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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OP THE 



TWENTY-EIGHTH MEETING 



OF THE 









BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT LEEDS IN SEPTEMBER 1858. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1859. 



PRINTED BY 

RICHARD TAYLOR AND WILLIAM FRANCIS, 

RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



FLAMMAM. 





CONTENTS. 



Psge 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxiii 

Table of Council from commencement xxiv 

Officers and Council xxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxvii 

Corresponding Members xxviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxviii 

Report of the Kew Committee xxxiii 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xxxvi 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxxix 

Synopsis of Money Grants , xliii 

General Statement of Sums paid for Scientific Purposes xliv 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee xlvii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xlviii 

Address of the President xlix 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Fourth Report upon the Facts and Theory of Earthquake Phenomena. 
By Robert Mallett , 1 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1857-58. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford 137 

On some Points in the Anatomy of the Araneidea, or true Spiders, espe- 
cially on the internal structure of their Spinning Organs. By R. H. 
Meade, F.R.C.S 157 

The Patent Laws Report of the Committee of the British Association. 

Presented by W. Fairbairn, F.R.S 16* 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 
On the Lead Mining Districts of Yorkshire. By Stephen Eddy, 
Carlton, Skiptoa 167 

On the Collapse of Glass Globes and Cylinders. By W. Fairbairn, 
F.R.S 174. 

Report on the Marine Fauna of the South and West Coasts of Ireland. 
By E. Perceval Wright, M.B., A.B., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., Director 
of the Museum, and Lecturer on Zoology, University of Dublin ; and 
J. Reay Greene, A.B., M.R.I. A., Professor of Natural History, 
Queen's College, Cork. Parti. (1858) 176 

On Experiments on the Measurement of Water by Triangular Notches 
in Weir Boards. By James Thomson, A.M., C.E., Professor of 
Civil Engineering, Queen's College, Belfast 181 

Report of the Committee on the Magnetic Survey of Great Britain. 
By Major-General Sabine 185 

Report on Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Substances imported from 
Foreign Countries into the Clyde (including the Ports of Glasgow, 
Greenock, and Port Glasgow) in the years 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 
1857. By Michael Connal, Esq., and William Keddie, Esq., 
Glasgow 185 

Report of the Committee on Shipping Statistics. Presented to the 
British Association, September 1858 239 

Notice of the Instruments employed in the Magnetic Survey of Ireland, 
with some of the Results. By the Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., M.R.I.A... 260 

Report of Dublin Dredging Committee, appointed 1857-58. By Pro- 
fessor J. R. Kinahan, M.D., M.R.LA 262 

Report on Crustacea of Dublin District. By John Robert Kinahan, 
M.D., M.R.I.A., Professor of Zoology in the Department of Science 
and Art Part I. Decapoda Podophthalmata 262 

On River Steamers, their Form, Construction, and Fittings, with refer- 
ence to the necessity for improving the present means of Shallow 
Water Navigation on the Rivers of British India. By Andrew 
Henderson, A.I.C.E., M.S.A., F.R.G.S 268 

Report of the Belfast Dredging Committee. By George C. Hyndman 282 

Appendix to Mr. Vignoles' paper " On the Adaptation of Suspension 
Bridges to sustain the passage of Railway Trains" (Rept. Brit. Assoc. 
857) 293 

Report of the Joint Committee of the Royal Society and the British 
Association, for procuring a continuance of the Magnetic and 
Meteorological Observatories 295 

Description of a Self-recording Anemometer. By R. Beckley, Assist- 
ant at the Kew Observatory of the British Association 306 



CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 

Address by the Rev. W. Whewell, President of the Section 1 

Rev. J. Booth on a General Method of deriving the Properties of umbilical sur- 
faces of the second order, having three unequal axes, from the properties of 

the sphere ^ 

Rev. J. Booth on the Mutual Relations of Inverse Curves and Inverse Curved 

Surfaces • 

Mr. A. Cayley on the Notion of Distance in Analytical Geometry 3 

Mr. J. Pope Hennessy on Dr. Whewell's Views respecting the Nature and 

Value of Mathematical Definitions 3 

, on some Properties of a Series of the Powers of the 

same Number ^ 

Dr. F. A. SiLJESTROM on the Conditions of Equilibrium in a Rotating Spheroid 5 
Mr. G. TuuKNELL on a Mode of constructing the Rectangular Hyperbola by 

Points ^ 

Mr. C. M. WiLLicH on a Mode of constructing Tables of Squares and Cubes. 6 

Light, Heat. 

Miss RosiNA ZoRNLiN OH Heat, and on the Indestructibility of Elementary 

Bodies. (Communicated by W. S. Ayrton.) 6 

Sir David Brewster on the Duration of Luminous Impressions on certain 

Points of th« Retina " 

. on Vision through the Foramen Centrale of the Retina. 7 

on certain Abnormal Structures in the Crystalline Lenses 

of Animals, and in the Human Crystalline 7 

. on the Crystalline Lens of the Cuttle-fish 10 

, on the Use of Amethyst Plates in Experiments on the 

Polarization of Light 

Professor Petzval's New Combination Lens 1^ 

Mr. Henry Dircks on an Apparatus for exhibiting Optical Illusions of Spec- 
tral Phenomena 

Rev. J. Dingle on a New Case of Binocular Vision 1* 



ip CONTENTS. 

Page 
Dr. Gladstone and Rev. T. P. Dale on some Optical Properties of Phos- 
phorus *^ 

Mr. F. Galton a Hand Heliostat, for the purpose of flashing Sun Signals, 

from on board Ship or on Land, in Sunny Climates 15 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Fixed Lines of the Solar Spectrum 17 

Rev. W. R. Grove on the Influence of Light on Polarized Electrodes 17 

Mr. W. M'Ceaw on a New, Cheap, and Permanent Process in Photography. 

(Communicated by Sir David Brewster.) 18 

Sir G. Robinson on Moon Blindness 19 

Mr. Samuel, an early form of the Lenticular Stereoscope constructed for 

the use of Schools, exhibited by 19 

Mr. Norman Pogson on the Ocular Crystal Micrometer, with observations of 
twelve double stars, as evidence of its extraordinary power in measuring 

small angular distances. (Communicated by Dr. John Lee.) 19 

Dr. F. A. Siljestrom on the Distribution of Heat in the Interior of the Earth 23 
Mr. B. Stewart's Account of some Experiments on Radiant Heat, involving 
an Extension of Prevost's Theory of Exchanges 23 

Electricity, Magnetism. 

Mr. J. Drummond on the Intensity of the Terrestrial Magnetic Force 24 

— ■ on the Development of a Physical Theory of Terrestrial 

Magnetism, an outline of which was submitted to the Dublin Meeting 25 

Mr. C. L. Draper's Memoir on Electro-Magnetism 25 

Mr. WiLDMAN Whitehouse's contributions on the Submarine Telegraph 25 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on Induced Electrical Discharges taken in Aqueous Vapour 26 

on the Phosphorescent Appearance of Electrical Discharges 

in a Vacuum made in Flint and Potash Glass 26 

Mr. George Gore's exhibiton of Apparatus showing the Correlation of Forces, 
and Exhibition of Heating Effects, by Mechanical Operations, on a peculiar 
Form of Antimony 26 

Mr. W. Ladd on an Improved Induction Coil 26 

Dr. F. A. Siljsstrom on the Magnetic Dip at Stockholm 27 

Astronomy. 

Mr. Edward Joshua Cooper on the Perihelia and Ascending Nodes of the 

Planets 27 

Donati's Comet. — Extracts from Letters received by Mr. E. J. Cooper, from 
Mr. A. Graham 28 

Dr. John Lee on the Results of the Measures of Gamma Virginis for the Epoch 
1858, as determined by Admiral Smyth 29 

Mr. N. PoGSON on a New Variable Star (R. Sagittarii), discovered with the 
5-foot Smythian Telescope of the Hartwell House Observatory. (Commu- 
nicated by Dr. John Lee.) ." 29 

Dr. F. A. Siljestrom on the Constitution of Comets 30 

Colonel Sykes on the successful establishment, by Astronomer Broun, of a 
Meteorological and Magiietical Observatory at Travancore, at 6200 feet above 
the Level of the Sea ; with Results of Magnetical Observations at Trevan- 
drum, as communicated in a Letter from Mr. Broun to General Sir Thomas 
Brisbane 3o 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 
Sound. ■ 

Rev. S. Earnshaw on the Mathematical Theory of Sound 34 

Meteorology. 

Mr. W. R. BowDiTCH on the Formation of Hail, as illustrated by Local Storms 35 
Mr. J. Park Harrison, further Evidence of Lunar Influence on Temperature 36 
Professor Hennessy on the Decrease of Temperature over Elevated Ground... 36 
on the Heating of the Atmosphere by Contact with the 

Earth's Surface 36 

Colonel James's Note on Refraction 38 

Dr. Lee on the Daily Comparison of an Aneroid Barometer with a Board of 

Trade Barometer by Captains of Ships at Sea 39 

Mr. F. OsLER on the Construction of a Portable Self-registering Anemometer 

for recording the direction and amount of Horizontal Motion of the Air 38 

Rev. T. Rankin's Meteorological Observations at Huggate for 1857 38 

Dr. F. A. Siljestrom's Note on Observations of Temperature 39 

Colonel Sykes on the Desirableness of renewing Balloon Ascents in England 

for Meteorological Objects 39 

Mr. G. J. Symons on a New Construction of Standard Portable Mountain 

Barometers 39 

Professor Tyndall's Particulars of an Ascent of Mont Blanc 39 

Mr. J. WoLLEY on a fresh Form of Crystallization which takes place in the 
Particles of Fallen Snow under Intense Cold 40 

Instruments. 

Mr. Warrand Carlile on Dials which give the Latitude, the line of North 
and South, and Chronometer Time 41 

CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Sir J. F. W. Herschel, President of the Section 41 

Mr. J. Bedford on Colorific Lichens 45 

Dr. C. W. Bingley on the peculiar action of Mud and Water on Glass, as 
more especially illustrated by some Specimens of Glass found in the Lake at 
Walton Hall, near Wakefield, the residence of Charles Waterton, Esq... 45 

Mr. F. Grace Calvert on the Expansion of Metals, Alloys, and Salts 46 

Dr. J. Baker Edwards's Note on Nitro-glycerine and other Xyloids 47 

Mr. R. J. Fowler on a Process for the Estimation of Actinism 47 

Mr. Alphonse Gages on a Method of Observation applied to the study of 
some Metamorphic Rocks ; and on some Molecular Changes exhibited by the 
action of Acids upon them 48 

on a new variety of Pyro-electric Wavellite 49 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on Electrical Discharges as observed in highly rarefied Car- 
bonic Acid in contact with Potash 50 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on reciprocal Decomposition between Salts and their 
Acid Solvents 50 

Mr. George Gladstone on a remarkable Deposit of Carbonate of Lime about 
Fossils in the Lowei- Lias of Dorsetshire 51 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. W. HuGGON on the Alkaline Waters of Leeds 51 

Dr. H. Bence Jones, Some Account of Profersor Schonbein's latest Experi- 
ments on the AUotropic Conditions of Oxygen 52 

Dr. Edwin Lankester on an Instrument for Measuring the Constant Intensity 
of Ozone 52 

Mr. J. B. Lawes and Dr. J. H. Gilbert on the Annual Yield of Nitrogen per 
Acre in different Crops 52 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay on the Action of Hard Waters upon Lead 54 

On an improved Electric Lamp invented and manufactured by Mr. William 
Hart. (Communicated by Dr. Stevenson Macadam.) 55 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam on M. de Luca's Claim to be the Discoverer of the 
Non-Presence of Iodine in the Atmospheric Air, Rain-Water, and Snow 56 

's Note on the Production of a Frosted Surface on 

Articles made of Aluminium 56 

Dr. J. A. Matthiessen on the Combustibility and other Properties of the 
Rarer Metals 5? 

Mr. John Mercer on Chromatic Photographs 57 

on the Relation of the Atomic Weights of the Families of 

the Elements 57 

Dr. W. Odling on the Atom of Tin 58 

Mr. W. H. Perkin on the Purple Dye obtained from Coal-Tar 58 

Mr. John Mercer an the Atomic Weights of the Elements of Six Chemical 
Families 59 

Dr. PuGH on a new Method for the Quantitative Estimation of Nitric Acid.... 64 

Rev. J. B. Reade on Animal Ammonia, its Formation, Evolution, and Office.. 65 

Mr. R. Reynolds on the Practical Application of Aluminium 66 

Mr. W. L. Smith on the Choice of Subject in Photography, and the Adapta- 
tion of different Processes 66 

Dr. E. Smith on a new Method of Determining the Quantity of Carbonic Acid 
contained in the Air 66 

Mr. W. K, Sullivan on some Double Salts formed with Bichromate of Potash 66 

Professor Voelcker on the Constitution of the Mineral Portion of Bones, and 
the Analysis of Common Bone-ash, Animal Charcoal, &c 68 

Dr. W. Wallace on the Carbonates of Alumina, Chromic Oxide, and Ferric 

Oxide 69 

on Chloro-Arsenious Acid, and some of its Compounds 69 

Mr. W. S. Ward's Observations on Dry Collodion Processes 71 

Mr. R. Warington on the Source of Ammonia in Volcanic Emanation 71 

Mr. John Waterhouse on an Instrument for maintaining a Water-Bath at 
constant Temperatures 71 

GEOLOGY. 

Address by Mr. William Hopkins, President of the Section 72 

Rev. Dr. Anderson on the Fossil Fishes and Yellow Sandstone 74 

Mr. T. W. Atkinson on the Volcanoes of Central Asia, commencing with the 
Baikal, in Oriental Siberia, and extending into Mongolia and Chinese Tartary, 
illustrated by a beautiful series of drawings of the principal volcanic scenes 
described 75 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Mr. W. H. Baily on the Fructification of Cyclopieris Ilibernica (Forbes), from 
the Upper Devonian or Lower Carboniferous Strata at Kiltorkan Hill, 
County Kilkenny 75 

on two new species of Crustacea (Bellinuriis, Konig) from 

the Coal Measures in Queen's County, Ireland; and some Remarks on forms 
allied to them '. 76 

Mr. W. Baines on the Yorkshire Flagstones and their Fossils 78 

Mr. L. Barrett on the Atlas and Axis of the Plesiosaurus 78 

Dr. G. P. Bevan on the Marine Shell Bed of the South Wales Coal Basin, showing 
the presence of Vegetable Remains in the Upper Coal Measures of the District, 
and of Shells and Fish in the Lower Coal Measures, and illustrating the con- 
tinuity of forms of life in different stratifications 80 

Professor Dawson on the Vegetable Structure visible in the Coal of Nova Scotia 80 

Mr. John S. Enys's Photographs of Quarries near Penrhyn, showing the struc- 
ture of Granite 80 

Mr. Albany Hancock's Remarks on certain Vermiform Fossils found in the 
Mountain Limestone Districts of the North of England 80 

Professor Harkness on the Distortion of Fossils 81 



on the Origin of the Breccias of the Southern Portion of 



the Valley of the Nith, Scotland 81 

Professor Thomas H. Huxley's Observations on the Genus Pteraspis 82 

Professor William King on the Jointed Structure of Rocks, particularly as de- 
veloped in several places in Ireland 83 

Mr. J. G. Marshall on the Geology of the Lake District, in reference especially 
to the Metamorphic and Igneous Rocks 84 

Mr. William Mathews's Photographs of the Quarry of Rowley Rag at Ponk 
Hill, Walsall 93 

Mr. C. MooRE on Triassic Beds near Frome, and their Organic Remains 93 

Sir R. I. MuRCHisoN on some Results of recent Researchrs among the Older 
Rocks of the Highlands of Scotland 94 

Professor James Nicol on the Age and Relations of the Cii.uiss Rocks in the 
North of Scotland 96 

Rev. T. W. Norwood on the Comparative Geology of Hotham, near South Cave, 
Yorkshire 96 

Professor Owen on a New Genus (Dimorphodon) of Pterodactyle, with remarks 
on the Geological Distribution of Flying Reptiles 97 

on Remains of New and Gigantic Species of Pterodactyle 

(Pter. Fittoni and Pter. SedgwicJcii) from the Upper Greensand, near Cam- 
bridge 98 

Mr. D. Page on the Skeleton of a Seal from the Pleistocene Clays of Stratheden, 
in Fifeshire 103 

's Farther Contributions to the Palaeontology of the Tilestones or 

Silurio-Devonian Strata of Scotland 104 

on the Relations of the Metamorphic and Older Palaeozoic Rocks 

in Scotland 105 

Mr. W. Pengelly on a recently-discovered Ossiferous Cavern at Brixham, near 
Torquay , 106 

Professor Phillips's Notice of some Phenomena at the Junction of the Granite 
and Schistose Rocks in West Cumberland 106 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor Phillips and Mr. R. Barker, Jun., on the Haematite Ores of North 
Lancashire and West Cumberland 106 

Mr. H. C. SoRBY on a New Method of determining the Temperature and Pres- 
sure at which various Rocks and Minerals were formed 107 

on some Peculiarities in the Arrangement of the Minerals in 

Igneous Rocks 107 

on the Currents present during the Deposition of the Car- 
boniferous and Permian Strata in South Yorkshire and North Derbyshire... 108 

Rev. Francis F. Statham on the Geology of the Scilly Isles 108 

Mr. Thomas P. Teale on the Superficial Deposits of the Valley of the Aire at 
Leeds Ill 

Rev. Edward Thollope on the Fens and Submarine Forests of Lincolnshire 
and other Localities 113 



BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

Botany. 

Dr. Carrington on the Geological Distribution of Plants in some Districts of 

Yorkshire 115 

Mr. W. E. C. Nourse's Researches on the Colours of Leaves and Petals 115 

Mr. N. B. Ward on Suburban Gardens 117 

on some Practical Results derivable from the Study of Botany 118 

Mr. TuFFEN West on the Epidermal Cells of the Petals of Plants 119 

Zoology. 

Professor Allman on the Reproductive Organs of Sertularia iamarisca 119 

Mr. Cuthbert Collingwood's Remarks on the Migration of Birds 121 

Dr. J. Davy's Observations on the Fishes of the Lake District 122 

Mr. R. L. Ellis on the Cause of the Instinctive Tendency of Bees to form 

Hexagonal Cells '. 122 

Mr. T. C. Eyton on the Arrangement of Birds J22 

on the Oyster 123 

Mr. Robert Garner on the Anatomy of the Brain in some small Quadrupeds 123 
The Rev. H. H. Higgins on the Death of the Common Hive Bee, supposed to 

be occasioned by a Parasitic Fungus 124 

The Rev. T. Hincks on a New Species of Laomedea ; with Remarks on the 

Genera. Campanularia and Laomedea 126 

Mr. Joshua Alder on three New Species of Sertularian Zoophytes. (Commu- 
nicated by the Rev. Thomas Hicks) 126 

Mr. G.M. Humphry on the Homology of the Skeleton 126 

The Rev. H. H. Higgins on the Liability of Shells to Injury from the Growth 

of a Fungus '. _ j28 

Rev. T. Hincks on some new and interesting Forms of British Zoophytes 128 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Mr. . W. Peach on some Peculiar Forms of Spines found on two Species of 
the Spinigrade Starfishes 128 

Mr. Henry Peckitt's Notice of a number of Earth-worms and Larvae of an 
undescribed Species found in draining a field upon his Estate 129 

Dr. J. A. Power's Notes on Myrmecophilous Coleoptera 129 

Rev. F. F. Statham on the Occurrence of Bombyx mori in a wild state in this 
Country 130 

Mr. A. Strickland on the British Wild Geese 131 

Mr. W. B. Tegetmeier on the Formation of the Cells of Bees 132 

Mr. N.B.Ward on Aquaria 133 

Mr. R. Warington on the Multiplication of Actinise in Aquaria 133 

Physiology. 

Dr. AcHiLLE FouLLE on some Observations connected with the Anatomy and 
Functions of the third, sixth, and seventh pairs of Nerves and the Medulla 
oblongata 1 34 

Dr. Richard Fowler on the Sensational, Emotional, Intellectual, and Instinc- 
tive Capacities of the Lower Animals compared with those of Man 134 

Dr. G. Harley's Notes of Experiments on Digestion 135 

Mr. G. H. Lewes, the Spinal Chord a Sensational and Volitional Centre 135 

Mr. John Milligan on the Pressure of the Atmosphere, and its Power in 
modifying and determining Hsemorrhagic Disease 138 

Mr. W. R. Milner on the Influence of various Circumstances in causing Loss 
or Gain in the Weight of the Prisoners in Wakefield Convict Prison 139 

Mr. T. Nunneley on the Form of the Eyeball, and the relative position of the 
Entrance of the Optic Nerve into it in different Animals 139 

on the Structure of the Retina at the Punctum Centrale, or 

Foramen of Scemmering ^ 141 

—^■^—^■^^-^^ on the Structure of the Choroid Coat of the Eye, and more 
particularly on the Character and Arrangement of the Pigmentary Matter ... 141 

Dr. E. Smith on the Results obtained from an Extended Inquiry into the 
Quantity of Carbonic Acid evolved from the Lungs under the Influence of 
various Agents 142 

on the Methods Iiitherto adopted for the Determination of the 

Carbonic Acid contained in the Expired Air, with a Description of a new 
Method 142 

Microscopical Apparatus. 

Mr. C. Brooke's improved Portable Microscope and Case 143 

Mr. Ladd's Microscope with improved Magnetic Stage 143 

Mr. Warington's Additions to his Portable Microscope 143 

GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Address by Sir Roderick Murchison, President of the Section 143 

Mr. T.W. Atkinson's Notes on a Journey through parts of the Alatou, in 
Chinese Tartary 144 

Dr. W.G. Blackie's Notes on the Russo-Chinese Frontier and the Amoor River 147 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Astronomer Broun's Notice of the Kanikars, a Hill-Side Tribe in the Kingdom 

of Travancore 148 

Major-General Chesney on the Extension of Communications to Distant 

Places by means of Electric Wires 148 

Mr. Richard Cull on Dr. Prichard's Identification of the Russians with the 

Roxolani 148 

Mr. H. CoNYBEARE on the Physical Geography of the Neighbourhood of 

Bombay, as affecting the Design of the Works recently erected for the Water 

Supply of that City 149 

Mr. J. Crawfurd on the Effects of Commixture, Locality, Climate, and Food 

on the Races of Man 149 

Dr. J. Davy's Observations on the Lake District 149 

Consul DoNOHOE on Pacific Railway Schemes, as communicated by the Earl 
of Malmesbury to the President of the Royal Geographical Society 149 

Rev. J. Dingle on the Configuration of the Surface of the Earth 150 

Rev. G. C. Geldart, Language no Test of Race 150 

Mr. H. M. Greenhow's Short Notice of the People of Oude, and of their 
leading Characteristics 151 

Colonel H. James on the Geometrical Projection of tvs^o-thirds of the Surface 

of the Sphere 151 

Dr. R. G. Latham on the General Distribution of the Varieties of Language and 
Physical Conformation, with remarks upon the Nature of Ethnological Groups 151 

Mr. William Lockhart on the Yang-tse-Keang and the Hwang-ho, or Yellow 
River. (Communicated by Dr. Norton Shaw) 152 

Extracts from a Letter by Mr. William Russell to the President 152 

Mr. C. R. Markham on the Navigation of the Ucayali, an Affluent of the 
Amazons 153 

Dr. S. Muller's Geognostic Sketch of the Western Position of Timor 153 

Capt. J. Palliser and Dr. Hector's Reports to Her Majesty's Government 
on the Physical Geography of the Country examined by the Expedition ex- 
ploring the South- Western Regions of British North America 153 

Dr. Norton Shaw on the Geography of British North America, more particu- 
larly British Columbia, Frazer River, &c 153 

Sir R. Schomburgk's Letter to Sir R. L Murchison on the Project of a Canal 
across the Isthmus of Kraw, which divides the Gulf of Bengal from that of 
Siam 153 

M. I. Joseph Silbermann on a Method for the Spherical Printing of Globes. 154 

M. Troyon on the Lacustrine Homes of the Ancient Swiss 154 

Mr. A. Whitney on the Formation of a Railway from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean, through the British Possessions of North America 154 

Mr. J. S. Wilson's Notes on the Physical Geography of North-Western 
Australia 155 

Mr. J. Spotswood Wilson on the General and Gradual Desiccation of the 
Earth and Atmosphere 155 

Mr. Thomas Wright's Notice of the Opening of a Sepulchral Tumulus in 
East Yorkshire 156 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by the President, Mr. Edward Baines, on opening the Section 157 



CONTENTS. XIU 

Page 

Mr. Edwahd Baines on the Woollen Manufacture of England, with special 
reference to the Leeds Clothing District 158 

Dr. Joseph Bateman on the Rate of Mortality in the Metropolitan Improved 
Dwellings for the Industrial Classes 164 

Mr. R. Baker on the Sanitary and Industrial Economy of the Borough of 
Leeds 164 

Dr. Joseph Bateman on the Degree of Education of Persons tried at the Mid- 
dlesex Sessions 168 

on the Investments of the Industrial Classes 1G8 

Mr. T. Bazley, Trade and Commerce the Auxiliaries of Civilization and Com- 
fort 169 

Mr. Charles H. Bracebridge's Notes on Self-supporting Dispensaries, 
with some Statistics of the Coventry Provident Dispensary 170 

Mr. Samuel Brown on the Financial Prospects of British Railways 172 

Professor Cairnes on the Laws according to which a Depreciation of the 
Precious Metals consequent upon an Increase of Supply takes place, con- 
sidered in connexion with the Recent Gold Discoveries 174 

Mr. Edwin Chadwick on the Progress of the Principle of Open Competitive 
Examinations 175 

Mr. J. E. DiBB on the Registry of Deeds in the West Riding 175 

Mr. James Heywood on Public Service, Academic, and Teachers' Examina- 
tions 176 

Mrs. Wm. Fison on the Importance of a Colonial Penny Postage, viewed in 
relation to the advancement of Science and Christian Civilization 177 

Mr. J. Pope Hennessy on the Causes of the Fall in Price of Manufactured 
Cottons 178 

• on some of the Results of the Society of Arts' Exami- 
nations 180 

Mr. Robert Hunt's Mineral Produce of Yorkshire in 1857 181 

Mr. John James on the Worsted Manufactures of Yorkshire 182 

Mr. James Kitson, Jun. on the Iron Trade of Leeds 183 

M. Corranader MiEREN ou Free Trade in Belgium 184 

Mr. J. G. Marshall's Sketch of the History of Flax Spinning in England, 
especially as developed in the Town of Leeds 184 

Mr. F. G. P. Neison on Phthisis in the Army 189 

Mr. William Newmarch on the History of Prices of 1857 and 1858 194 

on the recent History of the Credit Mobilier 194 

Rev. T. W. Norwood on the Race and Language of the Gipsies 195 

Mr. J. H. Sadler's Notes on Indian Fibres, illustrated by prepared Specimens. 
(Communicated by Colonel Sykes) 195 

Mr. Hamer Stansfeld's Essay on Distinctions between Money and Capital, 
Interest and Discount, Currency and Circulating Medium, essential to be 
observed in the Reform of our Monetary Laws 197 

Dr. John Strang on the Sewing Machine in Glasgow, and its Effects on Pro- 
duction, Prices, and Wages 198 

on Water Supply to Great Towns — its Extent, Cost, Uses, 

and Abuses , 198 

Mr. W. M. Tartt on subjects connected with Crime and Punishment 199 

Mr. R. Valpy's Brief Review of the Operations in the Bank of England in 1857 201 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. H. Walker on the Results of Free Trade 201 



iMECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President's Address, on the Progress of Mechanical Science 201 

Mr. W. Bridgks Adams on a new Method of Constructing the Permanent 
Way and Wheels of Railways 203 

Mr. W. J. Armitage on a few Facts connected with the Manufacture of Pig 
Iron in the neighbourhood of Leeds 204 

Mr. W. H. Bartholomew on Steam Tugs employed on the Aire and Calder 

Navigation 206 

Mr. G. Bayley's Description of a Floating Dry Dock 206 

Rev. Dr. J. Booth on an Instrument for describing Spirals 207 

Mr. C. BuoDKicK on the Roof of the New Town Hall of Leeds 20/ 

Mr. J. Buckton's Notice of some of the Articles shown in the Mechanical 
Section of the Leeds Exhibition of Local Industry 208 

Mr. W. E. Carrett on some modern Appliances for Raising Water 208 

Mr. Robert Cole's Account of Lewis Paul and his Invention of the Machine 
for Spinning Cotton and Wool by Rollers, and his claim to such inven- 
tion, to the exclusion of John Wyatt 209 

Mr. H. CoPfYBEARE on an Apparatus for laying down Submarine Telegraphic 

Cables 209 

Mr. CooMBE on Expanding Pulleys 209 

Mr. Alfred Crosskill on Reaping Machinery 209 

Mr. J. Elder on Double Cylinder Expansion Marine Engines 211 

Mr. F. Galton's Description of a Hand Heliostat 211 

Mr. Joseph Glynn on the Economy of Water Power 212 

Mr. J. HoPKiNSON on the Cause of Steam-boiler Explosions, and Means of 
Prevention 212 

Mr. E. Jones on the Drainage of the Metropolis 213 

Mr. D. Joy on the Application of Mechanical Power to the Bellows of Organs 213 

Mr. John Mackintosh on the Application of Combustible Compounds to be 
used in War 214 

on Constructing and Laying Telegraph Cables 2l4 

Mr. J. Maclean on the Submersion of Electric Cables , 215 

Vice-Admiral Moorsom on the Performance of Steam Vessels, the Functions 
of the Screw, and the Relations of its Diameter and Pitch to the form of the 
Vessel 216 

Mr. Joseph John Murphy on a proposed Floating Lighthouse 218 

Mr. William Naylor on a newDouble-acting Steam Hammer 218 

Mr. J. O'Neill on a plan for giving Alarms in Passenger Trains 219 

Mr. James Oldham on the Gresham Buoy, for recording the Loss of Missing 
Ships at Sea 219 

Mr. G. Rennie on the Construction of Floating and Fixed Batteries 220 

Mr. T. J. Silberman on a Universal Printing Press 220 

on aUniversal Cock 221 

Mr. R. Smith on a Wreck Intelligencer 221 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 
Mr. S. Smith's Remarks on the Bursting of Guns and Cannon 221 

Hon. J. Weatheued on Combined Steam 222 

Mr. C. F. Whitworth on Recent Improvements in Railway Signals 223 

Mr. R. P. Williams on an Instrument for setting out Curve Lines 223 



APPENDIX. 

Geology. 

Mr. E. Charlesworth on some remarkable Yorkshire Fossils, including the 
unique Plesiosauri in the Museum at York, with pictorial restorations by 
Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins 223 

Mr. W. Pengelly on an Ichthyolite found in the Devonian Slates of East 
Cornwall 223 

on the Trilobite found at the Knoll Hill, Newton Abbott... 224 

Professor Rogers on the discovery of Strata of supposed Permian age in the 
interior of North America, by Mr. Meek and other American Geologists ... 224 

Mr. J. Wolley's observations on the Arrangement of Small Stones on certain 
bare Levels in Northern Localities 224 

Botany. 
Mr. J. H. Davis on the Plants of the Oolitic Moorlands 224 

Index 225 



ERRATA. 

Page 85, line 21, for south, 7-ead north. 

Page 85, line 33, for contracted, read contorted. 

Page 90, line 30, for illustrated, read more fully given. 

Page 92, line 13, omit and. 

Page 92, line 14, /or rudimentary, read sedimentary. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I. to XV. 



Illustrative of Mr. Robert Mallet's Report on the facts and theory of Earth- 
quake Phenomena. 

PLATES XVL and XVIL 

Illustrative of Mr. R, H. Meade's paper on some Points in the Anatomy of 
the Araneidea, or true Spiders, especially on the Internal Structure of 
their Spinning Organs, 157. 

PLATE XVin. 

Illustrative of Mr. Stephen Eddy's paper on the Lead Mining Districts of 
Yorkshire. 



PLATES XIX. and XX. 
Illustrative of Mr. R. Beckley's description of a Self-recording Anemometer. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

TiiK Association contemplates no interference with the ground occnpied by 
otiier Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign pliilosopliers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
tlie objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
wliich impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in tlie British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay wltliout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving tbe volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1858. b 



Xviii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1859, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. y4t reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 
8. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 
of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements' for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has beenprintedin its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for tlie time being, or Delegates, altogether, not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affiiirs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any jjaper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 






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II. Table shomng the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the CoiincO. in former years. 



Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., F.E.S. 
Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.R.S. 
Adams, J. Couch, M.A., F.R.S. 
Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 
AinsUe, Kev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 
Airv,&.B.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.,Astronomer Royal. 
Alison, Professor W. P., M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 
Anderson, Prof. Thomas, M.D. 



Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 
Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.R.S. 
Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ashbux'ton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
Atkinson, Rt. Hon. R.,LordMayor of Dublin. 
Babbage, Cliarles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Babington, C. C, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Baily ."Francis, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd, Esq. 
Balfour, Professor John H. M.D., F.R.S. 



Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Bell, Professor Thomas, Pres. L.S., F.E.S. 

Beecliey, Eear-Admiral, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Bengough, Geoi-ge, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., P.L.S. 

Bidden, George Arthur, Esq. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., E.R.S. 

BoUeau, Su- John P., Bart., F.E.S. 

Boyle, Et.Hon. D., Lord Justice-Gen', (dec''). 

Brady.The Et. Hon. Maziere, M.E.I.A., Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.E.S. 

Brewster, Sii- David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.E.S.,Principal of the United Collegeof 
St.Salvator and St.Leonard, St. Andrews. 

Brisbane, General Sir Tliomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., r.C.L., F.E.S. 

Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.E.S. 

Brown, Eobert, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Brunei, Sir M. I., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Buckland, Very Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., 
Dean of Westminster (deceased). 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. (deceased). 

CarUsle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.R.S. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 

Cathcart,Lt.-Gen.,Earlof, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 
(deceased). 

Chalmers, Eev. T., D.D. (deceased). 

Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.E.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 

Clark, Eev. Prof, M.D., F.E.S. (Cambridge.) 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 

Clerke, Major S., X.H., E.E., F.E.S. (deC^). 

Clift, WilHam, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Close, Very Eev. F., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 

Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 

Conybeare, Very Rev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 
dafi" (deceased). 

Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Crum, Walter, Esq., F.E.S. 

Currie, William Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Dartmouth, AA^iUiam, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Dai-win, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Daubeny, Prof Charles G. B., M.D., F.R.S. 

DelaBeche, Sir H. T., C.B., F.R.S., Director- 
Gen. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom 
(deceased). 

Devonshire, William, Duke of, M.A., F.R.S. 

Dickinson, Joseph, M.D., F.E.S. 

Dillwyn, Lewis AV., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased). 

Ducie, The Earl, F.E.S. 

Duuraven, The Earl of, F.R.S. 

Egerton,SirP.deM.Grey,Bart.,M.P.,F.R.S. 
EUot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of F.G.S. (deCi). 
Enniskillen, AA'ilUam, Ern-l of D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcom-t, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Faradav, Professor, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Fitzwiliiam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Fleming, W.. M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Foote, LundyE., Esq. 



Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 

Forbes, Prof Edward, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Forbes, Prof J. D., F.E.S., Sec. R.S.E. 

Fox, Eobert Were, Esq., F.E.S. 

Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 

Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.E.S. 

Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Gourlie, William, Esq. 

Graham, T., M.A., F.E.S., Master of the Mint. 

Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.E.S. 

Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (deceased). 

Gray, WHliam, Esq., F.G.S. 

Green, Prof Joseph Henry, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Griffith, Sir R. Griffith, Bt., LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

Grove, AV. R., Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

ILillam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. (dec"). 

Hamilton, W. J., Esq., F.R.S., For. Sec. G.S. 

Hamilton, Sir AVm. R., LL.D., Astronomer 
Royal of Ireland, M.R.I.A., F.R.A.S. 

Hancock, AV. Keilson, LL.D. 

Harcourt, Rev. AA^m. Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 

Hardwicke, Charles Pliilip, Earl of, F.R.S. 

Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Harris, Sir AV. Snow, F.R.S. 

Harrowby, The Earl of, F.R.S. 

Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 

Henry, AV. C, M.D., F.R.S. [Col., Belfast. 

Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D., President of Queen's 

Henslow, Eev. Pi-ofessor, M.A., F.L.S. 

Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. AVm., LL.D., 
F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec''). 

Herschel,SirJolmF.W.,Bart.,D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.E.S. 

Heywood, James, Esq., F.R.S. 

HiU, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 

Ilincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.R.I.A. 

Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich. 

Ilodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 

Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 

Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.E.S. 

Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Hope, Eev. F. AV., M.A.. F.E.S. 

Hopkins, AVilliam, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 

Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 

Hutton, AVilliam, Esq., F.G.S. 

Ibbetson,Capt.L.L.Boscawen,K.R.E.,F.G.S. 

IngUs, Sir R. H., Bart., D.C.L., M.P. (dec"). 

Inman, Thomas, M.D. 

Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Jeffreys, Jolm Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 

Jellett, Rev. Prof, 

Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 

Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 

Johnston, Right Hon. AA^ilham, late Lord 
Provost of Edinburgh. 

Johnston, Prof J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. (dec"). 

Keleher, William, Esq. (deceased). 

Kelland, Rev. Professor P., M.A. 

Kildare, The Marquis of. 

Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S. 

Lansdowne, Hen., Marquisof, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Larcom, Lt.-Colonel, R.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Lardner, Eev. Dr. (deceased). 

Lassell, WiUiam, Esq., F.E.S. L. & E, 

Latham, E. G., M.D., F.E.S. 

Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh, 
(deceased). 



Lee, Robert, M.D., F.E.S. 

Lefevre, Eight Hon. Charlea Shaw, late 
Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., F.E.S. 

Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased). 

Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.E.S. 

Listowel, The Earl of. [Dublin (dec"). 

Lloyd, Ecv. B., D.D., Provost of Trin. Coll., 

Lloyd, Eev. H., D.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. L.&E. 

Londesborough, Lord, F.E.S. 

Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.E.S. 

Luby, Eev. Thomas. 

LyeU, Sii- Charles, M.A., F.E.S. 

MacCuUagh, Prof., D.C.L., M.E.I.A. (deci). 

MacDoiuiell, Eev. E., D.D., M.E.I.A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Macfarlane, The Very Eev. Principal, (dec""). 

MacGee, William, M.D. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 

MacNeiil, Professor Sir Jolui, F.E.S. 

Malahidc, The Lord Talbot de. 

Malcolm,Vice-Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B. (dec''). 

Maltby, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 
Bishop of Durham (deceased). 

Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord I3ishop of. 

May, Charles, Esq., F.E.A.S. 

Me\niell, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 

Middleton, Sir William F. F., Bart. 

Miller, Professor W. A., M.D., F.E.S. 

MiUer, Professor W. H., M.A., F.E.S. 

MoiUet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 

Milnes, E. Monckton, Esq., D.C.L., M.P. 

Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 

Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 

Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 

Moody, T. F., Esq. 

Morley, The Earl of. 

Moseley, Eev. Henry, M.A., F.E.S. 

Mount-Edgeeumbe, ErnestAugustus,Earl of. 

Murchison, Sir EoderickL.G.C.St.S., F.E.S. 

Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.E.S.E. 

Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Ecv. J. P., LL.D. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.E.S. (deceased). 

Northvunberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.Q-.,M.A., 
F.E.S. (deceased). 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 

Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 

Orpen, John H., LL.D. 

Osier, Follett, Esq., F.E.S. 

Owen, Professor Eichd.,M.D., D.C.L.,F.E.S. 

Oxford, Samuel WUberforee, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of, F.E.S., F.G.S. 

Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 

Peacock, Very Eev. G., D.D., Dean of Ely, 
F.E.S. (deceased). 

Peel,Et.Hon.SirE.,Bart.,M.P.,D.C.L.(dec''). 

Pendarves, E., W. Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

PhiUips, Professor John, M.A.,LL.D.,F.E.S. 

Pigott,The Et. Hon. D. E., M.E.I.A., Lord 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 

Porter, G. E., Esq. (deceased). 

Powell, Ecv. Professor, M.A., F.E.S. 

Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Eamsay, Professor WUliam, M.A. 

Eansome, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Eeid, Maj.-Gen. Sir W., K.C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 
(deceased). 

Eendlesham, Et. Hon. Lord, M.P. 

Eennie, George, Esq., F.E.S. 

Eennio, Sir John, F.E.S. 

Eichardson, Sir John, M.D., C.B., F.E.S. 

Ritchie, Rev. Prof., LL.D., F.E.S. (dec^). 



Eobinson, Eev. J., D.D. 

Eobinson, Eev. T. E., D.D., F.E.A.S. 

Eobison, Sir John, Sec.E.S.Edin. (deceased), 

Eoche, James, Esq. 

Eoget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.E.S. 

Eonalds. Francis, F.E.S. 

Eosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Eoss,Eear-Ad. Sir J.C.,E.N., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Eosse, Wm., Earl of, M.A., F.E.S., M.E.I.A. 

Eoylc, Prof. John F., M.D., F.E.S. (dec"). 

Eussell, James, Esq. (deceased). 

Eussell, J. Scott, Esq., F.E.S. [V.P.E.S. 

Sabine, Maj.-Gen., E.A., D.C.L., Treas. & 

Sanders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Scoresby, Eev. W., D.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Sedgwick, Eev. Prof. Adam, M.A., F.E.S. 

Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.E.S.E. 

Sharpey, Professor, M.D., Sec.E.S. 

Sims, Dillwyn, Esq. 

Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.E.S. 

Smith, James, F.E.S. L. & E. 

Spence, William, Esq., F.E.S. 

Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt., M.P., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
St. David's, C.Tlurlwall,D.D.,LordBishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor Jolm, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., Sec.E.S. 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 
Strickland, Hugh E., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., F.E.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Vice-Chancellor of 

the LTniversity of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Tayler, Eev. Jolm James, B.A. 
Taylor, Jolm, Esq., F.E.S. 
Taylor, Eichard, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Thomson, Professor William, M.A., F.E.S. 
Tiudal, Captain, E.N. 
Tite, WiUiam, Esq., M.P., F.E.S. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.E.S.E. 
Tooke, Thomas, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Traill, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 
Tiu-ner, Edward, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Tm-ner, Samuel, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. (dec"). 
Tiu-ner, Eev. W. 
Tvndall, Professor, F.E.S. 
vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Walker, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Eev. Professor Eobcrt, M.A., F.E.S. 
Warbm-toii, Henry, Esq.,M.A., F.E.S.(dcc"). 
Washington, Captain, E.N., F.E.S. 
Webster, Thomas, M. A., F.E.S. 
West, WilUam, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, John Stuart,Lord,F.E.S.(dcc"). 
"Wlieatstone, Professor Charles, F.E.S. 
Whcwell, Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
WilUams, Prof. Charles J. B., M.D., F.E.S. 
WilUs, Eev. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S.- 
Wills, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Wilson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Woollcombe, Henry, Esq.. F.S.A. (deceased) 
Wrottcsley, John, Lord, M.A., Pres.E.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yarrell, William, Esq.. F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Yatee, J. B.,Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. (dec^) 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1858-59. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sib Roderick I.MuRCHisoN.G.C.St.S.jF.R.S. Major-General Edward Sabine, R.A., 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S, D.C.L., Treas. & V.P.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

RICHARD OWEN, M.D., D.C.L., V.P.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

Superintendent of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
The Lord Monteagle, F.R.S. The Rev. William Whewell, D.D., F.R.S., 

The Earl of Ripon, F.R.G.S. Hon. M.R.I.A., F.G.S., F.R.A.S., Master of 

The Rt. Hon. M. T. Baines, M.A., M.P. Trinity CoUege, Cambridge. 

Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., James Garth Marshall, Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. R. Monckton Milnes, Esq., D.C.L., M.P. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE CONSORT. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

The Duke of Richmond, K.G., F.R.S., Pre- Sir R. I.MuRCHisoN,G.C.St.S.,D.C.L.,F.R.S., 

sident of the Royal Agricultural Society. and Director-General of the Geological Siu:- 

The Earl of Aderdeex, LL.D., K.G., vey of the United Kingdom. 

K.T., F.R.S. The Rev. W. V, Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. 

The Lord Provost of the City of Aberdeen. The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S., Di- 
Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., D.C.L., rector of the Armagh Observatory, Armagh. 
M.A., F.R.S. A. Thomson, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., Convener 

Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., of the County of Aberdeen. 
Principal of the United CoUege of St. Sal- 
vator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
James Nicol, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., Professor of Natural History in Marischal College and 

University of Aberdeen. 
Frederick Fuller, M.A., Professor of Mathematics in University and King's College of 

Aberdeen. 
John F. White, Esq., King Street. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
John Angus, Esq. Newell Burnett, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
Babington, C. C, M.A., Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. SHARPBY,Professor,Sec.R.S. 
F.R.S. Lyell, SirC.,D.C.L.,F.R.S. Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., 

Bell, Prof., Pres.L.S., F.R.S. Miller, Prof. W. A., M.D„ F.R.S. 
Fairbairn,William,F.R.S. F.R.S. Tite, William, M.P., F.R.S. 

FiTzRoY,RearAdmiral,F.R.S. Portlock, Major-General, Walker, Rev. Prof., F.R.S. 
Gassiot, John P., F.R.S. R.E., F.R.S. Webster, Thomas, F.R.S. 

Grove, William R., F.R.S. Price, Rev. Prof., F.R.S. Wrottesley, Lord, F.R.S. 

Horner, Leonard, F.R.S. Rennie, George, F.R.S. Yates, James, M.A., F.R.S. 

Hutton, Robert, F.G.S. Russell, J. S., F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
neral and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi- 
dents of former years, viz. Rev. Professor Sedgwick. Sir Thomas M. Brisbane. The Marquis 
of Lansdowie. The Duke of Devonshii-e. Rev. W. V. Harcourt. The Marquis of Bread- 
albane. Rev. W, Whewell, D.D. The Earl of Rosse. Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Sir 
Roderick I. Murchison. The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. Su- David Brewster. G. B. My, Esq., 
the Astronomer Roval. General Sabine. William Hopkins, Esq., F.R.S. The Eaii of 
Harrowby. The Bvxke of Argyll. Professor Daubeny, M.D. The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 

GENERAL SECRETARY. 

Major-General Edward Sabine, R.A., D.C.L., Treas. & V.P.R.S., F.R.A.S., 

13 Ashley Place, Westminster. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

John Phillips, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.G.S., Reader in Geology in the University 

of Oxford ; University Museum, Oxford. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 
William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., York. Robert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S., Manchester. 

C.C. Babington, Esq., M. A., F.R.S., Crt?re4rirfye. John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., Swansea. 
William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipsuneh. 

Johu H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. Robert Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., Be(/as/. 

Wilham Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Bristol. Edmund Smith, Esq., Hull. 

Robert M' Andrew, Esq., F.R.S., Liverpool. Richard Beamish, Esq., F.R.S., Cheltenham. 
W. R. Wills, Esq., Birmingham. John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., Leeds, 

Professor Ramsay, M.A., Glasgow. 

AUDITORS. 
Jamci Yates, Esq. Dr. Norton Shaw. Robert Hutton, Esc^^ 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXVll 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

LEEDS MEETING. 

SECTION A.— MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President.— Rev. W, Whewell, D.D., V.P.R.S. &c. 

Vice-Presidents.— G. B. Airv. M.A.,D.C.L., Astronomer Royal ; Rev. A. Barry, 
M.A. ; Sir D. Brewster, K.H.,'LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. Dr. Lloyd, F.R.S. ; Rev. Pro- 
fessor Walker, M.A., F.R.S. ; Lord Wrottesley, V.P.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Rev. S. Earnshaw, B.A. ; H. J. S. Smyth, M.A. ; Professor Stevelly, 
LL.D. ; Professor Tyndall, F.R.S. ; John Pope Hennessy, Esq. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERAX-GGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

Presirfen^— Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart., D.C.L., M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. ; Professor 
Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; J. P. Gassiot, V.P.R.S. 

Secretaries.— J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; W. Odling, M.B., F.C.S. ; Richard 
Reynolds, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— Wm. Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-PresideHts.—M.a.ioT-GeneTal Portlock, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Earl of Enniskillen, 
F.R.S. ; Sir P. de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. ; Professor Ramsay, F.R.S. 

/Secretaries.— Professor J. Nicol, F.G.S. ; H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. ; E. W. Shaw, 
Esq. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— C. C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Siv W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. ; Sir John Richardson, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. ; Henry Denny, A.L.S. ; Dr. Heaton ; 
Dr. E. Percival Wright, M.R.LA. 

SUB-SECTION D. PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., D.C.L., Pres.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Thomas P. Teale, F.L.S. ; Dr. Hodgkin ; Dr. Chadwick ; 
Samuel Smith, Esq. 

Secretary. — C. G. Wheelhouse, Esq. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.—SiT Roderick Murchison, G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.R.S., President of the 
Royal Geographical Society, &c. 

Vice-Presidents. — Major-GeneralChesnej%D.C.L., F.R.S. ; John Crawfurd,F.R.S.; 
Rear- Admiral FitzRov, F.R.S. ; Rev. W. F. Hook, D.D. ; Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Sir John Richardson, C.B., M.D., LL.D. 

Secretaries. — Dr. Norton Shaver ; Thomas Wright, F.S.A. ; Francis Gallon, Esq. ; 
P. O'Callaghan, Esq. ; Richard Cull, Esq. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Edward Baines, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents.— Colonel W. H. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S, ; James Heywood, F.R.S. ; 
W. Scropc Ayrton, F.S.A. ; Darnton Lupton ; Sir James Kay Shuttleworth, Bart. 

Seci-etaries. — William Newraarch, Esq. ; John Strang, LL.D. ; Professor Cairnes; 
Captain Fishbourne ; Thos. B. Baines, B.A. ; Samuel Brown, F.S.S. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — J. G. Appold, F.R.S. ; Sir P. Fairbairn, Mayor of Leeds ; J, 
Glvnn, F.R.S. ; J. Kitson, C.E. ; Professor Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. Inst. 
Eng. Scot.; G. Rennie, F.R.S.; J. Scott Russell, F.R.S.; T. Webster, M.A., 
F.R.S. ; General Wilson. 

Secretaries.— J. C. Dennis, F.R.A.S. ; L Dixon. Esq. ; H. Wright, Esq. 



XXVIU 



KEPORT — 1858. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 

chunetts. 
M. Babinet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 
Professor Bolzani, Kazan. 
Barth, Dr, 

Mr. P, G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evrcux). 
Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 
Chevalier Bunsen, Heidelberg . 
Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Bresla:f, 
M. Antoine d'Abbadic. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsrnhe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor Esmark, Christiauia. 
Professor G. Forchhanimcr, Copenhagen. 
M. Leon Foucault, Paris. 
Prof. E. Fremy, Paris. 
M. Frisiani, Milan. 
Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 
Professor Henry, Washiuglon, U.S. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Prof. A. Kolliker, Wurzburg. 
Prof. De Koninck, Liege. 
Professor Kreil, Vienna. 
Dr. A. Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 
Dr. Lament, Munich. 



Prof. F. Lanza, Spoleio. 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New York. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von MiddendorfF,S/.Pe/ers6«?(/. 

M. I'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordensciold, Finland. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Visccnza Pisani, Vlortnce. 

Gustave Plaar, Strasburg. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Prof. Retzius, Stockholm. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Herman Schlagintvveit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Dr. Siljcstrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve, Pulkowa. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 

Dr. Van der lioeven, Lryden. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershuuscn, 

Gottingen. 
Pi-ofessor Wartmann, Geneva. 



Report of the Council of the Biutish Association as puesf.nted 
TO THE General Committee at Leeds, September 22nd, 1858. 



1. With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Dublin, the Council have to report as follows: — 

a. The General Committee passed the following resolution, viz.: — 

" That it is of great importance to the progress of Science that the Mag- 
netic Observations which have already added so much to our knowledge of 
terrestrial magnetism, should be continued. That the influence of the Asso- 
ciation will be well employed in attaining this object, and that it is desirable 
to obtain the cooperation of the Royal Society. That a Committee be ap- 
pointed, consisting of the President, the Rcv.Dr. Robinson, and Major-General 
Sabine, to request, on the part of the British Association, the cooperation of 
the President and Council of the Royal Society, and to take in conjunction 
with them such steps as may appear necessary, including, if it be thought 
desirable, an application to Government." 

A copy of this resolution was transmitted soon after the Dublin Meeting 
by the President, Dr. Lloyd, to Lord Wrottesley, President of the Royal 
Society, accompanied by the following letter: — 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXIX 

" Nov. 6, 1857. 
" My Loun, — At the Meeting of the Britisli Association wliich was held 
at Dublin in August last, a llesoluJion was adopted proposing the continuance 
of the system of Magnotical Observations which was commenced under the 
auspices of the Royal Society and of the British Association in 184'0; and a 
Committee, consisting of the President of the Association, Kev. Dr. Robinson, 
and General Sabine, was appointed, to request the cooperation of the Presi- 
dent and Council of the Royal Society in the endeavour to attain this object, 
and to take in conjunction with them such steps as may appear desirable for 
that end. If this proposal should commend itself to your Lordship's judg- 
ment, and that of the Council of the Royal Society, I have to request, on the 
part of the gentlemen above named, that you will be pleased to nominate a 
Committee of the Royal Society to confer with them, and to take such further 
steps in conjunction with them as may seem expedient. 

"I have the honour to be, My Lord, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " H. Lloyd." 

" To tJic Right Hon. the Lord Wrottesley, P.R.Sr 

In consequence of this letter, the President and Council of the Royal 
Society appointed a Committee, consisting of Sir John Herschel, Bart., the 
Rev. Dr. VVheweil, the Rev. The Dean of Ely, and the Astronomer Royal 
(who had been members of the Committee of Physics, by wlioni the former 
Report on terrestrial magnetism in 1839-40 had been drawn up) to consider 
the progress and present state of Magnetical Investigation ; and to take, in 
conjunction with the Committee appointed by the British Association, such 
steps as should appear advisable for its further prosecution ; including, if it 
should be deemed desirable, an application to Government. 

The mode of proceeding pursued by the two Committees has been hitherto 
that of independent deliberation, with occasional intercommunication by 
correspondence. The conclusions which have been arrived at by the two 
Committes being, it is understood, substantially the same, a united Meeting 
has been appointed to take place at Leeds, in the present week, at which a 
joint report may be drawn up, and may be presented to the General Com- 
mittee at its meeting on Monday next, when such further steps may be 
taken in reference to the subject as may appear desirable. 

h. The General Committee assembled at Dublin directed that "an appli- 
cation should be made to Her Majesty's Government to send a vessel to 
examine and survey the entrance to the Zambesi River in South Africa, and 
to ascend the river as far as may be found practicable for navio-ation." 

The President, and the Committee to whom the charge of this application 
was entrusted, having placed themselves in communication with Dr. Livino-- 
stone, presented the following Memorial to the Earl of Clarendon, Her Ma- 
jesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs : — 

" Dr. Livingstone's successful travels in Africa, and the account which he 
has given of them at public meetings in the metropolis and in several of the 
principal provincial towns of the United Kingdom, have excited throughout 
the country a strong desire to obtain more full particulars regarding the 
productions, capabilities, and accessibility of that portion of the globe, 

" The Zambesi River appears byDr.Livingstone's account to furnish means 
of communication with the interior of Southern Africa similar to those which 
the Quorra and Binue have been found to afford in Central Africa. The 
object of the present application is to bring under the consideration of Her 
Majesty's Government the expediency of availing themselves of the oppor- 



XXX REPORT — 1858. 

tunity of Dr. Livingstone's return to Africa, to employ a suitable vessel in the 
ensuing season to obtain, witli his assistance, a more correct knowledge than 
we now possess, of tlie facilities which the Zambesi would afford for com- 
merce, and of the extent to which its waters may be navigable ; and also to 
procure a more exact knowledge of the natural productions of the country, 
and of the availability of the supplies of coal and other mineral substances 
which are stated to exist in the vicinity of the river." 

Early in November the Committee, accompanied by Dr. Livingstone, were 
favoured with a personal interview by Lord Clarendon, who was pleased to 
express a warm interest in the proposed Expedition, and promised that it 
should receive the favourable consideration of Her Majesty's Government. 
The expectation thus raised has been fully realized ; a vote of money was 
moved iDy the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and sanctioned by the House of 
Commons; and the Expedition has since sailed, having had the advantage of 
receiving from the Royal Society, on Lord Clarendon's invitation, suggestions 
as to the scientific objects which the Expedition may be made to subserve, 
without interference with its primary and immediate purpose, and having 
been furnished at the Observatory of the British Association at Kew, with 
scientific instruments, and with personal instruction in their use. 

c. The General Committee, at Dublin, directed that application should be 
made to Her Majesty's Government " to send a vessel to the vicinity of the 
Mackenzie River, for the purpose of making a series of MagneticObservations 
with special reference to the determination of the laws now known to rule 
the magnetic storms " The General Committee entrusted this application to 
the President, assisted by a Committee named in the Resolution. A Memorial, 
setting forth the grounds and object of the application, having been prepared 
by the Committee, Avas presented to Lord Palmerston on the 31st of October, 
with a request from the Committee to be favoured with an interview. 

The Memorial was as follows : — 

"Among the most important results of scientific research during the last 
twenty years, is the addition which has been made to our knowledge of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism. The variation of its direction and intensity dependent on 
the observer's position on the globe, have been ascertained with a precision 
which already affords material assistance to the seaman ; and those variations 
which are connected with the hour of the day, or season of the year, have 
been also carefully investigated. But, as always happens in real progress, 
the advance which has been made has shown new ground which ought to be 
explored. Without referring to the magnetic influence, which we have now 
reason to believe is exerted on our planet both by the sun and moon, a still 
more interesting fact has recently been established. It has long been known 
that the earth's magnetism is affected by sudden disturbances, occasionally 
so great as even to interfere with its practical applications ; but it has been 
very recently discovered that these magnetic storms (as they have been called) 
are themselves subject to periodic laws. Their study is evidently of the 
highest importance towards the discovery of the physical causes which are 
engaged in producing magnetic phenomena, and a fortunate circumstance 
has pointed out one method of pursuing it. During the years in which Her 
Majesty's Ship 'Plover' was stationed at Point Barrow, as a part of the 
squadron which was searching for the traces of Sir J. Franklin, and his noble 
companions, her officers, under the superintendence of their gifted com- 
mander R. Maguire, made a valuable series of magnetic observations, the more 
precious from their peculiar position, and the great care with which they were 
conducted. On reducing these and comparing their results with those ob- 
tained at Toronto, the most famous of the British Magnetic Observatories, 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXXI 

some very remarkable facts were elicited respecting tlie magnetic storms. 
At both stations they occur simnltaneously ; but with the significant differ- 
ence that their directions are opposite. This indicates so clearly the relation 
of these disturbances to a point somewhere between Point Barrow and 
Toronto, that it appeared to the Physical Section of the British Association, 
when discussing at its late Meeting these observations, of high importance 
to have them continued and extended. For this purpose a location in or 
near Mackenzie River appears the most suitable, as very well situated with 
respect to the other two, and as easily accessible without any extraordinary 
risk, or chance of long detention. The same instruments are available ; and 
as there are many officers in Her Majesty's Navy perfectly competent to use 
them, it is confidently expected that the result would be alike beneficial to 
this department of Physical Science, and honourable to our country." 

No reply having been received to this communication, the following letter 
was addressed, on the 4th of January, by the President, to G. C. Barrington, 
Esq., private Secretary to Lord Palmerston :— 

" January 4, 1858. 

" Sir, — On the 31st of October I communicated to Lord Palmerston a 
resolution adopted by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
making application to Her Majesty's Government to send a vessel to the 
vicinity of the Mackenzie River, for the purpose of obtaining in that region 
certain observations, which recent discoveries in Terrestrial Magnetism had 
proved to be of high importance to science ; and I enclosed at the same time 
a Memorial, setting forth in detail the grounds of the application. 

" As the time for making the necessary preparations for such an expedition 
has now fully arrived, I trust I shall not be deemed unreasonable in recalling, 
through you, his Lordship's consideration to the subject. 

" In reference to this part of the question, I beg to enclose a letter from 
Captain Maguire, who commanded H.M.S. ' Plover' in the same seas in 1852, 
185.3, 1854, and who is probably the best authority on the subject. It will 
be seen from it, that there is still sufficient time to equip a vessel for the 
forthcoming season. As respects the kind of vessel required, and the nature 
of the equipment, the same officer writes as follows, in a letter dated the 5th 
of November last, addressed to General Sabine : — 

" ' One of the despatch gun-vessels will answer very well. There are also 
many sailing-sloops now lying idle — such as the 'Frolic' and ' Espiegle,' or 
many others, that might be made available at a trifling expense. The strength- 
ening need not be much ; and a very small auxiliary steam-power, sufficient 
to propel the vessel two or three knots in a calm, would suffice to carry her 
through the land-water of the north coast from Point Barrow. The shores 
from thence to the Mackenzie afford, in every part, an ample supply of drift- 
wood fit for steaming purposes.' 

" As I believe that one of the chief objections, on the part of Her Majesty's 
Government, to further expeditions to the Arctic Seas, is the danger to the 
lives of the seamen employed in the service, I think it right to add, that an 
expedition to this locality will be attended with no unusual risk, — and that, 
on the other hand, it may afford important support to the gallant crew who 
are now engaged in the final search for the traces of the Franklin Expedition, 
if the commander should be induced by circumstances, which are not im- 
probable, to push his vessel westward. 

" I have the honour to be. Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " H. Lloyd." 

" To G. C. Barrington, Esq." 



Xxxii REPORT — 1858. 

To this letter the following reply was received: — 

" Downing Street, Jan. 22, 1858, 
« Sir,— In reply to your letter of the 4th instant, I am desired by Lord 
Palmerston to acquaint yon that Her Majesty's Government do not think it 
advisable to take the steps recommended by you. 

" I am, Sir, 
" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " Gerald Ponsonby." 

" Rev. Dr. Lloyd." 

2. The General Committee at Dublin having placed £500 at the disposal 
of the Council, to be employed in maintaining the establishment, and pro- 
vidiu"- for tiie continuance of special researches at the Kew Observatory, the 
Report of the Committee to whom the Council have confided the superin- 
tendence of the Kew Observatory is herewitli annexed, testifying to the great 
and still increasing public utility of that establishment. The General Com- 
mittee will recognize with jjleasure, in tiie contribution of £150 received from 
the Royal Society, for the purchase of improved tools for the workshop of the 
Observatorj', a fresh evidence of the readiness of the President and Council 
of that body to aid the objects of the Kew Observatory, by special grants 
from time to time for particular purposes. 

3. Since the communication made by the President and Council of the Royal 
Society to the General Committee in Dublin, relative to the formation of a 
" Catalogue of the Philosophical papers contained in the various scientific 
Transactions and Journals of all Countries" (printed copies of which com- 
munication were distributed amongst the members of the General Committee 
in Dublin), this important work has been commenced under the auspices and 
at the expense of the Royal Society. It is purposed that it should include the 
titles (in the original languages) of all Memoirs published in such works, in 
the Mathematical, Physical, and Natural Sciences, from the foundation of the 
Royal Society to the present time : the titles to be so arranged as to form 
ultimately three catalogues, — one chronological, or in the order of the me- 
moirs in the several series, — one alphabetical, according to authors' names, — 
and, lastly, a third, classified according to subjects. The superintendence of 
this work has been undertaken by the oflScers of the Royal Society, assisted 
by a Select Committee of the Fellows. 

4. The Council have added to the list of Corresponding Members of the 
Association the names of the following foreign gentlemen, who were present 
at the Dublin Meeting, and made communications to the Sections, viz.: — 

Dr. Barth. Viscenza Pisani, Florence. 

Professor Bolzani, Kazan. Gustave Plaar, Strashurg. 

Antoine d'Abbadie, Paris. Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin, 

Professor Loomis, Nexo York. Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

5. The General Secretary has informed the Council that he communicated 
to His Royal Highness The Prince Consort the resolution of the General 
Committee at Dublin, viz. : — 

" That application be made to His Royal Highness The Prince Consort for 
permission to elect him President of the British Association for the year 1 859," 
and that he had received in reply the following letter: — 

"Balmoral, Sept. 17, 1857. 
" SiK, — I have communicated to His Royal Highness The Prince Consort 
your letter of the 13th inst., expressing, on the part of the Committee of the 
British Association, the wish that His Royal Highness would allow himself 



UEPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXIH 

to be nominated as President of the Meeting which it is proposed to hold at 
Aberdeen in 1859. 

" His Royal Highness cannot but feel gratified at the wish thus expressed 
by the Committee, though he is sensible that his own proficiency in scientific 
subjects is scarcely such as to entitle him to such a distinction. If, therefore, 
he expresses his readiness to comply with the wishes of the Committee, he 
begs that it may be considered merely as an expression of the deep interest 
which he takes in the advancement of science in tiiis country, and as a mark 
of the high sense which he entertains of the importance and usefulness of the 
Association. 

" His acceptance of the Presidency must also be considered, to a certain 
degree, conditional — depending upon his being in Scotland at the time pro- 
posed for the Meeting. 

" His Royal Highness's time is not his own, and it is impossible for him, 
at this distance of time, to say whether the call of other duties may not be 
such as to prevent his attendance. 

" I have the honour to be. Sir, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 

" C. Grey." 
" To Major-General Sabine" 

6. The Report of the Parliamentary Committee of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science has been received by the Council, and is 
herewith presented. 



Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, for 1857-58. 

Since the last Meeting of the Association, a set of Magnetical Instruments 
have been prepared, at the request of the Council of the Royal Society, and 
the constants determined for the Expedition of Dr. Livingstone to South 
Africa. Capt. Bedingfield, R.N. and Messrs. Livingstone and Baines, who 
accompany Dr. Livingstone in this Expedition, received instructions at the 
Observatory in the use of the instruments. 

At the request of Capt. Washington, R.N., Hydrographer of the Admiralty, 
similar instruments were prepared for the Oregon Boundary Commission, 
and instructions in their use were given at tlie Observatory to Capt. Haig, 
R.A., and Lieut. Darrah, R.E. 

Detailed written instructions for both Expeditions, supplementary to those 
contained in the Admiralty Manual, were furnished by Mr. Welsh. Such 
instructions necessarily occupied the time and attention of Mr. Welsh and 
his assistants ; but as, in the opinion of the Committee, instructions for the 
correctly manipulating with instruments with which gentlemen appointed to 
a particular service are not often previously acquainted, is an essential fea- 
ture in the practical working of a physical observatory, the Committee have 
considered it desirable that such assistance should be afforded ; and it will 
be in the recollection of the Council that, in their last Report, the Committee 
stated that several gentlemen, some of whom were connected with foreign 
Governments, had received similar instruction. 

An application having been received from M. Secchi of the CoUegio Ro- 
mano, on the part of the Roman Government, for Magnetical Instruments, 
these instruments have been prepared at the Observatory and forwarded to 
Rome. They consist of an Observatory Bifilar Magnetometer and Balance 

1858. c 



XXXiv REPORT — 1858. 

Magnetometer, similar to those employed in the British Colonial Observato- 
ries, a Unifilar Magnetometer, and a Dip Circle. 

Application has also been received from the Rev. Alfred Weld for Mag- 
netical and Electrical apparatus for the Stonyhurst College ; these are in 
course of preparation, and Mr. Weld has received instructions in the use of 
the magnetical instruments. 

Two Dip Circles by Barrow, furnished with Dr. Lloyd's apparatus for the 
total force, which were sent to the Observatory preparatory to their being 
forwarded to the Austrian and Russian Governments, were carefully examined 
and adjusted. 

An extensive series of observations made with various dipping-needles and 
circles, have confirmed the results previously obtained at the Observatory as 
to the value of the Magnetic dip. 

The Self-recording Magnetometers have been in regular action since the 
1st of January, and have performed satisfactorily; some difficulty arose in 
tlie manipulation of the Balance-magnet, but this has been surmounted, and 
this instrument now performs with as much accuracy and delicacy in its 
action as either the Declinometer or Bifilar Magnet. 

The Photoheliograph erected in the dome of the Observatory was fully 
described in the last Annual Report; it has been repeatedly at work since the 
beginning of last March, and excellent photographic pictures of the solar 
spots and faculae were obtained. Certain alterations have been made by 
Mr. Welsh in order to regulate the time of exposure of the collodion plate 
to the sun's action ; with these alterations the instrument gives very good 
results, but certain improvements in the arrangements of the secondary mag- 
nifying lens are under consideration, with the view of avoiding the depiction 
on the collodion negative of the inequalities in the glasses which compose it. 

The Committee recommend that arrangements should be made for the 
appointment of a competent Assistant, who will undertake the taking of the 
photographs and the preparing of a certain number of copies for distribution 
to some of the principal British and Foreign observatories. 

George Whipple has been engaged to assist in the general work of the 
Observatory at a weekly pay of ten shillings. 

Mr.Beckley's arrangement of the Anemometer described at the Cheltenham 
Meeting of the Association has been adopted and carried out in an apparatus 
made by Mr. Adie for the East India Company. This anemometer having 
been mounted at the Observatory, remained for some time, and was found to 
perform satisfactorily ; it was shown to many persons, and examined by 
Admiral FitzRoy, General Sabine, and Mr. Osier, members of the Anemo- 
meter Committee. Certain modifications since suggested by Mr. Beckley, 
have been adopted in two instruments constructed by Mr. Adie for Admiral 
FitzRoy's department in the Board of Trade. 

The verification of Meteorological Instruments has been continued on the 
same plan as in previous years. The following have been verified since the 
last meeting of the Association to the 1 st of July : — 

Baro- Thermo- Hydro- 
meters, meters, meters. 

For the Admiralty 75 

For the Board of Trade 60 126 

For Opticians and others 86 142 150 

Total 221 268 150 

Among the latter are included 50 barometers and 150 hydrometers for 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXV 

the United States, and 6 barometers and 6 thermometers for the Portuguese 
Government. 

Mr. Welsh is at present completing the Magnetic Survey of Scotland, for 
the expense of which £200 has been received by the Committee from the 
Admiralty. 

The Committee finding it desirable that the workshop of the Observatory 
should be furnished with a superior lathe and planing machine, authorized 
their Chairman to apply to the Council of the Royal Society for the sum of 
£150; this amount was immediately awarded from the Donation Fund, and 
a very superior lathe, by Whitworth, and a planing machine have been pur- 
chased at a cost of £149 7s. 

The present as well as the former Annual Reports of the Committee, show 
the practical scientific objects for which the Observatory has for so many 
years been used, and at no former period was it in so effective a state as at 
present ; the valuable tools that have (by the liberality of the Royal Society) 
been placed in the workshop, enable Mr. Beckley to repair and make appa- 
ratus and instruments of the most complex and delicate construction ; much 
of this work would otherwise have been sent to different workshops in the 
Metropolis, entailing not only great loss of time, but often a want of accu- 
racy in the construction : the value of such arrangements in the Observatory 
can be easily appreciated by scientific observers. 

On the 24th of last April, the Committee presented an estimate of the 
expenditure for the present year, a copy of which had been previously for- 
warded by the Chairman to the President, whose reply, addressed to General 
Sabine, the Committee now present as a part of their Annual Report. 

" Trinity College, Dublin, December 7, 1857. 
" Dear Sabine, — I have received from Mr. Gassiot the Financial Report 
of the Kew Committee, which I hope may soon be laid before the Council. 
It appears from it that the expenditure of the Observatory is likely to increase 
with the increased activity of the establishment, while part of the income — 
that, namely, derived from the verification of meteorological instruments — 
will probably diminish in future years. 

" I am not sufficiently acquainted with the working of the Observatory to 
say, from my own knowledge, how far an augmentation of the existing staff 
is necessary. But if the Council should judge that it is — as stated in the 
Report of the Committee — they will have to consider from what external 
source provision may be made for the increased expenditure ; for I presume 
that it will not be thought prudent, that the Association, with its fluctuating 
and uncertain income, should augment its grant beyond the present amount. 
" Upon this point I may remark, that the President and Council of the 
Royal Society have already evinced their sense of the value of the Observatory, 
by making a liberal grant to it for a special object ; and that it is therefore not 
improbable that they may be willing to contnhnte permanently to its support. 
Its objects are at least as clearly allied to those of the Royal Society, as to those 
of the British Association; and if it should be deemed that those objects 
have been in great measure attained, and that the establishment has proved 
itself deserving of permanent maintenance, it would seem expedient to place 
it on a more fixed basis than the present. 

" I will only add, that believing, as I do, that the Observatory has already 
done much, and is capable of doing more, for the advancement of physical 
science, I should deplore the restriction of its efficiency, by insufficient pecu- 
niary means, as a loss to science. 

" Believe me, sincerely yours, 
« To General Sabine, E.A., ^-c" " H. Lloyd." 

c2 



XXXvi REPORT — 1858. 

The following is a Statement sliovving the expense of the last two years ; 
an additional Assistant is now indispensable as a Photographer ; and as the 
work of the Observatory increases, and its capabilities for the purposes of 
science become further "developed, tiie probable future expenditure cannot 
be fairly estimated at less than £800 per annum. 

Statement. 

1857. 1858. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Salaries 397 5 .... 4.71 8 

Apparatus : — 

Materials, Tools, <S:e 28 10 7 . . . . 5.9 6 4 

Ironmonger, &c 66 9 4 . . . . 19 13 5 

Stationery, &c 24 9 8 . . . . 20 11 

Coals and Gas 19 2 .... 47 10 8 

House Expenses 17 10 4 .... 20 11 8 

Porterage and Petty Expenses . . 5 19 3 .... 6 12 4 

Rent of Land 21 . . . . 21 



£580 4 4 676 13 5 

The above is the actual expenditure, but the real annual increase in salaries 
is about £61 : the difference in the above statement arises from the termination 
of the financial year being one month later than last year. In the detailed 
statement of receipts and expenditure, it will be observed that the amount 
received for verification of meteorological instruments has decreased, arising 
from the circumstance that the Meteorological department of the Govern- 
ment is now well provided with a store of instruments for its use. 

As the financial position of the Observatory will probably be brought 
forward by the Council at the General Meeting of the Association at Leeds, 
the Committee suggest that the time has now arrived when strenuous efforts 
should be made to obtain such an amount of pecuniary aid as would ensure 
the permanent efficient working of this practical physical Observatory ; for 
although the establishment is conducted with the strictest economy, the 
necessary work connected with the Observatory unavoidably creates a cor- 
responding increase in the amount of the annual expenditure. 

John P. Gassiot, Chairman, 
Kew Observatory, 

10th September, 1858. 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Leeds, in September 185b. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows: — 
That on their representation the late President of the Board of Trade had 
so far acceded to the suggestions of the President and Council of the Royal 
Society, supported by the British Association, as to consent to the construc- 
tion of one Anemometer with Dr. Robinson's Revolving Cups, which would 
be erected at Bermuda. We believe, however, that another instrument of 
the same description will be erected at Halifax, at the cost of the Board of 
Admiralty. These Anemometers are to be constructed on a principle devised 
by Mr. Welsh of the Kew Observatory, and they will cost about £50 each. 

We are happy to be enabled to add, that the late President of the Board of 
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xxxviii REPORT — 1858. 

accommodations and Staff at the Meteorological Department of the Board 
of Trade, consented to the appointment of two additional clerks and of a 
working optician, to be permanently attached to that Department ; and, more- 
over, supplied more enlarged accommodations; so that, upon the whole, 
Admiral FitzRoy, who so ably presides over this Meteorological Depart- 
ment, expresses himself as satisfied with the present arrangements, and hope- 
ful as to the future success of an institution which cannot fail to be pro- 
ductive of vast benefit to science. 

We regret extremely that the application to the Government to send the 
Expedition to the Mackenzie River was unsuccessful ; but we anticipate an 
important accession to our scientific knowledge from the Expedition to the 
Zambesi River, which was sanctioned, and sent out under the able conduct 
of the enterprising and distinguished Livingstone, for this Expedition was 
well supplied with the necessary instruments properly tested at Kew, and 
comprises those who are fully competent to use them. 

We have been again in correspondence with Mr. Patterson, of Belfast, in 
reference to the cost of appointments of new Trustees to Museums and 
other Scientific Institutions. It appears that a clause in the Literary and 
Scientific Societies' Act, extends the facilities given by the 13 and 14; Vict. 
c. 28, or the Religious Societies' Act, to Scientific Societies; but that 
the clause giving such facilities applies to real estate only. There may be 
some technical difficulties in the way of including personalty, but the subject 
will not be lost sight of. 

The appointment of the Right Hon. Joseph Napier to the office of Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland, has unhappily caused another vacancy in our body. 
There are now therefore two vacancies, one of which we recommend should 
be supplied by the election of the Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, M.P. for 
Droitvvich. 

A Memorial having been presented to the Government on the subject of 
the proposed severance from the British Museum of its Natural History Col- 
lections, signed by 114 persons comprising the most eminent promoters and 
cultivators of science, the same was moved for in the House of Commons by 
Sir Philip Grey Egerton and produced. We know of no measure which 
might be adopted by the Government or Legislature, which would inflict a 
deeper injury on science, than the removal of these Collections, if unhappily 
carried into effect. 

We remain of the same opinion which we expressed in our last Report, 
that no convenient opportunity has yet occurred to submit to the consider- 
ation of the Legislature the twelve Resolutions of the Council of the Royal 
Society; but we consider that it is difficult to over-estimate the importance 
of having ascertained and embodied in these Resolutions the opinions of the 
most distinguished living cultivators of science on its desiderata. They con- 
stitute a perpetual record to which reference may always be made by any 
Member of the Government or Legislature, who is sincerely desirous to pro- 
mote all such measures as tend to encourage scientific research, and by so 
doing to advance the most important interests of his country. 

Wrottesley, Chairman. 

September 13, 1858. 



recommendations of the general committee. xxxix 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Leeds Meeting in September 1858. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary of 
the Committee, except there be a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 
That the Parliamentary Committee, uow consisting of 



The Lord Wrottesley 
The Earl of Eosse 
The Duke of Argyll 
The Duke of Devonshire 
The Earl of Enniskillen 
The Earl of Harrowby 



Sir Philip Egerton, Bart. 

Right Hon. J. Napier 

Lord Stanley 

E. J. Cooper, Esq. 

Viscount Goderich 

Sir John Pakington, Bart., 



have authority to expend a sum not exceeding £50 in promoting an Act of 
Parliament to facilitate the appointment of New Trustees of the Property 
of Scientific Institutions. 

That the sum of £500 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment at Kew Observatory. 

That a sum of £200 be placed at the disposal of Professor Wilson of the 
Melbourne University, in aid of his proposed scheme for establishing a Re- 
flecting Telescope, with a speculum of 4 feet diameter, for the Observation 
of the Southern Nebulae ; on the understanding that the Local Government 
of Melbourne, Victoria, and other sources, will defray all the remaining cost 
of carrying the proposal into effect. 

That Colonel Sykes, Lord Wrottesley, Professor Faraday, Professor Wheat- 
stone, Dr. Lee, and Professor Tyndall, be appointed a Committee to confer 
with the Kew Committee as to the expediency of arranging further Balloon 
Ascents, and (if it should be judged expedient) to carry them into effect; 
and that a sura of £200 be placed at their disposal, if it should be required 
for this purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Maskelyne, Mr. Hardwich, 
Mr. Llewellyn, and Mr. Hadow, be requested to continue their Researches 
on the Chemical Nature of the Image formed in Photographic Processes ; 
and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Voelcker be requested to continue his Field Experiments 
and Laboratory Researches on the Constituents of Manures essential to 
Cultivated Crops ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at his disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor Sullivan be requested to furnish a Report on the Solubi- 
lity of Salts at Temperatures above that of Boiling Water, and on the mutual 
Action of Salts in Solution ; and that the sum of £30 be placed at his dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Alphonse Gages be requested to continue his Experiments on 
the Chemico-Mechanical Analysis of Minerals ; and that the sum of £10 be 
placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Sir R. I. Murchison, Mr. Page, and Pro- 
fessor A. C. Ramsay, be requested to direct Mr. Robert Slimmon to pursue 
his Researches in Developing the Fossil Contents of the Upper Silurian 
Rocks of Lanarkshire ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

[The specimens collected to be given in the first place to the Public 
Museum in Edinburgh ; the duplicates to be then presented to the Public 



Xl REPORT — 1858. 

Museum in Jermyn Street, London, and to the Public Museum in Dublin, 
in connexion with the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom.] 

That Mr. Robert Mallet be requested to continue his Experiments on 
Earthquake Waves at Holyhead ; and that the balance of last year's grant 
of £50 (being a sum of £25) be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Sorby, Professor A. C. Ramsay, and Mr. Robert 
Mallet, be requested to conduct a series of Experiments on the Expansion 
and Contraction of various Rocks by changes of temperature in relation to 
Piiysical Geology ; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. Robert Patterson, Professor Dickie, 
Professor Wyville Thomson, Mr. G. C. Hyndman, and Mr. E. Weller, be 
requested to finish their Report on Dredging in the North and North-east 
Coasts of Ireland ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Dr. Kinahan, Dr. Carte, Professor J. R. Greene, and Dr. E. P. 
Wright, be requested to continue their Report on " Dublin Bay Dredging ;" 
and that the sum of £15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor J. R. Greene and Dr. E. P. Wright be requested to finish 
Professor Greene's Report on British Discoid Medusidas; and that the sum 
of £5 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. P. Wright and Professor J. R. Greene be requested to draw 
up a Report on the Irish Tunicata ; and that the sum of £5 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. P. Wright, Professor J. R. Greene, Dr. Kinahan, and Dr. 
Carte, be requested to draw up the second part of their Report on the Marine 
Fauna of the South and West Coasts of Ireland ; and that the sum of £10 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

"That a Committee, consisting of Thomas Allis, Sir W. Jardine, Bart., 
and Mr. T. C. Eyton, be requested to investigate the Osteology and Com- 
parative Anatomy of Birds; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

"That a Committee, consisting of Mr. R. M'Andrew (London), Mr. G. C. 
Hyndman (Belfast), Dr. Dickie (Belfast), Mr. C. L. Stewart (London), 
Dr. CoUingwood (Liverpool), Dr. Kinahan (Dublin), Mr. J, G. Jeffreys 
(London), Dr. E. P. Wright (Dublin), Mr. L. Barrett (Cambridge), and 
Mr. L. Worthy (Bristol), be requested to act as a General Dredging 
Committee ; and that the sum of £5 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Daubeny and Dr. Lankester, be re- 
quested to assist Dr. Voelcker and Professor Buckman in their Researches 
on the Growth of Plants ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor J. Thomson be requested to continue his Experiments on 
the Measurements of the Discharge of Water through V-shaped Orifices ; 
and that the sum of £10 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That the attention of Proprietors of Steam-vessels be called to the great 
importance of adopting a general and uniform system of recording facts of 
performances of steam-vessels at sea under all circumstances, and that the 
following Noblemen and Gentlemen be requested to act as a Committee to 
carry this object into effect, with £15 at their disposal for the purpose, and 
to report to the Association at its next Meeting :— Admiral Moorsom; the 
Marquis of Stafford, M.P.; the Earl of Caithness ; LordDufferin; Sir James 
Graham, M.P.; William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ; J. S. Russell, F.R.S.; J. Kitson, 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xU 

C.E.;W. Smith, C.E.; J. E. M'Coiinell, C.E. ; C. Atherton, C.E. ; Professor 
Rankiue, LL.D.; J. R. Napier, C.E. ; Henry Wright (Secretary). 

Involving Applications to Government or Public Institutions. 

Resolved, — That application be made to the Sardinian Authorities for 
obtaining additional facilities to scientific men for pursuing their researches 
on the summits of tiie Alps. 

That the Right Hon. M. T. Baines, M.P,, Viscount Goderich, M.P., 
Mr. Wm. Fairbairn, Mr. James Heywood, General Sabine, and Mr. T. Web- 
ster, be appointed a Committee for the purpose of taking such steps as may 
be necessary to render the Patent System of this country, and the funds 
derived from inventors, more efficient and available for the reward of meri- 
torious inventors and the advancement of Science. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Hopkins, Mr. R. Mallet, and 
General Portlock, be requested to represent to the Meteorological Depart- 
ment of the Board of Trade the desirableness of connecting with its arrange- 
ments a system for the observation and record of Oceanic and Littoral 
Earthquakes and of the occasional occurrence upon the coasts of Great Sea 
Waves, and, if practicable, of bringing such into immediate operation. 

That it is highly desirable that a series of Magnetical and Meteoro- 
logical Observations on the same plan as those which have been already 
carried on in the Colonial Observatories for that purpose under the direction 
of Her Majesty's Board of Ordnance, be obtained, to extend over a period of 
not more than five years, at the following stations : — 

1. Vancouver Island. 

2. Newfoundland. 

3. The Falkland Isles. 

4. Pekin, or some near adjacent station. 

That an application be made to Her Majesty's Government to obtain 
the establishment of Observatories at these stations for the above-mentioned 
term, on a personal and material footing, and under the same superin- 
tendence as in the Observatories (now discontinued) at Toronto, St. Helena, 
and Van Diemen's Land. 

That the observations at the Observatories now recommended, should be 
comparable with, and in continuation of, those made at the last-named Ob- 
servatories, including four days of term observations annually. 

That provision be also requested at the hands of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment for the execution within the period embraced by the observations of 
magnetic surveys in the districts immediately adjacent to those stations, 
viz. of the whole of Vancouver Island and the shores of the Strait sepa- 
rating it from the main land, — of the Falkland Isles, — and of the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Chinese Observatory (if practicable), wherever 
situated, — on the plan of the surveys already executed in the British posses- 
sions in North America and in the Indian Archipelago. 

That a sum of ^350 per annum, during the continuance of the ob- 
servations, be recommended to be placed by Government at the disposal of 
the General Superintendent, for the purpose of procuring a special and 
scientific verification and exact correspondence of the magnetical and me- 
teorological instruments, both of those which shall be furnished to the 
several Observatories, and of those which, during the continuance of the 
observations for the period in question, shall be brought into comparison 
with them, either at Foreign or Colonial Stations. 



xlii REPORT — 1858. 

That the printing of the Observations in extenso be discontinued, but 
that provision be made for their printing in abstract, with discussion, but that 
the Terra Observations, and those to be made on the occurrence of Magnetic 
Storms, be still printed m extenso ; and that the registrj^ of the observations 
be made in triplicate, one copy to be preserved in the office of the General 
Superintendent, one to be presented to the Royal Society, and one to the 
Royal Observatory at Greenwich, for conservation and future reference. 

That measures be adopted for taking advantage of whatever disposition 
may exist on the part of our Colonial Governments to establish Observa- 
tories of the same kind, or otherwise to cooperate with the proposed system 
of observation. 

That in placing these Resolutions and the Report of the Committee 
before the President and Council of the Royal Society, the continued co- 
operation of that Society be requested in whatever ulterior measures may be 
requisite. 

That the President of the British Association be requested to act in 
conjunction with the President of the Royal Society, and with the Members 
of the two Committees, in any steps which appear necessary for the accom- 
plishment of the objects above stated. 

That an early communication be made of this procedure to His Royal 
Highness the Prince Consort, the President elect of the British Association 
for the ensuing year. 

That the attention of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty be 
requested to the importance of authorizing further researches on the 
depth, temperature, and specific gravity of the Sea, more especially in rela- 
tion to the communications between distant shores by means of Electric 
Telegraph Cables. 

Applications for Reports and Researches. 

That Mr. A. Cayley, F.R.S., be requested, in continuation of his Report 
on the Recent Progress of Theoretical Dynamics, to make a Report on the 
History of certain special Problems of Dynamics. 

That Mr. H. I. S. Smith, M.A., of Balliol College (Oxon), be requested 
to draw up a Report on the Theory of Numbers. 

That Mr. Welsh be requested to draw up an account of the Self- 
recording Magnetical Instruments at the Kew Observatory, and to present 
it to the next Meeting of the Association. 

That Professor Owen be requested to prepare a Report upon the Crania 
of the Native Tribes of the Nepal Hills, in his possession, forwarded to him 
by Mr. Bryan Hodgson. 

That Mr. Foster be associated with Dr. Odling to carry out a recommenda- 
tion of the Dublin Meeting for a Report on Organic Chemistry. 

That Dr. Lankester be requested to bring under the notice of the Kew 
Committee his new Ozonometer. 

That the consideration of the Kew Committee be requested to the best 
means of removing the difficulty which is now experienced by Officers pro- 
ceeding on Government Expeditions and by other Scientific travellers, in 
procuring instruments for determinations of Geographical Position, of the most 
approved portable construction, and properly verified. That the interest of 
Geographical Science would be materially advanced by similar measures 
being taken by the Kew Committee in respect to such Instruments, to those 
which have proved so beneficial in the case of Magnetical and Meteorological 
Instruments. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xliu 

Communications to be printed entire among the Reports. 

That a Communication by R. H. Meade on the Anatomy of the Spinning 
Organs of the Araneidifi or true Spiders, be printed in full, and illustrated in 
the Reports of the British Association. 

That a Communication by Mr. Eddy, regarding the Lead Mines of York- 
shire, be printed entire among the Reports. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 

General Committee at the Leeds Meeting in September 1858, with 

the name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Committee, 
is entitled to draw for the Money. 

£ s. d. 
Parliamentary Committee. 
The Lord Wrottesley. — For promoting an Act of Parlia- 
ment to facilitate the appointment of New Trustees of the 

property of Scientific Institutions 50 

Kew Observatory. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying expenses 500 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Wilson, Prof.— Telescope at Melbourne 200 

Sykes, Colonel. — Balloon Ascents 200 

Chemical Science. 

Maskelyne, Prof. — Chemistry of Photography 10 

VoELCKER, Prof. — On Constituents of Manures 25 

Sullivan, Prof.— Solubility of Salts 30 

Gages, Mr. A. — Chemico-Mechanical Analysis of Minerals. , 10 

Geology. 

MuRCHisoN, Sir R. I — Fossils in Upper Silurian Rocks 20 

Mallet, R., C.E Earthquake Waves 25 

Hopkins, William. — Effect of Temperature on Rocks 50 

Zoology and Botany. 

Patterson, R. — Dredging Coast of Ireland 20 

KiNAHAN, Dr. — Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Greene, Prof. — Report on British Medusidae 5 

Wright, Dr. E. P. — Report on Irish Tunicata 5 

Wright, Dr. E. P. — Report on Marine Fauna of Ireland. ... 1000 

Allis, Thomas Osteology of Birds SO 

M'Andrew, Robert. — General Dredging 5 

Daubeny, Prof.— Growth of Plants 10 

Mechanical Science. 

Thomson, James, C.E. — Discharge of Water 10 

Moorsom, Admiral. — Performance of Steam Vessels 15 

Total.... ^1265 



xliv 



REPORT — 1858. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 02 

British Fossil Icluliyology 105 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermoiiietric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges i)13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 
13 


12 



5 

4 

18 



jfc-OlS 14 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 lo 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 



£956 12 2 

1839. " 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides , 35 18 6 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmosplicric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 II 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 204 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phseno- 

niena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers .^ 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Starg (Histoire Celeste) 185 



30 



8 











7 























12 


8 








18 


6 









GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlv 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomeiielattire of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 

dnction uf) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnelical Observations CI 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh C9 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race ....j^ 7 

£1449 



s. 


d. 


5 





9 


6 



































1 6 
12 



18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 11 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 

17 6 

5 











10 







8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



2 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 











£ 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymovilh 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 50 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation ofthe Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1505 



s. 


d. 














6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 





4 
8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 

8 





11 









5 




8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 C 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 50 7 3 



xlvi 



REPORT 1858. 



£ s. d. 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

.aigean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 ■■■ 10 3 6 

J6981 12 8 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 G 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 14 8 

£830 9 9 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

•5tftr3 tiiMt««*f4««ft**«if If (il^^x iSll 15 



£ 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Reseaiches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exolic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£085 



s. 


(l. 














16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory ■• 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants .^ 15^ 

£275 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 
























1 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phse- 

nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850, 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlvii 



£ s. d. 

Periodical Phaenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (includes part 

of grant in 1849) 309 2 2 

TheoryofHeat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phaenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

JE391 9 7 

1852. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1S50) ... 233 17 8 
Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 

lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 
1853, -^— ^— 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 

1854. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phae- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction ofHeat 4 2 

£380 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 



£ s. d. 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



575 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Phaeno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats 5 

£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 



























5 





13 


2 

















£618 18 2 



xlviii REPORT — 1858. 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by_[the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases Avhere additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 22, at 8| p.m., in the Town Hall, The Rev. Humphrey 
Lloyd, D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.L.&E., V.P.R.I.A., resigned the office of Presi- 
dent to Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst, of France, 
who took the Chair and delivered an Address, for which see page xlix. 

On Thursday Evening, Sept, 23, a Conversazione took place in the Town 
Hall. 

On Friday Evening, Sept. 24, at 8^ p.m., in the Town Hall, John Phillips, 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres. Geol. Soc. of London, delivered a Discourse on 
the Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

On Monday Evening, Sept. 27, at 8| p.m.. The President of the Meeting, 
Professor Owen, delivered a Discourse on the Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

On Tuesday Evening, Sept. 28, at 8l p.m., a Conversazione took place in 
the Town Hall. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 29, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting took 
place in the Town Hall, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, 
and the Grants of Money for scientific purposes, were explained to the 
Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Aberdeen*. 
* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 14th of September, 1859. 



ADDRESS 

BY 

RICHARD OWEN, M.D., V.P.R.S., D.C.L., F.L.S. etc., 

Sdperintendent op the Natukal History Departments, British Museum. 



• Gentlemen of the British Association, 

We are liere met, in tliis our 28th annual assembly, having accepted, for 
tlie present year, the invitation of the flourishing town and firm seat of 
British manufacturing energy, Leeds, to continue the aim of the Associa- 
tion, which is the promotion of Science, or the Knowledge of the Laws of 
Nature ; whereby we acquire a dominion over Nature, and are able so to 
apply her powers as to advance the well-being of society and exalt the con- 
dition of mankind. It is no light matter, therefore, the work that we are 
here assembled to do. 

God has given to man a capacity to discover and comprehend the laws by 
which His universe is governed ; and man is impelled by a healthy and 
natural impulse to exercise the faculties by wliicii tliat knowledge can be 
acquired. Agreeably with the relations which have been instituted between 
our finite faculties and tlic phenomena that affect them, we thus arrive at 
demonstrations and convictions which are the most certain that our present 
state of being can have or act upon. 

Nor let any one, against whose prepossessions a scientific truth may jar, 
confound such demonstrations with the speculative philosophies condemned 
by the Apostle ; or ascribe to arrogant intellect soaring to regions of 
forbidden mysteries the acquisition of such truths as have been or may 
be established by patient and inductive research. For the most part, the 
discoverer has been so placed by circumstances, rather than by pre- 
determined selection, as to have liis work of investigation allotted to 
liim as his daily duty ; in the fulfilment of which he is brought face to 
face with phenomena into which he must inquire, and the result of that 
inquiry he must faithfully impart. The course of natural as of moral 
truth is progressive : but it has pleased the Author of all truth to vary the 
fashion of the imparting of such parcels thereof as He has allotted from time 
to time, for the l)choof and guidance of mankind. 

Those who aje privileged with the faculties of discovery are, therefore, to 
1858. d 



1 REPORT — 1858. 

be regarded as preordained instruments in making known the power of God, 
without a knowledge of which, as well as of Scripture, we are told that we 
shall err. 

Great and marvellous have been the manifestations of this power imparted 
to us of late times, not only in respect of the shape, motions, and solar 
relations of the earth, but also of its age and inhabitants. 

In regard to the period during which the globe allotted to man has revolved 
in its orbit, present evidence strains the mind to grasp such sum of past time 
with an effort like that by which it tries to realize the space dividing that 
orbit from the fixed stars and remoter nebulae. Yet, during all those aeras 
that have passed since the Cambrian rocks were deposited which bear the 
impressed record of Creative power, as it was then manifested, we know, 
through the interpreters of these ' writings on stone,' that the earth was 
vivified by the sun's light and heat, was fertilized by refreshing showers, and 
washed by tidal waves. 

No stagnation has been permitted to air or ocean. The vast body 
of waters not only moved, as a whole, in orderly oscillations, regulated, as 
now, by sun and moon ; but were rippled and agitated by winds and storms. 
The atmosphere was healthily influenced by its horizontal currents; and by 
ever-varying clouds and vapours, rising, condensing, dissolving, and falling 
in endless vertical circulation. With these conditions of life, we know that 
life itself has been enjoyed throughout the same countless thousands of years ; 
and that with life, from the beginning, there has been death. 

The earliest testimony of the living thing, whether shell, crust, or coral in 
the oldest fossiiiferous rock, is at the same time proof that it died. 

At no period has the gift of life been monopolized by a few contemporary 
individuals through a stagnant sameness of untold time; but it has been 
handed over from generation to generation, and successively enjoyed by the 
myriads that constitute the species. And, herein, we discern the greater 
beneficence and wisdom ; that, through death, whether sudden or preceded 
by a brief decay, the individual enjoys the varying phases of life, — healthy 
assimilative growth, active youth, and vigorous maturity, with the procreative 
faculties and instincts to boot. And as life rises in the scale, even to the 
present highest form, foreknowing of his end, death is still the condition on 
which are enjoyed man's purest pleasures, — the reverential love of parents— 
the holy affections of wedlock — the fond yearning towards offspring. 

It has further been given us to know, that not only the individual but 
the species perishes ; that as death is balanced by generation, so extinction 
has been concomitant with creative power, which has continued to provide a 
succession of species ; and furthermore, that, as regards the varying forms 
of life which this planet has witnessed, there has been " an advance and 
progress in the main." 

Geology demonstrates that the Creative force has not deserted this earth 
during any of her epochs of time ; and that in respect to no one class of 



ADDRESS. Ul 

animals has the manifestation of that force been limited to one epoch. Not 
a species offish that now lives, but has come into being during a compara- 
tively recent period : the existing species were preceded by other species, and 
these again by others still more different from the present. No existing genus 
of fishes can be traced back beyond a moiety of known creative time. Two 
entire orders have come into being, and have almost superseded two 
other orders since the newest of the secondary formations of the earth's 
crust. 

The axiom of the continuous operation of Creative power, or of the 
ordained becoming of living things, is here illustrated by the class of fishes, 
because that class is exempt from the application of some exterminating 
causes affecting terrestrial and air-breathing animals. 

But the creation of every class of such animals, whether Reptiles, Birds, or 
Beasts, has been successive and continuous, from the earliest times at which we 
have evidence of their existence. The reptiles of the coal measures, the great 
birds that impressed the Connecticut sandstones, and the marsupial mam- 
mals of the Stonesfield and Purbeck Oolites, came into being long before 
the Cycloid fishes were created and anterior to the apparition of any 
known existing species of aquatic animal. Species after species of land 
animals, order after order of air-breathing reptiles, have succeeded each 
other ; creation ever compensating for extinction. The successive passing 
away of air-breathing species may have been as little due to exceptional 
violence, and as much to natural law, as in the case of marine plants and 
animals. It is true, indeed, that every part of the earth's surface has been 
submerged ; but successively, and for long periods. Of the present dry 
land different natural continents have different faunae and florae ; and the 
fossil remains of the plants and animals of these continents respectively 
show that they possessed the same peculiar characters, or characteristic 
fades, during periods extending far beyond the utmost limits of human 
history. 

Such, gentlemen, is a brief summary of facts most nearly interesting us, 
which have been demonstratively made known respecting our earth and its 
inhabitants. And when we reflect at how late and in how brief a period of 
historical time the acquisition of such knowledge has been permitted, we 
must feel that, vast as it seems, it may be but a very small part of the 
patrimony of truth destined for the possession of future generations. 

The certain knowledge of the very shape of the earth dates not so far back 
by some centuries as that epoch marked by the revelation, amongst other 
divine truths, of the responsibility of man for the use of the talent entrusted 
to him ; and we may well believe that it has been mainly under the sense of 
this responsibility that men have submitted themselves to that patient endu- 
rance of the labour of investigation, experiment, comparison, invention, and 
the pondering on results, often to the utmost reach of mental tension, by 
which the present knowledge of the Divine power has been acquired. 



lii REPORT — 1858. 

In reviewing the nature and results of our proceedings during the last 
twenty-seven years, and the aims and objects of our Association, it seems 
as if we are realizing the grand Philosophical Dream or Prefigurative Vision 
of Francis Bacon, which he has recounted in his ' New Atlantis.' 

In this noble Parable the Father of Modern Science imagines an Institu- 
tion which he calls " Solomon's House," and informs us, by the mouth of 
one of its members, that " the end of its Foundation is the Knowledge of 
Causes and Secret Motions of Things ; and the enlarging of the bounds of 
Human Empire to the effecting of all things possible." 

Amongst the means and instruments to this great end, Bacon imagines 
laboratories situated at the greatest attainable distances, vertically, in regard 
to the atmosphere ; — some sunk 600 fathoms deeper than the deepest natural 
cave ; others placed on towers set upon high mountains, " so that the van- 
tage of the hill with the tower is in the highest of them three miles at least." 
In the depths he conceives might be carried on the producing of new arti- 
ficial metals* by compositions and materials left at work for many years, in 
imitation of natural mines ; also observations on the formation of figured 
fossils ; and he speculates upon the influence of these cold depths in the curing 
of certain diseases and the prolonging of human life, as it seems by a super- 
induced torpidity. In the higher regions of the air are to be carried on 
observations of the heavens, and of divers meteors — wind, rain, hail, and 
falling stars. 

" We have also," he writes, " spacious houses where we imitate and demon- 
strate meteors, as thunders, lightnings, snow, hail, and rain. We have, also, 
instruments which generate heat only by motion." 

Next come arrangements for the appliance of water-power and of winds 
to set a-going divers motions : — "engine-houses, where are prepared engines 
and instruments for all sorts of motions, some swifter than any known to the 
rest of the world, and other various motions for equality, fineness and subtilty : 
— a mathematical house, where are represented all instruments, as well of 
geometry as astromomy, exquisitely made. We have also sound-houses, where 
we practise and demonstrate all sounds and their generation, as by divers in- 
struments of music ; and those that imitate all articulate sounds and letters, 
and the voices and notes of beasts and birds. We have also the means to convey 
sounds in trenches and pipes in strange lines and distances." Then come the 
perspective-houses, " where we make demonstrations of all light and radiations 
and of all colours; and out of things uncoloured and transparent we can 
represent unto you several colours, both as rainbows and as single. We make 
artificial rainbows, halos and circles about light, and represent all manner 
of reflexions, refractions, and multiplication of visual beams of objects. These 
multiplications of light we carry to great distances, and make so sharp as to 
discern small points and lines. We procure means of seeing objects afar off, 
as in the heaven and remote places, representing things afar off as near. We 

* Davy, Herschel, Aluminium, 



ADDRESS. 



im 



have also glasses and means to see minute bodies perfectly and distinctly, 
as the shapes and colours of small flies and worms, which cannot otherwise be 
seen ;" also *' observations on blood and sap not otherwise to be seen." 

In regard to natural history, Bacon imagines huge Aquaria, of both salt 
and fresh water, for the use and observation and generation offish and fowl, 
" where we make trials upon fishes. We have also parks and enclosures of 
all sorts of beasts and birds, which we use not only for view and rareness, but 
likewise for dissections and trials ; that thereby we may take light wiiat may 
be wrought upon the body of man. 

" We have also large and various orchards and gai-dens, wherein we do not 
so much respect beauty as variety of ground and soil : in these are practised 
all conclusions of grafting and inoculating ; and we make, by art, trees and 
flowers to come up earlier or later tiian their seasons ; we also make tliem 
by art much greater than their nature, and their fruit greater and sweeter, 
and of different taste, smell, and colour." 

Lastly, as one important means of effecting the great aims of the "six days- 
college," certain of its members were deputed, as " merchants of light," to 
make "circuits or visits of divers principal cities of the kingdom." 

This latter feature of the Baconian oi-ganisation is the chief characteristic 
of the " British Association ; " but we have striven to carry out other aims 
of the ' New Atlantis,' such as the systematic summaries of the results of 
different branches of science, of which our published volumes of ' Reports' 
are evidence ; and we have likewise realized, in some measure, the idea of 
the ' Mathematical House ' in our establishment at Kew. 

The national and private Observatories, the Royal and other Scientific 
Societies, the British Museum, the Zoological, Botanical, and Horticultural 
Gardens combine in our day to realize that which Bacon foresaw in distant 
perspective. Great beyond all anticipation have been the results of this organi- 
sation, and of the application of the inductive methods of interrogating Nature. 

The universal law of gravitation, the circulation of the blood, the analo- 
gous course of the magnetic influence, which may be said to vivify the earth, 
permitting no atom of its most solid constituents to stagnate in total rest ; 
the development and progress of Chemistry, Geology, Palaeontology ; the 
inventions and practical applications of gas, the steam-engine, photography, 
telegraphy : — such, in the few centuries since Bacon wrote, have been the 
rewards of the faithful followers of his rules of research. 

We can hardly appreciate the swift of progress of human knowledge unless 
we go back, for an instant, to the period whice I have chosen as the starting- 
point in this survey. 

