSuttalli, from Fayalf, but also shells from places 
never visited by him, as Lyonsia injiata, Guayaquil, Dr. Burrough ; Viilsella 
Nuttalli, from the Friendly Islands ; and Tellina lintea, a fossil from Mobile 
Point, Alabama. The work bears the appearance of undue haste ; the genera 
are grouped together without the least regard to arrangement ; a large pro- 
portion of the species are named either Californicus or Nuttalli ; the diffi- 
cult genera, such as Acmcea and Chiton, are not touched ; the localities 
cannot always be depended on, as e. g. when Perna Californica is said to 
inhabit the Sandwich Islands ; and the descriptions being in English would 
not have been entitled to claim precedence were it not that they are accom- 
panied by tolerably recognizable figures. The characteristic names and very 
elegant and accurate descriptions of plants from the pen of Mr. Nuttall in 
the same volume, make us greatly regret that he performed his conchological 
work by proxy. But the confusion does not end here. Mr. Nuttall, having 
reserved a small part of his collections for his own use, transferred the bulk, 
of them to Dr. Jay, accompanied by MS. names for the shells passed over by 
Conrad. These have been printed in Jay's Catalogue, but without descrip- 
tions, with the addition of some not in the least remembered by Mr. Nuttall. 
Under these names they were sent to Mr. Cuming and others, and have 
taken their chance of admission into the monographs^. Meanwhile Mr. 
Nuttall returned to England (where he now resides on his estate. Nut Grove, 
Rainhill, near Liverpool), and continued to distribute the shells under MS. 
names; but not having access to Conrad's work, the names of that author 
were often lost, and others substituted in their place. So little is Conrad's 
paper known, that M. Deshayes redescribed several of the most character- 
istic species; Dr. Dunker complained that he had never been able to see it ; 

* Part i, of the same volume bears date 1834. 

•j- It is generally supposed that the Hinnites Poulsoni, which is described and figured by 
Conrad in the same volume of the Journal, and is the H. giganteus, Gray, is assigned to Fayal. 
The two species have been confounded, as the locality of//. Poulsoni was not known. 

J Of the species only existing in Dr. Jay's Catalogue, and which therefore have no claim 
to priority, I am unable to give any information. I have requested that celebrated concholo- 
gist (through Dr. Gould) to furnish the public vfith either figures or descriptions of them, but 
have not yet received a reply. From the redescription of several of them by Dr. Gould, they 
would appear not to be well known even by the naturalists of his own country. 

1856. o 



194 



REPORT — 1856. 



and Philippi states that it is not to be found even in the Royal libraries at 
Berlin or Gottingen. Having fortunately obtained access to a copy of the 
paper, and compared it with Mr. Nuttall's own shells*, and at the same time 
with those brought by the officers of the Mexican war, I offer the following 
as the best statement that present circumstances will permit. It should be 
premised that Mr. Conrad, in the 'Journal' for 1849, made several emenda- 
tions of his paper which have been here incorporated. The new species are 
described in the ' Proc. Zool. Soc' 1856, pp. 209-229. 



No. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 


Pi 

236 

237 

236 

235 

234 

248 
247 

248 

238 
228 


18 

18 

18 
18 

17 

19 
19 

19 

18 
17 


Fig. 


Name. 


Locality. 


Station. 


5,6 

7 

2 
1 

11 

8 
5 

20 

8 

1 




Sta. Barbara. 

Sta. Barbara. 

Sta. Barbara. 
Sta. Barbara. 

Sta. Barbara. 

Sta. Barbara. 
California. 

Sta. Barbara. 

San Diego. 
Sta. Barbara. 


clay rocks. 

clay rocks. 

muddy marshes and 

soft rocks, 
salt marshes, bare at 

low w. 

salt marshes ; rare. 

one fine pair. 

in sponge, and thrown 
up attached to roots 
of fuci, in deep w. 

muddy marshes of 
sea-coast. 

single valves. 


= Pholas C, Conr. a pr. man. ; Sow. Thes. 
= Pholas JanelUi, Desh. Rev. 1839, p. 357; 

Guer. pi. 14-16; Chen. pi. 3. f. 5; 

Jay's Cat. No. 162.— Mur. Nutt., Cum., 

Brit. 


= Pholas p., Conr. a pr. man. 

= Pholas coneamerata, Desh. Rev. 1839, 

p. 357; Guer. pi. 17; Chen. pi. 3. f. 4; 

Jay's Cat. 186.— Mas. Gould. 
Platyodon J cancellata, Conr., Jay's Cat. 265. 

— Mu3. Nutt., Brit. 


? = Cypricia NuttalUi, quasi Conr. — B.M. 

Non Mactra NuttalUi, Rve. Conch. Ic. 

pi. 21. sp. 125.— Mus. Nutt., Brit. 


= Cryptomya Californica, Conr. Journ. 
1849, p. 208 ; Jay's Cat. 467.— Mus. 
Nutt. 


Mytilimeriaf Nuttalli, Conr., Jay's Cat. 
2221.— Mus. Btlt. 

Lyonsia Californica, Conr 


?=i. hyalina, Conr. This shell, which 
seems to have been lost, probably re- 
appears as L. nitida, Gould : v. infra. 


= P.planiuscula, Sow.1834, teste Gld. non 

Cum.; Jay's Cat.330.—Mus.Cum.Gld. 

Pandora punctata, Conr. — Mus. Cum., Nutt. 



* Mr. Nuttall's silvery locks have not lessened his interest in Natural Science. His 
memory is singularly clear on all matters relating to his own collections ; and has been allowed 
to turn the scale on doubtful points, in the few instances where no MS. had remained. 

f It is difficult to know what Conrad means by this genus, which is described in Journ, 
1849, p. 214. He afterwards calls P. acuminata, which is clearly congeneric, Penitella Wil- 
sonii ; while he applies the name Parapholas to Pholadidea melanura. It is here used accord- 
ing to the interpretation of Woodw. (Man. Moll. p. 329) for the Pholadidea with tripartite 
valves, persistent cups, and large plates. 

% Platyodon is described as a subgenus of Mya, with four testaceous valves on the ends of 
the tubes. 

§ Cryptodon is described as a subgenus of Lutraria, with two corneous valves, which close 
the orifices of the tubes. 

^ MytiUmeria, as appears from type valves in the Brit. Mus., received from Conrad, is a 
subgenus of Lyonsia (not a synonym for it) with spiral umbos, regular rounded form, and 
very slight ligamental pit. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 195 



231 
232 

233 

233 

241 
230 

231 

239 
239 

234 

258 

258 
257 
254 



Fig. 



21 



Solecurtus lucidus, Conr 

= S. radiatus, Gld. non Linn, (teste Conr. 
1849). 

= Siliqua lucida, Conr. Journ. Aug. 1849. 

Mach(Eralucida,ia.y,22>'6, — Mus.Nutt.,Br- 
Solecurtus Nuttallii, Conr 

= Siliqua Nuttallii, Conr. Aug. 1849, 

— Solen splendens, Chen, teste Conr. 

= Machmra maxima, Gould, Jay's Cat. 

239; non Wood, teste Conr.— Mus. 

Nutt. 

Cultellus subteres, Cow. [Subg. described.] 

Solecurtus subteres, Jay, 236. — Mus. 

Nutt., Brit. 

— Californianus, Conr 

Solecurtus Californianus, J ay, 221. — Mus. 

Nutt., Brit. 
Psammobia Pacifica, Conr., Jay, 500 (Co- 

\\xm\naE..).\_Sanguinolaria.'\ — Mus.Br. 
Sanguinolaria Nuttallii, Conr., Jay,488,489. 

— Mus. Nutt., Cum. 
= Psammobia decora, Hds. 

— Californiana, Conr 

Var. A. "May prove distinct." — Mus. Nutt. 

— rubro-radiata, Conr., Nutt. MS. — Mus. 

Nutt. Appears to have been over- 
looked. Allied to Psammobia. 

Amphidesma rubrolineata, Conr 

=Semele simplex, A. Ad. ?ubi. — Mus. 
Old., Cuming. 

— decisa, Conr 

= J. roseum, Gld. [? non Brod. & Sow.); 

Jay, 443.— Mus. Nutt., Brit., Cum. 
Cumingia Californica, Conr.,3a.j,4.b7. — Mus. 
Cum., Brit. 

Tellina alta, Conr., Jay, 520 

? = 1 Scrobicularia biangulata, Cpr.* — Mus. 
Nutt. P. Z.S. 1855, p. 230. 

— edentula, Brod. &( Sow. — Mus. Nutt., 
Cum. &c. 

— nasuta, Conr., Jay, 592. Columbia 
River. Jay's habitat is likely to be 
more correct than Conrad's, as this is 
one of the Okotsk species. 

Tellina secta, Conr.-\ 

= T. ligamentina, Desh. in Guer. Mag 
1843, pi. 81 ; Jay, 633.— Mus. Nutt. 

Strigilla carnaria, Linn.X , 

Donax Californica, Conr., Jay, 699. — Mus. 

Nutt., Brit., Cum. &c. 

= Donax obesa, PhU. Zeit. f. Mai. 1851, 

p. 75. no. 2. (non Desh.) 



Locality. 



Sta. Barbara. 



Columbia R. 



Sta. Barbara. 

Sta. Barbara. 

San Diego. 
San Diego. 

Columbia R. 
California. 

San Diego. 

San Diego. 

Sta. Barbara. 
Sta. Barbara. 

Columbia R. 

San Diego, 

San Diego. 

California. 
Sta. Barbara. 



salt marshes, near 
Pt. Adams. 



muddy salt marshes 
common. 

deepish water, sandy 

bottom, 
marshes. 



muddymarsheSjbracfc 

ish. 



deep water, 
deep water. 



"Grows very large, and 
is eaten by the Chin- 
'}aodks,."^Nutt, 



muddy marshes. 



not uncommon, 
sand. 



* The T. alta is lost in this country. There is no figure in Conrad. In genera that are 
loosely defined, there is a danger of species reappearing under two heads, as in the case of 
Psammobia decora, Hds., which however was figured. The biangulate character assigned to 
T, alta makes the IScrohicularia suspected. 

t There is a Tellina Californica, as of Conr., in the Brit. Mus., which is probably identical 
with one of these published species. 

X This species has been overlooked in the Monograph, P. Z. S. Vide Br. Mus. Maz. Cat. 
in loco, 

o2 



196 



REPORT — 1856. 



Fig. 



27 



30i 



254 



255 



21 



20 



31 



34 



251 



19 



19 



250 



249 



19 



19 



14 



12 



35 



253 



Name. 



Jay's 
Cuv. 



Donax Californica {continued). 
= I>. obesus, Gld., quasi nov. sp. 
Non D. Californieus, Desh.in Mus. Cum. 

= D. Conradi, var. jun. 
Mactra Californica, Conr. — Mus. Gould 

- planulata, Conr. (Appears to be lost.) 
PetricolaCalifornica, Cowr. journ. Aug. 18 49 ; 

Desh. Cat. Ven. p. 208. no. 3. 
Saxicava C, Conr. a prim. man. ; 

Cat. 460.— Mus. Gould, Cum. 
= Petricola arcuata, Desh. Rev, 

Dec. 1839, p. 358. 
— carditoides, Conr. Journ. Aug. 1849. 
Saxicava c, Conr. apr. man. — Mus. Nutt., 

Gld. 
Non Venerupis carditoides. Lam. An. s 

Vert. vol. vi. p. 164. no. 7 ; Desh. B.M 

Cat. Ven. p. 192. no. 7. 
= P. Californica, var. teste Nutt. 
Comp. Petricola cylindracea, Desh. Rev 

Cuv. 1839, p. '358 ; B.M. Cat. Ven. 

p. 208. no. 5. 
Comp. Petricola gibha. Mid. Mai. Ross. 

p. 57. pi. 18. f. 5-7. 
Venus lamellifera, Conr. [Rupellaria.] 
= Venerupis Cordieri, var. /3, Desh. Cat. 

Ven. p. 191.no. 1. 
= Petricola Cordieri, Desh. Rev. Cuv, 

1839, p. 358.— Mus. Cum., Nutt. 

Gld. 

Tapes tumida, Conr , 

Mysia tumida, Conr. teste Nutt. MS. — 

Mus. Nutt. 

Venus staminea, Conr 

Tapes straminea, Sovs^. Thes. Conch, p. 699, 

pi. 151. f. 151. 
= Venus dispar, Gld. MS. — Mus. Brit., 

Nutt., Cum. 
Saxidomus Nuttalli, Conr. [Genus de 

scribed.] Desh. Cat. Ven. p. 188. no. 4. 
= Venerupis giganiea, Desh. Rev. Cuv. 

1839, p. 359, teste Jay. 
= Pullastra gigantea, Catl. Conch. Nom. 

p. 41. 
= Saxidomus giganteus, Desh. Cat. Ven. 

p. 187. no. 2. 
Comp. Saxidomus Petiti, Desh. Cat. Ven 

p. 189. no. 7; Jay, 481.— Mus. Nutt., 

Cum. [The species described from the 

Californian Saxidomi are unsatisfac- 
torily made out; depending on dif- 
ferences in sculpture which appear 

variable.] 
Trigonella crassatelloides, Conr 

Subgenus indicated : described Jouru. 

1849, p. 213. 
Trigona crassatelloides, Desh. Cat. Ven 

p. 46. no. 1. 
= Cutherea solidissima, Phil. Z. f. M. 185 1 

p. 74. no. 100. 
Cytherea crassatelloides. Jay, 847. Mus 

Nutt., Gld., Brit., Cum. 



Locality. 



Sta. Barbara. 1 

Sta. Barbara. J 

Sta. Barbara & 

San Diego. 



Sta. Barbara. 



San Diego. 



Sta. Barbara. 

Sta. Barbara & 
San Diego. 



' California and 
San Diego." 



muddy marshes bare 
at low water : rare 



one valve. 



one valve. 



one sp. 



San Diego and 
Sta. Barbara. 



bull-owing into soft 
clay stone." 



1 foot deep in the 
sand, common. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 19? 



No. 

36 


1 
252 


1 

5 


Fig. 


Name, 


Locality. 


station. 




Cytherea callosa, Conr. [Dosinia.] 


Sta. Barbara. 


common : broken by 










Non Chione ea/tos«,Desli.Cat.Ven.p.l35. 

no. 48. 
Non Venus StucMuryi, Jay's Cat. 1080. 




gulls. 






















— Mus. Nutt. 






37 


250 


19 


15 

c 
o 


Venus Nuttalli, Conr., Jav, 1037. — Mus. 
Brit., Nutt., Cum. 
CMone Nuttallii, Desh. Cat. Yen. p. 135. 

no. 47. 
-j- Chione callosa, Desh. no. 48, pars. 


Sta. Barbara & 
San Diego. 




38 


251 


19 


16 

c 
o 


Californiana, Conr. [quasi Sow.'] 

= Venus Califomiensis, Brod. P.Z.S.1838. 
Chione Califomiensis, Desh. no. 44. 
= Venus leucodon, Sow.testeDesh. — Mus. 
Brit., Cum., Nutt. 


San Diego. 


muddy marsKes. 


39 








simlllima, Sow., Desk. Cat. Ven.jf. 133. 

no. 43. — Mus. Nutt. 


California. 


one sp. 


40 








(Chione) excavata, Cpr. — Mus. Nutt. 


San Diego. 


one sp. 


41 


236 


18 


4 


Cvpricardia Californica, Conr.* 


Sau Diego and 


soft clay rocks, bare 










' = C. Duperryi, Desh. Rev. Cuv. 1839, 


Sta. Barbara. 


at low water. 










p. 359. teste Old.— Mus. Nutt. 






42 


256 






Chama exogyra, Conr., Jav 2110. — Mus. 
Nutt., Cum., Brit., Old. 


Sta. Barbara & 
San Diego. 


on rocks. 


43 








? frondosa, var. Mexicana. — Mus. 

Nutt. 


Sta. Barbara. 


one young sp. 


44 
45 


229 


17 


3 




Sta. Barbara. 
Sp. San Juan di 


one very fine sp. 
muddy marshes. 


Cardium Nuttallii, Conr., Jay, 1177. — Mus. 










Nutt., Brit. 


Fuca. 




45* 


229 


17 


4 




Sta. Barbara. 


single valves, rare. 


= C. Nuttallii, var. teste Midd. Mus. .' 










Non C. Califomiense, Desh. teste Midd. 






46 


230 


17 


5 


quadragenarium, Conr., Jay, 1197-98. 

(Not known in England.) 
Corap. C. xanthocheilum = hiteolabrum, 
• GId. 
substriatum, Conr., Jav, 1222. — Mus. 


Sta. Barbara. 


rare. 


47 


228 


17 


2 


San Diego. 


muddy marshes, bare 










Nutt. 




at low water. 


48 


254 


19 


11 


Lucina bella, Conr •. 


San Diego. 


muddy marshes, bare 
at 1. w. : common. 


=^L.pecten, var. teste Jay [?] Cat. 682. 


49 
50 


255 
255 


20 
20 


1 
2 




San Diego. 
San Diego. 


ditto: rare, 
muddy marshes, &c. 


Nuttalli, Conr., Jay, 680.— Mus. Nutt. 


51 








Diplodonta orbella, Gld. 


Sta. Barbara. 


muddy aestuary, 1 sp. 










? — I). semiaspera, var. — Mus. Nutt., 














Gld. 






52 








Anodon Nuttalliana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. 
Soc. vol. vi. pi. 20. f. 62 ; Jay, 2059. 
— Mus. Nutt. 


Wahlamat R., 
Oregon. 




53 








Oregonensis.Zea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 

vol.vi.pl. 21. f. 67; Jay, 2061. 


Wahlamat R., 
Oregon. 




54 








Wahlamatensis, Lea, Trans. Am. PhU. 

Soc. vol. vi. pi 20. f. 64 ; Jay, 2084. 


Wahlamat R., 
Oregon. 




55 


242 






Modiola capax, Conr., Jay, 2153. — Mus. 
Cum., Gld., Brit. 


Sta. Barbara. 


marshes and muddy 
shores. 


56 
57 


243 


19 


1 


recta, Conr. — Mus. Gld 


Sta. Barbara. 
U. California. 


rare. 


Mytilus edulis, Linn., (a) normalis, (b) pel- 










lucidus, (e) latissimus. — Mus. Nutt. 






58 


242 


18 


15 


Mytilus Califomianus, Conr., Jay, 2185. — 


Sta. Barbara, 


on rocks. 










Mus. Gld. 


Monterey, 
San Diego. 



* Mr. Hanley thinks that this shell may be the C. Ouiniaca of Lamarck. This is extremely 
unlikely, as there is no evidence that Lara, was acquainted with a single strictly Californian 
species. 



198 



REPORT — 1856. 



59 



241 



60 



61 
61b 

62 
63 
64 

65 

66 

67 
68 
69 

70 



77 



246 



Fig. 



10 



14 Mytilus bifurcatus, Conr., Jay, 2184 " Sandwich Is." 

No knowledge of the locality of this shell 

exists, except the statement of Conrad, 

which alone is not binding, and its 

appearance among the Mexican War 

shells, the collectors of which brought 

home nothing from the Sandwich 

Islands. 
Perna costellata, Conr., Jay, 2267. — M us. "Sandwich Is." 

Nutt. " Sta. Barbara." 
Conrad, who rightly assigns his P. Cali- 

fornica to the Sandwich Islands, 

appears to have made an error in 

assigning the CaUfornian species to 

the same place. 
Pecten latiauratus, Conr., Jay, 2364. — Mus. San Diego and 

Nutt., Cum. Sta. Barbara 

— M onotimeris, Corar San Diego and 

=P. latiauratus, var. teste Nutt. ; Jay, Sta. Barbara. 

2374. 
Ostrea conchaphila, B.M. Maz. Cat. no. 214. Oreg., S. Diego. 

—Mus. Nutt. &c. 
BuUa nebulosa, Gld. — Mus. Gould, Cuming, Sta. Barbara. 

Nutt., Brit. 
Helix Californiensis, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Columbia River. 

Soc. vol. vi. p. 99. pi. 23. f. 79, 84. 
■\-H. Nickliniana, Lea, teste Jay, 3452. 

— Columbiana, Zea, Trans. Ara. Phil. Soc. Columbia River, 
vol. vi. p. 89. pi. 23. f. 75 ; Jay, 3552. Ft. Vancouver, 

Nootka Sd. 

— Nuttalliana, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. Ft. Vancouver, 
vol. vi. p. 89. pi. 23. f. 74. Nootka Sd. 

= H. fidelis. Gray, P.Z.S. 1834, p. 67 ; Oregon. 
Jay, 3668. 

— Oregonensis, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Oregon. 
Soc. vol. vi. p. 89. pi. 23. f. 85 ; Jay, 
4095. 

— Vancouverensis, Lea, Trans. Am. Phil. Oregon. 
Soc. vol. vi. p. 87. pi. 23. f. 72; Jav, 
4524.— Mus. Nutt. 

— Townsendiana, Lea, Trans. Am. PhU. Oregon. 
Soc. vol. vi. p. 99. pi. 23. f. 80.— Mus. 
Gld., Cum. 

Succinea Oregonensis, Lea, Trans. &c. 1841, Oregon. 

p. 32 ; Jay, 5734. 
Limnaea Nuttalliana, Lea, Trans. &c., 1841, Oregon. 

p. 9; Jay, 6316. 

V\cj%?>., sp. ind. — Mus. Nutt Oregon. 

Planorbis subcrenatus, Cpr. — Mns. Nutt.... Oregon. 
ChitonNuttallijCjor.* — Mus.Nutt.,Cum.,?Br, Monterey. 

— acutus, Qwr.* — Mus. Nutt Sta. Barbara. 

— ornatus, Nutt. MS. — Mus. Nutt San Diego. 

'>=Ch. armatvs, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. 2G78 : 

= Ch. muscosus, Gld. 
Acmaea patina, JSscA. — Mu8.Nutt.,Cum.,Br., U. California. 

Gld. &c. 
= Patella fenestrata, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. 

2815. 
-\-P. mamillata, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. 2839. 



Locality. 



" on rocks, bare at low 
water." — Conr. 



' under stones." Conr. 



below efflux of tide. 

below efflux of tide 
Young attached to 
Fuci by byssus. 



* In the Brit. Mus. appears an undescribed " Chiton consimills, Nutt." It is probably 
one of these species, which were described from Mr. Nutlall's own specimens. There is also a 
Chiton Californicus, Nuttall, MS., in Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 16. fig. 89. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 199 



77 



78 



cFig. 



79 



80 



81 



82 



83 



84 



85 



86 



87 



89 



Acmaea patina {continued). 
+ P. tessellata, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. 2885. 
?+-P- diaphana, Nutt. in Jay's Cat. 2813 
(? non P. diaphana, Rve.*). 

pelta, Esch. — Mus. Nutt., Cum. Brit., 

Gld. &c. 
= Patella leucophcea, Nutt. MS.; Rve. 
Conch. Ic. pi. 34. sp. 101 ; non P. 
lewcophcea, Gmel., Jay's Cat. 2827. 
?+P. monticola, Nutt. MS. = i'. monti- 

color, Jay's Cat. 2844. 
+ P. strigillata, Nutt. MS.; Jay, 2881. 

— persona, Esch. — Mus. Nutt., Cum., Br., 

Gld. &c. 
= Patella Oregona, Nutt. MS. = P. Ore- 

gana, Jay's Cat. 2852. 
+ P. umhonata, Nutt. MS. ; Jay, 2887. 
+ P.pileata, Nutt. MS. ; Jay, 2861. 

— scabra, Nutt. MS. — Mus. Nutt., Cum., 
Brit., Gld. &c. 

Lottia scabra, Jay's Cat. 2907. 

Patella scabra, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 37. 

f. 119 a, «. 
Non P. L. scabra, Gld. Exp. Shells, p. 10. 

— %^t(iir\iva,Nutt.MS. — Mus.Nutt.,Cum., 

Brit., Gld. &c. 
Patella spectrum. Jay, 2877 ; Rve. Conch, 

Ic. pi. 29. f. 76 a, b. 
= P. L. scabra, Gld., non Nutt.f 
Scurria mitra, Esch. Sf Less. — Mus. Nutt., 

Cum., Brit. Gld., &c. 
= Patella scurra. Less. Voy. Coq. 1830, 

p. 421. no. 198. 
= Acm(eamitra-\-mammillata [non Nutt.] 

-\-marmorea, Esch. 
= 'i Lottia pallida. Gray, Z. B. V. p. 147. 

pi. 39. f. 1. 
Fissurella ornata, Nutt. MS. — Mus. Nutt., 

Brit. Jay, 3003 (St. Helena, err.) 

Glyphis aspera, Esch 

= Fissurella densiclathrata, Rve. teste 

Cum. — Mus. Nutt., Cum. 
= F. exarata, Nutt. MS. 
=F. cratitia, Gld. 
Lucapina crenulata, Sow. Conch. III. no. 19. 

f. 31, 38 ; Tank. Cat. App. p. vi ; Rve. 

Conch. Ic. pi. 3. sp. 18, — Mus. Jay, 

Nutt., Cum. 
Haliotis Californiensis, Swains. Zool. 111. 

vol. ii. pi. 80. 

- Cracherodii, ZeaeA, Rve.Conch.Ic.pl. 7. 
f. 23.— Mus. Jay, Nutt. 

H. glaber, Schub. and Wagn. pi. 224. 
f. 3086-7. 

- splendens, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 3. f. 9... 
Pomaulax undosus. Wood. 

= Trochus Califomianus,'H\itt.'M%. — Mus. 
Nutt., Cum., Brit. 



Locality. 



U. California. 



Oregon. 



San Diego, &c. 



California. 



Monterey. 



U. California. 
Sta. Barbara. 

San Diego. 

San Diego. 
San Diego. 



San Diego. 
Monterey. 



* For other references to this species, v. supra, p. 173. 

t 01 Patella Itevigata, Nutt. MS. in Jay's Cat. 2825, Mr. Nuttall can give no information. 
It ia probably one of the many forms of ^. patina. The above arrangement is satisfactory to 
Mr. Nuttall, after a re-examination of his shells in connexion with the collections of Dr. Goulu. 



200 



REPORT — 1856. 



92 
93 
94 
95 

96 
97 

98 

99 

100 
101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 



Name. 



Trochisciis Norrisii, Sow 

= Tnrlo rotelliformh, Jay. — Mus. Nutt., 
Biit., Curu. 
Trocliiis filosus, Wood, Suppl. pi. 5. f. 23 
(male). 
= T. castmmis, Xutt. MS.; Forbes, P.Z.S. 

1850. 

= T. liQatus, Gould, Exp. Sh. p. 55. 

\ar.='T.doliarms,G\<\. MS. ? nonChenin. 

? Var. = 7'.z)iV//»(«<s,Gld.MS.?nonCliemn. 

= Ziziphinus annulatus, A. Ad. .' non 

Mart. in Lam. An. s.Vert. is. 144. no. 51. 

—Mus. Nutt., Old., Cum., Brit. 

Omplialius ater. Less. — Mus. iS'utt., Cum., 

Brit. &c. 

? Var. = Trochus gallina, Forbes. 

fuscescens, Phil 

= Trochus ^Mrif/MSjNult.MS. — MiR.Nutt., 
Brit., Cum. 

marginatus, Nutt. MS., in P. Z. S. 

1851, p. 181. no. 11*.— Mus. Nutt., 
Brit., Cum. 

aureotinctus, Forbes 

}=Troc/MS pallidus, Nutt. MS. — Mus. 

Nutt., Brit., Cum., Old. 
= T. cateniferus, Potiez, teste Old. 
Crepidula rugosa, Nutt. MS.; Jay, 3036. 
— Mus. Nutt., Cum. 
= C. oni/A-, var. teste Jay [.']. 

, sp. ind. — Mus. Nutt., Jay 

= Crepidula navicelloides, Nutt. MS. 

.' Jun. = Cr. minuta, Mid. Mai. Ros. p. 101. 

pi. 11. f. 6, 7. 
? Var. = Cr. nummaria, GId., Exp. Sh 
p. 15 ; Jay, 3035.— Mus. Cum., Gld. 

eaplanata, Gld 

= Crepidula exuviafa, Nutt. in Jay's Cat 

3027. 
— Cr.jierforans, Val. — Mus. Jav, Cum. 

Gld. 
.' = Cr. navicelloides, var. 

aculeata, var 

= Crepidula Calif or nica,liutt.M.'&. — Mus. 
Nutt., Brit., Warrington, &c. 
Crucibulum spinosum. Sow. — Mus. Nutt.... 

Hipponyx Grayanus, Mke 

= //. radiatus, Gray. — Mus. Nutt. 
Spiroglyphus, sp. ind. — Mus. Nutt 



Monterev. 



Monterey. 



.Uetes squamigerus, Cpr. — Mus. Nutt.. 

Gld. 
Petaloconclius macropbragma, Cpr. — !Mus. 

Nutt. 

Cerithidea sacrata, Gld. 

= Pirena Californica, Nutt. MS. — Mus. 

Nutt., Brit., Gld. 

Litoriiia planaxis, Phil. 

= Littorina tenebraia, Gld. — Mus. Nutt., 

Brit., Cum. 



California. 



Sta. Barbara. 



U. California. 



U. California. 



U. California. 



U. California. 



U. California. 



Sta. Barbara. 

Monterey. 
California. 

Sta. Barbara. 

Sta. Barbai-a. 

San Diego. 

Monterey, Sta. 
Barbara, &c. 

California. 



very rare, 
very rare. 

1 young sp. 
aculeata. 



On Crep 



on Euraphia Hembeli. 
in sestuaries. 



* Mr. Adams in his Monograph of the family has omitted lo describe this species. It 
may, however, be the Turbo marginatus of Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 12. f. 57. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 201 



112 



115 



116 



117 



20 



20 



264 



265 



118 



264 



Fig. 



25 



17 



Name. 



20 



20 



18 



22 



Natica Pmaroccaua, var. Califovnica*. — Mus 

Niitt., Brit. 
Ranella triquetra, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 7. f. 41 . 
— Mus. Nutt., Cum. 
Extremely like a youugfltularia salebrosa 
Also resembles R. muriciformis. 
Mitra maura, teste Nutt. MS. — Mus. Nutt. 
Olivella glandinaria, Nutt. — Mus. Nutt. 
"BuccinumPoulsoni,"A'M^tAf5'. — Mus.Nutt. 
N.B. The Purpura dumosa, Conr. p. 267 
pi. 20. f. 20 =porphi/rostoma, Rve. 
teste Jay, is not from California, as 
given by Jay , Cat. 8 78 1 , (Conrad being 
silent), but from Wahoo, Sandw. Is, 
teste Nutt. 

Purpura inacrostoma, Conr 

=P. aperta, Blainv. var., teste Jay's Cat, 
8942 : — Museo suo. 
harpa, Conr. — Mus.Nutt. Jay,8980.., 

— emarginata. Desk 

=P. Conradi, Nutt. MS. teste Jay's Cat. 

8972.— Mus. Brit., Cum. 
Monoceros engonatum, Conr 

— M. unicarinattim, Rve. Conch. Ic. sp. 1 ; 

nonpl, l.f. 1. nee syn. plur. : non Sow 
nee Desh. 
Comp. Purpura spirata, Blainv. Nouv, 
Ann. Mus. i. 1832, pi. 12. f. 8. p. 252, 
no. 105 ; Kien. Ic. Conch, p. 121. 
no. 76. pi. 38. f. 90. = 3f. unicarina- 
tum, pars, Desh. in Lam. An. s. Vert. 
X. p. 124. no. 10, syn. Angl. exci. — 
Mus. Nutt., Brit., Jay, 9067. 

— brevidens, Conr 

=M. unicarinatum, Sow. Conch. 111. 

no. 14. p. 4. f. 5, non Rve. nee Desh. 
= Monoceros, pi. 1. f. 2 (non sp. 2), Rve. 
Conch. Ic. Non M. breviderttatum, 
Gray = M. maculatum, Gxa.y = Purpura 
cornigera, Blainv. Jay, 9045. — Mus. 
Nutt., Cum. 

— lapilloides, Nutt 

= M. punetulatum, Sow. Conch. 111. p. 4 

no. 13. f. 3. 
= M. punctatum, Gray, Z. B. V. 1839, 
p. 124 : — Rve. Conch. Ic. sp. 2. pi. 1. 
f. 1 (non f. 2).— Mus. Jay 9065, Nutt., 
Brit., Cum. Possibly these three 
species are varieties of the same. 
Murex (Cerostoma) Nuttalli, Conr. [s. g. de- 
scribed]. Jay, 8298.— Mus. Nutt. 
Murex monoceros. Sow. jun. P. Z. S. 
1840, p. 143; Rve. pi. 2, f. 7. 



Locality. 



U. California. 
San Diego. 



U. California. 

California. 

U. California. 



Sta, Barbara. 



Sta. Barbara. 
California. 



Sta. Barbara. 



Sta. Barbara. 



Sta. Barbara. 



Sta. Barbara. 



40. In the "Voyage autour du Monde, pendant les annees 1836-37, sur 
la Bonite : Zoologie, par MM. Eydoux et Souleyet ;" published without date 
at Paris between the years 1847 and 1851, are to be found beautiful illustra- 
tions of Cephalopoda and Pteropoda, and various plates of shells without 



* Mr. Reeve figures a " Natica plicatula, Nutt." pi. 23. f. 107, without locality, 
resembles No. 107, but has a straight umbilicus. 



It closely 



202 REPORT — 1856. 

descriptions. The original types of most of these are deposited separately in 
the British Museum ; of which the Trustees published a Catalogue in January 
1855. The following are all that have been observed which enter the West 
N. American province ; having been collected probably on the W. coast of 
S. America, as far north as Guayaquil, whence the vessel sailed for the Sand- 
wich Islands. 

Plate. Fig. 
35 1-3. Natica fflauca, Humb. :=N.patula, Sow. 

35 4, 5. Natica Ckemnitzii, Reel, (non N. Chemnitzii, Pfr. =N. maroccana, 
Chemn. var.) 

S7 9^-'^i \ -^-^o^w^MS trochiformis, Eyd. & Soul. =ilf. disculus, Phil. 

39 17-19. Purpura undata, Lam. var. This is not the West Indian shell, which 
is probably the true P. undata. It is doubtful whether it is a variety 
of the Pacific species, P. biserialis, Blainv. 

In the British Museum Collection there also appear — 

Tablet 195. Scurria mitra, Less. & Esch. 
„ 248. Cyfherea Ipetichialis, Touranne. 

„ 395. " Purpura hcemastoma," punctured like the P. biserialis, and probably 
identical with it. (? =P. undata, figui-ed as above.) 

41. In the year 1836, the Venus sailed from France under the command 
of M. du Petit Thouars, on a voyage of discovery round the world. The 
second in command was M. Chiron, who, aided by his friend M. de La Perouse, 
collected a large number of shells. The ship visited Callao, Payta, the Gala- 
pagos, the Bay of Magdalena, Mazatlan, San Bias, and various stations north- 
wards as far as Kamtschatka. 

After the return of the expedition in 1839, M. Chiron furnished M. Des- 
hayes with a large number of specimens, who makes this characteristic an- 
nouncement. " MM. les officiers de marine, qui ont le desir d'etre utiles k 
I'histoire naturelle, reconnaitront qu'en mettant les riches materiaux qu'ils 
rapportent entre les mains de naturalistes vraiment travailleurs, ils en font pro- 
fiter de suite la science; ce qui n'a jamais lieu lorsqu'ils les donnent, sans 
discernement et en totalite, a des etablissemens publics." In this country we 
should desire to reverse the recommendation ; and consider that collectors 
wei'e showing their discernment by giving the first choice of their materials, 
en totalite, to public museums where they can be consulted by students. 

In the " Revue Zoologique par la Societe Cuvierienne, Paris, Decembre 
1839," pp. 356-361, appear Latin diagnoses of 30 " Nouvelles Especes de 
MoUusques, provenant des cotes de la Californie, du Mexique, du Kamt- 
schatka, et de la Nouvelle Zelande, decrites par M. Deshayes." As several 
of the species figured by Conrad are redescribed, it is to be presumed that 
he wrote in ignorance of his labours. The following are the shells belonging 
to the West N. American faunas, with the habitats when recorded. 

P. 357. Chironia Laperousii. [Monterey, pi. 21. Probably a deformed /4. 

Hartweg.] Mag. Zool. 1840, tuberculosa. 

pi. 12. P. 358. Cytherea cequilatera, California. 

Pholas Janellii, California. =P. = Trigona argentina, Sow. M. 

Californica, Conr. M. Z. pi. Z. pi. 22. 

14-16. Saxicava pholadis. Lam. An. s. 

Pholas concamerata, California. Vert. iv. 152. no. 3. Kamt- 

=P.penita, Conr. M.Z. pi. 17. schatka. 

P. 358. Area trapezia, " Semblas au Saxicava legumen, California. M. 

Mexique." ? San Bias. M. Z. Z. pi. 29. Probably the long 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 203 

form of the common species : P. 360. Cardium Californiense, Califor- 

also found at Mazatlan. nia. M. Z. pi. 47. = C. Nut- 

P. 358. Petricola Cordieri, California. tallii, Conr. : not C. Califor- 

=1 Venus lamelUfera, Conr. M. nianum, Conr. 

Z. pi. 18. Siphonaria scutellum, "He Cha- 
Pe/ricoZa arcwafaj California. M. tam." ? Galapagos. 

Z. pi. 19. Purpura Freycinetii, Kamtschat- 
Petricola cylindracea, California. ka. M. Z. pi. 26. Much more 

(Probably P. arcuata, var.) M. like P. lapillus than Midden- 

Z. pi. 20. doriF's figures. 

P. 359. Venerttpis gigantea, California. Murex macropterus. 

=Saxidomus Nuttalli, Conr. Helix Dupetithouarsi, Monterey. 

Venerupis Petiti, California. M. Z. pi. 30, as " rsii." 

^Tapes diversa. Sow. jun. P. 361. Velutina Mulleri, Kamtschatka. 

Anomia macrochisma, Kamt- Turbo digitatus, Acapulco. 

schatka. M. Z. pi. 34. =Pla- = Uvanilla unguis. Wood. M. 

cunanomia m., Gray. Z. pi. 36. 

Cypricardia Duperreyi, Callfor- Natica Recluziana, California. 

nia. M. Z. pi. 27. M. Z. pi. 37. 

Modiola cultellus, Kamtschatka. Natica ianthostoma, Kam- 
P. 360. Cardium Laperousii,Ca\iioTmsi*. tschatka. 

M. Z. pi. 48. Natica sanguinolenta. 

To the above must probably be added Purpura emarginala, p. 360, M. Z. 
pi. 25, described by Deshayes as from New Zealand, but quoted in Jay's Cat. 
no. 8972, =.P.Conradi, Nutt. MS., from California; and from the same 
locality in Mus. Cuming, on the authority of Mr. Hartweg. Many of these 
shells were figured in the following year in Gu6rin's Magasin de Zoologie, 
between plates 14' and 48, of which references are given above. In the same 
works are described, Lucina cristata, Reel. Rev. Cuv. 1842, p. 270, Guer. 
Mag. pi. 60, found " sur le banc de Campeche" by M. J. Cosmao, Commander 
of the Naval Station of Mexico, = Tellina Burnetii Bred. & Sow. : and Lucina 
corrugata, Desh., Guer. Mag. pi. 82, as from California, which Mr. Cuming 
found himself at Singapore. 

The official description of the shells of the Venus, however, was intrusted 
to M. Valenciennes, under whose auspices was published " Voyage autour du 
Monde sur la Venus, pendant les annees 1836-39, par M. du Petit Thouars. 
Paris, 1846." Of this work plates only have been seen, of which the following 
are species connected with the West N. American coast. 

Helix vincta, Val. (CaUfornia, Rve.) 

Pliolas rostrata, Val. Almost certainly the young of one of the 
following species. 

Penitella Conradi, Val. {Pholadidea, with long, inflated cup, 
without divisions.) 

PenilcUa xilophaga, Val. {Pholadidea, with long, narrow cup.) 

Penitella tubigera, Val. Probably a variety of the last ; the tube 
being simply the lining of the old cavity, as in P. calva. 

Bornia luticola, Val. (Closely approaches Chironia Laperousii^ 
Desh.) 

Saxicava clava, Val. (Probably S. legumen, Desh.) 

Venus perdix, Val. ? = Chione neglecta, Sow., represented with- 
out pallial sinus. 

Venus pectuncidoides, Val. = Tapes Jiistrionica, Sow. 

Trochus amictus, Val. ^ Uvanilla unguis, Mawe. = Turbo digi- 
tatus, Desh. 

* Described from a single sliell which appears worn. It has much the aspect of a Tellina, 
with concentric ridges and no internal crenations; but is figured without pallial sinus. 



Plate. 

1 

24 


Fig, 

2. 

4,4a. 


24 


1, 1 a, b. 


24 
24 


2. 

3, 3«,6,c. 


24 


1a,b. 


24 
16 


8,8a. 
2i2a. 


16 
2 


3,3 a. 
2,2a. 



204 REPORT — 1856. 

Plate. Fig. 

2 3, 3«-c. Trochus brevispinosus, Val. = Uvanilla olivacea, Mawe. 

3 \,\a-c. Trochis bal(Bnarum,Ys\. '?:=Pomaulax undosus, Mawe, x&r.Yide 

B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 230, note. 
14 1. Cdlyptrcea ruffosa {1 citjiis). = Crucibulum imbricatum. Sow. 

14 2. Calypireea tubifera, Less. =: Cr. spinosum, Sow. 

15 2. Cttlyptraa gemmacea, Val. Shell as figured, not recognized : it 

may be a worn and stunted Cr. imbricatum. 

15 3. Calyptrcea amygdalus,\&\. =: Crepidula onyx. Sow. 

24 9,9 a, b. Calyptreea perforans, \a\. ■= Crepidula explanata, GoxAA. (The 
' prior name of Val. must be abandoned, as representing an un- 
truth. The form of the shell is due to its inhabiting the burrows 
of Lithophagi, &c.) 

11 \,\a,\a,bis.Vermetus centiqiiadrus,\sl. {Svibg. Aletes.) 

11 3, 3«. Vermetus Peronii, on Strombus galea. Awavietyoi V.centiquadrus. 

11 2. Vermetus margaritarum, Val. 

5 \ a,b. Fusus Petit-thoiiarsii. = F. Dupetif-Thouarsii, Kien. 

6 1, la-c. Biiccinum Janelii,Ya\. ^Pisania sangtdnolenta. Duel, 
6 2, 2 a-c. Biiccinum mutabile, Val. = Pisania insignis, Rve. 

6 2 e,f. Buccinum mutabile, ]\\u. =^Pisania gemmata,'Rve. 

6 2 a, /3. Buccinum mutabile, operculum. (Extremely incorrectly drawn.) 

8 4,4 a. Purpura saxicola, Val. Resembles P. lapillus and Freycinettii, 

8 3,3a. Purpura h(ematura,Ya.\. 1 = P. biserialis,'B\Am\.va.r. 

9 3, 3 a-c. Purpura Grayii, Kien. =.Monoceros grande, Gray. 

It will be observed that the author has, in several instances, not only over- 
looked the writings of English naturalists, but even disregarded the descriptions 
by Deshayes of the shells of this very expedition. 

42. During the period that Mr. Cuming was absent on his Philippine 
expedition, explorations of great value were being made by a gentleman, 
whose few published writings only show how much science has lost by his 
early death. In the year 1836, the ' Sulphur,' under Lieut. Com. Kellett, 
visited Callao and Payta in Peru, and explored the coast from the Bay of 
Guayaquil to Panama. Here Commander (now Capt. Sir E.) Belcher took 
the first place, a gentleman whose conchological labours during the voyage 
of the ' Blossom' have already been recorded. Mr. Hinds, the surgeon of 
the expedition, not only showed the greatest industry in dredging and other- 
wise collecting specimens, but made the products of his labours tenfold more 
valuable by the accurate notes which he took of their localities and stations, 
guided by a comprehensive view of the subjects which it was his endeavour 
to illustrate. The west coast of Central America and Mexico was searched 
as far as San Bias, and afterwards explorations were made from Acapulco to 
Cerro Azul. On the return of Messrs. Hinds and Cuming from their respect- 
ive expeditions, they compared their collections and notes together. Here 
were abundant materials for geographical and stational lists of the very 
greatest value ; but, most unfortunately, the usual plan was followed of only 
publishing the new species. This was done by Mr. Hinds in several most 
accurate and valuable papers communicated to the Zool. Soc. and to the 
Annals of Nat. Hist. ; and, in a collective form, in the " Zoology of the 
Voyage of H.M.S. Sulphur, commanded by Capt. Sir E. Belcher, during the 
years ISSG-IS^S; by Richard Brinslcy Hinds, Esq., Surgeon R.N. London, 
Smith, Elder and Co., 1844. Vol. ii. Mollusca." The preface to this work 
contains a masterly digest of the results of his experience on the distribution 
of Mollusca, especially on those of the W. American coast as compared with 
the Pacific Islands ; the influence of station, depth, temperature, and other 
causes, both on genera and on particular spfecies ; and the comparative eflfect 







ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 205 


of similar differences on the flora and distribution of land shells in the same 


latitudes. The work therefore is extremely disappointing from its very ex- 


cellence, as it shows how prepared the author was to fill up the gaps which 


are to us the most perplexing ; but which his early death has left to be sup- 


plied by other, we fear less trustworthy hands. 


Several valuable donations of shells, with the localities added by Mr. Hinds, 


are preserved in the British Museum. The new species described are as 


follow, so far as relates to the fauna of West N. America. The pages and 


numbers, with the plates and figures, refer to the Zool. Sulph. ; but the 


references are also added to the Proc. Zool. Soc. and the Ann. Nat. Hist. 


1 o 

7~5 


s 
1 




Name. 


Station. 


Depth 
in fms. 


Locality, 


1,2 


Conus Patricius, Hds. A.N.H. xi. 256 


sandy mud 


7 


G. Nicoya. 


' 7 6 




... 


coelebs, Hds. „ ,, „ 

= C. terebellum, jun., teste Rve. 








7 7 


1 


3-5 


Californicus, Hds 


saud 


7 


B. Magdalena. 


1 8 8 


2 


1-3 


Murex Belcheri, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, 127 
= Pyrula B., Rve. 


f mud-bank at 
\ head of harb'. 


}... 


San Diego. 


8 9 


3 


7,8 


centrifuga, Hds. „ „ 126 


sand 


52 


W. C. Veragua. 


8 10 
8 11 


3 
3 


9,10 
11,12 


Californicus, Hds. „ „ 128 

hamatus, Hds. „ ,, ,, 






California. 
B. Guayaquil. 


mud 


"ii" 








= Cerastoma, Conr. 








9 12 


3 


13,14 


festiv-us, Hds. „ „ 127 


sand 


7 


B. Magdalena. 


9 13 


3 


15,16 


foveolatus, i/rfs. „ „ 127 


sand 


7 


B. Magdalena. 


9 16 


3 


21,22 


radicatus, Hds. „ „ 128 


mud 


11 


San Bias. 


9 17 


3 


23,24 


peritus, Hds. „ „ 129 


sand 


7 


B. Magdalena. 


10 18 


3 


3,4 


Typhis quadratus, Hds. „ „ 18 


mud 


7-18 


G. Nicoya, B. Guayaq. 


11 22 


4 


1,2 


Triton vestitus, Hds. „ 1844, 21 


rocks 


shore 


Rl.Lj.,G.Nic.,B.Honda 


12 28 


4 


13,14 


anomalus, Hds. „ „ „ 


sandy shore 


1. w. 


Is. Quibo, Veragua. 


12 29 


4 


15,16 


lignarius, Brod. „ 1833, 5 


sandy mud 


7 


Monte Christi. 


12 30 


2 


4,5 


Ranella Californica, Hds. A.N.H. xi. 
255 






San Diego. 


13 31 

14 36 


4 

1 


17,18 
16,17 


mud 
mud 


7 
19 


San Bias. 
Panama. 


Trophon muricatus, Hds. [The name 








being preoccupied by Montagu, this 














species may l)e railed Troph. Hindsii.'] 








15 37 


5 


1,2 


Pleurotoma nobilis, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, 37 


mnd 


7 


San Bias. 


15 39 


5 


4 


gemmata, Hds. „ ,, ,, 


mud 


7 


Gulf Magdalena. 


16 42 


5 


7 


inermis, Hds. „ ,, ,, 


mud 


7 


Gulf Magdalena. 


16 45 


5 


10 


Clavatula militaris, Hds. „ „ 38 


mud 


8-30 


Veragua. 


17 50 


5 


15 


ericea, Hds. „ „ 39 


mud 


26 


Magnetic Is., Veragua. 


17 52 


5 


17 


sculpta, Hds. „ „ „ 


mud 


7 


Panama. 


17 53 


5 


18 


rava, Hds. „ „ „ 


mud 


18 


G. Nicoya. 


18 58 


6 


4 


luctuosa, Hds. „ „ 40 

aspera, Hds. „ „ „ 




5-22 


G. Magdal., B. Guayaq. 
B. Guayaquil. 


19 59 


6 


7,8 


mud 


5 


19 60 


6 


5 


quisqualis, Hds. „ „ 44 


mud 


8-14 


G. Papagayo. 


19 61 


6 


9 


plumbea, Hds. „ ,, 41 

occata, Hds. „ „ „ 




5 


B. Magdalena. 
Magnetic Is., Veragua. 


19 62 


6 


10 






19 63 


6 


13 


bella, ft/s. „ „ „ 


r mud 
\ mud 


"so" 

8-14 


W. C. Veragua. 
G. Papagayo. 


20 64 


6 


11,12 


pudica, Hds. „ „ „ 


mud 


8-14 


G. Papagayo, 


20 65 


6 


14 


neglecta, Hds. „ „ 45 


under stones 


l.w. 


G. Nicoya. 


20 68 


6 


18 


Candida, Hds. „ „ 42 






Magnetic Is., Veragua, 


n 70 


6 


20 


merita, Hds. „ „ „ 


under stones 


i." w.' 


G. Nicoya. 


21 73 


6 


23, 24 


impressa, Hds. „ „ 44 


mud 


8-14 


G. Papagayo. 


22 77 


7 


I 


pardalis, Hds. „ „ 42 


under stones 


l.w. 


G. Nicoya. 


22 78 


7 


6 


ceelata, Hds. „ „ „ 


mud 


20 


G. Fonseca. 


!3 83 


7 


11 


micans, Hds. „ „ 43 


mud 


14 


G. Papagayo. 


J4 92 
!5 95 


7 
7 


18 
20 


rigida, Hds. „ „ 45 

Daphnella casta, Hds 






Panama. 
G. Nicoya. 
Panama. 


mud 


23 


27 104 


il 


5,6 


Cerithium gemmatum, Hds 


sandy mud 


2-7-f 



















206 



REPORT — 1856. 



