(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

\ 



EEPORT 



OF THE 



THIRTIETH MEETING 



OF THE 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOE THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE: 



HELD AT OXEOKD IN JUNE AND JULY 1860. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMARLE STEEET. 

1861. 



PRINTED BT 
TAYLOIl AND FEAXCIS, BED LION COUET, FLEET STBEET. 







CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxiv 

Table of Council from commencement xxv 

Officers and Council xxviii 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxix 

Corresponding Members xxx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxx 

Report of the Kew Committee xxxi 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xliv 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xlv 

Synopsis of Money Grants xlviii 

General Statement of Sums paid for Scientific Purposes 1 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee liv 

Arrangement of the General Meetings liv 

Address of the President lv 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1859-60. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, &c. ; J. H. Glad- 
stone, E<q., Ph.D., F.R.S. &c. ; R. P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S. &c; 
and E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.B.M.S. &c 1 

Report of the Committee appointed to dredge Dublin Bay. By J. R. 
Kinahan, M.D., F.L.S., Professor of Zoology, Government School 
of Science applied to Mining and the Arts 27 

Report on the Excavations in Dura Den. By the Rev. John 
Anderson, D.D., F.G.S 32 

Report on the Experimental Plots in the Botanical Garden of the Royal 
Agricultural College, Cirencester. By James Buckman, F.L.S., 
F.S.A., F.G.S. &c, Professor of Botany and Geology, Royal Agri- 
cultural College 34 



yi CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report of the Committee requested "to report to the Meeting at 
Oxford as to the Scientific Objects to be sought for by continuing 
the Balloon Ascents formerly undertaken to great Altitudes." By 
the Rev. Robert Walker, M.A., F.R.S., Reader in Experimental 
Philosophy in the University of Oxford 43 

Report of Committee appointed to prepare a Self-Recording Atmo- 
spheric Electrometer for Kew, and Portable Apparatus for observing 
Atmospheric Electricity. By Professor W. Thompson, F.R.S 44 

Experiments to determine the Effect of Vibratory Action and long- 
continued Changes of Load upon Wrought-iron Girders. By Wil- 
liam Fairbairn, Esq., LLD., F.R.S 45 

A Catalogue of Meteorites and Fireballs, from a.d. 2 to a.d. 1860. 
By R. P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S 48 

Report on the Theory of Numbers. — Part II. By H. J. Stephen 
Smith, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford , 120 

On the Performance of Steam-Vessels, the Functions of the Screw, and 
the Relations of its Diameter and Pitch to the Form of the Vesssel. 
By Vice-Admiral Moorsom 172 

Report on the Effects of long-continued Heat, illustrative of Geological 
Phenomena. By the Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S., F.G.S. 175 

Second Report of the Committee on Steam-ship Performance 193 

Interim Report on the Gauging of Water by Triangular Notches 217 

List of the British Marine Invertebrate Fauna 217 



CONTEXTS. Vll 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 

Address by the Rev. Professor Price, President of the Section 1 

Dr. Brennecke on some Solutions of the Problem of Tactions of Apollonius 

of Perga by means of modern Geometry 4 

Rev. James Booth on a New General Method for establishing the Theory of 

Conic Sections * 

. on the Relations between Hyperconic Sections and Elliptic 

Integrals 4 

Mr. A. Cayley on Curves of the Fourth Order having Three Double Points... 4 

Mr. Patrick Cody on the Trisection of an Angle 4 

Rev. T. P. Kirkman on the Roots of Substitutions 4 

Rev. T. Rennison on a new Proof of Pascal's Theorem 6 

Professor H. J. Stephen Smith on Systems of Indeterminate Linear Equations 6 
Professor Sylvester on a Generalization of Poncelet's Theorems for the Linear 

Representation of Quadratic Radicals ' 

Light, Heat. 

Sir David Brewster on the Influence of very small Apertures on Telescopic 
Vision ' 

. on some Optical Illusions connected with the Inversion 

of Perspective ' 

on Microscopic Vision, and a New Form of Microscope 8 

on the decomposed Glass found at Nineveh and other 

places 9 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on his own Perception of Colours 12 

on the Chromatic Properties of the Electric Light of 

Mercury ^ 

Professor Jellett on a New Instrument for determining the Plane of Polariza- 
tion 13 

Professor L. L. Lindelof on the Caustics produced by Reflexion 14 

Professor Maxwell on the Results of Bernoulli's Theory of Gases as applied 
to their Internal Friction, their Diffusion, and their Conductivity for Heat... 15 

on an Instrument for Exhibiting any Mixture of the Co- 
lours of the Spectrum 1" 



Viii CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. Mungo Ponton's Further Researches regarding the Laws of Chromatic 

Dispersion 16 

Professor William B. Rogers's Experiments and Conclusions on Binocular 

Vision 17 

M. Serrin, Regulateur Automatique de Lumiere Electrique 19 

Mr. Balfour Stewart on some Recent Extensions of Prevost's Theory of Ex- 
changes 19 

Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on Rings seen in viewing a Light through Fibrous 

Specimens of Calc-spar 19 

Mr. R. Thomas on Thin Films of Decomposed Glass found near Oxford 19 



Electricity, Magnetism. 

Mr. John Allan Broun on certain Results of Observations in the Observa- 
tory of His Highness the Rajah of Travancore 20 

*— ; on the Diurnal Variations of the Magnetic Declina- 
tion at the Magnetic Equator, and the Decennial Period 21 

1 on a New Induction Dip-Circle 23 

" on Magnetic Rocks in South India 24 

" on a Magnetic Survey of the West Coast of India... 27 

"' on the Velocity of Earthquake Shocks in the Late- 
rite of India 28 

Mr. A. Ci arke on a Mode of correcting the Errors of the Compass in Iron 
Ships 28 

Sir W. Snow Harris on Electrical Force 28 

Rev. T. Rankin on the different Motions of Electric Fluid 30 

Professor W. B. Rogers on the Phenomena of Electrical Vacuum Tubes, in a 
letter to Mr. Gassiot 30 

M. H. von Schlagintweit's General Abstract of the Results of Messrs. de 
Schlagintweit's Magnetic Survey of India, with three Charts 32 

M. Werner and Mr. C. W. Siemens, Outline of the Principles and Prac- 
tice involved in dealing with the Electrical Conditions of Submarine Electric 
Telegraphs 32 



Astronomy. 

Mr. W. R. Birt on the Forms of certain Lunar Craters indicative of the Ope- 
ration of a peculiar degrading Force 34 

Professor Hennessy on the Possibility of Studying the Earth's Interna! Struc- 
ture from Phenomena observed at its Surface 35 

Rev Edward Hincks on some Recorded Observations of the Planet Venus in 
the Seventh Century before Christ 35 

U u R ; J^ D6S ° N ° n the briiliant Eruption on the Sun's Surface, 1st Septem- 
ber 1859 F -» 

Dr. John Lee's Prospectus of the Hartwell Variable Star Atlas, with six Speci- 
men Proofs * „. 

30 

Professor B. Pierce on the Physical Constitution of Comets 37 

' ' on tlie Dynamic Condition of Saturn's Rings 37 



/ 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Professor B. Pierce on the Motion of a Pendulum in a Vertical Plane when 
the point of suspension moves uniformly on a circumference in the same 
Plane 37 

Meteorology. 

Mr. John Ball on a Plan for Systematic Observations of Temperature in 

Mountain Countries 3 ' 

Mr. W. R. Birt on Atmospheric Waves 38 

M. Du Boulay's Observations on the Meteorological Phenomena of the Vernal 

Equinoctial Week 39 

Mr. R. Dowden on the Effect of a Rapid Current of Air 39 

Admiral FitzRoy on British Storms, illustrated with Diagrams and Charts .... 39 
Mr. J. Park Harrison on the Similarity of the Lunar Curves of Minimum 

Temperature at Greenwich and Utrecht in the Year 1859 4 " i 

Professor Hennessy on the Principles of Meteorology 44 

Captain Maury on Antarctic Expeditions 44 

on the Climates of the Antarctic Regions, as indicated by Ob- 
servations upon the Height of the Barometer and Direction of the Winds at 

c 46 

oea 

Rev. Henry Moseley on the Cause of the Descent of Glaciers 48 

Rev. T. Rankin on Meteorological Observations for 1859, made at Huggate, 

Yorkshire, East Riding 50 

M. R. de Schlagintweit on Thermo-barometers, compared with Barometers 

at great Heights 50 

Captain W. Parker Snow on Practical Experience of the Law of Storms in 

each Quarter of the Globe 52 

Mr. G. J. Symons's Results of an Investigation into the Phenomena of English 

Thunder-storms during the years 1857-59 52 

Professor William Thomson's Notes on Atmospheric Electricity 53 

M. Verdet's Note on the Dispersion of the Planes of Polarization of the 

Coloured Rays produced by the Action of Magnetism* 54 

Mr. E. Vivian's Results of Self-registering Hygrometers 55 

Rev. A. Weld's Results of Ten Years' Meteorological Observations at Stony 

hurst 



56 



General Physics. 
Mr. J. S. Stuart Glennie, Physics as a Branch of the Science of Motion ... 



56 



, a General Law of Rotation applied to the Planets 58 

Sound. 

Rev. S. Earnshaw on the Velocity of the Sound cf Thunder 58 

on the Triplicity of Sound 58 

Instruments. 

Mr. Patrick Adie's Description of an Instrument for Measuring Actual 
Distances 9 

* This should have been placed in an earlier division. 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. Patrick Adie's Description of a New Reflecting Instrument for Angular 
Measurement '69 

M. E. Becquerel on a Pile with Sulphate of Lead 59 

The Hon. W. Bland on an Atmotic Ship 60 

Rev. J. Booth on an Improved Instrument for describing Spirals, invented by 
Henry Johnson 60 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Means of increasing the Angle of Binocular Instru- 
ments, in order to obtain a Stereoscopic Effect in proportion to their Mag- 
nifying Power 61 

on the Principles of the Solar Camera 62 

Mr. Henry Draper on a Reflecting Telescope for Celestial Photography, 
erecting at Hastings, near New York 63 

Mr. W. Ladd on an Improved Form of Air-Pump for Philosophical Experi- 
ments 65 

Mr. John Smith on the Chromoscope 65 



CHEMISTRY. 

Professor Andrews on Ozone 66 

Dr. Bird on the Deodorization of Sewage 66 

Professor B. C. Bkodie on the Quantitative Estimation of the Peroxide of 

Hydrogen 66 

Mr. G. B. Buckton on some Reactions of Zinc-Ethyl 66 

Mr. J. J. Coleman's Note on the Destruction of the Bitter Principle of Chy- 

raitta by the Agency of Caustic Alkali 66 

■ on some remarkable Relations existing between the 

Atomic Weights, Atomic Volumes, and Properties of the Chemical Elements 66 

Dr. Frankland and B. Duppa on a new Organic Compound containing Boron 69 

Dr. Gladstone's Chemical Notes 69 

Mr. W. R. Grove on the Transmission of Electrolysis across Glass 69 

Mr. A. Vernon Harcocrt on the Oxidation of Potassium and Sodium 70 

Mr. J. B. Lawes and Dr. J. H. Gilbert on the Composition of the Ash of 

Wheat grown under various circumstances 70 

Professor W. A. Miller on the Atomic Weight of Oxygen 70 

C. Moritz von Boss's Remarks on the Volume Theory 71 

Mr. Warren De la Rle and Dr. Hugo Muller on a New Acetic Ether 

occurring in a Natural Resin 71 

. on the Isomers of Curnol 71 

Dr. Lyon Playfair on the Representation of Neutral Salts on the type of a 

Neutral Peroxide H0 2 instead of a Basic Oxide H 2 2 71 

Professor T. H. Rowney on the Analysis of some Connemara Minerals 71 

on the Composition of Jet 72 

Mr. T. Scoffern on Waterproof and Unalterable Small-arm Cartridges 72 

Dr. Hermann Sprengel on a New Form of Blowpipe for Laboratory Use... 72 

Dr. Thudichum on Thiotherine, a Sulphuretted Product of Decomposition of 

Albuminous Substances 72 

Professor Voelcker on the Occurrence of Poisonous Metals in Cheese 73 

Dr. W. Wallace on the Causes of Fire in Turkev-red Stoves 73 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

GEOLOGY. 
Baron F. Anca's Notes ou two newly discovered Ossiferous Caves in Sicily ... 73 
Sir David Brewster's Details respecting a Nail found in Kingoodie Quarry, 

1843 73 

Rev. P. B. Brodie on the Stratigrapliical Position of certain Species of Corals 

in the Lias 73 

Mr. John Allan Broun on the Velocity of Earthquake Shocks in the Laterite 

of India • 74 

Rev. J. C. Clutterbuck on the Course of the Thames from Lechlade to 

Windsor, as ruled by the Geological Formations over which it passes 75 

Professor Daubeny's Remarks on the Elevation Theory of Volcanos 75 

Rev. J. B. P. Dennis on the Mode of Flight of the Pterodactyles of the Copro- 
lite Bed near Cambridge 76 

Rev. J. Dingle on the Corrugation of Strata in the Vicinity of Mountain 
Ranges 77 

Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton's Remarks on the Ichthyolites of Farnell 
Road 77 

. on a New Form of fchthyolite discovered 

by Mr. Peach 78 

M. A. Favre on Circular Chains in the Savoy Alps 78 

Mr. Alphonse Gages on some Transformations of Iron Pyrites in connexion 

with Organic Remains 79 

Dr. Geinitz on Snow Crystals observed at Dresden 79 

. on the Silurian Formation in the District of Wilsdruff 79 

Professor Harkness on the Metamorphic Rocks of the North of Ireland 79 

Dr. Hector's Notes on the Geology of Captain Palliser's Expedition in British 
North America 80 

Professor F. von Hochstetter's Remarks on the Geology of New Zealand, 
illustrated by Geological Maps, Drawings, and Photographs 81 

Observations upon the Geological Fea- 
tures of the Volcanic Island of St. Paul, in the South Indian Ocean, illus- 
trated by a Model in Relief of the Island, made by Captain Cybulz, of the 
Australian Artillery 81 

Mr. E. Hull on the Six-inch Maps of the Geological Survey 81 

on the Blenheim Iron Ore ; and the Thickness of the Formations 

below the Great Oolite at Stonesfield, Oxfordshire 81 

Mr. T. Sterry Hunt's Note on some Points in Chemical Geology 83 

Mr. J. Beete Jukes on the Igueous Rocks interstratified with the Carbonife- 
rous Limestones of the Basin of Limerick 84 

Mr. J. A. Knipe on the Tynedale Coal-field and the Whin-sill of Cumberland 
and Northumberland 86 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay on the Eruption in May I860, of the Kotlugja Vol- 
cano in Iceland 86 

Rev. W. Lister on some Reptilian Foot-prints from the New Red Sandstone, 
north of Wolverhampton 87 

Rev. W. Mitchell and Professor Tennant on the Koh-i-Noor previous to 
its Cutting 87 

Mr. C. Moore on the Contents of Three Square Yards of Triassic Drift 87 

Mr. William Molyneux's Remarks on Fossil Fish from the North Stafford- 
shire Coal Fields 88 



Xll CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. J. Powrie's Notice of a Fossiliferous Deposit near Farnell, in Forfarshire, 
N.B 89 

Professor Phillips on the Geology of the Vicinity of Oxford 90 

Mr. Joseph Prestwich on some New Facts in relation to the Section of the 
Cliff at Mundesley, Norfolk 90 

Mr. J. Price on Slickensides 91 

Mr. William Pengelly on the Chronological and Geographical Distribution 
of the Devonian Fossils of Devon and Cornwall 91 

Professor H. D. Rogers on some Phenomena of Metamorphism in Coal in the 
United States 101 

Rev. Professor Sedgwick on the Geology of the Neighbourhood of Cambridge 
and the Fossils of the Upper Greensand 101 

Rev. Gilbert N. Smith on three undescribed Bone-Caves near Tenbv, Pem- 
brokeshire 101 

Rev. W. S. Symonds on the Selection of a Peculiar Geological Habitat by 
some of the rarer British Plants 102 

Rev. H. B. Tristram on the Geological System of the Central Sahara of 
Algeria 102 

Mr. J. F. Whiteaves on the Invertebrate Fauna of the Lower Oolites of 
Oxford shire 104 

Captain Woodall on the Intermittent Springs of the Chalk and Oolite of the 
Neighbourhood of Scarborough 108 

Mr. Thomas Wright on the Avicula contorta Beds and Lower Lias in the 
South of England 108 



BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

General. 

Mr. Philip P. Carpenter on the Progress of Natural Science in the United 
States and Canada 109 

Professor Daubeny's Remarks on the Final Causes of the Sexuality of Plants, 
with particular reference to Mr. Darwin's Work ' On the Origin of Species 
by Natural Selection ' 109 

Botany. 

Professor Dowden on a Plant Poisoning a Plant 110 

Dr. C. Dresser on Abnormal Forms of Pass] 'flora carulea 110 

. on the Morphological Laws in Plants 110 

Rev. Professor Henslow on the supposed Germination of Mummy Wheal 110 

Mr. John Hogg on the Distinctions of a Plant and an Animal, and on a Fourth 
Kingdom of Nature Ill 

Mr. M. T. Masters on the Normal and Abnormal Variations from an assumed 
Type in Plants 112 

Dr. G. Ogilvie on the Structure of Fern Stems 112 

Zoology. 

Mr. Frank T. Euckland on the Acclimatization of Animals, Birds, &c, in 
the United Kingdom 113 



CONTENTS. X iii 

Page 
Mr. Cuthbert Collingwood's Remarks on the Respiration of the Nudibran- 
chiate Mollusca 113 

on the Nudibranchiate Mollusca of the Mersey 

and Dee 113 

on Recurrent Animal Form, and its Significance 

in Systematic Zoology 114 

Professor Draper on the Intellectual Development of Europe, considered with 
reference to the views of Mr. Darwin and others, that the Progression of 
Orgauisms is determined by Law 115 

Rev. H. H. HiGGixson some Specimens of Shells from the Liverpool Museum, 
originally from the Pathological Collection formed by the late Mr. Gaskoin... 116 

Rev. A. R. Hogan's Notice of British Well Shrimps 116 

Mr. J. G. Jeffreys on the British Teredines, or Ship-Worms 117 

Mr. Charles W. Peach on the Statistics of the Herring Fishery 120 

Mr. John Price on Cydippe 120 

Mr. Lovell Reeve on the Aspergillum or Watering-pot Mollusk 120 

Dr. P. L. Sclater's Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of recent Ter- 
restrial Vertebra ta 121 

Mr. H. T. Stainton on some Peculiar Forms amongst the Micro-Lepidopterous 
Larvae 1 22 

Dr. Verloren on the Effect of Temperature and Periodicity on the Develop- 
ment of certain Lepidoptera , ]23 

Mr. J. O. Westwood on Mummy Beetles 123 

on a Lepidopterous Parasite occurring on the Body of 

the Fulgora candelaria 124 

Dr. E. Perceval Wright's Notes on Tomopteris onisciformis 124 



Physiology. 

Professor Beale on the Ultimate Arrangement of Nerves in Muscular Tissue... 125 
Professor V. Carus on the Leptocephalidm 125 

on the Value of "Development" in Systematic Zoology 

and Animal Morphology ' 125 

Professor Corbett on the Deglutition of Alimentary Fluids 216 

Dr. Robert M'Donnell on the Formation of Sugar and Amyloid Substances 
in the Animal Economy \ 12Q 

Mr. Arthur E. Durham's Experimental Inquiry into the Nature of Sleep 129 

Dr. Michael Foster's Contributions to the Theory of Cardiac Inhibition 129 

Mr. Robert Garner on certain Alterations in the Medulla Oblongata in cases 
of Paralysis 129 

■s on the Structure of the Lepadidce 130 

Mr. George D. Gibb on Saccharine Fermentation within the Female Breast.. 131 

Sir Charles Gray on Asiatic Cholera 132 

Mr. J. Reay Greene, A Word on Embryology, with reference to the mutual 
relations of the Sub-kingdoms of Animals 132 

Mr. Edward R. Harvey on the Mode of Death by Aconite 133 

Professor Van der Hoeven on the Anatomy of Slenops Potto, Perodicticus 
Geoffroyi of Bennett 134 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor Van der Hoeven, Observations on the Teredo navulis, and the 
Mischief caused by it in Holland 136 

Professor Huxley on the Development of Pijrosoma 136 

Dr. Charles Kidd on the Nature of Death from the Administration of 
Anaesthetics, especially Chloroform and Ether, as observed in Hospitals 136 

Dr. Lewis on a Hydro-spirometer 139 

Mr. John Lubbock on the Development of Baccinum 139 

Mr. Archibald MacLaken on the Influence of Systematized Exercise on the 
Expansion of the Chest 142 

M. Ollier on the Artificial Production of Bone and Osseous Grafts 143 

Dr. C. B. Radcliff's Experiments on Muscular Action from an Electrical point 
of view 143 

Dr. B. W. Richardson on the Process of Oxygenation in Animal Bodies 143 

Dr. Edward Smith, The Action of Tea and Alcohols contrasted 145 

Dr. J. L. W. Thudichum on the Physiological relations of the Colouring 
Matter of the Bile .' 14/ 



GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Opening Address by the President, Sir Roderick Impey Murchison 148 

Mr. T. W. Atkinson on the Caravan Routes from the Russian Frontier to 
Khiva, Bokhara, Kokhan, and Garkand, with suggestions for opening up a 
Trade between Central Asia and India 153 



on the Caravan Route from Yarkand to Mai-matchin, 



with a Short Account of this Town, through which the Trade is carried on 
between Russia and China 154 

Capt. Sir E. Belcher on the Manufacture of Stone Hatchets and other Imple- 
ments by the Esquimaux, illustrated by Native Tools, Arrow-heads, &c 154 

Mr. John Crawfurd on the Aryan or Indo-Germanic Theory of Races 154 



on the Influence of Domestic Animals on the Progress of 



Civilization (Birds) „ 155 

Mr. R. Cull on certain remarkable Deviations in the Stature of Europeans.... 155 

on the Existence of a true Plural of a Personal Pronoun in a 

living European Language 155 

Captain Cybulz on a Set of Relief Models of the Alps, &c 155 

Rev. Professor Graves on the Arrangement of the Forts and DwelliDg-places 
of the Ancient Irish 156 

Rev. Edw. Hincks on certain Ethnological Boulders and their probable Origin 156 

Professor F. von Hochstetter's New Map of the Interior of the Northern 
Island of New Zealand, constructed during an Inland Journey in 1859 162 

Dr. J. Hunt on the Antiquity of the Human Race 162 

Mr. V. Hurtado on the Geographical Distribution and Trade in the Cinchona 162 

Rev. Professor Jarrett on Alphabets, and especially the English; and on a 
New Method of Marking the Sound of English Words, without change of 
Orthography 163 

Mr. R. Knox on the Origin of the Arts, and the Influence of Race in their 
Development 163 

Mr. D. A. Lange's brief Account of the Progress of the Works of the Isthmus 
of Suez Canal , 163 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

Dr. R. G. Latham on the Jaczwings, a Population of the Thirteenth Century, 
on the Frontiers of Prussia and Lithuania 163 

Dr. D. Livingstone on the latest Discoveries in South-Central Africa 164 

Mr. W. Lockhart on the Mountain Districts of China, and their Aboriginal 
Inhabitants 168 

Mr. D. May's Journey in the Yoruba and Nupe Countries I/O 

Dr. Macgowan's History of the Ante-Christian Settlement of the Jews in China 1 70 

Mr. J. Mickie's Cruise in the Gulf of Pe-che-li and Leo-tung (China) 170 

Captain Sherard Osborn on the Formation of Oceanic Ice in the Arctic 
Regions 170 

Captain J. Palliser on the Course and Results of the British North American 
Exploring Expedition, under his Command in the Years 1857, 1858, 1859... 170 

Dr. Hector's Remarks concerning the Climate of the Saskatchewan 
District 172 

Mr. Sullivan's Remarks concerning the Tribes of Indians inhabiting the 
Country examined by the Expedition 173 

ConsulPETHERicK on his proposed Journey from Khartum in Upper Egypt to 
meetCaptain Speke on or near the Lake Nyanza of Central Africa 174 

Dr. J. Rae on the Formation of Icebergs and Ice Action, as observed in the 
Hudson's Bay and Straits 174 

on the Aborigines of the Arctic and Sub- Arctic Regions of North 

America 175 

M. R. von Schlagintweit's Remarks on some of the Races of India and High 
Asia (in connexion with casts exhibited) 175 

Lieutenant Edward Schlagintweit on the Tribes composing the Population 
of Morocco 177 

Col. Tal. P. Shaffner on the Geography of the North Atlantic Telegraph 178 

Captain Parker Snow on the Lost Polar Expedition and Possible Recovery of 
its Scientific Documents 180 

Captain M. H. Synge on the Proposed Communication between the Atlantic 
and Pacific, via British North America 181 

M. Pierre de Tchihatchef on the Geographical Distribution of Plants in 
Asia Minor 181 

Mr. Thomas Wright on the Excavations on the site of the Roman City of 
Uriconium at Wroxeter 181 

STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

Opening Address by Nassau W. Senior, M.A., President of the Section 182 

Rev. J. Booth on the True Principles of an Income Tax 184 

Miss Mary Carpenter on Educational Help from the Government Grant to 
the destitute and neglected children of Great Britain 184 

Mr. E. Chadwick on the Economical Results of Military Drill in Popular 
Schools 185 

on the Physiological as well as Psychological Limits to 

Mental Labour 185 

Mr. R. Dowden on Local Taxation for Local Purposes 191 

Mr. Henry Fawcett, Dr. Wheweil on the Method of Political Economy igl 

on Co-operative Societies, their Social and Political 

Aspect 191 

Ir. J. J. Fox on the Province of the Statistician 191 

\ 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. J. Hitchman on Sanitary Drainage of Towns 191 

Mr. E. Jarvis on the System of Taxation prevailing in the United States 191 

Dr. Michelsen on Serfdom in Russia = 191 

Mr. J. M. Mitchell on the Economical History and Statistics of the Her- 
ring 191 

Mr. W. Newmarch on some suggested Schemes of Taxation, and the Difficul- 
ties of them 194 

Mr. Henry John Ker Porter's Hints on the best Plan of Cottage for Agri- 
cultural Labourers 194 

Mr. F. Purdy on the Systems of Poor Law Medical Relief 195 

Mr. Henry Roberts's Notes on various efforts to Improve the Domiciliary 
Condition of the Labouring Classes 196 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Mr. P. W. Barlow on the Mechanical Effects of combining Suspension Chains 
and Girders, and the value of the Practical Application of this System (illus- 
trated by a Model) 201 

Captain Blakeley on Rifled Cannon 201 

Rev. Dr. Booth on a deep Sea Pressure Gauge, invented by Henry Johnson, Esq. 202 

Earl of Caithness on Road Locomotives 204 

Mr. E. Cowper's New Mode of obtaining a Blast of very High Temperature 
in the Manufacture of Iron 204 

Mr. John Elder on the Cylindrical Spiral Boiler 204 

Mr. William Fairbairn on the Density of Saturated Steam, and on the Law 
of Expansion of Superheated Steam 210 

Mr. John Fisher on any Atmospheric Washing Machine 210 

Mr. William Froude on Giffard's Injector for Feeding Boilers 211 

Mr. Walter Hall on a Process for Covering Submarine Wires with India- 
rubber for Telegraphic purposes 211 

Professor Hennessy's Suggestions relative to Inland Navigation 211 

Mr. Calcott Reilly on the Longitudinal Stress of the Plate Girder 212 

Dr. B. W. Richardson on Suggestions for an Electro-Magnetic Railway 
Break .'. 212 

Mr. S. W. Silver on the Character and Comparative Value of Gutta Percha 
and India-rubber employed as Insulators for Subaqueous Telegraphic Wires. 212 

Mr. W. Simons on Improvements in Iron Shipbuilding 212 

Admiral Taylor's Novel Means to lessen the frightful Loss of Life round 
our exposed Coasts by rendering the Element itself an Inert Barrier against 
the Power of the Sea ; also a Permanent Deep-water Harbour of Refuge by 
Artificial Bars 215 

Mr. G. F. Train on Street Railways as used in the United States, illustrated 
by a Model of a Tramway and Car, or Omnibus capable of conveying sixty 
persons 215 

Messrs. Werner and C. W. Siemens on a Mode of covering Wires with 
India-rubber 215 

APPENDIX. 

Physiology. 
Professor J. H. Corbett on the Deglutition of Alimentary Fluids 2lf 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied hy 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the arjproval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1860. b 



XV111 RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1859, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 






g 

'do 
ft) 
i-. 

P4 
i 

ft) 
ft) 



g 
■ i-h 

BO 

ft) 
S-. 

P-l 

•5 

I I 

.2 8 

o s 

CO S 

« a 

^ s 

j ° 



u 


o 


oc 


h 


< 


« 


\- 


00 


a: 


PS 



ft) 



*« oO 

O ft) 

"■8 1 

tO O 



ft) 

s 



9 

CO 

ft) 
ft) 



ft) 
SO 

.9 

o 

r£3 






y cot* 



< £". 

O s « 
O "25 

u 

K CO 



CO 

H 
Z 
u 

9 

10 

u 
a. 



y 

> 



tO 

Z 
u 
Q 
lO 

UJ 

a: 

a. 



OS 



CO 

ci 

CO 

PS 

-< 

a 



B 
O 

E 
> 



I 



CO 

PS 



to 
6 

00 

J 

■a 









P.SS 



►J* 

^Pi- 



cs. £ 

1& 
<=),: 



■f n 

J 00 

5 a 
2 1. 

"m 

PS 

< 

W 



O 

to 

PS 
fa 



- s 

o • 

» r, 

00 O 

pia 

o 



iops o-» 



o 



• r. 
O- 

< 3 

& o 



« 









Q ° 

wS 

00 - 

2 g 

5 •< 
na 
■< 

> 

w 

PS 



H w 




a* 

n 

w 



JJ&.W 
35 b si" 

**a 

O S " 

S o a 

m ^ rt 

ft. PS? 






s § = 

.SEE* 
"S>H 

rt *" 0) 



PS rC 

ril! 

to a 

SI 

"3 

h. o 
OS 
iJ 
PS 

< 



99 

*S a w ■" 

"s&gj 

.2 E .2 



03 n 

6 5 
few 

II 



^^ • 

.5Sh 

„;*<£ 

" rt *> — 

ri =wg 

.50 ,^« 

E B w rt 

.2-5"2W 



•« E • 

rials- 



ri 



. to 



o s 



o - 
Pi 



ri 

-Sss 

rt ^ 






d 

«' 

J= - 

be a, 

3 • 

SS 

o - 
,a a 



& - ■« 

°:s aJ ri 

& E« - 

BO 

^pso/s 

- to 
O il, fP< 

~°-.£> 

«^ •« 

« >B u 
-E « - .B 

E-PScJFh 



co 

PS 



«2 

CO o 

« s 



5s 

a 
o 
•-» 

35 



w^ri -g 

tB 3 c 3 «■. 



is eie s .« 



.E^^co 
fe >.J b-bPS. 

- E <~ • 



ens 



"s 5 2 55 g* b" 

2 -£ Ph-2 S 
■E 3 ^ P?0 

F2 3 bc-E t. 

rt y - X % 5? ° 

>JiO„£ 
E- 1 i-J P5 an f" Pu 

« 
ri 

(/? to 

?! 

s-e 

S s 

CO 4) 
S °" 

Oco 
PS . 

B§ 



O ' 

s 

H 
Q 
O 
P5 
PS 



b. - 



■*w 



|1 



* B-."d< 

-- .W* 

•E =E h u 

E Si 



«.2 



SE 



psa 



*j 

J .ri 

CO . 

PSW 
rico 

■"PS* 
■*r- - 
rt - . 

B^« 

£ oh 

C~ f. n 
,,V V 

3 & * 



So. 



. rt 

co_a 
PS^: 

- O 

CO 

o S 

PS v 



fS« 






HHH P* 



§6 



^ 4)-E . 

"^ -™ e ^: in 

B. « :o • 

.-J PS* 
tJ " -S ri "** 

Wri a o- a l 



•CO 
03 pj 

PSri 

ri .- 

.J 

5?cJ' 

|ai 
Sri | 

•a -to 
S tips 

>J rt • 



**- w . S Ci3 
H "« 5J ■« e" 

5 . s?> 

■- - ? ~ 



s-j S 



SS 

89 

Pj 

-ri 
co . 

5 - rriJ 
Sp^w^S 



« •; k y 

"SeS£« 

S ~ .* J a 

HPScjp,co 



f • 


-«M . - 




. . . . o : : 




: ; :w£" • : 




:::<ȣ:: 




: ; ^ ps > . . 




. . . «3 • . 




: . .&. v- ■ 




: :w -5* : 




• • enrobes : 




: :ps"« °6 : 




: l^ll.^ : 




; i^lo ; 




2W6. i-g^ Jaj 


f Edin 
F.R.S 
.C.L., 
Jus tic 
ne, Ba 
.P.R.S 
.P.Al 
, Sec. : 


Provost o 
K.C.B., 
K.T., D 
yle (Lord 
I. Brisba 
D.D., V 
feasor W 
s, F.R.S. 


Sflj^rt'Sp*! 
3^-23 s J £ 

CJ "E o rt ^ E^a • 


■S 6 a a h -3 g-n 


.ww • i, "-s g • 


a o o a . - . & *» 


o_,«o>3>ei; 


M^rtrt^rtrt'EW 


¥2S»aS 2 


PS 


H h pj 'J > ft. 




no" O* £T« 

^d » to 

ill 

Am » 

.cq a 

> . o 



• -CO 

: :< 

: :« 

■°? « 

:«K 

:«'<" 

:aa 

: .-« 

•fc, 



.33 

6 

Pk" 

a 

CO 

P5 
6, 
—-3 



<-a 



o ox 

I* b O 

0* Oh >d 



MS 



3 

„ B 



o;a§« 



CO 

r-^a 



-g.g w q 

da 



: 



a ft 



Is*° 
•all 



-"2<a 



73 

a 
d 

O.03 
CO 



•-< 



■ 3 

O 



KO 



a 



■J a«£« 

4) 03 OJ W 

x x x.~ x 



S a a 

co « O 

sa rt 



?Qi?po a 

•o^Sx'* 
a =-2 oW 
§ §£ 22 - 

& U O u h 

•a? *>B " 
.2 « § . g 
£< o£ g 

o<~£ •» 

■3-3^ a^ 

= « ox > 

u « ©^ 
■ax x.a.a 
f< H H co co 



O < Q « 



3 rtX 

JP5 " 



05 er 

-§ > > s 

"« cu cu K 



00 



93° 

e^ 

r- o> 

.-a 
■ ii 

a S. 

^3 
°.* :! 

* tu . cu 

ills 

O-2-c 
« Sm 

■< §■«> 

o 



Eh 
05 
O 
w 
55 
O 

o 

?! ^ 

it 

05 — 

0< 1. 

B 

*l 

Oh 
B3 CO 

a s - 

la 

a«! 

O 

05 



coco 
.00 

"2 a" a' 
J . - 
a^xi 

S ijj 

■w J2 j- 

QJ CO 4) 

60 . to 

S^S 
w . w 



S^^s : 

« or 

• o^. : 



■- &'e a • -x 



•CO 

:| :h 

: w -co 
•o :« 



"S& S : 
S s3 ' 

x^ •"« 

•-gO : 
►J a ta 'co 

q8 .-« 
.-•Ho : 

•e § s » 

•*- >^*^ 

ri - ~ r. 
V U V V 

xxxx 



• i- co r 

.91 « C 

.0 j § 

;o&;o 

33 § ;S 

•2o3 Ji 
•-3*0, 

Sari 

■530- 
:SO 

o - t*.S 

§-SS-a 

x ^-2 a 

« H « o 

— "3 >. - «- 
«- »- To O 



O CU 93 09 

x X u u 



CO 



o." 

> 

^S 

St 

>, CN 

Jg 

co^ 

H - 

C as 
I 2 

Q 

pa 
o 



d 
6 
*•* 

< a- 
g* <«" 

w .s s - 

h to « m 

^ W Jo1 

59-05 - 

05<«i0< 



:o 



i 

; ; :a : : :« 

• •°5 [ *!, 

• •*« 
: •"f"* 

: * O s « 
a j" S > 

O * O .J 

a x « ►« MS 
,s n a « 



-J 





u 

a 

sa 

•g £ "« •« a S -9 s 

w ^ J £paa 8S 
xxx. ss .ax g 3 

f-lf-lHcOCOEHT-» 



;s_s 

:°jco 

:««' 

a" ." 
o o- 

ao ai 

aa 

. J4 - 
• box 
•■a *J 

•si 

« o^ 

O O 09 

£^ 



CO 




05 




Be 












• 00 


u 


" 


r 


1- 


a 


j^ 






-x 


a 


B 




2 


a 

a 


J3 






?< 


a 


P5 


■/1 


< 




05 




05 


a 


2 


S 






rt 




< 








J 




J 





o 
w 

I— I 

o 
o 

Eh 

O 

> 

P 

«! 

w 
IH 

H 
O 

O 

►— i 

Eh 

<u 

I— I 

o 

o 

w 
w 

< 
ffl 

(—1 

E-h 

h— I 
P3 

PQ 



o 

H 
W 

P 

W 

p 
p 

p 

<1 



a 
£ 

U 

e 



c 
a 



«* 






lo 

o 



a. o 

-* © 
o o 

ID CO 



otaoooooooooo 
©t-.©<o©o©ooo©co 



cN^oom-rOinoomi-i 



s 
(« 

«si 

B 



©5 

00 



o 

S X! 

1° 

"t? «* 
SB ^.^ 

™ g 

r-l 4> 

s| 

o ~ 

P 5 

o 

o 

o 
<J 

P 

p 

p 

P4 

p 

pq 

P 

w 
a 



13 

m-° 

to-S 

.5 S 

■He 

£££ 

>._ s 

i « « 
C S3 t- 

&o 2 — 

tSi5 o 
.s i-J 

a Ms 
g S3 a 

13 • J3 tu 

«o3 

o _c-< 

tO r— 

to -w a 

-^ ~ ■— 

to O V 

c ce 

CJ O C' 



O". O I 



^ : 

SPbO 

.=, S3 
"8- 

-a la 
iC.S 

'? ? 

o S 

es £ 

HH 

rd — 



O — * r^ 

o 
O 



13 O 






o 
O. 



C a 



P 



W 



>. 

m 



K to 
to.S 



S3 to 



g «5 S 



N 



O 



'S s .a £ 



CJ 



' Pi «3 

•>-> ,« 
W "3 

<D — 

■5 h 
"£ 

'5 bO 

!•! 

C rs 

SO 



s 

CD £ f=5 
g H S3 
§ ° m 

« S-3 

5 § o2 

o c o a, 

v rri 2 < ~' 

S !--« 

j a o «« 

fr-g S3 n & 

H Ih^I — 

B o ca « w 

S3 Oh ^3 .H <U 

•° .. ** a ^s 



a 



CO 


(N 




t^ 


!>. 




»— 1 


r-l 




rr> 


CO 




i^ 


CO 
CO 








s 





o 



05»"5 



a q 



bo. 



a .2 



o 

gen 

i i 



es g o 
'8 3 



a 
a 
o 

Of u 

-u 3 a 

(V2 O *" ^£ 

» 5> S « 

^ P^ a 
^* — ^ r* 

in Wtu u 

% £ o « 



a 



C4 03 



h H O CJ 

rt cd 2 c 

s s « J 
p £ w o « P5 ps« ca b 



1U — ft o S 



P 



i^jOOOOOtOC! 

tJbONOONN 

rjdOlOOHiOTj* 
H N C t>l X 



(N 

O 



: r-t O 



5fJ CO CO 



CO 

o 

CO 
CO 

V? 



CjO 

H 

a. 

w 
o 

w 
P5 



o 



ts .« t; •" — v 

« c-c-a-aco-^ 



d 



ED 



a cj o o 

— (L» -«-> ^» 

£t= •- " 

13 X! 



'C'S'S «,} 



^ S 
a vg 



P 

o a 
: a 

> «T 



H -Sg5 



o 



a ^ 
o a 
iB 



a 



3 </? « t" 1 

o o .a 
a a- a *to 

■= CM « 

gOg-3 

a ^3 a to 
BB<<< 

o 
H 



-IS 

to 'S 

sp 

CJ ^ 

•— en 
H J3 

•. -*- 
to c 
0) o 

a ^ 



o 


- 


G 


DO 


c 


OJ 






«i 




Cj 




■— 


- 




o 



C u* 

"t - * CO 

s « 

^ Si 

c « 
&.0 



i 

o 
o 

13 

a 
a 

.2 

13 

a 
a 



a 

"a 

a 

W 




oo 

B?i' 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXV 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Aberdeen, Earl of, LL.D, KG., K.T., 

F.R.S. (dec"). 
Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., F.R.S. 
Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.R.S. 
Adams, J. Couch, M.A., F.R.S. 
Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 
Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D, Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 
Airy,G.B,D.C.L.,F.R.S,Astronomer Royal. 
Alison, ProfessorW.P,M.D,F.R,S.E.(dec d ). 
Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 
Anderson, Prof. Thomas, M.D. 
Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 
Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.R.S. 
Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
Atkinson, Rt, Hon. R,LordMayor of Dublin. 
Babbage, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F.R.S. 
Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Baines, Rt, Hon. M.T., M.A., M.P. (dec"). 
Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd, Esq. 
Balfour, Professor John H, M.D., F.R.S. 
Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Beamish, Richard, Esq., F.R.S. 
Bell, Professor Thomas, Pres. L.S., F.R.S. 
Beechey, Rear-Admiral, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Bengough, George, Esq. 
Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 
Biddell, George Arthur, Esq. 
Bigge, Charles, Esq. 
Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 
Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.R.S. 
Boyle, Rt.Hon. D., Lord Justice-Gen 1 . (dec d ). 
Brady ,The Rt, Hon. Maziere, M.R.I.A., Lord 

Chancellor of Ireland. 
Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 
Brewster, Sir David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.R.S., Principal of the University of 

Edinburgh. 
Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 

K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. (dec- 1 ). 
Brodie, SirB. C, Bart., D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 
Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.R.S. 
Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Brunei, Sir M. I., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Buckland, Very Rev. William. D.D., F.R.S., 

Dean of Westminster (deceased). 
Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. (deceased). 
Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.R.S. 
Carson, Rev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 
Cathcart,Lt.-Gen.,Earlof, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 

(deceased). 
Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D. (deceased). 
Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 
Christie, Professor S. H, M.A., F.R.S. 
Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. (deceased). 
Clark, Rev. Prof., M.D., F.R.S. (Camlridge.) 
Clark, Henry, M.D. 
Clark, G. T., Esq. 
Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 



Clerke, Major S., K.H., R.E., F.R.S. (dcc d ). 
Clift, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Close, Very Rev. F., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 
Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 
Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 
Conybeare, Very Rev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 

daft' (deceased). 
Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 
Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Crum, Walter, Esq., F.R.S. 
Currie, William Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 
Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Daubeny, Prof. Charles G.B., M.D., F.R.S. 
DelaBeche, Sir H. T., C.B., F.R.S., Director- 
Gen. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom (dec d ). 
De la Rue, Warren, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Devonshire, William, Duke of, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dickinson, Joseph, M.D., F.R.S. 
Dillwyn, Lewis W, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased). 
Ducie, The Earl, F.R.S. 
Dunraven, The Earl of, F.R.S. 
Egerton, Sir P. de M. Grey, Bart,, M.P., 

F.R.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (dec d ). 
Enniskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Fairbairn, William, LL.D., C.E., F.R.S. 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
FitzRov, Rear Admiral, F.R.S. 
Fitzwiliiam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Foote, Lundy E., Esq. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 
Forbes, Prof. Edward, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Forbes, Prof. J. D., F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 
Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 
Fuller, Professor, M.A. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Gourlie, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Graham, T., M.A., F.R.S., Master of the Mint. 
Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (deceased). 
Gray, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Prof. Joseph Henry, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Griffith, SirR. Griffith, Bt., LL.D, M.R.I. A. 
Grove, W. R, Esq, M.A, F.R.S. 
HaUam, Henry, Esq, M.A, F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Hamilton, W. J, Esq, F.R.S, For. Sec. G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir Wm. R, LL.D, Astronomer 

Royal of Ireland, M.R.I.A, F.R.A.S. 
Hancock, W. Neilson, LL.D. 
Harcourt, Rev. Wm. Vernon, M.A, F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 
Harford, J. S, D.C.L, F.R.S. 



XXVI 



REPORT — 1860. 



Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 

Harrowby, The Earl of, F.R.S. 

Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 

Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. [Col., Belfast. 

Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D, President of Queen's 

Henslow, Rev. Professor, M. A., F.L.S. (dec d ). 

Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. Win., LL.D, 
F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec d ). 

Herschel,SirJolmF.W.,Bart.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 

Heywood, James, Esq., F.R.S. 

Hill, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 

Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D, M.R.I.A. 

Hincks, Rev. Thomas, B.A. 

Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich, 
(deceased). 

Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 

Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 

Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 

Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 

Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.Gr.S. 

Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 

Hugall, J. W., Esq. 

Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 

Hutton, William, Esq., F.G-.S. 

Ibbetson,Capt.L.L.Boscawen,K.R.E.,F.G-.S. 

Inglis, Sir R. H, Bart., D.C.L., M.P. (dec"). 

Inman, Thomas, M.D. 

Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S.E. 

Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 

Jellett, Rev. Professor. 

Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 

Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 

Johnston, Right Hon. William, late Lord 

Provost of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Prof. J. F. W., M.A, F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Keleher, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Kelland, Rev. Professor P, M.A. 
Kildare, The Marquis of. 
Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S. 
Lansdowne, Hen, Marquis of, D.C.L,F.R.S. 
Larcom, Major, RE, LL.D, F.R.S. 
Lardner, Rev. Dr. (deceased). 
Lassell, William, Esq, F.R.S. L. & E. 
Latham, R G-, M.D, F.R.S. 
Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D, F.R.S.E, Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh, 
(deceased). 
Lee, Robert, M.D, F.R.S. 
Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, late 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart, F.R.S. 
Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased). 
Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Listowel, The Earl of. [Dublin (dec d ). 

Lloyd, Rev. B, D.D, Provost of Trin. Coll, 
Lloyd, Rev. H, D.D, D.C.L, F.R.S. L.&E. 
Londesborough, Lord, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Lubbock, Sir John W, Bart, M.A, F.R.S. 
Luby, Rev. Thomas. 
Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A, F.R.S. 
MacCullagh, Prof, D.C.L, M.R.I.A. (dee d ). 



MacDonnell, Rev. R, D.D, M.R.I.A, Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal. (dec d ). 

MacGee, William, M.D. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq, F.L.S. 

MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 

Malahide, The Lord Talbot de. 

Malcolm, Vice-Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B. (dec d ). 

Maltby, Edward, D.D, F.R.S, late Lord 
Bishop of Durham (deceased). 

Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D, Lord Bishop of. 

Marshall, J. G, Esq, M.A, F.G.S. 

May, Charles, Esq, F.R.A.S. 

Meynell, Thomas, Esq, F.L.S. 

Middleton, Sir WiUiam F. F, Bart. 

Miller, Professor W. A, M.D, F.R.S. 

Miller, Professor W. H, M.A, F.R.S. 

Moillet, J. D, Esq. (deceased). 

Milnes, R. Monekton, Esq, D.C.L, M.P. 

Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 

Monteagle, Lord, F.R.S. 

Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 

Moodv, T. H. C, Esq. 
Moody, T. F, Esq. 
Morley, The Earl of. 
Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A, F.R.S. 
Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 
Murchison, Sir Roderick I,G.C. St.S, F.R.S. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D, F.R.S.E. 
Nicol, D, M.D. 

Nicol, Professor J, F.R.S.E, F.G.S. 
Nicol, Rev. J. P, LL.D. 
Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. (deceased). 
Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, KG,M. A, 

F.R.S. (deceased). 
Ormerod, G. W, Esq, M.A, F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 
Orpen, John H, LL.D. 
Osier, Follett, Esq, F.R.S. 
Owen, Professor Richd,M.D, D.C.L,F.R.S. 
Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D, Lord 

Bishop of, F.R.S, F.G.S. 
Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B, M.P. 
Peacock, Very Rev. G, D.D, Dean of Ely, 

F.R.S. (deceased). 
Peel,Rt.Hon.SirR,Bart,M.P,D.C.L.(dec d ). 
Pendarves, E. W, Esq, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Phillips, Professor John, M.A, LL.D,F.RS. 
Pigott, The Rt. Hon. D. R, M.R.I.A, Lord 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 
Porter, G. R, Esq. (deceased). 
Portlock, General, R.E, F.R.S. 
Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A, F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Price, Rev. Professor, M.A, F.R.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Ramsay, Professor William, M.A. 
Ransome, George, Esq, F.L.S. 
Reid, Maj.-Gen. Sir W, K.C.B, R.E, F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Rendlesham, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.P. 
Retime, George, Esq, F.R.S. 
Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S. 
Richardson, Sir John, M.D, OB, F.R.S. 
Richmond. Duke of, KG, F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Ripon, Earl of, F.R.G.S. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXVU 



Kitchie, Rev. Prof., LL.D., F.E.S. (dec d ). 

Robinson, Capt., R.A. 

Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 

Robinson, Rev. T. R, D.D., F.R.A.S. 

Robison, Sir John, Sec.R.S.Edin. (deceased). 

Roche, James, Esq. 

Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 

Rosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Ross, Rear-Ad. Sir J. C, R.N., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Rosse, Win., Earl of, M.A, F.R.S., M.R.I. A. 

Royle, Prof. John F, M.D., F.R.S. (dec d ). 

Russell, James, Esq. (deceased). 

Russell, J. Scott, Esq., F.R.S. [V.P.R.S. 

Sabine, Maj.-G-eneral, R.A., D.C.L., Treas. & 

Sanders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Sedgwick, Rev. Prof. Adam, M.A., F.R.S. 

Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

Sharpey, Professor, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

Sims, Dillwyn, Esq. 

Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Smith, James, F.R.S. L. & E. 
Spence, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.R.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt., M.P., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
St. David's, C.Thirlwall,D.D.,LordBishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G, Sec.R.S. 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 
Strickland, Hugh E., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Warden of Wadliam 

College. Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. John James, B.A. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Esq., F.G.S. 



Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 

Thomson, A., Esq. 

Thomson, Professor William, M.A., F.R.S. 

Tindal, Captain, R.N. (deceased). 

Tite, WilUam, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

Tooke, Thomas, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Traill, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 

Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. (dec d ). 

Turner, Rev. W. 

Tyndall, Professor, F.R.S. 

Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (deceased). 

Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Walker, James, Esq., F.R.S. 

Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 

Walker, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 

Warburton, Henry, Esq..M.A., F.R.S.(dec d ). 

Ward, W. Sykes.Esq.. F.C.S. 

Washington, Captain, R.N., F.R.S. 

Webster, Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 

West, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 

Wharncliffe, John Stuart.Lord.F.R.S^dec"). 

Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 

Whewell, Rev William, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
White, John F, Esq. 
Williams, Prof. Charles J. B., M.D., F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A.. F.R.S. 
Wills, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Wilson, Thomas, Esq., M.A. 
Wilson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Woollcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (deceased). 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yarrell, WilUam, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Yates, J.B., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. (dec">). 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1860-61. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.K.S. John Taylor, Esq., F.K.S. 

Major-General Edward Sabine, R.A., D.C.L., Treas. & V.P.K.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

THE LORD WROTTESLEY, M.A., V.P.R.S, F.R.A.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Earl of Derby, P.O., D.C.L., Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
The Rev. F. Jeune, D.D., Vice-Chancellor of the 

University of Oxford. 
The Duke of Marlborough, D.C.L. 
The Earl of Rosse, K.P., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
The Lord Bishop of Oxford, F.R.S. 
The Very Rev. H. G. Liddell, D.D., Dean of 

Christ Church, Oxford. 



Charles G. B. Daubeny, LL.D., M.D., F.R.S., 
F.L.S., F.G.S., Professor of Botany in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. 

Henry W. Acland, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Regius 
Professor of Medicine in the University of Ox- 
ford. 

William F. Donkin, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Savilian 
Professor of Astronomy in the University of Ox- 
ford. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN, Esq., LL.D., C.E., F.R.S. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT 

The Earl of Ellesmere, F.R.G.S. 

The Lord Stanley, M.P., D.C.L., F.R.G.S. 

The Lord Bishop of Manchester, D.D., F.R.S., 

F.G.S. 
Sir Philip de MalpaS Grey Egerton, Bart., 

M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart., F.R.S. 
Thomas Bazley, Esq., M.P. 



James Aspinall Turner, Esq., M.P. 

James Prescott Joule, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., Pre- 
sident of the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Manchester. 

Eaton Hodgkinson, Esq., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., 
M.I.C.E., Professor of the Mechanical Principles 
of Engineering in University College, London. 

Joseph Whit-worth, Esq., F.R.S., M.I.C.E. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 

Robert Dukinfield Darbishire, Esq., B.A., F.G.S., Brown Street, Manchester. 

Alfred Neild, Esq., Mayfield, Manchester. 

Arthur Ransome, Esq., M.A., St. Peter's Square, Manchester. 

Professor Henry Enfield Roscoe, B.A., Owens College, Manchester. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT MANCHESTER. 

Robert Philips Greg, Esq., F.G.S., Manchester. 
ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.R.S. 
Grove, William R., F.E.S. 
Horner, Leonard, F.R.S. 
IIutton, Robert, F.G.S. 
Lyf.ll, Sir C, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Miller, Prof.W. A., M.D., F.R.S. 
PoRTLOCK, General, R.E., F.R.S. 
Price, Rev. Prof.. M.A., F.R.S. 



Sharpey, Professor, Sec. R.S. 
Spottiswoode, W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Svkes, Colonel W. H., M.P., 

Tit'e, William, M.P., F.R.S. 
Tyndall, Professor, F.R.S. 
Webster, Thomas, F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Prof., M.A., F.R.S. 



Babington, C, C., M.A., F.R.S. 
Bell, Prof. T., Pres. L.S., F.R.S. 
Brodie, Sir Benjamin C, Bart., 

D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 
De la Rue, Warren, Ph.D., 

F.R.S. 
FitzRoy, Rear Admiral, F.R.S. 
Galton, Francis, F.G.S. 
Gassiot, John P., F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice- Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former years, 
via — Rev. Professor Sedgwick. The Marquis of Lansdowne. The Duke of Devonshire. Rev. W. V." Har- 
court. The Marquis of Breadalbane. Rev. W. YVhcwell, D.D. The Earl of Rosse. Sir John F. W. 
Herschel, Bart. Sir Roderick I. Murchison. The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. Sir David Brewster. 
G. B. Airy, Esq., the Astronomer Royal. General Sabine. William Hopkins, Esq., LL.D. The Earl of 
Harrowby. The Duke of Argyll. Rrofessor Daubeny, M.D. The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. Professor 
Owen, MlD., D.C.L. His Royal Highness The Prince Consort. 

GENERAL SECRETARY. 

The Rev. ROBERT Walker, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Experimental Philosophy in the University of 

Oxford; Culhani Vicarage, Abingdon. 

ASSISTANT-GENERAL SECRETARY. 

John Phillips, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., I'rofessor of Geology in the University of Oxford ; 

Museum House, Oxford. 

CENERAL TREASURER. 

JOHN TAYLOR, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 
LOCAL TREASURERS. 



William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., Tori: 

C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Cambridge. 

William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. 

John H. Orpin, LL.D., Dublin. 

William Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Bristol. 

Robert M'Andrew, Esq., F.R.S., Zicerpool. 

W. R. Wills, Esq., Birmingham. 

Professor Ramsay, M.A., Glasgow. 

Robert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S., Manchester. 



John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., Swansea. 

J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipsuich. 

Robert Patterson. Esq.. M.R.I.A., Belfast. 

Edmund Smith, Esq., Hull. 

Richard Besmuh, Esq., F.R.S., Cheltenham. 

John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., Leeds. 

John Angus, Esq., Aberdeen. 

Rev. John Griffiths, M.A., O.rford. 



Robert Hutton, Esq. 



AUDITORS. 

Dr. If orton Shaw. 



John P. Gusaiot, Es.q. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXIX 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
ABERDEEN MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. — Rev. B. Price, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy, Oxford. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir David Rrewster,K.H.,D.C.L.,F.R.S.; Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. ; Rev. R. Main, M.A., F.R.S. ; Rev. W. Whewell, D.D., F.R.S., 
Hon. M.R.I.A., Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Secretaries. — Professor Stevelly, LL.D. ; Rev. T. Rennison, M.A., Fellow of 
Queen's College ; Rev. G. C. Bell, M.A., Fellow of Worcester College. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President. — B. C. Brodie, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry, 
Oxford. 

Vice-Presidents.— Professor Andrews, M.D., F.R.S., M.R.I.A., F.C.S. ; Warren 
De la Rue, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. ; Professor Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.C.S. ; 
Professor Frankland, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; Professor W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. J 
Lyon Playfair, C.B., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Seci-etaries. — G. D. Liveing, M.A., F.C.S. ; A. Vernon Harcourt, Esq., B.A., 
F.C.S., Student of Christ Church ; A. B. Northcote, Esq., F.C.S., Queen's College. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— Rev. A. Sedgwick, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geology, 
Cambridge. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Hon. M.R.S.E., 
F.G.S.; L. Horner, Pres. G.S., F.R.S.; Major-General Portlock, R.E., LL.D., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Harkness, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Captain Woodall, M.A., 
F.G.S., Oriel College; Edward Hull, B.A., F.G.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Rev. Professor Henslow, F.L.S., Professor of Botany, Cambridge. 

Vice-Presidents.— Professor Daubeny, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S.; Sir W. Jar- 
dine, Bart., F.R.S.E., F.L.S. ; Professor Owen, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. 

Secretaries.— E. Lankester, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S. ; E. Percival Wright, 
M.A., M.B., M.R.I.A., F.L.S.; P. L. Sclater, M.A., F.L.S., Sec. Z.S., C.C.C. ; 
W. S. Church, B.A., University College. 

SUB-SECTION D. PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — George Rolleston, M.D., F.L.S., Professor of Physiology. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Sir B. Brodie, Bart., 
D.C.L., Pres. R.S. ; George Busk, F.R.S.; Dr. Davy, F.R.S. L. & E. ; Professor 
Huxley, F.R.S.; W. Sharpey, M.D., Sec. R.S., F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries.— Robert M c Donnell, M.D., M.R.I.A. ; Edward Smith, M.D., F.R.S. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Sir R.I. Murchison,G.C.St.S.,D.C.L., F.R.S., V.P.R.G.S.; Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 

Vice-Presidents.— Lord Ashburton, M.A., F.R.S. ; John Crawfurd, Esq., F.R.S., 
Pres. Ethn. Soc. ; Francis Galton, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. ; Sir J. Richardson, C.B., 
M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; Sir Walter C. Trevelyan, Bart. 

Secretaries.— Norton Shaw, M.D., Sec. R.G.S. ; Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A.; 
Captain Burrows, R.N., M.A.; Charles Lempriere, D.C.L.; Dr. James Hunt, F.S.A. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — Nassau W. Senior, M.A., late Professor of Political Economy, Oxford. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir John P. Boileau, Bart., F.R.S. ; James Heywood, F.R.S. ; 
Lord Monteagle, F.R.S. ; Monckton Milnes, M.P. ; Right Hon. Joseph Napier, 
LL.D., D.C.L.; Sir Andrew Orr; Sir J. Kay Shuttleworth, Bart., F.G.S.; Col. Sykes, 
M.P., F.R.S.; William Tite, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 



XXX 



REPORT — 1860. 



Secretaries. — William Newmarch ; Edmund Macrory, M.A. ; Rev. J. E. T. 
Rogers, M.A., Magdalen Hall, Tooke Professor of Political Economy, King's Col- 
lege, London. 

SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — W. J. Macquorn Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Engineering, 
Glasgow. 

Vice-Presidents.— J. F. Bateman, F.R.S. ; W. Fairbairn, C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. ; 
J. Glynn, F.R.S. ; Admiral Moorsom; Sir John Rennie, F.R.S. ; Marquis of Stafford, 
M.P.'; James Walker, C.E., LL.D., F.R.S.; Professor Willis, M.A., F.R.S.: 
T. Webster, Q.C., M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; Rev. Francis Harrison, M.A. ; Henry 
Wright. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 
M. Babinet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 
Professor Bolzani, Kazan. 
Dr. Barth. 

Dr. Bergsma, Utrecht. 
Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evreux). 
Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 
Dr. Carus, Leipzig. 
Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 
M. Antoine d'Abbadie. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor Esmark, Christiania. 
Prof. A. Favre, Geneva. 
Professor G. Forchhammer, Copenhagen. 
M. Leon Foucault, Paris. 
Prof. E. Fremy, Paris. 
M. Frisiani, Milan. 
Dr. Geinitz, Dresden. 
Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 
Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 
Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
M. Khanikoff, St. Petersburg. 
Prof. A. Kblliker, Wurzburg. 
Prof. De Koninck, Liege. 
Professor Kreil, Vienna. 



Dr. A. Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Prof. F. Lanza. 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New York. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von Middendorff,Sr.Perers6«r^. 

M. l'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordenskiold, Finland. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Prof. B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 

Viscenza Pisani, Florence. 

Gustave Plaar, Slrraburg. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

Professor Plucker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Prof. Retzius, Stockholm. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve, Pvlkowa. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 

Dr. Van der Hoeven, Leyden. 

Prof. E. Verdet, Paris. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Gbttingen. 
Professor Wartmann, Geneva. 



Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee at Oxford, June 27, 1860. 

1. The Council were instructed by the General Committee at Aberdeen 
to maintain the establishment at Kew Observatory by aid of a grant of £500. 
They have received the following Report of the Committee to whom the 
working of the Observatory is entrusted. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXI 

2. The continuance of Magnetic Observations, at stations indicated by the 
General Committee at the Leeds Meeting, has engaged the attention of H.R.H. 
the President, and of the Council ; and they have had the advantage of co- 
operation on the part of the President and Council of the Royal Society. 
Every means has been adopted for pressing the subject on the favourable 
attention of the Government, but, it is to be regretted, hitherto without 
success. 

3. The importance of telegraphic communication between sea-ports of the 
British Isles, has been the subject of much attention since it was urged on 
the General Committee by the Aberdeen Meeting. The Council are happy 
to find that Admiral FitzRoy has been authorized to proceed in bringing to 
a practical issue the recommendations offered on this subject to the scientific 
department of the Board of Trade; and they, congratulate the Association 
on the share they have taken in a cause so dear to humanity. 

4. The expedition suggested by the Royal Geographical Society, and con- 
curred in by the General Committee of the British Association, is on its 
way ; Capt. Speke, under the direction of the Admiralty, with his assistant, 
Capt. Grant, having sailed from Zanzibar. Sir R. I. Murchison, in reporting 
on this subject, expresses the obligation which is felt by the promoters of this 
great step for the exploration of Africa, to Lord John Russell, Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs. 

The Report of the Parliamentary Committee is received for presentation 
to the General Committee this day. 

5. At the Meeting this day, in pursuance of the Notice placed in the 
Minutes of the General Committee at Aberdeen, it will be proposed — "That 
a permanent distinct Section of Anatomy and Physiology be established, in 
addition to that of Zoology and Botany." 

The Council are informed that Invitations will be presented to the General 
Committee at its Meeting on Monday, July 2, to hold the next Meeting in 
Manchester ; on behalf of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Man- 
chester, and other Institutions and Public Authorities of that city, from whom 
Invitations were received at previous Meetings. 

Invitations will also be presented to hold an early Meeting in Newcastle, 
on behalf of the Council and Borough of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and to hold 
a Meeting in Birmingham in 1862, on behalf of the Birmingham and Midland 
Institute. 

Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1859-1860. 

Since the last Meeting of the British Association, the self-recording mag- 
netographs have been in constant operation under the able superintendence 
of Mr. Chambers, the magnetical assistant. 

A description of these instruments has been given by Mr. Stewart, the 
Superintendent, in a Report which is printed in the Transactions of the British 
Association for 1859. The drawings for the plates connected with this 
Report were made with much skill by Mr. Beckley, the mechanical assistant 
at Kew. 

It was mentioned in the last Report of this Committee, that a set of self- 
recording magnetic instruments, designed for the first of the Colonial Obser- 
vatories which have been proposed to Her Majesty's Government, had been 
completed and set up in a wooden house near the Observatory. 

Shortly after the meeting at Aberdeen, the Chairman received a letter from 
Dr. P. A. Bergsma, Geographical Engineer for the Dutch possessions in the 



xxxli REPORT — 1860. 

Indian Archipelago, requesting that the Committee would assist him in pro- 
curing a set of self-recording magnetic differential instruments similar to 
those at Kew, the Dutch Government having resolved to erect such at their 
Observatory at Java. 

In consequence of this application, and as the instruments which had been 
completed were not immediately required for a British Observatory, it was 
resolved that they should be assigned to Dr. Bergsma ; this gentleman has 
since arrived, and has for the last few weeks been engaged at the Observatory 
in the examination of his instruments. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made. 

Application having been made through Padre Secchi, of the Collegio Ro- 
mano, for a set of magnetic instruments, for both differential and absolute 
determinations, for the Jesuits' College at Havanna, the whole to cost 600 
dollars, or about £150, General Sabine obtained, at a reasonable price, the 
three magnetometers that had formerly been employed at Sir T. Brisbane's 
Observatory at Makerstoun, and also an altitude and azimuth instrument. 
With these instruments it is expected that the application from Havanna 
Observatory can be met within the sum named; the instruments are now in 
the hands of the workmen, and will be ready early in July. 

Two unifilars, supplied by the late Mr. Jones, for the Dutch Government 
(one for Dr. Bergsma, and the other for Dr. Buys Ballot), have had their 
constants determined. Observations have also been made with two 9-inch 
dip-circles belonging to General Sabine, which have been repaired by Barrow, 
and with two dip-circles and a Fox's instrument designed for Dr. Bergsma. 

A set of magnetical instruments, consisting of a dip-circle, an azimuth 
compass, and a unifilar, previously used by Captain Blakiston, have been 
re-examined, and have been taken by Colonel Sraythe, of the Royal Artillery, 
to the Feejee Islands. 

As it was feared that the Kew Standard Barometer might have been 
injured by the workmen who some time since were repairing the Observatory, 
a new one has been mounted. The mechanical arrangements of this instru- 
ment have been completed in a very admirable manner by Mr. Beckley ; and 
the mean of all the observations made shows that the new Barometer reads 
precisely the same as the old. This result is satisfactory, not only as showing 
that no change has taken place in the old Barometer, but as confirming the 
accuracy of the late Mr. Welsh's process of constructing these instruments. 
The height of the cistern of the new Barometer above the level of the sea is 
33-74- feet. 

Mr. Valentine Magrath having quitted the Observatory, at his own request, 
on the 14th of February last, Mr. George Whipple has taken his place as 
Meteorological Assistant, and has given much satisfaction. 

On the 12th of March, Thomas Baker was engaged at the weekly salary 
of 8s., to be raised to 105. in six months if he gave satisfaction, which has 
hitherto been the case. 

Since the last meeting of the Association, 173 Barometers and 222 Ther- 
mometers have been verified at the Observatory. 

Professor Kupffer, Director of the Russian Magnetical and Meteorological 
Observatories, visited the Observatory, and was presented with a standard 
thermometer. 

Mr. J. C. Jackson, Lieutenant Goodall, R.E., and Mr. Francis Galton, 
F.R.S., have visited the Observatory, and received instructions in the mani- 
pulation of instruments. 

Mr. Galton has made some experiments at Kew Observatory, to determine 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXX111 

tlie most practicable method of examining sextants, and otlier instruments 
for geographical purposes. Considering that these instruments, after having 
been once adjusted, are liable to two distinct classes of error, the one constant 
for any given reading, and the other variable, it is an object to form Tables 
of Corrections for the constant errors of instruments sent for examination, 
and also to ascertain the amount of variable errors which might affect their 
readings. 

As a groundwork for examination, it is found that small mirrors may be 
permanently adjusted, at the distance of half a mile, so that when the rays 
of a mirror of moderate size, standing by the side of an assistant, are flashed 
upon them, they may re-reflect a brilliant star of solar light, towards the 
sextant under examination. 

By having four permanently fixed mirrors of (his description, separated by 
intervals of 20°, 60°, and 40° respectively, and by flashing upon them with 
two looking-glasses of moderate size, it is possible, by using every combina- 
tion of these angles, to measure every twentieth degree, from 0° up to 120°. 

The disturbing effects of parallax are eliminated without difficulty, by 
mere attention to the way in which the sextant is laid on the table, or, in 
the case of a zero determination, by a simple calculation. 

Moreover, the brilliancy of the permanent mirrors is perfectly under con- 
trol, by the interposition of gauze shades in front of the looking-glasses that 
flash upon them. This renders an examination of the coloured shades a 
matter of great ease and certainty. 

Based upon these principles, Mr, Galton has drawn up a system for the 
thorough examination of sextants. Each would not occupy more than two 
hours in having its constant errors tabulated, and its variable errors deter- 
mined; nor would an outlay of more than £!30 be required for the establish- 
ment of fixed tables and permanent marks. Difficulty is, however, felt in 
setting the system in action, owing to the absolute need of an assistant 
having leisure to undertake it. 

The sum of £179 12*. 6d. has been received from the R,oyal Society, 
to defray the expense of erecting a model house for the reception of the 
instruments for Colonial Magnetic Observatories. 

The Photoheliograph has been an occasional source of occupation to the 
mechanical assistant; but before daily records of the sun's disk can be ob- 
tained, it is absolutely requisite that an assistant should be appointed to aid 
Mr. Beckley, because his duties are of such a nature as to prevent his de- 
voting attention at fixed periods of the day to an object requiring so much 
preparation as is the case with photoheliogrnphy. Unfortunately, the funds 
at the disposal of the Committee are quite inadequate for this purpose; and 
unless a special grant be obtained, the Photoheliograph will remain very little 
used. 

At present Mr. Beckley is preparing the instrument, under Mr. De la Rue's 
direction, for its intended trip to Spain, for the purpose of photographing the 
eclipse which takes place on July 18th. The expenses of these preparations, 
and of the assistants who will accompany Mr. De la Rue, will be defrayed 
out of the grant of the Royal Society for that object. 

The requisite preparations are somewhat extensive ; for it has been deemed 
necessary to construct a wooden observatory, and to make a new iron pillar 
to support the instrument, adapted to the latitude of the proposed station : 
both the observatory and iron pillar may be taken to pieces to facilitate their 
transport. 

The wooden house is 8 feet 6 inches square, and 7 feet high ; it is entirely 
open at the top, except that portion divided off for a photographic room, 

1860. c 



xxxiv REPORT — 1860. 

The open roof will be covered by canvas when the observatory is not in use ; 
and when in use, the canvas will be drawn back, so as to form an outer casing 
at some little distance from the wall of the photographic room ; and, in order 
to keep this room as cool as possible, the canvas will, in case of need, be kept 
wetted. 

The chemicals and chemical apparatus will be packed in duplicate sets, so 
as to provide as far as possible against the contingency of loss, by breakage 
or otherwise, of a part of them. 

Mr. Downes, of the firm of Cundall and Downes of Bond Street, has 
promised to accompany the expedition ; Mr. Beckley will also go ; and Mr. 
De la Rue has engaged Mr. Reynolds to assist in the erection of the observa- 
tory in Spain, and in the subsequent photographic operations. 

The Admiralty, on the representation of the Astronomer Royal, have pro- 
vided a steam-ship to convey this and other astronomical expeditions to Bil- 
bao and Santander. It is proposed that the Kew party should land at Bilbao 
and proceed to Miranda. Mr. Vignoles, who is constructing the Tudela and 
Bilbao railway, has kindly promised his aid and that of his staff of assist- 
ants, to promote the objects of the expedition, and promises, on behalf of the 
contractors, the use of horses and carts for the conveyance of the apparatus. 
The expedition will sail from Portsmouth on the 7th of July; and, should the 
weather prove favourable, there is reasonable hope that the various phases 
of the eclipse will be successfully photographed. Whether the light of the 
corona and red prominences will be sufficiently bright to impress their images, 
when magnified to four inches in diameter, is a problem to be solved only by 
direct experiment. 

Professor William Thomson (of Glasgow) having expressed a desire that 
the practical utility of his self-recording electrometer should be tried at Kew, 
his wish has been acceded to and the instrument received, and it is expected 
that it will shortly be in operation under his direction. 

A Report has been completed by the Superintendent on the results of the 
Magnetic Survey of Scotland and the adjacent islands in the years 1857 and 
1858, undertaken by the late Mr. Welsh. This Report is printed in the 
Transactions of the British Association for 1859. 

The following correspondence has taken place between General Sabine 
and the Rev. William Scott, Director of the Sydney Observatory : — 

" Observatory, Sydney, March 2, 18G0. 

" Sir, — The great interest which you take in the promotion of Magnetical 
Science encourages me to address you on the subject of the establishment of 
a Magnetical Observatory at Sydney. The report which I send you by this 
mail will explain to you the character and position of the Astronomical Ob- 
servatory under my direction. 

" I am convinced that an application to our Government, from influential 
persons at home, for the establishment of magnetical observations on not 
too expensive a scale, would be readily attended to. I am not practically 
acquainted with any magnetical observatory, with the exception of that at 
Greenwich, and am ignorant of the cost of a set of instruments, and the 
exact amount of space required for working them ; but I believe we could 
find sufficient room in the observatory without any additional building; they 
would be under my own supervision, and all that would be required would 
be an additional assistant, to share with myself and my one assistant in 
observing and computing. The Governor-General, Sir W. Denison, would, 
though powerless as regards public money, exert his influence in favour of 
such an object. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXV 

" Trusting that you will take the matter into consideration, and excuse the 
liberty I have taken in addressing you, 

" I am, Sir, 
" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " W. Scott, 

" Astronomer for N. S. Wales." 
" Major- General Sabine." 

" 13 Ashley Place, London, May 8, 1860. 

" Sir, — I lose no time in replying to your letter of March 2, received this 
day. The self-recording magnetical instruments at Kew have been in action 
nearly two and a half years — a sufficient time to test their merits or defects. 
I have myself completed the analysis and reduction of the first two years (1858 
and 1859) of the Observations of the Declinometer, and can therefore speak, of 
my own knowledge of their performance, as far as that element is concerned. 
The Photographic Traces, recording both the zero line and the actual move- 
ments of the magnet, can be measured with tolerable confidence to the third 
place of decimals of an inch, the inch in the Kew instrument being equiva- 
lent to 22 minutes of arc. The reading is consequently made to the 1000th 
part of 22 minutes of declination. The record is of course continuous ; but, 
for the purpose of computing the results, hourly readings have been tabulated. 
In the first year the trace failed in 107 out of 8760 hours, chiefly from 
failure in the supply of gas, which is brought by pipes from Richmond, a 
considerable distance off. This inconvenience has been remedied by the 
construction at the Observatory itself, at a small expense, of a water regu- 
lator, through which the supply from Richmond passes, and there is now no 
reason why the trace should ever fail. I have now in course of analysis and 
reduction the same years of the observations of the horizontal and vertical 
force magnetographs, and have no reason hitherto to believe that the record 
of those two elements will be inferior to that of the declination. The three 
instruments, with the clock which keeps the registering papers in revolution, 
together with reading telescopes placed for eye observation, either to accom- 
pany or to be independent of self-registry, occupy an interior space of about 
16 feet by 12, including a passage round for the observer. The cost of such 
a set of instruments, complete in every respect, is £250 ; and four months 
must be allowed for making them from the date of the order, as well as an 
additional month for their careful verification at Kew (should that be de- 
sired), where a detached building has been erected for this particular pur- 
pose, in which they may be kept in work in comparison with the Kew instru- 
ments. A detailed description of these instruments is now in the press, and 
will be published in June in the volume of Reports of the British Association. 
The results of the first two years of the Declinometer observations, showing 
what are deemed at present to be the most useful modes of eliciting the re- 
sults, will be printed in the • Proceedings of the Royal Society' in the present 
summer, and the first two years of the horizontal and vertical force magneto- 
graphs in the same publication later in the year. A small adjoining room is 
requisite, opening if possible into the instrument-room, which should contain 
suitable troughs for the preparation of the paper to receive the traces, and 
to fix them. It is important to diminish as much as possible the changes of 
temperature in the Observatory itself, exclusive of the effect of the instrument 
cases, which have adaptations for that purpose. So far in regard to differential 
instruments. For absolute determinations and secular changes a small de- 
tached house is required, say 12 feet by 8, in which equality of temperature 
need not be regarded, but which must be at a sufficient distance from other 

c2 



xxsvi Report — 1860. 

buildings containing iron, and have copper fittings. The instruments required 
for these purposes are an inclinometer and a unifilar, the latter having pro- 
vision for the experiments of deflection and vibration, as well as lor the abso- 
lute declination : the cost of the first is £30, and of the second £15 ; both may 
be verified, if desired, at Kew. The little work which is sent to you by the 
same post as this letter contains a full description of these instruments, and 
directions for their use. In addition to the charges named above, making iu 
all £325, the cost of packing, freight, and insurance will have to be taken 
into the account. 

" One assistant will suifice, as you suggest, for keeping the magnetometers 
in action, and for tabulation. The absolute values, and the calculation of the 
results of all the instruments, would be, I presume, the work of the Director 
of the Observatory himself. Provision must also be made for a supply of 
chemicals, stationery, and gas. Should it be thought desirable that the instru- 
ments should be prepared and verified under the superintendence of the Com- 
mittee of the Kew Observatory, a request to that effect, transmitted by your- 
self through the Governor of the Colony to the Chairman of the Committee 
of the Kew Observatory, Richmond Park, London, S.W., would, I am sure, 
meet immediate attention. That such an institution at the head-quarters of 
our Australian dominions would be as honourable to those who should be 
instrumental in its establishment as it would be beneficial to magnetical 
science, must be a matter of general recognition, and it would, I am per- 
suaded, find a warm supporter in your present most excellent Governor. 

" I remain, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " Edward Sabine." 

" The Rev. W. Scott." 

From the following correspondence which has taken place between Her 
Majesty's Government and the President of the Royal Society, it will be 
seen that the establishment of a Magnetical Observatory at Vancouver 
Island is postponed, in consequence of the war with China precluding the 
establishment at present of a corresponding observatory at Pekin : — 

" Treasury Chambers, 16th May, 18G0. 

" Sir, — I am directed by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's 
Treasury to acquaint you that My Lords have had under their further con- 
sideration the establishment of an Observatory at Vancouver Island, and 
the insertion in the Estimates of this year of a vote for that service. 

" My Lords are fully sensible of the importance of obtaining a series of 
accurate Magnetical Observations at the stations recommended by the Council 
of the British Association, and it would give them great pleasure to assist 
without further delay in forwarding objects so interesting for the cause of 
science. 

" The numerous and pressing claims, however, on the public finances in 
the present year make it imperative upon My Lords to submit no fresh esti- 
mate to Parliament which is not of a very urgent character, and where the 
total limit of expense to be incurred has not been accurately ascertained. 

" In the present instance My Lords must observe that you appear to be 
under some misapprehension iu supposing that any engagement was entered 
into by the late Government to establish a Magnetic Observatory at Pekin or 
elsewhere. On the contrary, the letter of this Board of 6th December, 1858, 
to Lord YVrottesley states that, ' whatever may be the public advantages to 
be derived from the proposed new establishments, the object Mould not, 



KErORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXYU 

it appears, be sacrificed by postponement, and, looking to tne extent of 
the other claims upon the public finances already existing, My Lords 
have thought it right to defer the consideration of the question until next 
year.' 

" The letter then further states, that the three Magnetical Observatories 
at the Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, and Toronto, which were originally 
sanctioned in an estimate of about £3000 for three years, had in fact cost 
£11,000 for that period, and, in all, had put the country to an expense of 
nearly £50,000. This consideration alone suffices to show the necessity for 
very careful investigation by the Government before any step is taken which 
might commit the country to further expense. The circumstances referred 
to in the letter in question continue in full force; and an important further 
argument against undertaking the proposed Observatory at Vancouver 
Island at the present moment is furnished by the political events which have 
since occurred in China. In General Sabine's able letter of the 1st January, 
1859, it is stated that, ' without entering into the comparative scientific value 
of Vancouver Island and Pekin as magnetic stations, — both being highly 
important, — this much is certain, that, whatever might be the value of either, 
that value would be greatly enhanced — far more than doubled — by there 
being a simultaneous and continuous record at both stations; and Sir John 
Herschel remarks that the importance of a five years' series of observations 
at one of the proposed stations without the others would be grievously dimi- 
nished, and the general scope of the project defeated.' 

"As the present state of things in China precludes the establishment of a 
Magnetic Observatory at Pekin, or any point in the Chinese Empire suffi- 
ciently to the north to correspond with a station at Vancouver Island 
(though there is reason to hope that this state of things may be of short 
duration), it would appear desirable even in the interests of science to postpone 
the consideration until something more certain can be ascertained as to the 
possibility of meeting what Sir John Herschel and General Sabine consider 
such an essential requisite, viz. the commencement and continuance of simul- 
taneous observations at Vancouver Island and at a point in China nearly in the 
same parallel of latitude. The interval which must elapse until the political 
state of affairs in China may render such an establishment possible may be 
usefully employed in obtaining the most accurate estimate possible of the 
actual cost of founding and maintaining each station for the period requisite 
for the complete attainment of the scientific objects in view, so as to enable 
Her Majesty's Government, when the proper time shall arrive, if they shall 
decide on doing so, to submit a vote to Parliament with confidence as to the 
amount of expense which they may ask the nation to defray in the interests 
of science. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " Geo. A. Hamilton." 

" The President of the Royal Society." 

" May 23rd, 18G0. 
" My dear Sir, — In Mr. Hamilton's letter (returned herewith) he has 
referred to Sir Charles Trevelyan's communication to Lord Wrottesley of the 
6th December, 1858, expressing the desire of the Lords Commissioners of 
the Treasury to postpone to the following year the consideration of the esta- 
blishment of the Colonial Magnetic Observatories which had been recom- 
mended by the Royal Society and the British Association for the Advance- 



XXXV111 REPORT — 1860. 

ment of Science ; but Mr. Hamilton has omitted altogether to refer to the 
interview which took place between the President of the British Association 
and Sir Charles Trevelyan subsequent to that communication, viz. on the 
18th of December, 1858, when Sir Charles Trevelyan stated that ' if a single 
station for magnetical and meteorological observations were applied for [in- 
timating Pekin as its locality] by the Joint Committee of the Royal Society 
and the British Association, My Lords would be disposed to comply with 
such application.' (See Report of the Council of the British Association, 
September 1859.) 

"Political events which became known shortly after that interview made 
it manifestly unadvisable to apply for a station in China ; but the scientific 
importance of procuring systematic magnetical researches at other stations 
which had been named in the original application from two Societies, in parts 
of the globe which were conveniently accessible and under British dominion, 
remained as before. In these respects Vancouver Island was unobjectionable, 
and was therefore substituted for 'a station in China' in the application, 
which, consistently with Sir Charles Trevelyan's communication of the 18th 
December, 1858, was made by the Joint Committee of the two Societies. The 
confident expectations thus founded being known in the United States by 
the publications of the Reports of the Joint Committee of the Royal Society 
and British Association, the Government of the United States authorized the 
establishment of Magnetical Observatories at a station on the east side of the 
United States, and at another on the south coast, both designed to cooperate 
with the British Observatory to be established on Vancouver Island ; the three 
stations being obviously remarkably well selected for systematic researches 
over that large portion of the globe. The two observatories of the United 
States' Government have been established, and commenced their work at 
the beginning of the present year. 

" In reference to the aggregate amount of expenditure incurred by the 
magnetical researches recommended to Government by the Royal Society 
and British Association in the last twenty years, it may be remarked that, the 
researches being altogether of a novel character, the continuance of the 
Observatories, when first asked for in 1839, was for a very limited period. 
It was, in fact, an experiment, and their longer continuance would not have 
been recommended had not the experiment proved eminently successful, and 
such as to justify the prosecution of the researches. The subject was there- 
fore brought afresh under the consideration of Government in 1845 and again 
in 1849, and the further expenditure to be incurred received the sanction of 
the Treasury on both occasions, as have also, on other occasions, the magnetie 
surveys connected with the Observatories. It is possible that the aggregate 
amount of expenditure thus sanctioned and incurred may not be overstated 
at £50,000. It is an average amount not exceeding £2500 a year for this 
great branch of physical science. 

" I am not myself the proper authority to say whether the gain to science, 
and to the estimation in scientific respects in which this country is held by 
other nations, be, or be not, an equivalent for this expenditure; but I may be 
permitted to refer to the opinion expressed by the Joint Committee of the 
two Societies, consisting, as is well known, of persons holding high places in 
public estimation for their general knowledge and good judgment, as well 
as possessing the highest scientific eminence: — ' Your Committee, looking at 
this long catalogue of distinct and positive conclusions already obtained, feel 
themselves fully borne out in considering that the operation, in a scientific 
point of view, has proved, so far, eminently remunerative and successful, and 
that its results have fully equalled in importance and value, as real accessions 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXIX 

to our knowledge, any anticipations which could reasonably have been formed 
at the commencement of the inquiry.' 

" Believe me, my dear Sir, 
" Faithfully yours, 
(Signed) " Edward Sabine." 

" Sir B. C. Brodie, Bart, P.R.S" 

Mr. Hamilton to the President of the Royal Society, in reply to his letter of 

Ind June {not given here). 

" Treasury Chambers, June 14, 1860. 
" Sir, — In reply to your letter of the 2nd inst., with its enclosure from 
General Sabine relative to the establishment of Colonial Magnetic Observa- 
tories, I am directed by the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury 
to state that, without entering into the question what verbal assurances may 
have been given in December 1858 by the then Assistant Secretary, Sir Charles 
Trevelyan, of which no record was made, their Lordships observe that the 
main ground of their letter of the 16th May, 1860, remains unaffected, viz. 
that, in the opinion of the highest scientific authorities, whatever might be 
the value of observations at Vancouver Island, that value would be greatly 
increased by simultaneous observations at some station in the North of China, 
and, on the other hand, would be ' grievously diminished ' if no station in 
China was established. Under these circumstances, their Lordships thought 
it desirable to postpone for a short time the consideration of the question, in 
the hope that it might be considered under a different state of things in China, 
rendering possible the attainment of the greatest amount of scientific advan- 
tage from the expenditure of public money, in case that expenditure should 
be decided upon. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " G. A. Hamilton." 

General Sabine has written the following letter to Dr. Bache, who had 
intimated to him that, in the event of Her Majesty's Government declining to 
establish a magnetical observatory at Vancouver Island, it was the wish of 
the United States' Government to establish one in Washington Territory, in 
the vicinity of Vancouver Island: — 

" May 22, 1860. 

" Dear Bache, — I waited to reply to yours of April 13th until we should 
have received the reply of our Government regarding the Vancouver Island 
Observatory. Mr. Gladstone has availed himself of some expressions in 
Sir John Herschel's letters and mine (to the effect of the far greater import- 
ance of having observations on the Chinese as well as on the American side 
of the Pacific to having either separately) to postpone a decision regarding 
Vancouver Island until our relations with China shall enable our Govern- 
ment to consider the question of establishing both simultaneously. Our pro- 
position, therefore, has fallen to the ground, and it is quite open to your 
Government to occupy the field which you were willing to concede to us in 
consideration of the forward part which our Government has hitherto taken 
in magnetic researches. 

"Now in regard to the instruments, which, as you are probably aware, 
have been prepared at my own risk, in order that, should our Government 
accede to the recommendation made by the Royal Society and British Asso- 



xl REPORT 1860. 

ciation, the time might be saved which must otherwise have been lost in their 
preparation. They have been made on the model of those which have been 
in use at the Kcw Observatory since January 18.58. An account of these is in 
the press, and will be published in the volume of Reports of the British Asso- 
ciation for 18.59-1860, which must be in circulation next month. I have 
thoroughly examined and computed the declination results for 1858 and 1859, 
by means of tabulated hourly values, and am now engaged in the same cal- 
culation of the Bifilar and Vertical Force Magnetometers. The Declination 
Report will be presented to the Royal Society, and printed in the ' Proceed- 
ings ' in the course of the summer, as well as the results of the Force Mag- 
netometers for the same two years, as soon as I am able to draw up the report 
in due form and order. But I am able to say, regarding all the three elements, 
that the instruments are eminently successful. Independent of the continuity 
of the record (which is of course a great thing in itself), the hourly tabula- 
tions are far more consistent and satisfactory than were the eye-observations 
at any of our observatories. 

" In preparing a second set of instruments, therefore (which we have done 
for the proposed Netherlands Observatory in Java), we have had very few 
improvements to introduce, except the addition of reading-telescopes for each 
instrument — so that we may always retain the power of eye-observation, 
either in addition to or substitution for photographic records. Dr. Bergsma, 
the Director of the Java Observatory, is now at Kew, observing with his in- 
struments, in comparison with those in our own Observatory (as Ave have a 
separate building for the instruments on trial), and will take them away 
towards the end of June. These of course will be paid for by the Netherlands 
Government, having been ordered expressly for them. There will then be the 
third set, which have been prepared for Vancouver, and which are ready to 
succeed the Java instruments in the experimental house. A few very trifling 
improvements have been introduced in these — none worthy of being noticed 
here. They at present stand as mine, and I shall be indebted £250 for them. 
The decision of Government, as communicated to the President of the Royal 
Society, makes no reference to my responsibility on their account. I am, 
therefore, to say the least, quite free to dispose of them as I may please. 
Now I am not rich enough to offer them as a loan to your ' Washington 
Territory' Observatory ; but if you desire to have differential determinations 
there in addition to absolute determinations, I am persuaded that you could 
not have better instruments than these would be; and I consider myself as 
quite free to offer you the refusal of them, asking only in return that you 
will give me as early a reply as may be convenient, because I have some 
reason to expect that I may receive an application from the Sydney Obser- 
vatory to obtain a duplicate of the Kew instruments; in which case, if you 
had not claimed them in the meantime, I should direct these to be sent to 
Sydney. " Sincerely yours, 

(Signed) " Edward Sabine." 

" Dr. Bache, F.R.S., Director of the 

Coast Survey of the United States." 

The reply to this letter has not yet been received; but in the meantime 
the following application has come for a set of magnetical instruments for 
absolute determinations from Dr. Smalhvood, Professor of Meteorology at 
M c Gill College in Montreal, Canada:— 

" St. Martin, Isle Jesus, May 2], 1800. 

" Sir, — I duly received yours of the 16th of July last, in reference to the 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xli 

establishment of a Magnetic Observatory here, in connexion with observa- 
tions on meteorology and atmospheric electricity, and deferred writing until 
I was in a position to acquire the instruments necessary. 