Bacon's treatment of the Copernican theory shows the importance of pure 
observation in the establishment of natural truth, and places in a strong light 
the incompetency of the highest intellectual power, of itself, to reason up to 
truth, even when it is so plain as it now appears to us in reference to the 
true nature of the apparent movements of the sun in respect to the earth. 

The well-known passages from the < Thema Cceli,' and the essay * On the 



liv REPORT — 1858. 

Cause of the Tides,' together with the fling " at those few carmen which 
drive the earth about*," are strongly indicative of the state of Bacon's mind 
— the philosophical mind of his time — on the great question then agitating 
it, as to the movements of the heavenly bodies. 

A mass of observations of their apparent movements had been accumula- 
tina from the periods of Hipparchiis and Ptolemy to that of Copernicus. 
The nature and cause of those observed movements had to be explained. 
The Alexandrian astronomer had given an explanation in harmony with the 
apparent motions. Copernicus suggested another, contradictory of the ap- 
parent motions, but more in harmony, through certain reasons assigned, with 
what he believed to be their real nature. 

These reasons wanted proofs from observation ; but the proofs after- 
wards came, and were the fruit of the more commonly possessed inventive 
faculty rather than of the rarer power of abstract thouglit. Great, truly, is 
the gift to mankind when the two faculties coexist in a commanding intellect! 

Galileo invented a perspective glass by which he discovered the four small 
bodies which revolve about Jupiter in ditferent periods of time. The analogy 
which this visible system of Jupiter bore to the solar system, as conceived by 
Copernicus, gave what Herschel calls the "holding turn" to the opinions 
of mankind respecting the heliocentric system. Galileo's next discovery 
more decidedly confirmed the truth of that system. He observed that Venus 
in the course of her revolution assumed the same succession of phases which 
our moon exhibits in her monthly circuit. The opponents of Copernicus had 
objected that Venus did not appear four times as large as she should do when, 
according to his system, she is four times as near us ; but Galileo furnished 
the true reason : the dark side of Venus is toward the earth when she is 
nearest it. But with all this. Bacon's acceptance of the Copernican system 
never went further than as respected the movements of Venus and Mercury 
About the Sun. 

My motive in here referring to such trite facts in the History of Astro- 
nomy is to impress upon all who sympathize with scientific progress, or 
merely wish us ' good speed,' the importance of direct observation of Nature. 
The two results of Galileo's direction of his telescope to heavenly bodies 
were of more value than the subtlest of the objections of Bacon or of the 
excuses of Bruno. 

In 1631 Kepler witnessed the transit of Mercury across the sun's disk: in 
1639 Horrox saw the like transit of Venus: and these observations were of 
a higher kind than Galileo's. His might be called a chance trial of the phe- 
nomena of the skies; the English astronomer planted his telescope at the very 
hour, when, according to the Copernican hypothesis, he had calculated that 
Venus in her orbit would pass between the sun and the earth. Kepler's 
observation of the elliptical form of the orbit of Mars definitely cast out the 
eccentrics and epicycles of Ptolemy, and made the Copernican explanation 
easier than it had seemed to Copernicus himself. 

* Discourse ' In Praise of Knowledge.' 



ADDRESS. IV 

The motions of the heavenly bodies being thus determined, there remained 
their cause, or their laws. Kepler's successive approximations to an accurate 
determination of the orbits of the planets, and to the ratios of their mean 
distances from the sun to the times of their revolutions, which mathemati- 
cians now express by saying that " the squares of the periodic times are in 
the same proportion as the cubes of the distance," became an important 
prelude to Newton's discovery of the law of the sun's attractive force. 

Without stopping to trace the concurrent progress of the science of mo- 
tion, of which the true foundations were laid, in Bacon's time, by Galileo, it 
will serve here to state that the foundations were laid and the materials 
gathered for the establishment, by a master-mind, supreme in vigour of 
thought and mathematical resource, of the grandest generalization ever pro- 
mulgated by science — that of the universal gravitation of matter according to 
the law of tlie inverse square of the distance. 

The same century in which the ' Thema Coeli' of Lord Verulam and the 
' Nuncius Sidereus' of Galileo saw the light, was glorified by the publication 
of the ' PhilosophicB Naturalis Principia Matheinatica' of Newton. 

Has time, it may be asked, in any way afl'ected the great result of that 
masterpiece of human intellect ? There are signs that even Newton's axiom, 
or the terms in which it was enunciated, may not be exempt from the restless 
law of progress. 

The mode of expressing the law of gravitation as being " in the inverse 
proportion of the square of the distances," involves the idea that the force 
emanating from or exercised by the sun must become more feeble in pro- 
portion to the increased spherical surface over which it is diffused. So, in- 
deed, it was expressly understood by Halley. 

The ablest historian of Natural Science has remarked that " future dis- 
coveries may make gravitation a case of some wider law, and may disclose 
something of the mode in which it operates*." The difficulty, indeed, of 
conceiving a force acting through nothing from body to body has of late 
made itself felt ; and more especially since Meyer of Heilbron first clearly 
expressed the principle of the ' conservation of force.' Newton, though 
apprehending the necessity of a medium by which the force of gravitation 
should be conveyed from one body to anotherf, yet appears not to have 
possessed such an idea of the indestructibility of force as that which, now 
possessed by minds of the highest order, seems to some of them to be in- 
compatible with the terms in which Newton enunciated his great law ; viz. 
of matter attracting matter with a force which varies inversely as the square 
of the distance. 

Faraday has offered the following comment on this received expression 
of the idea of gravity: — "Assume two particles of matter, A and B, 
in free space, and a force in each or in both by wliich tliey gravitate 

* Whewell, History of the Inductive Sciences, 
t See Newton's Third Letter to Bentley. 



ivi 



REPORT 1858. 



towards each other, the force being unalterable for an unchanging dis- 
tance, but varying inversely as the square of the distance, when the 
latter varies. Then, at the distance of 10 the force may be estimated 
as 1 ; whilst at the distance of 1, i. e. one-tenth of the former, the 
force will be 100 : and if we suppose an elastic spring to be introduced 
between the two as a measure of the attractive force, the power com- 
pressing it will be a hundred times as much in the latter case as in the 
former. But from whence can this enormous increase of the power come ? 
If we say that it is the character of this force, and content ourselves with 
that as a sufficient answer, then, it appears to me, we admit a creation 
of power, and that to an enormous amount ; yet by a change of condition, 
so small and simple as to fail in leading the least-instructed mind to think 
that it can be a sufficient cause, we should admit a result which would 
equal the highest act our minds can appreciate of the working of infinite 
power upon matter; we should let loose the highest law in physical science 
which our faculties permit us to perceive, namely, the conservation of force. 
Suppose the two particles A and B removed back to the greater distance of 
10, then the force of attraction would be only a iiundrcdth part of that they 
previously possessed ; this, according to the statement that the force varies 
inversely as the square of the distance, would double the strangeness of the 
above results ; it would be an annihilation of force : an effect equal in its 
affinity and its consequences with creation, and only within the power of Him 
who has created." 

If we suppose the different modes of force, which we call 'light,' 'heat,' 
' gravity,' to act in all directions, as emanations from a centre, with a force 
which is the same in every part of the line, throughout space, the law of the 
' inverse squares ' would be a necessary consequence of the fact tliat, at double 
the distance, only one-fourth the number of such ' lines of force ' would im- 
pinge or act upon the ' illuminated,' ' heated ' or 'attracted ' body *. 

This may be understood by the subjoined diagram : — 




* Westminster Review, No. XXVII. 



ADDRESS. Ivii 

So much in illustration of the present phase of scientific thought in refer- 
ence to the Newtonian axiom. 

The progress of knowledge of the form of all-pervading force, which 
we call, from its most notable effect on one of the senses, 'light,' has not 
been less remarkable than that of gravitation. 

Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's satellites supplied Romer with the pheno- 
mena whence he was able to measure, in 1676, the velocity of light. Des- 
cartes, in his theory of the Rainbow, referred the different colours to the 
different amount of refraction, and made a near approximation to Newton's 
capital discovery of the different colours entering into the composition of the 
luminous ray, and of their different refrangibility. Hook and Huyghens, 
about the same period had entered upon explanations of the phenomena of 
light conceived as due to the undulations of an ether, propagated from the 
luminous point spherically, like those of sound. Newton, whilst admitting 
that such undulations or vibrations of an ether would explain certain phe- 
nomena, adopted the hypothesis of emission as most convenient for the 
mathematical propositions relative to light. The discoveries of achromatism, 
of the laws of double refraction, of polarization circular and elliptical, and 
of depolarization, rapidly followed, realizing more than Bacon conceived 
might flow from the labours of the 'perspective house,' and, with later ad- 
vances in optics, have made renowned the names of DoUond, Young, Malus, 
Fresnel, Arago, Biot, Brewster, Stokes, and Jamin. 

Some of the natural sciences, as we now comprehend them, had not ger- 
minated in Bacon's time. Chemistry was then Alchemy : Geology and Pa- 
lasontology were undreamt of: but Magnetism and Electricity had begun to 
be observed, and their phenomena compared and defined by a contem- 
porary of Bacon, in a way that claims to be regarded as the first step toward a 
scientific knowledge of those powers. It is true that, before Gilbert*, the 
magnet was known to attract iron, and the great practical application of 
magnetized iron — the mariner's compass — had been invented, and for many 
years before Bacon's time had guided the barks of navigators through track- 
less seas. 

Gilbert, to whom the name ' electricity ' is due, observed that that force 
attracted light bodies, whereas the magnetic force attracted iron only. 
About a century later the phenomena of repulsion as well as of 
attraction of light bodies by electric substances were noticed ; and Dufay, 
in 1733, enunciated the principle that "electric bodies attract all those that 
are not so, and repel them as soon as they are become electric by the 
vicinity of the electric body." 

The conduction of electric force, and the different behaviour of bodies in 
contact with the electric, leading to their division, by Desaguliers, into con- 
ductors and non-conductors, next followed. The two kinds of electricity, at 
first by Dufay, their definer, called ' vitreous ' and ' resinous,' afterwards, by 

* De Maguete (1600). 



Iviii REPORT — 1858. 

Franklin, * positive ' and ' negative,' formed an important step, which led to a 
brilliant series of experiments and discoveries, with inventions, such as the 
Leyden jar, for intensifying the electric shock. But whilst the majority of the 
applications of these degrees of mastery over the electric force was calculated 
to amuse or surprise, the instantaneous transmission of electricity through an 
extent of 6000 feet, demonstrated by Sir W.Watson, together with Franklin's 
discovery of the electric state of the clouds, and of the power of drawing 
off such electricity by pointed bodies, was a brilliant beginning of the appli- 
cation of this subtle sci-enee to the discovery of the well-being and needs of 
mankind. Superstitious ignorance might well shrink from playing, as the 
American philosopher with his electric kites seemed to be doing, with light- 
ning, — might gaze with alarm at the Russian Professor * collecting on his elec- 
trical rod the awful charge of the black thunder-cloud, — might deem the 
globe of fire which leapt from the rod upon the head of the experimenter 
and struck him dead as a judgment for tampering with a force that man's 
instinct, in all ages, has referred to a direct expression of the power and 
will of Deity. But the cultivator of God's intellectual gifts sees rather, 
in the application of the lightning-conductors which now guide harmless to 
the earth the dangerous electricity of the clouds, the predestined fruit and 
reward of the laborious and dauntless application of those gifts, agreeably 
with the rule of right reason, to the unfolding of natural phenomena. 

To hide from the lightning and tremble at the thunder, as the immediate 
manifestation of offended Deity, is the superstition of the savage : to recog- 
nize that both phenomena are under the control of a law, and operating to 
beneficial ends, is the privilege of the sage. This it is which begets a true 
and worthy feeling of reverence for the Lawgiver. 

When the knowledge of the law gives the mode of diverting from the 
well-manned ship and the crowded hall the destructive influence of the 
electric bolt, we then worthily adore the beneficence that has imparted so 
much of the power-interpreting talent as brings that reward for its enjoined 
use. The philosopher, in the course of his hazardous experimental 
researches, may incur a fatal result ; but he becomes then, not the sacrifice 
for presumptuous espial into divine and forbidden mysteries, but the true 
• martyr of science.' His death has contributed to save the lives of thousands 
of his fellow- creatures and to allay the distressing fears of millions. 

Magnetism has been studied with two aims, — the one to note the numerical 
relations of its activity to time and space, both in respect of its direction and 
intensity, the other to penetrate the mystery of the nature of the magnetic 
force. 

In reference to the first aim, my estimable predecessor adverted, last year, 
to the fact that it was in the Committee-rooms of the British Association 
that the first step was taken towards that great magnetic organization which 
has since borne so much fruit. Thereby it has been determined that there 

* Richmann. 



ADDRESS. lix 

are periodical changes of the magnetic elements depending on the hour of 
the day, the season of the year, and on what seemed strange intervals of 
about eleven years. Also, that besides these regular changes there were 
others of a more abrupt and seemingly irregular character — Humboldt's 
' magnetic storms ' — which occur simultaneously at distant parts of the 
earth's surface. Major-General Sabine, than whom no individual has done 
more in this field of research since Halley first attempted " to explain the 
change in the variation of the magnetic needle," has proved that the magnetic 
storms observe diurnal, annual, and decennial periods. But with 
what phase or phenomenon of earthly or heavenly bodies, it may be asked, 
has the magnetic period of ten years to do? The coincidence which 
points to, if it does not give, the answer, is one of the most remarkable, un- 
expected, and encouraging to patient observers. 

For thirty years a German astronomer, Schwabe, had set himself the task 
of daily observing and recording the appearance of the sun's disk ; in which 
time ho found that the spots passed through periodic phases of increase and 
decrease, the length of the period being about ten years. A comparison 
of the independent evidence of the astronomer and magnetic observer has 
shown that the decennial magnetic period coincides both in its duration 
and in its epochs of maximum and minimum with the same period observed 
in the solar spots. 

A few weeks ago, during a visit of inspection to our establishment at Kew, 
I observed the successful operation of the photoheliographic apparatus in 
depicting the solar spots as they then appeared. The continued regular 
record of the macular state of the sun's surface, with the concurrent magnetic 
observations now established over many distant points of the earth's surface, 
will ere long establish the full significance and value of the remarkable, and, 
in reference to the observers, undesigned, coincidence above mentioned. 

Not to trespass on your patience by tracing the progress of magnetism 
I'rom Gilbert to Oersted, I cannot but advert to the time, 1807, when the 
latter tried to discover whether electricity in its most latent state had any 
effect on the magnet, and to his great result, in 1820, that the conducting- 
wire of a voltaic circuit acts upon a magnetic needle, so that the latter tends 
to place itself at right angles to the wire. 

The ablest physicists in Europe, and Ampere especially, devoted them- 
selves, immediately on the promulgation of this capital discovery, to the 
analysis of its conditions. Ampere, moreover, succeeded, by means of a 
delicate apparatus, in demonstrating that the voltaic wire was affected by the 
action of the earth itself as a magnet. In short, the generalization was esta- 
blished, that magnetism and electricity are but different effects of one common 
cause. This has proved the first step to still grander abstractions — to that 
which conceives the reduction of all the species of imponderable fluids of 
the chemistry of our student days, together with gravitation, chemicity*, 
* ' Elective ' or ' molecular attraction.' 



Ix REPORT — 1858. 

and neuricity*, to interchangeable modes of action of one and the same 
all-pervading life-essence. 

Galvaui arranged the parts of a recently-mutilated frog so as to bring a 
nerve in contact with the external surlace of a muscle, when a contraction 
of the muscle ensued. In this suggestive experiment the Italian philosopher, 
•who thereby initiated the inductive inquiry into the relation of nerve force 
to electric force, concluded that the contraction was a necessary conse- 
quence of the passage of electricity from one surface to the other by means 
of the nerve. He supposed that the electricity was secreted by the brain, 
and transmitted by the nerves to different parts of the body, the muscles 
serving as reservoirs of the electricity. Volta made a further step, by show- 
ino- that, under the conditions or arrangements of Galvani's experiments, the 
muscle would contract, whether the electric current had its origin in the 
animal body, or from a source external to that body. Galvani erred in 
too exclusive a reference of the electric force producing the contraction 
to the brain of the animal : Volta in excluding the origin of the electric force 
from the animal body altogether. The determination of ' the true' and ' tiic 
constant' in tliese recondite phaenomena has been mainly helped on by the 
persevering and ingenious experimental researches of Matteucci and Du 
Bois Reyniond. The latter has shown that any point of the surface of a 
muscle is positive in relation to any point of the divided or transverse section 
of the same muscle ; and that any point of the surface of a nerve is positive 
in relation to any point of the divided or transverse section of the same nerve. 
Mr. Baxter, in still more recent researches, has deduced important conclu- 
sions on the origin of the muscular and nerve currents, as being due to the 
polarized condition of the nerve or muscular fibre, and the relation of that 
condition to changes which occur during nutrition. From the present state 
of neuro-electricity it may be concluded that nerve force is not identical with 
electric force, but that it may be another mode of motion of the same com- 
mon force : it is certainly a polar force, and perhaps the highest form of 

polar force : — 

" A motion which may change, but cannot die ; 
An image of some bright eternity." 

The present tendency of the higher generalizations of chemistry seems to 
be toward a reduction of the number of those bodies which are called 
' elementary ; ' it begins to be suspected that certain groups of so-called 
chemical elements are but modified forms of one another. 

An important step in the elimination of the chlorine and bromine group 
from the category of simple bodies or elements has very recently been made 
by Prof. Schonbein. He, at least, adduces strong reasons, from analogy, 
for regarding those substances as 'oxy-compounds,' or what the Professor 
terms ' Ozonides ;' chlorine being, according to this view, the peroxide of 
murium=MuO-|-0. The researches on which this conclusion is founded 
have recalled to my mind the cautious terms in which my venerable Teacher 

* Force ascribed to a nervous fluid. 



ADDRESS. Ixi 

of Chemistry, Hope, always introduced Davy's then new hypothesis ; and 
I now better appreciate the celebrated Edinburgh Professor's disinclination 
to abandon the old doctrine of the compound nature of chlorine, &c. 

Organic chemistry becomes simplified as it expands; and its growth has, 
of late, proceeded, through the labours of Hoffmann, Berthelot, and others, 
with unexampled rapidity. The results of the recent experiments of M. Ber- 
thelot have more especially tended to reduce the various and numerous 
ternary oxygenated organic substances into a small number of fundamental 
groups. Tlie important power of synthesis has grown with this growth. 
Since Wohler, in 1828, succeeded in artificially producing ' urea,' Kolbe 
has similarly, by the combinations of inorganic elements, produced acetic 
acid and the new organic radical ' methyl.' Berthelot has formed glycerine, 
the basis of animal and vegatable oils and fats, and has also formed grape- 
sugar. It is true, that in the latter synthesis the contact of putrefying animal 
matter is requisite ; although such matter contributes none of its constituents 
to the new compound, nor undergoes any appreciable change in the process. 
Berthelot has very recently shown that cholesterine is a true alcohol, analo- 
gous to ethal ; and that, treated by acids, it is transformed into corresponding 
ethers, similar to other ethilic ethers. 

A substance resembling camphor has been this year made by the action of 
acids, e.g., the chorhydric, upon essential oil of turpentine. By treating this 
substance with strong alkali it is changed into a liquid carburet of hydrogen ; 
but, if feeble alkalis are employed or slightly alkaline salts, a solid carburet 
is obtained identical with camphor. By oxidizing the artificial camphor, 
ordinary camphor is obtained; by adding hydrgoen to such ordinary cam- 
phor, the camphor of Borneo is obtained. M. Berthelot has thus realized 
the synthetic preparation of camphors. 

An important series of alcohols and their derivatives, from amylic alcohol 
downwards; as extensive a series of ethers, including those which give their 
peculiar flavour to our choicest fruits ; the formic, butyric, succinic, lactic, 
and other acids, together with other important organic bodies, are now 
capable of artificial formation from their elements, and the old barrier divi- 
ding organic from inorganic bodies is broken down. To the power which 
mankind may ultimately exercise through the light of synthesis, who may 
])resume to set limits ! Already natural processes can be more economically 
replaced by artificial ones in the formation of a few oi'ganic compounds, the 
< valerianic acid,' for example. It is impossible to foresee the extent to 
which Chemistry may not ultimatelj-, in the production of things needful, 
supersede the present vital agencies of nature "by laying under conti'ibution 
the accumulated forces of past ages, which would thus enable us to obtain in 
a small manufactory, and in a few days, effects which can be realized from 
present natural agencies, only when they are exerted upon vast areas of 
land, and through considerable periods of time*." 

* Frankland, Lecture, Royal Institution, May 28, 1858. 



Ixii REPORT — 1858. 

Since Niepce, Herschel, Fox Talbot, and Daguerre laid the foundations 
of Photography, year by year some improvement is made, some advance 
achieved, in this most subtle application and combination of discoveries in 
Photicity, Electricity, Chemistry, and Magnetism. 

Last year M. Poiteven's production of plates in relief, for the purpose of 
engraving by the action of light alone, was cited as the latest marvel of 
photography. This year has witnessed photographic printing in carbon. 
M. Pretschi's method is as follows : — 

" A photograph or engraving is placed on the prepared plate, and a nega- 
tive taken in sun-light. The glass is then placed in water with a little 
alcohol, and the darkened parts are rendered soluble, while the other parts 
are insoluble, so tiiat in a few minutes we have a picture represented not 
only by light and shadow, but by the unequal thickness of the gelatine on 
the glass. When the plate is dry, soft gutta-percha is pressed upon the 
picture till it hardens. The gutta-percha has consequently an image the 
reverse of the first. After rubbing it over with bronze powder or black- 
lead, it is placed in a solution of sulphate of copper, and an electrotype plate 
taken from it, in the usual way, with a voltaic battery. From this plate 
others can be readily taken, and, as in ordinary copperplate printing, thou- 
sands of copies can be thrown off. ' By this process,' says Mr. Hunt, ' pic- 
tures, in which the most delicate details are very faithfully preserved, and 
the nice gradations in light and shadow maintained in all their beauty, are 
now printed from the electrotype plate, obtained from the photograph. The 
process of photo-galvanography is evidently destined to take a very high 
position as a means of preserving the beauties of nature and art.' " 

M. Niepce de St. Victor has succeeded in reproducing the colour of the 
original on metallic plates; though he cannot fix it. Unfortunately these 
lovely ' heliochromes ' vanish like the breath from the mirror. 

M. Delarue has obtained photographs of the moon in which the details of 
its illuminated surface are well defined — the cone in ' Tycho,' the double 
cone in ' Copernicus,' and even the ridge of ' Aristarchus.' A photograph 
of the planet Jupiter has been obtained in which the belts are very well 
marked and the satellites distinct. 

The portrait of a 13-inch shell has been secured while in full flight, a few 
feet after it left the mortar ; and, in effecting this, Mr. Scaife has obtained 
a representation of phenomena in the development of the smoke too trans- 
itory for the eye to ascertain when they occur. The photographic eye is, in 
fact, more sensitive than the living one : it can receive and register impres- 
sions too fine for human vision, until made visible by increased light and 
developing agents. Hence, photography may superadd a new defining func- 
tion to the highest attainable telescopic power. 

Photography is now a constant and indispensable servant in certain im- 
portant meteorological records. Applied periodically to living plants, photo- 
graphy supplies the botanist with the easiest and best data for judging of 



ADDRESS, Ixiii 

their rate of growth. It gives to the zoologist accurate representations of 
the most complex of his subjects, and of their organization, even to micro- 
scopic details. 

The engineer at home can ascertain by photographs transmitted by suc- 
cessive mails the weekly progress, brick by brick, board by board, nail by 
uail, of the most complex works on the Indian or other remote rail-roads. 
The physician can register every physiognomic phase accompanying the 
access, height, decrease, and passing away of mental disease. 

The humblest emigrant may carry with him miniatures, such as Dow could 
not have equalled in the perfection of their finish, of scenes and persons 
which will recall and revive the dearest affections of the home he has left. 

In its lowest application photography becomes an instrument of the 
criminal police. 

The first practical application of the electro- magnetic discovery was, as it 
should be, to the direct service of the philosophic inquirer : it was such an 
application of a delicate compass-needle as would show, by its deflection, 
the strength of the voltaic current. The possession of Schweigger's ' gal- 
vanometer ' enabled the philosopher henceforth to detect and measure the 
minutest electro-dynamic actions. It led to the discovery by Seebeck 
of the conversion of heat into that kind of action ; in short, of thermo- 
electricity. 

On Faraday's demonstration — the converse of Oersted's — that magnetism 
could produce electricity, and on the brilliant series of discoveries of that 
most exemplary investigator of natural laws, I need not dwell, in the pre- 
sence of so many who are better qualified than myself to comprehend and 
illustrate them. 

Remote as such profound conceptions and subtle trains of thought seem 
to be from the needs of every-day life, the most astounding of the practical 
augmentations of man's power has sprung out of them. Nothing might 
seem less promising of profit than Oersted's painfully-pursued experiments, 
with his little magnets, voltaic pile, and bits of copper-wire. Yet out of 
these has come the electric telegraph ! Oersted himself saw such an appli- 
cation of his convertibility of electricity into magnetism; and Schilling suc- 
cessfully applied the principle to the instantaneous communication of signs 
through distances of a few miles. The unrivalled resources of Wheat- 
stone's inventive genius have made it practicable for all distances, as we 
have lately seen in the submergence and working of the electro-magnetic 
cord connecting the Old with the New World. 

Whoever has been engaged in the delicate physical and chemical expe- 
riments required in the present state of natural philosophy, will know how 
small is the expectation of success on the first trial of a new experiment in 
the laboratory. Only the experienced manipulator realizes how hard it is to 
foresee every condition requisite for success : but it is he who bears the 
bravest heart under failures, well assured that through them are acquired 



Ixiv REPORT — 1858. 

the conditions of success, find that every cause of failure, well ascertained, 
is an encouragement to the repetition of tiie trial. Every practical phy- 
sicist, therefore, was prepared to expect a certain number of instructive 
failures in the attempt to carry out the grandest philosophical experiment 
on record — the most stupendous which mortal mind ever ventured to pro- 
pose to itself. Our surprise is, that the failures were so few, — the success 
so speedy. But the persevering and determined men who achieved this 
success, temporary as it has been, were animated by the spirit in which Lord 
Bacon tells us experimental philosophy should be entered upon : — " For 
there is no comparison," he writes, " between that which we may lose by 
not trying and by not succeeding ; since by not trying we throw away the 
chance of an immense good, by not succeeding we only incur the loss of a 
little human labour.' 

On the 6th of August, 1858, the laying down of upwards of 2000 nautical 
miles of the telegraphic cord, connecting Newfoundland and Ireland, was 
successfully completed ; and shortly after, a message of thirty-one words was 
transmitted in thirty-five minutes along the sinuosities of the submerged hills 
and valleys forming the bed of the great Atlantic. This first message 
ended by expressing — "Glory to God in the highest: on Earth 
Peace, Goodwill towards Men." Never since the foundations of the 
world were laid could it be more truly said, " The depths of the sea praise 
Him ! " 

More remains to be done before the far-stretching, thought-bearing engine 
can be got into full working order; but the capital fact, viz., the practica- 
bility of bringing America into electrical communication with Europe has 
been demonstrated ; consequently a like power of instantaneous interchange 
of thought between the civilized inhabitants of every part of the globe 
becomes only a question of time. The powers and benefits thence to ensue 
for the human race can be but dimly and inadequately foreseen. Some 
results stand out more prominently than others. 

The investigator of natural laws manifests his success by the degree in 
which he elicits and substitutes latent natural force for manual labour in effect- 
ing his purpose. Sennacherib, as we see on the slabs from Niiievch, added the 
lever to traction in the transport of the colossal symbolic statues of his majesty; 
but the power by which he worked both mechanical adjustments was slaves 
stimulated by the stick. Hundreds of human beings were sacrificed in the 
operation. Watt achieved an equal effect by the scientific eduction and 
direction of the latent force contained in a few pounds of coal. 

If this test be applied to the present state of the science of governing 
peoples, it would seem to show but little progress therein. The conscription 
committee of France for 1858 proposed a levy of 100,000 men, because 
less would not suffice to keep up the requisite army of 500,000 men ; 
Europe being at peace. Even the United States of America have pro- 
gressively increased their standing army to a present total of 17,000 men. 



ADDKESS. IxV 

The probability of a furtlicr augmentation of the military force of the 
Federal Government, in reference to a possil^le rupture with the Mother- 
country, must be greatly diminished by an ocean telegraph. And we may 
confidently hope that this and other applications of pure science will tend to 
abolish wars over the whole earth ; so that men may come to look back 
upon the trial of battle between misunderstanding nations, as a sign of a 
past state of comparative barbarism ; just as we look back from our present 
phase of civilization in England upon the old border-warfare. 

Bacon, commenting on the History of the Works of Nature, as it presented 
itself to him, describes it as a chaos "of fables, antiquities, quotations, 
frivolous disputes, philology, ornaments, and table-talk." Since his day the 
chief steps, by which Natural History has advanced to the dignity of a 
science, are associated with the names of Ray, Linnaeus, Jussieu, Buffon, and 
Cuvier. 

By the two former the phenomena were digested and classified, according 
to artificial but conveniently applicable methods ; of necessity tlie precursors 
of systems more expressive of the natural affinities of plants and animals. 

To perfect the natural system of plants has been the great aim of botanists 
since Jussieu. To obtain the same true insight into the relations of animals 
has stimulated the labours of zoologists since the writings of Cuvier. To 
tiiat great man appertains the merit of having systematically pursued and 
applied anatomical researches to the discovery of the true system of distri- 
bution of the animal kingdom : nor, until the Cuvierian amount of zootomical 
science had been gained, could the value and importance of Aristotle's 
* History of Animals ' be appreciated. The Greek philosopher, in this de- 
partment of science, had advanced far beyond his systematic depreciator, 
Bacon, who could not, in fact, in the then state of natural knowledge, com- 
prehend his discoveries. Such was the low state of Zoology in the in- 
terval between Aristotle and Cuvier, that there is no similar instance, in 
the history of science, of the well-lit torch gradually growing dimmer and 
smouldering through so many generations and centuries before it was again 
fanned into brightness, and a clear view regained, both of the extent of 
ancient discovery, and of the true course to be pursued by modern research. 

Rapid and right has been the progress of Zoology since that resumption. 

Not only has the structure of the animal been investigated, even to the 
minute characteristics of each tissue, but the mode of formation of such 
constituents of organs, and of the organs themselves, has been pursued from 
the germ, bud, or egg, onward to the maturity and decay of the individual. 

To the observation of outward ciiaracters is now added that of inward 
organization and developmental change, and Zootomy, Histology, and Em- 
bryology combine their results in forming an adequate and lasting basis for 
the higlier axioms and generalizations of Zoology properly so called. 

Three principles, of the common ground of which we may ultimately 
obtain a clearer insight, are now recognized to have governed the construc- 

1858. e 



Ixvi REPORT — 1858. 

tion of animals : — unity of plan, vegetative repetition, and fitness for purpose. 
The last, alone, has of late been questioned : but, in reference to such struc- 
tures as are exemplified by the flood-gates of the heart and the lens of the 
eye, I find my own powers of conception and expression such as to leave me 
no other mode of understanding myself, or of being intelligible to others, 
than by using the terms ' aim,' ' end,' ' purpose,' or ' design,' in regard to the 
relation of the first instanced structure to the course of the blood in the 
circulatory system ; and of the second to the convergence of light in the act 
of vision. 

The independent series of researches by which students of the Articulate 
animals liave seen, in the organs performing the functions of jaws and limbs 
of varied powers, the same or homotypal elements of a series of like seg- 
ments constituting the entire body, and by which students of the Vertebrate 
animals have been led to the conclusion that the maxillary, mandibular, 
nyoid, scapular, costal and pelvic arches, and their appendages sometimes 
forming limbs of varied power:*, are also modified elements of a series of 
essentially similar vertebral segments, — mutually corroborate their respective 
conclusions. It is not probable that a principle which is true for Artivulata 
should be false for Vertebrata : the less probable, since the determination of 
homologous parts becomes the more possible and sure in the ratio of the 
perfection of the organization. 

The last proposition may be tested by a study of any single set of organs 
with a view to determine their homologies. 

Take, for instance, the teeth, or the organs properly so called, which are 
peculiar to the vertebrate animals. One cannot trace any particular tooth, 
as one may a bone, from Fish to Fish : they are too numerous and too uni- 
form. In Reptiles we may point to the maxillary poison-tooth of a Rattle- 
snake as answering to that in a Cobra; the homological relations of the 
teeth being only predicable in a general way, as premaxillary, maxillary, 
mandibular, palatine, in the rest of that class. But when we come to the 
Mammalia, we find, save in a few inferior groups resembling fishes (e. g. 
Cetaced) or resembling reptiles (Bruta), that the teeth have such deter- 
minate characters, from relative position and development, as to enable the 
anatomist to trace each individual tooth from species to species, and indicate 
it, throughout that large proportion of the class which has been called 
' diphyodont,' by a determinate name and symbol. 

And here I would repeat, what I have elsewhere expressed, that each year's 
experience strengthens the conviction that the right and quick progress of the 
knowledge of animal structures, and of the axioms deducible therefrom, will 
be mainly influenced by the determination of homologies and by the conco- 
mitant power of condensing the propositions relating to homologized parts, 
by means of definite single substantive names, and their equivalent signs or 
symbols. 

In my work on the * Archetype of the Skeleton,' I have denoted most of the 



ADDRESS. IXvii 

bones by numerals, which, when adopted, may take the place of names ; for 
then all propositions respecting the centrum of the occipital vertebra might 
be predicated of ' 1 ' as intelligibly as of ' basioccipital.' The name appears 
to be now generally accepted, and why not the symbol ? The symbols of 
the teeth are as definite as those of the bones; and, in the absence of single 
names, more useful, since they render unnecessary the repetition of the com- 
pound definitions ; they harmonize conflicting synonyms, serve as a universal 
language, and express the writer's meaning in the fewest and clearest terms. 
The entomologist has realized the advantage of signs, such as c?, ?, &c. for 
male, female, neuter, and the like ; and the time is come when the anatomist 
may avail himself of this powerful instrument of thought, instruction, and 
discovery, from which the chemist, the astronomer, and the mathematician 
have obtained such important results. 

To William Sharp Macleay, author of the ' Horse Entomologicae,' belongs 
the meritof first clearly defining and exemplifying, in regard to the similarities 
observable between different animals, the distinction between those that in- 
dicate 'aflSnity' and those that indicate 'analogy' or representation. This 
distinction has been well illustrated by Vigors in the class of Birds, and has 
been ably discussed by Swainson in reference to other classes of animals. 

' Affinity,' as first defined by Macleay in contradistinction from ' analogy,' 
signifies the relationship which one animal bears to another in its struc- 
ture, and is the closer as the similarity of structure is greater. Swainson 
illustrates this idea by comparing a goatsucker with a swallow and with a 
bat : with the one its relation is intimate, with the other remote : the goat- 
sucker has affinity with the swallow, analogy to the bat. 

But the idea of the foregoing intimate relation of entire animals, called 
' affinity,' is different from the idea of the answerable relation of parts of 
animals called ' homology.' Animals, however intimately ' aflSned,' are never 
the same in the sense in which homologous parts are so esteemed : they 
could never be called by the same name, in the way or sense in which a bone, 
for example, of the fore-limb, is called ' humerus ' in the goatsucker, swalloM', 
and bat. 

There is, indeed, a sameness in the idea of * analogy,' as applied by the 
Zoologist to animals, and by the Anatomist to their parts. The goatsucker is 
related by analogy to a bat, because, as Mr. Swainson remarks, " it flies at the 
same hour of the day, and feeds in the same manner; " and the membranous 
wingof the bat isanalogousto the membranous parachute of the dragon, because 
it serves to sustain the body in the air. That is to say, ' function ' — a similar 
relationship to a tertium quid — in the above instance air, — is the groundwork 
for predicating analogies in regard to parts as well as wholes ; more espe- 
cially when, as in the case of the wings of the dragon and bat, they are not 
homologous parts. 

The study of homologous parts in a single system of organs — the bones 
— has mainly led to the recognition of the plan or archetype of the highest 

e2 



Ixviii REPORT — 1858. 

primary group of animals, the Vertebrata. The next step of importance will 
be to determine the homologous parts of the nervous system, of the muscular 
system, of the respiratory and vascular system, and of the digestive, secre- 
tory, and generative organs in the same primary group or province, I think 
it of more importance to settle the homologies of the parts of a group of 
animals constructed on the same general plan, than to speculate on such re- 
lations of parts in animals constructed on demonstratively distinct plans of 
organization. What has been effected and recommended, in regard to homo- 
logous parts in the Vertebrata, should be followed out in the Articulata and 
Molhisca. 

In regard to the constituents of the crust or outer skeleton and its append- 
ages in the Articulata, homological relations have been studied and deter- 
mined to a praiseworthy extent, throughout that province. 

The same study is making progress in the Mollusca ; but the grounds for 
determining special homologies are less sure in this subkingdom. The 
vegetative functions here predominate; and just as the organs of these func- 
tions are less satisfactory subjects of homological determination than those of 
the animal functions in the Vertebrate province, so the Molluscous province 
is a less favourable field for homological demonstrations than either the 
Articulate or Vertebrate provinces, in which the animal functions predomi- 
nate over the vegetative. 

So far as homologies can be determined, within the limits in which such 
determination can be most satisfactorily carried out, the foundation will be 
securely laid for a superstructure of higiier generalizations in regard to parts 
homological or answerable throughout the animal kingdom generally. 

The present state of homology in regard to the Articulata has sufficed 
to demonstrate that the segment of the crust is not a hollow expanded homo- 
logue of the segment of the endoskeleton of a vertebrate. There is as little 
homology between the parts and appendages of the segments of the Verte- 
brate and Articulate skeletons respectively. The parts called mandibles, 
maxillae, arms, legs, wings, fins, in Insects and Crustaceans, are only ' analo- 
gous ' to the parts so called in Vertebrates. 

To express finitely the clear deideas now possessed of their essential di- 
stinction, will require a distinct nomenclature. The same remark is appli- 
cable to other systems of organs. The so-called 'lungs' of the spider are 
analogous to, not homologous with, our 'lungs : ' the tracheae of insects are 
not homologous with the bird's trachea and its ramifications : the gills of 
the lobster are not the homologous parts of the gills of fishes. No compara- 
tive anatomist now supposes that the heart of the lobster is homologous with 
that of a fish : or either of these organs with the heart of a snail. The name 
in each group is simply expressive of similarity of function, and of connexions 
limited by and solely related to such function, as of the heart with a vein 
and an artery. A most extensive field of reform is becoming open to the 
honiologist in that which is essential to the exactitude of his science — a no- 



ADDRESS. Ixix 

nienclature equivalent to express his convictions of the different relations of 
similitude. Most difficult and recondite are the questions in face of which 
the march of homology is now irresistibly conducting the philosophic observer. 
Such, for instance, as the following: — Are the nervous, muscular, digestive, 
circulating and generative systems of organs more than functionally similar 
in any two primary provinces of the animal kingdom ? Are the homologies 
of entire systems to be judged of by their functional and structural con- 
nexions, rather than by the plan and course of their formation in the 
embryo ? 

In the development of animals the vitellus is observed to have different 
relations to the embryo. But such difference is not always or absolutely 
associated with a difference of plan of structure : the Cephalopods show a 
higher development of the same fundamental plan of structure as that of the 
Gasteropods, but the vitelline phenomena of their development resemble 
those of Vertebrata, not those of Gasteropoda. 

Even in the last-named restricted molluscous group there are striking 
differences in the vitelline relations of the embryo. In most the embryo 
early encloses the vitelline mass; in some, as in Limax, much later: and 
there is what may be termed a temporary vitelline sac. 

The yolk undergoes a complete segmentation in placental Mammals, the 
embryo of which is formed out of the whole vitelline mass, as it is in the 
whelk, the oyster and the star-fish. The bird, the crocodile and the cuttle- 
fish resemble each other in the embryo rising out of the yolk, assimilating 
only a portion, and leaving the rest as an appendage until the period of birth, 
or lor a short time after. 

It may be doubted, therefore, if embryology alone is decisive of the 
question whether homology can be predicated of the alimentary canal in 
animals of different primary groups or provinces. The armadillo (Das?/pus) 
and the woodlouse (^0?iiscus) are good subjects for illustrating this question. 
In both, the alimentary canal begins at the fore part and terminates at the 
hind part of the body : in both, an oesophagus precedes a stomach, as this 
precedes the part of the canal receiving the biliary secretion ; in both, the in- 
testine follows to terminate at the vent. 

Besides the sameness of function, the homologist, confiding in the 
characters of connexion and relative position, would retain the names ' ali- 
mentary canal,' ' mouth,' ' gullet,' ' stomach,' ' gut,' to express his ideas of 
the veritable answerable character of the parts compared in Oniscus and 
Dasypus: but he who believes embryology alone capable of affording a solid 
basis for determining homologies*, will infer that the different relations of 
the yolk and the intestine in the embryos of the vertebrate and articulate 

* " Embryology affords further a test for homologies in contradistinction to analo- 
gies. It shows that true homologies are limited respectively within the natural boundaries 
of the great branches of the animal kingdom." — Agassiz, Nat. Hist, of the United States, 
4to, 1857, vol. i. p. 86. 



IXX REPORT — 1858. 

animals*, establish that the 30-calied alimentary canal is an essentially differ- 
ent part in the mammal and the insect. 

The almost annular ossified segments of the skin of the armadillo, arranged 
so as to overlap and allow the body to be contracted into a ball, are, on the 
basis of connexions and relative position, homologous with the almost annu- 
lar chitinous segments of the skin of the wood-louse, which present the same 
arrangement for permitting that insect to roll itself into a ball. But, accord- 
ing to tlie embryological basis, there can be no true homology betM'een the 
parts compared; this relation being limited respectively within the natural 
boundaries of the great branches of the animal kingdom. 

The zoologist may learn from the above instances the phase at which the 
philosophical study and comparison of animal structures has now arrived, 
and I shall not pursue the disquisition further on the present occasion. 

It is significant, however, of the lower value of embryological characters, to 
note that the great leading divisions of the animal kingdom, based by Cuvier 
on comparative anatomy, have mei-ely been confirmed by Von Baer's later 
developmental researches. And so, likewise, with regard to some of the 
minor modifications of Cuvier's provinces, the true position of the Cirripedia 
was discerned by Straus Durkheim and Macleay, by the light of anutomy, 
before the discovery of their metamorphoses by Thomson. 

If, however, embryology has been over-valued as a test of homology, the 
study of the development of animals has brought to light most singular and 
interesting facts, and I now allude more especially to those that have been 
summed up under the term ' Alternate-generation,' ' Parthenogenesis,' 
' Metagenesis,' &c. 

John Hunter first enunciated the general proposition (many of the facts 
being known long before his time), that " the propagation of plants depended 
on two principles, tlie one that every part of a vegetable is ' a whole,' so that 
it is capable of being multiplied as far as it can be divided into distinct 
parts ; the other, that certain of those parts become reproductive organs, and 
produce fertile seeds." Hunter also remarked that " the first principle ope- 
rated in many animals which propagate their species by buds or cuttings ; " 
but that, whilst in animals, it prevailed only in " the more imperfect orders," 
it operated in vegetables " of every degree of perfection." He suggestively 
remarks, however, that "those degrees are few in comparison with the 
'animal,' and that the least perfect ' animal' is probably on a par with the 
most perfect ' vegetablef.'" Subsequent progress has shown that what 
seemed 'probable' when Hunter wrote is not exactly true. The special 
conditions of organisms or living things, which we call 'vegetable' and 
'animal,' rise by degrees and diverge from a general organic character or 

* " The alimentary canal is formed in a very different way in the embryos of the two 
types ; and it would be as unnatural to identify them, as it would be still to consider gills 
and lungs as homologous among Vertebrata."— Agassiz, o/>. cit., p. 86. 

t Physiol. Catal., p. 5. 



ADDRESS. 



Ixxi 



basis: and the degree of progress at which *animality' can be predicated, 
is ' on a par' with that at which ' vegetality' can be predicated. Then follow 
other steps of complexity, by which plants and animals diverge from each 
other as they rise in the scale of perfection. 

The experiments of Trembley on the freshwater polype, those of Spal- 
lanzani on the Naiads, and those of Bonnet on the Aphides, had brought to 
light the phenomena of propagation by fission, and by gemmation or buds, 
external and internal, in animals, to which Hunter refers. Subsequent research 
has shown the unexpected extent to which Hunter's first principle of pro- 
pagation in organic beings prevails in the animal division. But the earliest 
formal supersession of Harvey's axiom, 'omne vivum ab ovo,' appears to be 
Hunter's proposition of the dual principle above quoted. Bacon readily 
accepted, as, indeed, it was congenial with his physiological philosophy, the 
doctrine current in his day of the spontaneous origin of worms, insects, eels, 
and other 'creeping things.' But this doctrine receives no countenance from 
the modification of the Harveian dictum introduced by the great English 
physiologist of the last century. 

The experiments of Redi, Malpighi, and others, had progressively con- 
tracted the field to which the ' generatio aequivoca' could with any plausibility 
be applied. The stronghold of the remaining advocates of that old Egyptian 
doctrine was the fact of the development of parasitic animals in the flesh, 
brain and glands of higher animals. But the hypothesis never obtained 
currency in this country ; it was publicly opposed in my ' Hunterian Lec- 
tures,' by the fact of the prodigious preparation of fertile eggs in many of 
the supposed spontaneously developed species ; and in then suggesting that 
the ' Trichina spiralis' of the human muscular tissue might be the embryo 
of a larger worm in course of migration, I urged that a particular investiga- 
tion was needed for each particular species*. Among the most brilliant of 
recent acquisitions to this part of physiology have been the discoveries M'hich 
have resulted from such special investigations. Kuchenmeister and Von 
Siebold have been the chief labourers in this field. I may instance a few 
of their results. 

The ' thread-worms' {Filarice) of certain insects, which present no trace 
of sexual organs, were supposed to be spontaneously developed in those in- 
sects. The little worms were, however, by special and due research, seen to 
wind their May out of the caterpillars they infested. Von Siebold placed 
these free Filarice in damp earth, into which they soon bored : in a few 
weeks he found that the sexual organs were developed in them, and that 
they laid hundreds of eggs. Early in spring the young worms were hatched 
and began to creep about. Von Siebold took some young caterpillars of 
the moth ( Yponomeula euonymella), in which were no parasites : ho placed 
them in the soft earth in which the young Filari<s had been hatched ; and 
in twenty-four hours most of the caterpillars were infested by the young 
* Hunterian Lectures, reported in ' Medical Times.' 



Ixxii REPORT — 1858. 

thread-worms, which had bored their way through the soft skin into their 
interior. 

The long halv-worm of fvesh-waters (Gordius aquaticus), vulgarly con- 
ceived to be the result of a metamorphosis of the hair of a horse's tail, passes 
its early life as a parasite in the body of an insect. 

But many entozoa acquire their full or sexual development, not as free 
worms, but within the body of another animal, and of a species distinct from 
that in which they had passed the early or larval stage of their existence. 

The trematode parasite of a water-fowl produces eggs, from each of which 
is hatched a ciliated infusorial-like young. These young escape into the 
water, and there swim about by their vibratile cilia, like Infusoria; some of 
them enter the body of a water-snail ; but they are merely the locomotive 
envelope of a differently-shaped smooth-skinned organism, resembling in its 
simple uniform granular structure a Gregarina ; and the function of that 
ciliated envelope was to introduce the Gregarina into the body of the water- 
snail. So introduced, the growth of the gregariniform parasite proceeds, and a 
progeny is seen to arise in its interior, by the development of several of the 
contained germ-cells into embryos : it proves, indeed, to be a mere cyst for 
such, as the infusorial larva had been a cyst for it. The embryos gradually 
acquire the form of a Cercaria. These escape from the cyst, bore their way 
out of the snail, and disperse themselves as free swimming tadpole-like 
animalcules in the water. No sexual organs exist in these ' Cercarice,' any 
more than in their animated ' coat' the Gregarina, or in their ciliated 
'great-coat' the infusorial embryo. After the larval Cercarice have passed 
some time in the watei', first creeping and then swimming about with great 
restlessness, they either enter directly the body of a water-fowl, or bore 
their way into some aquatic insect, or they may fail in both these instinctive 
efforts and remain in the water. In any case they undergo a metamorphosis. 
The Cercaria gathers itself up into a ball and exudes a nmcous secretion 
from its surface, which soon iiardens ; and, since the worm, inside this mucous 
mass, turns round without stopping, it invests itself with a kind of egg-shell : 
during this process the tail is cast off. 

Should this process take place within the body of an insect, the encysted 
Cercaria might be introduced into the body of an insectivorous bird or beast. 
In the act of digestion by the engulpher the body of the insect is destroyed, 
together with the capsule of the cercarian pupa; but this by virtue of its 
vitality remains unharmed, and is thus transplanted into a sphere fitted for its 
further change into a sexual entozoon of the Trematode or * fluke-worm' order. 

Then again commences the strange and complex genetic cycle from the 
Harveian point — the impregnated ovum. 

Three different species of animal may contribute — two are essential — to 
the successful progress of the ordinary and parthenogenetic processes of pro- 
pagation manifested by the three distinct forms of Infusory, Gregarina and 
Cercaria, intervening between the egg and the perfect parasitic fluke-worm. 



ADDRESS. Ixxiii 

This instance, (a knowledge of which is clue chiefly to the researches of 
Vou Siebold) I have thought it requisite to quote, in order to convey some 
idea to my non-physiological auditors of the singular complexity of powers 
and arrangements tending to the ultimate right lodgement and well-being of 
a seemingly insignificant noxious little parasite. 

The sum of the recent researches on the generation of the Entozoa teaches 
that to the success in life of the majority of these internal parasites, two 
different species of much higher organized animals are subservient; and that 
these two species stand in the relation of prey and devourer. 

The habits of the prey favour the accidental introduction (as when a slug 
crawls over the droppings of a thrush) of the eggs of the birds' intestinal 
parasite. These are hatched in the slug. The slug in its turn is devoured 
by the thrush ; but the parasitic passengers are not digested — only the coach 
is dissolved, and the larvae, thus set free, find in the warm intestines of the 
bird the appropriate conditions for their metamorphosis and full develop- 
ment. 

In like manner, i\ie Rhynchobothria of a cuttle-fish are the larvae of the 
Tetrarhi/ncJms or four-tentacled tape-worm of a dog-fish. The encysted 
sexless Trimnophorus of the liver of the char becomes the free and perfect 
TricBnophoriis of the gut of the pike. The Ligula of a herring becomes a 
TcEnia only when introduced into the interior of a cormorant. The bladder- 
worm (^Cysticercus fasciolaris) of the mouse's liver becomes the tape-worm 
( Tcenia crassicollis) of the cat. The Cysticercus pisiformis of the liver of 
the hare becomes the Tcenia serrata of the dog and fox. 

Dr. Kiichenmeister of Zittau first proved, experimentally, by feeding 
animals with Cysticerci (Hydatids of the flesh and glands of herbivorous 
animals), that they became TccnicB (intestinal tape-worms) in carnivorous 
animals. The results of these instructive experiments were published in 
1851 *. They have been successfully repeated, amplified, and scientifically 
explained, in regard to every particular and step of the progress, by the 
indefatigable and accurate Von Siebold f. The part which Parthenogenesis 
plays in the clianging scenes of entozoal life is acutely discerned and clearly 
explained in this work. 

Since the time when it was first discovered that plants and animals 
could propagate in two ways, and that the individual developed from 
the bud might produce a seed or egg, from which also an individual 
might spring capable of again budding, — since this alternating mode of 
generation was observed, as by Chamisso and Sars, in cases where the 
budding individual differed much in form from the egg-laying one — the 
subject has been systematized:):, generalized, with an attempt to explain its 

• Gunsburg's Zeitschrift fiir Klinische Vortrage, 1851, p. 240. 
t Ucber die Band- und Blasenwiirmer, &c. 8vo. Leipzig, 1854. 

X Steenstrup (J.), " Ueber den Generationswechsel oder die Fortpflanzung durch abwech- 
selnde Generation," Kopenb. 1842. 8vo. 



Ixxiv REPORT — 1858. 

principle*, and greatly advanced f, especially, and in a highly interesting 
manner, in Von Siebold's late treatise, entitled " Wahre Parthenogenesis bei 
Schmetterlingen und Bienen," in which the virgin-production of the male or 
drone-bee is demonstrated. 

Von Siebold, having subjected to the closest microscopic scrutiny and 
experiment the conclusion to which the practical Bee-master Dzierson had 
arrived, relative to the cause of Queen-bees with crippled wings producing 
a swarm exclusively of drones, has demonstrated that the male-bee is pro- 
duced from an egg which has been subjected to no influence save that of the 
maternal parent ; whilst such egg, if impregnated, would have produced a 
female or worker-bee. 

Von Siebold has established the same most interesting phase of partheno- 
genesis in certain Lepidoptera, e. g. Solenohia lichenella, S. clathrella, Psyche 
helix ; and he calls this phase emphatically ' true parthenogenesis.' 

Bonnet's famous experiments on the parthenogenetic Aphides have been 
repeated and confirmed by myself J and others. Hartig§ Las shown the 
same property in the genera Cynijjs and Apophyllus, whicli explains the fact 
of the appearance of Cynips lignicola in vast numbers in the south-west of 
England during the present and preceding summers, but all of the female sex. 
The little crustaceans of the genus Daphne have long been known to produce 
agamic eggs. A newly-hatched female isokted in a tumbler will produce a 
brood of the same sex, whence a second brood will issue, to perhaps the sixth 
generation. Mr. John Lubbock, in an admirable paper in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions' for 1857, has repeated the experiments of Jurine, and added 
many valuable facts. He has pointed out the precise relations between the 
agamic and ephippial eggs. The young from any one brood of agamic eggs 
are all of one sex, which usually is female : but in one instance Mr. Lubbock 
observed that they were all males. His memoir will well repay a careful study. 
I had previously stated the grounds for concluding that there was no essential 
distinction between buds and eggs, and for anticipating that every gradation 
would be found between them : and many steps in that series have been since 
supplied by Lubbock, Leidy, and Von Siebold. 

Gsertner has given an abridged account of experiments, showing that 

* Owen, " On Parthenogenesis, or the Successive Production of Procreating Individuals 
from a single Ovum," 8vo. London, 1849. 

lb. " On Metamorphosis and Metagenesis," 8vo. 1857, 

Prosch (V), " Om Parthenogenesis og Generationsvexel," Kiobenhavn, 1851. 

t Lubbock (J.), " An Account of Two Methods of Reproduction in Daphnia," &c., Phil. 
Trans. 1857, p. 79. 

Cams (J. Victor), " Zur naheren Kenntniss des Generationswechsels," 8vo. Leipzig, 1849. 

licuckart (K.), " Ueber Metamorphose ungeschlechtliche Vermehrung, Generations- 
wechsel," Zeitsclirift fiir Wissensch. Zoologie, vol. iii. 1851. 

Gegenbaiir (U.), " Zur Lehre vom Generationswechsel und der Fortpflanzung bei Medusen 
und Polypen," 8vo. Wurzburg, 1854. 

1 Parthenogenesis. § Germar's Zeitschrift, vol. ii. p. 178. 



ADDRESS. 



Ixxv 



some plants have the power of producing ' agamic' or fertile but unpoUenized 
seeds : c, g. Zeu Mays, Cannabis sativa, Spinacia oleracea, Mercurialis 
annua ; and if doubt may yet attend the results of the experiments on these 
and other plants which Gaertner cites, none, I believe, is now entertained by 
botanists of the germinative power of the seeds, independently of any action 
of pollen, of the Coelobogyne ilicifolia. This plant, a native of Moreton Bay, 
Australia, is dioecious like the rest of the order (^Euphorbiacece) to which it 
belongs. A female plant was sent to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew 
some years ago, where it may now be seen in full vigour ; but year after year 
this pistil-bearing individual has formed its flowers and fertile seeds as per- 
fectly reproductive as if its staminiferous mate was blooming in the next 
parterre. No male plant has yet, in fact, been introduced. 

M. Lehocq has recorded in the ' Comptes Rendus de I'Acad. des Sciences,' 
Dec. 1856, the same phenomena in Trinia vulgar is, Mercurialis annua, and 
some other plants. 

The now well-investigated phenomena of parthenogenesis in Hydrozoa 
have resulted in showing, as in the analogous case of Entozoa, that animals 
differing so mucii in form as to have constituted two distinct orders or classes, 
are really but two terms of a cycle of metagenetic transformations — the 
acalephan Medusa being the sexual locomotive form of the agamic rooted 
budding polype, just as the cestoid Taenia is of the cystic Hydatid. 

In Hydrozoa (Hydroid Polypes or Sertularians) the young are propagated, 
as in plants, by ' buds, and also, as in most plants, by ' germs' or ' seeds :' 
these latter are contained in 'germ-sacs' projecting from the outer surface, 
which is another analogy to the flowering parts of plants. The germ-sac 
contains either bare-eyed medusae, or medusoid germs in small closed ' sporo- 
sacs.' Both medusjfi and medusoids contain either the eggs or the pollen- 
like zoosperms. The germ-sac may be 'simple' or 'compound,' the latter 
containing a special organ or process of the ' caenosarc,' from whose sides 
bud out the sporosacs or medusae. 

The first acquaintance with these marvels excited the hope that we were 
about to penetrate the mystery of the origin of different species of animals; 
but as far as observation has yet extended, the cycle of changes is definitely 
closed. And, since one essential step in the series is the fertilized seed or egg, 
the Harveian axiom, 'omne vivum abovo,' if metagenetic phases be ascribed 
to one individual, may be still predicated of all organisms which bear the 
unmistakeable characters of Plants or of Animals. 

The closest observations of the subjects of these two kingdoms most 
favourable to clear insight into the nature of their beginning, accumulate 
evidence in proof of the essential first step being due to the protoplasmic 
matter of a germ-cell and sperm-cell ; the former pre-existing in the form of 
a nucleus or protoplast, the latter as a granulose fluid. In flowering plants 
it is conveyed by the pollen-tube, in animals and many flowerless plants by 
locomotive spermatozoids. 



Ixxvi REPORT — 1858, 

In regard to lower living things, analogy is but hazardous ground for con- 
clusions. The single-celled organisms, such as many of the so-called ani- 
malcules of infusions, which are at a stage of organization too low for a definite 
transfer to either the vegetable or animal kingdoms, offer a field of obser- 
vation and experiment which may yet issue in giving us a clearer insight 
into the development of the organic living cell. 

Whether an independent free-moving and assimilating organism, of a 
grade of structure similar to, and scarcely higher than the ' germ-cell,' may 
not arise by a collocation of particles, through the operation of a force ana- 
logous to that which originally formed the germ-cell in the ovarian stroma, 
is a question which cannot be answered until every possible care and pains 
have been applied to its solution. 

The changes of form which the representative of a species undergoes in 
successive agamically propagating individuals are termed the ' metagenesis' 
of such species. The changes of form which the representative of a species 
undergoes in a single individual is called the ' metamorphosis.' But this 
term has practically been restricted to the instances in which the individual, 
during certain phases of the change, is free and active, as in the grub of the 
chaffer, or the tadpole of the frog, for example. 

In reference to some supposed essential differences in the metamorphoses 
of insects, it had been suggested that stages answering to those represented 
by the apodal and acephalous maggot of the Diptera, by the hexapod larva 
of the Carabi, and by the hexapod antenniferous larvae of the Meloe were 
really passed through by the orthopterous insect, before it quitted the egg*. 

Mr. Andrew Murray t has recently made known some facts in confirma- 
tion of this view. He had received a wooden idol from Africa, behind the 
ears of which a Blatta had fixed its egg-cases, after which the whole figure 
had been rudely painted by the natives, and these egg-cases were covered by 
the paint. No insect could have emerged without breaking through the case 
and the paint ; but both were uninjured. In the egg-cases were discovered, — 
1st, a grub-like larva in the egg; 2nd, a cocoon in the egg containing the 
unwinged, imperfectly-developed insect ; 3rd, the unwinged, imperfectly- 
developed insect in the egg, free from the cocoon, and ready to emerge. 

Such observations tending to remove supposed exceptions and anomalies, 
and to illustrate and establish the common law to which they can be reduced, 
are of the highest value in Natural History. 

3Iicroscope. — The microscope is an indispensable instrument in embryolo- 
gical and histological researches, as also in reference to that vast swarm of 
animalcules which are too minute for ordinary vision. I can here do little 
more than allude to the systematic direction now given to the application of 

* Owen, " On Metamorphosis and Metagenesis," 1851, and " Lectures on Invertebrata," 
8vo, 1855, p. 424. 

t " On the Metamorphosis of Orthopterous and Hemipterous Insects," Edinb. Phil. 
Journal, 1858. 



ADDRESS. Ixxvii 

the microscope to particular tissues and particular classes, chiefly due, in 
this country, to the counsels and example of the Microscopical Society of 
London. 

A very interesting application of the microscope has been made to the 
particles of matter suspended in the atmosphere ; and a systematic continuation 
of such observations by means of glass slides prepared to catch and retain 
atmospheric atoms, promises to be productive of important results. 

We now know that the so-called red-snow of Arctic and Alpine regions is a 
microscopic single-celled organism which vegetates on the surface of snow. 

Cloudy or misty extents of dust-like matter pervading the atmosphere, 
such as have attracted the attention of travellers in the vast coniferous 
forests of North America, and have been borne out to sea, have been found 
to consist of the ' pollen ' or fertilizing particles of plants, and have been 
called ' pollen showers.' 

M, Daneste*, submitting to microscopic examination similar dust which 
fell from a cloud at Shanghai, found that it consisted of spores of a confervoid 
plant, probably the Trichodesmmm erythrceum, which vegetates in, and im- 
parts its peculiar colour to, the Chinese Sea. 

Decks of ships, near the Cape de Verd Islands, have been covered by such 
so-called 'showers' of impalpable dust, which, by the microscope of Ehrenberg, 
has been shown to consist of minute organisms, chiefly ' Diatomaceae.' One 
sample collected on a ship's deck 500 miles off the coast of Africa, exhibited 
numerous species of freshwater and marine diatoms bearing a close resem- 
blance to South American forms of those organisms. Ehrenberg has recorded 
numerous other instances in his paper printed in the ' Berlin Transactions ; ' 
but here, as in other exemplary series of observations of the indefatigable 
microscopist, the conclusions are perhaps not so satisfactory as the well- 
observed data. 

He speculates upon the self-developing power of organisms in the atmo- 
sphere, affirms that dust-showers are not to be traced to mineral material 
from the earth's surface, nor to revolving masses of dust material in space, 
nor to atmospheric currents simply ; but to some general law connected with 
the atmosphere of our planet, according to which there is a ' self-development' 
M'ithin it of living organisms, which organisms he suspects may have some 
relation to the periodical meteorolites or aerolites. The advocates of pro- 
gressive development n)ay see and hail in this the first step in the series of 
ascending transmutations. The unbiassed observer will be stimulated by the 
startling hypothesis of the celebrated Berlin Professor to more frequent and 
regular examinations of atmospheric organisms. Some late examinations 
of dust-showers clearly show them to have a source which Ehrenberg has 
denied. Some of my hearers may remember the graphic description by 
Her Majesty's Envoy to Persia, the Hon. C. A. Murray, of the cloud of 
impalpable red dust which darkened the air of Bagdad, and filled the city 
* Annales des Sciences Naturelles, ser. 4. Botanique, t. i. ij. 81. 



Ixxviii REPORT— 1858. 

with a panic. The specimen he collected was examined by my successor 
at the Royal College of Surgeons, Prof. Quekett; and that experienced 
microscopist could detect only inorganic particles, such as fine quartz sand, 
without any trace of Diatomaceee or other organic matter. Dr. I awson has 
obtained a similar result from the examination of the material of a shower 
of moist dust or mud which fell at Corfu in March 1 857 : it consisted for 
the most part of minute angular particles of a quartzose sand. 

Here, therefore, is a field of observation for the microscopist, which has 
doubtless most interesting results as the reward of persevering research. 

Many ' dust-showers ' consist in greater or less proportions of microscopic 
organisms, but not all. To determine the source of these organisms is the 
legitimate aim of such researches. It must be remembered, also, that the 
expression ' spontaneously developed ' in the atmosphere, may only mean 
what is meant when it was formerly applied to the internal parasites of man 
and animals, viz. ignorance of the true mode of origin. And since per- 
severing observation and experiment, in regard to tape-worms and ascarides, 
have thrown such new and unexpected light upon their origin and migrations, 
so the like result may reward similar labours applied to the parasitic ' dust- 
showers ' of the atmosphere. 

Microgeology. — The microscopic organisms hitherto observed in the oldest 
fossiliferous deposits, Silurian Greensands, for instance, are spicula of 
SpongicB, siliceous Polycystinece, and calcareous Foraminifera. 

Ehrenberg has discovered that the substance of the greensands in stratified 
deposits, from the Silurian to the Tertiary periods inclusive, is composed of 
the casts of the interior of the microscopic shells of Polycystinecs and ForO" 
mini/era. The soundings which have been brought up from various parts 
of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, consist chiefly of similar microscopic 
polythalamous shells, mingled with a greensand composed of casts of Fora- 
minifera. Thus the mode in which a deposit was made at the bottom of the 
deep primeval ocean of the Silurian period, is illustrated by that which the 
microscope has demonstrated to take place under similar conditions at the 
present day. 

The earliest indubitable evidence of diatoms has been obtained from the 
Eocene strata ; and the forms here determined have been for the most part 
identified with existing species. Exotic species are not distinguishable from 
the British ; difference of climate seems not to affect or relate to specific 
difference, and the same exemption from such influence through the minute 
size and simple structure of the Diatomaceae, seems to have been the chief 
condition of their geological longevity as species. 

To specify or analyse the labours of the individuals who of late years have 
contributed to advance zoology by the comprehensive combination of the 
various kinds of research now felt to be essential to its right progress, would 
demand a proportion of the present discourse far beyond its proper and 
allotted limits. 



ADDRESS. Ixxix 

Yet I shall not be deemed invidious if I cite one work as eminently exem- 
plary of the spirit and scope of the investigations needed for the elucidation 
of any branch of Natural History. That work is the monograph of the 
Chelonian Reptiles (Tortoises, Terrapenes and Turtles) of the United States 
of America, published last year at Boston, U.S., by Professor Agassiz. 

I cite it, not wholly on account of its intrinsic merits, but also because it 
affords me the opportunity of expressing, on the part of naturalists, the ad- 
miration of, and deep sense of gratitude to, the great and liberal people whose 
perception of the intrinsic value and dignity of pure science has enabled the 
distinguislied author to enrich zoology by a work unparalleled in the 
completeness, perfection, and consequent expense of its graphic illustrations. 

" We had fixed," writes Agassiz, " upon five hundred subscribers as the 
number necessary to enter upon the publication with safety : — at this moment 
it stands at twenty-five hundred, — a support such as was never before offered 
to any scientific man for purely scientific ends, without any reference to 
government objects or direct practical aims*." 

Geographical Distribution of Plants. — Observations of the characters of 
plants, the record of such observations by the Linnaean and subsequently 
improved artifices of description, the application of this power to comparison, 
and deductions from the results of such comparisons, — have led to the 
recognition of the natural groups or families of tlie vegetable kingdom, and 
to a clear scientific comprehension of that great department of living Nature. 

This phase of botanical science gives the power of further and more pro- 
fitable generalizations, such as those teaching the relations between the par- 
ticular plants and particular localities. 

The sum of these relations, forming the Geographical Distribution of 
Plants, rests, pei-haps at present necessarily, on an assumption, viz. that each 
species has been created, or come into being, but once in time and space ; 
and that its present diff'usion is the result of its own law of reproduction, 
under the diftusive or restrictive influence of external circumstances. These 
circumstances are chiefly temperature and moisture, dependent on the distance 
from the source of heat and the obliquity of the sun's rays, modified by alti- 
tude above the sea-level, or the degree of rarefaction of the atmosphere, and 
of the power of the surface to radiate heat. Both latitude and altitude 
are further modified by currents of air and ocean, which influence 
the distribution of the heat they have absorbed. Thus large tracts of dry 
land produce dry and extreme climates, while large expanses of sea produce 
humid and equable climates. Botany, in short, at this phase becomes inti- 
mately related to climatology ; and the traveller, the meteorologist, and the 
naturalist reciprocally aid each other in the acquisition of a knowledge of 
fruitful general laws. Agriculture aff'ects the geographical distribution of 
plants, both directly and indirectly. It diff'uses plants over a wider area of 

* Agassiz, "Monograph on North American Testudinata," 4to, Boston, 1857, Preface, 
p. viii. vol. i. Of the 2500 Subscribers only 20 are Extra- american. 



IxXX- REPORT — 1858. 

equal climate, augments their productiveness, and enlarges the limits of their 
capacity to support different climatal conditions. Agriculture also effects 
local modifications of climate. Tlie clearance of forests, by diminishing the 
cooling influence of evaporation from leaves, increases the temperature. 
When, by the spread of thorough drainage over Britain, the surface-water is 
at once carried off, instead of remaining on the surface until slowly dispersed 
by evaporation and atmospheric currents, such prompt removal of tlie raw 
material of mist and cloud may be reasonably expected to be attended with 
a greater average annual amount of solar light and heat. 

Certain species of plants require more special physical conditions for 
health ; others more general conditions ; and their extent of diffusion varies 
accordingly. Thus the plants of temperate climates are more widely diffused 
over the surface of the globe, because they are suited to elevated tracts in 
tropical latitudes. 

There is, however, another law which relates to the original appearance, or 
creation, of plants, and which has produced different species flourishing under 
similar physical conditions, in different regions of the globe. Thus the plants 
of the mountains of South America are of distinct species, and for the most 
part of distinct genera, from those of Asia. The plants of the temperate 
latitudes of North America are of distinct species, and some of distinct 
genera, from those of Europe. The Cactece of the hot regions of Mexico are 
represented by the Etiphorbiacece in parts of Africa having a similar climate. 

The modes of generalizing the observations on the geographical distribution 
of indigenous plants are various. 

One is by dividing the horizontal range of vegetation into zones, bounded 
by annual isothermal lines, as, 1, the equatorial ; 2, tropical ; 3, subtropical ; 
4, warmer temperate ; 5, cooler temperate ; 6, subarctic ; 7> arctic ; 
8, polar zones: with temperatures progressively falling from an annual 
isotherm of 79°*3 Fahr. to one of 36°*5 for the month of July. 

Another mode is the classification of plants according to the regions of 
altitude; as into those of, — 1, Palms; 2, Tree-ferns; 3, Myrtles ; 4-, Ever- 
greens ; 5, Deciduous trees ; 6, Conifers ; 7, Alpine shrubs ; 8, Alpine herbs. 
But the corresponding altitudes in different countries have frequently dif- 
ferent, though analogous or representative, species. The presence or other- 
wise of snow on the mountain-tops also influences the character of the plants 
at corresponding altitudes. Thus, forests of tall Conifers flourish in the 
Himalayas at regions of altitude where only stunted specimens of tropical 
plants are found in the mountains of Sumatra. 

A third, and perhaps more truly natural mode of expressing the geogra- 
phical distribution of plants, is by regions defined by the proportion of plant- 
species peculiar to them. When one half, at least, of the known species are 
peculiar to a certain space, it constitutes a ' phy togeographic ' region, accord- 
ing to Schouw. In it, also, a fourth part of the genera must be either pecu- 
liar, or so predominating as to be comparatively rare in other regions ; and 



ADDRESS. 



Ixxxi 



the individual families of plants must be either peculiar to, or decidedly pre- 
dominate in, such region. 

So defined, the surface of the earth has been divided into twenty-five re- 
gions, of wiiicli I may cite as examples that of New Zealand, in which Ferns 
predominate, together with generic forms, half of which are European, and 
the rest approximating to Australian, South African, and Antarctic fos-ma ; 
and tiiat of Australia, characterized by its EucalypU and Epacriden, chieti_7 
known to us by the researches of the great botanist, Robert Brown, the 
founder of the ' Geography of Plants.' 

Of the heaths, or heath-like shrubs, some genera. Erica, or true heath, for 
example, characterize the Cape of Good Hope and Europe ; other genera 
the Cape and New Holland; others again, as Epacris, Lissanthe, and Leuco- 
pogon, are characteristic of Australia. 

The vegetable kingdom has been classified into many such physiogno- 
mical groups. The latest botanical statistics make 213,280 species; but the 
best informed botanists believe that we are still acquainted only with a small 
proportion of existing plants. 

Geographical Distribution of Animals. — Organic Life, in its animal form, 
is much more developed, and more variously, in the sea, than in its vegetable 
form. 

Observations of marine animals and their localities have led to attempts 
at generalizing the results ; and the modes of enunciating these generaliza- 
tions or laws of geographical distribution are very analogous to those 
which have been applied to the vegetable kingdom, which is as di- 
versely developed on land as is the animal kingdom in the sea. Certain 
horizontal areas, or provinces, have been characterized by the entire assem- 
blage of animals and plants constituting their population, of which a consider- 
able proportion is peculiar to each province, and the majority of the species 
have their areas of maximum development within it. 

Of such provinces of Marine Life, that much-lamented, far-seeing, and 
genial philosopher, Edward Forbes, has provisionally defined 25. 

The same physical conditions are associated with a certain similarity be- 
tween the animals of different provinces. Where those provinces are proxi- 
mate, such likeness is due to the identity or close affinity of the species ; but 
where the provinces are remote, the resemblance is one of analogy, and spe- 
cies of different genera or families represent each other. 

A second mode of expressing the ascertained facts of the geographical 
distribution of marine animals is by tracts called ' Homoiozoic Belts,' bounded 
by climatal lines, which are not, however, parallel with lines of latitude, but 
undulate in subordination to climatal influences of warm or cold oceanic 
currents, relations of land to water, &c. Of these belts. Professor E. Forbes 
has defined nine : one equatorial, with four to the north and four to the south, 
which are mutually representative. 
^ But the most interesting form of expression of the distribution of marine 
1858. / 



Ixxxii REPORT — 1858. 

life is that which parallels the perpendicular distribution of plants. Edward 
forbes, availing himself of the valuable results of a systematic use of the 
dredge, first showed that marine animals and plants varied according to the 
depth at which they lived, in a manner very analogous to the changes in the 
forms and species of vegetation observed in the ascent of a tropical moun- 
tain. He has expressed these facts by defining five bathymetrical zones, or 
belts of depth, which he calls,— 1, Littoral; 2, Circumlittoral; 3, Median; 
4, Infra-median ; 5, Abyssal. 

The life-forms of these zones vary, of course, according to the nature of 
the sea-bottom ; and are modified by those primitive or creative laws that 
have caused representative species in distant localities under like physical 
conditions, — species related by analogy. 

Very much remains to be observed and studied by Naturalists in different 
parts of the globe, under the guidance of the generalizations thus sketched 
out, to the completion of a perfect theory. But in the progress to this, the 
results cannot fail to be practically most valuable. A shell or a sea-weed, 
whose relations to depth are thus understood, may afford important in- 
formation or warning to the navigator. To the geologist the distribution of 
marine life according to the zones of depth has given the clue to the deter- 
mination of the depth of the seas in which certain formations have been 
deposited. 

By the light of these laws of geographical distribution we view with quite 
a new interest the shells, corals, and sea-weeds of our own shores. We trace 
the regions whence they have been invaded by races not aboriginally be- 
longing to our seas ; we obtain indications of irruptions of sea-currents of 
dates anterior to the present arrangements of land and water. Thus, part of 
our marine fauna has been traced back to the older pliocene period, part to 
the somewhat newer period of the red-crag, part to the still more recent 
glacial period — all these being anterior to the constitution of the ' Celtic 
Province,' as it is now displayed. 

With regard to the class of Fishes, some families, the Sharks (Squaloids), 
Herrings (Halecoids), and Mackerel-kind (Scomberoids), are cosmopolitan. 
The Labyrinthodonts are limited to the Indian Ocean ; the Goniodonts to 
the rivers of South America ; the Lepidostei to those of North America ; the 
Polypteri to those of Africa. The fish called Chaca is restricted to the Lake 
Baikal, and the blind ' AniMt/opsis ' to the Mammoth cave : just as the Pro- 
teus amongst amphibious reptiles is confined to the caverns of Carinthia. 

The class of animals to which the restrictive laws of geographical distri- 
bution might seem least applicable is that of Birds : their peculiar powers of 
locomotion, associated in numerous species with migratory habits, might seem 
to render them independent of every influence save those of climate and of 
food, which directly affect the conditions of their existence. Yet the 
long-winged Albatros is never met with north of the equator; nor does 
the Condor soar above other mountains than the Andes. The geogra- 



ADDRESS. Ixxxiii 

pliical range of its European representative, the strong-winged Lamitier- 
ge5'er, is similarly restricted. The Asiatic PhasianidcB and PavonidcB are 
represented by Turkeys (^Meleagris) in America ; by the Guinea-fowl {Nu- 
mida, Agelastus, Phasidus) in Africa ; and by tlie Megapodidce, or Mound- 
birds, in Australia. Several genera of Finches are peculiar to the Galapagos 
Islands ; the richly and fantastically ornate Birds of Paradise are restricted 
to New Guinea and some neighbouring isles. Mr. Sclater, who has contri- 
buted the latest summary of facts on the distribution of Birds, reckons 17 
families as peculiar to America, and 16 families as peculiar to Europe, Asia, 
and Africa. Some species have a singularly restricted locality, as, the Red- 
grouse (Teirao scoticus') to the British Isles; the Owl-parrot {Nestor pro' 
ductus) to Philip Island, a small spot near New Zealand. 

When birds have wings too short for flight, we marvel less at their re- 
stricted range ; and particular genera of brevipennate birds have their pecu- 
liar continents or islands. The long- and strong-limbed Ostrich courses over 
the whole continent of Africa and conterminous Arabia. The genus of 
three-toed Ostriches (Rhea) is similarly restricted to South America. The 
Emeu {Dromaius) has Australia assigned to it. The continent of the Casso- 
wary (Casuarius) has been broken up into islands including and extending 
from the south-eastern peninsula of Asia to New Guinea and New Britain. 
The singular nocturnal wingless Kivi (^Apteryx) is peculiar to the islands of 
New Zealand. 

Other species and genera, which seem to be, like the Apteryx, as it were 
mocked with feathers and rudiments of wings, have wholly ceased to exist 
within the memory of man in the islands to which they also were respectively 
restricted. The Dodo (Didus ineptus) of the Mauritius, and the Solitaire 
(^Pezophaps solitaria) are instances. 

In New Zealand also there existed, within the memory of the Maori ances- 
try, huge birds having their nearest affinities to the still existing Apteryx of 
that island, but generically distinct from that and all other known birds. I 
have proposed the name of Di?iornts for this now extinct genus, of which 
more than a dozen well-defined species have come to my knowledge, all pecu- 
liar to New Zealand and the last-discovered the strangest, by reason of the 
elephantine proportions of its feet. 

A tridactyle wingless bird of another genus, ^pyornis, second only to the 
gigantic Dinornis in size, appears to have also recently become extinct — if 
it be extinct — in the Island of Madagascar. The egg of this bird, which 
may have suggested to the Arabian voyagers attaining Madagascar from the 
Red Sea the idea of the Roc of their romances, would hold the contents of 
G eggs of the Ostrich, 16 eggs of the Cassowary, and 148 eggs of the common 
Fowl. 

The laws of geographical distribution, as affecting mammalian life, have 
been reduced to great exactness by observations continued since the time of 
Buffon, who first began to generalize, just a century ago, in that way.noting the 

: /2 



Ixxxiv REPORT — 1858. 

peculiarities of the species of South American animals *. The most import- 
ant extension of this branch of zoology has been due to recent researches 
and discoveries of extinct species of the class Mammalia ; and it is chiefly 
in relation to the modifications of zoological ideas produced by palaeontology 
that a few brief remarks will here be made. 

The Quadrumana, or order of Apes, Monkeys, and Lemurs, consist of 
three chief divisions — Catarhines, Platyrhines, and Strepsirhines. The first 
family is peculiar to the ' Old World ; ' the second to South America ; the 
third has the majority of its species, and its chief genus (Zemwr), exclusively 
in Madagascar. Out of 26 known species of Lemuridce, only 6 are Asiatic 
and 3 are African. 

The Catarhine monkeys include the Macaques, most of which are Asiatic, 
a few are African, and one European ; tiie Cercopitheques, most of which are 
African, and a few Asiatic ; and other genera which characterize one or 
other continent exclusively. Thus the true Baboons (Papio) are African, 
as are the thumbless Monkeys (Colobus) and the Chimpanzees (^Troglo- 
dytes). The Semnopitheques, Gibbons, and Orangs are peculiarly Asiatic. 
Palaeontology has shown that a Macaque, a Gibbon, and an Orang existed 
during the older tertiary times in Europe ; and that a Seninopithecus existed 
in miocene times in India. But all the fossil remains of Quadrumana in the 
Old World belong to the family Catarldna, which, is still exclusively confined 
to that great division of dry land. The tail-less Macaque (Inuus silvanus) 
of Gibraltar may have existed in that part of the Old World before Europe 
was separated by the Straits of Gibraltar from Africa. Fossil remains 
of Quadrumana have been discovered in South America ; they indicate 
Platyrhine forms : a species, for example, allied to the Howlers (Mycetes), but 
larger than any now known to exist, has left its remains in Brazil. 

Whilst adverting to the geographical distribution of Quadrumana, I would 
contrast the peculiarly limited range of the Orangs and Chimpanzees with 
the cosmopolitan powers of mankind. The two species of Orang (Pithecus) 
are confined to Borneo and Sumatra ; the two species of Chimpanzee (Tro- 
glodytes) are limited to an intertropical tract of the western part of Africa. 
They appear to be inexorably bound by climatal influences regulating the 
assemblage of certain trees and the production of certain fruits. With all 
our care, in regard to choice of food, clothing, and contrivances for artifi- 
cially maintaining the chief physical conditions of their existence, the 
healthiest specimens of Orang or Chimpanzee, brought over in the vigour of 
youth, perish within a period never exceeding three years, and usually much 
shorter, in our climate. By what metamorphoses, we may ask, has the 

* The first enunciation of the principle of Geographical Distribution merits reproduction. 
Buflfon was treating of the carnivorous animal which travellers in South America had called 
the ' Lion' : — "Lepuma n'est point un hon, tirant son origine des lions de I'ancien conti- 
nent ; c'est un animal particuiier a rAraeriqne, comma le sont aussi la plupart des animaux 
de ce nouveau continent,"~Tom. ix. p. 13, 1758. 



ADDRESS. IxXXV 

alleged humanized Chimpanzee or Orang been brought to endure all 
climates? The advocates of ' transmutation ' have failed to explain them. 
Certain it is that those physical differences in cerebral, dental, and osteolo- 
gical structure, which place, in my estimate of them, the genus Homo in a 
distinct group of the mammalian class, zoologically of higher value than the 
* order,' are associated with equally contrasted powers of endurance of dif- 
ferent climates, whereby Man has become a denizen of every part of the 
globe from the torrid to the arctic zones. 

Climate rigidly limits the range of the Quadrumana latitudinally : crea- 
tional and geographical causes limit their range in longitude. Distinct genera 
represent each other in the same latitudes of the New and Old Worlds ; and 
also, in a great degree, in Africa and Asia. But the development of an 
Orang out of a Chimpanzee, or reciprocally, is physiologically inconceivable, 

The order Ruminantia is principally represented by Old World spe- 
cies, of which 162 have been defined ; whilst only 24 species have been 
discovered in the New World, and none in Australia, New Guinea, New 
Zealand, or the Polynesian Isles. 

The Camelopard is now peculiar to Africa ; the Musk-deer to Africa and 
Asia : out of about 50 defined species of Antelope, only one is known in 
America, and none in the central and southern divisions of the New World. 
The Bison of North America is distinct from the Bison of Europe. The 
Musk-ox alone, peculiar for its limitation to high northern latitudes, roams 
over the arctic coasts of both Asia and America. The Deer-tribe are more 
widely distributed. The Camels and Dromedaries of the Old World are 
represented by the Llamas and Vicugnas of the New. As, in regard to a 
former (tertiary) zoological period, the fossil CamelidcB of Asia are of the 
genus Camelus, so those of America are of the genus Auchenia. This geo- 
graphical restriction ruled prior to any evidence of man's existence. 

Palaeontology has expanded our knowledge of the range of the Giraffe : 
during miocene or old pliocene periods, species of Camelojiardalis roamed in 
Asia and Europe. Passing to the non-ruminant Artiodactyles, geology has 
also taught us that the Hippopotamus was not always confined, as now, to 
African rivers, but bathed, during pliocene times, in those of Asia and 
Europe. But no evidence has yet been had that the Giraffe or Hippo- 
potamus were ever other than Old World forms of Ungulata, 

With respect to the Hog-tribe, we find that the true Swine {Sus) of the 
Old World are represented by Peccaries (Dicoti/les) in the New ; and geo- 
logy has recently shown that tertiary species oi Dicotyles existed in North as 
well as South America. But no true Stis has been found fossil in either 
division of the New World, nor has a Dicotyles been found fossil in the 
Old World of the geographer. Phacochcerus (Wart-hogs) is a genus of the 
Hog-tribe at present peculiar to Africa, 

The Rhinoceros is a genus now represented only in Asia and Africa ; the 
species being distinct in the two continents. The islands of Java and of 



IxXXvi REPORT — 1858. 

Sumatra have each their peculiar species; that of the latter being two- 
horned, as all the African Rhinoceroses are. Three or more species of 
two-horned Rhinoceros formerlj' inhabited Europe — one of them warmly 
clad, for a cold climate; but no fossil remains of the genus have been met 
with save in the Old World of the geographer. One of the earliest forms 
of European Rhinoceros was devoid of the nasal weapon. 

Geology gives a wider range to the Horse and Elephant kinds than was 
cognizant to the student of living species only. The existing EquidcB and 
Elephantidce properly belong to the Old World; and the Elephants are 
limited to Asia and Africa, the species of the two continents being quite 
distinct. The horse, as Buffon remarked, carried terror to the eye of the 
indigenous Americans, viewing the animal for the first time, as it proudly 
bore their Spanish conqueror. But a species of Equus coexisted with the 
Megatherium and Megalonyx in both South and North America, and perished 
apparently with them, before the human period. 

Elephants are dependent chiefly upon trees for food. One species now 
finds conditions of existence in the rich forests of tropical Asia ; and a second 
species in those of tropical Africa. Why, we may ask, should not a third be 
living at the expense of the still more luxuriant vegetation watered by the 
Oronooko, the Essequibo, the Amazon, and the La Plata, in tropical 
America ? Geology tells us that at least two kinds of Elephant (JSIastodon 
Andium and Mast, Humboldtii) formerly did derive their subsistence, along 
with the great Megatherioid beasts, from that abundant source. Nay more ; at 
least two other kinds of Elephant {Mastodon ohioticus and Elephas texianus) 
existed in the warm and temperate latitudes of North America. Twice as 
many species of Mastodon and Elephant, distinct from all the others, roamed 
in pliocene times in the same latitudes of Europe. At a later or pleistocene 
period, a huge elephant, clothed with wool and hair, obtained its food from 
hardy trees, such as now grow in the 65th degree of north latitude ; and 
abundant remains of this Elephas primigenius (as it has been prematurely 
called, since it was the last of our British elephants) have been found in 
temperate and high northern latitudes in Europe, Asia, and America. This, 
like other Arctic animals, was peculiar in its family for its longitudinal 
range. The Musk Buffalo was its contemporary in England and Europe, 
and still lingers in the northernmost parts of America. 

I have received evidences of Elephantine species from China and Australia, 
proving the proboscidian pachyderms to have been the most cosmopolitan of 
hoofed herbivorous quadrupeds. 

We may infer that the general growth of large forests, and the absence of 
deadly enemies, were the main conditions of the former existence of Ele- 
phantine animals over every part of the globe. We have the most pregnant 
proof of the importance of Palaeontology in rectifying and expanding ideas 
deduced from recent Zoology of the geographical limits of particular forms of 
animals, by the results of its application to the proboscidian or Elephantine 



ADDRESS. IxXXVii 

family. But such retrospective views of life in remote periods in many im- 
portant instances confirm the zoologist's deductions of the originally re- 
stricted range of particular forms of mammalian life. This is the case with 
respect to that singular group of quadrupeds forming the Order Bruta, Linn., 
or Edentata, Cuv. If a zoological province be defined by the proportion 
of genera and species peculiar to it, South America must be assigned as such 
province for the Bruta ; three out of five of the genera, and a much larger 
.proportion of tiie species, being peculiar to that continent. The Sloths 
{Bradypus), the Anteaters {MyrmecopJiagci), and the Armadillos (Dasj/pus), 
are the South American genera, or rather families, of Bruta referred to. The 
scaly Anteaters or Pangolins (Manis) are represented by long-tailed species 
in Africa, and shorter- tailed ones in Asia. The Oiycteropus is represented 
by a single species in South Africa. 

Fossil remains of the order Bruta have been discovered in tertiary beds in 
Europe and in America. The European fossil was a large Pangolin, and the 
discovery shows the natural extent of that province, now imperfectly divided 
into Europe, Asia, and Africa, to which the il/ams-form of Bruta is and has 
been peculiar. 

Geology also extends the geographical range of the Sloths and Armadillos 
from South to North America ; but the deductions from recent rich discoveries 
of huge terrestrial forms of Sloth, of gigantic Armadillos, and large Anteaters, 
go to establish the fact that these peculiar families of the ovAev Bruta have 
ever been, as they are now, peculiar to America ; that several genera, in- 
cluding the largest species, have perished; and that the range of their still 
existing diminutive representatives has been reduced to the southern division 
of the ' New World.' 

In no other region of the globe than America — that to which the Sloths, 
Anteaters, and Armadillos are now peculiar — has any fossil relic of an animal 
of those families been found : and if it be objected to this evidence of the 
primeval limitation of those families to America, that it is chiefly ' negative,' I 
would remark, that bones of the Megatherium are as likely to catch the eye 
as those of the Elephant ; and would ask, if Megatherioids had co-existed with 
Elephants in other continents, as Elephants did with them in America, why 
have not their remains been found elsewhere ? The positive and abundant 
evidence, however, of the remains of gigantic Sloths and Armadillos in South 
America is most conclusive of the original location of these unmigratory 
beasts in the New World. 

Australia, which in extent of dry land merits to be regarded as a fifth con- 
tinent, has a more restricted and peculiar character of aboriginal mammalian 
population than South America. It is emphatically the ' province ' of those 
quadrupeds the females of which are provided with a pouch for the trans- 
port and protection of their prematurely born young. 

One genus of Marsupialia (^Didelphys or Opossums, properly so called) is 
peculiar to America, and is there the sole representative of the order. A 



Ixxxviii REPORT — 1858. 

small Kangaroo, and a few Phalangers, exist in islands that link the 
Malayan Archipelago with the Australian world. All the other marsupial 
genera, indeed every known genus save Didelphjs, are found in Australasia, 
comprising New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania. 

The Kangaroos, Potoroos, Wombats, Koalas, Phalangers, Petaurists, Dasy- 
ures, and marsupial quadrupeds of insectivorous and carnivorous habits, 
distinguished only by scientific names, here perform the parts assigned to non- 
marsupial Mammalia in the Old World. No existing marsupial quadruped 
has been found native in continental Asia, in Africa, or in Europe. 

Of the Australasian marsupials the species of New Guinea are distinct, and 
some of them subgenerically, from those of Australia proper. 

Certain genera, as Tarsipes, Clmropus, Phascolarctus, are peculiar to 
Australia ; other genera, as Thylacinus and Sarcophilus, the largest and 
most destructive of carnivorous marsupials, are peculiar to Tasmania. 

No marsupial fossil has been found in the pliocene or pleistocene deposits 
of Europe, Asia, or Africa. In America, only representatives occur of the 
peculiarly American genus Didelphys. In the formations of these recent 
tertiary periods, and in the limestone caverns, of Australia, abundance of 
mammalian fossils have been found, and, with the exception of a single tooth 
of a Mastodon, every one of them has proved to be a marsupial species. 
Many belong to the genus of Kangaroos (^Macropus), some to that of Poto- 
roos {Hypsiprymnus) ; a few to the Wombats (^Phascolomys^, Dasyures (Z)«- 
syurus), and other existing genera. Some of these fossils have shown that the 
Thylacinus and Sarcophilus formerly inhabited Australia as well as Tasmania. 
Others exhibit the carnivorous or Dasyurine modification of the marsupial 
type in species equalling the Leopard and the Lion in size ; and the latter 
with modifications of the carnassial teeth of generic value. We now know 
that there once existed in Australia species of Wombat equalling the Tapir 
in stature ; and species most nearly allied to Macropus, but with characters of 
Phascolomys and Phascolarctus combined, which rivalled the Ox and Rhi- 
noceros in bulk. The skull of the Nototherium presents the strangest pro- 
portions and features hitherto seen in the mammalian class : that of the 
Diprotodon is 3 feet in length, and combines the scalpriform incisors of the 
Wombat with the double-ridged molars of the Kangaroo. 

The sum of all the evidence from the fossil world in Australia proves its 
mammalian population to have been essentially the same in pleistocene, if not 
pliocene times, as now ; only represented, as the Edentate mannuals in South 
America were then represented, by moi-e numerous genera, and much more 
gigantic species, than now exist. 

But geology has revealed more important and unexpected facts relative to 
the marsupial type of quadrupeds. 

In the miocene and eocene tertiary deposits, marsupial fossils of the 
American genus Didelphys have been found, both in France and England ; 
and they are associated with Tapirs like that of America. In a more ancient 



ADDRESS. IxXXix 

geological period, remains of marsupials, some insectivorous, as Sjmlaco- 
therium and Triconodon, otliers with teeth like the peculiar premolars in 
the Australian genus Hypsiprymnus, have been found in the upper oolite of 
tiie Isle of Purbeck*. In the lower oolite at Stonesficid, Oxfordshire, mar- 
supial remains have been found having their nearest living representatives in 
the Australian genera Myrmecohius and Daayurus. 

Thus, it would seem, that the deeper we penetrate the earth, or, in other 
words, the further we recede in time, the more completely are Ave absolved 
from the present laws of geographical distribution. In comparing the mam- 
malian fossils found in British pleistocene and pliocene beds, we have often 
to travel to Asia or Africa for their homologues. In the miocene and eocene 
strata some fossils occur which compel us to go to America for the nearest 
representatives. To match the manmialian remains from the English oolitic 
formations, we must bring species from the Antipodes. 

These are truly most suggestive facts, unrecognized until science looked 
abroad upon the world. If the present laws of geographical distribution 
depend, in an important degree, upon the present configuration and position 
of continents and islands, what a total change in the geographical character 
of the earth's surface must have taken place since the ' Stonesfield slate' was 
deposited in what now forms the county of Oxfordshire ! 

These and the like considerations from the modifications of geographical 
distribution of particular forms or groups of animals warn us how inadequate 
must be the phenomena connected with the present distribution of land and 
sea to guide to the determination of the primary ontological divisions of the 
earth's surface. Some of the latest contributions to this most interesting 
branch of Natural History have been the result of endeavours to determine 
whether, and how many, distinct creations of plants and animals have taken 
place. But, I would submit, that the discovery of two portions of the 
globe, of which the respective Faunee and Florae are different, by no means 
affords the requisite basis for concluding as to distinct acts of creation. 

Such conclusion is associated, perhaps unconsciously, with the idea of the 
historical date of creative acts : it presupposes that the portion of the globe 
so investigated by the botanist and zoologist has been a separate and primitive 
creation, — that its geographical limits and features are still in the main what 
they were when the creative fiat went forth. 

But Geology has demonstrated that such is by no means the case with 
respect to the portions of dry land now termed continents and islands. The 
incalculable vistas of time past into which the same science has thrown 
light are also shown to have been periods during which the relative positions 
of land and sea have been ever changing. 

Already the directions, and to a certain extent the forms of the submerged 
tracts that once joined what now are islands to continents, and which once 
united now separate or nearly disjoined continents by broad tracts of conti- 
* These fossils are due to the researches of Messrs. Brodie and Beckles. 



XC REPORT — 1858. 

nuity, begin to be laid down in geological maps, addressing to the eye such 
successive and gradually progressive alterations of the earth's surface. 

These phenomena shake our confidence in the conclusion that the Apteryx 
of New Zealand and the Red-grouse of England were distinct creations in 
and for those islands respectively. Always, also, it may be well to bear in 
mind that by the word ' creation,' the zoologist means ' a process he knows 
not what.' Science has not yet ascertained the secondary causes that ope- 
rated when " the earth brought forth grass and herb yielding seed after its 
kind," and when " the waters brought forth abundantly the moving creature 
that hath life." And supposing both the fact and the whole process of the 
so-called ' spontaneous generation ' of a fruit-bearing tree, or of a fish, were 
scientifically demonstrated, we should still retain as strongly the idea, which 
is the chief of the ' mode ' or ' group of ideas ' we call ' creation,' viz. that 
the process was ordained by and had originated from an all-wise and power- 
ful First Cause of all things. 

When, therefore, the present peculiar relation of the Red- grouse (T^e^rao 
scoticus) to Britian and Ireland — and I cite it as one of a large class of in- 
stances in Geographical Zoology — is enumerated by the zoologist as evidence 
of a distinct creation of the bird in and for such islands, he chiefly expresses 
that he knows not how the Red-grouse came to be there, and there exclu- 
sively ; signifying also, by this mode of expressing such ignorance, his belief 
that both the bird and the islands owed their origin to a great first Creative 
Cause. 

And this analysis of the real meaning of the phrase ' distinct creation ' has 
led me to suggest whether, in aiming to define the primary zoological pro- 
vinces of the globe, we may not be trenching upon a province of knowledge 
beyond our present capacities ; at least in the judgment of Lord Bacon, com- 
menting upon man's efixjrts to pierce into the ' dead beginnings of things.' 

This at least is certain, that, being aware of former operations requiring 
to be well understood before we can draw conclusions as to other facts 
related to the unknown operations, one writes to no purpose in affirming 
conclusions without such preliminary knowledge. 

Thus, the changing level of the land part of the earth's crust, throughout 
geological time, leads to the recognition of the present shape and size of con- 
tinents and islands as being recent and temporary. 

We feel that there have been phenomena attending, for example, the actual 
flow of continuous ocean between Ireland and Newfoundland, the nature 
and succession of which should be known in order to enable us to compre- 
hend the causes or conditions of the present diflTerences between the Flora 
and Fauna of those islands respectively : and so of every other part of dry 
land now circumscribed by sea. 

All affirmations as to the time, place, and kind of origin of the organisms 
of a so circumscribed land, in the absence of a knowledge of the causes and 
conditions of such circumscription, must be guess-work. 



ADDRESS. XCl 

It is a part of sound knowledge to be able to recognize the subjects re- 
garding which we have not, at present, the basis of true assertion. 

On the few occasions in which I have been led to offer observations on 
the probable cause of the extinction of specie.*, the chief weight has been 
given to those gradual changes in the conditions of a country affecting the 
due supply in sustenance to animals in a state of nature, I have also pointed 
out the characters in the animals themselves calculated to render them most 
obnoxious to such extirpating influences; and on one occasion* I have ap- 
plied the remarlis to the explanation of so many of the larger species of par- 
ticular groups of animals having become extinct, whilst smaller species of 
equal antiquity have remained. 

In proportion to its bulk is the dificulty of the contest which, as a living 
organized whole, tiie individual of such species has to maintain against tlie 
surrounding agencies that are ever lending to dissolve the vital bond and 
subjugate the living matter to the ordinary chemical and physical forces. 
Any changes, therefore, in such external agencies as a species may have 
been originally adapted to exist in will militate against that existence in a 
degree proportionate, perhaps in a geometrical ratio, to the bulk of the 
species. If a dry season be gradually prolonged, the large mammal will 
suffer from the drought sooner than the small one ; if such alteration of 
climate affect the quantity of vegetable food, the bulky Herbivore will first 
feel the effects of stinted nourishment; if new enemies are introduced, the 
large and conspicuous quadruped or bird will fall a prey, whilst the smaller 
species conceal themselves and escape. Smaller animals are usually, also, 
more prolific than larger ones. 

" The actual presence, therefore, of small species of animals in countries 
where larger s[)ecies of the same natural families formerly exisied, is not the 
consequence of any gradual diminution of the size of such species, but is the 
result of circumstances, which may be illustrated by the fable of the ' Oak 
and the Reed ;' the smaller and feebler animals have bent and accommodated 
themselves to changes which have destroyed the larger species." 

Accepting this explanation of the extirpation of species as true, Mr. 
Wallace f has recently applied it to the extirpation of varieties ; and, assu- 
ming, as is probable, that varieties do arise in a wild species, he shows how 
such deviations from type may either tend to the destruction of a variety, or 
to adapt a variety to some changes in surrounding conditions, under which 
it is better calculated to exist, than the type-form from which it deviated. 

No doubt the type-form of any species is that which is best adapted to 
the conditions under which such species at the time exists ; and as long as 
those conditions remain unchanged, so long will the type remain ; all 
varieties departing therefrom being in the same ratio less adapted to the 
environing conditions of existence. But, if those conditions change, then 

* On the Genus Dinomis (part iv.), Zool. Trans, vol. iv. p. 15 (February 1850), 
t Proceedings of the Linnean Society, August 1858, p. 57. 



xcii REPORT — 1858. 

the variety of the species at an antecedent date and state of things will 
become the type-form of the species at a later date, and in an altered state 
of things. 

Mr. Charles Darwin had previously to Mr. Wallace illustrated this prin- 
ciple by ingenious suppositions, of which I select the following : — " To give 
an imaginary example from changes in progress on an island : — let the 
organization of a canine animal which preyed chiefly on rabbits, but some- 
times on hares, become slightly plastic ; let these same changes cause the 
number of rabbits very slowly to decrease, and the number of hares to in- 
crease ; the effect of this would be that the fox or dog would be driven to 
try to catch more hares : his organization, however, being slightly plastic, 
those individuals with the lightest forms, longest limbs, and best eyesight, 
let the difference be ever so small, would be slightly favoured, and would 
tend to live longer, and to survive during that time of the year when food 
was scarcest; they would also rear more young, which would tend to 
inherit these slight peculiarities. The less fleet ones would be rigidly 
destroyed. I can see no more reason to doubt that these causes in a thou- 
sand generations would produce a marked effect, and adapt the form of the 
fox or dog to the catching of hares instead of rabbits, than that greyhounds 
can be improved by selection and careful breeding*." 

Observation of animals in a state of nature is required to show their 
degree of plasticity, or the extent to which varieties do arise: whereby 
grounds may be had for judging of the probability of the elastic ligaments 
and joint-structures of a feline foot, for example, being superinduced upon 
the more simple structure of the toe with the non-retractile claw, according 
to the principle of a succession of varieties in timef. 

Observation of fossil remains is also still needed to make known the ante- 
types, in which varieties, analogous to the observed ones in existing species, 
might have occurred, so as to give rise ultimately to such extreme forms as 
the Giraffe for example^. 

This application of paleontology has always been felt by myself to be so 
important that I have never omitted a proper opportunity for impressing the 
results of observations showing the " more generalized structures " of extinct 
as compared with recent forms of mammalia. 

But, in pointing out how local changes might affect large quadrupeds, I 

* Proceedings of the Linnean Society, August 1858, p. 49. 

t " The powerful retractile talons of the falcon- and the cat-tribes have not been produced 
or increased by the volition of those animals ; but among the different varieties which oc- 
curred in the earlier and less organized forms of these groups, those always survived loni/est 
ivhich had the greatest facilities for seizing their prey." — Wallace, p. 61. 

t " Neither did the giraffe acquire its long neck by desiring to reach the foliage of the 
more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its neck for the purpose ; but because any va- 
rieties which occurred among its antetypes with a longer neck than usual at once secured a 
fresh range of pasture over the same ground as their shorter-necked companions, and on the 
first scarcity of food were thereby enabled to outlive them," — lb. p. 61. 



ADDRESS. XCIU 

have refrained from speculating on dwarf-varieties surviving such influences 
as being tlie origin of existing representatives of extinct giants. A small 
sloth coexisted with the Megatherium, a small armadillo with the Glyp- 
todon, the Apteryx with the Dinoinis. 

The aboriginal laws of geographical distribution of plants and animals 
have been modified from of old by geological and the concomitant climatal 
changes; but they have been much more disturbed by man since his intro- 
duction upon the globe. 

The serviceable plants and animals which he has carried with him in his 
migrations have flourished and multiplied in lands the most remote from the 
habitats of the aboriginal species. Man has, also, been the most potent and 
intelligible cause of the extirpation of species within historic times. 

He alone, with one of the beasts which he has domesticated — the dog — is 
truly cosmopolitan. The human species is represented by a few well-marked 
varieties ; and there is a certain amount of correspondence between their 
localities and general zoological provinces : thus the Australian variety of 
man is as well-marked and circumscribed as the Australian fauna generally ; 
the Papuans of New Guinea present the same difference from, with degree 
of affinity to, the Australians, as we find in comparing the respective faunae 
of Papua and Australia. But, with regard to the alleged conformity between 
the geographical distribution of man and animals, which has of late been 
systematically enunciated, and made the basis of deductions as to the origin 
and distinction of the human varieties, I would submit the following remarks 
as affecting the system referred to*. 