127 

128 

132, 
133, 
139, 



140, 
141, 



144 
150 
153 
155 
158 

159 
161 
162 
163 

164 

165 
166 

167 
168 
170 

171 
172 

173, 

174 
175 
176 
185 

190 
196 
202 



13,14 



?Buccinuin metula, Hds 

Terebra robusta, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843,p.l49 



12,13 

18,19 

1,2 

13,14 

7,8 

5,6 

17,18 

19,20 

15,16 

21,22 
11,12 

13,14 

1,2 

11,12 

7,8 
9,10 



1,2 

3,4 

5,6 

10,11 

22,23 



5,6 

7,8 



7,8 

1 

5 

22 



varicosa, Hds. 
lingualis, Hds. 
armillata, Hds. 



152 
153 
154 



155 



tuberculosa, Hds. „ 

— specillata, Hds. ,, „ „ 
The Pacific analogue of T. textilis, 

from Str. Macassar, No. 142. 

— luctuosa, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, p. 157 
Nassa perpinguis, Hds 

— mcesta, Hds 

Plios crassus, Hds. A.N.H. xi. p. 257 

— Veraguensis, Hds. „ „ „ 
Pacific analogue of Ph. senticosus. 

— articulatus, Hds 

— gaudens, Hds 

Columbella fusiformis, Hds 

— pavonina, Hds 



carinata, Hds. 



lentiginosa, Hds < 

Trichotropis cancellata, fli/s. P.Z.S. 1843, 
p. 17. 

— inermis, Hds. P.Z.S. 1 843, p. 18 
Mitra Belcheri, Hds. A.N.H. si. 255 
Cancellaria ventricosa, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, 

p. 47 

— urceolata, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, p.47 

— albida, Hds. „ „ „ 

— cremata, Hds. „ „ p. 48 
(=f. 9. Conch. 111., as C. indentata.) 

corrugata, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, p. 48 

— elata, Hds. „ „ „ 

— funiculata, Hds. „ „ „ 
Marginella sapotilla, Hds. „ 1844, p. 74 

Pacific analogue of M.prunum. 

Erato vitellina, Hds 

Scalaria Diana;, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, p. 125 

— \ulpina, Hds. „ „ 126 
The temperature below being 58°, and 

at the surface 82°. 
Solarium placentale, Hds. P.Z.S. 1844, 22 

quadriceps, Hds. „ „ 23 

Patella incessa, Hds. A.N.H. x. p. 82 

Patelloida depicta, Hds. , 



■■{ 



Crepidula sohda, Hds 

= C. adunca, Sow. 

Chiton Magdalensis, Hds 

Melania occata, Hds. A.N.H. xiv. p. 9 
Paludina seminalis, Hds. „ x. 83 
Anodon angulatus 



mud 
sandy mud 

mud 
sandy mud 



sandy mud 
coral sand 



mud 

mud, solitary 

mud, gregarious 



sand 



u. stones with C. 
pygmcea, com. 

Y sand 



sand 
mud 



> sandy mud -! 

{ 



mud 
mud 



sandy mud 
sandy mud 

sand 
mud 
mud 



sand 

mud 

on sea-weed 

on surface of a 

Zostera, common 

on dead & living 

shells & on each 

other. 

onrocks.common 



abundant 



Depth 
in fms. 



few 
4-18 

23 
10-17 
5-13 



4-11 

7 



12 



8-14 

3-14 

26 



7 and 
under 

beach 

5-7 

5-7 

17 

7 
60-70 
8-14 

7 
7-23 

4-10 

7 

30 

7 

5-13 

7 

36 
30 



W. C. Veragua. 

8° 57-21° 32'. Pan. 

S.Blas,G.Papag.,G.Nic, 

G. Papagayo. 

G. Papagayo, B.Montijo. 

Abundant in various lo- 
calities between Pan. 
and B. Magd., also im- 
bedded in fossUiferous 
cliffs which suiTound 
part of the Bay of M. 

Pan., SanBlas, G.Papag. 

San Bias. 



G. Nicoya, P. Portr. 
B. Magdalena. 
G. Papagayo. 
Pan., G. Fonseca. 
Pueblo Nueva, W. C. 
Veragua. 
Panama. 
G. Tehuantepec. 
Veragua. 
(Most prob. American.) 

Bodegas, San Diego. 



}•■ 



6-10 



Locality. 



G. Nicoya. 

Sitka Harbour. 

Sitka Harbour. 
G. Papagayo, G. Nicoya, 
G. Magdalena \1 2°28'- 
Rl.Lj., SanBl./24°38', 
G. Papagayo "112° 2'- 
San Bias J 21° 32'. 
B. Giiayaq., Pan.,Verag. 
2°47'S.-9°55'N. 
Pan. 

B. Guayaquil. 
Pan., 1 sp. 
G. Magd., 1 sp. 
Pan. 

B. Magdalena. 

G. Nicoya. 

Is. Quibo, Veragua. 



B. Magdalena. 

Pan. 

San Diego. 

San Diego. 

Bodegas. 

B. Magdalena. 
River Sacramento, Calif.' 
Ditto. I 

Ditto. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 207 



298 



13 
17 
12 

14 

5 
1 

2 
6,7 

4 

2 

11 

12 
7,8 



Name. 



Paludina nuclea, Lea 

Pecteu sericeus, Hds 1 sp, 

floridus, Hds 

• rubidus, Hds 4 sp. 

digitatus, Hds 

fasciculatus, Hds 

Nucula castrensis, ^rfs. P.Z.S.1843,p.98 

Resembles the fossil N. Cobboldim, and 

N. divaricata, China Sea, 84 fms 

. caelata, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, p. 99 

excavata, Hds. „ „ 100 

lyrata, Hds. „ „ ,, 

— — crispa, Hds. „ „ ,, 

Venus Kellettii, Hds < 

Cytherea (Trigonella) crassatelloides, 

Conr. 

Lucina fenestrata, Hds 

Psammobia decora, Hds. A.N.H. x. 81 

= Sanguinolaria Nuttallii, Conr. 
Tellina fucata, Hds 

— Bodegensis, Hds 

Corbula fragilis, Hds. P.Z.S. 1843, p. 56 

— obesa, Hds. „ „ 57 
— speciosa, Hds. „ „ ,, 

( = C.radiata, Sow. P.Z.S. 1833, p. 36, 

non Desk.) 
— marmomta., Hds. ,, 1843, p. 58 
Neaera didyma, Hds. „ „ 78 

— costata, 

Lingula albida, Hds 



mud 
mud 



mud 
sandy mud 
1 sp., sand 



mud 



adhesive mud, 1 
low temp. J 

mud-bank in the 
harbour. 



sand 
mud 
mud 
mud 



mud 

mud 

mud 

sandy mud 



Depth 
in nns. 



6-10 
30 
30 
36 

30-34 



7-14 



7 

18 

22-33 

6 



Locality. 



"Neighbouring locality." 

B. Panama. 

San Diego. 

Alashka, N. W. A. 

B. Guayaquil. 

W. Veragua. 

Sitka. 

[Barb.38°18'-34°24', 
Bodegas, San Franc, Sta 
Pan. 
Pan. 
G. Nicoya. 

Is. Quibo,W. C.Veragua. 

San Diego. 

Monte Christi, San Bias, 
San Diego. 

B. Magdalena. 

Bodegas. 

W. Veragua. 

Pan., Verag., San Bias. 

Pan., G. Nicoya. 



W. Veragua. 
W. Veragua. 
W. Veragua. 
B. Magdalena. 



Besides these, the following are recorded in the Proc. Zool. Soc. as having 
been collected by Mr. Hinds : — 



Locality. 



p. 32 Pleurotoma arcuata, Rve 

32 picta, Beck 

77 Neaera costata (Anatina c. Sow., P.Z.S. 1834, 
p. 87), Hds. 



125 
160 



160 

1844. 

181 



Scalaria aciculina, Hds 

Terebra strigata, ;5'ow. Tank. Cat 

=T. elongata. Wood, Ind. Suppl. 

=T. flammea. Less. HI. Zool. 

=T. zebra, Kien. 

oniata. Gray Hds, 7fm, 

[Cum, 5-7 fm, 
Mitra Hindsii, Eve Hds. 17 fm. 



mud 

coral sand 

mud 



Veragua. 
Pan., San Bias, G. Nicoya 
St. Elen. 6 fm. sandy mud 
Magnetic Is., 22 fm. 
Veragua, 26 fm., mud. 
W.C. intertropical Amer. 
Pan., Hds. 



Pan. 



Gulf Nicoya. 



In Mr. Cuming's collection appears Corbula obesa, Hinds, San Bias. 



208 



REPORT — 1856. 



The following shells occur In Reeve's Conchologia Iconica, as having been 
collected by Mr. Hinds. 



21 
4 

7 
22* 
3 
3 
4 



Sp. 



Name. 



=Ac. 



Natica Recluziana 

Fig. a, b. Patella diaphana, Rve. 

maea mesoleuca, Mke. 

Cardita Cuvieri, Brod 

Pectunculus pectenoides, Desk,, Cuv. 

R.A. pi. 87. f. 8. 
Area graiidis, Brod. Sf Sow 



Mitra Hindsii, Rve 

Fissurella volcano, Rve 

Chiton lineatus, Wood 

— insignis, Rve 

Pleurotoraa arcuata, Rve 

picta, Beck 

olivacea, ■S'ow.(comp. P.funiculata) 



— — militaris, Hinds ... 

stroniboides, Sow. 

Conus Archon, Brod. ... 
Oliva bipUcata, Sow. ... 



Depth 
in fms. 



soft mud 



mud 



mud 



mud 

mud 

sandy mud 

sands 



17 



18 

7 
12-18 
1. w. 



Locality. 



California. 
Central America. 

Acapulco. 
Panama. 

Real Llej., B. Guayqu. 

( Cumin ff 8f Hinds) . 

G. Nicoya. 

Sta. Barbara. 

Sitka. 

Sitka. 

Veragua. 

Pan.,SanBlas, G.Nic. 

Pan.,W. Mex.,G. Nic. 
(Also Salango, and 
St. Elena, Cum.) 

Veragua. 

B. Panama. 

G. Nicoya. 

Monterey. 



Specimens of the following shells appear in the Brit. Mus. as having been 
presented by Mr. Hinds ; and were doubtless collected by him during the 
Voyage of the Sulphur. 



Tellina rvfescens. Guayaquil. 

Donax carinatus. Tumaco. 

Venus neglecta (? crenifera). Acapulco. 

Mactra exoleta. Guayaquil. 

Kellia suhorbicularis . Panama. 

Pectunculus maculatus, liroCi.=:giffanteus, 

Rve. W. Columbia. 
Pinna lanceolafa. Guayaquil. 
Perna fiexuosa. Conchagua. 
Chama spinosa. Acapulco. 
Anomia lampe. Guayaquil. 
Chiton lineatus. Sitcha Sound. 

Simpsonii, Gray. San Francisco. 

Bulla nebulosa. San Pedro. 
Siphonaria lecanium. St. Elena, Guayaq. 
Cerithidea varicosa. RealLlejos, SanBlas. 



Litorina conspersa. Real Llejos. 

Ifasciata. San Pedro. 

Helix levis. California. 

areolata. Sow., Pfr. Z. f. M. 1845, 

p. 154. California, near Columbia R. 
Neverita helicoides {=--patula). Acapulco. 
Natica (like canrena). Acapulco. 
Ranella nana. San Bias. 
F us us pallid us. Callao. 
Dupetithouarsii (with operc). 

Acapulco. 
Murex incisus, Brod. Acapulco, 

oxyacantha, Brod. Acapulco. 

humilis, Brod. Bay Guayaquil. 

hamatus, Brod. Bay Guayaquil. 



43. During the years 1838-1 84-2, the United States Exploring Expedition 
was engaged in its circumnavigation of the globe. In 1839 it touched at 
Callao, where 30 species of shells were collected ; but it did not visit any 
other part of the Panama province. In 1841, however, the Vincennes and 
Porpoise were early on the coast of Oregon. The Peacock and Flying Fish 
arrived there in July ; but the Peacock was lost on the bar of the Columbia 
River. The Expedition proceeded as far as San Francisco, and left in No- 
vember of the same year. The conchologist to the Expedition was Mr. J. P. 
Couthouy, who, assisted by his companions, collected about 2000 species of 
shells (of which about 250 were considered new), and made drawings of the 
* 22. 149 (text) 148 (fig.). 



61. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 209 

XJ^r. A. A. C^ould of Boston, the well-known author of the ' Report of the 
Invertebrata of Massachusetts.' In 1846 the descriptions of mrt of he 

irom time to time, as they have appeared in the ' Proc. Bost Soc Nat Hist' 

Page 
3. Chiton Ugnosus, Gld., Puget Sound. 

(= C. lignarius, G. MS.) 
6. Chiton dentiens, G., Puget Sound. 
,, Chiton muscosm, G., Puget Sound. 
/. Patella fimlriata, G., Straits of De 

Fuca. 
9, Patella instabilis, G., Puget Sound. 
„ 1 atella conica, G., Puget Sound. 

:= Scurria mitra, Esch. 
„ Lottia pintadina, G., Straits of De 
Fuca, Puget Sound, and Columbia 
River (San Francisco). 
Max. pars = A. patina, var. : 
pars = A. mesoleuca, var. : 
teste sp. tj'p. 
10. Patella (? Lottia) textilis, G., Straits 

of De Fuca and Killimook. 
,, Patella {l Lottia) scabra, G., San 
Francisco. " Perhaps a variety of 
P. textilis." =P. spectrum, Nutt., 
io r- ' °°* ^- scabra, Nutt., Rve. 

13. Fissurella cratitia, G., Puget Sound. 

? = F. aspera, Esch. 

14. Rimula cucullata, G., Puget Sound. 

(? Puncturella.) 
„ Rimula galeata, G. (Classet), Puget 

Sound. (? Puncturella.) 
„ Crepidula rostriformis, G., Straits of 
1 c r?^^ ^"^*- — ^- "(^^nca. Sow. 

15. Crepidula lingulata,G., Puget Sound. 

"Like C. Capensis, Quoy," 1 sp. 
„ Crepidula nummaria, G., Classet. 

[Probably a var. of C. lingulata.'] ' 
» Calyptrma fastigiata, G., Puget 

Sound. iGalerus.'] 

16. Helix labiosa, G., Astoria, Oregon. 

17. Hete ^ricate, G., California (Sa- 

cramento River). 
J, Helix devia, G., ? Oregon. 

18. Helix strigosa, G., interior of Oregon 
,, Helix sportella, G., Puget Sound. 

^1. buccmea rusticana, G., Oregon. 

41. Limnea lepida, G., Lake Vancouver 

Oregon. ' 

42. Planorbis opercularis, G., Rio Sa- 

cramento, U. Cal. 
„ Planorbis vermicularis, G., interior 
of Oregon. 

^^" ?}H^°' '"i^yin^O; G., Rio Sacramento. 
40. Melania silicula, G., Nisqually, Ore- 
gon. (= M. siliqua, G. MS.) 
•1856. 



Page 

46. Melania bulbosa, G., Columbia River. 

49. Natica Lewisii, G., Puget Sound 

and Columbia River. 

50. Natica caurina, G., Straits of De 

Fuca. "Nearly the same as N. 
impervia, Phil., from Cape Horn." 

52. Lacuna carinata, G., Puget Sound. 
„ Littorina patula, G., San Francisco. 

= L. planaxis, Phil. 
,, Littorina lepida, G., Puget Sound. 

53. Littorina scutulata,G., PugetSound. 
„ Littorina plena, G., San Francisco. 

55. Trochus ligatus, G., Puget Sound. 
= T.Jilosus,'Wood. 

60. CeritUum (Potamis) sacratum, G., 
Sacramento River. = Pirena Cali- 
fornica, Nutt. MS. 
Cerithium irroraium, Gould. Hab. ? 
[It is difficult to say how this got 
among the Expedition shells, as it 
belongs to the Mazatlan, not the 
Cahfornian fauna. It may have 
been procm-ed at Callao, or by the 
accidents of ballast.] = C.stercus- 
muscarum, Val. 

62. Cerithium filosum, G., Puget Sound. 

64. Fusus fidicula, G., Puget Sound. 

Closely resembles F. turricula. 

65. Fusus orpheus, G., Puget Sound. 

Resembles F. Bamffius. 
67. Buccinum fossatum,G. ,Fviget Sound 

and mouth of Columbia River. 

(San Diego.) (= Nassa fossata, 

G., postea.) Of the same group as 

iV. trivittata. Say. 
70. Nassa mendica, G., Puget Sound, 

Nisqually, &c. Pacific analogue 

of N. trivittata. Say. 

74. Solen sicarius, G., Straits of De 

Fuca, Oregon. 

75. Panopma generosa, G., Puget Sound, 

Oregon. Like P. Aldrovandi. 
„ Mya prtBcisa, G., Puget Sound. 

Like M. truncata. 
16. Mactrafalcata, G., Puget Sound. 
„ Lutraria capax, G., Puget Sound. 

(Afterwards changed to L. maxima. 

Midd.) 
77. Osteodesma bracteata, G., Puget Sd. 

" Closely resembles 0. hyalina." 
83. Cardita ventricosa, G., Puget Sound. 



210 



llBPOBT-^1856. 



Page 



83. Cardium blandum, G., Puget Sound. 

85. Veiius rigida, G., Puget Sound, 

Straits of De Fuca. 

86. Cyclas patella, G., Oregon. Re^ 

sembles C. cornea. 

87. Anodon feminalis, G., Oregon. 
„ Anodon cognata, G., Nisqually and 

Fort Vancouver. 
„ Alasmodon falcata, G., Wallawalla, 
Oregon ; Sacramento River. ^ A. 
margaritifera, var. teste Lea and 
others. 

88. Unio fameli&us, G., Wallawalla, 

Oregon. 

The localities included in the ( ) are added from the standard work, for 
which that above quoted was but a preparation, entitled " United States 
Exploring Expedition during the years IS35-V2, under the command of 
Charles Wilks, U.S.N. Philadelphia 1852- ." The plates have not yet found 
their way to this country. Besides the species already enumerated, are 
found the following ; — 



Page 

93. Mytilus {Modiola) jlabellatus, G.^ 
Puget Sound, Oregon (Townsend 
Harbour, San Francisco, and spe- 
cies from G. Calif.)- Apparently 
= Modiola Brasiliensis. 

94. Mytilus trossulus, G., Killimook, 
Puget Sound, Oregon. Appears 
a var. of M. edulis. 

95. Pecten caurinus, G., Port Townsend, 
Admiralty Inlet, Oregon. 

„ Pecten hericeus, G., Straits of De 
Fuca, Oregon. 



2. Arionfoliolatus, G., Puget Sound. 

3. Limax Columbianus, G., Puget Sd. 

and Oregon. 
36. Helix Vancouverensis, Lea, Oregon. 
66. Helix Nuttalliana, Lea, Puget Sd. 

and Oregon. 
„ Helix Toivnsendiana, Lea, Oregon. 
70. Helix germana, G., Oregon. 
113. Planorbis corpuleiitus, G., Oregon. 
122. Lymjicea apicina, G., Oregon. 
„ Lymncea vmbrosa, Say (Astoria), 
Oregon, and Sacramento River. 
143. Melania plicifera, G., Oregon. 
353. Loftia viridula. " Mr. Nuttall 
brought home several specimens, 
which he described under the 
name o{ monticula" [monticola~\. 
436. Anodonta angulata, G., Sacramento 

River. 
206. Scalaria ? australis, Puget Sound. 
This species is from the opposite 



214. 
219. 



241. 



244. 
247. 
322. 
323. 
399. 
467. 
468. 



side of the equator fi-om S. au- 
stralis. Dr. Gould thinks it will 
prove distinct, but cannot yet see 
any differences. 

Natica algida, G., Oregon. 

Trichotropis cancellata,llmds,Oie- 
gon. 

Triton Oregonense, Jay, Oregon. = 
Fiisits Oregonensis + cancellatus, 
Rve. 

Purpura ostrina, G., Oregon. 

Colmnbella gausapata,G.*, Oregon. 

Chiton interstinctus, G., Oregon. 

Chiton vespertinus, G., Oregon. 

Saxidomus Nuttalli, Conr., Oregon. 

Terebratula pulvinata, G., Oregon. 

Terebrattda caurina, G., Oregon. 

And the following Nudibranchs : — 
Chiorcera leonina, G. ; 310. ? Den- 
dronotus; 3\\. 1 Goniodoris ; 29. 
1 Doris; 1 ^olis. 



In the Preface to this work, Dr. Gould states his views as to the geogra- 
phical distribution of species, and gives the following interesting lists of 
parallel species from different seas : — 



Oregon District. 

Mya prmcisa. 
Osteodesma bracteatutn. 
Cardita ventricosa. 
Cardium blandum. 
Venus calcarea. 



Atlantic Coast. 
M. truncata. 
0. hyalinum. 
C. borealis. 
C. Icelandicum, 
V. mercenaria. 



* Dr. Gould remarks (p. 270), tliat " there is a minute operculum to Mitra, while there is 
none to Coliimbella." Of the shells called ColumbellcB, the typical species, C. strombiformis, 
major, and fuscata, have a broad oval operculum, with the apex at the anterior end of the 
outside margin ; Nitidella cribraria has a distinctly Purpuroid operculum ; and Anachis 
costellata, &c. have a Pisanoid ungulate operculum. Vide B.M. Mai. Cat. in loco. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST OOA8T OF NORTH AMERICA. Ull 



Oregon District. 

Alasmodonta falcafa. 
Helix Vancouverensis, 
Helix loricata. 
Helix germana. 
Planorbis vermicularis. 
Planorbis opercularis. 
Lacuna varinafa. 
Natica Lewisii. 
Trichotropis cancellata, 
Fusus fidicula. 
Lottia pintadina. 

To which we may add (from California),- 
Solecurtus lucidus. 



Atlantic Coast. 
A. arcuata. 
H. concava. 
H. injlecta. 
H.fraterna. 
PL defiectus. 
PI. exacutus. 
L, vincta. 
N. heros. 
Tr. borealis. 
F. turricula. 
L. testudinalis, &c. 



S. radiatus. 



The following are quoted as parallel types between the Gulf of California 
and the Caribbaean Sea : — 



Gulf of California. 
Lutraria undulata. 
Mactra nasuta. 

Lutraria venfricosa \_Mactra exoleta^ . 
Cytherea biradiata. 
Natica Chemnitzii, Pfr. 



Caribbean Sea. 
L. canaliculata. 
M. Brasiliana. 
L. carinata. 

■KT ' > Mediterranean. 

N. maroccana. J 



The following species have also been examined and determined by Df. 
Gould, from the same collection :-— 



Helix tudiculata, Binney, Oregon. 

AcmcBa cribraria, G., Columbia River, 
San Francisco, De Fuca. 

Modiola elongata, G., Puget Sound. 

Solen maximus, Mouth of Columbia R. 

Tellina nasuta, Conr., Mouth of Colum- 
bia River. 

Tellina sect a, Conr., De Fuca. 

Tellina Californica, Com'., De Fuca. 

Tellina Bodegensis, Hinds, Classet. 

Anodonta Nuttalliana, Lea, WallawaUa, 
San Francisco. 

Buccinum corrugatum, Rve., Puget Sound. 

Purpura septentrionalis, Rve., Puget Sd. 



Melania plicata. Lea, Oregon. 

Melania Wahlamatensis, Lea, Sacra*- 

mento River. 
{Cryptomya) Sphcenia Calif omica,CoTit., 

Sacramento River. 
Melania occata, Hds., Sacramento River. 
Triton tigrinum, Brod., Puget Sound. 
Modiola discrepans, Mont., Puget S. [! !] 
Modiola ? vulgaris, Puget Sound. 
Pecten Fabricii, Phil., Puget Sound. 
Fusus cancellinus, Phil., De FuCa. 
Pholas {concamerata, Desh. =) penita, 

Conr., San Francisco. 
Paludina seminalis, Hds., Sacramento. 



In the MS. list of the shells collected in the Oregon and Californian 
district during the U.S. Exploring Expedition, sent by Dr. Gould, and in- 
cluding the above, there appear 70 species from Oregon, a district before so 
little known, that only 23 of them have been identified with previous names, 
the rest having been described by Dr. Gould. 

Through the great kindness of Dr. Gould, who showed his desire to make 
the materials for this Report as complete as possible, by copying out all the 
valuable information which was in his possession, we are enabled to present 
the materials from which the foregoing lists were drawn up, in the shape in 
which they first made their appearance. They are the only documents 
approaching the authority of "dredging papers," which have been made 
public, in the whole history of the coast, from Behring's Straits to Panama. 
They are the memoranda made by Dr. Charles Pickering of the U.S. Expl. 
Exp. ; the specific names having been for the most part added by Dr. Gould 
on identification. 

p 2 



212 



REPORT — 1856. 



Box I. Oregon Tour. 

Anodon cognata, G., Lake near Nis- 

qually. 
Alasmodon falcata, G., Columbia, Spo- 

kan, common. 
Anodon feminalis, G., Wallawalla. 
Helix strigosa, G., Interior of Oregon. 
Lymnisa (long spire). 
Succinea (spreading mantle). 



Box IV. PuGET Sound. 

Venus (perhaps a fourth species), Classet. 

Tellina (middle size, smooth, not po- 
lished, smaller, and a little deflected), 
common, sandy places. 

Tellina secta, Conr. (or allied : larger, 
truncate at one end; ligament narrow, 
but elongate), common, sandy places. 

Mytilus (size of edulis, with a few large 
costse); [probably M. Calif or nianus, 
Conr. ;] among rocks, low-water mark, 
Classet. 

Fissurella cratitia, G., Classet. 

Cardium hlandum, G., dredged at Dunge- 
uess. 

Acmma Imitra, Esch., Classet. 

Acmcea instabilis, G., Classet. 

Acmaa (costate and tuberculate), com- 
mon. 

Acmaa (larger, apex more medial), 
Classet. 

AcmcEa (finely striate), rocks, Classet. 

Pecten hericeus, G., Classet. 

Pecten (young, costae smooth), Classet. 

Scalaria ? borealis, Classet. 

Scalaria (large, much elongated, solid), 
Classet. 

Tellina (elongate, concentric stria;), 
Classet. 

Oliva, Classet, dead. 

Haliotis (fragment of large species), 
Classet. 

Modiola (one valve, young). 

Triton tigrinum. 

Crepidula (Capuloid) ; [probably C. 
adunca.'\ 

Crejndula nummaria, G., Classet. 

? Anomia, Classet, dead. 

Mytilus (common, like edulis). 

? Saxicava (very short and ventricose), 
Classet. 

Natica algida, G., Classet. 

Nassa mendica, G., Classet. 

Purpura lagena, G., Classet. 

Cerithium Jilosum, G., Classet. 

Calyptrcea 1 pileiformis. 

Mya (very small), Dungeness. 

Cardium, Dungeness (dredged). 



Box V. PuGET Sound. 

Cardium (largest, used for food). 
Pecten hericeus, G., Dvmgeness. 
Purpura septentrionalis, Dungeness. 

Box VI. PuGET Sound. 

Solen sicarius, G., Dungeness (dredged). 
Solen maximus, Classet. 
Helix Vancouver ensis, Lea. 
Helix labiosa, G. 

Box VIII. San Francisco. 

Cardium ? Calif orniatium (same as Ore- 
gon). 

Mytilus (very large, a few shallow ribs, 
like Classet). 

Mytilus trossulus, G. (see M. edulis, De 
Fuca). 

Tellina secta, Conr. 

Mactra (a thin My«-shaped species : per- 
haps Lutruria). 

Mya {Sphcenia, J in.; see Straits of De 
Fuca). 

Tellina (small, like balthica). 

Fissurella ? cratitia (like Classet). 

Acmwa (nearly smooth). 

Helix Nickliniana, Lea. 

Purpura emarginata. Duel. 

Trockus mcestus. 

Littorina planaxis, Nutt. (= L. patula). 

Acmcea (angulated), Yerba Buena. 

Box IX. San Francisco. 
Pholas (small, enlarged, rounded end). 
Pholas (smaller, obliquely tmncate). 
Ostrea (small), Carquinez. 
Amnicola, Sacramento. 
Helix Californiensis, Lea. 
Planorbis (form of campanulatus), Sa- 
cramento. 

Box X. San Francisco. 

Anodon (winged), Sacramento. 
Alasmodon falcata, G., Upper Sacra- 
mento. 
Purpura emarginata. Duel. 
Anodon cognata, G., near the Presidio. 

Jar 184-. Sacramento Trip. 

Tellina (small, roundish), Carquinez. 
Mytilus glomeratus, G. 
Helix Nickliniana, Lea. 
Cerithium (Potamis) Californianum. 
Anodon angulatum. Lea. 
Planorbis (like campanulatus), up Sacra- 
mento. 
Planorbis (like trivolvis), up Sacramento. 
Acmeea (smoothish), mouth of harbour. 
Acmaa (smaller, more pointed). 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 213 



Jar 185. San Francisco. 
Physa virginea, G. 
Purpura emarginata. 
hittorina patula, G. 
Acmaa scabra, G. (ridged and nodulate) 

[= A. spectrum, Nutt.] 
Trochus (like Puget Sound). 
Physa (with truncate spire). 
Physa (elongate), from behind Presidio. 
Nassa (small, like Puget Sound). 
Planorbis (flat and rather fine). 
Succinea (small). 
hittorina plena, G. 

Oregon, by Drayton. 
Tellina secta, Conr., below mouth of 

Columbia. 
Anodon feminalis, G., Wallawalla. 
Anodon Oregonensis, Lea, Wallawalla. 
Alasmodon falcata, G., Wallawalla. 
Melania plicifera. Lea, mill-dam above 

Vancouver. 
Tellina, F. George, stomach of sturgeon. 
Limneea (small). Lake at Vancouver. 
Solen sicarius, G. 
Melania, Chester River. 
Unio famelicus, G., Wallawalla. 
Helix labiosa. 

Pecten, dredged at Baker's Bay. 
Liimax Columbianus, G., Nisqually. 
Natica Lewisii, G., Puget Sound. 
Modiola flabellata, G., Port Discovery. 
Pecten Townsendi, Nisqually. 
Panopcea generosa, Nisqually. 

Oregon Tour. 
Helix strigosa, G. 

Planorbis vermiculatus, G., Wallawalla. 
Helix Townsendiana, Lea. 
Helix devia, G. 

Jar 166. De Fuca to Nisqually. 
Lymneea (elongated). 
Physa (decollate). 

Puget Sound. 
Fusm fidicula, G. 
Pecten (young). 
Calyptreea (bis). 

Fusus (or Columbella, small, smooth). 
Venus (very small and smooth). 
■ Chiton (very small). 
Modiola (like discors). 
Trochus virgineus, Wood. 
Cardita ventricosa, G. 
Fusus Orpheus, G. 
Cardium Calif or nianum, Conr. 
Trichotropis cancellata, Hds. 
Goniodoris. 
BuUiBoid [species]. 



Crepidula (small, white, on young Pur- 
pura). 
Doris (like). 
Terebratula pulvilla, G. 
Terehratula {septentrionalis-like), 
Natica caurina, G. 
Oliva (small). 

Brought up on Anchor. 
Chiton (very small and narrow). 
Rimula cucullata, G. 
Lacuna carinata, G. 
Acmcea mitra. 
hittorina scutellata, G. 
Acmcea textilina, G. 
Solen maximus, (mouth of Columbia). 
Helix Vancouver ensis, Lea, 
himnea (much like Paludina), Columbia 

River. 
Physa (bis). 

Jar, going up to Puget Sound. 
Limax Columbianus, G. 
himax foliolatus, G. 

Dredged at Port Townsend. 
Chiorcera leonina, G. 
Trochus (bis). 
Acmcea (smooth, with Balanus). 

Jar 1881. Oregon. 
Planorbis corpulentus, Say, Fort George. 
Limncea {ventricosa), near Fort George. 
Helix Vancouver ensis. Lea. 
Helix Townsendiana, Lea. 
Unio famelicus, Wallawalla. 
Cyclas egregia, Vancouver. 
Bulla (small, very thin), Puget Sound. 
hittorina lepida, Classet. 
Buccinum. 

Discovery Harbour. 
Helix, 5 or 6 species. 
Cardium blandum, G. 
hutraria capax, G. 
Venus ampliata, G. 
Mytilus trossulus. 
Chiton (shell not appearing externally). 

Tow^nsend Harbour. 
Solen sicarius, G. 
Mytilus trossulus, G. 
Modiola flabellata, G. 
Cardium Nuttallii, Conr. 
Natica hewisii, G. 
BuUceoid [species]. 
Trochus. 
Columbella. 
Purpura. 
Calyptrcsa, 



214 



REPORT 1856. 



44. All existing information with regard to the MoUusca of the Boreal 
districts of North America and the corresponding portion of North-Eastern 
Asia, will be found embodied in the two following works : — -" Beitrage zu 
einer Malacozoologia Rossica, von Dr. A. Th. von Middendorff. St. Peters- 
burg, 1847:" and " Reise in den Aussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, 
wahrend der Jahre 1843 und 1844, von Dr. A, Th. v. Middendorff. Band II. 
Zoologie. Theil I. Wirbellose Thiere. St. Petersburg, 1851. Mollusken, 
pp. 163-464." The author not only describes the results of his own travels, 
but arranges the discoveries of Eschscholtz (to whose specimens he had 
access), Mertens, Wosnessenski, and others. The descriptions are very 
minute and complex, the remarks extremely diffuse, and the references 
tabulated with consummate learning. Unfortunately, in his comparisons 
with the British Fauna, he had no better manual than Thorpe's Marine 
Conchology ; the invaluable work of Messrs. Forbes and Hanley not having 
been then completed. The first part of the ' Malacozoologia Rossica,' entitled 
" Beschreibung und Anatomie ganz neuer, oder fiir Russland neuer Chi- 
TONEN," containing 151 quarto pages, with 14 plates, consists of an account of 
21 species, of which 17 inhabit the Pacific shores. To an account of the prin- 
cipal form. Chiton Stelleri, 59 pages are devoted. All who study or describe 
species in this very interesting and difficult group, will do well to consult as 
much as their time allows of this comprehensive treatise. It is to be regretted 
that in the principles which have directed his classification, he has confined 
his attention to so limited a number of types; and, however burdensome to 
the memory may be the very numerous genera of modern writers, the sub- 
genera, sections, subsections and divisions found necessary to accommodate 
only twenty-one out of the many hundreds of known species, by no means 
lessen the inconvenience. Thus to descend from genus Chiton to species 
Pallasii, the Middendorffian student has to master the following phraseology : 
" Chiton-Phsenochiton-Dichachiton-Symmetrogephyrus (B. Apori) Pallasii." 
The following are the Pacific species; the synonyms being those of Midden- 
dorff, unless enclosed in [ ]. 

Part I. 



Page. 


1 


Pl*tp. 


Fig. 


Name. 


Locality. 


371 
93/ 




1-9 


r 
1 


Chiton Stelleri, Midd. Bull. Ac. Sc. St. 


Abundant near Petropaulowski 


1 


Petersburg, vii. 8. p. 116. 


and the promontory of Lo- 










= C. amiculaius, Sow. Conch. 111. f. 80. 


patka. The Kamtschatkians 










= C. Sitkensis, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 10. 


call it Keru, and eat it. — 










sp. 55. 


Steller. 










? = C. chlamys, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 11. 
sp. 60. 
r amiculatus, Pallas, Nov. Act. Acad. 




96 


2 






Kurule Is. 










Petrop. ii. 235-7. pi. 7. f. 26-30. 




98 


3 






Pallasii. Midd. Bull. Ac. St. Pet. vi. 

117. 


Tugurbusen, Ochotsk Sea. 


98 

98 

101 


4 
5 


10 


1-5 




Ditto, and Schantar Is. 
Sitcha, Kadjak, Atcha. 
N. California, Sitcha, Atcha. 




6 


11 


1,2 


Wosnessenskii, Midd. Bull. Ac. St. 










Pet. vi. 119. 












Comp. Ch. setiger, King [Southern ana- 












logue]. Comp. 6%. se/os««, Sow. 




109 


8 


12 


8,9 


lineatus, Wood 


N. Calif., Sitcha, Unalaschka. 










? = Ch. insignia, Rve. Conch. Ic. pi. 22. 












sp. 149. f. 148. 




112 


9 


13 


1,2 


Sitkenih,Midd.Bull.St.Pet. vi. 121 
[nou Rve.}. 


Sitcha. 


114 


10 


11 


4 


Eschacholtzii, Midd. „ „ ,,118 


Sitcha. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 215 



Page, g Plate. 



Name. 



Locality. 



115 
124 
125 
127 
128 

128 



129 
130 



11 

13 
14 
14 



5,6 
3,4 
1-3 

4,5 



Chiton Merckii, Midd. Bull. St. Pet. vi. 20 

lividus, Midd. „ „ „ 120 

Mertensii, Midd. „ „ „ 118 

scrobiculatus, Midd. „ „ ,, 121 

Brandtii, Midd. „ „ ,,117 

' giganteus, Tilesius, Mem. Je. St. 

Pet. vol. ix. 1824, p. 473. pi. 16. f. 1, 2. 
pi. 17.f. 3fe, 8. 

setosus, Tilesius, Mem. Ac. St. Pet. 

vol. ix. 1824, p. 484. 

muricatus, Tilesius, Mem. Ac. St. 

Pet. vol. ix. 1824, p. 483. pi. 16. f. 3. 



Sitcha. 

Sitcha. 

Colonie Russ. = Bodejas, Cal. 

Colonic Russ. = Bodejas, Cal. 

S. coast, Ochotsk; large Schan 

tar Is. 
.' Kamtschatka. 



? Kamtschatka. 

? Kamtschatka and Kurule Is. 



The last three are quoted on the authority of Tilesius. The second and 
third Parts bear date 1849, and contain the general descriptions of shells. 
The following are from the Pacific. 

Part II. 



37 



10 



10 



11-15 



Patella (Acnisea) caeca, v. Reisewerk 

cassis, Esch. (Represents P. 

deaurata, Gmel. Str. of Magellan.) 

patina, Esch., v. Reise. 

scurra. Less , 

=Acm(jea scurra, D'Orb. 

= A. mitra, Esch. 

-^A. mammillata, Esch. [not Nutt.] 

-\-A. marmorea, Esch. 

= ? Lottia pallida, Gray, Beech, Voy. 

digitalis, Esch. 

^ persona, Esch 

-\-A. radiata, Esch. 
-{■A. ancylus, Esch. 
-\-A. scutum, D'Orb. (syn. excl.) 
'i = Lottia punctata, Gray: non Patel- 
loidea punctata, Quoy and Gaim 
Voy. Astr. pi. 71. f. 40, 42. 

? personoides, Midd. , 

= A. ancyloides, Midd. Bull. St. Peters, 
vi. 20, non Forbes. 

-. .' aeruginosa, Mid4- ■••• 

? pileolus, Midd. 

Asmi, Midd 

Fissurella violacea, Esch. 1829=latimar 

ginata. Sow. 1834. 

This well-known S. American species 

was found by Eschscholtz in the 

Bay of Conception: Wosnessenski's 

quotation from Sitcha is probably 

incorrect. 

— aspera, Esch 



Paludinella stagnalis, Linn., v. Reise. 

— aculeus, Gould 

— castanea, Moll 

— cingulata, Midd., v. Reise, 

Lacuna glacialis, Moll. 

Littorina grandis, Midd., v. Reise. . 

— subtenebrosa, Midd. , 

— Kurila, Midd... , 



Sitcha. 
Sitcha. 



Sitcha. 
Sitcha. 



KcQ^i Bay. 



Sitcha. 
Sitcha. 
.'Sitcha. 



.'Sitcha, Mertens; Norfolk Sd., 

Esch. 
Ochotsk, Black Sea, Caspian. 
Ochotsk, Lapland. 
Ochotsk, Lapland. 
Schantar Is. 
Ochotsk, Sitcha. 
Ochotsk, Schantar, Kamtsch. 
Isl. Urup, Sea Ochotsk. 
Isl. Urup, Schantar, Kenai. 



216 



REPORT — 1856. 



Fig. 



Locality. 



64 
66 
66 
68 
69 



73 

74 



83 

84 

84 

85 
85 
86 
91 
91 



93 



94 



96 
97 



98 
99 
100 
100 
101 
101 
103 

104 
104 



106 
106a 



13-15 



10 



45-6 



16-18 



3-5 
6,7 
8-10 



Littorina Sitchana, Phil. 

— modesta, Phil 

— aspeia, Phil. 

Turritella Eschrichtii, Midd 

Margarita arctica, Leach, var. major 

-\-M. vulgaris. Leach. 
? = Turbo margarita, Lowe. 

= M. Gi'cenlandica, Beck. 

= il/. helicina, Moll., Fabr. 

sulcata, Sow 

striata, Brod. Sf Sow 

= Turbo cameus, Lowe. 

= T. cinereus. Couth. 

= Margarita sordida, Hancock. 
Trochus ater, Less., Phil. Abbild. p. 188 
no. 3. pi. 5, 8. f. 6. 

euryoruphalus, Jonas, Abbild. p. 15. 

no. 4. pi. 6. f. 4. 

Ta(E%i\ii,Joii.Abbild.\).\b. no. 5. pi. 6 

f. 5 ; Mke. inZeit.f. Mai. 1844, p. 113, 

modestus, Midd , 

Schantaricus, Midd., v. Reise , 

(Tiu-bo) Fokkesii, Jonas , 

Natica aperta, Lov , 

clausa, Brod. &f Sow , 

= N. consolidata. Couth. & Phil. 

= N. septentrionalis, Beck, Moll. 

= N. ianthostoma, Desh., Guer. Mag. 
1841. 
pallida, Br. S( Sow 

= N. borealis, Gray, Beech, pi. 37. f. 2 

= iV; Gouldii, Phil. Zeit. f. Mai. 1845, 
p. 77, from type. 

= N. suturalis, Gray, Beech. Voy . p. 1 36 . 
pi. 37. f. 4. 

flava, Gld. Am. Jl. So. Art, vol. 38. 

1840, p. 196. 

= iV. lactea, Lov., Phil. 

= N. Gr<Bwfa«rf2ca,Beck,Moll.&Thorpe. 
1 = N. suturalis. Gray. 

= N. pusilla. Say, teste Phil. 

herculjea, Midd. 

? = N. Lewesii, Gld. 
Scalaria Groenlandica, Chemn., Sow., Gld. 

= S.planicosta, Kien. 

= S. subulata. Couth., De Kay. 

Ochotensis, Midd., v. Reise 

Pilidium commodum, Midd., v. Reise. ... 

Crepidula solida, Hds 

Sitchana, Midd. 

minuta, Midd. 

grandis, Midd. 

Haliotis Kamtschatkana, Jonas, Z.f. M. 
1845, p. 168. 

aquatilis, Rve 

Velutina haliotoidea, O. Fabr 

= V. Icevigata, L., Gld., Rve., Donov. 

= Bidla velutina, MuW. 

= V. Millleri, Desh., Giier. Mag. 1841, 

= ?Sigaretws coriaceus, Br. & Sow. 

coriacea, Pallas 

— — cryptospira, Midd., v, Reise 



Sitcha, New Albion, Kenai. 

Sitcha, New Albion. 

Sitcha, [.'] New Albion, Barclay. 

Sitcha. 

Sitcha, Ochotsk, Schantar. 



Unalaschka. 
Sitcha, Lapland. 



Sitcha, TFosn. 

Sitcha, Esch. 

Sitcha, Wosn. 

Sitcha, Wosn. 

Sitcha, Wosn. 

Ochotsk, Schantar, 

Sitcha, Ochotsk, Schantar,Kad. 

jak, Kamtsch., Lapland, N 

Zembl. 

White Sea, Ochotsk. 



N.Zembla, Is. Paul in Behr. Sea, 



Bodejas. 
Behriug Straits. 



S. coast Ochotsk. 

Schantar Is. 

Bodegas. 

Sitcha, Wosn. 

Sitcha, Wosn. 

Is. Paul, Behring Sea. 

Kamtsch., Unalaschka. 

Kurule Is., Rve. 
Lapl., Midd.; Kamtsch., Chiron, 
Desh. 



Kurile, Pallas ; Kamt., Steller. 
Schantar Is., Ochotsk. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 21? 



Page. 

107 
107 

108 

109 
110 

112 
113 

116 
117 
117 
118 
119 
119 
120 

125 


d 
Z 

1 
2 
3 

4 

1 

2 

1 

2 
3 
4 
2 
3 
1 
2 

2 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Name. 


Locality. 


"i'6' 

9 


"7-9 

1-3 
T,"2 




Behring, Schantar Is., Ochotsk. 

Behring. 

Sitcha, Wosn., Hds. 

Sitcha, Hds. 
Lapl., Behring Sea. 

Behr. Str., Wosn. 

Sitcha & Urup, Ochot.,WhiteS. 

Behr. Straits. 

Sitch.,Och.,Kamt.,Behr.,Aleut. 

Sitcha. 

Ochotsk, Schantar. 

Ochotsk. 

Sitcha. 

Sitcha, Kadjak. 

Sitcha, Lapland. 






= T. costellaius, Couth. 
= T. Atlantica, Beck. 
= T. cancellata, Hds. 
= T. umbilicatus, Macgil. 


Cancellaria (Tritonium [!]) viridula, 0. 
Fair. 
= Admete crispa, Moll. 
— Cane. Couthoyi, Jay. 
= C. buccinoides, Couth. 
= C. costellifera, Hanc. 




-{■imbricata-\-bizonalis, Lam. 






Pleurotoma Schantaricura, Midd.,v. Reise. 






■j-M.ferrugineus, Esch. 
Tritonium (Trophon) clathratum, Linn... 

— T. Gunneri, Lov., Rve. 

= Fusus lamellosus, Grav, Z. B. V.pl. 36. 
f. 13. 

= F. scalariformis, Gld. 

—Mwrex multicostaiits, Esch. 

= M. clathratus, Phil. Z. f. M. 1845, 
p. 78. 

= TropTion Bamffii, Fabr. 
■ (Fusus) antiquum, Linn. (nonZam.) 

+ T. canaliculatum, Pallas. 

-\-F.fornicatuS, Gray, Z. B. V. p. 117 ; 
Rve. f. 63. 
decemcostatum, Say, Gld. ... 


128 

138 
140 
140 
141 

145 

146 
147 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
156 
157 


3 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 


"3" 
6 
2 
4 


5',"6 
7,8 
5-8 
4,5 


Kamt., Behr., Schan., Ochotsk, 
Lap]., N. ZembL 

Kadj., Kenai. 
Lapl., Ochotsk. 
Behr. Sea. 
Behr. Sea, Lapl. 

Kenai, Lapl. 

Schant., Is. Paul. 
Tugur B., Ochotsk. 
Behr. Sea. 
Behr. Sea. 
Sitcha. 
Sitcha. 
Lapland. 
Schantar Is. 
Sitcha, Lapl. 






=F. pygmtms, Gld., Phil. 
I^F. HoUoellii, Moll. 

= Trit. gracile, Da Cost., Lov. 

=Murex corneus, Donov. 

=Fustts Saiini, Hanc. 
Sabinii, Gray (nee auct.) 

= Buecinum 5., Gray, Parry's Voy.p.240. 

= F. Bemiciensis, King, 1846. 

= F. Sabinii, Gray, Z. B. V. p. 117. 
Schantaricum, ilfirfrf.,v. Reise. 








luridum, Midd. 


(Buecinum) undatum, Linn 


tenebrosum, /fo»e 


—B. cyaneum, Moll. 
-\-B. undulatum, Hanc. 



218 



REPORT 1856. 



Page. 
157 

163 
163 
164 

167 
168 

174 

175 

179 
183 

184 

186 
187 
187 


17 

18 
19 
21 

22 
23 

26 

27 
1 
1 
1 

1 
2 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Name. 


Locality. 


..„.. 
4 

"i'o' 

12 


i-4 
11 

12 1 
1-4 1 

19-22 
1-6 


Tritonlum (Buccinum) tenebrosum, flane. 
{continued.) 
-\-B. sericatum, Hanc. An. N. H. 1846, 

p. 328. 
•\-B. hydrojihanum, Hanc. 
= B. boreale, Br. & Sow. 

simplex, Midd., v. Reise 

Ochoteuse, Midd., v. Reise.... 


Schant. 

Ochotsk. 

Unalaschka, Kadjak, Kamtsch. 

Kadjak, JFosn.; IS. Am., King.^ 
LapL, Ochotsk, Kamtsch. 

Lapl., Belir. 

Tugur, Ochotsk. 

Sitcha, Schantar. 

Schantar. 

Sitcha, Ochotsk, Lapl.,N.Zem. 

Kurile. 
Behr. Sea. 
Behr. Sea. 


= Triton c, A. s. V. ix. 638. 
-\-F. Oregonensis, Rve. 

(Pollia) scabrum. King* 

Pollia seaJra, Gray, Z. B. V.pl. 36. f.l6. 


=B. Grwnlandicum, Hanc. 
?=B.polaris, Gray, Z. B. V. p. 128. 


= B, ventricosum, Kr. 
?-}-B.fusiforme, Kr. 
= Tr. ciliatum, 0. Fabr. 
ooides, Midd., v. Reise 


Limacina arctica, Fabr., v. Reise 

Tritonia [Dendronotus]arborescens, Miill. 

= T. Reijnoldsii, Couth. 
Onychotheutis Kanitschatica, Midd. 






Part III. 


1 
2 
5 
6 
10 

12 
17 

20 
21 


1 
2 
4 
5 
2 

3 
2 

3 
1 


11 

12* 

ri2 

113 


11-17 

9.101 
1-6 1 


Terebratiila psittacea, Gmel. 

frontalis, Midd., v. Reise 

[Placun-]Anomia patelliformis, Linn. ... 

macrochisma. Desk., v. Reise 

Pecten Islandicus, Chemn ,....,.... 

= P. Fabricii, Phil. 

= P. Pealii, Conr. 


Sitcha, Lapl. 

Ochotsk. 

Sitcha, Esch. 

Aleut., Kamt., Ochotsk. 

N. Zemb., Lapl., ? Behr., ? Kamt, 

Sitcha, JVosn. ; Aljaska, Hds. 
Ochotsk, Lapl., N. Zem. 

Ochotsk, Is. Kadj. 
Sitcha, Lapl., Behr. 




= M. loevigata, Lov., Hanc. 
= M. leevis, Beck. 