" You said in your communication that '£80 or thereabouts was required;' 
and you were kind enough to add, with a spirit of generosity I could not 
expect, 'that every care should be taken to superintend the construction of 
such instruments, to verify them, and to determine their constants, and have 
them carefully packed and sent out.' 

" The object of the present letter is to ascertain, 1st, the exact cost (if pos- 
sible); 2nd, to whom the amount shall be forwarded; 3rd, when the instru- 
ments would probably be ready ; 4th, a short list of what are to be sent. 

" I feel that I am asking too much from you ; but a knowledge of your 
devotion to a science which you have so much extended, makes me feel less 
diffident, and I have thrown myself upon your kindness. 

" I have also to acknowledge the receipt of a Book of Instructions, &c, 
with thanks. 

" So soon as I get a reply from you, I will at once transmit the amount 
with the order, and submit a plan of the building. 

" Believe me to remain, with great consideration and respect, 

" Yours faithfully, 
(Signed) " C. Smallwood." 

" General Sabine, London." 

Instruments to meet this request are in preparation. 

The Committee have thought that it might not prove uninteresting to the 
members of the British Association, if, in this Report, a short description 
were given of the Kew Observatory, and of the nature and amount of work 
which is accomplished therein. 

The Observatory is situated in the middle of the old Deer-park, Richmond, 
Surrey, and is about three-quarters of a mile from the Richmond Railway 
Station. Its longitude is 0° 18' 47" W., and its latitude is 51° 28' 6" N. It 
is built north and south. The repose produced by its complete isolation is 
eminently favourable to scientific research. In one of the lower rooms a set 
of self-recording magnetographs, described in the Report of the last meeting 
of this Association, is constantly at work. These instruments, by the aid of 
photography, furnish a continuous record of the changes which take place in 
the three magnetic elements, viz. the declination, the horizontal force, and the 
vertical force. The light used is that of gas, in order to obtain which, pipes 
have been carried across the Park to the Observatory, at an expense of ^€250, 
which sum was generously defrayed by a grant from the Royal Society. 

Attached to this room is another, of a smaller size, in which the necessary 
photographic operations connected with magnetography are conducted. 

In the story above the basement, the room by which the visitor enters the 
Observatory is filled with apparatus. Much of this is the property of the 
Royal Society, and some of the instruments possess a historical value ; for 
instance, the air-pump used by Boyle; and the convertible pendulum designed 
by Captain Kater, and employed by him, and subsequently by General Sabine, 
in determining the length of the pendulum vibrating seconds. 

An inner room, which opens from this one, is used as a library and sitting- 
room, and in it the calculations connected with the work of the Observatory 
are performed. In this room dipping-needles and magnets, which it is neces- 
sary to preserve from rust, are stored. Here also the MS. of the British 
Association Catalogue of Stars is preserved. 

A room to the east of this contains the standard barometers, and the appa- 



xlii REPORT — 1860. 

ratus (described by Mr. Welsh in the ' Transactions' of the Royal Society, 
vol. 146. p. 507) for verifying and comparing marine barometers with the 
standard. This room has also accommodation for the marine barometers 
sent for verification. In the middle of the room is a solid block of masonry, 
extending through the floor to the ground below. To this an astronomical 
quadrant was formerly attached ; it is now used as a support for the standard 
barometers. This room contains also a Photographic Barograph invented 
by Mr. Francis Ronalds, which, though not at present in operation, may 
serve as a model for any one who wishes to have an instrument of this 
description. It is described by Mr. Ronalds in the Report of the British 
Association for 1851. 

In a room to the west of the Library, thermometers for the Board of Trade, 
the Admiralty, and opticians, are compared with a standard thermometer by 
means of a very simple apparatus devised by the late Mr. Welsh. 

The Observatory also possesses a dividing-engine by Perreaux, by means of 
which standard thermometers are graduated. It was purchased by a grant 
from the Royal Society. 

In this room the pure water required for photographic processes is obtained 
by distillation; and here also a small transit telescope is placed for ascertain- 
ing time. The transit instrument is erected in a line between two meridian 
marks — one to the north and the other to the south of the Observatory ; so 
that, by means of suitable openings, either of these marks may be viewed by 
the telescope. 

In a higher story is the workshop, containing, among other things, a slide- 
lathe by Whitworth, and a planing machine by Armstead, both of which were 
presented to the Kew Observatory by tiie Royal Society. 

In the dome is placed the Photoheliograph for obtaining pictures of the 
sun's disk ; attached to the dome there is a small chamber in which the 
photographic processes connected with the photoheliograph are conducted. 
This chambe ns supplied with water by means of a force-pump. A self- 
recording Robinson s anemometer j.«also attached to the dome. 

In addition to the rooms now specified, there are the private apartments 
attached to the Observatory. 

On the north side of the Observatory there is an apparatus similar to that 
used at the Toronto Observatory for containing the wet- and dry-bulb, the 
maximum and the minimum thermometers. 

The model magnetic house, elsewhere alluded to in this Report, stands at a 
distance of about 60 yards from the Observatory ; and the small wooden 
house in which the absolute magnetic observations are made, at a distance 
of about 110 yards. These houses are within a wooden paling, which fences 
them off from the remainder of the Park, and encloses about one acre of 
ground attached to the Observatory. 

The work done may now be briefly specified. In the first place, the self- 
recording magnetographs, as already mentioned, are kept in constant opera- 
tion, and record the changes continually occurring in the magnetic elements. 

The photographs are sent to General Sabine's establishment at Woolwich, 
to undergo the processes of measurement and tabulation. 

In the model magnetic house there is at present a set of magnetographs 
which Dr. Bergsma will take to Java. When this set is removed another will 
supply its place, in readiness for any other Observatory, colonial or foreign, 
at which it may be required. 

In the house for absolute determinations, monthly values of the declination, 
dip, and horizontal magnetic force are taken, and magnetic instruments for 
foreign or colonial observatories have their constants determined. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. 



xliii 



^ © 
o5 © 






>-<■<»< CM CM O t>. P-" i—l C5 

CO 



o 


N 


lO 




© 


CO 


C5 


© 
CXI 


1— 1 



© 
© 



<* 



© © 
m r-i 



<73 
H 



bo 

s 

s 



■e 

cd 

3 
er 1 



t. © 
j= © 



I - » 

a o 

••SCO 

3 2 <o. 

=8 «» S' 



© 
© 



to 
a 



© 
© 



CO 



: to 
: 5 
•'3 

. a 



© 
© 



!>• CM 



:m 



: S 



fco 
c 

-3 



OJ 



per 

03 



oj : M : 

2 ' a © 

J3 o o 

%3 © jTco 

_cc 5 rt 

«T' —t cd - 

• — * — — 

cu cd 3 <u 

- P..s>-^ . 6h 



© 
© 
© 



! CM 



© © 
© © 

r-l i— » 
© © 



*# 



: a 



: to 

: _g 
: -3 

3 



CU CI 

"ci . P •""• . 

V » ^ 

p lO O CO 

-""* - 

x -•3,2 ' 

•g CO ^3 00 



? =0 



^JOO 



pq 



cq 



o 



3 *"§ 

"o S -^ 
o =* o 

M sea 

<«•*» - 

2 cu t~ 
'E Oh « 

<u J- s 
*s cd o 

«Q-S ■ 

S - <« a 
, - 0) C/3 W 

S to .TJ 

■IS C fco c 

no c a 

cd 3 *-» 



cj 

DO 

cj c 

— CU 

T3 P, 

3 X 

cd CU 

£ p. 

s ^ -a 

<» S 3 

x bj - 

la to o 

<u ~ o ■ ^* 



.9 bo's 

M '3 

2 CU O 

a g 

n ca ° 
« £ c 

,? 3 2 

ho cj 

H £ «-C 

J3 O 



V 



>B 



J3 O 

° 3-tS 
" <« S 



0<C 



.3. C3 



2" 2 j ? s hs ^ - 

< ,5 On U K ft, W 



^ -h ^- r 

Of** 

P cO 



o 



fc- > ca »i 



JS 3 
-"" Ph*^ 
S? e 

C3 h U 

•3 to 3 

— cS 

o pa 



w 



3 
C3 

— 
3 



3 

-a 

pq 



C3 

3 
<3 

-a 

3 
C3 



3 

CU 

p. 



S5 

o 

H 
H 
D 



^ 


X 


e 










O CO 






O 


o 






e 










1— 1 








A>. 


m 






m 










1— t 








^-< 


r-4 








ts 


© 


© 


cc 




V 

3 


o 


V5 

3j 


: 


o 










«o 


r— 1 


cr 


© 




CU 

— 

x 


p 


O 
■— 

to 


-y5 

CJ 
'0 


■w 

3 

CU 










«« 


© 


CN 


OJ 




a> 


c 





a 


a 










CN 


t= 


c<- 




cu 




m 


C3 


>* 




















3 




3 


> 


cd 










1 










*- 
>» 


S3 
DO 

3 


bo 


U 

CJ 
EB 


P< 

4d 




H 

PL, 




a 

- 


I 


a! 

H 
o 

O 






V 


C3 

CU 

13 

O 


O 

A 

3 

CU 

TS 


ca 
3 

"a 


O 

's 


— • 
a 

P. 2 

J3 

3 3- 
.3 cd 

Li 


3 


C 


e 

E- 


1 

o 

3 

.2 


D 

-»- 

c 
i- 

g 

•f 


i 


Q 

a 

£ 

c 

i 

j 


■s 

•3 
o 

, <" 


o 
a 
% 

a 

to 

3 


CU 
3 

cd 

CU 


o 
o 

CJ 

o 

3 
fcp 


al Society 
Magnetog 




c 

c 
c 

e 

g 


e 
> a 

* 

3 = 


ca 

S 

> <U 


pq -< 

-_■ 0. 

a = 

o <: 
.*- .*- 


C 

c 


1 

ct 


Cd 

, o 

! « 

i • 

' "S 

! ♦* 

5 a 


CJ 
CJ 
U 
CU 

EM 

o 


'53 

o 

CJ 

N 

O 
+a 


'33 

M 

o 

be 


PS ^J 

<U CU 

— ,3 

a 




c 


5 > 


. i- 








u 


< o 








o 




,f- 


. <*. 


< o 








c 


> '-< 








■4 




a 




i 








<i 


i <<-l 








-■*-. 




c 


: .- 
























c 


: 5 


i 






















c 


1 1 


i 
> 























tt C£ 



r-l 













l. 






9 






ft 






3 













CJ 






T3 






3 






cd 






■♦a 






3 






3 


CU 




O 


CJ 







3 











cd 


3. 




CU 


> 













^ 


C5 


•% 


— 1 


O 




3 


Ct) 


CU 


cd 


r— < 


J3 






-*^ 


tc 


cu 


-rr 


3 




3 


r3 


s 


3 


7: 


•g 


a) 


— 
tn 


CO 








CJ 


W 




> 






s 






J 


3 




1— * 


3 

O 

ex 





xliv REPORT 1860. 

In the meteorological department, all the barometers, thermometers, and 
hydrometers required by the Board of Trade and the Admiralty have their 
corrections determined; besides which, similar instruments are verified for 
opticians. Standard thermometers also are graduated, and daily meteoro- 
logical observations are made, an abstract of which is published in the 
' Illustrated London News.' 

Instruction is also given in the use of instruments to officers in the army 
or navy, or other scientific men who obtain permission from the Committee. 

All this amount of work, it is believed, can be executed by the present 
staff, consisting of the superintendi nt, three assistants (magnetical, mecha- 
nical, and meteorological), and a boy; but the expense attending it is greater 
than the present income of the Observatory, furnished by the British Asso- 
ciation, will support. 

In the resolution of the British Association of the 14th September, 1859, 
it was recommended to Government, at the instance of the joint committee of 
the Royal Society and British Association, that the sum of £350 per annum 
should be placed at the disposal of the general superintendent of the mag- 
netical observations ; this sum was intended to have defrayed the expenses 
attending the magnetical department of the Observatory and the observa- 
tions of the sun's spots. It will be seen, however, from the correspondence 
contained in an earlier part of this Report, that this source of income is not 
yet available. 

John P. Gassiot, 
June 18, 1860. Chairman. 



Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Oxford in June 1860. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows: — 
No subject of sufficient importance to require any especial notice has occu- 
pied their attention during the past year, nor indeed was there any matter 
referred to them at the last Meeting of the Association. 

There are now either two or three vacancies in that portion of the Com- 
mittee which represents the House of Commons, according as it shall be de- 
termined whether the vacancy caused in that Section by Lord de Grey's 
taking his seat in the House of Lords is or is not to be filled up, 

Wrottesley, Chairman. 
May 28, 1860. 



recommendation's of the general committee. xlv 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Oxford Meeting in June and July 18G0. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first nam 3d is regarded as the Secretary of 
the Csmmittee, except there be a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of £500 be appropriated to the maintenance of the Esta- 
bli>hment in Kew Observatory, under the direction of the Council. 

That a sum not exceeding £90 be granted for one year for the payment 
of an additional Photographer for carrying on the Photo-heliographic Ob- 
servations at Kew. 

That a sum not exceeding £30 be placed at the disposal of Mr. Broun, 
Dr. Lloyd, and Mr. Stone, for the construction of an Induction Dip Circle, 
in connexion with the Observatory at Kew. 

That a sum not exceeding £10 be placed at the disposal of Professor 
Tyndall and Mr. Ball, for providing Instruments for making Observations in 
the Alps, and for printing the formulae for the use of travellers. 

That the Balloon Ascent Committee, consisting of Prof. Walker, Prof. 
W. Thomson, Sir D. Brewster, Dr. Sharpey, Dr. Lloyd, Col. Sykes, General 
Sabine, and Prof. J. Forbes, be reappointed, with the addition of Mr. Broun ; 
and that the sum of £200 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Matthiesaen be requested to prosecute his Experiments on the 
Chemical Nature of Alloys ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at his dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Prof. Sullivan be requested to continue his Experiments on the Solu- 
bility of Salts at Temperatures above 100° Cent., and on the mutual Action 
of Salts in Solution ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at his disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Prof. Voelcker be requested to continue his investigation on Field 
Experiments and Laboratory Researches on the Constituents of Manures 
essential to Cultivated Crops; and that the sum of £25 be placed at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Alphonse Gages be requested to continue his Experiments on the 
Mechanico-Chemical Analysis of Minerals ; and that the sum of £20 be 
placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Mallet be requested to carry on his Experiments on Earthquake 
Waves ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That additional excavations be made at Dura Den by the Committee, now 
consisting of Dr. Anderson, Prof. Ramsay, Prof. Nicol, and Mr. Page; that 
Mr. J. B. Jukes be added to the Committee ; and that the sum of £20 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyu Jeffreys, Dr. Lukis, Mr. Spence Bate, Mr. A. Hancock, 
and Dr. Verloren be a Committee for the purpose of Reporting on the best 
mode of preventing the ravages of the different kinds of Teredo and other 
Animals in our Ships and Harbours; that Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys be the 
Secretary ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Sclater, Dr. A. Gunlher, and Mr. II. T. Tomes be a Committee 
for the purpose of preparing and printing a Report on the Present State of 
our Knowledge of the Terrestrial Vertebrata of the West India Islands; 
that Mr. Sclater be the Secretary; and that the sum of £10 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert MacAndrew and the following gentlemen be a Com- 



xlvi REPORT — 1860. 

mittee for General Dredging purposes: — Mr. R. MacAndrew, Chairman; 
Mr. G. C. Hyndman, Dr. Edwards, Dr. Dickie, Mr. C. L. Stewart, Dr. Colling- 
wood, Dr. Kinahan, Mr. J. S. Worthey, Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. E. Perceval 
Wright, Mr. Lucas Barrett, and Professor J. R. Greene. That Mr. Robert 
MacAndrew be the Secretary ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Ogilvie, Dr. Dickie, Dr. Dyce, Prof. Nicol, and Mr. C. W. Peacli 
be a Committee for the purpose of Dredging the North and East Coasts 
of Scotland. That Dr. Ogilvie be the Secretary ; and that the sum of £25 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the surviving members of the Committee appointed in the year 1842, 
viz. Mr. C. Darwin, Rev. Professor Henslow, Rev. L. Jenyns, Mr. W. Ogilby, 
Professor Phillips, Sir John Richardson, Mr. J. O.Westwood, Professor Owen, 
Mr. W. E. Shuckard, and Mr. G. R. Waterhouse, for the purpose of pre- 
paring Rules for the establishment of a Uniform Zoological Nomenclature, be 
reappointed, with the addition of Sir William Jardine, Bart., and Mr. P. L. 
Sclater. That Sir W. Jardine be the Secretary ; and that the sum of £10 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose of revising and reprinting the Rules. 

That Mr. Sclater and Dr. F. Hochstetter be a Committee for the purpose 
of drawing up a Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Species 
of Apteryx living in New Zealand. That Mr. Sclater be the Secretary ; and 
that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Collingwood be requested to dredge in the Estuaries of tne 
Mersey and Dee ; and that the sum of £5 be placed at his disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S., and Mr. Milner be a Committee for the 
purpose of prosecuting inquiries as to the effect of Prison Dirt and Discipline 
upon the Bodily Functions of Prisoners. That Dr. Edward Smith be the 
Secretary ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. T. Wright, Mr. J. B. Davis, and Mr. A. G. Hindlay be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of exploring entirely the piece of ground at Uriconium 
in which the human remains have been found, in order to examine more 
fully the circumstances connected with the discovery, and to obtain the 
similar Skulls which may still remain under ground. That Mr. T. Wright 
be the Secretary ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Professor James Thomson (of Belfast) be requested to continue his 
Experiments on the Gauging of Water ; and that the sum of £10 be placed 
at his disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Steam-ship Performance be reappointed, to report 
proceedings to the next Meeting ; that the attention of the Committee be 
also directed to the obtaining of information respecting the performance of 
vessels under Sail, with a view to comparing the results of the two powers 
of Wind and Steam, in order to their most effective and economical combi- 
nation ; and that the sum of £150 be placed at their disposal for this purpose. 
The following gentlemen were nominated to serve on the Committee : — 
Vice-Admiral Moorsom ; The Marquis of Stafford, M.P. ; The Earl of Caith- 
ness; The Lord Dufferin; Mr. William Fairbairn, F.R.S. ; Mr.J. Scott Russell, 
F.R.S. ; Admiral Paris, C.B. ; The Hon. Captain Egerton, R.N. ; Mr. William 
Smith, C.E.; Mr. J. E. M e Connell, C.E.; Prof. Rankine, LL.D. ; Mr.J. R. 
Napier, C.E. ; Mr. R.Roberts, C.E.; Mr. Henry Wright, Honorary Secretary; 
with power to add to their number. 

That Prof. Phillips be requested to complete and print, before the Man- 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xlvii 

chestcr Meeting, a Classified Index to the Transactions of the Association 
from 1831 to 1860 inclusive; that he be authorized to employ, during this 
period, an Assistant; and that the sum of £100 be placed at his disposal for 
the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches. 

That Mr. H. J. S. Smith be requested to continue his Report on the 
Theory of Numbers. 

That Mr. Cayley be requested to draw up a Report on certain Problems 
in Higher Dynamics. 

That Mr. B. Stewart be requested to draw up a Report on Prevost's 
Theory of Exchanges, and its recent extensions. 

That Prof. Stokes be requested to draw up a Report on the Present State 
and Recent Progress of Physical Optics. 

That Dr. Dickie be requested to draw up a Report on the Flora of Ulster, 
for the next Meeting of the Association. 

That Dr. Carpenter be requested to draw up a Report on the Minute 
Structure of Shells. 

That Dr. Michael Foster be requested to report upon the Present State 
of our Knowledge in reference to Muscular Irritability. 

That Mr. James Oldham be requested to continue his Report on Steam 
Navigation in the Port of Hull. 

That the Lord Rosse, Dr. Robinson, Professor Phillips, and Mr. W. R. Birt 
be a Committee for the purpose of making observations on the Moon's sur- 
face and comparing it with that of the Earth. That Professor Phillips be the 
Secretary. 

That the Rev. Professor Price, Dr. Whewell, Sir J. Lubbock, Admiral 
FitzRoy, Sir W. S. Harris, and Rev. Professor Haughton be a Committee foi 
the purpose of reporting to the next Meeting of the British Association, on 
the Expediency and best means of making Tidal Observations, with a view 
to the completion of Dr. Whewell's Essays in prosecution of a full Tidal 
Exposition. 

That, as it would be highly desirable that the observations on the Magnetic 
Lines in India should be continued, His Highness The Rajah of Travancore 
be requested to complete the Survey already commenced by him, through 
his Astronomer. 

That it is desirable that a Committee be appointed to consider the best 
mode of effecting the registration and publication of the numerical facts of 
Chemistry. That the Committee consist of Dr. Frankland, Dr. W. A. Miller, 
Prof. W. H. Miller, Prof. Brodie, Prof. Williamson, and Dr. Lyon Playfair. 

That the Lords of the Admiralty be moved to authorize some small vessel 
stationed on the South-East Coast of America to take a convenient oppor- 
tunity of collecting specimens of the large Vertebrate Fossils from certain 
localities easy of access between the River Plata and the Straits of 
Magellan. 

That Sir W. Jardine, Bart., Prof. Owen, Prof. Faraday, and Mr. Andrew 
Murray be a Committee for the purpose of procuring information as to the 
best means of conveying Electrical Fishes alive to Europe. That Sir W. 
Jardine be the Secretary. 

That Mr. William Fairbairn. Mr. J. F. Bateman, and Prof. Thomson be a 
Committee for the purpose of reporting on Experiments to be made at the 
Manchester Waterworks on the Gauging of Water ; with power to add to 
their number. 



xlviii report — 1860. 

That the Committee to report on the Rise and Progress of Steam Naviga- 
tion in the Port of London be reappointed, and that the following gentlemen 
be requested to serve on it: — Mr. William Smith, C.E. ; Sir John Rennie, 
F.It.S.; Captain Sir Edward Belcher ; Mr. George Rennie, F.R.S. ; Mr. Henry 
Wright, Secretary ; with power to add to their number. 

Involving Applications to Government or Public Institutions. 

That the Parliamentary Committee, now consisting of the Duke of Argyll 
Duke of Devonshire, Earl de Grey, Lord Enniskillen, Lord Harrowby. 
Lord Rosse, Lord Stanley, Lord Wrottesley, Bishop of Oxford, Sir Philip 
Egerton, Sir John Packington, be requested to recommend two members of 
the House of Commons to fill the two vacancies. 

That Sir Roderick I. Murchison, as Trustee of the Association, and Mr. 
Nassau W. Senior, as President of the Section of Economic Science and Sta- 
tistics, be a Delegacy for the purpose of attending the International Sta- 
tistical Congress in London on July 16. 

That the Committee on Steam-ship Performance be requested to commu- 
nicate with the Parliamentary Committee, for the purpose of obtaining their 
assistance in accomplishing the objects for which the Committee on Steam- 
ships was appointed. 

Communications to be printed entire among the Reports. 

That the Communications by the Rev. W. V. Harcourt, on the results of 
Experiments at the Low Moor Iron Works, be printed entire among the 
Reports of the Association. 

That Mr. William Fairbairn's Paper, on Experiments to determine the 
effect of vibratory action and long-con linued changes of load upon Wrought- 
iron Girders, be printed entire in the Reports of the Association. 

That Admiral Moorsom's Paper, on the Performance of Steam Vessels, 
be printed entire among the Reports. 

That Mr. Elder's Paper, on a cylindrical spiral boiler, with comparative 
evaporating power and temperatures of furnaces, Hues and chimneys of 
various boilers, be printed entire in the Transactions of the Sections, with 
the necessary diagrams. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Oxford Meeting in June and July 1860, 
with the name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a Com- 
mittee's entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory. £ s d 

kew Observatory Establishment 500 

Mathematical and Physical Science, 

Photo-heliographic Observations at Kew 90 

Tvndall and Ball. — Alpine Ascents 10 

Carried forward , t 600 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xl\X 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 600 

Balloon Committee 200 

Broun and Committee.— Dip-circle 30 

Chemical Science, including Mineralogy. 

Matthiessent, Dr. — Chemical Alloys 20 

Sullivan, Professor.— Solubility of Sato 20 

Voelckek, Professor. — Constituents of Manures 25 

Gages, Alphon.se. — Chemistry of Rocks and Minerals .... 20 

Geology. 

Mallet, Robert Earthquake Observations 25 

Committee. — Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Zoology and Botany. 

Jeffreys, J. G., and Committee. — Ravages of Teredo and 

other Animals 10 

Sclater, P. L., and Committee. — Report on Terrestrial Verte- 

brata of West Indies 10 

MacAndrew, R., and Committee. — For General Dredging . . 25 

Ogilvie, Dr., and Committee. — Dredging the North and East 

Coasts of Scotland 25 

Jardine, Sir W., Bart., and Committee. — Revising and Re- 
printing Rules of Zoological Nomenclature 10 

Sclater, P. L. — Investigation of Apteryx 50 

Collingwood, Dr. — Dredging in Mersey and Dee 5 

Physiology. 

Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S., and Mr. Milner.— Effect of 
Prison Diet and Discipline upon the bodily functions of 
Prisoners 20 

Geography and Ethnology. 
Committee for exploring Uriconium 20 

\^ Mechanical Science. 

Thomson, Professor J. — Gauging of Water 10 

Committee on Steam-Ship Performance 150 



Classified Index to the Transactions. 

Professor Phillips (to employ an Assistant) 100 

Total.. .. 561395 



1860. 



REPORT — 1860. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 



£"167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 

Chemical Constants 24 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 



1 





13 


6 








12 











5 


3 








4 


6 








18 


6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides.., 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Subterranean Temperature 8 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 

Thermometers 16 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 

Mechanism of Waves 144 

Bristol Tides 35 



£ s. d. 



£"918 14 6 



























1 


10 


12 


10 














6 


6 








3 





8 


7 


6 











9 


5 


4 






Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R. A. S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



£956 12 2 







10 





2 





IS 


c 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


s 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 














7 











13 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



±"1546 16 4 



30 



8 











7 























12 


8 








18 


G 









GENERAL STATEMENT. 



li 



£ s. d. 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 G 

Stars (Catalogue of ) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs C2 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannia; 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

ForceofWind 10 " 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 1 II 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 



s. 


a. 














6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 




1 


4 
8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 













5 


8 




















14 


10 









10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 

d2 



lii 



REPORT — 18G0. 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1S42 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1S42 S 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1S42 10 

£»S1 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 1C 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edi nbu rgh 18 

Reduction of Anemomelrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Baromctrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1813 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1S43 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

£830 



s. 


d. 














17 


6 








11 


10 














10 


















3 



7 


3 
































3 


6 



12 8 



14 G 
18 11 

16 8 

11 9 



17 8 

15 








2 











U 8 

' 9 9 



1846. 

British Association Catalogue of 
Stars 1844 211 



£ s. d. 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1S39 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials CO 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York ~ 1_2 

£085 16 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



1848. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 



15 


11 


10 


G 


IS 
























I 



1S49. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



mi 



£ s. d. 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches ou Annelida .jj 10 

~£39 1 i> f 

1S52. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£.104 6 7 

1S53. ~ ~™ "" 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 0. 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£>05 

1S54. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 
balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

~£.j.S(> 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 II 

Map of the World 15 

Ethuological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£4S0 10 4 



£ h d. 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1S54 £ 75 01 

1855 £500 0J 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 



575 









13 


9 



























£7;s4 13 9 



1857. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 

















































8 





7 


4 









£507 15 4 



1S58. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 



























5 





13 


2 





















£'i!8 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusida? 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam Vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

cflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 



£684 





































































11 


1 


11 


1 



liv 



REPORT — 1860. 



1860. £ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 



£ s. d. 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

ofManures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts.., , 1 13 6 

£1241 7 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, June 27, at 4 p.m., in the Sheldonian Theatre, His Royal 
Highness, the Prince Consort, resigned the office of President to The Lord 
Wrottesley, F.R.S., who took the Chair and delivered an Address, for which 
see page lv. 

On Thursday Evening, June 28, at 8| p.m., a Conversazione took place in 
the University Museum. 

On Friday Afternoon, June 29, at 4 p.m., in the Sheldonian Theatre, the 
Rev. Professor Walker, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on the Physical Con- 
stitution of the Sun. 

On Friday Evening, the University Museum was opened for a Soiree with 
Experiments. 

On Monday Afternoon, July 2, at 2 p.m., in the Sheldonian Theatre, 
Captain Sherard Osborn, R.N., delivered a Discourse on Arctic Discovery. 

On Monday Evening, at 8^ p.m., a Conversazione took place in the 
University Museum. 

On Tuesday Evening, July 3, at 8£ p.m., the University Museum was 
opened for a Soiree with Microscopes. 

On Wednesday, July 4, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting took 
place in the Sheldonian Theatre, when the Proceedings of the General Com- 
mittee, and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to 
the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Manchester*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 4th of September, 1861. 



ADDRESS 



BY 



THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD WROTTESLEY. 



Gentlemen, — If, on taking this Chair for the first time as your President, 
I do not enlarge upon my deficiencies for adequately filling the responsible 
office to which you have done me the honour to elect me, I hope you will 
believe that I am not the less sensible of them. 

Your last Meeting was held under the Presidency of one not more distin- 
guished by his high rank and exalted station than by his many excellent 
qualities, and the discriminating interest which he has ever manifested in the 
promotion of Art and Science. It was one of the most successful Meetings on 
record. 

We are now once more assembled in this ancient and venerable seat of 
learning ; and the first topic of interest which presents itself to me, who owe 
to Oxford what academic training I have received, is the contrast presented 
by the state of Science and the teaching of Science in this University in the 
Autumn of the year 1814, when my residence here commenced, and for five 
years afterwards, with its present condition. As the private pupil of the late 
Dr. Kidd, and within a few yards of the spot from which I have now the honour 
to inaugurate the Meeting of this distinguished Association, I first imbibed 
that love of Science from which some of the purest pleasures of my life have 
been derived ; and I cannot mention the name of my former Tutor without 
acknowledging the deep debt of gratitude I owe to the memory of that able, 
conscientious and single-hearted man. 

It was at this period that a small knot of Geologists, headed by Broderip, 
Buckland, the two Conybeares and Kidd, had begun to stimulate the curiosity 
of the Students and resident Graduates by Lectures and Geological excur- 
sions in the neighbourhood of this town. The lively illustrations of Buck- 
land, combined with genuine talent, by degrees attracted crowds to his 
teaching, and the foundations of that interesting science, already advancing 
under the illustrious Cuvier in France, anddestinedsoon to spread over Europe, 
were at this time fairly laid in England within these classical Halls. Many 
a time in those days have my studies been agreeably interrupted by the 



lvi REPORT— 1860. 

cheerful laugh which invariably accompanied the quaint and witty terms in 
which Buckland usually announced to his brother Geologist some new dis- 
covery, or illustrated the facts and principles of his favourite science. At 
the time, however, to which I refer, the study of physical science was chiefly 
confined to a somewhat scanty attendance on the Chemical Lectures of Dr. 
Kidd, and on those on Experimental Philosophy by Rigaud ; and in pure 
mathematics the fluxional notation still kept its ground. In the year 1818 
Vince's Astronomy, and in the following year theDifferential Notation, was first 
introduced in the mathematical examinations for honours. At that time 
that fine foundation the Radcliffe Observatory was wholly inactive ; the 
observer was in declining health, and the establishment was neither useful to 
astronomical students, nor did it contribute in any way to the advancement 
of Astronomical Science. Even from the commencement of the present 
century, and in proportion as the standard of acquirement in classical learning 
was gradually raised by the emulation excited by the examinations for 
honours, the attendance on the above-mentioned Lectures gradually declined : 
but a similar cause enhanced the acquirements of students in pure and 
applied Mathematics, and the University began to number among its 
Graduates and Professors men of great eminence in those departments of 
knowledge. Nor were the other sciences neglected ; and as Chairs became 
vacant or new Professorships were established, men of European reputation 
were appointed to fill them. In proof of all this I need only direct atten- 
tion to the names on the roll of Secretaries, Vice-Presidents and Presidents 
of Sections, to convince you that Oxford now contains among her resident 
Graduates, men amply qualified to establish and advance the scientific fame 
of that University, of which they are the distinguished ornaments. 

On the progress of Astronomy I will, as becomes me, enter into more 
detail. And it is not without pain that I allude to this subject, because I am 
reminded that one has been removed from among us by the hand of death, 
whom I had looked forward to meeting again on this occasion with peculiar 
pleasure. I never knew anyone who had the interests of science more truly 
at heart, or laboured more diligently to advance them, than the late Radcliffe 
Observer, Mr. Manuel Johnson. . By his exertions and indefatigable zeal 
the Radcliffe Observatory was enabled to take its proper place among the 
Scientific Institutions of the world. By the liberality of the Trustees and 
by the exertion of his influence, new instruments were purchased, and an 
extensive series of valuable astronomical observations was made; and, what 
is quite as important, they were regularly reduced and published. In addi- 
tion to all this, a noble array of self-recording meteorological instruments was 
brought into action, and their records duly reduced and co-ordinated. I was 
myself a candidate in 18:iy for that office to which Mr. Johnson was then 
appointed, and I have often rejoiced that I was not successful, as it would 
have retarded for a time the promotion of one, to whom Astronomy owes a 
deep debt of gratitude. Mr. Johnson was suddenly taken from us at a time 



ADDRESS. Ivii 

when he was in the full career of his useful labours, and there are few 
labourers in science whose loss has been more deplored. The University has 
very lately lost another learned Professor, and myself another valued friend, 
whose contributions to science are well known and duly esteemed. The 
great tragic Poet of Greece introduces his hero accusing his heathen gods 
of rescuing from the grave the vile and worthless, and sending thither the 
good and useful : — 

rd dk Siicaia. /cat rd \pi]ard 

arrooreWovoiv act. 

Our purer faith in meek resignation trusts that they are removed from evil 
to come, and that there at least they rest from their labours — rest from 
earthly toil and trouble, but awake, may be, to higher aims and aspirations, 
and with nobler faculties and duties. 

Although a successor may be appointed to Mr. Johnson, who will, I doubt 
not, admirably discharge the duties of Radcliffe Observer, I fear that the 
Observatory may not continue to maintain its high reputation, unless a suffi- 
cient staff of Assistants be appointed to aid the Observer in his labours. 
There is no mistake more fatal in Astronomy than that of multiplying in- 
strumental means without providing an adequate supply of hands to employ 
them. 

I have already alluded to some particulars in which this great University 
has advanced in the career of scientific improvement, but everything else has 
been somewhat thrown into the shade by the important event of this year, 
the opening of the new Museum. The University could have given no more 
substantial proof of a sincere interest in the diffusion of science than the 
foundation of this noble Institution, and I am sure that among the distin- 
guished cultivators of science here assembled, there is not one who does not 
entertain a hearty desire for the success of the various efforts now in progress 
for the purpose of stimulating our University Students to a closer contempla- 
tion and more diligent study of the glorious works of Nature; a study, which, 
if prosecuted earnestly, raises us in the scale of human beings and improves 
every moral and intellectual faculty. Towards the attainment of a result so 
much to be desired the Museum will most powerfully contribute, and those 
who frequent it will owe deep obligations to Mr. Hope and the other bene- 
factors who have generously added to its stores. But there are other causes 
in operation which tend to the same end; and among them, in addition to 
such improvements as arise out of the changes consequent on the recent 
Act of Parliament, may be mentioned the alteration in the distribution of 
University Honours. 

The institution of the School of Physical Science forms a most important 
feature in the recent changes, and will doubtless be productive of good results, 
provided that sufficient encouragement by way of reward be held out to 
those whose tastes lead them to devote themselves to those departments of 
knowledge, and that the compulsory arrangements in respct of other studies 



lviii report — 1860. 

allow sufficient time to the student to accomplish his object. The great 
majority of physical students must necessarily belong to that class who have 
their subsistence to earn ; and however earnest may be their zeal for mental 
improvement, there will be few candidates for the honours of the Physical 
School unless due encouragement be given to excellence in that department. 
It was therefore with sincere pleasure that I learnt that three Fellowships 
had been founded at Magdalen College as prizes for proficiency in Natural 
Science ; and that at the same College, and at Christ Church and Queen's, 
Scholarships and Exhibitions had been provided for students who evince 
during their examinations the greatest aptitude for such studies. Moreover, 
the acquisition of a RadclifFe travelling Fellowship has been made to depend 
upon obtaining distinction in the School of Natural Science. In addition to 
all this, that beneficent and enlightened lady, Miss Burdett Coutts, has founded 
two Scholarships with the view of extending among the Clergy educated at 
the University a knowledge of Geology. Great hopes are justly excited in 
the minds of all well-wishers to the University by these events, and by reflec- 
tion on the great change of opinion which must have taken place since the 
period when Dr. Kidd, with the aid of Dr. Daubeny, Mr. Greswell and others, 
in vain attempted to raise a small sum by private subscription for building a 
modest receptacle for the various collections of Natural History. How little 
could these public-spirited individuals have foreseen, that within a few short 
years a sum approaching to £100,000 would be appropriated to the building 
and furnishing that splendid monument of Oxford's good will to science, the 
New Museum ! 

It would not be right, however, if, while speaking in just and sincere terms 
of praise of all that excites my admiration in the late proceedings at Oxford, 
I were to withhold the honest expression of my opinion on points on which 
I feel compelled to differ from the course pursued. I will therefore refer to 
two measures, one of which especially I cannot but regard as a mistake. 
The first is the repeal of the statute which enforced attendance on two courses 
of Professorial lectures ; a requirement, which may have had no small influ- 
ence in creating a taste for natural science among that large class of students, 
whose only object it is to obtain, in a creditable manner if possible, but at all 
events to obtain, the distinction of an Academical degree. At the same time 
I cannot but be sensible that the amount of instruction imparted in this way, 
even if the attendance were much more than nominal, must necessarily have 
been small, not from any want of competency in the teachers, but from the 
inherent defect of the system of lectures unaccompanied by examinations; 
and on this account I the less regret the change. 

The second, and more serious mistake, in my humble opinion, is the re- 
jection by the Congregation in 1857 of the proposal of the Hebdomadal 
Council, that the Undergraduate, after passing his first two classical exami- 
nations, should be permitted to select his own line of study, and submit 
himself at his option to a final examination in any one of the four Schools, 



ADDRESS. lix 

that is, the Classical, the Mathematical, History and Law, or Natural Science. 
The Hebdomadal Council were I think right in believing that such mental 
discipline as classical study can impart — and far be it from me to undervalue 
it in the least — would be sufficiently secured by the classical requirements of 
the two first examinations ; and that the study of Mathematics and the Natural 
Sciences, besides imparting much valuable information, which might be exten- 
sively utilized in after-life, might equally be viewed as an important means 
of improving the intellectual faculties. There is another consideration which 
must not be lost sight of in deciding on the policy of the course then pursued. 
I think that it cannot in fairness be expected that a young man of the average 
abilities of those who contend for honours, and who is called upon to pass 
two classical examinations, and prepare for a third, before he is allowed to 
follow the bent of his genius and apply himself to his favourite study, can 
find time to attain a sufficient proficiency in it to pass a really creditable 
examination; accordingly the necessary result will be that the Examiners will 
be obliged to lower the standard of honour, the rather that most of the students 
now come to the University without having acquiredeventheelements of scien- 
tific knowledge, and thus the first class may almost cease to be a distinction 
worth attainment. 

I cannot take leave of recent University changes without adverting to that 
great, that noble step, the institution of the Middle Class Examinations, 
whereby Oxford has furnished substantial aid to those more humble aspirants 
to knowledge, by whom a University education, however much desired, is 
quite unattainable. Whether this movement be viewed in its moral effect, as 
showing a kindly sympathy of the higher intellectual class with the struggling 
but deserving children of a lower sphere, or as the best expedient for bringing 
about a complete reform in our educational establishments, and therefore a 
great engine for advancing popular education — whether this grand and 
liberal step be viewed in one or both these aspects, it has given the most 
unmixed and heartfelt satisfaction to all who have the moral and mental 
improvement of the nation sincerely at heart ; and greatly do I rejoice that 
such a satisfactory proof should have been given of a desire to make Uni- 
versity Institutions a general national blessing. 

Oxford, then, has shown herself fully equal to her glorious mission, and it 
was only a fitting sequel to such enlightened conduct, that she should be 
entrusted with the grateful task of educating the Heir apparent to the Throne 
of the most popular Sovereign who ever swayed the sceptre of this vast 
Empire. 

I shall perhaps be forgiven if my former connexion with Oxford, and the 
interest which I must ever take in everything appertaining to my own Uni- 
versity, have induced me to dwell somewhat at length on the above matters. 
It is now time that I should direct my attention to the general domain of 
science ; but more particularly to that department to which my own labours, 
humble though they be, have been more especially devoted, — I mean the 



IX REPORT — 1860. 

science of Astronomy, a science, which, whether we consider the surpassing 
interest of the subjects with which it is conversant, or the lofty nature of the 
speculations to which its inquiries lead, must ever occupy a most distinguished, 
if not the first place among all others. 

In a discourse addressed in May 18.59 to the Imperial Academy of 
Sciences of Vienna, by the distinguished Astronomer Littrow, a very full ac- 
count is given of the voluntary contributions of the private observers of 
all nations to the extension of the science of Astronomy ; and this discourse 
concludes with a remarkable sentence, of which our English Amateurs may 
well be proud : he expresses a hope that on the next occasion in which he 
shall be called upon to dilate on the same theme, he shall not as then have 
to inpntion English names in such preponderating numbers. 

At the beginning of the year 1820, when the Astronomical Society was 
founded, the private Observatories in this country were very few in number. 
The establishment of that Society gave a most remarkable stimulus to the 
cultivation of the science which it was intended to promote. 1 can give no 
better proof of this than the fact that the Nautical Almanac now contains a 
list of no less than twelve private Observatories in the United Kingdom, at 
nearly all of which some good work has been done; and in addition to this, 
some Observatories, which have been since discontinued, have performed most 
important services — I may instance that of the two Herschels at Slough, and 
that of Admiral Smyth at Bedford. 

It may not be uninteresting if I describe the nature and utility of some 
of the results which these several establishments have furnished to the world : 
I say the world advisedly, for scientific facts are the common inheritance of 
all mankind. 

But first a word as to the peculiar province of the observatories which are 
properly called " public," such as the far-famed Institution at Greenwich. 
Their task is now more peculiarly to establish with the last degree of accu- 
racy the places of the principal heavenly bodies of our own system, and of 
the brighter or fundamental fixed stars, which are about 100 in number. 
But in the early stages of Astronomy, we were necessarily indebted to public 
Observatories for all the data of the science. On the other hand, their vo- 
luntary rivals occupy that portion of the great astronomical field which is 
untitled by the professional observer; roving over it according to their own 
free will and pleasure, and cultivating with industrious hand such plants as 
the more continuous and severe labours of the public Astronomer leave no 
time or opportunity to bring to maturity. 

The observations of our private observers have been chiefly devoted to 
seven important objects: — 

First. The observing and mapping of the smaller stars, under which term 
1 include all those which do not form the peculiar province of the public 
observer. 

Secondly. The observations of the positions and distances of double stars. 



ADDRESS. xi 



Thirdly. Observations, delineations, and Catalogues of the Nebulae. 

Fourthly. Observations of the minor planets. 

Fifthly. Cometary observations. 

Sixthly. Observations of the solar spots, and other phenomena on the 
Sun's disc. 

Seventhly. Occultations of stars by the Moon, eclipses of the heavenly 
bodies, and other occasional extra-meridional observations. 

And first as to cataloguing and mapping the smaller stars. This means, 
as you know, the accurate determination by astronomical observation of the 
places of those objects, as referred to certain assumed fixed points in the 
heavens. The first Star Catalogue worthy to be so called, is that which goes 
by the name of Flamsteed's, or the British Catalogue. It contains above 
3000 stars, and is the produce of the labours of the first Astronomer Royal 
of Greenwich, labours prosecuted under circumstances of great difficulty, 
and the results of which were not given to the world in a complete form till 
many years had elapsed from the time the observations were made, which 
was during the latter half of the seventeenth century. About the middle 
of the eighteenth century, the celebrated Dr. Bradley, who also filled the post 
of Astronomer Royal, observed an almost equally extensive Catalogue 
of Stars, and the beginning of the nineteenth century gave birth to that of 
Piazzi of Palermo. These three are the most celebrated of what mav be 
now termed the ancient Catalogues. About the year 1830 the attention of 
modern astronomers was more particularly directed to the expediency of re- 
observing the stars in these three Catalogues, a task which was much faci- 
litated by the publication of a very valuable work of the Astronomical 
Society, which rendered the calculations of the observations to be made com- 
paratively easy, and accordingly observations were commenced and com- 
pleted in several public and private Observatories, from which some curious 
results were deduced, as e.g., sundry stars were found to be missing, and 
others to have what is called proper motion. And now a word as to the 
utility of this course of observation. It is well observed by Sir John 
Herschel, " that the stars are the landmarks of the Universe; every well-deter- 
mined star is a point of departure which can never deceive the astronomer, 
geographer, navigator, or surveyor." We must have these fixed points in 
order to refer to them all the observations of the wandering heavenly bodies, 
the planets and the comets. By these fixed marks we determine the situation 
of places on the earth's surface, and of ships on the ocean. When the places of 
the stars have been registered, celestial charts are constructed ; and by com- 
paring these with the heavens, we at once discover whether any new body 
be present in the particular locality under observation : and thus have most 
of the fifty-seven small or minor planets between Mars and Jupiter been 
discovered. The observations, however, of these smaller stars, and the re- 
gistry of their places in Catalogues, and the comparisons of the results ob- 
tained at different and distant periods, have revealed another extraordinary 



Ixii REPORT — 1860. 

fact, no less than that our own Sun is not fixed in space, but that it is con- 
stantly moving forward towards a point in the constellation Hercules, at the 
rate, as it is supposed, of about 18,000 miles an hour, carrying with it the 
whole planetary and cometary system ; and if our Sun moves, probably all 
the other stars or suns move also, and the whole universe is in a perpetual 
state of motion through space. 

The second subject, to which the attention of private observers has been 
more particularly directed, is that of double or multiple stars, or those which, 
being situated very close to one another, appear single to the naked eye, but 
when viewed through powerful telescopes are seen to consist of two or more 
stars. The measuring the angles and distances from one another of the two 
or more component stars of these systems, has led to the discovery that many 
of these very close stars are in fact acting as suns to one another, and revol- 
ving round their common centre of gravity, each of them probably carrying 
with it a whole system of planets and comets, and perhaps each carried for- 
ward through space like our own sun. It became then a point of great in- 
terest to determine, whether bodies so far removed from us as these systems, 
observed Newton's law of gravity r , and to this end it was necessary to observe 
the angles and distances of a great number of these double stars scattered 
everywhere through the heavens, for the purpose of obtaining data to com- 
pute their orbits. This has been done, and chiefly by private observers; and 
the result is that these distant bodies are found to be obedient to the same 
laws that prevail in our own system. 

The Nebula? are, as it were, systems or rings of stars scattered through space 
at incredible distances from our star system, and perhaps from one another; 
and there are many of these mysterious clouds of light, and there may be 
endless invisible regions of space similarly tenanted. Now the nearest fixed 
star of our star system whose distance has been measured, is the brightest in the 
constellation Centaur, one of the Southern constellations, and this nearest is 
yet so far removed, that it takes light, travelling at the rate of about 192,000 
miles per second, three years to arrive at the earth from that star. When 
we gaze at it, therefore, we see it only as it existed three years ago ; some 
great convulsion of nature may have since destroyed it. But there are many 
bright stars in our own system, whose distance is so much greater than this, 
as a Cygni, for example, that astronomers have not succeeded in measuring it. 
What, then, must be the distance of these nebulae, with which so much space 
is filled; every component star in which may be a sun, with its own system 
of planets and comets revolving round it, each planet inhabited by myriads 
of inhabitants I What an overpowering view does this give us of the extent 
of creation ! The component stars of these nebulas are so faint and appa- 
rently so close together, that it is necessary to use telescopes of great power, 
and with apertures so large as to admit a great amount of light, for their ob- 
servation. We owe it more especially to four individuals, that telescopes 
have been constructed, at a great cost and with great mechanical skill, suf- 



ADDRESS. lxiii 

ficicntly powerful to penetrate these depths of space. Those four indivi- 
duals are the Herschefs, father and son, Lord Rosse, and Mr. Wm. Lassell. 
That praiseworthy nobleman, Lord Rosse, began his meritorious career by 
obtaining a First Class at this University, and has, as you know, spent large 
sums of money and displayed considerable mechanical genius in erecting, 
near his own Castle in Ireland, an instrument of far greater power than any 
other in the world ; and with it he has observed these nebulae, and employed 
skilful artists to delineate their forms : and he has moreover made the very 
curious discovery, that some of them are arranged in a spiral form, a fact 
which gives rise to much interesting speculation on the kind of forces by 
which their parts are held together. It were much to be wished that obser- 
vations similar to these, and with instruments of nearly the same power, 
should be made of the Southern nebulas also; that this generation might 
be able to leave to posterity a record of their present configurations. The 
distinguished Astronomer, Mr. Wm. Lassell, the discoverer of Neptune's 
satellite, has just finished at his own cost an instrument equal to the task, 
mounted equatorially ; and I am not without hope that it may, at perhaps 
no very distant period, be devoted to its accomplishment. A recent com- 
munication from him to the Astronomical Society expresses satisfaction with 
the mounting of his instrument, and after many trials its great speculum has 
at last come forth nearly perfect from his laboratory. 

I am, however, warned by the lapse of time, that it will not be possible for 
me to exhaust the whole field, the limits of which I have sketched, in which 
private enterprise has been assiduously at work to enlarge the bounds of 
astronomical knowledge. I will therefore pass at once to the two most in- 
teresting subjects which remain, the observations of Comets, and of peculiar 
appearances on the Sun's disc. 

Of all the phenomena of the heavens, there are none which excite more 
general interest than comets, those vagrant strangers, the gipsies as they 
have been termed of our solar system, which often come we know not whence, 
and at periods when we least expect them : and such is the effect produced 
by the strangeness and suddenness of their appearance, and the mysterious 
nature of some of the facts connected with them, that while in ignorant times 
they excited alarm, they now sometimes seduce men to leave other employ- 
ments and become Astronomers. Now, though the larger and brighter 
comets naturally excite most general public interest, and are really valuable 
to astronomers, as exhibiting appearances which tend to throw light on the 
internal structure of these bodies, and the nature of the forces which must 
be in operation to produce the extraordinary phenomena observed, yet some 
of the smaller telescopic comets are, perhaps, more interesting in a physical 
point of view. Thus the six periodical comets, the orbits of which have been 
determined with tolerable accuracy, and which return at stated intervals, are 
extremely useful as being likely to disclose facts, of which but for them we 
should possibly have ever remained ignorant. Thus, for example, when the 



lxiv REPORT 1860. 

comet of Encke, which performs its revolution in a period of a little more than 
three years, was observed at each return, it disclosed the important and unex- 
pected fact, that its motion was continually accelerated. At each successive 
approach to the Sun it arrives at its perihelion sooner and sooner; and there 
is no way of accounting for this so satisfactory as that of supposing that the 
space, in which the planetary and cometary motions are performed, is every- 
where pervaded by a very rarefied atmosphere or ether, so thin as to exercise 
no perceptible effect on the movements of massive solid bodies like the planets, 
but substantial enough to exert a very important influence on more attenuated 
substances moving with great velocity. The effect of the resistance of the 
ether is to retard the tangential motion, and allow the attractive force of 
gravity to draw the body nearer to the Sun, by which the dimensions of the 
orbit are continually contracted and the velocity in it augmented. The final 
result will be that after the lapse of ages this comet will fall into the Sun; 
this body, a mere hazy cloud, continually flickering as it were like a celestial 
moth round the great luminary, is at some distant period destined to be mer- 
cilessly consumed. Now the discovery of this ether is deeply interesting as 
bearing on other important physical questions, such as the undulatory theory 
of light; and the probability of the future absorption of comets by the Sun 
is important as connected with a very interesting speculation by Professor 
William Thomson, who has suggested that the heat and light of the Sun may 
be from time to time replenished by the falling in and absorption of count- 
less meteors which circulate round him; and here we have a cause revealed 
which may accelerate or produce such an event. 

In the progress of science it often happens that a particular class of obser- 
vations, all at once, and owing to some peculiar circumstance, attracts very 
general attention and becomes deeply interesting. This has been the case 
within the last few years in reference to observations of the Sun's disc, which 
were at one time made by very few individuals, and were indeed very much 
neglected both by professional and amateur Astronomers. During this sea- 
son of comparative neglect, there were not, however, wanting some enthusiastic 
individuals, who were in silence and seclusion obtaining data of great import- 
ance. 

On the 1st of September last, at ll h 18 m a.m., a distinguished Astronomer, 

Mr. Carrington, had directed his telescope to the Sun, and was engaged in 
observing his spots, when suddenly two intensely luminous bodies burst into 
view on its surface. They moved side by side through a space of about 
35,000 miles, first increasing in brightness, then fading away; in 5 minutes 
they had vanished. They did not alter the shape of a group of large black 
spots which lay directly in their paths. Momentary as this remarkable phe- 
nomenon was, it was fortunately witnessed and confirmed, as to one of the 
bright lights, by another observer, Mr. Hodgson at Highgate, who by a 
happy coincidence had also his telescope directed to the great luminary at 
the same instant. It may be, therefore, that these two gentlemen have 



ADDRESS. lxv 

actually witnessed the process of feeding the Sun, by the fall of meteoric 
matter ; but however this may be, it is a remarkable circumstance, that the 
observations at Kew show that on the very day, and at the very hour and 
minute of this unexpected and curious phenomenon, a moderate but marked 
magnetic disturbance took place; and a storm or great disturbance of the 
magnetic elements occurred four hours after midnight, extending to the 
southern hemisphere. Thus is exhibited a seeming connexion between mag- 
netic phenomena and certain actions taking place on the Sun's disc — a con- 
nexion, which the observations of Schwabe, compared with the magnetical 
records of our Colonial Observatories, had already rendered nearly certain. 
The remarkable results derived from the comparison of the magnetical 
observations of Captain Maguire on the shores of the Polar Sea, with the 
contemporaneous records of these observatories, have been described by me 
on a former occasion. The delay of the Government in re-establishing the 
Colonial Observatories has hitherto retarded that further development of the 
magnetic laws, which would doubtless have resulted from the prosecution of 
such researches. 

We may derive an important lesson from the facts above alluded to. 
Here are striking instances in which independent observations of natural 
phenomena have been strangely and quite unexpectedly connected together : 
this tends powerfully to prove, if proof were necessary, that if we are really 
ever to attain to a satisfactory knowledge of Nature's laws, it must be accom- 
plished by an assiduous watching of all her phenomena, in every department 
into which Natural Science is divided. Experience shows that such obser- 
vations, if made with all those precautions which long practice combined 
with natural acuteness teaches, often lead to discoveries, which cannot be at 
all foreseen by the observers, though many years may elapse before the 
whole harvest is reaped. 

I cannot allude to the subject of Arctic voyages without congratulating 
the Association on the safe return of Sir Leopold M'Clintock and his gallant 
band, after accomplishing safely and satisfactorily the object of their inter- 
esting mission. The great results accomplished with such small means, and 
chiefly by the display of those qualities of indomitable courage, energy and 
perseverance which never fail the British seaman in the hour of need, are the 
theme of general admiration ; but I may be permitted in passing to express 
some regret, that it was left to the devoted affection of a widowed lady, 
slightly aided by private contributions, to achieve a victory in which the 
honour of the nation was so largely involved, — the rather that the danger of 
the enterprise, — the pretext for non-interference — was much enhanced 
thereby, and the accessions to our scientific and geographical knowledge 
proportionably curtailed. 

The instances to which I have alluded are only a few of many which 
could be adduced of an insufficient appreciation of certain objects of 
scientific research. Large sums are expended on matters connected 

e 



lxvi REPORT 1860. 

with science, but this is done on no certain and uniform system ; and 
there is no proper security that those who are most competent to give good 
advice on such questions, should be the actual persons consulted. It was 
partly with the hope of remedying thpse defects and of generally improving 
the position of science in the country in its relation to the Government, that 
the Parliamentary Committee of this Association was established ; and it 
was partly with the same hope that I was induced to accept the honourable 
office of President of the Royal Society, though conscious at the time that 
there were very many far better qualified than myself to hold it. Many of 
those whom I am now addressing are aware of the steps which were adopted 
by the Parliamentary Committee, and subsequently by the Committee of 
Recommendations of this Association, for the purpose of collecting the 
opinions of the cultivators of science on the question, — Whether any measures 
could be adopted by Government or Parliament that would improve our 
position ? The question was afterwards referred to and discussed by the 
Council of the Royal Society, who, on the 15th of January, 1857, agreed 
upon twelve resolutions in reply thereto. These resolutions recommend, 
among other things, that Government grants in aid of local funds should be 
applied towards the teaching of science in schools, the formation of Provincial 
Museums and Libraries, and the delivery of lectures by competent persons, 
accompanied by examinations; and finally, that some existing scientific body, 
or some Board to be created for the purpose, should be formally recognized, 
which might advise the Government on all matters connected with science, 
and especially on the prosecution, reduction, and publication of scientific 
researches, and the amount of Parliamentary or other grants in aid thereof; 
also on the general principles to be adopted in reference to public scientific 
appointments, and on the measures necessary for the more general diffusion 
of a knowledge of physical science among the nation at large ; and which 
might also be consulted by the Government on the grants of pensions to the 
cultivators of science. ' I was requested to transmit these resolutions to Lord 
Palmerston, and also to the Parliamentary Committee of this Association. 
Since that period these resolutions have been discussed by that Committee ; 
but partly because some of its most influential members have expressed 
grave doubts as to the expediency of urging their adoption at all, and partly 
from the want of a favourable opportunity for bringing them forward, nothing 
further has as yet been done. I thought, however, that the time was arrived 
at which it was only proper that I should explain the steps which had been 
already taken, and the actual position in which the question now stands. If 
it be true, as some of our friends imagine, that the recognition of such a body 
as has been above described, however useful it might prove if the public 
were disposed to put confidence in its suggestions, would only augment that 
feeling of jealousy which is disposed to view every application for aid to 
scientific research in the light of a request for some personal boon, to be 
bestowed on some favoured individual, then indeed its institution would not 



ADDRESS. 



lxvii 



be expedient. I only wish that persons who entertain such views, would pay 
some attention to the working of the Government Grant Committee of the 
Royal Society, a body composed of forty-two persons selected from among 
the most eminent cultivators of science, and which is entrusted with the 
distribution of an annual sum of £1000, placed by Parliament at the disposal 
of the Royal Society at the suggestion of Lord John Russell, in aid of 
scientific inquiries. One of the rules of that Committee is, that no sum 
whatever shall be given to defray the merely personal expenses of the 
experimenters ; all is spent on materials and the construction or purchase of 
instruments, except in a very few and rare instances in which travelling ex- 
penses form the essential feature of the outlay. A list of the objects to which 
the grants are devoted has been published by Parliament; among them are 
interesting investigations into the laws of heat, the strength of materials used 
in building, the best form of boilers, from the bursting of which so many 
fatal accidents are continually occurring, the electric conductivity of metals, 
so important for telegraphic communication, and into many other questions, 
in the solution of which the public generally have the deepest interest. The 
cost of these researches has been defrayed by these valuable grants. They 
have provided also for the construction of better and standard meteorological 
and rnagnetical instruments, for the execution of valuable drawings of scarce 
fossils and zoological specimens collected with great labour by distinguished 
naturalists, for the reduction and publication of astronomical observations by 
some of our most highly esteemed Astronomers, and for physiological re- 
searches which have an important bearing on our knowledge of the human 
frame. Time indeed would fail me were I to attempt to describe all the good 
done and perhaps evil prevented by the distribution of these grants; and 
yet no portion of the money can be said to be really received by those to 
whom it is appropriated, inasmuch as it is all spent in the various means and 
appliances of research ; in short, to quote from a letter addressed to the 
Secretary of the Treasury, at a time when the grant was temporarily withheld, 
" by the aid of this contribution, the Government has, in fact, obtained for 
the advancement of science and the national character, tlie personal and 
gratuitous services of men of first-rate eminence, which, without this 
comparatively small assistance, would not have been so applied." I think 
that we were justified in terming this assistance small; for it is really so 
in comparison with the amount of other sums which are applied to analogous 
objects, but without that wholesome control of intelligent distributors, 
thoroughly and intimately conversant with the characters and competency of 
those who apply for the grants. The recognition of such a Board as has 
been sketched out by the Council of the Royal Society, may not lead to 
a greater expenditure of public money, indeed it is much more likely to 
curtail it ; as some who now apply for aid through the interest of persons 
having influence with those in authority, who are generally but ill-informed 
on the subject-matter of the application, would hesitate long before they 

e2 



lxviii report — 1860. 

made a similar request to those who are thoroughly conversant with it ; and it 
is on this account that comparatively few of the applications to the Govern- 
ment Grant Committee are rejected. Moreover, inasmuch as every grant 
passed by the proposed Board would afterwards receive the jealous scrutiny 
of Parliament, whose sanction must of course be obtained, I am disposed to 
think that were I to support the establishment of such a scientific Council, or 
the formal recognition by the State of some existing scientific body in that 
capacity, I should be advocating that which would prove a valuable addition 
to the Institutions of my country. 

Before I finally conclude my observations on the important question I 
have introduced to your notice, and on which perhaps I have already said 
too much at the risk of wearying you, I must guard myself against one 
misapprehension, and that is, that we are anxious to obtain a large augmenta- 
tion of the 36IOOO now voted by Parliament. This is by no means our wish ; 
that annual sum is in ordinary years sufficient, and sometimes more than 
sufficient, and there is nothing that would be more deprecated than any 
large increase ; but there is a very general feeling among those most 
competent to form an opinion on these matters, that when the well-con- 
sidered interests of science and the national good demand an extraordinary 
outlay, such as cannot be defrayed out of the proceeds of the ordinary yearly 
grant, — as, for example, for surveying and exploring expeditions, for the 
establishment and maintenance of magnetic observatories, for the purchase 
of costly astronomical instruments, for expensive astronomical excursions, 
such as that to Teneriffe, — that the expediency of the grant is more likely to 
be properly investigated and tested, if referred to those whose avocations have 
given them the requisite knowledge, than if the concession or rejection of the 
proposal be permitted to depend on such accidents, as, whether this or that 
individual apply, or this or that statesman fill the office of Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. 

I trust that I may be pardoned the long digression in which I have 
indulged, in consideration of the importance of the subject. 

Having detailed some of the valuable services of our amateur Astronomers, 
let me not be accused of being unjust to the professional contributors to the 
data of that noble science. Most valuable Star Catalogues have resulted from 
the labours of our public Observatories, and from Greenwich in particular. 
There are also two Observatories which have, as it were, a quasi public 
character, viz. the Radcliffe Observatory and that of Armagh, which have 
contributed much to this department of Astronomy. Your former President, 
the accomplished and learned Dr. Robinson of Armagh, has lately presented 
to the astronomical world a Catalogue of the places of more than 5000 stars, 
and in so doing has conferred a most important benefit on his favourite 
science. 

But it would be an unpardonable omission were I to neglect to express our 
gratitude to our great National Institution at Greenwich, for the manner in 



ADDRESS. lxix 

which it has consistently discharged the task imposed upon it by its founder 
and those who inaugurated its first proceedings. The duty assigned to it 
was " to rectify the tables of the motions of the heavens and the places of 
the fixed stars, in order to find out the so much desired longitude at sea, for 
perfecting the art of navigation ;" and gloriously has it executed its task. 
For two centuries it has been at work, endeavouring to give to the determi- 
nations of the places of the principal fixed stars and of the heavenly bodies 
of our own solar system, and more especially of the Moon, the utmost degree 
of precision ; and during the same period, the master minds of Europe have 
been engaged in perfecting the analytical theory, by which the many and 
most perplexing inequalities of the Moon's motion must be accounted for 
and represented, before Tables can be constructed giving the place of our 
satellite with that accuracy that the modern state of science demands. 

The very important task of calculating such Tables has just been finished. 
Our able and accomplished Director of the National Observatory, Mr. Airy, 
had caused all the observations of the Moon made at Greenwich, from 1750 
to 1830, to be reduced upon one uniform system, employing constants 
derived from the best modern researches ; and a distinguished Danish Pro- 
fessor, who had been for some time engaged in calculating new Tables of the 
Moon, availed himself of the data so furnished. Professor Hansen happily 
brought to his task all the accomplishments of a practised observer, and of 
one of the most able analysts of modern times, combined with the most 
determined industry and perseverance. In the completion of it he was 
liberally assisted by our Government, at a time when an unhappy war had 
deprived the Danish Government of the means of further aiding their Pro- 
fessor, and a great astronomical work had been suspended for want of £300, 
a sum which many do not hesitate to spend on the purchase of some, useless 
luxury. Professor Hansen's Tables are now finished and published. They 
agree admirably with the Greenwich Observations with which they have 
been compared, and the mode of their execution has been approved by those 
competent to express an opinion on such a subject. They have been 
rewarded also with the Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society, a distinction 
never lightly bestowed. 

In paying this tribute to the merit of Professor Hansen, I must not be 
understood as wishing to ignore, far less depreciate, that of three very emi- 
nent geometers — Plana, Lubbock, and Pontecoulant, who have devoted 
years of anxious and perhaps ill-requited labour to the investigation of the 
Lunar inequalities, but who have never yet embodied the results in the only 
form useful to Navigation, that of Tables. 

A curious controversy has lately arisen on the subject of the acceleration 
of the Moon's motion, which is now exciting great interest among mathe- 
maticians and physical astronomers. Professor Adams and M. Delaunay 
take one view of the question ; MM. Plana, Pontecoulant, and Hansen the 
other. Mr. Airy, Mr. Main the President of theAstronomical Society, and 



1XX REPORT— 1860. 

Sir John Lubbock support the conclusions at which Professor Adams has 
arrived. The question in dispute is strictly mathematical ; and it is a very 
remarkable circumstance in the history of Astronomy, that such great names 
should be ranged on opposite sides, seeing that the point involved is really 
no other than whether certain analytical operations have been conducted on 
right principles ; and it is a proof therefore, if any were wanting, of the extra- 
ordinary complexity and difficulty of these transcendental inquiries. The 
controversy is of the following nature : — The Moon's motion round the Earth, 
which would be otherwise uniform, is disturbed by the Sun's attraction ; any 
cause therefore which affects the amount of that attraction affects also the 
Moon's motion : now, as the excentricity of the Earth's orbit is gradually 
decreasing, the average distance of the Sun is slightly increasing every year, 
and his disturbing force becomes less ; hence the Moon is brought nearer the 
Earth, but at the rate of less than one inch yearly ; her gravitation towards the 
Earth is greater, and her motion is proportionably accelerated. It is on the 
secular acceleration of the Moon's mean motion, arising from this minute 
yearly approach, that the dispute has arisen; so infinitesimally small are the 
quantities within the reach of modern analysis. Mr. Adams asserts that his 
predecessors have improperly omitted the consideration of the effect produced 
by the action of that part of the Sun's disturbing force which acts in the 
direction of a tangent to the Moon's orbit, and which increases the velocity ; 
his opponents deny that it is necessary to take this into account at all. Had 
not M. Delaunay, an able French analyst, by a perfectly independent pro- 
cess, confirmed the results of Professor Adams, we should have had the 
English and Continental Astronomers waging war on an algebraical question. 
On the other hand, however, the computations of the ancient Lunar Eclipses 
support the views of the Continent ; but if Mr. Adams's mathematics are 
correct, this only shows that there must be other causes in operation as yet 
undiscovered, which influence the result; and it is not at all unlikely that 
this most curious and interesting controversy will eventually lead to some 
important discovery in Physical Astronomy. 

You are aware that at the suggestion of Sir John Herschel an instrument 
was constructed for the Kew Observatory, to which the name of Photohelio- 
graph has been given, because it is adapted solely to the purpose of obtaining 
photographic representations of the appearances on the Sun's disc. Many 
difficulties have been encountered in the use of this instrument, but by the 
zealous exertions of the late Mr. Welsh, Mr. Beckley, and Mr. De la Rue, 
they have been overcome. It is to the last-named gentleman, so distinguished 
for his successful prosecution of celestial photography, that the Royal Society 
have entrusted a grant of money to enable him to transport the Photohelio- 
graph to Spain, to observe the total eclipse of the Sun, which is now 
approaching, and great interest will attach to records of the phenomena of 
the eclipse thus obtaiued. 

In Chemistry I am informed that great activity has been displayed, espe- 



ADDRESS. lxxi 

cially in the organic department of the science. For several years past pro- 
cesses of substitution (or displacement of one element or organic group by 
another element or group more or less analogous) have been the main agents 
employed in investigation, and the results to which they have led have been 
truly wonderful ; enabling the chemist to group together separate compounds 
of comparatively simple constitution into others much more complex, and 
thus to imitate, up to a certain point, the phenomena which take place within 
the growing plant or animal. It is not indeed to be anticipated that the 
chemist should ever be able to produce by the operations of the laboratory 
the arrangement of the elements in the forms of the vegetable cell or the 
animal fibre; but he may hope to succeed in preparing some of the complex 
results of secretion or of chemical changes produced within the living 
organism, — changes, which furnish definite crystallizable compounds, such 
as the formiates and the acetates, and which he has actually obtained by 
operations independent of the plant or the animal. 

Hofmann, in pursuing the chemical investigation of the remarkable com- 
pound which he has termed Triethylphosphine, has obtained some very 
singular compound ammonias. Triethylphosphine is a body which takes fire 
spontaneously when its vapour is mixed with oxygen, at a temperature a little 
above that of the body. It may be regarded as ammonia in which an atom 
of phosphorus has taken the place of nitrogen, and in which the place of each 
of the three atoms of hydrogen in ammonia is supplied by ethyl, the peculiar 
hydrocarbon of ordinary alcohol. From this singular base Hofmann has 
succeeded in procuring other coupled bases, which though they do not cor- 
respond to any of the natural alkalies of the vegetable kingdom, such as 
morphia, quinia, or strychnia, yet throw some light upon the mode in which 
complex bodies more or less resembling them have been formed. 

The power which nitrogen possesses of forming a connecting link between 
the groups of substances of comparatively simple constitution, has been 
remarkably exemplified by the discovery of a new class of amide acids by 
Griess, in which he has pointed out a new method, which admits of very 
general application, of producing complex bodies related to the group of 
acids, in some measure analogous to the Poly-ammonias of Hofmann. 

Turning to the practical applications of Chemistry, we may refer to the 
beautiful dyes now extracted from aniline, an organic base formerly obtained 
as a chemical curiosity from the products of the distillation of coal-tar, but 
now manufactured by the hundred- weight in consequence of the extensive 
demand for the beautiful colours known as Mauve, Magenta, and Solferino, 
which are prepared by the action of oxidizing agents, such as bichromate of 
potash, corrosive sublimate, and iodide of mercury upon aniline. 

Nor has the Inorganic department of Chemistry been deprived of its due 
share of important advances. Schbnbein has continued his investigations 
upon ozone, and has added many new facts to our knowledge of this 
interesting substance; and Andrews and Tait, by their elaborate investigations, 



lxxii REPORT — 1860. 

have shown that ozone, whether admitted to be an allotropic modification of 
oxygen or not, is certainly much more dense than oxygen in its ordinary 
condition. 

In Metallurgy we may point to the investigations of Deville upon the 
platinum group of metals, which are especially worthy of remark on account 
of the practical manner in which he has turned to account the resources of 
the oxyhydrogen blowpipe, as an agent which must soon be very generally 
adopted for the finer description of metallurgic operations at high tempera- 
tures. By using lime as the material of his crucibles and as the support for 
the metals upon which he is operating, several very important practical 
advantages have been obtained. The material is sufficiently infusible to 
resist the intense heat employed ; it is a sufficiently bad conductor of heat 
to economize very perfectly the high temperature which is generated ; and 
it may be had sufficiently free from foreign admixture to prevent it from 
contaminating the metals upon which the operator is employed. 

The bearing of some recent geological discoveries on the great question 
of the high antiquity of Man was brought before your notice at your last 
Meeting at Aberdeen by Sir Charles Lyell in his opening address to the 
Geological Section. Since that time many French and English naturalists 
have visited the valley of the Sorame in Picardy, and confirmed the opinion 
originally published by M. Boucher de Perthes in 184*7, and afterwards con- 
firmed by Mr. Prestwich, Sir C. Lyell, and other geologists from personal 
examination of that region. It appears that the position of the rude flint- 
implements, which are unequivocally of human workmanship, is such, at 
Abbeville and Amiens, as to show that they are as ancient as a great mass of 
gravel which fills the lower parts of the valley between those two cities, ex- 
tending above and below them. This gravel is an ancient fluviatile alluvium 
by no means confined to the lowest depressions (where extensive and deep 
peat-mosses now exist), but is sometimes also seen covering the slopes of the 
boundary hills of chalk, at elevations of 80 or 100 feet above the level of the 
Somme. Changes therefore in the physical geography of the country, com- 
prising both the filling up with sediment and drift and the partial re-excava- 
tion of the valley, have happened since old river-beds were at some former 
period the receptacles of the worked flints. The number of these last, already 
computed at above 1400 in an area of fourteen miles in length and half a 
mile in breadth, has afforded to a succession of visitors abundant opportunities 
of verifying the true geological position of the implements. 

The old alluvium, whether at higher or lower levels, consists not only of 
the coarse gravel with worked flints above mentioned, but also of superim- 
posed beds of sand and loam, in which are many freshwater and land shells, 
for the most part entire, and of species now living in the same part of France. 
With the shells are found bones of the Mammoth and an extinct Rhinoceros, 
R. lichorhinus, an extinct species of deer, and fossil remains of the Horse, Ox, 
and other animals. These are met with in the overlying beds, and sometimes 



ADDRESS. Ixxiii 

also in the gravel where the implements occur. At Menchecourt, in the sub- 
urbs of Abbeville, a nearly entire skeleton of the Siberian Rhinoceros is said 
to have been taken out about forty years ago, a fact affording an answer to the 
question often raised, as to whether the bones of the extinct mammalia could 
have been washed out of an older alluvium into a newer one, and so rcdepo- 
sited and mingled with the relics of human workmanship. Far-fetched as was 
this hypothesis, I am informed that it would not, if granted, have seriously 
shaken the proof of the high antiquity of the human productions, for that 
proof is independent of organic evidence or fossil remains, and is based on 
physical data. As was stated to us last year by Sir C. Lyell, we should still 
have to allow time for great denudation of the chalk, and the removal from 
place to place, and the spreading out over the length and breadth of a large 
valley of heaps of chalk flints in beds from 10 to 15 feet in thickness, covered 
by loams and sands of equal thickness, these last often tranquilly deposited, 
all of which operations would require the supposition of a great lapse of time. 

That the mammalian fauna preserved under such circumstances should be 
found to diverge from the type now established in the same region, is con- 
sistent with experience ; but the fact of a foreign and extinct fauna was not 
needed to indicate the great age of the gravel containing the worked flints. 

Another independent proof of the age of the same gravel and its asso- 
ciated fossiliferous loam is derived from the large deposits of peat above 
alluded to in the valley of the Somme, which contain not only monuments 
of the Roman, but also those of an older Stone Period, usually called Celtic. 
Bones also of the Bear, of the species still inhabiting the Pyrenees, and of 
the Beaver, and many large stumps of trees, not yet well examined by bota- 
nists, are found in the same peat, the oldest portion of which belongs to 
times far beyond those of tradition; yet distinguished geologists are of opi- 
nion that the growth of all the vegetable matter, and even the original scoop- 
ing out of the hollows containing it, are events long posterior in date to the 
gravel with flint implements, nay, posterior even to the formation of the up- 
permost of the layers of loam with freshwater shells overlying the gravel. 

The exploration of caverns, both in the British Isles and other parts of 
Europe, has in the last few years been prosecuted with renewed ardour and 
success, although the theoretical explanation of many of the phenomena 
brought to light seems as yet to baffle the skill of the ablest geologists. 
Dr. Falconer has given us an account of the remains of several hundred 
Hippopotami obtained from one cavern near Palermo, in a locality where 
there is now no running water. The same palaeontologist, aided by Col. 
Wood of Glamorganshire, has recently extracted from a single cave in the 
Gower peninsula of South Wales, a vast quantity of the antlers of a reindeer 
(perhaps of two species of reindeer), both allied to the living one. These 
fossils are most of them shed horns ; and there have been already no less 
than 1100 of them dug out of the mud filling one cave. 

In the cave of Brixham in Devonshire, and in another near Palermo in 



lxxiv REPORT — 1860. 

Sicily, flint implements were observed by Dr. Falconer, associated in such a 
manner with the bones of extinct mammalia, as to lead him to infer that Man 
must have coexisted with several lost species of quadrupeds; and M.deVibraye 
has also this spring called attention to analogous conclusions at which he 
has arrived, by studying the position of a human jaw with teeth, accom- 
panied by the remains of a mammoth, under the stalagmite of the Grotto 
d'Arcis near Troyes in France. 

In the recent progress of Physiology, I am informed that the feature per- 
haps most deserving of note on this occasion is the more extended and suc- 
cessful application of Chemistry, Physics, and the other collateral sciences 
to the study of the Animal and Vegetable Economy. In proof I refer to 
the great and steady advances which have, within the last few years, been 
made in the chemical history of Nutrition, the statics and dynamics of the 
blood, the investigation of the physical phenomena of the senses, and the 
electricity of nerves and muscles. Even the velocity of the nerve-force 
itself has been submitted to measurement. Moreover, when it is now de- 
sired to apply the resources of Geometry or Analysis to the elucidation of 
the phenomena of life, or to obtain a mathematical expression of a physiolo- 
gical law, the first care of the investigator is to acquire precise experimental 
data on which to proceed, instead of setting out with vague assumptions and 
ending with a parade of misdirected skill, such as brought discredit on the 
school of the mathematical physicians of the Newtonian period. 

But I cannot take leave of this department of knowledge without likewise 
alluding to the progress made in scrutinizing the animal and vegetable 
structure by means of the microscope — more particularly the intimate or- 
ganization of the brain, spinal cord, and organs of the senses ; also to the 
extension, through means of well-directed experiment, of our knowledge of 
the functions of the nervous system, the course followed by sensorial im- 
pressions and motorial excitement in the spinal cord, and the influence 
exerted by or through the nervous centres on the movements of the heart, 
blood-vessels and viscera, and on the activity of the secreting organs; — 
subjects of inquiry, which, it may be observed, are closely related to the 
question of the organic mechanism whereby our corporeal frame is influ- 
enced by various mental conditions. 

And now, in conclusion, I may perhaps be permitted to express the hope 
that the examples I have given of some of the researches and discoveries 
which occupy the attention of the cultivators of science, may have tended to 
illustrate the sublime nature, engrossing interest and paramount utility of 
such pursuits, from which their beneficial influence in promoting the intel- 
lectual progress and the happiness and well-being of mankind may well be 
inferred. But let us assume that to any of the classical writers of antiquity, 
sacred or profane, a sudden revelation had been made of all the wonders 
involved in Creation accessible to man ; that to them had been disclosed not 
only what we now know, but what we are to know hereafter, in some future 



ABDRESS. lxXV 

age of improved knowledge ; would they not have delighted to celebrate the 
marvels of the Creator's power ? They would have described the secret 
forces by which the wandering orbs of light are retained in their destined 
paths ; the boundless extent of the celestial spaces in which worlds on 
worlds are heaped ; the wonderful mechanism by which light and heat are 
conveyed through distances which to mortal minds seem quite unfathom- 
able ; the mysterious agency of electricity, destined at one time to awaken 
men's minds to an awful sense of a present Providence, but in after-times 
to become a patient minister of man's will, and convey his thoughts with 
the speed of light across the inhabited globe ; the beauties and prodigies 
of contrivance which the animal and vegetable world display, from man- 
kind downwards to the lowest zoophyte, from the stately oak of the pri- 
meval forest to the humblest plant which the microscope unfolds to view; 
the history of every stone on the mountain brow, of every gay-coloured 
insect which nutters in the sun-beam; — all would have been described, and 
all which the discoveries of our more fortunate posterity will in due time 
disclose, and in language such as none but they could command. It is re- 
set ved for future ages to sing such a glorious hymn to the Creator's praise. 
But is there not enough now seen and heard to make indifference to the 
wonders around us a deep reproach, nay, almost a crime ? If we have neither 
leisure nor inclination to track the course of the planet and comet through 
boundless space ; to follow the wanderings of the subtle fluid in the galvanic 
coil or the nicely poised magnet ; to read the world's history written on her 
ancient rocks, the sepulchres of stony relics of ages long gone past, to analyse 
with curious eye the wonderful combinations of the primitive elements and 
the secret mysteries of form and being in animal and plant; discovering 
everywhere connecting links and startling analogies and proofs of adaptation 
of means to ends ; — all tending to charm the senses, to teach, to reclaim a 
being, who seems but a creeping worm in the presence of this great Creation 
— What, I repeat, if we will not or cannot do these things, or any of these 
things, is that any reason why these speaking marvels should be to us almost 
as though they were not ? Marvels indeed they are, but they are also myste- 
ries, the unravelling of some of which tasks to the utmost the highest order 
of human intelligence. Let us ever apply ourselves seriously to the task, 
feeling assured that the more we thus exercise, and by exercising improve 
our intellectual faculties, the more worthy shall we be, the better shall we 
be fitted to come nearer to our God. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1859-60. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., 
Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, fyc. ; J. H. Glad- 
stone, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. %c; R. P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S. fyc. ; 
and E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.B.M.S. $c. 

In presenting a continuation of the Reports on the Observation of Luminous 
Meteors, it will be seen that the work is now placed in the hands of a Com- 
mittee, and it is with sincere regret that in presenting their first report, 
they have to announce the loss of Professor Powell, who died on the 11th 
of June, 1860. The preceding twelve reports were carried on solely by 
Professor Powell, but from the further prosecution of this labour he felt 
compelled to retire some little time since on account of failing health, having 
made arrangements for the continuation of the reports. Within the past 
year there does not seem to have been any unusual exhibition of meteors, 
either in August or in November; and there is little to be added to the ob- 
servations themselves ; in one instance only was the same meteor seen by two 
different persons, viz. that observed at Wrottesley Observatory and at Baldoyle 
(county Dublin), on March 10, 1860: this meteor was remarkable for its 
form and for its variation in colour, as noticed by both observers. It is much 
to be regretted that the observations of this meteor yet collected are insuf- 
ficient to trace its path, velocity, &c. ; it is scarcely possible that so re- 
markable a meteor, visible from points so distant, can have passed unnoticed, 
and it is very desirable that if any observations may have been taken of it, 
that they should be forwarded to the Committee, for the purpose of being 
submitted to calculation. 

M. Julius Schmidt, now of the Royal Athens Observatory, in a communi- 
cation to M. W. Haidinger of Vienna, read by the latter at Vienna the 6th 
of October, 1859, before the Imperial Academy, has made some valuable 
observations upon some phenomena relative to the luminous tails of meteors, 
of which a resume is given in the Appendix. An interesting paper has 
appeared in the Philosophical Magazine, April I860, "On Luminosity of 
Meteors from Solar Reflexion," by R. P. Greg, Esq. ; a brief analysis is given 
in the Appendix. In the Journal of the Franklin Institute there is a very 
interesting account of a large meteor seen over a large extent of country by 
daylight, on November 15, 1859; an abstract of this paper also appears in the 
Appendix. 

1860. B 



REPORT 1860. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Appearance and 
Magnitude. 


Brightness 
and Colour. 


Train or Sparks. 


Velocity or 
Duration. 


1859. 


h m s 










Sept. 25 
Sept. 27 


8 p.m. 
8 15 p.m. 


Globe 


Large 


No .... 


Slow 


Globe form, twice the 


Blue and 


Leaving a streak 


Rapid. Duratio 
O'l sec. 






size of 1st mag. * 


bright. 




Sept. 27 


8 15 45 


Equal to 2nd mag. Blue 


No streak or separate 
sparks. 






star, as a spark. 




0-9 sec. 


Sept. 27 
Oct. 15 


9 25 p.m. 
6 30 p.m. 




Blue 






— 1 st mag. * 


Reddish 


A streak composed of se- 
parate star;i. 








bright. 




Oct. 21 


2 11 a.m. 


— to 2nd mag * 


=tolstmag.*, 


Leaving a small mass of 


Rapid. Duratio 








orange. 


separate stars in its 
track. 


0-1 sec. 


Oct. 21 


5 45 p.m. 








Lasting 2 or 3 seci 


Oct. 22 

Oct. 23 








7 49 15 


Thr«e times the size 
of a 1st mag. star. 


Orange, and 
three times 


No sparks 


Slpw. Duratio^ 
2 seconds. 








Planetary in ap- 


brightness 










pearance. 


of 1st mag- 
nitude star, 
increasing 
in brightness 
for two- 
thirds of its 
path, then 
suddenly 
decreasing 
to the size of 
a 2nd mag. 
star, ehang- 












ingitscolour 
to a bluish 
white ; no al- 
teration du- 
ring the lat- 
ter portion 
of its path ; 
suddenlyex- 




i 








tinguished. 



















A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



■oni near a Pegasi, passing 
through y Aquarii to about 
S Capricorni. 
ram y Aquarii to S Capricorni 

|oved downwards from below 
Aquarius. 



ored from under e Ursa; Ma 
joris, from the direction of 
y Ursa; Majoris and fading 
away 2° beyond n Ursa; Ma- 
joris, having passed within 
30' of this star, 
oving horizontally from E. 
to W. and crossing over 
| Ursa; Majoris. 



.ssed between Cassiopeia and 
the Pole Star, going towards 
N.E. Its course was a line 
from y Cephei to E group of 
Camelopardus. 



Much cloud and Highfield House, 

strong lightning 

in W. and 

W.S.W. 
Moving on a slight Ibid.. 

curve. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



E. J. Lowe 



■om the direction of Capella, 
starting at No. 36 Auriga;, 
and fading away midway be- 
tween S Ursa; Majoris and 
No. 26 in the Lynx in a space 
devoid of stars. 



The meteors to- 
night gave a 
point of diver- 
gence in Cassio- 
peia. 

Increased in brd- Ibid, 
liancy and disap- 
pearing at maxi- 
mum brightness. 
Much cloud. 
Aurora Borealis. 

Very bright for its Ibid 
size. During the 
evening Aurora 
Borealis and 
lightning. 

At Highfield House 
at the time there 
was Aurora Bo 
realis, lightning 
and snow. 

Many meteors. 
Lightning and 
snow. 

A singular meteor. Ibid. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



Diss, Norfolk 



Highfield House. 



Correspondent. 



Observer. 



E. J. Lowe 
Id 



Eeference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

H»id. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



J$2 



4 




REPORT — 1860. 




Date. 


Hour. 


Appearance and Brightness 
Magnitude. and Colour. 


Train or Sparks. 


Velocity or 
Duration. 


1859. 
Oct. 23 

Oct. 23 

Oct. 23 

Oct. 25 
Not. 2 
Not. 2 

Not. 3 

Not. 3 
Not. 13 
Nov. 13 

Nov. 13 

Nov. 15 

Nov. 20 
Dec. 5 

Dee. 5 
Dec. 5 

,- - 


h m s 
8 1 p.m. 

8 32 p.m. 

11 46 30 

2 a.m. 

Between 7 
& 8 p.m. 

12 45 a.m. 

2 3 a.m. 

2 4 a.m. 
2 50 a.m. 
2 52 a.m. 

2 40 a.m 
till 3 a.m. 

8 55 p.m. 
8 p.m. 


As a spark 


Small 


No sparks left 


Very rapid; almo 
instantaneously 

Kapid. Duratio 
0"2 see. 

Eapid. Duratio 
- 2 sec. 

Rapid. Duratio 
0-2 sec. 




Colourless . . . 
Bright blue . . . 

Blue 


No streak or train 


= 2nd mag. #, star- 
like. 


A streak left in its track. 
With a train 








= 1st mag. *, appear- 
ed as a flash. 








Colourless . . . 

Colourless . . . 

Colourless . . . 

Brilliant 
orange scar- 
let. 


Streak 




Streak 






Streak 




= y 








= in size to ty . Globe 
meteor. 


Blue, bright 


Without sparks or train 
till it burst, then broke 
into two or three small 
fragments and disap- 
peared. 


Slow. Duration 
04 sec. 


5 2 p.m. 

6 30 p.m. 
9 25 p.m. 


Twice the size of If. . . . 




Slow 


Colourless . . . 





















A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Eeference. 


from /3 Andromed® towards S. 

downwards at an angle of 

45°. 
from above i Draconis to near 

r Herculis coming from the 

direction of Polaris. 
'assed 15' E. of both i and % 

Ursa Majoris crossing over 

the star 36 in the Lynx, 

moving over 20° of space 
. perpendicularly down, 
ferpendicularly down from 

near No. 25 Canes Yenatici. 


Slight Aurora Bo- 
realis and distant 
lightning. 


Highfield House. 
Ibid 


Id 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 




Ibid 


Id 


Temperature 24° o 
at 4 feet, 18° -0 
on the grass. 

Many large me- 
teors, chiefly in 
N.E. 

Appeared, disap- 
peared, and re- 
appeared four 
times in rapid 
succession, but 
never moved its 
situation. 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Capt. A. S. II. 
Lowe. 

Id 


q N. about 20° below the Pole 
Star. 

'ell down from under Polaris 
at an angle of 80°, and fading 
away as it reached the Milky 
Way. 

rom the zenith towards 


Ibid 


Observatory, 
Beeston. 

Highfield House. 
Ibid 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 




/» Persei. 
ferpendicularly down through 




Id 


Cassiopeia. 
° above the N. horizon, seen Lichtnin" in N. at 


Ibid 


Id 


i through a cloud. 


the time. 

12 meteors. Clouds 
numerous all 
evening and 
night, and this, 
added to a full 
moon, caused 
most of the me- 
teors to be invi- 
sible. Faint Au- 
rora Borealis. 

An auroral arch at 
the time. 

Several meteors . . . 


Ibid 


Id 


'ell down in N.W. from 20° 
above the horizon, disappear- 
ing 10° above the horizon. 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


►own in N.W. across « Ursa; 
Majoris only, moving over 
5° of space. 

ell down in W. from the alti- 
tude of 43°. 

'ell perpendicularly down in 
S.W. from the altitude of 
40°, moving over 5° of 
space. 


Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 









RETORT — 1S60. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity 
or Duration. 



1859. 
Dec. 7 



Dec. 14 

1860. 
Jan. 

Jan. 24 



Jan. 24 

Feb. 24 

Mar. 2 

Mar. 10 

Mar. 14 



h ni 

7 p.m. 

