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Jr 



REPORT 



or THE 



TWENTY-NINTH MEETING 



OF THE 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT ABERDEEN IN SEPTEMBER 1859. 



• LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALREMARLE STREET. 

1860. 



PRINTED BY 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



ALERE T FLAMMAM. 





/ 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxiii 

Table of Council from commencement xxiii 

Officers and Council xxvi 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxvii 

Corresponding Members xxviii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxviii 

Report of the Kew Committee xl 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xlv 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xlix 

Synopsis of Money Grants , Hi 

General Statement of Sums paid for Scientific Purposes liii 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee lvii 

Arrangement of the General Meetings lvii 

Address of the President lix 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Preliminary Report on the Recent Progress and Present State of 
Organic Chemistry. By George C. Foster, B.A., F.C.S., Late As- 
sistant in the Laboratory of University College, London 1 

Report on the Growth of Plants in the Garden of the Royal Agricul- 
tural College, Cirencester. By James Buckman, F.S.A., F.L.S., 
F.G.S. &c, Professor of Natural History, Royal Agricultural College 22 

Report on Field Experiments and Laboratory Researches on the Con- 
stituents of Manures essential to cultivated Crops. By Dr. Augustus 
Voelcker, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester 31 

Report on the Aberdeen Industrial Feeding Schools. By Alexander 

Thomson, Esq., of Banchory 44 

On the Upper Silurians of Lesmahago, Lanarkshire 63 

Report on the Results obtained by the Mechanico-Chemical Examina- 
tion of Rocks and Minerals. By Alphonse Gages, M.R.I.A., Cu- 
rator of the Museum of Irish Industry 65 

«2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

Experiments to determine the Efficiency of Continuous and Self-acting 
Breaks for Railway Trains. By William Fairbairn, F.R.S 76 

Report of Dublin Bay Dredging Committee for 1858-59. By Pro- 
fessor J. R. Kinahan, M.D., F.L.S., M.R.I.A 80 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1858-59. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford 81 

Report on a Scries of Skulls of various Tribes of Mankind inhabiting 
Nepal, collected, and presented to the British Museum, by Bryan 
H. Hodgson, Esq., late Resident in Nepal, &c. &c. By Professor 
Owen, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Natural History Departments 
in the British Museum 95 

Report of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. Maskelyne, Hadow, 
Hardwich, and Llewelyn, on the Present State of our Knowledge 
regarding the Photographic Image 103 

Report of the Belfast Dredging Committee for 1859. By George C. 
Hyndman, President of the Belfast Natural History and Philoso- 
phical Society 11G 

Continuation of Report of the Progress of Steam Navigation at Hull. 
By James Oldham, Esq., Hull, M.I.C.E 119 

Mercantile Steam Transport Economy as affected by the Consumption 
of Coals. By Charles Atherton, Chief Engineer, Royal Dock- 
yard, Woolwich 121 

Report on the present state of Celestial Photography in England. By 
Warren de la Rue, Ph.D., F.R.S., Sec. R.A.S. &c ISO 

On the Orders of Fossil and Recent Reptilia, and their Distribution in 
Time. By Professor Owen, F.R.S 153 

On some Results of the Magnetic Survey of Scotland in the years 1857 
and 1858, undertaken, at the request of the British Association, by the 
late John Welsh, Esq., F.R.S. By Balfour Stewart, A.M. ... 167 

The Patent Laws. — Report of Committee on the Patent Laws. Pre- 
sented by W. Fairbairn, F.R.S 191 

Lunar Influence on the Temperature of the Air. By J. Park Har- 
rison, M.A 193 

An Account of the Construction of the Self-recording Magnetographs 
at present in operation at the Kew Observatory of the British Asso- 
ciation. By Balfour Stewart, M.A 200 

Report on the Theory of Numbers. — Part I. By H. J. Stephen Smith, 
M.A., F.C.S., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford 228 

Report of the Committee on Steam-ship performance 268 

Report of the Proceedings of the Balloon Committee of the British As-. 
sociation appointed at the Meeting at Leeds 289 

Preliminary Report on the Sulubility of Salts at Temperatures above 
100° Cent., and on the Mutual Action of Salts in Solution. By 
William K. Sullivan, Professor of Chemistry to the Catholic 
University of Ireland, and the Museum of Irish Industry 291 



CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 

Introductory Remarks by the President, the Earl of Rosse 1 

Mr. R. Campbell on the Probability of Uniformity in Statistical Tables 3 

Lieut.-Colonel Shortrede on Calculating Lunars 4 

Professor Hennessy on the Figure of an imperfectly Elastic Fluid 5 

Professor Lindelof, Note on the Calculus of Variations 5 

Professor J. C. Maxwell on the Dynamical Theory of Gases 9 

Abbe Moigno's Supplement to Newton's Method of resolving Equations 9 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney's Note on the Propagation of Waves 9 

Mr. J. Smith on the Relations of a Circle inscribed in a Square 10 

Mr. C. M. Willich on the Angles of Dock-Gates and the Cells of Bees 10 

Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

Sir David Brewster on a New Species of Double Refraction 10 

on the Decomposed Glass found at Nineveh and other 

places 11 

Mr. H. Cox on the Submergence of Telegraph Cables 11 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on the Stratified Electrical Discharge, as affected by a Move- 
able Glass Ball '. 11 

Rev. T. P. Dale and J. H. Gladstone on the Relation between Refractive In- 
dex and Volume among Liquids 12 

Mr. G. F. Harrington on the Theory of Light 12 

Mr. J. P. Joule's Notice of Experiments on the Heat developed by Friction 

in Air ." 12 

Mr. J. B. Lindsay on the Transmission of Electricity through Water 13 

Rev. Dr. Lloyd on the Affections of Polarized Light reflected and transmitted 

by thin Plates 14 

Professor J. C. Maxwell on the Mixture of the Colours of the Spectrum 15 

Mr. Mungo Ponton on certain Laws of Chromatic Dispersion 15 

■ on the Law of the Wave-lengths corresponding to certain 

points in the Solar Spectrum 20 

Mr. John Smith on the Production of Colour and the Theory of Light 22 

Mr. B. Stewart on Radiant Heat 23 



▼1 CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor J. Thomson on recent Theories and Experiments on Ice at its Melt- 
ing-point 23 

Professor W. Thomson on Electrical " Frequency" 26 

, Remarks on the Discharge of a Coiled Electric Cable.. 26 

on the Necessity for incessant Recording, and for 

Simultaneous Observations in different Localities, to investigate Atmospheric 
Electricity 27 

Mr. G. V. Towleh on the Cause of Magnetism 28 

Mr. John T. Towson on Changes of Deviation of the Compass on Board Iron 
Ships by "heeling," with Experiments on Board the 'City of Baltimore,' 
'Aphrodite,' ' Simla,' and ' Slieve Donard ' 28 

Mr. J. J. Walker on the Iris seen on the Surface of Water 29 

Astronomy. 

Mr. G. B. Airy on the Present State and History of the Question respecting 
the Acceleration of the Moon's Motion 29 

Mr. W. R. Birt on the Mid-day Illumination of the Lunar Craters Geminus, 
Burckhardt, and Bernoulli 30 

Sir David Brewster on Sir Christopher Wren's Cipher, containing Three 
Methods of finding the Longitude 34 

Sir C. Grey on the Longitude 34 

Mr. J. Pope Hennessy on the Inclination of the Planetary Orbits 34 

Mr. J. B. Lindsay on Chinese Astronomy 35 

Mr. Norman Pogson on an Improvement in the Heliometer 36 

on three Variable Stars, R and S Ursae Majoris, and 

U Geminorum, as observed consecutively for six years 36 

Mr. Daniel Vaughan on the Effects of the Earth's Rotation on Atmospheric 
Movements 41 

Mr. A. S. S. Wilson on a System of Moving Bodies 43 

Meteorology. 

Mr. John Allan Broun on the Semidiurnal and Annual Variations of the 
Barometer 43 

Mr. Alexander Brown on the Fall of Rain in Forfarshire 47 

Rev. Charles Clouston's Remarks on the Climate of Orkney 48 

Mr. Alexander Cruickshank's Observations on the Natural Obstructions in 
the Atmosphere preventing the view of Distant Objects on the Earth's Surface 49 

Mr. T. Davies on the Diurnal Variation of the Barometer 50 

Professor Hennessy on Mild Winters in the British Isles 50 

Mr. J. J. Murphy on the Distribution of Heat over the Sun's Surface 50 

Rear-Admiral FitzRoy on the Aqueous Vapour of the Atmosphere 50 

on Atmospheric Waves 50 

Rev. T. Rankin's Meteorological Observations made at Huggate, Yorkshire ... 52 

M. P. Sandeman on Tables of Rain registered at Georgetown, Demerara 52 

Mr. G. J. Symons on Thunder-storms 54 

Professor W. Thomson on the Reduction of Periodical Variations of Under- 
ground Temperature, with applications to the Edinburgh Observations 54 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Professor Tyndall on the Establishment of Thermometric Stations on Mont 

Blanc 56 

General Physics. 

Mr. J. S. Stuart Glennie, Proposal of a General Mechanical Theory of 

Physics 58 

Rev. Dr. Macvicar on the Philosophy of Physics 59 

Instruments, &c. 

Mr. Joseph Beck on producing the Idea of Distance in the Stereoscope 61 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Stereoscopic Angle 61 

on the Stereomonoscope 61 

on the Focas of Object-Glasses 61 

on a Changing Diaphragm for Double Achromatic Combina- 
tions 62 

Professor J. Clerk Maxwell on an Instrument for exhibiting the Motions of 

Saturn's Rings 62 

Abbe Moigno on a New Photometer . 62 

M. Ruhmkorff on a New Electro-Medical Apparatus 62 

Abbe Moigno on Becquerel's Phosphoroscope 62 

on the Phonautograph, an Instrument for registering Simple and 

Compound Sounds 62 

M. Porro's Portable Apparatus for Analysing Light 63 

Lieut.- Colonel R. Shortrede on an Improvement in the Proportional Compass 63 

Mr. Thomas Sutton on a New Photographic Lens, which gives Images 

entirely free from Distortion 63 

Mr. H. R. Twining on the Angular Measurement of the Picture in Painting . 64 

CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Dr. Lyon Playfair, President of the Section 65 

Mr. Binney on the Solubility of Bone-earth from various Sources in Solutions 

of Chloride of Ammonium and Common Salt 66 

Mr. G. B. Buckton on Pentethyl-stibene 66 

Dr. F. Crace Calvert and R. Johnson on the Specific Gravities of Alloys... 66 
Dr. Bialloblotzky on the different Points of Fusion to be observed in the 

Constituents of Granite 68 

Dr.F. Crace Calvert on the Formation of Rosolate of Lime on Cotton Fabrics 

in Hot Climates 68 

Dr. Dalzell on Crystallized Bichromate of Strontia 68 

on the Economical Preparation of Pure Chromic Acid..... 68 

Dr. Guthrie's Reports from the Laboratory at Marburg 68 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Fluorescence and Phosphorescence of Diamonds 69 
on Photographs of Fluorescent Substances 69 

MM. Isoard and Son on a New Form of Instantaneous Generator of Illumi- 
nating Gas by means of Superheated Aqueous Vapour and any Hydrocarburet 

whatever 69 

Mr. J. B. Lawes and Dr. J. H. Gilbert on the Effects of different Manures 

on the Composition of the Mixed Herbage of Meadow-land 70 



vJii CONTENTS. 

vm Page 

Dr. S. Macadam on the Analysis and Valuation of Manures 72 

Rev Dr Macvicar on the Organic Molecules and their relations to each 
other and to the Medium of Light, illustrated by Models according to the 

Author's Theory of the Forms and Structures of the Molecules of Bodies.... 72 

Mr. J. M c Donnell on the Action of Air on Alkaline Arsenites 74 

Abbe" Moigxo on Corne and Demeaux's Disinfecting and Deodorizing Powder 74 

. on Matches without Phosphorus or Poison 74 

t New Process of Preserving Milk perfectly pure in the Natural 

State, without any Chemical Agent 74 

Messrs. Mulligan and Bowling's Quantitative Estimation of Tannin in some 

Tanning Materials 75 

Dr. W. Odling on Marsh's Test for Arsenic 75 

and Dr. A. Dupre on the Composition of Thames Water 75 

on a New Mode of Bread-making 76 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on some New Cases of Phosphorescence by Heat 76 

on the Composition of the Shell of Cai-dium edule (Common 

Cockle) 7 ? 

on the Composition of a recently-formed Rock on the Coast 

of Flanders W 

Mr. Frederick Ransome on Soluble Silicates, and some of their Applications 78 
M. Thomas Segelcke's Notes on the Current Methods for Estimating the Cel- 
lular Matter, or "Woody-Fibre," in Vegetable Food-stuffs 79 

Mr. Thomas Spencer on the Supply and Purification of Water 83 

Professor J. Tennant's Notes on a Gold Nugget from Australia 85 

M. F. Versmann and Dr. A. Oppenheim on the Comparative Value of cer- 
tain Salts for rendering Fibrous Substances Non-inflammable 86 

Professor Voelcker on Combinations of Earthy Phosphates with Alkalies .... 88 
Dr. W. Wallace, Account of Experiments on the Equivalent of Bromine ... 88 
on Proposed Improvements in the Manufacture of Kelp .... 88 

Mr. Napier's New Process of Etching Glass in relief by Hydrofluoric Acid. 

(Communicated by Professor G. Wilson) 88 

Professor George Wilson on some of the Stages which led to the Invention 

of the Modern Air-pump 89 

GEOLOGY. 

Introductory Address by the President, Sir C. Lyell 93 

Sir Charles Lyell on the Occurrence of Works of Human Art in Post- plio- 
cene Deposits 93 

Rev. Dr. Anderson on Human Remains in Superficial Drift 95 

— '■ ■ on Dura Den Sandstone 97 

Mr. W. H. Baily on Tertiary Fossils of India 97 

jr- = ■ on Sphenoptcris Hooheri, a new Fossil Fern from the Upper 

Old Red Sandstone formation at Kiltorkan Hill, in the County of Kilkenny, 
with some Observations upon the Fish Remains and other associated Fossils 

from the same locality 98 

Mr. William Beattie, Notice of a Bone Cave near Montrose 99 

Dr. Bialloblotzky on Granite 100 

Dr. Black on Coal at Ambisheg, Isle of Bute 100 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

Mr. A. Brady on the Elephant Remains at llford 100 

Sir D. Brewster on a Horseshoe Nail found in the Red Sandstone of Kingoodie 101 

Dr. G. Buist on the Geology of Lower Egypt 101 

Mr. John Cleghorn on the Submerged Forests of Caithness 101 

Mr. J. W. Dawson's Letter to Sir Charles Lyell on the occurrence of a Land 
Shell and Reptiles in the South Joggins Coal-field, Nova Scotia , 102 

Professor Daubeny on certain Volcanic Rocks in Italy which appear to have 
been subjected to Metamorphic Action 102 

Rev. J. Dingle on the Constitution of the Earth 102 

Mr. R. Garner and W. Molyneux on the Coal Strata of North Staffordshire, 
with reference, particularly, to their Organic Remains 103 

Mr. A. Geikie on the Chronology of the Trap Rocks of Scotland 106 

Dr. George D. Gibb on Canadian Caverns 106 

Mr. William Sydney Gibson on some Basaltic Formations in Northumber- 
land 108 

Professor Harkness on Sections along the Southern Flanks of the Grampians 109 

c on the Yellow Sandstones of Elgin and Lossiemouth 109 

Mr. Henry C. Hodge on the Origin of the Ossiferous Caverns at Oreston.... 110 

Mr. T. F. Jamieson on the Connexion of the Granite with the Stratified Rocks 
in Aberdeenshire 114 

on the Drift Beds and Boulders of the North of Scotland... 114 

Mr. E. R. J. Knowles on some Curious Results in the Water Supply afforded 
by a Spring at Ashey Down, in the Ryde Water-works 114 

Dr. Macgowan on certain Phenomena attendant on Volcanic Eruptions and 
Earthquakes in China and Japan 115 

Mr. John Miller on the Age of the Reptilian Sandstones of Morayshire 115 

on some New Fossils from the Old Red Sandstone of 

Caithness 115 

Mr. Hugh Mitchell on New Fossils from the Lower Old Red Sandstone ... 116 

Professor James Nicol on the Geological Structure of the Vicinity of Aberdeen 
and the North-east of Scotland 116 

on the Relations of the Gneiss, Red Sandstone, and 



Quartzite in the North-west Highlands 119 

Mr. D. Page on some new Boreal forms — the nearly perfect skeletons of Surf 
and Eider Ducks, Oiderna and Somateria — accompanying the remains of Seals, 
from the Pleistocene Brick-clays of Stratheden, Fifeshire ; nine miles inland, 
and 150 feet above medium tide-level 120 



on the Structure, Affinities, and Geological Range of the Crusta- 
cean Family Eurypteridre, as embracing the genera Eurypterus, Pterygotus, 
Stylonurus, Eidothca, and other doubtful Eurypterites from the Silurian, De- 
vonian, and Carboniferous strata of Britain, Russia, and North America 120 

Mr. C. W. Peach on Fossil Fish, new to the Old Red Sandstone of Caithness... 120 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the Ossiferous Fissures at Oreston near Plymouth 121 

Mr. John Price on Slickensides 123 

M. A. Radiguei, on a Fragment of Pottery found in Superficial Deposits in 
Paris 124 

Mr. H. C. Sorby on the Origin of " Cone-in-Cone " 124 

Rev. W. S. Symonds on some Fishes and Tracks from the Passage Rocks and 
from the Old Red Sandstone of Herefordshire 124 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. C. G. Thost on the Rocks and Minerals in the Property of the Marquis of 

Breadalbane 125 

Mr. J. Wyllie on some Old Red Sandstone Fossils 126 

BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

Address by Sir William Jardine, Bart., President of the Section 126 

Botany. 

Dr. George Bennett on some Uses to which the Nuts of the Vegetable Ivory 
Palm (Phytelephas macrocarpa) is applied 130 

Dr. George Buist on the Failure of Bright-coloured Flowers in Forest Trees 
to produce Pictorial Effect on the Landscape, unless accompanied by abund- 
ance of Green Leaves 130 

— — -, Note on some Peculiarities of the Silk Trees or Bomba- 

cese of Western India 132 

— . , Note on the Aversion of certain Trees and Plants to the 

Neighbourhood of each other 133 

Mr. H. Caunter on a Diatomaceous Deposit found in the Island of Lewis ... 133 

Mr. Croll's Account of the more remarkable Plants found in Braemar 133 

Professor Dickie, Notes on the Upper Limits of Cultivation in Aberdeenshire 133 

, Remarks on the Flora of Aberdeenshire 134 

Mr. E. J. Lowe on the Temperature of the Flowers and Leaves of Plants 135 

Dr. M'Gowan, Remarks on the Cultivation of the Opium Poppy of China .... 136 

Mr. Maxwell T. Masters, Remarks on Vegetable Morphology and the 
Theory of the Metamorphosis of Plants 136 

Mr. W. E. C. Nourse on the Colours of Leaves and Petals 138 

Dr. George Ogilvie on the Vegetative Axis of Ferns 139 

Mr. George Rainey on the Structure and Mode of Formation of Starch- 
granules, according to the principles of Molecular Science 140 

Mr. James Taylor, Notes on the Arctic Flora 140 

Mr. Daniel Vaitghan on the Growth of Trees in Continental and Insular 
Climates 140 

Zoology. 
Dr. Adams on the Birds of Banchory 142 

Mr. Joshua Alder on a New Zoophyte, and two Species of Echinodermata new 
to Britain 142 

Professor Allman on Dicoryne stricta, a New Genus and Species of the Tubu- 
lariadce 142 

on Laomedea tenuis, n. sp 143 

— on a remarkable Form of Parasitism among the Pycnogo- 

nidce 143 

on the Structure of the Lucernariadce 143 

Dr. Bleeker, Descriptions of Genera of Fish of Java 144 

Mr. S. M. Burnett, Personal Observations on the Zoology of Aberdeenshire. 144 

Mr. George Busk, List of Marine Polyzoa collected by George Barlee, Esq., 
in Shetland and the Orkneys, with Descriptions of the New Species 144 

Dr. Dickie, Remarks on the Mollusca of Aberdeenshire 147 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Dr. Dickie on the Structure of the Shell in some Species of Pecten 147 

Mr. John Gould on the Varieties and Species of New Pheasants recently 
introduced into England 148 

1 on some New Species of Birds 149 

Mr. John Hogg, Account of a Species of Phalangista recently killed in the 
County of Durham 149 

Mr. T. F. Jamieson, List of the Birds of the North of Scotland, with their 
Distribution 150 

Dr. James M'Bain, Notice of a Skull of a Manatee from Old Calabar 150 

, Notice of the Duration of Life in the Actinia Mesembryanthemum 

when kept in confinement 152 

, Notice of the Skull of a Wombat from the Bone-Caves of Aus- 
tralia 152 

, Notice of the Skull of a Seal from the Gulf of California 153 

Dr. T<r Nox on the Classification of the Salmonida 153 

Mr. Andrew Murray on a New Species of Galago (Galago murinus) from 
Old Calabar 153 

Mr. W. E. C. Nourse on the Habits and Instincts of the Chameleon 153 

Mr. C. W. Peach on the Zoophytes of Caithness 155 

, Notes on different subjects in Natural History, illustrated 

by Specimens 155 

Mr. John Price on the Genus Cydippe 155 

Mr. H. T. Stainton on the Distribution of British Butterflies 156 

Rev. W. S. Symonds, Account of the Fish-rain at Aberdare in Glamorganshire 158 

on Drift Pebbles found in the Stomach of a Cow 158 

Mr. James Taylor, Note on Falco Islandicus and F. Grcenlandicus 158 

Professor George Wilson on the Employment of the Electrical Eel, Gymno- 
tus electricus, as a Medical Shock-Machine by the Natives of Surinam 158 

Physiology. 

Dr. John Adamson on a Case of Lactation in an Unimpregnated Bitch 159 

Mr. Bernard E. Brodhurst on the Repair of Tendons after their Subcutane- 
ous Division 160 

Dr. Michael Foster on the Beat of the Snail's Heart 160 

Dr. Richard Fowler's Second Physiological Attempt to unravel some of the 
Perplexities of the Berkeleyan Hypothesis 160 

Mr. A. Gages on the Comparative Action of Hydrocyanic Acid on Albumen 
and Caseine 162 

Mr. Robert Garner on Reproduction in Gasteropoda, and on some curious 
Effects of Endosmosis 162 

Dr. A.B.Garrod on Specific Chemical and Microscopical Phenomena of Gouty 
Inflammation 165 

Mr. G. H. Lewes on the necessity of a Reform in Nerve-Physiology 166 

, Demonstration of the Muscular Sense 167 

on the supposed Distinction between Sensory and Motory 

Nerves 168 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald on the Homologies of the Coats of Tunicata, with re- 
marks on the Physiology of the Pallial Sinus System of Brack iopoda,. 170 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dr. W. Marcet's Experimental Inquiry into the Action of Alcohol on the 
Nervous System 1 70 

Mr. W. E. C. Nourse on the Organs of the Senses, and en the Mental Percep- 
tive Faculties connected with them 171 

Dr. Ogilvie on the Genetic Cycle in Organic Nature 1/2 

Dr. Peter Redfern on the Method of Production of Sound by a Species of 
No toned a 173 

i -on the Admixture of Nervous and Muscular Fibres in the 

Nerves of the Ilirudo medicinalis and other Leeches 174 

— — — — — — — on the Structure of the Otoliths of the Cod (Gadus 

Morrhua) 174 

Miscellaneous. 
Mr. Andrew Murray on the Disguises of Nature 175 

GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

M. A. Ameuney (a Syrian) on the Arabic- speaking Population of the World ... 176 

Baron de Bode on the Country to the West of the Caspian Sea 177 

Mr. W. Bollaert on the Geography of Southern Peru 177 

Dr. W. Camps on the Laws of Consanguinity and Descent of the Iroquois ... 177 

Mr. J. Crawfurd on the Relation of the Domesticated Animals to Civilization 177 

Mr. Joseph Barnard Davis, Remarks on the Inhabitants of the Tarai, at 
the foot of the Himalayas 177 

Admiral FitzRoy on Meteorology, with reference to Travelling, and the Mea- 
surement of the Height of Mountains 178 

Colonel J. Forbes on the Ethnology and Hieroglyphics of the Caledonians.... 178 

Consul S. Freeman, Description of Ghadames 178 

Sir A. L. Hay, Notes on the Vitrified Forts on Noth and Dunnideer 179 

Dr. Hector, Description of Passes through the Rocky Mountains 180 

Mr. John Hogg on Gebel Hauran, its adjacent districts, and the Eastern Desert 
of Syria; with Remarks on their Geography and Geology 180 

, Notice of the Karaite Jews 181 

On the Application of Colonel James's Geometrical Projection of two-thirds of 
the Sphere to the Construction of Charts of the Stars, &c 183 

Colonel Henry James on the Roman Camp at Ardoch, and the Military Works 
near it 183 

Extracts from a Letter of Dr. Kirk to Alex. Kirk, Esq., relating to the Living- 
stone Expedition. (Communicated by Dr. Shaw) 185 

Hon. T. M'Combie on the Aboriginals of Australia 186 

Dr. M'Gowan on the Native Inhabitants of Formosa 186 

on Chinese Genealogical Tables 186 

Mr. Thomas Michell on the Russian Trade with Central Asia 186 

Mr. J. Lyons M'Leod on the Resources of Eastern Africa 188 

Mr. Laurence Oliphant, Notes on Japan 194 . 

Captain Sherard Osborne on the Yang-tse-kiang, and its future Commerce 196 

Major Phillips on some curious Discoveries concerning the Settlement of the 
Seed of Abraham in Syria and Arabia 197 

Major J. Stokes, Notes on the Lower Danube 197 



CONTENTS. XU 

Page 

Mr. John Stuart on the Sculptured Stones of Scotland 197 

Major Synge on the Rapid Communicationbetween the Atlantic and the Pacific 
Did British North America 20 ° 

STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

Introductory Address by Colonel Sykes, President of the Section 200 

Colonel Sir J. Alexander on the Arts of Camp Life 200 

Mr. G. B. Bothwell on the Manufactures and Trade of Aberdeen 200 

Rev. W. Caine on the Progress of Public Opinion with respect to the Evils 
produced by the Traffic in Intoxicating Drink, as at present regulated by Law 205 

Mr. J. Crawfurd on the Effects of the recent Gold Discoveries 205 

. . on the Effects of the Influx of the Precious Metals which 

followed the Discovery of America 205 

Mr. Henry Fawcett on the Social and Economical Influence of the new Gold 205 

Sir John S. Forbes on Popular Investments 209 

Mr. Arthur Harvey on the Agricultural Statistics of the County of Aberdeen 210 
Mr. J. Pope Hennessy on some Results of the Society of Arts' Examinations 214 

Mr. R. L. Johnson on Decimal Coinage 215 

Mr. J. Pope Hennessy on some Questions relating to the Incidence of Taxation 216 
Mr. Thomas Lawrance, Statistical Account of the Whale and Seal Fisheries 
of Greenland and Davis Straits, carried on by Vessels from Peterhead, N.B., 

from 1788 to 1858, a period of 71 years 216 

Mr. J. T. Mackenzie on the Trade and Commerce of India 217 

Hon. Thomas M'Combie on the Statistics of the Trade and Progress of the 

Colony of Victoria 218 

Dr. Macgowan on the Trade Currency of China (with specimens of the coin- 
age) • 223 

Dr. W. Moore on the Statistics of Small-Pox and Vaccination in the United 

Kingdom 223 

Colonel Shortrede on Decimal Coinage 223 

Dr. John Strang on Church Building in Glasgow 223 

Colonel Sykes on the Past, Present, and Prospective Financial Condition of 

British India > 223 

Mr. James Valentine on Illegitimacy in Aberdeen and the other large Towns 

of Scotland 224 

. ■ — , Notes on the Statistics, chiefly Vital and Economic, of 

Aberdeen 226 

Mr. R. Valpy on the British Trade with India 227 

Professor George Wilson on the Statistics of Colour-Blindness 228 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Mr. J. Abernethy on the Rivers "Dee" forming the Ports of Aberdeen and 

Chester 228 

Captain J. Addison on Coal-pit Accidents 223 

Mr. Alexander Allan on an Improved Method of maintaining a True Liquid 
Level, particularly applicable to Wet Gas-Meters 228 

Mr. Robert Aytoun on a Safety Cage for Miners 228 

Mr. Donald Bain on Harbours of Refuge , 229 



xiv CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. A. Balten on a Boat-lowering Apparatus 229 

Mr. J. F. Bateman on an Artesian Well in the New Red Sandstone at the 
Wolverhampton Waterworks 229 

, Description of the Glasgow Waterworks, with Photo- 
graphic Illustrations taken at various stages of the work 230 

Mr. D. K. Clark on Coal burning without Smoke, by the method of Steam- 
Inducted Air-Currents applied to the Locomotive Engines of the Great North 
of Scotland Railway 230 

Mr. Richard Davis, Description of a Patent Pan for Evaporating Saccharine 
Solutions and other Liquids at a temperature below 180° Fahr 230 

Mr. J. Elder on the Engines of the ' Callao,' ' Lima/ and 'Bogota' 231 

Dr. William Fairbairn and Mr. Thomas Tate's Experimental Researches to 
determine the Density of Steam at various Temperatures 233 

Mr. Alexander Gerard's experimental illustration of the Gyroscope 235 

Mr. Alexander Gibb, Description of the Granite Quarries of Aberdeen and 

Kincardineshire 235 

Mr. G. Hart on Gas Carriages for lighting Railway Carriages with Coal-gas 

instead of Oil 235 

Mr. Andrew Henderson on Indian River Steamers and Tow Boats 235 

Mr. Henry Johnson on a Deep-sea Pressure Gauge 236 

Dr. J. P. Joule on Surface Condensation 236 

Mr. Kettie on a Submarine Lamp 236 

Abbe Moigno on a New Gas-burner 237 

. . on an Automatic Injector for feeding Boilers, by M. Giffard .... 237 

on a Helico-meter, an Instrument for measuring the Thrust of 

the Screw Propeller 237 

■ on an Application of the Moving Power arising from Tides to 
Manufacturing, Agricultural, and other purposes ; and especially to obviate 
the Thames Nuisance 237 

Vice-Admiral Moorsom on the Performance of Steam-vessels 237 

Admiral Paris on the Manoeuvring of Screw Vessels .., 240 

Mr. W. J. Macquorn Rankine, Condensed Abstract of a First Set of Expe- 
riments, by Messrs. Robert Napier and Sons, on the Strength of Wrought 

Iron and Steel 242 

Mr. John Robb on the Comparative Value of Propellers 243 

Mr. Peter Spence on Robertson's Patent Chain Propeller 243 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Nomenclature of Metrical Measures of 

Length = 244 

Mr. A. Taylor on the true Action of what are called Heat-diffusers 244 

Mr. Adam Topp, Description of various Models of Fire Escapes, Boat-lower- 
ing Apparatus, &c 244 

Mr. E. A. Wood on a Mode for Suspending, Disconnecting, and Hoisting Boats 
attached to Sailing Ships and Steamers at Sea 245 

APPENDIX. 

Mathematics and Physics. 

Sir David Brewster on a remarkable specimen of Chalcedony, belonging to 
Miss Campbell, and exhibiting a perfectly distinct and well-drawn landscape 245 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

Sir David Brewster on the Connexion between the Solar Spots and Magnetic 

Disturbances 245 

Professor J. D. Everett on a Method of reducing Observations of Underground 

Temperatures 245 

Sir William Rowan Hamilton on an Application of Quaternions to the 

Geometry of Fresnel's Wave-surface 248 

Mr. J. Pope Hennessy on certain Properties of the Powers of Numbers 248 

Mr. Fleeming Jenkin on Gutta Percha as an Insulator at various Temperatures 248 
on the Retardation of Signals through long Submarine 

Cables 251 

Mr. Cromwell F. Varley on some of the Methods adopted for ascertaining 

the Locality and Nature of Defects in Telegraphic Conductors 252 

Chemistry. 

Mr. James Brazier on the Action of concentrated Sulphuric Acid on Cubebin in 
relation to the test for Strychnine by Bichromate of Potash and Sulphuric Acid 256 

on Distilled Water 256 

, Notice of Dugong Oil 256 

, Laboratory Memoranda 257 

Mr. Walter Crum on the Ageing of Mordants in Calico Printing 258 

Mr. Thomas Graham on the Molecular Movements of Fluids 259 

Dr. Lyon Playfair on a Symmetrical Arrangement of Oxides and Salts on a 

Common Type 259 

M. Niepce de St. Victor on two new Photochemical Experiments 260 

Geology. 

Mr. James Bryce on the Discovery of Silurian Fossils in the Slates of Down- 
shire 260 

Professor Thomas H. Huxley on the newly discovered Reptilian Remains 
from the neighbourhood of Elgin 261 

Rev. Dr. Longmuir on the Section of the Coast between the Girdleness and 
Dunnottar Castle, Kincardineshire 261 

on the Remains of the Cretaceous Formation in Aber- 
deenshire 262 

on the Restoration of Pterichthys in ' The Testimony of 

the Rocks' 263 

Rev. James Morrison on Fossil Remains found at Urquhart, near Elgin. 
(Communicated by the Rev. Dr. Longmuir) 263 

Mr. C. Moore on the supposed Wealden and other Beds near Elgin 264 

on Brachiopoda, and on the Development of the loop in Tere- 

bratula 265 

Professor H. D. Rogers on some Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glenroy 265 
Rev. Professor Sedgwick on Faults in Cumberland and Lancashire 265 

Botany and Zoology. 

Dr. Dyce on the Identity of Morrhua vulgaris and M. punctata, hitherto described 

as distinct species 265 

Mr. John Moore, Notice of Syrrhaptis paradoxus 265 

Professor Macdonald on the Osteology of Lophius piscatorius 265 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Physiology, 

Page 
Professor Bennett on the Structure of the Nerve-Tubes 265 



on the Origin of Morbid Growths with reference to the Con- 
nective-tissue Theory 265 

Professor Laycock on the Handwriting and Drawing of the Insane, as illustra- 
tive of some Modes of Cerebral Functions 265 

Mr. John Duguid Milne, Jun., on the Homologous Development of the Mus- 
cular System 265 

Professor Bennett on the Molecular Theory of Organization 265 

Dr. Edward Smith on the Sequence in the Phenomena observed in Man under 
the Influence of Alcohol 265 

Dr. William Camp on certain Subjective Sensations, with especial reference 
to the Phenomena of Second Sight, Visions, and Apparitions 265 

. on certain imperfectly recognized Functions of the Optic 

Thalami 265 



Geography and Ethnology. 

Consul Petherie's Exploration of the White Nile 265 

Captain Speke's Discovery of Lake Nyanza in Central Africa 266 

Rev. S. Hislop on the Aboriginal Tribes of the Province of Nagpore, Central 

India 266 

Consul Dalyell, Memorandum of Earthquake at Erzerum 266 

Dr. Norton Shaw, Notes on the Proposed Railway Communication between 
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans via the United States of America 266 

Captain Speke on the Commercial Resources of Zanzibar on the East Coast of 
Africa 266 

Index 267 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annu.-m. Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1859. b 



xv iii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
en admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of .the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 






RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-qfficio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 



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II. Table shewing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Acknd, Sir Thomas D., Bart., RR.S. 
Aelancl, Professor H. W., M.D., F.R.S. 
Adams, J. Couch, M.A., F.E.S. 
Aclamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 
Ainslie, Eev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 
Airy,OKB.,D.C.L..F.R.S., Astronomer Eoyal. 
Alison, ProfessorW. P.,M.D.,F.R.S.E.(dcc-«). 
Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 
Anderson, Prof. Thomas, M.D. 
Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.E.S. 
Argyll, George Douglas. Duke of, F.E.fi. 
Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.E.S. 



Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord,D.C.t/ 
Atkinson, Et.Hon.E.,LordMayor of Dublin. 
Babbagc, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Babington, C. C, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Baily, Francis, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Baines, Et. Hon. M. T., M.A., M.P. (dec"). 
Baker, Thomas Barwick Llovd, Esq. 
Balfour, Professor John H./M.D., F.E.S. 
Barker, George, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Bell, Professor Thomas, Pres. L.S., F.E.S. 
Beechey, Rear-Admiral, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Bengough, George, Esq. 
Beutham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 



Bicldell, George Arthur, Esq. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.E.S. 

Boileau, Sir John P., Bart,, F.E.S. 

Boyle, Bt.IIon. D., Lord Justice-Gen 1 , (dec' 1 ). 

Brady, The Et. Hon. Maziere, M.E.I. A., Lord 

Chancellor of Ireland. 
Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.E.S. 
Brewster, Sir David, X.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.E.S., Principal of the University of 

Edinburgh. 
Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 

K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Brooke, Charles, B.A.. E.E.S. 
Brown, Eobert, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Brunei, Sir M. I., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Buckland, Very Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., 

Dean of Westminster (deceased). 
Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. (deceased). 
Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.E.S. 
Carson, Eev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 
Cathcart,Lt,-Gen.,Earlof, K.C.B., F.E.S.E. 

(deceased). 
Chalmers, Eev. T., D.D. (deceased). 
Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Q raham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 
Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.E.S. 
Clare, Peter, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 
Clark, Eev. Prof., M.D., F.E.S. (Cambridge.) 
Clark, Henry, M.D. 
Clark, G. T., Esq. 
Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Clerke, Major S., K.H., E.E., F.E.S. (dec-'). 
Clift, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Close, Very Eev. F., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 
Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 
Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 
Conybeare, Very Eev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 

daff (deceased). 
Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 
Corrie, John, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Cram, Walter, Esq., F.E.S. 
Currie, William Wallace, Esq. Cdeceased). 
Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Daniell, Professor J. F., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Daubenv, Prof. Charles G. B., M.D., F.E.S. 
DelaBeche,SirH. T., C.B.. F.E.S., Director- 
Gen. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom (dec d ). 
Devonshire, William, Duke of, M.A., F.E.S. 
Dickinson, Joseph, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dillwyn, Lewis W, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Drinkwater, J. E.,-Esq. (deceased). 
Dueie, The Earl, F.E.S. 
Dunraven, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Egerton, Sir P. de M. Grev, Bart., M.P., 

F.E.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (dec' 1 ). 
Enniskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L, F.E.S. 
Fitzwilliam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec' 1 ). 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Foote, LundyE.. Esq. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 
Forbes^ Prof. Edward. F.R.S. (deceased). 

k s, Prof. J. D., F.E.S., Sec. E.S.E. 

, Eobert Were, Esq., F.E.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 



Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.E.S. 

Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Gourlie, William, Esq. (deceased). 

Graham, T., M. A., F.E.S., Master of the Mint, 

Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.E.S. 

Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (decea=cd). 

Gray, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Green, Prof. Joseph Henry, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Griffith, Sir R. Griffith, Bt., LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

Grove, W. R, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 

Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. (dec"). 

Hamilton, W. J., Esq., F.E.S., For. Sec. G.S. 

Hamilton, Sir Win. E,. LL.D., Astronomer 
Royal of Ireland, M.R.I.A., F.R.A.S. 

Hancock, W. Neilson, LL.D. 

Harcourt, Rev. Wm. Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 

Hardwicke, Charles Pliilip, Earl of, F.R.S. 

Harford, J. S., D.C.L, F.R.S. 

Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 

Harrowby, The Earl of, F.R.S. 

Hatfeild, William, Esq.. F.G.S. (deceased). 

Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. [Col., Belfast. 

Henry, Rev. P. S.,D.D., President of Queen's 

Hen slow, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 

Herbert, Hon. and Very Eev. Wm., LL.D., 
F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec d ). 

Herschel,SirJohnF.W.,Bart,,D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.E.S. 

Hevwood, James, Esq., F.E.S. 

Hill, Eev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 

Hincks, Eev. Edward, D.D., M.E.I.A. 

Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich. 

Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 

Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton. F.E.S. 

Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.E.S. 

Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Hope, Eev. F. W., M.A., F.E.S. 

Hopkins. William, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 

Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. 

Hovenden, V. F.. Esq., M.A. 

Hutton, Eobert, Esq., F.G.S. 

Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Ibbctson,Capt,L.L.Boscawen,K.E.E., F.G.S. 

Inglis, Sir R. II., Bart., D.C.L, M.P. (dee"). 

Inman, Thomas, M.D. 

Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.E.S.E. 

Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.E.S. 

Jellctt, Rev. Prof.' 

Jcnyns, Eev. Leonard, F.L.S. 

Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 

Johnston, Eight Hon. William, late Lord 
Provost of Edinburgh. 

Johnston, Prof. J. F. W., M.A., F.E.S. (dec' 1 ). 

Iveleher, William, Esq. (deceased). 

Kelland, Eev. Professor P., M.A. 

Kildare, The Marquis of. 

Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.E.S. 

Lansdowne, Hen., Marquis of. D.C.L.F.E.S. 

Larcom, Lt.-Coloncl, RE., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Lardner, Eev. Dr. (deceased). 

Lassell, William, Esq., F.E.S. L. & E. 

Latham, E. G., M.D., F.E.S. 

Lee, Very Eev. John, D.D., F.E.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh, 
(deceased). 

Lee, Eobert, M.D., F.E.S. 

Lefevre, Eight Hon. Charles Shaw, late 
Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., F.E.S. 

Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased). 



i.p.diov. Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Listow'el. The Earl of. | Dublin ( dec 1 ) 

Lloyd, Rev. B., D.D., Provost of Trim Coll. 
Lloyd, Eev. II., D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. L.&E. 

Londesborough, Lord, F.R.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart,, M.A., F.R.S. 
Luby, Rct. Thomas. 
Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A., F.R.S. 
MacCullagh, Prof., D.C.L., M.R.I.A. (dec' 1 ). 
MacDonnell, Rev. R, D.D., M.R.I.A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal. (dcc d ). 
MacGee, William, M.D. 
MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 
MaeNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 
Malahide, The Lord Talbot de. 
Malcolm,Vice-Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B. (dec' 1 ). 
Maltby, Edward, D.D., F.R.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Durham (deceased). 
Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 
Marshall, J. G. Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
May, Charles, Esq., F.R.A.S. 
Meynell, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 
Middleton, Sir William F. F, Bart. 
Miller, Professor W. A., M.D., F.R.S. 
Miller. Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 
Moillet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 
Milnes, R. Monckton, Esq., D.C.L., M.P. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 
Monteagle, Lord, F.R.S. 
Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 
Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 
Moody, T. F., Esq. 
Morley, The Earl of. 
Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 
Mount-Edgecumbe, ErnestAugustus.Earl of. 
Murchison, Sir Roderick I.,G.C. St.S., F.R.S. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Nicol, D., M.D. 
Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 
Northampton. Spencer Joshua Ahvyne, Mar- 
quis of, Y.P.R.S. (deceased). 
Northumberland, Hugh. Duke of, KG.3I.A, 
F.R.S. (deceased). 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 

Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 

Orpen, John II., LL.D. 

Osltr, Follett, Esq., F.R.S. 

Owen, Professor Richd.,M.D., D.C.L,F.R,S. 

Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 

Peacock, Very Rev. G., D.D., Dean of Ely, 
F.R.S. (deceased). 

Peel,Rt.Hon.SirR,Bart„M.P,D.C.L.(dec' 1 ). 

Pendarves, E. W., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Phillips, Professor John. M.A..LL.D.,F.R.S. 

Pigott, The Rt. Hon. D. R.. M.R.I.A, Lord 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 

Porter, G. R„ Esq. (deceased). 

Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prichard, J. G, M.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Ramsaj', Professor William, M.A.. 

Ransome, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Reid,Maj.-Gen. Sir W.,K.C.B.,R.E., F.P.S. 
(deceased). 

Rendlesham, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.P. 

Pvcnnie. George, Esq., F.R.S. 

Rennie, Sir Ji>!m. F.R.S. 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D., C.B., F.R.S. 

Ripon, Earl of. F.R.G.S. 

Bi chie, Rev. Prof., LL.D., F.R.S. (dee d ). 

Eobinson, Rev. J., D.D. 



Robinson. Rev. T. R, D.D., F.R.A.S. 

Robison, Sir John, See.R.S.Edin. (deceased). 

Roche, James, Esq. 

Roget, P*er Mark, M.D, F.R.S. 

Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 

Rosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Ross, Rear- Ad. Sir J. C, R.N., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rosse, Win.. Earl of, M.A.. F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Royle, Prof. John F, M.D, F.R.S. (dec 1 ). 

Russell, James, Esq. (deceased). 

Russell, J. Scott, Esq, F.R.S. [V.P.R.S. 

Sabine, Maj.-Gen, R.A, D.C.L, Trcas. & 

Sanders, William, Esq, F.G.S. 

Scoresby, Rev. W, D.D, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Sedgwick, Rev. Prof. Adam, M.A, F.R.S. 

Selbv, Prideaux John, Esq, F.R.S.E. 

Sharper, Professor, M.D, Sec.R.S. 

Sims, Dillwyn, Esq. 

Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 

Smith, James, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Speuce, William, Esq, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Stanley, Edward, D.D, F.R.S, late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T, Bt, M.P, D.C.L, F.R.S. 
St. David's, C.Thirlwall,D.D,LordBishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G, Sec.R.S. 

Strang, John, Esq, LL.D. 

Strickland, Hugh E.. Esq, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Sykes, Colonel W. H, M.P, F.R.S. 

Symonds, B. P, D.D, Vice-Chancellor of 
the University of Oxford. 

Talbot, W. II. Fox, Esq, M.A, F.R.S. 

Tayler, Rev. John James, B.A. 

Taylor, John, Esq, F.R.S. 

Taylor, Richard, Esq, F.G.S. 

Thompson. William, Esq, F.L.S. ( deceased). 

Thomson. Professor William. M. A.. F.R.S. 

Tindal. Captain, R.N. (deceased). 

Tite, AYilliam. Esq, M.P, F.R.S. 

Tod, James, Esq, F.R.S.E. 

Tooke, Thomas, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Traill. J. S, M.D. (deceased). 

Turner, Edward, M.D.. F.R.S. (deceased). 

Turner, Samuel, Esq, F.R.S, F.G.S. (dec"). 

Turner, Rev. V,". 

Tvndall, Professor. F.R.S. 

Vigors, N. A, D.C.L, F.L.S. (deceased). 

Vivian, J. H, M.P, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Walker. James, Esq.. F.R.S. 

Walker, Joseph N, Esq, F.G.S. 

Walker, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A, F.R.S. 

Warburton, Henry, Esq.. M.A, F.R,S.(dec < '). 

Washington, Captain, R.N., F.R.S. 

Webster, Thomas, M.A, F.R.S. 

West, William. Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Western, Thomas Bureh, Esq. 

Wharncliffe.John Stuart. Lord.F.E.S.(dct"). 

Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 

Whewell. Rev. William, D.D.. F.R.S.. Master 
of Trinity Coll.",.'. ( lambridge. 

Williams, Prof. Charles J. P... M.D.. F.R.S. 

Willis. Rot. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 

Wills. William. Esq.. F.G.S. (deceased). 

Wilson, Prof. W. 1". 

Winchester, John, Marquis of. 

Woollconibc, Henry.Esq.. F.S.A. (deceased .) 

Wrottesley, John, Lord,M.A., Pres.R.S. 

Yarborough, The Earl of, 1 >.C.L. 

yarreU, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 

Yates, JameB, Esq.. MA.. F.R.S. 

Yates. J. B, Esq., F.S.A., F.K.G.S. (dee"). 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1859-60. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I.MuRCHisoN,G.C.St.S., F.R.S. Major-General Edward Sabine, 
John Taylor, Esq., E.R.S. D.C.L., Treas. & V.P.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE CONSORT. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



R.A., 



The Duke of Richmond, K.G., F.R.S., Pre- 
sident of the Royal Agricultural Society. 

The Earl of Aberdeen, LL.D., K.6., 
K.T., F.R.S. 

The Lord Provost of the City of Aberdeen. 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., D.C.L., 
M.A., F.R.S. 

Sir David Brewster, K.IL, D.C.L., F.R.S., 



SirR. I.MuRCHisoN,G.C.St.S.,D.C.L.,F.R.S., 
and Director-General of the Geological Sur- 
vey of the United Kingdom. 

The Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. 

The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S., Di- 
rector of the Armagh Observatory, Armagh. 

A. Thomson, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., Convener 
of the County of Aberdeen. 



Principal of the University of Edinburgh. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

THE LORD WROTTESLEY, M.A., V.P.R.S., F.R.A.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Earl of Derby, P.C., D.C.L., Chan- 
cellor of the University of Oxford. 

The Rev. F. Jeune, D.D., Vice-Chancellor of 
the University of Oxford. 

The Duke of Marlborough, D.C.L. 

The Earl of Rosse, K.P., M.A., F.R.S., 
F.R.A.S. 

The Lord Bishop of Oxford, F.R.S. 

The Very Rev. H. G. Liddell, D.D., Dean 



Charles G. B. Daubeny, LL.D., M.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Professor of Botany 
in the University of Oxford. 

Henry W. Acland, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., 
Regius Professor of Medicine in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. 

William F. Donkin, Esq., M.A., 
Savilian Professor of Astronomy 
University of Oxford. 



F.R.S., 
in the 



of Christ Church, Oxford. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT OXFORD. 
George Rolleston, M.D., Lee's Reader in Anatomy in the University of Oxford. 
H. J. S. Smith, Esq., M.A., Balliol College, Oxford. 
George Griffith, Esq., M.A., Jesus College, Oxford. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT OXFORD. 
The Rev. Richard Greswell, M.A., F.R.S., Worcester College, Oxford. 
The Rev. John Griffiths, M.A., Wadham College, Oxford. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Babington, C. C, M.A., 

F.R.S. 
Brodie, Sir Benjamin C, 

Bart., D.C.L, Pres.R.S. 
De la Rue, Warren, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
Egerton, Sir Philip de M. 

Grey, Bart., F.R.S. 
Fairbairn,William,E.R.S. 
FiTzRoY,RearAdmiral,F.R.S. 



Price, Rev. Professor, M.A , 

F.R.S. 
Rennie, George, F.R.S. 
Russell, J. S., F.R.S. 
SHARPEY,Professor,Sec. R.S. 
Sykes, Colonel W. II., M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Tite, William, M.P., F.R.S. 
Webster, Thomas, F.R.S. 
Yates, James, M.A., F.R.S. 



Gassiot, John P., F.R.S. 
Grove, William R., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, F.R.S. 
Hutton, Robert, F.G.S. 
Lyell, Sir C, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Miller, Prof. W. A., M.D., 

F.R.S. 
PoRTLocK,General,R.E., F.R.S. 
Powell, Rev. Prof., M.A.. 
F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
neral and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi- 
dents of former years, viz.— Rev. Professor Sedgwick. Sir Thomas M. Brisbane, Bart. The 
Marquis of Lansdowne. The Duke of Devonshire. Rev. W.V. Harcourt. The Marquis of Bread- 
albane. Rev. W. Whewell, D.D. The Earl of Rosse. Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Sir 
Roderick I. Murchison. The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. Sir David Brewster. G.B. Airy, Esq., 
the Astronomer Royal. General Sabine. William Hopkins, Esq., LL.D. The Earl of 
Harrowby. The Duke of Argyll. Professor Daubeny, M.D. The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 

CENERAL SECRETARY. 
The Rev. Robert Walker, M.A., F.R.S., Reader in Experimental Philosophy in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford ; Culham Vicarage, Abingdon. 
ASSISTANT CENERAL SECRETARY. 
John Phillifs, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Pres.G.S., Reader in Geology in the University 
of Oxford ; Museum House, Oxford. 
CENERAL TREASURER. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 
William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., YorJc. Robert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S. , Manchester. ' 

C.C.Babington,Esq.,M.A.,F.R.S.,Camin<fye. John Gwyu Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., Swansea. 



William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh 
John II. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. 
William Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Bristol. 
Robert M' Andrew, Esq., F.R.S., Liverpool. 
W. R. Wills, Esq., Birmingham. 
Professor Ramsay, M.A., Glasgow, 



Robert Hutton, Esq. 



J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipswich. 
Robert Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., Belfast. 
Edmund Smith, Esq., Hull. 
Richard Beamish, Esq., F.R.S., Cheltenham. 
John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., LeeJs. 
John Angus, Esq., Aberdeen. 
AUDITORS. 
Dr. Norton Shaw. James Yates, Esq. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXV11 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

ABERDEEN MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President.— The Earl of Rosse, M.A., K.P., F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— G. B. Airv, M.A., D.C.L., Astronomer Royal, F.R.S. L. & E., 
M.R.I.A. fJSir David Brewster,'K.H., F.R.S. L. & E., M.R.I.A. ; Sir W. R. Hamil- 
ton, LL.D., Astronomer Royal of Ireland, M.R.I.A. ; Professor William Thomson, 
M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A. ; T. Maclear, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Astronomer Royal at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Secretaries.— Professor Stevelly, LL.D. ; H. J. S. Smith, M.A. ; J. Pope Hen- 
nessy, M.P. ; Professor Maxwell, F.R.S. E. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President.— Professor Lyon Playfair, C.B., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — R. Christison, M.D., F.R.S.E. ; Professor Daubeny, M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. ; W. De la Rue, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Professor Faradav, 
D.C.L., F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S., F.C.S. ; T. Gra- 
ham, M.A., D.C.L., Master of the Mint, F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Professor A. W. William- 
son, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Secretaries.— J . S. Brazier, F.C.S. ; J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S.; G. 
D. Liveing, M.A., F.C.S.; W. Odling, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— Sir Charles Lyell, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St. S., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Sir 
Richard Griffith, Bart., LL.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., F.G.S.; Professor Sedgwick, 
M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; William Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Major- 
General Portlock, R.E., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Professor A. C. Ramsay, F.R.S., 
F.G.S.; Professor H. D. Rogers, LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Secretaries.— Professor Harkness, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; 
Rev. J. Longmuir, A.M., LL.D. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— Sir William Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E., F.L.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Professor Allman, M.D., F.R.S. L.&E., M.R.I.A.; C. C. Ba- 
bington, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Professor Balfour, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Professor 
Daubeny, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L S. ; Professor Huxley, F.R.S., F.L.S; Pro- 
fessor Owen, M.D., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Secretaries.— E. Lankester, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; Professor Dickie, M.D. ; 
G. Ogilvie, M.D. 

SUB-SECTION D. PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Sharper, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Henry W. D. Acland, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Sir Benjamin C. 
Brodie, Bart., D.C.L., Pres.R.S. ; Professor Christison, M.D., F.R.S.E. ; Sir James 
Clark, Bart., M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Syme, F.R.S.E. ; Professor Allen Thomson, 
M.D., F.R.S., L.&E. 

Secretaries.— Professor Redfern, M.D. ; Professor Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Rear-Admiral Sir James Clark Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents— Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., D.C.L., V.P.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; 
Colonel Sir Henry James, R.E., F.R.S., F.R.G.S ; Rear-Admiral FitzRoy, F.R.S., 
F.R.G.S : Sir John Bowring, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; John Crawfurd, F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; 
Very Rev. Principal Campbell, D.D. ; Sir James Clark, Bart., M.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries.— Dr. Norton Shaw, Scc.R.G.S. ; Richard Cull, F.R.G.S.; Professor 
Geddes. 



XXV111 



REPORT — 1«59. 



SECTION F. — 'ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Colonel Svkes, M.P., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Lord Monteagle, M.A., F.R.S. ; W. The, M.P., F.R.S, ; Alex- 
ander Thomson of Banchory; Principal the Rev. D. Dewar, D.D., LL.D. 

Secretaries. — John Strang, LL.D. ; Edmund Macrory, M.A. ; H. Ambrose 
Smith ; Professor Cairnes. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — The Rev. Professor Willis, M.A. , F.R.S., Jacksonian Professor, Cam- 
bridge. 

Vice-Presidents. — J. F. Bateman, C.E. ; Admiral Drinkwater Bethune, C.B., 
F.R.G.S. ; W. Fairbairn, C.E., F.R.S. ; Vice-Admiral Moorsom ; The Rev. Canon 
Moseley, M.A., F.R.S.; G. Rennie, F.R.S.; T. Webster, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— R. Abernethy ; P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; H. Wright. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 
M. Babinet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 
Professor Bolzani, Kazan. 
Barth, Dr. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evreux). 
Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 
Chevalier Bunsen, Heidelberg. 
Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 
M. Antoine d'Abbadie. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor Esmark, Chrislianio . 
Professor G. Forchhammer, Copenhagen. 
M. Leon Foucault, Paris. 
Prof. E. Fremy, Paris. 
M. Frisiani, Milan. 
Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U. S. 
Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Prof. A. Kblliker, Wurzburg. 
Prof. De Koninck, Liege. 
Professor Kreil, Vienna. 
Dr. A. KupfFer, St. Petersburg. 



Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Prof. F. Lanza, 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New York. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von Middendoxff, St. Petersburg. 

M. l'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordensciold, Finland. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Viscenza Pisani, Florence. 

Gustave Plaar, Sirasburg. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

Professor Plucker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Bntssels. 

Prof. Retzius, Stockholm. 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve, Pidkowa. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 

Dr. Van der Hoeven, Leyden. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Gottingen. 
Professor Wavtmann, Geneva. 



Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee at Aberdeen, September 14, 1859. 

1. With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Leed^, the Council have to report as follows: — ■ 

a. The General Committee passed the following resolutions, viz. — 

" That it is highly desirable that a series of Magnetical and Meteorolo- 
gical Observations, on the same plan as those which have been already 
carried on in the Colonial Observatories for thatpurpose,under the direction 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXIX 

of Her Majesty's Board of Ordnance, be obtained, to extend over a period 
of not more than five years, at the following stations : — 

1. Vancouver Island. 

2. Newfoundland. 

3. The Falkland Isles. 

<k Pekin, or some near adjacent station. 

" That an application be made to Her Majesty's Government to obtain 
the establishment of Observatories at these stations for the above-mentioned 
term, on a personal and material footing, and under the same superintend- 
ence as in the Observatories (now discontinued) at Toronto, St. Helena, 
and Van Diemen's Land. 

"That the observations at the Observatories now recommended should 
be comparable with, and in continuation of, those made at the last-named 
Observatories, including four days of term-observations annually. 

" That provision be also requested at the hands of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment, for the execution, within the period embraced by the observations, 
of magnetic surveys in the districts immediately adjacent to those stations, 
viz. of the whole of Vancouver's Island and the shores of the Strait sepa- 
rating it from the main laud, — of the Falkland Isles, — and of the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Chinese Observatory (if practicable) wherever situ- 
ated, — on the plan of the surveys already executed in the British posses- 
sions in Nortli America and in the Indian Archipelago. 

"That a sum of £350 per annum, during the continuance of the obser- 
vations, be recommended to be placed by Government at the disposal of 
the General Superintendent, for the purpose of procuring a special and 
scientific verification and exact correspondence of the magnetical and me- 
teorological instruments, both of those which shall be furnished to the 
several Observatories, and of those which, during the continuance of the 
observations for the period in question, shall be brought into comparison 
with them, either at Foreign or Colonial Stations. 

" That the printing of the observations in extenso be discontinued, but 
that provision be made for their printing in abstract, with discussion ; but 
that the Term-Observations, and those to be made on the occurrence of 
Magnetic Storms, be still printed in extenso; and that the registry of the 
observations be made in triplicate, one copy to be preserved in the office 
of the General Superintendent, one to be presented to the Royal Society, 
and one to the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, for conservation and 
future reference. 

" That measures be adopted for taking advantage of whatever disposi- 
tion may exist on the part of our Colonial Governments to establish Obser- 
vatories of the same kind, or otherwise to cooperate with the proposed 
system of observation. 

" That in placing these Resolutions and the Report of the Committee 
before the President and Council of the Royal Society, the continued co- 
operation of that Society be requested in whatever ulterior measures may 
be requisite. 

" That the President of the British Association be requested to act in 
conjunction with the President of the Royal Society, and with the Members 
of the two Committees, in any steps which appear necessary for the 
accomplishment of the objects above stated. 

" That an early communication be made of this procedure to His Royal 
Highness The Prince Consort, the President Elect of the British Associa- 
tion for the ensuing year." 



XXX REPORT — 1859. 

At a Meeting of the Council on December 17, 1858, tbe President stated 
that communications had been made on the subject of these Resolutions to 
the President and Council of the Royal Society, and to His Royal Highness 
The Prince Consort, the President Elect of the British Association for the 
ensuing year. He then presented the following letters, which were ordered 
to be entered on the Minutes : — 

" Windsor Castle, December 1, 1858. 

" Dear Sir, — I have been commanded by His Royal Highness The Prince 
Consort to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the series of resolutions 
adopted by the Council of the British Association, relative to the extension 
of the field of Magnetical and Meteorological Observations, 

" His Royal Highness would be glad to be informed whether it is expected 
from him, as President Elect of the Association, that he should take any 
steps with reference to the object the Council has in view, and if so, what 
they should be. 

"I have also to thank you, by His Royal Highness's desire, for the copy of 
your Address. 

" I have the honour to be, dear Sir, 

" Yours very faithfully, 

« C. Grey." 

" Burlington House, December 9, 1858. 
"Dear Sir, — In reference to the inquiry manifesting the interest which 
His Royal Highness The Prince Consort takes in the subject of the Resolu- 
tions of the Council of the British Association lately submitted to him, we 
are aware that we ought not to solicit any personal or direct action of His 
Royal Highness in the matter ; but, having laid before him the nature 
and reasons of the case, and His Royal Highness being fully aware of its 
important scientific bearings, any expression of His Royal Highness which 
the joint Committees may be permitted to cite in their further communi- 
cations with Her Majesty's Government or with Foreign Powers, Academies, 
or constituted scientific authorities would, they feel confident, possess very 
great influence, and be productive of the most beneficial effects, 

,„. n / " B. C. Brodie, P.R.S. 
(feigned) |« RlCHARD Owen, Pres. Brit. Assoc." 

" To Major-Gen. Hon. C. Grey." 

" Osborne, 11 December, 1858. 

" My dear Professor Owen, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of the 
Copy of Resolutions adopted at a Meeting of the British Association, with 
respect to the measures to be adopted for the further prosecution of your 
Magnetical and Meteorological Experiments, which I received before leaving 
Windsor; and I have now seen the letter which, in conjunction with Sir B. 
Brodie, you have addressed to General Grey, in answer to the inquiry respect- 
ing the above-mentioned resolutions, which he made by my direction. 

" I need hardly repeat the assurance of the deep interest which I take in 
the subject of your inquiries, or of my sense of the importance to science of 
the further prosecution of the observations which have been so far conducted 
under the auspices of the two Societies, the interruption of which, at the 
very moment when there is so much reason to hope for their successful com- 
pletion, would be a source of deep regret. Any assistance in my power to 
afford, I shall at all times be most happy to render. If, therefore, you think 
that in your future communications with Government, or with Foreign 
Powers, learned Institutions, &c, it will tend in any way to facilitate your 
labours, or to remove difficulties, to cite my opinion, you have my full per- 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXXI 

mission to state, in the strongest manner, the conviction I entertain of the 
importance of being enabled to establish those new points of observation in 
different parts of the world, and to execute those magnetic surveys to which 
the Resolutions allude, 

"Wishing you most heartily every success in the further development of 
this most interesting subject, 

" I remain, yours faithfully, 

( Signed ) ' ' A lbert," 

It was also stated by the President that a letter had been received from 
the Treasury, in reply to a communication enclosing the Resolutions above 
{liven by the President of the Royal Society and the President of the British 
Association, from which it appeared that the Lords Commissioners of the 
Treasury were desirous of postponing for a year the consideration of the 
subject. On this it was resolved by the Council — 

That the President be requested to make a further communication to the 
Treasury, and to suggest reasons which may induce the Lords of the Trea- 
sury to enter on the consideration of the subject at an earlier period. 

In compliance with this request, the President had an interview with Sir 
Charles Trevelyan at the Treasury, December 18th, and having read to him 
the letter from the Prince Consort, expressive of His Royal Higliness's deep 
intei'est in the proposed Magnetical Observations, received from Sir Charles 
the expression of his belief, that, if a single station for Magnetical and 
Meteorological Observations were applied for, intimating Pekin as its locality, 
by the joint Committee of the Royal Society and British Association, My 
Lords would be disposed to comply with such application. 

The President thereupon wrote to the President of the Royal Society, to 
Major-General Sabine, and Sir John Herschel, and, having received their 
replies, communicated to Sir Charles Trevelyan that from Major-General 
Sabine, of which a copy is subjoined, together with the following extract 
from Sir John Herschel's letter, dated Collingwood, Dec. 22nd, 1858: — 
" The scientific importance of a five years' series of Magnetical Observations 
at Pekin, without Newfoundland or the other stations (Vancouver's and 
Falkland Islands), would be grievously diminished, and the general scope of 
the project defeated," 

From General Sabine. 

" St. Leonards-on-Sea, January 1st, 1859. 

"Dear Owen, — I have received your letter of the 27th ult., containing a 
notice of your communication with Sir Charles Trevelyan, and enclosing 
copies of letters from Sir John Herschel and Mr. Airy. 

" There would in no case have been any question of an estimate for the 
present year, viz. 1859. The instruments even for a single Observatory 
cannot be ready before Midsummer next ; and those who are to be charged 
with the observations will require at least some weeks for a full training, 
before they will be ready to proceed to their destination. Supposing, 
therefore, but a single Observatory to be authorized, it will come properly 
into the estimates for 1860, though there may be a small arrear to be included 
for the latter part of the preceding financial year. 

"Before Mr. Welsh left Kew in November last, he gave Mr. Adie the 
specifications for the differential instruments (for the three elements) which 
it is our intention to propose as most suitable for a Colonial Observatory ; 
and Mr. Adie undertook to have them completed and ready by Midsummer 



xxxii report — 1859. 

next. They are to serve either for eye-observation or for continuous photo- 
graphic record, or for both, occasional eye-observations being desirable in 
any case. The space which it is proposed they should occupy, is 12 feet by 6 ; 
and their relative position, as well as that of all their parts, will be determined 
by their being fixed into a slate floor or basement, capable of being separated 
into portions for more easy conveyance to a Colony, but designed, when 
there, to be put together and cemented into one solid floor, which must rest 
on a secure foundation. The protection from the weather which the instru- 
ments will require, will be (in the Colony) a double wall either of logs or of 
stone, having space between the outer and inner wall, and a similarly double 
ceiling. When the instruments are set up in the space near the Observatory 
at Kew, a simple boarding will suffice in lieu of double walls and ceiling, as 
the equalization of temperature is of no moment when the purpose is simply to 
give instruction in the use of the instruments. The instruments for absolute 
determinations will require a small separate building, in which the absence 
of iron will be the only requisite, the variations of temperature not being of 
the same moment in their case. 

"It is proposed that the description and the principal instructions for the 
use of these differential instruments should form an appendix to Mr. Welsh's 
report on the self-recording Magnetic Apparatus at Kew, which apparatus has 
now been in steady work for some months. Mr. Welsh's report is to be pre- 
sented to the Aberdeen Meeting, and will be printed forthwith. 

" Viewing the importance of time, I took on myself in October last the 
responsibility of directing Mr. Adie to proceed in the construction of these 
instruments. On the understanding conveyed by your letter that one Observa- 
tory at least will be sanctioned, and supposing that the instruments shall be 
found to answer their purpose satisfactorily, I shall be relieved from the pecu- 
niary responsibility so undertaken ; but I had at anyrate very little apprehension 
on this account ; for the improvement of standard Magnetical and Meteorolo- 
gical instruments has been so thoroughly recognized as a proper ground of ap- 
plication to the Government Grant Committee, that I should not have hesi- 
tated to ask for aid from that quarter, if needed. It was probable, moreover, 
that had the instruments not been required by our own Government, a ready 
sale might have been found for them to some projected Colonial or Foreign 
Establishment. 

" If Mr. Adie keeps his time, the Observatory will be ready for inspection 
and for practice early in the next summer, when it is hoped that those who 
are competent to judge of the suitability of the instruments will examine 
them, and will offer such suggestions of improvement as may be applicable, 
either in the present case or in Observatories for the same purpose which may 
be required hereafter. 

" Captain Blakiston of the Royal Artillery, to whom I had written to offer 
the best offices in my power towards his appointment to the charge of the 
Vancouver Island Observatory (supposing always that His Royal Highness 
the Commander-in-Chief should be favourably disposed towards the employ- 
ment of an Artillery detachment as the 'personnel' of the Observatory), 
has replied by stating his readiness to accept the charge, and to enter at once, 
on his return from his present employment, on the training required for the 
photographic work. He is the Magnetical Observer of Mr. Palliser's 
Survey Expedition on the east side of the Rocky Mountains. The Expedi- - 
tion is ordered to return to England in the next summer; consequently at 
the close of the summer Capt. Blakiston will be available for this dutv. I 
may add, in evidence of the zealous interest taken by this officer in Magnetic 
researches, that I have very recently received from him five months of hourly 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XWlll 

observation of the Declinometer, made in the winter of last year at Fort 
Carlton on the Saskatchewan, in which he has himself taken the principal 
part. I should propose to recommend as his Assistant, either at Vancouver 
Island or at Pekin, Lieut. Maunsell of the Royal Artillery, who, being an 
Undergraduate at Trinity College, Dublin, obtained his Commission two years 
since by taking a high place in the competitive examination, and is now about 
to obtain leave of absence to take his degree at Trinity College. My personal 
knowledge of this Officer is but slight, but it leads me to regard him as a 
person of much promise in scientific respects. He has placed his services 
(always presuming the approval of His Royal Highness the Commander-in- 
Chief) at my disposal for any part of the globe at which Magnetic Obser- 
vations may be required. At remote stations, such as Vancouver Island or 
Pekin, a second officer is highly expedient in the event of casualties, as well 
as for the Survey connected with the Observatory, for which the detachment 
will be well provided with instruments, whether such Survey be to be pro- 
secuted by sea or land. The Assistants at Kew, who are carrying on the 
work of the regular photographic Magnetic Observatory there, are fully com- 
petent, and would be quite ready to give the Officers and Non-Commissioned 
Officers the necessary instructions in manipulation, &c. ; and I know of no 
reason why the 'materiel' and 'personnel' of an Observatory destined 
either for Vancouver Island or Pekin, should not be ready to proceed to their 
destination in the autumn of 1859. 

" The charge which would subsequently devolve upon me, would be simply 
that of receiving and properly preserving the monthly returns containing 
duplicates of the photographic traces, and the tabulated abstracts prepared 
from them corresponding to every hour or every half-hour as might be deemed 
preferable. The arrangements which Mr. Welsh has prepared for tabulating 
from the traces, seem to leave nothing to be desired. There is nothing 
onerous in this charge, which would require only suitable presses for the 
arrangement of the papers, and the superintendence of a Non-Commissioned 
Officer acting as a Clerk under my directions. The quarterly or half-yearly 
applications from the Observatory for supplies of chemicals, &c, would be 
met through the instrumentality of the Director of the Kew Observatory, 
who is constantly requiring supplies of the same nature for the apparatus 
there. When the tabulated abstracts of the first year had been received at 
Woolwich complete, they might be passed through the same process of 
analysis for the determination of the laws of the disturbances which has been 
exemplified in the Observations of the Colonial Observatories. This has 
been worked into such a thorough system, that it would proceed with only 
the most general superintendence on my part, and would also, I consider, 
occasion no serious interruption in what would at that time be the regular 
and staple business of the Office, i. e. the reduction and coordination of the 
Naval Magnetic Surveys. The second and third years' abstracts might be simi- 
larly treated as they arrived; and lam inclined to think that I may, without 
too much presumption, look forward, please God, to the probability of my 
being myself able to give such a provisional report of the results as might be 
justified by the first three years of observation. I might also look forward, but 
of course with less confidence, to being able to derive the laws of the secular 
changes of the three elements from the absolute determinations at the expira- 
tion of the six years (if then alive and in tolerable health), which, from the 
long experience which I have had in such investigations, would be far easier 
to me than it could well be to any other person. But whatever might be the 
measure of my own competency in future years, the photographic traces of 
the tabulated abstracts, carefully preserved and arranged, would be transferred, 

J 859. c 



xxxiv REPORT — 1859. 

at the close of the series, to some place of proper deposit, where they would 
be available for those who, in years to come, will carry on the magnetic in- 
vestigations of which the value has now begun to be appreciated. 

" The comparison of simultaneous photographic records at different Obser- 
vatories will constitute a distinct work, from which, very possibly, a far more 
complete knowledge of the laws of the disturbances may be expected ; and 
for this the materials would be preserved and arranged : but the execution 
must be looked for from other hands than mine. If, as may be expected, the 
establishment of self-recording apparatus at Pekin or Vancouver Island be 
followed by the establishment of similar instruments in other places, an in- 
terchange of photographic traces might be desirable, and could be readily 
effected by little more than clerk's work. 

"I do not encumber this already long letter with remarks on the com- 
parative scientific value of Vancouver Island and Pekin as Magnetic Sta- 
tions; both are highly important; but this much is certain, that whatever 
might be the value of either, that value would be greatly enhanced — far 
more than doubled — by there being a simultaneous and continuous record 
at both Stations. It has been remarked [by Sir Charles Trevelyan] that there 
are 'other than scientific reasons' which would give a preference to Pekin. 
This remark might indeed be made in other countries ; but the establishment 
at Pekin would be unanswerably justified by the scientific importance of 
having two Stations in nearly the same latitude on the opposite shores of the 
Pacific. 

"By recent letters from the United States, I learn that the steps taken in 
this country in regard to the continuance of Magnetical investigations, 
have already produced a corresponding feeling in that country, and a desire 
that one Observatory at least, on a similar plan to that which should be 
adopted in this country, should be established somewhere on the Eastern 
Sea-bord of the United States. This would in a considerable measure fulfil 
the objects contemplated in the suggestion of Newfoundland as a Magnetic 
Station. The letters of Mr. Kingston (by which it appears that, when writing 
to Sir John Herschel on the 26th of June 1858, 1 was not thoroughly in- 
formed of the full purpose of the Canadian Legislature to maintain the 
Toronto Observatory in fullest efficiency ) may give reason to expect that, if 
the instruments for a continuous record shall be approved, the present 
differential instruments at Toronto, which are only adapted for eye-obser- 
vation, may be replaced by the contemplated ones, which are capable of both. 

(Signed) " Edward Sabine." 

"Professor Owen, 

President of the British Association." 

At a Meeting of the Council held this morning (September 14, 1859) at 
Aberdeen, the following Report was received from Sir John Herschel, Chair- 
man of the joint Committees of the Royal Society and British Association, 
appointed to endeavour to procure the continuance of Magnetical researches, 
by which the General Committee will be fully informed of the proceedings 
in this matter up to the present time, and will be able to judge what further 
steps it may be desirable to take. 

The Committee of the British Association appointed to cooperate with 
a Committee of the Royal Society, to endeavour to procure the continuance 
of the Magnetic Observations, &c, have to report progress as follows: — 

Immediately on the breaking up of the meeting at Leeds, the recom- 
mendation adopted by the General Committee of the Association, to the 
effect [" That an early communication be made of the procedure taken on 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXXV 

that occasion to His Royal Highness The Prince Consort, the President 
Elect of the British Association for the ensuing year"] was duly acted upon. 
The particulars of this communication, together with His Royal Highness's 
most gracious letter to the then President of the Association, expressive of his 
deep interest in the subject, and his readiness to afford every assistance in 
his power in facilitating the labours of that body and of the Royal Society 
towards the accomplishment of the object in view, have been communicated 
to the Council, and are recorded in the Minutes of its meeting held on Dec. 
17th, 1858. 

The Resolutions agreed to and the Report of the Committee were also, in 
pursuance of the directions of the General Committee, placed before the 
President and Council of the Royal Society, with a request for their further 
cooperation, — which, it is almost needless to state, has been most cordially 
received and acted on. 

In further compliance with the recommendations adopted by the General 
Committee, a communication was made of the Resolutions on the subject, by 
the Presidents of the Royal Society and the British Association, to the Lords 
Commissioners of the Treasury, as stated in the Minutes of the meeting of 
Council above mentioned, the immediate result being an expression of their 
Lordships' wish for a postponement of the subject for the present year. But 
on the President of the Association, pursuant to the request of the Council, 
having requested an interview with Sir C. Treveiyan, and reading to him 
the letter from the Prince Consort above mentioned, it was intimated that 
an application for a single station at Pekin, for Magnetic and Meteorological 
Observations, emanating from the joint Committee of the Royal Society and 
British Association, would find their Lordships disposed to comply with it. 
The further correspondence to which this intimation gave rise (including a 
letter from General Sabine to the President of the British Association, ex- 
planatory of the circumstances which would at all events create delays in 
the preparations for any active steps until the summer of the present year, 
arising from the time requisite to prepare the necessary instruments and other 
considerations) stands also recorded in the form of an addendum to the 
Minutes of Council of the above-mentioned date, and need not therefore 
be here repeated. 

Since these communications, the subject, so far as the action of the 
Government is concerned, remains in abeyance ; and it will be for the 
decision of the meeting of this Association now pending, whether any 
and what step should be further taken to recall its attention to the subject. 
Meanwhile, for the present no time has been hitherto lost in the preparation 
of instruments, so far as would be justifiable by the prospect of the esta- 
blishment of at least one Observatory. General Sabine reports, in a letter 
to Sir J. Herschel, dated August 29th, 1859, to the following effect: — 

"My dear Sir, — I went to Kew this morning, and I had the gratifica- 
tion of seeing the Self-recording Magnetic instruments prepared for the first 
of the proposed new observatories, in the house which had been erected for 
their examination and for the instruction of the parties who are to use them. 
Everything may now be said to be ready for the reception and instruction of 
such parties by the Assistants of the Kew Observatory. The temporary 
house is detached from the Observatory, so that parties under instruction 
will not interfere with the regular work of the Observatory instruments. 
Gas is introduced into the temporary house ; and on consulting Mr. Stewart, 
I found him of opinion that about six weeks might fully suffice for the in- 
struction of the parties both in the self-recording and in the absolute instru- 
ments (the latter are also ready, and are used in a separate house). At the 

c2 



xxxvi REPORT — 1859. 

end of the six weeks, therefore, the party might be ready to embark, taking 
their instruments away with them ; and a second set of instruments might 
then take their place for the instruction of a party for a second Observatory. 
All the arrangements contemplated in my letter* to Professor Owen of 
January 1st, 1859, are complete, so far as the Kew Observatory, Mr. Adie, 
and myself are concerned ; and we are ready to receive and send away the 
first party to their destination, whether it might be British Columbia or 
Shanghai, as soon as the Government pleases." 

(Signed) " Edward Sabine." 

The interval elapsed since the last meeting of the Association has not 
been wanting in affording proofs of the high interest taken in the subject of 
these observations in other countries. Foremost in expressions of willing 
cooperation are the leaders of public opinion on such subjects in the United 
States. By a communication from Dr. Bache (Superintendent of the United 
States Coast Survey) to General Sabine, dated June 1, it appears that he 
is ready to enter con amore into our plans, and that he has his instruments 
all ready at the Joint Smithsonian and Coast Survey Magnetic Observatory 
at Washington, and desires only to be informed what course of action shall 
be here determined on, to afford his ready and powerful cooperation. And 
by a subsequent communication of the 12th ultimo, he further reports the 
readiness of President Barnard, of the University of Oxford, Mississippi, to 
undertake, or cause to be undertaken, a series of concerted observations, 
provided a formal request (of course duly authorized) from General Sabine 
be made to that institution to such effect, such a report being necessary to 
obtain the requisite appropriation of funds from the Board of Trustees. 

The officers also of the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science have, we understand, been instructed by that body in their meeting 
at Springfield, to express to the officers of the British Association their in- 
terest in these magnetic proceedings. 

Senhor Da Silva, successor to Senhor Pegado in the direction of the 
Meteorological Observatory at Lisbon, has expressed his wish to join in 
the system of magnetic observation to be undertaken in England, an object 
which he considers might be accomplished provided the British Government 
would interest itself with the Portuguese in favour of the undertaking, and 
suggesting that in that event a Portuguese officer might be instructed at Kew 
in the use of the instruments. 

The project for the establishment of a Magnetic Observatory on the 
Eastern Sea-bord of the United States, and the determination of the Cana- 
dian Legislature to maintain the Toronto Observatory in full efficiency, are 
noticed in Colonel Sabine's letter already referred to ; and in the event of a 
British establishment at Vancouver's Island being procured in addition to 
Shanghai or Pekin, would complete, in conjunction with the existing Russian 
Observatories, and with one which might very possibly be established by 
the University of Kasan in lat. 55° 4-5' N., under the able direction of Pro- 
fessor Bolzani (who has expressed his desire to procure self-recording mag- 
netic instruments similar to those of Kew, and to adopt the proposed system 
of observations), a chain of stations in considerable north latitude, which 
would surround the Pole, and afford a connected series of most valuable 
observations. 

Though not in immediate connexion with the direct object of this Report, 
your Committee cannot refuse themselves the mention, as matters of Magnetic 
progress since the last meeting of the Association, of the completion of Mr. 

* This is the letter above alluded to as formiug part of the Minutes of Council of Deeeiu- 
er 17, 1858. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXXVII 

Welsh's Magnetic Survey of Scotland, as having led to important conclusions 
as to the nature of the changes which have taken place in the luaguetic 
system of the British Isles since 1837, — changes corroborated by a series of 
determinations at several stations along the South-western and Southern 
coasts of England, obtained by General Sabine himself in the course of the 
current year, since the re-establishment of his health has permitted his invalu- 
able services to become once more available to science. 

In concluding this Report, your Committee cannot but observe that all the 
reasons which weighed with them in recommending, jointly with the Com- 
mittee appointed by the Royal Society, the Resolutions adopted by the General 
Committee of the British Association at their meeting of last year, for the 
establishment of Observatories for an additional period of five years at the 
stations named in their last Report, appear to them to remain in full force; 
and that even supposing the idea of a station on the Falkland Isles, and even 
Newfoundland, to be relinquished, they would continue to urge, as fitting 
objects for recommendation to Government, those of Vancouver's Island and 
Shanghai. 

While nothing has occurred to weaken the general reasons adduced in that 
Report, they appear to have, in one respect, gained some degree of additional 
weight from the reappearance, during the present year, of the Solar Spots in 
great abundance, accompanied with exhibitions of auroral phenomena, and 
of an unusually hot and dry season — all in conformity with the law of period- 
icity alluded to in it as connecting, in some at present hidden and problematic 
manner, these phenomena with the magnetic disturbances. 

(For the joint Committees) J. F. W. Herschel. 

Postscript. — The following Memorandum, drawn up and communicated 
by General Sabine, containing a synoptic statement of the proceedings taken 
in respect of Magnetic Surveys at the instance or through the intervention 
of the British Association, may, in the opinion of the Committee, be very 
properly appended to this Report. 

A Memorandum regarding Magnetic Surveys wJiich have originated, or been 
promoted by the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

August 19, 1859. 

1. The first occurrence, it is believed, of a survey being undertaken for 
the express purpose of determining the positions and values of the isomag- 
netic lines of declination, dip, and force corresponding to a particular epoch 
over the whole face of a country or state, was the Magnetic Survey of the 
British Islands, executed in 1834-1838 by a committee of members of the 
British Association, acting upon an enlarged view of a suggestion brought 
before the Cambridge Meeting of the Association in 1833. The results of 
this Survey, in the determination of the isoclinal and isodynamic lines in 
Great Britain and Ireland corresponding to the epoch of January 1st, 1837, 
were published in a memoir in the Transactions of the British Association 
for 1838 ; and in the determination of the isogonic lines, in the Philsophical 
Transactions for 1849, Part II. 

2. At the Newcastle Meeting of the Association in 1838, a resolution was 
passed recommending to Her Majesty's Government the equipment of a Naval 
Expedition for the purpose of making a Magnetic Survey in the Southern 
portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and particularly in the higher 
latitudes between the meridians of New Holland and Cape Horn. This re- 
commendation, communicated to and concurred in by the Royal Society. 



xxxvlii Report — 1859. 

gave rise to the voyage of Sir James Clark Ross to the Southern and Ant- 
arctic Regions in the years 1839-1 843. The magnetical results, in the de- 
termination of the isomagnetic lines over a large portion of the southern 
hemisphere, were published in the Phil. Trans, for 1842, Art. II. ; for 1843, 
Art. X.; and 1844, Art. VII.: and one part yet remains to be completed, 
comprehending the meridians between Cape Horn and the Cape of Good 
Hope ; its publication having been deferred in consequence of the more 
pressing publications of the Colonial Observatories. 

3. A proposition for a Magnetic Survey of the British Possessions in 
North America was brought before the British Association in a Report 
published in their Transactions for 1837, and having been subsequently 
submitted to the Committee of Physics of the Royal Society, received in 
1841 the recommendation of the Royal Society to Her Majesty's Government. 
The Survey, having been authorized by the Treasury, was carried on in con- 
nexion with the Magnetic Observatory at Toronto in Canada, under the 
direction of the Superintendent of the Colonial Observatories, by Lieut. 
(since Colonel) Lefroy, R.A. The results in regard to the isoclinal and 
isodynamic lines have been published in the Phil. Trans, for 1846, Art. XVII. 
The declination observations have been reduced and coordinated with 
similar observations made in the succession of Arctic Voyages between 1818 
and 1855, in a memoir, now in preparation, which will include the British 
Possessions in North America and the countries which have been explored 
to the north of them. 

4. The Survey of Sir James Ross in 1839-1844 having left a portion of 
the magnetic lines in the southern hemisphere undetermined between the 
meridians of and 125° E., an application was made in 1844 to Her Majesty's 
Government by the Royal Society, to complete this remaining portion under 
the direction of the Superintendent of the Colonial Observatories. This was 
accomplished in 1845 by Lieut, (since Captain) T. E. L. Moore, R.N., and 
Lieut, (since Major) Henry Clerk, R.A., in a vessel hired by the Admiralty 
for the purpose, and despatched from the Cape of Good Hope. The results 
of this Survey were published in the Phil. Trans, for 1846, Art. XVIII. 

5. At the Cambridge Meeting of the British Association in 1845, a recom- 
mendation was made to the Court of Directors of the East India Company, 
that a Magnetic Survey should be made of the Indian Seas in connexion with 
the Magnetic Observatory at Singapore. This recommendation was com- 
municated to and concurred in by the Royal Society. The Survey, having 
been entrusted to Captain Elliot, of the Madras Engineers, was completed in 
1849, and the results were published in a memoir by Captain Elliot in the 
Phil. Trans, for 1851, Art. XII. 

6. A proposition for a Magnetic Survey of British India having been sub- 
mitted to the British Association, in a Report printed in the Transactions for 
1837, a scheme for the execution of such a Survey was submitted to the 
Court of Directors of the East India Company by Captain Elliot on his com- 
pletion of the Survey of the Indian Seas; and having been referred to the 
Royal Society, received their warm approbation. The Court of Directors 
having approved the scheme suggested by Captain Elliot, that officer pro- 
ceeded to India in 1852 for the purpose of carrying it into execution, but 
died shortly after his arrival at Madras, in August 1852, having but just 
commenced the operations of the Survey. 

7. In April 1853 a letter was addressed to the President of the Royal 
Society by the Prussian Minister, Chevalier Bunsen, recommending, by desire 
of His Majesty the King of Prussia, the Messrs. Schlagintweit, well known 
by their physical researches in the Eastern and Western Alps, as fitting sue- 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXXIX 

cessors to Captain Elliot in the Magnetic Survey of India. In transmitting 
Chevalier Bunsen's letter to the Court of Directors, the Royal Society took 
occasion to express their strong opinion of the importance of completing this 
Survey, and their belief of the competency of the Messrs. Schlagintweit for 
such employment. These gentlemen, having been appointed accordingly by the 
Court of Directors, and supplied with the necessary instruments, in the use 
of which they were specially instructed at the Kew Observatory, sailed for 
India in 18.55, and continued their observations through the years 1856, 1857, 
and 1858, during which they determined the magnetic elements at 69 stations 
in British India, including some stations north of the Himalayan chain. These 
observations have been prepared for publication by the Messrs. Schlagintweit, 
and the printing of the volume containing them is nearly completed. 

8. Twenty years having elapsed since the former Survey of the British 
Islands (referred to in the first paragraph) was made, the British Association 
deemed that a sufficient interval had passed to make a repetition of the 
survey desirable, with a view to the investigation of the effects of the secular 
change which the magnetic lines are known to undergo. Accordingly, at 
the Cheltenham Meeting of the Association in 1857, the same gentlemen 
who had made the Survey of 1837, and who, as it happened, were all living, 
were requested to undertake a fresh Survey. This has been for the most 
part accomplished, and the observations in England, Scotland, and Ireland 
are now undergoing the process of reduction and coordination ; and it is 
hoped that a part, if not the whole, will be completed in time to be included 
in the volume of the Transactions of the Association in 1859. 

Edward Sabine. 

b. The General Committee at Leeds having directed that application be 
made to the Sardinian Authorities for obtaining additional facilities to scien- 
tific men for pursuing their researches on the summits of the Alps, — 

The President was requested to communicate thereupon with the Marquis 
d'Azeglio, the Sardinian Minister, and the Council have now the pleasure of 
communicating the following statement from Professor Owen as the result of 
that communication : — 

" I wrote to his Excellency, the Marquis d'Azeglio, on the 3rd February ; 
and on the 4th received an acknowledgement of my letter, with the assurance 
that the subject of it would be forwarded to the competent authorities at 
Turin, accompanied by a special recommendation from his Excellency. 

" On the 17th February, 1 was favoured by a letter from the Marquis 
d'Azeglio informing me that the Minister of the Interior had been occupied 
by the preparation of new regulations on the subject of the Guides at Cha- 
mouni ; and that, in all probability, the new regulations, based upon a prin- 
ciple of wider liberty of action, would be rigorously enforced at the com- 
mencement of the summer of 1859; and that he had every reason to believe 
it would satisfy all the requirements of scientific travellers in the Piedmont- 
ese Alps. 

" I communicated this favourable reply to Professor Tyndall, and received 
the expression of his entire satisfaction in the result of the intervention of 
the British Association." 

2. The Council has been informed by a letter from Dr. A. D. Bache to 
the General Secretary, that at the Meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science, held at Springfield in August 1859, the 
officers were instructed to express to the British Association for the Advance- 



xl REPORT 1859. 

ment of Science, the warm interest which is taken in the United States of 
America in the success of the measures proposed for the continuation of 
Magnetic Observatories. Subjoined is the official communication which has 
since been received : — 

" To His Royal Highness The Prince Consort, President, and to the other 
Officers of the British Association for the Promotion of Science. 

"In accordance with the request of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, its officers beg leave to communicate the following 
resolutions : — 

Resolved, — That the American Association for the Advancement of 
Science regards with great interest the efforts making by the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, to induce the re-esta- 
blishment of the Colonial Magnetic Observatories, for a new series 
of simultaneous Magnetic and Meteorological observations. 

Resolved, — That the Officers of the Association be requested to com- 
municate this resolution to the Officers of the British Association. 

" Stephen Alexander, President. 
" Edward Hitchcock, Vice-President. 
" W. Chauvenet, General Secretary. 
" Joseph Lovering, Permanent Secretary." 
" Springfield, Mass., August 10, 1859." 

3. The Council has been informed that a deputation has been appointed, 
and will attend at Aberdeen, to invite the British Association -to hold its 
meeting for 1860 at Oxford, and that invitations will also be presented, for 
1861 and following years, from Manchester, Cambridge, and Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. 

6. The following Report was received from the Kew Committee, and was 
ordered to be entered on the Minutes. 

Rejiort of the Keiv Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1858-1859. 

It is with deep regret that the Committee have to report the decease of the 
late Superintendent of the Observatory, Mr. John Welsh, who died at Fal- 
mouth on the 12th of May, where he had removed for a short time for the 
recovery of his health. 

Mr. Welsh's position as a man of science was too well known to require 
any reference from the Committee, yet they may be permitted to refer to 
those aspects of it which have come more prominently under their view 
during the long and pleasant intercourse which has so unhappily come to an 
untimely termination. 

Mr. Welsh entered the Observatory on the 27th of August, 1850, as an 
assistant to Francis Ronalds, Esq., F.R.S., who for some years had superin- 
tended the management as the Honorary Director. Mr. Ronalds retired in 
1852 to reside on the Continent, since which time, with the exception of a 
short interval, Mr. Welsh has been the Superintendent; and the present 
efficiency and recognized scientific standing of the Observatory may be 
assumed to be in a great measure due to the zeal and remarkable ability with 
which he discharged his duties : ingenious in devising new arrangements, 
laborious and persevering in their execution, he was eminently qualified 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xli 

to direct and superintend the arrangements of a practical physical observa- 
tory. 

His knowledge of science in general, but more particularly of Meteorology 
and Magnetism, was extensive and accurate; in all branches of these sciences 
he was an eminent authority, having clear and comprehensive views, possess- 
ing also a sagacious insight into remoter possibilities. 

His zeal for science was signally displayed in the four balloon ascents 
which he undertook in 1852 with some personal risk, and from which he ob- 
tained valuable results (Phil. Trans, vol. cxliii. part 3). 

Possessed of an amiable disposition, of singular warmth of heart and sin- 
cerity of character, his loss as a friend is mourned by all the members of the 
Committee and by many members of the Association. 

The published annual Reports of the British Association, and the Trans- 
actions and Proceedings of the Royal Society, contain many valuable con- 
tributions of Mr. Welsh, and these alone would entitle him to be placed in 
the ranks of those to whom the Science of this country must ever be deeply 
indebted. 

Several gentlemen offered themselves as candidates to succeed Mr. Welsh; 
the Committee, in selecting Mr. Balfour Stewart, who was formerly his 
Assistant in the Observatory, believe they have appointed a gentleman who 
is not only competent to fulfil the duty of Superintendent, but who, from the 
experience he obtained under the direction of Mr. Welsh, is peculiarly fitted 
for the office. 

Mr. Stewart entered on his duties on the 1st of July last. He reports that he 
found all the Assistants discharging their respective duties. Mr. Chambers 
was assiduously attending to the Magnetical, and Mr. Beckley to the Mecha- 
nical Department of the Observatory. Mr. Magrath had charge of the 
Meteorological verifications, and Mr. Whipple he found of much use in the 
general work of the Observatory. 

During the past year, in the Magnetical Department, Constants have been 
determined for a Unifilar Magnetometer belonging to Dr. Pegado, of Lisbon, 
and also the temperature correction and induction coefficient for its accom- 
panying magnet. 

A Dip Circle belonging to Padre Secchi, For. Mem. R.S., and Astronomer 
at Rome, as also one belonging to Prof. Hansteen, have been compared with 
the Kew instrument, adjustments made for the determination of total force 
by Dr. Lloyd's method, and observations made at the Observatory as a base 
station. 

Temperature corrections and induction coefficients have been obtained for 
magnets R., and R fi belonging to General Sabine. 

Dr. Bergsma, of Utrecht, has received instructions in the use of Magnet- 
ical Instruments at the Observatory. 

An extensive series of dip observations, and also periodical determinations 
-of Magnetic force and declination, have been made : and a Manual of In- 
structions, for the use of the Instruments adopted for those purposes at the 
Kew Observatory, has been drawn up and printed at the expense of the 
Admiralty, by whom 250 copies have been presented to the Observatory. 

The Committee think it right to mention, that the magnetical work, the 
details of which have now been given, was executed in the absence of 
Mr. Welsh by Mr. Chambers, in a manner very creditable to his intelli- 
gence and industry, and satisfactory to the Committee. 

The Self-recording Magnetometers have continued in constant operation ; 
their instrumental coefficients were determined by Mr. Welsh. The death 
of this gentleman prevented his completing the Report called for at the last 



xlii REPORT — 1859. 

Meeting of the Association on the Self-recording Magnetical apparatus at 
the Observatory ; but the Report is in progress of completion by Mr. Stewart, 
and will be printed in the next volume of the Transactions of the Association. 

An instrument has been devised at the Observatory for tabulating the 
values of the magnetic elements from the curves given by the Magnetographs. 
As the staff of Assistants at the Observatory is not sufficiently large to under- 
take these tabulations, General Sabine has undertaken to have the results 
tabulated at Woolwich lor every hour ; but the instrument is capable of 
furnishing data for much smaller intervals, and may under special circum- 
stances be thus used. 

The observations connected with the Magnetic Survey made in Scotland 
by Mr. Welsh, are in progress of reduction by Mr. Stewart, and the result 
will be presented as a report to the present meeting. 

Self-recording Magnetic Instruments designed for the first of the Colonial 
Observatories which have been proposed to Her Majesty's Government have 
been completed by Mr. Adie, from drawings prepared by Mr. Beckley from 
the design of the late Mr. Welsh, and are set up in a wooden house erected 
near the Observatory, for the purpose of affording an opportunity to the 
proposed Magnetical observers to be instructed in the use of the Self-record- 
ing Instruments. 

Since the last meeting of the Association the unfortunate death of Mr. 
Welsh has retarded the experiments with the Photoheliograph, but from time 
to time they have been gone on with, at first by Mr. Chambers, who obtained 
some very fair results, and latterly by Mr. Beckley, as his other duties have 
permitted ; and in order that they might be prosecuted more continuously, 
the Committee have fitted up a Photographic room in close contiguity to the 
instrument. This addition to the photographic establishment has been at- 
tended with the most promising results ; and the Committee have satisfaction 
in reporting that the difficulties which have hitherto presented themselves in 
the way of a daily photographic record of the sun, appear to be almost 
entirely surmounted. Since the erection of the photographic room, Mr. 
Beckley has been enabled to make a series of experiments, and has turned 
his attention to the exact determination of the chemical focus of the Photo- 
heliograph, which there was reason to suspect did not correspond precisely 
with the visual focus ; for although the chromatic aberrations of the object- 
glass had been specially corrected in order to obtain that result, the second- 
ary glass, which magnified the image, was not so corrected. It has been 
found, after repeated trials, that the best photographic definition is obtained 
when the sensitized plate is situated from y^th to -1-th of an inch beyond the 
visual focus in the case of a 4-inch picture ; and that when this adjustment 
is made, beautiful pictures are obtained of the sun 4 inches in diameter, 
which still bear magnifying with a lens cf low power, and show considerable 
detail on the sun's surfaces besides the spots, which are well defined. 

Mr. De la Rue, by combining two pictures obtained by the Photohelio- 
graph at an interval of three days, has produced a stereoscopic image of our 
luminary which presents to the mind the idea of sphericity. 

Under Mr. De la Rue's direction, Mr. Beckley is making special experi- 
ments having for their object the determination of the kind of sensitive sur- 
face best suited for obtaining perfect pictures ; for it ha3 been found that 
the plates are more liable to stains of the various kinds, known to photo-- 
graphers, under the circumstance of exposure to intense sun-light, than they 
would be if employed in taking ordinary pictures in the camera. 

Now that the photographic apparatus has been brought to a workable 
state, Mr. De la Rue and Mr. Carrington, joint Secretaries of the Astrono- 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xliH 

mical Society, propose to devote their attention to the best means of regis- 
tering and reducing the results obtained by the instrument, provided the 
funds which may be necessary are placed at their disposal. 

The difficulties which have stood in the way of bringing the Photo- 
heliograph into an efficient state of work, were such as required no ordinary 
degree of perseverance to surmount ; and the Committee have therefore the 
greater satisfaction in reporting that these have been overcome, in so far 
as to render the Photoheliograph a valuable recording instrument:— the 
minor improvements still contemplated have for their object the production 
of pictures as free as possible from the spots and blemishes to which all 
photographs are liable, and sun pictures in particular. 

It was mentioned in the last Report that Mr. Beckley had suggested certain 
modifications of his anemometer. He was requested to prepare a descrip- 
tion of this instrument, which description was published in the last volume 
(page 306) of the Reports of the Association. 

The verifications of Meteorological Instruments have been continued on 
the usual plan. 

The following have been verified from the 1st of July 1858 to the 1st of 

August 1859:— 

Baro- Thermo- Hydro- 
meters, meters, meters. 

For the Admiralty 78 120 

For the Board of Trade 76 474 80 

For Opticians and others _33 317 12 

Total 187 911 92 

An application having been made by Colonel Sykes for the instruments 
used by Mr. Welsh in his Balloon ascents, these were got ready and their 
corrections determined. The instruments, consisting of one barometer, 
two Regnault's hygrometers with attached thermometers, eleven separate 
thermometers, three vacuum tubes obtained from Dr. Miller, and a polari- 
meter, with their respective fittings, were delivered to Colonel Sykes, and 
are now in charge of the Balloon Committee. 

On the 21st of May, 1 859, the Chairman of this Committee addressed a letter 
to the Secretary of the Admiralty, stating that by the direction of the Com- 
mittee he had been desired to acquaint the Lords of the Admiralty that the 
Austrian frigate ' Novara,' which left Europe on a voyage of circumnavi- 
gation and scientific research, was furnished with scientific instruments from 
the Kew Observatory, that her officers received instruction for their use from 
Mr. Welsh and his assistants, and that several communications had been re- 
ceived from the ' Novara.' This vessel has since arrived. 

The following correspondence has taken place between Senhor da Silva 

of Lisbon and General Sabine. 

"Lisbon, July 11th, 1859. 

" Sir, — Having succeeded Dr. Pegado in the direction of the Meteoro- 
logical Observatory at Lisbon, I shall be very happy if I can assist in, or 
promote the important operations connected with magnetism that England is 
about to undertake. 

" But previous to promising you on my part, I am desirous of knowing — 

" 1st. If it will be possible to instruct a Portuguese official at Kew. 

" 2nd. If the English Government would be disposed to interest that of 
Portugal in this scientific expedition. 

"3rd. To whom we ought to apply in order to complete our collection of 



xliv REPORT — 1859. 

Magnetic Instruments, having already an Inclinometer of Barrow, a Declino- 
meter of Jones, and a Unifilar of the same maker. 

" Finally, to solicit you to aid us with your excellent counsel, of which we 
are in want. 

" You will please pardon my having taken this liberty of addressing you, 
but wishing to serve science to the utmost of my power, I trust that you will 
favour me with your aid. 

" Accept the assurance of my high consideration and respect. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " J. A. da Silva." 

" Major- General Sabine, Woolwich" 

"13 Ashley Place, Loudon, S.W. 
" Sir, — I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter. I am authorized 
by the Committee of the Directors of the Kew Observatory to say, that it 
will give them great pleasure to afford every facility for instruction and 
practice, both in the. self-recording magnetic instruments and also in those 
designed for absolute determinations, to an officer who may be sent by you 
for that purpose ; and should you desire to have any instruments made in 
England similar to those in use at Kew, the Committee will be most happy to 
superintend their construction, verify them, and send them out. In regard 
to an application from our Government to yours, I am unable at present to 
say anything, inasmuch as the decision upon the establishment of our own 
proposed observatories will not be taken until the autumn : the restoration 
of peace is a favourable event. 

" I beg you, Sir, to be assured that it will at all times give me great 
pleasure to be of any use to your Observatory in my power. 

"I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " Edward Sabine." 
" Senhor J. A. da Silva, 

Observatorio Meteor ologico, Lisbon." 

The following Resolution was passed by the General Committee at the last 
Meeting of the Association at Leeds : — 

" That the consideration of the Kew Committee be requested to the best 
means of removing the difficulty which is now experienced by Officers pro- 
ceeding on Government Expeditions and by other Scientific travellers, in 
procuring instruments for determinations of Geographical Position, of the 
most approved portable construction, and properly verified. That the in- 
terest of Geographical Science would be materially advanced by similar 
measures being taken by the Kew Committee in respect to such Instruments, 
to those which have proved so beneficial in the case of Magnetical and 
Meteorological Instruments." 



o 



The Committee are strongly impressed with the importance of the pre- 
ceding recommendation, and would have great satisfaction in giving their 
best attention to the subject, but the works they have in hand are already 
beyond the pecuniary means placed at their disposal, and the Committee are 
unwilling to impair the credit which the Kew Observatory is obtaining by 
undertaking more than the income enables them to accomplish effectively. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xlv 

The Committee finding that in future they will not require more than one 
half of the land attached to the Observatory, for which an annual rent of 
£21 is paid, notice to that effect has been given to Mr. Fuller. 

In the last Annual Report to the Council at Leeds, the Committee sug- 
gested " that the time had arrived when strenuous exertions should be made 
to obtain such an amount of pecuniary aid as would ensure the efficient 
working of a practical physical observatory ; " and they also stated " that the 
probable future expenditure could not be fairly estimated under ^6800 per 
annum." At that time the Committee contemplated the engagement of a 
photographic assistant, and also some other arrangements which they were 
compelled to forego, as it will be seen, by the fiuancial statement annexed to 
this Report, that the expenditure of the past year exceeded the income by the 
sum of £106 2s. Id., the amount of the former being £675 14s. 8d., while 
the total income was only £569 12s. Id., £69 12s. Id. having been received 
for the verification of instruments : this source of income is year by year 
decreasing, as explained in a former Report, in consequence of the Govern- 
ment departments being now nearly supplied with standard meteorological 
instruments. 

The Committee, in presenting this Report, have to repeat their former sug- 
gestions, that means should be taken to obtain effectual pecuniary aid for the 
support of an establishment which has for so many years laboriously and 
effectually carried out those scientific objects for which it was founded, more 
particularly since the appointment of a salaried superintendent, assisted by a 
competent staff, whose individual services have always been obtained at the 
most moderate scale of remuneration. 

Kew Observatory, Aug. 29, 1859. John P. Gassiot, Chairman. 



xlvi 



BEPORT 1859. 



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REPORT OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. xlvii 

7. The Report of the Parliamentary Committee of the British Association 
to the General Committee has been received by the Council, and is herewith 
transmitted. 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Aberdeen, in September 1859. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows : — 

We have taken the opinion of Counsel on the question, whether it is ex- 
pedient to cause a Bill to be prepared to facilitate the appointment of new 
Trustees to Museums and other Scientific Institutions. 

The Opinion is appended to this Report. 

A vacancy has occurred in that division of our members who represent 
the House of Commons, by the retirement of Mr. Edward J. Cooper, of 
Markree, from Parliament. 

We cannot but deeply regret the loss of the services of a gentleman who 
has devoted a great part of his life to the successful promotion of Astrono- 
mical Science. It will also be for the General Committee to determine 
whether they will appoint another member of the House of Commons in 
the place of the Earl of Ripon, who, since his election at Leeds, has taken 
his seat in the House of Lords. This case is not in terms provided for in 
the original constitution of our Committee ; but we are of opinion that it 
was intended that no one should cease to belong to our body, as long as he 
continued a member of either House of Parliament. 

While, however, there can be little doubt that Lord Ripon continues a 
member of the Parliamentary Committee, it may still be deemed expedient 
that the representatives of the House of Commons should not be diminished 
in number; in which case there will be two vacancies to supply. We re- 
commend that Lords Enniskillen, Harrowby, and Stanley, and Mr. Stephen- 
son, who have not attended during the past two years, be re-elected. 

During the course of last year, an intention was manifested on the part of 
the Government, of greatly restricting the free distribution of scientific 
works published at the expense of the public, and of causing the works so 
undistributed to be sold at the cost price of printing and paper. 

It is unnecessary to enlarge on the very injurious moral results which would 
accrue to Science, and the insignificant pecuniary gain to the public likely 
to arise from the change in contemplation ; for we have reason to believe 
that the Government have been induced, by the representations which have 
been addressed to them, to abandon their original intention. 

Wrottesley, Chairman. 

24th August, 1859. 

The Opinion. 

The 13 and 14< Vict. c. 28, is loosely drawn, and I think many cases might 
arise in which it would be found that its provisions are inadequate ; but, as 
I understand that there is no intention of altering this Act, it is unnecessary 
to comment on it ; and I pass to the consideration of whether it is practicable 
to extend the principle of it to personal estate, other than leaseholds, which 
are included in the existing Act. 

I confess I do not see how such an enactment as is proposed would work, 
except by adding to it such conditions as would prevent its being of any 
practical convenience. The property under contemplation is, of course, 
stock in the funds and in public companies, debts, and other choses in 
action : — personal chattels, passing by delivery of possession, there is no diffi- 



xlviii report — 1859. 

culty about. Let us take the case of Stock in the Funds. A. B. and C. D., 
trustees of a Society, have £1000 Consols standing in their names. By a re- 
solution of the Society they are removed from the trusteeship, and E. F. and 
G. H. are appointed. It is proposed to enact that, thereupon, the Stock 
shall vest in E. F. and G. H. ; but, how is the Bank, which knows nothing 
about trusts, to be induced to pay the dividends to them? There must be 
something equivalent to a transfer of the Stock into their names, by direction 
of the old trustees, or of the Court of Chancery ; and I do not see that any 
plan can be devised more simple and inexpensive than the present mode of 
transfer. 

The Bank of England would certainly oppose any attempt to make them 
enter on their books that Stock is subject to any trust ; and yet, unless it 
appeared on the books that the Stock is held in trust for a Society, it would 
not be possible to make any provision for a transfer of the Stock on pro- 
duction of resolutions of the Society. 

It occurred to me, that Powers of Attorney, for transfer of Stock vested 
in trustees for Societies, might be exempted from Stamp Duty ; but, on 
consideration, I do not see how the Bank could know what powers were 
lawfully exempted, without taking notice of the trusts. 

The same objections would not apply to all other descriptions of personal 
property ; but, I presume, if the proposed alteration of the law is not appli- 
cable to Stock, it would not be thought worth while to make it with reference 
to other species of property. 