= M. diseors. Beck, Old., Fabr., Chemn., 
Phil., Rve. 




-\-Mytilus barbatus, Linn. 
-\- Mod. papuana, Lam, 
■\-M. Gibbsii, Leach. 
+3/. grandis, Phil. 



* This shell is introduced under the title " Tritonium (Buccinum, Subg. Pollia, Gray) 
scahrum. King et Broderip," which reminds us of the pre-Linnsean times, and almost de- 
stroys the good of binomial nomenclature. Dr. MiddendorfF may show his philosophical 
knowledge by uniting Trophon, CUnjsodomus, Buccinum, Pisania and Nassa into one genus j 
but be has scarcely a right to compel us to use six words (besides the authority for the 
specific name) in citing his shell. Its presence in the N. Boreal fauna is extraordinary. It 
is generally regarded as one of the characteristic species of temperate or even tropical South 
America. It has occurred, however, in pseudo-Mazatlan collections, and was brought by Kellett 
and Wood. It has the aspect of a deep-water shell, and may therefore have a wide range. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 219 



Page 



Fig. 



Locality. 



25 



7-10" 

1-8 



16 
15 

ri6 

117 



17 
18 



18 
18 



17 



19 
21 
19" 



20 
21 



1-5 

23-25 

10-12 

1,2 



11-13 
1-3 



4 
5-7 



8-10 

'i"4" 

1-3 

13-15 

1-3 
4-10 



Mytilus edulis, Linn 

■j-M. borealis,abbreviatus, relums, in- 
eurvatus, Lam, 

r\- M. pellucidus, Penn. 

-j-M. notatus, De Kay. 

-j-AT. mbsaxatilis, Williaipson . 

Nucula castrensis, Hds , 

arctica, Br. 8( Sow ,,... 

Cardita borealis, Conr , 

Cardium Nuttallii, Conr. ...,.,,. 

+ 6'. CaliJbmianwntConr. 
Californiense, Desh., v. Reise, 

> Astarte Scotica, Mat. Sf Rack 

corrugata, Brown 

= ^. semisuleata, Hanc. 

=A. borealis, Phil., Forbes. 

= A. laden, Br. & Sow. Z. 13. V, p. 152 

= Tellina atra, Pallas. 
Venerupis Petitii, Desh ,.,,, 

— gigantea, Desh , 

Venus astartoides, BecJc, v. Reise 

Petricola cylindracea, Desh 

— gibba, Midd. 

Saxicava phwiadis, Linn 

Tellina soUdula, Pult .,..,,,..,.,. 

— nasuta, Cqnr ,..,, 

— lata, Gmel.,y. Reise , 

— lutea, Gray, v. Reise , ,., 

— edentula, Br. S( Sow., \. Reise. 

— Bodegensis, Hds , , 

Maqtra ovalis, Gld,,Y. Reise, , ,)•.... 

Lutraria maxima, Midd, , 

[.'=i. capax, Gld.] 

Pectunculus septentrionalis, Midd. 

Lyonsia Norwegica, Chemn,,y. Reise. ... 
Mya truncata, Linn ,..,,,,,.,,,. 

[? = M. pr(Bcisa, Gld.] 

— arenaria, Linn. ...,.,..,,,,.,..,.,,,.,. 
Maclisera costata, -Say, v. Reise. ,,,.,,,.,,,, 



Sitcha, Ochotsk. Kamt., Lapl., 
Is. Paul, Kadj., Keuai, Behr. 



Sitcha, Hds. 

Kamtseh., Beechey. 

Ochotsk. 

Sitcha, Kenai B„ Is. Paul. 

Sitcha, Ochot.,Unal.,Behr. Sea, 
Ochotsk, N. Zem., Lapl. 
Aljaska, Behr,, N. Zem., Lapl. 



Sitcha, Behr. Sea. 

Sitcha, Kamtseh. 

Ochotsk, Behr. 

Sitcha. 

Sitcha, Esch. 

Site, Och., Kamt., N.Zem.,LapL 

Tugurb., Ochotsk, Behr., Kamt., 

N, Zem., Lapl., Black Sea. 
Sitcha, Behr., Ochotsk. 
Behr., Ochotsk, Tugurb., Lapl 
Behr., Schant., St. Paul. 
Ochotsk, Unal,, Behr. 



Ochotsk, Behr,, Kenai. 
Sitcha, Wosn, 

Is. Ukamok, N.W. coast. 

Ochotsk. 

Ochotsk, Lapl., Kamt. 

Sitcha, Ochotsk, Lapl., N. Zem. 
Sitcha, Ochotsk, Behr., Kamt. 



In the Sibiriens Jteise, additional particulars are given witli regard to tiie 
following species. 



163 
174 

178 
183 



186 

187 



1 


ri3 

114 


1-91 
1-6 f- 


2 


15 


1-6 


3 


ri4 

115 


7-101 
7,8 (■ 


4 


16 


6a-e 


5 


•«{ 


4a-(il 
5S,c; 


6 


'4 


\a-d\ 
2a-c y 
3 J 



Chiton Pallasii, Midd , 

Brandtii, Midd. ....,.., < 

submarmoreus, Midd. , 

Patella (Cryptobranchia) caeca. Mull. 
-{-P. cerea, Moll. 
-j-C. Candida, Couth. Some varieties 

resemble Aemaa testudinaUs. 
— (Acmaea) pelta, Esch. , 



patina, Esch... 

-\-A. scutum, Esch. 
+A.scntum, D'Orb.p.479, excl. f. 8-10. 
A white var. from the Ochotsk Sea. 



Tugur. 

Sitcha, Tugur, Schantar, 
Sitcha, Tugur, Schantar. 
Tugur, Schantar. 



Sitcha, Tugur, gchantar, Unft. 
laschka. 

Sitcha, Tugur, Schantar, Una- 
laschka, Aleut., Kenai. 



220 



REPORT — 1856. 



Page. 
192 


1 
7 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Name. 


Locality. 






Paludinella stagnalis, Linn 


S. coast Ochotsk Sea, on AlgcB. 










= Paludina stagnali$,Mke. Z. f. M. Jan. 












1845, p. 37. 












= P. murialica-\- thermalis, Phil. Sic. 




IKS 




... 






Ochotsk Sea. 


= Turbo ulvm, Pen. 










= Paludina ulvce, Lov. 












= P. pusilla, Eichwald. 












= Cingula Icevis, De Kay. 




193 








A', forma elatior. 

= Paludina octona, Nilsson. 
= P. stagnalis, var. h, Mke. 
= Cyclostoma acutum, Drap. 
= Turbo ventrosus, Mont. [?] 
= Rissoa saxatilis, Moll. 




194 


7 


25 


3,4 


A", forma ventricoslor. 

= Paludina balthica, Nilss., Lov. 
= Cyclostoma anatinum, Drap. 
= Turbo muriaticus, Beudant. 
= Cingula minuta, Gld., De Kay. 
= Pissoa glabra, Alder. 
= Paludina 'iiilva, Lyell. 




195 


8 








S. coast Ochotsk. 


= Cingula striata, Thorpe. 










= IRissoa arctica, Lov. 




196 

197 


9 
10 


25 
10 


5-7 
10,11 




Schan. 

Schan., S. Ochotsk. 




198 


11 


11 


4-10 


Littorina grandis, Midd. Bull. Class. Phys. 
Math. Ac. St. Petersb. vii. no. 16. 


Schan., S. Ochotsk. 


201 


12 


11 


13,14 


Kurila,M(frf. Bull. Class. Phys.Math. 

Ac. St. Petersb. vii. no. 16. 


Schan., S. Ochotsk, Kurile. 


202 


13 


11 


11,12 


suhtenebrosa,MzW.i?«//. Class. Phys. 

Math. Ac. St. Petersb. vii. no. 16. 


S. Ochotsk (Is. Segneka). 


203 


14 


17 


13-16 


Margarita arctica,Leach, var. major, Midd. 


Schan., S. Ochotsk. 


204 
206 


15 
16 


18 
11 


1-7 
1-3 




Schan., S. Ochotsk. 

Schan., S. Ochotsk, Jakshina. 


Natica aperta, Lov 


208 


17 








Schan., S. Ochotsk. 


= N. consolidata, Couth., Phil. 










= N. septentrionalis, Beck, Moll. 




210 


18 








Schan., S. Ochotsk. 


= iV. borealis, Gray, Z.B.V. pi. 37. f. 2. 










= N. Gouldii, PhU. Z. f. M. 1845, p. 77. 




213 


19 


12 


12-14 


Scalaria Ochotensis, Midd. [This most 
remarkable shell has the appearance 
of an enormous Chemnitzia ; and 
reminds one of the Oolitic forms 
which go by that name.] 


S. Ochotsk (Bay Nichta). 


214 
216 


20 
?1 


17 
25 


4-11 
8-10 




S. Ochotsk. 




218 


22 






Trichotropis bicarinata, Br. S^ Sow 

-f- T. Sowerbiensis, Less. 


Schan., S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 


219 


n 


12 


1-9 




S. Ochotsk. 










+P. attenuata, Rve. 




222 


24 


12 


10,11 


lapillus, Linn 


S. Ochotsk. 


223 
223 
224 


25 
26 
27 


12 
12 


17-19 
15,16 




Schan., S. Ochotsk. 
S. Ochotsk. 




Tritonium (Fusus) antiquum, Linn. 






10 


3 




Behring Sea. 










Var. 2. communis, -\-fornicaius, Rve. 


229 
230 
231 


28 
29 
30 


"lb" 


'7-9 




S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 

Schan. 

Tugur. 




(Fusus) Norvegicum, Chemn 





ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 221 



Page. 1 
233 31 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Name. 


Locality. 


" 10 


4-6 


rritonium (Buccinum) undatum, var. 


Schan. 








Schantarica. 




234 3S 






sim^\ex,Midd.Bull.8fc.\u.no.l& 


Schan. 


235 3; 


'VI 

I 8 
) 8 


■1'} 

7,8 
5,6 


Ochotense, Midd. do 


Tugur. 


236 3^ 

237 3. 




Tugur. 


tenehrosum, Hanc. [pi. 9, err. typ.] 


237 3( 


3 8 


3,4 


Bullia ampullacea, JWii<?<?. [pi. 17. fig. 1-3, 
err. typ.] 


Schan., Tugur. 


240 3 


7 




Liimacina arctica, Fabr 


Schan. 


=L. helicialis, Lam., Rve. 


241 3 

242 3 

244 4 

245 4 
245 4 
247 4 


i 18 
d 19 
[) 

1 

2 

1 


9-14 
1-5 


Terebratula frontalis, Midd, 


S. Ochotsk. 

Schan. 

S. Ochotsk. 

Schan., S. Ochotsk. 

S. Ochotsk. 

S. Ochotsk. 


Anomia macroschisma, Desh 


Modiolaria vernicosa, Midd. 


nigra, Gvuy 


Mytilus edulis, Linn 


Cardita borealis, Conr 


? Cardita spurca, Sow. 


248 4 


5 19 


6-11 


Cardium Californiense, Desh. (nee Conr.) 


Schan., S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 


250 4 


6 20 


1-4 


Astarte Scotica, Maton Sf Rack 


S. Ochotsk. 


= A. semisulcata, Lov., Phil., Moll. 








— /i. Garensis, ?var. Lyell. 










=A. lactea, Gld. 










= Venus sulcata, Mont. 




252 4 


8 20 


5-13 


Venus Astartoides, Beck, n. sp 


S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 

S Ophnt'st 


253 4 


9 24 


1-7 


Saxicava pholadis, Linn 








= 5. gallicana, Lam. 


vj. vy^/iiutajv. 








=S. rugosa, Lam. 










= Mytilus rugosus, Penn. 










= S. Grmnlandica, Pot. & Mich. 










= S. distorta. Say, Gld. 










= Mya byssifera, Fabr. 










= Solen minuius, Wood. 










■\-Hiatella oMonga, Tiirt. 




256 5 


23 


6-11 


Tellina nasuta, Conr 


S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 
S. Ochotsk. 


257 5 


1 23 


1-5 


lata, Gmel. (nee Quay &f Gaim.).,.. 








— T. calcarea, Hani., Lyell, Moll. 










-\-T. proxima, Bronn, Hani., Gray. 










= T. triangularis, Lyell. 










= T. sordida. Couth. = Sanguinolaria 










s., Gould. 










= Macroma tenera, Leach. 




258 5 


2 21 


2,3 




SpTifiTifflr Tq 






= T. alternidentata, Br. & Sow. 


Odlcllltdl xa* 








= T. Guildfordice, Gray. 




259 5 


3 21 


1 


edentula, Br. Sf Sow 


S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 
S. Ochotsk. 


260 5 


4 22 


3-6 


solidula, Pult., Hani, Wood, Lam., 








Kryn, 










=Loripes roseus, Andrj. 










= T. camaria, Penn., not Linn, 










= 7'. ia«Aiea, Phil., Lyell. 










= T. groenlandica, Lyell. 










= T.fusca, Say =PsammobiaJ'.= San- 










guinolaria j". 










= T.frigida, Hani. 










= T. Fabricii, Hani. 










= T. inconspica, Br. & Sow. 










\_Qomy.SanguinolariaCalifornica,Com.' 




363 5 


5 




Mactra ovalis, Gld. [p. 263, err. typ.] ... 
= M.ponderosa, Phil. 
= M. similis. Gray, Z. B. V. p. 154. 
pi. 44. f. 8. 


S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 



222 



REPORT — 1856. 



Page. 
264 


i 
56 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Name. 


Locality. 


24 


8-11 


Lyonsia Norvegica, Chemn 


Schant., S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 










=Z. striata, Turt. {My a str., Mont.) 










= i. gibbosa, Hanc. 












=Mya hyalina, Conr. teste Couth. 












=Pandorina arenosa, Moll. 












= Amphidesma corbuloides, Lara. 












= Osteodesma corbuloides, Desh. 












= 0. hyalina, Couth., Gld., De Kay. 




266 


57 


25 


11-14 


Mya truncata, Linn 


S. Ochotsk. 










-\-M. Uddevalensis, Hanc. 




268 
269 


58 
59 






arenaria, Linn 


S. Ochotsk. 

S. Ochotsk, Tugur. 

S. Ochotsk (Lebashja). 


Panopaea Norvegica, Spengler 


269 


60 






Machaera costata, Say 










= Soleeurtus NuttalUi, Conr. 












= Sokn nitidus, Chen. 












= S. splendens, Chen. 












= S. Americanus, Chen. 












=S. medius, Gray, Z. B. V, p. 153. 












pi. 44. f. 2. 












=S. maximus, Wood (nee Chemn.) 












p. 129. pi. 31. f. 3. 












} = S. tenuis, Brod. & Sow. 












} = S. alius, Brod. & Sow. 





The freshwater and land shells described in this work, pp. 273-308, appear 
to belong exclusively, either to the general North temperate fauna of the old 
world, or to the local fauna of the district. They are distributed by Mid- 
dendorff under three heads, pp. 389 e< seg-. (1) Circumpolar Fauna : Unio 
margaritifera, Pianorbis albus, Lininaeus stagnalis and palustris, Physa hyp- 
norum, Succinea putris, Helix pulchella, pura and fulva, Achatina lubrica, 
Vitrina pellucida. (2) Boreal Fauna: Unio pictorum and batavus, Anodonta 
cellensis and anatina, Pisidium obliquura, Cyclas cornea and calyculata, 
Pianorbis corneus, compianatus, contortus, leucostoma and vortex, Limnaeus 
auricularius, truncatulus, leucostomus, Physa fontinalis, Paludina Kilcxii and 
tentaculata, Valvata piscinalis, Helix ruderata, Schronkii, carthusiana and 
hispida, and Bulimus obscurus. (3) Central Asiatic Fauna : Unio Dahuricus 
and Mongolicus, Anodonta herculea, and Limnsus Gebleri. 

The author enters at considerable length, pp. 351-389, into the influence 
of Zones, Depths, Temperature and Saltness on the distribution and changes 
of moUusks; and gives full details of the peculiarities of several specific and 
generic forms, pp. 330-342. In pp. 309-4'63, the author distributes the 
Russian shells into their various Zoological provinces. With the Aral-Kas- 
pian, the Black Sea* and the very limited Baltic faunas, we have now no 
concern. The Polar fauna (p. 318 et seq.) is divided into three sections : — 
A. The Atlantic species, 30 in number. B. Those of the Behring Sea, 26 ; 
and C. the Circumpolar species. Si. To this list are added 50 species, which 
have not yet been found in the Russian dominions. 

* MiddendorfF gives the following species as common to the temperate latitudes on both sides 
of the Atlantic : — Littorina rudis, Fusus muricatus, Crcpidula unguiformis, Dentalium denialis, 
Anoviia ephippium, Solen ensis, Pecicn varius, Lima squamosa. Also the following as common 
to the Mediterranean and the West Indies; — Conus Mcditerraneus, Columbella mercatoiia, 
Nassa crenulata, Liltoriim muricata and neritoides, Cerithium lima, Tellina carnaria, and 
Rotella lineata. Pp. 346-7. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 223 



B. Polar Fauna of the Behring Sea, 



Chiton submarmoreus, tunicatus and 

vestitus. 
Patella patina, pelta. 
Paludinella ? cingiilata. 
Littorina subtenebrosa, Sitchana, grandis. 
Margai-ita sulcata. 
Scalaria Ochotensis. 
Crepidtda graudis. 
Trichotropis insignis. 



Cancellaria arctica. 

Purpura Freycinetii, decemcostata. 

Pleurotoma Schantaricum, simplex. 

Tritonium (Fusus) Behringii, Baerii. 

BulUa ampullacea. 

[Placun-] Anomia macrochisma. 

Modiola vernicosa. 

Nucula arctica. 

Tellina edentula, lutea. 



C. Circumpolar Species, p. 319. 



Patella caeca. 

Paludinella stagnalis, aculeus. 

Lacuna glacialis. 

Margarita striata, arctica. 

Natica pallida, clausa, aperta, flava, heli- 

coides. 
Scalaria grcenlandica. 
Velutina haliotoidea. 
Trichotropis borealis, bicarinata. 
Purpura lapillus. 

Tritonium (Trophon) clathratum. 
T. (Fusus) antiquum, contrarium, Is- 

landicum, Sabinii, Norvegicum, 10-cos- 

tatum, 
T. (Buccinum) undatum, tenebrosum, 

ovum. 
Limacina arctica. 

Onychotheutis Bergii, Kamtschatica. 
Terebratula psittacea. 

An analysis of the species belonging to the Pacific waters is given in pp. 349 
et seq. The following are as yet only known from the Asiatic coast : — 

Chiton Pallasii and amicidatus. Tritonium Schantaricum, simplex, Ocho- 

Trochus Schantaricus. tense, ooides, cancellatum. 

Pilidium commodum. Terebratula frontalis. 

The following have been found both on the east and west sides of the 
Pacific : — 



[Placun-] Anomia patelhformis. 

Pecten Islandicus. 

Modiola modiolus, nigra. 

Mytilus eduhs. 

Nucula pygmaea. 

Cardita borealis. 

Cardium Nuttallii. [Probably belongs 

to B.] 
Astarte Danmoniensis, Scotica, corrUgata, 

compressa. 
Venus Astai-toides. 
Saxicava pholadis. 
Tellina solidula, lata. 
Mactra ovalis. 
Lyonsia Norvegica. 
Mya truncata, arenaria. 
Panopaea Norvegica. 
Machaera costata. 



Chiton Stelleri, Brandtii, lineatus. 
Littorina Kurila. 
Velutina coriacea, spongiosa. 
HaUotis Kamtschatkana, aquatiUs. 



Modiola cultellus. 
Cardium Nuttallii, Californiense. 
Venerupis gigantea, Petitii. 
Tellina nasuta. 



Of the species (so far as we yet know) peculiar to the American shores, 
the following are recorded by Middendorff' as not having been found below 
Sitcha ; the list, however, will have to be materially modified : — 

Chiton Sitchensis, lividus, Eschscholzii, Trichotropis insignis. 



Merckii. 
Patella digitalis, persona, personoides, 

pileolus, Asmi. 
Turritella Eschrichtii. 
Trocbus modestus. 
DentaUum politum. 
Crepidula Sitchana, minuta. 



Purpura septentrionalis. 
Tritonium Sitchense, Im-idum. 
Murex lactuca, monodon. 
Pecten rubidus. 
Petricola gibba. 
Nucvda castrensis. 
Pectunculus septentrionalis. 



224 REPORT — 1856. 

The following list of species common to Sitcha and California will have 
to be considerably extended : — 

Fissurella violacea, aspera. Tritoniura scabrum. 

Patella scurra. Petricola cylindracea. 

Littorina modesta and aspera. Lutraria maxima. 

Trochus ater, moestus, Fokkesii, euryom- 

phalus. 

The following are regarded by Middeudorff as peculiar to the Californian 
province : — 

Chiton Mertensii, scrobiculatus. Crepidula solida. 

Patella aeruginosa. Tellina Bodegensis. 

Natica herculaea. 

The very abnormal appearance of the tropical Litorina aspera and Callo- 
poma fluctuosum, in these Northern lists, awaits confirmation. The L. aspera 
of Barclay may be founded on ballast specimens ; or it may be a misnomer for 
the L.planaxis of Nutt., as ordinary coarse specimens of the two might easily 
be mistaken. The Callopoma, which appears to extend along the Califor- 
nian coast, may also have reached Sitcha through human instrumentality. 
Another circumstance pointed out by MiddendorfF is remarkable : that two 
of the largest species of Crepidulce known, are found on the northern shores 
of America ; one on the Pacific, the other on the Atlantic side. 

45. In the years 1 S-iS-^G, H.M.S. Samarang sailed under the command of 
Capt. Sir E. Belcher to the East Indies. Although the expedition did not 
touch upon the western coast of America, there appear in the " Zoology : 
MoUusca, by A. Adams and L. Reeve; London 1850," the two following 
species : — 

" P. 70. pi. 9. f. 7 a, h. Calyptrma trigonalis. China Sea." This scarcely differs in 
any essential particular from Crucihulum lignarium, Bred., and its varieties from 
South America. The trigonal form may be an accident of growth. 

"P. 78. pi. 21. f. 17- Artemifi Dunkeri,V\yi[. Eastern Seas." This is the abundant 
and characteristic species of the Mazatlan district, extending along the coast of 
Peru. The habitat is probably erroneous. 

In all other respects, as might be expected, the species described in this 
beautiful and most instructive work are entirely distinct from those of the 
W. American coast. 

46. In the " Zeitschrift fiir Malakozoologie, von Dr. Karl Theodor Menke 
und Dr. Louis Pfeiffer, Cassel, 1846," pp. 19-21, 51-55, Dr. R. A. Philippi 
describes the following species from Mazatlan, on the authority of one of his 
own family : — i ' 

Page. No. 
19 1. Coriula alha, V\i\\. Resembles the Italian fossil C. can'na^a. Perhaps 

it is the C. bicarinata. Sow. 
19 2. Tellina cicerculajVhil. 'Perhsps=- Sirigilla carnaria/jun. VideB.M.Mnz. 
Cat. p. 41. no. 66. 

19 3. T. lenticula, Phd. [Strigilla). 

20 4. T. dichotoma, Phd. (Strigilla). 

20 6. T. ervilia, Phd. {Strigilla). In his Abbild. &c. Aug. 1 846, p. 24, he quotes 
Tellina {Strigilla) pisiformis and Diplodonta semiaspera, as common 
to Mazatlan and the Caribbsean Sea. 

20 6. Diplodonta obliqua, Phd. 

21 7. Lucina cancellaris, Phil. 
21 8, Patella pediculws, Phd. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 225 

Page. No. 
51 18. Siphonaria Lecanium, Phil. 

51 19. Trochus disculus, Phil. (Modulus). 

52 20. Buccinum nucleolus, Phil. ? An Anachis. Described as a miniatuve edition 

oi B. prismaticum. Comp. B. Antoni, Dkr., Zeit. f. Mai. 1847, p. 61. 
no. 6, " Mexico, Hegewisch" described as resembling the same shell. 

53 23. Terebrafulgurata, Phil. 

53 24. Columbella pallida, Phil. Resembles Anachis asora. Duel. 

54 25. C. spadicea, Phil. ?Resembles A. costulata, Brod. & Sow. 

54 26. C. taniata, Phil. 

55 27. Dentalium hyalinum, Phil. 

47. The Mexican War, carried on by the United States, 1846-1848, 
against their sister republic*, ending in the extension of slavery, was 
indirectly the means of adding to our knowledge of the Californian and 
Mexican faunas. Three of the officers, viz. Col. E. Jewett (of Utica, N.Y.) 
and Major William Rich (of Washington) of the army, and Lieut. T. P. Green 
of the navy, made collections at different stations from Panama to San 
Francisco, the whole of which have passed through the hands of Dr. Gould 
for examination. The number of species collected by Col. Jewett was about 
221 ; by Major Rich, 130; by Lieut. Green, about 172; in all, perhaps 440 
species. Many of them were collected alive, and of a large part the localities 
were noted at the time. It is too much to expect that gentlemen engaged 
in so fearful and exciting a trade should be able to exercise the calm, patient 
accuracy needed for scientific pursuits. On doubtful points, therefore, the 
evidence may need confirmation : still it speaks much for the care and 
interest for science which these gentlemen manifested, that the supposed 
errors are few and comparatively unimportant. Several species thought to 
be new Avere described by Dr. Gould in the ' Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist.' 
Nov. 1851 ; and have been since reprinted, with additional descriptions and 
three plates, under the title " Descriptions of Shells from the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia and the Pacific Coasts of ?v]exico and California, by Augustus A. 
Gould, M.D." There is no date, but the work was received last year in this 
country. In order to promote harmony of nomenclature between the 
writers in England and America, Dr. Gould ventured to entrust the whole of 
his valuable collections from the west coast of N. America to the writer, 
although unknown to him ; by whom they were carefully collated with the 
specimens in the British Museum and the cabinets of Mr. Cuming and 
Mr. Nnttall-j-. The result, so far as the new species are concerned, is em- 
bodied in a paper laid before the Zoological Society last June ; and, so far 
as relates to the identification of previous species, in the following lists. Of 
many, however, the specimens had only been lent to Dr. Gould for examina- 
tion, and have therefore not been seen in this country. When the identifica- 
tions of species are erroneous, according to English interpretations, the name 
assigned by Dr. Gould is retained as his own, with the supposed correct one 
added ; in order that the meaning of the species as used by that author may 
be understood in his other writings. The very interesting locality-notes of 
Messrs. Jewett and Green contain several entirely unexpected statements, 
Panama and Mazatlan species being quoted from Sta. Barbara, and vice versa. 
Some few well-known W. Indian forms also appear from Acapulco and 
Panama; which it is more natural to regard as importations than as "repre- 
sentative species." The same may be said of the remarkable appearance of 
Livona pica at Sta. Barbara. When we remember the errors that have 

* Vide A. A. Livermore's War with Mexico Reviewed. Boston, 1850. 
t A large part of the shells in the following lists, however, were not sent to this country; 
having probably only passed through Dr. Gould's hands for examination. 

1856. Q 



226 



REPORT 1856. 



crept into the works of the most experienced writers, it is not passing the 
least reflection on the statements of these scientific officers, when we claim 
liberty to suspend our judgment till the unexpected results have been 
verified. The principal value of Major Rich's collection (as of those made 
by Capt. Kellett and Lieut. Wood), appears to be the accumulation of rare 
and interesting specimens : for geographical purposes, as most of the habitats 
are simply divided between Upper and Lower California, it cannot be 
regarded as of much authority. 

Of the following species, sent with the others, the name of the collector is 
not given. 



Sanguinolaria NuttalUi, Conr. =decora, 

Hds. San Diego. 
Donax hella, Desh.- Lower California. 
sulcatus, Phil. Zeit. f. Mai. 18^7. 

p. 76. no. 12. ?— 
Dione chiontBa, Mke. ? — 
Mytilus bifurcatus, Conr. " Calif, coast 

somewhere." Saudw. Is., teste Conr. 
Crenella coarctata, Dkr. 
Area "ilurida (or vespertilio). ?Mazatlan. 

solida. Sow. California. 

Ostrea Columbiensis, Hani., on Area 

ffrandis. Lower California. 
rufa. Of two specimens thus named, 

the larger appears =0. Virginica, jun.; 

the smaller may be the young of the 

elongated form of 0. irideseens. Calif. 
Helix NuttalUana, Lea, =fidelis. Gray. 

Oregon. 

Townsendiana, Lea. Oregon. 

• dev^ia,G\d.-=:Baskervillii,Pir. Oreg. 

Nickliniana, Lea, =vincta,Y&\. (not 

= Californica, Rve.) Upper California. 
eeruginosa, Gld. =:Tow>isendiana, 

var. Pfi.'. San Francisco. 



f 



Helix sportella (384, yoimg shell). ? — 

Haliofis IKamtsehatkana : dead. ? — 

Hipponyx serratus, Cpr. ? — 

mitrula, Lam. ? — 

Modulus dorsuosus, Gld. =iduplicatus, 
var. A. Ad. =:diseulus, Phil. ? — 

Modulus llenticularis, Chemn. Acapulco. 
[Probably the W. Indian sp. imported.] 

Cerithium interruptum, Mke. ? — 

Ovulum seeale. ? — 

" ? avena. Sow. ^simile, Rve. ^va- 
riabilis, C. B. Ad." ? — 

Pleurotoma funiculata, Sow. Lower Calif. 

Drillia albovallosa, Cpr. ? — 

Terebra alboeincta, Cpr. (three dead sp.). 

Marginellu imbrieata, Hds. Sta. Barbara. 

Oliva gracilis, Brod. & Sow. ?Panama. 
[This appears exactly theW. I. species.] 

" Columbella terpsiehore and pygmcea, Ja- 
maica." 

Pisania larticulata, =P. pusio, W. I. 
teste Cuming. ? Panama. 

Trophon erassilabrum. Gray. ?Jamaica. 

Murex armatus [not hexagonus'], Ad. ? — 



The following is a list of the new species described by Dr. Gould in the 
*' Mexican and Californian Shells," and by the writer in the ' Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society,' July 8th, 1856; the numbers referring to the latter — 
the page, plate and figure to the former. 



Pholas (Pholadidea) ovoidea, Gld 

Petricola bulbosa, Gld. 

= P. robusta, Sow. = P. sinuosa, Conr. 
Corbula polychroma, Cpr 



Osteodesma nitiduni, Gld. 

Probably =Lymisia Calijbmica, Conr. jun. 

Ampbidesma flavescens, Gld 

= Semele proxitna, B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 28. no. 40, 

non C. B. Ad. 

1 Tellina miniata, Gld. Proc. B. N. H. S. Nov. 1851... 

= Sanguinolaria purpurea, Desh. P. Z. S. 1854 

p. 346. no. 137 ; B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 31. no. 46 

2 tersa, Gld. 



Locality. 



San Diego, Green. 
Guaymas, Green. 

Sta. Barbara, J^etoeW; Gulf 

Calif., Lieut. Shipley. 
Sta. Barbara, Lieut. Green. 

San Diego, Lieut. Green. 
San Juan, Lieut. Green. 
Panama, Col. Jewett. 



ON MOLIiUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 227 



25 



13 



20 



28 



16 



15 



15 



22 



27 



29 



29 



30 



31 



Locality. 



STellina pura, Gld. Panama, Col. Jewett, teste 

Gld. Imp., San Diego & 
Mazatlan, Lieut. Green, 
teste Gld. MS. 

5 gemma, Gld. San Juan, Lieut. Green. 

4 (StTiKilla)fucata, GW.Proc.B.S.N.H.1851,p.91. Mazatlan, Col. Jewett. 



15 



16 



16 



-gemma, Gld. 

(Strigilla) fucata, Gld. Proc.B.S.N.H.1851,p. 91. 

^Strigilla camaria, B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 39. no. 66. 
Donax flexuosus, Gld. 

— obesus, Gld. Proc. B. S. N. H, 1851, p. 90 

= D. Calif amicus, Conr., non Desh. 
= D. Icevigatus, Desh. 

Mactra mendica, Gld. Proc. B. S. N. H. 1851, p. 88. 
= Gnathodon trigona. Petit, B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 52. 
no. 81. 

Lutraria ventricosa, Gld. Proc.B. S. N. H. 1851, p. 89. 
= Mactra exoleta, Gray. 

— undulata, Gld. Proc. B. S. N. H. 1851, p. 89... 
Probably =3fae<ra elegans. Sow. Tank. Cat. App. 

Tapes gracilis, Gld. MS 

tenerrima, Cpr 

Venus tantilla, Gld. [Trigona] 

Arthemis saccata, Gld. Proc, B. S. N, H. 1851, p. 91 

= Cyelina suhquadrata, Hani. 
Cardiumluteolabrum,G;<Z. Proc. B.S.N. H. 1851, p. 91 

?= C. scant hocheilum, Gld. MS. Cat. 

— cruentatum, Gld. MS 

Lucina Ai-temidis, Cpr 

- orbella, Gld. Proc. B. S. N. H. 1851, p. 90 

=Diphdonta semiaspera, var. 



Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 
San Diego, Lieut. Green. 



Cyrena altilis, Gld. 

= Cyrena Mexicana, var. 
Anodon ciconia, Gld 

}—Anodon glauca, Val. 
Mytilus glomeratus, Gld.'Pxoc. B. S. N. H. 1851, p. 92 

Modiola nitens, Cpr 

Lithodomus falcatus, Gld. Proc. B. S.N. H. 1851, p. 92 

=Lithophagus Gruneri,'?\a\. (N. Zeal. Mus. Cum.)* 

Byssoarca pernoides, Cpr 

Avicula sterna, Gld. Proc. B. S. N. H. 1851, p. 93 

A. Atlantica, Mke. not Lam. 
Limatetrica, CW. Proc. B. S. N. H. 1851, p. 93... 
Bulimus vegetus, Gld 

=B. pallidior, Sow. teste Cum. 

vesicalis, Gld. 

excelsus, Gld 

Physa elata, Gld. 

Bulla (Akera) culcitella, Gld. [Tornatina] 

(Tornatina) cerealis, Gld. 

inculta, Gld. MS 

(Haminea) vesicula, Gld , 

Acmsea paleacea, Gld. , 

= Nacella depicta, Hds. 
Trochus marcidus, Gld 

= Omphalius Pfeifferi, PhU. teste Cum. 

= Chlorostoma maculosum, A. Ad. 

Dr. Gould's shell is perhaps that of Adams ; while 
his T. Montereyi, Rve., appears to be the 0. 
Pfeifferi, Phil. 



Mazatlan, Lieut. Green. 

Mazatlan, Lieut. Green. 

La Paz, Lieut. Green. 

San Pedro, W. P. Blalce. 
Panama, Col. Jewett. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 
Mazatlan, Lieut. Green. 

San Diego, Lieut. Green. 

San Pedro, W. P. Blake. 

Acapulco. — Mus. Gld. 

San Diego, Lieut. Green; 

Sta. Barbara, Co/. Jewett, 

and Nuttall. 
? Mazatlan, Col. Jewett. 



? Mexico, Lieut. Green, 

San Francisco, Maj. Rich 

California. 

Monterey, Maj. Rich. In 

hard marly clay. 
San Diego, Webb. 
Panama, C. B. Ad.; ?Ma. 

zatlan, Lieut. Green. 
La Paz, Maj. Rich. 
San Juan, Lieut. Green, 

Lower Calif., Maj. Rich, 
California, Maj. Rich. 
LowerCalifornia,Afa;.i2ieA. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 
San Diego, teste Gld. 
San Diego, W. P. Blake. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 
On kelp or Zoophytes. 
Monterey, Lieut. Green, 



* This appears absolutely identical with the [?] New Zealand shell. It has no incrustation 
Wind* the epidermia. One of Mr. Cuming'* tpecies has an internal hinge-lamina. 

q2 



228 



REPORT — 1856. 



Trochus (Monodonta) pjTiformis, Gld,. 

= Osilinus gallina, Forbes, var. 
picoides, Gld. 

=^Livona pica, teste Cuming, &c. 
Phasianella compta, <?W. MS 



Crucibulum Jewettii, Cpr 

Crepidula explanata, Gld 

= C. exuviata, Nutt. Jay's Cat. 3027. 

= C. perforans, Val. 

Modulus dorsuosus, Gld 

Narica ovoidea, Gld. 

This shell belongs to Isapis, H. & A. Ad., which 
is a Fossarus, -with a columellar callosity, like 
Purpura columellaris. 

PLacuna unifasciata, Cpr 

Cerithidea albouodosa, Cpr 

fiiscata, Gld. US 

Probably = C. sacrata, var. 
Erato leucophrea, Gld. 

= (probably) E. columbella, Mke. 
Terebra arguta, Gld 

= T.fulgurata, Phil. 

Conus ravus, Gld. 

comptus, Gld 

= C. purpurascens, jun., rubbed, teste Cuming. 

= 6. achalinus, Mke. non Chemn. 

pusillus, Gld. 

Odostomia achates, Gld. [Obeliscus] 

Comp. O. clavulus, A. Ad. 
gra^ida, Gld 

Closely resembles O. conoidea. 

Chemnitzia tenuicula, Gld 

torquata, Gld 

Sigaretus debilis, Gld 

Fasciolaria bistriata, Cpr 

Olivella intorta, Cpr 

Marginella Jewettii, Cpr 

Columbella Santa-Barbarensis, Cpr 

.'Nitidella Gouldii, Cpr 

Fusus ambustus, Gld 

Purpxira pansa, Gld. 

= Purpura patula, auct. 



Locality. 



San Diego, Lieut. Green. 

Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett ; 

5 sp. (part living). 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett ; 

San Diego, Dr. Webb, & 

W. P. Blake. 
Mazatlan, Col.Jeicett, 1 sp. 
Monterey, Lieut. Green ; 

Lower Cal., Maj. Rich. 

Acapulco, Col. Jewett. 
" Purchased at Mazatlan," 
Col. Jewett. 



Sta. Barbara, Col. Jeieett. 
San Diego, Dr. Webb. 
San Diego, W. P. Blake. 

Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 

San Juan, Lieut. Green. 

Sta. Barbara, Col. Jexoett. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 



Mazatlan, Col. Jewett. 
Mazatlan, Col. Jeviett. 

Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 

Sta. Bai-bara, Col. Jewett. 
" Obtained at Sta. Barb." 
La Paz, Lieut. Green. 
Panama, teste Gld. 
San Juan, Lieut. Green. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jeioett. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 
Sta. Barbara, Col. Jewett. 
Mazatlan, Lieut. Green. 
W. coast America. 



Collected by Col, Jeioett. 



N.B. — The Numbers refer to Dr. Gould's MS. lists. 

authority. 

Pholas concamerata, Desh. 85. Moti- 

terey. 
Osteodesma nitida, Gld. (San Bias : Mus. 

Cum.) 181. Sta. Barbara. 
Corbula bicarinata, Sow. (dead valves). 

9. Sta. Barbai'a. 
2^olychroma, Sow. [Gulf Calif. L«>k^. 

Shipley.'] 8. Sta. Barbara. 
— — ovitlata, Gld. ^nasuta. Sow. 10. 

Sta. Baibara. (Dead valves.) 



The habitats in italics claim most 



Corbula tenuis, Sow. "l=:alba, Phil." 79. 

Mazatlan. 
Sanguinolaria grandis, Gmel., Hds. 211. 
. San Francisco. 
Amphidesma roseum, Gld. (not Sow.) = 

decisa, Com: 3. Sta. Barbara. 
Tellina tersa, G[&. ?!*• Panama {^"^ot 

Maz."). 
" Strigilla fucata, Gld. :=TeUina felix. 

Ad." (=/S, camaria.) 194. Panama. 



ON MOLIiUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 



229 



Donax navicula, Hani. 74. Panama. 
rostratus, C. B. Ad. := culminatits, 

B.M. Cat. 37. Sta. Barbara, " veiy 

plentiful." [?] Non Nutt. 

Californicus, Conr. 37*. Sta.Barb. 

gracilis, Hani. 183. Sta. Barbara. 

Jiexuosus, GUI. Sta. Barbara. 

Mactra Culifornica, Conr. 71*- Pan. [?J 

^ angulata. Gray. lOD. Panama. 

Petricola lamellifera, Conr. =; Cordieri, 

Desh. 88, 107. Monterey (do. Hart- 

weg). (Young shell lias radiating ribs 

like Venus gnidia, &c.) 
• lamellifera, var. = Cordieri, Desb. 

88. Monterey. 
carditoides, Conr. ?= cylindracea, 

Desh. 84. Monterey, with Bryozoon. 

1 + P. Californica, Conr, = arcuata, 

Desh. 
Venus discors. Sow. 228, 229. Panama. 
, Gld. ^=-grata. Say. 28. Guay- 

mas. 

amathusia, Phil. 231. Panama. 

gnidia. Sow. 227. Panama. 

Anomalocardia subrugosa. Sow. 230. Pan. 
Tapes tenerrima, Cpr. 187. Panama. 
Cytherea lupinaria, hess. 117. Mazatlan. 
affinis, Gld. =tortuosa, Brod. 111. 

Panama. 

aurantia, Hani. 124. Mazatlan. 

. 1. Sta. Barbara. [?] 

Trigona crassatelloides, Conr. 2. Sta. 

Barbara. 

' . 113. Mazatlan. [?] 

? radiata, var. Hindsii, but more 

resembles the Tr. mactroides. Dead 

valves. 189. Acapulco. 

planulata. Sow. 94. Mazatlan. 

tantillus, Gld. 14. Sta. Barbara. 

Dosinia Dunleri, Phil. 112. Panama. 
Cardita volucris, Gld. =: affinis, Rve. ? 
Cardium biangulatum. Sow. 78. Panama. 

■ obovale, Sow. 184. Panama. 

graniferum, Brod. & Sow. 191. Maz. 

gemmatum, 55. 

maculosum, Kien. 153. " Panama" 

a prima manu, and probably correct; 

afterwards altered to " San Francisco." 
Lucina orbella, Gld. '?=Diplodonta semi- 

aspera, var. 83. Sta. Barbara. 
Modiola recta, Conr. 87. Sta. Barbara. 
Lithophagus falcatus, Gld. =L.Gruneri, 

Phil. 86. Monterey. 
Area gradata, Brod. & Sow. 84. ? Ma- 
zatlan. 

, Brod. & Sow. 8. Monterey. 

concinna, Gld. = similis, C. B. Ad. 

:= tuberculosa, var. 82. ? Mazatlan. 

tuberculosa, Sow. 236. Lower Cal. 

' grandis, Sow. 186, Panama. 



Area nux, Sow. 186 bis. Panama. 

Pacifica, Sow. Panama. 

alternata. Sow. 81. ? Mazatlan. 

, sp. ind. Dead valves. 185. ? 

Pectunculus inaqualis, Gld. = assimilis, 

teste Cum. 4. Sta. Barbara. [?] 
? tessellatus. (Dead valves.) 190. 

? Mazatlan. 

jjarcipietus. Sow. 77. Mazatlan, 

Nucula polita. 223. Sta. Barbara. 
Avicula sterna, Gld. 93. Panama. 
Lima angulata, Sow. 180. Acapulco. 
Pecten monotimeris, Conr. + latiauritus, 

teste Nutt. 179. Sta. Barbara. 
Bulla eerealis, Gld. 20. Sta. Barbara. 

punctulata, A. Ad. 56. Acapulco. 

culcitella, Gld. 62. Sta. Barbara. 

Siphonaria gigantea. 206. Acapulco. 
Chiton ornatus, Nutt. 197. Sta. Barbara, 

lineatus. Wood. 198. Panama. 

"muscosus, G. = Collei, Rve." = 

Hindsii, Sow. 199. Panama. 

Stokesii, Brod. 200. San Francisco. 

Californicus, Gld. = scaber, Rve. 

201. Sta. Barbara. 

■ Sitkensis, Rve. = Stelleri,- Midd. 

202. Monterey [?J. 

Acmaa paliacea, Gld. =Nacella depicta, 
Hds. 8. Sta. Barbara. 

Nacella incessa, Hds. (from kelp). 6. 
Sta. Barbara. 

Acmeea patina, var. Esch. (:= tessellata, 
Nutt.) 7. Sta. Barbara. 

gigantea, = Koehii, Phil. 98. 

Monterey. 

pintadina, Gld. = verriculata, Rve. 

= ^c!<m«, var. Esch. 207. San Franc. 

scabra, Gld. = spectrum, Nutt. 

210. San Francisco. 

scabra, Nutt. 209. Monterey. 

, Nutt. 211. Sta. Barbai-a. 

persona, Esch. = Oregona, Nutt, 

211 bis. 

■ mesoleuea, var. 214. Acapulco. 

Haliotis Cracherodii, Leach. 183. Mon- 
terey. 

■ rufescens. Swains. 182. Monterey. 

Trochus 2}icoides, Gld. 203. "? Sta. Bar- 
bara." 

Busckii, Phil. ? := inermis, Gmel. 

115. Panama. 

, sp. ind. 216. Mazatlan. 

( Omphalius dentatus, Gmel.) 216 bis. 

Acapulco. This appears to be the com- 
mon small smooth W. Indian species ; 
probably imported. 

Panamensis, Phil. 217. Panama. 

reticulatus, Gld. = Omphalius viri- 

dulus, Gmel. z=Byronianus, Gvay. 219, 
Mazatlan. 



230 



REPORT — 1856. 



Trochus Antonii, var. 9. Sta. Barbara, 

from kelp. 

mmstus. 129. Sta. Barbara. 

ligatus, Gld. =Jilosus, Nutt. {closely 

resembles dolarius). 11. Monterey. 

dolarius. 10. Sta. Barbara. 

Norrisii, Sow. 120. Sta. Barbara. 

a^er. Less. = gallina, Forbes. 116. 

Monterey. 
Turbo saxosus. Wood. 226. Panama. 
pustulatus, Gld. (may be tessellatus 

or saxosus, jun. Cum.) 46. Acapulco. 
squamigera, Rve. (Galapagos, Cum.) 

218. Panama. 
Phasianella compta, Gld. 12,25. S.Barb. 
Neritaelegans{\:)rohahlyscabricosta,va.T.). 

234. Panama. 
"Neritina harpcBformis :" Tproh&hly a lap- 
sus for Columbella h. Taboga. 
Capulus. 213. Sta. Barbara. 
Hipponyx Grayanus, Mke. = radiatus, 

Gray. 205. Panama. 

, sp. ind. 203. Taboga. 

? subrufa, Sow. (white, rubbed). 

213. ? Sta. Barbara. 
CalyptrcBa regularis, C.B.Ad. =Galerus 

mammillaris, Broi. 148. Sta. Barbara. 

mammillaris, Brod. 215. Acapulco. 

, sp. ind. ? — 

Crucibulum spinosum. Sow. (dead). 148 

bis. Sta. Barbara. 

Jewettii. 150. Mazatlan. 

limbricatum, Sow. 212. Acapulco. 

Crepidula excavata,Biod. 225. Sta. Barb. 
(like squama; apex gone). 151. 

Sta. Barbara. 
(? hepatica =) onyx. Sow. Mazatlan 

[teste list, probably correct : Sta. Bar- 
bara, ticket]. 
rostriformis, Gld. = adunca, Sow. 

149. Sta. Barbara. 
^ incurva, Brod. 149. Sta 

Barbara. 
Turritella goniostoma, Val. 235. Panama. 
Modulus dorsuosus, Gld. =disculus, Phil. 

47- Acapulco. 
— — catenulatus, Phil. 48. Acaptdco. 
Narica ovoidea, Gld. =^Isapis o,, H. and 

A. Ad. 17. Mazatlan. 
Lacuna. 47. Sta. Barbara. 
Litorina (7 Lacuna) unifasciata, Cpr. 
23, 172. Sta. Barbara. 

puncticulata, Phil. =conspersa, var. 

174. ? Panama. 

Ipusilhis, Phil. 50. Panama. 

planaxis, Nutt., Phil. ^ tenebrata, 

Nutt. 100. San Francisco. 

aspera, Phil. 173. Panama. 

Rissoina ambigua, Gld. 14. " Valpai- 
reiso, Mex." 



Planaxis planicostata (called sulcata, 

Lam.). 53, 58. Panama. 
Vertagus gemmatus, Hds. 55. ? — 
Cerithium maculosum, Kien. 153. Pan. 

(apr. man. bene, postea San Francisco). 
Cerithidea sacrata, Gld. = Pirena Cali- 

fornica, Nutt. 102. San Francisco, 

Montagnei, D'Orb. 13. Panama. 

solida, Gld. = valida, C. B. Ad. = 

varicosa. Sow. 68. Panama. 
Bittium (rubbed). 31. Sta. Barbara. 
Ovulum variabile, C.B.Ad. =: Califomi- 

CMwi, Mus. Cum. No. 34 on kelp thrown 

up after storm. 32-34. Sta. Barbara. 
Erato scabriiiscida, Gv&y. 26. ? Mazatlan. 
leucophaa, Gld. [Mazatlan, Rev. — 

Steele.'] 28. Sta. Barbara. 
. Comp. E. columbella, Mke. 

27*, 30. ? Mazatlan. 

? Jeivettii, Cpr. 30. Sta. Barbara. 

Cypreea radians. Lam. 136. Panama, 

spadicea, SwRms. 118. Sta. Barb. 

punctulata, Gray. 108. Panama, 

pustulata, Lam. 130. Panama. 

pediculus, Linn. (dead). 131. Aca- 
pulco [? imported]. 

Pacifica, Gray. 131*. Acapulco. 

suffusa, Gray. 132. Acapulco. 

Californica, Gray. 133. Sta. Barb. 

sanguinea. Sow. 134. Panama. 

Solandri, Gray. 135. Panama. 

Cancellaria brevis. Sow. Acapulco. 

clavatula, Sow. 4. Taboga. 

Strombus granulatus. Sow. 47, 70. Pan, 
Tereira, sp. ind. 17. Sta. Barbara. 

robusta, Hds. 119. Panama. 

Defrancia bella, Hds. 18. Sta. Barbara, 

on zoophytes. 
? Mangelia. [Perhaps this is the Drillia 

albovallosa.'] 223. Panama. 
Conus ravus, Gld. 5. Sta. Barbara, 

. 160. Acapulco. 

comptus, Gld. =:wom purpurascens, 

jun., teste Cuming. 121. Sta.Barb.\l^ 

pusillus, Gld. 122. Mazatlan. 

(young, worn). 29. Sta. Barbara. 

Odostoniia achates, Gld. =zObeliscus. 17. 

Mazatlan. 

gravida, Gld. 24. Sta. Barbara. 

Chemnitzia tenuicola, Gld. 19. Sta. Barb. 

torquata, Gld. 22. Sta. Barbara, 

Scalaria statuminata, Sow. (very fine). 