Using Blumenbach's term in the sense of the later terms 'Indo-European* 
and ' Aryan,' we find the ' Caucasian ' race extended from Iceland to the 
mouth of the Ganges. There is no corresponding distinction in the animals 
and plants of the Europseo-Asiatic continent, which is bisected by the ob- 
lique line dividing the Mongolian from the Caucasian varieties of mankind. 
The Persian fauna extends into Tartary ; the Himalayan into Thibet. 

As two primary varieties of mankind exist in one great zoological province 
in the Old World, so a third great variety extends over at least two zoolo- 
gical provinces in the New World. All authors divide the North American 
or ' Nearctic ' from the South American or ' Neotropic ' region, whatever 
class of organic life they may treat of geographically ; but the red or 
copper-coloured American is the same, physically and linguistically, to the 
extent of the characteristics of a primary race, from the 60th degree of 
north latitude to the 53rd degree of south latitude. 

The Lapps of Arctic Europe differ linguistically and physically, as a race, 
from the Norwegians and Swedes : the zoological province is essentially one. 
As such it extends over the same parallels of latitude in America, where the 
Mongolian Esquimaux and the American Chippawas inhabit. 

* Agassiz, in Gliddon and Nott's ' Types of Mankind,' 1854 ; and ' Indigenous Races of the 
Earth,' 1857. 



xciv REPOUT — 1858. 

The Hottentots and Caffres are more distinct, linguistically and physically, 
than the former are from equatorial Negroes, or the latter from the Nubians ; 
yet they both inhabit one well-marked zoological province, Soutii Africa. 

Two varieties of mankind — the Papuan and Malayan — inhabit Borneo 
and other islands at the eastern part of the Indian Archipelago; these 
islands forming one and the same zoological and botanical province. 

Not less than twenty colours have been found requisite to indicate in a 
map of the British Islands the different varieties and sub-varieties of the 
human race that have contributed to its miscellaneous population. 

Other facts of the same kind might be cited, affecting the conformity of 
the distribution of man with that of the lower animals and plants, as abso- 
lutely enunciated in some recent works. Nor can we be surprised to find 
that the migratory instincts of the human species, with the peculiar endow- 
ment of adaptiveness to all climates, should have produced modifications 
in geographical distribution to Avhich the lower forms of living nature have 
not been subject. It is only since man began to exercise his privilege and 
power, that the geographical laws in regard to the lower animals of existing 
species have begun to be blotted out. 

Ethnology is a wide and fertile subject, and I should be led far beyond 
the limits of an inaugural discourse were I to indulge in an historical sketch 
of its progress. But I may advert to the uniform testimony of different 
witnesses — to the concurrence of distinct species of evidence — as to the 
much higher antiquity of the human race, than has been assigned it in 
historical and genealogical records. 

Mr. Leonard Horner sagaciously discerned the value of the phenomena of 
the annual sedimentary deposits of the Nile in Egypt as a test of the lapse 
of time during which that most recent and still operating geological dynamic 
had been in progress. In two memoirs communicated to the Royal Society 
in 1855 and 1858, the results of ninety- five vertical borings through the 
alluvium thus formed are recorded. 

The Nile sediment at the lowest depth reached is very similar in composi- 
tion to that of the present day. In the lowest part of the boring of the sedi- 
ment at the colossal statue in Memphis, at a depth of 39 feet from the sur- 
face of the ground, the boring-instrument is reported to have brought up a 
piece of pottery. This Mr. Horner infers to be a record of the existence 
of man 13,371 years before a.d. 1854; "of man, moreover, in a state of 
civilization, so far, at least, as to be able to fashion clay into vessels, and to 
know how to harden them by the action of a strong heat*." 

Prof. Max Mvillerf has opened out a similar vista into the remote past 
of the history of the human race by the perception and application of 
analogies in ihe formation of modern and ancient, of living and dead lan- 
guages. 

* Proceedings of the Royal Society, Feb. 11, 1858, vol. ix. p. 128-134. 
t 'Oxford Essays,' 1857. 



ADDRESS. XCV 

From the relations traceable between the six Romance dialects, Italian, 
Wallachian, Rhcetian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French, an antecedent com- 
mon ' mother-tongue ' might be inferred, and consequently the existence of 
a race anterior to the modern Italians, Spanish, French, cSrc, with conclusions 
as to the lapse of time requisite for such divisions and migrations of the pri- 
mitive stock, and for the modifications which the mother-language had 
undergone. History and preserved writings show that such common 
mother-race and language have existed in the Roman people and the Latin 
tongue. 

But Latin, like the equally ' dead ' language Greek, with Sanscrit, Lithu- 
anian, Zend, and the Gothic, Slavonic, and Celtic tongues, can be similarly 
shown to be modifications of one antecedent common language; whence is to 
be inferred an antecedent race of men, and a lapse of time sufficient for their 
migration over a track extending from Iceland in the north-west to India in 
the south-east, and for all the above-named modifications to have been esta- 
blished in the common mother ' Arian ' tongue. 

The study of the animal kingdom has its practical results of national im- 
portance in relation to sources of food and beasts of traction and burden. 
Acts of Parliament relating to Fisheries, in order to realize their aims, must 
be based on physiological and zoological data. Animal physiology, the most 
important ground of successful medicine and surgery, is closely bound up 
with the right progress of zoology, of which, indeed, with zootomy, it is a 
branch. The great instrument of zoological science, as Lord Bacon points 
out, is a Museum of Natural History. 

Every civilized state in Europe possesses such a Museum. That of Eng- 
land has been progressively developed to the extent which the restrictive 
circumstances under which it originated have allowed. The public is now 
fully aware, by the reports that have been published by Parliament, by re- 
presentations to Government, and by articles in Reviews and other Periodi- 
cals, of the present condition of the National Museum of Natural History 
and of its most pressing requirements. 

Of them the most pressing, and the one essential to rendering the collec- 
tions worthy of this great empire, is ' space.' Our colonies include parts of 
the earth where the forms of plants and animals are the most strange. No 
empire in the world had ever so wide a range for the collection of the various 
forms of animal life as Great Britain. Never was there so much energy and 
intelligence displayed in the capture and transmission of exotic animals by the 
enterprising traveller in unknown lands and by the hardy settler in remote 
colonies, as by those who start from their native shores of Britain. Foreign 
Naturalists consequently visit England anticipating to find in her capital and 
in her National Museum the richest and most varied materials for their com- 
parisons and deductions. And they ought to be in a state pre-eminently 
conducive to the advancement of a philosophical zoology, and on a scale 



XCvi REPORT — 1858. 

commensurate with the greatness of the nation and the peculiar national 
facilities for such perfection. 

But, in order to receive and to display zoological specimens, space must be 
had ; and not merely space for display, but for orderly display : the galleries 
should bear relation in size and form with the nature of the classes respect- 
ively occupying them. They should be such "as to enable the student or 
intelligent visitor to discern the extent of the class, and to trace the kind and 
order of the variations wliich have been superinduced upon its common or 
fundamental characters," In the British Museum one gallery permits this to 
be done in regard to the class of Birds. " To show how the mammalian type 
is progressively modified and raised from the form of tlie fish or lizard 
to that of man ; to illustrate the gradations by which one order merges 
into another; to impart to the visitor, by the arts of arrangement and juxta- 
position, a knowledge of his own class akiu to that which he derives 
from the collection of birds, would require a corresponding Mammalian 
Gallery*^" 

The same is to be said of the classes of Reptiles and Fishes, and of the 
Molluscous, Articulate, and Radiate Provinces. 

An osteological collection is as indispensable to the illustration of the Ver- 
tebrata as a conchological one is to that of the Mollusca. Nor should the 
size of any of the skeletons be a bar to the obtainment of adequate space for 
the Osteological Collection in the National Museum of Natural History. 
The very fact of the Wliales being the largest animals that now exist, or 
have at any period lived upon the earth, is that which makes it more 
imperative to illustrate the fact and gratify the natural interest of the public 
by the adequate and convenient exhibition of their skeletons. 

In like manner, in the Palseontological collections or galleries of Fossil 
remains, the restoration of every extinct species, however bulky, should be 
carried out where practicable. 

The locality of such adequately-sized Museum concerns the administrator 
and the public convenience. Reasons for its association with Ethnological 
Antiquities and the National Library have been assigned in a memorial to 
H. M. Government, and by the Deputation of cultivators of Science to tiie 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and these reasons have been commented on in 
a late Number of the 'Quarterly Review.' 

I am most concerned in advocating the pressing necessity of adequate space 
for the National Museum of Natural History, wherever administrative wisdom 
may see fit to locate it. And, wherever that Museum may ultimately stand, 
it is the duty of the Representative of Associated British Science here to 
urge that the Curator of each class of animals should have assigned to him 
the charge of delivering a public course of lectures on the characters, prin- 
ciples of classification, habits, instincts, and economical uses of such class. 

* " Report to the Trustees of the British Museum from the Superintendent of the Natural 
History Departments, 7th January, 1857," Parliamentary printed Paper, 379, p. 23 (1858). 



ADDRESS. XCVll 

The most elaborate and beautiful of created things — those manifesting 
life — have much to teach — much that comes home to the business of man, 
and also to the highest elements of his moral nature. The nation that 
gathers together thousands of corals, shells, insects, fishes, birds, and beasts, 
and votes the requisite funds for preparing, preserving, housing and arran- 
ging them, derives the smallest possible return for the outlay by merely gazing 
and wondering at the manifold varietj' and strangeness of such specimens of 
Natural History. 

The simplest coral and the meanest insect may have something in its 
history worth knowing, and in some way profitable. Every organism is a 
character in which Divine wisdom is written, and which ought to be 
expounded. Our present system of opening the book of Nature to the 
masses, as in the Galleries of the British Museum, without any provision for 
expounding her language, is akin to that which keeps the book of God sealed 
to the multitude in a dead tongue. 

Finally, in reference to a National Museum of Natural History, I would 
respectfully solicit the attention of the Administrator to the successful 
working and unprecedented progress of the National Botanical Esta- 
blishment at Kew, of the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, 
and of the Museum of Practical Art at South Kensington, in reference to 
the relations of the eminent Directors of those establishments to Govern- 
ment. For this opens the question, whether in the event of acquiring, in 
whatever locality, the element essential to a National Museum of Natural 
History — space — any intermediate organization, unknown in the public esta- 
blishments above cited, be really needed in the case of Natural History, in 
order to afford Parliament and the public the requisite guarantee of the 
good condition of the Collections, and the efficient discharge of the duties 
and functions of the National Museum of Natural History. 

The sciences promoted by the statistical Section F., although bearing more 
immediately than any others on the prosperity of nations and the well-being 
of mankind, had no existence in the time of Bacon. 

We look in vain for any evidence, for example, of a clear conception of 
Sanitary Science, or the doctrines preventive of disease, in the writings of 
that great philosopher and politician. The only approach to Statistics which 
we find in the ' Historia Vitse et Mortis,' for example, is a collection of in- 
stances of longevity ; and the main aim of that Essay seems to have been the 
extreme prolongation of particular or individual life, not the insurance of 
average longevity to the species. Some remarks on the advantage of pure 
air are congenial with the aims of the modern sanitary philosopher ; but he 
finds no evidence of Bacon's conception- of its importance to the masses, 
or of the means of ensuring it to populous cities, for prevention of plague 
and pestilence. Sanitary science, as a great power for mankind, in the 
Baconian sense, is of very recent growth : and, whether we consider the pre- 
sent evidence of its potency where it has been rightly applied, or the present 
1858. g 



xcviii REPORT — 1858. 

evidence of the miserable results of its neglect, we must be stimulated to use 
every effort to promote its progress and impress its importance on all who 
may aid therein. 

Long after Lord Bacon's day, the plague, the fever of the * black assize,' 
and the like visitations, which drove Courts and Parliaments and Royal 
Societies from town to country, were met only by rude quarantine imprison- 
ments of the si(!k, which greatly aggravated the sum of mortality. Acci- 
dents, such as the fire of London, subliming much old and vested filth, and 
followed by wider streets and better dwellings, produced results which 
opened the eyes of a few thinkers to the relation between certain physical 
conditions and the non-return of the plague. 

Now, however, these relations have been comprehensively investigated ; the 
diseases produced or aggravated by preventible conditions are well known ; 
the most efficient and economical modes of prevention have been the subject 
of successful and convincing experiment. But men are slow to act where 
the profitable result is not direct. Health, we call, with cuckoo-cry, the 
greatest blessing ; but practically it is daily sacrificed to ambition, wealth, 
pleasure, and a hundred aims in which duty takes no necessary part. That, 
however, is an affair of individual free-will with which abstract science has 
no business. 

But in reference to inevitable aggregates of mankind, the nation is con- 
cerned in the science which seeks their especial bodily well-being. Fleets, 
armies, manufactories, workshops, the localities in towns where wage-people* 
congregate, — such are conditions of citizens in which it behoves the State, 
to the utmost constitutional extent of its power, to apply the ascertained 
means of preventing disease and death. 

Perhaps the most exemplary instances of the value and economy of 
sanitary science are afforded by the records of the British Navy, especially 
since the period of Capt. Cook, whose name, were I to select one, as a prime 
promoter of the science, would be that which I should adduce with highest 
veneration. Some of the Arctic Expeditions, also, illustrate in an exemplary 
degree the value of preventive measures in maintaining health under difficult 
and depressing circumstances. 

Our armies have yet to receive the benefit of what is now known in the 
prevention of death by disease. To what extent they have to benefit by it 
has been made plain by the results of recent investigations, in which 
the testimony of Florence Nightingale shines forth as the beacon which 
lights to better measures. 

* I venture to propose this term as free from the objections that have been made to 
" lower orders," " humbler classes," " poorer classes," " working classes," " labouring popu- 
lation," &c. The two former are a reflection on those who are so designated; and the two 
latter are an implied reflection on all other classes, as if left to a life of vacant inoccupation. 
They are injuriously misleading terms. The true specific character of the great class in 
question is seen by the Naturalist to be " payment by wages" ; it is the " wage-class." 



ADDRESS. XCIX 

The results of the labours of the Sanitary Commissioners in the Crimea, 
although the application of their preventive science was an after-thought, 
and late, must have convinced the most sceptical of military men of its 
importance. It became one of the elements of the ultimately superior con- 
dition of the English part of the Allied army*. 

How large a proportion of loss in the French force was due to the absence 
of neglect of preventive measures, we learn from the recent ' Relation Medico- 
chirurgicale dela Campagne d'Orient ' of M. Scrlve, the head of the Medical 
Department of the French army during that campaign ; and from the admi- 
rable paper on the same subject by Dr. Gavin Milroy, Member of 
the Sanitary Commission to the British Army in the East. To cite our 
neighbour's case, in which the organization of the land-service has a high 
repute, out of a force which averaged during a period of twenty months 
104,000, upwards of 193,000 men were sent into hospital, i.e. at the rate of 
from 9000 to 10,000 per month. About one-fifth of these admissions were 
from M'ounds and mechanical injuries; the rest were from disease. The 
deaths in the hospitals at Constantinople amounted to 28,000; elsewhere, 
as in the camp and the field-ambulances, the deaths were 28,400, exclusive 
of 7500 slain in action. Of the 28,400 deaths under treatment, about 
4000, or a seventh part of the whole, arose from gun-shot wounds and 
accidents, the other six-sevenths being the result of disease. The official 
returns give a total loss from all causes during the whole Crimean campaign 
of 70,000 : it is believed to have exceeded that figure by 10,000. 65,000 
men, out of 309,268, sent from France and Algeria, were invalided in con- 
sequence of disablement from wounds or the effect of disease. 

Dr. Scrive points out that, if the buildings at Gallipoli had been inspected 

* These results cannot be better stated than in the words of Miss Nightingale, in an ap- 
peal for the organization of a preventive administration, founded on the sanitary history of 
the Crimean campaign. 

" It is," she says, " a complete example — history does not afford its equal — of an army, 
after a great disaster arising from neglect, having been brought into the highest state of 
health and efficiency. It is the whole experiment on a colossal scale. In all other examples, 
the last step has been wanting to complete the solution of the problem. We had, in the 
first seven months of the Crimean campaign, a mortality among the troops of 60 per cent. 
per annum, from disease alone, — a rate of mortality which exceeds that of the great plague 
of London, and a higher ratio than the mortality of the cholera to the attacks ; that is to 
say, there died out of the army in the Crimea an annual rate greater than ordinarily die in 
time of pestilence out of the sick. We had, during the last six months of the war, a mor- 
tality among our sick not much more than among our healthy Guards at home ; and a mor- 
tality among our troops, in the last five months, two-thirds only of what it is among our 
troops at home. The mortality among the troops of the line at home, when corrected, as it 
ought to be, according to the proportion of different ages in the service, has been, on an 
average often years, 187 per 1000 per annum, and among the Guards, 20-4 per 1000 per 
annum. Comparing this with the Crimean mortality, for the last six months of our occu- 
pation, we find that the deaths to admissions were 24 per 1000 per annum ; and during the 
last five months, viz. January to May 1850, the mortality among the troops did not exceed 
11'5 per 1000 per annum. Is not this the most complete experiment in army hygiene?" 

^2 



C REPORT — 1858. 

and made fit for the purpose before they were occupied as an hospital, a 
regiment of active young soldiers might have been saved. 

At Varna, a Turkish barrack witliin the walls was prematurely occupied as 
an hospital : it had to be abandoned after great loss of life. Fewer men fell 
in the unsuccessful attack upon the Malakoif on the 18th of June than suc- 
cumbed in the rasii attempt to use, as an hospital, a place which had not been 
previously fitted for one. And the time and labour required by the Sanitary 
Inspector to effect their fitness are as nothing compared with the prelimi- 
nary approaches to the Malakoff", and with the delay and impediments caused 
by the prostration of a large proportion of effective force by disease. 

Without consulting the medical staff, it was determined to move from 
Varna to the notoriously malarial region on the south of the Danube, 
called the Dobrudscha. On the 20th of July the first division of the army 
moved from Varna; on the 26th the cholera broke out. Hundreds of men 
were struck down at once, and died within a few hours after being seized : 
in one regiment 300 men were attacked within twenty-four hours, and 
most of them died on the spot. Appalled by the blow, the commanding 
officer retreated, as from before an overwhelming force ; but, ere he could 
reach the healthier locality, one-third of the division had perished, and num- 
bers reached the coast only to expire on the beach. 

No enemy had been encountered save that one, of whose power and pre- 
sence sanitary science had in vain forewarned the commander. On the 
return of the first division to Varna, a force of 12,000 had been reduced 
to 7000; the victims including two general officers and seven medical 
officers. 

Not to weary by other special instances of the effect of neglecting pre- 
ventive preparatory sanitary measures, I may sura up by the statement that 
one pestilence, in the marshes of the Danube, within two months, out of an 
army 55,000 strong, and before a shot had been fired, had destroyed as many 
men as were slain by the enemy in the field during the twelve months from 
the landing in the Crimea to the capture of Sebastopol, and when the 
army averaged double the above number of men. 

That this pestilence, or its fatal effects, might have been, in an important 
degree, prevented by practicable applications of sanitary science is the convic- 
tion of the ablest medical officers of the French and English armies ; and 
this conviction was substantiated by the results of the Sanitary Com- 
mission which operated in the English lines before Sebastopol. These au- 
thorities concur in the conclusion that three-fourths of the losses of an army 
in the field are not from the enemy or from unavoidable casualties of service, 
•' but from diseases which are more or less under control." " Of these," 
writes Dr. Milroy, " typhus and scurvy are two of the most formidable, and 
the most easily preventible. They are the inevitable products of certain 
well-ascertained conditions, and they may be generated at will as surely as 
any salt or other compound may be formed by the chemist in his laboratory. 



ADDRESS. CI 

And yet it was these very evils which but two years ago brought the noble 
army of a mighty nation, at the close, too, of a glorious campaign, to almost 
the verge of destruction." 

I may allude to one other point which sanitary science would suggest to 
the administrator in reference to the clearly-ascertained effects of too little 
pure air, and loo much foul air inspired continuously during a given 
period. 

The skilled soldier being of a given value when landed liealthy and strong 
in the Crimea or at Calcutta, query, whether it be more economical to carry 
1000 in one ship, landing 500 sick, enfeebled, and prepared to fall into 
and engender epidemics, or to carry the 1000 in two such ships, and land 
them healthy and fit for action ? The same administrative question applies to 
barracks and hospitals. 

One noble use and adequate application of so vast a triumph of naval 
architecture as Mr. Scott Russell's ' Leviathan ' would be its carrying troops 
in good condition as regards health, for which its capacity especially fits it. 

When authority becomes impressed with a conviction stimulating to action 
of the importance of sanitary science, it will insist on the possession, by the 
army medical officers, of the elements of that science as well as of the prin- 
ciples of practice in the cases of disease and the treatment of wounds. But, 
in order that an army may benefit by the doctors' knowledge of preven- 
tive medicine, authority should direct preliminary examinations and reports 
of sites for encampment, — of buildings for barracks and hospitals, — of 
clothes for extreme climates, and the like, and should command that such 
reports be acted upon, where no urgent circumstances or inevitable move- 
ments preclude the adoption of the means for the prevention of decimating 
fevers and choleras. 

Bonaparte's military science was characterized by the rapid concentration 
of his forces upon a given point. A like success and superiority may attend 
the commander who keeps the greatest proportion of his men in good work- 
ing trim. The healthier the man the longer and quicker will he march. And 
the care which foresees and provides for the efficient fighting order of a 
force is quite compatible with the most intrepid handling of that force in the 
field of battle. 

As to the dense populations in civil life, the number of towns in England 
in which the sewage is rapidly, efficiently, and economically carried off by 
water-power and hydraulic apparatus, constitute so many experimental 
demonstrations of the success attending a proper unintermitting water-supply 
and co-adjusted system of tubular drainage. Lancaster, Penrith, Alnwick, 
Barnard Castle, Rugby, Croydon, Ely, are instances in which are demon- 
strated the diminution of fever and other causes of untimely death, — the 
augmentation of the cleanliness and comfort of the wage-classes, — the eco- 
nomy in the wear of all washable articles through the supplies of pure water, 
—collateral and unexpected economies in regard to fire-insurance, from the 



cii REPORT — 1858. 

power of rapid extinction of conflagration which the uuintermitting system 
affords, — the purity of the atmosphere in formerly foetid courts and alleys, — 
these and other inestimable material advantages have resulted, and will result 
with progressively increased benefit as time goes on. 

Lord Bacon observes, in his suggestions for an inquiry into the causes of 
death, — " And this inquiry, we hope, might redound to a general good, if 
physicians would but exert themselves and raise their minds above the sordid 
considerations of cure; not deriving their honour from the necessities of 
mankind, but becoming ministers to the Divine power and goodness both in 
prolonging and restoring the life of man ; especially as this may be effected 
by safe, commodious, and not illiberal means, though hitherto uuattenipted. 
And certainly it would be an earnest of Divine favour, if, whilst we are jour- 
neying to the land of promise, our garments, these frail bodies of ours, were 
not greatly to wear out in the wilderness of this world." 

Amongst his special topics of inquiry are these : — 

" Inquire into the length and shortness of men's lives according to the 
times, countries, climates, and places in which they were born and lived." 

" Inquire into the length and shortness of men's lives according to their 
food, diet, manner of living, exercise, and the like. With regard to the air 
in which they live and dwell, I consider that ought to be inquired into under 
the former article concerning their places of abode." 

Now these inquiries have in our times been made chiefly in the form and 
by the authority of Sanitary Commissions; in the successful working of 
which the name of Edwin Chadwick stands foremost. 

By these commissions it has been shown, as a general result, that nearly 
one-half the prevalent diseases are due to one or other form of atmospheric 
impurity ; impurity from decomposing faecal or animal and vegetable matter, 
within and without human habitations, and beneath the sites of towns, and 
atmospheric impurity from over- crowding. 

For the prevention of the diseases arising from these causes, the sanitary- 
physician must direct his requisitions not to the apothecary, but to the pro- 
fessor of new arts, which are only partially created,— the art of the sanitarv 
architect and the art of the sanitary engineer. The latter has already been 
officially shown how he may collect water from natural and artificial springs, 
convey it into houses unintermittingly fresh, and without stagnation, and by 
its means remove from houses, through self-cleansing drains and self-clean- 
sing sewers, constantly and before noxious decomposition can commence, all 
faecal and waste animal and vegetable matter. 

In model dwellings, where the sanitary conditions have been as yet 
applied only in a rudimentary manner, the death-rate has, in fact, been 
steadily kept down to thirteen in a thousand, or much less than one-half 
that which prevailed in London when Bacon lived, or little more than 
one-half of the death-rate which prevails there now. In fact, it is proved 
to be practicable to make those garments— the frail bodies of the popu- 



ADDRESS. cm 

lation — last full ten years, or probably one-third longer, in the wilderness 
of this world. 

In our time physicians have ably exerted themselves in aid of the sanitary 
engineer and administrator. Their general sentiments have been long ex- 
pressed in such terms as those of Dr. Willis of Kelso : — " It is impossible to 
avoid the conclusion that much more might still be accomplished could we 
be induced to profit by a gradually extending knowledge, so as to found 
upon it a more wisely directed practice. When man shall be brought to 
acknowledge (as truth nmst finally constrain him to acknowledge) that it is 
by his own hand, through his neglect of a few obvious rules, that the seeds 
of disease are most lavishly sown witliin his frame, and diffused over com- 
munities ; when he shall have required of medical science to occupy itself 
rather with the prevention of maladies than with their cure ; when govern- 
ments shall be induced to consider the preservation of a nation's health an 
object as important as the promotion of its commerce or the maintenance of 
its conquests, we may hope then to see the approach of those times when, 
after a life spent almost witiiout sickness, we shall close the term of an un- 
harassed existence by a peaceful euthanasia." 

It is to the landlord, — to the representative landlords and owners of habi- 
tations, — in parliament, to whom exhortations are now required to be 
addressed, to raise their minds above " the sordid considerations " of the ex- 
penses of cure, that is, of the expenses of those sanitary works of combined 
drainage and water-supply, which it is their province to provide. 

It is right, however, to state that advances in well-directed practical ap- 
plications of sanitary science are advances in economy ; that two houses and 
two towns may receive constant supplies of water at the expense formerly 
incurred for supplying one on the intermittent system, with its stagnancy and 
pollutions in house cisterns and large storage reservoirs. It remains for the 
legislature and local administrations to make prevalent that which is proved 
to be practicable for the public good, and to ensure that good at the econo- 
mical rate at which particular instances afford demonstrations that it is 
achievable. 

Agriculture has of late years made unusual progress in this country, and 
much of that progress is due to the application of scientific principles ; chiefly 
of those supplied by chemistry, in a less degree of zoology and physiology : 
some minor help in regard to the more effectual abatement of noxious insects 
has been had from entomology ; recent discoveries of the metamorphoses, 
metagenesis, and the course and modes of transmission of internal parasites, 
have afforded a rational explanation of some traditional precautionary rules 
of herdsmen, in reference to the ' rot ' in sheep, from fluke-worms and hydatids ; 
and more direct power of preventing epizootics will doubtless be obtained 
from entozoology. 

Geology now teaches the precise nature and relations of soils, a knowledge 
of great practical importance in guiding the drainer of land in the modifi- 



civ REPORT — 1858. 

cations of his general rules of practice. Palaeontology has brought to light 
unexpected sources of valuable manures, in phosphatic relics of ancient animal 
life, accumulated in astounding masses in certain localities of England, as, 
for instance, in the red-crag of Suffolk, and the greensands of Cambridge. 

But enormous quantities of azotic, ammoniacal, and phosphatic matters 
are still suffered to run to waste ; and, as if to bring the wastefulness more 
home to conviction, these products, so valuable when rightly administered, 
become a source of annoyance, unremunerative outlay, and disease, when, as 
at present in most towns, imperfectly and irrationally disposed of. 

For the most part, thought is taken only how to get rid of these pro- 
ducts in the easiest and quickest way. The metropolitan authorities have 
hitherto carried the chain of reasoning no further. They have turned them 
into the Thames, the receptacle nearest at hand ; but in so doing have failed 
in their prime intention. The metropolis is not even rid of its excreta ; but 
they have returned upon it and accumulated, with increased noxious and 
morbific power, on the strands of the valley that bisects it ; appealing, as is 
notorious, summer after summer, to the very legislature itself, with uninter- 
mitting and importunate odours, compelling the attention of the possessors 
of lands and houses to this important subject. 

Now here I would beg leave to remark that, in the operations of Nature, 
there is generally a succession of processes coordinated for a given result : 
a peach is not directly developed as such from its elements ; the seed would, 
a priori, give no idea of the tree, nor the tree of the flower, nor the fertilized 
germ of that flower of the pulpy fruit in which the seed is buried. It is 
eminently characteristic of the Creative Wisdom, this far-seeing and prevision 
of an ultimate result, through the successive operations of a coordinate series 
of seemingly very different conditions. 

The further a man discerns, in a series of conditions, their cordinatlon to 
produce a given result, the nearer does his wisdom approach — though the 
distance be still immeasurable — to the Divine wisdom. 

One philanthropist builds a fever-hospital, another drains a town. One 
crime-preventer hangs the man, another trains the boy. One financier 
would raise money by augmenting a duty, or by a direct tax, and finds the re- 
venue not increased in the expected ratio. Another diminishes a tax, or abo- 
lishes a duty, and through foreseen consequences the revenue is improved. 

Quarantine exemplifies only the first step in the progress of thought, bearing 
on the prevention of a dreaded distemper. It is a system which might keep 
out contraband goods or uncertified strangers, but it is powerless against 
the gaseous factors of plague, cholera, or yellow fever. No European 
country suffers more from such maladies 'than Naples or Portugal, where 
quarantine regulations are most stringent. 

Agriculture, let me repeat, has made and is making great and encouraging 
progress. But much yet remains to be done. Were agriculture adequately 
advanced, the great problem of the London sewage would be speedily solved. 



I 



ADDRESS. CV 

Can it be supposed, if the rural districts about the metropolis were in a con- 
dition to avail themselves of a daily supply of pipe-water not more than 
equivalent to that which a heavy shower of rain throws down on 2000 acres 
of land, but a supply charged with 30 tons of nitrogenous ammoniacal prin- 
ciples, that such supply would not be forthcoming, and made capable of 
being distributed when called for within a radius of 100 miles? I believe 
that, were the call made as loudly as it undoubtedly would be under the 
exigencies of a more advanced stage of agricultural mechanics, the skill of 
our engineers, with the constructive powers of our machine-makers, both 
carried to a degree of perfection which the world never before saw, would 
speedily and successfully meet the call, and leave nothing but the rainfall of 
the metropolis to seek its natural receptacle — the Thames. 

To send ships for foreign ammoniacal or phosphatic excreta to the coast 
of Peru, and to pollute by the waste of similar home products the noble 
river bisecting the metropolis, and washing the very walls of our Houses of 
Parliament, are flagrant signs of the desert and uncultivated state of a field 
where science and practice have still to cooperate for the public benefit. 

To promote this cooperation, effectual aid may be given by a recently 
establisjjed kindred Association, through the advancement of the legislative 
and administrative sciences. For it is the present condition of those social 
sciences which forms the chief obstacle to the practical application of 
Sanitary science. Of this science, it may be confidently averred that, be- 
sides providing means for the relief of town-populations from excessive 
sickness, it has, in a sufficient number of instances, provided means for the 
prevention of the pollution of rivers as well as for applying the manure of 
towns to fertilize the land. 

The application of those means now rests with the Legislator and Ad- 
ministrator, and involves questions which are not within the province of 
the British Association*. 

Some of our sciences are deeply concerned in one progressive step, — the 
uniformity of standard in measure and weight throughout the civilized 
world ; in urging on which step, energetic and unwearied efforts are now 
being made by a Committee of our fellow-labourers of the Royal Society of 
Arts, amongst whom the name of the prime promoter of this and kindred 
reforms, Mr. James Yates, deserves especial and honourable mention. 

Chemistry is more concerned in the uniform expression of the results of 
her delicate balances amongst her cultivators of different countries: Natural 
History is no less interested in the use, by all observers, of one and the same 
scale for measuring, and of one set of terms for expressing the superficial 
dimensions of her subjects. Practically, I may state that I have found the 

* Services on three successive Sanitary Commissions, on the First Consolidated Metro- 
politan Sewers Commission, and at the Board of Health, have led me to enter at undue 
length on Sanitary matters, and are pleaded in excuse. 



OVi REPORT— ^1858. 

French metre, and its subdivisions down to the millimetre, adequate to give 
all the needful data of this kind for comparison of superficial dimensions in 
the varied and extensive range of objects to which my business and pursuits 
have led me to pay attention. Of the hindrances to progress and incon- 
veniences of the ' foot,' the ' inch,' and its duodecimal parts or lines, — rarely 
the same in any two countries, — I have elsewhere spoken and argued. 

The whole subject of a uniform system of weights, measures, and current 
coin, will occupy the attention of a section of the Association for the Advance- 
ment of Social Science, which will meet at Liverpool shortly after the termi- 
nation of the present Meeting. This is by no means the only point at which the 
Natural and Social Sciences touch and react on each other with mutual 
advantage. The proximity of the periods of the annual assemblage of the 
promoters of these respective sciences, together with the occurrence of both, 
this year, in the North of England, is favourable to the fruition of such 
advantages, by facilitating attendance at both Associations : and in future 
years, the conditions of time and place of meeting, making it easy for a 
Member of the British Association to attend also the Association for Social 
Science, and reciprocally, might, with a view to mutual advantage and 
cooperation, be a subject worthy of the consideration of the respective Coun- 
cils of those Bodies. 

In reference to the relations now subsisting between the State and 
Science, my first duty is to express our grateful sense of such measure of 
aid, cooperation, and countenance as has been allotted to Scientific Bodies, 
Enterprises and Discoveries; more especially to acknowledge how highly we 
prize the sentiments of the Sovereign towards our works and aims, mani- 
fested by spontaneous tribute to successful scientific research, in honourable 
Titles and Royal gifts, and above all, in the gracious expressions accom- 
panying them, with which Her Majesty has been pleased to distinguish some 
of our Body. Happy are we, under the present benignant Reign, to have, 
in the Royal Consort, a Prince endowed with exemplary virtues, and with 
such accomplishments in Science and Art as have enabled His Royal High- 
ness effectually, and on some memorable occasions, in the most important 
degree, to promote the best interests of both. We rejoice, moreover, in the 
prospect of being favoured at a future Meeting by the Presidency of the 
Prince Consort; and that, ere long, this Association may give the oppor- 
tunity for the delivery of another of those ' Addresses,' pregnant with 
deep thought, good sense, and right feeling, which have placed the name 
of Prince Albert high in the esteem of the Intellectual Classes, and have 
engraven it deeply in the hearts of the humblest of Her Majesty's subjects. 

On the part of the State, sums continue to be voted in aid of the means 
independently possessed by the British Museum and the Royal Society, 
wliereby the Natural History Collections in the first are extended, and the 
piore direct scientific alms of the latter Institution are advanced. The 



ADDRESS. evil 

Botanical Gardens and Museum at Kew, and the Museum of Practical Geo- 
logy in Jermyn Street, are examples of the National Policy in regard to 
Science, of which we can hardly over-estimate the importance. Most highly 
and gratefully also do we appreciate the cooperation of the ' Board of Trade ' 
with our Meteorologists, by the recent formation of the Department for the 
collection of meteorological observations made at sea. 

But not by words only would, or does. Science make return to Govern- 
ments fostering and aiding her endeavours for the public weal. Every prac- 
tical application of her discoveries tends to the same end as that which the 
enlightened Statesman has in view. 

The steam-engine in its manifold applications, the crime-decreasing gas- 
lamp, the lightning conductor, the electric telegraph, the law of storms and 
rules for the mariner's guidance in them, the power of rendering surgical 
operations painless, the measures for preserving public health and for pre- 
venting or mitigating epidemics, — such are amongst the more important 
practical results of pure scientific research with which mankind have been 
blessed and States enriched. They are evidence unmistakeable of the close 
affinity between the aims and tendencies of Science and those of true State 
policy. In proportion to the activity, productivity, and prosperity of a com- 
munity is its power of responding to the calls of the Finance Minister. By 
a far-seeing one, the man of Science will be regarded with a favourable eye, 
not less for the unlooked-for streams of wealth that have already flowed, but 
for those that may in future arise, out of the applications of the abstract 
truths to the discovery of which he devotes himself. 

This may, indeed, demand some measure of faith on the part of the prac- 
tical Statesman. For who that watched the philosophic Black experimenting 
on the abstract nature of Caloric could have foreseen that his discovery of latent 
heat would be the stand -point of Watt's invention of a practically operative 
steam engine ! How little could the observer of Oersted's subtle arrange- 
ments for converting electric into magnetic force have dreamt of Wheat- 
stone's application of such discovery to the rapid interchange of ideas now 
daily practised between individuals in distant cities, countries, and continents ! 

Some medical contemporaries of John Huntek, when they saw him, as 
they thought, wasting as much time in studying the growth of a deer's horn 
as they would have bestowed upon the symptoms of their best patient, com- 
passionated, it is said, the singularity of his pursuits. But, by the insight so 
gained into the rapid enlargement of arteries, Hunter learnt a property of 
those vessels which emboldened him to experiment on a man with aneurism, 
and so to introduce a new operation which has rescued from a lingering and 
painful death thousan Is of his fellow-creatures. Our great inductive physio- 
logist, in his dissections and experiments on the lower animals, was " taking 
light what may be wrought upon the body of man." 

The production of chloroform is amongst the more subtle experimental 
results of modern chemistry. The blessed effects of its proper exhibition in 



cviii REPORT — 1858. 

the diminution of the sum of human agony are indescribable. But that 
divine-like application was not present to the mind of the scientific chemist 
who discovered the anaesthetic product, an}' more than was the gas-lit town 
to the mind of Priestley or the condensing-engine to that of Black. 

These unexpected applications of pure Science, fraught with such incal- 
culable influences on the well-being of peoples, ought to weigh with the 
Minister to whom may be submitted an enterprise in Science which only a 
nation can undertake, or the considerations of a scientific establishment 
which none but a nation can support. Much of the improvement in refined 
machinery, and the tools for making it, grew out of the requirements and 
teaching of Babbage during the construction of his Calculating Machines. 
Such collateral result, alone, has made a manifold return for the sum granted 
in aid of the realization of that philosopher's great idea. So rare a combi- 
nation of analytic, inventive, and constructive faculties is seldom given to 
man ; and the generation witnessing such a mind in operation would be wise 
to secure the full result of its peculiarly directed energy. 

In proportion to the facilities and rapidity of exchange and transit of 
goods, of men, and of thought, trade and commerce expand ; and with their 
expansion grow the receipts under the heads of Customs and Excise. Every 
application of pure mathematics and astronomy to the making voyages safer 
and speedier, — every observation by such instruments as the Establishment 
of the British Association at Kew perfects for their purpose, giving to the 
mariner fore-knowledge of storms, and teaching him their course and lines 
of greatest intensity, — becomes an important condition in enabling a country 
to bear the burthen of taxation. 

The steps in the series of this relation have been so plain that national 
encouragement has long been given to Astronomy. As clear a perception 
of the same relation and tendency of discoveries in Chemistry, Electricity, 
Electro-magnetism, and other sciences, led Herschel, long ago, to ask " Why 
the direct assistance afforded by Governments to the execution of continued 
series of observations should be confined to Astronomy? " 

Faithfully is the State served by that Science. Most exemplary are 
those observations made, and every astronomical duty bearing on the 
interests of society, discharged, in the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, the 
good repute of which grows and spreads year by year under its present 
indefatigable Chief. Year by year, almost, arises the necessity for some addi- 
tional instrument to meet the ever-expanding relations and requirements of 
Astronomy and Meteorology. 

But to make use of fitting instruments is one thing, to make them fit for 
use another. To perfect that fitness and extend it to the instruments of all 
observatories, to maintain a standard of excellence whereby comparison of 
results shall be most productive of truth, are the special functions of our 
kindred establishment at Kew. There, as in the mathematical and engine 
houses of the ' New Atlantis,' we seek to render our instruments unrivalled 



ADDRESS. ClX 

" for equality, fineness, and subtilty " of operation. No expense, time, or 
pains have been spared by this Association to bring the exquisitely con- 
structed and ingeniously adjusted mechanisms required to give us cognizance 
of the operations of the mysterious influences pervading our earth and atmo- 
sphere to their utmost attainable exactitude of performance. 

To prepare, to adjust, to test, verify, and rectify those instruments for the 
use of voyagers and travellers are labours that have grown out of the im- 
portant function of the ' Kew Observatory.' 

These labours have been cheerfully performed whenever and by whom- 
soever required; as, recently, at the request of the Admiralty and Roj'al 
Society in aid of the Commission for determining the Oregon Boundary, and 
in the Second Expedition of Livingstone to the Zambesi. Not only have 
philosophical instruments been prepared and constants determined, but the 
voyagers have received, at Kew, practical instructions in their use. 

Tile reputation of the accuracy of the instruments at our establishment is 
now such that requests are received from different Foreign States for a like 
application of the resources which it commands. The United States, Russia, 
Austria, Portugal, the Papal States for the ' CoUegio Romano,' — all have 
testified, by such applications for the preparation and adjustment of philo- 
sophical instruments, that the establishment, originated and organized by the 
British Association, fulfils a national scientific want. Our ' Report ' this 
year will show that the Admiralty, the Board of Trade, and other Home- 
institutions give the same testimony. 

With the growth of its reputation and experience of its utility, the labours 
carried on at Kew have necessarily multiplied ; and the expense of the esta- 
blishment cannot be this year less than £800. 

Were the duties of the Kew Observatory superadded to those performed 
at Greenwich, such expense would fall, in the ordinary course, upon the State. 
Hitherto it has been borne by the British Association, and to that extent 
cripples our power of lending the helping hand to other scientific work. 

We have to thank the Government for the use of the building at Kew. 

Such pecuniary aid as has been added to the sums allotted from our sub- 
scriptions has been received from a kindred self-supporting Scientific Asso- 
ciation. The Royal Society liberally voted the amount required for the 
purchase of the "Whitworth's Lathe and Planing Machine," now doing 
efficient work at the Observatory. 

In the late location, by liberal permission of the Government, of the Royal, 
Linnaean, and Chemical Societies in contiguous apartments at Burlington 
House, we hail the commencement of that organization, recommended by 
the British Association at their first meeting, from which the most important 
results of combination of present scattered powers, and of a system of intellec- 
tual cooperation, may be confidently expected. " The combined advantages, 
including at once the most powerful stimulus and the most efficient guidance 
of scientific research," have appeared to an eminent member of our Body 
" to be beyond calculation." 



PX REPORT — 1858. 

No locality in the Metropolis unites so many elements of convenience for 
such a concentration as Burlington House. If, to the application of other 
Scientific Societies than the three now there located, the reply should be 
given " that the State is not called upon to provide room for individuals who 
may choose to combine for the enjoyment of a special intellectual pursuit," 
we may rejoin that such Associations seek no selfish profit, but impart tlie 
results of tlieir combined labour freely for the public weal. We might 
urge that the small amount of support needed for the enterprises and 
establishment of Science, — scarce equal to the product of the tax upon 
discovery and invention paid under the existing ' Patent Laws' — would be a 
good investment on the part of a Nation ; and that, viewing such establish- 
ments and the prosecution of abstract physical truth in regard only to their 
material results, these might assure a Minister disposed to invest in what 
might seem to him the Lottery of Science, that the prizes are neither few 
nor small, — nay, some are incalculably great. 

It now only remains for me to express how deeply I feel the honour con- 
ferred on me by the position in which, through your kindness, I am now 
placed ; how highly I esteem the opportunity afforded me of addressing so 
distinguished and influential an audience in this most noble Hall ; and how 
sincerely I thank you for the patience and favour with whicli you have 
received this Address. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The present, Fourth, and probably last Report on Earthquakes that I sliall 
have the honour of presenting to the British Association, has for its objects 
the discussion of the great catalogue of earthquakes printed in several prece- 
ding volumes of its ' Transactions,' the last portion of which only appeared in 
type in 1855, and the completion, as far as possible, of the complement of the 
other desiderata mentioned at the conclusion of the First Report (1850). 
The pressure of other occupations, with some uncontrollable circumstances, 
have delayed for nearly three years its appearance : the delay, however, 
has not been without advantage; it has enabled me more fully to grasp 
additional conditions and difficulties, before unnoticed, of some branches of 
the subject, and to derive advantage from the contemporaneous labours of 
the few physicists who are engaged in Seismology ; foremost amongst whom 
stands M. Perrey of Dijon. 

The reader will with advantage refer to the conclusions of the Second 
Report (1851), as to the construction of the catalogue which constitutes 
the Third (1854), before perusing the present ; as well as to the concluding 
note of that Report, in which it is stated that the catalogue commencing at 
1606 B.C., and originally proposed to be extended in its tabular form to the 
end of 1850 a.d., was concluded at the end of the year 184-2, from which 
period up to 1850, and indeed later still, the catalogues of Prof. Perrey 
supply all that is needful, though it is to be regretted that they are not 
tabulated for more convenient reference. But although the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue concludes with 184-2, the discussion of facts has been 
extended to the end of 1850, the base of induction for the last eight years 
being supported by the labours of Perrey. 

The whole base of induction therefore for such conclusions as are here 
to be attempted, — embracing between 6000 and 7000 separate recorded earth- 
quakes over every known part of the globe, both on land and ocean, — the 
character of the facts given, — their scantiness as to information of .scientific 
value, — the methods, or rather the want of all method, in their observation, 
and other causes, mentioned in the Second Report, — I think justifv me in 
stating my conviction, that nearly all that can be drawn from the collection 
and discussion of such records has now been done, and that the labour of 
collecting and calculating further and future Seismologues will be in a great 
degree thrown away, unless the cultivators of science of all countries, — in 
conjunction with the scientific bodies and the scientific departments of the 
chief civilized governments of the world, — shall unite in agreeing to some 
one uniform system of seismic observation, and record and transmit the results 
1858. y B 



2 REPORT — 1858. 

periodically to a central bureau for discussion. What has been done for 
astronomy and for terrestrial magnetism, is beginning to be done for meteor- 
ology, and through the suggestive labours of Maury, Bache, and others, 
for maritime discovery, ought to be done now for seismology, whose chief 
requirements could be readily added to those already supposed to be system- 
atized from Lieut. Maury's proposals, as well as to those long in course in 
the astronomical, magnetic, and meteorological observatories of the world. 
The spread of the net of telegraphic wires rapidly over the whole earth offers 
facilities for the observation of earthquake phenomena, in which time always 
enters as so important an element, never before possessed. We shall revert 
to this in treating of seismometry. 

Before proceeding to the discussion of the British Association Catalogue, 
I propose giving some account, in a connected form, of the discussions by 
Professor Perrey, of his own local or partial catalogues, and of the conclusions 
he has thence drawn ; as well as referring to some minor catalogues, more 
or less completely discussed by their authors : amongst the latter, Mr. Milne's 
valuable contributions escaped my notice when preparing my first report. 
Perrey's labours in generalizing (as far, perhaps, as can from the data be 
safely done) the facts of several great seismic kingdoms, and announcing 
their results, form a valuable prelude to the still larger base of generalization 
finally here discussed, and extending to the whole known globe. The dis- 
cussed catalogue memoirs of Perrey, to which I have had access, apply to 
the following localities : — 

In the European Hemisphere — 

The Scandinavian Peninsula and Iceland. 

The British Islands. 

The Spanish Peninsula. 

France, Belgium, and Holland. 

The Basin of the Rhone. 

The Basin of the Rhine. 

The Basin of the Danube. 

The Italian Peninsula. 

Algeria and Northern Africa. 

The Turco-Hellenic Peninsula, with Syria. 

And in the American Hemisphere — 
The Basin of the Atlantic. 
Canada and the United States. 
Mexico and Central America. 
The Antilles. 
Chili and La Plata. 
Cuba, by M. Poey. 

In addition to which, Perrey has combined and discussed together — 
Europe, with the adjacent regions of Africa and of Asia. 
The North of Europe and of Asia — 
viewing the tliree continents in the light of two parallel Austral and Boreal 
zones. 

The general method adopted by Perrey has been, after an introductory 
physico-geographical sketch of the region, and the catalogue itself of earth- 
quakes, to discuss them numerically and graphically. 

J .. f Numerically and r „ . • 

In time s i i- i "' J By centuries ^ ^ .1 

\ relatively .... | g' ^^^^.^ _ _ f Seasons, months, 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 3 



Occasionally also with reference to lunations. 

(With reference to direction, 
i.e. horizontal direction, of 
shock.. 



With reference to sup- 
posed derivative or 
mean horizontal direc- 
tion of shock. 



And lastly, as to relative intensity, or dynamic value of the shock in each 
direction, which he arrives at on the assumption that this, in any given 
rhumb, is proportional to the number of shocks observed in its direction in a 
given period, a supposition which — although perhaps not without some value, 
as admitting of one mode of regarding the relations of distant seismic regions 
not otherwise possible — admits of the gravest doubt whether it have any 
real natural basis. 

We shall consider the results in the order above. Near as Norway and 
Sweden are topographically to the British Islands, it is not with these, but 
with Iceland and the intervening band of the Northern Ocean that the 
Scandinavian peninsula is in connexion as a seismic region ; very few ex- 
amples occur of simultaneous action between the former ; but seldom has 
there been any marked convulsion in Iceland without commotion in Nor-. 
way, <Src., and vice versa. Scandinavia itself, one of the most remarkable 
masses of land in slow process of elevation in the world, also shows its con- 
nexion with internal action; and were it not that Iceland is pierced with 
numberless vents, broken and shattered in every direction by volcanic 
action, that admits of no cessation or consolidation above, there can be no 
doubt that the destructive power of earthquakes would be manifested in the 
northern peninsula to a far more serious extent and intensity. 

That Greenland, at least the east coast, and the Faroe Islands are. shaken 
frequently, is highly probable, though I am not aware of any such record. 

The following is the result of Perrey's chronology of this region : — 

Table I. — Earthquakes of Scandinavian Peninsula and Iceland. 



Century 

A.D. 


With dates of month or day. 


OfSeason. 


Of 
Year 


Total. 


U 

a 

i 


3 

•r-t 




•c 


P5 




1-5 




i 

a 




u 




> 


S3 

1 




s 


s 

B 






XII. to XVII. 
XVIII 


3 
13 
17 

33 


2 1 

7 9 

11 11 

20J 21 


1 
5 

7 


2 

7 


"4 

6 


"9 

8 


"5 

8 


... 

'"s 

10 


"7 

10 


"*8 
11 


"i'l 

6 


"2 


"3 

1 


19 
13 


28 
111 
113 


XIX 


Totals 


13 


16 


10 


17 


13 


18 


17 


19 


17 


2 


4 


32 


252 






Winter 
7t 


Spring 
39 


Summer 

48 


Autumn 
53 



On examining this Table, Perrey remarks the same preponderance of 
earthquakes in tiie winter half of the year, that is evident from many of his 
other calculations for various regions. Here, for the six months of' winter, 
there are 129 shocks, and but 91 for the summer half year. 

Perrey is also of opinion, from the general result of his researches, that 
there is a preponderance of shocks at the equinoxes and summer solstice, 
which he denominates the " Critical Epochs" of the year. It is so for 
Scandinavia. 

B 2 



4 REPORT— 1858. 

The total number of earthquakes given with dates is 252, representing by- 
twelve the mean annual number. He tabulates the proportional number for 
each month thus : — 



Table II. — Scandinavia. Relative frequency throughout the year. 



i 

1-3 




1 


"1 




q3 


0-95 


<1 


4) 


6 

O 


1 


1 

CD 

R 


Propor- 
tional 
number. 


1-85 


1-12 


1-18 


0-75 


0-90 


0-56 


075 


101 


0-95 


1-06 0-95 


= 12 



Winter 1-38 

Spring 0-73 

Summer. . . , 0-90 

Autumn 0*99 

And at the two months of each solstice and equinox — 

March and April 0-94 

June and July 0*74.' 

September and October 95 

December and January 1*36 

As to general direction of the observed or horizontal element of shock — it 
has in most instances traversed a line, with more or less divergence, stretch- 
ing away from Iceland ; and there can be little doubt that this is the real 
line of propagation of tiie original pulses. 

Perrey, however, conceives that a mean or chief resultant direction of shock 
for each given seismic region may be calculated in the following way. Taking 
the mean frequency of shock =1, he finds for the eight principal rhumbs 
proportional numbers, as for example in the present case : — 



Table III. 



Rhumb, or direction 
of shock. 



Relative frequency in 
direction. 



N. to S. 



0-73 



N.E. „ S.W 1-09 



E. „W. 



0-73 



S.E. „N.W 109 

S. „N 109 



S.W.„ N.E 1-45 



W. „E. 



1-09 



N.W.„S.E 0-73 

Then, considering the cause of movement in any given direction to be pro- 
portional in intensity to the number of times that it has acted in each ob- 
served direction, viz. as proportional to the preceding numbers, he treats 
these as the forces themselves given in magnitude and in direction, and 
compounds them for a single resultant according to Lambert's formula. 

This process gives for Scandinavia a general resultant direction of pro- 
pagation of S. '22° 30' W., and with an intensity or force represented by 
0-94. 

If we study this presumed direction with the Mercator chart before us, 
we find that the line is not very wide of that forming the general length of 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 5 

the great Scandinavian chain, and is in fact nearly a normal to the actually 
observed directions of shock. 

It is a fact observed in many other seismic mountain chains, as well as 
along the lines of great valleys and river-courses, that the main directions 
of propagation of shock are along the lengths of the chains, valleys or river- 
courses; and a very obvious explanation why this should frequently be the 
case suggests itself, namely, that the solid materials of the earth are less 
shattered and discontinuous, and more homogeneous in these directions 
than in those transverse to the ranges and valleys, &c. ; but how far this is in 
anyway connected in nature with Perrey's conclusion admits still of doubt; 
and indeed it is manifest that any attempt to calculate a general or mean 
resultant, from the horizontal component of shock only^ must be at least 
incomplete, and, from other reasons that will be given when treating of 
seismometric instruments, may be said to be at present impossible. I should 
by no means wish, however, altogether to reject this ingenious method of 
discussion in the present state of our knowledge. 

Perrey's results are subjoined for — 

Table IV. — Earthquakes of the British Islands and Northern Isles. 



a 


Earthquakes with date of month. 




Total. 


3 

3 
1 


3 


J5 


< 




(U 

a 

9 

i-a 


1-^ 


3 

fcD 

3 


a 









S 



;2; 


U 

a 

a 

Q 


XI. ... 
XII.... 
XIII. .. 
XIV.... 

XV. ... 

XVI. .. 
XVII. . 
XVIII. 
XIX.... 


i 

2 

i 

3 
5 

9 


"i 
' i 

9 


2 

"'/ 
10 


2 
1 

i 
"b 

7 


1 

"i 
1 

"2 

"3 

8 


1 

"i 
2 

6 


i 

3 
5 


1 
1 

"i 

5 
11 


2 

1 

"i 
"2 

6 
12 


"3 

6 

8 


1 

1 

"i 

8 
11 


2 

2 

... 

i 
2 


1 
4 

6 

1 

"2 
1 
2 


8 

11 

15 

4 

1 

8 

14 

03 

110 


Totals. 


21 


16 


19 


16 


16 


10 


9 


19 


24 


17 


22 


28 


17 


234 




Winter 
56 


Spring 
42 


Summer 
52 


Autumn 
67 



The number occurring in spring and summer together is but three-fourths 
that of autumn and winter united, the relative number for the four seasons 
being — 

Winter 1-03 

Spring 0-76 

Summer 096 

Autumn r24' 

And the two months of the critical epochs — 

Winter solstice 1-28 

Spring equinox 0"96 

Summer solstice 0'5'i 

Autumnal equino.x 1"13 



6 REPORT — 1858. 

The relative numbers as to horizontal direction : — 

S. to N 0-48 

N.E. „ S.W 0-48 

E. „ W 1-70 

S.E. „ N.W 0-73 

S. „ N 0-73 

S.W. „ N.E 1-46 

W. „ E 1-46 

N.W. „ S.E 0-97 

from which, by the preceding method, Perrey computes a mean horizontal 
direction of 

S. 39°5' W. toN. 39°5' E., 

which is about the line of direction of Loch Ness and of the Caledonian 
Canal. 

This is certainly, however, not the general or mean horizontal direction 
of British earthquakes, which appears to be one from south to north, veering 
more or less to the east or west, but having on the whole a direction passing 
through the probable focus of the Lisbon earthquakes and of the Canary 
Islands. I am not aware that any attempt has been made to ascertain 
the angle of emergence of the wave of shock for any British station, except 
indirectly by myself, in my " Memoir on the British Earthquake of November 
1852" (Trans. Roj'. Irish Acad. vol. xxii. part 1) at Dublin, which was from 
25° to 30° inclined to the horizon ; and assuming the origin to have been 
even somewhere between Great Britain and Lisbon, the depth of focus must 
have been very great ; that earthquake extended over the greater portion 
of the British Islands, the maximum disturbance on the surface being about 
Shropshire. 

Mr. David Milne, in one of a series of very able papers on British earth- 
quakes in the ' Edinburgh Philosophical Journal,' vols, xxxi.-xxxvi., which 
I regret not having noticed in my Second Report as prominently as they 
deserve, expresses his conviction (as it appears to me, however, from very 
insufficient grounds) that all British earthquakes have had an origin of 
disturbance immediately beneath Great Britain, and not at some distant 
point beyond, his chief reasons being, 1, that with few exceptions they 
affected only certain portions of the island; 2, that there was in all the 
districts affected some spot where the concussion and attendant noise were 
greater than anywhere else, and that they diminished with their distance 
from this spot ; 3, that the shock and the noise moved simultaneously from 
this spot. 

A reference to the Catalogue will show that these are by no means the 
general prevailing facts : and if they had been so, they do not prove the 
point, for reasons to be gathered from the Second Report. In the absence 
of any knowledge of the angle of emergence, it is a very incomplete state- 
ment of fact when Milne says, that " out of 110 shocks recorded in England, 
31 originated in Wales, 31 along the south coast of England, 14 on the 
borders of Yorkshire and Derbyshire, and 5 or 6 in Cumberland." " These 
facts," he adds, " seem to show that the seat of action cannot be very far 
down in the earth's interior." Locally variable surface-disturbance, and even 
none at certain localities, within large areas exposed to seismic action, are 
amongst the most common phenomena of observed earthquakes even of the 
greatest extent and intensity, and arise, amongst other reasons, from the 
heterogeneous and dislocated materials of the earth's crust perturbing the 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 7 

elastic wave. A considerable numbei- of shocks, recorded in Scotland, have 
been stated to have had a horizontal direction more or less from west to east; 
and this is by no means incompatible with the general prevalent direction from 
south to north already mentioned ; nor has it been unnoticed elsewhere, that 
lono- ranges of hills of hard elastic rocks, with deep intervening valleys, change 
the general horizontal course of the wave of shock reaching their flanks into 
one mainly felt along the line of the chain. The little shocks for long 
periods alrnost continuously felt in and about Corarie in Scotland, have all 
had a general direction from west to east ; but these, like the similar phe- 
nomena long carefully observed by Prof. Merian at Basle in Switzerland, 
those at East Haddam in Massachusetts and elsewhere, I omit from consi- 
deration here, as very doubtfully belonging to the class of earthquakes 
proper at all, and perhaps no more than tremors, more or less forcible 
at the surface, due to the fracturing of rocky masses below, by the gradual 
processes of elevation or depression of the land. Excluding these, our 
records, so far as they go, point to the south-to-north general direction 
as given. 

Milne has discussed, with reference to period of the year, the circumstances 
of 139 Scottish and 116 English earthquakes ; and the result squares pretty 
closely with Perrey's. 

The following is Milne's Table : — 



Total. 



Winter months. 



Spring months. 



Summer months. 



Autumn months. 



Table V. 

Scotland. England. 

January 14 11"! 

February 14 13^4. 

March 12 lOj 

April 9 101 

May 8 , 4 U4. 

June 4 9 J 

July 5 5-1 

August 12 9 Us. 

September 12 isj 

October 14 Ill 

November 20 12^79. 

December 15 7j 

139 116 

He notices also the fact, which we shall find has not escaped Perrey (' Me- 
moir on France'), that the period of the year at which seismic action appears 
to be greatest, is that when both the actual height of the barometric column 
is the minimum, and the range of its oscillations the greatest in the year ; 
and he has put with clearness the enormous total effect in the increase or 
diminution of pressure over large areas, due to such changes in atmospheric 
pressure, as a possible (he deems a certainly) connected cause in the j)roduc- 
tion of earthquakes. 

Proceeding now to the Spanish Peninsula, comprehending all west of the 
Pyrenees and the ocean washing the shores of Portugal, the Ibllowing are 
Perrey's results : — 



9 



REPORT — 1858. 
Table VI. — Earthquakes of the Spanish Peninsula. 



-4-> 

g 


Earthquakes with date of day or month. 




Total. 


ctS 


3 
1 




a. 




Ei 
3 
►-5 


"3 
1-5 


3 

bo 

3 
< 


1 


.a 





"a 



^2; 


a 

P 


XI. ... 
XII.... 
XIII.... 
XIV. ... 
XV. ... 
XVI. ... 
XVII... 
XVIII. 
XIX.... 


i 

"i 

"2 

\i 
10 


"1 

"s 

5 


"3 

"7 
6 


"i 

i 

1 

"s 

7 


i 

'4 
4 


2 
6 
6 


"3 

"5 
10 


2 
9 
5 


i 

2 
9 


"1 

2 

9 

11 


i 

• •• 

i 

13 

7 


1 

8 
5 


3 

1 
2 
3 
3 
3 
1 
3 


3 

4 

3 

8 

4 

10 

10 

93 

85 


Tota'. 


25 


14 


16 


18 


9 


14 


18 


16 


12 


23 


22 


14 


19 


220 


Winter 
55 


Spring 
41 


Summer 
46 


Autumn 
59 



Taking the mean monthly frequency =1, the relative monthly frequency, 
and that according to season, are as follows : — 



>» 


&• 
















»^ 


.0 




>-> 


C3 

3 

<L) 


a 


p. 




e 
3 

►-a 




1 
0-93 


b 

t 







g 





a 


1-49 


0-84 


0-95 


1-07 


0-54 


0-84 


1-07 


0-71 


1-37 


1-31 


0-84 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 


1-09 


0-82 


0-91 


1-17 



or in'autumn and winter together, Hi earthquakes against 87 in the spring 

and summer. 

As respects observed horizontal directions, the ratios were — 

N. to S 0-38 

N.E. „ S.W 0-76 

E. „ W 2-67 

S.E. „ N.W 0-76 

S. „ N 1-91 

S.W. „ N.E 0-38 

W. „ E 0-76 

N.W. „ S.E 0-38 

which, by the method of calculation already given as adopted by Perrev, 

gives for the mean horizontal direction — 

E. 31° 56' S. to W, 31° 56' N. 
This deduction appears to agree tolerably well with the actually recorded 
directions of shocks in Portugal and Spain, whose focus seems to be beneath 
the sea, between Lisbon and the Azores, all of which, as well perhaps as the 
Canaries, are connected as one seismic region. Perrey states, tliat in the 
Pyrenean chain, taken separately, not only is the preponderance of seismic 



i 



i 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 9 

action in the winter reversed, so that sliocks are more frequent in summer 
tlian in winter, and those in summer and spring together are to those in 
autumn and winter as 2 to 3, but the observed horizontal direction is dif- 
ferent, being most usual in the main line of the chain. 

If tiiis be so, it would either be explicable as a case of deflected wave, like 
that already mentioned with regard to the general north and south line in 
Great Britain, becoming a south-west and north-east one in Scotland, the angle 
of deflection in the present instance being small ; or it would indicate that 
some of the shocks of the Pyrenees have connexion with the Mediterranean 
seismic region. 

Spain, including Portugal, in its external configuration, with its vast 
table-land of the two Castiles, rising nearly 2000 feet above the sea, is 
perhaps the most interesting portion of Europe, not only in this respect, 
but as a region of earthquake disturbance, where the energy and destroying 
power of this agency have been more than once displayed upon the most 
tremendous scale. 

It may be worth while to place here the tables of the progression of the 
shocks of the two great Lisbon earthquakes of 1755 and 1761, as collected 
by Milne (Edinburgh Phil. Journ. vol. xxxi.) from various sources, 
although the chief result has been already discussed in the Second Report. 
The time given in the Tables is reduced to Lisbon time ; the distances in 
degrees of seventy miles English each. 

Progressive rate of the shock, Lisbon earthquake of 1st November, 1755. 



Localities. 



Presumed focus, lat, 30°, 
long. 11° W '. 

A ship at sea, in lat, 38°, 
long. 10°47' W 

Colares 

Lisbon 

Oporto 

Ayamonte 

Cadiz 

Tangier and Tetuan 

Madrid 

Gibraltar 

Funchal 

Portsmouth 

Havre 

Reading 

Yarmouth 

Eyara Edge , 

Durham 

Amsterdam , 

Loch Ness 

Hamburgh , 



Moment 


Distance 

from 
presumed 


Time from 




observed 
of shock. 


impulse to 
arrival. 


Observations. 




origin. 






h m 


o / 


m s 




9 23 


... 


... 


At sea. 


9 24 


30 


1 




9 30 


1 30 


7 


Portugal. 


9 32 


1 30 


9 




9 38 


2 30 


15 




9 50 


4 


27 


Spain. 


9 48 


5 


25 




9 46 


5 30 


23 




9 43 


6 


20 




9 55 


6 


32 




10 1 


8 30 


38 


Madeira. 


10 3 


12 30 


40 




10 23 


13 


60 




10 27 


13 30 


64 




10 42 


15 


79 


[certain.) 


10 30 


15 30 


67 


Derbyshire (not 


9 58 


17 


35 


Uncertain. 


10 6 


17 


43 




10 42 


18 


79 




11 43 


20 


140 


Uncertain. 



Much uncertainty attends many of the statements as to time ; and at 
several localities there is evidence that the shocks arrived much more 
rapidly than at others, in relation to distance. Thus at Cork two shocks 
were felt at 9*^ 33'". 

The longitudes are from the meridian of Greenwich. 



10 



REPORT — 1858. 



Progressive rate of the shock, Lisbon earthquake of 31st March, 1761. 



Locality. 



Moment 
observed 
of shock. 



Distance 

from 
presumed 

origin. 



Time from 

impulse to 

arrival. 



Observations. 



Presumed focus, lat. 43' 
long. 11° W 

Ship at sea, in lat. 43'', not 
many leagues from coast of 
Portugal 

Ship in lat. 44°, and about 80 
leagues off coast 

Corunna 

Ship lat. 44° 8', and 80 
leagues W.N.W. of Cape 
Finisterre 

Lisbon 

Madeira 

Cork 



Loch Ness, between 



Amsterdam, between . 



h m 
11 51 



11 52 

11 54 
11 51 



11 58 
noon 

12 6 
12 11 

11 40 
and 

12 40 
1 15 
and 

1 45 



30 

1 45 

2 30 



3 

4 

10 

9 



30 

30 



30 



11 



15 15 



At sea. 



7 

9 

15 

20 

r20 01 

i and y 

L49 Oj 

r84 0l 

^ and I 

[ll4 OJ 



Uncertain, 
Uncertain. 



The great sea- wave of the shock of 1755 appears, from the recorded 
periods of arrival,, to have travelled from its point of origin to the following 
places at the rates given in miles English per minute, according to Milne ; 
assuming the transit rate uniform for the whole range of translation, which, 
however, is not possible : — 

Plymouth 2-1 miles per minute. 

Kinsale 2*7 „ 

Mount's Bay 2-7 „ 

Cadiz 3-6 „ 

Funchal 3-7 ,, 

Ayamento 5-0 „ 

Lisbon 5-5 „ 

Antigua 6-0 „ 

Barbadoes 7*3 „ 

and that of the shock of 1761, as follows : — 

Scilly Isles and Mount's Bay 2*0 miles per minute. 

Dublin 2-1 „ 

Kinsale 2*7 „ 

Barbadoes 7-4. „ 

^ I place these results of Milne's discussions of the imperfect materials at 
his command, rather for convenience of reference to future investigators, 
than as attaching much value to them beyond rude and provisional ap- 
proximations*. 

* For the same reasons I transcribe the following notice, which has appeared while these 
sheets have been printing : — 

" Direction and velocity of the earthquake in California of the 8th and 9th January 1857 
By Dr. John B. Trask." Sillimau's Journal, Jan. 1858, vol. xxv. p. 146. 

" The precise time of one of the shocks was obtained with tolerable accuracy for five 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF BARTHaUAKE PHENOMENA. 11 

We proceed now to France, Belgium, and Holland, the limits of which 
Perrey fixes somewhat arbitrarily, as bounded on the south by the Medi- 
terranean and by Spain, on the west and north by the Atlantic and Northern 
Oceans, as far as the Zuyder Zee, on the east by the Rhine and Alps, but 
comprising within it Geneva, in the basin of the Rhone, and Basle, Manheim, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, and some other cities close to the right bank and in 
the basin of the Rhine. 

Table VII. — Earthquakes of France, Belgium, and Holland. 





Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 






















, 








-a _ 


TS , 


Century. 


3 




i 

a 


< 


^ 
g 


V 

a 
3 


1^ 


CO 

3 
tJD 


S 

4) 


1 


(D 

a 




i 


Winter an 
Autumn 


.5 a 

s- 3 


4° 


Total. 


IV 










• •• 




... 


• ■• 




* • . 


... 


... 






... 


• *. 


V 


• •• 


. . , 


.*. 




*.• 


... 


... 


... 




... 


1 








... 


1 


VI 


... 


... 






... 


1 


... 


... 


... 




... 


i 






3 


6 


VII 


,,, 


* • • 


• •. 






**• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 






... 


... 


VIII 


• •• 


• •* 






• ■* 


• •• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 






... 


... 


IX 


4 


2 


1 




*•• 


... 


... 


... 


3 


1 


... 


4 3 




1 


21 


X 


1 


"i 


"2 




"2 




"2 


... 


"i 


"'3 


2 


i 


... 




1 
2 


2 
16 


XI 


XII 


3 


... 


1 


2 


2 


1 


... 


1 


... 




... 


1 


... 




1 


12 


XIII 


1 


1 


1 


... 


• •• 


1 


1 


... 


1 


* >* 




1 


. .. 




2 


9 


XIV 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


*•> 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


i 


6 


21 


XV 


• * • 


1 


■ •• 


2 


... 


1 


1 


2 


1 


• ■• 


3 


1 


... 


1 


1 


14 


XVI 


7 


6 


5 


4 


5 


2 


3 


2 


6 


4 


2 


5 


3 


... 


7 


61 


XVII 


13 


15 


4 


4 


7 


3 


7 


3 


8 


4 


6 


11 


... 


... 


6 


91 


XVIII. ... 


26 


20 


17 


26 


11 


18 


17 


15 


13 


18 


23 


28 


1 


... 


4 


237 


XIX 


27 


17 


21 


13 


13 


8 


15 


17 


15 


17 


21 


25 


1 


... 


1 


211 


Total. ... 


83 


64 


53 


55 


42 


36 


47 


40 


50 


48 


60 


78 


9 


2 


35 


702 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




200. 


133. 


137. 


186. 











localities eastward of San Francisco, the greatest error in time of the clocks being 3' 4", 
and the least 0' 22". The time, being all reduced to that of San Francisco, gives the fol- 
lowing results : — 



Locality. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Time of shock. 


Elapsed 
time. 


Velocity 
per min. 


San Francisco 

Sacramento 

Stockton 


/ 

37 48 

38 32 
37 52 
35 00 
32 42 


/ 

122 25 
121 23 
121 34 
118 46 
117 13 


h. m. s. 
8 13 30 
8 20 00 
8 23 00 
8 45 00 
8 50 00 


m. 8. 

00 

7 30 

9 30 

32 30 

36 30 


miles. 
00 
6-6 
6-5 
60 
70 


Tpinn 


San Dieffo 





or, for the average of the five observations, 6'2 miles per minute, or 545-6 feet per second. 
The author says, this closely approximates to Prof. Bache's results as to the rate of the 
earthquake at Limoda on 23rd December 1854 (Amer. Ass. for Advancement of Science, for 
that vear) ; but he appears here to confound rate of sea- wave with that of earth-wave or 
shock." 



12 



REPORT — 1858. 



And for the two months at each critical period of the year — 

Dec. and Jan., Winter Solstice 161 

June and July, Summer ditto 83 

March and April, Spring Equinox 108 

Sept. and Oct., Autumnal ditto 98 

As respects horizontal direction, the relative numbers are, — 

N. to S 1-50 

N.E. „ S.W 0-4.3 

E. „ W 1-88 

S.E. „ N.W 0-59 

S. „ N 1-02 

S.W. „ N.E 0-96 

W. „ E 0-91 

N.W.„ S.E 0.69 

•which, by Perrey's method of calculation, gives for the mean general hori- 
zontal direction, — 

N. 71° 27' E. to S. 71° 27' W. 

To this he not only, in the case of France, confesses that he does not 
attach much weight, but also states that each century will not give the same 
mean resultant. 

The actually observed districts of shock have been mainly along the 
lines of the valleys of the Rhine and Rhone, and in an inferior degree along 
those of the Loire, Seine, Garonne, and Meuse (the Pyrenees being 
viewed as part of the Spanish region), the tendency being to a direction in 
length of the valley, others across these. When the physical and geological 
features of France and the Rhine basin are recalled, it can scarcely be 
doubted that they constitute a natural independent seismic region, with 
centres of disturbance connected probably at great depths with the extinct 
volcanic countries of central France and of the Rhine. The almost continual 
slight disturbances of St. INIaurienne, lasting for more than fifteen months at 
one time, appear quite analogous to those of Comrie and East Haddam. For 
the specialities of these and other questions of the French system, however, 
the memoir itself of Perrey must be consulted. 

The basin of the Rhone has been consigned to a separate memoir. The 
precise limits assigned to the district are not stated ; but we must assume 
them to extend somewhat vaguely beyond the actual catchment of the 
river. The results are given in 

Table VIII. — Earthquakes of the Basin of the Rhone. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 




Total. 




1 




< 




(U 

cs 

s 




(A 

3 

fco 


1 


1 
o 


a 

> 
o 


i 


XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


1 

6 

7 
12 


3 

5 

12 


1 
1 
6 
8 


' i 

6 
3 


2 
3 
3 
3 


1 
3 
5 
2 


' 7 

2 


i 

4 
4 


3 
6 
4 
6 


"i 

8 
6 


6 

8 


1 

2 

7 

14 


1 

2 
3 

1 


10 
29 
71 
81 


Total ... 


26 


20 


16 


10 


11 


11 


9 


9 


19 


15 


14 


24 


7 


191 


Winter 
62 


Spring 
32 


Summer 
37 


Autumn 
53 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 13 

presenting considerable similarity to the results for France as a whole. 
The following are the proportional numbers for the months : — 



1-1 
a 

s 

>-> 




i 


.-4 

•< 


& 
§ 


3 




3 

3 


S3 

a 

■*-» 

en 


t-4 

o 
O 


1 

o 


ID 
1 

<u 
o 


1-69 


1-31 


1-06 


0-66 


on 


0-71 


0-59 


0-59 


1-24 


0-98 


0-92 


1-57 



Or, for Winter 1-35 

„ Spring 0-69 

„ Summer 0*81 

„ Autumn 1*16 

and for the two months each of 

Winter Solstice 1-53 

Spring Equinox 0"81 

Summer Solstice 0*61 

Autumn Equinox 1*05 

and as to direction, following his usual method, Perrey arrives at a mean 
general horizontal i-esultant, — 

S. 9° 44.' W. to N. 9° W E. 

This is not far from the general line of the course of the Lower Rhone ; 
but Perrey remarks that numerous examples occur of shocks whose alleged 
horizontal movements were orthogonal to the river-valley, and to the 
meridian. 

We pass on to the basin of the Rhine, which, in its entire extent, com- 
prehends, in fact, a large portion of Switzerland, but whose precise limits 
Perrey does not define. 

Table IX — Earthquakes of the Basin of the Rhine and Switzerland. 



Centui/. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


With date of 
Year only. 


Total. 


i 

3 

u 

"-s 


2 

.a 
a; 




a, 
< 


i- 
S 


c 

3 
•-3 




m 

3 

to 

3 
< 


.a 
S 

& 




'S 




X' 

a 

> 


2; 


XI 

S 

s 
n 


iH 

Id 


II 
1-- 


IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 

XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


3 

"i 

1 
1 

4 
21 
15 
15 


2 
2 

"i 

1 

5 
14 
12 
17 


1 

"i 

"i 
1 

4 

u 

10 
13 


2 
1 

"l 

1 
5 
6 
9 
12 


2 

"3 
1 
3 

10 
6 

11 


1 

"i 

"2 
1 
2 
5 

12 

6 


1 

1 

2 

8 

11 

12 


"i 
2 

6 
10 

11 


1 
"2 

"e 
9 

8 
10 


1 
"i 

"i 

"3 
4 
9 

17 


1 

3 

5 

8 

17 

24 


5 
"\ 

2 

6 

12 
20 

25 


1 
... 


*i' 


2 

1 
2 
5 
1 

1 

"5 
6 
2 


19 
2 
9 

8 

3 

18 

12 

52 

120 

141 

173 


Total... 


62 


54 


44 


37 


36 


30 


35 


30 


36 


36 


58 


71 


2 


1 


25 


557 


Winter 
160 


Spring 
103 


Summer 
101 


Autumn 
165 



14 



REPORT — 1858. 



The autumn and winter together here present a number, having nearly 
the same ratio to that of spring and summer together, as 3 : 2. 

And at the critical periods of the year, of two months each, we have 

Winter Solstice 1 33 

Spring Equinox 81 

Summer Solstice 65 

Autumnal Equinox 72 

while, as respects horizontal direction, 

S. to N 0-78 

N.E „ S.W 0-44. 

E. „ W. 1-33 

S.E. „ N.W. 0-89 

S. „ N. .........'. 2-00 

S.W.„N.E Ml 

W. „E 0-78 

N.W.„ S.E. 0-67 

and, by calculations on before-given principles, a mean general horizontal 
direction of 

S. 7° 9' E. to N. 7° 9' W. 

which corresponds pretty well with the general direction of the river valley. 
Observation, however, indicates, in most of the localities upon its banks, 
frequent and wide occasional departures from such direction ; and, indeed, 
in the broken country forming a large portion of its length it is improbable 
it should be otherwise. 

The basin of the Danube. — This vast tract of country has been left very 
ill-defined as to its limits by Perrey, as respects the subject of his research. 
His catalogue shows that he does not limit himself precisely to the catch- 
ment of this mightiest of European rivers, but, in fact, includes something 
like the whole of that vast tract of country between a line on the north, 
reaching from Prague to Kherson ; and on the south, from Venice to Con- 
stantinople, and even occasionally stretching beyond these limits. 



Table X — Earthquakes of the Basin of the Danube. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 




Total. 


a 


t 

a 

1 


-a 

'—I 
<5 


'u 

Ph 


^ 
S 


3 


3 

1-5 

1 
1 

2 

6 

10 


•4-9 

60 

S 


i 

E 

c/2 


O 
-^^ 
O 

O 


> 


1^ 


a5 

-a 
n 


^3 

: 

<D 3 


a t~ 
a 

>-. 3 


V. to XV... 

XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


1 

3 

2 

11 

14 


1 
1 

4 
10 
15 


"i 

4 
9 


8 


2 
3 

"s 

12 


1 

4 
1 
5 

8 


1 
1 

3 

9 

11 


1 

3 

1 

11 


"7 
16 


i 

2 

5 

10 


"1 
5 

8 
12 


i 

'2 
1 


"i 


11 

16 

11 

4 

1 


19 
35 
31 
88 
145 


Total... 


31 


31 


14 


16 


23 


19 


26 


25 


16 


23 


18 


26 


4 


1 


43 


318 


Winter 
76 


Spring: 
60 


Summer 
67 


Autumn 
67 



Perrey remarks, that although the total number of shocks recorded appears 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 15' 

great, it is very small in proportion to the enormous area embraced — nearly 
ten times that of the basin of the Rhone ; and he justly concludes, that, 
M'ere it not for the penury of records in those regions, so much of which 
is semibarbarous or thinly inhabited, the total number in it would be far' 
greater than he gives. While the general character of shocks here is not 
that of great intensity, instances are to be found of some, of disastrous power. 
The relative numbers are for 

Winter Solstice 1-33 

Spring Equinox 0*70 

Summer Solstice I'Oo 

Autumnal Equinox 0'91 

and as respects horizontal direction, the results are, — 

N. to S 1-33 

N.E. „ S.W 0-50 

E. „ W 1-33 

S.E. „ N.W 0-50 

S. „ N 1-17 

S.W. „ N.E 1-00 

W. „ E 1-33 

N.W. „ S.E 0-85 

from which Perrey obtains a mean general horizontal direction of 

W. 2° 39' N. to E. 2° 39' S. 

This is again very much the line of the Lower Danube itself, which, how- 
ever, over so vast an area, and fed by vast rivers poured into it on the 
northern side between great flanking ranges passing more or less north and 
south, can in reality exercise little or no influence ; and too much stress 
must not be laid upon any observation as to line of direction, even when the 
azimuth surface may be reliable. This applies to every earthquake country; 
uninstructed observers are very liable to mistake the direction of movement, 
by confounding the direct effects of the shock with those due to inertia of 
bodies moved. In the Danube basin, it must at present remain undecided 
whereabouts the centre or centres of disturbance proper to the region are 
to be found. On the north, the Carpathians probably are above the centre 
for those whose horizontal direction is more or less north and south ; but 
whether the shocks from east to west, and veering towards the north or 
occasionally to the south, have their origin in the Caucasus, or beneath the 
eastern extremity of the Euxine, or are also in connexion with the great 
seismic energies that so powerfully and frequently display themselves in 
Syria and the south-east, indeed all over Asia Minor, yet requires to be 
investigated. 

In the region of the Italian Peninsula, Perrey includes the whole of Italy 
and the mass of the Alps, exclusive of Savoy (which is included in the 
basin of the Rhone), with Sicily, Malta, Sardinia, &c., reaching into the 
centre of the Mediterranean Sea ; and, on the north, all the localities whose 
watersheds are not into the Rhone, Rhine, or Danube. For the con- 
ventional limits which Perrey has fixed for himself in deciding upon the 
isolation in point of time of each distinct earthquake, often in this region 
continuing for many days with little interruption, the memoir itself must be 
consulted. 



16 



REPORT — 1858. 



Table XL — Earthquakes of the Italian Peninsula, with Sicily, Sardinia, 

and Malta. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


C8 O 

1- 


Total. 


3 
p 








^ 


s 


»-5 


CO 

3 

to 


53 

.a 

S 


o 


a> 

.a 

s 

> 
o 


a 

o 


^ Si 

a. a 


■a . 

toS 

.5 3 




>-i 


fi^ 


S 


< 


S 


•-J 


< 


CO 


O 


^ 


H 


C3 


M 






IV 












... 


... 


• •• 




... 




• • * 


... 


... 


6 


6 


V 




... 


• ■* 






• •• 


... 


... 




• •• 




... 


1 






4 


5 


VI 




*■ • 




■ • t 




... 


• •• 


... 




1 




1 


«.• 






1 


3 


VII 


... 


. .* 


. *• 




• .* 


... 


• ■. 


1 




... 




.«• 


• •• 






*.. 


1 


VIII 


• •> 


*•• 


• *. 


• *. 






... 


... 




>•■ 




... 


... 






2 


2 


IX 


... 


... 


• •• 


1 




1 




• ■• 




. • • 




1 


... 






3 


6 


X 


• t* 


... 


• •■ 


• •■ 


• •• 


,,, 


• •• 


. • . 




... 




.*• 


... 






3 


3 


XI 


1 
2 


1 
1 


1 


1 


... 




... 






... 

1 




i 


' i 






3 
12 


7 
18 


XII 


XIII 


1 


■ •* 


• ■ t 


2 


1 


. . . 


... 


* * * 


i 


. •* 


1 


1 


... 






8 


15 


XIV 


3 


1 


, ,, 




1 


1 


... 




3 


• •* 


2 


3 


... 






6 


20 


XV 


. •• 


1 


1 




1 




... 


1 


... 


1 


• «• 


6 


• • * 






7 


18 


XVI 


2 


■ •> 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


2 


..• 


2 


2 


1 






15 


32 


XVII 


10 


15 


14 


15 


4 


13 


8 


7 


10 


4 


6 


3 


2 


1 


9 


121 


XVIII. ... 


45 


41 


43 


29 


38 


46 


21 


31 


24 


44 


31 


30 


2 


1 


12 


438 


XIX 


37 


39 


38 


35 


32 


24 
86 


33 
63 


36 


23 


41 


22 


29 






1 


390 


Total ... 


101 


99 


98 


84 


80 


77 


63 


92 


64 


77 


7 


2 


92 


1085 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autun 


an 




298 


230 


203 


233 













M. Perrey, having obtained access to the worii of Muratori and other 
documents, produced a supplement to this memoir, the result of which he 
has given in 

Supplemental Table XII. — Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, and 

Malta. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 




Total. 


>-5 




.a 


< 


^ 

S 


<u 

a 

3 
>-5 


'-r> 


-4-» 

1 


a 


1 

o 


a 
u 

o 


a 
s 


VIII 

IX 

X 

XI 

XII 

XIII 

XIV 

XV 


4 
2 
5 
5 

1 

i 

7 




5 
9 




6 


"i 

1 

2 

2 
2 
1 
4 
2 
8 


"i 
I 

4 
3 
1 

1 

8 


i 

1 

2 
3 

1 

"i 

10 


• •• 
... 

2 

4 

1 

i 

2 
8 


'i 
1 
1 

10 

"i 

10 


2 

"e 

5 

i 

1 

4 


1 

2 
3 

1 

1 
4 
4 


"3 
1 

4 

i 

4 


i 

6 
5 

i'6 


1 

'3 

2 
12 
11 
6 
2 
1 

"*i 


1 

3 
5 

22 
26 
51 

47 
5 
9 

20 

88 

277 


XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


i 

5 


2 

1 
10 


Total ... 


25 


13 


23 


23 


20 


21 


18 


25 


19 


16 


13 


22 


39 


Winter 
61 


Spring 
64 


Summer 
62 


Autumn 
51 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 1? 

In the first of these, the winter and spring earthquakes together are to 
the summer and autumn together 

as 6 : 5. 

In the supplemental table taken alone, however, the winter season has lost 
its preponderance, and autumn shows the smallest number. 

The number in winter and autumn together, however, still slightly ex- 
ceeds that for spring and summer, in the ratio of 9 : 8. 

While this shows the usual doubtfulness of generalizations from partial data, 
the result rather tends to awaken increased attention to the very prevalent 
excess of seismic action in the winter half-year, shown by so many cata- 
logues, and here sustained, though by a supplement, that, taken alone, some- 
what departs from the principle. 

As regards direction, he finds 

N. to S 0-82 

N.E. „ S.W 1-08 

E. „ W 1-94- 

S.E. „ N.W 1-29 

S. „ N 1-29 

S.W. „ N.E 0-40 

W. „ E 0-91 

N.W. „ S.E 0-28 

and the mean general horizontal direction of resultant 
S. 72° 27' E. to N. 72° 27' W. 
Observation by no means accords with any such general mean direction. It 
has repeatedly indicated movements in Italy and Sicily in every azimuth — 
perhaps with some greater prevalence of those from north to south, and the 
reverse ; but the fact appears to be that these regions have their centre of dis- 
turbance almost directly beneath, and hence, as is the case in Soutli America, 
and the Moluccas, Philippines and Sunda Islands, the emergence of the wave 
generally makes an extremely large angle with the horizon ; and the horizontal 
component is ill-suited to easy observation. The most fearful earthquakes 
with which this region has been visited, and whose force has reached 
France, Germany, Holland, and England, and into Africa, are said to have 
had a point within their immediate cincture where the shock was absolutely 
vertical, as in the Riobambe earthquake recorded by Humboldt. 

The memoir of Perrey on Algiers and Northern Africa is brief; and he 
laments that the want of information, and of access to sources of it not 
attainable, prevented his collecting a sufficient number to found any ge- 
neralization upon. The following results alone he is able to tabulate : — 

Table XIII. — Earthquakes of Algeria and Northern Africa. 



Earthquakes with date of Month. 




Total. 


a 

3 

•-3 


3 

1^ 


1 


< 




s 
3 

>-5 


—> 


CO 

3 

CO 

< 


i 
p. 

en 


<u 
O 
o 

o 


.a 

a 

> 


a 

o 

o 

p 


5 


2 


6 


7 


3 


2 


2 


5 


1 


4 


8 


1 


17 


C3 


Winter 
13 


Spring 
12 


Summer 
8 


Autumn 
13 



1858. 



IB 



REPORT — 1858. 



The want of further liistoric information upon this region is much to be 
regretted. It has been, since anything has been recorded of it, known as 
subject to earthquakes. Cities, the sites of bishoprics in the ancient Christian 
church of Africa, were thus demolished, and now astonisli the traveller 
amidst rocky solitudes by acres of hewn stone on the sites of prostrate 
edifices that mark the past magnificence of Carthaginian and Roman rule. 
And at the present day, earthquakes are frequent and serious, as the many 
edifices erected by the French since they have been in possession of Algeria, 
and since thrown down, demonstrate. 

Whether, as a seismic region, Northern Africa have a centre of dis- 
turbance of its own, and if so, whether this exists deep within the little- 
known recesses of the Atlas chain, or beneath the southern verge of the JVIe- 
diterranean basin, or whether its disturbances are only derivative, and have 
their centre either in the volcanic region of the Canaries or amongst the 
towering peaks of Abyssinia, all yet remains to be discovered. No infor- 
mation worthy of any confidence has reached me as to the general horizon- 
tal direction of shocks in this region. How mucii to be desired is it, that 
the government of the Emperor of the French would systematize seisnio- 
scopic observations in their African possessions ! 

The last of Perrey's European series now comes before us ; and in the 
following table he has given the results for — 



Table XIV. 



Earthquakes of the Turco- Hellenic Territory, Syria, the 
Mgsean Islands, and Levant. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


o . 

3§ 


Total. 






















•^ 


^'^ 


1h 






3 
C 

1-5 


>-< 

03 

U 

o 


1 


Oh 
< 




<U 
*-3 




VI 
3 
ho 

3 


a 

■+J 


o 
o 
O 


J2 

3 

> 
o 


a 

o 


6.S 
a 


^ cu 

fcoS 

.5 a 

(- 3 


^ la 




IV 














1 


1 




1 




1 


3 


1 


15 


23 


V 


1 




1 


3 




1 






3 




1 








9 


19 


VI 


1 


1 




1 


1 




2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


2 






10 


27 


VII 








1 




1 




*.. 




• . . 


t • . 


> • • 






6 


8 


VIII 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 










] 


• • . 






1 


3 


12 


IX 


1 








1 






2 










1 




2 


7 


X 




















2 


1 


t . . 








5 


XI 


1 


2 


1 






1 




1 






1 


3 






7 


18 


XII 










1 


1 










... 


2 






19 


23 


XIII 




* . . 


1 




1 


1 






... 


... 




1 






9 


13 


XIV 




1 


1 










2 












1 


3 


8 


XV 








1 


t . . 










1 


1 








7 


11 


XVI 






2 




2 


1 




... 






1 


1 






14 


22 


XVII 


3 


i 


3 


4 


4 


1 


6 


2 




1 


5 


1 






17 


53 


XVIII. .. 


9 


8 


5 


9 


10 


13 


12 


8 


11 


8 


9 


8 


2 




12 


124 


XIX 


22 


20 


16 


10 


16 


15 


14 
35 


22 

40 


14 

40 


17 


12 


14 


2 


2 


1 


197 


Total .. 


40 


35 


31 


30 


37 


35 


34 


33 


33 


8 


5 


134 


570 


V 


'inter 


Sprin 


T 


Summer 


Autumn 




106 


102 




115 


100 











This vast region embraces the Turco-Greek peninsula, from Trieste to 
Constantinople southward of the Balkan range, the Greek Archipelago and 
Asia Minor to Bagdad, with a portion of Syria and the Levant. 

Perrey remarks, that the number of facts he has been able to collect are 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 19 

fewer than the known seismic character of the region warrants, and rightly 
attributes this to want of record, and to the want of communication in tliese 
parts of the world. He also remarks (what has been pointed out in the Second 
Report as applying to Antioch, &c.) that here seismic energy appears to have 
been in various localities extremely paroxysmal in its action, with long periods 
of intermediate cessation. In the Turco-Greek peninsula, earthquakes have 
long been both frequent and formidable. 

For the four critical periods of the year he finds 

Winter Solstice T3 

Spring Equinox 61 

Summer Solstice 70 

Autumnal Equinox 74< 

Pouqueville (' Voyage en Grece') has given some very singular facts and 
speculations as to the time of year of earthquakes in Epirus, &c., in re- 
lation to the rains. They need inquiry and confirmation. 

In analysing the horizontal direction of shock, Perrey has deemed it 
proper to separate the region under three sub-districts, in consequence of 
the broken character of the Greek peninsula, and the very diverse orieiitation 
of the coasts, river-courses, and mountain-ranges throughout all its parts. 





Adriatic. 








Directions. 


Trieste to Zante. 


Constantinople. 


Smyrna. 


Total. 


N. toS. ... 


4 


2 


2 


9* 


N.E.toS.W. ... 






• . • 


, , 


E. toW. ... 


2 


... 


• *. 


3t 


S.E. toN.W. ... 


1 






1 


S. toN. ... 


4 


1 


1 


6 


S.W.toN.E. ... 


1 




* . . 


1 


W. toE. ... 


3 






3 


N.W.toS.E. ... 


2 


1 


i 


5: 



These figures are meagre enough. By the usual method, Perrey calculates 
a mean general horizontal direction of shock, 

N. 34° 37' W. to S. 34° 37' E. 

The deduction, however, is plainly in this instance of little value. Many 
shocks in this region have been described as approximating to vertical; and 
this is to be anticipated from one having a centre of disturbance almost in 
its midst with active volcanic action. All its eastern end, Syria, &c., how- 
ever, has some separate centre of disturbance, either in connexion with the 
eastern chains of Asia Minor, which appear to abound in igneous forma- 
tions or with the Southern Aiabian centre ; while Constantinople, the Dar- 
danelles, and the western and southern shores of the Euxine may also be in 
connexion with the Caucasian centre of action. 

We have now completed Perrey's European series. He passes to the 
American by the discussion of the basin of the Atlantic, viewed as com- 
prehending all from Iceland on the north to 'i'ristan d'Acunha on the south, 
and on the east and we.<t everytiiing between the shores of the continents of 
the New and Old Worlds. 

Within this oceanic expanse no less than five great and probably con- 
nected centres of volcanic action exist: Iceland, the Azores, the Canaries, 



* Including once for Aleppo. 
t Including once for Thassis. 



t Including once for Latakia. 
c2 



20 REPORT — 1858. 

the Cape de Verds, the West India Islands, and the great submarine volcanic 
region first noticed by M. Daussy, besides many other points, as Ascension, 
St. Helena, St. Paul's, &c., at which extinct volcanic phenomena are visible. 
The number of observations, however, as yet recorded of earthquake-shocks 
within the basin is so very small, that Perrey has been only able to collect from 
130 to 140 instances between the years 1430 and 1847, or about three a 
year on the average ; so that he does not deem the basis large enough to 
warrant any numerical discussion. The observations of M. Daussy, " Sur 
I'existence probable d'un volcan sousmarin situe par environ 0° 20' de lat. 
S. et 22° 0' de Ion. ouest," published in vol. vi. p. 512, ' Comptes Rendus 
de I'Academie' (1853), have, however, made this one of the most interesting 
seismic regions on the globe. 

M. Moreau de Jonnes (' Comptes Rendus/ vol. vi. p. 302) has given two 
recorded observations on board French ships, the ' Caesar' and the ' Syl- 
phide,' which render the existence of a submarine volcanic tract on the bank 
of Bahama highly probable ; but M. Daussy has collected and given obser- 
vations of shocks received by vessels at sea at various periods, but all within 
a given limited area, which renders the existence almost certain of a vast 
active volcanic suboceanic area in the basin of the Atlantic, nearly midway 
between Cape Palmas on the west coast of Africa, and Cape St. Roque on 
the east coast of South America, or in the narrowest part of the ocean between 
these continents. This vast disturbed and perhaps partially igneous ocean- 
floor can be no less than nine degrees in length from west to east, and from 
three to four degrees in breadth from north to south. The following are the 
observations given by Daussy ; and the relative positions of the several 
recording ships are given in the diagram (fig. A.) : — 

17th Oct. 1747.— The ship ' Le Prince,' Bobriant : two shocks. Lat. 1° 35' S.; 
long. 20° 10' W. 

5th Feb. 1754. — The ship ' Silhouette,' Pintaul: one shock, with trembling. 
Lat. 0° 20' S. ; long. 23° 10' W. 

13th April 1758. — The frigate ' Fidele,' Lehoux : several shocks. Lat. 
0°20' S.; long. 23° 10' W. 

3rd May 1761. — The ship ' Le Vaillant,' Bouvet: saw an islet of sand above 
water, in lat. 0° 23' S. and long. 21° 30' W. 

3rd Oct. 1771 — The frigate ' Le Pacifique,' Bonfil : one shock and trem- 
bling. Lat. 0° 42' S., and long, by estimation, 22° 47' W. An agi- 
tated sea, and no bottom found on sounding. 

19th May 1806.— M. de Krusenstern (ship's name not given). Lat. 2° 43' S., 
and long. 22° 55' W. Saw columns of smoke twelve or fifteen miles 
to the N.N.W., which he and Dr. Horner attributed to volcanic sub- 
marine eruption. 

18th Dec. 1816.— The ship 'The Triton,' Proudfoot: in lat. 0° 23' S., and 
long. 20° 6' W., passed over a shoal of about three miles from east to 
west, and one mile from north to south. Twenty-six fathoms water, 
with bottom of brown sand. 

12th ApriJ 1831.— The ship ' Eagle,' J. Taylor: in lat. 0° 22' S., and long. 
23 27' W., the sea being perfectly calm ; one violent shock: the rudder 
Avas powerfully shaken, and a muffled sound was heard from beneath. 

Nov. 1832.— The ship 'La Seine,' Le Mai re : in lat. 0° 22' S., and 

long. 2i° 15' W. Under easy sail; one powerful shock. 

9th Feb. 1835 — The barque ' The Crown,' of Liverpool (captain's name not 
given) : lat. 0° 57' S., and long. 25° 39' W. When going six knots, 
was thought suddenly to have struck on a coral rock and to have 



o 



to 



c-j 



CO 












\ • 

• • • 



U 

Pi 



> 



S ^ 



o i3 
•So -a 



'c -^ 



n 


a 


> 


^ 




m 


c. 


M 




f ; 


tS 


O 






c 




-a 




3 








s 
o 






22 REPORT — 1858. 

grated over it; but on sounding directly after, found 135 fathoms 

water. 
28th Jan. 1S36.— The ship 'Philantrope de Bordeaux,' Jayer: in lat. 0° 40' S., 

and lonr'. 22° 30' W. Violent shock and trembling for three minutes. 
13th & I6th March 1836— The American ship ' St. Paul,' of Salem (captain's 

name not given), being ten miles to the west of the ' Philantrope,' 

perceived the same shock. 
in 1836 Captain Fergussou, of the ship ' Henry Tanner,' presented to 

the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, through F. L. Huntley, Esq., 

volcanic ashes or cinders, like black pumice, which he had found on 

the surface of the sea when much agitated, in lat. 0° 35' S. and long. 

18° 10' W. 
In a previous voyage Captain Fergusson, in lat. 1° 35' S. and long. 

23° 5' W., was alarmed by a violent shock, accompanied by a gi-eat 

noise, as if he had struck upon a rock, but could find no bottom on 

sounding. 

Some other instances are said to be found in the ' Sailing Instructions for 
the Azores' by Tofino, translated by M. Urvoi de Portzampare, in the 
' Annales Maritimes de France,' which I have not been able to consult. We 
possess enough, however, to indicate that a submarine volcanic tract is in 
activity beneath the Atlantic, as large in area as Great Britain, and that the 
bottom of the ocean there is rendered uneven in the extreme, immense 
protrusions taking place in deep water. How desirable would it be that 
some British ships were commissioned to examine this tract more perfectly, 
especially to obtain accurate soundings and sectional lines of the bottom 
from east to west and from north to south, and, if possible, to obtain, by 
dredging or otherwise, good specimens of the material of the bottom, and 
also observations of the temperature of the sea at various depths ! 

Our knowledge of the distinguishing marks of suboceanic and subaerial 
volcanic ejecta, of the chemical reactions producing mineral species, under 
the conditions (so vaguely understood as yet) of high temperature and great 
pressure in presence of water, might receive important accessions, if such 
specimens from the bottom could be obtained from thence (or from other 
similar positions), while our ideas of the extent to which local ocean cur- 
rents may be produced and maintained by the local heating of the deep sea 
immediately above such volcanic tracts might be enlarged, and other trains 
of future research suggested. 

Above all, how forcibly does the existence (so far almost unnoticed and 
unknown) of this vast volcanic and seismic submarine region indicate the 
desirableness of having henceforth a well-arranged system of scientific ob- 
servation and mode of daily entry in the log-book made part of the duties 
of ships of every civilized maritime nation, and having such entries referred 
to a special office (with us, probably, in connexion with the Admiralty or 
with a revivified Board of Longitude) for extract, record, and discussion ! 
That certain classes of observations could not be made on board our ships 
at present, although the zeal of our officers of the navy and of some of the 
mercantile marine might be counted on, is certain ; but it is equally so that 
very many of the highest value to cosmical science could be made and re- 
corded, if the system were once arranged, the classes of observation deter- 
mined on, properly ruled and arranged log-books prepared, and the making 
certain observations (to be determined on by the central board beforehand 
in each instance) made matter of duty. Navigation and commerce would 
gain, eventually, quite as much as, by the small sacrifice of time and labour, 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 23 

tliey thus gave to science. I venture respectfully to commend it to our own, 
to the American, and to all European governments. 

In his memoir on the Earthquakes of the United States and Canada, 
Peney may be said to include the whole northern continent of America, 
with the exception of Mexico and Central America, to which he has de- 
voted another memoir. 

The two following tables, XV. and XVI., give the results of his discus- 
sion : — 

Table XV. — Earthquakes of the United States and of Canada. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


Si- 


Total. 


a 

s 

5 


3 
U 


March. 
April. 




s 
3 
1-5 


"3 


1 
< 


a 


Octoher. 
November. 


U 

a 

Q 


XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


3 

7 
4 


1 

9 
4 


"9 
3 


"3 
3 


3 
3 


1 
3 


G 

4 


6 


"5 

3 


I 

7 
2 


12 12 

7 5 


4 
6 
5 


10 
88 
51 


Total ... 


14 


14 


12 1 6 


6 


4 


10 


14 


8 


10 


19 


17 


15 


149 


Winter Spring 
40 16 


Summer 
32 


Autumn 
46 



Here the number of earthquakes in autumn and winter are to those o." 
summer and spring as 88 to 49, or nearly as 2 to 1 ; and for Perrey's critical 
periods : — 

Winter solstice 31 

Spring equinox 18 

Summer solstice 14. 

Autumnal equinox 18 

Perrey wholly disputes the verity of Humboldt's conclusion (' Cosmos,' t. i. 
p. ,519, trad. p. M. Fays) that earthquakes are most frequent at the equi- 
noxes, and declares that the results of all his memoirs prove the contrary. 

He discusses from his catalogue the relative number of shocks in each 
State of the Union ; but this is comparatively of less importance to science 
than to social life. He has not been able to ascertain the northern limit of 
seismic action, but sees ground to believe it has reached Greenland more 
than once, but that frequent shocks pass no further north than the Canadas. 
The only records with direction of motion given are twelve in number, 
viz., — 

N.W. to S.E 6 

W. „ E 3 

N.E. „ S.W 2 

E. „ W 1 

and calculating, upon his already known method, the mean direction from 
this narrow base, he finds it 

N. 31°54.'W., to S. 31°54.'E.; 

but he confesses his own opinion, derived from a broad view of all the facts 
and tiie topographic character of the country, to be, that the prevailing 
direction is from north to south, or the contrary. 



24 



REPORT — 1858. 



The vertical component of motion has only been given in one instance 
here ; but there is every reason to presume that the angle of emergence of 
the seismic wave all over the northern continent of America is steep. 

Table XVI. — Earthquakes of Mexico and Central America. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 




Total. 


2 


•s 


J2 
O 

53 


a. 

< 




B 
3 
"-J 




s 
to 




1 




i 




s 

u 

p 


XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


3 


i 

2 
2 


"2 
4 
2 


3 
2 


6 


3 
2 


'2 
2 


i 

1 


"3 

1 


3 


1 

2 


"3 


5 
3 
6 
1 


6 

7 

24 

30 


Total. ... 