In the Literary Institutions Act, there is already a section (the 20th) as 
to the vesting of personal property ; but it does not very clearly appear how 
it would work in such cases as are above referred to. 

M.J. B. 
]5th January, 1859. 

The following letter has been received from Baron Bentinck, in relation to 
the assistance given to Dr. Bergsma at Kew Observatory : — 

" Netherlands Legation, 
London, 10th September, 1859. 

" Baron Bentinck, Minister of the Netherlands, presents his compliments to 
Major-General Edward Sabine, Vice-President of the Royal Society at Lon- 
don, and has the honour to inform him that he has been requested by his 
Government to express to Major-General E. Sabine the thanks of the Ne- 
therlands Government for the kind assistance which he has granted to Dr. P. 
A. Bergsma, when in London with a Government Mission ; and also to con- 
vey to Major-General Sabine the hopes entertained by his Government that 
he will in future time continue to aid Dr. Bergsma with his good advices. 
Baron Bentinck avails himself of this opportunity to offer to Major-General 
Sabine the assurances of his highest consideration. 

'•' Bentinck." 
" Major- General E. Sabine, 

Vice-President of the Royal Society, 
London." 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xlix 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Aberdeen Meeting in September 1859. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary of 
the Committee, except there be a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of £500 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment at Kew Observatory. 

That Professor Sullivan (of Dublin) be requested to continue his researches 
on the Solubility of Salts at Temperatures above 100° Cent., and on the 
mutual Reaction of Salts at such temperatures ; and that the sum of £30, 
which was voted last year, still remain at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Voelcker be requested to continue his investigation on 
Field Experiments and Laboratory Researches on the Essential Manuring 
Constituents of Cultivated Crops; and that the sum of £25 be placed at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Alphonse Gages be requested to continue his Mechanico-Che- 
mical Experiments on Rocks ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. R. Angus Smith, Dr. Daubeny, Dr. 
Lyon Playfair, Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, Professor Williamson, and Mr. 
Warren De la Rue, be requested to confer with the Parliamentary Committee 
with reference to the best mode of taking Scientific Evidence in Courts of 
Law ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose of 
meeting the expenses incident to the working of the Committee. 

That Mr. Robert Mallet be requested to continue his Experiments on 
Earthquake Phenomena ; and that the sum of .=€25, unexpended last year, 
be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Anderson, Professor Ramsay, 
Professor Nicol, and Mr. Page, be requested to continue the Explorations 
already begun by Dr. Anderson in the Yellow Sandstones of Dura Den ; 
and that the sum of .£20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Mr. Page, 
and Professor Ramsay, be requested to direct Mr. R. Slimon in his further 
Exploration of the Upper Silurian Strata of Lesmahagow ; and that the sum 
of £l5 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. Mac Andrew (London), Mr. G. C. 
Hyndman (Belfast), Dr. Dickie (Belfast), Mr. C. L. Stewart (London), Dr. 
Collingwood (Liverpool), Dr. Kinahan (Dublin), Mr. J. G. Jeffreys (London), 
Dr. E. P. Wright (Dublin), Mr. L. Worthey (Bristol), Mr. S. P. Woodward 
(London), Professor Allman (London), and Professor Huxley (London), be 
requested to conduct general Dredging Investigations, and printing of 
Dredging Papers ; and that the sum of ^650 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Ogilvie, Dr. Dickie, Dr. Dyce, Pro- 
fessor Nicol, and Mr. C. W. Peach, be requested to conduct Dredging In- 
vestigations on the North and East Coasts of Scotland ; and that the sum of 
£25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Kinahan, Dr. Carte, Dr. E. Per- 
cival Wright, and Professor J. Reay Greene, be requested to conduct Inves- 
tigations in Dredging Dublin Bay, and to report to the next Meeting of 
1859. d 



1 REPORT 1859. 

the Association ; and that the sum of .£15 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Daubeny and Dr. Lankester, be re- 
quested to cooperate with Professor Buckman in his Researches on the 
Growth of Plants, and to report to the next Meeting of the Association ; and 
that the sum of ^£10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor All man be requested to continue his Researches on the 
Reproductive System of the Hydroid Zoophytes ; and that the sum of ^£10 
be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. George Wilson, Sir John Herschel, 
Sir David Brewster, Professor Clerk Maxwell, Professor W. Thomson, and 
Mr. W. Pole, be requested to inquire into the Statistics of Colour-Blindness ; 
and that the sum of aSlO be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the following Members be requested to act as a Committee to con- 
tinue the inquiry into the performance of Steam-vessels, to embody the 
facts in the form now reported to the Association, and to report proceedings 
to the next Meeting ; that the attention of the Committee be also directed 
to the obtaining information respecting the performance of vessels under 
Sail, with a view to comparing the results of the two powers of Wind and 
Steam, in order to their most effective and economical combination ; that 
£150 be placed at their disposal for this purpose : — Vice- Admiral Moorsom; 
The Marquis of Stafford, M.P.; The Earl of Caithness ; Lord Dufferin ; Mr. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ; Mr. J. Scott Russell, F.R.S. ; Admiral Paris, 
C.B.; The Hon. Capt. Egerton, R.N.; Mr. W. Smith, C.E. ; Mr. J. E. 
M c Connell, C.E. ; Mr. Charles Atherton, C.E. ; Professor Rankine, LL.D.; 
Mr. J. R. Napier, C.E. ; Mr. R. Roberts, C.E. : Mr. Henry Wright to be 
Secretary. 

That Professor James Thomson (of Belfast) be requested to continue his 
Experiments on the Gauging of Water ; and that the sum of £10 be placed 
at his disposal for the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Walker, Prof. W. Thomson, 
Sir David Brewster, Dr. Sharpey, Dr. Lloyd, Colonel Sykes, General Sabine, 
and Prof. J. Forbes, be requested to report to the next Meeting at Oxford 
as to the scientific objects which may be sought for by continuing the Bal- 
loon Ascents formerly undertaken to great altitudes. 

That Mr. A. Cayley be requested to continue his Report on the Solution 
of certain Special Problems in Dynamics. 

That Dr. Dickie be requested to draw up a Report on the Flora of 
Ulster for the next Meeting of the Association. 

That Dr. Carpenter be requested to draw up a Supplemental Report on 
the Minute Structure of Shells. 

That the Committee on Patent Laws be reappointed, for the furtherance 
of the objects set forth in their Report presented to the Association at this 
Meeting. 

That a Committee, consisting of Capt. Sir E. Belcher, C.B., Mr. G. Rennie, 
F.R.S., and Mr. W. Smith, with power to add to their number, be requested 
to report on the Rise and Progress of Steam Navigation in the Port .of 
London. 

That the following Members, viz. Mr. Thomas Webster, Prof. Willis, the 
Right Hon. Joseph Napier, Mr.Tite, M.P., Mr. William Fairbairn, Mr.Thos. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OP THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. li 

Graham, and General Sabine, be appointed a Committee for the furtherance 
of the objects set forth in the Report of the Patent Committee presented 
to the Association at this meeting, and that Mr. Webster be requested to 
act as Secretary to the same. 



Involving Applications to Government or Public Institutions. 

That the thanks of the British Association be offered to H.R.H. The 
Prince Consort, as President of the Association, for the interest he has mani- 
fested in the continuation of Magnetic Observations ; and that he be re- 
quested, in concert with the President of the Royal Society, to take such 
steps as may appear most suitable to carry out the recommendation of the two 
Societies in respect to these observations. 

That an Electrometer be constructed on the principle of that described by 
Professor W. Thomson. That it be verified at Kew, and a report of its 
performance be made to the Association at its next Meeting. That Pro- 
fessor W. Thomson be requested to carry this into effect, and that he be 
authorized to communicate with the President and Council of the Royal 
Society for the purpose of obtaining their cooperation. 

The Committee of the Section of Mathematical and Physical Science 
having represented the probable importance of occasional telegraphic com- 
munication between a few widely-separated ports of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, by which warning may be given of storms, the General Committee 
recommend application to the Board of Trade for such an arrangement 
as may further this object authoritatively. 

That it is desirable that the British Association should express to Her 
Majesty's Government, through the proper authorities, its concurrence in 
the application made by the Royal Geographical Society to the First Lord of 
the Treasury, to further a proposed Expedition under Capt. Speke, to ascer- 
tain if the White Nile has its main source in the Great Nyanga Lake. 

That in addition to the large and accurate Survey now in progress on the 
North-eastern coast of China, under the direction of the Admiralty, it is de- 
sirable to have prepared, with as little delay as possible, Maps on a smaller 
scale, and extending over a larger area. 



Communications to be printed entire among the Reports. 

Mr. Atherton. — On Steam-Transport Economy. 
Mr. Fairbairn. — On Breaks for Railway Trains. 

Mr. J. Park Harrison. — On Lunar Influence upon Temperature, with 
Diagrams. 

Mr. A. Thomson — On Industrial Schools. 
Mr. De la Rue. — Celestial Photography. 
Professor Owen. — Classification of Reptiles. 



d2 



Hi REPORT— 1859. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 

General Committee at the Aberdeen Meeting in September 1859, 

with the name of the Member, ivho alone, or as the First of a Com- 
mittee, is entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory. £ s j t - 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying expenses 500 

Chemical Science. 

Sullivan, Professor. — Solubility of Salts 30 

Voelcker, Professor. — Constituents of Manures 25 

Gages, Alphonse. — Chemico-Mechanical Analysis of Rocks 25 

Smith, Dr. Angus. — Scientific Evidence in Courts of Law . . 10 

Geology. 

Mallet, Robert. — Earthquake Waves 25 

Anderson, Rev. Dr. — Excavations in Yellow Sandstone of 

Dura Den 20 

Murchison, Sir R. I. — Fossils in Upper Silurian Rocks, Les- 

mahago 15 

Zoology and Botany. 

MacAndrew, Robert. — General Dredging 50 

Ogilvie, Dr. — Dredging North and East Coasts of Scotland . 25 

Kinahan, Dr Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Daubeny, Dr Growth of Plants 10 

Physiology. 

Allman, Professor. — Report on Hydroid Zoophytes 10 

Wilson, Dr — Colour-Blindness 10 

Mechanical Science. 

Moorsom, Admiral. — Steam-Vessels' Performance 150 

Thomson, Professor J. — Discharge of Water 10 

Total 36930 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



liii 



General Statement of Sums tvhich have been paid on Account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes. 



£ i. d. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 02 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 



£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British ossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. -50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 

Rain Gauges 9 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 





















1 





3 

















(i 






£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 





13 


G 








12 











5 


3 








4 


6 








18 


6 



£918 14 6 



1838. 



Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Subterranean Temperature 8 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 

Thermometers 16 



£956 



























1 


10 


12 


10 














6 


6 








3 





S 


7 


c 











9 


5 


4 





12 


2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 IS 6 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in It.A.S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



£ s. d. 



11 


n 


4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


G 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


S 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 17 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Phaeno- 

mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnelical Observations 185 









13 


G 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


G 


1 


G 














7 












13 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



£1546 16 4 



30 



s 











7 























2 


s 








B 


G 









liv 



REPORT — 1859. 



Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

ossil Reptiles 50 

oreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals .j^ 2^ 

£1235 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race ....jj 7 

£1449 



s. d. 

5 

19 6 













1 6 
12 



18 8 





1 10 
6 8 





10 11 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 
























10 






8 6 











1 11 

9 



17 8 



Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 
Materials 60 



20 







6 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie andlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



12 
8 


16 



2 
10 


1 



7 









18 3 











6 
8 


11 



















14 10 







£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 



GENERAL. STATEMENT. 



Iv 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth* 

quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

JEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 .w. 10_ 

£981 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15^ 

£830 















17 


6 








11 



10 









10 

















3 


7 




3 




















3 


G 



12 8 



14 6 

18 11 

16 8 
11 9 



17 8 

15 





7 






14 8 



9 9 



£ 
Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York •■ 12 

£685 



3. 


d. 














16 


7 





n 


16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









16 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants .. 15_ 

£275 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 
























l 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations ... 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 



lvi 



REPORT — 1859. 



£ s. d. 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores -^_J!LJLJ. 

£345 18 

1851. ~ 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (includes part 

of grant in 1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phsenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 C 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 

1852. ™~ 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 8 
Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida.. 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 

1854. ™ ™~ 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phae- 

nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

'£380 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



575 



£ s. 

1S56. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 0"1 

1855 £500 0J 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 13 !) 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Phaeno- 

mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats ..500 

£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£618 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam Vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 





































































11 


1 



£684 11 I 



GENERAL MEETINGS. lvii 

Extracts from Eesolutiojis of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 14, at 8^ p.m., in the Music Hall, Richard Owen, 
M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst, of France, resigned the office of 
President to His Royal Highness the Prince Consort, who took the Chair 
and delivered an Address, for which see page lix. 

On Thursday Evening, Sept. 15, a Conversazione took place in the Music 
Hall. 

On Friday Evening, Sept. 16, at 8| p.m., in the Music Hall, Sir R. I. 
Murchison, G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S., V.P.R.G.S., delivered a Dis- 
course on the Geology of the Northern Highlands. 

On Monday Evening, Sept. 19, at 85 p.m., The Rev. T. Robinson, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A., delivered a Discourse on Electrical Discharges in highly 
Rarefied Media. 

On Tuesday Evening, Sept. '20, at 8\ p.m., a Conversazione took place in 
the Music Hall. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 21, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting took 
place in the Music Hall, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, 
and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the 
Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Oxford*. 
* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 27th of June, 1860. 



ADDRESS 



BY 



HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE CONSORT. 



Gentlemen of the British Association, 

Your kind invitation to me to undertake the office of your President for the 
ensuing year could not but startle me on its first announcement. The high 
position which Science occupies, the vast number of distinguished men who 
labour in her sacred cause, and whose achievements, while spreading innu- 
merable benefits, justly attract the admiration of mankind, contrasted 
strongly in my mind with the consciousness of my own insignificance in this 
respect. I, a simple admirer, and would-be student of Science, to take the 
place of the chief and spokesman of the scientific men of the day, assembled 
in furtherance of their important objects! — the thing appeared to me 
impossible. Yet, on reflection, I came to the conclusion that, if not as a 
contributor to, or director of your labours, I might still be useful to you, 
useful to Science, by accepting your offer. Remembering that this Association 
is a popular Association, not a secret confraternity of men jealously guarding 
the mysteries of their profession, but inviting the uninitiated, the public at 
large, to join them, having as one of its objects to break down those imagi- 
nary and hurtful barriers which exist between men of science and so-called 
men of practice— I felt that I could, from the peculiar position in which 
Providence has placed me in this country, appear as the representative of 
that large public, which profits by and admires your exertions, but is unable 
actively to join in them ; that my election was an act of humility on your 
part, which to reject would have looked like false humility, that is like pride, 
on mine. But I reflected further, and saw in my acceptance the means, of 
which necessarily so few are offered to Her Majesty, of testifying to you, 
through the instrumentality of her husband, that your labours are not un- 
appreciated by your Sovereign, and that she wishes her people to know this 
as well as yourselves. Guided by these reflections, my choice was speedily 
made, for the path of duty lay straight before me. 

If these, however, are the motives which have induced me to accept your 



lx REPORT — 1859. 

flattering offer of the Presidency, a request on my part is hardly necessary 
that you will receive my efforts to fulfil its duties with kind indulgence. 

If it were possible for anything to make me still more aware how much I 
stand in need of this indulgence, it is the recollection of the person whom I 
have to succeed as your President — a man of whom this country is justly 
proud, and whose name stands among the foremost of the Naturalists in 
Europe for his patience in investigation, conscientiousness in observation, 
boldness of imagination, and acuteness in reasoning. You have no doubt 
listened with pleasure to his parting address, and I beg to thank him for the 
flattering manner in which he has alluded to me in it. 

The Association meets for the first time to-day in these regions and in this 
ancient and interesting city. The Poet, in his works of fiction, has to choose, 
and anxiously to weigh, where to lay his scene, knowing that, like the 
Painter, he is thus laying in the background of his picture, which will give 
tone and colour to the whole. The stern and dry reality of life is governed 
by the same laws, and we are here living, feeling, and thinking under the 
influence of the local impressions of this northern seaport. The choice appears 
to me a good one. The travelling Philosophers have had to come far, but 
in approaching the Highlands of Scotland they meet Nature in its wild and 
primitive form, and Nature is the object of their studies. The Geologist will 
not find many novelties in yonder mountains, because he will stand there on 
the bare backbone of the globe ; but the Primary rocks, which stand out in 
their nakedness, exhibit the grandeur and beauty of their peculiar form, and 
in the splendid quarries of this neighbourhood are seen to peculiar advantage 
the closeness and hardness of their mass, and their inexhaustible supply for 
the use of man, made available by the application of new mechanical powers. 
On this primitive soil the Botanist and Zoologist will be attracted only by a 
limited range of plants and animals, but they are the very species which the 
extension of agriculture and increase of population are gradually driving out 
of many parts of the country. On those blue hills the red deer, in vast herds, 
holds undisturbed dominion over the wide heathery forest, until the sports- 
man, fatigued and unstrung by the busy life of the bustling town, invades 
the moor, to regain health and vigour by measuring his strength with that of 
the antlered monarch of the hill. But, notwithstanding all his efforts to 
overcome an antagonist possessed of such superiority of power, swiftness, 
caution, and keenness of all the senses, the sportsman would find himself 
baffled, had not Science supplied him with the telescope and those terrible 
weapons which seem daily to progress in the precision with which they 
carry the deadly bullet, mocking distance, to the mark. 

In return for the help which Science has afforded him, the sportsman can 
supply the naturalist with many facts which he alone has opportunity of- 
observing, and which may assist the solution of some interesting problems 
suggested by the life of the deer. Man also, the highest object of our study, 
is found in vigorous, healthy development, presenting a happy mixture of 



ADDRESS. 



ki 



the Celt, Goth, Saxon, and Dane, acquiring his strength on the hills and the 
sea. The Aberdeen whaler braves the icy regions of the Polar Sea, to seek 
and to battle with the great monster of the deep : he has materially assisted 
in opening these icebound regions to the researches of Science ; he fearlessly 
aided in the search after Sir John Franklin and his gallant companions, whom 
their country sent forth on this mission, but to whom Providence, alas 1 has 
denied the reward of their labours, the return to their homes, to the affec- 
tionate embrace of their families and friends, and the acknowledgments of 
a grateful nation. The City of Aberdeen itself is rich in interest for the 
Philosopher. Its two lately united Universities make it a seat of Learning 
and Science. The Collection of Antiquities, formed for the present occa- 
sion, enables him to dive into olden times, and, by contact with the re- 
mains of the handiworks of the ancient inhabitants of Scotland, to enter 
into the spirit of that peculiar and interesting people, which has always at- 
tracted the attention and touched the hearts of men accessible to the influ- 
ence of heroic poetry. The Spalding Club, founded in this City for the 
preservation of the historical and literary remains of the north-eastern 
counties of Scotland, is honourably known by its important publications. 

Gentlemen ! — This is the 29th Anniversary of the foundation of this 
Association ; and well may we look back with satisfaction to its operation 
and achievements throughout the time of its existence. When, on the 27th 
September, 1831, the Meeting of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society took 
place at York, in the theatre of the Yorkshire Museum, under the Presidency 
of the late Earl Fitzwilliam, then Viscount Milton, and the Rev. W. Vernon 
Harcourt eloquently set forth the plan for the formation of a British Asso- 
ciation for the promotion of Science, which he showed to have become a 
want for his country, the most ardent supporter of this resolution could 
not have anticipated that it would start into life full-grown as it were, enter 
at once upon its career of usefulness, and pursue it without deviation from 
the original design, triumphing over the oppositions which it had to encounter 
in common with everything that is new and claims to be useful. Gentlemen, 
this proved that the want was a real, and not an imaginary one, and that the 
mode in which it was intended to supply that want was based upon a just 
appreciation of unalterable truths. Mr. Vernon Harcourt summed up the 
desiderata in graphic words, which have almost identically been retained 
as the exposition of the objects of the Society, printed at the head of the 
annually-appearing volume of its Transactions :— " to give a stronger impulse 
and more systematic direction to scientific inquiry — to promote the inter- 
course of those who cultivate Science in different parts of the Empire, with 
one another and with foreign Philosophers— and to obtain a more general 
attention to the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a 
public kind which impede its progress." 

To define the nature of Science, to give an exact and complete definition 
of what that Science, to whose service the Association is devoted, is and 



lxii REPORT — 1859. 

means, has, as it naturally must, at all times occupied the Metaphysician. 
He has answered the question in various ways, more or less satisfactorily to 
himself or others. To me, Science, in its most general and comprehensive 
acceptation, means the knowledge of what I know, the consciousness of 
human knowledge. Hence, to know is the object of all Science ; and all 
special knowledge, if brought to our consciousness in its separate distinctive- 
ness from, and yet in its recognized relation to the totality of our knowledge, 
is scientific knowledge. We require, then, for Science — that is to say, for 
the acquisition of scientific knowledge — those two activities of our mind 
which are necessary for the acquisition of any knowledge — analysis and syn- 
thesis ; the first, to dissect and reduce into its component parts the object to 
be investigated, and to render an accurate account to ourselves of the nature 
and qualities of these parts by observation ; the second, to recompose the 
observed and understood parts into a unity in our consciousness, exactly 
answering to the object of our investigation. The labours of the man of 
Science are therefore at once the most humble and the loftiest which man 
can undertake. He only does what every little child does from its first 
awakening into life, and must do every moment of its existence ; and yet he 
aims at the gradual approximation to divine truth itself. If, then, there 
exists no difference between the work of the man of Science and that of 
the merest child, what constitutes the distinction ? Merely the conscious 
self-determination. The child observes what accident brings before it, and 
unconsciously forms its notion of it; the so-called practical man observes 
what his special work forces upon him, and he forms his notions upon it with 
reference to this particular work. The man of Science observes what he in- 
tends to observe, and knows why he intends it. The value which the peculiar 
object has in his eyes is not determined by accident, nor by an external 
cause, such as the mere connexion with work to be performed, but by the 
place which he knows this object to hold in the general universe of know- 
ledge, by the relation which it bears to other parts of that general know- 
ledge. 

To arrange and classify that universe of knowledge becomes therefore the 
first, and perhaps the most important, object and duty of Science. It is only 
when brought into a system, by separating the incongruous and combining 
those elements in which we have been enabled to discover the internal con- 
nexion which the Almighty has implanted in them, that we can hope to 
grapple with the boundlessness of His creation, and with the laws which 
govern both mind and matter. 

The operation of Science then has been, systematically to divide human 
knowledge, and raise, as it were, the separate groups of subjects for scientific 
consideration, into different and distinct sciences. The tendency to create 
new sciences is peculiarly apparent in our present age, and is perhaps inse- 
parable from so rapid a progress as we have seen in our days ; for the ac- 
quaintance with and mastering of distinct branches of knowledge enables the 



ADDRESS. 



lxiii 



eye, from the newly gained points of siglit, to see the new ramifications into 
which they divide themselves in strict consecutiveness and with logical 
necessity. But in thus gaining new centres of light, from which to direct our 
researches, and new and powerful means of adding to its ever-increasing 
treasures, Science approaches no nearer to the limits of its range, although 
travelling further and further from its original point of departure. For 
God's world is infinite; and the boundlessness of the universe, whose confines 
appear ever to retreat before our finite minds, strikes us no less with awe 
when, prying into the starry crowd of heaven, we find new worlds revealed 
to us by every increase in the power of the telescope, than when the micro- 
scope discloses to us in a drop of water, or an atom of dust, new worlds of 
life and animation, or the remains of such as have passed away. 

Whilst the tendency to push systematic investigation in every direction 
enables the individual mind of man to bring all the power of which he is 
capable to bear on the specialities of his study, and enables a greater number 
of labourers to take part in the universal work, it may be feared that that 
consciousness of its unity which must pervade the whole of Science if it is 
not to lose its last and highest point of sight, may suffer. It has occasionally 
been given to rare intellects and the highest genius, to follow the various 
sciences in their divergent roads, and yet to preserve that point of sight from 
which alone their totality can be contemplated and directed. Yet how rare 
is the appearance of such gifted intellects I and if they be found at intervals, 
they remain still single individuals, with all the imperfections of human 
nature. 

The only mode of supplying with any certainty this want, is to be sought 
in the combination of men of science representing all the specialities, and 
working together for the common object of preserving that unity and pre- 
siding over that general direction. This has been to some extent done in 
many countries by the establishment of academies embracing the whole 
range of the sciences, whether physical or metaphysical, historical or political. 
In the absence of such an institution in this country, all lovers of science 
must rejoice at the existence and activity of this Association, which embraces 
in its sphere of action, if not the whole range of the sciences, yet a very large 
and important section of them, those known as the inductive sciences, exclu- 
ding all that are not approached by the inductive method of investigation. 
It has, for instance (and, considering its peculiar organization and mode of 
action, perhaps not unwisely), eliminated from its consideration and discus- 
sions those which come under the description of moral and political sciences. 
This has not been done from undervaluing their importance and denying 
their sacred right to the special attention of mankind, but from a desire to 
deal with those subjects only which can be reduced to positive proof, and do 
not rest on opinion or faith. The subjects of the moral and political sciences 
involve not only opinions but feelings; and their discussion frequently rouses 
passions. For feelings are " subjective," as the German metaphysician has 



lxiv REPORT — 1859. 

it they are inseparable from the individual being — an attack upon them is 

felt as one upon the person itself; whilst facts are " objective " and belong to 
everybody they remain the same facts at all times and under all circum- 
stances : they can be proved ; they have to be proved, and when proved, are 
finally settled. It is with facts only that the Association deals. There may 
for a time exist differences of opinion on these also, but the process of re- 
moving them and resolving them into agreement is a different one from that 
in the moral and political sciences. These are generally approached by the 
deductive process ; but if the reasoning be ever so acute and logically 
correct, and the point of departure, which may be arbitrarily selected, is 
disputed, no agreement is possible ; whilst we proceed here by the inductive 
process, taking nothing on trust, nothing for granted, but reasoning upwards 
from the meanest fact established, and making every step sure before going 
one beyond it, like the engineer in his approaches to a fortress. We thus 
gain ultimately a roadway, a ladder by which even a child may, almost 
without knowing it, ascend to the summit of truth and obtain that immensely 
wide and extensive view which is spread below the feet of the astonished 
beholder. This road has been shown us by the great Bacon ; and who 
can contemplate the prospects which it opens, without almost falling into a 
trance similar to that in which he allowed his imagination to wander over 
future ages of discovery ! 

From amongst the political sciences it has been attempted in modern 
times to detach one which admits of being severed from individual political 
opinions, and of being reduced to abstract laws derived from well authen- 
ticated facts. I mean Political Economy, based on general statistics. A 
new Association has recently been formed, imitating our perambulating 
habits, and striving to comprehend in its investigations and discussions even 
a still more extended range of subjects, in what is called " Social Science." 
These efforts deserve our warmest approbation and good will. May they 
succeed in obtaining a purely and strictly scientific character ! Our own 
Association has, since its Meeting at Dublin, recognized the growing claims 
of Political Economy to scientific brotherhood, and admitted it into its 
Statistical Section. It could not have done so under abler guidance and 
happier auspices than the Presidency of the Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. 
Whately, whose efforts in this direction are so universally appreciated. But 
even in this Section, and whilst Statistics alone were treated in it, the Asso- 
ciation as far back as 1833 made it a rule that, in order to ensure positive 
results, only those classes of facts should be admitted which were capable 
of being expressed by numbers, and which promised, when sufficiently 
multiplied, to indicate general laws. 

If, then, the main object of Science — and I beg to be understood, hence-' 
forth, as speaking only of that Section which the Association has under its 
special care, viz. Inductive Science — if, I say, the object of science is the 
discovery of the laws which govern natural phenomena, the primary condi- 



ADDRESS. 1XV 

tion for its success is: accurate observation and collection of facts in such 
comprehensiveness and completeness as to furnish the philosopher with the 
necessary material from which to draw safe conclusions. 

Science is not of yesterday. We stand on the shoulders of past ages, and 
the amount of observations made, and facts ascertained, has been transmitted 
to us and carefully preserved in the various storehouses of science; other 
crops have been reaped, but still lie scattered on the field ; many a rich 
harvest is ripe for cutting, but waits for the reaper. Economy of labour is 
the essence of good husbandry, and no less so in the field of science. Our 
Association has felt the importance of this truth, and may well claim, as one 
of its principal merits, the constant endeavour to secure that economy. 

One of the latest undertakings of the Association has been, in conjunction 
with the Royal Society, to attempt the compilation of a classified catalogue 
of scientific memoirs, which, by combining under one head the titles of all 
memoirs written on a certain subject, will, when completed, enable the 
student who wishes to gain information on that subject to do so with the 
greatest ease. It gives him, as it were, the plan of the house, and the key 
to the different apartments in which the treasures relating to his subject are 
stored, saving him at once a painful and laborious search, and affording him 
at the same time an assurance that what is here offered contains the whole 
of the treasures yet acquired. 

While this has been one of its latest attempts, the Association has from 
its very beginning kept in view that its main sphere of usefulness lay in that 
concentrated attention to all scientific operations which a general gives to 
the movements of his army, watching and regulating the progress of his im- 
petuous soldiers in the different directions to which their ardour may have 
led them, carefully noting the gaps which may arise from their independent 
and eccentric action, and attentively observing what impediments may have 
stopped, or may threaten to stop, the progress of certain columns. 

Thus it attempts to fix and record the position and progress of the different 
labours, by its Reports on the state of Sciences published annually in its 
Transactions; — thus it directs the attention of the labourers to those gaps 
which require to be filled up, if the progress is to be a safe and steady one ; 
— thus it comes forward with a helping hand in striving to remove those im- 
pediments which the unaided efforts of the individual labourer have been or 
may be unable to overcome. 

Let us follow the activity of the Association in these three different direc- 
tions. 

The Reports on the state of Science originate in the conviction of the 
necessity for fixing, at given intervals, with accuracy and completeness, the 
position at which it has arrived. For this object the General Committee of 
the Association entrusts to distinguished individuals in the different branches 
of Science the charge of becoming, as it were, the biographers of the period. 
There are special points in different Sciences in which it sometimes appears 

1859. e 



lxvi REPORT — 1859. 

desirable to the different Sections to have special reports elaborated ; in such 
cases the General Committee, in its capacity of the representative assembly 
of all the Sciences, reserves to itself the right of judging what may be of suf- 
ficient importance to be thus recorded. 

The special subjects which the Association points out for investigation, 
in order to supply the gaps which it may have observed, are — either such as 
the philosopher alone can successfully investigate, because they require the 
close attention of a practised observer, and a thorough knowledge of the 
particular subject; or they are such as require the greatest possible number 
of facts to be obtained. Here science often stands in need of the assistance 
of the general public, and gratefully accepts any contributions offered, pro- 
vided the facts be accurately observed. In either case the Association 
points out what is to be observed, and how it is to be observed. 

The first is the result of the same careful sifting process which the Asso- 
ciation employs in directing the issue of special Reports. The investigations 
are entrusted to specially-appointed committees, or selected individuals. 
They are in most cases not unattended with considerable expense, and the 
Association, not content with merely suggesting and directing, furnishes by 
special grants the pecuniary means for defraying the outlay caused by the 
nature and extent of the inquiry. If we consider that the income of the 
Association is solely derived from the contributions of its members, the fact 
that no less a sum than £17,000 has, since its commencement, been thus 
granted for scientific purposes, is certainly most gratifying. 

The question how to observe, resolves itself into two — that of the scien- 
tific method which is to be employed in approaching a problem or in making 
an observation, and that of the philosophical instruments used in the obser- 
vation or experiment. The Association brings to bear the combined know- 
ledge and experience of the scientific men, not only of this but of other 
countries, on the discovery of that method which, while it economizes time 
and labour, promises the most accurate results. The method to which, 
after careful examination, the palm has been awarded, is then placed at the 
free disposal and use of all scientific investigators. The Association also 
issues, where practicable, printed forms, merely requiring the different heads 
to be filled up, which, by their uniformity, become an important means for 
assisting the subsequent reduction of the observations for the abstraction of 
the laws which they may indicate. 

At the same time most searching tests and inquiries are constantly carried 
on in the Observatory at Kew, given to the Association by Her Majesty, 
the object of which is practically to test the relative value of different 
methods and instruments, and to guide the constantly progressive improve- 
ments in the construction of the latter. 

The establishment at Kew has undertaken the further important service 
of verifying and correcting to a fixed standard the instruments of any maker, 
to enable observations made with them to be reduced to the same numerical 



ADDRESS. lxvii 

expression. I need hardly remind the inhabitants of Aberdeen that the 
Association, in one of the firs-t years of its existence, undertook the com- 
parative measurement of the Aberdeen standard scale with that of Green- 
wich, — a research ably carried out by the late Mr. Baily. 

The impediments to the general progress of Science, the removal of which 
I have indicated as one of the tasks which the Association has set for itself, 
are of various kinds. If they were only such as direction, advice, and en- 
couragement would enable the individual, or even combined efforts of philo- 
sophers, to overcome, the exertions of the Association which I have just 
alluded to might be sufficient for the purpose. But they are often such as 
can only be successfully dealt with by the powerful arm of the State or the 
long purse of the Nation. These impediments may be caused either by the 
social condition of the country itself, by restrictions arising out of peculiar 
laws, by the political separation of different countries, or by the magnitude 
of the undertakings being out of all proportion to the means and power of 
single individuals, of the Association, or even the voluntary efforts of the 
Public. In these cases the Association, together with its sister Society " the 
Royal Society," becomes the spokesman of Science with the Crown, the Go- 
vernment, or Parliament, — sometimes even, through the Home Government, 
with foreign Governments. Thus it obtained the establishment, by the British 
Government, of magnetic and meteorological observatories in six different 
parts of the globe, as the beginning of a network of stations which we must 
hope will be so far extended as to compass by their geographical distribution 
the whole of the phenomena which throw light on this important point in 
our tellurian and even cosmical existence. The Institute of France, at the 
recommendation of M. Arago, whose loss the scientific world must long de- 
plore, cheerfully cooperated with our Council on this occasion. It was our 
Association which, in conjunction with the Royal Society, suggested the 
Antarctic Expedition with a view to further the discovery of the laws of ter- 
restrial magnetism, and thus led to the discovery of the southern polar con- 
tinent. It urged on the Admiralty the prosecution of the tidal observations, 
which that Department has since fully carried out. It recommended the 
establishment, in the British Museum, of the conchological collection exhi- 
biting present and extinct species, which has now become an object of the 
greatest interest. 

I will not weary you by further examples, with which most of you are 
better acquainted than I am myself, but merely express my satisfaction that 
there should exist bodies of men who will bring the well-considered and un- 
derstood wants of Science before the public and the Government, who will even 
hand round the begging-box and expose themselves to refusals and rebuff's 
to which all beggars are liable, with the certainty, besides, of being consi- 
dered great bores. Please to recollect that this species of bore is a most 
useful animal, well adapted for the ends for which Nature intended him. He 
alone, by constantly returning to the charge, and repeating the same truths and 

e2 



lxviii report — 1859. 

the same requests, succeeds in awakening attention to the cause which he 
advocates, and obtains that hearing which is granted him at last for self-pro- 
tection, as the minor evil compared to his importunity, but which is requi- 
site to make his cause understood. This is more particularly the case in a 
free, active, enterprising, and self-determining people like ours, where every 
interest works for itself, considers itself the all-important one, and makes its 
way in the world by its own efforts. Is it, then, to be wondered at, that the 
interests of Science, abstract as Science appears, and not immediately show- 
ing a return in pounds, shillings, and pence, should be postponed, at least, to 
others which promise immediate tangible results ? Is it to be wondered at, that 
even our public men require an effort to wean themselves from other subjects 
in order to give their attention to Science and men of Science, when it is 
remembered that Science, with the exception of Mathematics, was until of 
late almost systematically excluded from our school and university education ; 
— that the traditions of early life are those which make and leave the strongest 
impression on the human mind, and that the subjects with which we become 
acquainted, and to which our energies are devoted in youth, are those for 
which we retain the liveliest interest in after years, and that for these reasons 
the effort required must be both a mental and a moral one ? A deep debt of 
gratitude is therefore due to bodies like this Association, which not only 
urges the wants of Science on the Government, but furnishes it at once with 
well-matured plans how to supply them with the greatest certainty and to 
the greatest public advantage. 

We may be justified in hoping, however, that by the gradual diffusion of 
Science, and its increasing recognition as a principal part of our national 
education, the public in general, no less than the Legislature and the State, 
will more and more recognize the claims of Science to their attention ; so 
that it may no longer require the begging-box, but speak to the State, like a 
favoured child to its parent, sure of his parental solicitude for its welfare ; 
that the State will recognize in Science one of its elements of strength and 
prosperity, to foster which the clearest dictates of self-interest demand. 

If the activity of this Association, such as I have endeavoured to describe 
it, ever found or could find its personification in one individual — its incar- 
nation, as it were — this had been found in that distinguished and revered phi- 
losopher who has been removed from amongst us in his ninetieth year, within 
these last few months. Alexander von Humboldt incessantly strove after do- 
minion over that universality of human knowledge which stands in need of 
thoughtful government and direction to preserve its integrity ; he strove to 
tie up the fasces of scientific knowledge, to give them strength in unity. He 
treated all scientific men as members of one family, enthusiastically directing, 
fostering, and encouraging inquiry, where he saw either the want of, or the 
willingness for it. His protection of the young and ardent student led many 
to success in their pursuit. His personal influence with the Courts and 
Governments of most countries in Europe enabled him to plead the cause of 



ADDRESS. 



lxix 



Science in a manner which made it. more difficult for them to refuse than to 
grant what he requested. All lovers of science deeply mourn for the loss of 
such a man. Gentlemen, it is a singular coincidence, that this very day on 
which we are here assembled, and are thus giving expression to our admira- 
tion of him, should be the anniversary of his birth. 

To return to ourselves, however : one part of the functions of the Associa- 
tion can receive no personal representation, no incarnation : I mean the very 
fact of meetings like that which we are at present inaugurating. This is not 
the thoughtful direction of one mind over acquired knowledge, but the pro- 
duction of new thought by the contact of many minds, as the spark is pro- 
duced by the friction of flint and steel ; it is not the action of the monarchy 
of a paternal Government, but the republican activity of the Roman Forum. 
These meetings draw forth the philosopher from the hidden recesses of his 
study, call in the wanderer over the field of science to meet his brethren, to 
lay before them the results of his labours, to set forth the deductions at which 
he has arrived, to ask for their examination, to maintain in the combat of 
debate the truth of his positions and the accuracy of his observations. These 
Meetings, unlike those of any other Society, throw open the arena to the cul- 
tivators of all sciences, to their mutual advantage : the Geologist learns from 
the Chemist that there are problems for which he had no clue, but which 
that science can solve for him ; the Geographer receives light from the Natu- 
ralist, the Astronomer from the Physicist anil Engineer, and so on. And all 
find a field upon which to meet the public at large, invite them to listen to 
their Reports and even to take part in their discussions, — show to them that 
Philosophers are not vain theorists, but essentially men of practice — not con- 
ceited pedants, wrapped up in their own mysterious importance, but humble 
inquirers after truth, proud only of what they may have achieved or won for 
the general use of man. Neither are they daring and presumptuous unbe- 
lievers — a character which ignorance has sometimes affixed to them — who 
would, like the Titans, storm heaven by placing mountain upon mountain, 
till hurled down from the height attained, by the terrible thunders of outraged 
Jove; but rather the pious pilgrims to the Holy Land, who toil on in search 
of the sacred shrine, in search of truth— God's truth — God's laws as mani- 
fested in His works, in His creation. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 

Illustrative of Mr. Norman Pogson's paper on three variable stars, R & S, 
Ursae Majoris, and U Geminorum, as observed consecutively for six 
years. 

PLATE II. 

Illustrative of Mr. J. Park Harrison's paper on Lunar Influence on the 
Temperature of the Air. 

PLATES III. IV. and V. 

Illustrative of Mr. Balfour Stewart's paper on the Construction of the Self- 
recording Magnetographs at present in operation at the Kew Observatory. 

PLATES VI. and VII. 

Illustrative of Mr. Balfour Stewart's paper on the Magnetic Survey of Scot- 
land in the years 1857 and 1858, undertaken at the request of the 
British Association, by the late Mr. John Welsh. 



ERRATA. 

Page 4, line 10 from top, for Bayer read Bayer. 

Page 4, line 11 from bottom, for Bayer read Bayer. 

Page 6, note, for hyposulphuric acid read hyposulphurous acid. 

Page 13, line 10 from top, for C 2 H 18 N 2 read C 21 H 18 N 2 . 

Page 14, line 8 from top, for glycocolt read glycocol. 

Page 17, line 4 from bottom, for 3 Cl 2 Zn read 3 ClZn. 

Page 20, lines 6, 7 and 8 from top, for (ethylene, .... naphtaline, &c., by the action 

simpler constitution. Synthesis of organic compounds)^ read (ethylene, .... 
naphtaline, &c.) by the action of heat on organic substances of simpler constitu- 
tion : synthesis of organic compounds t. 

Page 20, line 11 from bottom, for Chloracetyl read Chloride of acetyl. 

Page 22, last line, for 0=16 and for 2 =16 read 0=16 and 2 =16. 

In the list of tribes, page 95, for Shopa read Lhopa ; for Bagnath read Bagmati. 

Page 99, for Shopa read Lhopa. 

Page 100, for Bagnath read Bagmati. 

Page 100, for Symbhunath Tribe (Hill-man, probably Thibetan) read Hill-man, probably 
Thibetan, obtained at Sambhunath. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Preliminary Report on the Recent Progress and Present State of Or- 
ganic Chemistry. By George C. Foster, B.A., F.C.S., Late As- 
sistant in the Laboratory of University College, London. 

The late Mr. J. F. W. Johnston presented to the Second Meeting of this 
Association, held at Oxford in 1852, a " Report on the Recent Progress and 
Present State of Chemical Science." This Report included both Organic and 
Inorganic Chemistry, but no subsequent Report exists in which the progress 
of Organic Chemistry, as a whole, is discussed. It therefore seemed advi- 
sable to take the year 1832 as the starting-point of the Report, the preparation 
of which was entrusted to Dr.Odling and myself, at the Meeting in Leeds 
last year. On commencing the task, we found that a satisfactory account of 
the progress of organic chemistry, since that date, would be little else than 
a tolerably complete history of that branch of science. Believing that such 
a historical account would be of great value, we made some progress in 
its preparation. Those, however, who have the greatest acquaintance with 
the subject, will be the readiest to believe that it was utterly impossible for 
us to bring such a Report to anything like a state of completeness in time for 
the present Meeting. We thought, however, that such a general preliminary 
account as we might be able to give, of some of the most recent discoveries, 
illustrating some of the ideas most lately introduced into the science, might 
perhaps have both interest and utility. 

In the following pages, therefore, in which such a general account is at- 
tempted, historical completeness has not been aimed at ; the object has been 
rather to place in a clear light the real nature and tendency of some of the 
most important theoretical views which are now taking a place in the science. 

The reconciling of the theory of types with the theory of compound radi- 
cles, which resulted from the discovery of the compound ammonias by Wurtz 
and Hofmann, and the discovery of the mixed ethers (or ethers containing 
two distinct alcohol-radicles) by Williamson, prepared the way for Gerhardt's 
classification of chemical substances according to types of double decompo- 
sition. The system of ideas, of which we may regard this classification as 
an epitome, has exerted so great an influence on the progress of theoretical 
chemistry during the last seven or eight years, that it becomes an essential 
part of a survey like the present to cousider what parts of it have been 
modified or confirmed by recent discoveries. 

1859. „ b 

/ 



2 REPORT 1859. 

Gerhard t's classification, like every classification which rests on chemical 
principles, was a system of rational formula. It is very important, there- 
tore, for our present purpose, to understand clearly at the outset what his 
formulae were intended to express. As he constantly repeated, they were 
not attempts to represent the arrangement of the atoms of chemical com- 
pounds, but to represent the groups or atoms, which, in the double decom- 
positions by which compounds are formed or destroyed, replace, or are re- 
placed by, other groups or atoms. His types were selected as being the 
simplest or best known bodies which could be the agents or products of 
double decompositions similar to those of the substances classified as deri- 
ving from them. Gerhardt's formulae are, therefore, in the strictest sense 
chemical, and, as such, ought to be clearly distinguished from formulae 
which are intended to express the molecular arrangement of compounds, 
formulae which, speaking strictly, are physical, not chemical. The nature 
and importance of the distinction to which we refer will perhaps be made 
clearer if we recall to the recollection of the Section a recent instance in 
which it appears to have been overlooked by one of the ablest of living che- 
mists. Gerhardt had given two different formulae for aldehyde, namely, 

P 2 H 3 1 
C 2 H 3 O. H and „ I O, each of which expresses accurately the chemical 

nature of aldehyde in relation to a particular set of reactions. Kopp, 
however, found that the specific gravity of aldehyde, calculated from the 
formula C 2 H 3 O.H, according to a rule which he had deduced from the 
examination of a considerable number of substances, agreed with the specific 
gravity found by experiment, but that the specific gravity calculated from 

C 12 IT 3 1 

the formula „ [ O did not agree with experiment. He therefore con- 
cluded that the first formula was more accurate than the second. Assuming 
that the rule we have referred to was founded on a sufficient num- 
ber of accurate observations, such a conclusion would doubtless be correct, 
were the formula? intended as expressions of the molecular constitution of 
aldehyde so long as it remains such, that is to say, so long as its chemical 
characters do not come into account; but the facts in question have no bear- 
ing on the relative accuracy of formulae which have reference solely to the 
reactions by which aldehyde can be formed or decomposed*. 

The idea of polyatomic radicles and molecules naturally arose out of the 
attempt to represent polybasic acids according to types of decomposition. 
The first chemist who used formulae expressing the replacement of more 
than one atom of hydrogen by a single atom of a compound radicle was 
Professor Williamsonf . The views which he had expressed were extended, 
and the expression of them in chemical formulae greatly facilitated, by the 
introduction, by Dr. OdlingJ, of a special mode of notation. But the most 
numerous and most remarkable examples of polyatomic compounds hitherto 
known, have been furnished by the researches of Berthelot§ and of Wurtz||. 

In order to explain the nature of polyatomic compounds and the meaning 

of polyatomic formulae, we cannot take a better illustration than the formula 

fC 3 H 5 V" 1 
for glycerine proposed by Wurtz^l, tt3^ \ O 3 . This formula represents 

glycerine as deriving from three atoms of water by the substitution of the in- 
divisible triatomic radicle C 3 H 5 for three atoms of hydrogen ; that is to say, 
as a hydrate, but a hydrate which differs from ordinary hydrates, just as 

* Comp. Kekule, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvi. 147, note. 

t Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. iv. 350. $ Ibid. vii. 1. 

§ Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xli. 2] 6. || Ibid. Iv. 400. 1f Ibid, xliii. 493. 



ON THE STATE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 3 

a terchloride differs from a protochloride. Thus a protohydrate, alcohol, 

C 2 H 5 1 

„ O, for example, is converted into a chloride by the action of one 

atom of hydrochloric acid, one atom of water being at the same time elimi- 
nated, — 

C H }o + HCl-H 2 = C 2 H 5 Cl, 

Alcohol. Chloride of ethyl. 

and cannot then be any further acted on in the same way. 

Glycerine is similarly converted into a chloride, with elimination of an 
atom of water, by the action of one atom of hydrochloric acid, 

° 3 H 3 } ° 3 + H Cl-H 2 0=C 3 H 7 2 CI ; 

Glycerine. Monochlorhydrin. 

but the product in this case can again produce the same reaction with a 
second, and even with a third atom of hydrochloric acid : — 

C 3 H 7 O 2 Cl+H Cl-H 2 0=C 3 H 6 O CI 2 

Monochlorhydrin. Dichlorhydrin. 

C 3 H 6 O CI + H Cl-H 2 0=C 3 H 5 CI 3 

Dichlorhydrin . Trichlorhy drin. 

And iu general terms, we may express the difference between a polyatomic 
body and a monatomic body, deriving from the same type, by saying that, 
with the same reagent, both produce similar reactions, but that a greater 
quantity of the reagent (two, three, or four times as much, according as the 
substance is di-, tri-, or tetratamic) is required to react to the greatest pos- 
sible extent with the polyatomic body than with the monatomic body. 

The consideration of the following and similar series of bodies — 

CH 4 Marsh-gas, 

C H 3 CI Chloride of methyl, 

C H 2 CI 2 Chloride of methylene, 

C H CI 3 Chloroform, 

C CI 4 Bichloride of carbon, 

throws great light upon the mutual relations of monatomic and polyatomic 
substances. The second term of the series is a monatomic chloride ; it re- 
acts with one atom, but not with more, of potash, ammonia, &c. The third 
is a diatomic* chloride, the fourth a triatomic f chloride, and the fifth a te- 
tratomic 4 ; chloride. The radicles which these four chlorides respectively 
contain are (CH 3 )', (CH 2 )", (CH)'", and (C) iv , all formed from marsh-gas 
(C H 4 ), the first term of the series, by the removal of hydrogen ; and the 
number of atoms of hydrogen which must be removed to form each radicle 
denotes the atomic value of that radicle. In other words, chloride of methyl, 
CH 3 CI, can, under a variety of conditions, part with its chlorine in exchange 
for other substances, whilst its carbon and hydrogen remain in unaltered 
combination, having the characters of a monatomic radicle. But, under cer- 
tain other conditions, chloride of methyl can exchange one-third, two-thirds, 
or even the whole of its hydrogen against an equivalent quantity of chlorine ; 
and the compounds which are formed, containing C H 2 CI 2 , C HCl 3 , and C CI 4 , 

* No reactions corresponding to this view of chloride of methylene are yet known, hut 
the analogy of iodide of methylene (Comp. Buttlerow, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3 J liii. 313) is 
sufficient for our present purpose. 

t Comp. Kay, Chein. Soc. Quart. Journ. vii. 224 ; Hofmann, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 229. 

j Comp. Hofmann, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 284. 

b2 



4 REPORT 1859. 

can in their turn take up other substances in exchange for their chlorine, 
while the remainder of their elements (carbon, or carbon and hydrogen) 
pass into new compounds with the properties of polyatomic radicles. 

These relations may be stated still more generally as follows : — compounds 
formed upon the molecular type CH 4 are either incapable of undergoing 
double decomposition, or are monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or tetratomic, 
according to the number of atoms of hydrogen which are replaced, and to the 
nature of the substance by which it is replaced*. 

A remarkable instance of a series of compounds presenting precisely 
similar relations has recently been pointed out by Bayerf, in his researches 
upon the compounds of methyl with arsenic. 

If we now consider some of' the most important reactions by which com- 
pounds are converted into others of greater atomic value, we shall find that 
in almost all cases the process is essentially the same as in those already 
referred to. 

1. Acetic acid, C 2 H 4 O 2 , which in most of its reactions behaves as a 
monatomic hydrate, is converted by the action of chlorine into chloracetic 
acid J, C 2 H 3 CI O 2 . This substance can easily be made to part with its 
chlorine and to take up in its place other elements. For instance, when 
heated with an alkaline hydrate, it exchanges its chlorine against an atom of 
hydrogen and an atom of oxygen, thus — 

C 2 H 3 CI 2 + KHO = C 2 H l 3 + KCl, 

Chloracetic acid. Glycolic acid. 

giving rise to an alkaline chloride and a biatomic acid, glycolic acid§. 
Again, chloracetic acid is decomposed by ammonia into hydrochloric acid 
and glycocol||, also a biatomic substance: — 

C 2 H 3 C10 2 + H 3 N=C 2 H 5 N0 2 + HC1. 

Chloracetic acid. Glycocol. 

In these two cases it admits of question whether the change from a mon- 
atomic to a diatomic compound takes place when the acetic acid is converted 
into chloracetic acid, or in the subsequent metamorphosis of the latter body. 
But at whatever stage of the process the change occurs, it is essentially the 
same, and consists in the replacement of an atom which, in ordinary double 
decompositions, acts as a constituent part of the radicle of the acid, by an 
atom or group which, in similar circumstances, acts as though it were ex- 
ternal to the radicle. 

2. Chloride of kakodyl, As Me 2 CI, is a monatomic chloride, but, acted 
upon by chlorine at the temperature of 40° to 50° C, it is converted into 
bichloride of arsenmonomethyl, As Me CI 2 , a diatomic chloride (Bayer). 
Here, again, the change may be described as the replacement of an atom 
(methyl) which is inactive with regard to double decompositions, by an 
atom (chlorine) which is active. 

3. An increase in the quantity of oxygen contained in a compound gene- 
rally increases its atomic value. An instance of this has already been re- 
ferred to in the case of acetic and glycolic acids. We may mention as 
further examples — 

Alcohol C 2 H 6 O Tritylic alcohol. . C 3 H s O Monatomic. 

Glvcol C 2 H 6 2 Tritylic glycol . . C 3 H 8 2 Diatomic. 

Ethyl-glycerine(?) C 2 H 6 3 Glycerine C 3 H 8 3 Triatomic. 

* Comp. Odling, Journ.Roy. Instit., March 16th, 1855. 

t Ann. Chem. Pharni. cv. 265 ; more fully, cvii. 257. 

t R. Hoffmann, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cii. 1. § Kekule, ibid. cv. 286. 

|| Cahours, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] liii. 355. 



ON THE STATE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 5 

4. The conversion of benzoic, toluylic, cuminic, and anisic acids into the 
so-called benzamic, toluamic, cuminamic, and anisamic acids is a change 
equivalent to that of acetic acid into glycocol,and is therefore the change of 
a monatomic into a diatomic substance. We shall return hereafter to the 
consideration of the formulas of glycocol and its analogues. 

The following are examples of the transformation of polyatomic into mon- 
atomic compounds : — 

1. Lactic acid, C 3 H 6 3 (diatomic), reacts with pentachloride of phos- 
phorus, giving chloride of lactyl*, C 3 H 4 0C1 2 . Chloride of lactyl is decora- 
posed by water into hydrochloric and chloro-propionicf acids, — 

C 3 H 4 0C1 2 + H 2 0=C 3 H 5 2 C1+HC1, 

Chloride of lactyl. Chloropropionic 

acid. 

and chloropropionic acid is converted by nascent hydrogen into propionic 

acid (monatomic). This transformation of lactic into propionic acid is 

evidently the converse of the transformation of acetic into glycolic acid 

which is mentioned above. 

2. By similar reactions, salicylic acid, C 7 H 6 3 (diatomic), is converted 
into chloride of salicyl, C 7 H*OCl 2 , and into chlorobenzoicj acid, C 7 H 5 2 C1. 

3. The action of iodide of phosphorus on glycerine, C 3 H s O 3 (triatomic), 
gives iodopropylene, C 3 H 5 1, from which allylic alcohol, C 3 H 6 O (monato- 
mic), can be easily obtained. 

Typical formulas being representations of reactions, it follows that if a sub- 
stance affords two or more distinct kinds of reactions, either of formation or 
of decomposition, it may be consistently represented by formulae deriving 
from a corresponding number' of distinct types. 

Benzamide is a substance of this nature. Its formation by the reaction of 
chloride of benzoyle, or of benzoate of ethyl, upon ammonia, its decomposi- 
tion by alkaline hydrates, and many other reactions, all characterize it as de- 
riving from the type ammonia ; accordingly it is commonly represented by 
the formula 

C 7 H 5 O } 
H VN. 
H J 
But when acted upon by pentachloride of phosphorus, it is decomposed pre- 
cisely as though it derived from the type water, and gives rise to the chloride 
of a radicle containing nitrogen, chloride of benzamidyl%, C 7 H 6 NCI. The 
rational formula of benzamide which results from this reaction is 

C 7 H° N 1 HI 

tt \ O, deriving from the type tt \ O. 

The substance described by Williamson |] as chlorohydrated sulphuric acid, 
S H O 3 CI, may, in like manner, be represented either as a chloride or as a 
hydrate. Represented as a chloride^, it takes its place in the following series 
of compounds containing the same radicle : — 

Chloride S H 0\ CI, Chlorohydrated sulphuric acid. 



Hydrate .... S ^ ° 3 1 O, Sulphuric acid. 



* Wurtz, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvii. 194. 

t Ulrich, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cix. 268 ; Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. xii. 23. 

% Chiozza, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xxxvi. 102. 

§ Gerhardt, Traite de Chimie Organique, iv. 762 ; Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xlvi. 172. 

|| Proc. Roy. Soc. vii. 11. U Comp. Schiff, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cii. 144. 



6 



REPORT — 1859. 



Potassium-salt „ [ O, Acid sulphate of potassium. 

S H O 3 1 
Ether f 2 H 5 \ ®' Sulphovinic acid. 

SHO 3 ] 

Amide H J- N, Sulphamic acid. 

H J 
Represented as a hydrate, it becomes „ O, 

ing series: — 



and enters into the follow- 



Chloride .... S CI O 2 , CI, Chlorosulphuric acid. 
SCIO 2 



Hydrate 



Potassium-salt 



H 



O, Chlorohydrated sulphuric acid. 



S CI O 2 

tt [• O, Rose's sulphate of chloride of potassium. 



Ether. 



SCIO 2 
C 2 H 5 



O, Chlorethylated sulphuric acid*. 



But the rational formula which Williamson gave for his compound was 
neither of these, but a combination of them into one ; namely, 

Cl } 

so 2 ; 

This formula represents a substance at once a hydrate and a chloride, formed 

en 

IT f 

from the double type j, { the two atoms of which are held together by 



H 



O, 



the diatomic radicle S O 2 replacing one atom hydrogen in each. It is obvious 
that a substance so constituted would react either as a chloride or as a hy- 
drate, according to the nature of the substances with which it was brought 
in contact. 

Until the discovery of chlorohydrated sulphuric acid, the idea of poly- 
atomic radicles was confined to the replacement of two or more atoms of 
hydrogen in one or more molecules of a single typical substance. The 
notion of mixed types, of which this substance afforded the earliestf illustra- 
tion, has been applied by KekuleJ, with remarkable ability, to explain the 
constitution of a great number of highly complex substances. 

Every substance which can be represented by a formula deriving from a 
mixed type may also be represented by two or more formulae, each deriving 
from a simple type, but containing a comparatively complex radicle. In all 
cases the choice is open between complex types with simple radicles, and 
simple types with complex radicles §. 

* R. Williamson, Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. x. 97. 

t Odling, in a paper already quoted (Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. vii.), represented hyposul- 

\ S U2C ") 

phuric acid as SO 2 deriving from the type ,, 2 q >-, which, however, may be regarded 
H /" J 

a mere variation of the type H2 n f • 

* Ann. Chem. Pharm. civ. 129. § Comp. Kopp, Jahresber. 1857, 271. 



as 



ON THE STATE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 7 

We may illustrate this by reference to a substance which has been men- 
tioned above ; namely, benzamide. We have shown how, according to the 
particular reactions which we take into consideration, benzamide may be re- 

C 7 H 5 01 C 7 H°N1 

garded either as a nitride or as an oxide ; as H V N, or as H j O. 

Both of these formulae derive from very simple types, but each contains a 
somewhat complex radicle,— a radicle containing three different elements. 
If, however, we combine these two expressions, and, by means of a^poly- 

atomic radicle, represent benzamide as deriving from the mixed type jp q J > 

H } N 
we obtain the formula (C 7 H 5 )"' . 

H }0 

This is a more general expression than either of the other two, for it gives 
us even more information as to the possible transformations and derivatives 
of benzamide than both of them taken together. Corresponding formulae 
for the other members of the benzoic group may be obtained from it by 
supposing the water or ammonia of the type replaced by other molecules. 
For example : — 



Benzoic acid 



(C 7 H 5 )'"01 [h}°, 
H O/' type LH| 

Chloride of benzoyl (C 7 H 5 )'" { £ l , type [^ q, 



H }N fH [ N 

Chloride of benzamidyl (C 7 H 5 )"' j , type H J , 

CI 
H 1 

Unknown analogue of acediamine ^ H J 1 , type L-H ~\ , 

H '* Jj} N 

Product of the action of pen- 1 f CI TH CI 

tachloride of phosphorus L . (C 7 H 5 )"' j CI, type | H CI, 

on chloride of benzoyl*. . J [ CI lH CI 

Benzonitrile (C 7 H 5 )'" N, type H 3 N. 

In all cases, formulas derived from complex types and containing simple 
radicles, are of a higher degree of generality than formula- derived from 
simple types and containing complex radicles. This will become evident 
if we consider a little the real import of types and radicles. It is clear, in 
the first place, that a formula derived from a single molecule of any given 
type, only tells us that the body which it represents can undergo once over 
the decompositions which characterize that particular type. If we want to 
express that it can undergo the same decomposition twice or three times, we 
must represent it as deriving from two, or from three molecules of the same 
type. Or, if we want to express that it can undergo decompositions of two 

* Schischkoff &.Rosing, Compt. Rend. xlvi. 367 ; Jahresber. 1858, 279. 



8 REPORT — 1859. 

or more distinct kinds, we must give to it a formula derived from the com- 
bination of the types corresponding to the decompositions in question ; that 
is to say, the more numerous are the reactions which we take into account it) 
constructing the rational formula of any substance, the more complex must 
be the type from which that formula is derived. Secondly, it is obvious that 
complication of type involves simplification of radicles ; for in any com- 
pound, the greater the number of atoms which are regarded as belonging to 
the type, the smaller the number left to constitute the radicle. 

We see therefore that rational formulae of the highest possible degree of 
generality would contain radicles of the greatest possible degree of simplicity ; 
that is, consisting of single atoms of the elementary bodies. And in the case 
of every compound of which our knowledge is extensive enough for us to be 
able to trace, through a series of reactions which affect it more and more 
deeply, the successive separation of all its atoms, one from another, or the 
process of the recombination of these atoms into the original compound, the 
rational formula, which would express the sum of our knowledge respecting 
it, would actually take the form we have mentioned. 

In illustration of these remarks, we may consider briefly the known reac- 
tions of acetic acid, and the way in which they may be expressed by rational 
formute. 

1. The relation of acetic acid to the acetates shows that it contains an 
atom of hydrogen which can be separated from the other atoms. The rational 
formula expressing this is 

C 2 H 3 O 2 . H. 

2. In the decomposition of acetic acid by pentachloride of phosphorus, 
and by pentasulphide of phosphorus, as well as in its conversion into aceta- 
mide, one half of its oxygen is separated from it. Considering this result in 
connexion with the formula deduced in (1), we obtain the formula 

C 2 H 3 O.H.O, or C2 JJ 3 °0; 

which expresses that an atom of hydrogen, or an atom of oxygen, or both 
together, may be separated from acetic acid, while the rest of its atoms remain 
combined. 

3. Acediamine, C 2 H G N 2 *, acetonitrile, C 2 H 3 N, and the substance 
C 2 H 3 C1 3 (formerly terchloride of acetyl, but now without a name), are 
derivatives of acetic acid in which it is represented by the triatomic radicle 
C 2 H 3 . Hence the last formula must be replaced by 

(C 2 H 3 )'"0 . . , , ... H 2 01 
v HO' derived from the type h 2 O l ' 

4. There are many reactions in which a compound belonging to the car- 
bonic group and one belonging to the methylic group are formed simul- 
taneously from acetic acid or one of its derivatives, or in which an acetic 
compound is formed synthetically from a compound of the carbonic group 
and one of the methylic group. We may mention — 

(A) of decompositions, the formation of a carbonate and acetone by 
the distillation of an alkaline acetate by itself, or of a carbonate and 
marsh-gas when it is distilled with an alkaline hydrate ; the electrolytic 
decomposition of acetic acid ; the formation of kakodyle ; the produc- 
tion of disulphometholic acid and carbonic anhydride by the action of 
fuming sulphuric acid on acetonitrilef ; the decomposition of glycocol 

* Strecker, Ann. Chem. Pharm. ciii. 328. 

t Buckton and Hofmann, Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. ix. 243 j Ann. Chem. Pharm. c. 133. 



ON THE STATE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 



when distilled with baryta, into methylamine and carbonate of ba- 



rium" 



(B) of formations, the production of acetate of souium from so- 
dium-methyl and carbonic anhydride f ; of acetonitrile from iodide of 
methyl or methyl-sulphate of potassium and cyanide of potassium. 
To indicate the possibility of these reactions, we must break up the radicle 
C" H\ contained in the last formula, into C.CH 3 . The formula of acetic 
acid will then be 

CH ] 

(cy- 



derived from the type 




by the replacement of one atom of hydro- 



gen in the type H H by the monatomic radicle C H 3 , and the replacement 
of the other atom together with all the hydrogen of one atom H 2 0, and half 
the hydrogen in the second atom H 2 0, by the tetratomic radicle (C) iv . 

5. The addition of one atom oxygen to the molecule of acetic acid has 
the effect of rendering a second atom of hydrogen (see 1) separable from 
the rest (production of glycolide, action of pentachloride of phosphorus) J. 
We can express this by the formula 

H}(CH 2 )" 
(C) iv { }0 

derived from the type 




The addition of one atom oxygen to this formula would convert one of 
the molecules of H H in the type into H*0. The formula of glycolic acid, 
the substance formed by combining acetic acid with an atom of oxygen, 
would therefore be 

O 

HH 




derived from 



HH-l 

Jhh-I 



H 

H 

LH 

H 



0. 



* Cahours, Ann. Chim. Phvs. (3) liii. 353. t Wanklyn, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cxi. 234. 
J Acetic acid + 1 atom oxygen = glycolic acid. We may venture to affirm that gly- 
colic acid would react like lactic acid with pentachloride of phosphorus. 



10 



REPORT 1859. 



6. The addition of two atoms of oxygen to acetic acid produces a homo- 
logue of glyceric acid, containing C 2 H 4 4 *. We are justified by analogy in 
assuming that in this compound three out of the four atoms of hydrogen are 
separable from the carbon. The possible production of such a compound is 
indicated by the formula 



H 



\in 




3 }(CH)' 
( C) iv \ \0 derived from 

H>0 



7. The last formula expresses every possible decomposition of acetic acid 
except the complete separation of its carbon and hydrogen, which occurs 
when \ of the latter is replaced by a metal and the remaining -| by chlorine, 
as in a metallic terchloracetate, or when acetic acid is completely oxidized 
into carbonic anhydride and water. To express such reactions as these, in 
connexion with those already considered, acetic acid must be represented as 
built up of separate elementary atoms, without the subordinate combination 
of even two of them into a compound radicle. For in the reactions which 
have been enumerated, all the atoms of which acetic acid is composed, are 
one by one separated from each other; so that not one of them remains 
combined directly or indirectly with any of the rest. Hence the formula at 
which we finally arrive, the most general that it is possible to give, is the 
following : — 



derived from 




H 

(C)-{}(°)" 

i}(o)" 



or one of equivalent meaning. 

In this formula all the atoms are represented as entering into combination 
on an equal footing, and each in turn may be regarded as a radicle or part 
of the type. 

Before leaving the subject, it is worth while to point out that each set of 
relations which we have successively considered, in order to generalize more 
and more the formula of acetic acid, has in its turn been made the founda- 
tion of a separate rational formula. 

Upon the binary theory of acids, acetic acid receives the formula C 2 H 3 
2 .H, which is the same in form and meaning as that given in (1). The 
formula given by Williamson and Gerhardt (2) was intended to express the 
relation of acetic acid to chloride of acetyl, acetamide, &c. Liebig's for- 



* Perkin and Duppa, Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. xii. 6. 



ON THE STATE OP ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 11 

inula, C* H 3 , O 3 . HO*, indicates its connexion with C x H 3 CP* (the old ter- 
chloride of acetvl), aldehyde and other substances containing C x H 3 * (3)f- 
Reactions of the kind mentioned in (4) led Kolbe to adopt the formula 

H 
HO . ( C 2 ifyC 2 , O 3 *. Dumas wrote acetic acid C HO 3 . HO *, to express 

H 
that that portion of the hydrogen which cannot be replaced by metals, can 
be removed and replaced by other elements, e. g. chlorine (5, 6, and 7). 
The formula which we have given as the most general of all is nothing more 
than a combination of all these, and therefore enables us to recognize the 

value of each J. 

Similar considerations applied to any of the derivatives of acetic acid would 
lead us to adopt for them formulae of the same degree of generality ; for 
instance, for chloride of acetyl, — 

H| 

H l( C )iv H J ( W 

H J , and for acetamide (C) iv {}(0)" . 

And in proportion as our knowledge of the genetic relations of any class 
of compounds is increased, so will their rational formulse approach more and 
more nearly to the same form. All formulae which come short of this are 
but imperfect descriptions of the bodies which they represent; for it is 
evident that a formula containing a compound radicle cannot represent re- 
actions in which the elements composing that radicle are separated from 
each other. Nevertheless, for the expression of those relations with which 
we are most frequently concerned, and for the purposes of classification, it 
would be of no advantage that the most general formulse should be employed. 
The relation between any two compounds is best expressed by whatever 
particular abbreviations of the general formulas represent most simply and 
distinctly the extent of their similarity and difference ; while, for purposes 
of classification, it is essential that all bodies should receive formulae of a 
comparable degree of generality ; and in the majority of cases, the possible 
degree of generality is but small. Hence Gerhardt's formulae, since they 
express just those reactions with which we are most familiar, and can be 
applied to every compound of which we can be said to have any chemical 
knowledge at all, are better adapted than any others to the ordinary require- 
ments of science in its present state. 

On the other hand, it cannot be doubted that the chemical character of 
every substance is affected in a certain definite degree by each separate atom 
that it contains. And the only way by which we can hope ultimately to 
ascertain the true chemical value of the elements, or, in other words, to trace 
the full connexion between the properties and composition of compounds, is 
by comparing, when possible, (what we may call) their elementary formula. 
Moreover, we ought not to forget that any classification of chemical com- 
pounds, which is not founded upon the consideration of their elementary 
formulae, that is, upon the consideration of their total reactions, however 

t Schischkoff, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xlix. 355, has represented acetic acid by precisely 
the same formula as that given in (3). 

X For a list of nineteen different formulae for acetic acid, see Kekulc, Lehrb. d. Organ. 

Chem., p. 58. 



12 REPORT 1859. 

well it may correspond to any particular stage in the development of science, 
can never be more than a temporary expedient, which must be replaced 
sooner or later by a classification framed according to more general prin- 
ciples. 

The discoveries which have led to, or resulted from, the development of 
the theory of polyatomic radicles, have caused a corresponding extension of 
our notion of a chemical family or group. The principal relations of com- 
position which have hitherto been observed among compounds of the same 
natural family and deriving from the same type, may be expressed by the 
following formulae, in which n and x are always whole numbers and n always 
greater than x : — 

1. C n H s( " +1 -* } 0, 4. C"B* M) 0», 7. cfH^-^O 3 , 10. C'H^-^O 4 , 

2. C"H 2(n+1 - r) 2 ,5. C"H 2( "- r) 3 , 8. c'H**-*^ 0\ ll.C'H^-^O 6 , 

3. c"H 2(B+1-n) O 3 , 6. C"H 2(re "' r) O 1 , 9. c"H 2( *- J + T) 0% 12. C'H*"^ O 6 . 

As a special example we may take the tritylic (or propionic) group, in 
which as yet the number of known terms is more numerous than in any 
other. Here n = 3, x=0, and the above formulas become 



1. C 3 H 8 

Tritylic alcohol. 


4. C 3 H 6 2 
Propionic acid. 


7. C 3 H 4 3 

Pyruvic acid. 


10. C 3 H 2 4 

p 


2. C 3 H 8 2 

Tritylic glycol. 


5. C 3 H 6 3 

Lactic acid. 


8. C 3 H 4 4 
Malonic acid. 


11. C 3 H 2 5 

Mesoxalic acid. 


3. C 3 H 8 3 

Glycerine. 


6. C 3 H 6 4 

Glyceric acid. 


9. C 3 H 4 5 

Tartronic acid. 


12. C 3 H 2 6 



The substances which these formulae express are all hydrates, — alcohols 
or acids. It will easily be understood that around each of them, considered 
as a primary compound, a large number of derivatives, — ethers, anhydrides, 
chlorides, nitrides, &c. — will arrange themselves. Thus, formula 1 repre- 
sents, primarily, the monatomic alcohols. To the list of bodies belonging to this 
class Berthelot* has recently added cholesterine, C 26 H 44 O (n = 26, x=5) (?), 
and Borneo camphor or camphol, C 10 H 13 O (w=10, x=2). The first 
of these substances is homologous with cinnamic alcohol, C 9 H 10 O ; the 
second is as yet without homologues. Secondarily, it represents all bodies 
which may be supposed to contain the same radicles as any actual or 
possible monatomic alcohols. Here, therefore, come the simple and double 
ethers, the chlorides, iodides and the like derived from monatomic alcohols ; 
also the corresponding alkalies containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or arsenic ; 
compounds containing metals, as kakodyl, zinc-ethyl, &c, and many other 
bodies which these will serve to suggest. 

Formula 2 (derived from 1 by the addition of an atom of oxygen) re- 
presents the diatomic alcohols or glycols, and such other substances as may 
be supposed to contain similar diatomic radicles. The substances belonging 
to this class are — 

(A) the glycols")-, of which there are already known ethyl-glycol, 

C 2 H° O 2 , propyl-glycol, C 3 H 8 O 2 , butyl-glycol, C 4 H 10 O 2 , amyl-glycol, 
C 5 H 12 2 , probably also anisic alcohol |, C 8 H l0 O 2 , and saligenine, 

* Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] lvi. 51 (1859). 
t Wurtz, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] lv. 400. 

j Cannizzaro and Bertagnini, Ann. Chem. Pharm. xcviii. 188 ; Chera. Soc. Quart. Journ. 
fat. 190. 



ON THE STATE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 13 

C 7 H 9 O 2 , and derivatives from them containing the same radicles ; and 
(B) certain substances which behave as though they contained dia- 
tomic alcohol-radicles, although the corresponding alcohols have not yet 
been obtained. Among these latter we may mention iodide and biacetate 
of methylene*; the substances obtained by Wicke| and by Engel- 
hardtj from chlorobenzol, substances which appear to be the methylate, 
ethylate, acetate, valerate, benzoate, &c. corresponding to a still un- 

C 7 H 6 1 

known diatomic alcohol, yp > O 2 , isomeric (or identical ?) with sali- 

genine, to which it also seems probable, from the experiments of Engel- 
hardt§ and Borodine||, that hydrobenzamide, C 2 H 18 N 2 , stands in the 
same relation that, as has been shown by Hofmannf , Cloez's so-called 
propylia (properly terethylenamine) does to glycol, or as terethylamine 
does to alcohol. 
Formula 3 (derived from 2 by the addition of an atom of oxygen) is 
representative of glycerine, its derivatives, and their analogues. Among 
compounds comparable to the derivatives of glycerine are chloroform and 
analogous substances, such as terchloride of acetyl, C 2 H 3 CI 3 , and the sub- 
stance C 4 H 7 Br 3 obtained by the action of excess of bromide of phosphorus 
on butyric acid** ; also the cyanides of the alcohol-radicles if regarded as 

derivatives of ammonia; acediamine, v ^/ *> N 2 ; SchischkofTs ff term- 

troaceto-nitrile, (C 2 (NO 2 ) 3 )"' N, and the substance formed from it by the 
action of sulphydric acid, having the composition of binitro-acediamine, 

(C H (NO-; ) 1 N2 (" Dinitrammonyl der Essigsciurereihe"), and various 

substances formed by the reaction of pentachloride of phosphorus with 
monatomic amides, which will be referred to hereafter. 

Formula 4 (derived from 1 by the substitution of O for H 2 ) represents 
monobasic acids containing O 2 , such as the acids of the acetic, acrylic and 
benzoic series and their derivatives. To this class of bodies there has been 
lately added by Dr. Hofmann^, sorbic acid, C e H 8 O 2 (n=6, x=<2.). 

Formula 5 (derived from 4 by the addition of an atom of oxygen) re- 
presents the acids homologous with carbonic acid, namely glycolic, C 2 H 4 O 3 , 
lactic, C 3 H 6 O 3 , &c, and acids analogous to these, such as oxybenzoic, 
C 7 H 6 O 3 , with their derivatives. The list of these acids has recently been 
increased by the addition of glvoxylic§§ acid, C 2 H 2 O 3 (w=2, x=l), buty- 
lactic acid || ||, C 4 H 8 O 3 (w=4, x=0), and oxycuminic^C 10 H 12 3 (w=10, 
#=4). 

(C 2 H 2 O)" 1 
Among their derivatives are benzo-glycolic acid, C 7 H 5 O >• O 2 , benzo- 

(C 3 H 4 O)" ) 
lactic acid, C 7 H 5 O [ O 2 , and, in a certain sense, such acids as chloracetic, 

H J 

* Buttlerow, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] liii. 313. t Ann. Chem. Pharrn. cii. 356. 

t Chera. Gaz. 1857, 424. § Ann. Chem. Pharm. ex. 77. || Ibid. 78. 

^ Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 150. ** Berthelot, Jahresber. 1858, 280. 

tt Ann. Chira. Phys. [3] xlix. 320. Schischkoff and Rosing, Ann. Chem. Pharm. civ. 249. 

X+ Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. xii. 43. 

§§ Debus, Ann. Chem. Pharm. c. 1 ; cii. 29. 

Illl Wurtz, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvii. 197 ; Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] lv. 15G, 4G0. 

1flf Cahours, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] liii. 338. 



14 REPORT — 1859. 

CI l \ / CI x \ 

CH'C\(y=(C 2 H 2 0)"; , chlorobenzoic, C 7 H 5 C1 2 = (C 7 tt l 0)"' . 
H }0) y H )0) 

H }o\ 

sulphacetic*, C 2 H 4 S ! = (C 2 H 2 0)"i and 

i (sot } g 

sulphobenzoic*, / C 7 H G S0 5 = (C 7 H 4 O)". ; also glycocol, 

(S O 2 )" ' 
K H }0/ 

alanine, leucine, benzamic acid, toluamic acid, cuminamic acid, &c. These 
last-mentioned substances are intermediate in their properties between deri- 
vatives of the type H 2 O and those of the type Ii 3 N; they must therefore 

be regarded as deriving from the type rra vj > , that is, as glycolamic, lacta- 

mic, oxybenzamic, oxytoluamic, &c. acids; (e.g. glycocolf, C 2 H 3 N0 2 = 



,}0 

'}N 



) 



(C 2 H 2 0)'' XT J. Hippuric and toluyluricf acids then become respectively 



H }o H }0 

(C 2 H 2 0)"( and (C 2 H 2 0)"' 

C 7 H 5 O l N C 3 H 7 " 

H f H 



: 2 0)" 



Formula 6 (derived from 5 by the addition of an atom of oxygen) repre- 
sents triatomic acids containing 0\ and their derivatives. The number of 
substances which are certainly referable to this class is as yet very small ; 
glyceric J acid, C 3 H 6 O 4 (n=3, x=0), and its homologue, C 2 H 4 0"'(»=2, 
x=0), formed by the action of oxide of silver on a solution of bibromacetic§ 
acid, are examples. 

Formula 7 (derived from 4 by the substitution of O for H 2 ) represents 
monobasic acids containing O 3 , and their derivatives ; for instance, pyruvic 
acid, C 3 H 4 O 3 (»=3, x=0), pyromeconic acid, C 5 H G O 3 (n=5, x=l), py- 
romucic acid, C 5 H 4 O 3 (?2=5, a?=2). 

Formula 8 (derived from 7 by the addition of an atom of oxygen) repre- 
sents the important class of bibasic acids containing O 4 . This class includes 
oxalic acid and its homologues and analogues. The most recently discovered 
acids belonging to this group are malonic|| acid, C 3 H 4 O 4 (w=3, #=0), 
lipicf acid, C 5 H H O 4 (n=5, x=0), anclioic ** acid, C 9 H 16 O 4 (lepargic acid, 
Wirz) (n=9, x=0), and insolinicft acid, C 3 H 3 O 1 (n=9, #=4). Fumaric 
acid, C 4 H 4 4 (w=4, x=l,), pyrocitric acid, C i ffO , (»=5,a:=l) ) and 
camphoric acid, C 10 H 1G O 4 (n= 10, x= 1 ), also belong to this class. 

Formulas 9, 10, 11, 12. Substances which we can confidently refer to any 

* Comp. Kekule, Ann. Chem. Pharm. civ. 141, 149 ; cvi. 150. 

t Kraut, Ann. Chem. Pharm. xcviii. 360. 

X Debus, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvi. 79; Socoloff, ibid. 95. 

§ Perkin and Duppa, Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. xii. 6. 

|| Dessaignes, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvii. 251. 

If Wirz, ibid. civ. 278. ** Buckton, Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. x. 166. 

ft Hofmann, ibid. ix. 210; Ann. Chem. Pharm. xcvii. 197. 



ON THE STATE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 15 

of these formulae are rare. Tartronic acid, C 3 H 4 O 3 (w=3, x=0), illustrates 
formula 9 ; orsellic acid, C 3 H* O l (w=8, x=2), formula 10 ; mesoxalic acid, 
C 3 H 2 O 5 (n=3,#=0), formula 11 ; and aconitic acid, C° H° O 6 (w=6, x=l) 
and chelidonic acid, C 7 H 4 G (w = 7, x=3), formula 12. 

By comparing these twelve formulae, it will be seen that 2 and 3 differ 
from 1 by containing respectively one and two atoms more oxygen, and that 
the same relation also exists among 4, 5, and 6 ; among 7, 8, and 9 ; and 
among 10, 11, and 12 ; and further, that 4, 7, and 11 respectively differ from 
1 by the substitution of O for H 2 , of O 2 for H 4 , and of O 3 for H e , and that 
the same relations are repeated among 2, 5, 8 and 11, and among 3, 6, 9 
and 12. That is, the substances represented by the formulae in the second, 
third, and fourth columns are oxygen substitution-products of the substances 
represented by the formulae in the first column, and of these latter substances, 
the second and third are formed from the first by direct oxidation. Hence 
all the twelve members of the group are genetically connected with the first 
member. Comparing the chemical function of each with its composition and 
corresponding place in the group, we see that the formulae in the top line re- 
present monatomic compounds, those in the second line diatomic compounds, 
and those in the third line triatomic compounds. Formula 1 represents mon- 
atomic alcohols, and 4, 7, and 10 monobasic acids ; formula 2 represents di- 
atomic alcohols, and 5, 8, and 11, diatomic* or bibasic acids; formula 3 
represents triatomic alcohols, and 6, 9, and 12 triatomic or terbasic acids. 

From these considerations it will easily be seen how such a group might 
be extended so as to include tetratomic compounds, or substances in which 
more than six atoms hydrogen are replaced by oxygen. Such substances are 
hitherto so rare, that it does not seem worth while to complicate the general 
scheme of a chemical group by including their formulae. Instances of both 
classes of compounds are, however, already known. Of the former class 
(tetratomic compounds), the following substances (which arrange themselves 
around an imaginary tetratomic alcohol, C H 4 O 4 (n=l, x=0), containing 
the radicle (C)' v ), are examples: — bichloride of carbon, C CI 4 , and Hofmann's 

(C 8 H 5 ) 3 ) 
cyantriphenyldiaminef, C 19 H 17 N 3 = H 2 I N 3 , obtained by its action on 

(cy J 

phenylamine ; also, in a certain sense, all cyanogen compounds, and therefore 

(C c H 5 ) 2 ] 
such substances as melaniline, C 13 H" N 3 = H 3 I N 3 . Debus's glyco- 

(C) iv J 

(C 2 H 2 )'"] 
sine}, C° H c N'=(C 2 H 2 ) iT i- N 4 , may be regarded as a tertiary tetramine de- 

(C 2 H 2 ) W J 
rived from another unknown tetratomic alcohol, C 2 H° O 4 (w=2, w=0), 
homologous with the foregoing. Several saccharine substances, for instance, 

* Acids may be diatomic, or even triatomic, while in a strict sense they are monobasic. 
The acids of the glycolic series illustrate this distinction. These acids are monobasic; for 
they contain only one atom of hydrogen which is replaceable by metals ; but at the same 
time they are diatomic, for they form acid amides (glycocol, &c), chlorides containing CI 2 , 
and intermediate chlorohydrates containing 1 atom chlorine. As Kekule has pointed out 
(Lehrbuch d. organ. Chemie, 1859, p. 130), they are precisely intermediate in respect of 
basicity (as well as of composition) between the glycols and the acids of the oxalic series. 
Thus, glycol easily exchanges two atoms of hydrogen for acid-radicles, glycolic acid ex- 
changes one atom of hydrogen for acid-radicles (formation of benzoglycolic acid) and one 
atom for metals, while oxalic acid exchanges two atoms of hydrogen for metals, but none at 
all for acid-radicles. 

t Hofmann, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 284. J Debus, ibid. 297. 



16 REPORT 1859. 

glucose and inannitane, have been shown by Berthelot* to have the function 
of polyatomic alcohols, and are probably more than triatomic. Of the latter 
class, meconic acid, C 7 H' O 7 , is an example: it may be regarded as deriving 
from an unknown triatomic alcohol, C 7 H 12 O 3 (w=7, #=2), by the substitu- 
tion of O* for H 8 . 

Comparing together the corresponding compounds of different groups, 
chemists have long been accustomed to arrange them in homologous^ series, 
or series in which there is a common difference between any two neighbour- 
ing terms of CH 2 . The discoveries of late years make it appear probable 
that series of similar compounds also exist in which the common difference 
is H 2 . Such series have been called isologous%. The following pairs of 
compounds are isologous with each other: — tritylic alcohol, C 3 H 8 O, and 
allylic alcohol, C 3 H 6 O ; propionic acid, C 3 H 6 O 2 , and acrylic acid, C 3 IV O 2 ; 
valeric acid, C 5 H 10 O 2 , and angelic acid, C 3 H 8 O 2 ; caproic acid, C° H 12 O 2 , 
and sorbic acid, C 6 H 8 O 2 (difference =2H 2 ); sebacic acid, C 10 H 18 O*. and 
camphoric acid, C 10 H 16 O*. 

If we confine ourselves to the comparison of bodies of the same chemical 
function, we can seldom find more than two or three which belong to the 
same isologous series ; but if we compare together entire groups, we per- 
ceive the existence of considerable numbers of groups isologous with each 
other. It would be easy to render this evident by constructing a Table in 
which the various groups corresponding to differences in the values of n and 
x should be arranged so as to show at a glance their mutual relations of 
homology and isology ; the groups corresponding to variations in the value 
of n, while that of x remains constant (homologous groups), being arranged 
in the same vertical column ; and those which correspond to the same value 
of n, but to various values of x (isologous groups), in the same horizontal 
line, or vice versa. 

Gerhardt, in his « Traite de Chimie Organique,' arranges all the chemical 
groups, which he includes in his scheme of classification, about two primary 
homologous series, — the acetic series and the benzoic series. In Kekule's 
' Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie,' an arrangement is adopted which is 
intermediate between that of Gerhardt and the classification in homologous 
and isologous series described above. Kekule takes as the basis of his 
arrangement, the three primary series of homologous hydrocarbons, of which 
the first terms are — 

C 4 H 8 C 5 H 10 

Butylene. Amylene. 

C 7 H 8 C 8 H 10 

Toluole. Xylole. 

C !0 H 8 

Naphtaline. 

It will be seen that there is a common difference of C 4 H 2 between the first 
terms of each of these series, and that, between the terms of the three series 

* Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xlvii. 297; Jahresber. viii. 678. 

t Schiel, Ann. Chern. Pharm. xliii. 107 (1842), first pointed out the existence of sub- 
stances possessing similar properties and differing in composition by C H 2 , or a multiple 
thereof, This relation was afterwards shown by Gerhardt, Precis de Chimie Organique, 
(1844-45), to be of very frequent occurrence, and was distinguished by him by the name 
1 Homology.' 

% The word 'isology' is used by Gerhardt (Traite, i. 127) in a somewhat less restricted 
sense. Gerhardt calls substances isologous which have the same chemical function, but 
which do not present the relation of homology ; e. g. acetic acid, C 2 H 4 O 2 , and benzoic 
acid, C? H« O 2 . 



Series I. 
Series II. 


C 2 H 4 

Ethylene. 


C 3 H 6 

Propylene. 

C 6 H 6 

Benzole. 


Series III. 







ON THE STATE OP ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 17 

which contain the same quantity of hydrogen, there is a common difference 
of C 3 . 

It can only be decided by the progress of discovery which of these modes 
of classifying chemical groups is the most accurate expression of their 
mutual relations. 

If from the point of view which we have now reached, we look back at 
Gerhardt's system of types of decomposition, we see that almost all the ad- 
vances which have been made in theoretical chemistry, since that system 
was proposed, are included in the development and systematizing of the idea 
of polyatomic radicles, an idea, which was to some extent adopted by Ger- 
hardt, but which it could easily be shown was not followed out by him with 
perfect consistency. 

In conclusion of our account of the recent advances of organic chemistry, 
we may enumerate some of the most important reactions, or methods of 
transformation, which, within the last four or five years, have been shown to 
be applicable to the compounds of various groups, or which, from their nature, 
appear to be capable of such a general application. They may be divided 
for this purpose into — 

(I.) Heterologous transformations, or transformations in which there is a 
change of chemical functions, but in which the new substances produced 
belong to the same chemical group as the substances from which they are 
formed. (II.) Homologous transformations, or transformations in which 
there is a passage from one group to another homologous with it. (Ill-) 
Isologous transformations, or the passage from one group to another which is 
isologous with it. 

I. Heterologous transformations. Several transformations of this kind have 
been already referred to as enabling us to pass from monatomic to polyatomic 
compounds, and vice versa. We may mention further — 

(A) The conversion of ethylene and its homologues into the correspond- 
ing monatomic alcohols by combining them with acids, and the subsequent 
decomposition by water, or by alkaline hydrates, of the compounds thus 
formed* ; e.g. — 

C'IP + H'SO 1 = C 2 H 6 S0 4 
Ethylene. Ethylsulphuric acid. 

C'H 6 + HC1 = C 3 H 7 C1 

Propylene. Chloride of trityl. 

(B) The formation of nitrogen compounds containing zinc (as zinc-amide, 
nitride of zinc, phenyl-zinc-amide, &c.) by the action of zinc-ethyl on the 
derivatives of ammonia f ; e. g. — 

C 2 H 5 Zn + C 6 H 7 N = C 2 H 6 + C 6 H°ZnN 

Zinc-ethyl. Phenylamine. Hydride of Phenyl-zinc- 

ethyl. amide. 

(C) The substitution of ethyl and methyl for chlorine in combination 
with phosphorus and arsenic by the action of zinc-ethyl or zinc-methyl on 
terchloride of phosphorus or of arsenic £ ; e. g. — 

3C 2 H 3 Zn + Cl 3 P = 3Cl 2 Zn + (C 2 H 5 ) 3 P. 
Zinc-ethyl. Teretl.yl- 

phosphine. 

(D) The similar substitution of ethyl and methyl for chlorine or iodine 

* Berthelot, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xliii. 385; li. 81. 
t Frankland, Proc. Roy. Soc. viii. 502. 

X Hofinann and Cahours, Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. xi. 56 ; Ann. Chem. Pharm. civ. 1 ; 
Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] li. 5. 

1859. c 



18 REPORT — 1859. 

in combination with mercury, lead, &c, or with the so-called organo-me- 
tallic compounds* ; e.g. — 

C 2 H 5 Zn + ClHg = C 2 H 5 Hg + ClZn. 

Zinc-ethyl. Mercury-ethyl. 

C 2 H 5 Zn + C 2 H 5 Hg 2 I = (C 2 H 5 ) 2 Hg 2 + Zn I 

Zinc-ethyl. Iodide of Mercury-ethyl, 

mercurous ethyl. 

CH 3 Zn + C 2 H 5 SnI = ^g'lsn + Znl 

Zinc- Iodide of ^ n J 

methyl. stanethyl. Stanethyl- 

metbyl. 

(E) The substitution of potassium and sodium for zinc in combination 
with methyl or ethyl-)- : — 

2(C 2 H 5 Zn) + Na a = 2(C 2 H 5 Na) + Zn 2 
Zinc-ethyl. Sodium-ethyl. 

(F) The formation of binoxides of organic radicles J ; e. g. — 

2(C 7 H 5 0C1) + Ba 2 2 = (C 7 H 5 0) 2 2 + 2BaCl 

Chloride of benzoyl. Binoxide of benzoyl. 

(G) The conversion of aldehydes into the corresponding alcohols and 
acids by the action of alcoholic potash § ; e.g. — 

2C 7 H 6 + KHO = C 7 H 8 + C 7 H 5 K0 2 

Benzoic Benzylic Benzoate of 

aldehyde. alcohol. potassium. 

2C io H i6 0+KHO _ c 10 H 18 O + C 10 H 16 KO 2 

Camphor. Campholic Camphate of 

alcohol. potassium. 

(H) The formation of acediamine by the action of heat on hydrochlorate 
of acetamide || : — 

(c4)'"} n +(C?ht} n - < C2H3 >"'In 2 4- ( C2H3 >""lo 2 

H }0 H JO H> J H / 

Acetamide. Acetamide. Acediamine. Acetic acid. 

This reaction is interesting, as illustrating simultaneously the connexion 
of acetamide with the derivatives of ammonia and with the derivatives of 
water. Of the two atoms of acetamide which take part in the formation of 
acediamine, one reacts as an amide, the other as a hydrate. The following 
is a comparable reaction : — 

CI \ CI 

(so 2 )"| o +(so 2 )"| o = (S0 2 )"cM S g7}0 2 . 

Chlorohydrated Chlorohydrated Chlorosul- Sulphuric 

sulphuric acid. sulphuric acid. phuric acid. acid. 

(I) The action of chloride of phosphorus on amides, and the formation 
thereby of a new class of chloronitrides^[ ; e.g 

* Buckton, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 309 ; Frankland, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 672. 

t Wanklyn, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cviii. 67. 

t Brodie, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 361 ; Ann. Chem. Pharm. cviii. 325. 

§ Cannizzaro, Ann. Chem. Pharm. Ixxxviii. 129; Kraut, ibid. xcii. 66; Berthelot, Ann. 
Chim. Phys. [3] Ivi. 79. 

|| Strecker, Ann. Chem. Pharm. ciii. 325. 

IT Gerhardt, Ann Chim. Phys. [3] xlvi. 172; liii. 302; Limpricht and V. Uslar, Ann. 
Chem. Pharm. cvi, 32, 41. 




ON THE STATE OP ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 19 

H }0 CI i 

(C T H7"{ (C 7 H 3 )'"J +HC1 + POCI 5 . 

H ^ +P ci 5 = H / N 

Benzamide. Chloride of benzamidyl 

(Gerh.). 

C 7 H*N 2 S0 3 + PCr = C 7 H 7 N 2 S0 2 C1 + HC1 + P0C1 3 

Sulphobenzamide. Chloride of sulphobenzamidvl. 

H 2 ] 
(Sulphobenzamide may be derived from the quadruple type H 2 O V by 

2(H 3 N) J 

the substitution of the tetratomic radicle (C 7 H 4 ) iv for W and the biatomic 

{ HH }0 

(G 1 H 4 V V 
radicle (SO 2 )" for H 2 ; its formula then becomes f >g ^J,, l . The action 

N L HH J 

of chloride of phosphorus upon it is to replace the H 2 O of the type by H CI ; 
the product of this action may be written 

r HC1 } 

VC H V T 

<■ HH J 

(K) The formation of aldehydes from their corresponding acids by distill- 
ing their alkaline salts mixed with an alkaline formate * ; e. g. — 

C 7 H 5 K0 2 + CHK0 2 = C 7 H 6 + CK 2 3 

Benzoate of Formate of Benzoic Carbonate of 

potassium. potassium. aldehyde. potassium. 

(L) The substitution of hydrogen for compound radicles contained in 
organic basest; e.g. — 

C 6 H 5 1 Hi 

c 2 h 5 Ln+h 2 o = C 2 H 5 In+c 6 h 6 o 

C 2 H 3 J C 2 H 3 J Phenylic 

Diethylphenylamine. Diethylamine. alcohol. 

H ) H^ 

C 2 HHN + H 2 = H >+C 2 H e O 
C 2 H 5 J C 2 H 3 J Alcohol. 

Diethylamine. Ethylamine. 

H >N + H 2 = H>N + C 2 H 6 

C 2 H 5 J H J Alcohol. 

Ethylamine. 

II. Homologous transformations. 

(A) The combination of carbonic anhydride with the compounds of the 
alcohol radicles with alkali-metals % ; e.g. — 

* Piria, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xlviii. 113 ; Ann. Chem. Pharm. c. 104 ; Limpricht, Ann. 
Chem. Pharm. xcvii. 368; Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xlviii. 118. 
t Matthiessen, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 118, 635. 

X Wanklyn, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvii. 125; cxi. 234; Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] liii. 42. The 
above reaction corresponds closely with that of sulphurous anhydride on zinc-methyl : — 

CH 3 Zn+S0 2 = CH 3 ZnS0 2 . 
Zinc-methyl. Methylodithionate of line. 

Hobson, Cheni. Soc. Quart. Joum. x. 243; Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvi. 287. 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1859. 

CH 3 Na+C0 2 = C 2 H'Na0 2 
Sodium-methyl. Acetate of sodium. 

(B) The supposed formation of methyl compounds from acetone* ; e.g. — 

C 3 H°0 + = C 3 H G 2 

Acetone. Acetate of methyl. 

(C) The formation of complex hydrocarbons (ethylene, propylene, amy- 
lene, benzine, naphtaline, &c, by the action of heat on organic substances of 
simpler constitution. Synthesis of organic compounds) f, 

III. Isologous transformations. 

(A) The conversion of glycerine into iodopropylene, and of the latter into 

allylic alcohol % : — 

2(C 3 H 5 I) + Ag 2 C 2 4 = 2AgI + (C 3 H 5 ) 2 C 2 4 
Iodopropylene. Oxalate of Oxalate of allyl. 

silver. 

(C 3 H 5 ) 2 C 2 4 + 2NH 3 = 2C 3 H 6 + C 2 H 4 N 2 2 
Oxalate of allyl. Allylic Oxamide. 

alcohol. 

(B) The production of cinnamic aldehyde from acetic and benzoic alde- 
hydes! : — 

C 2 H 4 + C 7 H c O=C s H 8 + H 2 

Acetic aide- Benzoic Cinnamic 
hyde. aldehyde, aldehyde. 

(C) The production of cinnamic acid from chloride of acetyl and benzoic 
aldehyde || : — 

C 2 H 3 0C1 + C 7 H 6 0=C°H 8 2 + HC1. 

Chloracetyl. Benzoic Cinnamic 
aldehyde. acid. 

Throughout the foregoing Report Gerhardt's atomic weights have been 
used without discussion ; for it seemed superfluous to enumerate once more 
the reasons for adopting them, which, as the science advances, become more 
and more numerous and conclusive^]". It may, however, be expected that 
some notice should be taken of such objections as have been recently made 
against this system. 

Within the last few years three different chemists have, for very different 
reasons, proposed to modify Gerhardt's atomic weights, but they all agree in 
adopting the doubled atomic weight of carbon, while they reject the doubled 

* Friedel, Ann. Chem. Pharm. cvii. 174 ; cviii. 388. 

t Berthelot, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] liii. 69. 

X Hofmann and Cahours, Chem. Soc. Quart. Journ. x. 316; Ann. Chem. Pharm. cii. 285 ; 
Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] 1. 432. 

§ Chiozza, Ann. Chem. Pharm. xcvii. 350. 

|| Bertagnini, Ann. Chim. Phys. [3] xlix. 376. 

*H Some recent experiments nevertheless tend to show that the atomic weights assigned 
hy Gerhardt to some of the metals ought to he doubled. For instance, the vapour-density 
of zinc-ethyl (Frankland, Ann. Chem. Pharm. xcv.), the way in which zinc combines with 
iodide of ethyl (similar to the combination of oxygen with zinc-ethyl, Zn 2 -(-C 2 H 5 I = C 2 H 5 
Zn 2 I, and 0-|-C 2 H 5 Zn = C 2 H'OZn), the vapour-density of mercury-methyl and of mer- 
cury-ethyl (Buckton, Proc. Roy. Soc. ix. 92, 311), and the combination of mercury with 
• iodide of ethyl (forming C 2 H 5 Hg 2 1), seem to show that the atomic weights of zinc and mer- 
cury are twice as great as they were adopted by Gerhardt. Similar reasons may be urged in 
favour of doubling the atomic weight of tin, as recommended some time since by Odling 
(Phil. Mag. [4] xiii. 434). As these points, however, belong to inorganic chemistry, we 
cannot do more than simply refer to them here. 



ON THE STATE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 



21 



atomic weight of oxygen : we refer to Limpricht*, Kolbef, and Couper^. 
The first of these chemists founds his objection to the greater atomic weight 
of oxygen upon the fact that some salts crystallize with a quantity of water 
containing an odd multiple of 8 parts of oxygen. To this it may be 
answered, that the function of water in crystallized salts is not sufficiently 
well understood to warrant our drawing conclusions of any importance from 
the quantity of it contained in any particular substance, and that no reason 
has yet been shown why several atoms of a salt should not crystallize with 
one atoirf of water, as well as several atoms of water with one atom of a salt. 

The objections of Kolbe are founded on more general considerations. By 
comparing the composition of the so-called organo-metallic bodies with that 
of the inorganic compounds of the metals which they contain, he came to 
the conclusion that the metallic oxides are typical of the compounds of the 
metals with organic radicles. 

For instance, taking the atomic weight of oxygen at 8, and writing oxide 
of zinc and arsenious anhydride ZnO and AsO 3 respectively, we get the 
following comparison of formulae : — 



Oxide of zinc Zn 
Zinc-ethyl .. ZnEt=ZnC 2 H 5 



Arsenious anhydride As O 3 
Oxide of arsenomo- 

nomethyl AsO 2 Me = As0 2 CH 3 

Oxide of kakodyl.. AsO Me 2 =AsOC 2 H e 
Termethylarsine .. As Me 3 =AsC 3 H°. 



Admitting the accuracy of such formulae, it was natural to extend similar 
views to those compounds of carbon which do not contain metals. Accord- 
ingly, Kolbe regards carbonic anhydride C 0\ the highest known oxide of 
carbon, as the type of a large number of other carbon-compounds. Accord- 
ing to him, the replacement of I atom oxygen in carbonic anhydride by 1 
atom hydrogen, or 1 atom of an alcohol-radicle, gives monobasic acids, such 
as those of the acetic and benzoic series ; the like replacement of 2 atoms oxy- 
gen gives aldehydes and acetones ; the replacement of 3 atoms oxygen gives 
ethers ; and lastly, the replacement of all the oxygen gives alcohol-radicles 
and their hydrides. The following illustrations will make this clearer: — 

O 

Type 



I. II. 

CH 3 

( 
O l 

o 

Formic Acetic acid Aldehyde, 
acid (anhydrous), 
(anhy- 
drous). 

It must certainly be considered fortunate for the interests of science that 
Professor Kolbe should himself have extended his theory to the purely 
organic compounds of carbon; for these being the precise substances of 

* Limpricht, Grundriss der organischen Chemie (1855). 

t Ann. Chem. Pharm. ci. 257. The same views were also advocated by Fraiikland in a 
lecture delivered at the Royal Institution, May 28th, 1858. (See Journ. Roy. Instit.) 
X Ann. Chini. Phys. [3] liii. 4G9 ; Ann. Chem. Pharm. ex. 46. 



f H 


few 




f H 


rcH' 


,gc< 






c 1 


CR3 c. 

> 


CH 3 



[o 




< 




.0 







22 report — 1859. 

which our knowledge is the most complete, the application of the theory to 
them makes it possible to arrive at a more certain conclusion as to its value, 
than would be the case were it confined to the substances to which it was 
originally applied. Respecting the above and similar formulae, it may be 
observed, — 

1. That, leaving out of view the substances under discussion, there is no 
reason to believe that the oxygen in carbonic-anhydride can be divided into 
more than two parts; there is no evidence that carbonic anhydride contains 
more than two atoms of oxygen. 

2. That there is no similarity, nor definite gradational difference of proper- 
ties, between the type CO 4 and the substances represented as deriving from it. 

3. Two out of the four formulae given above, namely the first and third, 
are in direct opposition to Gerhardt's atomic weights ; we know, however, 
that they represent only half an atom of the bodies to which they are 
assigned. 

Views respecting the nature of chemical affinity have induced Couper to 
adopt 8 as the atomic weight of oxygen. He, however, finds that, owing to 
a peculiar tendency which oxygen possesses to combine with oxygen, the 
smallest quantity of it which ever enters into combination is twice 8. This 
being admitted, it seems a matter of minor importance whether the smallest 
combining proportion of oxygen should be represented by the symbol 
= 16, or by the symbol 2 =16. 

September 10, 1859. 



Report on the Growth of Plants in the Garden of the Royal Agricultural 
College, Cirencester. By James Buckman, F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
fyc, Professor of Natural History, Royal Agricultural College. 

The following notes are upon experiments which have been completed or are 
still in progress in the experimental garden of the Royal Agricultural College, 
and this Report is furnished at the instance of the Natural History Section, 
the experiments having been made the subject of a grant from the funds of 
the British Association. 

It is hoped that the present Report will show the desirability of continuing 
experiments upon plants, as whatever effect they may have upon our theore- 
tical views, I think it will clearly be seen that many practical matters of great 
importance are involved in inquiries of this kind, and I shall therefore not 
detain the Section with any lengthened introduction, but at once ask for a kind 
and considerate attention to the following notes : — 

The cultivation of flax or lintseed offers such interesting matter to the na- 
turalist, as being of importance in an economic and agricultural point of view, 
that we cannot help detailing some experiments connected therewith. 

Plot A was sown in drills with a pure sample of linseed grown on the farm 
of the Royal Agricultural College. 

Plot B was sown with a like weight of seed uncleaned, it therefore con- 
sisted of full half its weight of weed-seeds. 

Plot C was sown with a like weight of pure seed as in plot A, to which was 
afterwards added a good sprinkling of dodder seed, viz. Cuscuta epilinum. 

These beds were left unmolested, not even being weeded. The seed 
became ripe in the middle of August, at which time the following observa- 
tions were noted upon each of them : — 



ON THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 



23 





Average height 
in inches. 


Proportionals 


of fibre. 


of seed. 


Plot A. Regular in the rows, and clear of weeds . . 
Plot B. Irregular, flax sparse, weeds plentiful .... 
Plot C. Borne down to the ground with dodder, and 


36 
34 

32 


50 
20 

15 


50 
25 

20 





Hence, then, in as far as the economics of the question are concerned, we 
may safely conclude that the sowing of dirty flax-seed at any price is disad- 
vantageous, and this not only that the resulting crop, if not quite ruined, is 
certain to be diminished in quantity and injured in quality, but, as ill weeds 
<*row apace, all the sorts growing with the flax had sown much of their seeds 
before the flax-seed itself had ripened, so that a succession of weeds is by this 
means entailed upon the farm from generation to generation. 

As regards the plot with dodder, the object of sowing these together was 
for the purpose of observing with my Class the manner in which the parasite 
became attached to its foster-parent, and I therefore offer the following 
remarks upon the growth of the Cuscuta epiliiium, not as containing any new 
results, but as offering an example of the kind of experiments followed out 
in my botanical garden. 

In about four days after the seed of the dodder was sown, a few whitish 
thread-like germs of about Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

three lines in length were 
seen protruding from the 
soil, some of these being 
quite free, others crowned 
with the seed testa. Three 
days afterwards the flax 
came up, and the dodder 
might then have been seen, 
as in the accompanying 
fig. 1, bending its germ 
towards a flax-plant ; by 
this time it has doubled 
in length ; and if the flax- 
plant be far away, it seems 
to be endowed with the 
power of growing to as 
much as an inch in length 
in order to reach it, whilst 
in experiments of dodder 
seed sown by itself, the 
germs were always short 
and soon withered ; but on 
inserting other plants in 
the same pot, they became 
attached to them, &s Radish, 
Tomato, Groundsel, and 
Chickweed were all in this way attacked by the dodder amongst which 
young plants were inserted; and in one case, where a pot of growing flax 
dodder was placed near a Sedum in my conservatory, the latter was attacked, 
and the dodder grew upon it most vigorously. 

In a short time afterthe germination of the dodder and the flax, the 




24 



REPORT — 1859. 




former reaches the latter, when it makes one or two coils round the flax stem, 
as shown in fig. 2, when immediately small cells begin to develope themselves 
inside the dodder coils ; these form aerial roots which soon penetrate the flax, 
which is now growing in size and height. It is now incorporated with the 
circulation of the foster-parent ; its own radicle is no longer required in con- 
nexion with the soil, and so the whole dodder plant is elevated by the flax, 
as shown in fig. 3. 

When this attachment is completed it pushes forth new fibres, each of 
which behaves like the parent germinal fibre Fig. 4. 

and attacks any plant growing near, so that 
we need not wonder at clusters of dodder 
rapidly advancing in the flax crop where it 
is sown. Our fig. 4 represents the advance 
in growth of a single dodder plant ve days 
after its attachment. 

Plot D. — This is Linum perenne, before 
reported upon ; it still keeps up its character, 
and is a fine upright perennial flax bearing 
one large and a second smaller crop of stems 
annually ; however, from thus overgrowing, 
the plants are gradually wearing out. 

Plot E is from the seed of the above; it 
has the same appearance, but is not yet so 
vigorous and tall in growth. Seed is sowed 
from this to carry on experiments. 