9 20 p.m. 

8 10 p.m. 

9 28 p.m. 



From 9 to 

10 p.m. 
7 40 p.m. 

10 40 p.m. 



8 40 p.m. 



8 45 p.m. 



Larger than Jupiter 
star-like. 

=2nd mag. * 



Reddish 
Orange 



Long streak 
Sparks 



Very rapid. Dura i 
tion 2 sees. 

Rapid. Duratiol 
2 sees. 



Mar. 21 

Mar. 21 
April 1 

April 17 



7 15 p.m. 

7 40 p.m. 

8 10 p.m. 

Between 10 
& 11 p.m 



= 2/ in size. 



Increased rapidly un- Blue, 
til four times the 
apparent size of 
Jupiter. 



Train of separate sparks. 



Slow. Duration 

sees. 



= Venus 

=four times size of 2/. 



Bright . 



With tail . 
Long tail . 



Slow. 



= Venus. 



Six times size of Ju- 
piter. 



Venus. 



= Venus 

=2nd mag. * 



Bright as Ve- 
nus. Colour 
of Venus. 

Very bright, 
almost like 
lightning in 
appearance. 
Red in co- 
lour. 

Brighter than 
Venus. 

Brighter than 

Venus. 
Yellow 



Moderate speed, trail of 
sparks left in its track 
for 3 seconds after the 
meteor had vanished. 

Burst into fragments . . . 



Moderate speed 



Slight tail 



Slow. 

Slow. 

Slow. 



1857. 
Aug. 1611 45 p.m. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors 



1858. 
Aug. 8 



Auk. 8 



Aug 8 



8 45 p.m. 



9 15 p.m. 



9 38 p.m. 



Equal to the size of Ju- Bluish white .. 
piter, but very supe- 
rior to that planet 
in brightness. 

Very bright, and Blue 
about the size of 
Jupiter. 



Small but bright. 



Blue. 



Small, about size 
Saturn. 



of Moderately 
bright. 



It was accompanied by a 
train. 



It left a faint yellow train 
of light in its path. 



Left a train visible for 
several seconds. 

No train 



Slow, but its dura- 
tion was short, i 
it did not travel 
above 5° or 8° 

Moderate 



Very slow 



Rapid in its mo- 
tion ; visible for 
about 0'5 second] 
only. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 7 



Direction or Altitude. 



Vom 4.")° above the E. horizon, 
moved down at an angle 
of 40°. 

Vom the Dragon's Head, fell 
down at an angle of 40° to- 
wards W. 

'ell down from 12° above the 
horizon in S. by E. 

'rom the direction of Polaris, 
passing midway between 2 
and y Leonis, crossing g 
Leonis, and fading away 
near 43 Leonis. 



Snow showers . 



Gale. 



Irossed down the tail of the 

Great Bear, 
n S.W., falling towards W . 

half-way to zenith when first 

seen. 
'rom 60° altitude W. by N., 

falling down towards W. at 

an angle of 75°. 



ell clown in Leo 



n S., fell down a long distance 
towards W., and passing 
through Orion. 

n S 



'rom m Aurigse to Venus, over 
which planets it crossed, and 
then immediately vanished 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observatory, 
Beeston. 



Six meteors seen . . . 



After the fragments 
were thrown out. 
the meteor still 
moved on of the 
same size and 
brightness for a 
short distance. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



E. Porter 



E. J. Lowe 



Id. 
Id. 



1 mile W. of 

Beeston. 
1 mile N.E. of 

Beeston. 

Observatory, 
Beeston. 



Highfield House 



Similar to the last. 

Increased in size at 
last. 

Several meteors mo 
ving very rapidly. 



Observatory, 
Beeston. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Observer. 



Id 

Miss C. Drege. . . 
Mrs.E.Felkin... 

Mr. E. Porter 
(assistant obs.) 



Capt. A. S. H 
Lowe. 



Miss Lucy White 



Eeference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Hud. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Mr. E. Porterlbid. 

(assistant obs.); 
Id 'ibid. 



E. J. Lowe 



from various Observers. 

t started 10° from the zenith, 
a little west of the Milky 
Way. 

''ell down N. from about 45° 
from the horizon ; disappear- 
ed about 5° from horizon 



Started from a point 10° below 

a Aquike, taking a westerly 

course. 
Tell perpendicularly from 25° 

above a Virginis to a little 

south of that star. 



It was very light at 
the time, and the 
stars in the path 
of the meteor 
could not be seen. 



Greenwich 



Blackheath 



Henry C. Cris- 
wick. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



MS. communica' 
tion. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



8 



REPORT — 1860. 



Date. 



1858, 
Aug. 8 



Aug. 8 



Aug. 8 

1859. 
Aug. 26 



Hour. 



Appearance and Brightness 
Magnitude. ! and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Yelocity 
or Duration. 



h in 

9 44 p.m. Equal in size to a 4th Very bright.. J It left a thin train visible Slow, 
mag. * for about 1 sec. 



9 52 p.m. 



9 55 p.m. 



8 24 p.m. 



Aug. 3010 14 p.m. 



Aug. 31 



7 53 p.m. 



Rather larger than Eemarkably 
Saturn. bright. 



Size of a 3rd mag. *. . . Very bright. 
Blue. 



No train 



Very rapid 



Sis times the size of Much brighter . 



A very bright train, visible Slow, 
for 3 sees, after the 
extinction of the nu- 
cleus. 



Lyras. 

As bright as Capella 



than a. Lyriv 



Many shooting stars 



Sept. 22Bctween 

sunset and 
I 11 p.m. 
Sept. 24 Evening 
Sept. 28 10 20 p.m. Larger than Jupiter Blue None 



Many shooting stars 



Brighter than 
any star then 
visible. 



Visible for about 3 
or 4 sees. 






Oct. 22 

Oct. 23 

Oct, 27 

Oct. 29 

Nov. 7 

Not. 9 

Nov. 30 



7 38 p.m. 



8 15 p.m. 



9 9 p.m. As large as Capella. 
7 56 p.m. 1 



Very bright. 



9 33 p.m. . 



5 30 a.m. 



9 40 p.in 



About 2° long . 



As bright as 
Capella. 



No sparks were seen 



Colour of red- 
hot iron ; its 
illuminating 
power very 
great 

Faint yellow. . They left a train, similar 
to a faint streak. 



Visible for several 
sees. 



Very rapid 



Its greatest bril- 
liancy lasted for I 
30 seconds, but it j 
remained visible 
for 10 minutes. 



A CATALOGUB OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Direction or Altitude. 



ell from a little E. of the Great 
fear constellation diagonally 
towards theN.W., disappear- 
ing about 2U° above the hori- 
zon. 

rom 3o° above the due S. 
horizon ; it went by W. to 
the horizon. 



rom 40° above the E.S.E. ho- 
rizon to S.E., disappearing 
25° above the horizon. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Blackheath 



Just before disap- Ibid.. 
pearing below the 
horizon I di- 
stinctly saw it 
separate, giving 
at the same time 
a report like that 
of a distant rifle. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Henry C. Gris-'MS. communica 
wiek. lion. 



ell perpendicularly from near 

a. Ophiuchi to within 15° of 

the horizon, 
ell from 10° above v UrsaeTbis meteor paled Ibid 



Ibid.. 



Id. 



Ibid. 



Id. 



Wrottesley Ob- \V. P. Wakelin. 
servatory. 



Majoris, between n and £, to 
within a degree or two of 
12 Cainim Venaticorum. 



rom near « Cassiopeia? dia- 
gonally towards a point north 
of « Persei. 

bout Pleiades, moving W. to 
E. 



twice, and at- 
tained its maxi- 
mum brightness 
just before its 
disappearance. 



Ibid. 



Id. 



Id. 



Ballater 



J. H. Gladstone. 



orthcrn hemisphere ; it fell 
from W. to E. through 25°, 
dessending from an altitude 
of 36° to about 25°. 

. few degrees S.W. of y Pegasi. 



t descended vert ically from the 
constellation Draco to within 
10° or 15° of the horizon. 

ii X.E. from about 35° or 25° 
altitude. 

'rom midway between the con- 
stellation Lyra and Hercules, 
at an angle of 45° to S. 

'rom near /3 Pegasi, at an angle 
of 45°, to within 10° of the 
S.W. horizon. 

.bout the same altitude as the 
Pleiades, and some 8° to the 
south. 



'rom Capella to irius 



Elgin 

Fort William, 
Scotland. 



It attained itsmaxi- Wrottesley Ob- 



muni brilliancy 
immediately be 
fore it disappear 
ed. 



As it paled it got 
gradually shorter 
and wider ; it at 
last looked like a 
faint cloud. 

They were three in 
number. 



servatory. 



Ibid., 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Id 

Mrs. J. H. Glad 
stone. 



F. Morton. 



Id. 



W. P. Wakelin. 
F. Morton 



Id. 



Manchester . 



The under-gar- 
dener at Lord 
Wrottesley's, 
the times by 
F. Morton. 

G. V. Vernon. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. 



10 



REPORT 1860. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Telocity or 
Duration. 



1859. 
Dec. 3 



h m 
7 10 p.m 



Dec. 1310 35 p.m 

I860. 
Feb. 1111 20 p.m 



Its brightness was 
equal to that of a 
* of the 1st mag. 

2nd mag 



Same colour No apparent train 



as Bigel. 



White 



None 



Scarlet, pea- 
green. 



Feb. 16 



Mar. 3 



Mar. 10 



Mar. 10 



9 30 p.m 



9 20 p.m 



9 20 p.m. 



The outer portion of the About 5 or 6 sees, 
stream was composed of 
bright scarlet scintilla- 
tions. 



Very brilliant 



Very bright 
and of a red 
dish colour. 



Bright a; 

brightest 
moonlight. 
Colour di- 
stinct and 
Taried, the 
head pearly 
wliite, the 



9 32 p.m, 



The appearance gave 

the impression of 

3 feet in length. Its 

form was strictly 

defined, the front 

portion being in 

shape like the head 

of a lily, with a 

petal-shaped out- tail bright 

line. From this it 

diminished grace- 
fully to the tail, 

not in straight - 

sided lines, but in 

curves. The tail 

was the small- 
est, and apparently 

the most concrete 

portion of the 

whole. 
A bar of light in 

length equal to 

moon's diameter 

its breadth £th of 

its length. 



ruby, with 
reddish- 
brown extre 
mity,andthe 
middle por- 
tions mark 
ed by bands 
of various 
shades of 
colour. 

At first its 
colour was 
pure white 
and as bright 
as Sirius. 
In its full 
the colour 
changed to 
green, and 
afterwards to 
a deep glow- 
ing crimson. 



Very rapid 



No train of sparks 



It left behind a train 
pale yellow light. 



Lasted 5 seconds, 
slow. 



of The whole time was 



A CATALOGUE OK OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 11 



Direction or Altitude. 



[t fell from near the zenith. 

passing. through Orion's Belt. 

and disappeared when on a 

level with Rigel. 
Passing nearly horizontally 

through Ursa Major. 
Vt an elevation of about 600 

feet its direction was S.S.E. 



General remarks. 



t fell from an eleration of 60° 
and H.N.E., and disappeared 
in the N.E. at an elevation 
of about 10°. 

ihout 50° in a N.E. direction. 



he direction was that of a 
line drawn from Orion's Belt, 
through the Pleiades, and 
onward to the W. of Cassio- 
peia, disappearing in the 
N.E. portion of the hemi- 
sphere. 



After dropping per. 
pendicularly for 
a short distance 
it separated 

itself into about 
eighteen globu- 
lar masses of dif- 
ferent colours, 
some about 8 or 
10 inches hi dia- 
meter, and the 
others from 1 to 
3 inches. 



Place. 



Manchester . 



Observer. 



London . 
Sidmouth 



t was soon at an altitude of 45°, 
and darted perpendicularly 
between the Pleiades and Al- 
gol to the horizon. 



After falling about 
50°, it burst into 
a number of 
sparks, like 
rocket. 
About 30 sees, after 
the disappearance 
of the meteor 
there was a low 
rumbling thun- 
der in the N.E., 
which continued 
fully 2 mins. 



G. V. Vernon. 



Mr. \V. Grubb. 
T. H. S. Pullen. 



Reference. 



Osborne 



Coleraine. 



Baldoyle (county 
Dublin). 



J. R. Mann. 



J. P. Culverwell 
Esq. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



The stars for 15° Wrottesley Ob- J. 
on each side of! servatory. 
its path were 
paled as by the 
presence of the 
full moon. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



12 



REPORT — 1860. 



Date. 



1800. 
Mar. 10 



Mar. 15 



April 14 



April 2(3 



Hour. 



li m 

9 50 p.m 



2 a.m 



9 4 p.m. 



i 52 p.m 



Appearance and 
Magnitude.' 



It 



appeared about 
rds of the size of 



the moon. 



Very bright, at 
first purple- 
red and 
then green, 
= Venus. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Very bright . 



Equal to Al- 
debaran in 

brightness. 



At first bril- 
liant white, 
and after- 
wards pur- 
ple-red. 



Train or Sparks. 



Visible for a second 
or two. 



2 or 3 sees. 



It left a very luminous tail 
behind it. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



It was visible about 
a second. 



APPENDIX. 

No. 1. — In the Journal of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, February 
1860, is a collection of observations of a very remarkable meteor seen by 
daylight, on November 15, 1859, by Benjamin P. Marsh, Esq. 

This meteor made its appearance at about half-past 9 o'clock a.m. (New 
York time), the weather being perfectly clear, and the sun shining brightly/ 

It was seen at Salem, Boston, and New Bedford, Massachusetts ; Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island ; New Haven, and many other places in Connecticut ; 
New York City ; Paterson, Medford, and Tuckerton, New Jersey ; Dover, 
and other places in Delaware ; Washington City ; Alexandria, Fredericks- 
burg, and Petersburg, Virginia. 

It was heard at Medford, New Jersey, and at all places in that State, south 
of a line joining Tuckerton and Bridgeton, and throughout nearly the whole 
of Delaware. 

With perhaps two or three exceptions, it wa3 not seen by any one in New 
Jersey, south of the Camden and Atlantic Railroad ; that is to say, through- 
out the very region xohere the report ivas loudest. 

Many persons there saw a momentary flash of light "like the reflexion of 
the sun from a looking-glass," but could not tell where it came from. The 
appearance of the meteor as seen at many places is described, and the results 
from their discussion are as follows: — 

1. The inclination of the meteor's point to the vertical was probably about 
35°, and the direction of its motion nearly west. The observations at Med- 
ford and Petersburg indicate a much more southerly movement, but those of 
Washington, Alexandria, and Dover, require it to have been almost due west. 

2. The column of smoke was near 1000 feet in diameter, and its base was 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 13 



Direction or Altitude. 



It fell at an inclination of N.W. 
to W. 



In the N. 45° 



It darted from a point half- 
way between the Pleiades 
and £ Persei to a point about 
one-third of the distance 
from Aldebaran to i Auriga?. 

[t fell from the zenith to the 
N.W. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



It travelled about Bradford 
15° and then 
burst ; it appear- 
ed at first as 
though the moon 
had fallen to the 
earth. 

It appeared sta- Torquay 
tionary, but in- 
creased in bright- 
ness for 2 or 3 
seconds, when it 
suddenly disap- 
peared. 

Its path was con- 
cave to the hori- 
zon. 



Wrottesley Ob- 
servatory. 



Manchester . 



Observer. 



M. D. 
W. W. M. 
E. M. C. 
J. C. 
C. W. 



E. Vivian. 



J. H. 



G. V. Vernon. 



Reference. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



vertical about four miles north of Dennisville, at a height of near eight miles, 
which may be assumed to be the approximate position of one point in the 
meteor's path. The height is inferred not merely from the angular elevations 
of the smoke as seen from different points, but from the interval between the 
flash and the report, as observed at Beasley's Point. This position assigned 
to the base of the cloud, from local reports, coincides pretty nearly with that 
indicated by distant observations. 

At New Haven, latitude 40° 18' 18", longitude 72° 55' 10", at an eleva- 
tion of 6°, the bearing was S. 35° 34' W. ; and at Alexandria, latitude 38° 49', 
longitude 77° 4', at an elevation of 10^°, it was N. 76i° E. These directions 
meet half a mile west of Dennisville in latitude 39° 1 1 V, longitude 74° 50^' ; 
the line from New Haven having a vertical height at this point of 2V| 
miles, and that from Alexandria 24| miles. Continuing the path, as ob- 
served at Alexandria, down to 9^° elevation, we have corresponding azimuth 
76^°, and the lines then meet half a mile north-west of Dennisville at a 
height of 22^ miles; but this makes the nearest point in the meteor's path 
twenty-four miles from Beasley's Point, and consequently the interval there 
between the flash and the report two minutes instead of one, as observed. 
Besides, the observations on the smoke show pretty clearly that the minimum 
height at Dennisville could not have exceeded ten miles. We must there- 
fore conclude the meteor's actual position to have been several miles east of 
that indicated by these distant observations. 

3. On the above supposition, the meteor's path would reach the earth near 
Hughesville, on the north-western boundary of Cape May County, in which 
vicinity, or perhaps still further west, it is probable that the meteor or some 
of its fragments will yet be found. 

4. Some observers must have seen the meteor at a height of more than 



14 REPORT — 1860. 

100 miles ; and, to have completed its path within their estimates of time, it 
must have had a velocity of from thirty to fifty miles per second. 

The extreme shortness of the time occupied in its flight, is proved not 
merely by the estimates of several observers, but by the failure of people in 
the vicinity of the explosion to distinguish the source of the sudden flash of 
light seen by them, and by the impression of even the most distant observers 
that it fell very near them. 

5. The sound was explosive, and not caused by the falling in of the air 
after the meteor. In the latter case it must have been continuous and un- 
interrupted, but the testimony of Dr. Beasley and others shows that it ceased 
entirely and then began again. 

Supposing the meteor to have been a stony mass, we may, perhaps, con- 
sider the explosion to have consisted of a series of decrepitations caused by 
the sudden expansion of the surface, the whole time of flight not being suffi- 
cient to allow the heat to penetrate the mass. At the forward end these ex- 
plosions would take place under great pressure, which may account for the 
loudness of the sound. 

6. The estimated duration of the sound at Beasley's Point was not less 
than one minute, indicating that the most distant point of the explosion was 
not less than twelve miles further from that place than its nearest point. 
Comparing this with the position of the assumed path, we find that, during 
the explosion, the meteor must have travelled fifteen or twenty miles, occu- 
pying about a second of time. 

7. The explosions were very numerous, arranged in two series, the whole 
occupying only half a second of time, but the individual sounds were distin- 
guishable, because of the different distances they had to travel to reach the 
ear. The velocity of the meteor being more than 100 times that of sound, 
the reports must have come in the order of distance and not in the order of 
their occurrence, causing the end of the explosion to be heard before the 
beginning. The faint rushing sounds first heard by Mr. Ashmead must 
have had their origin below the explosion, and been caused by the flight of 
the fragments towards the earth. If the direction of the first faint sound 
could be indicated by persons further west, it might serve to point to the 
place where the fragments fell. 

8. The meteor lost its luminosity with the explosion or shortly after, and 
hence was not seen by persons in Cape May County and vicinity, it being 
too much overhead to come within the ordinary range of vision, and the time 
of flight being too short to allow them to direct their eyes to it after seeing 
the flash. 

If the heat be due to the resistance of the air, it must be principally deve- 
loped at the surface of the forward half of the meteor. Consequently 
most of the explosions must occur then, and the force of each be directed 
backward, tending to check the velocity of the mass. In fact, we may per- 
haps consider the series of explosions to be merely one of the forms of the 
atmospheric resistance. This must increase rapidly with the density, although 
it may be insufficient to account for so great a reduction of speed as would 
entirely destroy the luminosity of the meteor before it reached the earth. 

9. From the tremendous force of the explosion, and from the fact that this 
meteor was seen by persons who were not within 200 miles of any part of 
its path, as at Salem, Massachusetts, and Petersburg, Virginia, we must cer- 
tainly conclude that it was of very considerable size ; but we seem to have 
no data for any approximation to its actual dimensions. It was certainly 
heated to a most intense brightness ; and the experiments of Professor 
J. Lawrence Smith, detailed in Silliman's Journal, vol. xix. fol. 340, second 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 15 

series, in which he found that a piece of lime, less than half an inch in dia- 
meter, in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe, had, when viewed in a clear 
evening, at the distance of half a mile, an apparent diameter twice that of the 
Full moon, show conclusively that no reliance can be placed upon calculations 
founded upon the apparent diameter of bodies in a state of incandescence. 

10. The apparent form of the meteor, that of a cone moving base fore- 
most, may have been due to its great angular velocity, combined with the 
effect of irradiation above referred to. The impression made upon the eye 
by the incandescent body itself, would doubtless be greater than that made 
by the sphere of light surrounding it. Consequently we should continue to 
see the body itself after the impression of the mere glare had faded awav ; 
so that the apparent diameter of the end of the tail may represent the actual 
angular diameter of the body. 

11. The invisibility of the meteor to persons at Philadelphia and vicinity, 
was no doubt due to the position of the sun, the direction of which then 
coincided with that of the meteor. 

No. 2 — Abstract of a paper by R. P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S., in the Philoso- 
phical Magazine, April 1860, "On Luminosity of Meteors from Solar Re- 
flexion." 

With reference to the cause of the luminosity of shooting stars, the author 
proposes to prove that their luminosity cannot arise from solar reflexion, 
a theory partially supported by Sir J. Lubbock and others. He observes 
that the very sudden appearance and disappearance of shooting-stars and 
small meteors, and their general resemblance on a small scale to comets which 
shine by solar reflexion, certainly favour the idea, either that suddenly enter- 
ing the cone of the earth's shadow they are instantly eclipsed, or conversely, 
become visible as they emerge from it; or secondly, previously self-luminous 
in planetary space, they may become suddenly extinguished on entering the 
denser atmosphere of the earth ; or thirdly, they may suddenly become visi- 
ble and luminous only on entering the earth's atmosphere by friction and 
compression, by rapid absorption of oxygen and sudden chemical action, or 
by electrical excitation. 

The author then refers to Sir J. Lubbock's paper in the Philosophical 
Magazine for February 1848, and shows by a different treatment how un- 
likely, if not impossible, it is that ordinary shooting-stars (those not show- 
ing symptoms of active ignition within the lower limits of the earth's atmo- 
sphere) can ever shine by reflected solar light ; and this simply from the fact 
that they would be too far off for us to observe such small bodies, at even 
the minimum distance at which (at certain times and places on the earth's 
surface when and where we know they are very frequently seen) they 
actually could be so visible ; and concludes his paper by remarking that, if 
his calculations, &c. be correct, the majority of shooting-stars do not shine 
by reflected light. 

No. 3. — M. Schmidt on the Luminous Trains left by Meteors, &c. 

M. Schmidt repeats an observation of M. Faye's in the ' Comptes Rendus,' 
vol. xxxii. p. 667, relative to the small amount of moveability in the tails or 
luminous trains not unfrequently left by meteors, which seems to prove that 
the former must be found in the atmosphere belonging to and surrounding 
the earth, and not in the firmament which lies beyond it. M. Faye observed 
one of these tails through the telescope, and he saw it " lingering for more 
than three minutes, without changing its place very perceptibly. — Other 
observers have observed them to remain for more than seven minutes." M. 



1G REPORT 1860. 

Schmidt remarks on the strangeness of this stationary condition of the lumi- 
nous trains of meteors, likewise on the cloud-like appearances generally left 
by detonating meteors even in the day-time, when we come to consider the 
enormous velocity of the meteors themselves through the higher regions of 
the atmosphere ; but he says, " we must recollect an easy and interesting ex- 
periment, by which we may obtain a similar result. If you take a common 
lucifer match, still burning, or when it is just about to become extinguished, 
and throw it from you in any direction, either quickly or slowly, you will 
in many cases perceive, either a straight immoveable line, or an undulating 
or curling line of white-grey smoke, standing still in the air, if the air is calm 
and not in motion." 

M. Schmidt observes how important observations, whether telescopic or 
otherwise, are respecting the tails of meteors, — 1st, as regards their proper 
motion ; 2nd, the downward curvature sometimes exhibited by them, and 
the way in which they break up and disperse; and 3rd, the means they may 
afford of ascertaining by parallax their height above the earth, a matter of 
very great importance for ascertaining at what heights the atmosphere ceases 
to have any influence. 

M. Schmidt then proceeds to cite a number of instances from his own 
catalogue of meteors, where tails have been observed of long duration, or as 
offering very peculiar appearances: e.g. 

I66i. Aug. 3. A very large meteor with curved tail, seen at Papa, Hun- 
gary. 

1791. Nov. 11. At Gottingen and Lilienthal, a meteor left an undulating 
tail of a shining white colour, in parts alternately showing the prismatic 
colours ; then became more curved, and turned into vapour of a pale yellow- 
ish colour before finally disappearing. 

1798. Oct. 9. Brandes witnessed at Gottineren how the tail of a bright 
shooting-star bent itself within 15 seconds like a bow. 
1840. July 30. Ditto at Vienna, in 15 seconds also. 
1815. Oct. 24-. Schmidt observed at Bonn the change in the form of the 
tail of a meteor in 4 minutes; it became severed and bent, and dissolved 
into small grey clouds. The whole mass moved 1° from its original place at 
final disappearance. 

1853. Oct. 26. A large meteor seen in Pomerania, left behind it a spiral 
tail 3° long, which contracted soon into a ball, and again passed into a spiral 
curve, finally assuming the shape of a capital Z. 

185k Aug. 1. At Gottingen, a fine meteor left behind a bright tail 3' 
wide and 2° in length, lasted 8 or 9 minutes after dividing itself into three 
oval balls, and showing at first uneven undulations or knots, while the tail itself 
shortened and became more like a W. Whilst these changes took place in the 
tail, the whole mist-like mass moved along the sky in a nearly opposite direc- 
tion to the motion of the fireball itself; the tail had thus moved 9° in 8 minutes. 
1859. Aug. 9, 10, 11. During these three nights, M. Schmidt at Athens 
succeeded in observing, on four different occasions, the curving of meteor- 
tails through the telescope. The whole time, in three cases of visibility, was 
170", 140", and 220" respectively ; in one case only 10" or 12". The curva- 
ture of the tail began to be perceptible almost directly after the meteor 
vanished, and the proper motion in one direction very decided. In one of 
these cases, viz. on Aug. 11, a bright orange-coloured shooting-star left a tail 
visible to the naked eye 4-" or 5", but through the telescope 220"; the direc- 
tion about from E.N.E. to»W.S.W. The following figure shows the real mo- 
tion of the tail, compared with the apparent motion of the shooting-star. 
The tail finally broke up into a number of small fragments. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. l*J 



Fie. l. 




ab, the apparent motion of the shooting-star, 
a, tail at end of 5th second. 
j3, tail at end of 12th second. 
y, tail at end of J 80th second. 
S, tail at end of 220th second. 
A B, apparent motion of the tail nearly at right 
angles to a b. 



Aug. 9. Representing, after another meteor, a 
similar movement of tail as compared with 
the meteor itself. 

fit I 

M. Schmidt states that credible cases, where the tails of meteors and shoot- 
ing-stars remain visible longer than 5 seconds, are very rare and isolated. He 
cites thirty-nine instances from his own catalogue, of which we select seven 
instances of longest duration. 

1751. May 26. 3" 30 m Kraschina (Agram meteoric iron fall). 

1803. Oct. 10. l h On the high seas. 

1840. July 30. 15 m Vienna. 

1847. Jan. 10. 10 ia Vienna. 

1847. Nov. 10. 10'" Benares. 

1 853. Aug. 26. 10 m Mazzow. 

1856. Oct. 29. 30 m Laybach. 

Among the thirty-nine instances given by M. Schmidt, there were more 
than one instance of the tail winding or doubling itself up, nay, of even 
vanishing and then re-appearing. 

Duration of Meteors. 
M. Schmidt also offers further remarks on the duration of meteors, and he 
observes how rarely they are visible for more than 1 second; that 0' 2" to 
1' 5" is the usual time of visibility; the practised observer knows that the 
majority in fact of shooting-stars only shine during the fraction of a second. 
In all probability the short moment during which the light shines is at the 
same time the moment of its partial and final extinction. 

The time during which a shooting-star is visible is a subject for the art of 
more refined observation, and M. Schmidt hopes that much attention will be 
directed "towards determining the duration with regard to colours and any 
anomalous motions of meteors." In his treatise on Meteors, p. 15, M. Schmidt 
states how long the tails or luminous trains of meteors remain visible, with 
regard to colour, viz. as follows : — 

sec. Mean error. 

VVith white meteors, the mean =1-00 in 24 observations. . .. 0-05 
With yellow meteors, the mean =1 '51 in 18 observations. . . . 0-15 

With green meteors, the mean =1-96 in 12 observations 0-29 

1860. c 



18 



REPORT 1860. 



On the other hand, at p. 50, the time during which tails are visible upon the 
whole number, with regard to these different colours: — 



;}= 



sec. 

0-85 in 64 observations 



Time of duration for the white shoot 

ing-stars, mean 
Time of duration for the vellow shoot- 1 A nn . OA , 

ing-stars, mean } = ' 90 ln 80 °bservat 10 ns 
Time of duration for the yellowish-red j 
shooting-stars, mean j 
Time of duration for the green shoot- 1 icn . ,. ±- ,„,„ 

ing-stars, mean} =160in 5 observations, a.d. 1849 

Time of duration for the mist-like orl „ „, . ,_ , 

nebulous shooting-stars, mean} = " 91 ln 12 observations 



a.d. 1849. 
a.d. 1849. 
1*28 in 14 observations, a.d. 1849. 
a.d. 1849. 
a.d. 1849. 



Likewise in the year 1850 the longer duration of the coloured meteors 
showed itself in the following proportional means : — 

sees. 
Duration of the white =1*16 in 12 observations. 

Duration of the yellow =1*25 in 8 observations. 

Duration of the yellowish red = 1*41 in 6 observations. 

If we consider the time during which the light of the meteor itself lasted 
without regard to any other phenomena, we find in his catalogue the follow- 
ing instances which show that in the case of many thousand observations 
it is very rare that a shooting-star or meteor remains visible for more than 5 
seconds. 



Date. 


Duration. 


Place of observation. 


1783. August 18 


sees. 1 

60* London. 
10 Hamburg. 
10 Hambiirp-. 


1842. November 1 




1842. November 21 


8 

7 

9 

6 

8 

8 

11 

10 

35 

8 

12 

23 

12 


Hamburg. 

Hamburg. 

Hamburg. 

Hamburg. 

Bonn. 

Bonn. 

Miinster. 

Miinster. 

Gottingen. 

Vienna. 

Lay bach. 

Vienna. 

Athens, for 28° arc. 


1843. September 19 


1843. September 22 


1844. August 11 


1846. August 10 


1847. November 29 


1851. September 26 


1852. November 3 


1854. August 1 




1856. October 29 


1857. ? 


1859. July 27 





The following remarks on the hypothesis that the intensity of the light 
of the meteors is caused by the oxygen in the atmosphere, are here translated 
verbatim from M. Schmidt's communication to M. Haidinger: — 

" In consequence of the observations which were then being made by Ben- 
zenberg, Brandes, Felder, Heiss, by myself and others, in the year 1851, I 
examined into this question more closely, and I arrived at a result which was 

* Mr. Greg found one account of this meteor stating it was 20", seen in an arc of 75°. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 19 

indirectly opposed to that hypothesis: since it is a difficult matter thoroughly 
to refute old objections, however untenable, I may perhaps be permitted here 
to refer to them, and to refer to numbers instead of to opinions. 

" We all know that the intensity of the light of shooting-stars is estimated 
according to the brightness of the stars, and we therefore, e. g., say that a 
meteor is of the first magnitude when its light equals that of Arcturus or 
Vega. If it shines brighter than Jupiter or Venus, we designate it a small 
fireball. If we put such numerical values for the shooting-stars so as to 
express the intensity of their light, and if we call /* the mean height of the 
shining portion of the luminous track above the surface of the earth, we 
obtain the following mean proportional values, which, in the year 1851, I 
deduced from the observations then made (see my work, p. Ill) : — 

Meteor of 1st magnitude, h=16'2 geographical miles, for 14 observations. 
Meteor of 2nd magnitude, h=\5'9 geographical miles, for 20 observations. 
Meteor of 3rd magnitude, h = l0'8 geographical miles, for 24 observations. 
Meteor of 4th magnitude, h= 8*5 geographical miles, for 21 observations. 

Hence, therefore, it follows that the large meteors belong to the highest 
regions of the earth, where, as we generally suppose, there exists scarcely any 
air at all ; that, however, the small meteors which have a feeble light are seen 
nearest to the earth, and occupy the limits of the atmosphere, where the latter 
still exists in a greater and more perceptible degree, and that they descend 
still lower. It is therefore not the oxygen of the air which is in the main the 
chief cause and origin of the burning or glowing of the meteors." 

Note by Mr. Greg. — That the smaller shooting-stars are frequently nearer 
than the larger meteors, may possibly be still further supposed to be true, 
from the fact that usually they are seen to move more rapidly than the larger 
ones. Still exceptions may exist, as in the case of very large, and probably 
aerolitic fireballs moving horizontally and parallel to the horizon. 

The height at which meteors are not merely luminous, but can leave nearly 
stationary trains of light, is truly surprising ; one would almost have 
imagined, at that distance from the surface of the earth, some retardation in 
space of the attenuated and upper stratum of air, as compared with the rapid 
movement of the earth on its own axis. 

It is to be regretted that the extreme limits of the auroral regions are not 
yet more precisely ascertained ; but it is not improbable that shooting-stars 
are commonly visible, or luminous, precisely in that very region, and that 
their luminosity may to some extent be owing to electrical excitation. 

No. 4. — In the ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. xxxvii. p. 547, M. Coulvier-Gravier 
gives a list of 168 bolides observed from 1841 to 1853, classed as follows :"- 

1st size 31 

2nd size 39 

3rd size 98 

168 
of which latter, viz. those of the 3rd size, he states as being larger or brighter 
than Jupiter or Sirius ; the relative or absolute size of the two other classes are 
not stated. These three classes described average arcs or paths as follows :— • 

(1) 31 ... arc of 42° 4' 

(2) 39 ... arc of 26° 7' 

(3) 98 ... arc of 22° 7 

C2 



20 



REPORT 1860. 



Their directions at different hours of the night, and numbers, are given in 
the annexed Table: — 



Directions. 


6 r.M. to 10 p.m. 

Number. 


10 r.M. to 2 a.m. 
Number. 


2 A.M. tO 6 A.M. 

Number. 


Totals. 


N. 


2 


2 




4 


N.N.E. 


2 


■ •« 


2 


4 


N.E. 


3 


4 


1 


8 


E.N.E. 


1 


5 


2 


8 


E. 


1 


7 


2 


10 


E.S.E. 


8 


8 


1 


17 


S.E. 


4 


8 


1 


13 


S.S.E. 


4 


9 


3 


16 


S. 


4 


• • • 


3 


7 


S.S.W. 


1 


4 


5 


10 


S.W. 


• • • 


8 


5 


13 


w.s.w. 


3 


5 


1 


9 


w. 


1 


3 


2 


6 


W.N.W. 


6 


9 


8 


23 


N.W. 


4 


4 


6 


14 


N.N.W. 


... 


• • • 


6 


6 




44- 


76 


48 


168 



The 44 bolides which were observed from 6 p.m. till 10 p.m., were seen 
during 694^- hours of observation, which gives one bolide for 15 hours 
47 minutes for that part of the night, of which the average is 9 o'clock. 

The 76 bolides from 10 p.m. till 2 a.m. were seen in 848J hours of obser- 
vation, which gives one bolide for every 11 hours and 10 minutes for the 
second part of the night, with the mean of midnight. 

The 4S bolides from 2 a.m. till 6 A.M. were observed in 340 hours, winch 
gives one bolide, for every 7 hours and 5 minutes for the third part of the 
night, the mean being 3 a.m. 

The number of bolides being therefore inverse of the times as above, for 
each bolide, if one allows 100 for midnight, we should find from 



6 to 10, average 9 p.m. 



No. of bolides. 

... = 71 



10 to '2, average midnight ... =100 



2 to 6, average 3 a.m. 



= 158 



The number of bolides seen about 6 a.m. is triple the number of bolides 
observed in the evening, a result which accords with the horary and usual 
variations of shooting-stars generally. 

Out of 168 bolides observed, there were 101 which left longer and shorter 
trains of light of different degrees of duration. 

Out of the same number there were 20 which burst into sparks after a 
course more or less arrested by the rupture. 

Lastly, there were 8 which changed their original velocity, or became sta- 
tionary in their course; two which changed their direction towards the end 
of their path, and one which had an oscillatory movement. 

M. Coulvier-Gravier elsewhere remarks that 6th magnitude falling stars 
have arcs or paths of from 40° to 9°. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 21 

In the 'Comptes Rendus,' vol. xlv. for 1857, p. 257, M. Coulvier-Gravier 
remarks, in a series of observations on the August periodical meteors during 
a period of twelve years, that the maximum number per hour, from 9 p.m. to 
10 p.m., are seen between the N.E. and E.N.E. to 2° 5' of N.E. From 2 to 
3 a.m., between E.S.E. and S.E., 3° of E.S.E. From 9 p.m. to 3 a.m. the 
maximum has advanced 65° towards the South (or 11° per hour); so that 
one would conclude that at 6 a.m. the maximum would be between the S. 
and S.S.E., 7° of S.S.E. 

The above is also confirmed by the general result for other months of the 
year, i.e. the maximum for August being in the morning between the S. and 
S.S.E., the general average for the year, of shooting-stars, being E.S.E. 

Mr. G. C. Bompas's valuable generalizations on this fact of the number 
of meteors increasing regularly from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m., as that the number 
appearing in the East is double the number originating in the West, are given 
in a resume at p. 131 of the volume of the British Association Reports for 
1857, held at Dublin. 

No. 5. — Mr. R. P. Greg gives the following results, taken from a catalogue 
he has constructed of the most remarkable meteors on record, as regards 
their general observed direction ; without reference, however, to the precise 
hours of observation, a matter probably of less consequence in very large 
meteors moving near the earth's surface, than in the case of ordinary sporadic 
shooting-stars. 



Month. 


No. of observations. 


General direction. 


January 


17 
20 
13 
21 
15 
18 
14 
24 
22 
19 
39 
15 


N.W. to S.E. 

? 

S.E. to N.W. 

N. to S. 

E. to W. 

? 

S.E. to N.W. 

? 
N.W. tO S.E. 

W. to E. 

N.E. to S.W. 

N. tO S. 


February 




May 




July 


August 


September 





The number for each month here varies quite accidentally, as details con- 
cerning precise direction are frequently wanting in the various published 
accounts of these phenomena. 



22 



REPORT — 1860. 



o 






o 

0) 



3 
O 

B 

a 

=s 

►J 

c 
o 

CO 

e 

o 

- — 
— 

> 



O 



CO 



w 

M 
H 





>■>,.; 














ASP 








1ft 


ip 




CO 


00 


-H 


Ac 


CO 




o cv 




CD 


CD 


OS CM 


r 




^ d 


t— i 








^ 




» 


■* 


CO 


US 


?5^ 


t> 






M 


52 


TTH 


CD 


CO 


eg 

a 
o 


o 


CO 


00 


t- 


CO 


En 


i—i 






1—1 


r-i 














a 


cj 


lO 


o 


(M 


<* cr 





03 


00 


GO 


t^ 


O r- 


CI 


A 


P 








■—1 


I-H 
















^ 


o 


o 


t^ 


(-I cc 

t~o 


l^ 


o 


>c 


C2 


00 


a 


| 


£ 


1—1 






1— 1 


T— 




















4J 


O0 


t~ 


a 


SO C73 


d 


o 


o 


t- 


CO 


C3 r— 


^H 


CO* 
iff 


O 


CN 








^ 






CM 


3 


T-H 

CO 


oi t- e: 

00 i-H C3! 






CO 


1 — 1 










o 














.t. 


ti 


o 


CO 


CO 


C-f 


■* 


fl 

o3 


3 


U5 


CI 


00 


CO 0Q 





«<1 


'-' 


r- 1 




t— t 






jj, 


1ft 


■* 


CO 


OICC 


oc 




19 


00 


t~ 


CD 


00 C5 







1-3 


1—1 








"-" 




oa 

a 


t~ 


& 


t~ 


00 


Ol 




a 


as 


-t 


CO 


O CI fc» 


O 


1-3 












ffl 


fe> 


00 


o 


CO 


C •" 





O 

la 

<o 
.o 

1 


03 


00 


lO 


O 


t^ 


03 


gj 


io 


01 


-f 


co 1- 


& 


o 


65 


O 


CO 1- 





<1 










f— 1 














ft 


t-. 


<M 


op 


Ol 


■* ec 


t~ 


1 


t^ 


>* 


CO 


00 







J2 


T*H 


t- 


CO 


CO VT. 


CO 






V 


o 


lO 


CO 


00 I- 







fH 










^^ 




a 


o 


o 


OS 


io it: 









« 


co 


lO 


CD 


00 *- 







1-3 










^H 






co" tn ' 


i 

a, 
o 
Ph 


CO 


• n 










o o . 

0) © 


g 2 

03 CO 


CO ■!= 

Si 

O :a 


OB 








jg.2 03 


bo, 

3:3 


I- 2 

S 

CO "^ 

» 1-1 

> — 1 -*^ 


CO 









Si>9 


Si 




% 








a^ca^ 


P > 


t« 03 







U 

o 




.Sort 


* 

CO ? 




a 

CO 

bo 

bo 





-4-> 

Q 

O 




« ° 5 
ago 
•■C.fco 

CO 02 O* 

3,3 o, 
O Sh 


0^: 


3 .2 c 

00 T? •- 

•a ^ > 


"0 

2 




93 




-t 1 a o 


£ £ 


^ 


oT 




la 




CO . » 

~S a 

•acq M 

° ^ B 
52 ^ *£> 


go: 

.+-1 > 


co r j> 

^< a 
03 S 


5b 


1z 








a; c 


a 10 — 
e3 -r " 


fl3 








i — I o 


13 




jn 








s o ^ 




CD O 1 


^3 








rj -tj CD 
CD ^ 


C8 o< 


c3 . co 

1 ^fe 


CO 

03 








. C3 a 

-M . 03 

ffl «J 


° 3 

•u a 


a ■< 5; 
m°° a 











^ o ^ 

<£ 03 


2 


H S 


3 dl 








■? 


*H ^ — 


1 

a 







A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 23 



OMN 


©© © 




t~OCl 


© CO CO 00 


* 


1— 1 1—1 


CO cs 


i— i 






i— i 




Til CO CO 
©CICO 


©c 


) o- 


) CO 


»—i 


CO if 


1- 


i-H 


co 


Cl i-t 


CO >- 


1 If 

1 1— 


) Cl 

1 


T— 1 


Cl ©-* 


CO - 


1 l> 


t> 


*» 


r-4 i— 1 


CI r- 

F— 


1 o- 
1 1— 


) 1-H 


Cl 


t~t~Cl 


CO c 


J If 


) t- 


lO 


i— 1 i— I 


CO T) 


< a 


) Cl 


Cl 


OOCOih 


ci a 


) c 


> Oi 


tW 


1— 1 r^ 


CO c 


> Tt 


< Cl 


CO 


t^rlM 


-H TJ 


if 


) CO 


,_, 


1— 1 1—1 


COC 


> o- 


I i-H 


Cl 


t~00 ■* 


G5 OC 

Cl"? 


J> 


CD 


© 


1—1 


|N 


• o 


l—l 






»~ 






©CO CO 


co« 


a 


rP 


Cl 


!M i-H 


co er 


c 


i-H 




i-Hpsq 


CO cc 


•- 


Cl 




Cl i-i 


CO if. 


c 






CO iO i-i 


© 05 


I- 


Tjf 


IO 


CI 


Cl t- 


■ c 






lO ©Cl 


CO rJ 


-t 


t~ 


© 


1—1 


Cl 1> 


C7 


T-* 


1— 1 


COT* CD 


00 Cl 


c 


Cl 


© 


1— 1 1— 1 


CO J> 




1—1 




CO CO CI 


CO Cl 
Cll> 


OC 


© 


Cl 


1—1 


C" 


1—1 




© coco 


— If 


CC 


© 


CO 


^ H 


ci c 


1— 




Cl 


a 
















o 
















«& 












ej 








3 








03 

s 


4a 


1 




SO 

"5 


~ 






=2 




'1 




53 

O 


•"3 rs 


"5 


-2 


<y 


"0 *.■ 




00 


c 


n3 


© 

co 


fl * 
8 "0 




b 


83 q. 


<v 


\ 


m C 




3 


"3 c 


4 s= 


£ 


X' 


.3 ° 




3 

£ 

S 
3 


EHbc 




03 


p 


-C 5 




oj 














ffl 






to 
a 


© 


So s 




fi 






o 

o 


00 


IJL 




El 

o 








o 


J'- H TO L 






=M 


■< 


2^ a i^ 






m 


S 
2 


wi o « .2 






>% 


fM 
sire 
ston 
gm 
wh 






"SI 

ID 




is o 

xclu 

nd 

atin 

:ain 






3 


& 


Analys 
1860, e 
Iron s 
Deton 
Uncer 






0! 
.&" 

.9 


3 
"ol 
O 


a < o 






«« c 

O fe 


Ci-1 


B - _s • 






o: 


o 


PMC? 








co 

a 


«d 






* E 


^ 


•< 






E 





Oj 
3 

o 



«3 

"fcJO 

•— 

O 



C3 

H 



C3 

C 

< 



\k 




©T3 




T* © O 


1-5 •« 


1—1 


a 




03 
















9 S 


Cl t>© 


Cl Tji © 


«<-3 


IM 






fil 




e3 








an 




a 
o q 


CO^O 
^h CO-* 


^h i— i o 


.y to 




to 












J . 








- a; 




Hi 


05 t-© 


r-i © 


M S 




DO 




H 










^H © CO 


c a 


© C5 rt 


o o 


1 — 1 ^H t~- 


SS 




02 




.H m 




■S a 


S^ 


u o 


I-H 1-ITP 


s a 








en 








h 








O 






* <D 












SI 






o3 t 










c 


fl.S 




o 

a 


£, « 




B 


O -g cs 


o> 


© Tj 4= 


p 


« ■-* 




3 c=5 




sS* ^ 




- o 








^ J* IB 










1*13 




:- :« o 




-<<ipq 



^ S S g 

— _< 3 bo 
03 T? 03 fee 

3" fe CO O • 

Oh Ju S s« « 

8 <= 1 « g 

J£o---5 £1, 

5 -s 3 S a 

,3 p o n 

£§1 "al 



*— OJ r-i ^a p , 
-3 S SO r-i m 

Ph °-a § 

co -a _ s 

<« -a 5 o -2 

o ^ a a - 

„ %- O bo g 



O r~i a ^ i— t 

r5 S ^ 

o - - *3 ^a ,ff 

■a oi .« o o 

o i^"*' § a 

cb O ^7* c3 

_c o i &u 
a .„oq a? 
-§§ ^\a S 



O ' 



t» "S 



S S^=3 a 

oE 2.9 o 
" a 'd gq 

^a •"=< g; 



13 a 

a a- 

a o. J2 

T5 its -S « 2 
a e ° fe a 
CO e <D S fep 
pf ho 3 v ^ 
m so bo "A ^ 

oi n. — ' iir 03 

o £ ." S o 
i IJ & 

P a !2 ° o 

«i! 03 r j a rcS 

o3 a a <1 •- 
ai.2 &■* 

o ^ 3 no 
D « § 'a °° 

* i "3 <r £ 

SuPh«2 



24 



REPORT — 1860. 



o 



T3 

0/ 

— 
O 

u 

V 

i. 
T3 

a 

> 
— 
co 

o 

c 

oj 
rO 

0) 

> 

-3 






ai 
"o 

« 

o 

e 
o 



CU 






w 
►H 

M 



3 

pq 



o o o n i) ■* rt n o is ti o ■* » « w in rt tjh f i « c (m ih n m ; e^ « -* »o >-i «o 



o i- 1 

& | 

-» ■*«i3'*Ml0'tnM'*IMHeL'3O«Oi5t«OH1(OI)0Iin««'tlMNH 

O 



■g ioNCi^'<! , e«ffl'*Hi>e3i-i»H(seiii-iN«iOi-i»i-is)M : —i -* ci -v —i co 



bD T(lc;05H')BOOO-) l bHCJ33'<t l Jmni-')H 

3 l-H I— ! !— I l-H 



iq ■* : »a ic i-h -* co eg. ci dq 



l-B 



§ 



rH CI CI CI CI CO : CI -^ CI CO O ^ X r^ r-i to CI CI i-O CO CI "-1 -* rH hH CO CI X CO ■* CI 



CO CO ^h ^H ^h CI CI rt ■* CI ; CO n CI i-H CI "* rt CO CI CI ■* 00 i-H ; i-H : CI CI rH ; ,-H 






CI CO i-H CO : i-H -* i-H CI CO CO CI CI i-i ** CO i-H lO CI CO i-H M CI CO : CO CI • CO i-h CO CI 



CO CI CI O : tf ■ CO CI CO CO CO CO CO CI CI CO O uO ; r-H : . —i — i ,-< CI CO CI -* 



I 



93 

ft 



CO CI CO ;H*Hl9n(5Hrt{lH^nC.inei*HHflfl ; CO ; •* rt< CO CO CO ci 



•* hh tjh co ci o i-i co ci ci ■* ci ci ci i-i : ct* co rn co ■* co rt rt ci ci m rH : • ci 



p-, _ ,_i ,_( : cOC!ClC1CO^f-*ii.O-sCOCli-HCOCO"*OC1CO'cHC1^CO'*CO'*Clf-H 



Sf 



h ci co •* >Q co' t> x OS © i-h ci co ■* >-o co t-i x ci ©' i-h ci co -t- o con oo ci © —< >- 

1 ' rtrtrtrt«rt«-HrtrHS)(Mi:in«M«ffiei«nM(N 





d 

0) 


: : 


. . . . "IS . . . . -K» . . . 

i-H 'CI J • i-H i—t i— I CI ;C0HrH ; • --H -i-H • ;i—1i-H ;-*--< ■ ■ 


|iO 


CO 
CI 




o 


: : 


• \ CO i-H H • CI • CI CO CO • i-H • r-H i-H CI i-H i-H • i-H CI r-l \ -H CI Ci CI 


|ci 


CO 
CO 




o 

o 


T* i-H 


T— 1 l-H CI HH -l-Hl-Hl-H • i— 1 CO l-H • • ; i-H l-H r-H l-H 1— f l-H • I— I |l-Hl-H -H 


■-H CO 


CJ 

CO 


in 

Pi 
O 

9 

45 
o 


-13 
0) 

X 


Tt< • 


-Hri . . .... .-:««.... 

r-4C0C1i-Hi-H ;rt(Mrt ; O f 1 iH rH . ;C1 ; ; i— l i— 1 ; i— l ; ; ; ; 


•CI 


T-H 

CO 




«1 


• ^H 


.Hn , . . 

• CI CI CI CO ; : Cl CO ; fH ; CI ; ; CI ; CI ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; i-H 




CI 


S3 

Q 

— 
O 



S 


-A 

1-5 


: : 


-t?i ... -*■ . 

CO CO i-h i-h CI CI ; ; ; i-H CI i-H CI CI CO CI ; i-H i— I i-H ; ; ; CO ; -H ; ; 


|co 


CO 


o5 

3 

1-5 


; ; 


-f<Cl^HC1Cl !hihhH<h ;i-hC1 • ; ; CI i-h CI ; f-h iH ; ; \r-iy-4 


• <n 


CO 
CO 


3 


03 


- i 


|Hr-l ; | CI CI l-H l-H \ CI — 1 ■ • CC r-l -? f-H — < i— 1 ] '• ] CI — I -H • ■ 


•CI 


C5 
CI 


:o> 
<1 


— 


co • 


. . . . -<M ... 

. .-f « • i-Hi—Hr-H ;i-H ;C0 ;-H^Hr-H ; - ; ; • ;C|i-Hi-Hi-H 


:"*' 


CO 
CI 




8 


1- 


^H j j CI —1 Cl ■ l-H —I CO HH -H r- 1 CO CO rt CO • CC CI l-H r-H CI • • H —. CI 


ci | 


X 

CO 




PR 




CI ; ;i-H jiHflMH • '• ;C0 • ;C0ClrHi-H j j rH ;r^ JC1-H • • 


:"*' 


CI 




1-5 


= " 


. • • iHJh . . . -H.?l . . -^« .... . . 

. CI . ; ; r-. Tf CI ; -h i-h ; rH CI ; t-i ; . . . . . . -h ; ; 


;C1 


i-H 

CI 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 25 



Analysis of Table II. 



Aerolitic epochs 

common to meteor 

ejjoclis ? 



6— 10 February? 
11—22 July. 

4 — 7 August. 

1 — 6 September. 

1— 5 October? 

9 — 13 November. 
27—30 November. 
11 — 15 December. 



Aerolitic epochs 

probably distinct 

from meteor epochs, j 



Times of fewest 
aerolites. 



8 — 10 January. 
14—22 March. 

5 April. 
17—21 May. 

3 — 16 June. 

3— 8 July. 



Jan. 18— Feb. 6. 

April 20—25. 

April 29— May 7. 
August ...21—31. 
September 17 — 30. 
Dec. 1(3— Jan. 7. 



Times of fewest 
bolides. 



February ...24—31. 

April 19—20. 

June 3 — 8. 

June 24—30. 

July 1—10. 

September 12—19. 



Observations on the preceding Tables, fyc. 

1. While the number of bolides is considerably larger for December and 
January than for June and July, the number of aerolitic falls is about as 
large again for the latter as for the former period ; the earth in her orbit 
in the first case being at her perihelion, in the latter at her aphelion. 

2. The distribution of the larger class of meteors is not so unequal 
throughout the year, if we make allowance for the immense number usually 
periodically observed ill August and November, when meteors as large in 
apparent size as Jupiter, or even Venus, are not uncommon. March, May, 
June, and July furnish out of the total number generally observed of meteors 
of all sizes, the largest proportion of bolides, and especially of aerolites. 

3. There is a remarkable equality in the numbers of aerolitic falls for the 
first half of the year as compared with the second half, viz. 103 and 101 re- 
spectively. There does not appear to be any very remarkable preponderance 
in this class of meteoric phenomena during the periodic epochs for shooting- 
stars, i.e. about the 9th of August and 10th of November. In the analysis of 
Table II. these epochs are more fully pointed out. There appear to be 
aerolitic epochs entirely distinct in themselves ; and it is worthy of remark 
that these epochs are apparently most distinctly marked, with regard to shoot- 
ing-stars and boiides only, during the first six months of the year ; whilst all 
the epochs possibly common to both classes are seen to occur in the second 
six months of the year, with the single exception of one in February. 

4. Analyses of several catalogues are concisely given in Table I. for the 
purpose of convenient comparison. They vary more or less from each other, 
though not very materially; necessarily in constructing such catalogues, 
some latitude and difference of opinion may exist respecting what constitutes 
a proper bolide; and recorded observations may not always be very definite. 
If meteors of the size of Venus or Jupiter were included without discrimina- 
tion, the list of fireballs for August and November might be swelled out in- 
definitely ; e. g. hundreds of meteors of that size were seen on one night 
alone, November 13, 1833, in America. The practice of late years of look- 
ing out more particularly for shooting- stars at the usual August and Novem- 
ber periods, probably tends to increase disproportionately in all catalogues 
of bolides, the number of observations for those two months, though the 
November period appears for the present to have become very much less 
remarkable for meteoric displays than formerly. 

In constructing his own catalogue, Mr. Greg has endeavoured merely to 
insert such observations as might with most certainty be assumed to be 
remarkable for size and brilliancy. 



26 REPORT 1860. 

The catalogue itself may possibly appear in a future volume of the Reports 
of the British Association. 

An attempt has been made to separate (as aerolitic) the class of detonating 
meteors, of which more than 100 are separately given ; great care having 
been taken to obtain the fullest and mo3t accurate list of that class of me- 
teoric phenomena, as being most interesting and most important, but which 
has hitherto either been statistically too much neglected, or not sufficiently 
separated and distinguished from the class of fireballs without detonation ; 
large fireballs being frequently said to explode or burst, though when so ex- 
pressed only, it must be construed as without noise. It has likewise been 
the custom with some writers and observers to rank as aerolitic, all the larger 
class of fireballs, whether observed to burst with or without detonation. 
Probably one-third of the larger fireballs, i. e. having an apparent diameter of 
15' and upwards, burst with an audible explosion, this for those observed at 
night; of those similarly observed during daytime the proportion (according 
to Mr. Greg's calculations) is greater, probably about one-half. It is a sin- 
gular fact, that out of 72 stonefalls, whose precise hour of fall has been 
recorded, only 13 occurred before noon, and no less than 58 fell between 
noon and 9 p.m. Why so few should have fallen at night and before noon, in 
the morning, it is not easy to say, supposing it not to be the result of chance. 
If true that more aerolitic falls occur during daytime than during the night, 
it would seem that there is a greater tendency to encounter those bodies in 
their orbits, as they recede from the sun ; that side of the earth most directly 
opposite to the sun being naturally most likely to come into actual contact 
with them. The above observations are taken for average of latitude, say 
48° north, and 10° west longitude. 

Dr. D. P. Thomson, in his • Introduction to Meteorology,' p. 302, states 
that meteors are of comparative rare occurrence in the Arctic Regions: this, 
if true, is curious and important, and deserves corroboration from some of 
the great arctic navigators now living in this country, and to whom applica- 
tion for any additional information might readily be made; the long winter 
nights in those parts being admirably adapted for observations (especially 
horary) of shooting-stars. 

The time of maximum meteor visibility being stated by M. Coulvier- 
Gravier and M. Bompas to be about 6 a.m., it is rather singular that the 
times of maximum occurrence for aerolites and detonating meteors should 
be about the same hour p.m. 

5. Of the Chinese observations given by Biot, 900 were made in a period 
of only 79 years, viz. from a.d. 1023 — 1102; they include meteors of every 
apparent size from Jupiter to the Moon ; likewise a certain number of aero- 
lites, detonating meteors, meteoric showers, and doubtless some few auroral 
displays. The larger proportion were observed in that portion of the sky 
included between the S.W. and S.E. 

M. Abel Remusat, in 1819, has published other particulars, viz. of 100 
falls of stones and detonating meteors, which have been recorded likewise in 
Chinese annals, between the sixth century B.C. to 1223 a.d. In Biot's list 
the 23rd of October presented the maximum number of observations. 

6. Further observations are to be desired respecting the zodiacal light, and 
every possible connexion between that phenomenon and that of shooting-stars 
cr meteors. Likewise further information concerning the heights at which 
meteors begin to be visible, and cease being visible. The question concern- 
ing the cause of luminosity in meteors is a highly interesting one, and still 
an open one. The phenomena displayed by the luminous trains or tails of 
shooting-stars and meteors is also a subject requiring much attention. The 



DUBLIN BAY DREDGING COMMITTEE. 27 

theory that they shine by reflected solar light, has been refuted by Mr. R. P. 
Greg in the April Number of the Philosophical Magazine. 

7. It is desirable to distinguish, if possible, between ordinary shooting- 
stars and aerolites ; Olmsted, Dr. Lawrence Smith, and Mr. Greg are strongly 
of opinion that a distinction may frequently exist, both orbital and physical. 

8. In a paper by Prof. W. Thomson in the ' Philosophical Magazine' for 
December 1854, " On the Mechanical Energies of the Solar System," is deve- 
loped more fully the idea of Mr. Waterston, that the solar heat can only be 
maintained, on any known principle, by immense numbers of meteorites 
constantly striking the surface or atmosphere of the sun, and thus producing 
by their enormous velocity and friction a never-failing source of heat. The 
chief objection to this theory arises from the fact that, as far as we prac- 
tically know anything of meteors, so far from the probability of their being 
swallowed up in the sun goes, we see the majority of them apparently re- 
curring without waste at periodical times, and that for a long term of years: 
this simple circumstance goes much against the probability of Mr. Waterston's 
and Prof Thomson's theory. 

Considering that the sun's heat, as an effect of its light, must have been 
maintained for millions of years (as proved geologically) pretty much at its 
present value, it is not improbable that future calculations, and a more accu- 
rate knowledge of the phenomena exhibited by solar light, may enable us to 
reduce considerably the supposed absolute heat of the sun, as now measured 
by an imaginary thermometer, and thus spare us the necessity of supposing 
that its heat is so great as to require myriads of meteors to be always rush- 
ing into it to create a fresh supply of it. If the majority of meteors should 
be, as they probably are, merely minute and gaseous comets, not possessing 
a solid or stony nature, it would still more increase the chances against 
Mr. Waterston's theory. 

9. M. Haidinger has recently published at Vienna some valuable 
papers on the crust and external forms of meteoric stones, in relation to the 
circumstances accompanying their fall and probable condition prior to, or at 
the moment of, entering the earth's atmosphere. 



Report of the Committee appointed to dredge Dublin Bay. By J. R. 
Kinahan, M.D., F.L.S., Professor of Zoology, Government School 
of Science applied to Mining and the Arts. 

During the autumn and winter months (1859) the author made several ex- 
cursions to the bays lo the north of Dublin, the results of which will be em- 
bodied in the final Report. In the spring of 1860, finding that, owing to 
circumstances beyond their control, there was no prospect of systematic 
assistance from the other members of the Committee, the author determined 
to fix on a district to be worked systematically, and selected the series 
of bays between the Poolbeg Lighthouse and Bray as being the most likely 
to yield a good return as regards number of species and variety of grounds. 
Accordingly, since the beginning of March, a series of systematic dredgings 
have been carried out in this district, the results of which are now communi- 
cated. The district may be conveniently divided into three sub-districts: — 
1st. That between the Lighthouse wall and Kingstown east pier, including 
Kingstown Harbour. 2nd. The district between Kingstown east pier and 
the south end of Dalkey Sound, including the whole sound. 3rd. The bay 



28 REPORT — 1860. 

between the latter point and Bray Head, in each case including the banks for 
seven miles off shore. 

Of these the following call for notice : — 

Bank 1. — The North Scallop bed lying about three miles off in district I. 
It consists of pure sand. Ophiuridcc are very common ; Ophiocomidaz not 
uncommon; Comatulidce scarce; Asteriada: not uncommon: one specimen 
of Asterias rosea, Miiller (Cribella rosea, Forbes), occurred here. Other 
Echinoderms rare ; Molluscs are rare ; Polyzoa and Tunicata are very com- 
mon ; Crustacea, Decapoda, not uncommon, species few ; Amphipoda rare; 
Cirrhipeda common ; Annelida are scarce ; and Polypifera very common. 
It may be generally noted, however, as unprofitable ground. 

2. Within this a bank of Pleistocene fine sand of considerable extent, but 
generally narrow in width : this contains very few living shells, but myriads 
of dead shells, from which all their organic constituents have been absorbed, 
and which are easily distinguished from the shells found in the next. 

3. The Shell Bank.— This, which I have only partially succeeded in tracing 
out, is a curious belt of broken and living shells, the dead shells being easily 
distinguished from those of the Pleistocene (Teleocene) beds. Many spe- 
cies of Crustacea are here found ; Zoophytes are abundant in certain parts 
of it ; Echinodermata are also common, chiefly Ophiocomida . Echinidce, 
SipunculidcB, and Holothuriadce occur more rarely, at least to the dredge, as 
the oval tentacles of the latter are frequently brought up. This bank is 
most interesting, as it bears a close resemblance to the Turbot Bank of the 
Belfast Dredging Committee, many of the shells being identical ; and one 
remarkable coral, as yet only found in the north seas of Ireland, has been 
detected in it by Mr. E. Waller (Sj)he?iotrochusWrightii). I have traced it 
nearly the whole way across districts 2 and 3, though in some parts its 
breadth is narrowed to a few yards; and it bears a constant l'elation to 
Bank 2, which in district 3 is called the " Back." 

4. Shanganagh Bank, a shingly, muddy, sand oyster-bed, formed from the 
influx of the river of the same name lying inside the Back in Killiney Bay. — 
Here Eupagurus Icevis first occurred to me ; Asterias rosea, two specimens : 
Holothuriada are not uncommon ; Zoophytes and Polyzoa not uncommon. 
Of Mollusca some rare species occur here. 

5. Sorrento Bay. — This consists of dense gravelly sand. Here living 
Molluscs are rare ; Nucida radiata occurs in some number, and very fine ; 
and Annelids are not uncommon ; Crustacea, except Hyada, are rare. 

6. Dalkey Sound. — This district requires almo^ a special description 
for itself, though not half a mile long, and barely a quarter of a mile broad, 
and the depth of water in no place, according to the Chart, exceeding at 
lowest spring tides 12 fathoms; yet species of every group are met with in 
it, which are ordinarily reputed to be deep-sea species. I have taken in it, 
and in it only, Ophidion imberbe, Pirimela denticulata, Hyas coarctatus, 
Inachus dorynchus, Ebalia Pennantii, and many other species which else- 
where have only occurred to me in 20-fathom water. In fact, the only spe- 
cies wanting here are those for which I would propose the name of broad 
sea species, such as Spatungus purpiireus, Eupagurus Icevis, Inachus Dor- 
settensis, and Crangon Allmanni, none of which have ever occurred plenti- 
fully except outside the " Back." I defer a full description of this district 
until my final report, which I hope to present to the Association at their 
next meeting. 

7. The Cnook, a bank about seven miles from land in an easterly 
direction. — This consists of fine sand and large shells: Zoophytes are very 
common ; Oysters and Scollops also abound. Here I met several species of 



DUBLIN- BAY DREDGING COMMITTEE. 29 

Crustacea, which are rare elsewhere, — Eupagurus lecvis, Inachns Dorsetfensis, 
Pinnotheres pisum, Tetromatus JBellianns, &c. The bank is not easy of 
attainment, as it requires smooth water for its proper working, and the past 
season in Dublin has been a succession of easterly and westerly gales. 

From all these grounds a number of species have been obtained ; of these, 
the Annelida and Zoophytes are yet undetermined, but the author hopes to 
put in a list of them at the next meeting of the Association. Of other 
groups, the following number of species have been determined : — Fishes, 10, 
one, Ophidion imberbe, new to Ireland : Mollusca, 188, exclusive of Polyzoa ; 
of these none are new to Ireland : Crustacea, 7-3 ; of these 5 are hitherto un- 
recorded in Ireland, 8 new to the east coast: Arachnida, 2: Echinodermata, 
30, one, Asterias rosea, new to Dublin, &C. Sponges are omitted for the 
present. In the present immature condition of these researches, it were pre- 
mature to attempt any general conclusions; but the results as yet obtained 
go strongly to confirm an opinion advanced by the author some years since, 
regarding the absence of southern types on the Dublin coast, which occur 
further north, and which led him to the adoption of an eastern Irish or 
Dublin district, extending from Dundrum Bay to Carnsole Point. For the 
identification of most of the species the writer is responsible, with the ex- 
ception of the minute Molluscs; these Edward Waller, Esq., kindly took in 
hand — frequent recurrence of his initials in the accompanying list will show 
with what success. Great quantities of the fine sand obtained in these 
researches is yet un worked, so that it is probable that ere our next report 
other species may be added to those here given. 

To complete the work, the Committee would ask that the Committee may 
be appointed, with the addition of Edward Waller, Esq., as follows : — Pro- 
fessor J. It. Kinahan, Dublin ; Dr. W. Carte ; Professor J. Reay Greene ; Dr. 
E. P. Wright, and Edward Waller, Esq.; and that a further sum, not exceed- 
ing £15, be placed at their disposal for this purpose, to enable them to 
complete this investigation. 

List of Species obtained in Kingstown and Killiney Bays, and a few from 

Baldoyle. 

Saxicava rugosa, living, v^ry common. Psammobia Ferroensis, single valves, not 

arctica, living, not uncommon. common. 

Sphrenia Binghami, living, one specimen : tellinella, very common. 

Dalkey Sound. Tellina crassa, very common. 

Mya tnmcata, dead, not uncommon. incarnata, dead, single valves only. 

arenaria, living, young specimens. tenuis, living, rare. 

Corbula nucleus, living, not common ; dead fabula, dead, single valves. 

valves, very common. solidula, rare, living. 

Lyonsia Norvegica, living, rare. donaeiua. 

Thracia phaseolina, living, rare, double pygnnea, very rare, living. 

valves. Syndosmya alba, common. 

villosiuseula, not rare. Scrobicularia piperata, one dead specimen, 

distorta, living, rare. on Shell Bank. 

Cochlodesma proetenue, dead, single valves Mactra solida, rare, living here. 

only. • subtruncata, one single valve. 

Solen marginatus, dead, single valves only. elliptica, very common. 

siliqua, living, in Killiney Bay. stultorum, rare here. 

ensis, living, in Killiney Bay. Lutraria elliptica, dead, shells only. 

■ pellucidus, living, in some numbers, in Tapes decussata, uncommon. 

Killiney Bay. pullastra, not uncommon. 

Solecurtus candidus, single valves without virginea, very common. 

epidermis : Shell Bank. Venus casiua, uncommon. 
coarctatus, a pair of valves : Dalkey striatula, rare here. 

Sound. fasciata, common. 



30 



REPORT — 1860. 



Venus ovata, common. 
Artemis exoleta, common. 

lincta, not uncommon. 

Lucinopsis undata, rare. 

Cyprina Islandica, common, dead ; not 

common, living here. 
Circe minima, E. W., very rare. 
Astarte sulcata, uncommon. 

triangularis, E.W., not uncommon. 

Cardium echinatum, not imcommon, dead ; 

living small, rare. 

edule, rare here. 

pygmoeum, uncommon. 

Norvegicum, not uncommon. 

nodosum, very common. 

fasciatum, common. 



Lucina borealis, common. 

flexuosa, Killiney Bay, rare. 

■ spinifera, one single valve. 

Hontacuta bidentata, E.W. 

substriata, on Spat, purpureus. 

Kellia suborbieularis, rare. 

rubra, E. W. 

Lepton nitidum, E. W. 

squamosum, single valves, rare. 

Mytilus edulis, common. 
Modiola Modiolus, common. 
Crenella discors, common. 

marmorata, imcommon. 

Nucula nucleus, very common. 

nitida, common. 

radiata, not uncommon, but local. 

Leda caudata, rare, living. 

Pectunculus glycimeris, living, rare and 

small ; dead, large and uncommon. 
Lima Loscombii, rare. 
Pecten varius, rare. 

pusio, rare. 

tigrinus, not rare. 

maximus, not rare. 

opercularis, very common. 

Ostrea edulis, very common. 
Anomia ephippium. 

patelliformis. 

■ striata. 

Chiton fascicularis, rare. 

marmoreus, rare. 

asellus, very common ; other species 

yet undetermined. 
Patella vulgata. 

pellucida. 

— — athletica. 

Acmcea virginea, common ; Dalkey Sound. 

testudinalis. 

Dentalium entalis, uncommon. 

tarentinum, dead, only fragments, rare. 

Pileopsis Hungaricus, rare here. 
Fissurella reticulata, uncommon. 
Emarginula reticulata, uncommon. 
Trochus zizyphinus. 

■ ■ granulatus. 

Montagui. 

tumidus. 

umbilicatus. 



Trochus magus, broken. 

helicinus. 

pusillus, E. W. 

Phasianella pullus. 
Adeorbis subcarinata. 
Littorina littorea. 

rudis. 

littoralis. 

Lacuna vincta. 

crassior, Shanganagh. 

Bissoa Beanii, E.W., one fragment. 

ulvoe. 

costata. 



parva. 

labiosa. 

punctura, E. W. 

inconspicua, E. W. 

■ semistriata, E. W. 

soluta, one specimen. 

vitrea. 

striata. 

striatula, E. W. 

Skenea divisa, E. W. 

planorbia. 

Turritella communis. 
Caecum glabrum, E. W. . 
Aporrhais pes-pelecani. 
Cerithium. 

■ adversum, E. W. 

Scalaria Turtonis, broken. 






commums. 



Eulima polita, E. W. 

distorta, E. W. 

• bilineata, E. W. 

Chemnitzia ful \ ocincta : Shell Bank. 

elegantissima, E. W. 

indistincta, E. W. 

Odostomia eulimoides. 

insculpta, E. W. 

interstincta, E. W. 

spiralis, E. W. 

decussata. 

Natiea monilifera. 

nitida. 

sordida. 

Velutina laevigata. 
Murex erinaceus. 
Purpura lapillus. 
Nassa reticulata. 

incrassata, rare. 

pyginaea. 

Buccinum undatum. 
Fusus antiquus. 
Islandicus. 



propinquus. 



cmeranus. 
millegranus. 



Trophon Barvicensis. 

muricatus. 

clathratus. 

Mangelia turricula. 

rufa. 

septangularis. 

linearis. 

nebula. 

costata. 

Cyprasa Europaea. 
Cylichna cylindracea. 



DUBLIN BAY DREDGING COMMITTEE. 



31 



Cylichna truncata, E. W. 

Amphisphyra Hyalina. 

Tomatella fasciata. 

Akera bullata. 

Scaphander lignarius. 

Phi line aperta. 

Aplysia hybrida. 

Pleurobranchus membranaceus. 

— — plumula. 

Eolis papillosa. 

Tritonia Hombergii. 

Doto coronata. 

Pholas dactylus. 

crispata. 

Aplidium fallax. 
Botryllus polycyclus. 
Ascidia rnentula. 

virginea. 

Molgula tubalosa. 
Cynthia aggregata. 
Eledone cirrhosus. 
Rossia maerosoma. 
Stenorbynchus phalangium. 
Inachus Dorsettensis. 

dorynchus. 

Hyas araneus. 

coarctatus. 

Eurynome aspera. 
Cancer pagurus, 
Piluinnus hirtellus. 
Pirimela denticulata. 
Carcinus masnas. 
Portunus puber. 

arcuatua. 

depurator. 

holsatus. 

pusillus. 

Pinnotheres pisum. 
Ebalia Pennantii. 
Atelecyclus heterodon. 
Corystes Cassivelaunus. 
Pinnotheres pisum. 
Eupagurus Streblonyx. 

Prideauxii. 

— Cuanensis. 

Ulidianus. 

Hyndinanni. 

■ Thompsonii. 

Porcellana longicornis. 

platycheles. 

Galathea squamifera. 

strigosa. 

— — Andrewsii. 



■ dispersa. 

Palinurus vulgaris. 
Homarus vulgaris. 
Crangon vulgaris. 

fasciatus. 

sculptus. 

Allmanni. 

bispinosus. 

Nika edulis. 



Hippolyte varians. 

Cranchii. 

■ Thompsonii. 

pusiola. 

Yarrellii. 

Pandalus annulicornis. 

leptorhynchus. 

Palaemon serratus. 

squilla. 

varians. 

Athanas nitescens. 
Lysianassa longicornis. 
Anonyx denticulatus. 
Ampelisca typicus. 
Urothoe marinus. 

elegans. 

Iphimedia obesa. 

Eblana. 

Acanthonotus testudo. 
Dexamine spinosa. 
Gammarus locusta. 

fluviatilis. 

palmatus. 

Othonis. 

longimanus. 

Amphithoe rubricata. 

littorina. 

Podocerus faleatus. 

variegatus. 

Corophium longicorne. 
Chelura terebrans. 
Hyperia Galba. 
Caprella tuberculata. 
Comatula rosacea. 
Ophiura texturata. 

albida. 

Ophiocoma neglecta. 

Ballii. 

bellis. 

rosula. 

minuta. 

Uraster glacialia. 

rubens. 

— — violacea. 

hispida. 

Cribella oculata. 



Solaster papposa. 
Asterias aurantiaca. 
Ecliinus sphsera. 

Miliaria. 

Echinocyamus pusillus. 
Spatangus purpureus. 
Ainphidotus cordatua. 
Cucumaria fusiformis. 

Hyndmanni. 

Thyone papillosa. 
Synapta inhaerens. 
Syrinx Harveii. 

granulosus. 

Sipunculus Bernhardua. 
Priapulus caudatus. 



Detailed notes on the species will accompany the final Report. 



32 REPORT — 1860. 

Report on the Excavations in Dura Den. 
By the Rev. John Anderson, D.D., F.G.S. 

In reporting on the operations and researches in Dura Den during the 
summer of 1860, the Committee laid open several large sections of super- 
incumbent boulder clay and of the underlying yellow sandstone, but were 
unsuccessful in obtaining any of the Pamphractean or Pterichthyan forms 
sousiht after. None of the workmen eiiirasred in the excavations in 1837, 
when these organisms were found in great numbers, were living in the di- 
strict ; and the Committee, proceeding on the information of others, failed to 
detect the precise fossiliferous bed in question. Their labours brought them, 
however, to a point which cannot be far distant from these crustacean trea- 
sures, and they are hopeful that, on resuming their researches, they shall 
meet with the desired success. They proceeded to other sections of the rock, 
in the bottom of the ravine, and there they were richly rewarded with an 
abundance of the fossil remains of fishes, chiefly of the genus Holoptychius 
and other Cozlacanths. 

The yellow sandstone deposit, as described in the 'Course of Creation' 
in former papers of Dr. Anderson, consists of an alternating series of grits, 
shales, marls, and fine-grained sandstone, of various shades of colour. The 
fossil fishes are confined to one particular bed, which, when laid open, easily 
splits up, the organic materials determining the point of separation, and 
exhibiting often on a single flag from fifty to a hundred closely-packed and 
well-defined figures with scales, fins, and cranial plates quite entire. On the 
present occasion your Committee were surrounded by an intelligent group of 
lovers of the science, male and female, from Edinburgh, St. Andrews, Forfar, 
Dundee, and Cupar, and succeeded, after a few hours' labour, in displaying to 
their eager gaze some of the largest and most beautiful specimens of these 
older denizens of our seas. 

It will not be necessary to describe in detail any of the well-known forms 
and characteristics of Holoptychius, the most abundant of the genera found in 
this deposit. But having submitted some of the most perfect of the spe- 
cimens to Professor Huxley, and as he thereby was enabled to detect some 
new particulars connected with the structure and figure of the genus, it will 
not be deemed out of place to give an abstract of his interesting descrip- 
tion, contained at length in Dr. Anderson's ' Monograph of Dura Den*.' 

"In studying," says Professor Huxley, " the new forms of Devonian fish 
which have been described, I found it desirable to obtain a more definite 
conception than was deducible from extant materials, of the characters of 
Holoptychius. To this end I examined a considerable number of specimens 
of Holoptychius Andersoni, contained partly in the collection of the British 
Museum, partly in that of the Museum of Practical Geology, and I have 
arrived at the following conclusions. Holoptychius Andersoni has very nearly 
the proportions of a carp, but its body is thicker and its snout is more rounded 
from side to side. The greatest depth of the body is in front of its middle; 
the length of the whole body is to that of the head nearly as five to one. 
The orbit is nearly circular, about one- fourth the length of the head. The 
cranial bones all exhibit a peculiar granular structure. The two parietals 
occupy a large extent of the upper wall of the cranium, and have the form 
of pentagons with their elongated bases turned inwards and applied to one 
another. The occipital region is covered by three bones, one median, and 
two lateral; the lateral bones having radiating stria? on the posterior halves 

* Dura Den ; A Monograph of the Yellow Sandstone and its remarkable Fossil Remains. 
By the Rev. J. Anderson, D.D., F.G.S. Edinburgh : Thomas Constable and Co. 



ON THE EXCAVATIONS IN DURA DEN. 33 

or their outer surfaces. The operculum is a broad bone, larger behind, 
where it is convex, than in front, where it is concave, and much longer than 
it is deep. 

" The rami of the lower jaw are stout and strong, and form a very broad, 
almost semicircular arch. The characters of the scales are well known. 
The fins are lobate, and the dorsal fin is small and triangular. Sir Philip 
Egerton, in a valuable memoir recently read before the Geological Society, 
expresses his belief that Holoptychius has two dorsal fins. I am very loath 
to controvert the opinion of so experienced and skilful an observer, the more 
particularly as specimens of Holoptychius with perfect tails are very rare, 
but one or two complete examples I have seen, leave no room in my mind 
for any other conclusion than that stated above." 

Numerous perfect specimens of this remarkable fish have been obtained 
in our recent excavations, which show the lobate character of the fins as de- 
scribed by the learned Professor, as well as the unity of the dorsal organ. 
The entire form of the body of Holoptychius is likewise beautifully deve- 
loped in some of the specimens, where the caudal end appears gradually 
tapering to a point, and not at all bent up as represented in all former de- 
scriptions ; while the ventral lobe of the caudal fin, though rather shorter than 
the dorsal lobe, has nearly the same depth, and not in the ordinary sense 
of the heterocercal structure. 

In the course of our explorations we also succeeded in obtaining several 
perfect specimens of two new and hitherto undescribed genera of Ccelacanths, 
namely, Glyptolcemus Kinnairdii and Phaneropleuron Andersoni. 

The specific distinction of Glyptolcemus Kinnairdii was proposed and 
adopted at the Meeting of the London Geological Society in honour of 
Lord Kinnaird, whose zeal in promoting the interests of geology is only 
equalled by his enlightened endeavours to advance the interests of anything 
connected with our social and industrial well-being as a statesman. The 
generic term of Glyptolcemus was suggested on account of the marked 
sculpture of the jugular plates in one of the specimens. As described in the 
"Monograph" of Dura Den, the scales and fins likewise form strongly 
marked characteristics of this new genus. 

The scales are rhomboidal, and have an average short diameter of one- 
sixth of an inch. Twenty-four series are visible, and diverge from the me- 
dian line in the ordinary way ; they are larger on the anterior part of the 
ventral surface than on the posterior part, and at the side of the body than 
on the belly. They are pitted and ridged almost as in Glyptopomus, although 
somewhat thinner and less bony than in that fish. There are two dorsal fins 
which are situated very far back, the anterior edge of the root of the first 
being nine inches distant from the end of the snout in one of the specimens : it 
is remarkably slender, and of a semi-oval outline. The second dorsal fin is 
considerably larger than the first, being two inches on its longest axis, and 
its breadth about an inch in depth. The entire length of the body, in several 
of the specimens, varies from a foot and a half to nearly two feet. 

The other new genus discovered in the course of our explorations is the 
Phaneropleuron Andersoni, and from some very imperfect fragments named 
by Professor Agassiz as a Glypticus, but without describing or defining the 
genus. The generic appellation, now bestowed by Professor Huxley, ex- 
presses the most striking character of the fish — the curious development and 
obtrusiveness of its ribs, arising from their complete ossification as well as 
the thinness of the scales. The affinity of Phaneropleuron with the typical 
ccelacanths is indicated not only by its singular tail, but by its persistent 
notochord, by its lobate pectoral and ventral fins, and by its well-ossified 

1860. d 



34 REPORT 1860. 

superior and inferior vertebral elements. The scales remind one of Holo- 
ptychius, but are much thinner and differently sculptured. The fins are more 
nearly of the structure of this genus in theirgeneral facies, though they differ in 
details. They are lobate iu the lateral pairs, a character now regarded by one 
of our most eminent ichthyologic authorities, Sir Philip Egerton, as belonging 
to the entire family of Ccelacanths, and which Agassiz has also described 
in his elaborate account of the Glyptolepis of Clashbennie in the ' Poissons 
Fossiles.' 

This locality, so richly stored with these and other forms of fossil remains, 
has now contributed largely to our stock of palaeontological knowledge. 
Should the researches be continued, your Committee are sanguine, not only 
in the recovery of the long-lost bed of the disputed Pamphractus, but like- 
wise of new genera and new species still sealed up in the yellow sandstone 
museum of Dura Den*. Trilobites of a small type, Productse and Spirifers, 
are very numerous in the carboniferous shales of Ladeddie, which are in 
immediate superposition and stretch along the southern opening of the Den. 
About three miles to the eastward, in the ironstone deposits of Denbrae 
and Mount Melville, large jaws, teeth, bones, and scales of the genus 
Rhizodus are in the greatest abundance and the most beautiful preservation. 
Thus the geologist may here study successively the upper beds of the Old 
Red Sandstone, the Mountain Limestone, Ironstone shales, and the Coal-mea- 
sures on the most northern limits of the Carboniferous system. Trap-rocks 
everywhere penetrate the series of sedimentary deposits, indurating the sand- 
stone, fusing the limestone, roasting the coal, and exhibiting proofs of those 
destructive agencies and deleterious impregnations by which the fishes of 
Dura Den were suddenly overtaken, silted up, and preserved in such num- 
bers and perfect forms in their stony matrix. 



Report on the Experimental Plots in the Botanical Garden of the 
Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. By James Buckman, 
F.L.S., F.S.A., F.G.S. fyc, Professor of Botany and Geology, Royal 
Agricultural College. 

In presenting our Report for 1860, it will be necessary to remark, that on 
account of the peculiarities of the season, particularly its lateness, and the 
fact of the unusual period of the Oxford Meeting, the Report before the 
Section at Oxford was made verbally, permission having been obtained to 
make a more full and written report when the experiments had attained to 
something like completion. It was reported before the Section that 200 
plots were in operation, which were classified as follows: — 

Plots. 

Agricultural Plants 50 

Medicinal Plants 30 

Esculent Vegetables 20 

Grasses, old and new plots 60 

Miscellaneous Plants 40 

Total 200 

Of these, at the Oxford Meeting it was reported that more than half were 
either new seeds only just germinated, while for the others they had made 

* See Reports of the British Association for 1858 and 1859. 



ON THE GROWTH OP PLANTS. 35 

so little progress, that we almost despaired of any substantial results under 
such untoward circumstances. Still, however, we now offer remarks upon 
some of the more striking experiments, which it may be said are so far com- 
plete up to November. 

Grasses. 

Sorghum saccharatum (Holcus saccharatus), Chinese Sugar-cane.— The 
fine summer of 1859 enabled us to grow this plant to a height of as much 
as 7 feet, as also to perfect its saccharine matter, at least in a very high 
degree. This success, which was pretty general all over England, had caused 
very flattering encomiums to be passed on the merits of this plant for agricul- 
tural purposes, especially as a green soiling food. The total failure, however, 
of our experiments for this season is not only instructive as to the great 
diversity of seasons, but should also teach us caution in recommending the 
extensive adoption of any new plant in our uncertain climate from only a 
single year's growth. Our best plants did not attain 6 inches, and indeed our 
failure this year was more signal than our success the previous one. 

JEgilops ovata. — Although our specimens are far later in coming to matu- 
rity than in any former season, yet the results are more striking than we have 
before observed. Even at the time of our writing (November), little of our 
crop for 1860 has ripened ; but the spikes are longer than usual, whilst the 
stalks (culms) are taller; and added to this is the important result of a show 
of more and larger grain, of the shape of the wheat grain, so that we have 
scarcely a doubt left as to this being the parent of the cereal or corn wheat. 
Again, as another evidence of the results and effects of cultivation, we have 
the crop of this year affected with all the epiphytical fungi to which wheat 
is liable, and the more so the more it is manured. 

Gyneria argentea, Pampas Grass. — Our specimens, one of which flowered 
most beautifully last year, are all dead, so that however highly this plant 
may be recommended for naturalization in other parts of England, where the 
climate is milder, we cannot think it will ever be safe to trust to it on the 
" Stony Cotteswolds." 

Of British Grasses, we have to report that we have had in operation during 
the present season as many as sixty plots ; several of these are only our usual 
common English species, many of which are condemned to be resown on 
account of their inevitable admixture. Among the experiments of interest, 
we have to report the complete production of Festuca elatior from a plot of 
F. loliacea, in which the changes were as follows : — 

2nd year. — Festuca loliacea the rule, with exceptional cases of F.pratensis. 

3rd year. — Festuca pratensis the rule, with exceptional cases of F. elatior. 

4th year. — F. elatior increased. 

5th year, 1860. — Festuca elatior has complete possession. 

In reference to this, it will be remembered that we noted in a former 
Report the occurrence of F. elatior in Earl Bathurst's Park, which we then 
conjectured had been derived from the sowing of the seed of F. pratensis. 
Tli is year we have further to remark that here the elatior form is the rule, 
and scarcely a vestige of the F. pratensis remains; and very coarse and un- 
sightly it is as a glade in a park. 

We have now performed this experiment twice with the same result, and 
our views seem confirmed by the accidental case just referred to; we have 
then no doubt that the three forms just adverted to are but varieties of a 
single species ; and we have much pleasure in observing that our views in 
this and other cases of a like kiud, derived from actual experiment, and 
reported upon to the Association in 1847, should be confirmed by the 

83 



36 REPORT — 1800. 

Specific Botanist as thus : under the head of " Meadow Fescue, Festuca 
elatior," see Bentham's ' Handbook of the British Flora,' p. 602, we have the 
following : — 

"a. Spiked Meadow Fescue (F. loliacea, Eng. Bot. t. 1821). Spikelets 
almost sessile, in a simple spike. Grows with the common form, always 
passing gradually into it. 

"b. Common Meadow Fescue (F. pratensis, Eng. Bot. t. 1592). Panicle 
slightly branched but close. In meadows and pastures. 

"c. Tall Meadow Fescue (F.elatior, Eng. Bot. t. 1593 ; F. arundinacea, 
Bab. Man.). A taller, often reed-like plant, with broader leaves, the panicle 
more branched and spreading. On banks of rivers, and in wet places, espe- 
cially near the sea." 

Now, though well aware that these views are not generally shared by col- 
lecting botanists, we are yearly more and more persuaded that even greater 
innovations than now contended for v. ill be admitted ; and we cannot help 
expressing pride and pleasure that we should for the last fourteen years 
have been conducting a series of experiments, many of which practically 
prove the truth of several of the theoretical views, with regard to what has 
been termed the "lumping" of species, of the author of the Handbook; 
and we cannot here omit expressing our best thanks to the British Association 
for their assistance in prosecuting these interesting inquiries. 

Poa (Gli/ceria) aquatica. — Our plot with this experiment still continues 
to exhibit in its entire space, without the slightest intermixture, the induced 
form we have before reported upon, which indeed is so different from the 
original grass, that at a first glance most observers would pronounce it to be 
large examples of Poa trivialis; the differences, however, in all parts are as 
great between our induced form and that grass, as exists on comparing the 
induced form with the Poa aquatica. There can be no doubt that in 
this case the cultivation of the seed of a water grass in an upland situation 
has led to great changes, not, as has been supposed, brought about by cross- 
breeding or hybridizing, but the seed of the P. aquatica has at once been 
changed in the growth of the plants that came up from it ; and it now remains 
to see if the change be a permanent one, to which end we hope to be able 
to sow a plot of the seed of the induced grass next spring; but in the mean- 
time it may be well to remark, that although it has frequently seeded, yet 
that the bed is still free both from innovations from seedlings of its own kind, 
as also from those of other species. 