3 


5 


8 


5 


6 


5 


4 


2 


4 


4 


3 


3 


15 


67 


Winter 
16 


Spring 
16 


Summer 
10 


Autumn 
10 



The steep emergence of the wave is most remarkable in Mexico, wiiere, at 
Acapulco, it is frequently felt as a directly vertical pulse from beneath (as 
at Riobamba). 

Perrey does not attempt, from his materials, a full discussion of the hori- 
zontal component of motion. The prevailing impression in Mexico is that 
the direction of shock is parallel to the chain of the Cordilleras. Some, how- 
ever, of the most remarkable shocks have apparently moved at right angles 
to the preceding. 

The truth is, in a wide region situated close to, and no doubt in great part 
close above, vast centres of disturbance, whose pulses reach the surface gene- 
rally with large angles to the horizon, there must be horizontal components 
in every azimuth, and only distinguishable in one more than another, as the 
accidents of the originating blows, of the heterogeneous formations through 
which they are transmitted, and the opportunities of exactness of observa- 
tion, &c. vary. 

Perrey concludes this memoir with a resume of the labours of Arago, Von 
Buch and Berghaus, on the volcanoes of Mexico and the Andes. 

In his memoir on the Antilles, Perrey includes Cuba, which has also been 
the subject of research to M. Poey, now stationed at the Observatory of 
Havanna — with Hispaniola, Jamaica and Porto Rico in the greater, and in 
the lesser isles Antigua, Barbadoes, St. Christopher's, Guadaloupe, Mar- 
tinique, Granada, Trinidad, St. Thomas, Santa Cruz, Dominica, St. Vin- 
cent, Tobago, and St. Lucia, &c. In discussing the copious materials at his 
disposal in this vast region, Perrey has found it necessary to adopt certain 
conventional licences with reference to some of the very prolonged earth- 
quakes, whose slight but continuous shocks have often (as at Comrie and 
East Haddani) lasted for a great length of time, reckoning each month of 
such shocks as equivalent to one great earthquake. 

In the following table, XVII., he has given the distribution in time : — 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 25 
Table XVII. — Earthquakes of the Antilles. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With Season 
only. 


5^ 


Total. 


if- 

ea 

3 
C 

1-5 


1 


"3 

5 




•p. 


a) 

3 




to 

3 


c 

s 


t-4 

•g 



i4 

S 

> 



U 


'2 . 
S 3 


3 tH 


XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


"e 

9 


1 
7 
8 


1 

3 

19 


i 

4 
12 


1 

3 

12 


"l 

5 
10 


... 

1 
10 

9 


"7 

16 


1 

"9 

12 


i'o 
10 


5 
13 


"3 

12 


' i 


... 


16 

13 

2 


1 

16 

85 

145 


Total ... 


15 


16 


23 


17J 16 


16 


20 


23 


22 


20 


18 


15 


1 




25 


247 




Winter 
54 


Spring 
49 


Summer 
65 


Autumn 
53 



Contrary to the result usual for Europe, the number of shocks in summer 
here seems to preponderate ; and in the critical periods we have — 

Winter solstice 30 

Spring equinox 40 

Summer solstice 36 

Autumnal equinox 42 

or for autumn and winter together 108; spring and summer 114,— a result 
equally contrary to what has been found so uniformly for Europe, and to 
the prevalent belief of the inhabitants of the islands themselves, who deem 
the equinoxes the dangerous times. 

Representing by unity the mean degree of frequency, and by 12 the 
whole number of earthquakes given with date of month, we find for each 
month the following proportional number : — 



i 


3 

1 


,3" 


p. 
< 




3 
3 
l-Tj 


>> 
"3 
1-3 


1 


. 

u 

03 

S 
0) 

<u 
en 


U 

■g 

u 




a 

> 



<a 

a 

P 


0-81 


0-87 


1-25 


0-92 


0-87 0-87 


1-09 


1-25 


M9 109 


0-98j 0-81 


0-98 


0-89 


1-18 


0-96 



As regards horizontal direction of shock, his data give — 

E. to W 9 

S. „ N 5 

N. „ S 3 

W. „ E 2 

N.E. „ S.W 2 

from which, by his usual method, he deduces a mean horizontal direction — 

E. 22° 5' S. to W. 22° 5' N. ; 

and it is worthy of remark, that Deville gives, as greatly disturbed in 1843, 
the zone running parallel to the great circle of W. 35° N. to E. 35° S., 



26 



REPORT 1858. 



or E. 35° S. to W. 35" N., which is about parallel also to Perrey's mean 
direction. It must not be forgotten, however, that, in 1812 and in ISIS, 
shocks were observed at right angles to this, and in some cases, as in 1770, 
in all azimuths ; and also that the prevalent opinion of the inhabitants of the 
West Indian Islands is, that they have a general north and south horizontal 
direction, thus coming within the scope of the general direction of similar 
phenomena on the northern and southern continents of America. 

M. Poey, of the Observatory, Havanna, has published, in the ' Nouvelles 
Annales des Voyages' for 1855, a memoir and supplement upon the earth- 
quakes of Cuba, separately, with copies of which he has obligingly fur- 
nished me. It would be out of place in this Report to discuss M. Poey's 
views as to the connexion between cyclones, or other storms, and earth- 
quakes, or as to the physical causes of the impulse producing shocks. As 
regards the first, it may, however, be remarked in passing, that violent and 
sudden local change of barometer-pressure must (as I have indicated in a 
former report) be viewed as b. possible inducer of such reactions beneath the 
surface as may possibly result in earthquakes; and that as respects the part 
which water, under heat and pressure, may play in its sjiheroidal state, I 
have also indicated fully as much as the present state of our knowledge will 
sustain. As respects the statistic results of M. Poey's labours, they are 
embraced in the following table, which combines the facts of both memoir 
and supplement : — 

Table XVIII. — Earthquakes of Cuba. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or of Month. 




Total. 


u 

3 

a 
a 

►-a 


13 

3 
1 


J3 

1 






3 

4 


"3 
>-> 

"5 


«} 
3 
to 

< 

2 


»-> 

a 

a; 







s 




ID 

D 


XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


"i 


"4 
"3 


"2 


3 


"3 


"5 


(5 


'4 


4 

"2 
3 


4 

4 

2 

50 


Total ... 


4 


7 


2 


3 


3 


4 


5 


2 


6 


5 


6 


' 


9 


CO 


Winter 
13 


Spring 
10 


Summer 
13 


Autumn 
15 





Cuba, therefore, appears to show 28 earthquakes in the winter and autumn, 
and 23 only in the summer and spring. 

The surface of this single island is, however, perhaps too small to attach 
much importance to its isolated discussion*. 

The last of Perrey's monographic memoirs is that on Chili and La Plata, 



* While this Report has been passing through the press, I have received from M. Poey a 
copy of his later and more elaborate " Chronological Catalogue of Earthquakes in the West 
Indies, from 1530 to 1S57, extracted from 'I'Annuaire de la Societe Mett'orologique de France,' 
torn. V. p. 75, Seance du 25 Mai, 1857," and regret that the limits of a foot-note preclude 
the possibihty of analysis of his valuable memoir. 

Of a total of 690 earthquakes, he finds that 142 occurred in winter, 156 in spring, 187 
in summer, and 154 in autumn, — thus so far corroborating Perrey's result deduced from 
a smaller base. 

A very complete Seismic Bibliography for the Antilles concludes M. Poey's memoir. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 27 

or the region lying between the western slope of the Andes and the sea, 
from tiie 25° to the 45° south latitude, between the Desert of Atacama on 
the north, and the Archipelago of Chonos on the south. 

The following table contains his numerical results for a region, however, 
in wiiich shocks of greater or less intensity are almost of daily oc- 
currence : — 



Table XIX.- 


—Earthq 


uakes of Chil 


1 and the bas 


n of La Plata. 


Centui-}'. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 




Total. 


s 


3 


.a 

o 


i 








Sb 

3 




October. 
November. 


% 


XVI i ... 
















1 ... 




4 


5 


XVII ... 


1 


i ... 


i 




... 




... 








6 


9 


XVIII. ...: 1 


1 


1 ... 


1 


1 


... 


i 


• • • 




. . • 


1 


3 


10 


XIX \ 14 


10 


14 


8 


19 


11 


16 


15 


16 


9 


27 


8 


3 


170 


Total ... 


15 


12 


16 


8 


21 


12 


16 


16 


16 


10 


27 


9 


16 


194 




Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




43 


41 


48 


46 







From this table he has omitted several earthquakes, whose period has 
been prolonged to several weeks or even months, by a convention like that 
adopted here with regard to the memoir of Comrie, &c. 

A table of earthquakes noticed as occurring in Peru from a.v>. 1810 to 
1835, by M. Casteinau, was presented to the Academy of Sciences in 
1847, by Arago (' Couiptes Hendus,' 2 Nov. 1847) ; but the catalogue itself is 
not given, and I am not aware that it has appeared elsewhere. 

M. Lambert, mining engineer of Chili, in a memoir on the causes of 
earthquakes in Chili and Peru ('Ann. de Chim. et de Phj's.,' t. xlii. 
pp. 392-405), published in 1829, mentions that the Chilians vulgarly 
divide their year into three seasons or " temporadas," and that one of these, 
the first, composed of January, February, March, and April, is called "tem- 
porada de los tremblores," or earthquake season ; on comparing the facts of 
his catalogue, with the popular belief however, Perrey finds the facts pal- 
pably contradict it. 

As to the prevalent horizontal direction here, Perrey makes no attempt 
to discuss it, contenting himself with the remark, that the popular belief 
is universal in tlie region, that it follows tlie chain of the Cordillera. In a 
country, however, having so little of its observed surface (for the great 
sandy deserts are nearly unknown as respects our inquiry) of a level cha- 
racter, with a general seaward slope from the great central axis, and with 
the origin of disturbance so closely beneath, that many of the most for- 
midable earthquakes have emerged almost vertically over considerable 
tracts, the attempt to fix a prevailing horizontal direction would be 
nugatory. 

Finally, we come to the two last of Perrey's memoirs which have been 
referred to — those in which he has brought under one view many of the 
facts of his monographs, and graphically discussed the results in tables 
for all Europe, with the adjacent parts of Africa and of Asia, and for the 
north of Europe with the north of Asia, viewed as one great boreal band. 
The results of the former are given in the following Table : — 



28 



REPORT — 1858. 



Table XX. — Resume of the Earthquakes of Europe, and of the adjacent 
parts of Asia and of Africa, from A.D. 306 to 1843. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day oi 


Month 




With date of 
Season only. 




Total. 






i 

C3 


S 


S" 


a3 

1-5 


_K^ 


3 


u 

a 

ft 




c 




a 
B 




rt ID 

.5 a 




l-S 1 P!- (Si 


< 


S 


•-5 


<!! 


OT 





« 


tt 


OQ 






IV 














1 


... 




1 


... 


2 


3 


1 


12 


21 


V 


1 


*i 


... 


3 

2 


2 


2 

1 


1 

2 


1 


2 
2 


"3 


2 
2 


"3 


3 

1 




11 
11 


25 
31 


VI 


VII 








1 




1 




2 














6 


10 


VIII 


2 


2 


1 


1 


i 


• • . 


• • • 








* .. 


... 


I 




3 


11 


IX 


4 

1 
1 
8 


2 

4 
2 


"l 

5 
2 


1 
1 

1 
3 


1 

"2 
3 


1 

i 
2 


"2 


1 

"2 
3 


2 
1 
4 
3 


2 
2 

3 


"i 
3 

1 


6 

1 
3 
4 


5 

1 
1 
3 


1 


10 

8 

19 

34 


36 
17 
51 

68 


X 


XI 


XII 


XIII 


3 


2 


3 


1 


5 


t • . 


2 


. • . 


1 




2 


5 


4 




27 


55 


XIV 


] 


1 


3 


... 


3 


4 


3 


2 


4 


3 


4 


4 


2 


2 


22 


58 


XV 




1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


] 


2 


2 


7 


... 


1 


17 


41 


XVI 


io 


5 


6 


8 


10 


4 


2 


3 


9 


3 


6 


10 


3 




31 


110 


XVII 


21 


16 


15 


13 


6 


9 


10 


3 


14 


3 


10 


17 


1 


i 


41 


180 


XVIII. ... 


71 


53 


45 


52 


36 


49 


49 


49 


32 


62 


55 


62 


14 


4 


21 


660 


XIX 


99 100 


90 


59 


55 


55 


74 


78 


72 


92 


60 


78 


6 


1 


6 


925 


Total ... 


228189 


172 


147 


126 


131 


148147 


147 


176 


148 202 


48 


11 


279 


2299 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




589 


404 


442 


526 













Autumn and winter still preponderate thus for entire Europe. As regards 
the " critical periods" of the year, the results are — 

For XIX. Century. For the whole period. 

Winter solstice 177 253 

Spring equinox 151 170 

Summer solstice 129 150 

Autumnal equinox 164; 159 

and for the half year, and XIX. century only — 

Autumn and Winter 527 

Spring and Summer 394 

and for the whole period of nearly 15^ centuries — 

Autumn and Winter 1 165 

Spring and Summer 857 

or about as 1 : 0*75. 

The mean annual number of earthquakes in Europe, &c., deduced from 
the data of the ten years between 1833-1812, while it was everywhere at 
peace, and intelligence well conveyed, Perrey finds to be nearly 33 per 
annum. He considers that one-fifth more may probably have occurred 
that have not come to his knowledge, so that the mean annual number 
would be 40, or between 4 and 5 per month. 

The remainder of this memoir is occupied with remarks upon very nu- 
merous and interesting secondary phenomena, recorded of the carthcpiakca 
referred to in the catalogue discussed. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 29 

In the last memoir— that in which Perrey discusses the earthquakes of 
northern Europe and northern Asia together — he expresses witli some 
caution his own belief that the preponderance of seismic plienoniena in tlie 
winter half-year above the summer half, in tiie ratio above given, is wortiiy 
of acceptance as an empiric law for Europe at least, but doubts whether it 
may be extended to tiie other hemisphere. 

The geographical limits of tliis seismic region are somewhat arbitrary, 
reaching from the Elbe on the west to the extremity of Kamtschiitka on 
the east ; bounded on the north, in Europe, by the Baltic and White Seas, 
but in Asia reaching to the Arctic shores ; and on the south, in Europe, by 
a great circle passing north of the Carpathian Mountains to the Euxine, the 
Caucasus and the Caspian, and thence by the Desert of Gobi to the Sea of 
Okhotsk — a va^t tract, containing many important mountain-chains, though 
principally distinguished, as Perrey remarks, by its immense plains and low 
table-lands. 

The eight following tables give not only his numerical I'esults for this 
region, but a general comparative view of the numerical results of nearly 
the whole of his memoirs, for which I have somewhat extended some of the 
tables, and changed their order slightly. 

Table XXI. — Earthquakes of the Northern Zone of Europe. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


Season only. 




Total. 
























U 




a L. 




C 

a 


s 


1 




^ 

g 




1-5 


3 
to 

3 

2 


a 


o 
O 


3 
o 


s 

a 


Z S 

<u 3 


.s a 

t- 3 


s: S3 




Vlll.toXVI. 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 2 


1 


1 




1 




... 


2 


8 


25 


XVII 


3 


5 




1 


• •• 


... 


1 


1 




2 


2 


••• 


... 


4 


19 


XVIII 


10 


7 


4 


4 


4] 1 


2 


5 


4 


4 


3 


5 


1 


• •• 


• .• 


54 


XIX 


12j 5 


4 
9 


5 


6| 3 


2 


4 


2 


9 


7 


6 


... 


... 


... 


65 




Total... 


27 18 


11 


13| 6 


5 


12 


8 


13 


13 


13 


1 


2 


12 


163 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




54 


30 


25 


39 











Table XXII Earthquakes of the Northern Zone of Asia. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With Season 
only. 


it 

^ I. 


Total. 


C3 

3 
C 


ti 

3 


J3 


< 




a 


"3 


3 
to 

3 
< 


.a 

3 

V 


O 

o 


U 

i 

o 


3 

o 

p 


Winter and 
Autumn. 


T3 

C C 
toS 

.s a 

^ 3 


XVIII 

XIX 


3 

4 


6 
6 


2 
6 


1 
4 


1 

4 


3 
3^ 


1 
5 

6 


2 

7 

9 


2 
6 

8 


2 
3 

5 


1 

4 
5 


3 
5 


1 

... 


... 


7 


32 

57 


Total ... 


7 


12 


8 


5 


5 


8 


1 




7 


89 


Winter 
27 


Spring 
13 


Summer. 
23 


Autumn 
18 



30 



REPORT — 1858. 



Table XXIII Earthquakes of tlie Northern Zone of Europe and of 



Asia together. 





Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With Season 
only. 


° (A 




Century. 



























-a 


C3 5 




Total. 




3 
C 

CS 
1-5 






a. 
< 




a) 

a 

3 
— s 


1^ 

■3 

1-3 


ai 

3 

to 

3 
< 


a 

a. 


<D 

1 



S 

> 



s 

Q 


Winter 
Autum 


to a 

.s a 

AM 


^1 




VIII. to XVI. 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


2 


1 


2 


1 




1 






2 


8 


25 


XVII 


3 
13 


5 
13 


'is 


1 

5 


1 
5 


"i 


"3 


1 
7 


1 
6 


6 


2 

4 


2 

8 


"2 


... 


4 

7 


20 
86 


XVIII 


XIX 


16 


11 


10 


9 


10 


6 


7 


11 


8 


12 


11 


11 




... 


... 


122 


Total ... 


34 


30 


17 


16 19 


9 


11 


21 


16 


18| 18 


21 


2 


2 


19 


253 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




81 


44 


48 


57 











Table XXIV — General Result as to Mensual Relative Frequency of 

Earthquakes, 



Regions. 


a 

3 

3 

1-5 


3 


CJ 


< 




3 
3 
1-5 


■3 

1-5 


CO 

to 




.0 





S 

> 



a 

CJ 

P 


73 . 

3.2 

«2 


Europe (the whole)... 


1-35 


Ml 107 


0-95 


0-85! 0-81 


0-87 


0S5 


089 


102 


0-93 


1-21 


34-32 


France and Belgium... 


152 


1-17 0-97 


101 077 0-66 


0-86 


073 


0-91 


0-88J 1-09 


1-43 


702 


Italy and Savoy 


116 


113 1-27 


105 0-9() 0-96 


0-94 


0-94 


076 


113 076 


0-94 


10-83 


Basin of the Rhone ... 


1-69 


1-31 


1-06 


66 071 071 


59 0-59 


1-24 


98 0'92 


1-57 


1-91 


Basin of the Danube.. 


1-38 


1-38 


0G2 0-71 


1-1 r 0-84 


116 111 


071 


1-02, 0-80 


116 


3-18 


Scandinavia 


1-85 
219 


112 
1-46 


1-18' 075 
0-73! 0-89 


0-90, 0-5C 
1-05; 0-49 


0-95 073 
0-43 0-98 


101 

0-66 


0-95! 106 
105! 105 


0-95 
105 


2-52 
1-63 


Europe, Northern Zone 


Asia, Northern Zone... 


104' 1-78, 1-19: 0-74 


074 0-44 


0-89 1-33 


M9 74 074 119 

0-84 91' 0-94 1-JO 

1 


-89 


Both Zones united ... 


1-78 1-57 0-89 0-84 0-94 047 

1 1 1 


0-58 1-10 

1 


2-52 



Table XXV, — Result as to Relative Frequency in Season. 



Region. 


Winter. 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


Europe (the whole) ... 
France and Belgium ... 
Italy and Savoy 


1-18 
1-22 
119 
1-35 
M3 
1-38 
1-49 
1-33 
1-41 


0-87 
0-81 
0-99 
0-69 
0-89 
073 
081 
0-67 
0-75 


0-90 
0-83 
0-88 
0-81 
0-99 
0-90 
0-69 
113 
0-84 


105 
1-13 
0-94 
1-16 
0-99 
0-99 
105 
0-89 
0-99 


Basin of the Rhone ... 
Basin of the Danube... 
Scandinavia 


Europe, Northern Zone 
Asia, Northern Zone... 
Both Zones united ... 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 31 

Table XXVI. — Result as to Relative Frequency at the Equinoxes and 

Solstices. 



Region. 


Winter 
Solstice. 


Spring 
Equinox. 


Summer 
Solstice. 


Autumnal 
Equinox. 


Europe (the whole) ... 
France and Belgium ... 
Italy and Savov 


1-25 
1-43 
1-02 


0-99 
0-96 
113 
0-81 
0-70 
0-94 
0-87 
104 
0-96 


0'82 
073 
0-93 
0-61 
105 
074 
0-48 
072 
0-58 


0-93 
0-87 
0-92 
105 
0-91 
0-95 
0-91 
104 
0-98 


IJasiu of the Rlione ... 
Basin of Danube 


1-53 
1-33 
1-36 
1-74 
1-20 
1-48 


Europe, Northern Zone 
Asia, Northern Zone... 
Both Zones united ... 



Table XXVII. — Result as to Relative Directions of Horizontal 

Component of Shock. 







^ 


. • 


^ 




W 


• 


» 






i» 


02 


^ 


S^, 


;2; 


;z; 


M 


M 


. 


Region. 


o 
-** 


O 


2 


o 


5 


o 


-*j 


-4.^ 


'a 
o 




^ 




w 


A 
w 


m 




^ 


^ 
Z 


H 


Europe (the whole) ... 


1-57 


0-65 


1-65 


0-67 


112 


0-88 


0-88 


0-60 


464 


France and Belgium ... 


1-501 0-43 


1-88 


0-59 


1-02 0-96 


0-91 0-69 


149 


Itiilv and Savoy 


1 09 0-91 


2-25 


0-91 


109 0-51 


0-87 0-29 


110 


Basin of the Rhone ... 


1-30 0-37 


1-30 


0-56 


1-86 M2 M2 0-37 


43 


Basin of the Danube... 


1-33 


0-50 1-33 


0-50 


117|100, 1-33 0-83 


48 


Scandinavia 


073 
1-19 


1 09, 073 
0-60| 1-48 


109 
0-30 


109 1-45 109 073 
2 07l 000 1-98 0-59 


22 

27 


Europe, Northern Zone 


Asia, Northern Zone... 


2-35 


1-88 094 


0-47 


0-47 0-94 000 0-94 


17 


Both Zones united ... 


1-64 


1-09 


1-27 


0-36 


0-45 0-36 109 073 


44 



Table XXVIII — Result as to Comparative General Resultant Horizontal 

Direction and Intensity. 



Region. 


Resultant Horizontal 
Direction. 


Intensity of 
Resultant. 


Europe (the whole) 


E. 33° 42' N. 
N. 7I°27'E. 
S. 85° 51' E. 
S. 9° 44' W. 
W. 2° 39' N. 
S. 22° 30' W. 
S. 17°45' W. 
N.23°48'E. 
N.23°55'E. 
S. 39° 5' W. 
£.31° 56' S. 
S. 7° 9'E. 
N.34°37' W. 
N.31°54' W. 
E.22° 5'S. 


0-61 
0-56 
2-15 
1-23 
0-66 
0-94 
0-23 
3-14 
1-06 

p 

5 
? 
P 

J 


France and Belgium 


Italy and Savoy 


Basin of the Rhone 


Basin of the Danube 


Scandinavia 


Europe, Northern Zone 


Asia, Northern Zone 


Both Zones united 


British Islands 


Spanish Peninsula 


Basin of the Rhine 


Turco-Hellenic Territory 


Mexico and Central America . . . 
The Antilles 





32 REPORT — 1858. 

There remains to be noticed, of M. Perrey's labours, his discussion of tlie 
periodicitj- of the earthquakes of his annual catalogues for 1844, 1845, 
1846, and 1847, with reference to the phases of the moon's motions, published 
in 'Mem. de I'Academie des Sciences de Dijon,' 1848, 1849, part, des 
Sciences, p. 105, &c., and also presented to the Institute of France at a 
later period. 

The result he arrives at, as respects these four years, is, that the number of 
earthquakes occurring at the Perigees (when the tides are highest and 
lowest) are, to those occurring at the Apogees, as 47 : 39, — a conclusion 
which, independently of the assumptions by which it is arrived at, must be 
as yet accepted with caution upon so narrow a base of induction, although 
possessing more than enough probability, from physical considerations, to 
induce further inquiry. 

The Academy of Sciences (Paris) appointed a commission to report upon 
M. Perrey's communication ; and the following translation of its report 
(' Comptes Rendus,' tom. xxxviii. 12 Juin, 1854) will give a tolerably clear 
notion of his views, which here rest upon a larger base than in his Memoir 
as first published : — 

" The Academy has commissioned us, MM. Liouville, Lame, and myself, to 
draw up a report on a paper presented by M. Alexis Perrey, Professor in the 
Faculty of Sciences at Dijon, on the 21st March 1853, 'On the Connexion 
which may exist between the occurrence of Earthquakes and the Moon's 
Age,' and on a note also presented by him on the 2nd January last, ' On 
the occurrence of Earthquakes in connexion with the Moon's passing over 
the Meridian.' 

" At the time of the presentation of the paper of March 1853, M. Arago 
had been appointed a member of the commission. The lamented death of 
our illustrious associate, since that date, left a vacant place in our commis- 
sion ; and before the presentation of the note of the 2nd January 1854, M. 
Lame was appointed to it. 

" M.Arago, whose attention nothing escaped which relates to the physics of 
the globe, pursued with sustained interest the researches of INI. Alexis Perrey. 
The Academy has not forgotten the care which he constantly took to draw 
its attention to the notes which the learned Professor at Dijon addressed to 
him from time to time within the last few years, in consequence of the in- 
quiries he was engaged in on the subject of earthquakes. M. Arago made 
particular mention, at several meetings, of the connexion which the author 
had already traced between the occurrence of earthquakes and the moon's 
age. 

" The cause of the interest which belongs to this subject is easily explained. 
If, as is generally believed in the present day, the interior of the earth is, 
owing to its high temperature, in a liquid or melted state, and if the globe 
has but a comparatively thin solid crust, the interior, being deprived of 
solidity, is compelled to yield, like the superficial mass of the ocean waters, 
to the attractive force exercised by the sun and moon, and it acquires a 
tendency to swell out in the direction of the rays of these two bodies; but 
this tendency meets with a resistance in the rigidity of the solid crust, which 
occasions shocks and fractures of the latter. The intensity of this force 
varies, like the tides, according to the relative position of the sun and moon, 
and consequently according to the moon's age ; and we must also observe 
that as the tides ebb and flow twice in the course of a lunar day, at those 
hours which agree with the passing of the moon over the meridian, so the 
direction of the attraction exercised upon a point of the interior globe must 
change twice a day, according as the point recedes or approaches the 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 33 

meridian, tiie plane of which passes through the centre of the moon. With- 
out entering into longer details, we can easily conceive that, if the fusion of 
the interior mass of the globe plays a part among the causes of earthquakes, 
then its influence may become evident by a necessary connexion, capable of 
observation, between the occurrence of earthquakes and the circumstances 
which modify the moon's action upon the entire globe, or upon a portion of 
it, namely, its angular distance from the sun, its real distance from the earth, 
and its angular distance from the meridian of the place, or, in other words, 
the moon's age, the time of perihelion, and the hour of the lunar day. 

" These considerations, which occurred to M. A. Perrey, doubtless in- 
spired him with the idea of the two works which we have been commis- 
sioned to examine, at the same time that they assisted in attracting the 
interest of M. Arago and many other learned men to the results which he 
obtained ; but they also suggest that the essential object of the inquiries on 
which we are commissioned to report ought to be, to ascertain the precise 
date, according to the lunar day and month, of every earthquake the 
record of which history has preserved, and even of each of the shocks 
of which these earthquakes consisted. We can easily imagine the immense 
toil which such a research would demand, and understand that M. Alexis 
Perrey having already devoted several years to it without bringing it to a 
termination, has yet been enabled at different intervals to obtain such par- 
tial results as M. Arago deemed worthy of the encouragement and attention 
of the Academy ; and that the learned Professor at Dijon is impatient, before 
encountering the labours of still more years, to learn whether the Academy 
approves of the course which he has hitherto pursued. The necessity the 
author feels for the support and direction of the Academy explains why he 
has, upon several occasions, submitted to it results which naturally could 
not be complete, and which are not entirely so even in the paper and note 
which we are commissioned to examine. In the paper presented on the 
21st March 1853, 'On the Connexion which may exist between the occur- 
rence of Earthquakes and the Moon's Age,' the author has devoted the first 
chapter to the calculation and numerical changes of the rough results of 
observation. 

" He has supposed four possible methods of calculation. In the first, 
already followed in the memoir presented to the Academy May 5, 1847, 
the author considers as a day of an earthquake each day upon which a 
shock has been felt, whether in a single country, or in two or more coun- 
tries at the same or at different hours, separated from each other by spaces 
in which the motion was not experienced. Then noting, according to the 
knowledge of the period, to which day of lunation each day of earthquake 
corresponded, he arranges all the days which belong to the first day of 
lunation, then all those which correspond to the second day, the third, the 
fourth, &c. ; and he constructs a table composed of thirty lines, each line 
indicating the number of earthquakes which belong to the corresponding day 
of lunation. Now these numbers vary one day with another, and they vary 
nearly in accordance with the same law, both in a table comprising a total 
of 2735 days of earthquake, the result of researches carried on during the 
years from 1801 to 184'5, drawn up by the author and presented to the 
Academy May 5th, 1847; and in a new table containing a total of 5388 
days of earthquake, embracing the result of extensive researches carried on 
from 1801 to 1850. 

" In both tables the number of earthquakes corresponding to the days 
close to the Syzygies, is generally a little more considerable than that whicii 
corresponds with the days close to the Quadratures. In the second method 
1858. D 



84 REPORT — 1858. 

of calculation,the author regards earthquakes experienced in different regions, 
separated by regions where the shock is not perceptible, as distinct one from 
the other, and reckons as an earthquake every percussion felt in a separated 
region. This new method of calculation increases the number of earth- 
quakes in the 1st table from 2735 to SO^l, and in the 2nd table from 
5388 to 6596. The same law is again apparent in these two new tables, 
and also in the four other tables which the author forms by dividing the 
half century between 1800 and 1850 into two intervals, each of a quarter 
of a century, and by successively applying the first and second methods 
of calculation to the earthquakes of these two intervals. 

"In the third method of computation, M. Alexis Perrey regards every shock 
of which an earthquake is composed as a distinct phenomenon, and registers 
it separately ; but he does not possess the documents necessary for this plan, 
because the number of shocks in each earthquake has not been accurately 
noted. The author has hitherto contented himself with considering in this 
manner the Table of 931 shocks felt in South America, chiefly in Arequipa, 
published by M. Castelnau in the 5th volume of his ' Journey through the 
Central Regions of South America.' This table, without leading to results 
identical with those furnished by the other two methods, exhibits the fun- 
damental relation already manifested. Lastly, in the fourth method of 
computation, the application of which would often be very difficult, and 
which has not yet been attempted by M. Alexis Perrey, we are to con- 
sider as an unique phenomenon the number of shocks consecutively felt in 
the same country during an interval preceded and followed in the same 
country by periods of tranquillity. 

" To the nine tables formed by one or other of the three first methods of 
computation the author has added a tenth, formed by the first method. 
This only embraces four years, from 184'! to 1845, and contains but 422 
days of earthquakes. In spite of this comparatively limited number, the 
proportion of the figures appears the same. In all these tables we observe 
a marked preponderance in the number of earthquakes which take place 
upon days close to the Syzygies, over those which occur at the Quadra- 
tures. However, it is but a general law which can be observed in the state- 
ment of figures of which the tables are composed; and there are numerous 
exceptions. In order to weaken the force of these anomalies, and more 
clearly to exhibit the fundamental law, M. Alexis Perrey divides the 29^. 
53 1, of which the lunation is composed, into 12ths, 16ths, 8ths,-vand foi-ms, 
by proportionate calculations applied to the ciphers of his different tables 
constructed on the solar days, the numbers which correspond to each frac- 
tion of lunation ; he displays in all these new tables (excepting some 
anomalies of detail) the law of the predominance of earthquakes at the 
Syzygies, and thus confirms more and more his conclusion, that, for half a 
century, earthquakes have been more frequent at the Syzygies than at the 
Quadratures. M. Alexis Perrey has also studied, in the more or less exten- 
sive registers which assisted him to draw up his different Tables, the ques- 
tion, whether there exists any connexion between the occurrence of earth- 
quakes and the variable distance of the moon from the earth in traversing 
the different portions of her elliptical orbit. For this purpose he has cal- 
culated in each of his registers, and according to the different modes of 
computation employed to draw up the above-mentioned tables, how often 
earthquakes have occurred two days before and after, and upon the day of 
the moon's perigee and apogee ; and he has shown, in the numbers thus ob- 
tained, that the total corresponding to the perigee, in which the moon is 
nearest the earth, is greater than that corresponding to the fipogee, in which 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 35 

she is at her greatest distance : then, in order to compare the results, he has 
taken the difference of the totals thus obtained and divided it by their sum, 

which has given him the quotients ,-^' ^' ^' —' ~g' gp^' ~> which are 

all greater than ^' and the last almost equal to ■^' 

" The apparent result from this is, that the difference between the unequal 
attraction exercised by the moon at her greatest and nearest distance has a 
sensible influence over the occurrence of earthquakes. In the note on the 
' occurrence of Earthquakes in connexion with the passing of the Moon 
over the Meridian,' which he presented to the Academy January 2, 1854*, 
M. Alexis Perrey discusses the question, whether the division of the shocks 
of earthquake during a lunar day is, like the tides, connected with the 
passage of the moon over the superior and inferior meridian. For this 
method of investigation he could only avail himself of the 824 shocks felt at 
Arequipa, which are registered with day and hour in the above-mentioned 
table of M. de Castelnau. By means of proportional calculations, which 
must have occupied a considerable time, he has calculated to which hour 
after the passage of the moon over the meridian, each of these shocks cor- 
responds. He thus formed a 1st table (which he afterwards changed by 
dividing it into sixteen equal portions, grouped side by side, to form eighths) 
containing the 24 hours 50 minutes and a half of which a lunar day gene- 
rally consists. 

" By these two methods (notwithstanding some marked anomalies which 
could not but exist in so limited a number of facts as 824.>), the results 
obtained in both arrangements manifest the existence, in the length of a lunar 
day, of two periods of maximum for the occurrence of shocks, and two of 
minimum. The two periods of maximum occur at the hours of the passing 
of the moon over the superior and inferior meridians ; and the periods of 
minimum fall about the middle of the intervals. 

" M. Alexis Perrey has thus succeeded, by the simple analysis of catalogues 
which he had previously drawn up, in proving, by three different and inde-. 
pendent methods, the influence which the moon possesses in the production 
of earthquakes : — 

" 1st. That earthquakes occur more frequently at the Syzygies. 

"2nd. That their frequency increases at the Perigee, and diminishes at 
the Apogee of the moon. 

" 3rd. That the shocks of earthquake are more frequent when the moon 
is near the meridian than when she is 90 degrees away from it. 

" But the numerical tables from which these three propositions are derived, 
present some anomalies ; and the author has omitted nothing to endeavour to 
account for them, and to prove the law which is revealed at their first in- 
spection. He first conceived the idea of constructing graphically the num- 
bers contained in the tables, so as to obtain by the usual method a poly- 
gonal line analogous to those by which barometrical observations are usually 
represented, in which the eye catches at once the general course of pheno- 
mena in the midst of anomalies which tend to conceal it. We are tempted 
to regret that he has not further developed this graphical part of his work, 
which would have had the great advantage of displaying at a glance the 
direct result of his researches ; and that he has not even annexed to his me- 
moir any of the lines which he constructed. But M. Alexis Perrey con- 
sidered that he would obtain still more certain results by employing calcu- 
lation ; and to this arduous task he devoted the 2nd Chapter of his principal 
paper, and the Second Part of his note of the 2nd January, 1834. It M'ould 
be difficult for us to follow the author step by step in these analytical discus- 

d2 



36 REPORT — 1858. 

sions ; we will restrict ourselves to the observation, that, in order to repre- 
sent the result of his work, he has employed a formula of interpolation of 
this kind : — 

"0=M + Asin (<+a) + Bsin (2<+/3) + Csin (St+y)-\ , in which M, 

A, B, C, &c. are always coefficients of the same nature as (^ ; a, /3, y, &c., 
are always angles, and t a variable angle dependent on the lunar motion, which 
will be equal to degree for the new moon, to 90 degrees for the first 
quarter, to 180 degrees for the full moon, &c. He then adapts this for- 
mula to the numerical tables deduced from observation, and determines the 
particular truths which it contains. By means of tlie formula thus ob- 
tained, the author was enabled to draw up numerical tables corresponding 
to those deduced from observation alone, and in which the law of the phe- 
nomena appears disconnected from the principal anomalies which tended to 
obscure it in the first tables. The numbers contained in these new tables 
are carefully arranged, and form regular curved lines, in which the law is 
clearly manifest. These curves have a marked resemblance to each other, 
although they are not entirely alike — which could not be, for they are only 
approximative— and each bears the stamp of the group of figures which it 
represents. The resemblance of these curves is essentially increased by the 
fact that each presents two principal maxima corresponding to the Syzygies, 
and two principal minima corresponding to the Quadratures. We are thus 
brought back to the conclusion so evident by M. A. Perrey's toil, — that, for 
half a century, earthquakes have been more frequent at the Syzygies than at 
the Quadratures. 

" The Academy fully conceives the importance of this conclusion, and 
appreciates the labour the author has taken to collect nearly 7000 observa- 
tions on the first half of this century. This number, however, is very small 
for the solution of a question of this nature ; and it is very desirable to have : 
it increased, either by collecting all future observations from year to year, 
or by going back to past centuries, as the author has already commenced 
doing." 

These views of Perrey have found support in the opinions enunciated 
by M. Zantedeschi as to the probable existence of a terrestrial as well as 
an oceanic tide, one in which the solid mass of the earth's crust, and the 
liquid or semiliquid nucleus beneath (if indeed it exist in any such state) is 
supposed to be an ellipsoid, with a major axis perpetually following the move- 
ments of the moon and sun. To what extent such a change of form is possible 
in the solid material of our planet under the constraint of the same forces that 
produce the oceanic tides (and whose elevations must in so far act against 
such change of form), it is for physical astronomy to determine. But even 
if its existence be admitted, and the change of level of a given point on the 
earth's surface were proved to amount to many feet — to far more, in fact, 
than the total elevation of the greatest ocean tide-wave, it is difficult to con- 
ceive how it even then could be a direct or immediate cause of earthquakes. 
Such change of form would be probably quite insignificant as compared 
with the earth's total mass ; so that the flexures or changes of form produced 
by it in the solid crust would probably be far within the elastic limits of its 
materials, and, hence, the occurrence of fractures or dislocations due to such 
a train of causes impossible. 

If it ultimately prove a fact that there is a real relation in epoch between 
earthquakes and the ocean tides, or the moon's and sun's position in respect 
to the earth, the phenomena will probably be found in relation, only through 
the intervention of changes in terrestrial temperature, or in the great circu- 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 37 

lations upon or within our planet, of its electrical, or magnetic, or thermic 
currents, or the conversion of these into each other reciprocally, and not to 
the direct action of the variable attractive forces of our primary and our 
satellite. To some such conversions of force into heat, developed at local 
foci, it would appear much more probable that all volcanic phenomena are 
due, than to a universal ocean of incandescent and molten lava beneath our 
feet, witli a thin crust of solid matter covering it, the present or historical 
existence of which is not only not proven, but for which no argument of 
weighty probabiHty has been, as I conceive, advanced. 

In the present state of our knowledge of the obscure relations between 
the internal mass and actions of our planet with the cosmical forces that 
act upon it both within our own atmosphere and from the abysses of 
space beyond, and in our comparative ignorance even of the terrestrial 
phenomena themselves, no speculation, however hazardous or hardy, that 
is based upon a natural hypothesis, need be regretted : such views in the 
beginning of every separate road of inductive science are eminently sug- 
gestive, and, although in themselves false, may point towards truth. It is only 
in this aspect that a memoir by Dr. C. F. Winslow, M.D., ' On the Causes 
of Tides, Earthquakes, Rising of Continents, and Variations of Magnetic 
Force,' requires notice. The communication appears to have been made to 
the Academy of Sciences of San Francisco, California, by the author, in 1854< 
or 1855. I have met with it only through a printed copy, for which I believe 
I am indebted to the author. 

That our satellite does actually influence the magnet directly, has been 
discovered by Herr Kreil, of the Vienna Royal Observatory (see ' Phil. 
Trans.,' 1857, and 'Proc. Roy. Soc.,' vol. vii. pp. 67-75). General Sabine, 
in the introduction to vol. iii. of ' Magnetic and Meteoric Observations made 
at Toronto,' p. 9, states — " The decennial solar period often or eleven years, 
in connexion with the solar spots, proved to connect itself with the magnet- 
ism of the earth, but not with other cosmical phenomena" (see ' Phil. Trans. 
1852,' Art. VIII.) ; that is to say, I presume, not with such cosmical phe- 
nomena as have had their laws already ascertained. Again (p. xi.), the 
author adds — " The solar diurnal variation appears to be wholly irrecon- 
cilable with the hypothesis which attributes the magnetic variation to 
thermic causation." 

We find, then, that both sun and moon influence, with other and more 
occult forces than those that address sense and eye, our planet, and that these 
all incessantly modify tiie conditions and relations (mutual and to things on 
the surface) of every grain of matter in the inmost recesses of its nucleus. 
While every cosmical force is thus, as soon as its laws are discovered, found 
to be correlated to every other, all mutually convertible, and capable of 
disappearing and reappearing " by measure, number, and weight," as mere 
brute power or mechanical force, it is not too much, at least, to affirm 
the advancing probability, that a distinctly (though irregularly) periodic 
phenomenon, such as earthquakes, will be found intimately related to them, 
possibly with no very long or intricate intermediate chain of causation. 
_ As regards the periodicity, &c., of those solar spots which admit of con- 
sideration in relation to the two paroxysmal maxima and two minima in each 
century (noticed hereafter), Humboldt may be referred to (' Cosmos, ' vol. 
iii. p. 291). Schwabe of Dessau, whose works the illustrious author quotes, 
observed the solar spots from 1826, and, during the whole period, found three 
maxima (average number 300,) and two minima (average number 33,) the 
period being about ten years, or the tenth part of a century. Wolf of Berne 
(' Comptes Rendus,' vol. xxx.) considers the period of the minima as de- 



38 BEPOKT — 1858. 

finite, but that the maximum varies, being on an average five j'ears after the 
minimum, and that nine minimum periods exactly make up each century ; 
adding, that all the notable apparitions of solar spots on record agree with 
this rule. Other papers on this subject will be found, with details in the 
'Ast. Nach.' and ' Pogg. Ann.,' from 1850; and in ' Silliman's Journal,' 
vol. XXV., some remarks of Reichenbach are worthy of attention. He ob- 
serves that the period of Jupiter is 11-86 years, and that there are certain 
coincidences between the planet's periodic returns and those of the solar 
spots, — adding that their conjoint magnetic effects upon our planet, in rela- 
tion to the magnetic periods above referred to, cannot but be great. See also 
' Gilbert's Annalen,' vols. xv. and xxi., for Ritter's memoirs on the subject ; 
and " Hansteen on the Relations between Earthquakes and the Aurora," in 
' Bull, de I'Acad. de Bruxelles,' 1854, t. xxi. 

I am myself indebted to my friend Dr. Robinson, Astronomer Royal, 
Armagh, for much of my information upon the subject, which connects 
itself with our own in relation to the preceding reflections, and through the 
singular point of coincidence as to periodic recurrences in both — the one 
presenting traces of being in time a submultiple of the other. But at present 
this must all be taken for what it is worth, and no more. 

It may be suitable to remark here, that the movements of the inclination 
magnetometer as well as of the barometric column, of which several have 
been of late years recorded as occurring at the time of earthquakes, are 
most probably merely mechanical and due to the shock movements direct. 
This has been ascertained by Kreil at Vienna, and Padre Secchi at Rome 
(see also Perrey's 'Mem. Europe and Africa,' p. 11); and such appears to 
have been Humboldt's view (though expressed with some qualification) 
at the date of publication of ' Cosmos.' 

The following is a translation of Zantedeschi's expressions of his own views 
as to the occurrence of a terrestrial, or rather terrene tide, probably better 
named, if it exist, the elastic tide : — 

" On the Influence of the Moon upon Earthquakes, and on the Conse- 
quences probably derivable as to the Ellipsoidal Figure of the Earth and 
the Oscillation of the Pendulum. By M. F. Zantedeschi." Comptes Rendusy 
Seance du 2 Aout, 1854. 

" I have thought for a long time that the form of the earth cannot always 
be the same, but that it presents an incessantly changing elliptical form, 
that is to say, having a continued tendency to become protuberant in the 
directions of the radii vectores of the two luminaries which attract it, the 
sun and the moon. I have always believed that a direct proof of it might be 
obtained by determining a point in the heavens at the epochs of the spring 
tides, and at that of the Quadratures. This point must appear lower at the 
epochs of the high tides and of the Syzygies. The Imperial Observatory of 
Paris, with the means that it has at its disposal, could prove if this difference 
be observable, and especially now, that, thanks to the labours of M. Froment, 
dividing has been made so exact as to admit of measuring with the greatest 
precision a difference of fi-J-iyth of a millimetre between two consecutive 
visible horizontal lines. 

" I have always assumed that a compensation pendulum of such a length 
that it exactly beats seconds at the epoch of the quadratures and of the neap 
tides, must beat more slowly at the epoch of the spring tides, from the 
transit of the moon over the meridian of the given place, and at the epoch 
of the syzygies ; and, taking from this fact that the variations of the force 
of attraction upon the mass of the earth are continuous, I have concluded 
from it the necessity for astronomy to take account of these times; and 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 39 

herein I find the explanation of certain leaps of astronomical clocks of which 
the learned have not hitherto been able to discern the cause. I believe 
that one day we shall have the equation of time in functions of the varia- 
tions of intensity of the planetary attractions, and of the regular oscillatory 
movements of the earth, as we now have the equation of time in functions 
of the motions of translation and of rotation of the earth itself. I say the 
regular oscillatory motions, because, as for the irregular movements, we 
cannot submit them to rule, and we are enabled to account only for the 
extraordinary concomitant phenomena presented by the atmosphere, by the 
earth, and by certain species of animals. The irregular motions which we 
call earthquakes, happen more frequently, it has been observed, either at 
the epoch of the Syzygiss rather than at the epoch of the Quadratures, or 
oftener at the epoch of spring tides than at that of the neaps. This important 
observation is found in the works of Georges Baglivi and Joseph Toaldo. 

The first, in his ' Storia Roman! Terras Motus, anni 1703,' says, "In 
singulis lunae aspectibus, seu quadraturis, potissimura in plenitudine ejusdem 
seu totali oppositione cum sole, certo succedebant terras motus, frequenter 
paululum prajcedebant ipsos aspectus." — Georgii Baglivi Opera Omnia, 
Bassani, 1737, p. 415, Editionis Venetiarum, 1752, p. 326. 

Toaldo, speaking generally of earthquakes, says, " the late M. Bouguer 
in the account of his voyage to Peru speaks much of earthquakes, so fre- 
quent in that country. He mentions with doubt the assertion of a Peru- 
vian ' savant,' that earthquakes have certain fatal and marked lines when 
they occur at low water. On the other hand, Chauvalon, in his voyage to 
Martinique, notes particularly the earthquakes which took place at the 
time of high water ; and the earthquake which destroyed Lima on tlie 28th 
of October, 1746, occurred at three o'clock in the morning, at the instant of 
high water (ora della prima acqua). Thus we remark in other countries 
that these phenomena may themselves depend on the cosmical causes of the 
action of the sun, and especially of the moon." (Giuseppe Toaldo, ' Della 
Vera Influenza degli Astri, etc., Saggio Meteorologico,' Padova, 1770, 
p. 190.) I hope that the Academy of Sciences will well receive these do- 
cuments and tiiese ideas, which tend to augment the merit and the value 
of the very important studies of M. Perrey. 

Edmonds, also, has endeavoured to show that many formidable earth- 
quakes are found to have occurred the day after the moon is in her first 
quarter (' Journ. Polytec. Soc. Cornwall,' Note 158 ; Sabine's ' Cosmos'). 



Before dismissing the subject of other earthquake catalogues, the follow- 
ing labour as to Indian earthquakes should be noticed. In the 'Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society,' vol. xii. n. s., for 1843, Lieut. R. Baird Smith, 
B.E., made one of the most extensive contributions to our slender stock of 
oriental earthquake annals. He divides India into nine earthquake tracts, 
partly on physical grounds, partly arbitrarily, viz. — 

1. Central Himalaya; 

2. Lateral Himalaya, including — 

a. Cabul, 

b. Jellallabad, 

c. Cashmere, 

d. Nepaul, 

e. Assam ; 

3. The Solyraaun Mountains, 

4. The Aravulli Mountains, 



40 REPORT — 1858. 

5. Delta of the Indus, 

6. The Vindhya Mountains, 

7. Delta of the Ganges, 

8. East Coast Bay of Bengal, 

9. Eastern Ghauts; 

and under these divisions describes more or less fully a total number of 
162 earthquakes, which he finally tabulates, by date and place only. The 
epoch of his catalogue commences nominally at a.d. 1505; but almost the 
whole of the catalogue refers to the 19th century, and comes down to the 
year 184.2. 

After his remarks upon the earthquakes of the first region (p, 1039), he 
observes, " The hot springs, I believe, owe their high temperature to in- 
ternal chemical action extensively distributed ; and the earthquakes are due 
to the convulsive efforts of the elastic matter generated by this action in 
escaping from the interior of the earth." ..." To define the nature of this 
action, while ignorant of the chemical nature of the springs, would be in 
vain;" .... but .... "I cannot resist the conviction that both are due to 
one and the same origin." . . . . " There are no active volcanic vents yet dis- 
covered in the Himalayas, but abundant hot springs and trap dykes, and 
evidences of disruptive action." 

In the same vol. p. 741, a translation, by A. Sprenger, of the Arabic 
MS. in the Imperial Library at Paris, of a work of As. Soyuti on earth- 
quakes, is given. The original work is entitled, ' Kashf as salsalah'an 
wass az Zalzalah,' i.e. "a clearing up of the history of earthquakes." It 
contains a catalogue of about 120 earthquakes in Western India, Persia, 
and Caubul, and extending to Arabia, Syria, and Egypt. It certainly, how- 
ever, scarcely warrants its title, and contains few facts of scientific value. 

Again (p. 907), a small catalogue of earthquakes in Upper Assam occurs 
— the authors, Capt. Hannay and Rev. N. Brown. The chief statement 
of importance to be found in it is their opinion, that in this region the hori- 
zontal direction of shock seems to be mainly from S.W. to N.E. 

Since the publication of former ' Reports,' some monographs of single 
earthquakes have appeared ; but reference is here only to catalogues. 

While these sheets have been passing through the press, the work of Dr. 
Otto Wolger, with catalogues of the Swiss earthquakes, has appeared, and 
demands notice for the extreme accuracy and care with which the volumes 
liave been produced, — ' Untersuchungen iiber das Phanoraen der Erdbeben 
in der Schwitz,' von Dr. G. H. Otto Wolger, Gotha 1857, 1858, 3 vols. Svo. 
The first, " Chronic der Erdbeben in der Schwitz," also embraces a discussion 
as to the periodicity, locality, and extent (Ausdehnung) of the Swiss earth- 
quakes, with the results graphically reproduced. 

The second contains the geology of the Canton of Wallis, in which so 
great a number of rapidly recurrent feeble shocks have been so long recorded. 

The third, ' Geschichte der Erdbeben (im Wallis) des meteorologischen 
Jahres 1855,' together with a chronicle of those in the Swiss Cantons and 
adjacent parts of France. 

There is an excellent though small map of the Canton of Wallis, showing 
the points of observation of the many small shocks that have become identi- 
fied with the name of Pignerol as a centre — and in several instances showing 
the horizontal directions observed — which quite bear out the observations to 
be found further on, as to the effects of surface in perturbing the general 
emergent direction of the wave of shock. 

The work of Dr. Wolger is entitled to the study of physical geologists. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 41 

Perhaps, like most men who carefully and lovingly perfect their subject, he 
attaches a too preponderant value to the limited district of which he treats. 

Having so far considered the labours of others as to the distribution of 
earthquakes in time, some remarks remain to be made on their distribution 
in space by foreign authors. The seismic map of Berghaus in his ' Physical 
Atlas,' is the most important attempt of this sort emanating from abroad. 
The following are Perrey's remarks upon this map (' Mem. de I'Academie 
des Sciences de Dijon,' t. iv. annee 1855, p. 57) : — 

" M. Berghaus, of Berlin, has devoted map No. 7 of the geological part 
of his beautiful Physical Atlas to volcanic and seismic manifestations. 
Greenland is very slightly coloured, and is included in the circumference 
of a circle of percussions, the centre of which is in Iceland. This state- 
ment does not appear to me to be at all supported by facts. The author 
appears to have outstripped observation ; for the commotions in Iceland 
constitute an almost local phenomenon ; rarely ever is the island simul- 
taneously shaken in its entire extent, and the shocks are only of moderate 
intensity." 

It may be added, that observation points out that the connexion as to 
earthquake commotion is between Iceland and Norway, and not between 
Iceland and Greenland. Of the latter country, however, in this respect we 
know but little. 

As to Greenland, I do not know whether any earthquake has occurred 
there but that of November, 1755. That was violently felt; it caused a 
terror so much the greater, as shocks of this nature were completely un- 
known. However, it is probable that they are occasionally felt. 

The 22nd of September, 1757, there was a violent hurricane, the wind 
from the south, accompanied by hail and rain : the lightning was terrific, 
but without thunder. It was generally believed that a shock of earthquake 
was felt. (Prevost, ' Hist. Gen. des Voy.' t. ix. pp. 23 & 209.) Earthquakes, 
the author adds, are rare in this country. 

Two years after, in September, 1759, at New Herrnhut (Greenland), the 
house of Siehlenfels experienced shocks like an earthquake, although it was 
very low and had walls four feet thick. The houses around suffered severely : 
the roofs were spilt ; and the boats drawn up on shore were carried away 
by the hurricane, which was felt at a distance. This storm was preceded 
and followed by igneous meteors, one of which set fire to the house. On 
Christmas Eve a similar phenomenon occurred at noon. (Prevost, /. c. 
t. xix. p. 208.) 

These are the only facts that I can quote relative to this country, 
which, I repeat, notwithstanding its contiguity to Iceland, ought not, in my 
opinion, to be placed within the sphere of the volcanic and seismic action of 
that island. 

M. Berghaus has marked the Azores and Canaries with a darker shade ; 
and this memoir will contribute to confirm the author's idea of also co- 
louring the Archipelago of Cape Verd and the Antilles. But it leaves all 
the rest of the basin uncoloured; and surely it is difficult not to admit 
some shading, however slight, in latitudes distinguished of late by M. 
Daussy. Let us again repeat, that earthquakes, which ought to form an im- 
portant part in the study of terrestrial physics and physical geography, have 
hitherto been too much neglected. They have been resigned to geology, 
to which, in my opinion, they only indirectly belong. 

But to continue. Algeria bears, on M. Berghaus's map, a very dark shade, 
■which the note I published in our last ' Memoirs' does not justify. Yet the 



42 REPORT — 1858. 

illustrious physicist whom I have just quoted includes the Azores and 
Canaries in the seismic region of the Mediterranean. 

They would seem to form the western part of an axis which extends to 
Hindostan with variable shades, and thus unites the Atlantic with the great 
volcanic chain of the Sonde (Sunda), which, as we know, is connected by 
the Japanese and Kurile Islands with the Aleutian Archipelago, and by this 
chain to the grand volcanic range of the two Americas. This idea is in- 
genious, but is it true ? It is a point that I cannot at present discuss. Yet 
we must admit that the Azores, and even the Canaries, seem to form a part 
of the sphere of subterranean convulsions, the centre of which is almost 
parallel to Lisbon ; and to be at the western extremity of that great seismic 
zone which proceeds by the peninsulas of Spain, Italy, and Greece, to the 
volcanoes of Asia Minor, and which tiiere joins the central chain of Asia. 
It is, in fact, within this zone, extending towards the north as far as the Car- 
pathian Mountains, that the principal centres of earthquakes and the most 
remarkable seismic axes in Europe are to be found. Extending to the 
west along the 40th parallel, this zone reaches the United States of Ame- 
rica, where it embraces New York and Boston, v/hich M. Berghaus has per- 
haps marked with a rather too dark colour, though earthquakes are not rare 
there ; and thence it proceeds to Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri, where 
the phenomena of the year ISll demand a darker shade in M. Berghaus's 
beautiful map. M. Berghaus draws a linear region in Arabia, from Medina 
to Yemen, along tlie east coast of the Red Sea. Can this be a partial 
axis of convulsion? Is it independent of the Mediterranean zone? Or is 
it united to it by a second axis — the Syrian axis, parallel to the east coast 
of the Mediterranean? But the countries near to the Isthmus of Suez ap- 
pear little subject to earthquakes ; can there be a solution of continuity 
between these two axes ? or does the space which divides them, and where the 
phenomenon has, so far, been so rarely remarked, constantly present a pecu- 
liarity verified more than once in America? In the New World (at Ca- 
raccas, for example) certain regions of small extent have been observed to 
enjoy a complete calm while the neighbouring country experienced fright- 
ful catastrophes. 

The historians of these disasters have characterized this unconvulsed part 
of the soil by a picturesque expression, namely, " a bridge has been formed." 
The probable phj'sical explanation of this phenomenon of "the bridge" has 
been given in a former Report (2nd Report, p. 309), by the author of this, 
based upon the view that total reflection of elastic impulses may occur under 
certain suitable conditions. 

Perrey continues, "No simultaneous convulsions at both extremities of 
this Syro-Arabic linear region have been recorded. However, if we recall 
that the Himalaya Mountains are very subject to subterranean convulsions ; 
that the Alps, and especially the Pyrenees, are frequently shaken, the Cau- 
casus-range still oftener, and that the Andes are almost always in a state of 
commotion ; must we not regret that we possess no information concerning 
the phenomena in the high Ethiopian chain ? is it not to be desired that 
travellers in Africa should make observations upon a matter so interesting 
to science? 

" During the last few years Abyssinia (strongly marked in M. Berghaus's 
map) has been the study of numerous French explorers. Several narratives 
of their vast and useful labours have appeared ; but I do not find one word 
about earthquakes ! The Academy of Sciences has just given new instruc- 
tions to M. Rochet (d'Hericourt), about to undertake a third expedition to 
that country ; and the phenomenon is not even mentioned by M. Duperrey ! 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 43 

Quite recently, again, I felt the same painful surprise at reading the instruc- 
tions given to M. Raffenel. 

" Does Abyssinia form an axis of convulsion perpendicular to the Arabic 
axis? or is it the eastern extremity of an unique axis formed by the great 
Ethiopic chain, and crossing the African continent at its greatest breadth ? 

" In nearly the same latitude as Abyssinia, but on the western coast of 
Africa, we find the sources of the Senegal and Gambia vividly coloured in 
M. Berghaus's map. What evidence has the author for this statement? 
With respect to this region, I am only acquainted with the two following 
descriptions drawn from M. Walcknaer's collection." We read, at t. vi. 
p. 181, " The aspect of the mountains Nikolo and Bandeia prove that this 
country has been the theatre of volcanic eruptions. Earthqualies are very 
frequent; and shortly before M. Mollieu's visit, one of the most violent had 
occurred, the shocks of which had been felt as far as Timbo." And further 
on, p. IS't, " The mountains, covered with ferruginous stones and cinders, 
which enclose the valley in which are the sources of the Senegal and Gambia, 
lead M. Mollieu to believe that they occupy the crater of an extinct volcano. 
This traveller was at the source of the Gambia, April 8, 1818." 

It is useful to compare this passage with the following, extracted from 
tlie same collection, t. xii. p. 356 : — "There is no record in Senegal that 
any portion of the colony has ever experienced an earthquake." 

Without seeking to justify the accuracy of M. Berghaus, it may not 
be uninteresting to remark that the Antilles and the Republic of Guate- 
mala lie under the same parallel of latitude (about 13° N.) as Abyssinia and 
the sources of the Gambia. 

Can there be an axis, or rather an immense zone, of convulsions parallel 
to the Equator? Often convulsed in the western counterforts (the Archi- 
pelagos of Cape Verd and the Canaries), Africa suffers also in the S.E., 
in the great southern chain of Madagascar. I find in M. Seguerel de la 
Combe that " earthquakes are very frequent in Madagascar. When they 
occur, the natives leave their houses and commence beating the walls with 
their hands. They do not allege any reason for this conduct but custom." 
(' Voy. u Madagascar et aux lies Comorres,' t. i. p. .3.) 

Let me add this remark from an ancient traveller in Madagascar : " Hap- 
pily earthquakes are here completely unknown." (Le Gentil, ' Voy. dans 
les Mers de ITnde,' t. ii. p. 367.) 

If we subjoin to these contradictory statements the few facts which we 
possess, we shall justify M. Berghaus's not having coloured the south of 
Africa. 

" 1786, August 4, 6-5r) a.m., in the Isle of France, two violent but harm- 
less shocks. The motion was horizontal and vertical. The barometer was 
not affected. Earthquakes are of rare occurrence. The volcano in Bour- 




'809, Sth of January, the island of Penguin, close to the Cape of Good 
l-n-ipe, was swallowed up by an earthquake. I am unacquainted with this 
island, and I only find this circumstance related in an anonymous work 
entitled ' Memorial de Chronologic,' t. ii. p. 932. 

Here, again, relative to another earthquake of the same year, 1809, are 
the details communicated by M. Barchers, Minister of Stellenbosch (country 
of the Hottentots), to Campbell (end of November 1812), concerning the 
fij-st of the earthquakes which occurred three years previously : — 

" The church of Paarl was then vacant The governor begged me to preach 



44 REPORT — 1858. 

there once a month. On Saturday, the eve of the day on which I had to go 
there, I felt extremely ill and dejected. On Sunday morning my wife and I 
set out. When I reached Paarl, I was very weak, and asked for some water; 
but it was lukewarm, and I could not drink it. I was told it had been 
brought from the fountain. I sent my slave, but what he brought Mas hot. 
I went thither myself, and found it was really the case. We could not 
imagine the reason. Whilst 1 was preaching, I felt so giddy that I scarcely 
knew what 1 was saying. 

" After the sermon, I spoke of this sensation to several of my friends, who 
declared that they also experienced it. We returned to Stellenbosch on the 
following morning. The whole of that day my family and servants and 
myself felt very unwell; the dogs also shared in our uneasiness. 

" At 10 o'clock we were all alarmed by a noise like that caused by nume- 
rous carts rolling through streets. We did not know what it was ; but 
all my family were terrified. A great light shone into the room. Supposing 
that a thunder-bolt had burst, 1 exhorted them not to be alarmed, as the 
lightning had passed, and the danger was gone. Whilst I was speaking, the 
same noise which we had just heard was again repeated, and we all trembled. 
' Oh !' cried I, ' 'tis an earthquake ; let us all go into the garden.' We felt, 
to use a Scriptural expression, that ' there was no more life in us.' A third 
shock followed ; it was less violent than the first two. The noise was dreadful, 
not only owing to its loudness, but also to its nature. 1 can only describe 
it as a sort of groaning, or piteous howling. The dogs and birds testified 
their fear by their cries. The night was calm, not a breath of wind stirred 
the air ; but I remarked a number of luminous meteors. I observed small 
clouds in various quarters, but their aspect presented nothing new. Every 
one endeavoured to keep close to me ; alarm was excessive ; I said what I 
could to allay it. At last we ventured to return to the house, and endeavoured 
to sleep to recover ourselves ; but the effort was vain." (Walckenaer, ' Collect, 
des Relat. de Voy. en Afrique,' t. xviii. p. 275.) 

1810, in the depth of winter an earthquake occurred at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

1811, 2nd June, five minutes before 12 o'clock noon, another earthquake 
took place. The heat was greater than usual at this season, the thermometer 
was 16°'8 R. A thick mist filled the atmosphere, yet did not obscure the sun's 
rays ; not the least breeze disturbed the air. The inhabitants, who greatly 
dread subterraneous shocks, were reminded by these symptoms of the earth- 
quake of the preceding year. M. Burchell was busy indoors with prepara- 
tions for a missionary journey, when suddenly a noise like an explosion 
shook the entire house. Three or four seconds afterwards a second peal 
like thunder produced another shock ; at the same instant a singular motion 
and vacillation in the atmosphere was apparent, whilst the sky continued 
perfectly serene. M. Burchell ran out to discover what had occurred ; he 
saw all the inhabitants running out of their houses in great alarm, pale and 
trembling, not conscious what they were doing, the women either screaming 
with terror, or motionless and incapable of speech. After the second shock, 
the trembling of the atmosphere had ceased, and the temperature a little 
cooled. The people gradually regained their composure, observing that no 
more shocks followed. Many houses were injured, and walls split. 

This earthquake took place five minutes before noon, during the Cape 
winter ; the preceding year it occurred during the night, in the height of 
summer : so this phenomenon is not limited to any time of day or year. 

M. Burchell saw the trace of electricity in all the preceding symptoms, 
and can only explain the earthquake as an explosion of electric matter. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORt OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 45 

On the morning of the 19th another shock was felt, but unaccompanied 
by explosion or other consequences. A slight sound was heard, which 
appeared to travel from N. to S., and lasted about three seconds. (Walcke- 
naer, loc. cit. t. xx. p. 20-22.) 

To these facts we may subjoin the following : — 

1811, 7th June, at the Cape of Good Hope a violent shock of five 
minutes ; the houses tottered, and even the vessels in the bay felt the shock. 
(J. D. 14.th Nov. ; M. U. 15th Nov. 1811.) 

1818, on the night between the 28th Feb. and 1st March, in the Isle of 
France, a hurricane similar to that of 1716 ; it is alleged that shocks of 
earthquake were felt. (J. D. 21st June 1818.) 

1821, 9th March, in the Island of Bourbon a slight shock. The erup- 
tion of the volcano, which had commenced on the 28th February, still 
continued. (C. P. t. xxxiii. p. 404! ; Garnier, Meteor, p. 124.) 

1840, 7th July, in the Isle of Bourbon, earthquakes recorded without 
detail by M. Meister in the Annalen fiir Meteor- und Erdmag., ler cahier, 
p. 161. 

1844, 21st Feb., 8 p.m., in Isle of Bourbon, shocks and terrible wind 
(communic. de M. Meister.) 

If we add to these five or six earthquakes the eruptions of the volcano in 
the Island of Bourbon in 1708, -51, -66, -74, -86, -87, -91, -93, and 1800, we 
shall have all the manifestations which I can quote of the interior activity of 
the globe in the south of the African continent. So this part of Africa appears 
little subject to subterranean commotions. But is it the same with the 
interior of the country ? It would be very interesting to learn this. 

Johnston, in his Seismic Map (Phys. Atlas, No. 7, Geol.), lightly tints 
the southern extremity of Africa, left untouched by Berghaus. 

To these remarks of Perrey may be added, tiiat both Berghaus's and 
Johnston's seismic maps alike labour under two most important defects. 

First, a hard and rigid line, often of an extremely irregular figure, limits 
strictly and definitely the supposed boundary of seismic commotion in each 
assigned region. Two physical misconceptions are involved in this : first, 
that forces emanating from a centre, of the nature of earthquake shocks, can 
have any definite boundary; secondly, that a line drawn upon the earth's 
surface around any centre of impulse, and through a number of points at 
which the horizontal elements of shock are alike (suppose those at which 
these elements become insensible without the help of instruments, which 
would be the boundary line in a popular sense), can possibly have, when 
embracing large areas, a highly irregular though closed curvilinear figure. 
The curve traced through such a line of points must circumscribe a space 
either nearly circular or slightly elliptic ; all irregularities due to variation 
of surface vanish over such vast spaces. 

Irregular curved areas are alone possible on the assumption of more than 
one impulse propagated from the same origin simultaneously, of which we 
have as yet no evidence. 

The second defect common to both those maps, and possibly difficult to 
be avoided from their small scale, is the absence of any positive and in- 
variable, though conventional principle of application of the depth of tint in 
colouring, which shall determine, by its depth, the intensity and frequency 
of seismic action at given centres. 

The principles adopted with the seismic map attached to this report will 
be explained further on. 

Berghaus's maps (3 Abtheil. Geol. No. 7 und No. 9) give an exceed- 
ingly imperfect notion of the whole east of China, and indeed of the Sunda 



46 REPORT — 1858. 

and Philippine Island groups, including Luzon, incomparably the most im- 
portant and int,eresting earthqualce region on the face of the earth. Berg- 
haus's maps, 3 Abtheil. Geol. No. 8 und 10, " Specialia vom Vuikan Giirtel," 
&c., are worthy of all commendation, save as respects the outline of seismic 
regions already adverted to, and here repeated even in a more distorted 
form. 



Such have been the results of previous labours as to the distribution in 
time and space of earthquakes. I proceed to those deduced from our own 
researches. 

At the conclusion of the Second Report (1851), the principles upon 
which the British Association Earthquake Catalogue itself was compiled have 
been described ; it remains now to describe the methods by which it has 
been discussed, and to state the results. 

The collection of an earthquake catalogue is a work essentially of a sta- 
tistic character, and partakes of all that disadvantage and incompleteness 
that belongs to the collection of facts not the result of choice and experi- 
ment, but presented to us, through various and imperfect observations, from 
many places and through long-lapsed periods, during which all the conditions 
of observation have suffered much change, so that the facts that are presented 
for record, and those of which no account is given, are alike subject to 
certain contingent or accidental modifying conditions, but of such a nature 
as to defy our making them part of our discussion. 

So in a work which proposes to collect under one view the transmitted 
observations of the whole human race, and of all historic time on this 
particular subject, the conditions of human observation itself enter into 
the results, and our earthquake record is at once an account of these phaeno- 
mena, and of the rise, progress, and extension of human knowledge and 
observational energy, and also of the multiplication and migrations of the 
human family and its progress in maritime power ; in a word, at every mo- 
ment the indeterminate extent to which man has fulfilled his great destiny 
of " replenishing the earth and subduing it," affects every continuous record 
of his observations or his arts. 

The method of discussion followed was that of numerical analysis as to 
time, and topical analysis as to space, from which curves graphically repre- 
senting the results have been projected by the usual methods. 

One conventional arrangement has been found inevitable. It refers to 
the cases of long-continued slight shocks or tremors, occurring almost daily, 
as at Pignerol in 1808; St. Jean de Maurienne in 1839 ; Comrie, in Perth- 
shire, 1839-184'7; and Ragusa in 1843-1850. In these the slight shocks 
recorded for each month of the disturbed period are grouped as forming one 
earthquake at the locality. Had not some such arbitrary rule been adopted, 
these comparatively insignificant, though frequently repeated exhibitions 
of seismic force (if they be such) would, when introduced in the curves, 
have given, at certain points of time, a false elevation to the abscisste, while 
the phenomena themselves are not of a character materially to modify our 
results even if excluded. 

The conclusions possible from the still vast mass of facts here brought to- 
gether, however, will, as a first generalization, be found, I apprehend, not 
unimportant. 

They may be classed under two great heads ; viz. the relation of seismic 
energy to time and to space, or the distribution of recorded earthquakes 
in each. And, first, — 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 4lJ 

Of Seismic Energy in relation to Time. 

Plates 1. 11. III. IV. V. and VI. carry down the stream of time the whole 
series of observations from 2000 years before the Christian era to the year 
1850. 

In all these chrono-seismic curves the ordinate is that of epoch, and must 
not be confounded with one expressing in anywise the duration of each 
shock or separate seismic effort. The abscissa is that of seismic intensity, 
which has been assumed proportional to the number of coincident seismic 
efforts, without taking any account in the curve of the variable intensity of 
different efforts. This is a source of uncertainty that would not have been 
avoided, but rather the tendency to error increased, by any conventional 
law of enlargement of the abscissa that could have been devised to suit the 
vague proportion of greater or less in earthquake narrations ; but the means 
are given to the reader of applying such corrective as the information admits, 
by placing along the line of time down to the year 1750 the letter G above 
each epoch at which an earthquake of undoubtedly great and destructive 
intensity has been recorded, and the letter S above all those that were so 
circumstanced as to have been followed by the influx of " great sea waves." 
This notation might have been carried on further, but that after the year 
1750, when observations rapidly multiply, the number of earthquakes re- 
corded as being " gi'eat " are so numerous, that to distinguish their epochs 
thus would have involved the extension of the ordinate to a new and incon- 
veniently enlarged scale. For the first three centuries of historic time 
(according to our commonly accepted chronology) it will be seen that there 
are no earthquake records, and that, while between a.c. 1700 and a.c, 
1400 there are a few scattered facts, there is again from a.c. 1400 to a.c. 
900, neai'ly a period of five hundred years of perfect blank, followed again 
(with a few exceptions) by another blank from a.c, 800 to a.c. 600, Even 
in the succeeding century, but two earthquakes are recorded; so that, in 
fact, the record of any value for scientific analj'sis may be said to commence 
at the five hundredth year before the Christian era. 

It is only in the first century prior to our era that the curve shows that 
observations may be at length deemed even continuous, every previous cen- 
tury being interrupted by lengthened lacunae. 

From the commencement of the Christian era downwards to the present 
day, the abscissae continually increase in closeness and magnitude, and at the 
first casual glance suggest the idea that earthquake energy has increased 
over the whole earth during the course of ages in a fearful manner. We 
shall see, however, reason to correct any such conclusion. 

Although periods of thirty and forty years occur in the second and third 
centuries of our era without the record of a single earthquake, it did not 
seem advisable to affirm as certain the want of all observation, by the sub- 
stitution here of lacunae for the continuity of the curve. 

The end of the third century first gives evidence of numerical increase; 
and the increase thence is steadily progressive up to the year 1850. 

It is not, however, until the seventeenth century that the increased number 
of earthquakes becomes strikingly remarkable, increasing still more in the 
eighteenth, and presenting a far greater number in the first half of the 
nineteenth than in both the preceding centuries taken together. 

Yet this vast and rapid expansion, in the three last centuries especially, 
affords no proof whatever that there has been a corresponding, or even any 
increase in the frequency of earthquake phenomena. Our chrono-seismic 
curve is, in fact, not only a record of earthquakes, but a record of the ad- 



48 REPORT — 1858. 

vance of human enterprise, travel, and observation. The epochs of printing 
and the Reformation are those of the first great expansion, while the dis- 
covery of the new world, the voyage to India round the Cape, and the vast 
accessions of European colonization and commerce of the last 150 years, 
connect themselves as causes with the two latest curves. We have traced 
at once the history of a physical law and that of human progress. How far, 
then, is it possible to disentangle these elements, so as to arrive at a con- 
clusion as to whether seismic energy over the world is progressive, constant, 
or retrooressive ? To do so perfectly is perhaps impossible ; the elements 
by which the rate of observational knowledge has been determined are too 
complex and too imperfectly known to render any attempt to fix its rate of 
expansion in time probable. Even the area of observation itself, the land 
and water known to history at given epochs, can be but vaguely sketched ; 
as vaguely also the number of observers, and the determination of the human 
mind towards observation. (See Appendix I.) 

This much is certain, however ; — that up to, and even beyond the Christian 
era, no record of earthquakes exists for any portions of the earth's surface, 
except for limited areas of Europe and Asia, and a still more restricted 
patch of Northern Africa, and, if Kaempfer. is to be credited, for Japan, of 
which, however, we know nothing for certain. Yet, of the enormously 
larger areas of the then outer and unknown world since discovered, it is not 
to be supposed but that there was a proportionate (perhaps even for the 
"New World" a more than proportionate) amount of earthquake energy, 
though not recorded or even known to mankind. 

If, however, the curve of total energy (Plate VII.), in which the facts of 
all the preceding are condensed into a single line, be examined and com- 
pared by a broad glance with the great outlines of human progress, the con- 
clusion appears sufficiently warranted, that during all historic time the amount 
of seismic energy over the observed portions of our world must have been 
nearly constant. To assume that earthquake disturbance has been con- 
tinually on the increase, would be to contradict all the analogies of the 
physics of our globe. These analogies might lead us to suppose that, like 
other violent presumed periodical actions, they were getting spent, and that 
the series of earthquake shocks would be found a converging one. Were 
this so, however, to any considerable extent, we should not find the vast 
expansions of results which the last 300 years present ; or, although the ex- 
pansion might be absolutely large, its divergence would not present such 
decisive features of progressive increase. The results due to the number of 
observers would be more or less balanced by the increasing paucity of events 
to observe and record ; but this appears conclusively to lead to the deduc- 
tion we have made, namely, that if the curve of total energy be closely 
examined century by century, it will be found that, at periods of social torpor 
and stagnation of observational energy (and this is so even far down the 
stream of time), the number of earthquakes remains nearly constant, or with 
a very slight but nearly uniform increase. Thus, from the eleventh to the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, the abscissae are almost equal, the crests of 
the curves being nearly all ascribable to single great earthquakes, which made 
themselves felt over vast areas. Their expansion just keeps pace, so far as can 
be judged, with that of contemporaneous human progress ; but if the series 
was really a distinctly converging one, at such periods we should find the 
abscissae decreasing also. On the other hand, we find the increase in the 
number of recorded earthquakes always coinciding with the epochs of in- 
creased impulse and energy in the march of the human mind. 

We therefore conclude that our evidence, such as it is, indicates a general 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 49 

uniformity in the occurrence of earthquakes as distributed over long epochs 
of time. Setting aside (as contradicted by all other sources of analogy and 
information) the supposition that this, or any other phenomenon of occa- 
sional disturbance, has an increasing development upon our planet, we have 
two remaining alternatives; — either that seismic energy is getting gradually 
spent and is dying out — this, the evidence before us appears sufficiently to 
contradict; or that, upon the whole, during our short and most imperfect 
acquaintance witli it, it has remained pretty uniform throughout historic 
time, taking one long period with another. Yet, could we extend our view 
beyond the short limit of man's history to the vast past duration of that of 
our globe itself, it might be found that seismic energy is really a slowly 
decreasing force. 

A conclusion thus appearing at the first glance even contradictory to the 
presented results from which it is drawn, may bear a certain boldness of 
aspect, for which I hope to find that the observations pi'eceding, as to the 
true character of all earthquake records, and of the sort and amount of stress 
that may be laid upon them, will be held a justification. 

But while such uniformity or insensibly slow decadence may be the fact 
through time taken as a whole, there is also evidence of irregular and par- 
oxysmal energy in reference to shorter periods ; that is to say, not only (as 
all know) do earthquakes occur at some times, and not at others, in any 
given spot ; but, taking the whole area of observation together (in which 
tiiere is no moment, perhaps, or but a very brief one, wherein thei-e is not an 
earthquake somewhere, or more than one), it will be found that there are 
epochs when they occur in greater numbers or intensity, either in the same 
or in several places within a limited time, — i.e. periods of paroxysmal 
energy. 

If we omit from our view all the curves of earlier periods and less ample 
observation, and limit our consideration to those of the last three centuries and 
a half, i.e. from a.d. 1500 to 1850, this paroxysmal chai'acter becomes 
evident at a glance, and increasingly so in the last century and a half (the 
epoch of all human history the most replete with discovery), wherein the 
number of recorded observations is so great, that it was necessary for clear- 
ness to double the scale, of the ordinate of the diagram (Plate VI.) in rela- 
tion to the preceding ones. On examining these curves, they seem to 
justify the following deductions: — 

1. While the smallest or minimum paroxysmal interval may be a year 

or two, the average interval is from five to ten years of comparative 
repose. 

2. The shorter intervals are in connexion with periods of fewer earthquakes 

— not always with those of least intensity, but usually so. 

3. The alternations of paroxysm and of repose appear to follow mo 

absolute law deducible from these curves. 

4. Two marked periods of extreme paroxysm are observable in each 

century — one greater than the other — that of greatest number and 
intensity occurring about the middle of each century, the other 
towards the end of each. 

This is one of the most remarkable facts that these curves seem to point 
to: from about the fiftieth to the sixtieth year of each century, both the 
number and intensity of earthquakes will be observed suddenly to shoot up ; 
again, during the last quarter of the three complete centuries another but 
less powerful paroxysm is apparent. The paroxysmal power at these two 
epochs in each century far exceeds any other paroxysms within their limits. 
1858. E 



50 REPORT — 1858. 

Within the first period (in the 18th century) we find the great Lisbon 
earthquake ; within the second, in the same century, the great Calabrian 
one. We find (referring to the Catalogue itself) earthquakes in great num- 
bers, and many great ones — in the Mediterranean basin in the middle of 
the 17th century, and the great Jamaica earthquake in its latter decade; 
and in the 16th century, its middle period was marked by great earth- 
quakes in China and in Europe, and the latter period by numerous shocks, 
and most of them severe, as at the Azores, &c. Whether the latter half of 
our century shall show the like, remains to be seen ; from its commencement, 
however, it presents no paroxysmal period comparable to that between 
1840 and 1850. 

While this general resemblance of the curves of these latter centuries 
admits of no doubt, I would forbear from founding anything thereupon be- 
yond this ; — that within this time there seems to elapse a period of about a 
century between each of the very greatest paroxysms (number and intensity 
together) of earthquakes, and a like period between two other consecutive 
paroxysms, of which the second is the next greatest observable, although 
far below the first in power ; that a period of thirty to forty years seems 
to occur between the first and very greatest paroxysm, and that next in 
power below it; and that in the middle period (especially in the I7th and 
18th centuries) the number of earthquakes is greatest that crowd into a 
very brief time (four or five years), while at the latter period the number 
is thickly spread over ten or twelve years. 

Upon the whole, the forms of the curves appear to indicate a compara- 
tively sudden burst of seismic energy at each great paroxysm, and (by 
their flat tops or more sloping lines to the right hand) a more gradual 
subsidence, as if the train of causes required time to regain, after one spent 
paroxysm, their energy and regimen, which, when restored, were suddenly 
put into action, and which, once developed, were slow in being wholly 
expended and relapsing into repose. 

The occurrence of such epochs at the middle, or towards the end of our 
purely arbitrary subdivision of duration into centuries, must be of course 
only accident. The interval of duration between one epoch and the next, 
is that alone which can have a cosmical basis. 

We may then provisionally affirm the probability of two periods of earth- 
quake maxima — a greater and a less alternately — as occurring in a hundred 
years, for the last three centuries of history at least. The existence of 
some periodic maxima in remoter centuries can hardly be doubted, although 
the epochs of the two maxima have a secular movement, and do not fall in 
the same place in the older times. Anterior to the 16th century, however, 
the general curves of time (Plates I. II. and III.) are, through paucity of 
observations, not sufficiently " prononcees" to enable this to be asserted from 
them, or to warrant the graphic representation of the epochs of occurrence 
of such paroxysmal periodic maxima for the whole even of the Christian era. 

In Plate VII. fig. 2, the periods of paroxysm (number and intensity) are 
summed and grouped for each successive century of our era. The 1st, 
5th, 9th, 12th, and 18th centuries are those of greatest seismic develop- 
ment, while the 1st and 2nd centuries a.c, and the 3rd, 7th, 10th, and 
14th centuries of our era, are times of comparative repose. The numerical 
value of the paroxysmal centuries (as we may term them) increases, though 
not regularly, as the present time is neared, and is modified, without doubt, 
by the same conditions of observation that aff'ect the expansions of the later 
curves of time. We dare not base any generalization upon it. 

Numerically, we find the following average ratios of earthquakes for the 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 51 

successive historic groups, of time extending over the whole record of the 
catalogue : — 

Table XXIX. 



Historic Group. 


Ratio per Month. 


Ratio per Year. 


2000 to 1000 B.c 

1001 B.C. to Christian era ... 
A.D. 1 to A.D. 1000 


0-00033 
0-0045 
0-0185 
0-545 

1-450 
2-610 


0-004 
0-054 
0-222 
7-740 

17-370 
35-310 


A.D. 1001 to A.D. 1850 

A.D. 1551 to A.D. 1850 


A.D. 1701 to A.D. 1850 





These numbers are absolute as well as proportional ; nothing can more 
distinctly show the relation between the expanding areas of our curves of 
time and the increase of observation. 

Sir Charles Lj'ell, at p. 428 (' Principles of Geology,' 7th edit.), calcu- 
lates, upon approximate data, the average number of actual eruptions of 
volcanic matter at 2000 per century, or 20 per annum, — a result which har- 
monizes sufficiently with the preceding, and gives support to the commonly 
received view of the connected nature of volcanic and seismic phenomena. 

This connexion receives further confirmation from the facts recorded by 
Perrey (' Mem. on Chili,' p. 201), as to the long duration there, of many 
earthquakes of a character much more violent and decisive than the tremors 
long continued, at Comrie, East Haddam, &c. He mentions earthquakes 
in 1647, 1730, 1751, 1819, 1822, and 1833, each of which lasted, with little 
intermission, for several months, and which, from other sources of in- 
formation, seem to have been in some instances contemporaneous with pro- 
longed activity of the neighbouring volcanic regions. 

Of Seismic Energy in relation to Season, 

I now proceed to such discussions as the data will admit, of the relations 
between seismic development and the time of year. In Plate VIII. are given 
the curves of niensual seismic energy obtained from the entire period of the 
catalogue, thirty-two centuries. 

The northern and southern hemispheres of observations have been 
separated for the following reasons. The total number and value of the 
observations in each, present great disparity between them respectively. 
We are enabled graphically to present 3879 observational results for the 
northern, and but 223 for the southern hemispheres ; and, for convenience, 
the vertical or seismic abscissa of the former is on a scale which bears to 
that of the latter the ratio of 100 : 1 ; the ordinate of time, which extends 
to the cycle of an entire year, and is divided and marked for the twelve 
months in order, is the same for both figures. As the months, in fact, in- 
volve or contain the seasons of the year, and indeed all other divisions of 
our solar revolution, and as the latter are unlike for opposite hemispheres, 
and are hereafter to be compared, such subdivision is necessary. 

Examining figs. 1 and 2, Plate VIII., we find in the northern hemisphere 
the annual paroxysmal minimum in July, in the southern it appears to be 
in March. The duration of this minimum in the northern extends, with no 
very cousiderable fluctuation, over nearly two months, and suddenly rises 

E 2 



52 REPORT — 1858. 

in July ; in the southern the minimum is more suddenly arrived at, and as 
suddenly abandoned, andjit extends over less than one month. 

If we take May and June as one minimum in the northern, we have 
a second but very much lower one in September, and the corresponding 
second minimum for the southern hemisphere in August. 

The annual paroxysmal maximum for the northern hemisphere is di- 
stinctly in January, and for the southern in November. 

January and March are second maxima in the southern, as August and 
October are in the northern. 

Whatever be the irregularities month by month however, the prepon- 
derance of seismic paroxysm for the whole twelve months lies amongst those 
that form the winter of our northern hemisphere. 

In Plate IX. figs. 1 to 6, curves are drawn for mensual energy, for several 
corresponding periods for the northern and southern hemispheres. Figs. 1 
and 2 indicate these for the whole period before, and for sixteen centuries 
after the commencement of our era. Here the northern minimum falls 
in July, and a second minimum in October, while the southern mini- 
mum falls in April, and the second before September, approximating thus 
to accordance with the curves of the whole catalogue, but less " prononcees." 
Then for later but shorter observed periods, figs. 3 and i give the mensual 
energy for a.d. 1700 to 1800, and figs. 5 and 6 for a.d. 1800 to 1850, being 
the half century in which, for convenience of comparison, the ordinate of 
time is double the scale of the other figures, the whole twelve months being 
represented by an ordinate of equal length in all. 

In the eighteenth century, then, we find in the northern hemisphere the 
minima less distinct, occurring in July and September, and the maximum in 
January, with a second maximum between October and January ; and in the 
southern hemisphere, the minima about March and September, and the 
maxima in May and December. 

Again, in the first half of this nineteenth century we have (fig. 5) the 
northern minimum in June, a second but less marked minimum between 
November and December, and the maximum again in January and Fe- 
bruary ; while in the southern hemisphere we have (fig. 6) the seismic 
minimum in March, and a second but much less marked one between July 
and August, and the maximum in November, with feeble indications of a 
second slight one in June. 

Such are, then, the results of our monthly discussion. Comparing both 
hemispheres, they show several points of general agreement, and some of 
decided want of accordance. Little comparative weight can be ascribed to 
the few observations as yet made in the southern hemisphere, where so large 
a proportion of the earth's surface is covered by the ocean, and where so 
little of the land has, until a very late date, been the subject of observational 
record at all. It would seem warrantable therefore not to permit any such 
unaccordant phenomena between the two hemispheres to obscure the strong 
presumption which the facts otherwise support, that there really is a seismic 
paroxysm in the months forming the end and commencement of the civil 
year. It may not have a natural or cosmical basis, it may possibly be one of 
the accidents inseparable from an observational catalogue ; but both this 
extended catalogue, and nearly all the partial catalogues of others, indicate 
it as a fact, and one not absolutely without some extraneous support in the 
present state of our knowledge. 

When we group the consecutive months into four seasons, spring, summer, 
autumn, and winter, and reproduce the curve of seismic energj' for the whole 
year, and separately for each hemisphere and for the whole period of the 



ON TUB FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 53 

catalogue, the same relation of scale as before (figs. 1 and 2, Plate VIII.) 
being maintained between the northern and southern abscissae, we find 
some of the apparent anomalies disappear. In fig. 1, Plate X. the curve of 
season for the northern hemisphere assumes a very regular form, and gives 
a decisive minimum for the summer season (in May and June), and an 
equally clear maximum for the winter season (in December and January). 

In fig. 2, Plate X. the corresponding curve for the southern hemisphere, 
however, still shows two maxima and two minima, the maximum at the 
commencement of winter, with second maximum at midsummer; the 
minima in spring and autumn assuming the months constituting the re- 
spective seasons reversed in the two hemispheres. It must be borne in view, 
however, that the base of induction for this hemisphere is from only 223 
observations, against 5879 in the northern ; that if the southern curve had 
been drawn to the same vertical scale as the northern, it would have ap- 
peared to the eye as almost a straight line ; so that very little weight is to 
be attached to the discordance it appears to present to the corresponding 
curve, its necessarily exaggerated scale falsely addressing the eye. 

In fig. 3, Plate X., the two curves preceding are combined, but to the 
same scale of vertical or of seismic abscissa ; and the result shows how little 
in reality the data that we possess as yet for the southern hemisphere are" 
capable of modifying the facts we have for the northern. The southern 
curve, in fact, scarcelj' alters to the eye the preceding northern one ; and 
the new curve of season for both hemispheres presents still the winter maxi- 
mum and summer minimum. 

In fig. 5, Plate X., a curve has been obtained for the whole period of 
the catalogue and for both hemispheres, representing graphically all recorded 
earthquakes occurring near or at the equinoxes and solstices (the critical 
epochs of Perrey and others) within a limit of twenty days, i. e. ten days be- 
fore and ten days after each equinox and solstice. The base of induction is 
moderately large, the catalogue containing the following numbers : — 

Vernal equinox (March 10 — 30) 310 

Summer solstice (June 11 — July 1) 254? 

Autumnal equinox (Sept. 13 — Oct. 3) 249 

Winter solstice (Dec. 1 1—31) 318. 

This we may call the equinoctial and solstitial curve of comparative seismic 
energy. It indicates a distinct maximum about the winter solstice, and an 
equally distinct minimum rather before the autumnal equinox. Taking the 
average of the whole year for any lengthened period, it may admit of much 
doubt, whether there is any real seismic paroxysm at the equinoxes and sol- 
stices, although a clear preponderance is shown by our catalogues at two out of 
the four annual epochs at which all are recorded ; yet, from the accordance 
of Perrey's results with those given by this much larger base of induction, 
we cannot put aside the possibility tiiat the fact may have a cosmical basis. 

The most direct connexion in such case that we should expect to find, 
with other ascertained, periodical phenomena, would be with the annual 
march of the barometer. In fig. 4, Plate X., the annual curves of mean 
mensual barometric pressure are laid down to the same scale of ordinate for 
time as the equinoctial and solstitial seismic curve below (fig. 5), giving the 
variation in atmospheric pressure for places in several and distant latitudes, 
Macao, Havanna, Calcutta, Benares ; and in Europe, Halle, St. Petersburg, 
Berlin, Paris, and Strasburg, — the curves themselves having been reduced 
from those of MM. Buch, Dove, and Kaemtz. 

On comparing these barometric curves with the seismic one, an obvious 



54 REPORT — 1858. 

similarity addresses the eye. Is there any real relation, however? In 
the First Report (1850), p. 68, &c., I have treated of the relations of 
atmospheric pressure with earthquakes, and at p. 78 have indicated a possible 
link of connexion of a direct character between them, and shown how it is 
conceivable that local increase of barometric pressure, and diminution simul- 
taneously elsewhere, may conspire with other conditions to bring on volcanic 
action, and hence earthquake; and Perrey has hinted, in his memoir on France, 
p. 98 (4to), at some relation between his seismic mensual curves for Italy and 
Europe, having a minimum in November, and Dove's barometric curves, 
given in Pogg. Ann. for 1843, pp. 177, 201, which show something analogous 
{quelque chose d analogue). Here we observe (comparing figs. 4< and 5) the 
barometric minima very closely correspond with the seismic minima, and 
vice versa. Bearing in mind the fact, that, as the sun gets nearer the zenith 
with the advance of spring and summer, the barometer falls, and that, taking 
the whole earth together, the atmospheric pressure is less over those portions 
of its surface where it is summer, and greater over those where it is winter; 
and that these differences of pressure are greater in general as the latitude 
is lower, so that simultaneously that hemispheric surface of the globe which 
is at the time most heated by the sun is also least pressed upon by the 
atmosphere, and vice versa ; it seems warrantable to presume a cosmical and 
even a possibly direct connexion between the two phenomena; and this 
receives, again, some support* from the fact (though not without large 
exceptions), that on the whole the great earthquake bands of the world pass 
through low latitudes, where these barometric and thermic fluctuations are 
most developed. 

It would be worse than useless, however, to speculate minutely upon the 
physical relations of those facts, in the present imperfect state of our know- 
ledge of their connexion. 

The attempts which 1 have made to ascertain an absolute relation in 
number, from any discussion of the Catalogue, between the recurrence of 
seismic paroxysm at the equinoxes and solstices, and at an equal period of 
twenty days throughout the whole range of time, have been nugatory ; it is 
impracticable to extricate a result, in which any confidence could be reposed, 
from the observational expansion and irregularities with the advance of 
time. 

We must not be discouraged, however, that after the vast labour bestowed 
by so many, upon cataloguing earthquakes and discussing the results, we 
find these do not bring us even to the threshold of positive knowledge, and 
that the main reward of toil so far, is the having cleared away rubbish, and 
at length ascertained how far lists of facts, such as have been hitherto com- 
piled from the best available materials, are of any further use. General 
Sabine, in his Introduction to vol. iii. of the ' Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observations made at Toronto,' p. vii., when narrating the former state of 
magnetical science as compared with its present position, says, "a few of the 
German observers had begun to note the disturbance of the horizontal force ; 
but as yet no conclusions whatsoever as to their laws had been obtained :" in 
the words of the Report, " the disturbances apparently observe no law." Such 
may almost be said, as to our present knowledge of the distribution of 
earthquakes in time and in space, as referable to any natural law. We 
know how the position of terrestrial magnetism has become altered since 
the time referred to above by one of its best promoters ; let us expect the 
same for seismology, and await with hope the rich flood of light that its 

* See also Mylne, British Earthquakes, Edin. Phil. Journ. vol. xzxi. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA, 55 

laws, when once reached, must shed upon terrestrial physics. The period 
of mere cataloguing (like that of fossil-list making in the earlier geology) 
seems now past ; we must give it up, and, in the words of Herschel, " we 
must now grapple with the palpable phenomena, seeking means to reduce 
their features to measurement, the measures to laws, the laws to higher 
generalizations, and so, step by step, advance to causes and theories," 
(Address, Camb. 1S45.) 

Many cases are recorded in the Catalogue of Earthquakes, of shocks 
occurring at two very distant places upon the earth's surface, but felt simul- 
taneously, or nearly so, at both. The coincidence in time is, for all very 
distant places, rendered extremely doubtful, from errors of observation and 
of clocks, and of their reduction for difference of longitude when the places 
are not on the same meridian. 

Milae also has collected several such instances ; for example — 

February 1750... England and Italy. 

March 1750... England and Italy. 

May 1750... England and Calabria. 

August 1750. ..England and European Turkey. 

February 1756.. England and Central France, Holland and the Rhine. 

November 1756... Scotland and Malta. 

January 1768. ..Shetland and Central England. 

December 1789. ..Edinburgh and Florence. 

February 1818. ..Great Britain and Sicily. 

September 1833... England and Peru. 

August 1834... Scotland and Italy. 

September 1 SSI... England and Peru. 

In these, however, the coincidence in time cannot be assured within several 
hours ; and it must be admitted, with Mylne, that the probability of any- 
thing more than mere coincidence is extremely slight. 
In 1840-4'1 he found three shocks of this character : viz. 

March 1840 Scotland and Germany. 

June 1841 Terceira and St. Louis. 

July 18il Scotland and France. 

(Edin. Phil. Journ. xxxi. to xxxvi.) 

A few such instances, that posses? a closer approximation in time and 
some additional probability of actual coincidence, have been extracted from 
the Catalogue, and have been drawn in the diagram (Plate Xiw) to scale, — 
those which had horizontal components of motion in the meridians N. to S. 
or S. to N. being placed at the right and left sides of the great-circle section 
of the globe ; and those with horizontal movement E. and W. or W. and E., 
placed above and below. 

Right lines connecting the supposed distant points of coincident shock by 
chords of the circle, would probably pass through the origin or centre of 
disturbance common to both places on the surface. The origin might be 
deeper to any extent, and possibly somewhat nearer the surface, at least in 
the cases of the longer chords. Were any reliance to be placed upon these 
coincidences, some of them would thus give a depth of origin of about 800 
miles below the surface. None of those, however, that appear to have any 
satisfactory evidence of a real connexion in time and in origin, suggest a 
depth for the latter of even one-tenth that amount. All our other know- 



56 REPORT — 1858. 

ledge, both of seismic and volcanic phenomena, leads to the conclusion of 
foci very much nearer the existing surface ; and the diagram may be re- 
garded as conclusive evidence that these presumed coincident earthquakes 
at very distant points, even if proved simultaneous, are unconnected, and 
have different origins. 

In the most singular case on record, that of Ochotzk and Quito, places 
nearly antipodal, the common origin Avould actually be in, or not remote 
from, the earth's centre ; and it is not conceivable that the shock, which, if 
sufficiently powerful, must in such cases be felt nearly simultaneously over 
the whole globe, should have been confined to the two extremities of a single 

diameter. 

In recapitulation, it may be convenient to give in numbers, for occasional 
reference, a few of the salient results of the distribution in time, already 

graphically discussed : — 

No. of No. of 

Earthquakes. Years. 

Total number of recorded earthquakes up to a.d 58 1700 

Total number from a.d. to end of the ninth century . . 197 900 

Total number from the beginning of the tenth to the 

end of the fifteenth century 532 600 

Total number from the beginning of the sixteenth to 

the end of the eighteenth century 2804 SCO 

Total number from beginning of nineteenth century to 

the end of the year 1850 3240 50 



Total Catalogue. 6831 



'o 



The number of great earthquakes {i.e. those, as already defined, in which 
whole cities and towns have been reduced to rubbish, many lives lost, &c.) 
have been but imperfectly exhibited graphically, and not at all for the later 
centuries, from their too frequent recurrence making their notation difficult 
or confused ; they are here given numerically. 

Number of great earthquakes from third century B.C. to beginning of 
our epoch 4 

Number of same from a.d. to the end of the ninth century 15 

Number from beginning of the tenth century to the end of the fifteenth 

century 44 

Number from beginning of the sixteenth century to the end of the 
eighteenth century 100 

Number from beginning of the nineteenth century to 1850 53 

Total 216 

If we double the last number but one, to embrace the entire 100 years, the 
correspondence between the results for the two last periods is remarkably 
close, viz. 100 and 106, — and although the series is still an expanding one, 
yet as the numbers for the 16th and 17th centuries are not large; it is 
probable that for the last 150 years at least, our news of all great earthquakes 
have been complete, and the cataloguing of them perfect, showing that at 
present we may calculate upon 1-37 — say 1-4, or nearly 1^ recurrences of 
great and disastrous earthquakes every year, at some one or more places on 
the earth's surface, or one great earthquake disaster every eight months. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 57 

The total number of earthquakes, classed by months, is as follows : — 





Northern. 


Southern. 


Seasons, 
North. 


Seasons, 
South. 




627 
539 
503 
489 
438 
428 
415 
488 
463 
516 
473 
500 


19 

14 

9 

17 

20 
19 
18 
12 
17 
25 
32 
21 


1609 
1355 
1366 
1489 


42 
56 
47 

78 


February 

Maxell 




May 


June 


July 




September 

October 


November 

December 

Totals 


5879 


223 


5879 


223 



Total of Catalogue for both hemispheres capable of mensual 

classification 6102 

Total of unclassed, except as to annual date 670 

Total number catalogued 6772 

of which, there are recorded by season only — 

Spring 6 

Summer 7 

Autumn 7 

Winter 5 



Total. 



25 



January, February, and March have been taken for the spring of the 
Northern Hemisphere, and for the Southern, July, August, and September. 

From the commencement of Catalogue to a.d. 1700, the recorded earth- 
quakes in the northern hemisphere are to those in the southern, 940 : 21, 
or as 44*3 : 1. Again, from a.d. 1700 to 1800, the northern are to the 
southern, 1883 : 57, or 33 : ] ; and from the year 1800 to 1S50, or conclusion 
of the Catalogue, the northern are to the southern, 3076 : 145, or 21"2 : 1, — 
a further indication of the etfect upon any such statistic record, of the march 
of human discovery, the last fifty years having brought into play the vast 
seismic regions of the Southern Ocean and South Pacific, before all but un- 
known. The observed earthquakes in the Southern Hemisphere may now 
be estimated at from 43 to 50 per century, or one every two years. (See 
Appendix, No. H.). 

Distribution in space. 

Such are, perhaps, all the legitimate conclusions that we can now come 
to on the distribution in historic time ; and we now proceed to the discussion 
of the Catalogue, with respect to their distribution in space upon the surface 
of our earth. The method adopted, was that of graphically reproducing 
the area of each recorded earthquake by the superposition of coloured tints 
upon a large Mercator's map of the world. The map chosen for use was 
that arranged by J. Purdie, and published by Laurie, London, 1851, — the 
dimensions being 75 inches by 48 inches, which admitted, from its large 



58 REPORT — 1858. 

size, of perfect clearness and accuracy in the laying down the most complex 
localities, and those in which the shocks are most numerous. This has been 
reproduced to a much reduced scale (Plate XI.), to accompany the present 
Report ; but although executed with much skill and care, by the lithographer 
and engraver, I find with regret that its small size has rendered a perfectly 
accurate transcript of the original impracticable, and that a very imperfect 
notion of the latter is conveyed by the reduced map. 

Strictly, the limits of every earthquake are completely indeterminate ; and 
were our globe perfectly solid, homogeneous, and elastic, no limits but its 
own could be assigned to any shock from whatever centre originating. The 
practical limit (so to speak) is, however, where the movement has become 
insensible without instrumental aid ; for such liave been all the observations 
dealt with in our Catalogue. This frequently embraces enormous surface- 
areas ; but these seldom, perhaps nowhere, are symmetrically posited round 
the centres, or presumed centres, of disturbance. 

We are not concerned here with any of the smaller or local circumstances 
that modify, in different radii traced from any seismic centre, the effects, 
and the directions and distances, to which they are sensibly transferred, but 
merely with some of the greater and constant conditions (for the same region) 
in which some of the great natural features of the earth's surface perma- 
nently modify or limit the transference and area of transfer of earthquake- 
waves transmitted from adjacent centres. Thus, along the whole chain of 
the South American Andes, the propagation of shock is greatly more 
towards the west than to the eastward, — the highest crests and intermediate 
valleys forming a rude sort of limit, beyond which, to the eastward and into 
the heart of the table-land of the continent, shocks felt with destructive 
effect down to the shores of the Pacific are propagated with greatly di- 
minished force, or rather are so felt upon the surface. 

Again, to take another large example, the Northern Indian earthquakes, 
whose origin is in Nepaul and along the central Himalayan axis, are pro- 
pagated southwards and westwards into the great plain of India, far more 
than northwards into the enormous mass of table-land of Central Asia. 
We are at this moment not concerned with the causes of this, but simply 
with the fact, that in these examples, and in several analogous instances, it 
is a matter of observation that certain great natural features of the earth's 
surface and material, do modify the forms of the surface-areas shaken, 
and render them unsymmetrical, shortening the radii in one direction, 
lengthening them in another; so that the area, which in a more homo- 
geneous mass would approach a circular or elliptic form, tends to an elon- 
gated, linear, or irregular outline. 