Plot F. Rosa spinosissima (L.). 

Plot G. Rosa Doniana (Woods). 

I procured specimens of these two forms 
of Rose from the neighbourhood of Worces- 
ter, in December 1857, having been taken to 
their localities by my friend Mr. Edwin Lees. 
The habitats of both these are much alike, 
being on the margins of the old Severn 
Straits, and they serve to mark the former 
marine conditions which pertained until com- 
paratively lately along the course of the 
Severn into the Midland Counties. 

Several specimens were forwarded to my 
gardener and planted in a prepared border, 
and at the present moment they present such 
a uniformity of appearance and habit, with 
their small leaves and abundant long straight and small spines, with a 
creeping rhizomatous habit of growth, that convinces me they are not spe- 
cifically distinct ; but the latter is probably a variety of R. spinosissima. 
Hooker, however, has placed it as a var. of R. Sabini, in which he is 
followed by Babington ; whilst Bentham has favoured the notion that the 
true place of R. Doniana is with the Rosa villosa, an arrangement, if 
admitted, which will go far in my opinion to reduce most of the species 
(of authors) of this genus which we have in England to the inferior rank of 
varieties, a conclusion which I have no doubt would be justified to a much 
greater extent than even the " lumping " botanist is prepared for with care- 
ful growth fiom seed, and we are hence collecting rose seeds for experiment, 
in which we ask the aid of botanists for the rose forms of their localities. 

Plot H. Viola odorata — All the loots in this plot turned out this year to be 



\ 




ON THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 25 

the lilac variety of V. odorata, much to the astonishment of my gardener 
who planted most of them for V. hirta ; however, as these were not planted 
under my own superintendence, I cannot answer for the results, though I 
quite think that Mr. Bentham's remarks under the head of V. hirta, are not 
without foundation ; they are as follows : — " Hairy Violet, Viola hirta, Linn. 
Very near the sweet violet, and most probably a mere variety." This seems 
confirmed by the immense varieties on theGreatOolites and the Forest Marble 
clays of this district, presented by both odorata and hirta. These then are 
reserved as subjects for future experiment, to which end a quantity of seeds 
are collected. 

Plot I. Myosotis. — Some years since I was charmed with the appearance of 
a tuft of Myosotis which I saw at my nurseryman's, since which time I have 
always had some of it in cultivation as early spring flower. My specimens 
were allowed to seed on the ground, and the young plants are shifted about 
when required for garden decoration. Now it is remarkable that the original 
roots are perfectly perennial, but the seedlings at best are only sub-perennial. 
In most the seed comes up the same summer that it has been scattered, and 
flowers, seeds and dies the next spring, which indeed is precisely the habit 
of Myosotis arvensis ; and hence I conclude that the original plants, if pro- 
pagated by slips, the usual gardeners' method, would be the M. sylvatica of 
authors, the seedling the large-flowered form of M. arvensis. In other words, 
I think these experiments tend to show that these two supposed species are 
but varieties, an idea indeed which Sir W. Hooker seems to favour in the 
5th edition of his ' British Flora.' 

In as far as my experiments have progressed with these plants, I am 
induced to adopt Mr. Bentham's view, that the M.alpestris (Schmidt) is the 
larger flowered form of M. sylvatica ; for as the old stock of our favourite 
seemed to be diminishing in the size and intensity of the colour of its flowers, 
I have this year introduced some M. alpestris from a friend's garden, and I 
fully expect the seedlings of this to take on the following declension : — 

M.palustris? (perennial). 

M. alpestris (perennial). 

M. sylvatica (sub-perennial and annual). 

M. arvensis, fl. maxima (annual). 
M. arvensis, fl. minor (annual). 

Of the three last of these descents I am perfectly clear, and Mr. Bentham, 
under the Myosotis sylvatica, has the following remarks : — " It varies much 
in size and stature ; in lower shady situations, and in our gardens, the stems 
will attain a foot or more in length with rather small flowers. The alpine 
form, with larger flowers, is by some distinguished as a species under the 
name of M. alpestris*." — Handbook, p. 377. 

In this genus then we may expect to find some interesting results from 
experiments, as a further contribution to which end I hope to get seeds 
of the M.palustris for garden culture, some experiments of this kind in a 
garden I have left inclining me to think this water form as not so distinct 
from the terrestrial ones as some may think. 

Plot J. Datura Tatula, Purple Thorn-Apple. — The crop of this season is 
from seed supplied by Butler of Covent Garden ; it is at least twice the size 
of that which was previously reported upon, and the flowers and whole plant 

* This view is also shared by Mr. Babington. 



26 report — 1859. 

appear to be unusually dark in colour, in which it contrasts finely with the 
following. 

Plot K. Datura Stramonium, American Thorn-Apple. — Only three plants 
have this year arrived at maturity, but its extreme whiteness is quite re- 
markable when placed beside the D. Tatula, a crop, which, it will be remem- 
bered, was formerly reported as being almost destitute of colour. 

Plot L. Dipsacus sylveslris (L.) 1 mixe( j # 
„ fullonum (L.) / 

These, though distinguished by Linnaeus and retained as species by Smith 
and Hooker, are shoivn by my garden experiments to be but varieties; in- 
deed, Sir W. Hooker, in speaking of the reflexed scales, says, " These hooks 
become obsolete by long cultivation in poor soil, and there is reason to 
believe that D. fullonum is but a variety of D. sylvestris." In this he has 
been followed by other authors ; as yet I am not aware of any direct obser- 
vations upon the point, but my experiments upon the two forms enable me 
to supply this. 

In 1857 I had a plot each of Dipsacus sylvestris and D. fullonum flower- 
ing, and at last ripening their seed side by side. This seed became scat- 
tered about the garden, and not having a distinct plot of teasels for botanical 
illustration, a plot was made of the most vigorous plants which could be 
selected from the self-sown examples without an attempt to discriminate the 
different sorts, which indeed would have been impossible at this stage of 
growth. Now the result at the time of my writing is very striking ; there 
are the true D. sylvestris with the straight scales, the D. fullonum with the 
stiff reflexed hooks, and all intermediate stages, so that it is most difficult to 
separate them, if indeed they are to be distinguished. In order, therefore, 
to keep up the fulling apparatus of the teasel in perfection, it is important 
that the plants be cultivated, as, letting them go wild, they revert to the use- 
less form ; and strong land is also necessary to the growth of stiff hooks. 

Plot M. Carduus tuberosus. — This plant, which I was fortunate enough to 
discover in North Wilts, about the Avebury Circles, is the same as was 
recorded some five-and-twenty years since, as existing at Great Ridge in the 
south of that county, It has for a long time been lost to our flora, though a 
few specimens were still in cultivation in the garden of my friend Mr. Cun- 
nington of Devizes. 

In August 1857 I brought home a few plants from Avebury, which made 
some new shoots last year, but did not flower; they, however, had the cha- 
racteristic tubers of a good size. These were parted, and now occupy the 
plot as above. 

As now seen in their wild habitat, the flower-stem is scarcely above a foot 
high, with from two to four flowers each. In cultivation it has attained the 
height of 3 feet, with a large mass of stems to each plant, bearing from six to 
twelve flower- heads each: the flowers are very showy, and, like the tubers, 
increase in size under cultivation. As this plant yields these tubers so 
abundantly, I boiled some of them to ascertain if they were edible ; and as 
they are made up of feculent matter which proves to be tender and sweet to 
the taste, I am not quite sure that this thistle might not be cultivated as a 
vegetable to advantage. 

Seeds of the plant have been saved for the purpose of experiment, as I 
have not yet given up the idea of the hybridity of the Carduus tuberosus; 
and, with all its large flowers, I may observe that it seeds only sparingly. 

Plot N. Carduus acaulis. — By the side of the above are two varieties of 
this plant occupying the same plot ; one the normal stemless form, another 
with stems as much as 2 feet high, each of which bears from four to eight 



ON THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 



27 



heads of flowers. Mr. Bentham, in his ' Handbook of the British Flora,' has 
the following remark under the head of Carduus acaulis : — " In some situa- 
tions on the continent, the stem will grow out to 6 or 8 inches ; but this 
variety is very rare in England." It is, however, common on the Cotteswolds, 
with stems a few inches in length, and, as we have seen, this increases very 
much under cultivation. 

Plots O and P. Yellow Globe Mangel Wurzel.— The question is often 
asked us by farmers and others, as to whether the leaves of this plant cannot 
be used for feeding purposes, and so be plucked off from time to time as the 
root is growing without prejudicing the amount of root-growth. Of these 
plots, then, one has had all the external leaves removed twice during the 
present season, and will be so served once more, the plot being left intact. 
Already there is an immense difference in the size of the roots, those on the 
stripped plot being at present not more than half the size of the others*. 

In reference to this subject, I may refer to a like experiment which I carried 
out in my garden in 1854. Two plots of each of five sorts of mangel wur- 
zel were sown side by side. Of these a plot of each was denuded of leaves 
in the manner just indicated, the rest being left uninjured, and the following 
Table will give the result : — 

Table of Growth of Mangel Wurzel. 



Sorts. 


Proportionals. 


Not stripped of outer leaves. 


Stripped of outer leaves. 




31-0 
45-0 
49-0 
35-5 
32-5 


235 
18-5 
18-0 
18-0 
19-5 




Total . . 


193-0 


97-5 



Here then it will be seen that the poorer the crop the less the injury done to 
the leaves. 

Plot Q. Indian Rape. — Some seed so called, obtained from a seedsman, was 
sown in April in drills, but. not a single specimen germinated. I have, how- 
ever, been more successful with a sample obtained from a seed-crusher, as 
four-fifths came up, and my samples are progressing towards maturity, 
although not yet sufficiently far advanced to enable me to determine the 
now important question of — What is Indian Rape ? First, then, in order to 
bespeak attention to this matter, it will be well shortly to review its points 
of interest; of these the following extract from a trade circular will shortly 
explain one: — 

" I have sold this day some India rape-seed for mixing with turnip-seed, 
and enclose a sample. If you will have some at 5Gs. per quarter in the docks, 
you can have it, if unsold, to your answer." 

This, be it remembered, to mix with turnip-seed, which is sold at from 9d. 
to Is. per lb., a quarter being probably as much as 500 lbs — a good margin 
for profit ! 

Another phase of the subject will be found in the Report of the Trial of 
Greville versus Briggs, at the late Wells Assizes, in which damages Mere 

* This experiment gave the following results : — lb. oz. 

Plot O. Leaves removed, 21 plants weighed 24 4J 

Plot P. Leaves intact, 20 plants weighed 61 5J 

(October 27, 1859.) 



28 report— 1859. 

sought and obtained for some cattle that were proved to have been poisoned 
by rape-cake, the defence being that the cake in question was made from 
Indian rape. 

Now it would appear that very large quantities of this seed are sold annu- 
ally, partly to the seedsman, but more to the seed-crusher; the former mixes 
it with turnip-seed to adulterate it, — carefully preparing it, however, to pre- 
vent germination, as in our turnip-drilling age, a false plant would be detected 
in the rows*. 

The seed-crusher mixes it with true rape in crushing for rape-oil, and so 
the resulting cake appears to get poisonous properties in proportion to the 
quantity of " Indian rape " present, the truth being that this seed has all 
the properties of Sinapis arvensis — charlock mustard, which acts as an irri- 
tant poison to the cattle. 

Now, although we are not quite certain as to the specific identity of our 
Indian rape plants, we incline to the notion that it is, if not true Sinapis 
arvensis, as we know it in this country, a variety of this plant ; but upon this 
I shall be enabled to report more at length in another season. 

Plot R. Brassica oleracea. — I this year gathered seeds of this wild cabbage 
from Llandudno, N.Wales, and I have some just germinated; upon these I 
hope to carry on a series ot experiments for some years to come, with the 
object of tracing the production of the well-marked varieties which this plant 
is capable of producing. 

Plot S. Trigonella Fcenum-grczcum. — The Fenugreek, as a plant which is 
likely soon to occupy a great deal of attention, has formed a subject for 
experiment, the object being to ascertain if this eastern plant would perfect 
its seed in this country. My plot is now in full growth, and its abundance 
of long-pointed legumes, full of all but ripened seeds, are satisfactory as to 
the capabilities of the plant for cultivation in even exposed situations. 

Fenugreek is now being extensively used as a flavouring ingredient for the 
so-called " Concentrated Cattle Foods ;" and though the notion of food being 
concentrated by the addition of this plant is proved to be a fallacy, yet I 
think there can be little doubt that even inferior pulse or grain may be 
made more palatable by a flavouring principle ; and it is a question of as 
great importance to the well-being of our domestic animals as to ourselves, 
whether nutrition is not increased by flavour. 

The whole plant, but especially the seeds of the Fenugreek, contains a 
chemical principle which has been named " Cumarin" which is described as 
follows : — 

" Cumarin, C 18 H B 4 , is found in Tonka Beans, in which it sometimes 
appears in the shape of crystals; in thp flowers and whole plant of Melilotus ; 
in Asperula odorata and Anthoxanthum odoratum, and probably in other 
aromatic plants." — Schlossberger's ' Organic Chemistry.' 

Fenugreek is highly flavoured with cumarin ; and as the presence of this 
in some grasses, especially in Anthoxanthum odoratum, is the cause of a good 
flavour to hay, and for which horses always smell so carefully before eating, 
there is every reason to believe that this principle is being extended to other 
cattle foods, and in consequence the use of Fenugreek is rapidly extending. 
Cattle-food manufacturers are starting up in every district, and with all of 
them this plant is employed as the flavouring ingredient ; and it would appear 
at a great profit; as food, which before mixing would be about £7 per ton, is 

* In reference to this I may say that in Wales drilling of turnips is almost unknown, so 
that preparation of false seed is not required, as these simply get looked upon as weeds 
" natural to the soil;" but I saw the other day a patch of Swedes which had been drilled, 
and I counted 96 plants of Charlock, and 4 only ! of Swedes to each hundred in the rows. 



ON THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 29 

increased to a charge of somewhere about £42 per ton. Now if the system 
of flavouring cattle food be found to answer and the principles just enun- 
ciated are found to be correct, there need only be an addition of a few 
shillings per ton as the cost of rendering cattle food more palatable and so 
easier of digestion, and consequently of a higher nutritive value. 

I am informed that the seeds have recently doubled in price in consequence 
of their extended use ; but the experiment has shown that we can, if required, 
grow it in this country. 

Plots T, U, and V are occupied with vetches derived from the Vicia angus- 
tifolia. 

T. V. anguslifolia, var. sativa. Spring crop. 
U. V. „ var. sativa. Winter crop. 

V. V. „ formerly var. sativa, but being left wild as a perma- 

nent crop, is again reverting to its wild form. 

The facility with which wild vetches can be cultivated into new forms and 
of exceeding rank growth is a matter fully settled by these experiments, and 
they take so short a time to bring about, that they can be easily repeated by 
any one. 

Plot W. Scorzonera. 
Plot X. Salsafy. 

These were both drilled from old seed, and their paucity of plants offers 
good instruction in relation to this subject. In an agricultural point of 
view, nothing can be considered more objectionable than want of care in 
this respect. Though these are plants of the same family, there has been a 
great difference in the germination of their five-year old seed. 
Of Scorzonera came up about 2 per cent. 
Of Salsafy came up about 10 per cent. 
The plants, however, look well and healthy. 

These are amongst the good vegetables which the comparatively flavour- 
less and innutritious potato has displaced. 

Plot Y. Dioscorea Batatas, Potato Yam. — These plants have this year 
been elevated on high ridges, but do not grow vigorously in the exposed 
experimental garden. However, in my own private garden in the town, 
which is surrounded by high walls and well-sheltered, my crop promises to 
be better than usual, and I shall look forward to the produce with some 
interest. 

Plot Z. Tamus communis, Black Bryony, as being an allied plant, is now 
the subject of experiment. This year's crop is from seed sown last summer; 
they are a little larger in the tuber than peas. These will soon be taken up 
and stored for plantation in the same manner as the preceding ; whether 
the feculent black bryony root can be made edible remains to be proved 

Plot A 1 . Parsnips in seed. — This is a plot of my ennobled wild parsnips, 
experiments connected with which were reported upon in 1856. The last 
year's experimental plot was so fine that the whole of it was left for seed; 
while 

Plot A 2 is a large piece of parsnips in the kitchen garden from my seed 
of 1856: here the new parsnips promise to be very large and clean in the 
skin, the College gardener now preferring it to any other kind, as this new 
offspring of the insignificant wild root is much richer in flavour than the 
older varieties, which are wearing out in this respect. My roots now offer 
examples both of " long horn " and " short horn " varieties, so that another 
year I shall be enabled to save seed of two distinct and newly induced 
varieties. 

Grasses. — The experimental plots of grasses which have been already 



30 REPORT — 1859. 

reported upon, maintain their induced characters most perfectly, and I have 
become still more convinced of the little value to be placed in the specific 
characters of these plants as laid down by botanists, while at the same time 
I am fully aware how easy it is to make permanent varieties. In experiment- 
ing upon these, however, it must be admitted that there are great difficulties 
in the way, arising from the facility with which they become mixed with one 
another, and altogether the trouble there is in keeping the plots clean; still the 
changes in Oats and in the Poa aquatica cannot be vitiated on this account, 
as their descendants are not like anything around them ; the Poa, indeed, is 
altogether new ; we have no grass in the British Flora at all like the speci- 
mens I now submit to the Section. This is, in fact, as much a new and 
distinct species as the most specific of our well-known forms, and yet its 
production is perfectly under control, and that not, as has been hinted, as 
an isolated specimen, but in whole patches. 

Plots B 1 and C 1 are of this descendant fromPoa aquatica, and fine grasses 
they are ; they have already been laid before the Section, with the seed9 
whence they were derived in 1857; but these experiments, and all upon the 
grasses, will be again repeated on a new patch of ground which is clearing 
for the purpose ; and if I can but get good seeds, I anticipate a great deal of 
new matter from this source. 

Plot D 1 is Poa aquatica from plants taken from the canal side; they are 
growing very well; but even from growing in an unaccustomed habitat, they 
are taking on immense differences, which I expect time will confirm ; I shall 
therefore reserve any further description of this until another opportunity. 

Plots D 1 , E 1 , F 1 , were devoted to oat experiments as follows : — 
D 1 . Avena fatua, var. saliva. Tartarean sort. 
E l . Avena fatua, var. sativa. Potato sort. 

F 1 . Avena fatua, formerly sativa. Left wild as a permanent crop. 
Of these, D 1 and E 1 have maintained their characters both iu my experimental 
plots and in the extended farm cultivation to which they have been subjected 
by Mr. Coleman, the Manager of the Royal Agricultural College Farm. 

Plot F 1 has presented all phases of reversion, just as may be observed in 
the field on examining the offspring of ' shed' oats. 

PlotG 1 is occupied with a grass which has recently excited some attention, 
it is the Holcus (Soi'ghuni) saccharatus : its seed was drilled early in April, 
and duly thinned out as it advanced. Early in August it had stooled to 
about five culms to each plant, of which the main or primitive one was the 
largest; at this time I gathered some in order to try how the cows liked it; 
but they uniformly refused it, which was not to be wondered at, when at this 
time the whole of my plants possessed an intensely bitter taste. On the 1st 
of September I again made trial with some of the more advanced shoots ; 
they were devoured greedily, but now an immense quantity of sugar had 
been developed, as the bases of these tasted quite as sweet as liquorice root. 
This points to the circumstances that the juices of this plant may be rich in 
saccharine matter at a later, though not at an earlier stage of growth ; if, then, 
it is ever to be useful as a feeding grass, this must be attended to; but I 
much doubt whether at any time in the cold climate of the Cotteswolds this 
species of sugar-cane will yield so much sugar as in a warmer and less 
exposed position ; at the same time, as a first trial, I consider this eminently 
successful, and I should not wonder to see it more fully tried over a great 
part of England next season. 



ON THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANURES. 31 

Report on Field Experiments and Laboratory Researches on the Con- 
stituents of Manures essential to cultivated Crops. By Dr. Augustus 
Voelcker, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

The field experiments on which I have to report were begun in 1855, and have 
been continued since from year to year. They were at first instituted chiefly 
for the purpose of ascertaining practically the comparative economic value 
of some of the artificial manures, such as guano, superphosphate of lime, 
bone-dust, &c, in reference to root-crops. In the course of my experiments, 
however, I was led to abandon, more or less, the primary object for which the 
experiments were at first undertaken, and to make them subservient to assist 
the solution of several disputed and important points in agricultural and 
physiological science. 

Amongst other questions which arise in the mind of the agricultural 
chemist who has closely followed the progress of agricultural chemistry, the 
following are some of the more important : — 

1. Can ammonia or nitrogenized matters be dispensed with in manures, or 
is it desirable that there should be a certain proportion of nitrogenized matter 
or ammonia in manures ? 

2. What is the effect of ammoniacal salts, of phosphates, of alkalies, and 
other fertilizing constituents applied separately upon vegetation ? 

3. Is the practical effect produced by ammonia, or by phosphates, &c, the 
same upon wheat or other grain crops as that produced upon turnips or clover? 

4. Are there fertilizing constituents which benefit certain crops more than 
others ? 

5. Is it desirable or unphilosophical, and therefore leading to the ultimate 
exhaustion of the soil, to apply special fertilizing matters to the land, i. e. 
matters which contain but 1, 2, or at all events a limited number of chemical 
compounds ? or is it necessary, in order to maintain the permanent fertility of 
the land, to restore to the soil in the shape of a compound and universal ma- 
nure, all the constituents removed by the crops grown upon the land in pre- 
vious years? These and other similar questions, affecting agricultural practice, 
have occupied me for several years past. 

The results of my experiments detailed in the following Report, I trust will 
be found useful contributions towards the final settlement of the mooted 
questions. 

Field Experiments made in 1 855. 
Although I believe that the minute chemical analysis of soils, generally 
speaking, affords but little or no indication as to the fertilizing matters which 
are best calculated to improve their productive powers, I am still of opinion 
that it is desirable and even indispensable to record in all field experiments, 
the principal physical characters, and the amount of at least the chief or pre- 
ponderating constituents of the soil of the experimental field. 

I would therefore observe that the experimental field was a naturally poor 
shallow soil with clayey subsoil of inconsiderable depth, and resting on the 
Great Oolite limestone rock. 

Submitted to a general analysis, it yielded — 

Organic matter and water of combination 6*339 

Oxides of iron and alumina, with traces of phosphoric acid 9'311 

Carbonate of lime 54*566 

Magnesia 

Alkalies I determined by loss *S37 

Sulphuric acid J 

Insoluble siliceous matter (chiefly clay) 28'947 

100-000 



32 REPORT — 1859. 

The land was left unmanured in the preceding year, and was considered a 
poor turnip soil. 

I purposely selected a poor field ; for it strikes me on such a soil the ma- 
nurial effect of different fertilizers is much better discerned than on land in 
a high state of fertility. The productive power of soils cannot be increased 
to an unlimited extent; and when by good cultivation it approaches its maxi- 
mum state of fertility, the addition of the most effective fertilizing matters 
cannot produce any marked effect. I may, however, observe that care was 
bestowed upon the mechanical preparation of the land, which is not always 
done in field experiments. 

The experimental field was divided into ten different plots of one-eighth of 
an acre each. These plots were arranged side by side in continuous rows of 
drills, care being taken to reject the headlands. The different manures were 
all applied to the land on the same day, and the Swedish turnip-seed sown by 
a ridge-drill on the 20th of June. Subsequently all the plots were treated in 
precisely the same way, and care was taken to render the experiments in every 
respect comparative. 

One of the plots was left unmanured, the nine remaining were manured as 
follows : — 

Plot 1 received 56 lbs. of Peruvian guano, or at the rate of 4 cwt. per 
acre. 

Plot 2 received 84 lbs. of Suffolk coprolites, treated with one-third their 
weight of sulphuric acid and 28 lbs. of guano, or at the rate of 6 cwt. of 
dissolved coprolites and 2 cwt. of Peruvian guano per acre. 

Plot 3 received 100 lbs. of bone-dust, or 7 cwt. 16 lbs. per acre. 

Plot 4 received 93 lbs. of bone-dust dissolved in one-third its weight of 
sulphuric acid, or at the rate of 6 cwt. 72 lbs. per acre. 

Plot 5 received 56 lbs. of economical manure, or at the rate of 4 cwt. 
per acre. 

Plot 6 received 120 lbs. of nut-cake, or at the rate of 8 cwt. 64 lbs. per 
acre. 

Plot 7 was manured with 140 lbs. of dissolved coprolites, or at the rate of 
10 cwt. per acre. 

Plot 8 was left unmanured. 

Plot 9 received 180 lbs. of commercial night-soil manure, or at the rate of 
12 cwt. 96 lbs. per acre. 

Plot 10 was manured with a mixture of 1 bushel of soot, 30 lbs. of guano, 
and dissolved coprolites and dissolved bones. 

The respective quantities of these fertilizing matters were all obtained 
at the same cost of 5s. per plot, or at the rate of £2 per acre. 

All the different fertilizers were carefully analysed ; but in order not to 
swell too much this Report I abstain from giving the details of the analyses. 
I may, however, observe that the guano contained 14*177 per cent, of nitro- 
gen, and 25*06 of bone-earth, and nearly 3 per cent, of phosphoric acid 
in combination with alkalies. We have thus in Plot 1 a manure contain- 
ing a large proportion of nitrogenized matters as well as phosphates and 
alkalies. 

In Plot 2 only half the amount of guano was used, and phosphates more 
largely supplied in the shape of dissolved coprolites. 

The coprolites, however, having been treated with only one-third their 
weight of acid, contained scarcely more than 6 per cent, of soluble phosphates; 
and it is to be feared that the remainder of the undissolved phosphates in the 
coprolites exercised little or no effect upon the turnip-crop. 

In Plot 3 we have a manure which contains 44*22 of insoluble phosphate 
of lime, and 4*28 per cent, of nitrogen. 



ON THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANURES. 33 

In Plot 4 bone-dust dissolved in one-third its weight of sulphuric acid, 
consequently a manurewhich contained both soluble and insoluble phosphates, 
was employed. 

The economical manure, a manure highly recommended for the growth of 
root-crops, aud used upon Plot 5, contained in 100 parts — 

Water 36*525 

Protosulphate of iron 23*756 

Sulphate of lime *860 

Sulphate of magnesia *204 

Bisulphate of potash 4*677 

Bisulphate of soda 10-928 

Sulphate of soda 15*143 

Sulphate of ammonia 2*648 

Insoluble siliceous matter (sand) .... 5*850 

100*591 

This manure thus contained no phosphoric acid whatever. 

In Plot 6 nut-cake was used. This refuse manure contained 4*863 per 
cent, of nitrogen and 4*12 of phosphate of lime. 

The dissolved coprolites used in Plot 7 were free from nitrogenized 
matter. 

In the commercial night-soil manure was found 4*399 per cent, of phos- 
phoric acid. 

The whole produce of each experimental plot was weighed, and the 
weight of the trimmed roots calculated per acre. 

The following Table exhibits the yield of the trimmed roots of each plot, 
calculated per acre, and the increase per acre over unmanured plot : — 

Per acre. Increase per acre, 
tons. cwt. lbs. tons. cwt. lbs. 

Plot 1 (guano) yielded 1112 56 6 8 56 

Plot 2 (guano and dissolved coprolites) yielded. . 12 16 16 7 12 16 

Plot 3 (bone-dust) yielded 8 16 3 12 

Plot 4 (bone-superphosphate) yielded 131216 8 816 

Plot 5 (economical manure) yielded 6 16 16 16 

Plot 6 (nut-cake) yielded 10 4 16 

Plot 7 (dissolved coprolites) yielded 1112 6 8 

Plot 8 (unmanured) yielded 5 4 

Plot 9 (commercial night-soil) yielded 940 4 00 

Plot 10 (mixture of soot, guano, dissolved copro- 
lites and bone-superphosphates) yielded. .10 8 4 16 8 

It will appear from these experiments — 

1. That phosphatic manures greatly increased the yield of the root-crop. 

2. That a purely mineral phosphate, when dissolved in acid and quite free 
from ammonia, gave as large a return as good Peruvian guano, which is rich 
in ammonia. 

S. That the economical manure, which contained no phosphates, practi- 
cally speaking, gave no increase in the crop. 

4. That manures which are comparatively poor in phosphates produced 
less effect than manures rich in phosphates. 

5. That the form in which the phosphates were employed very much affected 
the result. 

Thus bone-dust treated with sulphuric acid, and consequently containing 
1859. ' D 



3'4" REPORT 1859. 

soluble phosphates, yielded an increase of 8 tons. 8 cwt. 16 lbs. over uh- 
manured plot, whereas an equal money value of bone-dust undissolved yielded 
an increase of only 3 tons 12 cwt. 

6. That guano proved to be a less economical manure for Swedes than 
superphosphate. 

Experiments upon Swedes made in 1856. 

The preceding experiments sufficiently show the great importance of 
phosphates presented in a soluble condition to the crop of Swedes. They 
appear likewise to indicate that nitrogenized or ammoniacal manures are not 
so essential as phosphates for the production of a good crop of roots ; but 
they do not touch the question whether or not ammonia can be entirely dis- 
pensed with in the cultivation of turnips. This is an important question, for 
of all fertilizing matters ammonia is the most expensive. 

My attention therefore was chiefly directed in the next series of experi- 
ments to study the influence which purely ammoniacal manures exert on the 
growth of Swedish turnips. . , 

Reviewing the experiments made in 1855, it may appear that the nitroge- 
nized matters and ammonia contained in the manures employed had some 
share in the production of the increase ; for it will be remembered that the 
addition of a small quantity of guano to dissolved coprolites had a very be- 
neficial effect. Again, the fact that bone-superphosphate, containing from 
2 to 1\ per cent, of ammonia, gave a much larger return than the mineral 
superphosphate, might seem to indicate that ammonia in moderate propor- 
tion is a desirable fertilizing ingredient of a turnip manure. 

A critical examination of these facts, however, I think neither proves nor 
discountenances the conclusion that ammonia has had a beneficial effect on 
the recorded experiments ; for when comparing the effects of bone-superphos- 
phate with dissolved coprolites, no account was taken of the proportion of 
soluble phosphate contained in each. I have since ascertained that the dis- 
solved coprolites contained most of the phosphate in an insoluble state, not 
near enough acid having been employed for dissolving the coprolite powder. 
Indeed the coprolite manure contained but little soluble phosphate ; and as 
insoluble phosphate, in the shape of coprolite powder, has little or no effect 
upon vegetation, whilst the insoluble phosphates in bone-dust, partially de- 
composed by acid, unquestionably are sufficiently available to produce an 
immediate effect on the turnip crop, the difference in the result may have 
been due to the larger amount of available phosphates, and not to the am- 
monia contained in the bone-phosphate. On the other hand, the addition 
of some guano to dissolved coprolites having produced a beneficial effeet, it 
may be inferred that the ammonia in the guano helped to produce this effect ; 
but since Peruvian guano contains both soluble phosphates and insoluble 
phosphate of lime in a highly finely-divided state, it may be maintained with 
equal force that the additional produce resulted from the additional quantity 
of available phosphates in guano. In short, the experiments in 1855 are not 
calculated to decide the question whether or not ammonia can be dispensed 
with as a manuring constituent in a turnip manure. 

With a view of throwing some light on the action of ammonia on root- 
crops, I made in 1856 the following field experiments : — 

A portion of a field was divided into twelve parts of one-twentieth of an 
acre each. The seed was sown on the 21st of June. 

The soil on analysis yielded the subjoined results : — 



ON THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANURES. 3S 

Moisture when analysed 4*72 

Organic matter and water of combination 11 '03 

Oxides of iron 9*98 

Alumina 6*06 

Carbonate of lime 12-10 

Sulphate of lime '75 

Alkalies and magnesia (determined by loss) 1*43 

Silica (soluble in dilute caustic potash) 17*93 

Insoluble siliceous matter (chiefly clay) 36'00 

100-00 

The experimental field was well drained. The surface soil is thin, poor, 
and full of fragments of limestone, which render the land lighter. Separated 
from the stones, the soil may be regarded as a stiffish clay-marl, which in wet 
weather is very tenacious and heavy, and in warm weather dries into hard 
unmanageable lumps. The depth of the soil was inconsiderable. 

The twelve experimental plots were treated in regard to manure as fol- 
lows : — 

At the rate 
of per acre. 

To Plot 1 was applied well-rotten farmyard manure 15 tons. 

To Plot 2 was applied gypsum 6 cwt. 

To Plot 3 was applied bone-ash dissolved in sulphuric acid .... 6 cwt. 

To Plot 4 was applied sulphate of ammonia 6 cwt. 

To Plot 5 was applied bone-ash dissolved in sulphuric acid 6 cwt. 

and sulphate of ammonia 6 cwt. — 12 cwt. 

To Plot 6 was applied bone-ash dissolved in sulphuric acid . . , . 12 cwt. 

To Plot 7 was applied sulphate of potash 6 cwt. 

Plot 8 (unmanured). 

To Plot 9 was applied crystallized sulphate of soda 12 cwt. 

To Plot 10 was applied bone-ash dissolved in acid 6 cwt. 

sulphate of potash 6 cwt. 

sulphate of ammonia 6 cwt. — 18 cwt. 

To Plot 11 was applied bone-ash dissolved in acid 3 cwt. 

Plot 12 (unmanured). 

The dissolved bone-ash on analysis yielded the following results : — 

Water 32-80 

Organic matter -13 

Biphosphate of lime (CaO, PO s ) 18-49 

Equal to bone-earth rendered soluble by acid . . (28-80) 

Insoluble phosphates 6"43 

Hydrated sulphate of lime 38-39 

Alkaline salts 1'94 

Sand 1-82 

100-00 

This preparation thus contained a large per-centage of soluble phosphate 
as well as gypsum, which necessarily must be formed when bone-ash is dis- 
solved in acid. It having been stated by a high authority that in Messrs. 
Lawes and Gilbert's turnip experiments the sulphate of lime contained in their 
superphosphate might have had quite as much influence upon the produce 
as the phosphate of lime, it appeared to me desirable to apply gypsum alone 
to one plot. Turnips contain a considerable quantity of sulphur ; it i& there- 
fore not unlikely that in soils deficient in sulphate of lime, the artificial sup- 
ply of sulphates may be found advantageous to the turnip crop. At the same 

d2 



36 report — 1859. 

time it appeared to me desirable to ascertain the effects of alkalies on turnips, 
and ammonia, potash, and soda applied in the shape of sulphates. We have 
thus in these experiments sulphuric acid in all the different states of com- 
bination in which it is likely to occur in arable land. 

Two plots, it will be noticed, were left unmanured. This should always be 
done in field experiments ; for otherwise it is impossible to ascertain whether 
or not an experimental field is uniform, and what are the unavoidable varia- 
tions in the produce of two plots of the same field. 

It will be noticed that in nearly all plots nothing but simple salts were used, 
in order not to complicate the interpretation of the results. It is useful, how- 
ever, to ascertain how far the natural produce may be increased by a com- 
pound and approved fertilizer, such as farmyard manure, and in such an ex- 
periment ordinary manure should be as liberally supplied as in Plot 1. 

The Swedes were taken up in the last week of November, topped and tailed, 
and the whole produce of each plot weighed. 

Table, showing the produce of trimmed Swedes of Experimental Plots, 
calculated per acre, and increase over the unmanured part of field. 

tons cwt. lbs. tons cwt. lbs. 

Plot 1(15 tons of farmyard manure) yielded 7 16 38 5 75 

Decrease* 

Plot 2 (6 cwt. of gypsum) yielded 2 1 45 1 1 30 

Plot 3 (6 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash) yielded 8 3 38 5 7 40 

Decrease. 

Plot 4 (6 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia) yielded . . 2 12 51 3 24 
Plot 5 (6 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia, and 6 cwt. 

of dissolved bone-ash) yielded 8 6 41 5 10 78 

Plot 6 (12 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash) yielded .. 8 12 90 5 17 15 

Decrease. 

Plot 7 (6 cwt. of sulphate of potash) yielded 2 10 5 75 

Plot 8 (unmanured) yielded 3 019 

Plot 9 (12 cwt. of crystallized sulphate of soda) 

yielded 3 6 9 10 46 

Plot 10 (6 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash, 6 cwt. of sul- 
phate of ammonia, 6 cwt. of sulphate of 

potash) yielded 6 17 6 4 2 43 

Plot 11 (3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash) yielded .. 7 19 51 5 4 88 

Plot 12 (unmanured) yielded ". 2 1119 

The natural produce of the experimental field was taken at 2 tons 15 cwt. 
75 lbs., being the average of the two unmanured plots No. 8 and 12. 
These results suggest the following remarks: — 

1. The natural produce of this field was very small, as it scarcely 
amounted to 3 tons per acre ; special fertilizing ingredients, such as phos- 
phoric acid, ammonia, &c, therefore may be expected to have full play in a 
soil like the one of the experimental field. 

2. Only those plots yielded an increase which contained phosphates ; the 
other manuring constituents had no effect upon the turnip crop in these ex- 
periments. 

3. Gypsum cannot replace phosphate of lime in manuring matters. In 
these experiments it had no effect whatever, which need not surprise if it be 
remembered that the soil contained naturally \ of a per cent, of sulphate of 
lime. 

4. None of the other sulphates produced any effect upon the crop. Sul- 
phates, especially sulphate of lime, are much more abundant in nature than 
phosphates, There are few soils which do not contain abundance of sulphate 



ON THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENTS OP MANURES. 37 

of lime to supply our cultivated crops with abundance of sulphuric acid. 
This appears to me the chief reason why sulphates rarely show any effect 
upon turnips and other crops. 

5. The bone-ash dissolved in acid did not contain any nitrogen, notwith- 
standing 3 cwt. produced as large an increase as 15 tons of well-rotten farm- 
yard manure. 

6. Sulphate of ammonia proved inefficacious when used by itself, or in 
conjunction with soluble phosphates. 

It is possible, however, that the quantity of ammonia used in the experi- 
ments was too large. Similar experiments, which I have since undertaken 
and hope to continue for a number of years, induce me to believe that on the 
soils in our neighbourhood ammonia has no beneficial effect whatever upon 
Swedes. And yet it is quite possible that ammonia may prove beneficial 
on other soils, which, like sandy soils, do not possess in a high degree the. 
power of absorbing ammonia from the atmosphere, nor to accumulate largely 
nitrogenized organic matters. But the cases in which ammonia or nitrogen- 
ized manures are really beneficial to turnips I think are quite exceptional; 
and I have little hesitation in saying that a great deal of ammonia, the most 
expensive fertilizing ingredient of guano, at the present time is wasted in 
most instances in which guano and other ammoniacal manures are exclusively 
employed in the cultivation of root-crops. 

It is certainly a remarkable fact that many thousands of tons of turnips are 
now raised annually with nothing else but 3 cwt. or 4 cwt. of superphosphate, 
made exclusively of bone-ash and mineral phosphates. 

At least 90 per cent, of all the artificial manures that are now offered for 
sale, whatever their name may be, are in reality superphosphates ; and the 
great majority of superphosphates contains no appreciable amount of nitrogen. 
Even those artificial manures which, like nitro-phosphate, ammonio-phosphate, 
blood-manure, &c, convey the idea of manures rich in nitrogen or ammonia, 
when prepared for turnips, seldom contain any considerable amount of nitro- 
gen. It is not likely that an intelligent class of men like the makers of arti- 
ficial manures, would cut short the supply of nitrogenized matters or ammo- 
niacal salts in turnip-manures, if they had not found out by experience that 
manures made from bone-ash and sulphuric acid alone, and consequently rich 
in soluble phosphates, have a more powerful influence upon the yield of root- 
crops than ammoniacal manures, which are comparatively poor in phosphates. 

I would likewise specially notice, that even quite dilute solutions of am- 
moniacal salts retard the germination and early growth of turnips in a 
remarkable degree. 

In the preceding experiments I was surprised to find, contrary to all expec- 
tation, that sulphate of ammonia impaired the development of leaves. Am- 
moniacal salts are generally considered as leaf-producing, fertilizing consti- 
tuents ; I therefore fully expected to see on Plot 4 a luxuriant development 
of tops on the expanse of the bulbs. But not only did sulphate of ammonia 
retard the germination of the seed for a short period, instead of pushing it 
on rapidly, but throughout the whole season the turnip-tops on Plot 4 looked 
quite as bad, if not worse, than the unmanured plot. 

However, in Plot 5, in which sulphate of ammonia was used in conjunction 
■with dissolved bone-ash, I observed, to some extent, the effects which are 
generally ascribed to ammoniacal manures. The leaves of the turnips in 
Plot 5 had a much darker appearance than in other plots not dressed with 
ammoniacal salts, and the plants on this plot, on the whole, looked the most 
luxuriant. 

It would appear from this that ammoniacal salts are useless by themselves 



38 - report — 1859. 

as leaf-producing substances, when applied to poor soils deficient in phos- 
phates and other mineral matters necessary for the growth of leaves. 

In conjunction with phosphates, sulphate of ammonia in the preceding ex- 
periment had a marked effect upon the turnip-tops, but none upon the bulbs. 

Experiments on Turnips made in 1857. 

My experiments in 1857 were principally made with a view of trying 
whether sulphate of ammonia, applied alone and in conjunction with phos- 
phates, had the same or a similar effect on richer land than that experimented 
upon in 1856, and at the same time to determine the influence of nitrogenized 
matters on the turnip crop. To this end I selected a field which was somewhat 
deeper, more level, and altogether more fertile than the experimental field in 
1856. It yielded on analysis the following results : — 

Moisture 1*51 

Organic matter and water of combination 11 '08 

Oxides of iron and alumina 14*25 

Carbonate of lime 10*82 

Sulphate of lime *7l 

Magnesia -51 

Potash (soluble in acid solution) *32 

Soda (soluble in acid solution) *05 

Phosphoric acid *10 

Insoluble siliceous matter (chiefly clay) 61*78 

101-13 

On comparing the composition of this soil with that of the experimental 
field in 1856, it will be found that the chemical characters of both soils are 
very much alike. The seed sown on the 10th of June was that of white 
Swedes. The different manures were mixed with three times their weight of 
fine sifted burnt clay, in order to secure a more uniform distribution of the 
manure over the land. Each experimental plot measured -£$ of an acre. 
Leaving unnoticed a number of field trials, I select only those experiments 
which have a more immediate scientific interest. 

Plot 1 was manured at the rate per acre with 3 cwt. of superphosphate. 
Plot 2 was manured at the rate per acre with 3 cwt. of fine bone-dust. 
Plot 3 was manured at the rate per acre with 3 cwt. of superphosphate, 
made by dissolving fine bone-dust in 50 per cent, of sulphuric acid. 

Plot 4 was manured at the rate per acre with 3 cwt. of bone-superphos- 
phate (purchased). 
Plot 5 (unmanured). 

Plot 6 was manured at the rate per acre with l£ cwt. of sulphate of am- 
monia. 

Plot 7 was manured at the rate per acre with 1£ cwt. of sulphate of am- 
monia and l^cwt. of superphosphate, made by dissolving bone-ash in sulphu- 
ric acid. 

Plot 8 was manured at the rate per acre with 1| cwt. of bone-ash dis- 
solved in sulphuric acid without ammonia. 

Plot 9 was manured at the rate per acre with 4 cwt. of gypsum. 

Plot 10 was manured at the rate per acre with 9 cwt. of burnt clay alone 

(the same quantity which was used with the manures in the other experiments). 

Plot 11 was manured at the rate per acre with 3 cwt. of Peruvian guano. 

On each plot a good plant was obtained, and the crop singled on the 16th 

of July, with the exception of the plots upon which sulphate of ammonia and 

guano were used. Although sulphate of ammonia was used in the small pro- . 

port ; bn of l£ cwt. per acre, and previously mixed with three times its weight 



cwt. 

17 


qrs. 




lbs. 

16 . 


Increase per acre, 
tons. cwt. qrs. lbs. 

..4 5 1 20 


11 





26 , 


,.. 1 19 2 2 



ON THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANURES. 39 

of burnt clay, it retarded the germination of the seed and the growth of the 
turnips in their first period of existence. Several other experiments, made 
on a small scale, and all my experiments upon turnips in 1858 and in 1859, 
confirm the fact first observed by me in 1855, that sulphate of ammonia, 
instead of rapidly pushing on the young plant, as generally supposed, retards 
its development in a very marked degree. 

The produce of each plot was taken up on the 19th of November; after 
trimming and cleaning, the roots were weighed. The following Table gives 
the produce in Swedes, topped and tailed, and cleaned per acre, and increase 
per acre : — 

Plot. ■ • tons. 

1. 3 cwt. of superphosphate 10 

2. 3 cwt. of bone-dust 8 

3. 3 cwt. of superphosphate, made by 

dissolving bone-dust in 50 per 

cent, sulphuric acid 9 14 3 1 ... 3 3 

4. 3 cwt. of purchased bone-superphos- 

phate 9 

5. Unmanured 6 

6. 1 \ cwt. of sulphate of ammonia .. 5 

7. 1| cwt. of sulphate of ammonia and 

\\ dissolved bone-ash 9 

8. 1| cwt. dissolved bone-ash 8 

9. 4 cwt. of gypsum 6 

10. 9 cwt. of burnt clay 6 

11.3 cwt. of Peruvian guano 8 

Plot 1, it will be seen, yielded the largest increase ; from first to last this 
plot had the lead as to appearance. 

The superphosphate used in this experiment had the following composition: — 

Moisture 10*80 

Organic matter * 4'21 

Biphosphate of lime 20'28 

Equal to bone-earth made soluble by acid. . (31*63) 

Insoluble phosphates 4*1 1 

Hydrated sulphate of lime 46*63 

Common salt 10'78 

Sand 3-19 

100-00 

It will be seen that there is very little nitrogen in this superphosphate, and 
that in addition to much soluble phosphate it contains about 11 per cent, of 
common salt. Salt, I am inclined to think, increases the efficacy of phos- 
phates upon turnips. 

Plot 2. The bone-dust used upon this plot was as fine as sawdust, and 
yielded on analysis, — 

Moisture 6*86 

Organic- matter f. 13*14 

Phosphates of lime and magnesia .... 68*17 
Carbonate of lime 679 



17 


2 


2 .. 


. 3 


5 3 


6 


11 


2 


24 




Decrease. 




6 





21 . 


.. 1 


5 2 

Increase. 


3 


3 





26 . 


.. 2 


11 2 


2 


18 


3 


22 . 


.. 2 


7 


26 


13 


3 


17 . 


.. 


2 


21 


16 


3 


1 . 


.. 


5 


5 


18 


1 


25 . 


. 2 


6 3 


1 



Alkaline salts 1*90 

Sand 3*42 



100*00 



• Containing nitrogen -34 t Containing nitrogen 1-83 

Equal to ammonia '41 Equal to ammonia 2*22 



40 REPORT — 1859. 

Plot 3. A comparison of the produce of Plot 3 with Plot 2 will show 
the advantage of applying the phosphates to the land in a condition in which 
they are readily distributed in the soil by the rain that falls, and more easily 
dissolved in water than the phosphates in bone-dust. 

These dissolved bones gave on analysis the following results : — 

Water 24*33 

Organic matter and ammoniacal salts* .... 5*04 

Biphosphate of lime 17*00 

Equal to bone-earth rendered soluble byiacid (26*52) 

Insoluble phosphates 9*89 

Hydrated sulphate of lime 39*25 

Alkaline salts and magnesia 2*81 

Sand 1*68 



100*00 



Plot 5 (unmanured) gave 6 tons 11 cwt. 2 qrs. 24? lbs. 

Plot 9 (gypsum) gave 6 tons 13 cwt. 3 qrs. 22 lbs. 

Plot 10 (burnt clay) gave 6 tons 16 cwt. 3 qrs. 1 lb. 

The produce of these three plots is so much alike, that the small difference 
may be safely ascribed to natural variations of the soil. The crop on these 
plots again shows that gypsum had no effect, and that the experimental field 
was uniform in its character. 

Plot 6. The sulphate of ammonia used in this experiment contained in 
100 parts,— 

Sulphate of ammonia 98*28 

Fixed salts *78 

Moisture *94 

100*00 

We have here actually a decrease of 1 ton 5 cwt. 2 qrs. 3 lbs. of roots per 
acre. The plants on this plot, I may observe, came up much later, and looked 
decidedly worse than those on the unmanured plot, or any other part of the 
experimental field. 

It will be remembered that in the preceding season sulphate of ammonia 
did not increase the yield in bulbs, and likewise prevented the development 
of luxuriant tops. 

Plot 7. The addition of sulphate of ammonia to dissolved bone-ash, it will 
be seen by comparing the yield of this plot with that of Plot 8, gave but 
a slight increase, amounting to no more than 4 cwt. 1 qr. 6 lbs. per acre. 

Plot 8. The dissolved bone-ash used in this experiment was the same as 
that used in experiments in the preceding year, and contained — 

Biphosphate of lime 18*49 

Equal to soluble bone-earth (28*80) 

Insoluble phosphates 6*43 

It did not contain any nitrogenized constituents. 

Plot 11. The Peruvian guano used upon this plot yielded on analysis, — 

Moisture 18*50 

Organic matter and ammoniacal saltsf. . . . 52*33 

Phosphate of lime and magnesia 21*66 

Alkaline salts J 6*41 

Insoluble siliceous matter 1*10 

100*00 

* Containing nitrogen 1-28 f Containing nitrogen 14-16 

Equal to ammonia 1-55 Equal to ammonia 17*19 



+ 



Containing phosphoric acid 1*46 



ON THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANURES. 41 

The roots on this plot were for a long time decidedly inferior to the super- 
phosphate turnips. But towards the middle of September the plants took 
a start, and the guano turnips, so far as the tops were concerned, looked the 
best in the field. When the crop was taken up, the guano turnips were at 
least 3 inches higher in the tops, and promised, as far as appearance went, 
the heaviest crop ; but the actual weight of the plots manured with dissolved 
bone-ash and superphosphate not containing any nitrogenized matters, showed 
that there was no advantage in using ammoniacal matters for producing good 
bulbs on the experimental field. 

The whole tenor of the field trials in 1857 agrees well with the results of 
the trials in 1856. The experiments in 1859 afford a fresh proof that salts 
of ammonia applied alone to root-crops have no beneficial effect, but rather 
the reverse. They also show that phosphate of lime in a soluble state 
favours more the production of good bulbs than any other manuring consti- 
tuent, and that nitrogenized matters are not required in a manure for Swedish 
turnips, grown on land similar to the experimental field, and under conditions 
similar to those which prevailed in 1856 and 1857. 

In concluding this part of my Report, I may state that last year (1858) the 
results of my field experiments were entirely spoiled by the ravages which 
the fly and the black caterpillar committed. 

This year (1859) I have an extensive series of field experiments upon 
Swedes. All the experimental plots look remarkably healthy, and I hope in 
a future year to repeat the result of this year's trials, which were made like 
those in 1856, 1857, and 1858, with a special view of determining the influ- 
ence of nitrogenized substances and ammoniacal salts on root-crops. 

Before proceeding with another series of field experiments, I may state 
that I have analysed at various times hundreds of turnips. It would be oc- 
cupying too much space to give here tabulated abstracts of these analyses. 
Although I am still occupied with following up this examination of turnips 
grown under various conditions, and have not as yet arrived at any definite 
conclusions respecting the influence of different manuring matters on this 
crop, I may state a few general facts which my analyses have brought to 
light. 

1. In the first place, I would observe that I do not find any striking differ- 
ences in the composition of roots raised with different manures, provided 
they are pulled up in an equally mature condition. 

2. Soluble phosphates appear to promote an early maturity of the roots, 
and ammoniacal salts, on the contrary, to retard the maturity of roots. 
However, on this point my experiments are not sufficiently numerous and 
conclusive to establish satisfactorily this matter. 

3. Roots grown on poor soils and developed more gradually, contain less 
water and more sugar, and are consequently more nutritious than roots of a 
large size grown rapidly with much manure. 

4. Contrary to a very prevalent opinion, I find that the best and most nu- 
tritious roots invariably contain less nitrogen than inferior less nutritious 
roots. Indeed I am of opinion that a high per-centage of nitrogen in turnips 
is a sure sign that the roots have not reached full maturity, and are less 
wholesome to cattle than well-ripened roots. In the latter I have found, in 
some instances, fully one- third less of nitrogen than in the same roots at an 
earlier stage of their growth. 

The examination of roots, taken once every fortnight from the same field 
during several successive months, has shown that the per-centage of nitrogen 
in turnips steadily decreases in the measure in which they proceed towards 
maturity. In the measure in which the per-centage of nitrogen decreases, 



42 report — 1859. 

that of sugar increases. Thus in mangolds, which were as yet scarcely sweet 
to the taste, I have found as much as 2f per cent, of nitrogen in the dry roots, 
whilst in the best and fully ripe mangold wurzels only 1*30 per cent, of nitro- 
gen was found. 

The nutritive value of different roots, therefore, is not dependent on the 
relative proportion of nitrogen which they contain, but is regulated chiefly 
by the relative proportion of sugar which they yield. 

Field Experiments upon Wheat made in 1859. 

I have now to record the results of a series of experiments upon the wheat- 
crop. 

The field upon which the experiments were made was perfectly level, and 
apparently of uniform depth and agricultural capability. 

It was divided into seven plots of \ of an acre each. 

Plot 1 was manured with Peruvian guano at the rate of 2\ cwt. per acre ; 
cost £1 125. 6d. per cwt. 

Plot 2 was manured with nitrate of soda, If cwt. 

Plot 3 was manured with nitrate of soda, 180 lbs., and common salt, 1^ cwt. ; 
cost £1 12s. 6d. 

Plot 4 was manured with wheat-manure specially prepared, and containing 
both mineral and ammoniacal constituents, at the rate of 4 cwt. per acre. 

Plot 5 was manured with the same wheat-manure, at the rate of 6 cwt. per 
acre. 

Plot 6 (unmanured). 

Plot 7 was manured with chalk-marl, 1 ton. 

The nitrate of soda used in the experiments contained 97 per cent, of pure 
nitrate, and the wheat-manure on analysis was found to contain in 100 parts, — 

Composition of Wheat-manure, same as used in Experiments onRoyal 
Agricultural College Farm, March 8, 1859. 

Moisture 13*60 

Sulphate of ammonia* 10*97 

Soluble nitrogenized organic matter-)- 8*08 

Insolublef 14*72 

Biphosphate of lime 3*54 

Equal to bone-earth rendered soluble by acid (5*52) 

Insoluble phosphates (bone-earth) 9*45 

Sulphate of magnesia *61 

Hydrated sulphate of lime 19*73 

Chloride of sodium ("common salt) 16*84 

Insoluble siliceous matters 2*46 

100*00 

The different fertilizers were applied in the shape of top-dressings on the 

22nd of March, and the produce reaped in the first week of August and 

thrashed out on the 24th of August. 

* Containing nitrogen 2*32 

Equal to ammonia 2*82 

f Containing nitrogen 3-53 

Equal to ammonia 4-28 

Per-centage of anhydrous sulphuric acid(S0 3 ) in manure 

(total amount of sulphuric acid in all the sulphates) 15-93 

Per-centage of chlorine 10*22 

Per-centage of phosphoric acid 8*91 



ON THE ESSENTIAL CONSTITUENTS OF MANURES. 



43 



The following Table gives the yield in corn and straw of each experimental 
plot, the manures employed, and the produce calculated per acre. 
Each plot measured 1 of an acre. 



Manures employed and sown, 
March 22, 1859. 

Peruvian guano, 2\ cwt. ; cost 
£1 \2s.6d. (guano, £13 per 
ton). 



Plot 1 

Plot 2. Nitrate of soda, 1 '- cwt. ; cost 

Plot 3. 



Plot 4. 
Plot 5. 



£1 12s. 6d. (nitrate of soda, j 

£18 10s. per ton). 
Nitrate of soda, 180 lbs., and^ 

chloride of sodium, 1^ cwt.; 

cost of manure per acre,£l 12s. 

6d. (cost of salt, 30s. per ton; 

of nitrate, £18 10s. per ton). 
Wheat-manure, 4 cwt. per acre; 

cost £1 12s. 6d. (price of 

wheat-manure, £8 per ton). 
Wheat-manure, 6 cwt. per acre ; 

cost £2 8s. (price of wheat- 
manure, £8 per ton). 



Plot 6. Unmanured. 
Plot 7. Chalk-marl, 1 ton. 



Produce thrashed out, 
August 24, 1859. 

Grain, 2406 lbs. or 4<0 T V bushels ; 

weight per bushel, 60 to 60^ lbs. 

Straw, 1 ton 3 cwt. 
Grain, 2280 lbs. or 38 bushels; 

weight per bushel, 60 lbs. Straw, 

1 ton 4 cwt. 8 lbs. 

Grain, 2436 lbs. or 40^ bushels ; 
)- weight per bushel, 60f lbs. 
Straw, 1 ton 4 cwt. 48 lbs. 

Grain, 2370 lbs. or 39^ bushels; 
weight per bushel,60 lbs. Straw, 

1 ton 3 cwt. 92 lbs. 
Grain, 2652 lbs. or 44 bushels 12 

lbs.; weight per bushel, 60 lbs. 

Straw, 1 ton 7 cwt. 8 lbs. 
Grain, 1620 lbs. or 27 bushels; 

weight per bushel, 60 lbs. Straw, 

17 cwt. 80 lbs. 
Grain, 1618 lbs. or 27 bushels less 

2 lbs.; weight per bushel, 60| lbs. 
Straw, 16 cwt. 80 lbs. 

A comparison of the different quantities of corn and straw reaped on each 
experimental plot will show, — 

1. That the plot manured with chalk-marl furnished as nearly as possible 
the same amount of corn and straw as the unmanured plot. 

The produce in the one amounted to 1620 lbs. of corn, and in the other 
to 1618 lbs.; or each gave within 2 lbs. 27 bushels of corn. 

In some parts of England chalk-marl is used with considerable benefit for 
the wheat-crop ; but as the soil on the experimental field is full of limestone 
rubble, it could not be expected that a marl which owes its fertilizing pro- 
perties almost entirely to the carbonate of lime and to a little phosphate of 
lime which it contains, should produce any marked effect upon the wheat- 
crop. 

Indeed I did not expect any increase by the application of this marl, and 
merely used it to ascertain the extent of variation in the produce of two sepa- 
rate plots. The result plainly shows that the experimental field was very 
uniform in its character and productiveness. 

2. The application of only li cwt. of nitrate of soda raised the produce in 
corn to 38 bushels, and that of straw to 1 ton 4 cwt. 8 lbs. 

We have thus here an increase of 1 1 bushels of corn and 61 cwt. of straw. 

3. By mixing nitrate of soda with common salt, the produce in corn was 
raised to 40 bushels, thus showing the advantage of a mixture of nitrate of 
soda with common salt. 

4. Almost the same produce as by nitrate of soda and salt was obtained by 
the application of guano, and by the small quantity of wheat-manure. 

By the latter 39^ bushels of corn, and by guano 40^ bushels were obtained, 



44 report — 1859. 

or by the top-dressing with wheat-manure an increase of 12^ bushels ; and by 
that of guano an increase of 13 bushels of corn was obtained at an expense 
of£l 125.6c?. 

5. The larger supply of a mixed mineral and ammoniacal fertilizer gave 
an increase of 17 bushels of corn and 9 cwt. of straw over the yield of the 
undressed plot. 

It will thus appear — 

1. That nitrates applied by themselves materially increase the yield of 
both straw and corn. 

2. That the admixture of salt to nitrate of soda is beneficial. 

3. That ammonia and nitrogenized matters, which proved ineffective or 
even injurious in relation to turnips grown on a similar soil on which the 
wheat was grown, had a most marked and decidedly beneficial effect upon 
the wheat-crop. 

In conclusion, I would observe that I purpose to record the effect of the 
top-dressings used in the preceding experiments upon the succeeding crops. 



Report on the Aberdeen Industrial Feeding Schools. 
By Alexander Thomson, Esq., of Banchory. 

The study of the possible prevention of crime has of late years received much 
attention, though not yet so much as it deserves and requires ; nor are the 
principles on which alone crime can be prevented hitherto fully and generally 
known and admitted. 

One very important movement in connexion with this subject originated 
in Aberdeen, and it seems appropriate to lay before the Statistical Section of 
the British Association, when met in Aberdeen, a brief statement of the 
origin and results of the Aberdeen Industrial Feeding Schools, and of the 
principles on which they were established and have been conducted. 

The origin of these schools was very simple : they arose out of a felt 
necessity. 

Crime in all the large towns of Britain had been visibly increasing for 
many years in a ratio exceeding that of the increase of the population ; a 
distinctly-marked class or race of criminals had arisen, causing much incon- 
venience to society, and forcing upon thinking men the consideration of what 
could be done to check so great an evil. 

Several instructive facts gradually became evident. The stern, harsh 
system of punishment, long prevalent, was found to have failed alike in pre- 
venting crime and in reforming criminals, and to have had, on the contrary, 
the effect of hardening and emboldening in crime those who had been sub- 
jected to it, and of thereby forming a distinct class of criminals, marked by 
peculiar features, and highly injurious to the community. 

It was also observed that certain classes of the population produced more 
than their numerical proportion of criminals. 

Nothing, however, attracted so much attention, from the great annoyance 
which it caused, as the steady increase of the number of youthful offenders, 
undeniably guilty of actions which deserved punishment, and who evidently 
required moral and physical treatment of some sort or other, but who by 
that which had been applied to them were only made worse until they even- 
tually took their places, as they advanced in years, in the ranks of confirmed, 
bold, dangerous criminals. 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 45 

Various persons in different parts of the country suggested and tried 
temporary expedients to remedy the evil, but the first deliberate, consistent, 
and permanent scheme, combining feeding, teaching, and industrial training, 
was organized in Aberdeen by Sheriff Watson, and his plan has been found 
so efficient, that it is now adopted, more or less exactly, in almost every large 
town in Great Britain. 

The immediate cause of this attempt was the pain felt by Mr. Watson, 
and by many other criminal judges, in the discharge of their ordinary duties. 
Day after day children of tender years were brought up for trial and convicted 
of acts undeniably criminal and deserving of punishment, but with regard to 
which it was very clear that the moral guilt lay not exclusively on the 
juvenile culprits. 

They had no doubt done the deed, but who was most to blame for it ? 
— the actual perpetrator ? or those who had allowed or even led to the com- 
mission of the offence ? 

On inquiring into their previous history, it soon became evident, that the 
root of the evil lay in the want of right parental care and training. The 
parents were themselves either criminals, or at least wholly careless of their 
offspring, and left them to grow up as they might, without control, without 
principle: on the parents clearly lay the primary culpability. Next to them, 
it lay on the clergymen of all denominations, who, occupied in other and, 
as they thought, more promising fields of labour, gave a very small share of 
their time to this particular class ; and last, but not least, the blame lay on the 
professedly christian public of the country, who, as a body, seem to have 
agreed to regard these outcasts as a Pariah caste beyond the legitimate sphere 
of christian enterprise; "no man cared for their souls." Noble cases indeed 
occurred, from time to time, of strenuous and successful exertions on their 
behalf, but they were isolated, unconnected ; and there was no general, no 
sustained endeavour to reclaim them. 

What did these children require ? It may be all summed up in three 
words, " Christian parental care." How was this to be supplied, since the 
natural parents were unable or unwilling to perform their duties ? 

There are two opposite dangers to be avoided in applying any remedy : 
thore is the risk on one side of doing too little for the children, so as to fail 
in training them up aright both bodily and mentally ; and there is the not less 
serious risk on the other, of doing too much, and thereby giving encourage- 
ment to listlessness and laziness on the part of the children, and neglect and 
carelessness on the part of the parents. 

To avoid these difficulties, it is needful to ascertain exactly what the chil- 
dren want, and how instruction can be best furnished to them. 

For their bodies they need food ; for their minds they need instruction in 
the elementary branches of knowledge ; for their success in life they need 
training in industrial habits, and for their never-dying souls they need abun- 
dant religious instruction. This is what their fellow-men can do for them. 
The saving inspiration of the Holy Spirit can be given only by God himself; 
it is not at the disposal of mortal man, but is given freely in answer to be- 
lieving prayer. 

These various requisites were all kept in view at the first establishment of 
the Aberdeen Industrial Feeding Schools, and they have never been for one 
moment abandoned. They are the foundation-stones on which the whole 
structure rests ; remove any one of them, and the superstructure must fall to 
the ground ; give any one undue preponderance over the rest, and the whole 
is rendered unsteady and insecure. 

In the year 1840 the juvenile criminal population of Aberdeen attracted 



46 REPORT — 1859. 

the particular notice of the local authorities, and many inquiries were made 
as to their numbers and condition. 

In June 1841 it was ascertained that there were in that city 280 children 
under 14 years of age who supported themselves nominally by begging, but 
actually to a large extent by stealing, and in either case greatly to the annoy- 
ance of their fellow-citizens. 

Of these 280 children, 77 had been imprisoned during the previous twelve 
months. 

In October 1841 a small sum, under £100, was collected, and with this it 
was resolved to try what could be done, confident that, if even a moderate 
amount of success were attained, public support would be freely given. 

Apartments sufficiently extensive, but otherwise of the humblest descrip- 
tion, situated in one of the worst districts of the city, were hired, and a 
teacher engaged. Public notice was given that such an institution existed,, 
and that poor children who chose would be admitted into it, up to the number 
of 60, and would there receive food, and instruction in elementary religious 
and secular knowledge, and in such industrial employments as were suited to 
their years. 

Attendance up to the time of the passing of Dunlop's Act in 1854 was 
wholly voluntary, but the child absent without cause from morning school 
had no breakfast, from forenoon school had no dinner, and from afternoon 
school had no supper ; and this very simple and reasonable arrangement at 
once ensured a more regular attendance of pupils than at most common day 
schools. 

The general division of the day was, four hours of lessons, five hours of 
work, and three substantial meals. The managers did not profess to supply 
clothing to the children, but, by the kindness of friends, whatever was abso- 
lutely necessary was from time to time procured. 

Religious teaching and training occupied a large portion of the teaching 
hours, and has ever been received with the greatest willingness. The whole 
arrangements are as simple as possible, and yet they meet all the requirements 
of the case. 

The combination of food, teaching, and industrial training, form together 
the distinctive peculiarity of these schools, but the food is practically the 
foundation of the whole system. The children are not at first alive to the 
advantages of being taught and trained, but they are thoroughly aware of 
the benefit of being fed ; and this brings them regularly to school. They feel 
it to be an act of substantial kindness ; it at once attaches them to their 
teacher, and it gradually prepares them to relish and profit by the lessons and 
work of the school ; it convinces them that the school is meant for their good 
in the only form in which, at first, they are capable of understanding it. 

The whole profit of work done goes to defray expenses. This fact is of 
more value than appears from the amount. It teaches the children from the 
first that their work is of appreciable value, and also gives them the satisfac- 
tory feeling that they are not wholly recipients of charity, but that in return 
for their food and instruction, they are giving all they can, viz. their labour, 
such as it is. 

It is, however, a great mistake to be too anxious about the earnings of the 
scholars. That work is most profitable which most tends to habits of 
patient industry. It matters comparatively little what it may be, provided 
it teaches steady perseverance, which is the most valuable of all acquirements, 
and the one most foreign to the habits of neglected outcasts, 

Keeping these very simple principles distinctly in view, the first Industrial 
School was opened 1st October 1841, with 20 scholars, and the number soon 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 47 

rose to 60, the limit previously determined. During the first six months 109 
were enrolled, but, as might have been anticipated on a first experiment, some 
were admitted who were unsuitable, and others whose parents interfered and 
removed them, and a few whose wandering habits would not allow them 
to remain more than a few days — not long enough to ascertain whether they 
would like the school or not ; still, with 60 names on the roll, the average daily 
attendance for the first 6 months was 36 and for the last two 53*50. 

The amount realized for work during the first six months was £25 19s., i. e. 
20s. a week, or about 14s. 6c?. for each pupil. 

The total cost for each was £4 8s. 10c?., or, deducting earnings, £8 13s. 4c?., 
being at the rate of £7 6s. 8c?. per annum, — a cost which experience soon 
enabled the directors greatly to reduce. 

From 1st April 1842, to 1st April 1843, the average daily attendance 
was 52, the total cost of each £6 8s., and the earnings £1 2s. 8c?., leaving the 
expense of teaching and feeding each boy £5 5s. 4c?. The earnings per head 
were less than during the first six experimental months, because there was 
then a larger proportion of stout working boys than have since been admitted, 
and who were above the age to which the schools have since been exclusively 
applied. 

The close of the year 1843 and commencement of 1844 proved to be the 
critical period in the history of these schools, and all but fatal to their 
continuance. 

The public interest at first felt in the new scheme had subsided ; the 
experiment was novel, the results uncertain ; the subscriptions fell off, and 
but for the liberal aid given by the magistrates of the city, and the Trustees 
of the Murtle Charitable Fund, the school must have been closed and the 
experiment abruptly terminated. 

Even with these aids, the directors were obliged to dismiss all but the most 
necessitous, and reduce the number on the roll from 59 to 35. 

The tide was now at its lowest ebb, but it soon began to rise. 

No one could occasionally visit the school without remarking the change 
in the outward appearance of the children, and no one could walk the streets 
of Aberdeen without noticing a perceptible diminution in the number of 
troublesome little beggar-urchins. The public came to the conclusion that 
there was good doing by the experiment, and that, at all events, it should be 
continued until more certain results were attained, and from that day to this 
funds have never been wanting ; often low enough to require extreme caution 
in the expenditure, but gradually growing and prospering till the little school 
on the point of abandonment is now represented in Aberdeen by four schools : 
a boys' in the House of Refuge, a boys' and girls' at Sugar House Lane, and 
two separate female schools, having all their valuable and commodious build- 
ings (except those in the House of Refuge), the unencumbered property of 
the Institutions, and a regular attendance of from 350 to 400 children. 

On looking back to the history of the schools, it is found that the circum- 
stances which led the managers to reduce the number of scholars produced 
more than one very instructive result. 

Let us look for a moment at certain statistics from the year 1841 to the 
year 1851 inclusive. 

From the Aberdeen Prison returns it appeared that remarkable variations 
occurred ill the number of juveniles committed. In 1841, when no school 
existed, the number imprisoned was 61, of whom 26 were natives of the town 
of Aberdeen, 12 of the county, and 23 were strangers. 

For the next ten years, with the schools in operation, the numbers for each 
year were as follows : — 



48 



REPORT — 1859. 





Committals 


Committals 


Total 
Committed. 


Natives of 


Natives of 




Year. 


to Aberdeen 


to County 


Town of 


County of 


Strangers. 




Prison. 


Prisons. 


Aberdeen. 


Aberdeen. 




1842 


30 




30 


16 


3 


11 


1843 


63 


. . 


63 


27 


25 


11 


1844 


41 


, . 


41 


29 


4 


8 


1845 


49 


. , 


49 


34 


5 


10 


1846 


28 


, , 


28 


18 


2 


8 


1847 


23 


4 


27 


8 


7 


12 


1848 


15 


4 


19 


9 


6 


4 


1849 


15 


1 


16 


12 


1 


3 


1850 


14 


8 


22 


11 


8 


3 


1851 


6 


2 


8 


4 


3 


1 



Turning, on the other hand, to the statistics of the Industrial Schools, it 
appears that in the first year, with one school in operation, the number of 
juvenile commitments fell from 61 to 30 ; that in 1843, when the managers 
were constrained to reduce the number of scholars, the commitments again 
rose to even more than in 184-1, viz., to 63; that in 1844 and 1845, when 
the school was restored to a certain measure of efficiency, the numbers fell 
to 41 and 49, while subsequent returns show that each year after 1845, the 
number of schools and scholars being greatly increased, the number of com- 
mitments went down and down, — 28, 23, 15, 15, 14, 6, — the lowest number 
which has been attained, and of whom only 4 were natives of Aberdeen. 
The- number has subsequently increased, and seems to stand now at about 35, 
— about half the number when no such school existed, — but last year, 1858, 
the number fell to 15. 

During the first five years after the school was in full operation not one 
child who had been in attendance there was committed to prison, or fell into 
the hands of the police for any offence. From 80 to 100 children were in 
constant attendance ; they were the very children who formerly had furnished 
the annual supply of youthful offenders, and yet from among them not one 
recruit went to join the ranks of criminals, and about 70 had been placed in 
permanent situations, and were from time to time reported to be self-sustain- 
ing and doing well. 

These immediate results were more satisfactory than could have been 
anticipated, or could reasonably be expected to continue ; for no one need 
expect industrial schools to mould every neglected outcast, who passes a few 
years under their training and teaching influences, into a steady, consistent 
christian man or woman for life : they, however, greatly cheered the friends 
of the institutions as they gradually became manifest, and they encouraged 
them to extend their operations. 

While the schools were progressing there were long and very anxious dis- 
cussions as to whether or not it was desirable to lodge the children in con- 
nexion with the schools, and only a small majority decided in the negative. 

As this is a vital question in the management of industrial schools, it may 
be well to state briefly the facts and arguments on both sides. 

In favour of providing lodgings in the school-buildings there were two 
principal arguments, both very obvious: 1st, that by thus retaining entire 
possession of the children their moral training would be carried on before 
and after school-hours ; and 2nd, what was regarded as still more important, 
that thus they would be preserved from the contaminating influence of their 
homes, where it was to be feared that the moral lessons learned during the 
day would be neutralized by evil precept and worse example. 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 49 

There is so much apparent force in these considerations, that it is only 
when the subject is viewed in all its relations, and especially when the light 
of God's word is brought to bear upon it, that a rightful decision of the 
question can be attained. 

The family is the place ordained and prepared by God for the training 
and up-bringing of children, and this is an ordinance which man can never 
infringe with impunity. 

To collect numbers of children and manage them in masses is sure to de- 
stroy individuality of character, while providing everything for them effectu- 
ally destroys energy of character, and prevents the acquirement of habits of 
industry. Under such treatment abundance of knowledge may be commu- 
nicated, but no training for the active struggle of life can be given. The 
whole system is artificial and foreign to the state of that society in which the 
children are soon to take their places. 

The experiment has been fully tried in Scotland by the hospitals so pro- 
fusely endowed, and long erroneously considered as objects of self-gratula- 
tion by every Scotchman, and in England by the poorhouse schools ; and in 
both cases has signally failed. The inmates take their places in the world 
with their heads stored, it may be, with valuable knowledge, and even quite 
capable of passing a strict examination in many branches, but with all their 
energies deadened through want of use, and wholly incapable of applying 
their knowledge to any useful purpose, unable to rely upon their own exer- 
tions because they have been trained up in dependence upon others for all 
they need. 

The first practical lesson to be impressed on the mind of every child, and 
especially on those who have to support themselves in life by their labour, is 
that they must, under God, depend on their own exertions for success. In 
an hospital, or a poorhouse, no such lesson is or can be taught ; on the con- 
trary, they are taught practically that they may safely depend for everything 
on others. This is not the wish nor the intention of the hospital or poor- 
house managers, but the necessary result of their systems. 

The other aspect of the question, arising from the contamination to be 
dreaded from a wicked parent's home, is still more serious. 

At first sight it looks absurd to train a child carefully for the greater part 
of the day, and then deliberately, knowingly, to expose him during the re- 
maining hours to see and hear all that is offensive and abominable in the con- 
duct and language of a drunken mother or an abandoned father, or vicious, 
dissolute neighbours. 

If the object to be attained were to train up a child in absolute ignorance 
of moral evil, then a well-regulated hospital would be exactly what is re- 
quired ; but no man will venture to maintain that this is the sort of training 
required to adapt a child for a useful life. 

Our business is not to train up in ignorance of the existence of evil, but 
to teach children what sin really is in itself, and in its consequences ; how 
hateful it is to God, how ruinous to man. This is the Bible mode of teach- 
ing children as well as men and women, arid from that certain rule we never 
can depart with impunity. 

It is most painful to think of the moral evils to be witnessed in many of 
the dwellings of our crowded cities, and every exertion should be made to 
cause them to cease ; for while they exist they go far to neutralize every effort 
for the good of the poorest classes, and go on producing a steady supply of 
neglected juveniles; but that is not the present question ; it is, What is the 
best way of bringing up the children belonging to that class of society and 

1859. e 



50 REPORT 1859. 

exposed to all these evil influences ? Is it by shutting them up for a certain 
number of years from the knowledge of such things, and then sending them 
out at once into the midst of them? or is it by teaching them, so far as man 
can do it, to know and hate sin, and to flee from it? 

It is a dangerous step to break up a family, and to tear asunder the ties 
which bind parents and children together. Few, indeed, are the parents in 
whose hearts love for their children is wholly extinguished : it survives the 
. destruction of almost every other right feeling in the heart, and it is through 
this that other good feelings may possibly be rekindled and brought into 
beneficial operation. It is marvellous to witness the good which flows from 
the influence of one right feeling beginning to work in a heart which seemed 
to be seared and dead to every good impression. 

Few are the parents who will deliberately teach their children vice and 
crime; on the contrary, the majority carefully conceal their own wickedness 
from them. There are few human beings in whom conscience is wholly dead, 
who do not feel something of the burden of guilt on their own heads, and 
who would not, if they could, deliver their offspring from it. The principal 
exception to this is when reason, and every other faculty, is overpowered by 
strong drink ; but even in this case there is the sad, the melancholy advan- 
tage, that the children get many a practical lesson of its fearful consequences, 
and while we deplore the fact, we need not therefore shut our eyes to this 
part of its results. 

While this matter was under consideration the further question occurred, 
What effect will be produced on the wicked parents by the return of the 
children from the school to their homes ? Will it do any good to the 
parents ? More than one case soon became known where unmistakeable 
benefit arose to the family from the school-children. The parents were in- 
terested in hearing what was done at this new school ; they saw that at all 
events their children were well fed for the day, made tolerably clean, and 
kept out of harm's way. Verses of hymns or texts of Scripture were re- 
peated and listened to ; in short, it appeared that the daily return of the child 
from the Industrial School introduced the first feeble glimmering of improve- 
ment at home ; it might be only a little sweeping of the floor, or a little 
arranging of the miscellaneous articles in the room, as they were accustomed 
to do or to see done at school, but still it was a step in the right direction, 
an introduction of ameliorating influences. Subsequent experience has 
shown that some of the children have acted, and are now acting, as little 
Home Missionaries, conveying the saving truths of the Gospel to parents and 
brothers and sisters. 

It was also discovered that some of the children occasionally denied them- 
selves a portion of their bread and carried it home to supply, so far, the wants 
of a starving little brother or sister ; and here was another humanizing influ- 
ence brought to bear on the family. 

Altogether, the question was under consideration for years, and the ulti- 
mate decision \va3, not to attempt to lodge the children as part of the system, 
but, in exceptional cases such as orphans, to provide that children should be 
boarded in a family, and even then only one or two children in one family, 
unless they were brothers and sisters. 

Few such cases have occurred, and they are provided for without encroach- 
ing on the general funds. 

The decision was no doubt greatly promoted by the managers seeing that 
they could carry on their work if they did not attempt to lodge, but that, if 
they did, their funds were wholly inadequate to the expense. 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 51 

It was fortunate on every account that it was so, and the results have been 
most satisfactory. 

While thus fixing the exact extent of their field of labour, — and the 
general principles on which the work was to be conducted, — the managers 
were gradually pushing forward their attempts to get under their care all the 
neglected outcasts in Aberdeen. 

The first and most natural step was to commence a school for girls similar 
to that for boys. It was opened on 5th June 1 843, with only three girls, 
and the number was gradually increased to 20, 40, 50, and at last to 60, the 
full number for which accommodation was provided. 

The results were, if possible, more satisfactory than with the boys. A poor 
half-starved outcast girl is felt by all to be a more painful sight than a boy 
in the same condition. She seems to have been forced farther below her 
right place in society than the boy, and to be less capable of struggling for 
herself. Experience, however, soon proved that ameliorating influences acted 
more rapidly, and perhaps more permanently, on the girls than on the boys. 
The change produced by a few weeks of careful feeding and training upon 
the most abject was so great, that the ladies who devoted themselves to the 
arduous enterprise had every encouragement in their work and labour of 
love. 

In December 184-4, the first complete year's report of the girls' school 
stated the number on the roll at 49 ; and next year, 1845, it was above 60. 

During the third year 35 girls left; 16 because their parents had become 
able to provide for them; 5 got employment in manufactories; and 7 as 
domestic servants ; 7 deserted, and 1 died. 

During the fourth year the attendance varied from 56 to 69 ; 23 left for 
domestic service, and 31 were removed by parents, as in the previous year; 
and this must always be regarded as one of the most satisfactory results of 
the schools, arising either from improved pecuniary circumstances, or from 
improved moral feeling on the part of the parents. 

The expense of each pupil was £3 18s. 10|e?., and the earnings of each 
6s. ll^d., leaving the net cost to the institution £3 lis. ll^d. The amount 
of earnings was small, but as much as could be expected, considering that 
nearly half the children were under 9 years of age, most of the rest from 9 
to 11, and only 10 of them above eleven. The cost for feeding and teach- 
ing the girls was nearly twenty shillings a year less per head than for the 
boys. 

In 1847 circumstances led to a division of the girls' school into two, and 
both have ever since gone on doing their work effectually, having convenient 
buildings, situated about a mile apart from each other, — one purchased, the 
other built for the purpose, and both of them thoroughly adapted to the 
system of the schools. 

Soon after the original schools had begun to prove their usefulness, it 
became clear to the managers that they were not accomplishing all that 
ought to be done, that there was still a portion of the neglected outcasts 
whom they were not reaching, and this forming the very class for whom 
the schools were originally intended — the little beggars and pilferers who 
infested the streets, and whom it had hitherto been impossible to draw to 
the schools. 

It was resolved to make a bold and resolute assault upon this class, and to 
compel them to be ameliorated whether they or their parents wished it or 
not. 

The Local Police Act for Aberdeen happily contained a clause giving 

e2 



52 report — 1859. 

power to put down begging. It provided for the punishment of beggars, but 
it did not devise any mode of caring for the beggar, whether old or young, 
or putting him in the way of supporting himself. It was passed before the 
enactment of the present Scottish Poor Law; it did one half of the work, 
it left the other half either not done or to be accomplished by voluntary 
enterprise. 

This clause was employed in a way not perhaps intended by the Legisla- 
ture, but still within the scope of the law, and which has proved most salu- 
tary to the community. 

The intended proceeding was carefully explained to the authorities, and 
their support and assistance were judiciously given. 

The managers of the Soup Kitchen gave the free use of their buildings, 
and this most important social and moral experiment was commenced with 
a sum of four pounds sterling, raised by subscription, not doubting that 
if good resulted the necessary funds would be furnished, — and so they have 
been. 

On 19th May 1845, instructions were given to the City Police to lay 
hands on all the children found begging in the streets, and bring them to 
the Soup Kitchen, and in the course of the day 75 were collected, of whom 
only 4 could read. 

The scene was one never to be forgotten by the few who witnessed it. 
Naturally alarmed at their capture, wholly ignorant of what fate might be 
awaiting them, they cursed and swore, kicked and fought and bit, but by 
firmness and kindness they were greatly subdued before night. 

The most obnoxious part of the proceedings was the compulsory washing 
of hands and faces little accustomed to soap and water, and the only accept- 
able part was the ample supply of good food. Teaching could scarcely be 
said to commence on the first day, which was devoted to training. 

Gradually during the day a certain amount of order was established : the 
boys began by degrees to understand what sort of place they had got into, 
that the treatment was not altogether to be condemned, that though the cold 
water might be a very unpleasant application, and the proposed lessons a very 
wearisome infliction, still the soup was very good and the bread very abun- 
dant ; they had never had so much good food before, and it was worth endu- 
ring some discomfort to obtain. Some such reasoning seems to have passed 
through most of their minds in the course of the proceedings. 

At eight o'clock they were dismissed; they were all invited to return next 
day, when they should have the same discipline and the same feeding, toge- 
ther with more regular teaching, and at the same time they were distinctly 
informed that they might come or not as they pleased, but that begging in any 
shape would not be tolerated; that their wants would be supplied as they 
had experienced in the school; that their choice now lay betwixt starving, or 
the prison, or the school, and they must make it for themselves. 

Next day the greater part of the boys returned, and the managers felt that 
they had gained a great victory, and that a new and vast field of usefulness 
now lay before them. They entered vigorously upon it, and the school has 
been in active and useful operation down to the present day. 

This school at once produced visible effects ; the immediate removal of the 
whole of the troublesome boys who infested the streets made an unmistake- 
able change much to the advantage of all classes, and when it was necessary 
to raise funds for its support the working classes gave most gratifying testi- 
mony to their sense of its value. 

The wealthier classes of the community subscribed £150, but the working 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 53 

classes, men and women depending on daily toil for daily bread, contributed 
no less than £250 !— and when some of them were asked why they contri- 
buted thus liberally to support a school at which their own children would 
not be scholars, the reply was, " Before this school was opened we were 
afraid to trust our children a moment out of doors alone and unguarded, for 
they were exposed to learn, and did learn, all manner of mischief; but now 
the school has cleared the streets of the little vagabonds who corrupted 
them, and we are not afraid to let our own children out, and therefore we 
subscribe to the school." 

This honest practical testimony to one gcod result, and that not the imme- 
diate object but the indirect effect, of the school, is invaluable, and at the time 
was felt to be most encouraging. 

During the first year the total number of names placed on the roll was 159, 
of whom 18 were soon dismissed as unsuitable, 34- deserted, or were removed, 
by their parents, 26 got into employment, 7 into other institutions, and at 
its close 74 remained on the roll, of whom 43 were boys and 31 were girls. 
Of these, 

25 were from 3 to 7 years of age. 
36 „ from 7 to 10 „ 

11 „ from 10 to 13 „ 

2 above 13 „ 

Thirty- four of those in attendance at the end of the year had been admitted 
during the first month, and of these, 2 could read, and 8 knew the letters at 
admission ; and by the end of the year 23 could read tolerably, and 24 could 
read a little. 

Their religious instruction had been utterly neglected ; few of them had 
ever entered a church. Before the close of the year they were all in the 
practice of attending church accompanied by the teachers, and received care- 
ful religious instruction every day, but especially and very fully on Sunday 
evenings. The attendance became very regular, and, what was especially 
satisfactory, very few of the children were convicted of any offence. The 
good food procured the attendance, and the twelve hours spent in school 
feft little opportunity to commit crime; thus commencing the abandon- 
ment of bad, and the formation of good habits, before any principle could be 
instilled. 

The value of the work done was very small, but the police authorities most 
judiciously paid the salaries of the teachers, and the managers of the Soup 
Kitchen gave the use of their buildings without rent; so that the only outlay 
from the funds of the institution was for food, and for a partial supply of 
clothing, which was absolutely necessary. The average cost per head for the 
first year was £4. 

This has proved the most valuable of all the schools ; it at once attacked 
the evil at its fountain-head, and the fruits speedily appeared in the almost 
total cessation of street begging, and the gradual diminution of juvenile 
vagrants and offenders. 

After a time the police authorities and the Soup Kitchen managers with- 
drew their support, and they acted wisely in so doing ; the school has ever 
since been supported by voluntary contributions ; its proper name is " The 
Juvenile School of Industry," but in Aberdeen it is best known, from its 
locality, as the Sugar House Lane School. 

The number in attendance varies from 50 to 70 boys and as many girls. 



54 report — 1859. 

The school-rooms are on different floors and most commodious ; the only 
want is a play-ground, which from the situtation is unattainable. 

Considerable difficulty was all along felt in confining the operations of 
the schools strictly to those children who required their aid, and excluding 
those whose parents or friends were able to maintain them at ordinary 
schools ; and this was a most important matter, both in order to spare the 
funds of the schools and to satisfy the public mind. 

To meet this difficulty the "Child's Asylum Committee" was invented and 
has been most successful. The duty is carefully to investigate every case 
in all its circumstances, and admit or reject, or hand over to some other in- 
stitution, as may be found proper ; in short, to interpose an effectual check 
betwixt the little mendicants and the school, in order to prevent what was not 
unlikely to happen, — a resort to street begging in order thereby to get at the 
good food of the school. 

At first it met daily at 10 a.m.; but this soon became unnecessary, because 
there were not daily cases to examine, but it is still summoned whenever its 
services are required. 

It was instituted in December 1846, and is a numerous committee, being 
composed of gentlemen who are either Magistrates of the City or Commis- 
sioners of Police, or Members of the Poor Law Boards of St. Nicholas and 
Old Machar, Directors of the House of Refuge, or Members of the Joint 
Committees of Management of the Boys' School and the Juvenile School; 
in short, of members of all the public bodies interested in the matter. 

The inquiry is most searching into every circumstance which can guide 
in coming to a decision suited to the case, and its working has been most 
satisfactory ; very few, almost none, have been admitted to the schools since 
184-6 who were improper objects ; and it has not unfrequently happened that 
remonstrances and counsels given to parents had the happy effect of bring- 
ing them first to feel and then to undertake and discharge the duties they 
owed to their hitherto neglected offspring. 

During the first five years this Committee investigated the cases of 700 
destitute children, most of whom were admitted into one or other of the 
schools, and 198 of these were brought up to the Committee by the police. 

The Ladies' Committee of the female schools make precisely similar 
inquiries into all the cases brought to their notice before admission. 

The progress of the schools has been steady, and their good effects have 
become more and more visible every succeeding year, and have been demon- 
strated only more clearly by facts which at first seemed to militate against 
them. 

One remarkable proof is derived from returns furnished by the rural 
police. 

It was a well-known fact that children of very tender years were sent out 
by worthless parents to wander alone through the county to support them- 
selves by begging and petty thefts, and that still greater numbers accompa- 
nied their parents to add force to their claims for charity, while a few were 
lent or hired for the same purpose to parties who had no suitable children of 
their own. 

The constables of the rural police were instructed to return as correctly 
as possible the number of these children whom they encountered in their 
daily rounds. From the nature of the case the returns cannot be absolutely 
correct ; but still they approximate to the truth, and the variations from year 
to year give information of much value. 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 

The following is the Return for Ten Years. 



55 



Year. 


Juveniles in company 


Juveniles 


with Adults. 


alone. 


41-42 


272 


57 


42-43 


370 


77 


43-44 


302 


60 


44-45 


302 


65 


45-46 


250 


14 


46-47 


211 


6 


47-48 


225 


6 


48-49 


239 


1 


49-50 


260 


2 


50-51 


170 


4 



Compare these returns with those already given from the prisons and from 
the industrial schools, and the result is as clear as figures can make it, that 
precisely as the schools are in vigorous operation or not, so the number of 
youthful vagrants diminishes or increases. 

We have now had seven more years' experience, and the results are equally 
instructive though produced to some extent by circumstances which at the 
time were most unsatisfactory. 

To bring these out we must again have recourse to the Prison and Police 
returns. 

Commitments to Prison. 





Committals 


Committals 


Total 


Native of 


Native of 


Total. 


Year. 


to Aberdeen 
Prison. 


to County 
Prisons. 


Committals. 


Town. 


County. 


1852 


23 


1 


24 








1853 


24 


1 


25 








1854 


47 


2 


49 








1855 


34 


3 


37 








1856 


34 


9 


43 








1857 


31 


9 


40 








1858 


12 


3 


15 









Juveniles apprehended. 



Year. 


Juveniles in company 


Juveniles 


with Adults. 


alone. 


1852 


258 


8 


1853 


585 


21 


1854 


456 


17 


1855 


416 


8 


1856 


297 


9 


1857 


199 


1* 


1858 


169 


4t 



It will be observed that a very sudden and remarkable increase took place 
in 1853, 1854, and 1855, both of commitments of criminals and of juvenile 
vagrants met by the police. The school managers were completely perplexed 
and somewhat dismayed. Were the principles on which they had acted 
unsound ? or had they failed to apply them aright ? Was the great enterprise, 
hitherto so successful and a cause of so much thankfulness, after all to prove 
a delusion ? They could not believe it, and yet the increase of offenders was 

* City of Aberdeen. f Not one of these 4 belonged to the City or County of Aberdeen. 



56 report — 1859. 

an undeniable fact. Man}' anxious meetings were held, and many searching 
inquiries were made, but for a long time they could only point to the ordi- 
nary producing causes of juvenile crime, — drunkenness of parents, parental 
neglect, cheap theatres and dancing saloons, and the facilities afforded by 
brokers' shops for the sale of small stolen articles ; at last the active cause 
was discovered. 

Rival institutions had been set up ; schools attended by large numbers 
were in active operation, not to teach honesty and virtue, but to teach theft 
and crime ; and at the same time to provide every facility for the disposal of 
stolen property, and to prevent the detection of the offenders. 

Various wicked inducements were also held out to the unfortunate juve- 
niles, tempting them in a manner utterly opposed to all good order and even 
decency, but which were not wanting in their results ; they had their attrac- 
tions, and they did their work. 

From 1852 or 1853 to 1855 there were two if not more of these " schools 
for crime " attended by parties of from 12 or 14 up to 30 or 40. 

This appalling discovery explained the whole mystery. Ultimately several 
of the teachers of crime were brought to trial, convicted, and their establish- 
ments broken up, and then the number of offenders speedily diminished, 
though, of course, time was required for the complete wearing out of the 
effects of such a nefarious system. 

It is worthy of notice that these teachers of crime were tried and con- 
victed of theft, or of receiving stolen property — not one of them for the infinitely 
more atrocious crime of teaching little children to be criminals. 

There seems to be at present no law which can touch them for so doing, 
and yet there is scarcely a greater crime which man or woman can commit. 

With this exception, which only proves in the strongest manner the value 
of Industrial Feeding Schools, the whole institutions have gone on and pros- 
pered, quietly doing their work, with those trifling alternations which occur 
in all children's schools, and which are of the greatest use in keeping the 
energies of managers and teachers in constant activity. 

It would be useless to read, for no one could follow, statistical details 
exhibiting all the particulars of each school for each year, with the ages, 
parentage, and disposal of each child, but they are now produced for the in- 
formation of those who choose to examine them ; and they will be found full 
of interesting and instructive facts, all tending in one direction — to demon- 
strate that well-managed schools on the Aberdeen principles have, without 
doubt, solved the important question how the annual supply of juvenile 
criminals may be cut off at the fountain-head, and how multitudes hitherto 
allowed, if not constrained by the force of surrounding influences, to grow 
up into criminals, a torment to themselves and to society, may, by God's 
blessing, be transformed into self-supporting respectable members of society. 

The first ten years of the schools saw them, after all their trials and vicis- 
situdes, firmly established in Aberdeen, and not confined to it, but already 
extended to most parts of the country. The history of their introduction 
and progress elsewhere lies beyond the purpose of this paper. 

The subject gradually took more and more hold of the public mind. The 
managers in Aberdeen early saw the importance of their schools receiving 
public sanction, and brought forward the subject in reports, memorials, and 
petitions, until at length it was taken up by the Legislature ; and the stamp of 
the nation's approval of the system of Industrial Feeding Schools was inde- 
libly fixed upon them by the passing of " Dunlop's" Act, on the 7th of August, 
1854, applicable to Scotland only; and on the 10th of the same month, of 
"Palmerston's" Act, applicable to the whole of Great Britain. 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 57 

These two statutes have introduced an entirely new principle, and in fact 
revolutionized the long recognized principles of our criminal law. They adapt 
and give legal sanction to the axiom that " Prevention is better than cure." 

By Dunlop's Scotch Act, vagrant and neglected juveniles apparently under 
fourteen years, wandering about with no visible means of subsistence, may be 
sent bv magistrates to a Reformatory or Industrial School, duly sanctioned 
by the" Secretary of State, there to be trained and educated, but not to be 
detained, without their own consent, beyond the age of fifteen. 

By Palmerston's British Act, magistrates are in like manner authorized 
to send juvenile offenders under sixteen to Reformatory Schools duly sanc- 
tioned by the Secretary of State, for not less than two, nor more than five 
years, but only after undergoing an imprisonment of not less than fourteen 
days. 

Both statutes make provision for recovery of the cost of such young per- 
sons from the parties legally liable ; both authorize grants of public money 
in aid of the schools, and both are entirely voluntary, or permissive, not 
obligatory. Magistrates may avail themselves of them or not as they think 
proper ; and as the matter was new, and wholly untried as a legal proceeding, 
it was prudent thus to proceed. The time, if not yet arrived, must soon come, 
when no outcast children shall be sent to prison, but all 6ent to Reformatory 
Schools, there to be fed and taught and trained, without having the prison 
brand stamped upon them which is required by Lord Palmerston's Act, — a 
temporary concession to old and deep-rooted prejudices. 

Under Dunlop's Act, if parties interested find security to the amount of 
£5 for the good conduct in future of any young person sent to school under 
the Act, then such young person is removed from the school and handed 
over to their care. 

Thi3 clause is liable to considerable abuse, and ought ere long to be 
repealed : parties professing so much interest in these young persons ought 
to show it at an earlier period, and take proper care of them before they 
become either vagrants or criminals ; and the nation ought not to allow those 
who have proved themselves so indifferent in the matter to interfere, and 
deprive the children of all the advantages of an Industrial School, without 
really offering anything certain and of equal value in return. 

Those two statutes have already been productive of much good, and both 
magistrates and the public are daily becoming more willing to avail them- 
selves of their provisions. 

In order to have the benefit of the Palmerston Act for older convicted 
juveniles, a Reformatory has been erected near Aberdeen, mostly from the 
judicious application by the trustees of the late Dr. Watt, of part of the 
charitable funds left by him at their disposal. The building is plain, but most 
suitable for about fifty boys, with plans ready for its extension when required, 
standing on a farm of fifty acres, the property of the institution, and at present 
having between thirty and forty inmates. It has been only about two years in 
operation ; and though all promises well, it is not yet time to look for results ; 
only one or two, and these under peculiar circumstances, have as yet left the 
institution ; the period of sentence of the first admitted has not yet expired. 
One satisfactory statement may with confidence be made, and that is that 
most of the inmates are thoroughly happy and contented in their abode, and 
this is one great step to their reformation. 

Those who have from the first taken an active interest in the cause of 
neglected juveniles, can hardly realize to themselves the progress which has 
been made in less than twenty years. 

In 1840 no special provision existed for their behoof; they had full per. 



58 report — 1859. 

mission to do what they pleased, and when they became troublesome to 
others, the prison, and perhaps the lash, were the only remedies applied. 

In 1841 the first Aberdeen School of Industry was opened; the experiment 
went on and prospered ; the example was followed ; other towns opened simi- 
lar schools ; the system was found to do much good wherever it was tried. 
The public became more and more interested, for the good done was very 
perceptible, and the money-cost was very small ; and as each town easily 
furnished a few zealous ladies and gentlemen to superintend the work, they 
were thankfully permitted to do so. 

Then it became very evident that to punish criminals as of old was very 
costly, and rarely led to their reformation ; but that to prevent crime was 
comparatively easy, and also far less costly. 

These opinions gradually established themselves in the public mind, and 
from it of course took possession of the Legislature; and in about fourteen 
years from the opening of the first Industrial School, the Imperial Legislature 
passed the two leading statutes which firmly established them as fixed por- 
tions of our social system, and finally adopted the principle of endeavouring 
to prevent rather than to punish and reform. 

Hitherto, of course, only partial and local results are seen ; soon, greater 
and more extensive are to be expected. 

What, then, are the principles on which these schools depend for success? 
They are so very simple that there is no small risk of their being overlooked 
in carrying out the actual working. 

The schools supply what the children need, and what they cannot get for 
themselves — food, teaching, training ; but they leave their energies free, they 
only seek to turn them from evil to good. Energy, activity, diligence need 
to be fostered in the young quite as much as their mental faculties, and any 
system of dealing with them which deadens these is fatal to future success. 
The want of men of eminence from among the tens of thousands who have 
been educated in poor-houses and hospitals, combined with the pre-eminence 
of men who have struggled in early life against every difficulty, prove the 
truth of this. It is no kindness to any one to deprive him of self-reliance, 
though it is often less troublesome than to enable him to depend on himself. 

The Legislature has done well in the encouragement it has given to these 
schools, but it will be a fatal step if they try to do too much, and place them 
entirely on public support. It is absolutely necessary that a large amount 
of voluntary unpaid energy enter into the working out of the system. 

There seems to be a social principle, not yet very much appreciated or 
understood, which makes it necessary that the best laws shall always be 
supplemented by private voluntary enterprise. 

Let the law provide as it may for the poor, for the sick, for the criminal, 
there will always be found work just at the boundaries reached by the law 
which must be undertaken by the free-will enterprise of individual activity ; 
otherwise there will be great blots and scars on the face of our social system, 
great evils without remedies ; and this is in truth a vast blessing conferred 
by God on man, for it provides work equally advantageous to the rich and 
to the poor. 

The principle which ought to govern all connected with the work of Indus- 
trial Schools is very extensive, but it is very simple, — earnest, hearty love of 
the outcast members of the human family viewed as immortal beings. 

As the love of God to man is the source of all human happiness, so the 
love of men to one another is the great remedy for the social evils which 
afflict this earth. 

The highest display of God's love to man is manifested in the great scheme 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 59 

of salvation through our Redeemer ; and the best proof man can give of his 
love to his fellow-man, is to do whatever man can do to bring him to know 
and to receive the glad tidings as revealed in the Scriptures of Truth. 

This is the plan which God himself has appointed ; and every endeavour to 
reform men, not based on God's Word, and not guided by its precepts at 
every step, must fail of success. 

It is a good thing, no doubt, for society that neglected outcasts should be 
reclaimed and trained up to be self-sustaining useful members of the com- 
munity ; but if the managers of Industrial Schools look no higher than to 
mere temporal results, they must in most cases fail to attain even what they 
desire. 

The only well-grounded hope of success is to be found when the training 
to pass usefully and creditably through this world is based on, and made sub- 
servient to, the higher and holier training which communicates that knowledge 
which alone leads to life eternal. 

Statistics illustrative of Progress of Aberdeen Industrial Schools. 
Table of the Ages of the 69 Boys at Industrial School, 30th March, 18*4. 

Under 7 4 

Between 7 and 8 5 9 

„ Sand 9 11 

„ 9 and 10 18 

„ 10 and 11 II 

„ 11 and 12 5 45 

„ 12 and 13 10 

„ 13 and 14 5 15 

Thus of the 69, 9 were under eight years of age, and 45 were from eight 
to twelve years old, and 15 from twelve to fourteen ; 36 had lost their fathers ; 
4 only had lost their mothers. 

1st April 1845, 72 Inmates. 

Under 7 6 

Between 7 and 8 11 17 

„ 8 and 9 7 

„ 9 and 10 15 

„ 10 and 11 11 

„ 11 and 12 4 37 

„ 12 and 13 8 

13 and 14 3—11 

Thus of the 72, 17 were under eight years, and 37 were from eight to 
twelve years old, and 11 from twelve to fourteen. 

The fathers of 38 were dead, and eight more had deserted their families, 
making 46 in fact fatherless ; two only were motherless. 

Table of Ages of 91 Boys on Roll of Boys' School, 1st April, 1859. 

Under 7 years 8 

Between 7 and 8 8 16 

„ 8 and 9 20 

9 and 10 22 

10 and 11 13 

„ 11 and 12 6 61 

„ 12 and 13 6 

„ 13 and 14 6 

„ 14 and 15 2 14 



60 



REPORT — 1859. 



Thus of the 91, 16 were under eight years of age, and 61 were from eight 
to twelve. 

34 have mothers ; only 9 have fathers ; only 48 have both parents alive ; 
8 have been deserted by fathers; 14 are illegitimate. 

The comparison of these Tables for 1844, 1845, and 1859 shows that the 
schools are now attended by the same description of children as when they 
were first opened. 





Table showing progress of Boys' 


School of Industry. 




Year. 


Average 
Attendance. 


Average 
Total cost. 


Food. 


Earnings. 


Net Cost. 


Got employ- 
ment directly 
from School. 






£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 




1841-42 


36 


8 6 8 


4 11 


14 6 


7 12 2 


... 


1842-43 


52 


6 8 


4 10 4 


1 2 8 


5 5 4 


... 


1843-44 


45 


5 12 


4 10 


1 4 


4 8 




1844-45 


52 


6 


4 


1 10 


4 10 


17 


1845-46 


49 


6 


3 8 6 


1 10 1 


4 9 11 


22 


1846-47 


66 


5 17 10 


3 14 


1 16 4 


4 16 


14 


1847-48 


66 


5 18 9 


4 1 9 


1 14 9 


4 4 


28 


1848-49 


64 


5 10 7 


3 15 7 


1 7 6 


4 3 1 


18 


1849-50 


61 


5 7 2 


3 10 6 


1 17 4 


3 9 10 


14 


1850-51 


64 


4 18 5 


3 13 


1 14 4 


3 4 1 


7 


1851-52 


72 


4 5 10 


3 


1 5 10 


3 


12 


1852-53 


66 


3 11 54 


3 6 


10 6 


2 10 114 


8 


1853-54 


61 


4 3 84 


3 6 


1 1 1 


3 2 74 


11 


1854-55 


53 


4 7 9J 


3 


1 9 


3 7 04 


14 


1855-56 


65 


3 17 84 


3 4 8 


15 3 


3 1 74 


17 


1856-57 


53 


3 10 11J 


3 1 


1 84 


2 10 3J 


15 


1857-58 


52 


4 13 1 


2 19 10f 


18 7 


3 14 6 


7 


1858-59 


77 


4 7 9| 


3 7 


16 04 


3 11 9£ 


18 



Table of Ages of Children at Juvenile School, Sugar House Lane, 
April 1846.— Number on Roll 73. 

3 years of age 3 

4 „ 10 

5 „ 2 

6 „ 10 25 under 7 

7 „ 8 

8 „ 7 

9 „ 6 

10 „ 15 36 from 7 to 10 

11 „ 3 

12 „ 1 

13 ., 7 11 from 10 to 13 

2 were orphans ; 5 had fathers only ; 47 had mothers only ; 20 had both 
parents alive ; 2 only could read on admission ; and 8 knew the letters of 
the alphabet. 

Average expense about £4 a year; earnings very small. 

Table of Ages of 132 Children in Juvenile School, on 1st April, 1859. 

Under 5 years 8 

Between 5 and 6 12 

6 and 7 20 

„ 7 and 8 27 67 



ON THE ABERDEEN INDUSTRIAL FEEDING SCHOOLS. 



61 



Between 8 and 9 16 

„ 9 and 10 26 

„ 10 and 11 7 

„ 11 and 12 11 60 

„ 12 and 13 4 

„ 13 and 14 1 5 

Thus of the 132, 67 are under eight years ; 60 from eight to twelve; and 
only 5 above twelve years. 

Of these 132, 6 have fathers only; 59 have mothers only ; 64 have both 
parents; 3 are orphans; 19 have been deserted by fathers, and 32 are 
illegitimate. 

Table showing Progress of the Juvenile School of Industry. 



Year. 


Average 
Attendance. 


Average 
Total cost. 


Food. 


Earnings. 


Net Cost. 


Got 

Situations. 






£ s. d. 


£ ». d. 


s. d. 


£ s. d. 




1845-46 


57 


4 7 8 


3 7 4 


8 5 


3 19 3 


26 


1846-47 


75 


4 7 2 


3 6 8 


3 7 


4 3 7 


6 


1847-48 


84 


5 7 4 


3 2 


4 


5 3 4 


15 


1848-49 


94 


3 16 9 


2 6 4 


2 


3 14 9 


8 


1849-50 


85 


4 


2 2 10 


2 10 


3 17 2 


10 


1850-51 


95 


3 7 7 


1 14 10 


3 


3 4 7 


7 


1851-52 


94 


4 2 3 


2 13 


6 9 


3 15 6 


12 


1852-53 


79 


3 19 1 


2 17 6 


3 4 


3 15 9 


15 


1853-54 


73 


4 3 10 


3 8 9 


7 4 


3 16 6 


11 


1854-55 


71 


4 14 10 


3 19 


7 


4 7 10 


9 


1855-56 


79 


4 6 4 


3 6 5 


4 3 


4 2 1 


8 


1856-57 


73 


4 8 10 


3 7 


5 10* 


4 2 lj 


15 


1857-58 


81 


4 6 4 


2 12 9 


4 bi 


4 l 104 


9 


1858-59 


120 


3 3 2 


2 1 11 


2 10i 


3 3i 


12 



N.B. The higher earnings of the years 1846, 1854, and 1855 arose from 
the boys being on the whole somewhat above the average age. 

The last column shows only those who have obtained situations direct 
from the school. 

Table of Ages of Girls at Female School, December 1845. — Number 

on Roll 64. 

Under 7 years 2 

Between 7 and 8 11- 13 

„ 8 and 9 10 

„ 9 and 10 12 

„ 10 and 11 13 

„ 11 and 12 8 

12 and 13 6 

Above 13 2 51 

Thus 13 were under eight years of age, and 51 from eight to thirteen ; 
30 had both parents alive ; 5 had fathers only ; 26 had mothers only ; and 
3 were orphans. 

December 1846.— 60 on Roll. 

Under 7 years 2 

Between 7 and 9 26 

„ 9 and 11 22 

„ 11 and 14 10 60 



62 report — 1859. 

Thus 2 were under seven, while 48 were from seven to eleven years ; 25 
had both parents alive ; 24 had mothers only ; 7 had fathers only ; 4 were 
orphans ; and of the 25 who had both parents alive, 6 had been deserted by 
fathers, — making 30 dependent on mothers only. 

£ s. d. 