240. Taboga. 
Scalaria (like venosa, W. I.). ? Panama. 
Natica Souleyetana, Reel. 166. Panama. 

maroccana, jun. 165. Panama. 

unifasciata (^ maroccana, var.). 

163. Panama. 

■ Haneti, Reel. 169. Panama. 

, sp. ind. (rubbed). 167. Panama. 



ON MOIiLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NOETH AMERICA. 231 



Natica zonaria. Lam. (Acapulco, on the 

sands, Mus. Cum.) 167 pars. Panama. 

J sp. ind. 164. ? — 

M6er,Val.=300+302,C.B.Ad.Pan. 

Shells, teste Gld. 168. ?— 
Ficula decussata, Wood. 178. Taboga. 
Dolium ringens. Swains. 204. Panama. 
Valuta harpa, Barnes. 154. Mazatlan. 
Marginella sa])otilla,'ilds. 110. Panama. 

, sp. ind. 27. ? Mazatlan. 

Mitra lens. Wood, ^foraminata, Swains. 

:=Duponiii, Kien. 61, 69. Panama. 
" auriculoides ? " Probably = pica, 

Rve. 42. Panama. 
Fasciolaria bistriata, Cpr. 175. Panama. 
Tieucozonia cingulata, Lam. 90. Panama. 
Triton, sp. ind. Taboga. 
constrictus, Gld. =: Persona ridens, 

Rve. (St. John's, Hartweg.) 176. 

Acapulco. 
? Ranella convoluta, Brod. 6. Taboga. 

nitida, Brod. 89. Panama. 

calata, Brod. 91. Panama. 

Olival ehiirnea. 159. ? Panama. 

petiolita, Gld., 1-=rujifasciata, teste 

Cum. 15. Sta. Barbara (dead). 

plumbea=testacea. Lam. 99. Pan. 

angulata. Wood. 107. Taboga. 

biplicata. Sow. 157. Sta. Barbara. 

vohitella. Lam. 158,161,162. Pan. 

Nassa luteostoma, Brod. 52. Panama. 

-■ versicolor, C. B. Ad. 117. Acapulco. 

complanata, Powys. 44. Panama. 

collaria, Gld. 49. Panama. 

corpulenta,C'&. A.A. 51. Panam,a. 

perpinguis,Ilds. 114. Sta. Barbara. 

Tritonidea pagodus, Rve. 95. Panama. 
Purpura columellaris, L&m. 65. Acapulco. 
emarginata, T)esh.= Conradi, Nutt. 

104. San Francisco. 
" undata (? bicostaUs) "=:biserialis, 

Blainv. 238. Panama. 
, sp. ind. 104. ? Mazatlan. 



Purpura sanguinolenta, Desh. := Pisania 

hcemastoma. Gray. 224. Panama. 
kiosquiformis, Duel. 105. Panama. 

septentrionalis (appears =?apiZZMS, 

var.). 97. San Francisco (also Nutt.). 

melones. Duel. 106. Panama. 

Ricinula ? carbonaria. 67. Panama. 

Monoceros punctatum, So'W.=-lapiUoides, 
Conr. 101. San Francisco. 

brevidentatum,Brod.{l^. 103. San 

Francisco. 

unicarinatum. 101. San Francisco. 

Columbella gibberula, Sow. (on anchor). 
Sta. Barbara. 

gibberula. Sow. 16. Taboga. 

carma/a, Hds. 35. Sta. Barbara. 

Gouldii, Cpr. 36. Sta. Barbara. 

Santa-Barbarensis, Cpr. 172. Sta, 

Barbara. 

bicanalifera. Sow. 38. Taboga. 

nigricans. Sow. 39, 40. Taboga. 

guttata, Sow. (apr.man.=cn6rana. 

Lam.) 43. Mazatlan. 

■ {worn). 49*. Acapulco. 

f estiva, Rve. 281. Acapulco. 

major. Sow. 54. Panama. 

. 102. Mazatlan. 

hcemastoma. Sow. 57, 155. ?Pan. 

rw^'osa, and var. 221. Panama. 

harpmformis. Sow. Taboga. 

Iparva, Sow. 96. ? Panama. 

maculosa. Sow. ? — 

Truncaria modesta, Pow. 152. Panama. 

. 72. Sta. Barbara [?]. 

Engina ferruginosa. 41. [?W. I. im- 
ported.] 

crocostoma, Rve. 67. Panama. 

[Galap. Cuming.'] 

Concholepas Peruviana, Lam. 139. Pa- 
nama [surely imported]. 
Fusus, sp. ind. 175. Panama. 
Cyrtulus distortus. Gray. 7£>. Panama. 
Murex Nuttalli, Conr. 92. Panama [?]. 



Collected hy Lieut. Green. 



Pholas ovoidea, Gld. 181. San Diego. 
Calif ornica, Coar. =JaneUii, Desh. 

182. San Diego. 

penita, Conr. 184. San Diego. 

Platyodon cancellata, Conr. 162. San 

Diego. 
Osteodesma Californica, Conr. 192. San 

Diego. 
" Anatina argentaria, Com. =Periploma 

planiuscula, Sow. "=:Periploma Leana, 

teste Cuming. 27. Guaymas. 
Thracia granulosa, G\di.=^plicata, Desh. 

10. La Paz. 



Solen maximus, Wood^Nuttalli, Conr. 
21. San Francisco. 

Solecurtus Calif or nianus, G\A..'='Suhteres, 
Conr. 188, 189. San Diego. 

" Sanguinolaria miniata," Gld. =: pur- 
purea, Desh. 37. San Juan. 

Psammobia decora, 'B.ds.= Sanguinolaria 
Nuttalli, Com-. 140. San Diego. 

Cumingia Californica, Conr. 171, 195, 
196. San Diego. 

Semele decisa, Conr. 134. San Diego. 

flavicans, Gld.=S. proxima, B. M. 

Cat., not C. B. Ad. 19\. San Diego. 



232 



REPORT — 1856. 



Semele rubrolineata, Conr. = S. simplex, 
A. Ad. teste Cum.* 141. San Diego. 

Telliiia [resembling Suensoni, Mbrcb, 
Brazil, and T.caZcareft]. 142. SanDiego. 

.„ gemma, Gld. 198. San Juan. 

pttra, Gld. 197. San Diego. 

. 57. Mazatlan. 

secta, Conr. 139. San Diego. 

nasuta, Conr. 147- San Diego. 

vicina, C. B. Ad. 130. ? Mazatlan. 

, C. B. Ad. 188. Acapulco. 

regia, Hani. 62. Mazatlan. 

Donax punctatostriatus, 'Rani. 55. Ma- 
zatlan. 

carinatiis, Hani. 93. Mazatlan. 

Californicus, Conr. = Icevigatus, 

Desli. 159. San Diego. 

. abruptus, GIA.— Californicus, Conr. 

var. 160. San Diego. 

Californicus, Conr. var. 161. San 

Diego. 

, var. 199. San Juan. 

Mactra [Lutraria) nasuta, Gld. [l=^fal- 
cata]. 49. ? Mazatlan; San Pedro. 

Calif ornica, Conr. 100. ? Mazatlan. 

jMtraria ventricosa, Gl(\..=Mactra exo- 

leta. Gray. 50. ? Mazatlan. 

undulata, Gld. 9. La Paz. 

Gnathodon mendicus, Gld. =Rangia tri- 

gona, 'Petit. 95. ? Mazatlan. 
"Saxidomus Nuttalli, Conr. = Venerupis 

Petitii,De%\\." =Tap)es maxima, Phil. 

156. Monterey. 
Saxicava carditoides, Conr. 110, 111. 

? Monterey. 
Cordieri, Desh.= Femts lamellifera, 

Conr. 107. Monterey. 

, sp. ind. 11. La Paz. 

■ pholadis (Desh., Guer. Mag. 1841, 

pi. 40). 29. San Diego. 
Petricola bulbosa, G\d.=robusta, Sow. 

31. Guaymas. 
• dactylus, Sow. (very rave). 11. La 

Paz. 
'Venus, sp. ind. 124. ? Mazatlan. 

amathusia, Pbil. 83, 59. Mazatlan. 

. 53. Mazatlan. 

Columbiensis. 85, 87- Guaymas. 

gnidia, Sow. 63. Mazatlan. 

straminea. Com-. 22. Guaymas. 

reticulata. 17- La Paz. 

simillima,Sov/. 172. SanDiego. 

■ Calif or niensis, Brod. (not Conr.). 

Mus. Cum. 146. San Diego. 



Venus Petitii,\nr. = straminea,\a.r. teste 
Nutt. 185. San Diego. 

Californicus, jun., Conr =co»!^^a,- 

Mus. Cum. 171- San Diego. 

, = compta, Mus. Cum. 61. 

Mazatlan. 

fiuctifraga, Gld. =NutialU, Conr. 

(non Desh.)t. 145. San Diego. 
Anomalocardia subrugosa. Sow. 58. Maz. 
Dione circina^a (Mazatlan, Rev.— Steele). 
73. ? Mazatlan. 

rosea. 62. Mazatlan. 

dione, G\d.=lupinaria, Less. 129. 

Is. 3 Marias. 

biradiata, Gray=D. Chionma. 7. 

La Paz. 
Dosinia Dunlceri, 'Ph\\. 56. ?Mazatlan. 

gigantea. Sow. 19. La Paz. 

saccata,G\d.= Cyclinasubquadrata, 

Hani. 99. Mazatlan. 
Trigona crassatelloides, Conr. 163. San 
Diego. 

. 94. Mazatlan. [?] 

corbicula,G\d. =radiata,Sow. 122. 

? Mazatlan. 
Chama Pacifica, G\d.=C . frondosa, var. 
Mexicana. On'Vermetus. 24. Guaym. 

exogyra, Conr. San Pedro. 

, with C. venosa. 150. San 

Diego. 

pellucida. 176. SanDiego. 

Cardita affinis,G\&. = Calif ornica,Desh. 

26. Guaymas. 
Cardium Panamense, Sow. 84. ?Maz. 

xanthocheihm, Gld. = luteolabrum, 

Gld. 132. SanDiego. 

Nuttalli, Conr. = Califormense, 

Desh. 138. San Diego. 

substriatum, Com. 158. SanDiego. 

elatum. Sow. 194. San Diego. 

Diplodonta orbella,Gk\. [do. Nutt.] 137j 

138. San Diego. 
Lucina punctata, Linn. 16. La Paz. 

, Linn. 136. San Diego. 

Cyrena altilis, G]d.=Mexicana,\ar. 79. 

? Mazatlan. 
Anodon ciconia, Gld. 48. ?Mexico. 
Mytilus, sp. ind. 47. San Francisco. 
Modiola, sp. ind. 20. San Francisco. 

capax, jun. 173. San Diego. 

, Conr., very large valve. 4. 

La Paz. 
Lithophagus falcatus, Gld. = Gruneri, 
Pbil. 117. Monterey. 



* The locality given to S. simplex by Lieut. Belcher is " China Seas ; " but, as in the case 
of jDos/)/ /a WM/j/cx, is almost certainly eiToneous. _ , .„,o. .t,u •" 

•I- This is the F. ca?;osa (quasi Conr.) of Deshayes. The specimenis marked "? Stutchburyi; 
which is a closely allied species from the Pacific Islands, with differently shaped teeth, no 
posterior crenations, and displaying a few Carrftuwi-like intercalations at the margm. 



ox MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 233 



Lithophagus attenuatuSiDesh. 180. San 

Diego. 

, sp. iud. 183. San Diego. 

Pectitnculusgiganteus,^ve. 32. Guaymas. 

! assimilis, Sow. 86. ?Mazatlan. 

Avicula sterna, G\A. 60. ?Mazatlan. 
Meleagrina, sp. 80. ?Mazatlan. 
Perna flexuosa, Sow. = Chemnitziana, 

D'Orb. 81. Mazatlan. 

, = Chemnitziatia. 103. LaPax. 

Pecten "? purjmratus^ventricosus, Sow., 

with Bivonia indentata. 144. ? San 

Diego. 

latiauritus, Conr. + monotimeris, 

. teste Nutt. 131. San Diego. 

nodosus. 3. La Paz. 

■ dentatus. Sow. 6. La Paz. 

Hinnites gigantea. Gray = H. Poulsoni, 

Conr. 1834. 149. Saw Diego. 
Spondyhis "varians,Sow." 1. La Paz. 
"pictorum, Chem.= crassisquama, 

Lam." 2. La Paz. 
Ostrea Cumingiana, Dkr. 5. La Paz. 

palmula, Cpr. 147- San Diego. 

conchaphila, Cpr., 1"5 in. long ; very 

thin; [Oregon, San Diego, Nutt.), no 

tendency to crenations ; striped. 174. 

San Diego. 
Bulla nebulosa, GUI. 175. San Diego. 
Bulimus vegetus, Gld.=zpallidior, Sow. 

San Juan. 
Helix tudiculata, Wmuey. 151. SanDiego. 

Kellettii, Forbes. 152. San Diego. 

Melampus olivaceus, Cpr. 193. SanDiego. 
Chiton articulatus, Br. 74. Mazatlan. 

■ Blainvillei, Br. 133. San Diego. 

Magdalenensis, Hds. 72. Mazatlan. 

Patella Mexicana,'Lz.m. 67. Mazatlan. 

discors, Phil. 125. Mazatlan. 

Acmeea"? 125. ? Mazatlan. 

gigantea=Kochii, Phil. 166, San 

Diego. 
pintadina, G\d.=verriculata, Rve. 

=patina, var. 66. Mazatlan [?]. 
■ ,-=.mesoleuca, Mke. 65. Ma- 
zatlan. 
, = leucophcea, 'Nutt. ■=pelta, 

Esch. 75. Mazatlan [?]. 
, =fascicularis, Mke. 164, 

177. San Diego. 

? 167. SanDiego. 

, =5ca6ra, Nutt., var. 168,178. 

San Diego. 

, z=Oregona, var. Nutt. :=per- 

i sona, Esch. 169. San Diego. 

■ ^scabra, Gld. = spectrum, Nutt. 

179. SanDiego. 
? spectrum, var. [May he an arau- 

cana, D'Orb., imported from Valpa- 
raiso] .^ 64. Mazatlan [?]. 



Acmeea patina, var. cinis, Rve. 116. Mont. 
, var. tessellata, Nutt. 165. 

San Diego. 
IFissurella. 163. San Diego. 

virescens. Sow. 70. Mazatlan. 

volcano. Sow. 163. San Diego. 

Turbo Jluctuosus, Wood= Fokkesii, Jonas. 

148. SanDiego. 

. 120. Mazatlan. 

Trochus unguis. Wood =^digitatus. 108. 

? Mazatlan. 

filosus. 157. San Diego. 

dolarius. 115. Monterey. 

virgineus. 114. Monterey. 

olivaceus,y^A. 92. ? Mazatlan. (A 

specimen, no. 388, marked " Sandwich 

Is." must have been imported there.) 
Montereyi, Kien. = Pfeifferi, Phil. 

113. Monterey. 
• {Omplialius) fuscescens, Phil. 123. 

? Mazatlan. (The 0. Californicus, A. 

Ad., appears to be only a flattened var. 

of this shell.) 
" aureotinctus, Fbs. = cateniferus, 

Pot." 186. San Diego. 
striatulus, Kien. = brunneus, Phil. 

Mus. Cum. 187. San Diego. 
pyriformis, G\d.=-gallina, var. M. 

Cum. 155. San Diego. 
Nerita multijugis, Mke. = scabricosta. 

Lam. 118. Panama. 

Bernhardi, Reel. Guaymas. 

Neritina picta, Sovf. 126. St. Michael, 
Calyptraa regularis, C. B. Ad.=zGalerus 

mamillaris, Brod. 51. Mazatlan. 
Crucibuhimspinosum,Sow. 1.90. S.Diego. 
Crepidula explanata, Gld. = exuviata, 

Nutt.=^er/'oraws,Val. 112. Monterey. 
Aletes squamigerus, Cpr. San Pedro. 
Modulus " ? disculus, Phil." (perhaps ca- 

tenulatus, Phil.). 82. Mazatlan. 
Cerithium irroratum, GXd.-^stercmnms- 

carum, Val. 78. Mazatlan. 
Cerithidea fuscata, Gld. =: sacrata, var. 

teste Nutt. San Diego. 
Potamis Hegewischii, Gld. = Cerithi- 
dea varicosa, var. Mazatlanica. 71. 

Mazatlan. 
Ovulum variabile, C. B. Ad. =Californi' 

cum, Mus. Cum. 36. San Juan. 
Cyprcea radians. Lam. 68. Mazatlan. 
Cancellaria goniostoma. Sow. 56. Ma- 
zatlan. 
S trombus gracilior. Sow. 8. La Paz. 
Terebra arguta, Gld. =fulgurata, Phil. 

35*. San Juan. 
Conus regularis, Sow. 23, 25. Guaymas. 

princeps, Linn. 90. San Juan, 

, sp. ind. 33. Guaymas. 

, sp. ind, 35, Guaymas. 



S34 



BEPORT'-1856. 



Solarium 1 quadriceps, Gds. (dead). 106. 

Mazatlan. 
Natica patula. Sow. 77. Mazatlan. 
maroccana^=PritcharcU,Yorhes. 96. 

? Guaymas. Specimens exactly like, 

ai'e in Mus. Cum. from Soc. Is. 

bifasciata, 97. ? Guaymas. 

Reclusiana. 154. San Diego. 

Sigaretus debilis, Gld. 98. La Paz. 
Ficulaventricosa, S>ow.=zdecussata. 121. 

? Mazatlan. 
Cassis coarctata (dead). 89. San Juan. 
Oniscia tuberculosa, Sow. 38. San Juan. 
Oliva porphyria, Linn. 14. La Paz. 

1 eburnea. 34. San Juan. 

, sp. ind. 41. San Juan. 

tergina, Duel. 42, 43. San Juan. 

intorta. 44. San Juan. 

splendidula. Sow. 104. La Paz. 

Collected hy 

Pholas ovoidea, Gld. Upper Cal. 

Californica, Conr. Upper Cal. 

Sanguinolaria Nuttalli, Conr. San Pedro. 
Solecurtus subteres, Conr. Monterey. 
Tellina secta, Conr. Monterey. 

nasuta, Conr. Lower Cal. 

Cumingii, Sow. ? — 

Bodegensis, Hds. Monterey. 

Tellidora Burneti, Brod. Lower Cal. 
Cumingia Californica, Conr. Monterey. 
Lutraria 1 Lower Cal. 
Platyodon cancellata, Conr. Upper Cal. 
Saxidomus Nuttalli, Conr. ? — 
Saxicava carditoides, Conr. Lower Cal. 

lamellifera, Conr. Upper Cal. 

Petricola robusta. Sow. ? — 
Dosinia gigantea. Sow. Gulf Calif. 
Dione chionaa, Mke. Lower Cal. 
rosea, Brod.=^lepida, Chen. Lower 

California. 
Trigona planulata. Sow. Lower Cal. 

crassatelloides, Conr. Lower Cal. 

— — corbicxda, Gld. = radiata, Sow. 

Lower Calif. 

argentina. Sow. Upper California[?]. 

Venus amathusia, Phil. Lower Cal. 

gnidia, Brod. Lower Cal. 

straminea, Conr. Lower Cal. 

Californiensis, Brod., not Conr. 

Lower Cal. & San Pedro. 

Charna rugosa. Lower Cal. 

echinata. Lower Cal. 

Cardita affinis, G\A.=^Califomica, Desh. 

Lower Cal. 
Cardium Panamense, Sow. Lower Cal.' 

Califormense, Conr. Upper Cal. 

— — consors, Br. & Low. Lower Cal. 
Lucina "1 bella {see tigrina)." Lower Cal. 
Californica. Lower Cal. 



Purpura patula, Linn. 40. JLa Pa» (list). 

San Juan (ticket). 

emarginata. 12. La Pax. 

• biserialis, Blainv. 101. La Paz, 

kiosquiformis, Duel. 88. La Paz. 

, sp. ind. 13. La Paz. 

Monoceros muricatum, Brod. ? St. Juan. 

tuber culo turn, Gray. 39,91. S.Juan. 

Columbella [gibbosa =) strombiformis, 

Lam. 102. Mazatlan. 
Buccinum ? 33*. San Juan. 
Fusus ambustus, Gld. [exactly resembles 

the Mediterranean sp.] 128. ? Mazatl. 

pallidus. Gray. 119. Guaymas. 

Pyrulapatula,BT.SiSow. 69. Mazatlan. 

lignaria. Gray. 119. Gttaymas. 

Murex bicolor, Val. 15. La Paz. 

brassica. Lam. 76. Mazatlan. 

plicatus, Sow. 109. ? San Juan, 

Major Rich. 

Alasmodon falcata, Gld. Upper Cal. 
Mytilus Calif or nianus, Conr. Upper Cal. 

glomeratus, Gld. Saw Francisco. 

Modiola Jlabellum, Gld. ?— 
divaricata, Gld. ? = CreneZZa coarc- 
tata, Dkr. Upper Cal. [?] 
Lithopkogus falcatus, Gld. Upper Cal. 

1 cinnamomea. ? — 

Area grandis. Sow. Lower Cal. 

formosa. Lower Cal. 

tuberculosa. Sow. Lower Cal. 

multicostata. Sow. Lower Cal. 

reversa, Gray=:hemicardium, Koch. 

Lower Cal. 
(large rhomboid), probably grandis, 

var. Gulf Cal. 
Perna ? Californica, Conr. Lower Cal. [?] 
Pecten ventricosus. Sow. Lower Cal. 
latiauritus, Conr. + monotimeris, 

Conr. Upper Cal. 

nodosus. Lower Cal. 

Lima tetrica, Gld. Lower Cal. 
Spondylus " pictorum, Chem." Lower 

Cal. 
Placunanomia macroschisma, Desh. 

Monterey. 
Bulla nebulosa, Gld. Lower Cal. 
Bidimus vesicalis, Gld. (probably young, 

Cuming). Lower Cal. 

excelsus, Gld. Lower Cal. 

Helix Californiensis, Lea. Upper Cal. 
Scurria mitra, Esch. & Less. Upper Cal. 
Fissurella virescens, Sow. Upper Cal. [?] 

crenulata, Sow. Monterey. 

Pomaulax vndosvs. Wood. Upper Cal. 
Trochus mwstus. Lower Cal. 

filosus. Upper Cal. 

dolarius. Upper Cal. 

virgineus. Upper Cal. 



ON MOLLT78CA 09 THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 235 



Trochus ater, Less. [?=] gallinaVp. Cal. 
Trochiscus Norrisii, Sow. Upper Cal. 
Uvanilla olivacea. Wood. Lower Cal. 
Neritina picta, Sow. Lower Cal. 
Crucibulum spinosum. Sow. San Pedro, 

Lower Cal. 
—-^tenue,BToi.=spinosum,v&r, Lower 

Cal. 

■ rude, Brod. Lower Cal. 

dentatum, Mke. Lower Cal. 

imhricatum \] cujus\. ? — 

CalyptrcBU (like equestris), probably ce- 

pacea. Lower Cal. 
Galerus conicus, Brod. ? — 

■: mammillaris, Brod. ? — 

Crepidula onyx, Sow. Lower Cal. 

excavata, Brod. Lower Cal. 

• aculeata (teste Gld.). Lower Cal. 

. (like) dilatata. Lower Cal. 

? squama. Lower Cal. 

Litorina planaxis, Nutt. Upper Cal. 
Planaxis planicostata. ? — 
Cypraa spadicea. Gray. Monterey. 
zonata. Gray = Sowerbyi, Rve. 

Lower Cal. 

arabicuJa. Lower Cal. 

Cancellaria obesa. Sow., ? :=urceolata, 

Hds. La Paz. 

solida. Sow. La Paz. 

cassidiformis. Sow. La Paz. 

Candida, Sow. Gulf Cal. 

— — goniostoma. Sow. Gulf Cal. 
Strombus gracilior. Sow. Lower Cal. 

granulatus, Sow. Lower Cal. 

Terebra variegata, Gray. (Guaymas,Mus. 

Cum.) Lower Cal. 
Pleurotoma maculosa. Sow. Lower Cal. 



Conus trochulus, Rve. Upper Cal. 
interruptus, Brod. & Sow. Lower 

California. 
Solarium quadriceps, Hds. Lower Cal. 
Natica Chemnitzii, Phil. Lower Cal. 

bifasciata. Lower Cal. 

Mitra lens, Wood. Lower Cal. 

inermis. ? — 

Cassis coarctata, Sow. Lower Cal. 
Leucozonia cingulata, Sow. Lower Cal. 
Ranella ventricosa. 1 — 
Triton Chemnitzii, Gld. (lapsu) =: sipho- 

natus, Rve. Lower Cal. 
Tritonidea pagodus, Rve. Lower Cal. 
Nassa luteostoma, Brod. Lower CaL 
Oliva splendidula. Sow. Lower Cal. 

testacea. Lam. Lower Cal. 

biplicata, Sow. Lower Cal. 

volutella, Lam. Lower Cal. 

? tigrina. Lower Cal. 

Columbella fuscata. Sow. Lower Cal. 

coniformis. Lower Cal. 

Purpura columellaris. Lam. Lower Cal. 

biserialis, Blainv. Lower Cal. 

emarginata, Desh. Lower Cal. 

kiosquiformis. Duel. ? — 

muricata, Gray. Lower Cal. 

Monoceros punctatum. Sow. Upper Cal. 

~ brevidentatum. Wood. ? — 

cymatum. Sow. ? — 

crassilabrum. Sow. Upper Cal. [?] 

unicarinatum. ? — 

globulus, [Iciijus]. ? — 

Vitulariasalebrosa,Kmg=vitulina,Gia.y. 

Lower Cal. 
Murex bicolor, Val. Lower Cal. 
foliatus:=pinniger, Brod. ? — 



48. The first important contribution to the local fauna of the Gulf of 

California vi'as made by Dr. Menke ; who, having received from his friend 

M. Heinrich Melchers, of Bremen, a number of shells which he had himself 

collected at Mazatlan, proceeded to catalogue and describe them in the 

"Zeitschrift fur Malacozoologie," Dec. 1847, pp. 177-191. Here, for the 

first time in the history of West N. American MoUusca, we have an attempt 

to present a complete geographical list, of known as well as supposed new 

species, collected in a particular district. For the example thus set, and for 

the record of the labours of M. Melchers, Dr. Menke deserves well of 

Iscience ; but it does not appear that his identification of species is always 

[sound ; nor is it in every case easy to make out his descriptions of new 

[forms. The paper is entitled " Verzeichniss einer Sendung von Conchylien 

[yon Mazatlan, mit einigen Kritischen Bemerkungen," and contains notes on 

fhe following species : — 



1. Siphonaria lecanium, Phil. 

2. Litorina aspera, Phil. 

3. Turritella imbricata, [Mke. 

Lam.=T. tigrina, Kien. 



quasi] 



4. Vermetus glomeratus, [Mke. quasi] 

(Rouss.),Linn.?=jB?»OMia coM?orta. 

5. Natica iostoma, Mke. " Resembles 

N. canrena." 'i=Njnaroccana,vat. 



236 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. 

6. Natica7naroccana,CheTian.(Koch)= 

N. Chemnitzii, Pfr. 

7. Nerita multijugis, Mke.=iV. scalri- 

costa, Lam., teste Mke. postea. 

8. Turbo fluctuostcs, AVood. 

9. Solarium granulatum, [Mke. quasi] 

Lara. 
10. Cerithimn ocellatum, [Mke. quasi] 

Brug.=:C. stercusmuscarum, VaL 
IL Buccinum sanguinolentum, Duel. =: 

Pollia hamastoma. Gray. 

12. gemmulatum, Rve. non Lam. 

nee Kien. =PisaMia gemmata. 

13. gilvwm, Mke. Appears to be an 

Anachis, possibly coronata. 

14. Terebra fulgurata, Phil. 
16. Purpura hcemastoma, [Mke. quasi] 

Lam.=P. biserialis, Blainv. var. 

16. hicostaUs, Rve.=P. biserialis, 

Blainv. 

17. atromarginata, "Blainv., Desh. 

= P. cancellata, Kien." (New 
Hebrides.) 

18. Columbella strombiformis, Lam. 

19. ' major, Sow. 

20. harpmformis. Sow. 

21. Murex brassica, Lam.=M. ducalis, 

Brod. 

22. Ficula decussata^Pyrula ventricosa, 

Sow. 

23. Conus achatinus, [Mke. quasi] Brug. 

=:C. purptireus or regalitatis. 

24. Oliva tergina. Duel. 

25. • zonalis. Lam. 

26. Erato columbella, Mke. 
27- Cyprcea arabicula. Lam. 

28. Sowerbyi, " Rve. = C. zonata, 

Gray, not Chemn." 

29. sanguinea. Gray. 

30. Solandri, Gray. 

31. pustulata, Lam. 

32. Crepidula costata, [Mke. quasi] Sow. 

= C. aculeata, var. 

33. hepatica, [Mke. quasi] Desh. 

= C.iMCMrra,Brod.,not C. hepatica, 
C. B. Ad. 

34. uncata, Mke.=C. adunca. Sow. 

Of the 45 species here quoted from other authors, the following 15 do 
not belong to the fauna:— Nos. S, 4, 9, 10, 15, 17, 23, 32, 37, 38, 45, 50, 
52, 54, 58. It is fair to suppose, either that the writer has erred in his 
diagnoses, or that shells have been imported. In most cases, as very similar 
species really are found at Mazatlan, it is natural to adopt the former 
alternative. In other cases, as in nos. 20 and 44, the species inhabit the 
coast, but their presence at Mazatlan wants the confirmation of the Reigen 
collection. Of the shells intended by nos. 17, 28, 37, 46, 48, & 59, no 
information can be given. Of the entire 59 species, accepting the altered 
nomenclature, which would reduce the number to 55, 40 are certainly, and 



No. 

35. Calyptrcea dentafa, Mke. "=:C. ric- 
gosa. Less, in Guer. Mag. non Desh. 
= C. extinctorium. Sow. non Lam." 
= Crucibulum imbricatum, var, 
B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 287. no. 343. 

36. hnbricata. Sow. 

37. Lamarckii, Desh. (Australia). 

38. Hipponyx australis, [Mke. quasi] 
Lam.=H. serratus. 

39. Fissurella pica. Sow. 

40. chlorotrema, Mke.^F. rugosa, 

Sow. 

41. humilis, Mke.=F. rugosa, var. 

42. gemmata, Mke. ?=F. alba, jun. 

43. Acmtea mitella, Mke. 

44. Pecten adspersus, Sow. (Tumbez, 
Peru.) 

45. AviculaAtlantica, [Mke. quasi] Lam. 
=zA. sterna, Gld. 

46. Area ? ovata, Rve. 

47. Mytilus=.M. spatula, Mke. in Zeit, 
f. Mai. 1848, p. 2. Possibly = Mo- 
diola capax, jun. 

48. Modiola=^M. semiltevis, Mke. in Zeit. 
f. Mai. 1848, p. 5. 

49. Cardita affinis, [Mke. quasi] Sow.= 
C. Californica. 

50. Cardium muricatum, [Mke. quasi] 
Linn. ?=:C. radida, Brod. & Sow, 

51. procerum. Sow. 

52. Donax ? compressus, [Mke. quasi] 
Lam. ?=-D. assimilis, Hani. 

53. Tellina cicercula, Phil. 

54 . Cytkerea corbicula [Mke. quasi] Lam. 
=^Trigona radiata. 

55. argentina. Sow. 

56. semifulva, Mke. ?= Trigona 

radiata, var. 

57. ckion(Ba,Mke.=Dionesqualida, 

Sow. + biradiata. Gray. ? + D. ele- 
gants, Koch. 

58. Venus cancellata, [Mke. quasi] Linn. 
'?=Chione amathusia : but v. B. M, 
Maz. Gat. p. 80.no. 113. 

59. CorbidalustulatajKve. One rubbed 
valve. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 23? 

five probably, members of the fauna : of the remaining ten, it is unsafe to 
hazard a conjecture. 

The above analysis has been attempted, partly in order to show the diffi- 
culties attendant upon all inquiries of this kind. Here is a collection made 
on a single spot by a competent gentleman*, and described by a concholo- 
gist of acknowledged superiority, the editor of one of the very few strictly 
Conchological Journals ; and yet only 32 can be accepted in the state in 
which they are presented, the remaining 27 containing errors either of col- 
lection or of description. If such is the work of a master, the readers of 
this Report will accept with due caution the labours of a mere student. 

49. But if there is so much doubt attaching to Menke's first list, there is 
still more in the principal list which follows. In the Zeit. f. Mai. 1850, no. 11, 
Dr. Menke informs us that since his last paper, M. Melchers had again 
visited Mazatlan, and had investigated the shells of that region with great 
zeal and perseverance, and no little sacrifice of money. He returned to 
Bremen in the summer of 1849, and generously presented Dr. Menke with 
a selection in the autumn of 1850. So far all is extremely satisfactory; but 
he goes on to state that he received at the same time, from the same ship, 
a box obtained at Mazatlan by purchase. This fact invalidates the soundness 
of all that follows ; except in those few instances in which we are informed 
that M. Melchers collected the shells himself. The following list there- 
fore must be received with great caution, except where the shells are con- 
firmed by other authority. Occasionally Dr. Menke gives particulars as to 
the number of individuals from which he describes; as when he tells us, 
p. 1 88, that, as he has had an opportunity of examining no fewer than eight 
specimens of Murex ambiguus, Rve., he can speak with authority as to its 
being distinct from M. nigritus, Phil. If he had examined the many 
hundreds in the Reigen collection, he would probably have come to a different 
conclusion. The second (mixed) list is as follows : — 



1850, pp. 161-173. 

1. Bulla Adamsi, Mke. 

2. nebulosa, Gld. 

3. {Tornatina) gracilis, [Mke. 

quasi] A. Ad. = ?B. infrequens, 
C. B. Ad. 

4. Bulimus zebra, Desh. 

5. Plaiiorbis tenagophihis, [Mke. q.] 

D'Orb. =P. tumens, Cpr. 

6. Physa Peruviana, [Mke. q.] Gray, 

■=Ph. aurantia, Cpr. 

7. lAtorina fasciata. Gray. 

8. aspera, Phil. 

9. modest a, [Mke. q.] Phil. ?= 

L. conspersa, Phil. var. 

10. Turritella tigrina, Kien. "=No. 3 

of first list." 

11. goniostoma, Yal. 

12. Hookeri, [Mke. q.] Rve. 

13. Vermetus Panamensis, Rouss. The 

figure quoted represents Le Ver- 
met of Adanson. The name 



has not been found. '?=Bivonia 
contorta, var. 

14. Vermetus gloineratus,\Mke,<\^^o\\s, 

l=^Bivonia contorta, Cpr. 

15. Natica Recluziana, Desh. 

16. jr^awca, [?] Humb.=IV.jjafM?fl, 

Sow. 

17. maroccana, (Chemn.) Koch. 

18. ovum, Mke. 

19. Neritina cassiculum. Sow. 

20. picta. Sow, 

21. Nerita ornata, Sow. " =N. multi- 

jugis, Mke." =N. scabriuscula. 
Lam. 

22. funiculata, Mke. = N. Bern- 
liar di, Reel. 

23. Planaxis acutus, Mke. =P. nigri- 

tella, Forbes. 

24. obsoletus, Mke. =P, nigri- 

tella, var. 

25. Turbo fiuctuosus. Wood. 

26. Solarium ^ranMZafMm,[Mke.q.]Lam. 



* As M. Melchers is quoted for a shell from Vera Cruz, on the Gulf of Mexico, Zeit. f. Mai. 
1848, p. 3, it speaks much for his accuracy as a collector that no W. Indian species are 
quoted in Menke's lists, except such as have analogues on the Pacific coast, for vfhich they 
have probably been mistaken. 



S38 



REPORT — 1856. 



27. Euomphalus radiatus, Mke. =Tro- 

chus perspectiviunculus variega- 
tus, Chemn., ?=Tormia v. Lam. 

28. Trochus {Calcar) olivacms, MVood. 

29. . . Melchersi, Mke. 

30i stellaris, [Mke. q.] Lam. 

31. "iminutus, Chemn. 

32. versicolor, Mke. 

33. . {Monodonta) catenulatus, Phil. 

34. ligulatus, Mke. 

35. glomus, [Mke. q.] Phil- 



1850, pp. 177-190. 

36. Scalaria crassilabris, Sow. 

37, Rissoa stricta, Mke. 
38 Cerithium (Potamides) Montagnei, 

D'Orb. 

39. maculosum, Kien. 

40. ocellatum, [Mke. q.] Brug.= 

C. stercusmuscarum, Val. 

41. interruptum, Mke. ^ 

42. Buccinum gemmatum, Rve. " =^' 

gemmulatum, first list. No. 12. 

43. pm<is,Desli.=serrato,Dutr. 

44'. . {Nassa) luteostoma, Kien. 

45. Monoceros muricatus, Brod. 

46. cingulatus. Lam. 

47. Purpura patula. Lam. 

48. consM/, [Mke. q.] Lam. =f . 

biserialis, vai'. 

49. . biserialis, Blainv. 

50. bicostalis, [Mke. q.?] Lam — 

P. biserialis, var. 

51. Cancellaria ovata, [Mke. q.] Sow 

?=C. urceolata, Hds. 

52. . cassidiformis, Sow. 

53. goniostoma, 'L&vn. 

64. Dofem dentatum, Barnes, = 32a<ea 
ringens. Swains. 

55, . crassilabre, (Mke.) Val. = M, 

ringens, var. 
— Cassis ringens. Swains., Bhgh 

Cat. App. p. 4. 1822. 
—Dolium dentatum, Barnes, An. 

Lye. N. Y. 1824. 
szBuccinum ring ens, 'Wooi, Suppl. 

1828. ^ ^ 

=Dolium personatum, Mke. Syn. 

p. 62. 1830. 
=zMalea latilabris, + crassilabrts, 

Val. 1833. 
=zDolium latilabre, Kien. 1835. 
=D plicosum, Mke. Zeit. f. M. 

p. 138. 1845. 
^zD. ringens, Rve. 1848. 
= Cadium dentatum + C. rin^rens, 
H. & A. Ad. Gen. i. 197. 

56. Harpa crenata,Gv3.y,=H.RivoMna, 

Less. 

57. Cassis coarctata, Wood. 



58. Cassis inflata, (Shaw) Rve.= C. iirra- 

nosa. Lam. 

59. abbreviata. Lam. 

60. Columbella harpceformis, Sow.=C. 

citharula. Duel. 

61. -fuscata. Sow, 

62. nasuta, Mke. 

63. /wZca, Sow. 

64. Terpsichore, [Mke. q.J Sow. 

65. Mwrea; messorius, [Mke. q.] Sow. 

66. unidentatns, [Mke. q.] Sow. 

67. . ternispina, [Mke. q.J Lam, 

68. salebrosus. King. 

69. — — brassica, Lam. = M. ducahs, 
Brod. 

70. 6icoZor,Val.=M.eryfAros<oma, 

Swains. 

71. lappa, Brod. 

72. rfwiiMs, Sow. = M. aculeatus, 

Wood, not Lam. 

73. nigrita, Phil. 

74. ambiguus,'Rve.=nigritus,\ax. 

75. Ranella nana, Sow. 

76. muriciformis, Brod. 

77. anceps. Lam.=R. pyramidalis, 

Brod. 

78. Tritonium nodosum, (Chemn.) Mke. 
=Triton Chemnitzii, Gray. 

79. lignarium, Brod. 

80. scalariforme, Brod. 



, pp. 17-25. 

Turbinella ceestus, Brod. 
Fasciolaria princeps, Sow. 
Ficula decussata, Rve. 
Pyrula patula, Brod. & Sow. 

sub. jstrata. Gray, = Fztsus 

lapillus, Brod. & Sow. 

anomala, Rve. 

F«s«s r/seuma, Mart.=F. torheuma, 

Desh. 
Plenrotoma funiculata, Val. 

maculosa, Sow. 

incrassata, Sow. = P. Botta, 

Val. 

Melchersi, Mke. 

Strombus galeatus, Swains. 

granulatus, Wood. 

lentiginosus, Linn. 

gracilior. Sow. 

C onus princeps, Linn. 

regularis, Sow. 

. puncticulatus, Hwass. 

omaria, Hwass. 

Oliva porphyrea. Lam. 

angulata. Lam. 

Jw/ie^a, Ducl.= 0. Panthenna, 

Phil. 

103. venulata. Lam. 

1 104. Melchersi, Mke. 



1851 
81. 

82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 

86. 

87. 



90. 

91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 
98. 
99, 
100 
101 
102 



I 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 239 



123. Crepidula striolata,Mke.= C. nivea, 

vai*. 

124. Goreensis,T)esh.'?z= C.nivea,va.r. 

125. Calyptresa (Trochatella) Lamarckii, 

[Mke. q.] Desh. 
126. conica, Brod. 

127. (DyspotcBa) spinosa, Sow. 

128. cepacea, Brod. 

129. HipponyxfoUaceus, [Mke. q.] Quoy 

& Gaim. '?=H. serratus, 

130. Fissurella virescens, Sow. 

131. viminea, [Mke. q.] Rve. ?=F. 

ruffosa, var. 

132. Patella Mewicana, Brod. & Sow. 

133. Acmaa mutabilis, Mke. ? =fascicti- 
laris -\-mesoleuca, pars. 

fascicularis, Mke. 

mesoleuca, Mke.=:^Patella dia- 

phana, Rve. not Nutt. 
Sij)honaria dentieulata, [Mke. q.] 

Quoy & Gaim. Probably S. le- 

canium, var. 



134. 
135. 



136. 



105. Olwa undatella. Lam. 

106. anazore, Duel. 

107. tergina, Duel. 

108. testacea, Lam. 

1851, pp. 33-38. 

109. Ovula emarginata. Sow. 

110. deflexa, Sow. 

111. Cypraa Arabica, Linn. 

112. ■ arabicula, Lam. 

113. (Trivia) pustulata, Lam. 

114. sanguinea. Gray. 

115. fusca, Gray. 

116. subrostrata. Gray. 

117. Terebra variegata. Gray. 

118. armillata, [Mke. q.] Hinds. 

119. luctuosa. Hinds. 

120. Mitra lens, Wood, = M, Dupontii, 

Kien. 

121. Crepidula contorta, [Mke. q.] Quoy 

& Gaim. 

122. costata, [Mke. q.] Sow. 

50. Among the many wasted opportunities of obtaining very valuable 
information on geographical distribution, must unfortunately be recorded the 
Surveying Voyages of the ' Herald ' and ' Pandora,' by Capt. Kellett, R.N,, 
C.B., and Lieut. Wood, R.N. The former of these gentlemen commanded 
the ' Starling' during the Sulphur Expedition. Their zeal for science is 
shown not only by the large number of fine and valuable shells which they 
brought back, but especially by the extreme liberality with whicii they have 
presented them to public museums wherever they thought that they could 
be made useful. "The shells were deposited in the Museum of Practical 
Geology in Jermyn Street, London, then presided over by Prof, E, Forbes. 
He writes that " they were chiefly collected on the coast of Southern Cali- 
fornia, from San Diego to Magdalena, and the shores of Mazatlan." This is 
precisely the very district of all others on which we are in want of accurate 
information. San Diego belongs mainly to the Californian Province, Ma- 
zatlan to that of Panama ; the question yet to be settled is, ? where and how 
do they separate. Here was an exploration in competent hands on the very 
terra incognita itself; and yet, alas! Prof. E. Forbes further states that 
" unfortunately the precise locality of many of the individual specimens had 
not been noted at the time ; and a quantity of Polynesian shells mingled 
with them, have tended to render the value of the collection, as illustrative 
of distribution, less exact than it might have been." Such information as 
was accessible at the time was embodied by Prof, E. Forbes in two com- 
munications to the Zoological Society, 1850; the first on the Land Shells, 
collected during the Expedition, Proc. pp. 53-56 ; the second on the Marine 
MoUusca, pp. 270-274-, The following abstract includes what may be sup- 
posed to relate to our present subject of inquiry. 

From Oregon, Helix Townsendiana, H. Nuttalliana, and H. Columbiana. 

Helix Pandora, Forbes, p. 55. pi. 9. f. 3 a, b. Sta. Barbara, as per box label : San 

Juan del Fuaco, teste Forbes. 
Kellettii, Fbs. p. 55. pi. 9. f. 2 a, h. Allied to H. Californiensis, Lea. Same 

locality. 

labyrinthus, var. sipuncnlata, p. 53. pi. 9. f. 4 a, b. Panama. 

— — vellicata, Forbes, p. 65. pi. 9. f. 1 a, b, c. " ? Panama." 
■ - aspersa, marked Sta. Barbara ; probably imported, p. 63. 



240 REPORT — 1 856. 

Bulimus mix, B. calvus, B. eschariferus, B. unifasciatus, and JB. rugulosus, from 
Chatham Is., Gelepagos, p. 54. Also, from the same island, 

Chemnitzioides, Forbes, p. hb. pi. 9. f. 6 a, 6 : and 

AchatinelUnus, Forbes, p. 56. pi. 9. f. 5 a, b. (In text AchatelUnus, eiT. typ.) 

fimbriatus, Forbes, p. 56. pi. 9. f. 7 a, b. Box labeled Panama. 

alternaius, Panama, p. 54. 

Succinea cingulata, Forbes, p. 56. pi. 9. f. 8 a, b, " said to come from Mazatlan." 

" Out of 307 species of shells collected by the x'oyagers, 217 are marine 
Gasteropoda, 1 is a Cephalopod, and 58 marine bivalves. The new species 
are all from the American shores. There are no products of deep-sea 
dredging. A few specimens of considerable interest were taken by the 
* Herald ' at Cape Krusenstern." The following species are described by 
Prof. Forbes : — 

Page. Plate. Fig. 

271 11 la, 6. Trochita spirata,'Fov\i&s. Massaniello, Gulf of California. 
271 11 9 Trochus castarteiis, Nutt. MS. Sta. Barbara, &c. Nuttall. 
271 11 8 a, 6. [Monodonta) gallina, Forbes. " Probably from the Ma- 
zatlan coast." San Diego, Lieut. Green. 

271 11 1 a,b. aureotinctus,YoT!ht%. " With the last." San Diego, 

Lieut. Green.=T. cateniferus, Potiez, teste Gould. 

272 11 11 a, 5. {Margarita) purjmratus, Yorbes, "? W. coast of N. A." 

272 11 10 a, b. Hillii, Forbes. " ? N.W. coast of N. A." 

272 11 2a,b,c.NaticaPritchardi,Fovhes. Mazatlan, ahunAimt.=N.Chemnitzii, 

Pfr. non Recl.=iV. maroccana, var. teste Koch. 

273 11 6 Planaxis nigritella, Yorbes. " Straits of San Juan del Fuaco." 

^P. acuta + P. obsoleta, Mke. As this species is found in 
extreme profusion at Mazatlan, and was not found by Mr. 
Nuttall, it is in the highest degree improbable that it should 
occur in abundance so far north in Oregon. It was probably 
from San Juan in the Gulf of California. 

273 11 12 Purpura analoga, Forbes. Probably from the Oregon district. 

274 decemcostata, Midd., var. approaching P. Freycinetii, 

274 planospira, columellaris, a.nA Carolensis ; " probably from 

the Galapagos." The two latter occur also at Mazatlan. 
274 9 10 Fusus Kelletii, Forbes. One sp. from the Californian coast. 

274 Oregonensis. Californian coast. 

274 salebrosus. Mazatlan. 

The types of the described species, f;nd numerous most beautiful and 
interesting specimens have been presented to the Britisii Museum. The 
remainder may be seen by students in the drawers of the Mus. Pract. Geol.: 
but the condition of the labels is not such that any dependence can be 
placed on them unless confirmed from other sources. In the only list that 
remains, it is said that there were the following shells from the Galapagos : 
18. Eight species of small shells; 19. Nerita ; 20-22. Purpura; 23-25. 
Buccina; 26. Atcce; 27. Bulimus. Of the bulk of the collection, 95 
species are known from other sources to occur at Mazatlan, and 35 species 
have been taken in other parts of the province between Mazatlan and 
Panama. Of tlie remainder, several are known to belong to Ecuador and 
Peru, and some, as Pomaulax undosus and Acmcea Oregona, to the Cali- 
fornian coast. But so large a number, even of those placed with the 
Mazatlan shells, and perhaps obtained by commerce from tliat spot, ai'e 
known to be inhabitants of the Pacific Islands and the East Indies, that a 
list of them would be entirely useless for our present object. 

Among the specimens collected by Messrs. Kellett and Wood during their 
voyage, which have been by them presented to the British Museum, have 
been observed the following species : — 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 241 

Cardium Nuttalli. California. Fissurella ornata. 

Trigonia radiata, var. Hindsii. Haliotis Cracherodii, Leach. 

Modiola capax. " S. America." [?] Purpura Carolensis. Is. Plata. 

Pinna rudis. Gulf of California. MurexfoUatus. San Juan de Fuaco. 

51. But the largest collectioa ever brought to Europe from one locality 
(with the single exception of Mr. Cuming's stores) was made at Mazatlan 
during the years 1848-50 by a Belgian gentleman of the name of Frederick 
Reigen. He did not live to enjoy the fruits of his almost unparalleled 
labours ; and after his death in 1850, the collection was sent for sale, partly 
to Messrs. F. de Lizardi and Co. at Liverpool, and partly to Havre. The 
Liverpool portion measured about 14 tons of 40 cubic feet each. It was 
bought by Mr. G. Hulse, wholesale naturalist in Dale Street; but before it 
passed into his hands, it received such an examination as time allowed from 
Mr. F. Archer, in whose collection, and in that of the Royal Institution, the 
first unmixed fruits will be found. Unfortunately the geographical value of 
these selections is greatly injured by trusting to memory and loose tickets ; and 
the localities of the Institution specimens have simply been added from the 
monographs, as ' Galapagos,' ' Panama,' ' St. Elena,' &c. Mr. Hulse fortunately 
deposited the bulk of the collection under lock and key in a chamber by 
itself ; but to save room, he immediately disposed of most of the large shells, 
such as Spondylus calcifer. Patella Mexicatia, Strombus galea, and the 
Pinncs, to a publican near Manchester, where they may be seen in his 
" Museum." Circumstances enabled me to make a searching examination 
of Mr. Hulse's stores, and to form a geographical collection from their con- 
tents*. Finding that in a small manufacturing town this could not be made 
available for the purposes of science, I acceded to the request of Dr. Gray that 
it should be deposited in the British Museum; it being stipulated (1) that I 
should be allowed to arrange it in its permanent abode, where it should re- 
main intact as a separate collection ; and (2) that a descriptive catalogue 
should be published of its contents. The duty of preparing this was en- 
trusted to me by Dr. Gray. The work is already written, and most of it 
printed. When completed, it will be found to contain descriptions of 222 
new species; in addition to several which had been previously described 
from the same collection in the ' Proc. Zool. Soc' and other woi'ks. Numerous 
details are added on species already known, especially on the variations of 
growth, geographical range, frequency, and synonymy. 