In laying down, then, the forms and sensible area of shock of each earth- 
quake catalogued (and often necessarily, from the imperfect data alone 
afforded), the following rules were adhered to : — 

1°. When the form and sensible limits of the shaken area were ascertain- 
able from the narratives, they were adopted. 

2°. When these were wanting, as in the great mass of cases recorded, then, 
as respects form, the physical, geological, or other conditions of 
each area, known to modify the distant propagation of shock, were 
attended to. 

3°. As respects sensible area, when this could not be ascertained for 
any one diameter of the shaken area, from the narratives, certain 
arbitrary conventional rules (founded upon a natural basis, however) 
were resorted to. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 59 

The method of colouring therefore was this. The whole of the recorded 
earthquakes of the Catalogue were subdivided preliminarily, with as careful 
a judgment as possible, into three great classes : — 

1°. Great earthquakes, being those in which, over large areas, numerous 
cities, &c., were overthrown, multitudes of persons killed, rocky 
masses dislocated, and powerful " secondary effects" produced. 

2". Mean earthquakes, or those which, although perhaps having a wide 
superficial area, were recorded to have produced much less destruc- 
tive effects upon cities, &c., and little or no changes upon natural 
objects, and scarcely any loss of life. 

3°. Minor earthquakes, limited to tliose which, although sensible and 
producing in their full development some effects (fissures, &c.) upon 
buildings, did not affect natural objects at all, and left few or no 
traces of their occurrence after the shock. 

Of the first class, the great Lisbon shock of 1755 may be taken as a 
familiar type. Of the second, examples are frequent over Central Europe 
and the Mediterranean basin, Southern Asiatic Russia, &c. And of the 
third class we find notices almost daily from every quarter. 

As respects the very smallest development of tiiis class, namely, the con- 
tinuous tremors of Comrie, Pignerol, &c. &c., they were grouped into single 
shocks upon the same jnethod as described previously for their discussion as 
to distribution in time. 

To distinguish these three classes upon the map, three different inten- 
sities of water-colour tint were prepared — all from the same colour (red 
ochre and Indian yellow). The first and most intense having been decided 
to designate the first class, that for the second was obtained of one-third 
the intensity, by dilution with three volumes of water ; and the third by 
dilution of the second with three volumes again, — the intensities of the 
tiiree tints being therefore as the numbers 1, I; and •^, or 9, 3, and 1. A 
single wash or application of the tint relative to its class, upon the given 
locality, designated each earthquake when laid down on the map ; and 
the form or boundary of the tint, when not to be had historically, being 
ruled by physical considerations as already briefly described, the extent or 
superficial area of the tint (when not derivable from the narratives), was 
arbitrarily fixed by the following rule : — 

4-°. The extreme radius of great earthquakes (1st class) was assumed equal 
to 9°, or about 540 geographical miles; that of the 2nd class at 3°, 
or 180 geographical miles ; and that of the 3rd at a single degree, or 
60 geographical miles. 

These were determined from the consideration that our records give, 
when viewed with a broad glance and apart from physical and local limiting 
conditions of a powerfully disturbing character ; i. e. when the area of dis- 
turbance has had a sensible surface-boundary approaching to an irregular 
circle or ellipse, — a sensible diameter of about 1000 to 1200 miles for great 
earthquakes, and about 400 for those of our second class, those minor 
ones of the third seldom extending to above 100 or 150 miles in diameter. 

In the case of the enormous surface-areas of the first class, however, it 
has rarely been necessary, in the later years of the catalogue period, to 
make use of this convention at all, the historic boundaries being usually 
attainable. These in many cases comprise areas of sui-prising extent: thus 
the great Nepaul earthquake of 1833 extended sensibly over 7° lat. by 



60 REPORT — 1858. 

15° long., a surface four times that of Great Britain, and twice and a half 
that of France. 

The Cutch earthquake of 1819 extended from E. to W. 5°, and frona 
N. to S. 6°, though its dimensions in latitude are rather ill-defined. (' Asiat. 
Journ.' vol. xii. n. s.) 

The Lisbon (1755) earthquake, and a few of those of the Malayan and 
Calabrian groups, and of South America, were sensible in certain surface- 
radii or great circles over 18°, or perhaps even 20° ; but these are the extreme 
developments of our first class, and their limits historical, and therefore not 
affecting the preceding conventions. Some earthquakes recorded in the 
catalogue it was necessary to omit laying down upon the map at all, inasmuch 
as no sufficient data could be gathered to fix a probable local surface centre, 
nor any information as to the comparative energy of the movement. For 
example, some earthquakes (though but few) will be found catalogued as 
" in China," " in Libya," &c., with scarcely any particulars given. These 
omissions are not sufficiently numerous to affect the main result. 

Besides these inseparable elements, volcanic and seismic phenomena, an- 
other intimately related phenomenon has been marked, as far as the data 
enable it. Those tracts of the earth's surface which have been presumed, 
with more or less probability, to be in slow process of subsidence to a 
lower level, are marked by blue tints, the boundaries of which are un- 
defined to a great extent. These embrace the coral tracts of Darwin, the 
west coast of Greenland, and a small tract of the southern shores of the 
Baltic. All minor subsiding areas close to or in the midst of volcanic centres 
(such as the shore of Italy near Naples) are unnoticed, as such changes of 
level, due to the immediate action of adjacent valcanoes, are almost per- 
petual, and, in proportion to its state of activity, &c., common to every such 
area over the globe. 

On examining the Mercator map (Plate XII.), then, upon which, subject 
to the above rules, the whole Catalogue has been graphically rejiresented by 
tinting, it is to be remarked that — 

1. The whole of the earth's surface known to be subject to earthquakes 

will be found tinted more or less intensely. 

2. The most deeply tinted surfaces mark the places where either the 

number, or the intensity, or both, of successive earthquakes are the 
greatest. 

3. Whether at any one point the depth of tint be due to number or to 

intensity, and the relation between these, may be found by reference 
to the Catalogue itself. 

4. The shading- off or evanescence of tint towards the extreme sensible 

limits of the seismic (coloured) regions over the whole map is due 
(not to shading or evanescence of colour in the artist's sense, but) 
to the superposition of tints only upon the principles already ex- 
plained. Hence it follows (admitting the two conventions made, as 
to intensity and area, and the partial extent to which these in- 
fluence the results historically gotten), that the tinting upon this 
seismographic map does as truly represent, over our earth, the known 
seismic regions in form and extent, and the relative intensities and 
successive developments of seismic action therein, as the contour 
lines of a contoured map represent the forms of irregular surfaces, 
and the rate of inclination of the slopes and valleys by their ap- 
proximation or separation ; or as truly as (upon certain engraved 
maps, e.g. Irish Railway Commission of Ireland and some German 
ones) the relative heights and rapidity of rise of mountain chains are 



ON THE FACTS AND TIIEOUY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 61 

graphically represented by multiplying the engraved lines that pro- 
duce the shades (or tints) in tlie joint ratio of the heights and rates 
of slope, i.e. as the sines of the angles upon a given base. 

I therefore venture to present this map as more than a mere picture — as 
being, in fact, a first approximation to a true representation of the distri- 
bution of earthquake forces, so far as they are yet known, over the surface 
of our world. 

Tlie volcanoes (including fumaroles and solfataras) are shown by black 
dots, and all that are known to be in activity, or are recorded to have been 
so, or from other evidence may be presumed to have been so, within the 
historic or late geologic periods, have been represented, from the authorities 
of Johnston, Berghaus, V. Hoff, Daubeny and others. 

The exactitude of the number of volcanic vents along the great lines of 
foci, is, however, less important to our object than the marking in of isolated 
volcanoes. 

Let us now examine our map in detail, and see what it can teach us, taking 
for the starting-point of our seismic survey the meridian of Greenwich, the 
central point nearly of the dry land, and passing eastward in our review. 
l?ut first let us notice some points in the physical features of the earth's sur- 
face. Of the 111,000,000 of square miles of ocean (in round numbers) 
covering three-fourths of the surface of our globe, the greater part is to us a 
blank, so far as direct observation is concerned, the exceptions being the 
Atlantic with a part of the Southern Ocean from about 10° S., northwards, 
and of the Northern Ocean up to nearly 70° N., — nearly all other marine 
seismic observations being in connexion with centres upon adjacent land. 

We see these enormous pelagic areas, consisting of irregular, saucer- 
shaped, shallow depressions, bounded by flowing coast-lines which, by the 
connecting points of oceanic banks and islets, we can generally unite into 
closed curves, forming thus distinct but inosculating basins — of which the 
Northern and Southern Pacific together form the largest example. Those 
vast but comparatively very shallow depressions may, when viewed in indi- 
vidual detail, be subdivided into smaller shallow concavities by banks and 
shallows below the ocean surface. But each great oceanic saucer, bounded 
by the existing continents and their fragmentary outliers, presents an almost 
continuous fringe around, of mountain-chains and volcanic foci. Thus, start- 
ing from Mount Elias, long. 141° W., lat. 60°, at the northern extremity of 
the Pacific, we find a scattei-ed chain of volcanoes along the west coast of 
North America, with a continuous bounding coast line of mountains. South 
of the gulf of California, the Mexican and Central American volcanoes, with 
those of the South American Andes, carry on a closely linked chain, almost 
to its southern extremity. Here the volcanoes of Tierra del Fuego trace the 
line on towards that of Graham's Land, where it plunges into the unknown 
regions of the Antarctic continent. 

Returning to the extreme north again, from Mount Elias, we have the 
almost unbroken line of mountain and volcano of the Aleutian Archipelago; 
carried down through the great elevated peninsula of Kamtschatka, the Kurile 
Isles, Jesso, Japan, the Philippines; and to the north of New Guinea by its 
volcanoes and those of New Britain, the Solomon Isles, Egmont, New He- 
brides, New Caledonia, and New Zealand, to the Antarctic ice again at the 
Balleny Islands and Buckle Volcano — a connected belt, with the exception 
of the unknown Antarctic region, round its vast pelagic circuit. Within 
this the subordinate or secondary basins are marked, though less distinctly, 
by lines of volcanic foci: thus from Japan to New Ireland through the 
Ladrone Islands, a distinct though sparse line of volcanoes cuts off the basin 



62 REPORT — 1858. 

(nearly one-half the area of Africa) bounded on the north by Japan, and on 
the west by the Philippines. 

From lat. 30° S., a sub-oceanic crest-line of shallows appears to spur off 
eastward from the volcanic foci of New Caledonia and New Zealand, and, 
trending westward and a little northward through the Tonga, Society, Mar- 
quesas, and Gallapagos Islands, connected by continuous baniis, joins the Cen- 
tral American group of volcanoes, thus cutting the great ocean basin 
nearly into two secondaries, each of which is probably in a less marked man- 
ner subdivided, — the northern sub-basin, by a line through Christmas and 
the Sandwich Islands, to some point of the volcanic group of the Andrea- 
nofsky Islands in the Atlantic Archipelago, making in its course a wide 
sweep to the east and north through an almost continuous chain of isles and 
banks; and the southern sub-basin by a line from the Society Islands 
through Easter Isle and Juan Fernandez, and combining with the great 
Chilian volcanic chain at its eastern extreme. 

A vast fissure (noticed by Humboldt), and marked by an almost continuous 
line of volcanic vents, extends in a direction nearly east and west, right across 
Mexico, between lat. N. 18° and 19°. It is nearly 500 miles in length. Its 
main direction, if produced, bears upon the volcanic island of Revillegigedo, 
and, as Humboldt also thinks, probably extends to Mouna Roa, in the Sand- 
wich Islands. The Mexican extremity of this enormous crevasse probably 
marks the continental end of one of the great dividing ridges of the sub- 
basins of the Pacific. 

Within the great Pacific Basin will be found (tinted blue) most of those 
great areas of probable subsidence indicated by Darwin*. These bands will 
be observed occupying the great sub-basins of the ocean, not very distant 
from great volcanic lines, and although not (with our present imperfect 
knowledge of soundings) quite free from the suspicion of occasionally inter- 
secting such lines (e.<;r. Marquesas and Society Islands, Ladrone, and New 
Guinea), yet, on the whole, keeping surface positions intermediate to the 
volcanic cinctures adjoining or around them. 

Less distinctly we may trace the cincture of mountain- and volcanic chain 
around the shallower Atlantic basin, and, through it, upon the submarine 
elevations dividing its sub-basins. Thus, starting from Iceland ; the Ferro 
Isles, Scotland, and the mountains of Wales and England (with the breach 
of the English Channel, a narrow line in relation to the scale of our present 
survey), the Rhenish-German chains, the French and Western Alps, tlie 
Pyrenees, to Cape Finisterre and the coast of Portugal, connect by the 
Azores, and by innumerable submarine rocks and shoals, across to New- 
foundland. Here the lines to the northward may be pronounced unknown, 
until, returning back to Iceland, we find it approximates to the point we 
left through the great igneous and abrupt coast-line of Greenland. 

In connexion with this oceanic basin, we have two probably subsiding 
tracts of land— the one in Davis's Straits, the other in the Baltic— both tinted 
blue. 

The Central Atlantic forms a Avell-marked basin girded with volcanoes and 
mountain-ranges. Leaving the last stated boundary-line at Newfoundland, 
and going again eastward to the Azores, thence through Madeira to the 
Canary Isles, the Cape de Verds and including the great sub-oceanic vol- 
canic region between 15° and 30° long. W., and lat. 3° N. to 10° S., going 
westward by the island of Fernando Noronha to Cape St. Roque on the ex- 
treme east of the South American continent, returning to Newfoundland, 

* See Dana on Areas of Subsidence iu the Pacific. Ass. Amer. Geo!., Albany, 1843, and 
Edifl. PhiL Jouru. (New), vol. 36. p. 341. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 63 

we trace the line southwards through the several chains of the United States 
down into Georgia, where, with the comparatively narrow breach of Lower 
Florida, it is carried on hy Cuba and the whole chain of volcanic islands of 
the West Indies to Trinidad and the South American continent again. 
The Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea form a smaller but separate basin. 
In the southern Atlantic we can trace a dividing ridge through South 
Ascension — the great suboceanic tract just referred to — North Ascension, 
St. Helena, and probably to Cape Negro on the African west coast, and 
thence to the Cape of Good Hope, and returning westward by Tristan 
d'Acunha, thence S.W. to the Isle of Georgia (lat. 55° S.) and through the 
Falkland Islands to the volcanoes of the southern point of South America; 
but this, like the sub-basins, through the scattered indications which alone 
we yet have in the vast southern portion of the Eastern or Indian Ocean west 
of Australia, is uncertain. 

There is little doubt that Australia, on its northern existing coast-line, was 
once united with New Guinea and the Aru Islands west and south of it 
(Wallace, Sillimau's Journal, vol. xxv.), and possibly with much of tlie land 
outlying to the west of that vast and now isolated continent ; if not, the 
intermediate seas would be much deeper than they are, and the west coast of 
Australia with its mountainous chains would bound an ocean basin whose 
western boundary would be marked by a line of volcanoes from New Guinea 
to New Zealand and the Southern Sea. 

The seas of Ochotsk, of Kamtschatka, of Japan, and, above all, the Chinese 
and Malayan Seas with Borneo in the midst, form so many distinct basins, 
small relatively to the vast areas we have been reviewing, but distinct and 
strongly marked. In the Chinese Sea we have a probable tract of subsiding 
land, tinted blue upon the evidence of Darwin. The bay of Bengal, well- 
marked all round northward from Sunda, and belted with volcanoes to the 
Ganges, and with mountains near the coast thence to Ceylon, joins probably 
Western Australia by a suboceanic ridge, indicated through the rocks of 
Greville and Compton, the Island of Apaluria v/ith the adjacent submarine 
volcano of 1789, and the ocean shallows and soundings, about 100° W. 
long, and 20° to 25° S. lat. 

The separate basin of the Arabian Sea is equally distinct, from Cape 
Comorin along the Malabar coast, all highly mountainous, Beloochistan to 
the mouth of the Persian Gulf (itself a small basin), thence by the Arabian 
coast-line to the volcanic region at the mouth of the Red Sea, and into 
Abyssinia with its characteristic and enormous crater-form lake of Tzana 
(though as yet not possessing any earthquake record), and thence through 
regions scarcely known upon the East African coast, crossing to the Comoro 
Islands (volcanic) and to the mountainous regions of Madagascar, — the vol- 
canic islands of Bourbon, Mauritius and Rodriguez, the Nazareth and Saya 
banks, the Chagos Ai'chipelago and the Maldive and Laccadive Islands, 
completing the cincture with tlie Malabar coast again. 

Along the great band of these islands, and thence trending westwards by 
the Saya bank, lies one of the great tracts of ocean-floor which Darwin has 
shown to be probably subsiding (tinted blue). Assuming that this really is 
a band of subsidence, it would be more probable that the volcanic girdle 
takes a wider sweep to the south and west of this band, and, leaving the 
Island of Rodriguez, makes for the volcanic centre marked in the ocean at 
long. 90° E., lat. 10° S., and thence turns northward to join Ceylon, Cape 
Comorin and the volcanic region of Pondicherry, 

Leaving the great ocean and great continent, we trace smaller basins 
(or rather saucers, for their extreme shallowness in relation to their surface- 
area must never be lost sight of), where larger portions of the elevated raoun-. 



64 REPonx — 1858. 

tain-cincture, studded here and there with volcanic vents, are found unsub- 
nierged and inland (i. e. where the basin within its boundary is partly land 
and partly water), thus: iEtna, Lipari, and Vesuvius, the Apennine chain, 
the southern and western Alps, the Pyrenees, and the great tableland and 
axial chains of the Spanish peninsula, with the mountains of Northern Africa, 
on through Pantellaria and Sicily, form one such basin. Closely connected 
with this is the adjoining basin of the iEgean with the volcanic Greek Islands : 
the Black Sea, with the volcanic regions of Armenia and the Caucasus, form 
a distinct basin extending on the north far into Russia ; the Caspian, with the 
Sea of Aral and the plain of Tartary embracing Persia, another, having its 
own volcanoes near the former sea, while Central Asia, so little known, seems 
probably divisible into several vast saucer-like areas, north of the great table- 
land, of which the great lakes and the Altai chains, with their imperfectly 
described volcanoes, probably mark some parts of the cinctures, but which, 
in the absence of knowledge as to relative level, it would be premature to 
attempt to trace. Many of these basins further on to the north appear no 
longer bounded by closed curves upon land, but to open out along the great 
river-courses wliich run northward and become lost to our knowledge in the 
icy solitudes of northern Asiatic Russia. 

Northern Europe presents us with the great Scandinavian, German, and 
Russian saucer, whose features have been made so clear to us by the labours 
of Murchison and others; while, further north and west, a distinct oceanic 
basin appears in the Northern Sea, of which the Norwegian chain, Shetland, 
the Ferro Islands, Iceland, the west coast of Greenland, and the volcanic 
islands of Jan Mayen, are the marked boundaries. 

North America, so far as its surface has been ascertained, is divisible into 
several well-marked shallow basins, the most obvious being those of the 
Mississippi ; of the Arctic Highlands ; the two deserts east and west of the 
Rocky Mountains (lat. S0° to 40° N.) ; and of the great lakes, to which may 
be added hereafter Labrador and the North of Canada with Hudson's Bay; 
the eastern talus of the great Atlantic slope falling into the boundary of the 
Atlantic basin. Enough, however, has probably been stated to indicate 
that, viewed upon the broadest scale, the surface of our globe consists, as 
respects its present solid surface, of a number of saucer-like depressions, 
when large, having also cotivex central areas, all having plan outlines 
approximating to extremely irregular ovals or other closed curves, and 
bounded by mountain-chains or mere rounded or flat-topped ridges or eleva- 
tions of the solid sphere, greater or less. Where three or more of these inoscu- 
late, the point between the junction is most frequently a group of mountains 
or a high tableland, or both, — as, for example, the knots (Cusco and others) 
of the South American Andes, upon which the suboceanic ridges abut. 
The greatest of these saucer-like concavities either form or subdivide the 
beds of the ocean, but other such shallow basins can be traced upon the 
existing land, and embracing seas or parts of seas, or great lakes, or river- 
courses within them, but still enclosed by girdling chains of mountains or 
the precipitous flanks of tablelands, which latter in their full development 
are the pedestals of the greatest mountain-chains. Amongst the wide- 
sweeping curves that indicate the dividing crests (if we may use such a 
word to designate elevations often, especially/ in the subdividing ridges of the 
oceanic suh-hasins, so very low in relation to the areas they separate) of these 
vast oceanic basins, it appears impossible to trace any approach to parallelism, 
or, indeed, that such an arrangement could exist. 

We do, however, remark, that it is along these girdling ridges, whether 
mountain-ranges or mere continuous swelling elevations of the solid, which 
divide these basins beneath the ocean surface one from the other, that all 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 65 

the volcanoes known to exist upon the earth's surface are found, dotted 
along these ridges or crests in an unequal and uncertain manner. 

And as our oceans and greater seas are bounded, and below their water- 
surface subdivided, by these ridges, along the lines of which the volcanic 
foci are found ; so, as long observed, it is a fact that all active volcanoes are 
comparatively close to the sea, or to some large body of water; indeed, 
they could not present the phenomena they are known to do, without a 
supply of water, and nearly always of sea-water, more or less constant and 
plentiful, derived from this propinquity. (See Trans. R. I. Acad. vol. xxi. 
pp. 98, 99.) 

However different, then, may have been the train of forces upon which the 
elevation of the mountain-chains and other relatively raised lines of the pre- 
sent surface have depended, from those which now produce the ejections 
thrown up by volcanic action, the latter seem to follow upon the traces of 
the former ; and we shall find that the earthquake generally does so likewise. 
The distinction long made, into linear and circularly grouped or clustering 
volcanoes, I conceive has no foundation in nature. By far the largest pro- 
portion of all the volcanic vents over the whole earth are found arranged 
along the flowing lines of mountain-chains. 

The so-called clusters or circular groups never are found covering surface- 
areas larger, if so large, or more widely apart, in any single group, than those 
within which volcanic vents are found that undoubtedly belong to linear ar- 
rangements (Mexico for example). 

Nearly all the clusters or circular groups of volcanoes are situated in the 
ocean, and far from continental land ; they stand on, and are connected with 
each other, by oceanic plateaux, rounded submarine ridges, shallows, rocks, 
and islands, and by similar connexions with points of continental coasts, 
either mountainous or volcanic. The conclusion seems justifiable, that 
these clusters or groups are the only visible points, "few and far-between," 
situated along sub-oceanic linear volcanic ranges, along which the open 
vents are probably much fewer than along equal lengths on land, but still 
marking as truly as the most thick-set linear vents the great lines of fracture 
of the earth's crust. Werfe this the proper place, much might be adduced 
in support of this view of volcanic distribution. 

The connexion between volcanic and seismic effort is so obvious, although 
the nature of their connexion has been so little understood, that we are 
prepared to find the deepest tints of the seismic map fringing off from those 
great mountain-ranges where the volcanic foci stand close in rank ; but it 
was not before so apparent that, along the elevated ridges or mountain- 
ranges that gird and divide the great surface-basins, even when not volcanic, 
or when volcanic foci are rare and widely separated, the earthquake is still 
found to range in broad bands, following" the general line of the crest. 

Upon a very much minuter scale of survey than we are now occupied with, 
such would seem dependent upon the physical fact, that the earth-wave 
will be best and furthest propagated through the most solid and elastic line 
of material, that is, in the axial line of mountain-chains and valleys, as is 
found to be the case ; but the indication of our map is a far more extensive 
one, and points to some different and deeper cause. Thus, to resume our 
seismic survey of the Map, Iceland, Ferro, Shetland, and the south-west 
coast of Norway, nearly to Christiania, form a broad band of seismic con- 
nexion, which would probably run on to Greenland, and along its coast to 
Jan Mayen, did we know anything of their earthquake history. 

The fact (if it be so), that the west coast of Greenland, in Davis's Straits, 
is sinking gradually, would in nowise conflict with the probability of 
1858, J. 



66 REPORT — 1858. 

seismic action, or even elevation of the opposite eastern coast, which, it is 
extremely probable, may be slowly rising, just as the Scandinavian peninsula 
is doino- ; and it does not seem a disproportioned supposition, that all three 
changing levels are due to the prodigious scale of volcanic action going on 
at Iceland. 

The Swedish system is another band stretching north-west from tlie 
great lakes to Kola Bay in Russian Lapland ; and future observation may 
probably include in it the parallel chain of the Doff'refels Mountains. To 
the south we mark the broad band whose extremities are Portugal and the 
Azores, always in seismic sympathy with each other, and with which the 
band of the Canaries is in relation through Madeira, and is also more 
distinctly connected with the earthquakes of Barbary and Morocco. 

From Tunis, a narrow but intensely marked seismic band sti-etches up 
through Sicily and Italy, sends off a spur to the west through the Alps of 
Piedmont and Southern France, along the whole line of the Pyrenees, 
and to the northern coast of Spain ; and widening out over the central Alps, 
so as to cover a large area of central Southern Europe : extending east and 
west from Lyons to Vienna, it again contracts in width at about the latitude 
of Strasburg, and stretches aM'ay northwards over the whole Rhenish 
mountain system, and becomes nearly evanescent upon the low plains of 
Holland and the coasts of the North Sea, where, though infrequent, earth- 
quakes are not unknown. 

Over the great plain of Central Europe, and far into Southern Russia to 
the north of the Euxine, the want of observations with distinct dimensions 
renders any attempt at precise boundary nugatory. Were our records better, 
the Carpathians would no doubt stand out in stronger tint than the well- 
inhabited country of Poland and the Vistula, where the greater frequency of 
seismic records deepen the tint from Cracow up towards Riga. Better ob- 
servations would no doubt also mark with a deeper tint a band of connexion 
along the Balkans and line of the Danube, between the Austrian Alps, so 
frequently shaken, and the Bosphorus, where the neiglibourhood of Con- 
stantinople shows itself abnormally intense, from the reiterated records of 
earthquakes there that have been collected century alter century at that 
ancient seat of splendour and civilization. Thus it is that the disturbing 
causes that we have remarked as aflecting the Catalogue follow into its dis- 
cussion in space as well as we have seen they do into that of time. 

A broad but somewhat ill-defined seismic band stretches from the Greek 
Archipelago to Constantinople, spreads over a large portion of Asia Minor, 
and is carried through Palestine, on to the valley of the Lower Nile and the 
coasts of the Red Sea, extending further south along its Arabian shore. 
From the Gulf of Scanderoon, by Aleppo and Mosul to Lake Van, and 
the south of Ararat to Shirvan and Baku upon the Caspian, a wide band 
of great and long-continued energy extends, which probably joins into the 
Caucasus and is connected with the seismic system of the Ourals in the 
distant north. 

Again, from about the parallel of Bagdad, a broad but ill-defined seismic 
band stretches nearly due east through the whole of Persia, Khorassan, and 
to tlie Hindoo Koosh, sending off a narrower band along the shores of the 
Persian Gulf. About Cabool the Persian band joins into the vast seismic 
area of Northern India — a band, whose northern boundary is the Hima-' 
layan chain, and which stretches nearly parallel to it from Cabool to Cal- 
cutta and to the Gulf of Cutch. Beloochistan appears exempt, but probably 
only because hitherto without observation or record. Leaving the vast and 
strongly agitated seismic system of Central Asia, of the boundaries of which 



I 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 67 

flo little is yet known beyond tlie general fact that northwards the seismic 
bands appear to follow tlie great river-courses, or more probably the great 
axes bounding them, — and passing also the so frequently convulsed Chinese 
empire, whicii appears to have two chief seismic centres about Pekin and 
Canton (these cities have been the centres of observation for all, or nearly all, 
the Chinese records of earthquakes that we possess, and hence one reason of 
the depth of seismic tint around them ; but it is also to be observed that two 
of the great volcanic districts of the " Fire Hills and Fire Wells" of China are 
situated within the tinted or shaken regions adjacent to the two capitals), 
Avith a third more central volcanic region, of which I am not aware that any- 
thing is known seismically, — and remarking the apparent exemption of Cochin 
China, for which there are no records, — we at length arrive at the greatest and 
most formidable earthquake- and volcanic region upon our globe. Stretching 
in a vast horse-shoe, convex to the south, from Burmah and Pegu, and sur- 
rounding the great island of Borrieo, with an intervening belt of sea, and 
reaching round to Formosa on the north-west, we have an almost continuous 
girdle of volcanoes and lofty mountains. Every island of the group, in- 
cluding Java and Sumatra, Celebes and Mindanao, is shaken with earth- 
quakes the most formidable and frequent ; and we can point to no spots upon 
the whole earth's surface upon which seismic energy is exhibited Avith an 
intensity equal to tliat of Luzon and Sumbava. 

Nothing even in South Ameri(!a or Mexico appears to rival the grandeur 
of volcanic energy and resultant seismic action here. In 1815 the thunder- 
ings of Tomboro, in Sumbava, were heard nearly 1000 miles away (through 
the earth no doubt). The ashes, or, more correctly, the finely-divided tufa- 
dust, floating in the air, made mid-day into darkness 300 miles away in Java, 
and were precipitated at sea even a thousand miles from the point of ejec- 
tion, while whole tracts of country, with inhabited towns, have suddenly 
become engulphed and disappeared during periods of eruption, which over 
a large portion of the chain, from one extreme to the other, are almost 
continuous. 

It will be remarked that the seismic tint is both more intense and rela- 
tively more circumscribed in area along the bands that surround the linear 
volcanic vents, where they cluster thick, than along mountain-chains or 
ridges that possess few or no volcanic vents. This no doubt arises from the 
centres of impulse in active volcanic lines being situated at a comparatively 
small depth, in fact, coming from the actual bases of the crater, or not far 
beneath ; and hence the liorizontal propagation is not so great for a given 
force of impulse as where its centre is situated deeper, and the explosive 
effort rendered abortive to rupture the solid crust above. The intensity of 
tint in the former case is due to repetition of eflbrt, as well as to occasional 
intensity of impulse. 

An earthquake in a non-volcanic region may, in fact, be viewed as an 
uncompleted effort to establish a volcano. The forces of explosion and 
impulse are the same in both ; they differ only in degree of energy, or in the 
varying sorts and degrees of resistance opposed to them. There is more 
than a mere vaguely admitted connexion between them, as heretofore com- 
monly acknowledged — one so vague, that the earthquake has been often 
stated to be the cause of the volcano (Johnston, ' Phys. Atlas,' Geologj-^, 
p. 21), and more commonly the volcano the cause of the earthquake, neither 
view being the expression of the truth of nature. They are not in the rela- 
tion to each other of cause and effect, but are both unequal manifestations 
of a common force under different conditions. 

Further north we have the somewhat less terrible, but yet deeply- 

f2 



68 REPORT — 1858. 

coloured seismic bands of Japan, the Kuriles, and Kamtscliatka ; and, pass- 
ing to the opposite shore of the Pacific, we are presented with the deeply- 
coloured stisniic bands of Mexico and the South American Andes, whose 
influence reaches far out into the ocean, but eastward or landward is 
checked by the great chain. The reason of this fact, which has been before 
alluded to, is not hard to find. The general section of the South American 
continent, from west to east, consists of a comparatively low-lying narrow 
littoral border-country on the Pacific; then the immense chain of the 
Andes rising in successive ranges to the axial peaks, and beyond these a 
vast plateau — the elevated land of the great continent — reaching over to 
near the western coast, where some lower ranges of mountains terminate 
the Atlantic shore and bound its basin. This is rudely shown in the accom- 
panying figure (1). 




Now if a shock be transmitted from any origin within the great chain, 
and below the level of the great tableland, ab, as from a point x, the 
transmitted elastic wave in the direction xs, reaching the surface after a 
very short transit, will, in accordance with the well-known law of elastic 
bodies, have its amplitude increased (just as the last billiard-ball of a line 
of touching balls, is that which is projected when the first of the line is struck 
by the blow of a propelled ball), and more powerfully shake all surface- 
objects at s than others situated at a, although at an equal radial distance 
from the centre of effort, — the free movement of the elastic wave being 
here reacted upon by the elastic mass of the tableland which blocks its way 
until compressed. Objects on the tableland, at an equal distance from 
the origin, may (dependent upon its depth) receive the shock (even if 
of only equal amplitude) at such an angle of emergence as will give a less 
power of overthrow to the horizontal component of the wave's transit. 
There will in every case be a reflected wave back from the mass of the 
tableland — an earthquake echo — producing at s, or along the littoral border, 
a second shock, with a line of direction nearly the same, but with a direction 
of motion reverse to the first, one shock only being felt on the tableland. 

To return, the seismic band of the Andes, at the extreme north of the 
continent, and at Trinidad, inosculates with that of the West India Islands, 
which sweeps round the Caribbean Sea, and appears, so far as records go, 
to transmit its movements further into the Atlantic, than into the former 
sea ; if so, that probably arises from causes quite analogous to those already 
explained for South America — a shallower sea-bottom to the westward, on 
the Caribbean Sea, thus playing the part towards the deeper bottom of the 
Atlantic that the tableland plays towards the littoral slope of South America. 
The North American records have been too few and ill-defined as to boundary 
to produce as yet any very distinct conclusions from the tints, which prove, 
however, that its western and southern seaboard are by no means free from 
earthquake. This has in great part arisen from the great want of orographic 
delineation on nearly all (even the largest and best) maps of the United States, 
which omit all heights and natural features. The Californian system west of 
the Rocky Mountains, that of Upper Missouri, of the Mississippi, and that of 
the northern lakes and basin of the St. Lawrence, form the chief and separate 
regions in which earthquakes have been so far observed most frequently. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EAUTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 69 

Future observation will probably show a connexion between the great sub- 
oceanic seismic tract of the South Atlantic and the South American conti- 
nent on its western sea-board, between Cape Roque and La Plata. It does 
not appear so far to have any connexion with the opposite African coast be- 
tween Cape Paltnas and the Bight of Biafra. A better knowledge will also pro- 
bably widely extend the seismic boundary of the Cape of Good Hope along 
both the east and west shores of Africa to the northward, and bring within it 
the great island of Madagascar, as to which nothing is so far known. New 
Zealand (unhappily for its future progress) will afford one of the best regions 
in the world for the study of volcanic and seismic phenomena in their con- 
nexion. 

The earthquake-band of Western Australia, at present so small in propor- 
tion to its vast surface, will probably be found to reach much further towards 
the interior, and embrace Van Diemen's Land and a considerable stretch of 
the southern coast to the eastward. It remains yet to be observed whether 
even the small surface explored of the east side of the Great Island is sub- 
ject to earthquakes or not. Abyssinia too, though not affording the record 
of a single earthquake, is too closely united with the seism.ic region of Arabia 
and the mouth of the Red Sea, to be probably perpetually in repose. 

There are great untinted spaces upon our map. The northern and south- 
ern polar regions, immense tracts in North America and in Northern and 
East Central Asia ; surfaces in South America nearly as large as all Central 
Europe ; the whole African continent except the northern edge and southern 
point; nearly the whole of Australia, and almost the whole of the bed of the 
great ocean, are perfectly unstudied and unknown to us, as respects their 
seismic condition. They appear white, and hence free from earthquake, upon 
the map, but only because there are no observations. 

Future researches will probably, however, show that all these vast tracts of 
land are traversed by earthquake-bands presenting generally the features 
that we recognize elsewhere, and that the ocean-bed, far from the continents, 
although always much less disturbed, for equal extent of surface, than the 
land, and especially than the coast, of the great oceans, is also traversed by 
earthquake-bands continuous with and tracing out their shallowest contours. 

Had navigation been, in times past, as frequent and constant in the Pacific 
and Southern Indian oceans as it has been in the narrower Atlantic, especially 
north of the equator, the former would most probably present, over very much 
of their vast surfaces, light seismic tints such as almost the whole Atlantic 
presents, included as it is within the range of movements transmitteti from 
both its western and eastern borders, and also from the foci within its bosom, 
connected by seismic lines so closely adjacent, i. e. with sub-basins so com- 
paratively small in area. 

Imperfect as are our observations on land, they are much more so upon 
the surface of the great ocean that covers three-fourths of our globe ; so 
that only a very rude approximation, and from very partial data, can be 
made towards the solution of the question, What is the relation of seismical 
energy beneath the land and the ocean ? 

The result of Perrey's, memoir ' On the Basin of the Atlantic,' (Dijon 
M6m.) assigns, for a period from 1430 to 1847, or 417 years, a total of only 
about 140 shocks (or three shocks per annum) observed over an area of 
about 24 millions of square miles. If we contrast this with the only tolerably 
well-observed portion of the dry land, the great European area, we find 
thereon at the least 40 shockr, per annum observed upon an area of 1,720,000 
square miles, or (allowing for regions included, but never observed), say, 
1,500,000 square miles. There occurs therefore annually in the Atlantic 



70 REPORT — 1858. 

basin one shock for every 8,000,000 square miles of surface, and, in the Euro- 
pean area, one shock for every 37,500 square miles of surface ; so that within 
these large areas the seismic energy beneath the land is to that beneath the 
ocean-floor as 213 : 1 nearly. The annual number of observed European 
earthquakes is certainly below the actual number that occur; and although 
the Atlantic is the only oceanic surface of our globe over Avhich there can 
be a pretence even to correct observation, yet its recorded numbers must 
be very far indeed below the truth, and immeasurably lower in proportion 
than for Europe. Making, however, every allowance for imperfect inform- 
ation in the pelagic area, the disparity of relative numbers is such, as to 
warrant our estimating, with some confidence, that the seismical energy is 
manifested with much greater power for equal areas upon the dry land than 
upon the ocean-bed. 

Should it ultimately prove a fact, as rendered probable from the beautiful 
investigations of Darwin, that there are great areas of gradual subsidence now 
in motion beneath the Pacific, it may still happen (though it is not probable) 
that seismic or even volcanic bands may traverse such areas of subsidence, 
without materially affecting their general downward movement. Although 
many portions of the earth's surface now show evidences of vertical insta- 
bility, either slowly, oTpersaltum occasionally, rising or sinking, these effects 
are all comparatively insignificant in extent. The great formative forces, 
whatever they were, upon which the elevated land of the great continents and 
the depression of the ocean-beds depended, have ceased sensibly to act. The 
function of the volcano and the earthquake in the existing cosmos is not crea- 
tive, but simply preservative ; and vast as they appear to eye and sense, their 
effects are very small in relation to the totality of the great terrestrial machine. 

If, however, such large areas of oceanic subsidence as have been supposed 
really exist, they will most probably be found situated almost centrally within 
the oceanic sub-basins, and hence surrounded but not traversed by seismic 
bands. 

There is one fact, which is shown by the relative positions, upon this map, 
of the greatest volcanic areas upon our globe (and these the most active) and 
of the blue-tinted areas of probable subsidence, that is worthy of fixing our 
attention. 

It will be observed that the blue bands of probable subsidence are tole- 
rably adjacent to the greatest seats of volcanic activity, and that the latter 
generally have subsiding areas at more than one side. Thus, in the Pacific, 
the blue band is along the great volcanic girdle from Celebes to New Zealand, 
and thence stretches between (and at one point may cut through) the line 
of suboceanic volcanic girdles, from the New Hebrides to the Marquesas. 

Again, the great volcanic horse-shoe girdle of Sumbava is between the 
blue (subsiding) area in the China Sea north of Borneo, and the blue coral 
bands north of Australia, which whole continent, or at least its western and 
northern parts, may probably be subsiding also. Lastly, in the north we have 
Iceland and its volcanic system, between the sinking coasts of Greenland and 
those of the Baltic. 

If we admit, then, as certain, that these vast tracts are subsiding, we can 
scarcely withhold our belief that the subsidences are due to and are the 
equivalent in bulk of the solid ejecta and exhalations of these various great 
volcanic areas respectively. 

The assumed area and extent of subsidence of those supposed subsiding 
tracts are, however, I apprehend, greatly overrated ; this, however, is not the 
place to pursue their consideration. 

From all that has preceded (here and in former Reports), it is plain that 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 'Jl 

nothing like one or more great general horizontal directions of seismic move- 
ment can exist upon any very large tracts of the earth's surface ; and that if 
it be even possible to assign, as proposed by M. Perrey, a general horizontal 
component for limited areas, the method does not admit of extension. The 
normal type of an elastic wave in a homogeneous solid, is only varied, so far 
as observation yet goes, by the accidents principally of material and surface, 
whether the area of disturbance be great or small. 

Nor does the seismic intensity in any part of the world, so far as originating 
impulse is concerned, seem connected with the superficial character, to the 
greatest known dcptli, of the geologic formations, beyond what connexion 
is necessarily inferential from the seismic bands (where they exist) following, 
on the whole, the lines of mountains and ridges that separate the surfaqe- 
basins of the earth, whether volcanic or not. While, therefore, the seismic 
waves diverge, from axial lines that are generally of the older rock forma- 
tions, and often of crystalline igneous rocks or actively volcanic, they pene- 
trate thence formations of every age and sort, even to plains of the most 
recent post-pleistocene clays, sands, and gravels ; and occasionally, by the 
secondary efforts of great shocks, these loose materials are shaken or caused 
to slip and gather up into new forms (as in the Ullah Bund at the mouths 
of the Indus, &c.), and so the earthquake has come to be mistakenly viewed 
as a direct agent of elevation. Its true cosmical function is the very opposite : 
it is part of the dislocating, degrading, and levelling machinery of the sur- 
face of our globe, while the part of tlie volcano is restoration and renewal. 
Both are, however, not creative but conservative (strange as it may sound), 
and suited to the period of man's appearance and possession of the earth. 

Viewing as a whole, and in a single glance, the distribution of seismic 
energy over the whole globe, it presents (so far as we yet know) a vast loop 
or band round the Pacific, a more broken and irregular one around the 
Atlantic, with subdividing bands and a vast broad band stretching across 
Europe and Asia, and uniting them. 

Thus an apparent preponderance of seismic surface seems to lie about the 
temperate and torrid zones, both northern and southern ; but extended 
observation is yet required in high latitudes, and particularly in the Antarctic 
ones, before we dare venture to affirm that there is a real preponderance 
extending over any one or more great climatic bands or zones of the earth's 
surface. 

The following are perhaps the most general conclusions that are at pre- 
sent justifiable: — 

1st. The superficial distribution of seismic influence over existing terrestrial 

space does not follow the law of distribution in historic time; it is not 

one of uniformity. There is this resemblance, which, however, is 

not a true analogy, — that as the distribution is paroxysmal in time, 

so it is local in space. 
2nd. The normal type of superficial distribution is that of bands of variable 

and of great breadth, with sensible seismic infiuence extending from 

5° to 15*^ in width transversely. 
3rd. These bands very generally follow the lines of elevation which mark 

and divide the great oceanic or terr-oceanic basins (saucers) of the 

earth's surface, 
^th. And in so far as these are frequently the lines of mountain-chains, 

and these latter those of volcanic vents, so the seismic bands are 

found to follow them likewise. 
5th. Although the sensible influence is generally limited to the average 



Jrg REPORT — 1858. 

width of the seismic band, paroxysmal efforts are occasionally pro- 
pagated to great superficial distances beyond it. 

6th. The sensible width of the seismic band depends upon the energy de- 
veloped, and upon the accidental geologic and topographic conditions 
at each point along its entire length. 

Yth. Seismic energy may become sensible at any point of the earth's sur- 
face, its efforts being, however, greater and more frequent as the 
great volcanic lines of activity are approached. 

8th. The surfaces of minimum or of no known disturbance, are the central 
areas of great oceanic or terr-oceanic basins or saucers, and the 
greater islands existing in shallow seas. 

The fact that certain low-lying river-basins, such as the Mississippi and 
the Ganges, are the seats of earthquake disturbance, does not conflict with 
the last proposition. In these cases, the impulse is propagated into the plain 
from the band of the bounding ridges; and when these are very large 
in relation to the basin, the breadth of the seismic band may overlap its 
whole surface, — as for example in the basin of the Ganges, where the seismic 
banks of the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains cover the whole plain of 
Northern India. 



We have thus extracted all the information that our Catalogue, or indeed 
any further cataloguing of earthquakes, seems capable of giving us ; future 
research must take a more distinctly physical character. I therefore proceed 
to some observations upon instrumental seismometry and the construction 
of seismometers, upon which our future progress must much depend. 

Twelve years ago, at the period of the author's paper (Trans. R. I. Acad, 
vol. xxi. 1846) " On the Dynamics of Earthquakes," the construction of seis- 
mometric instruments appeared a comparatively easy matter; there did not 
seem to be much difficulty in producing even a self-registering instrument 
that should give every element of the earth-wave at the surface, whose nor- 
mal velocity of propagation was then assumed to be extremely great, to 
approximate to that theoretically due to the elasticity of solid rocky media, 
and not to vary very materially in direction of propagation during its transit 
from the origin, to any distant point of the earth's surface. 

It is only at a very recent period that experiments and observations as to 
the actual phsenomena, the velocity and direction of shock, &c. have begun to 
show the real difficulties of the subject; and as these are apparently not very 
generally recognized, I propose pointing some of them out here, prior to 
indicating the limits within which for the present, it appears to me, we must 
be content to restrict our seismometric aims and instruments, and describing 
what form of instrument, and in what localities placed, would appear, with 
our existing knowledge, the best to give us some information — approximate 
onlj", and incomplete without doubt, but yet such as can be made a safe basis 
for a future higher step with more refined and comprehensive instruments. I 
shall avoid as much as possible (as out of place in this Report) any mathe- 
matical treatment of the subject. The antecedent history of seismometers is 
in brief as follows : — 

All the instruments hitherto devised or set up may be divided into two 
great classes: — 1, observational, those whose motions must be observed and 
recorded after each shock ; 2, self-registerinr/, which record their own past 
movements however repeated, and admit of their observation at any subse- 
quent period within certain limits. Each of these classes is again divided 
into two sorts : — a. instruments dependent upon the movements by displace- 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 73 

ment of liquids ; b. those dependent upon the partial displacements of 
solids. Of the first class, there have been — 

1 (a). That of Caeciatore of Palermo, long in use in Siciij'. It consists of a 

Mooden circular dish about 10 in. diameter, placed horizontally and 
filled with mercury to the brim-level of eight notches that face the 
cardinal points and the bisecting rhumbs between, and are cut down 
through the lip of the dish, equally in M'idtli and depth all round. 
Beneath each such notch a small cup is placed, to receive such mer- 
cury as may be thrown out of each notch by an oscillatory displace- 
ment of the main mass of mercury, due to a general oscillation of the 
whole system. Either the volume or the weight of mercury found in 
each cup is supposed to measure the value of the displacement, and 
hence of the shock in its direction in azimuth. 

2 (a). The wooden or other bowl of molasses, or other such viscid liquid, 

suggested for use by Mr. Babbage. 

3 (a). A cylindric tub with chalked or whitewashed sides, and partially 
tilled with some heavy and permanently coloured liquid of deep tint. 
(Mallet, Admiralty Manual, sect. vii. p. 218.) 

't (a). Tubes partially filled with mercury, | -shaped, with the horizontal 

and open limbs directed to the cardinal points, for the horizontal com- 
ponent of shock ; and U-shaped for the vertical component, — both 
sets being provided with marking indices, to show previous displace- 
ment of the mercury. (Mallet, Admiralty Manual, sect. vii. p. 214.) 

5 (i). The oldest, probably, of seismometers, long set up in Italy and southern 
Europe. A pendulum, free to move in any direction, carries below 
the bob a stile partly immersed in a stratum of dry fine sand spread 
to uniform thickness over the concave surface of a circular dish 
placed beneath, marked to the cardinal points, whose centre is 
beneath the point of suspension of the pendulum when at rest, and 
whose concavity is that of a spherical segment of a radius equal to 
the length of the pendulum and stile, plus rather more than the 
depth of the stratum of sand. It was supposed that the stile would 
mark a right line when seen in a plane vertical to the sand-bed, and 
in the direction of the shock. 

G (b). The inverted pendulum, held vertical when at rest by its forming 
part of a spring at the base (like the watclimakers' noddy), armed 
with a chalk tracer or pencil above the bob, marking a line or lines 
upon the concave lower surface of a dish in form like that of the 
preceding. This was understood to be one of the instruments adopted 
by the observers of the repeated shocks of Comrie, &c., and the in- 
vention, in its improved form, of Prof. J. Forbes. (Phil. Trans. Edin. 
vol. XV. part 1 ; Trans. Brit. Ass. 184?l-4'2.) 

7 (Zi). The inverted spring and ratchet pendulum seismometer, proposed in 
1854 by Robert F. Budge, Esq. of Valparaiso, in a letter (12th March 
1854) to Mr. Patterson of Belfast, and obligingly forwarded by him to 
the author. Four cylindrical or square rods of spring steel, each carry- 
ing a spherical bob (an iron shot) at top, are fixed vertically. Each is 
provided with a ratchet, finely cut upon the rod, and a pall, the planes 
of motion of the four palls passing through the cardinal points, so that 
each spring pendulum is free to make one semioscillatio7i only in its 
own direction, or that of its ratchet and pall, and be arrested there 
by the latter until its position of di^iplacemont be observed and it be 
released. Thus, in the figure (2), p W is the spring pendulum (which, 
it may be remarked, would be better a flat ribbon of spring steel. 



74 



REPORT — 1858, 



the broad dimension being transverse to the arc of vibration, than 



Fig. 2. 



•w 




2r<- 



either round or square as proposed), W the 
bob, r the ratchet and pall. If we suppose 
this to be in the N. and S. vertical plane, 
a shock from the S. may bring the pen- 
dulum into the position p m, when the 
pall will fall into that r n, and detain the 
instrument in its new position until the 
angle np W can be observed. 

The main object proposed by the author 
of this modification of the inverted pen- 
dulum was, that the observable movement 
of the instrument should be as nearly as 
possible that of the horizontal component 
of shock, without being perplexed with 
indications due to subsequent abnormal 
motions of the instrument. 

8 (b). The pendulum seismometer of Santi. 

Two pendula suspended close to the faces 
of two walls, ranging in vertical planes 
traversing through the cardinal points, 
are free to oscillate in those planes only. 
Each is provided with a chalk tracer, which marks the arc of oscil- 
lation N. and S. or E. and W., or vice versa us to either, upon the pre- 
pared lace of the wall. This has been long in use in Italy. The length 
of the horizontal chord of the arc traced is assumed to be equal to 
the horizontal component of shock in the direction marked, and inter- 
mediate movements are to be obtained from comparison of the lengths 
of both cardinal chords by the known laws of compounded motions. 

9 (i). A vertical inverted spring pendulum, formed of an elastic rod (wood 

or cane), with bobs of iron shot, is fixed within a hoop, with certain 
extemporaneous means of marking its oscillations in any plane, or 
more than one, for horizontal component. Such pendula, fixed hori- 
zontally in a wall, or in two N. and S. and E. and W. walls, may be 
used for vertical element, or a shot hung from a spiral spring of wire 
(Mallet, Admiralty Manual, sect. vii. p. 217, 218.); these were in- 
tended for extemporaneous use. The spiral spring arrangement has 
had several different proposers, some anterior to the above. 

Such are the principal instruments of the first class, used or proposed, 
in addition to which may be noticed the balanced circular dish, or wheel- 
formed seismometer, suggested, I believe, by Professor J. Forbes and Col. 
James, R.E., — a disk of cast-iron or other metal with a heavy rim, upon a 
central point of suspension slightly above the centre of gravity, and provided 
with a central tracing-stile, either above or below. The sensibility and power 
of horizontal recovery or stability of this instrument are nearly identical 
with those of the common balance. It is liable to all the objections that 
apply to pendula, Avhose properties in oscillation it still partakes of; and it 
is difficult to see any one special advantage offered by it. 

Of the second class, or self-registering seismometers, the number is much 
more limited. 

1 (a). The first completely self-registering seismometer proposed, the author 
believes to have been that invented by himself, an account cf which 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 75 

was read to the Royal Irish Academy in June 1846 (Trans. R. I. A., 
xxi. p. 107). It consists essentially of five fluid pendula, — glass tubes, 
partially filled with mercury, four for horizontal, and one for vertical 
elements of the shock. The displacement of the mrrcurial columns 
breaks contact, in an otherwise closed galvanic circuit, which, acting 
upon some simple contrivances, cause a pencil to trace a line upon 
ruled paper, whose length is proportionate to the time that contact 
remains broken, or to the amplitude and altitude of the earth-wave. 
The ruled paper, placed upon a cylinder, is maintained in motion 
by a clock ; the position of the commencement of the pencil line 
traced on the moving paper, therefore, gives the moment in time, of 
the arrival of the wave, or initial instant of shock. The displace- 
ment of the mercurial colunms is dependent upon inertia, and on 
the relative mass of mercury in the adjacent limbs of each bent 
tube, 
(a). Professor Palmieri, of Naples, has, some time since, constructed an 
instrument, in point of general principle, very similar to the pre- 
ceding, and which has been at work, as he informs me, with satis- 
factory results, at the Royal Meteorological Observatory upon Vesu- 
Yiufi, and for a considerable period. His instrument consists of two 
distinct systems, one for vertical, the other for horizontal, or rather 
undulatory movements. The former consists of a clock, constantly 
going, and registering date and time. A galvanic circuit, which 
includes an electro-magnet, remains always unclosed, except at the 
instant of the arrival of a vertical movement of the whole instrument, 
when one pole of copper or platinum wire, held suspended from a heavy 
bob at the lower end of a spiral spring — as in 9 {b), last sentence — 
close over the surface of a mercurial cup (the other pole), drops by 
inertia, and making good the contact, establishes the electro-magnet's 
action, and by it stops the clock and rings a bell. The range of ver- 
tical movement is, I believe, deduced from the direct motion of this 
contact-maker. 

The system for horizontal (?) or undulatory movements consists of 
a similar clock and galvanic arrangement, and of four U-shaped 
glass tubes, open at both ends, and containing equal vertical columns 
of mercury. The vertical planes of two of these U -tubes are N. and 
S. and E. and W. ; those of the other two in intermediate rhumbs. 
Close above, but not in contact with, the mercurial surface in one 
limb of each tube, is held suspended a platinum pole, the mercury 
itself being the other pole of the open circuit. Upon the surface of 
the mercury in the opposite limb a small float rests, connected by a 
silk cord over a pulley in a vertical plane, with a little counterpoise, 
slightly heavier than the float. If, now, such a movement be given 
to any one or more of these U -tubes as shall kant it over or throw it 
out of plumb, and so alter the relative levels of the opposite surfaces 
of mercury in the two limbs of the tube, the (J-tube that shall in- 
cline towards the limb that contains the platinum galvanic pole will 
then make contact, and at the moment of doing so will stop the clock 
and ring a bell as before. 

The amount of displacement as to level of the two surfaces of 
mercury in the opposite limbs will be made observable by the 
distance to which the small float shall be found elevated above the 
surface of the mercury in the opposite limb. A description of this 
instrument has been given, but without a figure, in De la Hive's 



76 



REroRT — 1858. 



* Treatise on Electricity and its Applications,' English edition, vol. 
iii. p. 508*. 
3 (b). The last self-registering instrument to be noticed is that of Hcrr 
Kreil of Vienna, of which an account appeared in 1855. This in- 
genious and simple instrument can hardly be made intelligible more 
briefly than in the author's own words, which 1 translate (with the 
addition of a word or two) from the 'Sitzungsberichte derKais. Akad. 
d. Wissensch.' Band. xv. p. Ill, Heft for March 1855 :— 

• A good seismometer is a desideratum still to be devoutly wished for. It 



Fig. 3. 



"^ 

s 






Ai- 



• .'^ • K • ^rfj. 



S\i 



^ 



should not only show the commencement 
of the stronger, but also of the weaker 
shocks, as well as their duration, direction, 
and strength, — a task wliich is too great for 
a self-registering apparatus. Therefore 
every idea towards the improvement of 
such instruments must be welcome ; and 
on this account I venture to bring forward 
the following design (fig. 3). Let de be 
a rod of wood or metal suspended at «, 
which at d is fastened to the elastic 
springe, like the pendulum of a clock, and 
therefore can swing in the plane of tliis 
spring in a vertical direction. Let « i be 
a second spring upon the first vertical 
one, which permits the bar of the pen- 
dulum, fZe, to swing in the plane of the 
spring c, i.e. at right angles to the former 
vertical plane. The bar d e and the 
weight fastened to it can therefore swing 
in every direction, without its being per- 
mitted to turn on its own axis of vertical 
length, and as if there were but a tliread 
or thin wire at 6. The cylinder /^r h i 
contains clockwork, which obliges it to 
turn round upon the bar of the pendulum 
(as its perpendicular axis fixed with reference to rotation) once in 24 hours. 
It is covered with paper or other material, which can be marked on without 
great pressure. It contains on the lower edge the numbers of the hours, 
which can move behind an index m, fastened to the plate h I, which is 
fixed to the axis of the pendulum. Upon a neighbouring pin, op, is an 
elastic and thin arm of brass, o n, which carries a pencil at" n, which, by 
means of a screw (spring ?), can be pressed against the cylinder and removed 
from it. It is in firm contact with this, and marks upon it an uninterrupted 
line so long as the pendulum remains at rest; if, however, this begins to 
swing, in consequence of the whole system being shaken, this line will be 
broken, and strokes produced which will have a horizontal direction if the 
pendulum swings in the plane of w o, but will be perpendicular and cross- 
ways if swinging in the plane perpendicular to n o. The force and length of 

* Since this report was commenced, I have myself had the advantage of seeing this 
instrument, and conversing with its distinguished inventor, as to its principles and construc- 
tion. Prof. Palmicri informed me that it had hecn arrested hy the cclehrated shock of 
16th Decemher 1857, and had given indications that he deemed satisfactory. [R. M., May 
1858.] 



\X\TTT7777 



^p 



ON THE FACTS AND THEOUY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 77 

tliis stroke will give an approximation to the strengtii of the shocks. The 
middle of the stroke, or, if they are vertical, the end of the uninterrupted 
line, gives the time of the commencement of tiie shock. The strength and 
direction of the shocks may also be approximated if the (as respects rota- 
tion) fixed plate /tiA/have an annular recess, filled with quicksilver until 
its surface reaches the holes SS5, made in the cylindrical sides. At the 
first motion of the pendulum, the quicksilver will be shed out through these 
holes into a dish divided into the same number of compartments as there are 
holes, like those already in use in many existing instruments of this kind 
(Cacciatores)". 

Such are the chief seismometers hitherto proposed. They all involve in 
some form the principle either of the solid or of the fluid pendulum, the 
latter term being applied to the oscillations of liquids in tubes or other such 
vessels ; and have disadvantages, both theoretic and practical or constructive, 
which render their indications inaccurate. 

Every pendulum seismometer has a time of oscillation due to its length, 
which in the case of the solid pendulum is 



-VI 



9 
and in the case of the oscillating liquid 

I being the length of the pendulum and of the oscillating column of liquid 

respectively ; but if P = the period of the earth-wave or shock, then when- 

P 
ever T=P, or w x P, or — , the indication of the instrument will be in excess 

n 

of the horizontal component of the wave's motion ; when, on the contrary, T 

represents no function of P, it may be much less than it. 

The amount of error depends also upon the velocity of movement of the 
horizontal component of the wave. If this be considerable, the solid pen- 
dulum, whether hanging or inverted, acted on by gravity or elasticity, is at 
the first moment left behind ; as the rod becomes more oblique, the pen- 
dulum is dragged along, and acquires a velocity (in a direction which ap- 
proaches to horizontal) greater than that due to the arc through which the 
pendulum has fallen in the time. At the end of the wave's forward move- 
ment, then, the pendulum is thrown forward too far ; and at the end of the 
return movement of the wave, it moves beyond the range of the latter, by a 
small arc due to its proper motion. This objection applies, though with less 
cogency, to the fluid pendula, and in their case to both the vertical and hori- 
zontal components of the wave. 

These discrepancies of indication will vary whenever the velocity and di- 
mensions of the earth-wave become altered ; and as, for the same instrument, 
T varies with sin" X (X being the latitude), it is obvious that even two per- 
fectly similar instruments at stations north and south of each other, will not 
give strictly comparable results for the same earth-wave. 

These are but examples of one or two points of theoretic difficulty, to 
which others might be added, and which affect these instruments prin- 
cipally as indicators of the dimensions of the earth-wave. Some of these 
theoretic disturbances may be eliminated by calculation from the results ; 
but there are also some apparently insuperable difficulties, of a practical or 
constructive nature, which affect all solid pendula as reliable indicatora even 



78 REPORT — 1858. 

of the direction of surface -transit (liorizontal component) of tlie earth-wave. 
However finely suspended the pendulum — if acted on by gravity only, or, 
however constructed if by elasticity or by elasticity and gravity, it is found 
impracticable to produce an instrument that shall make even the second half 
of its very first complete vibration strictly in the plane of the original dis- 
turbance, i. e. in that of the wave's transit. If, for example, any one of the 

Fig. 4. I 



instruments 5 (b), 6 (b), or 7 (b), be caused to make a semivibration by a 
movement of the nature of one horizontal jerk, and strictly in one vertical 
plane a b (fig. 4), the trace made will in most instances be found thus ; c d, the 
first semivibration, is made sensibly in the plane of movement, but the re- 
turning complete vibration de, is found diverging from it through a sensible 
angle cde. If the vibration of the instrument be suffered to continue, its trace 
rapidly becomes an extremely elongated ellipse, whose excentricity constantly 
diminishes, as well as the actual dimensions of both its axes, until the in- 
strument comes to rest, after tracing thus a mass of elliptic spirals, from 
which nothing certain can be gathered as to direction in some instances — 
in which, at best, it is only possible to arrive at a probable direction of 
originating impulse, by drawing a mean major axis through all these closed 
curves. 

Constructively, this evil arises not only from the nature of the suspension, 
if a pendulum of gravity, or, if one of elasticity, from the form, material, 
&c. of the suspending or supporting spring; but also, in both sorts, from the 
fact that it is i)ractically impossible that the point of suspension (or, in the 
spring, its centre of resistance), the centre of oscillation, and the resultant 
of the various opposing forces of the stile or tracing-point, shall lie in one 
vertical plane, and that that plane shall always coincide with that of the wave's 
movement; and hence lateral divergence of the pendulum and elliptic spiral 
oscillation. But it is also partly due to the nature of the earth-wave motion 
itself, which is never a purely normal one, but always more or less disturbed 
by small transversals; so that the initial movement impressed upon the pen- 
dulum is really not exactly that of the wave's transit. Before entering fur- 
ther, however, upon the subject of the actual perturbations of the superficial 
earth-wave, as now known, and their effects in relation to seismometers, some 
remarks may be advisable as to the special objections which I have either 
observed or experimentally ascertained in respect to each particular arrange- 
ment of the seismometers already described. 

1 («). The Cacciatore mercurial dish. — If the earth-wave emerge with a 
considerable angle from the horizon, and large velocity, the mercury 
first sui'ges up at the side of the dish towards which the earth-wave 
is in transit, and in the direction opposite to its motion ; it then, 
after spilling out some of the mercury, commences its return oscil- 
lation, moving in the same direction as the earth-wave, and spills out 
another portion at the opposite side of the dish. The sum of the weights 
so spilled out, taken at either side of a diameter transverse to the 
earth-wave's vertical plane of transit, will vary with every change 
in the angle of emergence, or in the velocity or in the dimensions 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 7^ 

of the earth-wave. Small transversal vibrations, arriving almost 
along with the earth-wave, as well as the efFects of the form of the 
dish, and of its delivering-spouts or adjutages, disturb the initial 
simple surge of the mercury across the diameter of the dish, and pro- 
duce reflected and other secondary surge movements of the mercury, 
which traverse round the circumference of the dish, and spill out 
more mercury in irregular gulps. The final result is, that no reliance 
whatever can be placed upon its final indication, as to the plane of 
the earth-wave transit having passed through the centre of gravity of 
that semicircle of cups which are found to contain the most mercury. 
The result is not materially different if the line of transit of the earth- 
wave be perfectly horizontal. This instrument gives no information 
whatever beyond a most uncertain approximation to the direction 
of the horizontal component of the earth-wave transit. 

2(«). The same objections generally apply to this form of instrument, and 
one in addition, viz. that a viscid liquid like molasses must always 
give indications short of the truth as to excursion in the dish due 
to any given shock, and the more so as it is more tenacious and 
approaches nearer to a solid ; and as we have no correct means of 
measuring viscidity, even assuming it constant for the same liquid, 
nor any certainty that the specific gravity of such liquids remains 
constant (it is certain molasses will not remain of the same density 
in any climate for any considerable length of time), so observations 
made through their means at different times and places can never 
be comparable. 

3 (a). The same objections that apply to 1 (a) apply to the tub of coloured 
water, but in a mitigated degree, the diameter being large, the 
volume and depth of the liquid great, and the cylindrical sides of the 
tub free from any apertures or inequalities. The initial surge gives 
a much more distinct indication of direction than in either of the 
preceding instruments ; and it does not very frequently happen that 
a diameter may not be found approximating, with tolerable certainty, 
to the plane of earth-wave transit. But in cases where the normal 
wave is preceded or accompanied by very appreciable transversals, 
those violent tremors that are now known as the frequent ac- 
companiments of the actual shock — the water-tub seismometer will 
give no indication, or an uncertain one, unless watched and re- 
marked as to transit-direction at the instant of the occurrence of the 
shock. 

4' (a). Tubes partially filled with mercury give almost unobjectionable 
indications as to direction of transit. Their evils are too great 
delicacy or sensitiveness, for the observation of that class ol' earth- 
quakes of mean power, which are the most important to be studied, and 
by which they are completely deranged occasionally, while they are 
continually being disturbed in such a seismic region by small tremulous 
movements that are unimportant to notice. As respects their indi- 
cations of velocity and dimensions of the wave, they are liable to the 
objections already noticed as applicable to all pendula. 

5 (b) and G (i). The main disadvantages of these constructions, viz. the 
suspended and the inverted solid pendulum have been already 
pointed out ; it may be added here, however, that with the inverted 
pendulum of Forbes, the supporting spring is more or less crippled 
down, by a sharp vertically (or nearly vertically) emergent shock, which 
gives a lateral movement (greater or less) to the pendulum, as though 



80 REPORT — 1858. 

from a horizontal originating motion, so that the instrument gives In 
such cases an absolutely false indication. 
7(6). Mr. Budge's inverted spring pendulum, restrained to a single semi- 
oscillation in one plane, offers some decisive advantages over any- 
other form hitherto proposed of the pendulum seismometer. Tiie 
whole length of the pendulum is elastic ; and the rod being light, 
the whole weight by whose inertia it is bent may be considered as 
in the ball or bob. If S be the moment of resilience of the rod, and 
the deflection be not very great, the angle wpn=^d, then — 

2(L tan d-b)=—, 

L being the length, and b the horizontal ordinate of deflection of the 
pendulum. It is plain that although, like every other elastic rod, 
this will have a time of vibration of its own, and be therefore liable 
to part of the theoretic ol)jections made to the simple pendulum on 
the same account, this form of pendulum will be "brought up" 
much more nearly within the true limits of the earth-wave amplitude 
in its horizontal component. 

Perhaps the ratchet and pall may not be the best mode, practically, 
of arresting its movement at the end of its first semioscillation, with 
sufficient delicacy, and other methods are obvious that may be ap- 
plicable ; but if the elastic rod be a flat plate of sufficient breadth in 
relation to its thickness, and each rod or pendulum (of the four) be 
so placed, with reference to the cardinal points, that its broadest 
dimension shall be transverse to its normal plane of flexure, it is then 
obvious that practically we may neglect any flexion of the rod edge- 
ways, the four rods in section being posited thus (fig. 5) — • 

N. 



Fig. 5 

w.— 



-E. 



S. 

and that thus we obtain a flexure, for each pendulum, practically 
limited to its own vertical plane of oscillation, and so can obtain, for 
any intermediate line of wave-transit between the cardinal points a 
good approximate resultant direction from the two adjacent com- 
ponent deflexions. Perhaps a flat ribbon-like rod of tempered steel, 
whose section should be a rectangle, with sides having the proportion 
of about 30 : 1, would be better than an elastic wooden lath ; and in 
either case, it is probable that a tape or silk ribbon, fastened at the 
side ?•, and passing with friction through a small horizontal slot in the 
elastic rod, so as to be stretched by its deflexion and pulled through, 
would be the best and simplest mode of registering the deflexion, or 
the angle 0. 

While this appears to me the best of the solitl-pcudulum arrange- 
ments, I do not wish to be understood as recommending any one of 
the class. 

8 {b). Santi's arrangement is of course subject to the objections made to all 
pendula. It possesses some advantage in separation of the results in 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 81 

different azimuths, and therein in clearness of indication ; but it also 
has special disadvantages of its own. If, for example, the line of 
earth-wave transit be from S. to N,, and the E. and W. pendulum 
be set up at the S. side of its own wall, it will tend to be thrown 
off or out from the wall by the shock ; if placed on the N. side of 
its own wall, its friction' will be increased on its suspensions, 
and tracing-point, by its being thrown in or pressed against the 
wall ; and if the line of earth-wave transit be, say N.W. and S.E., 
both pendula will be either thrown out from or pressed in against 
their respective walls, according to which side of the N. and S. walls 
they be fixed at. This source of variable inaccuracy might perhaps 
be eliminated by a double set of pendula, viz. one at each of the 
opposite sides of the N. and S. and of the E. and W. walls, which 
would thus be oppositely affected (in excess and in defect) by this 
source of error. 
9 (i). What has been already stated, with reference to errors common to all 
pendula, and the remarks made under 7 (^) as to the superiority of 
elastic over simple pendula, render it needless to enlarge on those 
which were only proposed as extemporaneous instruments, and for 
which they will be found convenient and useful, and not more in- 
accurate than much more elaborate ones. 

Referring now to the second class, or self-regulating instruments, — the 
disadvantage of the one 

2 (a), proposed by the author is of the same character as that of 4 (a) of the 
first class, viz. too delicate a sensitiveness to small tremulous shocks, 
which derange the composure of the instrument, without its giving 
decisive indications. The galvanic recording part of the apparatus 
was all that could be desired, and is of course applicable to other 
forms of instrument as respects the displacement portions. Indeed, 
apparatus identical in all its main characteristics has been since 
brought into successful and constant use by Professor Airy, Astro- 
nomer Royal, for the registration of astronomical and other kindred 
observations, and also by several experimenters abroad. An account 
of many such arrangements will be found in De la Rive's ' Treatise 
on Electricity.' 

2 (a). The same remark, I think, may apply to Professor Palmieri's seis- 
mometer, with this addition : the movement of the mercury, equal 
columns of which are contained in the opposite legs of each U-shaped 
tube, depends in his instrument ivholbj upon the U-tube being canted 
over more or less in its own plane, so as to throw the legs of the tube 
out of plumb. This, Professor Palmieri (if I do not misunderstand him) 
considers an inevitable consequence of the transit of the earth-wave 
at the instrument, conceiving the earth's surface to suffer, in every 
case, such a sensible heaving undulation, as to rock the instrument 
upon it, like a ship upon a heavy ground-swell. I must confess to 
entertaining great doubts that, in the great majority of earthquakes, 
any such sensible undulation (enough, at least, to produce a sensible 
throwing out of plumb of the U -tubes) can occur, although I 
have no reason to doubt that, from its delicate sensitiveness, con- 
tact will be broken, and the instrument act in so far, by some of 
the violent jars or jerks that it may receive. This peculiarity con- 
stitutes, in fact, the essential difference in arrangement between 
the author's seismometer and Prof. Palmieri's. In the former the 
1858. e 



82 REPORT — 1858. 

mass of the mercury is in unequal columns in each tube, so that 
its displacement is dependent solely on inertia ; it therefore sympa- 
thizes witli the movement of the earth-wave, emergent in whatever 
way; in the latter, the correctness of indication of the instrument de- 
pends not at all on the inertia of the mercury, but simply upon the 
alteration of relative surface-level in the opposite legs of the U -tubes, 
when the latter are thrown more or less out of plumb by the sup- 
posed undulation of the earth's surface at the transit of the shock, 
S (6). Kreil's ingenious instrument is not devoid of some serious objections. 
It partakes of those common to all pendula ; and these will be further 
perplexed when the annular dish /* ikl is filled with mercury, which 
will form a second (fluid) attached pendulum with a time of oscilla- 
tion of its own, and differing largely from that of the pendulum which 
suspends it. Very little value, however, can be attached to the indi- 
cations to be afforded by the very small amount of mercury that can 
be caused to spill out, owing to the very small arc of oscillation that 
the whole instrument can be afforded to make by construction. The 
most serious objection, however, lies in the method of flexible sus- 
pension adopted for the whole pendulous part of the instrument, viz., 
by two short thin plates or ribbons of tempered steel, whose respective 
vertical planes are at right angles to each other, the object being to 
allow of oscillalion in any direction, but prevent rotation upon the 
vertical axis. Whenever a somewhat energetic disturbance shall 
be given to a pendulum so suspended — so as to cause oscillation in 
a vertical plane, diagonal to the crossing planes of the two suspend- 
ing ribbons, torsion of each of these arises, and violent twisting 
movements (by jerks) of the pendulum itself result, producing sudden, 
jerking, rotatory oscillations of the bob (the cylinder containing the 
clockwork, &c.) round the axis of the pendulum. These must of 
course interfere with and derange any true results as indicated by 
the tracing-pencil, which must also record all such accidental 
moments, and probably derange the rate of the clock. 

There does not appear, however, to be any insuperable difficulty in 
devising another mode of suspension for the instrument, that might 
at least remove this defect. 

Such are some of the main objections to the seisniometric instruments 
themselves, hitherto proposed. It remains to consider the difficulties intro- 
duced by the nature of the movements we require to observe and record 
with them, as they actually take place in nature. What we want to find 
is the true direction of emergence of the normal earth-wave, with its dimen- 
sions and velocity, at a given point upon the earth's surface. This, were the 
earth a perfectly homogeneous elastic solid, though much easier, would still 
be attended with grave difficulties ; one of these, which must ever remain 
instrumentally insuperable, consists in the fact that the emergent wave on 
leaving the free outlying stratum of the earth's surface, differs both in dimen- 
sions and in velocity from the same wave in the previous parts of its deep 
transit. Future and more perfect knowledge of the laws of imperfectly elastic 
bodies in wave-transmission will, it may be expected, enable us to calculate 
the latter from the observed final part of the transit. 

Far, however, from being homogeneous, every portion of our earth's crust 
that we are acquainted with consists of various " couches," or masses of 
materials, differing in elasticity, density, and degree of discontinuity, in the 
character, directions, and openness or closeness of the discontiuuant fissures, 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 83 

in wetness or dryness, in temperature, and in many other ways. Stratifica- 
tion and lamination, witli their transverse master-joints, affect the elasticity 
of whole mountain-ranges and j^rofound masses of the land, and cause it to 
differ in different directions. 

The mass beneath our feet is very often not even approximately solid. 
Vast beds and cavernous recesses occur, empty, or filled more or less with 
water, sometimes with lava, ignited rock, and steam at enormous temperature 
and tension ; and, for anything we as yet knoio, scismometrj'^ may require to 
deal with depths and masses where the solid has passed, with exalted tem- 
perature, into the imperfectly liquid state. 

Again, the surface of our earth is everywhere more or less uneven, and, 
viewed over large areas, such as earthquake-transit is concerned with, is 
ribbed with rigid mountain-chains, often intersecting or abutting on each 
other, channeled by valleys, river-courses, deep estuaries, and bays, exca- 
vated into basin-shaped hollows often long and narrow, sometimes filled with 
unconformable rock or with loose and incoherent detrital material, and inter- 
sected to unknown depths by dykes, veins, and faults. The result of these 
differences and disturbances of internal structure and superficial features is to 
produce perturbations in the surface emergence of the earth wave, often of the 
most amazing and perplexing character ; and it is not until the nature and 
extent of these have been realized to the mind, that we shall be enabled to 
choose the best form of seismometric observation, to determine upon the only 
proper sites for the establishment of instruments, and to see within what 
limits our first researches must be confined. 

Let us notice, then, a few examples of striking surface-perturbation, of 
direction, of the great earth-wave, already on record. 

Savi (' Relazione di Fenomeni presentati dai Terremoti di Toscana, dell' 
Agosto 1846,' p. 32-44) and Pilla ('Istoria del Tremuoto che ha devastate 
paesi della Costa Toscana il di 14 Agosto, 1846,' p. 48-54) have both recorded 
examples of horizontal apparent movement of the earth-wave in directions 
orthogonal or even actually opposite to each other, and at points within very 
limited distances from each other, while, on the whole, there was no doubt 
of a ruling general direction of horizontal movement over the whole region. 
I can merely refer to their relations, as scarcely admitting of condensation 
intelligibly. 

M. Peri-ey, in his ' Memoir on the Earthquakes of France, Belgium, and 
Holland' (Mem. Cour. de I'Acad. Roy. de Brux. tom. xviii.), under date of 
5th July, 1841, has recorded a still more remarkable instance of surface- 
perturbation, which the small map (Plate XII.) of the northern and part of 
the central region of France, with outlines of the departmental divisions, illus- 
trates. Those departments in which this shockwas felt are marked bynumerals 
referring to the following table. The directions of the horizontal component 
of the shock, as observed at the several places named, are shown on the map 
by a short thick arrow. A few other places where the shock was felt, but 
direction not observed, are marked by a large dot, and the name referred to 
by a letter. A ievf large towns, and the general I'ange of the hilly country 
(running mainly in a N.W. and S.E. direction) between the two great seats of 
disturbance, are marked in mainly as general guides of position to the eye. 
This earthquake was sufficiently powerful to disturb furniture, move objects 
visibly, and affect clocks, &c., and was variously reported to have lasted in 
different places from two or three, to ninety seconds of time. 



g2 



84 



REPORT — 1858. 



Number 
on Map. 


Department. 


Locality. 


Direction of Horizontal Component. 


1. 

2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 


Seine 


City of Paris 

Sevres 


N.E. to S.W. ; three shocks. 
W. to E. ; three shocks. 
N.E. to S.W. 
Direction not given. 
W. to E. 
N.E. to S.W. 
S. to N. ; seven shocks. 
N. to S. ; three shocks, 
N. to S. 
W. to E, 
N. to S. 
S. to N. 

More than one shock ; direction not given. 
Vertical (souleveraent) ; two shocks. 
One shock ; direction not given. 
S. to N. ; three shocks, 
r No record of the shock having been felt in 
\ either of these departments. 
Three shocks ; direction not given; very severe. 


Seine et Oise 


Chevreuse 

Longjumeau, m... 

Rambouillet 

Grignon 

Orsav 


Meulan 


Nogent 


Loire et Cher 

Indre et Loue 

Indre 

Cher 

Eure et Loire 

Seiue et Marne ... 

Eure " 

Oise 

Cote-d'Or 


Quincay 


Caumacre 


Lauge 


Le Blanc, n 

Hourges 


Chartres, j» 


Donnemaire 


Bligny-sur-Ouche. 





Here, then, we have two very limited but separated earthquake districts — one 
around Paris, the other more widely spread around Tours — and a third to 
the S.W., stretching into Cote d'Or, in which we have the observed or hori- 
zontal direction of shocks from N. to S., from S. to N., from W. to E., and 
from N.E. to S.W., and in one place said to be vertical. In the Paris dis- 
trict the extreme distance apart of the places of observation does not exceed 
30 English miles, the average being under 15 English miles. 

In the Tours district the extremes are under 70 English miles apart, and 
the average distance under 30 miles. The central part of one region is not 
more than 150 miles from that of the other; and neither district is more 
than about 70 miles distant from the axial line of the chain of hills that 
separates them, and in the prolongation of which to the S.W. the third 
district is widely spread, taking the general line of axial direction. 

Making every abatement that imperfect observation can justify, there 
remains abundant proof, in this example, that even in places within view of 
each other as to distance, but situated over heterogeneous formations, and in 
a country of broken and irregular surface, the superficial direction of shock 
may present anomalies at first sight apparently admitting of no analysis, and 
in any case incapable of giving any direct information as to prevailing direc- 
tion, or position of focus, by mere seismometric observations. 

The third and last example we shall take from India, as one not devoid of 
a larger interest also. In the map (Plate XIV.) a very rude outline is 
given of the geological formations of India, in a merely seismic relation 
however, i. e. with reference to relative hardness, density, and elasticity of 
the rocky masses, — thus distinguishing them only into the six great divi- 
sions of crystalline or granitoid, old stratiform, secondary (from carboni- 
ferous to cretaceous), tertiaries, alluvial plains, and some igneous porphyries, 
diorites, &c. In the colouring of this I have to acknowledge the kind as- 
sistance afforded me by Professor Phillips. This map has been fully de- 
scribed in " Second Report on the Facts, &c." (Brit. Assoc. Trans, for 1851, 
p. 313 et seq.), where it should have appeared originally, but was, at a late 
moment, prevented by an accident connected with its completion. I shall 
therefore, referring the reader to the former report, merely notice here the 
facts as relating to seismometry. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 85 

The great earthquake of 1819, which extended its influence right across 
this peninsula from Calcutta to Cutch, and during which the Uilah Bund was 
elevated, and the Runn of Cutch submerged — the former a low mass of sand 
and clay seventy miles long, about fifteen miles wide, and elevated about 
10 feet; and the latter an area of subsidence of about 2000 square miles — 
had a great general line of horizontal propagation of shock, as shown by the 
heavy red line, of nearly from W. to E., a few degrees to the S.E. ; yet at 
Calcutta it was felt from N.E. to S.W., and at many places along this immense 
line — situated between the Aravulla and Vindhya chains of mountains, as 
for example at Rampura — the great shock was felt in directions quite trans- 
verse to the principal line. 

So also the general line of horizontal direction of the great earthquake of 
1833, whose origin was far beneath the Himalayas to the E. and N., had a 
great general direction about that sliown by the long red arrow line. At 
Katmandu, in the mountains, the shocks Avere more directly E. to W., and 
also (reflected shocks probably) from the ranges to the N., which had a 
direction nearly N.E. to S.W., while in the great plain of the Ganges the 
observed directions were various, and, without a more complete knowledge of 
the geology and surface-configuration of the country, perfectly unanalysable, 
in some places N. to S., and at others, sixty miles oft', from E. to W. 

While we must regard many of these observations as deserving of little 
stress as to accuracy, enough remains to prove that perturbations in the 
main directions of emergence at the surface of the normal earth-wave, due 
to heterogeneity of structure in depth, and to inequality of surface, prin- 
cipally, are of such a nature, as to render a special choice of district neces- 
sary in attempting any seismometrical researches (even with perfect instru- 
ments) which have in view the determination of the position of the focus 
of disturbance. This choice, according to our present knowledge, must be 
determined by the following conditions : — 

1. The whole surface-area of observation, and to as great a depth as 

possible, must be uniform in geological structure. 

If of stratified rock, not greatly shattered and overthrown, but 
(viewed largely) level or rolling only. The harder and more dense 
and elastic the formations, the better, but neither intersected by 
long and great dykes, nor by igneous protrusions of magnitude, nor 
suddenly bounded by such formations. 

2. The surface must not be broken up into deep gorges, and rocky ranges, 

and valleys. Seismometry, in a high and shattered mountainous 
country, can scarcely lead to any result but perplexity. If the surface 
be deeply alluvial all over, it is less objectionable than valley-basins, 
and pans of deep alluvium, with rocky ribs between them. 

3. The size of the area chosen for observation must bear a relation to the 

force of the shocks experienced in it. Moderate shocks are always 
best for observation, and, in large areas of the most uniform character 
of formation and surface, will give the most trustioorthy indications. 
4'. If several seismometers be set up in the area, they should be all 
placed on corresponding formations, either all on rock, or all on deep 
alluvium. The rock, when attainable, is always to be preferred. 
Three seismometers, at as many distant stations, will be generally 
found sufficient, if the object be chiefly to seek the focal situation and 
depth. 

Having now cleared the way by stating the difficulties of seismometric 
observations, 1st, as respects the instruments themselves, 2nd, as respects 



86 REPORT — 1858. 

their local emplacement, it remains to describe the instruments that appear 
to me the best calculated for the attainment of the objects we can at present 
propose to ourselves in seismometry, and to point out how such may best be 
applied ; as also some indirect methods of arriving at the most important and 
interesting primary result, that Ave are entitled to expect in the first instance 
from such researches, namely, an approximation to the actual depth of focus 
within the earth, from which earthquake-impulses are propagated to the 
surface. 

Were it possible to construct a perfect seismometer, it should record 
simultaneously, 1st, the movements, both horizontal and vertical, of the 
elastic wave itself, viz., the excursion or amplitude, the altitude, and the 
maximum velocity in the coordinates x, y, and z, — z being vertical ; 2nd, the 
movements of translation of the "advancing form" or wave itself at its 
ernergence upon the earth's surface, with the velocities in the correspond- 
ing coordinates x^., y^-, and Zj. 

These involve alone twelve equations of condition ; and we assume that 
the elastic medium (the earth) through which the wave is transmitted, is 
homogeneous, in density and elastic modulus; and that the final wave- 
movements, of the free outlying stratum at the surface, obey the same laws 
as do those of the successive " couches " beneath. 

Generally, we must assume the elasticity perfect, and that the vis viva of 
any particle in motion, Awi, is determinable from its velocity at its position of 
equilibrium. From the general equation of wave-motion 



» = a cos 



(^{x-dtyi, 



we have the velocity at any point where a- is the intensity, \ the amplitude, 
a the transit-rate or velocity of propagation, x the abscissa, and t the time. 

At the position of equilibrium v=^a, and the vis viva of the particle Am 
during the whole undulation is Ama^, and proportionate to a^. The wave 
we must suppose emanating from a central point, and propagated outwards 
in all directions alike, in imaginary, concentric spherical "couches." The 
vis viva must remain constant during the whole propagation. The velo- 
city of propagation a is also constant ; and the mass of the medium in wave- 
motion at any moment of the translation is the same; so that, if r^the 
radius of any such spherical " couche," the work done in it by the wave 
is proportionate to /-^ x a^, and constant for the whole transit, a^ being 

OC a—. As, therefore, the mass in simultaneous undulation is constant, the 

thickness of each imaginary successive " couche " must decrease as r^ ; and 
so the displacing power of the wave diminishes also as r% and the work done 
by the wave within any such "couche" of determinate thickness=SjAma% 
— or M, being the mass in simultaneous undulation, =^Ma*. 

The wave at its origination, starts in any radius, with one normal and two 
transversal vilirations, the separate determination of which would require a 
corresponding increase in the number of equations for x, y, and z ; and in the 
recorded facts by the instrument. It is obvious, then, even with the utmost 
simplifications we can assume as to the molecular condition of the medium 
(the earth), that practically we must be content with a seismometer that shall 
record only some of the more important conditions of the earth-wave, and in 
such a manner as shall enable us, indirectly, to arrive at others. And in 
considering the relative importance of the several elements, the maximum 
velocity of the wave at its point of emergence upon the surface, with the 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 8? 

directions in .r, y, and z, or the horizontal components {x and y) of the 
direction of motion and the vertical component z, will be found the most 
valuable. 

These are determinable by one instrument only. By two or more such, 
at separate and moderately distant places, the velocity of propagation or 
transit-rate a may be found ; and by combining the results obtained by both, 
ill calculation, each may be made to check and control the other, and for a 
given seismic region (apart from serious perturbations of internal forma- 
tion) we can obtain the point upon the surface, vertically above the origin 
of the wave, and approximate to the depth of the origin itself, or of the 
foQus of disturbance, below the earth's surface. 

One or other, of two distinct seismometric arrangements, may be adopted, 
both dependent upon similar principles, — the second being of a simpler and 
less expensive cJiaracter, but not susceptible (as a single instrument) of indi- 
cations as accurate as the first, yet, as respects applicability to determi- 
nations of time (as one of several, set up in a given seismic area), quite as 
exact. 
I proceed to describe the construction of both, their principles and action. 
The first instrument is exhibited in PI. XV. figs. 1, 2 & 3. Fig. 1 is a 
lateral geometric elevation of the instrument, whose length is placed in the 
direction N. and S., as seen in plan in fig. 2, — a precisely similar instrument 
being placed at right angles of azimuth to it, or with its length E. and W. 
The same letters of reference apply to similar parts in all the figures. Fig. 2 
represents both the N. and S. and E. and W. instruments as placed in posi- 
tion, tow being part of the external wooden shell or wall of the seismic ob- 
servatory, which may best be always of wood, or such material, and circular 
in form. 

In figs. 1 and % aa is a cast-iron tabular bar, whose upper surface is 
horizontal, and whose long parallel edges are either N. and S. or E. and W. 
It is attached to a rigid cylindrical vertical bar of wrought iron, b b, which 
passes freely, but without shake, through bored holes in the top and bottom 
collars of the heavy cast-iron frame c c, which is firmly bolted by its bottom 
flanch to the heavy stone floor of the observatory; or, if the latter can be so 
placed, to the natural solid rock when levelled to form its floor. Beneath 
the frame cc is a pit, pp, for convenience of access to the bottom of the 
instrument. Upon the vertical bar b, a collar is fixed of wrought iron, k, 
between which and the lower bored collar of the frame cc, a. spiral spring, 
c, is placed, having its axis coincident with that of the bar b. 

This spring sustains, when at rest, the weight of the bar and table a a, and 
of all resting upon it, and is so adjusted as to resistance, that such forces in 
the vertical direction, as it may be expected the instrument will be exposed 
to at any time, shall not be able to compress the spring to such an extent, as 
to bring the lower surface of the table a a, into contact with the top part of 
the frame cc. A vertical "feather," let into the ha.r b, prevents it, or its 
superior attachments, from altering their position with reference to the frame 
c c, by turning round the vertical axis of the bar b in its collar-bearings. 

A small sliding index, not shown in the figure, also moves in a longitudinal 
groove at the opposite side of the bar b, and, being placed in contact with 
the top of the frame c c, when the whole is at rest, indicates the extent of any 
vertical depression of the bar b, and of its load, by compression of the spring 
e. A buffer collar of vulcanized india-rubber is placed at /, above the iron 
collar k, as a precaution against a jar, in case of the sudden removal of part 
of the load on a a by any accident. 

Upon the upper side and centre of the length, of the tabular bar a a, is 



88 REPORT — 1858. 

cast a hollow quadrilateral prism, g, which will be called " ihehlock" provided 
with four " lugs" to receive the pivot-screws n, n, n, n. The table a a, sup- 
ports two similar cast-iron inclined jilanes i, i, having for their entire length 
the trough-shaped section as shown in fig. S. These planes are fixed to 
the table an, by the pivot-screws n,n, and by the adjusting-screws m,m 
beneath, so that by means of the latter, the inclination of either plane may 
be altered or fixed, being otherwise free to rotate in a vertical plane, 
within certain limits, round the pivot-screws n,ii, so as to alter the angles 
of inclination. 

Upon each of these inclined planes, is placed a large heavy ball, formed of 
a hollow sphere of hard gun-metal, of about 0'3 of an inch in thickness, 
truly spherical and polished outside, and filled up solid with lead. These 
balls are adjusted in diameter, to the breadth and form of the inclined planes 
(as in fig. 3), so as freely to roll along, with but two points of contact. 

When the planes i,i are adjusted at equal inclinations, the balls B, Bj rest 
at their lowest ends, and are laterally in contact with, and supported by, the 
hard wood stops r, r, driven (from outside inwards) through, and well-fitted 
in, corresponding rectangular horizontal " slots" in opposite sides of the 
block g, — the end of each wood stop being curved to fit the surface of the 
balls, in a horizontal great circle, and so that the plane of the stop passes 
through the centre of gravity of the ball. Through each wood stop there 
pass the e — and e+ extremities of a galvanic conducting-circuit of thick 
copper wires, placed at about an inch apart, where they pass parallel to each 
other, through the wood stop, with their extreme ends coinciding with the 
surface of the stop next the ball, and being amalgamated ; so that while ever 
the ball reposes in contact with the wood stop, the galvanic circuit remains 
completed., throiigli the ball, between the ends of the wires, but is broken 
the moment the ball is removed from contact with them. 

For one complete seismometer there are two such instruments as have 
been thus described, — one placed, as in fig. 2, in a N. and S., and the other 
in an E. and W. direction, as respects their length, and having thus four 
inclined planes and balls, each with its own distinct galvanic circuit from 
one common battery. A clock placed in the observatory carries round a 
cylinder with ruled paper, and each of four pencil markers continues to 
describe an unbroken line thereon so long as the balls are in contact with the 
blocks (or wood stops and galvanic poles); but (by an arrangement pre- 
cisely similar to that described for my fluid pendulum seismometer — Trans. 
Hoy. Irish Acad. vol. xxi. p. 107) the moment any ball ceases to be in con- 
tact with the block, and for as long as it is so, the pencil is withdrawn, and 
leaves a break in the otherwise continuous line traced by the rotation of the 
paper. No part of this clockwork registering-arrangement is shown in the 
Plate, as several modifications of it are practicable, and no one in parti- 
cular is essential to the principle of the seismometer before us. 

To illustrate the mode of action of the instrument, — returning to fig. 1, 
suppose it to be the N. and S. one, and adjusted so that the bar h is truly 
vertical, the parallel sides of the inclined planes i and i truly in directum, 
their angles of inclination to the horizon the same. Then if the arrow Q 
represent the direction of emergence of an earthquake-wave (supposed here 
to be in the plane of the meridian, and from S. to N.), at the first instant 
that the wave reaches the instrument, the bar i, and table a a, with all they 
carry, will commence to descend and to compress the spring e by their inertia, 
with a velocity dependent upon the vertical component of the wave, which 
carries up the frame c c vertically. Also at the first instant of arrival of 
She wave, the ball Bo, in virtue of its inertia, will move off from the block 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 89 

towards Cj ; and the instant of its departure, bij breaking galvanic contact of 
the poles at its stop, marlts that of the cowmeiicemeiit of the shock. But tlie 
whole instrument is carried forward by the horizontal component of the 
shock, and then moves back again ; the ball B is therefore carried forward 
also, urged bj' the block at r, and is caused to roll up along the inclined 
plane a certain distance, saj' to (J, where it conies to rest, and, reversing its 
motion, rolls back again by gravity, and returns to rest in contact with the 
block and galvanic poles of its own stop. The ball which first moves, which 
M'e may call the Time Ball (as indicated in time by the pencil trace on 
the clock-cylinder paper), will alivays be that at the side from which the 
shock arrives. We neglect any account of its subsequent motions. The 
other ball, which we may call the Element Ball, by its movements gives 
us the elements of the wave. The instrument records the lohole time that it 
is out of contact with the block g, viz. that of its excursion up and down 
the inclined plane i. If, in place of the wave having emerged at some angle 
to the horizon from S. to N., it had come at the same or at any other angle 
of emergence between vertical and horizontal, in the reverse direction or 
from N. to S., then the action of the balls also would have been reversed, 
B becoming the Time Ball, and being left behind, and thus noting the mo- 
ment of arrival of the wave; and B^ being thrown up along the inclined 
plane i, giving its elements. 

Again (referring to fig. 2), if the wave emerge at some azimuth between 
N. and S. and E.and W., suppose from the S.W., with any angle of emergence, 
then by the vertical component the springs of both the N.S. and E.W. instru- 
ments will be compressed (and nearly alike). The time balls B^ of the N.S. and 
B., of the E.W. instruments will be left behind, as before, (and both at the 
same instant will break contact with the block); and the element balls B and 
B will be thrown forward upon their respective inclined planes, as before — to 
equal distances in the case of the exactly intermediate azimuth here supposed, 
but to unequal distances if this azimuth be more to the W. or to the S. 
The instrument records the simultaneous excursions of both balls B and B, 
giving the total time (as before) that each ball is out of contact with its own 
block or stop ; and if the direction of the wave-movement be reversed as re- 
spects the instrument (suppose, from some point of N.E. towards S.W.), then 
therespectivemovementsandfunctions of the balls willalsoreverse themselves, 
B and B being left behind, and Bj and Bj thrown forward, &c. 

The general size and strength of the instrument must be determined with 
reference to the degree of violence of the earthquake-shocks to be anticipated 
in the seismic region it is intended for. The very greatest, and the very 
smallest perceptible shocks, are alike unsuited for useful measurement. The 
dimensions of the instrument, as shown by the scale of the plate, are such as 
I consider fitted to ensure its functions, under the effects of those shocks of 
mean intensity (sucli for example, as those common in the Mediterranean 
basin, or in those of Hungary and Austria), and with moderate vertical angles 
of emergence, which are those best to observe in the existing state of our 
knowledge. 

The most important points of precaution of a constructional character to 
be noticed are the following: — The balls should be of lead chiefly (the sur- 
face being formed, for hardness and smoothness, of gun-metal), to reduce 
their proper elasticity as much as possible. The inclination of the planes i, i 
must be small, probably never exceeding 15°, and the length and inclination 
so adjusted by experiment, to the maximum time of wave-oscillation in the 
district of observation, that the whole time of rolling up and down of the ball 
shall be considerably longer in duration. Their bearing-edges must be per- 



90 REPORT — 1858. 

fectly parallel and smooth ; and the length of the planes must be such, as to 
make it highly improbable that any ball, in its excursion under shock, can 
reach the upper end. A wood stop is fixed at this point to arrest the ball, 
should it ever chance to reach it; and beyond this a stout net (like the purse of 
a billiard-table) may be fixed to a separate support (from the floor), to receive 
the ball, if upon an extraordinary occasion thrown out of the instrument. 

It is assumed that any alternate alteration of the inclination, of the inclined 
planes i, i, by actual surface-rmdulation, carrying the whole instrument with 
it at the passage of the earth-wave, may be neglected, i.e. that, for example, 
a wave passing in a direction from S. to N. will not sensibly lift up the S. end 
(of the N. S. instrument) first, and then the N.end, and so first increase the 
inclination of the plane of Bg and reduce that of B, and then vice versd ; 
and that whatever amount of tilling may thus occur will so momentarily 
affect the inclined planes, and in opposite directions, as not to interfere 
with the proposed movements of the balls. 

This assumption is justified by the fact that the value of X, the amplitude 
of the earth-wave in the normal, is always great in relation to its altitude, 
and in the case of oblique surface-emergence its horizontal component is of 
still greater length ; so that the angle of slope of either face of the emergent 
wave with the horizon, is practically imperceptible in moderate shocks; and, 
further, any tilting that can occur takes place in opposite directions suc- 
cessively, so as nearly to compensate. 

The vertical spring e must be delicate and sensitive, at the first instant of 
its compression, in proportion to the movement by inertia of the large mass 
that it carries, and its range, proportioned to the degree of steepness of 
emergence to be expected in the region of observation. 

The whole vertical component is absorbed by this spring, and may be mea- 
sured by its compression ; but it is important that it shall give way sensitively, 
at the first moment of shock, in order that neither of the balls shall have any 
tendency to rise from the inclined planes that support them, and that its resili- 
ence shall not be too lively, so as not to produce rebound upon the restoration 
from compression. In certain seismic regions, where great steepness of 
emergence may be looked for, the vertical component will probably be best 
met by the depression of a conical float with the apex downward, fixed to 
the lower end of the bar bb, into a cylindrical vessel of water placed beneath 
the instrument ; but this must be matter of experiment in such regions. 

Were the whole instrument rigidly fixed to the ground, the latter as well 
as the materials of the instrument and ball highly elastic, and the velocity 
of emergence of the wave, in its vertical component, very great, it is obvious 
that time would not be aff"orded to the ball B, merely to roll up along the 
plane ; it would be thrown up obliquely from it, and, describing a short trajec- 
tory, would fall back again upon the plane a little higher up, and then re- 
peat a still shorter trajectory, or begin to roll upwards. But the ball is very 
inelastic, the rate of emergence of the wave is not very great in its vertical 
component ; and the effect of this upon the instrument is spread over a still 
longer time by the interposition of the spring e. 

If <=the time of the wave in seconds, - will be nearly the instant of its 

maximum velocity v, in feet per second ; thus the condition that shall ensure 
the ball B rolling only, and not being projected, is that the vertical compo- 
nent of V shall be less than 

2 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF BABTHaUAKE PHENOMENA. 91 

Unless, possibly, in the case of nearly vertical emergence, and from the most 
solid, and elastic crystalline rock, an ample latitude, t, is secured by the ver- 
tical spring. 

We will now consider the movements of the element balls B and Bj along 
the planes i, i, due to the horizontal component of motion, taking the two in- 
struments (viz. the N. S. and E. W. seismometers) together, and assuming the 
horizontal component in any azimuth d. 

The blocks g r (N. S.) and ff r (E. W.) move forward horizontally, and 

force on the balls B and B, before them until the instant, -, when the blocks 

have acquired their maximum velocities, with that of the wave,v; the balls then 
part company from tlie blocks, and continue to move up along the respective 
inclined planes i, i, sliding for the first indefinitely short moment, and then, 
with a certain reduction of velocity due to the friction of the planes which 
produce the change of motion, rolling up along them. This initial sliding 
velocity will be 

For the ball B . , . V=tJ sin Q ; 

For the ball Bi . . . Y=v cos fl. 

As soon as the sliding is converted into rolling motion by friction, these 
velocities will become 

5 5 

— V sin 0, and - v cos 9. 

7 7 

Assuming that the change takes place almost instantly after the balls have 
begun to move from the blocks, i.e. that gravity has not had time perceptibly 
to alter the velocity up the plane, and neglecting the small effects, due to the 
elastic compression of the balls and blocks themselves, and also supposing 
that the loss of velocity of the ball, by conversion of its sliding into rolling 
motion by friction, is less than the diminution of velocity of the block (in the 
same short time), in returning from its maximum velocity to rest, the balls 
B and B, will be retarded by forces — 

For B -a siai, 

7^ 

For B , ~g cos i, 

i being the common inclination of the planes. 

The ball B will therefore ascend upon its plane to a vertical height 



(I V sin d\ 



sm 0=H; 

10 Ug 

7^ 



we have therefore 



«sin0=^:^^H. 
So also the ball B, will ascend to the height 

t;cos0=^]^^H'; 



therefore 

tan 



Vh'' 



92 REPORT — 1858. 

or, if j,=32. Y=y^*f (H-H')= • 89-6 (H-H'). 

This calculation assumes that the sliding is converted into rolling motion in 
an indefinitely siiort time, as it would in fact be, if the adhesion of the balls 
were large, and the inclination of the planes i small ; but if the inclination 
of the latter be considerable, as 13° or upwards, a more exact determination 
is necessary. 

Let, as before, the horizontal components of the velocity with which the 
balls begin to move, be ii sin 6, and v cos 6, Z the velocity in the vertical, 
and the inclination of the planes i now large. 

The initial velocity of ascent parallel to the planes will be, 

For the ball B z? sin cos I' + Z sin i, 

and For the ball Bj v cos 6 cos i-fZ sin i. 

Lei (j) be the coefficient of frictional adhesion, of the balls to the plane; 
then they will ascend the jilanes to the heights, 

r. TT _(t;sin cos e + Z sini)2 2 tani+5^ 

2ff 2tani + 7^ 

T) TT (*' cos cos i -f- Z sin lY 2 tan i + 5(b 

2g 2tane + 7^ 

V and are known if the value of Z be given ; and this may be ascertained 
experimentally from the compression of the vertical spring ; or, as sug- 
gested by my friend Dr. Harte, to whom I have been indebted for these 
equations, a second pair of experimental inclined planes and balls might be 
used, with an inclination greater than i (say 2«), from the observed movements 
upon which, two more equations could be got, the four equations being then 
more than enough, to determine v, Z and 0. 

But the nature of the instrument is to record the values of H and H„ in 
terms of the whole time that the balls B and B are out of contact with the 
block gr, i. e. of their rolling up, and down, the inclined planes, — this time 
being given, by the lacune in the pencil-trace made upon the revolving cy- 
linder of paper carried along by the clock. The time of the balls' ascending 
to the highest point reached on the plane will be independent of adhesion ; 
and calling it t, we have. 

For the ball B t =^_^J}±2Sli±^I}}li . 

g sin i 

For the ball B, ^^ ^^^cos0_cos^^-Zsin^•. 

g sin i 
The time of descent back to the starting-point, due to the heights H and H', 
will be a little, but inappreciably, less than this. 

The entire time of the double oscillation of each ball, therefore, or its 
movement up and down the plane, as recorded by the instrument, is, 

FnrTt T^ '^sin0cosz + Zsinz / /^^i + 5^\ 

gsini V V 2tani + 7<p)' 

'^"** For Bj . . T - ^cos0cosz + Zsin? A / 2t!iiii+5f \, 

gsini \ V '2tani + 7f/ 

the coefficient being always =tana, the angle of sliding for the surface- 
material of the balls upon that of the inclined planes. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 93 

Reverting now to the time balls B^, B-, those which, being leflbehind, record 
the instant of the arrival of the shock at the instrument,— it has been stated 
that we have no occasion to determine their subsequent movements ; it 
may be well, however, to clear our notions generally as to what these will 
be. Rotation is almost instantly communicated to these balls by adhesion 
with the moving planes on which they rest. The block moves off horizon- 
tally (in the direction of the wave) from the ball, which rolls thus with a 
retarded motion up the inclined plane in a relatively opposite direction. The 
block attains its maximum velocity V, and, coming to rest, reverses the direc- 
tion of its own motion, and now follows back after the ball that it had left 
behind, which it may overtake, and strike, with a relative velocity equal to 
the sum of its own velocity and that of the ball, or to their difference, depend- 
ent upon the state of motion of the ball at the moment of impact. The 
impact calling forth elastic force from ball and block, the former will be 
thrown up along the inclined plane ; but the extent of this movement, or 
whether it occur at all, will depend upon the dimensions and velocity of the 
wave itself (resolved into the line of movement on the inclined plane) and 
upon the elasticity, &c. of the ball and block. These we have no occasion 
to pursue further: the actual movements of these balls, B^ and B^, how- 
ever, will be found recorded in time also, by their own pencil-tracers on the 
cylinder ; but the only indication that concerns us, is the first instant of 
broken contact, as already explained. 