Total cost of each pupil 3 18 10| 

Earnings ,, 6 11? 



"a 1 - 



I 



Net cost „ 3 11 11 7 

In 1846 the school was divided into two, viz. Sheriff Watson's Female 
School of Industry, and the Aberdeen Female School of Industry. 

Sheriff Watson's Female School in 1851 had 71 on the Roll, of whom 58 
were under eleven years of age, and the cost per head a£2 8s. 6d. per annum. 
In 1858-59 the average number on roll was 63^, while the average attend- 
ance on week days was 61, — a result rarely attained in any school. The 
average attendance on Sunday was 55^. 

Ages of 70 on Roll, 1st April, 1859. 

Ages. Time at School. 
Under 8 years 8 Under 1 year 34 



9 „ 18 „ 2 

10 „ 17 „ 3 

11 „ 13 „ 4 

12 „ 9 „ 5 

13 „ 4 „ 6 

14 „ , 1 



16 

10 

4 

4 

2 



s. 


d. 


7 


n 


18 


54 


2 


4 1 

? 


16 


1' 



Of these 70, 36 have both parents alive, and of these 12 have been 
deserted by fathers; 1 by her mother; and 1 by both parents; 27 have 
mothers only alive ; and 1 is an orphan. 

27 left during the year ; 8 required at home, 7 to domestic service, 4 
parents leaving Aberdeen, 2 in bad health, 3 to manufactories, 2 improved 
circumstances of family, and 1 to Orphan Institution. 

£ 

The cost per head for food was , 2 

The total cost per head 3 

The earnings per head 

Net cost 3 

Aberdeen Female School of Industry. 

In 1851 the number on roll was 77, of whom 63 were under twelve years 
of age; 18 obtained situations as domestic servants during the year; and the 
average expense of each was £3 8s. per annum. 

In 1856 the number on roll was 81, of whom 59 were under twelve years 
of age. During the year 14 went to domestic service and 5 to other work, 
and the full number on the roll was usually present at school. 

3 were orphans; 2 deserted by fathers; 20 had mothers only; 23 both 
parents alive ; and 18 illegitimate. 

In 1859 the number on roll was 96, of whom 53 were under ten years of 
age; 36 from ten to twelve; and 7 from twelve to fourteen. 

24 obtained domestic service, and 7 other employment. 

1 was an orphan ; 8 deserted by fathers ; 34 fathers dead ; 9 mothers dead ; 
3 mothers dead and deserted by fathers ; 1 deserted by both parents; 25 both 
parents alive; and 15 illegitimate. 

Average cost of each child per annum £4 7*. life?- 

Average attendance 93. 



UPPER SILURIANS OF LESMAHAGOW. 63 

Proceedings of Child's Asylum, opened December 1846. 

Boys. Girls. Total. 

Dec. 1846 to Dec. 1847 police brought up 56 39 95 

„ 1847 ,,1848 „ .... 30 16 46 

„ 1848 „ 1849 „ .... 22 6 28 

„ 1849 „ 1850 „ .... 10 2 12 

„ 1850 „ 1851 „ .... 11 6 17 

Making in five years 129 boys and 69 girls, — in all 198. 

It soon became apparent that the operations of police were so effective, 
that they must soon cease to supply sufficient numbers of pupils to the 
schools, and the Child's Asylum Committee resolved to receive and investi- 
gate applications from the parents or friends of neglected juveniles. 

The first four years of this mode of proceeding gave the following results: 

Boys. Girls. Total. 

1848. Applications on behalf of 92 57 149 

1849. „ „ 103 32 135 

1850. „ „ 82 30 112 

1851. „ „ 88 21 109 

The general result of the first five years' operations of the asylum is that 

703 cases of neglected children were investigated by means of it, most of 
whom were sent to one or other of the industrial schools; e.g. in 1851, of 
the 109, 54 boys were sent to the boys' school; 42 boys and girls to the 
juvenile school; 2 to Inspector of Poor; and 10 refused as unsuitable. 

The Child's Asylum continues in constant operation, and a full record is 
made and preserved of each case ; but no reports or tables have been printed 
since 1851. 



On the Upper Silurians of Lesmahagow, Lanarkshire. 

The interest excited at the Glasgow Meeting, in 1855, by the announce- 
ment of a highly fossiliferous tract of Upper Silurian strata in the parish of 
Lesmahagow, and by the exhibition of their new and rare fossil forms at the 
Leeds Meeting in 1858, induced the Association to vote the sum of ^20 
towards the further exploration of these beds by their original discoverer, 
Mr. Robert Slimon. This sum was placed under the direction of a Com- 
mittee consisting of Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Mr. Page, and Professor 
Ramsay ; and under the condition that the specimens should be given in the 
first place to the public Museum of Edinburgh, and duplicates thereafter to 
the Museums of Economic Geology in London and Dublin. In terms of 
this grant, the Committee, through their resident member, Mr. Page, have 
now to report : — 

That during the past summer Mr. Slimon and his son have shown great 
industry in exploring the various sections exhibited in the channels of the 
Logan, Nethan, Priesthall Burn, and other streams that flow from the Nitberry 
Hills, and cut through the strata in question. As these strata consist for the 
most part of brittle slaty mudstones, wholly unfit for any economic purpose, 
and rendered still more brittle by the intersection of numerous felspathic 
dykes, there was no other mode of exploration than by quarrying directly 
for the fossils, and this at as many points as were accessible, and as far as 
the limits of the grant would allow. 



64 report — 1859. 

The result of these operations have been to exhibit still further the highly 
fossiliferous character of the Nitberry Silurians, and to give ample indication 
of a very varied and curious crustacean fauna altogether new to Palaeonto- 
logy. Molluscous remains of well-known Upper Silurian genera have also 
been obtained in sufficient numbers to prove the affinities of the beds ; and 
indications of both an aquatic and terrestrial flora seem by no means rare 
throughout the strata. 

Another fact fully established by the exploration is, that while the lower 
beds exhibit the closest palasontological relations with the Ludlow beds of 
England, the upper pass insensibly — and without any marked boundary, 
lithological or palseontological — into flaggy tilestones which are the un- 
doubted equivalents of the lowermost Old Red of Forfarshire. 

The specimens obtained during the explorations have a threefold value:— 
1st, as proving the true Upper Silurian epoch of the Nitberry strata, and 
thus affording a clue to the investigation of other Sub-Devonian tracts in 
Scotland which are yet but imperfectly understood ; 2nd, as adding new 
forms to the life of a former epoch, and thus extending the boundaries of our 
zoological knowledge ; and 3rdly, as enabling the Government palaeonto- 
logists, who have recently published their first monograph on the Eury- 
pterida?, to understand more clearly the nature of this curious family of 
Crustaceans, and to correct what must now evidently appear as misinterpre- 
tations of their structure and affinities. 

Arranging in order the fossils obtained by Mr. Slimon, we have of 

Plant Remains: — 

Numerous fucoidal impressions. 

Calciphytes. 

Lepidendroid stems evidently in fructification. 

Mollusca : — ■ 

Modiolopsis, 2 species. 

Platyschismus, or Trochus helicites. 

Nucula. 

Lingula cornea. 

Orthoceras. 

Pterinea. 

Avicula. 

Anneixida: — Spirorbis Lewisii. 
Crustacea : — 
Fam. Eurypteridse. 
Pterygotus bilobus. 
,, perornatus. 

„ punctatus. 

„ acuminatus. 

Eurypterus lanceolatus. 

„ pygmaeus (?). 

Stylonurus spinipes, and another. 
Fam. Nebaliadae : — 

Ceratiocaris, several undetermined species. 
Fam. Limnadiadae : — 
Beyrichia. 
Undetermined organisms, apparently Crustacean or Amorphozoan. 
In none of the beds examined, nor during the whole of Mr. Slimon's pre- 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS. 65 

vious explorations, which have extended over several years, has there ever 
been detected any trace of an ichthyolite — fish-scale, fin-spine, or tooth — a 
noticeable fact, considering the highly fossiliferous character of the strata, 
and the indications that many of them give of littoral as well as of deep-sea 
conditions of deposit. 

Looking at the palaeontological value of Mr. Slimon's discoveries, and the 
additional interest they have conferred on Palaeozoic Geology, your Com- 
mittee would respectfully urge upon him a continuance of his labours, con- 
joined with the hope that, if at all compatible with the other requirements 
of the Association, a further grant of say a610 or 3620 should be made to 
assist in so desirable an object. 



Report on the Results obtained by the Mechanico -Chemical Examination of 

Rocks and Minerals. By Alphonse Gages, M.R.I. A., Curator of the 

Museum of Irish Industry. 
I had the honour of bringing before the Section at the last meeting of the 
Association at Leeds, a short paper entitled " On a Method of observation 
applied to the study of Melamorphic Rocks, and on some Molecular Changes 
exhibited by the action of Acids upon them." The principal feature of this 
method of examination consisted in exposing thin plates of rocks, or crystals 
cut in certain directions, to the slow action of solutions of acids or alkalies 
of different degrees of concentration, under such varied circumstances as the 
special characters of each rock may suggest. The general result of this 
action was the gradual removal of some or of all the bases, a residue being left, 
the structure and composition of which indicated the mode of formation of 
the original rock. 

The idea of submitting rocks or minerals to the action of various solvents 
is not new. But hitherto experimenters have operated upon the powdered 
mineral. I operate upon fragments which exhibit not only the chemical 
constitution of the substance under examination, but what is in many in- 
stances of still greater importance, the mechanical constitution also. An 
example will explain still better the difference. 

If we powder a piece of alum and put it into water, it will dissolve, and so 
far as the appearance presented by the powdered mass, uniformly. But if 
we take the same piece of alum, and instead of breaking it up, grind a flat 
surface upon it, and place it, as Daniel did, in water with its polished face 
downwards, the water will act upon that face very unequally ; after a time 
crystals will stand out in relief, and what looked like a homogeneous cry- 
stalline mass, will be shown to be made up of a confused mass of interlaced 
crystals cemented together. 

Observers have no doubt dissolved minerals in fragments as well as in 
powder, but they have not, so far as I am aware, done so with the object of 
studying the peculiar mechanical arrangement of the components of rocks, 
and certainly have not done so as a methodical system of examination. 

If, as Daniel's experiments show, we may learn much regarding the 
molecular structure of even a crystalline mass of a homogeneous substance 
by the manner of dissolving it, how much more so must this be the case with 
such complex mechanical mixtures as most rocks are ! Before detailing the 
experiments which I have made during the past year, I may observe, that 
although the application of this method of examination (which, for want of a 
better word, we may call niechanico-chemical) is limited to a certain number 

1859. F 



66 report — 1859. 

of rocks, it may be advantageously employed as a kind of preliminary quali- 
tative analysis, in the case of the majority of sedimentary rocks, whether meta- 
morphic or otherwise, before reducing them to powder, in order to analyse 
them by the ordinary method. The slow and prolonged action of acids on 
minerals or rocks composed of a mixture of minerals, or even those mainly com- 
posed apparently of one mineral, enables us sometimes to discover substances 
which would otherwise have passed unnoticed, and the constituents of which 
would consequently be confounded with those of the rest of the rock. 

The number of rocks which resist without decomposition the prolonged 
action of acids such as HC1 and HO S0 3 at various temperatures, up to their 
boiling-point, is extremely limited ; and this is especially the case if fragments 
of rocks be subjected to the alternate action of the two acids. Those espe- 
cially which have undergone a slight alteration, such as the commencement 
of the formation of hydrated minerals, always yield to such treatment. 

A great number of rocks, consisting of aluminous silicates or silicates of 
lime or magnesia, frequently leave, after treatment with acids, skeletons which 
show us the manner in which many minerals may have been decomposed, 
the residues which they left often serving as the basis of new formations. 
In examining calcareous rocks containing such skeletons, it is necessary to 
use dilute acid solutions, sometimes indeed extremely so ; as concentrated 
acids might in many instances decompose the skeletons, especially if they 
appeared to contain hydrated silicates. 

The rocks which I have submitted to examination since the last meeting 
of the Association may be classified as follows : — 

1. Comparative examination of the residues of Permian magnesian lime- 
stones from ten localities. 

2. Comparative examination of the magnesian limestone of Howth, Co. of 
Dublin, contrasted with those of the Permian localities. 

3. Magnesian limestone conglomerate from Downhill, Co. Londonderry. 

4. Examination and analysis of a pseudo-dolomite, found at the junction 
of the trap and carboniferous limestone, at Stone Park Quarry, 2^ miles 
north of Six Mile Bridge, Co. of Limerick. 

5. Experiments on the composition and structure of the residues obtained 
from the Calp or middle limestone, Co. of Dublin, and of the lower limestone 
shales of Drogheda. 

6. On chloritic slate, and metamorphic limestone derived from it. 

7. On a metamorphic limestone containing garnets reposing on the granite 
near Gweedore River, Co. Donegal. 

1. Magnesian Limestones from Permian Localities There appears to me 

to be considerable confusion in the minds of some geologists regarding what 
are called Magnesian Limestones. The terras Dolomite and Magnesian 
Limestone, in the sense in which they are sometimes employed, seem to 
imply a similarity in the mode of formation. This is, however, far from 
being the case. Most limestone rocks, whatever may be their origin, contain 
some magnesia; and even recent corals and marine shells have been found 
by the investigations of Dana and Forchammer to contain some. 

I have no intention to propose a nomenclature of magnesian limestones; 
I merely wish to trace the distinctive characters of some of those rocks 
by means of the residues which they leave when treated with acids, and 
which are often the only witnesses which could instruct us as to the mode 
of their formation. Some of these residues are very characteristic ; thus the 
Permian are ochrey, and always contain fragments of hyaline quartz, some- 
times rounded on the angles. Those, on the contrary, derived from mag- 
nesian limestones formed either by infiltration or in a tranquil medium, and 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS. 



67 



Tabulated Statement of the Characteristics of the Permian Magnesian Lime- 
stones examined, and the Proportions of Residues which they contain. 



No. 


Locality. 


Description of Rock. 


Relative pro- 
portion of Re- 
sidue and Car- 
bonate in the 
Rock. 


Observations. 


a C - os 

fit* 

o JO c 

to S^s a 




a 

3 


1. 


Townland of 
Templereagh. 


Variegated purplish and 
huff-coloured magnesian 
limestone breaking with 
a sharp angular fracture. 


90-70 


9-30 


Residue of a highly plastic 
ochrey clay of a yellowish 
buff-colour, and containing 
a fine debris of transparent 
quartz. 


2. 


Templereagh. 


Magnesian limestone, pur- 
plish grey, exhibiting 
over its surface small 
shining grains of quartz. 


71-65 


28-35 


Residue consisting of a fer- 
ruginous clay of a violet- 
red colour, intermingled 
with about its own weight 
of debris of quartz. 


3. 


Artrea, Co.Ty- 
rone. 


Magnesian limestone of a 
light buff-colour and 
oolitic structure. 


91-30 


8-70 


Residue composed chiefly of 
very small fragments of 
transparent quartz, with 
some opalescent ones also, 
as large as a pea. Traces 
of yellow ochre. 


4. 


Yorkshire. 


Kidney-shaped nodules of 
magnesian limestone, 
of a liver - colour : frac- 
ture highly crystalline. 


98-72 


1-28 


Yellowish-brown clay and 
minute fragments of trans- 
parent quartz. 


5. 


Durham. 


Stalagmitic concretions of 
magnesian limestone of 
a light-brown colour. 


98-34 


1-66 


Light-brown ochre, with 
some fragments of hyaline 
quartz. 


6. 


Durham. 


Fine-grained cellular mag- 
nesian limestone of a 
whitish-grey colour. 


98-70 


1-30 


Very minute granular frag- 
ments of quartz, with a light 
brown-coloured ochre. 


7. 


From the same 
locality as 
No. 6. 


Characters of the rock the 
same as the preceding. 


98-10 


1-20 


Very minute grains of quartz, 
with light-brown ochre. 


8. 


Cheltenham. 


Light brown-coloured pi- 
solitic magnesian lime- 
stone. 


94-45 


5-55 


Light-brown ochre, with 
small angular fragments of 
hyaline quartz. 


9. 


Sutton near 
Ashby, N.W. 
Manchester. 


Red earthy compact mag- 
nesian limestone. 


78-00 


22-00 


Red ochre, with some fine 
hyaline quartz sand. 


10. 


Exhall, Co- 
ventry. 


Sandstone formed of fine 
quartz sand cemented 
by carbonate of lime 
and magnesia. 


21-53 


78-47 


If we reverse the numbers 
representing the sand and 
carbonates, we shall have a 
magnesian limestone of the 
same character as No. 9. 



f2 



68 report — 1859. 

under the influence of the decomposition of other rocks, contain, ill the 
majority of cases, crystalline substances in a whole state, or partially decom- 
posed silicates. 

Having just indicated the comparative distinctive characters of the residues 
left by the magnesian limestones of different kinds, I will now proceed to 
describe those of the Permian in detail. 

The magnesian limestones of the Permian group which I have had 
an opportunity of examining, leave, when treated with hydrochloric acid, 
more or less abundant residues, offering the same lithological characters. 
These residues are ferruginous clay, varying in colour from deep red to very 
pale yellow. These variations of colour are due to the relative proportions 
of sesquioxide of iron present, and sometimes to that of manganese also. 
The residues contained besides fragments of transparent quartz, which may 
be separated by washing. The oolitic characters which some of those mag- 
nesian limestones assume are always due to those fragments of quartz, which 
serve as nuclei around which the deposit of carbonates is formed. The quan- 
tity of residue sometimes exceeds 30 per cent., and often does not amount to 
| per cent. ; but whatever may be the quantity of the residue, its lithological 
characters remain always the same. 

The following Table contains the results of my examination of each of the 
specimens of magnesian limestone from Permian localities. 

No. 3 in the Table illustrates very strikingly the origin of the oolitic 
structure in calcareous rocks. When a fragment was exposed for a short 
time to the action of hydrochloric acid, so as to remove part of the lime, 
the grains of sand were observed standing in a kind of hollow shell. It 
differs, however, from the generality of oolitic rocks, in which the grain 
of sand or matter forming the nucleus is surrounded by concentric layers of 
calcareous matter. In the rock under notice, the grains of sand appear, so 
far as can be judged by means of a lens, to have been simply imbedded in the 
cementing parts. 

2. Howth Dolomite. — The dolomite of Howth, Co. of Dublin, belongs 
to the carboniferous series, and rests on Cambrian slates. It is of a light 
yellowish-brown colour and has a compact crystalline texture, with many 
cavities, however, which are filled with well-developed crystals of bitter-spar. 
When examined with a lens, it appeared to be formed of a series of irregular 
serrated layers, sometimes containing oxide of manganese in more or less 
quantity. On being treated with acetic acid, it divided itself into small 
granular crystals of bitter-spar, resembling an extremely fine sand. It thus 
presented all the characteristics of true dolomite. 

Treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, it left a residue never exceeding 3 
per cent., and consisting of a reddish-brown ochrey clay mingled with crystals 
of quartz, which were separated by agitating the residue in water. They 
consisted of very fine acicular crystals of opake quartz, having a fibrous 
arrangement, the edges of some of the crystals being somewhat eaten away. 
Washed several times with hydrochloric acid, and then treated with hydro- 
fluoric acid, these crystals yielded an appreciable quantity of alumina, oxide 
of iron, lime, and magnesia, a circumstance which suggests that they may be 
the relics of some augitic or hornblendic rock. The Rev. Prof. Haughton, 
to whom I submitted these crystals, and who examined them, considered 
them to be " fibrous quartz, and such as occurs in the minute veins of 
quartz in the slate rocks of which the Hill of Howth is formed." What 
is most remarkable in connexion with those crystals, is the constancy with 
which the residue is found disseminated throughout the whole dolomitic 
mass of Howth. 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS. G9 

The composition in 100 parts of the Howth dolomite may be thus repre- 
sented as follows : — 

Carbonate of lime 53*897 

Carbonate of magnesia 43*610 

Protoxide of iron 1*403 

Residue / 0chre y ^ °" 735 

itesmue <^ Fibrous CJuartz . 196 

Peroxide of manganese (in variable quantity). 

99*841 
3. Maynesian Conglomerate from Downhill, Go. Londonderry. — This rock, 
which has been improperly called hydrocarbonate of magnesia, is formed of 
spherical nodules encircled by a greenish paste, composed generally of car- 
bonate of iron and of a partially decomposed ferro-magnesian silicate. 

The composition of the part of this conglomerate soluble in dilute hydro- 
chloric acid varies very much, as does that of the residue likewise. It some- 
times acquires the character of true dolomite ; and, according to Prof. Oldham, 
it contains crystals of bitter-spar disseminated through the mass. The fol- 
lowing Table, containing the results of two analyses of the soluble part, will 
show the character of the variation alluded to: — 

I. II. 

Carbonate of lime .... 63*700 70-863 

Carbonate of magnesia . 21*325 17*481 

Protoxide of iron .... 3*400 Mil 

Residue 8*875 0*896 

Water 2*700 (by difference) 9*600 (experimentally). 

100*000 99*951 

The following results, obtained by Dr. Apjohn, bear out what has been said 
above, that the proportion of magnesia to lime sometimes reaches that ob- 
served in true dolomite : — 

Carbonate of lime 54*8S 

Carbonate of magnesia 38*23 

Carbonate of iron 5*93 

Silex and loss 0*96 

100-00 
The residue left after the dissolution of the carbonates in dilute hydro- 
chloric acid, is generally of a variable greenish colour and a spongy texture; 
it contains a quantity of water, and also some organic matters. 

The following Table gives the results of analyses of three specimens of this 
residue : — 

I. II. III. 

Silica 40*371 60*725 70*532 

Magnesia , 13*719 5*656 4*259 

Lime 0*251 

Protoxide of iron 6*913 5*461 5*218 

Alumina 0*216 2*557 0*473 

Water and organic matter, "1 3g . 781 25 . 350 19 . 5J8 

&c. by difference J 

100*000 100*000 100*000 

In examining one of those residues with a lens, I found a perfect octahe- 
dron of red oxide of copper. 



70 REPORT — 1859. 

4. Pseudo-dolomite. — This rock was found, according to Mr. O'Kelly of 
the Irish Geological Survey, at the junction of the trap and carboniferous 
limestone at Stone Park, 2\ miles north of Six Mile Bridge, Co. of Limerick. 
It presents the appearance, at first sight, of the dolomitic limestone of Howth 
and other carboniferous localities; and isof a brown colour passing into yellow, 
being traversed by a great number of fine veins of calcite. It is covered by 
an ochrey substance, similar to that which results from the decomposition 
of the trap. It left, after digestion with dilute hydrochloric acid, a residue 
preserving the form of the piece of rock ; it had, however, so little cohesion, 
that it separated into grains on the slightest agitation. 

The composition of this rock may be represented thus : — 

Carbonate of lime 57*620 

Carbonate of magnesia 5*892 

Carbonate of iron 7*590 

Alumina 0*590 

Water 2*820 

Felspathic residue 25*780 

100*292 

The residue, when washed and dried, exhibits under the microscope cellular 
fragments of an apple-green colour, analogous to some residues derived from 
the decomposition of felstones and greenstones. With this substance were 
also found grains of hyaline quartz. 

This residue is attacked by boiling sulphuric acid, which leaves the quartz 
debris untouched. Analysed in this way the following results were ob- 
tained : — 

Silica and fragments of quartz 73*491 

Alumina 9*467 

Fe 2 3 4*127 

Lime 0*552 

Magnesia traces 

Potash 4-277 

Soda 1*451 

Water 6*502 

99*867 

It results from this analysis, that the residue is a felspathic mass, 
disintegrated by some mechanical means before it became enveloped by the 
calcareous matter which forms the existing rock. Unless this were so, the 
quartz could not be found in a fragmentary condition. 

If the rocks which formed the subject of the preceding observations were 
analysed in the ordinary way, by crushing them to powder, all the evidence 
regarding their origin and probable mode of formation, which has been so 
well exhibited by slowly operating with acids upon fragments, in such a 
manner as not to break up or alter the foreign substances enclosed by the 
carbonates, would have been obliterated. Where dolomitic rocks are asso- 
ciated with basalt and other igneous rocks, and enclose silicated minerals, 
such as tourmaline, tremolite, &c, which are characteristic of igneous rocks, 
geologists are able to recognize at once the connexion between the dolomites 
and the igneous rocks; but in very many cases dolomitic rocks bear no such 
visible evidence of relationship to other rocks, and yet many have been 
formed by their metamorphosis. The long list of constituents, such as 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF BOCKS AND MINERALS. 71 

alumina, protoxide of iron, silica, &c, which is given in the Tables repre- 
senting the analyses of limestones and dolomites, conveys but little informa- 
tion as to how they came there. On the other hand, by studying the nature 
of the residue left by the magnesian limestone of the Permian formation, we 
have evidence that they were formed by single deposition. Again, the residue 
of delicate fibrous quartz which is found in the Howth dolomite, if not 
characteristic, is at least indicative of change subsequent to its deposition, a 
conclusion strongly supported by the cellular structure of the rock, which, 
according to Elie de Beaumont and Morlot, affords incontestable proof of 
alteration subsequent to the deposition of calcareous rocks. The dolomitic 
conglomerate of Down Hill and the pseudo-dolomite belong to a different 
class of phenomena. In the former case we have a species of conglomerate 
formed of chalk and decomposing amygdaloidal basalt. The calcareous 
part became more or less dolomitic, crystals of bitter-spar being sometimes 
formed ; the magnesia forming the essential part of the residue is evidently 
the source of alteration, and accordingly varies, as is seen in the Table, and 
sometimes even wholly disappears. The protoxide of iron also is gradually 
removed along with the magnesia, and so completely sometimes that only a 
siliceous skeleton remains. The previous analyses of the mass give us no 
clue whatever to this mode of formation, and indeed do not afford any 
evidence whatever of the difference between it and any other kind of dolo- 
mite. The character of the residue fully explains the history of the pseudo- 
dolomite. It consists of the relics of some felspathic rock enveloped in a 
mass of carbonate of lime, magnesia, and iron, themselves the products of 
decomposition of local trappean rocks. So far as the individual rocks ex- 
amined are concerned, the results are of course new ; but the formation of 
dolomites of the character just described has been long since known and their 
relationship to igneous rocks clearly indicated; I do not therefore bring 
forward the preceding examples because they contain any general fact 
hitherto unknown, but because they serve to illustrate the true method which 
should be followed in the analysis of rocks. To complete the illustration, it 
would be necessary to contrast the results obtained by means of it, with 
the many elaborate tables of analyses annually published, and which, so far 
as the explanation of geological phenomena is concerned, are wholly value- 
less, however admirable they may be as specimens of skill of the analysts in 
separating different substances from one another. 

5. Calp and Lower Limestone Shales. — The mountain limestone dissolves 
in acids without leaving any earthy residue ; and when the solution is filtered, 
only a little charcoal remains on the filter. But when portions of the in- 
termediate rocks are treated with acid, they leave residues more or less 
abundant, consisting of sand, clay, or carbonaceous matter and iron pyrites. 
These residues, disseminated through limestones, completely alter their litho- 
logical appearance, and communicate to them different physical properties ; 
in this way are formed the various limestone-shales, grits, &c. of the car- 
boniferous formation. These calcareous substances, when digested for a 
longer or shorter period according to circumstances, in water slightly acidified 
by hydrochloric acid, are easily penetrated in the cold, and the whole of 
the carbonate of lime is dissolved out. The skeletons which these different 
deposits leave on being thus treated, indicate very clearly, as in the case of 
the Permian magnesian limestones, some of the conditions under which the 
rocks have been formed. 

A specimen of hydraulic limestone from the environs of Milltown, Co. of 
Dublin, treated in the manner just described, gave — 



72 report — 1859. 

Carbonate of lime 76*20 

Carbonate of magnesia traces 

Clay 8-30 

Sand 14-65 

Carbonaceous matter, pyrites and amorphous sulphide \ „,„ 

of iron J 

99-65 

This limestone, which is very hard and has a conchoidal fracture, owes 
the physical properties which distinguish it to the sandy residue forming 
its skeleton. The latter retains the external form and appearance of the 
original rock ; and even fossil-casts may be recognized and determined. If 
the skeleton be ignited, the carbonaceous matter is burned away, leaving the 
cast of the fossil perfect. The skeleton thus exposed represents the sand of 
the original sea-bottom prior to its infiltration with calcareous matter. 

When the quantity of argillaceous matter equals that of the carbonate of 
lime, and especially when the carbonaceous matter is present in a consider- 
able quantity, this calcareous residue presents all the character of a true 
mud. This is the case with the lower limestone shales from the neighbour- 
hood of Drogheda, which may be represented by the following composition : — 

Carbonate of lime with carbonate of magnesia 47*10 

Residue of clay and sand containing iron pyrites .... 47'75 
Carbonaceous matter 5*15 

100-00 
This residue, and indeed all the similar beds belonging to that formation, 
contain a good deal of iron pyrites and sulphide of iron in what may be 
called an amorphous state — apparently a proto-sulphide, as it evolved 
sulphuretted hydrogen on being treated with acids; both these are included 
in the clay and sand, and partly in the carbonaceous matter. 

I may here observe that the quantity of residue, and of carbonaceous 
matter, varies in different parts of the rock from the same quarry. Thus a 
specimen taken at a short distance from the locality of the last specimen had 
the following composition : — 

Carbonate of lime with carbonate of magnesia 55*40 

Residue I Clay and sand with Py ritcs S6 ' 00 

\ Carbonaceous matter 8*60 

100-00 
In some of these consolidated muds the lime is almost wholly absent ; the 
lithological character of the residues, however, remains constant. The sand 
separated from the clay is extremely fine when observed under a strong lens. 
The analysis of some of these residues may perhaps serve to trace the source 
from which they were derived. 

I have already alluded to the existence of two compounds of iron with 
sulphur in these beds; and I may here remark that the characters which the 
lower limestone shales, as for instance that of Drogheda, present, appear to 
offer an explanation of the circumstances under which these sulphides were 
formed. We are daily witnesses of the fact, that under the influence of water 
and organic matter, and exclusion of air, sulphates dissolved in water are 
reduced to the state of sulphides, which convert the salts of iron in contact 
with them into sulphide. The sulphide thus formed is amorphous, as may 
be observed in the black mud which is found under the pavement of streets, 
and which evolves sulphuretted hydrogen. Now the mud from which these 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS. 73 

limestone shales have been formed, was one in which animal and vegetable 
substances abounded ; for they are full of fossils, and the carbonaceous matter 
is derived from their decay. I may add that many of these fossils are 
entirely covered by pyrites. 

The formation of bisulphide of iron appears to require an excess of 
sulphur, and would naturally be most readily formed wherever there was 
an excess of animal organic matter, — a supposition which is supported by the 
fact recorded by Mr. Pepys*, and cited by Sir Charles Lyell in his « Manual 
of Elementary Geology.' It must be admitted, however, that iron pyrites is 
found in other rocks belonging to the carboniferous formations almost or 
wholly free from organic matter. The existence of crystals of iron pyrites 
in granite and trap rocks under circumstances where it would be difficult, 
if not impossible, for organic matter to intervene, show that that mineral may 
be formed in various ways. 

It is worth while remarking, however, that crystalline sulphur has been 
frequently found in mountain limestone, in which there is not much organic 
matter. 

Had iron been abundant in the neighbourhood, this sulphur would 
doubtless have been converted into pyrites. 

6. Chloritic Slate and supposed Metamorphic Limestone derived from it. — 
The ordinary mode of analysing rocks gives no assistance whatever in de- 
termining the origin of rocks metamorphosed by igneous agency ; it does not 
even enable us to determine positively whether a rock has been metamor- 
phosed by heat or not. The remaining experiments which I have to describe 
were made with rocks which are generally assigned to this class, and which 
therefore afford examples of the advantages which may be derived from the 
employment of the method of examination which I have pursued. The 
rocks which formed the subject of experiment were, a specimen of altered 
chloritic slate, and two specimens of what is usually considered as meta- 
morphic limestone. Beds of this class are found in the N.W. of Ireland, 
sometimes resting on granite, and always associated with such rocks as gneiss, 
mica-schist, hornblende slate, &c. I think I have established an interesting 
relationship between one of those beds and a chloritic schistose rock, which, 
if it be not wholly opposed to the igneous metamorphosis of the calcareous 
rock, undoubtedly proves that it could not have been subjected to a very 
high temperature. 

Before describing the calcareous rock alluded to, it is necessary to give an 
account of the chlorite schist, and the results of my analysis of it. The rock, 
which contains some crystals of augite or hornblende and magnetic iron, oc- 
curs in the Townland of Cavan Lower, half a mile east of the town of Stra- 
norlar in the Co. of Donegal. It effervesces with acids, as most rocks of a 
similar character do ; and when digested with them, the micaceous part is 
partially attacked. On being boiled for some time with acids, the chief part 
of the chloritic and other minerals separate from the quartz. Here an im- 
portant problem suggested itself, namely, in what state did the quartz exist? 
Was it formed in the rock by the action of the heat, that is, did the original 
rock separate under the influence of heat into chlorite and quartz? or was it 
originally composed of quartz and some other substance, which alone changed 
into chlorite ? With the view of attempting a solution of this problem, which 
applies equally to most kinds of schistose rocks, some thin plates of the schist, 
carefully detached from different parts of the rock, were treated by diluted 
hydrochloric acid until every thing soluble was dissolved out. The plates 
were then repeatedly submitted for some time to the successive action of 

* Geological Transactions, vol. i. p. 399, First Series. 



74 REPORT — 1859. 

boiling hydrochloric and sulphuric acid, care being taken, however, to avoid 
a rapid ebullition, in order not to break or deform them. This treatment was 
continued until almost every thing soluble in acids was removed. There then 
remained a residue of beautiful hyaline quartz fragments enveloped in semi- 
transparent nacreous crystalline-looking scales. These scales being the sili- 
ceous skeletons left by the foliated chlorite, they dissolved in caustic potash ; 
so that after a few successive treatments with acids and caustic potash there 
only remained quartz debris, some of the grains still bearing the impression 
of the mineral substances which had adhered to them. Before treating the 
siliceous residue with caustic potash, the nacreous scales and quartz were so 
intimately mingled, that at first sight it would be difficult to say whether the 
latter occurred as fragments, or in an unaltered crystalline state. Treatment 
with caustic potash removes all doubt, however, on this subject. 
The following are the results of an analysis of the chloritic slate : — 

Alkalies (potash) 0*545 

Magnesia 5*439 

Lime 0965 

Protoxide of iron and a little sesquioxide of iron 1 Q.nfi4< 

derived from the magnetic oxide J 

Alumina 7*360 

Silica and quartz 61*762 

Water 2*862 

Carbonate of lime 11 *08 1 

Carbonate of magnesia 1 *024 

100*102 

The ratio of the oxygen in the protoxide bases existing as silicates in this 
chloritic slate is to that in the alumina as 4*464' : 3*440, that is, there are 
four equivalents of protoxide bases to one of alumina, which is exactly that 
in typical chlorite of the formula 4 (RO, Si0 2 ) A1 2 3 , Si0 2 +3HO. The 
water in the slate, however, would only correspond to two equivalents; but, 
on the other hand, the quantity of water in chlorite is subject to vary, and 
some analyses have been recorded in which the water does not exceed two 
equivalents. 

The carbonate of lime or magnesia has no doubt been formed by the 
decomposition of augite or hornblende. From this it would appear that the 
original material out of which the chloritic slate was formed, consisted of 
a calcareo-magnesian slate-clay or shale intermixed with hyaline quartz de- 
bris, that is, a rock resembling in composition rich clay marls. 

Having thus ascertained, with considerable probability of truth, the origin 
of the chlorite, I shall now endeavour to show that the subsequent decom- 
position of part of the chloritic rock may have furnished materials for the 
formation of a rock of a totally different character, which is found in the same 
parish, and about three miles east of the locality from which this schistose 
rock was obtained, or about two miles to the west of Castlefinn (both local- 
ities being north of the river Finn). It is marked as metamorphic limestone 
on Sir Richard Griffith's Geological Map of Ireland. It has a saccharoidal 
structure, and a greyish white colour, the grey tint being due to micaceous 
scales of chlorite which are disseminated through the mass, together with 
some small crystals of magnetic and common iron pyrites and debris of 
hyaline quartz. 

A fragment of this rock digested in dilute hydrochloric acid, left a residue 
analogous to that left by the schist when treated in a similar manner. The 
residue consisted of debris of fragments of hyaline quartz, sometimes agglo- 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS. 75 

meratcd together and intermixed with fragments of the rock more or less 
decomposed. The crystals of pyrites which occur in the residue arc 
always cubes with perfectly sharp edges and angles, the latter being some- 
times truncated. There is every reason to suppose that these crystals were 
formed subsequently to the interval which gave birth to the limestone. 
Some of them were found in the midst of the quartz debris ; and one of them 
consisted of a kind of twin parallel to the faces of the cube, the two halves 
being, however, separated by a portion of quartz ; one half had its edges 
truncated and the other not. They had thus submitted to the conditions 
imposed by the medium in the midst of which they were developed. 

The following are the results of an analysis of a specimen of this lime- 
stone : — 

Carbonate of lime 75*987 

Carbonate of magnesia - 986 

Peroxide of iron and alumina 1*583 

Residue consisting of chlorite, magnetic, and com- \ 01.35(5 

mon iron pyrites and debris of hyaline quartz. . J 

99-912 

It results from these observations that this metamorphic limestone should 
be regarded as derived from some of the materials of the schist above 
mentioned. For we may, so to speak, follow the passage of the mica-schist 
from the point where it does not effervesce with acids, into metamorphic 
limestone still containing all the essential parts of the schist. If we suppose 
that this limestone had been subjected to a high temperature, the quartz 
should have combined with the bases. The crystals of pyrites disseminated 
through the mass, as well as the position which they occupy, suggest an 
argument of a similar kind. 

7. Gweedore Metamorphic Limestone. — This rock is found associated with 
mica-schist resting on granite near Gweedore River ; isolated patches of the 
limestone occasionally rest on the granite, and sometimes alternate with mica- 
slate. This limestone is saccharoidal, of an aquamarine tint, which is due to 
the mass of small angular fragments of a green mineral interspersed through 
it. This mineral often serves as a nucleus to a crystal of carbonate of lime, 
aud is accompanied by small sand-like crystals of idocrase and garnet. 
Large crystals of garnet are also found in abundance ; and from the way in 
which they are deposited, the rock has a stratified appearance. The faces 
of the crystals are more or less eaten away, as if they had been weathered. 

Treated for some time with very dilute hydrochloric acid, this rock gave 
in 100 parts the following results: — 

' Garnets, idocrase, 
„ . . . ,. „ and green mineral . . 17*16^1 

Residue consisting of j Amorp f lous silica .... 6 - 3 >23*360 

Alumina 0*1 7 J 

Carbonate of lime 75*250 

Carbonate of magnesia 0*610 

Alumina and oxide of iron soluble in acids 0*512 

Water (undetermined) 

99*732 

If a fragment of this garnet limestone be left in very dilute hydrochloric 
acid until the whole of the carbonate of lime be removed, the garnets will 
be found imbedded in nearly pure amorphous silica, which readily dissolves 
in a weak solution of caustic potash. This siliceous paste is obviously the 



76 report— 1859. 

skeleton of a former rock. In the generality of instances silica is dissemi- 
nated through the mass, and then does not form a coherent skeleton, so that 
the garnets, instead of being surrounded with the amorphous silica, are only 
coated on some sides with a siliceous film. 

Cases also occur in which there is no silica, and the limestone contains 
only a small quantity of the above mentioned green mineral. In fact every 
analysis of the rock will give a different result as regards the quantity and 
nature of the residue. 

The analysisof the green mineral was attended with great difficulty in conse- 
quence of the fine state of division in which it occurred, besides being mingled 
with idocrase and garnet debris nearly as fine as itself. A small quantity of 
it, picked out with the aid of a lens, yielded the following results: — 

Lime 26*183 

Magnesia 8*825 

Protoxide of iron 10*576 

Alumina 3*750 

Silica 49-6*1 

Water 1*025 

100*000 
These numbers show that it is an aluminous augite, or more properly an 
augite and garnet compound, corresponding in a most striking manner with 
one from Fassa analysed by Kudernatsch* ; the sum of the oxygen in the 
protoxide bases being 13*360 for the green mineral, and 13*658 for the spe- 
cimen from Fassa. 

As broken fragments of minerals cannot have been formed by the action 
of heat upon a sedimentary limestone, the fragmentary state of the green 
augite, idocrase, and garnets prove that the rock under discussion has not 
been metamorphosed by heat. On the other hand, the existence of an enve- 
lope of soluble silica surrounding some of the garnets, seems to show that 
anterior to the formation of the new limestone rock, one existing of silicates 
must have existed there. 



Experime,nts to determine the Efficiency of Continuous and Self-acting 
Breaks for RailwayTrains. By William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

Of late years various improvements have been introduced upon railways to 
diminish the dangers of travelling, and attention is now specially directed to 
the increase of the retarding power for trains by various kinds of breaks. 
From an early period in the history of railways it was seen that few objects 
were more important for ensuring the security of passengers and reducing 
the loss of time occasioned by stoppages, than the attainment of some means 
of destroying the momentum of trains with ease and rapidity, that is, in the 
least time and in the shortest distance. The less the time requisite to break 
a train, the longer the steam may be kept on in approaching a station, and 
the less is the loss of time in stopping; and the shorter the distance in which 
a train can be brought to a stand, the less danger is there of collision with 
obstructions on the line perceived not far off ahead. It is already allowed 
by many of those connected with railways, and has been expressly stated by 
the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council for Trade, that the amount of 

* Gmelin, Handbuch d. Chemie, Bd. 2. p. 383. 4 Auf. 



EXPERIMENTS ON BREAKS FOR RAILWAY TRAINS. 77 

break power habitually supplied to trains is in most cases insufficient ; and 
their Lordships enumerate thirteen accidents from collision occurring in 1858, 
the character of which they consider would have been materially modified, if 
notaltogethr prevented, by an increased retarding power under the command 
of the guards of the trains. 

Upon this subject the most important communication hitherto made has 
been the Report prepared by Colonel Yolland for the Railway Department of 
the Board of Trade, and containing a large number of experiments with heavy 
trains at high velocities. The breaks with which Colonel Yolland experi- 
mented were those which, as improvements on the common hand break, have 
hitherto commanded most success. These were the steam-break of Mr. 
McConnel, the continuous break of Mr. Fay, the continuous self-acting break 
of Mr. Newall, and the self-acting buffer-break of M. Guerin. The general 
conclusions to which Colonel Yolland was led by his experiments, resulted 
in the recommendation of the break of Mr. Newall ; and for heavy traffic, a 
provisional recommendation of the break of M. Guerin. 

From a misunderstanding caused by this Report of Colonel Yolland, arose 
the necessity for some further experiments on the similar breaks of Mr. Fay 
and Mr. Newall ; and these I was called upon to arrange and carry out by 
the Directors of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. I propose to lay 
before the Association a brief abstract of these experiments, with some 
remarks upon the conclusions to which they give rise. 

It will not be necessary here to describe minutely the details of the con- 
struction of these breaks. They consist essentially of a series of break-blocks 
acting upon every wheel of the carriages of the whole train or some part of 
the train, the break-blocks being suspended as flaps, or placed on slide bars 
beneath each carriage, as in the ordinary arrangement of the guard vans. 
But whereas it would be both expensive and inefficient to work these breaks 
with a guard or breaksman to each carriage, both Mr. Fay's and Mr. Newali's 
patents provide for a continuous shaft, carried the whole length of the train, 
beneath the framing and with suitable jointed couplings between each pair 
of carriages, so that they may be undisturbed by the rocking motion of the 
train or the action of the buffers. In this way the whole of the breaks may 
be worked by a single person at either end of the train, communicating his 
power to each break through the agency of the continuous shaft. 

Again, there have been applied, in the first instance by Mr. Newall, and 
subsequently by Mr. Fay, powerful springs beneath each carriage, connected 
with the arms of the rocking shaft, by means of which the breaks are made 
to act instantaneously throughout the train, on the release of a catch or dis- 
engaging coupling in the guard's van. The value of this provision for the 
immediate and simultaneous action of the whole of the breaks, in cases where 
an obstruction is perceived upon the line, will be at once evident. It is one 
of the most important features of these breaks. 

In carrying out the views of the Directors of the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Railway Company, it was arranged, in order to test the relative efficiency of 
these breaks, to have a series of experiments upon the Oldham incline of 1 
in 27. On this gradient a train of carriages, fitted with Mr. Newali's self- 
acting slide breaks, and a similar train fitted with Mr. Fay's continuous flap 
breaks, were started in turn, and after having passed over a measured distance 
by the action of their own gravity, the breaks were applied and the distance 
along the incline in which the trains were respectively brought up was care- 
fully°ascertained as a measure of the retarding force of each. The trains 
employed consisted of three weighted carriages each, and having been placed 
upon the incline, they were started by removing a stop. Having then 



78 



REPORT — 1859. 



descended a previously measured distance with a uniformly accelerating 
velocity, they passed over a detonating signal which conveyed notice to the 
guard to put on the breaks. Then the train having been brought to a stand, 
the distance from the fog-signal to the point at which the train stopped was 
measured, and the train brought back for another experiment. In this way 
it was easy to obtain an initial velocity of 50 feet a second, or 35 miles an 
hour before applying the breaks. 

Unfortunately the day upon which these experiments were made proved 
misty and foggy with rain at intervals, so that the rails were in the very worst 
condition for facilitating the stoppage of the train. The significance of this 
fact will be seen on comparing the retarding power of the breaks in these 
experiments with those made in fine weather. 

Reducing the results, we find that the retarding force exerted by each 
break in terms of a unit of mass, calculated from the distance of pulling up, 
was equivalent to the numbers in the following Table : — 

Experiments on the Oldham Incline. 



No. of 


Mr. Newall. 


Mr. Fay. 














Experi- 


Velocity of 


Time in 


Retarding 


Velocity of 


Time in 


Retarding 


ments. 


train in feet 


stopping 


force of 


train in feet 


stopping 


force of 




per second. 


in seconds. 


break. 


per second. 


in seconds. 


break. 


1 


25-71 


14 


1-32 


25-71 


13 


1-91 


2 


30-00 


16 


1-63 


30-00 


13 


1-79 


3 


37-50 


17 


1-70 


37-50 


14 


1-84 


4 


42-85 


25 


1-69 


41-37 


15 


1-76 


5 


42-85 


14 


2-01 


40-66 


12 


202 


6 


48-38 


19 


1-78 


48-38 


25 


1-72 


7 


52-94 


17 


2-04 


50-00 


17 


1-91 


Mean... 




21-6 


1-74 




19-2 


1-85 







The general result of these experiments gives a retarding force of 1'74 lb. 
per unit of mass for Mr. Newali's break, and 1*85 for Mr. Fay's; or in other 
words, Mr. Newali's break exerted a retarding force of 121-3 lbs. per ton 
weight of the train, and Mr. Fay's a retarding force of 129 lbs. per ton. 

I afterwards arranged for some further experiments at Southport upon a 
piece of level rail between that town and Liverpool. The speed requisite in 
this case had to be obtained by the aid of an engine which was detached by 
a slip coupling at the instant of applying the breaks. In other respects these 
experiments were conducted like the preceding with fog-signals, and the time 
noted by stop-watches. The weather, however, was in this case fine and dry, 
and hence the following results were obtained in the most uniform circum- 
stances. 

The friction of the train itself, and the resistance of the air, were ascertained 
to amount with Mr. Newali's train to 6*4 lbs. per ton, and with Mr. Fay's 
train to 10*4 lbs. per ton. 

In this case we have a retarding force per unit of mass equivalent to 5"49 
lbs. in Mr. Newali's break, and 6 7 lbs. in Mr. Fay's ; or in other words, 
the retarding force of the slide breaks of Mr. Newall, from eight experiments, 
at velocities varying from 35 to 60 miles an hour, was equivalent to 382*6 lbs. 
per ton weight of the train. 

The retarding force of Mr. Fay's slide break from eight similar experiments, 
at velocities varying from 33 to 63 miles per hour, was equivalent to 466'4 
lbs. per ton weight of the train. 



EXPERIMENTS ON BREAKS FOR RAILWAY TRAINS. 



79 



Experiments at Southport. 
Slide Breaks. Engine detached. 



Mr. Newall. 


Mr. Fay. 


Speed in 

miles per 

hour. 


Distance of 
pulling up 
in yards. 


Retarding 
force of 
break. 


Speed in 

miles per 

hour. 


Distance of 
pulling up 
in yards. 


Retarding 
force of 
break. 


32-72 
36-73 
43-90 
46-15 
52-94 
54-54 
47-37 
53-73 
63-16 


56§ 

77 
136 
140| 
205^ 
192' 
260^ 
222 
273 


6-77 
6-28 
5-08 
5-42 
4-89 
4-66 

5-23 
5-55 


35-29 
43-90 
50-00 
54-54 
54-54 
37-89 
6000 
6000 


56 

98 
129 
144 
161§ 

97 
204| 
214 


797 
705 
6-94 
7-40 
6-59 
5-30 
630 
6-03 




Mean... 


6-70 




Mean... 


5-49 





Flap 


Breaks. Engine detached. 




Mr. Newall. 


Mr. Fay. 


Speed in 

miles .per 

hour. 


Distance of 
pulling up 
in yards. 


Retarding 
force of 
break. 


Speed in 

miles per 

hour. 


■Distance of 
pulling up 
in yards. 


Retarding 
force of 
break. 


50-00 
50-00 
51-43 


132| 

123 

192 


6-75 
7-28 
4-93 


51-43 
51-43 
54-54 


158^ 
162f 
184 


5-98 
5-82 
5-79 




Mean... 


6-32 




Mean... 


5-87 



These experiments give for the retarding force of Mr. Newall's flap break 
6-32 lbs. per unit of mass, and for Mr. Fay's 5-87 lbs. ; or in other words, 
the retarding force of Mr. Newall's flap break, from three experiments, at 
velocities varying from 50 to 51| miles per hour, was equivalent to 440 - 3 lbs. 
per ton weight of the train. 

The retarding force of Mr. Fay's flap breaks, from three similar experi- 
ments, was 408-6 lbs. per ton. 

We may illustrate the general bearing of these experiments by estimating 
from an average of the whole experiments the distance required to stop a 
train fitted throughout with these breaks, and detached from the engine. 

A train would be stopped, — 

At a velocity of 20 miles an hour in 23-4 yards. 
30 „ „ 52-9 ' „ 

40 „ „ 93-8 „ 

50 „ „ 146-8 
60 „ „ 211-5 

This last Table exhibits in a very clear manner the advantages of this class 
of breaks, in which the whole weight of the train aids in destroying the mo- 
mentum of the mass instead of the weight of one or two guard vans only. 
It may be impossible in long trains to apply these breaks to every carriage; 
but, at all events, in the ordinary traffic three times the present amount of 
break power may be employed with ease. 



>J 


5) 


» 


5> 


» 


)> 


» 


» 



)) 
)) 



80 



REPORT — 1859. 



On the score of economy also, the system appears to encourage its applica- 
tion ; from experiments which have been made, it appears that the wear of 
the tyres is far more uniform and equal, because the break springs may be so 
adjusted as not to cause the wheels to skid. The Manager of the East Lan- 
cashire Railway states that with two trains running together between Salford 
and Colne, the carriages fitted with continuous breaks travelled 47,604< miles 
before the wheels required turning up ; whilst an ordinary break van running 
the same distance had to have its wheels turned up three times in the same 
period, three-eighths of an inch being taken oif each time. 

Experiments at Southport. 

Engine not detached from the Trains. 



Mr. Newall. 


Mr. Fay. 


Remarks. 


Speed 
per hour. 


Distance of 
pulling up. 


Speed 
per hour. 


Distance of 
pulling up. 


miles. 
33-96 
37-11 

41-86 


yards. 
124| 
169i 
221 


miles. 

31-8 

33-96 

41-86 

51-43 


vards 
'121§ "I 
137 \ 
192^ J 
274 


Engine and tender. 
Tender and continuous 

breaks applied. 
Tank engine. 



It will be observed that on most through lines the trains travel on some 
portion of the distance at the rate of 60 miles an hour, and in the event of 
an obstruction half a mile in advance, a collision would be inevitable unless 
the driver has the power and the presence of mind to act with promptitude. 
Now at 60 miles an hour there is only 30 seconds, or half a minute, to effect 
that object, and it is quite impossible to apply the breaks in their present 
state, before the train, in such a precarious position, is in actual contact. As- 
suming, however, that breaks upon the principle of Mr. Newall and Mr. Fay 
were attached to the engine as well as the train, and that the driver had 
the power of instantaneous application by liberating a spring, it is evident 
that, instead of the train dashing forward to destruction, the momentum might 
be destroyed in a distance of less than 500 yards, and that without injury to 
life or property. Besides, the application of the Electric Telegraph, which 
prevents on most through lines more than one train being on the line between 
the stations, is a great additional security, and that, united to the continuous 
break, applied to the engine as well as the train, would — when united to a 
more perfect system of signals — render collision next to impossible. 



Report of Dublin Bay Dredging Committee for 1858-59. 
By Professor J. 11. Kin ah an, M.D., F.L.S., M.R.I.A 



appointed at the Leeds Meeting in 1858, con- 
, Dr. Carte, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, F.L.S., and 



The Dredging Committee, 
sisted of Professor Kinahan, 
Professor J. Reay Greene. 

Early in the winter of 1858, the author commenced investigations at the 
south of the district on the Scallop Bank near Bray, to which three excursions 
were made with success, as regards the captures made. Early in 1859 a series 
of severe gales occurred, which afforded a rich harvest of specimens on 
the Portmarnock Strand to the north of Dublin ; many species of Mol- 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 81 

lusca, Crustacea, &c, ordinarily of rare occurrence, having been thrown up in 
abundance living on the beach, betokening a serious disturbance of the 
banks in the neighbouring seas. The following may be enumerated: — 
Cochlodesma pratenue, Fissurella reticulata, Emarginula reticulata, Mactra 
elliptica, Tapes virginea, var. Sarniensis (very abundant), Thracia villosius- 
cula, Thracia phaseolina, Thracia convexa (a single valve). 

Inachus Dorsettensis, Pilumnus hirtellus (chiefly broken), Portunus holsa- 
tus, Portumnus variegatus, Corystes Cassivelaunus, Nephrops Norvegicus (all 
broken, but in great profusion), Cribella oculata, Asterias aurantiaca, Spa- 
tangus purpureas, Thyone papillosa, Priapulus caudatus, &c. 

The results of these investigations have been all noted, but unfortunately 
an inflammatory attack of the eyes, of some months' duration, put a stop, 
on the author's part, to the completion of the labours which had been com- 
menced. 

Dr. E. Perceval Wright in the month of June undertook the particular 
examination of the district in the neighbourhood of Ireland's Eye ; the results 
of his investigation, which are not yet completed, he hopes to include in the 
next year's Report. 

From the materials now at their disposal, your Committee hope next year 
to be able to present a more systematic Report, as the results obtained, 
though important, are not sufficiently numerous to enable them to do so yet; 
they have therefore to request that the same Committee, Professor Kinahan, 
Dr. Carte, Dr. Perceval Wright, and Professor Greene, may be reappointed, 
and that a further sum of .£15 may be allocated for this purpose. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1858-59. By the Rev. 
Baden Yoy?ei,i.,M.A.,F.R.S.,F.R.A.S.,F.G.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

In submitting the present continuation of my series of reports on luminous 
meteors I have little to say beyond what the results themselves indicate. I 
am indebted to the same friends as on former occasions for some valuable 
communications. Among these I may just refer to the observations of 
Mr. Lowe as including a notice of the periodical meteors of August the 10th 
of the present year, up to the amount of 70 per hour, and all diverging from 
a point in Perseus. In many parts of England the evening was cloudy. But 
at the observatory of Lord Wrottesley these meteors were well seen by Mr. 
F. Morton, who has communicated some interesting particulars respecting 
them, which are given in the sequel. 

The November meteors of 1858 were observed by the Abbe Leconte, at 
Hainault. It is to be regretted that no observations have been communicated 
of a nature to verify the theory of Sir J. Lubbock, and it is still more remark- 
able, that since the first announcement of Mr. Pettit of the distinct establish- 
ment of the existence of one, if not two, minute satellites to our earth, no 
further observations either of these or of any others, many of which may be 
presumed to exist, have been published. A valuable paper has appeared in 
the ' Philosophical Magazine,' June 1859, 'On the Periods and Colours of 
Luminous Meteors,' by Dr. J. H. Gladstone, in which the author brings to- 
gether a number of important results and remarks, mainly founded on the 
observations of M. Poey, as well as upon the data furnished by the Cata- 
logues of the British Association. In the Appendix I subjoin a brief analysis 
of the leading contents of this valuable investigation. 

1859. o 



82 



REPORT — 1859. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors, 



Date. 


Hour. 


Appearance and 
Magnitude. 


Brightness 
and Colour. 


Train or Sparks. 


Velocity 
or Duration. 


1858. 


h m s 








Oct. 24 
Nov. 11 


6 17 30 




Colour of Arc- 
turus. 


No streak or separate Fell slowly. Dura- 




streams. 


tion 1 sec. 


Nov. 12 

1859. 
Feb. 23 


11 20 31 


Increased in size from 


Very bright. 


Slight streaks in its path, 


Moved slowly, dura- 






= lst mag.* to £th 


Intense blue. 


and burst into separate 


tion 8 sec. 






size of C • 


The separate 
fragments 
when it 
burst yel- 
low. 


fragments, which in- 
stantly disappeared. The 
star r\ Ursae Majoris 
was crossed by these 
fragments. 




Mar. 30 


9 15 




At first red, 
then slowly 


Trail of light left in its 
track. 












changing to 












pink, and 












finally to 












orange. 












Bright 












enough to 












see time 












from a 












watch. 






April 4 
April 22 

April 22 












1 14 30 




Orange scarlet. 
Blue until it 


Leaving streaks in its path. 
Leaving streaks. 




2 27 a.m. 


= 4th mag.* increa- 


Rapid. Suddenly 






sing to twice size of 


entered the 




disappeared. 






1st mag.* 


dark seg- 
ment of an 
arch, when 
it instantly 
increased in 
size, and 
changed to 
an orange 






Aug. 1 
Aug. 8 
Aug. 9 






colour. 

















A CATALOGUE 


OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 83 


by E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S., &c, 1858-59. 






Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


Perpendicularly down, passing 


A well-marked me- 


Observatory, 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


MS.communication 


15' N. of Arcturus. 


teor. 


Beeston. 








Many meteors, 
especially about 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 










11p.m., all small, 










from 4th to 5th 










magnitude. 










Many meteors, all 
small and having 


Ibid 


Id 


(bid 













very rapid mo- 










tions. The 13th 










and 14th over- 










cast. 








From close to r Ursa; Majoris 
to ri Ursae Majoris, where it 


This magnificent 
meteor was pear- 


Ibid 


Id 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 








suddenly vanished. Place 


shaped. Had a 








of disappearance M. 13h. 


well-defined edge. 








41m. Decl. 50° 1' N. 


Increased in size, 
and disappeared 
at its maximum. 
There were 
streams of Au- 
rora Borealis im- 
mediately below 
the place where 
the meteor start- 
ed from. 








From above Ursa Major, to- 


At its maximum 


Highfield House, 


W.Richards,Esq. 


Ibid. 


wards the N. at an angle of 


brightness when 


near Notting- 






60°, and passing midway be- 


first seen. 


ham. 




• 


tween the Great and Little 










Bears. 


Several meteors. 




E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 




From altitude 40° N. downwards 
at an angle of 40° towards 


Deeper in colour 
than a fine Au- 


Observatory, 
Beeston. 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 




W., and moving 10°. 


rora which was 
visible at the 
time. 








From 80° above N.W. horizon 
fell perpendicularly down. 


Aurora Borealis ... 




Id. 


Ibid. 












Id , 


Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 






Id. 








Id 











g2 



84 



REPORT — 1859. 



Date. 

1859. 
Aus. 10 



Aug. 11 



Aug. 11 



Aug. 11 



Aug. 29 



Aug. 29 



Aug. 29 



Hour. 



h m s 



1 29 a.m 



1 32 a.m 



10&12p.m 



2 50 a.m 



3 15 10 



3 15 20 



Appearauce and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity 
or Duration. 



After 1 1 p.m. nearly cloudless. Very many meteors, especially between midnight and 
hour, and, as only a fourth part of the heavens was watched, this multiplied by 
were of the second magnitude, but, as the moon did not set till half past 1, pro- 
her light. These meteors, with two or three solitary exceptions, could all be 
between a. and (3 Persei. Several marked features were observed. Those me- 
rnoved more rapidly and over a larger space than those nearer to this point, 
moved over a few minutes of space, and one meteor which I was fortunate enough 
creased in size, and disappeared, without moving. Most of the meteors were 
gering streaks. The numbers increased up to 3 a.m.. 
If. Blue Train Rapid streaks 



Increasedfrom a point Bluish, 
to that of a 1st 
mag.*, and againj 
decreased to a 
point. 



= lst mag.* Orange 



2nd mag.* . 



3rd mag.*. 



Blood red. 



Colourless.... 



There were brief streaks 
shot out from it. 



Streak. 



Streaks widened , 



Streaks. 



Duration 0\5 sec. 



Rapid. 



Rapid. 



Rapid. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors 



1858. 
Mar. 23 



May 5 

Sept. 12 

Oct. 1 
Oct. 5 



Oct. 9 

1859. 

Jan. 2 

Mar. 18 



Local mean 

solar time. 

11 44 46 



2 39£ a.m, 



During the 
night. 



7 54 p.m. 

53 26 

6 33 23 
10 11p.m. 

1 23Ja.m. 



April 6 During the 
night. 



Much brighter than 
Capella. 



Brighter than 3 . 



A number of meteors' 
chiefly in or near 
the Milky Way. 



Bright. 



A great number of, 

meteors. 
Magnificent meteor, 

Great number in all 
parts. 



Golden hoe.... 



Disappeared iustantlywith- 
out diminution of bright- 
ness. 

Some left trains 



Left a few sparks. 



More than 5 sees., 
perhaps 7 or 8 
sees. 



About 1 per minute. 

Disappearance not 
noted. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 85 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



2 a.m. ; the number seen was about 70 per 
4 would give 280 per hour. Most of them 
bably the smaller ones were eclipsed by 
traced back to a point situated midway 
teors the furthest removed from this point 
Close to the point, the meteors only to 
detect on this very point, appeared, in- 
yeUowish in colour, and had short lin- 



From midway between Algol 
and Polaris, down towards 
N.W. horizon at an angle of 
45°. 

A stationary meteor, at the 
point of convergence of all 
the meteors situated half-way 
between a. and /3 Persei. 

Above a dozen meteors seen 
gave the same point of diver 
gence. The meteors much 
less numerous to-night. 

Fell across Aurora Borealis 
perpendicularly down from 
slightly E. of Gemini. 

Shot from the cupola of the 
Aurora, which was situated 
near y Andromeda;, and 
moved towards y Arietis. 

Another shot from the same 
spot, moving to 9> Andro- 
medae. 



It did not move 
amongst the 

stars. 



Brilliant Aurora. 



Aurora Borealis 
brilliant. 



Tlace. 



Observatory, 
Beeston. 



Ibid., 



Ibid. 



Scarborough 



Observatory, 
Beeston. 



Ibid. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. Mr. Lowe's MS 



Ibid, 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



at Wrottesley Observatory. 



Descending for 10° above the 
pole towards W. horizon. 



In E. moving slowly southward, 
altitude 1 5°, parallel to hori- 
zon through about 35°. 



Moon shining. Me- 
teor seenthrough 
opening of equa- 
torial. 



10° below pole, parallel to ho 

rizon. 
In S. going W., at altitude 35° 

or 40°. 



In Pegasus. 



From S. to N. a few degrees 
below the moon. 



Many smaller du 
ring the night in 
various parts. 



Seen through open- 
ing of dome 
Moon full. 



Wrottesley Ob 
servatory, 
Wolverhamp- 
ton. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Mr. F. Morton. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 



M S. communication 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



86 



REPORT 1859. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1859. 
Aug. 10 
Aug. 11 



Aug. 21 
Aug. 23 



1858. 
Dec. 2 



Id. 

Id. 

Dec. 5 



1859. 
Mar. 23 



Jan. 2 



June 21 



Sept. 2 



Sept. 3 
June 26 



h m s 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



10 13 p.m. 



1 13 a.m. 



4 5 p.m. 
Daylight. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



A few mi- 
nutes af- 
ter sunset, 



A. few mi 
nutes past 
8 p.m. 
8 30 p.m 

Half a mi- 
nute later. 
20 a.m, 
G. M. T. 



Great display of me- 
teors. 



Much brighter than 
Capella. 



Brilliant flash through 
opening to dome. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Followed by splendid train 
of sparks, visible some 
seconds after disappear- 
ance. 



5 or 6 sees. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors 



12 



p.m 



11 25 p.m 
11 52 p.m 



About 

11 p.m. 

About the 
same time 



Large . 



Larger than * of 1st 
magnitude. 



Large . 



-2 Jupiter. 



= ¥■ 



= 1st mag.*. 



=4th or 5th mag.*, 
Diameter 15', globu- 
lar. 



Nearly globular. 



Bright, but not 
dazzling. 

Bright blue. 



Very brilliant, 



Brilliant. 



Bright. 



A smaller me- 
teor. 
Orange 



Bluish 
pale. 



Bluish. 



Highly lunii 
nous, but 
not very 
brilliant(?) 



Train for a few seconds. 



(Train red, a mere impres. 
sion on the eye.) 

Train of sparks. 



After a few seconds train 
white in place of first 
appearance (wavy) , verti- 
cal, then changed to 
horizontal, in 15 mi- 
nutes disappeared. 



Left a train for 1 or 2 
seconds. 



Velocity moderate. 



Motion slow. 



First ascended and 
then descended. 



Train of sparks : opake, 
short. 



Left a long thread of 
light behind. 



No tail, no connexion. 



About 5 sees. 



About 1 sec- 



Rapid, not \ sec. 



Descended gently. 



Descended gently 
and steadily. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 87 



Direction or Altitude. 



From S.E. at altitude 35°, 
through 40°, disappeared in 
SS.W. 

:nE.S.E 



General remarks. 



See Appendix. 



Moon bright. 



Place. 



Wrottesley Ob- 
servatory, 
Wolverhamp- 
ton. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



from various Observers. 



From zenith towards E., disap 
peared at altitude 45°. 



Towards N.E., disappeared at 
altitude 70", moving obliquely 
from N.W. through 8°. 

Disappeared at between 20° and 
30° altitude, towards S.E. 
from N.W. 

Disappeared at about 40° alti- 
tude towards S.W., commen- 
cing from 45°. 

Falling perpendicularly from 
altitude 30° in W. 



Vertically down from N.W. to 
E. of Cassiopeia. 

From near Aldebaran to near 

e Eridani. 
Between Orion and Procyou 

nearly same direction. 
Moved in the arc of a great 

circle 40° or 50°, the middle 

passing through the zenith, 

from S.W. to N.E. 
From S.W. to W. 



From Polaris towards W. 
Vertically downwards. First 
seen at 30° from zenith. 



Sun shining bright- 
ly, a few light 
clouds. 

No report. 



Clear sky. 



Barometer 29-30. 
Ther.76°. Even- 
ing clear, many 
falling stars. 



Lost behind houses. 



Buckbury Hill, 
Mordiford, He- 
refordshire, 4 
miles E. of He- 
reford. 

Brighton 



Derby 



Belleau, Alford, 
Lincolnshire 

Lat. N. 13° 20, 
Long. E. 50, 
on board ship 
" Emeu." 



Mr. F. Morton.., 



Mr. W. P. Wake- 
lin. 



Mr. F. Morton.. 



Dr. C. Lingen , 



Mr. T. B. Lane. 



Mr. F. T. Dubois, 



Mr. J. W. Giles. 



J. H.Hood, Mem- 
ber of Council, 
Sydney. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



Ibid. 



Tunbridge Wells 
Grove-hill. 

Dunster, Somer- 
set. 
Ibid 



Miss Powell. 

W. Symons. 
Id 



High up in the E., descended 
vertically to horizon. 



Weather cloudy 
and hazy, with 
lightning ; indi- 
stinctly seen. 

No report or ex- 
plosion, much 
lightning in the 
same quarter 

No thunder or 
lightning. 

Seen, but particu 
lars not given. 



More Cottage, 
Glasgow, 3 
miles S. of the 
Observatory. 

Dunoon, 25 m, 
west of Glas 
gow. 

Glasgow 

London 



Hertfordshire 



Ibid. 



Letter communi- 
cated by Mr. J 
E. Smith, Here- 
ford Infirmary. 

Ibid. 



Ibid 



Ibid. 



Letter to Royal So- 
ciety, communi- 
cated by Prof 
Stokes, Sec. R. S, 



MS. comuiuniea 
tion. 

Id. 

Id. 



W. J. Macquorn Id. 
Rankine, Esq. 



W. Crawford,!Id. 
Esq. 



Id. 

G.P.Greg, Esq.; 
his brother, and 
J. Breen, Esq. 

Id 



Bolton, South! Id. 

Lancashire. 
Halifax, York-|Id. 

shire. 



Id. 

MS. communica- 
tion from Mr. 
Greg. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



88 



REPORT — 1859. 



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A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



89 



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90 



REPORT — 1859. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors, by G. J. Symons, Esq., M.B.M.S., 
at 27 Queen's-road, Camden Town, London. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1858. 


h m s 










Sept. 5 


9 21 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From S Ursae Majoris towards 9 Ursae Ma- 
joris. (Bright, very slow.) 


6 


9 53 p.m. 


>2X1 


blue 


broad 


From Polaris towards Corona Borealis. 




9 59 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From a. Ophiuchi towards the horizon. 




10 9 p.m. 


2 


white 


slight 


From 5° N. of Vega towards a Ophiuchi. 




10 28 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From /3 Cygui towards £ Aquilae. 


12 


7 22 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Corona Borealis towards * Ursae Ma- 




7 25 p.m. 


= 2X1 


red & blue 


30° long 


joris. 
From J Ursae Majoris towards Arcturus. 




7 25 30 p.m. 


1 


red 


slight 


From x Coronas Borealis towards £ Bootis. 




9 28 30 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From p> Cygni towards f> Ophiuchi. 




9 29 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From n Ursae Majoris towards Coma Bere- 


Oct. 31 


8 58 20 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


nices. 
From £ Persei towards S Aurigae. 




9 8 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From £ Persei towards S Aurigae. 




9 12 p.m. 


4 


white 


none 


From Capella towards Jupiter. 




9 33 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Pleiades towards Aquila. (The long- 
est course I ever observed.) 




9 39 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Pegasi towards Fomalhaut. 




9 40 20 p.m. 


>1 


white 


long 


From Capella towards a Ceti. 




9 53 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From Algol towards Capella. 




11 11 30 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From t Ceti towards a Sculptoris. 


Nov. 9 


7 58 30 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From ?r Cygni towards a. Draconis. (Slow.) 




8 9 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From Z, Cygni towards a Delphini. 




8 29 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From I Draconis towards a Lyrae. (Swift.) 




8 41 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Lyrae towards a. Ophiuchi. 


10 


7 40 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Draconis towards j Herculis. 




7 45 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Cygni towards Albireo. 




8 18 30 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From y Cassiopeias to a. Andromedae. 




8 21 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From /S Draconis towards s Herculis. 




8 28 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From k Andromedae towards y Cygni. 


28 


9 1 50 p.m. 


1 


white 


40° long 


From /3 Aurigae towards *■ Pegasi. 


1859. 












Jan. 22 


9 4 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From v Geminorum towards y Orionis. 




9 8 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From ■<£ Tauri towards a Ceti. 


April 6 


8 50 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From £ Leonis towards £ Leonis. 


6 


8 53 p.m. 


>1 


white 


none 


From a. Geminorum towards a Persei. 


21 


9 30 30 p.m. 


2 


white 


slight 


From a. Geminorum towards a. Orionis. 


May 12 


9 4 10 p.m. 


n 


white 


slight 


From 5° below a Geminorum towards Jupi- 
ter. (Well seen, though bright moon- 
light.) 

From » Ursae Majoris towards Corona Bo- 


July 4 


9 52 p.m. 


5X1 


See Note 


See Note 








(!)• 


(!)• 


realis. 




11 37 p.m. 


2X1 


yellow 


none 


From a. Herculis towards t Bootis. (Very 
slow.) 


Aug. 2 


32 a.m. 


1 


yellow 


slight 


From a Herculis towards /* Sagitt. (Slow.) 




43 a.m. 


2X1 


white 


none 


From ft. Lyrae towards y Serpentis. (Very 
swift, seemed close.) 




46 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From a Delphini towards j3 Lyrae. (Rapid.) 




52 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From ft Herculis towards /* Ophiuchi. 




59 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From £ Cygni towards y Aquilae. 




1 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Altair towards Arcturus. (Slow.) 




11 35 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From Draconis towards y Serpentis. 

(Swift.) 




11 42 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From v Bootis towards j3 Librae. (Slow.) 


3 


2 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From 7 Bootis towards Coma Berenices. 


4 


11 33 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From j Coronae Borealis towards a. Herculis. 




11 42 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From u. Draconis towards y Herculis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 91 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1859. 


h m s 










Aug. 4. 


11 44 p.m. 


>1 


white 


none 


From £ Ursse Majoris towards Arcturus. 




11 52 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y Cygni towards S Aquilae. 




11 52 p.m. 


4 


white 


none 


From y Cygni towards 2 Aquilae. 




] 1 53 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From a Delphini towards t Sagittarii. 

(Swift.) 
From a Aquilae towards Corona Borealis. 




11 57 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


5 


36 30 a.m. 


3X1 


See Note 

(2). 
white 




From /3 Ophiuchi towards /* Sagittarii. 


11 


10 40 40 p.m. 


2X1 


slight 


From p Cassiopeiae towards /S Persei.* 




10 52 p.m. 


2X1 


yellow 


sparks 


From t Cassiopeiae towards /3 Andromeda?.* 




11 16 32 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From S Auriga? towards Castor.* 


29 


1 5 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From (S Aquilae towards p. Sagittarii. 




1 31 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From Delphinus towards y Capricorni. 



(1.) This meteor was of very considerable apparent diameter, of a pale 
yellow colour; on exploding, the sparks assumed a bright crimson hue; it was 
remarkable for its very slow motion. 

(2.) This meteor, when first observed, was little more than 2nd magnitude, 
but rapidly increasing in apparent diameter : it presented at its disappearance 
a well-defined disk. Its colour was a brilliant emerald green and the body 
of light such as to illuminate with the same tinge 30° or 40° of the adjacent 
sky. There were no sparks, and it was very similar to one or two I have seen 
before, and which I cannot better describe than as resembling a body of 
light enclosed in a filmy envelope. 



APPENDIX. 

No. 1. — Letter from Mr. Hood to the Royal Society, communicated by 
Professor Stokes, Sec. R.S. 

Pt. de Galle, Ceylon, January 15, 1859. 

Sir, — I beg to send you the accompanying description of a phenomenon 
observed on board the Steam-ship Emeu : as a similar one had never been 
noticed by any of the ship's officers or passengers, amongst whom were two 
captains of Her Majesty's Navy, it seems worthy of record. — I remain, Sir, 
your obedient servant, J. H. Hood, Member of Council, Sydney, N.S.W. 

On the 5th December 1859, lat. N. 13° 20', Long. E. 50°, a very bril- 
liant meteor was observed, a few minutes after sunset, in the west, falling 
perpendicularly from an apparent altitude of 30°. In a few seconds there 
appeared, in the place where the meteor was first visible, a bright white 

cloud, in shape ^ , perpendicular to the horizon, and crossing 

the light transparent ruddy stratus-clouds ; gradually it ascended slightly, and 
became horizontal, remaining nearly unchanged (but slowly moving on with 
the light breeze) for about fifteen minutes, when it gradually disappeared 
in the haze of the evening. Its appearance was very remarkable, in shape 

thus 



and of a bright clear white colour, against the 

golden-coloured evening sky. The evening was very calm and remarkably 
cool, falling stars unusually numerous. Bar. 29'30. Ther. 76°. 

No. 2. — Analysis of a paper by Dr. J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S., in the 

* Observed at Thornton Vicarage, near Leicester. 



92 report — 1859. 

' Philosophical Magazine,' June 1859, entitled " On the Periods and Colours 
of Luminous Meteors." 

With reference to the explanations of the periodical star-showers, so often 
attempted, the author examines the speculations of M. Charles, and, from 
comparison with other ancient records besides those cited by that writer, 
comes to the conclusion that his ingenious hypothesis — viz. that there may 
be a secular progression of these periods, and that the showers of February, 
March, and April, in the middle ages may be the same as those which now 
recur in August — is untenable. " It rather appears that the periods remain 
stationary, sometimes for centuries, but the transit of these streams of 
meteors through our atmosphere is liable to interruptions and changes which 
we may speculate upon, but cannot yet determine." — p. 2. 

With respect to the varied colours of meteors, on examining the numerous 
results collected by M. Poey, the author suggests whether we always correctly 
translate the names of colours used in records of such remote antiquity as 
those of the Chinese and others referred to. He also controverts the theory 
of M. Doppler (referred to in the last Report), and in general is disposed to 
hold that nearly all meteors may be arranged under two grand classes, — blue, 
and orange inclining more or less to red, while in passing from the zenith to 
the horizon changes of colour are constantly noticed. The trains are some- 
times of different colour from the body, and the radiation of colour over 
objects is also often different from the colour of the meteor. 

The author very justly remarks that observers often call the same colour 
by different names. But apart from this source of fallacy he conceives a 
real difference possible, and " that a meteor may emit rays which in the 
aggregate would produce one colour, and yet may affect the observer with a 
sensation of a different colour. This may arise from absorption, intensity, 
or contrast." — p. 7. 

He then supports this view by several arguments and instances ; in parti- 
cular he conceives the absorption of the atmosphere, especially when satu- 
rated with vapour, may account for the change of colour in the passage of 
meteors, which generally terminate in red, known to be the ray most trans- 
missible through mist. 

It has been observed by Helmholtz and others, that light of any colour, if 
of high intensity, tends to give a sensation of tvhiteness. This the author 
thinks will account for the radiance different from the colour of the meteor; 
as well as for an apparent change of colour, with a change of intensity from 
passing through a dense atmosphere. All appearances of colour are greatly 
affected by contrast; hence he thinks the difference between the colour of the 
bodies and trains or other products of meteors may be explained in many 
instances. 

The author examines the question whether there may be any relation be- 
tween period and colour in meteors. Those occurring at one period may be 
of a different composition, and consequent colour in combustion, from those 
at another. Such a relation is supported by many of the comparisons of 
records made by M. Poey. The author also gives a tabular view, from 
which it results that " August is marked by a great deficiency of orange, and 
a great excess of blue meteors — while November exhibits comparatively few 
blue, and a very large proportion of orange meteors, with a slight increase of 
the red."— p. 9. 

He finally observes that all meteors, whose composition is known, consist 
of many ingredients which may possibly all be ignited together, or separately, 
in different instances, thus giving out different rays for each component, and 
these again different for different intensities of combustion. In support of 
this view he refers to the known components, iron, sulphur, and phosphorus, 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 93 

as well as cobalt, zinc, nickel, &c, and the intense but greatly varied illumi- 
nations they give when in combustion, especially under the influence of gal- 
vanism, which resemble the light of meteors. 

No. 3. — Miscellaneous Notes on Meteoric Phenomena and Theories. 
In the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society of Philadel- 
phia, vol. viii. New Series, Part I. 1841, the student of meteoric phenomena 
will find two valuable papers treating the subject, as connected with 
cosniical forces, and regarding meteors as planetary bodies revolving in our 
system about the sun, but under certain conditions perturbed by, and at- 
tracted to, the earth; both papers contain elaborate researches, of which it 
would be impossible here to attempt an analysis, investigating as problems of 
physical astronomy the nature and modifications of their orbital motions. 
They are entitled, Art. VIII. " On the Perturbations of Meteors approaching 
the Earth," by B. Pierce, M.A.; Art. IX. "Researches concerning the 
periodical Meteors of August and November," by Sears C. Walker, A.P.S. 

In the 'Philosophical Transactions,' 1840, Pt. I. Sir F. Palgrave gives an 
account of some ancient records of meteors. An ancient chronicle, April 3, 
1095, speaks of " stars driven like dust." July 26, 124-3, Matthew of Paris 
describes falling stars seen 30 or 40 in one minute, so that " if they had been 
true stars, not one would have remained in the sky." 

E. W. Brayley, Esq., ' Philosophical Magazine,' vol. lxiii. p. 385, 1824, 
and vol. Ixiv. 1st Series; also vol. xix. 3rd Series, p. 500; and Annals of 
Philos. January 1824, p. 73, gives a variety of details respecting meteors and 
aerolites. In the last-mentioned paper he notices the fact that the meteorites 
which have been examined as to their density and composition form a con- 
tinuous series of varying characters from the most compact iron to the most 
crystalline or scoriaceous stone. 

The hypothesis of nebulous matter existing in masses analogous to comets, 
and like them revolving in our system, as the origin of meteors, has been sup- 
ported on the strength of general analogy, and the probable extensive diffusion 
of this kind of matter as evinced in the continual discovery of new telescopic, 
as well as large, comets ; so that we may well admit with Kepler that their 
number may be infinite, and the universe full of them. Such masses might 
be expected to undergo great retardation from a resisting medium, and ulti- 
mately to be condensed into the sun, or any solid planet to which they may 
be attracted; the retardation gradually contracting their orbits till they fall 
on the central body. It has been also alleged that in some instances the 
nebulous tails of comets, such as those of 1811 and 1823, may have mixed 
with our atmosphere, and perhaps from electric action have given rise to 
luminous phenomena having the appearance of shooting stars. 

Several writers have speculated on the connexion of meteors with electric 
phenomena, or even their electric origin. 

A hypothesis of this kind, supposing diffused atmospheric matter to be 
carried by electric currents, has been advocated by Professor Maas in the 
Bulletins of Royal Acad, of Brussels, 1847, p. 303. 

On this subject the reader should refer to ' Cosmos,' 1st Translation, p. 123 ; 
and to some remarks of Poisson, ibid, note p. 402. 

Also to the masterly paper of the late Mr. Galloway, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., in 
the ' Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,' vol. v. 

Among the cases recorded in the different catalogues, there are great num- 
bers mentioned as attended by coruscations, flashes, and trains of various kinds, 
which can hardly be conceived otherwise than of an electrical nature. The 
serpentine or zigzag courses of many meteors recorded are incompatible with 
a solid body revolving in an orbit. 

It has been noticed by Professor C. P. Smyth that the zodiacal light is 



94 REPORT — 1859. 

slightly excentric with regard to the sun, so that the earth passes through its 
extremity once in its revolution, about Nov. 12. — [Edinb. Trans.] 

Chladni conceives innumerable small bodies revolving in the solar system, 
and subject to the laws of gravitation. Messier, in 1777 (Memoirs of Royal 
Acad. Paris, 1777, p- 464), has recorded "Observation singulier d'une pro- 
digieuse quantite de petites globules qui ont passe au devant du disque du 
soleil." Mr. Rumker has more recently recalled the attention of astrono- 
mers to the subject. 

Some supposed analogous phenomena are not perhaps really entitled to be 
so considered ; yet they tend to support the fact that diffuse matter of kinds 
little known may exist. 

Such instances are those of dry fogs occasionally observed. The most re- 
markable on record is, perhaps, that of 1783; a remarkable year, in which, 
besides this phenomenon, there occurred a great volcanic eruption of Hecla, 
earthquakes in Calabria, and the passage of one of the largest and most re- 
markable meteors ever witnessed, and seen all over England. 

The fog occurred over a great part of Europe, the north of Africa, and 
North America ; but not in the middle of the Atlantic, perhaps owing to 
some current of the atmosphere which partially cleared it away. It continued 
more than a month. In some places it was observed to obscure or redden 
the sun ; yet in general the stars were seen through it. It was accompanied 
by an unpleasant smell, was perfectly free from moisture, not affecting the 
hygrometer, and exhibited a. phosphorescence. 

It has been argued that its long continuance precludes the idea of its 
being the tail of a comet ; but this is no proof that it might not have been 
a portion detached from such a nebulous mass, and retained by the earth till 
condensed or dissipated : whether it could be connected with the volcanic 
eruption, or with the meteor, remain questions open to speculation. 

In 1831 a similar phenomenon was observed on the African coast, N. Ame- 
rica, and Asia Minor, as well as in France and some other parts of Europe. 
The sun is said to have appeared blue through it ; but the stars were occa- 
sionally obscured. These phenomena, however, may be purely terrestrial ; as 
the Harmattan, or blowing of dust from the African deserts over the Atlantic, 
as well as the dust from volcanic eruptions, have been known to produce very 
similar effects. 

In the catalogue originally given by Chladni (see Edinb. Phil. Journal, 
No. II.), largely confirmed by later instances, we find full verification of the 
fact, that meteoric matter has fallen of every degree of density, from the con- 
dition of almost pure metal to that of ore or oxide, more or less earthy, to 
matter of light, porous, soft or spongy nature, or even of the character of 
fine dust, or a dry fog or haze floating in the atmosphere : though it must be 
owned, the connexion of such phenomena as the last mentioned with those 
of meteoric masses may not be sufficiently proved. 

["For some details in reference to this point, see Arago on the comet of 
1833 (translation by Col. Gold); also ' Comptes Rendus,' 1847.] 

The student should not overlook the ingenious conclusion of Sir H. Davy 
(Phil. Trans. 1817, Pt. I. p. 75), that the combustion of meteors must be 
that of solid matter, since combustion of elastic fluids could not be supported 
in so rarefied an atmosphere as exists at the great heights at which it occurs 
even in those instances which fall within the limits of our atmosphere. 

One of the most instructive cases is that of a great meteor observed at the 
Cape of Good Hope (Phil. Trans. 1839, Part I.) which was seen to burn 
by daylight and to fall in portions, which were immediately collected and 
examined. The most considerable part of it is preserved in this country. 



REPORT ON A SERIES OP NEPALESE SKULLS. 



95 



Those masses appear partially rounded, but broken in their fall, and of an 
earthy texture like baked clay, easily broken. 

The meteorite which fell at Launton, 1840, preserved in the collection of 
Dr. Lee, at Hartwell House, is of a somewhat angular form, but having all 
its edges and corners rounded : an exact model of it exists in the Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford. 

No. 4 Extract from the communication of Mr. F. Morton. — The August 

meteors at Wrottesley, 1859 : — 

" The display of meteors during the night was very grand. During an 
hour, from l h 10 m a.m. to 2 h 10 m a.m., 72 were counted in all parts of the 
heavens, the majority of which were followed by trains of sparks. The pre- 
vailing direction of their flight was towards the N.W. During the next half- 
hour at least 40 were seen, but the number was not accurately noted. A 
great number of those observed (from 25 to 30) were very fine, larger in 
fact than Capella or a Lyras, which were then visible, several being larger 
than Venus when brightest. Though two observers were on the look-out 
together, no meteor was counted twice. 

"Aug. 23, at l h 13 m a.m., the opening in the equatorial dome being E.S.E., 
a brilliant light was seen reflected from the western wall. This must have 
been caused by a very fine meteor, as the room was strongly illuminated at 
the time by the moon. Local mean solar time has been used throughout." 



Report on a Series of Skulls of various Tribes of Mankind inhabiting 
Nepal, collected, and presented to the British Museum, by Bryan 
H. Hodgson, Esq., late Resident in Nepal, fyc. §c. By Professor 
Owen, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Natural History Departments 
in the British Museum. 
Mr. B. H. Hodgson, who has contributed an important element to the an- 
cient history of India by his successful labours in unrolling the Buddhist re- 
cords and deciphering the Buddhist inscriptions of Nepal*, has established 
an additional claim to the gratitude of the ethnologist by the assiduity with 
which he has collected the skulls of the various tribes or races of that part 
of the Indian continent. 

This collection forms part of a still more extensive series of objects of Ne- 
palese Natural History, contributed by the liberality of Mr. Hodgson to the 
National Collections. 

The human crania, most of them adult, are upwards of 90 in number, and 
belong to the following 

Tribes. 



No. of Skulls. 

Newar 12 

Lepcha 9 

Bhotia 9 

Murmi 7 

Magar 5 

SUNWAR 6 

LlMBU 5 

KlRANTI 5 

GURUNG 4 



No. of Skulls. 

Uraon 3 

Shopa 2 

SOKPA 1 

DlMAL 1 

Bodo 1 

Kocch 2 

Khampa 1 

Bagnath 2 

Hill-men 2 



No. of Skulls. 
1 
1 



Nepal (proper) . . . 

Bengal (Fakir) ... 

Ganges (man of the 
plains) 

Lowlands (caste un- 
known) 



10 



90 



* Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in the volume on General Subjects of Hima- 
layan Ethnology. 



96 report — 1859. 

Newar Tribe (12 skulls). 

The general characters of the skulls of this tribe conform to those of the 
Indo-European type; but they are all slightly prognathous. They present a 
regularly-shaped fullish-oval cranium, showing varieties between the two 
extremes, as to length, of from 7 inches 6 lines (19*0) to 6 inches 4 lines 
(16*0)*, and, as to breadth, from 5 inches 8 lines (148*0) to 4 inches 11 
lines (126*0); the broadest cranium being the shortest, viz. 16*0, the nar- 
rowest being the longest, viz. 19*0. The forehead is narrow, and, in most, 
low ; but with well-marked varieties in this respect. The cheek-bones are 
rather prominent in a few skulls. The nasal bones show much variety, from 
great length and prominence to Ethiopian flatness. The supraciliary promi- 
nence is generally but little marked. The mentum is rather prominent, but 
short, except in two skulls, marked " from Saukhmol, Hill-man and woman." 
The frontal suture is obliterated, and the alisphenoids join the parietals, in all 
these crania. 

The complexity of the sutural lines is various, being in most rather simple. 

The broad cranium (1 x, x, x, x) belongs to the so-called ' brachycephalic ' 
type ; the narrow one (1 v,v, v, v) to the ' dolichocephalic ' type. The average, 
which is also the common breadth, of the cranium, is 5 inches 3 lines (134*0). 

Characters, Varieties, or Anomalies of Dentition. — In the Hill- man, the 
molar, m 1, has the enamel worn from the summit, and a smooth hollow of 
dentine is shown : p 4 and m 2 are partially worn, and p 3 and m 3 are slightly 
worn. In two skulls, the last molar, m 3, is not developed on either side of 
the mandible. 

Lepcha Tribe (9 skulls). 

The majority of these skulls show a greater prominence of the malar bones 
than in the Newar tribe ; but whilst one Lepcha (b. e, e, e, e) exhibits a 
beautiful Indo-European form, another (1 a, a, a, a) closely resembles or 
repeats the Australo-Papuan type of cranium. The differences, as to 
length of cranium, range from 7 inches 4 lines (186*0) to 6 inches 4 lines 
(162*0) ; in breadth, from 5 inches 8 lines (144*0) to 5 inches (128*0) ; the 
narrowest skull (1 a, a, a, a) here, also, being the longest. We have in this 
series of skulls both brachycephalic and dolichocephalic types strongly 
marked — most of them having crania rather of the shorter than the longer 
oval, when viewed from above. All are more or less prognathous ; those 
being least so which have least prominent malar bones. The chin is prominent 
in all. The nasal bones show the same range of variety as in the Newar 
tribe, ranging from prominence with compression and length, to breadth 
with shortness and flatness. There is more variety in the prominence of the 
frontal sinuses and superorbital ridges in the Lepcha than in the Newar 
tribe. 

The frontal suture is obliterated, and the alisphenoids join the parietals, in 
all, — in one skull (1 c, c, c, c) by a mere point, in the rest broadly, as usual 
in Indo-European skulls. The forehead is rather low ; is narrow in some : 
in one only is it broad in proportion to the cranium. 

Anomalies of Dentition. — In one skull (1 y, y, y) m 3 is wanting in both 
jaws, in which m 1 and m 2 are worn, and there is no trace of loss of m 3. 
In another (1 d, d, d, d), the left/? 4, upper jaw, is abnormally small. 

Upon the whole, these Lepcha skulls are to be referred to a low, unedu- 
cated, and undersized family of the Indo-European race ; but one (1 z, z, z) 
approaches the ^Ethiopian type, another (1 a, a, a, a) the Australian type ; 

* French decimal system. 



ON A SERIES OP NEPALESE SKULLS. 9? 

whilst a third (b. e, e, e, e) shows almost the Greek model, save in a slight 
prognathism. 

Bhotia Tribe (9 skulls). 

In the nine skulls of this tribe it is instructive to find, as in the two former 
tribes, both the brachy- and dolicho-cephalic proportions exhibited. The 
extremes of length range from 7 inches (177*0) to 6 inches 3 lines (160"0) ; 
those of breadlh from 5 inches 8 lines (144*0) to 5 inches 1 line (130-0); 
the broadest skull here, also, being the shortest. Save in two instances, ap- 
parently females, the nialars are large and prominent, and the general aspect 
of the skulls is rather that of a Mongolian than Indo-European type. The 
former is very strongly manifested in a skull (1 q, q, q) marked " Inu Bhotia 
trans nivem"; and also in a " Sharpa Bhotia" (1 z, z, z, z), which shows the 
shortness and breadth of cranium, which has been ascribed by Blumenbach to 
the ' Turkoman's,' skull. In the Inu Bhotia the frontal suture is persistent, and 
the interorbital space is very broad : the muscular insertions on the occiput 
are strongly marked. All the Bhotias are prognathous ; and, in all, the chin 
is prominent. The nasal bones are the seat of the same kind and range of 
variety as in the preceding tribes. In all the skulls the alisphenoids join the 
parietals, but with variable proportions — from two-thirds of an inch to a mere 
point. 

Dental anomalies. — m 3, on the left side of the mandible, has protruded by 
the side, instead of the summit, of its crown. 

Murmi Tribe (7 skulls). 

This series includes two certified female skulls and one skull of a child. 
One of the male skulls is more prognathous than in the previous races : in 
this respect the maxillary characters are those of the ^Ethiopian ; but they 
are combined with a vertical forehead, with well-developed nasals, and with 
moderate malar bones : the cranium shows the Caucasian oval form : the ali- 
sphenoid joins the parietal by a suture of one inch in extent. The other 
male skulls are less prognathous- and in various degrees : two of them show 
prominent malars : the nasals vary from extreme prominence (/. i, i, i, i) to 
flatness (/. m, m, m, m). The forehead is low in most, and is narrow in 
all. There is as much variety in the proportions of cranial length to breadth, 
in regard to the number of skulls, as in the foregoing series. The longest 
skull is 7 inches 3 lines (182*0); the shortest measures 6 inches 3 lines 
(158*0) : the broadest is 5 inches 5 lines (137*0) ; the narrowest is 4 inches 
10 lines (123*0) : the shortness being more or less compensated by breadth, 
and vice versd. In all the seven skulls the alisphenoids join the parietals, and 
the frontal suture is obliterated. These skulls show much variety in regard 
to the complexity of the cranial sutures. 

Magar Tribe (5 skulls). 

Of this tribe, three skulls are of males, and show a longer form of cranium, 
with larger and more robust general proportions, than in the Murmi tribe. The 
length, in the three males, ranges from 6 inches 8 lines (1G6*0) to 7 inches 
5 lines (188*0) ; the breadth from 5 inches (122*0) (in two) to 5 inches Sp- 
lines (135*0). In two skulls the malars are prominent : in all the upper jaw 
is prognathous, and the lower jaw has a prominent mentum. The nasal bones 
are generally prominent. The occipital half of the cranium is unsymmetrical 
in one skull (/. u, u, u, u, u), which also shows a large foramen jugulare on 
the more prominent side. The alisphenoids join the parietals, and the frontal 
bone is single, in all the seven Magar skulls. 

1859. H 



98 REPORT— 1859. 

Sunwar Tribe (6 skulls). 

Four out of the six skulls of this tribe show the broad and short or rounded 
form of cranium ; a fifth would be classed as dolichocephalic ; the sixth shows 
an intermediate type. The upper jaw is short, broad, slightly prognathous ; the 
mentum moderately prominent ; the malars prominent in all : upon the whole, 
the Mongolian or Turkoman type prevails in this series of Sunwar skulls. 
The dolichognathous skull (/. o, o, o, o, o) measures, in length, 7 inches 4 
lines (186*0); in breadth,5 inches lg line (131*0) : the average length of the 
four brachycephalic skulls is 6 inches 5 lines (167*0) ; the average breadth 
is 5 inches 9 lines (145*0). In all the skulls the alisphenoids broadly join 
the parietals, and the frontal suture is obliterated ; the nasals vary from pro- 
minence to flatness. 

Limbu Tribe (5 skulls). 

These skulls exhibit a great range of variety: the one marked "l.x,x,x,x,x" 
in the oval contour of the cranium and face, in the delicate, almost vertical 
malars, in the form of the maxillaries, and in the development of the nasals, 
conforms to the Caucasian type ; but although the forehead has proportion- 
ally a good shape and development, the capacity of the cranium is small. 
The skull marked '•' 1 v, v, v, v, v," in the narrow and elongate form of the 
cranium, in the flatness of the nasals, in the projection of the broad jaws, and 
divergence of the malars, exemplifies the Negro type of skull. The length of 
this cranium is 7 inches 3 lines (185*0); its breadth is 5 inches 4J lines 
(136*0). The skull marked "1 z, z, z, z, z," combining a broad rounded 
form of cranium with a broad malar region, and a broad, short, yet somewhat 
prognathous upper jaw, conforms to the Mongolian type. The same type, 
with a somewhat longer form of skull, predominates in No. 1 w, w, to, w, w, 
in which the length of the cranium is 6 inches 5 lines (168*0), and the 
breadth is 5 inches 8|- lines (145*0). In all these skulls the alisphenoids join 
the parietals, and the frontal is undivided. The same range of variation in 
the development of the nasal bones prevails as in the preceding series. 

The principal anomalies shown in this series are the anchylosis of the atlas 
to the occiput in 1 y, y, y, y, y, leaving only the left neurapophysis, behind 
the condyle, free ; this is separated from the right neurapophysis by an in- 
terval of 7 lines : the right posterior zygapophysis is double the size of the 
left one, and is convex: the nasal spine of the premaxillaries is much produced. 
In the skull marked " 1 w, w, iv, w, w," the upper or interparietal part of the 
'squama occipitalis' is formed by three large 'wormian bones.' 

Kiranti Tribe (5 skulls). 

The same exemplification of both Caucasian and Mongolian types is given 
by this as by the preceding series of five skulls; but no Kiranti skull shows 
the simious combined with other ^/Ethiopian characters : the nasal bones in all 
are prominent and well-developed. The oval or elongate form of cranium 
prevails, with a moderately prognathous jaw. In three of the skulls the malar 
bones project outwards. The chin is well-marked. The length of the cra- 
nium varies little, the average being 6 inches 10 lines (174*0) ; the breadth 
varies from 4 inches 9 lines (120*0) to 5 inches 5 lines (138*0). In all the 
skulls the alisphenoids join the parietals, and the frontal is undivided. 

Anomalies — One skull (1 a, a, a, a, a, a) shows a wormian bone in the 
sagittal suture, and a pair of well-marked ' paroccipital ' processes : the skull 
(1 6, b, b, b, b, b) shows a mal-position of m 3 on both sides of the upper jaw. 



ON A SERIES OP N~EPALESE SKULLS. 99" 

Gurung Tribe (4 skulls). 

The Gurung tribe is exemplified by one skull of an adult male, and by 
three skulls of boys, in which the dentition has not gone beyond the acqui- 
sition of the first true molar, with the deciduous series. These skulls show 
a slight family likeness in the degree of flatness of the nasal bones, with a 
slight general prominence of the interorbital region, and a moderate pro- , 
gnathism. In the adult male the forehead passes without indent into the nose, 
as in the Grecian type. The frontal suture is persistent ; but it has been 
obliterated in the younger skulls. In the skull of the youth (lg,g, g, g, g, g), 
on the right side, the frontal joins the squamosal ; on the left side a wormian 
intervenes between the alisphenoid and parietal : in the others the usual junc- 
tion of these bones obtains. The chin is prominent in all. The length of the 
adult skull is 7 inches (178*0) ; its breadth is 5 inches 8 lines (145*0). In 
this skull the squamosals are abruptly prominent below the parietals, and a 
great part of the suture between the ex- and super-occipitals remains. The 
following are the dimensions of three of these skulls : — 



Gurung : males. 

Length of cranium .. 
Breadth of cranium.. 



Adult, 
in. lines, mil. 
7 (178-0) 



Youth. 

Deciduous & ml. 

n. lines, mil. 



Child. 

Deciduous. 

in. lines, mil. 



6 5 (163-0) 5 7 (144-0) 



5 8 (145-0) I 5 6i (140-0) | 5 H (1300) 

Anomalies. — In the boy's skull (1 h, h, h, h, h, h), with m 1 and the de- 
ciduous set of teeth, the right condyloid cup of the atlas has coalesced with 
the occipital condyle, and the rest of the atlas is so closely applied to the 
margin of the great foramen, as to indicate an ultimate, if not speedy coales- 
cence of that part of the vertebra with the occipital one. 

Uraon Tribe (2 skulls). 

The skulls of this tribe are of adult males; they show a rather narrow 
elongate form of cranium, with prognathous maxillaries. In one the cheek- 
bones project, in the other not. In both the nasals project and are short, 
with the usual indent between their root and the forehead. In the slightly 
larger skull the length of the cranium is 7 inches 1-L line (182*0) ; the breadth 
of ditto is 5 inches i line (130*0). The alisphenoids meet the parietals, and 
the frontal suture is obliterated, in both skulls. 

Shopa or Sokpa Tribe (2 skulls). 

The cranium in one of these skulls is short and broad, in the other it is 
long and narrow ; the malars are somewhat prominent and the jaws slightly 
prognathous in both. In the dolichocephalic variety the length of the cranium 
is 7 inches 5 lines (188*0); its breadth is 5 inches 6 lines (140*0). The 
alisphenoids join the parietals, and the frontal suture is obliterated in both 
skulls. 

Dimal Tribe. 

The ' Dimal' skull most resembles those of the Gurung tribe, especially in 
the form of the interorbital part. This skull is chiefly remarkable as exem- 
plifying the rare disease of hypertrophous thickening of the parietal bones. 

Bodo Tribe. 

This shows the dolichocephalic or elongate cranial form, with prognathous 
jaws and almost vertical, not projecting, malar bones. The nasals are 
slightly prominent, with a little depression between them and the forehead. 

h 2 



100 REPORT— 1859. 

The length of this cranium is 7 inches 2 lines (184-0) ; its breadth is 5 inches 
3 lines (135*0). The alisphenoids join the parietals, and the frontal is un- 
divided. 

Kocch Tribe. 

Of the two skulls of this tribe, one shows the hypertrophy of the cranial 
vault to a great degree, with much density of the thickened bone. The 
other skull measures in length 7 inches 3 lines (185*0), and in breadth 

5 inches (127*0). Both are prognathous, and the malars are slightly promi- 
nent : in one skull the nasal bones project, in the other they are flat. 

Khampa Tribe. 

This skull shows large and prominent nasals, continued, without indent, 
from the frontal bone, slightly prominent malars and maxillaries, with a low 
and narrow forehead, and the following proportions of cranium: — length 

6 inches 10 lines (175*0), breadth 5 inches 6 lines (140*0). The parietals 
join the alisphenoids, and the frontal is undivided. 

Bagnath Tribe (Nepal proper) (2 skulls). 

One of these skulls is of an adult, the other is of a child. The jaw, in 
the adult, is slightly prognathous ; the malars are slightly inclined outward ; 
the nasals are moderately prominent ; the forehead is low and narrow. The 
length of the cranium is 7 inches (180 0) ; the breadth is 5 inches 6^ lines 
(142*0). In other characters this skull resembles that of the Khampa tribe. 

Symbhunath Tribe (Hill-man, probably Thibetan). 

The two skulls so marked differ singularly in the development of the nasal 
bones: in one (1 c) they are very long and prominent; in the other (1 d) 
they are flat: in the sinuous variety the malar bones are broad and promi- 
nent, and the jaw is broad and prognathous, giving a Mongolian aspect to 
the skull ; the other skull conforms to Blumenbach's Caucasian type. In 
the skull 1 d, the length of the cranium is 7 inches 1 line (180-0); the 
breadth is 5 inches 5 lines (137*0). The skull 1 c is about 3 lines shorter 
and 2 lines broader than the other. In both the frontal is undivided, and 
the alisphenoids join the parietals, the right alisphenoid in 1 c being divided 
into three wormian bones. 

Bagnath Tribe (Nepal proper). 

The adult skull so marked is prognathous, with a moderate development 
of the nasal bones, and divergence of the malars at their lower part. The 
length of the cranium is 7 inches 1 line (180*0); the breadth is 5 inches 
6 lines (139*0). The alisphenoids join the parietals, and the frontal is undi- 
vided. In the child's skull the left squamosal sends forward a process dividing 
the alisphenoid from the parietals. The suture dividing the mastoid from 
the squamosal is retained. 

Man of the Plains (Ganges : unknown tribe). 

This skull is prognathous, but with a good nasal development ; the malars 
are scarcely prominent. The length of the cranium is 7 inches 2 lines 
(183*0); the breadth is 5 inches (128*0). The alisphenoids join the parie- 
tals, and the frontal is undivided. This skull shows a strong occipital spine. 

Fakir (Bengal Islamite). 
This skull is prognathous, with a less nasal development, but yet good : a 



ON A SERIES OF NEPALESE SKULLS. 101 

slight malar divarication, as if tending to the Mongolian type, with a low 
forehead. The length of the cranium is 7 inches (178*0) ; the breadth is 
5 inches 3^ lines (135*0). 

Lowlanders (Caste unknown). 

In the series of 10 skulls so marked is shown the same extreme variety in 
the development of the nasal bones as in the Newar, Lepcha, and Bhotia 
series ; in a few they are as flat as in the West African Negro, and in a few 
they are very prominent. There is not the same range of variety in the 
shape of the cranium ; it is moderately oval, with the forehead narrow, and 
low in most. 

In three specimens the length of the cranium is 7 inches (178*0), the least 
length being 6 inches 5 lines (165*0) ; the extreme breadth is 5 inches 3 
lines (135*0), and this occurs in one of the larger skulls (1 c,c, c, e). In this 
skull the frontal suture is persistent. All are more or less prognathous, but 
some of them less so than in the majority of the Nepal tribes. 

A skull marked • Tarai ' (1 k, k, k, k, k) and another (1 b, b, b, b, b) show 
prominent or divergent malar bones : in the rest the Caucasian proportions 
of those bones prevail. 

Three of the above series of skulls show a produced nasal spine of the 
premaxillary part of the upper jaw — peculiarly so in "1 i, i, i, i, i" along the 
whole extent of the median premaxillary suture. In one skull (lj\j,j,J,J) 
the squamosals join the frontals ; in the rest the ordinary junction of parietals 
and alisphenoids prevails. In the skull marked " 1 e, e, e, e, e" there are two 
large lateral wormian bones, which form the sides of the interparietal half of 
the superoccipital element. 

Observations. 

The first general remark that is suggested by the series of 90 skulls above 
characterized is, that the size and capacity of the cranium, or in other words, 
the amount of brain, is not greater than that which is usually found in the 
uneducated and lowest class of day-labourers in this country and in Ireland; 
and that this low development of cranium is associated with more or less 
prognathism. In all, the general size of the molar teeth accords with that of 
the white, olive, yellow, and red races of mankind. 

The next remark is suggested by the extent of variety which is displayed, 
not merely in the entire series, but in the particular tribes or families com- 
prising it. The long, short and pyramidal, and vertically flattened, forms of 
cranium are severally exemplified ; just as, in skulls from ancient British 
places of sepulture, some are found which, "from an unusual degree of narrow- 
ness of the calvarium and face, belong less obviously to the brachycephalic 
class than usual*," whilst others show the platycephalic or the acrocephalic 
form*f. These results of the experienced craniological observers, Davis and 
Thurnam, concurring with my own, teach us how deceptive any single specimen 
of the skull of any one tribe would be if viewed and described as exemplify- 
ing the cranial type of such tribe or family; and it shows the value of such 
extensive collections as that made by the accomplished and indefatigable 
Resident at Nepal. 

* Crania Britannica, 4to. Davis and Thurnam, 6, 7 (7). 

t Ibid. 12 (4) " In this stone barrow, on Wettou Hill, presenting only rude flint instru- 
ments, British pottery, the primitive flexed position of the skeleton, and the short rude cist 
— therefore with every mark of the primeval period, and no element of remote antiquity 
wanting — we meet with two separate and distinct aberrant forms of skull in interments of 
the same age." 



102 REPORT — 1859. 

There are not more than two or three skulls in the entire series which 
would have suggested, had they been presented to observation without pre- 
vious knowledge of their country, that they belonged to any primary division 
of Human kind distinct from that usually characterized by craniologists as 
Caucasian or Indo-European : the majority might have been obtained from 
grave-yards in London, Edinburgh, or Dublin, and have indicated a low 
condition of the Caucasian race. 