Poa (Gli/ceria) Jluitans. — At the same time that the plot was sown with 
the seed of P. aquatica, another plot was occupied with seeds of the Poa 
Jluitans; and we should remark that in both cases the seeds were drilled, and 
the drills remain intact to the present hour. Now the result is, that both 
plots were indistinguishable at the first time of flowering, and have so re- 
mained to the present hour ; and with reference to the last form, it may be 
well to point out that, having been favoured by Messrs. Sutton of Reading 
with specimens of the collection of grasses which they keep in cultivation, a 
bundle marked " Gli/ceria Jluitans" is identical with our induced forms from 
both P. aquatica and P. jluitans. 

Poa aquatica and P. Jluitans. — We offer no explanation of these ; being 
well acquainted with these two species, we can truly say that our induced form 
is widely different ; nor is it at all identical with any other British species. It 
is, however, still a matter of regret that we have not been able to procure 
ripe seed of these species from the district, as, so far as we can discover, none 
of the P. aquatica at least has ripened in the district. It may be well to 
mention, that even this shyness in the ripening of the seed of this now so 



ON THE GROWTH OP PLANTS. 37 

emphatically a water grass, is not without value as affording something like 
evidence that this species is perhaps after all out of place, and this may- 
point to the fact that our induced form is the right one ; at all events, it quite 
determines the fact that the name Glyceria is inapplicable, as it is a decided 
Poa in cultivation. 

Crop Plants. 

Pastinaca sativa, Parsnip. — Our ennobled examples of these were con- 
sidered so perfect, that it was thought advisable to consign the whole of the 
seed of 1859 to the Messrs. Sutton of Reading, as new varieties of any cul- 
tivated crop plant is always desirable, and more especially when, as in the 
present case, the new form has been directly derived, not from a variety, but 
from the original wild stock. In reference to the continued success of this 
experiment, Mr. Sutton reports in a letter of October 17th of this year as 
follows : — 

" The Student Parsnip in our trial ground is the nicest shape of any, more 
free from fibres, and as large as the ' hollow crown,' which is a good medium 
size. The flavour seems to be very nice." 

This is the more important, as of late this useful garden esculent has much 
fallen into disuse, its want of flavour being the assigned cause. 

We must not omit to remark, that one of the most malformed specimens 
of parsnip, and also a highly digitated Swedish Turnip, were set aside for 
seeding, with a view to sowing next spring in the same kind of plots, as there 
seems reason to expect that such degenerate forms could only beget a 
degenerate progeny : with a view then to ascertain how far this degeneracy, 
or otherwise, may proceed, we first took careful portraits of the seeded roots, 
the seed of which is now put by for experiment. 

Brassica oleracea. — Having gathered some seeds of this wild cabbage 
from Llandudno, N. Wales, in August 1859, we sowed it in the summer of 
the present year in our private garden, from whence we removed some plants 
for a plot in our College garden. These, and our own examples, are already 
highly curious, as showing the tendency to run into so many of the cabbage 
varieties, e. g. long petioles ; the types known as " kale, greens," &c, both 
with broad, more or less undivided leaves, and with a tendency to deep lobes 
and divisions. Others with short petioles, offer the true cabbage type ; while 
these even now show tendencies for the production of sorts, as flat heads, 
sugar-loaf, green, red, and white varieties. These of course are what one 
would expect, but still it is curious to mark its progress. 

In speaking of the Brassica family, we cannot help expressing our convic- 
tion of the justice of including the genus Sinapis with Brassica ; for just as 
our experiments incline us to the opinion that all our so-called species of 
this genus are after all only derivatives, so we believe that the Charlock 
i>i7iapis arvensis, L. is also an agrarian form of Brassica. Upon this, however, 
we want the experiments of a lifetime ; still these would be replete with 
interest, and more especially as we find cabbage, rape, turnips, radishes, 
and mustard almost wholly attendant upon cultivation, and that not only 
with us, but in every variation of climate. How wild the thickets of Sinapis 
nigra, some 6 feet high, look on the banks of the Ohio! and yet we have the 
authority of Beck in favour of its introduction from Europe ; and so we have 
evidence of the crops in India being smothered with wild rapes, which our 
experiments show are principally bulbless varieties of the turnip. 

Mangel Wurzel. — The inquiry connected with the growth of this crop 
is one which may be considered of interest in a physiological as well as an 
agricultural point of view, and hence we give its results in this place. 



38 



REPORT — 1860. 



It is tolerably well known that this valuable crop was introduced into 
cultivation with the hope that it would yield a valuable supply of food in the 
shape of leaves, whilst at the same time it was supposed to be capable of 
fully developing its growth of roots, the leaves then being employed for 
summer and autumn food, whilst the roots were to be stored for winter use ; 
however, we were early struck with the fact, that using the leaves to any 
extent, would prejudice the crop of the roots, and we therefore twice before 
the last year instituted experiments upon this matter with a result that may 
be generally stated as follows. 

The Mangel Wurzel, stripped of its outer leaves from two to three times 
during their period of growth, do not produce half the iveight of root of those 
left intact. 

And herein we thought that we had established the law, that as long as a 
leaf of Mangel was sufficiently sound to be useful as food for any animal, so 
long was it of use in aiding the proper development of the plant; but this 
statement has been controverted by the result of some experiments made at 
the Albert Agricultural Model Farm, Ireland, where it is stated that the 
result of taking the enormous quantity of 5 to?is of leaves from the acre of a 
growing Mangel crop, was to increase the xceight of roots at the rate of nearly 
5k tons. Now, under these circumstances we determined upon repeating the 
experiments upon a larger variety of Mangels this year. 

1st. A set of experiments made with nine sorts of Mangel Wurzel planted 
with burnt ashes, duly thinned and tended as usual; the plots being 2^ 
yards square. 

2nd. Nine plots of the same sorts transplanted. 

The outer leaves of all these plots were taken off on the two following 
dates, September 4 and September 21. 

On the 12th of November the whole crops topped and tailed, consisting of 
twenty-four roots to each bed, half of which had been stripped of their outer 
leaves ; thus twelve roots each, stripped and uustripped, gave the following 
results for both the untransplanted and the transplanted plots : — 



Untransplanted Plots. 



Transplanted Plots. 



Names. 



Entire. Stripped. 



Entire. 



Transplanted. 



lbs. oz. 

1. Elvethan 8-10 

2. Yellow Globe 9-0 

Red Globe I 8- 2 

New Olive-shaped Red Globe ! 11-13 



New Olive-shaped Yellow Globe 
Sutton's New Orange Globe 

Improved Long Yellow 

New Long "White 

Silver Beet 



16-13 
9- 5 
19- 
15- 
16-15 



lbs. oz. 
5- 4 
5- 2 
612 
7- 6 
12- 3 
312 
9-11 
7- 8 
5- 9 



lbs. oz. 
14-10 
13- 
15- 4 
12- 4 
11-14 
10- 2 
15-10 
12-11 
15-13 



lbs. oz. 
5-10 
6- 
7- 
5- 
7- 
5- 
11- 



•14 
3 
6 
•10 
9 
1 

7- 6 
611 



Total . 



114-10 



63- 3 



121- 4 



63- 6 



Here then we take these results from so many sorts as conclusive evidence 
upon this point, only remarking that, in all probability, had the season been 
one of an ordinary kind, the discrepancy would have been even greater, as 
this year the tendency of growth has been in favour of leaf development. 

The same experiments were tried with Kohl Rabbi, and with the like results ; 
and it should be mentioned, with regard to all of them, that the seed was 
obtained from the Messrs. Sutton of Reading, and that it was true to sort. 



ON THE GROWTH OF PLANTS. 39 

It s not a little remarkable that in both the Mangel and Kohl Rabbi the 
results have been greater in the transplanted than in the untransplanted plots, 
the former yielding a larger crop; this too has probably been favoured by 
the moist season, but as it is a subject of great farming interest, we shall 
renew our experiments upon this matter. 

Dipsacus fullonum et sylveslris. — Our plot of this year fully confirmed our 
view of last year, as to the specific identity of these two forms of this plant; 
for without being able to assert that we had decided D. fullonum from the 
seeds of D. sylveslris, or the opposite, yet the specimens glided so imperceptibly 
into either form, that, distinct as are decided examples, we were much puzzled 
in deciding as to the paternity of some of our specimens. 

To quote from English Botany, 2nd edition : " Hudson mentions this plant 
as growing about hedges. In the clothing countries, where it is cultivated 
for use, it may escape from the fields. There is much doubt concerning the 
value of its specific difference from the D. sylveslris." 

Bentham is of the same opinion, so that our experiments in this only lay 
claim to a simple and practical method of confirming these views. Our 
notion at the same time is that it would be exceedingly difficult to find a 
wild example of the true D. fullonum ; that is, one which from its hard re- 
flexed bracts would be worth anything for fulling purposes. We have hunted 
long in the districts where the economic form of the Teasel is grown, and we 
have always been of opinion that where its seed has been scattered and allowed 
to grow wild, it lost its stiff hooked characters ; and, to say the least, even the 
best of them merged into D. sylvestris ; the fullonum being indeed a difficult 
plant to keep perfect, unless under constant change of seed and soil. 

Weeds, &c. 

Thistles have formed the subject of several experiments during the past 
year, which will be referred to under the following names: — Carduus 
arvensis, C. acaulis, vars., C. tuberosus. 

Carduus arvensis. — Our experiments upon the growth of this plant were 
undertaken in order to explain their method of reproduction, as it had been 
disputed by the farmer that thistles were produced from seed. 

On September 2nd, 1859, were sown ten seeds which had been collected 
a few days previously ; by the 21st of the month these had all come up, and 
some began to show the secondary leaves, as in Diagram, fig. 1. By the time 
the prickly foliage became manifest, the cold weather had set in and all the 
plants apparently died. However, in February 1860 we noticed a bud just 
emerging through the soil, which induced us to take up a couple of the speci- 
mens and make drawings of them, of which copies will be seen at 2 a and 2 b. 

Here then at a and b are buds by which the continuance of the plant is 
secured, the buds a, b forming whilst b, b are sending up leaves for the second 
year, so that by June the plants had advanced to the condition of fig. 3, in 
which, while a strong shoot is progressing above ground, a most, extraordinary 
rhizomation is taking place below fig. 3, fully explaining how in the next 
season we may meet with a thicket of Thistles derived from a single plant. 

Here then it is obvious that the conclusions with respect to the Thistle not 
seeding, were the result of the small and inconspicuous plant which it makes 
the first year, and this apparently dying, confirmed this view ; however, we 
see from this experiment that thistle seed is as fecundate as that of other 
plants, and as we have counted as many as 150 seeds from a single head of 
flowers, and as we may have an average of ten heads of flowers to a single 
flowering stem, the eight tertiary buds at fig. 3 a, a may each represent a 



40 REPORT — 1860. 

flowering head in the following season, which would thus give us the following 
sum as the seeding capabilities of a single Thistle plant, namely — 

150 x 10 X 8= 12000. 
These figures then will account for the " Plague of Thistles " which one 
sometimes hears of, and points out most forcibly the importance of not 
allowing these plants to perfect their seed, and hence waste places and 
neglected waysides should carefully be watched in this respect ; but as this 
cannot adequately be done without compulsory enactments, it is interesting 
to find that some of our colonies have already instituted state laws with 
reference to this subject, and during the last Session of Parliament an attempt 
was made to get an act applicable for this object for Ireland. The destroying 
of such thickets of Thistles as we have described has ever been an object of 
interest with the farmer ; and it is not a little curious to remark that the 
operations connected therewith have so much been regulated by rhyming 
directions, as follows : — 

" Thistles cut in April, 

Come up in a little while ; 

If in May, 

They grow the next day; 

If in June, 

They '11 grow again soon ; 

If in July, 

They '11 hardly die; 

If in August, 

Die they must." 

These words, uncouth as they are, are still meant to express some important 
facts in the natural history of the plant. It may be observed that, with the 
preparation we have described of underground buds, there can be no wonder 
at the quick reappearance of the plant on early cutting ; at the same time, 
if we consider that the whole of the aboveground parts of the plants 
would naturally die at the first approach of cold, we may conclude that the 
decree of 

" If cut in August, 
Die they must " 

is more apparent than real. For while the tertiary buds are advancing to 
flower, they are also active in providing a still newer growth of rhizomata and 
buds to perpetuate the continuance of the plant; and hence we have no hesi- 
tation in saying that never can this thistle be destroyed by late cutting off its 
aboveground stems. However, even at this time much good may be done 
in keeping down the reproduction of the plant; for by the August mowing 
seeding is prevented, though even for this object we should prefer an earlier 
cutting, as one head of flowers usually ripens at a time, and not all at once. 

Carduus acaulis. — We last year reported upon our experiments with the 
true acauline form and the slightly cauline examples of this species ; we have 
now to remark that the acauline examples maintain their normal condition, 
whilst the cauline ones, from being only about 3 inches high when selected 
for the experiment, have this year advanced to a complete thicket of stems 
nearly a yard high, some of which have as many as a dozen heads of flowers, 
and is a very showy and handsome plant. 

Carduus tuberosus. — The specimens originally discovered by us at Ave- 
bury Druidical Circle have now advanced to immense masses, both as regards 
their summer development of flowers and their tuberous rootstocks ; the 
flowers are above 3 feet high, much branched and very showy, very different 
from the single, or at most two-headed flower-stems of the ' English Flora,' 
pi. 2562, which, however, is a faithful representation of the plant we trans- 
ported to our garden. The tubers with us are as large as those of Dahlias. 



ON THE GROWTH OP PLANTS. 



41 



We should remark that this year we have a number of seedling plants which 
have come up wildly in different parts of our experimental garden, which we 
shall be curious to know if they become like their parents. With us it seeds 
so enormously, that it can hardly fail to be a matter of interest as to how this 
plant, originally noticed as from Great Ridge between Boyton House and 
Fonthill, Wilts, should have been for so many years lost to our flora, whilst its 
present natural habitat on artificial earthworks, though truly ancient enough, 
would seem to point to its having been introduced to its present locality. 

Diagram showing the mode of Growth ofCarduus arvensis. 




^rd nat. size. 

Fig. 1. Seedling of the first year. 

Fig. 2. a & b. The position of the seedling plants in spring sending up secondary buds b, b. 
Fig. 3. The secondary shoot advanced to a large plant, while the rhizome extends and ter- 
tiary buds a, a are prepared for the following year. 

Bentham, in his description of the position of this plant, has the following 
remarks : — 

" In moist, rich meadows, and marshy, open woods, in western and south- 
central Europe, extending eastwards to Transylvania." 

Its position at Avebury is so very different from this, that we cannot for- 
bear to describe it. Avebury Circles (of stones) are placed on an elevated 
plain of chalk, around which are elevated mounds or earthworks, the whole 
surrounded by a broad deep vallum, which is at all times perfectly dry, and it 



42 REPORT — 1860. 

is on the driest and most exposed part of the mounds that the plant occurs. 
Its change from such a poor position to our garden, which though only un- 
manured forest marble-clay, is yet moist and stiff, will doubtless account for 
its wonderful growth. 

Cuscuta epilinum. — Our last year's report on experiments in the growth 
of this Dodder excited so much attention, that we determined upon following 
out some additional ones in the present season, to which end we sowed two 
plots with flax-seed, as follows : — 

Plot 1. Flax-seed perfectly pure. — The result was a very fine crop, per- 
fectly clean. 

Plot 2. Dirty Flax-seed with some seeds of Cuscuta epilinum intermixed. — 
This was scarcely half a crop, and the fine specimens of Dodder bearing 
down the partial crop, is at once an evidence of the mischief this parasite 
can do to the crop in question, as also of the perfect ease with which we can 
grow it ; so also how easy to prevent its presence in the flax-crop if we take 
care to sow pure seed. 

As regards the Clover Dodder, though this pest is yearly becoming more 
and more prevalent, yet this season has been especially bad for ripening its 
seed, and we are still in want of seed for special experiments upon it. 

Seeds of Orobanche minor have been collected this year with a view to a 
series of experiments upon it, as the Broomrape, like the Dodder, is yearly 
becoming more and more troublesome ; and it would seem that Clovers are 
liable to attacks from both forms of the parasite, and in all probability of 
more than a single species of either; for, as regards Broomrape, we have col- 
lected the two forms O. minor and O. elatior from different Clover crops ; we 
still want to know whether the Cuscuta europcea and C. Trifolii are specific- 
ally distinct. 

Myosotis. — We last year reported upon some curious changes wrought in 
the cultivation of M. sylvatica, in which we gave it as an opinion that the 
M. palustris of authors was subject to great variations, giving rise to annual 
as well as perennial forms, the former introducing us to the M. sylvatica aud 
others, as offsprings of M. palustris. Our present stock still bears out this 
view, as we have as derivatives from M. sylvatica a still decreasing flowered 
form and annual and perennial conditions of our varieties. 

This year we introduced into the garden the very bright blue Forget-me- 
not of our ditches ; this in cultivation (the same plant) has become the small 
flowered light blue form which we take to be the M. repens of Don, as de- 
scribed by Mr. Babington. 

While upon this subject we must not omit to mention that, having been 
favoured with a packet of seed from the eminent firm of J. Carter and Co. of 
Holborn, under the name of Myosotis azurea major, we were much inter- 
ested in observing what kind of bedding plant it might make, particularly as 
in the Seed Catalogue for February 1860 we find the following remarks 
appended to the Myosotis species : — 

" Forget-me-not. These beautiful flowers are too well known to need 
recommendation : will grow around fountains, over damp rockeries, or in any 
moist situation. 31. azorica and azurea major are the finest." 

Of course, from this announcement we expected something rather choice; 
but our disappointment may be guessed when we found the result to be a 
very poor small light-coloured variety of M. palustris. 

Now, we are far from blaming the Messrs. Carter for this, as it will at once 
be seen that this was an induced form, and no one can at all answer for its 
permanency ; and it may be that our position or some new circumstances of 
cultivation induced the change from an expected fine flower to a very insig- 



BALLOON COMMITTEE. 43 

nificant one. Still this affords another curious instance of the effects of cul- 
tivation upon this genus, which seem to tell us that we must not be too posi- 
tive in the specific distinctions adopted by authors for these plants. 

The effects of the season of 1860 have been remarkable in several particu- 
lars ; we would, however, only refer to a few plants under experiment. 

Dioscorea Batatas, Potato Yam. — Smaller than ever; cannot be at all de- 
pended upon, even to make its seed in the Cotteswold district. 

The Cabbage tribe sadly cut up with us, but the Brussels Sprout was found 
to be the most hardy of any kind. 

Gyneria argentea. — Killed entirely, both in the College and our own 
private garden. 

Sorghum saccharatum. — Scarcely attained 6 inches in height against 7 feet 
of the previous year. 

Zea Mays. — Indian corn not 2 feet high, and died as soon as flowered. 

Roots of all kinds smaller than usual. 

Potatoes small in quantity and much diseased. 

Fruits have not attained their usual size, have not ripened, and are 
flavourless. 

Forest trees have made little wood, and their new shoots are not ripened. 

Garden flowers made little growth, shabby both in leaves and flowers. 

Plants perfected for less seed than usual. 
Cirencester, November, 1860. 



Report of the Committee requested "to report to the Meeting at 
Oxford as to the Scientific Objects to be sought for by continuing 
the Balloon Ascents formerly undertaken to great Altitudes." By 
theTLev. Robert Walker, M.A., F.R.S., Reader in Experimental 
Philosophy in the University of Oxford. 

In presenting their Report, the Committee would observe at the outset that 
the main object for which the former Committee (in 1858) was appointed 
remains yet unaccomplished ; and this is the verification of that remarkable 
result derived from the observations of Mr. Welsh in his four ascents in 
1852, viz. " the sudden arrest of the decrease in the temperature of the 
atmosphere at an elevation varying on different days, and this to such an 
extent, that for the space of 2000 or 3000 feet the temperature remains nearly 
constant or even increases to a small amount." It is obviously important to 
determine whether this arrest represents the normal condition of the atmo- 
sphere at all seasons of the year. The ascents of Mr. Welsh were made 
between the 17th of August and the 10th of November. The question 
remains, whether this " arrest " would be observed before the summer solstice 
as well as after, and whether there were any variations at different seasons. 
The changes in the temperature of the dew-point, consequent upon this in- 
terruption in the law of decrease of temperature, would extend our know- 
ledge of the condition of the atmosphere at such altitudes. To accomplish 
thus much would not require ascents to very great altitudes, although there 
are many objects to be attained by ascending as high as possible. The 
liberal offers that have been made by Mr. Coxwell and Mr. Langley, of New- 
castle, would enable observations to be made at a very moderate cost, and 
Mr. Langley appears fully competent to accomplish the task. There are 
also many other observations which may be made in balloon ascents which 



44 REPORT — 1860. 

may prove of very great value. Prof. W. Thomson is anxious that obser- 
vations should be made on the electrical condition of the atmosphere. He 
has described in the article on the Electricity of the Atmosphere ill Nichols 
'Cyclopaedia,' a portable electrometer, and also a mode of collecting electricity 
by that which he styles the water-dropping system, which would, in his 
opinion, be easily applicable. The observations might be carried on, first, 
by ascending to very moderate heights, and then going as high as possible. 
Dr. Lloyd desires that observations should be made for "the determination 
of the decrease of the earth's magnetic force with the distance from the sur- 
face." The failure of Gay-Lussac to detect any sensible change ought not 
to deter future observers. His methods were wholly inadequate ; but Dr. 
Lloyd is of opinion that if attention be confined to the determination of the 
total force or its vertical component (instead of the horizontal), it would be 
easy to arrive at satisfactory conclusions. Sir David Brewster suggests that 
further information may be obtained as to the polarization of the atmosphere 
and the height of the neutral point. And, lastly, Dr. Edward Smith and 
Prof. Sharpey are desirous that experiments should be made as to "the 
quantitative determination of the products of respiration at different high 
elevations." Dr. Smith has, as it is well known, been for the last two or 
three years engaged in experimental inquiries on inspiration, and he is so 
satisfied of the value and importance of the investigation, that he is not only 
willing, but desirous to make the requisite experiments himself. Dr. Smith 
has furnished directions as to the points to be observed and the mode of ob- 
servation. 



Report of Committee appointed to prepare a Self -Recording Atmo- 
spheric Electrometer for Keiv, and Portable Apparatus for observing 
Atmospheric Electricity. By Professor W. Thomson, F.R.S. 

Your Committee, acting according to your instructions, applied to the .Royal 
Society for £100 out of the Government grant for scientific investigation, to 
be applied to the above-mentioned objects. This application was acceded 
to, and the construction of the apparatus was proceeded with. The progress 
was necessarily slow, in consequence of the numerous experiments required 
to find convenient plans for the different instruments and arrangements to 
be made. An improved portable electrometer was first completed, and is 
now in a form which it is confidently hoped will be found convenient for 
general use by travellers, and for electrical observation from balloons. A 
house electrometer, on a similar plan, but of greater sensibility and accuracy, 
was also constructed. Three instruments of this kind have been made, one 
of which (imperfect, but sufficiently convenient and exact for ordinary work) 
is now in constant use for atmospheric observation in the laboratory of the 
Natural Philosophy Class in the University of Glasgow. The two others are 
considerably improved, and promise great ease, accuracy, and sensibility 
for atmospheric observation, and for a large variety of electrometric re- 
searches. Many trials of the water-dropping collector, described at the last 
Meeting of the Association, were also made, and convenient practical forms 
of the different parts of the apparatus have been planned and executed. A 
reflecting electrometer was last completed, in a working form, and, along 
with a water-dropping collector and one of the improved common house 
electrometers, was deposited at Kew on the 19th of May. A piece of clock- 



EXPERIMENTS UPON WROUGHT-IRON GIRDERS. 45 

work, supplied by the Kew Committee, completes the apparatus required 
for establishing the self-recording system, with the exception of the merely 
photographic part. It is hoped that this will be completed, under the 
direction of Mr. Stewart, and the observations of atmospheric electricity com- 
menced, in little more than a month from the present time. In the mean 
time preparations for observing the solar eclipse, and the construction of 
magnetic instruments for the Dutch Government, necessarily occupy the staff 
of the Observatory, to the exclusion of other undertakings. It is intended 
that the remaining one of the ordinary house electrometers, with a water- 
dropping collector, and the portable electrometer referred to above, will be 
used during the summer months for observation of atmospheric electricity in 
the Island of Arran. Your Committee were desirous of supplying portable 
apparatus to Prof. Everett, of Windsor, Nova Scotia, and to Mr. Sandiman, 
of the Colonial Observatory of Demerara, for the observation of atmospheric 
electricity in those localities ; but it is not known whether the money which 
has been granted will suffice, after the expenses yet to be incurred in esta- 
blishing the apparatus at Kew shall have been defrayed. In conclusion, it is 
recommended to you for your consideration by your Committee, whether 
you will not immediately take steps to secure careful and extensive obser- 
vations in this most important and hitherto imperfectly investigated branch 
of meteorological science. For this purpose it is suggested, — 1. that, if 
possible, funds should be provided to supply competent observers in different 
parts of the world with the apparatus necessary for making precise and com- 
parable observations in absolute measure ; and 2. that before the con- 
clusion of the present summer a commencement of electrical observation 
from balloons should be made. 



Experiments to determine the Effect of Vibratory Action and long- 
continued Changes of Load upon Wrought-iron Girders. By 
William Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Amongst engineers opinions are still much divided upon the question, whe- 
ther the continuous changes of load which many wrought-iron constructions 
undergo, has any permanent effect upon their ultimate powers of resistance ; 
that is, whether a beam or other construction subjected to a perpetual change 
of load, would suffer such an alteration in the structure of the iron or the 
tenacity of the joints, that it would in time break with a much less force than 
its original breaking weight. But few facts are known, and few experiments 
have been made bearing on the solution of this question. We know that in 
some cases wrought iron subjected to continuous vibration assumes a crystal- 
line structure, and is then deteriorated in its cohesive powers ; but we are yet 
very ignorant of the causes of this change, and of the precise conditions 
under which it occurs. 

A few experiments were made by the Commission appointed to inquire 
into the application of iron to railway structures, to ascertain the effect of 
changes of load upon homogeneous bars of wrought and cast iron. They 
found with cast iron that no bar would stand 4000 impacts, bending them 
through one-half of their ultimate deflection, but that sound bars would 



46 REPORT — 1860. 

sustain at least 4000 impacts, bending them through one-third of their ulti- 
mate statical deflection. They ascertained also, that when the load was 
placed upon the bars without impact, if the deflection did not exceed one- 
third of the ultimate deflection, the bar was not weakened ; but that if the 
deflection amounted to one-half the ultimate deflection, the bars were broken 
with not more than 900 changes of load. With wrought iron bars they 
found no perceptible effect from 10,000 changes of load, when the deflections 
were produced by a weight equal to half the statical breaking weight. 

These experiments are interesting so far as they go, but they are very in- 
complete as regards wrought iron. For wrought-iron bars they were not 
continued long enough, nor do they apply to those larger constructions in 
which the homogeneous bar is replaced by riveted plates. The influence 
of change of load on riveted constructions possesses a special importance, 
from its bearing on the question of the proper proportion of strength in 
plate and tubular bridges. Do these constructions gradually become weak- 
ened from the continual passage of trains? and is it requisite to make allow- 
ance for such a deterioration by increased sectional area of material in their 
original construction? These questions I have sought to solve by the fol- 
lowing experiments. 

As the load is brought upon bridges in a gradual manner, the apparatus 
is designed to imitate as far as possible this condition. A riveted beam is 
fixed on brickwork supports, 20 feet apart. Beneath this is placed a lever 
grasping the lower web of the beam, and fastened upon a pivot at the ful- 
crum. At the other extremity it carries the scale and weights. This lever 
is lifted clear of the beam, and again lowered upon it by means of a connect- 
ing rod attached to one of the arms of a spur-wheel placed at a considerable 
distance overhead. In this way any required part of the breaking weight 
can be lifted off and replaced upon the beam alternately by the revolution of 
the spur-wheel. The apparatus is worked night and day by a water-wheel, 
and the number of changes of load is registered by a counter. 

The girder subjected to vibration in these experiments is a plate girder of 
20 feet clear span, and of the following dimensions : — 

Sq. in. 

Area of top : 1 plate, 4 in. x £ in 2 - 00 

„ 2 angle-irons, 2 X 2 X ^ 2*30 

4-30 

Area of bottom : 1 plate, 4 in. x \ in 1*00 

„ 2 angle-irons, 2 X 2 X ^ 1*4 

2-40 

Web, 1 plate 15i X | 1'90 

Total sectional area 8*60 

Depth 16 in. 

Weight 7 cwt. 3 qrs. 

Breaking weight (calculated) 12 tons. 

This beam having been loaded with 6643 lbs., equivalent to one-fourth of 
the ultimate breaking weight, the experiment commenced. 



EXPERIMENTS UPON WROUGHT-IRON GIRDERS. 47 

Table I. — Experiment on Wrought-iron Beam with a changing load 
equivalent to one-fourth of the breaking weight. 



Date, 


Number of 


Deflection 


Remarks. 


1860. 


changes of load. 


produced by load. 


March 21 





0-17 




„ 22 


10,540 


0-18 




„ 23 
„ 24 
„ 2d 


15,610 
27,840 
46,100 


0-16 
0-16 


f Strap loose and failing to lift 
|_ the weight. 


„ 27 


57,790 


0-17 




„ 28 


72,440 


017 




„ 29 


85,960 


017 




„ 30 


97,420 


0-17 




„ 31 


112,810 


0-17 




April 2 


144,350 


0-16 




„ 4 


165,710 


0-18 




,. 7 


202,890 


0-17 




„ 10 


235,811 


017 




„ 13 


268,328 


0-17 




„ 14 


281,210 


017 




a 17 


321,015 


017 




„ 20 


343,880 


0-17 


Strap broken. 


,, 25 


390,430 


0-17 




„ 27 


408,264 


016 




„ 28 


417,940 


016 




May 1 


449,280 


016 




„ 3 


468,600 


0-16 




„ 6 


489,769 


0'16 




n 7 


512,181 


016 




,, 9 


536,355 


0-16 




„ 11 


560,529 


0-16 




„ 14 


596,790 


016 





As the beam had now undergone above half a million changes of load, 
that is, it had worked continuously for two months, night and day, at the 
rate of about eight changes per minute, and as it had undergone no visible 
alteration, the load was increased from one-fourth to two-sevenths of the 
statical breaking weight, and the experiment proceeded with till the number 



of changes of load reached a million. 



Table II. — Experiment on the same Beam with a load equivalent to two- 
sevenths of the breaking weight, or nearly 3y tons. 



Date, 


Number of 


Deflection 




1860. 


changes of load. 


in inches. 


Remarks. 


May 


14 





0-22 


In this Table the number of 


If 


15 


12,623 


0-22 


changes of load are counted 


M 


17 


36,417 


0-22 


from 0, although the beam had 


II 


19 


53,770 


0-21 


already undergone 596,790 


If 


22 


85,820 


022 


changes, as shown in the pre- 


ll 


26 


128,300 


0-22 


ceding Table. 


If 


29 


161,500 


0-22 




n 


31 


177,000 


022 




June 


4 


194,500 


021 




» 


7 


217,300 


021 




ii 


9 


236,460 


021 




ii 


12 


264,220 


0-21 




ii 


16 


292,600 


0-22 




ii 


26 


403,210 


0-23 


The beam had now suffered a 
million changes of load. 



48 REPORT 1860. 

Table III Experiment on the same Beam with a load equivalent to 

two-filths of the breaking weight. 



Date, 
1860. 


Number of 
changes of load. 


Deflection 
in inches. 


Remarks. 


June 27 
„ 28 



5175 


0-35 


Broke. 



The beam broke after 5175 changes with a load equivalent to two-fifths of 
the breaking weight, although with lesser weights it had appeared uninjured. 

Summary of Results. 



Table. 


Ratio of load 

to breaking 

weight. 


Number of 

changes with 

each load. 


Total number 

of changes of 

load. 


Deflection in 
inches. 


Remarks. 


I. 

n. 
III. 


1 : 40 596,790 
1 : 3-4 403,210 
1 : 2-5 5,175 


596,790 
1,000,000 
1,005,175 


017 
0-22 
0-35 


Broke. 



Since these experiments were made the beam has been repaired, and has 
made 1,500,000 additional changes with a load equivalent to one-fourth of the 
breaking weight without giving way. It would appear, therefore, that with a 
load of this magnitude the structure undergoes no deterioration in its molecular 
structure ; and provided a sufficient margin of strength is given, say from five 
to six times the working load, there is every reason to believe, from the results 
of the above experiments, that girders composed of good material and of 
sound workmanship are indestructible so far as regards mere vibratory action. 

As the experiments on this important subject are still in progress, we hope 
to bring the subject more in detail before the Association at its next Meeting. 



A Catalogue of Meteorites and Fireballs, from a.d. 2 to a.d. 1860. 
By R. P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S. 
1. This Catalogue is intended partly as a sequel to the Reports on Lumi- 
nous Meteors, now continued for a series of years in the volumes of the British 
Association Reports, and partly as a continuation, in a corrected and extended 
form, of a Catalogue of Meteorites published by the author, in two papers 
on the same subject, in the Numbers of the Philosophical Magazine and 
Journal of Science for November and December 1854. 

2. The following works and periodicals have been consulted, viz. — Thom- 
son's Meteorology, 1849 ; Transactions of the Royal Society; Nicholson's 
Journal of Natural Philosophy; Thomson's Annals of Philosophy ; London, 
Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine ; Brewster's Encyclopaedia, 
article " Meteorite ; " Annual Register ; Journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal ; British Association Reports ; Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy ; Spurgeon's Annals of Electricity ; New Edinburgh Philosophical 
Journal ; Partsch's, Shepard's, and Reichenbach's Catalogues of Meteorites; 
R. Wolf's, Chladni's, Boguslawski's, Quetelet's, Baumhauer's, and Coulvier- 
Gravier's Catalogues ; Dr. Clark's Thesis on Iron Meteoric Masses ; Poggen- 
dorff's Annalen; Annales de Chimieetde Physique; Comptes Rendus; Trans- 
actions of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences of Vienna, 1859-60, 
papers by W. Haidinger ; Transactions of the Royal Academy of Brussels ; 
Quarterly Journals of the Natural History Society of Zurich, 1856; Die 
Feuermeteore insbesondere die Meteoriten, &c, von Dr. Otto Buchner of 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 49 

Gicssen, 1859; Lithologia meteorica del Profesor Joaquin Balcells, Barce- 
lona, 1854 ; Report on Meteorites, by Prof. Shepard ; Reports of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, United States ; Silliman's American Journal ; as well as 
various private notices and public journals. I have likewise to acknowledge 
the kind assistance and valuable information received from Herr P. A. Kessel- 
meyer, Dr. Buchner, Herr VV. von Haidinger, and Professor Heis. 

3. The few abbreviations used in this Catalogue speak for themselves, and 
hardly need explanation. Where weights of meteorites are stated, it is gene- 
rally intended to denominate lbs. Troy, English, though sometimes the Vienna 
or Prussian pound has unavoidably been given. Tables of analysis are added 
at the end of the catalogues. Genuine cases of stone- or iron-falls and de- 
tonating meteors, are marked with an asterisk (*), and in the Tables count 
for 1 ; doubtful cases are marked in the Catalogue with a (?), and count as \ 
in the Tables. 

The numbers in some of the Tables, it will be found, do not quite agree 
with those in the corresponding Tables given in the Report on Luminous 
Meteors, in the Volume of the British Association Reports for 1860, owing 
to the circumstance that when that Report was presented at the Oxford Meet- 
ing the present Catalogue was not then quite completed. 

4. A few remarks are added to the Tables, which do not call for much 
comment in this place, as they have mostly already been alluded to in the 
aforesaid Report. With regard to the November period for shooting stars, 
E. C. Herrick, of the United States, considers it to be advancing into the 
year; in a.d. 1202, it occurred about the 26th October; in 1366 on October 
30th ; so that the motion of the node of the zone or ring which furnishes 
these shooting stars, is at the rate of 3 or 4 days a century ; the period itself 
being a recurrent one probably of about 33 years. (See Silliman's Journal, 
No. 91, p. 137, for January 1861.; 

5. In the Catalogue itself great care has been taken in separating the dif- 
ferent kinds ol fireballs and aerolites; hitherto this has not been clone with 
sufficient care, and large meteors have not unfrequently been called aerolitic, 
when not even any detonation has been reported ; examples of this not 
unfrequently occur in the catalogues of Baumhauer, Kamtz, and Arago. 
Dr. Buchner of Giessen, and P. A. Kesselmeyer of Frankfort-on-Maine, will, 
I understand, shortly bring out catalogues of aerolitic falls, where details 
in matters concerning original authorities and geographical distribution, &c. 
will be given very fully. 

In the Tables at the end of this Catalogue, Class A includes only cases 
where stones or irons have really fallen ; Class B, meteors accompanied by 
detonation ; Class C, first-class meteors not accompanied by detonation ; this 
class includes all fireballs given in the catalogues up to the year 1820; after 
that time, only the most remarkable ones, as in consequence of the subsequent 
greatly increased number of observations from about that time, it is evident 
the described fireballs would probably be of smaller size than for older ob- 
servations ; Class D includes all fireballs mentioned in the catalogues and 
supplements, large or small, where no detonation was reported, and of course 
includes the C class. The Tables are so constructed, that a glance will suffice 
to show the results as regards numbers and dates, and the proportion which 
one class bears to another ; some of them will be found to be not without 
some interest. 

Note. — Wherever the words •' Stone-fall " or " Iron-fall " occur, it may be 
understood, as a rule, that such phenomenon was also accompanied by a 
detonating fireball, or at least by a detonation. 

1860. E 



50 



REPORT — 1860. 









r3 3 




















=».«« 


















| 


1— 1 IH 

o 






es 












a 


a) 






•K 




• 










§ 






to 
9 
pq 


o 








-ts* 

00 


H 






o 




s 






u 

BO 


« 

0) 

.3 

O 


O 

s 
a 

o 
o 

<3 


e 

o 

IS 

3 

.Si **- S3 

GO ^ 

S3 => 5 3 




4a 

3 i; 

-° .3 


to 

_B 

'4a 

(d 

3 
O 


at 

CJQ 

'S 

3 




^ 


■H 






(/) 


c 


o> 1 


d 




H 


t-^ 


o 




% 


i-. 


-a s 


0) 




a 

S 


.3 


8P 

o 

-*a 

to 

3 

u 

o 

CJ 

t> 

03 




, 3 


-4-3 — • 


& 


o 

50 

CO 

r— 1 


01 

M 

'a 


sa 

CO 
M 

<P 

-3 
+a 

to 

c 

•c 

3 


2 5 . S 3 

Sj o -3 -° ^ a> 3 
•a «3 >>_ !► 3 


Is 


00 . « 

CD . " 

oo Q a 

b -< i 


*-^ .2 = >n 

° 2 s „• 

en 5 to B 

O 2-3 3 — 


— £ 

O 1.1 

"3 a SI 






o c 


a o 6 o c 


ooo"ooocoooo_= 


B 


o o" 


c 


O ° J3 3 3 3 


j: - SI 


< 






— 


.- .- t. .- t- ■" s- -> x] 


o 

-4J 


s ^ 


















o< 


.2 o 

■*s J3 

=s : 
























































: 


p 


3 « 


























































< 




















£ 
















H 




o 




















s~ 


, 














CA 




«** 


a 
.2 




















































:M 




^s 
v 


















































is:. 




a) 
















































"^ H J 




' 4l 


O 


n 














i5 




















z 






















B 


-*j 


















C3 


s 


















Ul 


to 














I . 


. 




'5 






* • 






























i 


: j> o o : 
: ?£S 1 

3 « 


S : <» 

3 • u 

II :3j 


:o 


o 


















««* 


M 

m 


















Cm 




















o 










































J 






i 










3 




































] 






■ 


! 














6JD 




































; 






-t- 
















O 










































c 


1 














»— ■ 










































1 


u 














ea 










































c 


) 














■3 


^ 














: « 


















: • 


— 




1 


t 












i 


O 


-4^ 

"3 










- 


:S.a 






f\. 








: t 


1 



? 


1 










: 
• 




cj 


• 4) 

: s 






o 
'■is 


' •— — 
. a, ^ 








3 




pi 


1 

) 


a 

■ 


1 

1 


a 

a >, : 

IS a '. 

o£ : 


to 




• 






7 


: 3 1; 


5 4 

o o o ^2 c 

> 13 -3 -3 O f- 


< <! (Z( CO fc. -3 t3 O Bo) ps 


f 


! "5 

; g 2 
■ S. : 

> a - 


— 
B 


o « >; to 3 <■ 


"e 
• — 


1 

• £ 
o 






























3 * • 




* " 

















MH <J — 


< 






M r-l 


f) ■* 










(M k- CV 


■ 






!N 














. »^ rt. rt. O f*. O-i 

o u § « s 7 




i 
i 

) 




^5 (Z) 


abIV 




Q 5 








4a 

o 






a 


c * * 


• * * 5|; <%. s 


*** **~. * * * * * 


* 


'. *. * 


' .-v 


. * * * * =! 


: :!-- 4 




3 <* 


i o « 


> -*' O M <£> t> 


HOC^iO»>0'-odweONC 


' ■-: 


> 53 t> 


i l> 


I If) H tf) t>J CC 


ion- 




O 


. f) « 


> o ^-< c? .-i if 


CDinuCOCOXClrtOi^fNrt^ 


> if 


> cc c 


i r 


O t» <M f> f 


l ^ '£ 2 




in p 

•J 


i I - 
j- 1 


< r-i n eo •» ■« 


^ O »C O O i-T O O <S X CD 00 oc 


i a 


. 00 01 


J ^ 


r. 3 ci oi c 


. c-. o cs| 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



51 






rt 



d 



_ 3 

1 C2 



3 

to 



rt c ' 



; to 

; i3 



hr-a « 



•S^.yv: 



. ej . S3 s- ^ . 
* — 1 rt CJ \ 



n a - a) o 



w> " *? 



■ m :aj ~ j- »- h- 



0) <-> 
£ 09 



£ 



a ^ 

to u 

O 3 

-*j o 

rt ■Si 

(/) *. rt.. 
fe ** — 

* i« 

co Co co 

3—3 

to a to 

° 3 = 
' — 'rt cj ;- « 

; o .c £ o -a 



•a 

a 

o 



*2 o M 



9V« 
1* o o 



S-. «S <3 



. . & 

cu 3 
£ CO 

— ■ o 

I— I i—l 

o r-i 



cu 


co CJ 


- 


t- X 


rt 


0) -^ 


^ 


2 -" 

C3 ^ 




X c 


cu 


3 .3 


o 


ca 



ca °- 

"f ; 3 ; 

r to 



! ° 

I -3 



3 
3 



to 

1- 

. cu 

O ^S 

CO.X 
i— I t- 

a m ■ 
< c < 



o £ -a -3 -a ,= • - 



,CS f-H CJ 32 



Q O "3 



3 
' O 

."« ca 






g O C CD 



:cu H *^ :D -~ ^ -t^ .-h ._ :tu u, 

ta t3 c/j ca «s <e co -a -3 a — ■ 






2 ° o -q 



cu :U • -* 
co ca Tj 



sa; 



^ o 

CO +J 
to u 

■ ■ rt-. ,„ 

o o d o o 



) I-i -^ — . — r3 — .— .^ 

itceO'qT3'a'T3'0'o 




to 



o : ss co . ■-• 

O • to ; SO 

a ; § 5* i 53 

II :§~ •" 



• to 
. « 



o /x. c^ o ; o 

O ,, C CJ o 

uSsoao 

o Ji T-» O o o 

S C b i^.m h 
o a o o j- o 



o « 2. 



S p S. 



5 53 



»5 °>Sr n 



•3 • 3 u 

3 • -r o 

» a 2 = 



toW 



cu 



10 3 

.s -a >• 

3 3 "a ■- 3 (yj 
~ JD 3 O o 

Sggsla 1 <" 

Si P O o J- rt 






o < tr> 
<-i u —i 

o <■ 
•- >. >» 

»-i 3 3 









I O 

i &>§' 

1 « 3 



CM CM 



n. n, *x, t\.. r\.. 



3 O 

>-s O • 



><3>o OmcMcN« 
» O o C O o O O 



* 



to CO 

O o 



c. o 



ico^od 



* 

o 

* * * o 

^NcocicJNd^o 



•»* >»^ ^.^ ^^ ^_» ^r ^ij _. i-^ -^ ^^^ uu ■_ . _- *-* ^_j 

Or-HnnOXXC13C5Q3'1 , 10QIJ 
i— IHHHHr^rHMHHHrtHWNCN 



M 



o o 

CO CO 



... c> 

o 3 

co a 

co "^ CO 

J S S x 
— ■- too 

Ss « 
« f e s 

O ^ « 3 

■" fl b a 

'ca 'tb^ 



03 



<« CO , 



^- .„ <S ts 

S fc cu -a 

r- "" -2 "" 

fe 00 o g 
• -3 ,3 O 

§S go 

/x. co --^j 
00 0J t'* »o 

CO 3 °0 O 



=- a » 
< 



CD 

1 



o 
o 



a 

o 
1-1 
p 



u 

3 



a 
o 



a a 
a « 

o z; 
« .3 



42 » '£ 

1 ^5 

J3 ay, 



o > 



o 2 

O C» 

,3 rt 
>> B 

S a 
ca o 

g to 

. o 

<=> a 

"-" o 
■4-a 3 T3 

wc3 « 1 
a S g<2 

<J O .- 3 
^ O ^~^ <L> 

3 -^ cu 

>>' M >=. CD 

o (► 



3% 

J3 

o 

a 

o 



cSd' 



2 ^'^ £ 

o a S o 

g ":o°" 

C3> M ^^ ^ 

oi W "g '3 

O ^j 3-1 co 
ccj <; ej 

'.5 w - S 

j" cS o t * o 

S! ,S"^ «^ «d in 

o ^30 oo 5a 

i— I cj •— I i— ' i-H — 

— cu 

cj («• 

e2 



52 



REPORT — 1860. 








o 


















o 




-r 


















« 




1-1 


















3 




Q 


















a> 




< 


















3 


t ^ 





















-** 


c; 


















>. 


3 




















03 


SO ~ 


















r? 


O 


e 




















3 


-* 


















mm 


SO 


















on 


id 


p-H 




















U 


a 


















O 

— 




< 










































§ 


5 


















3 
























a 


03 


















to 


3 


O 


















> 


_. ca 


J-T 






_' 




_S 




— 




-4-J 


3.s 


ed 
**- 


• 




<a 




•5 




!l! 






i.tj 


U 


-1 




u 


3 


03 


V- 


CJ 






= -i 


~ 


-^ 




E3 


.= 


a 


- 


— 






o c; 


O 


cj 




O 


CJ 





- 




a) « 






















£•- 


■n & 


VJ 


^r 


™ 


•/. 


id 


■/> 


-~ 


V. 


■a 






pt, ^ 



ffl cS «"3 «) 
^1 -* t _ ~ 



J- fc- ■« :y -^ 



C 

o 



o - o 
SP.S 



o c 

5 3 

-3 '/J 



"^ _*a 
Sg.g 
g-S'S 

, ..So 
i 31 « d _• 

1 £ o j J 



© 

CM 



s 

o 

(A 

CD Sfl 
O ^ <» 

** « £ 

X — j- jo CM 

c — < o 

c o O i— I 

II S « ~ ti 

J3 >»— O o 

p. 2 cm — -« 

Crt nun 

•« - — ~ 

O-. ... ., CJ O QJ 

— ' — — > *si >• 
.— ■ . — i ^ a) oj aj 

. J? ,.1 .« «> — m 



3 
— 

s 

3 
CQ 



•a r 

a ■ 



. !, 7 ; 

DUO)""'" • 0} 0) ' 

33 = 0000 = 3 
c/3 ww : 5 ; 5r : sww. 



^ = — - 

i - il •? -4 

'a •c}a 

, L, .— <U ^> 1* 

■ -x: -a t3 c/2 <e 



O g 






c 
o 



to 



: -° 
: o 

. CM 



s 

4> © O 
tC-*> O 

^ ttf a 



4> 

to 



c -S - 



>. O 3 

5 " .= 
— ~ p 



fJ-5 



2 <« 



•? == ■- £ s 



- o 
E =S 



Si?5«i ■ 



1> -C *^ -^ 






►^ =:a. 






a: u 



.« « = 



MO ^5 



^ qj 

- O 



3 

: -a 
^- 

0J — 

5 o 






to = " 



c 
c 

t« 3 



to >> 
c = 
■£> o 

£f-c.2 

t — fed »3 

'"el 



•S o 5 3 

s 2 toc.5 3= S c sa 



o si f.g'a- 



ca o 

Q S 



U3MC1M CM — ■ 

CM CM ■-> tl .— 

^-'ii jj tb 



O 



CM CO 
CM -h 



O «i. « 3 



s 



rt N MO « CI 
HM CM i-c ,-. 



o 5 3 - 



evttii cv l~ o c. o 

OJ (N i-* Nh r-t 



?-z^;. 





a 


« 


c 


S3 


1^ 


ti 


> 


>. 


u 


01 




a. 




c 


u 









w 


— 5 


< 


— > 


^Q ?5 


->. 


^-; 




«'*.»occc^ocMeoc6~i"0:r5tcK^co'o ^o^ w*i © d h -i to d ceo ot-^ «:cm-^* 

OMOIrO — OiOOO^OOl^CMMO NJJC1 OO Ol -* —1 — 1 — CM CMti> -»-a- -£^5 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AXD FIREBALLS. 



53 



*s ?. 



71 

o 






1 


a 


n 


A 


u 


~ 


S-o 


3 




r— 


.-3 


e 




» 


it 




o 




a 










<u 


co 

3 


to 

3 




k4 




•wo. 


i- 



a 

B . 
O E 

■S.2 
^ t3 

T3 3 
C O 

13 ' 



cj 

3 

to 

o 



O 



u 

3 
a 

e 

3 
<S 



IS -= 
3 2 



*— CJ 

#3 



■SO* 1 «2 

to _ 

■3 

a 



R-* 



2.2 

4) 



CJ 

*- "3 



> 5 



(9 

a 

o 

*•» 

cj 

T3 

C3 

£►> 

. .Q 

dj 

oo 73 



ss -5 u ' 



a 

.c 



; § « § 2 2 "| S 



« o 



a OT E'/I BC «(fl J3 



£2-2 



S ? V3 ST. 
35 a 

O .3 



" CJ -3 > 

^ 5 «' 



11 o 



3 O 



-a 
o o 



— 3 i =3 



tog 

3 % 



3 

to 

3 

«s 

o 

■a 



A S 



^ O j- 

to o 

~: > a 



.5 * q rtc cv2-a-sT3-j 3 <s »i -e c -j c 'j 



**7 *+? ~h rt *7 3 

<y <u rt "7 cu rf 

a = J! c H ^ 

O O 4J o ° <U 

_ — -_ c *- I_ 

a? a> tc — • c/3 <c 



«3 



o o 
C5 C3 



: o :-= 

. . — 

.CO . t-» 



to m 

a - 



3 « 



u 

75 3 ^ 

•3 3: -J 



3 
C3 

to 
o 
H 

to 

o-2 

- cj 

75 CO 

— «i 

.8 3 

35 i~ 



a, 

t/2 



3 a 



rt 3 

<« o 



to ZP> 3 

5 : = = 3 1 

N) C3 HO i. 



N 



• o 

3 

n •*-, • 

— in «J 

— O t- 

--3 3 



■3 2 5 

>tiiu — sj a 



3 « 

3 c ' 



: to 

l B 



rt t« 5 ~ 5 75 



^ 3 

3 3 



C_> 'r> ! 



c 3 



NCI CN —< r- 



O 



cj a « — 



rtfOCl^^'-OClNCrtOHXXON 

°a «J2 3 5 — "S^ s.2, 5T3 g*J3 o 

™. -r > C -^ -^ -5 ^-. b Q ►-, <-. ryj -< OT -5 5r 



^n i^. o o 



to*: 

3 O 



' ■* «3 ^ ^ "^ 3= ^' ^- 3> — C5 



m HI " 



■** to — < to — « 

»o O O lO to to 



* * 

ONfi 
C>J CI ?J 

to to to 



a 
O 



2 5^ 



a " 



05 



a 

3 

a 



. s 

<U CO 



3 « o 
■—•St- 1 
1) ' t) 
t^ ^-* a 

o u . 

o ^S 

** <*-. o 
B°°:'3 

O "— 
o .« • 

° o ■* 



C B 
3 '" 

I— ( cj 

3 

* -* 



■il 



Q^ 



. 3 



a 
o 

■a 

li.s -c 

^^ o -J 

° S*3 2 

CO J--W "** 

.5-332 

■3 35 -a O 
^3 «■ 

o L'd u 
o a i-. j£ 
a -a a 
~ •" a N 

— c a 3 

«— T3 ^J « 

' — r *-• e 3 *^ 
■^^ §<3 

^3 ° 2 

Jj 3 cj tM O 

a cj cj o ^3 
3 cj a a 

Si? «"« 3 
*Q c B73 

■» opq a 



CM to 

CD 



! 35 



.CJ 



« s 



ssfs- 

a -1 S 

£ .« -fca B 

a ^ o 



3 

-3 



CJ 

5 



CO CJ 

-_ ^^ 



SS. «B 

CJ o 



to 



a 

-3 

2 5 

3 3 
3 • 8 

M .2 a 

/:■ — - 

<u a cj 

^-3 a 

— cj a 

3 ;-. co 
.B CJ 

~ -3 CJ 

c '•« "3 

° s 

. «j.-2 

es ^ i/> 
"CO 

— si 

2 rtB 

.33 

CO 3 "3 o 

r" C3^J CJ 



S CO CO 
CO ^^ ^H 

:-3 ^ 



-3 

a 



a 

-3 



35 

.a 



a o 

CO 



'a -3 o" 

" sea 

OJ O O O 

a j- *-» 3 

O ^0 fco « 



to 

o 
w 

3 



to 3J s m 

-ft ^3 -2 



_-5 ^ 
5 2 



C/J 



- 4 -' ^ it 
co •-* « •* 

.— to (— , «j 

a o i- 1 •£; 

to^ . 3 
B *" >.^3 
- C to E r- 1 

3 3 O 

Q '£ a to" - 

♦j !Z) v. -3 
• E .ffl o 

?3 " *•? ° 

" -^ E E jC 

.■3 CJ c CJ 

t- ^ E > ^3 

, C- b "C O Cj 

a "s 

"• <_ * * to 

O 0,oai § 
"^ cj "^ "^ CJ 

- 1 -S '-"- 2 



54 



REPORT — 1860. 



<% 



o to 

■— c O 



5 

o 





l-O 


C3 




CO 


S 




!>. 


•« 








nd 


^ 




g 

3 


C3 


a 



p 
o 




o 



•73 



to 


«j 


o 


o 


~— 


eg 


II 




3 § 


CD 


^ 


M 


S?S 






« >, 


— ■ <3J 


Tn^ 


3,2 

o to 





torr 


tu 


-a a 


a. 


'C ' 
























>°>2 


■-J 

— 


£ A 


0} 


h p 


3 


C3 .3 


o 


S «- 




» o 



ta 

"Si 



~ .CJ £3 



a 

P. 
3 



;<s &» 







3 






to 






o 












c3 












a 






O 






tO 














-1-3 




^ 


-^ d 




to 


bo o 

*** 




C3 


O 2 




3 


d 2 




«t tJO 

2 o 






S 2 




In 




3 


■a <*• 

.spg 


C3 C 


> 


3 13 


*> -, 


o 


eg 


4-a T* 


;•« 









cs d n qj 



" * V-( r _^ C- *-_■ •— , H __j -^_ _; 



a ,ta .ta 



3-3 



« CO 



" o 3 £ ~ to 
-a tu .a: ta s* 

mo pi g -* 



s«aooo 



-- « S 

3} CD c _ ^ __ _._-__ — 

e«»i ; 5cwm(c tots co cmm 



CD O CU ct! • . O 

2 3 = 3.S O = O C 

S c o o cu t: £ tS 9, 
2cococot£ ; 3 ; 3 ; aco 



ta 



.-30,30000 



fa . 


<3 








c o 






C3 ^2 


CO -3 



,*->.— o o i^ o ri o 



« 3 
.2 2 



o a 



: 5 

: ^ 

: r * 7t 





















. 


















4a 












(■] 














A 


















ci 












to 
































to 
























































*— 














00 



























5 



-a 
















.3? 
'cu 






ad to 


: £?S 


• to 


'■ CO 

; -O 


I to 

• — 


t-» 






o PS 




: ta 






o 
o 






CN 


C r-( 




: M 


: 



O) 



c« ^a 





: o3 : 




to 


:i^o : 




ta 


+ + i 





© 
1-1 



03 

O 2 



^r 1 



C 



, 3 o 
tn 3 

3 O 

-§ e 



rt n 

P3 Eg. 

™ to _ 

t2 •= d g 

« 3 S C3 



,SH 



o 
To 

3 >-. 

M =3 

- to 

o" 2 



3 a 
° S 

to _ 



« r 3 3 ~ 



ta :- 



ta c o 



5c s 



!;'ioi'3gi 

-3 O^-- H EJ' 



to^: ca T^ 

s- t> — 
3 u ^ ~ 



" «" OT 



13 

3 

ta ta 



« S ,5 •■£ -d 



2 ta 



n T "3 ^ 



E|§ 



c_> 



=13 



— 1 


^* 


^ 




a 






M 






ta 

a 



■~ 

■■j 


X] 


tu 


- 




> 


/: 


— 'J: 


y5 



rH CN CM 






i^^tot^O-^t^toco^XCOOOt^Ol^" O"* 
I CO NNrHfH Hrt NOJ CM 






"gQO -jr. <;<;Qc2 



„ to o 

C 3 tu ' 



: ta ta — 
i g S V3 



: ta 3-js s-a^^^cj— ' zi A -J 



CO Tj* »>. 00 Ci in 
(N CM OJ CM OJ CO 

to o to O to o 



* * 

to 

CO 



co 
o 






* 4f * 

O i-h -V o C^ C^ -i^ 

1.0 »o o ^5 o y3 to 

O O iO COCD to 



Oxh ^5 -rf «0 
^o o t-^ *>» *^» *^ 

tc 'O o o ^o to 



CATALOGUE OP METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



55 



a 

o 



- 
c 



G 
o 
x 

. « 



o 
O 



o 



g 
o 


O 

.a . 


s 


li 

£ 


rt "3 

O*" 


^2 

CO *" 








s 


G rt 




VI 


a; > 


j > 


1) u 


p <D 



so 



— « I— I I— ' >• 



a 

ec) 

s 



= — o.-. 



Id « 

xj ■£ <S 



■5 ,«s 

a; <u 13 



y^ • 



o s c J3 ° s 

1 1 J £ S S 

t3 c/3 oo tc -a en 



-=■ B 
•■a -9 






'•g ^ "43 "C na "Q co 




to 
a 

'3 



o 















































£ 




























£ 


















* : 




























o 


















o • 














































+» * 




























fci 


















m ■ 



: * 

• & 

: o 

• *- 



e 

o 

a 



:•« 



■ H» 

: cm 



c 
o 
o 

S 

--> 



a 

13 

■~ — 

9 
."3 >• 



& s 



S WO 



."2 5 

lis _ 

g" g« 

«fc.O 






|Z rf *>. >> ^» 



:5 J 







C3 

a 3 cd 
33 «3 - 



b <" 



to 3 



gi>S 

C3 tlT 1 3 J-« W *"■ -*-* .7i J-i -H tn"^ "3 <-" C — — ** 



OT ^5 -s w rf 2 w -; ~ : 



c ^2 •? 3: 

« 2 is a 

S a ~~ 



o — 3 a 

S g « 8 



c ja •- 



3 " 

-» CO 



KJ.J 



CO SI 



1— I r-t 1— < CM ^ CM ^r< 1-* i— < S^^ CO •— ' 



HH08O CO !fl c* 00 rt t> 

CM CO CM CM i-( --C 






■^{'-»^ < <0>-»-<'- 



5^ 



>. 



^ "1 3 flj ^ 3 "C5 



t^ 00 

tO --2 



* 

o 



***** 

^ LTto^cooiooitNcod 

CO COCOCOGOCOOCTJCJiCiO 



^1* CO CO Ci o 

00 O o -h 

«>.!>» t-^. !>. t>- 



.2=5 <u 



C8 «J5 

s 



O !« 



^ — ™ J>- — ' 

m -S J3 - cs 

s 5-» • — 

« in si ° to 

2 tOa^=iS 



g «> aj ^ « 

v " h Ol o 

. 2 2 c to 

O^ e 3 « 

co o « cq '-» 



o 
a 

3 

C 

3 
o 



Ox: 

CO 1-1 



< ^: en ■- 



IS 



CO 

«^ a 

•—4 o 

aj tO 



• ri a 
g§ a 

* *> 
y^ a 



.- Oh 



"o-t 



csS-a 
cj „ <; 



O tn 
^§ 

|1 

a g 

lit: 

toS 

ft 

""■ tn 



1* 






a 
o 

CO 

'3 

;> 



2 s 
a a 

o rt 

en 3 
cm <S 
:-,0 
•u ^- 

*§ S 
a> 

> I 

o cu 



g o tpoo 

.a §S<2 

•" -»^> ^+-1 

P rtt c= «> 

a o r 

a *> 5 o 8 jrj 

CftrQ W *J 

,ML aj 3 cw »^cra 



o 
to 



a 



*. *. "W 
C> CM 

CO <— < 

2 3 

n -2 

o a 
SI 



2 CS ., 2 t, 

j3 <» 2 cd 42 S 

§ 2 » "i f I 

« - 1 ^ a ° ^ 



'. ^ to co < 



2 ^§2 
is<s,£! a 



56 



REPORT 1860. 























- 




















00 


a 








































60 w 








^ — 






co 2 «s 








*2 w 






co - ° 








o.| 








o 


»5 

;2 




&! 

o 






• ~s o 




o 
o 




a 




CO 

A! 


"1 * 2 

a fc "5 ■§ 

2 £ 5 o 

s '-3 "g « ^ 

§ 1-2 I? eg ^ 


o 


o 
5 




O 
DO 




s 

a 




— 




a> 

13 o 


•a 




« .a 2 S -3 

'a & ...rr* P C8 s-i ° 


o 


M 

rj 




2 * 

5 o 




*^ 


. ^ 




' w o 


.. t- 2 >-, as 




* _: - <2 2 .2 _• ~ _• _ _ 








■ ■— 




; :§ . 5j j «g 


;l- 


. «g-g -» ^ 


















ssa»„ss; t 'i«i;3j:a«ai)(«oa';"i • &> a -~ . • • • • • • ■ • • ■ •« 








te <E <B c? -2 a <a *B a c i c c c 71 c w « 






: Bf 


1-J3 Eie^:»'C'3 - 01J'C'3'3 , a'3 , 3'n'3'3'010 


a 2 












_« 


_o 2 








: a 








■ S 








: : » = S 




: : a 






































rt .. 








' b 








: ^ 








: : =< : * 




: : el 














































• M 








• CH 












: : " 






















































i% 












s 


r oi 












.2 




















: : « 












































































: ; o 
























































09 




















■ • ^a 
























































H 












































































3 


• •••••••• -a 

55 












.,. 




























[5> 

"5 






:+ : 








. . e 

: : o 














V 


■ 








































& 






• «5 ; 








: o 
























































u 






: -o . 








: b 














s 










































o 




























B 


i 








































01 


• • '2 A 












■7: 






























.2 






s 












ca 




01 


: o 
















































CJ ■ 










c 






— 








: -a 




.2 






































1 1 






- 2 : 

o £ • 


o 








ai 


f 

-z 
c 






O 




















t 


a 






M 




o 






5 3 






BmJ ■ 






ii 




ca 


y 


:&< 




-^ N : 


s 














'5 : 


N '• 


U3 


H-l 


t 


m « = a 


> 
3 E 


a 


... +^ •— ^ ~ 

to S 2 •- 2 

.■g H N -g ^ 

a O * C ? 


<3 i) — 


- 
c 

O 


£ -3 


c 

> 


-2 "- S 


ci— 

-= • - ca .=; T' a 

- — -J h o "? 5 
c- y i aj ^ c *- 
a 5 t. ^= r - rj ej 
tx) ra o .- — — ^ 
c ™ — « ca 3 a 


"^ 

01 

g s 

S c: 


•a 

S3 


ra 
r; 


> 
= 
BE 
'_ 
en 


^ : 
.*o ■ 

°? 4> 


*<n • 

3 : 

U CO 


&3 

el 

u 

— 

r. 

•a 




tS3 ao =0 c/5 &s — Crn -3 — K V3 


y? v: ^ 


a. — ot 




•—. rs v; 


SJOZOZO»l»]?H0Z023 


o 5 


^-i^h*j**-«0 ■<* O -^ C*J Cl tD 


*rt i-h O 


o m rj 


CO 


NIM-H 


^■ocr>oo-« , oc>jcor-iooc-;t>.ocOM 


>* B 


C^ «-H — „. M N W ^ W 


»-i 


e>j <N 




C>) ^1 


CMC4COCO -^ C4 hMhhM ^ 


n o 

P s 


*- +J j-! *■* ^ti^ — — _: 

-£ O <: ^ «-5 -i! S t- S ^ 


0^2 

= o 5 

#^; C=J "-S 


= ?2 

a = - 

-* >-5 ■< 


> 

—5 


'i i 


-^•t! ^o ^ ; MJ >C2fJli 






* **.**: rt : * 


* 


* 


* 


^ 


* . * 


rt 


^h <tiOCN CO C*. p-h 


cj 


CO 


i-~ 


td 


»^ od o o •-! 


0) 


*■* <— i— i , — i • - . — — ci 


w 


<N 


^4 


w 


eq ca « co co 


iw 


t-» »-* l>» 1~*» W 4>» *-<» *^» 


i>i 


1^» 


i^. 


4^, 


w »>. t^. i^. i , 


»— i ,— c r-H rH ■— i _ — h rM 




i— I 




i-H 


t~l r~* i— t f— ' i-H 




ri jS o 








V 







CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



57 



O <r> 

• .2 = 

■3 Ji 



3 

o 



O 



■S3 



to 

| 

>» 

^3 



-"a 



.J3 (A 

is . 

a o 



3 
O 
09 



a 

o 



9) ' 



to 

60 
O . 

tog 

g I § -a -a 

<a j- >> cj g 

■ia is « j3 

« « o 



to 



_' — ^ -! -^ ^ — « i -4-> CO CO _ 

•q 'J tC 'O t: ^ 'P ea j3 ;3 tg 'TJ 



E 

3 

■at 

3 ■« 
a to 

pa « 

51 
too 

•-a .. 

" 2 

o V3 

a a 
v — 3 

~. o 

_: -2 «3 _• 

aS "a 

w 1. ^ u 
i- :qj *— x- 



to 

3 



3 r^ - ^ 

a I § 
n Sit 

~* tol^ 
3°-" 



.8 8 

o B 

E 2 



a 



5 -» s ™ o ji 

"H«»3°5 S 

o.5c 

o -c S. 



O — 



3 ~ 



iS^"" 5 "3 "3 

o 5 c -3 -a -3 
I* ts o 3 <u <u 

:U .h « o i- l - 

a *c m uc <c 



.M 3 

o 
oo' a 



00 

>> 

a 

a 

o 

"* -; - 

•■C'g'S 



•'— : * 



2; in 

e S 



W SB 



a 

H SB 

o o 



• to 

• .2 
















to 

fa 

















s e 
o o 

*» o 



43 —4 



i: to 

Q^. 3 

3»5 '— • 



~. 



l.ft — ;o =" 



- to 3 

2.5 

fc. Q3 tj 



to.3 s 

CJ CJ :Q 
— V5 — 



.2OT 






^■5 






u 



to 

o 



CO 

to 

CO _ 



•ItlllSfc-s-il-s 

C ^3 ; 5 S S c ;C : 
.. u-^c530--3«OCXC 



QJ 



3 aj u u =' 



i0.£. u 



o-H-5-5 



fin 

3 3 



I- O to 



•-1 N CO i-< i-H M i-i <N 

'ii trj > O l; O J > ^» O >• tb -iJ — U _o 

; = OU==CuO «U -33 03^0) 



h ^ o iiNtsrt rtoo 

U M CI M C^ ^^ ^H 



ifozao 



3 °- 



-i CO 

ICO CO 



«3 «-• 
CO n 
4-^ t>» 



ci O 
co '"I" 



* * * 



MS « 



2= « .-s 

. 5S D = 



u 



25 

to u 
3 ^3 



=P ? -3 

lag 



. w 



5-« 5 s-a^ 



„ 0) 
« r3 -* 



,3 *r" *• cu OT .— -♦> 

Sic >• iS3 to-" B 

"I^uo: -3 T3o> © 
3 . 2 > >, to—' t>. 

-a « -e S _>•=> 

S "S ,° « "3i » 

IU ra C3 — y- ^ ^ t. _q 






sq "23«S-a o 
i£*r^ « <J ° « S 

r- W _a ^ W3 "3 -Q 

^ o<*e o 

3 « >< ° 



•a 'c w ^> 
"53 o -3 P 



<c - = 



; g.:l 2 g & = § .2 2 

. o « toco 3 o ^ -g 

S3? .. aSfl?" 

' fcn 2 • *^ (o C S ?* 



u 



<L> 






b M = •!■ M 

• rv, ^J ;y? fi y O 

o 



JCO-P a . 

< - J; -«! ° ^ 3 .= T- 1 2 



o o 

a o 

i:i 

p to O 

5 '=■= 

o 2 - 

*r w tu 



_ rt - 
a to 
3 a 



03 



to 

a 



a to S* 11 

to -jo J3 3 . 

-" x, a z - 



a ' 
x ! 



■* 3 

3 S S 

S '3 .- 



o 



o 
to 3 



^S o it 

3-= -2 

- ..^55 

3 - 



a 2 2 



O !fl ^ 



O -J3 ■" 
3 J3 

— -_ r ^t 

— v CJ •- 

S « s N 

3 (M ** 

a 



*3 M 

o»3 

. — 1 L ^» 
^2 3 
a . jQ 
J3 cj . 

£*s = 






-3 o 

3 ■" A; s ^- 
— * to w 

a tcr3 -<ci-— — 
3.= E-- = 

o ° 3 .- — i> 



»w ssg 



oj 



3 22 
to£ »■ 

£ . a 

S 3 2 
a — 

to"S 



M 



: m 



5" £' 

3 3 i; -a t3 -s 
43 JJ a Ph cj £ « 

" ss _^ §0 



CJ 



o 



3 3J 



•S aoo 5o 



■S Ol 

^3 1-1 



2 c> = a a l0 " 

" r" o u b e< 
o ^ ^5 >>.S i^ 

-" •-! CO V to »-• 

*« II =3^- 

CO 



;ffl a 



58 



REPORT — 1860. 



| 

a 

a 

P3 



3 -S 

O 2 



a 



ft. 4) 

o a 

. «3 

6033 

§ 5 
J to 



■3 



o 

e 



pa 



o 



tU -S! 



O 6 



o 5V 

CD ^^ 

3 -3 

o c 
a 



;s a 



■3 bdt, 
~ a ° 
*a ~~ -^ 
-^ a ^ 

— ... a 

?5 a~ 



a 




03 












H3 


,3- 

a 




3 
a 


a 




„ 


~:o 


^ 


u 


IS 


u 
a 

3 


to 

3 


00 «■« 


S 


>» 


OJ 


a 


A 



c 3 

I* 

"S ^ 

00 

_ O •- 

= Ph CD 



a >■ 



en 22 
2 3 



3 



O 

•73 



O 

a 



to 



. ^ 

S «* 

o S 3 



a a 

** 3 



73 J3 

■•a to 



o „ : 



! SS rS 



a jj 
o '3 









1 ™ .S CM 



. — .a .a — '^ a . q . 

( J •— *♦-, -^^ ; ra ^__ ^_ | ; g | j 



j Oj] oo 
O w « « w 

•c •; 'C ^ •a 



go § « 

OB ^ J !C 



- <u cj a 

O 3 3 .3 ■ 

£ O O <u . 

— OT V3 tS . 



o 
o d 



: a « a cj 

PgO jjfl gSJ 

' -j a? g ac-s-s 



3 

cu —3 
a 33 



s a 

I s s i s 

a c -a t c 



.3 'O.HJ^ 

tO S Q) w 

« ° - -w 

.. '^ 

to . "3 o - 



D 



3 O 

■a* 



- Sgj 
« "Coo 

to -1) « o 
. ^ . « a ^_, 

: -c _3 o o o ?^ 

'. >> £ -§ ■§ " s" ' 



: S 



a a 

- - 

CO CM 



: ** 




























N 











: ^ 
. a 



3 

o 



3 H 
o o 

o *> 



o 






to S 
to s 
to s. 


01 






£ W H 
S5 fc 55 



55 

o 



-3 

to 



to "^ 

° -I- 



+ . 



S £? : « 
' - : a : 5 



3 

§ P ° 

a s-- 

n -2 ^ : -2 



to 

M 

: a 



o 

h3 




o ^= 
a o 

a a 




Feb. 26 ... 
Aug. 15 ... 
July 

Nov. 27 ... 
Jan. 2 ... 


-h 


25 ... 
Feb. 28 ... 
Mar. 3 ... 
Apr. 29 ... 
Feb. 18 ... 
Nov. 26 ... 
Dec. 22 ... 
Apr. 4 ... 
June 15 ... 
Oct. 20 ... 
May 4 ... 

10 ... 
Jan. 26 ... 
Apr. 

July 17 ... 

Oct. 11 ... 

Nov. 3 ... 

13 ... 

11 ... 

Apr. 30 ... 


14 

a 


i— < i— « 


* * ^ * 
—^ Ol CO 

r— 1 l-H »— i 
O 


1754. 

1755.* 

1756. 




* * _ * * 

rC CO Ci O rH w 

in in »o to co to 

■d V **■ to 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



59 



v 
M 

o 
C B 

D ca 3 

' a ° 

3 d. P. 

|g> 

a "Sb 

O 

- ctf « 
1 <D ,« 






03 



,-H~ 



<d 
T3 

a 



T3 
3 
O 



3 gj 



o d 

CO <u 



£ 2 



SO 

P. 



cd:3 
"Poo 

CO CO Jt 

•^73 ' 



CD CD 

o — 

C T3 

••S 3 

3 O 

5 g 

CO CO 

5 « 

° CO 

O cd 



c8 

«> .s ° *- 



2 S.3>! 



j= a wo -a 



o w _3 
° (D w 



to J" — 



fed 



. d 

3 O 

33 03 

.« d 



._=" rg 



<o «1 d 



CD CD 

"C to 

CD C3 

*^ ^ 
aj C3 



£-Sr 



73 73 ~ 1 c -a 



o cd o <o 

3 73 «M <S 75 



cd 3 



** o 
^•3 






! S -g .2 to « -£ 5 £> 
: .d £ .73 •=: > £ b £ 

^■ac^j sew tc 



cd a) . — i 

= d 75 jo = 

O O ,o CD o 
5_S *S ca CO cc C/2 CO ci cc co 



g»ff- 



-- — - ,y5 . 



— C3 qj c3 ■ _• • 
.3,0-,o0000 

dCS td '-5 ■£ -5 "3 






o 
to 








w 
























W 










W 
























w 










o 


























































-*-» 










is 
























* 









3 
O 



O 3 





3 




• 


<u o 


a 


3 
to 


: o 


to« 

>- "d 


: 


• to 


f3-o 


3 


A 


: cj 



+ 



»- CO 

CO 



.3 

Is 

T d 



-* 
-* 



3 

a 
q 



£« 



-3.2I5 

oS is 

CO £C CO 



„S.2 



'lei 



u 



CO 



..- d 



°^-^^^ 






H 



tS 0) hOl3 
— CJ 3 3 
to 3 
S g :0 a 



Id ^ 
Sot 



» *^,^ B 



3 CJ 

a5o 



tat. 
3 o 



tiiONnmffiooocinoioor<iotooONnoN5i o ococo 



• > O 
O O 



d 
a 



o w — - 



iTbgO a a uc jti Jo 5 S tic: o 



j "= 3 d" 



CO 






3 



o 

p. 



05 



0^ P3 



ed — 



3 



a 

3 
O 



J3 

o 

■T3 



d 

CD 

J3 



d 



"c5 ^3 . 

a 2 

d p 



. d 



o 



&:^ ^j 



c3 ^3 
^— CO 

to 2 



•- O P< « 
en e» __ 



Z 



K « 



• O 3 73 J3 

>. t- «; co 

C3 >. O O _ 

O O — ' o 

o o '-o o ^ 

i^ i--. c» -^3 S 

~ ~ - 3 £ 

« v. ta g d 

CO O 



'?c5a. 
cm ca .5 d, i-» 

. ccJ J3 CO 

£?s "o.h - 

3 ^^ 3-3 ,n 
3 "ca O '<n rt 

J o = -jS 

d *. 3 C4J « 

O ,r> K CJ . 

« ^ s is S 

. o OS-; 
co -o oj 2 

>,o - ow 
-3 O T3 <n 
-j O < CO 

: ^ " ~: co 



3 



h a 



C^J 



- - o °3 _I (— i 

" «•» - 1 1^. 

•= - —• _ CM j 



o 


CD 




1! 






>> 


o 






a 


3 


•~ 








a; 


? 




-4-< 


* 


03 


CI 





Cj 



d 
o 

^3 



0J » 

ddi s 

ed en "3 

£ £ S 

I 3 l 

o * 



aj o w 

•a*"* . 

■> «r S3 ^ 

s, « 3°S 

"S °-3 d 

O v -3 O 

P. O T-i 
X o* «« 

OJ *• d 

<u d . d 
r. o ^- *" 

>> a ^S „■ 
X> d v v 



9 ^-5 



QJ CU 



i «m 



^ OJ QJ CU 

73 . « 



•— eg 



T3 -d 

53 "' 



.3 
to-.r 

3 ^ 



3 vi • 

3 



< "-".c; 



-* 5 c» 
S3- & 

.3 ^T C3 
3 co 3 

ll| 
■~* r-J ^^ +J 

s a 



t -1 ._ o 

co aj 

a '■$ a S 



O CD 



. a o 
O VS 5 a 

d _ — 

to « e .3 



CN CJ — 

ca ■ v_ 



CJ 



53 c 



o >■ 

£3 o"H 

5 « « 

CD 33 ^2 

so a - 

13 H ca 
.3 iO cp 
So: u 

73 <t> -d 
3 fco« 

CO i~* 

3d S 
° S & 

■"OS 
d j;^. 

M °.2" 

. "tolo 

C33 ° 

M V-S . 

O 3 CO 3 
0-0""° 

o *a -a 

£ ca is 75. 
^ d S "" 

3 ••* 3 T3 
3 » o t) 

^ — <" s 



S co 

* 3 ■« » 

-J — -2 
jn^ ° 3. 

C3 « ^ 

« CD 

^2 a * 



^- fl " E 

CO II g -2 

"O i^ T 

•^ o M d 

_ o <» •« 

- ,_. to flj 

> ff 03 



REPORT 1860. 




a 



3<aj 

p a 



o "-■ " 2 
a- o n ca 

!« 9 3 .£ . 

• ^ ■ .~ca 

« tOD * rt 

a >- a a ^ 

O .2 Ot3 0) 

*J — • ■« ._ t- 



g*3 

o o "* 



, o 

1 <M 



; S 
: h 








O 



o 



It fc 

£ » « £ 

o S 2 o 

■*■* . • ■*"* 

a *• t* Ed 

a a 






•a 



: --a 

















V 














N 






to 














O 






3 














ITS 






p ' 







a 

o c s 

o o o 

S 2 2 
A c « 



to -a 



< a 



5 3 



-a S o .73 J3 



O a, 

a 



o 



<o 



£.•? -a C M <« J> S 






eso. 



^O 



o 



O *J 

a; "'— cs 

c -a 2 

ffi M — 



~T O 

V in 



! Z .a g 

-'3 ^ 



_ ^ " > c a . 

~ S <" > si <- 



- -~ *_' 

a. a. a. 



01 u d u ^ 



<u a 
o •£ 

a a 
a ■-; 



CO 4) CJ .2 



' •> - u 

to tor; Sj S : a s 

Q 2 2 o o .3 o g « £ 



ca 7. j ca e- &. a. fa. - j a. a. y. > ra cutSji; : 



W.a 

<~ to > 
~» *- -*■ 



-3 .a « 

o •a j= 



pq 



£ o 
5 -= 
a — 

rnuoocq 



S 3 
= | 



P E 



—< r-i ~- :. r- . OJ CO 



MX^OiiHOOHOOeSNHHMSO 
^- ■— I CO 1— I ~H P-H r- ^ ?! ,— t hnhM 



> •?£. ^jdS.g'^: 



ph a a ra 
2 -><!■-» y3<S^;-«:0 






to 

a 



U 3 (U 

O "-» CX3 



ci c Mi.' a 

rt cu a = =• 3 
-^ b >-s < < ■-» </3 



O 



3 d 



SO 






to 



* ^ 



o 

00 



^- CM ^O 
CC CO CD 
*>. t^. »^» 



CO 



co o — < 

00C1OI 
*>. !>. l^» 






CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



61 



CU 

3 

V 

> 

.a 



3 
o 

•c 

o 
cu 







s 






£> 


i 




a 


•c 




o 

o 


t/J 




s 


cu 


a 




^A 


© 


.3 


— 


•V 


•*■» 


>> 


o 




a 




c <u 


o 


to 


•E £0 

n< 3 



.a 
to 






a 





ft, 
3 

•73 
cu 

_c 
o 

© 



, ,a 



13 
a 

5 



a 
c 



•3 



© "a M '" 

O ;. C3 — 



s 

O 

eg 
c 
o 

-k» 

03 *» 
+* bO c 

3 ?,'« 

co 



^•° 



to *i 5? 



5 -5 



o o 



• "■ cs cu . 

o o .c a o 

*» w cu e ** 

t3 -a -S "3 <s v> ^3 



w <2 3 ~ j 

■ - i « a « 
-3 w c/i tS 'a 



■Sga 

o 2 E 



13 

a 

, -a 



a * -e td 



So £? 

. § |- 

, — • **i a 

u a « -S 

c -= 2 = 

O cu IS ■ — 

a? -c -s -a 



b b 3^ 

*^ o co 



: b 

• (X) 



: te 



+ 



CO 


; jO 


• £ to • 


SI 




• o 


: © 3 ; 


r> 


-*> 


: »« 


■ r-i — . 


?) 


O 









cu o 
SOg 



' .a 'C 



CU 

■=.2 

is 

if = 



"a a —J 



cu 



cu 



|.|2 

U cj aj 



- t; to* 

to.* S a" 

£-2 5 « a o - "5* g « •= «s y-jg 2 

*> to - to a -j! -a — cu l - ) r! -a ^cu so E 



to c« ^ ^ 



=a 



= 2 toe = S t( 



to 

! :o a 



i to 
a a 





'ra = e a«»5 = £• " <s <u ^ a J3 a « 
;>-2«5;i/3-ac«5;-5-s;3'-5CiiS-)^: >->t/3 


CM 


Oct. 9 

Nov. 20 
Dec. 13 
19 
Apr. 5 
Sept. 15 


* * * * * * o. 

i m ^ «rj <o «^ cc 

o cri cyi c^ c~- o 




* 


* 

© 



o 

'E 

o 



^ CO 
C 01 

t3 a 



13 
eg 
— 

03 



U 

a 

o 



cu 
c to =; 

cu a "a 

-co .S 
■" .a a, 



> 



^5 



^3 E £ 

O > U £ (J 



t- '■a j= <« — 

a — u o a 

^ to 5" to 
a 2 J to-? a 
to 3 B .2 '43 

c — ■ r^ ■*-» -*-» 

■r = » 2 -O 

JS o 



3-3 a 
3H* 



a ^ " 

O d *— 
•^3 ■«-» 

>a ca 

-_, ^= 

'a S - g 
« 3 > 
ft. a . — 

£«£« 

u ** « fl 

a Mo *! 

a ^ 

..jH o •- 

.5 S-g 3 

«£ S . 

« o _ <u 
c .V; t; JS 



CU 

> 

O 



a 
o 



-a 



"« 



IH C ^ ^ 



cu cu L°J3 2 cu 



... CU M 

£ fco«.h 

Q.S 5ii 



cu 
to 

3 



13 s h 

» Hi r 



| 



CO Ij 
CU ~, 

J5P 



CU CU M <" ^ CU 

-*J -2 o a > *z 

a, n. >i c« o •? 
cu cu 

cu 



§ -gco 



oz™< ">'3„ cs 



CD _ 



ft, 



00 00 - B © ^ 
l^» *>. CU 'JZ 4 ^* ^^ 

~~ S a" -1 

a> ^« ^ 3 M — 



* _ 

to a -a oo <^ i 
© •= *> © - | 

CO ea o 



. a 
" 2 

a 2 

■43 to 
>> cu 

cu •s 

a 
to— 

.S e> 

B-a 

cu 3 



T*2 

s ° 

^3 a 
a 

a to 

co a 



o 3 s 



>=• - to" ' « B ^ 






-2 >s -^ ,- 

a c 3 a cn — u 
•S °-aS ..a^S-e •« — 



o 



3 
O 



o « 



«ao fi 'x:-E«2 3 - ca 
t °*'St)a ft^j - u 



a § J J S." - 



a a o.,- _ a 



ft, CN 



cd 

a - — 
■SJ3 S 



o 
-a _. 

^."3 • co o 



ft^ H . CO " Cm Q 

■" a 2 

-3 ft^. -~ o -^ ju g ^ 

o cu ■£ l> " -a i; -c .2 

w a . in . "H CO fc. "*, 

■ * o J; e 






to 
a 

<c 
a 
o 



a 
o 



S a K % « 

=Ta. '"g^aaciS 1 -^ 
'cS.-jgSSh-B^SJ 






a? e a L_- ^ a? « -c .2 " w> « 



a "^ .s l- . 

«! o 00 "3 _- 2 ^ 

a a s — cu ,»ti A- J a «c 



> -a 



-S -5 > - 5 cu 2 = 2 1£ -= 

^ rif fe-S^ « S - 3 



00«-coB"f,-* J cuS>. d s 



CU << 



i^ jd co ctj cu -S -^ ... *~ *^ a a OT r- 
«^ r^ jj in. S ■" j! "■ -3 co-. a Jg £ 

- - g» .S a°S « SiU "r 3.2 a 



62 






























REPORT- 


-I860. 






























. ^ 


4> 

GO 

s 

a 

4> 


fireball. 

ditto. 

fireball ; detonation ; -J-down with a hissing sound. 

great meteor and detonation; stones said to have fallen. 

fireball. 

ditto (about middle of August). 

meteor and detonation ; aiirolitic?. 

fireball. 

ditto. 

ditto (end of August). 

ditto ; acrolitic '.'. 

ditto. 

ditto. 

Stone-fall ; doubtful: see Monthly Mag., Oct. 1802, 

fireball, followed by a detonation. [p. 290. 

Stone-fall. Poggendorff, 1832, vol. xxiv.p. 223. 

a shooting-star; got largerandlarger tillit fell to earth. 

Stone-fall ; 3000 said to have fallen ; detonations. 

fireball ; detonation. 2 p.m. Brilliant. 

Stone-fall ? ; meteor and detonation; struck a building ; 

fireball. [electrical ?. 

ditto ; 2nd or 10th October?. 

Stone-fall ; sp. gr. 3 - 48. [second. 

blue; 23 miles high when first seen ; v. = 8 miles a 

splendid meteor ; brilliant. 

fireball. 

ditto. 

Stone-fall; sp. gr. 3*26. 

fireball. 

ditto, followed by 2 detonations after bursting. 

Stone-fall ; sp. gr. 3*53. Day-time. 

fireball. 

ditto. 

ditto. 

ditto. 

ditto; broke up and almost instantly vanished; 4 Sept.? 

fireball. 

ditto. 

Stone-fall ; two ; sp. gr. 3-G3. Doroninsk. 


.2 J 

as 

P 2 




































. © 

* a 

-4-* 




'■=■ So 

4» O ^ 
to 






r-l 




a 

< 














i 








a 

O 

4> 

- P 






4 * 

O o 




















i 

o 




CO CO 




& '• ° 

13 * •*■» 
tn 










si 

o * 

« o 








It 

z 

o 
H 

CO 




i 

: 








|p 

'53 
o 

4> 




































CO 

rt o 

I a 

H 

a 


c 
: 4) <» g 

• tc-o 2 






s : 4> 

•2 • to 
* 1- 

CO ; ; — ' 










a 
o 
o 

s 

H 




i 

r— 1 

-<• 

M 

+ 








>> 

CJ 
o 


c 

6 


3 

- 


u 

-w 

S 

i 

OJ R 

4> 4 

■ » 

4) "£ 


C 


4 

« 

•- 

i — 


OJ 

« 

(A 

O 

9 

— -. 
o 
□ 

8 
H 

M 

3 

rt 4 


k 
e 

'« 

6 


: *c 
■ c 

i £ 
_: "b 

4. £ 

2 =- 

£ 4 
4) „ 

8.-E 


-» 
b 

" - 

c 
■ - 

4 




1 


« 

E- 

-= 
4 
c 

a 


a 
a 
> 




c 
>— 

EC 

j: 



— 


« 

'S 


4 

Q 

B 

a 
l. 
|E 

4 


4 

~ 
E 

JiC 

E 


5 

a 

'3 

= 
C 


Cj 

> 


2 


4> 

a e 
Si 

al "~ 

"cj - 

§ £ 

> 2 


a 
a 


- H 

3 


a 

4 


r. - 

> 

- 

l 

"s 


fa 

\ 

s 

4 
. r 
1 t 

9 


a 
- 


i 

t 

a 


a 

- 


- 

S 


4 

1 


.-i 


1 
4 




■- 


a 
3 


f 

« 

* 
'I 

cj 




Sc5 


S 3 y y^:- 

Croo oo — < ex 


1; u a c 

CM (N 

■< 7*. i-» </: 




Day of 
month. 


MNrtOCOiO Cl-fOMOOO-H r^ 
i— I f— ihNNh i— i o. 