A single seismometric observatory, such as has been now described, set up 
within a given region of disturbance, is capable of giving the elements, neces- 
sary for the calculation of the position of the seismic focus, but without the 
power of controlling the accuracy of the results, except in so far as coinci- 
dent repetitions may confirm or refute them. But if three such seismome- 
tric observatories be set up within the region chosen, in positions that shall 
form the angles of a triangle with respect to each other, at moderate distances 
apart (from 15 to 30 miles), and these be all connected by galvanic wires, 
so that the whole of their records shall be made upon a single paper cylinder, 
moved by a single clock in one of the three observatories, we then have a 
further control, and an independent method of obtaining, both the hori- 
zontal component of direction, and the surface-velocity, from which, by 
methods yet to be stated, the depth of origin may be calculated without 
direct ascertainment of the vertical component in Z. The cylinder must in 
this case carry twelve pencil-tracers, four leading from each observatory. 

This leads us to the second and somewhat simpler form of seismometer 
proposed by me, and shown in figs. 4, .5, 6 and 7 (of Plate XV.). In some re- 
spects, the principles of this instrument are the same as of that just described : 
like the former, it is a double instrument, each instrument having two move- 
able balls; but their action is different. Fig. 4 represents, in elevation, one 
of these instruments (let us suppose, that N. S.) as seen looking eastward, 
and the upper part of which is seen in plan in fig. 5. ss is the floor of the 
observatory within which the two similar instruments are placed, tt is a. 
shallow and flat-bottomed dish or basin of some feet in diameter, and about 
nine inches in depth, formed by a circular wooden curb or rim secured to 
the floor. 

In the centre of this, there stands up vertically a very stiff pillar or upright, 
rigidly secured into the floor, and which may be either of hard stone, hollow 
cast iron, or of hard wood, but best of the second. Its upper end is formed 
of wrought or cast iron in the form shown ; and into it are secured the vertical 
supports of hardwood, s,s, which are placed with their parallel and vertical 
axes in the plane of the meridian or at right angles thereto, and are prepared, 



94 REPORT — 1858. 

so as to support the balls B and B. upon their upper ends, which are sliyhlhj 
hollowed to the same curve as the'surface of the balls, as seen at full size in 
fig. 7. The balls, when in this position, rest against and are steadied by the 
hollow stop over the axis of the vertical pillar, b in figs. 4, 5, and 6. 

The balls may be common cast-iron cannon shot, chosen of good sphe- 
rical form and of equal weight ; and each ball is in metallic connexion at one 
point of its surface with a galvanic-circuit wire, of which it forms one pole, 
marked et, — the supports s, s, and the stop b, being all of hard wood or other 
insulating material, as pottery or glass. The height of the central column 
should be such, that the centre of gravity of each of the two balls, when on 

their supports, may be some submultiple of 32 h>=g (say 8 feet =-^)> for 

facility of calculation. 

The shallow basin tt\s subdivided in two semi-circular separate areas, by 
a wood division, d, equal in depth to the outer rim, this division crossing in 
the diameter which lies at right angles to the plane of the supports s, s, — i. e. 
being east and west for the north and south balls, and z'zce versa in the other 
instrument. Each segment of the shallow basin is lined within its outer rim 
and bottom with sheet-lead, which is at one point of each in metallic con- 
tact with the other pole of the galvanic circuit marked Eo — . 

The two segments of the dish are filled up to the level of the surround- 
ing rim, with a bed of damp sand, pressed uniformly and " struck off"' level 
to the rim by a straight edge, so as thus to present a uniform bed 9 inches 
deep, the balls B, B., being 6 inches in diameter and 8 feet above it. While 
the instruments (i. e. that N.S. and E.W.) are thus prepared, the galvanic 
circuit remains constantly broken, the poles formed by the balls being in- 
sulated from the other poles formed by the sand-beds, the lead lining, &c. 
Suppose now, in fig. 4<, an earthquake-wave to emerge from S. to N. in the 
direction of the arrow ; the ball Bo is left behind as in the former instrument, 
topples off' its slender support s, and commences to fall to the surface of the 
sand. The moment it strikes the sand, it makes contact with its own circuit, 
and as the time of its fall can be exactly calculated and is constant (neglect- 
ing the small resistance of the air), this ball (as before) marks the precise mo- 
ment of the arrival of the shock at the instrument. The other ball B is 
urged forward by the movement of the whole instrument in the direction of 
the arrow, or that of thcM'ave's emergence, being supported bys and b, until 
the instrument acquires its maximum velocity v as before. This ball is then 
thrown off from its support with this velocity, and, describing a small trajec- 
tory in air, falls to the bed of sand, and in its turn makes contact with its own 
galvanic circuit. The ball partially buries itself in the damp sand at the 
spot it falls upon, without change of position from any elastic effort, all such 
being absorbed by the " deadness " of the sand. If the shock has been in 
the plane of the meridian, the place where it shall land on the sand-bed will 
also be in that plane, say at B'. 

Then the horizontal distance from the centre of its support s to the centre 
of the ball, measures the horizontal component of the velocity, this space 
being described by it during the time of its descent through eight feet. The 
difference in time (as shown upon the ruled paper by the pencil-tracers and 
clockwork as before) between the instant of B^ and of B leaving their sup- 
ports, is almost exactly = -, or half the time of the wave. 

The same explanations will apply to the other, or E. and W. instrument ; 
and if the azimuth of emergence 6 be somewhere between N. S. and E.W., 
all four balls will be displaced, and the obliquity of throw of each of the balls 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 95 

B (N. and S.) and B (E. and W.) from their respective cardinal and ver- 
tical planes, will indicate the actual azimuth of the horizontal component of 
the earthquake wave — giving this indication in two ways, each controlling 
the other, — viz. by direction of throw as stated, and by distance of horizontal 
traject, which will be proportionate to sine and cosine 0. 

The stop b, it should be remarked, is hollowed at contact with each ball, 
so as to embrace 90° of its horizontal great circle; so that in case = 45° 
from the meridional or the E. and W. planes, the balls cannot slip aside, but 
must be thrown in the same direction, the extreme angles of the stop then 
passing through the plane of motion and centre of gravity of the balls. 

Figs. 5 and 6 show in plan the relative positions of the N. S. and E.W. 
instruments, the upper portions alone being represented, and not at the ne- 
cessary distance apart. 

These instruments singly, then, give us the velocity of the wave and its 
direction in azimuth with considerable accuracy ; but their full value would 
only be ensured by placing three such seismometers within a given district 
(as already staled for the former instrument) and connecting them all by 
galvanic wires, so that the indications of the three shall be recorded by a 
single clock register. We then have the time of arrival of the shock at each 
seismometer given with perfect accuracy, from which both its horizontal 
velocity and azimuth may be computed ; and the relative positions and 
distances apart of the several seismometers being known, the true direction 
of emergence of the wave, and the point of the surface vertically over the 
origin, and the depth of the focus itself may be computed. The two following 
methods of computing these are due to Professor Haughton, of Trinity 
College, Dublin, who communicated them to the Geological Section of the 
British Association at Dublin, on the occasion of this report being read, and 
from whom I have received them for publication here. 

The determination of the " coseismal line" — a term first used by me at the 
suggestion of Sir John Herschel, to signify, the crest of the simultaneously 
emergent earth-wave upon the earth's surface at any moment of its progress 
— is the same thing as determining the direction of its motion on the surface, 
a horizontal tangent to the coseismal line at any point being always ortho- 
gonal to the dire9tion of motion. 

Given the Times of an Earthquake Shock at three places, to determine its 
Horizontal Velocity and Coseismal Line. 




Let A, B, C, denote three stations at which the time of arrival of the earth- 
quake shock is determined by the seismometers or other means, and let 



96 



REPORT — 1858. 



a, h, c, denote the distances between them ; let v denote the unknown hori- 
zontal velocity ; and let <l> denote the unknown angle made by the coseismal 
lines X Ax, T/Viij, with the line A B joining the first two stations ; and t^, t^, (^ 
be the times of the observed shock at A, B, C, respectively. 
Letting fall the perpendiculars/? and q, we find, 

c sin <b 



P 



t-ti 



t-2 — h 

q _a sin (B — $) 



h-h 



h-h 



Equating these two values of v, we find 

c(#3— #2) sin$=a(#2— ^j) sin(B— $). 

Expanding, and solving for tan $, we finally obtain 

, , a{U — t,^ sin B 

tan $— ^ - ^' 



(0 

(2) 



(3) 



c{t^—t.^-\-a{t^—t^) cos B 

Having found $ by means of this equation, we can then determine v from 
either (1) or (2). 



Given the Horizontal Velocity of an Earthquake at any two points, and its 
absolute velocity ; to find the position of the focus from tvhich it has 
proceeded. 




Let A and B be the points under consideration, and for simplicity suppose 
them to lie at opposite sides of the unknown focus F, and in the same vertical 
plane passing througli F. [These suppositions are only made to simplify the 
figure, but do not in anyway diminish the generality of the result.] 

Let AX be the space moved through on tlie surface of the ground at A 
in the unit of time, and equal v the horizontal velocity, and let BY be the 
velocity at B and equal v'. Letting fall the perpendiculars AP and BQ ; 
PX and QY will denote the spaces described by the earthquake in a radial 
direction (FX or FY); they are therefore equal and eacli is the absolute 
velocity of the earthquake = V. Hence 



cos AXF=Y 

V 

cos BYF=y. 



(0 

(2) 



Therefore since v, v\ V are all known quantities, the angles A X F and 
B Y F are also known, and therefore the lines X F and Y F may be drawn, 
and their intersection F will give the required position of the focus. 
Corol. 1. If the position of the point O, at the surface, from which the 

earthquake appears to radiate, be known ; one velocity will 

determine the depth of the focus. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 97 

Corol. 2. Independently of any diminution in the absolute velocity of the 
earth-wave, the apparent horizontal velocity will diminish rapidly, 
approaching indefinitely the limit V. This is evident from the 
geometrical considerations arising from the fact that PX is 
always equal to QY. 

It is obvious, then, that by the establishment of these very simple and in- 
expensive seismometers, and connecting them galvanicaily (as respects their 
registration) by methods now become both familiar and simple, we may get 
good first approximations to one of the most important questions of the 
physics of our globe— a knowledge of the depth from which earthquake 
impulses arrive. 

Simple and inexpensive, however, as the apparatus recommended is, its 
establishment in the only way in which it can be of much real use, namely 
by connected distant stations, involves the choice of seismic areas fitted for 
the purpose, and the support and aid of governments, if not for outfit, at 
least for appointment of observers, and police protection of stations and wires. 
It is to be hoped that even these may not be withheld as the advancing know- 
ledge of the importance to physical geology of seismic research becomes better 
understood and diffused. Meanwhile a still simpler form of rough seismo- 
meter, suited to the resources of distant and isolated observers, may be with 
advantage, perhaps, pointed out, — and also an indirect method, by which the 
depth of eartliquake origin may be approximated, without the use of seismo- 
meters of any sort. The form of seismometer about to be described is most 
applicable to seismic districts where the angle of wave-emergence is not 
steep, i. e. where the shocks are usually nearly horizontal. 

If any homogeneous, parallelepiped, or rectangular prism, standing on 
end, upon a level surface, be upset by its own inertia, the supporting sur- 
face being suddenly moved beneath it, in the direction of its own plane (as 
by the horizontal component of an earthquake shock), it may be shown 
that the velocity of the surface must be 



_- 4. / — /I — cos0\ 

3 V cos'0. / 



where a is the altitude of the solid, h its diameter of base, and 6 the angle 
formed by the side and a line drawn through the centre of gravity to the 
extremity of the base, and \^=2ffk. 

This velocity is independent of the density or material of the solid, 
because the oversetting force, being its own inertia, is always proportionate 
to the density. With a given velocity V, therefore, it is possible to as- 
sign the dimensions a and b such, that it shall be just overset; and with 
this velocity another solid, having d greater, shall remain unmoved, — as- 
suming always that friction upon the supporting surface gives suflScient 
adhesion to cause the solid to upset, and not to slide (partly or wholly) 
without upsetting. 

If in place of a square prism like a wall, the solid be a right cylinder, such 
as a pillar, the diameter of whose base, as before, is b ; then 

ri^ ^^ ^a"- + 6Xl -cos 0) ; 

and from this very simple expression for tlie horizontal velocity, for which I 
am indebted to my friend Professor Haughton, it is easy to construct a seis- 
mometer of the greatest simplicity, tiiat (in the absence of better means) 
shall give, within a narrow limit, the actual velocity of shock. 

1858. H 



98 



REPORT — 1858. 



Let there be constructed two similar sets of right cylinders, say each set, 
six to twelve in number, all of equal height (a) and of the same sort of 
material, but varying in diameter in each set, with a uniform decrement 
from the greatest to the least. 

Convenient dimensions for earthquake observations of mea7i intensity, will 
be such, that the cylinder of largest diameter shall have its altitude equal to 

three diameters, or b=-, and that the cylinder of least diameter shall have 

3 

its diameter one-third of that of the greatest one, or &=|. Any number of 

cylinders of intermediate diameters may be interpolated between ; and the 
greater the number, the more accurate the instrument becomes. A series of 
six to ten in each set will, however, be sufficient for any purpose. For 
observation of shocks of extreme violence, larger diameters, in proportion to 
altitude, should be chosen for all the cylinders. 

The material of the cylinders is not important, cast iron, stone, pottery, or 
other substances at hand, whose arrises will not crumble away by being 
overthrown, may be used ; but no material will be found more convenient 
than some hard heavy wood, of uniform substance, straight grain, and equa- 
ble specific gravity, from which the cylinders can be formed in the lathe, 
and their bases brought perfectly square to the axis with facility. 

Upon any horizontal and solid floor let two planks be placed, as in fig. 6, 
with their directions in length respectively lying N. and S. and E. and \V., 

Fig. 6. 




each plank to be about 3 inches in thickness, and in width equal to the dia- 
meter of the largest cylinder, and its length such that the set of cylinders, 
when placed upright and equidistant thereon, shall have a space greater than 
the altitude between each. Thus, if the cylinder of largest diameter have 
ft=0'5 of a foot, the length of plank will, for a set of six, as in the figure, 
be about 12 feet. These base-planks heing Jixed, level, and solid, the floor is 
to be levelled up to their upper surfaces with dry sand, and the two sets of 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 99 

cylinders adjusted to their places, one set running in an east and west, and the 
other in a north and south direction, so that in whatever direction the hori- 
zontal component of shock may move, the overthrown cylinders, of one or the 
other set, shall fall transversely to the lengths of either of the plank bases, and, 
lodging on the sand-bed, remain exactly in the position as to azimuth in which 
they loere overthrown. If now a shock of any horizontal velocity capable of 
overthrowing some of the cylinders, but not all of them, arrive, it will throw 
down at once all the narrower ones, and up to a certain diameter of base. 
For example, suppose a N. and S. shock, of such velocity as to overthrow 
W 6, W 5, and VV -t, leaving W 3, W 2, and W 1 standing ; then V will 
have been greater than the velocity due to the overthrow of W 4, and less 
than that due to the overthrow of W 3, and, within those limits, may be 
found from the preceding equation. The cylinders here overthrown, W 6, 
W 5, and W 4, will be found with their axes lying N. and S., at rest upon 
the sand-bed. The cylinders N 6, N 5, and N 4, will be also overthrown ; 
but in this case they will fall in the line of their own plank bases, and may 
roll and so give no indication as to direction of shock in azimuth. Hence the 
necessity for two sets of cylinders; one set, however, will be sufficient, if 
space enough be provided between the cylinders, and if each be placed 
upon a cylindrical and separate basis of a diameter equal to its own, and in 
height equal to the depth of the sand-bed. 

This form of instrument, then, is capable of giving approximate deter- 
minations of — 

1st. The velocity of the horizontal component of shock, neglecting the 
vertical component, which may be done where the angle of emergence is not 
great. 

2nd. The azimuthal direction of the horizontal element of shock. 

3rd. Its absolute direction of primary movement, viz. the direction of 
translation of the wave, which always coincides with the direction of mole- 
cular movement of the elastic wave itself, in the first half of its complete 
phase: e. g., if the wave show a N. S. azimuth, by the line of direction of axes 
of the overthrown cylinders, and these be thrown to the northward, then the 
wave has traversed from S. to N. 

4th. The exact time of the transit of shock may be also indicated if the 
narrowest cylinders, N 6 and W 6 be connected with a clock, so as to stop 
it at the moment of overthrow by the very simple means which I have 
pointed out in the 'Admiralty Manual' (art. " Earthquake," sec. vii., p. 208, 
2nd edit.), inasmuch as, by hypothesis, the narrowest cylinders will be always 
overthrown. 

A single cylinder or prism, however entirely distinct from either seismo- 
metrical set, and of even less stability as respects shock, may be Avith 
advantage adopted as the means for stopping the clock by the above method, 
which is capable of giving the time to within O'l of a second. 

It is obvious that the application of the principles involved in this form 
of seismometer to observations made upon the recent overthrow of walls, 
columns, or other such objects to be found in regions which may have been 
visited by earthquakes, is capable of giving also approximate measures of 
velocity and direction of shock. This class of seismic observation will, I 
hope, be found more fully developed elsewhei-e. 

• In conclusion, one other method of indirect seismometry remains to be 
explained, which does not require the aid of any seismometric instrument. 
The facts upon which this method depends have been alluded to in the Re- 
port on Earthquakes of 1850, p. 35. It has been long observed that, in 
extensive surfaces of country that have been exposed to the effects of shock, 

h2 



100 



REPORT — 185S. 



certain zones or areas of surface, more or less irregular, present themselves, 
within which the destructive effects upon buildings and other objects capable 
of overthrow are manifested much more intensely, than upon similar objects 
situated upon other portions of the superficies of the country. These zones 
of maximum disturbance (as yet ill observed) have been remarked to run in 
curvilinear directions of surface, to approach more or less, according to the 
means of (t. e. the objects afforded for) observation, to closed curves, and to 
be wholly distinct from tliose variations of destructive agency, irregularly 
parseme over large shaken areas, which depend upon differences of geologic 
surface-formation, configuration of country, &c., construction of buildings, 
and many other conditions, which modify the direction and effects of the 
shock at points often very little removed from each other, and the analysis 
of which, and extrication of the true primary movement from the entangle- 
ment of such minor phenomena, constitute the greatest difficulty of earth- 
quake observation. The physical conditions which give rise to such zones 
of maximum disturbance are easily explained. 




Referring to fig. 7, let h! h be the horizon (which we may assume a 
right line) cut by a vertical plane passing through a great circle of the earth, 
and through A, the centre of impulse of the earthquake. The blow from 
this origin is propagated outwards in all directions, through the elastic mass 
of the earth (here assumed iiomogeneous), in spherical concentric shells, 
which the circles 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. denote, at similar phases of the wave. The 
elastic wave starts from the impulse with one normal and two transversal 
vibrations. Its vis viva must remain constant, and (in the same medium its 
dimensions being very great) tlie velocity of translation also. The mass in 
wave-movement, at any moment of its transit, is therefore the same, and the 
thickness of each successive spherical shell decreases from the centre of im- 
pulse as the square of its mean distance. This is the measure of the normal 
excursion of anyparticle, from any given phase of the wave,in its passage out- 
wards, to the recurrence of the same phase, and is also the measure of the nor- 
mal intensity of the shock, or that in directions AB, AC, AZ, &c. Neglect- 
ing for the present the effects of the transversal wave, the normal intensity or 
direct overthrowing power of an earthquake shock varies inversely as the 
square of the distance from origin. But the surface capability of the shocfe 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 101 



to overthrow buildings, &c. depends not only upon its intensity, but upon 
the direction of its movement with respect to the horizon. A shock per- 
fectly vertical has no tendency to overturn the walls of a house, though it 
may bring down the roof or floors. Now it is obvious from the figure, 
that as the wave passes outwards from the origin, A, it reaches the earth's 
surface vertically at B, the point in the prime vertical, ja A, directly over 
the same; and that as it travels outwards, it emerges at the surface with 
angles more and more nearly horizontal; the angle of emergence being the 
same at all points of any coseismal line, all such lines being, on the as- 
sumption of homogeneity, concentric circles round B (like those upon a 
pond into which a stone has been thrown). 

So far as the direction of wave-motion is concerned, therefore, its power to 
overturn buildings is greater the further it has travelled, or the greater the 
radius of the coseismal circle from B ; but \ts energy has been shown to be 
inversely as the square of the distance (not upon the earth's surface, but in 
the normal). Hence it follows that there must be some given distance upon 
the surface around B at which the combined effect, of most advantageous 
direction and lessened energy, shall produce the most destructive effects 
upon buildings, &c., or a point, C, intermediate to B and Z, or Z' supposed at 
any indefinite distance, at which the shock will be, in tliis respect, a maximum. 
The radius BC will then describe a coseismal circle upon the earth's sur- 
face, which will be a zone of maximum disturbance. 

Conversely, if we can trace by observation of the shaken country such a 
zone, or ascertain three points in its circle, we can find the centre of the 
circle or the point B, which is plumb over the centre of impulse beneath ; 
andif we have ascertained the angle of emergence that produces the maximum 
effect (and which is a constant), wd'can then calculate the depth of the centre 
of impulse, A, beneath the earth's surface. 



Fig. 8. 




Referring to fig. 8, let A be, as before, the centre of impulse ; B the 
point upon the earth's surface (supposed a plane), in the prime vertical joA, 
directly above it. It is required to find a point, C, at which the horizontal 
overthrowing effects of an impulse in the direction AC, whose intensity 
varies inversely as the square of the distance, shall be a maximum. 

Produce AC to d, and complete the parallelogram of forces,/ d being 
parallel to the horizon. 



102 REPORT — 1858. 

Let BA=«, the depth of origin ; 

BC=r, the radius where the horizontal force is a maximum 
AC = the normal due to this radius. 

The angle Crfe=BAC=0. 

Then the force at C in the direction AC is -5 -; and that in the direc- 

cr + r^ 



tion of the horizon is sin 6 X -% r,; and as 



we have Va'^+r 




X — = 7 a maxnnum. 



and a'' + }-' Va' + r' (a' + 7-)-^ 

Differentiating, (a^' + r-y xdr—^(a^+7-''y x 2r'=0. 

_ a __aV2 
~ V2 2 

The angle CAC is therefore very nearly 70" 31' 43", which is the angle 
of tiic cone wliose base in tiie horizontal plane limits the zone of maximum 
disturbance; and as the angles ar, B are right, the angle of emergence 
BCA=54" 41'' 9", and the sides of the triangle, BC : BA : AC, are to each 
other in the ratios of _ _ 

1 : \/2 : Vs. 
Hence we arrive at the very simple practical rule. 

Having found the coseismal zone of maximum disturbance by observation, ' 
or three points in it, and the centre of the circle passing through them, the 
depth below the surface, of the origin or centre of impulse, will be the dia- 
gonal of the square whose side is equal to the radius of the given circle. 

Within certain approximate limits, then, the application of this rule is 
capable of giving some information upon that great object of research, to 
which, above all others, seismological investigation points, namely, the depth 
beneath our surface from which such impulses reach us, and, by consequence, 
that at which active volcanic forces are in operation within our planet. 

This method can scarcely be applied in very mountainous regions, unless 
both mountain- formations and seismic energy be developed upon a grand 
scale, as in Mexico and South. \merica ; and in every case the observer will 
find himself encumbered and perplexed by the interference of many minor 
circumstances of disturbance to mask and render difficult his observations. 
These, however, should not prevent our bearing the method in mind when- 
ever favourable conditions present themselves for its use. 

In the present state oC the theory of wave-movements in elastic solids, it 
cannot be said to be experimentally certain, that the energy of the wave, in 
the normal, does diminish with the square of the distance. Another view of 
the primary conditions of its motion would make it diminish directly as the 
distance, in which case it may be proved that the angle CAC of the 
coseismal cone of maximum disturbance will be 90° and constant, and hence 



ox THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHaUAKE PHENOMENA. 103 

that the depth of the origin (upon that hypothesis) will be always equal to 
the radius of the circle of maximum disturbance. It would be out of ])lacc 
here to enter further into the physical discussion of this question, exce{)t by 
referring to Herschel (art. "Light," ' Encyc. Metrop.' vol. iv. paragr. 18. 
p. 578) and to the various papers of Cauchy, Wertheim, Stokes, Airy, 
Haughton, and Maxwell on the subject. 

I have stated that in the preceding investigation the effects of the transver- 
sal wave are neglected. In the observation of actual earthquake phenomena, 
this may probably be safely done as respects all points that are at consider- 
able distances from the centre of disturbance. The normal and transversal 
waves, starting at the same instant, appear to travel with unequal velocities. 
They part company ; and their distance becomes greater^ and the interval 
larger between their arrivals, the further they have both travelled. Were 
we enabled, therefore, to ascertain the precise velocity of the normal wave, 
and the exact interval of time between the arrival at a distant point of the 
normal and transversal waves, we could still by another method arrive at the 
distance from which they had come, and therefore at the depth of the origin 
oi" impulse, if the angle of emergence at one point were known. According 
to Cauchy, the velocity of transit of the normal is to that of the transversal 
wave as \/3 : 1 in media of unlimited mass; and Wertheim's modified for- 
mulae for elastic bodies fix it as 2 : 1. My own experimental observations 
with the seismoscope have proved to me that the separation of the two waves 
can be noticed, and the interval of time measured upon even very moderate 
ranges of wave-transit, not exceeding a few miles ; and the observations of 
earthquake shocks indicate that 07ie cause of the tremors that usually succeed 
the main blow, is the later arrival of the normal wave, whose amplitude .at 
considerable distances from the origin is always small. 

However this may be, it is certain that in all earthquakes the real mis- 
chief and overthrow, at places pretty far removed from above the centre of 
impulse, are done by the blow from the normal wave, which appears to 
come first ; hence the main observable eflTects are those of the normal, and 
we 'are justified and enabled, in such localities, to neglect the transversal. 
But within a considerable circle of area, whose boundary is evanescent, and 
whose centre lies at the point B (figs. 7, 8), right above the origin, the 
actual effects of the transversal wave are very formidable, and can never be 
neglected. 

The ground beneath an object so situated, such as a house or pillar (as 
the distance from the origin to the surface is the minimum range of emer- 
gence, or shortest possible, and therefore its energy the greatest), is almost 
at the same instant thrown nearly vertically upwards by the normal wave, 
and at the same moment rapidly forced forwards and backwards horizontally 
in two directions orthogonal to each other ; and this combined movement, 
which is that called "vorticoso" by the Italians and Spanish Mexicans, is 
one that nothing, however solid and substantial in masonry, &€., can long 
withstand. 

Hence it follows that, within the zone of maximum disturbance which we 
have treated of, and occupying its central region, we shall always find an 
area, more or less circular, also of great overthrow and destruction, though 
presenting entirely different characteristics as to the manner of overthrow of 
the buildings, &c. This middle region may therefore be sought for as a 
further directrix to the point B over the centre of impulse. It may be 
necessary to remark that this combined movement, due to the two transver- 
sal waves, and limited to a region closely above the prime vertical passing 
through the centre of impulse, must not be confounded by any misconcep- 



104 REPORT — 1858. 

tion of the phrase " vorticoso," with that false notion of vorticose shock, 
such as was presumed to have twisted the Calabrian obelisks, &c., the real 
nature of whose displacement I indicated in 184^6. (Trans. Roy. I. Acad, 
vol. xxi. part 1. See also 1st Report Trans. Brit. Assoc. 1850, pp. 33, 34.) 

In conclusion, I would repeat my conviction that a further expenditure 
of labour in earthquake catalogues of the character hitherto compiled, and 
alone possible from the data to have been compiled, is now a waste of scien- 
tific time and labour. The main work presented for seismologists in the 
immediate future, must consist in good observations, with seismometers ad- 
vantageously placed at sufficiently distant stations, and galvanically connected 
as to time ; and in the careful observation of the traces left by great shocks 
(when of recent occurrence) upon buildings and other objects artificial and 
natural, witii a view to determining the nature of the forces that have affected 
them, aided by the resources of the physicist and mathematician. 

Amongst the unknown regions of our world, as respects the recurrence of 
earthquakes and their phenomena, the most prominent are Central Africa, 
Abyssinia, Madagascar, Northern Asia, and the north-west of North Ame- 
rica. For observations of the last, the new settlements about being formed 
at Vancouver's Island will, no doubt, offer great facilities, as well as future 
access to the great Aleutian chain of volcanoes and their seismic zone. 

I reserve for the Appendix a few observations, upon great sea waves and 
certain ill-understood phenomena, which could not systematically find place 
in this Report. 



APPENDIX. 

1^0. I. 

(P. 48.) The following table of some of the men and events upon which the 
progress of human knowledge and discovery and the diffusion of mankind have 
depended, may serve to illustrate the relations that these bear to the expand- 
ing character of the catalogue : — 

Date. 
A.c. 

Yards for spreading ships' saOs invented 1200 ■ 

Silver money. — Anchors. — Fii-st sea fight 700 ' 

Amber and tin carried by Phoenicians from the Baltic and England to the Levant. . COO j 

The soundhag-line used at sea. — Maps in use. — MidtipUcation table. — Moon's j 

eclipses calculated. — Pythagoras 500 I 

Trireme galleys in use. — ^The bimiing-lens known 400 | 

War chariots in Gaul. — Arrack brought from India into Europe. — Electricity 

noticed.— Hemp, cordage (?), and saUs (?).— Aristotle ; 300 ! 

Clepsydra.— BaUistas.— Silver coin at Eome.— The oKve.— Cliinese wall.— Hannibal 200 ] 
Lucullus introduces cleansing soap from Gaul — sal-ammoniac from Egypt. — Solar 

year iked 100 ] 

Christ born. — Seneca. — Strabo. a.d. 

First sea voyage to India, probably 3 I 

Stained-glass windows — the vine — Saw-mUls— Monachism— all in Germany 300 

The Western Empire. — Public lights at Antioch. — Chm-ch bells 400 j 

The dark ages commence. 

Franks Christianized. — SUk- worms in Europe 500 1 

Hops. — Qmll pens. — Latiu disused. — Mahomet 1 600| 

Charlemagne names the days and months QOOl 



ON THE FACTS AND THKORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 105 

Date 

A.D. 

Oxford and Cambridge Universities. — First book. — Alfred the Great 900 

Arabic notation in Eiu-oiso. — Wlicel clocks in use. — The tirst crusade 1 100 

The tlu"ec last crusades. — Tlie sugar cane in Sicily. — Coal as fuel. — The corporation 

of London. — The Popish inquisition. — Saladin 1200 

English parliaments. — English in our law coiu-ts. — Gunpowder. — Cannon. — Mari- 
ners' com j)ass. — Print uig. — Engi-aving. — Oil painting. — Coaches. — Eogcr Bacon. 
—Wiclif.— Tamerlane 1400 

America. — Columbus's foiu- voyages, from 1492-1504. — Capo of G«od Hope. — 
Indian Sea. — Vasco di Gama, 1499. — John and Sebastian Cabot, 1497. — PubUo 
road and bridges tlu-ough Western and Southern Eiu-opc. — Luther. — The Ec- 
formation 1500 

Logarithms. — Watches. — Barometer. — Telescope. — Mercator. — Italian book-keep- 
ing. — Jupiter's satellites discovered. — Copernicus. — Galileo. — Magclhaen's 
voyage, 1520. — Drake's voyage, 1580 IGOO 

Royal Society. — Newtou. — Sextant. — Chronometers. — Greenwich Observatory. — 
Tea into Europe. — Clive. — Penn. — South Sea Company. — Cod and herring 
fisheries. — Semaphore. — New style calendar 

Anson's voyage (1744) 

Cook's last voyage (1779) 

La Perouse (1788) 

Vancouver ( 1 795) 

Watt's steam engine (1796) 

Napoleon. — Nelson. — Embassies to Cliina aud Japan. — Vaccination. — Gas lights. ' 
— Life-boats. — PubUc docks. — Public coaches and diligences. — Newspapers 
abundant 

Steam navigation. — First steam-ship 'Savana' crosses the Atlantic, 1819. — Rail- 
way system, 1820. — Electric telegraph, 18^0. — Law of tides — of storms. — 
Gold in California — ^in Australia 



1700 



1800 

to 

present 

date. 



No. II. 

(P. 57.) Prom the interest tliat belongs to observations of earthquakes iu 
the Southern Hemisphere, hitherto so seldom recorded, I ajipend the following 
extracts from the letter of an intelligent friend, referiing to the New 
Zealand shock of 1854-55, written very soon after the event. The "writer is 
a ci\'il engineer. 

The New Zealand Earthquake. 

" Wellington, 23rd January, 1855. 
" Wliilst sitting reading and talking at 8.50 p.m., I felt the house (which had been shaking 
with the occasional N.E. gusts so usual at Wellington) give a very extraordinary shake, 
which seemed to continue, and was accompanied by a fearful noise. I at once jimiped up, 
rushed, as well as the violent motion would permit me. into tlie front garden, tlie motion 
increasing in violence, accompanied by a roaring as if a large number of cannon were being 
fired near together, and by a great dust caused by the falluig chimneys. The motion at fii-st 
was a sharp jerk back and forwards in a N.E. aud S.V/. direction, increasing iu extent and 
rapicUty, until I got into tlie garden — say 25 seconds ; it was then succeeded by a shorter 
and quicker motion at right angles, for nearly the same time, still increasing, but appearing 
to be perfectly in the plane of the horizon. This was followed by a continuation of both, 
a sort of vorticose motion, exactly like the motion felt iu an ill-adjusted railway carriage 
on a badly-laid railway at a very high speed, where one is swayed raiiidly from side to side. 
Tliis was accompanied by a sensible elevatory impulse ; it gradually subsided ; and the 
above, constituting the fii-st and greatest shock, lasted altogether, I should say, 1' 20" or 1 A' 
at Wellington. The earth continued to vibrate all night like the panting of a tii-ed horse, 
with occasional shocks of some violence, decreasing in frequency and violence towards 
morning, and nearly all in the N.E. S.W. direction, some of them a single jerk back and 
forwards like tliat of one railway carriage toucliing another, but generally they were 
followed by a vibration gi-aduaUy decreasing. These lasted, with increasing intervals, until 
I left WeUinglon on the ilth April. For the first week after the fii-st shock, the vibration 
never wholly ceased. All the brick buildings in Wellington were overtlu•o^vn, or so in jm-ed, 
as to necessitate their removal ; the Hutt Bridge was throwTi down ; tlie hill-sides opposite 
Wellington were very much shaken, as evidenced by the many bare patches wth which 
they were chequered fully to the extent of one-third of their surface, whence ti-ees had been 



106 REPORT— 1858. 

sliaken off: tliig range, particularly its lower portion, appeared to have been the most 
shaken. It is called the Eimatuka Eange, and divides Port Nicholson and the basin of 
the Hutt from the Warumrapa Valley, where the earthquake was felt with gi-eater violence 
than at Wellington, the gi'ound having opened in many places 8 or 9 feet, and sunk in one 
place for 300 yards square to a depth of 8 or 9 feet. The cracks are very frequent, and 
at first were of considerable depth (deemed unfathomable, because people covild not see 
their depth), perhaps 15 or 20 feet in depth, and extending for many hundred yards. 
Ploughed ground and mud, di-y river- or pond-beds were tlu-own up into all sorts of un- 
dulations like a short cross sea, the ridges in some cases 2 feet in height, the prevailing 
direction of cracks and ridges being generally at right angles to the apparent line of force, 
N.E. S.W. The strata about Wellington and the Eimatuka are a sort of shale and clay- 
slate, all broken into pieces not bigger than road-metal, -with yellow clay joints ; and in 
places where the overlying clay has been cut tlu-ough by roads, one can see the cracks 
caused by former earthquakes filled up by a different-coloured material. I should mention 
the great sea-wave which came in immediately after the fii'st shock, about 5 feet higher than 
the highest tide inside the harbour, and 12 feet liigher outside ; the tide {i. c. water-siwface) 
continued ebbing and flowing every 20 minutes dm-ing tlie night, and was most irregular 
for a week, ebbing fiu-ther than ever known before. After that time it became more regular ; 
and now the ebb and flow is the same as before the earthquake ; but since that, it does not 
come at high-water within 3 or 4 feet of its former height, proving that the whole south- 
ern part of the northern island has been raised, the elevated portion commencing at 
Wangarner, on the west coast, and going roimd to Castle Point on the east, where it 
terminates. The vertical elevation is greatest at the Eimatuka Eange, outside Port Nichol- 
son, and becomes nil at the above-mentioned points. The shock was felt at Nelson 
almost as badly as at Wellington, slightly at Canterbm-y and Ahurii. It was most violent 
on the sides of hills at those places, and least so in the centre of the alluvial plains. 

" The great shook continued at any one point longer, the further it had diverged from its 
apparent centre of action opposite Wellington, and became less violent, the motion bemg 
slower and not to such an extent. This I tliink plainly proves (if any tiling were wanting to 
prove) Mr. Mallet's wave theory : any person of the slightest perception exj^eriencing the 
shock and comparmg the statements of persons who had felt it in different places could 
come to no other conclusion. I do not think the thermometer or barometer was affected ; 
I had no opportunity of observing myself; but so I heard ; nor was the compass acted on 
more than was due to the motion. 

" The captain of the vessel I went m to Alim-ii was outside Port Nicholson, lying-to in a 
gale, and thought his vessel had struck, and was dragging over a reef of rocks ; the next 
morning he passed himdreds of dead fish all of one sort, a species of ling, whose habit it is 
to lie on the bottom. The shock was also felt by the ' Josephine WilUs,' 150 miles off the 
coast. I only regret, time and want of means prevented my making more accurate obser- 
vations, and even giving you. those I did make in greater detail. W. 0. B." 

[The direction of primary shock mentioned by the writer is in the lino of the mountain- 
chaui, reaching from the interior down to Wellington, and also in that pomting to Tou- 
gm-o and other volcanic cones. — E.M.] 

No. III. 
BIBLIOaEAPHT OF EAETHQUAZES. 

At tlie period of publication of the Second Report on Earthquakes, it was 
my intention to have prepared a complete Bibliography of Earthquakes, the 
want of some such iudex having been much felt by myself, at former periods. 
Subsequently, however, I found that my fiiend. Professor Pcrrey, of Dijon, 
had had such a work in. progi'ess for some years ; and he has siuce piiblished 
his Bibliographical Catalogues in the ' Mcmoires de I'Academie Imp. de Dijon,' 
vols. xiv. and xv. 2nd ser., for 1855-56, which contaiued, in alphabetical 
order, one thousand eight hundi'ed and thirty-seven different works on Seis- 
mology. Even yet, however, the store of literatui'e in this speciality are not 
completely taken stock of. I have hence deemed it best simply to publish, 
in the following lists, such works as I have found in the several European 
libraries named at the head of each separate list, along with one iu which 
works, that from various sources have met my eye, are collected. The ma- 
terials thus given "wiU be, 1 should hope, of some present service to scientific 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 107 

travellers abroad; and such portions as arc new can be intercalated Avith 
future editions of more perfect catalogues, such as M. Perrey's. The folloAviag 
is the order of the library Usts : — 

1. British Museum. 

2. Royal Society of London. 

3. Trinity CoUcgo, DubUn. 

4. Eoyal Libraiy, Berlin. 

5. Naturforschendcn Freundc of BerUn. 

6. Royal School of Mines, BerHn. 

7. Library of the University of Gottingcn. 

8. Eoyal Library of Munich, Bavaria. 

9. Royal Library of Dresden, Saxony. 

10. Library of Gand, Belgium. 

11. Library of the Mineralogical Museum, Naples. 

12. Works on Seismic and Volcanic Subjects from various sources. 

Library of the British Museum. 

Verhail ran de Groote Aertheninghe binnen Mantua in Lulio 1619. 4to. Antwerpen. 

No date. 
Account of the late Earthquake in Jamaica. 8vo. London, 1693. 
Supplement to the Bishop of London's Letter on occasion of the late Earthquake. 8vo. 

London, 1750. 
Serious Thoughts on the Earthquake at Lisbon. 8vo. London, 1755. 
Keflcctious, Physical and Moral, upoii the uncommon Phenomena which have happened 

irom the Earthquake at Lima to the present time. 8vo. London, 1756. 
A short and pithie Discourse concerning the engendering, tokens, and effects of all Earth- 
quakes in generall. By T. T. 4to. London, 1580. (Black letter.) 
A most true relation of a very dreadfull Earthquake which began upon the 8 December, 

1612, and still continueth in Munster, in Grermanie. 4to. London, 1612. (Black letter.) 
Vera Relatione del Spaventevole Terremoto nolle provincie di Calabria citra et idtra. 

4to. Eoma, 1638. Also editions in Latin, Neap. 1638 ; Angl., London, 1638. 
Sopra il Terremoto Lezioni tre. 4to. Spoleto, 1732. 
Strange News fi'om the North, containing a true and exact relation of a great Earthquake 

in Cumberland and Westmoreland. 4to. London, 1050. 
Eelatione deU' horribile Terremoto scguito nella citta di Eagusa et altre della Dalmatia et 

Albania. 4to. Ven. 1667. Alter edit, angl., 4to, London, 1667. 
Strange News from Italie ; being a true relation of a di-eadfull Earthquake in Romania 

and the Marches of Ancona, April 14, 1672. Trans, from the Italian. 4to. London, 

1672. 
A relation of the terrible Earthquake at West Brummidge in Staffordshire, January 4, 

1675-6. 4to. London, 1676. 
Strange News from Lemster in Herefordshire ; being a true narration of the opening of 

the earth in divers pLaces thereabouts. 4to. London, 1679. 
Strange News from Oxfordsliire ; being a true and faithful account of a wonderful and 

dreadful Earthquake that happened in those parts, September 17, 1683. Folio. 
A true and exact relation of the Earthquake at Naples, Jime 6, 1688. Transl. from the 

Italian. 4to. London, 1688. 
A true and impartial Account of the strange and wonderful Earthquake which happened 

in most parts of the City of London, 8 September, 1692. Poho. 
A Philosophical Discoiu'se of Earthquakes, occasioned by the late Earthquake, September 

8, 1692. By C. H. 4to. London, 1692. 
A true and perfect relation of the Earthquake at Port Royal in Jamaica, 7 June, 1692. 

Folio. London. 
A fidl Account of the late dreadful Earthquake at Port Eoyal in Jamaica, June 22, 1692. 

In two letters from the minister of that place. FoUo. 
A sad and terrible relation of the dreadful Earthquake which happened at Jamaco \sic], 

12mo. London, 1692. 
A Practical Discoiu'se on the late Earthqu^akes, with an Historical Account of Prodigies 

and their various effects. By a Eeverend Di^dne. 4to. London, 1692. 
Epistola ad Regiam Societatem Londinensem, qua de nuperia terra;motibu3 disseritur ot 



l08 REPORT — 1858. 

verse eorum causss eruuntur. 4to. London, 1693. Proposes to account for earthquakes 
occurring on astrological grounds. 

An account of the late terrible Earthquake in Sicily. Done from the Italian copy printed 
at Eome. 4to. London, 1693. 

The Eai'th twice shaken wonderfully; or an analogical Discourse of Earthquakes. By 
I. D. E. [Eouffional], French minister. 4to. London, 1693-94. 47 pages. 

The General History of Earthquakes. By E. B. 12mo. London, 1694. 

A full and dismal Account of an Earthquake that happened in Batavia, 28 February, 
1700. 12mo. London. 

A true and particidar Eelatiou of the Earthquake which happened at Lima, the capital of 
Peru, the 28 October, 174G ; with a description of Callao and Lima before then* 
destruction, and the Kingdom of Peru in general. 8vo. London, 1748. (Erased in 
Catal.) 

Istoria de' Fenomeni del Tremoto awenuto neUo Calabrie e nel Valdemone nell' anno 
1783, porta in luce daUa Eeale Accademia delle Scicnze e cleUe Belle Lettere di NapoU. 
Fol. Nap. 1781. 

Dreadfid News, or a true Eelation of the great, violent, and late Earthquake, which hap- 
pened the 27 March Stdo Eomano last, at Callabria in the Kingdom of Naples. London, 
1638. Gives a list of 30 towns and cities overthrown, and 50,000 people kiUed. 

A full Account of the great and terrible Earthquake in Germany, Hungary, and Tm'key, 
one of the greatest and most wonderful that ever was in the world. Translated from 
the Dutch of Leopold Wettersheint de Hodensteen, by Eichard Aloock. 4to. London. 
Date Ulegible. Eefers to Cardan's opinions of earthquakes, in "De SubtUitate." 

A Narrative of the Earthquake and Fire of Lisbon. By Antonio Pereira, of the Congrega- 
tion of the Oratory, an Eye-witness thereof Translated from the Latin. 8vo. London, 
1756. 

A true and exact Eelation of the late prodigious Earthquake and Eruption of Mount Mtna, 
or Mount Gibello, as it came in a Letter to his late Majesty from Naples, by the Eight 
Hon. Earle of Winchelsoa, Ambassador at Constantmople. 4to. London, 1669. 

Dolorosa Tragoedia representata nel regno di Catania, &c. 4to. Catania?, 1695. 

Del Terraemoto dialogo di Jacomo Antonio Buoni, Medico Ferrarese. Distinto in quattro 
giornate. 4to. Modena, 1571. 59 pages. A digest in tlie usual fashion of aU old know- 
ledge ; and a large catalogue, with approximate dates of earthquakes. This catalogue is 
very copious and valuable. Ten signs of earthquakes enumerated. Catalogue continued 
to A.D. 1010. 

Del Terraemoto Dialogo del Signor Lucio Maggio, G«ntil huomo Bolognese. 4to. Bologna, 
1571. 

Bridges' Annals of Jamaica. (The great Jamaica Earthquake.) 

Some Considerations on the Causes of Earthquakes. By S. Hales, D.D., F.E.S. 8vo. 
London, 1750. 

WiUiamStukely.M.D., The Philosophy of Earthquakes. 8vo. London, 1750. With Part II. 

A Plulosopliical Discourse of Earthquakes, occasioned by the late Earthquake of 8 Sept. 
1692. By C. H. 4to. London, 1693. 

Vera relatione del Spaventevole TerrsDmoto succosso aUi 27 di Marzo, su le 21 hore nelle 
Provincie di Calabria citra et ultra. 4to. Eoma, 1638. 71 pages. 

Oratio in recentem Terroe motum Germanife utriusque terrorem, anno 1640, 4 AprUis, 
post tertiam matutinam. A Ion Haleno Canonico. 4to. Col. Agrip. 1640. 41 pages. 

Trattato imiversale di tutti li Terrenioti oocorsi e noti nel mondo con li casi infausti 
ed'infelici pressagili da tali Terremoti. 4to. Nell' Aquila, 1652. 146 pages. 

A Catalogue of Earthquakes from the earliest Times of the Jews and Phylistines down to 
that when the Emperor Henry IV. made war with Pope Pasquale 11. (Vide date.) 
Few precise dates given ; chiefly a mass of chm-clmien's superstition. 

Eelationo del horribile Terremoto seguito nella citta di Eagusa et altra deUa Dalmatia 
et Albania il giorno delli 6 Aprile, 1667. 4to. Venotia, 1667. Only a letter. 

M. Kircher, Mundus Subterraneus, Ub. 4. There is much information as to Earthquakes. 

Tremble Terre, oil sont contenus ses causes, signes, effets et remedes. Par Louys du Thoum, 

■ Docteur et Avooat, &c. a Bordeaux. 8vo. 1616. Discusses all the causes, kinds, signs, 
presages, and supernatm-al remedies of tlie Ancients. A learned book in its time and way. 

Del Terremoto Dialogo del Sig. Lucio Maggio di Bologna. 8vo. Bologna, 1624. Trans- 
lated into French, and pubUshed at Paris, 8 vols., 1675. 

Reflections, Pliysieal and Moral, upon various uncommon Phsenomena from the Earth- 
quake of Lima, &c. 8vo. London, 1756. 

Eagionamento del Dottor Signor Gaspare ParagaUo, intoruo aUa cagione de' Tremuoti. 
4to. Napoli, 1689. 151 pages. 

Pominici Bottom de immani Trinacriae Terra^motu Idea historico-physica ; in qua non 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 109 

solum concussiones transactss recensentur, sed novissimee anni 1717. ,4to. Messanas, 1718. 
131 pages. 

Lcttcra scientifica intorno alia cagione de' Terrajinoti. Scritta dal Dottore Girolamo Giuntini, 
nil' lUust. Sig. Caval. Giuseppe Kidolfi. 4to. Firenze, 1729. 40 pages. 

Practical Reflections on the late Earthquakes in Jamaica, England, Sicily, Malta, &c., anno 
Hi'.)'2. By John Shower. IGU.'J. (A Presbyterian minister.) 

A Form of Pr'ayer ordered by the Queeu and Privy Council (for the Earthquake noticed 
by Spencer), 1 May, 1580. 

A short and pitliie Discourse concerning the Engendring, Tokens, and Effects of all Earth- 
quakes in general ; particularly applied and conferred with that most strange and terrible 
Worko of the Lord within the citie of London, &c., &c. 4to. London, 1.580. — Catalogue 
of Books bequeathed to the Bodleian Library by Richard Gough, Oxford, 1814, p. 209. 

A Sermon occasioned by the late Earthquake in London. By Samuel Doolittle. 4to. 
London, lG92.—7i?VZ. p. 210. 

The right Improvement of alarming Providences ; a Sermon preached at Cheshunt in 
Hertfordshire, March 18th, 1749-50, on occasion of the two late Earthquakes. By John 
Mason, A.M. London, 1750. 

The Scriptiu-c Account of the Cause and Intention of Earthquakes ; in a Sermon preached 
at the Old Jewry, March 11, 1749-50, on occasion of the two shocks of an Earthquake, 
the first on February 8th, the other on March 8th. By Samuel Chandler. London, 1750. 

Ray's Physieo-Theological Discom-se of the Deluge (209 pages) ; and Dr. T. Robinson's 
Letter to Ray, 22nd Sept. 1692. Both relate to the great Jamaica Earthquake. 

A Discourse of Eartliquakes, as they are supernatm-al and premonitory signs of a nation, 
by the author of the Fulfilling of the Scriptures. By Robert Hemming. 8vo. London, 
1093. 

A Chronological and Ilistorical Account of Earthquakes from the beginning of the Clu-istian 
period to 1750, with an Appendix of those felt in England; with a Preface and Index. 
By a Gentleman of the University of Cambridge. 8vo. Cambridge, 1750. 

A further Account, by the same Author, of the memorable Earthquake of 1756, with a 
Relation of that of Lisbon ; together with an Abstract of Father Goree's Narrative of the 
rise of a New Island in the Bay of Santorini, in the Archipelago, in 1707, and an 
Appendix, giving an Account of an Au^to da Fe at Lisbon, by an Eye-witness. 8vo. 
Cambridge, 1756. 

The History and Pliilosophy of Earthquakes, from the remotest to the present Times, col- 
lected from the best writers on the subject, with a particular Account of the Phenomena 
of the great one of Nov. 1, 1755, in various parts of the globe. By a Member of the 
Royal Academy of Berlin. With an Index. London, 1757. 

Observations on Three Earthquakes ; their Natural Causes, Kinds, and manifold EflFects 
and Presages : occasioned by the last which happened, the 8 of Sept. 1694, in the Kingdom 
of Naples in Italy. By I. D. R. (I. de Rouffional), French Minister. 4to. London, 1694. 

A Relation of the dreadfid Earthquake which happened at Lima and the neighbouring 
port of Callao, on the 28th Oct. 1746 ; published at Lima, and translated from the 
Spanish, with a description of these towns before their destruction, &c., &c. Also an 
Appendix, containing a full Account of the Earthquake at Port Royal, Jamaica, in 
1692. In Two Letters, written by the Minister of the place. 8vo. London, 1748. 



Library of the Royal Society, London, 

Bylandt, Resum6 pr^liminaire de I'ouvrage sur la theorie des Volcans. 8vo. Naples, 1833. 
Phillippus Beroaldus, De TerrfBmotu et Pestilentia, c^xxa annotamentis Galeni. 4to. 

Argeutorati, 1510. 
Noel Andr(5, Theorie de la Surface actuelle de la Terre (Earthquakes?). 8vo. Paris, 1806. 



Library of Trinity College, Dublin, 

Earth Keckermannus, De Magno Terrcemotu Sept. 8, inti-a 2 ot 3 noctis horam, 1601. 

4to. Heidelberg, 1602. 
From the Collection of Bound Pamphlets : — 

Medical Tracts. FF. n. 23. Several narratives. 

Tracts on Earthquakes. (Lib. Fag.) H. 11. 26. 

Hottinger Analecta. Hebrew Earthquakes. BB. 11. 57. 

Pamphlets on Earthquakes. P. 11. 50. Several narratives. 



110 REPORT — 1858. 

Royal Library at Berlin, 

Vulcane ; Geologic; allgemeine Schriften. 

Thorn. Ittigius, Lucubrationes academicaj de montium incendiis. 8vo. Lips. 1671. 

Joh. Hem\ Miillerus, prtes. (resp. Jo. Leonh. AndreaB), Diss, inaug. de montibus ignivomis 

give vulcaniis. 4to. Altdorfii, 1710. 
W. Hamiliton, Observations on mount Yesuvius, mount Etna, and other Volcanos, in a 

series of letters addressed to the Eoyal Society. New edition, c. 6 tabb. 8vo. London, 

1774. 
Beobachtungen liber den Vesuv, den Aetna u. andere Vulkane ; in Briefen an die R. 

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1. Ejusd. Fortsetzung der Beitrage, ib. 1793. 

2. „ Bescliluss der Beitrage, ib. 1794. 

3. ,, Beschreibung einer Sammlung von meist vulkanischen FossUien die 
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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. Ill 

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112 REPORT 1858. 

II Spettatore del Vesuvio e de' campi flegrei : Giornale compilato da F. Cassola e L. Pilla. 

Fasc. 1. nn. 1-3, Luglio a Decembre 1832; fasc. 2. mi. 1-2, Gennaro ad Aprile 1833. 

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Adlisec : — 

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Copia eines Schreibens aufs Neajiolis, darinnen berichtet werden etliclie ersohroclsliche 

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i 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 113 

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1858. I 



114 REPORT — 1858. 

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Adha?e : — • 

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J. Steininger, Die erloschenen Vulcane in Stidfrankreich. Mit Charte mid 1 Tafel. 8vo. 
Mainz, 1823. 

Alexis Perrey, Instructions sm- I'obsevvation des fcremblements de tcrre. Dijon, le 15 Mars 
1848. 4to. (12 Seiten.) Extr, do I'Araiuaire M^t. de Fr. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 115 

J. Foiirnet, Notes additionelles aiis Eechcrches siir les trcmblemcnts de terro du bassin du 

Elioiie, dc M. A. Perrcj. 4to. (24 Seiten.) Extr. d. Annales de Ljon. 
Alexis Perrey, Memoii-es sur les tremblemcnts dc terrc rcsscntis dans le bassin du Rhone. 

4to. (82 Seiten uud 1 Tafel.) Extr. des Annales do la 8oc. d'Agric. de Lyou. 
, dans le bassin du Danube. 4to. (82 Seiten.) Extr. des Annales de la Soc. 

d'Agricult. de Lyon. 
, Sur les tremblements de terre de la peninsule Iberique. 4to. (54 Seiten.) Estr. 

des Ann., &c. 
, Documents sur^les tremblements do terre au Mexique ^et dans I'Ameriquo centrale. 

4to. (37 Seiten.) Epinal. Extr. des Annales d. 1. Soc. d'Emulation d. Vosges, 1848. 
, Sur les tremblements de terre de la p<5uiusule Scandinave. (Extr. des Voyages de 

la Commiss. Seient. du Nord au Seand.) 8vo. Paris, 1845. (4to, 03 Seiten.) 
, Notice sur les ti'emblemeuts de terre ressentis a Angers et dans le departement de 

Maine-et-Loii-e (Extrait, &c.). 8vo. Angers, 1844. (4to, 7 Seiten.) 
, Documents sm- les tremlalements de terre et les Eruptions Tolcaiiiques dans le bassin 

de roeean atlantique. 8vo. Dijon. (07 Seiten.) 
, Note sur les tremblements de terre ressentis en 1847. (Extr. des M6m. de I'Acad^mie 

de Dijon. Svo.) 4to. 48 Seiten. 
— — , Momoire siu" les ti'cmblements de terre de la peninsule itaUque. (Memoires cour. de 

I'Acad. de Belgique, t. 21.) 4to. 145 Seiten uiid 1 Taf. 
-, Memoires sm* les tremblements de terre dans le bassin du Rbiu. {lb. i. 10.) 4to. 



117 Seiten uud 2 Taf. 

— , Memoires sur les tremblements de terre ressentis en France, en Belgique, et en Hol- 
lande, &c. (75. t. 18.) 4to. 110 Seiten uud 2 Taf. 

Liste des tremblements de terre ressentis en Em-ope et dans les parties adjacentea de 



I'Afrique et de I'Asie, pendant I'annee 1843. (Extr. des Comptes Eeud. 11 Mars, 1844.) 

4to. 11 Seiten. 
, NouveUes recherches siu- les ti'emblements de terre ressentis en Eiu-ope et dans les 

parties adjacentes de I'Afrique et de I'Asie, de 1801 a Juin 1843. (Extr. des Comptes 

Eend. 25 Se])t. 1843.) 4to. 18 Seiten. 
, Note sm- les tremblements de terre en 1847. (Extr. de 1. 15. des Bulletins de I'Acad. 

Eoy. de Belgique. Svo.) 4to. 15 Seiten. 
, liste des tremblements de terre ressentis pendant les ann6es 1845 et 1846. (Extr. des 

M6m. de TAcad. de Dijon. 8vo.) 4to. 02 Seiten. 
, pendant Tannic 1844. (Extr. des M6m. de I'Acad. de Dijon. Svo.) 

4to. 9 Seiten. 
Vol. misc. inscr. Perrey, Tremblements de Terre. 5 pieces, 1843-1847. 4to. 
„ „ „ „ 13 pieces, 1844r-1848. 4to. 

Terrae moius, die mit Ortshestimmting stehen lieher unier dem Orte. 

Ain ersebrockeuliclie Newe Zeyttuug, so geschehen ist d. 12 Jmii 1542, in Sehgarbaria. Da 

haben sich grausamer Erdtbidem erbobt. s. 1. 4to. 
Verdadera relacion del espantable terrcmoto sucedido k los 27 de Marso de 1038 en la 

provincia de Calabria. Imj^ressa en Eoma, y ti-aduzida de ItaUano en Castellano, por 

Francisco de Firmamante. 4to. Barcelona, 1038. 
Eclaeion de las ruinas y extragos causados por los terremotos que se sinti^ron en varias 

partes del Eeyno de Valencia. Vid. Stephan. FeUx Carasco. 
Prevencion cspiritual para los temblorcs etc tierra, y otros accidentes repentinos, que con 

ocasion del terremoto del ano de 1701, se imprimio en la Ciudad de Granada, y on este 

presente ano de 1755 se ha ruelto ti reimpriudr, dialogo entre el Doctor y Idiota. s. 1. 

4to. 1755. 
Histoire des ti-emblemens de terre arrives a Lima. Vid. Peru. 
Eelacion del temblor, y terrcmoto, del Cuzco. Vid. Peru. 
Wundcrzeicheu eines erschrecklichen seltzamen Erdbidems, geschehen diss 1571 Jars, im 

Ilornung, bey Hombiu-g auff der Ohm, im Laudt zu Hesseu, unnd diu-ch L. M, 

Pfarrherrn daselbst gantz flcissig beschrieben. 4to. Franckft. a. M. 1571. 
Terra tremens : eiuf iiltig, doeh klar, mid deutlicher Bericht was Erdbeben seyen ? woher 

sic kommcn ? etc. 4to. Niii-nb. 1070. 
Besclu-cibung des Erdbcbcns, welches die Stadt Lissabon, 1755, heimgesucht. St. 1. 4to, 

Danzig, 1750. B. D. 2139. 
Neue mid ausfiUirt Nachi-icht von dciien zeither uud besonders seit d. 5 Fcbr. d. Pf. in 

Messuia u. Calabrien sich ereigiieteu sclu-eckUcheu Erdbeben. Svo. Berlin, 1783. 

B.D. 1309. 

i2 



IIG REPORT — 1858. 

Boohs on Earthquakes in the lAhrary Catalogue of the " Naturfurcherenden 

Freunde" in Berlin. 

Beschreibung des Erdbcbens, welclies die Hauptstadt Lisaabon theils umgeworfen, theils 
beschiidigt bat. Daiizig, 175G. 
Ou Volcanoes : — 
Mortesagnc, Briefe iiber den erloschenen Vulkane von Vivai-ais u. Belay. 8to. Hamb. 1791. 
Wiedeburg, J. C. W., Ueber die Ei-dbeben und den allgemeinen Nebel. 8vo. Jena, 1784. 

Library of the School of Mines, Berlin. 

Vincentius Abarius Crucius Gcniiius, Vesuvius ardens, sive exercitatio medico-pbysica ad 

'PiyoTTvpernv, id est, motum et incendium Vesuvii mentis in Campania, 10 mensis De- 

cembris, ann. 1631. Libris II. eomprebensa. 4to. Roniop, 1632. 
Teodoro Monticelli, Memorio su le vicende del Vesuvio (1813-1823). cum tabb. lithogr. 

4to. Napoli, 1841. 
e N. C'orelli, Storia de Fenomeni del Vesuvio aweuuti negli anni 1821, 1822, e 1823. 

c. 4 tabb. litbogr. 8vo. Napoli, 1823. 
Scipion Breislak, Essais mineralogiques sur la Solfatare de Pozzuolc. Trad, du mser. ital. 

par Fran9. de Pommereul. 8vo. Naples, 1792. 
Humboldt, Ueber den Bau und die Wirkungsart der Vidcane in den verscbiedenen 

Erdstricben. 8vo. Berlin, 1823. 
Sanimlung von Ai-bciten ausliindiseber Naturforsclier iiber Feuei'bci'ge und verwandte 

Plianomenc. Deutsch bearbeitet von J. Noggerath u. J. P. Paula. Bd. I. & II. 8vo. 

Elberfeld, 1825. 
A. von Ungem Sternberg, Werden und Seyn der vulkanischen Gebirges. c. 8 tabb. 8vo. 

Carlsrulie, 1825. 
A. de Bylandt Palatercamp, Tbeorie des Volcan^. tt. 1-3, et Atlas. 8vo. & fol. Paris, 

1835-36. 
C. W. Bitter, Bescbi-eibung merkwlirdiger Vuleane : eiu Beitrag zur Pbysik. Geschichte der 

Erde. Neue Ausgabe. 8vo. Breslau, 1847. 
C. E. A. Hoff, Chronik der Erdbeben und Vidkan-Ausbriicbe. Tb. 1-4. 8vo. Gotha, 1840. 
Kurtze und walu-liafi'tc Relation, Von dem ersclu-ecklicben Erdbeben, welches sicli zu Neapel 

und beuachbarten Orten, iusonderbeit zu Bcnevent den 5 Juni 1088 bcgeben, s. 1. c. a. 

4to. 
J. Noggerath, Das Erdbeben vom 29 Juli, 1846, im Rheingebiet und den benaehbarten 

Liindern. Mit einer Karte. 4to. Bonn, 1847. 
L. PUla, Istoria del ti-emuoto che ha devastate i paesi della costa toscana il di 14 Agosto 

1826. 8vo. Pisa, 1846. 
J. Boegner, Das Erdbeben mid seine Ersclieinungen. Mit einer Karte vom Vorbereitungs- 

bezu-k des Erdbcbens vom 29 Juli 1846. 8vo. Eraukf. a. M. 1847. 
A. V. Humboldt, Observations geognostiques et physiques siu- les volcans du plateau do 

Quito. Traduit de I'allem. par L. Lalanne. 8vo. Paris, 1839. 
T. S. Raffles, Die Vulkane auf Java. 8vo. 1825. 
J. Steininger, Die erloschenen Vulkane in Sudfi-ankreich. Mit 1 Karte u. 1 Tafel. Svo. 

Mainz, 1823. 
C. Thoniae, Der vulkanische Eoderberg bei Bonn. . Mit einem Vorworte von Noggerath. 

Svo. Bonn, 1835. • 

H. Abich, Vues Ulustratives de quelques phenomenes geologiques prises sur le V^suve et 

I'Etna pendant les amiees 1833 et 1834. c. 10 tabb. litb. Eol. Paris et Strasbourg, 

1836. 
J. S. G. Dinkier, Abhandlung von denen naturHchcn Ursachen derer Erdbeben. Frankf. 

a, M. 1756. 
C. V. K. (Koi'ber), Die Erdbeben : populiire Analyse mid DarstgUung ihrer physikalisch- 

geologisclien Ursachen. Mit 1 Zeichnung. 8vo. Wien, 1844. 
Domen. Tata, Deserizione del grande incendio del Vesuvio succeso uel Agosto 1779. Svo. 

Napoli, 1779. 
C. Gemniellaro, Relazione dei fenomeni del nuovo vuleano sorto dal mare fra la eosta di 

Siciha e I'isola cU PauteUaria nel mese di Luglio 1831. c. 2 tabb. lith. Svo. Catania, 

1831. 
J. MiclieU, Conjectures concerning the Cause, and Observations upon the Phsenomena of 

Earthquakes, c. tab. am. 4to. London, 1760. 
F. Kries, Von den Ursachen der Erdbeben. Preisschrift. Herausg. von der Societat der 

Kiinste und Wissensch. f. d. Provinz Utrecht. Svo. Utrecht & Leipz. 1820. 
H. Girard, Ueber Erdbeben und Vidkane : ein Vortrag gehalten im wissensch, Verein. 

c. 1 tab. Svo. Berlin, 1845. 



1 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 117 

J. Kant, Gesehiclite imd Naturbeschreibung dcr mcrkwiirdigsfen Vorf iillen des Erdbcbcns, 
welches an dem Ende des 17o5stes Jahres einen grossen Theil der Ei-de erseliuttcrt liat. 
4to. Konigsbcrg, 175(3. . 

Schreibon der Bitter von Hamilton an die Konigl. Societat der Wissenschaften zu London, 
in welclicm seine selbst angestellten pliysisehen Beobachtungeu libcr das Erdbebcu in 
Calabricn uud Sieilien mitgctlieilt werden. A. d. Eranz. 4to. Strasb. 1784. 

B. E. Easpc, Account of some German Volcanos and their Productions, with a new 
hypothesis of the Prismatical Basaltes. c. 2 tabb. ien. 8fo. London, 1776. 

Books on EarthquaJces and Vulcanohgy in the Gottinc/en University Library, 

Oj)uscidmn Pliilippi Beroaldi de Terraemotu et Pestilentia, cum annotamentis Galeni. 

(68 pp. Little more than the opinions of Ai-istotle.) 
Das erschutterte mid bebende Meissen mid Thiiiingen, oder cine Beselu-eibung des am 

24 November, annoch seynden 1690 Jalu-es, in Meissen and Thiiringen entstandenen 

Erdbebens, u.s.w. dargestellt. Von Nicolas Hcippfnern, Pfarrern zu Draschwitz, in Stifft 

Naiunbiu'g. Leipzig, 1691 (62 pp. Contains accomits of several celebrated Earth- 
quakes). 
Domeiiici Bottari, De immani Trinacrias terraemotu, idea historico-physica. Messanne, 

1718 (131 pp. Mainly occupied by the opinions of the ancient jjliilosophers, Ai-istotle, &c.) 
P. M. Salvatoris EuiR, Panonnitani, e tertio ordine S. Franeisei, Do horrendo terroemotu 

qui contigit Panormi nocte post Kalend. Sept. 1726, tractatus historicus, &o. Lipsi®, 

1727 (34 pp. A German translation of this memoir is bound up along \^'ith it). 
Giornale e notizie de' tremuoti accaduti nella proviucia di Catanzaro, di D. Andrea de 

Leone, regio uditore di quel tribunale. Napoli, 1783 (67 pp. Merely an account of 

this particular earthquake). 
Ecspuesta a la carta del 11™" y E™" Senor D. Fray Miguel de San Josef, obispo de Guadia, 

y Baza, del Consejo de S. Mag., sobre varios escritos a cerca del Terremoto, par el Doct. 

D. Josef Cevallos, &o. Sevilla, 1757 (96 pp. Principally occupied by moral reflections 

derived from earthquakes, especially the great one of Lisbon). 
Memoria soprai tremuoti di Messina accaduti nell' anno 1783. Messina, 1784 (66 pp.). 
Nachriehten von den Erdbeben Siid-Italiens in den letzten Jalu-en, Sendsclu'eiben an den 

Ilerrn K. W. G. Kastner von Dr. Albrecht von Schonberg. Niii-nberg 1828 (23 pp. 

An extract from Kastner' s Archiv fiir die gesammte Natm'lehre). 
Physicalische Gedancken von denen TJrsachen derer Erdbeben, u. s. w. von D. Johann 

Gottlob Lehniami. Berlin, 1757 (55 pp). 
Des dernieres Eevolutions du Globe, ou conjectm-es physiques sm* les causes de la degrada- 
tion acluelle des tremblements de terre, et sm* la vraisemblance de lem- cessation 

prochaine. Par M. L. Castilhon, 1771 (269 pp. An attempt, and apparently a very 

weak one, to show from various reasons, historical and physical, that earthquakes were 

gradually decreasing in number and violence, and woidd probably ultimately cease 

altogether). 
Dei Terremoti di Bologna: opuscola di D. Michele Augusti. Bologna, 1780 (181 pp. An 

examination of the connexion betvreen "Terremoti " and "Aeremoti" or meteorological 

phenomena). 
Le Mechanisme des Cieux, et explication de la Nature des Tremblemens de terre. Par M. 

Val, Mathematicieu. Eotterdam et la Haye, 1756 (67 pp.). 
LTeber die Erdbeben und den allgemeinen Nebel, 1783. von Johann Ernst Basilius 

Wiedebm'g. Jena, 1784 (86 pp.). 
Eagionamento del terremoto del Nuovo Monte, del aprimento di terra in Pozuolo ncll' 

anno 1538. Per Piero Giacomo da Toledo. Napoli, 1539 (28 pp. Chiefly in the 

form of a dialogue, with an odd old woodcut of the eruption in wliich Monte Nuovo 

was produced). 
Deir incendio di Pozuolo. Marco Antonio dei Falconi, all' illuslrissima Marchesa della 

Padula. 1 538 (41 pp. With the same woodcut as the last). 
Werden und Seyn des Aadeanischen Gebii-ges. Empirisch dargestellt von W. H. C. E. A. 

von Ungern-Sternberg. Mit 8 Abbildungen. Carlsruhe, 1825 (320 pp. Chiefly mine- 

ralogical and geological). 
Carolus Cajsar de Leonhard, Historia antiqua vidcanorum montium. Hcidelbergise, 

1823 (14 pp. A short and imimportant imiversity thesis, referring only to the ancient 

classical authors). 
Schreiben des Herrn Ignatz v. Bom, iiber einen ausgebrannteu Vidkan bei dcr Stadt Eger 

in Bolimen. Prag. 1773 (16 pp. Not important). 
Considerations sur les montagnes volcaniques : memou-e lu dans une seance de rAcadcmie 

Electoralc des Sciences et Belles Lettrcs de Mannlieim, lo 5 Novembrc, 1781. Par M. 

Cellini. Mannheim, 1781 (59 pp.). 



118 BEPOET — 1858. 



der Wyck, Uebersicht dcr Rlieinisclien und Eissler erlosclieneu Vulkaiic luid der 
•hebungs-Gebilde. Maniiheim, 182G and 1836 (2 edits. 174 pp. Apparently a rery 



Van 

Erhebungs-Gebilde. Mannheim, 182G and 1836 (2 edits. 174 pp. Apparently a rery 

good accoimt of the extinct volcanoes of the district of the Ehine, between Coblcnz and 

Bonn). 
History of the extinct Volcanoes of the Basin of Nenwied on the Lower Rhine. By Samuel 

Hibbert, M.D., F.R.S. Ed. Edinburgh, 1832 (2G0 pp., with maps and plates). 
Easpe, Beitrag zur aUeraltesten und natiirlichen Historie von Hessen, u. s. w. Cassel, 

1774 (70 pp. On the extinct volcanoes of the neighboiu-hood of Cassel). 
Easpe, An account, &c. (A translation of the last-mentioned. 136 pp.). 
Faujas de St.-Fond, Mineralogie des volcans. Paris, 1784 (511 pp.). 
Ducarla, Du feu souterrain. Paris, 1783 (.54 pp.). 
Joh. Steininger, Die erloschenen Vidkane in der Eifel und am Nieder-rheinc. Mainz. 

1820 (180 pp.). 

-, Neue Beitrage zur Gescliichte der rheinischen Vidkane. Mainz. 1821 (110 pp.). 

Die Vulkane alterer imd neuerer Zeitcn, physicalisch imd mineralogisch betrachtct von 

Franz v. Beroldingen. 2 Th. Mamiheim,' 1791 (293 and 406 pp. Apparently a good 

resiun6 of what had been previously written on the subject). 
Karl Wilhelm Nose, Beitrage zu den VorsteUungsarten iiber vulkanische Gegelistande. 

Frankfiu't am Mayn, 1792 (457 pp.). 

, Fortsetzimg der Beitrage, u. s. w. Frankfort am Mayn, 1793 (228 pp.). 

, Sammlung oiniger Schriften iiber vulkaiiischo Gegcnstihidc und den 

Basalt. Frankfm-t am Mayn, 1793 (344 pp.). 

C. N. Ordinaire, Histoire Natiu-elle des Volcans, comprenant les volcans soumarins, ccux 
do boue, et autres ph6nomencs analogues. Paris, 1802 (342 pp. The subject discussed 
geologically). 

Besides many other books, both on earthquakes and volcanoes, the names of which have 
already been obtained elsewhere. 

Royal Library, Munich. 

Gundingcr (A.), Theorie der Volkan. 8vo. Wien, 1840. 

Ki-ies (F.), Over do Oorzakcn der Aardbcvingen. 8vo. Utrecht, 1820. 

Ki-iiger (T. G.), Gedanken iiber d. Ursaelien d. Erdbebens. 8vo. Halle, 175G. 

Griiithiusen (Fr. v. P.), Gedanken iiber die Ursachcn der Erdbcben. 1825. 

Gumprecht (T. E.), Die vidkanische ThJitigkeit auf d. Festlandc von Africa. Berlin, 1849. 

Boyal Library, Dresden. 

Commentatiuneida do Terrocmotu, pronunciata a Martino Weindrichio Professore Pliysices 

in Gymnasio Vratisl. Vratislavia?, 1591. 
Dissertazione sopra le fisiche e vera cause de' terremoti, del Sig. de' Scotti di Cassano. 

Praga, 1788. 

D. Johann Gottlob Ki'iigers, Gedanken von den Ursachen des Erdbebens, nebst cine 
moralischo Betrachtimg. Halle mid Ilelmstadt, 1756. 

A French Translation of Halcs's Considerations on the Physical Cause of Earthquakes. 
Paris, 1751. 

Historischcs kritisches Vcrzeiclmiss alter und neucr Scliriftstcller von dcm Erdbcben. Von 
M. C. G. G. Sclmeeberg, 1756. Small, and worth getting, if possible, for the Cata- 
logue of Authors. 

Christlicher gi-iuidlicher Undersicht von den Erdbcben. Von Johann Bm-gower dcr Artz- 
neyen Doctoren zu Schaffhauscn. Gedruckt zu Ziirich, 1657. 

Km'ze Beschreibung des Erdbebens, welches den 5ten Februar 1783, Messina und einen 
Theil Calabriens betroffen. Aus dcm Italienischen des Herrn Michael Torvui. Niirn- 
bcrg, 1783. 

Die Erdrevolutionen, oder Beschreibung und Erkliirung des in Spanien am 21 Marz 1829, 
ausgebrochenen grossen Erdbebens. Von B. A. E. W(eyrich). Leipzig, 1830. 

Betrachtimg iiber die Ursachen der Erdbcben, 1750. 

Conjcctiu'cs physico-m^caniquos siu- la propagation des secousses dans les ti-cmblements 
de terre, et siu' la disposition des lienx qid en ont ressenti les effets. (Probably Paris) 
1756. — Very remarkable. He speaks of chains of mountains as long levers communi- 
cating the volcanic force applied at one end to the other, the principal effect being felt at 
that other, as, when a long row of balls is struck at one end, the last one moves. He says 
also that those forces are not so much felt in the extremities of brancli chains, because 
these are composed of more sandy materials, wliich do not transmit the shock so well. 
There is also much more about the action of subterranean bodies of water, &c. The book 
is small, 52 pages. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 119 

Lettre d'un ecclesiastique de Paris k uu ciir6 de pi-ovince, sur les derniers tremblements 

de terre. Paris, 1756. 
Lozioui tro sopra il trcmuoto, &c. (No name.) Roma, 1748. 
Uiigliieks-Clironica vieler grausamer und erschreckliclier Erdbeben Hamburg. Gredruckt 

bci Thomas von Wiering, im giildenen ABC, bei der Borse, 1692. 
Also many Abhandlmigen seen in oHier libraries. 

17ie Lihrary at Omul, Belgium. 

Histoire des anciennes revolutions du globe terrestre, avec iin relation clu-onologique efc 

bistorique dcs tremblements de terrc arrives sm- notre globe depiiis lo commencement 

de I'ere Cln-etienne jnsqu'a prt5sent. 1 vol. 8vo. Amsterdam, 1780. 
Dainetiis Sennertus, Curator Laviniensis, Epitome Natiu-alis Scientist. Amsterdam, Jno. 

Raverstorn, 1651. Terrcemotus in part. 1 vol. 12mo. 
Antonii Galatei Liciensis, &c. Elementorum. Basilia;, per P. Pernam, 1680. Terrjemotiis 

in part. 12mo. 
Momoria sulF enizione del Vesuvio, accaduta la sera de' 15 Giugno 1794. Di Scipiono 

Breislak. 1 vol. 8vo. Napoli, 1794. 
Journal bistorique, geograpbique, et physique de toutes les tremblements de la terre uni- 

verseUe, de 1755 jusqu'a, 1756. Par M. , de I'Academie des Sciences et BeUes 

Lettres. 8vo, pamphlet, sans nom. 1756. 
Do Vesuviano incendio nvmtius, auctoro Julio Cassare Recupito, Neapolitano. 8vo, Lovani, 

1639. Terrasmotus. 

The tvJiole that occur in the Catalogue Raisonne of the Library of the 
Eoyal Mineralogical Museum., Naples. 

{Note. — There is no classed Catalogue of the Royal Library at the Museo Borbonico ; 
and it was fomid impossible to procm-e any list of the Earthquake vrorks it may possess.] 

Giuseppe di Stefano, Ragionameuto intorno le cagioni del tremuoto. 8vo. Nap. 17S3. 

, Relazione del tremuoto del di 29 Novembre 1732, aweuuto nel regno di NapoU. 8vo. 

, accaduto in Napoli, il di 5 Giugno 1688. 4to. Napoli, 1688. 

, del danno cagionato dal tremuoto del di 7 Giugno 1695, nella citta di Bagnora, 

Oriseto, e luoghi \'ieino Roma e Napoli. 4to. 
Andi-ea de Leone, Giornale e notizie dei tremuoti accaduti I'anuo 1783. Parte la e 2da. 

Nap. 1783. 
Alberto Nota, Del tremuoto awenuto nella provineia di S. Remo. Pinerolo, 1832. 
Leopoldo Pilla, Istoria del tremuoto die ha devastato la costa toscana il di 14 Agosto 

1846. Fig. 8vo. Pisa, 1846. 
Baldassarre Spampinato, Osservazioni su i tremuoti. 4to. Catania, 1818. 
Luzio d'Orsi, Desorizione dei tremuoti e delle rovine di Calabria. 4to. Nap. 1639. 
Ancb-ea Lombardi, Ccnuo sul tremuoto awenuto in Tito, il 1 Febb. 1828. Potenza, 1829. 
Gottardo Zenoni, Memorie storico-fisiche sul terremoto. 8vo. Cremona, 1783. 

, Lezioni sopra il tremuoto. 4to. Roma, 1748. 

Ignazio de Partenione, Descrizione del terribile terrem. del 8 Febb. 1783. 4to. Nap. 1784. 
Franc. Antonio Grimaldi, Descriz. dei tremuoti accaduti nelle Calabrie uel 1783. Fi"-. 

8vo. Nap. 1784. 
Gabriele Pape, Ragguaglio istorico-fisico del tremuoto accaduto nel regna di Napoli il 26 

LugHo 1805. 8vo. Napoli, 1808. 
Giuseppe Saverio Poli, Sul tremuoto del 26 Luglio 1805. Svo. Nap. 1805. 
Tommaso Mannesi, Accenti lagi-imevoli sulle rovine di Rostano pel tremuoto della notte 

del 24 Aprile 1836. 8vo. Nap. 1836. 
Miehele Augusti, Dei terremoti di Messina e di Calabria deU' anno 1783. Svo. Boloena 

1783. ^ ' 

Dcod. Dolomieu, Memoria sopra i terremuoti deUa Calabria dell' anno 1783. 12mo. 

Najioli, 1785. 
Nicola Zupo, Riflessioni sulle cagioni fisiche dei terrem. accaduti neUe Calabrie nell' anno 

1783. 12mo. Nap. 1784. 
Procopio Golimi, Lettera su i tremuoti di Messina e Calabria del 1783. 12mo. 
Bartolommeo Goudolfi, Sidle cagioni del tremuoto. 12mo. Roma, 1787. 
Francesco Ferraro, Memoria sopra i terremuoti deUa SiciUa. Fig. Svo. Palermo, 1823. 
Giovanni Bottari, Lezioni tre sul tremuoto. 12mo. Roma, 1733. 
William Hamilton, Relation des derniers trembl. de terre arrives en Calabre et on Sicile. 

12mo. Geneve, 1784. 
Lam-ent Chi-acas, Deserizio dei tremuoti sentiti in Eoma, la sera del 14 Gen. e 2 Febb, 

1703. 4to. Roma, 1704. 



120 REPORT — 1858. 

From various Collections and Sources. 

In the Leipsic Book Catalogue for 1844, 2nd jjart, page G5, a book entitled "Die 

Erdbebene, Ton r. Korber." 
Description of a Scismograpli or instrument for noting small earthquake shocks (Memoires 

Historiques de I'Acadiinie Eoyale de Tiu-in) quotes FAbbe Cavalli, Lettres sur la 

Meteorologie (Eomc, 1785), Lettre VI. ; and a periodical called ■ jLutologia,' nos. xvi. 

& xvii., Rome, 1685. 
Explication jjhysique et chimique dcs feus souterrams, des tremblements de terre, des 

oiu-agans, des eclairs, et du tonnerre. — M. Lemery, in the ' Histoire et M6moircs de 

I'Academie Eoyale des Sciences,' Memoires pour 1700, p. 101. 
Nota (Alb.), del "tremuoto avrenuto ncUa eitta e proviucia di S. Eemo I'anno 1831. 1 

broch. in 8vo, Pignerolle, 1832. (Extracted from the Catalogue of the Library of the 

Eoyal Academy of Belgium.) 
Eagor, Von dem Erdbibem, ein griindlicher Bericht, u. s. w. Basel, 1578. 
Bernherz, TerraBmotus ; das ist griindlicher Bericht Ton dem Erdbeben, u. s. w. Niirnberg, 

1616. 
Eerrara, Descrizione dell' JEtna. 
Agatio di Somma, Historico racconto dei terremoti della Calabria dell' aimo 1038, fiu 

anno 1641. Napoh, 1041. 
Franc. Ferrara, Campi Flegrei della Sicilia, &c. Messina, 1810. 
Beuther, Compendium Terrfcmoluum. Strassbm-g, 1601. 
Physicalische Betrachtmigen von dem Erdbeben, besonders zu Lissabon. Frankfort imd 

Leipzic, 1756. 
Berh-and, Memoires liistoriques et physiques siu: Ics tremblements de terre. A la Haye, 

1757. 
Della Torre, Istoria e fenomeni del Vesuvio. Napoli, 1755. 
Athans Kircher, IMundus subterraneus. 
A Chronological Account of the most memorable Earthquakes from the beginning of the 

Clu-istian period to the year 1750. Cambridge, 1750. 
A. J. Buxtorf Predigt bei Gelegenheit des Erdbebens zu Lissabon. Basel, 1755. 
Michele del Bono, Discorso sul I'origine de' tremuoti. Palermo, 1745. 
Lycostheues, Prodigioi-um ac ostentorum Clu-onicon. 
Erytschius, Catalogus prodigiormn ac ostentoriun. 

Histoire des ancienncs revolutions du globe tcrrestre. Amsterdam, 1752. 
Toaldo, Essai meteorologique, has a smaU Catalogue of Earthquakes at p. 270. 
A Memou' upon Earthquakes in Eussia, by M. PhUadelphiue, Professor of Pliysics at 

Tiflis. 
Istoria del tremuoto che da deraslato i paesi deUa costa toscana il di 14 Agosto 1846. Di 

L. PiUa. In 8vo of 226 pages. Pisa, 1846. 
Eapport de VassaU-Eandi sin- les tremblemens de terre du 2 AvrU 1808. (Quoted in 

Perrey's memoir on the Earthquakes of the Basin of the Danube, p. 6.) 
Terra tremens, die zitternd oder bebende Erdc. Einfaltig doch klar imd deutHchcr Bericht, 

was Erdbeben seyen, u. s. w., von M. P. S. A. C. Niirnberg, 1070. 
C'astelli, Ineendio del monte Vesu^-io, &c. Eoma, 1032. 
Sarti, Saggio di congettm-e su i terremoti. 
Magnati, Notizie istorichc de' terremoti accaduti nc' secoH trascorsi e nel present©. Napoli, 

1688. 
A Memoir of M. Keilliau, on the Earthquakes of Norway, in the ' Magazin for Natur- 

yidenskaberne.' Cln-istiania, 1835. 
A List of Earthquakes in Iceland, in the ' Voyage en Islande,' published imder the direction 

of M. Gaimard, p. 313. 
Giovanni Vivonzio, Istoria de' tremuoti avvenuti nella proviucia deUa Calabria ultcriore e 

neUa cittA di Messina nell' anno 1783. Napoli, 1788. 
Fr. Kries, Von den Ursachen dcr Erdbeben. LTtrecht, 1820. 
P. Merian, Ueber die in Basel wahrgenommencn Erdbeben, u. s. w. Basel, 1834. 
Ordinaire, Hist. nat. des voleans. 

Deir ineendio fattosi nel Vesuvio 16 Dec. 1631. Napoli, 1632. 
Huot, Com-s do Geologic. Probably contains a good deal of earthquake infoi-mation. 
Fr. Nausea; Blancicampiani De proecipuo hujus anni 1528, apud Mogimtiam tcrrse motu 

Eesponsmn. 4to. 25 pp. 
Histou-e des ancienncs revolutions du globe. Amsterdam, 1752. 
Maria della Torre. Storia e fenomeni del Vesuvio. 
Easpe, Dc novis insuhs. 
DeU' ineendio di Pozzuolo, Marco Antonio deUi Falcoui, all' illustrissima Signora Marchesa 

della Padula, nel 1538. 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 121 

Eagionamento del terremoto, del Nuovo Monte, dell' aprimento di terra in Tozzuolo 
nell' anno 1538, c della significazione d'essi, da Pietro Giac. di Toledo. Stamp, in 
N'apoli, per Giov. Sidtzbacli, Alemanno, a' 22 di Geunaro 1539. 
Faujas St.-Fond, Les volcans eteints du Vivarais, &c. 
llamilton's Observations on Mount Vesuvius, &c. 

Claudius Alberius, De terras motu Oratio, in qua Hybornoe pagi in ditione 111. Ecip. 
Bern, supra lacum Lemanum, per terrae motum oppressi, historia paucis attingitiu-. 
1585. ^ , 

Von den ersclu-Gkliclien Erdbidem, was sicli dem 1, 2, et 3 Maertren 1584 m dor Vogtbey 
Aelen, den Herrn von Bern zustiindig, diu-ch diese erscbi-okliclien Erdbidem begeben 
und zugetragen babe. 1854. 
J. Hederici Oratio de horribili et insolito terrse motu, qui reeens Austriam vohementer con- 

cussit, et aliquot vicinas regiones agitavit. Ilelmstadt, 1591. 
Zappell, Hist, dell' iueendio. C. J. 
Bern. Givdiani, Trattato del Vesuvio. Napoli, 1632. 
Gio. Batt. Mascoli x. libri de Vesuvii inceudio escitato 17 Kalend. Jan. 1631. Neapoli, 

1633. 
M. Pet. Escholt, Geologiea Norwegica, or Remembranees concerning that &c.. Earth- 
quakes &e., through the south parts of Norway, 24th April, 1657. Englished by 

Dav. Collins. London, 1663. 93 pages. 
Gius. Macrhio, Trattato del Vesuvio. Napoli, 1693. 

J. Alf. Borelli, Eelazione intorno aUa fomosa eruzione dell' Etna del 1669. Eeggio, 1670. 
The same in Latin, with this title : — Historia et meteorologia incencUi ^Etnsei anui 1669. 
Don Tomaso Tedesclii, Eelazione del nuovo inceudio fatto de Mongibello 1669. Messina, 

1670. 
N. M. Messina di Molfetta, Eelazione dell' incendio del Vesuvio nel 1682. Napoh. 
Bottone, De immani Trinacrite tcrroe motu idea historieo-phys., in qua non soliuu telliu-is 

concussiones transaetse reeensentiu-, sed novissimoc anni 1717. Messance, 1718. 
Hopfiier, Das erschutterte und bebende Meissen, &c. Leipzig, 1691. 
Catauia cUstrutta. Palermo, 1695. 
Ant. Bidifone, Lettere, nelle quale si da distinto ragguglio dell' incendio del Vesuvio ac- 

eaduto d'Avi-il 1694, &c. NapoU, 1694. 
Parrino, Succinta relazione dell" eruzione del 1696. NapoU. 
Ant. Bidifone, C'ompendio istiji- jo de monte Vesuvio, in cui si ha piena notizia di tutti 

gl'ineeudi accaduti in csso in fine a' 15 di Giugno del 1698. Napoli, 1698. 
Gasp. ParragaUo, Istoi-ia natm-ale del monte Vesuvio. Napoli, 1705. 
Jos. Valetta, Epistola de iueendio et eruptione montis Vesuvii. A., 1707. 
Kefersteiu, Zeitiuig fiir Geognosie, Geol. u. s. w. Weimer. 
Anton. Foglia, Istorieo discorso del gran terremoto successo nel regno di Napoli, &c. 

Napoli, 1627. 
Vera relazione del pietoso caso successo neUe terre contenute nella proviueia di PugUa. 
Napoli, 1627. 

Pliilosoph. Ergotzimgen, oder deutlichen Erklarung der Erdbeben. 12mo. Bremen, 

1765. 
Joh. Fr. Seyfart, Algemeine Gescliichte der Erdbeben. 8vo. Frankfm-t u. Leipzic, 1756. 
J. G. Eoserus, De Terrsemotu qui Italiam nuper, primis anni 1703 mensibus afflixit. 4to. 

Stettin, 1703. 
Jac. Phil. Maraldi, Observations sur les tremblements de terre arrives en Italie depuis le 
mois d'Octobre 1702, jusqu'au mois de Juillet 1703. Li Hist, do I'Aead. des Sciences 
de Paris, 1704. Hist. p. 8. 
D. Ign. Sorrentino, Istoria del monte Vesuvio, divisato ua due libri, &c. Napoli, 1734. 
Eelazione del tremuoto intesosi in questa eitta di Napoli, ed in alcime provincie del regno, 

nel di 29 Novembre 1732, ad ore 13 e mezza. 
D. Franc. Serao, Istoria dell' incendio del Vesuvio, accaduto nel mese di Maggio dell' anno 

1737. 8vo. NapoU, 1740. 
M. Alexis BilUet, Notice sur les tremblemens de terre de Mam-ienne. Mem. de Turin, 

2e serie, t. 2. 
Eelazione giornaUera del tremuoto seguito in Barga I'anno 1746, nel mese di Luglio. 

Compilata dal dott. F. TaUinucci. (Commimication of M. Pilla to M. Perrey.) 
CourejoUes on Earthquakes. Journal de Physique, an. 10. Pluviore. 
Catalogue des Tremblements de Ten-e en Chine. Par E. Biob. Ann. de Chimie, 3 ser. 

vol. u. p. 372. 
Sopra , Sot les petits mouvemeuts apparents observes dans les miirs et les gi-ands instru- 
ments d'observatoire de Modena. Par M. J. Bianehi. 4to. Modena, 1837. 
Ueber das Erdbeben in den Ehem, &c. vom Feb. 1828, vou P. C. Egen, Pogg. Ann. for 
1828, part ii. pp. 153-176. An impoytaut memoir. 



122 REPORT— 1858. 

Beutber, Compendium Terrsemotuum. Strassbiirg, 1601. 

Bernliertz, Terrsemotua, (A Register of Earthquakes.) Niirnberg, 1616. 

Dr. Vincenzio Magnati, Earthquake of Naples, 1688. 

Bertrand, Mem. liist. sm* les tremblemens de terre. La Haye, 1757. 

Bertliolon, Jom\ de Pbys., vol. siv. 

Vivenzio, Istoria e teoria de' terremuoti aTrenuti ueUa provincia della Calabria, &c., di 

1783-1787. Napoli, 1788. 
Cotto, Tab. Clu'ou. de priucijj. Ph(5nom. Meteorologiqucs, &c. Jom'ual de Phys., vol. Ixv. 

No. IV. 
CATALOGUE OE PEEREY'S MEMOIRS. 

The immense and long-continiied seismic statistics of Prof. Perrey are 
Scattered throughout a multiplicity of Journals of various Learned Societies 
and elsewhere, and many of tlicm with diihculty accessible in Great Britain. 

The author has, at my request, favoiu-ed me with the following complete 
Catalogue of his scismological lahoiu-s, which it may be scrnceahle to place 
in a collected form for reference. 

Perrey (Alexis), Cbronique seismique. 1 vol. 8vo, MS. lere redaction. 

■ , la meme. 9 vols. 4to, MS. 

, Tremblements de Terre dans les diiferents siecles et aux differentes dpoques de 

I'amiee. Compt. Rend. 1. 12, p. 1185-1187, 21 Jiiin, 1841. 
, Recherches bistoriques sur les Tremblements de Torre dont 11 est fait mention dans 

les lustoriens depuis le IVe siecle jusqu'd la fin du XVIIIeme. Ibid. t. 13, p. 899-902, 

2 Nov. 1841. 
, Recherches sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis a TEiu-ope et dans I'Asie oeci- 

denlale de 306 a 1800. Ibid. t. 19, p. 04-640, 26 Sept. 1842. Neuf caliiers seidement 

m'ont ete rends au Secretariat de I'lnstitut. 
, Note sur les Tremblements de Terre aux Antilles. Ibid. 1. 16, p. 1283-1303, 12 Juin, 

1843. 
, Nouvelles Recherches sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en Eitfope et dans les 

parties adjacentes de I'Airique et de VAsie de 1801 a, Jiun 1843. Ibid. 1. 17, p. 608-025, 

25 Sept. 1843. 
, Mcmou-es sm- les Tremblements de Terre, en France, en Belgique, et en Hollando, 

depuis lo IVo Siecle jusqu'a nos jom-s. 1843. 
, M6mou-e des Sav. Etr. et Mt5m. Com-, de I'Acad^mie de Bruxelles, t. 18, 4to. 

llO pp. et 2 pi. avec Suppl. MS. 

. , le meme. 1 vol. 4to, MS. lere redaction avee addit. MS. de M. Quetelet. 

Liste des Tremblements de Terre ressentis en Eiu-ope pendant I'ann^e 1843. Ibid. 



1. 18, p. 393-403, 11 Mars 1844. 

Notice sm* les Tremblements de Terre ressentis a Angers et dans le Dep. de Maine 



et Loire. Bull, de la Soc. industr. d' Angers, t. 15, p. 172 et suiv., 1844. Tir. a part, 
8vo de pp. 7. 

- — , Liste de Tremblements de Terre ressentis en Em-ope pendant I'ann^e 1844. Avec 
Supplement poiw ranniSc 1843. Mem. de I'Acad. do Dijon, 1843-44, p. 334-342, et 
comprend t. 20, p. 1444-1452, 12 Mai 1845. 
-, Siu* les Tremblements de Terre de la Peninsule Scandinave. Voyages en Scandi- 



navie de la Com. Sc. du Nord. 6 div. G6og. phys. 1. 1, p. 409^09. Tir. a-part. Paris, 
1845. 8vo de pp. 65, avec Suppl. MS. 

, Sur les Tremblements de Terre dans le bassin du Rlione. Ann. de la Soc. d'Agric. 

de Lyon, t. 8, p. 1845. Tir. a part. 8vo de j)p. 82, 1 pi. avec notes additiouneUes de 
M. Eom-nel, et Suppl. MS. 
-, Sur les Tremblements de Terre dans lo bassin du Danube. Ibid. t. 9. 1846. Tu\ a 



part. 8vo de pp. 82, avec Suppl. MS. 
, Note sur les Tremblements de Terre en Alg^rie et dans I'Afrique scptentrionale. 

Mem. de I'Acad. do Dijon, 1845-1840, p. 299-323. Tii-. a part. 8vo de pp. 24, avee 

Suppl. MS. 
, Sur les Tremblements de Terre aux Antilles. Ibid. p. 325-392. Tir. il part. 8vo 

de pp. 68, avec Suppl. MS. 
-, Liste des Tremblements de Terre ressentis pendant les amines 1845 et 1846, avec 



Supplement poiw 1844, et indicative Sommau-e des autres pli^nomtoes m^t^orologiques. 
Ibid. p. 393-479. Tir. a part. 8vo de pp. 87. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 123 

Perrey (Alexis), M(5moire sur les Tremblements de Terre dans le bassin du Ehin. M6m. 

des Sav. Etr. et Mem. Com-, de I'Acad. Roy. de Belgique, t. 19, 1847. Tir. a part. 

4to de pp. 114 et 2 pi., arcc Suppl. MS. 
, La lune exerce-t-elle ime intiuence siir les Tremblements de TeiTe ? M^m. pr^sent6 

a I'Acad. des Sciences, Ic 5 Mai, 1847. Compt. Rend. t. 24, p. 822. MS. de 11 pp. en 

1 vol. 4to ; 1 pi. , _ ^ 
, Note siu- les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 18.51. Bull, de I'Acad. Roy. do 

Bdgique, t. 19, part 1, p. 353-39G, et Supplement; Ibid, part 2. p. 21-28. Tir. a, part. 
-, la mgme, ayec Supplement pom- les annees anterieurcs. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, 



2e ser. t. 2, p. 1-G5, 1852. Tir. a part. 
, Memoire sur les rapports qui peuvent exister entre la frequence des tremblements 

de terre et I'age de la lune. Compt. Rend. t. 36, p. 537-540, 21 Mars, 1853. 
, le meme, MS. original avec pi. et 1 vol. gr. in-fol. conlenant les tableaux des Secousses 

de 1801 a 1850, MS. 
— , Note sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1852. Bull, de I'Acad. de Belgique, 

t. 20, no. 5, p. 39-09, 10 Mai, 18.53. Tii-. a part. 
-, la meme, avec Supplements pom- les annees antfirieures. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, 



2e ser. t. 2, p. 7-128. Tir. a part. 
, Note sm- la frequence des tremblements de terre r^lativement an passage de la lime 

au meridien. Compt. Rend. t. 38, p. 16, 2 Jan. 1854. Ce MS. est relie avee Ic No. 

auquel j'ai encore ajoute les tableaux inedits fom-nis a la Commission pour le Rapport 

de M. Elie de Beamnont. , . i xi 

— , Note siu- les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1853. BuU. de I'Acad. Roy. do 

Belgique, t. 21, lere part, p. 457-49.5. Tir. a part. 
, la meme, avec Suppl(5ments pom- les annees anterieures. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, 

2e ser. t. 3, p. 1-55. Tii*. a part. 
— , Cii'cidaire relative a 1' Observation des Tremblements de Terre, adressee a tons les 

Voyagcm-s. Bidl. de la Soc. de Geog., 4e S(§r. t. 7, p. 419-422, Juin, 1854. Tir. a part. 
, Documents relatifs aux Tremblements de Terre du Chili, avec Appendice sm- les 

Tremblements de Terre dans la province de la Plata. Ann. de la Soc. d'Agrio. do 

Lyon, 18.54, 2e ser. t. 6, p. 324r-436. 8vo de pp. 206, avec Suppl. MS. 
, Note sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1854, avec Supplement pour les 

aim6es anteriem-es. Bidl. de I'Acad. Roy. do Belgique, t. 22, lere part. no. 6, p. 526-572, 

Juin 1855. Tir. a part. 8vo de pp. 49. 
, Siu- les Volcaiis et Solfatares de I'ile de Java, renseignement puis6 dans les observa- 
tions recentes des HoUandais. Compt. Rend. t. 42, p. 115-110, 21 Janv. 1837. C'est 

la traduction d'un article sin- ime solfatarc pres de Tj. Aray, par M. Beusen, dont M. 

EUc do Beamnont n'a pas ete le nom. 
, Note SIU- les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1855, avec Supplement pom- les 

annees anteriem-es. lere partie. Supplement, Bidl. de I'Acad. Roy. de Belgique, t. 23 ; 

2e part.. No. 7, p. 23-68, JiuUet 1856. 

, la mSme, 2e partie. Ibid. t. 24; lere part.. No. 1, p. 68-128. 

, Eruption du Manna Loir aux lies Sandwich. Ann. des Voy. Aout 1856, p. 199-229. 

C'est la traduction de deux lettres de M. Coan, suivie de quelques remarques svu* 

r^ruption du V6suve en 1855. 

Excursion sur quelques Voleans de Java pendant I'^te de 1854. Ann. des Voy, 



Oct. 1856, p. 36-65. C'est la traduction de divers estraits du Memoire de M. Teijsmann, 

BibUogi-apbie Seismique. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, 2e serie, t. 4, p. 1-112, 1855 ; 

t. 5, p. 153-253, 1856. 
— , Sm- les Tremblements de Terre de la Peninsule IbMque, Ann. de la Soc. d'Agric. de 

Lyon, t. 10, 1847. Tir. a part. 8vo de pp. 50, avec Suppl. MS. 
, Note sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1847. Bidl. de I'Acad. de Belgique, 

t. 5, no. 5, 1848. Til-, a part. Svo de pp. 7. 

la meme, avee Supplement pom- les ann6es anterieures. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, 



1847_48. Tir. a part. Svo de pp. 48. C'est une 2e edition, qui pom- tons mes cata- 
logues annuels est publiee dans les M6moii-es de I'Acad. de Dijon, et qui est plus com- 
plete que la premiere. 

, Memoire sm- les Tremblements de Terre de la Peninsule Italique. Mem. Com-, et 

Mem. des Sav. Etr. de 1 1 Soc. Belgique, t. 22. Tir. a part. 4to de pp. 145, 2 pi. et 
Suppl. MS. Le meme avait 6te approuve par I'Acad. des Sciences de Tiu-in qui 
m'avait vote I'impression ; voy. Notizie istoriche del lavori della Classe deUe Scienze nel 
corso deir anno 1845. Cette notice se trouve dans notre collection. 

, le meme, MS. 4to, avec Introductions et Cousidtrations inedites. 

Docimicnts sm- les Tremblements de Terre au Mesique, ct dans I'AmWque Centrale. 



aAu. do la Soc. d'Emid. des Vosges, t. 6, 2e cah. 1847. Tir. a part. 8to dc pp. 37, et 
Suppl. MS. 



124 REPORT — 1858. 

Pei-rey (Alexis), Instructions sur I'Observation des Tremblements de Terre. Ann. Met(5or. 
de Prance, 1849, p. 299-311. Estr. gr. 8vo. 

• , Commimication relative a mes recherclies retrospectives snr les Tremblements de 

Terre, faite a la reunion de la See. Geologique a Epinal le 10 Sept. 1847. Bull, de la 
Sec. GeoL, 2e ser. t. 4, p. 1399-1400. 

. , Traduction du Memoire de M. E. Mallet, intitule, Svu- I'Observation des Tremble- 
ments de Terre, avec notes additionnelles du traducteur et suivie de la liste des tremble- 
laents de terre en 1848. Ann. Meteor, de France, 2e ann. J850, p. 279-300. Tir. a part. 
-, Documents sm- les Tremblements de Ten-e et sur les Eruptions Volcaniques dans le 



bassiu de I'ocean atlantique. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, an. 1847-1848. Extra 8vo 
de pp. 67, avec Suppl. MS. 