Only with regard to the Bhotias, a mountain-race, one of which was 
marked ' trans nivem,' could the Mongolian type be said to prevail. Where 
the skulls of any one of the Nepal tribes amount to from 6 to 10 in number, 
thpy present varieties in the proportion of length and breadth of cranium, in 
the development of the nasal bones, in the divarication or prominence of the 
malar bones, in the shape of the forehead, in the degree of prominence of 
the frontal sinuses, and projection of the supraciliary ridge, which would be 
found, perhaps, in as many promiscuously collected skulls of the operatives 
of any of our large manufacturing towns, and which would be associated with 
corresponding diversities of features and physiognomy. 

As my experience in the characters of human skulls has increased, so has 
my difficulty of determining therefrom the primary race or variety of 
mankind. I have examined skulls of white Europeans, showing, as strongly 
as some of the Nepalese skulls, the flat nose, prognathous jaws, and con- 
tracted cranium of the Ethiopian. Only with regard to the Australian and 
Tasmanian aborigines do I feel any confidence of being able to detect, in any 
single skull, offered without comment to scrutiny, the distinctive characters of 
a race. The contracted cranium, flat nose, prominent jaws, and more or less 
protuberant cheek-bones are associated, in the Australo-Tasmanian race, 
with a peculiarly prominent supraciliary ridge and deep indent between its 
mid-part and the root of the nose ; and still more peculiar and characteristic 
is the large proportional size of the teeth, especially of the true molars. 

Upon what, it may be asked, does so close a conformity of character 
depend, which inspires confidence in the determination of race, by inspection 
of any single skull of the aborigines of the vast Australian continent, and ad- 
jacent islands ? It is probable that it depends on the degree of uniformity of 
the manner of life and the few and simple wants of those aborigines. The 
food, the mode of obtaining it, the bodily actions, muscular exertions, and 
mental efforts stimulating and guiding such actions, vary but little in the dif- 
ferent individuals. The prevailing simple and low social state, the concomi- 
tant sameness and contracted range of ideas — in short, the small extent of 
variety in the whole series of living phenomena from the cradle to the grave of 
a human family of that grade, govern, as it seems to me, the conformity of 
the cranial organization. 

In the woolly-haired Negroes of Africa there is greater range of variety of 
cranial organization, concomitant with a greater range of variety in their 
modes of life and physical development. I believe it would be rash to pro- 
nounce on the Negro nature of any single skull, save of some of the lowest 
races of the west coast of Africa; because I have observed, previous to the 
present craniological comparison, that the assigned characters of the ^Ethio- 
pian cranium occasionally occur as fully developed in certain low individuals 
of other races; the subjects of the present Report afford similar instances. 
This experience has led to the inference that, in the ratio of the complexity 
of the social system, and of the diversity in the modes of sustaining life and 
spending it, is the range of diversity of feature and of cranial organization. 

It is probable, therefore, from the effects of civilization and social progress 
in other varieties or families of mankind, that were the seeds of such progress 



ON THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. 103 

to germinate and take on growth in the Australian family, the uniformity of 
cranial character now prevailing would be concomitantly and progressively 
modified. It is certain that such modifications of cranial structure and feature, 
accompanying diversities in modes of life, detract from their value as 
distinctive natural-history characters of races of mankind. 

Supposing social progress to be possible in a race like the Australians, 
without admixture of other blood, a question of much interest suggests 
itself — in what degree and in what way the cranial physiognomy would be 
modified ? By analogy I think it probable that the modification might, in 
the course of time, become at least as great as that which is observable in 
unmixed Negro races which for generations have been subjected to, and im- 
proved by, civilizing influences. 

Upon the whole, then, in regard to the immediate subject of the present 
Report, undertaken at the request of the Committee of the Ethnological 
Section, and performed on that account, as well as out of regard for my 
accomplished and scientific friend Mr. Hodgson, with much pleasure and the 
best of my leisure and ability, I must confess that the results are rather nega- 
tive than positive; but if they should suggest any improved views in the 
study and application of the physical characters of Man, the aim of the 
Section will not wholly have been unfulfilled. 



Report of the Committee, consisting of Messrs. Maskelyne, Hadow, 
Hardwich, and Llewelyn, on the Present State of our Knowledge 
regarding the Photographic Image, 

The chemical problem presented by the photographic image is one of great 
complexity. It is uninviting to the chemist in so far as it presents very 
little opportunity of his obtaining quantitative results ; for howsoever subtle 
and rapid be the chemical transformation effected by the light, it consists, in 
most cases, of a superficial change only, and defies even the delicate methods 
of the balance. In undertaking to collect what is known and to test the 
correctness of what has been published regarding this intricate problem, the 
Committee have proposed to themselves to deal first with the simplest trans- 
formations on which photographic processes are founded, and to pass on 
from these to the more complex. 

Moreover they confine themselves to the photographic results obtained 
with the salts of silver, as these are the most employed, and because it is 
necessary to assign some limits to their inquiry. 

If the salts of silver are the most remarkable for their susceptibility to 
photochemical change, one is naturally led to search first for the causes of 
this among those simpler compounds of the metal in which the transforma- 
tion is not complicated by the secondary decompositions which might be 
expected to accompany it in the case of organic compounds. Yet among 
the inorganic compounds this susceptibility to photochemical decomposition 
is rare ; and though not absolutely confined to one salt, the chloride of silver, 
that body exhibits the simplest and one of the best illustrations of it. 

The chloride of silver, when perfectly pure, passes, on exposure to light, 
from its pure white through various stages of change in hue, in which blue 
is mixed with grey, until it finally reaches a deep slate-violet colour. Chlo- 
rine is evolved from the chloride ; but the question which here meets us in 
limine is one which probably underlies the whole of the problem we have to 
consider, and consists in the chemical condition in which the silver remains 



104 REPORT — 1859. 

after the light has completed the decomposition so far as it can go. Is the 
result a subchloride of silver? or are the chlorine and the silver completely 
dissevered, the gaseous element going away, and the metal remaining mixed 
with, or rather encrusting, particles of unaltered chloride? 

Certainly the weight of authority is in favour of the latter view. Such, 
at least, is to be gathered from papers by Dr. Draper of New York*, by 
Mr. Guthrief, and more recently from a series of papers by MM. Davanne 
and Girard, in France. 

In the first two memoirs referred to, an allotropic state of the metallic silver 
is viewed as the only explanation of the reactions of the dark substance formed 
by the light. No chemist, however, has yet produced this substance in such 
a state of purity as to be able to subject it to an analysis ; and the only 
arguments, therefore, which can be relied on in explanation of the change 
are such as make the fewest assumptions and put the least strain on the 
present experience of the chemist. 

There have been many methods proposed for the production of a sub- 
chloride of silver by processes directly chemical. One of these consists in 
the suspension of silver leaf in a dilute solution of sesquichloride of iron, 
or of chloride of copper. But this experiment has been repeated by us, 
and we are compelled to look upon the purple-tinted product as chloride of 
silver accompanied by but a trace of a substance possessing a profoundly- 
colouring power, which, as will presently be explained, we believe to be a 
subchloride. 

In order to produce this substance with at all events a greater approach to 
isolation, we endeavoured to avail ourselves of the possibility of a reaction 
between chlorhydric acid and the suboxide of silver, and with this view in- 
stituted many experiments for the production of this last body in a state of 
chemical purity. Memoirs devoted to the chemistry of the suboxide of 
silver are not rare. Professor Faraday J showed that the deposit formed by 
the exposure to the air ot an ammoniacal solution of oxide of silver, consists 
of a compound with a composition of 108 silver and 5*4 oxygen. This com- 
position is incompatible with a formula Ag 2 O (supposing oxide of silver to 
be AgO) ; but the physical characters of the body are interesting. It is grey, 
and by reflected light is seen to possess a strong lustre. By transmitted 
light a thin layer of it appears bright yellow. 

Rose § has called attention to various other reactions in which suboxide of 
silver appears to be formed. Thus, if ammoniacal solution of nitrate of silver 
be added to protosulphate of iron, a deep and intensely colorific black preci- 
pitate is formed, consisting of a compound expressed by the formula Ag^ O, 
2FeO, Fe 2 3 . Similar or analogous products of different composition are 
formed by the use of salts of the manganous oxide, and by solutions of 
cobalt; but in all these cases the suboxide of silver is associated in combi- 
nation with other bodies, and does not present itself in a state from which it 
would be easily convertible into a subchloride. Rose, indeed, has made one 
remark, in connexion with these researches, which has a significance of 
some value for the photographic chemist. He shows that, in the case of 
adding the acetate of silver to a protoacetate of iron, the precipitate presents 
the black tint and deeply colorific power which seem to characterize the com- 
pounds of the suboxide of silver. When the salts used, however, contain 
"strong" mineral acids, as when nitrate of silver and sulphate of iron are 
the mutual precipitants, the deposit is grey and metallic — the reduction of 

* Phil. Mag. xiv. 322. t Chem. Soc. Quart. Joura. x. 74. 

t Quart. Journ. Sc. iv. 268. 

§ Journ. Pract. Chem. bud. 215, 407 et seq. ; see also Wohler, Pogg. Ann. xli. 344. 



ON THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. 105 

the silver is, in short, complete. The significance of this fact we shall here- 
after recall. 

The processes which seemed to hold out the greatest prospect of success 
for the production in the first place of a suboxide, and subsequently of a sub- 
chloride, by the methods of the laboratory, and independently of the action 
of the light, were those afforded by the reduction* of the citrate of silver, 
and by the conversion of arsenite of silverf by the action of a caustic alkali 
into alkaline arseniate, accompanied by a reduction of the oxide of silver to 
a mixture of metallic silver and suboxide, thus: 

3AgOAs0 3 + 3NaOHO=3NaOAs0 5 + Ag 2 + Agt. 

Of the results yielded by the first of these, none were found that gave any 
promise at all satisfactory. Hydrogen was passed through citrate of silver 
suspended in hot water. The products, at first brown, and then black, and 
finally grey, were examined at various stages of their progress in coloration, 
citric acid being used as a solvent to remove the citrate and the oxide §, the 
residuary product being examined by treatment with dilute chlorhydric acid 
to convert it into chloride. The citric acid solution was found to contain 
nothing capable of reducing permanganate of potash, and must therefore 
have been free from suboxide. The result of treating the residue with chlor- 
hydric acid, and then dissolving the silver by dilute nitric acid, was a rose- 
tinted chloride of silver. 

On the supposition that this residue was a mixture of suboxide, or a salt 
of it, with metallic silver, we are constrained to the view that the suboxide 
of silver is not characterized by the property of entirely passing, under the 
influence of chlorhydric acid, into subchloride. This seems to be confirmed 
in some degree by the results with the arsenite, to which we now proceed. 
To that reaction, which Wohler has described, much attention was devoted ; 
and it was tried under several modifications ||. By forming a dilute solution 

* Wohler, Ann. Pharra. xxx. 3. 

t Wohler, Ann. Cheni. Pharm. cl. 363. 

% The formula for arsenite of silver usually accepted is 2AgO As0 3 , but we find Wohler's 
formula as above given to be the correct one. 

§ The brown product became converted into the black one by the treatment with citric acid. 
Both underwent similar changes under the successive action of chlorhydric and nitric acids, 
and both previous to this treatment reduced the permanganate of potash powerfully. But it 
was found that the citric acid alone was capable of reducing the deposit to the grey condition 
of metallic silver, withdrawing from it at the same time (all the) oxide of silver, — a result which 
6eemed to render almost hopeless the effort to form the suboxide by its means. 

Indeed the mere boiling of the citrate blackened it, producing a dark-coloured mixture of 
silver with some compound of the suboxide, the citrate itself undergoing a transformation 
which must have lowered its saturating power, as the solution remained neutral. The citrate, 
however, when thus boiled with water through which a stream of hydrogen was passing, be- 
came more darkly coloured, but imparted an acid reaction to the water. 

The black body that results from the reactions described, contains organic matter, as it 
intumesces when heated. It cannot therefore be merely a mixture of metallic silver with the 
suboxide. 

The dry citrate heated in a stream of hydrogen is very slowly affected at 212°, but passes 
at length into a substance which produces on the one hand a dark- brown solution, and on the 
other a brown residue which yields a very pale-red body on being transformed by chlorhydric 
and nitric acids. 

|| It appeared, in trying Wohler's experiment in several ways, that on the one hand it was 
extremely difficult to get rid of all the arsenic compound from the residue, and on the other 
that the tendency of arsenic acid in solution was to further the breaking up of the suboxide 
into oxide and metal. Lime- and baryta-water were therefore substituted for the soda, but 
still arsenite of silver remained undecomposed. This seemed due to its solid condition. It 
was to overcome this that the solution in nitric acid was adopted. 

It was found, however, that the chocolate-tinted compound of chlorine and silver, by what- 
ever process it had been produced, became, by fresh treatment with chlorhydric acid, again 



106 REPORT — 1859. 

of arsenite of silver in nitric acid, and adding this very gradually to a boiling 
concentrated solution of soda, an extremely black powder was produced. 
This on being treated with dilute chlorhydric acid becomes grey; and on 
boiling the washed product with dilute nitric acid, silver is dissolved, and 
there is left a substance, which, if Wohler be right in calling the black pow- 
der suboxide of silver, we should expect to contain subchloride of silver. 
The colour of this substance is a rich chocolate or maroon, more or less dark, 
according to the nature of the process : it never reached the deep slate-violet 
of the chloride of silver exposed to sunlight. On analysis it was found to 
contain as large an amount as 24 per cent, of chlorine ; 

The pure chloride Ag CI contains 24"74 of chlorine; 
The subchloride Ag 2 CI requires 14 - 08 of chlorine. 

Other products of less-deep hue than the one first examined gave the numbers 
24'3 and 24*2 per cent, of chlorine. Assuming that the chocolate hue was 
imparted to the substance by a subchloride (and no other view seems equally 
probable), we are constrained to recognize in this subchloride, only present 
to the amount at the furthest of 5 per cent., a surprising colorific energy. 

From the experiments previously cited, we are disposed to think that our 
failure in this attempt to produce the pure subchloride of silver arose from 
the fact of the action of chlorhydric acid upon the suboxide of silver not being 
so simple as a complete conversion into subchloride would indicate; and we 
are the more induced to draw this conclusion from the analogy of the sub- 
oxide of mercury. Thus, if from a solution of the suboxide of mercury 
that oxide be precipitated, the action of chlorhydric acid on the precipitate is 
not to form the subchloride, but a grey mixture of chloride and metallic 
mercury. The same may perhaps apply to suboxide of silver ; and, if so, it 
would be decomposed by chlorhydric acid, either partially or entirely, and 
would form chloride of silver and metallic silver. 

One experiment we tried, in the hope of producing the subchloride of 
silver by a direct reaction. Chloride of silver is soluble in concentrated and 
highly alkaline arsenite of soda; and this solution, in the presence of excess 
of soda, was gently warmed. A brilliant inirror-like deposit, not of sub- 
chloride, but of metallic silver, was the result. 

But with however little success the efforts to produce a pure subchloride 
of silver have as yet been crowned, the experiments we have detailed enabled 
us to institute a few comparative reactions whereby the result of treating a 
true subchloride (however diluted, so to say, with protochloride) with the 
ordinary reagents employed by the photographist may be achieved. The 
results yielded by these reagents were the following : — 

Nitric acid, of sufficient strength to dissolve silver by heat, does not alter 
this dark compound. 

Chlorhydric acid does not, when dilute, produce any apparent change 
in it. 

Ammonia breaks it up entirely, dissolving all as chloride, except a minute 
amount of metallic silver, which remains. 

Hyposulphite of Soda dissolves all except a trace of metallic silver like 
that left by the ammonia. 

It will hardly be worth while to go through the reactions exhibited by 

capable of yielding a solution of silver when treated by nitric acid. So utterly unstable are 
these subcompounds of that metal ! 

Indeed it would seem that to secure to them any permanence, they must be formed in 
.combination. 



ON THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. 107 

these several tests with the dark body formed by the photochemical decom- 
position of the chloride of silver, or of this body mixed with excess of nitrate ; 
for we find that these reactions are in the several cases identical. The light- 
darkened chloride indeed presents a deeper and bluer colour than that formed 
artificially ; but when it is considered that the light- formed body is a coating 
of uniformly and completely transformed substance — superficial it is true, but 
continuous in its surface — while the laboratory product is an intimate mix- 
ture of discontinuous particles, the bluer tint of the one and the redder tint 
of the other will hardly carry much weight in deciding against the identity 
of the colorific silver-compound in each case. Nor will it perhaps be con- 
sidered to support the view of the photochemical reduction consisting in the 
complete severance of the metallic silver, that the product of that reduction 
can be formed by the light in the presence of nitric acid. The production 
.of an allotropic form of silver in the nascent state, in the presence of nitric 
acid, seems certainly to make a larger demand on the credulity of the che- 
mist than the assertion that the reduction stops at an intermediate stage, at 
which a subchloride is the result of it — a subchloride, whose properties we 
have seen to be identical with those of a substance formed in the laboratory, 
and to which it is difficult to assign any other composition than that of a 
subchloride of silver. 

In the photographic processes in which the chloride of silver is employed, it 
is to be borne in mind that the chloride of silver is not used by itself — nay, by 
itself is quite inadequate to the production of the deep colour requisite for 
photographic effects. It is used in fact always in conjunction with nitrate of 
silver, and also, it must be added, with organic substances, among which the 
cellulose of the paper and the glue-like size are prominent. The action of 
the nitrate of silver needs little explanation ; it supplies continually a fresh 
surface of chloride of silver, formed by part of the chlorine given off from the 
surface of the original chloride, which unites at once with the silver of the 
nitrates, and simultaneously becomes blackened by the action of the light. 
It is singular, however, that it has escaped the observation of the chemists 
who have experimented on this point, that an oxide of chlorine is also formed 
at the same time, as may be shown by the renewed deposit of chloride of 
silver which is produced in the supernatant nitrate by the addition to it of 
sulphurous acid. That the darker compound produced by the presence of ni- 
trate of silver is in no respect different, save that it is a more abundant deposit, 
from that formed from the chloride alone, is evidenced by the identity of its 
reactions with those of the latter. For here, again, dilute nitric acid of suf- 
ficient strength to dissolve silver at 112°, is inert in its action on this bluish- 
black compound. Chlorhydric acid, if not sufficiently dilute, renders it 
somewhat paler, and gives a brownish hue to its slaty violet, but otherwise 
does not alter it. Hyposulphite of soda dissolves nearly the whole if suffi- 
ciently strong, leaving but a trace of metallic silver ; and ammonia acts in a 
similar manner, while cyanide of potassium appears entirely to dissolve it. 

In order to be satisfied that the bluish slate-coloured substance formed in 
the presence of nitrate of silver by the action of light on the chloride was 
not an oxychloride, an attempt was made to form such an oxychloride by 
operating on the chocolate-coloured substance so often alluded to. Boiled 
with caustic potash, this became dark brown ; but nitric acid restored to it 
its chocolate tint. The substance operated on in this experiment was formed 
from the citrate by the action of hydrogen (in this case in the presence of 
nitrate of silver), and treatment of the products as before, by chlorhydric 
and nitric acids in succession. 

We consider that we are justified in drawing the following conclusions :— ? 



108 REPORT — 1859. 

1. That the action of the light on chloride of silver is to reduce it, in so 
far as it is able to penetrate its substance, to the state of a subchloride. 

2. That in the presence of nitrate of silver, this deposit of subchloride is 
necessarily more plentiful, while some part of the liberated chlorine passes 
into an oxide, which prevents a portion of the chlorine set free from con- 
ducing to the formation of fresh subchloride. 

From this point we may proceed to the discussion of the photographic 
image in more complex, but, for the photographist, more available forms. 
And in doing so, we must at the outset bear in mind that the image varies 
in its character in different stages of the photographic process. The first 
result obtained by the light, even if it be the same in all stages of the solari- 
zation, is not the result which is in many cases left after the fixing solution 
has performed its work; but it is perhaps more interesting, as indicating the 
nature of the change effected by the light, independent of the chemical re- 
agents which are afterwards applied. 

Iu endeavouring to reduce into orderly arrangement the great number of 
photographic results which this inquiry involves, it seemed best to sever at 
the outset two series of them which bear but little relation to each other, — 
namely, the images obtained by development, and those which are formed 
visibly by the light. Commencing with the latter of these, the attention is 
at once arrested by the processes involving the use of chloride of silver in 
conjunction with the nitrate of that metal. 

The rationale of the union of these two compounds for the production of 
an effect far greater than that upon the chloride alone, has been shown ; but, 
practically, in photographic processes there are other agents present in the 
paper, or purposely introduced into it, which play a part in the photochemical 
change hardly less important than that of the silver salts themselves. — ■ 

We may fairly inquire in the first instance whether the presence of the 
fibre of the paper itself may not assist in effecting decompositions under the 
influence of light. To determine this point, Swedish filtering paper, as the 
type of the most uniform and pure fibre of paper that could be procured, was 
treated with nitrate of silver alone : on being exposed for some hours, it 
exhibited a pale-reddish stain, which after several days' insolation reached no 
deeper tone than a brown. The substitution of ammonio-nitrate of silver for 
the nitrate gave a rapidity to the change, and ultimately a depth of opacity 
to the result, by affording an antagonism, as we suppose, to the influence of 
the nitric acid. The reactions of the darkened ammonio-nitrate paper are 
as follows : — Ammonia does not otherwise affect it, than that treatment there- 
with (probably by action on the tissue of the paper) makes it slightly more 
readily acted on by other reagents. Nitric acid, though exceedingly dilute, 
rapidly dissolves it. Indeed an acid so far diluted that it took many hours to 
destroy the substance left by treating with ammonia Swedish paper that had 
been prepared with chloride of silver and subsequently darkened in the sun, 
was able to destroy this bronzed image formed by the ammonio-nitrate in a 
few minutes. Cyanide of potassium in presence of air rapidly destroys it, 
but not so rapidly as it does the image on chloride of silver just alluded to. 

It would be difficult, from the above reactions, to come to any positive 
opinion on the nature of the photochemically changed substance left by the 
ammonio-nitrate of silver on pure tissue of paper. But that this tissue is 
not without a part to play in the changes which the oxide of silver under- 
goes, perhaps even a more important one than that of an absorber of oxygen, 
seems indicated by one curious experiment. Swedish filtering paper treated 
with nitrate of silver, and while still moist touched with a solution of proto- 
sulphate of iron, gives a grey stain easily recognized as metallic silver. "When, 



ON THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. 109 

however, it is suffered to dry (of course in the dark), the stain thu9 formed, 
instead of a grey, exhibits a dense black tone, which immediately afterwards 
passes on into a brown. The former of these is probably suboxide. 

But if the tissue of the paper is not to be altogether excluded from the 
list of possible cooperative agents present in these processes, there are other 
substances of which the influence can be demonstrated in a manner quite 
satisfactory to the photographist. Gelatine as size was long employed with- 
out his being conscious of its importance ; and he now uses albumen as a 
photographic glaze, and sometimes other substances, such as grape sugar, 
Iceland moss, caseine, &c, on account of the fine tones and permanence in 
the fixing bath which they impart to his pictures. Gelatine and albumen both 
combine with nitrate of silver ; and the character of the combination is one 
which chemistry has yet to explain with completeness. These compounds 
differ from each other in many important respects : we shall select that with 
gelatine for illustration. The characters of the compound of gelatine and 
nitrate of silver are exhibited by the following statements. 

If a she et of transparent gelatine be floatedupon a solution of nitrate of 
silver, the solution loses a considerable amount of the dissolved salt. When the 
proportion of the gelatine to the bulk and strength of the solution is suffi- 
cient, free nitrate of silver is scarcely to be detected in the bath, and what 
silver is found there is probably in the form of a gelatine-compound, which 
is not entirely insoluble. The gelatine mass, though but slightly soluble in 
cold, is so to a considerable amount in hot water, and retains at once the 
neutrality and the taste of the nitrate. The solution gives the following re- 
actions : — 

Caustic potash throws down a bulky olive-brown precipitate, which clots 
into a tough extensile mass. This dissolves by boiling with excess of the 
precipitant, yielding a very dark, and when diluted, a clear yellowish-brown 
solution. 

Strong ammonia produces no precipitate, but on boiling forms a pale 
orange-yellow solution, on which the light produces little or no change. 

Chloride of ammonium, introduced cautiously, produces no precipitate, but 
in excess renders the solution turbid. The clear liquid is not rendered tur- 
bid by boiling ; but a few drops of nitric acid, if the temperature be raised 
to the boiling point, suffice to render it milky from separation of chloride of 
silver, which may be redissolved by ammonia, or darkened by the light. 

Iodide of potassium, unless carefully introduced, throws down a turbidity 
of a yellow tint, in it. But if this be removed by filtration, it will be found 
that the addition of the most dilute nitric acid and boiling throws down a 
fresh amount of iodide of silver. 

Cold nitric acid produces no change in the gelatino-nitrate (?) of silver, 
even when formed from the ordinary commercial gelatine ; but boiling throws 
down sometimes a small quantity of chloride, originating in the impurity of 
that body. 

Chlorhydric acid in minute quantity produces also no precipitate until 
boiled, when the chloride of silver separates from the compound. 

The gelatinous mass, formed by the action of the nitrate of silver solution 
upon the gelatine, becomes, on exposure to the sunlight, of a red colour. 
The change is a rapid one, and is accompanied by a shrinking of the mass 
to its original character of a thin sheet as it dries. The colour attained by 
prolonged solar influence is by transmitted light a deep ruby, and a "bronzed " 
green by reflected light. Sheets of the gelatino-nitrate of silver thus solarized 
no longer swell up or dissolve in boiling water, but only after long boiling 
become disintegrated in filmy fragments. Potash gives, on boiling, a clear 



110 REPORT — 1859. 

solution, which even when dilute is brownish-red, and appears opaque when 
concentrated. Ammonia added to this liquid diminishes its opacity and 
gives it an orange hue. 

In inquiring what the character of the change effected in these bodies is, 
we would direct attention to a process analogous to that by which the citrate 
of silver was examined. If hydrogen be freely passed over the albuminate 
of silver in a water bath, this becomes converted into a red body resembling 
in all essential particulars the red substance into which the light converts the 
same albuminate. In each case the reaction with the different tests is the 
same. That, in fact, a suboxide is in each case formed, and that this sub- 
oxide is in combination with the albuminous or gelatinous substance, seems 
the natural conclusion from what has preceded, no less than from the re- 
actions of the bodies themselves. 

The silver cannot be there in the metallic form ; else, why should potash 
dissolve it, and why should ammonia convert it into a paler body ? More- 
over, metallic mercury does not amalgamate with it. One reaction, indeed, 
might be urged as militating against this view. The hyposulphite of soda 
has but little action on the red compound, whereas it dissevers the consti- 
tuent elements of suboxide of silver as dissolved oxide of silver and residuary 
metal. But we have shown that silver is not entirely precipitated from its 
gelatinous nor from its albuminous compound by such tests as chlorides 
or iodides, and one will hardly therefore see with wonder that the albuminate 
or gelatinate of the suboxide resists the action of the alkaline hyposulphite. 
Nor would it be out of place here to hint, as our colleague Mr. Hardwich has 
done, at the high probability of the suboxide of silver associating itself with 
organic substances such as cellulose, albumen, gelatine, &c, in a manner ana- 
logous to that in which other metallic salts, in which the metallic element is 
not entirely saturated by metalloid elements, act the part of conjugate bodies, 
annexing themselves to the organic substances alluded to, and to colouring 
matters of various kinds. The action of these mordants belongs still to an 
obscure chapter of chemistry, but it is highly probable that the compounds 
under consideration are closely allied to them. 

Finally, we have to bear in mind that the fixing agent modifies the image 
formed by the light in the materials we have been considering. 

The alkaline hyposulphite, like ammonia, acts on the subchloride or the 
suboxide of silver, splitting the one into metallic silver and chloride which 
becomes dissolved, and the other into oxide and metal. 

Obviously the conversion of an image formed of either of the intensely 
colorific subcompounds of silver into a pale metallic deposit containing only 
half the amount of metal, and possessing none of the remarkable colorific 
energy of the suboxide or subchloride, is a conversion that can only be ex- 
pected to exhibit a great loss of tone. Practically the singular immunity from 
this dissevering action which the organic matter, combined with or conjugated 
to the subcompound of silver, extends to that subcompound, comes in to help 
the photographist from losing the beautiful result which the light itself pro- 
duces. And what little he still must lose he can almost restore again by 
the remarkable toning methods which he has recourse to. 

The rationale of these toning methods is to be sought in the chemistry of 
each different process. The deposit of gold from a solution of that metal 
is in its broad features a simple reaction — a deposit of a more electro-posi- 
tive metal in substitution of one less so, — but the precise details of each 
method of using a gold toning-bath doubtless involve more refined chemical 
explanations. Without attempting to go into these, we would invite atten- 
tion, however, to the sulphuretting baths by which this toning is sometimes 



ON THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. Ill 

conferred on the pictures. Sulphide of ammonium converts the fixed image on 
paper into, first, an intensely black compound, and subsequently, by its con- 
tinued action, into a dull yellowish, scarcely visible stain. The latter, there can 
be little doubt, is sulphide of silver. It seems highly probable that the inter- 
mediate step in the process is the production of a subsulphide, and that it is at 
that stage that the progress of sulphurizing is arrested in a successfully-toned 
picture. This explanation would be quite in harmony with the conditions 
under which the toning is performed. 

The results, then, at which we conceive that photographic chemistry may 
be said to have now arrived, in respect to the direct processes involving the 
use of silver-salts, may be thus stated. 

The materials employed perform various functions : — 

1st. One of these is that of supporting the picture, as a mechanical material 
or basis for holding the chemical bodies. Of the substances so employed 
the tissue of paper is one. Pyroxyline (the product of a substitution effected 
in the elements of the cellulose) is spread on glass to afford another. The 
latter appears to be inert. The former, on the other hand, seems to aid in 
the reduction, and possibly in some cases to remain in union with the reduced 
result. 

2ndly. The silver-salts employed, whereof the chloride — for which may 
be substituted other salts, as the tribasic phosphate, the tartrate, the citrate, 
and many others, though each with a specific effect — appears to act by im- 
parting sensitiveness. The nitrate, on the other hand, is present in excess to 
keep up a constant succession of sensitive material, and so to give vigour and 
intensity to the image. 

Srdly. Gelatine as a size, or albumen as a glaze, and various other sub- 
stitutes for these (though but little linked together by any chemical analogy 
amongst themselves), cooperate by conferring rich tints and deep tones, while 
they at once impart to the image formed on them an immunity from the 
destroying action of the fixing process, and form a mechanical surface more 
or less impenetrable, which prevents the other sensitive compounds from 
sinking into the paper. 

Each of these substances can, provided nitrate of silver be present, be 
employed to produce an image. Thus, the chloride rapidly produces a faint 
picture ; the " gelatino-nitrate " slowly yields an intense one ; together they 
produce the required result. Whether that result is a cumulative one, the 
sum of the separate results, or a conjoint one produced by a combination of 
the chloride with the gelatine compound, it were difficult to say. 

The image is, however, a mixed one, for treatment of it with dilute nitric 
acid leaves the slaty violet subchloride of silver. It seems therefore to be a 
mixture of subchloride with a gelatinous, and perhaps also a cellulose-com- 
pound of suboxide of silver. 

The next great division of our subject which we have to enter upon is that 
of photographs produced by development. 

Fortunately, in dealing with the images thus formed, we are able to dis- 
sever the results from the magic influence that calls them into being. We 
need only show that certain conditions are necessary for the impress of the 
invisible image ; we are not called on to explain the character of the impress 
itself. Without attempting to explain what goes on in the camera obscura, 
we may determine the conditions for a favourable action in it, and interpret 
the results of that action after development ; though even here, from the 
great delicacy of the processes employed, the task is a most difficult one. 

With regard then, first, to the preparatory portion of these processes in- 
volving the production of the sensitive surface. This consists, in the pro- 



112 REPORT — 1859. 

cesses on glass, in a supporting film, and generally in iodide of silver formed 
under conditions in which nitrate of silver was in excess. There are also 
generally present other ingredients, such as certain forms of organic matter, 
and in some cases bromide or even chloride of silver. 

That it is not a matter of indifference whether the supporting basis, or 
film, consist of pyroxyline, or albumen, or gelatine, or of these severally com- 
bined with other bodies or with each other, one might readily suppose from 
what has been already said under the head of direct processes ; and it will 
be no difficult matter to show more than a probability that this is not due to 
a "molecular," but to a "chemical" distinction in the action of these bodies. 

The usual sensitive surface contains, if it does not consist in, iodide of 
silver with an excess of nitrate. But there are processes in which the plate 
is studiously washed with water to remove the nitrate, whereby, though it is 
impaired in sensitiveness, it retains enough of that quality for the produc- 
tion of excellent results. Though this retention of a susceptibility to the in- 
visible impression has been attributed to mechanical causes, such as the state 
of division of the iodide, the porosity of the film, &c, the following facts 
seem to favour a chemical explanation. Pure pyroxyline united with pure 
iodide and nitrate of silver, from which the nitrate of silver has subsequently 
been removed, and the film dried, is not susceptible of quick development 
after exposure in the camera ; a mere trace of albumen introduced before the 
removal of the soluble silver-salt, however, prevents its entirely losing this sus- 
ceptibility. Gelatine, certain forms of sugar, resins, and various other bodies 
widely differing from one another in point of chemical character, possess a 
similar property, though the precise regulation of the processes employing 
them can hardiy be said to be as yet mastered by the photographist. The 
products of decomposition contained in " old collodions," and some of the 
fresh preparations of pyroxyline, in which secondary products are not studi- 
ously prevented from being formed, would seem to share this power with the 
classes of bodies referred to. 

But a question of the utmost interest to the scientific inquirer is involved 
in the chemistry of the iodide of silver; first, in respect to its power of 
forming combinations with the nitrate of silver, and secondly, as regards the 
probability of these combinations forming photographic compounds with the 
albuminous and other bodies alluded to. 

That the excess of nitrate of silver which is necessary in the Jirst prepara- 
tion of all the sensitive films does not act the same part as that excess does 
in the case of the chloride in direct processes, will be evident at once, inas- 
much as the iodide of silver does not undergo reduction in the manner that 
the chloride does. In searching, therefore, for an explanation of the necessity 
of free nitrate, the mind naturally dwells on the compounds shown by 
Schnauss* and A. Kremer-t" to be formed by the action of strong solution 
of nitrate of silver on the iodide. Although the production of these bodies 
in any quantity and in a state of chemical purity needs conditions not 
present on the photographic film, yet there seems little doubt that, as iodide 
of silver is dissolved by the nitrate, traces of these remarkable compounds 
can readily exist in the films containing these two ingredients. If so, the 
highly photographic character of the compound containing 2-8 per cent, of 
iodide of silver described by Kremer, and the fact of these bodies being 
decomposed with the separation of iodide of silver by the action of water, are 
facts of high interest to the photographic chemist, and seem to throw con- 
siderable light on the hitherto obscure processes in which iodide of silver is 

* Archiv der Pharra. xcii. 260. t Journ. fiir Prakt. Chem. lxxi. 54. 



ON THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. 113 

employed. These two facts, indeed, may be held to explain, very nearly, 
the character of the ordinary collodion process, but they do not explain the 
"preservative" processes in which the sensitiveness of the film is, within 
certain limits, retained by the introduction of albumen, gelatine, resin, sugars, 
or other organic substances, to the numbers of which experience is con- 
tinually adding. 

For the explanation of the action of these substances, we must recur to the 
facts already cited in the case of gelatine when used as a size in the direct 
processes. Thus, too, a plate coated in the ordinary manner with albumen 
containing iodide of potassium dissolved, will be found, on being raised from 
out of the silver-bath, not to be opake, and coated with a dense deposit of 
iodide of silver, but to appear highly translucent and opalescent in its cha- 
racter, and that, even though the iodide be introduced with a liberal hand. In 
fact, the albumen is present not merely as a mechanical vehicle for the sen- 
sitive materials, but can be proved to have combined with those materials, 
and to play no insignificant part in their photochemical transformation. 
That this is so, may be at once shown by adding some albumen to a quantity 
of the ordinary "silver-bath," — say the white of one egg, diluted with l£ 
ounce of water, added to 40 ounces of bath. The iodide of silver with 
which the bath was previously saturated will be found in it no more ; it is 
now to be looked for in the gelatinous precipitate which the albumen has 
formed. The precipitate is in fact a chemical compound of albumen with 
nitrate of silver holding in combination the iodide. This is, as might be sup- 
posed, from what has been said of the albuminate alone, a highly photographic 
compound. We have stated that a similar compound is formed by gelatino- 
nitrate of silver and iodide of silver. Citrate of silver, glycyrhizine, and 
many other bodies share with these substances, and the first two possess even 
in a far higher degree than they, the property of carrying down in a com- 
bination — or, so to say, in solid solution — the iodide of silver, and forming 
with it highly photographic products. 

A hiatus must needs occur in this stage of our inquiry. The sensitive 
film is exposed in the camera, and in a few instants the invisible image is 
impressed. We remove it, and our task begins again at a tangible starting- 
point. The development of the image is the visible evidence that the light 
has been at work, and a close examination of the nature of this image is the 
only further key we possess to elucidate the character of the light's action. 

By a comparison of the developed images formed on plates that have been 
exposed for the correct time to produce a good picture, with such as are 
produced by the direct action of the light, we arrive at two conclusions. 
First, a general similarity in the appearance of the various sorts of images 
by each method is observable ; but, secondly, the deposit in the case of the 
developed image is far more abundant than that in the direct image. The 
comparison as regards the quantity of deposit in any two images is one far 
too delicate to be effected by the balance ; but a method of instituting such 
a comparison with great accuracy is founded upon the ready conversion of 
any such images into sulphide of silver, a body transparent and yellow in 
thin layers, but passing through tones of sepia to almost a black opacity as 
the thickness is increased. The colour becomes thus a good means of com- 
paring any two deposits, and the complete conversion of these into the sul- 
phide is ensured by the use successively of chlorine-water and of sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. A similar comparative result may be obtained by sub- 
stituting the chloride of mercury for the chlorine-water. 

Now the deposited images in the case of the processes by development 
present some points of great analogy to those formed in the direct processes ; 

1859. i 



114 REPORT 1859. 

ill others these images widely diverge from them. Thus, we seldom find in 
them those purple and violet tones which seem to characterize the subchlo- 
ride of silver before fixing. On the other hand, we observe two classes of 
developed images : — the one is of a dull metallic appearance, of a slaty grey 
character by transmitted light, and in but a feeble degree opake ; the other 
varies in colour, exhibiting brown or red hues, and sometimes even presenting 
perfect opacity to transmitted light, closely similar to the picture formed by 
direct processes. But, on testing these two varieties of image by the method 
of conversion into suiphide of silver before described, it is found that the dull 
translucent metallic image teems with silver, and becomes very opake in the 
form of sulphide, while the more richly coloured and dense-seeming image 
loses opacity under the sulphurizing action, and exhibits at last a subdued tone 
of colour that brings it more on a par with the sulphuretted metallic image. 
Clearly then, here, density, and the qualities which give photographic value 
to an image, do not depend on the amount of metal that goes to form it, so 
much as on the chemical, and even perhaps mechanical state, in which that 
silver is present in it. 

The several causes which determine the deposit of the images in these 
several states appear to be these : — 

1. The materials forming the sensitive film. — Pyroxyline, in chemical 
purity, has little tendency to form the darker image. Albumen and the hete- 
rogeneous substances (including decomposed collodions), which we have had 
to yoke in the same class with it, have this tendency. 

In general (speaking of the ordinary moist process) the tendency to pro- 
duce the darker image is found to be in something like an inverse ratio, 
cceteris paribus, with the sensitiveness. 

The use of the bromide of silver with the iodide imparts to a collodion 
film a tendency to deposit the grey metallic image, at the same time that a 
more powerful reducing agent is needed to develope it. It is a remarkable 
fact, bearing upon this singular property of bromide, that no compounds ana- 
logous to that formed by A. Kremer with the iodide have yet been formed 
with it. In the case of albumen, this influence of bromide is not felt; for with 
albumen, bromide of silver is held to increase the opacity of the image. 

2. The nature of the developing agent. — The substances used to develope 
the latent image, besides the free nitrate of silver invariably necessary, 
embrace also without exception one ingredient, the character and the pur- 
pose of which is to reduce the salts of silver. In some cases organic bodies 
are employed for this purpose, in others the reducing agent is inorganic. 
Now, whether the grey or metallic form of image is completely reduced 
silver, and the more opake forms are an argentous compound (mixed or not 
with metallic silver), or whether all the forms of image are silver in different 
mechanical states of deposition, is a very important inquiry, and one on 
which the facts of the development and the nature of the developing agent 
may throw some light. 

But no one who is intimate with the complex and perplexing details of this 
step in the photographic process will expect the chemist to come in and 
remove the difficulty by the use of a few formula?. All we can hope to do 
is to point to a few sure results of experience, and indicate any explanation 
which may be suggested by facts from the laboratory analogous to these. 

Jt is known, then, that to produce a " positive" picture in the camera, the 
developing agent should be sulphate of iron, acidified in some cases even by 
nitric acid. The result is the crystalline white deposit of metallic silver. 
Protonitrate of iron is used with a similar result. So likewise in the labo- 
ratory it is known that a neutral mixture of the ferrous sulphate and nitrate 



ON THE PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGE. 115 

of silver forms the grey deposit, but that the addition of a little acid pro- 
duces the white and brilliant form of the metal. 

If now we would take a result opposite to this from the experience of the 
photographist, we may select an ordinary collodion plate prepared by the 
usual negative process, and we shall find that protacetate of iron developes 
the image of a black colour. Now Rose, in the remarkable experiments on 
the production of argentous compounds with the higher oxides of iron, &c, 
to which we have called attention, shows that whereas the argentic salts con- 
taining strong mineral acids are precipitated as grey metal by ferrous salts 
containing similar acids, the deposit formed by uniting the ferrous oxide and 
the argentic oxide, or the compounds of these with organic weak acids, con- 
tain the suboxide of silver and are black. 

When to this is added the circumstance that the white and grey photo- 
graphic images are with facility amalgamated with mercury, but that the 
coloured and black images are not, it may be treated as a matter of high 
probability that the black and coloured images are formed by compounds of 
the suboxide of silver. 

A directive energy is exercised upon the nature of the deposit by the 
various kinds of organic matter employed in the development. These all 
seem to restrict the limits of variation to the dark bluish-black (given by 
citric acid when present), on the one hand, and various reds and browns upon 
the other; while, again, the presence of the albuminous and other substances, 
so often before referred to, is, as was above remarked, a sure means of 
forming these darker and coloured images. Indeed, albumen will determine 
such images notwithstanding that even free nitric acid be present with it. 
If it be a suboxide that causes the dark precipitate, that suboxide must go 
down in combination, and so resist the action of the fixing solvents. 

But, 3. The character of the light has also a remarkable influence in 
inducing a grey or a dark character on the developed image. 

If the picture has been produced by an intense light, as by a lens of 
large aperture, or as in the case of an exterior as contrasted with an interior 
view of a building, or as on a dull, misty day in contrast with a bright and 
sunny one, it will be found that, cceteris paribus, the tendency of the weaker 
action of the light is to allow the reduction of the silver in the metallic form. 
On the other hand, the more intense light has given to the molecules of the 
sensitive film a controlling energy which they exercise on the deposit, and 
which appears analogous to that of the light in the direct process, in its 
modifying the reduction and giving it the form of a production of an argen- 
tous compound ; as though the iodic compound became in a certain sense 
phosphorescent to the chemical rays of the light, and operated on the mixed 
silver-salt and reducing agent as "they float over it in the manner that the 
direct light might be supposed to do. 

Of course, the materials must be nicely balanced, as regards their tenden- 
cies to produce the black or the grey images, for the peculiar action of an 
intense or a weak light to be made fully evident. Albumen or powerful 
organic agents will usually destroy this balance. 

One fact remains to be observed. Whatever may have been the character 
of the first particles deposited on the plate, that character will be maintained 
thenceforward, and fresh deposits may be, so to say, piled upon the first by the 
singular agglutinative tendency of crystalline deposits, so long as the neces- 
sary conditions of fresh silver solution and of fresh stores of the reducing 
agent be supplied to keep up the action. 

Our task has been, by an investigation of the chemistry of the image in 
its different varieties, to afford some data, at least, by which the further step 

12 



116 REPORT — 1859. 

may be hereafter taken of determining the precise character of the photo- 
chemical agency, to whose marvellous influences art owes so many beautiful 
results, and science is indebted for more than one intricate problem. 



Report of the Belfast Dredging Committee for 1859. By George C. 
Hyndman, President of the Belfast Natural History and Philoso- 
phical Society. 

The Committee appointed at the Meeting of the British Association at Leeds, 
to proceed with the investigation of the Marine Zoology of the north and 
north-east of Ireland, consisted of Mr. Patterson, Dr. Dickie, Dr. Wyville 
Thomson, Mr. Waller, and Mr. Hyndman, who took measures to commence 
their operations early in June, from which time till the end of August various 
explorations were made along the coast and in the sea adjacent, extending 
from the south side of Belfast Bay (county Down) to the deep water north 
of the Maidens on a line with Glenarm (county Antrim). 

Those acquainted with dredging operations will understand the difficulties 
and delays to which such work is liable, calms and storms equally interfering 
with progress. At the first meeting on the 7th of June, the weather was too 
fine to enable the party to reach the desired ground in due time; the few 
specimens of living Brachiopoda then obtained were forwarded to Mr. Han- 
cock, who has been engaged in the investigation of that tribe, but owing to 
his absence from home the opportunity of seeing them alive was lost. On a 
second occasion, 22nd of June, the party engaged a steamer and succeeded 
in reaching the chosen ground for dredging in the deep water off the Maiden 
Islands, when a sudden storm arose, more violent than usual at that season, 
which obliged them to cease work and make for the shelter of land with all 
expedition, glad to save their ropes and dredges. A boat belonging to a ship 
of war then in Belfast Bay was not so fortunate, being upset in the squall, 
by whieh lamentable occurrence several men were drowned. 

During the season the Committee were assisted by the co-operation of seve- 
ral gentlemen who took an interest in their work. In August, J. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, Esq., visited Belfast, and made one of a party for dredging off Larne, 
where a fortnight was spent in examining the coast and deep water adjacent, 
extending as far north as opposite to Glenarm. Mr. Jeffreys' experience and 
acuteness in discriminating species were of great service in adding to the lists 
and correcting some previous errors. During this period a steamer was again 
engaged from Belfast, which enabled a number of gentlemen to join in the 
labour and rendered good service. 

It was originally contemplated to extend the investigation as far as Rath- 
lin Island, but want of time and other circumstances prevented this from being 
accomplished. 

Very comprehensive lists having been already published in the Reports of 
the British Association for 1857 and 1858, it is thought needless on the 
present occasion to do more than record such additions as have been made, 
with any further information that may be considered interesting regarding 
some particular species. 

List of Species referred to in the Report of the Belfast Dredging Committee 

for 1859. 

Philine quadrata, dead. In 80 fathoms off the Maidens. 
Amphisphyra hyalina, dead. With the last. 



BELFAST DREDGING COMMITTEE. 117 

Cylichna Lajonkaireana (Baster). From the Turbot-bank, dead ; determined by Mr. Jeffreys 

in Mr. Hyndnian's cabinet. 
Mangelia attenuata, dead. Turbot-bank sand, Mr. Waller. 
reticulata, dead. A single specimen of tins rare and beautiful shell was found by 

Mr. Jeffreys in dredging from the deep water north of the Maidens. New to the 

Irish list. It is a southern form. 

costata, var. coarctata, dead. Near the Turbot-bank. 

Fusus Islandicus, var. gracilis (Alder), living. In 60 fathoms, about six miles from the 

Gobbins. 
Buccinum undatum, var. striatum, Pennant ; living. With the last. 
Cerithiopsis pulchella, dead. In Turbot-bank sand, Mr. Waller ; erroneously recorded in 

the list of 1857 as Cerithium metula. 
Trichotropis borealis, living. Turbot-bank. 

Lamellaria perspicua, living. In 80 fathoms north of the Maidens. This is usually a sub- 
littoral species. 
Natica helicoides, dead. A single young specimen by Mr. Jeffreys. 
Cerithium metula, of the list for 1857, was found by Mr. J. to be Cerithiopsis pulchella. In 

dredged sand, Turbot-bank. 
Euomphalus (Omologyra) nitidissimus (Skenea nitidissima), living on Zostera marina. 

Shores of Lame Lough. 
Skenea divisa, living. Off Lame, 1858, Mr. Hyndman. 
planorbis, living. A small variety occurs in Lame Lough, has a more convex spire, 

and it appears to bear the same relation to the typical form that the Helix rupestris 

of Continental authors does to our H. umbilicata, Mr. Jeffreys. 
Jeffreysia Gulsona;, dead. Turbot-bank sand. In Mr. Hyndman's cabinet, determined by 

Mr. Jeffreys. 
Lacuna crassior, living. Coast of Antrim. Mr. Jeffreys observed that the shell has a 

distinct canal or groove in the columella, evidently showing its generic position. 

The animal, which he examined, settles the question. It is of a yellowish white 

colour, having two subulate and slender tentacles, with the eyes placed on short 

peduncles at their external base ; proboscis long and narrow ; two rather long caudal 

filaments, one on each side of the operculigerous lobe. The creature is active in its 

habits, and seems fond of crawling out of water. 

labiosa, Loven, dead. In Turbot-bank sand, Mr. Jeffreys. 

Littorina fabalis, living. Found by Mr. Jeffreys on the shore of Larne Lough, and considered 

by him to be only a variety of L. littoralis. 
tenebrosa, living. In the same locality as the last, and considered only a variety of 

L. rudis. 
Scissurella crispata, dead. A fresh specimen taken in 80 fathoms, 5 or 6 miles north of the 

Maidens. 
Margarita costulata (Skenea), dead. In Turbot-bank sand, Mr. Waller. 
Trochus Montagui, living. An exquisite scalariform variety found by Mr. Jeffreys and Mr. 

Waller off the coast of Antrim ; the animal does not differ from that of the usual 

form. 

striatus, dead. In Turbot-bank sand, Mr. Jeffreys. 

Emarginula reticulata, living. In 80 fathoms north of the Maidens. Mr. Jeffreys found 

the fry, which closely resembles a Scissurella, and has a regular Trochoidal spire, 

with the edges of the slit inflected. 
Propilidium ancyloide, living. On stones and shells in 70 to 80 fathoms. They were of 

different sizes, the largest not exceeding one-eighth of an inch, and evidently adult. 

The Patella cceca of Miiller, of which the authors of 'British Mollusca' supposed this 

might be the young, appears to be a very different species, if indeed it belongs to the 

same genus. (J. G. J.) 
Patella athletica, living. Coast of Down, in Mr. Hyndman's cabinet. 
Chiton cancellatus, living. Not uncommon in deep water. 

Hanleyi. A fine living specimen on a shell, and one on a stone in 80 fathoms. 

Argiope Cis'tellula, living. On stones as well as shells in the deeper water. 

Terebratula capsula, living. With the last. 

caput-serpentis, living. Of large size in the deep water. Some specimens kept living 

exhibited on the front margin a series of white filaments which appeared to protrude 

from the tubes of the shells, and not to be retractile when touched. 
Pecten opercularis. Mr. Jeffreys remarks that the young have a rhomboidal form, and the 

lower or flat valve is much smaller than the other (which overlaps it), and is perfectly 

smooth. The ribs do not at first appear on the larger valve, but are preceded by a 

shagrcenerl reticulation. 
furtivus, alive. Taken in 1858 by Mr. Waller and Mr. Hyndman on both the Antrim 



118 REPORT — 1859. 

and Down coasts along with P. striatus. It was again taken this year, and at once 

distinguished hy Mr. Jeffreys. 
Pecten Danicus, dead. A single valve in 80 fathoms. In the former list, 1857, with a mark 

as being doubtful. This proves Dr. Dickie to have been correct. 
Modiola modiolus, living. A small variety, three inches in length, occurs in deep water. 

The same at the Copelands. It is stated that specimens have been found on the West 

coast of Scotland, seven or eight inches long. 

phaseolina, living. With the last in deep water. 

Astarte compressa, dead. A few valves of the smooth variety, found by Mr. Jeffreys in the 

Turbot-bank sand. 
Telliua pygmsea, dead. Valves united; from the Turbot-bank sand, in Mr. Hyndman's 

cabinet. 
Solecurtus candidus, dead. In the Turbot-bank sand. 
Sphaenia Binghami, dead. Not uncommon in pieces of rolled chalk, and among the roots of 

Laminaria digitata by Mr. Grainger. Mr. Jeffreys doubts its having the power of 

burrowing or excavating. See Mr. Jeffreys' " Gleanings " in the ' Annals of Natural 

History ' for Sept. 1859. 
Mya truncata. A young living specimen was brought up by the dredge from 80 fathoms on 

stony ground ; its usual habitat being low-water mark in mud. 
Saxicava arctica, living. Not uncommon, moored in cavities or crevices of stones and shells. 

Mr. Jeffreys considers it to be merely a variety of & rugosa, differing in habitat. The 

latter, when enclosed in stone, loses the sharp keel and teeth of S. arctica, and is more 

rugged in appearance. 
Pholadidea papyracea, living. At a depth of 80 fathoms North of the Maidens, in small pieces 

of soft sandstone. The smaller specimens want the cup-shaped appendage, whether 

the effect of insufficient space or immature growth. 

An examination of these smaller specimens affords means of correcting an error in 

the first list of 1857. The so-called Pholas striata, being identical with these, is 

therefore to be expunged. 
Cynthia limacina, living. On stones and shells from deep water. 
Balanus tulipa alba (Hameri of Darwin) is not uncommon, living in the deep water. 
Balanus ? Of another species, not yet determined, a single dead specimen was found 

in 80 fathoms. 
Sphaenotrochus Wrightii. A few dead specimens were found in the Turbot-bank sand by 

Mr. Hyndman in 1852, and subsequently by Mr. Waller. Dr. Perceval Wright, having 

seen these specimens in Mr. Hyndman's collections, received permission to hand them 

over to Mr. Gosse, who has described and figured them in the ' Dublin Natural His- 
tory Review' for April 1859. 
Sagartia coccinea. A sea anemone appearing to be this species is not unfrequent on stones 

and shells from deep water. 
Appendicularia flagellum. On the 7th of June, 1859, a bright calm day, this curious and 

interesting animal was seen in great abundance floating through the water at the 

northern entrance of Belfast Bay. It has not hitherto been recorded as Irish ; but 

has been fully described by Professor Huxley in the ' Microscopic Journal,' vol. iv. 
Sagitta bipunctata. Several specimens were taken in the towing net along with the former. 

Dr. Wyville Thomson had discovered it a short time previously in Strangford Lough. 

Not hitherto recorded as Irish ?. It has been described by Dr. Busk in the ' Micro- 
scopic Journal,' vol. iv. 
Ilippolyte spinus. In the deep water off the Maidens : determined by Dr. Kinahan. A 

Northern species, inhabiting the seas of Iceland and Greenland. New to the Irish list. 
Acanthonotus testudo. Taken with the last. 

A pleistocene bed of stratified gravel was observed on the side of the road 
between Larne and Glenarm, and was examined by Mr. Jeffreys and Mr. 
Hyndman. It was found to contain several species of shells, corresponding 
with those from a bed at the Belfast Water Works, recorded in Portlock's 
Report on the Geology of Londonderry. 

The following is a List of the species obtained, which will no doubt be 
augmented on further investigation : — 

Pholas crispata, fragments. Astarte elliptica. Natica clausa (nana Moller). 

Telliua solidula. Mytilus edulis, fragments. Buccinumundulatum(M611er). 

calcarea (Moller). Leda oblonga. Trophon clathratus. 

Mactra subtruncata. Hypothyris psittacea. Mangelia turricula. 

Astarte compressa, var. glo- Turritella polavis (Moller). Pingelii (Moller). 

bosa. Natica Montagui. Balanus tulipa alba. 



ON STEAM NAVIGATION AT HULL. 119 

of this number, about one-half are found living on the coast, the other half 
belong to extinct species. 

The existence of this bed of gravel with its fossils may hereafter serve to 
throw some light on the question of the presence of so many northern forms 
of shells on the Turbot Bank. As yet there is no evidence to forbid the con- 
clusion that all such forms may be found alive in the sea not far distant. A 
large proportion of those known to be living is found scattered very sparingly ; 
whilst others, whose existence in the living state admits of no doubt, have not 
yet been discovered in their haunts. Many species may be living close at 
hand in situations where the rocky nature of the ground, and the strength of 
the currents preclude the possibility of the dredge ever reaching them. 

One interesting fact may be noticed connected with the distribution of 
animal life ; — that there are several species, viz. three Neaeras, two Astartes, 
and some others, existing in the Clyde, immediately opposite the deep-sea 
region north of the Maidens, where none of these species have been disco- 
vered ; whilst in the latter locality, Argiope, Terebralula capxula, and Phola- 
didea, with perhaps others, are found living and not known to exist in the 
former locality. The region of the Clyde and that of the Maidens, though 
separated by a narrow sea, exhibit well-marked and distinctive peculiarities 
in their respective Faunas. 

The Committee consider that their labours, under the liberal assistance of 
the British Association, have now come to a close, but much yet remains to be 
done to complete the List; still they hope that individuals may be found 
willing to continue the investigations, so as to carry out the wish expressed 
by Dr. Perceval Wright in his Report for 1858, that the results of the labours 
of the several dredging Committees may in a short time be united to form a 
complete Irish Marine Fauna. 



Continuation of Report of the Progress of Steam Navigation at Hull. 
By James Oldham, Esq., Hull, M.I.C.E. 

In continuation of my Report on the Progress of Steam Navigation as con- 
nected with the Port of Hull, I have to observe that, during the last two 
years, no very great change has taken place in the number of steamers, 
although I shall have to state some interesting facts occurring during that 
time. For generations past, Hull has been noted for its Greenland and 
Davis Straits Fishery, and for many years this constituted the chief feature 
of the port ; and at one time upwards of sixty large ships were sent out with 
crews varying from thirty to forty men each, and representing a capital of all 
that concerned the trade of about £700,000 sterling. In 1818 Hull sent out 
to the fishery sixty-three ships which brought home 5817 tons of oil, and in 
1820 sixty ships were sent out and returned with 7782 tons of oil, exclusive 
of whalebone. In this year (1820) the total number of ships at the fisheries 
from England and Scotland amounted to 156, and the entire weight of oil 
obtained was 18,725 tons, and of whalebone 902 tons. 

Owing, however, to the introduction of coal-gas for the lighting of streets 
and buildings, and large importations of oils for manufacturing purposes 
from the Mediterranean and other places, together with the scarcity and dif- 
ficulty of taking the whales, fish-oil became in a great measure superseded, 
and consequently the fishery nearly abandoned, and an enormous amount of 
property, once of so much value, almost entirely lost. Within the last two or 



120 REPORT— 1859. 

three years, steam has been put into successful requisition to aid the daunt- 
less and hardy mariner in the pursuit of this hazardous calling, and now we 
have several screw steam-ships employed; and although some of them are 
fitted with comparatively small power, they have proved to be possessed of 
great advantage in the service, and in some instances satisfactorily to the 
owners. 

We have had two descriptions of steam-vessels employed in the fishery : — 
the first, the old wooden sailing ships which had been engaged in the service 
for some years, but which were afterwards fitted with screw machinery and 
auxiliary steam power ; the second, iron-built ordinary screw steam-vessels, 
but which proved, I believe, almost a total failure ; the material of which 
they were built, and the want of strength for such a purpose, proving them 
altogether unfit to contend with the severity of the climate and rough en- 
counters with the burgs and fields of ice, some becoming total wrecks, while 
others returned bruised and rent, and with difficulty were kept from sinking. 
A question here arises, how far iron ships are calculated to bear the severe frosts 
of high latitudes ? and whether wooden-built vessels, with all their defects, 
are not the best adapted for encountering such a climate ? The screw steam- 
ship which was first sent from Hull or any other place to the fishery as an 
experiment, was the ' Diana,' timber-built, 355 tons and 40 horse-power, 
high pressure, the property of Messrs. Brown, Atkinson and Co., of Hull. 

This vessel had been some time engaged in the fishery as a sailing ship ; 
but her spirited owners, thinking an important advantage could be gained, de- 
termined upon the adoption of steam power, and at once had the 'Diana' fitted 
for the spring of 1857, by Messrs. C. and W. Earle, who put in the engines 
and made the screw to lift out in case of need. 

The experiment fully answering their expectations, Messrs.Brown, Atkinson 
and Co. bought the ' Chase,' a fine American-built ship of immense strength, 
and of 55S tons. She was fitted by Messrs. Martin, Samuelson and Co., 
with condensing engines of 80 horse-power, and despatched to the fishery in 
the early part of 1858, and with good results. 

By the application of steam, ships in this service can now make a voyage, 
first to Greenland, and afterwards to the Davis Straits. 

In the commencement of this year several ordinary iron screw steamers 
were despatched to Greenland, viz. the ' Corkscrew,' ' Gertrude,' ' Emme- 
line,' and 'Labuan;' the latter only of this class, which is the property of 
Messrs. Bailey and Leetham, had any success, but in consequence of her 
great strength and peculiar form, succeeded in a tolerable way ; the others 
were much damaged, and, as I have already remarked, returned in bad con- 
dition. The ' Labuan ' is 584 tons burthen, and 80 horse-power. 

The next point of interest connected with the steam-ships of the Port of 
Hull refers to alterations made in some of the vessels. The ' Emerald Isle,' 
a paddle timber-built ship of 1835, the property of Messrs. Gee and Co., origi- 
nally 135^ long, was lengthened 35 feet, with a gain of 14 inches draught of 
water, and an increased capacity for 100 tons dead weight. The ' Sultana,' 
iron screw steam-ship of 1855, the property of the same house, originally 
150 feet, was lengthened 30 feet, with a gain of 10 inches draught of water, 
and an increased capacity of about 100 tons. It is interesting to observe 
that in both cases we have no diminution of speed through the water, and 
that both vessels are improved as sea-boats. Daily experience teaches the 
advantage gained, in almost every point of view, by ships of great compara- 
tive length. 

The iron steam-ship ' Lion ' of Hull, formerly a paddle-boat 249 feet 
long, but now converted into a screw steamer by her owners, Messrs. Brown- 



ON STEAM NAVIGATION AT HULL. 121 

low, Lumsden and Co., under the direction of Mr. Anderson their engineer, 
exhibits the great advantage gained by the alteration. Her register tonnage 
is 690, and the total tonnage 1014.. She was formerly fitted with steeple 
engines of 350 horse-power, and had four boilers, two before and two abaft 
the engines; but these were substituted by direct action engines of 150 
horse-power, and two of her old boilers replaced, and by this alteration a 
clear length of hold in midships of 23 feet is gained. She required before 
the conversion 650 tons of coals for a Petersburg voyage, and consumed 30 
to 40 cwt. per hour, but now 350 tons for the voyage, and a consumption of 
20 cwt. per hour. By the change of machinery about 130 tons of dead weight 
is removed from the ship, and she is now able to carry 400 tons more cargo. 
Her speed is also improved considerably ; for before the alteration, when 
drawing on an average about 14 feet, the rate was 6^ knots; but since the 
change, when drawing even more water, they can steam 8 knots. Thus 
throughout a saving almost in all the departments of the ship, and other ad- 
vantages have been effected in this important change. 

During the last two years many fine steam-ships have been built in Hull, 
and others are in process of building for English and foreign service, by 
Messrs. Brownlow, Lumsden and Co., Messrs. C. and W. Earle, and Messrs. 
Martin, Samuelson and Co. 

The last-named firm are making rapid progress in the building of two large 
iron paddle steam-ships, for the Atlantic Royal Mail Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, of the following dimensions, power, &c. : — 

feet. 

Length between the perpendiculars 360 

Beam, moulded 40 

Depth 30 

Tonnage, builders' measure 2860 

Nominal horse-power 800 

These ships are to have three decks, and to be fitted fore and aft for pas- 
sengers. Speed through the water 20 miles per hour. They will be of im- 
mense strength, and their build and form such as to ensure their becoming 
fine sea-boats. 

Since the Meeting of the British Association at Dublin, considerable ad- 
vance has been made in London and other ports in the application of super- 
heated steam, and I believe with great success and satisfaction in the results. 




Hull, however, is acting on the motto Festina lenie, and before taking a de- 
cided step in this important discovery, is anxious to see and adopt the best mode 
of the application of the principle, being assured that, in every onward move- 
ment, it is better to " make no more haste than good speed." Some attention 
has been paid to the consumption of smoke in the furnaces of our steam- 



122 report— 1859. 

vessels, and with a considerable amount of success. I may here mention the 
mode of Mr. Ralph Peacock, of New Holland, Hull, for which he has taken 
out a patent; it consists, as shown by the plan (No. 1), of a double furnace- 
door, the chamber or space between the inner and outer surfaces being 5 to 
6 inches in width. The inner plate is perforated very full of small holes ; 
and in the outer plate a revolving ventilator is inserted, which is on the 
principle of that invented by Dr. Hale, to supply close places with fresh air. 

The apparatus is in use on board the ' Helen Macgregor,' one of Messrs. 
Gee and Company's large sea-going steam-ships, and has given very general 
satisfaction ; for by the report of the Chief Engineer, Mr. M'Andrew, a 
saving of fuel is effected, and the steam better sustained. Another great ad- 
vantage, as reported by the Master, Captain Knowles, derived from this in- 
vention, is that in running before the wind, they are never now annoyed and 
endangered by a dense cloud of smoke in the direction of the ship's course, 
which, particularly at night time, creates so much risk of collision. This ap- 
paratus is also in use on board several other steamers, viz. the ' Yarborough ' 
and ' Grimsby,' belonging to the Anglo-French Company, the ' Alert ' of 
Hull, and also a number of river steam-boats. 

I have great pleasure also in noticing an improvement introduced on board 
the ' Queen of Scotland,' another ship belonging to Messrs. Gee and Co., for 
the same object, by the Chief Engineer, Mr. Smith, and having furnaces of 
ample capacity, answering the purpose in a most satisfactory manner. Mr. 
Smith's mode consists simply in keeping a few inches of the front ends of the 
bars quite clear and clean from side to side of each furnace ; thus admitting 
at the right place a sufficient amount of air. The report of the Master, 
Captain Foster, is very satisfactory. I have witnessed also the effect of this 
mode in the furnaces of stationary boilers with perfect results. 

I have now to refer to the application of Silver's Marine Governor (see 
Plan No. 2), as applied by Mr. John Hamilton of Glasgow. Several of these 
ingenious and efficient instruments are now in use on board steam-ships in 
the Port of Hull, giving the highest satisfaction. They are so sensitive in their 
action, that the slightest pitching motion is at once indicated, and the steam 
admitted or excluded as the case may be. By the use of this governor, the 
full power of the engines is in immediate and constant requisition, producing 
the effect of saving of time, saving of fuel, and preventing of accidents by 
what is termed racing, and otherwise. The ordinary mode in the absence of 
the governor, is for the engineer, in stormy weather and heavy seas, con- 
tinually to stand at the throttle valves, or to save himself this trouble, to 
throttle the engines, and thereby, when the full power of the engines is most 
required, it is frequently reduced to one-half or less, and consequently there is 
occasioned a loss of time on the voyage, and a risk of falling on to a lee shore. 
The following is a brief statement of the tonnage, &c. of steam-vessels be- 
longing to, or trading from, the Port of Hull at the present time : — 

1st. Sea-going steamers belonging to the Port, 22,290 tons register ; horse- 
power, 5824. 

2nd. River steamers belonging to the Port, 1050 tons register; horse- 
power, 450. 

3rd. Sea-going steamers trading to Hull, but belonging to other ports ; and 
although many changes have taken place remaining much the same ; as shown 
in my last Report, viz. about 21,200 tons register; horse-power, 5300. 

4th. River steamers trading to Hull, but belonging to other places, 2450 
tons register ; horse-power, 1200. 

The number and tonnage of sea-going steam- vessels belonging to Hull have 
increased since my last Report. The river steamers belonging to the Port re- 



ON STEAM NAVIGATION AT HULL. 



123 



main nearly the same ; this is also the case with sea-going and river boats be- 
longing to other places, but trading to Hull. 




Silver's Patent Marine and Stationary Engine Governors. Constructed by- 
John Hamilton, Engineer, Glasgow. 

The Engraving represents the Momentum Wheel Governor or " Nautical Regulator," as 
it is usually placed in the Engine-room of a Steam-Ship. It consists of a momentum wheel, 
A, fixed on the boss of a pinion, B, which works loosely on the spindle, C, and gears into the 
two-toothed sectors, D D. These two sectors being supported on a crosshead, E, made fast 
to and carried with the spindle, C, work in opposite directions on the pinion, B ; and, as they 
are linked by the rods, F F, to the sliding collar, G, which receives and works the forked 
lever, H, communicate motion to the throttle valve. M M are vanes, and N is a spiral spring, 
both of which are adjustable. 

The action of the above Instrument is as follows :— When the spindle of the Governor or 
" Nautical Regulator " is turned by the engine to which it is attached, the two-toothed sec- 
tors, which are carried on the fixed crosshead, being geared into the pinion on the momentum 
wheel, have the tendency to turn round on this pinion ; but as they are linked to the sliding 
collar, they necessarily pull inwards this collar, and so compress the spiral spring; and this 
spring, reacting on the collar, and consequently on the toothed sectors, serves to turn round 
the momentum wheel, while the vanes on the momentum wheel balance the action of this 
spring by the resistance the atmosphere offers to their progress through it. As the leverage 
action of the toothed sectors upon the momentum wheel pinion increases, as the spring be- 
comes distended, and vice versa, it will be seen that the reaction of the spring in propelling 
the momentum wheel will at all times be uniform, and as much only is required as will carry 
round the momentum wheel with its vanes at its proper speed, and overcome the friction of 
working the throttle valve, and throttle valve connexions. When the momentum wheel is 
in motion, it will rotate with the engine to which it is attached, at a velocity proportioned 
to that at which it is fixed by the connecting gear ; and while the engine from the usual 
causes may attempt to vary this velocity, it cannot affect the momentum wheel, but leaves 
it free to act upon the sliding collar, and consequently upon the throttle valve— at one time 
closing the throttle valve by its action in resisting any increase of velocity, and at another 
time opening the throttle valve by its action in resisting any decrease of velocity on the part 
of the engine. It will now be evident that the power of such a Governor or Regulator must 
be very great indeed, having for its agent a momentum wheel which may be increased to any 
dimensions ; and from the powerful resisting tendency of such wheel, it necessarily follows 
that its sensitiveness of action must also be very great, and in exact proportion to the 
tendency of the engine to vary its speed ; and the engine itself being the direct prime mover 
of the throttle valve, it also follows that the inert power of the momentum wheel increases 
its resistance exactly in proportion to the rapidity with which the engine varies its speed. 
Hence a momentum wheel of 2 feet 8 inches diameter, and 2 inches periphery, running at a 
speed of 180 revolutions per minute, is found to be sufficient to work with promptness and 
ease the largest throttle valve, and to equal the power of several men. Unlike the ordinary 
forms of Governors, it is entirely unaffected by changes of position, and therefore perfectly 
adapted for Marine and Portable, as well as Stationary Stcam-Engincs. 



124 REPORT — 1859. 

Mercantile Steam Transport Economy as affected by the Consumption 
of Coals. By Charles Atherton, Chief Engineer, Royal Dock- 
yard, Woolwich. 

Public usefulness, as dependent upon science, being the great object for which 
the " British Association for the Advancement of Science " was originated, 
and has now been signally upheld for twenty-nine years, a period remarkable 
for the progress that has been made in the utilization of the powers of nature, 
to such an extent that the international condition of the globe is now being 
revolutionized by the progressive practical utilization of elements which 
heretofore were regarded merely as phenomena of nature, viz. Steam and 
Electricity; in which revolution the application of steam to the purposes of 
navigation has played so conspicuous a part, that now, in proportion as 
steam may be effectively employed in the pursuits of commerce and of war, 
it is acknowledged that even nations will rise or fall ; seeing, moreover, that 
at no period in the history of steam navigation has so great a step been made 
in its practical development as has recently been realized by the fearless intro- 
duction, in marine engineering, of the long known but neglected effects of 
increased pressure, superheating, and expansion ; the recognition and appli- 
cation of which principles have now, at length, been attended with such effect 
in marine engineering, that the consumption of fuel with reference to power 
is now known to be practically reducible to less than one-half of the ordinary 
consumption of coal on board ship ; — seeing also that mercantile enterprise, 
setting no limit to speculative investment, has in these days emancipated 
mechanical intellect from the restrictions by which ideas as respects magni- 
tude have hitherto been bound ; — under such circumstances I cannot doubt 
that any effort to popularise a knowledge of the practical utilization of 
steam, with reference to the consumption of fuel, though advanced with no 
pretensions to science, beyond that which may be awarded to originality and 
labour in the application of calculations to develope useful results, will be 
favourably received, more especially as the paper which I now beg to present 
is in continuation and conclusion of an inquiry, which has already, in part, 
on two occasions been favourably entertained by this Association, and 
honoured with a place in its published records. The former papers to which 
1 allude are, — 1st, " Mercantile Steam Transport Economy, with reference to 
Speed," vol. for 1856, p. 423 ; 2nd, "Mercantile Steam Transport Economy, 
with reference to the Magnitude of Ships, and their Proportions of Build," 
vol. for 1857, p. 112. And I now purpose to bring this inquiry to its con- 
clusion by the following paper on — 

Mercantile Steam Transport Economy, as affected by the Consumption of 
Coals.- — My purpose, and the drift of my remarks will probably be the more 
readily understood by my at once adducing the following Tables C and D, 
and the diagram E, in continuation of the Tables A and B, which are pub- 
lished in the Volume of Reports for the year 1857, pp. 116 and 119, 
observing with reference to these Tables C and D, that the rate of consump- 
tion of coal on which the calculations arc based, viz. 2| lbs. per indicated 
horse-power per hour, has been practically realized on continuous sea service, 
although the ordinary consumption of steam-ships in the Royal Navy, as well 
as in the best vessels of the most celebrated steam-shipping companies, is, I 
believe, at the present time fully 50 per cent, in excess of that amount ; and 
I may say, that in steam shipping generally, the consumption of coals per • 
knot of distance, with respect to displacement and speed, is double the con- 
sumption which these Tables, based as they are on an example of existing 
practice, show to be now practically realizable. 



ON MERCANTILE STEAM TRANSPORT ECONOMY. 
The Tables now adduced are as follow : — 



125 



Table C— Calculated for the Speed of 10 knots per hour, and showing 

the mutual relations of Displacement, Power, and the Consumption of Coal, 

per Day, Hour, and Knot, the Coefficients of Dynamic performance, deduced 

V 3 Dl 

from the Formula f — r— r , being assumed to be 250, and the consumption 

I ml. h. p. ° 

of fuel at the rate of 2| lbs. per Ind. h. p. per hour. 






=> 
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Coals. 




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unit 

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Nomina 
at the 
lbs. 1ft 


Indicati 
at the 
lbs. 1ft 


Per Day of 
24 hours. 


Per Hour. 


Per Knot. 


Tons. 


H.P. 


Ind H.P. 


Tons. 


Cwt. 


Cwt. 


250 


52 


159 


4-26 


355 


■36 


300 


59 


179 


4-80 


400 


•40 


350 


66 


199 


533 


4-44 


•44 


400 


72 


217 


5-81 


4-84 


•48 


450 


78 


235 


630 


525 


•53 


500 


83 


252 


674 


562 


•56 


600 


94 


285 


763 


6-36 


•64 


700 


104 


315 


8-44 


703 


•70 


800 


114 


345 


9-24 


7-70 


■77 


900 


123 


373 


998 


832 


•83 


1,000 


132 


400 


10-70 


892 


•89 


1,100 


141 


426 


114 


951 


•95 


1,200 


149 


452 


121 


101 


1-01 


1,300 


157 


476 


127 


106 


106 


1,400 


165 


501 


134 


11-2 


112 


1,500 


173 


524 


140 


11-7 


117 


1,600 


181 


547 


146 


122 


122 


1,700 


188 


570 


15-4 


128 


1-28 


1,800 


195 


592 


15-8 


132 


132 


1,900 


203 


614 


164 


137 


137 


2,000 


210 


635 


170 


142 


142 


2,250 


227 


687 


18-4 


153 


153 


2,500 


243 


737 


19-7 


164 


1-64 


2,750 


259 


785 


210 


175 


175 


3,000 


275 


832 


22-3 


186 


186 


3,250 


290 


878 


235 


19-6 


1-96 


3,500 


304 


922 


24-7 


206 


2-06 


3,750 


318 


965 


25-8 


215 


215 


4,000 


333 


1008 


270 


225 


2-25 


4,250 


347 


1050 


281 


234 


2-34 


4,500 


360 


1090 


29-2 


243 


243 


4,750 


373 


1133 


302 


25-2 


252 


5,000 


386 


1170 


313 


261 


261 


5,500 


411 


1246 


334 


27-8 


278 


6,000 


436 


1321 


354 


295 


2-95 


6,530 


460 


1393 


373 


311 


311 


7,000 


483 


1464 


392 


32-7 


327 


7,500 


506 


1533 


41-0 


342 


342 


8,000 


528 


1600 


42-8 


357 


357 


8,500 


550 


1666 


44-6 


372 


3.72 


9,000 


571 


1731 


463 


38-6 


386 


9,500 


592 


1794 


48-0 


40-0 


4-80 


10,000 


613 


1857 


497 


414 


4-14 


11,000 


653 


1978 


52-9 


44-1 


441 


12,000 


692 


2096 


56-2 


46-8 


4-68 


13,000 


730 


2211 


59-2 


493 


493 


14,000 


767 


2324 


623 


519 


519 


15,000 


803 


2433 


652 


543 


543 


20,000 


973 


2498 


790 


658 


658 


25,000 


1129 


3420 


916 


763 


7-63 



126 



REPORT — 1859. 



Table D.— Showing the Mutual Relations of Displacement, Power, and 
Coals consumed per Day, per Hour, and per Knot, for the respective Speeds of 
10, 15, 20, and 25 Knots per Hour : — the Coefficient of Dynamic Performance 

V 3 Di 

deduced from the Formula being assumed to be 250, and the Con- 

Lnd. n. p. 

sumption of Coals at the rate of 2\ lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour. 



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ON MERCANTILE STEAM TRANSPORT ECONOMY. 



127 



Diagram E, showing approximately the Nautical Mileage Consumption of 
Fuel, for vessels from 1000 tons displacement, up to 25,000 tons, the Co- 

V 3 D§ 
efficients of Dynamic Performance deduced from the Formula i n( j # h. p. 

being assumed to be 250, and the Consumption of Coals being assumed to 
be at the rate of 2^ lbs. per Ind. h.p. per hour. 



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10,000 



16,000 



20,000 



25,000 



With reference to the foregoing Table C, showing the mutual relations of 

displacement, power, and the consumption of coals per day, per hour, and 

per knot, for vessels of a gradation of sizes, from 250 tons displacement up to 

25,000 tons, the coefficient of dynamic performance, deduced from the formula 

V 3 D$ 

■ being assumed tobe250,and the consumption of coals being assumed 

lnd. h. p. 

to be at the rate of 2| lbs. per indicated h. p. per hour, on these data, the 



128 REPORT— 1859. 

coefficient of dynamic economy with reference to coals deduced from the 

V 3 DS 

formula (w being the consumption of coals per hour expressed in 

cwts.) becomes 11210. 

It will be observed that in Table C the tabulated sizes of ships, as deter- 
mined by their respective load displacements, increase progressively from 
250 tons displacement up to 25,000 tons, showing under assumed conditions, 
which, however, are justified by now realized advancement in ship and 
engine construction, the mutual relations of displacement and coals cal- 
culated for the speed of 10 knots per hour as most convenient for a standard 
of reference. The intended practical use of this Table C is to facilitate 
mercantile investigation into the dynamic merits of steam-ships as locomotive 
implements of burden by comparing their actual consumption of fuel with the 
calculated consumption of the ship of corresponding size and speed as recorded 
in this tabulated standard of comparison, whence the constructive merit of 
ships, as respects their working economy of fuel, on which the cost of freight 
so much depends, may be relatively ascertained. For example, a certain ship 
of 800 tons mean displacement attains the speed of 8*8 knots per hour, with 
a consumption of coals certainly not exceeding 4*3 cwt. per hour, or *49 cwt. 
per nautical mile or knot; which (as the consumption of coals per knot varies 
cateris paribus as the square of the speed) is equivalent to '63 cwt. per knot 
at the speed of 10 knots per hour. Now by referring to Table C, we find 
that on the assumed data therein referred to, the standard ship of 800 tons 
displacement, steaming at 10 knots per hour, would consume *77 cwt. of coal 
per knot. Hence, therefore, it appears that the ship referred to in this 
instance is superior to the tabulated standard in the proportion of - 77 to *63, 
that is, in the proportion of 122 to 100, the superiority with reference to the 
consumption of coals per knot being 22 per cent. 

Again, a certain ship of 3500 tons mean sea displacement makes a voyage 
at the average speed of 12*88 knots per hour, consuming 83 cwt. of coal per 
hour, or 6*44 cwt. per knot, which, by the law of dynamics above quoted, is 
equivalent to 3*88 cwt. per knot at the speed of 10 knots per hour; but by 
referring to the Table of comparison C, we find that the standard ship of 
3500 tons displacement, steaming at 10 knots per hour, would consume only 
2 - 06 cwt. of coal per knot. Hence, therefore, it appears that the ship re- 
ferred to in this instance is inferior to the tabulated standard ship in the pro- 
portion of 2 - 06 to 3'88, that is, in the proportion of 53 to 100, the inferiority 
with reference to the consumption of coals being 47 per cent. 

Thus, by reference to this tabulated standard of comparison (C), we have 
the means of readily deducing the exact per-centage by which ships, as 
respects the dynamic duty performed with reference to the consumption of 
coals, differ from each other. I need not dwell on the importance of this 
consideration as affecting the commercial value of ships for sale or charter. 

With reference to Table D, showing the mutual relations of displacement, 
power, and coals consumed per day, per hour, and per knot for the respective 
speeds of 10, 15, 20, aud 25 knots per hour, the object of this Table is to 
show the extent to which the required engine-power, and the nautical mileage 
consumption of coals are dependent on the rate of speed, thereby facilitating 
the adaptation of ships as respects their size and power to the service that 
may be required of them. 

For example, by referring to Table D, we observe that a ship of 5000 tons 
displacement, steaming at 10 knots per hour, requires 1170 indicated h. p., 
and consumes 2 - 61 cwt. of coal per knot; but to steam 15 knots per hour, 
the same vessel would require 3947 ind. h. p., and the consumption of coals 



ON MERCANTILE STEAM TRANSPORT ECONOMY. 129 

would be 5-87 cwt. per knot ; hence it appears that to increase the speed 
from 10 to 15 knots per hour, the power requires to be increased upwards 
of three times, and the consumption of coals per knot is more than doubled. 
Again, let it be supposed that the weight of the hull of a ship of 5000 tons 
displacement fitted for sea amounts to 40 per cent, of the displacement, or 
2000 tons, and suppose the weight of the engines and boilers to be one ton 
for each 10 indicated h. p., the vessel requiring, as shown by Table D, 1 170, 
indicated h. p. to attain the speed of 10 knots per hour, with a consumption 
of coals at the rate of 2'61 cwt. per knot; then on these data, the engines, 
to attain the speed of 10 knots per hour, would weigh 1 17 tons, and the weight 
of coals for a passage of, say 12,000 nautical miles, would be 12,000 X 261 = 
31,320 cwt., or 1566 tons weight, making together for hull, engines and 
coals 2000+117 + 1566=3683, and consequently the displacement avail- 
able for cargo would be 5000—3683 = 1317 tons weight. But if it be 
purposed that the steaming speed shall be at the rate of 15 knots per hour, 
the required power, as appears by Table D, will be 3947 ind. h. p., con- 
sequently the weight of the engines will be 395 tons, and the maximum dis- 
placement available for coals will be 5000—2395 = 2605 tons weight, or 
52,100 cwt, which, at the tabulated rate of consumption, 5*87 cwt. per knot, 
would be sufficient only for a passage of 8876 nautical miles, and this to the 
utter exclusion of all goods cargo, showing that the ship is inadequate for 
steaming 12,000 nautical miles at the required speed of 15 knots per hour, 
though the same ship, if duly fitted with engine-power for steaming at 10 
knots per hour, would perform the whole passage of 12,000 nautical miles 
without re-coaling at any intermediate station, and carry 1317 tons of re- 
munerating goods cargo. 

These few examples will, it is hoped, sufficiently illustrate the application 
and use of Tables C and D in facilitating mercantile inquiry into the capa- 
bilities of steam-ships with reference to the all-important question of con- 
sumption of coals ; but in order still further to facilitate calculations on this 
subject, the diagram E has been prepared, whence, simply by inspection, the 
consumption of coals per knot, at any rate of speed, may be approximately 
ascertained for vessels of improved modern construction up to 25,000 tons, 
the data on which this diagram has been calculated being the same as that on 
which Tables C and D are based. 

The use and application of this Diagram E is evident ; it brings theTables 
under ocular review, and generalizes their application. It is given as an 
example of a system that admits of being more fully and elaborately deve- 
loped for the purposes of mercantile tabular reference, as is now being done 
for publication. 

Having thus explained the use and application of Tables C and D and the 
Diagram E, it will be perceived that the task which I have undertaken on this 
occasion is to show palpably by comparison with these tabular statements, based 
on data ivithin the limits of already realized results, taken as a standard, what is 
the relative character of steam-ships as respects their locomotive or dynamic 
capabilities, with reference to the economic performance of mercantile trans- 
portservice, so far as dependent on the consumption of fuel ; thus affording 
an exposition whereby parties interested in steam-shipping, either as owners 
or directors, or agents, or as the charterers of shipping for government or for 
private service, though unacquainted with the details of marine engineering 
as a science, may be enabled to arrive at some definite appreciation of the 
capabilities that may be expected of steamers ; that is, the weight of cargo 
they will carry, and the length of passage capable of being performed at any 
definite speed; for, as before observed, the dead weight of cargo that a ship 
1859. k 



130 REPORT — 1859. 

will carry is equal to the tons' weight of water displaced between the light 
and load water-lines of the ship, less the weight of coals and stores required for 
the voyage, and which for long voyages commonly amount to four times the 
weight of cargo chargeable as freight, and it constitutes the limitation of 
distance which the ship is able to run under steam at a given speed. This 
inquiry is therefore essential to a due appreciation of the economic conse- 
quences which are involved in progressive variations of steam-ship speed, 
especially as respects the high rates of speed, which are occasionally professed, 
but which are seldom realized, simply because there has been no recognized 
exposition, whereby such pretensions may be judged of with reference to the 
required consumption of fuel. In short, regarding this matter as a public 
cause, affecting as it does the pecuniary interest of the public to the extent 
of millions sterling per annum, my object is to promulgate, through the 
medium of the notoriety which every inquiry obtains upon its being brought 
before the "British Association for the Advancement of Science," a Mercan- 
tile Steam-ship Expositor, by reference to which as a standard of comparison 
the good or bad qualities of steam-shipping may be determined ; and this 
surely is a public cause, for by the operation of the scrutiny which such a 
system of comparative exposition may be expected to inaugurate and popu- 
larize, steamers will soon become marketable, with reference, in great measure, 
to their capabilities for economic transport service, at the speed that may be 
required ; under the influence of this scrutiny all bad types of form and 
vicious adaptation of mechanical system will be eradicated ; incompetency 
in steam-ship management will become gradually eliminated, and the mer- 
cantile transport service of the country being then performed exclusively 
by good, well-appointed, and well-managed ships, would be performed at 
a minimum of cost to the shipping interests, and consequently to the best 
advantage for the interests of the public. Hitherto the dynamic charac- 
ter of steam-ships has been a mechanical problem enveloped in undefined 
and even delusive terms of shipping and engineering art ; consequently its 
determination has not been based on any recognized principles of calcu- 
lation. Hence the dynamical character of shipping has been a mystery — 
a matter of mere assertion on the one hand, and of credulity on the other. 
But mystery being unveiled, commercial vision will be opened, and compe- 
tition, in shipping as in any other well-understood and open field of public 
enterprise, will ensure the mercantile transport service of the country being 
performed to the best advantage, and it will gradually establish and preserve 
the just equilibrium of freight charges as between the carriers and consumers 
of all sea-borne productions. 



Report on the present state of Celestial Photography in England. 
By Warren de la Rue, Ph.D., F.R.S., Sec. R.A.S., fyc. 

In bringing before the Association the present Report it will be only neces- 
sary, after referring briefly to the labours of others, to confine myself to an 
account of my personal experience ; for, although other observers have 
occasionally made experiments in Celestial Photography, there has not been 
any systematic pursuit of this branch of Astronomy in England, except in 
my Observatory, and under my immediate superintendence in the Kew 
Observatory. 



on celestial photography in england. 131 

Part 1. 
Historical Outline. 

The late Professor Bond of Cambridge, in conjunction with Messrs. 
Whipple and Black of Boston in the United States, was the first to make 
a photographic picture of any celestial body. By placing a daguerreotype 
plate in the focus of the great refractor of the Harvard Observatory, of 
15 inches aperture, he obtained a daguerreotype of our satellite. This was, 
I believe, about the year 1850, for 1 remember seeing one of these pictures 
in the Exhibition of 1851, and some were exhibited at the meeting of the 
Royal Astronomical Society in May 1851. The experiments were discon- 
tinued after a time in consequence of irregularities in the going of the 
clock-work driver, and were not resumed again till 1857, when new clock 
machinery was attached to the telescope*. 

At the latter end of 1852, I made some successful positive lunar photo- 
graphs in from ten to thirty seconds on a collodion film, by means of an 
equatorially mounted reflecting telescope of 13 inches aperture, and 10 feet 
focal length, made in my workshop, the optical portion with my own hands ; 
and I believe I was the first to use the then recently discovered collodion in 
celestial photography f. In taking these early photographs, I was assisted 
by my friend Mr. Thornthwaite, who was familiar with the employment of 
that new medium J. At that period, I had not applied any mechanical 
driving motion to the telescope, so that I was constrained to contrive some 
other means of following the moon's apparent motion ; this was accomplished 
by hand ; in the first instance, by keeping a lunar crater always on the wire 
of the finder by means of the ordinary hand-gear of the telescope, but after- 
wards by means of a sliding frame fixed in the eye-piece holder, the motion 
of the slide being adjustable to suit the apparent motion of our satellite ; the 
pictorial image of the moon could be seen through the collodion film, and could 
be rendered immoveable in relation to the collodion plate, by causing one 
of the craters to remain always in apparent contact with a broad wire 
placed in the focus of a compound microscope, affixed at the back of the 
little camera box, which held the plate. Although these photographs were 
taken under the disadvantage referred to, namely, the want of an automatic 
driving motion, excellent results were nevertheless obtained, which proved 
how perfectly the hand may be made to obey the eye. I could not take 
photographs of the moon in this way alone, but required always the aid 
of an experienced coadjutor, willing to lose the greater portion of a night's 
rest, often to be disappointed by failures resulting from the state of the 
weather, and numberless impediments sufficient to damp the ardour of the 
most enthusiastic. For some months Mr. Thornthwaite was so kind as to 
continue his valuable aid, and several good positive pictures were obtained ; 
but the difficulties we had to encounter were so great that it was at last resolved 
to discontinue the experiments until such time as a driving motion could be 
applied to the telescope. This was done early in 1857 §, since which period 
I have unremittingly followed up the subject of celestial photography when- 
ever my occupations and the state of the atmosphere have permitted me to 

* Astronomische Naclirichten, No. 1105, p. 1. 

f These pictures were exhibited in the early part of 1853 at the Royal Astronomical 
Society. 

% Mr. Archer applied the solution of gun cotton (collodion) to photography in 1851, and 
suggested pyrogallic acid for developing the latent image. 

§ Monthly Notices of the Roy. Ast. Soc, vol. xviii. p. 16. 

K 2 



132 REPORT — 1859. 

do so. With what result, the Association will have an opportunity of judging 
by the examples exhibited*. 

Professor Phillips, aided by Mr. Bates, obtained some lunar photographs 
in July 1853, and communicated the results of his experience in a valuable 
paper at the Hull meeting of the Associatibnf. Mr Hartnup of Liverpool, 
aided by Mr. J. A. Forrest, Mr. Mclnnes, Mr. Crooke, and other photo- 
graphers, took some good pictures of the moon in 1854- J ; Father Secchi, at 
Rome, and more recently Mr. Fry, in Mr. Howell's observatory at Brighton, 
and Mr. Huggins, near London, have also produced lunar pictures : these 
experiments were in all cases made with refracting telescopes, corrected for 
the visual ray. Professor Bond, in April 1857, applied the process with 
promise of a fruitful future, in measuring the distance and angle of position 
of double stars §, and also in the determination of their magnitudes ; just pre- 
vious to his decease, this new application of the art appears to have engaged 
his attention more than lunar photography. He succeeded in obtaining pic- 
tures of fixed stars down to the 6-7th magnitude. 

The Photographic Picture compared with the Optical Image. 

It will render what I shall hereafter have to say more easily understood 
if I commence by bringing under notice what happens in applying photo- 
graphy to sidereal astronomy. The optical image of a fixed star, it. will be 
remembered, is not a mathematical but an optical point, which, in conse- 
quence of the properties of light, is seen with the telescope as a very minute 
disc, surrounded by rings, which become fainter and wider apart as they 
enlarge, these rings being always more or less broken up, according to the state 
of the atmosphere. The photographic image must, therefore, be of a certain 
size, but it is after all a mere speck, difficult to find among other specks 
which are seen in the most perfect collodion film, when it is viewed with a 
magnifying power. 

For example, let it be supposed that a telescope of sufficient aperture is 
turned upon a Lyrae ; a star conveniently situated from its great meridional 
altitude for photography, and moreover sufficiently brilliant to give a nearly 
instantaneous picture : if the telescope be steadily supported at rest, the 
star will, in consequence of the earth's rotation, course along the field of the 
telescope, in a line parallel to the earth's equator, and, as it produces an 
instantaneous picture, the image obtained is a streak, representing the path 
of the star. We might be led to expect, a priori, that this line, for a short 
distance, would appear straight; but, so far from this being the case.it is broken 
up and distorted, and consists of a great number of undulating points, 
crowded in some places, and scattered in others. This distortion arises 
from the disturbances in our atmosphere which cause the star to flicker. 

In the foregoing remarks, the telescope was supposed to be at rest ; now 

* The photographs exhibited at the Aberdeen Meeting were the following : — Two original 
negatives which would bear considerable magnifying power ; two positive enlarged copies of 
other negatives, eight inches in diameter, which would bear still further enlargement with 
a lens of low power ; twelve enlarged positives of the Moon in different phases, 3^ inches 
in diameter, among which were three, showing the progress of the lunar eclipse on February 
27, 1858; enlarged positive copies of Jupiter, exhibiting his belts and satellites; lastly, a 
photograph of Saturn and the Moon taken together at the recent occultation of that planet 
just after the planet had emerged from the moon's bright limb (May 8, 1859). The last- 
named photograph was produced in 15 seconds ; — a remarkably rapid result for so faint an object 
as Saturn. The planet on this occasion was seen to be of about the same brilliancy as the 
Mare Crisium situated near the moon's western limb, with which the planet could be readily, 
compared, from its proximity to that lunar district. 

t Report of Brit. Assoc. 1853, Trans. Sect. A, p. 14. 

t Report of Brit. Assoc. 1S54, Trans. Sect. B, p. 66. 

§ Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 1105. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 133 

let it be assumed that the telescope is mounted on an axis parallel with the 
earth's axis, and provided with a driving apparatus, capable of carrying the 
telescope round in the direction of the star's apparent path so equably, that, 
if viewed with a micrometer eye-piece, the image of the star would remain 
always in contact with one of the wires of the eye-piece. The photographic 
picture of a star, obtained by a telescope under these conditions after some 
seconds' exposure, is not one single clear disc or point, but a conglomeration 
of points, extending over a greater or less area, according as the atmosphere 
has during the interval produced more or less flickering. 

If a mere speck, like a fixed star, acquires comparatively large dimensions 
on a sensitized plate in consequence of atmospheric disturbances, every 
optical point in an image of other celestial objects must, from the same 
cause, occupy a space of greater dimensions than it would if no disturbing 
influences existed. When the telescope is employed optically, the mind can 
make out the proper figure of the object, although its image dances before 
the eye several times in a second, and is able to select for remembrance 
only the states of most perfect definition ; on the other hand, a photographic 
plate registers all the disturbances. The photographic picture will conse- 
quently never be so perfect as the optical image with the same telescope, 
until we can produce photographs of celestial objects instantaneously : we are 
still a long way from this desirable end. 

Relative Advantages of Reflecting and Refracting Telescopes for Photography. 
With refracting telescopes, the photographic focus of a point of light 
occupies a larger area than with reflectors ; this is especially the case with 
Astronomical Telescopes, because they are corrected so as to produce the best 
optical image, and the outstanding chemical rays are dispersed around the 
luminous focus*. The reflecting telescope has, therefore, considerable ad- 
vantage over, the refracting telescope for celestial photography, on account 
of all rays coming to focus in the same plane ; hence, the focus having been 
adjusted for the luminous image, it is correct for the chemical image, 
and has not to be disturbed, as with a refractor. In the telescope employed 
by Professor Phillips, of 6£ inches aperture and 11 feet focal length, the 
actinic focus was found to be 075 inch beyond the visual focus ; and in the 
Liverpool Equatorial of 12| feet focal length the actinic focus was 0*8 inch 
beyond the visual focus. With my telescope the focusing is critically 
effected with the aid of a magnifier, the image being received on a piece of 
ground glass placed temporarily in the actual slide destined to contain the 
sensitized plate ; a second piece of ground glass fixed in a frame is put into 
the camera just previous to each operation, for the purpose of placing the 
telescope in position ; but the focusing is always effected in the manner de- 
scribed, for the goodness of the picture depends greatly on the accuracy of 
this adjustment. I attribute much of my success to the employment of a re- 
flector", while my fellow-labourers in the same field have used refractors. 

Actual Process employed at the Cranford Observatory. 
With the view of facilitating the labours of others desirous of entering 
the field of photography, I will now describe, with all necessary minuteness, 
the process finally adopted after many trials and failures ; I would remark 
at the same time that it is quite impossible to give such directions as will 
enable another operator to ensure perfect results, as this can only be attained 
by perseverance, long practice, and a strong determination to overcome 
obstacle after obstacle as it arises, — therefore, no one need hope For 

* Refracting telescopes can be specially corrected for the chemical focus in the same way 
as Camera lenses. 



134 report — 1859. 

even moderate success if he dabbles in celestial photography in a desultory 
manner, as with an amusement to be taken up and laid aside. 

In order to prosecute celestial photography successfully, there must be, 
in close contiguity with the telescope, a Photographic Room, abundantly 
supplied with both common and rain water. The water-taps should pro- 
ject over a sink, so as to reach about a foot from the wall. The rain 
water is conveniently kept in and filtered by an ordinary stone-ware filter. 
The photographic room may be lighted generally by means of an ordinary 
Argand reading lamp, over the shade of which hangs a lantern-like curtain 
made of two thicknesses of deep-yellow calico ; but the plate, during the 
development of the picture, must be illuminated locally by a night-light before 
which a yellow screen is placed. The photographic room should be furnished 
with a stove, burning wood or charcoal, which will keep alight for a long 
time, in order that its temperature may never fall much below 50° F. during 
the winter. 

In my earlier experiments, the positive process was invariably employed 
on account of its greater rapidity ; but so many details, visible by trans- 
mitted light in a positive, are lost when it is afterwards viewed by reflected 
light, that endeavours were made to render the negative process equally 
rapid. After many trials, I succeeded in this ; and I now never have 
recourse to the positive process, except for some special object. 

Glass used. — It is of course necessary to have the plate somewhat larger 
than the object to be taken ; the size used when the telescope is employed as 
a Newtonian is 2f inches by 3^- inches. When the pictures are taken by 
the direct method, the plates are circular, and 2f- inches in diameter. 
The outside diameter of the slide to contain the circular plate is 3^ inches, 
the exact size of the cell of the diagonal mirror, so that no more light is 
stopped out by the plate-holder than by the small mirror. 

The glass used is the " extra white patent plate," and I have it selected as 
free from specks and bubbles as possible, but nevertheless I have frequently 
to reject about one-third of those discs which are supplied to me. 

Mode of Cleaning the Plate. — The glass is cleaned in the ordinary way by 
means of tripoli powder, mixed up with three parts of spirit of wine and one 
of liquid ammonia, to the consistence of cream. For drying the plates I am 
provided with two* cloths, which, in the first instance, have been carefully 
washed with soda (avoiding the use of soap), and repeatedly rinsed in water. 
Each time after being used, these cloths are thoroughly dried, but they need 
not be washed for months together. For the final wiping of the plate a piece 
of wash-leather is employed, also carefully dried before being used. 

A piece of grit-stone, such as is used by mowers to sharpen scythes, must 
be at hand, for the purpose of grinding the edges of the glass plate and 
making scratches on the margin of the two surfaces, in order to cause the 
more perfect adherence of the collodion, 

The plate to be cleaned is placed on a sheet of cartridge paper, and rubbed 
thoroughly, first on one side, then on the other, with a piece of new cotton- 
wool moistened with the tripoli mixture, above described. It is then washed 
in a stream of water, the fingers being used, if necessary, to aid in removing 
the adhering tripoli. Holding the plate while still wet, and without touching 
the surface, one edge after the other is rubbed on the grit-stone ; the glass 
imbeds itself in the friable stone, and thus the borders of the two surfaces 
get scratched, and the edge is ground at the same time. After the four 
edges have been so ground, or, if the plate be circular, the whole periphery ■ 
has been rubbed, the hands and plate are well washed, to remove all grit, and 
the plate placed edgewise for a few seconds on a marble slab. With dry 
* It is disadvantageous to employ more cloths than are absolutely necessary. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 135 

hands, I take up the plate by the edge, being now very careful not to touch 
the surface with the hand, and wipe it, first with one cloth, then thoroughly 
dry with the second, and lastly, rub both surfaces at the same time with the 
dry wash-leather. I afterwards breathe on each side of the plate, to ascertain 
whether it is clean, wipe off the condensed moisture and place the plate in a 
grooved box, with the best surface turned to face a marked end of the box, 
so as to know on which side to pour the collodion. Proceeding in the above- 
described manner, I have never any failure attributable to a dirty plate, and can 
feel certain of obtaining four or five good pictures of the moon out of about 
seven plates generally used. I am usually, however, provided with one or two 
dozen cleaned plates, for it is desirable to have a sufficient reserve, and 
experience has proved that plates so cleaned may be used even after a week, 
if the box containing them be kept in a dry room. 

The Bath. — It is of the utmost importance that the nitrate of silver bath 
should be in the most sensitive condition ; the rapidity of the process appears 
to depend in a great measure on its not being in the slightest degree acid, 
but as nearly neutral as possible. It is almost needless to add that, for 
such a refined application of photography as that under consideration, the 
solution should be kept in glass in preference to gutta percha. The vessel 
must be carefully covered, to exclude dust, and, from time to time, the 
solution should be filtered through pure filtering paper (Swedish paper). 
The nitrate of silver used in the preparation of the bath is invariably fused 
in my own laboratory, in quantities never exceeding a drachm at one time, 
the requisite heat being gradually applied, and care being taken not to raise 
the temperature higher than is necessary to effect the fusion. 

The solution I employ is the ordinary one of thirty grains of nitrate of 
silver to the ounce of water, with a quarter of a grain of iodide of potassium. 
In the preparation of a bath, after the mixing of the nitrate of silver, dissolved 
in a small portion of the water, with the solution of iodide of potassium, it 
is customary to add the remaining chief bulk of water, which causes 
an immediate precipitation of iodide of silver, and then to filter the liquid 
after the lapse of half an hour. It is, however, advisable to agitate the 
solution from time to time, during several hours before it is filtered ; for 
unless this be done, the bath does not become thoroughly saturated with 
iodide of silver, and has a tendency for some time to dissolve a portion of 
the iodide of silver which first forms in collodion immersed in it. 

I avoid adding alcohol or acetic acid to the bath, for these substances 
impair its sensitiveness. As, after use for a certain time, the bath becomes 
charged with more or less alcohol and ether, and their products of oxidation, 
its properties become changed, and a picture cannot be taken with it with 
sufficient rapidity ; when I find this to occur, I discard the bath and make a 
fresh one. The bath, in its most sensitive state, usually exhibits a very 
feeble alkaline reaction with reddened litmus paper, and if it be found to 
have a tendency to fog, it is corrected in this way : — A single drop of pure 
nitric acid is taken on the point of a glass rod, and mixed with a drachm of 
distilled water; with this diluted acid (1 to 60) I moisten the point of the 
glass rod and stir it about well in the bath, which contains about fourteen 
fluid ounces of solution, and make a trial. If it still fogs, the acidification 
is repeated ; and thus, after several trials, the fault is corrected. It is better 
to proceed in this manner than to rely on litmus papers as a test for neu- 
trality ; the object being to retain the bath in as sensitive a state as possible, 
the test by light is the only one to be ultimately depended on. 

Moist hydrated oxide of silver may be used to bring back a bath, which 
has become acid by use, to a neutral state, and by the subsequent careful 



136 report — 1859. 

addition of dilute nitric acid it may be made to work ; but all additions of 
acetate of soda, carbonate of soda, or acetic acid, are quite inefficacious for 
correcting a bath that does not work satisfactorily. In order to obtain the 
extreme point of sensitiveness, the best plan on the whole is to make a new 
bath ; the silver being, as is well known, easily recoverable from its solutions 
and in part, by evaporation and crystallization, as nitrate. 

Collodion. — The condition of the collodion is also an all-important point, 
and it appears to be very capricious in its properties. It is preferable not 
to make the collodion oneself, but to use that prepared by makers of repute ; 
I usually employ Thomas's or Hardwich's collodion, both of which I have 
found to be very uniform in quality. 

It is desirable to sensitize frequently new batches of collodion, and to 
determine by experiment from time to time the gradual development and 
decline of their sensitiveness. 

Collodion should not be sensitized until after it has stood for, at least, a 
week after it has been purchased, and it must then be carefully poured into 
the mixing vessel without disturbing the sediment which always is present. 
It must be agitated occasionally for some hours after mixing with the sensi- 
tizer, before it is set aside to rest and deposit the new sediment which forms. 
After standing for a week, it should be carefully decanted for use, to the 
extent of three-fourths, into a perfectly clean glass vessel. 

The glass mixing vessels should invariably, previous to use a second time, 
be washed out, first with a mixture of equal parts of ether and alcohol, and 
then with water and pieces of blotting-paper, well shaken up, so as to reduce 
the paper to pulp; and finally, rinsed out with distilled water, and suspended 
in a warm place, mouth downwards, to drain and dry thoroughly. 

Iodide of cadmium appears, on the whole, to be the best sensitizer for 
collodion to be used in celestial photography : collodion, prepared with this 
salt, is not very active when first mixed ; hence it differs from collodion 
prepared with iodide of potassium and iodide of ammonium in this respect, 
but it gradually acquires a degree of sensitiveness unsurpassed, if equalled, 
by collodion rendered active with the latter salts, used either alone or mixed 
with other salts. Collodion, mixed with iodide of potassium, acquires, it is 
true, great sensitiveness soon after it is prepared, but in a few days it loses 
in this respect, is moreover continually changing, and is seldom available in 
celestial photography after standing a month or six weeks; whereas cadmium 
collodion will retain its qualities for several months. As fresh mixed collo- 
dion is certain to produce both white and dark specks in the photograph, as 
large or larger than the details visible in the picture with a magnifier, it will 
be seen that a collodion which can be kept for a long time to deposit, 
without losing in sensitiveness, must be the most valuable; moreover, in 
collodion mixed with the alkaline iodides there is always an evolution of free 
iodine which soon impairs the sensitiveness of the nitrate of silver bath by 
rendering it acid ; and for these reasons I generally give the preference to 
cadmium collodion. 

Sometimes collodion exhibits a reticulated structure after the photograph 
has dried, which materially militates against the beauty of the picture, and 
prevents its being highly magnified ; it occasionally happens that this defect 
cannot be cured, in which case the collodion should be rejected. I have 
generally found, however, that this "craping" may be obviated if the collodion 
be diluted, more or less, with a mixture of two parts of ether and one part 
of alcohol when it is being sensitized, care being taken to add as much of 
the solution of iodide in relation to the diluting liquids as would have to be 
added to an equal volume of collodion. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 137 

After using collodion for several evenings, it is well to allow it to stand 
for some days, and to decant about three-fourths into a fresh vessel. 

Before pouring the collodion on to the glass plate, the usual precaution 
of cleaning away with the fingers any dried collodion from the lip of the 
containing vessel must be attended to ; moreover, each time, just in the act 
of pouring, a few drops should be allowed to fall to waste on the floor ; by 
attention to these remarks, much vexation will be avoided. 

Exposure of the Plate in the Telescope. — On taking the plate from the 
nitrate of silver bath, it is desirable to drain it well before it is put into the 
slide, first on the edge of the bath, then on white blotting-paper, shifting its 
position two or three times, but always keeping the same point downwards. 
It must be carried to the telescope as quickly as possible, and the picture 
developed immediately after it has been removed from it. 