**■! . It. 

> C fab c > * ! i*3 fc o>"S^; ,. 

o a. 3 §-3 = 030 jr t> E 


COODrtCOOfOrtOlMOirj^OVClNOH 
< — < » — " • — i fH i— 1 i-H i— i i-H HCN r- ( 

l-« *** 4) ^ »h « fci) >»"r^ * 


CN 


u 
a 


£ § 5 S S S 3* 
5 2,, 2 S 2 § " S 


* s 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



63 



to 



3 
to 
o 



CS 



CO 



o 



cj 



So" 
•- C c« 

<D o O hi 

■3 a —• « 

o tc-S S 
cj c a a 

u.5 o s 

a M w 
to o a ■- o 

«o .= o -g *> 

SO Cd «J a to 



o 

CO 



to 



CJ ^ ;a 3 

... cs 9 -a 
j2 <S >, cj 



Eb 



3 

O 

o 



cb 



to 

di 



ra 



eo 



Jo 

If 

£ >- 
-.2 a 

<£> X - 

CU .— I 

h. as 
cu cu »- 

£ 3 a) 



© 

CO 



o 


■ •» 




o 


-l-» 




no 


J3 




f— i 


to . 




o 


3 .= 


a 








-z 


tO-3 "3 



u 



cd 



o 

3 



O 
O 
CM 



3 

O 



=3 

cd 

a 



o 



£ ,!T„r > 



,cd ,ts 



CJ a) CJ CJ "3 -j- « 

3 ,3- 3 3 j2 "3 3 

O CJ O O CJ hi -^ 

-*^ ^ .*> *j j_ :cj O 

co c3 co co --C ca ^ 



IS =3 

■tbsS 



. co !3 "e3 J3 



o 



o a • oj j) a « s . ■ aa 

3j20 3 3jo3j3 0a_o 

o <u :£ o c « o « tj ij o "S 

*^ h :3 -►J -w i_ -h» h, .« .3 -^ £, 
CO '-3 -3 CO CO 13 CO C3 ^3 13 CO ca 






Cm 
70 



4w • '-' 



. a w a 

: g:2 co 5 

: „ +hc a 











CO 

ja 

O 
to 




CO f 

5 : 

o : 

o : 

CO • 















3 

• co o 

• a a 
■ M § 

' "n c 
1—1 3 

CJ -T3 

3 Sh 

m *o ... 



3 3 



.3 to o 



= 53-g S d-g.s'.S'S.S 
^cocoO<co<iea^ig 



■ CJ 

Mrs 

cu 3 
— M 



v> 



£ S ^ 

CO 3 3 _>;. 

- tO S r9 CS 

.= cj 3 _£ 2 
a — ^ - 3 -.3 

> CJ 3 2 o M ■" 

5-SbS §£S»3S 
^ .e I J a ■■= " m S 



o _, 

S3 



M 

M" H ^ 

s ■ *■ 



»■ H «,h J;:^ c3 cj i3 CS s. .3 .3 3 

coaoF-Zfa^ — a* co OH>Ljti 



on*H« r-iot-.i>.cocO'*<Mocoo 

M CNHCNtN HMHrtCNNi-ilN i— I 



iiOHNOOii-ICOH 
i-i«CMINNO)h rt 



■ 60 o. *S 

3 JT CJ 



££5-s 



U CU M 



Mo, cj C >-. 

S 5) <u 3. M 

< co D <! S 



>• tbo. > 

*3 3 cj O 

>-3 ■< co Z 



o 

CO 



00 

o 



-e cj 
s .3 

M j3 

J= jS 
« cj 

<+-• .s 

3 a 

'3 •- 

S-g 

M 3 , 
ts - 

%-i 
••> hi 

3 O 

oZ 

N 

- G a 

O "i 

■* a 



to 

3 




CJ 



M 



♦» *3 
M 

"o & 

CO 



a <o o SJ 5" 



%h* 



UJ J> 



v. 




3 

' 3 
! ° 

: n 
a 

I CO 



CJ 



M hi « 



O M M , -g g. 
'EpTJ c~^ a cj 
3 « « J =Z 
CJ >> 0,«0 CO 
C3 ^S 



"^ 3 
O M • 



_' 3 '—'CO 
M c3 O 
K J3 



3; m 



— cu 
60 "> 
'3 •• 



8 



; 3; * 



M jO 



13 "2 "3 ^{^ 

'— 3 s *-! ° 1— ■ c 

c9 -? ^1 "—'CO 3 

- CO 1 - 1 

CO *^ 

3 ** 
^ ^ JO 60 r- 

^=J^g„| 

- S 3 Z ^*. 

°Sio cj o 
2 - co 00 to=o 

■ 2 g - 1 13 - 

^ cu co 

i< <« M 



3 



3 M - 

co a 
-3 a 3 

CQ cj te 

O SS M 

^ 3 ,D -to 
M co 3 M 

J3 M CJ^Jg 

^ 'cS M .M .^ 
3 «3 <M i' 
.ti 3 CJ J3 



M 

..J3 O 



2 M-g o^ 
?<2^ « 

^ ^'O cj 

rt © cu //} 

co ^-^ 

o . 

£-^s 

£< 3 
>^^3 ^ co « 

S 53 « o 

3 M tfi M CJ 
^ .2 "cu S CO 



-3 

3 

3 
«2 J3 O 

-IS ° 



'P e 
W cj 



co a 

CJ X 

EH 



111 



73 



03 

3 
cd 3 

■e b 



►^ O M 

. ^ £ "5 •§ 

^ 1— 1 3 ^- 3 

03 i to*; 

3: i_ Cr cj 3- 

00 cL, M §■ o 

- ^ cu ^S 
^ tfi g CO -H jj 

s ' Sfla O 

/2 2 a 00 



I o s s 

ra w 3 aj 

s-a^ a 

11 it 

a cu 2 ° 

w o a ff 



60 c ijl _ 

a cj o ?? 

•53 " co j; 

•- • - cj 2 

^ 3^ S 
»~ gS 

■CS-s.s 1 

3 3 "-, 

£-■2 a 3 
M cu co -3 

K -| a a 

£ to <U . 

" a a a 

m 3 en 

1 S & - 

h t«Sg 

co -^ a co 
o o S o 
00 -S o 00 

CJ 60"* 



CJ ^3 



•¥. J3 



64 



REPORT — 1860. 





^^ 


GO 1 






° 1 


a, 


- 


W . 


o 


s 






to 




< " 


: 



CD 

*-* • 

B 
-*H O 

lO 

■v 



to 



«8 



■a 

E 



— M 

O V 



o 

= 3 

to 

to J> 

o . •= 
P-<3 o 



e 
E 



o 

CO 



•s 



-a 
c 

3 
O 



3 

o 





3 -a 


CO 






B 3 


0) 




CO 


T3 3 g 



3 

■5 



-> S 

U D c 
« *. 3 

2 o u 
72 <=~ 

. 3 3 
v <D 

B •- s 

°s •- 

. so:o 73 
s rt ^ 11 

i« • " Si 



CO 

o 



V 



C g " 

S g 5 
= s k 

• — ^ 

■?* «J • « 

o = 2« 

u. ^5 3 

sc^ . -S 

e. - so 3 



S 



■ 






M<^ M O M ^ 
*- ._ ... ... ■« •» — 



*3 3 -3 

_. .2 » _: .2 _■ 

,0 B O O .3 O B _3 O 

i_ *j — . . — s- .— *j u .— 

<e co -o -c e ri c« g ~ 



= 3 M 

3 3 "T 



« rt s 

^ a; O m <y o "^ 
— *s V3 CCMtB 



oj u i 

3 o 5 

— — — 



3 3 



— •S - a 

S 8 •-§ 

*?«■& 

,ir ~ .it « 

£ O « O 75 

T W - I« = 



-a 

u 

'S 

•a 

B 
« 

b 


several fell, 
or 13th Ap 
three fell. 


o 


o n o 
t^ o •* 




M M rl 


3 

•*» 
C 


so so so 


o 


— e. — 

s. r, s. 



a 



3 e 
S p 



3 3 .3 o 

— **7 ^" ^" .3 — * 

.3 o c c c « ,o 

H " .- S .^ S . 



^3 _ ;e-3;«er>ai.5»c-3 



. v 7j 

S o «. 
.— *> 1- 



c = 

.si 
g - 

Q 2 



*. S S 

■* sC £ 

,_ ^ Ol 



o 



s s s 

^ - < 
co -* c<i 



B 

o 







a 




















































m 


















01 




















































Vi 


















— 




















































o 


















^ 




















































u 


















: o 



2 + 



«J* _l_ 

o 





-t- 
















«-r : 




, CO 



















I) 



o 



a 

9) 

75 
a « 

3 « 



9> — 3 

cq sa 



C3 H 






: ts 

• 3 



B 

cjSl : gg, 

^1ii|l ; • • -s. i 

CA .— — _;; - * 3 

3oo5«>_o— Jr. So—*;? 

g -=•« .5 •= £ 2 } ; ^.£.^5 2 2. 2 .2-5 > Sj a •- c — = 

3j:o--jiu33= .s^j: OI-— CSO^-USB " 



3" 
c J 



SO3 
<u — 

730 



o « 
.3 : 



3 o 
3 •- 

JO 



>s E 

3 3 

3 . 



§5 
O t- 9) 



MUS 



:3 
3 
3 
B 

> 
-3 
3 
1) 

rt -5 



o 2 — 

SO 3 i- 
«J 3 s , 



O J3 



9) 
C-l 



c n 3 o 1 e>. t>i 






NNNOhh (M-h 1-1 



. 3 

•: 3 



>•. so > j 

— SCO 



u ; u j*. so > 

o s 3. 75 3 o 



>-?-<z 



*-' 7j J2 J3 "-• ~ ° 



— 



C« Z 



CO 

o 



***** 



o 

CO 



o 

CO 






CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



65 



2 
■4 
o 



■3 : 
c 



2 «o 



CS 
00 

_c 

s 
o 



o 

CO *J 

3 V 

-3 ~o 
-a •- 

C to 

a c 
— o 



>3 ™ 



co CU 



to e 

. s 







ifc 








o 
















t/> 








c 








B 


O. 








>•• 














-«-> 


3 








•-a 














H 


-S 






•— 


■*• 






o 


Ut 


"3 




- 


c 


It 




a 
□ 




3 




.cs 


o 




CD 

>■ 
o 
O 


-*> 

CO 

3 
-3 










M 


a 


•- 


S 


•— 


P 


cs 




to 




CD 


- 


c 




CO 


c 

o 



c 
to 



— =3 



•0 fr* 



6co el) ' 
O . -^ 

jj *- u c •-: 

•3 "tbS fcp .S>, 

%r. c o ca ~ < 

cS O C O 

* 5-52 o 



— ^ « — . T3 








<« ^ V « "^ 


« *3 


R*3 


B 


^255^ 


a J 


K-o 






o <u 


OJ CJ 








E<3 


B3 


■COTSW 'J= 


V3 '-C 



.« 



oj ca 



tox 

"C — — 



CS O cS 



00 



o 



3 

o 



to 



w 

CO u 



d, o 
wen 



c 
o 

si 

4) *T3 

"5 ~ 

c ** 

." <« 

— --. 

s- 



►*> ca 

°Z 



to .« 

s "° 

5 2 

CO 5 

C3 P-i 

O 3 

s 



0) CS 



O O c .o 



O 3 _ 

£ O CD ^ tj o 

•5 C/3 cc 3 "3 C/3 '3 



« £ g 

to O CD 



- = ,2 <2 

~ ^ cs _ « V 

S 2 j= 5 c ° 

S S a — o O 
.ti .— t. . — *j -t-- 

*e *C --C T3MW 



sjjoo 
* -3 -3 



cs 


fe 




CO 


o 




CO 

— 

cs 


bo 

3 


S 


^: 




o 


— 






CD 


<s 




R. 




>» 


*cs 




O- c« 


^3 


BB 


O CD 


CU 


c 








<C 




■t-> CS 


cs 


h 
to 

C3 


3 CO 
PK CO 




1^ 


I- c 


o 


Ck 


— 


3 


^S 




>• 


_o 



a a 



a*-!* 
ao 



eq 



3 K 



; -s 



i«! ZO 



c 



a 

c 

o 
il 



■ >n 
, CO 

+ 



to— ' 

is ° 



+ 



° : 3 . 

& ; cs co 



«> ~ CM 



* * 



3 

3 

I ° 

I c 

)CD 
> 

•3J 



.a co- cs 



tO cj 
c- .X CS 

-3 i-- ._« 
— rt = 3 



U 



CS 






■ >■ = S 



^ •= ^ "cS -p 2 3 

g § s 3 too t: 

S kT 3 o = a CD 

'/i ? »i j << a a 



cScS t 2^3g=-< 

3 3 3 CD to % Z 'S f" r g 

a « ? soj3 «> 5 « a 



>. >• 



CS CD 
"7* *- 
to to 

C 3 

M -ib3°| 
>, 3 3 «J 



3 
CD 



CD 

> 
CS 

J3 



cd C! 

co io 

s » 

- 6 

C 



e 

o 

CO 

:*» 

-3 



.« 



CS 



CD •- 3 J2 >1H 
iO 3 tOC™, 



O O cs . 



C a 2 
OJ=5 



-= 5? *P 



UJft.<!<n;gaS»)ja.gSo JOOidS 



HN rt 



moooonNcooi 

uM i-H rt CN rt 

O 



noiccoco 

CM 



H-^ifJClNXOCfOOJCO 



CM 



tC^J c» 

3 o O 



CD 



3X: fc— " 

CS CD *-- 3 



to a, 



"C b 

oz 



cd -S a, cs 



3. 
CD 

C/3 



^j to j4 i: to 

O <C -s S <£ 



* t * 

00 



* 



* * 
to 

00 



hi 
o 

V 

« 

E 

.- Cj£ 
«-• CD « 

— *> >» 

. O ^ — 

! Co a 

"C .- ,3 3 CD CD 

C3 M co -a w H 
— CD i. .3 x-i -75 

S.O fa > O S 
JD f_, cu CD to 

i3 ^ Q. "3 CD 

.— w a: * c ^> 

* rt * =3 .2 „ 

f> CO co JS ■■» 2 

. cs -~ v — > 7" 

5fc CS — 



H 



00 d .3°0 CM S 

O — • C ri 3 ^H .C 

in cd oo 3 

2. •"* cl» 



1860. 



o . _ 

CC 00 „, CD 
i— I i-h JJ i— I 

C4 JS ♦* o *a -o 

.3 .8 



o 
Z 



REPORT 1860. 



o 

•a 



a 



3 *> 

-ST ** 

Q g 



C3 

M 

o 



J d d c5 

2 S 5 .*; 
<e -3 -5 -5 



o o o 
■« -*j -*j 
•j -u *s 

■5 "Sjc 






43 

6 o o 

w ~ — 

— ' — — ' 

•5 r -5 



2 



•OS 



.a 
v 

to 

°3 

c 

bo 
I* 

£S . 

3 «*, 
O taotS 

Z «-2 
=? § a 



«5 

c 
o 



a 
O 



M c*3 

to to 





1 

i 



s^. 



<u . 



— — •— - rt , *~ — — 



•g & !C 



o o o 

*- — ~ 
*j *j *-» 

•5-5-5 



O f3 3 ,~> 
tS 3 o a; 
.-. cr w >- 



• <u m « 
2 c s .a 
JS o o a> 



I 



s>.s 



cu 

3 

o 



O 






oo 



£ ^ 



3 
bo 

o 
oa 



; — a 

O 45 



D O c ^ O C 
~ S 3 £ S .t5 :5 C • 

-3 -o c/3 <c -c -c ca "C ' 





a 


43 


T3 


V 


a 


fa. 


3 


Cm 
O 


to 
to 
o 


tJ 


Pu 


c 




V 








o 


3 


•" . 


o o 


o c rf 










-3 -a 


-c; on ii 



fo 



: a 
. o 
• o 

: E 






o 



c 

c 
to o 



c2 



« S 



to 5 o "2 

C ,3 C W 



j; ,-. 



: fa 



§S|€-S'§4lS:-8| 2§.fc1 

on o 5o.jcaa!m<i;tfH«ii 






ca .3 



C 3 
■ ~ O 



o o o 
> -a -j; 

of ca £ 



rz N *3 3 -3 3 3 



: ca S ° 



<u 



o 

° is ° 

£ O OT 



si — .2 u c 



3 *3 *J 

" aft go ^ 

O O =3 



5 tp^-g 



as ti 

:3 as) a J 
fa Q S3 i/3 ■ : 



O J3 

4? c 



r^r-tM rtHrtO r4 f4 i-HtN HH ■-< n — I rH N CO rH >H H O) CM 



C 



>>tio. J J >o4j ^ i t ¥ >> to 



tOjJ o J; 

- u i> a 



— 

t/3 



t3 o 5 -g ,2 5.,! 

Q Z Q fa g <g A 



* * 



* * 



CD 
CO 



CO 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



67 





o» 


0= 




^H 


o 




00 

I— 1 
1 


o 
O 




M 


_ 


a 


00 


■ij 


o 


I— ( 


r-* 


co 

O 


*4H 


fa 

O 


X 


• r> 


OS 


CO 


CO 


CO 


n 


3 

o 


eo 


CO 


o 


fa 


o 


CS 


fco 



to 
o 



03 



co __: <*- _: *<-i __: 



13 -3. 



^3 GO 






■s 



m m '3 "3 w "3 «J "3 -; ■ i 
oo-gj C.-J CJ oo 

•5 ~3 pi a ai e 7) c -5 -3 , 



c-i a 

3cq 
2 to 



15 "H 



S - o -= 

u « w " 



ev 


to 


03 


o 

CO 


"3 


"3 

O 




C3 




b 

1 


u 




>-» 


03 


J3 


^ 


V 


bp 


CO 
CO 


J3 


ca 



3 1? 



J3. 

3 -3 



-2- . Bd- 



3 



rf ,CS 



' -C '-C ca ce 



:0J t- . — -*-» 



n £ £ °* 

° 3 3 o 

£ o o u 
■5 v3 */> (3 



ho 



1 13 a 

i « ca 



o 

13 

B 

<u 
to 
to 
o 

Ph 

t3 

B 



& 
C3 
"oS 
S 
60 
O 

ca 



c sa 



:«j £. to S 



r; x: ~ c j" <d ^ 

■ — .— — :u 2 - .— 
T3 TJ -3 ca — !C T3 















+ 










<U 


















m 










60 


















■O 
























































t>. 

















o 



3 

% 

E 
o 

3 „ 

£ S 



= - c - 



F-S 



; s « 
: ,a s 

So 
«! si ( 



o 
.3 to^ 



o 
to 

c 

—3 .2 
S 5 S 



9 

3 



^ ^ cu co jr .— 



■S w O . 



o 



co to 
3 fa 

sf 

io to- 



t" 3 

£« 

to - 

3 to 

3 *- 

= 5 



J= tC 3 
3 



-C {fl « 






1 £ 1-1 • 3 co 

i S g~ g ill 

I'M . .— fli n 



O S3 — 3 3 a; .' 

ni ra ~ *.* *• f-°, 



3 S 
S ca »> 2 2 2 

« 8 M O 



to-3 2 



liQjaoooHZN ajciw j^O 



M H,Dn 2 HM-fM^BOl-KlXOHNOlONmeiinONiDOOj^N 

"« rtCMr-lr-lr-lrtCM r-H-H(Mr-<(M rtlM CC« |M C4 H H 



■> to 

3 



O 

IS' 






>. 

3 



to > 

= o 






o 



oo 



c 

o 



a 

3 
Pi 






"3 3 -3 O 
O" - * ° 

"C 3 cj « 
3 "^ 3 £> 

Z, -s — oo 



5 J 4> 

2-g & 
S'C? 



« 



™rf! ca 
ca ea «i 
>. o ca 

C B " 

o ■-" o 
to to 

.. B J 

B **-" 
|§) ^ ca 



'b '- 
S 3 b 

to.° 



.2 -5 S L , 
bt3 g ^a 
<u S « — i "*• 

__. -, C3 sO rr. 
"O t, CJ - 

g " B «.£ 

'-* _i ^ m Li 

33 u > o 

«- So3^ 

a ^ -G -^ *0 
« 3 -m 4J <u 

<i-a a g 



2 



o» 



CO O 

3 0* 
cCO M 
3 £ U 

< a k 

cag 

<N — o 

00 T3 Z 

GO 

ca 
u 



- CO To 

O « 3 S « 

co •= ca 3 S 

■^ « CO o fl 

CO S hO CO 

- 2 « « 2 

ca o -b -3 3 

£Pm «- J 

to > S -° 

•3 o3 a o ,o 

B co o3 ^^ 

O t-. T3 *» 

fc ca co co ©. 

i»5 »3 o 

*-» (^ o ■*-» w 

B B.« g 

3 -d O, « J} 

CO CO >j t> 



ca 

CO 

o3 

3 
CO 
CO 

-a 

CO 

> 
a 

o 



CS *J 

'S is 

ca PQ 

03 
CO . 

S is 

"« c? 

B <2 

.2 3 

►? To 

.s s 

co 



CO ^ 

. 00 T3 

S* is ° 

e o 5 o 

5 to x<- 

■f o* 

° 3 = 3 

ca ™ _, oo 
-a ^ co to 

g^B 1 
co ^ CO 

k „^ ca « 

to t: fc— ' -; 

Ceo o 

° . "S 
a — I ^ 



o 
3 B 

c»-i ■ — 

B « 

cS § 

■°a 

■*£ 

o 

-'« 

t3 a 

'3 * 

si 
a •" 

•2 2 

3 00 
co co 

M CO 

3 2 

.5 « . 
— ca ■ 



» s„' S ca eg -j 

2 m".S ."Es a 

"» 'T^ CO • fli 



t- -3 • ^ ,„ 

o o °° _; u 

-♦^ .— ^H *^ *J 

• jc Or * CM CO 



* 



S " CO hi 



5,-s a^ 

cj i «irt 



5 0= w . — O. co B ' 

g 0(0 n «J a hits 
X S-h opd tot. oi 

pstrSli-i-g co-<!Z;'-' 



ce a u 



CO *0 ^5 
5 I' 

F 2 



3 

-3 



68 



REPORT — 1860. 






PS 



1" 

>» 3 

° « 

? C 

.5 S 

— Eh 

c — ' 
o o 
- -3 
o"rt 
T 1 "5 

« E 



si 

CO .0) 



c j£ J3 2 



•e) 

c 

C tn 



•** a 

- a 

•« 2 

* c 

Sfdsd 



"B.8.2 



2 

3 



v 



T3 
3 
O 



o 
is 



c 

C3 

u 



0» 
O 

6= 



to 
a 
CB 

£ 

CO 



o 
<u 

*a 
CO 

c>-. "* 

-I 

n> o 
B.S 



-"5 

II 

— o 

2 » 

a; 3 

E 5 

<- S 

o eu 

3 E 

£ „ 

o "» 

o _o 

■w a. 

t0 4) 



3 
O 



c 

X 

u 

■a 

3 



to 

3 



■E J? ST.5 ° ° 

S £ is 2 +3 is . 

tCC C -43 -C T3 ■ 



o o o 

*- — *- 
~ — ' — 

■5-5-5 



o o o o 



-I— ' ■*-< ■•— ■•- „ , •>■* 



-.«-*.:.-.« 3 ca — 



>C3 «S cc ' 



..no 

J± CD ^ 
- ' t- CD _ 
CCS -43 T3 C3 -C 






3 3 
O O 



3 

P 



EL 



• 'A 

'■ O 

• -*- 

i i 



to 

"5 

o 



+ 



o 

CM 
CM 



o 



P E 



-a -d 
T 3 3 



CO _ — 0) 



E 

4J 5*-' 



;s^p 



„ <u c • 

cj to — » x 



1 - N 3 m 5 Jj 

2 - r; u - ._ 



«<s 



- ? _: 



tC 3. 

= « 



5 s: 

£ S 

C 3 



<3 - 

.5.-3 

h 3 



.2 to 

B 3 



3 

o 



3 



■r§ 



tC i; ■ 

3 _3 . 
< Ol 



iZi-3goig--..jca<5c30 



tp.2 3 



^ J3 jG a; ^sa ^ 



- - cs 






o o 



NXOOIS 



3° 
-I 



CM 

' 00 O hflf 

cin o 
»— i 

> CJ 

o v 
2: Q 



— i rtfilH*.!) 1.X3) — Cl'-T!— iCiWOMtit>.t-». 
I. CO 

o . ^ .• « 

£ « « «S 5-5 



31 X 



o 



y 



oo 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



69 



trical. 
;pos- 

Paris. 




to .; 

c Is 
■S S 
3 o 
5 l * 














o c *> 










■ 










u a is 


a 














sibly el 
explosi 

ioseen 


.2 Ot- 




3 
























great 
ows. 
h;al; 


ed T3 i p 




3 














4J — 

J- — 

to *"* 
w to 






^ 




o 








+± (fi CO 




>. <u 






an (j.: 










** en 3 
C ed to 


00 ■£ 




03 


•^ -~ to 
« to rt 




to 




^, 




to 


v cd 


3 •-* 




x> 


-^ . -^ 








C^. 




1 „ja 


.s ^ 




o 


.S,« s 




CO 




cu 


. 


T3 U O 
— . O -o 

> ' QJ 

£> -w — 

**" « CU 


— • ^ o 
t* '~ cd 




O 

13 






3 




a 

> 


: 


«= „ 3 

o S « 

eo ;a CD 


CD « 






a 


V- flj to 








o 


p 


> > i 

a> tu fl 
eo <o o 

JH — ^ 








1 




00 


L 


SS.S 


.'5 5 §_ 






- ♦* 42 _j : ^ 




5 . 
x-< 




o 


eba 

rge 

ost 

rpe 

eba 

tto. 

aiii 

one 


jsOO_oOooc_aOCooooooooa™ooooo 


a 


s Ht;«tias pusssastisirs cist 


■^1 — *J 




e? "" 




















) X 




= r» '^ — 




60 x 


tc 


■C'er'«-ca , a»Jc-;T!-:T:-ar , 0'3'i: 


-rtBCT 


XI T3 - 




















tu ■•? 




































*? to § 




















S 








: Ik 






cd 
0) 






-i» < 
















<.S » 




















si 








• ca 






1* 

GO 




1—4 














co a «> 




: 






















• — 

CO 


































. s 














, £ 




, . ^ 






| 






2 




— ; 
o - 


















% : 






















os 


















c 


; 


*j 


• 


















o • 






















o 


















■*J 




£ 1 


















-*^ 1 






















+^ 












. 






• fr 


• 


















la • 






















w 
















a 














BO 




X 
















tr 


















: 










to 

u 
cs 


t 


) 




a 

o J 

° £ 







: S « 
1=3 






















CO 

X3 














: 




















-i«!~ 






:*§S 






















FN 
























a 


















: 




































































I 














«. 

c 
















a 






















GO 














; 




















T3 

B 










-3 
a 






















^5 




























L. 






ed 














































1 

p 


*- 
8 




c 

i- 






cu _ 

41 


4 




"to f 

a .i 










ei 
O 

ft 

aT 


















E 




aT 

'3 








bl 


D 


i 


. r 


C 

- 

-- 


c 

3 


q 

PS 


. to 
S3 

-= c 

— c 
O C 

>- c 

a 2. 


11 

> 

e 
c 


-«- cs 

CO .s- 


- g 

e 

c 

o 






' ' «i » § 

>?ii SI* « 

2; o a. ca a t - 

6- o- < > &l, :: 


to ' ' a 

J 1 11 a 
« ^2 a.— ■- 
to to »i - ~ 
a a o o c 

<ia-"Ss 


a c 
a ° C 

■^ 's to" 


_6 


"a _ 
fc. a 
o c 

« 5 a 

.3 to-= 

O = :a 


»1 

a 


Et 

s 

— 


S3 ' 1 

-a 
</> w I 

tO 3 

•I a 


. t^ 


— 


CN «C 


CM. CO 


^ 


O CO 


M 


/^ 


00 ** 


F4NiOOiO«H^tONO 


c.NOec 


O t>. O M 


— 


OtOCl 




r— 


1— » 1— 


<N C-J 




l-H (^ 


i— 


c 


01 


pHrtrtrHCOCv)^CqC-l 


W CN 


CO <-i 


fH 


<N 


in 




o 












> 


O - C 


>-• 


t-. th 




■ .' ' 


! 




. 




8 




c_ 




c 


• 5 n. 


cd 


-= a 




tj O 1 


* 








S 




c 




•y 


Q^? <S 


s 


-, <: 




oz 1 


t 

• 
1 


9- 






* 


* * 








to 




# 






1 


















00 










4 


fl 
















- 1 













■»? a 3 




g v to 

S o *> 










K a « 




See 
and 
halk 




-t/3 








ther 
enn 
tof 






°j>^ 




fl*.*' 




S ° c 




ru e 
rices 
as o 




£ 4> — 




x- '5 "3 




CDW {£ 




XH „ 




a o 2 
ca «• 




♦i !►. ^ 




edis 
dem 
-fall 










a ca o> 
5 o a 






S<: 2 




^ •— « 




ca « 












T3 ca J3 




Qi t— *~ 




Z B ~ 




prese 
fthel 
ger oi 
wlee. 




~ o = ?„ 
cj ar to 

QJ (fl~ CJ 






-a ">«oo 












^3 Vi JD . 




^ « •« a 




oj: «ia 




•3 -m Q, <n 
"S **" ca « 




BO'S 


o ^ 


a 


co a 


ca 




^ 














*j a ja 


-/j 








s 


O -3 — 


•/I 

o 


■5 ca < 


"S ta a 


ii 


° - o 


■M 


*s 3 >. 




a *> x- 


cd 


§Sz 


— * 






« s 5 S 


cd 


noth 
mete 
,75n 


1- 


a E 


a 




03 


c a: a 


aj 


_. ca ca •— 

OJ u 5 


<yj 


-<-• 



5 . H --=S 



3 ..' — 



en -s O 

2 P 


5 








o 


3 i-l * 


03 


>. 


n hO 




jss 


O CO 


tU 


Ed 








* ^ § 







- ts s 


£ 


S3 


a> 3 a) 


G 


*-» 


3 to > 







3 3 O 


* 

m 




->«JZ 


n 












h 



70 



REPORT 1860. 



<3 



03 

E 



22 

CO 
to 



33 o 

jg.5 



r— * 



o 

C 

to 

to 






3 

to 
o 

13 
o 



tr 


S 








<; 


i-- 






<a 


c 


v 3 


3 


'"O to 




-« « 


s 


1* 


o 


w « 


H 


E d 


u 



a 
o 


~: ska 




is 

o 


33 s a 
^3 T3 ,2 



o 

« 



3 

to- 



> CD . o ^ 

i i: o S d 
! «= 3 — <u 

! o « g" o 

; <a c '~ ^ 



-~* .£3 0) 



*j ,_, ~ rt « o *^ 



• = = a 



a; ^h _* 



°<2_ 

• A 2 « 

' O S r^ 

; S 3 v 

, . — -^ k. 

i -a c/3 us 



.2 ^ m o 

- s§1 ; 



4) tO;r. _ 



- CO ' 



».S « 

^— -^ CO 

3 -S 

tO-3 

O CD d 

<^^ CO ■■» 



3 
O 

•s 



O 



. 3 




co CO 




CD _3 


Ti 


S3 


s 






<2 =3 


a 


— o 


CD 


— to 


> 




o 



<M 

U 
V 

a 



CO 

CO 



to 



CO CD 

~ a 

"3 to 



£->»=-?. 



3 .„ o 
-■->_, CO 



ci C3 , 



« CO 
3 J ■ 
O CD - 



! 0J :£ £ 



£. 5 -s 5 • 
«3-*3 '5'S ' 



5 



- 



S 3^ 

Sou 
_ . — -w - 

-3 -c -a c/3 tn 



-— CO -^ — ■ -- 
CO cu — CO CO 
- C -3 .3 



O — 
• -.CO . 

"a « "n • 

-= = -3 ° 

CU O u S 
— -w — - M 

US V3 US 3 



o o o ■ 

-- -- w 

.- *j -a 

-3-3-3 



- - 

Q 2 



:■* 



• 3 



to 

d 



§^ 



•a 

•3 







+ 




















d 
o 
























XI 












.3 




























i^_ 


-" ' 












— 1 






h 






















tN 


m 












•V 






II 



















• a ■ 
: o '£ 
■ o -3 



o 



«a 



cO .2 CD 

x < a 



O 

CO -^ 
c - 
0J CO • 



- 5 
3 si 



S5.S- 



'=3hJ 



. ^- ra 3 



to *> « 

■ . c 
^r co 



3 
to 

CO 

d 
■- CO 



o 

to=5 



- tOsc 



03 



Si 

« S — '3! 



— _- to 



to 



5L-*i CO 

5^3 2 3 = = - 

-— co 7Z *j _C2 « -re — ^; 3 zy — CD -3 c — ^^co^-SfcaCD 

J!-ghHM§aag§2<iCgaZ02a,!.o 



3 -3 



« 3 CJ 
= JS o -d 



.i £ d -3 

a £ co ;» 



~ CO CD ti 

— J :- i; 2 



o — 

>• a 

CO O 

a a 



tstOrtrtCCXrtNC. Nrtei'^OTj'ONOONINCN-fCOiioXOCC^NO c^^^CiN 



CM W H H N ■ 



o o> 



3 ^3 
CO CD 



CM 

00 



5 o<5 => 



5.* S 



vj O 



d ^> 

3 3 



to 

3 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



71 



a co -a 
5 o a 

5 00 3 

3 • o 

§ =-- 

2 - » 

5 « a 
«2 2 



>: 



60 

— en 

I ■" 

♦» CJ 



13 ^ 

■ O ca 

1 JO 
o 

^ Oh 



.S _o o o 
§ . 2 S 5 

J3 «3 T3 "C 



.s g 

. o 

cu u . 

£?<°-a 

3 .3 _ 

o ~ 2 

■n-C 3 

S — j= =3 a 
« a.2 s a 

3 t- J Ji i- 



to "H, 

CM O 

00 CD 



o r3 

C =4 

fcO-3 

Oh a 



J o 



2 . 

I; 

T3 I 

3 : 



15 -n 

14 00 
« —• 

fco^ 
c . 
•s «-- 



OJ 



& CJ 

^ a 



3 
O =3. 



to 



3 „ 
ea "• 

> czi 



- 3 

2 I 5 

3 O 

•- c3 

■+-» *u 

— 3 

cj CTS 

°"> 1 



^ to 

o .5 

u r3 






a jr. 



« -S 2 « 



^^ e ^- _3 w —i 



CJ 13 

: -5 ~ tn -a 






_ o 

3 o «S 

5 ao ms -5 



• cj a ^3 

° =J3 O 



o o 

.? .2 S .-5 * 

"C T3 "B *5 ca eg 



O 
O 



: S « 



: in 

■ cj 

: — 



3T 



is is 



a w 



'. ea 
; is 
! 3 
I is 

o 



3 

O 

o 

9 



a '-o 







ro . — ' a) 

"tb.a .^ 

b -a o 



CM 



nTunoi^nrtNoooN ^inH^NcjiHoiccneOrtoo ft 

H« r-t ,— | rH r-lrH i— IHHNW i— I r-l U 

e> b jo =-' b Ji> ti> " eii 

Q 5 fc, <c a >-, << ■<• 



to 
oo 



-^ ■= — to o 

grs 2 g 

k k 0J * - 

o -H : ° ■" 
:Zt3 



a a. 3 

a z~ 






n 



u 



:Ph 



"oj S 



2 M 

■c a 



3 a 

tJO 3 

O rt 

■SB 



.- 3 

T3 <! 

e s 
s a" 

. 3 S-, 



<y o o 



D CO 



§8° 



13 



DQ 

o) a 

CO I 



<D ^*^ ^"^ — 



2 1 «^§ 

to _ o ^ o 

, 2««S .SO 
5 _ « ^ " oo 

«^j a 



S a <* 
"tfl 



« 



to- S 

3 fe (U 
V 3 *j 



S o. 

O CO 



ill 



^"■ON O 



CO t« ' 



aj 






_ a 

■ - !D _ 
O M « 



^3 

5 «* 

3 C 

O 3 

CJ T3! 
O 

O 4-> 



-s.; 



""3 •« ■** J3 
« *«-t to O fan i- 

«■• O id ^ o 

oi .2 ° M v 3 

h 1 !) - 



. u O 



:0) fc, •„ 

.•S'S. 

M a 

— - — 

>^ 0) -3 

a fcoH 
S -2 * 



to 

3 

-3 



S^ 



§ § c 
hJ-*S sa .2 



el ^ 
3. 






08 
pa" 

*. <*3 

to 1) 

3 a . 
to o a 
=. S.2 



to^ 



3 



'Eb 



o 

-a 



o 






fco 

a 



3 



a a 

CO <J 

o . 

u *° 
to CM 

£ 00 

o " 



to 

8 

•3 

o 
o 

« 



X! 

s 
o 

ft 



<u 

a 
o 



."3 



tu 
a 
o 



r£ CO 
^* r-H 



>»> 


-= 






in ca 


3 


- 1 3 


a 


i_ ea 


r* 


ta h^ 




a 2 


* 



« 2^ 



Sje? 

T3 "3 

a i-s 

a . 

a^ 

« =a 

a v 
•3 ^ 

3- D 

in *5 

2 N 

c. ca 

BO 
ta 
O • m 5 

ca cj oo <Z2 

■C3H 

to a « . 
JS _ c<) a 

^ 15 <m o 

cu ,cu .a 

£% *-a 
° 3 • o 

-3 «^. 



1 

p 


>r 




C3 


-c 


A 


O 


=3 


+a 


ca 


T1 


a 


<U 


'Jl 


E 

cu 


o 


4J 


Ut 


CO 






-O 


3 


a 




-1 


o 


a 


3 




3 


a 



2 «- 



-=.2 

«<-■ to 
o a 

% '-3 
.2 °» 
8 S 

2 § 

J3 ca 
eu 

S 4> 

°5 

Oh hj 

.=3 

.— 'a 
— a 
O ca 



o 

CM 
00 



a 

CJ 
"c3 



O t-. rv. +j 



cu 2 3 a aT*3 ja 

dn'-'m ■ 9- S'-» -a 

b s?o a .a _ o 

<i § So 2 



■* o 

CM N 

00 CM 
~ § 

CU 



a5 
J!a 

o o 

a* 

ca 



C<5 

. k 
eu cu 

to jo 

1 a 

a eu 

a,3 



72 



REPORT 1860. 



<u 



.2 -a 



a a 



O tp 

s '2 
a i i 

•^ a 

*a hi 

.- « 



« 5 1- 1 



Be 



*Q.OO 

3 • 



»0 

o 
w 

CO to 



fa T 

■S M 



to 



s! 

« o 

c *• 

" A 

13 3. 
3 3 
c8 CO 

i'l 



tO O P _ 



.-■£ 3u 



tu E 

p to 
b « 



"2 

C3 ^! 



— - ^ 



£ o 

v= to 



?, 3 .5* a jo a 



5 0) ~ a 

. iri 5" _ 



— ."3 . 

"3 "3 IT 

JO JO 3 ■ 

cot! 

t- J- . — 

«= « -a 



O 2 1B 

; 4- — c .S~ 



-g - 

i- <& 

2 2 
g tb 

*> o 

Tn.3 



ste co 

o 

e c. 

tu . 

•* 5 

'to* 

s s 

o -J 
•^3 o 



.g e 

© 

CO 

o 

* 



pi a 



'■— ' s 



1 M 



S3 < 



tO:a 
3 ^ 

2 <~ 
a 3 
CJ +» 
.. 3 

s § 



O p CO 

£S to"rt 
rt C > 



3 to *i 



t» 
to 

CO 

h 

to 

A 



• — t_0 *>» 




p CO T 




•sEEco 


-_ 










" fcb w» 




S^* 


« 



'a" a? — • 
:■*-* fen 



C M -3 

2 / c 

"to to"" ; 
3 . B 

• = B.< 

g to. 



S to 



c : __, ._; « _: jo _; 



*5 Mm »"3 <U 



;<2 3 -33 

' T? to — ~ — 



P '5 .« .« 



a « « 

O tl) P JO 

~ £ ° a 

-a tp go oo tp 'a go tp *2 a oo tc 



i.atutue;stu._ 

: JO 3 B JO o 3 JO 
tu O O tu l_ 3 tu 



£ GO 



S S : 


S : 


S 


e. h : 


-< : 


c. 


eo ■«" | 


h»> : 


oo 



tu 


, i 













— 




w 


CJ 


!C 




% 












-Cf 




s 


CO 




< 


.z. 




Oi 


o 





QJ w CO 4) 

3 P 3 P 

C IB O O 

ci w oo OO 



a js 



C o 
s oo ' 



tv 



s si 

O -3 cd 

*j p a> 

tu 3 p.-- ^~ 

a M tu "a 

S » s 5 "8 

■^ " _ <u ^ 
*H o a) — .ti 

-w « a> > _. 



<u 

tu 
o 

M 

cj 
o 



. O -p *** 

: -** o i- :o 

, OO JO to es 



S.Seo 



p S o o o o 

OO tP "O -3 •q -13 



: jo 
■ to 



s 



I *>» 



=> : s 

i-H . O 
eS 






2 

o 





H 


: : b : : : : 


: : : : x : 


. . o • • • 


. . . . o . 


!•**•< 




: ! i : : : i 


i ! : : i i 



m to 

° 5 






— 

to 



CO 

55 



o 
o 

3 



: e 

. 3 
• O 

: S 
; c*?o 



tu 
to 



i2 + a°i 



»S 



CO fl 

5 3 
3 

■* a 
II 



JZ o 

CO 



. a 

tu : o 

to • g 

s : 2 






o 

k4 



w>»r 



tu H 



3 a 

I o£ 3 

o O t) 



o3£J 



" tu — S OO 3 ? 

pS-3<u"3p:=J^2p 
rtjortCs.SSSoojoo 



rti. 

"3 a 

2 £?3 



.3 "S 5 ™ 






tu : 

u • 

'3 • 

hJ . 

C3 ««« 

*J B - 

<, tu rt 

.^ £ 'Si 

OO tu l. 
w O 

p s. "" « 



a 2 3 



3 

"3 

SO 3 

^£ 

'3 .3 

p J 

f p 



to 
e 



oq 



to 

tu 

-3 



Ml 



S t* 






■a 



a _ 

to *- 



J^ilO a. Ed 



a 

;.= — jo 

3 ^ a 5j ^- ^ 
a >- ;? 2 tu 3 

-J "at g fa ca cj 



O JO 

>2 3 

« 6 



■rf CO CO '^ ^^ cs 
^ eo c-i 



tu 



'jo jT' to 

o o % a 3 

Z Q fa «5 -a; 



O O w »3 OO 

co to ^* t-t >-> 

3 

>> tb jJ > ti tb - 

3 3 S 



CQi-< -*1>.00>-1CC 



3 Ci -i* O to CJ OJ iO 
WCJHdtM'Hr-iH 



oz 



o a = cTu o 
fa Si-jOoC Z 



! ~ B. 

: p tu 

i-i 00 



to 

3 



OZfa 



O •* -c)" O) 00 

MHHMlN 



-g s « = 



# * f». * 



<M * . 

*~"00 00 

tNr,H 
CO 



* * 



M 

00 



o 

CO 
00 



CO 
CO 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



73 



o > ■ 



e 
a 



3 

H 



•3 ^. 's 



'3 «" 
2S 



.2 

CO 

3 



13 



— 
ca 



5 o •* 

c <9 2 ij 

.2 « 5 3 

a £« - 

£ o_*» ° 
•S » "^ S 

o ■- . 5 ' 

.- — =") 

■ O V- !*- __ 

33 CJ ' ' ■ — ■ 

3 <" c c j3 O 

aj 3 o o cd — , 

•— -* ** *j »-..=; 

■C eMWie-;, 



»°° 

a> 

3 

a -: 
11 

a S 
3 5 c 

m 1 = 
§3 = 

a; T a 
"> to_a 

. o.S «- 

« s ec 

•S .. O 3 



to 

c 
o 



i 3 
i - 

I 3 



-a 

3 
O 



— to 



i -5 



3 

« § 
.2 » 
to o 

11 



5 "^ 



CJ 



- s ° 
j= a. a, 



03 



"5 tC 

13 V T 
! 3 ^.\3 CM „ 

r "-< ca 3; rt eg 

-' S "? £ s « 



r£ i_ <u 



_j £ 



in 



cd ^ 
.a cj 

g .'S 






'5 -a 2 .ti .t: — 

"1 !C *T ^ t 



a, J? 

rt 5 

^3 — • -_ 

E-g S-g g-g 

o 5 _ 



Q---C £ J5 



: cc — -j; 






a. 

2 



5 jo 

? : a" 
K 



a w 



* * 



' « r« O 

• w *? X 

:===§ 

• O "Ji- it 



a 

9 CD CO CD 

2 to^ to 

11 co 



a s 

" 2 «j : u 

Ofe | to : 60 

an- 3 i-s 



60 



•.O 

' 3 



C 
CJ 
>. 3 

■a 2 






5^ 

l.§ 

■ CJ 

>.— 

■s.y. 

CO CO 
d 3.. 

J" O ' 



ca 



3 >- 

«3 
to -3 
- .o 



oj 3 









CO 

: ca 2 

3 _ 
. o 3 



S ea z 



loocoaopjMocix 

. ^^ — I N H H f | W 



- JS >2 '> g ^ b s - c « «" : - § S c 

-f ~ ^-^1-1-3 — t_— »3 LX-I3 t. Qi *T^ 

w~ o..a3NJogHaKQ&.Sni 




CM _r-i>-l<NCO!N<N<N u n i-l CM 



cwO Z 



QQ. 



•S <a 3 a 



* * 






tn 
to 
o 

a, 
ts 

c 

C5 






n « 



3 0) 

.2 M S 



a 

:.a 



3 . 



• *3 ■— 
« D w 
3 SO 
tD «, ^ 
~ -3 ^ 

CO C 1) 

0-.S 

. 3 



as 

"13 

3 '-S 

« ca 

3 S 
S 2 



C c-S a S 2 « 

^^ *r< •-< o S _a « 

. ^P* > ffl rt c 

.^ u „. a. CQ o 

g S °cr7- 2 2=3 

.H OS >, 60^- B 

S|1l§.sl 

q _ fA> . T r« 



-ill 

elf 

— CO 

kfl e 

O 3 » 

g.S2 0) 

o- •— 
ca a -w 

- 3 «J 
toj: o 

i— l ^j 

° a -s 
2 >.- 



■a 5 



«> is 



— ^7 =3 r O B> 

a) .r - i> a 

o o> s ^ ** "> 4> 

— ■ S ~ • - a « 

3 






3^ 3 

a o — 



^ C3 OT 13 ^ 

-^ cu eu * 



S 4> 



3 v* "^ 

- 3 O 



£i"? 






S iS o < cs « « . 

"3, « ^ rv* "> ^3 "H 



^ a fe | 

_3 . = 

3 olZ 



•_ 733 



o 

^ b 

•S « 
E 
M o 

ao 
— 



„ _ i_ S 3 ,a 
- cd >. « - _ 



g^cj-^S • .to a g 
-2^3 cai>cnj3 oS c.S 



.2 2 
* a- 

CO -^ 



3 



1 * i; S o a . » .2 fe fen « >• 

„ a -° a^cnjs oS c.S 

*-^£t3 .^^-S^a^ 

!= o S S5? = o g g a |S 

— oD^Sh ca — ?- b « a 



ao 3 -"~S<u !- 2 
- S -» 2 ^- z g j- a 
■2- o jj Sj a u M 



o.£P" 






, 3 B 



a . _3 »» -^» 



-3 
H 



CM u, 

CM CO 

£*a 



0> 

tl a 

- o 



. S3 

<u 3 '•7 

5 E 2 

BL 3 S 

CU CO 2 

CD to 

N 3 ™ 

n — — 

— .-«2 

I- - S 3 

a ^ o 

— a j 






a 33 



£ - S -3 f> 

C^ .33 3S t- b 

•- S a a 

.' ^ —. r. 



is 



u ^a 



Q 8 



lulls' 

• ^ ^ Q ^ t - 

,3 <S ' 



CJ 



b* 



C5 OS 
CM 



So> • . 

3 :3 
to'" 



2 - 

o-2 3 5* w>- 

CO ^(fc, S <J S 



.« 3 ^ w CD 

>> o f _- .. 

ca 2 o a 

S Ja 3 

o • a „ 

+- J^ •« CD 

O -3 "" w "" 
=-~ o o » 

3^; *• OS cd 

„ 3 cd O *^ • 
: v 3, cj £- "c 

g) ,a §■ o £ fc 

O « "JST3 O 
,3 ^ CD ** 

t^ — j= ca -e S 
<vJ 3 2 <d -a .2 

OO — 3 ^ cd co 

^ -c a = -= 3 

t. CO "^ CD .5 1? 
^ 3. O o » v 

S §• a ~ 6 .-§ 2 

3 s S . = - 

g. -'S CD =• 

t»3»BCC 

o « 2 2 •- e 

1 -s r 1 3 =3 

S,33. i °S.a 

3 



CJ 

13 

CD 
M 

.^ a 

■'3 J3 
, — » 

. «J 
N 2 

c co 

;a <„ 

-i o 

CO 

. °J 

~ o 

a .a 

-o a- 
CD w 
^ CJ 



■ cu 



-3 
- 3 
CO o 
CMQ 

CD 

a a 

CD 60 
•ti a 

CJ Ci- 

to 



ca 

^3J 






t^ /-*^ j3 f ~ ™ 

CJ J O^ f5 



CX) CD 



74 



REPORT 1860. 



*J 



CO 

a 



■■5 -^ 



3 
o 



J3 
bo 



1 

O 

i-4 



033 

p e 



£3 



3 
SO 

o 



' O 



eo CJ 

£ co 

« a 

.O 3 

« co 

CO o 



s 

pi 

(/J o 

M • 

O to 

CJ .33 

Pi -S 

u 3 

c -^ 

CO !_. 



CD 
3 


% 


Bfl 


*j 


O 


o 


CO 


e. 


a 


T3I 


~> 


-a 



- ">T3 U 

**- .fh eg — - 

CJ ~ 'J. 

3 ■— ' *- to 

to.* 9 « 



O ' 



N . 



J3 

H 



O 



o 

00 



o 

A 



bo 



CO 

"3 
_o 
"to 



to 
p 



W Z 



a » 

c CJ . 

o fe cj " 

■*j ^ rt> ■ — ' 

<" ■» (-! "^ 



-9. '.S 3 <» 



_ 33 



" 3 V. v. 





&V 




*S rt 










<4- O 




>- ~|M 










O O 




CQ <o 






CJ 




ii o 




*2 "£ 






u 


^— 


bo\S 


■Zh 


• <s 


1— ! 




*- 


OS 


u "3 

bog 


cd 


e o 


ed 


o 


"3 












U 








*— 






ted 


yd c^ T3 (C 


~z 


ed 






fci «_ bo 



•a 

3 
C3 -*J 

a.- cj 

•»^ O 
^ 3 -P 

*-* *""* _3 

te ^ ~ 

t> CD -33 

O-TI C 

as- 



A 

s 

p 

<33i 
bo 

.Eco 



&-S 












•*= 2 «! ■• 



.3 .Q CJ 3 



CJ 



O — 



w 3 ° 333 CO . 
bca .„ .- d -3 ^ 



3 

CS 



o 

c« 3 o 
_ ~ 03 



O 

. c — 

1 o 1 

QJ w <U 

MJ3 ^ *C 



-3 in IC 



• <2 <S '- 3 

— • i T tc a 



S ^ : 

3 -S : 



i — S-.2 S 

I ,£> J3 C 3 

i fu bo^: «3 



^ bo aj 

•° -: rH 

bo 3^ — 

^ "3 -3 

GO 

l« £ 

ct> a> •« 

g 3 » 

3 33 

3 on 
& ._ o 

33 CD U 

•- s -H 
J o > 

CS t/3 -3 



5 CO t" 

rS . ■» J2 
^ M-< 

■S 33 W *| 

M r- 1 In 
5? N !- CQ 
Co CO ru ^—^ 

CJ T3 ^3) 

" „ a > 

■e o. « o 

- g.ZtS 

.2 o =» M 

h > an 

I 5 g s 

§5 5.. 

g — CO _ 

^3: 'C 2 A 



CM 

CO 



o . co 

3 co &< 

CO *-> 
Ci-ffl 

n S^ 
8 «?H 

Bat 3^ /v. 
. (^ CJ ^ . 

— i '£ '33 
co <u 33 eu a 

- O 0) 



cu^ c«^j^^ J. — i ^ ^^3 C^-3*2 2 

!5 to co cooo-ac a'ptByicMrttgig 



. fc 



CO 



: S 
i *< 

• Ha 
. CO 



a 



00 



CO cN 



v. 



a 
p 



s ° 



CO 

Be 

o 



: o 

J3 



3 

o 
o 

a 
II 



: o 

: S 

'■ tM|n 



:+ ; 



3 
. 3 
co D 

3°> 



yj 



•: a 



.J' 3 

52 ^ 3 ™ 

.3 33 « g 

3»£Sa»co 



3 |t3 



T3I^T3 

5 a a 

«,%£ 3 
bo t- bo 3 
3 CJ 3 Owj3 333 co ^ — •-• cj H 






3 
CO 

— 

.=0 

to 

< 



(Pa 

3 -^ 
33 "-„ 

•■/: — — 3 - 

CJ CO — 

*-< 33 

0. 03 



F-i 


— 




^ 






^ 


u 


rt 




Eb 


ffi 



"? ^ -! 



S to 



CZ1 CO 



d|| 



2 - 

- V 

■5 J3 



^3 
O,— • C 



CJ 



CO I 
** ■ CJ ' 

5 -s 



>.— co C/3 

^ S to 

■t«l!lsfl|^l§|i- 

St4l Mil S3 itSrfl-i- 

, O "53 CO C1.-3 33333 ,v- .O-cOCS 

g>Noa3:aii.oiflciiwuZfl!g: 



cj 

a 

^»33 
'5 ° 



CO 
bo 

3 
3 

3 3 



< 1Z V3 33 I 



i O O 
I f-H CN 



-H rt CN ^^ 



> • • • : : 

• • • • o 

NCOOiO^cMHCNQOcMO^OinNN^ 

HrHNCN^-HHHtN CO r-H^H ^^ 



OCfiNtO 

1-H t» 



•"• CM ' 



OQ 



00 »^ 



P. « 



— ST 3- " 



>* bo 

3 3 



00 O 



O OJ 



3 



•S * « § 



3 cj cj 3 



Q 



* 

CO 
CO 
CD 



CO 
00 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



75 



01 

a 

o 



2 • « 

2-30 

M ca o 

c •""' 

3 -*^ co 
U cu cu 
U ~ .2 



o 

a 

-3 

5 



3 
o 



a. 
3 



to 






■3; 

3 . 



to_, 

3 ca 
• o s- 






o po 

a t cm , 

£ a 5' 

o p 3 

3 ■£ a 

ci - — 2 

. TT co * 



9 


* 


















3 


w 






— 


.3 


Ml 






d 


(►, 






•S 3 5. 



ed 



• ■* J} 43 



03 CJ 



3 >» ° to — 3 s 



« £ s 8 

3 






•« 3 <y -> 
pin c« 



S 8« 



cu > 



03 -^ — 

"5 as 

Ma « 
a — .2 



JO 

3 



CO 

o 



c 

•3 



3 
O 

JO 

ca 



— — ; 'n 



ecgo»s3^^a 



2 ca 
"5 ~CU 



to" 



- 



: a. 

-;> 
c-i 



: 3 

■ Ck 



Z £ M 

20 o 

a a £ 



a 
o 



a a 
o o 

co a! 



S> 



: JO 




fcJS 

ca « ~ ^ 3 

cat- 3 >" — J y •: 5J 

a .2. <", ^ ■- a *£ « 

">,CJ b 3 S " 



"3 o 

3 3 



-3 
• to 



_ &*■ . 

2 'S S .2 "^ Hr _3 
C :3 cu — 5 -^ 



..3 £ 

a 



s 2 « 5 S o 



= a i_ :o cu ^3 cs •- ..so cu . 



ot a 



xntoc»cnnNooo-*-»to(xinnsc» 

rHCM C^ — CN •- I « CO ,-c r-< .-H rt ,-H 



•5 3= ^ 



to 

3 
<1 



o 



Sot 52 °5 cu -B <u" 

o 3 — % 3 .- a 

i M .2 to S a 

*" O . 3 o o ■* o 

cq -»• •-" 3 ~ -a >t 



cu 



10 >» 






a 
3 

09 



(3 

■3 



X 



5 » *> 



X-3 



_ cu jo 
cs -a rs 



c SO o 

i< to > 5 F r- x 

ca -3 *™ ^ J- ^; a) ^* 

3 00-35° o' 
"2 "co „ -s ffl 



,_ O 

'w O > 

cu 

" 3 



Q..2 o !,. -g 
.. O °-cV2 ^ 

•2 tn fl "2 



a 3 rj 



3 o-sw 

u.5 5 
cu 



■3 
a 
3 
o 

So 



d 

o 



2 <« .S 3- g « if a 

> O -- 3 O O §. tO 

- -J 3° --9 

•— I , *? ft u >■ 

c3 — ° <" _a 

, **■ ri -H - OJ ^ t< 



o 

= 
= 

H 

d 

cu 



s a -s -2 ci = 2 

OO -H •_ -a •- . 

o „ 5 t0 

» a c.= 
u.S 03 
c -3 u "- 
c — _ o 

.2 ° 3 8 

-3 3 3 ca 

L_ 03 o - 

c**- .a 

fl; £ ra O 
os o e 2 

^ "3 "§ .a 
« 2 "I = *g 

cu ^ 

'" S-3 

w CJ V 

_ 3- co 'r; 
23 03 fu .ii 

X ,2 * s- ■? " C 
c-l ^TS ~^ S 03 3 cu o 

to S « E « 3 _- a " "3 

3 -3 c-3 Sh - 



- OT 

O iJ 

cu '3 

cu c 

a c= 

*~ r— t 
CU - 

.3 J3 
— • ■*-> 

tO CO 0> 

3 2 £ 

*- ^ CU 

co ^c . to 

>3 « I- .3 
3 03 _CU o 
^* r- CD 

e ca - ; 
.3 -a _g ■s ; 

03 ,3 03 3 ^- 3-;S 



^ " O 



C" — 

CU O 



** a — 



ca-3 O) H ■; - J ^ 

3 5 Q-~. S &: 9 -3..SJ 



.5 3 p.ra hfj^j 

— co^ty^cecj 

c:*! 3 SJ=03SO— — - 

_ cu 2 >,« to .. -, "3 C 



= 03 -3 . 
c? lO 

o=P 



c * 3 - 

3 2 c/i co . ^ 



03 



^^ 03 , 



3 
3 

* 33 



=•5 



„ * 

03 o c 



..." 



- co e a 3^>^ a ^ 

r-1 o . 



O ^2 ^ 
CU £_ 



oS , 



3 >-a 
•3 



a. f "• - 

sns^^ .tp*s- 5 

— 3ci oncfl a _ 

3_-'3 cu « « o QJ 

5^'cu JO. 2 co-- 

■3 — *> ;* a « -S cu -3 b J3 

-£>? n 222"SS§c3< u 5 

a i s- ° g -f -la 

CJ ,^X «t-( t^». 1 — O 



u 



.2 s 



■3 
B 
03 



a 

:c3 



to 

a 



to 

a 



a 

ca 

70 



a o 
* 1 



8 « 

ca ^ 

_r b 

35 03 

03 _ 

0B § 

08 &, 



e 
a 



3. 

03 



cu oj 

& « 

J . <U 

.2 &■ 

CJS ^3 -3 co 

r-l 3 <" 03 



to 

a 
P3 



a 
to 

a 

03 



'3 



■3 
B 



35 



o 

H 



J3 " 



CU 0J 

is -a 



B.° 



° s 

CO 3. 
CO 

00 " 



tt 


■* 


i~ 


.0 


3 


CN 


JO 
>s> 
cu 


hi 
CU 

43 


Pi 


H 




1! 


03 


> 


cu 





3 


Z 


U 




c3 





i-. 


-^ 




3 






a 




-^ 


^ 



-b .a 



— 03 

cu j3 

>- a 

CU o 

a o 

o *» 

ia° 
§^2 



-3 ™ 

a •• 
-2 >• 






03 


5 cu a « 
co .3 PS 


. O 


03 ^ -^ 


ffi » 


JO -*-" co 
O 35 O 




03 03 Ph 


— -3 
S. ° 

<: 


"3 O •- 


> CO 

l> CU CO 


_, j:od 


r^_ 03 




O „ 

"2 to 


3 t = >-- 


B 3 
« JO 


s ^ S 


to a 


2-B 



^ CU 

O 3- 
*» 03 

to°r 



■S3 O 



-S3' 






CO 

C3 UO 
-CN 

tDv« 

c o 



cs <2 



■< cu 



CU 



JO 

s 



CO *a ^ c— ' 

* a ^"" 



CO 03 
j • CO . -- j 

U frttMoo O 3 

1 a o» - cs, 3 
• B ° — -B > ~: 3 
» c« -£j2«q 
5-<"o Sljco 1 - 1 

3 . w So °° 

4 ^°"^ eJ ■" ^ a 
o°-° S" M ' E 
(S » -3 .2 



> 2 *s —• 

^•^3 oS^ 3J3 •- 

^ 3 .-§2 -2 3 «^ 

1: I- 

2 cu -Oh ;--5 t3 

"§32 r- * te =■! 

B-^^^cuO.-rtp^ 



3tN cs •>.« 

00 cu JO „-|-J 



%~ 03 

«.2§ 

«3 „ 

■^ J3 



M S 001 

vS-.ts 04 

* B , 

C M g iu 

" >> M -a 



o u 
a ° 
.2 - ~ 
3<2 



i « S cil « o s 

g JO . B J3 .CZ 1-3 



o S B 

W ^" 03 Cm •— 1 — efl 

co *- c- JO 

as H P3 'S 



B v.<- 



<u 
2^ 



E 03 

a o"3 

O 3 03 



OJ 



O o o 



cu 



cu ~: o 

"g CO -a co >r J= 

co 3 00 b* 



00 ■= >" 3 — 
00 u 



CJ 03 

3 S 

a .-a 



16 



REPORT — 1860. 



cj 



e 

CJ 



3 . 
© 



3 
O 

O 



id 

G.2 

•J S 
~3 o 

O cc 



a! os 






-a - w 
a —«.. 

a «- 
cj .!2 ~ 

as a cj 

" 5 a 

a oi 

2 "S 

o a 



^3 T3 
C8 — 

>» « 
o 5 

•u o 

a js 
cj M 



O >n a- 
a £ X'a 

rO O <V 3 



> — 

2 2^2 

. . ,— CO < 
Oi <— • OJ „ -T* 

« sJsS £ 

CJ *~ 3 || 3 

CJ 1/3 f, " O 
C/3 OJ ■ •>■—! 

._ a — •-v,-, 

L3 « 42 v 
3 « .2 £ -S 

~> i ' o ° a 

a § &§ 



to 
CM 

. Sb 

to a. 
_o « 

"o •- 

o s> 
CJ S 



■a 5 
.2 (3 
"3 



^a 



O ot 



cj in 



t- *-■ r- 

o o .5 



a ■« 



° o ti < -^ a '- 



CO ^j 



oj "2 j: 



^o* o 



I s a 

cj as 



C- PS 

= -r -a 



5 "*? — ^? "*? ^ 

c/ i-M V U ^ 

<b|8>§l§§3 



H «« »: » 



a *• .-_ C <u __ to_ _a a 
a _ *o cj *^ . — i ^ as ^- a 



i. o a 



10 tOaS rt 
— a 2 '3 

cj — 

a « , 
o — 



iwifl em 



01 o - ~ 

a *» cr J 



> cd 

-^ » 

is 
-J c 
■a. ^ 
-S 2-: 

« ,j3 — ; 
<u (A nj 

s *» -° 

O co u 






a a: i3 ,.5 



a W 
a co 



o 



a^ a> 
" to a 



a 

S^a 
20-° 



^-> nj 



aj O 



o 00 o <a <» 



, t».-a 
• t9 m 

J ^ w 



j» <d 



to 5 a: 



o a; 
j: S J2 «3 as 



a « S 

g 3 2 

f 3 aa 

^ ° <3 

CO .„ o 

• a. S^ .. 

— o _ 

— . cj '"- * 

.d +^ .tcl 

■ a • 

OJ H 4) 

a a 

2 a 5 
aiatfl 



H 



a 
a 

o ^ 
cj an 
^» 





a 
a 
o 



3 
Pi 



to 



c a- . .« . 



as a -a 



« a3 



— — — ~ 



• cj ta 
5 = -a 

^ 02 !«3 






•3< :l 



: s 



\s a 



. — • -a a 

:i **» : co 



S a fc-g 
»• g^^-5 



: >*< 






*> ; oj - 



o 

. IN 



H g^ 

!l*&sl 



a 
, o 



to 
'3 



o 

; < 
• in 



IB 

o 
a 



• 


« 


& 


SB 


£ 


: 'a 





: 



i » Z 



fc W £ 
* SB 



o o 



-a 
to 



: a 3 

! O CJ 3 
' o to CJ 

: E ii t> 
; ciin" a ' 



CJ >-• 
to tn 

!3 « 



a 
a 



a 



=>-a, 






. CO C3 

A ~ 



• 3 

: a 

. oj 

:> 



CJ S J, 

to cs as 



E^2 



: © 
■ m 



as 



to^ 



Ph 3 
fc O 

a: as 



IS* 

5 .-'o 



3 - - 

C3 CJ 2 



£2 C/J 













































































; 














>* 
















t^. 






w 


















>. 




to 










• 




Hung 
jlouse 

lungar 


a 




~ 


g 




C/3 

t3 




S ca"&> 








c 
a 


i = 


- — 


r 


: a 
b 


P> E 


a 


I 


E 


•E 

- a 




3 





ri o iS y qj 3 



!*- O.S 






« o 9 " ^ 



1 CJ Q^ 

a 



o o u 

O T3 fe _ 

: J a > cj 

=- s z a 

P o a" cc 

"&2 3-^ 
a £• to 



a^ 




.-as o 3—0 s n -a^;as oj-- a cs i« w =. o 






w " O 

eas-S m S S.oj ail — 






to-Z 

J? 3 

§ "? 

_o v cj 

"CS-S 

~ a . 

as o 

a o ( 



a; 
a 

a- — J " 



1— 1 C-l '-t <M i-h r-( CM rH 



^i r- 1. 2 ^a** - 

■3 «5-a3 CJ « ,° 



* * 

CO 



lO lO »o in 

r-. r-c CM 



-"i-OOO HHrfONNCOxaciMMO O M O « «> 
CM CMO CM HP3 i-Hr-t.— 1 1— (,-Hr-i p-i r-l 



tl S> >■ ti 
P._2 "3 a 



to "S > o 

s ire a) 



a 3 



C >.§ to. 

a. « 3 a 



— ' 1) w w rf -- .-.^^ — — w - 



CO 
CD 



CO 

OO 



a 



co 

00 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



: ca 
> a 

; o 

J -S 

13 

13 

a 
as 

X. 

to 



.SP 

'% 



CD 



o ro 
a S3 

»a 
« 3 

E & 
p yj 



_: <c _• .„_ 



s 



o 
o 



3 

C 




V 




> 


at 






o 


O 


V 




N 


a! 




a 




o 


a 


*-* 


o 


13 




CO 


>-. 


> 


cfl 


ja 


a 


13 



is 


a 




o 


C/2 








O 


ca 


-♦-» 


c 




o 


w 


CD 


£ 


13 


-— 




a 

eu 

if 


if 

o 


■a 

= 


a 

■9 








so 




c 






eB 
J3 


en 


1"! 


U 


V 


■ M 




-*> 


~ 


.3 


3 


to 



to J2 



3 £ . 

3 <C • 



CO "3 .a © 



cu — i 

ca co -a . 






. , «Jr3 . cu 

. ~ .~ CD t- 3 o 

-C -O X) « .2 .3 



• o 
. cm 



: -a 
: « 

T3 



"*^ 



W . 

o : o 

** . -** 

^ : w 



a 


7, 


H 


R 




10 









*-• 


? 




is 


SB 




a 



A 






















n 












-« 




3 
















. . . . . 




• „ 


3 








I V 










• • 








a; : -II ° 


L> 








to 










: : S 








to • c Q 










u 


















l- 


• c 

: c 










B 












i !a 








r 


V 




























: S II 


-J 
















<N 




-m 






> 










































s» 





















































































en 










































-r 
































RS 






-3 












c 




















c r -° 


n 




E 












s 




















In 


3 




S5 












B 
B 
C 


4 ' 












n 






3^ ^ 


■" 


c. 













• J 






J2 

to 








CJ J3 




t, 


-f 










O ^~ 






u 


M« 






T3 ^ 


j E 

J a 




cu 
en 

-w 

a 


ea£ 


a 

5 

CC 


-*- 
— 


c c 

.2-5 

as a. 


1 


arma 
dinbu 
rague 
ntigui 
arma 


OB 


reslau 
perira 
andwi 


■j Q. 


a. 


a. < 


0- 


O 


Su5 


Ps 


0. Cd CL, •< CU 


V 


=:«:'/} 


^ 












; 




; : ; ; ; 






> se 


<— 


t^ 


CO co 


M 


o 


CO 


r— 


•J OJ X Ol O M 


c~ 


CO CO to 




r-~ 




l-H O 










f-H rH 


^J 


" 


: = 
3 — 


1 


t 

= 


3 


C 

a 


H 


u c 

oz 


> 
C 






Dec. 
Jan. 
Feb. 














* 




* 




* 
























3 




















d 


3 




















■* 


j 




















00 


4 




















^H 








.M 






a 




fl 





' a 



= V, 

tO-p 03 
^ — A 



<» '5 

u_i en 



"^ to 
S 3 « 

Has 

."ti « f3 

as ■. 

O 5 eS 

0" 3 s 



e 


■m 


'+- 


0) 











f/> 


^_: 


^ 









3 

c 


ed 







— 
ed 


-£ 


1- 



-a 3 



s * * 



QJ 



O 



-a t« S"« 



2 1- ^ 

-= O Ph 



ca 


R 3 





•^ 




s.s 


ca 






■+- — 


— 


J 0) 


0. 


bO^ 


ca 


^ e 




<u 


3 
5 


& 



CU TJ 

"3 « 

to •- J3 
j- *J *j 
•^ en 



! *m 



O „ 



J^e« 

"••- <" "2 



2 c -^"H © 

**-• fcO «3 O 

Q3 43 -H 



pq 

-a? 

'Saw 

CU "* ^> 



^ ca 



.<! 



~ CU 

to > 

s o 

u 

5) to 

5 = 



H en en 

S >e ca 
• » £ - m> 

oj <S .-a .9 

+j ca en o 



o ? a • 5 g 
CJ en -g B. 



cd 



it ♦ J — _- - — *5 



t£| . 'O tfl A 






— s; to 



13 ca CJ 



"=3 C 



cu CU — 1 

53 <J »-3 



g-gM 

= ^^ 

•a! . * 

cu '-= ■- ^ 

J en £ O 
w 3 cj^ 



5 i^^ 

> ^ a. c 5 

J =o?Z 



en ca 

1 ca > 
P-* . 

T3 



to — 

^C73 « 
- - 5 



-a 



cj -h g a a 

u , ¥ cu eu 

ca a S > > 



CO CM JJ-g; 



ii "g ^ 



-° 2 



ca o 
cu — 



^- t, a 
■:• o >- 

^L. **-■ cu 

- ^ a a O 
filial 

%. ca 13 t-j 

■» -» CUTS ^ 

to. E a T3 

= "- 2 «> 
o o a --- 

— <m en p. 



0-30, a > 

SaJ a ° 

»ai. - 3o = 

" = d § >. 



_ o 



' cu^ 
: — CO 



53 


« 


ca 


-w ** 


s 


S3 . 


f w 


ed 


■e-3 



£5.2 



CU 



3 

ca o « 

tOrt ri 

t; -'a 

■£. j: 00 

~ CJ TJ* 



a 

CU 

u 

til 

CU 

1-1 
cu 
J3 
H 



ca 
u 



fcf 






°^5 o'~ 
cu .2 — -2 



.-'cj' 






i, rs -a ca 

a — S -*> 2 



13 cu 

a > 

ca o 

> J3 •- j3 ca .-2 



— ca 

a cj 



eu . cj 






13 >. 2 O -o 
cu Ji a eu^a 

S.EcS 2 . « 

if . *• '33 "3 

W^ S * g 

iJ to<u « 



a -< ^ 
§^1 



O 



• CO 

«■• te fl 

^ o **> 

■^ J" 3 

.^ «3 ctf 

t» * S 



§5 



a 2 ■* 
- ... _ a 



2 a 



~ — S'c > ° 
cu ... ~ to S 3 

0^.3 -^c° 
^J 1- "S -a H 

ca to . 

cu c -3 cu 

01 — - •" '~ - > in 

~ ^3 iJ tS « >. 

a S jjo^ 3 

^ g>S3S S^ 

.9 o,4j j= 
* 13 s». ~ S * 
ca en jC • a cu i4 

« 3 aa §S3 

CD fe eu ,. yZ CO 



tO cu 

'3 en 

— p • 
o 

a 

•o 



cc; cu 
! a en 
. «■§ 

: ca a cu 

! — ^ l- 1 

S «S 
cu cu e 
en 1- a 
to— 



•3 "5 -3 5- 

— ^ cu O 



.— - a 
ca — — 



» S « 2 
So 2^ 

* i" 5h 
•^^? a 

co^r- a 
cu 5 a 

CJ "en J 

ca en 

a. a 



CO 



."t5 -a 

03 <P 

N . t-, 

03 ca 01 
^ 3 tO 

— i _ CJ 

en « - "1 

cu a. _ a 

** '•" a a 
3 ^ o N 

a j= o-c 

•3 to E a 

E 's *>■* 

"3 -° -a « 

2 <n - > 

eu ca r- a 

cu a ™ ca 



? — 

2 >- , 
IS « 



u J2 cu 
•a..t3 

^5 -a a 
ca 



» D-, =5 . cu £ S co 

'Z a .<a 7* 



CJ 



CD — 

S.2 



C/3 3 

a ^ 

*I CO 

Cj —^ '3 



Jr & 13 



-§ ^ 



- •-- -^j3 
E j3 " jj -a ~ ot 

-W -e3 

.O d 



1-1 >; 

I— * ni fn 



•° u S33 « 

K .° ^ 

£^ cw ^ 



,* ao 
' .■" o 

™ .-CM 
J3 ^f i^. 

2 a 

3 ca ■« 

E 2 J 3 

cu ."3 to 

5b3 2 



o , 
a 

I £ 1 ' o S &^ 

ca . 



Sir) » » d'* 

,-- -h 3 3 a cu 
••" a >> -- " 



CD 
09 



ho to * Z3 

- 3 V.w 



o) — 33 *^ 

a 
ca 



78 



REPORT 1860. 



c3 

CO 

Ea 

9 

S 

m 


fine fireball, 
fireball, 
ditto. 

large bolide, 
ditto, 
bolide. 

Stone-fall ; stone 8 inches in length, 
large bolide ; streak several seconds. Same as next ?. 
streak 3' or 4'. Detonation in 15". 
large bolide ; bluish ; 40° high at first, 
large bolide, 
bluish. 

Stone-fall ; June 11 ?. 
Stone-fall. At Cereseto. 
bolide, 
ditto, 
ditto, 
ditto, 
fireball, 
ditto. 

meteor and detonation. 
bright as moon ; whitish ; 43 miles high. 
fine bolide. 
bolide. 
brilliant. 
fireball. 

like a Bengal-light ; seen also at Peterwardein. 
large fireball. 

ditto, bluish ; tail 15 metres long, 
a splendid meteor. 

meteor. Same evening also at Cherbourg and Chan- 
two fine meteors. [teloup. 
fireball ; burst. 

large fireball ; 840 metres diam.; bluish. 
fireball and detonation ; or 22 March. 
Stone-fall; sp. gr. 3-72. 
burst without noise, 
bolide. 
burst with sparks and many colours. 


H 1 

.2 J 

M Si 










■S 






s 

CO 






•s »*9 

O r^ 1. 
^* CO 










s is 

& : cn 

-In • 

oo : 






tf> 










CJ 




7 ■* 
-*> 

CO 


"9 


c 
.2 

w 


55 

O 

m 

CO 






55 
o 




is 3 

£ : * : fc 5 * 

5 IS \2 \S 

a '• rj '• a : « 

CO CO 
















50 CO 

3 : o 


» Ei ^ 
w tn co 

2 o c 

N B 
55 55 Z 


















is 

is" 

o 

55 

(4 


.3 
tp 

'S 

O 

<D 
N 










GO 

3 
c 

A 




g 

o 
o 

a 

1 
A 








. °5 










: : S 

: : « a) s 
• to to-S 








■ *- 
^2 










CO 

CD o? 3 
^— > 

CN A 

CO 






o 

o 


II 

EC 


e 

c 

t 




a 

- 

- Z 

a 


t 

r 
C 

a 


1 

a 

d 


2. 


■ f>» : 
k. * 

2 • 
" '. 
a ■ 
H • -a 
» . c 
i! !3 >" 

</3 .« 2 

2 2 = 

a; s 

3c3^ 


• - 

E 

- 


B 

'ft 
C/C 

t 

a 


1 

t- 

a. 


t5 

B 

"o 

r^M * 

HI 

*- c. 
a 

.3 '5 

2: » 


E 

s 

> 


c 


a 

c 
= 


rz 


a. 


c 

e 
•- 

r- 


BO 

•^ c 
CO •" 

i.s 

a — 

° ^ 


cr 

2_^ 


B 

: 

DC 


a 

c 
C 

Lt 

t- 

5 

'■- 

-— 


€ 
g 
X 


> 

"> 

u 

i 




— 


i 

■- 

- 
> 

z 


* 

r 



a 

B 

- 
ft 

a. 


a 

r 

9 

3 
a 
a 


c 

> «■ 

~ 5 
>- 

V 

— -a 


B 

~ 

b 

- 


D 

> 
I 


ft 
> 


= 

•- 




«.- • 
° 5 
s>> 
CS o 

O 2 


H HN H N N cOfi "M i—t^H ^-i <N Ol CN CM CN CN 

a J2 ^.S ='3 3 " o a -g 


XiflHNf on 

nCMM CN M "— < 




* * * * * 

CD 00 




^ 


* 


* 











CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



79 



to co 

a. & 
u o 
-a 

Cd 

b .■». 



c _ 



.3 ■- 



E.s 



1 o 



is 

o 

1 



■g S : 

■u - o ' 

» ffl <« 

3 — 
<-» c B 

>"3 g 



2 cd 



O CD 



to 

o «j 13 

u ** i_ 

2 >- o 

•-.M o 

u a a; 

°p to S 

.— :5j O O 

•C ifl c c 






ra 



to, 

= 

to 



to 

a 
-a ° 

?■*» 

CO 

£ 3 d 

O ,£3 -u 



a 

o 

— 
co 



CN 



CD co 
cd 3 

13 
>» B 
C CD 



s* ^; 

3 2 

c -5 

O cd 

V- c 

CD o 
^ -^> 
4) 



C« k( 

O <*> 

CD *o 

•p. a 

CD 3 
l£ oo O 

cd cd -3 
13 — ' ."8 
co 13 ^ 

2 5 



Bd 



.s 



S 3 ,£ .SP o 3 

g -B to ^- 2 --3 
_ CD -3r,Q S CD 



3°4 



5 « 



cd 

I " e 

O CD to 

— a 
o-a 
...a .» 



C E " S E Jd 



£ tc J3 as 13 ca :g 09 



a. .2 .2 -3 



'3 2 S 

3 2 3 

J5\J -a - 

"3:33 

<U J3 3 .= 
„B CD -" CD ' 

-" hi ... h. 

— tc ^ <a 

cd -a £ -*» 
,-, CO cd *a 
— a.-- to 

3 C3 — -S . , 

to > 5 fe " 



s 

CD 

s 

O 



8 
d 



CD . 

o 13 o 

a--o -a 









•- ol "2 

o w o 

^ rt CO 



CO 













& 






W 






is 
















o 






O 






















♦^ 












-*J 
















CO 






£ 






H 







: o 



~- m W 

o -^ *» 

00 ^ 



wis 



i 

o 
o 

3 



a 

§ s 
ii ££ 



d 

o 

o 



C3 

— 

I 

B 

• 5 

: c 

i s 




•fowii^NOOooodocrciosinccciOiflioortOiNOiOio 

CM rHi-H rtWHHN CNCNCM i— ii— 1 ^CNlM r— . £N 



"3 



to 



a, 

CD 

t/3 



O O 

o z 



eg 

(X) 



B 

o 



•3 



o 

"o 

co" 

3 
13 
S 



O 

O 



« a 

-T • ^ 

M V M 

g 2 a 

« A ° 

■= S2 



A! 

= to 

h-4 cd 

to S 

CD co 

,^3 



™ -a CD _ CD -3 



CO CD -T- 13 

CD JO •= O O- 1 

ftfe »> ■* - <u 

5 c 2 cdc3 2 



R H -a S U a 



3s 



t£) 



£?-2'3 

42 3 M - s « 

o « *» h-s ti 

to-j: ^ ^; c 
e 3 «3 ™ •" 



CD 



O 
CD 



"a 



ho 

S 



a 

o 

V 

cd 



co 



jo ^^ hi 

.S — O 

CD ~ 






U cs u 

S "3 ^3 .2 "-• ^ 5T ^"*« 

.2 bo aj too « 
s M a 4o cj 



C 1 "■* 

1 = 



r3 , ^-« t> 



slls3S§ 3 .s3 

cd 



■-= Oh 

bp-ft 

— -= 



a,o-S)-S S «-§)S o| 

3-E3t» o.i= CD E-g 

a 



a 

CU S3 CD l-^ 

„ CD to 

CD ■= J3 (J - 

JZ -"CD 

— O -w 



3 >>td ' 

gc.S S 
J: o a J3 

cd n -S o 

cd •. cd c- 

. •« " .ti .a 

-w C 2 J3 CD JO 

s *• c & .-B g 

g 3.5 i3 3 cd 
« °^ o 



■ CD 13 •" 

a > cd m 

8- > 5 

o _ 

V u „ 

Tj3 

cd 13 to 

o a i-i 

n\ — . O 



i ^o H cd 



> iO 
cd - iu 
j- <~» co 



cd a 
42 3 
.cd " 
«*" C« 

cd 

5 1£ v * o <u 
-o --- sis 

l ^j cd 



co jo %. -a 
k. -a cd -a 
to-- > cd 



"S ^ 2 
3 ^- -3 _a "^ 



CO • 



•=tb-°2J 3 
g^'5 S - 3 ~ .2 

t» Cd - ._2 S| B 

. ffi 'S^ £?|| 5 

cd^ooo^^O 

13 cd ^ ^ ^ ^- >> 

|^||.2 = S| 

°lo!iiii 

t ^°B= a -'S' ,, ^=o 

r- 3 >,^ O «S CD -5 

^=c33 « 5- . ££ 

CD ^, B ^ cd ^ ^i 
• — 3 3°-" 3 ^ 73 

- *■ a z r-g - 5 a 

d a ™ 3 "^ 



o 

ri 

13 S ?! 

§-b s 3 

2" cd - to 
b o» a 

cd ^ o 
M go' 

■- -O 

cd cd i> 

ill's 

o j; co oj 



cu (73 



-«8 



' cd ■— 3 

ra O 

c co a 

+^> CO 



a j 3 .2 cd o O 
OS S CD 



O CD 

H £ 

- CD 
CD 2 

to a 

< CD 

13 

• cd 

.• oo 

2 o 

3 ^* 



•• cd 
en a 

° s 

«^"E 
«^» o 

53 CD 

a^ 

CD 



3' 

O -a 



"w CD 



cd cu 
to 33 
cd cd 
hi ~ 
co cd 
cd Ph 



80 



REPORT — 1860. 



1 

« 

c 
a 
v 
-a 


all. 
d in 
.W. 




B 


— 


; fireb 
scende 
[the N 
ailed. 




0O 

B 


Bd 

3. 

J. 


. 








S 


parts. 
9.10 p.m. 
slowly de 

° high ; t 




to 




s. 

-H- 
05 




•a 






'•^ 


4) 

)- 




3 


& « S 2 « 


3 


-3 

S 





E 



. SO 

: * 

; * . 

i oo >n 



G CO 



h3 CA 

•* •- g 
S s = 

-*-» co ~X '— 

in x — 6- 



tS«N 



O ,c« 

« rt it? 
;3 ft> o 

.3 3: t/? 



CO O 
£ .. 

o _ 

to ft) 

to o 
a ~ 
u c/3 



c .- ** 

3 C N 

o — 'E 
'.3 *3 O 
a u x 

§§£ 

■s S o 



* -S ^ « 3 — 

o rt r» ft) ~- co 



s- 9 > " o ft> 



a n 



X -= N 



s — ?» 



r- S ™ ■* — fetS 

^ »- o 
ft) tocM 

S 3 >- 

?~ o 



a - e= 3 5 

> — :ri Pi X qj 
ft) .^ X Z, 
33 sa ft) .-ft) 

^- 3j ^3 *■ -:« | 

to 3.a -= ■" "3 . 

O oj ft) 'c "^ "^ "a 
-> > S <" 5 3 — 

c £ cw to > .a cs 



x> 


great 
eton 
, vol. 


o> 




... ~ to 




„ •- to 




.-3 co C 


ft) 


i: .'*' — . 












k s. »■ 




<b » a> 


a, 

3 


■S.1S 2 



-a 



-3 CC 



>. 



o o 

■5 -5 




a — . o 
D w o 






3 ^ (U 



i>8» 



o .2 o o "" 



*• ?, a o 



oc <« ■» 



rn 



ffl »•• 



o o 

CS 



B. rt 



s s 









c> -< 

IN 



c 
o 



o 








B 



CO 








^= 



to 

'S 

O 
ft) 



S-a 



: J2 : to 



: "S 



CO 



O CO ■ 
tJ 4) ft> .. : 

a. to to • 


ft> 

tn 


• 5 


• ">2 2 

-.2 + 
: ^ II 


■ <n 


CO ■ 


ft) 
tn 


s ►• *- : 
■^ 4S 43 c i 












ta 


: co 


• B 


to : 


C3 


II " • 






' o 


c. • 





o 



3.0 , 



o 

S J 
3 cS 

O — ' 

a - 
.2H A 

a -X 

(-. <u ^. 

-r ° £ ^ 



l: to 





>- 

■a ' 

£ 3 " • ^ 3 

„ rt ^= .5 o xi 

T tD - v ^ « 

rt 3 a .— ca cs 

D, H S O! S 2 



3 

ft) 

B 



"C a a 

a E S 



ft> ^1 o 6 ■ 
S-S-3.2* 



a a =.— 



v if a « a a era 

Q q, £- : o Maw 



O D 



o 

3 S » 



z" oo ca 



r,^3 B 



O 
3 o 



-S »« u 



Si 5 a .» ,4) a 



H a 

3 Oh 



1) D 

•a b 
11 



O cd 

-3 to^. 
4J ft) ZT 
ft) s to 

i a ft) 

3S& 




h^ rt ed o I 

ka ~ e a. a i 



03 



^N-JHHjjoOlNtfMOiiCOmcOONHioOoffNHNOO 
-H -H i— 1 -O MM CO M CNCO CNCNM CNCNCM 



00 M O CO 
H M CM 



CO Q\, 



Q O Z >-5 &H 



• t. ft) 

*" « 3 






_>. th 



co 

CO 



* 






CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



81 





















§§ 


c 






a 


*" Si 


. o 






-a: 


3 M 


«• s 






cd 


■° a 


CD O " 






V 


o 


§ E 1s 






J-. 
CO 


§1 


o o S o 






CO 


■■s s 

«J 1 — J 


t ; a 

pent 
ions 
feet 






'a 
o 

to 
Ih 


o 


^ ^ -^ 






to 


O 4> «a r3 
D. « a £ 












• *. 


.«* 


d re 

ht; 

deto 
seve: 






a 
.2 


a 






%^ 


o 


up ; lou 

sun's lig 
11 ; two 
e mass, i 






o 

S 

:*> 

i- 
O 


no 

o 

a 

to 


loud high 

de, equal 
iant fireba 
very larg 






r3 


a 
to 






B 


_a 






a 


3 
13 


O 33 — ' •- 






83 




a white 

bolide. 

great bo 

very bril 

Iron-fall 

bolide. 

ditto. 

fireball. 

horizont 

fireball. 

mid-day 

fireball. 


% i fc i * 
















s. ■ S < 






















£ 


















£ 






















• o 






















1 ■** 




































CO 




p 










BO . . 












:?*-fe : 




































i a£ : : 


















■ M 9 * 






























V 
























&> 






















— 0) 




















« to 




















-** 18 
















HI SI 
































CO _ C3 

3 41 £ 






.2 £ 

.a 




CO 
4) 




O B« 








Oh 


I — *^ co ~ 

X —CC 4J 






1* 


z 


2 ■•- o .a -a - 

!« O .= 3 3 S 






"3 ■ 


» m •*• 




eS 


to a 


> 2 


< s 


E 
a 


2, E 


2 2 

3 _S 


Q S5 j esj u z 


z 


0. 


S ivo 


• • ■ • • 






J 


; ; 


,..*•• 






• 


• • 


L oo — — i c 


-rt 


cc 


<M Y. 


o o 


1HHN PJ 


■N 




r— 1 p— I 


tN 


lNOV. 

Dec. 
Jan. 




-3 

4 




< 


* * * 








*v. 


-* 










•v 










00 










1 ~ *-* 










O O D. 

- 






CT 


M 



U B " 

•^ o -r„ 
-^ >^ to 

IS* 

o o •- 

♦^ *33 

O 4) 2 

_ 3 o 
~ u* -- 

2 co "> 

13 — O 

2 "3 S 

.Bs 

5 a 5 

2- =" 

,i.x 2 
2 "a 

°^ 

c/J ^ — ' 



^ 



03 


>» <» 2 


'3 


a 3^ 


a 




^3 


-*» 


(U <c 


.2 


O) ,_ T3 


a 


or Mo 
. 53). 
1 mass 
; seei 


a 
o 



5" 5 

■« to 

3 -a 

2 ° 

CO rg 

o c 

wl e3 



« 3 Ji 

a- & 



I &•! § 

B, * -►» :g to^ 

in >o - a j= ^ 

a> „ oj .5 i; 

•£ K 2-3>j3 
O O - a 3 ^ ♦» 

■*££ 



a - a 



3 a ^ 



id 



«5 

t5 : 



s 

3 

to 

o 



•- a ° 

•^ ^ te 



-3 — - H S ™ 



- — « -t; 

2-g ■* p-a 3 
a .3 >.« 2-S 

2 b to— i ? 
g 2 ?° a — 



as ra 
-^ _a 






<u -m a ■ 



2 10— HH 

S •= •- -- o 



J3 

to 

m 



C3 

■3 

to 

o 



o n3 

*> c 
a _g 

c- o 

> a 
o ..-3 



o 3 tn"™' 



2 2 
-, to" 
5 z .a 3 
^ o | a 
a 
is 



^ o-3 ff 



•- Q rt Z 



S«i, 



o o 



4) J3 



tn ° 



<c ~ 
og 

«■§ 

i s 

C3 tO 



^3 « 

« — ' 

« a * 

j on 



OJ 



<y 



2j= 
toO, 



M 


a o 







to a. 




s 


a s 


r^. 


u 


•7: = 


GJ 








o 


11 


3 


Z 


a 







a 


* 





33 


Csi 


v2--o 





^5 



: 60 






3 
•3 

a . 