Being desirous of making the permanent collection of the British Museum 
as complete as possible, and finding that the original stores were in danger 
of being dispersed, and so rendered useless for science, I obtained possession 
of the remainder of the vast collection, and subjected it to a renewed and 
more rigid scrutiny. There will, therefore, be preserved in the B.M. drawers, 
not only the type specimens of the described species ; but what will perhaps 
be of more service to inland students, because less often accessible, large series 
illustrating particular species, and displaying both their normal and their abnor- 
mal variations. Thus, of Donax punctatostriaius will be found 192; of D. 
Conradi [_+culter, Hani. + contusus, Ji\e. -\- Calif ornicus, Desh.], '2,92; of 
Anomalocardia suhrugosa, 130; of Venus gnidia, 59 ; of Anoniia lampe, 97 ; 
oi Neritina picta, 607 ; and of Acmcea mesoleuca, 301 specimens ; every one 
of which exhibits an appreciable difference from its neighbours. The latter 

* Of this collection, amounting then to 440 species, an account was laid before the British 
Association at Liverpool : v. Reports, 1854, p. 107. The list was examineil by Prof. Forbes, 
and much assistance obtained from his experience. That assistance was promised during the 
course of the present inquiry, and would have prevented many of the errors attendant on it; 
but within a week after he had written to recommend the transfer of the collection to the 
British Museum, he had passed to the scenes where human aid is no longer needed, and where 
human errors find no place. 

1856, R 



242 REPORT — 1856. 

series was obtained by repeated processes of elimination, from the examina- 
tion of about 11,000 specimens. The whole number of shells passed under 
review probably exceeded 100,000. The following was found to be the most 
satisfactory plan for the determination of specific limits: — (1) to spread out 
the entire mass in somewhat of order before the view, in order that the gene- 
ral idea of the species (so to speak) might be received by the mind ; (2) to 
examine the specimens one by one, in comparison with an ordinary shell 
selected as a standard, putting to one side all that for any cause attracted 
attention ; (;^) from the hundreds thus selected out of the thousands, or the 
scores out of the hundreds, to arrange series according to observed differences; 
(4) to subject these to a rigid scrutiny with each other and with neighbour- 
ing species ; (5) to make a selection that should exhibit not extremes only, 
but intermediate grades ; and (6) to write the description while the result 
of the previous processes was fresh in the recollection. No observations, 
indeed, can compare for accuracy with those made on living animals in their 
native haunts ; but the next best process is the examination of large num- 
bers of specimens, such as the almost exhaustive diligence of M. Reigen has 
placed at our disposal. The process may require considerable time and no 
small amount of patience; but results thus obtained are far more satisfactory 
than the plan too often followed, of picking out a few specimens of leading 
forms, which alone are available to naturalists for description. So marvelous 
indeed are the variations of growth thus traced to the same specific source, 
that we may well accept with doubt species that are constituted from very 
limited materials. This caution is by no means to be overlooked in using 
the very catalogue in question ; as the only materials for a knowledge of the 
small species (which amount to no fewer than 314 out of 691) were the dirt 
obtained from the washings of the shells, which had most fortunately been 
sent "in the rough ;" and the fragments obtained in ransacking the backs 
of a few Spondyli, which were most obligingly placed at my disposal by 
R. D. Darbishire, Esq., of Manchester, who had succeeded in rescuing them 
from the publican's " museum."* 

It would of course have been far more satisfactory, for the purposes of 
science, had the collection never passed through a dealer's hands. The 
fortunate circumstance, hoM'ever, of its size and value requiring a room to 
be emptied and kept looked for its custody, has prevented the chances of 
error which would otherwise have crept in. No species are inserted in the 
catalogue but what were obtained from the boxes in this room, and from the 
large shells about the parasites of which there can be no mistake ; except 
Ficula decussata, of which Mr. Hanley distinctly remembers the appearance 
of a very few specimens in the Havre collection. This, which, though com- 
paratively small, filled twenty-eight boxes, after lying some time in France 
without a purchaser, was in the main sent to London, and disposed of in lots 
at the auctions, mixed with other shells, and without any knowledge being 
communicated as to their history. They have been freely distributed as 
though from Panama ; and several of them appear in the British Museum, 
labelled " Australia, presented by — Metcalf, Esq." Several freshwater 
shells, Cyrencp. and AmpidlaricB, are believed to have come from this source; 
but there was no trace of them in the Liverpool collection. In general, the 
two sets so far agreed as to make it probable that the species were divided. 
Messrs. Lizardi received a list, in which the exact localities of all the shells 

* I am under the greatest obligations to Mr. Darbishire for his valuable aid from the com- 
mencement of the work. We alone were admitted by Mr. Hulse into his secret chamber, filled 
with the unmixed spoils of the Mazatlan waters ; nor should I have ventured to pursue this 
inquiry, which would have been conducted far better under his auspices, had not professional 
engagements entirely prevented his devoting the time necessary for such a purpose. 



ON MOLLTTSOA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 243 



were recorded ; this invaluable document, however, was thrown to one side 
as useless, and has not since been found. 

The best evidence of the authenticity of the collection is in the shells them- 
selves. These were, with verj' few exceptions, taken alive, and treated with 
evident care. Every single bivalve was separately wrapped up and ticketed ; 
the mouths of the univalves were papered to preserve the opercula ; and in 
many of the smaller species the animal was not extracted. The absence, 
from so vast a collection, of attractive shells known to be found in neigh- 
bouring places, such as Oliva porphyria, Terebra variegata, Malea ringens, 
Cassis coarctata, Peetens and Pectunculi, generally seen in collections from 
" that coast," shows that M. Reigen made little use even of the facilities of the 
coasting trade to extend his stores. Nor are there to be seen the Pacific 
Strombs, Cowries, Terebra?, &c., some of which even Menke allows to appear 
in his catalogue. In one respect a town of limited trade is more favourably 
situated for scientific purposes than a port of extensive commerce. Singa- 
pore, the Sandwich Is., Acapulco, &c., to say nothing of places on our own 
coast, are well known to be " hotbeds of spurious species." But among the 
many myriads in the Liverpool collection, not a dozen individual shells were 
found which can fairly be set down as strangers. The principal of these are — 

Arcafusca (living), which is quoted from the West Indies, and may hnger in the 

Gulf Seas ; or it may have come from the East Indies on a ship bottom. 
Conus arenatus. One very rubbed specimen ; probably fi'om ballast. 
Crepidula Peruviana. Two worn specimens ; probably fe'om ballast. 
Fissurella Barbaclensis. One young fresh sp. ; probably brought over on a pebble. 

With regard to Lucina tigerrina and Mactra fragilis, of each of which one 
fresh specimen was sent papered and ticketed with nearly related shells, we 
have no right to deny their authenticity merely because they oppose our 
theories ; as unexpected facts are continually making their appearance, to 
the confusion of the mere systematizer and the corresponding delight of 
searchers after truth. All shells of this class are included in the list, in order 
that persons may see the bad as well as the good, and judge of its authority 
accordingly. No attempt has been made (except with the small shells) to 
state the number of specimens, because of the abstractions which had pre- 
viously been made by purchasers ; but the following notes will give a tole- 
rably correct idea of their comparative frequency, after these abstractions 
had been deducted. 



e. r. extremely rare ; under a score. 
V. r. very rare ; under a hundred. 

r, rare ; under two hundred. 
«.e. not common; or! ^ 
«. u. not uncommon ; J 



c. common ; up to 400 or 500. 

a. abundant ; 600 or 700. 
c. c. extremely common ; 1000. 
e. a. extremely abundant ; more than 1000. 



List of the Reigen Collection of Mazatlan Mollusca. 



No. 


Name. 


Freq. 


Other Localities. 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 


Class BRYOZOA. 
MemhTaniporid(2, 

Membranipora denticulata, Buslc, n.s 

Gothica, Rylands, MS., n.s 

Lepralia atrofusca, Rylands, MS., n. s 

trispinosa, /oAws< 


r. 
r. 
r. 
Isp. 
r. 
r. 


? Persian Gulf. 
Britain. 


Mazatlanica, Busk, n.s 

— — rostrata, Busk, n. s 



r2 



244 



REPORT 1856. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



9 

10 

677 

11 
12 

678 

13 
679 



14 



23 



24 



25 

26 
27 
28 
29 
680 
220 



Lepralia marginipora, Rettss 

hippocrepis, Busk, n. s. 

humilis, Bus/c, n. s. ... 

adpressa, Busk 

, sp. ind 



Celleporid<B. 

Cellepora papilteforniis, Busk, n, s 

cyclostoma, BiisJc, n. s 

Cellepora, sp. ind., resembling pumicosa, Linn 

Biscoporidce. 
Defrancia intricata, Busk, n. s 



Tubulipora, sp. ind 

Class TUNIC ATA. 
Unknown. 

CI. PALLIOBRANCHIATA,£/am 

Discina Cumingii, Brod. 



Class LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 

Pholadidte. 

Pholadidea melanura. Sow 

.' curta, Soiv , 

Parapliolas calva. Gray, MS. , 

acuminata. Sow 

Martesia intercalata, n. s 

(Fragment) somewhat resembling Panopaa. 
Perhaps Corbula temiis. 

Gastrochwnida. 

Gastrocliaena truncata. Sow 

- ovata, Soio 



Saxicavidce. 
Saxicava arctica, Linn 



PetricolidcE. 

Petricola rohusta, Soio 

= P. bulbosa, Gld. = P. sinuosa, Conr. 

= Choristodon typicum, Jonas 

— ventricosa, Desk , 

? = P. denticulata. Sow 

— , sp. ind 

Rupellaria lingua-feUs, n. s 

— exarata, n. s 

— , sp. ind 

PNaranio scobina, n. s 

— , sp. ind 



681 ?Mya, sp. ind. 



30 

31 
32 
33 
34 

682 

35 

683 

684 



Myidce. 



Coriulidoe. 

Corbula bicarinata, Sow 

.' = C'. alba, Phil. 

— biradiata. Sow 

— pustulosa, n.s 

— .' ovulata, Sow 

— , sp. ind. a. (allied to C. scajihoides, Hds.) 
— , sp. ind. b 

Sphaenia fragilis, n. s 

— , sp.ind 

— , sp.ind 



2 
V. r. 
e. r. 

1 
e. r. 

1 



1 

2 
1 
2 
1 
u.u. 
1 
1 



Fossil tertiary, Vienna. 
Chiloe, 96 fms., Darwin. 



Payta and St. Elena ; Panama. 



o.r. 


Monte Christi. 


2sp. 
n. u. 


Veragua. 
Panama. 


n. u. 


Panama. 


2sp. 

1 




n. u. 


Panama, West Indies. 


V. r. 


Pan., Is. Perico, West Indies 



ubiquitous, p. 1 7 ; Fossil, Crag. 

Panama, Island of Muerte. 

West Indies. 
Gulf of California. 
Peru. 



Pan., R.Llejos,Carac.,St.Elena, 

Panama, Chiriqui, Caraccas. 
Panama, St. Bias, 33 fms. 
Panama, Xipix., Montijo, Carac. 



ON MOIiLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 245 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



685 
36 



40 

41 

42 

42* 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
686 
54 



Pandoridm. 
Tyleria fragilis, H, 8f A. Ad. 
Lyonsia picta, Soio 



Soleciirtidce. 
Solecurtus afRnis, C. B, Ad. . 

— politus, n. s , 

-, sp. ind 



Tellinidce. 



Semele flavescens, Gld. 

= S. proximo, [quasi] C. B. Ad. 

— ? venusta, A. Ad 

Cumingia lamellosa, Sow 

, ?var. coarctata ..., 

— trigoniilaris, Sow , 

- Californica, Conr , 

— , sp. ind. (like C. striata) , 

Sanguinolaria miniata, Gld. , 

= S. purpurea, Desh. 
Tellina rufescens, Chemn 

= T. operculata, Gmel. 

— Broderipii, Desh 

— ??Mazatlanica, Desh , 

— Dorabei, Hani. 

— felix, Hani. 

— straminea, Desh 

— donacilla, n. s 

— , sp. ind. (c) 

— punicea, 13orn 

= Donax Martinicensis, Lam. teste Gray. 
= Tellina altemata, Sow. teste Gray. 

= T. anyulosa, Gmel. teste Desh. 
= T. simulans, C. B. Ad. 

— Curaingii, Hani. 

— Peburnea, Hani. 

— regularis, n. s 

.— lamellata, n. s 

— .'.'puella, C. B. Ad. 

— .'? delicatula, Desh 

— brevirostris, Desh 

— ? denticulata, Desh 

— , sp. ind. (a) 

— , sp. ind. (5) 

Tellidora Burneti, Brod. Sf Sow 

=Lucina cristata. Reel. 
Strigilla carnaria, Linn 

=Lucina carnaria, Lam. 

— Strigilla miniata, Gld. = S.fucata, Gld. 

— lenticula, Phil. 

??Psammabia, sp. ind 

DonacidtB, 
Iphigenia altior, Sow 



Donax carinatus, Hani. 

rostratus, C. B. Ad. 

= D. carinatus, var. Hani. 

= D. culminatus, Cat. Prov. 

^^— transversus, iSou? ., 

assimiUs, Hani. 



1 

e.r. 



n.c. 
4 
1 



2 

V. r. 
e.r. 
V. r. 
V. r. 
e.r. 
e.r. 

V. r. 

3 

1 

2 

e.r. 
e.r. 

1 

1 
V. r. 



1 
1 

1 
e.r. 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 
n. u. 

n.c. 



V. c. 

2 
V. r. 

1 



Is. Muerte, Vancoxiver's Island. 
Panama. 

San Diego. 

W. Columbia. 
.'Panama, Payta. 
Panama, Caraccas. 
Panama, St. Elena. 
Monterey, &c. 

San Juan. 

Tumbez, West Indies. 



Panama. 
Panama. 



Pan., Guayaquil, W. I., XipLx. 



Panama, Guacomayo. 
Tumbez. 



Panama. 
Central America. 

Salango, St. Elena. 

W. I., ? Medit., Sta. Barbara. 



Gulf Nicoya, Tumbez, Panama. 

San Bias, Tumaco. 
Sta. Barbara, Panama. 



Panama. 



246 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. 



75 

75* 

76 



Donax punctatostriatus, Hani. 

— Ppuactatostriatus, var. caelatus ... 

— Conradi, Desh. 

+D. cutter, Hani. 

-j-Z). Calif amicus, Desh. non Conr. 
-\-D. conticsus, Rve. 
?-\-J). radiata, Val. 

— navicula, Hani. 



Mactridce. 

Mactra esoleta, Gray 

=Lutraria ventricosa, Gld. 
= Mulinia ventricosa, C. B. Ad. 

— fragilis, Chemn 

= 3/. ovalina, Lam. teste Gray. 
= M. Braziliana, Lam. teste Desh. 
= Af. oblonga. Say, teste Rve. 

— (Mulinia) angulata, Gray 

} = M. donaciformis, C. B. Ad. 

Gnathodon mendicus, Gld. 

= Rangia trigona, Petit. 

Veneridx. 

PClementia gracillima, n. s 

Trigona radiata, Sow 

= Venus Solangensis, D'Orb. 
= Trigona Byronensis, Gray. 
= Cytherea corbicula, Mke. (non Lam.) 
-\-C. semifulva, Mke. 
-j-C gracilior, Sow. 
■\-C. Hindsii, HanL 
?-j-C intermedia, Sow. 

humilis, n. s 

argentina. Sow 

= Cytherea cequilatera, Desh. 

^? crassatelloides, jun 

planulata, Brod. Sf Sow 

+ Cytherea undulata, Sow. 

= Donax Lessoni, Desh. 

= Cytherea mactroides. Lam. teste Desh. 

Dosinia ponderosa. Gray 

= Cytherea gigantea, Phil. 
= Venus cycloides, D'Orb. 

— Annse, Darh 

— Dunkeri, Phil. 

= Artemis simplex, Hani. 
= Cytherea Pacifica, Trosch. 

CycUna subquath-ata, Hani 

Artemis saccata, Gld. 

Dione aurantia, ^aw/. 

= Cytherea aurantiaea, Sow. 

— chionsea, Mke 

-\-Cytherea sgualida, Sow. 
4- C. biradiata, Gray. 

P-j- C elegans, Koch. 

rosea, Brod. S^- Sow 

= Cytherea lepida, Chen. 

— lupinaria, Less 

=!>.' lupanaria, Gray. 

= Cytherea Dione, var. Brod. 

= C. semilamellosa. Gaud. 

96 ?-Milnerata, ^rod. ■ 



Freq. 



93 



other Localities. 



6. r. 
V. c. 



Acapulco. 

Gulf of Nicoya, Panama. 
Panama, Guayaquil. 
West Indies. 

S.W. Mexico, Panama. 



Salango, Xipis., Guayaq., Pan. 



! valv. 
n. c. 



v.r. 
v.c. 



3 
n.c. 



Gulf of Nicoya. 

Upper California. 
Pan., Salango; Chili, CoqmmbO; 
D'Orb. 



Payta. 



Panama, St. Elena, "Eastern 
Seas," Ad. &( Rve. 

St. Elena, Panama. 

S.W.Mex.,GulfNicoya,Taboga, 

San Bias, S.W. Mexico, La Paz, 
Taboga, St. Elena, .'Philip- 
pines, Swan River, 

San Bias, Panama. 

San Bias, Salango, Tumbez, 
Payta. 

Real Llejos. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 24? 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



99 



100 
101 
102 

103 
104 
105 

106 
107 
108 
109 

110 



111 
112 



113 



114 
115 
116 
117 
118 

119 
120 



121 
1214 



122 
123 



124 
125 



126 



127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
687 



Dione brevispinosa, Sow 

— circinata, Born n 

= Venus Guineensis, Gmel. 

= Cytherea alternata, Brod. 

— concinna, Sow 

■'+ Cytherea affinis, Brod. 

.'-j-C. tortuosa, Brod. 

Cytherea petechialis, Lam 

Venus (Chione) gnidia, Brod. 8f Sow, 

amathusia, Phil. 

= Chione gnidia, var. Desh. 

, sp. ind. (a) 

distans, Phil. 

crenifera, Sow 

= V. Portesiana, D'Orb. 

■ — .'undatella, Sow 

Columbiensis, Sow 

, sp. ind. (i) 

Tapes histrionica, Brod. Sf Sow 

= Chione histrionica, Desh. 

— grata, Say 

= Venus tricolor, Sow. teste Desh. 
= V. discors, Sow. teste Jay. 

= V. neglecta, Phil, (non Gray). 

— squamosa, n. s 

Anomalocardia subrugosa, Sotv 

= Cytherea subsulcata, Mke. 

— subimbricata, Sow 

Astartidce. 
Circe raargarita, n.s 

— subtrigona, n. s 

Gouldia Pacifica, C.B.Ad. 

— varians, n. s 

Cardita Cahfornica, Desh 

= C. affinis, Mke. non Sow. 

Venericardia, sp. ind 

Trapezium, sp. ind 



Chamidce. 
Chama frondosa, var. Mexicana 
-\-Chama echinata, fig. pars. 

— ? frondosa, var. fornicata . 
?= C. Buddiana, C. B. Ad. 

— spinosa. Sow 

— exogyra, Conr 



Cardiad<B. 
Cardium (Lsevicardium) elatum, Sow. ... 

— procerum. Sow 

?+C. laticostatum. Sow. 

— ? senticosum, Sow 

= C. rostrum, Rve. 

? = C. muricatum, Mke. 

sp. ind. (a) (like C. punctulatum) 

(4) (like C. triangulatum) ... 

(c) (like C. pseudofossUe) ... 

■ — w 

(e) 

(/) 

alabastrum, n.s 

rotundatuni.n. s 



V. r. 
e. c. 



e. r. 
1 
3 

1 
e. 0. 

3 
e. c. 



3 
e. c. 



V. r. 
V. r. 
V. r. 



n. c. 
v.r. 



3 
1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
e. r. 
1 



West Indies, Monte Christi, 
Panama. 



Payta, Panama, San Bias. 
S.W. Mexico, Panama. 



Panama. 

St. Elena, Payta. 

Island 3 Marias, G. of Calif. 
St. Elena, S.W. Mexico. 

Real Llejos, St. Elena. 

S.W. Mex., Pan., St. Elena and 
Guacomayo, Puerto Portrero, 
Guaymas. 



S.W. Mexico, Panama, Peru. 
Acapulco, Puerto Portrero. 

Panama. 



Gulf of Tehuantepec. 



Lord Hood's Island. 
San Diego. 



Guaymas, San Diego, 

S.W. Mexico, Panama, Payta, 

Real Llejos. 
Taboga, St. Elena. 



248 



REPORT — 1856. 



134 
135 



136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 



150i 

151 

152 



153 

154 
155 
156 
688 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 



Cardium graiuferum, Brod. S^ Soiv 

, sp. ind. ((/), (lucinoides, nom. prov.) .. 



Lucinidde. 
Lucina (Codakia) tigerina, Linn. 

• .'.'punctata, Linn 

anuulata, Jive 

? muricata, Chemn 

excavata, n. s 

, sp. ind. (a) 

pectinata, n. s 

cancellaris, Phil. . . . . , 

Mazatlanica, n. s 

piolongata, n. s 

, sp. ind. (J) 

? eburnea, Eve 

sp. ind. (e) 

.'Fimbria, sp. ind 

Diplodonta semiaspera 

? = Lucina ccelata, Rve. 

? = i. semireticulata, D'Orb. 

Comp. L. orbella, Gld 

, var. discrepans 

-— obliqua, Phil. 

.' seriicata, Rve 



Kelliada. 
Kellia suborbicularis, Mont. 

Lasea .'rubra, 3/on# 

trigonalis, n. s 

? oblonga, n. s 

, sp. ind 

Lepton Clementinum, n. s... 

Dionaeum, n. s 

umbonatum, n. s 

Pytliina sublsvis, n. s 

Montacuta elliptica, n. s. .. 

.' subquadrata, n. s 

, sp. ind 



164 
165 



166 



167 
168 
169 
170 
171 



171, 
172 
173 



CycladidcB. 
Cyrena olivacea, n. s 

= C. Fontainei, Desh. non D'Orb. 
Mexicana, Brod. Sf Soic 

Comp. C. Floridana, Conr. 

yar. = C. allilis, Gld. 

UnionidcB. 

Anodon ciconia, Gld. 

Corap. A. glauca, Val. 

Mytilid<s. 

Mytilus palliopunctatus, BJcr 

multiformis, n. s 

Septifer Cumiugiauus, Reel. 

Modiola capax, Conr 

Braziliensis, Chemn 

= M. Guyanensis, Lam. 

= M. semifiisca, Sow. (not Lam.) 

, var. mutabilis 

Crenella coarctata, Dkr 

Lithopbagus attenuatus, Desh 



Frcq. 



e. r. 
1 



1 

2 

1 

1 
e. r. 

1 

1 
e. r. 

c. 
V. r. 

1 

1 

2 

2 
V. r. 



1 
1 

n. u. 



e. r. 
e. r. 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

4 

3 

3 

1 



n. c. 
n. u. 



Other Localities. 



Pan., Gulf Nicoya and XipLx. 



S.W. Mexico, West Indies. 
Panama. 



Panama, St. Elena. 
West Indies. 
Sau Diego. 



Atlantic : Britain, — Canaries 

Fossil Crag ; Panama, 
Atlantic: .'ubiquitous. 



S.W. Mexico. 

Panama. 

S.Diego,LaPaz,Gal.,S.W.Mex, 
Guiana, Venezuela, Bay Guaya- 
quil, Panama. 

? New Zealand. 
Galapagos. 
Peru, .'Chili, 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 249 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



174 
175 
176 



1764 
176c 

177 

178 
179 



Lithophagus calyculatus, n. s. 

plumula, Hani. 

aristatus, Sol. 

=Modiola caudigera, Lam. 

= Mytilus ropan, Desh. 

, var. gracilior .... 

, var. tumidior 

cinnamomeus, Chemn. ., 

Leiosolenus spatiosus, n. s 

-, sp. ind 



180 
181 
182 



183 
184 



185 

186 
187 
188 
689 
189 
190 



191 
192 
193 

194 



195 
196 



197 



198 
199 



200 
201 
202 
203 

204 

205 



Areadce. 
Area grandis, Brod. Sf Sow 

— multicostata, Sow 

— Plabiata, Sow 

'i=A. labiosa, Sow. 

'i=A. incongrua, Say. 

— bifrons, n.s 

— tuberculosa, Sow 

-\-A. trapezia, Desh. 

■\-A. similis, C. B. Ad. 

— reversa, Grag , 

= A. hemicardium, Koch. 

— Pbrevifrons, Sow 

— emarginata, Sow , 

, sp. ind. (a) 

„ -. (*) 

Byssoarca Pacifica, Soiu 

mutabilis, Sow 

Con\\\, Area Americana, D'Oib. = imbricata, 
Brug. 

fusca, Brug 

vespertilio, n. s 

illota, Sow 

Comp. A. Tabogensis, C. B. Ad, 

gradata, Brod. &{ Sow 

}=A.sguamosa,La.m.=A.Domingensis, Lam, 

=Arca clathrata, Defr. 
Comp. B. divaricata, Sow. 
Comp. B.pusilla, Sow. 
Comp. A. donaciformis, Rve. 

— solida. Sow 

Pectunculus ineequalis, Sow. (non Gray) 

= P. pectiniformis, Wood (non Lam.) 
?+P. assimilis, Sow. 
= — ? multicostatus, Sow 

Nuculidce. 

Nucula exigua, Sow 

Leda Elenensis, Sow 



AviculidcB. 
Pinna maura, Sow 

- lanceolata, Sow 

- .'rugosa, Sow 

Avicula sterna, Gld. 

= A. Atlantica, Mke. 
Margaritiphora Mazatlanica, Hani, 

= A. fimbriata, Dkr. 
Isognomon Chemnitzianum,2)'Or5. 

= Pernaflexuosa, Sow. 



V. r. 
e. r. 



6. r. 
1 



V. c. 
2 
2 



e. r. 
V. c. 



1 

e. r. 
2 
1 



1 

1 

e. r. 

V. r. 



n. u. 
3 



com. 

11. u. 

v.r. 
n. u. 

V. r. 

n. u. 



Panama. 

Senegal, West Indies. 



Mauritius, Philippines, Cuba, 
Venezuela, Central America. 



Pan., Real Llejos, Bay Guayaq. 

Gulf Tehuantepec. 

Real Llejos, Tumbez, W. Indies. 



Panama, Real Llejos. 



Panama, Tumbez, 

Tumbez. 

Atacamas, Rl.Llej.,Xipix.,Pan, 



Sj;. Elena, Bijooga Island. 
Island of Plata, Panama. 



East and West Indies, 

Gulf Nicoya. 

St. Elena, Taboga, West Indies, 
and Fossil, 



Panama, Payta. 
Panama, Real Llejos, Puerto 
Portrero, Guayaquil, 

Ecuador, Guayaquil, 



Panama, Bay of Caraccas, 
Panama, St. Elena, 



Panama. 
Puerto Portrero. 
Panama. 
Panama. 



Panama, W. Indies, Conchagua. 



250 



REPORT — 1856. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



206 



207 
690 
691 



208 



209 
210 



211 



212 

213 
214 
214* 

215 



216 
217 



218 
219 



Isognomon Janus, n. s. 



Peetinida. 

Pectencircularis, Sow 

-, sp. ind. (a) 

-, sp. ind. (J) 



Spondylidce. 
Spondylus calcifer, n. s 

= S. Lamarckii, Hani. MS. 

— , sp. ind 

Plicatula penicillata, n. s 

= P. dubia, var. Sow. MS. 

Ostreadce. 

Ostrea iridescens, Gray 

? = O. spathulata, Lam. 
?=0. margaritacea, Lam. 
? = O. ceguatorialis, D'Orb. 
? = O. rufa, pars, Gld. 

— Virginica, Gmel 

? = O. ru/a, pars, Gld. 

— Columbiensis, Hani, .... 
conchaphila, n. s 

— (?? , var.) palmula . 

Comp. O. Cumingiana. 

— , sp. ind 



/inomiadee. 
Placunanomia pernoides, Gray . 
■= Tedinia pernoides, Gray. 

— foUata, Brad. 

-\-P.pectinata, teste Gray. 
-\-P. echinata, teste Gray. 

— claviculata, n. s 

Anomia lampe, Gray 



221 
222 



223 



224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 



692 



Class PTEROPODA. 

Unknown. 

Class GASTEROPODA. 

Subclass Opisthobranchiata. 

Order Tectibranchiata. 

Cylichnid(s. 

Cylichna luticola, C. B. Ad 

Tornatina infrequens, C. B. Ad. 

} = Bulla gracilis, Mke. 

— carinata, n. s 



Bullid<B. 

BuUa Adamsi, Mke 

Pnebulosa, Gld 

Quoyii, Gray 

exarata, n. s 

, sp. ind 

Haminea cymbiformis, n. s 

Philinid(B. 
Smaragdinella thecaphora, {Nutt.) n. 



2 

e. r. 

1 



V. r. 
n. u. 
e. r. 



e. r. 
2 



2 
V. r. 



n. c. 
e. r. 
e. r. 

2 

1 

1 



Guaymas. 

Panama. 

Bay of Fonseca. 

Senegal, Panama, Guacomayo. 



Atlantic, Panama. 

St. Elena. 

S.Diego.S.W.Mex., Pan.,W. Afr, 
Upper California, S.W. Mexico. 

San Diego, Panama. 



Senegal, Panama. 

S.W. Mexico, Island of MuertC; 
Guayaquil, West Indies. 



Monterey, La Paz,Pan.,Guayaq 



Panama. 
Panama. 



Sta.Barb., SanDiego, Guayma 
Galapagos. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 251 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



Subclass PULMONATA. 

Order Geophila. 

Testacellidce. 



230 
231 



232 



233 
234 



235 



236 



237 

238 



239 
2394 
240 
241 



Glandina Albersi, Pfr. 
— turris 



242 

2424 

243 



244 
245 
246 

247 



Helicidce. 

Orthalicus zebra, Mull. 

=Bulimus undatus, Lam. 
-\-B. melanocheilus, Val. 
-j- Orthalicus livens, Beck. 
+B. zigzag, Lam. 
-\-B. princeps, Brod. 

— Ziegleri, PJr 

— PMexicanus, Lam 



Order Limnophila. 

Aurieulidcs. 
Melampus olivaceus, n. s 

Limnida. 
Physa aurantia, n. s. 



P. Peruviana, Mke. (non Gray). 

elata, Gld. 

Planorbis tumens, n. s 

=P. tenagophilus, Mke., non D'Orb. 

Order Thalassophila. 

SipJionariada. 
Siphonaria Lecanium, Phil. 



-, var. palmata., 

- sequilirata, n. s 

-, sp. ind 



248 



Subclass Prosobranchiata. 
Order Heteropoda. 

lanthinidcB. 

lauthina striulata, n. s 

, var. contorta 

— decollata, nom. prov 

Comp. /. globosa. Swains., and /. prolori' 
gata, D'Orb. 

Order LateribraucMata. 

Bentaliad(B. 
Dentalium liratum, n. s , 

- hyalinum, Phil. , 

- corrugatum, n. s 

-pretiosum, Null 



Order ScutibrancMata. 

Chitonidm. 
Lophyrus articulatus, Sow ,.„., 



e. r. 
2 



e. r. 
1 



V. e. 
n. u. 



n. c. 
1 
1 



V. r. 

1 

1 
e. r. 



Brazils, Peru, Columbia, West 
Indies, Conchagua. 



San Diego. 



St. Elena, Guayaquil. 



Sandwich Islands, Nuttall. 



San Bias. 



252 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



249 
250 
251 
252 

253 

254 

254* 

255 

256 

257 

258 



259 
260 



261 
262 



263 



264 

265 
266 
267 

268 

269 

270 



Lophyrus albolineatus, Brod. Sf Sow, 

- striato-squamosus, n. s 

Tonicia Forbesii, n. s 

Lepidopleurus sanguineus, Rve 

Comp. Ch. limaciformis, Sow. 

— clatliratus, n. s 

— buUatus, n.s 

, var. calciferus 

— MacAndrese, n. s , 

— Beanii, n. s 

Chiton flavescens, n. s 

Acanthochites Arragonites, n.s 

PatellidcB. 

Patella Mexicana, JSrorf. ^ .yojt; 

= P. maxima, D'Orb. 

— pediculus, Phil. 

= P. corrugata, Rve. 

— discors, Phil. 

Nacella, sp. Ind 



Acmceida;. 

Acmaea mesoleuca, Mke 

= Patella diaphana, Rve , 

= Lottia } patina, C. B. Ad. (non Esch.) 

?-\-}A. personoides, Midd 

P-j-.'/^. eeruginosa, Midd 

+P. striata, Rve. non Quoy 

-\-A. mutahilis, Mke. pars. 

fascicularis, Mke 

•\-A. mutaMlis, Mke. pars. 

patina, Esch. (for syn. v. supra) 

persona, Esch 

scabra, Nutt., Rve., Jay 

Nou P. scabra, GId. 

— mitella, Mke 

=P.navicula, Rve. 
Scutellina naviceUoides, n.s 



Gadiniadae. 
Gadinia pentegoniostoma, Sow. 



271 

[272 
273 



274 
275 
276 

277 

278 
279 



280 
281 



Fissurellidce. 

Fissurella virescens, -Jow 

Barbadensis, Gmel.'] 

rugosa, ^010. 

-\-F. chlorotrema, Mke. 

+F. humilis, Mke. 

-\-F. viminea, Mke. 

nigrocincta, n. s 

, sp. ind 

alba, n. s 

'i-'t-F. gemmata, Mke. (jun.) 



Peruviana, Lam. 



spongiosa, n, s 

Glyphis inaequalis, Sow. .. 

-\-Fissvrellapica, Sow. 

-\-F. mus, Rve. 

alta, C.B.Ad. 

Rimula Mazatlanica, n. s. 



V. c. 
1 



V. c. 

1 

n. u. 



e. r. 
1 



1 ■ 

2 
n. c. 



e. r. 
e. r. 



Payta. 
Acapulco. 
S.W. Mexico. 



Central America. 
Panama. 
Kenai Bay. 



Galapagos. 

San Diego. 

N. & S. temperate America. 
Sitka — San Diego. 
Monterey &c., S.W. Mexico. 



\ 



Panama. 
West Indies. 
Galapagos. 



Peru, Lobes, Iquiqui, Is. Mexil- 
lones, Valparaiso. 

Guacomayo, Galap., St. Elena, 
Monte Christi. 

Panama. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 253 



Preq. 



Other Localities. 



282 



283 

283i 

284 

285 

286 



287 
288 

289 

290 

325 

291 
292 

293 

294 

295 
296 
297 
298 
299 
300 
301 
302 
303 
304 
305 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
315 
316 
317 
318 
319 
320 



Trochidce. 
Callopoma fluctuosum, Mawe 

= Turbo Fokkesii, Jonas. 

= T. fluctuates, Rve. 

Phasianella pei-forata, Phil. 

, var. striulata 

compta, Gld. 

Bankivia varians, jun., Beck 

Uvanilla olivacea, Maioe 

= Trockus brevispinosus, Val. 

= T. erythrophthalmus, Phil. 
}=T. Melchersi, Mke. 

— inermis, Gmel. 

= Trockus olivaceus, Phil, (not Wood) 
= U. varieffatus, Gray in B.M. 

— unguis, Mawe 

= Turbo diffiiatug, Desh. 

= Trockus amictus, Val. 
= T. stellaris, Mke. 

Trochus versicolor, Mke 

? = Zizipkintcs Califomicus, A. Ad. 
= T. eximius, Rve. 

— — MacAndieae, n. s 

? = r. minutws, Mke. 

, sp. iud 

OmphaUus Prugosus, var. rufotinctus .... 

— viridulus, Gmel 

=Pkorctcs varieffatus, A. Ad, 

= Trockus Brazilianus, Mke. teste Ad. 
+ T. Ei/ronianus, AVood. 
+ 7'. reticulatus, Gld. MS. 

— ligulatus, Mke 

?=PAorcus Califomicus, A. Ad. 

— globulus, n. s 

= Trockus glomus, Mke. 

Vitrinella Panamensis, C. B. Ad. 

— parva, C. B. Ad. 

— decussata, n. s 

— monile, n. s 

— monilifera, n. s 

— lirulata, n. s 

— subquadrata, n. s 

— bifilata, n. s 

— bifrontia, n. s 

— perparva, var. nodosa 

— exigua, C. B. Ad. 

— coronata, n. s 

— annulata, n. s 

— cincta, n.s 

— carinulata, n. s 

— naticoides, n. s 

— planospirata, n. s 

— orbis, n.s 

.'Liotia carinata, n. s 

— striulata, n. s 

— C-B-Adamsii, n. s 

— , sp. ind 

.'Globulus tumens, n.s 

Ethalia pyricallosa, n.s 

— lirulata, n. s 

— paUidula, n. s 



e. r. 

2 

1 

> 
e. c. 



e. r. 

1 

V. r. 
1 



1 

30 
30 
30 
7 
1 

16 
8 
4 
1 
6 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 



St. Elena, San Diego, Sitka. [?] 



Payta, Panama. 

San Diego, Sta. Barbara. 
Australia, S. Africa. 
S.W. Mexico. 



S.W. Mexico. 

Payana. 
Panama. 



? China. 
San Diego. 



Panama. 
Panama. 



Panama. 
Panama. 



254 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. 


Name. 


Freq. 


Other Localities. 


321 
322 
323 
324 

326 

327 

328 
329 

330 

331 

332 
333 

334 
335 

336 
337 
338 

339 
340 


Ethalia carinata, n. s 


2 
4 
2 
2 

n. c. 

n.u. 

c. 
a. 

r. 

1 

e. r. 
n.u. 

c. 
2 

e. r. 

3 

e. r. 

n.u. 
V. r. 


Is. Timor, Real Llejos, Panama, 
S.W. Mexico. 

Peru, Panama, S.W. Mexico. 

San Miguel. 
Panama. 

Pan., S.W. Mex.,Xip.& Salango. 

Is. Muerte, Panama, Acap., Sta. 

Barbara, Payta — Guayaquil. 

W. L, E. and W. S. Am., Africa, 
E. I., Australia, N. Zealand. 

W. Coast S. America passim, 
? Mauritius. 

Real Llejos, Panama. 
Bodegas, Da Fuca Str., Sta. Bar- 
bara, Panama. 

SanBlas.,Pan.,Payta, St.Elena, 
Xipixapi. 

Panama, ? S. and W. Africa. 


araplectans, ? n. s 


substriatum, n. s 

Neritid<B. 
Nerita scabricosta, Lam 


= N. ornata, Sow. 
+A''. Deshayesii, Reel. 
-{■N. multijuffis, Mke. 


= N.funiculata, Mke. 
Neritina cassiculum, Sow 




Order PectinibrancMata. 

Suborder Rostrifera. 

NariciddB. 
Vanicoro cryptophila, n. s. (=Narica cr.) 

CalyptrcEidm. 
Trochita ventricosa, n. s 




+ C. regularis, C. B. Ad. 
= C. LamarcMi, Mke. 
?+ C. Lichen, Brod. 


+ C. echinus, Brod. 
4-C. hystrix, Brod. 
4-C. costata, Mke. 
-j-C. Calif ornica, Nutt. 


-|- C. Peruviana, Lam. 

-|- C. depressa, Desh. 

+ C. patula, Besh. 

-j- C. Adolphei, Less. 

■\-C. nautiloides, Less. 

■\-C. strigata, Brod. 

4-C. arcuata, D'Orb. teste Gray. 
}'>+C. pallida, BroA. 
}-\-C.foliacea, Brod. 
?-i-C. Patagonica, D'Orb. (pars). 






= C. solida, Hds. 

= C. rostriformis, Gld. 

= C. rostrata, C.B. Ad. 

= C. uncata, Mke. 

= Gamotia solida. Gray. 


= C. hepatica, Mke. non Desh., nee C. B. Ad. 

nee Krauss. 


= C. 1 hepatica, C. B. Ad. non Mke. 
= C. amygdalus, Val. 
?=C. contorta, Mke. 
+ C. cerithicola, C. B. Ad. 
4-C. Patagonica-^protea, D'Orb. pars. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 255 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



341 



342 



343 



344 



345 

346 
347 

348 
349 

350 

351 

352 

352* 

353 

354 

355 



355J 

356 

357 

358 

359 



360 
361 
362 
363 



Crepidula nivea, C. B. Ad, 

-\-C. squama, Brod. 

-j-C. striolata, Mke. 

-f- C, Lessonii, Brod. 

-|- C. unguiculus, var. Brod. 

-\-C.protea, D'Orb. pars. 

Comp. C. explanata, Gld. = C. perforans, 
Val. = C. exuviata, Nutt, 

— unguiforrnis, Lam 

Patella crepidula, Linn. 

-\-C, Italica, Defr. 

-\-C. plana, Say. 

■j-P. goreensis, Gmel. 
Crucibulum imbricatum, Sow 

= C. scutellatum, Gray. 

= C. rugosa, Less, non Desh. 

-{■C. extinotorium, Sow. (non Lam.) = C 

dentata, Mke. 
— spinosum, Sow 

= C. peziza, Wood. 

-\-C. Mspida, Brod. 

-j-C. maculata, Brod. 

-f-C. tenuis, Brod. 

= C. tubifera, Less, 

?-|-C. rugosa, T)esh.= C lignaria, Brod.-|-C. 
quiriquinaiD'Orh. = C.Byronensis, Gray. 
Calyptraea cepacea, Brod. 



Hipponyx serratus, n. s 

} = H.'foliaceus, Mke. 

— antiquatus, Linn 

= Pileopsis mitrula. Lam. 

= Hipponyx Panamensis, C. B. Ad. 

— planatus, n.s 

— barbatus, Sow 

} = H. australis, Mke. 

— Grayanus, Mke 

=//. radiata, Gray (non Quoy nee Desh.) 

Capulus, sp. ind. (like C. militaris) 



Vermetidce. 

Aletes centiquadrus, Val. 

-\- Vermetus Peronii, Val. 

, var. imbricatus 

— margaritarum, Val. 

Vermetus eburneus, Eve 

.'Jun.= V. pellucidus, Brod. & Sow. 

PBivonia contorta, n. s 

?= Fermetus glomeratus,Mke.,C. B. Ad., non 

Phil, nee Linn. 
Comp. F. Panamensis, C. B. Ad. 

, var. indentata 

albida, n. s 

, sp. ind. (a) 

;— . (*) 

Petaloconchus macrophragma, n. s. 

CacideB. 

Caecum (Elephantulum) insculptum, n.s 

subspirale, n.s 

abnormale, n. s 

obtusum, n. s 



4 
V. r. 

1 

3 

n. u. 

2 

3 

V. r. 



V. r. 
3 
2 
1 

n. u. 



2 
12 
2 
6 



Panama, Is. Muerte, S. America, 
? Vancouver's Strait. 



Atlantic, both coasts ; Panama, 
Singapore. 



W.Coast America, Panama,Peru, 



W. Coast, Panama, Peru, Sta, 
Barbara. 



Is. Muerte, Panama. 



West Indies, Senegal, Lobos Is., 
Panama. 

Panama. 

Society Islands, Panama. 

Galapagos, Sandwich Islands, 
Panama, S.W.Mexico,Guinea, 



S.W. Mexico, Panama. 
S. America, W. Columbia. 



Panama. 



256 



REPORT — 1856. 



Name. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



364 



365 
366 



367 
368 



369 

370 

371 

372 
373 
374 
375 
376 
377 
378 

379 



380 



381 



382 



383 

384 
385 
386 
387 



388 

389 
390 
391 
392 
393 
394 



Caecum (Elephantulura) liratocinctum, n. s. 

-}-var. tenuiliratum. 

+var. subob.ioletum. 

4-var. subconicum. 

—^ lieptagonum, n. s 

(Anellum) elongatum, ii. s 

?+var. semilcBve. 

subimpressuni, n. s 

firmatum, C.B. Ad, 

■j-C. diminutum, C. B. Ad. 

-\-C. pygmcEum, C. B. Ad. 

-\-C. monstrosum, C. B. Ad. 

■\-C. firmatum, C. B. Ad. 

clathratum, n. s 

quadratum, n. s 

-|-var. compactum. 
undatum, n. s 

'i-\-C. 2)anum, C. B. Ad 

(Fartulum) Iseve, C.B. Ad 

farcimen, n. s 

— •^— glabriforme, n. s 

corrugulatum, n. s 

dextroversura, n. s 

reversuin, n. s 

teres, n. s 



Turritellidce. 

Turritella goniostoma, Val. 

= T. Broderipiana, D'Orb. 
-j- T. lentiginosa, Rve. 
?+ T. Hookeri, Mke. (non Rve.) 
'i-^-T. Banksii,Yiy&. 

— tigrina, Kien 

= T. imbricaia, Mke. (?non Lam.) 

?+T. Cumingii, Rve. 
P+r. leucostoma, Val. 

CerithiadcB. 

Cerithium maculosum , Kien 

= C. adusium, C. B. Ad. 
= C. nebulosum, Sow. 
.'var. = C. adustum, Sow. (non Kien.) 

— Pfamelicum, C. B. Ad., var. mediolaeve.. 
= C. umbonatum, Sow. — Mus. Cum. 
Comp. C. musica, Val. 

— .'uncinatum, Gmel. 

= C.famelicum, C. B. Ad. pars, teste Sow. 

, sp. ind. (a) 

— alboliratum, n. s 

, sp. ind. (4) 

— stercus-muscarum, Val. 

= C. irroratum, Gld. 

= C. ocellatum, Mke. (?non Brug.) 

— interruptum, Mke 

? = C. Gallapaginis, Sow. 

Vertagus gemmatus, Hds 

— , sp. ind 

Triforis alternatus, C.B. Ad. 

— inconspicuus, C. B. Ad. , 

- ?infrequens, C.B. Ad. 

Ceritbidea Montagnei, D'Orb , 

= Cerithium Reevianum, C. B. Ad. 
Comp. C.pulchrum, C. 13. Ad. 



50 



14 



12 

43 



320 
170 



5 
1 

20 
1 
5 



Panama. 



Panama. 
Panama. 



Acap., S.W. Mex., Pan., Payta, 
Salango, Guacoraayo. 



Conchagua. 

Acap., Gal., S.W. Mex., Taboga, 

Panama, S.W. Mexico. 
Panama, S.W. Mexico. 

Acap., S.W. Mex., Pan., Galap. 

Panama, Galapagos. 

Panama. 

Panama. 
Panama. 
Panama. 
Guayaquil, Panama. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 25? 



No. 



NamBi 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



395 



396 



397 
398 
399 
400 
401 

402 
403 



404 
405 
406 
407 

408 
409 
410 
411 
412 
413 
414 
415 
416 
417 

418 



419 
420 
421 
422 



423 



424 



425 

426 
427 
428 
429 
430 
431 
432 
433 
434 



Cerithidea ? varicosa, var. Mazatlanica. 
= Cerilhium validum, C. B. Ad. 

Litorinidce. 

Litorina conspersa, Phil. 

+i. puncticulata, Phil. 

= L. modesta, Mke. non Phil. 

— aspera, Phil. 

— Philippii, n, s 

— , sp. ind 

— fasciata, Gray 

Modulus catenulatus, Phil. 

= M. trochiformis, Eyd. & Soul. 
— , sp. ind 

— disculus, Phil , 

= M. duplicatus, var., A. Ad. 

= M. dorsiiosus, Gld. 
Fossarus tuberosus, n. s 

— angulatus, n. s 

— (Isapis) maculosa, n. s 

— ? , sp. ind 



Rissoid(B. 

Rissoina stricta, Mke 

-, sp. ind 

— Woodwardii, n. s 

Barleeia llrata, n. s.* 

Alvania excun'ata, n. s 

— effusa, n. s 

— tumida, n. s 

— , sp. iud 

?Cingula, sp. ind 

Hj'drobia ulvse, Perm 

=Paludinella stagnalis, Midd. 
? , sp. ind 



Jeffreysiadce. 
Jeifreysia bifasciata, n. s 

— Alderi, n. s 

— tumens, n. s 

— , sp. ind 



* Truncatellidce. 
TruQcatella, sp. ind 



Planaxidts. 
Planaxis nigritella, Forbes 

= P. acutus, Mke. 

~\-P. obsoletus, Mke. 
A.laba supralii-ata, n. s 

Comp. Ctngula tervaricosa, C. B. Ad. 

violacea, n. s , 

terebralis, n. s 

alabastrites, u. s 

scalata, n. s 

— conica, n. s 

— mutans, nom. prov 

— laguncula, nom. prov 

— , sp. ind. (a) 

— (*) 



n. u. 

c. 

3 
V. r. 
u. u. 

1 

3 



3 

2 

e. r. 

1 

1 
2 



90 
3 
13 
2 



50 



Guayaquil, Panama. 

Real Llejos, Panama. 

Sitka, Mexico, S. Salvador,Pan, 



Tumbez, Panama. 
Taboga, S. America. 



Acapulco. 



Europe, Caspian, United States, 
Ochotsk Sea. 



San Juan. 



Jamaica. 



* The absence of typical 
notice. 
1856. 



among so many species of small shells is deserving oi 

S 



258 



REPORT— 1856. 



435 



436 



437 

438 

439 
440 
441 
442 



443 
444 



445 
446 



447 



448 
449 



450 

451 

452 
453 
454 
455 

456 



457 



458 
459 



460 
461 



462 
463 

464 
465 
466 
467 



Ovulidee. 
Radius variabilis, C.B.Ad. 

= O. Califomica, Sow. 

Cyprmidoe. 
Cyprjea exanthema, Linn 

}+C. cervus, Linn. =cervina, Lam. 

-\-C. cervinetta, Kien. 

Luponia Pspurca, Linn 

Aricia arabicula, Lam 

}-\-yi. punetidata, Gray. 
Trivia pustulata, Lam 

— radians; Lam , 

— Solandri, Gray 

— sanguinea, Gray 

-{•T./usca, Gray. 

-\-C. lathy rus, Dufresne. 