The sensitized plate rests on angles of pure silver, let into the square 
plate-holder, or in the circular plate-holder within a ring of pure silver, the 
face resting on three prominent places. I have found that contact with 
wood is liable to produce stains which occasionally extend across the plate 
during the development. The circular plate-holder is entirely of metal, 
and I would recommend metal holders in preference to those of wood for 
celestial photography, because they are not liable to warp and become set 
from damp when left in the observatory. The plate-holder should be wiped 
with a clean cloth after each operation, and the hands also washed each time 
before a fresh plate is taken, on which it is intended to pour collodion. 

In order to subject the sensitized plate to the action of light when the 
telescope is used as a Newtonian, I remove a very light cover, previously 
placed over the mouth of the telescope, and replace it when I wish to dis- 
continue the action ; this cover is made of black merino, stretched on a 
whalebone hoop and is provided with a handle of bamboo. In the direct 
method, I turn up or down, through an arc of 90°, a little hinged trap, 
interposed between the great mirror and the sensitive plate. This motion is 
given by means of a lever fixed on a light axis, supported by the arm which 
holds the small camera ; the axis extending beyond the edge of the telescope 
tube, and carrying a milled head by which it is turned. 

Regulation of the Time of Exposure. — A journeyman-clock, beating seconds 
distinctly, should be near the telescope, in order that the operator may be 
enabled to regulate the time of exposure, which requires great nicety with 
such sensitive chemicals as must be employed. 

The time occupied in taking lunar pictures varies considerably ; it depends 
on the sensitiveness of the chemicals, on the temperature, on the altitude of 
the moon and her phase. An almost imperceptible mist in the atmosphere 
will sometimes double the time of exposure, but, curiously enough, a bright 
fleecy cloud passing over the moon scarcely stops any of the actinic rays. 
I have recently produced an instantaneous picture of the full moon, and 
usually get strong pictures of the moon in that phase in from one to five 
seconds. The moon as a crescent, under like circumstances, would require 
about 20 to 30 seconds, in order to obtain a picture of all the parts visible 
towards the dark limb. 

Development of the Picture. — Of all the developing mixtures tried, I give 
the preference to the aceto-pyrogallic acid solution, which is generally used in 
the ordinary proportions ; namely, pyrogallic acid, three grains ; glacial acetic 
acid, one fluid drachm; distilled water,three fluid ounces; but, in cold weather, 
I sometimes reduce the quantity of acetic acid to one half, to render the 
solution more active. The developing fluid retains its properties for a week or 
more after mixing. It is desirable to pour out the requisite quantity of fluid 



138 REPORT — 1859. 

in a small vessel, and to place it in readiness, before the plate is removed from 
the bath and put into the slide, so as to prevent any delay after the plate 
has been exposed in the telescope. This precaution obviates the staining 
which arises sometimes by partial drying of the film. 

The addition of nitrate of silver to aid in bringing out the picture must 
be avoided ; pictures thus intensified will not bear any magnifying power, 
and are comparatively worthless. Hence it will be seen how all-important 
it is to have the bath and collodion in their most sensitive condition. The 
negative should not be developed too strongly, as such pictures never copy 
so well as those moderately but distinctly brought out. Such small photo- 
graphic pictures as those of Jupiter and Saturn present many obstacles to 
their development, on account of the difficulty of discerning them during 
the operation ; for the focal image of Jupiter in my telescope, even when 
the planet is in opposition, is only about -^th of an inch in diameter. 

After the development of the picture to the desired point, the further 
development is arrested by pouring a quantity of water on the plate, and a 
vessel containing water should be at hand for this purpose. 

Fixing the Picture. — By preference I use hyposulphite of soda for fixing ; 
after fixing, the plate is washed under the tap of a cistern of water for a short 
time, and then examined with a lens. If worth retaining, the epoch of the 
picture, and other particulars are recorded at the back with a writing dia- 
mond. The plate is then washed again, front and back, in a stream of water, 
and placed face upwards on a tripod stand, duly levelled ; rain-water* is 
poured on the collodion, and from time to time this is poured off and fresh 
poured on, in the meantime other photographs are proceeded with. After 
half an hour or more, the plate is thoroughly washed in a stream of rain- 
water, and placed edgewise on blotting-paper against the wall, to drain and 
dry. 

Varnishing. — The next morning, the negatives are warmed before a fire, 
and varnished with Scehnee's varnish f, which is the only description I have 
found to stand. I am careful to filter the varnish before using; otherwise 
specks might be transferred to the photograph. It is very desirable to var- 
nish the plates as soon as they are dry, for, if left unvarnished for any 
length of time, they can never be varnished evenly. 

Desiderata in the Machinery for driving the Telescope. 

As in the production of celestial photographs some seconds of exposure 
are requisite, it is essential to have a clock-work driver to the telescope, 
which works uniformly and smoothly, and which is also capable, when lunar 
pictures are to be taken, of ready adjustment to the ever-varying lunar time. 
Lunar time, it will be recollected, differs from sidereal time, in consequence 
of the moon's variable motion in her orbit in a direction opposite to that of 
the apparent diurnal movement of the stars. A driving clock, if adjusted 
to follow a star, must be retarded therefore, more or less, in order to follow 
the moon. In my own telescope, this is at present effected by altering the 
length of the conical pendulum or friction governor, thus altering the time 
of its rotation (or double beat), and this plan, or some modification of it, is 
universal. My experience, however, has pointed out several inconveniences 
in thus changing the speed of the governor or pendulum, and it is my intention 
to make such alterations in the construction of the clock as will enable me 

* In preparing the bath and developing solutions, distilled water must be employed, 
but filtered rain-water answers very well for washing the photographs. 
f Sold by Messrs. Gaudin, 26 Skinner Street, London. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 139 

to alter the going of the telescope without changing the rate of the pendulum. 
This I propose to do by substituting an arrangement, similar to that known 
in mechanism as the disc and plate, for the wheel-work now connecting the 
machinery of the clock with the pendulum ; the disc and plate being capable 
of producing a variable motion, according as the disc is nearer to or farther 
from the centre of the plate. The pendulum will, by the proposed plan, be 
driven by frictional contact, and, having employed this system in other 
machinery, I feel persuaded that its application to the clock-driver will not 
be attended with difficulty or inconvenience. 

The moon, besides her motion in right ascension, has also a motion in 
declination, which is greatest when she is situated in one of the nodes formed 
by the intersection of the plane of the moon's orbit and the plane of the 
earth's equator, and is least when situated 90° from these nodes, where it 
vanishes. As this motion is at times very considerable, it is evident that, 
with a telescope made only to rotate round the polar axis, the best results 
will be obtained, all other circumstances being alike, when the motion in 
declination is at zero. Assuming that, on the average, 15 seconds are 
necessary for taking a lunar photograph, the moon may have shifted upwards of 
4" of arc in declination during that period ; and evidently many details would 
be lost and the others considerably distorted. In order to ensure the most 
perfect results under all circumstances, it is desirable to give a movement to 
the declination axis of the telescope simultaneously with the movement of 
the polar axis. Hitherto, so far as I am aware, no means have been devised 
to effect this, but the requisite adjustable motion might be transmitted by 
means of the disc and plate above described, from the driving-clock, although 
its pendulum moves with a uniform velocity. 

Lord Rosses Method. — In my original method of taking the pictures by 
means of the sliding eye-piece before spoken of, both motions in right 
ascension and declination were provided for by adjusting the slide in the 
diagonal parallel with the moon's apparent path. Lord Rosse, at a subse- 
quent period, applied a clock-movement to such a slide, and made some 
experiments in celestial photography*; but, the telescope being required for 
other special purposes, it appears that they were not long continued. This 
motion of the plate-holder does not meet all the exigencies of the case, but 
if one of his magnificent reflectors were arranged to move bodily along a 
guide adjustable in the direction of the moon's path, by means of some such 
mechanism as I have alluded to, I believe that lunar pictures might be 
produced of exquisite beauty, because defects in the collodion film and the 
glass plate would be of less consequence than with telescopes of shorter 
focal length, the image being larger in the ratio of focal length ; for example, 
even with the three-foot instrument it would be 3 inches in diameter. 

Degree of Perfection hitherto attained in Lunar Photography. 

In my own telescope, the picture of the moon is only about l-pjin. in dia- 
meter ; it might be suggested that the image could be enlarged by means of 
a combination of lenses before reaching the sensitized plate, but this would 
have the effect of prolonging the time of exposure, and moreover introduce 
the disadvantages of the refracting telescope, and the result would not be so 
good, for even if the moon's motion in declination were followed automa- 
tically, still the outstanding atmospheric disturbances before alluded to would 
remainf. Indeed, if the aperture of the telescope could be considerably 
increased in relation to its focal length, much finer pictures would be 
procured, because the time of exposure would be shortened. In practice it 

* Monthly Notices of the Roy. Ast. Soc. vol. xiv. p. 199. 
t Ibid. vol. xviii. p. 1 7. 



140 REPORT — 1859. 

has been found preferable not to magnify the focal image, but to take enlarged 
positive copies on glass direct from the original negative, by means of an 
enlarging camera, and in this way the impressions, 8 inches in diameter, 
exhibited at the Meeting were produced. 

In making positive copies, some of the more minute details are, unfortu- 
nately, always lost, for no means exist by which enlarged positive copies can 
be produced showing all the treasures of the original negative ; a perfect 
enlarging lens being still a desideratum*. As an instance may be cited the 
streak in the lunar disc, which Mr. James Nasmyth has called " the railroad," 
indicated in Beer and Madler's map as a straight line to the east of the 
crater Thebit between latitude 19° and 23° south, and between longitude 7° 
and 9° east. In the photograph it is shown to be a crack in the lunar crust 
with an irregular outline, and the eastern edge is perceived to be depressed 
below the western, which forms a perpendicular clitf. This, although sharply 
denned in the negative, is frequently lost in positive copies. For the exami- 
nation and micrometrical measurement of the minuter details which celestial 
photography is capable of furnishing, recourse must still be had to the 
original negative. 

Notwithstanding the disturbances which arise from the atmosphere, minute 
irregularities in the driving-clock, and the want of means for following the 
moon's motion in declination, I have obtained pictures of the moon that bear 
examination with the three-inch object-glass of a compound microscope 
magnifying about 16| times, and which show with good definition details 
occupying a space less than two seconds in each dimension. Two seconds 
are equal to about g-g- th of an inch on the collodion plate in the focus of 
my telescope, and in the finest photographs, details occupying less than yoVo tn 
of an inch are discernible with the three-inch object-glass ; hence much 
valuable work has already been accomplished. A second on the lunar sur- 
face at the moon's mean distance being about one mile (1'149 mile), it will 
be evident that, selenological disturbances, extending over two or three miles, 
would not escape detection, if such occur, provided photographs continue to 
be taken for a sufficiently long period. 

Lunar Phenomena recorded by Photography. 

Full Moon. — Variations of apparent Diameter. — By the delineation of our 
satellite, photography brings out palpably several phenomena which, although 




well known, are not always present to the mind ; for example, about every 
29 days it is stated that there is a full moon, but we see by the photographic 
picture that there never is a full moon visible to us, except just before or just 

* Mav 1860. — As these sheets are passing through the press, the author has been in- 
formed by Mr. Dallmeyer (son-in-law of the late Mr. Andrew Ross) that he has brought 
his investigations on this subject to a successful termination, and that he has just produced 
enlarging and diminishing lenses which copy without any sensible distortion or dispersion. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 141 

after a lunar eclipse, or at all events except when the sun, earth, and moon 
are very nearly in the same plane ; at all other periods of the full moon we 
are unfavourably situated for seeing the whole of the illuminated hemisphere. 
Moreover, the different apparent diameter of the moon at various times, 
dependent on her distance from the earth, comes out in unmistakeable pro- 
minence in a collection of photographs ; for the pictures taken with my reflector 
vary in diameter from one inch to one inch and nearly two-tenths (1-0053 
inch to 1-1718 inch, being at the moon's mean distance 1*0137 inch). 

When positive enlarged copies are made, it is easy to obtain all the 
pictures of exactly the same dimensions by the adjustment of the distance 
of the negative to be copied from the lens of the camera ; and my enlarging 
camera is furnished with screws to facilitate the adjustment of the distance 
of the object to be copied, and also that of the focusing screen. 

Libration. — We are familiar with the terms " diurnal libration," and 
libration in " latitude " and " longitude," yet it is difficult to realize the 
great amount of disturbance in the aspect of the moon's disc, and the 
direction of the displacement from the mean position which these several 
.causes produce unless aided by photography, when we see them palpably 
before us. • 

The diurnal or parallactic libration never exceeds 1 VS ; the direction 
of the displacement in the markings on the lunar disc which it produces is 
variable, and is dependent partly on the position of the observer. 

The poles of the moon at the epoch of Mean Libration are situated in the 
periphery, and the equator and all parallels of latitude are straight lines ; 
the circles of longitude being more or less open ellipses, varying from a 
straight line in the centre to a circle at the periphery. This occurs when 
our satellite is either in perigee or apogee (when the libration in longitude 
is at a minimum), and she is also situated in one of the nodes of her orbit 
(when the libration in latitude vanishes) : the nodes, apsides, and moon 
would, under these circumstances, be in the same line. 




Libration in Longitude merely causes a change of place in the various 
circles of longitude, which still continue to be more or less open ellipses; 
the parallels of latitude straight lines. 

Those lunar craters, however, situated on the central meridian at the 
epoch of mean libration would be on a straight line, but, at the periods of 
maximum eastern or western libration, they would be seen arranged on a 
semi-ellipse, whose conjugate diameter is 0*1377, the moon's diameter being 
unity. Therefore a point at the centre of the moon's equator becomes 
shifted by the sum of the librations to the east and to the west to the extent 



142 REPORT — 1859. 

of more than |th of the moon's diameter, namely 0-0688 to the east, and the 
same quantity to the west of the mean position. On account of perspective, 
the effect of libration in longitude is much less apparent on the eastern and 
western peripheral meridians, which shift towards the centre by a quantity 
equal only to g4^th of the moon's diameter (0'004.8). 




The equator and its parallels, which at the period of mean Libration in 
Latitude were straight lines, become more or less open ellipses under other 
circumstances; the ratio between the conjugate and transverse axes of all 
the parallels being constant for a given inclination of the lunar axis. At 
a maximum libration in latitude the equator becomes an ellipse, whose con- 
jugate axis is 0* 1 1 8 1 ; the transverse axis being equal to the diameter of the 
moon considered as unity : so that a point in the centre of the equator is 
shifted 0*059 of the diameter to the north or to the south by a maximum 
northern or southern libration, and will move by the sum of these librations 
to an apparent extent of ^th of the diameter of the lunar disc. The apparent 
motion of the north and south poles towards the centre is on account of 
perspective only yf^th of the diameter (0-0035). 




Libration in latitude also causes a change in the ellipses which delineate 
the meridians, causing an inclination of their axes to the line joining the 
poles, and also a change in the ratios of their transverse to their conjugate 
axes. For example, the meridian distant 7° 55' from the centre (this being 
the position of central meridian at a maximum libration in longitude) would 
have its transverse axis inclined 0° 56'*3 to the pole, the conjugate axis being 
no longer O'l 377 but 0-1368 of the transverse. The peripheral meridians 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 



143 



would no longer be semi-circles, but semi-ellipses, whose conjugate diameter 
is equal to 0-9965, and whose transverse diameter is inclined 90° to the pole. 




Stereoscopic Pictures of the Moon. — Taking advantage of the libration, we 
may, by combining two views taken at sufficiently distant periods, produce 
stereoscopic pictures which present to the eyes the moon as a sphere. It 
has been remarked by the Astronomer Royal, that such a result is an experi- 
mental proof of the rotundity of our satellite. A dispute has been going on 
between photographers as to the proper angle for taking terrestrial stereo- 
scopic pictures, and I infer that one side of the disputants would consider my 
arrangement of moon-pictures to produce stereographs unnatural, because 
under no circumstances could the moon itself be so seen by human eyes ; 
but, to use Sir John Herschel's words, the view is such as would be seen by 
a giant with eyes thousands of miles apart : after all, the stereoscope affords 
such a view as we should get if we possessed a perfect model of the moon 
and placed it at a suitable distance from the eyes, and we may be well 
satisfied to possess such means of extending our knowledge respecting the 
moon, by thus availing ourselves of the giant eyes of science. 

It does not follow as a matter of course that any two pictures of the moon 
taken under different conditions of libration will make a true stereoscopic 
picture ; so far from this being the case, a most distorted image would result, 
unless attention be paid first to the selection of the lunar pictures, and then 
to their position on the stereoscopic slide. It is possible to determine before- 
hand, by calculation, the epochs at which the two photographs must be taken 
in order to produce a stereoscopic picture ; but so many circumstances stand 
in the way of celestial photography, that the better course is to take the 
lunar photographs on every favourable occasion, and afterwards to group 
such pictures as are known to be suitable. 

A little consideration of what has been before stated will show that two 
lunar pictures, differing only by libration, either in longitude or in latitude, 
will give a true stereoscopic effect, provided the angular shifting is suffi- 
ciently great. 

On the other hand, if the two pictures differ both by libration in latitude 
and in longitude, they will give a true stereoscopic picture provided they 
satisfy the following condition. Suppose a point in the centre of the equator, 
when the moon is in a mean state of libration, has become shifted at the 
epoch of picture A in any given direction, and let an imaginary line pass 
through that point and the centre of the lunar disc, if at the epoch of picture 
B the point lies anywhere in the direction of that line, then a true stereo- 
graph will be obtained, provided the two pictures be suitably placed in the 
stereoscope. 



144 



REPORT — 1859. 




Assuming the space betweeu the eyes to be 2| inches, and the nearest 
distance for distinct vision to be about 10 inches, we find 15° 48' as the 
maximum stereoscopic angle. The possible shifting of the position of an 
object on the lunar disc from east to west by libration in longitude may 
amount to 15° 50', which is almost identical with the assumed maximum 
stereoscopic angle, and the displacement from north to south, by libration in 
latitude, never exceeds 13° 34', which falls within that angle. By the joint 




effect of a maximum libration in longitude and latitude, a point on the lunar 
surface may, however, be shifted nearly 21°, which is greater than that under 
which an object could be viewed by the eyes. 

* The centres of these diagrams should he 2f inches distant to give a stereoscopic picture. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 



145 



An exaggerated protuberance of the central portion of the moon might 
result from the combination of two pictures obtained, at two epochs of 
maxima, in directions diagonally opposite, and the moon would appear some- 
what egg-shaped. We may convince ourselves that this would be the case, 
by viewing, in the stereoscope, two suitably drawn orthographic projections 
of the lines of longitude and latitude of the sphere, especially if we purposely 
exaggerate the angle still more ; for example, if we make the libration in 
latitude the double of what it is in reality. 





At the meeting at Leeds last year, there were exhibited some of my stereo- 
scopic lunar pictures 8 inches in diameter, and an apparatus constructed 
expressly for viewing them. The instrument is of similar construction to 
Wheatstone's reflecting stereoscope ; but, the objects being transparent, the 
usual arrangements and adjustments are considerably modified. Prisms with 
slight curvatures worked on their surfaces are employed, instead of mirrors, 
for combining the pictures which can be revolved and moved horizontally 
and vertically in order to place them in the true position. The effect of 
rotundity is perfect over the whole surface ; and parts which appear like 
plane surfaces in a single photograph, in the stereoscope, present the most re- 
markable undulations and irregularities. 

Light and Shade in the Photograph as compared with that of the Optical 
Image. — Portions of the moon, equally bright optically, are by no means 
equally bright chemically ; hence the light and shade in the photograph do 
not correspond in all cases with the light and shade in the optical picture. 
Photography thus frequently renders details visible which escape observa- 
tion optically, and it therefore holds out a promise of a fertile future in sele- 
nological researches ; for instance, strata of different composition evidently 
reflect the chemical rays to a greater or less extent according to their nature, 
and may be thus distinguished f. The lunar surface very near the dark limb 
ia copied photographically with great difficulty, and it sometimes requires an 
exposure five or six times as long, to bring out completely those portions 
illuminated by a very oblique ray, as others, apparently not brighter, but 
more favourably illuminated : — the high ground in the Southern hemisphere 
of the moon is more easily copied than the low ground, usually called seas, 
which abound in the Northern hemisphere: from these circumstances I 
ventured, in another placej, to suggest that the moon may have an atmo- 

* These diagrams should be 2| inches from centre to centre to give a stereoscopic 
picture. 

t Professor Phillips has also noticed this difference between the visual and actinic 
brightness of portions of the lunar surface. Report of the Brit. Ass., 1853, Section A. p. 16. 

J Monthly Notices Roy. Ast. Soc. vol. xviii. pp. 18 and 111. 
1859. L 



146 REPORT— 1859. 

sphere of great density, but of very small extent, and that the so-called seas 
mi°"ht be covered with vegetation. This idea respecting a lunar atmosphere 
has, I am inclined to believe, received some confirmation from a recent 
observation of Father Secchi's, that the lunar surface polarizes light most 
in the great lowlands and in the bottoms of the craters, and not appreciably 
on the summits of the mountains. 

Radiating Lines in the Moon's Disc. — The mountain peak in the centre 
of Tycho, about one mile in height, is very distinct in the photographs, 
and under favourable circumstances the details in the interior of the crater 
are well shown. The external slopes under all illuminations are darker in the 
photograph than the internal walls and the bottom of the crater. Tycho 
would appear to have been the focus of a wonderful disturbing force which 
broke up the moon's crust nearly over the whole visible surface, for radiating 
lines converge in that conspicuous volcano, like so many circles of longitude, 
and cannot fail to attract attention. Several theories have been suggested to 
account for these radiating lines ; by studying a series of photographs taken 
under different conditions of illumination one becomes convinced that they 
are due to furrows in the lunar surface*. They are in some cases overlaid 
by craters which must have been formed at a subsequent period ; and in 
other cases the furrow has dislocated the crater, which must therefore 
have previously existed. 

One very remarkable Furrow fully fifty miles broad, extending from Tycho 
over 45° of latitude in a north-easterly direction, is the deepest on the lunar 
surface. The eastern ridge of this furrow skirts Mount Heinsius, and the 
western ridge extends to Balliald and Euclides, where the furrow becomes 
very shallow, but is traceable as far as Kepler. 

Another conspicuous furrow runs from Tycho in a north-westerly direc- 
tion nearly up to the northern limb of the moon, and extends over 100° of 
latitude, passing through Menelaus and Bessel in the Mare Serenitatis through 
a crater (marked E in Beer and Madler's map) at the head of a pro- 
montory running into the Lacus Somniorum, when it is crossed by another 
furrow extending tangentially to the Apennines. The intersection of these 
streaks resembles the letter X, and indicates another focus of disturbance 
near the crater E in north latitude 35° and west longitude 24°. The main 
furrow from Tycho continues on through the crater Plana, leaving Burg 
untouched on the east, and terminates to the south of Strabo in north lati- 
tude 60° and west longitude 45°. 

A furrow best seen about the full moon or a little after, extends from 
Tycho, though not quite continuously, through the Mare Nectares, traver- 
sing the crater A on the west of the crater Theophilus ; sweeping in a curve 
eastward, it leaves Tarantius on the west, and crosses the bright craler 
Proclus, forming an eastern tangent to Berzelius. Leaving Endymion 
to the south-east, it forms the southern boundary of the Mare Humboldti- 
anum in north latitude 70° and west longitude 90°, having traversed 110 
degrees of latitude. 

A remarkable focus of dislocation exists in the Mare Fcecunditatis in lati- 
tude 16° south and longitude 50° west, which also, by the crossing of the 
lines of disturbance, looks like another letter X in the photograph. 

The radiating lines of dislocation are so numerous that it would be 
impossible, within reasonable limits, to describe any but the principal ones ; 
I should state, however, that they must not be confounded with the sinuous 
lines which radiate from Copernicus and other lunar craters, and which are 
markedly different in character and origin. 

* Monthly Notices Roy. Ast. ?oc. vol. xviii. p.lll. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 147 

Value of Photograph/ in the Production of Selenographical Charts. 

Pictures of Copernicus may be cited as an example of the aid photography 
would afford in mapping the lunar surface : this becomes especially apparent 
when an original negative is examined with a compound microscope. The 
details brought out in and around this crater in a fine negative by a three-inch 
object-glass are quite overwhelming from their number and variety. Not only 
the elaborate network of sinuous radiating lines on the exterior of Copernicus, 
but also the terraces in the internal walls of that wonderful volcano, the double 
central cone, the curvature of the sole of the crater, and its polygonal form, 
all appear in vigorous outline. 

Again, photographs of the Apennine ridge, under different illuminations, 
are among the most beautiful of the results of the application of the art to 
selenography ; it renders conspicuously evident many details of tint and form 
in that extensive ridge, which would escape the most careful scrutiny of the 
visual picture unless attention was previously directed to them by the pho- 
tograph. Unaided by photography, it would indeed be almost hopeless to 
attempt a correct representation of that wonderful chain of mountains, affected 
as its form is, on account of its vast extent, by libration, and also on account 
of the changes in the shadows occasioned by the varying direction of the 
illumination. Aided by my collection of pictures, I hope to be able to acquit 
myself in a creditable manner of the trust I have accepted, and to contribute 
that quota of the lunar surface allotted to me by the British Association. 

If, at a future period, the entire lunar surface is to be again mapped down, 
photography must play an all-important part, for, as Messrs. Beer and Madler 
remarked in their invaluable work on the moon, it is quite impossible to com- 
plete even a tolerably satisfactory representation of our satellite in those rare 
and short moments when the mean libration occurs. One is therefore obliged 
to observe the moon under many different conditions of libration, and to 
reduce each measurement and sketch to the mean before the mapping can 
be proceeded with ; for not only the position, but also the shape of the 
objects is altered by libration even from one evening to another. On the 
other hand, with photography at command, we may obtain in a few seconds 
pictures of the moon at the epochs of mean libration, and accumulate as 
readily a great number of records at other times. The latter would furnish, 
after reduction to the mean, a vast number of normal positions with which 
the more minute details to be seen with the telescope might be combined. 

By means of a microscope, with a camera-lucida prism fixed on the eye- 
piece, enlarged drawings are readily made of different dimensions by varying 
the magnifying power and the distance of the paper from the eye-piece ; with 
a normal magnifying power of seventeen times linear, drawings of lunar 
craters can be conveniently made of the exact scale used by Beer and Madler 
for the large edition of their maps, by simply placing the drawing paper at 
the proper distance. These drawings may then be rendered more complete 
from time to time by filling in the minuter details by actual observation, 
and in this way materials accumulated for a selenographical chart such as 
even the skill and perseverance of a Madler could not hope to accomplish. 

Photography of the Planets. 

Occasionally I take photographs of the fixed stars, and among others have 
made pictures of the double star Castor, but, as a general rule, I leave the 
fixed stars under the able custody of the Harvard Observatory, Cambridge, 
U.S., and devote my attention chiefly to the moon, making, however, from 

l2 



148 REPORT — 1859. 

time to time, photographs of the planets under the rare circumstance of a 
quiescent state of the atmosphere. 

In photographing the planets, it is sometimes advantageous to take several 
pictures on the same plate; this can be conveniently done with my tele- 
scope, because the driving clock is connected with the telescope by means of 
a peculiar spring clutch formed of two face-ratchet-wheels. When one 
picture has been taken, the image is shut off, and the ratchet disconnected, 
so that the telescope remains at rest, the clock continuing to go. During 
the interval of rest, which interval is conveniently regulated by the passage 
of a certain number of teeth of the moving half of the clutch, the planet will 
have moved through a short distance in its diurnal arc; and when the clock has 
been again thrown into gear, the image will fall on another part of the plate. 
In this way, four or five images of a planet, for example Jupiter, may be 
obtained in a very short time. These images are arranged at equal distances 
along an arc of right ascension, and afford a ready means of determining 
the angle of position of the belts, &c, as was proposed by the late Professor 
Bond with respect to the angle of position of double stars. 

Relation of Actinic Poioer to Luminosity. — I have alluded before to the 
difference in the optical and photographic picture of the moon ; another very 
remarkable result of photography is the great difference which has been 
proved to exist in the relation of actinic power to luminosity of the various 
celestial objects. For example, the occultation of Jupiter by the moon, on 
November 8th, 1856, afforded an excellent opportunity for comparing the 
relative brightness of our satellite and that planet. On that occasion, Jupiter 
appeared of a pale greenish tinge, not brighter than the crater Plato, and, 
according to my estimate, of about one-third the general brilliancy of the 
moon ; but the actinic power of Jupiter's light was subsequently found to 
be equal to fully four-sixths or five-sixths of that of the moon*. 

Saturn required twelve times as long as Jupiter to produce a photograph 
of equal intensity on an occasion specially favourable for making the experi- 
ment; yet I obtained a picture of Saturn together with that of the moon in 
15 seconds on May the 8th of the present year, just as the planet emerged 
from behind the moon's disc. The picture of the planet, although faint, is 
sufficiently distinct to bear enlarging. 

With two pictures of the moon and a planet (or a bright fixed star) taken 
at a short interval at the period of an occultation, or near approach of a 
planet or star by the moon, we may obtain a stereoscopic picture which 
would make the moon (seen, of course, as a flat disc) appear nearer than 
the planet or star. 

Stereoscopic Pictures of the larger Planets. — Photographs of the planet 
Jupiter, although far inferior hitherto to the optical image seen with an eye- 
piece, show the configuration of the belts sufficiently well to afford us the 
means of producing stereoscopic pictures; all that is necessary is to allow 
an interval to elapse between the taking of the two pictures, so as to profit 
by the rotation of that planet on its axis. In the space of 26 minutes the 
planet will have rotated through the 15° 48' necessary to produce the 
greatest stereoscopic effect. 

Mars would, in 69 minutes, have rotated through the same angle, and, as 
his markings are veryt distinct, we may hope to obtain stereoscopic views of 
that planet. 

The markings on the other planets are too faint to hold out a promise of- 
similar results. Although this is the case with respect to Saturn, the ap- 

* Monthly Notices Roy. Ast. Soc. vol. xviii. p. 55. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 149 

parent opening and closing of his ring as lie revolves round his orbit affords us 
the means of obtaining a stereoscopic picture. Thus photographic reductions 
of the two original drawings which 1 made in November 1852 and March 
1856 placed in the stereoscope (in such a manner that the major axes of the 
rings'are at right angles to the line joining the eyes) give a picture in which 
the planet appears as a spheroid encircled by his system of rings, although 
the difference of position of the two pictures amounts only to 7°. And there 
is no reason why we may not obtain a stereoscopic picture composed of 
photographs taken actually from the planet. 

Loss of the Actinic Rays by Reflection. 

Until very lately, my celestial photographs were obtained by placing the 
sensitized plate at the side of the tube, opposite to the diagonal reflector of 
the Newtonian telescope ; hence the light, before it reached the plate, was 
twice reflected. As it requires a very firm support for the diagonal specu- 
lum, of even a 13-inch mirror, to prevent vibration, the arm carrying this 
mirror was firmly screwed to the side of the telescope-tube, and rendered im- 
moveable ; I could not therefore make experiments intakingthe pictures direct, 
that is to say, with the light only once reflected, without some alteration to 
the diagonal holder. I have, however, within the last few months, contrived 
an apparatus which permits of the ready removal and replacement of the 
diagonal mirror without impairing its stability, and celestial pictures are now 
taken at will, either direct or reflected out at the side of the tube ; more- 
over it requires but a minute to change the apparatus to produce either 
result. With these means, I am able to make experiments to determine the 
relative actinic intensity of the light after one or two reflections. The ex- 
periments are still in progress, and have been begun so recently, that it is 
scarcely advisable to hazard a conjecture as to the result ; but I may say 
that I am disappointed as to the increased rapidity of the production of 
a celestial picture by the direct method over the twice-reflection method ; 
and I am inclined to infer that Steinheil's result as to the loss by reflection 
from speculum metal of the luminous ray does not hold as regards the 
actinic ray. 

In concluding the first part of this report, I would remark that to photo- 
graph the moon continuously is a laborious undertaking, and affords full 
occupation for one observer, who must not fail to pay unremitting attention 
to the condition of the various chemicals employed, so as to be always pre- 
pared for a fine night with such as will work. 1 would therefore strongly 
urge the claims of this new branch of astronomical science to a more ex- 
tended cultivation than it has hitherto received, with the conviction that it 
will require the ardent co-operation of many astronomers to develope lully 
its rich resources. 

Part II. — Photoheliography at the Kew Observatory. 

The Photoheliograph erected at the suggestion of Sir John Herschel* 
at the Kew Observatory has already been described in the Reports of the 
Kew Committee, 1856-57t and 1858t. and in the Report for the present 
year. 

It will not, however, be out of place to give some account of the instru- 
ment as at present actually in use, for, whilst part of the apparatus originally 

* Report Brit. Assoc. 1851, p. xxxiv. t Id. 1857, p. xxxiv. * Id. 1858, p. xxxiv, 



150 REPORT — 1859. 

provided has been found unnecessary, it has been deemed desirable to make 
some additions to the instrument from time to time. 

The object-glass of the photoheliograph, it will be remembered, is of 3^ 
inches clear aperture and 50 inches focal length, but the whole aperture is 
never used ; it is always diminished more or less, and generally to about 
2 inches, by a stop placed in front of the object-glass. The focal image of 
the sun at the mean distance is 0"466 inch. The focal image is not, how- 
ever, received directly on the sensitive plate, as in the case of taking lunar 
and planetary photographs, but is enlarged before it reaches it by means of 
a secondary combination of lenses (an ordinary Huyghenian eye-piece), which 
increases the picture to about 4 inches in diameter, thus magnifying the image 
about eight times linear, and diminishing the intensity of the light 64? times. 

The object-glass (made by the late Mr. Ross) is specially corrected to en- 
sure the coincidence of the visual and chemical foci ; but, as might be anti- 
cipated, the rays, after passing through the secondary lens, are in some degree 
dispersed, and this coincidence of foci no longer exists. It required some 
considerable time to determine exactly the position of the actinic focus ; 
ultimately it was proved, after numerous trials, that the best photographic 
definition is obtained when the sensitized plate is placed from -j^th to -^th of 
an inch beyond the visual focus, and that this adjustment must be modified 
to a slight extent according as more or less of the aperture of the object-glass 
is employed. 

Difficulties of Photoheliography. — Whilst in lunar and stellar photography 
many of the obstacles to be overcome arose from the deficiency of photo- 
graphic power in the unenlarged focal images of those celestial objects, the 
difficulties which have stood in the way of producing good sun-pictures arose 
in a great degree from the incomparably greater brilliancy in the sun's image, 
even when its intensity was considerably lessened by stopping off a large por- 
tion of the object-glass, and magnifying the diameter of the image very 
greatly. In order to overcome these obstacles, recourse was had at an early 
period to the less sensitive media than wet collodion, such, for example, as are 
used in the albumen and the dry collodion processes. None of these attempts 
were, however, productive of sufficiently promising results to encourage the 
pursuit of the trials in this direction, and I may mention that I made simul- 
taneous experiments in taking unenlarged pictures in the focus of my reflector, 
on dry collodion and albumen, with no better result. The surfaces in these 
processes are indeed very rarely sufficiently free from impurities for the deli- 
neation of such minute objects as solar spots, and the processes themselves 
present disadvantages which render them inapplicable to photoheliography. 

After many unsuccessful trials a return was at last made to the collodion 
process. Former experience having shown that the shortest exposure possible 
with the means then at command produced only a solarized image, in which 
all trace of the sun-spots was obliterated, recourse was had to the interposi- 
tion of yellow glass between the principal and secondary object-glasses, with 
the view of diminishing the actinic intensity of the sun's image; nevertheless 
only burnt-up pictures were produced. 

Instantaneous Apparatus. — It will be evident, therefore, that, for the suc- 
cessful employment of a medium so sensitive as wet collodion, it was absolutely 
necessary to contrive some means for reducing the time of its exposure to the 
sun's influence to an extremely small fraction of a second. Any apparatus 
placed in front of the object-glass, it was conceived, would have the disadvan- 
tage of cutting off the aperture by successive non-symmetrical portions, and 
of producing an image less perfect than when the exposed portion of the ob- 
ject-glass remained always concentric and circular. On the other hand, it was 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 151 

seen that a slide with a rectangular opening, if caused to move across the tube 
in front of the sensitized plate, would in no way distort the picture, but would 
merely stop off a portion of it, and have the effect, as it moved along, of allow- 
ino- each part of the sun's image to act in succession on different parts of the 
collodion, and there to record itself; but a rapidly moving object close to the 
collodion-plate is so liable to cause a disturbance of dust, and its consequent 
lodgement on the collodion-film, that the carrying out of the idea in this 
manner was given up. 

The late much-lamented Director of the Observatory, Mr. Welsh, suggested 
the plan which was ultimately adopted with success; instead of placing the 
sliding apparatus close to the collodion-plate, he proposed that it should be 
made & on a smaller scale and fixed as near the plane of the primary focus as 
possible. Mr. Beckley has skilfully carried out this suggestion ; so that the 
apparatus answers its intended object most perfectly, and the production of 
a solar picture is now at least as easy as that of a lunar picture. The sliding 
plate is very liaht, and moves so freely,that it does not, while in motion, disturb 
the telescope m the slightest degree ; it is drawn downwards by means of a 
sprint of vulcanized caoutchouc, and as soon as it is released it shoots with 
great°rapidity across the field. The sliding plate has two apertures, one cir- 
cular, and sufficiently large to permit of the passing of all the rays ; this is 
used for the purpose of focusing on the screen, and also in observing con- 
tacts of the sun's limb with the wires to be hereafter described. The second 
aperture is square, and is fitted with a sliding piece actuated by a screw, 
which projects beyond the telescope tube ; by means of this screw the aper- 
ture may be completely closed or readily reduced to a slit of any required 
width, equal to or smaller than the side of the square opening, a divided scale 
being affixed to the screw for that purpose. - 

Previous to taking a picture the sliding plate is drawn up just so high that an 
unperforated part of it completely shuts off the sun's image ; the plate is held 
in this position by means of a small thread attached to it at one end, and 
looped at the other, the loop being passed over a hook on the top of the tube. 
When the picture is about to be taken, the retaining thread is set on fire, and 
the rectangular aperture, as soon as the sliding plate becomes released, flashes 
across the axis of the secondary object-glass, thus allowing the different parts 
of the sun's image to pass through it in succession, and to depict themselves, 
after enlargement, successively on the collodion-plate. Although the time of 
exposure is so short as to be scarcely appreciable, yet it is necessary to regu- 
late its duration ; and it is therefore controlled by adjusting, 1st, the strength 
of the vulcanized caoutchouc spring; 2nd, the width of the aperture. In 
practice, the opening is usually varied between T yh and ^th of the dia- 
meter of the sun's focal image. 

No driving Machinery needed, except at the period oj a Jotal Eclipse— 
It will be seen from the foregoing description that the clock-work driving 
apparatus, described at page xxxv. of the reports for 1857, can be of no ser- 
vice, because the photograph is taken in so small a fraction of time that no 
appreciable distortion of the sun's image would result in the interval by allow- 
ing the telescope to remain at rest. So rapid is the delineation of the sun s 
image, that fragments of the limb, optically detached by the « boil of our 
atmosphere, are frequently depicted on the collodion, completely separated 
from the remainder of the sun's disc ; more frequently stdl from the same 
cause the contour of the sun presents an undulating line. 

Although the clock-work driver is unnecessary for the daily work of the 
nhotoheliogiaph, it may prove of great value on the rare occasions of a total 
solar eclipse. It is to be hoped that it will enable the contemplated expedi- 



152 REPORT— 1859. 

tion to Spain, in July of next year, to obtain a photographic record of the 
feeble light of the Corona and the Red Flames ; but it is by no means certain 
that their light will be sufficiently intense for that object. Even a failure, 
however, will prove of some value, for it will show that the image of these 
phenomena, when enfeebled by an enlargement of eight times linear, possesses 
too little actinic power to imprint their outline on a collodion-plate in a given 
number of seconds; and thus data will be furnished for a future period. 

It is desirable that other astronomers should endeavour to obtain photo- 
graphs of these data by placing the sensitized plate directly in the focus of 
the telescope. 

In taking photographs with the Kew Photoheliograph, the telescope, 
clamped in declination, is placed a little in advance of the sun, and then 
clamped in right ascension ; the thread is set on fire as soon as the centre of 
the sun coincides with the axis of the instrument. In order that the operator 
may know when this is the case, a secondary camera or finder is fixed on 
the top of the pyramidal tube of the telescope*. This finder consists of an 
achromatic lens of long focus, which is so placed as to throw an image of the 
sun on to a plate of brass fixed vertically near the lower or broad end of the 
tube, and consequently in a convenient position for the operator to see both 
the image and the retaining thread which holds the slide. The brass plate 
has ruled on it several strong lines, two of which are just so far apart and so 
situated as to form tangents to the sun's limb when the image is exactly 
central; a lighted match, held in readiness, is at this precise moment applied to 
the thread, and the slide immediately flashes across the secondary object-glass. 

Position Wires. — The position of the solar spots in respect to a normal 
point is determined by placing a system of wires in a certain known position 
in the telescope. Originally the wires were four in number, two being fixed 
at right angles to the other two, the distance between each pair being some- 
what less than the semidiameter of the sun ; so that when one wire of each 
pair was situated near the sun's centre the other cut off a small arc at the 
limb. The position of the wires was such that the one pair was parallel to 
a circle of declination. 

Some inconvenience was occasionally experienced in consequence of one 
or other of the four wires obliterating a solar spot ; hence an alteration is now 
being made in the apparatus for holding the wires. Instead of attaching 
them to a fixed diaphragm placed between the two lenses of the secondary 
object-glass, they will be fastened to a sliding diaphragm with two apertures ; 
across one of the apertures only will be fixed the wires, so that a photograph 
may be taken either with or without them. No appreciable distortion in the 
photographic image of the wires can be detected. 

The wires will be two in number; they will cross each other at an angle 
of 90°, and form an angle of 45° with a circle of declination. This system 
of wires is the same as that proposed by Mr. Carrington and used in his 
observations of solar spots. It is intended when the apparatus is complete 
to observe the contacts of the sun's limb with the wires as it passes them in 
succession each day before commencing a set of photographs, and also 
immediately after completing them. In order to observe these contacts, the 
image of the sun and wires will be received on the ground-glass focusing 
plate, and the times of the several transits noted by viewing the image of the 
sun and wires through the plate. One photograph will in all cases be taken 
with the wires, and two or three without the wires, in order to secure all the 
details possible, as well of the faculse as of the spots. 

Degree of perfection attained. Stereoscopic pictures of the Sun. — By over- 
* Report Brit. Assoc. 1857, p. xxxv. 



ON CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY IN ENGLAND. 153 

exposure of the collodion the faculae first disappear, then the penumbra round 
the spots, and lastly the spots themselves. In the photograph the difference 
in the intensity of the sun's limb and central portions is very marked, but an 
over-exposure prevents also this from being seen in the photograph. The 
solar spots and faculae delineated by the Kew Photoheliograph bear exami- 
nation with a lens of moderate power, and show details not visible to the unas- 
sisted eye. The faculae and spots are sufficiently marked to make the sun ap- 
pear globular when two views taken at a sufficient interval are grouped toge- 
ther in the stereoscope, as will be seen by the slides now before the Meeting. 
There is not the same difficulty in obtaining stereoscopic pairs of views of the 
sun as there is in the case of the moon, because any two views taken at an 
interval of about a day give a perfectly spherical figure in the stereoscope. 
When the principal spots are near either limb, two views taken at an interval 
of two days will combine, and even slight changes in the form of the spots 
do not prevent the perfect coalition of the two pictures. 

Having already most fully described the methods pursued and the pre- 
cautions to be taken to ensure good results in the case of photoselenography, 
it will be unnecessary for me here to enter into any details of the chemical 
part of the processes of photoheliography, for the methods are nearly the same 
in both cases. So far from seeking a surface less sensitive than ordinary col- 
lodion, it has been found advisable to use both the bath and collodion in a 
very sensitive condition, though it is not of course necessary to strain this 
sensitiveness to the utmost extent for solar photography, as in the case of 
lunar photography. The bath must, however, be always brought back to its 
best working state by means of oxide of silver, and subsequent addition of 
dilute nitric acid in case it has become acid by use. The collodion moreover 
is used in that condition which photographers would call very sensitive. 



On the Orders of Fossil and Recent Reptilia, and their Distribution 
in Time. By Professor Owen. 

[A communication ordered to be printed entire among the Reports.] 

With the exception of geology, no collateral science has profited so largely 
from the study of organic remains as zoology. The catalogues of animal 
species have received immense accessions from the determination of the na- 
ture and affinities of those which have become extinct, and much deeper and 
clearer insight has been gained into the natural arrangement and subdivi- 
sion of the classes of animals since Palaeontology has expanded our survey of 
them. Of this the class Reptilia, or cold-blooded air-breathing vertebrates, 
affords a striking example. 

In the latest edition of the ' Regne Animal' of Cuvier, 1829, as in the 
* Elemens de Zoologie ' of Milne-Edwards (1834-37), and in the more re- 
cent monograph on American Testudinata by Prof. Agassiz, 4to, 1857, the 
quadruple division of the class, proposed by Brongniart in 1802, is adhered 
to, viz. Chelonia (Tortoises, Turtles) ; Sanria (Crocodiles, Lizards); Ophidia 
(Serpents) ; Batrachia (Frogs, Newts) ; only the last group is made a di- 
stinct class by the distinguished Professor of the United States*. In 
my former Reports on Fossil Reptiles to the British Association, in 1839 
and 184-1, it was proposed to divide the class into eight orders, viz. — Ena- 

* " After this separation of the Batrachians from the true Reptiles, we have only three 
orders left in the class Reptiles proper — the Ophidians, the Saurians, and the Chelonians." 
— /. c. p. 239. 



154 report — 1859. 

liosauria, Crocodilia , Dinosauria, Lacertilia, Pterosaur ia, Chelonia, Ophidia 
and Batrachia, which orders were then severally characterized. 

Subsequent researches have brought to light additional forms and struc- 
tural modifications of cold-blooded air-breathing animals now extinct, which 
have suggested corresponding modifications of their distribution into ordinal 
groups. Another result of such deeper insight into the forms that have 
passed away has been the clearer recognition of the artificiality of the boun- 
dary between the classes Pisces and Reptilia of modern zoological systems. 

The conformity of pattern in the arrangement of the bones of the out- 
wardly well-ossified skull in certain fishes with well-developed lung-like air- 
bladders, e. g. Polypterus, Lepidosteus, Sturio, and in the extinct reptiles Ar- 
chegosaurus and Labyrinthodon ; — the persistence of the notochord {chorda 
dorsalis) in Archegosaurus, as in Sturio ; the persistence of the notochord 
and branchial arches in Archegosaurus and Lepidosiren ; the abseuce of 
occipital condyle or condyles in Archegosaurus as in Lepidosiren ; the pre- 
sence of teeth with the labyrinthic interblending of dental tissues in Den- 
drodus, Lepidosteus, and Archegosaurus, as in Labyrinthodon ; the large 
median and lateral throat-plates in Archegosaurus, as in Megalichthys, and in 
the modern fishes Arapaima and Lepidosteus ; — all these characters, as were 
explained and reasoned upon in my lectures at the Government School of 
Mines (March, 1858), pointed to one great natural group, remarkable for 
the extensive gradations of development linking and blending together piscind 
and reptilian characters within the limits of such group. The salamandroie 
(or so called 'sauroid') Ganoids, e. g. Lepidosteus and Polypterus, are the 
most ichthyoid, the Labyrinthodonts are the most sauroid, of this annectent 
group : the Lepidosiren and Archegosaurus are intermediate gradations, one 
having more of the piscine, the other more of the reptilian characters. Ar- 
chegosaurus conducts the march of development from the fish proper to the 
labyrinthodont type ; Lepidosiren conducts it to the perennibranchiate or mo- 
dern batrachian type. Both forms expose the artificiality of the ordinary 
class-distinction between Pisces and Reptilia, and illustrate the naturality of 
the wider class of cold-blooded vertebrates, which I have called Htematocrya* . 

Reptiles are defined as ' cold-blooded air-breathing vertebrates,' but the 
Siren and Proteus chiefly breathe by gills, as did, most probably, the 
Archegosaurus. The modern naked Batrachia annually mature, at once, 
a large number of small ova ; the embryo is developed with but a small 
allantoid appendage, and is hatched and excluded with external gills. These 
are retained throughout life by a few species; the rest undergo a greater or 
less degree of metamorphosis. Other existing reptiles have comparatively 
few and large eggs, and the embryo is enclosed in a free amnios and is more 
or less enveloped by a large allantois; it undergoes no marked transforma- 
tion after being hatched. 

On this difference, the Batrachia have been, by some naturalists, separated 
as a distinct class from the Reptilia. But the number of ova simultaneously 
developed in the viviparous Land Salamanders is much less than in the Siren, 
and not more than in the Turtle ; and, save in respect of the external gills 
which disappear before or soon after birth, the Salamander does not undergo 
a more marked transformation, after being hatched, than does the Turtle or 
Crocodile t- It depends, therefore, upon the value assigned to the different 
proportions of the allantois in the embryo of the salamander and lizard, 
whether they be pronounced to belong, or not, to distinct classes of animals. 

* alfia, blood, Kpvos, cold ; the correlative group is the ' Hcemalotherma.' 
f The CcEcilia may probably depart still further from the type -batrachian mode of develop- 
ment, and approach more to the type-reptilian mode. 



ON FOSSIL AND RECENT REPTIL1A. 155 

This embryonic or developmental character is unascertainable in the extinct 
Archegosaurus and Labyrinthodon. The signs of affinity of Labyrinthodon 
to Ichthyosaurus, and those structures which have led the ablest German 
palaeontologists to pronounce the Labyrinthodonts to be true Saurians under 
the names of Mastodonsaurus, Trematosaurus, Capitosaurus, &c, may well 
support the conjecture that modifications more ' reptilian ' than those in 
Salamandra did attend the development of the young Labyrinthodont. 

Characters derived from the nature of the cutaneous coverings equally 
fail to determine the class-characters of Batrachia as contradistinguished 
from Reptilia. It is true that all existing Batrachia have a scaleless skin, 
or very minute scales (Cacilia), but not all existing Reptiles have horny 
scales. The Crocodiles and certain Lizards show a development of dermal 
bones similar to that in certain placoid and ganoid fishes. This development 
characterizes the cutaneous system in the Labyrinthodont genus Anisopus ; 
and in regard to the dermal ossifications of the cranium, the resemblance to 
the Ganoidei is closer in those ancient forms of Reptilia which exhibit in their 
endoskeleton unmistakeable signs of their affinity to fishes and batrachians. 

In the survey which, with a view to communicate its results to the pre- 
sent Meeting of the British Association, I have made of all the known forms 
of cold-blooded air-breathing Vertebrates, recent and fossil, I have to ac- 
knowledge myself unable to define any adequate boundary for dividing them 
into two distinct classes of Batrachians and Reptiles ; and I am as little able 
to point out a character dividing the air-breathing from the water-breathing 
Hcematocmja — t\\e Reptiles from the Fishes. 

In the present Report, therefore, an arbitrary line has been drawn, in order 
to define its subject, between Lepidosiren and Archegosaurus, and the re- 
view of the ordinal groups of Reptilia, or air-breathing Hcematocrya, will 
commence with that of which the Archegosaurus is the type. 

Order I. Ganocephala. 

The name of Ganocephala, for this group or order (yai'os, lustre; K€<j>a\i), 
head), has reference to the sculptured and externally polished organoid bony 
plates with which the entire head is defended. These plates include the 
'post-orbital' and 'super-temporal' ones, which roof over the temporal 
fossae. There are no occipital condyles. The teeth have converging inflected 
folds of cement at their basal half. The notochord is persistent, the ver- 
tebral arches and peripheral elements are ossified, the pleurapophyses are 
short and straight; there are both pectoral and pelvic limbs, which are 
natatory and very small ; there are large median and lateral 'throat-plates' : 
the scutes are small, narrow, subganoid. Some of the fossils show traces of 
branchial arches. The above combination of characters gives the value of 
an ordinal group in the cold-blooded Vertebrata. 

The extinct animals which manifest it were first indicated by certain 
fossils discovered in the sphserosideritic clay-slate forming the upper mem- 
ber of the Bavarian coal-measures, and also in splitting spheroidal concre- 
tions from the coal-field of Saarsbriick near Treves; these fossils were 
originally referred to the class of Fishes (Pygopterus Lucius, Agassiz). But 
a specimen from the ' Brandschiefer' of Miinster-Appel presented characters 
which were recognized by Dr. Gergens to be those of a Salamandroid 
Reptile*. 

* Mainz, Oktober 1843.—" In dera Brandschiefer von Miimlerappel in Rhein-Baiem 
habe ich in vorigen Jahre « cinen Salamander aufgefumlen ":—" Gehovt dieser Schiefer der 
Kohlen-formation ?— in dcscne falle ware der Fund audi in audcren Hinsicht interessait." 
Lconhard und Broun, Nuc Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, &c, 1814, p. 49. 



156 REPORT — 1859. 

Dr. Gergens placed bis supposed ' Salamander' in the hands of M. Her- 
mann von Meyer for description, who communicated the result of his exami- 
nation in a later number of the under-cited journal*. 

In this notice the author states that the Salamander-affinities of the fossil 
in question, for which he proposes the name of Apateon pedestris, " are by no 

means demonstrated f Its head might be that of a fish, as well as of a 

lizard or of a batrachian There is no trace of bones or limb3." M. v. 

Meyer concludes by stating that, " in order to test the hypothesis of the 
Apateon being a fossil fish, he has sent to Agassiz a drawing with a descrip- 
tion of it." 

Three years later, better preserved and more instructive specimens of the 
problematical fossil were obtained by Professor von Dechen from the 
Bavarian coal-fields, and were submitted to the examination of Professor 
Goldfuss, of Bonn. The latter palaeontologist published a 4to memoir on 
them, with good figures, referring them to a Saurian genus which he calls 
Archegosaurus, or ' primeval lizard,' deeming it to be a transitional type be- 
tween the fish-like Batrachia and the Lizards and Crocodiles %. 

The estimable author, on the occasion of publishing the above memoir, 
transmitted to the Reporter excellent casts of the originals therein described 
and figured. These casts were presented to the Museum of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, London, and were described by me in the ' Catalogue of the 
Fossil Reptiles' in that Museum (4to, 1854). The conclusions which I then 
formed as to the position and affinities of the Archegosaurus in the Reptilian 
class are published in that Catalogue, and were communicated to and dis- 
cussed at the Geological Society of London (see the ' Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Society,' vol. iv. 1848). 

One of the specimens appeared to present evidence of persistent branchial 
arches. The osseous structure of the skull, especially of the orbits, through 
the completed zygomatic arches, indicated an affinity to the Labyrintho- 
donts ; but the vertebra? and numerous very short ribs, with the evidence of 
stunted swimming limbs, impressed the Reporter with the conviction of the 
near alliance of the Archegosaurus with the Proteus and other perennibran- 
chiale reptiles. 

This conclusion of the affinity of Archegosaurus to existing types of the 
Reptilian class is confirmed by the subsequently discovered specimens, 
described and figured by M. von Meyer in his ' Pakeontographica' (Bd. vi. 
Heft 2. 1857), more especially by his discovery of the embryonal condition 
of the vertebral column §, i. e. of the persistence of the notochord, and the 
restriction of ossification to the arches and peripheral vertebral elements. 

In this structure, the old carboniferous Reptile resembled the existing 
Lepidosiren, and thus affords further ground for regarding that remarkable 
existing animal as one which obliterates the line of demarcation between the 
Fishes and the Reptiles. 

Coincident with this non-ossified state of the basis of the vertebral bodies 
of the trunk is the absence of the ossified occipital condyles, which condyles 
characterize the skull in better developed Batrachia. The fore part of the 
notochord has extended, as in Lepidosiren || , into the basi-sphenoid region, 

* Leonhard und Bronn, Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, 1844, p. 336. 

t " Ob das — Apateon, pedestris — ein Salamander-artiges Geschopf war, ist keineswegs 
ausgemacht." 

% " ' Archegosaurus,' Fossile Saurier aus dem Steinkolilengebirge die den Uebergang der 
Ichtbyoden zu den Lacerten und Krokodilen bilden," ' Beitrage zur vorweltlichen Fauna 
des Steinkohlengebirges ' (4to, 1847), p. 3. 

§ 'Reptilien aus der Steinkobleii-Formation in Deutschland,' Sechster Band, p. 61, 

|| Linn. Trans., vol. xviii. p. 333, pi. 24, fig. 2. 



ON FOSSIL AND RECENT REPTILIA. 157 

and its capsule has connected it, by ligament, to the broad flat ossification of 
expansions of the same capsule, forming the basi-occipital and basi-spheoid 
plate. 

The vertebras of the trunk in the fully developed full-sized animal present 
the following stage of ossification. The neurapophyses coalesce at the top to 
form the arch, from the summit of which is developed a compressed, sub- 
quadrate, moderately high, spine ; with the truncate, or slightly convex, 
summit expanded in the fore-and-aft direction, so as to touch the contiguous 
spines in the back ; the spines are distinct in the tail. The sides of the base 
of the neural arch arc thickened and extended outwards into 'diapophyses' 
having a convex articular surface for the attachment of the rib ; the fore part 
is slightly produced at each angle into a zygapophysis looking upward and a 
little forward ; the hinder partis much produced backwards, supporting two- 
thirds of the neural spine, and each angle is developed into a zygapophysis 
with a surface of opposite aspects to the anterior one. In the capsule of the 
notochord three bony plates are developed, one on the ventral surface, and 
one on each side, at or near the back part of the diapophysis. These bony 
plates may be termed ' cortical parts' of the centrum, in the same sense in 
which that term is applied to the element which is called 'body of the atlas' 
iu Man and Mammalia, and 'sub-vertebral wedge-bone' at the fore part of 
the neck in Enaliosauria. 

As such ventral or inferior cortical element co-exists with the separately 
ossified centrum in certain vertebras of the Ichthyosaurus, thus affording 
ground for deeming them essentially distinct from a true centrum, I have 
applied the term ' hypapophysis' to such independent inferior ossifications 
in and from the notochordal capsule, and by that term may be signified the 
sub-notochordal plates in Archegosaurus, which co-exist with proper ' haem- 
apophyses' in the tail. In the trunk the hypapophyses are flat, subquadrate, 
oblong bodies, with the angles rounded off: in the tail they bend upwards 
by the extension of the ossification from the under- to the side-parts of the 
notochordal capsule, sometimes touching the lateral cortical plates. These 
serve to strengthen the notochord and support the intervertebral nerve in its 
outward passage. 

The ribs are short, almost straight, expanded and flattened at the ends, 
round and slender at the middle. They are developed throughout the trunk 
and along part of the tail, coexisting there with the haemal arches, as in the 
Menopoma*. 

The haemal arches, which, at the beginning of the tail, are open at their 
base, become closed, in succeeding vertebrae, by extension of ossification in- 
wards from each produced angle, converting the notch into a foramen. This 
forms a wide oval, the apex being produced into along spine ; but towards the 
end of the tail the spine becomes shortened, and the haemal arch is reduced to 
a mere flattened ring. The size of the canal for the protection of the caudal 
blood-vessels indicates the powerful muscular actions of the long tail ; as the 
produced spines, from both neural and haemal arches, bespeak the provision 
made for muscular attachments, and the vertical development of the caudal 
swimming organ. 

All these modifications of the vertebral column demonstrate the aquatic 
habits of the Archegosaurus ; the limbs being, in like manner, modified as 
fins, but so small and feeble as to leave the main part of the function of 
swimming to be performed, as in fishes and Perennibranchiate Batrachia, by 
the tail. 

The skull of the Archegosaurus appears to have retained much of its pri- 

* Principal Forms of the Skeleton, 'Orr's Circle of the Sciences,' p. 187, fig. 11. 



158 report— 1859. 

mary cartilage internally, and ossification to have been chiefly active at the 
surface, where, a< in the combined dermo-neural ossifications of the skull 
in the sturgeons and salamandroid fishes, e. g. Polypterus, Amia, Lepidosteus, 
these ossifications have started from centres more numerous than those of 
the true vertebral system in the skull of Saurian reptiles. 

The teeth are usually shed alternately; they consist of osteo-dentine, 
dentine, and cement. The first substance occupies the centre, the last 
covers the superficies of the tooth, but is introduced into its substance by 
many concentric folds extending along the basal half. These folds are indi- 
cated by fine longitudinal straight stria? along that half of the crown. The 
section of the tooth at that part gives the same structure which is shown by 
a like section of a tooth of the Lepidosteus oxyurus*. 

The same principle of dental composition is exemplified in the teeth of 
most of the ganoid fishes of the Carboniferous and Devonian systems, and is 
carried out to a great and beautiful degree of complication in the Old-red 
Dendrodonts. 

The repetition of the same principle of dental structure in one of the ear- 
liest genera of Reptilia, associated with the defect of ossification of the endo- 
skeleton and the excess of ossification in the exoskeleton of the head, deci- 
sively illustrate the true affinities and low position in the Reptilian class of 
the so-called Archegosauri. 

For other details of the peculiar and interesting structure of the animals 
representing the earliest or oldest known order of Reptiles, the Reporter 
would refer to his article " Palaeontology" in the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' 
and to the works by Goldfuss and Von Meyer, above cited. 

Order II. Labyrinthodontia. 

This name, from \afivpivdos, a labyrinth, and olovs, a tooth, refers to the 
complex structure characterizing the teeth, in the several genera of the order ; 
in which, also, the head is defended, as in the Ganocephala, by a continuous 
casque of externally sculptured and usually hard and polished osseous plates, 
including the supplementary ' postorbital ' and ' supratemporal ' bones, but 
leaving a ' foramen parietalef .' There are two occipital condyles. The 
vomer is divided and dentigerous. There are two external nostrils. The ver- 
tebral centra, as well as arches, are ossified, and are biconcave. The pleur- 
apophyses of the trunk are long and bent. The teeth are rendered complex, 
at least at the basal part of the crown, by undulations and side-branches of 
the converging folds of cement ; whence the name of the order. 

The reptiles presenting the above characters have been divided, according 
to minor modifications exemplified by the form and proportions of the skull, 
by the relative position and size of the orbital, nasal, and temporal cavities, 
and by dermal characters, into several genera ; as, e. g. Mastodonsaurus, Ani~ 
sopus, Trematosaurus, Metopias, Capitosaurus, Zygosaurus, Xestorrhytias, 
&c. 

The relation of these remarkable reptiles to the Saurian order has been 
advocated as being one of close and true affinity, chiefly on the character of 
the extent of ossification of the skull and of the outward sculpturing of the 
cranial bones. But the true nature of some of these bones appears to have 
been overlooked, and the gaze of research for analogous structures has been 
too exclusively upward. If directed downward from the Labyrinthodontia 
to the Ganocephala, and to certain ganoid fishes, it suggests other conclusions 
which I have developed in my article " Palaeontology " above referred to. 

* Wyman, ' American Journal of the Natural Sciences,' October, 1843. 
t The corresponding vacuity is larger in some ganoid fishes. 



ON FOSSIL AND RECENT KEPTILIA. 159 

There is nothing in the known structure of the so-named Archegosaurus 
or Mastodonsaurus that truly indicates a belonging to the Saurian or Croco- 
dilian order of reptiles. The exterior ossifications of the skull and the 
canine-shaped labyrinthic teeth are both examples of the Salamandroid 
modification of the ganoid type of fishes. 

The small proportion of the fore-limb of the Mystriosaurus in nowise 
illustrates this alleged saurian affinity, for, though it be as short as in Arche- 
gosaurus, it is as perfectly constructed as in the Crocodile ; whereas the short 
fore limb of Archegosaurus is constructed after the simple type of that of the 
Proteus and Siren. But the futility of this argument of the sauroid affinities 
is made manifest by the proportions of the hind limb of Archegosaurus; 
it is as stunted as the fore limb : in the Labyrinthodonts it presented larger 
proportions, which, however, may be illustrated as naturally by these pro- 
portions in the limbs of certain Batrachia as by the proportions of the limbs 
of Teleosaurus. 

Older III. ICHTHYOPTERYGIA. 

This name, from 'i\Qvs, a fish, and nrepvE,, a wing or fin, relates to the piscin 
character of the numerous and many-jointed rays or digits in the fore and 
hind paddles. The bones of the head still include the supplementary 'post- 
orbital' and 'supratemporal ' bones, but there are small temporal and other 
vacuities between the cranial bones, including a 'foramen parietale;' there is 
a single, convex, occipital condyle* ; and one vomer, which is edentulous. 
There are two antorbital nostrils. The vertebral centra are ossified and bi- 
concave. The pleurapophyses of the trunk are long and bent ; the anterior 
ones with bifurcate heads. The teeth have converging I olds of cement at 
their base, are implanted in a common alveolar groove, and are confined to 
the maxillary, premaxillary, and premandibular bones ; the premaxillaries 
much exceeding the maxillaries in size. The orbits are very large ; the eyes 
were defended by a broad circle of sclerotic plates. The limbs are natatory, 
with more than five multiarticulate digits ; there is no sacrum. 

With the retention of characters which indicate, as in the preceding orders, 
an affinity to the higher Pisces Ganoidei, the present exclusively marine Pep- 
tilia more directly exemplify the Ichthyic type in the proportions of the pre- 
maxillary and maxillary bones, in the shortness and great number of the bi- 
concave vertebrae, in the length of the pleurapophyses of the vertebras near 
the head, in the large proportional size of the eye-ball and its well-ossified 
sclerotic coat, and especially in the structure of the pectoral and ventral fins. 

Order IV. Sauropterygia. 

The fins in this order of marine reptiles do not include more than five digits 
and resemble those of the turtles (Chelone) amongst existing Reptiles ; hence 
the name proposed, from aavfjos, a lizard, and irrepvl,. There are no post- 
orbital and supratemporal bones f: the skull shows large temporal and other 
vacuities between certain cranial bones, including a foramen parietale : there 
are two antorbital nostrils : the teeth are simple, in distinct sockets of the 
premaxillary, maxillary, and premandibular bones : they are very rarely pre- 
sent on the palatine or pterygoid bones. The maxillaries are larger than the 
premaxillaries. Limbs natatory ; with not more than five digits. There is a 
sacrum of one or two vertebrae for the attachment of the pelvic arch in some : 
there are numerous cervical vertebras in most. The pleurapophyses have 
simple heads ; those of the trunk are long and bent. 

* This character is retained in all the subsequent orders except the Batrachia. 
t These bones do not reappear in the subsequent orders. 



160 REPORT — 1859. 

In the Pliosaurus the neck- vertebrae are comparatively few in number, 
short, and flat. The Sauropterygian type seems to have attained its maximum 
dimensions in this genus, the species of which are peculiar to the Oxfbrdian 
and Kimmeridgian divisions of the Upper Oolitic system. The Polyptychodon 
of the cretaceous series also attained a gigantic size. 

M. von Meyer regards the number of cervical vertebras and the length of 
neck as characters of prime importance in the classification of Reptilia, and 
founds thereon his order called ' Macrotrachelen,' in which he includes 
Simosaurus, Pistosaurus, and Noihosaurus with Plesiosaurus. No doubt 
the number of vertebrae in the same skeleton bears a certain relation to 
ordinal groups : the Ophidia find a common character therein : yet it is not 
their essential character; for the snake-like form, dependent on multiplied 
vertebra?, characterizes equally certain batrachians (Ccecilia) and fishes 
(Murcena). Certain regions of the vertebral column are the seat of great 
varieties, in the same natural group of Reptilia. We have long-tailed and 
short-tailed Lizards ; but do not, therefore, separate those with numerous 
caudal vertebrae as ' Macroura ' from those with few or none. The extinct 
Dolichosaurus of the Kentish chalk, with its proccelian vertebrae, cannot be 
ordinally separated, by reason of its more numerous cervical vertebrae, from 
other shorter-necked proccelian lizards. As little can we separate the short- 
necked and big-headed ampliccelian Pliosaur from the ' Macrotrachelians' of 
von Meyer, with which it has its most intimate and true affinities. 

There is much reason indeed to suspect that some of the Muschelkalk 
Saurians, which are as closely allied to Nothosaurus as Pliosaurus is to 
Plesiosaurus, may have presented analogous modifications in the number and 
proportions of the cervical vertebra?.. It is hardly possible to contemplate the 
broad and short-snouted skull of the Simosatirus, with its proportionately 
large teeth, without inferring that such a head must have been supported by 
a shorter and more powerful neck than that which bore the long and slender 
head of the Nothosaurus or Pistosaurus. The like inference is more strongly 
impressed upon the mind by the skull of the Placodus, still shorter and 
broader than that of Simosaurus, and with vastly larger teeth, of a shape 
indicative of their adaptation to crushing molluscous or crustaceous shells. 

Neither the proportions and armature of the skull of Placodus, nor the 
mode of obtaining the food indicated by its cranial and dental characters, 
permit the supposition that the head was supported by other than a com- 
paratively short and strong neck. Yet the composition of the skull, its zygo- 
mata, temporal cavities, and other light-giving anatomical characters, all 
bespeak the close essential relationship of Placodus to Simosaurus and other 
so-called • Macrotrachelian' reptiles of the Muschelkalk-beds. I continue, 
therefore, as in my former 'Report' of 1841, to regard the fin-like modifi- 
cation of the limbs as a better ordinal character than the number of vertebrae 
in any particular region of the spine. Yet this limb-character is subordinate 
to the characters derived from the structure of the skull and of the teeth. 
If, therefore, the general term Enaliosauria may be sometimes found con- 
venient in its application to the natatory group of Saurian Reptiles, the 
essential distinctness of the orders Sauropierygia and Ichthyopterygia, typified 
by the Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus respectively, should be borne in mind. 

The Plesiosaurus, with its very numerous cervical vertebrae, sometimes 
thirty in number, may be regarded as the type of the Sauropierygia or 
pentadactyle sea-lizards. Of all existing Reptiles, the lizards, and amongst 
these the Old-world Monitors ( Varanus, Fitz.), by reason of the cranial 
vacuities in front of the orbits, most resemble the Plesiosaur in the structure 
of the skull, the division of the nostrils, the vacuities in the occipital 



ON FOSSIL AND RECENT REPTILIA. 161 

region between the exoccipitals and tympanies, the parietal foramen, the 
zygomatic extension of the post-frontal, the palato- maxillary and pterygo- 
sphenoid vacuities in the bony palate ; and all these are Lacertian characters 
as contradistinguished from Crocodilian ones. But the antorbital vacuities 
between the nasal, pre-frontal, and maxillary bones, are the sole external nos- 
trils in the Plesiosaurs : the zygomatic arch abuts against the fore part of the 
tympanic, and fixes it : a much greater extent of the roof of the mouth is 
ossified than in lizards, and the palato-maxillary and pterygosphenoid fissures 
are reduced to small size : the teeth, finally, are implanted in distinct sockets. 
That the Plesiosaur had the ' head of a lizard' is an emphatic mode of express- 
ing the amount of resemblance in their cranial conformation : the crocodilian 
affinities, however, are not confined to the teeth, but are exemplified in some 
particulars of the structure of the skull itself. 

In the simple mode of articulation of the ribs, the Lacertian affinity is 
again strongly manifested ; but to this vertebral character such affinity is 
limited : all the others exemplify the ordinal distinction of the Plesiosaurs 
from known existing Reptiles. The shape of the joints of the centrums; the 
number of vertebrae between the head and tail, especially of those of the 
neck ; the slight indication of the sacral vertebra? ; the non-confluence of the 
caudal haemapophyses with each other; are all ' plesiosauroid.' In the size 
and number of the abdominal ribs and sternum, may, perhaps, be discerned a 
first step in that series of development of the haemapophyses of the trunk, 
which reaches its maximum in the plastron of the Chelonia. 

The connation of the clavicle with the scapula is common to the Chelonia 
with the Plesiosauri ; the expansion of the coracoid — extreme in Plesiosauri, 
— is greater in Chelonia than in Crocodilia, but is still greater in some 
Lacertia. The form and proportions of the pubis and ischium, as compared 
with the ilium, in the pelvic arch of the Plesiosauri, find their nearest 
approach in the pelvis of marine Chelonia ; and no other existing Reptile 
now offers so near, although it be so remote, a resemblance to the structure 
of the paddles of the Plesiosauri. 

Both Nothosaurus and Pistosaurus had many neck-vertebrae ; and the 
transition from these to the dorsal series was effected, as in Plesiosaurus, by 
the ascent of the rib-surface from the centrum to the neurapophysis ; but 
the surface, when divided between the two elements, projected further out- 
wards than in most Plesiosauri. 

In both Notho- and Pistosaurus, the pelvic vertebra developes a combined 
process (par- and di-apophysis), but of relatively larger, vertically longer, 
size, standing well out, and from near the fore part of the side of the verte- 
bra. This process, with the coalesced riblet, indicates a stronger ilium, and 
a firmer base of attachment of the hind limb to the trunk than in Plesio- 
saurus. Both this structure and the greater length of the bones of the fore- 
arm and leg show that the Muschelkalk predecessors of the Liassic Plesio- 
sauri were better organized than they for occasional progression on dry land. 

Order V. Anomodontia*. 

This order is represented by three families, all the species of which are 
extinct, and appear to have been restricted to the Triassic period. In it the 
teeth are wanting, or are confluent with tusk-shaped premaxillaries, or are 
confined to a single pair in the upper jaw having the form and proportions of 
canine tusks. The skull shows a 'foramen parietale' and two nostrils: the 
tympanic pedicle is fixed. The vertebrae are biconcave : the pleurapophyses 

* avofios, lawless; 6$ovs, tooth. 
1859. m 



162 report — 1859. 

of the trunk are long and curved, the anterior ones having bifurcate heads : 
there is a sacrum of four or five vertebra?, forming, with broad iliac and pubic 
bones, a large pelvis. Limbs ambulatory. 

Family Dicynodontia *. 
A long ever-growing tusk in each maxillary bone : premaxillaries connate 
and forming with the lower jaw a beak-shaped mouth, probably sheathed 
with horn. This family includes two genera, Dicynodon and Ptychognallms, 
all the known species of which are founded on fossils from rocks of probably 
triassic age in South Africa. 

Family Cryptodontiaj- . 

Upper as well as lower jaw edentulous. The genus Ondenodon closely 
conforms to the Dicynodont type, and the species are from the same rocks 
and localities. 

Family Gnuthodontia\. 

Two curved tusk-shaped bodies holding the place of the premaxillaries, 
and consisting of confluent dentinal and osseous substance, descending in 
front of the 'symphysis mandibular' These bodies are homologous with the 
pair of confluent premaxillary teeth and bones in the existing New Zealand 
amphiccelian lizard Rhynchocephalus ; they are analogous to the tusks in the 
Dicynodonts, and must have served a similar purpose in the extinct reptiles 
(Rhynchoscmrus) of the New Red (Trias) Sandstone of Shropshire, in which 
alone, this structure, with an otheiwi.se edentulous beak-shaped mouth, has 
hitherto been met with. The Rhynchosauroid reptile from the sandstone of 
Lossiemouth, near Elgin, is described by the Professor in the Government 
School of Mines, as having palatal teeth ; but its close affinity to tiie Rhyn- 
chosaur of Shropshire adds to the probability of the triassic age of the Los- 
siemouth sandstone. 

Order VI. Pterosauiua§. 

Although some members of the preceding order resembled birds in the 
shape or the edentulous state of the mouth, the reptiles of the present order 
make a closer approach to the feathered class in the texture and pneumatic 
character of most of the bones, and in the modification of the pectoral limbs 
for the function of flight. This is due to the elongation of the antibrachial 
bones, and more especially to the still greater length of the metacarpal and 
phalangial bones of the fifth or outermost digit, the last phalanx of which 
terminates in a point. The other fingers were of more ordinary length and 
size, and were terminated by claws, .the number of their phalanges progressively 
increasing to the fourth, which had four joints The whole osseous system 
is modified in accordance with the, possession of wings: the bones are light, 
hollow, most of them permeated by air-cells, with thin, compact outer walls. 
The scapula and coracoid are long and narrow, but strong. The vertebra? 
of the neck are few, but large and strong, for the support of a large head 
with long jaws, armed with sharp-pointed teeth. The skull was lightened 
by large vacuities, of which one was interposed between the nostril and the 
orbit. The vertebra? of the back are small, as are those of the sacrum, 
which were from two to five in number, but combined with a small pelvis 
and weak hind limbs, bespeaking a creature unable to stand and walk like a 
bird : the body must have been dragged along the ground like that of a bat. 
The vertebral bodies were united by ball-and-socket joints, the cup being 

* Sis, twice ; Kvvodovs, canine-tooth. t KpvTrrbs, concealed ; oSovs, tooth. 

% yvdBos, jaw; ddois, tooth, § irrepbv, wing ; aadpos, lizard. 



ON FOSSIL AND RECENT REPTILIA. 163 

anterior ; and in them we have the earliest manifestation of the ' proccelian ' 
type of vertebra. 

The Ptorosauria are distributed into genera according to modifications of 
the jaws and teeth. In the oldest known species, from the Lias, the teeth are 
of two kinds ; a few, at the fore part of the jaws, are long, large, sharp- 
pointed, with a full elliptical base, in distinct and separated sockets : behind 
them is a close-set row of short, compressed, very small, lancet-shaped teeth. 
These form the genus Dimorphodon, Ow. 

In the genus JRhamphorhynchus, V. M,, the fore part of each jaw is without 
teeth, and may have been encased by a horny beak ; but behind the edentulous 
production there are four or five large and long teeth, on each side, fol- 
lowed by several smaller ones. The tail is long, stiff, and slender. 

In the genus Pterodactylus, Cuv., the jaws are provided with teeth to their 
extremities : all the teeth are long, slender, sharp-pointed, set well apart. 
The tail is very short. 

The Pter. longirostris, Ok., was about 10 inches in length ; it is from litho- 
graphic slate at Pappenheim. The Pter. crassirostris, Goldf. was about 1 foot 
long ; but the Pter. Sedgwichii, Ow., from the greensand, near Cambridge, 
had an expanse of wing of 20 feet. The above species exemplify the Ptero- 
dactyles proper. 

The oldest well-known Pterodactyle is the Dimorphodon macronyx, of the 
lower lias ; but bones of Pterodactyles have been discovered in coeval lias 
of Wirtemberg. The next in point of age is the Dimorphodon Banthensis, 
from the 'Posidonomyen-schiefer' of Banz in Bavaria, answering to the Alum- 
shale of the Whitby lias. Then follows the Pt. Bucklandi from the Stonesfield 
oolite. Above this, come the first-described and numerous species of Ptero- 
dactyle from the lithographic slates of the middle oolitic system, in Germany, 
and from Cirin on the Rhone. The Pterodactyles of the Wealden are, as yet, 
known to us by only a few bones and bone-fragments. The largest known 
species are the Pterodactylus Sedgwickii and Pter. Fittoni, from the Upper 
Greensand of Cambridgeshire. Finally, the Pterodactyles of the middle 
chalk of Kent, almost as remarkable for their great size> constitute the last 
forms of Flying Reptile known in the history of the crust of this earth. 

Order VII. Thecodontia*. 

The vertebral bodies are biconcave : the ribs of the trunk are long and 
bent, the anterior ones with a bifurcate head : the sacrum consists of three 
vertebras: the limbs are ambulatory, and the femur has a third trochanter. 
The teeth have the crown more or less compressed, pointed, with trenchant 
and finely serrate margins ; implanted in distinct sockets. 

Teeth of this type, which may have belonged to the loricated saurian 
Stagonolepis, have been discovered by Mr. P. Duff in the white-sandstone at 
Lossiemouth near Elgin, affording additional evidence of its triassic age. 

The Protorosaurus of the Permian Kupferschiefer of Thuringia appears 
to have had its teeth implanted in distinct sockets; but the neck-vertebrae 
resemble in their large and strong proportions those of the Pterodactyles ; 
and the caudal vertebrae show the peculiarity, among Reptiles, of bifurcate 
neural spines. The types of the present order are the extinct genera Theco- 
dontosanr'is and Palceosaurus of Riley and Stutchbury, from probably triassic 
strata near Bristol ; and the Cladyodon of the New Red sandstone of Warwick- 
shire, with which, probably, the Belodon of the Kcupcr Sandstone of Wir- 
temberg is generically synonymous. The Bathygnathus, Lcidy, from New 
Red sandstone of Prince Edward's Island, North America, is probably a 

* O/'iKr}, a case ; otWs, a tooth. 

M 2 



164 REPORT — 1859. 

member of the present order, which seems to have been the forerunner of 
the next. 

Order VIII. Dinosauria*. 

Cervical and anterior dorsal vertebrae with par- and di-apophyses, arti- 
culating with bifurcate ribs : dorsal vertebrae with a neural platform : sacral 
vertebrae from four to six in number. The articular ends of the free vertebrae 
are more or less flat ; but in the cervical become convex in front and concave 
behind, in some species. The limbs are ambulatory, strong, long and un- 
guiculate. The femur has a third trochanter in some. The species of this 
order were of large bulk, and were eminently adapted for terrestrial life : 
some, e.g., Jguanodon and probably Hylaosaurus, were more or less vegetable 
feeders ; others, e.g., Megahsaurus, were carnivorous. The Dinosaurs ranged, 
in time, from the lias (Scelidosaurus, Ow., from Charmouth) to the Upper 
Greensand (Iguanodon). The Megahsaurus occurs in the lower oolite to 
the Wealden inclusive. The latter formation is that in which the Dinosauria 
appear to have flourished in greatest numbers and of largest dimensions. 

Order IX. Crocodilia. 
Teeth in a single row, implanted in distinct sockets, external nostril single, 
and terminal or subterminal. Anterior trunk-vertebrae with par- and di- 
apophyses, and bifurcate ribs ; sacral vertebrae two, each supporting its own 
neural arch. Skin protected by bony, usually pitted, plates. 

Suborder Ampliicodia \. 
Crocodiles closely resembling in general form the long- and slender-jawed 
kind of the Ganges, called Gavial, existed from the time of the deposition of 
the lower lias. Their teeth were similarly long, slender, and sharp, adapted 
for the prehension of fishes, and their skeleton was modified for more effi- 
cient progress in water, by both the terminal vertebral surfaces being slightly 
concave, by the hind limbs being relatively larger and stronger, and by the 
orbits forming no prominent obstruction to progress through water. From 
the nature of the deposits containing the remains of the so-modified Croco- 
diles, they were marine. The fossil Crocodile from the Whitby Lias, de- 
scribed and figured in the 'Philosophical Transactions,' 1758, p. 688, is 
the type of these amphiccelian species. They have been grouped under the 
following generic heads: — Teleosaurus, Mystriosaurus, Mac rospondy lies, 
Massospondylus, Pelagosaurus, JEolodon, Suchosaurus, Goniopholis, Pozci- 
lopleuron, Stagonolepis, &c. Species of the above genera range from the lias 
to the chalk inclusive. 

Suborder Opisthoccelia \. 

.The small group of Crocodilia, so called, is an artificial one, based upon 
more or less of the anterior trunk-vertebrae being united by ball-and-socket 
joints, but having the ball in front, instead of, as in modern Crocodiles, be- 
hind. Cuvier first pointed out this peculiarity § in a crocodilian from the Ox- 
fordian beds at Honfleur and the Kimmeridgian at Havre. The Reporter has 
described similar opisthoccelian vertebrae from the Great Oolite at Chipping 
Norton, from the Upper Lias of Whitby, and, of much larger size, from 
the Wealden formations of Sussex and the Isle of Wight. These specimens 
probably belonged, as suggested by him in 184-1 and 1S42||, to the fore part 

* deivos, terrible ; aavpos, lizard. 

t «j»<?i, both ; ko'i\os, hollow : the vertebrae being hollowed at both ends. 

X o7ri<T0e, behind ; koZAos, hollow : vertebras concave behind, convex in front. 

§ Annales du Museum, torn. xii. p. 83. pi. xxi. 

|| " Report on British Fossil Reptiles," Trans. British Association for 1841, p. 96. 



ON FOSSIL AND RECENT REPTILIA. 165 

of the same vertebral column as the vertebrae, flat at the fore part, and slightly 
hollow behind, on which he founded the genus Cetiosaurus. The smaller 
opisthoccelian vertebrae described by Cuvier have been referred by Von 
Meyer to a genus called Streptospondylus. 

In one species of Cetiosaurus from the Wealden, dorsal vertebra?, measur- 
ing 8 inches across, are only 4 inches in length, and caudal vertebrae, nearly 
7 inches across, are less than 4 inches in length ; these characterize the species 
called Cetiosaurus brevis. Caudal vertebras, measuring 7 inches across and 
5i inches in length, from the Lower Oolite at Chipping Norton, and the Great 
Oolite at Enstone, represent the species called Cetiosaurus medius. Caudal 
vertebrae from the Portland Stone at Garsington, Oxfordshire, measuring 
7 inches 9 lines across and 7 inches in length, have been referred to the 
Cetiosaurus longus ; the latter appears to have been the most gigantic of 
Crocodilians. 

Suborder Proccelia*. 

Crocodilians with cup-and-ball vertebra? like those of living species first 
make their appearance in the Greensand of North America (Croc, basifissus 
and Croc. basitruncatus)\. In Europe their remains are first found in the 
tertiary strata. Such remains from the plastic clay of Meudon have been 
referred to Crocodilus isorhynchus, Croc, ccelorhynchus, and Croc. Becquereli. 
In the ' Calcaire grossier ' of Argenton and Castelnaudry have been found the 
Croc. Rallinati and Croc. Dodunii. In the coeval eocene London Clay at 
Sheppey Island, the entire skull and characteristic partsof the skeleton of Cro- 
codilus toliapicus and Croc. Chanrpsoides occur. In the somewhat later eocene 
beds at Bracklesham occur the remains of the Gavial-like Croc. Dixoni. In 
the Hordle upper eocene beds have been found the Crocodilus Hastingsia 
with short and broad jaws; and also a true Alligator (Croc. Hantoniensis). 
It is remarkable that forms of proccelian Crocodilia, now geographically re- 
stricted — the Gavial to Asia, and the Alligator to America, — should have been 
associated with true Crocodiles, and represented by species which lived during 
nearly the same geological period, in rivers flowing over what now forms the 
south coast of England. 

Many species of proccelian Crocodilia have been founded on fossils from 
miocene and pliocene tertiaries. One of these, of the Gavial subgenus (Croc, 
crassidens) from the Sewalik tertiary, was of gigantic dimensions. 

Order X. Laceiitilia. 

Vertebrae proccalian, with a single transverse process on each side, and 
with single-headed ribs: sacral vertebrae not exceeding two. 

Small vertebrae of this type have been found in theWealden of Sussex. They 
are more abundant, and are associated with other and more characteristic 
parts of the species in the Cretaceous strata. On such evidence have been 
based the Raphiosaurus subulidens, the Coniosaurus crassidens, and the 
Dolichosaurus longicollis. But the most remarkable and extreme modification 
of the Lacertian type in the Cretaceous period is that manifested by the huge 
species, of which a cranium, 5 feet long, was discovered in the Upper Chalk 
of St. Peter's Mount, near Maestricht, in 1780. This species, under the name 
Mosasaurus, is well known by the descriptions of Cuvier. Allied species 
have been found in the cretaceous strata of England and N. America. The 
Leiodon anceps of the Norfolk chalk was a nearly allied marine Lacertian. 
The structure of the limbs is not yet well understood ; it may lead to a sub- 
ordinal separation of the Mosasauroids from the Land-lizards, most of which 

* irpb, before ; icotXos, hollow : vertebrae with the cup at the fore part and the ball behind, 
t Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, January, 1849, p. 380. 



166 REPORT — 1859. 

are represented by existing species, in which a close transition is manifested 
to the next order. 

Order XI. Ophidia*. 
Vertebrae very numerous, proccelian, with a single transverse process on 
each side ; no sacrum : no visible limbs. 

The earliest evidence, at present, of this order is given by the fossil ver- 
tebra of the large serpent (Palceophis, Ow.) from the London clay of Sheppey 
and Bracklesham. Remains of a poisonous serpent, apparently a Vipera, have 
been found in miocene deposits at Sansans, S. of France. A large fossil ser- 
pent (Laophis, Ow.), with vertebras showing similar modifications to those in 
the Crotali, has been discovered by Capt. Sprat, R.N., in a tertiary formation 
at Salonica. Ophidiolites from CEningen have been referred to the genus 
Coluber. 

Order XII. Chelonia f. 
The characters of this order, including the extremely and peculiarly modi- 
fied forms of Tortoises, Terrapenes, and Turtles, are sufficiently well known. 
The chief modifications of osseous structure in oolitic Chelonia are shown 
by the additional pair of bones interposed between the hyosternals and hypo- 
sternals of the plastron, in the genus Pleurosternon from the upper oolite at 
Purbeck. It would be very hazardous to infer the existence of Reptiles with 
the characteristic structure of the restricted genus Testudo from the foot- 
prints in the triassic sandstone of Dumfriesshire. But the Reporter concurs 
in the general conclusions based upon the admirable figures and descriptions 
in the splendid monograph by Sir Wm. Jardine, Bart., F.L.S., that some of 
those foot-prints most probably belonged to species of the Chelonian order. 

An enormous species of true turtle (Chelone gigas), the skull of which 
measured one foot across the back part, has left its remains in the eocene 
clay at Sheppey. The terrestrial type of the order had been exemplified on a 
still more gigantic scale by the Colossochelys of the Sewalik tertiaries. 

Order XIII. Batrachia J. 
Vertebras biconcave (Siren), proccelian (Rana), or opisthocoelian (Pipa) ; 
pleurapophysesshort, straight. Twooccipital condyles and two vomerine bones, 
in most dentigerous: no scales or scutes. Larvse with gills, in most deciduous. 
Representatives of existing families or genera of true Batrachia have been 
found fossil, chiefly in tertiary and post-tertiary strata. Indications of a peren- 
nibranchiate batrachian have recently been detected by the Reporter in a col- 
lection of minute Purbeck fossils. Anourous genera (Palceophrynus) allied 
to the Toad occur in the CEningen tertiaries, and here also the remains of 
the gigantic Salamander (Andrias Scheuchzeri) were discovered. 

Summary of the above defined Orders. 

Province VERTEBRATA. 

Class FLematocrya. Sub-class Reptilia. 

Orders. 

I. Ganocephala. VIII. Dinosauiia. 

II. Labyrinthodontia. IX. Crocodilia. 

III. Ichthyopterygia. X. Lacertilia. 

IV. Sauropterygia. XI. Ophidia. 
V. Anomodontia. XII. Chelonia. 

VI. Pterosauria. XIII. Batrachia. 

VII. Thecodontia. 

* ofis, a serpent. t xeXwi';;, a tortoise. + fiarpaxos, a frog. 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 167 



On some Results of the Mugnetic Survey of Scotland in the years 
1857 <tnd 1858, undertaken, at the request of the British Asso- 
ciation, by the late John Welsh, Esq., F.R.S. By Balfour 
Stewart, A.M. 

The much-lamented death of Mr. Welsh, who laboured in science so well 
and so earnestly, and the last work of whose life was the completion of the 
observations of the Magnetic Survey of Scotland, has imposed upon the author 
the less arduous task of reducing those observations. 

It is now somewhat more than twenty years since the first Magnetic 
Survey of the British Islands was made, the results of which are recorded by 
General Sabine in the Report of the British Association for 1838. 

The General Committee at the Meeting held at Cheltenham in 1856, 
feeling that the time had arrived when another survey of these islands would 
be desirable, requested General Sabine, Prof. Phillips, Sir James C. Ross, 
Mr. Robert W. Fox, and Rev. Dr. Lloyd, to undertake its repetition. It 
was ultimately resolved that Mr. Welsh should proceed to Scotland, and 
the Admiralty kindly granted £200 in aid of his expenses. 

During the summer and autumn of 1857 Mr. Welsh performed the first 
instalment of his task, confining himself to stations in the interior of Scot- 
land and on the east coast. In the same season of 1858 he completed the 
survey, by undertaking the west coast, the Hebrides, and the Orkney and 
Shetland Isles. This involved much personal fatigue and a great number 
of observations, all of which were executed with the utmost possible accuracy 
and scientific attention to details. 

More was clone for Scotland in this survey than in that of twenty years 
ago. In the interval between the two surveys, improvements had been 
made in the dip-circle and in the apparatus for measuring the total mag- 
netic force. These improvements were of course adopted in the instru- 
ments employed in the late survey ; and, furthermore, observations of decli- 
nation were made, — a thing which had not been previously attempted. The 
survey thus divides itself into three parts : the first comprising the Observa- 
tions of Dip ; the second those of Total Force ; and the third those of Decli- 
nation, which will be discussed in order. 

Division I. — Dip. 

The dip-circle (No. 23) was made by Barrow. Two needles were em- 
ployed, each 3£ inches long. The axle of the needle rests on two agate 
planes, and its position is concentric with, but behind (as regards the observer) 
the vertical divided circle on which the inclination is read. A moveable 
arm, concentric with this circle, has two microscopes attached to it, the di- 
stance between them being 3^ inches, so that either extremity of the needle 
may be brought into the centre of the field of the corresponding microscope. 
The extremities of this moveable arm form verniers which bear upon the 
vertical circle, and by means of which the position of the needle may be 
very accurately determined. In November 1857, the following observations 
were made with this instrument in different azimuths : — 



168 



REPORT — 1859. 
Table I. 





Magnetic 


End A 


EndB 


Mean. 


Resulting 




azimuth. 


dipping. 


dipping. 




dip. 


1 


a 




68 27-37 


68 25-25 


68 26-31 


68 26-31 




30 


71 712 


71 600 


71 6-56\ 
78 50-12/ 


68 26-75 




120 


78 50-75 


78 49-50 




60 


78 52-50 


78 5200 


78 52-25 1 
71 412/ 


68 25-58 




150 


71 612 


71 212 




2 





68 24-12 


68 2900 


68 26-56 


68 26-56 




30 


71 3-00 


71 9-37 


71 6181 
78 47-00/ 


68 2507 




120 


78 48-25 


78 45-75 




60 


78 44-87 


78 51-62 


78 48-25 \ 
71 5 62/ 


68 2500 




150 


71 400 


71 7-25 





In this Table the resulting dips are calculated by the formula cot 2 8 = 
cot 2 i+ cot 2 i', where 8 is the true dip, and i and i' the positions of the needle 
in azimuths 90° apart. 

These results are satisfactory, and show that any errors due to the axle or 
to local magnetism in the circle are inappreciable throughout the range of 
observation : otherwise we should have had greater differences in the result- 
ing dips. Now the portion of the circle so tested comprehends that used 
during the magnetic survey; we may therefore with safety suppose the circle 
to be free from magnetism and error of axle as far as the results of the 
survey are concerned. It will also be observed that the dips given by both 
needles are very nearly the same ; and although this amount of agreement 
did not always hold throughout the survey, yet the average difference be- 
tween the needles is exceedingly small. It has therefore been thought 
unnecessary to apply any correction in the case of those stations (very few 
in number) where only one needle was observed. 

The following Table exhibits the results of a comparison made at Kew 
Observatory between the Survey dip-circle (No. 23) and other reliable in- 
struments, in March 1859: — 

Table II. 



Circle. 


Needle. 


Number of 
observations. 


Dip. 


Mean of 
both needles. 


No. 20 


1 
2 


4 
4 


68 23-00 1 
68 24-74 / 


68 23-87 


33 


1 
2 


4 
4 


68 23261 
68 21-58/ 


68 22 42 


34 


1 
2 


4 
4 


68 22-17 \ 
68 19-97/ 


68 2107 


23 


1 
2 


2 

2 


68 24-78 1 
68 22-26/ 


68 23-52 


30 


1 
2 


2 
2 


68 21-681 
68 23-32/ 


68 22-50 


Kew 


1 
2 


3 
3 

Mean of all < 


68 20-881 
68 22-64/ 


68 21 76 


68 22-5 





ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 



169 



It appears from this Table, that, while the mean of all the circles gives a dip 
of 68° 22'-5, the observations with circle No. 23 give 68° 23'5, or 1' higher. 

This difference is so small, that it has been thought unnecessary to apply 
any constant correction to the dips on account of it. It is therefore pre- 
sumed that circle No. 23 is calculated to exhibit the true dip at the place of 
observation. 

An equal weight has been attached to each of the mean dips obtained at 
the various stations, without regard to the number of observations made at 
any station, in accordance with a remark of General Sabine, that an ab- 
normal result is more likely to be due to local magnetism than to error in 
observing. 

The dips have been corrected for secular change to the epoch of 1st 
January, 1858. The yearly rate of change has been ascertained by com- 
paring the observations of the present with those of the previous survey. 
The method is exhibited in the following Table : — 

Table III. 



Station. 



First Dip. 



Date of 
First Dip. 



Lerwick.., 

Aberdeen 

Kirkwall 

"Wick 

Golspie .. 



Inverness 



Fort Augustus 

Berwick 

Melrose 



Alford .... 
Gretna .... 
Edinburgh. 



Glasgow i 

Helensburgh 

Campbelton , 
Cumbray .... 



73 

72 

73 

73 

72 

73 

72 

72 

72 

71 

71 

71 

72 

71 

71 

71 

72 

72 

72 

72 

71 

72 



44-9 
27-6 
20-4 
19-9 
55-5 

4-3 
4G-4 
46-2 
40-3 
41-9 
36-8 
38-0 
21-9 
29-0 
50-3 
50-0 

1-6 

50 
16-7 
17-0 
55-9 

11 



Second 
Dip. 



1838 

1838 

1838 

1838 

1836 

1838 

1836 

1838 

1836 

1838 

1836 

1837 

1836 

1837 

1836 

1837 

1836 

1837 

1836 

1838 

1836 

1836 



11-9 

49-3 

40-9 

39-5 

25-0 

25-0 

7-9 

7-9 

2-6 

54-8 

54-7 

70 54-7 

71 45-9 
46-0 
11-2 
12-5 
263 
263 
29-6 
29-6 
140 
28-9 



73 
71 

72 
72 
72 
72 
72 
72 
72 
70 
70 



70 
71 
71 
71 
71 
71 
71 
71 
71 



Date of 

Second 

Dip. 



1858 

1857 

1858 

1858 

1858 

1858 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1858 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 

1857 



Difference 
of Dips. 



Difference of 
dates in years. 



330 
38-3 
395 
404 
30-5 
39-3 
38-5 
38-3 
377 
47-1 
42-1 
433 
360 
430 
39-1 
375 
353 
38-7 
47-1 
474 
41-9 
322 



20 
19 
20 
20 
22 
20 
21 
19 
21 
19 
21 
20 
21 
20 
21 
21 
21 
20 
21 
19 
21 
21 



Yearly rate 
of decrease. 



1-65 
2-02 
1-97 
2-02 
1-39 
1-96 
1-83 
201 
1-80 
2-48 
2-00 
2-16 
1-71 
2-15 
1-86 
1-79 
1-68 
1-93 
2-24 
249 
1-99 
1-53 



Mean annual rate of decrease =T94 



In reducing the dips to the epoch, a yearly rate of decrease of l'-94, or 
in round numbers 2', has accordingly been adopted. No other correction 
has been applied to the observations. They are thus presented to our view 
in the following Table : — 



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ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OP SCOTLAND. 



173 



It is now necessary that these observations be combined together by the 
method of least squares. This method is described by General Sabine, in 
discussing the Magnetic Observations in Scotland, in the volume of Reports 
of the British Association for 1836. 

We are thus enabled to determine the most probable values of three un- 
known' quantities ; viz. of ci = the dip at the central position; «=-the angle 
which the isoclinal line passing through the central position makes with the 
meridian ; and ? - =the coefficient, determining the rate of increase of the dip 
in the normal direction, or that direction which is at right angles to the 
isoclinal lines. 

Using all the stations except Tobermorie (where the dip seems to be 
much increased by local attraction), we obtain the following values of S, u 
and r; <5=71°'45' ( which represents the most probable value of the dip at 
the central station, lat. 56° 48' N., long. 4° 19' W. ; u, or the angle which the 
isoclinal line makes with the meridian, = — 71° 29', or its direction is from N. 
71° 29' E. to S., 71° 29' W. ; and r, or the rate of increase of dip in the 
normal direction, = 0' - 556 for each geographical mile, or 53 - 95 such miles 
for each half degree of dip. 

The dip observations made use of in the previous survey of twenty years 
ago consist of two sets (see Eighth Report of British Association, pp. 88-90). 

1 . Observations were made at ten stations by Sir James Ross ; these give 
2=72° 40'-8 at the mean geographical position, 57° 20' N., and 3° 08' W., 
and at the mean epoch, August 18, 1838 ; also u= — 62° 39' ; r=0'-545. 

2. Observations were made at thirty-six stations by General Sabine and 
Mr. Fox ; these give w=— 54° 20' ; r=0'-550 ; 2=72° 13'*2 at the mean 
geographical position 56° 18' N., and 4° 10' W. at the epoch, September 1, 
1836. 

Let us regard these results as each possessing a weight proportional to 
the number of stations made use of in obtaining it, and let us reduce them 
to the epoch 1st January, 1837, by assuming the approximate yearly 
decrement of dip to be 2', and the similar increment of the angle — u to 
be 44' ; also let us reduce h to the central station, lat. 56° 48' N., 
long. 4° 19' W. 

This station being the same as that used in the present survey, we have 
thus the means of comparing the results of both surveys in the following 
Table:— 

Table V. 



Central Station. 






u. 


»*. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Epoch. 


d. 


56 48 N. 

50 48 N. 


I 19 W. 
4 19 W. 


1 Jan. 1837 
1 Jan. 1858 


72 3i-9 
71 450 


/ 
-56 03 
-71 29 


0-550 
0-556 



We thus see that in twenty-one years the dip at the central station has 
diminished 46' - 9, or its yearly rate of decrease is 2'*23 ; the value of — u, on 
the other hand, has beeu increased by 15° 26', or the isoclinal lines are so 
much more nearly horizontal than they were in 1837 ; while r, or the co- 
efficient which denotes the change of dip in a normal direction, has altered 
very little*. 

* These changes will be rendered obvious by referring to a map appended to this Re- 
port (Plate 6), in which the isoclinal lines for the two surveys are compared together. 



174 



REPORT — 1859. 



It has already been remarked, that the difference between the observed 
and calculated dip for a station is more likely to be due to local attraction 
than to error of observation. Local attraction, again, may be presumed to 
depend on the geological formation of the neighbourhood. In the following 
Table the difference between the observed and calculated dips is compared 
with the geological character of the station. 

In this Table, the latitudes and longitudes, unless when the contrary is 
specified, are obtained from a Map of Scotland published by the Society for 
the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, while the geological character of the 
station is obtained from Prof. Phillips' Geological Map of Great Britain and 
Ireland. 

Table VI. 



Station. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Observed 
Dip re- 
duced to 
epoch. 


Dip cal- 
culated 

by least 
squares. 


Observed 

minus 

calculated 

Dip. 


Geological character of 
station. 


Berwick 


i 

55 46 
55 35 
55 35 
55 58 
55 43 
55 01 
55 05 
54 56 

54 54 

55 28 
55 52 
55 31 
55 49 

55 48 

56 02 
56 10 

55 25 

56 01 
56 27 

56 51 

57 09 
57 28 
57 39 
57 39 
57 31 
57 09 
57 15 
57 14 
57 01 
56 42 
56 56 
56 02 
55 39 
55 52 
55 48 
55 40 


/ 

2 00 
2 31 

2 44 

3 11 
3 40 
3 03 

3 36 

4 28 

5 02 
4 38 

4 16 

5 05 
4 52 
4 52 
4 43 

4 54 

5 41 

5 27 
5 26 

5 08 
4 40 
4 11 
3 19 
2 31 

1 46 

2 05 
2 23 

2 45 

3 25 

3 43 

4 17 

3 49 

4 47 

6 08 
6 16 
6 10 


70 54'-0 
70 55-2 

70 53-9 

71 115 
70 55-5 
70 45-2 
70 43-2 
70 53-8 

70 54-8 

71 05-2 
71 25-7 
71 05-7 
71 32-0 
71 28-3 
71 28-5 
71 16-6 
71 13-3 

71 25-2 
71 29-3 

71 52-7 

72 02-0 
72 07-3 
72 07-7 
71 55-9 
71 54-2 
71 48-9 
71 36-3 
71 45-4 
71 30-8 
71 34-8 
71 39-0 
71 330 
71 14-5 
71 14-6 
71 1G-0 
71 05-2 


70 58-4 
70 55-7 

70 57-0 

71 11-9 
71 06-8 
70 409 
70 46-3 
70 46-9 

70 49-1 

71 04-6 
71 151 
71 09-0 
71 170 
71 16-6 
71 23-0 
71 28'3 
71 09-4 

71 26-9 
71 40-4 
71 51-3 

71 58'0 

72 05-2 
72 06-2 
72 01-6 
71 53-2 
71 43-1 
71 48-1 
71 49-7 
71 465 
71 38-3 
71 49-0 
71 178 
71 11-3 
71 26-2 
71 24-8 
71 20-1 


i 

- 4-4 

- 5-5 

- 3-1 

- 0-4 
-11-3 
+ 4-3 

- 31 
+ 6-9 
4- 5-7 
+ 0-6 
+ 10-6 

- 3-3 
+ 15-0 
+ 11-7 
+ 5-5 
-11-7 
+ 3-9 

- 1-7 
-11-1 
4- 1-4 
+ 4-0 
+ 2-1 
+ 1-5 

- 5-7 
+ 1-0 
+ 5-8 
-11-8 

- 4-3 
-15-7 

- 3-5 
-100 
+ 15-2 
+ 3-2 
-11-6 

- 8-8 
-14-9 


Clay-slate. 

Felspathic trap. 

Soft clay-slate. 

Coal series. 

Coal. 

New Red sandstone. 

Ditto. 

Soft clay-slate. 

Ditto. 

Coal. 

Ditto. 

Old Red sandstone and trap. 

Ditto, ditto. 

Old Red sandstone. 

Mica schist. 

Ditto. 

Old Red sandstone and mica 
schist associated with pri- 
mary limestone. 

Chlorite slate. 

Trap and Old Red sandstone. 

Granite and gneiss. 

Mica schist. 

Old Red sandstone. 

Ditto, and oolite. 

Gneiss and granite. 

Granite. 

Ditto. 

Ditto, and gneiss. 

Gneiss. 

Ditto. 

Mica schist and gneiss. 

Gneiss. 

Coal. 

Ditto. 

Mica schist. 

Ditto. 


fMakerstoun 

Melrose 


f Edinburgh 




Gretna 




Newton Stewart.. 


Avr 


f Glasgow 


Lamlash 


■^Brisbane 


Cumbray 


Helensburgh 

t Lochgoilliead . . . 

t Ardrishaig 


Oban 


Corpach 


Fort Augustus . . . 


Elein 


Banff 


Peterhead 


Aberdeen 


Kintore 


Alford 


Braemar 


t Pitlochry 


Dalwhinnie 

Larbert 


Ardrossan 


Port Askeg 

Bridgend 


Port Ellen 





t Determined by astronomical observations. 

% Obtained through the kindness of Colonel James. 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 



175 







Table VI 


. (continued.) 




Station. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Observed 
Dip re- 
duced to 
epoch. 


Dip cal- 
culated 
by least 
squares. 


Observed 
minus 

calculated 
Dip. 


Geological character of 
station. 


Toberraorie 

Glenmorven 

| Balmacarra 

JKyleakin 


/ 

56 39 

56 38 

57 17 

57 16 
57 15 

57 26 

58 15 
58 10 
58 29 
58 10 
58 34 
58 35 
58 57 
60 09 
58 59 
58 25 
57 58 
57 34 


/ 

6 02 
5 58 
5 39 

5 44 

5 51 

6 12 
6 23 
6 44 
6 17 
5 12 
4 44 
3 32 
3 16 

1 OS 

2 58 

3 05 

3 58 

4 25 


o / 

72 47-9 
72 03-2 
72 13-8 

72 11-7 

72 16-8 
72 02-3 
72 33-7 
72 35-2 
72 50-2 
72 30-9 
72 51-3 
72 34-0 

72 46-8 

73 13-2 
72 42-2 
72 40-8 
72 26-3 
72 25-8 


o / 

71 50-1 

71 49-2 

72 7-9 

72 7-9 

72 8-0 
72 15-8 
72 42-3 
72 41-6 
72 49-1 
72 33-1 
72 43-1 
72 37-0 

72 471 

73 141 
72 46-6 
72 29-2 
72 19-9 
72 09-7 


+ 57-8 
+ 14-0 
+ 5'9 

+ 3-8 
+ 8-8 
-13-5 

- 8-6 

- 6-4 
+ 1-1 


Trap. 
Ditto. 
Gneiss associated with quartz 

and Old Red sandstone. 
Old Red sandstone. 
Trap and lias. 
Oolite and trap. 
Gneiss. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 


Broadford 


Portree 


Stornoway 


*Callinish 


*Cross 


Loch Inver 

Durness 


+ 3"8 .Ditto. [mary limestone. 
4- 8*2 jDitto, associated with pri- 

— 3-0 Old Red sandstone. 

- 0-3 Ditto. 

— 0-9 Ditto. 

- 4-4 Ditto. 
+ 11-6 [Ditto. 

+ 6-4 .Oolite and Old Red sandstone. 
+ 16-1 'Old Red sandstone. 