03 



C3 4« 

.ti a 

o 



4) - 

1 . ^ 



03' ., H 



» o bo 

.3 OJ J2 

tZ 2 

8.1 a 

Pt y; 

< o . 

H>3 CO •— 

w *j a 
• 3-5 . 
: to-3 2 s 
' 3 oj a-o 

CU 



— 51-0 ri 

. 3 3 §<*>-s° 5 

J£ -7- _3 to 2 '- i 

a 5 H -3 >ra © 
.„ a. s J-ir 



to — 

d a m 

- ~ »- o 
i > '^ " 5 So- 



O 7^ 



S S 5c " 3 

■ a > •-- ^ 3 



00 2^ s „ x© Mir 

t-" 3 j=* b £ -: ^ -2 M ^ 

3 > «£ ;o.->,» 









CO 



3p = 



5 § 
3d 



_ig * 



•a • n ■" " 



■a . 

CJ t. 60 « (i, _ r-i o<M 



^ o - to 3 . 



. « = -> 



-2 S 



a--gs *J ■ 



«l&i-i 



ca * . 









O (M 

-^ 

» » -^^ o 2 o S 

C^hO 3Q.'C C3 0' CJfc, 

'5 o 8 4) 3 



P o tu 43 
3 



3- 

s 

O 



u5 a a 

'S o to °- 

4) ca •- "- 1 
g .. a «r 

: « o *> 3 

i "S l - S -2 

' u y ^« S 

1 to > ^ eg 

■ O ■ ■-* cd - 

1+J « f tj) 

1 "5S 
)■*->_* OT ^ 



' 2 . 



J3 

H 



is 

4) 



^2 
C3 

O 



:*^ cj a r*i 



4> ^33 

i a 4j 
•o" 8 § 

2 S« 

« >,» 

cS — J3 
-3 S ~ 

o o o 
.a-3 -" 

•- -3 Si 

a.2-2 

03 _- cu 

£ « 3 

3 1^ 

>."> S 
^ ca to 

p3j. 

H. 33 a 

•s to"" 
-SaC 

9J-- CJ 

% i J 
3 ^ c 
eo; 5 

ca "- 1 a 



coo g 



<i-. ca 

212 t: .4) 

■" a 3 o-js 
o--r 
3 3 



Sua 



cu te OJ 



o 3 



£ tO- 

ca to to 

j o- 

C]_ 4) 



33 <u 

ca -3 

<^ 2-S tc ° 
§■8 2S a 

*H o ** fco « 

^y u r ^ 

S -2 =a •- - 

^ P-T3 



« =a o -a 



CO CO 



CJQ 



-<! 



£ « 



■< to 



h a 



tO to , 



a 05 


* 


£ 


4) 






4) _S 


ca 


A a 


bo 


* Si 


? 



. 1> 

Sag 



a 
o 

S = " V 



a S c 

4> .3 to 

a > a 

SS f 



-S3 

ca ^3 ci« 

2 S a°.3 

I s -§ 5 
J5 -a a d 

~ =3 -5 
• -a "3 71 

to ;> t- 

to^ -a g 

to 3 a 

o - ca -a^ 

CO 



' " ^5 =5 3 .2 
•- — 'J3 O 
¥ .3 t- £- « 



2 -^ o- S, 5 to 



2 d 

2 cu 4J 

-a -a 
"-3H 



CO CO 



CB 



ta -5 •" 



, ^ CO CO 



>>.a . " w 



^ a js 4) 
ja).?o 

u 00 J3 ■" 



2^ 



Oh 1 

a 



• &.00 a 



1-3 co !-» 

2 » 
ca 
03 



to 

t-H CO 

a. 

-3 



^ -* . 
•a '" t3 
a to S 

CO s- -3 
CO 3 r5 
c/5 



o o 
az 



3 — ^z co ca w 

tOO ,„ to £ to 

a « =a cloig >5= - 

3 2 o 2 » o - 5 
a - - .2 a " 

3°|s?o« 
«« » 22^5 

CO 2 J= O 4) 33 _ 



^ ca 13 

o L CJ 

o S j 



33 a 4) 
ea ca t3 



rS-a o 
^ a 



ca 



: 3 „-= 



to 3 **-• 



CO — " 

- jz a 



1860. 



'•a "S^ a 

J3 X! 
3 33 01 . 
3°'* 3 ^ 



3»0 « 
** *^ 
3 & 

<-a 

■a 

~- .2 

s §• 



o 

♦^ CO Hrf 

"S = 
« cs.33 
to"" M 



E -5 o 
V t_ to 

£ o a 

^ CO .« 

* bco 

S-ill 

=3 g« 
<2« P. 



'3'aOr'C-H^— J M (-. 

_. >. to « ^- ._ v a 
i*^^„- v -S2*cLaT3 

^.„ c -hX03 « , 54' 

4> "■: to—- js , a uS 

-— . . l ~"*'*-f-COC0 ^ 

to !S ',4> „ ^ x. a ca ^ co 

r 3 ffl t .3. o 4J I- ^^ i_ 

•2 to-* 2-3 ? ° =a is |" 

a~ 4j=ai3'i;a «a>o 
o C»r" .2 c a 
cj e) a f C -Bool 



82 



REPORT 1860. 



en 

t 

a 

c 



.a -a 
cs a 

OJ 3 

-a o 

_ CO 

e73 



o . 

=3 a 



K*>-e 



J a 

1- 



(H O 

o cu 

,^ CU -^ 

T3 -*j cu 

cu cu a 

u a a 

3 " h. 
o o fe 

oZ £ 

Vd« 

|" s So 

J. O.S 4) 
"C C/3 bO'-C 



s 

fa 

W 

3 

CO 
I* 

a) 

1 

fe o 

l-i 

cu .. 
>» CO 

a — 

cu c« 

2 is 
75 *- 



to 

a 
o 



-= 5 

bD° 



■a 

-a 



s 
o 
u 



S <" 

CU x 
CJO - ' 

t. .3 ' 
«) 22 ' 

■a j> . 
bo ^ 



a o 






■° a 73 £ "5 
>% o -a 



03 

<a 

.a 



C3 



a a 
'3 S : 



o -a i 

• "a 73 -a ,£• i 



•a 



e:i 



3 ** 

sua 
K-S «> 

« S 73~ 



- S CJ 

c/j o £ 

» e-s § $ -s s ■§ « ^ a o ~ i . 

• j;>.Si,tii» ( i-..-j!>!Oc 
S te t3 bcca coeaiB-cggjjrce 



. o 



"9 >s 

CO «£ 
C %. 

CO w 
•"CO 

il 

-a a 
2 a 
S o 

-fJ cu 

■a* 

tn a o -— 

o « — v 

■2=3 - a 

*" o> — : c3 

<u G To — 

.5 o> ^ .c 



cu OT 

§|§ 

3 -3 N 

a eg -g 

— a o 
a ° js 
a cu o 

■S T3 *> 

^ <o J3 

a -a 



a 

o 



o 

03 



co " :a CU 

~^ O ,- co 

"* 3"5 a 
f 75 



JjJ!- 



O 

e 



i: o 

a , 



CO 

"S >*3 

3 a 
-a .2 

3 O 

.2 15 



cu a 



^a • 

1 -S « i 

; <a m 

CU T3 






cu •-— v3 



'■-' eg 

3 -a a ■• 

cu B "t: — --^ ■« 



C3 .-= 



■= ^3 ee j 



2i 53 

= 3 cu — — -u 

3 CU >- c3 ° •- 



.a -5 d 5 



O S 



3 ^ 



2" 



;CN 5 



S5 



rO 



O 

•*} £ co 



3 

g 






jj co m £ <r> <" 

o o 2 o o o 

« u ^ »S »' £ 

Z ^ 55 



^ 



■& 



o 



« ii 



a 
o 

; o 

a 



3 

3 



cu cu 

CJ3 &0 

— !- O 



: t> : >, ^^a 



- - * 



cu . o 
bo co o 

3£ B 



if i 



- 



o 






to bo 



3 

.5 — a J2 
ea bd 33 S 



u 


S85 




I- 




'/i 


3 






« 


u 


a 


a 


DO 






U 


, ,' 


O-CQ 



_, to 

41 ra 



x 



& 



bo S 

3 



bo-a 

c? 3 -2 >•_- a a 
sseess .5P »s. a < ™ 



3 



cu i3 

3 CS 

5-cu-S > 

-: c. — 

a a ^^ a s 

o o e3 a o ** 



DO 

— .CD 

* • 2 

s 4) 7i 

i- 3 >- 

>% « £ 

i, o 



* co -a 



P*« bo 



c x»3 S 



bo2 



v -° -S „j£ a ■ 



S.9 2 S 3-=-5 aU-3 g| 



cc ca c3 ■— cu 



cC Q ! 



aiLCoa:aa]OBcDZijgi>aiajci.a'eJja.JooB/a < gjQ> 



Or3 

«a 



HOlHNOO«NHXOffi'*OOO , *ON0SOi0HNNNOO00HtoOhHtNO01Hi( 
MNHHrtNNNtO rtr-< i— ICNCNCO H H N N ■— icNtN MHNNMHMIM »• 









9 



bo 

a 



O 



> 
o 
52 



££ 



S 






CATALOGUE OP METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. , 



83 



B .2. 



CO c 



O i 



_= "3 



*^ CD 

CD S 

= CD 

i « 2 

v a 

^ i- u o 

3 -^> CO — H 

3 tO ..* *J 

— i« ° 2 



a 

gg 

c 
o 






o 



ca 



« <; 



P «J O 



§* 



..«5 S • g • 

t -O o .o o 

1 1 S 3 8 s 



— w 3 1 

° '3 .3 -3 « 

2 u^ »s 



1i S « 



o 
o 

t-l 

CD 
s» 
o 

.G 

to SP 

rS « 

cd ^ 

CO 3 

to? 

o '-' 
■ — •- 
. -w CD 

CO ^3 

*a O 

3"S> 

CD to 

3 
"" O 

r- qj 

£0 



to 



3 
O 



" r-C 



" -w B 



>&3 3 
£ ° « J^3 












C^ 


s 














-M 


D, 














C3 


in 














lm 


■9" 














CO 


■A 







3 <N 

ST 1 



*• * • 

OOO 

-M -M +> 

m m « 

S3 



A ■■ 



b ! co ■ I 



bo • rt 

— * — 
« .' :B 



-S 



SZh 






CD 3 

~ 3 



C B 



A "2 'to "3 c « b 

O " 



a 



3* 



33 T3 b E 6h 

M 5 - « .- 

c — 



• 2 !- « tO 



o 



.2 <u £ « ^ _ 3 .3 
1 -r. CaiCT^ri-iO— ' 



«, 5 S 



e .b o 



'3 3 
O o O 



5 CO 



b 2 - 

C3 3 CD 

,0 o« o S &\a 'S oss o g «J S oj S 3 00 c 5 o 
!tf>:caijOh,piua3 § -Siaogfl.ffluwoZOHCLM 



X^OOHrtCi>'*HfN"*OCOrtfllOcOOHHHiOO 
CNHr-iiICO CNCO CN 1— I 1- iHN r—1 



"3 



to 

B 



o 



o 
u 

Q 



3-= 
ca v 
1-5 &-i 



to 
00 



3 


.3 


ed 


Ed 


CU 


? 


~ 


B 


m 


= 


S 


— 








3 


a 


to 



tO 3 



^ 2 5 

CD — . 



^ « t0'/3 

OT 3 I- 

£ ~J3 •- 



s ■» s 

Kl-S 
p, « p 

i -.'cd T3 

5C5*J C 
\ CO rt - 

- 1 r-H - - 

-^ CD 

■o-B-5 

"~ B O 
to ca c 

o 01 w 

« j o 

<*? CO C 

O ^£ 3 

O J3 i_ 
O *» O 
« -u . 



SO) to *T -w 1 f 

-2 «•« § SO: 

« o to E < 

-n ".3 ^ o--f3 ■ 



S * » «j 



£ »o is «• 

to tD & 3 -f- t 
JS S to 3 t. 



'*j ctj t» 



tu y^ 

:3J3 2 &§"£ 
o°».5"° 
" 52 S >> 2 '« 

3 pB ^ ^. J3 ty 

• B -*^ O T! -^ fl 

cH .0 S " 

bo 3 t3 ,5 "3 ° 

« O , - <b 3 « 

3 « II = - £ 

£ .t >'"o J3 'C 

^ to" CO o O 
O O JT X CO 

« £ u to oj^= 
o ■; 0) " 



*3 3 






5 <u 






-? rt : o « ■ 



0J 



■« B 
O IS 

o g 

* ■< 
to 






CO g 

a r-T^ 



»2 5 S 

.13 c5 _0 

3 
O 

-3 o 

4JJ 



^ = tljOO 



p. 



b2 3>-"i3^g 



O CO 



1- y^ 

is -•-> -*j 

O O ctf 

^- ^^ -fj 



M-i to D'** " 
»- 3 "*•* C ^ CO 

1) o a C fl m 

♦^ lO cu ■" 

>?-« 3 w"rS '" 

£ 1 s "jr S .1 

CD _ J CD ui ** 

« "O -3 c 

a 3 4-3 CD 

„ g a § - a 

<j a o . >-, cd 
to ca >. js — > 

3 ■ a S S § a 
o 2 "" -a " C 

co '3 3 TS M +* 

. J3 B — B E 

Sf„5oo 
S 5 S3 - .2 

b0 ri bo ^ -^ 

c 2 <*-> cu S3 « 






o "a 



3 ° 

CD 13 

s.s 
a-^ 



.2 « 

CO 3 



o 5 



'"+5 -a to <« 

►- a B 3 
fe S CD .3 3 

P" .2 <o > .3 

ctj 

CD T3 

• ^ B . S 

W B-a § 

— O CD 3 

13 a a ^ 
•".S =3 -c -2 

^ " ra u 
ffli -v +* .5 •+* 
-^ to JJ j3 j3 

g ^ ^ ^ .£p 

NO- ^ M 

1^ »S CD 
' £5 '3 J 3 to *f 

«'3 s.-.S'm c° a 

_ «d 1^ L. 



bo 

B 



a 

CD 

-a 



bo 

"o 

3 

a 

CD 

— 



'S'g s 

CO > o 

CD "^ 
"" "> n, 

a « S 

B 1-1 CD 



CD 



O 

o 
3 



^3 S 



3 _ . 
o 3 

13 "H 



B j. J 
o P > 

£ .2 



00 

3 ca — «|c « 

fl i CD >- ^r-- 4J 
Si 0) OJ 3 M 

+* -^ 
ca 



•9J-3 S " £ 

. tox aBc- - 

'to tj, to ^> *^ bo 2 • 

B .« a ^ .„cj^ 3J 
t»t, c ^"CQe 

o § 5 » S ° 2 33 

£ -S C- .2 -a ' s £ 
a d 2 33 03^, 

B e d .^. IB ^1 B CD 

. O >■ >. 3* « 

J CO *** F3 ^ ^ 

! — ! - B 3 
O u 



ryj ca 



CD CD 

s* s- 
o ca 

•s* . 

s'i« 

/■In r OT 

to j S" 

g ^ a 

ca « ° 
& 1a 

>- _: 

2 <o -a 

■5 a <C 

o 05 

S3 S " Cu 

gi3 «j-=a„^ 

co .2 M • „t a <u 

CD . ~ to ^/CD TZJ 
fc- "1 Cfl N D 

CD .-<J 3 o t» *> 

. S s« c^^p 

O -S «• M S "" CD 
C3 CD w to >, CD t-i 

» s «j ca .2 i2» 

^ So; a ^ *■* 

* .»OO60C 
• T3 ^^ O) s es 

§J^ ° S^ ts 

<D ^h CD p e « ^3 

o £ o g o a " 



0) 



o 



3B •< .a - 



j > -a 

ca 

g2 



a 

s ° » 



84 



REPORT — 1860. 



«a 



03 

a 

PS. 



O S 



a 
5 



"■ 5 
5 fa 
a rt 

"a "- 

O a 



-2 « 



00 



a<« 

ft) ^ 3 
"PS 



82 

o 



■a 
'5 



o 






5 s 
to S 



■X S •- -C 



a *c — 



.2 c a 

-*» p. ft) 

5 *£ <■> 



•4= 

3-< 



rt --a 
5" 5 



c s 
a 
:a a 



•3-§ ° 
^ a = 

« to2 
£ to- 

:fo= Si 

1 as £ « 



a t> - ft> a 






St.* 

teg, 

— X 

U2 



>. .a 



N -~ 



(A . • — 



a a . a 



K « K,-K K 



■ n (« ? 



ft) ■- . 



G O O .3 ■ 



c 

2 3 



JT3 



-^ 3 
aoj" 
f o = 

I- «3 O 

« S'-a 

i — i - a 

= a 
•H.2 

P-J3 

j=.a 

-a 
ftj i_ 

a * J 

a >n .2 « 
** . w > 

. o a o 

s - g - 

■a-gl § 

«j -a ~ o 

§s5l 



•o 43 



f— • 


to 


a 




J fi 


o 


C <o 




.2. a 


-a a 


M* 




a 


o c» 



5.2 !►», 



all 

ft> 2 
c ... a. 

3 _^ t/) 



J= a3 

to c 

o « 
O .. 

o c 

«J o 
a -a 
— a 
5 a 
• - o 



2 > 

B o 



o — ^' ft> •" 






i- "3 
o — ; -o 

- 5 a -a 



3.1 » *. 

.2 o £<£ 
a — a -a ■ 
Si>« 5 

3 l-i to .— • 

s_ a >- ft> 
O u 3 
ft) 3 J 



ft) 
-3 



ft) ft) 



u 



ft) 



r — — — 



E'iSs • "o i> 
u a „ a.«.c w 
to ft> to-r: — a) a 
fa,sd 5 S o = ~ 

— ic a 






L° a 

: n fa - 

■ .as w 
; a -.4- 



;-S 



i-a-S^ 



a ■ 

- is 



. a ^ 

at; 3. 

fa .n ei ' 

to "^ ^j 

to t; 



- M 

: e> 



a 
ft) 



3 






* a H 

55 t» Z 

O ") o 

*^ ^ -^» 



H a > 

si 



a 



-3 

to 
'5 
is 



+ 



e 



1 a 



C -4. 

5 r A 5 ~ 



1° •«' g 

» ° A ' 

AsA»o 



I &2 



-a S 

-° .« 

3 -3 

§.- 

Ǥ 

ft) CO 



ft) -3 

to " 



a 

Lsa ■ 



ea 

a 

s s; s 



a» 



C e a -j i 



cu 



-_ ft* Z 

ft) 3 — ft" 

a 



.- a >. 



a 

a i 

.a i -a ft) ft) 
— : ?*) b 



' o 
•SB 



s to £• '. 



a ii «» *» — 



f2 £ s " Sck< 



ft) s 

3 ft> a _ - 

" 3 ft> £ C J"-- 3 n 

= C g ^ .O^^ 2 »r 



° £ 
"2 — ' 

c o 



u w a 



rr 3 t0 i: 3 .2 - 



3 - S • - a 

O — 3 t< 



— ■— c_ ri s. </3 



P 

) w 

: a 

!S 



T3 «3 



3-2 3-3 
a a ^ v .x. 5 



-:3 C £ = 

§ !»:§>£ g H § 

O — S a C = c -? =o 



= ■5 

>% 3 

a o 

G E 



Cl~l« ^HMMC^"r-.C4CMn r- rt Jl ^ « N N HH-nN 



C» 



o — »rjcosr>cOF-it>.t-. 

O ft) 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



85 



.-— - 



3 co 

-a 



^ *- 3 
■ 52^0 
: « ■? c< ~ 

i..5 -a o 2 

'Jt-g § 

- -a cu g "3 
OS .2 s a 
1 cu o •■ *j 
' •« 2 s co 
i .- c >•— ' 
: s o g 

*> '-i 

.£ .-a. to 

o g — 



■5 



T3.S 

Sag 

I — - •- 



■•^ ** 3 >■ 

cu .— » fQ -w 



— — 



B O 

S co 



CO *%• -— ' 0) 

to -5 -3 . 

„ sa o u 

O «"C3 

111! 



(A O 



o o 
en j" 

s< 

*- rt 
<U o 
> CO 

a u 

co 3 

. >• 

oo o 

UO o 
.%. CO 

■^ I - 

-*j ... 

" ■=. -s — 



13 

2 ? 



£ 
co 



o 

is 



o o 

*-» — 

5 -a 



°S5 



O ~ -S 



to 

2 



.-3 & .. 

— .2 » 
is ~ a: 

■ » s 

^ CO _~ QJ 

O « co *3 



CO« i a-3oo3c;.3 *n" o — • ^ 
*j ._. ™ .— o ._ .— ^* .*-> ■-• .r rt «> iT_r: 



aw S ° .5 



3 
- _ o 
- -a r ^- 
>-. t- — — — • 



! hi 

: o 

CO 



a ■ w 



z o 
2 



a 

































(M 
CO 

• n.. • 

• -a t. 


• -4. « 
■ ?* t 


o • 


CO 2 

• + « -2 
; iJ|S, :| 

! • X E 3 • *t 

• • -r II — -A 




B0 

• • ■S, 
': : o 

■ . CO 


: — to 


A^ 


i : 




i : + 


'-* o, 








■ • o " 


• / 




• • IM 


CO 








ira 






•>* 




CO 






























& 










rt" 






























is 


















• .2 c 

• ^- 33 


r. 

E 








o 














CS 


























a 


: <« a 


c 








u 












:ao 


> 








. p 












JZ 


Minderthal, 
Richland, S 
Grunbinnen 


■g 

6 

s 


1 


: 




on, Lin 
deenshi 
i? 


■r 






■c 




o 

3 

C3 

c 


o 


C 


.2 i- 


= 1 s = 

o ,2 j c 


£>! 


5<S 
5 x 




s: 


/ 


>> 


aS-ta 


•<; =2 


MO 


su M 


■<>n i*o 


o 


CO 


O r- 


Hinox 


«-^ o 


o o 


en -1" 


>J tN JJ 


^* 




i—4 r-4 


NMHfi 


i— t 


I-H CJ 


tM i—i 


E 
















uec 

Sum 
Jan. 




.= 






j > 




S =-. 




b 




r?5 


<S 




3 3 


s)e »*• 








* * 






* 


3 t>. 














1 


1" -*J< 
















00 
















r - r 


^ 












er 






: o 







M 






o 


-^ 




C 




u 








js S 



Sag 

53-° 

= ^"50 
'SpS 

i tog 

, b-3 * 



B S3 

^r -■ 



3 
-3 






O 



g 
o 



■a 

3 

o 



to 



a 



3 

s 

B 



to! 



o 9 ' 



£ 3 
O o 



O ^ 



a 
c 



I -a 



b = 



,S GJ y 



XI ^ 



s — ' 



—. cu 






W) O O ^ 



«3 O 



cd 




N 


s 


O 


B 





E 
o 







u 


QJ 


■ !- 


*J 


« 








bo 


— 


B) 


c 


— 


.= 


o 


u 


-.- 


o 


- 


— 1 




QJ 


</j 


3 


> 



o i<J 



. Sco s „ 



-•a 
-a « 



r_2 _= ^ o 



h « ;s b _. . 



2, <%& 



7-r— £ « 



r^ 



B -« v U 

O C3 tO 






« o S -3 



=- =-] 



Ph 






. "m "> -= 1" " « 
J B S fe J= ^= 

3 :r 5 oj ^ .h ^ 

5 _ *» ° a > n 
J 3 uZ so "-3 

• .§ §>- g g t 






QJ 

o S 



aP5~ 

>, QJ U 

^ s a 

"S 3 ~ 
CO "3 



P*5 



§2^| 



^ "to 3 

= | c3^ 
^ c « 2 
w .l ° % 

•§ c g 

7 S «.§ 

o ? « M 

3 S « % 
3JSS 

^ « • a 

1 S o g 

"5 5 2 ** 

So) 5 « 

"^ a* 1 

'S'SS 2 
5g s "« 
3 =• 2 o ' 

2 a 3 <» 

-I « sii 

- >>a3 3 ■ 



> 

a 



t: o t-! ^^ 3 . H 



I ■* "^ S 






> %£ 



c3 ^ 

=■ 3 

QJ 



■S £ a § j 

S §=■ "3' 

■5 ° c ' 

^3 ej cS i 





03 






rth, wi 

metre 

S.toN 








"5 a? 


Cfl 






VrH CJ 


O 






J3 - i- 








^ "^ -K 
























°lli 


4-^> 






a 






ellitt 

citv 
1,97 

abo 






*J O -H 








co <u a 


o 






> CJ 
















be 

ent 
ista 


SJ 
4h 






may 
ppar 
ast d 






r: 


■n<* 


n 




ct: 


V 


•* 


pj 


*j! 


Qi XO 




- 


a 


IS OH 


s 







« a c rt 
•- » <K .. 



; -? -^^ 



e <" ^ o 

QJ cy ^ -m 

SCO 

JfsS 

U°" , cj 
CJ--0 ^ 
3 Qj 00 .3 
« QJ CJ tO 

OT "^ -W '"* «1 

j^ C3 — ^ 

2 !^ rt "-2 S 



p-u 3 



** -w 






c s « 






!^ 

. c 

I o 

CJ 

.— -*^ CJ QJ 

"*"" O 3 OT 

~ ^' 3 .5 a 
j; — O CO 

n « o u 

— CJ X co n3 
3-— „ CJ S 

—— t- i a 
r? «: w B . 

to — O ^. 
S 30 • 



g.1 



o o 

00 ♦» 



o « o 

•3 r fl 






fa 

-2 -a 

0; QJ 
"3 B 
QJ 
QJ 
CO CO 
CJ 

>* ■■* 
o — 

h " 3 —i "^ 

i — .-J -t> 3 c3 

is 3 j;. " j- « 

a r jca a . 

— P cj3 tJ) 

rt vs^- au "" 



CU -r- 

SOB £ 
511 



QJ - 

C 3 CJ 



to g to 



. CJ +J ' 
to es 

C O 



? — 



•«H S 3 ^ B "* 



e; s 



. to cj ^ 3 ^ 

r-i B CO 

CI « ^ * 1) * 

,= S^oo' 5" 

2 ^ >> to S 

^ o "^ ra — — 



I ^ 111 

cj oj <•? cu S 



^ £ 3 

c — 



CO c 
C3 O 

u 



E< j= 
'^. — — u . ^ 

■" -a = « -r 3 

^ go « 3 

/>■■ O CO ^H ^ 



o 

-a 



"S 3 0) 08 

<N co ^. 

QJ IT'o CJ • 
jt? rS 3 QJ ° U0 3 

" v. ^ .2 



QJ 



« cu .a 

ts to 



£» 



~ — 3 f 

£ o -c 

tt O O cj 4) 

£ U tbE 



| 2 £ 

to to 3 _• 
3 3 g 

a. cs 



L N 'S 3 °S^ 
; 3 _ cu o >m 

"tb^o<- £« 
H 3-< totS 



86 


























REPORT- 




1860. 


































u 
<a 

a 
pej 


irregular ; cast shadows ; like a bright cloud of smoke. 

a fine meteor. 

a fine fireball. 

quick down ; left a streak for some time after. 

fireball. 

bright as moon ; bluish, reddish ; burst ; sparks. 

long tail ; 2 a.m. 

fine bolide ; long streak ; whizzing noise ?. 

great light ; long tail. 

bolide. 

reddish fireball. 

brilliant ; burst ; horizontal ; dazzling as a Bengal light. 

bright fireball. 

bolide. 

ditto. 

ditto. 

nearly stationarj' for 7' ; irregular speed. 

large fireball. 

a fireball ; burst. Also at Erdmannsdorf. 

most brilliant at the 4th second. 

fireball. 

bluish ; tailed. 

bolide. 

tail 4° long ; rapid; serpentine movement. 

fireball ; observed by Heis. 

brilliant. 

Stone-fall. Violent explosion. Stone 2i in. in diam. 

burst while expanding itself. 1849 ?. 

bolide. 

ditto. 

ditto. 

bright fireball. 

very large and bright; 10° above horizon; green. 

pear-shaped and tailed ; double-headed; by day-light. 

green, with crimson border. 

Stone-fall ; sp. gr. 3 - 51 ; 12 inches in diameter. 

large bolide. 

cast shadows ; bluish ; same as last ?. 

fireball. 


.2 2 

2 - 
Q 2 


is • 

o : 


: : o 

: : uO 




2" or 3" 

streak 30" 

slow 
streak 10' 

25° in 1.'." 
7' 


o 
. . O 

: : o 3 
: : *- 

: i" 2 

00 




: : o o is'* 
• :|j :«| 






• l-H 

. ta n< co 

• <u 

• b 


: S 

: p; 

• i— i 






B 

_o 
a 

u 
H 

5 




i 

'• '• 03 cJ • 03 ^ Z 

: : o •' o z o 

: : *» o : *» ^ *> 

i : ri rf : * o £ 

OB » 

00 




o 

— ' 




: a : 03 

• o '■ js 

• ■«-» • *a 

: . : i 
. r* : p. 

o 










!5 

o 

-** 
DO 




! z : °> 

. o : 5 

« : z 

03 






z : £ 

$ \s 

£ i ts 

03 








; 


-*-3 

S3 

hi 

o 


§ : 
c : 

^ : 

cm • 






to 


: S : 

: « : 

: ^ : 

: th : 


to 
s 




M !>• """ 








AA 

CO CM 






c 
. . o . 

: : o ; 

: 8 : 

:•« : 




large 
30' diam. 
large 
large 
4 lbs. ? 
large 
12 > Sirius 


o 
o 


f 


CO 

a> 

-_ 

C3 

s 

o 

■* « 

— C 

o 1 

£3 Ce. 


a 
— 

i 

a. 


L. 
L. 


d 

= 
c 
c 

> 

a 

I 

c 
cc 


; 

; 

• 

■s 

tl 

= 
cc 


> 


s 
* 


T3 

tc 

c 

•J _ 

— 5 
ea C 

o — 


> 

B 
1 


_; 
'S 

a 

■7. 

a 
•- 
r- 


a 

I 

m 


a 


a 

'? 

Cf 

U 
% 
> 

y 

B 
EL 


1 

X 




- 
S3 

■2 


a 
i 
c 

R 

h 

a 

c 

— 
= 
a 

3 


c 

12 




E 

K 

T 
c 


] 

- 
a. 


9 

— 


•— 
1 


— 


rf 

a 
M 

e 
< 




d : 

= 
— 


e 
■E 


C 

(A 


'Si 

U 

- 
a 

z 


ft, 

< 


c 
I. 

B 

E 

b 
e 

c 


> 

is 


-5 
c 

s 

a 


03 
U 

- 

&H 


~. 


CO 

.-3 
a 


d o 

p a 


oi-*soi<oNF«sa)^cioNHO(sooiooiton(onooHiio8i'-«oio«NNioM 

i-Hrtr-iCN r-< -H i-l CM CM CO ^ m rt IN M IN IN - rt •-> i-H -i,-.r-.CMCMCMr-HO] 

*«> "S.-" > =j = 2 ^ 

3 ST « O V 5*9 
< wO S5 Q " £ 


IN CM 




^T — 
00 00 

« ■= O -O "" tl t_ 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



87 



>. 

=3 

09 

3 

03 



3 
O " 

■I* 



5 -a 



T3 



a 
- § 

,C O 

:3 cs 

£ CU 

*> -a 

• J3 as 
"S <» P-i 



O 
T3 
cc) 

.a 



Sis 

rs oj 



■5 'J 

5 e, 2 
; to ;> 

? ? "o3 
1 OJ OJ 



SO S o 

9.2 ts 

* « « 

£ L--S 



o 

CM 



3 .3.S « 
75) =-^3 -P 



'C 3 ._ 
X> 0.-3 « 



3 "3 

o ;3 

J S 

to cu 



o 

13 



a 
o 



rt .3 O 

.„ co f" 

= '3 



03 

— 



a 
& 
o 

-a 

■—I 

« 

03 .3 oj 
33 -3 bo 
~ *f G 



Ml 

a 



03 

T3 



-S 

3 

is 

o 

T3 



3 

s 



OJ 
CO 
OJ 

a. 



s 

OJ 



5 « £r S 



■2 -3> . -g 

3 > _a a3 

2 o«~ 



• * 

! » *T 

; « .22 <a 

-a I a 



s 



03 
hi 

bo 
o .2 



J 3 A 

O <u 



«— ' O 






aj rt 



« a 

— ■- 



ga 



■S 8: 



43 o .2 a; 
".So* 



J J « .« r; O O O^ - 

•— t- -r o ^ .3 . — . - o 3 

<C c3 ?3C'3'3'a Btfl 



-3 

JO 

c -a 

O 03 






SCO fc 
& 3 O 



-a" o 
CM 



3 _i : o .'as 



;H|n 

: m 



■■a?H 



bO 

^3 

'3 

OJ 



M i- co 






fc fe 








w is M - : 


w ; 


2 00 















2go : 


: 


2 tn a 






a a 








£ £ is : 


£ : 


£ 






CO 








to Z 





03 
■ g .3 

22 : ^ 
3 S : u 



I CO o 

j c S 



3 
: o 
. o 

i s 
: "*» 

Mfoi 



•A 



:« 

: bo 
: A 



03 
« 
to 

J. 5; -J 

bo-? t - 

° T3 X 
CVO O O 



OJ 



"H 5 
,0 "^ 



<-? . bo 



■a 
3 

So 

3 



J3 
bo 

3 3 

03 «^ 



»-a a -s -7 s -a g a ; 

<SsBoj ; !,--^>B3 b< ' 

xoo — .2*000. 2 



OJ X 
CO OJ 



Z 3 



03 "5 5 5 

3.0-3-3 






3 .2 3 X O O O . 



•-3^^-^00^.-i™WOCJ.— p3 — 3.— OS'^OO'-'.-JO 

'cyo OOO^eQcxi<»;SzeQ^:<t;o-cac»a.txca3CQ2<eQ 

• ••••■•■••■•••• • ■ * ■ 

• ■•«• ■ • 

1 00 ci 



3 




SO 








^ 


a 




M 





3 


cu 






a 





— j 


j 


CO 


09 



«COOI.^OlT(<Oc>JcOCJlCOO»^H'^<CX)CX)t>-CT>-HC35iO«OCTiCNI--. 
r->CO ^-CMCN^-CNCNCNCN CNOJCN -HnHCN CM 






bO 

3 



> 
O 

5= 



..J3 '" OJ "*- 5i 

33 3 r2 oj 03 

^ bO CO ^ CJ H^ 

-*> *2 OJ 3 *3 U-t 

OJ 3 -M o O 

■g 3 - 3 -w 

•- £ 2 —1 - 3 

o ^ OJ oj — 

a 9 ■ " 



<« J3 
S^ 
oj . 
bo 3 

CO *co 

03 O 

03 O 
OJ CJ 



CU 



03 



a 



*■§ a 



to 5 v 

fcO o . 

2°Z 



h4 



.5 o 



o 9 

o ^ o 

__ co . 

_« S3 ca 

_!_■ — C> 

±2 **-« *-• 

<XJ o ^ 

rt ^^ °* 

oi CO 
o •*-* 

;W « g 

> * +^ a* 



O 3 

» - S '^ 
03 3 *j J< 

. „ OJ 3 j- 3 

B ^3 g § P "* js 

^ " M J3 fc- oj --1 

g « C .-3 -3 c <J 

.> CQ « g. CO .- 

icc-Sg §•*!«• 

S,j= r> .2 T3 ° 3 £> 
a CJ cj^ OJ^^J^ ™ 

OJ 



13 ja 
3 
03 



o >,_ 

3j 

CJ 03 



.3 a| 

■3 oj a 

a co o 

ego 

«* 03 U 
CJ O 

^ P4 



bO 

c 



'So ^ 

J3 



1 

CO 



■a 
a 
o 



3 a 

** oj 

^_? oil 



a *^ S 
a -^ o 

goo* 

cu o «J 
2 35 

O 00 S 
CJ -* 
.. 00 to 



T3 

a 

ct) 



: w a 

M 

§•2 



^>a « 



43 co S 

03 oj V n3 2 
a ^S°3 O 

-~ t>» 03 O u 

o - - ^ — 1 — 

n « o M j 

"^ CO 
■^ »• 

a co -^ co „ j 
J" **-i ca a: t- 
|f 03 bo O 

"a S = x 
• o o M o 
.2 '£ D3 -*■* 

fc- 03 "3 

03 3, bo . 

^ —«^ "" CN 

CD 03 CU ™ ^ 

1-1 3 -3 >•-= 

SEdtfl 

3 oj 03 

bo32 -s v 

3 ^ 



1^ 

cu J3 

§T3 
— cu 



e) *» 



s 

3 — 

oj en 

J3 



3 =« 
O co 

— — i 



^ -5 

■s 5 

'tf OJ 

a ^3 

co c 

OJ S 

- • .a 

o ** 

^J « g 
o •-» 

*■ oj 

-a -a 

bO- 

3S 

o ,- 

a "Si 

O « 
45^ 



a 
o 



£ — O 



1 2 



oj t/J 



■S « 



^ 3 



3 - oj ™ o at! 
-aj ^%oa is 2 ^ 

_ =3 . a 3 



3 
C3 



03 . 

V CO 

c s 

cu ~ 

5 3 . 
« v a 

41 « o 

3 ^H 3 

cu 

-.« - (► 

73 .S 



03 

03 



CM 

OS 



cu 2 

c73 M 
* 

t>. 1-1 
°* >. 

03 3 

a -° 

03," 






88 



REPORT — 1860. 



c3 

a 



a 

o 



E 
fa 



T3 fa 

o a 



2 a - Ja "3 



to 

c 



.— to 

fa •—; 

o .a 



o c to 

— -_j 
-fa ~ .- 

- s . = 

.a eu C3 

to CD is ;a 

•3 10-- =3 

^ 1-^3 ■- 

3.S fc£ 



oj 'C 


t - 


^ j- — 


Z. oj 






s .- 

£1 fi 


--' 






s^i 


60S 


— 


to 60— 



S c s- s- : fa fa 

.2 M-O J= -S faO 



o 
C 



•a 



1 59 



rt "53 
> fa 
o tc 



C 3 3 - iZj 



K C3 



■a s .2 



' o 

■a .2 , 

o -c 



Oi ja 



a « 
a, fa 



^ g m H i. 

•= i o §o 

-fa -u,-0 ■" CO 

£o 2 3 fa 
K .. to — «« 



fa "~ 
o .""J j? 
eo 'S "33 

J5 « .2 



C 3 



rs 
■- 
cci 



to 



fa C ' 

-o is 
,„ c 

a; 

MS 
B rt 
rt •*- 
^ -fa 



^ ° 

CO 3 "^ 

^* eg f— i 

pj ^ u 
"' -^ o 



o d 

-•* a 
to w 

— c/j 

"5 p 



03 

: a> 
; a> 

1 .. S o a 

l a "3 Z - 
, <o o „ ao 

g.S£- 

fa .fa CO *fai 



to 

!3 



S3 a > a -3 



a S 
.2 P 

"-fa < 

o 



= .J 

« .22 

a is 

O T3 



"3. CJ o l 

S ti *. 

I i fcO 

21 



H-~^§ 






"3. : S'p : E 



-5 



a " 

fa 



c S 



o 
o .. 



~ «2 "3 ■ 

a< 8 
« o * 

« w D.' 
m « c 



5 3 
55 » ■ 



■a 
-a 

3 
O 



, a ~ « -= 



o 2 ""2 a --i £ 



.a 



-.3.S" 



. — ^ « s 



ca ^^ rt 
. o ra 3 — S" 
• *» fa C o a 



— 0) 

O 3 

O ^ « ^- w 



a S 

« 3 a 
a -S i 



•3 = 

tu ^^ 

O . fa 

fa ^ 

• to Cli 

a «> 
.2 i" .- 

** — i— • 

rt j_ eg 

a a — 

3 a- a 

^3 to o 

- " s 

a si 2 

fa 3 O 



tl 

a 
n 

3. 
« 
•a 



a 
o 



v.M 



r. a 



^ o cs 



ca -g "to £2 tp fa 



S 3 
.2 o 

«f. 

3 « 
~ -fa 

Q S 






; o 



<N ^„ 

; ca -a fc 
: <" M % 



a 

O v 



fa o 

O a) 






• S 

: fa 
: cs 



'. (O ^ ^ 

• 00 






m 



fa 

00 



^ o 

4>. 



« 



^ Cfi K o? ce 
« « _ ^ - 



^ w 
>' ^ 



C/J CA 



? 
z 






• o o 
: rj ■« 



:H 



i» ? 



> ^ 



o 
o 



3 

.' a ; 

CO 



tn 

3 
C 






0) r* : fa- 

feAS :A 

— ' O O -CM 



CO CO 

a 3 3 



A^2 AA fa5 



:A2 

: -s< ^ 



* 

in 



o 



a "3 

c 5 

o 2 



g 

^- — > ca 

«"a "2 



•^: to 



I § a 

i'gE 

! 3 5 
! J 03 



"■O a 






■ .5 

: c 


■ > 




<L 


• 
• 



a ■** « 



_=».«_= 



a "S — 5 £ 3 



■c 5 



« — . 



'.a o o „ 

_; Q. D3 0- Li CC 



3 c 




o j 

Si ° 
^ S 



CNtM i-HM!M h r- ^ M te) C4fa 

A A ^ fa ^» r^ 

S -S a S, a g 

d cu *h *T* fa- 3 

fa> Efa S; < 2 h^ 



IfiONNifi 
C4 fa fa t>l O) 



OfaHciinsccanoiNciifa 
CO co fa fa fa fa oj 



CO o 
CM CO 1 



to tr^j 
a 3 cj 



o 
Z 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



89 



>>J2 

a ~ 

>a a 

CO qj 

.3 ■« 



- j». O 



to.2 

c - 

•ag 

o — 

•8 J 

S3 



« 2 



cu CD a fe M 

-a .2 .2 "= 2 

a a, g .a •- 

* 3 B to co 
2 cu " J3 « 

'» 4! " w t; 

.3 i i r ui co 

a. 2 u a 
* C > > v 

u °* g* 
o S ■£ — o 
° top: g _ 
-- -g 'C "> a = - 

CD O ii __ co ,3 

4> cu — a _. i* 

co u c j .c eg 



cct* 

o 



IN 



o 

. 13 
— a 

-*» CO 

« Is 
s .tp 

«5 CQ 



to ^ 

.5 

C-3 CO 

n -a 
. a ~ 
.a -a a 
3 - S . 

« ^ c M 

-5 > & a 

" 5 e *i 
■- .2-c " 
•"_i o a 

an « S 
S -- S 

<B 3 ?, O 

I «-2 £ 



E.2 -2 



■2 1 



co O 



.2 S3 



CD O 

^3 CD 

a o 



, C a, ' 

PG rt 
13 ..'Sr 



5 a ,2 



"B-S 

CU •- 

2 oo 



S C 

O 3 

•5 O 
go 

P u 



~- CU 

_§ to 

o a 



« 8 b«s s 



a " -" 

CO — ~ 



£5^ 



5 



: s\ 1 

'. J " w — 
: -i« • - 

■CO « 

CO 



- - v. 
GO O ° 
W CO ;. 

in ci co 



W 
DO 


n.. 




£ 










on 


'• o 


i 






a 










-M 


; -*j 


o 






m 




• • 






i 


: Ed 


w 






X 
% 


in 





B 2 

§i 

a cu 



c 
o _. 

II 

-m S 



o o 

2 a 

o 



<0 " 



o 

e 2 

S o 



c 


a 


a 


Q 










ia 






id 


-cj 


u 






■:cu 


— 



a 
S B" 



a 

c r 

^3 *^ o 
:0 to • a 

:>»1^ b J= so 

— 5 u 

•- 2 '£ r « 

-■? XZ a rt 

h ^3 CU M 

r, s 2 c o co c 



= <t; 



to a 

c|| 

o o 5 
MX J 



a >»- 



IH 'ioie>Oini>o- comn onhx 

CO i-HrH_r-<<N rtrt 



C-X; ■ 



CU 



I * * 

O 
in 

00 



O co 

CO o 

^ p, 
1o cu 
a ^ 



o .a 
- — 

a cq 



« a 
a . to 

o to = 

^^ 9 

to <, ^ 

5 -2 

CO — -= 



_c ? •-* 



co 



•3 a 



*.™ **- "^ cu ■ 

T3 O ° O . 



a — 
. o 

a J 



iTj co C3 co 3 . 






K3 



OJ 



CJ — o 
_. C « « ■« "S «J 

° S^ S> S ^ Q 

- .■"»)2: <u c 3 5 a 

s c c u«a3-* J .5 

2 5 O CU cu 3 

. _ a c -« 2 toj= 

cu >;tp> ass-i 

S 3°~ 2 a "= ja ~ 
*w a » « •;« ° 



c -o a o 



j;«s; 



a 

: 5 ^s 

2 -S.CQ ■» a a ^ j. 

< o •- 



^a cu a 
■o e o ^ ~ *1 
■- u 3 S «T 
i2.fc-S co- " «; 



o 

13 

cu 

~ 



"3 . 



% ™ l '*bS' G ^coaa 
cu a 2 o to— 1 a cu c 

r^ O ni _C5 — ."^ •*" •** 



-a •- 



3 o 



5 o 



l-i 3 
. O 



C GO 

a-p Sa 



CD 



-. *— r- CO 

cii •2--^cjco«'?:? 
tpS"S 3 c »-i = g § = ja- 

.-4ii,a»„B,»coio 

s* S -H Si -ca a-g^ 

CD ,-. , . <S — aj CO 



2-2 

-« o 

h 

a -' 
P.— 



3 a 



— 
a 
J3 
u 
cu 

B" 

• CO 

a 
Ss 

(-i 

O 
Zi 

2 



3 2.2 

» 5p 
a a w 
a 



oo a J 

cu o 

>, o - 

3o'-' 

_P -h P- ; 

2 >.=* 

p.jp in 



ifi-Sj5^| .2SjS=g j 
5 « 5 o £ -E-1 5 >< .3 



u 5 -g >-H o S .to° § « 
E 5 > 2 2 * -S 3 - 4J 3 2 



■= -5 ' o £ >.S to • 

u •>. >- .a« 

r u * *■ a^^b 

^» cu • a • r^ «- ^ a 



«=3-5 



u^lo-P^cuP 



J- CU ■"-! 
tO— fc, 

3£c2 



CO •< 



C0.2od^j >a co-S co _ 



GO -j2 GO CU 

— T3 ^- Lc 



a -T3 



<« a . 
B if 



5 *: jp -a S b 2 



•— i- i-. o 



a .» ,- 
^ .2 2 3 

3 a o 

o ^ cu ca 
= »p 

• — > w 

o cu a 

"3 S'l 

2 - = a" 

O -** ^ c3 

"3- « S 
2 "cm - S3 

j= ■— ?-. = 

M »! S ™" 

s ?•« 

ti: co a a 

cu — 
"P cu 

= s 1 " 

** f-* CO 



a 



1 c 



o 
to 

a 



i— •« 



3 a P 

< P Ȥ 

S o-a rt •« 

a. <« •- a * 

a co -u a o 

— ; cu jo t co 

cyj p cafe £2 a 

-§ " s 

"a =] ..; n* ^-oj 

§v;1Sp . 

2 o ^3 i o ^. 

cu SP g " P 

-«" b a „, i* o 

a M £ .- o cj 

j-. p -, r- ■-« cu 

3 a . t: .. co 

c/3 



CO CO 

"cu g 

P S 

o cu 

co p 

to o 



o 
a 



CO "1 



.5 o 
*2 C 



os ;■ 



p 

a 



ca H3 a to cu 
.„ i; <d .a xj 

r3 CD *-- •-> 
t» CD > 

CD — 

«.2 « a o 

— ** c- P •-« 

n cj w 

„ -5 a 

o co 

'*' a 

S o a 



" p , 
■a o 

._. o 

3-a 



t> a cu a ^ 

cAE " S^ 

^ o a „ 

•» M o- S 

CU 



« co 

■*! 

ti co 



a a3 
a a 

^- a 
a cu 



> a o 



a cu 

P. "" 



.— <a cu co 

O t; ^ ^- cu . 
co P b a3 — ' :a ^ 
"a a S>2 p = 2 
r. .-ja o ~ -a 
P b cu • - o a 

§ Sbco" 5 .2 M ca ' 

" =° o « 8 "I a 

- 2 *^ a Sr •• p 

P a rt ^ ^ >.i»' 

o jp *. a .2 a cu • 

5-Sch a c ~. 
£ &.5 ^ g . « 

•—'CD ^J ^C^ ■*-' < 

- O '/i ., l_ ,-H O r 

1IJ2I.-3S: 

a «v n ^ 
to-o -<}• *S a 



"C o 

< m 



P O 

. o a 

! 02 



53 t gpa 5S 8 

o j -i 

"«-a 



O j2 



SO P* - 



-a 2 

3 S a 

ii3 p 3 



3 S 
tO OJ 

3 *w 



to a 
o^^oaocu-a 
•o m a CO ~ 
2 S g ^ g o S a 
S a M ° "^ a « 
•-, to a ( 
•" tii> «° « ° 

^ S.2 o^:" m t3 
.. i) C - p _: •; a JS 

s-g b^ -»- g s 

= aoi? 2sSS«5-d 
?o «-=SS(» ?- = 

03 Q -< a 



o S 
= a 

13 — 

a 



■a * _eo - 



— CQ — 

cu .1 

.S-a2 



5« J j a 



* p* 

• CGT1 O 



b.: 

< ; 



S.2 * 

13 Pi 



j3 S jS-o-.I - G ° 

dcjrl CU O = 13 
P > 

_ o ^ b 

fc «z.S 



o s;^o =^ o 



to; 



w sA S3 "2 

H .2--S "I § 

pa' - ' 



§ £.-5£!d 



to 



S > >|M C 



90 



REPORT 1860. 



<*$ 



to 

CI 



a 



.5 d . • 



o 
is 



a >• 



'§§ 

»-> 'u 
u o 

.s 4= 



o c 

-; O 
a co 

•*- -3 
o a 



4* , 
co a . 






~ 3 



o co '** 

p H 3 

ago 

3 "1 

^ co -^ 
— t^ «3 

» 5 "° 

■8 § - 

a w « 

to 5 -9 . 

o 2 "3' 

r ~* CO H) ) 

O 'O rt ' 

Oco 
"do, 

, U r 

'5 6o'~ : 



o 
1* 

a 

43 

o 

■fe» 

•d 



"in 4^ 

: ■- — 



C ki 

S ° 
o 2 



4 co 
2 '5 

«"2 

CO ft) 



-3 

to 



41 

c3 

o o 

co "C 



"-I - ."B -- 



s 

m 
CO 



a 3. 
co 

— i. . 
O 

"3 © 

.-CO 
rt.. I-t 

c^ 

o .. 
i~ 4S 
— a 
.„ tu 

<m ■£ 



a 



to-* 

.5 > 

e c 
£Z 
to 

<*j o 
o cm 



= s "~ 4£ 
2 o e a 

pS>H co 

•P -H 0) t* 

a ■> *j 

3, — ~. <° 



45 4: 60 tf 



03 



"3 >> 

~- — 



C 3-"° 

3 



,3t) S 

CJ 3 44 
to ^ 

'J Up 



4= 3 
ao^, 



a £ 6c2E 



7) to-3 5 -a S 



-^ CO rt CO . CO T2 CO 

> 'c "5 'n "5 s "3 "a "o 

O J= ^ -= — "3 -= i,J 



43 
d o 
-5 ~3 



^3 

3 

o 
k 

o 
Z 

43 



5 o >.^i 



"3 "3 
= 3 

Sm 



a! fl 
3 c3 

.S "^ 

.2.3 



a a 



to. a 



13 

s 
o 



fo 



o 

AS 



-3T3 



o o 
-3 -5 



O *J QJ 



ss 



a -° U JH 



U g 3 

43 3d J3 



^«— 1)4= P -S « 
_ _o -3 s, e 2 o -=3 

43 32 ^- N O 3 33 .3^43 

C^C^:— _^^3 
43 ^-.^ •SOI J S-.43 43 



5 - 



o 

CO 






3 

o 



fc b "• tU ■£ 

C5 C5 ^T »~" ' fl 



» 


fe 


H 


•a 


IS 


/. 




•** 




*-> 





f 


A 


> 


'/. 


X 


OS 



. o 

: co 



s ■ & 



^ S«N CO* 



: ° - i"co 

■ CO o 

; if? 



v 4^ o 






Z o 



CO 

2 o 

is Z 



S5 : ^ « »5 

o • o 2 ° 

^ i «' £ £ 

z z 



; -^.3 

CO 



4= 
60 
'S 

u 

o 

V 



CO 



3 
O 

o 



13 2 

w ty fD fl w ^ 

e II totou boa 






: (N (N II 



o 



• o ■ -s. • to 60 2 

• a ' 



. A "3 A A> ; a ; „- ; 3 « A 1 A g«> 

: n k.' a n » : Nh : so : " 



•m 



H|«-* -|MC) A 



-a 

o 

-4 



o o 

0803 

a is 
O g 

«T 3 



re 



c? 

43 ,. _ 

g S^ O = 

00 . :w - 



3. 

>>i2 - - 

£■*■££! 

3 5.5; = 

o cu > o 

2ZOJ 



1= 



^ 5. to! 



B-c^ai-i.:.!-- 



W5 CO n '^3 VJ 



1-» 

S S -S 1 

q ^ _3 _rt ■ 



08 c3 






n .3" rt 

1— F - Ci^ 



3 o 



3 -^ — — 
3 ^ aj ^ 



g .- S 

To 3 P - 

c 3 O 3 
3-3. w ^ ^ -3 « 

= c a «3 S.2 



4= s 

To a 

3 Nl 

o ._ 

— O 



a<y v ^aoart.-i w ouwca«'^c.— 



o •- 



°5 

>. 3 

a o 

n s 



NHilltD 



O O CM CM 



^ONOOOH01-*Nh 



OCClrt^OX^CTClOifJGO 
CO ri CM i-i CM CM CO 



»: 



3- 



S 



3 
3 



"3 



c ^ 

CO CO 
C/3 t/3 



O 
S5 



CO 

Q 






CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



91 



6o< 



•73 
.2 o 

Is 

:cu « 

«J « 

co 

»* to 

b s 

Jl 

£-= =5 
•ft .. « 
« " 60 

O rt _. 

'S •"• a a 

O D Ul^ 
O. S co _a 

a « « "• - 
s 2 •- s ' 

; «; .a a •— 

« co cc -3 



S "" -ft 

rt ,■ o 

•a a. 






tr, 



co <£ 

S E 
s toj' 

s g » 
&*" 5 

O O .3 

1,3 is ... 



o 

a & 

~1 no 



"3 



5 
q 

a 



o»S 



... >> 



5 S 



la'v 
« J si- 
ft "3 5 -S, 



2 "S a 

a ia x> 

CD CD « 

cd o 

60— c 

1^ | 

3 £.3^ 

a b E o . - 
a. .5 tc-Q -e 



fox 

"S3 12 

S = g 
no" 
a. ft a 
5." ° 
a ^ — 

« £ ° 
o a *^ 

g « CO 
- CD " . . 

o ^ ° ° o 

•5 .a ~5 -3 -3 



>3 

■3 



a 

CD 

■a 

60 



o 



« — 

.3^ cu 

—I j,. 

e 3 

~ s 

CO O 

e 3 

O co 






s 

CD 

a 



3 

S-= a. " 
> 60 S tc 

E ° 

a j to "3 



60 « 

a 9 

ca O 



a. a 






• -a 

if 



•»* 
eo 



: S 



CO fc 

o o 
ft -ft 



o o 



a a : a ft 



Be 

go 

fce' 

o 

W 
Z 

a 



to ft 

o o 

-ft -ft 

M Be 
S5 ft 



a 
o 
o 
• a cj cu a; cd 

1-0l ^ 60 60 60 ip 

<n ° .2 Ji .2 .2 



a 

o 


a 



co co co 

3 3 3 

: c c s 

• o « o 



a o> 



tfS 



tN NcN * w II " M 



cu 

W S 
o 



cu 



-2<« 



« 2 

a ,S -« 2 
— «^< co .a 

= "=> 5.2S 

O -= a .5-5 l" w .t(i co " " „ 

— 35H* 1 _«aa 

C 2. =- CO -Jj o o 

= _S« 2 « fj-a-a 
c*a*a cu a~" c c 

ffliScJCCcjpo 



"=•? J3 2 — 3 



CU 



:s.5S.o 



5 a .2 t. 



CU nS 



a a 

CV3 5 

-a 3 
- _. so o 

co 60 3 J; -S a 

~ 6ojj £SS 
c3 _3 « >< O 



'jj=aa<;o.3jcoHa.oa.SooZM h 



oo-<na>rtisKN*rtOc>jMNcort(NiNffion*in 



%< 



5. « 



cu 

3 
3 

»-9 



^> 60 






co 3 
.. O 

3^ 



as — 

5 s 



?H 00 o 
«3 3,X! 

ao£x 
1 « to 



*" S* « — Z >■* 

fe.2 a S 
a "a 

-• cu " y 

a S»j s 

duoo a< 

<u t .S - a -a . •*! 
e=J -S a*" x co 



w^5.l^ 8 3 
co s a) a cu — *, 

cu .3 60 c3 cu — ») 

to 8 4) i . 3 

S J "S c3 S J3 3 
— S 

to 



"■•** 3 

CJ ^ O 

O 4-> S 



J- "J? 3 >- CO ^> 

rt in -r; cu cu o 



-35 a 

A! « ft w 



o — ' -a 

o « 



co ra a r« -^ 

£ tc cu S w> — M 

is a > 2 . cs ,„ 

o 



eti co 






— 60 
CO c co 

3 -■"'.a <u S^ 

a 'Oaaa ca 
3 £.3 ..^"3^ 

-S b ^s 
X5 r «u — _ 
to -; cu 5 ^ o o 

cq o •* o ^ t- 

U -a "K, o CL, 
. °-" * §^ — 

73 & .s£ 



^ as g|» •: 

B c73 o-:23 » 

« B.S 3 ^£ 
e=J g = § « 60^3 

a aS-ǤH 



•5 w " 



£ £ <N 



eu i2 



■■as 



S c 

cu O <u 

2 - a 
a s 60 

"" "3 via 



:<o 



CU O co 
> . cu 

a & ?3 

i-H S 60 

» "3 ca 3 .3 , 

,, c « i) a ' 

5 cj^ cj ca j 

J3 &• — . to — a 

•ft 0^_--3 t- ..ft 

o^'S'3 5 ° 2 s5 

.«* -t_3;cu6o rf 
a — « ta 3 s: 
ft — 3 a 

cam ° 

(Jft u 



CO 03 



9 a 



>> CD tft ^3 



S- B=B-3 S"gr3 
•S m^ E a§e> 



3 3 21^5 

,<J „ 0^-3 3. 



3 

HP 

§ £ -S I ^ • g x( 

„-=o-g s S S.2.SP2 . 









eu 



<^ 



a 3 a ° 



£^-3 



73 ^ a 



-A(i3 

a 3 c« a 

3 • 



a 
o 



■ V) 



O a -2 



1 cu ^ 



"2 — B 2-2-3^6oS 

S 8 3 > 2 1I3J3 

S'io'3BtslftJ'-ftBaft_3< 

-■ft o- o ° n S- a 
»^^5 ^3 ^ 



5 s 'g o § 



a-. 

a ~ 



^*^^j'—r- ju & ca^.a 3 cu 



_— Eft 1 - .= o - 3 ft S—ca'BtD 



3a«, 
u •- <-f ft ft Jo 
^3 ft - "^ *« 3J '« 



O 
CO CU 



a <n 



— O CU o ... -, 

: -ft 1- »> 33 a -3 



3 rt cu .2 CD 



.■2 J .° -3 



2,2 



CO > 



^3 tu 

P.* 



CU •- "7 — -ft CD ^ " 

« 2 s-.'S -ft S — ca 

4? ft ^ -" CD -3 



— "3 
o 
3 

3 a 



CO 0) 

cu 3, 



J 1 " o ^"^5 cu a 

oil § a^ g^.S'S'H -S-2. 



* S> ": rt <a 



^.2^"™cuiDcDcaii y53<uS 

° 3 ° ^--ft ft a, -3S rt "-i!>Sft 
-- 3 -, 3 . 01 -ft 3 ' ^ ca ^ ft 3 

n J a a • a o 



r*. qj " 

: S a 
^Cj 2 



go 

^ cu 

2 " « 

S ft) CO 



MS 



2© ". 

CO I— * Pi 



5*3 °3 

S w o ^ r* 

o <u o '3 ca 



92 



REPORT 1860. 









gh. 

not 
ever. 


o 

CO 




.9 


0) 

'3 


1 « 

CS s- 
o P. 


S 






























3 S S 

<n 5 2 

o -w jo 


ft. 

■z 




CO 


2 ^ 

~ CU 

- > 

CJ o 


.Stf, 

p 

3 

to 

s 


IV 

o 

CO 








CJ 

rt -3 








, 3 +j 

o e> 3 s 

— 3 ,2 -5 
•- is ' — ' u 






c- 1 

c" 

03 

to 


^2 , - - ' 

3 *2 

M 

• 3 O 


■3 3 

• cl -3 

^ - . . ':" 

c o j3 a i 


a 






s* £ 


g ^ 


cj 






" : to w 

^» s o 

. — to 


.S 




:3 

S 


3 to e« 

P 3 g 


-.to— - 

&.£ b . S 

3 — - 11 3J 


P 








13 -; 


to 






lOH 






09 


to = a; 

C3 13 


to 






C3 


T3 go 


S 

a 

P5 




CJ 

"o 




jl-l SO o 

to £ .3 ra 


M 


O 


.S-a 


¥ — J3 r*> - 

g:.S^tp 


in 


to 




rt J* 

- JO 

CJ *3 
3 v - CJ 


> 2 

3 — — 
r 3 

P- mtM 

^ -2 ° 




c 

'Is 

CO 


c 3° — 

<" "3 rt 

03 »H OT 

r3 o a) 

GO to 

Co 3 


c 
« 

to 
£ ° 

o •>• 


03 

ig 


CO 

to"" 

3 — 


tO <3 . — 

S -J S ^"^ 

PhS! J ** . 

go--; ... qj b 


O « 3 ° U 

i. * o « « 

v 3 J a ~* 

3 3 rt 3 ^ 

" .-. Pa 

to = .r ts g 


03 

3 

03 

> 

o 

3 


rt 

P> 
P 

P 




^ to 
.22 c " S 

SsSs 

3 jo - a. 


. J5 . g -P 

2 2 w ■£ 2 

■*-» -^ J^ 3 3. 

- M rt - g* 

n .. o to 4 ' 

.3 ^ s 3 — 




• *5 * *^ 

CJ ."-•*.- ^ c3 

*o o o o *3 .« 
"- *j *j +j ii — ° 

■^ «_i <-> w ~ 3 ty: 

,fi *S *5 'O "rt 3 *rt 


T3 *3 5 
a) c •" 
>^o« n 

Hi 

V — — 


^ 1) aj 

•5 "£ c 

'•FoS 

P .C CO 


c o ? i2 " ..•; S <2 

0-3_3<U'3S^C 

?SgS?-2-o 
« ; 3 3i» E-S-SScfl 


O to ■■ ,^ ... .."S = 

co .- ej ^ . s> i) o) o) eo >- 

2 °r2J3 o33S3|= S 
S .3 ^ 2 £ !5 p p p ^ 'i 

«-gj«'C , B jo jo jo ^_E 

: \~° : 3b « 5 
ococn-h : : g : -o , S° 

3 • CJ i" v 


•il?"! s o, 

rt- P S3| 

"ir rt . - tu C o 
.£ T3 T3 T3 JO JO 


uration ; 
te ; hour. 








"to jT ; 
'3 .2 : 


: : ** 


'3 






•< tu -4 ■" 

^"coco 




a 1 


: al cS> : 

: ■* i 








































>i 






w 


^ 


m 










, 




ta 


a 


c 




H 




^ 


™ Si 






a a ^ 


». ■ * . 


o 




: m 






: z 


. • o 

• H • - 




: X 


: £ 




•: 


a : 




" 2; 15 tn 


\*it :£ : 


u 

a 




• o 

: £ 






r to 

• -a 

• — 
: a 

• >. 


: pt^ 


: o 


o : o • o o 


'• p 




o 

+-• 


*■ P 
• ^-» 






: p p p 

: -m -^» +. 

; i i <*. 


: p p : o : 
. -*^ ^» - -*. • 

: £ « : a : 


3 




-*. 


S 

s 




Y. 

i 


t» 05 


6= 






rfi -Ji 7-< 


<« m 


























C 




J3 

to 






e 


o 

: o 

to • = 

£ 5 






at 
. . . a 


OtOcN J 
.PI---* 3 


3 1 

e P 


SO 

- 




eo so O 


3 3 « 

S 1 : ff : 


u 

o 

03 
N 




■ : c 

: : c 

: : - 


! 

: 

: 


a 


e 


« ac 


• 


o22i«w 1 c rtco ^ u H u 

to=; g;> : ^. . . i> t> C. > 
«%« A j = toto AA ° A 






0) 0> , 0) ™ w . rt • 

> > "i" Efg ;> :- : 
A A ^ - * A : cj 1 

DO 


CO 


























































i I : 






















CJ 
















■ o 




















: : : 






















s" 






















































o 








o 


i 

i 

"; 

i 

c 


.0 • 

S3.! 
- u t 


■ c 
: 

! _" 


: o c 
; y? p 

•"J. 

a rt 

i g k 

JtSc 


j 

. - 

? - 

, .i 

^ r. 


HI 

o 'S — 

3 C -S = 
^ o rt c 



•J 


: ■ f 

c 

s S-»J 
3 <iS 


* '• ' '—■ 
. <+-■ 

: : <3 - 

* " .-T-ii 

i ■ 3 £ 
s --off 

* £« 

5 2? Pi ' 

g « .« 

3 u t 

i -^ >- ~ 

S '/3 O (/ 


o 

M 

Iffi § 

; jo ^ .2 

J 3- .— 1. 

: p j: c 


: ~a : 

• ■ >. 3 • 

• « . — ■ ^» 

: -sea . 

• •— tL. 

: : w ^ : 
t>^ i - <o i 

&:••§! • 

, S p •= IP 5 

ODO'/ifc 




i 

I 
- 


s 


c 

^ 

a 


1 Z 

- 






p 

fc. 




•- 
e 

i 


c 

s 

" s 

z 

z 

a. 


— 
tp 

p 
JO 

P tr 


! 

c 

I 

■- 

< 


i a 


| 

i 






i • 




: : : 






' • o 1 i 1 


: : : : : 




! 




. : : : 


::::::: 


o JO 


-J 

1" 


JCOC 
-t f 


H 1 ' 






1 <N 


f ift Q cc co i->. -i 

CM 1 Clr-Hf 


1 H N O « CI 
1 r-< — ri 


■-< t> 


. *-» o 


t> 


JtOtNtNC 
1 04 f-i C 


) O CO «—i a-< rH r- 

UNJIiHtN 


C3 c 


• 


M 


<5 "-a —3 


5^ 


b 
i 

i 


a. 


O +J . 

3 S" o C 


■ o A £ '-• to 

) O T. rt ^ 3 






a. 

03 

w 


*J > o C 

CJ O tu p, . 








# 






3 


It "• * * 


"•• * * 










* * . 


rt 
cj 


u 


00 


1« 


a 






a 


CO 

o 

00 










-*< 

lO 
00 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



93 



cu 

- 


co 


5) 

o 


a) 

— 


Cd 


O 


« 


Si 

-*- 


O 


1 


o 


33 


a 



o 


13 *^> 

« — i 

-a 3 


cj 


sa 


3 


•C 3 


*• 


a 


fr, 


... u 


B 


.*-=> 



to 

s 



a 






a 

■ 5 

B 



CJ ■ 

S g « " £ .2 o : 
"o o 3 » 3 3 5 • 

u *- — 

:cj <U O 

a -c JS 



.§ g 



*» a « 

*^ — <-* 

C '£ to 

to— C 

Q. « 



v. 



B 



O O o 
a .3 J3 I 



5; •— 'jl -w 



co j. 



to ? 

d.,5 

GO a, 

i — i a; 

s 
§ 

2 
to 

CM 

• co 

« + 

O CO 
<N + 

^J 
GO tO 



. ^ -I 

ft 5,o 



a c — 
a cu .3 







^i, 


y 








CO 


ii 








CO 

1 


t 




en 




o 


| 


te* 


cu 




cn 




o 


H 








3 


y 
a 

to 

© 




to 

3 

co 




J 2 

a .3 






cu 




<= CO 


t*. 




03 




O CO 


"to 


CJ 


1 




Lt ft 

5 » 


is 


~ 


3 


c 


o "2 




3 




- 


3 a 


O 
CO 




O 




cu „ 


^_ 




i) 


N 


T3 




B 








to 


5 

CO 


■- 

be 
d, 




■ - T3 
"3 B 
_- 3 

"3 g 



o 

00 



13 

3 



o 

T3 



2 > j j= 



c •- •- a .; 

O S = O = 

♦^ *^: T3 -^ "X 

CO .3 .3 co ^ 



1T5 

COJ 






s 



21 *? 

- 5 « * 

CO 



!>. 



t» a a jj 
w : fc z : w w 
o : o o ; o 2 



ID to 



Sc. 



i ^ 

! CO 

' -3 

c- 

C3 



?*" 3 cu 



c eg 

O O a 



W A - «> 13 ^r-c A 



w> -« S'-tt ^ 



"CN 



in c 



3 
C 



C 



?*-o+t3"a 

A E f AAb| 

co*«;?o -*m £ 

-it ii 



A 



u 



■s> C5 



a 

c a 
cu — 
to to 

C = 

S«.2 



=)■»>-? 






1^ = 

:B3 d 
.•a 

■■2=S 



Efl 

u 
03 

: -o 

■ §1 

, — a 



s a : — 



3 
3 
CD 

:E-i 

s r | 

c to 



~ to- 



:0 C 3 
O 5" 0. ( 



a O .3 3 P 



!£> 



•71 B 



"lis s '5 5 = '2 J! 

5C« a. a'z'S -l/tH^a 



■VNHtBaCiOl'.miNINCOf-KtBNnnoof-Cl'-i 
>-i «tNCO r-ctM(N CI — — c « ^^.rti-iCN 



K < 



ST o 

«3 O 



o a 
SCO 



.£■ tn 

"3 3 






r= ■ - •- -a 

3 .-• cu 
S O - 



.2 « of a 

« oo a 

£i' w "^ 
I 2 S 

25o« 

-^ *^ — ^ 

a " »^ fe 

.2 «- « o 
T3 °aS 

^ fc o o 
-Z& ° ? 
5e ST3 g 

■< S -a S 

~;3 CO-C3 
00 c a u 

^H 3 • -3 

o >o a 

CU til 3 CO 
•g-SlC 3 

O g^.2 

„ CN —i 
rv. O o> . 

-1"' -T c w 
lo to'a J> 

CO c % ?> 

H so° 



§ 3 -S .5 "S .» * J} g 



. o — 
— '5 tn S T3 J! a « 

„ 3o - w « a=g 

5^3 ^2 cu> c <u 

illfis-s-Ji.i 



a ^ ■ 



u> S 1 2 * £ 'a 

g -c '£ a»-7j « >-.a 

cu^.-33 oc cu 

' — S2i. ft 



• 3 ^ >,_ 3 
CU Ti -^ CU 

n " J u (it: 

r-l -^ C= *- 7Z " 

co w cu a * 



— :a L 3 
>. E js d « 

3 

a 



3 o. oj 



o 






O, e t03 _ £ « 

o a — «j ._ " 



O -> f— 3 cu " T3 

5 %S=7S 



drfS 

cu ' n c 

>- .a 5 a 

* J ^i;oacua«iS3'^3w 
S £ S « ft -syo" 

3 _^co -2^30,3 

«, ^ "" cui: 2" E^-S 
"v. S .2 •- to^S to O 3 -a 

cu 3 • o .„ 3 — £ ~ o o 

5^| =■«<-£* "-SS 
cq >^g gHci2«S? 



p a 

-1 

a =T 
a a 
rr 3 



^Q 



tn* 

s a ^ • 



a 



! J3 



o 

CU 

B 

to 

a 



a 
c 
*•» 

cu 



O CL) 
CU CO 



to- 

3 co 

•- a 
S cu 

s a 
1- 

49 



CU V CU 

e ^ co 

c 

o 

■*J ~ cu 

s g a 

- CD 



H.S 

CO 

O 

£ "a, 
cu ^ 
S> cu 

p 
a "tt 

a o 



3 ft cu ^ 

l2c72=.s 

3 -< — ^» 

O £ — w ft" 

"S P . cm 3 a 



■SI- 



T3 £3 



a 

ft. 



.a. 



o 



■?. CO 

CO • — 

o rc 
ft,-* 

° £ 



a. ' 
3' 



ID « 



a _ 

co — >^ 

= = 55 

3 - S-g. 

>-, cs a. ft 

Mb 3 
. § «.2 

£ £ 'E .- 

S .a - -° 
o s is - OT n '- 

o g-2 s S 

ff< O CO 

£ . cu to a 

^ 2 a -5 = 

* to -" 1-3 co 

CN = CD . 

O tp 3 J; 

CO = 3Q J 

~*<>-^ m a 



cu 

13 

a 

eg ' 



o >.-n x S 

e a ^* '3 S3 

£ 3 O J3 3 

a, a - a „ w 



1- 



ft. CO < 

T3 a 
c a- 5 

« ? CD 

cu t*. w 



CJ J3 ^ 

— J 3 



.2 a 



- «o3 



^ 



s^ o 



cu 



O CJ 



* — . >. 



ffl 



a a 

a S 
g 3 



cj -e cu 

,' ir'C C/J (o v 

3 3 3__, cu CO 

>~.° S S S a 

O co U g- 8 2 ■= 

Q S^«S"o 
~ SSV^o" 

ft - '- C3 QJ ^J .-< 

-c^S^ 
■ u S,'" CO cy co 

fe o ffocj-a g 
"5 " 5 — 3 S3 * ^ 

I^Po|^ft 

« - g 2 O g "3 
cj C a <g si 
S a a v -g 5 

S'jH SB 



94 



REPORT — 1860. 



«a 



■at CO 

G 3 

OJ rt 

eu •** 

co ^ 

&2 S 

<U '^ - 

OJ 3 -* * 
co GJ 

§■« 

b0 



^> O 

(S S w 

<o a a 

« -i< — 

-^ <J =o 



- 


"■■ t/3 


— 




■■\l 


'.SiJ 








i — i ca 






n3 


■< 


a 


r 





. E 




co 3 



■w = 



... CD 



.*> 



s° .So 






rt -a, 
io c *i 

a o 
™ -a 

— — - CD 

.£.°'5 - 

£ -a to 

§• " a 



OO C.h 

...2 § 

£ * « 



O 



□ 



jc 0s to 



— : ' 

■e-SlS s 
o £~ 

-3 d o •>-> 
i.ti <u o ^ 

p= tb£-= 

T- CD i > 
« 3 OJ O 

5-3SE 



2~ ° 

a a O 

v" <» ; 

© te 

°^ ° 

■- > ^ 

.2 S CD- 
'S -2 & 

cu , « 

.d T3 -^ 
-r. c g 

cd ca i 

• 5-f 

= ~}a 

cd ^ CO 
C fcjQ 



3 ai 

o^ 

CO ^j 

- o> 

*co *""* 

.2 «» 



fcb 



^3 
, ■— 
• CO 



.•> 


fl 


efl 


tJ 








ua 


DO 

3 


O 






*■■ 


■ X 


3 


CO 






/J 





o 



to 

a 



a 



as 

S 

o 



T3 
<d 

■a 



^ ~-< :a 



H* 

— d 



o &, 
2< 






CO CO 



to o 

II 

o 

2* a 



o S 



e 

O 

T3 



2: cd -5 



4) 

CO 

'3 

s . 

O CO 

So 

.- (3 

3 o 

■S a 
ca 

2 2 





y. 


^^ 




j- 




3.0 





83 






-O 


|m 


CJ 


^r 




cu 



to Eh _0 






ft .a 

o — 00 

"3 »■ •- 



_o 

^1 



=a — ^ -, -^ 






<u 2 t, 

i: 2 o 

— u o 

. *> 5 -" 

£ ■- " 2 

o <S a o 

■ .. o ., 1= 



to« ?. 



ea u o 

cu > *J 

u n u 

to tO-3 



to _^ — ' 
ea O 3 



c t; J3 in JS 5 J ' 



^ 


V « 


M 


a 




CO 






tO 3 

n o 


be 


= o 
tnS 


83 


-d 




CO 






p 3 


_z 


— -*-• 


CO 


3 




T3 








_ >M 


.« 


yj 










c .. 


'3 


g CO 

a cd 

o s 
t, £ 




o 



a 


- 


a 


a 


= 3 



CO CT> CO ^ ca ^ ' 



^ -Q 



i «J -a ;2j 

iS-* s 

J o . ^^ 

■t> — >. 

"23c 

° o » 



a 1 

. 3 ^H ea 
3 ^.3? 

•S «3 

bH 

° -o 
■* -3 4 

-«« 

= • =3 
ca « ca 

-° £ • 
<l> o _ 
- *j i- 

cs v) ca 



to™ 
■S S 
o 2 



to_i 



§1 



^ W^ 



f; a. 2 
S'f -*i 

T3 fe « 



3 
■< 



s o 



r-" ! *" 3 



it- 

< o ^ 

CO B 



to 

g _2"0 






? g c° • S ji : 

; ^ C . in eo : 



cu 



to 



o -5 5 o 

h p: ^ c» 

» a ifl 

E8 



» « * * 

P O 



a *w 

^3 o Ul <—■ 
%» -w ^ ° 



c 


. H 


is 


: o 


o 


• ■•j 


T3 




H 






P 















^ 


• S-t l- ^ . 








? 














o 


own\ 
tatioi 
:. to 
E. tO 








a 














H 








w 
















to » 











z h : 



s^ 1 8>8)i 

00 J2 



: a 

■■> 



S :A 



+ 



•" o 

•-' o . -I 

G) 0? _i_ d CO '-T 

to to~ a ^3 

^S ^H xi ^ -fc> '> 

— V- t>. 00 



> : S 



co a 






: w : „ : : 

■■a : So : 1 
: _ : •- : : 



O) 



o 

i-5 



- v • 

»» ej 

fe ...a 

ea to - 

el's 

2=S M 

v. a ca 

C3 ca Oh 



-= "ea 

•C-2'5 2 

o-oz 



ca 

<» s I 

- d a • 
s « J? 



o 

5 2 
£ 2 

z£ 



k «■§) 

i) tl c 
CO > .r 



4.: o 

CL £ '"t 61 CC r/3 Z 




ca ca o o o •£ ca 



O J3 
<? O 

« a 



•-I tx. CO 






in »n 

co oo 



CTft CT> 00 O iO iO 'H 
04 CO <N CM CO 

= 5 



NN-!-Cl«rtxa)QO»Hif)CCONHifiC5HOOiNNO> 
HtXNOInH i— iNHrtr- iCNCM— <<MCN r"«HCNH 



1V3 O 



> ° "- d ^O 

Z Q < -^ E& 






to 

3 
■9J 



oo O 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



95 



Jfh-S 






*-' "O 








1 


MOM 






e ?» 






. 




S3 to* go 
=-£ to " 






i 


1 1 


!t3 






CO 






CP 2 co 






a a Pi 






'£ 




tO-3 II 
-3.2 


6 


<n "* t. 
a ••■ ... 






i— i 

o 




ay, to 
to 1 ' 


CJ 

CJ 




n — 






o 

a 




= rrt" * 

• — i 'o tn 




11 






a 




■w -*^ t« 












IS 

c 
a 

•5? 




hrillian 
fell rota 
travv ya 

'ravitza, 
uish. 
arris, S 






+J 
CO 

3 




.#. OT o — 






CO Q 


43 


-*-> 




reddish sparks 
;e ; elongated ; 
be, set fire to a 

Hungary, near i 
disappeared ; b 
according to I 
stonation ?. 


• ■, — 

■"O CO 
<U .,. 

J: S 

* ■- 
•** 

tog 

r ."3 <n 
\ a a 
j +j cj 


a a 
g o 

vi m ^ 

** ~f ■ — C 
ii ^7 * . O *j 

c; T3 fcJD g g 


— J, 60 . .-. c a .- 




burst -w 
crescen 
ignited 
noise 
stone ; 
burst a 
Stone-f 
fireball 


lis*-? 

T3 a c>) .a jo a 
















- 










: s- 






co : 




£s j« 








*• CM 


'<b "S 




1 ^ - : 1 










00 






— 




+- 1 • r« 












OQ 




to M 










S.g 




c 




w 














■I 












i : z 




-§ 










o 












S \* 




^ 












\i 












B : « 




: * 










■£, 








oj ■ 




o 












t/i 


























^ 




. e " 
: o.i 
: o i- 


£ 

c 
. c 
tn c 

.3 £ 


s 




2 ° 

a o • 
v a . 
> s : 

A° ! 






M ■? 


\ 


: a t 

c 

1 : II 4 


»l 


>- 

0, 

e' 


i 






iA£ 
























: 






















V 








: 








J-— ■ 








C/3 






c 

s 
o 






\ 










c 








5 

PS 






u, 












-^ 




s 












a 

O 




c 








09 

c 


-*— 

OB 












a. 


♦a 0) 


o 

-^ 






«= -n 








o> 






™ to n 

§ is.£ 


a. 


• 

00 % 


> 

L 

3 


> e 


8 

) 0! 

^5 


- 




c 


a 

c 
a 

6- 


> 


r 

3. 


I 

0) 


to 3 c 


g'-C 


QJ 


~ 


'J 


s c 


E 


q. 


> 


o - — 


•* "S 


M 




i- 


•— 


- 


tf) c -*J 


^ 1 


4> o > 


> a c 


CJ 


QJ 


ti 


o • 


~ 


4J 


3 O c 


JO < 


Mfe 


£H 


=2 


a. 


J ZC 


S 


<UiZ 


p i-i ■* 


Oli- 


i— i 


~r 


CM 


co co co 


C-! 


SIMM 


00 


■H CO 


r— 1 CO 






f— 


I-* 1— 1 


— 




<N 


1— i 


a £ 


» 


b 

< 


) 




-1-3 

Pu 

V 
V) 




f 

a. 




>-5 Ct. 


i 




* 


* 


n 




* 


^ 




* 




c 
















Cft 




















in 




o 
















00 




















-. <^ 




~ 






a 




H 






o 






































r2 j3 



« a 



4) ^ a 
to ^ ■" 

c_- « 



«3 a 



o ' 



a 






2 ° 



OS -g 



1 o 

«3 Q 



i 33 -a 
, -a 



ii5-o? 



OJ >. 3 ^ ^-i 



o m a. 5 



a 

K g 
<u tf -a 

•— > a 

3 *> 

3 s • = 

— oj — 

a "3 * 

■ - a ^ 

oj CJ -M 
en ^* l- 

a S 

-" — i a ca 

3 S3 '5^ 

| 0J c'p 
to 3 3 = 

a »j^ 



O ^3 

CO ^j 

a M 

0) .«< 

CO >• 

R ^ 

o o 



Ǥ3 
° '-^ b 
& ° S 

CO ^ CO 

"li ffl frt 
2 « 



'-O 



s £^ 

CU 

13 > 

0J ^ 

«-t OJ 

to > 

< a 



•3 

a 

3 



3 

— 



OJ 

H ■ H 

.a ■" s 

PQ cj o 
„% 60 ■ 

-3-3 g 



QJ ki 



o 



^3 ^ > = fl 

"3 a-= 5 o 
S a o ^J2 



— - — * 
aj « aj 
™ "a .■" 



b — — - ?"~ "*■• "5 



o .5 

60- 



^ yj 4, 



3 O s 3 



3 4> 
LJ 60-i 



3 S 
3 -3 



= C^ 



fc-^ oj 5 ^2 

. a S O 

t- 0J *- -rf 

a a - 



„ -— oj «a 



-a _oj 



4 

o . 



CU 4. 


00 


B 


3 *. 

^c^ 


3 

a 
- 












> fe 




c 




«J 


2^ 


id 

43 


CU 


c -a 
oj 3 

£ S 




«Q 


4J 


o 


^o 


a 


c 












5gfl a 

0.0 -*m ^ 



co ^O . 

o a 



> a t-. 

O co 



- - '" ■ 



aj oj a 

o c oj 

C3 0J fe 

" 60 S 



© 


IS 
a 


CU w 

— — 




■ 

3 


O/ ^f 
CU ^ 



a o 

4) is "2 -a '3 1 

M a a S M 
s tn a a 

a, a <j a 
a "3 oj a 

C-CO * 

^^^^ 4J 

_• g. g 4. « £ 
CJ 5 rt •— OJ * 

■j?, "^ ^; "^ M Q 



c« 



" s 



3-, OJ 



a o 



a 13 •- i5 a > 

_ a a _ ^ .-•_, 



^^ o 

CO ? 



- — 

■— fl CO 

rt 5 *4 

.2 2 ^ 
o 



QJ 



O 
3 



ll 

tCS CU 
oj a 

1 o ,. 
& c &*■ •*• cu ^ ■— -^ c »r3 



o -i ^" — 

~ 1j3 . OJ 
5" co gl —; 60 

oj tc^ >• a 
•" to ° "™ 



o 

J3 

(>■ 

o 



•a oj 

M 3 

■= S 

OJ o 
t. CJ 

cj -a 

D. CJ 
B-J3 



a 

s- 

CU 

° : 

a 

a ' 



W 



£ 
o 



6C 

o 


o3 

3 


3 


•3 
3 


CO 


s 


f 

o 


O 


Pv 




.- 


J 


OJ 


a 



>- OJ 
4J 
CJ V 

o ja 



o rS >. 

.1—1 . 1— ' s - 



. 4) u 



ll-l CO 



o — 



oj a a 



-is a 



*o a 
*a oj 



i^^ i';o« = a a 

£ _^G3^ t- O 60<" 

a ° w -^ 3 —i 3 ,3 

rt tJ,« -bm—^'a^ 
oj -fetb^^a a. a 

'" O -- 3 4J P" 



. O ' 



4J ' ' — _ 

SCj,°*»0_ 

•r* — , *o- cj *a 

a a "''S a o — ^ 
s -4Jr£a30 a ".S 

S OT "0J'5 a, c:S c:! 

0J>.i£ Ofe U 3^2 

T-a<<*a,Oaj . g < 
effi co £ .^-C5 



! o ^ -a a •*!" 



•^ a 



.o . 



O 3 

a 



a iJTt. 



a «j ? 



3 t». 



5— °^£ °i 

.4) <i <£ -a ,oj ^ a 



3h O ,31 » hfl 



to 3 

6o"^ 



>» p I— ( 

» « OJ 



■- ■ ja a _, • 

•^ S "5 

— ■ z ^ ■*-> 

* s.s>'g 

a* a N £ 
o ■* "a oj 

\3 4) 3 OJ 

^ s *• . 

4> oj a t^ 
"33 ^ oj — 

o a ^ is 
°« ^^ 
™ ^j a? a 

.3 ..3 4) 

— S3 a a 
.13 > a oj 

—, 4) 2 

s-§ > 

3 



CU cu 

— *-< 

p CO 



<t» « r-l 

c t- r ca cu 
^■S«2 £ g 
a -w ° <« -a 

""" to— O » 

o "C •« .= S 

-" js ° S a 

^ ,-w * — cu cu 

'S'S tija^ . 
« _, -a^a 



o 



. a 



a 



60 iO 
00 & 

« -■ a _ 

.M.S 



° Scb 

CU 



a to, 

B4 



0J 



a ^-S- s °^ = boa 



^3 __ 



cm q •£ a 
. m a 
bo - <» >£! 

-.£ J 5 



Z**m «W.S5 



.■a2 



>-.co 

P3 iO 

oj a oo 

-3 9.3'-' 
g >.2 " 

f J3 40 



1 ™-J^"o«n S 
° S3 S .S""? 

S2h, 



•g S?;h •<! ^a 

C3 fe ^- *w ^ 



96 



REPORT — 1860. 



=a 



E 



.2 .a 

rt — 

C g 



to 

s 



2 *C 






O 



J3 

to 



o 
3. 



T3 
C 
CJ 

£3 

rt 

3 
CS 

to 



VI _c 



CO c™ 1 



cj Jq toJ2 



o 






. o . 

i s 

i "5 '2. 



] p _ en 



. _2 

*c CJ 



■fl.2 



_• -- 



o 3 



■*• « .2 
o £ o 
c to-= 



-C en 

N 

«J 

^ .<■> 

3 _>. 

C/3 — 

to°' 



■- s 



** a 
.. c 

^ 2 
+-» *j 

E s 

feO* 

.5 "3 

1 i 
2§ 

L — 

T3 «5 





ci 


£& 


a; 

.a 


CO 


CO 


~ o 


■W 


y-^ 


3 



3 " 

.2 ~ 

3*. 



to 

3 



ca ... 

* g 

3 rt 

I- 
T3 >» 



"to 2 



en 

3 
T3 



.3 
cj 



I -3 
• 3 



ea 



«S — .2 i! 



.3 

To 



o .- ._ — 



2~ 

... 3 

** v 2 

1 2 « 

3 V5 3 

<D >,2 

- - ~ 

tc -a -c 



2 3 

3 m 

CJ 

"<=> . 

60*3 

3 cj 

O .3 



SS o 

l~ 3 — - 

tc ce " -a 



cj n3 
3. „, 
« 2 

-O .3 -3 



O .2 



5 en 

To-a .£ jE 

•.— CJ 3 

2 to — . -3 

3 — — 
rt « ed rt IT 

-3 ,o JD S 
;" CJ CJ % " 
■— .~* 
<C T3 



-2 <£" 



CJ 

■5 « 



3 

C 



2 -S « 2 

O h U C 

•*- to-s 

3 -^^ 



■»-»■*- t2 



. § JS ° 

■^ o ~ c 
. o ea .22 

tl D CJ O 

to 00 j£ 3 
"»3 ' 

33 '> j -a 

>>§ a > 

3 3 « ;= 

E —-3 „ 

" O^ & 

33 2 ""O 
rt CJ --1Z 

■yga.. 
s t? s I 

W) i2 tc -3 



'■So s 
2 a 

•- ■* C3 



13 p; 

1 — 'CI 



-3 i. <C c «! 