— pulla, Gask 

— subrostrata, Gray 



Cancellariada. 
Cancellaria urceolata, Hinds . . 
goniostoma, Sow 

Strombidm. 
Strombus galeatus, Swains. .. 

= S. galea, Wood. 

= iS'. crenaius, Sow. 

graniilatus, Sivains 

gracilior, Sow 



Suborder Toxifera. 
Terebridm. 
Terebra (Myurella) albocincta, n. s. .. 
?= 71 armillata, Mke. (non Hinds). 

Hindsii, ?n. s 

subnodosa, ?n. s 

rufocinerea, ?n. s 

Subula luctuosa, Hds 

Euryta fulgurata, PMl 

= Terebra arguta, Gld. 
aciculata, (?Lam.) Hinds 



Pleurotomidee. 

Pleurotoma funiculata, Fal. 

= P. olivacea, var. Rve. a pr. man. 

maculosa, Sow 

Drillia incrassata. Sow 

= Pleurotoma Bottm, Kien. 

rudis, Soiv '. 

aterrima, var. Melchersi 

} — Pleurotoma maura, Val. 

>-\-P. atrior, C. B. Ad. 

?-)-P. discors, Sow. 

cerithoidea, n. s 

— zonulata, Rve 

= Pleurotoma cincta, Sow. non Lam. 

— monilifera, n. s 

albovallosa, n. s 

— atronodosa, n. s 

•^— luctuosa. Hinds (1843), non D'Orb. 



Freq. 



1 

6. C. 



V. r. 
n. u. 



n. u. 
1 



e. r. 
n. c. 



3 
1 

1 

1 

3 

n. u. 



Other Localities. 



Pan., San Juan, Sta. Barbara. 



West Indies, Pacific Islands. 



Atlantic. 
S.W. Mex., Pan., St. Elena and 
Real Llejos. [Lat. 1-10°. 
S.W. Mexico, Panama, Is. Plata, 
St. Elena, Panama, Acapulco. 

St. Elena, Panama. 



Galapagos, Bay Guayaquil. 



Gulf Papagayo, San Bias. 
Conchagua, San Salv., Taboga. 



Gulf Nicoya, Taboga, S.W. Mex 



St. Elena, Gal., Pan., S.W. Mex 
St. Elena, Panama, La Paz. 



Gulf Nicoya, Puerto Portrero. 
East Africa. 

Acapulco, Xipixapi, 



San Bias, S.W. Mex., G. Nicoya, 

W. Columbia. 
Panama, Monte Xti. 

Monte Xti. 

Monte Xti, Panama. 



Monte Xti, Xipixapi, Panama. 



Bay Guayaq., Gulf Magdalena. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 259 



No. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



468 
469 
470 
471 
472 
473 
474 



475 
476 
477 



478 
479 
480 
481 
482 
483 



484 
485 



486 
487 
488 
489 
490 
491 
492 
493 
494 
495 
496 
497 
498 
499 
500 
501 
502 
503 
504 
505 
506 
507 
508 
509 
510 
511 
512 
513 



Drillia Hanleyi, n. s 

, sp. ind. (a) 

. (*) 

Clathurella rava, /f2?Mfe=Defrancia r., Hds. 

— aurea, n. s 

Mangelia ? acuticostata, var. subangulata..., 
Cithara, sp. ind 



ConidfB. 

Conus regularis, Sow 

Comp. C. arcuatus, Br. & Sow. in Z. B. Voy. 
non Rve. 

purpurascens, Brod 

-\-C. comptus, Gld. 

Comp. C. interruptus, Brod. & Sow. 

— regalitatis, Sow 

? = C. purpurascens, var. 

? = C. acliatinus, Mke. 

— arenatus, Brug 

— puncticulatus, Hivass 

— gladiator, Brod. 

— nux, Brod. 

— Pscalaris, Val. 

, sp. ind. (a) 



Suborder Proboscidifera. 

Solar iadcB. 

Torinia Pvariegata, Lam 

= Euompfialus radiatus, Mke.- 

— ? granosa, Val 

"i = Solarium fenestratum, Hds. 



PyramideUidce. 
Obeliscus Pconicus, C. B. Ad.... 

Odostomia sublirulata, n. s 

-, sp, ind 

— lamellata, n. s 

— subsulcata, n. s 

— vallata, n. s 

— mamillata, n. s ; , 

— tenuis, n. s , 

(Auriculina), sp. ind. (a) 

, (b) 

, W 

Parthenia scalariformis, n. s. ... 

quinquecincta, n. s 

lacunata, n. s 

armata, n. s 

exarata, n. s 

ziziphina, n. s 

Chrysallida ovata, n. s 

nodosa, n.s 

— rotundata, n. s 

— oblonga, n. s 

— communis, C. B. Ad. 

— telescopium, n. s 

— Reigeni, n. s 

— efifusa, n. s 

— fasciata, n. s 

— ovulum, n. s 

— clathratula, n.s 



1 
n. c. 

r. 
e.r. 

1 

1 



1 
1 
1 
4 
4 
10 
1 
2 
3 
2 
1 
2 
2 

7 . 
12 
2 
1 

12 
5 

10 
5 
500 
13 
1 
1 

20 
70 
1 



Gulf Nicoya. 



Gulf Nicoya, Pan., Guaymas. 



Panama, San Blas,Is.Annaa[?]: 
S.W. Mexico. 

Real Llejos, Pan., S.W. Mexico, 



East Indies. 

Panama, S.W. Mexico. 
Galapagos, Taboga. 



Panama, West Indies. 
Acapulco. 

Panama. 



Panama. 



Panama. 



s 2 



260 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. 



514 

515 

516 

517 

518 

519 

520 

521 

522 

523 

524 

525 

526 

527 

528 

529 

530 

531 

532 

533 

534 

535 

536 

537 

538 

539 

540 

541 

542 

543 

544 

545 

546 

547 

548 

549 

550 

551 

552 

553 

554 

555 

556 



Name. 



Chrysallida convexa, n. s 

— Photis, n. s 

— indentata, n. s 

— clausiliformis, n. s 

Chemnitzia ? Panameusis, C. B. Ad. 

C-B-Adamsi, n. s 

?similis, C. B. Ad 

aculeus, C. B. Ad. 

muricata, n. s 

Paffinis, C.B.Ad 

prolongata, n. s 

gibbosa, n. s 

, sp. ind. (a) 

— . — w 

-. — w 

-, — w 

gracillima, n. s 

— undata, n. s 

— flavescens, ii. s 

— terebrans, ii. s 

— temiilirata, u. s 

— unifasciata, n. s 

— (Dunkeria) paucilirata, n. s... 

subangulata, n. s 

cancellata, u. s 

iutermedia, n. s 

PEuUmella obsoleta, n. s 

, sp. ind. (a) 

,-^(«) 

-, — w 



Aclis fusiformis, n. s 

tumens, n. s 

Eulima .' hastata, Soiv 

, sp. ind. (a) 

. (*) 

Leiostraca ? recta, C. B. Ad. 

- ? solitaria, C. B. Ad. . . . 
-, sp. ind. (a) 

-, — w • 

- linearis, n. s 

— ? iota, var. retexta 

— ? distorta, var. yod ... 



557 

557* 

558 

559 

560 

561 

562 

563 



564 
565 
566 
567 

568 
569 



Cerithiopsid(E, 
Cerithiopsis tuberculoides, n. s., 



-, var. alboDodosa . 

• cerea, n. s 

■ pupiformis, n. s 

• Sorex, n. s 

■ convexa, n. s 

' decussata, n. s 

■ assimilata, C. B. Ad. 



Scalariadm. 



Scalaria hexagona, Soiv.. 

suprastriata, n. s. 

, sp. ind. (a) 

. (*) 

raricostata, n. 



Freq. 



2 

2 

2 

4 

1 

12 

6 

6 

5 

1 

6 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

5 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

1 

6 

2 

3 

2 

3 

1 

1 

1 

2 

34 



9 
3 
1 
4 
4 
1 
2 
20 



Other Localities. 



.'Panama. 



?Panama. 
Panama. 



PPanama. 



? Java. 

St. Elena. 



Panama. 
Panama. 



(Cirsotrema) funiculata, ?n. s. 



.'Panama. 

West Indies, Atlantic, Britain. 



Panama. 



Acapidco, Panama. 



Panama. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 261 



Name. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



570 



571 
572 
573 
574 
575 
576 



577 

578 



579 



580 



581 



582 
583 
584 

585 



586 

587 
588 
589 



590 

591 
592 
593 



594 



NaticidcB. 
Natica maroccana, Chemn 

— Nerita marochiensis, Gmel. (non Lam.) 
-\-Naf.ica lurida, Phil. 

-\-N. unifasciata, Lam. pars (non nonnull.) 
-{■N. Chemnilzii, Pfr. non IlecI. = A'. Prit- 

chardi, Forbes. 
?-\-N. iostoma, Mke. 
Comp. N. tessellata, Phil. 

— , sp. ind 

Lunatia tenuihrata, n. s 

— , sp. ind. (a) 

- — w 

-, — w 

Polinices uber, lal , 

^-A'. alabaster, Rve. 
= N. ovum, Mke. 
Comp. N. rapulum, Rve. 

Lamellariadm. 
Lamellaria, sp. ind. (a) 

- (*) 

Ficulidce. 

Ficula ventricosa, Sow 

= Bulla decussata, Wood. 

Tritonidm. 
Triton (Argobuccinum) nodosum, Chemn. .., 
= Triton Chemnitzii, Gray. 
=Fusics Wiegmanni, Anton. 
= Cassidaria setosa, Hinds. 
= Triton perforatus, Conr. 

Turbinellidce. 

Turbinella caestns, Brod. 

= T. ardeola, Val. 

Faseiolariadce. 

Lathirus ceratus, Gray 

Leucozonia cingulata, Lam 

Fasciolaria princeps, Sow 

= F. aurantiaca. Sow. (non Lam.) 
Mitra lens, Wood 

= Tiara foraminata, Swains. 

= Mitra Dupontii, Kien. 
Strigatella tristis, Brod. 

Volutidce. 
Marginalia minor, C.B.Ad. 

— polita, n. s 

— margaritula, ?n. s 

Comp. M. oviiliformis, D'Orb 

Olividce. 

Oliva angulata, Lam 

= Voluta incrassata, Dillw. 

— Melchersi, Mke 

— intertincta, ? n. s 

— ? venulata, Lam 

+ 0. araneosa, C. B. Ad. 

= O. reticidaris, var., Rve. 

— Duclosi, Rve 



1 
2 
1 
5 
2 
n. u. 



e. r. 
e. c. 
n. u. 



200 
6 
30 



V. r. 
20 
n. u. 



Guaymas, Panam a, S . W. Mexico, 
Demerara, Philippines, Aus- 
tralia, E. and W. Africa, Red 
Sea, Pacific Islands. 



Acapulco, ? Panama, Peru. 



Acapulco, S.W. Mexico, Panama 
(Havre Col. only). 

Panama. 



Bay Caraccas, Taboga. 



Galapagos, Panama, S.W. Mex, 

W. Mexico, Panama. 

Peru. 

Pan., St. Elena, Is. Plata, LaPaz, 



St. Elena, Galapagos, Panama. 
Panama. 

West Indies. 

Pan., G. Nicoya, B. Magdalena, 

Panama. 



262 



REPORT — 1856. 



Name. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



595 

596 
597 
598 
599 
600 



601 

602 



603 



604 
605 



606 



607 



608 
609 



610 
611 



612 
613 



614 



615 



616 
617 

618 

618i 

619 

620 

621 

622 

623 

624 



Olivella undatella, Lam 

= Vohita tenebrosa, Wood. 

— tergina, Duel. 

— aiiazora, Dud. 

— ?petiolita, var. aureocincta 

— inconspicua, C. B. Ad 

— daraa, Mawe 

= 0. lineolata. Gray = O. gracilis, Duel. 
= 0. purptirata, Swains. 

— zonalis, Lam 

Aragonia testacea, Lam 

= Oliva hiatula, Duel, pars (?non Lam.). 

PurpuridcE. 

Purpura patula, Linn 

= P. pansa, Gld. 

columeUaris, Lam 

murieata, Gray 

= P. cassidiformis, D'Orb. = P. truncata. 
Duel. 

biserialis, Blainv 

=P. bicostalis, Rve. (? non Lam.) 
=P. hcemastoma, Mke. (?non Linn.) 
= P. undata, Val., C. B. Ad. (non Lam.) 
+P. consul, Mke. (non Lam.) 
.' -(-•?• hmnaiura, Val. 
Comp. P. Floridana, Conr 

— triserialis, Blainv 

=P. speciosa, Val. 

= P. centiquadra, Val. 

— triangularis, Blainv 

= P. Carolensis, Rve. 

Cuma kiosquiformis, Duel. 

-{-Purpura scalariformis. 

— costata, Blainv 

Comp. Purpura diadema, Rve. 

Rapana (Rhizocheilus) nux, Rve 

?-\-Rh. Calif amicus, A. Ad. 

Vitularia salebrosa, King 

= Murex vitulinus. Gray (non Lam.) 

Nitidella cribraria, Lam 

= Columbella mitriformis, King ? = Valuta 
oeelata,Gme\. = Bueeinumparvulum,T)kT. 
+C. guttata, C. B. Ad. 
— , sp. ind 



Buceinida. 
Columbella major, Sow 

= C. strombiformis, var. Kien. 
•' = C. gibbosa, Val. ? = C. paytalida, Kien. 

strombiformis, Lam , 

fuscata, Sow , 

= C. meleagris, Kien. 

? cervinetta, n. s , 

, var. obsoleta 

.'Metula, sp. ind. (a) 

— , — w 

-. — w 

-. {d) 

Nassa luteostoma, Brad, if Sow 

= N. xanthastama, Gray. 

— tegula, Rve 

= Buecinum tiarula, (Kien.) B. M. 



e. c. 

3 
v. r. 

20 



n. u. 
e. r. 



n. c. 
n. u. 



1 

2 
2 
7 
2 
1 
e. c. 



Acapulco, Panama. 

Conchagua. 
Xipixapi. 
? West Indies. 
? West Indies. 



Acapulco. 

Acapulco, Real Llejos, Panama. 



Senegal, W. Indies, Philippines, 

Galapagos. 

Acapulco, Monte Xti, Panama, 



West Indies. 
Acapulco. 

Galapagos, Taboga. 
Panama, La Paz. 



Panama. 

West Indies, Panama, Ascension 
Island, Africa, Java. 



Panama, S.W. Max., Is. Muerte, 



Is. Muerte, Panama, Payta. 
Pan., San Bias, Acap., Mte Xti, 
St. Elena. 



Acapulco, Real Llejos, Panama. 



ON MOIiLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 263 



No. 



Name. 



Freq. 



Other Localities. 



6244 

625 

626 

627 

628 

629 

630 

631 

632 

633 

634 

635 

636 

637 

638 



639 



640 

641 

642 

643 

644 

645 

646 

6464 

646 e 

647 



648 
649 
650 
651 

652 
653 
654 
655 
656 
657 
658 
659 

660 
661 



662 



663 
664 



Nassa tegula, var. noduUfera, Phil. 

— acuta, n. s 

— , sp. ind. (a) 

— («) 

-. — w 

-, — w 

- — w 

— .'gemmulosa, C.B. Ad. 

.'versicolor, C. B. Ad. 

— crebristriata, n. s 

-, sp. ind. (/) 

-, {9) 

-. (A) 

-, — (0 

PyrulidtB. 

Pyrula patula, Brod. 8( Sow 

= P. melongena, var'., Sow. 

MuricidcB. 

Fusus pallidas, Brod. &( Sow 

=Pyrula lignaria, Rve. 
vax. = Pyrula turbinelloides, Rve. 
Comp. P. anomala, Rve. = Neptunma anceps, 
A. Ad. : also P. lactea, Rve. 

— tumens, n. s 

— apertus, n. s 

— , sp. ind. (a) 

-, — w 

PCotninella, sp. ind 

Anachis scalarina, Sow 

— costellata, Brod. Sf Sow 

— ? , var. pachyderma 

— ? , var 

— coronata, Sow 

}-\-Columbella costata, Val. 

? = Columbella terpsichore, Mke. (non Sow.) 
Comp. Buecinum gilvum, Mke. 

— ?fulva, Sow 

— nigrofiisca, n. s 

— serrata, n. s 

pygmsea, Sow 

} -\- Columbella costulata, C. B. Ad 

— Gaskoignei, n. s 

— rufotincta, n. s , 

albonodosa, n. s 

, sp. ind. (a) 

— . — w 

— (Strombina) maculosa, Sow 

— .' , sp. ind 

Pisania insignis, Rve 

= Buecinum mutabile, Val. pars (non Linn.) 

aequilirata, n. s 

gemmata, Rve 

= Buecinum gemmulatum, Mke. 

=B. undosum,fem., Kien. (non Linn.) 

= B. mutabile, pars, Val. 
sanguinolenta. Duel. 

= Pollia hcemastoma, Gray. 

= Buecinum Janelii, Val. 

= Tritonium verrueosum, Mke. MS. 

ringens, Rve 

Murex pUcatus, Smv 



e. r. 

4 

2 

1 

2 

2 

1 

5 
e. r. 

1 

1 

2 

2 

1 



1 

6 

1 

1 

1 

3 
v. r. 
V. r. 

1 
e. r. 



1 
6 

12 
e. r. 

1 

15 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
V. c. 



PPanaraa. 
.'Panama. 



Acapulco, Bay Caraccas, Pan. 



Callao, Hds. 



Panama, Chiriqui. 
Panama. 



Acap., Quibo, S.W. Max., Pan. 



S.W. Mexico, Panama. 



St. Elena, Panama, .'W. Indies. 

West Indies. 

Callao. 



Guacomayo. 

St. Elena, Panama. 

Monte Xti. 
Panama. 



Panama. 
Gulf Nicoya. 



264 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. 


Name. 


Freq. 


Other Localities. 


665 

666 

667 
668 

669 

670 

671 
672 

673 
674 
675 
676 




n. c. 
c. 

1 

n.u. 
e. r. 

c. 

r. 

1 

3 
3 
2 
r. 


Gulf Nicoya, Panama. 

Real Llejos, Guacomayo. 
Acapulco. 

Acapulco, S.W. Mex., Panama. 

Puerto Portiero. 
St. Elena, San Bias. 

Panama. 
Acapulco. 


= M. mcssorius, Mke. iiou Sow. 
Comp. M. niijrescens, Sow. 


+1/. amliguus, Rve. 




= M. ducalis, Brod. & Sow. 


= M. erythrostomus, Swains. 

= M. regius, Sell. & Wagn. (non Swains.) 

Ysx. — M. hippocastanum, Phil. 


= M. tricolor, Val. 




Comp. M. radicatus, Hds. 


Perinaceoides, var. indentatus 







218 



Analysis of Species. 

BRYOZOA 16 

PALLIOBRANCHIATA 1 

LAMELLIBRANCHIATA I ^'^^^^^^^^*"' ^jH 

GASTEROPODA: Opisthobranchiata.'.'.'. 10 

{Land 5'\ 
Freshwater... 3> 12 
Sea 4j 

Prosobranchiata : Heteropoda 2 

Lateribranchiata ... 4 

Scutibranchiata 82 

Pectinibranchiata : — 
Rostrifera ... 120 

Toxifera 34 

Proboscidifera 193 

347 



43.5 



457 



Total 



692 



Or thus; 



-Bryozoa 16 

Land Shells 5 

Freshwater Shells 7 

Sea Shells 664 



Total , 



692 



52. In January 1850, Conrad published in the Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc. Phi- 
ladelphia, a list of "new and interesting shells from the coasts of Lower 
California and Peru, presented to the Academy by Dr. B. Wilson." It is not 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 265 



stated in which of these two widely separated localities each species was 
found. They are as follow : — 

Solecardia [genus described] eburnea, Conr. 

Petricola siniiosa, Conr.=P. robusta, Sow. 

Pholadopsis pectinata. [The genus here described is the Jotiannetia of Desm.j 
the Triomphalia of Sow.] 

Parajiholas hisulcata, Conv.=^Pkoladidea melanura. Sow. 

Penitella Wilsonii, Com\-=:Parapholas acuminata, Sow. 

Triton perforatus, Conr. ^Triton Chemnitzii, Gray. 

Oliva propatula, Com'.=0. testacea, Lam. 

53. The following are extracted from the fourth edition of the Catalogue 
of the Collection of Dr. Jay, New York, 1850*. 



1421. Pectunculus pectinoides, Desh. 

Cuv. Regn. An. pi. 87. f. 8. Pa- 
nama. 
2057- Anodon Montezuma, Lea, Trans. 

Am. Ph. See. viii. pi. 23. f. 55. 

Central America. 
2494. Spondylus pictoriwm, Chenu. W. 

Mexico. 
2610. Terebratula uva, Brod. Kiist. 

Conch. Cab. pi. 2 6. f. 8-10. 

Gulf Tehuantepec. 
3346. Helix areolata,Sow. Kiist. Conch. 

Cab. pi. .36. f. 10-12. Pfr. no. 

393. Columbia River. 
3737. Helix griseola, Pfr. Kiist. Conch. 

Cab. pi. 60. f. 17, 18. Pfr. no. 

885 = cieercula, Fer.= splendi- 

dula, Anton. Mexico. 
4419. Helix spirulata, "Pfr. Kiist. Conch. 

Cab. pi. 30. f. 11-14. Pfr. no. 

56. Real Llejos. 
3437. Helix Buffoniana, Pfr. Phil. Icon. 

pi. 9. f. 2. Pfr. no. 507. 
3808. Helix imperator, Montf. Fer. pi. 

52. f. 4 : 52 B. 1-3. Pfr. no. 789. 

Central America. 
3852. Helix labyrinthus, Chemn. vol. xi. 

pi. 208. f. 2048. Pfr. no. 1035. 

Central America. 
3919. Helix lucubrata, Say, Descr. New 

Shells, p. 13. Pfr. no. 245. 

Mexico. 



4204. Helix plieata. Born. Guer. Mag. 

Zool. 1838, pi. 10. Pfr. no. 1036. 

=^Carocolla labyrinthus, Lam. 

= C. Ilaydiana, Lea. Panama, 

Porto Cabello. 
5056. Bulimus pimctalissimus, Less. var. 

Voy. Coq. p. 329. pi. 15. f. 3. 

Pfr. no. 215. Mexico. 
5090. Bulimus Schiedeanus, Viv.'^xan- 

thostomus, Wiegrn. Pfr. no. 505. 

Phil. Ic. pi. 1. f. 12. Mexico. 
5922. Cyclostoma Mexicanum, Mke., 

Thes. Conch, pi. 25. f. 93. Pfr. 

no. 10. Mexico. 
6287. Lymnaa ferruginea, Hald. Mon. 

pi. 13. f. 19, 20. Oregon. 
6366. Physa osculans, Hald. Mon. pi. 2. 

f. 11, 12. Mexico. 
6454. Melania Largillierti, Phil. Ic. pi. 

2. f. 10. Central America. 
6491. Melania subnodosa, Phil. Ic. pi. 4. 

f. 18. Central America. 
7421. Trochus moestus, Jonas, Phil. Ic. 

pi. 6. f. 5. California. 
7859. Cancellaria bifasciata, Desh. Lam. 

A. s. V. p. 413 =C. oblonga, 

Kien. Panama. 
8816. Columhella Boivinii, Kien. Ic. p. 

47. pi. ll.f. 1. GulfNicoya. 
10,078. Cyprcea eglantina, Duel. Guer. 

Mag. Zool. 1833, pi. 28= C.Ara- 

6 jc«, teste Jay. California [?]. 



54. During the winter of 1850-51, Prof. C. B. Adams of Amherst College, 
Massachusetts, visited Panama for the express purpose of making collections 
for the College Museum, and obtaining exact information on points connected 
with habitat and station. Although he only remained thirty-eight days on 
the spot, he collected — 

Gasteropoda 38,920 specimens of 376 species. 

Lamellibranchiata . . 2,860 „ 139 „ 

Palliobranchiata .... 50 ,, 1 » 

41,830 516" 

* The localities in this Catalogue, unless confirmed from other sources, must be received 
with great caution. The work is, however, very useful, if only for the list of species, and 
references to an extensive library. 



266 REPORT — 1856. 

Prof. Adams had before collected about the same number of marine species 
at Jamaica ; and, holding the theory that no species could be common to the 
two oceans, he was well qualified to detect any sources of error which might 
have militated against his own hypothesis. The very minute discrimination 
also to which he had accustomed himself in his researches among the land 
shells of Jamaica, would at once prevent him from confounding similar 
species. And as he visited no other spot than the shores of Panama, and 
the neighbouring island of Taboga, there is no danger of the admixture of 
specimens from different localities. The results of the expedition were " read 
before the Lyceum of Natural History, May 10th, 1852," and published in 
their Annals, vol. v. They also appear under a separate form as a " Cata- 
logue of Shells collected at Panama, with Notes on their Synonymy, Station, 
and Geographical Distribution, by C. B. Adams, Professor of Zoology, &c. 
New York, 1852, pp. 334, Svo." The author gives all his references from 
personal research : quotes every assigned habitat, with authorities (discri- 
minating original testimony by the mark !) ; and, in addition to his own 
remarks, states the number of specimens from which he writes. He was not 
able to dredge, nor to make observations on the animals: but for the shore 
shells, including the minute species, there is scarcely anything left to be 
desired. The author describes 157 as new species: of the value of many of 
these there will be two opinions. Prof. Adams in his work on Jamaica shells, 
"Contributions to Conchology,"' pp. 84 et seq., gives up the common opinion 
that species are natural groups, while genera, &c. are artificial : and as he 
believes that there are different species as well as varieties of mankind, it is 
natural that he should distinguish as species of shells what others might con- 
sider varieties, and as varieties what may be accidents of growth. To the 
discerning reader, however, this does not interfere with the extreme value of 
the work. In a branch of inquiry so overburdened with carelessly observed 
or recorded facts, the freedom from the usual sources of error is a matter of 
the first importance. Where a species has originated in a mere theory, as 
in the case of common types from the two oceans, the student is at once on 
his guard. Where it arises from deficiency of materials, as in the C<eca, 
additional knowledge will soon set the error right. And in the present state 
of our ignorance, to designate forms as species which will hereafter have to 
be united, is much more pardonable than to overlook differences, all of which 
should be carefully noted before we can obtain a Natural history of any 
single species*. There appear to be three stages in our progress towards 
truth. In the first, objects are united, simply because their differences are 
not appreciated : as when Dione hipinaria was considered a variety of Venus 
dione, Linn., simply because they were each spiny. In the second, minute 
differences are appreciated, while their harmonies are overlooked. Such is 
the present ordinary condition of conchological science, as represented in 
the Achatinellce, Cylindrellce, Anomiada, &c. In the third, species are re- 
united, with a full perception of the differences among them, from a greater 
knowledge of the range of variation of which living creatures are susceptible. 
This third stage, when faithfully performed on sufficient evidence, should not 
be spoken of as " confounding species," and is one of the greatest pieces of 

* In the " Researches on the Foraininifera," Trans. Roy. Soc. 1855, p. 228, Dr. W. B. Car- 
penter stateSj that "multitudes of species" will be shown in the present Report to "have been 
instituted in various genera of Calif oniian sliells by the late Mr. C. B. Adams, whose identity 
is established by a more extended comparison of individuals." This sentence appears simply 
to embody the impression left by conversation, and not to do justice to the Professor. As I 
am answerable for the impression I made, I have to request that those who possess the 
Transactions will make the following corrections : — For " multitudes of species" read " several 
species," and for " Californian shells " read " shells of Jamaica and Panama." 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 26? 

service that can be rendered to science : when carelessly wrought, as when 
an author herds together the species of his neighbour, simply because he has 
not been able to examine them himself, it truly makes " confusion worse con- 
founded." For the first great requirement in a scientific writer, patient and 
laborious accuracy, this, the last work of Prof. Adams (for he died in 1853) 
stands in the very foremost rank. The following is an analysis of its con- 
tents, for comparison with the fauna of the Gulf of California. It will be 
observed that the species are arranged in alphabetical order, which may 
sometimes prevent their affinities from being noted. The new species are 
described in Latin, with measurements, and with an accuracy which often 
makes it safer to identify shells from them alone, than from the showy plates 
and loose diagnoses of some works of the greatest pretensions. 

Prof. C. B. Adams's Panama List. 

N.B. True and falsely assigned habitats are both quoted : the reader will thus judge of 
the present state of the science. Original authorities are cited in italics. Added synonyms 
are enclosed in brackets [ ] . 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



other Localities. 



Ovula avena, Sow 

— emarginata, Sow. 

— neglecta, n. s 

— variabilis, n. s. ... 



on small Gorgonia, l.s.* 



with 0. avena. 

onGorgonise: coloured 

accordingly, 1. s. 



,sp. 



[? = O. variabilis, var.] 
Cyprsea arabicJa, Lam. . 



— cervinetta, Kien 

—exanthema, var., Hinds. 

— punctulata, Gray 

\)=C. arabicula, var.] 

— pustulata, Lam 



u. stones, 8-20 in. 1. n. 
u. stones, 15-20 in. 1. s- 

with C. arabicula. 
under large stones, 1. s. 



10 



- radians, iam 

= C. oniseus, Wood, err. typ. 



— lahescens, Gray 

— sanguinea, Crrat/ 

Erato scabriuscula. Gray . . 

= Marg. cyprmola, Sow. 
=3/. granum, Kien. 
Marginella minor, n. s 

— sapotilla. Hinds 



under stones, I. w. 



Mitra funiculata, Rve. . 

— lens. Wood 

— nucleola. Lam 

— soUtaria, n.s 

— tristis, Brod. 

Terebra elata. Hinds.... 

— larvaeformis, Hds., 



Moving quickly on li- 
quid mud, above l.w. 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



• robusta, Hds. . 
■ specillata, Hds.. 



6 
7 

13 
56 



7 
115 
335 
28 

2 



10 
40+ 

23 
24 
11 
1 

28 
4 
2 

5 
12 



Conchagua, Cum, ; Sta. Barbara, Jewett, 
St. Elena, Cum. 

St. Juan, Green ; Sta. Barbara, Jewett. 



Acapidco, Humb. ; Brazil, Ravenel ; St, 

Elena & Real Llej., Cum. 
Antilles & Senegal, Kien.; Ind. Oc., Jay, 

Peru and N. Holland, Kien. 

China, Humphrey; Acapulco, Humb.; 

Isl. Plata, Cum. 
Adriatic, Wood ; Acapulco, /ft«»2}. ; Chili, 

Ravenel ; St. Elena, under stones, 

Cum. 
Galap., under stones, Cum. 
St. Elena, u. s.. Cum. ; Mexico, Soto. 
Mazatlan, Jewett ; Acapulco, Sloat ; St, 

Elena, Cum. 



Is. Plata, in coral sand, 14 fm.. Cum. 

Red Sea, Kien. ; La Paz, Rich. 

Java, Kien. 

Panama, Bridges. 

St. Elena and Gal., Cum. 

Montija, 15 fm. coarse sand, Hds. 

St. Elena & Mte. Xti, 6-15 fm. sandy 

mud, Hds. 
8° 57—21° 32', Hds. 
San Bias, Hds. 



* The following abbreviations are used: — l.w. low water; s. spring tides; n, neap tides; 
h. high water ; ^-t. half-tide ; -|- above ; — below ; «. $, under stones, &c. 



268 



REPORT — 1856. 



37 



40 



41 



42 



Terebra tuberculosa, Hds 

varicosa, Hds 

, like specillata 

, slender brown 

, siuallobvaceouSjWhiteband 
, small and delicate 



-. sp 

Oliva angulata, Lam 

— araneosa, Lam 

[?=0. venulata,i;&x.'] 

— inconspicua, n. s 

\l=0.nivea, D'Orb.] 

— pellucida, Rve 

— porplijria, Lhin 

C. B. A. cites 42 references 

for this well-known species 

— semistriata, Gray 



— testacea, Lam 

— undatella, Za»w 

= Voluta tenebrosa, Wood. 

— venulata, Lam 

= 0. reticularis, var. Rve. 

— volutella, Lam 

= V. cmridea, Wood. 

Planaxis planicostata, Soiv 

= Buccinum planaxis, Wood. 

= Plan. canalimlata, Duv. 

Nassa canescens, n.s 

eollaria, Gould, MS 

corpulenta, n. s 

? —festiva, Powis. 
gemmulosa, n. s 

— glauca, n.s 

- luteostoraa, Brod. 8{ Sow.. 



invastnumbers,quickly 

crawling on wet sand. 

under stones, h.w.—it 



59 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



on sand, in run. water, 
between tide-marks. 



49 nodifera, Pws 

50 pagodus, i?z;e 

= Buccinum decussatum, Kien. 

(nee Linn, nee Lam.) 
= Triton pagodtts, Rve. 

Panamensis, n. s 

proxima, n. s ■. 

\J = N. versicolor, var.] 

scabriuscula, Pivs 

striata, n. s 

versicolor, n. s 

Wilsoni, n. s 

Buccinum crassum, Hds 

= Phos crassus, Hds. 

581 distortum, BUgh 

I =Pollia distort a, Gr&y. 
= Columbella triumphalis. 
Duel. 

— — insigne, Rve 

= mutabile, Val. [pars.] 

— lugubre, n.s 

— pagodus, i?«;e 

— pristis, Desh 

= B. serratum, K\&ii 



u. stones, above 1. w. 



as in N. luteostoma. 



175 

20 
15 

1 

4500 
1200 



1 
5 
17 

1 

32 
330 

40 
22 



1500 
1 

380 

2 
500 

5 

1 



Other Localities. 



Papagayo, San Bias, Hds. 
Papagayo, Hds. 



Nicoya, Cum. ; Peru, Desh. 
Magdalena, Duel. 



Brazil, Linn. ; Panama, Lam. ; La Paz, 
Green ; sandy mud at low water. Cum. 

Salango, rapidly moving by hundreds in 

wet sand. Cum. 
Real Llejos, sandy mud, 6 fm.. Cum, 
Sand and mud banks, 1. w., Cum. 

La Paz, Green. 

Mexico, California, Duel. 

Galapagos, Cum. 



crevices of rocks be- 
tween l.w.s. &l.w.n. 



under stones in sand 

under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 

1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. n. 



95 



Senegal, Kien. ; Real Llejos & Acapulco, 

Lesson. 
Galapagos, coral sand, 6-10 fm., Cum. 
B. Montija, Cum. ; Vi'. Africa, Kien. ; 

Peru, Petit. 



Panama, Bridges. 

Montija, sandy mud, 12 fm.. Cum. 



G. Fonseca, Hds. 

N. Holland, Kien.; Chili, Desh.; St 
Elena, Cum. 



140 St. Elena, Cum. 



175 

18 

6 

275 



San Bias, Burtt ; California, Desh. ; 
St. Elena, Cum. 



ON MOLIiUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 269 



Name. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens, 



Other Localities. 



67 



76 



I 87 

i 88 
; 89 



Buccinumringens,7?»e.(notPAi/.) 

— sanguinolentum, Duel 

= Pollia hmmastoma, Gray. 
=B. Janellii, Val. 

— Stimpsonianum, n. s 

Dolium ringens, Swains 

=Malea latilabris -f- crassila- 
bris, Val. y. Syn. 
Monoceros brevidentatum, Wood. 

= Purp. cornigera, Blainv. 

-\-P. ocellata, Kien. 

-j-P. maeulata, Gray. 

cingvUatum, Ifood 

Purpura Carolensis, live 

[ = P. triangularis, Blainv.] 
foveolata, n. s 

[? = P. biseriatis, jun^. 
kiosquiformis, Duel. .. 



under stones, I. w. n. 
under stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 

under& between stones 

extreme low water. 

on and between rocks, 

i-t.+ 



275 
16 



19 



300 



— , sp. ind , 

[=P. kiosquiformis, var. 
=P. scalariformis. Duel.] 

— ratio, Desh 

= P. crassa, Blainv. 

=P. melones, Duel. 

— osculans, n. s 

\1 = Rhizocheilus nux.'] 

— tecta, Wood , 

— P. callosa. Sow. 
=P. angulifera, Duel. 
= Cuma sulcata, Swains. 
= Turbinella eallosa. Less. 

— undata, [quasi Lam.'\ ... 
[=P. biserialis, Blainv.] 

ColumbeUa atramentaria. Sow. 

— bicaualifera. Sow 

— Boivinii, Kien 

— conspicua, n. s. (.'Auachis). 

— costellata, Brod. i*)* Sow. 

— diminuta, u. s. (Anachis) 

— dorsata. Sow 

— fluctuata. Sow 

= C. suturalis, Griff. 

— fulva, Soio 

— fuscata, Sow 

= C. meleagris, Kien. 

gibberula, S'ow 



gracilis, u. s. (? Anachis) ... 

— guttata, Sow. (prim, non 
postea.) 

\_ = Nitidella cribraria, Lam. 
= Buccinum parvulum, Dkr.] 

— ha:mastoma, Sow 

— harpiformis. Sow 

= C. citharula, Duel. 

— labiosa. Sow 

— lyrata, -Sojo 

— major, Sow 

= C. gibbosa, Val. 

= C. strombiformis, var., Kien. 



clefts of rocks, 1. w. 75 

under stones and in! 20 
crevices of rock, 1. w.l 

under stones, 1. w. | 3 



on rocks and trees, 
A-t. to h.w. n. 



170 
1 



sides and crevices of! 150 
rocks,^ — f tide. 



crevices of rock, 
1. w. n.— 1. w. s. 



under stones, I. w. n. 
under stones, 1. w. 



pools in rocks, ^—^ 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. n. 

under stones, 1. w.+ 
under stones, 1. w.-j- 



under stones, 1. w.-j- 



under stones, 1. w, 

under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, l.w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



60 



180 

3 
36 

50+ 
1 

25 
19 
1 

400 

3 
6 



7 
150 



1 

9 

10 
19 
30 



9 by 7 in., Barnes. Adult, 23 in.,C.B.Ad 
Quito Is., Guayaquil, Don Pedro Aba- 
dea ; Peru, Capt. Skiddy ; Payta, Cum. 

Peru, Chili, Kien. ; Payta, Fontaine \ 
Xipixapi & Mte Xti, Cum.; Monte- 
rey, Rich ; San Francisco, Jewetf. 

VV. Mexico, Humboldt. 
Charles Island, Galapagos, Cum. 



N. Holland, Duel. ; La Paz, Green. 



Mte Xti, under stones, low water, Cum. 



Chili, Kien. ; Real Llejos, Less. ; Pana^ 
ma, 10 fm. sandy mud. Cum. 



Mte Xti, Cum. ; Acapulco, Humb. 

Chatham Island, Galapagos, Cum. 
sandy mud, 10 fm., Galapagos, Cum, 
Nicoya, Hinds. 

Panama and Africa, Gray. 

Fs. Muerte, Guayaquil, Cum. 
Nicoya, Cum. ; Peru, Kien. 



Panama, St. Elena, Mte Xti, Cum. ; San 
Bias, Kien. ; Acapulco, Less. 

Bay Carac. and P. Portr., sandy mud, 
11 fm.. Cum.; Cliili, Kien. 

East Indies, Ascension, Gorea, Kien. ; 
Java, Leschenault ; West Indies. 



Pan. & Gal., u. s.. Cum. ; Calif., Kien. 
Pan., on dead shells, 10 fm.. Cum. ; Ma- 

zatlan, Mke. 
St. Elena, Cum. 
Panama & Chiriqui, Cum. 
Is. Muerte, Cum. 



270 



REPORT — 1856. 



95 



96 
97 

98 

99 

100 

101 



102 
103 
104 
105 

106 
10 
108 
109 

110 

111 



112 

113 
114 
115 

116 
117 



118 
119 
120 

121 
122 

123 
i,24 

125 
126 

127 

128 
129 
130 

131 

132 



Columbella modesta, Poiois . . 
= Buccinum m., Pow. 
= Truncaria m, H. & Ad. 

— moesta, n. s. (? Anachis) 

— nigricans, Sow 

— parva, 5ow 

— pulchrior, n. s. (? Nitidella) 

— pygnisea, Sow 



-rugosa, Sow 

= C. Sowerhyi, Duel. 
= C. bicolor, Kien. 
strombiformis, Lam 

— tesselata, n. s. (Anachis).. 

— turrita, Soiv 

— varia, Sow. [non varians, 
Sow.] 

-. sp 

Ricinula Pearbonaria, Rve. ... 

— jugosa, n. s. (Engina) ... 

— Reeviana, C. B. Ad 

= Buccinum pulchrum, Rve 

Cassis abbreviata, Blainv 

= C. lactea, Kien. 

— coarctata, Sow 



Oniscia tuberculosa, Rve., 



Conus brunneus, Wood 

— gladiator, Brod. .. 

— mahogaui, Rve. . . 



■ — rmx, Brod 

— princeps, Linn 

= C. regius, Chemn., Lam. 
= C. Hneolalus, Val. 

— purpurascens, B7-od 

— regalitatis , Sow 

— regularis, Sow 



— vittatus, Lam 

Strombus galea, Wood... 

= S.galeatus, Gray. 

— gracilior, Soiv 

— granulatus, Swains, 



— Peruvianus, Sioains 

Triton Cheranitzii, Gray 

—Argoh. nodosum, Chemn. 

— constrictus, Brod 

? = r. deeussalum, Val. 

fusoides, n. s , 

gibbosus, Sro(? 

Bgnarius, Brod 



vestitus, Hds 

, var. senior 

Ranella caelata, Brod 

=R. semigranosa, Kien. non 
Lam. 



sticks & stones, ^--t. + 
u. s., i-t. — 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, L w. 

u. stones, ^-t. — l.w.n. 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



clefts of rocks, I. w. 

u. s. with sand, I. yf. 

crawling on verywet s. 

L w.— i-tide. 



under stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



1. w. 



sandy beach, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



u. s., l.w. n.— 1. w. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



80 



58 
620 

1 

5 
185 

1500 



1 

27 

1 

380 

1 

70 

1 

110 



4 
70 
17 

2 
9 



12 

9, 3 in, 

1 

4 
fragm. 

1 

7 

24 

9 



1 
5 
1 

4 

1 

190 



Other Localities. 



Montija, muddy gravel, 7-1 7 fm.. Cum, 
Sta. Barbara, Jewett, 



Galapagos, Cum. 

Mte Xti, under stones, Cum, 

St. Elena, on dead shells, sandy mnd, 

10 fm.. Cum, 
Pan. & Xipix.,C«>n. ; Real Llej., Morch, 



Is. Muerte, Cum, ; Payta, Font. . . 
Montija & St. El., s. m., 10 fm., Cum. 

Philippines, Jay. 
Galapagos, Cum, 
Portugal, Bonanni ; Acapulco, Rve. 

?N. Zealand, Sow.; Shores of Peru, at 
Acapulco, Kien. ; Gal. in crevices of 
rocks, Cum. ; San Juan, Green. 

Gal., clefts of rocks, 1. w., Cu7n. ; Au- 
straUa, Jay ; San Juan, Green. 

Gal., P. Portr., Pan., Cum. 

Salango, Cum. 

Galapagos, Cum. 

Asia, Dilhv. ; Philippines, Jay ; San 

Juan, Green; Mte Xti,&St.El., Cum 

Annaa, Sow. ; San Bias, Hds. 
Real Llejos, Cum. ; Peru, Kien. 
Nicoya & Peru, soft mud, 7 & 23 fm., 
Hds. ; Philippines, Kien .; Guaymas, Gr. 
Pan. & Mont., coarse sd., 7-11 fm., Cum, 
Nicoya, reefs, 1. w., Cum, ; Peru, Gray. 

Calif. & Tahiti, Jay ; La Paz, Green. 
India, Kien.; St. El. & Gal., sandy mud, 

6-8 fm., Cum.; La Paz, Green. 
Caraccas, on reefs. Cum. ; Peru & ?Red 
[Sea, Duel. 

Mte Xti & Xipix., sandy mud, 7-1 fm., 
[Cum, ; Acap., Hds. 

Pan. & Mte Xti, coarse sand, 7fm., Cum. 
P. Portr. & Pan., sandy mud, 7-12 fm., 

Cum. ; Mte Xti., Hds. 
Real Llejos, Nicoya & Honda, among 
[rocks on shore, Hds. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 271 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



Other Localities. 



139 
140 
141 

142 
143 
144 
145 
146 

147 
148 
149 
150 

151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 

159 
!l60 
161 
162 
163 
!164 

;165 
1166 
167 
168 

169 

170 
171 
:i72 
ll73 

;i74 

1 

p5 

[76 

'.77 
,78 

l!79 



Ranella nana, Brod. &( Sow 

nitida, Brod 

plicata, Rve 

Murex dubius, Sow 

= M. aculeatus,Wd., non Lam. 

erosus, Brod. 

radix, Schroet 

=melanomathos, Dillw. pars. 

[Non M. ambiguus, Rve.] 

rectirostris, Sow 

recurvirostris, Brod 

regius, Swains 

=M. tricolor, Val. 

salebrosus. King 

? ^dbex, Brod 

vittatus, Brod. 

Pyrula patula, Brod. 8f Sow 

Ficula ventricosa. Sow 

=Bidla decussata, Wood. 

Fusus bellus, n. s 

Fasciolaria granosa, n. s 

Turbinella Cfestus, Brod. 

— castanea, G^-ay 

= T. acuminata, Rve. 

— cexs-ta. Wood 

— rudis, i?i;e 

— spadicea, Rve 

Cancellaria affinis, n. s 

clavatiila, Soiv 

decussata, 5'o!« 

goniostoma. Sow 

mitriformis, Soiv 

-\-C. uniplicaia. Sow 

pulchra, aSom) 

pygmaea, n. s .- 

solida, Sow 

tesselata, Sow 

Pleiirotoma aterrima, Sow 

atrior, n. s 

[? = P.aterrima,ynr.Melc/iersi.'] 

bicanalifera. Sow 

coUaris, 5ow 

concinna, n. s. (?Mangelia) 

corrugata, Sow 

-\-P. turricula, Sow. 

discors, 5oit> 

[?-}-•?. aterrima. Sow.] 

duplicata. Sow 

.'excentrica, Soiu 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 
about stones, with 
sandy mud, 1. w. 



crevices of rocks, 

I. w. n.-l. w. s. 

under stones, 1. w. 

under stones. 



stones in mud, 1. w. 

sand beach, 1. w. 

crevices of rocks, 1. w. 

crev. of rocks & u. s. 



under stones, 1. w. 



exigua, n. s 

gemmulosa, n. s 

grandimaculata, n. s 

= P. zomdata, teste Cum. 
incrassata, .yojiJ 

=P. Bottce, Kien. 
nigerrima, S'ow 

+P. cornuta, Sow. 

— obeliscus, Rve 

olivacea, Sow 

[Comp. P.funiculata, Sow.] 
pallida, Sow 



2 

300 

6 

72 

2 
100 

5^ in. 
22 oz. 

1 

1 

18+ 

14 

13 

1 

1 + 



1 

7 
2 
32 



30 
15 
3 
8 
2 
1 
5 

2 
1 
1 
2 
14 
1 

1 
4 
1 
3 



12 



Is. Panama, Phil., Sow. 
Caraccas, Cum. 



Caraccas, Cum. ; Acapulco, Humb. 



Xipix., sandy mud, 11 fm., Cum. 
Nicoya, sandy mud, 9 fm., Cum. 
Peru, Bligh ; Acap., Humb. 

Southern coast of S. A., Sow. 

St. Elena, sandy mud, 6-12 fm,, Cum. 

I. Muerte, sandy mud, 11 fm,. Cum, 

Caraccas, mud banks, Cum. 

San Bias, Kien. ; India & China, Desh, 



Peru, Kien. 

Caraccas, mud in rocks. Cum. 



Maz., Kien. ; Galapagos, Cum. 



Pan. & Payta, sandy mud, 7 fm,. Cum, 
Pan., Puert. Por., s.m. 10-13 fm,, Cum. 
Conchagiia, S. Salvador,sd.,8fm,, Cwwe, 

1 sp., sandy mud. Cum. 

2 sp, sand, 10 fm.. Cum. 

Sand, 8-10 fm,, St. Elena, Cum. 

R. Llej.&St. Elena, 8-10 fm., %A.,Cum. 
Carac.,St.El.,Xip., s.m. 7-10fm.,CM»w. 
Mte Xti, Cum. 



Montija, sandy mud, 10 fm., Cum. 
Caraccas, muddy sand, 8 fm,, Cum. 

Mont.&P. Portr., sdy.md., 10fm.,CM>w< 

I. Plata, coral sand, 17 fm., Cum. 

P. Portr. &Mont., sdy. rad., 10fm.,C«m 
Coral sand, 6 fm. ; Galap., Cum. 

Philippines, Cum. MS. 

Pan. & MteXti,sdy.md,,6-10fm,,C«w, 

Carac, sandy mud, 6-10 fm.. Cum, 



Salango, St. Elena, sdy. md., 5-12 fm., 

Ctim. ; mud, 4-7 fm., Nicoya, Hds, 
P. Portr., sandy mud, 13 fm,, Cum, 



m 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



Otber Localities. 



180 
181 
182 

183 
184 

185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 

193 

194 

195 
196 



197 
198 



199 

200 

201 

202 

203 
204 

205 

206 

20 
208 
209 
210 

211 

212 

213 
214 
215 
216 



Pleurotoraa rigida, lids 

— rudis, Sow 

— rustica, Sow 

= P. thiarella, Kieii. 

— striosa, ii. s 

— zonulata, Rve 

= P.cincta, Sow., non Lam. 



under stones, 1. w. 



- sp 

-, sp 

Mangelia, sp 

— . sp 

— . sp 

— , sp 

— neglecta, n. s 

— .'sulcosa 

'^ = Columbella sulcosa, Sow. ... 

Cerithiiiiu adustura, Kien. (plate) 
= C. maculositm, Kieu. text. 

— assimUatum, n. s 



under stones,!, w. n. — 
wet sand, u. s., ^-tide. 



bimarginatum, n. s 

famelicura, n. s 

N.B. The description does 
not agree with the type sp. in 
Mus. Cum., and accords better 
with C. ? uncinaium, duel., 
also found at Mazatlan. 

' gemmatum, Hds 

? interruptum, Mke 

[ = C. Gallapaginis, Sow. : non 
C. interriqjtum, Sow. quasi 
Gould.] 

, sp. ind '. 

= C. intemqytuin, var. 

irroratum, Gould 

= C. sterctismuscarum, Val. 
neglectum, n. s 



u. s., sponges, 1. w., 
marine plants, &c. 



on & under rks. & st. 
i-tide— 1. w. n. 



— Pacificum, Soiv. .. 
= C. Humboldti, Val. 