Thurso 


{Stromness 


JLeruick 


{Kirkwall 


Wick 


Golspie 


Dingwall 









t Obtained through the kindness of Colonel James. 

* Obtained through the kindness of Mr. Stanford, Charing Cross. 

Let us now divide the stations according to their geological character into 
two groups, the first group comprising the unstratified rocks, trap, and 
granite ; and the second every other formation. We shall find that there 
are thirteen stations, including Tobermorie, in the former, and forty-one 
stations in the latter group. 

The sum of the squares of the differences between the observed and cal- 
culated dip for the thirteen stations is 4394' - 2, and, consequently, the mean 
probable error is 12' - 9. 

If we exclude Tobermorie, these numbers are 1053 ,- 4, 6'6. For the 
group of forty-one stations we have the sum of squares = 24 86'" 1, and the 
mean probable error=5' - 3. 

We thus see that, whether we include Tobermorie or leave it out, the 
mean probable error of dip for those stations in the neighbourhood of igneous 
rocks is greater than for those where the formations are of a stratified 
description. 

Division II. — Total Force. 

These observations were taken by two different methods. 

1. Method of deflections and vibrations. — The instruments here used, and 
the method of observation, are already so well known, that it is unnecessary 
to describe them. Full details regarding these will be found in the Ad- 
miralty Manual of Scientific Inquiry, 3rd edit., 1859. By means of deflec- 
tions,-- , or the ratio between the magnetic moment of the magnet used and 
A 

the earth's horizontal force at any station, is obtained, and by means of 
vibrations we obtain m X or the product of the same quantities. Having 



176 



REPORT — 1859. 



thus obtained both— and m X, either of the quantities m, X may now be found. 
j\ 

The earth's horizontal force for any station being thus found, we have 
only to divide it by the cosine of the observed dip at the station taken at 
the same time, in order to find the total magnetic force. 

The following observations with the instrument used in the survey were 
made at Kew as a base station. 

Table VII. 
Total Magnetic Force obtained by the Survey Unifilar. 
Date of observation, Total force. 

Aug. 5 10-291 

„ „ 10-297 

Oct. 14 10-292 

„ 15 10-301 

1858. 

June 21 10281 

„ „ 10291 

„ „ 10-300 

10-304 



Mean 10-295 

We may without error regard this mean result as the value in British 
units of the total magnetic force given by the instrument used in the survey 
at Kew Observatory, and corresponding to the epoch 1st January, 1858. 
The following series of observations made by another equally reliable in- 
strument, also at Kew, affords perhaps a still more reliable determi- 
nation. 

Table VIII. 

Total Magnetic Force obtained by the Kew Unifilar. 

Date of observation, Total force, 

monthly means. 



1857. 

April 10 

May 10 

June 10 

July 10 

August 10 

September 10 

October 10 

1858. 

January 10 

February , 10 

March 10 



April 
May. , 
June 
July. 



Augus 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



September 10 

October 10 

November 10 



3025 

3080 

300 

306 

287 

306 

315 

282 

299 

296 

291 

3075 

280 

296 

302 

2875 

317 

301 



Total force, January 1858, most probable value. . . . 10-299 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 



177 



It will be seen how nearly this value coincides with that given by the 
Scotch survey instrument. 

No correction of any kind has been applied to the observed values of total 
force at the different stations. 

At some of the stations vibrations only were taken. In such cases, it is 
necessary to know the moment of the magnet at the time of observation, in 
order to eliminate it from the product m X. This may easily be found ; 
for every complete observation gives us a value of m, as well as of X. 

These values of m will be found to vary with the time, because the magnet 
is gradually losing magnetism, and in consequence its moment is slowly 
diminishing. If, therefore, we combine these values together, each year 
separately, by the method of least squares, we shall be enabled to express 
the magnetic moment in terms of the time. We have used this method to 
find the value of X in those cases in which vibrations alone were taken ; but 
for those in which both vibrations and deflections were observed, X has been 
determined by means of the two equations thereby furnished. 

In the following Table are exhibited the values of X obtained by both these 
methods, and also the value of the total force for the different stations 
obtained from the observed values of horizontal force and dip, by means 
of the formula — 

horizontal force 



Total force =• 



cosine dip 



Table IX. 



Station. 



Date. 



mX. 



Greenwich 
mean time 

of ob- 
servation. 



X 



Greenwich 
mean time 

of ob- 
servation. 



Calculated 
value of m 



Total 
force. 



Makerstoun .... 
Gretna 

Dumfries 

Newton Stewart 

Stranraer 

Ayr 

Lamlash 

Helensburgh.... 
Lochgoilhead . 

Ardrishaig 

Oban 

Corpach 

Fort Augustus . 

Inverness 

Banff 

Peterhead 

Aberdeen 

Kintore 

Alford 

Braemar 

Pitlochry 

Dalwhinnie 

Larbert 

Edinburgh 

1859. 



1857. 

Aug. 10 

15 

15 

17 

19 

19 

20 

22 

25 

28 

29 

Sept. 4 

7 

8 

9 

11 

15 

17 

17 

19 

21 

22 

24 

28 

29 

Oct. 1 

5 



1-7248 
1-7225 

1-7286 
1-7138 

'i-riio 

1-7000 
1-7061 
1-6662 
1-6805 
1-6740 
1-6653 
1-6541 
1-6312 
1-6255 
1-6319 
1-6320 
1-6318 
1 -6329 
1-6520 
1-0440 
1-6657 
1-6521 
1-6550 
1-6565 
1-6853 



1 p.m. 
122 " 

11 55 A.M. 



•14391 
•14382 
•14389 



h m 





11 


4 p.m. 


6 11 


1 40 


5 30 


4 17 


11 28 a.m. 


2 25 p.m. 


3 4 


1 17 


4 6 


1 4 


1 33 


24 


1 16 


10 20 a.m. 


2 20 p.m. 


11 19 a.m. 


28 p.m. 


3 52 


31 



•14464 
•14460 



•14561 
14493 
14846 



14761 
14829 
14946 



•15171 
•15126 



•15093 
■14919 
14943 



•14924 
•14869 



2 4 
2 4 


P.M 


44 
44 


59 
7 5 
35 


3 27 

10 35 

1 41 


A.M. 
P.M. 


2 40 
5 10 


11 35 
18 
2 35 


A.M. 
P.M. 


10 34 


\.M. 


3 9 


P.M. 



•49777 
•49767 

: 49735 

•49697 
•49669 

•49644 

•49026 
•49606 



3-4620 

3-4604 

3-4714 

3-4424 

3-4381 
3-4171 
3-4310 
3-3500 
3-3789 
3-3677 
3-3511 
3-3267 
3-2822 
3-2733 
3-2846 

3-2856 

3-2891 
3-3276 
3-3168 
3-3553 
3-3272 
3-3349 
3-3378 
3-3974 



N 



10-548 

10-505 

10-519 

10-523 

10-519 
10-548 
10595 
10-538 
10-531 
10-575 
10-560 
10-702 
10047 
10067 
10-596 

10-582 

10-543 

10-550 
10-599 
10-587 
10-535 
10-598 
10-552 
10-536 



178 



REPORT 1859. 



Table IX. (continued.) 



Station. 



Makerstoun 
Edinburgh 



Portree .... 
Stomoway. 

Callinish . 
Cross 



Loch Inver 



Durness.. 
Thurso .. 
Lerwick . . 
Kirkwall 



Wick 

Golspie .. 
Dingwall 



Date. 



mX. 



Ardrossan . . . 
Port Askeg 
Bridgend ... 
Tobermorie 
Grlemnorren 
Bahnacarra 
Kyleakin . . . 
Broadford . . . 



Aug. 



1858. 
July 7 

9 
10 
12 
17 
19 
24 
26 
28 
29 
31 
31 
3 
6 
6 
9 
11 
11 
16 
16 
16 
19 
23 
30 
1 
1 
1 
4 
7 
9 



Greenwich 
mean time 

of ob- 
servation. 



X* 



Sept. 



1-6624 
1-6573 
1-6663 
1-6718 
1-6722 
1-5374 
1-6382 
1-5838 
1-58(12 
1-5854 

1-5951 

1-5604 
1-5655 
1-5566 
1-5459 

1-5357 
1-5260 

1-5339 
1-5380 
1-5594 
1-5103 
1-5475 
1-5572 
1-5582 
1-5531 
1-5727 
1-5647 



3 
11 

O 

1 
4 
5 
3 



43 p.m 

51 A.M. 

38 p.m 

18 

32 

17 

14 
49 
7 10 
11 30 a.m. 



•14080 
14079 

•14346 
•14260 
14216 
•14199 

•15436 



Grenwich 
mean time 

of ob- 
servation. 



h m 

11 56 A.M. 

42 r.M 



Calculated 
value of m. 



X. 



Total 
force. 



41 P.M. 
59 A.M 

31 I>.M 

2 
21 



1 10 

1 57 
5 2 

10 23 a.m 

2 9 p.m 
17 

19 A.M 
10 P.M 
56 
53 

3 
57 



15005 

14979 
•14956 

: i52oi' 

15207 



•15354 

•15355 



41 

1 50 
12 

2 41 
6 17 

2 35 

10 3 A.M 
10 35 



•48750 

•48748 



10 58 

11 31 



2 53 p.m 

3 17 



1 
11 
2 
2 
1 
3 
1 



•15675 
•15288 
•15266 



2 21 

18 

1 13 



■48733 
•48730 

•48726 

•■48720 

•48714 

•48711 

•48707 



•48699 

•48696 
•48693 
•48691 



34626 

3-4101 
3-3988 
3-4184 
3-4293 
3-4317 
31560 
3-3616 
3-2489 
3-2551 

3-2546 

3-2737 
3-2039 
3-2085 
31949 

3-1730 



31446 

31574 
3-2017 
31041 
31815 
31937 
31996 
31894 
3-2299 
3-2134 



10-545 

10-586 
10-551 
10-621 
10-655 
10-675 
10-661 
10-899 
10-634 
10-636 

10-682 

10-605 

1 10-689 

10-666 

10-742 



10-512 

10-697 
10-674 
10-738 

L 10-721 

10-700 
10-692 
10-632 



It may be observed, in passing, that the moments in the above table show 
us that the loss of magnetism of the needle was much more rapid during the 
first year than the second ; the reason being, that the needle had been mag- 



netized about the beginning of 1857, and v 



therefore 



during 



the first 



year's observations a comparatively new magnet. 

It is now necessary to combine our total forces by the method of least 
squares. If we exclude Loch Inver and Glenmorven, both of which seem to 
be much affected by local disturbance, we obtain/, or the total force at the 
central station, lat. 56° 55' N., long. 4° 21' W. = 10-614 ; m, or the angle 
which the isodynamic lines make with the meridian=— 52° 45', or then- 
direction is from N. 52° 45' E. to S. 52° 45' W. ; and r, or the rate of in- 
crease of total force in a normal direction = -000961 (British units) for each 
geographical mile. 

It will be remembered that the unifilar used in the Scotch survey gave 
the total force at Kew=10295. 

Let us suppose that this number represents with sufficient accuracy the 
total force in London, which is only a few miles from Kew, on 1st Jan. 
1858. 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 



179 



Making this our unit, we obtain the following values of / and r for the 
central station,/= 1-0309 ; r = -0000933. 

We may now compare together the two surveys, with respect to k and r, 
in the following Table : — 

Table X. 



Central Station. 


Epoch. 


u. 


r. 


Lat. 


Long. 


5°6 40 N. 
56 55 N. 


3 30 W. 

4 41 W. 


1 Jan. 1837 
1 Jan. 1858 


-50 02 
-52 45 


•0001320 
•0000933 



From this Table, it would seem that the angle u has changed very little 
during the twenty-one years between the two surveys ; while, on the other 
hand, r, or the change of force in the normal direction for one geographical 
mile, appears to have diminished considerably. 

In the following Table the observed values of total force are compared 
with those calculated for the various stations : — 

Table XI. 



Station. 



Observed 
Total Force. 



Calculated 
Total Force. 



Observed 
minus cal- 
culated. 



Makerstoun .... 

Edinburgh 

Gretna 

Dumfries 

Newton Stewart 

Stranraer 

Ayr... , 

Lamlash 

Helensburgh .... 
Lochgoilhead.... 

Ardrishaig 

Oban 

Corpach 

Fort Augustus . 

Inverness 

Banff 

Peterhead 

Aberdeen 

Kintore 

Alford 

Braemar 

Pitlochry 

Dalwhinnie .... 

Larbert 

Ardrossan 

Port Askeg .... 

Bridgend 

Tobermorie .... 
Glenraorven .... 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10' 
10' 
10' 
10' 
10- 
10- 
10' 
10- 
10- 
10- 
10- 
10- 
10 



546 

558 
505 
519 
523 
519 
548 
•595 
538 
•531 
•575 
•560 
■702 
■647 
■667 
596 
■582 
543 
■550 
599 
587 
535 
598 
552 
621 
655 
675 
661 
899 



10-517 
10548 
10501 
10515 
10-525 
10-535 
10-553 
10-564 
10-581 
10-590 
10-594 
10-614 
10-626 
10-631 
10-636 
10-614 
10-594 
10-582 
10-592 
10-598 
10-601 
10-592 
10-614 
10-563 
10-564 
10-601 
10-600 
10-634 
10-632 



+•029 
+•010 
+•004 
+•004 
-•002 
-•016 
-•005 
+•031 
-•043 
-•059 
-•019 
-•054 
+•076 
+•016 
+•031 
-•018 
-•012 
-•039 
-•042 
+•001 
-•014 
-•057 
-•016 
-•011 
+ •057 
+•054 
+•075 
+•027 
+•267 



180 



REPORT 1859. 

Table XI. {continued.) 



Station. 


Observed 
Total Force. 


Calculated 
Total Force. 


Observed 

minus cal- 

lated. 




10-634 
10-636 
10-682 
10-605 
10-689 
10-666 
10-742 
10-512 
10-697 
10-674 
10-738 
10-721 
10-700 
10-692 
10-632 


10-655 
10-656 
10-658 
10-673 
10-713 
10-715 
10-721 
10-687 
10-697 
10-676 
10-707 
10-684 
10-660 
10655 
10-645 


-•021 
-•020 
+•024 
-•068 
-•024 
-■049 
+•021 
-•175 
•000 
-•002 
+•031 
+•037 
+•040 
-(-•037 
-•013 


















Thurso 






Wick 









If we divide the stations as before into two groups, the first comprising 
trap and granite, and the second every other formation, we shall find that 
there are twelve stations, including Glenmorven, in the former, and thirty- 
one stations, including Loch Inver, in the latter class. 

The sum of the squares of the differences between the observed and cal- 
culated force for the twelve stations is = *0915 (British units), and, con- 
sequently, the mean probable error is "061. 

If we exclude Glenmorven, these numbers are '0202, -030. 

For the group of thirty-one stations we have — 

Sum of squares = '05 7 7 ; mean probable error="030. 

If we exclude Loch Inver, these numbers are "0270, "020. 

"We thus see, that whether we include Glenmorven and Loch Inver or 
leave them out, the mean error of force for those stations in the neighbour- 
hood of igneous rocks is greater than for those where the formations are of 
a stratified description. 

In the second map attached to this Report (Plate 7), the isodynamic lines 
for 1st January, 1837, are compared with those for 1st January, 1858 ; the 
force at London being reckoned = unity in both cases. It will be noticed, 
however, that we have no record of the absolute change that has taken 
place in the total force between the two epochs, as we have no absolute 
measure of the force at London for 1st January, 1837. 

2. Dr. Lloyd's Statical Method. — In this method the dip circle is 
employed. A needle is loaded with a small weight, and its position of equi- 
librium enables us to find the product of its magnetic moment into the 
earth's magnetic force. The needle is then removed and attached to an arm 
at right angles to that which carries the microscopes, it being now used to 
deflect another needle substituted in its former place. 

The moveable arm is next turned round until the deflected needle assumes 
a position at right angles to the deflecting needle, so that the extremities of 
the former are viewed by the microscopes. The position of the deflected 
needle enables us to find the ratio between the magnetic moment of the 
deflecting needle and the earth's magnetic force. A detailed description of 
his instrument is given by the Rev. H. Lloyd in the Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy for 1858. 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 



181 



In determining the total force by this method, a constant is made use of, 
which is best found at the base station by comparison with a unifilar. A 
priori, there is no reason for supposing that this constant will change, so 
that it only requires to be determined once for all ; yet, in the instrument 
used in the Scotch survey, there is reason for supposing that a change in the 
value of the constant took place between the first year and the second. 

This will be seen by the following Table, which exhibits the values of the 
total magnetic force given by the circle at Kew at different periods, the same 
constant being used throughout : — 



Table XII. 



Date. 


Total Force. 


Face of 
deflected 
needle to 
the East. 


Face of 
deflected 
needle to 
the West. 


1857. 


10-310 
10-309 
10-257 
10-252 

10-274 
10-269 


10-228 
10-212 
10-230 
10-212 
10-214 


7 


Oct. 14 


15 


1858. 


18 


June 11 


14 




14 




29 




29 




Nov. 8 


10-293 
10-288 
10-294 
10-288 
10-293 
10-286 

10-314 


30 


Dec. 1 


1 


3 


3 


1859. 
Feb. 2 





From this Table it will be seen, that while the instrument with the face of 
the deflected needle to the east gave on the 6th of August, 1857, a reading as 
high as 103 10, on the 15th of October of the same year this had fallen as 
low as 10-252, from which it gradually rose again, until in February, 1859, 
it had attained the same value as at first. 

The constant seems to have been chosen to make the first two observa- 
tions of August 6 and 7, 1857, give a value for the total force = 10-310, hut 
from a table already given, its most probable value about this period was found 
to be 10299, or nearly 10-300. Let us, therefore, deduct 001 from the values 
of total force obtained by this method during the first year's survey, for in 
these the same constant and arrangement of instrument were employed, which 
gave the value 10 - 31 at Kew. We thus obtain the following table of com- 
parison between the results obtained during the first year by the two me- 
thods : — 



182 



REPORT 1859. 



Table XIIL 



Station. 



Makerstoun .... 

Gretna 

Dumfries 

Newton Stewart 

Stranraer 

Ayr 

Lamlash 

Helensburgh .... 
Lochgoilhead . 
Helensburgh .... 

Ardrishaig 

Oban 

Corpach 

Fort Augustus . 

Inverness 

Banff 

Peterhead 

Aberdeen 

Kintore 

Alford 

Braemar 

Pitlochry 

Larbert 

Edinburgh 



Date. 



1857. 

Aug. 10 

15 

17 

18 

19 

20 

22 

22 

25 

28 

29 

Sept. 3 

3 

4 

7 

8 

9 

11 

16 

17 

19 

21 

22 

24 

28 

1 

5 



Oct. 



Total force. 



(1) By 

Dr. Lloyd's 

method. 



10527 
10-475 
10-497 
10530 
10-531 
10527 
10-529 
10-525 

*10-571 
10-551 
10-547 
10-561 
10-564 
10-560 
10-582 
10-685 
10-663 
10-673 
10-576 
10540 
10-567 
10-610 
10 594 
10-564 
10-551 

+10-541 
10-522 



(2) By the 
method of 
vibration. 



10-548 
10-505 
10-519 
10-523 
10-523 
10-519 
10-548 
10-548 
10-595 
10-538 
10-531 
10-538 
10-538 
10-575 
10-560 
10-702 
10-647 
10-668 
10-596 
10-582 
10-543 
10-550 
10-599 
10-587 
10-535 
10-552 
10-536 



(2)-(l) 



+ •021 
+•030 
+ •022 
-•007 
-•008 
-•008 
+ •019 
+ •023 
+ •024 
-•013 
-•016 
-•023 
-•026 
+ 015 
-•022 
+•017 
-•016 
-•005 
+ •020 
+ •042 
-•024 
-•060 
+ •005 
+ •023 
-•016 
+ •011 
+ •014 



* Altered the western Y of the lifter before taking this observation. Again at Oban. 
t Tightened screws before this observation. 



It appears from this Table, that, considering the results obtained by the me- 
thod of vibrations as standards with which to compare those obtained by Dr. 
Lloyd's process, the latter are found to differ in several instances considerably 
from the former, sometimes in a positive and sometimes in a negative di- 
rection. Proceeding now to the observations of 1858, I find that these were 
taken with the face of the deflected needle to the west. They are therefore 
comparable with the five observations taken at Kew during June 1858. The 
mean of these five observations gives 1021 9 as the value of the total force at 
Kew. This is -08 less than the probable value ; so that we ought to add this 
amount to all the observations taken by this process during 1858. We thus 
obtain, as before, the following table, in which the results of the two methods 
for 1858 are compared together : — 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 



183 



Table XIV. 



Station. 



Ardrossan .. 
Port Askeg 
Bridgend . . 
Toberniorie 
Glenmorven 
Balmacarra 
Kyleakin .. 
Broadford .. 

Portree 

Stornoway.. 
Callinish . . 

Cross 

Loch Inver 

Durness 

Thurso 

Lerwick 

Kirkwall .. 

Wick 

Golspie 

Dingwall . . 



Date. 



1858. 
July 12 
16 
19 
24 
26 
28 
29 
30 
30 
5 

10 

11 

16 

16 

18 

23 

30 

31 

4 

7 

9 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Total force. 



(1) By 

Dr. Lloyd's 

method. 



10-614 
10-714 
10-703 
10-799 
10-754 
10-692 
10-672 
10-693 
10-636 
10-727 
10-741 
10-759 
10-619 
10-636 
10-743 
10-684 
10-716 
10-727 
10-720 
10-708 
10-696 



(2) By the 
method of 
vibrations. 



10621 
10-655 
13-675 
10-661 
10-899 
10-634 
10-636 
10-682 
10-605 
10-689 
10-666 
10-742 
10-512 
10-512 
10-697 
10-674 
10-738 
10-721 
10-700 
10-692 
10-632 



(2)-(l) 



+•007 
-•059 
-•028 
-•138 
+ •145 
-•058 
-•036 
-•011 
-•031 
-•038 
-•075 
-•017 
-107 
-•124 
-•046 
-•010 
+ 022 
-•006 
-•020 
-•016 
-•064 



By this Table we see that the constant which suited the observations taken 
at Kew in June 1858 does not suit those taken in Scotland a month or two 
afterwards, for, when applied to them, it makes the resulting force too great. 
The instrument must therefore have changed its constant between June and 
July in such a manner, that, had it been observed at Kew in July, it would 
have given a larger reading than it gave in June. This agrees with what we 
inferred from the observations of Table XII. taken at Kew with the face of 
the deflected needle to the east, viz. that a rise in the readings must have 
taken place at some time between January and November 1858. To con- 
clude, — in this case at least, the results obtained by Dr. Lloyd's method do not 
bear comparison in accuracy with those determined by means of the method 
of vibrations. I have therefore made no use of the former in deducing ge- 
neral results. 



Division III. — Declination. 

During the first year (1857) the Declination observations were made in 
the following manner. A collimator magnet was employed, the division on 
the glass scale of which corresponding to the magnetic axis was first accu- 
rately determined. Great care was taken that the collimator scale should not 
be touched, or its position with reference to the magnet in any way altered*. 

* There is every reason to believe that this care was successful in securing a fixed position 
of the magnetic axis with reference to the scale. From a determination at Kew before the 
commencement of the first year's survey, 49-7 on the scale denoted the magnetic axis. Be- 



184 REPORT — 1859. 

An altitude and azimuth instrument by Cary, on a tripod firmly placed, was 
turned until the division on the glass scale of the magnet corresponding to 
the magnetic axis coincided with the vertical wire of the telescope, and the 
azimuth circle was then read. The altitude and azimuth instrument was then 
turned towards the sun, the time at which his centre crossed the middle wire 
was found by a chronometer, whose error and rate were known, and the read- 
ing of the azimuth circle was noted. The latitude and longitude of the place 
and the time of observation being supposed to be known, the astronomical 
azimuth of the sun at the moment of observation is given by a well-known 
formula. The difference between the readings of the azimuth circle for the 
sun's centre and the magnetic axis enables us then at once to determine the 
magnetic declination. The altitude and azimuth instrument was often allowed 
to remain in position for some hours, during which time occasional readings 
of the magnetic axis were taken, and at the same time the azimuth of some 
fixed object was read occasionally, in order to see if the tripod-stand had 
shifted. The silk thread by which the magnet was suspended was carefully 
kept as free from torsion as possible, and the amount of torsion was moreover 
examined and eliminated from time to time. The amounts occasionally found 
to be present were always of such trifling consequence that no correction on 
their account has been applied to the observations. 

The chronometer used was a pocket instrument by Arnold and Dent, No. 
5155. Its rate appears to have been somewhat irregular, owing probably 
to the motion it received in travelling. At almost every station, however, 
altitudes of the sun were taken, by which the correct time, and consequently 
also the error of the instrument.^were determined. 

For one or two stations no altitudes were taken, and consequently no chro- 
nometer error determined. Here the following method was pursued. A 
correction was applied to the last determined chronometer error, depending 
upon the time that had elapsed since, and on the most probable chronometer 
rate. The chronometer error so corrected was used in the azimuth observation 
of the station whose altitude observation was wanting. 

During the years 1858 and 1859 self-recording magnetometers were con- 
tinuously in operation at Kew Observatory, by means of which the magnetic 
declination at any moment might be determined. The traces furnished by 
the declination magnetometer have been reduced at General Sabine's office 
at Woolwich, and the hourly means of the declination, free from disturbance, 
for every month of both those years have been determined. This enables us 
to say with great accuracy what correction ought to be applied to a declina- 
tion observation taken at Kew at any hour of any month of any year near 
this date, in order to reduce it to the 31st of December (mean of all the 
hours) of the same year in which it was taken. 

Presuming that these corrections are also applicable to Scotland, and to 
1857, they have been used in reducing the observations of declination taken 
in that year to the epoch of January 1, 1858. In reducing those taken in 
1858 a somewhat different method has been pursued. During that year the 
Kew magnetometers, as already mentioned, were in operation. Suppose that 
we take the mean of all the hours of January 1858, freed from disturbance, as 

fore the second year's survey its position had changed to 49 - (an inconsiderable difference). 
At Thurso, on August 23, 1858, the magnet was observed erect and inverted, and 49 - was 
still found to denote the axis. At Lerwick, the next station after Thurso, the glass scale 
was wiped, after which the axis appears to have changed ; but, as in every observation after- 
wards the magnet was viewed both erect and inverted, this shifting of the axis was of little 
consequence. 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 



185 



representing approximately the declination at the epoch of January 1, 1858. 
It will not do so exactly, because it will correspond to the middle and not to 
the beginning of January ; but the difference will be so trifling, that we may 
suppose the correspondence to be exact without further refinement. 

Now, by means of the traces of the magnetograph we can find the difference 
between the declination at Kew at any moment of 1858 and that corre- 
sponding to the epoch of January 1, 1858, as above defined. And this we 
can do even if a considerable magnetic disturbance be going on at the mo- 
ment we fix upon for comparison with the epoch, because this disturbance 
is registered by the magnetograph, and it may therefore be measured and 
allowed for. 

Now, the moment at which the needle was observed at any station in Scot- 
land in the year 1858 has been recorded ; if, therefore, we suppose the same 
magnetic changes to take place simultaneously in Scotland and at Kew, the 
indications of the Kew magnetograph will afford us the means of reducing 
accurately the observations of declination taken in Scotland in 1858 to our 
epoch January 1, 1858. This method has been pursued with these obser- 
vations. 

The following Table exhibits the most probable value of the absolute 
declination at Kew corresponding to 1st January, 1858, the method of reduc- 
tion to epoch being that now mentioned : — 



Table XV. 



Date. 


Time of 
Observation. 


Needle 
used. 


Declination. 


Observed. 


Reduced 
to epoch 










1 Jan. 1858. 


1858. 


h m 




o / 




Jan. 5 


10 5 A.M. 


Survey 


21 57-5 1 


o / 

21 565 


5 


2 10 p.m. 


If 


22 30 ' 


Feb. 4 


4 13 „ 


n 


21 586" 




5 


10 31 A.M. 


*l 


21 54-4 . 


21 54-8 


23 


1 15 P.M. 


n 


21 59-8 




Mar. 1 


1 1 22 A.M. 


n 


22 23 : 




2 
4 


2 24 p.m. 
10 34 a.m. 


11 

n 


22 8-0 
21 56-2 ' 


21 56-0 


5 


2 6 p.m. 


n 


22 3-3 




April 26 


1 7 „ 


»» 


22 3-0* 


21 570 


29 


11 46 A.M. 


ii 


21 59-5 ' 


May 26 
26 


4 p.m. 
4 15 „ 


ii 

it 


22 0-2 '■ 
21 59-8 ' 


21 56-6 


Aug. 13 


3 9 „ 


Kew 


21 591 


21 556 


Sept. 16 


3 21 „ 


i> 


21 54-7 


21 57-1 


Oct. 14 


3 32 „ 


ii 


21 543 


21 55-1 


1859. 










Sept. 27 


4 43 „ 


ii 


21 443 


21 53-4 


Oct. 31 


11 28 A.M. 


ii 


21 48-6 


21 57-1 


Nov. 18 
19 


4 7 p.m. 

29 „ 


ii 
ii 


21 46-4 1 
21 48-0 J 


21 56-6 


Dec. 21 


3 17 „ 


ii 
declination, 


21 45-8 
Jan. 1, 185£ 


21 54-9 




Mean 


21 559 



186 



REPORT — 1859. 



The following Table exhibits the declinations taken during the first year's 
survey, reduced to the epoch by the method already mentioned ; — 



Table XVI. 
DECLINATIONS— 1857. 



Station. 


Date. 


Greenwich 

mean time 

of observation. 


Declination. 


Observed. 


Reduced to 

epoch 
lJan.1858. 




1857. 

Aug. 10 

12 

13 

13 

15 

17 

17 

17 

18 

20 

20 

20 

22 

22 

24 

24 

24 

26 

27 

28 

28 

29 

Sept. 2 

4 

4 

7 

8 

9 

9 

14 

14 

14 

16 

17 

19 

19 

22 

22 

24 

24 

28 

29 

29 

Oct. 5 

5 


h m 

7 54 a.m. 

5 44 p.m. 

4 12 „ 
1 12 „ 
1 23 p.m. 

9 8 A.M. 

10 20 „ 
1 23 p.m. 

5 29 „ 

9 48 a.m. 
10 18 „ 

1 18 p.m. 

9 9 A.M. 

10 9 „ 
9 31 „ 

10 30 „ 

2 31 p.m. 

16 „ 

1 41 „ 

11 10 a.m. 

3 53 p.m. 

4 8 „ 

7 38 a.m. 

2 45 p.m. 

5 14 „ 

9 42 a.m. 
9 55 „ 

6 22 p.m 
4 17 „ 
9 22 a.m. 
4 32 p.m. 

6 48 „ 

10 16 A.M. 

4 57 p.m. 
1 6 „ 
4 12 „ 

3 20 „ 
3 50 „ 

9 27 a.m. 

11 „ 

8 „ 

7 5 „ 
7 52 „ 

11 45 a.m. 
3 54 p.m. 


23 52-5 

24 28-0 

24 59-2 

25 4-5 

23 41-2 

24 46-3 
24 48-7 

24 55-0 

25 11-5 
25 372 
25 40-2 
25 48-2 
25 24-7 
25 24-7 
25 28-3 
25 30-2 
25 34-7 
25 21-7 
25 44-6 
25 43-8 
25 447 

25 56-2 

26 19-2 
26 34-8 
26 30-5 
26 11-0 
26 22-3 
26 6-0 
26 4-3 
25 56-5 
25 82 
25 6-8 
25 18-7 
24 34-2 
24 37-5 
24 34-3 
24 39-3 

24 38-2 

25 7-2 
25 12-7 
25 182 
25 50-2 
25 49-7 

24 592 

25 2-8 


2°3 561 
24 27-4 
24 551 
24 56-0 

23 32-7 

24 48-2 
24 46-4 

24 46-5 

25 104 
25 37-2 
25 38-0 
25 39-7 
25 26-6 
25 239 
25 28-8 
25 27-3 
25 275 
25 14-2 
25 36-5 
25 38-7 
25 406 

25 52-1 

26 23-5 
26 29-8 
26 29-9 
26 11-6 
26 21 9 
26 6-0 
26 2-3 
25 58-7 
25 67 
25 71 
25 17-4 
24 33-4 
24 29-5 
24 32-2 
24 35-7 

24 35-6 

25 8-7 
25 8-8 
25 23-0 
25 54-0 
25 54-5 

24 53-6 

25 0-2 






































Elein 


Banff 






Alford 













ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OF SCOTLAND. 187 

In 1858 the declination was observed by means of an instrument of a dif- 
ferent kind. This was invented by Dr. Lloyd, and it is described by him in 
the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, January 11, 1858. In this 
instrument the telescope is horizontal, and there is a mirror by which the sun 
may be reflected into the telescope, and its azimuth determined. The mirror 
being adapted to the telescope by which the scale of the magnets is observed, 
the same horizontal circle is made to serve for determining everything, and 
thus the theodolite and additional tripod are dispensed with, while the alti- 
tudes of the sun are determined by means of a small sextant and artificial 
horizon. A considerable reduction in the observer's travelling equipment is 
thus obtained. 

In Dr. Lloyd's instrument three adjustments are required. 

1. The axis of the mirror must be horizontal. This is tested by a small 
riding level. 

2. The plane of the mirror must be parallel to the axis. Should this not 
be exactly the case, the error is eliminated by first observing, then reversing 
the axle in its Y s > observing again, and taking a mean of the two readings. 

3. The line of collimation of the telescope must be perpendicular to the 
axis of the mirror. The error produced by want of a perfect adjustment of 
tins nature may be got rid of by viewing the sun (1°) direct, or facing the 
south, (2°) backwards, or facing the north. 

For, let 2 denote the error of azimuth in a direct observation, $' the same 
in a back observation ; then it may be shown that 

sin 2 i alt. 



3=+C 



cos alt. 



w — p cos 2 | alt t 

cos alt. 
where C is a constant quantity. 

Hence if A, B denote the readings of the circle in the fore and back obser- 
vations, we have in the fore observation c= + {180° — (A — B)} sin 2 1 alt., 
the sign of § being such that the truth lies between the results given by the 
two observations. 

Before the commencement of the second year's survey, the axis of the 
mirror had been accurately adjusted so as to be at right angles to the line of 
collimation of the telescope, but on July 20, at Bridgend, the axis was found 
to be very much out. A plumb line was suspended, which was viewed by 
direct vision, and backwards by reflection. When viewed by direct vision, the 
circle reading was 348° 18', while by back reflection it was 350° 20', the angle 
of inclination of the mirror to the horizon in the back observation being about 



„_ r cos 2 10° 



& 



80°; the formula 122'=C gives C=118', — a large amount. In con- 
cos 20° 5 B 

sequence of this, it has been thought advisable to reject all the observations 
before Bridgend. At Bridgend the mirror was readjusted, and for all the ob- 
servations afterwards, with the exception of two, the sun was observed both 
by direct and by back reflection. The following Table exhibits the values of 
S and C at the various stations, where both fore and back observations were 
taken : — 



188 



REPORT — 1859. 
Table XVII. 



Station. 



Glenraorven 
Balmacarra 
Kyleakin ., 
Stornoway.. 

Callinish .. 

Cross 

Loch Inver 

Durness 

Thurso 

Lerwick 

Wick 

Golspie 



+ 14-3 


44-8 


+ 2-9 


358 


+ 3-1 


41-3 


+ 2-2 


460 


+ 1-3 


354 


+ 1-2 


41-2 


+ 2-5 


399 


+ 4-3 


47-2 


+ 2-7 


40-1 


+ 32 


35-3 


+ 1-0 


412 


+ 4-0 


43-0 


+ 2-0 


36-9 


+ 1-3 


375 



We see from this Table that though C (which is equal to twice the angle 
by which the mirror is out in adjustment), as exhibited in the third column, 
is somewhat large, yet the correction to be applied to the actual observations, 
denoted by c!, is generally very small, the only exception being Glenmorven, 
where the altitude of the sun was high at the time of the azimuth observation. 

It has been mentioned that there were two stations after Bridgend at which 
no back observations were taken. One of these was Port Ellen, the next 
station after Bridgend, but as the altitude of the sun was high when the azi- 
muth observation was taken there, it has not been thought advisable to apply 
a correction proceeding upon an assumed value of C. The other station was 
Kirkwall, which occurs in point of time between Lerwick and Wick. The 
value of C for Lerwick is 41''2, and for Wick it is 43' - 0. If we assume the 
mean of these, or 42'* 1 as the value for Kirkwall, we find 5= + 2 f, 2, which 
value has accordingly been adopted. 

Table XVIII. (p. 189) exhibits the declinations for 1858, corrected for error 
of mirror, and reduced to 1st January, 1858. 

If we now take all the declinations, with the exception of that for Glen- 
morven, which seems to be influenced by local attraction, we obtain by the 
method of least squares u, or the angle which the isogonic lines make 
with the meridian = — 20° 58'-3, or their direction is from N. 20° 58'-3E. 
to S. 20° 5 8' -3 W. ; r, or the increase of the declination in a direction per- 
pendicular to the isogonic lines, =sl'*465 for each geographical mile ; and d, 
or the declination at the central station, lat. 56° 54' N., long. 4° 14' W.= 
25° 53' - 6. The isogonic lines are exhibited in a map (Plate 7) appended to this 
report. 

In Table XIX. (page 190) the observed and calculated declinations are 
compared together. 

If we now divide the stations, as before, into two groups, the first comprising 
trap and granite, and the second every other formation, we shall find the mean 
probable error for the former group=24' - 8, and that for the latter=ll'T. 

If we examine Tables VI., XI., XIX., in which the difference between the 
observed and calculated magnetic elements is given for the different stations 
arranged in the order of observation, we shall, I think, perceive that stations 
similarly affected with regard to sign are in many cases grouped together. 
But, from the principle of arrangement adopted, the members of any such 
group denote stations at which the observations were consecutive with respect 
to time ; so that such stations cannot be very far apart with respect to geogra- 
phical position. 



ON THE MAGNETIC SURVEY OP SCOTLAND. 189 

Table XVIII. 



Station. 


Date. 


Greenwich 
Mean Time 
of observa- 
tion. 


Declination. 


Observed. 


Corrected 

for error of 

mirror. 


Reduced to 
1 Jan. 1858. 




1858. 
July 26.. 
26.. 
28.. 
28.. 
28.. 
29.. 
29.. 
29.. 
Aug. 5 . . 

5.. 

5.. 

6.. 

6.. 

6.. 

9.. 

9.. 

9.. 

9.. 

9.. 

9.. 

9.. 
11.. 
11.. 
11.. 
11.. 
16.. 
16.. 
16.. 
16.. 
16.. 
18.. 
18.. 
18.. 
18.. 
23.. 
23.. 
23.. 
23.. 
30.. 
30.. 
30.. 
30.. 
30.. 
30.. 
31.. 
31.. 
Sept. 4 . . 

4.. 

4.. 

4.. 

4.. 

7.. 

7.. 

7.. 

7.. 


h m 

32 p.m. 

2 16 „ 

8 47 a.m. 

9 53 „ 
3 p.m. 
5 11 „ 

5 27 „ 

6 35 „ 

5 56 „ 

6 11 „ 
6 41 „ 
6 „ 
6 17 „ 
6 22 „ 

2 48 „ 

3 28 „ 
3 30 „ 
5 29 „ 

5 35 „ 

6 2 „ 
6 32 „ 

9 11 A.M. 

10 26 „ 

11 30 „ 
9 p.m. 
9 54 a.m. 

10 11 „ 

11 21 „ 
11 54 „ 

21 p.m. 

3 4 „ 

4 6 „ 

4 33 „ 

5 1 „ 

9 41 a.m. 
9 51 „ 
45 p.m. 
52 „ 

8 12 A.M. 

8 30 „ 
10 2 „ 

10 57 „ 

11 27 „ 
31 p.m. 
5 27 „ 
5 57 „ 

10 19 A.M. 

11 41 „ 
45 p.m. 

3 56 „ 

4 43 „ 
4 33 „ 

4 50 „ 

5 40 „ 

6 1 „ 


28 H-6 
28 16-0 
27 242 
27 25-2 
27 32-9 
27 47-4 
27 45-6 
27 465 
27 54-3 
27 530 
27 51-0 
27 42-6 
27 53-2 

27 50-2 

28 137 
28 10-2 
28 102 
28 1-9 
28 1-9 
28 2-7 
28 2-7 
28 16-3 
28 23-3 
28 25-0 
28 26-6 
27 2-8 
27 4-8 
27 98 
27 11-8 
27 12-8 
27 29-0 
27 273 
27 26-7 
27 25-3 
26 21-6 
26 22-3 
26 35-2 
26 34-6 
25 38 
25 5-8 
25 131 
25 143 
25 17-6 

25 181 

26 138 
26 142 

25 534 

26 09 
26 5-4 
25 58-6 

25 572 

26 156 
26 15-6 
26 6-6 
26 6-3 


28 28-9 
28 303 
27 27-1 
27 28-1 
27 35-8 
27 50-5 
27 48-7 
27 49-6 
27 56-5 
27 55-2 
27 532 
27 43-9 
27 545 

27 51-5 

28 14-9 
28 11-4 
28 114 
28 31 
28 3-1 
28 3-9 
28 39 
28 18-8 
28 25-8 
28 27-5 
28 29-1 
27 7-1 
27 9-1 
27 141 
27 16-1 
27 171 
27 31-7 
27 300 
27 294 
27 280 
26 24-8 
26 25-5 
26 38-4 
26 37-8 
25 4-8 
25 6-8 
25 141 
25 15-3 
25 18-6 

25 19-1 

26 160 
26 164 

25 57 4 

26 4-9 
26 94 
26 06 

25 59-2 

26 169 
26 16 9 
26 7-9 
26 76 


28 21-4 
28 208 
27 32-8 
27 314 
27 33-4 
27 50-7 
27 49-6 
27 50-9 
27 583 
27 57-2 
27 56-1 

27 467 

28 1-1 

27 572 

28 12-5 
28 10-1 
28 101 
28 7-1 
28 7'1 
28 7-4 
28 68 
28 24-5 
28 26-7 
28 253 
28 25-1 
27 9-9 
27 ll'l 
27 117 
27 119 
27 116 
27 29-7 
27 29-6 
27 29-6 
27 29-6 
26 274 
26 26-8 
26 33-8 
26 33-2 
25 14-0 
25 151 
25 18-6 
25 17-8 
25 20-2 

25 191 

26 17-3 
26 17-6 
26 00 
26 4-1 
26 8-4 
26 3-4 
26 2-4 
26 18-8 
26 19-5 
26 10-7 
26 10-4 
















Thurso 




Kirkwall 


Wick 





190 



REPORT — 1859. 



Such groups of stations will in fact represent districts, some of them of 
considerable extent, which thus appear to be similarly affected by local 
attraction. 

The observations are probably insufficient to enable us to determine the 
disposition of this attractive matter ; but there is one very marked case to 
which I may be permitted to refer. 

If we examine Tables VI. and XI. we shall find that the stations in the 
Island of Isla have their dip diminished and their total force increased by 
local attraction. On the other hand, the Mull stations have both dip and 
total force increased, while those in Skye have their dip increased and their 
total force diminished. 

Such a state of things might be brought about by a powerful source of 
attraction for the north pole of the needle situated a little to the south of the 
Mull stations at a considerable depth below the surface. This supposition 
derives confirmation from the fact that the errors due to local attraction 
are exceedingly large in Mull. 

Table XIX. 



Station. 


Observed. 


Calculated. 


Observed 

minus 
calculated. 




23 561 

24 27-4 
24 56-2 

23 32-7 

24 470 

25 104 
25 38-3 
25 252 
25 279 
25 14-2 
25 36-5 
25 39-6 

25 521 

26 23-5 
26 29-8 
26 11 (3 
26 21-9 

26 41 
25 58-7 
25 6-9 
25 174 
24 334 
24 30-8 

24 35-7 

25 8-7 
25 230 

25 54-2 
28 21-1 

27 32-5 
27 50 4 

27 56-1 

28 8-7 
28 254 
27 11-2 
27 29-6 

26 30-3 

25 175 

26 174 
26 3-7 
26 14-8 


o / 

23 52-9 

24 024 
24 364 

23 58-3 

24 264 

25 02-7 
25 ii77 
25 26-3 
25 22-5 
25 483 
25 47-8 

25 48-3 

26 00-7 
26 140 
26 220 
26 34-2 
26 33- 1 
26 20-7 

26 08-8 
25 376 
25 020 
24 250 
24 25-7 

24 585 

25 204 
25 241 

25 574 

27 03-2 
27 086 

27 122 

28 09-1 
28 21-6 
28 12-3 
27 15-9 
27 8-0 

26 16-5 

25 301 

26 05-9 

25 521 

26 16-3 


+03-2 
+250 
+ 19-8 
-25-6 
+20-6 
+07-7 
+ 10-6 
-011 
+054 
-341 
— 11 3 
-08-7 
-08-6 
+09-5 
+07-8 
-22-6 
-11-2 
-16-6 
-101 
-30-7 
+ 154 
+ 84 
+051 
-22-8 
-11-7 
-011 
-03-2 
+77-9 
+23-9 
+38-2 
-130 
-12-9 
+ 13-1 
-04-7 
+21-6 
+ 13-8 
-12-6 
+11-5 
+ 11-6 
-01-5 




Edinburgh 


Gretna 


Dumfries 


Newton Stewart 


Stranraer 




Glasgow 


Brisbane 


Cumbray 


Helensburgh 


Lochgoilhead 


Campbeltown 


Ardrishaig 


Oban 


Corpach 


Fort Augustus 




Elgin 


Banff 


Peterhead 




Alford 


Braemar 


Pitlochry 


Dalwbinnie 


Glenmorven 
















Thurso 




Kirkwall 


Wick 







ON THE PATENT LAWS. 191 



The Patent Laws. — Report of Committee on the Patent Laws. 
Presented by W. Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

At the meeting of the British Association at Leeds for the year 1858, a 
Committee was re-appointed for the purpose of taking such steps as might be 
necessary to render the Patent System of this country, and the funds derived 
from inventors, more efficient and available for the reward of the meritorious 
inventors and the advancement of science. 

Circumstances beyond control have prevented that Committee from 
taking any decisive steps in furtherance of the important objects entrusted 
to them ; but those objects have not been lost sight of. No reply has been 
received from the Commissioners of Patents, either to the Memorial of the 
Glasgow Committee of the British Association, or of the Public Meeting in 
Manchester ; but some of the questions referred to in those Memorials are 
adverted to in the Report of the Commissioners just issued. From that Report, 
itappears that the number of applications for patents maybe estimated atabout 
3000 per annum ; that of these 2000 applications not more than about 2000 
proceed to the final stage of a patent; and that of the 2000 patents granted, 
not more than 550 are kept alive beyond three years by the first periodical 
payment of £50 before the expiration of that term ; and the Commissioners 
anticipate that the fee of £100 payable at the end of the seventh year will 
not be paid on more than 100 of the surviving 550 patents. Should this 
anticipation prove correct, the payment by inventors in fees upon patents 
not surviving beyond one half their term of fourteen years will not be less 
than at the rate of £100,000 per annum as a direct tax on the inventive 
genius of the country, in addition to and exclusive of time, labour, and 
other charges and expenses. 

The total outlay in respect of those patents may be estimated as at least 
£250,000, or a quarter of a million, per annum. The great work of printing 
and publishing in extenso the specifications of patents granted under the 
old law, that is, from 1711 to the 1st of Oct. 1852, in number 12,977, is 
completed ; and the surplus funds hitherto absorbed by this object will be 
henceforth available for other purposes. 

That surplus is estimated by the Commissioners at £30,000 for the 
current year 1858-59, and to increase in each succeeding year at the rate of 
£20,000 per annum. This surplus, after providing for the current expenses, 
is proposed by the Commissioners to be appropriated to the following 
objects : — 

1. The erection of a Museum for the preservation and exhibition of 
models, of which a considerable collection already exists at Kensington. 

2. The erection of suitable offices for the Commissioners, including a free 
library of consultation upon a more extended scale than already formed by 
Mr. Woodcroft. 

These most desirable and legitimate objects of application of the " Inven- 
tors' Fee Fund" cannot, however, be attained without the sanction of the 
Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, and a vote of Parliament, 
inasmuch as all the fees levied on Inventors are by a recent change levied in 
the shape of stamps, and so pass directly into the Consolidated Fund. 

These recommendatiuns of the Commissioners will, it is conceived, be 
regarded as a most legitimate application of the funds of Inventors, and as 
one to which the Parliamentary Committee of the British Association will 
give their aid ; but your Committee think that other considerations and other 
claims upon the Inventors' Fee Fund, and upon the annual surplus, whatever 



192 report — 1859. 

its probable amount, should be forthwith urged upon the Commissioners and 
upon Parliament. 

The Report of the Patent Committee of the British Association to the 
Leeds Meeting called prominent attention to the two following questions: — 

1st. Whether the present scale of payments should be maintained, or 
reduced, so as to leave no greater surplus than necessary for official 
expenses ? 

2nd. If the present scale of payment be maintained, how shall the surplus 
be appropriated ? 

The Commissioners of Patents are in favour of maintaining the present 
scale of payments, on the ground "that any material reduction in the 
amount of" fees would undoubtedly tend to increase the number of useless 
and speculative patents, in many cases taken merely for advertising pur- 
poses." 

Your Committee are not insensible to the force of this observation ; but 
they beg respectfully to doubt whether this money check has any effective 
operation on the class of cases most requiring to be controlled, and whether 
the remedy is not worse than the disease, in laying an unjustifiable burden on 
the inventive genius of the country, and effecting a confiscation of property 
of its own creation. 

Your Committee are much struck with the fact, that the application for 
about 1000 patents is not prosecuted to completion, and in many cases 
probably not beyond the first stage ; that the first periodical payment of 
£50 at the end of the third year is not made in respect of nearly 1500 of 
the 2000 patents granted ; and that the Commissioners anticipate during the 
ensuing year the surrender or lapsing of no less than 450 out of the 550 
patents which survived the first periodical payment. 

It must be borne in mind that the granting of patents in this country is 
practically without control, no attempt having been made to interpose any 
of the checks urged before the Committee of the House of Lords in the 
Session of 1851, and provided for in the three bills of that Session, and in 
the Act of the subsequent Session, now the law of the land. The payment 
of £5 on the first application may be regarded as a registration fee : the 
applicant makes this payment on lodging the papers, obtaining protection 
and inchoate rights from the moment of his application. This was one of 
the cardinal features of the new system of 1852 ; it has been productive of 
the greatest benefit to inventors, especially to those of the poorer class, by 
enabling them to obtain inchoate rights, and to create property for them- 
selves by a simple record of their inventions, without publicity and the 
obstruction of interested opponents. This power of placing inventions on 
record is also resorted to in many cases by those who do not wish further 
to secure or appropriate to themselves property in their ideas and inventions, 
and which forthwith become public property. 

The 1500 lapsed patents must be regarded in a different light: these have 
cost their authors no less than £37,500 for fees and stamps as a direct taxa- 
tion on their inventive genius, in addition to and exclusive of other pay- 
ments of at least an equal amount. 

Of these 1500 patents, it is believed that the progress of at least 1000 
might be arrested with the consent of the applicants, if the inquiry before the 
law officers were substantial instead of merely nominal. Thus a large use- 
less outlay of capital in money and time would be avoided, talents unpro- 
fitably employed would be directed into other channels, and the creation of 
legal rights would be limited and reduced exactly in proportion as the appli- 
cations were not proceeded with. 



LUNAR INFLUENCE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR. 193 

Your Committee conceive that the application of a portion of the funds 
contributed by inventors would be most properly applied to affording them 
this species of protection against the unprofitable expenditure of time and 
money : the attempt is surely worth the trial ; it would effectually check the 
prostitution of the patent system to the illegitimate purposes referred to bv 
the Commissioners. 

The reward of the meritorious inventor in cases in which he alone of the 
public has failed to benefit by the fruits of his genius, and the purchase of 
patent rights in him of extending their terms, was referred to in the Report 
of the Patent Committee of the British Association at the Leeds Meeting as 
a legitimate appropriation of a portion of the surplus. 

These objects being satisfied, a very large surplus would remain available 
for the advancement of science by researches having a direct bearing on 
the reproductive industry of the country. And if it be thought expedient 
that more money should be levied on the granting of patents than necessary 
for the expense of the office, inventors have, it is conceived, an irresistible 
claim for the expenditure of that surplus upon objects bearing on their in- 
terests and the advancement of science. 

W. Fairbairn. 
Edward Sabine. 
Aberdeen, Sept. 16, 1859. Thomas Webster. 



Lunar Influence on the Temperature of the Air. 
By J. Park Harrison, M.A. 

1. The definite form assumed by lunar curves of mean temperature, obtained 
from the means of tables framed expressly for the purpose, was brought be- 
fore the notice of the British Association at Leeds in proof that the moon 
exerts an indirect, yet appreciable influence over the atmosphere of our 
globe*. 

A longer series of observations at Greenwich, extending over the period 
of 43 years, and embracing 520 consecutive lunations, has since been tabu- 
lated ; and the means of the different columns formed into another, and what 
may be termed for distinction's sake, a model curve (Plate II. fig. 1). It 
presents, in common with those which had been already constructed for 
shorter periods of time, very marked characteristics. 

Upon turning to the Plate it will be perceived that the amount of heat 
signalized by the shaded portion of the curve (or all that rises above the 
general mean Hue) is considerably greater at first quarter than at any other 
period of the lunation, though it will also be noticed that the temperature 
immediately following on new moon exceeds it in height, on one day by *10 
of a degree (fig. 1). Upon the average, the first half of this curve, from the 
2nd or 3rd day before new moon to the 3rd or 4th day before full moon, 
rises as much above the general mean as the remaining half falls below it. It 
sinks below the mean line at the period to which attention was originally drawn, 

* At Dublin, where attention was directed to but a small portion of the lunation, it was 
shown that the temperature immediately following on the moon's first quarter was higher 
than the temperature of the third day before first quarter, both at Greenwich and Dublin, 
for the series of years subjected to examination. 

1859. o 



194 report — 1859. 

viz. about the 3rd day before first quarter (or the 4.-th or 5th day of the moon's 
age), and at three other noticeable points of the curve ; these, as I have 
already stated, are (1) shortly before and (2) shortly after full moon, and (3) 
immediately after last quarter. 

In the colder half of the lunation the temperature rises at full moon, and 
shortly before last quarter. 

2. It is not, however, only upon an average of a long series of yearly means 
that the proof of lunar influence depends for its establishment. All the more 
remarkable deviations from the calculated mean temperatures of the day, for 
which the past year has been distinguished, have followed the model curve in 
a more or less significant manner, at the seasons of excessive heat or cold above 
alluded to. I have elsewhere shown that this was the case in November 
1858*, and in January, March, and April in the present year j- ; and it has 
since proved to be so in September and October, and thus the greatest amount 
of heat on the average of 12 lunations in 1859 displays itself according to the 
rule above indicated in the first half of the curve, the greatest amount of 
cold in the second half (see fig. 2). The mean of the means of the several 
columns is 51°*1 ; the mean of the first 14 columns 51°"9, of the remaining 14 
columns 50 o, 2. The table of mean temperatures from which this curve was 
formed is appended, in order to afford those who may wish to examine more 
minutely the nature of the influence exerted in separate lunations, an oppor- 
tunity of doing so. It will also serve to illustrate the method which was 
adopted in arranging the observations in the several lunar tables from which 
the curves have been obtained. 

3. The popular belief in a tendency in the weather to " clear up," or the con- 
trary, at certain periods of themoon'sage — a notionwhich my own observations 
appeared to confirm — -joined with a strong impression that these seasons 
would be found to synchronize more or less closely, according to the time of 
year, with the periods of greatest cold or heat in the lunation, led to the con- 
clusion that the rise or fall in the curves of temperature must be due to the 
action of terrestrial radiation, as a secondary cause ; and that the rise in tem- 
perature at other periods of the lunation might also possibly be attributed to 
the opposite state of the atmosphere when radiation upwards to the sky is 
stopped, more particularly in winter, by the presence of low or thick masses 
of cloud. This view has been much strengthened during the past year by 
results which were obtained from an examination of the bi-horary observa- 
tions of cloud taken day and night continuously for seven years (1840-47) 

* See Phil. Mag. for March 1859. 

f Whilst, according to the calculated average, the mean temperature at the end of March 
and beginning of April ought, in each case, to rise above and fall below the mean of the 
month, in 1859 this was exactly reversed. A very cold period occurred at the end of March, 
the mean temperature (on the 31st) being 9° - 4 below the average of that day of the month 
for forty-three years, as determined by Mr. Glaisher. But the 31st of March was also the 
third day before new moon, and the mean temperature of that day of the lunation in March 
for the same number of years falls below the mean temperature of the lunar curve. So also 
in April, the mean temperature of the 7th day was 17°"5 in excess of the mean temperature 
of that day for forty-three years at Greenwich, and the mean temperature of the 15th day 
was 8°-3 below the average. Here the 7th day of April fell on the day of maximum tempe- 
rature for the lunation in April or the first octant, and the 15th day of April was the second 
day before full moon, which is within the cold period which precedes that phase of the moon. 
The minimum temperature at the Toronto Observatory also in January 1859, which was 
— 26°-5 on the 10th day, rose on the 13th to 36°0. At Greenwich a similar rise took place 
from the 9th (or 3rd day before first quarter) to the 12th (or day of first quarter). On the 
former day the minimum temperature was 28° - 5, on the latter 41°"2, and the mean tempe- 
ratures 33° - 6 and 45°*0. There appeared to be a considerable development of electricity at 
all the periods of low mean temperature. (From a communication made to the London Me- 
teorological Society, and reported in the ' Athenaeum.') 























[ To face 


p. 194.] 


■ 

2 


3 


gnt 


3 


2 


1 


d 


1 


2 


3 


8'" 


420 


O 

44-2 


... 


43-0 


O 

41-2 


O 

41-1 


48-0 


O 

414 


O 

45-1 


43-8 


41-21 
45-0 J 


40-6 


460 


... 


46-9 


46-6 


415 


42-7 


42-0 


42-8 


45-2 


43-3 


46-4 


42-1 


40-8 


44-5 


48-4 


512 


49-6 


48-8 


496 


47-4 


35-3 


399 


427 


435 


42-5 


42-4 


456 


49-8 


52-6 


452 


46-8 


... 


51-6 


54-9 


540 


52-3 


49-8 


522 


55-9 


58-3 


59-6 


59-0 


580 


573 


60-9 


606 


57-3 


56-4 


64-9 


607 


58-5 


619 


69-0 


... 


73-2 


74-3 


70-9 


67-7 


66-5 


68-9 


61-5 


59-9 


621 


69-2 




59-4 


59-5 


60-7 


66-6 


68-1 


69-4 


62-6 


634 


66-3 


69-1 


... 


50-8 


53-0 


... 


54-4 


54-4 


52-6 


55-8 


53-8 


52-6 


54-7 


... 


53-1 


56-6 


56-1 


55-9 


55-6 


51-0 


526 


50-2 


36-8 


36-3 


... 


39-0 


38-6 


... 


33-8 


33-8 


38-9 


39-1 


38-7 


40-2 


35-1 


... 


33-5 


335 


... 


33-5 


27-9 


27-0 


25-1 


22'8 


23-4 


23-9 


30-0 


491 


50-5 


... 


49-9 


49-3 


50-4 


50-3 


49-2 


48-8 


49-9 


... 


Mean 50°-2 












y Mean Temperature for 43 years consists of 


320 line 


s of figures. 






tt 


Interval. 


• 














h in 
5 34 p.m. 


d h m 
7 16 35 






5 38 a.m. 


7 23 47 
















8 45 p.m. 


8 4 19 
















2 21 p.m. 


8 4 49 
















9 27 a.m. 


8 50 
















4 45 a.m. 


7 17 19 


g 














10 49 p.m. 


7 8 21 


6 














2 31 p.m. 


7 10 


09 

S 














3 25 a.m. 


6 18 18 
















1 45 p.m. 


6 15 28 
















10 13 p.m. 


6 15 42 
















5 42 a.m. 


6 18 50 
















1 6 p.m. 


7 36 
















9 15 p.m. 


7 8 32 


* 























































Lunor Tolilc of Doily Mean Tempera 




1BS9, ul Greenificli*. 






















ZTofiitr 


p. 1(11.] 


Uonttu 


a 


1 


1 


• 


' 


2 


3 


8" 


• 


« 


■ 


.1' 


' 


2 


a 


... 




2 


' 


O 


1 


2 


.'. 




' 


e 


1 


■I 


' 


2 


3 


8" 


Much 


j- 1 

4S-9 
3t-0 
SS-7 
60-2 

',-■:< 
69"2 
73-1 

36-3 
39*6 


33 
39 

01 
63 
71 

65 

:.: 


fi 
s 

3 
1 
3 

5 

9 
1 
3 

4 


3.13 
42-6 
MO 

(3-3 
61-4 

60-S 

63-4 

62-0 
321 

4i-e 


389 
«■! 
54B 
323 
167 
60'3 
Oil 
69 '3 
BB-J 

39-1 
417 


40-a 

39-0 

52-0 
36 
47'4 
61-B 
39-6 
63-4 
62-0 
5G2 
411 
19-J 


34-0 
(1 I 

40-9 
35*6 
1B-B 
62-3 

55 5 

687 
367 
46-6 


3*9 
101 

ig-s 

61-1 
47-1 
65-6 
6D-0 
SST 
33-3 

se-s 

13-S 
43'U 


32'9 
405 

42-6 

40-4 


33-6 
3" -9 
3B-7 
63-0 
47-8 
63-3 
61-9 
62-2 
351 
36-2 
41-7 
39-7 


:!;■] 

40-8 
52-9 
•A- 1 
63-5 
63-1 
GS'4 
579 
61-1 
45'S 
36-2 


u > 

40-6 
33 3 
31-4 
607 

63-3 

59-4 
39-1 
51-4 
364 


4 5 
11-.'. 
33-5 
19'3 
50-3 

02a 

60-7 

63-9 
48-3 
33 4 


401 

449 

52' 2 

47-4 
64' G 
685 
397 
i-,-3 
66-8 

1M 


35-2 
4 GB 
50-6 
431 

52-5 

681 
69-1 
G9'l 

GOB 

36*7 


3§-J 
45-9 
41-2 
40-4 
310 
5B'7 
68*6 
GB'2 
37-6 
627 
30-3 
17'9 


COB 

S7-9 
Cl'S 
03-2 
S1'2 
44 2 


3S-3 
430 
44 2 
12*2 
52 
61*0 
73-7 
37-5 
59 6 
58-1 
513 
42 3 


34-7 

4B-3 
37-4 
327 
610 
73-2 
62-3 

S7'6 
161 
12 


450 
50.1 
476 
37-5 
52-6 
56-3 
600 
66-1 
516 
56-3 

391 


si-s 

49-6 

45-2 
37-3 
578 
6U-8 
68-4 
671 
57'6 
539 
370 


43 
42 

43 
39 
50 
37 
70 
63 

53 

39 
30 


1 
". 

; 
1 
3 

9 

6 
5 

B 


iff 

40'6 

39'9 
61-6 
57-3 

30B 
33-1 
39'0 
33-5 


4.1 

121 
427 
54-9 
60-9 
74-3 
593 
53'0 
56-6 
38 6 
33 5 


54 
GOG 
70-9 
607 

56-1 


4S-0 
4G-9 
14-5 
42-5 
52-3 
57'S 
67*7 
66 6 
54 '4 

338 
33 5 


46G 
4B4 
124 
49- B 
564 
66-5 
681 

33-6 
33-8 
27-9 


41-1 

41-5 
51 '2 
45'6 
52-2 
G49 
68-9 
69-4 
32'6 

-17" 


4§0 
42-7 
496 

498 

60-7 
61-3 
62'6 
55 8 

52 6 
391 
231 


411 

■li-u 

52-6 
5S3 
56-5 
39-9 
63-4 
33-B 
60-2 
387 
228 


45-1 

196 
431 
59-6 
619 
621 
66-3 
52*6 
SG-B 
40-2 
23-4 


4S-B 
43*2 

47*4 
46-8 
59*0 
69-0 
69-2 
69-1 
347 
36-3 
351 
23-9 


433 
33-3 

ss-o 

390 






Jnl 


A-jguit 

September.. 

Nnrember .. 


"<"» 


HI 




6 


510 


01 N 


518 1 51 6 


'■" 




30-3 


51-7 


535 


53 1 


52-3 ] 52 


.. 


G2-8 




S2-1 


S16 


.;- 


->l , 


49 


U 


19 I 


50 ■» 




19-9 


49 '3 


501 


503 | 19 


1 


4B-8 


49-9 




Mom 51*9 ' Ua * h ' fI 



Noll. — TtIC moil m on I In ( 



>r 13 jtin consult of 520 linn ol figure*. 



Tabic of Moon's Puns.'* in 1859. 



Moi-lbi. 


• 


lateral. 


> 


-** 


• 


I Nerval. 


4 


-*_-. 


• 


1-:- 
Notember • ■ 


d h m 
S 4 4B p.u 


B 3 51 


d 
13 


8 42 r.u. 


7 5 42 


d h m 

21 Z 24 A.u 


1] b m 
6 IS 10 


d b m 

27 3 34 p.u. 


d b m 
7 16 33 




December .. 


M0 9>.u 


8 S 19 


13 


3 28 p.u. 


6 21 3B 


20 1 6 r.n 


16 32 


27 3 38 A.1I. 


7 23 4J 






4 5 25 A.u 


8 167 


12 


7 22 A.u. 


6 IG 26 


1B 11 IB r.u 


20 37 


23 9 15 r.u. 


B 4 19 




February .. 


3 1 1 a.u 


7 18 33 


10 


7 39 P.u. 


6 15 2 


17 10 41 A.H 


7 3 40 


24 1 21 p.u. 


8 1 19 




Mirth .... 


4 7 10 r.u 


7 9 29 


12 


4 39 a.u. 


6 17 6 


IB 9 45 P.u 


7 11 42 


26 9 27 a.u. 


8 30 




April 


3 10 17 A.H 


1 1 3 


10 


11 20 *.*. 


6 21 15 


17 9 S A.u 


7 19 10 


S3 4 45 A.u. 


7 17 19 


P 


H. r ,..-... 


2 10 4 p.u 


6 18 63 


9 


4 59 P.u. 


7 4 7 


16 9 6 pji 


8 1 43 


21 10 49 p.u. 


7 B 21 


% 




I 7 10 A.H 


6 IS 37 


7 
7 


10 47 p.u. 
S 33 A.u. 


7 11 30 
7 19 


15 10 17 a.u 
IS 33 a.u 


8 4 14 
B 1 32 


23 2 31 P.u. 
23 3 25 a.u. 


7 10 
6 18 18 


1 


30 2 41 p.u 


6 15 12 


Auput .. 


29 9 13 p.u 


6 17 38 


3 


3 21 r.u. 


8 1 13 


13 4 34 p.u 


7 21 11 


21 1 45 p.u. 


C 13 28 




Somber.. 


28 5 13 ah 


6 22 SI 


4 


. J *.». 


8 1 27 


12 8 31 A.H 


7 13 42 


19 10 13 r.u. 


6 13 42 






26 1 55 r.u 


7 6 36 


3 


B 31 p.u. 


B 3 20 


11 11 51 p.u 


7 3 61 


19 1 12 A.H. 


6 18 50 




Horcniber .. 


26 32 Ail 


7 13 46 


2 


4 18 r.u. 


7 21 47 


10 2 G p.u 


6 23 1 


17 1 6 p.u. 


1 36 




December . , 


21 1 42 p.u 


B 7 


t 


1 49 P.u. 


; 13 23 


10 3 12 A.u 


G 18 3 


16 9 15 p.u, 


7 8 32 


' 










■ Nen Moo 


n, December 2 


II,, Hill. Urn. 


•»■ 










LUNAR INFLUENCE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR. 195 

at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, and which were published, amongst 
other elaborate meteorological tables, in the volumes for those years. 

Out of 55 clear days, or what might be considered clear days, there enu- 
merated — those being considered as nearly clear on which the amount of 
cloud did not exceed *3 — no less than 42 occurred at periods of low mean 
temperature in the lunation. And it is worth notice, in connexion with this 
fact, that during the three years (1844, 1845, and 1846), in which the late 
lamented Radcliffe Observer found from observations taken for the purpose, 
between the day of first quarter and the day after full moon, "that the moon 
was visible on an average 137 times on the meridian when the sun is seen only 
100 times," the Greenwich Observations of cloud show an unusual number of 
clear days to have occurred at that station on the three days following on 
first quarter, the effects of which would appear to be traceable in the curve 
embracing the years in question (see fig. 4). 

Still further to test the point, a curve of the mean amount of cloud in 
November during the same seven years was formed for the purpose of com- 
paring the approximate amount of cloud on the different days of the moon's 
age with the line of a lunar curve of mean temperature for 40 consecutive 
Novembers. It was hardly possible to doubt, on carefully examining the two 
curves thus placed in juxtaposition, — the w r aves of cloud being for the most 
part a day in advance of those of temperature, — that an intimate connexion 
does exist, as cause and effect, between the amount of cloud at different 
periods of the lunation and the temperature of the air. 

On the Continent, too, it was found that the results obtained by Schubler at 
Augsburg, from 1813 to 1828, had been examined by M. Arago and admitted 
to be in accordance with those arrived at by Flaugergues at Viviers, from 
1808 to 1828. From a Table of the relative number of serene and clouded 
days at Augsburg during the above-mentioned sixteen years, M. Schiibler 
found (1) that clear days were more numerous at last quarter; (2) that the 
greatest number of clouded days occurred towards (vers) the second octant. 
Also in twenty-eight years at three different stations, namely at Munich from 
1781 to 1788, at Stuttgard from 1809 to 1812, and at Augsburg as above, 
there were 306 days of rain on the day of the first octant, 325 on the day of 
the first quarter, 341 (the maximum) on the day of the second octant, 284 
(the minimum) on the day of the last quarter, and 290 on the last octant. 
Some observations which appear to have been made under M. Arago's per- 
sonal superintendence may be quoted in confirmation of the fact, that the 
greatest amount of cloud follows upon the moon's first quarter, and the least 
amount of cloud on the third quarter, — 

" The discussion of the observations made at Paris led to the following 
conclusions: — 

" The maximum number of rainy days is found to lie between the first 
quarter and the full moon ; the minimum between the last quarter and the 
new moon ; and the latter number is to the former as 100 is to 126*." 

4. Having pointed out, very briefly, the periods at which (taking one lu- 
nation with another) the greatest amount of heat or cold is to be expected to 
recur, and having also suggested a probable cause for the phenomenon, I 

* Arago's Popular Astronomy (Admiral Smyth's translation), vol. ii. p. 318. In the same 
volume, p. 313, there is the following passage in which Sir John Herschel's explanation of the 
moon's influence on the clouds is entirely adopted : — " In a word, provided we do not lose 
sight of tlie fact that the rays which dissipate the clouds are cpiite different from those whose 
calorific qualities we have been endeavouring to estimate at the instant when they reach the 
surface of the earth, the fact which I previously called a prejudice will no longer be contrary 
to physical laws ; and we shall obtain an additional illustration of the remark, that popular 
opinion ought not to be rejected without eNaminatiou." 

o2 



196 ' report — 1859. 

propose to illustrate the subject by examples of lunar action in the spring 
and autumn months. Thus in the early part of May, it will be interesting 
to remark the amount of Lunar Influence exerted at the period of low tem- 
perature which embraces Dr. Marller's three cold days, viz. the 11th, 12th, 
and 13th, and which on an average of 86 years' observations at Berlin was 
found to be more than 2 degrees colder than the calculated mean of the season. 
The following Table of mean temperatures of the first twenty days of May 
for 43 years at Greenwich, will show the amount of depression which oc- 
curred at that station. The means are in each case for the civil day. 

1st, 50-3 2nd, 51-5 3rd, 50-9 4th, 51-5 5th, 51 8 

6th, 51-9 7th, 523 8th, 52-1 9th, 51-0 10th, 50-9 

11th, 51-6 12th, 51-3 13th, 51-0 14th, 506 15th, 51-9 

16th, 531 17th, 540 18th, 535 19th, 530 20th, 539* 

If we now examine a lunar curve (fig. 3) of the mean temperatures of the 
11th, 12th, and 13th days at Greenwich, — they are purposely taken, though 
not the coldest, — it will not fail to be noticed that the general line of the 
wave, notwithstanding its pronounced character, follows the model curve, 
with the exception of a remarkable rise on the second day before first 
quarter, and on the second day before last quarter. It bears also a very close 
resemblance to the curve of temperature for the year 1859. 

A lunar curve of the mean temperature for the month of May during 43 
years has also been formed, and found to agree with the model curve ; the 
mean of the means of the day of first quarter and five days after is 54'0, of 
the day of full moon and five days after 51 0- 9. The amount of cloud on a 
seven years' average for the second day after full moon is 4"9 ; for the second 
day after first quarter 8*1; and the mean amount of cloud at the syzygies and 
quarters for the day of the moon's change and the day preceding and follow- 
ing is as follows : — 

At New Moon 6-8 

At First Quarter 6*9 

At Full Moon 5*7 (the minimum). 

At Last Quarter 6"3 

10 represents an entirely clouded sky. 

On viewing these results one cannot but recall to mind the belief of the 
French gardeners in the ravages of "La Lune rousse" towards the end of 
April or beginning of May ; and the explanation of the phenomenon given 
by M. Arago, — that it was, without doubt, due to the absence of cloud. 

The observations of mean temperature at this period, however, and the 
relative number of days of the lunation on which they occur, deserve a more 
minute consideration. To facilitate it, Tables have been formed of the mean 
temperatures of five consecutive days at full moon, and five corresponding 
days at first quarter: and for the purpose of reference, a Table of the mean 
temperatures of the month of May for 43 successive years is appended. 

On referring to these Tables, it will be at once perceived that the mean 
temperature of each of the five days at full moon (see Table II.) is far below 
that of the five days at first quarter (Table I); and also that the number 
of observations which occurred in the 43 years at the two periods is very 
different. 

* From observations kindly furnished by Principal Forbes, of St. Andrews, it appears that 
the 9th, 10th, and 14th days of May were the co'dest at Edinburgh on an average of 40 years. 
The 12th, 13th and 14th days, allowing for the estimated march of temperature, were the coldest 
days at Greenwich. It is possible that the epoch of greatest depression would in a longer 
series of years coincide with that at Berlin. 



LUNAR INFLUENCE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR. 197 

Table I. 



Day. 


1. 


T> 


1. 


2. 


3. 


Mean. 


10 


1856. 52-2 


1829. 571 
1848. 61-1 




1821. 511 
1840. 59 
1851. 56-3 


1832. 41-7 
1843. 49-3 


L 53-5 




11 


1837. 41-5 


1856. 56-4 


1829. 55-6 
1848. 63-7 




1821. 568 
1840. 47-5 
1851. 561 


L 539 




12 


1818 50-8 


1837. 42-8 


1856. 507 


1829. 54-6 
1848. 65-1 




| 52-8 
| 526 


13 


1845. 49-9 


1818. 51-1 


1837. 428 


1856. 53-0 


1829. 53-8 
1818. 64-9 


14 
15 


1826. 47-8 

1815. 57-1 
1834. 605 
1853. 50-4 


1845. 50-8 
1826. 48-6 


1818. 49-4 
1845. 51-3 


1837. 43-8 
1818. 51-4 


1856. 49-3 
1837. 45-2 


48-2 
I 52-1 


Means 
No. of 
Obs. 


51-2 

} 8 


52-6 

7 


522 
6 


54-3 
8 


51-6 
9 


522 
Sum 
38 








Table II 








Day. 


1. 


o 


1. 


2. 


3. 


Mean. 


10 


1816. 41-4 
1827. 46-8 
1846. 54-3 


1819. 58-4 


1838. 47-5 


1830. 47-1 


1849. 42-2 


1 48°2 


11 


1835. 52-2 
1854. 49-0 


1816. 39-4 
1827. 486 
1846. 53-3 


1819. 57-1 


1838. 47-5 


1830. 45-6 


I 491 


12 


1824. 463 
1843. 53-8 


1835. 53-0 
1854. 52-0 


1816. 38-1 
1827. 47-3 
1846. 53-4 


1819. 578 


1858. 51-5 


I 50-4 


13 


1832. 38-6 


1824. 43-8 
1813. 55-3 


1835. 52-0 
1851. 54-2 


1816. 40-8 
1827. 48-1 
1846. 53-0 


1319. 54-4 


I 48-9 


14 


1851. 46-2 


1832. 44-5 


1824. 443 
1843. 52-7 


1835. 44-0 
1851. 54-7 


1816. 43-8 
1827. 46-6 

1846. 51-2 

1 


I 47-5 


15 


1810. 49-8 


1851. 50 7 


1832. 47-4 


1824. 42-8 
1843. 53-6 


1835. 490 
1854. 555 


| 49-8 


Means 
No. of 
Obs. 


47-8 

[} » 


49 9 
10 


49-4 
10 


48-9 
10 


489 
9 


49-0 
Sura 
49 



At full moon the mean temperature of the 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 



198 report — 1859. 

and 15th days of the month of May is 49°'0, and the number of observations 
49. At first quarter, upon the same six days, the mean temperature is 
52°-2, and the number of observations 38. No observations whatever for 
1st, 2nd, or 3rd days after first quarter occurred upon the 10th, 11th, and 
12th days of May respectively during the 43 years. 

Again, upon the five days of the lunation at full moon (see Table II.), 
out of the total number of 49 observations, 27 are found to fall below 50°, and 
11 below 45°. At first quarter, out of the 38 observations, the number under 
50° is 13 only : those under 45° do not exceed 5. 

A point of some importance in connexion with the subject should be men- 
tioned. It did not escape Gen. Sabine's notice, when engaged on the results of 
the Meteorological Observations at Toronto, that high mean temperatures 
prevailed on the 1 Ith, 12th, and 13th days of May on the average of the years 
1841-52, at that Station, and it has since been found that they prevailed also 
at Greenwich during the same period ; the mean temperatures of the three 
days for the 12 years were respectively 53 0, 5, 53°"2, and 54°'l instead of 
51 0, 6, 51°"3, and 51 o- 0, which are the means of those days on an average of 
43 years. It will be found that most of the high temperatures on the three 
days occurred in years when the mean temperature of May itself was high*. 
The mean of the month for 43 years is 53°. 

5. At a corresponding period of the year in autumn, the temperature of 
the second half of lunations which fall in October is found as a rule to be 
uniformly low ; on an average of 43 years it does not exceed 48°"9 ; whilst 
the mean of the first half (from new to full moon) is 50 o, 4. It was so in the 
present year ; the difference between the mean temperature of four days at 
first quarter and the mean temperature of four days at last quarter was 23*5 
degrees. 

Upon extracting 14 of the lowest temperatures, or minima of 43 months 
of October, 13 were found to occur in the second half of the lunation be- 
tween the day of full moon and the third day before new moon, and 9 of the 
number at and immediately following on last quarter. They occurred in the 
following years : — 

1814. 38-0 1817. 37-7 1824. 36-4 1825. 37-8 1828. 39-5 
1834. 36-9 1836. 28-4 1838. 36-0 1839. 347 1842. 35'6 
1843. 35-8 1845. 37"9 1848. 38-0 

It is difficult to believe that the following dates are accidental : 1814, 1824, 
(and 1825), 1834, 1843 ; and 1817, 1828, 1838 (and 1839), 1848. 

The maxima in October also arrange themselves systematically. There 
were 4 observations of mean temperature in 43 years which exceeded 62°. 
They occurred in the following days and years : — vis. in 1834 on the third day 
after new moon ; in 1819 on the second day before full moon ; and in 1848 
and 1859 on the day of first quarter, and second day after. In 1839 the max- 
imum was 59*7, and it occurred on the second day after new moon. The 
mean of the month of October for 43 years is 49 0, 6. — More than 75 percent, 
of the maxima for the month are found to occur in the first half of the luna- 
tion. 

Lastly, the amount of cloud in October for seven years has been extracted 
from the Greenwich Observations and formed into a Lunar Table. The 
mean amounts for the day preceding each of the four principal phases and 

* e. g. the mean of the mean temperatures of the five days at first quarter which occur on 
the 14th of May exceeds the mean of the five days at full moon which fall on the same day 
of that month by "7 of a degree only. But the mean temperature of May for the five years 
in which observations occurred on the above-named day at first quarter was not higher than 
49°'8. lu the instances at full moon it was 51°-6. 






LUNAR INFLUENCE ON THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR. 199 

four following days (including in each case the day of the change) is as 

follows : — 

At New Moon 7"1 

At First Quarter 7*9 (the maximum). 

At Full Moon 6*9 

At Last Quarter 6'1 (the minimum). 

The mean amount of cloud for the first 14 days of the lunation is 7*3 ; /cr 
the remaining 14 days, 6'4. 

The figures follow with great precision the course of the model curve and 
also the curve of mean temperature for 1859. 



It will be well to recall attention to the principle of alternation and reci- 
procity which so much affects the mean results of the moon's action. 

Many instances of the recurrence of high or low temperatures upon the 
same day of the lunation were adduced at the Meeting at Leeds : the follow- 
ing is an amended abstract of some of the more remarkable examples. 

In the two consecutive years commencing November 1846 and ending 
October 1848, maximum or minimum temperatures for the month occurred, 
in 1846-47, three times on the third day before new moon ; twice on the day- 
after new moon ; three times on the third day after new moon ; twice on the 
third day before full moon ; twice on the second day before full moon; and 
twice on the third day after full moon. In 1847-48, twice on the third day 
before new moon ; four times on the day of new moon ; twice on the second 
day before full moon ; twice on the day before full moon ; twice on the day 
of full moon ; twice on the third octant, or fourth day after full moon. Again, 
in the year 1846-47 there were, amongst others, the following remarkable 
instances of alternation between opposite phases of the moon : — in December 
the minimum of the month occurred on the third day before new moon ; in 
January the maximum on the third day before full moon ; in February the 
minimum on the third day before new moon. And again, the maximum in 
November 1 848 fell on the day of new moon ; the minimum in December 
on the day of full moon. In addition to this, maximum and minimum tempe- 
ratures were found to occur at intervals of rather more than seven days, and 
that for several successive months, viz. April, May, June, August, and Sep- 
tember, or at other lunar intervals. In 1838, exactly ten years earlier, maxima 
or minima occurred twice on the third day after new moon ; three times on 
the day before full moon ; three times on the day of first quarter; and three 
times on the day of last quarter. At the Cape of Good Hope, reciprocity of 
action and the recurrence of high and low temperatures was even more fre- 
quent and systematic. Thus, in 1855, eight out of the twelve maxima for 
the month occurred at first quarter, and nine of the twelve minima at new or 
full moon. In 1842, nineteen maxima and minima out of twenty-four oc- 
curred on eight days. In 184S, fifteen on seven days ; in 1844, seventeen on 
six days ; in 1845, eleven on four days. The recurrence of maxima and 
minima at Toronto and Madras was equally marked. 

On extracting the maximum and minimum mean temperatures for the 
month, for the respective periods of 43 years at Greenwich, and 22 years 
at Dublin, it was found that more maxima occurred after the moon's first 
quarter than before; the proportion of maxima to minima, on the second day 
after that phase, being more than 2 : 1 at both stations. So too on taking the 
twelve highest maxima and thetwelvelowest minima at Greenwich for the same 
forty- three years, 48 per cent, of the whole number were found to occur on 



200 



REPORT — 1859. 



7 days at first quarter, and minima only, with one exception, before the day of 
the change. Similar results were obtained from the observations taken at 
Toronto (from 1843 to 1848). 

Notwithstanding this, it is certain that the rise in the curve at first quarter 
and other periods of the lunation is not caused by the presence of maximum 
temperatures so much as the ordinary means of the several days. 

Though not at present able to prove the point, I may state my conviction 
that a close connexion will eventually be established between the occurrence 
of extreme temperatures (at the several periods of the lunation at which they 
may most probably be looked for) and the years of maximum and minimum 
of the solar spots. The year 1858-1859 has been already instanced as one 
that exhibits many noticeable examples of this increased action. 

The inquiry will be proceeded with ; though as a non-professed Meteor- 
ologist I much need both indulgence and assistance. 

Table III. 
Means of the month of May, for 43 years, at Greenwich. 



1814. 


48-6 


1825. 


53-6 


1836. 


52-0 


1847. 


o 

56-4 


1815. 


54-7 


1826. 


50-0 


1837. 


47-8 


1848. 


59-7 


1816. 


48-8 


1827. 


52-7 


1838. 


50 7 


1849. 


54-0 


1817. 


47-9 


1828. 


543 


1839. 


499 


1850. 


51-3 


1818. 


52-5 


1829. 


54-5 


1840. 


53-5 


1851. 


509 


1819. 


54-2 


1830. 


54-7 


1841. 


56-8 


1852. 


51-5 


1820. 


52-0 


1831. 


52-8 


1842. 


53-2 


1853. 


52-0 


1821. 


49-4 


1832. 


51-5 


1843. 


52-2 


1854. 


50-9 


1822. 


55-8 


1833. 


59-4 


1844. 


529 


1855. 


48-8 


1823. 


54-7 


1834. 
1835. 


56-9 
52-9 


1845. 
1846. 


49-4 
516 


1856. 


49-5 


1824. 


49'5 




_ 














Mean .. 


.53 



An Account of the Construction of the Self-recording Magnetographs 
at present in operation at the Kew Observatory of the British Asso- 
ciation. By Balfour Stfavaut, M.A. 

Eakly in 1857 the Government Grant Committee of the Royal Society 
voted £150 towards the expense of a set of Self-recording Magnetographs to 
be erected at the Kew Observatory of the British Association; the sum ol 
£250 having been pieviously granted out of the Wollaston fund for the 
purpose of lighting the observatory with gas. 

The late Mr. Welsh thereupon applied himself with much zeal to the 
task of constructing these magnetographs, and devised a plan which was 
transmitted to Mr. Adie, optician, 395 Strand, who undertook to make the 
instruments. 

These were completed by Mr. Adie in a satisfactory manner, and were in 
operation in July 1857 ; by the beginning of 1858 all difficulties, whether of 
a mechanical or photographic nature, had been overcome, and since that 
date a continuous register of the magnetic elements has been obtained. 
With regard to the plan devised by Mr. Welsh, the best proof of its excel- 
lence is the nature of the results obtained, which may be judged of from 
an average specimen of the curves appended to this Report. Indeed, the 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPIIS. 201 

superior definition and finish of the lines leaves hardly anything to be 
desired. Mr. Beckley, the engineer attached to the observatory, very skilfully 
devised the mechanical details in conformity with Mr. Welsh's plan, and 
prepared a working drawing of the instruments*. 

Mr. Chambers (magnetical assistant at Kew Observatory) assisted in over- 
coming certain photographical difficulties that arose. He lias since been in 
charge of the instruments, and has performed his task in a very efficient 
manner. 

This Report is divided into five sections. In the. first section a general 
and preliminary description is given of the principles of construction of the 
magnetographs. In the secoud, a detailed account is given of each of the 
instruments. In the third section the photographic process is described. In 
the fourth, the method of ascertaining the instrumental coefficients, and of 
tabulating from the curves, &c, is detailed ; and in the fifth section certain 
improvements are mentioned which have been made on a set of magneto- 
graphs since constructed of the same kind as those described. 

Section I. Preliminary Description. 

The room in which the instruments are placed is one of the lower rooms 
of the observatory, the roof of which is not much above the level of the 
ground outside. It is well protected from damp by a vault which goes 
round the observatory, and is subject to very small changes of temperature, 
the mean daily range being within 1° Fahr., and the annual range about 
20°, the thermometer varying from 50° Fahr. in winter to 70° Fahr. in 
summer. In shape the room is an octagon, of about 22 feet in diameter, 
with a height of about 17 feet. Daylight is only admitted through panes 
of orange-coloured glass, which have the effect of excluding the actinic rays. 

Four pillars, A, B, C, D (see Plate 3. fig. 1), made of Portland stone, are 
firmly fixed into the Hoor. The centres of the pillars B, C, D are in a line 
perpendicular to the magnetic meridian, while the centres of pillars A and D 
are in the line of that meridian. The pillars A, B, and C support the three 
magnetographs, while the pillar D supports the recording cylinders and 
clockwork. 

In Plate 3. fig. 1, we have a ground-plan of the instruments, and in fig. 2 
an elevation of the same. 

Referring to the Declination Magnetograph (Plate 3. fig. 1), a denotes 
the gas-flame which is the source of light; b is a bull's-eye lens, the object 
of which is to condense the light on a narrow vertical slit at c. The bull's- 
eye therefore enables the light to be nearly as effective as it would be if 
placed immediately behind the slit c, although in reality it is at a convenient 
distance from it. 

After having passed the slit c, the light is conveyed through a covered 
tube until it reaches the plano-convex achromatic lens set vertically at d, 
having passed through which, it next falls on two semicircular mirrors which 
have their centre at e. The faces of these mirrors are exhibited in Plate 4. 
fig. 3, from which it will be seen that the lower mirror is firmly fixed to a 
marble slab, while the upper one, which is nearly, but not quite in contact 
with the lower, is attached to a delicately suspended magnet, and conse- 
quently moves with it. The light, after leaving the mirrors, is reflected in 
the direction (/"through a piece of plane glass at/, and through a covered 
tube until it reaches a cylinder h, the axis of which is horizontal, and which 
is covered with sensitive paper. 

The focal length of the lens d is such, that the point /*, where the rays 
* The drawings for the Plates attached to this Report were also made by Mr. Beckley. 



202 report — 1859. 

strike the cylinder, is the conjugate focus to the slit c ; we should therefore 
have an image of the slit c exhibited on the sensitive paper. As, however, 
our object is to produce a dot and not a slit of light, a hemicylindrical lens, 
having its axis horizontal and focus at the cylinder, is placed at g, so that 
the rays passing through it have the vertical slit of light which they 
would otherwise have formed on the cylinder compressed into a dot; in 
which state therefore the light falls upon the sensitive paper. But it is 
only when both the mirrors, the fixed and the moveable, are in one plane 
that we shall have one dot upon the cylinder. For if the plane of the one 
mirror is inclined at an angle to that of the other, the ray from the first 
mirror will not be reflected in the same direction as that from the second, 
and will consequently fall upon a different part of the cylinder. Two slits 
of light will in this case reach the hemicylindrical lens, and two corresponding 
dots of light will appear upon the sensitive paper which covers the cylinder. 
The distance between these two dots will be a measure of the angle between 
the two mirrors, and will consequently (the lower mirror being fixed, and 
the upper one moving with the magnet) indicate the position of the magnet 
from time to time. 

The cylinder round which the sensitive paper is wrapped is moved round 
by clockwork once in every twenty-four hours, so that the dot belonging 
to the fixed mirror generates a straight line, while that belonging to the 
moveable mirror will describe a line corresponding to the movement of the 
magnet. 

The arrangements of the horizontal-force instrument are in all respects 
similar to those of the declination magnetograph which has just been 
described, with this exception, that in the latter the magnet is in its natural 
direction, viz. perpendicular to ef, while in the former it is twisted into u 
direction at right angles to its natural position, and is now in the line ef. 

The only difference which it is necessary here to notice between the 
vertical- force magnetograph and those which we have now described, is that 
in the vertical-force magnetograph the slit c is horizontal and the hemi- 
cylindrical lens and cylinder vertical, while the axis on which the moveable 
semicircular mirror, attached to the magnet, turns, is horizontal. The 
mirror of this magnetograph is exhibited in Plate 4. fig 5. One piece of 
clockwork is made to drive all the cylinders. 

The principle of construction which we have now described seems to 
possess the following advantages : — 

1st. The optical arrangements are such as to secure an exceedingly well- 
defined dot of light, and by means of suitable photographic appliances, an 
unexceptionable curve and base-line. 

2nd. Should anything occur to change the position of the slit c, both the 
curve and the base-line will be equally displaced, so that the distance between 
them (with which only we are concerned) will remain precisely the same as 
before. 

Thus too, by slightly altering the position of the slit each day, we may put 
two or even three days' curves on the same sheet. 

3rd. The stone piers, &c. secure perfect steadiness to the apparatus, and 
the central arrangement presents the advantage that one piece of clockwork 
drives all the cylinders. 

Section II. Detailed Description of the Instruments. 
1. Declination Magnetograph. 
The flame used is that of gas, the supply of which is kept constant by 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 203 

means of a water-regulator. The burner consists of a narrow slit about three- 
quarters of an inch long, and one-hundredth of an inch in breadth. It is 
placed endwise with respect to the lens, in consequence of which position, 
the light (coming from a stratum of name three-quarters of an inch in depth) 
has its brilliancy greatly increased (see Plate 4. fig. 10 a). 

The shape of the burner and the arrangement for supplying the flame 
with air, are in all respects similar to those used in a paraffin lamp, their 
application to gas having been suggested by Mr. Beckley. The burner is 
fitted with a glass chimney, the presence of which intensifies the light — it 
must not, however, fit too tightly. 

The bull's-eye lens used for condensing the light of the gas upon the slit 
is that known as the double condenser. 

Having passed the bull's-eye lens, the light falls upon the slit c. The 
breadth of this slit is about y-J^th of an inch ; a front view of it is given in 
Plate 4. fig. 10 a. 

By means of an adjustment, the distance between the gas-flame and the 
bull's-eye lens may be altered until the slit is in focus for the gas-flame. 

The light having passed the slit, goes through a covered tube until it 
reaches the plano-convex achromatic lens before mentioned. By means of 
an adjustment, the gas-flame, the bull's-eye, and the slit may be moved 
together until the slit be at that distance from the lens which is the conju- 
gate focus of the sensitive paper. There is also an arrangement by which 
gas, bull's-eye, and slit may be moved a little to one side of the central line 
of the lens, so that the two dots may be made to assume a different position 
on the sensitive paper. 

The distance between the slit and the lens is 17'7 inches. This lens is fitted 
into a glass shade which covers the magnet, as represented in Plate 4. fig. 2. 

This glass shade stands upon a circular marble slab, diameter 20 inches, 
thickness 1*2 inch, which is cemented to the top of a solid pillar of Portland 
stone 4 feet high. 

There are two holes cut in this glass shade, each about 3 inches in diameter 
(see Plate 4. figs. 1 & 6), the one to contain the lens above mentioned, 
through which the rays of light pass on their way from the slit to the mirror ; 
and the other to contain a piece of plane glass through which the same rays 
pass on their way from the mirror to the cylinder. The glass shade is gilded 
inside nearly to the top. This gilding serves the double purpose of reflect- 
ing back any heat associated with light which may strike it from the outside, 
and (being a bad radiator) of diminishing as much as possible the currents of 
air which changes of temperature are apt to produce. The portion of the 
shade which is not gilded is covered outside with a cloth cap, removeable at 
pleasure. A vessel containing chloride of calcium is put inside to absorb all 
moisture. A curved arm of brass (Plate 4. figs. 3 & 4) carries the suspen- 
sion roller A, and torsion circle C (see also fig. 14) reading to minutes. The 
suspension thread is a silk fibre slightly rubbed with bees-wax, in order to 
render it less susceptible to hygrometric influences. 

The magnet (D) is a rectangular bar about 5'4 inches long, 0*8 inch 
broad, and 01 inch thick. The semicircular mirrors, already alluded to, 
are also represented in figs. 3 & 4. Their diameter is 3 inches ; and great 
care has been taken that the glass surfaces should be accurately plane and 
parallel to each other. G is a copper damper, the object of which is to check 
the oscillations of the magnet, and bring it to rest speedily. The angle aef 
(Plate 3. fig. 1) being =30° and ef being perpendicular to the magnetic 
meridian, it follows that the plane of the mirror must be inclined at an angle 
of 15° to the axis of the magnet, in order that the ray de may be reflected in 
the direction ef 



204 report — 1859. 

The semicircular mirrors must likewise be placed so that their centre 
shall be on a level with the centre of the lens. The distance from the lens 
to the centre of the mirror is 8 - l inches. Having been reflected by the 
mirror, the light passes through a zinc tube fixed to a slate, which connects 
the declination pillar with the central pillar (see Plate 3. fig. 2), and so 
reaches the hemicylindrical lens and sensitive paper already described. The 
distance from the centre of the mirror to the sensitive paper is 6| feet. 
Hence we have 

Distance between lens and mirror = 8*1 inches. 

Distance between mirror and cylinder . . =78 - inches. 

Total distance between lens and cylinder =86*1 inches. 

And since the distance between the slit and the lens is 17'7 inches, we find 
that the focal distance of the lens for parallel actinic rays is nearly 14"7 inches*. 
Before falling on the sensitive paper, the light passes through a hemicylin- 
drical plano-convex lens (see Plate 3. fig. 1). The radius of the second sur- 
face of this lens, is about 0*6 inch, and consequently the distance between 
this surface and the sensitive paper (in order that the latter may be in focus) 
is nearly P2 inch. 

2. Horizontal-force Magnetograph. 

This instrument is exhibited in Plate 4. figs. 1 & 2. The magnet, mirror, 
lens, shade, adjustments of light and slit, &c., are in all respects similar to 
those of the declination magnetograph already described. The peculiarity 
of the instrument consists in the mode of suspension. A grooved wheel, £ 
(Plate 4. figs. 1 & 2), about 0*3 in. in diameter, has its axle attached to the 
stirrup which carries the magnet, the plane of the wheel being in the direc- 
tion of the magnet's length. 

The suspension thread, consisting of steel wire (steel being considered 
little liable to stretch), is carried round the wheel, and the two ends fixed to 
the suspension roller A (see also fig. 13). A little below the suspension 
roller the two threads pass over a screw at B, the screw being right-handed 
where it meets the one thread, and left-handed where it meets the other. 
Consequently by turning the screw-head, we can vary the distance between 
the wires until it becomes equal to the diameter of the wheel, and the wires 
will now be at the same distance from one another throughout their entire 
length. Let us suppose that the magnet is in the direction of the magnetic 
meridian. Turn round the torsion circle C (precisely similar to that already 
described) until the magnet assumes a position at right angles to the magnetic 
meridian. It is clear that, in order to do this, we shall have to turn the torsion 
circle through an angle greater than 90°, and consequently that the plane of 
the wires at their lower extremity will be different from that at their upper. 
This difference is at present =35° 56' nearly. The suspension thread is 
about 11 "6 inches long. 

As the light which falls upon the mirror in the direction de (see Plate 3. 
fig. 1) must be reflected in the direction ef (def being 30° as before), it 
follows that the plane of the mirror must make an angle of 75° with the 
magnetic axis of the magnet. 

The distance between the slit and the lens is 17*7 inches, and that between 

* The focal length of the lens is determined rather by convenience of shape of the instru- 
ment than by optical considerations. In the declination magnetograph, for instance, if the 
distance between the slit and the lens were much greater than 1 7"7 inches, the light, bull's- 
eye, and slit could not well be supported by an arm of the slate which is attached to the 
declination pillar, but would require a separate piilar for themselves. 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 205 

the lens and the mirror 8*1 inches, these being the same as in the declination 
magnetograph ; but the distance between the centre of the mirror and the 
cylinder is different, being here 4*885 feet. 

Hence the focal length of the lens for parallel actinic rays is about 14 
inches. The hemicylindrical lens is in all respects similar to that already 
described. 

3. Vertical-force Magnetograph. 

This instrument is exhibited in Plate 4. figs. 5, 6 & 7. 

The vertical-force magnet is of the same size as the others, and is balanced 
by means of a steel knife-edge upon an agate-plane. It is provided (see 
Plate 4-. fig. 7) at one side with a brass screw working horizontally, and at 
the other with a similar screw working vertically. By means of these the 
centre of gravity may be thrown to either side of the centre of suspension, 
or it may be raised or lowered, and the sensibility of the magnet, when 
balanced, thereby increased or diminished. 

These screws are arranged so that there is a preponderance of weight 
towards the south side of the magnet. This is neutralized partly by the 
magnetic force tending to pull the north end down, and partly by a slip of 
brass (H) standing out horizontally towards the north side. Let us suppose 
the system to be in equilibrium at a certain temperature ; if the temperature 
rise (since brass expands more than steel), the leverage of the weight at the 
north side will increase more rapidly than that of the weight at the south. 
There will therefore be a slight preponderance towards the north, and this 
may be arranged so as to neutralize to a great extent the decrease in the 
magnetic moment which an increase of temperature produces. 

The plane of the magnet is 15° out of the magnetic meridian (see Plate 3. 
fig. 1), for the following reason. Had the magnet been in the magnetic 
meridian, it would have been necessary to have placed the mirror inclined 
at an angle of 15° to the axis of motion of the magnet. This was tried, but 
it was found that in this position of the mirror, the correction for tempera- 
ture was so excessive that the instrument became a thermometer, and not a 
magnetometer. The mirror was therefore put in a plane passing through 
the axis of motion of the needle, the needle being made to move in a plane 
inclined 15° to the magnetic meridian. Its temperature correction is at pre- 
sent very small. 

The mirror of this instrument is exhibited in Plate 4. fig. 5, one half 
moving with the magnet, and the other half being fixed to a stand ; I is a 
lifter which may be inserted from without the glass shade, and which, bv 
raising three Y s to catch the needle, may remove it from its position of 
balance when necessary. 

A thermometer is inserted within the glass shade of this instrument, by 
means of which the temperature both of the horizontal and the vertical-force 
magnets may be determined with sufficient accuracy. 

In the vertical-force magnetograph, the slit for the light is horizontal, 
while the hemicylindrical lens and the cylinder are vertical. 

It might be thought that with a horizontal slit the style of burner already 
described would prove unsuitable, as we here require a horizontal and not 
a vertical light; but by using a burner twice as large every way as those of 
the other magnetographs, we obtain a light that is found to answer in prac- 
tice extremely well. 

The adjustments for regulating the distance between the light and the slit, 
and between the slit and the lens, are similar to those for the declination and 
bifilar magnetographs. There is also an adjustment, by means of which the 



206 repoiit — 1859. 

light, bull's-eye, and slit may be pushed vertically (not horizontally as in the 
others) a little to one side of the central line of the lens, so that the dots may 
assume a different position on the sensitive paper. 

The distance between the slit and the lens is 1Y'6 inches, that between 
the lens and the mirror is 8-1 inches, while the distance between the mirror 
and the cylinder is 6 feet. 

Hence the focal length of the lens for actinic parallel rays is about li'i 

inches. 

4. Registering Cylinder and Clockwork. 

These are exhibited in Plate 4*. figs. 8 & 9. The cylinders are each 
6-i- inches long, and 6 inches in diameter. They consist of brass silvered 
over. The method of connecting them with the clockwork was devised 
and executed by Mr. Beckley. The toothed wheel k is driven by the clock- 
work, and drives the two pinions I. These pinions, when in gear, drive the 
two horizontal cylinders by means of teeth attached to the circumference of 
the latter. Two radial arms, to which the pinions I are attached, enable 
these to be put out of gear when it is necessary to remove the cylinders. 
The position of the pinions in this case is indicated in the figure by dotted 
lines. The vertical cylinder has a toothed rim attached to its lower extremity, 
which is driven by the crown wheel m. By removing a screw, the cylinder 
may, when necessary, be detached from its toothed rim, leaving the latter 
behind. 

Section III. Description of the Photographic Process. 

The process employed is that known as the waxed-paper process, and is 
thus described by Mr. Crookes. 
Description of the Wax -paper Photographic Process employed for the Photo- 

meleorographic Registrations at the Radcliffe Observatory. ByW. Crookes, 

Esq. 

1. Before attempting to select from the numerous Photographic processes 
the one best adapted to the requirements of Meteorology, it was necessary 
to take into consideration a number of circumstances comparatively unim- 
portant in ordinary operations. 

To be of any value, the records must go on unceasingly and continu- 
ously : 

First. Therefore, the process adopted must be one combining sharpness of 
definition, with extreme sensitiveness, in order to mark accurately the minute 
and oftentimes sudden variations of the instruments. 

Second. To avoid all hurry and confusion, it is of the utmost importance 
that the prepared paper or other medium be of a kind capable of retaining 
its sensitiveness for several days. 

Third. The contraction which paper undergoes during the numerous 
operations to which it is subject in most processes (in general rather an ad- 
vantage than otherwise), is here a serious objection ; for this reason, the 
experiment first tried, of transferring to paper the image received on col- 
lodion preserved. sensitive by the nitrate of magnesia process, was a failure. 

Fourth. Strong contrast of light and shade, and absence of half-tint, un- 
fortunately so common amongst ordinary photographic pictures, is in this 
case no objection. 

Fifth. It is essential to preserve the original results in an accessible form ; 
and for this reason, the Daguerreotype process, admirably as it seems to 
answer other requisites, is obviously not the one best suited to our purpose. 
Lastly, the whole operation should, if possible, be so easily reducible to 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 207 

practice, that with a very small share of manipulatory skill, the loss of even 
a day's record would be impossible. 

2. Bearing these conditions in mind, on looking over the photographic 
processes with which I was acquainted, that known as the wax-paper process, 
first described by M. Le-Gray, seemed peculiarly applicable. In sharpness 
it might be made to rival collodion ; and although generally stated to be slow 
in its action, I had no doubt that its sensitiveness could be easily increased 
to the required degree. 

Of all paper processes, I believed it to be the one most free from contrac- 
tion, either during the time it is undergoing the action of the light, or in any 
subsequent stage. Its chief superiority, however, consisted in its capability 
of remaining sensitive for so long a time, that it is of little consequence 
whether the sensitive sheets be a day or a week old. Then the comparative 
slowness of the development, which has always been looked upon as one of 
its weak points, would be in this case a positive advantage, as dispensing with 
that care and attention which must always be bestowed on a quickly develop- 
ing picture. 

In addition to all these recommendations, it was a process to which I had 
paid particular attention, and consequently the one in which I might naturally 
hope to meet with the greatest amount of success. 

|. The general outline of the process does not differ materially from that 
which I published some years back in 'Notes and Queries,' vol. vi. p. 443 ; 
but as that account was written for practical photographers, the details of 
the manipulation were brief. It has therefore been thought advisable, that 
while describing again the whole process, with the addition of such modifi- 
cations as the end in view requires, I should also give such fuller description 
of the manipulation, as may render it more serviceable to those who have not 
hitherto paid attention to photography in its practical details. This must be 
my excuse, if to some I seem unnecessarily prolix. None but a practical 
photographer can appreciate upon what apparently trivial and unimportant 
points success in any branch of the art may depend. 

It may not be without service, if, before entering into the practical details 
of the process, I say a few words respecting the most advantageous way of 
arranging a photographic laboratory, together with the apparatus, chemicals, 
&c. which are of most frequent use. 

Among those requisites, which may be almost called absolute necessaries, 
are gas, and a plentiful supply of good water, as soft as can be procured. 

4. The windows and shutters of the room should be so contrived as either 
to allow of their being thrown wide open for purposes of ventilation, or 
of being closed sufficiently well to exclude every gleam of daylight ; and the 
arrangement should admit of the transition from one to the other being made 
with as little trouble as possible. 

5. A piece of very deep orange-coloured glass, about 2 feet square, 
should be put in the window, and the shutter ought to be constructed so as 
to allow of the room being perfectly darkened, or illuminated, either by 
ordinary daylight, or daylight which has been deprived of its photogrpphic 
rayr., by filtering through the orange glass. The absorbing power of this 
glass will be found to vary very considerably in different specimens, and I 
know of no rule but experience to find out the quality of any particular 
sample ; the best plan is to select from a good stock one of as dark a colour 
as possible. The proper colour is opake to the rays of the solar spectrum 
above the fixed line E. 

6. The best source of heat is unquestionably gas. It will be as well, how- 
ever, to have a fire-place in the room, as, in some cases, a gas-stove will be 



208 REPORT — 1859. 

inapplicable. There should be gas-burners in different parts of the room for 
illumination at night ; and also an arrangement for placing a screen of orange 
glass in front of each. 

Several rough deal benches should be put up in different parts of the room, 
with shelves, drawers, cupboards, &c. The arrangement of these matters 
must of course depend upon the capabilities of the room. 

7. The following apparatus is required. The quantities are those that we 
have found necessary in this Observatory: — 

Eight dishes. Six funnels. 

Eight mill-board covers. One funnel stand. 

Three brushes for cleaning dishes. Pint, half-pint, one ounce, and 
A vessel for melting wax. one drachm measures. 

Two gauze burners. Three glass flasks. 

One box, iron. Boxes for holding paper. 

Filtering paper. Scales and weights. 

A still for water. Sponge, glass rods, stoppered 

One platinum, and three bone spa- bottles, &c. 

tulas (flat paper-knives). 

8. The dishes may be made of glass, porcelain, or gutta percha. Glass 
and porcelain are certainly cleaner than gutta percha ; but for general use 
the latter is far preferable, as with it there is no risk of breakage, and the 
bottom of the dish can be made perfectly flat, which is a great advantage. 
These dishes should be made of sufficient length to allow of a margin of 
about half an inch at each end when the paper is in ; and the shape should 
be made as nearly square as possible, by arranging them to take two or three 
sheets side by side. 

The gutta percha should be of a good thickness, otherwise it will bend 
and give way, if it be moved when full of liquid. The depth must depend 
upon the size of the dish, and the purpose for which it is intended. The 
dishes in use here accommodate three sheets of paper side by side ; they are 
fifteen inches square, and one inch and a half deep. I think, however, for 
some purposes, where they are not wanted to be moved about much (i. e. those 
for holding the bath of hyposulphite of soda for fixing), the depth might be 
advantageously increased to two inches and a half. Each dish ought to be 
reserved for a particular solution, and should have a piece of millboard a 
little larger than itself lor a cover. 