5.S 
■ 

a 

c 
o 
o 

CJ 



§ s? 

o « *" 

M 2 to MH - 

o JS 

CJ 3 3 

«- « a 

2?g 23 
« •- =a - 



22 

t 

o . 

TO 

.9 . 

3 
O 



o >o 

■M CN 



Jj OJ O « S « 






Of) 



>5' I & £'■*• a - 
«> -a = £ z z 

'a . n"oo 

3 H ^ 3 -^ *■> 

1 1 % 6.ii 

** JZ a in w 



: S 



• Hi 

: a 
■ s 



in 

o 



CO 

3 

o 

© 

CO 



• ° a 

: co N 






B 




O 


o 

4J 


Z 


ti 




7, 



:.S 
' a 
: & 

: o 

. -a 



a 



o 5 o 
+* . ■*■• 

W ^ H 






^ M W ' ^ 



Is 



cj a 

* o 



>» CO 

S 5 

o 5 



o c* 

CJ CJ 



2^ 



o 



.3 

to 



o 

CJ 



■^ 

CO 


o 

2-w 


3 
3 
CJ 


I vr 




i— v 


> 












to 


"« ""V 


A 


: ° 










1/3 


-'^ 


C^ 





^= 3 
to 3 
•-; co 

3 v. 

: o o 
• o . 
: g-w 

II H" 



° A 

2 A 






+ 



n 
e o 

: tU to CJ o o 
• eox> to o 3 
■ u ~* »- c H 

I Cv Q CC C FH}S 

: <N "" tN|n || 



CJ 

o 



3 
O 



J! 



^ 



3 . 
1 - 
"tb 3 
3 O 

■C s -a 

•- -^ 3 

n o o 
3 SC J 



3 3 



OJ t * - " .-^ 






<v .S2 3 > cj : 

>3 c5 CJ CJ ^J ■ 






!> -f=~ 



a 



•?Z 






icqco 



^S 



^; ivo Z (/) « 



.-= .Q ' 3 



= 



§2 

3 n 

B cj 

C/3 =5 



.> 3 

«> 2 

-3 '/I 

CJ CJ 

CJ CJ 



cSS 

2 g 3 ?- 1 

^ > • ' a3 g z ' 

.-■ j en ot *- *V <-■ , 
to *j *- ^ " c 

e§ % £ % -g. "i 5 

> ^3 T3 ■-- S S 
s ,^ aj m d u 

SsfjS 3 s 
rt « 3 3 3 .3 QJ 

a sg S 5 g Q Z 



CJ CS 



HO 



(3 

13 

3 



ca 



o .3 

Q 2 



CO 



O CO !>• LO tS H 



3 3 



to 

3 



^r- >■*-* in ■* o co o 

i-c CM CM <N •"-! >-i CN 



O 



OlfrftNOfHCOO-iNCOlSNM 
(Mrt rti-H OICNCNCNcM i-H 



3X5 

rt - — I 

'-! ii- «S 



CS — 



o 

CM 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



97 



:<n 



i- 3 I 

-** s 

> a * 
a S 

? a 
g< 

c3 (* 



s3 
a 



■ s ^ -s 5 ^ ^ jj * § -a 

a -c 3 - > > s s 



cd i> 



*o«J 



s 



5 to 






«-g.g 



<u « "3 b 



o a* « 

3 c« 



i T3 

O 



-5 w >- ^-- — co 

as & « 3.°° 

!L S C C U t. 



O *" o 

CD OS 
» 3 



C3 



'O -^ ^ OO *0 

"> ^ T3 ° rt 

<* m a s .. 
.5 V, t "3 -2. 

o g-^^-S _ 

e £ a-'S o u 

"a id p< a <u w 

!►,« « £ > ■" 2 

CO _" O g-, 

3 ,a 3 3 33 rS C5 ,-, 2 ^a -O 

S 2-aJ gj=t;^-5ig a rt 

O "S) c3 



S3 S.2 l-a 2S-S M S3 

s ^ - ■■< . * « -a^ s - j s 

*~ o o *^3 **-• 



© ^ 03 « 

« bc^ § 3,-2 M =« 

= — c "• -S ^^ CD w 

^> ca . — ^ +- u 

<D o ^ to"'— -*> u 33 oo 

s™ a 



to ; 



! w 



C8 



a-._e h £ «a " q,o f :^ 5 



- « o 
«<" ".a 2 ° ~£~ 

CD — O — ' G OJ aj 

' «) g B 60 

<" ° X 

a 




oj « o i.^ £13 

<D x c « s ^ « 

♦j o « ^ (/J 



0J 50 



- 2 &-S.-S 1 1 < "§" 



o ^ 



*" ^>-2^ "3 o 
: _j "O "3 S o 

M S W 

a - ' 3 ■ 



a . 

- a 

2 a 

— a> 



a — to ^ jm 

'_S ^2^ 



o 

B-^l£SJili"1Sif ls^:-I 



« aS<l 



in 

O 



; O >5 D 



fe-gS «^ 



a <u 



c 
c 



-■S ® fe s 

ay o , ««-< J; % ™ 



S o o oo . 



o a> 

w _ 



«3CS0)r = CJ a J0'O 
- ^ H . _ri c C <u 

.2 -a 



0J 11 ^ _ 



u 



<u 



S o .5 o a 
o cd - a jj 

g-a'S.a 

^ ._ Oh ^o 

o a 2 « 

. « D 2, . h 
M ♦» <U CJ< t. 11 
^ <U eo OJ CD JZ 

O a „ « -b *• 
e » o ^» 



. .s <d 



a r-C OJ O — 3 

a ^, . •* cd ^<s 



s* o 



o 

a -g-a" 



a .« 



3 £ -S <o jj *; 

„ » S 3 B < 

^_ 2 js . " a cx*^ 
Sis <« «^co -^ « 
c» O S33y] 

* a 1 tf a»s g 

«!*:§.•■§ e=s 

P « S S 0) » 



■* " « ^ 

&o«3<;2«a»8<D'S 

■^ .^J, -a » o 

a^j 2_., 
2 a -° * 
"e 3 H 
o 



CD 



a fl 



T3 O 



O 3 O ^Q 

a != 



'- o 



g-^.s 



DO 



.t^o-a'S 



t „ 1* CO -^ 2 
C OS «? 3 CD 

■— 3 fe **-> .a 

" O" 2 « Q) 



>-. > 



•S^"2 



0J 



S: O 



<J 



3 S.-S ..J3 



<u 



fe3| 



; . cd ea 

'S -« 

; m ee 

' a -a >- 
3 5 2 

CD £ 



3 .£P^ - S3 



& 



a 

o 



a, " o ~ s 

h ,a „o ^ g o « 

! .a 2 c i g U « § £ f o = 

S s- "5'gchffl^E .. 



cd oa .a 



o 



■s S ■< 



» !(J * 






o - 

en J3 
to ■« 



S <D O ■'- , ^ ^» U .^ 

^S.f5zBj"SSS 



^- r 
^ o*.2 aj "3 2 S3 "3 

•53 « S -g « w-S 2 

- § 3 © ° -= cd . 

? ?, 



to cd S: 



, M 



.2 a ts 



oi 



a 

S-5 



2 },.§ 



"o 



S -■*" o a s- .-a 

3 ^ » <D , "ft 

a jj ^ u o 
a 



i S « S 

I 3 CD 

' -* bo > 

-■<- a a 






a-w 



=a «j 



03 



cr 

"^ = = E 

r3 <t* r^ r^ 



oo 



3r2 



T3 - 
co O ^-* 
'■ « g 






' * ca 

<5 a 
to o 



w 2 rt 
ca — -a <d 

CD O-g""^ 

M o -a •" 
, i2 cs so a 

*-" t<_i 3 O 

" °a _i_ ~ ea ^ a <d 

> «[cc,3 3 a 3 y 

3 « s-.~ o g ° Z 

^ 03 CO 



T >ax 

& So 

>.2-at 



»^2o 

So rt «) 

Sb 2 S 



1860. 



a<DO.T3co3;«cae»2fe 



u 



Z&v^JS, 3 3 

g^ |^ B-.8 a^ 

nS ti£ « a aw 



*2 -C » 
3 «3 

3 3- 
S -a -S 

,£ V CO 

-'■3 3 
o » 
& .2 



CD 



S V » 

a 
cDa. 

£ § 

o « 

ff s S 

** "^ ■ rt 
ca fl tfl 



03 u. 



.a 

o 



0. 

X en 

•° a 

3 XJ 

ca 3 to 



s -'a 

<D <4-C 

T3 • 



to H u 

c o> 

o >> > 
O — CD 

w a aa 
^» O _^ 

<a 



;*> to 

a;^ 



o cj - 

s ° « 

>.=■ a. 

h d rv 
tD cd Ja 
S» u a . 

« u <a m 

* a ^ ° 
a s ^§ 

-a "S3 o • 



3 
o 

CD JD 

2-a ca 



2, -a S 

2 -a ■ 



e£ 



ta 



■a.' 



„^ a 
! a 3 

<=> 2 



. a ■- s 
> Z c § 
.S5S * 
a's^ a 

ta o o ta 

'C 5 bO CD 2 

. ;o -m to 

»H 3 CO ^ 

o o a 



H 



98 



P 

o 
o 

t-J 
<! 

H 

>< 

Pi 
<J 
H 

W 

i-l 
CL, 

Ph 

p 

O 
o 

I— I 

H 

<J 
P 

55 
i— < 

H 

55 

O 

a 



REPORT 1860. 





T3 

S3 






a) 




<« 


CO 






to 




A! 


eo 










CD 


c 




a 




<! 




pej 


a 






<u 


on 




ft 


CJ 






a 




CD 






- a 
o o 

- — 
S S3 

o a 






o 



P. o 



pq 



c _a -^ 



S 

.2 

a 
o 
-»^ 

r3 






o o d 






« -' e. .^. g .a; 

so <s <c ■c'C'3 



o o 

— *- 
•5 ag 






S o o o 

t 5 5 5 

to -o <c tj w c •c t: ■a 



o o 

-5 -c 



o o 

-4^> — 

-S -5 



g> 

o 



a 
in 

-t-i 

u 
O 

o 



CO 
5© 



;> 
aj 



.»> T 3 

« • os 

*s § 

3 !=! 



<! 



<y 



OOOBjjOBj 

8 S S S * « » -S 



o o 

■3 -3 



o o 

55g 



o 






o o 



, rt-> r^. <-»-. n> i^. ^ o.> *x t 



03 



. C3 .9 

£ S-2T3 

« a >•■£ 

a « oj £ 

— o — =-. 



f£-j 2 



N CO 



3'S 

t. a 



a 



s - 
OS - - 

a r^ v 

+» "S "° 

t» 3 a} 

w paz 



2 -S3 

3 « /■> 
™ S.tS 

o n -a 



OJ3 

>» 5 

C3 O 

p a 



o c> 



oo -* -* 



>* C -m > C A £ 

" p.u o a. "aj a< 



Tf< oo 

O) (M 

O > 

c o 

oz 



I-cyit>•'rJ < oc^^^HoOLOCst>•oo^^lOOO 

2 CO NINHINNrtNN 

a . . 

a « "J^^a a. J^ 11 cJal> 



w COHCOHP«f 



W 



« 3 « ^S^>5a"<u" 



C3 

s 



« O » S, 

§ZQ< 



** **..* t..*.. 

oovd^o>fflincDOH»NtoaioiNtoo'*0!Ooin«0'#0!0^ioiN 

(OtDtacatNCOOlMeOiaCNNCOOlca-fl'tDNOOd'HNNCOW^'fl't^OO 
COtsCOCiCJOOrtHrtpHrtaj-^iOiniaiaiOiaiato^tatotfltotototOtc 



a : 
u ■ 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



99 



2 
o 



•a 



3 
S 



C8 ca 



.5 2 

».g 

^ (» 

■ •« 

' C O O d 

' -t-J -^ -s— -«— 
I « +j +j -4_a 

3 ""O '•g p o *"3 



[3 



o o 



Sao 



O O O 

-^> — *- 
-^> -fi -w 

T3 T3 ^ 



o 

a 
o 



o 



a 
>, 

a 
a 

a 



2 
"o 

a 

a 



ca 
tao 

.a 
'3 

CO 

a 
a 



■s a 










r*-. 






o 


■-1 « 




FH 


a a 
— a 




00 








« t» 






J9 




a 


£a 


5* 


a 


-w 3 


o 




CO 0) 


CN 


a 


w a 


a 


s 


•ss 


•p-i 


bo 




o 

CO 


.a 


a 


cm 

o 


T3 


Si 


< 


s 



o o 

^5* *5 



o o 



a 






55^5525 oodoodoooflSo 

|S -Th £- .ti . h . h ."^ .^ "" "" "^ "^ "^ "" w ■" 5 9£ +* 



PQ 

d o o 
+* -** +j 

j— ■ +j ■*— 

^ 'd 'O 



(S 

o 

a 

•-=3 

<u ca • 







o 

i— I 
00 



.a 
ca 
.a 
o 



a 
& 

o 
a 

o 

a 



CN CN CO CN -HCN NMh CO 



cOOM K5C1NH -^Nt>OH f-4 t« 
Nmh CN i-H CN CO i— ti— t 



i- « s i o 
o. o <» « u 

-<oSSq 



to 



"^,2 5 «»2 °<3 a cj JS o o a 



• CO • 

° a > -^ 
cu b o o 



a ci > 
a « ° 



tO-'*OH 
CT> O O O -H 
'.O 1^. t** »>. t*» 



O^OWcO(Oh.c31MXOCOiO 

HfOtoininointotDMcoco 



CO ». 00 

00 00 00 



t^ & i— i eo "^ O 00 

OS Ci o o o o o 
«> t» oo oo m co co 



cS 

a 


> 


> 


+» 


d 












-5 


i-s 


ZO 


Q 










* 






l— I 


(M 


in co 






rH 


^-t 


r-l ~ 






Cj 


GO 


00 DO 






P 

* 

in 

CO 



H 2 



100 



REPORT — 1860. 




O J3 

« e 



SS^ ,0 ' co 's2S^222§!^ Ci0to -^^S3^SS§S 50M S22JS^ M = 2^Si 



■-s «* i-» 



0S10O 



bo 

a 



3 3 5 ** ^ 



C3 o 






5 =°S g =°S &o 8 
£ < q £ «: q £ z a 



to COClO 
CD CO 00 00 



<M 

00 



«« (M 

00 00 00 



to «>. 
<N IM 

00 00 



00 CT> 
CM Ol 

00 00 



o 


o> 


CO -* 


eo 


CO 


CO CO 


CO 


00 


CO CO 


i— i 


1— 1 











CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



101 



a 

i 

a 

a 

1 



a 

a 

a 

0) 



•a 



B 

CQ 

CCJ 

O 



3 



to 



"a 



ca 
8 
O 

-a 



a 
3 



bO 

a 
1 



13 

o 



o o 
"5 -3 



1 1 Hi i 2 2 2 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 § 222 '£ 332222°°°° ° 

TS *T5 'T3 T1 T1 ITT tTT T~ r-T «tt ~T f— - •— • »i-» — IZZ '■—* '~ IZl '~ 3 1^ !_*"^ »H ■ -T • -* ■— >(H - -H .— . -- i-rf . _. . _- 



•C'B-U'S'C'arTna'afa^'j-o'jt^^S ^^^^^ = ^^ 



^C ""O tj tj '-j 



3 



o d d d o 

■+-J -+- -l—" -4-> ■*- > 

_-*J *- *J -*J 4J 

TJ T3 'C 'C "5 



: 
















^ 


























S 




























i 




\ 
















<S* J 

o : 


• © 03 

: £ « . 








E.S 



































is 
















a 














H 








S5 
















o 














O 
























-*» 














■♦J 








o 
















6=' 














*' 


















-.= "2& = 3S:««»S-« ss-s^agj-ssgsaaasssi-gjss 



!s .t* th 

J3 3 a 



eg 3 0) oi 3 3 

co i-» go &. i-s -a) 



fe b « a to o, > C j>» >• 
•$ 3rM a 3 «►© ^s a 



« « a g" £« 



CJ o 

OZ 



to 

00 



oo 

CO 
00 



05 
CO 



00 



to 

00 



102 



REPORT — 1860. 



=8 



ca 

-a 






S 
g 

CO 

a 

s 



PQ 



.5* 

* CD 

If 



=3 
■S 

M 

ca 



2 N 

■3 *» 

-2 -° 

qj cS 

« iO^ 

2 o 

O « 

55 tj 

9 

CS 



3 



ca 



c« 
U 

A 

1 
55 



s 

bo 


s 


0) 


<fcl 


M 


a 


03 


ca 


CD 

3 




O 


3 


a 


CO 


O 


.2 • 


"3 


13 



_£ o o 

^- .— ■— 

u= -= -c 



o o o 

+i -w -t-» 

— — -*■- 

-5 "5 *5 



o o o 

-.- -*-* *- 

w *— — 

~ — ~ 



3 
• o a 

Sc«i 

-3 caj ts 



3 i 
.a 



to 

3 



,£> in 



O o 




: S 

■ * 

















o i rt 

t— 1 




























. ft) . 

: ^ : 



-3 < 

cur** 
£ CO 



IP 

'E 

o 






. o 
• o 

i a 



a 
o 

o 

1-1 






■a 

c 



o 
55 



£ 

to 3 



o 




= 




S 
O 
j- 
3 




U) 


03 



! O 
'J 



o5e§55M 



CD ^i" 

-'P s 

■ <g T3 

O 

O 



^2 



« -^ -^ ■- 



am 

"2 »S - 

i .S <C 

° o 2 
<«55 ca 



c '3 



S 3g 



bog 

„ t. ca 

J= _- -3 £ -c 
tors to- to 






C CD 3 
S •*> -3 

' J3 



S 



PQ 



to— 

3 CD 



CD -tJ 



CS .- 

a. j 



3 S^P "g — 5 to 3 pQ 
* .2 ,3 *-^'S2 

o o cD—Tl-5" « S. o " 

*--*j-*->co-^caOco^ 

o.e~ p.o ca cj ca > 



3 S 

.c: 0) 



■~ S .B o o o c ■-- o j; — o o ca cj ca >. cd jz — J£ fe. 
Q,j-<eQgrt55a55TB-aati55oo~30'3ii-3^i<:55|y. 



o a 



pi Hr ,cq» ^^H^r-i f-i-^CM i-H i— IHrtN « t» M ■— < ■— • CMcM>-i 



>> tC !> CJ > 

ca-ouog-SJJo, 
g<ZflZhhS<! 



3 3 cu 
< < OO 



ca 



Dfc4 2 



a 

3 

1-5 



to 

3 

<! 



o.*3 K 

CD CD O 

vi O 55 



CO 



" 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



103 






a 

CS 



3 

.a 



:3 

s 



13 
CD 



•a 
.a 



3 
.3 





to 






3 


















N 






N 






es 






T3 






.« 












3 8 


■id 




as 




O 3, 






S "i 






S"« 


00 




S 3 


ID 




© C3 


tO 




a 3 
2 § 


a 








<u 

c 
o 


CJ 3 

■2 O 


5 


3 
g 


X « 
£* 

ca ^ 

3 -_ 

ca 3 
.-•3 


£3 


c -a 
1 o 

,3 M 


a 



]23 

: -5 -5 



ooocooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



: S 

i * 



A a 



a Epa 

ca cj ca 
boa to 

«3 c 
-h ~ — 
♦J *j -^ 

o :- o 



a 

o "So 

*-» o 
£Z 



to 



co i*.. 



o 



a 

ca 
t* bo 



S 
i'S.t 



E° 1 ="::::: S a . 

<u 5 £ : "• to .„cl h bo-a 

'3 *f a 3 bD« 3 _■ -CQ 3 

-u t- to ~r 3 13 b u ^ 13 t- 3; -^ — 



BZ? w, 



- - -— — 
o 



i_ bo S 13 
Teas 
** — ' bo a 



3 
« ^-. 

ea tq 
CQ ._ 

•- bo 

S. £T 



: t 
:ffl 



■w +j 



-= «J -S -bo 



CO 



5 3 s d 'S a 



tOifll>tOHi>C)O0iMXi'4f5COO^lf0(ONOli*O>HMC00DfN^WXCj!00i^ 

CI WOl »— I I-* I— llHCNOl pH CN ^H CN Ol <N CN ■-* «-H ^H r-< 



s 



5 -3 



3 
1-5 



bO 

3 



o 
Z 



— 






- § 



03 

o 


t-c <3 »> 




ca 3 




CJ CJ 


■a 

eg 
eg 
t/2 


ation h 
ight wh 
ppeared 




3 <u ca 


cj 


O ,3 co 


Ai 


<" to T 


ca 


^ +* 4j 


3 




J3 


•"T3 3 

d (u u 


a 


C-> S -3 

,3 ,2 £ 

e ?. _ 





|h y to 

"r2 ti <u 



« 3 

3 £ 



■73 
3 
3 
O 



cp -^^ 



O 3 



lb ^ 



M 
o 
o 

ca ^ 

cj ^ 



a - 
*-« ci, • 

3 « -g 

c J? s 

3 O 3 
O CJ N 

a to 3 

f^l 



o . 

3 Cft 



Ph 



r9 <u * 

*" bO - 



Q.I.O cS 



w * a 

r^ CJ 

5 5. 

- 3 

3 £ S 

ca •— .3 

2 S - 

"3 cr= | 



.2 _°° 

CO S 

3 r„u 



T - b 

ga-s 
% S s 



ca co crt cj cj j~ 



5 3 S- 



3 ^ t^ 

.o o o 
o -« «2 

CJ cj ^ 

3i ** a 

^c-s o 



O - 3 
CJ -3 cj 
C. bOj3 

-3o K 
o'3 3 



-y> o 



CJ co 



S* -m *-^ 



eu -a 
3 cj 
O J3 



cj ^ 

.b 3 

— — 



^S 



> o 



Eh 

60 



^ a, 3 

•SS3 

— - ^ 

f-i ca bo 

J3 to 
i o"5 

"g §13 

f-H O '/) 

^2-= "" 



3 >- 3 

S-S§ 

•*- — < CO 

« T ^ 
ca c cj 
*> s (► 

co o O 

CJ t 13 

^ bOh 

cj c ca 
t» .3 cj 

O -3 j3 

CO 

U 3 3 

CJ Sh CJ 

^3 /n « 

2^2 cj 

_ c* 

■ a 2 

co f 

o 



>« 



cj 



C-l 



co 

3 

•a cj 

Si ° 



3 

3 
ca 

>^ ca to . 

-: « co £ . J a 

00 o a o -^ cj 

"^ ^_, -O G-iO -m ,3 
CO CJ CJ Ci,GO ^3 f_i 
H SJ OH CO 
O CO . 3 

« -S-cjs- 2 «i 



104 



REPORT — 1860. 



<% 



- s 
o o 



13 CD 
cu *& 

pB 

.2 C 
C «» 

cs — 

> « 

03 to 

£ G - 

•*- S s 

' o * -3 

a 3 



to -w E c3 

"3 2 .2 o 



T3 
B 
S 
08 

a 

B ov. 

*.: 08 

-w et> »5 

9 O i- 

0-*S 03 

» M — 

I- «»« <o 

=8 ° k 

►.Jg ° 

"° .SP.S 

^ *cu 'rt 

!_;§ 
53 - 



s 






. 


S 






on 


CO 

3 






T3 


a 






— 


= 

CU 






08 

Ho 


sn 


. 






s 


-*» 








b 




b 




CU 






:0 

o 


-** 

8 


I* 
08 


08 

e 


CO 


— 


X 


o 



■s 

•a 

:3 
"8 

I— H 
•*• 

l-H 

o 

Q 






in 

oo 



3 



g.e 5 



— • ^ ;, 



08 



3 o • S 



B 
08 



— J3 

S B 



¥ £ 



B 
o 

O s. 

'XS as 



T3 O 



B 



fcO 

E 






3 

3 






o" ^ 



' • • '" CU 08 • "* 

O O O 3 .n O O 

■4J +* *J q 'T: *J -4J 

^- — *- — — — ; *— 






o o o o o 

cu 



oo o'6s| 

S .« .H 5 °, £ 

*5 ^ '""S rr 'X 1 '-= 



o o o 

— — *- 

+a _■*-» ^ 

TI *t3 '"O 



o c 

-5 -5 



o o o o 

-*J -*J *J -*- 

— ■*- *- *~ 

™ ^ " ~ 



o o o o 

- — ta 
^ *^ w *a 

*0 ^ 'ts t3 



i o 

: ■* 



08 r ^—^ J 
CU Cf 



CO 00 T}l 



: ^ 

• 08 



to 

"3 



: b 
I o 
' o 

i a 



!b^ 
: > to 



: A 



: S 















CU 
















v : 














so 
















60 • 














Km 

08 
















ia '• 














^ H 
















^^ 



o 



_2 *j -^ 

<i ^ *5 



o S 

3 ^ ^ 

•-CD o » 

O *C u B 

+» n os -B 

* i) 1.2 

3>OS 



2-3 

•a 3 



4j .. 

O - 

^ & 

Zca 



B *nj 



to ^ 

O eg ° 

Z 0- JC 



■a 
o *u 



I 3 



S3 



8 i' 

os ■" 



3 
:3 

t« 3 
3 08 

:3 B 3 

CU CU 



a 

■a 

3 

08 

~ cu 

08 « 



I 



^ 1— — — 
B « cu "* 



cucujj.ea'sS 'SS , S-S--~cu- a 

.3^00 tOtOj^! 3^5 N ^S iooS X ijj cu " O 

B'gSlsf-s.Sfi.aSg'Sss.sE 



«.=8 5 :3 



S5ogjhJaao?HSggHa^Zi«gN 



'*i3 = 



CU CU 



o ja 

>«3 



o-*<o<Occoo-*F"MNinffiooMNoie>i-icco*ai^<oc» Hinp-ir^cNHHrtooNoiiil 

*-HCNCN NhNHHi- • CNi-H^H HM H (N W H rtO)H CM f-Hi-H 



3 ou 



o O 

oz 



.-s 



§3 



to 

3 



u >2 &= = cu cu 



08 



s. 

•8! 



■a 

00 



CM 

if5 
00 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



105 



.5 

"5 
ca 

M 



a 

o 



a 
o 

13 



I 3 
I* 





a 




o 




o 




S 




-.|« 




II 






CJ^ 


-4J 


B 


J3 


&. 


1*> 


< 




M 


4a 










CM 


to 



• •••••• 

0000000 

** +i *-> -t-» -M -M « 

-4— — ' — *- 4-J M 



o o 

1 +a 



OOOO 

■ - -m ■*-» -+-i 
+j w — 

*S *3 -3 ; 



+^> +J +J -4J 



__ 4_J +J 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

t ^'CT3'a t3 ^3 ^d rj t3 ^3 ^g ^3 ~3 ^3 *3 



-e 

o 

d 6 

•5 -5 ' 



o o 

■3 -a 



. e 
: is 



t£ 





M 




rt 






; bp 


03 





























4 




cd 


a 














tjcaojo 


GO 



5 .3 

5Sg 
EWsg 
.- .- o 



fl Jj u « « « :fl 

. o w S,*; c n a 2 • i-, a 
toSS^ 3 u -g »a«g5£S! 



:3 



io'g 



*n a 

I- V 



2^ en ^ o 

^ 3 CO fc* 

a j- t, _ , 



60 

«J3 



S « o.; a «^ e c • 3 5 



— t ^H ^H 1— I H N 



ca 



1-1 f-l '-' CM tN 1— ImN nnpH CN i-(rH C4 IM 



OZ 



Oh 



>• >-> 60 

6(3 T- 3 



cj 

o 



o 

5S 



o 

to 



.a 



5 *> 

— o 
a 

a a .2 

sis 

H -dS 

2 = 

*j-h ca 

- — ^ 

te 5 c 

— *> A 
« Ph S 

*» s 5 

m ca « 

to o^ 

-1 

h = g 

<D « ^ 

« ^ Q 
S « 
.2 o^ 

•~ in u 
v C3 CO 

1— I CO ' 
CO 



« 



ti'o ". -C 

Sj?i 

09 






& x .5 - 
ca ojW'S'Si 
"PS- r= ^3 
ca 



ca 






: «3 



S<s S 



-« fc" = ° to 

ca >»*j 

. T3 .-S t5 3 
3 <U "" .2 O 



« I g 1 to 



^ « SR J3 



a 
'P 
to 



a " z 

OJ _r- 773 

si a"s g 

U O-O co j" 

tf*s4M 

c « 13 o a 

&h - a 

« ^r cu ca 

•S J » 07; 

S £™& 

O^ co « g 

"^^ a Za 

a co = a* 



CD 



^3 



a 

# tp rt 00 

*53 *t3 ^ h 



00 cc £ a 3 
-< ^h •- p x 



ri J 



<N a, >» 



106 



REPORT — 1860. 







*° eg 

r. 1 — 1 


200 
eis." 

oise. 








53 « 

S "3 


— x c "" 
3 - a . fl- 1 


s 






^ K 


4>e i—.g a — a 
* '-S °e .. £ - so g 

J3 3 2 ^>& 3 B = 3 5 J 


50 •« 1,; . 

a" "S . » 


c5 
<3 


a 
.9 

eg 
fl 
O 


c 

a »; 

2 o 

^ a 

O a 

g=° II 

|S 

s > 

0) ° -*» 

* 3 5 

! S.I ^ 

a -a ^_ 


9-* 

a 

a 

V 

PS 


01 

-a 

a 
<a 

*o 

V 
>, 

a 
*3 4- 

o 3 


..•S g => 50^ s *1 S-? B 

_ •— .2 a> 2 *» 'S B O > ^3 > •- •- 

| = o -g &-^o e^=^^r= 
£^=e S "- M M s° .2 ^ -5- « 

.S « — 2 -3 S — 2 •? "° ■" S ^ 

^>S g M Oc30^ d a - B S mi 

■? S3 •< S g £ S 3 £ S = ^S=°a° 

•— — J-i— .^^._j_, W J-.C3 CLi^-h S- g S 


a 5 

o"^- -^ g .J 

a -• ^ a <n 

0: S -«a . 

a; a ^ a -3 

j= « -c ° a 
^ B *S *a = a 

rt 3 ^ -^ « >- ^ 
-*j ^3 ^2 O*o ej « 




Sooooddodo'ooooooooooooooocooooc 


00000000 








^— — — -~ — ^— — — —J *-< -— ' ^- — ^— .— ^ 4^ ~- -^ ~— — J— 










»— — •— -— ' *j +s — *- — -M — +^ *-; *-^ *-j +-* — 4— ' -- •— — — 


— j -t^ 4>A *W *— ..— *-! *J 




€•?■: 


*3'3*3'3"C'3'3'3"3"3"3*3'3"3'3~'3"3"3"3'3'3'3'3'3'3 r 3'3'3'3'3'3~^'3'C'3 


fe b 

O o 

2 2 




: : a 

: o 
• o 














s c^ • j. : « : Jo 

' O v • « en • » • 


"-* a< -co • ** 










tn 


■a 


= a 




: a 










t 
^5 












!>. 


^H 










..... .-. >i 




fl 

© 




": == 


S^fc. 6 ?^ fe. «« M 


^ ■ . & a . 


o 5 : ° 
.8 -^ : *» 






z u> j w z £ : £ £ 










m ■ '■ > 






j « : »> « z : z 




o : c 






2So°°o : 2 o 










1 • 






5 • • 4 


Q 


[B 


w z : » 

55 






» ^ 25 » « « 
















a* ^ : £ « > : • 












JS 










to 


C . 




. . • B . ...g 




& 


o 
o 








f* 










: 2 

bO • 2 SO 




: 

i S 

= II 








































J- 
O 


a 1 
II 








A 










« : B h 

- i II- 










































(Yi 


































j 




a 

■y. 










































































d 

CO 


■a 

a 






03 






















g 

'3 


































<2 : 

-_ . 




a 


s 
S 




a 


"a 
a 
























fl 


-a 

a 






X 






















CS 


>-• 




a & 












>. 


p. 




a 




0J cs 




03 

o 


<Ji 


















: 
pa : 







O 
P 
















a 

CO 

S 


3 

'si 




S- 2 

^h en 
en 


co ■— 

a-2 




•J 


"5 cs- 

=U ~ T 


1 

- 

ts: 


a 

i 

c 
,E 


- 
= 

s 


- 
- 


■ 

I 

- 


B 
a 

| 

- 
- 




s -si 

1 -5 _ «) ^ 

"^ ^ Qi 0. 


S a -3 S ..S cs » 

™i- M a =i^a^a t- ^ — « 
OT<uaa)_.^J; ^ s » 5 c 

?aSoa?oioHfzij 


V 

O 

cj C 

a 


CQ 

cs a 

-> 

3 s- 

£ 

ja 


a 

■_ 

. ■ 

X 

3 


■- 3 

^ s- -m .- s ■« : 

-3 cl, "a - tv3 .-t; • 

11 Pi 2* 

1- 1. J- 2 ^ - !• 

™ « « t: rj 3 
q ca a ^ m < n 


o a 


o o it; 


Ci in ^* t*» Ci C 


ajONtsONsaorton*ooeiooNNONs 


Oi — « ^J* 00 ^< •" 1^ t> 




r+ <N 


I— 1 r- 1 d i— 


MNH ?1 M — — «N"H p-iPINN 


rt -H - M :j N 




SO bOZ 


c -= e .S-s.-m" Safe S*^ S 5 « 
-5 s--j i-icoO ^fc,Sg-n<! O 


^ 

O o> 

z a 




* 


* 


* 




53 


to 


»>. 


00 




lO 


>n 


«n in 




H 


CO 


CO 


CO CO 






r-t 


1— t .— 1 





CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



107 













4 










.4 










T3 










8 










eO 










! <-, 










1 « 










< T3 




CO 






' § 




3 . 






! ~ 




*2 






3 « «»- 




.. bo 








j a 




fco"E 

. S, ° 










4> CS « 






1 a 




2 






t 2? 




Bi S 






c 




"g"3 - 














3 








k -3 




lag 














T3 

* 




a c 3 . 


as 


i .- 




<2 to J .2 

3 gts=J 


60 


' 3. 




a 




• 41 "3 • 


••« ■« •- « 




• M 


O 3 .0 C 


000c 


C 


£ 4 


























T3C/3tc-a-C'UT3T3T3'a 






. 


co : 












s 


J 


M : 












ri 




s . 












CN 


; 


4) • 















C-f OCO-ftiftO^cO^H"^ 

c— — 1 ,_; cn co ^ cn 



:< 



!> o 

O 0) 



4J O ' 






3 .3 C: 

5 I- 




*» 4j 


■si 8 




t3 d 
^ _ 




jj. 


rt 3 

^: 4> 

S3 4) 
-fc- CO 


^ "3 H^ 
3 3 *^ 


■43 




§ 


rt 3^ 


3 
3 


*; s* 


<u ""^ 


t» .„ 


i: 5*" 


3 
3 


a" 

a, H 


near R 
ide crus 
ked up. 
or lost 


3 -2 .a-a 

«2 3 P.-3 







3 




CD j- 


a 


&o a 


3 -3 "fe 


a 


<• 

4> 


CO *> *> 
3 co 

ffl -3 2 


41 

4) 

.a 

4) 


60 3 

s 

co S 


MS 


> 
a) 


CO ._> 
« CU 


« «T3 


.S 


&^> 


l-H C 


4) 


h 3 


ir * 


a 


O 4) 


° tog 

CO CD ° 

"2 01 4) 




CO 
CO 

3 


CO ^d 
CD ,g 

a^; 


C - -M 




•3 a 


C8 .M *3 

CO CJ J 


<4H 


■S-s 


4> 3 3- 


O 


-13 


CO 


S 3 


.0 _ « 

.s s 

!C co 


*A 


a 

4) 

a 


CO ^ 


sembled 
as large 
particles 
The frag 


I. T3 

<a s 
« S 

41 O 






A 






. -4^» 


-" -m 


x-i 1 


43 


.3 =3 


O 4> 


.2? a 




a 33 
•3 J3 

1^ +J 


33 

C3 41 


4) en 

■S a 


..CO 


•*<• 




OJ 4) 




T3 . 


^-t 


s 


.3 


CO 


0) -3 


a: S 
**3 •» 


g^= 


-_> 


V 


*-• 


•m 


^ 1- 


Ph s 


3. -° 
.2 «s 

H3 

S3 S 
la a 


a <a 


w a 

4) a 
,3 


«J ^ « 


■4^> CO 

4) ^ 
4> > 
CO 


*— so N 


3 .2 


4) 
■ •. '— 

— 4) 


01 ■ jq a 


60,3 




3 -M 

cd 


16* 


. to 



<* 89 . 


M 3. 


.SS S 


co t*_i „r 
« O S 


. 3h 
4J CS 
O 

-3 "£ 
3- 2 


^ i- J3 


°gi 


cs a 

K a, 


" « 2 

>. 4i £2 


anuary 20. 
er a distani 
denwald, H 


CO 




rt S — , 
S C3 

4) O 

ft, ,-H ^ 


3 


3 . 

-5 O 


. >% 4) 

CB3 B 


^ go 


CO 
~. CO 


CO 3 .4) 


-a tub© . 


r1«=CQ 


50 »> in 


O ,ra 




00 S» »> CO ^ 
" "g =3 ~ 4> 

4) i. 3 


cu 

1 


P-lx, 


i-s 





1 • co *~ .r- 

a a to co .23 4) 

§ 5 .5 S a .5 
■fi *" -3 -2 og 

■ — • cu *-j — rt 



p IP 



l> to CJ 

■P a 2JO s< 



en 



" -S -a „ 4) g 
« js *h -a ^3 _33 

3°l-S£o 

3 2j &,(» fin 

■3 J^ a S 

I "c« .« — 3 -J3 

«« »H cs 

a j3 53 » ca « 

S -5.43 S >. 

1-; <w ^ S cy <— J 

.S 1 a as 5 

* -a 3 2 a T 

^• M a* 3 -B » 

'-s j3 «S <£ is -w 

,5 *3 a; ^ cd y 

O O r£! «*-» ^CJ .0* 

cu ^-1 a o t- &4 

P- CO ^^^S^ 

o> co .? s h' ^ 

' s; S-g -1 

ictSojO 
J O *• o(Q 

_* 3 ^^ 4) 3 

5 oO*: « S 

■ <o a K S ^ s2 

so 02 — „ j= a 

-2S (,^5 as 

.2 rt -a .2 --S C OT 
c3 jf §* £ S ...2 
fco^ S « r; © 5 

e rn ^- hJ O 4) 

"^ -^ a- ^3 '"^ ich 

P-O, ^ = 2 
S S S'-co -JJ 

*^ ^2 *d 4) O •-- ^3 

c 3 .2 33 _ g.S 



a 



o. 
-.2 'S 



^K 



-CL,; 

*Q "^J ^^ Cl!-) 

2 2 g§.„ 

3 -g -g r-H o a ff 
g^^-3 ^^3* 

co ° -*> <; u 



a .a a S ° d 

4) o >- " -" 



ce) 

— 3 ^- CO - .. 
5 o 2 60 « Cft 

CIS ° - 3 "3 -n 

£ 4) „ » -c 3 2 

il 0) S 1 v 

13 « -S «> 4) ^ - 

3^- «K g So 18 



3 

3 

» s> a a ^ s -3 
.a c» §•..« o 

'(£" >>S a'* 



so- 



3 
1 '. 



C3 •* ci 



CO 






83 



4JCO-*™ co p. o 

S " co a is 2 13 

^ to-1= s {? S* 

q3 fe «« :tS 4) a 

^=.2 oWOW 



108 



REPORT 1860. 



CO 
fa 



43 

o 



O 

o 

oo 



w 

« 





•o 


en 


0) 


T3 


> 


— 




co 


0> 


is 


43 


-id 


o 


CJ 




CO 


a 


43 


4) 




CD 


T3 


-= 


CO 
6JD 


> 


B 


CO 


CO 


43 


S 




CO 


s 




O 




<o 


r> 


*-* 


CO 
00 






bo 


o 


b 






<j 


CO 

B 




O 


a 




o 


Q 




S- 


■— 


o 


CO 




o 




>> 




43 




u 




CO 




V 





a 
o 

S 

CO 

o 

43 



bo 

B 

o 

— 



(4 

s 

43 

a 

CO 

co 

V 

Q 




CO C**. !-"» CO 

00 CO '3D 00 


in io ia io 

CO 00 00 CO 


go co in co 

^f -^ *r -l< 

00 00 GO CO 


CM — I CO -* 
"P TP CO CO 

CO CO 00 CO 


*** CO — 4 
CO CO CM 
00 X 30 


u 

a 

CO 

> 
o 


*x. 


CT> Ov CO •*!< 
lO O O lO 
00 00 30 00 


— OOlOl 

io in •* -* 

00 00 00 CO 


Cv CO ** CO 

"^* ^sf* ^j* ^CJ* 

00 GO 00 CO 


N-HOl 
•* ■* -r eo 

CO 00 00 00 


crv co in 

CO CO CO 
CC GO GO 


14 
co 

43 
O 

-*a 
CJ 

O 


t>- r^ to io 

lO lO ii3 LO 

00 00 DC 00 


COM NOV 

iOirti3 1< 
00 CO GO 00 


O -^ -* -* 
^3* ^J* tJ* ^* 
00 DC 00 00 


CO CO CM o 

•^* -t* -f -P 

CO 00 GO GO 


oo Cft r^ 

00 00 00 


V 
43 
S 
CO 

a. 

CO 

CO 


A* n.. 




rvi ". 






00 00 00 00 


CO to ^J< CM 

too io in 

00 CO CO CO 


o o in ■* 

in ^"^ ^ 

CO DO GO 00 


co —< © *-*• 

■* CO CM CM 

GO CO DC GO 


!>. O rfi 
C"l ^J C^l 
OO 0C 00 


4a 
00 

3 
SO 
3 
< 


O Oi O 33 
CO in in in 

GO OO 00 CO 


co i^in ov 
in in io -f 

00 CO CO CO 


© co cm r-- 
•**« ** **r co 

CO 00 CO GO 


co in © *>• 

CO CO CM CM 

GO DO CO CO 


(■»■■ 

t>. tO Tft 

OJ <>» c^ 

00 00 GO 


*3 

>-3 


-. 




/V. fx. 






© © o <o 

00 00 00 00 


** ■** CM ~* 

in in in in 

CO CO GO CO 


in -<* rj« -^ 

GO 00 CO GO 


CO CM — O 

-*P -^ -f -P 
00 00 00 00 


-T>. IT5 lO 

CO c^ co 
CO 00 00 


eg 

c 

3 

l-a 


o in o o 

00 CO 00 00 


OOOiO 
io in *r t 

CO 00 CO GO 


CO CO CM CM 

— — — — 

CO GO 00 00 


i— I O 00 -P 
-^C ■* CO CO 
00 00 OO 00 


CC Ol (M 
(N t>J C* 

00 CO CO 


CS 


o oo in in 
fflinioio 

CO 00 00 00 


o cd cd o 
in -^ ■* -p 

CO GO CO 00 


dtNOico 

-* CO CM CM 

CO CO 00 CO 


t^ co in in 

CM CM CM CM 

00 CO CO CO 


tri oo 

01 ■—< o 

00 GO CO 




t>i to -3 o 

lO iO ifl i3 
00 00 CO CO 


-* CM CD t^ 

-*" ^J* CO CO 

00 GO CO 00 


It.. #Vi 

CO ©" © CO 
CO 00 00 00 


CM CM O O 

00 CO CO CO 


00 ^ c*5 

o o o 

CC 00 CO 


4= 
CO 

a 

3 








-. 




© *+ CO CO 
in in in in 
CO CO CO GO 


© t>» CO *-* 

-^ ->t -P "**» 
GO CO 00 GO 


^■h in *-* co 

"■I* CO CO CO 
00 00 00 CO 


CM CM -H CO 

CO CM CN rH 

00 CO 00 00 


CO CC ^ 

— — -H 

CC 00 GO 


a 
2 
■8 


t>. r>. to to 

lO in in in 

GO CO 30 CO 


onno 
in in in in 

00 00 CO DO 


■^ "^ "^ CO 

00 GO CO 00 


CO O t>. O 

CO CO CM CM 

GO CO CO 00 


in -*r 00 

00 CO 00 


a 

3 

a 
a 
i-a 


/v. «., 


o.. 




*-|. rt.. 


«.. 


GO CM — -H 

in tn io io 

00 GO CO GO 


OOiOil) 

in in ^* ^ 
cc ce go oo 


>cw © t^ r^ 
^•■^ COCO 
CO 00 GO GO 


co in in in 

CO CO CO CM 
00 GO 00 00 


M* o *o 

(NOOD ' 



catalogue of meteorites and fireballs. 



109 



*n CO 00 iO »-h in -h* CM 
00050 TfrtOT 
CC 00 *>•*>• *n tN In to 



CC CO to 
*D in in 



-. 














H CO CO CO C7i 
5 CO CO CO CM 
J 00 00 00 00 


cm o e o> 

OIOl Nrt 

00 00 00 GO 


Tf »-H O O 
i— 4 ^H i— t i-H 
00 00 CO CO 


1ft iO 00 CM 
O *>- CO CO 


lO "^* CO CM 
tx*>.(0 to 


COOONtn 


CO CM -H 

^f Ol Cl 
lO ■* ■* 





oiooicco 

i-h ,-* — . o 
oo CO CO oo 



cm t>. o m 

OOONfO 

oo i>. t>. r^ 



o oo ■« tji 

O CO CM — ( 
*^ r>. W *>. 



"-T CTs -* -^ 

O cc r*. co 

l>» CO CO CO 



© 

CO 



CM CM -* CO 
CM CM i-h — ( 

00 00 00 CO 



CO 00 CO CM 

i-h o o © 

00 00 OO CO 



00 «>. O 00 
CTi *>. t>. CO 

*~» *>. IX. t>. 



CO ■* CO i-H 
flrOOH 
l>- CD CO O 



CM 

O 



CM CM OS 00 


CO CO CO CM 


© 00 CO CO 


00 © 


tx CM 


CO — 1 


NN-iH 


1-^ ^-1 1— 1 1— 1 


— 1- i-» 00 


co m 


-i*i -<* 




00 00 CO 00 


00 00 00 00 


00»Nt»N 


*>- CO 


CO co 


CO © 



HHffi'fl ^OtDf ^HOCOO WH^ Tf lOM NifJ iftH iflffi odo^h 

CO CO CM CM W C4 *h H i— i^HOOi 00 «n CO «0 uO O CM CM cC QO O -f ffi<N N 

00000000 CO 00 00 GO 00 CO 00 iN *n tN In In 4n in In *n CO m iO CM MOO 



^- Q) CO Oa 
CM ^-. —i O 

00 CO 00 00 



ift -* 0> CM 



O CO CM to 
CO CM CM O 

IN IN IN, 4n 



00 i-h O 00 o 
O OS Tt* CM CO 

ta o in o i-h 



MhOO hNCOO 

O^tOtO kOCOCTJOO 

00 In ts l>. NlstOO 



t^ O i-h CM © Ov. t* 

NXtOrt CM An CO 

o io io o in co <-H 



lO 1>J ^H 

01 C5 oo <x» 



iC CM 00 O O CO 

^h Oi CM CM t* OS 

iNtO O '-D in © 



O *rt -* 00 CO^HOIOO m tfl huo t£ifO t f-( 00 

© © © OS CTifO hh iHNtoeO OS oo y^ o> CO 

000000 1 s * In *n *n In, noo«o O O iO ^ ■— « 



in ■h' o o t-^cMoo 

H i- « OS 00 N ts tO ^ 

0C CO In In NNNN 



tN © CM CO CM © © 00 

OJ ~ CM 00 U U C; (N 

*o © to o inin^co 



** o 

^ a 

•°.s 

CO — ' 

c o 

a « 

cu — 
J « 

** T3 

oo" S 

00 >% 
1-1 CO 
C 3 

— a 
<p * 

a '-' 

° S 
£ § 

CO o 

_a ~ 

•5 a 



&9. 
oo 92 

p-H l -1 

>- 5 
o — ' 

o a 

co S 

00 I, 

~ cu 



o 
& 



0J CO 

S 2 

bo 8 

a o 

Ha § 

a °h 

Is 

■a <u 



2 
o 



i3 * 

2 S 

c S 

^ o. 






"S & 



o a 



Is -a 
H is 
.2 a 



no 



REPORT 1860. 



a 

< 



S 



s- 
o 
u 



s 
a 

O 

C 



a 
o 



o 






be 



C3 

a 
o 

Q 

a 

C3 



ea 

_ 






la 
aO 

a 

3 
C 

<u 

.a 
•*j 

bD 

e 

. — ■ 

o 

GO 



o 
o 
co 



2 



o 

ea 

O 

CO 



2 





H« a'c* -*!«» *J3 Hn Hn He* h ?< - :i 


c5 


::#:::* : : : : : : : : 
::**:::* "«--* *;#:**:***::::*: 


> 

o 


:::::: * : : : : : : 
.*:: : :: *:: : *■*•■,_.. 

: * : :* :* ; :*#* ; : * : * * * * : * : :•*"*] 


■4* 

o 


■ •• ■ ..«■■ ale) • • • • » 

'■'.:* : *:: :: :** : : .:. 

; ; ;** ; aje» ;* * ; ;* ; ;# ; * X * ;* ; * ; ; ; 


4a 


• a]C« > • • • . . . 

: * # : : : : : : : :::::::. 

; aprja : * ; * ; * : -»> : ; ; Hn * # * ; ; ; : : ; : ;. 


to 

3 


# -=i : :::::*::::: : : : : 

* * * ap ; * ; ; ■ ■ ; * ; ; • ; ;***<: ; : : * * * 




* : i : : H|n ! : : : z • ' M 

* : : :* : * :#*«;«:-*<* : * ***** : ;# ; * 

H« • • • ... 


c 
3 
fa 


■ • ■ ■ : : : : * : : : : : : : : 
* : . * . . * . . . 1, 

h«- :::*::::*#: :*::****:*::: 
: . . . : : : : * . . . . : . : : 


ea 


*:*::*::::*:*:*:::::*::*:: 


13 

a. 


; ; ; * -;ei • ; ; • * -« ; • • * ; * • ; • * ajM ; ■ 


fa 

s) 


: : : : : * : : : : : : : :*::::: 

:*::::*-;«•:::*:*:::*:*::::: H" 




: : : -^ : : : : : : : : : : : : : 

:: :** : :* :**:**: : >*• : : ::* : :*;■ 


c 

si 

i-s 


: : : : : : : hs * : : : : * : : : : : * * . 
: : * : : : : * ~& * : : : :-*'*:: :*::** >*| 


Month 

un- 
known. 




s 


OCiKNtOiiJfCOWaOaoONtDini'WWMOClXNCifl 

coccooccxaocoooxaooococDoiooxmcoxxxxxxxn 






CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



Ill 





• •••:;: ::::':* :::::::* ::':::* : : : * : : : 


* : : : :::::: : : : : : : ■ 

* • ■ ■ :....: . H« : : : : : : * : : : : : : : : : 
*:::-*<::::::*:**::::*::**::::* 




: : : : ::*::::::: : : : : : : : : • • 

. . . . -*> . . * * . . . . : : : : : : 

: : * : * : -*" **::*:::::::* h» ::::*: ■+■ : : : -*« : : 


1 : : : : : h« : # : : : -** : : : :::::::::: 
I: :::*:** :"!»*•*<: :**:*::H«* :*:::: :::::: 


: hh : :::-»:::: : : : : : : :::::: : : : 
Hc<;*;«^i;;:H«::::#:::' < i" :*::** ::;:::#;;; 


: : : : : :::::* : :::::::: : : : : : : • • 
'::::: ::::.* . ..:.:.:: : : : : : : : : 

:::::*::::: "P* :**::: :::::*:::*::::: 




: ::: **** -p:; ::*::::*::::::* :*::*::: 


::::::: : : : : : :::::*:-«: : : : : : 
::::: i:-*" :::::■*•**:: : ::*:*:* :::**::* 




1: : : : : I ::::*: = ::::::::::■::: 


l« • i-'ei ^••••■••••«-« 

:::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::::: 


L * 

s ::::: :-^ ::::::::: :-m : :h« :::*:::::*: : 


fj N f^ O Ol 00 N «D vO ^' CO W ^ O C) CO b. ^ O ^' CO N ^ d Oi CO N o »n ^' CO N H d 

iCOCOMNNNWWMNNNNHHHHHHHHHHOOOOOOOOOO 

pcocoxcococococoxxwcocococoxcococococococoxccwcoxcococococo 



112 



REPORT 1860. 



a 
■J 

cq 
< 



a 



-a 

B 
es 

>> 

cs 

Q 

c 



M 
as 

w 

oS 



a 

o 



3 



u 

■a 

V 


d 


• tOHrH 


CO i— I CO to 


m cm >ra ■* 


■^* CO CO CO 


CO CO CO i—i 


O ■* r-^ C>> 


m" 


• i-h ■ 


eo '• '• '• 


: -»cm • 


i :-" ; 


H« ; ; ; 




■aj 


• • *-* • 


• 'l-H 


1— 1 • 1— 1 ^H 




-*"::: 


: i : 


o 

a 

o 


° 


CM in Tf O. 


-H "-f ^ CO 


fflNiON 


GO "* f-* (M 


■* CM t>. CO 


-«-> 




. . . 




CM ; CM CM 


N |h j 


w-l -H | CM 


f-H -*• J CN 


■< 


: : : : 


co ■ i- 1 • 


• - — 


H • l-H • 


~* ; Hct^ 


: : e* \ 


O 

O 


d 


eo ^h cO CO 


i-^ CM CO CO 


M • CO CO 


— — — — 


■fl- •* CO CM 


•- cm ^e<: 


« 


«£ ;- 


CM • • i-l 


#—(••• 


: i : : 


»— i ■ a— I I 


• — e* 




CO ; <-H ; 


l— 1 — H * i— 1 


• i— 1 r— 1 i— 1 


CO — • • 


■H ■ 


- : ; 


fa 

u 

.C 

S 

a, 
as 
W 


d 




CO ■* «-» CM 


■ t>» ^ i— 1 


^HM<H 


• CM CM CM 


Oi5 1MJ 


m 








*— i ■— 1 


F-4 • *-* • 


: : -*■•- 


< 


I ; ^^ CO 


CM • -h • 


MM | j 


<M r- i He»»-^ 


: * i— < • 


• • • 


to 

3 

so 

3 
< 


d 


N(Mt»rt 


■n n> -* cm 


ino-oco 


CO N "5" CO 


CO CM CM CO 


• t)< o 


ea 


• « • H« 


■ r-l — 1 




■— 1 • •-««?« • 




• •-*» 


«* 


■h : |n 


«'-« : 


• «— t ^H 


• l-H " 


: : : : 


: : : ', 


"3 

1-5 


d 


r^ ■ -*«—( 


— : : cm 


"H f- CO CO 


»OM • -« 


m cm -" eo 


CM CM CO 


m 


• • l-H H« 


• «^r- 1 i— i 


i : : : 


• • • (-H 


CO -*< • CO 


l-H • • 


< 


i •«£ 


-«fc* • -h CM 


. • _< 


H«^Tc^ -*s 


dr- : : 


|-H • e>| 


c 


d 


•f CM — CM 


• CM eo • 


•--] -m 


f— « t— 1 F— < ^-* 


ns)-*N 


— CO CM <-\ 


ed 


• ■ CO ; 


1—1 p— 1 • 


:-^^ 


i ^ 


: : : : 


• i-H ' 
















c? 


d 


i— t Tf ~ ~q* 


i— i CM i— < f-H 


j CO CO CM 


• r— CO »-* 


• rtcon 


— cj -h e>| 


m 


■ ^H • fH 


: : ; : 


r? 1-1 i : 


-- : ; 


i : : : 


N : : 


< 


- : i : 


-h : j cm 


CM ;-h-*i 


*• : : : 


eo •-! ■«• -h 


ih rH T 




d 


rtrt «■« 


■ CM • CM 


CM CM "»• CM 


CM CM CM -< 


CM eo CM • 


<N -H ■ - 


sj 


e» • • ■ 


h- ; ;- 


rt : : : 


i : : ; 














« 


• 


CM • • • 


ri'frH J 


" : cm : 


CM »-* i— i *«P* 


: : : j 


9 


d 


CM CO CM CM 


>-h -3« CM ■* 


CO CM CM | 


CO H CO H 


CM CM CM CM 


j — M C 


22 










-" — • cm : 


cm • *-^ •] 


<i 


-*« i : 


CM . — i 


; • • CO 


r- * f^ •— i 


H • PH • 


; CM ; 1 


>> 
5 

s 

O 


d 


CM CM — 1 <M 


CM CO CM ; 


h^Wh 


«- ; i 


CM CM CM ; 


C>J CO CO * J 


a* 


• • -H 


■ i-H • f-4 


->r»f-t CM ; 


' H f-I 


« H l— 1 «« 


• H -^ ' 1 


< 


: :~ : 




; CM ; 


H ; CM ; 


: eo — ; 


: : : j 


« 
3 

eg 

—5 


d 


CO ID j CM 


• CM CO -* 


^J« CO »-^ fH 


CO ; CM CO 


j —■ CM CO 


io • -h*! 


CQ 


HN | • 


. r— 1 


»— l —t I f-1 


• ■ ; CM 


:::■** 


• •'*l-r"J 


«< 


• ~H 


: : : : 


cm — i : 


— JNH 


• i— » 


I : : i 


•qju 




i-i CM CO ■* 


iflONCO 


CS O — CM 


CO •? HO lO 


«>. 00 OS o 


—i CJ CO - 



CATALOGUE OP METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



113 



MrH W ; 


(OiOrtM 


. . . . 


: : 


2 f- 1 


•CM ; CM 


: • 


:-*" 


r- CM ■-" CM 


•* cm 


: ■" 


*H ; pH rH 


**" i 


• — 


—4 • rH i— 1 


i—l CO 


: w 


HrtniN 


CO ; CM CM 


• • 


• ! 


* rH 


- i- i 


• |-H rH • 


N i-c rH CO 


CO CM 


• no 


** : : : 


i ! 


: -*• 


: : : : 


i— 1 


• I— 1 


r co • cm 


• H< rH CM 


• i— i • • 


J Mp 


CM 


* " • »• 


• -H CM rH 


ea« 


CM 


: : : : 


: : 


- 


j co : .h 


: : : 


CO 


: • H i N 


CO \ 


rH 


■ ■ • • 


l ~* I 




: : : : 


■ rH 


(N 


|; i-t CM -H 


rH rH CM 


CM 




i : : 


Hp 


| OJ F- iH 


: : : 


■0" 


j ~h cm cm 


TC rl< r-l 


i 


: : : : 


i : : 


rH 


■CM • •& 


•—* -* 


: 


NrtW 


■"CNNN 


. : : 


• iH 


■ 


I :~ 


• f-1 • 


: 


CO | iH 


: : : 


- 





• m -h • • • • 


CM -* CO 


• W i-c 


: 


" ■"■' " " ■ " 


; i *"* 


i : : 


>—* 


O 1^ 00 
CM CM <N 


CJO >-< 
C4 CO CO 


„. 



s 

3 

a 

"S 



c 
cs 



CO 

-i 

3 

CO 

H 

o 
.2 

_>* 

o 
s 



T3 

cj 



o 





CM 








l—l 


co 




CO 








o 


o> 




00 








00 


t>» 


CI 


rH 


CO 


l^ 


C5 


rH 


rH 


CO 


O 


CM 


rH 


o 


o 


e 


uu 




00 


00 


00 


















o 








OS 


CM 




CO 








CI 


C5 




00 








i^. 


*--. 



(J 



in 


t» 


OS 


rH 


CO 


m 


«>. 


CI 


r-H 


o 


-0< 


CO 


CO 


CM 


l-H 


© 


o 


o 


00 


CD 


CO 


00 


00 


CO 


00 


*-» 


»^» 



■a 

s 



s S ■& ••-- « 



so.: 



x a 



c3 f^ 

rrt <u (3 S 3 

cj **-i — . C 

X O S di « 

g.- <i= 

a > s. B a 

3 n £ = 3 

"" « S S S 



s 

3 

a 

i 



C3 



o 






i-O 

oo 



m 


«-» 


C5 


l-H 


CO 


m 


CO 


CM 


r-H 


— 


o 


C5 


uo 


00 


CO 


CO 


CJO 


»>. 



CM 
CM 

m *>. rt 

CO CM 

CO 00 a 
rH rH 

CO 

rH 
00 



© CO 

rn O 

CO 00 



18(50 



114 



REPORT — 1860. 



>,a -cite-* otot^ao =» 2 2 2 2222 £225 SSJSi 



OS 



«»«« 



-f CO CO •— ' OClNi (CelJCCffl CO ■* CO C*> O ■* »H 



w 
- 



a 
o 



13 
B 
eS 

P 

i> 

Cj 

H3 
<U 
> 



O 






o 






"3 



m <o io co co«ico nnotD Mot^o t« -* co -i< in-soo 

,— ^-( r- < i— 1 r-l 



o co <o to ««5-*<n <n ■* co co oo^n to ■« -* <o i- 1 <s <o ( 



■* C C-) «5 -* i« w* ^t^Tj.^ r* rH CO <N p- CO CO O CO t^ rt | 



■><<■<* w co t» -* 



ooo oaMn Mooto noino ,-. t^ in 



HM^M <N M :«i C0NOU5 mrtClH tOMMO CO <N *5 | 



irs CO •-< CI i-i ■* M p-i ^NHifl 



rf> CO rH CO V«*N <N^C0 l( 



T3 

B 

a 



^j N»HiO 



hm^m o) •* ■* in whom Mm - *" <ncow 










<: 



C3 



°5 
£• c 

rt O 

OS 



nncoin : o : •* 



dinis-ni rt*NiN co o o 



eo i-h m in « o nrtHN w^ 1 " 



i-H OJ CO -* I* Hrtd 



^NrtM Niaoen N.nt N n n -< 



M* ^ iO CO i^ -^ ^1 



■^ C> i— i 'M ; CO CM ■* 



^AO^ inn-*n Hccinin ocoenl 



_<Neo^ oomo ^222 2222 £22§ SS? 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



115 



LO a)NCD c. o i— ' "■• 

CM IN CM CM CM CO CO n. 



■«< ; co >n o o <M co 



*H co ■* m t» 1" • "# 



co-^inco Tf^cocM 



eo ; co «o cm i< : *ts 



lOtOi-H-* ■* "* CM CO 



■ HH«W © l^ -«J< CM 



: i— I CO -^* CO CM ; i—t 



• CO CM • •<* rf tf5 CM 




rt«N« ^h ; ; CO 



et) in ■* o cOOdrH 



U5CNO0 Ol O i-i "• 
CN CM CM CM CM CO CO ~. 



w 
hi 
« 

H 







so 




CO 


© 


i^C 


















r-i 








!>• 






o 


o 


O 








o 

44 


+» 


•*» 


>o 


i-^ 










>* 








1-4 


(H 






olites. 


BO 
9 

60 

3 


-a 

a 


CD 

X> 
O 

u 


x> 

s 


XI 
CD 


a 






<5 


< 


— 
CD 


O 


O 


> 

o 


u 

n 
























00 


















O 


















a 


















vi 


• 


a> 


■ 












o 






IT* 


. 














o 


CM 


o 


CM 


o 






s 


o 


O 


CM 


CM 


FH 






"*"* 


o 


•*■> 


o 




O 






H 


00 


Oi 




-*> 


•«^» 






« 

s 
fi 

a 


3 
*cd 


1; 


00 
'fi 


00 


CM 

c 

9 










Uh 


























O 






to 












F-t 




»^ 


-4-» 

;3 










o 


0) 


lO 


£• 


o 

hi 


3 


o 

CM 

O 

-** 


>% 


r— 1 

CO 


CT 

e 


3 


CM 

o 

CD 


3 
C 


•< 


JO 

6h 


a 


o 






■-a 
O 


U 


o 


CM 


+- 


CM 


bl 


o 


(H 


O 


O 
en 

a 


CJ 


'u 




Cfl 


s 


f— 1 
CO 




CO 

hi 


S 
3 
C 




a. 




CI, 
<u 
(72 


1- 

E 


a 


S 

4) 


H 


Id 










> 
o 








__■ 
















« ■ 

UflJJ 

o 3 o 
P<£ o 


i— 1 






4>. 










o 


o 


CM 


00 

O 








itic E 
inct f 
or Ep 


o 

c—l 




O 

00 


CO 
V 

e 








O M -2 


M 




« 


-1 








^J 


b 


a 


a 


i-> 


^ 








•< 3 


X> 
















6h 
















o ■£ o 


CO 


cm 

CM 


i^ 


in 

o 


--o 


CO 

I— t 

o 


o 
CO 

o 

— 


CO 

o 


w 5 °* 
« a 


o 

CO 


O 
CM 




1— < 
•- 




lf> 


CM 


1—4 

u 

XI 

a 

CJ 
CJ 

P 


Aerolit 

com 

Meteoi 


is 

3 
fi 

s 

<-3 


1-9 


3 

to 

3 
< 


J2 

S 
cd 

3. 

en 


O 

o 
Q 


a 

o 


^2 

a 

> 

o 


















~* 



I 2 



116 



REPORT 1860. 





o 



OS 

o 



a 

3 



cj 



w 

« 

H 



o 

W 

'a 
c 

rt 

m 
u 
O 

CJ 

HJ 

§ 

60 

_c 
"-+3 
rt 

a 
o 



:CJ 



>>&. 








1 


2 t*> 1 




HM 






^ 2 1 


© CO 


CO 


o to 


to 


B S3 1 


CM i-H 


CO 


t* 1H 


f— 1 


o " 








l-H 


S<! 










"m 


•+• 


-'<N 






O CM 


IN 


OS »» 


to 


o 


-* to 


© 


CO HO 


en 


H 


IN r-> 


■"* 


co m 


CO 
l-H 




rlpi 


-;<•- 








to CO 


en 


l-H CO 


■* 


P 




CM 


c> *T 


CO 








^H 




-;ei -;ci 










f- CO 


U0 


CO CO 


^H 


fc 


CM IN 


■* 


en co 


CO 








i— 1 




Ha 


•*;« 






O 


o to 


to 


en -* 


CO 


CM i-h 


CO 


*>. ITS 


CO 


. 


-]N 


-*< 






Oh 


l~» ■* 


i— i 


HO to 


W-* 


l-H l-H 


CO 


00 CM 


i-H 


VI 








•^ 


bD 


-fci-lei 








CO CO 


IN 


CM t-- 


en 


< 


»— 1 *H 


CO 


OS CO 










p-* 


>. 


-]C" 


-**■ 






CO CO 


«— I 


-H Hj> 


uo 


*2 


CM i-c 


•* 


to -hi 


o 


•-J 








r-* 


b 

3 


110 CM 


». 


en o 


en 


CM -H 


CO 


T CO 


i>» 


<-> 












co o 


»<« 


r-l tO 


*>. 


CM 


CO 


iO CO 


CO 


t 


«H 


< -* 




I 


*« 


o o 


K0 


•n ■>* 


en 


P4 


IN 


CN 


O CI 


CO 


<$ 










<U 


*4n*4: 


i 






O CI 


hJ 


iO CN 


t>» 




IN i- 


CI 


to e> 


CO 


- 












~K 


« •* 


1 




.O 


co in 


ce 


!>. I> 


■* 


&H 


1—1 l-H 


CM 


TJI T 


en 


. 


-K 


' "* 


1 




— 


CM O 


"0 


to i— 


I-*. 


i-s 


I— 1 i— 


CN 


to Ifl 


i—« 

1—4 




<K 








































CO 


•S S 












.n 








s 








a 




O 4 




-a 
1 3 


§ 


£fe 




rt ' 




-a ' 


o 5 


o -■ 












^ 




C8 x 




.. c_ 


> 






! ? 


?! . 
















a c 


> "a 


i 2 J 


! "3 




R « 










1 C 


> o I 


o 




W(- 


J f- 


• K p 


, H 






J3 



<5 



>> 




















3 a 










1-9 5 












eo »ra 


Hn 

CO 


•* 


CM 


«n OJ 


». 


CO 


to 






rH 


CM 


D S3 










gn. 








. 


i-n 










c 










rt • 










1-9 O 










P o 

« J= 
. o> 


Ha 


-It. 




-m 


co to 


-v 




o 


CM CM 


>n 


UO 
CM 


o 

CO • 


g< 










Q 











x a 



£3 co 

bo 



-e! 

c . 

CM on 

t, J3 

O S 
— - o 

.2 S 

o 



II 
■•S.B 

— - CA 

O 



co >n 
o en 



co to 

en -* 



co to 



o 

CM 



i-i i;y« 

e-i en 



co 

CM 



CO 

-1" 

cc 



H" 

CO 00 
<— to 



to co 

oo >n 
i-h no 



'« 



02 5 

T 1 at 






P 

U B 

XJ a 
=3 O 



o 



o 

cq 



c 



1 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 



n: 





d 


ONinmrfoiH«^. oiooh 




«OTl'lOif3i.O^l , <OC»C0t-»o>0> 












3 






■*» 






o 


CQ 




H 


t3 

s 


-^i-^ - ^ -:< --1-- ^ -:i 




tQO^ONNHN — CO ift O 




MiNnNnW'f wnw»N 




<J 




© 


d 


{flTf<QOirtQON«OMXOeO 


ionnion'!"< | b.!Omt>h 


CO 






n 
















© 

O 


P3 




00 


"3 

s 


r*iCT h]C» •"[CI 




C l5HHb.O'*tOlflCO'*MO 


a 


HNN«MNNNNN«N 


< 


<J 




o 




rtinNeit»nMN*WK>H 


o 


O 




00 






o 










o 






o 
r-. 


« 




r-t 


-3 


-^«;« m^» ^!« -> 


R 


C 


noiD'jioNoiNi.iioiaB) 


< 


<r, 








NMiftHOii'iflinoooNN 




ci 


i— 1 rH »-H 


O 






*>. 






o 






*» 






1— t 


£Q 


n,*W ~|C1 H|«1rfc«r£l wfcl 


a 


13 

S 


t-.<Nt-'*M<o<u-<a , e*3oei'*i« 


■< 


rt 






< 




j= 






























■*» 






























c 






























o 






























s 




























^ >• 










August . 
Septembei 
October . 
November 
December 






Januar 
Februa 
March 
April 

Mav.. 


CU .- 

'si 
a = 
|-> >- 



X as 
i— i 

a 

d 

n 

< 



CO 


p— t CM i— < r-» r-i rH .— 1 


(2 


fcO 
O cu 


HHifltNitnitBitBNNH 
rH 


■* 

T 


H 

f. £ 


HtNHH rH 


<M 

O 
rH 


§ a 


Htin"foot»»ciOHtN 

rH r- 1 i— < 

oooooooooooo 

OlHOlMfiniDNMSlOH 
rH i— < p-H 


g 
r< 

CO* 

•fa 

O 


en 

"« 
-*» 

O 

H 


■NPlMi-H^OOXUO 

f-H 




to 
5 <» 

S ° 

O Qj 


;tNH Mi- ; H M tl H N ^ 


00 


I § 


:^N : rH CO CO t>» *-■• -*J« O 


CO 


en 

SB « 


ooocoooooooo 

cMHMrt^jOfOt^aoiO'-' 

rH " r-C 


< 

CO 

"3 

o 



118 



REPORT — 1860. 





09 


































o 


!>• 


—• co cm oo 






CO 


<o 


o ■* -3- 00 




H'< 


r-l 






r— i 






to . 
















c w 
































12 

O O! 


00 


■** 


00 -* CM CO 




CM 


CO 




H -«< l-C r-l 




















OJ <5 
















Q 
















'3 . 














X 


C "> 














1— 1 


• c2 


CM 


CO 


MOON 


<a 




o 


CO 


co © co t-» 






«■< 






1-4 




3 


■*-> Lh 














as 


CO -— 1 














H 
















Cm 
















O 






; 










IB 
































CO 
















^» 
































es 






* 










c 






• 










<; 


as 

a 

.2 




: 






c 


s 






• 






c 


h 




00 




!s 






to 


to 




o 


< 

CO 






a 


o 




Time o 


co 

e 

S9 


o 
S 


B 
c 

e 
to 

c 




to 


e 
o 
o 

to 








co 


w 


r>5 


e 
o 
o 


S 




! 


to 




T 


O 


O 




















| 




to 


^r 


o 
o 

to 


cj 

o 





w 



CJ 

a 

eS 



— 

O 



■a 

c 

03 



< 



c 
o 






*-> 

to 

'% 

o 

J= 

CO 



o 



o 



CJ 

O 



to 

a 
< 



"3 



CJ 

a 

3 






00 O OS r-l 

O CO CO ■— 



Ol O i-< O CM : 

CM »-H r— I r-* r- I c£ 



CO CM O OS r-l ■ 

CO r-c CM rH ft 



CO *>» l» o. o • 

CM r-l r-l W 

w 



OS OS lO CO r— I »• 

CO r-l r-H r— I r-H /« 

H 



CO r-l U0 "* CO 3 

CO r-H i-H 1-4 i-H g 



CO 
CM 



CM 
CM 



CO CO O CO 



r-i m eo •>• 

CM r-l 



<M 00 
CM 



CO CO O 
CM r-l r— 



CO *& CO CO CO 

CM i— I »-4 



a 
z 



e 
o 

e 

-a 



o 

s 



- "S « 



s 
.9 

CJ 

co 

-CJ 

o 



O 






J3 



H3 



« -5 

co 2 

CJ O 

fe to 



00 

J3 



£ £ * £ 



to 



CATALOGUE OF METEORITES AND FIREBALLS. 119 

REMARKS. 

1. While there appear to be eight yearly maximum and minimum aerolitic 
periods for the years generally, there are likewise some indications of other 
periods for some of the months taken separately. 

Some months may have major or longer periods of maximum, as Novem- 
ber, which perhaps has one of about 70 years (though for the sporadic 
showers, according to Herrick, one of 33 years, in which case the numbers 
of shooting stars should now be again on the increase, so as to culminate in 
1 866). January has also probably a long or irregular period, as regards 
classes A and B. Of late years the numbers for December and January 
have evidently been on the increase, and especially as regards the former 
month, and this as regards all classes ; and the eighth to the seventeenth days 
appears to embrace a time favourable to a considerable increase over the 
average for the month. Tables I., II., III., and IV. 

2. The proportionate numbers of each class appear to have varied at dif- 
ferent times for the different months. Table VIII. 

3. There appear to be aerolitic and meteor epochs both distinct from and 
common to each other. A proximate attempt has been made to show some 
of these in Table V. ; perhaps some of these are more apparent than real ; 
but the subject is worth consideration. 

4. While the aerolitic class, A and B, in its total is under the average for 
August, which is the principal and most constant month for an abundance of 
sporadic meteors, it is over the average for November, likewise a month 
noted for an abundant display of meteors and shooting stars ; and while there 
is an increase over the average of detonating meteors (though not of recorded 
Stone-falls), from the 9th to the 13th of November, i. e. precisely during the 
regular periodical appearance, it is not a little singular that the August aero- 
litic period, if it may be so called, precedes by several days the usual period 
of greatest abundance of the shooting stars ; one being August 4 to 7, both 
inclusive, and the other August 9 to 12. See Table III. 

5. The decided preponderance of aerolitic phenomena, alluded to in the 
Report as occurring in the afternoon, as compared with the forenoon, will 
be seen clearly given in Table IX. 

6. As regards the observed direction of aerolitic and first-class meteors, 
there would seem not to be any very great tendency one way or the other ; 
it would have been natural to have expected a much more decided leaning to 
a Westerly direction. The sudden change from an Easterly direction in Sep- 
tember and October (about the time of the autumnal equinox), to a Westerly 
direction in November, is remarkable, and calls for especial notice. 

7. The considerable increase of aerolitic falls and meteors for the months 
of June and July over those of December and January has been previously 
alluded to in the Report itself. That more detonating meteors in proportion 
to Stone-falls should be recorded during the winter months than during the 
summer months, is precisely what might have been expected, and the reverse 
holds equally good. Tables VI. and VII. 

8. Taking the entire year, there is a much greater tendency towards equality 
of distribution in the aerolitic class than is the case with sporadic shooting stars 
and the smaller meteors; indeed, were it not for the excess in November (an 
excess common to every class apparently), the numbers of the former (A and 
B) would be about equal for the first as for the second half of the year. 



120 REPORT — 1860. 

CORRIGENDA ET ADDENDA. 

Page 53, line 22 from top : for " 1596 " read 1596.*. 

Page 59, line 18 from top : for " Sarthe " read Sarthe. 

Page 62, 1804. Apr. 15. Geneva, fireball : add, s. to n. ; also, followed by a train of smaller 
balls. 

Page 64, line 18 from top : for " Aug. 10 " read early part of Aug. 

Page 64, line 12 from bottom : for " Iron-fail" read Stone-fall. 

Page 65, line 7 from bottom : fireball at Gottingen ; add, followed by many smaller balls. 

Page 67, top line : for " 1819. June 13. Jonsac " read and add, 1819.* June 13. Jonsac, 
Chare nte, &c. &c. 

Page 70, line 5 from top : Gorlitz ; fireball ; add aerolitic ?. 

Page 71, line 11 from bottom : replace the (*) before May 12, by a (?). 

Page 71, line 12 from bottom : insert the (*) before May 19. Ekaterinosloff, &c. 

Page 72, line 6 from top : read February 27 or February 16. 

Page 72, line 11 from bottom of Notes : for " Summer co." read Sumner co. 

Page 73, line 3 fro:n top : add Vouille near " Poitiers." 

Page 74, line 21 from top : for " Okaninak " read Okaninah. 

Page 82, line 6 from top : for " Nuremberg " read Nurenberg. 

Page 92, after line 5 from top : insert, Apr. 12. Berne. Fireball. 

Page 94, line 10 from top : for " Columb " read Columbus. 

Page 96, after line 16 from bottom: insert I860.* Feb. 2. Alessandria, Piedmont. A stone- 
fall. Also omitted in the Tables. 



Report on the Theory of Numbers. — Part II. By H. J. Stephen 
Smith, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry, Oxford. 

39. Residues of the Higher Powers. Researches of Jacobi. — The principles 
which have sufficed for the determination of the laws of reciprocity affecting 
quadratic, cubic, biquadratic, and sextic residues, are found to be inadequate 
when we come to residues of the 5th, 7th, or higher powers. This was early- 
observed by Jacobi, when, after his investigations of the cubic and biqua- 
dratic theorems, he turned his attention to residues of the 5th, 8th, and 12th 
powers*. It was evident, from a comparison of the cubic and biquadratic 
theories, that in the investigation of the laws of reciprocity the ordinary 
prime numbers of arithmetic must be replaced by certain factors of those 
prime numbers composed of roots of unity ; and Jacobi, in the note just re- 
ferred to, has indicated very clearly the nature of those factors in the case 
of the 5th, 8th, and 12th powers respectively. He ascertained that the two 
complex factors composed of 5th roots of unity into which ever)' prime 
number of the form 5n+l is resoluble by virtue of Theorem IV. of art. SO 
of tbis Report, are not prime numbers, i. e. are each capable of decomposi- 
tion into the product of two similar complex numbers; so that every (real) 
prime number of the form 5n-\-] is to be regarded as the product of four 
conjugate complex factors ; and these factors are precisely the complex primes 
which we have to consider in the theory of ;quintic residues, in the place of 
the real primes they divide. To this we may add that primes of the forms 
5?i + 2 continue primes in the complex theory ; while those of the form 5n — 1 
resolve themselves into two complex prime factors. Thus 

7 = 7; ll = (2 + a)(2 + ar)(2 + a. 3 X2 + a 4 ); 13 = 13; 

19 = (4-3(a + a 4 ))(4-3(<r + <)) ; 29=(5-(a + a*))(5-(a a + a 8 )) ; 

31 = (2-a)(2-a 2 )(2-a 3 )(^-a 4 ), &c, 

* See a note communicated by him to the Berlin Academy on May 16, 1839, in the 
' Monatsberichte ' for that year, or in Crelle, vol. six. p. 314, or Liouville, vol. viii. p. 268, 
in which, however, he implies that he had not as yet obtained a definitive result; nor does 
he seem at any subsequent period to have succeeded in completing this investigation. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 121 

where a is an imaginary 5th root of unity. Precisely similar remarks apply 
to the theories of residues of 8tli and 12th powers, — real primes of the forms 
8«+l, 12« + 1> resolving themselves into four factors composed of Sth and 
12th roots of unity respectively. By considerations similar to those pre- 
viously employed by him in the case of biquadratic and cubic residues, 
Jacobi succeeded in demonstrating (though he has not enunciated) the for- 
mulae of reciprocity affecting those powers for the particular case in which 
one of the two primes compared is a real number. But it would seem that 
he never obtained the law of reciprocity for the general case of any two 
complex primes; and indeed, for a reason which will afterwards appear, it 
was hardly possible that he should do so, so long as he confined himself to 
the consideration of those complex numbers which present themselves in the 
theory of the division of the circle. No less unsuccessful were the efforts of 
Eisenstein to obtain the formulae relating to 8th powers, by an extension of 
the elliptical properties employed by him in his later proofs of the biqua- 
dratic theorem*. It does not appear that any subsequent writer has occu- 
pied himself with these special theories ; while, on the other hand, the theory 
of complex numbers composed with roots of unity of which the exponent is 
any prime, has been the subject of an important series of investigations by 
MM. Diriehlet and Kummer, and has led the latter eminent mathematician 
to the discovery and demonstration of the law of reciprocity, which holds for 
all powers of which the exponent is a prime number not included in a cer- 
tain exceptional class. 

40. Necessity fur the Introduction of Ideal Primes. — The fundamental pro- 
position of ordinary arithmetic, that if two numbers have each of them no 
common divisor with a third number, their product has no common divisor 
with that third number, is, as we have seen, applicable to complex num- 
bers formed with 3rd or 4th roots of unity, because it is demonstrable that 
Euclid's theory of the greatest common divisor is applicable in each of those 
cases. With complex numbers of higher orders this is no longer the case; 
and it is accordingly found that the arithmetical consequences of Euclid's 
process, which are of so much importance in the simpler cases, cease to exist 
in the general theory. In particular, the elementary theorem, that a number 
can be decomposed into prime factors in one way only, ceases to exist for 
complex numbers composed of 23rd f or higher roots of unity — if, at least 
(iu the case of complex as of real numbers), we understand by a prime fac- 
tor, a factor which cannot itself be decomposed into simpler factors %. It 
appears, therefore, that in the higher complex theories, a number is not 
necessarily a prime number simply because it cannot be resolved into com- 
plex factors. But by the introduction of a new arithmetical conception — 
that of ideal prime factors — M. Kummer has shown that the analogy with 
the arithmetic of common numbers is completely restored. Some prelimi- 
nary observations are, however, necessary to explain clearly in what this con- 
ception consists. 

* See M. Kummer, " Ueber die Allgemeinen Reciprocitiitsgesetze," p. 27, in the Memoirs 
of the Berliu Academy for 1859. 

t For complex numbers composed with 5tli or 7th roots of unity, the theorem still exists ; 
for 23 and higher primes it certainly fails ; whetherlt exists or not for 11, 13, 17, and 19, 
has not been definitely stated by M. Kummer (see below, Art. 50). 

.t "Maxime dolendum videtur" (so said M. Kummer in 1814) "quod hsec numerorum 
reahum virtus, ut in factores primos dissolvi possint, qui pro eodem numero semper iidem 
Bint, non eadem est numerorum complexorum, qua si esset, tota hsec doctrina, quse magnis 
adhuc difficultatibus premitur, facile absolvi et ad linem perduci posset." (See his Disserta- 
tion in Liouville's Journal, vol. xii. p. 202.) In the following year he was alreadv able to 
withdraw this expression of regret. 



122 REPORT 1860. 

41. Elementary Definitions relating to Complex Numbers. — Let X be a prime 

a x — 1 
number, and a a root of the equation r- = 0; then any expression of the 

form 

F(a)=a + a 1 a + a 2 a 2 + -\-a K _ 3 a x ~ i .... (A.) 

in which a , a v a 2 a *.-» denote real integers, is called a complex inte- 
gral number. To this form every rational and integral function of a can 
always be reduced ; and it follows, from the irreducibility of the equation 

a x — 1 

t-=0, that the same complex number cannot be expressed in this 

a. — 1 

reduced form in two different ways. The norm of F(a) is the real integer 

obtained by forming the product of all the X — 1 values of F(a), so that 

N . F(«) = N . F(<r)= . . . =N . F(a»- 1 )=F(a) . F(«") . F(a a ) . . . T(**- 1 ). 

The operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication present no pecu- 
liarity in the case of these complex numbers ; by the introduction of the 
norm, the division of one complex number by another is reduced to the case 
in which the divisor is a real integer. Thus 

f(a) _ /Q)F(y)F(y ) .... F(«*-Q . 
F(«) N.F(a) 

and /(a.) is said to be divisible by F(a) when every coefficient in the pro- 
duct /(a)F(a 2 )F(a 3 ) ... F(a x_1 ), developed and reduced to the form (A), 
is divisible by N.F(a). When /(a) is not divisible by F(a), it is not, in 
general, possible to render the norm of the remainder less than the norm of 
the divisor; and it is owing to this circumstance that the common rule for 
finding the greatest common divisor is not generally applicable to complex 
numbers. If, in the expression (A), we consider the numbers a , o 1 ...ax_2 
as indeterminate*, the norm is a certain homogeneous function of order X — 1, 
and of X — 1 indeterminates ; so that the inquiry whether a given real number 
is or is not resoluble into the product of X — 1 conjugate complex factors, is 
identical with the inquiry whether it is or is not capable of representation by 
a certain homogeneous form, which is, in fact, the resultant of the two forms 

rt ( /p x - 2 +c 1 a? x - 3 y H |-«a-22/ x-2 > 

and x x - 1 +x*-- 2 i/ + x x - 3 y 2 -\- +y>-- 1 . 

The problem is considered in the former aspect by M. Kummer, in the latter 
by Dirichlet. The methods of Dirichlet appear to have been of extreme 
generality, and are as applicable to complex numbers, composed with the 
powers of a root of any irreducible equation having integral coefficients, as 
to the complex numbers which we have to consider here. Nevertheless, in 
the outline of this theory which we propose to give, we prefer to follow the 
course taken by M. Kummer: for Dirichlet' s results have been indicated 
by him, for the most part, only in a very summary manner *; nor is it in any 
case difficult to assign to them their proper place in M. Kummer's theory ; 
while, on the other hand, it would, perhaps, be impossible to express ade- 
quately, in any other form than that which M. Kummer has adopted, the 
numerous and important results (including the law of reciprocity itself) con- 

* See his notes in the Monatsberichte of the Berlin Academy for 1841, Oct. 11, p. 280; 
1842, April 14, p. 93; and 1846, March 30; also a letter to M. Liouville, in Liouville's 
Journal, vol. v. p. 72 ; a note in the Comptes Rendus of the Paris Academy for 1840, 
vol. x. p. 286 ; and another in the Monatsberichte for 1847, April 15, p. 139. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 123 

tained in the elaborate series of memoirs which he has devoted to this sub- 
ject*. 

42. Complex Units. — A complex unit is a complex number of which the 
norm is unity. If \ = 3, there is only a finite number [six] of units included 
in the formula ±a k . But for all higher values of A, the number of units is 
infinite. Nevertheless it is always possible to assign a system of p— 1 units 
(putting, for brevity, |(\— l)=/u) such that all units are included in the 

formula ±a k u n ] 'u" 2 2 ....uj^i 5 in which u x , ti 2 , «< 3 , . . . ?^_i are the assigned 
units, and k, » l5 n 2 , ...n^-i, are real (positive or negative) integral numbers. 
A system of units, capable of thus representing all units whatsoever, is called 
a fundamental system. The existence, for every value of X, of fundamental 

* The following is a list of M. Rummer's memoirs on complex numbers : — 

1. De numeris complexis qui radicibus unitatis et numeris realibus constant, Breslau, 
1844. This is an academical dissertation, addressed by the University of Breslau to that of 
Konigsberg, on the tercentenary anniversary of the latter. It has been inserted by M. Liou- 
ville in his Journal, vol. xii. p. 185. 

2. Ueber die Divisoren gewisser Formen der Zahlen, welche aus der Theorie der Kreis- 
theilung eutstehen. — Crelle, vol. xxx. p. 107. 

3. Zur Theorie der Complexen Zahlen, in the Monatsberichte for March 1845, or in 
Crelle, vol. xxxv. p. 319. 

4. Ueber die Zerlegung der aus Wurzeln der Einheit gebildeten complexen Zahlen in ihre 
Primfactoren. — Crelle, vol. xxxv. p. 327. The date is Sept. 1846. 

5. A note addressed to M. Liouville (April 28, 1847), in Liouville's Journal, vol. xii. p. 136. 

6. Bestimmung der Anzahl nicht aequivalenter Klassen fur die aus Men Wurzeln der Ein- 
heit gebildeten complexen Zahlen, und die idealen Factoren derselben. — Crelle, vol. xl. p. 93. 

7. Zwei besondere Untersuchungen iiber die Classen-Anzahl, und iiber die Einheiten der 
aus Xten Wurzeln der Einheit gebildeten complexen Zahlen. — Crelle, vol. xl. p. 117. (See 
also the Monatsberichte of the Berlin Academy for 1847, Oct. 14, p. 305.) 

8. Allgemeiner Beweis des Fermat'schen Satzes, dass die Gleichung .r p --|-y*-=,rA. unlbsbar 
ist, fur alle diejenigen Potenz-Exponenten X, welche ungerade Primzahlen sind, und in den 
Zahlern der ersten ^(X — 3) Bernouillischen Zahlen als Factoren nicht vorkommen. — Crelle, 
vol. xl. p. 131. (See also the Monatsberichte for 1847, April 15, p. 132.) This and the two 
preceding memoirs are dated June 1849. 

9. Recherches sur les Nombres Complexes. — Liouville, vol. xvi. p. 377. This memoir 
contains a very full resume of the whole theory, and may be read by any one acquainted 
with the elements of the theory of numbers. 

10. A note in the Monatsberichte of the Berlin Academy for May 27, 1850, p. 154, which 
contains the first enunciation of the law of reciprocity. 

11. Ueber die Erganzungssiitze zu den Allgemeinen Ueciprocitatsgesetzen. — Crelle vol xliv 
p. 93 (Nov. 30, 1851), and vol. lvi. p. 270 (Dec. 1858). 