— pauperculum, n. s. 

— pulchrum, n. s 



rock-pools, i-tide+ 

u. s. in dead shells & 
sponges, 1. w. 



Reevianura, n. s 

[ = CerithideaMontagnei,T>'Oih.] 
validum, n. s 

[ = Ccrilhidea varicosa, Sow.] 

Triphoris alternatus, n.s 

inconspicuus, n. s 

infrequens, n. s 

Turritella Banksii, Rve 

[l^tigrina, Kien.] 
Caecum diminutum, n.s 

\_=firmaturn, jun.] 
eburneum, n. s 

\_=firmatum, van] 

firmatum, n. s 

laeve, n.s 

laqueatum, n.s 

monstrosum, n. s 

l=firrnatum, adol.] 



^buried in muddy sd. 

under bushes at h. w 

ditto ditto 



ditto 



ditto 



under stones, 1. w. 



among & under St., in 
calc. sd.,l.w.n. — l.w.s. 



20 
2 
10 

13 
2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
170 



206 



19 
1100 



30 

820 

33 

1 

2 
125 

190 

250 

5 
16 

2 
350 

1 

22 

85 
2 
2 
7 



Mte Xti, under stones, Cum. 
Xipixapi, Cum. 



Mte Xti & Xipix., sand and gravel, 
7 fm., Cnrn. 



Annaa, & Ld. Hood's Ts., Cum. 
Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Kiener. 



Curaana, Humh. 



Sandy mud, 10 fni., Cum, 



ON MOLLtJSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 273 



No, 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



Other Localities. 



217 

218 

219 
220 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
226 
227 
228 
229 
230 
231 

232 

232 

i233 

'23-4 
i235 
236 

237 

238 
239 



124:; 

1243 

1244 

1245 

246 

1247 

!248 

•249 

250 

251 

252 

253 

254 

255 

256 

25 

258 

259 

260 

261 

J62 

!63 

!64 

;65 

,66 



Caecum parvum, n. s 

[? = C. undatum, jun.] 

— pygmaeum, n. s 

[= C. firmatum, jun.] 

Chemnitzia aculeus, n. s 

acuminata,n.s.(?Chrysallida) 

— affinis, n. s 

clathratula,n.s.(Chrysallida) 

— communis, n.s.(Chrj'sallida) 

— gracilior, n. s 

— major, n. s 

marginata,n.s.(ChrysaIMa) 

— Panamensis, n. s 

— similis, u. s 

— striosa, n. s 

— turrita, n. s 

?Littorina angiostoma, u.s. (.'Fos 

sarus.) 

— aspera, Phil 



under stones, 1. w. 



sand, ^-t.— h. w. 



ledges or large pieces 
of rock, h. w. + 



, var. 

atrata, n. s. 



conspersa, PAzV. 

- excavata, n. s. (Fossarus) 
fasciata, Gray 



in or near cavities of 

rocks, ^-tide— h.w. 

large piecesof rk.,h. w. 



foveata, n. s. (.'Fossarus).. 

megasoma, u.s. (.'Fossarus) 

— Pparvula, PA27.,var.dubiosa. 
[Comp. L. Philippii.^ 

— pulchra, Sow 



on trks. & brs. of small 
trees, ^-t.— h. w. 



— puncticulata, Phil. 
\_ = conf^ersa, var.] 

— varia 



Rissoa clandestina, n. s 

firmata, n. s 

fortis, n. s 

.' inconspicua,n.s.(non^W.) 

infrequens, n. s 

Janus, n. s 

notabilis, n. s 

scalariformis, n. s 

. sp 

PCingula inconspicua, u. s 

paupercula, u. s 

? terebeUum, n. s 

.' turrita, n. s 

.'Litiopa saxicola, n. s. (Cingula) 
.'Adeorbis abjecta,n.s. (Fossarus) 

VitrineUa concinna, n. s 

exigua,n.s 

Janus, n. s 

miouta, n. s. (Teinostoma) 

— modesta, n. s 

— Panamensis, n. s 

— parva, n. s 

— perparva, n. s 

— regularis, n. s. 



cav. of rough ledge of 

rocks, h. w.-f 
on mangroves, grow- 
ing from mud, h. w. — 
on pieces of rk., h. w. 

on trunks & branches 
of trees, ^-t.—h.w. 



under stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 



4 
1 
2 
10 
90 
2 
1 
2 
11 
2 
1 
3 
3 

2400 

33 
3300 

320 

1 
160 

2 

1 

600 

11 

80 

300 

2 
1 

31 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
1 
1 
7 

40 
1 
7 
1 
4 
1 

24 
13 
3 
1 



" Sitcha, San Salvador, Mex.," Phil. 



Real Llejos. 



Real Llejos. 

" Pan., Guay., Cusma, Peru," Phil. 
Chiloe, Petit. 



1856. 



274 



REPORT 1856. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



Other Localities. 



267 
268 
269 
270 
271 
272 
273 

274 

275 
276 
277 



278 
279 



280 

281 

282 

283 
284 
285 
286 
287 
288 
289 
290 
291 
292 
293 
294 
295 

296 

297 



under stones, 1. w. 
Li. s., 1. w. n.— 1. w. s. 



Vitrinella seminuda, n. s 

tricarinata, n. s 

valvatoides, n. s 

Solarium, sp. (like granulatum).. 

, sp. (like quadriceps) 

, sp. (? = Torinta variegata) 
Trochus catenulatus, Phil. (Mo- 
dulus.) 

coronulatus, n. s. (? Om- 
phalius.) 

Leanus, n. s 

lima, Phil 

lividus, Phil, (Modulus)... 
[=eitherdts««te, Phil, or dor- 
suosus, Gld., teste types.] 

Panamensis, Phil under stones, 1. w, 

pellis-serpentis. Wood on or under laige st. 

T. strigilatus, Phil. or rks., -J-tide. Most 

active at twilight. 

reticulatus I under stones, 1. w. n. 

[} = viridulus, Gmel.] 

Turbo Buschii, Phil on or under stones, 

[= Uvanilla inermis, Kien.] 1. w. n.— 1. w. s 

? pliasianella, ? n. s 

= Litorina phasianella, Phil. 

— rutilus, n. s 

— saxosus, Wood 

Scalaria hexagona, Sow 

obtusa. Sow 

sp 

sp 

sp 

Eulima iota, n. s 

recta, n. s 

solitaria, n. s 

Pyramidella, sp 

conica 

NaticaCbemnitzii,P/r.(noni)/Ae.) 
[ = maroccana, Chemn.] 

— ?lurida, PM 

Otis, Br. Hf Sow 

[? = Gallapagosa, Reel.] 



298 
299 
300 

301 
302 
303 
304 



305 
306 



.' Salangonensis, Reel. .. 

Souleyetiana, Red. 

.'virgiuea. Reel. ( = }uber, 

Val. teste Mus. Gld.) 

. sp • 

, sp. { = uber, Val.) 

, sp. like Haneti 

Merita scabricosta, Lam. (non De- 
lesser t = costata) . 

— ornata, Sow. 

■\- Deshayesii, Reel. 

, sp. = Be7~nhardi, Reel... 

Neritina Guayaquilensis, Sow. . . . 

-\-intermedia, Sow. teste Reel. 



rocks, 1. w. n. 



on Holothuria. 



soft mud, 1. w. 

{sand beach , ^ buried 
in sand,^-t. — . The 
horny opercula were 
eaten by rats, off 
Cape Horn, 
sdy. mud, ^-t.— 1. w, 



wet sand, i-t.— 1. w. 
wet sand. 



1 
1 
3 
3 
3 
6 
23 



65 
505 



600 
180 
112 

1 + 
160 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

5 

1 

1 

1 

60 



rocks, especially ere 
vices, h. w.— f-t. 
young, above h. w. 

rks. & St. , ^-t. — 1. w. n. 

above highest tides, 
among sticks and 
leaves, in muddy 
places overflowedby 
fresh water. 



Sta. Barbara, Jewett, 
Acapulco, Jewett. 



Acapulco, Humh. ; California, PhU. 



10 
4 
40 

200 

2 

1 
400 



2800 
90 



Acap., Moffat. 

St. Elena, sandy mud, 6 fra.. Cum. 



Guaymas, Green. 



Callao, Petit. 

Real Llejos, Sow. ; California, Phil..; 
Is. Timor, Reel. 



Real Llejos, Guayaquil, Cum. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 275 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



Other Localities. 



Sentina,Tpicia,,Sow.{nonHosninff.) 

[N.B. Lieut. Green's specimens 

quoted from San Miguel as 

of extraordinary size, are pro 

bably N. cassiculum, Sow.] 

Pedipes angulata, n. s 

Auricula acuta, B'Orb 

=Marinula Recluziana, Cum 

MS. 
— concinna, n. s , 



strictly marine : sticks 
and stones in grov^, 
^-t. + : dirty places 
on rocks, i-t. — . 

under stones, h. w. 
under stones, h. w. 



— ■ infrequens, n. s. 
— Panamensis, n. s. 



— stagnalis, B'Orb. 

-\-papUlifera, Kust. 

Tabogensis, n. s. 



- trilineata, n. s 

-. sp 

Truncatella Balrdiana, n. s. 



on short mangrove 

suckers, h.w. 

under stones, h. w, 

U.S., h. w., or crawling 

over vyet stones, 
under heap of stones, 

above h. w. 

on and under stones 

and rocks, h. w. 



3 ?? dubiosa, n. s.(?Assiminea) 

; l' Bulla (Tornatina) infrequens, n.s, 

i| (Cylichna) luticola, n. s, 

punctulata. Ad. 

—punctata, Ad. 

Z — 'SP 

V ermetus glomeratus, (quasi) 
Lam. pars. 

[ = Aletes ? eentiquadrus, Val.] 

Panamensis, Rouss 

Stomatella inflata (? Sigaretus)... 

Hipponyx, sp. (.' subrufa) 

.'barbata 

Comp. Pileopsis pilosus, Desh. 
Guer. Mag. 1832, pi. 19. 
Panamensis, nom. prov. 

[ = antiquatus, Linn.] 

radiata, Sow. (non Quoy, 

nee Lam.) 

[_= Grayanus, Mke.] 
Calyptraea aberrans, n. s 

[? = Crep. unguiformis, var.] 

— (Syphopatella) aspersa, n. s. 
\_= Galerus.'] 

^ cepacea, Brod. 

— covica., Brod. 

— ditntaia., Mke 

=rugosa, Rve. non Desh. 

" ;[= Crucibulum imbricatum,'vax.'\ 

•3- (Calypeopsis)hispida,firorf. 

j , [= Cruc. spinosum, pars.] 

P irabricata, Brod. 

W maculata, firod. (non Quoy) 

[=Cruc. spinosum, pars.] 

•■ planulata, n. s 

- radiata, Brod. 



under stones, h. w. 
under heap of stones 

h. w. s. 
under heap of stones, 

h. w. s. 



on liquid mud, 1. -w. 



rocks & stones, l.w. n. 

attached by end of 

spiral portion, 
rocks & stones, l.w. n. 



stones and shells, 1. w. 

stones and shells, 1. w 
stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 
dead shells, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 



on oyster, J-t. — 



290 



90 
3 



74 

6 
650 

36 

800 

1 

2 

400 

550 

2 

28 
25 

1 

25+ 



10+ 
1 
2 
12 



14 
16 

1 

3 

4 
12 
8 

20 

2 
2 

1 
10 



Pan., on mud-bank partially overflowed 
with fresh water, Cum. 



Guayaq., near brackish water, Fontaine. 



Guayaquil, marsh and even fresh water. 
Font. ; I. Tumaca, Cum. MS. 



Acap., Jewett ; sandy mud, 10 fm., Cum 

attached by one side of all the whirls. 
Coral reefs, Toubouai, Soc. Is., Cum. 



Lobos Ts., on stones in coarse sand 

17 fm.. Cum. 
Panama, Galapagos, on rocks, Cum. 



sandy mud, 11 fm.. Is. Muerte, Cum. 
Xipix., SaL, ou shells, deep water, Cum. 



Is. Muerte, on dead shells, sandy mud, 

12 fm., Cum. [J)' Orb. 

on St., sdy. md., 6-10 fra., Cum. ; Payta, 

Is. Muerte, on dead shells, in sandy 

mud, 11 fm., Cum. 

Caraccas, sdy. mud on dead shells, 7-14j 
fm., Cum. 

t2 



276 



REPORT 1856. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



Other Localities. 



340 



341 



342 
343 



344 



345 
346 



34; 



Calyptraea (Syphopatella) regu- 
laris, n. s. 
[ = Galerus mammillaris, Brod.] 

umbrella, i)esA 

= Crucibulum rude, Brod. 

?.'unguis, Brod 

Crepidula cerithicola, n. s 

[=C. onyx, jun.] 

— echinus, Brod 

[ = C. aculeata, var.] 

excavata, Brod 

Phepatica, Desk 

[ = C onyx, Sow.] 

— incurva, Brod 



348 



349 
350 



351 



352 
353 



on Cerith. stercus- 

muscarum. 
under stones, 1. w. 



354 
355 
356 

357 

358 
359 
360 
361 

362 

363 
364 
365 
366 
36 

368 
369 
370 
371 
372 
373 
374 



Lessonii, Brod 

[ = C. nivea, var.] 

squama, Brod 

unguiformis. Lam. .. 

= C. Italica, Defr. 
= C. plana. Say. 
= C. calceolina, Desh. 
[Perhaps = C. nivea, var. : but 
V. B. M. Maz. Cat. p. 284.] 
Fossil in Italy, Sicily, Bor 
deaux, Dax, Touraine. 

nivea, n. s 

[+C. squama -\-C. Lessonii + 
C. striolaia.~\ 

osculans, n. s 

rostrata, n. s 

= C. adunca. Sow. = C. solida, 
Hds. = C. rostriformis, Gld. 
= C. uncata, Mke. 

Fissurella sequalis, Soiv 

alta, n.s 

macrotrema, Sow 



on Strombus, Conus, & 

Cuma, &c. 

living shells, 1. w.-)- 

under stones, 1. w. 

u. s., & in shells, 1. w. 

in dead shells, near |-t, 

level. 



1 
45 

18 

1 

28 

120 
80 
35 



under stones, 1. w. 



— microtrema, Sotv — 
[) = F. rugosa, var.] 

— mus, Rve 

— nigropunctata, Sow. 

— ostrina, Rve 

virescens. Sow 



Siphonaria characteristica, Rve. 

[ = S. gigas, var.] 

— costata, Soto 

gigas. Sou; 

— maura. Sow 

— '> -pica.. Sow 

Lottia ?patina, Esch 

[^ = Aemma mesoleuca, van] 

-sp 

.sp 

.sp 

? Patella, sp 

Chiton clathratus, Rve 

dispar, Soiv 

? luridus. Sow 



on rocks, 4-t.— 



ledge of smooth, ex- 
posed rocks,^-t. — l.w 
on rocks, i-t.+ 



on rocks, ^-t. \- 
ledges of rocks, i-t.-|- 



on&under stones,l.w.n. 

under stones, ^-tide 
under stones, ^-tide 



rocks, i-t. 

under stones, 1. w. 

under stones, 1. w. n. 

under stones, 1. w. 



Pan. and Real Llej., under stones, Cun 
Guayaq., Jay. 



Lohos Is., Cum. 

Real Llej., Ctim. ; CMli, Desh. 
C. G. Hope, Krauss. 

St. Elena and Xipix., on dead shells, 1 

10 fm.. Cum. 
t. Muerte, Cum. 



Mediterranean, Desh. ; Tunis & Algie 
M'Andr. ; Senegal, Potiez ; Mail 
Mighels; Carohna, &c., Say; Jamaii 
C.B.Ad. ; Is. Chiloe, Cum. ; Mazatb 
Liverpool Col. 



5 

26 
5 

10 



95 

3 

142 

70 

1 

220 

200 

3 

34 

45 
20 
11 
16 
12 
100 
3 



St. Elena, on dead shells, 6-10 fm., Ct 

Gal., Real Llej., Lobos Is. Lambeye 

under stones on shore, Cum. 
Real Llej., under stones, l.w., Cum.i 



Gal. and Lobos Is., under stones. 



Guacomayo, on exposed rocks, l.w., i 
Gal. Is., Jay ; Peru, Voy. Venus. 

Acapulco, Sow., on exposed rocks. 



Is. Saboga, Cum. 

St. Elena, on stones, 5 fm., Sow. 



I 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



277 



85 



Chiton pulchellus, Gray 



Stokesii, Brod. 
Anoraia lampe, Gray 

tenuis, n. s 

— . sp 
Ostrea, sp. {a) 
—, sp. (4) 
[? = O. iridescens, Gray.] 

, sp. (e) 

[? not O. Columbiensis, Hani 
= 0. conchaphila.^ 

, sp. {d) 

[?= 0. Virginica.'] 

. sp. (e) 

small, plicated : animal bitter. 
Spondylus ?Lamarckii(non&)w.) 
[ = 5. ealoifer.'] 
36 

57jPecten inca, D'Orb. 
|[=P. tumidus, Sow., non Turt.] 
j [= P. ecw^WeosMS, Sow.] 

'd\ Tumbezensis, D'Orb. 

= P. aspersus, Sow., non Lam. 

19 Lima angulata. Sow 

10 Pacifica, D' Or* 

=L. arcuata,Sow., notGeinitz. 

Avicula ? margaritifera j 

[? = Margaritiphorafimbriata.'] 

sterna, Gould 

Pema, sp.(a)( = Chemnitzianum) 

sp.(4) 

Pinna maura. Sow 

tuberculosa, Sow. 

Mytilus, sp. (a) , 

Lithodomus, sp. (a) ... 
-Vlodiola ?semifusca. Sow. (non 
Lam. teste Hani.). 
= M. Braziliensis, Lam. 
= Mytilus Guiaensis, Kiist. 
'0 Modiola, sp. (a) 

, .-(*) 

'■2 ,-(c) 

'5 ,-(d) 

^l--.-(e) 

4) Chama Buddiana, n. s 

[The specimeninDr.Gould's 
col., supposed to be the above, 
is C. ?/rondosa, va.r.fomicata.'] 

4' ? corrugata, Brod 

j4' echinata, Jirod. 

ii Nucula EJenensis, Sow 

4.1 exigua. Sow 

4' polita, Sow 

4 Pectunculus assimilis. Sow 

• j maculatus, Brod. 

i |Arca alteruata. Sow 

^ ; ."' aviculoides, Rve ,. 

= A. auriculata, Sow. 

^ I emarginata, Sow 



under stones, ^ buried 
in sand, near 1. w. n 
under stones, 1. w. n 

1. w. 

1. w. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



rocks, j-t. 
rocks, J-t. 

rocks, shells, &c., ^-t. 



in clusters. 



rocks & stoneSjf — 4-t. 



on reef. 



on Gorgonia, 1. w. s, 
U.S., & in crev.rks., l.w. 
U.S., & in crev.rks., l.w. 



crevices of rocks, 1. w. 



in thick shells j-Jt, — l.w, 



crev. of rks., ^-t.-l. w, 
crev. of rks., ^-t.-l. w 



in soft stones, near ^-t. 
ledges of rock, 1. w.-f- 



rocks, near 1. w. 



u. s. in grav., i-t.-l. w. 



80 

40+ 
1 
3 
1 
6 
3 

15 



35 



330 



2v. 



10 
130 
30 

1 

4 

1 

20 
35 



6 

35 
4 
2 
2 
6 



2v. 

15 
20 I). 
\v. 
10 ». 

20 

1 

4 

1 



Other Localities. 



Arica, Hennah ; Islay, 30 im.+, D'Orb. 

St. Elena, Cum. ; Arica & Islay, D'Orb. 
La Paz ; and Monterey, 60 fm., Rich. 



La Paz, Green. 



St. Elena, Salango, sandy mud, 6-10 
fin., Cum. ; Calapan, Philippines, Sow 

soft mud, 5 fm., Tumbez, Cum. 

Carac, sandy mud, 12-20 fm.. Cum. 
Lord Hood's Island, under coral rocks ; 

Panama, sandy mud ; Guayaquil ; 

Guacomayo, under stones, Cum. 



La Paz, Green. 

muddy banks, Cum, 
muddy banks, Cum. 



Guaymas, Green. 



Real Llej., on stones, 1. w., Cum. 

Puert. Port., Cum. 

St. Elena, sandy mud, 6fm., Cum. 

Caraccas, sandy mud, 9 fm., Cum. 

Sand, 7 fm.. Cum. 

Puert.Port., sdy.m.&grv.,8-12fm.,CM9n, 

Puert. Port., fine gravel, 11 fm.. Cum. 

Ecuador, on St., 12 im.,Cum.; Maz., Jew. 

St. Elena, 10 fm., mud, Cum. 

Real Llejos, Atac, Xipix., sandy mud, 
6-8 fm., Cum. ; Gulf Cal., Sow. 



278 



REPORT — 1856. 



416 
41 

418 
419 
420 

421 

422 

423 
424 



426 
42 



428 



Area gradata, Brod. S( Sow 

grandis, Brod. (^- Sow 

One valve weighed 2^ lb. 

mutabilis, Soiv 

— (Byssoarca)pholadiformis,n.s, 
Reeveana, D'Orb 

=A.Helblingii, Rve.non Brug. 
reversa, 5ow 

= A. hemicardium, Koch. 

similis, n. s 

\J=A. tuberculosa, var.] 

solida, Sow 

(Byssoarca)Tabogensis,n. s, 

\J = A. illota, var.] 
tuberculosa, Sow 



sp. 



Cardita afRnis, Sow 

= modulosa,\d\., } = nodulosa, 

Lam., not nodulosa, Rve. 
— laticostata, Sow 



429 radiata, Sow , 

430 Cardiuin graniferum, Brorf.^^'oic 

431 obovale, Brod. &; Sow 

432 planicostatum, Sow 

[? = C procerum, var.] 

433 procerum, 5ow 

434 senticosum. Sow 

= C. rastnim, Rve. 

435 Venus ? amathusia, Phil. 

436 ?discors, Sow 

[.' = Tapes grata, Say.] 

437 gnidia, Brod. S^ Sow 

438 multicostata, Soiv 

= V. Thouarsi, Val. 
439 pectiinculoides, Val. 

[= Tapes histrionica, Sow.] 
440 subrugosa, Sore 

= V. subsulcata, Mke. 

441 , sp. a 

442 , sp. d 

443 Cytherea afBnis, Sow 

444 aurantiaca, Sovj 

= C. aurantia, Hani. 

445 consanguinea, n. s 

446 radiata. Sow 

447 squalida, Sow 

448 Artemis Dunkeri, Phil. 

= A. Pacifica, Trosch. 

\^ = A. simplex, Hani.] 

saccata, (?/rf. 

[ = Cyclina subquadrata, Hani.] 

Gouldia Pacifica, n. s 

Cyrena maritima, n. s 



under stones, 1. w, 
^-buried in m. & small 
Igae.u. trees, ^--t.+ 
u. s., & crev. rks., 1. vr. 

in soft stones, 1. w. 

under stones, 1. w. 



under stones, 1. w. 
under stones, 1. w. 

thin mud, under man- 
groves, near h. w. 



" boring " in stones 
and rocks, \-t.— 

partly buried in calc 
sand and gravel, un- 
der stones, 1. vf . s. 

l.w. 



449 



450 
451 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



coarse sand among 
stones, :5— j-t. 



coarse sand, under 

mangroves, i-J-t. 

partly buried in coarse 

sd. amg. St. or u. tr.,i-t 



coarse sand, ^-t. 



in impalpable mud, 
under bushes, where 
a small stream emp- 
tied, h.w. Balani 
sometimes attached. 



3 
13 

70 
2 
9 

4 V. 

10 

60 
60 

147 

2 
70 

150 



20 
6 V. 
3». 
iv. 

6 V. 
5 

2 
146 

4 
5 

172 

33 

12 ». 
14 
10 
3 



2 
5 
36 



Other Localities. 



St. Elena, Cum. ; Sta. Barbara, Jew. 
Real Llej., Guayaq., Cum. 

Is. Plata, Cum. 

St. Elena, Monte Christi, Cum. 

Philippines, Reeve. 

Tumbez, soft mud, 7 ftn.. Cum. 



Payta, Cum. 



Real Llejos, 1. w., Cum. 

B. Montija & Nicoya, sdy. m., 6-12 fm 
Cum. Guaymas, Green [?]. 

Guacomayo, St. Elena, Pan., Real Llej 
sand, 6-12 fm.. Cum. t. Sow. 

Ditto, coarse saud & mud, 10-12 fm, 
Cum. teste Rve. 

Salango, muddy sand, 6-12 fm., Cum, 

Gulf Nicoya, Xipix., Cum. 

Xipix., sandy mud, 11 fm., Cum. 

Guacomayo, fine sand, 13 fm., Cum< 



Real Llej., coarse sand, 4-6 fm.. Cum. 
St. Elena, sandy mud, 6-12 fm., Cum 

Mazatl., Green. 

St. Elen.and Guac, sandy mud, 6-9 fm 

Cum. ; Guaymas, Green. 
Payta, Fontaine. 
Pan., coarse sand, 1. w.. Cum. ; La Pa 

Green. 



Xipix., 10 fm., sandy mud, Cum. 
G. Nicoya, Jay. 



Salang., Xipix., sandy mud, 9 {m.,Cw 
St. Elena, sandy mud, 6 fm.. Cum, 
St. Elena, Cum. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 279 



Lucina tellinoides, Rve. 
Capsa altior, Sow 



Donax assimilis, Hani. 

gracilis, Hani. 

navicula, Hani. 

rostratus, n. s 

Tellina .'aurora, Hani. 

cognata, n. s 

One valve, "closely allied to 
the Caribbaean T. similis." 

— Columbiensis, Hani. .. 

— concinna, n. s 

— crystallina, Chemn 

— Cumingii, //(zwi 

— Dombei, Hani. 

felix, //an/. [?] 

[Prof.Adams' shell is said by 
Dr.Gld.tobehis5'/rJ5't7to/«ea<a.] 
laceridens, Hani. 

— prora, Hani, 

— puella, n. s 

— rubescens, Hani. 

— siliqua, n. s 

— sitnulans, n. s 

[ = T. punicea, Hani. Species 

constituted from a single 

valve to include the Pacific 

specimens of the W. Indian 

form.] 
sinceia, Hani. 

vicina, n. s 

, sp. a, like elongata 

sp. b 

sp. c 

Petricola cognata, n. s 

{'> = P. pholadiformis, Gld. MS.] 

Saxicava .'tenuis. Sow 

[} = S. pholadis, Linn, var.] 

Cumingia coarctata. Sow 

trigonularis. Sow 

, sp. a 

, sp. b 



, sp. d 

Prof. Adams regards the above 
as " probably new species: but 
as their characters axeprobably 
somewhat variable," prudently 
forebore from describing them 
vyithout more specimens. They 
are probably varieties ; as Cu- 
mingice, Uke other nestlers, are 
most variable in form and 
sculpture. 

Amphidesma bicolor, n. s 

? ellipticum. Sow 

proximum, n. s 

[ = Semeleproxima,M-Cum.pairs 
pa.rs = S. proxima, B.M. Maz 
Cat.p. 28, = S.flavieans, Gld.] 



buried in sand, 1. w. 
a few inches in sd.,f -t. 



soft stone, ^^-t. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



30 
3 

350 
20 

3 

1 

3 
\v. 



2 

3 
Iv. 

2 

12 
36 ». 



7 
\v. 
\2v. 

2 

1 
\v. 



15 
10 
\v. 
\v. 
5 V. 

1 



4 
3 
4 
1 

\v. 
\ 



20 
18 



Is. Muerte, sandy mud, 1 1 fm. Cum. 
G. Nicoya, coarse gravel, 12 fm., Cum. 

Var., mud, 5 fm., Tumbez, Cum. 
Mazatlan, Green. 

B. Caraccas, Guay., Chiriqui, Cum. 
Nicoya, Cum. 

Maz., Green; Sta. Barb., Jewett. 
soft sandy m., 10 fm.,CM>n.; Rio Janeiro 
[Jay. 



Monte Christi, sandy mud, 12 fai.,Cum. 

St. Elena, Hani. 
Guacomayo, coral sand. Cum. 
sandy mud, 12 fm.. Cum. 
sandy mud, 6-10 fm.. Cum. 



sdy.m.,3-5 fm. ,Tumbez&Chiriqui,C«»j. 
sdy.m.,6-9fm.,St.Elen.&Salango,Cj«w 

sandy mud, Tumbez, Cum. 



other Localities. 



" Closely allied to T. bimaculata." 



Guaymas. 

Pascomayo and Lambeyeque, Cum. 

Caraccas, sandy mud, 7 fm.. Cum, 
St. Elena, stones, deep water. Cum. 



Monte Christi, 9 fm., sandy mud, Cum 



I 



280 



REPORT — 1856. 



No. of 
Speci- 
mens. 



Other Localities. 



488 



489 ■ striosura, n. s 
490 tortuosum, n. s 

491 ventricosutn, n. s. (?Kellia) 

492 Crassatella gibbosa, Sow. 

493 Mulinia donaciformis, //a«/.[.'] 
[.' = >/. angulata, Gray,] 

veutricosa, Gld. 

l = Mactra exoleta, Gray."] 
Lutraria elegans, Sow. (Mactra) 

Not L. undulata, Gld. teste 
C. B. Ad. 
496 Mactra velata, Phil. 

Anatina alta 

(? Thracia or Periploma.) 

Pandora cornuta, n. s 

Potamomya sequalis, n. s.... 



Amphidesma pulchrum, Sow. 



497 



— inflata, n. s 

— trigonalis, n. s 

Corbula bicarinata, Sow 

biradiata, Sow 

obesa, //& 

ovulata, Sow 

rubra, n. s 

tenuis, Soiu 

— ■ — ■, sp. a, like Taheitensis ... 

, sp. h 

Solecurtus affinis, n. s 

Solen rudis, n. s 

Pholas crucigera. Sow 

= crucifera, Sow. = cruel ffer. 
Mull. 

tubifera, ;S'ow 

xylophaga, Fal. (non Desk.) 



oft mud, under man 
groves, near h. w. & 
outlet of small stream, 
with Area tuberculosa. 



U.S., deep in sd.,l.w.+ 



[l.w 

coarse sd. among st., 



sp. a, like lanceolata 

, sp. b 

Orbicula Cumingii, Brod... 



filling the bottom of an 
old" dug-out," h. w, 



underside of St., 1. w. 



1 
1 

1 V. 

Iv. 
14 



6 V. 



10 



1 

Iv. 



3 

2 
260 
21 
6v. 

7 

1 
Iv. 
Iv. 
2v. 

10 
55 

1 



1 
20 

2v. 
Iv. 
50 



Carac, Cum. teste Sow. in P. Z. S. ; St 

Elena and Pan., Cum. teste Sow. in 

[Conch. 111. 



St.Elena&Xipix.,sdy.m.,llfm., Cum.; 
[Payta, Fontaine. 



" The Atlantic analogue is L. canali- 
culata, Say." 



[7-17 fni.. Cum, 
Rl. Llej., Carac, St. Elen., sdy. mud, 
Chiriqui & Carac. ,s.&m.,3-7fm.,CM7M, 
8° 57'-21° 32', 22-33 fm., Hds. 
Xipix., Mont., Carac, sdy ra.,7-17 fm., 
[Cum. 
Bay Montijo, sandy m., 12 fm.. Cum. ; 
[Maz., Jew. 

" Like S. Caribceus." 

Is. Puna, B. Carac, Nicoya, soft sand- 
stone, §-t. ; soft stone, 1. w. ; hard 
clay, 13 fm.. Cum. 

Carac, in decayed wood, 10 fm.. Cum. ; 
[Payta, Fontaine. 



Payta, St. Elena, 1. w.— 6 fm., Cum. 
Chili and Peru, Desh. 



If this list of species be estimated according to the standard of judgment 
followed in the Mazatlan Catalogue, which is necessary for a fair comparison 
between the two, the following numbers will not be needed : — 

Univalves : 5, 33, 52, 70, 72, 164-, 174, 199, 211, 212, 216, 218, 241, 330, 
334, 337, 343, 348, 349, 362,= 20. 

Bivalves : 422, 432, 482, 483, 484,=5. 

The names given to 459 and 471 are also not required. 

Others may be discovered on a comparison of specimens or figures (which 
it is to be hoped the Trustees of Amherst College, who possess the types, 
will cause shortly to be published), though they are not recognized from the 
descriptions alone. The discovery of a large number of deep-water species 
was due to the hermit crabs. Certain observed differences of station between 
Messrs. Cuming and Adams are very interesting ; in a few there may be 
error ; from others we learn what great latitude is allowed to some of the 



ON MOL.LUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 



281 



species: e.g. Corbula bicarinata is quoted alive from low water to 17 fm. ; 
while Anomia lampe, quoted from low-water mark, was found by Major 
Rich as far north as Monterey in 60 fm. water ! 

Of the 157 species described as new, 5 had already appeared under other 
names, and 15 are believed to be only varieties. Fifteen are named from 
their doubtful characters or similarity to other forms ; 8 are designated from 
their habitat or station ; 23 receive names expressive of their small size ; 
5 are designated according to the number of specimens found; and 6 would 
probably not have been constituted, had the same shells appeared in the 
Caribbaeau waters. 

The following is a comparison of the above collection with that of M. 
Reigen from Mazatlan, excluding from the latter the land and freshwater 
shells and the Bryozoa; and bringing down the number of species in Prof. 
Adams's Catalogue to the standard adopted in the latter. 



Pan. 


Maz. 


Common. 


Bivalves. 
Univalves. 

Total. 

[synonyms. 
Old species united : not including 
New species described. 

Indeterminate species. 
Minute species. 


136 
356 


215 
449 


38=28 per cent. 
77=21'6 per cent. 


492 


664 


115=23-4 per cent. 


12 
139 


104 

209 




61 
73 


108 
298 


? 
25=34 per cent. 



55. The following are extracted from the British Museum Catalogue of 
the VeyieridcB, &c. by M. Deshayes. The minute division of species in this 
and in his recent articles in the Proc. Zool. Soc. contrasts somewhat strangely 
with the opposite tendency displayed in his extremely valuable edition of 
Lamarck's Animaux sans Vertebres, a work which has been employed 
throughout, but not quoted, simply as not containing original authorities 
on our present inquiry. 

Page. No. 

13 25 Dosinia turgida, Rve. = Artemis tenuis, Sow. jun. Central America, 

Sale. 
76 70 Dionebrevispinata,'Desh.:=Cythereabrevispina, Sow. jim. California. 
135 48 Chione callosa,'Desh.:=Ch. NuttaUii,yax. iion Dosinia callosa,Conr . 

California : not Sandw. Is. 
192 8 Venerupis foliacea, Desh. Mazatlan. 
207 1 Petricola mirabilis, Desh. [Monterey, Hartweg, teste Sow.^ California. 

253 37 Cyrena Fontainii, 'Desh.^olivacea, Cpr. Non C. Fontaitiii, D'Orb. 

Mazatlan. 

254 39 Cyrena solida, Phil. Abbild. Conch, p. 78. pi. 1. f. 9. Nicaragua. 
257 49 Cyrena Floridana, Conr. Mazatlan and Florida. 

The Mazatlan specimens are C. Mexicana, jun. 

56. The collection of which the following is a list, came into my possession 
exactly as it was received from a sailor, who brought it from a single port on 
the west coast of North America. The purchaser, judging, from the preva- 
lence of Mazatlan shells in it, that it came from that place, did not make 
exact inquiries at the time, and the sailor could not be traced afterwards. 
Though consisting mainly of shore shells, the collection was so remarkably 
free from imported specimens, that it derives some value as a geographical 
authority. The general accordance of the species with what we know of 



282 



REPORT — 1856. 



the local-fauna of Acapulco, makes it probable that it came from that place ; 
but it is cited in the B. M. Mazatlan Catalogue as " S.W. Mexico." 



1. Solecurtusviolascens, n.s. B.M.Maz. 

Cat. p. 27, note. 1 paii\ 

2. Tellina princeps. Fine : 1 val....S.* 

3. Tellina rubeseens. 1 pr P. 

4. Mactra elegans. 1 pr P. 

5. Mactra angulata. 1 pr P. M. 

6. Dosinia Dunkeri. 1 pr P. M. 

7. Dione aurantiaca. 1 val.,fine...P. M. 

8. Dione chioneea. Iv P.M. 

9. Venus amatkusia. 1 pr P. M. 

10. Venus Columbiensis. 1 val. ...P. M. 

11. Tapes grata. 1 pr P.M. 

12. Anomalocardia subrugosa. Iv. P.M. 

13. Anomalocardia suhimhricata. Valves, 

common S. M. 

14. Cardita affinis. 1 pr P. 

15. Chama frondosa. 1 v P. 

16. Cardium procerum. Rare. ...P. M. 

17. Cardiumconsors. 1 v. (Guatemala), S. 

18. Cardium maculatum. Iv S. 

19. Lucina tigerrina. 1 fresh val M. 

20. Modiola capax. 1 v M. C. 

21. Mytilus palliopunctatus. Rare....M. 

22. Area Pacifica. 1 pair P.M. 

23. Pinna "Orudis. Extremely thick and 

large valves P. M. 

24. Margaritiphorafimbriata. Common. 

P.M. 

25. Pecten ventricosus. (Colouring ex- 

tremely variable.) Valves, com- 
mon ? S. P. 

26. Pecten ? senatorius. (China Seas. 

Perhaps an allied sp.) 2 fresh pairs. 

27. Ostreaconchaphila.Ysilves. P.M.C. 

28. Ostrea palmula. 1 pair M. C. 

29. Placunanomiafoliata. 1 fresh valve. 

M. 

30. Bulla Adamsi. Rare M. 

31. Siphonaria gigas + characteristica. 

Common P. 

32. Patella discors. Common M. 

33. Acmeea scabra. 1 sp M. C. 

34. Acmeea grandis. Gray. Common. C. 

35. Fissurella nigropunctata. Com... P. 

36. Uoanilla olivacea. Rare M. 

37. Uvanilla unguis. Common M. 

38. Pomaulaxundosus. Fresh opercula.C. 

39. Callopoma saxosum. Rare P. 

40. Tegula pellis-serpientis = strigilatus, 

Anton. Not uncommon P. 

41. Nerita scabriuscula. Large and 

common P. M. 

42. Nerita Bernhardi. Abundant. P.M. 

43. Crepidula aculeata. 1 sp. S. P. M. 

44. Crepidula lunguiformis. 1 sp. P.M. 



49. 
50. 

51. 
52. 
53. 



Crepidula arenata. 1 sp S. 

Galerus conicus. 1 sp S. P. M^ 

Galerasmammillaris. 1 sp. . . . S. P. M. 

Crucibulum umbrella, Desh. = ru- 
dis, Brod. Common, fine, and very 
variable P . 

Crucibulum spinosum. Isp. S. P.M.C. 

Hipponyx Grayanus. On Pinnm. 



Aletes Peronii. 1 sp. 
Turritella goniostoma. 
CeritJiium maculosum. 



54. Cerithium stercus-muscarum. 



P.M. 

P. M. 

P....S.M. 
Common. 

P.M. 

Rare. 

P.M. 

P.M. 

P.M. 



55. Cerithium famelicum. 1 sp. 

56. Cerithium uncinatum. Rare. 

57. Cypraa exanthema, var. cervinetta. 

Common P.M. 

58. CyprcBa arabicula. Very common. 

S. P. M. 

59. Trivia pustulata. Rare S. P. M. 

60. Trivia radians. 1 sp S. P. M. 

61. Strombus galea. Isp P.M. 

62. Strombus granulatus. Common. S. 

P.M. 

63. Strombus gracilior. Rare . . . S. P. M. 

64. Terebra robusta. 1 sp P. 

65. Pleurotoma funiculata. 1 sp. ...M. 

66. Drillia rudis. 1 sp S. P. M. 

67. Conns r eg alitatis. Very rare. P.M. 

68. Conus Mahogani. Isp P. 

69. Conus gladiator. Isp P.M. 

70. Natica maroccana and vars. Abun- 

dant P. M. 

71. Natica excavata. Very rare P. 

72. Polinices uber. Rare S. P. M. 

73. Polinices{Galapagosal=)otis. Very 

rare P. 

74. Ficula decussata. Rare P. M. 

75. Marginellapru7iumf. Very rare. P. 

76. Oniscia tuberculata. Rare P. 

77 ■ Cassis coarctata. Rare P. 

78. Malea ringens. Isp S. P. 

79. Oliva porphyria. 1 sp., fine P. 

80. Oliva cruenta (Tahiti. ? imported). 

1 dead shell. 

81. Olivella volutella. Vei-y common. P. 

82. Aragonia testacea. Common. P. M. 

83. Lafyrus concentricus, Rve. Rare. P. 

84. Latyrus castanetis, Rve. Rare. P. 

85. Latyrus tuberculatus,BroA. Rare. P. 

86. Cuma tectum. Isp P. 

87. Vitularia salebrosa (fresh, with 

operc). 1 sp P. M. 



* S. South America. P. Panama. M. Mazatlan. C. California. 

f Both this species and M. sapotilla, Hds., are quoted from the West Coast. 



ON MOLliUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 283 



94. Columbella labiosa. Rare S. P. 

95. Anachis rugosa. 1 sp S. P. 

96. Anachis fulv a. 1 sp P. M. 

97. Pis ania ring ens. Rare P.M. 

98. Murex radix. Rare P. 

99. Murex regius. Common P. M. 



Rare M. 

89. Purpura biserialis. 1 sp....S. P. M. 

90. Purpura triserialis, 1 sp M. 

91. Purpura melones. Rare S. P. 

92. Monoceros brevidentatum. Gray. 1 sp. 

S. P. 

93. Columbella fuscata. Rare. ..S. P.M. 

This collection, containing 99 species, of which only one is certainly and 
another perhaps imported, shows what a common sailor may do, simply by 
keeping his shells from being mixed. One species is new; 46 are common 
to both Mazatlan and Panama ; 29 are found at Panama, but not at Mazatlan ; 
6, though not yet quoted from Panama, are southern types; 14 are found at 
Mazatlan, and not at Panama ; 6 are northern types, being found in Lower 
California, and of these, two (viz. Acmcea grandis and Pomaulax undosus 
[operc.]) were not found at Mazatlan, 

57. In the Proceedings of the Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, for Feb. 1855, Dr. 
A. A. Gould described the following land and freshwater shells from the 
western part of N. America : — 



P. 127. Helix ceruginosa, Gld. San 

Francisco, Dr. Bigelow. 
P. 127. Helix infirmata, Old. San Fran- 
cisco, Dr. Bigelow. 
P. 128. Physa bullata, Gld. Oregon, 

Dr. J. G. Cooper. 
P. 128. Physa humerosa, Gld. Colorado 

Desert, Dr. Th. H. Webb; Pecos River, 

Mr. W. P. Blake. 
P. 128. Physa virgata, Gld. River 

Gila and near San Diego, Dr. Th. H. 

Webb. 



P. 129. Planorbis ammon, Gld. Colo- 
rado Low Desert, Dr. T. H. Webb, 
Mr. W. P. Blake. 

P. 129. Planorbis gracilentus, Gld. 
Great Colorado Desert, low lands. 
Dr. T. H. Webb. 

P. 129. Amnicola protea, Gld. Colorado 
Desert, Dr. T.^ H. Webb, Mr. W. P. 
BZa^e. =: Melania exigua, Conr. (read 
Feb. 13th). 

P. 130. Amnicola longinqua, Gld. Co- 
lorado Desert, Mr. W. P. Blake. 



The same gentlemen appear to have made collections on the coast; of 
which the following lists have been obligingly sent by Dr. Gould. 



Collected hy Dr. Thomas H. Webb. 



At Guaymas. 
Acmeea ceruginosa [=A. mesoleuca,var.]. 
Neritina picta. 
Nerita " ? prcecognita, C. B. Ad."= 

Bernhardi, R^cl. 
Chlorostoma rugosum, var. 

At San Diego. 
Tellina nasuta. 
Donax. 
Venus dispar. 
Venus, sp. 

Cardium Californiense. 
Area pernoides. 1 valve. " Lieut.Webb." 
Pectunculus (dead, cubbed). 
Pecten (dead valve). 



Ostrea. 

Fissurella crenulata (veiy young). 

Haliotis ? Kamtschatkana. 

Trochus viridulus (very red var.). " Lieut. 

Webb." 
Phasianella compta. 
Calyptrcea hispida,=:Cv\ic. spinosum. 
Cerithium irroratum, Gld. 
Potamis pullatus, Gld. 
Cerithidea albonodosa. 
Natica luber. 
Ranella muriciformis. 
Oliva splendidula. 
Nassa luteostoma. 
Nassa tegula, Rve., dead. 
Purpura emarginata. 

It is probable that some of the above shells, as Ranella muriciformis, Oliva 
splendidula, Nassa luteostoma, Natica uber, had found their way northwards 
by the accidents of commerce. None of them were seen by Mr. Nuttall, who 
spent some time at the place. 



284 



REPORT — 1856. 



Collected by Dr. Bigeloio at San Francisco. 
Venus rigida, Gld. ?=Tapes diversa. Lottia scabra, Gld. (^spectrum, Niitt 

Cardiiim Nuttallii. Natica Leivisii, Gld. (operculum only). 

Mytilus Californianus, Conr. Purpura Conradi, Nutt. 

Collected by Mr. William P. Blake. 
At San Francisco. 
Mytilus edulis, or allied. 
Lottia scabra, Gld. (^spectrum, Nutt.) 



At San Pedro. 
Semele rubrotincta, Conr. 
Tellina secta, Conr. 
Taj}es gracilis, Gld. 
Venus discors. Sow." =grata, Say=:sta- 

minea, Conr." 
Venus Nuttallii, Conr. 
Venus fluctifraga. 
Lucina orhella, Gld. 
Lottia patina, Esch. 
Lottia scabra, Gld. 
Scurria pallida, Gray=mitra, Brod. 
Trochus mastus, Brod. 
Calyptrcea hispida, Brod. 
Crepidula incurva, Brod. 
Oliva biplicata. 



At San Diego. 
SphcBnia Californica, Conr. 
Tellina vicina, C. B. Ad. 
Tellina secta, Conr. 
Solecurtus Californianus, Conr. 
Petricolacarditoides,Conr. =:ey\mdriicea. 

Desk. 
Venus fluctifraga. Sow. 
Cardium cruentatum, Gld.* 
Modiola capax, Conr. 
Pecten "? purpuratus. 
Pecten monotimeris, Conr. 
Bulla nebulosa, Gld. 
Bulla virescens, Gld. 
Bulla longinqua, Gld.* 
Bulla vesicida, Gld.* 
Melampus olivaceus. 
Phasianella compta, Gld.* 
Potamis pullatus, Gld. 

* "Not yet from the press." Gould in litt. 



58. The latest conchological traveller who has visited the West N. American 
province is Mr. T. Bridgesf ; who, in the spring of the present year, has 
brought a collection from the Bay of Panama. Although he had no dredge, 
and the district had been well explored, he succeeded in finding 24 new 
species, besides others new to the fauna of the place. The new species are 
described in the ' Proc. Zool. Soc' June 10th, 1856, pp. 159-166 ; and, with 
a few others, interesting for their locality, are as follow : — 



Corbula ventricosa, Rve. 

? Scrobicularia producta, Cpr. 

? — — viridotincta, n. s. 

Tellina rhodora, Hani. 

fausta. 

Deshayesii, n. s. 

Strigilla disjuncta, n. s. 

Semele obliqua. Wood. 

planata, n. s. 

Cumingia trigonularis, var. 

Lyonsia diaphana, Cpr. 

Mactra (Mactrella) lacinata, n. s. 

elegans, jun. 

Cyclina producta, n. s. 

Lima angulata. Sow. 

Melampus Bridgesii, n. s. 

Umbrella ovalis, u. s. Moutli of the River 
Chiriqui. Also found exactly in the 
same place by a French naturalist. 

Pyrgula quadricostata, n. s. 

Erato ? Maugeria, var. Panamensis. 

Trochus {Ziziphinus) MacAndrem [B. M. 
Maz. Cat. no. 290]. 

Hyj;)oni/a?p/awa^«s[B.M.Maz.Cat.no.348], 



Cithara sinuata, n. 
Mangelia acuticostata, n. s. 

? striosa, C. B. Ad. 

? rigida, xax. fuscoligata. 

Clathurella intercalaris, n. s. 

serrata, n. s. 

Drillia punctatostriata, n. s. 
? Pleurotoma gracillima, n. s. 
Scalaria regularis, n. s. 

tiara, n. s. 

subnodosa, u. s. 

Cumingii, n. s. 

Hindsii, n. s. 

Cirsotrema funiculata [B. M. Maz. Cat. 

no. 569]. 
Natica excavata, n. s. 
Polinices Gallapagosa, Rve. ?:=ovum. 
Mitra solitaria, C. B. Ad. 
? Triton crebristriatus, n. s. 
PJios biplicatus, n. s.' 
Latyrus tumens, n. s. 
Triton eximius, Rve.=parvus, C. B. Ad. 
Anachis pygmcea,vai\, exactly resembling 

the W. Indian Col. costulata, C. B. Ad. 



t The Mammals and Birds brought by Mr. Bridges are described in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1856, 
pp. 138-U3. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 285 

59. Having now presented the results of all known expeditions on the coast, 
we have further to bring together species collected from stray quarters. The 
following are described in the ' Proc. Zool. Soc' 1832-56. Most of the Gulf 
shells were collected by Lieut. Shipley, and of those from California by 
Mr. Hartweg. 



Peoc. Zool. Soc. 



Locality. 



1832. 

57 
.59 

1833. 

22 
36 
53 

84 
85 

1834. 
19 

61 



1 835 

6 

22 

22 

43 

43 

46 

50 

50 

109 
110 
200 

1842 

199 

1843. 

5 

5 

33 

79 

166 

1844 

27 

29 

76 

139 

1845. 

14 
75 



Marginella cyprsola, Sow. [? Erato]... 
Chitou Isevigatus, Sow 

Area cardiiformis, Sow 

Corbula radiata, Sow 

Coiius concirmus, Brod. 

Cardium datum, Sow 

— maculosum, Sow 

= C. maculatiim, Sow. in Conch. Ill, 

Conus ferrugatus, Soiv 

Terebra variegata, Gray 

= T.Africana,Gi&y, Griflf. Cuv. pi. 23. 
f. 5. 



Siphonaria pica, Sow 

Venus subimbricata, var , 

— undatella, Sow 

— leucodon, Sow 

= V. CaliforniensiSy'va.T. testeSow. jun 

— Californiensis, Brod. (non F. Ca- 
lifornica, Conr.) 