Note sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1848. Bull, de I'Acad. Roy. de 



Belgique, t. 16, no. 3, 1849. Extr. 8vo de pp. 8. 
-, la meme, avec Supplements pour les annees anterieures. M6m. de I'Acad. de Dijon. 



Tir. a part. 8vo de pp. 48. 
• , Documents siu- les Tremblements de Terre dans le nord de 1' Em-ope et de I'Asie. 

Ann. Magnet, et Meteor, du Corps des Ingenieura de Eussie, an. 1846, p. 201-236. Tir. 

a part. St. Petersboiu*g, 1849, gr. in-4to, a 2 vol., 1 pi. 
• , les memes, suivis d'une not« siu- les Tremblements de Terre en 1848. Ann. de la 

Soc. d'Emul. des Vosges, t. 6, 3e cab. 1848. Tir. a part. 8vo de pp. 71, avec Supplement 

MS. 
• , Sur les Tremblements de Terre dans les lies Britanniques. Ami. de la Soc. d'Agric. 

de Lyon. 2e ser. t. 1, 1849. Tu*. a part. 8vo de pp. 71, avec Suppl. MS. 
— , Note siu" les Tremblements de Terre en 1849, avec Supplements pour les annees 

1847 et 1848. Bidl. de I'Acad. Roy. de Belg. 1. 17, no. 3, 1850. Tir. a part. 8vo de 

PP-22. 

la meme, avec Supplements pour les annees antdrieures. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, 



ann. 1850. Tir. a part. 8vo de pp. 65. 

, Siu* les Tremblements de terre dans la Peninsule Turco-beU^niquc. Mem. Com-. 

de Mem. des Sav. Etr. de I'Acad. de Belgique, t. 23, 1850. Tir. a part. 4to de pp. 73, 
avec Suppl. MS. 

Note sur les Tremblements de Terre en 1850. BuU. de I'Acad. de Belgique, 1. 18, 



no. 4, p. 291-308. Tir. a part. 
, la meme, avec Supplement pour les annees antdrieiu'es. Mem. de I'Acad. de Dijon, 

2e ser. p. 1-30, 1850. Tir. a part. 
. , Sur les Tremblements de Terre aux Etats Unis et au Canada. Ann. de la Soc. d'Emul. 

des Vosges, t. 7, 2c cah., 1850. Tir. a part. 8vo de jjp. 02, avec Suppl. MS. 



Desiderata — Ill-understood 'Phenomena^ ^c. 

Gi-ent Sea- Waves. — Perhaps the best account that has yet been given of the phe- 
nomena of great sea-waves (due beyond question to earthquake or volcanic movement 
of sea-bottom), was communicated by Prof. Bache to the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, and was reprinted along with a paper " On the Tides 
of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean," in 1856, in a separate form by Prof. Bache, at 
New Haven for private circulation, from which the following are extracts. 

On the 23rd of December, 1854, a violent earthquake occurred in the neighbour- 
hood of the Island of Niphon (Japan), the local sea- waves of which wrecked the 
Russian frigate ' Diana,' anchored in the harbour of Siraoda. A correspondent of the 
'New York Herald,' writing from Shanghae, states,- — "At 9 a.m. on the 23rd of 
December, weather clear, therm. 72°, barom. 30°, a severe shock of an earthquake 
was felt on board the frigate, shaking the ship most severely. The shock lasted 
full five minutes, and was followed at quick intervals by rapid and severe shocks 
for thirty minutes." At Qh. 3m. a.m. the sea was observed washing into the bay 
in one immense wave 30 feet high, with awful velocity ; in an instant the town of 
Simoda was overwhelmed and swept from its foundations. "This advance and 
recession of the watei's recurred five times ". . . . " by 2h. 30m. p.m. all was quiet." 
The log-book of the 'Diana' states that "the disturbance commenced at 9h. 15m., 
and that the rising and falling of the water in the bay produced a sudden variation 
of depth from less than 8 feet to more than 40 feet. The frigate was by this laid four 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 125 

times upon her side, once in less than 4 feet of water." Commodore M. C. Perry, 
U.S. Navy, states, — "That the whole eastern coast of Japan seems to have suffered 
from this calamity. Yedo itself was injured, and the fine city of Osaka entirely 
destroyed. At 3 p.m. a fresh west wind was blowing at Simoda. The agitation 
of the water and the movement of the vessel had become very slow ; barom. 29°'87> 
therm. 10°-5 Reaum. (=55°-63 Fahr.)." 

From other sources quoted by Prof. Bache, it appears that on the same day 
(23rd Dec), at Peel's Island, one of the Bonin Islands, there was also (the hour 
not stated) a sudden wave rise of 15 feet above high water, followed by a recession 
which left the reefs entirely bare. The tide continued to rise and fall at intervals of 
fifteen minutes, gradually lessening until the evening. Again on the evening of the 
25th of December (as to which time there is no account of a second earthquake), 
the water rose in like manner 12 feet. 

The United States Coast Survey, so ably superintended by Prof Bache, possesses 
stations of observation furnished with self-registering tide-gauges, at San Diego, 
San Francisco and Astoria, on the Pacific Coast ; and Prof. Bache presented to the 
Association the curves traced by those instruments, in which the comparative 
heights and times, and the mean heights and times at San Francisco and San Diego, 
are given ; also the tidal curves for both, with the abnormal oscillations superimposed; 
and lastlj', three diagrams, in which the tidal level being reduced to a horizontal line, 
the abnormal waves alone are shown, for Astoria, San Francisco and San Diego. 

I can only refer to the original for the full results deducible from these valuable 
observations, and repeat here in brief some of their facts : — 

" The San Francisco curve presents three sets of waves of short interval: the first 
begins at 4h. 12ra. and ends at 8h. 52ra., the interval being 4h. 40m. ; the second begins 
at 9h. 35m. and ends at 13h. 45m., the interval being 4h. lOra. ; the beginning of the 
third is about 13ijh., and its end not distinctly traceable. The crest of the first large 
wave of the three sets occurred at the respective times of 4h. 42ra., 9h. 54m., and 
14h. 17m., giving intervals of 5h. 12m., and 5h. 23m." 

"The average time of oscillation of one of the first set of waves was 35m., one of 
the second 31m., and one of the third about the same. The average height of the 
first set of waves was 0"45 foot on a tide which fell 2 feet ; of the second 0'19 foot 
on a tide which rose 3 feet; and of the third 0"19 foot on a tide which fell about 
7 feet ; the phenomena occurring on a day when the diurnal inequality was very 
considerable. The greatest fall of the tide during the occurrence of the first set of 
waves was 0'70, and the corresponding rise 0"60 foot. In the second set the corre- 
sponding quantities were 0'30 and 0"20 foot ; in the third these waves would not have 
attracted general attraction." There is a general analogy in the sequence of the 
waves of the three sets, which seem to mark them as belonging to a recurrence of 
the same series of phenomena. The series itself looks like the result of several 
impulses, not of a single one, the heights rapidly increasing to the third wave, then 
diminishing as if the impulse had ceased, then renewed and then ceased, leaving the 
oscillation to extinguish itself. If we had a corresponding account of the facts as 
they occurred at Simoda, the subject would lose the conjectural or rather the in- 
complete character that belongs to it. Although there is no account of the place of 
origin of the earthquake, yet its violence on the Japanese coasts and its diminished 
effects at Peel's Island, as well as the times of arrival of the waves at the Japanese 
and Pacific American coasts, prove that it must have been beneath the sea, and not 
far distant from Japan. "Five distinct waves in succession rolled in at Simoda; 
eight are shown by the San Francisco gauge, of which seven were of considerable 
height." It seems not improbable, although this does not appear to have occurred 
to Prof. Bache, that three of the San Francisco waves may have been reflected waves 
only. The highest wave at Simoda was estimated at 30 feet, at Peel's Island 15 feet, 
at San Francisco 0'65 foot, and at San Diego 0"50 foot. 

At San Diego, the gauge shows distinctly the same three series of waves. The 
first begins at Ih. 22m. later than at San Francisco, correcting for difference of 
longitude, and ends 52m. later. The interval is 30m. less than at San Francisco, 
the oscillations being rather shorter than at the latter point. The second begins at 
54m. later than at San Francisco and ends 34m. later. The third begins 
about 54 ra. later than at San Francisco. The average time of oscillation of the 



126 REPORT — 1858. 

first set is 31m., of the second 29m., being thus respectively 4m. and 2m. shorter 
than at San Francisco. Tiie average height of the first set of waves was 0'17 foot 
lower than at San Francisco, and the second as much higher. This fact, taken witli 
the difference in the times of oscillation, induces Prof. Bache to suppose that the 
difference in the two series was due to interference, which is also suggested by the 
position of San Diego in reference to the islands separating the Santa Barbara Soupd 
from the ocean. 

The difference in the periods of tide on the arrival of the waves at each place 
would tend to produce discrepancies. The first series at San Diego arrived on a 
rising tide of 4 feet, while at San Francisco it was upon a falling tide of 2 feet. The 
second at San Diego arrived at near high water, and was chiefly upon a falling tide 
of 7 feet, while at San Francisco it was upon a rising tide of 4 ieet. 

The forms of the waves accord remarkably at both stations. 

The tide-gauge at Astoria gives less instructive results, the bar at the entrance of 
the Columbia River having no doubt broken up and greatly reduced the waves, even 
if they arrived at the entrance unbroken. The gauge showed a disturbance, but 
irregular and confused, which was also apparently preceded by (other) unusual 
oscillations of the water; and Prof. Bache sees reason to think that the San Diego 
gauge indicates disturbances of the water of an abnormal character previous to the 
great earthquake shock, as well as following it at intervals for several days. The 
normal time for high and low water does not seem to have been disturbed by the 
superposition upon the tide-wave of the abnormal or earthquake waves. 

From these results Prof. Bache draws the following conclusions as to the rate of 
translation of the great sea- waves of the earthquake. 

The latitudes and longitudes of the stations ^re : — 

Lat. N. Long. W. Time. 

o / o / h. m. 

San Diego 32 42 117 13 7 49 

San Francisco 37 48 122 26 8 10 

Simoda 34 40 121 62 14 44 

The distance from San Diego to Simoda is therefore 4917 nautical miles, and from 
San Francisco to Simoda 4527 nautical miles. Assuming the first account of the 
disturbance at Simoda at 9 a.m. or at 22d. 23h. 44m. Greenwich mean time, and the 
first great wave 30 minutes afterwards. Prof. Bache proceeds to calculate the rate. 
There appears to be some typographical errors in the figures, which slightly affect the 
result which he arrives at, viz. 363 miles per hour, or 60 miles per minute. Cor- 
recting the erroneous figures, the result would appear to be, — the first disturbance at 
San Francisco was at 23d. 12h. 22m., or 12h. 38m. after that at Simoda, and the 
first great wave at 23d. 4h. 42m., giving the same interval (of 30m.). The distance 
and time therefore give a rate of 368 miles per hour, or 5"96t) miles per minute. 

Assuming the second account (9h. 15m.), the time of transmission when reduced 
would be 12h. 13m., and the rate of translation 370 miles per hour, or 6*20 miles 
per minute. 

The San Diego observations, assuming 9h. Om. as the time of transmission at 
Simoda, give I3h. 50m., which, when reduced, gives a rate of translation of 355 
miles per hour, which is almost identical with the corrected reduction of the San 
Francisco observations. 

Although not directly connected with our subject, it is interesting to state that 
Prof. Bache deduces from these results a probable mean depth for the Pacific Ocean 
on the paths traversed by these great sea- waves of from 2100 to 2500 fathoms. 
(See also Amer. Journ. of Science, vol. xxi. 2 ser. January 1850.) 

I deem no apology needed for this lengthened abstract of Prof. Bache's communi- 
cation, not only because it is, up to the present time, almost the only i-ecord of 
scientific pretensions, of the phenomena of earthquake great sea-waves, but as a 
model for those who may be engaged in tidal observations upon British or 
European coasts, of what is needed to make their results connect usefully with the 
requirements of those occupied in seismical inquiry. The extreme value of self- 
registering tide-gauges, and the great importance of multiplying these round our 
own coasts, and upon those of our Mediterranean and antipodal stations, are forcibly 
shown by the remark of Bache, that but for these instruments, the very 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 127 

occurrence on the North American coast of these sea-waves, which had traversed 
the whole vast breadth of the Pacific, a distance equal to one-fifth of the earth's 
circumference, would have actually passed unnoticed. Had there been a competent 
self-registering tide-gauge at Simoda, we could probably have fixed exactly the spot 
beneath the ocean at which the earthquake disturbance originated. 



There is also a class of doubtful great sea-ioaves, for the investigation of which 
such self-registering instruments would afford precious data. 

It has been many times observed at various stations round our own British coasts 
(as well as abroad), that abnormal tides have occurred, or that solitary waves of 
translation have reached the shore, at abnormal periods, or at uncertain periods of 
repetition, which could not be confounded with any recognized tidal phenomena. 

Such waves have veiy customarily been referred to earthquakes for their origin of 
late years ; yet very many examples occur in which there has been no account of 
contemporaneous earthquake, either in the offing at sea, or in any other direction. 
And the question arises, are such abnormal waves always to be attributed to earth- 
quakes (whether observed or not), or may they possibly be produced by some nodal 
action or other disturbance far out at sea of waves of other classes, and if so, of what 
nature ? 

It will be advantageous to adduce some examples, and the rather, as I am enabled, 
through the obliging attention of the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland, to 
state one of much interest and in some detail, of which no full account has yet 
appeared. 

But first we may notice such an occurrence on the coast irear Whitby, Yorkshire, 
copied from the York ' Herald ' of March 8, 1856, for which I am indebted to Mr. 
William Gray of York. 

" York, March 8, 1856. 

♦' Robin Hood's Bay.— On Sunday last, the 2nd instant, at 10 a.m., the tide being 
then about two-thirds flood, the following phenomenon was observed : — The rocks, 
which had been bare just previously, were observed to be completely submerged. 
The water then fell back, and again returned, rushing with considerable force over 
the rocks and beach. This was repeated two or three times, the water running up a 
moderately inclined beach the distance of thirty yards. 

"A remarkable phenomenon of the tides was observed at Whitby on the 2nd 
in'St. At a quarter to ten o'clock in the morning, being an hour and a quarter 
before high water, the sea suddenly rushed up Whitby harbour, rising in dif- 
ferent places from 18 inches to 3 feet, driving a laden lighter from its moorings, 
and causing much commotion amongst the small craft. It then receded, but was 
followed by other and similar waves, so that the tide appeared to ebb and flow six 
times in the space of little more than an hour. A vessel, which was entering the 
harbour at the time, was alternately afloat and aground on her passage up, according 
to the level of the water. About midnight of the same day, the harbour-officers 
observed a recurrence of the event, and in the first hour of Monday the rush of 
water appeared to be much more powerful than on Sunday morning. About eleven 
o'clock on Sunday night, Mr. Tose, the haibour-raaster, having observed a mark 
which indicates that the tide was sufficiently high for a vessel then in the roads to 
enter the harbour, went up the lighthouse and lit the gas-signal. On his return to 
the pier, he was astonished to find that though the tide ought to have risen higher, 
it had fallen considerably below the mark. Being afraid the vessel would take the 
harbour, he was about to extinguish the light, when suddenly the tide rose far above 
the mark above referred to. At Staithes and Robin Hood's Bay, the phenomenon 
was also observed. The rushes of water resembled what are known in some rivers 
as ' bores,' but on a much larger scale. Such phenomena often accompany sub- 
terraneous disturbances, and on some occasions they have been terribly destructive. 
As no earthquake has been felt in these parts recently, it is difficult to account for 
the phenomenon, and it can scarcely be referred to atmospheric causes. It would 
be interesting to learn whether a similar occurrence took place on other parts of the 
coast. Dr. Young, in his ' History of Whitby ' (page 792), remarks, ' To volcanic 



128 REPORT — 1858. 

agency may be ascribed this remarkable phenomenon, that on the l7th July, 1761, 
the tide rose and fell at Whitby four times in an hour.' " 

Analogous phenomena have been observed at Pegwell Bay, on the southern coast, 
during the present year. 

The following documents refer to the observations of such waves made upon the 
coast of Wexford, Ireland, in 1854. 

The 'Wexford Independent,' a local journal of the 27th September, 1854, gives 
the following account : — 

"Extraordinary Phenomenon. — We are indebted to Mr. William Campbell, the 
professional helmet-diver, who has done so much for the improvement of the new pier 
of Kilmore, by blasting and removing the rocks which impeded its entrance, for the 
following account of an extraordinary phenomenon, witnessed there on Saturday 
evening, Sept. l6th, 1854. 'I was' (writes Mr. Campbell) 'in one of our boats 
seeking after some implements, and net looking seawards, when, on a sudden, I heard 
a mighty rush of water against the back of the pier, and in a moment it came 
sweeping round the pier-head, full 3 feet high and abreast. It was within one hour 
and a half of low water at the time. The inner dock was crowded with tlie small 
sailing craft of the place, and quite dry, the tide being more than four hours 
on ebb. In less than five minutes every boat was afloat, and we had high water. 
In five minutes more the water ebbed again to the lowest spring-tide. This was 
repeated seven times in the course of two hours and a half. St. Patrick's Bridge was 
alternately dry and covered to the extent of a mile, and the sea formed a cascade 
from end to end of it, the influx appearing to come from the east. At the same time 
the sea was not by any means rough nor heaving. Standing on the top of the 
parapet wall of the pier, I could descry two different currents running parallel, and 
counter currents to these quite visible, the discoloured water running east at a rate 
of ten or twelve miles an hour, and the intervening water of the original green hue, 
and stationary. These tide currents were as far out as the shore of the Saltee 
Islands. I can only compare the current to the opening of a sluice gate. There was 
no damage done to any of the craft, more than the bursting of a few warps. Had 
the occurrence taken place at the period of high water, the result would have been the 
complete overflow of the land in the district, and consequent immense loss. We 
have often heard old people of that place say that on the Sunday after Lisbon was 
destroyed by the earthquake of November 1, 1755, the day being remarkably fine, 
the sea at Kilmore suddenly rose and fell in like manner. This occurrence the other 
day has been owing, no doubt, to some similar and distant cause.' " 

The phenomena alluded to in the above paragraph, from the 'Wexford Indepen- 
dent,' are not unknown on the Waterford coast, and are there popularly termed 
'death waves.' It is not very long since two ladies had a narrow escape of being 
washed out to sea at Dunmore, by a sudden wave, which surprised them whilst seated 
at a considerable distance above high- water mark on the beach. 

Repeated instances are on record of such waves upon the north-east coast of 
England and upon the south-west coast of Ireland, as well as in many other places 
(see also Second Report, p. 47-48), and even on the east coast of Africa. 

For the following, I am indebted to the Commissioners of Public Works, Ireland : — 

" Office of Public Works, October 19, 1854. 

" Sir, — I am directed to transmit herewith a copy of a report which the Board 
have received from James B. Farrell, Esq., County Surveyor of Wexford, respecting 
an extraordinary tidal phenomenon at Kilmore on the coast of that county on the 
I6th ultimo. The Board send this report, considering it will be interesting to you, 
on the subject of earthquakes, to which you are giving your attention. 

"To Robert Mallet, Esq." " W. Mooney, pro Sec." 

"Wexford, October 10, 1854. — In compliance with the request of the Com- 
missioners, contained in your note of the 22nd ultimo, I forwarded a newspaper in 
which was an account of the tidal phenomenon at Kilmore. 

" Since then I have made inquiries along the coast, tracing from New Ross round 
by Ballyhack, Arthurstown, Duncannon, Hook Head, Slade, Fethard, Bannow, and 
on towards Carnsore Point. 

"As far as Bannow nothing unusual was observed. The Coast-Guard near there. 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OK EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 129 

although one was, as is customary, on the ' look-out ' at the time of the occurrence, 
noted no disturbance. It appears to have been perceived about tvfo miles east of 
this station, near the point indicated bj' the line A on the accompanying map, 
Plate XIII., and seems to have been confined between this and the line B. At 
'Ballyhealy,' a little further east, it was not observed. 

" From inquiries into the details of the appearance, I learned from Mr. Campbell 
at Kilmore, that six distinct ridges of water, about 2 or 3 feet high, passed from the 
west towards the east, very much discoloured and carrying with them large quan- 
tities of sea- weed. There was a considerable space between each pair in which the 
water was of its usual colour, and quite calm, as was the sea generally, there being 
no wind to disturb it. 

"These ridges did not proceed in (broken?) waves, but in continuous lines, and 
passed on apparently unchecked, while the tide rose and receded on the shore within 
them, which it did seven times. It is stated that, at the second reflux, the water fell 
lower than it was ever known by the residents there to fall before. 

" It would appear that the ridges maintained their velocity sufficiently to force 
back the ebb, which flows rapidly round Carnsore Point (nearly three knots an hour) 
until they passed St. Patrick's Bridge, where the ebb-tide regained its motion west- 
ward in the shape of the ' cascade ' mentioned by Mr. Campbell in the printed 
account. 

" The disturbance lasted, according to his statement, from 20 minutes past 4 to 
nearly 7 o'clock p.m. 

" On inquiring at the ' Bar of Lough,' I found that at about half-ebb the watch- 
man at the Coast-Guard Station, who was in the watchhouse, which is built on the 
edge of the sea, felt the floor tremble under his feet, and at the same time the fire- 
irons and other articles of furniture shook and rattled audibly. He was also startled 
by ' an extraordinary noise ' outside. On going out to ascertain the cause, he found 
that a large wave was forcing back the ebb. This was repeated three times. The 
first wave only, however, was accompanied by noise. 

" A schooner was lying inside the Lough, at the place marked C, from the master 
of which, I learned that his vessel was three times swung round, standing alter- 
nately to the flood and ebb. He was below, when he had the first intimation of it, 
and described his being affected with a strange sensation, as if he were getting sick. 
This I believe is not uncommon in cases of earthquake. 

" Mr. Lett, R.N., the Coast-Guard officer here, upon whom I called, made to me 
a statement confirming what I had collected by inquiry. 

"There seems little doubt that the whole thing was caused by a slight shock of 
earthquake. 

" From the information I had at Kilmore from Mr. Campbell, I have laid down 
lines on the accompanying map, exhibiting the ridges as described by him, and 
endeavouring to illustrate, by the curved arrows, the action of the ebb-tide upon 
them. "James B. Farrell, Wexford County Surveyor." 

" With reference to the communication addressed to you on the tidal action on 
Wexford coast, I may mention that since it was sent to you, further information 
shows that it extended beyond the limits marked by Mr. Farrell, having, by the 
report of the Coast-Guard, turned Carnsore Point : he has written to the Inspect- 
ing Commander of the Coast-Guard, to request he will follow it up, and ascertain 
how far north the effect was observed. 

"Yours, dear Sir, faithfully, 
" To Robert Mallet, Esq. " Jno. Radcliffe." 

21 Oct. 1854." 

Referring to Plate XIII., it would appear probable that the primary cotidal line of 
these waves was about in the direction C C of the heavy dotted line, and that the 
change of direction, on approaching the shore about B, was due to the conjoint 
effects, of the meeting ebb tidal-stream round Carnsore Point, of reflection at the 
Saltees, and of inequality of bottom on reaching the inshore shoal-waters. 

An almost identical train of phenomena occurred at the same point upon the 
Wexford shore on Sunday, 12th September, 1841. The account is given by Milne, 
" On British Earthquakes," Edinb. New Philos. Journ. vol. xxxvi. p. 83, and copied 
18.58. K 



130 REPORT — 1858. 

from a Wexford newspaper : — "The day was misty and dark, wind S.S.W. to S. 
Thunder heard at noon ; wind lulled, and fog became dense. At Kilmore, ten miles 
south of Wexford, and directly opposite the Saltee Islands, about noon, a number of 
short, loud, smothered reports like cannon were heard. The tide had flowed consider- 
ably at the time, and the fishing-boats at the pier were all afloat, when, within the 
space of two or three minutes, the water suddenly receded from the pier, and people 
walked dry-shod where a little before there had been five to six feet of water. 
After a few minutes, again the tide began as suddenly to return ; and, after re- 
suming its level, continued to rise to high water in the usual way. There was no 
extraordinary commotion, only an increased surf. The sky cleared after thunder 
and showers." 

The question, however, here chiefly in point is, whence come these waves? what is their 
origin ? The direction of translation, on entering the wide Bay of Ballyteague, here was 
almost exactly from the south-west, and if transmitted from a considerable distance, 
the origin of disturbance must have been beneath the deep waters of the Atlantic 
Ocean, and it is scarcely probable that an earthquake blow sufficiently powerful to 
have originated waves so large after so long a transmission, should have occurred and 
not have been generally felt in the South of Ireland, where the hard and elastic cha- 
racters of all the formations are so favourable to the distant transmission of impulses. 
It is equally difficult to assume, as here operative, a condition which upon coasts 
of shoal water and encumbered with banks and bars, may unquestionably originate 
great sea- waves, and which very probably is actually the cause of those of not un- 
frequent occurrence upon the east and south-east coasts of England. 

Almost all great submarine banks are constantly subjected, at the same time, to 
aggregation by deposition, and to partial degradation, by the sweeping away of 
material along their bases and flanks, by tidal action, either constant or at certain 
periods of tide. Deposition takes place by vertical, or more or less inclined preci- 
pitation of suspended matter; this form of degradation, by horizontal removal. 
The conjoint efifect is very frequently to increase the steepness of the angle of slope 
of the degrading flank of the hank, matter being constantly added on top and re- 
moved from lower down, and with most energy at a level intermediate between the 
surface-water and bottom. 

A time arises, therefore, at which the angle of slope of the bank is increased be- 
yond the limits of repose of the material, whether mud, sand or gravel, or any mix- 
ture of these ; and then a great under-water slippage takes place, and a mass often 
of enormous magnitude at once slides from the top and flank of the bank down into 
deep water, and spreads and levels itself out upon the bottom, to be in its turn swept 
away and replaced by fresh materials and to give rise to another slippage. Thus, in 
figs. 9 & 10, if s, s represent the surface of the sea, b, b (fig. 9) the sea-bottom in 

Fig. 9. 



transverse section through the flank of the bank in a plane at right angles to the 
stream of abrasion ; then, at the point where the equilibrium of repose of the mass 
is lost, the mass r, n slips and is suddenly transported from its original position to 
n, m. The effect upon the surface of the sea, is at the same moment to originate a 
positive and a negative wave, w and v, whose crests shall more or less approximate 
to the general line of the flank of the bank ; and these will be immediately succeeded 
by two solitary waves of translation, a greater, w (fig. 10), and a less, v, whose mo- 
tions of translation will be opposite. 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 131 

The magnitude of the wave raised is dependent upon that of the mass of solid 
material that has suddenly changed its place, upon the depth of water in which the 

Fig. 10. 



slippage has occurred, upon the rapidity of the transposition, and in a minor degree 
upon the form and material of the portion of the bank that has slipped. Where the 
depth of water is very great, its effects at the surface may be quite insensible at the 
place ; but when this low broad flattened wave of only a few inches becomes heaped 
up on shelving shores or tidal estuaries, it may then become very apparent, and 
perfectly so to accurate tide gauges. Where the water is comparatively shallow, 
as it usually is where large and heavy banks occur, there the undulatory effects on 
the surface, even at the seat of disturbance, will be considerable. We have then 
a simple mechanism abundantly sufficient to account for the occurrence of some 
such abnormal tide-waves or great sea-waves as have been noticed ; but while thus 
a vera causa, is it the cause of any of those phenomena that have been observed, 
and which do not appear to have been accompanied by earthquakes? This, as well 
as all the hydrodynamic phenomena of such sea-waves, I would commend to the 
careful attention of future observers. (See First Report, p. 61.) 



Stoppage of Rivers. — Throughout earthquake narratives, nothing is more commonly 
recorded amongstthe secondaryphenomena,than sudden derangements of the ordinary 
and prior regimen of springs, wells, and especiallyof rivers. Almost all such facts admit 
of simple explanation ; and in the case of rivers, the sudden drying up or stoppage of 
their streams, has been most usually due to sudden damming up by the fall of debris 
of rocks from precipices, &c. across the river-beds, usually at narrow gorges, where 
the damming can easily take place, and whence it is, by the posterior rising of the 
waters, afterwards swept away or gradually removed by floods, &c. ; often also on a 
granderscale,it arises from the occurrence ofgreatlandslips (in countriesof deep alluvial 
or other little coherent formation), bulging out into the river-beds, and temporarily 
shutting them up, and either forcing the streams into new channels, or damming 
them up until the waters produce a debacle and sweep away the obstacle. 

But not a few cases are upon record of sudden stoppages in the ordinary supply 
of water in river streams, not known to have been connected with any earthquake, 
or with any sufficient and explainable cause. Perhaps the phenomena cannot be 
more briefly set forth than by transcribing a notice from ' Chambers's Edinburgh 
Journal' for Jan. 19, 1839, No. 364. p. 412 :— 

" Late Stoppage of Rivers in the South of Scotland. — Most of our readers have 
probably read the accounts which appeared in the newspapers of a simultaneous 
stoppage of the rivers Teviot, Clyde, and Nith, on the 27th of November last; yet, 
as many may not have heard of it, and few may have paid to it the attention which 
it deserves, we are glad to have the opportunity afforded us of bringing the circum- 
stance under the especial notice of our readers. It has, we are glad to find, been 
taken up, as a subject worthy of scientific investigation ; and in this we have been 
invited to assist, by endeavouring to procure information from any of our readers 
who may be able to afford it. The phenomenon, it is suspected, is attributable to 
some agent or cause which had acted over a very extensive range of country, and 
which, probably, produced similar effects, in many other places besides the banks 
of the three rivers above specified. W^e trust that if such effects were perceived by 
any of our readers, they will be so obliging as accede to the proposal and the request 
with which we conclude the present notice. 

" On the morning of Tuesday, the 27 ih of November last, about six o'clock, the 
miller of Maxwellheugh Mill, situated on the Teviot, near its confluence with the 
Tweed, perceived a great diminution taking place in the water which flowed through 
his mill-course. At eight o'clock the water altogether ceased to flow. Thinking 
that the sluice had fallen down, or that the caitld [dam] had given way. he went up 

k2 



132 REPORT— 1858. 

to the cauld, and touad, much to his surprise, that there was hardly any water in 
the river. There were here and there a few pools, where there were hollows in the 
channel ; but there was no longer a running stream. The channel continued dry 
for four or five hours — after which the water began gradually to flow, till the waters 
reached the same level they were at previously. At this place the Teviot is on an 
average about 50 feet wide, and 2 feet deep. 

" The same phenomenon took place in the Nith, in the parish of Durrisdeer, at 
Enterkinefoot. The channel was so dry, that a person could have walked across 
without wetting his stockings. 

" It was observed also in the Clyde, a little above New Lanark. The extensive 
cotton-mills at that place were for some hours stopped, in consequence of an entire 
cessation of the current. Numbers of fish were caught with the hand, and many 
persons walked across without wetting so much as the soles of their feet. 

" The above particulars we have taken from the newspapers, and we do not vouch 
for their perfect accuracy ; but we have no reason to doubt it, as the statements have 
not been contradicted. 

" It appears that the same phenomenon has occurred frequently before. In the 
Teviot, it is known to have occurred at least five times between the years 1748 and 
1787. It happened also in the Clyde in the year 1787, and within a few days of its 
occurrence in the Teviot : and it is remarkable, that, in regard to both of these rivers, 
the part of the channel where their waters disappeared, turns out to be the very 
place where they disappeared last month. But there are several other rivers, both 
in England and in Scotland, where the same phenomenon has been observed within 
the last half-century. 

" We feel satisfied that our readers will share with us an extreme anxiety to 
discover, if possible, the cause of this singular phenomenon : and we will now ex- 
plain to them in what way they can be instrumental in assisting in this discovery. 

" The first object should be to obtain a minute and accurate account of all the 
facts apparently connected with the phenomenon, at the places where it was observed. 
We are happy to learn that steps have been taken for this purpose by persons well- 
quahfied for such an inquiry. But as it is just possible, that even they may not have 
gathered up all the circumstances calculated to throw light on the subject, our readers 
in these quarters would do well to note down, ere it fades from their memories, any 
thing particular which they observed. 

" We may now allude to the different theories which have been started to account 
for the phenomenon, because they will immediately show the importance of 
gathering together as many facts as possible. It is by facts alone that these theories 
will be confirmed or refuted. 

" Some persons ascribe the phenomenon to a severe frost which occurred on the 
morning of Nov. 27, and which, it is said, froze up the streamlets and springs that 
supplied the rivers where the phenomenon was observed. We cannot see how, on 
any philosophical principles, the effect here stated would follow from such a cause. 
But, even if it were sufficient to produce it, then the same phenomenon should have 
occurred in the Tweed, the Jed, and all the rivers where the frost reached. More- 
over, it should be observed every winter, and it ought to have been very strikingly 
observed last winter. Besides, the waters should, after the frost gave way, have 
risen considerably above their usual level, which, it is said, was not the case. 

"We have adverted to these inferences from the theory just mentioned, in order to 
show how its truth or falsehood may be tested ; and many of our readers may be in 
possession of facts which will supply this test. 

"Another theory has been proposed, which, we confess, appears much more pro- 
bable. It is suggested, that a fissure may have been formed under or across the 
channels of the above rivers, into which their waters found their way. The current 
would thus cease to flow in its ordinary channel until the fissure closed, or was 
filled up by the sediment and water poured into it. The fissure might be either a 
crack across the country, or a local sinking of the ground. It is well known that 
earthquakes frequently produce such effects; and there are few years in which, in 
some parts of Scotland and England, the shock of an earthquake is not felt. When 
the Clyde stopped in January 1787, a rivulet in the parish of Strathblane, in Stir- 
lingshire, which drove a mill, also disappeared. On the same day, the shock of an 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 133 

earthquake was very sensibly felt in Glasgow and its neighbourhood. Whether or 
not at either of these places any fissures were observed, into which the streams 
flowed for a time, we have been unable to learn. That there are fissures, or slips 
(as the geologists call them), which everywhere intersect the crust of the earth, is well 
known to every collier and miner; and that there are such fissures in that part of the 
channel of the Clyde, where its waters have repeatedly disappeared (namely, between 
the uppermost fall and Corra Linn), is extremely probable. It might be thought, 
however, that, if a crack was produced, sufficient to allow the waters of a large 
river to escape, it would soon be discovered. But it is quite possible, that, after the 
lapse of a few hours, the crack might close again, and leave scarcely any external 
traces of its existence. Still, we cannot help thinking that some traces should be 
discoverable ; and this is just one of the points on which our provincial readers may 
be able to afford information. 

" We shall conclude by suggesting one or two points, to which, if any of our readers 
would be so obliging as to investigate the subject, their attention may be directed ; 
and we doubt not, other points will occur to themselves : — 

" 1 . Have phenomena, similar to those which occurred in the Teviot, the Clyde, 
and the Nith, on the 27th of November last, been observed, on the same day, or 
about the same time, in any other rivers in Great Britain ? 

" 2. If so, at what hour were they first observed, and how long did they continue? 

" 3. Where is the highest place, in the course of the river, where its waters dis- 
appeared ? 

"4. Was any crack, or fissure, or sinking, or disturbance of the ground, visible at 
that place ? 

"5. Was the shock of an earthquake felt, anywhere, about the period above 
mentioned ? 

" 6. Was there much or any ice on the river, or its tributaries, where the aforesaid 
phenomenon occurred ? 

" 7- When the water began to flow again, did it rise to a higher level than it had 
been at previously ? 

"8. Is there any appearance of a slip, fault, dyke, or trouble in the strata, at or 
near the place where the waters began to disappear ? 

"9- Has this phenomenon, or anything similar to it, been observed informer 
years — and when ? 

" We may also repeat the queries 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, with regard to the stoppage 
of the Teviot, Clyde, and Nith ; for on the subjects of those queries with regard to 
the phenomenon of the 27th of November, we are as yet uninformed." 

See also some analogous facts mentioned by Perrey in his memoir " On the Earth- 
quakes of Europe, and adjacent parts of Africa and Asia, from 1801 to 1843" 
(Comptes Rendus, Sept. 1843, last page but one of the memoir). Most of these phe- 
nomena have occurred in the winter and in higher latitudes ; and although there are 
considerable difficulties in the way of the frost theory of accounting for them, and I 
incline to the view that it will hereafter be found to be the true one, yet there is 
sufficient to induce the question — Can it be possible that partial or local elevations, 
with or without fractures or earthquake, take place occasionally, and to such an 
extent as to change the levels of portions of the earth's surface, and for a time 
derange the flow of rivers, or other such main channels of drainage ? 

Those who embrace the views of Von Bnch and Humboldt, &c., and admit the 
possibility of boursouffie domes of trachyte, will be prepared to find no difficulty in 
imagining such comparatively small surfaces elevated and swollen up, by the assumed 
elastic forces beneath, so as to produce new and extemporaneous water-sheds ; and 
although I cannot join in such views, the subject appears to me worthy of more exa- 
mination at the hands of Vulcanologists and Seismologists. 



Nausea at the moment of shock. — This curious effect of earthquake shock upon 
human beings, and if accounts are to be credited, also upon some domestic animals, 
is deserving of more attention than it has yet received. 

The fact itself, as respects human beings, admits of no doubt. I have direct 
testimony of the boys of a large boarding-school being suddenly awakened at night 
by one of the North American shocks, and the greater number suffering from imme- 



134 REPORT— 1858. 

diate sense of nausea, amounting to vomiting in many cases. In tlie late earth- 
quake at Naples (Dec. 1857) many instances were related to me by the sufferers. 
The question arises. Is the nausea an effect of the sudden disturbance of the 
nervous system by alarm, &c., or is it due to the movement itself, and analogous 
to sea-sickness .■' There are great difficulties in the way of either solution. Those 
most likely to suffer severely from nervous alarm, do not seem to be those most usu- 
ally affected. The direct movements are very generally too sudden, sharp, and of 
too little duration, to admit of the second explanation. The facts, however, require 
to be more numerous, and to be scientifically collected and classified as soon after 
the occurrence as possible, and are commended to such physiologists as may be 
favourably circumstanced for the observation in earthquake regions. 



Indirect estimation of the force due to the shock. — In our ignorance of the precise 
nature of the originating impulse, whether of one or of more than one sort, or of the 
degree of force at the centre of impulse necessary to transmit a wave, sensibly, to a 
given distance through the common formations of the earth's crust, any trustworthy 
observations, of the distance to which the very analogous blow produced by fired 
mines, or other masses of gunpowder, has been sensibly conveyed, are not to be 
at present neglected. The 2nd Report gives exact information as to the distances to 
which such impulses from fired powder, even of a feeble character, may be conveyed 
through the worst conducting material (sand), and made instrumentally sensible. 

I have collected since that period a few occasional notices of the explosions of 
large masses of gunpowder, and of such facts as may be found, of the magnitude and 
distance of the impulse conveyed, which I here transcribe for reference. It would 
be very desirable that officers of engineers entrusted with demolitions, or requiring 
to explode very large masses of powder, would endeavour to provide for obtaining 
observations as to the precise radius of the superficial area at which the ground 
shock became insensible without the aid of instruments, and that such observations 
were accompanied by a general account of the nature of the geological formation, 
and of the physical features of the country around. 

" The Monster Blast at Furness.— The monster blast of gunpowder at Furness 
Granite Quarry took place on Wednesday afternoon, with complete success. The 
charge consisted of no less than three tons of gunpowder, and was deposited in two 
chambers — one and a half ton in each. The shaft was 60 feet in depth, and the 
chambers in which the powder was placed were 17 feet long. The charge was 
ignited by a galvanic battery, and lifted an immense mass of rock, computed to have 
been between 7000 and 8000 tons. The flame belched out on the seaward side, 
and was well seen by a large concourse of spectators from Inverary, the watering 
places of the Clyde, and a party of excursionists from Glasgow, on board the ' Mary 
Jane.' The report was not loud, but deep and hoarse, and the ground in a very wide 
circle was strongly agitated." — Glasgow Constitutional, October 5, 1852. 

The 'Journal de Turin' of the 29th ult. has, under the head of "latest intelligence," 
the following paragraph : — "Turin, ir45 a.m. Two successive shocks have been 
felt like those of an earthquake. The powder magazine of Borgo Dora has ex- 
ploded. The population is hurrying to the scene of disaster. The rappel is being 
beaten. All the faubourg is on fire. A barrack has fallen down. Two hundred 
deaths are spoken of." — Saunders's Newsletter, May 1852. 

It is quite probable that both in this case and in that of the magazine at Mayence, 
which subsequently exploded, information might still be obtained as to the weight of 
powder fired and the extreme distance to which the shock was felt. 

" Improvement of the Port of Brest. — The ' Moniteur de la Flotte ' states that M. 
Verrier, engineer, charged with the work of clearing away the Rose Rock, which 
obstructs the entrance of a part of the harbour of Brest, called the Penfield, made 
an experiment a few days ago, which was perfectly successful. One of the convicts, 
covered with a diving-dress, descended to the rock at half-tide, and deposited a box 
full of gunpowder, to which were fitted two gutta-percha tubes, also similarly filled. 
As soon as the man had come up, a light was applied to the tubes, and shortly after 
a loud cracking noise was heard, and a large column of water, with fragments of 
stone and a quantity of sand and mud, were thrown up to the height of 20 feet. 
The commotion was so great, that the Bastion de la Rose, which stands near. 



ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 135 

trembled to its foundation. The mass thus moved has been considerable." — Times, 
April 17th, 1857. 

The following is the ' Times ' account of one of the explosions at the siege of 
Sebastopol : — 

"Thursday, Aug. 30, 1855. — ^The whole of the camp was shaken this morning 
at 1 o'clock by a prodigious explosion, which produced the effects of an earthquake. 
A deplorable accident had occurred to our gallant aUies as they were pursuing their 
works with accustomed energy. A tumbrel, from which they were discharging 
powder into one of the magazines near the Mamelon, was struck by a shell from 
the Russian batteries, which burst as it crashed through the roof of the carriage, and 
ignited the cartridges within ; the flames caught the powder in the magazine, and, 
with a hideous roar, 14,000 rounds of gunpowder rushed forth in a volcano of fire to 
the skies, shattering to atoms the magazine, the tumbrels, and all the surrounding 
works, and whirling from its centre in all directions over the face of the Mamelon 
and beyond it 150 officers and men. Masses of earth, gabions, stones, fragments of 
carriages, and heavy shot were hurled far into our works on the left of the French, 
and wounded several of our men. The light of the explosion was not great, but 
the roar and shock of the earth were very considerable. The heaviest sleepers awoke 
and rushed out of their tents. The weight of powder exploded was about seven 
tons, or 1400 rounds of lOlbs. each." — Times, Sept. 13, 1855. 

The following is part of the French account of the expedition against Kertch : — 

"May 26th, 1855. — Finally, before evacuating Yenikale, they blew up a powder 
magazine, containing about 30,000 kilogrammes of powder : the shock was so great, 
that many houses were destroyed, and vessels anchored ten miles out at sea felt it 
severely." — ' Moniteur ' quoted by ' Times,' June 1855. 

And the following of the great explosion in the camp before Sebastopol, on the 
15th of November 1855 :— 

" Shortly after 3 o'clock on Thursday afternoon the whole camp, from Inkermann 
to far beyond Cathcart's Hill, was literally shaken throughout every square foot of 
its area, by the most tremendous explosion that has ever echoed through these 
Crimean hills. A greater quantity of gunpowder itself may have been exploded in 
some of the magazines discharged for the destruction of the buildings and works 
after the abandonment of the ruined city and fortress; but this is doubtful, and 
certainly there were never fired at the same time so great a number and variety of 
deadly and explosive projectiles. The force of the blow from the impelled air, the 
stunning noise, the flashing of the fire, the sufi^ocating smoke, arrested every reason- 
ing faculty, and took away all sense, save the instinctive impulse to fly from the 
source of evil. Among the regiments themselves of the light division, whether in 
tents or huts, a sudden sensation was felt as if of an upheaving of the ground, at the 
same time that a violent shock was experienced from the concussion of the air. 
Almost instantly followed the loud report of the explosion ; not sounding as if a 
single charge or magazine had been fired, and without the ringing tone or decided 
character of a salvo of artillery ; but seeming rather as if a number of magazines had 
been discharged, one after the other, so rapidly, that all the reports were blended into 
one. As the thunder of the first report subsided, its place was occupied by the 
sharp cracking sounds of shells bursting high in the air, the rush of fragments falling 
to the ground, and the loud bangs of shells which had been scattered and were ex- 
ploding on all sides. Simultaneous with these, almost from the very commencement, 
was the crushing of wooden huts, splitting of timbers, and noise of faUing glass from 
the broken windows. Tlie tents were violently agitated, and sometimes the cords 
or poles were snapped asunder. Then followed a continued succession of minor 
reports, and the roar of flames, and crackling of burning wood, as the fire advanced 
and increased among the huts and artillery stores of the siege train depots. To say 
that it equalled in violence the combined salvos of a thousand parks of artillery 
might seem extravagant ; and yet the simile would but feebly convey an idea of the 
volume of thundering sound that shook the earth for miles around, tearing down 
the most substantial masonry and wooden huts, and levelling tents as by the sweep 
of some invisible giant-arm. I had seen the explosions on and after the 8th of 
September, which so many pens have since described ; but no half-dozen of them 



136 REPORT' — 1858. 

together would have equalled this one, either in force or sound. Over an area of 
nearly half a mile from the spot of its occurrence, the air was one huge column of powder 
smoke and cast-up earth, up into and athwart which ignited or exploding shells 
and rockets ever and anon darted and flashed by hundreds, spreading destruction to 
nearly everything animate and inanimate, within a radius of more than a thousand 
yards. Heavy siege guns were wrenched from their carriages and thrown many 
perches from where they had been standing, whilst the carriages themselves were 
torn asunder." — London Express, Nov. 29, 1855. 

The following notices of the Great Blast at Seaford Cliff are extracted from 
' Saunders's Newsletter' of September 15, 1856 : — 

"The great explosion at Seaford. — There has been a great concourse of visitors in 
this little town today to witness the operation of 'blasting,' by the explosion of 
gunpowder, an immense mass of chalk cliflF from the heights down upon the beach, 
there to form a barrier which may check the drifting of the shingle towards Beachy 
Head and the east. The ground about Seaford for two miles to the west lies low, 
and there is nothing to protect it from the inroad of the sea at high tides but a 
narrow beach bank of shingle. This barrier is becoming gradually weaker in con- 
sequence of the tendency of the shingle to drift away, and it has become a matter of 
urgent moment that this should be stayed. Close to Seaford, on its eastern side, 
rises a noble line of cliff, in some places 300 feet high, and averaging above 200. It 
was determined to project a huge slice of the cliff on to the beach, with a view 
thereby to constitute a groin for the purpose of retaining the shingle and preventing 
its leaving the bay. The operations have been conducted by the Board of Ordnance. 
The spot selected is not much above half a mile to the east of Seaford. At a height 
of about 50 feet above high-water- mark there was driven into the cliff, or excavated, 
a tunnel or gallery 70 feet long, 6 feet high, 5 feet broad, ascending with a slope of 
1 in 3. At the inland extremity it turned right and left in the heart of the cliff, 
above 50 feet one way and above 60 the other, with a more gentle ascent, the two 
smaller galleries being 4 feet 6 inches high, and 3 feet 6 inches broad, and the three 
being in the form of a capital T. At the utmost end of each of the side or cross galleries 
was a chamber, 7 feet cube, lined with wood ; and in each chamber a charge of no 
less than 12,000 lbs. of gunpowder was deposited ; making the distance of the centre 
of the charge 70 feet from the face of the cliff towards the sea, and about 70 feet 
above high-water mark. The galleries were ' tamped,' that is, stopped up, with bags 
of sand, and chalk in bags and loose, to within 50 feet of the mouth, both branches 
being tamped up, and 20 feet down the large gallery. It was not till 12 minutes 
past 3 o'clock, that suddenly the whole cliff, along a width or frontage of some 
120 feet, bent forwards towards the sea, cracked in every direction, crumbled into 
pieces, and fell upon the beach in front of it, forming a bank down which large 
portions of the falling mass glided slowly into the sea for several yards like a stream 
of lava flowing into the water. The whole multitude upon the beach seemed for a 
few moments paralysed and awe-struck by the strange movement, and the slightly 
trembling ground ; everyone sought to know with a glance that the mass had not 
force enough to come near him, and that the cliff under which he stood was safe. 
There was no very loud report ; the rumbling noise was probably not heard a mile 
off, and was perhaps caused by the splitting of the cliff and fall of the fragments. 
There seemed to be no smoke, but there was a tremendous shower of dust. Those 
who were in boats a little way out state that they felt a slight shock. It was much 
stronger on the top of the cliff. Persons standing there felt staggered by the shaking 
of the ground, and one of the batteries was thrown down by it. In Seaford, too, 
three quarters of a mile off, glasses upon the table were shaken, and one chimney fell. 
At Newhaven, a distance of three miles, the shock was sensibly felt. The mass 
which came down is larger than was expected ; it forms an irregular heap, apparently 
about 300 feet broad, of a height varying from 40 to 100 feet, and running 200 or 
250 feet or more seaward, which is considerably beyond low-water mark. It is 
thought that it comprises nearly 300,000 tons." 

These meagre and most imperfect accounts, as respects the object here in view, 
will however, it may be hoped, direct future attention to more precise observation of 
the data required. 



I 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 137 



Report on Observations 0/ Luminous Meteors, 1857-58. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell., M. A., F.R.S.,F.R.A.S.,F.G.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

During the year which has elapsed since my last Report to the British Asso- 
ciation, I have received a considerable number of communications of meteor 
observations from various observers, especially, as on so many former occasions, 
from Mr. E. J. Lowe, as well as from other friends, to whom I am happy to 
add on this occasion the names of Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Mr. G. J. Symons. 
The last-named ob.server is the only one who has recorded any remarkable 
number as seen at the August period. He has communicated many seen 
on the lOth of August, 1856, and a still larger number aiow/ the corresponding 
time in 1858, few, however, 07i the 10th, but a great number on the 13th. In 
some parts of England the 10th was cloudy. 

Of the various theories which have been proposed to explain the nature of 
luminous meteors, some were alluded to in the Report of last year. At the 
meeting of the British Association at which that Report was presented, a paper 
was also communicated by Mr. Daniel Vaughan, of Cincinnati, U. S., in which 
he proposed another hypothesis which seems to have considerable claims on 
our attention ; it has also been given at large in liis recent work entitled 
" Popular Physical Astronomy." 

The main principle of this theory is, that the author conceives the lumini- 
ferous ether diffused through space, but in obedience to the law of gravita- 
tion condensed round large bodies, in a more intense degree in proportion to 
their mass. Hence in our system it is immensely condensed round the sun, 
but feebly round the planets. When in this state of condensation, it is capable 
of being acted upon so as to produce the most intense light and heat. As 
existing round our earth, it can only be sufficiently condensed to produce such 
effects by the immense local compression arising from the rapid motion of 
meteorites. Hence their luminosity, even when far above the atmosphere ; but 
on entering it, the compression is so great, according to the author's cak-ula- 
tion, as to crush them to pieces. 

The details of this theory are given in the Appendix (No. 1), by some 
extracts from the author's work, and also in a letter addressed by him to the 
author of this Report, with the view to correct some misapprehensions of the 
theory which have been entertained. 

In the Appendix (No. 2) there is given a statement which has appeared in 
print, of a very singular luminous phenomenon, the nature of which it is diffi- 
cult to conjecture ; but it has the appearance of being the account of a plain 
matter-of-fact witness, who offers no comment or conjecture. To these, one 
or two other communications have been added. 

List of Meteors observed up to August 1857, by G. J. Symons, M.B.M.S., 

at Camden Town, London. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Direction. 


Track. 


Remarks. 


1855. 
Dec. 13 

30 


h m 

9 10 p.ra. 

9 p.m. 


3 
2 


SW.-HW. 
NE.-SE. 


*■-»■ 


Very near the horizon. 





i 858. 



138 



REPORT 1858. 



Date. 



Time. 



Mag. 



Direction. 



Track. 



Remarks. 



1856. Ih m 
March 6| 9 48 p.m. 

June 4 11 5 p.m. 

Aug. 2 10 8 p.m. 

3 8 10 p.m. 

7 9 48 p.m. 

10 52 p.m. 

11 30 30p.m 
10 8 a.m. 

13 a.m. 
15 a.m. 
18 a.m. 
28 50 a.m. 
31 a.m. 
35 a.m. 

37 a.m. 

1 1 a.m. 
1 10 a.m. 
1 12 a.m. 
1 13 a.m. 
1 18 a.m. 
1 22 a.m. 
1 24 a.m. 
1 29 a.m. 
9 7 p.m. 
9 15 p.m. 
9 18 p.m. 
9 25 p.m. 
9 28 p.m. 
9 31 p.m. 
9 54 p.m. 
9 59 p.m. 



4 
3 
2 
3 
3 
2 

V- 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
2 
4 
4 
2 
2 
1 
4 
1 
1 
2 
3 

$ 
3 
2 
4 
4 
3 
3 
3 



SSE. 

ESE. 

NW.-E. 

E.-SE. 

ESE.-E. 

SE. 

WNW. 

NE.-NNE. 

NE.-S. 

SE. 

E. 
E.-SE. 

XSE. 
SE. 
SE. 
SE. 
SE. 
E. 
SB. 

Close to the 
Polar Star to S, 

SE. 

SE. 

N.-S. 

SE.-W. 

NE. 

E. 

S. 
S.-NE. 
E.-S. 
E.-S. 






// 






Very bright though small. 

f Several small ones not noted. 
\ Mo\ed very slowly. 
[ Numerous smaller ones. 

Train visible for 10 seconds. 
Train visible for 30 seconds. 



Train visible for 30 seconds. 



See note. 



Exactly similar to the one preceding 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 139 



Date. 



1856. 
Aug. 10 



Sept. 4 
29 
Oct. 13 



Nov. 6 

8 
1857. 
April 6 

19 

20 



23 

May 11 

July 14 

15 

24 

25 



26 



Time. 



m 
5 p.m. 

12 p.m. 

54 p.m. 

48 p.m. 

30 p.m. 

35 p.m. 

p.m. 

7 p.m. 
48 p.m. 
28 p.m. 
47 30 p.m. 

8 a.m. 
35 p.m. 
10 p.m. 
51 p.m. 

1 p.m. 

2 p.m. 
15 p.m. 
15 30 p.m. 
51 50 p.m. 

7 p.m. 
46 p.m. 
34 p.m. 



Mag. Direction. 



10 32 p.m. 
10 35 p.m. 
10 49 p.m. 
10 50 p.m. 
10 56 p.m. 
10 56 30 p.m. 
4 a.m. 



3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
5 

2 

(?in 
opp. 

1 

3 
2 
4 

2 



3 
1 
5 
2 
1 
2 
1 



E.-SE. 

NE.-S. 

NE.-SW. 

ESE. 

S.-W. 

N.-S. 

S. 

S. 

S. 

NE.-NW. 

NW. 

ssw. 

E. 

SW. 

E.-NW. 

SSE. 

N.-S. 

NE. 

ENE.-E. 

SW.-NE. 

Zenith-ssw. 

E. 

S.-N. 
NE.-NW. 

NNW.-S. 

SE. 

NE.-NNW. 

NE.-NNW. 

SE.-N. 



Track. 






/^ 






/^ 



%. 
^ 
^ 



// 



■^ 



Remarks. 



Across the zenith. 



Across the zenith. 



Brilliant white. 

From near « Persei to near 9 .White. 

From near Arcturus to near Spica 
Virginis. 

Pale white. 
Across the zenith. 

Train visible for 15 seconds. 



Very slow in its movement. 

Across the zenith, only visible for 

about 5°. 
Train visible for 5 sees. ; very rapid. 

Like Sirius in colour, but nearly 
double its apparent brilliancy. 
See note. 

Across the zenith. 



Near « Ursae Minoris. 

Train lasted 5 seconds. 
Train lasted 2 seconds. 
Train lasted 5 seconds. 



140 



REPORT 1858. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Direction. 


Track. 


Remarks. 


1857. 
Aug. 1 


h m 

8 10 a.ra. 


V- 


ESE. 


// 


Moved very slowly, varied in lustre. 




45 a.m. 


2 


Zenith-NNE. 


/^ 






46 a.m. 


3 


SE.-SSE. 


»-* 




2 


10 2 p.m. 
10 7 p.m. 


3 
2 


NNE.-NNW. 
NNE. 




From near /3 Cassiopeise to near 

Dubbe. 
From near y Cassiopeiae downwards 




10 8 p.m. 


2 


N.-S. 


^ 






10 20 p.m. 


2 


N.-W. 


^ 


Very swift. 


28 


10 28 p.m.. 


3 


N. 


/t 






10 29 p.m. 


4 


W. 


// 






10 44 p.m. 


2 


E.-SSE. 


~^^;i\ 






10 49 p.m. 


... 


ENE. 


It 


See note. 




10 55 p.m. 


1 


E.-SE. 


^ 


Rapid motion. 




10 59 p.m. 


1 


SB. 


^ 


Train of white light. 



Additional Notes. 

1856. 
August 10th, 9^ 7™ p.m. — This meteor passed N. to S., passing within about 
10° of the zenith, leaving a train of light like luminous vapour, which, in 
spite of the remaining twilight, was visible upwards of a min^ute. 

1857. 

July 24th, ll''34'™ p.m. — Remarkable for the extraordinarj' rapidity of its 
motion. 

August 28th, 10'' 4'9" p.m. — This meteor appeared (while I was watching 
the constellation) between the stars a and y Cassiopeise, of a light blue tint, 
and apparently double the size of Sirius ; as it passed downwards it increased 
greatly in magnitude, assuming the appearance of an oval disc of a bright 
violet colour, and leaving a train of brilliant gold-coloured sparks. 

List of Meteors from January to September 1858. 

Observed by G. J. Symons, M.B.M.S., at 27 Queen's Road, 

Camden Town, London. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1858. 


h m 










Jan. 14 


9 19 p.m. 


>-ii- 


blue 


none 


Vertically from a point 3° W. of 2JL 
towards the horizon. 


30 


10 42 p.m. 


=2x n 


green 


red sparks 


From Musca towards eAndromedae. 


Apr. 17 


9 13 p.m. 


2 


yellow 


none 


From p Ursae Majoris towards 
e HydrEB. 


18 


9 14 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


Fromrllerculis towardsaHerculis. 


19 


1 1 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From « Coronae Borealis towards 












Spica Virginis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 141 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1858. 


h ra s 










June 1 


10 24 30 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Y Bootis towards Cor Caroli. (Very 
slowly.) 




10 51 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From y Serpentis towards (3 Librae. 


2 


11 50 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Coma Berenices towards d Virginis. 


13 


11 23 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From 6 Coronae Borealis towards Spica Vir- 


16 


3 a.m. 


2 


blue 


none 


ginis. 
From 3° S. of Arcturus towards \ Librae. 


July 28 


9 12 20 p.m. 




white 


broad 


From ? Ursae Majoris towards r Bootis. 




10 46 p.m. 




white 


none 


From fi Lyrae towards a Ophiuchi. 


29 


26 20 a.m. 




white 


slight 


From Vega towards e Herculis. (Swift.) 




42 a.m. 




dull yell. 


none 


From fi towards e Ophiuchi. (Very slow.) 




1 1 50 a.m. 




brill, wh. 


slight 


From Altair towards r Ophiuchi. (Swift.) 




1 5 a.m. 




white 


none 


From 6 Aquila; towards 5 Herculis. 


31 


22 25 a.m. 




brill, wh. 


visible for 
5 seconds 


From y Draconis towards a Coronae Borealis. 
(Very swift.) 




36 a.m. 


2 


jellow 


none 


From (3 Cygni towards e Ursae Majoris. 




39 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From a Herculis towards Arcturus. 




42 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From X Bootis towards Cor Caroli. 




49 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From |3 Cygni towards e Ursae Majoris. 




59 20 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From jx Herculis towards Corona Borealis. 


Aug. 1 


11 47 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From r] Herculis towards jj Ursae Majoris. 
(Rather faint.) 




11 49 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From p Draconis towards y Bootis. (Very 
bright.) 




11 54 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Draconis towards rj Coronae Borea- 
lis. (Swift.) 


2 


4 a.m. 


1 


white 


n(»ie 


From e Herculis towards S Ophiuchi. 




6 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From /3 Cygni towards e Delphini. 




6 10 a.m. 


1 


white 


long and 
brilliant 


From Altair towards Scutum Sobienski. 
(Rapid.) 




32 a.m. 


2 


blue 


white 


From 6 Draconis towards y Serpentis. 




35 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Ophiuchi towards /3 Herculis. (Un- 
dulating course.) 


3 


11 48 p.m. 


2 


whitish 
yellow 


none 


FromaUrsaeMajoristowardsx Ursae Majoris. 




11 57 p.m. 


2 


»» 


slight 


From 1] Cygni towards tt Draconis. (Faint.) 


4 


9 12 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From r Herculis towards e Ursae Majoris. 


5 


9 41 p.m. 


1 


yellow 


none 


From S Cassiopeiae towards Capella. 


6 


9 28 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From Capella towards Castor. 


8 


11 1 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From a point 10° N. of Vega, at an angle of 




11 1 p.m. 


4 


white 


none 


about 80° with the horizon, and before it 
had disappeared (certainly within 2 se- 
conds), a small one crossed it in the oppo- 
site direction, but at a similar angle. 




11 7 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From /I Herculis towards y Serpentis. 




11 22 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Vega towards a Ophiuchi. 




11 24 30 p.m. 


1 


blue 


wh. train 


From e Herculis towards « Herculis. 




11 26 10 p.m. 


>1 


white 


vis. 7 sees. 


From ijj Cygni towards y Ophiuchi. 




11 37 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From (? Aquilae towards Corona Borealis. 
(Faint.) 




11 38 p.m. 


1 


brill, wh. 


none 


From Draconis towards S Bootis. 




11 42 30 p.m. 


variable. 


See Note. 




From Cor Caroli towards Coma Berenices. 




11 44 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From a Draconis towards Arcturus. 




11 54 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From /3 Cygni towards « Ophiuchi. 


9 


11 43 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From X Herculis towards j3 Ophiuchi. 




11 47 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From V Draconis towards fi Bootis. 




11 47 10 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From V Draconis towards ^ Bootis. (Exactly 
in the same track as the foregoing.) 


12 


5 40 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From /3 Cygni towards Taurus Poniatowski. 



142 



REPORT — 1858. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1858. 


h m s 










Aug. 12 


17 30 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Vega towards (3 Ophiuchi. 




20 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From ^ Ursse Majoris towards Coma Bere- 




21 20 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


nices. 
From /3 Herculis towards a Serpentis. 




24 30 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


Fromy Ophiuchi towards Scutum Sobienski. 




33 a.m. 


>1 


white 


none 


From n Herculis towards a Herculis. 




38 a.m. 


2 


white 


slight 


From jj Ursse Majoris towards Arcturus. 




41 20 a.m. 


2nd and 
then 1st. 


yellow 


none 


From y towards ^, / — \ 

then turned towards v^ i '» 

■K Bootis. (Very "" ,/* 

slow.) )h%-Aictureif 




49 30 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From a Draconis towards y Bootis. 




53 10 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From y Draconis towards Corona Borealis. 




55 35 a.m. 


>2xls 


t green 


none 


From j8 Capricorni towards ir Sagittarii. 


13 


30 30 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From e Cygni towards e Aquilae. 




34 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From 6 lierculis towards v Serpentis. 




36 30 a.ra. 


2 


white 


none 


From \i Lyrae towards ;3 Ophiuchi. 




37 40 a.m. 


>1 


white 


slight in 
the mid- 
dle of its 
track, but 
fading at 
both ends 


From I Herculis towards p Coronse Borealis. 




41 30 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From y Lyrse towards y Ophiuchi. 




50 30 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From I HercuUs towards a Herculis. 




55 a.m. 


1 


blue 


slight 


From £ Cygni towards « Lyrse. 




58 30 a.m. 


>1 


white 


none 


From 1° S. of Vega towards 7/ Serpentis. 




1 1 10 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From a. Cassiopeiae towards r Cygni. 




1 7 30 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From 6 Pegasi towards /3 Aquarii. 




1 7 45 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From j3 Aquilae towards ? Sagittarii. (Very 
slow.) 




1 10 30 a.ra. 


2 


white 


none 


From /3 Aquite towards ? Sagittarii. 




1 11 30 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From t Cygni towards e Cygni. 




1 12 35 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From j3 Draconis towards 5° below Vega. 




1 15 30 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From a Draconis towards Corona Borealis. 
(Faint.) 




1 18 30 a.m. 


= ? 


green 


none 


From 3° N. of Vega towards e Corona: Bo- 
realis. 




9 55 p.m. 


1 


white 


slight 


From K Cygni towards Herculis. 




9 57 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From (T Cygni towards « Aquilae. 




10 8 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From aPersei towards/3 Andromedae. (Slow.) 




10 12 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From i\ Ursse Majoris towards Arcturus. 




10 17 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Lyrse towards a Herculis. 




10 19 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Polaris towards t Aurigae. 




10 20 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From T Herculis towards e Bootis. 




10 22 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From 3° W. of y Ursse Majoris towards 
Coma Berenices. 




10 24 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From [I Cassiopeiae towards Mirach. 




10 45 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From a DraconistowardsCorCaroli. (Rapid.) 




10 48 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Q Draconis towards Corona Boreahs. 




10 55 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From y Cygni towards £ Aquilae. 




10 57 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Draconis towards /3 Herculis. 




10 59 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From /i Ophiuchi towards e Ophiuchi. 




11 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From between Vega and y Draconis towards 
\x. Herculis. 




11 1 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From 5 Bootis towards Coma Berenices. 




11 2 p.m. 


1 


red 


vis. for 4^ 


From y Ursac Minoris towards Cor Caroli. 




11 5 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From e Cygni towards r Herculis. 




11 10 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From y Ursa: Minoris towards Corona Bo- 
realis. 




11 32 p.m. 


variable. 


See 


Note. 


From K Draconis towards Cor Caroli. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 143 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1858. 


h m 










Aug. 13 


11 37 p.m. 


4 


white 


none 


From (3 Ursse Minoris towards Polaris. 
Extraordinarily brilliant ; I never saw so 
small an object give so much light. 




11 48 p.m. 


2 


wliite 


none 


From d Persei towards Pleiades. 


14 


5 a.m. 


4 


white 


none 


From a Persei towards Aurigje. 




15 a.m. 


1 


white 


vis. for 3" 


From Polaris towards Castor. 




7 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From S Cassiopeise towards S Persei. 




17 10 a.m. 


1 


white 


slight 


From y Persei towards y Draconis. 




19 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From p Ursse Majoris towards \ Ursse Ma- 
joris. 




23 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


Fromy UrsseMinoris towards?; Ursse Majoris. 


16 


9 20 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From 1] Ursae Majoris towards r Bootis. 




9 33 p.m. 


> 1 


white 


vivid wh. 


From a Cygni towards a Aquilaj. 




10 44 p.m. 


2 


white 


vivid wh. 


From S Lyrse towards /3 Opliiuchi. 




10 47 p.m. 


1 


white 


long 


From ri Pegasi towards a Pegasi. 




10 51 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From 6 Pegasi towards /3 Lyrse. 


17 


47 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From Polaris towards a. Ophiuchi. No va- 
riation in brilliancy throughout its course. 




49 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From « Cygni towards e Aquilse. 



Smaller Mereors were observed on every clear evening between August 1st 
and 17th, and numbered from 20 to 30 per hour on the 8tb, 11th, and 12th. 



. J?aie 

'XelLetu 



Additional Notes on the Meteors of August 8th and 1 3th. 

August 8th, ll'* 42" 30^ p.m — This meteor (which was the finest of the 
period), when first seen, appeared the size of a star of the first magnitude ; 
after passing somewhat obliquely for about 5°, and in- 
creasing in size, it suddenly threw off" a shower of in- 
tensely brilliant green sparks, and at the same instant 
disappeared ; just as the sparks were fading away, it 
reappeared about 3° lower, of a pale pink colour, and 
much larger than before ; after passing about 4'° further, 
it assumed a globular form and instantaneously disap- 
peared. At this time its apparent diameter was between 
5' and 6'. The accompanying sketch is copied from 
the original in the Observation Book. It must, how- 
ever, be understood that the appeai'ances were really 
in succession. 

August 13th, 1 1*" 32"" p.m. — This meteor was remark- 
able for varying from considerably brighter than a first 
magnitude star to less than a fourth at intervals of 
about 7°. 




4 






144 



REPORT — 1858. 





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A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 145 



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146 



REPORT 1858. 



Older Observations by E. J. Lowe, Esq., 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1853. 
Oct. 31 

Nov. 1 



h m 

8 20 

8 30 
8 40 

8 50 

9 25 



Small, 3rd mag. ... 
2nd size, of 1st mag.* 

Similar 

2nd size Saturn ... 
= lst mag.* 



2 

7 
1854. 
Aug. 16 



12 30 a.m. =to Saturn.. 

12 31 a.m. Similar 

= 2nd mag.* 



8 57 p.m 

8 25 

9 14 



3 times size of 1/. .. 



1st mag.*. 



Colourless 

Yellow 

Yellow 



Blue, increased 

in brilliancy. 

Blue 



Yellow .... 

Yellow [Tail 

Bluish [Stream left 



Streamers 

Longtrain 

Train 

Broke into separate balls. 

Train 

Tail 



Rapid 



Slow, duration 1; 

sec. 
Rapid 



Duration 2 sees. 
Duration 1 sec. 



More orange in Without streak, but broke 



colour than 

n- 

Orange 



into two balls and dis- 
appeared. 



Medium pace 

Medium p.ice 

Duration 05 sec... 

Duration 1-| sec. 
slow. 



iSlow. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors, 



1857. 
Sept. 16 



29 



Oct. 8 



11 3 
11 3 2 
10 14 30 



In the even- 
ing. 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 6 times y. From 
the moment it be- 
came visible it in- 
creased rapidly in 
size until it was = 6 
times diameter of 
2/. , disappearing 
suddenly when at its 
maximum bright 
ncss. 



Blue. 



Blue. 



Intense blue, 
very bright 



2nd&3rdmag. 



Streak 



Streak 



No streak left after the 
meteor had vanished. 
No noise heard. 



Slow, duration O'S 
sec. 

Slow, duration 0'5 
sec. 

Duration I5 sec. 1 
moved over 11' 
of sky. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 147 



not inserted in former Catalogues. 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



srpendic. down from under y 
P'-'gasi. 
01 1 y Pisciura to ti Aquarii... 

eroendic. down from /J Del- 
IKiini. 

lo\ed horizontally towards N., 
passing near Capella. 

erpendic. down passing imme- 
diately through Castor. 

hrough a to y Arietis 

eiiicndic. down through Rigel 

roui a to I Ursa; Majoris ... 



Aurora Borealis ... 
Manysmall meteors 



roni JR 14>' 54", decl. 5J° N 
to /R 14i> 59"°, decl. 7° 40' 
S., fading away near S Librje. 

cross the same path 



Aurora Borealis 

From Sh till 10", 
lightning in N 



Beeston 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



E. J. Lowe 
Id 



Id., 

Id., 

Id., 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



by E. J. Lowe, Esq., 1 857-58. 



assed through a Pegasi and fell 
downwards towards the E. at 
an angle of 45°. 

'his started at » Pegasi, and 
followed the same track as 
the last meteor. 

ell perpendicularly down in 
N., passing 2° E. of the star 
a Ursae Majoris and 2° 15' E 
of /3 UrsEe Majoris, disappear- 
ing 3" below and 2° 15' E.of 
/3 Ursae Majoris. 

i'he preceding edge was circular 
and well-defined, but in every 
other direction it ended in 
long streaks of light not un- 
like streams of Aurora Bore- 
alis in form, yet very like 
electric light in brightness 
A lunar halo and faint Aurora 
Borealis at the time, the 

I temperature 51°'3, wind S., 
and almost calm ; clouds few 

! cirri overhead, with a white 

[ stratus in the valley. 



This meteor seemed 
to be connected 
with the last. 




Several meteors ... 



Iljghfield House 
Observatory. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



E. J. Lowe 



MS. communication 
to Prof. Powell 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



148 



REPOKT — 1858. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1857. 
Nov. 13 



23 



Dec. 





10 59 

11 10 


19 


8 3 


1858. 
Feb. 7 
28 


6 25 
8 11 



April 9 



10 



May 31 



July 21 



Sept. 12 



h m 
7 59 



In evening. 
11 37 45 



In evening. 



= 5^ in size and bright- 
ness. 



Greenish 



Burst into three balls, and 
left a streak behind. 



Duration 3 sees 
motion slow. 



Twice the size and 
twice thebrightness 
of V- 



Yellowish, the 
streak being 
a milky-wh 



: 1st mag.*. 
: Ist mag.*. 



Bluish 
Bluish 



= 2nd mag.* 



Colourless 



= 2nd raag.* Colourless 

=in size to Saturn... Blue 



In evening.. Small 



2 a.m. 



11 30 

11 

8 29 30 

8 30 



= 2nd raag.* 



=^th apparent 
meter of d. 



= twice size 1). 



dia- 



= 4 times size of 1st 

mag.* 
= 4 times size of 1st 

mag.* 



Leaving a streak behind in 
its path, which was very 
brilliant, and which 
lasted nearly 5 minutes 
after the meteor itself 
had vanished. 



Rapid ; duration ( 
falling throug 
20° of space on) 
0-2 sec. 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Leaving a streak . 



Leaving a train 

Separate sparks left behind 



Duration 0'3 sec. 



Rapid 

Slow, duration 
sees. 



Colourless un- Train 

til met by a 

coruscation, 

and then 

golden and 

brighter. 
Blue 



Colourless 



Exceedingly 
brilliant. 

Exceedingly 
brilliant. 



Burst into fragments 



Medium rate 



No train 



Leaving a long train in its 

track. 
Leaving a lengthy train in 

its path. 



Instantly disappear 
ed. 



Slow. 



Duration 0"8 sec. 
Duration 0"8 sec. 



A CATALOGUE 


OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 149 


Directiou or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


•loved from a. Pegasi to Jupi- 
ter, burst into three balls, 
which fell perpendicularly 
down. 




Highfield House 
Observatory. 

Ibid 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 


M S.communication 
to Prof. Powell. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Several meteors ... 

The colour of the 
meteor different 
to that of the 
streak. Aurora 
Borealis at the 
time. 

Many meteors, espe- 
cially about 11 
o'clock. 


'ell almost perpendicularly 
down, but inclining slightly 
W., starting from a position 
about 3° perpendicularly un- 
der Jupiter, and falling 20°, 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


Perpendicularly down from /3 

Geminorum. 
Shot horizontally across /3 Arie- 

tis from the direction of Ju- 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


n S.S.E., moving downwards 
towards S. at an angle of 50°, 
and passing from about half- 
way between n and ? Hydrae 
to near No. 1 9 iu Argo Navis. 

in all directions, especially near 

Horizontally in N.W. at an ele- 
vation of 35°. 

Sky overcast, except an opening 
in E.S.E. at 10° above hori- 
zon. The meteor appeared 
in this opening. 

In S. at an altitude of 30° mo- 
ving towards S.W. horizon, at 
an angle of 45°. 

Moved from Vulpeciila through 
y Aquilse. 

Starting in the zenith and pass- 
ing down through /3 Lyrae to 
a Herculis. 


The form circular 
and well-defined. 
The meteor came 
from behind a 
dense cloud, and 
had the appear- 
ance of passing 
beneath some 
woolly cumuli ; 
yet probably this 
was a deception. 

Many small meteors, 
but their paths 
not noted, as at- 
tention was taken 
up with a magni- 
ficent Aurora Bo- 
realis which was 
occurring at the 
time. (See April 
10th.) 

This meteor, when 
it met a corusca- 
tion of Aurora 
BorealiSjinstantly 
became golden & 
much brighter. 

Nighthot,temp.65° 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 




Observatory, 

Beeston. 
Ibid 


Id 


Similar in every re- 
spect to the last. 


Id 














y 



150 



REPORT 1858. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



18.58. 
Sept. 12 



30 



h m s 
8 31 30 



7 51 



Oct. 8 
9 



In evening. 
In evening. 
7 13 



7 27 



= twice that of Mars Exceedingly 



at time of opposi- 
tion. Form circu- 
lar and well-defined. 



bright co- 
lour, an in- 
tense blue. 



= from 2nd to 3rd,Colourless 
mag.*, shape elon- 
gate. 



= 2nd mag.* 



: 1st mag.' 



Leaving a slight streak in 
its track. 



Same body seemed to dis- 
appear and reappear 21 
times. 



Duration 2 sees. 



Tolerably rapid, di 
ration 0'8 sec. 



Colourless 



Streak 



Very rapid 



Bluish 



Long tail, and leaving a 
streak in its track. 



Motion slow, dur 
tion 1"15 sec. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors 



1857. 
Aug. 25 



1858. 
Jan. 10 



31 



8 30 p.m, 



8 17 p.m, 
10 40 p.m, 



Brilliant ball =J3) 



Brilliant 



Bright meteor = moon 
and in form of a 
crescent, as if 5 or 6 
days old ; became 
elongated a little, 
and fell rotating ; 
diameter of circle 
of rotation being 
about 3 times the 
diameter of the 
crescent. 




On bursting threw out a 
shower of fire and disap- 
peared in about 2 sees. 



Broke into brilliant reddish 

fragments. 
Threw off large sparks and 

disappeared below hori- 



Continued about 
sees., then burs 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 151 



Direction or Altitude. 



'atli from the Sword-handle of 
Perseus, moving downwards 
towards the N., passing 8° 
above Capella and almost 
through /3 Aurigae, fading 
away near that star. 

'"eli perpendicularly down, or 
rather nearly so, and moving 
parallel with and 1° W. of the 
superior edge of Donati's 
Comet. Had the appearance 
of moving behind some 
opake body, as the same 
shaped object disappeared 
and reappeared 21 times. 



Joved as if it had crossed Do- 
nati's Comet, and was first 
seen near the nucleus on W, 
side of Comet. 

iloved downwards from the 
direction of the star \ Dra- 
conis, and crossing the star 
X Ursae Majoris. 



from various Observers. 



General remarks. 



Night remarkably 
clear and cloud 
less. Day had 
been very hot, 
temp, in shade 
reaching 80°'5. 



Place. 



Observatory, 
Beeston. 



Observer. 



E.J.Lowe 




Highfield House id. 
Observatory. 




Many other meteors 
Many meteors 




Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 



Id 
Id 
Id 

Id 



Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Jescended from N. in a curved 
I hne towards E. 
n N.W. nearly opposite D. 
140° (about) distant. 



Appeared near. 



Southsea, near 
Portsmouth. 



LittleWoodhouse 
near Leeds. 

Fern's Plat, St. 
Day, Cornwall. 



Mr. S. Atkin of 
Liverpool, Mr, 
W. J. Hay, 
Chemist to the 
Dockyard, and 
Mr. W. W, 
Hayes. 

W. Braithwaite, 
Surgeon. 

J. Jeflfery 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



Manchester Guard- 
ian. 
Times, Feb. 4, 1858 



152 


REPORT — 1858. 


:1 

1 


Date. 


Hour. 


Appearance and 
Magnitude. 


Brightness 
and Colour. 


Train or Sparks. 


Velocity or t 
Duration. 1 

■ -I M 


1858. 


h m 








1 


Sept. 30 


8 45 p.m. 


Twrt mptpnrs npar to- 


Bright 


Bright streak left behind. 




gether. 




lasting about 1 sec. 




May 4 




TpTiitpd GrloliG ... 




Fell down into a farm-yard. 
Exploded with a loud 






XgillvvU. K'uu^ «.•••*..• 














report ; incandescent 












fragments flew in differ- 












ent directions ; one hit a 












cow. 




Aug. 8 


8 45 p.m. 


= n 


Brilliant white 


After meteor had nassed. 


Instantaneous .... 


*r •••*• •. 


streak remained visible 3 








or 4 sees., having a wavy 










motion, filling up exactly 










the distance between 










Polaris and /3 Ursae Min. 




13 


6 39 p.m. 


= iD. Uniform until 


Very brilliant. Train 12 times the length 


Nearly 2^ second 






the moment of va- 


At first light 


of the meteor ; slightly 


ratherslowerths 






nishing, when it got 


blue, then 


concave to the horizon ; 


ordinary meteor 






sensibly smaller and 


green, and 


uniform in size ; appear- 


andnotquitenn 






disappeared as a 


finally a red 


ed to vanish before the 


form, appearin 






point. 


point. Shape 


meteor vanished ; colour 


to be retarde 








round, no 


a whitish red ; sparks 


before vanishinj 








change of 


very few, whitish. 










form. 






Dec. 5 


4 45 p.m. 


Round and lai-ger than 
71 ; then divided 
into two, one going 
in advance of the 
other. Both disap- 
peared suddenly. 


Bright white... 


Train after disappearance.. 


Almost instants 
neous. 



APPENDIX. 

No. 1. — E.xtracts from the section on Meteorites, &c., of a work entitled 
" Popular Physical Astronomy," by Daniel Vaughan. Cincinnati, U.S., 1858 
(p. 82 et seq.). 

After mentioning some of the well-known instances of large meteorites, the 
author observes that the average of observations shows about one fall annually 
in the extent of territory including the British Isles and France ; or in about 
y^th of the earth's surface. Chladni calculates that about 700 fall annually 
on our planet. Their mean velocity appears to be about equal, or even supe- 
rior to that of the earth in its orbit. [This result seems at variance with that 
assumed by Mr. Bompas : see last Report.] Solid masses moving through 
the air experience or produce a pressure uearly proportional to the square of 
their velocity. This pressure the author calculates, on a mass entering our 
atmosphere with the velocity of a meteorite, would amount to 80 tons to the 
square inch, which would suffice to crush it into fragments, especially if de- 
scending almost vertically ; when more oblique, the resistance and the chance 
of rupture will be less. 

Thi.s the author considers a sufficient cause to account for the seeming ex- 
plosion and noise. 

He next adverts to their luminosity. Some attribute this to the condensa- 
tion of the atmosphere by their velocity. But this he considers untenable, 
as in fact the most luminous meteors are those which move obliquely or even 



A CATALOGUK OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 153 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



rom near y Andromedacto near 
a Lyrs. 



mell of sulphur . 



rora Polaris through fi Ursae 
Minoris. Disappeared behind 
house. 



'hen first seen about 25° above 
horizon S.S.E. Disappeared 
at 12° above horizonatS.S.W. 



No hole found, but 
the straw disturb 
ed and turned up 
where it fell. 



Place. 



irough the zenith from N.E. 
to S.W. 



Osborne Place 
Old Trafford: 
Manchester. 

Quainlon,6 miles 
N.W. of Ayles 
burv. 



Stretton, near 
Ledbury. 



Observer. 



G. V. Vernon, 
F.RA.S. 



Prof. Powell and 
family. 



Reference. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 

Communicated by 
Mrs. Smyth, St 
John's Lodge, 
Aylesbury. 



Temple Gardens, 
London. 



Near Willesden, 
Middlesex. 



J. Pope Hennesy 



Mrs. Baden 
Powell. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



horizontally. Of this he gives various striking instances. In fact, all the 
large, intensely brilliant meteors, move across the sky more or less horizon- 
tally, wiiile those which fall near the perpendicular are always small and in- 
conspicuous. The paths of the large and brilliant meteors of Bononia 1670, 
of 1719 and 1783 in England, were horizontal, while those of Weston, U.S., 
1807, of Benares and of L'Aigle, which were less bright, moved in more in- 
clined paths. He observes that the most e.xtraordinary circumstance is the 
enormous apparent magnihide of the luminous mass or ball, as calculated from 
the ascertained distance. Thus the Weston meteor was 500 feet in diameter, 
and those of 1719 and 1783 were estimated at half a mile. Yet the quantity 
of matter known to fall has been but very small in comparison. It has been 
alleged that only a few fragments were attracted to the earth while the great 
mass rebounded from the atmosphere, a condition which the author contends 
is impossible. He is of opinion that the actual solid masses of these bodies 
are very much smaller, and then adverts to the observations of Professor 
Lawrence Smith (of which an account was given in the last Report), who 
has assigned an optical cause for this phenomenon. 

The author, however, dissents from that conclusion, and alleges that the 
effect in the experiments there mentioned, of apparent great enlargement in 
the discs of luminous bodies seen at a distance, is really due not to any cause 
analogous to irradiation, or of an ocular kind, as there supposed, but simply 
to the reflective power of the atmosphere, which he considers to be made out 

1858. ^ 



154 REPORT — 1858. 

by placing near the luminous body any small reflecting substance, and ob- 
serving at a distance the illumination which it seems thus to spread to some 
distance around. In a word, he considers the eflPect in these experiments as 
due to illuminated air, which became visible as distance rendered the glare 
of the bright central point less overpowering to the eye. 

Now this cause he contends cannot produce any effect in the case of 
meteors above the atmosphere, or even its higher rarefied regions. 

" Meteoric stones, fire-balls, and shooting-stars are only luminous at or 
beyond the boundary of our aerial atmosphere, and cease to be so on their 

entrance into the denser air Of the extraordinary illuminating power 

of the fluid which burns around shooting-stars, we may be convinced from 
the vast amount of light which these objects emit, compared with their dimi- 
nutive size. Although some observers, judging from their luminosity, have 
ascribed to them a diameter of from 80 to 120 feet, yet from the manner in 
which so many myriads of them have been lost in the atmosphere during the 
great meteoric showers of 1799 and 1833, we cannot assign to them a higher 
rank than hailstones or drops of rain, so far as actual magnitude is concerned." 
-(p. 95.) 

The author is led to his explanation of the luminosity of meteors from the 
theory of the solar light, which assigns to the external photosphere of his 
globe the locality of the luminous emanation ; and this photosphere he con- 
siders to arise simply from the intense condensation upon and near his surface, 
of the luminiferous ether, the same as the resisting medium, diff'used through 
the planetary spaces. He rejects the idea of combustion or chemical changes 
being the source of the sun's luminosity ; as these must in time become 
exhausted, and the supply of light and heat be consequently interrupted. He 
alludes to thequeryof Newton, asto why and howitwas that lucid matter should 
be separated and made to form the sun, while opake matter was distributed 
among the minor bodies of the system. He then adds, — " But there is no 
ne(!essity for this unnatural division of matter; since even if the sun were 
identical in composition with his attendants, yet in consequence of the great 
superiority of his attraction his surface would necessarily become the focus 
in which the ether of space must display its luciferous properties." — (p. 98.) 

The same law he conceives to apply to the fixed stars ; he rejects the idea 
of the luminosity being due to any mechanical action on the ether dependent 
on the rotation of these bodies, for then Jupiter and Saturn, by reason of their 
far greater rotatory velocity, ought to be more self-luminous than the sun. 
He contends that it is due to " the chemical action which may be expected 
to take place in the etherial fluid as it condensed around the great sphere." 
~(p. 101.) 

He raises other objections against the theory of Prof. W. Thompson, which 
was briefly described in a former Report, ascribing the solar light to the im- 
pact of innumerable meteors on his surface. 

" The (etherial) fluid is so much rarefied in the interplanetary domain, 
that no chemical changes can take place between its elements, except where 
it is collected around the largest spheres and compressed by their powerful 
attraction. In obedience to the law of gravity, which exerts a universal 
control over all matter, atmospheres of the etherial fluid are collected around 
the earth and the other large planets, but they are not sufficiently dense for 
chemical action, except in cases where they receive an additional pressure 
from meteoric stones sweeping through them with furious rapidity. When 
these cosmicalbodies, on falling to the earth's surface, move in adirection almost 
horizontal, they take a longer course through the verge of the atmosphere, 
and the etherial medium is stimulated to chemical activity by the pressure^ 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 155 

not only from the meteoric mass itself, but also from the particles of air which 
it drives in every direction from its passage. As such a chemical action must 
be attended with a development of heat and light, it is not surprising that 
meteorites are luminous before reaching the confines of the air, and that their 
brilliancy is exhibited on a gigantic scale when their paths are almost parallel 
to the horizon." — (p. 93.) 

In further illustration of these views, and to correct some misapprehension 
which has existed respecting them, it will be desirable here to add an extract 
of a letter to Prof. Powell from Mr. Daniel Vaughan. 

" Cincinnati, Ohio, October 9, 1858. 

" I deem it necessary to offer an explanation of the main point of my theory, 
as the idea I have endeavoured to convey in relation to it has not been cor- 
rectly understood. I therefore take the liberty to say, that I do not regard 
meteoric light as due to the presence of a luciferous atmosphere belonging to 
the meteorite itself; for I cannot believe that any appreciable quantity of 
ether or of inflammable gas could be confined around such small bodies, or 
retained by their feeble attractive power after they come in conflict with the 
air. On the contrary, I have maintained that the light arises from the atmo- 
sphere of luciferous ether, which envelopes the earth and which is rendered 
luminous by the powerful compression of meteorites as they move through it 
with immense velocities. 

" In obedience to the lawof gravity, the ether of space must be condensed 
about all the large planets ; but it must undergo the greatest condensation 
at the surface of the sun. On this vast body the density is sufficiently great 
to admit an incessant chemical action, giving rise to an unfailing development 
of heat and light ; whereas, in the luciferous envelope of a planet, the same 
phenomenon cannot be expected, except on the fall of meteoric masses. Of 
the extent to which the compression of the ether is increased by falling me- 
teorites some idea may be collected from the fact, that a body flying near the 
earth's surface at the rate of 20 miles a second, would impart to the air a 
pressure of 150,000 pounds to the square inch, or over ten thousand times 
the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere. We may therefore conclude that 
the etherial atmospheres of the several planets must display its illuminating 
power around the meteoric body, where it is compressed as intensely as it is 
on the sun's surface. 

" A certain degree of compression or density being necessary for chemical 
action in the ether which maintains solar light, it cannot manifest its light- 
producing energy in the wide domains of space, nor even on the planets, except 
in the rare cases of meteoric falls ; and it must make the largest spheres 
above the theatres of its luminous action. My theory, therefore, not only 
accounts for the fact that the planets are not self-luminous, but also gives 
intelligence of the vast size of the fixed stars. — Daniel Vaughan." 



'&'- 



Mr. Vaughan has given some account of his views to the British Associa- 
tion, 1857 ; see Sectional Proceedings, p. 42 : also in some Essays published 
in 1853 and lS5i, and in an article in the American Journal of Science and 
Art for May 1855. 

No. 2. — The subjoined extraordinary statement is copied from the * Times' 
of Dec. 4. It bears the appearance of a simple straightforward account of 
fact, the nature of which seems difficult to conjecture. It is here inserted 
simply in the hope of attracting attention, and that in time some light may 
be thrown upon it by other observations. 

m2 



156 REPORT — 1858. 

Extract of a letter to the Editor of the Times, Dec, 4, 1858. 
"... Last night (Nov. 30), at 15 minutes to 9, it being very dark and raining 
heavily, I was ascending one of tiie steep hills in this neighbourhood, when 
suddenly I was surrounded by a bright and powerful light which passed me. 
a little quicker than the ordinary pace of man's walking, leaving it dark as 
before. This day I hase been informed that the light was seen by the sailors 
in the harbour, coming in from the sea and passing up the valley like a low 
cloud.... — Jabez Brown." 
Boscastle, Dec. 1 . 

No, 3. Oxford, Sept. 13. 

At 6j p.m. a luminous ball was seen in the region of the sky to the east of 
the moon, and higher than that luminary at the time. It appeared much 
larger and brighter than any star of the first magnitude. It carried with it 



a 



D 



a train or tail like the tail of the comet now visible, and of about the same 
length. First was seen the ball, — then the tail appeared, in a nearly horizontal 
line, then ball and tail disappeared. It seemed as though it came out, ran 
along the sky for a short space, and then entered the sky again. — From a 
Lady in a letter to Professor Phillips. 

No. 4. — The following account of a meteor was communicated by Prof. 
Stevelly to the British Association, Section A, at the Meeting (1858). 

" On Wednesday evening, the 7th of October, 1840, as a number of us 
M'ere returning from a Lecture on Storms, delivered by Mr. Espy in the rooms 
of the Natural History and Philosophical Society of Belfast, as we were 
passing along the east side of College Square, a beautiful meteor appeared 
for a few seconds, almost due south of us, but a little to the west, and so 
bright that you could distinctly read by its light. It was then within about 
20 minutes to 10 o'clock ; the moon was shining, though at the moment ob- 
scured by a cloud ; and afterwards, when I found that others had seen the 
same meteor at a distance, we estimated, as accurately as we could, the alti- 
tude at which it had been seen, and found it at about 30°. On the night of 
Friday, the 9th, or two days after, I travelled to Dundalk by the Dublin mail 
coach, and the guard, Joseph Hill, asked me, had I seen the very brilliant 
flash of light on Wednesday evening, at about a quarter to ten o'clock. I 
told him I had, and incjuired from him the particulars of where and how he 
saw it. He informed me of the place, which was about 5^ miles out of 
Dublin, where tiie road was very straight, and tending to the north. He had 
seen it, as he explained, almost overhead, but somewhat to his right hand, 
and it was so bright for some seconds that the entire place around was lighted 
up so that a person could distinctly read by it. It liad, therefore, been ver- 
tically over a place about 75 Ii'ish miles from Belfast, and from these data it 



ON THE ANATOMY OF THE ARANEIDEA. 15? 

is easy to calculate its altitude above the earth, which must have been about 
43 miles. A few days afterwards, the same guard, Joseph Hill, sent me the 
following letter and extract from the 'Warder' Dublin newspaper of Satur- 
day the 10th, which confirms Hill's accuracy, as the correspondent of the 
' Warder' must have seen it on the opposite side of the place where it had 
been vertical fi-ora what we did : — 

Belfast, 12th October, 1840. 

Sir, — I had the pleasure also of seeing this phenomenon the same time 
as Correspondent. I was about 5|- miles on this side of Dublin when it hap- 
pened. — Yours, &c., Joseph Hill, Mail Guard. 

' Extraordinary Ajipearance inthe Sky. — ( From a Correspondent.) — About 
a quarter before ten o'clock on Wednesday, at an immense altitude, a white 
ball of fire appeared in the north-eastern part of the sky for a moment, and 
shot downwards, illuminating the whole heavens, and causing an extraordi- 
nary sensation in those who witnessed it before its descent. The ball was 
tinged with a beautiful violet blue.' — From the * Warder ' of Saturday, Octo- 
ber 10. 1840." 



On some Points in the Anatomy of the Araneidea, or true Spiders, 
especially on the internal structure of their Spinning Organs, By 
R. H. Meade, F.R.C.S. 

[A Communication ordered to be printed entire among the Reports.] 

It is not my intention in the present communication to enter generally into 
the anatomy of spiders, but to confine myself to an account of the arrange- 
ment and structure of the parts contained in the abdomen ; and more espe- 
cially to describe the glandular organs by which the silk forming their webs, 
is secreted. 

I was led to undertake this investigation by the hope that an accurate exa- 
mination into the minute anatomical structure of the spinning organs might 
clear up some important differences of opinion as to their functions. Martin 
Lister, Cuvier and others, contend that spiders have the power of forcibly 
ejecting the fluid which forms the silk from their spinnerets ; and are thus 
able to propel a thread to a considerable distance, and in any direction. 
Both the above-named naturalists state that they have distinctly seen them 
shoot out their webs, but Mr. Blackwall (the greatest living authority on 
Arachnology) denies that they have any such power, and says that the tena- 
cious fluid is simply emitted from the extremity of the abdomen by pressing 
it against some fixed point, and then drawn out into a thread by a current of 
air, and wafted to some neighbouring object to which it adheres, or left 
floating in the atmosphere. Should my researches fail to clear up this inter- 
esting question, they may tend to elucidate some other curious points con- 
nected with the functions of the spinning organs, — such as the power which 
spiders have of forming different kinds of threads from the same spinnerets, 
some of which are adhesive, while others have no viscidity, but simply form 
a framework to support the others. 

I met with considerable difficulties in the course of my investigations, had 
to make numerous dissections, and at last was unable to arrive at satisfactory 
conclusions on many points ; for the organs are so small and delicate, and 
become so brittle when the spiders have been preserved any time in spirits, 
that it is not easy to separate them. My plan has been to dissect carefully 
in water or spirit, under a simple lens, and then to submit each portion sepa- 
rately to the actiou of a compound microscope. 



158 REPORT — 1858. 

The abdomen of spiders is covered by a tough integument, consisting of 
three layers : the external one is a thin transparent horny membrane, nearly 
colourless, but more or less densely covered with coloured hairs ; beneath 
this lies a soft layer of pigmentary matter, upon which the peculiar colour of 
the body depends ; for it may be observed, that, when the hairs with which 
the body of a spider is clothed are rubbed off, the integument beneath is 
usually of a dark tint. The third or inner layer consists of an expanded 
network of muscular fibres, which are irregularly interlaced, and which must 
enable the spider forcibly to compress the abdomen. The muscles forming 
this layer are very faintly, if at all, marked with transverse striae (see Plate XVI. 

At the apex of the abdomen, on the under side, is the anal tubercle, partly 
concealing the opening of the intestinal canal ; and immediately in front of 
it are seated the spinnerets, a group of projecting processes or mammulae; 
mostly articulated, and moveable in all directions. Their number is gene- 
rally six, but sometimes they are reduced to four, and, as Mr. Blackwall dis- 
covered, they amount to eight in one family. They are placed in pairs, 
closely grouped together. When six in number, the two anterior and two 
posterior are much larger than the two intermediate ones, which in a state 
of repose are hidden beneath the others (see Plate XVI. figs. 2 and 3). The 
posterior spinnerets are often Inarticulate, and have the terminal joints much 
prolonged and very hairy, when they have been called anal palpi, and supposed 
not to take any part in the construction of the webs ; Mr. Blackwell, how- 
ever, demonstrated their true character, showing that they are provided with 
moveable papillas for the transmission of the silk, like the others. The ex- 
ternal anatomy of the spinnerets has been so fully described by Mr. Black- 
wall *, who has shown the number and arrangement of these papillas, which 
vary greatly in different species and on the different spinnerets, that I need 
not dwell further upon them. In Plate XVI. fig. 6, I have represented some 
of them, which are like hollow bristles with dilated bases. 

In the spiders belonging to the family of the CiniJloridcB, Blk. (the type 
of which is the common Ciniflo {Cluhiona) atrox), there is a fourth pair of 
spinnerets. They are short, compressed, and inarticulate, and different in 
appearance from all tlie others. They are seated at the base, and in front 
of the ordinary anterior pair, and have each on the surface an oval flattened 
space perforated witli an immense number of exceedingly minute pores, which 
are the orifices of the spinning tubes (see Plate XVI. fig. 5). 

The spinnerets are connected with the surrounding integument by means 
of diverging bands of muscular fibres (Plate XVI. fig. 3), which enable them 
to move in different directions ; these muscles are placed immediately beneath 
the skin, and their expanded extremities are inserted into it so that they are 
separated with it, unless dissected very carefully. 

In the interior of the abdomen, nearer to the base than the apex, and in 
female specimens opposite the opening of the oviduct, is a fixed spot, pro- 
bably tendinous in character, from which muscular bands radiate in various 
directions, keeping the different abdominal organs in their places. Some of 
these bands are inserted into the integument on both the ventral and dorsal 
surfaces of the body ; others run backwards in straight parallel bundles, and 
pass into the interior of the different spinning mammulae. The last-men- 
tioned fibres are strongly striated (Plate XVI. fig. 7), while those passing from 
the same point to the skin, like the muscles fixing the margins of the 
spinnerets to the integument, are almost destitute of striae. When the abdo- 

* Report on the /JranetWea, British Association for 1844. 



ON THE ANATOMY OF THE ARANEIDEA. 169 

men is opened, a large quantity of adipose matter comes into view, which sup- 
ports and separates the different organs. In recent specimens this tissue is 
formed into lobules, which are again connected by fine cellular tissue into 
larger lobes (see Plate XVI. fig. 8) ; when, however, spiders have been kept for 
some time in spirit, the connecting tissue disappears, the lobules break up, 
and a mere unconnected granular mass remains. This reservoir of fat is a 
storehouse of nutriment, which enables spiders to bear very long abstinence ; 
and when they have been deprived of food for a long while, the abdomen 
becomes small and shriveled. This adipose matter was described by Cuvier 
and others as the liver. The chief organs which the abdomen contains are 
the ovaries (in the female), the intestinal canal, and the glands for the secre- 
tion of the silk. The ovaries, which shortly before the deposition of the eggs 
occupy a large portion of the cavity, are seated in the central and posterior 
part ; the intestinal tube runs through it, in nearly a straight direction, from 
the base to the apex ; and the sacs and tubes which elaborate the material 
for forming the webs, are placed in the lower, lateral, and anterior parts. I 
shall confine myself to the anatomy of the last-named structures, merely 
noticing with regard to one of the others, that I have generally observed the 
lower part of the intestinal canal to be filled with a whitish turbid excre- 
mentitious fluid, sometimes mixed with black particles*. After having been 
some time in spirit, this fluid is converted into a whitish substance of the 
consistence of mortar. 

The silk-glands, with their excretory tubes, which I shall now proceed to 
describe in detail, are very numerous, and of very beautiful construction. 
They essentially consist of a number of hollow cavities or sacs, of different 
sizes and shapes, each of which is furnished with a distinct duct. None of 
them or their ducts have any communication with each other, but terminate 
separately at the extremities of the spinnerets. The nature and construction 
of the glands are essentially similar in all the species of British and foreign 
spiders that I have dissected, though they differ greatly in form and number. 
As might be expected, they are most highly developed in the web-spinning 
species; while in those that hunt for their prey, as the Lycosee, they are few 
and small in comj)arison, with the exception of those species which are aero- 
nautic in their young state. They appear to be similar in the males and 
females. 

When the integument of the lower and front part of the abdomen is re- 
moved, together with a thin layer of fat, and the muscles which move the 
spinnerets, a large bunch of minute vesicles (just visible to the naked eye in 
a large spider, such as JEpeira diadema) is Ijrought into view ; these, exa- 
mined by the microscope, are found to be small transparent oval sacs about 
200th of an inch in diameter in Ep. diadema, with fine and exceedingly 
elastic ducts, which proceed in bundles into the anterior and posterior pairs 
of spinnerets ; few, if any, terminating in the intermediate pair. When accu- 
rately examined, these small glands are found to be of two kinds ; the most 
superficial, which are fewer in number than the others in Ep. diadema, are 
spindle-shaped, and imbedded in oval capsules of an opake finely granular 
substance, which is brittle and easily rubbed off, when pressed between two 
pieces of glass. I have endeavoured to represent these in Plate XVI. fig. 10 a, 
and fig. 11. The other cells, which are more deeply seated, are exceedingly 
numerous in some species ; they are nearly transparent, but when examined 
by a good glass looli as if they were embossed, or covered with little eleva- 

* Mr. Blackwall noticed that the excrement of spiders often contained these black par- 
tacles, which had previously been described as calculi. . 



160 REPORT — 1858. 

tions. I think this is an optical illusion, and that the appearance is due to 
the interior being furnished with numerous cavities or hollows (Plate XVI. 
fig. 10 b, and fig. 12). 

In Ciniflo alrox and C.ferox, and probably in the other species of the same 
family, there are a number of very minute sacs, imbedded in granular opake 
matter, wiiich are not more than a fourth of the size of those which I have 
before described ; they are of a round or pear-like shape, with the appearance 
of a nucleus in the interior, and are furnished with exceedingly minute ducts. 
I found them close to the spinarets, beneath the skin, and their ducts pro- 
bably proceed to the minute orifices on the extremity of the extra pair of 
spinnerets ; but owing to their extreme delicacy, I could not succeed in tracing 
them there (Plate XVI. fig. 13). 

In the middle and even upper parts of the abdomen are a number of tubular 
or bag-shaped cavities, which vary much in shape, number, size, and structure 
in different species ; some are hard and cartilaginous in consistence, with 
transparent walls ; these present no appearance of fibres under the micro- 
scope, but when forcibly compressed, crack and break into irregular frag- 
ments. Their ducts seem similar in structure to the body of the sac, being 
hard and brittle. In Epiira diadema and Ep. quadruta these glands are of 
a large size ; in the former species there are six of them, three being on each 
side; they are somewhat cylindrical in shape, and very much convoluted 
(see Plate XVII. fig. 1 a). I succeeded in tracing one of their ducts into each 
of the six ordinary spinnerets. In Agelena lahyrinthica they are represented 
by several oval-shaped sacs, of moderate size (see Plate X^'II. fig. 1 c), quite 
transparent, and so firm in consistence, that they feel like solid bodies when 
taken between the fingers. 