9. The brushes for cleaning the dishes are of two sorts ; a common scrub- 
bing brush will be found the best for all parts but the corners, and for these 
another kind must be used, having a handle about a foot long, at the end of 
which are tufts of stiff bristles, projecting about three-quarters of an inch, 
and radiating on all sides, forming a ball about two inches and a half in dia- 
meter. Hardly any dirt will be found capable of resisting this brush if it be 
pressed into a corner, and twisted round several times. The dishes ought 
always to be put away clean, as the dirt is much more difficult to remove if 
allowed to dry on. 

10. When a dish is to be cleaned, if it be of glass or porcelain, strong 
nitric acid must be poured into it; if of gutta percha, it should be filled with 
a strong solution of cyanide of potassium. After soaking for half an hour or 
an hour, according to the state of the dish, the liquid is to be returned into 
the bottle (both the nitric acid and the cyanide can be used several times), 
the dish rinsed out with water, and then well scrubbed in every part with the 
brushes ; afterwards it is to be washed several times in common water, once 
with distilled water, and then placed in a slanting position against a wall, face 
downwards, to drain on clean blotting-paper. 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 209 

11. The vessel in which the wax is melted, must be contrived so as never 
to allow of its reaching a higher temperature than 212° Fahr., or decompo- 
sition of the wax might ensue. 1 have found the most convenient apparatus 
to be, a tin vessel 15 inches square and 4 inches deep, having a tray which 
holds the wax fitting into it about 1 inch deep. The under vessel is to be 
half filled with water, and by keeping this just at the boiling temperature, the 
wax above will soon become liquid. 

12. The best source of heat is that known as the gauze gas-burner, it 
being free from smoke or dust, and not liable to blacken anything placed 
over it. It consists of a common argand burner fixed on a rather low and 
heavy iron stand, which is surmounted by a copper or brass cylinder 5 inches 
in height and 2 inches wide, having a piece of wire gauze of 900 meshes to 
the square inch fastened over the top. By connecting this burner by means 
of vulcanized india-rubber tubing to the gas-pipe, it can be moved about 
the table to any convenient position. The mixture of gas and air, formed 
inside the cylinder, is to be lighted above the wire gauze ; it burns over this 
with a large and nearly colourless but intensely hot flame. 

13. The most convenient form of iron is the ordinary box iron, made 
hot by heaters inside ; perhaps it might be improved in shape by having 
the end not quite so pointed, but this is not of much consequence. Some 
operators recommend facing the bottom with a plate of silver ; this is very 
expensive, and seems to me to be attended with no advantage whatever. 

14. For the purpose of absorbing the excess of wax from the surface of 
the sheet, I should recommend the ordinary white wove blotting-paper, 
medium thickness. But this is not sufficiently free from impurities to serve 
either for drying the sensitive sheets, or for filtering ; for this purpose, the 
fine filtering paper (not the Swedish) employed in quantitative chemical 
operations is the best. 

15. The distilled water being one of those substances upon the purity 
of which success will in a great measure depend, it will be found much safer 
to distil it on the premises, especially as the quantity required is trifling. 
A convenient size for the still is about two gallons; it may be procured 
ready made, with worm, &c. complete, of any large dealer in chemical 
apparatus. It will be found far more economical, both in time and trouble, 
to heat the water over a charcoal or coke fire, in preference to using gas 
for this purpose. 

16. A platinum spatula is a most necessary instrument in almost every 
operation ; the best size is 4 inches long, % an inch wide at one end, and -| at 
the other, the corners being rounded off; it should be of a sufficient sub- 
stance to prevent its being easily bent. It chief use is to raise one corner 
of the sheets to allow of their being held between the finger and thumb, for 
the purpose of removing from one dish to another, as, previous to fixing, 
none of the solutions should come in contact with the fingers. 

During the fixing and subsequent washing, bone spatulas will be found 
very useful ; but after having been in contact with hyposulphite of soda, 
they must be carefully kept away from any of the previous baths, or black 
stains will infallibly ensue. 

17. The funnels may be either of glass or porcelain ; it will be found 
useful to have several of different sizes, from 2 inches diameter, up to 6 
inches. A convenient stand for them may be made of a piece of flat board, 
with circular holes, about half the diameter of the funnels employed, drilled 
into it, and supported upon four legs about 8 inches high. The paper 
used for filtering should be the finest of the two sorts of blotting-paper 
mentioned above (14). The filters can either be cut from the sheet as 
wanted, or they may be obtained ready cut in packets. 

1859. P 



210 REPORT— 1859. 

The measures should be of glass, graduated, the pint and half pint into 
ounces, the ounce measure into drachms, and the drachm measure into 
minims ; they shonld be rather long in proportion to their width. 

The Florence oil-flasks, which can be obtained for a trifle at any oil 
warehouse, will be found to answer every purpose, nearly as well as the more 
expensive German flasks. They must be cleansed thoroughly from the 
adhering oil ; this may be done by boiling in them, over the gauze gas-burner, 
a strong solution of ordinary washing soda, and afterwards well rinsing out 
with water. 

18. It will be found indispensable, where there are many operations going 
on at the same time, and many different sheets of paper in various stages of 
progress, to have a separate box or division to hold the paper in each of its 
stages. The plan I have found most convenient, is to obtain several mill- 
board boxes, the fronts of which will fall flat when the lid is lifted up, 
similar to those used by stationers for holding letter paper, &c. : they can 
be made to hold two or three piles of sheets side by side. They may be 
obtained from M. Rousseau, 352 Strand, London. 

The scales and weights need not be of any great accuracy. A 6-inch 
beam capable of turning to half a grain, when loaded with 500 grains in 
each pan, will be all that is requisite : the pans must be of glass, and the 
weights should consist of a set of grain and a set of drachm weights. 

A sponge will be found useful for wiping up any of the sol ul ions that 
may have been spilt on the bench. Solid glass stirring rods of about the 
thickness of a quill, and six or eight inches long, and a small Wedgewood 
pestle and mortar, are of great service in many of the operations. 

Stoppered bottles should be employed for all the solutions; and too 
much care cannot be taken to label each bottle accurately and distinctly. 

19. Besides the above apparatus, the following materials and chemicals 
are requisite. A rough estimate is also given of their relative consumption 
in three months: — Photographic paper, 270 sheets, or 112 square feet; four 
pounds of wax ; three ounces of iodide of potassium ; three ounces of 
bromide of potassium ; four ounces of nitrate of silver ; two ounces of glacial 
acetic acid ; four ounces of gallic acid ; one pint of alcohol ; seven pounds of 
hyposulphite of soda ; half a pound of cyanide of potassium ; half a pint of 
concentrated nitric acid ; eighteen gallons of distilled water. 

20. The selection of a good sample of paper for the basis on which the 
sensitive material is to be formed is of great importance, as any imper- 
fection will be a source of annoyance in every stage of the process, and will 
hardly fail to show itself on the finished picture. The paper, which from 
numerous experiments I have found to be superior to any other, is that 
known as Canson's thin photographic paper. This is manufactured with 
care, and is in general very uniform in quality. 

It will be found by far the most advantageous plan, when used on a scale 
like the present, to order it of some wholesale stationer cut to the requisite 
dimensions. The size of the sheets in use here is 4-f inches by \2\lj inches*. 
Hitherto Messrs. Hallifax and Co., 319 Oxford Street, have supplied us with 
the paper of this size. 

21. I am indebted to Mr. Barclay of Regent Street, wax bleacher, for 
much valuable information concerning wax and its adulterations, and for 

* This is a most inconvenient size, as it involves the cutting of more than one-third of 
the paper to waste. The admirably ingenious arrangement of Mr. Ronalds was not made 
with the view of employing Canson's paper, or it would doubtless have been contrived t 
accommodate sheets of a size which could be cut with less waste, such as 4^ by 13 inches 
or 4f by 11£ inches. 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAQNETOGRAPHS. 211 

an extensive assortment of waxes of all kinds, and in every degree of purity ; 
also to Mr. Maskelyne, for a valuable series of the chemical bodies of 
which the various waxes are composed ; by means of these I have been 
enabled to examine the effect produced by saturating the paper with 
bees-wax from different countries, Myrica wax, Canauba wax, China wax, 
spermaceti, ethal, stearic acid, stearin, palmitic acid, palmitin, paraffin, 
and various oils. 

22. I find that the action of the wax is purely mechanical, almost the 
only difference of effect produced by any of the above bodies, widely as they 
vary in their chemical nature, arising from a difference in their physical 
properties. 

Stearin, palmitin, and most of the oils, are too greasy in their nature 
to be advantageously employed. The fatty acids do not make the paper 
in the least greasy, but they injure the transparency. China wax has 
almost too high a melting-point, and gives a crystalline structure to the 
paper. Spermaceti also is too crystalline. Paraffin, ethal, and the waxes, 
produce very good results ; of these bees-wax is the only one that would 
be practically available for this purpose. It should be free from stearin, 
stearic acid, tallow, &c; the presence of a little spermaceti does not much 
interfere, but as its price does not differ very much from that of pure wax, 
it is not so common an adulteration as the other cheaper substances. 

23. It will be unsafe to use the wax in the form of round thin tablets, 
about 4 inches in diameter, in which it is usually met with, as in this state 
it is generally adulterated to the extent of at least 50 per cent. 

As an article of commerce, it is next to impossible to obtain small 
quantities of wax sufficiently pure to be relied upon. The only way I can 
recommend is to apply to one of the well-known large bleachers, and trust 
to them for supplying the article in a state of purity. Whenever I have 
found it necessary to make such applications, my request has always been 
acceded to in the most cordial manner, and every information has been 
given with the utmost readiness. 

24. The other chemicals (with the exception of the strong nitric acid, 
which any retail druggist will supply, and the water, which had best be 
distilled on the premises) should be ordered direct from some manufacturing 
chemist, as otherwise, unless the operator have a sufficient knowledge of 
chemistry to be able to detect any inferiority, there is danger of not having 
the articles sufficiently pure. 

The iodide and bromide of potassium should be ordered purified. 

The nitrate of silver should be crystallized, not in sticks ; it ought to be 
perfectly dry, and have no smell, acid or otherwise. 

There are usually two varieties of glacial acetic acid to be met with ; the 
purest must be used ; it should be perfectly free from any empyreumatic 
odour, and must cause no turbidity when mixed with a solution of nitrate of 
silver, e. g. in making the exciting bath (42). 

The gallic acid should be as nearly white in colour as possible. 

Especial care should be taken to have the alcohol good ; it should be 60° 
over proof, and of specific gravity 0'83. On evaporating a few drops on the 
palm of the hand, no smell should be left behind, nor should it, under the 
same circumstances, leave any stain on a sheet of white paper. 

25. The hyposulphite of soda will be found one of the articles most 
difficult to obtain pure ; there is a large quantity at present in the market, 
having little else of this salt but the name, and being of course totally unfit for 
use; if there be the least doubt about its purity, it should be tested in the 
following manner: — ■ 

p2 



212 report — 1859. 

Weigh out accurately 10 grains of nitrate of silver, dissolve this in half an 
ounce of distilled water; then add 4< grains of chloride of sodium (common 
salt), also dissolved in water. On mixing these two solutions together, a 
white curdy precipitate of chloride of silver will fall down. Next add 22 
grains of the hyposulphite of soda, and allow it to stand for about ten 
minutes, stirring occasionally with a glass rod. If at the end of that time 
the chloride of silver has dissolved, the hyposulphite of soda may be con- 
sidered as pure. A greater or less amount of residue will indicate roughly 
the degree of impurity. 

26. The cyanide of potassium is usually met with in the form of hard 
white lumps; they will be found quite pure enough. It is very useful in 
removing stains formed by nitrate of silver on the fingers, &c. ; but the 
greatest care must be taken in its employment, as it is a most energetic poison; 
its use in cleaning the dishes from silver stains has been pointed out above 
(10). 

27. The first operation to be performed is to make a slight pencil mark on 
that side of the photographic paper which is to receive the sensitive coating. 
If a sheet of Canson's paper be examined in a good light, one of the sides 
will be found to present a finely reticulated appearance, while the other will 
be perfectly smooth ; this latter is the one that should be marked. Fifty or 
a hundred sheets may be marked at once, by holding a pile of them firmly 
by one end, and then bending the packet round, until the loose ends separate 
one from another like a fan ; generally all the sheets lie in the same direc- 
tion, therefore it is only necessary to ascertain that the smooth side of one of 
them is uppermost, and then draw a pencil once or twice along the exposed 
edges. 

28. The paper has now to be saturated with white wax. The apparatus 
for this purpose has been previously described (11)- The wax is to be 
made perfectly liquid, and then the sheets of paper, taken up singly and 
held by one end, are gradually lowered on to the fluid. As soon as the wax 
is absorbed, which takes place almost directly, they are to be lifted up with 
rather a quick movement, held by one corner and allowed to drain until the 
wax, ceasing to run off, congeals on the surface. When the sheets are first 
taken up for this operation, they should be briefly examined, and such as 
show the water- mark, contain any black spots*, or have anything unusual 
about their appearance, should be rejected. 

29. The paper in this stage will contain far more wax than necessary; the 
excess may be removed by placing the sheets singly between blotting-paper 
(14), and ironing them; but this is wasteful, and the loss may be avoided 
by placing on each side of the waxed sheet two or three sheets of unwaxed 
photographic paper, and then ironing the whole between blotting-paper; 
there will generally be enough wax on the centre sheet to saturate fully those 
next to it on each side, and partially, if not entirely, the others. Those that 
are imperfectly waxed may be made the outer sheets of the succeeding set. 
Finally, each sheet must be separately ironed between blotting-paper until 
the glistening patches of wax are absorbed. 

30. It is of the utmost consequence that the temperature of the iron should 
not exceed that of boiling water. Before using, I always dip it into water 
until (he hissing entirely ceases. This is one of the most important points in 
the whole process, but one which it is very difficult to make beginners pro- 
perly appreciate. The disadvantages of having too hot an iron, are not 

* These spots have been analysed by Mr. Malone ; he finds them to consist, not of iron, 
as is generally supposed, but of small pieces of brass. I have also examined them myself 
with a like result. 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPKS. 213 

apparent until an after stage, while the saving of time and trouble is a great 
temptation to beginners. It is to a neglect of this point that I am inclined 
to attribute most of the faults so commonly laid to the charge of this beau- 
tiful process ; such as gravelly appearance, or want of smoothness in the 
lights, and quick decomposition in the developing solution. 

31. A well-waxed sheet of paper, when viewed by obliquely reflected 
light, ought to present a perfectly uniform glazed appearance on one side, 
while the other should be rather duller; there must be no shining patches 
on any part of the surface, nor should any irregularities be observed on ex- 
amining the paper with a black ground placed behind; seen by transmitted 
light, it will appear opalescent, but there should be no approach to a granular 
structure. The colour of a pile of waxed sheets is slightly bluish. 

32. The paper, having undergone this preparatory operation, is ready for 
iodizing ; this is effected by completely immersing it in an aqueous solution 
of an alkaline iodide, either pure or mixed with some analogous salt. 

One would think that in no part of the photographic operation would 
greater unanimity exist, than on the composition of the iodizing bath ; but 
on this subject, strangely enough, no two persons seem to think alike. The 
formulae for this bath are nearly as numerous as the operators themselves ; 
and some of them show not a little ingenuity in the manner in which substances 
apparently the most unphotographic have been pressed into service. 

33. The results of numerous experiments, which I need not mention 
here, had convinced me, that for ordinary purposes, iodide of silver per se 
was the best sensitive surface for receiving an image in the camera ; but on 
making use of that body in these operations (by employing pure iodide of 
potassium in the bath), I was surprised to meet with results for which I was 
at first unable to account. A little consideration, however, showed me the 
direction in which I was to look for a remedy. The experiments which had 
led me to prefer iodide of silver as a sensitive surface, had all been performed 
with sunlight, either direct, or more frequently in the form of diffused day- 
light. In this case, however, coal-gas was the source of light; and if, as was 
very probable, there were any great difference in the quality of the light 
from these two sources, the superiority of iodide over the bromide or chlo- 
ride of silver would still be a matter for experiment. 

34. A comparison of the spectra of the two kinds of light showed a very 
marked difference; while in sunlight the spectral rays which are around 
and above the fixed line G (the indigo and higher rays) are so intense and 
numerous, as completely to overpower the small space between and about 
F and G (the blue and upper portion of the green), a part of the spectrum 
which affects bromide more than iodide of silver ; in gaslight the case was 
quite different. The great bulk of photographic rays was found to lie within 
the limits of the visible spectrum, and consequently the photographic action 
of this light was likely to be far more energetic on bromide than on iodide 
of silver. These, suppositions were fully borne out by experiment : on intro- 
ducing a little bromide of potassium into the iodizing bath, the change was 
very apparent. It requires a certain proportion to be observed between the 
two to obtain the best results. If the iodide of potassium be in excess, the 
resulting silver salt will be wanting in sensitiveness, requiring a compa- 
ratively long development to render an image visible ; while, if the bromide 
be in excess, there will be a great want of vigour in the impression, the 
picture being red and transparent. When the proportion between the two 
is properly adjusted, the paper will be extremely sensitive, the picture pre- 
senting a vigorous black appearance, without the least approach to red. The 
addition of a chloride was found to produce a somewhat similar effect to that 



214 REPORT — 1859. 

of a bromide, but in a less marked degree. As no particular advantage could 
be traced to it, it was not employed. 

35. I have also tried most of the different forms of organic matter which 
it is customary to add to this bath, but I cannot recommend them ; the 
most that can be said is, that some of them do no harm. At first I thought 
a little isinglass might be an improvement, as it instantly removes the greasi- 
ness from the surface of the paper, and allows the iodide of potassium to 
penetrate more readily. Unfortunately, however, it interferes with the most 
important property of this process, that of remaining sensitive for a long time. 

36. I think the best results are obtained when the iodide and bromide 
are mixed in the proportion of their atomic weights ; the strength being as 
follows : — 

Iodide of potassium .... 582*5 grains. 
Bromide of potassium .... 417*5 grains. 
Distilled water 40 ounces*. 

When the two salts have dissolved in the water, the mixture should be 
filtered ; the bath will then be fit for use. 

37. At first a slight difficulty will be felt in immersing the waxed sheets 
in the liquid without enclosing air-bubbles, the greasy nature of the surface 
causing the solution to run off. The best way is to hold the paper by one 
end, and gradually to bring it down on to the liquid, commencing at the 
other end ; the paper ought not to slant towards the surface of the bath, or 
there will be danger of enclosing air-bubbles ; but while it is being laid 
down, the part out of the liquid should be kept as nearly as possible per- 
pendicular to the surface of the liquid ; any curling up of the sheet, when 
first laid down, may be prevented by breathing on it gently. In about ten 
minutes the sheet ought to be lifted up by one corner, and turned over in 
the same manner ; a slight agitation of the dish will then throw the liquid 
entirely over that sheet, and another can be treated in like manner. 

38. The sheets must remain soaking in this bath for about three hours ; 
several times during that interval (and especially if there be many sheets 
in the same bath) they ought to be moved about and turned over singly, 
to allow of the liquid penetrating between them, and coming perfectly in 
contact with every part of the surface. After they have soaked for a suffi- 
cient time, the sheets should be taken out and hung up to dry ; this is con- 
veniently effected by stretching a string across the room, and hooking the 
papers on to this by means of a pin bent into the shape of the letter S. 
After a sheet has been hung up for a few minutes, a piece of blotting-paper, 
about one inch square, should be stuck to the bottom corner to absorb the 
drop, and prevent its drying on the sheet, or it would cause a stain in the 
picture. 

39. While the sheets are drying, they should be looked at occasionally, 
and the way iu which the liquid on the surface dries, noticed ; if it collect 
in drops all over the surface, it is a sign that the sheets have not been suffi- 
ciently acted on by the iodizing bath, owing to their having been removed 
from the latter too soon. The sheets will usually during drying assume a 
dirty pink appearance, owing probably to the liberation of iodine by ozone 
in the air, and its subsequent combination with the starch and wax in the 
paper. This is by no means a bad sign, if the colour be at all uniform ; but 
if it appear in patches and spots, it shows that there has been some irregular 

* While giving the above as the calculated quantities, I do not wish to insist upon their 
being adhered to with any extreme accuracy. An error of a few grains on either side 
would, I believe, be without any perceptible effect on the result. 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 215 

absorption of the wax, or defect in the iodizing, and it will be as well to 
reject sheets so marked. 

40. As soon as the sheets are quite dry, they can be put aside in a box 
for use at a future time. There is a great deal of uncertainty as regards the 
length of time the sheets may be kept in this state without spoiling ; I can 
speak from experience as to there being no sensible deterioration after a 
lapse of ten months, but further than this I have not tried. 

Up to this stage it is immaterial whether the operations have been per- 
formed by daylight or not ; but the subsequent treatment, until the fixing 
of the picture, must be done by yellow light (5). 

41. The next step consists in rendering the iodized paper sensitive to light. 
Athough, when extreme care is taken in this operation, it is hardly of any 
consequence when this is performed, yet in practice it will not be found 
convenient to excite the paper earlier than about a fortnight before its being 
required for use. The materials for the exciting bath are nitrate of silver, 
glacial acetic acid, and water. Some operators replace the acetic acid by 
tartaric acid ; but as I cannot perceive the effect of this change except in a 
diminution of sensitiveness, I have not adopted it. It is of little importance 
what be the strength of the solution of nitrate of silver; the disadvantages 
of a weak solution are, that the sheets require to remain in contact with it 
for a considerable time before the decomposition is effected, and the bath 
requires oftener renewing ; while with a bath which is too strong, time is 
equally lost in the long-continued washing requisite to enable the paper to 
keep good for any length of time. The quantity of acetic acid is also of little 
consequence. 

42. In the following bath, I have endeavoured so to adjust the proportion 
of nitrate of silver, as to avoid as much as possible both the inconveniences 
mentioned above : — 

Nitrate of silver 300 grains. 

Glacial acetic acid 2 drachms. 

Distilled water 20 ounces. 

The nitrate of silver and acetic acid are to be added to the water, and when 
dissolved, filtered into a clean dish (10), taking care that the bottom of the 
dish be flat, and that the liquid cover it to the depth of at least half an inch 
all over; by the side of this, two similar dishes must be placed, each con- 
taining distilled water. 

43. A sheet of iodized paper is to be taken by one end and gradually 
lowered, the marked side downwards, on to the exciting solution, taking care 
that no liquid gets on to the back, and no air-bubbles are enclosed. 

It will be necessary for the sheet to remain on this bath from five to ten 
minutes ; but it can generally be known when the operation is completed by 
the change in appearance, the pink colour entirely disappearing, and the sheet 
assuming a pure homogeneous straw colour. When this is the case, one 
corner of it must be raised up by the platinum spatula, lifted out of the dish 
with rather a quick movement, allowed to drain for about half a minute, and 
then floated on the surface of the water in the second dish, while another 
iodized sheet is placed on the nitrate of silver solution ; when this has re- 
mained on for a sufficient time, it must be in like manner transferred to the 
dish of distilled water, having removed the previous sheet to the next dish. 

44. A third iodized sheet can now be excited, and when this is completed, 
the one first excited must be rubbed perfectly dry between folds of clean 
blotting-paper (14), wrapped up in clean paper, and preserved in a port- 
folio until required for use ; and the others can be transferred a dish forward, 



216 report — 1859. 

as before, taking care that each sheet be washed twice in distilled water, 
and that at every fourth sheet the dishes of washing water be emptied, and 
replenished with clean distilled water : this water should not be thrown 
away, but preserved in a bottle for a subsequent operation (49). 

45. The above quantity of the exciting bath will be found quite enough 
to excite about fifty sheets of the size here employed, or 3000 square inches 
of paper. After the bulk has been exhausted for this purpose, it should be 
kept, like the washing waters, for the subsequent operation of developing (49). 

Of course these sensitive sheets must be kept in perfect darkness. Gene- 
rally sufficient attention is not paid to this point. It should be borne in 
mind, that an amount of white light, quite harmless if the paper were only 
exposed to its action for a few minutes, will infallibly destroy it if allowed 
to have access to it for any length of time ; therefore, the longer the sheets 
are required to be kept, the more carefully must the light, even from gas, 
be excluded; they must likewise be kept away from any fumes or vapour. 

46. Experience alone can tell the proper time to expose the sensitive 
paper to the action of light, in order to obtain the best effects. However, it 
will be useful to remember that it is almost always possible, however short 
the time of exposure, to obtain some trace of effect by prolonged develop- 
ment. Varying the time of exposure, within certain limits, makes very little 
difference on the finished picture ; its principal effect being to shorten or 
prolong the time of development. 

Unless the exposure to light has been extremely long (much longer than 
can take place under the circumstances we are contemplating), nothing will 
be visible on the sheet after its removal from the instrument, more than there 
was previous to exposure ; the action of the light merely producing a latent 
impression, which requires to be developed to render it visible. 

47. The developing solution in nearly every case consists of an aqueous 
solution of gallic acid, with the addition, more or less, of a solution of nitrate 
of silver. 

An improvement on the ordinary method of developing with gallic acid, 
formed the subject of a communication to the Philosophical Magazine for 
March 1855, where I recommend the employment of a strong alcoholic solu- 
tion of gallic acid, to be diluted with water when required for use, as being 
more economical both of time and trouble than the preparation of a great 
quantity of an aqueous solution for each operation. 

48. The solution is thus made : put two ounces of crystallized gallic acid 
into a dry flask with a narrow neck; over this pour six ounces of good 
alcohol (60° over proof), and place the flask in hot water until the acid is 
dissolved, or nearly so. This will not take long, especially if it be well 
shaken once or twice. Allow it to cool, then add half a drachm of glacial 
acetic acid, and filter the whole into a stoppered bottle. 

49. The developing solution which I employ for one set of sheets, or 180 
square inches, is prepared by mixing togelher ten ounces of the water that 
has been previously u<ed for washing the excited papers (44), and four 
drachms of the exhausted exciting bath (45) ; the mixture is then filtered 
into a perfectly clean dish, and half a drachm of the above alcoholic solution 
of gallic acid poured into it. The dish must be shaken about until the 
greasy appearance has quite gone from the surface ; and then the sheets of 
paper may be laid down on the solution in the ordinary manner with the 
marked side downwards, taking particular care that none of the solution gets 
on the back of the paper, or it will cause a stain. Should this happen, either 
dry it with blotting-paper, or immerse the sheet entirely in the liquid. 

50. If the paper has been exposed to a moderate light, the picture will 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 217 

begin to appear within five minutes of its being laid on the solution, and 
will be finished in a few hours. It may, however, sometimes be requisite, 
if the light has been feeble, to prolong the development for a day or more. 
If the dish be perfectly clean, the developing solution will remain active for 
the whole of this time, and when used only for a few hours, will be quite 
clear and colourless, or with the faintest tinge of brown ; a darker appear- 
ance indicates the presence of dirt. The progress of the development may 
be watched, by gently raising one corner with the platinum spatula, and 
lifting the sheet up by the fingers. This should not be done too often, as 
there is always a risk of producing stains on the surface of the picture. I 
prefer allowing the development to go on until the black is rather more in- 
tense than ultimately required, as it is generally toned down in the fixing bath. 

51. As soon as the picture is judged to be sufficiently intense, it must be 
removed from the gallo-nitrate, and laid on a dish of water (not necessarily 
distilled). In this state it may remain until the final operation of fixing, 
which need not be performed immediately, if inconvenient. After being 
washed once or twice, and dried between clean blotting-paper, the picture 
will remain unharmed for weeks, if kept in a dark place. 

52. Thejixingr bath is composed of a saturated solution of hyposulphite of 
soda diluted with its own bulk of water. Into this the sheets are to be com- 
pletely immersed, until the whole of the yellow iodide of silver has been 
dissolved out. This operation need not be performed by yellow light; day- 
light is much better for showing whether the picture be entirely fixed. This 
will take from a quarter of an hour to two hours, according to the time the 
bath has been in use. 

It will be well not to put too many sheets into the bath at once, in order 
to avoid the necessity of turning them over to allow the liquid to penetrate 
every part. 

When fixed, the sheet, if held up between the light and the eye, will 
present a pure transparent appearance in the white parts. 

The fixing bath gradually becomes less and less active by use, and then 
its action is very energetic on the dark parts of the picture, attacking and 
dissolving them equally with the unchanged iodide. When this is the case 
it should be put on one side (not thrown away), and a fresh bath made. 

53. After removal from the fixing bath, the sheets must be well-washed. 
In this operation, the effect depends more upon the quantity of water used 
than upon the duration of the immersion. When practicable, it is a good 
plan to allow water from a tap to flow over the sheets for a minute or two, 
and having thus got rid of the hyposulphite of soda from the surface, to 
allow them to soak for about ten minutes in a large dish of hot water. 

54. They are then to be dried by hanging up by a crooked pin, as after 
iodizing. W T hen dry, they will present a very rough and granular appearance 
in the transparent parts ; this is removed by melting the wax, either before 
a fire, or, what is far better, by placing them between blotting-paper, and 
passing a warm iron over them ; by this means the white parts will recover 
their original transparency. 

55. The picture, arrived at this stage, may be considered finished, as far 
as is requisite for the purposes of measurement and registration ; sometimes, 
however, it may be necessary to multiply copies, for the purpose of trans- 
mitting to other Meteorological Observatories facsimiles of the records, or 
at least of those containing any remarkable phenomena. I will therefore 
now detail the method of printing photographic positives from these nega- 
tives, premising that the process does not differ materially from that usually 
adopted. 



218 , report — 1859. 

56. The only extra piece of apparatus required, is a pressure frame ; 
which consists essentially of a stout piece of plate glass in a frame, with an 
arrangement for screwing a flat board, the size of the glass, tight against it. 
Though apparently very simple, some care is required, when the frame is a 
large one, in arranging the screw and board at the back, so as to obtain an 
equal pressure all over the surface ; unless this is done, the glass will be very 
liable to break. The pressure frames supplied to us by Messrs. Newman 
and Murray, 122 Regent Street, are unexceptionable in this respect. The 
board should of course be well-padded with velvet, and the lateral dimensions 
of the glass should be the same as those of the gutta-percha dishes (8). 

57. The extra chemicals required for this process are chloride of sodium 
and chloride of gold. Generally speaking, for the former, common table- 
salt will be found quite pure enough ; but as the quantity required is but 
small, it will perhaps be found better to obtain some of the recrystallized 
salt along with the other chemicals. 

The chloride of gold is merely required for an artistic effect. Many 
persons object to the reddish-brown appearance of ordinary photographic 
positives ; the addition of a little chloride of gold to the fixing bath converts 
this into a rich brown or black ; the trifling quantity required removes any 
objection to its use on the score of expense. 

58. I prefer using the same kind of paper for positives as for negatives 
(20). Messrs. Canson manufacture a thicker paper, which is generally 
called positive paper, but I think the thin is far preferable ; the surface is 
smoother, and the various solutions penetrate much better. 

59. The first operation which the paper has to undergo is salting ; the 
bath for this purpose consists of 

Chloride of sodium 100 grains. 

Distilled water 40 ounces. 

Filter this into a clean dish, and completely immerse the sheets, marked 
as directed (27). This is best done by laying them gently on the surface of 
the liquid, and then pressing them under by passing a glass rod over them ; as 
many sheets as the dish will hold may be thus immersed one after the other. 
Allow them to soak for about ten minutes, then lift and turn them over in a 
body ; afterwards they may be hung up to dry (38), commencing with the 
sheet which was first put in. When dry, they may be taken down and put 
aside for use at any future time. The sheets in drying generally curl up 
very much ; it will therefore be found convenient in the next process, if the 
salted sheets, before being put away, have been allowed to remain in the 
pressure frame, screwed tight, for about twenty.four hours. This makes 
them perfectly flat. 

60. The exciting bath is composed of 

Nitrate of silver 150 grains. 

Distilled water 10 ounces. 

After filtering, pour the solution into a clean dish ; and then lay the sheets, 
salted as above, on the surface, face downwards, gently breathing on the 
back, if it be necessary, to counteract the tendency to curl up ; let them 
remain on this bath for about ten minutes, and then hang up to dry (38). 

61. This exciting bath will serve for nearly one hundred sheets; it will 
then be better to put it on one side (6i), and make a new bath. It is not 
advisable to excite more positive sheets than will be likely to be required in 
the course of a week, for they gradually turn brown by keeping, even in the 
dark, and lose sensitiveness. They will, however, keep much better if 
pressed tight in the pressure frame, and thus protected from the air. 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 219 

62. When a positive is to be printed from a negative, let the glass of 
the pressure frame be perfectly cleaned and freed from dust on both sides, 
then lay the negative on it, with its back to the glass. On it place a sheet 
of positive paper, with its sensitive side down. Then, having placed over, 
as a pad, several sheets of blotting-paper, screw the back down with 
sufficient force to press the two sheets into close contact, but of course not 
so as to endanger the glass. Now place the frame in the sun, so that the 
light can fall perpendicularly on the glass, and allow it to remain there 
until it is judged to have been exposed long enough. 

63. No rule can be laid down for the proper time of exposure ; it will 
depend upon the quality of the light and intensity of the negative ; some 
pictures being completed in a few minutes, others requiring upwards of 
half an hour. The printing should always go on until the picture is 
several shades darker than ultimately required. A very little experience 
will enable the operator to judge so well of the quality of the light, as 
hardly ever to have a failure. If the two sheets of paper be stuck together 
in two or three places at the edges with small pieces of gummed paper, the 
frame can be removed to the dark room, and the progress of the sheets 
examined ; but this is always attended with some danger, for unless th«y 
are replaced without having been shifted one from the other, there will be a 
double image. 

64. As soon as the picture is considered to be printed sufficiently deep, 
it has to be fixed. 

The fixing bath consists of 

Saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda . . . . 10 ounces. 
Water , 30 ounces. 

This bath will be found to fix the pictures perfectly, but they will 
generally be of a reddish tint; if it be thought desirable to obtain the 
pictures of some shade of dark brown or black, it will be necessary to 
employ a bath made as follows : — 

Saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda .... 10 ounces. 

Water 10 ounces. 

Exhausted positive exciting solution (61) .... 10 ounces. 

Mix these together, and then add the following : — 

Water 10 ounces. 

Chloride of gold 20 grains. 

taking care in mixing to pour the solution of gold into the solution of 
hyposulphite, and not the latter into the former, or another decomposition 
will be produced. 

Pour this mixture into a dish, and lay the positive carefully on it, face 
downwards. As soon as it is thoroughly damp (which may be known by 
its becoming perfectly flat after having curled up), immerse it totally in the 
liquid. 

65. The pictures should not be too crowded in the bath, as they are very 
apt to become irregularly coloured in places where the hyposulphite has not 
had free access during the whole of the time. When first put in, the colour 
will change to a light brown, and in the course of some time, varying from 
ten minutes to two or three hours, it will pass through the different shades 
of brown to black and purple, gradually fading in intensity during the time. 
It will be necessary to allow the picture to remain in this bath for ten minutes 
at least, in order that it may be perfectly fixed. After this time, its stay 



220 report — 1859. 

need only be prolonged until it has become of the desired tone and colour; 
always remembering, that during the subsequent operation of drying, &c. 
it will become of a somewhat darker tint than when taken out of the fixing 
bath. 

66. On removal from this bath, the pictures must be allowed to soak in 
a large quantity of cold water for ten or twelve hours. There must not be 
very many in the dish at a time, and the water must be changed at least 
three times during that interval; they must then have boiling water poured 
over them (of course in a porcelain dish) two or three times, and lastly be 
pressed dry between sheets of clean blotting-paper (14) (these may be used 
several times, if dried), and then allowed to dry spontaneously in the air. 
When the pressure frame is not in use, a pile of these finished positives may 
be put in, and kept tightly screwed up all night ; by this means they will be 
rendered perfectly flat and smooth. 

67. The picture is now complete. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that the light and shade are reversed by this operation, the track of the 
luminous image along the paper being represented by a white instead of by 
a black band, as in the original negative. Should it be desired to produce 
exact facsimiles of the negatives, it can be done by employing one of these 
positives as a negative, and printing other positives from it ; in this way, 
the light and shade, having been twice reversed, will be the same as in the 
original negative. 

63. In some cases it may happen that, owing to a partial failure of gas, 
or imperfection in the sensitive sheet, an image may be so faint as to render 
it impossible to print a distinct positive. The gap that this would produce 
in a set of pictures may be obviated, and with very slight sacrifice of 
accuracy, by forming an artificial or secondary negative in the following 
manner: — 

69. Print a copy on positive paper, of any intensity which will show the 
most distinct impression ; then without fixing, and with a pair of sharp 
scissors, accurately and carefully cut out the part corresponding to the 
impressed portion of the negative. Expose this piece to the light until it 
has become perfectly opake, and then it can either be cemented over the 
imperfect original sheet, or on a clean sheet of paper, and used as an ordinary 
negative. 

It is astonishing what accuracy and quickness in cutting out even the most 
intricate pictures, may be obtained with a little practice ; the error of the 
scissors is generally within the error of measurement. 

Supplementary Notes to the above description, embodying some slight changes 
in the process made at Kew. By C. Chambers. 

1. After reaching the stage described in art. 28, a pile of paper is to be 
made up, in which eight plain (unwaxed) sheets alternate with one waxed 
sheet, and in this state is to be placed between hot plates and subjected to 
high pressure for several hours, when the mass of paper will be found to be 
completely permeated by the wax. The operation is to be repeated four or 
five times, and the sheets, being separated after cooling, will be ready for 
iodizing. 

The operation of pressing is best accomplished with the pappr not folded, and 
of the full size as received from the maker, so that the edges which retain super- 
fluous wax may be cut off and rejected, and the sheets then cut into pieces of 
the required shape. Piles half an inch in thickness may be done at once in 
this way, and using several series of hot plates, any quantity of paper may 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 221 

be put through the press in one night. The hot-pressing apparatus is used 
by the paper-makers, and by some of the wholesale stationers. 

2. The iodizing bath, which should be kept in the dark when not in use, 
consists of — 

Iodide of potassium 582^ grains. 

Bromide of potassium. . . . 417f grains. 

Distilled water 40 ozs. 

Iodine — sufficient to give the solution a decidedly red 
tinge. 

With every fresh batch of paper, a small quantity of iodine should be 
added to restore the red tone of the bath. 

The paper is to be hung up to dry in a dark cupboard, and, when dry, it 
should be of a light reddish-brown colour ; if a deep red or purple, it will 
want sensitiveness ; if nearly white, it will want keeping properties, and will 
become discoloured during development. 

3. The exciting bath contains, — 

Nitrate of silver 750 gr9. 

Distilled water 30 ozs. 

Acetic acid 3 drins. 

A strong solution of nitrate of silver (100 grs. to 1 oz. of water) is kept 
in a separate bottle for replenishing the exciting bath, which loses by use 
both in quantity and strength. 2 drms. of this solution with \ drm. of acetic 
acid, is added after exciting every three sheets (300 square inches) of paper. 
The addition of acetic acid prevents discoloration during development, but 
at the same time slightly diminishes the sensitiveness, and, if added in excess, 
the intensity of the image is much weakened. When the bath is more than 
a fortnight old, it is necessary to filter before using. With a weak and old 
exciting bath the iodide of silver is apt to fall from the sheet in flakes while 
in the bath, and the portions of the sheet so deprived of silver are no longer 
sensitive to light : however, there need be no fear of this occurring while the 
strength of the bath is maintained as above directed. The same exciting 
solution has been used as long as three months with satisfactory results 
(1000 square inches of paper being sensitized weekly). 

4. (Art. 44.) Instead of drying the sheets between blotting-paper, it has 
been found to give cleaner and more uniform pictures to hang them up to 
dry in a dark cupboard ; about an inch is cut off each end of the sheet and 
rejected where the fingers have touched it, and where the fluid has accumu- 
lated in dripping. 

5. It is very desirable that the exciting and fixing operations should be 
performed at different times; for if, after fixing, the hands have not been care- 
fully washed, the least remnant of fixing solution left upon the fingers is 
communicated to the edge and dispersed over the moist surface of the newly 
sensitized sheet, producing a stain which appears on developing. If a series 
of black spots, proceeding from one corner of the sheet, show themselves 
while developing, the cause should probably be looked for in the exciting 
operation — a drop of the solution accidentally got on the upper side of the 
floating sheet having trickled down when the sheet was held vertically : when 
this occurs, it is better (instead of merely floating) to immerse the sheet in the 
two washing dishes (see art. 43). 

6. A sheet of plate-glass, 20 inches by 18 inches, ground at the edges to 
prevent the solution from flowing off, is used for developing. This was pro- 
posed by Mr. Welsh, and it is found to answer extremely well : it rests upon 



222 report — 1859. 

a wooden cross-piece which fits into a large earthenware dish, and is capable 
of being roughly levelled by means of screws which support the dish. 

It is raised about an inch above the bottom of the dish. A solution con- 
sisting of — 

Distilled water 8 ozs. 

Acetic acid 1 drm. 

Old exciting bath 4 drms. (or 1 drm. of solution of 

nitrate of silver 100 grs. to 1 oz.) 
Gallic acid solution .... 1| drm. (see art. 48) 

is poured upon the plate, and the exposed sheets floated side by side upon it. 
The time required for this operation varies from two hours in summer to six 
or eight hours in winter. 

Note — In dull weather, the sensitive paper above described may be used 
with advantage for printing copies of the curves — requiring an exposure of 
only a few seconds to diffused daylight. 



Section IV. On the Method of ascertaining the Instrumental 
Coefficients, tabulating from the Curves, etc. 

1. Declination Magnetograph. 

In this instrument the distance between the centre of the mirror and the 
registering cylinder is 6'5 feet, and consequently a change in the position of 
the dot of light on the sensitive paper, equal to one inch, denotes a change 
of 22'*18 in the position of the magnet. 

The mirrors are so arranged that the moveable dot is north of the fixed 
dot on the cylinder (see Plate 3. fig. 1) ; an increase of declination therefore 
will bring the two dots nearer together, while a decrease of declination will 
have the opposite effect. 

Should the suspension thread be without torsion altogether, or should its 
torsion remain constant, the same distance between the two dots of light will 
always denote the same absolute declination ; so that if by any means we 
know the absolute declination corresponding to a given distance between the 
dots, we shall be able to tell what it is for any other distance, or, in fact, for 
any moment of time. 

The comparability with one another of the various tracings afforded by the 
instrument, depends on the constancy of the torsion ; should this vary, the 
curves are no longer absolutely comparable. Great attention should therefore 
be paid to secure, if not an entire absence of torsion, at least a constancy in 
the little that remains. 

The thread should be well freed from torsion when the magnet is suspended : 
by slightly rubbing it with bees-wax, or by some other similar process, it 
should be rendered less susceptible to hygrometric influences, and a dish of 
chloride of calcium should be kept under the glass shade to absorb all moisture. 
When the magnet is in perfect adjustment, there can be no objection to seal 
the shade to the marble slab all round with bees-wax, at least if an ordinary 
loosely fitting shade be used. 

Besides all this, it is necessary to make at least every month at some spot 
free from the influence of iron, observations of absolute declination, noting 
the precise moment at which each observation is made. The distance be- 
tween the two dots of light, that is to say between the curve and the base- 
line of the declination magnetograph, at the moments of observation, wil 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 223 

afford us corrections, which, when applied to our monthly absolute determi- 
nations, should bring them all to the same value : in other words, the self- 
recording magnetograph affords us the means of eliminating the changes that 
are constantly taking place in the value of the magnetic declination. Should, 
however, the torsion of the suspension thread of the declination magnetograph 
have become changed to any extent, our corrected monthly determinations 
will no longer have the same value. 

We are thus presented with a test, by means of which we may ascertain 
whether change of torsion in the suspension thread, or some other circum- 
stance, such as the change in position of some neighbouring mass of iron, 
has affected our magnetograph. The following results show that the mag- 
netograph herein described has stood this test in a very satisfactory manner: — 

Time of observation of Declination reduced by 

absolute declination. magnetograph to Jan. 1858. 

1858 January 21 56 27 

February 21 54- 47 

March 21 56 2 

April 21 56 59 

May 21 56 33 

August 2155 38 

September 21 57 1 

October 21 55 4 

1859 October 21 57 7 

November 21 56 38 

December 21 54 53 

Before concluding this part of the subject, I may remark that the magneto- 
graphs are merely intended to serve as differential instruments ; so that, in 
addition to their employment, absolute values of the magnetic elements require 
to be taken from time to time. On this account also, although it is very de- 
sirable to have, if possible, no torsion in the thread of the declination mag- 
netograph, and no iron in its neighbourhood, yet the value of the result does 
not depend so much on the entire absence of these sources of error as in the 
constancy of the effects which they produce. The greatest caution should 
therefore be exercised in excluding any hygrometric influence which might 
change the torsion, and the greatest pains taken to prevent any shifting of 
iron in the neighbourhood of the instruments. 

2. Horizontal-force Magnetograph. 

We have in this case two things to determine, viz. the temperature cor- 
rection, and the value of one inch on the cylinder in parts of force. With 
regard to the first of these, the most trustworthy method is to make the ob- 
servations themselves determine their own temperature correction by means 
of comparing together two periods, for which the average temperature is 
different, while the average horizontal force is known to be the same for both. 
It is, however, advisable that the temperature correction of the horizontal- 
force magnet should be well determined in the ordinary manner before 
mounting it. With regard to the scale coefficient, or value of 1 inch in parts 
of force, it may be well to exhibit in detail the process by which the scale 
coefficient of the present horizontal-force magnetograph has been determined. 

There are two methods by which the scale coefficient is determined. In 
the first of these, let v denote the angle which the plane of the upper extre- 
mities of the wire makes with that of the lower; Iv the change, in parts of 



224 report — 1859. 

radius, which is occasioned on v by the moveable dot traversing the sensitive 
paper one inch ; k the scale coefficient, or value of one iuch in parts of 
force; then £=cot« S». 

By this formula, k, or the scale coefficient, may be determined when v is 
known. Let us determine v accurately when the magnet is mounted, that is, 
let us find accurately the angle which the plane of the upper extremities of 
the wire makes with that of the lower for a certain distance between the 
fixed and the moveable dot of light upon the cylinder, then we can always 
find the value of v. Loss of magnetism in the magnet may have widened the 
distance between the dots on the cylinder since we first determined v*, but 
knowing the angular value of one inch we can make allowance for this, and 
thereby determine the present value of v, which will be somewhat less than 
the first. The loss of magnetism may even have obliged us to turn the torsion 
circle, in order to bring the dots of light nearer to one another, and of course 
an accurate account must be taken of this, and allowance made for it in cal- 
culating for the future the values of v. 

Taking these circumstances into account, viz. the amount of change of the 
torsion circle, and the distance between the dots, v may always be determined, 
and, consequently, by the above formula, the scale coefficient may be known. 

But as there is some doubt of the rigorous truth of the conditions which 
the above formula assumes, another method of determining the scale coefficient 
has been proposed which does not seem open to any such objection. 

Let a deflection bar be arranged as in Plate 3. fig. 4 a, 4 a, so as to support 
a magnet horizontally placed, with its axis in the magnetic meridian, and so 
that if prolonged it would pass through the centre of the bifilar magnet. 

Let the centre of the two magnets be at the distance r from one another. 
The presence of the deflecting magnet will of course have changed the posi- 
tion of the moveable dot upon the cylinder. Bring the bifilar magnet speedily 
to rest, and allow the deflecting magnet to remain in its position for about 
five minutes : this time will sufficiently enable us to procure a photographic 
impression of the position of the bifilar magnet when deflected ; and having 
its position before and after, we shall thus be enabled to estimate the amount 
of deflection. Let this be n inches. 

Take the same deflecting magnet and place it in a similar position with 
respect to the declination magnet, and also at the distances. Here it is 
obvious that the axis of the deflecting magnet is at right angles to the 
magnetic meridian. Determine photographically, as before, the angle of de- 
flection which it has caused ; let this be u ; then k, or the value of one inch 

in parts of force for the bifilar magnetograph= . 

Example. On April 30, 1858, the deflecting magnet having been applied as 
above to the bifilar magnetograph, the deflection produced was=2*887 in. 

The same magnet being applied in a similar manner, and at the same di- 
stance, to the declination magnet, the deflection was =3*560 inches =78' 58". 

Hence ft- "^^=-00796. 

A similar observation having been performed at the distances 2*5 and 3*0 
feet, we find as a mean result on that date, 

k =-00800. 

* In the declination magnetograph a decrease of distance between the dots denotes an in- 
crease of westerly declination, while in the bifilar and vertical-force magnetographs it denotes 
an increase of horizontal and vertical force respectively. 



ON SELF-RECORDING AIAGNETOGRAPHS- 225 

On December 2, 1859, a similar set of observations gave 

£=•01004. 
These may be taken as the correct values of k at their respective dates', 
but we wish to obtain the values of k for intermediate dates. In order to do 
this, let us make use of the other formula, 

A = cot vlv. 
On April 30, 1858, v was nearly=43° 13'; hence 

£ = cot 43° 13' X — ?— =-009078. 
117-24 

On December 2, 1859, v=35° 56' ; hence 

£ = cot 35° 56'x— ^— = -011769. 
117-24 

By the first or more correct formula we find the change that had taken place 
in the value of A between the two dates to be -00204, while by the latter formula 
the change is -002691. We cannot go far wrong in supposing that the real 
change upon k is equal to that given by the formula (A=cot# S v) multiplied 

by the fraction -. Hence to find the real value of k for any value 

3 -002691 

of v, we have 

£ = -00204_ | cot ^ y _. 0090 ' ;8 } + . 00800 . 

•002691* x 

In these instruments it is of great importance to have magnets which lose 
their magnetism very slowly ; for it is the loss of magnetism, rather than any 
other cause, which renders it necessary to turn the torsion circle, and occa- 
sions changes in the value of the scale coefficient. In connexion with this 
magnetograph, it is necessary to make frequent observations of absolute hori- 
zontal force, noting the precise times at which the observations are made. 
Such observations will serve to eliminate from the results of the horizontal- 
force magnetograph those changes which are occasioned by loss of magnetism 
and stretching of the suspension thread. It is particularly desirable to make 
absolute observations immediately before and after turning the torsion circle. 

3. Vertical-force Magnetograph. 

The temperature correction of this instrument, if fitted with a slip of brass, 
as in the present instance, will have to be determined by the observations 
themselves. It is well, however, as a measure of precaution, to determine 
the temperature coefficient of the magnet before it is mounted. 

With regard to the value of one inch in parts of force, there are two methods 
by which this may be determined, viz. the method of vibrations, and that of 
deflections. 

With respect to the former of these — 

Let T denote the time of vibration of the magnet in a vertical plane ; 
T' the time of vibration of the magnet in a horizontal plane* ; 
the magnetic dip ; 

Y the vertical component of the earth's force ; 
which suppose to become Y-f-ciY, occasioning a change in the angular posi- 
tion of the magnet represented by h ; then it may be shown that 

_=_ coteae. 

* Suspended so as to have the same moment of inertia which it has in the vertical plane. 
1859. Q 



226 report — 1859. 

Again, since the normal to the mirror is inclined at an angle of 15° to the 
incident ray, and since the sensitive cylinder is 5*965 feet, or 71*58 inches 
distant from the mirror, it may be shown that the vertical space of one inch 
traversed by the luminous dot upon the cylinder, represents an angular change 
in the position of the magnet 

_ 1 

143-16 X cos 15° 5 
hence the value of 1 inch in parts of force 

T' 2 cote 



T 2 143-16 cos 15°' 



The second method, by which the value of one inch in parts of force may be 
determined, is that of deflections. Let a suitable apparatus (see Plate 3. figs. 
5a, 5a) be contrived, by means of which a deflection magnet, m, may be 
placed vertically with its centre at a given distance, r, from that of the ver- 
tical-force magnet and in continuation of the magnetic axis of the latter 
magnet, when horizontal. Let the change of position of the luminous dot 
upon the cylinder be registered photographically as before; let this be 
=n inches. 

Let the deflecting magnet be now placed with its centre at the distance r 
from that of the declination magnet, and in continuation of the magnetic 
axis of the latter magnet; also let the magnetic axis of the deflecting magnet 
be perpendicular to the magnetic meridian ; and, finally, let the angle through 
which the declination magnet is deflected be determined photographically. 
Call this angle u ; then it may be shown that the value of one inch in parts of 
force for the vertical-force magnet is found from the following expression: — 

tt i p . * tan w 

Value or one inch=— . 

n tan 

By the method of vibrations the value of one inch was determined on 
February 27th, 1858, to be ='00221 in parts offeree, while by the method of 
deflections (mean of three distances) its value was found to be = "00211 in 
parts of force. There is thus a very satisfactory agreement between the 
results of the two processes. 

On April 18th, 1860, the value of one inch was determined by the method 
of deflections to be =-00249 in parts of force. There is thus a change 
= •00038 which has taken place in the value of one inch during the course of 
about two years. This has no doubt been occasioned by loss of magnetism 
of the magnet widening the distance between the dots and rendering it 
necessary to alter the balance of the magnet by means of the horizontal 
screw from time to time. 

A proper method of interpolation will enable us to determine with suffi- 
cient accuracy the value of 1 inch in parts of force for any period between 
February 27th, 1858, and April 18th, 1860. 

It is perhaps a safe rule to determine the value of the scale coefficients of 
bifilar and vertical-force magnetographs,by the method of deflections, once 
a year. 

Monthly observations of dip are made at Kew, which, combined with the 
monthly determinations of absolute horizontal force, will enable us to deter- 
mine the absolute vertical force, and thus to eliminate from the vertical-force 
curves the changes that have been occasioned by loss of magnetism from 
time to time. 

Method of tabulating from the curves. — By pushing the dots of light 
forward a little, two days' curves are recorded on each sheet of sensitive 



ON SELF-RECORDING MAGNETOGRAPHS. 227 

paper. These sheets are therefore only changed every second day. This 
change is made a little after 10 a.m., and the time occupied in making it is 
about ten minutes, while that occupied in pushing forward the dots is only 
about three minutes. There is thus every day a loss of ten and of three 
minutes alternately, so that the curves never record precisely the whole of 
the twenty-four hours, but generally something less by a few minutes. The 
precise moment (Kew mean time) of stopping the pendulum and of setting 
it going again is noted, so that the length of time for which any curve is 
a record is known and is attached to the curve in writing. (See curves 
appended to this Report, Plate 5.) 

The instrument for tabulating from the curves is represented in Plate 3. 
fig. 3 a : ab is a time-scale commencing and ending with 22 h . This scale is 
moveable round a as a centre, and the centre a is also moveable in a hori- 
zontal direction. Part of the instrument, dfg, is moveable in a vertical 
direction by means of h, the head of a pinion which works into the rack i; 
d serves as a vernier for the scale e. The piece c d efg is moveable in a 
horizontal direction by means of a slide which fits into the slot k I; /and g 
are two tubes through which the eye looks at lines on a piece of glass (ex- 
hibited separately at full size in fig. 3 «). These are two sets of double lines 
which are etched on glass,the sets beingexactly two inches apart. The distance 
between the tubes/ and g is also two inches, so that when the upper pair of 
lines is placed under /, the lower pair is under g. The glass is firmly 
attached in this position to the moveable piece dfg, so that the double lines 
remain exactly under the tubes in whatever manner dfg is moved. The 
breadth between the two lines (which together constitute a double line) on 
the piece of glass is a little greater than the breadth of the curve or zero- 
line on the photographic paper. 

In order to measure the distance between the curve and zero-line, the 
photographic paper is set between two pieces of plate-glass, and so adjusted, 
that when the tube g is set over the zero-line, it may continue to be approxi- 
mately over it in any part of its horizontal range. 

Suppose now that c d efg is at the extreme left, the vertical line of the 
piece of glass lying along the commencement of the curve and that of the 
zero-line. Set the time-scale ab so that the edge of the index e may touch 
that hour on the time-scale which corresponds to the commencement of the 
curve. Adjust the vertical height of b, the extremity of the time-scale, so 
that when c d ef g is carried to the other or right-hand extremity of the 
curve, the index c may touch that division of the time-scale which corresponds 
to the termination of the curve. Were the same length of base-line always 
to denote the same space of time, there would be no need of altering the 
inclination of a J; but the rate of the clock may vary a little, or the paper 
may fit more or less loosely to the cylinder, so that an inch of the base-line 
will not always denote precisely the same space of time. Having thus 
adjusted the time-scale, in order to find the distance between the base-line 
and the curve for any hour, set the index c to the required time, move the 
pinion head h until the upper pair of etched lines at/ are over the curve-line, 
and read off the height on the scale e by means of the vernier d. Next move 
the pinion head h until the lower pair of etched lines at g are over the base- 
line, and read off by means of the vernier as before. The difference between 
the readings for the curve and the base-line plus two inches, gives the distance 
between these lines. 

In case any shifting should take place, it is best to read the curve and its 
corresponding base-line consecutively, instead of reading first a number o 
points of the curve together, and then the corresponding points of the base- 

Q2 



228 report — 1859. 

line together also. Occasionally the presence of iron for a short time may 
cause an abrupt rise and fall of small size in the curve, the one motion 
being due to the approach of the iron, and the other to its removal. These 
must be taken into account in tabulating from the curves. An instance of 
this occurs in the curves appended to this Report. 

Section V. Improvements in the Construction of a Set of Self- 
recording Magnetographs since made. 

Magnetographs very similar to those here described have been lately set 
up in a house constructed to receive them about 70 yards from the Kew 
Observatory. 

The following improvements were made in their construction : — 

1. Instead of one large glass shade standing upon the marble slab, each 
magnetograph has a gun-metal cylinder, which stands upon the slab, and is 
surmounted by a glass shade of comparatively small size. An opening is cut 
in the side of the cylinder, in which there is inserted a piece of perfectly 
plane glass ; this glass covers that space which in the old arrangement would 
have been occupied by the two round holes already described. The lens 
is apart from the cylinder, and has an adjustment to admit of its distance 
from the mirror being altered if necessary. 

This arrangement permits the shades to be removed without disturbing the 
lenses. It also renders the working of the instrument less liable to inter- 
ruption in case of any accident happening to the shade. 

There is also a tube inserted through the marble, which may be connected 
with an air-pump and the interior of the cylinder and shade exhausted, if 
this be thought necessary. 

2. The second improvement consists in having reading telescopes with ivory 
or other scales mounted on pillars, and so placed that the light from the 
divisions of the scale falling upon the moveable mirror attached to the 
magnet is reflected into the telescope. In consequence of this, the motion 
of the mirror will cause an apparent motion of the scale in the field of view 
of the telescope. The position of the magnet will therefore be known by 
observing what division of the scale is in contact with the vertical wire of 
the telescope. 

We may thus combine the photographic record with eye observations. 
The advantage of the latter is that we see what is taking place at the very 
moment of its occurrence, whereas we only obtain the photographic record 
a couple of days after the changes to which it relates have happened. 

Should a disturbance take place, we are thus not only made aware of it at 
the time of its occurrence, but we may, by having a telescope scale of greater 
range than the recording cylinder, obtain eye observations, when owing to 
excessive disturbance the dot of light has altogether left the sensitive paper. 



Report on the Theory of Numbers. — Part I. 
By H. J. Stephen Smith, M.A., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. 

1. The ' Disquisitiones Arithmetics? ' of Karl Friedrich Gauss (Lipsias, 
1801) and the ' Theorie des Nombres' of Adrien Marie Legendre (Paris, 
1830, ed. 3) are still the classical works on the Theory of Numbers. 
Nevertheless, the actual state of this part of mathematical analysis is but 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 229 

imperfectly represented in those celebrated treatises. The arithmetical 
memoirs of Gauss himself, subsequent to the publication of the ' Disquisi- 
tiones Arithmeticae ;' those of Cauchy, Jacobi, Lejeune Dirichlet, Eisen- 
stein, Poinsot, and, among still living mathematicians, of MM. Kummer, 
Kronecker, and Hermite, have served to simplify as well as to extend the 
science. From the labours of these and other eminent writers, the Theory 
of Numbers has acquired a great and increasing claim to the attention of 
mathematicians. It is equally remarkable for the number and importance 
of its results, for the precision and rigorousness of its demonstrations, for 
the variety of its methods, for the intimate relations between truths 
apparently isolated which it sometimes discloses, and for the numerous 
applications of which it is susceptible in other parts of analysis. " The 
higher arithmetic," observes Gauss*, confessedly the great master of the 
science, " presents us with an inexhaustible store of interesting truths, — of 
truths, too, which are not isolated, but stand in a close internal connexion, and 
between which, as our knowledge increases, we are continually discovering 
new and sometimes wholly unexpected ties. A great part of its theories 
derives an additional charm from the peculiarity that important propositions, 
with the impress of simplicity upon them, are often easily discoverable by 
induction, and yet are of so profound a character that we cannot find their 
demonstration till after many vain attempts; and even then, when we do 
succeed, it is often by some tedious and artificial process, while the simpler 
methods may long remain concealed." 

2. It is the object of the present report to exhibit an outline of the 
results of these later investigations, and to trace (so far as is possible) 
their connexion with one another and with earlier researches. An attempt 
will also occasionally be made to point out the lacunce which still exist 
in the arithmetical theories that come before us ; and to indicate those 
regions of inquiry in which there seems most hope of accessions to our 
present knowledge. In order, however, to render this report intelligible 
to persons who have not occupied themselves specially with the Theory of 
Numbers, it will be occasionally necessary to introduce a brief and summary 
indication of principles and results which are to be found in the works of 
Gauss and Legendre. It is hardly necessary to add that we must confine 
ourselves to what we may term the great "highways of the science; and that 
we must wholly pass by many outlying researches of great interest and im- 
portance, as we propose rather to exhibit in a clear light the most funda- 
mental and indispensable theories, than to embarrass the treatment of a 
subject, already sufficiently complex, with a multitude of details, which, 
however important in themselves, are not essential to the comprehension of 
the whole. 

3. There, are two principal branches of the higher arithmetic : — the Theory 
of Congruences, and the Theory of Homogeneous Forms. The first of 
these theories relates to the solution of indeterminate equations, of the form 

a n x n + a n _ l x n ~ 1 + +a l x+a =Py, 

in which a n a n _ x . . . o^ o and P are given integral numbers, and x and y 
are numbers which it is required to determine. The second relates to the 
solution of indeterminate equations of the form 

r \x x x 2 . . . x m ) = j.\l, 

in which M denotes a given integral number, and F a homogeneous function 

* Preface to Eisenstein's ' Mathematische Abhandlungen,' Berlin, 1847. 



230 report — 1859. 

of any order with integral coefficients. In this general point of view, these 
two theories are hardly more distinct from one another than are in algebra 
the two theories to which they respectively correspond, — the Theory of 
Equations, and that of Homogeneous Functions ; and it might, at first sight, 
appear as if there was not sufficient foundation for the distinction. But, in 
the present state of our knowledge, the methods applicable to, and the re- 
searches suggested by these two problems, are sufficiently distinct to justify 
their separation from one another. We shall therefore classify the researches 
we have to consider here under these two heads; those miscellaneous investi- 
gations, which do not properly come under either of them, we shall place in a 
third division by themselves. 

(A) Theory of Congruences. 

4. Definition of a, Congruence. — If the difference between A. and B be 
divisible by a number P, A is said to be congruous to Bfor the modulus P; 
so that, in particular, if A be divisible by P, A is congruous to zero for the 
modulus P. The symbolic expressions of these congruences are respectively 

A=eB, mod P, 
A=0, mod P. 

Thus 7 = 2, mod 5; 13e=— 3, mod 8. 

It will be seen that the definition of a congruence involves only one of 
the most elementary arithmetical conceptions,— that of the divisibility of 
one number by another. But it expresses that conception in a form so 
suggestive of analogies with other parts of analysis, so easily available in 
calculation, and so fertile in new results, that its introduction into arithmetic 
(by Gauss) has proved a most important contribution to the progress of the 
science. It will be at once evident, from the definition, that congruences 
possess many of the properties of equations. Thus, congruences in which 
the modulus is the same may be added to one another; a congruence may 
be multiplied by any number ; each side of it may be raised to any power 
whatever, and even may be divided by any number prime to the modulus. 

5. Solution of a Congruence. — If (j> (x) denote a rational and integral 
function of x with integral coefficients (we shall, throughout this report, 
attach this meaning to the functional symbols F,f (p, &c, except when the 
contrary is expressly stated) ; the congruence <j> (x)=0, mod P, is said to be 
solved, when all the integral values of x are assigned which make the left 
hand number of the congruence divisible by P; i. e. which satisfy the inde- 
terminate equation (J)(x)=Pg. It is evident that if x=a be a solution of 
the congruence f(x)=0, every number included in the formula #=a-f-juP 
is also a solution of the congruence. But the solutions included in that 
formula are all congruous to one another and to a. It is proper, therefore, 
to consider all these congruous solutions as identical, and in speaking of the 
number of solutions of a congruence to understand the number of sets of 
incongruous solutions of which it is susceptible. To assign, by a direct 
method, all the solutions of which a proposed congruence is capable, is the 
general problem which, in the Theory of Numbers, corresponds to the 
problem of the solution of numerical equations in ordinary algebra. But 
the solution of the arithmetical problem is attended with even greater 
difficulties than that of the algebraical one ; and the attention of geometers 
has been turned with more success to the improvement of the indirect or 
tentative methods of solution, and to the discovery of criteria of possibility 
*or impossibility for congruential formulae, than to their direct solution. It is 
to be observed that, by virtue of a remark already made, the tentative 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 231 

solution of a congruence involves no theoretical difficulty. For if #=« be a 
solution, every number included in the formula x=a + /xP is also a solution, 
and among these numbers there is always one, and only one, comprised 
within the limits and P— 1 inclusively. By substituting, therefore, for x all 
numbers in succession less than the modulus, and rejecting those which do 
not satisfy the congruence, we shall obtain its complete solution. But the 
interminable labour attending this operation, notwithstanding all the abbre- 
viations in it suggested by the Calculus of Finite Differences, renders its 
application impossible, except when the modulus is a low number. 

6. Systems of Residues The set of numbers 0, 1,2....P— 1 (or any 

set of P numbers respectively congruous for the modulus P to those numbers) 
is termed a, complete system of residues for the modulus P. By a system of 
residues prime to P, we are to understand a complete system, from which 
every residue has been omitted which has any common divisor with P. Thus 
1, 5, 7, 11, or 1, 5, —5, —1, are the terms of a system of residues prime to 
12. The word Residue is employed instead of Remainder, because the 
word Remainder would suggest the idea of a positive number less than the 
modulus or divisor ; whereas it is frequently convenient to consider residues 
differing from those positive remainders by any multiples of the modulus 
whatever. 

7. Linear Congruences. — The general form of a linear congruence is 
ax+b~0, modP; a, b, and P denoting given numbers, and a; a number to be 
determined. 

The theory of these congruences may be considered to be complete, both 
as regards the determination of the solutions or roots themselves and of their 
number. If a be prime to the modulus, there is always one solution, and one 
only ; if a have a common divisor with the modulus which does not also divide 
b, the congruence is irresoluble ; if d be the greatest common divisor of a and 
P, and if $ also divide b, the congruence has 2 solutions. In every case when 
the congruence is resoluble, the direct determination of its roots may be made 
to depend on the solution of a congruence of the form ax=l, mod P, in which 
a is prime to P. This congruence coincides with the indeterminate equation 
ax=\-\-Yy, methods for the solution of which were known to the ancient 
Indian geometers*, and have been given in Europe by Bachet de Meziriacf 
Euler J, and Lagrange §. The methods of these writers ultimately depend 
on the conversion of a vulgar fraction into a continued fraction, and in one 
form or another have passed into every book on algebra. Nor would it have 
been proper to allude to them here, were it not that they serve to supply us 
with a clear conception of what we have a right to expect in the solution of 
an arithmetical problem. In such problems, we cannot expect to express 
the qucesita as (discontinuous) analytical functions of the data. Such ex- 
pressions may indeed, in many cases, be obtained (by the use of the roots of 
unity or by other methods) ; but the results of the kind which have hitherto 
been given, though sometimes of use in calculation, may be said, with few 
exceptions, to conceal rather than to express the real connexion between the 

* See the Arithmetic of Bhascara, cap. xii., and the Algebra of Brahmegupta, cap. i. in 
Mr. Colebrooke's translation, London, 1817. 

t Problemes plaisans et delectables, qui se font par les nombres. Seconde edition. Par 
Claude Gaspar Bachet, Sieur de Meziriac, Lyon, 1624. (See props, xv. to xxv.) 

\ Comment. Acad. Petropol. torn. vii. p. 46, or in the Collection of Euler's Arithmetical 
Memoirs (L. Euleri Commentationes Arithmeticae Collectse, Petropoli, 1849), vol. i. p. 2 ; 
and in his Elements of Algebra, part ii. cap. 1 . 

§ Sur la Resolution des Problcmes Indetermincs du seconde degre. Hist, de 1' Acad, 
de Berlin, 1767, p. 165. (See Arts 7, 8, and 29 of the Memoir.) Also in the Additions to 
Euler's Algebra, sects, i. and ill. (Lyon, an. in.) 



232 report — 1859. 

numbers required and the numbers given. The arithmetical solution of a 
problem should consist in prescribing a finite number of purely arithmetical 
operations (exempt from all tentative processes), by which all the numbers 
satisfying the conditions of the problem, and those only, are obtained. It is 
clear that this description exactly applies to the methods on which the 
solution of linear congruences depends; but, unfortunately, the higher arith- 
metic presents but few examples of solutions of equal perfection. 

8. Besides the older methods for the solution of the equation ax=\ + ¥i/, 
others have, in very recent times, been suggested. Of these the following 
may serve as examples : — 

A. In the equation ax= 1 -f P#> or the congruence a#= 1 , mod P, form the 
residues of the successive powers of a for the modulus P. If a be prime 
to P, we shall at last arrive at a power which has + 1 for its remainder or 
residue. The residue of the power immediately inferior to this power 
is the value of x in the congruence ax = 1, mod P. This solution is evidently 
an application of Fermat's Theorem*. 

B. Let there be P points A 1 A 2 . . . A P , arranged at equal distances on the 
circumference of a circle. Join A a to A a+1 , A a+1 to A 2n+1 ...and so on 
continually. It can be proved that if a be prime to P, we shall not return 
again to A 1? until we have passed through every one of the P points, and 
have formed a polygon of P sides. Let X 1 X 2 ...X? be the vertices of this 
polygon, taken in order, and let A 2 =X m+1 ; then x^m is the value of x in 

the congruence ax=l, mod Pf. 

C. Let an origin and a pair of axes be assumed in a plane, and let all the 
points be constructed whose coordinates are integral multiples of the linear 
unit; call these points unit points. Join the origin to the point (a, P). If 
a be prime to P, no unit point can lie on the joining line, but on each side 
of the joining line there will be a point lying nearer to it than any other. 
Let (£j t) x ), (£ 2 ?? 2 ) be t,ie coordinates of these points, and let ^ : j^ < £ 2 : jj 2 ; 
then | x , J7 X , and £ a , r\ 2 are the least positive numbers satisfying the equations 
a j?j— P^=l, ci)i 2 — P£ 2 =— !• 

The late M. Crelle, of Berlin, in the 45th volume of his Journal (p. 299), 
has given a very useful table, containing the least positive numbers x Y and 
x 2 which satisfy the equation a x x x —a 2 x 2 —\, for all values of a x up to 120, 
and for all values of a 2 prime to a r and less than it. 

9. Systems of Linear Congruences. — The theory of these systems is left 
imperfect in the work of Gauss (see Disq. Arith. art. 37) ; but, by the aid of 
a few subsidiary propositions relating to determinants, we may, in every case, 
obtain directly all possible solutions of any proposed system ; and (what is 
frequently of more importance) we can decide a priori whether a given 
system of linear congruences be resoluble or not, and if it be resoluble we 
can assign the number of its solutions. The following theorems by which 
the determination of the number of solutions is, in every case, effected, will 
sufficiently indicate the nature of these investigations. 

Let the proposed system of congruences be represented by 

(1, l)x l + (], t 2)x 2 +(l,3)x 3 +..+(l,n)x=u 1 

* Binet, sur la Resolution des equations du premier degre en Nombres entiers. (Journal 
de l'ficole Polytechnique, cahier xx., p. 289.) 

Libri, Memoires de Mathematique et Physique (Florence, 1829), p. 65-67. 

Poinsot, Reflexions sur les Principes Fondamentals de la Theorie des Nombres (Paris, 
1845), cap. iii. nos. 19 & 20. For another solution by M. Binet, see Comptes Rendues, 
xiii., p. 349. See also Cauchy, Comptes Rendues, xii. p. 813. 

t Poinsot, Reflexions, &c, cap. iii., nos. 17 and 18. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 233 

(2, 1 ) a?, + (2, 2) a? a + (2, 3) * 3 + . . + (2, n) *„=«, (A). 

(«, 1) .r 1 + (w, 2) a? a +(w, 3) x 3 + . . + (», ») a? B ==a„; 

let the modulus be q, and the determinant 2+ (1, 1) (2, 2) . . (», w)= D « 
If the determinant be prime to the modulus, these congruences will always 
admit of one, and only one, system of solutions, namely, that supplied by the 
system of congruences 

~ k = n dD 

Dx ' = S TFT—- \ Uk ' 
h=\ d{k,r) 

But if D be not prime to q, let q=p x mi .p.™* where p v p# &e. denote 

different primes. In order that the proposed system should be resoluble for 
the modulus q, it must be separately resoluble for each of the modules p™ 1 , 
p™ 2 , &c. ; and conversely if it be resoluble for each of those modules, and 
admit P, solutions when taken with respect to the modulus p™ 1 , P 2 solutions 
when taken with respect to the modulus jo 2 '" 3 , and so on, it will be also 
resoluble for the modulus q, and will admit P : X P„ X P 3 . . .solutions for that 
modulus. It is, therefore, only necessary to assign the number of solutions 
of the congruences (A), for a modulus p m which is the power of a prime. 
Let I be the index of the highest power of p which divides D ; and similarly 
let I denote the index of the highest power of p which divides all the 
minors of D which are of order r ; then if I„— I„_i < m, the system (A) (if 
resoluble at all) admits of p ln solutions; but if I„ >»i + I«_i, it will always 
be possible, in the series of differences 

're — Ire— 1> *n— 1 — *n— 2> •■ • ■ 

to assign a pair of consecutive terms I r +i — 1» I,- — 1»— 1» satisfying the in- 
equalities 

I, + i— I r >m>I r — l r -\ ; 
and then the number of solutions (supposing always that the congruences 
are resoluble) is expressed by the formula pir+(n-r)m m 

The analogy of this theory with the corresponding algebraic theory of 
systems of linear equations is in particular cases very striking. For example, 
we have in Algebra the theorem 
"The system of n linear equations 

(1, 1) x x + (1, 2) ar 2 + (1, 3) x a + . . . + (1, ») x n =0 
(2, 1) *,+ (2, 2) x 2 + (2, 3) x, + ... + (2, n) x n =0 



(n, 1) x x + (», 2) x t + (n, S)x a + ... + (n, w) x n =0 
implies either that D=2+ (1,1) (2, 2) . . . («, ?i)=0, or else that x x x 2 . . . x n 
are separately equal to zero." 

In the Theory of Numbers we have the corresponding theorem, 
" If n linear and homogeneous functions of an equal number of indetermi- 
natcs be congruous to zero for a prime modulus, either the determinant of 
the system is congruous to zero for that modulus, or else every one of the 
indeterminates is separately congruous to zero." 

10. JFermat's Theorem. — The theory of congruences of the higher orders 
is so essentially connected with Fermat's Theorem, that it will be proper 
before proceeding further to introduce a few considerations relating to that 
celebrated proposition. 



234 report— 1859. 

It may be considered from two different (though closely connected) points 
of view, each of which has proved equally fertile in consequences. First, it 
may be regarded as asserting that, if p be a prime number, and x any num- 
ber prime to p, the remainder left by the power xP~ l when divided by p is 
unity. It is thus the fundamental proposition in the arithmetical theory of 
the residues of powers, or, which is the same thing, of binomial congruences. 
Or, secondly, it may be regarded as asserting that the congruence x p ~ l = 1, 
mod p, has precisely p—\ roots; and that these roots are the terms of a 
system of residues prime to p. It is in this latter point of view that the the- 
orem is the basis of the general theory of congruences. 

We may observe that the demonstrations of Fermat's Theorem point to this 
twofold aspect. 

The proof which is found in most English treatises of Algebra (it is the 
first of those given by Euler*), and which depends on the property of the 
binomial or multinomial coefficient, would naturally lead us to regard the 
Theorem in the first point of view. The same may be said of Euler's second 
demonstration-)-, which consists in showing that the index of the lowest power 
of # in the series 1, x, x 2 , x 9 , &c, which leaves unity for its remainder when 
divided by p, is either p — 1, or some submultiple of p — 1 ; or again of the 
demonstration of MM. DirichletJ, Binet§, and Poinsot||, which depends on 
the observation that the terms of a system of residues prime to any modulus, 
being multiplied by any residue prime to the modulus, still form a system of 
residues prime to the modulus. 

But a remarkable proof of the theorem, in the second expression we have 
given to it, occurs in a memoir of Lagrange^]". As this proof (though very 
elementary) has not been copied by subsequent writers, and is consequently 
but little known, its nature may be indicate d here. 

Let the product 

(x+l)(x+2)(x + 3) (x+p-1) 

be represented by 

xr-i + A 1 xP-2 + A^ a??-3 + . . . . A p _ 2 x + A p - U 

x denoting an absolutely indeterminate quantity. Writing # + 1 for x, and 
multiplying by # + 1, we obtain the identity 

(x+iy + A l (x + \)p-i + A 2 (x+l)p-2+ ... +A p _ l (x+1) 

= (x+p)[xP-i + A 1 xP-2 + A.,xP- 3 + ..+A p - 2 x + A p _ 1 ]; 

whence, by equating the coefficients of like powers of x, we find, 

A p(p-l) 
1 J. '2 

* Comment. Acad. Petropol. vol. viii. p. 141, or Comment. Arith. vol. i. p. 21. This is 
the first demonstration of the Theorem discovered, since the time of Fermat. The memoir 
containing it was presented to the Academy of St. Petershurgh, Aug. 2, 1 736. 

t Novi Commentarii Petropol. vol. vii. p. 49, or Comment. Arith. vol. i. p. 260. From 
the point of view in which Fermat presents his theorem, it is not improbable that the de- 
monstration he had found of it was no other than this of Euler's. (See Fermati Opera 
Mathematica, Tolosae, 1679, p. 163.) It has been adopted by Gauss in the Disquisitiones, 
Art. 49. 

t Crelle's Journal, vol. iii. p. 390. 

§ Journal de l'Ecole Polytechnique, Cahier xx. p. 289. 

|| Reflexions sur la Theorie des Nombres, p. 32. But the principle of this demonstra- 
tion is employed by Gauss in a memoir published in the Comm. Soc. Gotting. vol. xvi. 
p. 69, to which we shall have again to refer. (See Art. 19 of this Report.) 

T[ Demonstration d'un Theoreme nouveau concernant les Nombres Premiers (Nouveaux 
Memoires de l'Acade'mie Royale de Berlin, 1771, p. 125). The 'new theorem' is that 
known as Sir J. Wilson's. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 235 

p(p-l)(p-2)(p-3) Q-l)0>-3) (/)-2)(p-3) 

c5A3_ 1.2.3.4. + 1.2.3 1+ 1.2 A > 

(p— l)A p _, = l + A 1 + A 2 + A 3 + ... + A /) _2. 

From these equations we successively infer the congruences Aj^O, A 2 ^0, 
A 3 = 0, ... Ap-2^0, and lastly A,,_i = — 1, mod p. We have, therefore, 
the indeterminate congruence (#+1) (x+2) (x+3) . . . (x+p~ 1) = xP~ l 
— 1, mod p, which is evidently identical, i. e. it subsists for all values of x. And 
since, if a v a 2 . . a p -\ be the terms of any system of residues prime to p, 
the factors x—a v x—a 2 , x—a 3 , . . . x— a p - X , are one by one congruous to the 
factors x + 1, x + 2, x + 3, . . x+p — 1 taken in a certain order, the products 

(x—a x ) (x— a 2 ) ... (x— Op-i) and (x+\) (x + 2) . . . (x+p—1) 

are also identically congruous for the modulus p, so that we may write 

(<r— aj)(;c— « 2 ) . . .(#— Op-i)^^- 1 — 1, niod^. 

This congruence exhibits in the clearest manner possible what the real 
nature of the function xp~ 1 — 1 is when considered with respect to the modu- 
lus p, and explains to us why it assumes a value divisible by p, when we 
assign to x any integral value not divisible by p. 

It will be observed that the last of the p — 1 congruences included in the 
congruence 

(x—l)(x—2)(x—3) (x— p — 1) = xp~ 1 — I, modp 

(which is a particular case of that last written), namely the congruence 

1.2.3 .. .p— 1 = — l,mod/> 

is the symbolic expression of Sir J. Wilson's Theorem. 

1 1. Lagrange's Limit of the Number of Roots of a Congruence. — The full 
development of the consequences of Fermat's Theorem requires the aid of the 
following proposition, which was first given, in a slightly different form, by 
Lagrange*. 

" If F (x) be a function of x of n di mensions, such that F (a) = 0, mod p, 
then a function of a: of n — 1 dimensions, F, (x), can always be assigned such 
that we shall have the identical congruence F (a-) eeh (x—a) F T (x), mod p." 

Hence we may infer that no congruence, of which the modulus is prime, 
can have more incongruous roots than it has dimensions; and, if a con- 
gruence have congruous roots, we obtain a definition of their multiplicity ; 
viz., if F (#) = (x— a) r F, (x), mod p, then we may say that F (x) = 0, mod p, 
has r roots congruous to a. We may also observe that this theorem enables 
us at once to infer Lagrange's indeterminate congruence from the first ex- 
pression of Fermat's Theorem. For since xp~ 1 — 1 is •=() for the values 
a?=l, .r = 2, ....x^p — 1, we may, by successive applications of the pre- 
ceding theorem, show that xP~ l — 1 =(x— 1) (x— 2) ....(x—p + l),modp. 

1 2. Theory of the Residues ofPoivers. — The principal elementary theorems 
relating to the Residues of Powers are the following. They are all due to 

* Nouvelle Methode pour resoudre les Problemes Indeteriuines en Nombres entiers. 
(See Hist. Ac. Berl. 1768, p. 192.) The case of binomial congruences of the form x" = 1 had 
already been treated by Eulcr. (See Nov. Comment. Petropol. vol. xviii. p. 85, or Comment. 
Arith. vol. i. p. 510, art. 28 of the Memoir.) 



236 report— 1859. 

Euler*, who was the first to demonstrate Fermat's Theorem, and to develope 
the numerous arithmetical trutli3 connected with it. 

I. If e and f be conjugate divisors of p — 1 so thatj9— l=ef; the con- 
gruence #/= 1, mod p, always admits of f incongruous roots. Let these 
roots be denoted by a x a 2 . ..a/. Then each of the f congruences x e ^a r 
admits of e solutions, and the ef roots of these/ congruences exhaust com- 
pletely the p — 1 residues prime to p. It appears, therefore, that if we raise 
the residues of p to the power e, they will divide themselves into /groups of e 
numbers apiece ; the e numbers of each group giving, when raised to the 
power e, the same residue for the modulus p. The numbers a x a 2 . . . a/, are 
termed the quadratic, cubic, biquadratic, quintic, &c, residues of p, accord- 
ing as e=2, e=3, e=4, e=5, &c, because they are each of them congruous 
to an e th power (and indeed to an e th power of e different numbers), and 
because no other number beside them can be congruous to such a power. 
Thus every uneven prime has|(/>— 1) quadratic, and as many non-quadratic 
residues; every prime of the form 4w+l has ^(p—l) biquadratic residues, 
and three times as many non-biquadratic residues, &c. 

II. It is readily seen that if the same number x satisfy the two congruences 
xh = 1, and xfr = 1, it also satisfies the congruence x d = 1, modp ; where d 
is the greatest common divisor of / and/. If therefore / be the lowest 
index for which the number x satisfies the congruence ;*/= 1, mod p, /is 
a divisor of p— 1 ; as indeed appears directly from Euler's second demon- 
stration of Fermat's Theorem. Let \p (f) denote the number of num- 
bers less than f and prime to it ; then there are always \p (/) roots of the 
congruence #/= 1, modjp, which cannot satisfy any other congruence of 
lower index, and similar form. These are called primitive roots of the con- 
gruence #/ = 1, mod p ; they are also said to appertain to the exponent/. If 

/=/>— 1> the \p(p — 1) primitive roots of the congruence xP~ l = 1, modp, are 
termed for brevity (though the designation is somewhat improper) the pri- 
mitive roots of p. There are therefore \p (p — 1) primitive roots of p. 

13. Primitive Roots. — The problem of the direct determination of the pri- 
mitive roots of a prime number is one of the " cruces "of the Theory of Num- 
bers. Euler, who first observed the peculiarity of these numbers, has yet left 
us no rigorous proof of their existencef ; though assuming their existence he 
succeeded in accurately determining their number. The defect in his de- 
monstration was first supplied by Gauss {, who has also proposed an indirect 
method for finding a primitive root. This method § consists in taking any 
residue a of p, and determining (by the successive formation of its powers) 
the exponent/ to which it appertains. If/=p — 1, a is itself a primitive 
root of p ; if not, let b be a second residue of p, not contained in the period 
of a, (i. e. not congruous for the modulus p to any one of the numbers a , 
a, a 2 , . . . .a/- 1 ,) and let the exponent to which b appertains be determined. 
This exponent cannot (as is shown by Gauss) be identical with, nor yet a 

* Euler's memoirs on this Theory are, — 

(i). Theorematum quorundam ad numeros primos spectantium demonstratio. Comment. 
Arith. vol. i. p. 21. 

(ii). Theoremata circa residua ex divisione potestatum relicta. Ibid. p. 260. 

(iii). Theoremata arithmetica novo methodo demonstrata. Ibid. p. 274. 

(iv). Disquisitio accuratior circa residua ex divisione quadratorum aliarumque potestatum 
per numeros primos relicta. Ibid. p. 487. 

(v). Demonstrationes circa residua ex divisione potestatum per numeros primos resultantia. 
Ibid. p. 516. 

t See the memoir (i) of the preceding note ; and Gauss's criticism on it ; Disq. Arith. 
Art. 56. 

J Disq. Arith. Art. 52-55. § Ibid. Art. 73-74. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 237 

divisor of, the exponent to which a appertains ; but it is always possible by 
a comparison of the values of a and b to determine a third number, c, which 
shall appertain to an exponent divisible by each of the exponents to which a 
and b appertain. By proceeding in this way we shall evidently obtain num- 
bers appertaining to exponents continually higher, till at last we come to a 
number appertaining to the exponent jo — 1 ; i. e. to a primitive root of jo. 

M. Poinsot* proposes the following method. If 2, q x ,q^.... &c. be all 
the prime divisors ofjo— 1, raise the numbers + ], +2, +3,... + ^(jo — 1), 
which form a system of residues prime to p, to the powers of which the in- 
dices are 2, q v q.,, &c; so as to determine all the quadratic residues of p, and 
its residues of the powers q lt q 2 , &c. If from the system of residues 1, 2, 3, 
• • 'P— 1 » we successively exclude these residues of squares and higher powers, 
we shall have \p(p— 1) numbers left, which cannot be congruous to any 
power having an index that divides jo—1, and which are consequently (as may 
easily be shown) the primitive roots of p. 

This method is very symmetrical ; and if the problem proposed be to find 
all the primitive roots of p, it is sufficiently direct. But it is (like many- 
other direct methods in the Theory of Numbers) of interminable prolixity; 
and becomes absolutely impracticable if p be a number even of moderate 
size, as it requires us to form the residues of the successive powers of the 
numbers 1, 2, 3 .. .1 (p— 1). Of course, in performing this operation, the 
multiples of p are to be rejected as fast as they arise; but, notwithstanding 
this abbreviation, and others which a little experience will readily suggest, 
Gauss's method is, for any practical purpose, greatly preferable. 

In a memoir by M. Oltramare in Crelle's Journal (vol. xlix. p. 161), several 
considerations are offered for facilitating the determination of the primi- 
tive roots of primes in numerous special cases. Some, however, of the 
general results of this memoir are erroneous, at least in expression, and the 
demonstrations of the more particular conclusions contained in it involve no 
new principle, but may be obtained by combining the definition of primitive 
roots with the criteria by which (as we shall hereafter see) we are enabled 
to decide on the quadratic or cubic characters of the residues of given 
primes. The following may serve as examples of the very interesting results 
which are thus obtained by M. Oltramare. 

"If a be a prime number and c 2a + l be also a prime, 2 or a is a primitive 
root of 2a -fl, according as a is of the form 4w + l or 4ra + 3." Thus 2 is 
a primitive root of 37 and of 83, 11 is a primitive root of 23, 83 of 167, &c. 

" If a be a prime number, other than 3, and if p=2 m o + l, where m is 
>- 1, be also a prime, 3 is a primitive root of p, unless the congruence 3 2m_1 
+ 1 =0, mod jo, be satisfied." Thus 3 is a primitive root of 89, and of 137. 

Theorems of the same character will be found in the Theorie des Nom- 
brest of M. Desmarest. By their aid M. Desmarest has constructed a table 
giving a primitive root for every prime less than 10,000. 

l<t. Indices. — If y be a primitive root of p, the least positive residues of 
the jo — 1 successive powers of y, 

y\ y 2 > y\ y p ~ l 

which we may denote by 

y v y 2 , y 3 , ... y P -i, I, 

arc all incongruous for the modulus jo. These residues, therefore, irrespective 
of the order in which they occur, coincide with the numbers 1, 2, 3 . . . jo— 1, 

* Reflexions sur la Theorie des Nombres, cap. iv. art. 3. 
t Paris, 1852. See pp. 275-279. 



238 



REPORT — 1859. 



i. e. they represent the terms of a complete system of residues prime to p. 
If y* = a, mod jo, k, or any number congruous to k for the modulus p — 1, is 
termed the index* of a for the primitive root or base y ; and this is expressed 
symbolically by writing 

K^Inda, mod (p— I), orK= Ind v a, mod (jo— !)• 

The principal properties of these indices, which it is clear are a kind of 
arithmetical logarithm, are as follows : — 

(1) Ind(AB) = IndA+IndB,mod(jo-l). 

(2) Ind (A 5 ) = s Ind A, mod (p—1). 

(3) Ind (^, mod p\ = Ind A -Ind B, mod (jo-1). 

[The symbol/— , mod jo ) is used to denote the value of a: deduced from the 

congruence Bx = A mod jo.] 

(4-) Indy A = Ind y y'. Indy A, mod (jo— I). 

(5) If A = B, mod jo, Ind A == Ind B, modjo— 1. 

In these congruences A and B represent numbers prime to jo, s any inte- 
gral number, and y and y two different primitive roots. 

The great importance of these indices in arithmetical researches has in- 
duced the Academy of Berlin to publish a volume containing tables of the 
numbers corresponding to given indices, and of the indices corresponding 
to given numbers for all primes less than 1000. This volume, the 'Canon 
Arithmeticusf,' was edited by C. G. J. Jacobi, and contains, besides the 
Tables, a preface explaining the methods which he adopted in their construc- 
tion. The annexed specimen will serve to exemplify the arrangement of the 
Tables : — 

p=29 

jo-l=2 2 «7. 

Numeri. Indices. 



I. 





] 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 




N. 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 






10 


13 


11 


21 


8 


22 


17 


25 


18 








28 


11 


27 


22 


18 


10 


20 


5 


20 


1 


6 


2 


20 


20 


28 


19 


16 


15 


5 


21 




1 


1 


23 


21 


2 


3 


17 


10 


7 


9 


15 


2 


7 


12 


4 


11 


23 27 


9 


3 


1 






2 


12 


1(1 


6 


24 


4 


8 


13 


25 


14 





M. Burckhardt, to whom arithmetic is indebted for an excellent Table of 
the divisors of numbers from 1 to 3,036,000 %, has inserted in his work, and 
apparently only to fill up a blank page at the end of the first million, a 
table stating the number of figures in the decimal period of the fraction 

-, for every prime number jo less than 2500. It is evident that the number 

* The reader must be careful to distinguish between the index of a number and the ex- 
ponent to which the number appertains. The exponent does not depend on the choice of 

the primitive root : for a given number it has but one value, a, which is such that ^~~ is 

a 
the greatest common divisor of the index aud of p — 1. The index may have any one of $ («) 
different values ; which of these it has, depends on the particular primitive root chosen. 

t Berlin, 1839. 

J Paris, 1814-1817. A Table containing the exponents to which 10 appertains, for every 
prime less than 10,000, has since been given by M. Desmarest. (See p. 308 of his ' Theorie 
aes Nombres.') 






ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS. 239 

of terms in the decimal period of - is nothing else than the exponent to 

P 
which 10 appertains for the modulus p. M. Burckhardt's table, therefore, 
at once apprises us that out of the 365 primes inferior to 2500 (2 and 5 are 
not counted in this enumeration, as being divisors of 10), 10 is a primitive 
root of 148 ; because there are 148 primes p below 2500, the reciprocals of 
which have decimal periods consisting of p— 1 figures. Again, for 108 of 
the remaining primes below 2500, the exponent to which 10 appertains is 
\{p — \). Of these 108 primes, 73 are of the form 4w + 3, from which it 
maybe inferred that —10 is a primitive root of those 73 numbers. M. 
Burckhardt's Table supplies us, therefore, with a primitive root (and that 
root the most convenient for the purposes of computation) of 148 + 73=221 
out of the 365 primes inferior to 2500. Nor is this the limit to its useful- 
ness ; for when the exponent to which 10 appertains is as high as ^ (p— 1) 
or i (p — 1) or i (p— 1), it is possible by methods which Jacobi has indicated 
to construct the Table of Indices with very little labour. 

Jacobi says that had it not been for this table of Burckhardt's he should 
hardly have ventured on the construction of the ' Canon Arithmeticus,' on 
account of the prolixity and uncertainty of the tentative methods for the in- 
vestigation of primitive roots. But, while endeavouring to avail himself of 
the results of M. Burckhardt's table, for the computation of his own Tables 
of Indices, in other cases besides those in which that Table immediately fur- 
nishes a primitive root, he was led to the invention of a general method of 
procedure, which, as he says, would have enabled him to dispense with the 
assistance of Burckhardt's Table altogether, or to extend his Canon to any 
higher limit which the expense of printing would have admitted. This 
method is not in principle very different from Gauss's process for finding 
primitive roots, but the form which Jacobi has given to it possesses great 
advantages, for the purpose to which he has applied it. He first of all takes 
a number a (not quite at hap-hazard, for quadratic residues can at any rate 
be excluded by the law of reciprocity ; see inf. Art. 16) ; and determines its 
period of residues, and the exponent a to which it appertains. Let aa'=p — 1, 
and let the residues of a, a 2 , a 3 . . . a a , be entered in a Table of which the argu- 
ments are the indices 1, 2,3, ...p — 1, opposite to the indices, a', 2a',3a'. . . aa, 

respectively. It has been shown by Gauss that there are always ^ ^ ' 

primitive roots for which this assignment is true. A number o is then taken, 
not contained in the period of a, and the residues of its successive powers are 
formed till we come to the lowest power of it that is congruous to any power 
of a ; so that b B = a A , mod p. Let j3 be the exponent to which b appertains, 

the greatest common divisor of a and /3, and \=-^- their least common 



multiple; let also /3/3'=jo— ]. It may be proved thatB=— ; A = — ; where 

6 6 

k is some number less than G and prime to it, so that - is the greatest com- 
mon divisor of A and a. These relations show, that when we know the 
numbers a. A, and B, we can immediately find d, k, and /3, without having 
to raise b to any power higher than b B . We may then assign to b any index 
of the form //3', where I is prime to /S, and congruous to k for the modulus 0. 

The number of such values of / (incongruous for the modulus /3) is ^ , ( l 



240 report — 1859. 

and, whichever oF them we take, there will be — ^^r primitive roots, fof 

which b will have the index 1(3', while a retains the index a'. We must next 
form the residues of the X— a products included in the formula a* by; where 
x has any value from 1 to a inclusive, and y any value from 1 to B— 1. These 
residues are all incongruous ; the indices of all of them are known ; and, 
together with the a powers of a already entered in the table, they exhaust all 

»— 1 
the numbers which have indices divisible by£— — -. 

X 

In practice, it will almost always happen that X is equal to p— 1. When! 
this is so, nothing remains to complete the operation but to enter in the 
Table the residues of the numbers a* by opposite to the indices corresponding 

to them. But, if X </>—!, we may take that residue which has — r— for its 

index, and use it to replace a in the preceding operation, while b is replaced 
by some other residue not yet entered in the Table. In this way we shall 
ultimately (and in practice very speedily) obtain a complete Table of Resi- 
dues corresponding to given indices, which, of course, immediately supplies 
us with the inverse Table of Indices corresponding to given residues. It 
will be seen (as has been already observed) that the process is not dissimilar 
to Gauss's method for determining a number appertaining to the exponent X 
when we already know two numbers a and b appertaining to the exponents; 
a and /3 respectively. But it is so arranged by Jacobi that hardly a single 
figure is wasted, the primitive root, instead of being found by a preliminary 
investigation, presenting itself at the end of the operation, and being recog- 
nized by its standing opposite to the index 1. 

To calculate with rapidity the residues of the powers of a number, Jacobi 
employs a method proposed by M. Crelle in his Journal, vol. ix. p. 30, and 
which is most easily explained by an example. 

Let jt>=ll, and let it be required to determine the residues of the powers 
of 3 ; and the residues of those powers multiplied by 7. 

Column I. 1,2,3,4,5,6, 7,8,9,10 
„ II. 3,6,9, 1,4,7, 10,2,5, 8 

III. 3, 9, 5, 4, 1, 

IV. 10, 8, 2, 6, 7. 

The first column contains the numbers 1, 2, 3 . . p—1. The second- 
column begins with 3 (the number the powers of which we are considering)^ 
and consists of numbers formed by successive additions of 3, multiples of 1 1 
being rejected as fast as they arise. The third column also commences 
with 3, and is so formed that any number r in it is followed by the number 
which in column II. stands under r in column I. This column contains the 
residues of the powers of 3 taken in order, and stops at 3 s because after that 
the same residues recur. Lastly, column IV. begins with 10 (the number 
which in column IT. stands under 7 in column I.), and is formed in the same: 
way as column III. It represents the residues of 7.3, 7.3 2 , &c. ... 

15. Quadratic Residues. — It appears from the theorems cited in Art. 12,- 
that the numbers 1, 2, 3,... p—1, divide themselves into two classes of Qua- 
dratic Residues, and Quadratic non-Residues, comprising -| (p — 1) numbers- 

P-i 
each. Every quadratic residue a satisfies the congruence a; 2 =l,modp;: 

P-i 
every quadratic non- residue b satisfies, instead, the congruence x 2 = — ], 



ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS. 241 

mod p. Again, for every quadratic residue the congruence a; 3 = a, mod p, is 
resoluble; for every non-quadratic residue the congruence x 2 = b, mod p, 
is irresoluble. The solution of almost every problem relating to the in- 
determinate analysis of quadratic functions involves a congruence of the 
simple form x° = A, mod p. It is therefore of great importance to 
obtain a criterion which shall enable us to determine a priori whether a 
given number is or is not a quadratic residue of a given prime. If we 
have a Table of Indices for the given prime, we have only to see whether 
the index of the given number is even or uneven ; if even, it is a qua- 
dratic residue; if uneven, it is a quadratic non-residue. Or, again, we 
may raise the given number a (by M. Crelle's method, or any other) to 

the power " - , and see whether the residue is +1 or — 1. It is usual to 

25 

denote the positive or negative unit which is the remainder of a 2 , mod p 
by the symbol (~\ which is known as " Legendre's Symbol ;" so that in every 

case «~ ^V P m °dp> and (-)=-(- 1 or = — 1, according as a is or is not 
a quadratic residue of p. It will be seen that we also have in every case the 
equation ( ^± ) ( ^) = rhJh Y If a instead of being prime to p be divisible 

by p, it is convenient to attribute to ( -) the value zero. 

16. Legendre's Lata of Reciprocity. — The two methods alluded to for the 
discrimination of quadratic and non-quadratic residues, or, which is the same 

thing, for the determination of the value of the symbol (-), are not satis- 
factory, — the first because it supposes a reference to a Table of Indices («. e. 
to a recorded solution of the problem it is proposed to solve), the second on 
account of its inapplicability to high numbers. A very different solution of 
the problem is supplied by a theorem which is known as " Legendre's Law 
of Quadratic Reciprocity," and which is, without question, the most important 
general truth in the science of integral numbers which has been discovered 
since the time of Fermat. It has been called by Gauss " the gem of the higher 
arithmetic," and is equally remarkable whether we consider the simplicity of 
its enunciation, the difficulties which for a long time attended its demonstra- 
tion, or the number and variety of the results which have been obtained by 
its means. The theorem is as follows : — 
" Ifp and q be two uneven prime numbers 



(f)=( _ 1)) .-„«.,-„ ( , ) ., i(i); 



to which we must add the complementary propositions relating to the resi- 
dues— 1 and 2 

(= 1 )=(-» 00. (J)=(-0 * 0"). 

In (ii), p is supposed to be positive; in i}),p and q are supposed not to 
be simultaneously negative. 

1859. r 



242 report — 1859. 

The equation I - 1 I -l=( — 1) may be expressed in words by- 

saying that " if p and q be two primes, the quadratic character of p in regard 
to q is the same as the quadratic character of q in regard to p ; except both 
p and q be of the form in + 3, in which case the two characters are opposite 
instead of identical." 

Gauss, who attributes the first enunciation of this theorem to Legendre, 
while he justly claims the first demonstration of it for himself*, appears to 
have considered that Euler was unacquainted with the theorem, at least in 
its simple form. (See Disq. Arith. Art. 151.) Nevertheless, we find in the 
' Opnscula Analytica' of Euler, vol. i. p. 64>, a memoirf the concluding para- 
graph of which contains a general and very elegant theorem, from which the 
Law of Reciprocity is immediately deducible, and which is, vice versa, 
deducible from that law. But Euler (loc. cit.} expressly observes that the 
theorem is undemonstrated ; and this would seem to be the only place in which 
he mentions it in connexion with the theory of the Residues of Powers ; 
though in other researches he has frequently developed results which are 
consequences of the theorem, and which relate to the linear forms of the 
divisors of quadratic formulae. But here also his conclusions repose on 
induction only; though in one memoir he seems to have imagined (for his 
language is not very precise) that he had obtained a satisfactory demonstra- 
tion. The theorem, in a form precisely equivalent to that in which we have 
cited it, was first given by Legendre, in a Memoir contained in the ' Histoire 
de l'Academie des Sciences ' for 1785. (See pp. 516, 517.) But the demon- 
stration with which he has accompanied it is invalid for several reasons. (See 
Gauss, Disq. Arith. Art. 151, 296, 297, and the Additamenta.) 

17. Jacobi's extension of Legendre s Symbol. — The symbol ( - j, the intro- 
duction of which has greatly contributed to simplify the theories of the higher 
arithmetic, does not appear in the Memoir just referred to. It first occurs 
in the ' Essai sur la Theorie des Nombres;' the first edition of which ap- 
peared at Paris in 1798, and the second in 1808. 

Jacobi, in a note communicated to the Academy of Berlin in 1837 %> has 
extended the notation of Legendre. If P z= p i p 2 P3 • • • • where p l p 2 p 3 denote 

(equal or unequal) uneven prime numbers, Jacobi defines the symbol I- \ 
by the equation 



GHsNSNs)- 



and observes that we then have the equations 

*(P-1)(Q-1). 



/p\ i(J. J -i;i<4-'i/r)\ 



* " Pro primo lmjus elegantissimi Theorematis inventore ill. Legendre absque dubio 
habendus est, postquarn longe antea surami geometrse Euler et Lagrange plures ejus casus 
speciales jam per inductionem detexerant. . j . . In ipsum theorema proprio marte incideram 
anno 1795, dum omnium, quae in arithmetica sublimiori jam elaborata fuerant, penitus 
ignarus, et a subsidiis literariis omnino prseclusus essem. Sed per integrum annum me tor- 
sit, operamque enixissimam effugit," etc. — Comm. Soc. Gbtt. vol. xvi. p. 69. 

f Observationes circa divisionem quadratorum per nnmeros primos (Comment. Arith. 
vol. i.p. 477). 

t Ueber die Kreistheilung und ihre Anwendung auf die Zahlentheorie. See the Monats- 
Bericht of the Berlin Academy, vol. ii. p. 127 (Oct. 16, 1857), or Crelle's Journal, vol. xxx. 
p. 166. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, 243 

(-/)=(-*) » ( ii ) ) (|) = (-l) 8 >(-) 

P and Q denoting any two uneven numbers relatively prime, the signs of 
which are subject to the same restrictions as the signs of p and q in the cor- 
responding formula of Art. 16. The theorems expressed by these formulae 
of Jacobi are very easily deducible from the formulae of Legendre, and will 
be found in the Disq. Arith. (Art. 133). To prevent misconception, how- 
ever, it is proper to observe, that while Legendre's equation ( — )=1 is a ne- 
cessary and sufficient condition for the resolubility of the congruence x'^k, 
mod p, Jacobi's equation f -1=1, where P is not a prime number, though 

a necessary, is not a sufficient condition for the resolubility of the correspond- 
ing congruence r = ^, mod P. That congruence requires for its resolubility 

that the conditions | _ \= 1 , { _ )= 1 .... should separately be satisfied ; p Y 

p 2 . . . denoting the unequal prime factors of P. 

Gauss (who had in the course of his own early researches arrived inde- 
pendently at the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity), before finally abandoning 
the theory, succeeded in obtaining no fewer than six demonstrations of this 
fundamental proposition. The first two are contained in the Disq. Arith. 
(Art. 125-145, and Art. 262) ; the third and fourth in two memoirs pre- 
sented in 1808 to the Society of Gottingen (Comm. Soc. Gdtt. vol. xvi. 
p. 69, Jan. 15, and Comm. Recentiores, vol. i., Aug. 24), of which the 
latter bears the title ' Summatio serierum quarundam singularium.' The 
fifth and sixth appeared nine years later in the memoir entitled ' Theorematis 
Fundamentals in doctrina de Residuis quadraticis demonstrationes et amplia- 
tiones novae ' (Comm. Rec. vol. iv. p. 3, Feb. 10, 1817). The fourth of these 
demonstrations is probably that which is promised in the Disq. Arith., Art. 151, 
but which does not appear in that work, because (as it would seem) Gauss 
had not yet succeeded in overcoming the difficulties connected with it. 

Independently of the fundamental importance of Legendre's Law of Reci- 
procity, these demonstrations of Gauss possess such intrinsic interest, and 
have contributed so much to the progress of the science, that we shall briefly 
review them here. 

18. Gauss's First Demonstration. — The first demonstration (Disq. Arith. 
Art. 125-145), which is presented by Gauss in a form very repulsive to any 
but the most laborious students, has been resumed by Lejeune Dirichlet in 
a memoir in Crelle's Journal (vol. xlvii. p. 139), and has been developed by 
him with that luminous perspicuity by which his mathematical writings are 



distinguished 



1 



Let \ represent any uneven prime. The single observation that / - )= — 

\s) s ' 10ws * na ' * ne theorem of reciprocity is true for primes inferior 

to 7. To establish its universal truth, it is, consequently, sufficient to 
show that, if true for all primes up to X exclusively, it is also true 
for all primes up to \ inclusively. Let the theorem therefore be assumed 
to be true for all primes inferior to \; let p be any one of those primes; 
and let the eight cases [2x2x2 = 8] be considered separately, which 

arise from every possible combination of the hypotheses («) (P\= + l, or 

h2 



244 report — 1859. 

= — 1; (/3) \ = 1, or = 3, mod 4; (y)p = 1, or = 3, mod 4. It has to be 
shown that, in each of these eight cases, the symbol (- jactu ally has the value 
which the Law of Reciprocity assigns to it. The nature of the proof in the 
four cases in which { " 1=4-1, will be rendered intelligible by a single 
example. 

Let (- )=1 and let \=^p= 1, mod 4. By virtue of the symbolic equa- 
tion (£\=l, we can establish the congruence * 2 ss/>,mod \, or (which is the 

same thing) the equation x~=p + \y ; in which we may suppose x even and 
less than X, y positive, less than X and of the form 4w + 3. From this equa- 
tion it appears that ( -^ )=1, and ( - )=1» the symbol \y\ being here used 

with the meaning Jacobi has assigned to it. But every prime divisor of y is 
less than X; and, therefore, by Jacobi's formula of reciprocity (which is 
valid for all uneven numbers less than X, since by hypothesis Legendre's 

law is valid for all primes less than X), (t\ = (-)=!■ But (— ) =1 = 

fh\ (y\ ; so that, finally, (- j=l in conformity with Legendre's law. We 

have here assumed that x is prime to p ; a slight modification in the proof 
will adapt it to the contrary supposition. 

Again, the two cases in which (P )= — 1, and X = 3, mod 4, admit of simi- 
lar treatment. For the eq