Cytherea Dione, var. y, Brod. ( = C lu. 

pinaria.') 
Monoceros cymatum. Sow 

=M. lugubre, Sow. 
unicarinatum, Sow 

= M. brevidens, Conr. 

Pecten subnodosus. Sow. var. a 

circularis, Sow , 

Cyprsea candidula, Gask 

= C. approximans, Beck. 

= C. olorina, Duel. 
Buecinum elegans, Rve 

Donax punctatostriata, Hani, , 

carinata, Hani. 

Peetuneulus giganteus, Rve 

bicolor, Rve 

= P. iiKsqualis, Gray, non Sow. 
Terebra aciculata, Hds. {?Lam.) 

Scalaria indistincta. Sow. jun 

hexagona, Sow, jun 

Marginella imbricata, Hds , 

RaneUa triquetra, Rve 

Donax culter, Hani. 

Achatina (.' Glandina) fusiformis, P/r. 



Acapulco, St. Elena. 

Guaymas, Mr. Ealing of 

H.M.S. ' Sapphire.' 

San Bias. 

Acapulco. 

Gulf of California. 

Guaymas. 

Is. 3 Marias (Gulf Calif.). 



" Gulf Calif. & Is. Guaym." 
(No loe.) but ».P.Z.S.1843, 
p. 164,no.6 7,whereHinds 
gives it, on the authority 
of Mr.Cuming, as " Guay- 
mas, 10-12 fms., sandy 
mud." 

Acapulco, 

Acapulco. 

Is. 3 Marias. 

Guaymas. 

Guaymas. 

San Bias. 

California. 

(no locality) 

Gulf of California. 
Guaymas. 
" Mexico." 



California. 

(no locality) 

(no locality) 

Guaymas, Babb, R. N, 

Gulf of California. 

Acapulco. 

"S.Blas, Hon. Mr. Harris." 

Acapulco, Col. Moffat. 

Acapulco, Col. Moffat. 

San Diego, Nutt. 

J var. a. " Matzellan." 
\var. b. Acapulco. 
Mountain of Coban, Vera 
Cruz. — Mus. Cum. 



under stones & sand, 
under stones at low 
water. 

on the sands. 

1 sp. on sands. 

on sands. — Mus.Cum. 

in sandy mud, 1. w. 

on the sands. 



on rocks in exp.situat. 

coarse sand, 1. water, 
sandy mud, low veater. 
sandy mud, 7 fms. 



sandy mud, 7 fms. 



286 



REPORT 1856. 



Peoc. Zool. Soc. 



Locality. 



1845. 
75 
75 

131 
132 
139 
140 
141 

1846. 

24 
29 
29 
29 
30 
31 
32 
32 
32 
54 
58 
113 

1849. 

117 
121 

121 
122 
130 
170 

1850 

187 
195 
203 



1851. 

12 
153 
157 
164 

165 



168 



190 
197 



225 
233 
260 



272 



Glandina nigricans, Pfr 

monilifera, Pfr 

Helix ventrosula, Pfr 

Hindsi, Pfr 

Littorina aspera, Phil 

Sitkana, Phil. 

modesta, Phil. 

Cyprsea puUa, Gash 

Bulimus fenestratus, Pfr 

Darwini, Pfr 

sculpturatiis, Pfr 

Gruneri, Pfr 

Achatina cy lindracea, Pfr 

(Glandina) Sowerbyana, Pfr. ... 

( ) Isabellina, Pfr 

( ) Tortillana, Pfr 

Haliotis splendens, Roe 

aquatilis, Rve 

Bulimus Moricandi, Pfr 

Anomia lampe, Gray 

Placunanomia macrochisma, Besh 

— P. Broderipii, Gray, MS. 

cepio, Gray 

alope. Gray 

Helix Basliervillei, Pfr 

Sanguinolariatellinoides.^.^rf.pl.6.f.6 

Melania maxima. Lea 

polygonata. Lea 

"Modulus Carchedonicus, Lam." 

" =Monodonta Sayii, Nutt." Atooi 
is in the Sandwich Is., not in 
California. Mr. N. found no 
Modulus in California. M. car- 
chedonica, Lam. is the W. Indian 
species, teste D'Orb. Coll. 

Columbella Californiana, Gask 

Infundibulura Californicum, A. Ad. ... 

Phorcus Californicus, A. Ad. 

Ziziphinus annulatus, Martyn 

= Trochus virgineus, Gmel. 

filosus. Wood, Ind. Suppl. pi. 5. 

f. 23. 
?= Trochus castaneits, Nutt. 
= T. ligatus, Gld. 

Californicus, A. Ad 

?= Trochus versicolor, Mke. 

Margarita caiostoma, A. Ad. 

Tedinia pernoides, Gray 

= Placunanomia pernoides, B. M. 
Maz. Cat. 

Velutina Sitkensis, A. Ad. 

Natica intemerata, Phil. 

Helix annulifera, Pfr 

= H. labyrinthus, var. sipunculata, 
Forbes, P. Z. S. 1850, p. 53. pi. 9. 
f. 4. 
Lagena Californica, A. Ad. 



Vera Cruz. — Mus. Cum 
Mountain of Coban, Vera 

Cruz. — Mus. Cum 
Mexico(//&.) Texas(5ow.) 
MtTi\co{Hds.) Texas(5'ow.) 
Sitka, Bare. ; Mex. Hegew. 

Sitka, Barclay. 

Sitka, Barclay; Mauritius, 

Capt. Caldwell. 

> 

Mexico. 

Galap., Darwin. 

Galap., Darwin. 

Mexico. 

Tortilla, Centr. Am. 

Totontepec [?Tehuantepec] 

Mexico. 

Tortilla. 

California. 

Kurile Is. 

Mt. Coban, C. A., Lattre. 

California, Lady Wigram. 
Kamtschatka, Deshayes. 

Onolaski, Mus. Cum. 
California, Lady Wigram. 
California, Lady Wigram. 
Vancouver's I., Baskerville. 
Gulf of California. 

Copan, C. A. 

Copan, C. A. 

" Atooi, California, Nutt.," 

teste A. Ad. 



Sandeago. 

California. 

California. 

Monterey, Hartweg. 

Str. San Juan de Fuco. 



rocks at love water, 
rocks, ^-t. 
rocks, ^-t. 



on bushes, 
on bushes. 

damp places, 
decayed veget. matter, 
dec. trunks of trees, 
damp places. 



California. 



Juan de Fuco. 
? California. 



Sitka. 
Gulf Calif., Rev. — Steel. 
Panama, Kellett &( Wood. 



California. — Mus. Cum. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 



287 



Page. 


Fboc. Zooii. Soc. 


Locality. 


Station. 


1852. 

60 

82 

100 

157 

l'(53. 

70 
71 
71 
71 
96 
174 

185 

1854. 

20 

21 

22 

23 

42 

67 

68 

70 

137 

295 

314 

316 

342 

351 

351 

352 

352 
359 
362 
363 
363 

1855. 

100 
116 
121 

183 
224 

228 
228 
229 
229 
229 
230 
230 

230 

' 231 

231 

232 




Galapagos. 

Bodegas. 

Gulf of Cahfornia. 

Galapagos. 

Gulf of California. 
Gulf of California. 
Gulf of California. 
Gulf of California. 
Gulf of California. 
Galapagos. 

?— Kellett&Wood. [Pro- 

bably Lower California.] 

Bay of California. 

California. 
Central America. 
Panama. 
California. 
Panama. 
Gulf of California. 

California. 

Gulf of California. 

Gulf of California. 

California. 

California. 

Central America. 

Acapulco. 

California. 

Central America. 

Central America. 

Mazatlan. 

C. America & California. 

Mazatlan. 

Bay of California. 

Mexico, Salle. 

Galapagos. 

Gulf of California. 

West Columbia. 
Singapore. 

Mazatlan, Lieut. Shipley. 
Mazatlan, Lieut. Shipley. 

Mazatlan {Gruner). 

Mazatlan (Mus. Cum.). 

Mazatlan, Lieut. Shipley. 

Gulf CaUf., Lieut. Shipley. 

Gulf Calif. (Mus. Cum.) 

Mazatlan (Mus. Cum.). 
Monterey, Hartweg. 
Monterey, Hartweg. 
Monterey, Hartweg. 


on exposed rocks, 
on exposed rocks, 
under stones. 


Orbicula Evansii, Dav., pi. 14. f. 32-34. 
















= Oniscia tuberculata, var. a, Rve. 


Cyreua (Anomala) insignis, Desh 


(Anomala) Cumingii, Desh 












Achatina Albersi (Glandina), Pfr 










Jun. = Z). culler, Hani, 
-f-i). contusus, Rve. 
-\-D.Californica,Dtsh. MS.nonConr. 
?-{--D. radiatus, Val. 


? = i). Calif omica, Conr. non Desh. 










Achatina (Glandina) conularis, Pfr,... 
Bulimus verrucosus, Pfr 


RhizochUus (Coralliophila) Californica, 
A. Ad.l= Murex nux, Rve.] 


Dosinia simplex, A. Ad. [not Artemis 
simplex,Yia.n\.= D.Dunkeri,'Ph\\.'] 


Lyonsia (Osteodesma) diaphana, Cpr. 




Thracia squamosa, Cpr 


? Scrobicularia producta, Cpr 


Donax semistriatus, Cpr. [non Poli'\... 
= {Donax) Serrula Carpenteri, H. & 
A. Ad. Gen. ii. 405. 


CMton Montereyensis, Cpr 


Hartwegii, Cpr 


regularis, Cpr 





288 



REPORT — 1856. 



Page. Peoc. Zool. Soc. 


Locality. 


Station. 


1855. 1 

233iPateUa Ptoreuma, Rve., var. tenuilirata 


Monterey, Hartweg. 




233 


Galerus .'Sinensis, var. fuscus 


"G.Calif." (Mus. Cum.) 






(Probably from another source, by 




error of ticket.) 






233 


subreflexus, Cpr 


•' G. Calif." (Mus. Cum.) 




234 


Fissurella nigrocincta, Cpr i Mazatlan (Mus. Cum.). 






(The locality is omitted by accident| 






in the Proceedings.) ■ 




234 Callopoma .'fluctuatum, var. depressumj California (Mus. Cum.). 






{= Turbo funiculosus, Kien. pi. 30.1 






f. 1. Diagn. postea visa.) 






234 


Liitiopa divisa, Cpr 


CapeS.Francisco*,af«.Str. 
Sunda, among small drift- 














ed canes, Mus. Archer. 




235 


Scalaria reflexa, Qwr 


San Rias. fmit T)nnneH 


1 sp. 


1856. 

!1 


Fusus pallidus (animal descr. by Gray)| Guaymas. 


41 


Pisania elegans „ „ I Panama. 




41 


Triumphis distorta „ „ Panama. 




43 


Malea ringens „ „ 




44 


Imperator, .' n. s. „ „ Panama. 




44 


Callopoma saxosum „ „ Panama. 




44 


Tegula pellis-serjientis „ „ Panama. 




167 


Crucibulum spinosum, var. compresso- California (Mus. Cum.), 
conicum. ] 




167 


?? i mbricatum var. Cumingii ...| Callao, Valparaiso. 




168 


.' imbricatum, var. Broderipii ...i ? Peru (Mus. Cum.). 






Trichotropis f Gouldii, A. Ad 


Chiriqui, Bridges. 







60. The following species and localities are extracted from the " Concho- 
logical Illustrations, by G. B. Sowerby," a small but exceedingly valuable 
work, remarkable for the excellence of the figures, but the disappointing 
brevity of its information. 



No. 

2 

76 



Fig. 



46. Cardiiim Indicum, Lam. N.W. Coast of America. 
11,35. Chiton fastigiatus. Gray. California. 

152. tunicatus. Sow. = Katherina Douglasice, Gray. California. 

54 Bulinus unifasciatus = Bulinulus undulatus. Guild. St. Vincent's. 

115 32. Cyprtea sanguined, Gruy. Panama and Mexico. 

61 . The following are taken from the " Thes^aurus Conchyliorum," by 
G. B. Sowerby, continued by G. B. Sowerby, Jun. The illustrations are 
excellent ; but some of the later numbers do not equal the earlier portions. 
Several of the Monographs are very carefully drawn out by Messrs. Hanley, 
Hinds, and A. Adams. There are the same geographical errors as in other 
similar works. 

No. Page. PI. Fig. 

46 15 101. Pecten laqueatus. 'N.W. America., Capt. Dixon {CaMomia, Rve.). 
48 96 25 141. Scalaria indistincta. Sow. jun. San Bias, How. — Harris. 
13 115 36 20,27. Columbella /estiva. " Brought from Acapulco by H. Cuming," 

[who never was there] . 
64 173 43 63. Terebra variegata, GTa.y = T. africana,Gra.y,Gnff.CvLV. "Guay- 
mas, 10-12 fm., sandy mud, Cuming." 

* Probably in Ecuador ; not in Upper California, as supposed when described. 

t This shell, described as " differing from the typical genus in the canal of the aperture 
being almost obsolete," is regarded by several eminent conchologists as a dead Melania. It 
was found near the mouth of a river. 



ON MOLLUSOA OF THB WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 289 



No. Page. 
18 352 

91 634 
55 578 
12 615 
69 628 
65 631 

71 632 
3 656 



PI. 
70 



Fig. 



' Abounds on the coast of 



50-2. Terebratula Californica, Kiist. 
California." 
116 249-51. Neritina Listeri, Pfr. Cuba and St. John's Riv., Nicaragua. 
123 79, 80. Bulla nebulosa, Gould. Sand, 12 iuch. Guaymas. 
128 35. Cytherea intermedia. Sow. jun. " California, Cuming." 

132 98. cAione, Linn. "Mr. Cuming's specimens are fromMazatlan." 

132104-6. circinata, Born. :=Venus rubra, Gmel. ? + C. alternata, 

Brod. Mazatlan, Capt. Donnel, R.N. 

132 109. brevispinosa. Sow. jun. 1 sp. California. 

140 2. Artemis ponderosa,Gva.y, Anal. 1838, p. 309. =:Cytherea gigantea, 
(Sow. MS.) Phil. Abbild. pi. 7. f. 1. Sandy mud, low water. 
Gulf of California. 
65 697 146 41. Tapes diversa, Sow. jun. Monterey, Hartweg. 
16 708 153 17,18. FewMs simJZZiwia, Sow. jun. California. 

18 709 144 26,27. amathusia, Pliil. Abbild.pl. ll.f.4. =F. encausta, 1 cnjus. 

California. 

24 769 165 30. Venerupis paupercula, Desh. P.Z.S. 1853, p. 5. [N. Zealand, 

Mus.Cum.etBrit.testeDesA.] "Mazatlan, Cuming," testeSow, 

25 811 171 33. Obeliscus clavulus, A. Ad. On the sands. Acapulco, CoZ. Mq^a?. 
143 881 184 246. Cerithium assimilatum,C.'B. Ad. " Shells of Jamaica. A darkly 

coloured Jamaican shell, like C. trilineatum," Phil. Medit. 
[= C. assmiZaiMm,C.B. Ad., Pan. Shells, no. 194. C. terebellum, 
C. B. Ad. Contr. Conch, is the Jamaican species.] 

62. The following species * are extracted from Mr. lleeve's ' Conchologia 
Iconica'; a work, the principal advantage of which is, that it figures the 
specimens in the Cumingian collection. The species are often very minutely 
subdivided : for this indeed the author may not always be answerable. It 
is to be regretted that there is sometimes a want of precision in the statement 
of localities f. 



n. 


Sp. 


Fig. 


Name. 


Station. 


Depth 
in fms. 


Locality. 


3 


19 
20 

24 

34 
89 
93 
114 
17 
17 

3 
16 


... 






7 
10 


Gulf of California. 
Panama [?] 

Mazatlan. 

Gulf of California. 

Florida, Mus. Cum. [?} 

Panama, Cum. 

California, Mus. Cum, 

? California. 

" San Bias, Bay of Califor-- 
nia, Cum."[\2 Rio Ja- 
neiro, Lam. 

Guaymas, Bahb. 

Bay Panama, Real Llejos, 
Cum. 


3 

!4 


= Semele C, A. Ad. P. Z. S. July 1853. 

proxima, [Rve. quasi] C. B. Ad. ... 

l = Semele Jiavicans, Gld. : v. antea, 
p. 279. no. 487.] 






t<) 


[ = D. Conradi, adol. : v. B. M. Maz. 
Cat. p. 47.] 




17 
18 
10 
4 
3 

1 
4 






angusta, Desh. P. Z. S. 1854 














on the sands 

sandy mud 
sandy mud 


=A. cardiiformis, Sow. 
Pectunculus giganteus, Eve 


insequalis, Sow. P. Z. S. 1832 

= Area peciiniformis,'Wd.,S.Tp\. 2. f . 11 . 



* See also pp. 187, 208, where many of the species now quoted would have been arranged, 
had I been able to refer to the Conch. Ic. whenever occasion required. 

f When Mr. Cuming is given as the authority for depths and stations in places which he 
never visited, the more correct phrase (now generally adopted) would perhaps have been 
"Museum Cuming." The following instance will show the need of caution. Under Mactra 
carinulata, Desh. pi. 10. sp. 38, we read " Gulf of California : from the same locality as Ikf. 
donaciformis." On turning to the latter, we find its locality given as New Zealand. 

1856. u 



II 



290 



REPORT — 1856. 



9p. 
20 

31 

31137 
1 

91 34 
14 52 



Fig. 



a,b 



2,3 



Depth 
Station. infms. 



sandy mud 



sandy mud 



36 

51 

45 

100 



117 
1 

2 

4 



684 
3 

8| 
15 



33 

2 11 
2 

lOl 55 
17106 
24161 

16 37 



38 



a,b 



a,b 



a, b 



Pectunculus bicolor, Rve. P. Z. S. 1843 
= P. inoegualis, Gray, Z. B.V., non Sow. 
[nee Krauss.] 
Pecten ventricosus. Sow. in Thes. Conch 
= P. tumidm, Sow. P.Z.S. 1835,p.l09 
nou Turt. 

circularis, -Sow. „ » p. 110 

? = P. nucleus, var. 
Hinnites giganteus,Grai/, Ann. Phil. 1826, 
vol. xii. p. 103. 
[ = Hinnita Poulsoni, Conr. 1 834, Joum 
Ac. Nat. Sc. Phil. vol. vii. pt. i 
p. 182. pi. 14.] 
Spondylus limbatus. Sow. Thes. Conch, 
p. 427. pi. 88. f. 51. 
[For the Mazatlan specimens, v. B. M. 
Cat. no. 208.] 

radula, Rve 

Pft. Jay, 
Bulimus fenestratus, Pfr. no. 258 4802 

Gruneri, Pfr. „ 585 4845 

rudis, Anton, „ 535 5082 

Hehx uncigera, Pet 

Caracolla u., Petit, Guer. Mag. Zool. 
1838, pi. 113. 
Baskervillei,P/r.P.Z.S.1849,p.l30 

Siphonaria gigas, Sow 

characteristica, Rve 

aequilorata, \_Rve. quasi] Gray, MS. 

March 1856. 
[S. aguilirata, Cpr. B. M. Cat. no. 240. 
Apr. 1856.] 

amara, \^Rve. quasi] Nutt. MS. 

[? = 5. Lecanium*, Phil, var.] I 

IChiton albilineatus, 5o«> 

. articulatus, Sow " a- stones, 

Sitkensis, Rve. (non Midd.) 

■ scaber, iS»e 

- proprius, Rve 

Patella Cumingii, Rve 

- [ = AcmcBa patina, 'Ei.ch.'] 



6-10 
7 



Loealit;. 



Gulf of California. 

St. Elena, Cum.; also Phi 
lippines, Cum. 

California, Cum. [!] 

California and Straits of 
Juan Fernandez [!]. 



Panama and Mazatlan. 



Tehuantepec, Capt. Bare. 



a, b 

a,b,c 
a,b\ 
62ab\ 



clypeaster. Less. Voy. Coq. 
<= A. patina, var.] 
■ venosa, /2j;e 



l.w. 



a, b, c 

a,b 
a,b, c 



— exarata, Nutt 

TheP.e.ra>-a<a:,Nutt.,of Jay'sCat.2814, 
and of Nuttall's coll. is from the 
Sandw. Is. The Oregon shell may 
be a variety of the shell called Ma- 
zatlanica, probably = ^.cas*is,Esch 

cinis, Rve. 1= A. patina, var.] 

vespertina, Rve 

toreuma, Rve 



Mexico [? ubi]. 

Mexico. 

Mexico [sp. 216, err. typ.], 

Panama. 



'Va.ncouver'sla.,Lieut.Ba»k, 
Galapagos and Panama. 
Galapagos and Panama. 
Mazatlan. 



Califomia. 

Guaymas. 

San Bias, Cum." ! 

Sitka, Lady Dotiglat. 

ICentral America. 

W.C. Cent. Amer., 5mcfai 

I" Valparaiso, Cum.," Rve 
" Never took it," Cui 
ipse. " Monterey, Hai 
weg," teste Mus. Cum 

Monterey, Hartweg. 



Is.Chiloe,W.Col. [!!],C«i 
Oregon, Lieut. BasJceroU 



Monterey, Hartweg. 
Panama and Gulf Calif. 
Monterey, Hartweg. 



* Specimens of this species (along with the proof-sheet of Siphonariadae) were sent, at 
Mr Cuming's request, for the use of the author of the Conch. Ic, but no notice of it has been 
found in the Monograph. As Mr. Nuttall found no Siphonaria in California, it is presumed 
that Mr. Reeve's species, if of Nuttall, is from the Sandwich Islands ; if " Californian," that it 
is the Mazatlan S. Lecanium, Phil. 



!te 




ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA, 291 



Station. 



3 



26 

18 
57 
20 
71 
109 
126 
39 



l.w. 

coarse sand 5 
11-16 
10 



mud 



sandy mud 



Patella livescens, Rve. [allied to P. 

toreuma] 
- spectrum, Nutt.l=P. seabra, Gld. 

Don Nutt.] 

discors, PAH. Abbild. pi. 2. f. 6 .^ 

^ntta.]li!Lnai,Rve.[?=A,patina, var.] 

verriculata, Rve. l=A.patim, vitr.] 

leucophaea, Nutt. [ = A.pelta, Esch.] 

umbonata, Nutf. [ = A.pers(ma,yax.'] 

Oregona, Nutt. \_=A.persona,E&c\i.'] 

seabra, Nutt. [nonG\d.= spectrum. 

Nutt.] 

fenestrata, Nutt. 1=^ A. patina, var.] 

navicula, Rve.l=A. mitella*, Mke.] 

corrugata,if»e.[ = P.pedictilus,Fhil.'}\ 

— — mamillata, Nutt. \_= A. patina, var.] 

Kssurella rugosa, Sow understones 

— densiclathrata, Rve. 

[.'= Glyphis aspera, Esch.] 

Turritella lentiginosa, Rve 

\_=T. goniostoma, van] 

— Cumingii, Rve 

[? =T. tigrina, var.] 

Banksii, Gray, MS. 

[? = T. goniostoma, jun.] 

— sanguinea, Rve , 

Ampullaria Colnmbiensis, Sow. MS....... ......'.'.'. 

Cumingii, King, Zool. Joum. vol. v. 

I p. 344. 

a,b —;- cerasum, flaw/. Conch. Misc. 

Haliotis corrugata, GV«y,inWd.,pl. 8.f. 5 

Cracherodii,ieacA,Zool.Misc.l814, 

voLi. p. 131. ■ ■■' 

= iy. glaber, Schub. ft Wagn. 

— — Californiensis, Swains. Zool. Illustr. 

vol. ii. p. 80. 

Turbo tessellatus, IRve. quasi] Kien 

max^ndAviS, Nutt. MS. 

a,b Neritina Califomica, i?»e. I .,'!"."i.' 

a,b —— Listeri, [iJee. quasi] P/r I .!!.*i[ 

... Michaudi, Re'cl. P. Z. S. 1841, p. 315 ...'.'..,.. 

a,b Listen, [iJwe.quasi]iyr.[noneadem] ......... 

a-c |Cypraea onyx, Linn. = C. adusta, Lam 

[ = C. nymphce. Duel. = C.pulla, Gmel. 

(non Gask.) teste Jay.] 
— punctulata, Gray, Z. Joum. i. 387.. under st. 

albuginosa, il/awe, Z. Journ. i. 510 

Solandri, Gray, Sow. Conch. 111. ..,.'.* 

no. 128. f. 43. 

Maugeriae, Gray, Sove. Conch, 111. ... 

no. 111. f. 30. 

a, b — — Califomica, Gray, Z. Joum. iii. 365 

rubescens, Gray, P. Z. S. 1832, under st. 
p. 185. 



Depth 
infms. 



Locality. 



Mazatlan. 

California. 

Mazatlan, Shipley. 

Oregon. 

Califomia. 

Upper California. 

Upper Califomia. 

Oregon. 

Upper California. 

Upper Califomia. 
Mazatlan, Shipley. 
Acapulco. 
California. 
Galapagos, Cum. 



Payta, Cum. 

Panama, Cum. 
Conchagua, Belcher. 
Panama, Cum. 

Califomia, Mus. Belcher. 
Chiriqui, Veragua. 
Is. Taboga, Panama. 

Mexico f. 
California. 
Califomia. 



Califomia. 

Califomia. 

Upper California [.>]. 

Gulf of California. 

Cuba, Nicaragua. 

Panama. 

St. John's Riv., Nicaragua 

San Diego [.'auct.]. 



Panama, Cum. 

California. 

Califomia. 

Galapagos, Cum, 

Califomia. 
Galapagos, Cum. 



.^aJj "f T°- ^^ ^^Sf "^d P'^}, the autlior of the Conch. Ic, when describing so many new 

labour, nfFTt,f°™i'',^V.'=T* °f America, did not avail himself of the previous 
labours of Eschscholtz and Menke in the same field. 

uJj.^^^u'f *"., ^^ ^^°"" ^^^ "^"S^" ("^^'^^) ^'''•' as well as other species described from 
"wteaj p."248 ^^*"^*"*^* '*" ^^ P^*"^^ "^ »''« localities of the shells sold at the auctions: 

u2 



292 



REPORT — 1856. 



Sp. 



Fig. 



25 

13 
14 
14 
22 

.0 

26 

27 
9 
2 

4 

10 

13 

19 

4 



142 



126 



143 



146 

153 

33 

7 

12 

40 
54 
85 



a,b 



a, b 



18 

5 

1 

26 



a, b 
a,b 



a, b 

a,'b 
a-d 



a,b 

a,b 
a,b 



Depth 
in fms. 



10 



37 

40 

3 

1 

16 



25 



19 
36 
48 
63 



a, b 



a,b 



a,b 



73 

74 
80 

13 

97 
99 



a,b 



CyprEeasuffusa.Sojw. Conch. m.n.l26.f.41. 

= C. armandina. Duel.* 

Conus pjiiformis, Rve 

brunneus, Sow. P. Z. S. 1834 

vittatus, Lam 

Mahogani, Rve. P. Z. S. 1843 

[i C. inferruptus, var.] 

— minimus, Linn 

var. j8.= C. iiaratus, Brod 

regularis, Sow. Conch. 111. f. 45 ... 

concinnus, Brod. P. Z. S. 1833 

Natica alabaster, Rve. [? = iV. uber, var.] 
Cbemnitzii, Re'cl.MS. 1855, nonM^e 
perspicua. Reel, in Pet. Jour. Conch 
vol. i. p. 379. pi. 14. f. 1,2. 

bifasciata. Gray 

uber, J'al ' 

unimaculata, Rve 

Harpa rosea •"••• 

crenata, Rve. = H. rosea, var. Kien. 

H. Rivoliana, Less. [ = i/. testudi- 
nalis+H. Mexicana, teste Jay.] 
Dolium ringens. Sow. Tank. Cat. App. 
p. xxi. 
= Malea latilabris,Va\. 
Cassis abbre%-iata, Lam.+ C.lactea, Kien, 

-\- C. ceniiqmdra-\- C. doUata, Val. 
Oniscia tuberculosa, Sow. Gen. p. 2 var, 
Voluta Curaingii, Brod. P. Z. S. 1832 .., 

Turbinella castanea, Rve 

= T. acuminata, Rve. Conch. Syst. 
non Gray in Wood Suppl. 

— cerata. Gray 

tectum, Gray [Cuma] 

Fasciolaria princeps. Sow 

Oliva angulata. Lam. = Voluta incrassata, 
Dillw. = 0. azemula, Duel. 

reticularis. Lam 

" vars. = 0. araneosa, Lam.+ 0. Timo- 
ria+0. venulata+0. obesina+0. 
pindarina. Duel." 

Cumingii, Rve 

testacea, Lam 

bipUcata, Sow. Tank. Cat.App.^.Z^ 

lineolata, " Gray, Wood Suppl. = 

0. dama, Duel." 
[0. lineolata. Gray, Z. B. V. = 0. dama, 
Mawe, in Wood Suppl.] 

undatella, Lam.-\-0. neduUna+0 

ozodina, Duel. 

- anazora. Duel 

tergina, Duel. 

Triton clandestinus, Chemn \ 



sandy mud 
clefts of rks. 
coarse sand 
sandy mud 



pools on sds, 
soft mud < 
on the sands 



sand 
muddy sand 



-10 



7-11 



sand 
sandy mud 



dp. w. 
d.w. 



crev. of rks. 



under st. 
sandy mud 



1. w. 
4 



Locality. 



Galapagos, Cum. 

Caraccas & Montija, Cum, 
Puert. Pt., Pan., Gal., Cum. 
Bay Pan. & Montija, Cum. 
Salango, Cum. 

Ceylon. — Is. Annaa, Cum. 

Galapagos, Cum. 

Gulf Nicoya. 

Bay Panama, Hinds. 

" B. of Cahf.," Bahb, R.N. 

Mazatlan. 

Panama. 

Mouth of Oregon, lAeut. 

Baskerville. 
Guaymas, Mr. Babb, R.N. 
Casma, Peru, Cum. 
Mazatlan, Lieut. Shipley. 
Senegal. 
Acapulco, Cum. [!] 



Payta, Cum. 



Acapulco. 

Gulf California, Mus. Cum 
Gulf Fonseca.SanSalvador 
Panama, Cmn. [C'mjm 



sandy mud 



28 a,b 



sandy mud 
sands 



1. w. 
10 



sand & mud 

banks 

sandy mud 

sand banks 

sandy mud 

under St. 



pagodus, Rve. [Nassa] 

pictus, 7?fe 

Purpura patula, Linn 

bicostalis, IRve. ? non] Lam. 



6 
l.w, 



l.w. 
10 



Galapagos, Cum. 
Bay Panama, Cum. 
Peru, Cum. 
Gulf Nicoya, Cum. 

Is. Granada, West Indies 
Gulf of CaUfornia, Donne 



Gulf Calif., Donnet. 
Real Llejos, Cum. 
Monterey, Hinds. 
California. 



Bay Panama, Cum. 



under st. 
on rocks 



Xipixapi, Cum. 
Conchagua, Cum. 

I Philippines, Cum. 
Galapagos, Cum. 
Bay Montija, Cum. 
Galapagos, Cum. 
Philippine Is., Cum. 
ISt. Elena, Cum. 



* Whether this and C. subrostrata (Rve. pi. 26. f. 147) be ^he Pacific or the Caribbean 
species, or xvhether they are identical, has not yet been decided.-Vide B. M. Maz. Cat, p. 379. 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OP NORTH AMERICA. 293 



Sp. Fig. 



23 



39 



Name. 



a, b 



Ricinula &hieo\a.t3i.= Purpura a., Kien. 

Icon. Conch, p. 42. pi. 9. f. 23. 

[Non Rve.] 

Monoceros unicarinatutn, S(rw, C. I. f. 5 

" = P. spicata, Blainv., Kien. = P. en. 

gonata, Conr." [v. antea, p. 201.] 

punctatura, Gray,Z. B. V. p. 124.. 

"=P. lapilloides, Conr." [v. p. 201.] 

Buccinum pristis, Desk 

=B. serratum, Dufresne. 
= B. Northioe, Gray, MS. 

pusio, Linn 

pagodus, Rve 

Pyrula subrostrata, Gray, Z. B. V.pl. 36. 
f. 15. 
= Buccinum sulrostratum, Wood. 
= Fusus lapillus, Brod. & Sow. 
Fusus* Dupetit-Thouarsii, Kien 

- Oregonensis, Sai/= Triton O., Say. 

- Mexicanus, Rve 

Murex monoceros, Sow. P. Z. S. 1840 ... 

? = il/. Nuttalli, Conr. 

— foliatus, Gmel. 

— salebrosus, King 

— horridus, Brod. P. Z. S. 1832 
= Fusus h., Sow. Conch. 111. f. 29 
= M. Boivinii, Kien. 



Depth 
in fins. 



Locality, 



clefts of rks 
sandy mud 



rky. places 
under st. 
sandy mud 



1. w. 
12 



Panama, Cum. 
California. 



Is. Cocos, N.W. Mexico, 

Capt. Colnett. 
St. Elena. 



Honduras, California. [?] 
Island Taboga, Cum. v. r. 
Bay Montija, Cum. 



Galapagos, Cum. 
N. America [.'ubi]> 
Mexico [? ubi]. 
California. 



.... Sitcha., Escftscholiz. 

.... Panama, Cum. 

-12 St. Elena and Panama. 



63. The Monographs of Kiener, in his " Coquilles Vivantes," are generally 
executed with great care, and are extremely valuable for the identification of 
species. The writer does not fall into the common error of minute division of 
species : on the other hand, he sometimes unites what will be almost universally 
considered as distinct. His judgment is not always correct on small shells, as 
when he thinks that Cerithium trilineafum of Phil, ought without doubt to 
be considered as a dextral variety of C. perversum. For the identification 
of the Lamarckian species, his work is extremely valuable. But on points 
connected with geographical distribution, the following list will show that, 
unconfirmed, it cannot be regarded as an authority. The " California" of 
French authors, as of English, generally applies to the W. Mexican fauna. 
Unfortunately, there are no dates, by which questions of the priority of 
nomenclature may be decided. 



No. Page, 
? ? 



? 

22 
25 



Plate. Fig. 
30 1. Turbo funiculosus, Kien. [=T. Ifiuctuatus, var. P.Z.S. 

p. 234.] 
14 2, 2a. Trochus inermis [quasi] Gmel. 



1855, 



4 2. Turritella tigrina, Kien. 

13 3. Cerithium maculosum., Kien. [Named adustum on the plate.] 
S. Sea, Acapulco, Galapagos. 
26 37 13 2. —— a(^MS^«m, Kien., non Sow. [Named macwZosKm on the plate.] 

Indian Ocean, Red Sea. [Probably correct.] 
31 38 7 3. Cyprcea Sowerhyi, Kien. =C'. zonata. Sow. non Ghemn, Calif. 

61 59 8 2. Lamarckii, Duel., Val., Rve., p. 334. Acapulco. [Not so 

given in Val., Rve.] 
133 146 22 4. lathyrus, Dufresne. =C sanguinea, var. Pacific. 

• Futui corrugatus, Rve. pi. 20. sp. 84, a b, is said to be= TVopAon muriciforme, King, 
Zool. Jouni. 



294 REPORT — 1856. 

No. Page. Plate. Fig 

138 152 45 3,3a, CyprcBa subrostrata, Gr&y. Isle of France. 

136 150 52 1. candidula, Gask. W. Mexico. 

9 14 7 2. Cancellaria goniostoma. Sow. =■€. brevis, Sow., teste Kien. 

12 18 8 2. chrysostoma, Sow. Panama, Peru, Galap. 

24 18 16 1. Pleurotoma funiculata, Val. San Bias. 

37 59 23 1. wiawra, Val. [=P. MeMem, Mke,] Mazatlan, Bo«a. 

26 33 15 2. BottcB,Yei\.[=.P.incrassata,Sow.'] Mazatlan, Bo«a. 1 sp. 

115 139 55 1. Conus Lorenzianus, Chemn. Acapulco, 

7 10 4 7y7a-Solarium variegatum, Lam. N.Holland, Manilla, N.Ireland. 
"=S. cyclostomum+S.JEthiops,Mke. + S. tesseUatum,Deah." 
18 27 12 2. Pyrula veniricosa,'Va\. San Bias. 

10 19 8 15. " Cassis coarctatum, Sow., Les c6tes du Perou a Acapulco." 

7 11 7 "1. Ranella bufonia, ham. Red Sea, Seychelles, N. Ireland, Calif. 

13 19 11 2. semigranosa. Lam. " = R. calata, Brod." Panama. 

23 31 8 1. arguSjL&m, " =:Triton Ranelliformis, King, Z.J. p. 347. 

Var, ^ Ranella vexillum, Sow. Conch. 111. pi. 1 . f. 3." Chili. 

27 36 4 2. anceps. Lam. =R.pyramidalis,Biod.P.Z.S.lS32, p. 194. 

22 30 15 1, 2. scabra, Grateloup. Peru. 

16 25 16 1. Turbinella cerata, Griff . Mazatlan, common. Du Petit Thouars. 

17 26 16 2. tubercularis, Griff. (A few sp. from the voyage of Du 

Petit Thouai's.) Mazatlan. 

25 36 20 1 cingulata. [Operculum described. Yet Reeve, after this, 

places the shell under Monoceros.'] 
61 98 26 70. Purpura chocolatum, Duel. Coasts of California. 

71 114 37 87. ftisemKs, Blainv. Shores of Mazatlan. 

40 64 17 49. bezoar,B\. China and California. 

49 78 20 58. columellaris. Lam. Red Sea and Pacific, Chili, California. 

... 81 21 606, callosa, var. [:= P. triserialis.'] 

68 109 28 74. Grayi, Kien. " = Mon. grandis. Gray." Pacific. 

92 141 44 102. Monoceros lugubris. Sow. Gen. no. 6. f. 3. " = M. cymatum, 

Tank. Cat. 1888. = Buocinum denticulatum + armatum, 

Wood Suppl." Peru and California. 

24 23 9 28, Buccinum serratum, l~Northia pristis.} " Habite la Mer du 

Sud, sur les c6tes de la Californie," Eydoux, 

4 2 10 2. Columbella hcemastoma, Sow, California. 

5 3 12. paytalida. Duel. "= C rustica, Sow. Gen. f. 3. non Lam." 

= C.fuscata, Sow. California. 

7 10 3 3. — meleagris, Duel. San Bias. 

9 14 2 \, 2. Pyrula patula. [N.B. The operculum of P. meton^rewa, as figured 
by Kiener, is broader in proportion than that of P. patula,^ 
[He thinks, however, that the species should be reunited.] 

11 16 11 ... Fusus Dupetithouarsi,Kiea. California. [Galap., Camm^, Rve.] 
5 9 10 2. Murex messorius, Sow. " ^motacilla, B., Lam. + rectirostrum. 

Sow. -\-nigrescens. Sow." Senegal. 

31 43 19 2. corrugatus. Sow. Red Sea, California. 

39 65 21 2. — - oxyacanthus, Sow. S. Sea, California. 

64. In a paper by Dr. L. Pfeiffer, " Ueber die geographische Verbreitung 
der Heliceen," in the Zeit. f. Mai. 1846, pp. 74-79,87-96, occur the following 
list* of land shells from the western districts of North America :^- 

Page 

94. From Oregon Helix Vancouverensis, Columbiana, fidelis. 

94. From California areolata, levis^ tudiculata, Sagraiana, Townsend- 

iana, CaUfomiensis, Columbiana, Dupetithouarsii. 
94. JFVom Mexico lucubrata,Oajacensis,BufFomana,Humboldtiana, 

Mexicana, bicincta, tenuicostata, Dkr„ griseola, 

Hindsi, ventrosula. 
94. „ „ Daedalochila implicata. 

94. „ „ Polygyra contortuplicata. 



ON MOLLUSCA OP THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA 295 

Page. 
94. From Central America . . Helix Ghiesbreghti, griseola, labyrinthus, plicata, 
quadridentata, Euryomphala, quinquestrigata. 

94. From Real Llejos spiiulata, Nystiana. 

94. From Panama Antoni, uncigera. 

Many of the species quoted from Mexico and Central America probably 
belong to the east side of the mountain range. Tn the same work, pp. 158- 
160, are described the following land shells, brought from the Mexican 
Republic by Liebmann. They are probably from the eastern side : — 



158. Helix caduca, Pfr. 
158. Bulimus Liebmanni, Pfr. 
158. Achatina coronata, Pfr. 



159. Achatina Liebmanni, Pfr. 

159. streptostyla, Pfr. 

1 59. Cylindrella Ldebmanni, Pfr. 

In the Zeit. f. Ma), for 1844, 184-5, occur the following :— 



Page. 


No. 


1844. 35 




1845. 152 


"i 


„ 152 


2 


» 154 


7 


„ 168 


7 



Ampullaria malleata, Jonas. Tabasco, Mexico. 
Helix Buffoniana, Pfr. Rio Frio, Mexico. 

lavis, Pfr. Cahfornia, Hinds. 

areolata. Sow. MS. California, Hinds. 

Haliotis Kamtschatkana, Jonas. Near Island of Oonalaszka. 

In the Zeit. f. Mai. IS*?, pp. 1, 2, Dr. Menke describes the two following 
species, brought by Liebmann from Mexico : — 
Cylindrella teres, Mke. Prov. of Puebla. | Cylindrella Pfeifferi, Mke. Tehuacan. 

In the Zeit. f. Mai. 1847, pp. 93-96, Dr. Philippi describes the following 
freshwater shells, brought from Mexico and Central America by Largilliert 
and Liebmann : — 

No. 32. Unio cyrenoides, Phil. Lake Nicaragua (Larg.). 

„ 34. ■ Aztecorum, Phil. Mexico (Lieb.). 

„ 35. Mexicanns, Phil. Mexico (Lieb.). 

„ 36. Liebmanni, Phil. Mexico (Lieb.). 

In the mixed collections of shells described by Philippi in the Zeit. f. Mai. 
1848, 1849, occur the following species : — 

1848. 

No. 

Cerithium{Potamides) Hegewischii,Ph. M.exico, Hegewisch. Resembles 

Cerithidea varicosa. Sow. [but it is not stated in which ocean it was 

found.] 
Trochus (Pkorcus) Panamensis, Phil. Panama, E. B. Philippi. 
Adeorbis scaber, Phil. Panama. Found in Avicula margaritifera by 

E. B. Philippi. 
Anodonta cornea, Phil. Nicaragua, Largilliert. 

atrovirens, Phil. „ „ 

Nicaragua, Phil. „ „ 

Bulla Panamensis, Phil. Panama, E. B. Philippi. 
Cerithium filosum, Phil. California. — Mus. Largilliert, 
Donax Panamensis, Phil. Panama, E. B. Philippi. 
Kellia pulchra, Phil. West coast of America. 
Litorina parvula, Phil. Panama, E. B. Philippi. 

phasianella, Phil. „ „ 

Mactra velata, Vhi\. „ „ '?"AnMuliniaexalbida,Gra,y." 

Petricola robusta, Phil. „ „ In Avicula margaritifera. 

[This fortunately appears to be one of the many forms of Petricola 

robusta. Sow.] 
Phasianella perforata, Phil. Panama and Payta, E, B. Philippi. 
Tellina Panamensis, Phil. Panama, E. B. Philippi. 
Unio nuculinus, Phil. Nicaragua, Largilliert. 



Page. 


No. 


19 


81 


127 


53 


129 


55 


130 


57 


,^ 


58 


jj 


59 


141 


79 


143 


84 


145 


87 


149 


96 


jj 


97 




98 


153 


7 


163 


33 


164 


34 


175 


59 


176 


62 



296 REPORT — 1856. 

Page. No. 
188 67 Trochus (Calcar) erythrophthalmus, Vhil. =.T. olivaceus, Wood. Cali- 
fornia. [Described under the erroneous impression that the T. oli- 
vaceus ofWood's Cat. was the white mouthed shell. =T. inermis, 
1849. Gmel. teste Kien.] 

148 ... Trochus Belcheri, Phil. Mus. Hanley. Voyage Belcher. 

149 ... callichrous, Phil. „ „ „ „ 

150 ... callicoccus, Phil. „ „ „ Venus. 

168 ... metaformis, VM. „ „ „ Belcher. 

170 ... neritoides, Phil. „ „ „ „ 

171 ... WMcZews, Phil. „ „ „ „ 

191 ... suavis, Phil. „ „ „ „ 

1850. 
84 48 Succinea brevis, Dunker. Mexico. 

1851. 

61 73 Bucciiium Panamense, Phil. Panama, Payta, E. B. PhiKppi. 

71 94 Cyrena inflata, Phil. Costa Rica. — Mus. Busch. 

74 100 Cytherea solidissimajFhW. California. [=Tn^oneZ/«crffSsa/eZ/oi(?es,Conr.] 

75 2 Donax obesa, Phil. CaUfornia. [=1). Californicus, Conr.] 
123 47 Terebra Belcheri, Phil. "... ex itin. Belcheri." 

126 52 Venus distans, Phil. Panama, E. B. Philippi. 
1852. 

79 13 Avicula (Meleagrina) fimbriata, l)kr. Central America. 
[1 = Margaritiphora Mazatlanica, Hani.] 
1853. 

112 40 Lutraria inflata, Dkr. California, teste Bernhard. 

In the " Malacozoologische Blatter fiir 1854," which is a continuation of 
the Zeit. f. Mai. by the same editors, occurs the following : — 

1854. Page 28. Pyramidella bicolor, Mke. [06eZiscMS.] Calif., teste J. W. E. Muller. 

65. The following are from Philippi's Monographs in Kuster's edition of 
Martini's Continuation of Chemnitz's ' Conchilien Cabinet ' : — 

Kust. Mart., p. 57. no. 60. pi. 9. f. 4. Natica otis, Brod. & Sow. Mazatlan and 
Marquesas. 

Kust. Mart., p. 78. pi. 12. f. 1-5. Natica maroccana, Chemn. Morocco, Chemn., 
W. Indies, CAemw. Guinea, Largilliert. ^.Mvica,Rodatz. W. Mexico, P/r. Panama, 
C.B.Adams. (Var. lurida), Havanna, Sandw. Is., Lieukieu Is., Largilliert. (Var. uni- 
fasciata), Peru, Petit. 

66. Besides the authorities given in published works, the following have 
been noted from the British Museum Collection : — 

Saxicava arctica. N. Zealand. Capt. Isl. C. Ede, Esq. (used by the natives 

Stokes. B. M. for money). 

Tellina nasuta. Icy Cape. Liiorinafasciata. Sandwich Is. Lieut. 
Donax punctatostriatus. S. America. Strickland. 

Capt. Ld. Byron. Cerithium ocellatum, Brug. Madagascar. 
Donax scortum. San Bias. [? ubi.] (Compare with C. stercus-muscarum.) 

Tellina rufescens. St. Domingo. Sir Odostomia. Monterey. Capt. Beechey. 

R. Schomburgk. (Probably 0. gravida, Gould.) 

Pinna ? rudis. Panama. Miss Saul. Eidima distorta. St. Vincent's, W. I. 

Chiton, sp. ind. California. Natica bifasciata, Gray. W. Columbia. 

Chiton vestitus, Sow. Capt. Beechey. Marginella curta. Sow. jun. Mazatlan. 

Bulla ? nebulosa. Pedro Blanco, Mexico. Fusus IDxipetithouarsii, var. 

Mr. J. Robertson. Trophon labiosa. Gray. Callao. 

Physa elata. California. Dr. Sinclair. Nitidella cribraria. S. America. Capt. 
Fissurella mutabilis, Swains. Galapagos. King. 

Dentalium pretiosum. Central America. Pisanialringens. Pernambuco. J.P.G, 

Dr. Sinclair. Smith. 

Dentalium, like tntalis. Vancouver's 



ON MOLLUSCA OF THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA. 297 



67. The followiug species and localities have also been noticed in Mr. 
Cuming's collection : — 



Petricola denticulata, Mazatlan. 

Thracia plicata, Desh. W. N. America. 

Periploma Leana. Mazatlan. Capt. 
Keppell and Mr. Ede, R.N. 

Lyonsia nitida. " China Seas, Belcher :" 
probably an error. 

Tellidora Burneti. Salango and St. 
Elena, Cuming. 

Donax assimilis. Conchagua. 

Mactra angulata : plentiful from the 
Gulf, rare further south, teste Cuming. 

Crassatella gibbosa and undulata. West 
Columbia. 

Cardium Belcheri. Panama, Cuming. 

Diplodonta semiaspera. St.Thomas,W.I. 
Merk. 

Lucinafenestrata. Monte Xti, San Bias. 

Kellia suborbicularis. Is. Muerte (Guay- 
aquil), sandy mud, 11 fms. Concep- 
tion, Chili. 

68. Lastly, the following have been 
Gray, Syst. Ar. Moll.* p. 52 (lanthinidce). 

Recluzia Rollandiana. Mazatlan. 
Gray, Syst. Ar. Moll. p. 117- Garnotia 

solida, genus described. Mazatlan. 
Gray,Syst. Ar.MoU. Scurria wwYra, genus 

described. Mazatlan. 
Phil. Arch. 1847, p. 63. pi. 3. f. 7. Am- 

pMchcena Kindermanni. Mazatlan. 

(Appears to be a Psammobia.) 
Tellidora Burnett. W. Columbia, Lieut. 

Freer. — Bristol Mus. 
Dione lupinaria. Valparaiso, H. Babb, 

E.N.— Bristol Mus. 
Cardita affinis. Cubaco, Lieut. Wood. 

— Bristol Mus. 
Lithophagus aristatus. Panama. — Bris- 
tol Mus. 



Modiola capax. Galapagos, Cuming. 

Helix vincta,Ya\.; Baskervillei,V{r. From 
California and the neighbourhood. 

Acmcea gigantea=grandis, Gray. Mon- 
tery, exposed situations. 

Omphalius Calif ornicus, A. Ad. More- 
ton Bay. 

Chlorostomafunebrale. California. 

Ovulum gibbosum, Panama, Cuming. 

Torinia variegata. Is. Annaa, coral reefs. 

Lathyrus armatus. California. 

Leucozonia Californica. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, Lieut. Shipley : appears a La- 
tliyrus. 

Ranella, like vexillum. Mazatlan. 

? tuberculata, var. Mazatlan (Havre 

Col. teste Powis). 

Nassa nodocincta, A. Ad. Galapagos. 

RhizocJieilus asper. Gulf of California. 

Typhis grandis. California. 

collected from various sources : — 

Lithophagus aristatus. Algiers, M'An- 

drew. 
Isognomon Chemnitzianum. Panama, L. 

W^ood.— Bristol Mus. 
Chiton consimilis. Upper