We now come to a series of membranous sacs, of various shapes and sizes, 
some being large and vermiform, others club-shaped, while others are dilated 
in the middle and furnished with branched caeca. All these different forms 
do not occur in the same individual, but some in one species and some in 
another; they all appear, however, to resemble each other more or less in 
structure. When any of the larger varieties are minutely examined, their 
walls appear thickened and fibrous. Their inner surface is studded with mi- 
nute cavities or hollows, giving it somewhat the appearance of the interior of a 
piece of human intestine, with its valvulce conniveritcs ; thus affording an in- 
creased surface for secretion. When carefully removed from tiie surround- 
ing textures, they all appear coated externally by soft granular matter. I 
think it probable that the blood or nutritive fluid which supplies the mate- 
rials for secretion circulates in this coat, which must therefore be considered 
as the cortical part of the gland. These sacs are well seen in Agelena lahy- 
rinthica, where they are met with of a large tubular or clavate shape. I 
have figured three (Plate XVII. fig. 7), the ducts of which I found terminating 
in one of the elongated posterior spinners; fully confirming Mr. Blackwall's 
opinion as to the true nature of these anal palpi, as they have been called. 
In Cinijlo ferox I noticed two large branched sacs of a very peculiar form 
(see Plate XVII. fig. 6). 

One of the most interesting parts of the structure of these membranous 
sacs is the formation of their excretory ducts. A transparent and highly 
extensible tube is encircled by a fibrous or muscular coat, which loosely sur- 
rounds it, and seems to be a continuation of the outer coat of the sac itself. 
When the ducts are stretched, which they unavoidably are in their removal 
from the body, this breaks up into circular rings and becomes loose from the 
tube within, which is exceedingly extensible, and stretches out so as to be- 
come much le&a in diameter than the outer coat. This structure may be very 



ON THE ANATOMY OF THE ARANEIDEA. 161 

plainly seen in Agelena labyrinthica and CinifloferoXy but is still more distinct 
in some large foreign spiders. I have figured a sac and tube taken from a 
large species of Olios, which I had an opportunity of dissecting through the 
kindness of Dr. Gray of the British Museum (Plate XVII. fig. 5). The ducts 
from these glands seem principally to terminate in the posterior and interme- 
diate spinnerets, but I have traced some of them (especially in Ciniflo ferox) 
into the anterior pair. When dissecting a large specimen of Mygale, I found 
that the fine ducts proceeding from the numerous small oval glands in the 
vicinity of the spinnerets had all the same structure as those I have described 
(Plate XVI. fig. Ylb). I have noticed that some of the larger ducts proceed 
parallel with, and are partly imbedded in, the fibres of the muscular bands 
which extend into the interior of the spinnerets (see Plate XVII. fig. 8). 

I shall now endeavour to draw a few physiological inferences from the facts 
I have imperfectly related. Every papilla or spinning tube is furnished with 
a separate duct, so that each thread which a spider spins is secreted by a 
distinct gland having no communication with its neighbours ; and there can 
be no doubt that different varieties of silk are secreted by the different kinds 
of glands ; but it is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate the fact, as no direct 
experiments can well be made in proof of it. Treviranus says that he thinks 
the small glands near the spinnerets of Ciniflo atrox, the existence of which 
he ascertained (I do not mean the minute ones connected with the additional 
spinnerets), contain a different kind of fluid from that in the large sacs ; but 
they are so small, that I do not think it possible to determine the nature of 
their contents except by the colour, and that must be influenced by the struc- 
ture of the walls of the sacs or glands. 

We have seen that the secreting glands are of very different sizes and kinds ; 
the orifices in the spinnerets, and the spinnerets themselves, are also different ; 
and reasoning upon these facts, and upon some points which may be con- 
sidered as proved, in the economy of the spinning organs, I think we may be 
justified in drawing certain conclusions, or rather offering suggestions as to 
their uses. 

I have said that in Ciniflo atrox and allied species there is a distinct pair 
of supplementary spinnerets, furnished with a fine sieve-like surface, for the 
emission of a number of exceedingly delicate threads ; there are also a num- 
ber of very small and peculiar looking cells, apparently connected with these 
spinners; now Mr. Blackwall has distinctly shown that these spinnerets per- 
form a peculiar function, spinning exceedingly fine lines of pale blue silk, 
which is woven into a flocculus, as he calls it, by a most beautiful comb or 
calamistrum connected with the hind legs*, which flocculus performs a pecu- 
liar office in the webs of this spider. In this case there are a distinct set of 
glands, connected exclusively with a distinct pair of spinnerets, so that it is 
very easy to determine their functions; the other glands, however, have not 
peculiar spinnerets to themselves ; therefore there must be a greater uncer- 
tainty in hazarding opinions as to their uses. 

By far the most numerous, and most constant in size and shape, of the 
spinning glands in spiders generally, are the small ones seated near the spin- 
nerets ; these probably secrete the finer threads which form the more deli- 
cate textures of their webs, construct the cocoons in which they enclose their 
eggs, and the retreats in which some of the species conceal themselves. 

I remarked that the hard cartilaginous sacs were peculiarly large and 
numerous in the geometric spiders, as Epeira diadema. I would suggest 
that they secrete the adhesive threads, which are spirally fixed upon the 

* Researches in Zoology, p. 273. 



i62 REPORT— 1858. 

framework of elastic filaments first constructed. The common house spider 
(Tegenaria civilis) is said to form no adhesive lines, and I have been unable 
to find any of the cartilaginous glands in its abdomen. 

We now come to the consideration of the various shaped membranous sacs, 
the ducts of which are much larger than in the cartilaginous kind, and, as I 
have shown, are furnished with a fibrous coat arranged in distinct rings. I 
have no doubt that these sacs form the fluid which constructs all the strong 
non-adhesive threads spun by spiders, and also the floating lines or gossamer, 
of the aeronautic species. In support of the latter assertion, I have found 
that two of the most common among tlie aerial spiders, viz. Lycosa saccata 
and Thomisus cristatus, contain these sacs in great size and number; whereas 
they are erratic species spinning no regular webs, and therefore having no 
other apparent use for them. In most other species of Lj'cosse the spinning 
organs are in a very rudimentary state. 

I have now arrived at the most interesting, but most difiicult part of my 
task, viz. the question whether there is anything in the structure of the silk- 
forming organs that will decide the question as to tiie power of spiders to 
eject their threads to a distance. Looking at the strong fibrous coat on the 
ducts of the membranous sacs, and the fibrous tissue surrounding the glands 
themselves, I think that they must possess a powerful contractile power, wliich 
may also be increased by the muscular coat of the integument enabling the 
spider to compress its abdomen : may not the striated bands of muscular 
fibres, which run in a parallel direction down the middle of the abdomen 
quite into the interior of the spinnerets, and surround the termination of the 
ducts, also assist in this object? They are not attached to the tegumentary 
coverings of the spinnerets like the other muscles, and cannot therefore be 
for the purpose of moving these processes ; their action must be to draw the 
spinnerets inwards. On examination of the pectoral muscles which connect 
the legs with the cephalothorax, and which possess great power, to enable 
the spider to perform its various active movements, I found that they pre- 
sented exactly the same microscopic appearances as the deep abdominal 
muscles, being very strongly striated ; I therefore conclude that the latter 
perform some very active functions. 

In adopting the conclusion that spiders have the power of forcibly pro- 
pelling the silky fluid from their spinners, I know that I am running counter 
to the convictions of Mr. Blackwall, for whose opinion on all points con- 
nected witli Arachnology I have the greatest veneration. That patient and 
acute observer based his views upon tlie result of many carefully conducted 
experiments ; he found that spiders, when placed upon an upright stick which 
had its base fixed in water, could not escape when they were covered by a 
glass shade, so as to prevent any movement of the air ; but when left un- 
covered, in the ordinary atmosphere of a room, they emitted a little fluid 
from their spinnerets, which was drawn out into a thread by the slightest 
current of air, and soon became attached to some neighbouring object. I 
think it very probable that a current of air may thus draw out these almost 
imponderable lines in some cases, but I consider that we cannot thus account 
for the formation of their threads under all circumstances and in all places. 
We have also the testimony of Cuvier and others, that spiders sometimes 
eject their threads simultaneously in opposite directions. Cuvier has seen 
this feat performed by a Thomisus*, and Kirby and Spence quote an obser- 
vation made by an anonymous author, who says he saw a small spider shoot 
out obliquely in opposite directions small threads, which attached themselves 

. * Regne Animal. 



ON THE ANATOMY OP THE ABANEIDEA. 163 

in the still air of a room, without any influence of the wind, to the objects 
towards which they were directed *. 

Spiders are exceedingly sagacious, and vary the expedients which they 
adopt to escape from confinement or to reach a neighbouring object. I was 
much interested lately in observing one (Epeira inclinata) shift its position. 
It was on a horizontal piece of wood, and wished to reach another piece 
placed about a foot beneath it, and at a short distance from it laterally. It 
suddenly dropped, spinning a thread as it fell, which of course it had first 
fixed to the wood above. When it had fallen to a little below the level of 
the object which it wished to reach, it stopped itself by catching the line with 
one of its feet, and remained suspended in the air by the thread. It now 
made several violent jerking movements, and thus acquired a swinging mo- 
tion, which it managed to increase until it brought itself into contact with 
the neighbouring object : as soon as this was effected, it clambered on to it, 
and walked leisurely away. 

Explanation of the Plates. 

Plate XVI. 
Fig. 1. Portion of the muscular layer of integument. 
Fig. 2. Spinnerets from a large species of Olios. 
Fig. 3. Spinnerets oi Epeira diadema, with motor muscles. 
Fig. 4. Portion of one of the same muscles, greatly magnified, showing its 

attachment to the skin. 
Fig. 5. Spinnerets of Cinijlo feroxi — a. Extra spinnerets, which form the 

flocculus ; b. Cribriform surface on the same. 
Fig. 6. a. Papillae or spinning tubes on a portion of a spinneret; b. Highly 

magnified view of one papilla. 
Fig. 7. Striated muscle from the interior of abdomen : — a. Bundle of fibi'es ; 

b. One fibre, highly magnified. 
Fig. 8. Fat lobules. 
Fig. 9. Interior of the abdomen of Epeira diadema, showing the silk-glands 

in situ. 
Fig. 10. One of the spinnerets oi Epeira diadema, with portions of striated 

muscle, and some of the small oval and fusiform glands attached. 
Fig. 11. Two of the fusiform glands, with their granular capsules highly 

magnified. 
Fig. 12. a. Oval gland, from Epeira diadema, showing its embossed appear- 
ance ; b, Ditto, from a large species of Mygale, showing its duct 

with a fibrous covering. 
Fig. 13. Minute glands near the supplementary spinners in Cinijlo atrox; 

two ordinary glands appear with them. 

Plate XVII. 
Fig. I. Cartilaginous or hard silk-glands: — a and b. Two varieties from 

Epeira diadema ; c. Variety from Agelena labyrinthica. 
Fig. 2. Membranous sac and duct from Agelena labyrinthica. 
Fig. 3. A portion of the body of the same, highly magnified. 
Fig. 4. A portion of the duct of the same, highly magnified. 
Fig. 5. Large sac from a species of Olios: — a. A portion of the duct of the 

same, showing the fibrous coat. 
Fig. 6. Peculiar shaped sac, with branched caeca, from Cinijlo atrox. 

* Introduction to Entomology, 3rd edit. vol. i. p. 418. 



3.64 , REPORT — 1858. 

Fig. 7. One of the posterior triarticulate spinners from Agelena labyrinthica, 

witti spinning glands attaciied. 
Fig. 8. Portions of duct, from spinning glands imbedded in muscle, just as 

they are entering one of the spinnerets. 



The Patent Laws. — Report of the Committee of the British Association. 
Presented by W, Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

The subject of the Patent Laws lias frequently occupied the attention of 
meetings of the British Association, and committees have from time to time 
been appointed for the purpose of considering how those laws might be 
rendered more efficient for the objects with which they are maintained. 
The Rev. Vernon Harcourt, in the inaugural address at the first meeting of 
the Association, held at York (September 1831), in which he expounded 
the objects and plan of the Association, referred to those laws as an instance 
in which fiscal regulations interfered with the progress of practical science, 
and as failing to give protection to property in scientific invention to the 
same extent as protection is given to every other species of property ; and 
he suggested a revision of those laws as one of the subjects to which a 
scientific association might be justly expected to call public attention; and 
Sir David Brewster, and others, have on several occasions brought the 
subject before meetings of the Association. 

By the Patent Law Amendment Act, passed in the session of 1852, the 
rights of the inventor to property in the offspring of his brain, and in the 
creations of his intellect when embodied in products of national industry, were 
fully recognized ; provisional protection to that property was secured to such 
inventor from the date of his application for a patent ; one proceeding was sub- 
stituted, and one patent issued, extending to the whole of the United Kingdom, 
instead of three proceedings and three patents separate and distinct for each 
of the three countries, England, Scotland and L-eland ; property was created 
and protection obtained for six months by a payment of £5 ; for three years 
by a payment of £25 ; and for the further terms of four and seven years, by 
additional payments of £50 and £100 respectively, instead of by the pay- 
ment of upwards of £300 in the first instance, under circumstances of such 
uncertainty as threw discredit on the whole system ; the specifications of all 
patents are to be printed and published, and sold at extremely low prices; a 
benefit to the public as well as the inventor, which it would be difficult to 
estimate too highly ; and, lastly, provision was made for the regulation of 
matters relating to patents by commissioners furnished with ample powers 
for the purpose. 

This Act came into operation on the 1st of October, 1852, and the ex- 
perience of the first two years showed that the payments by inventors upon 
the above scale of charges would be at the rate of more than £50,000 per 
annum, without including the further or additional payments for the main- 
tenance of the patents for the further terms of four and seven years, after 
the expiration of the first three or seven years respectively. 

At the meeting of the British Association in Liverpool, September 1854, 
a committee, presided over by the Earl of Harrowby, was appointed " for 
the purpose of taking such steps as may be necessary to render the patent 
system and the funds derived from inventors more efficient and available 
for the reward of meritorious inventors and the advancement of practical 
science." This committee communicated with the Earl Granville and Lord 
Brougham, to whose exertious and watchful care the passage of the measure 



; 



I 



ON THE PATENT LAWS. 165 

of 1852 was mainly due; and made a report to the meeting of the British 
Association, held in Glasgow in the following year, when the subject of the 
tax on inventors and the appropriation of the funds so levied was fully dis- 
cussed ; and another committee, consisting of His Grace the Duke of Argyll, 
the Earl of Hurrowbjs Colonel Sabine, the Master of the Mint (Prof. 
Graham), Mr. Fairbairn and Mr. Webster, were appointed with similar 
powers. The Glasgow Committee addressed a memorial to the Lord Chan- 
cellor (Lord Cranworth), calling attention to the proceedings which had 
taken place at the various meetings of the British Association, to the nume- 
rous questions of administration and legislation then adverted to, or which 
might be expected to arise, and suggesting that Her Majesty should be ad- 
vised, in accordance with the provisions of the Patent Law Amendment 
Act, 1852, to appoint others than the official commissioners, and to make 
the working of that Act the subject of immediate inquiry. 

At the meeting of the British Association, held at Cheltenham in 1856, a 
committee, consisting of the Earl of Harrowby, Lord Stanley, M.P., Mr. 
Fairbairn, Prof. Graham, the Master of the Mint, Mr. James Heywood, 
Mr. Commissioner Hill, General Sabine, and Mr. Webster, were appointed 
with like powers; the Earl of Harrowby and Mr. James Heywood commu- 
nicated personally with the Lord Chancellor ; the Lord Stanley took a warm 
interest in the subject, embodying his views on the necessary alterations in 
a published pamphlet; but up to this time the objects in view have not been 
attained, and it will be for this meeting of the British Association to consider 
what further steps should be taken. 

The printing and publication of the specifications has led to results which 
were hardly anticipated, as to which the following extract from a Report of 
the Commissioners of Patents in 1856, will be read with interest:— 

" The Commissioners of Patents have presented complete copies of all their 
publications to such of the government officers and seats of learning as have 
applied for them, and to the principal towns in the United Kingdom, on con- 
dition of their being daily open to the inspection of the public free of charge. 
In their selection of towns for this gift, they have been guided by the num- 
ber of applications for patents proceeding from each. 

" This gift has in most cases laid the foundation of public free libraries 
where none previously existed. In some instances, where the local authori- 
ties hesitated to accept the works on account of the incidental expenses, 
the custody has been solicited and temporarily undertaken by scientific in- 
stitutions, which have modified their by-laws to enable a free admission of 
the public daily to the library in which the works are deposited." 

The same Report, after enumerating a list of the places which have received 
the works, says, " it is satisfactory to find that these national records of in- 
vention are especially consulted by that class whose skill in the improvement 
of manufactures is so essential to the maintenance of the commercial pros- 
perity of this kingdom ;" and adds the testimony of the librarians of several of 
the free libraries to the same effect. 

Complete sets of the Commissioners' works have been sent to the Colonies ; 
to many Foreign States; to the Patent Office, Washington; to the Aster Li- 
brary, New York ; to the Franklin Institution of Pennsylvania; to the Public 
Free Library, Boston, U.S. ; and the Honourable Charles Mason, Commis- 
sioner of Patents for the United States, addressing the Commissioners of 
Patents in this country, writes as follows : — 

" The admirable example you have set in publishing the specifications and 
drawings in full, and putting them on sale at a moderate price, so that all 
can easily provide themselves with what they need for private use, will ere 



166 REPORT — 1858. 

long, I trust, stimulate our own Government to do the like. Nothing short 
of this in the way of publication can give permanent satisfaction." 

A free library and reading-room has been opened at tlie office of the Com- 
missioners of Patents, containing a large collection of works of reference, 
which the same Report states to be numerously attended by professional 
men, the agents of foreign and provincial inventors, and by practical mecha- 
nics and operatives ; and Mr. Woodcroft has collected a large number of 
portraits of inventors and of models, illustrative of the history and progress 
of invention, which it may be hoped, at no distant period, will form a prin- 
cipal object in a national gallery of inventors and museum of inventions. 

These and other undertakings, well suited to promote the advance of prac- 
tical science and the interest of inventors, afford legitimate objects for the ex- 
penditure of the surplus funds levied on inventors ; but when ample provision 
shall have been made for these objects, there will be a considerable annual 
surplus. 

The amount paid by patentees during the last year was upwards of 
£8;5,000; and after the commencement of the payment of £100 at the 
expiration of the seventh year, the amount levied on inventors will not be 
found less than £100,000 per annum ; a sum, which, as being levied on 
inventors and inventions, may reasonably be expected to be expended on 
objects in which inventors have some interest. 

In reference to this branch of the subject, the following questions would 
appear to arise for consideration : — 

1. Should the present scale of payment be maintained or reduced, so as 
to leave no great surplus beyond what may be necessary for the official 
expenses? 

2. If the present scale be maintained, how should the surplus be appro- 
priated ? 

It appears that the second payment of ^650 before the end of the third 
year is not made in respect of more than about one-fourth of the whole 
number of patents issued, that payment being made on about 500 out of 
2000 patents, so that 1500 are permitted to lapse; the cost of which in 
money to the patentees cannot be taken at less than aG75,000, in addition 
to the expenditure of time and labour on the respective inventions. Can any- 
thing be done to diminish this loss beyond affording every facility for access 
to information as to what has been done before, and the improved education 
of the people ? 

In addition to these considerations and suggestions in connexion with the 
new system as recently established, and which are of a fiscal character, 
there are some other questions deeply affecting the interests of inventors 
and the advancement of practical science, which it would not be proper to 
close this Report without adverting to. 

The Patent Law Reform of 1852 was never regarded as a final measure. 
It was but a first instalment obtained under great difficulty ; it only laid 
the foundation of the superstructure yet to be raised. The following import- 
ant questions of — 1 . improved protection to the property so created ; 
2. the amendment of existing patents and specifications, so as to save what 
is really new and useful according to the amendment of the Patent Law as 
effected by Lord Brougham in 1835; 3. the confirmation of an invention 
reinvented and introduced into successful use, according to the principle of 
the confirmation of rights effected by the same noble Lord ; 4. the exten- 
sion of the term of patents which have not yielded adequate remuneration to 
the inventor ; 5. reward to a meritorious inventor, who from causes wholly be- 
yond his control, has been a great loser by, or derived no benefit from a meri- 



ON THE LEAD MINING DISTRICTS OF YORKSHIRE, 167 

torious invention, from which the public have derived great benefit; 6. a 
system of compulsory licences under existing patents, — are questions, all of 
which were omitted advisedly by the promoters of the recent measure, their 
attention being directed mainly to the destruction of the existing, and the 
establishment of a new system of creating property in inventions. 

These, with other amendments and matters of minor importance, which 
the experience of six years of the working of the new system has disclosed, 
will involve further legislation, and the consolidation and repeal of no less than 
sixteen statutes, or part of statutes, an object of great importance to every 
inventor. 

Your Committee now remit this subject to the consideration of the Meeting 
of the British Association, deriving confidence from the belief that the times 
are not unfavourable for further action, and that the town and neighbour- 
hood in which the Association is now assembled may appropriately claim to 
take a prominent part in the consummation of those reforms which have 
occupied the attention of so many previous Meetings. 



On the Lead Mining Districts of Yorkshire. 
By Stephen Eddy, Carlton, Skipton, 

In comparison with the vast coal fields and iron-stone beds of Yorkshire, the 
lead-producing district of this county seems trifling ; yet in consideration of 
the large population dependent upon the mining and manufacture of lead, it 
necessarily claims our attention. 

I cannot take it upon me to say, when lead mining was first commenced in 
this county ; but that many veins were discovered and worked to some extent, 
at a very early period, is fully established, both by the Roman explorations 
frequently met with, and the discovery in the vicinity of Greenhow Hill, near 
Pateley Bridge, of two pigs of lead, inscribed with the name of the Emperor 
Domitian, and bearing date a.d. 82. It is not improbable, however, that 
the mines of these districts were worked at a still more remote period by the 
ancient Britons. 

In the earlier age of lead mining, and indeed up to a comparatively recent 
period, the discovery of a vein entitled the party finding it to a grant, or 
licence to work, on a certain length of such particular vein, generally two 
meers ; the raeer being 28, 29, 30, or 32 yards, in different districts, re- 
spectively. The width of the ground granted was confined to a distance of 
8 yards on each side of the vein. This was called the " Quarter Cord." 

Thus, each vein formed a distinct mine, and from the well-known fact, 
that (though there is, generally speaking, a certain degree of parallelism 
maintained by the major part of the veins), in each of our mining fields, 
numerous intersections take place; the parties pursuing their allotted veins 
frequently found themselves within the quarter cord of the adjacent sett, 
and sometimes on their neighbour's vein. The result of such a system of 
holding, was not only to cramp the energies of the miner, from his not having 
a reasonable extent of ground for works of trial ; but also to involve him in 
constant disputes and litigations with his neighbour. 

The pernicious system of letting ground on a certain vein, with a given 
width on each side of such vein, was however continued to a comparatively 
recent date ; when parties with capital becoming connected with the mines, 
and the works being so extended as to render the introduction of machinery 
advisable, the necessity for grants on a larger scale was so apparent, that 
small holders were by degrees disposed of, and the custom of granting setts 



16S REPORT— 1858. 

(as they are termed) of certain extent, defined by fixed boundaries, which 
has been practised in Devon and Cornwall from a very early period, is now 
almost generally adopted in this county. 

Generally speaking, the various lead mines which constitute such an im- 
portant portion of the mineral treasures of Great Britain, are situated on 
rugged and barren elevations, and in this respect those of Yorkshire are not 
exceptions. 

If we draw an imaginary line from Ilkley, bearing about 12° West of 
North, for a distance of 35 miles, and then parallel ones to it, through points 
10 miles east and 10 miles west from tlie centre line, we shall in this area of 
700 square miles, include the high and uncultivated districts bounding 
Airedale, Wharfedale, Nidderdale, Wensleydale, Arkendale and Swaledale; 
in which I believe all the lead mines in this county, that have been or are 
being worked to any extent, are situated. 

The strata throughout the whole of this area, are (like those of the great 
lead-bearing districts of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham, and 
also of Derbyshire) the lower members of the Carboniferous Series. 

Although the same class of rocks prevails throughout our lead-bearing 
districts, we do not always find each individual stratum to occur, even in 
mines in the immediate vicinity of each other ; and when they do exist, their 
thickness is frequently found to vary considerably. 

It is therefore impossible to make a section, that would correspond with 
every mining district, or even hold good throughout a single mining field. 

Plate XVIII. figs. 1, 2, and 3, are sections of the strata sunk through in 
three of the shafts on the Grassington Mines in Wharfedale. From these it 
will be observed, that even in situations so close to each other, the thickness 
of the beds varies considerably. 

The greatest thickness of Limestone yet proved at Grassington is 66 yards, 
whereas at the Cockhill Mines, near Pateley Bridge, only about 6 miles 
distant, it is found to be at least 180 yards thick. 

In the metalliferous portion of the Carboniferous rocks, we have the 
Rake Vein, the Pipe or Tube Vein, and the lateral embedded, or Flat Vein. 

The first has the appearance of a rent or fissure in the strata, extending 
to a great length, and generally to an unknown depth. The second, or 
Pipe Vein, has the form of an irregular tube, is met with in certain strata, 
(generally Limestone), and dips with the beds, or passes more or less diago- 
nally through them, for a great length. The Flat Vein is seldom met with, 
except in connexion with some Rake Vein, but has always a position con- 
formable to the stratum in which it is embedded. 

The Rake Veins are by far the most numerous in every district, and the 
phenomena presented by them the most varied and complicated. The 
greater portion of our lead ere likewise is obtained from them. 

The longitudinal course, or " bearing," of a Rake Vein, is seldom (if ever) 
a perfectly straight line ; but, for the most part, it gives a tolerably direct 
bearing throughout its entire length. 

The downward course of these veins varies considerably in the angles 
formed with the vertical. The "Hade," or inclination, is likewise more toward 
a horizontal position, in the soft or Argillaceous Beds, than in the more hard 
and solid rocks ; and sometimes in passing a seam of Coal or of soft Clay, it 
takes the direction of the stratum for a greater or less distance. (See figs. 
4, 5, and 6.) 

The width of the vein is not uniform throughout its whole length; it 
frequently opens out from a width of a foot or two, to one of as many yards, 
and then contracts until it becomes a mere thread or joint. 



ON THE LEAD MINING DISTRICTS OP YORKSHIRE. 169 

At the Cononley Mine in Airedale, the vein is frequently found to vary 
from an inch or two in width, to five or six yards, and that, within a longitu- 
dinal distance of a few feet. The width of a vein varies also with a change 
of strata; it is much greater in the hard strata, where it has a more erect 
position than in the soft ; it is generally more open in the Limestone than in 
the Gritstone, and very much contracted in the plate or shale. Frequently 
we find the vein to be 4 or 5 feet wide in the Grit or the Limestone, when 
it is scarcely perceptible in the plate. 

The beginning or termination of a vein longitudinally, is seldom explored ; 
where this has been done, the vein is found to ramify at acute angles, and 
the branches quickly terminate. 

A remarkable instance of this recently occurred at the Grassington Mines. 
In these mines, three levels were being driven eastward on the Cavendish 
Vein, at the respective depths of 20, 37, and 50 fathoms from the surface. 
The 20-fathom level was in a stratum, locally known as the ' Top Grit ;' the 
37 in the ' Bearing or Main Grit ;' and the 50-fathom level in the Limestone. 

Each level was at the time yielding from 6 to 9 tons of rich lead ore from 
every fathom driven. Many parties who went underground in this mine, after 
some length of such rich ground had been explored, and while the levels 
continued to yield at that rate, concluded that ground was being laid open 
from which immense profits could be made, for many years to come ; and 
they vv^ere correct, so far as they had an opportunity of judging ; for, had 
the levels continued to open out such rich ground, no difficulty would have 
been found in making a profit of 40,000/. or 50,000/. a year from these mines. 

Unfortunately a change soon took place. The first cause for apprehen- 
sion noticed, was the wedge-like point of thin beds of Plate, introduced in 
diflterent parts of the " Bearing Grit," in the 37-fathom level. As these became 
more numerous, and of greater thickness, the vein began to throw off" 
branches on either side, and in the course of a few fathoms there was not a 
trace of the vein to be seen. As the upper and lower levels (the 20 and 
50) approached the same perpendicular point eastward, the vein in each case 
ramified into numerous strings. First, one branch was followed, and then 
another, until they disappeared entirely. At about 60 fathoms eastwards 
from where all trace of this vein was thus lost, a " Crosscut " (that is, a level at 
right angles to the general bearing of the veins) was driven to some consi- 
derable distance both North and South of where it should have been inter- 
sected, had it continued eastward ; but without discovering the slightest 
symptom of a vein. 

The Rake Veins are generally found to be " Fault Veins." As a rule, the 
strata are lower on that side to which a vein hades or inclines, called the 
hanging wall, than on the one upon which it rests, known as the footwall 
of the vein. Thus a vein with the beds on the north side thrown up, will 
hade or underlie to the south. (See figs. 4 & 5.) 

The extent of the throw, or diff"erence of level of the correspondin;^ 
strata, varies from a few inches to 20 or 30 fathoms ; and such a difierence 
is often met with when veins are in the immediate vicinity of each other. 
The extent of the throw is generally considered to denote the strength of 
the vein. A vein with a difference in the level of the strata of from 6 to 
18 feet, is regarded by the miner with more favour than one with a greater 
or less throw. Such a throw is considered evidence of sufiicient strength of 
vein to ensure its continuity at a moderate size, and not such as to destroy 
the effect which certain beds are supposed to produce, when they are found 
in the same horizontal line, on each side of the vein. 

When rocks of a different character are brought into the same horizontal 
1858. N 



170 REPORT 1858. 

line, that is, when Gritstone on one side of the vein is opposed to Plate on 
the other, and Limestone to Gritstone, or Limestone to Shale, the veins are 
not often found productive of Lead ores. There are, however, many ex- 
ceptions to this rule. At the Grassington Mines are two parallel veins, 
within 80 fathoms of each other, both throwing the south side down to such 
an extent, as to cause Plate to be opposed to Gritstone, Plate to Limestone, 
and Gritstone to Limestone, and so on throughout the whole depth explored 
on them. (See fig. 5.) So circumstanced, one of these veins yielded great 
abundance of ore, while the other proved to be totally barren. 

We often find, when the vein occasions a throw of some two or three 
fathoms, that the ore does not extend above the change of strata on the 
hanging side, nor below the change on the lying or footwall ; for instance, 
when the bed of Grit or Limestone is 10 fathoms thick, and the throw of 
the strata is 3 fathoms, Ave have only 7 fathoms in height of ore; but in 
some cases the ore is found to extend the full thickness of the bed with the 
addition of the extent of the throw. Diagram 4 represents a transverse sec- 
tion of such a vein in the Grassington Mines, from which considerable quan- 
tities of ore are now being raised. 

The strata on each side of a vein are not only at different levels, but near 
the vein they have a different position, being bent upwards on the one side 
and downwards on the other. As a rule, the strata on the higher side are 
bent downwards to the vein, and on the depressed side from it. Thus, if 
iu driving a crosscut southward, in search of a vein ranging east and west, 
we arrive at a point where the beds assume a faster dip, our approach to a 
vein that throws the strata down on the south side, is inferred ; while, if in 
driving northward, the beds curve quickly upwards, we anticipate a vein 
with the north-side strata at a higher level. (See fig. 5.) 

In each of our Lead-bearing districts, the strata consist of numerous 
alternating beds of Plate, Gritstone, and Limestone ; forming the Yoredale 
Rocks of Professor Phillips. 

The veins are found to traverse or pass through all these beds, but gene- 
rally speaking, it is only in certain of them tiiat Lead ore is found ; the 
Limestone being the prevalently productive stratum in some districts, whilst 
in others the principal yield of ore is from the Gritstone. The Argillaceous 
Plates seldom yield ore; but there is an exception to this in the Cononley 
Mines, where bunches of ore have continued from the surface, to a depth 
of more than 30 fathoms ; although the alternations of Plates and Gritstones 
are exceedingly numerous, and the Plates much thicker than the Gritstone 
beds. 

From these facts it follows, that a rule, by which to calculate on metallic 
products from certain rocks, will not admit of general application ; but we 
raay carry it so far as to say, that in a given district, certain beds generally 
are, and others generally are not, productive. 

Many veins, particularly in our more Northern fields, preserve a tolerably 
direct course for a considerable distance. The Old Gang Vein in Swaledale, 
for instance, has been worked for several miles in length, and can be traced 
to a much greater distance in nearly a straight line. 

In our three Northern Mining Fields, — Swaledale, Arkendale, and Wens- 
leydale — the veins appear to be more regular in size and direction, and the 
beds preserve a more uniform thickness, than in the three Southern Fields. 
In the former, likewise, the calcareous beds have been the principal sources 
of produce ; whereas, in our Southern ones, the greater portion of the ore 
has been, and still is being produced, from the Gritstone. 

There are other causes by which the productiveness of the veins appear 



ON THE LEAD MINING DISTRICTS OF YORKSHIRE. l7l 

to be influenced, that are peculiar to the Mines of our three Northern Dales, 
while certain characteristics more particularly pertain to our Southern Mi- 
ning Fields. We may, therefore, for all the purposes of this paper, treat the 
Lead Mines of this county, as belonging to two great Mineral Districts, the 
Northern and the Southern. 

In each district we have the Rake, the Pipe, and the Flat Veins. The 
ores from the Pipe and Flat Veins are generally found more fusible in the 
furnace, and to yield a higher per centage of lead, tiian those from the Rake 
Veins ; and the ores from the Limestones (whether produced from the 
Rake, Pipe, or Fiat Vein) are found to be more easily reduced, and to make 
a much better quality of metal for White Lead, than those from the Grit- 
stone. 

Here, I would refer to a correspondence, which took place some few 
months ago, in the columns of the ' Mining Journal,' on the subject of Slick- 
ensides. It was there asserted that Slickensides had never been met with 
in Gritstone. I am prepared to meet this assertion, by the production of 
the specimen obtained from the Gritstone in the Grassington Mines ; and 
with the exception of one from the same place, which I gave to the late 
Duke of Devonshire, I much question there being a better specimen in the 
country. 

The Slickensides first appeared at the point of junction of two veins, and 
continued their course in a perfectly straight line in the centre of the joint 
vein, for about 70 yards in length ; or they might perhaps more correctly be 
said to have still divided the two veins, forming the North side of the one, 
and the South side of the other. (See fig. 7.) 

We could have procured specimens from either side, with as good a sur- 
face as the one exhibited, but not so large. It was only from the South 
side that they could be obtained of any size, the other being so cracked 
horizontally, that it was seldom a piece could be broken off, more than 
an inch or two wide ; in fact, the cracks on this side were almost as nume« 
rous as the strias on the surface of the North. 

The vein, throughout the whole length in which the Slickensides were 
found, maintained nearly a perpendicular position ; and the striae were as 
nearly horizontal. In many parts of the vein, we had the thickness of a foot 
of solid ore behind each face of Slickenside. 

Many present will no doubt have read or heard of the phenomena reported 
to have attended the laying open of Slickensides in Germany ; that the 
miner has at times been much frightened by the loud reports occasioned 
by the explosions. 

When driving our level in the Slickensides, we generally worked forward 
on the North side, leaving the South, or strong side, standing for 6 or 8 yards 
in length ; and on more than one occasion, the wqrkmen spoke of the reports 
they heard, sometimes as loud as that of a small pistol. At such times, 
numerous places could be seen where pieces had been blistered, and blown 
away from the face of the Slickenside; which presented much the same ap- 
pearance as a wall recently plastered with very imperfectly-slacked lime, but 
on a much larger scale. 

The ore from a vein carrying much Slickenside, requires generally a 
higher temperature, and is altogether more refractory in the furnace than 
that from one free from it. 

As a general rule, the greatest number of veins in each Mining district 
are found to run nearly parallel to each other. There are others that form 
angles more or less acute, with the predominant direction; which, in the 
Northern District, is a little North of East, and South of West; whilst in 

n2 



172 REPORT — 1858. 

our Southern Fields, the general direction is North of West, and South of 
East. 

Where the veins of the more usual line of direction are crossed by 
oblique or " caunter " veins, we frequently find the traversed ones to be shifted 
or thrown off their course, and often ramified by those so traversing ; and 
sometimes they undergo a curvature on one side, near the cross vein. 

As a rule, if the oblique or " caunter" vein be first met with on the right- 
hand side, the shift will be to the left ; and if on tlie contrary, the heave 
will be to the right ; or in other words, the vein is heaved on the side of the 
obtuse angle formed by the intersecting planes. (See fig. 8 ; A, B, A.) 

To this rule there are however many exceptions, and a remarkable one 
occurred at tlie Grassington Mines, which is represented by Fig. 8. On 
finding the vein A A shitted, the level, as usual, was turned on the side of the 
obtuse angle, and driven forward on the vein B some considerable distance, 
till, despairing of finding the vein in this direction, and after carefully exami- 
ning the surface, and some old works in the vicinity, we returned to the point 
of intersection, and began a level northward at nearly right angles to the 
traversed vein ; whicli in course of time was found to be heaved or thrown 
backwards some 50 yards. (See fig. 8 ; A A, B B, A A.) 

In heaves of this class, the veins are consequently lengthened ; while they 
are shortened when thrown or shifted on the side of the obtuse angle. 

The dislocation of one vein by another is likewise indicative of its ante- 
rior existence. 

When one or both of the veins produce ore up to the point at which they 
meet, the yield is often increased by their junction. The extent of the angle 
formed by two veins is looked upon with some interest by the Miner; the 
more acute it is, the more favourable is their union considered to be for the 
production of metallic Mineral. 

At Grassington, it is found that many of the direct veins are not heaved 
by the oblique or " caunter " ones, but are so split or ramified, that it is with 
difficulty they can be traced on the other side of the intersection. The 
usual course in such cases is to go forward on the"caunter" vein, some fathoms 
beyond the point of intersection, and drive a crosscut ; when the branches 
are often found to have united, and the vein to be reconstructed. 

When the displacement of the strata is so gi'eat as to cause beds of dif- 
ferent mineral character to be opposed to each other, fragments of the en- 
closing rocks form a considerable portion of the contents of the vein. 

The general composition of the veins is Calcareous Spar, Fluor Spar, 
Barytes, and occasionally Calamine. In some districts one of these minerals 
prevails, in others another. 

A vein enclosed by regularly stratified Gritstone is productive, almost 
entirely, of Galena, which forms the principal yield of Lead Ores through- 
out the world. Cases have, however, occurred, when a somewhat thin stra- 
tum of Grit, superimposed on an Argillaceous Shale of moderate thickness, 
has exclusively contained large quantities of decomposing Galena, earthy 
Carbonates, and imperfectly crystallized Carbonates. In the former case, the 
ore lies mostly in more or less solid ribs, approximately parallel to the walls 
of the vein ; while in the latter, the lode is found loosely filled with various 
sized pieces, in different stages of chemical decomposition. 

When the beds of Gritstone and Shale are much broken and displaced 
(as is usual in the vicinity of an anticlinal axis, or contiguous to a line of 
extensive fault), or when the beds of Shale are individually thicker than the 
respective Gritstones, the vein throughout its productive depth principally 
yields irregular strings and small bunches of Galena ; whilst its upper part 



ON THE LEAD MINING DISTRICTS OF YOUKSHIRE. 173 

mostly carries considerable deposits, of mixed rich and poor earthy, compact, 
and crystallized Carbonates. 

In such ground, when the vein is very wide and encloses detached masses 
of Gritstone, or when the sides of the lode are much disturbed and broken, 
large crystals of the Carbonate are frequently found pressed flat upon the 
faces formed by the jointing and bedding planes of such Sandstone, for 
some distance from the body of the ore. 

The Limestone beds usually favour the deposits of rich Galena in self 
lumps, or nodules of various sizes. These self lumps are often coated with 
an earthy white Carbonate, which is also frequently found filling the small 
interstices in the adjacent rock, and likewise as a deposit in the nests formed 
by those sudden enlargements and contractions so usual in veins traversing 
the Limestone beds. Not many of the other Lead Ores (which are seldom 
met with, and consequently of little commercial value) have been found in 
our Yorkshire Mines. 

Minium is stated, in most Mineralogical works, to have been found on 
Grassington Moor ; but I have never seen, nor heard of any from there, 
and certainly for twenty-six years past none has been found. The Phos- 
phate and Arsenio-phosphate were formerly found at Grassington, principally 
in the Gritstone. 

A small piece of native Lead has also been obtained from the Gritstone 
in those mines within the last four years. 

In each district we have numerous mines ; some, that a few years ago 
were highly productive, are now nearly exhausted ; others, though but 
recently opened, are yielding well; and there is no doubt there are many rich 
veins yet undiscovered in both districts. 

By far the greater portion of the present produce from the Northern dis- 
trict is from the Old Gang Mine, in Arkendale ; and the Kell Head Mine, 
in Wensleydale ; while the Grassington Mines in Wharfedale yield about 
two-thirds of the produce of the Southern district. The produce of the 
county in 1856 was 8933 tons of Pig Lead, or about |th of the total returns 
of the United Kingdom. 

The difficulties and uncertainties which attend mining for Metallic Mine- 
rals are not generally known. 

Many large and regular veins (although presenting very encouraging fea- 
tures) prove totally destitute of metallic mineral; others make rich deposits 
of ore, but of very limited extent; and in our most profitable mines, a con- 
siderable extent of barren ground must needs be opened, even on the best 
producing veins. 

At the Cononley Mines, for instance, although profitable for many years 
past, the levels (which are very extensive) have laid open more than 20 
fathoms of totally unmetalliferous, for every fathom of productive ground. 

The Sections produced tend to show that Lead Mining in the secondary 
formation is more uncertain in its character than in the more primitive 
rocks. When ore is discovered in the latter, it is reasonably expected to 
continue upwards and downwards to some considerable extent ; whereas, in a 
stratified country, and where the bearing beds are not individually thick, the 
ore at best will not exceed a few fathoms in height or depth, and moreover 
levels may be driven in certain beds without the slightest chance of success. 

In one respect the stratified district offers the advantage. The nature 
and thickness of the bearing beds, and the inclination of the strata being 
known, we can generally determine the elevation for commencing an Adit, 
or water level, to drain the productive parts of the veins ; and thus avoid 
the cost of engine power for pumping, and other expenses. 



174 REPORT 1858. 

Mining for Metallic Minerals, whether in the primitive or secondary for- 
mation, is of a much more uncertain and speculative character than that for 
Coal. In the Coal Measures, we can ascertain at a moderate expense, by 
boring, whether seams of Coal exist ; and if existing, their thickness. This 
being learnt, an approximate estimate of the quantity of saleable Coal in a 
given area, and the cost of its get, is no difficult matter. 

With the Rake and Pipe Veins of the Lead Fields, the case is different. 
A vein which generally approaches the perpendicular, rather than otherwise, 
presents little chance of being probed by boring ; and even should it be 
pierced, the mineral capable of extraction through a borehole would afford 
very unsafe data by which to judge the value of the vein. The hole might 
quite possibly pass through the only portion of ore contained within many 
fathoms ; or, with an equal possibility, penetrate the poor part of a vein, 
which at any other point would have yielded widely different data. 

Mineral veins may be, and frequently are, discovered (in places where the 
surface of the rock is to be seen) by the fracture and interruption in the 
regularity of the strata. 

In all Mining districts, but especially in a stratified country, the pheno- 
mena presented by veins, their frequent heaves and dislocations, and their 
varied appearances when bounded by different rocks, call for very close 
attention ; and even a dependence upon knowledge acquired in one district, 
may prove fatal in another. 

The Miner should be perfectly acquainted with the nature of those sub- 
stances, which it is his daily task to seek in the bowels of the earth, — as 
well as with those which, though perhaps worthless in themselves, generally 
indicate the presence or absence of the immediate objects of his search. 
Long and practical experience, combined with a knowledge of Geology 
and PJineralogy, can alone furnish him with this requisition ; and is there- 
fore essential to success. 



On the Collapse of Glass Globes and Cylinders. 
By W. Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

At the Meeting of the British Association last year, a paper was read upon 
the Collapse of Cylindrical Wrought-iron Riveted Tubes by a uniform 
external force. These experiments upon a ductile and fibrous material, led 
to some novel, and important results, and suggested the propriety of similarly 
testing the resisting powei-s of a perfectly homogeneous crystalline and 
rigid material, in order that our knowledge of the laws which govern the 
resistance of vessels to collapse, might be confirmed and extended. 

For tfiis purpose, glass was the material selected, not only on account of 
its fulfilling better than almost any other material the conditions sought for, 
and from the ease with which it could be manufactured into the required 
forms ; but also because it was hoped that the results would be practically of 
value in those cases in the arts and in experimental science in which it is so 
extensively employed. 

The experiments were conducted m a similar manner to those upon iron. 
Some glass cylinders and globes were procured direct from the glass-house, 
blown out of good flint-glass. The open ends of these were then hermetically 
sealed by the blow-pipe, and they were placed in a strong wrought-iron vessel, 
capable of sustaining a pressure of 2500 lbs. per square inch. Water was 
then pumped in by means of a force-pump, and the pressure was recorded 



ON THE COLLAPSE OP GLASa GLOBES AND CYLINDERS. 175 



by a SchsefFer gauge. The point of rupture was indicated by an explosion 
within the vessel, and by the sudden decrease of pressure. 

The first experiments were upon glass globes, intended to be perfectly 
spherical, but in most instances somewhat flattened upon the side opposite 
to that from which they were blown. Notwithstanding, however, this ellip- 
ticity, some of the globes bore enormously high pressures, especially when 
the extreme tenuity of the glass is considered, amounting to from one to 
two hundredths of an inch in thickness only. 

Table I. — Strength of Glass Globes to resist a uniform external pressure. 



Mark. 


Diameters. 


Thickness. 


Collapsing pressure. 




inches. 


inches. 


inch. 


lbs. per square inch. 


L 


505 


476 


0014 


292 


M 


5-08 


470 


0018 


410 


K 


4-95 


472 


0-022 


470 


B 


5-60 


— 


0020 


475 


N 


8-22 


7-45 


0010 


35 


C 


8-20 


7-30 


0012 


42 


D 


8-20 


7-40 


0015 


60 



It will be seen that, notwithstanding the extreme thinness of the glass, 
the pressures range as high as 475 lbs. per square inch over every square 
inch of surface, equivalent to a total pressure of 20 tons upon a 5|-inch 
globe fl^j^th of an inch thick, before it was fractured. 

Unfortunately the 8-inch globes were all elliptical to a serious extent, 
and hence in these the collapsing pressure was greatly reduced, ranging 
from 35 to 60 lbs, per square inch only. 

The next results are upon glass cylinders, blown with hemispherical ends. 
In the experiments upon iron, the remarkable law had been deduced that 
the strength of cylindrical vessels of that material, exposed to a uniform 
external pressure, varied inversely as the length. Thus with vessels precisely 
similar in other respects, one twice the length of another bore only half the 
pressure, one three times the length bore only one-third of the pressure, and 
so on. From the following experiments it will be seen that a similar law 
applies in the case of homogeneous glass cylinders. 

Table II. — Strength of Glass Cylinders to resist a uniform external 

pressure. 



I 



Mark. 


Diameter. 


Length. 


Thickness. 


Collapsing pressure per square inch. 




inches. 


inches. 


inch. 


lbs. 


E 


406 


131 


•043 


180 


G 


4-02 


13| 


■064 


297 


H 


3-98 


14 


•076 


382 


P 


4-05 


7 


•046 


380 


Q 


4 05 


7 


•034 


202 


T 


309 


14 


•024 


85 


K 


308 


14 


•032 


103 


S 


3-25 


14 


•042 


175 



These cylinders, though of high resisting powers, sustain considerably less 
pressure than the globes. Comparing cylinders E and P, 14' and 7 inches 
long respectively, and of the same diameter and thickness of glass, we find 
the longer was crushed with about half the pressure which was requisite to 
collapse the shorter cylinder, which is a confirmation of the law deduced for 
iron tubes. 



176 REPORT — 1858. 

The general formula for the globes takes the form of the following equa- 
tion, 

p-- Cx<f 

J)3M 

P being the collapsing pressure in lbs. per square inch; D=diameter; 
<= thickness of glass. Similarly, putting L=length, the formula for the 
cylinders is 

p_Cx^l 



DxL' 
which is precisely similar to that for iron tubes. 



Report on the Marine Fauna of the South and West Coasts of Ireland. 
By E. Perceval Wright, M.B., A.B., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., Di- 
rector of the Museum, and Lecturer on Zoology, University of 
Dublin ; and J. Reay Greene, A.B., M.R.I.A., Professor of 
Natural History, Queen's College, Cork. Part I. (1858). 

At the last Meeting of the British Association, a Committee consisting of 
Drs. E. Perceval Wright, Melville, and Kinahan, was appointed to investigate 
the marine Zoology of the south and west Coasts of Ireland. 

Professor J. Reay Greene and Dr. Carte of Dublin were subsequently 
added to the Committee. 

The region marked out for their observations extends from Carnsore Point 
in the Co. of Wexford, to Gweedore Bay in the Co. Donegal, and embraces a 
coast line of several hundreds of miles. It was evident that so vast a district 
could only be investigated by the labours of several years, and hence, on 
mature deliberation, the Committee determined to devote themselves and 
the money grant placed at their disposal by the Council for 1858, to in- 
vestigate parts of the Cos. Waterford, Cork, and Kerry ; reserving the Coasts 
of Clare and Galway for the next ensuing summer, and those of Mayo, 
Sligo, and Donegal for another year ; hoping, at the expiration of this period, 
to be able to communicate to the British Association a Report, which, with 
the joint Reports from the North of Ireland and Dublin Bay Dredging Com- 
mittee, will enable us to draw up a final Report on the Irish Marine Fauna, 
which shall be entitled to act a second part to that by the late Professor E. 
Forbes " On the investigation of the British Marine Fauna," published in 
1850. 

Such being our intention, we wish it to be understood that the present 
Report is merely provisional, and that we refrain from deducing any theories 
from the facts observed, until we have the entire district examined. 

Early in July 1858, we proceeded to investigate the first selected region, 
and a list of the stations from which the coast at each side was explored is 
given, i. e. 1. Carnsore Point; 2. Saltees; 3. Hook Head; 4. Dunmore ; 
5. Tramore; 6. Youghal ; 7. Cork Harbour; 8. Kinsale; 9. Rosscarberry ; 
10. Castletownsend ; 11. Baltimore ; 12. Cape Clear Island; 13. Skull; 
14'. Crookhaven ; 15. Glengariif; 16. Berehaven ; 17. Ardgroom ; 18. Ca- 
hersiveen ; 19. Valentia; 20. Dingle; 21. Ventry; 22. the 131asquet Islands. 
Several portions of this district had from time to time been investigated 



MARINE FAUNA OF THE S. AND W. COASTS OP IRELAND. 177 

by various Irish naturalists, and previous to setting out on our explorations, 
we carefully noted the result of their labours, in order that we might corro- 
borate all doubtful localities given by them, and also have the benefit of their 
past experience; the localities so investigated, were Youghal by the late Dr. 
Ball, Cork Harbour by J. Vaughan Thompson and others, Courtmacsherry 
and Bantry Bays by Professor Alhnan, Dingle Bay by W. Andrews, and 
Valentia by Professor Kinahan. 

Considering that we could not gain a correct knowledge of the Fauna 
without devoting a good deal of attention to " shore collecting," we took 
frequent occasion, at the period of low tides, to investigate the littoral zone : 
and to this fact may be ascribed the discovery of a large number of new 
Irish Zoantharia, and many interesting Nudibranch Mollusca. 

The geologic structure of the coast, for the most part Devonian and Silurian, 
is such, that " shore collecting " cannot be prosecuted unless with the assist- 
ance of boats : as sheer precipices, often hundreds of feet high and rising 
perpendicularly out of the water, quite preclude access to the very fertile 
fields of marine zoology which may be found in the tide-worn caverns at 
their base. 

In many places, too, small rocky islets, covered at every successive tide, 
were proved well worthy of diligent search. 

While we paid a good deal of attention to this latter kind of investigation, 
we yet did not neglect the as important one of" dredging," The smallness of 
our grant, added to the extreme expense which would attend on deep-sea 
dredging in such remote parts of Ireland, prevented us from exploring any 
depth beyond thirty or forty fathoms. We, however, hope on a future occasion 
to be enabled to undertake a series of deep-sea dredgings on the west coast, 
by the kind assistance of some yachting friends. 

The commonest sea bottom we met with, was one formed of a coarse 
sand, chiefly made up of the debris of decaying Nullipore and broken frag- 
ments of Trophon, Natica, Rissoa, Odostomia, &c. This sand particularly 
abounds in Bantry Bay ; it is most extensively used for fertilizing the land, 
being dredged for this purpose in enormous quantities. Marine animals 
seem to avoid this " Coral sand," and with the exception of Hippolyte va- 
rians, even the ' Shrimps ' appeared to us to abandon it. Next, we met with 
vast tracks of heavy compact sand, chiefly tenanted by the Crangonidse and 
Palaemonidse, diversified here and there with large patches of weedy ground 
which abounded with animal life. 

Many of the large harbours were very muddy, and abounded with sponges, 
&c., which sometimes reached gigantic dimensions. 

The Cape Clear Island, the most southern, — and the Blasquet Islands, the 
most western land in Ireland, with Bere Island, were carefully examined ; but 
their sides present such high and unbroken walls to the ocean, and they are 
so exposed to its continual swell, that they were not found particularly pro- 
ductive. 

To enumerate in detail the various species of the marine Fauna met with, 
would be at the present immature. But we would wish to call attention to 
some interesting forms that presented themselves, and append a list of the 
Zoantharia and Echinodermata as specimens of the richness of the Fauna. 

On quiet days, when the Atlantic was moderately calm, nothing could 
exceed in beauty and numbers the Medusee — fleets of iEquorea sailed past, 
accompanied by Thaumantias glohosa, Thompsoni, conjluens, and many 
others ; this last-mentioned species, discovered by the late Professor Edward 
Forbes, is remarkable for the peculiar arrangement of its reproductive glands, 
which are placed so high up in the gastro-vascular canals, as to present the 



178 REPORT — 1858. 

appearance of a bright red cross, shining conspicuously through the trans- 
parent disk, when tlie animal is seen floating beneath the surfiace of the 
water. 

New forms of Slabberia, Oceania, &c., occurred in the western entrance of 
Berehaven, as also many specimens of Willsia stellata. 

Except for their abundance, the following Ctenophora would hardly merit 
notice, viz. Cydippc pileus and pomiformis, Mnemea Norvegica, and Beroe 
ovata. This latter swam in shoals ; several of the specimens being of a 
very large size and of a bright roseate hue, frequently diversified with a 
play of iridescent colours. In Berehaven Harbour we also obtained an 
apparently new species of Tomopteris ; its otherwise transparent body glittered 
with many bright sherry-coloured spots, and we were enabled to investigate 
with some care tlie anatomy of this very anomalous creature. 

The List of Zoantharia appended (List B) will show the species that 
occurred. In some parts of the coast, as off Croolihaven and Dingle, the whole 
surface of the rocks for many square yards was covered with specimens of 
Corynactis viridis, so far belying its specific name as to appear of the most 
brilliant purple, as often as of a bright green, varied with many of a rich 
peach colour. Every excavation that the waves had worn in tlie slaty 
Devonian, was inhabited by Sagartia veniista, S. rosea, and others of the genus; 
and we observed that at Parkmore Point, near Venty, Tiibularia indivisa 
abounded in such quantities, that in one place a piece of rock about 20 feet 
long by 10 or so broad, and covered by 1 or 2 feet of water, was one dense 
forest of this interesting Hydrozoon; others of this latter division were ob- 
served, but details thereof are reserved for a future occasion. 

Among the Echinodermata, we may mention that Uraster glacialis occurred 
very commonly, and several specimens were dredged, which measured 32 
inches in diameter ; Luidia fragillissima and Asterias aurantiaca were not 
unfrequent. Amphidotiis roseus occurred in Bantry Bay. From the list 
appended, it will be seen tliat nearly all the Asteriadse, with but few ex- 
ceptions, have been obtained on tiie coast of Ireland. 

Crihella rosea and Goniaster Templetoni have been taken by Dr. Ball on 
the Nymph Bank oft' Waterford, and at Youghal. Several new species also 
occurred to us. We think we have discovered the " first appearing " on the 
south coast of the Echinus lividics, on some sunken rocks out at sea ; and it 
appears to us that a curious relation exists between the vertical and geogra- 
phical distribution of the species in question, since the higher the latitude 
in which it is found, tlie shallower the water it would appear to frequent. 
We have been led to this conclusion from observations made by us on its 
occurrence around the west and south coasts of Ireland. At Dingle, for 
example, it lives and thrives high up in the Littoral Zone; whereas about 
the Cape Clear district, it loves the deep rock pools, where it is only exposed 
to view at the very lowest tides, and even then with from 10 to 15 ieet of 
water always over it. The rare Echinus Flemingii has been taken by Dr. 
Ball at Youghal. (See List A.) 

Of the Crustacea a long list could be furnished, but we would only allude 
to the capture of the various species of Ebalia on sandy ground in Castle- 
townsend and Berehaven ; of Xantho rivulosa at Valentia, where it was 
taken in 1856 by Dr. Kinahan ; and Pirimela denticulata in Dingle by Wm. 
Andrews, Esq. Galathea Andreivsii, a species recently added to science by 
Dr. Kinahan, was dredged in the greatest abundance. 

Of the MoUusca little mention need be made, — Doris fiammea, coccinea, 
the two Hermceas recorded in Alder and Hancock, Eolis Farrani, &c. 
were found, the latter three very abundantly ; a large number of Tunicata 



MARINE FAUNA OP THE S. AND W. COASTS OP IRELAND. l79 



awarded our diligent search with several probably new species. Calyptrcea 
sinensis and lanthina communis may be alluded to among the Gastero- 
pods, with Amphysphyra hyalina, Tornatella fasciata, Philine quadrata, &c. 
Aplysia hybrida might be seen browsing in herds on the Codium tomento- 
sum, which at Berehaven grows most luxuriantly. Area tetragona occurred 
at Ardgroom, Venus casina, &c. with Pectunculus glycimeris, in Bantry Bay. 

Amphioxus lanceolatus was taken in Berehaven, one specimen of which 
survived its capture for many days, despite of being carried in a glass vessel 
nearly 200 miles. William Andrews records the following rare fish as oc- 
curring off Dingle : Capros aper, Sebastes Norvegicus, Cottus Grcenlandicus, 
Morrhtia minuta, and Raniceps trifurcatus ; both Lepidogaster cornubiensis 
and bimaculatus were taken by us at the shore of Cape Clear Island. 

In conclusion, we would ask for a renewal of the grant for the year 1859 
from the Council, trusting to continue our exploration of this interesting 
region with unabated zeal, and with a sure confidence that the result of 
our labour will prove of some service to those who, like us, are engaged 
in the pleasant task of observing and recording the many created beings, 
which, nurtured and preserved in life by the great world of waters alike with 
it, proclaims the existence of an Almighty and Omnipotent God. 

List of Echinodermata (A). 



1. Comatula rosacea 

2. Opluura texturata 

3. „ albida 

4. Ophiocoma neglecta 

5. ,, Leachii (n. sp. J. G.) . 

6. „ Ballii 

7. „ filiformis 

8. ,, biachiata 

9. „ granulata 

10. „ bellis 

11. „ rosula 

12. ,, minuta 

13. „ (n. sp. G. & W.). 

1 4. Uraster glacialis 

15. „ rubens 

16. ,, violacea 

17. ,, hispida 

18. Cribella oculata 

19. ,, rosea 

20. Solaster endeca 

21. „ papposa 

22. Palmipes membranaceus . 

23. Asterina gibbosa 

24. Goniaster Templetoni .... 

25. Asterias aurantiaca 

2G. Luidia fiagillissima 

27. Echinus sphjera 

28. „ iniliaris 

29. ,, Flemingii 

30. „ lividus 

31. Echinocyamus piisillus .... 

32. Spatangus purpuieus 

33. Brissus lyrifer 

34. Aniphidotus cordatus 

35. „ roseus 



N. N.E. E. S. S.W. W. N.W. 



* 
* 

* 

* 
*? 



180 



REPORT — 1858. 



N.B. We purposely exclude from this List all reference to the Holotliu- 
riadse, the species of which stand much in need of further elucidation. We 
have also given the distribution, as far as it was known to us, all round Ire- 
land, both in this List and the following one on Zoantharia. 

List of Zoantharia (B). 



1. Actinoloba dianthus .... 

2. Sagartia bellis 

3. ,, miniata 

4. „ rosea 

5. „ oruata 

6. „ venusta 

7. „ nivea 

8. „ sphyrodeta 

9. „ pura 

10. „ coccinea 

11. „ troglodytes 

12. ,, viduata 

13. ,, parasitica 

14. „ hastata (n. sp. E. P, 

15. Adamsia palliata 

16. Anthea cereus 

17. Actinia inesembryantheraum.. 

18. Bunodes geraraacea 

1 9. Tealia crassicornis 

20. „ Greenii (n. sp. E. P. W.) 

21. Corynactisvindis(Allnianni,E.P.W.) 

22. „ heterocera 

23. Ilyauthus Scoticus... 

24. Turbiiiolia milletiana 

25. Zoanthus Couchii ... 

26. Cyathina Smithii ... 

27. SphenotrochusWrightii (n.sp.Gosse) 



W.) 



N, N.E. E. S. S.W. W. N.W, 



* 






*? 



Total number of species of Echinoderms 35, or about two-thirds of the 
British list ; and of the Zoantharia 27, or about half the number recorded as 
occurring in England and Scotland. This difference will, we trust, be greatly- 
diminished in a few years. Both lists have been brought down to the latest 
dates, several species having been added while the MS. was passing through 
the press. 

The districts marked from 1 to 7, are given as first introduced by one of 
the authors in the " Proceedings of the Dublin University Zoological and 
Botanical Association," vol. i. p. 176, and are briefly as follows : — 

1st Province, North. — From Tory Island or Horn Head, on the mainland, 
to Rathlin Island or Fair Head, embracing the two extensive Loughs, 
Swilly and Foyle, and parts of the counties of Donegal, Londonderry, and 
Antrim. 

2nd Province, North-East. — From Fair Head to Downpatrick, at the en- 
trance of Strangford Lough, embracing Belfast and Strangford Loughs, and 
parts of Antrim and Down. 

3rd Province, East. — From Downpatrick to Carnsore Point, in the county 
of Wexford, embracing Dundrum, Dundalk, and Dublin Bays, and parts of 
the counties of Down, Louth, Meath, Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford. 

ith Province, South. — From Carnsore Point to Cape Clear, county of 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE MEASUREMENT OP WATER. 181 

Cork, with the fine harbours of Waterford, Dungarven, Youghal, Cork, and 
Kinsale, and parts of the counties of Wexford, Waterford, and Cork. 

5th Province, South- West. — From Mizen Head to Kerry Head, or the 
mouth of the Shannon, embracing Bantry, Dingle, and Tralee Bays, the 
Kenmare River, and parts of the counties of Cork and Kerry. 

6th Province, West From Loop Head, county of Clare, to Erris Head, 

on Mullet Island, at the extreme north-west of Mayo, embracing Galway, 
Clare, and Blacksod Bays, the Isles of Arran, Clare, Achill, and Mullet, and 
parts of the counties of Clare, Galway, and Mayo. 

7th Province, North-west. — From Erris Head to Horn Head, embracing 
Killala, Sligo, and Donegal Bays, and parts of the counties of Mayo, Sligo, 
and Donegal. 

"These seven Provinces might be easily subdivided, but I think this is not 
advisable ; indeed, I am rather doubtful of the propriety of keeping either 
the 2nd or 5th Province : but still we find species peculiar to each of these 
localities, or at least occurring in them, and not generally found in the others : 
thus. Echinus lividus occurs in Province 5, but hardly, if at all, in Province 4. 
I need hardly justify the utility of making these Provinces ; their convenience, 
when referring to geographical distribution, is obvious ; as by saying in which 
of these Provinces an animal occurs, we at once arrive at an idea of its dis- 
tribution in a much shorter manner than enumerating the counties it occurs 
in. I have hesitated to call the Provinces Boreal, Lusitanian, &c., thinking 
the time has not yet arrived for so doing. The Dredging Committees on 
the east, north, and south-west of Ireland will doubtless in time enable this 
to be done. I have only to hope this enumeration may be adopted, as it 
will render comparison so very easy." 



On Experiments on the Measurement of Water by Triangular Notches 
in Weir Boards. By James Thomson, A.M., C.E., Professor of 
Civil Engineering, Queen's College, Belfast. 

The experiments proposed to be comprehended in the investigations to 
which the present interim Report relates, have for their object to determine 
the suitableness of triangular (or V-shaped) notches in vertical plates for 
the gauging of running water, instead of the rectangular notches in ordinary 
use. The ordinary rectangular notches, accurately experimented on as they 
have been, at great cost and with high scientific skill, in various countries, 
with the view of determining the necessary formulas and coefficients, for 
their application in practice, are for many purposes suitable and convenient. 
They are, however, but ill adapted for the measurement of very variable 
quantities of water, such as commonly occur to the engineer to be gauged 
in rivers and streams. If the rectangular notch is to be made wide enough 
to allow the water to pass in flood times, it must be so wide, that for long 
periods in moderately dry weather, the water flows so shallow over its crest 
that its indications cannot be relied on. To remove, in some degree, this 
objection, gauges for rivers or streams are sometimes formed in the best 
engineering practice, with a small rectangular notch cut down below the 
general level of the crest of a large rectangular notch. If, now, instead of 
one depression being made for dry-weather use, in a crest wide enough for 
use in floods, we conceive of a large number of depressions extending so as 
to give to the crest the appearance of a set of steps of stairs, and if we 



l82 REPORT — 1858. 

conceive the number of such steps to become infinitely great, we are led at 
once to the conception of the triangular, instead of the rectangular notch. 
The principle of the triangular notch being tiius arrived at, it becomes 
evident that there is no necessity for having one side of the notch vertical 
and the otlier slanting; but that, as may in many cases prove more con- 
venient, both sides may be made slanting, and their slopes may be alike. It 
is then to be observed, that by the use of the triangular notch with proper 
formulas and coefficients derivable by due union of theory and experiments, 
quantities of running water, from the smallest to the greatest, may be accu- 
rately gauged by their flow through the same notch. The reason of this is 
obvious, from considering that in the triangular notch, when the quantity 
flowing is very small, the flow is confined to a small space admitting of 
accurate measurement ; and that the space for the flow of water increases as 
the quantity to be measured increases, but still continues such as to admit 
of accurate measurement. 

Further, the ordinary rectangular notch, when applied for the gauging of 
rivers, is subject to a serious objection from the difficulty, or impossibility, 
of properly taking into account the influence of tiie bottom of the river on 
the flow of the water to the notch. If it were practicable to dam up the 
river so deep that the water would flow tiirough the notch as if coming from 
a reservoir of still water, the difficulty would not arise. This, however, can 
seldom be done in practice ; and althou" h the bottom of the river may be so 
far below the crest as to produce but little effect on tlie flow of the water 
when the quantity flowing is small, yet when the quantity becomes great, 
the " Velocity of Approach" comes to have a very material influence on the 
flow of the water, but an influence which it is usually difficult, if not im- 
practicable, to ascertain with satisfactory accuracy. In the notches now 
proposed, of triangular form, the influence of the bottom may be rendered 
definite, and such as to aff'ect alike (or at least by some law that may be 
readily determined by experiments) the flow of the water when very small, 
or when very great, in the same notch. The method by which I propose 
that this may be eft'ected, consists in carrying out a floor starting exactly 
from the vertex of the notch, and extending both up stream and laterally so 
as to form a bottom to the channel of approach, which will both be smooth, 
and will serve as the lower bounding surface of a passage of approach un- 
chan"-ing in form while increasing in magnitude at the places at least which 
are adjacent to the vertex of the notch. The floor may either be perfectly 
level, or may consist of two planes wiiose intersection would start from the 
vertex of the notch, and, as seen in plan, would pass up stream perpendicularly 
to the direction of the weir board, the two planes slanting upwards from 
their intersection more gently than the sides of the notch. The level floor, 
although theoretically not quite so perfect as the floor of two planes, would 
probably, for most practical purposes, prove the more convenient arrangement. 
With reference to the use of the floor, it may be said, in short, that by a due 
arrangement of the notch and the floor, a discharge orifice and channel of 
approach may be produced, of which (the upper surface of the water being 
considered as the top of the channel and orifice) the form will be unchanged 
or but little changed, with variations of the quantity flowing; — very much 
less certainly than is the case with rectangular notches. 

The laws regulating the quantities of water flowing in such orifices as 
have now been described, come naturally next to be considered. Without, 
however, in the present interim Report, attempting to enter on a detailed 
discussion of theoretical considerations on this subject, I shall here merely 
advert briefly to the principal results and methods of reasoning. 



EXPERIMENTS ON THE MEASUREMENT OF WATER. 183 

By theory I have been led to anticipate that the quantity flowing in a 
given notch should be proportional, or very nearly so, to the f power of the 
lineal dimensions of the cross section of the issuing jet, or to the |- power of 
the head of water over the vertex of the notch. This head is to be under- 
stood, in the case of water flowing from a still reservoir, as being measured 
vertically from the level of the water surface down to the vertex of the 
notch ; or, in the case of water flowing to the notch, with a considerable 
velocity of approach over a floor arranged as above prescribed, the head is 
to be considered as being measured vertically from the water surface where 
the motion is nearly stopped by the weir board, at a place near the board, 
but as far as may be found practicable from the centre of the notch. The 
law here enunciated, to the effect that the quantity flowing should be pro- 
portional to the ^ power of the head, I consider should hold good rigidly in 
reference to water flowing by a triangular notch in a thin vertical plate from 
a large and deep reservoir of still water, if the water were a perfect fluid, 
free from viscidity and friction, and free from capillary attiaction at its 
surface, and from any other slight disturbing causes that may have minute 
influences on the flow, the flow being supposed to be that due simply to 
gravitation resisted by the inertia of the fluid. The like may be said of 
water flowing I'rom triangular notches with shallow channels of approach, 
having floors as described above, when due attention is given to make the 
passages of approach so as really to remain unchanged in form for a suffi- 
cient distance from the notch, while increasing in magnitude as the flow in- 
creases (such being supposed, according to my theory, to be possible) ; and 
if due attention be paid to measuring the heads in all cases in positions 
similarly situated with reference to the varying dimensions of the issuing 
streams. 

In illustration of these statements, or suppositions, I would merely say that 
if two triangular notches, similar in form, have water flowing in them at 
different depths but with similar passages of approach, the cross sections of 
the two jets at the notches may be similarly divided into the same number of 
elements of area ; and that the areas of the corresponding elements will be 
proportional to the squares of the lineal dimensions of the cross sections, or, 
as from various considerations may readily be assumed, proportional to the 
squares of the heads; also the velocities of the water in the corresponding 
elements may be taken as proportional to the square roots of the lineal 
dimensions, or to the square roots of the heads. From these considerations, 
supported by numerous others, it appears that the quantities flowing should 
be proportional to the products of the squares of the heads into their square 
roots, or to the ^ powers, as already stated. 

The friction of the fluid on the solid bounding surfaces of the passages of 
approach where the water moves rapidly adjacent to the notch, may readily 
be assumed, from all previous experience in similar subjects, not to have a 
very important influence even on the absolute amount of the flow of the 
water ; and if we assume (as is known to be nearly the case for high velo- 
cities, such as occur in notches used for practical purposes, unless unusually 
small) that the tangential force of friction of the fluid, per unit of area of 
surface flowed along, is proportional to the square of the velocity of flow, it 
follows by theory that the friction, although slightly influencing the absolute 
amount of the flow, will not, according to that assumption, at all interfere 
with its proportionality to the |- power of the head, and this condition will 
very nearly hold good if the assumption is very nearly correct. 

How closely the theory thus briefly sketched may be found to agree with 
the actual flow of water will be a subject for experimental investigation ; 



184 REPORT — 1858. 

and whatever may be the result in this respect, the main object must be to 
obtain, for a moderate number of triangular notches of different forms, and 
both with and without floors at the passage of approach, the necessary 
coefficients for the various forms of notches and approaches selected, and 
for various depths in any one of them, so as to allow of water being gauged 
for practical purposes, when in future convenient, by means of similarly- 
formed notches and approaches. The utility of the proposed system of 
gauging, it is to be particularly observed, will not depend on a perfectly 
close agreement of the theory described with the experiments, because in 
respect to any given form of notch and approach, a table of experimental coeffi- 
cients for various depths, or an empirical formula slightly modified from 
the theoretical one, will serve all purposes. To one evident simplification 
in the proposed system of gauging, as compared with that by rectangular 
notches, I would here advert, namely, that in the proposed system, when 
once the form of the notch and channel of approach is fixed for gauging 
any set of streams, the quantity flowing comes to be treated as a function 
of only one variable, namely, the measured head of water; while in the rect- 
angular notches it is practically treated as a function of at least two variables, 
namely, the head of water and the horizontal width of the notch ; because 
in practice it would be inconvenient, if not impossible, to select any single 
width of notch, or any moderate number of widths of notches, for general 
use, for very varied quantities of water. It is commonly also a function of 
a third variable, very difficult to be taken into account, namely, the depth 
from the crest of the notch down to the bottom of the channel of approach ; 
which depth must vary in its influence with all the varying ratios between it 
and the other two quantities of which the flow is a function. 

The proposed system of gauging also gives facilities for taking another 
element into account which often arises in practice; namely, the influence 
of back water on the flow of the water in the gauge, when, as frequently 
occurs in rivers, it is found impracticable to dam the river up sufficiently to 
give it a clear overfall, free from the back or tail water. For any given 
ratio of the height of the tail water above the vertex of the notch, to the 
height of the head water above the vertex of the notch, I would anticipate 
that the quantities flowing would still be, approximately at least, proportional 
to the f-power of the head as before ; and a set of coefficients would have to 
be determined experimentally for different ratios of the height of the head 
water to the height of the tail water above the vertex of the notch. 

With the aid of the grant placed at my disposal by the Association at last 
year's meeting, for the purposes of these researches, I have got an experi- 
mental apparatus constructed and fitted up at a place a few miles distant 
from Belfast, in Carr's Glen, on the grounds of Mr. Neeson, who has kindly 
afforded me all the necessary facilities regarding the water supply and the site 
for the experiments ; and I have got some preliminary experiments made on a 
right-angled notch in a vertical plane surface, the sides of the notch making 
angles of 45° with the horizon, and the flow being from a deep and wide 
pool of quiet water, and the water thus approaching the notch uninfluenced 
by any floor or bottom. The principal set of experiments as yet made were 
on quantities of water varying from about 2 to 10 cubic feet per minute; 
and the depths or heads of water varied from 2 to 4 inches in the right- 
angled notch. From these experiments I derive the formula Q=*317 H^ ; 
where Q is the quantity of water in cubic feet per minute, and H the head 
as measured, vertically, in inches, from the still-water level of the pool, down 
to the vertex of the notch. This formula is submitted, at present tempo- 
rarily, as being accurate enough for use for ordinary practical purposes for 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 185 

the measurement of water by notches similar to the one experimented on, 
and for quantities of water limited to nearly the same range as those in 
the experiments; but as being, of course, subject to amendment by more 
perfect experiments extending through a wider range of quantities of 
water. 

Out of the grant of £10 from the Association for these experiments, the 
amount for which I have hitherto had to apply to the Treasurer as having 
been expended in them is £8 Os. 4cZ.; which leaves a balance remaining of 
£1 I9s. 8d. 

It will be readily observed, that the experimental investigations indica- 
ted in tlie foregoing report as desirable, are such as would require for their 
completion, and extension to large flows of water, a greatexpenditure both of 
time and money, like as has already been the case with researches on the flow 
of water in rectangular notches. All that I can myself for the present pro- 
pose to attempt, is to open up the subject with experiments on moderately 
small flows of water ; and with this view, I would be glad to be aided, by a 
further grant from the Association, in continuing experiments of the liinds 
already undertaken. 



: Report of the Committee on the Magnetic Survey of Great Britain, 
i : By Major-General Sabine. 

The Committee are glad to be able to state that the Survey has made good 
progress in the course of the present year. Mr. Welsh has completed tlie 
Survey of Scotland and its adjacent islands, by adding observations at a suf- 
ficient number of points on the islands to the north and west of the main 
land to those he had made in Scotland itself in 1857. General Sabine has 
employed himself in North and South Wales ; and Dr. Lloyd, having asso- 
ciated with himself Professors Joseph Galbraith and Samuel Haughton, and 
George Johnstone Stoney, Esq., has obtained observations on the course of 
the isoclinal and isodynamic lines over Ireland generally. 

There is probably another year's work before the Survey will be so far 
advanced that its difl'erent parts can be coordinated, preparatory to the final 
account being prepared for presentation to the Association. In the mean 
time Dr. Lloyd is desirous that the names of Messrs. Galbraith, Haughton, 
and Stoney should be added to those of the Committee named in 1856. 



Report on Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Substances imported from 
Foreign Countries into the Clyde {including the Ports of Glasgoio, 
Greenock, and Port Glasgow) in the years 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 

1857. By Michael Connal, Esq., and William Keddie, 
Esq., Glasgow. 

The following returns have been obtained from a careful examination of 
the Clyde Bill of Entry, printed by the Custom House authorities at Glasgow. 
The returns embrace only substances imported from foreign countries, ex- 
clusive of those received " coastwise." From the vague and often inaccurate 
manner in which the entries are made, it has been found impossible to classify 
a number of the substances. Those of unknown or uncertain character have 
been placed under the head of Miscellaneous. 

1858. o 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



203^ 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



205 



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to 



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206 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



207. 






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208 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



209 



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210 



REPORT — 1858. 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



211 



M a 
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212 



REPORT — 1858. 



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s 

J3 



<u 
8 

o 

ta 
PI 
<o 
bo 
o 
N 



rco 

o in 

0.00 



o o 
o o 

O 00 



o 
o 

00 



3 



3 



60 

O 



to 

CO 



"Si 

,43 



a 
o 
■+^ 

CO 
CO 



CO 

■Sco 
3 
.o 



X! a. 



o a ta 



ii 5 S U O C3 

o j; S > to 3 
O..S o £ o o 

o ^ M v3 J pa 



H CO 

i' o.:3 
Oi Z c/j 



S 3 



ai O! Lsi 



3 



out) 
aj >- (u 

<u 3 a; ^ 
3 o 3 ts 



00 ^ 

cQ O 



a ^ 

i a 



at 
w 

•c 

s 

-a! 



« s 

.a « 

s.s 






3 
lU 

H 



u 



■^ 






I 

u 
H 



g 






bo 



3 
O 



<3 



3 a 
a> O 



ca 



<u 



(^ 



Keg" 

j:3 

H 



3 
ta 

O 



CO ta 
t" Z 






•oO 

_s 



•2 
13 'S> 

O tu 
O 5- . 






s-s 



JlT 






•eeeo'Bx^oo 



•aeoo'BpxrBxSnp 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLK PRODUCTS. 



213 



tow 

a <u 

n bO 

a 
.S'S 

3 
»tS O 

So 






to 

CO 






>« S 



o 



o 
in 



o ^ 

=0 £ 



to , o o o 
cq w> *o o o 

CO ^ --I M 



O 
O 



O 
O 



in 



o 



o 



o 

00 



o .a 
o — ' 






O CD 
O r-t 



■^ «S O O CO 

C^ te CO C3 35 



»f0 jj 

-* !» CO .-I 

rl 5 -H C>J 



CO ^ 



00 ^ 



O 
O 



CO 



3^ 

en rj 

Sin 



o . o o 

lO w lO o 

CO £ CO 



o 
o 



o 



o ^ 



e3 u o 
§ CO S 



=> s « 



■a c 






^ C3 3 

rt to O 

cj .3 « 
>-5 M O 



s 

o 



tJO ^ »— I -1^ 3 

ts lu S t- g 

■5 ^ o J= 

J2 is! ^ a,.J2 



is 


a 

C3 


'U " 






3 



to 

« s 

a § 

O 03 



v 






« 



CO 



c3 . 
CJ en 

O 3 



8 

C4 

o 



» 






.J3 
H 



*» -*3 • 
3 M 2 

•tb« 

.T: 3 o 

3 fcH »-< 

t< -a ^ 



to 

n 

''B 
a 
3 
o 
Li 

"a ■" 






3-2 
H 



= I 



.s 



C .S2 

^ I 

H 



o 
a 



o 
« . 

to e 



-S H 



69 



' — 



■ae33i30T)six/Cpi 












■xoxxio 



214 



UEPORT — 1858. 



c 
o 



,0 

o 



o ^ 



3 

.a 



CO 



;2 ■"• ■"* 



in 
(N 



O lO 

p. 00 

a-" 



o 






c >o 

a-' 



^ >n iM 



CO 



. o 
2 CO 

r5 r-l 



O lO 
D.CD 

a^ 






.0 
o 



3 '- 



fl if5 



^ o in 

> lO o 



CM ;3 



. O 



o 

CM 



Ti 

Si 






V 

(1, 



O 

CO 



c o 

cacj 



d a 



o 

CO 



V3 



o 



•3q 



(U 



i^ a o 
^ U en 



13 



rt rt, O 

« I- -^ a 
m I 



Cuts 

a 

_ o 



a o 

la 






.15 



3 
I 
a; 



H o 






-a 



if 

ri 











CO w 





6 


c; 0) 


o,:g 



bo 

.s 

3 

T3 
O 



s 



§c;5i>3 



.1 



ea I a 



I 






CO a 

I"! 



Q<0 



o ^ 



o 






'seiajtoTuo 



■aeeo'Ep 



•aego'BU9u:^jXa 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



215 






o 



'S 



c^ 



P. 

3 



1-^ «U oo 



to 



. t>* Cs lO lO 
M ■* Ci IN 
w lO »rt CQ 






O boOOO 



on ' 



^ 23 



. (N f— I O O 

CO to 00 l-^ l-H 

C !>. ■* CO 
3 <N 



<N 00 

CO 



o 
co" 



00 

05 



O en 






. ira M to o 

■» 00 O^ Oi -^ 
3 CO o» ■'I* 

3 N 



C: r-l CO 
I-", r-1 O 






in 

(N 



■g (N Tti 



. 00 00 o ■* CO 
no O •— • »rt »^ f-< 
C CO CO^CO 



O <N 



in 



o 



o 



"^ (N pH fH 



.inocOMoeoc^r-i'j* 

to r-< 00 C»l l>* C»l tx 

C pH to lO O <>• 



s^2 



605 

o p-i 






kl a & 
ii o » 



o 
e s 

o 






) I w '*' S J -. . -. '*' fcrt ■"■■-> t^ ^ I . 






o ^ 



o 



3 ° 



cu O >< 3 

O 3 ce ed 



bo 






•r^ tu 






CI] 

„ I 

5 ^ 



a 









4) 


^ 


J3 


a 


trt 


-*j 




<u 




J3 


H 


H 



H 


tS 




§ 








(U 


>, 








lU 


TJ 


!;i 


i-i 


> 


M 



Ct3 « O) 

W) a N 
3 '2 :^ 
" S « 

(fl cd t-< 



S 





■seso'BAxisUji: 




■aeao'Bjaov 



216 



REPORT — 1856. 



a 
o 



O 



•s « 

1-, M 



o in 

0,00 



o 
o 

to" 

CM 



o 
o 
■*_ 
to" 



«; o O ph i^ 

goo CO 

o 



«2 



C.0O 



"C in 
o o 



n< o 00 

I— I p-H *>. 

«5 rH 



O 
CO 



o 
o 



-li 00 

a o 
o to 

00 o 
CJ 00 



«o 

o 

00 



c 00 
Sin 



oN 









ii ■* 1-1 in 

fe l-H !» 

gin o» 

00 



o in 

P. 00 



CO 

o 



CO 
CO 
CO 



CO CO 
t- 00 

in N 



lO 
1—1 

(N 

00 



o ^ 



o 
in 



• 


CO 




^ 


CO 






t-T 




. 


m 


i-H 


[^ 


Of 


M 










cT 





T. CO 
o in 

C1,00 



to (N OJ 

in N o 

. -^ I— 1 1->» 

^ ^O CO* 



CO OJ 

o o 

CON 



00 o 

ofcr 
I— 1 in 
00 -* 



CO 

o 
in^ 

CO 

o 

CO 



0<N 



CM 



Pa 



■« ^ 



• o • • • o 
._, 0*4-1.^ (u a> ti-t 
c3 !! S ti g fe S 



« S 



o o ips o SPiar^ "I rt c3 -= o tpj3 



ccraocessfota 



c c 



^ a 13 
c a o 
c3 J3 o 



c3c3^o<s,a.::o^.s.aoc3j3o 



« 3 u ^ 



3 



<s S a 
« ^ o 

S w -aj 






3 



cs cy 



C3 



.a 

a 

w 

■Si 
H 



'a 
c 
cd 



O Qi 



H 



-a 

•c 



CO cd 



cc; 



to 

3 

o 



!2;i 



« ^ 



e "s P 3 
^ _ I— I >-' 

:a f-i El 



o 



CO 

a a 

C3 O 

o >* 

ITS "^ 
3 3 



3 

3 fcp 

(W 3 

3 C^ 

O O o 
w «J ^ 

S S oi 



3 
o 
to 

3 
O 
U 



c s 

o -K 
o tu 



<<;> 

li 



- £ c 

aj o "ij 

o ^ •^ 
^ SS s 
^ ►& s^ 



.a 
§ 



•3 



•aeao'BraiaDi^sujai 



•aeso'Buouv 



•388012X110 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



217 



I 50 O 






O CO 






; Ci l>» rH rH 



•3 (N iM to 



3 
J3 






<£> 






lo 


• 


OD 


01 




Oi 


CM 


-r 



^ o> 



o 
o 



■3 «^ C5 ■* 

S; CD (N 

•^ 05 CO 

3 -^ 

J3 



o a jj 

CO ■« g 



c^ s, S 









o o 



>ra 3 4J 

O 3 > CM 
1^ -tJ > 



u 

o 



CO ^ 






o 
to 

CM 



"3 CO 00 



t/1 

CO*- g 






to 
o 



^ 00 CM 

s- to 



•3 CO t-. 
S CO 00 

•5 CM to 

3 



lO 3 ^ 

CM 3 > CO CO 

m « g 

to 



to ^ 

o 

CO 



in 



a 
to a> 

>> 3 '" 



ed 



•O •-" t- 3 ^ 
M tJ O <U ^ 



b U V 4> 

2 M o >,-te 



- 13 3 o 



« 3 o « 



« '3 K 

W ryi CL, 



^S 



</3 I-] 



C3 

3 



TJ 


• 




01 












Ih 






'O 








u 




to 


CO 


fc 


C 
eo 


^ 


n1 


I: 






OJ ^ 





CA 


+-» 



eg 



a> 

H 









o 



JS 
H 



13 

.2 



«^ Si 
-3 a. 
H 




1858. 



218 



REPORT — 1858. 



XI 

O 



o ^ 



a-* 

9 



o 

o 



« -# CO rt »>. 

4) -^ o o> in 

^ l-H cvi ,-t 



CO IN 

IN 

CO 



<N 

pa 

to 

to 

lO 



o o 

P,00 

a-' 






C to ■* 1-1 



« ^, 



,S 00 CI -^ — < N CO 

4) O C. CO CX3 

,3 O^ -^ <N 0_ 

3 =c o i-T ^ 

^ CO 



to 

CO 



5='2 

o ^ 

a, CO 



o »o 

ceo 



c oe^ 



o 

00 



o 

<N 






^ 02 cj IN e^ 

<U CO to CO 
^ T)< IN <N 

aj - - 

2J O CO 
J <N 



o 



^ r-1 CO CO to 

« »n CO »ft 
a) -> •» 

^ IN 



00 
<N 



i 

to 

8 
o 

bo 

■o 



U CO 

aoo 



^ 35 00 O 
O) CO '-* *>• 
X iO 05 r-* 

3 ^^ O ^H 



to 






"3 ea Is =s 

.S a '^ « 
•d 3 « i- 



g S £ S 
rtiJi^^ 



si 



s 






I' 
Z 



•T3 

a 



_o 
■p. 

a 






.a 
H 



,£3 



•3 
H 



D 
p 



ft 

<u O 




■ ssoieT^xrc jn v 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



219 



"" IS 



o 



;« 


(O 








V 


00 


a. 




a> 




bo 


O 


rt . 


-H> 


b -^ 




lU o 




i,.° 



a. 

a 



•9 



a. 

3 



CO 






bo 

o 



OV t^ CO 
1^ -r o 

CO lO ^H 



CT> 



CO 

to 



CO 



ij in o o 
> lO in t^ 



3 






s 



o 



^ 00 <N 



go 

o 



(^ vfj in o 
o i^ o to 



OT O (N ^ 
toOO ^^ ^H 

o cr> oo (N 



&00 00 



fco 

o 



o 



TO flj 

« S — 

■O O) CM 

in 



to 

CO 



CO ■*« 

si 



toS 



2 "^ 



« a 



■"1 « 2 

.sag 



cd 



■^ o 
i-:iO 



c3 

s 

o 
cq 



o 

bO 

S 2 - 

• o-g a 



a ^ 3 



bo 

s 

V 



-a 

•c 

u • 

o -a 

, <u 

" E: 



a 

V 
ta 

V 

.a 



3 

a> 

JS 
H 



boJ- 

c o 



U4 

OS . 

•so 

s~ .5 

« c 



3 J2 = 

tw M o 



•g2 

3T3 

ta ca 

SIS 



ca 
,Q . 

3 p 
O bo 

c 

sa 



s 






a 

H 



a4 

3 ~ 

S « e 
:2 ^ "^ 



.13 



o S 






•B 






C5 






O 






^ 






O 




V 






■o 


V 




'fi^ 


^ 




h 








TJ 


T3 t^ 


<U 




o 


c<: 



•aeao'Bp 



•eesoviQipoQ 



Q2 



220 



REPORT — 1858. 



o 



,0 
O 



■■B 

! S 



g<2 . 

^ -4^ P^ 

=« s s 

So 3 
CO 



o *o 

p. 00 



o ^ 



o *^ 

p. 00 



8 

ss 
o 

n 

a> 
bo 
o 



o «n 

&.00 



■CM 
o ^ 
0.00 



Is 



3 

a 

S 



o CO 



»-. rt to 
(>) -r)< c<5 



§00 






t^ o M ■* 

Q N CO 






1=2 



a 



<a 









CO 



Oi r- O 

^ O 00 



o >" 



"5S 



00 



^ o 00 in 

C3 lO »-H Ci 
O =^ 



I— I £/3 

3 



CO 
to 
CO 



^ 00 0> OS 00 «^ 
a rt «3 rH TJI 



■-I ■— lO o 

to S CO o 
to-S CO 

3 
J3 



10 

00 
CO 



Ol pc< O) H S i-i 



o 
to 

ii|.§ 

Q «'2 « 
I— I *j a c 

• ea o S 

-*^ ic?^ HH t:3 



C3 

m 

o 



rt o S rt is 
■ -H ^ n n V 

3 Sj .S « o 






a 

CIS 

O 












<u 






p, (U 



^ fcO 



13 

o 

o 

■e 

at 






2 






a 
H 



to 



Co 
° § 



tt! 



° a 

6 



•S 



■Vi *wa "^ r» 






in 









cs -a 

^6 



•aeao'Gx "aeao •eeeo'Eipj'Bo^uv 
-3k 



•aeao'Bx 
-XAqdoSkz 



■aea: 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



221 






CO 









X3 



En 

x> 



,£3 (N in — I 

« o o M 



a to 



lO 
ifS 



o 



a CO CD rl 

o 



00 
03 



5 „• -< 00 

3 e M 

■" o ^ 

IN 



c o I— I 



to .-^ 

>> is • S 
2 S <» £ 



a 

^3 



o 

a: 



\n o 1 

00 ■* 

I— 1 00 



o 






CO 



^ O CO 



CTJ 

to 



^ CO "* 

-CO 



SI 3 
O) o o 






O 

o 






«3 lO 



. in o 



""■ 00 



o 



o o 

-< o 

"^ CN O 



o 
o" 

CO 



o o o 
. o o o 

to 0_ en to 

S5 -^'co oo" 

■* (M (M 



o 
o 

lO_ 

to 



o o 

CM O 

£ 00 CO B 

o o 



to 



IS 



o 



to 

(N 



o o i: 



o 
o 

<N 
uo 
CM 
CM 



o 



g i g .2 tb-s 



o 

^ g 



-3 

(3 . 

c« ta 
u 

a. S 

2 a 

H 






0) 
09 

£ ■»■ 

tr <u 
IT; oj 

« M lU 

as 

O I 



0) 

S « 

a «>s 
o = «> 






T3 

a 



CQ 









0) 

■a 
H 



X) 



•w 



13 












p- 



-■Buri 



-o3Apj 



'seao^iadij 



222 



REPORT — 1858. 



a 

o 



O 



o o 

coo 



Tito 

O lO 
O.CO 



S 



to 






o "" 



.on". 



to 
in 






^ 






. 00 -^ 
M to 1-1 






. O) 00 

00 to 0» 

fc.o> o» 



o kn 

PhOO 



R^ CO 



O tfi 

Coo 



o »n 

(XOO 



S 
8 

ts> 

8 

o 

g 

bo 

o 



CU o 

^ a 






O 









CQ ^ CO CO 



CO 






. t>.eo O 

M N O 1— I 






; "9 



to 



Eto 
gto 



to 

to 



^ o »o 

^3 



■goo 



So 



in 



S to 
« g 



S 
cs 

-a 



o 



B 

<a 

13 



O 



• o »>• to t~ o 

: CO ri CO 04 

: to •-> 



. ■* 00 o in 

CO O 00 00 pH 



is 



q; (4 a 

•e B-c 

S <u 3 

CQQot 



0) ea 

■e a 

CQQ 



a 



a 



ril 



*^ TO WJ -^ 



a "I 

a « 



<o a o j; ca u .:3 



.a 
H 






J3 



o 

s 

S J3 



a, 



-O bo 

V a 
a "B 

S ^ '3 
■2 s5 
_55 g a. 

t^ «> 

.2 '^ _. 






x> 






—I d 

4) O 

US '^ H 



fcC 

.s 

a 
o 



=2 
s 

ta g 
.£PS 



o 



a a 



% 



o 



o o 
o te 

cS S 



tu <; 

5 



CO a 

2 I 



03 W-) 



^5 



•aeso^m'B'i 




ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



223 







to 00 rt mo 


■if> 


■*2 






1 








IN 


. o 00 C) -r ^ 


■^ 






bushel 
2700 

1182 
1206 

5088 




(N 




00 


« »C tM O l'» o 


o 


Cj 






00 




to 


0*1-^ CO o 


00 
CM 


to 




00 






rt ■* 1-H 




: t^ o oc 


i-H 




: a 


M 






1 






. r>. O r- 1 




. " O r- 


CO 




a" 


bushel 
1116 

2640 


to 


^ N to O 1 00 1 

> <N Clin to 




*^ 


£ 00 »>. O 




■ C^ 00 


to 








in 




-* 


cym 1-4" 
1— ( 






00 

I-H 




o 

*-H 


CO 


gco^ 


in 






O M iO o o o> o 




in 




« 










(N 


IM 


. to GO (M CO 0> ■* O 




-^ 


& 


195 qr 

16 qrs 

bushel 

60 

4026 


to 


jj -)< 00 ri 1 to 


c<- 


(M 


o^ O^CO CO to lO rH TJ* 

crrfT 




o 


00 


s- o oi 1- 


r-. 




CO 




I-H 


N 


o 


fr 1^ Tj< rH CO 
" I-H CM 






'i' 00 O O 


to to 






Oi 






M 


^ 










o 


. CO CT> O M> 


CO Ol 






o 






t~. 


iishel 

2298 

156 

2358 


(N 


cwt, 
284 
168 


(N 




r-i 


2 l^ o ^^ to 


rH Tf 






4>» 










in 




C^ 


1— ( 


•— * 






00 






© 


00 


1* 
























,o 












to 00 00 in o to 










CO 


























. O Csj C^ 1— 1 O OS 










». 










IS 

-gco 






■^ 


cwt. 

1096 

648 


•^ 




00 


M IN CO t^to 
C7*iO p-4 










in 














(N 


>* 




t>. 










!>• 














CO 


rH 


























iO 












C 




•c£? 






•2.V 


t 


D 










,i< 




■c 


-a^ 


n 
















i|lii^ili-e>:§ 

<- o a: HI £ z Q a: s CO M 




ts = 


-c 


t: 


o i; 














r 






t^ 




s 

CQ 


!«.§ S 






t>> (- 




^ 
§ 






02 


9. 
< 


a 

5 


New 
Ham 
Fran 
[talv 




Italy 
Sicil 
Spai 









J3 



,£3 






«3 
4) 






S -5. 

S Eq 



■J 



-3 S 



ea 


■8 








&> 


en 


w 






CU 


















=>. 






o 


.^ 


o" 


<i 






1-1 





•ae90i3UOTXT"i'Bd japioqiig "aesouiuiTiSaT 



224 



HEPORT — 1856. 



a 
o 

1 

CO 

o 




O >f5 

P. 00 

l-H 


p-l t-1 


CO 

•S 

CO x> 
1(5 e<5 




O lO 

0.00 








CO ^ 




IN 

I-H 


CO 

00 

IN 




o "n 

ci.cc 

1— 1 




in 


IN « 5 

«o 

IN 



















C .J 1-1 00 IM 
IN 








CO 




CO 






p-oo 




O IN 

to IN 






CI 00 
00 <-^ 
















i ° 


c 




'^ 


> 

g 

c 


> 




c 

1 


> 

i 


- > 

a 


f- 


-*- 

y- 

X. 

c 
D. 


> 

ca 
S 




.£ 

J 

c 


e 

IS 


a (u 

II 






1 

.s 

C« 

M 

CQ 














-a 

1" 

a 

a; 


3 

o 

% 
^§ i 


Z 

J. 


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japjoqns 
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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUGTS. 



225 



2 CO CO M 
S (N C^ «>• 



o a> 

to CO 



S3 
O 



S3 

o 

to 
o 

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in 



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o 



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CO 1-1 



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CO 
CO 



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C '^ <N CO 



CO CO in 

■— C TP 1— 1 
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c o -* in o 

O '^ -T(< CO r-H 



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e — 1 1^ oj i-H N to 
S CO >-i in 



to 
en 



c o in 

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to 

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as 9-§ 

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226 



REPORT — 1858. 






O 



bo 

o -^ o 






CO T3 fc- to 









o 
o 






CO <M 

CO l-H 



■«' S 



. o o o o o o 

^ l-H CO c^ 



o ^ 
euoo 

a- 






M 

o* 



CO 



^J o o 
P" rvi 



O .—I OOOO^O oo 

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CO £ »nco»— <c^ I— t 00 



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a^ 



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a. 



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m C- CO JJ 00 

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s 






bO ^ W GO 

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o 


. o o o o o o 


: o 


o © o 


CO 


«2 «0 i-i 00 T!< CO cc 


: <£> 


<N •<»< l-H 


CO 


^ l-H (>) TJH (N 




l-H 



s 

m 

ho 

o 



o ^ 
a<oo 



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e«0^tOC0-*»— iOCOC^t^ 
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a j=-3 



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a 

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cq 



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t3 ,. 
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3 .OJ O 
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a^ 

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■aeaiuidi'Bsaeo j9pjoqn§ -aesoutuinSai 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



227 



•S-n 



O IM >-< (M t>. 

tC O "-I •* c<5 



CD "S 
CO bo 



O 

o 



o m o 

C4 M CM 
CM 



•5^ 



(M 



r-l O -^ M 
«-» O i-H O 



CM 

CO 



«- 

o ««) o 

:=! CO o 



CO 

CO 



to 

o 



is 
u 






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O lO CM CJ CO 
CM t-. CM eo »-< 



^ eo i-H 



05 

o 



o 


JD 


CO 




-w 


oo 




ou 


CM 


CO 






CO 


o 







•i-H COOO-tJlOl COi— I 

^O TJitOOiOO r-lO 

3 "^ t-^cM e^in CM 

^ 00 lOf-Ti-T 



CO 



CM 

CO 



CIS 



o 
o 

CO 






CM 



a -oooo— <omif5 
o^inoooioo CM 
;= g t-. CO t^ co_>n_to e< 

i-T^ 







CO 



coo 
o o "lo 
rs in 
C8 —< 
fcO 



3 TO gj W 



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bO 

a 

a 

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o 



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£ o h 



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ct 

O (» CO te 



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"3 "73 


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■aeauioj jopjoqus 'aeso'Bso'a 



228 



REPORT — 1858. 



o 



O 



2 t 



« 9 . 
ft"" b2 

00 

o <u a 
=^ J; 



a^oo 



CO O 
3 <M 



^ CO >n v-o 

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CO CO 






CO ^ 



CO 



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p. 00 






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S 5 









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p. 00 






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> >n 00 ■v 
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00 






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00 



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a 

to 

s 
n 

o 
bo 
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te CO to cs 

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goo 



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p, CO rt 



UO 



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o 



a^ cu S bo 

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S to 

O 3 



1/3 (& O) ■«! 2 0- 



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O 






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to 

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a <3 

g^ 

0, 



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£ gS 
H 



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■geeuioj .lapioqng 
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•aearEpSXurv Japjoqng •eeao'Bsaa 



ANIMAL AND VEGEtABLE PRODUCTS. 



229 



£ 






u 

o 
o 
o 



o 



-30 CO ■* 
_j. ■* -a< 

s 






(O CO -^ O 05 
c -* W o- CO 

3 rt o. 



to l^ 



10 



o.S 

-k' Oh 



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3 



p-l O N (M C5 -^ 
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O 00 o 
O O iM 



o 



'33 N —I 

m CO 



a CO 

5 rt. 



(M 00 

O CO 
ITS 



O -H O CO 
10 IM 05 C» 

CO 



o 

CO 



CJ 



to 
o 



=1 



i^cooiNint^ooi 
3 '-1 •-< IM 



^1 
is 






uo 



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a o ci >-i ■* -* 

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to 

o 

Ci 






o 



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eg ca 

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CO rt> -^H 









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g 1^ t^ i^g O H ec Ah ig g O H 



^2' 
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a 


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rt 


c8 






Tl 





c 


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o 



o 

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3 
o 



•si 



pa 






2 3 



a 









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4) 



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X "O .t 












S 









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o 



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Si 

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4) O 

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-■EU'B 

-i^uao 



•aeao'caxo 



230 



REPORT — 1858. 



i 

i 


a 
o 

1 

CJ 

CO 

O 


o 

a 

o 




0.00 


360 lbs. 

pieces. 

743 

staves. 

2204 

cwt. 
30 


CO gco 


2304 

5 cwt. 
7 cwt. 

135 galls. 




o -n 

p-oo 


210 lbs. 

pieces. 

185 

staves. 

5000 

cwt. 








jj N 00 
fe (M to 

S" IN 


o 

CT> 

CO 

to 




V3 

in 




-Co 

O lO 

p-oo 




pieces. 

313 

staves. 

3500 

cwt. 
20 






20 

cwt. 
3336 

261 
2376 




CO 




CO 

bo 

05 




05 . 

o o 

£1.00 




350 lbs. 

pieces. 

357 

staves. 

4000 

cwt. 
















lO 




140 lbs. 
212 lbs. 
55 galls. 


• 

1 

s 


■gco 

o o 

p. 00 


CO 

O 

o 


pieces. 
632 
staves. 
5636 

cwt. 








cwt. 

9027 

36 

207 






o 

05 








CO 

"a 
bo 

00 


J) 3 

^ a 

1— I 


C 
< 


OC 

i 
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1 


a. 

s 

f o 


c 
a. 

a 
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a 


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c 

>- 


a 
a m 

El 

z<!; 


c 
c 

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t. 


(L 
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IS 


cc 


i 

c 

cc 


I 
1 

a 


1 

1^ 


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c 


S 


CB IS 




■c 

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America and tro- 
pical countries. 














•a 

o 
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a 

V 

I 


2 »■ 

<S (u 

ll 1 


a 


\ i 

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The fruit pickled 










g 

fcD 
1 

a 

Ph 


If 

< 


Ornus rotundifolia. 
0. europcea. 

The Ash 


1 . 
1 1 


1 ■ 

f- 


NicoHana Tabacum. 
Tomatoes 


Lycopersicum esculentum.. 
Cayenne Penoer 


Capsicum annuum. 
Lavender 


Lavandula vera. 
Pennermint 


5" 

a. 
e 




^5 


^ ^ ^ ^ I 




■aeaoTseio aeao-euuios -sn^iq^l 



ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



SSI 



!-§ = 

o 



So:^ 



s- S 



to 



<« 






So. 

;g a 

o . . 

^ §^ 

«D O 'rf 

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bo;-; 



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to 

00 



C2 



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to ira 
to 



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o 
o 



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o 



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o 






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CO 







V 


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'ae30'ei^j/£p2 



232 



REPORT— 1858. 







O 



p. 30 









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o 



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e^ C5 >n iM o 
lO c^ •—» 



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ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS. 



23a 



o <a 

■S § 



I o ta o ■* -* CO 
c <N 0^ «o in 



o o o 

■S r-l 



c<5 



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o 



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CO 



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ta in c3 >, 



2 a o « s"^ .2 

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fl (u, g 

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o 



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R 



234 



REPORT — 1858. 






a 
o 



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13 



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o 
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MISCELLANEOUS VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 



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