12. A note on the irregularity of determinants, in the Berlin Monatsberichte for 1853 
March 14, p. 194. 

13. Ueber eine besondere Art aus complexen Einheiten gebildeter Ausdrucke Crelle 

vol. 1. p. 212 (Aug. 31, 1854). 

14. Ueber die den Gaussischen Perioden der Kreistheilung entsprechenden Congruenz- 
wurzeln.— Crelle, vol. liii. p. 142 (June 5, 1856). 

15. Einige Satze iiber die aus den Wurzeln der Gleichung a* =1 gebildeten complexen 
Zahlen fur den Fall, dass die Klassenzahl durch \ theilbar ist, nebst Anwendung derselben 
auf einen weiteren Beweis des letzten Fermat'schen Lehrsatzes. — Memoirs of the Berlin 
Academy for 1857, p. 41. An abstract of this memoir will be found in the Monatsberichte 
for 1857, May 4, p. 275. 

16. Theorie der Idealen Primfactoren der complexen Zahlen, welche aus den Wurzeln 
der Gleichung w"= 1 gebildet sind, wenn n eine zusammengesetzte Zahl ist.— Memoirs of the 
Berlin Academy for 185*5, p. 1. 

17. Ueber die Allgemeinen Reciprocitiitsgesetze unter den Resten und Nicht-Resten der 
Potenzen, deren Grad eine Primzahl ist. — Memoirs of the Berlin Academy for 1859, p. 20. 
It was read on Feb. 18, 1858, and May 5, 1859. An abstract will be found in the Monats- 
berichte of the former year. 

A memoir by M. Kronecker (De unitatibus complexis, Berlin, 1845; it is his inaugural dis- 
sertation on taking his doctorate) connects itself naturally with the earlier memoirs of the 
preceding series. 



124 REPORT— 1860. 

systems of ^— 1 units may be established by means of a general proposition 
due to Dirichlet and relating to any irreducible equation having unity for 
its first coefficient, and all its coefficients integral. If, in such an equation, 
R be the number of real, and 2 I of imaginary roots, there always exist 
systems of R + I — 1 fundamental units, by means of which all other units 
can be expressed; or, in other words, the indeterminate equation "Norm 
= 1" is always resoluble in an infinite number of ways, and all its solutions 
can be expressed by means of R + I— 1 fundamental solutions*. The demon- 
stration of the actuai existence, in every case, of these systems of fundamental 
units (a theorem which is, as Jacobi has said f, " un des plus important?, 
mais aussi un des plus epineux de la science des nombres") is of essential im- 
portance in the theory of complex numbers, and has the same relation to 
that theory which the solution of the Pellian equation a? — Dy- = l has to 
the theory of quadratic forms of determinant D. It may be observed, how- 
ever, that in the case which we have to consider here, that of the equation 

a x — 1 

t-=0, the existence of fundamental systems of ft — 1 units has been 

ct — 1 

demonstrated independently of Dirichlet's general theory by MM. Kro- 

necker and Kummer %. 

If \=5, a + a _1 is the only fundamental unit; so that every unit is in- 
cluded in the formula 

If \=7, the complex units are included in the formula 

±aV+*- 1 )"V+a- 2 ) n '- 

But for higher primes the actual calculation of a system of fundamental units 
involves great labour ; and a method practically available for the purpose 
has not yet been given. It is remarkable that every unit can be rendered 
real (*. e. a function of the binary sums or periods a. x -\-a~ 1 , &c.) by multi- 
plying it by a properly assumed power of a. We shall therefore suppose, in 

* To enunciate Dirichlet's theorem with precision, let/(x) = be the proposed equation ; 
let «], « 2 , . . . *,, be its roots, and i£(«i), 'r'M* • • ■ *K«») a system of n conjugate units. If 
the analytical modulus of every one of the quantities ^(*i)' vi/(« 2 ), . . . </<(*,,) be unity, the 
system of units is an isolated or singular system. The number of singular systems (if any 
such exist) is always finite, whence it is easy to infer that the units they comprise are 
simply roots of unity. For if i^(«) be a singular unit, its powers are evidently also singular 
units, and therefore cannot be all different from one another; i. e. 4>{ct.) is a root of unity. 
If f(x) be of an uneven order, there are no singular units; if/(.r) be of an even order, —1 
is a singular unit; and if f(x) = have any real roots, it is the only singular unit; whereas 
if all the roots of /(a-) = be imaginary, other singular units may iu special cases exist. 

x*~— 1 
Thus the equation — — r = has 2(\ — 1) singular units included in the formula +«*. Ad- 
mitting this definition of siugular units, -we may enunciate Dirichlet's theorem as follows : — 
a system of A units [A = I+R— 1], e^a), e 2 (a), . . . e*(«)> composed with any root «, can 
always be assigned such that every unit composed with the same root can be represented 
(and in one way only) by the formula 

« • 'i («)"' • <*(«)"»• e.M" 3 - • • • «*(«)"*. 
where n,, « 2 , • • • n h are positive or negative integral numbers and w is unity, or some one of 
the singular units composed with «. 

The principles on which the demonstration of this theorem depends are very briefly indi- 
cated in the notes presented by Dirichlet to the Berlin Academy in 1841, 18-12, and 1846. 

t Crelle's Journal, vol. xl. p. 312. 

X See Kronecker, De uuitatibus complexis, pars altera ; and Kummer, in Liouville's Jour- 
nal, vol. xvi. p. 383. 



ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS. 



125 



what follows, that the units of which we speak have been thus reduced to a 
real form. 

For all values of X greater than 5, the number of systems of fundamental 
units is infinite. For if u v u 2 , . . . w^_i still represent a system of fundamental 
units, it is evident that the system E„ E 2 , . .. E^_i, defined by the equations 



E(i» i) 



E 2 =«<*•» 



,(1,2) 
.(2, 2) 



X.U 



(1, (*-D 
/x-1 ' 

(a, M-D 



>• 



(A.) 



E^^-'-'Vr 1 '^ 






is also a fundamental system, if the indices (1, 1), &c. be integral numbers, 

and if the determinant 2±(1, 1)(2, 2) (ju— 1, jx— 1) be equal to unity. 

And conversely, every system of fundamental units will be represented by 
the equations (A.), if in them we assign to the indices (1, 1), (2, 2), &c. 
all systems of integral values in succession consistent with the condition 
2 + (l,l)(2,2)(3, 3)...(/i — l,/i— 1)= + 1; so that a single system of fun- 
damental units represents to us all possible systems. 

We shall also have occasion to allude to independent systems of units. A 
system of ^—1 units, u lf u 2 , .. w^_i, is said to be independent when it is 
impossible to satisfy the equation 



2 3 



"3 



.11 



»(X_1_ 



= 1, 



whatever integral values are assigned to the indices «j, n 2 , n 3 , ... w^-i. 
The equations (A.) will represent all possible systems of independent units, 
if we suppose that in them the indices (1,1), (2, 2), (3, 3) . . . receive all 
positive and negative integral values, subject only to the condition that the 
determinant A = 2 + (l, 1) (2, 2) . . . (/*— 1, ft— I) must not vanish. Every 
system of fundamental units is also independent; but not conversely. Every 
unit can be represented as a product of the powers of the units of an inde- 
pendent system ; but if the system be not also fundamental, the indices of the 
powers are not in general integral, but are fractions having denominators 
which divide A. Lastly, if c^a), c 2 (a), .... c^^a) be a system of inde- 
pendent units, the logarithmic determinant 

L.c,(a), L.c 2 (a), L.^_j(a), 

L. Cl (*y), L. c.£x<), L. <v_,(V), 



Wa^ ), 



-2. 



L.c.,(a v ), L.c M _,(a v ), 



in which y denotes a primitive root of \, is different from zero; and con- 
versely, if the determinant be different from zero, the system of units is inde- 
pendent. For all systems of fundamental units, the absolute value of the 
logarithmic determinant is the same; for any other independent system, its 
value is A times that least value. The quantities denoted by the symbols 
L. Cj(a), L. c 2 (a), &c, are the arithmetical logarithms of the real units ^(a), 
&c, taken positively. 

43. Gauss's Equations of the Periods. — In Gauss's theory of the division 
of the circle, it is shown that if \ be a prime number, and if ef=\ — 1, the e 
periods of/ roots each, that is the quantities t] , ij x , jj 8 .... »/,,_,, defined by 
the equations 



126 REPORT— 1860. 



-,y° +S +f + +^- l) \ 



Vo =<£' +a< +ei' + +a? y 

7?, =a / +a / +a / + +a v , 

e-I 2e_l Se- 1 /e-1 

(y still denoting a primitive root of X), are the roots of an irreducible equa- 
tion of order e having integral coefficients, which we shall symbolize by 

F( I/ )=f+Ay- l + A o y- 2 +...A e _ l y + A=0 

(see Disq. Arith. art. 346). This equation is of the kind called Abelian ; 
that is to say, each of the e periods is a rational function of any other, in 
such a manner that we may establish the equations »> t = ^(»/ )> »; 2 =0(»; 1 ), 
V3—<p(y 2 )> •••• r h = ( p( r le-\) ; where it is to be observed that the coefficients 
of the function are not in general integral. The determination of the 
coefficients of the equation F(3/)=0 may be effected, for any given prime X, 
and any given divisor e of X — I, by methods which, however tedious, present 
no theoretical difficulty. Every rational and integral function of the periods 
can be reduced to the form a t] -\-a l r] l +a i ri 2 + •• -\-tz e _ 1 t) e _ v If we com- 
bine the equation 1 +r) + y 1 + T) 2 + +rj e _ 1 =0 with the e—2 equations, 

by which t?^ ,^, .... tj^ -1 are expressed in that linear form, we may elimi- 
nate t) 2 , 7? 3 , . . . J?e_i, and shall thus obtain an equation of order e, satisfied by 
r? , i. e. the equation of the periods, or F(y)=0. This is the method proposed 
by Gauss (Disq. Arith. art. 346) ; M. Kumruer, instead, forms the system of 
equations 

Vl =« /+(0,0)r, + (0,l)r, 1 + (O f 2)^+...+(0,e-l)r, e _ 1) 

Vh =» l /+(l,0> +(l,l)i, 1 +(l,2)n ll +...+(l,e-l)ji e _„ 
Vol* =« 2 /+(2,0>; + (2,l) J?1 +(2,2> 2 + ...+(2,e-l)r, e -» 

V %-i = n e-if+(e—l,0)r) + (e—l, l)j»,+(e--l,2)>7 8 + ... +(e- 1, e— 1 )/?<,_,, 

and eliminates r?,, ti 2 , . . . Tj e _i from them. The symbol (k, h) represents the 
number of solutions of the congruence y e ff+*=l + y e *+*, mod X, x and y 
denoting any two terms of a complete system of residues for the modulus/; 
rib is zero for all values of k, excepting that » =1> if/ be even, and ?>$ e =l, 
iff be uneven *. The systems of equations con esponding to the particular 
cases e=3, e=4, have been given by Gauss, who has succeeded in expressing 
the values of the coefficients (k, li) in each of those cases by means of num- 
bers depending on the representation of X by certain simple quadratic forms; 
and has employed these expressions to demonstrate the criterion already men- 
tioned in this Report for the biquadratic character of the number 2 f. A 
third method has been given by M. Libri J : he establishes the formula 

\N*=\*+ t, (l +ev c Y + r h {l+e, h ) l + . . . ^_,(1 +«*-,)*, 

in which N& represents the number of solutions of the congruence 

* Liouville's Journal, vol. xvi. p. 404. 

t Disq. Arith. art. 358, and Theor. Res. Biq. arts. 14-22. 

X See the memoir " Sur la Theorie des Nombres," in his ' Memoires de Mathematique et 
de Physique,' pp. 121, 122. The notation of the memoir has been altered in the text. See 
also M. Lebesgue, in Liouville's Journal, vol. ii. p. 287, and vol. iii. p. 113. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 127 

1 +x\+x e 2 + . . . +4=0, mod \*. 

If Sj, S 2 , S 3 . . . denote the sums of the powers of the roots of the equation 
F(y)=0, this formula may be written thus, — 

XNt=X*+S, +feS a +— =^ e 2 S,+ . . . e k S k+l , 
or, solving for S v S 2 , . . ., 

e*S* + ,=x[Ni-ftN*_,+^=^N*_ 2 - ... -(-I/nJ-OX-I/. 

From this equation, when the values of N x , N 2 , &c, have been determined, 
Sj, S 2 , . . . may be calculated, and thence by known methods tlis values of 
the coefficients of the equation V(y)=0. Lastly, M. Lebesgue has shown 
that, if we denote by o~ k the number of ways in which numbers divisible by 
X can be formed by adding together k terms of the series y°, y l , . . y*-~ 2 , sub- 
ject to the condition that no two powers of y be added the indices of which 
are congruous for the modulus e, the function (X— l)F(y) assumes the form 

^C/-^/- 1 + ^ e - 2 -...+(-i) e ^]-(y-/) e t- 

But the practical application of any of these methods is very laborious 
when X is a large number, chiefly on account of the determinations which 
they all require of the numbers of solutions of which certain congruences are 

i— (— lyx 

susceptible. For e=2 the equation is y 2 +y-\ ^—r — - — =0, or, putting 

r=2y + \, r 2 —( — iy\=0. The cubic and biquadratic equations corre- 
sponding to the cases e=3 and e=4 are also known from Gauss's investiga- 
tions. The results assume the simplest forms if we put r=ey + 1 . We then 
have 

(1) e=3, 4X=M 2 + 27N 2 , M=l, mod 3; r 3 -3Xr-XM=0. 

(2) e=4; X=A 2 + B 2 ; A=l,mod4; e=(-]/. 

[r' 2 + (l-2e)X] 2 -4X(r-A) 2 =0t. 
Though these determinations are not required in M. Kummer's theory, we 
have nevertheless given them here, in order to facilitate arithmetical verifi- 
cations of his results. The forms of the period-equations for the case r=8 
and e=12 can (it may be added) be elicited from the results given bv Jacobi 
in his note on the division of the circle (Crelle, vol. xxx. pp. 167, 168.)« 

44. The Period- Equations considered as Congruences. — An arithmetical 
property of the equation F(#)=0, which renders it of fundamental import- 
ance in the theory of complex numbers, is expressed in the following theorem. 

"If q be a prime number satisfying the congruence qf=\, mod X, the 
congruence F(j/)=0, mod q, is completely resoluble, i. e. it is possible to 
establish an indeterminate congruence of the form 

F 0)=(y-«o) (V— U i) • • • (y—Ue-i), mod q, 

* In this congruence x lt x s ,... x k are k terms (the same or different) of a complete system 
of residues for the modulus X ; and in counting the number of solutions, two solutions are to 
be considered as different in which the same places are not occupied by the same numbers. 
A simpler formula for S i+1 may be obtained by considering x Jt x 2 , ... x k to represent terms 

of a system of residues prime to X, and denoting by e k y k the number of solutions of M. Libri's 

congruence on this hypothesis. We thus find Sfc+i =Xy*— /* (Liouville, vol. iii. p. 116). 

t Liouville, vol. iii. p. 119. 

X M. Lebesgue, Comptes Rendus, vol. li. p. 9. Gauss has not exhibited this last equation 
in its explicit form. See Theor. Res. Biq. /. c. 



123 REPORT — 1860. 

u , «!, .. .m«-i denoting integral numbers, congruous or incongruous, mod q*." 
A particular case of this theorem, relating to the equation =0 

(which may of course be regarded as the equation of the X— 1 periods, con- 
sisting each of a single root), is due to Euler, and is included in his theory 
of the Residues of Powers ; for it follows from that theory (see art. 12 of this 
Report), that the binomial congruence a ,A — 1=0 (and therefore also the 

congruence x ~ 1 ^0, mod q) is completely resoluble for every prime of 

x — 1 
the form ?w\+l. 

A remarkable relation subsists between the periods »j , r} x . . . n e -\ of the 
equation F(y)=0, and the roots « , u v u 2 ... u e -\ of the congruence F(#)=0, 
mod q. This relation is expressed in the following theorem : — 

" Every equation which subsists between any two functions of the periods, 
will subsist as a congruence for the modulus q when we substitute for the 
periods the roots of the congruence F(y)=0 taken in a certain order." 

It is immaterial which root of the congruence we take to correspond to any 
given root of the equation. But when this correspondence has once been esta- 
blished in a single case, we must attend to the sequence which exists among 
the roots of the congruence corresponding to the sequence of the periods. 
When u , u lf . . . u e -\ are all incongruous, their order of sequence is deter- 
mined by the congruences 

« 1 =0(i/ o ), «„=$(«!), .... u ==(j>(ue-i), mod q, 

which correspond to the equations 

*1 = *(>»„). Vz = $(%), Vo = <K>/e-l). 

and which are always significant, although the coefficients of ty are frac- 
tional, because it may be proved that their denominators are prime to the 
modulus q. When u , u x , ...u e -i are not all incongruous [an exceptional 
case which implies that q divides the discriminant of F(y)], a precisely simi- 
lar relation subsists, though it cannot be fixed in the same manner, and though 
the number of incongruous solutions of the congruence is not equal to the 
number of the periods. (See a paper by M. Kummer in Crelle's Journal, 

* This theorem was first given by Schoeueinann (Crelle, vol. xix. p. 306) ; his demonstra- 
tion, however, supposes that q ^.e,— a limitation to which the theorem itself is not subject. 
The following proof is, with a slight modification, that given by M. Kummer (Crelle, vol. xxx. 
p. 107, or Liouville, vol. xvi. p. 40d). From the indeterminate congruence of Lagrange (see 
art. 10 of this Report) 

x(x-l) (x— 2) . . . . (x-q+\)^x1 -x, mod q, 
it follows that 

(y-«?*)(y->jft-i)(y-'jft-2)..-(y-»»ife-?+i)=(y-ift) s -(y-fl*) 

=y ? - v/c 9 - (y - »?*) =y 7 - y> mod ?> 

observing that ';^=»JA-+Ind 9 > and that > if In<i ? be divisible hy e (or, which is the same 
thing, if q satisfy the congruence qf=\, mod X), Jj/ f+ i a d ? = ''/,- -Multiplying together the 
e congruences obtained by giving to k the e values of which it is susceptible in the formula 

(y-'u-)(y-'u-i)(y-'u--2)---(y-'u-!?+i)-y' ? -y> mod ?. 

we find 

F(y)F(y-l)F(y-2)...F(y- ? +l):=G/'-y)' ) raod?; 
whence, by a principle to which we shall have occasion to refer subsequently (see Art. 69 ), it 
appears that F(y) is congruous for the modulus q to a product of the form 

(y-««o)(y-«i) •••(y- M e-i)' 



ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS. 129 

vol. liii. p. 142, in which he has established this fundamental proposition on 
a satisfactory basis.) 

45. Conditions for the Divisibility of the Norm of a Complex Number by 
a Real Prime*. — Instead of the complex number 

f(«)=a + a 1 a + a. 2 a 2 + +a\_s<A*" a > 

let us now, for a moment, consider the complex number 

1 K'?o) ==c o ? 7o+ c i'?i+ c i !'7 2 + •••• +c«-ii/ e -i, 

which, with its conjugates 

»/ / (Vi)=< 7 o»7 1 +c 1 v 2 +c 2 )73+ .... +c e -i Vo , 



is a function of the periods only, and is therefore a specialized form of the 
general complex number/(a) ; and let q still denote a real prime, satisfying 
the congruence g-^=l, mod X. By means of the relation subsisting between 
the equation-roots w , v^ . . j/e-i, and the congruence-roots u Q , u v . . «<■_], 
M. Kummer has demonstrated the two following theorems: — 

(i.) "The necessary and sufficient condition that \p(i]) should be divisible 
by q (i. e. that the coefficients c , c v . .. c e -i should be all separately divi- 
sible by q) is that the e congruences 

»K M o) = c o M o +c 1 « 1 +c 2 « 2 + .... +c e _n« e _,=0, mod q, 

»K M i) = c o M i +c l u a +e a u 3 + +ce-i u = 0, mod?, 

\p(u e -i)=c u e - 1 +c 1 u +c 2 u i + .... +<?e-i «e_2 = 0, mod q, 

should be simultaneously satisfied." 

(ii.) " The necessary and sufficient condition that the norm of vp(V), taken 

with respect to the periods, i. e. the number ^(ijJiKih) ^(ve~\)> should 

be divisible by q, is that one of the e congruences 

H u o) =0> »K«i) = 0, >K»«-i) =0> mod q, 

should be satisfied." 

These results may be extended to any complex number /(a), by first 
reducing it to the form 

This is always possible ; for, since the / roots which compose any one 
period, e. g. y , are the roots of an equation x ( ct )=0 of order/, the coeffi- 
cients of which are complex integers involving the periods onlyf, we may 
simply divide/(a) by x( a )> and the remainder will give us the expression 
of /(«) in the required form. Further, let q now denote a prime apper- 
taining to the exponent f (not merely satisfying the congruence y/=J,mod A, 
but also satisfying no congruence of lower index and of the same form). 
The two preceding theorems are then replaced by the two following, which 
are analogous to them, and include them. 

The outline of the theory of complex numbers contained in this and the subsequent 
ticles is chiefly derived from M. Rummer's memoire in Liouville, vol. xvi. p. 411. 
t Disq. Arith. art. 348. 



articles 

t D 

1860. 



K 



130 REPORT 1860. 

(i.) " The necessary and sufficient condition that f(a) should be divisible 
by q, is that the congruences 

^ (w*;)=0, ^(KijsO, $f-x (ttjfc)=MO, mod q, 

should be simultaneously satisfied for every value of k." 

(ii.) " And the condition that the norm of /(a) should be divisible by q, 
is that the same congruences should be satisfied for some one value of k." 

When the congruences >// (ma.)=0, ^(mj^sO, .... i/y-i(M/fc)— °> mo ^ 9' 
are simultaneously satisfied, /(«) is said to be congruous to zero {inod q),for 
the substitution r) =Uk- These /congruences may be replaced by a single 
congruence in either of two different ways. Thus, if we denote by F(?/ ) the 
complex number involving the periods only which we obtain by multiplying 
together the/ complex numbers 

f(a),f(ay e ),f(ay 2e ),....f(ay (f - 1)e ), 

it may be proved that the single congruence F(i<j-)=0, mod q, is precisely 
equivalent to the/ congruences 

Or, again, if we denote by ^(»? ) a complex number congruous to zero for 
every one of the substitutions j/ =i< 1 , 7 f =u !i , .... rj =u e -i, but not con- 
gruous to zero for the substitution v =u (such complex numbers, involving 
the periods only, can in every case be assigned)*, it is readily seen that the 
same/ congruences are comprehended in the single formula 

¥(»;e-i)/(a)=0, mod q. 

The utility of this latter mode of expressing the/ congruences will appear in 
the sequel: the formula F(wi)=0, mod q, is of importance, because it 
supplies an immediate demonstration of the important proposition, that "if 
a product of two factors be congruous to zero for the substitution ?j =w;t, 
one or other of the factors must be congruous to zero for that substitution." 
46. Definition of Ideal Prime Factors. — To develope the consequences of 
the preceding theorems, let us consider a prime number q appertaining to 
the exponent/; and let us first suppose that it is capable of being expressed 
as the norm (taken with respect to the periods) of a complex number 4>(r) ), 
which contains the periods of/ terms only; so that 

9=^( r lo) «K>h) ^(Ve-i)' 

If the substitution of u in \p render ^(11^=0, mod q, we may distinguish 
the e factors of q by meaus of the substitutions which respectively render 
them congruous to zero; so that, for example, vi(?/ e — ft) is the factor apper- 
taining to the substitution j/ =wj.. 

We thus obtain the theorem that if/(a) be congruous to zero, mod q, for 
any substitution ri =u , /(a) is divisible by the factor of q appertaining to 
that substitution. For if *//(jy ) be that factor of q, 

H%)~ 9 

but f(a)\p(t] ^^(tIz) ...i//(jj(,_i) is congruous to zero, mod q, for every one of 
the substitutions j? =m , j? =Mj> ... v — u e-i ! '* * s consequently divisible 
by q; i.e. /(a) is divisible by ^(>? ). A useful particular case of this theo- 
rem is that uu— »?,fc=0, mod ^(jj ), *f *K M o)=°> m °d 9- 

* Crelle, vol. liii. p. 145. The number ¥(?;) of this memoir possesses the property in 
question. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 131 

Again, it may be shown that these complex factors of q are primes in the 
most proper sense of the word : i. e., first, that they are incapable of reso- 
lution into any two complex factors, unless one of those factors be a complex 
unit; and secondly, that if any one of them divide the product of two factors, 
it necessarily divides one or other of the two factors separately. That \p(r) ) 
possesses the first property is evident, because its norm is a real prime, and 
that it possesses the second is a consequence of the last theorem of Art. 45. 
For if iK»/ ) divide/j(a) x/ 2 (a), either f(a) or/ 2 (a), by virtue of that theo- 
rem, is congruous to zero (mod q) for the substitution n = u ; that is to say, 
either/ (a) or/ 2 (a) is divisible by ^(>? ). 

Now, if every prime q which appertains to the exponent/ were actually 
capable of resolution into e complex factors composed of the e periods of 
/roots, these factors would represent to us all the true primes to be con- 
sidered in the theory of the residues of Xth powers. And for values of X infe- 
rior to 11, perhaps to 23, this is, in fact, the case. But for higher values of 
X, the real primes appertaining to the exponent /divide themselves into two 
different groups, according as they are or are not susceptible of resolution 
into e conjugate factors. Let, then, q represent any prime appertaining to the 
exponent/, whether susceptible or not of this resolution, and let /(a) still 
denote a complex number which is rendered congruous to zero by the sub- 
stitution 7/ =w ; /(a) is said by M. Kummer to contain the ideal factor of q 
appertaining to the substitution rj =u . This definition is admissible, because 
it is verified, as we have just seen, when q is actually resoluble into e con- 
jugate factors; and its introduction is justified, as M. Kummer observes, by 
its utility. To obtain a definition of the multiplicity of an ideal factor, we 
may employ a complex number ^(r/) possessing the property indicated in 
the last article. If of the two congruences 

l*Ml n /(«)=0, mod q n , 
l>Oo)] n+1 /(«)=0, mod y»+», 
the former be satisfied, and the latter not, /(a) is said to contain n times 
precisely the ideal factor of q which appertains to the substitution n =u . 

47. Elementary Theorems relating to Ideal Factors. — The following pro- 
positions are partly restatements (in conformity with the definitions now 
introduced) of results to which we have already referred, and partly simple 
corollaries from them. They will serve to show that the elementary proper- 
ties of ordinary integers may now be transferred to complex numbers. 

(1.) A complex number is divisible by q when it contains all the ideal 
factors of q. If it contain all of those factors n times, but not all of them 
« + l times, it is divisible by q n , but not by q n+1 . 

(2.) The norm of a complex number is divisible by q when the complex 
number contains one of the ideal factors of q. If (counting multiple factors) 
it contain, in all, h of the ideal factors of q, the norm is divisible by q l f, but 
by no higher power of q (/denoting the exponent to which q appertains). 

(3.) A product of two or more factors contains the same ideal divisors as 
its factors taken together. 

(4.) The necessary and sufficient condition that one complex number 
should be divisible by another is, that the dividend should contain all the 
ideal factors of the divisor at least as often as the divisor. 

(5.) Two complex number-s which contain the same ideal factors are 
identical, or else differ only by a unit factor. 

(6.) Every complex number contains a finite number of ideal prime fac- 
tors. These ideal prime factors (as well as the multiplicity of each of them) 
are perfectly determinate. 

k 2 



132 REPORT — 1860. 

The prime number \ is the only real prime excluded from the preceding 
considerations. Since X=(l— a)(l— a 2 ) .. ..(1— aX- 1 ), it appears that the 
norm of 1— a is a real prime, and therefore 1— a cannot be resolved into 
the product of two factors, except one of them be a unit. Again, because 
the necessary and sufficient condition for the divisibility of a complex number 
by i_ H } 3 that the sum of the coefficients of the complex number should 
be congruous to zero for the modulus X, and because the sum of the coeffi- 
cients of a product of complex numbers is congruous, for the modulus X, to 
the product of the sums of the coefficients of the factors, it appears that if 
the norm of a complex number is divisible by X, the complex number is itself 
divisible by 1 — a; and also that if the product of two complex numbers be 
divisible by 1 —a, one or other of the factors separately must be divisible by 
1— a. Hence 1— a is a true complex prime, and is the only prime factor of 
X; infact,X=(l-a)(l-a 2 )...(l-aX-i)= e („)(i-n)^- 1 , if e(a) denote 
the complex unit 

1-a 2 1-a 3 l-a*-» 

1 — a 1 — a 1 — a 

The theorems which have preceded enable us to give a definition of the 
norm of an ideal complex number. If the ideal number contain the factor 
1 — a m times, and if it besides contain k,k',k", .... prime factors of the 
primes q, q', q", .... appertaining to the exponents/,/',/", .... respectively, 
we are to understand by its norm, the positive integral number 

\m 9 Vq<k<f'q''k"f" ; 

a definition which, by virtue of the second proposition of this article, is 
exact in the case of an actually existing number. 

It will be observed that the number of actual or ideal prime factors (com- 
pound of Xth roots of unity) into which a given real prime can be decom- 
posed, depends exclusively on the exponent to which the prime appertains 
for the modulus X. If the exponent is /, the number of ideal factors is 

~ =e. Thus, if q be a primitive root of X, q continues a prime in the 
J X-i 

complex theory ; if it be a primitive root of the congruence x 2 =1, mod X, 
it is oidy resoluble into two conjugate prime factors. This dependence of 
the number of ideal prime factors of a given prime upon the exponent to 
which it appertains is a remarkable instance of an intimate and simple con- 
nexion between two properties of the same prime number, which appear at 
first sight to have no immediate connexion with one another. 

It may be convenient to remark that the word Ideal is sometimes used so 
as to include, and sometimes so as to exclude, actually existent complex 
numbers; but it is not apprehended that any confusion can arise from this 
ambiguity, which it is not worth while to remove at the expense of intro- 
ducing a new technical term. 

48. Classification of Ideal Numbers. — An ideal number (using the term 
in its restricted sense) is incapable of being exhibited in an isolated form 
as a complex integer; as far as has yet appeared, it has no quantitative 
existence; and the assertion that a given complex number contains an ideal 
factor, is only a convenient mode of expressing a certain set of congruential 
conditions which are satisfied by the coefficients of the complex number. 
Nevertheless we may, without fear of error, represent ideal numbers by the 
same symbols, /(a), F(a), ^(a) ... , which we have employed to denote 
actually existing complex numbers, if we are only careful to remember that 
these symbols, when the numbers which they represent are ideal, admit of 






ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS, 133 

combination by multiplication or division, but not by addition or subtraction. 
Thus/(a)x/,(a),/(a)-f-./i(a), [/(a)]"\ are significant symbols, and their 
interpretation is contained in what has preceded ; but we have no general 
interpretation of a combination such as/(a)+/i(a)j or /(a)— /(a)*. This 
symbolic representation of ideal numbers is very convenient, and tends to 
abbreviate many demonstrations. 

Every ideal number is a divisor of an actual number, and, indeed, of an 
infinite number of actual numbers. Also, if the ideal number <p(a) be a 
divisor of the actual number F(a), the quotient 0j(a)=F(a)-r^(a) is always 
ideal ; for if ^(a) were an actual number, <p(cc), which is the quotient of 
F(«) divided by (p^a,), ought also to be an actual number. It appears, 
therefore, that there exists an infinite number of different ideal multipliers, 
which all render actual the same ideal number. It has, however, been shown 
by M. Kummer that a finite number of ideal multipliers are sufficient to 
render actual all ideal numbers whatever; so that it is possible (and that in 
an infinite number of different ways) to assign a system of ideal multipliers, 
such that every ideal number is rendered actual by one of them, and one only. 
Ideal numbers are thus distributed into a certain finite number of classes, — 
a class comprehending those numbers which are rendered actual by the same 
multiplier; and this distribution into classes is independent of the particular 
system of multipliers by which it is effected, inasmuch as it is found that if 
two ideal numbers be rendered actual by the same multiplier, every other 
multiplier which renders one of them actual will also render the other actual. 
Ideal numbers which belong to the same class are said to be equivalent; so 
that two ideal numbers, which are each of them equivalent to a third, are 
equivalent to one another. We may regard actual numbers (which need 
no ideal multiplier) as forming the first or principal class in the distribution, 
and, consequently, as all equivalent to one another. If/(a) be equivalent to 
/^a), and </>(a) to ^(a),/(a)xf(a) is equivalent to/, (a) X ^(a), — a result 
which is expressed by saying that "equivalent ideal numbers multiplied by 
equivalent numbers, give equivalent products;" and the class of the product 
is said to be the class compounded of the classes of the factors. 

49. Representation of Ideal Numbers as the roots of Actual Numbers. — 
An important conclusion is deducible from the theorem that the number of 
classes of ideal numbers is finite. Let /(a) be any ideal number; and let us 
consider the series of ideal numbers /(a), /(a) 2 , /(a) 3 , . .. These numbers 
cannot all belong to different classes ; we can therefore find two different 
powers of/(a), for example [/(«)]'" and [/(a)3' n+n , which are equivalent 
to one another. But the equivalence of these numbers implies that [/(a)] n 
is equivalent to the actual number + 1 ; i. e. that [/(a)]" is itself an actual 
number. We may therefore enunciate the theorem, " Every ideal number, 
raised to a certain power, becomes an actual number." 

The index of this power is the same for all ideal numbers of the same class, 
but may be different for different classes. By reasoning precisely similar 
to that employed by Euler in his 2nd proof of Fermat's Theoremf, it may 
be proved that the index of the first term in the series f( a), [/(a)] 2 , 
[/(a)] 3 . . . , which is an actual number, is either equal to the whole number 
of classes, or to a submultiple of that number. This least index is said to be 
the exponent to which the class of ideal numbers containing /(a) appertains. 

* These symbols are, however, interpretablc when /(n) ancl/j(a) belong to the same 
class. Thus, if ip (a.) X/(«) and <p (a) x/, (a) be both actual, /('*) +f r («) is the ideal quo- 
tient obtained by dividing ip (a) X/(«) +(p («) Xf x («) by tp (a). 

t See art. 10 of this Report, 



134 REPORT — 1860. 

It would seem that for certain values of the prime X, there exist classes of 
ideal numbers appertaining to the exponent H, if H denote the number of 
classes of ideal numbers*. Such classes (when they exist) possess a property 
similar to that of the primitive roots of prime numbers ; i.e., by compounding 
such a class continually with itself we obtain all possible classes, just as by 
continually multiplying a primitive root by itself we obtain all residues 
prime to the prime of which it is a primitive root. It has, however, been 
ascertained by M. Kummer that these •primitive classes do not in all cases, 
or even in general, exist. 

The theorem of this article enables us to express ideal numbers as roots 
of actually existing complex numbers. Thus, if q be a prime appertaining 
to the exponenty for the modulus X, and resoluble into the product of e con- 
jugate ideal factors <(>(ri ), <p(vi)> "K^)* • • • (fi^e-i)' these ideal numbers, which 
will not in general belong to the same class, will nevertheless appertain to 
the same exponent h ; so that \_<p(ji )~\ h , [_<p(ji^)~\ h > • • • will all be actual num- 
bers. The power q 1 ' is therefore resoluble into the product of e actually 
existing complex factors. If we effect this resolution, and represent the 

factors of q h by 3>(j? )> *(>7i) • • • • > the ideal numbers 0(>? o ), ^C^), • • • • lnav be 
represented by the formulae 

i i 

*0».)= [*0»o)] x . *0h)= [*('/!>] ~ h , 

50. The Number of Classes of Ideal Numbers. — The number of classes of 
ideal numbers was first determined by Dirichlet. He effected this determi- 
nation by methods which he had previously introduced into the higher 
arithmetic, and which had already led him to a demonstration of the cele- 
brated theorem, that every arithmetical progression, the terms of which are 
prime to their common difference, contains an infinite number of prime 
numbers, and to the determination of the number of non-equivalent classes 
of quadratic forms of a given determinant f. Dirichlet's investigation of the 
problem which we are here considering has never been published ; but that 
since given by M. Kummer is probably in all essential lespects the same, as 
it reposes on an extension of the principles developed in Dirichlet's earlier 
memoirs. Our limits compel us to omit the details of M. Kummer's analysis ; 
the final result, however, is, that if H denote the number of non-equivalent 

P D 

classes of ideal numbers, H= 7 — X — In this formula P is a quantity 

defined by the equations 

P=0(/3)K/3 3 )K/3 5 ).--0(/3'- 2 ), 

0(/3)=l+y 1 /3 + y 2 /3 2 + 7a /3 3 + ... +y K - 2 P~\ 

* See on this subject M. Kummer's note "on the Irregularity of Determinants " in the 
Monatsberichte of the Berlin Academy for 1853, p. 194. M. Kummer's investigation, 

however, is restricted to classes containing ideal numbers /(«) such that/(a)x/(« _1 ) is 
an actual number. 

t See his memoirs on Arithmetical Progressions, in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy 
for the years 1837 (p. 45) and 1841 (p. 141), or in Liouville, vol. iv. p. 393, ix. p. 255. The 
first of these papers relates to progressions of real integers, the second to progressions of 
complex numbers of the form a-\-bi. In the memoir " Hecherches sur diverses applications 
de l'analyse iunnitesimale a la Theorie des Nombres" (Crelle, vol. xix. p. 24, xxi. pp. 1, 
& 134), Dirichlet has applied his method to quadratic forms having real and integral co- 
efficients ; and in a subsequent memoir (Crelle, vol. xxiv. p. 291), he has extended this ap- 
plication to quadratic forms, of which the coefficients are complex numbers containing i. 
See also Crelle, vol. xviii. p. 259, xxi. p. 98 (or the Monatsberichte for 1840, p. 49), xxii. p. 
375 (Monatsberichte for 1841, p. 190). We shall have occasion, in a later part of this Report, 
to give an abstract of the contents of this inTaluable series of memoirs. 






ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 135 

/3 representing a primitive root of the equation /3 X-1 = 1, y a primitive root 
of the congruence y A-1 =l, mod X, and y v y 2 , y 3 , ... the least positive resi- 
dues of y, y 2 , y 3 , . . . for the modulus \; A is the logarithmic determinant 
(see art. 42 of this Report) of any system of fx— 1 fundamental units, and 
D the logarithmic determinant of a particular system of independent but not 

2 u— 2 

fundamental units, e(a), e(a y ), e(a y ) e(a' ), defined by the equation 

sin — r — 2i*.nr 



/ (l- a y)(l_tt-v ) , «^-^(l-«v) , sm X .„ 

^)=V (l-a)(l-a-0 = ± 1^— =±~ ^~' lfa 

v / \ ' sin — r- 

A. 



, 11 i*— — e 

sin 



so that 



D= 



L.e(a), L.e(a y ), L.e(a y2 ), .... L.e(<r ) 

L . e(a v ), L . e(a y2 ), L . e(a v ) L . e(a v 

L . e(a y2 ), L . e(a y3 ), L . e(a y ), . . . . L . e(a ^) 



L . <«/ 2 ), L . eK" 1 ), L . e^), . . . . L . e (a^ -4 ). 

P D 

Each of the two factors — - -r — - and — , of which the value of H is com- 

(2\>-' A 

D. . 
posed, is separately an integral number. That — is integral is a consequence 

of the relation which exists between the logarithmic determinant of a system 
of fundamental units, and that of any system of independent units ; that P is 
divisible by (2X)' i_1 may be rendered evident from the nature of the ex- 
pression P itself*. The factor — , taken by itself, represents the number of 

classes that contain ideal numbers composed with the periods of two terms 
a-t-a -1 , a 2 +a~ 2 , .... only ; or, which is the same thing, it represents the 

number of classes each of which contains the reciprocal /(a -1 ) of every ideal 

p 
number /(a) comprehended in it ; : _ t > on the other hand, is the number 

of classes of those ideal numbers which become actual by multiplication 
with their own reciprocalsf . The actual calculation of the factor — is ex- 
tremely laborious, as it requires the preliminary investigation of a system of 
fundamental units. For the cases \=5, X=7, the trigonometrical units e(a), 
e(a y ),e(a y2 ) ...are themselves a fundamental system, so that in these two 

D P 

cases D=A, and —= + 1. The computation of the first factor _ 

A (2X)' 1 

presents somewhat less difficulty ; and M. Kummer (though not without great 

labour) has assigned its value for all primes inferior to 100. For the 

primes 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, that value is unity; for 23 it is 3, and then 

increases with extraordinary rapidity ; so that for 97 it already amounts to 

411322823001 =34-57 X 118982593. The asymptotic law of this increase 

is expressed by the formula 

* See the investigation in the next article. 

t See the note already cited, " on the Irregularity of Determinants," in the Monatsberichte 
for 1853, p. 195. 



136 REPORT— 1860. 



Lim - 






L(2\)' i - 1 

when X increases * without limit. It will be seen that the number of classes 

of ideal numbers for X=3, X=5, X=7, is unity; i.e., for those values of X 

every complex prime is actual. In the absence of any determination of a 

system of fundamental units for X=ll, X=13, X = 17, and X=19, it is not 

possible to say whether this is or is not the case for these values also. But 

p 
from and after the limit X=23, the value of the factor ; — r indicates 

that a complex number is not necessarily a complex prime because it is 
irresoluble into factors. 

51. Criterion of the Divisibility of H by X. — The number of classes of 
ideal numbers, which we have symbolized by H, is not in general divisible 

by X ; but in certain cases it may happen that it is so. The quotient — is 

p 

never divisible by X, except when the other factor - — — — is also divisible 

by X. And it has been found by M. Kummer that the necessary and sufficient 

p 
condition for the divisibility of 7 ~-^ by X is that the numerator of one of 

(2xy~ i J 

the first p.— 1 fractions of Bernoulli should be divisible by X. The investi- 
gation of this singular criterion depends on a transformation of the function 
4>(/3) which enters into the expression of P. If we represent the product 
(y/3-l)^(/3) = (y rA _ 2 -l) + ( y _y 1 ) / 3 + (yy 1 - r2 )/r-+....+(yy^ 3 - 
y\-2)P K ~ 2 > hi which every coefficient is divisible by X, by 

KK + b ] fl + h(i 2 +...b k _ f/- 2 2, or X^K/3) 

(b m denoting the quotient y V m -}~ ym , or I 72 m r\ if I represent the greatest 

X X 

integer contained in the fraction before which it is placed), we obtain by 
multiplication the equality 

(/+l)P=X^(/3)^(/3 3 )....^(^- 2 ); 
or, since y^ + l is divisible by X, and may be supposed not divisible by X 2 f, 

C denoting a coefficient prime to X. The congruence — - — =0, mod X, 

D (2X>*-» 

is therefore equivalent to the congruence 

,K/3)-K/3')....M3 x - 2 )=0,modX, 
which may, in its turn, be replaced by the following, 

»Ky)»Ky 3 )...»Ky*- 2 )=0,modX. 
For, if there be an equation which, considered as a congruence for a given 
modulus X, is completely resoluble for that modulus, any symmetrical function 
of the roots of the congruence is congruous, for the modulus X, to the cor- 
responding function of the roots of the equation. The function ^(/3) i£(/3 3 ) 

* Liouville, vol. xvi. p. 473. The formula is given without demonstration. 

t For y^+l and ( y +\)f + l are hoth of them divisible by X ; but only one of them can 
be divisible by X 2 , since their difference is not divisible by \ 2 . We can therefore, without 
changing y y l ... y A _ 2 , determine y in accordance with the supposition in the text. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 137 

...\l<(fi K ~~ 2 ), which is a symmetric function of /3, /3 3 , . . . j3 x ~ 2 , the roots of 
the equation 2^ + 1=0, is therefore congruous to *//(y) ^(y 3 ) •• • • *Kr x_2 )> 
which is the same function of y, y\ y ', . . . y A ~ 2 , the roots of the congruence 
^-1-1=0, mod X. Hence the necessary and sufficient condition for the 

P s 

divisibility of — s -_- by \ is that one of the fi congruences included in the 

formula 

^(y 3 " -1 ) =0, modX,M=l, 2, 3. ../i, (a) 

should be satisfied. Now y^ 2 "" 1 ) ^(y 2 ' 1 " 1 ) =6 yf _1 4-^yo 2 "" 1 + W'" 1 

A — 2 

+ ... +K-2y 2n ^ll> or > observing that y , y^ y 2 ...yx_ 2 are the numbers 
1, 2, 3, ...X — 1, taken in a certain order, and introducing the values of 

* > Oj> "2> * ' ' 

y -(2»-i)^( y 2»-i) == s a- 2 "- 1 I H, mod X. 
x=l X 

This last expression may be further transformed as follows. lf/(x) denote 

x=x 
any function of x, and F(#) = 2 /(a-), we have the identical equation 

x=l 
x=\ — l „ .r=y — 1 / > \ 

2 l2£./(:r)+ S F(l^Wy-l)F(X-l), 

y and X being any two numbers prime to one another. To verify 
this equation, we may construct a system of unit points in a plane ; 
then the right-hand member is the sum of the values of f (x) for all unit 
points in the interior of the parallelogram (0, 0), (X, 0), (X, y), (0, y) ; 
while the two terms of the left-hand member represent similar sums for 
the two triangles into which the parallelogram is divided by its diagonal 

yx—\y=0. Writing then in this identity a; 2 " -1 for f(x), and employing 

x=x 
the symbol F 2B _, (x) to represent the sum 2 a 2 " -1 , or rather the function 

x—\ 

g^ + jaaw-i + B, n ' gn ~ 1 ,sii-s_B, — n - 2n ~ ] — x*«-*+.... 

2» 1 n.2w-2.n.2. -II. 2»— 4.11.4 

V y " _1 n.2.II.2w-2 

in which B x B 2 ...B re are the fractions of Bernoulli, and which, when x is 
an integral number, coincides with that sum, v\e find 

*=X— 1 „ x=y — 1 r > "] 

a;=l x b=1 L y J 

But F 2 „_! (X — l)=F„ 2 _i (X)-X 2 "- 1 is evidently divisible by X; so that 

x=x — 1 v r *=y— I r x --i 

2 * 2 »-i I^+ 2 F 2n _! I— =0, mod X. 

a=l x x=l L 7J 

The congruences (a) may therefore be replaced by the congruences 
*=y— 1 r x -, 

2 F 2n _i i_ = 0, mod X, which may be written in the simpler form 

x=l L 7 J 



138 REPORT 1860. 



* F 2n . | 

X— 1 



(i)- ' 



if we observe that (X being prime to y) the numbers I -, I — , ... I i^ '— 

7 7 7 

are congruous (mod X) to the fractions—-, — -, .... — - , taken in a cer- 

y 7 y 

tain order. But, by a curious property of the function F 8n _ 1 , demonstrated 

for the first time by M. Kummer, 

x=l \ 7/ 2ny*>-i 

The condition for the divisibility of H by X is therefore that one of the p 
congruences included in the formula B„ (y 2n — 1) = 0, mod X, should be satis- 
fied. The last of these congruences, or B^ (y 2 ^— 1)=0, is never satisfied; 
for it is easily proved that the denominator of B^ contains X as a factor, 
while y 2 ^— l = (y^ + l) (yn— 1), though divisible by X, is not divisible by X 2 . 
And since, if w</x, y 2ra — 1 is prime to X, that factor may be omitted in the 
remaining fi — ] congruences ; so that the condition at which we have arrived 
coincides with that enunciated at the commencement of this article. 

We have exhibited M. Kummer's analysis of this problem with more ful- 
ness of detail than might seem warranted by the nature of this Report, not 
only on account of its elegance, but also because it exemplifies transforma- 
tions and processes which are of frequent occurrence in arithmetical inves- 
tigation*. 

52. "Exceptional" Primes. — A prime number X, which, like 37, 59, and 

\ a 

67 in the first hundred, divides the numerator of one of the first frac- 

2 
tions of Bernoulli, and which consequently divides the number of classes of 
ideal numbers composed with Xth roots of unity, is termed by M. Kummer 
an exceptional prime. Such primes have to be excluded from the enunciation 
of several important propositions ; and their theory presents difficulties which 
have not yet been overcome. Thus the following propositions are true for all 
primes other than the exceptional primes, but are not true for the exceptional 
primes. 

(1.) The exponent to which any class of ideal numbers appertains (see 
art. 49) is prime to X. 

(2.) The index of the lowest power of any unit which can be expressed 
as a product of integral powers of the trigonometric units is prime to X. For 

that index is a divisor of — (see art. 42). 

(3.) Every complex unit which is congruous to a real integer for the 
modulus X is a perfect Xth power. (Whether X be an exceptional prime or 
not, the Xth power of any complex number is congruous, for the modulus X, 
to a real integer, viz. to the sum of the coefficients of the complex number.) 

* In Liouville, vol. i. (New Series) p. 396, M. Kronecker has given a very simple demon- 
stration of the congruence 

2n\^(y2n-i) = ( r 2»_l) [l2» + 22»+.. . + (X-l) 2 »],mod\2, 
which, combined with another easily demonstrated formula, viz., 

1 2»+22» +. . (\-l)2» = ( - l)»-i B n X, mod X 2 [n < fi], 
leads immediately to the theorem of M. Kummer. 



ON THE THEORY OK NUMBERS. 139 

(<t.) If /(a) denote any (actual) complex number prime to X (i. e. not 
divisible by 1— a), a complex unit e (a) can always be assigned, such that 
the product F(a)=e (a)f(a) shall satisfy the two congruences 
F («) F (*-') = [F (l)] 2 , mod X, 
F(*) = F(1), mod(l-a) 2 . 
A complex number satisfying these two congruential conditions is called a 
primary complex number ; the product of two primary numbers is there- 
fore itself primary. This definition, in the particular case X=3, includes 
the primary numbers of art. 37, taken either positively or negatively. 

53. Fermat's Theorem for Complex Primes. — Let <p (a) be an actual or 
ideal complex prime, and let N = N . cp (a) represent its norm. A system of 
N actual numbers can always be assigned such that every complex number 
shall be congruous to one and only to one of them for the modulus cj> (a). 
These N numbers may be said therefore to form a complete system of 
residues for the modulus $(a) ; and by omitting the term divisible by (j> («), 
we obtain a system of N — I residues prime to <j> (a). 

Let q be a prime appertaining to the exponent/, so that N=g , / ) and let 
<p (a) or (p x (»jo) be the prime factor of q which appertains to the substitution 
jj =m ; the formula 

a + a l a-\-a 3 a 2 + . .. +a/-i a-f- 1 , (A) 

will represent a complete system of residues for the modulus (j> 1 (»/o)> if we 
assign to the coefficients a , a v a 2 .... the values 0, 1,2, ...q — 1, in succession. 

For if/(*)=^o('/o) + a '/'i (»/o) + .. + ... *f- 1 i///_i (i/ ) be any complex num. 
ber,/(a) is congruous for the modulus <p t (j/ ) to \\i (u ) + cc\pi (m ) +. .-\-af~ 1 
\|//_i(m )j because Mo — r} = 0,mod(b 1 (r] ); that is, /'(a) is congruous to one 
of the complex numbers included in (A); nor can any two numbers a + 
a l a + a 2 a 2 -)- . . + a/-i a.f~ x and b + b 1 a.+b % a 2 + . . . + b/-\ a.f~ l included 
in that formula be congruous to one another ; for the congruence (a — #o) + 
a(a 1 —b 1 ) + a 2 (a 2 —b 2 ) + ...+ a./- 1 (a/-i— 4/_i) = 0, mod ^ (?j ), involves, 
by M. Rummer's theory (see art. 45 ), the coexistence of the/ congruences 
a — &o = 0, mod q; a l —b l ^Q, mod q; . . .a/_i— 6/_i =0, mod q; i. e. the 
identity of the complex n umbers a + a.a l + a 2 a 2 + . . .a/- 1 a/_ ] ,and6 + a& 1 + 
a 2 6 2 +. . + a/ _1 bf-\. It is worth while to notice that, if q be a prime ap- 
pertaining to the exponent 1, for the modulus X, i. e. if q be of the linear form 
wiX + 1, the real numbers 0, 1, 2, 3...q— 1 will represent the terms of a 
complete system of residues for the modulus <p (a) ; but if <p (a) be a factor 
of a prime appertaining to any higher exponent than unity, a complete system 
will contain complex as well as real integral residues. 

By applying the principle (see art. 10) that a system of residues prime 
to the modulus, multiplied by a residue prime to the modulus, produces 
a system of residues prime to the modulus, we obtain the theorem, which 
here replaces Fermat's Theorem, that if i^(a) be any actual number prime 
to <f) («), [;// (a)] 1 *- 1 = 1, mod</> (a). If we combine with this theorem the 
principle of Lagrange (cited in art. 11) which is valid for complex no less 
than for real prime modules, we may extend, mutatis mutandis, to the general 
complex theory the elementary propositions relating to the Residues of 
Powers, Primitive Roots, and Indices, which, as we have seen, exist in the 
case of complex primes formed with cubic or biquadratic roots of unity. In 
fact, these propositions are of a character of even greater generality, and may 
be extended, not only to complex numbers formed with roots of unity whose 
index is a composite number, but also to all complex numbers formed with 
the roots of equations having integral coefficients, as soon as the prime fac- 
tors of those complex numbers are properly defined. 



140 REPORT — 1860. 

54. M. Kummers Law of Reciprocity. — We can now enunciate M. Rum- 
mer's law of reciprocity. It appears, from the last article, or it may be 
proved immediately by dividing the N— 1 residues of <p (a) into X groups 

of - """ .. terms, after the following scheme, 
A 



(0) 






A 


0) 


ar lt ar 2 , .... ar li _ 1 

A 


(2) 


aVj, aV 2 , .... a 2 r N _ 1 

A 


(\-l) 


a^-'rj, a*- 1 , .... a A_, r N _j 



A 

and proceeding as in art. 33 of this Report, that if >//(*) be any actual coni- 

N-l 

plex number prime to </>(a), \p(a) A is congruous for the modulus $(a) to 
a certain power a k of a. This power of a may be denoted by the symbol 

N-l 

zA5JL • so that we have the congruence [il/fa)! * = zSzL =a fc , 

mod <b (a). The symbol v ; { which we may term the Xtic character 

L<p WJ a _ 
of \p (a) with regard to <p (#), is evidently of the same nature as the corre- 
sponding symbols with which we have already met in the quadratic, cubic, 
and biquadratic theories, and admits of an extension of meaning similar to 
that of which they are susceptible. Availing himself of this symbol, M. 

Kummer has expressed his law of reciprocity by the formula xifii = 

U> (a)J a 

Wr\ ><t>(l) and ^ (°0 denoting real or ideal primes. But, to interpret 
UP (a)J a 

this equation rightly, it is important to attend to the following observations. 
(1.) When \p (<t) and <p (a) are both actual numbers, the formula supposes 
that they are both primary prime numbers. The prime. 1— <x is therefore 
excluded. 

(2.) The definition that we have given of the symbol -?-,-£ becomes 

LVWJk 
unmeaning when ty (#) is ideal, because no signification can be assigned to 

an ideal number which presents itself, not as a modulus or divisor, but as a 
residue. Let, therefore, It denote the index of the lowest power of <\> (a) 
which is an actual number ; i. e., let h be the exponent to which the class of 
<p (a) appertains; and let C^(^)] A represent the actually existing primary 
complex number which contains the factor <p (a) h times, but contains no 

other prime factor ; then the symbol \ ' ■ has by the preceding defini- 
tion a perfectly definite meaning. Let then ? y{ =a k ' ; we mav define 

Up («) J a 

the value of the symbol , ) [ by means of the equation ■ • \ ' = 

U(»)Ja DM") J 

t *** ^ \ =cc k ', which, if h be prime to A, always gives a determinate value 
\p{«.)J 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 141 

a k for j\ [ , h being defined by the congruence hk s k', mod X. For the 

Ln a )J 

symbol ? ■ > ( so defined, the law of reciprocity still subsists, subject 

uK*)J 

however to the condition that [<£ («)]'' is primary. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the exceptional primes of art. 52 are ex* 
eluded from M. Kuinmer's law of reciprocity, for a twofold reason : — first, 
because if X be one of those numbers, the definition of a primary number is 
not in general applicable ; and secondly, because, on the same supposition, 

the symbol xA_J may become unmeaning. 

55. The Theorems complementary to M. Rummers Law of Reciprocity.— — 
The prime 1— a, and its conjugate primes, as well as the complex units, 
are excluded from the law of reciprocity; but complementary theorems by 
which the Xtic characters of these numbers may be determined have been 
given by M. Kummer. For a simple unit a k , we have the formula 

N-l 

v . With regard to X, which is the norm of 1 — a, it may be 






observed that if (f> (*) be a prime factor of a real prime q appertaining, for 
the modulus X, to any exponent/ different from unity, i.e. if q be not of the 

linear form »»X+1, the character of every real integer, and therefore of X, 

qf—\ 
with respect tod (a) is + 1, because, if/> 1, — - — is divisible byq—l. But 

A 

whatever be the linear form of q, the characteristic of X or x(^) (for so we 

shall for brevity term the index of a in the equation — — r =a A ), is de- 

J U(«)Ja 

termined by the congruence 

X (X) = r D *» mod x > 

A 

D A being the value (for v=0) of the differential coefficient $-!—* — - 

° dv K 

if (b (a) be an actually existent number, or of ^-ii — L. if it be ideal, 

h av K 

To obtain the characteristics of the units, M. Kummer considers the system 

of independent units 

E^E^a), E^_,(«), 

defined by the formula 

—2ft -4ft -2(/t-l)ft 

E*(«)=e(a)e(« v )' e(o? 2 ) . ...e (o?*~* ) 

in which e (a) represents tne trigonometrical unit of art. 50, and y is the 
same primitive root of X which occurs in the expression of e (a). We have 
then, for x [E* (a 9 *)] and \(l — a! ! ), the formulae 

X [Eft (a")] == (-1/ (yf-1) f*_- D A _ 2i , mod X, 
and x (l^)--^+^ + B 1 D,-4 2 



142 REPORT 1860. 

N representing the norm of (a), B v B 2 . . . B M -i the fractions of Bernoulli, 
and D m the value of the differential coefficient 

dm \og<p(e v ) , cT log [>(*")]* ) for V= Q. 
dv m V hdv m 

These formulae do not in general hold for the exceptional prime numbers X, 
which divide the numerator of one of the first /j. — 1 fractions of Bernoulli. 
This is evident from the occurrence in them of the coefficients D m , which if 
<j> (a) be ideal, and h be divisible by X, may acquire denominators divisible 
by X, thus rendering the congruences nugatory. It is sufficient to have 
determined the characteristics of the particular system of units E x (a), E 2 (a), 
. . . E j (a), because, as that system is independent, every other unit e (a) 
is included in the formula 

e (cc) = E 1 (a) m i E 2 (a) m 2 E M _, (a)"V-i ; 

so that x L € ( a )] ma y De found from the congruence 

k = iu-l 

xC c ( a )]= s m *X [Ejfc(a)],modA, 

k=l 

which cannot become unmeaning, except in the case of the exceptional 

primes, because if D' be the logarithmic determinant of the system of units 

Ej (a), E 3 (a), . . . E M _! (a), D and A retaining the meanings assigned to them 

D' . D' D' D 

in art. 50, it may be shown that — is prime to X, and therefore — = k y — is 
J D ADA 

also prime to X; i.e., the denominators of the fractions m v m 2 ,. . .?«^-i are prime 

to X (see art. 42). But M. Kummer has also given a formula which assigns 

directly the characteristic of any unit e (a) whatsoever. If Aa denote the 

value of the differential coefficient sULS — £, for v=0, we have 

dv h 

X [e (a)] = A, £=!+ S~ A 2t D A _ 2 „ mod X*. 

X k=l 

56. We have already observed (see art. 39) that it is impossible to deduce 
a proof of the highest laws of reciprocity from the formulae which pre- 
sent themselves in the theory of the division of the circle. It is true (as we 
shall presently see) that the formulae IV. and V. of art. 30 determine the 
decomposition of the real prime p (supposed to be of the form k\+l) into its 
X — 1 complex prime factors ; but it will be perceived that these complex fac- 
tors occur, not isolated, but combined in a particular manner. From equation 
IV. of the article cited we infer that p=\p (ac) J/ (a -1 ); let then \p (a)=/(a 1 ) 
f(oc 2 ) . . . •/(%) ; a l5 a 2 . .cc^ being fi different roots (of which no two are re- 

ciprocals) of the equation =1 ; so that/(aj), /(a 2 ), . . ./(a M ) are one- 

half of the complex primes of which p is composed ; if e (a) be any real 
unit, satisfying the equation e(a)=e (a -1 ), it is plain that e (aj 2 e (a 2 ) 2 . . . 
e( % f=\, or ^(«)=±e( ai )/(« 1 )Xe(a 2 )/(a a )... X«(^)/(« M ). The 
consideration, therefore, of the number \l> (a) cannot supply us with any de- 
termination of the Xtic character of /(a t ) which will not equally apply to 
/(a,)xc ( a i)« But for all values of X greater than 3, the number of real 
complex units is, as we have seen, infinite ; and the character of any com- 
plex prime/(a) with respect to any other complex prime evidently changes 

* The formulae of this article are taken from M. Rummer's second memoir on the com- 
plementary theorems (Crelle, vol. lvi. p. 270). 






ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 143 

when f (a) is multiplied by a unit of which the Xtic character is not unity- 
The inapplicability of the formulae of art. 30 to any general demonstration of 
the law of reciprocity is thus apparent. The only equation of reciprocity 
that has been elicited from them is the following : — 

V 9x A V g 2 A V 9e A V(a)A \<K a )A \<K*)A 

in which (j> (a) is a complex prime factor of a prime number p of the form 

m\ + l, and q v q 2 , q e are the e conjugate factors of a prime number q 

appertaining to the exponent/ for the modulus X. This equation, which, if 
we adopt the generalized meaning of the symbol of reciprocity, may be writ- 
ten more briefly thus, ($AfU) =( — £_) , was first obtained by Eisenstein, 

V 9 A Vtf>0)A 
who inferred it from M. Kummer's investigation of the ideal prime divisors 
of \p( a ) ( see a note addressed by Eisenstein to Jacobi, and communicated 
by Jacobi to the Berlin Academy, in the Monatsberichte for 1850, May 30, 
p. 189). In a later memoir (Crelle's Journal, vol. xxxix. p. 351), Eisenstein 
proposes an ingenious method — reposing, however, on an undemonstrated 
principle — for the discovery of the higher laws of reciprocity ; but it would 
seem that the application of this method failed to lead him to any definite 
result; and it is unquestionably to M. Kummer alone that we are indebted 
for the enunciation as well as for the demonstration of the theorem. 

57. M. Kummer appears to have waited until he had developed the theory 
of complex numbers with a certain approximation to completeness, before 
proceeding to apply the principles he had discovered to the purpose which 
he had in view throughout, the investigation of the law of reciprocity. He 
succeeded in discovering the law which we have enunciated, in the year 
184.-7, and, after verifying it by calculated tables of some extent, he commu- 
nicated it to Dirichlet and Jacobi in January 1848, and subsequently, in 
1850, to the Berlin Academy, in a note which also contained the demonstra- 
tion of the complementary theorems relating to the units, and the prime 
divisors of X. From the analogy of the cubic theorem, it was natural to 
conjecture that the law of reciprocity would assume the simple form 

f — J = (— 2 ) f° r primes p x and p 2 reduced, by multiplication with proper 

complex units, to a form satisfying certain congruential conditions. But 
to determine properly these conditions, i. e. to assign the true definition 
of a primary complex prime, was no doubt the principal difficulty that M. 
Kummer had to overcome in the discovery of his theorem. If X=3, the 
single congruence / (a) =/(l), mod (1— a) 2 , sufficiently characterizes a 
primary number; and since, whatever prime be represented by X, that con- 
gruence is satisfied by one, and one only, of the numbers included in the 
formula a. k f (a), it was probable that it ought to form one of the con- 
gruential conditions included in the definition of a primary complex prime. 
In determining the second condition, M. Kummer appears to have been 
guided by a method which depends on the arithmetical properties of 

the logarithmic expansion of a complex number. If we develope log "' ^ / 

in ascending powers of ■ f ~f} - a "d represent by L ^~ the finite num- 

ber of terms which remain in this expansion after rejecting those which are 
congruous to zero for the modulus X, we are led, after some transformations, 
to the congruence 



144 REPORT— 1860. 

_L-^^D 1 X 1 (a) + D 2 X 2 (a)+... 4-D A _ 2 X A _ 2 («), mod X, 

where X* (a) represents the function S y-* k & s , and D/, denotes, as in 

s=0 

rf* log/(e p ) 
art. 55, the differential coefficient — — • In this congruence the first 

coefficient alone is altered when /(a) is multiplied by a simple unit; and only 
the even coefficients are altered when/(a) is multiplied by a real unit. Now 
Dj is rendered congruous to zero by the condition/(a) =/(l), mod (1 — *) 2 ; 
and M. Kummer has shown that, by multiplying /(a.) by a properly chosen 
real unit, D 2 , D^ ...Da._3 may be similarly made to disappear, so that we 
obtain 

-L^ = D 3 X 3 ( a ) + D 3 X s ( a )+...+Dx_ 2 Xx_ 2 («),modX, 

a congruence which is proved to involve the second congruence of condition 
satisfied by a primary number, i. e.f(a)f(a.- i )=f(\y,mo& \*. 

58. The methods to which M. Kummer at first had recourse in order to 
obtain a demonstration of his theorem, consisted in extensions of the theory 
of the division of the circle. By such extensions he demonstrated the com- 
plementary theorems, and even a particular case of the law of reciprocity 
itself — that in which the two complex primes compared are conjugate. But, 
after repeated efforts, he found himself compelled to abandon these methods, 
and to seek elsewhere for more fertile principles. " I turned my attention," 
he says, " to Gauss's second demonstration of the law of quadratic recipro- 
city, which depends on the theory of quadratic forms. Though the method 
of this demonstration had never been extended to any other than quadratic 
residues, yet its principles appeared to me to be characterized by such 
generality as led me to hope that they might be successfully applied to 
residues of higher powers ; and in this expectation I was not disappointed t." 

M. Rummer's demonstration of the law of reciprocity was communicated 
to the Academy of Berlin in the year 1858, ten years after the date of his 
first discovery of it. An outline of the demonstration is contained in the 
Monatsberichte for that year; and it is exhibited with great clearness and 
fulness of detail in a memoir published in the Berlin Transactions for 
1859, which contains what is for the present the latest result of science on 
a problem which, if we date from the first enunciation of the quadratic 
theorem by Euler, has been studied by so many eminent geometers for 
nearly a century. It would, however, be impossible, without exceeding the 
limits within which this Report is confined, to give an account of its contents, 
which should be intelligible to persons not already familiar with the subject 
to which it refers. Taken by itself the demonstration of the theorem is, indeed, 
sufficiently simple ; but it is based on a long series of preliminary researches 
relating to the complex numbers that can be formed with the roots of the 
equation w K =D (z), in which D (a) itself denotes a complex number com- 
posed of Xth roots of unity. To those researches, and to the demonstration 
of the law of reciprocity founded on them, we shall again very briefly refer, 
when we come to speak of the corresponding investigations in the theory of 
quadratic forms, an acquaintance with which is essential to a comprehension 
of the method adopted by M. Kummer in his memoir. We may add that 
M. Kummer has intimated that he has already obtained two other demon- 

* Crelle, vol. xliv. p. 130-140. f See the Berlin Transactions for 1859, p 29. 



ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS. 145 

strations of his law of reciprocity, which, though they also depend on the 
consideration of complex numbers containing w, yet do not require the same 
complicated preliminary considerations. 

59. Complex Numbers composed of Roots of Unity, of which the Index is 
not a Prime. — In a special memoir (see the list in art. 41, note, No. 16), 
M. Kummer has considered the theory of complex numbers composed with 
a root of the equation w"=l, in which n denotes a composite number. The 
primitive roots of this equation are the roots of an irreducible equation of the 
form 

n 

n(wP— i)n(w?i^/>3— i) 

PvPvP* '"• denoting the different prime divisors of n*. If ^ (n) be the 
number of numbers less than n and prime to it, F (w) is of the order \p («), 
and every complex number containing w can be reduced (and that in one way 

only) to the form / (w)=a + « 1 w + a 2 w a + +«j w _iw , f ( " ) - 1 . The 

numbers conjugate to/(w) are the \p (?i) numbers obtained by writing in 
succession for w the y (?i) primitive roots of w n =l ; and the norm off (<o) 
is the real and positive integer produced by multiplying together the \p (n) 
conjugates. If q be a prime number not dividing n, the sum 

in which the series of terms is to be continued until it begins to repeat itself, 
is termed a period. The n periods m^ vr 2 , . . . nr rt remain unchanged if for w 
we write w?, <</'% etc. Hence, if q appertain to the exponent t for the modu- 
lus n (i. e. if q satisfy the congruence q l = 1, mod n, but no congruence of a 
lower order and similar form), the number of different numbers conjugate to 

a given complex number containing the periods only is at most zS™). For 

brevity, a complex number containing the periods only — for example, the 
number 

C + C 1 VI l + C 2 TB. : ,-\- .. . . + C n lZ m 

may be symbolized by/(ra - 1 ), so that 

/Oa) = c 0+ c i «*+« a W lt + .... +Cn Vnk. 

If 1, r v r 2 ,.,. are a set of- ^ numbers prime to n and such that the quo- 
tient of no two of them (considered as a congruential fractionf) is congruous 
for the modulus n to any power of q, the numbers conjugate to/ (or) may be 

* The irreducibilit y of the equation . = when n is a prime was first established by 

x—\ 
Gauss (Disq. Arith. art. 341). For other and simpler demonstrations of the same theorem, 
see the memoirs of MM. Kronecker (Crelle, xxix. p. 280, and Liouville, 2nd series, vol. i. 
p. 399), Schoenemaun (Crelle, vol. xxxi. p. 323, vol. xxxii. p. 100, & vol. xl. p. 188), Eisensteiu 
(Crelle, vol.xxxix. p. 166), and Serret(Liouville,vol.xv.p.296). The principles on which these 

m 

demonstrations depend suffice to establish the irreducibility of the equation— — — = °> 

x^ —1 
but they fail, as M. Kronecker has observed, to furnish the corresponding demonstration 
when n, as in the text, is a product of powers of different primes. This demonstration was 
first given by M. Kronecker (Liouville, vol. xiw p. 177), who has been followed by M. De- 
dekmd (Crelle, vol. liv. p. 27), and by M. Arndt (ib. lid. p. 178). 

t For the definition of a congruential fraction see art. 1 1. 
1860. 



146 REPORT — 1860. 

represented by / (raj, /(ffr,). /(ra,. 2 ) The periods are the roots of 

certain irreducible equations, each of which is completely resoluble when 
considered as a congruence for the modulus q ; and the roots u x , u 2 , ... of the 
congruences are connected with the roots ■sr 1 , sr 2 , . . . of the equations, by a 
relation precisely similar to that enunciated in art. 44. This relation M. 
Rummer has established by introducing certain conjugate complex numbers* 
•*• (raj, ■*■ (ra n ), '¥' (ra',. 2 ), • • • involving the periods only, not themselves divi- 
sible by q, but each satisfying the n congruences included in the formula 
■* (so-,.) (bta-i— «fc) = 0, mod q, 

ft — 1 j ^3 Oj • • • /&• 

From these congruences it is easy to infer that, if/ (ra r , rav, .... ra„ r ) = 
be any identical relation subsisting for the periods, a similar relation 
/(«!» w a , ... w») = 0, mod q, will subsist for the numbers u v u 2 ,...u n ; for 
we find 

* (**»■)/ ( CT '-' w a" . , . ) = ¥ (ra - ,.)/ («u «2 • • • ), mod y, 
». e.f(u lt m 2 ,...)s0, mod 9. Another important property of the complex 
number •*• (Wj) is that it is congruous to zero, mod q, for every one of the sub- 
stitutions -m x =u^ ■a x — u rv ■w 1 — u r . 1 , • • • except the first : thus the congruences 
¥ (u n ) = 0, ■*■ (?«,. 2 ) = are satisfied, . . . but not •*• (u^ — 0, mod q. If, 
then, t /'(w) be any complex number satisfying the congruence ¥ (ra,.) m /(w) 
= 0, mod q m , but not the congruence ^ (ra,.) m +'/(w) = 0, mod g ,m+I ,/(w) 
is said to contain m times precisely the ideal factor of q corresponding to 

* These complex numbers are defined as follows (see the memoir cited at the com- 
mencement of this article, sect. 3, and that in Crelle, vol. liii. p. 142) :— Let w k be a period 
satisfying the irreducible equation <p (iir i ) = 0, and let a lt a 2 , ... be the incongruous roots of 
<p (y) = 0, mod q, b u b 2 , . . . the remaining terms of a complete system of residues, mod q, so 
that <j> (by), <j> (b 2 ), .... are prime to q. Since -rxr k q = ■Gr /cq , mod q, and ■nr kq = ^sr k , we have, 
by Lagrange's indeterminate congruence (see art. 10 of this Eeport) 

(«fc"-«i) («*-«,) • • • • {yic-bd O/t-^) . . . . = 0, mod ? , 
or, since ■ar k —b 1 divides <j> {b r ) etc., 

<P (*i) <P (K) (^ic-Ci) (wj-dj) • • . = 0, mod q\ 

i. e. (uTfc— fli) {^k~ °a) • • • « = 0, m °d 2- ^ Ve ma y now consider the n series of factors 

corresponding to the n values of k [the numbers a x , a 2 , . . . are of course the same for two 
periods which satisfy the same irreducible equation, but not in general the same for any 
two periods], and, retaining among these factors only those which are different, we may 
take for ¥ (isr,) the complex number formed by combining as many of them as possible, in 
such a manner as to give a product which is not divisible by rj, but which is rendered divi- 
sible by q by the accession of any one factor not already contained in it. It is evident that 

■*■ (w,) cannot contain all the factors w k — a v ■w k —a 2 , ; let us then denote by tsr k —u k a 

factor which is not contained in M"- (-or J ; we thus obtain the relation 

Mr (to-!) (■vr /c —U k ) = 0, mod q, 

or, changing the primitive root <o into i>) r , 

M' (sr r ) fV ri .---u i )==0, mod g. 

The conjugates of Mr (vrj are all complex numbers formed according to the same law as 
M' (taTi) itself; and, besides Mr (wi) and its conjugates, no other complex number can be formed 
according to that law. Also the number u k which corresponds to a given period w k is ab- 
solutely determined as soon as we have selected the multiplier M*" (•nr 1 ) ; for if two of the 
factors ■ar k —a 1 , ■ar k . — a 2 , . . . were absent from ^ (nr^ we should have Vr (-nrj (■&■%. — a^ = 0, 
M r (w,) (-ar k —a 2 ) = 0, mod q; and thence (a x — a.,) M* (tstJ^O, mod q, contrary to the hy- 
pothesis that a l and a 2 are incongruous, and that Vr (to^) is not divisible by q. The corre- 
spondence of the numbers u v u 2 u n , with the periods -nr v isr 2 , . . . ■&„., can thus be fixed 

in as many ways as there are numbers conjugate to ¥ (■<*!), %• e. in i-i— different ways. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 147 

the substitution tb>, •=z<a-. Since it can be shown that the numbers conjugate 
to ¥ (ts-,) are all different from one another, it follows from the definition, 

that the quotient ^ ' represents the number of conjugate ideal prime fac- 
tors contained in the real prime q, appertaining to the exponent t. If q be a 
divisor of n, the definition of its ideal factors requires a certain modification, 
which we cannot here particularize. (See sect. 6 of M. Rummer's Memoir.) 
The two definitions, corresponding to the cases of q prime to n, and q a 
divisor of n, enable us. when taken together, to transfer to the general case 
when n is composite, the elementary theorems already shown to exist when 
n is prime (see art. 47). We may add that it is easy to prove, in the general 
as in the special case (see art. 48), that the number of classes of ideal num- 
bers is finite. 

60. Application to the Theory of the Division of the Circle. — We cannot 
quit the subject of complex numbers without mentioning certain important 
investigations in which they have been successfully employed. The first 
relates to the problem of the division of the circle. In this problem the 

s=p— 2 
resolvent function of Lagrange 2 6 s x't* (see art. 30) is, as is -well 

5 = 

known, of primary importance. Retaining, with a slight modification, the 
notation of art. 30, and still representing by A a prime divisor of p — 1, and 

by a a root of the equation =0, let us consider the function F (a, x), 

a — 1 

which is a particular case of the resolvent, and let us represent the quotient 
F(a, a,-) F(a*, x) , , , . „ . „ , 

F («*+', a) 7 ** ^ e 

lF( a ,x)y=^(ot)4, 2 (a)....+ s - 1 (a)F(a s ,x), ... (1) 
and in particular, observing that F (a, x) F (a x_1 , x)=p, 

[F (a, x)Y=ph {a) fc (a) . . . . ^- 2 (a), (2) 

a result which is in accordance with the known theorem that [F (a, .r)] A is 
independent of x and is an integral function of a. only. The resolution of 
the auxiliary equation of order A, the roots of which are the X periods of 

1 - roots of the equation =0, depends solely on the determination 

of the complex numbers \p x (a), tb (a) i!/a.-2 (a). For when these com- 
plex numbers are known, we may equate F (a, x) to any Xth root of the ex- 
pression pyp x (a) \l 2 (a) . . . \p\-2 (a) ; from the value of F (a, x), thus obtained, 
those of F (a", x), F (a 3 , x) . . . . may be inferred by means of equation (1); 
and, lastly, from the values of F (1 , a?), F (a, x), . . . F (a* -1 , x), the values of 
the periods themselves are deducible by the solution of a system of linear 
equations. To determine the numbers \L 1 (a), \p 2 (a), . . . M. Kummer assigns 
the ideal prime factors of which they are composed, employing for this pur- 
pose the results cited in ait. 30. The equation ^- (a) \p/ c (cc~ 1 )=p shows 
that fa (a) contains precisely \{p — 1) ideal prime divisors of p, and no other 
complex prime. To distinguish the prime factors of p contained in \pk (a) 
from those contained in il/jt(a~ ! ) M.Kummer avails himself of the congruence 
V. of art. 30, viz., 

Let X'= i~ — , and u = y KI , mod p, so that u, u 2 , . . .w* -1 are the roots of 

A 

2l 



148 REPORT — 1860. 

x = 0, mod»; also, to adapt the formulae of art. 30 to our present par* 
x— 1 

pose, let _A '=a, m=\', n=k\'; it will result from these substitutions, that 
»/* (m _a ) = 0, mod/?, if A and A satisfy the inequality [A] + [AA] >X, where 
[A] and [AA] are positive numbers less than X, and congruous, mod X, to A 
and AA respectively. If we represent by /(a) the ideal prime factor of p 
which appertains to the substitution a=w, this may be expressed by saying 

that ^i(a) contains the factor/(a-'<), if - + | - >X, the symbols - 

and - denoting the least positive numbers satisfying the congruences 

hx = l, mod X, and hx = k, mod X. Assigning, therefore, to the number h 
every positive value less than X compatible with this condition, we may write 

Ma)=±a«n/(a-*), 
+ a* being a simple unit which may be determined by the congruence 
\p k (a) = — 1, mod (1 —a) 2 * : it is not necessary to add a real complex unit, 
for a reason which has already appeared (see art. 56, supra). From the 
expression for \p k (a) a still simpler formula for F (a, x) K may be obtained, 
viz. m—\— 1 [11 

[F (a, x)y= ±a. s n [/(«-»)] L '" J t- 

»i = l 

61. Application to the Last. Theorem of Fermat. — The second investigation 

to which we shall advert relates to the celebrated proposition known as the 

" Last Theorem of Fermat," viz. that the equation x n +y n =z n is irresoluble, 

in integral numbers, for all values of n greater than 2|. As Fermat himself 

* The numbers ^ k (a) are primary according to M. Kururner's definition (art. 52) ; for 

F ( a x)¥ (oft X~) 

^ k (a) = ' k+ \ — — i = 2«yi+*i's, the summation extending to every pair of values of 

y l and y„ that satisfy the congruence y*«+y*fc=l, mod^, in which y represents the same 
primitive root of p that occurs in the expression F («, x). llcnce ■4' k (l)=p—2 = —I, 
mod X, and -4> k («) $ k (« _1 )= d p=l = [^ t (l)] a , mod \. Also ^ («)-^ t (1) is divisible 
by (l-«) 2 ; for^' A (l)=sfjr 1 +*y i )=J(l+*) Q»-l) Q>-2), observing that y : and y 2 
each receive all the values 1, 2, ...^ — 2 in succession. We have, therefore, the con- 
gruence ^'j (1) =0, mod X, from which it follows (see a note on the next article) that 
•^ (a.) es^j. (1), mod (1 — a) 2 , or ^ A («)=— 1, mod (1 — a) 2 , as in the text. 

t Liouville> vol. xvi. p. 448. M. Kummer has also extended his solution of this problem 
to the case in which n is any divisor of p— 1. See the memoir quoted in the last article, 
sect. 11. 

J Fermat's enunciation of this celebrated theorem is contained in the first of the MS. notes 
placed by him on the margin of his copy of Bachet's edition of Diophantus. It would seem 
that this copy is now lost ; but in the year 16/0 an edition of Bachet's Diophantus was pub- 
lished at Toulouse, by Samuel de Fermat (the son of the great geometer), in which these 
notes are preserved (Diophanti Alexandrini Arithmeticorurn libri sex, et de Numeris Mult- 
angulis liber unus, cum commentarris C. G. Bacheti V. C. et observationibus D. P. de Fermat 
senatoris Tolosani. Tolosae 1670). The theorems contained in them are, with a few excep- 
tions, enunciated without proof; and it may be inferred from the preface of S. Fermat, that 
he found no demonstration of thein among his father's papers. Nevertheless, in the case of 
several of these propositions, we have the assertion of Fermat himself, that he was in posses- 
sion of their demonstration ; and although, when we consider the imperfect state of analysis 
in his ti:ne, it is surprising that he should have succeeded in creating methods which sub- 
sequent mathematicians have failed to rediscoyer, yet there is no ground for the suspicion 
that he was guilty of an untruth, or that he mistook an apparent for a real proof. In fact 
these suspicions are refuted, not only by the reputation for honour and veracity which he 
enjoyed among his contemporaries, and by the evidence of singular clearness of insight 
which his extant writings supply, but also by the facts of the case itself. It would be iuex- 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 149 

has left us a proof of the impossibility of this equation in the case of n=i; 
by a method which Euler has extended to the case of ?*=3, we may suppose, 
without loss of generality, that 71 is an uneven prime A greater than 3, and we 

plicable, if his conclusions reposed on induction only, that he should never have adopted an 
erroneous generalization ; and yet, with the exception of the " Last Theorem " (the demon- 
stration of which, after two centuries, is still incomplete), every proposition of Fermat's has 
been verified by the labours of his successors. There is, indeed, one other exception to this 
statement; but it is an exception which proves the rule. In the letter to Sir Kenelm Digby 
which concludes the ' Commercium Epistolieum, etc' edited by Wallis (Oxford, 1658), 

Fermat enuntiates the proposition that the numbers contained in the formula 2 2 +1 are all 
primes, acknowledging, however, that, though convinced of its truth, he had not succeeded 
in obtaining its demonstration. This letter, which is undated, was written in 1C58 ; but it 
appears, from a letter of Fermat's to M. de * * *, dated October 18, 1640, that even at that 
earlier date he was acquainted with the proposition, and had convinced himself of its trutli 
(D. Petri de Fermat Varia Opera Mathematica, Tolosse, 1679, p. 162). It was, however, 

subsequently observed by Euler that 22 5 +l=4294967297 = 641x6700417, i. e. that the 
undemonstrated proposition is untrue (Op. Arith. collecta, vol. i. p. 356). The error, if it is 
an error, is a fortunate one for Fermat; it exemplifies his candour and veracity, and it shows 
that he did not mistake inductive probability for rigorous demonstration : — " Mais je vous 
advoue tout net," are his words in the letter last referred to, " (car par advance je vous ad- 
vertis que comme je ne suis pas capable de m'attribuer plus que je ne scay, je dis avec merne 
franchise ce que je ne scay pas) que je n'ay peu encore demonstrer l'exclusion de tous divi- 
seurs en cette belle proposition que je vous avois envoyee, et que vous m'avez confermee 
touchant les nombres 3, 5, 17, 257, 6553, &c. Car bien que je reduise l'exclusion a la 
pluspart des nombres, et que j'aye meme des raisons probables pour le reste, je n'ay peu 
encore demonstrer necessairement la verite de cette proposition, de laquelle pourtant je ne 
doute non plus a cette heure que je faisois auparavant. Si vous en avez la preuve assuree, 
vous m'obligerez de me la communiquer : car aprcs cela rien ne m'arrestera en ces matieres." 

The " Last Theorem " is enunciated by Fermat as follows : — 

" Cubum autem in duos cubos, aut quadrato-quadratum in duos quadrato-quadratos, et 
generaliter nullam in infinitum ultra quadratum potestatem in duos ejusdem nominis fas est 
dividere; cujus rei demonstrationem mirabilem sane detexi. Hanc marginis exiguitas non 
caperet." (Fermat's Diophantus, p. 51.) 

Fermat has also asserted that neither the sum (ibid. p. 258) nor the difference (ibid. p. 338) 
of two biquadrates can be a square. Each of these propositions comprehends the theorem 
that the sum of two biquadrates cannot be a biquadrate ; and of the second, we possess 
a very remarkable demonstration by Fermat himself (ibid. p. 338 ; and compare Euler, 
Elemens d'Algubre, vol. ii. sect. 13; Legendre, Theorie des Nombres, vol. ii. p. 1). The 
essential part of this demonstration consists in showing that, from any supposed solution 
of the Diophantine equation <r 4 — y 4 = a square, another solution maybe deduced in which 
the values of the indeterminates are not equal to zero, and yet are absolutely less than in 
the proposed solution, from which it immediately follows that the Diophantine equation 
is impossible. This method has been successfully employed by Eider (joe. cit.) to demon- 
strate several negative Diophantine propositions, and in particular the theorem that the sum 
of two cubes cannot be a cube. The only arithmetical principles (not included in the first 
elements of the science) which are employed by Euler and Fermat in their applications of 
this method, relate to certain simple properties of the quadratic forms x"-\-y", x 2 -\-2y 2 , 
• r2 +3y 2 ; and as these principles seem inadequate to overcome the difficulties presented by 
the equation x n -\-y"-\-z n =0, when n is > 4, it is probable that Fermat's " demonstratio 
mirabilis sane " of the general theorem was entirely different from that which he has inci- 
dentally given of the particular case. 

The impossibility of the equation ,r n -(-y"+z n = for n = 5 was first demonstrated by Le- 
gendre (Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences, 1823, vol. vi. p. 1, or Theorie des Nombres, 
vol. ii. p. 361. See also an earlier paper by Lejeune Diricblet, Crelle, vol. iii. p. 354, with 
the addition at p. 368, and a later one by M. Lebesgue, Liouville, vol. viii. p. 49) ; for n = 14, 
by Diricblet (Crelle, vol. ix. p. 390); and for re=7, by M. Lame (Memoires des Savans 
Etrangers, vol. viii. p. 421, or Liouville, vol. v. p. 195. See also the Comptes Kendus, vol. ix. 
p. 359, and a paper by M. Lebesgue, Liouville, vol. v. pp. 276 & 348). But the methods 
employed in these researches are specially adapted to the particular exponents considered, 
and do not seem likely to supply a general demonstration. The proof in Barlow's Theory of 
Numbers, pp. 160-169, is erroneous, as it reposes (see p. 168) on an elementary proposition 
(cor. 2, p. 20) which is untrue. A memoir by M. Kummer on the equation x' M -j-y 2A =z 2A -, 
in which complex numbers are not employed, and in which no single case of the theorem is 



150 REPORT 1860. 

may write the equation in the symmetrical formx K +y K +z K =0. The impos- 
sibility of solving this equation has been demonstrated by M. Kummer, first, 
for all values of A not included among the exceptional primes* ; and secondly, 
for all exceptional primes which satisfy the three following conditions : — 

(1.) That the first factor of H, though divisible by X, is not divisible by 
X 2 (see art. 50). 

(2.) That a complex modulus can be assigned, for which a certain definite 
complex unit is not congruous to a perfect Xth power. 

(3.) That B^ is not divisible by X 3 , B* representing that Bernoullian 
number [c< /u — 1 ] which is divisible by Xf. 

Three numbers below 100, viz. 37, 59, 67, are, as we have seen, excep- 
tional primes. But it has been ascertained by M. Kummer that the three 
conditions just given are satisfied in the case of each of those numbers; so 
that the impossibility of Fermat's equation has been demonstrated for all 
values of the exponent up to 100. Indeed, it would probably be difficult to 
find an exceptional prime not satisfying the three conditions, and conse- 
quently excluded from M. Kummer's demonstration. 

We must confine ourselves here to an indication of the principles on which 
the demonstration rests in the case of the non-exceptional primes J. 

demonstrated (Crelle, vol. xvii. p. 203), is nevertheless of great interest for the number of 
auxiliary propositions contained in it. Of the same character are the notes by MM. Lebesgue 
and Liouville, in Liouville's Journal, vol. v. pp. 184 & 360, and a few theorems given with- 
out demonstration by Abel, (Euvres, vol. ii. p. 264. 

In the year 1847, M. Lame presented to the Academy at Paris a memoir containing a 
general demonstration of Fermat's Theorem, based on the properties of complex numbers 
(Comptes Rendus, vol. xxiv. p. 310; Liouville, vol. xii. pp. 137 & 172). It was, however, 
observed by M. Liouville (Comptes Rendus, vol. xxiv. p. 315), that this demonstration is 
defective, as it assumes, without proof, the proposition that a complex number can be repre- 
sented, and in one way only, as the product of powers of complex primes — a proposition 
which, as we have seen, is untrue, unless we admit ideal as well as actual complex primes. 
The discussion on M. Lame's memoir attracted Cauchy's attention to Fermat's Theorem; and 
the 24th and 25th volumes of the Comptes Rendus contain several communications from 
him on the subject of complex numbers [or polynomes radicaux, as he has preferred to term 
them]. In the earlier papers of this series, Cauchy attempts to prove a proposition which, 
as we have already observed (see art. 41), is untrue for complex numbers considered gene- 
rally, viz. that the norm of the remainder in the division of one complex number by another 
can be rendered less than the norm of the divisor (see Comptes Rendus, vol. xxiv. pp. 517, 
633 & 661). Elsewhere (ibid. p. 579) he assumes the proposition as a hypothesis, and 
deduces from it conclusions which are erroneous (pp. 581, 582). But at p. 1029 he recognizes 
and demonstrates its inaccuracy. The results at which he arrives iu his subsequent papers 
on the same subject are, for the most part, comprehended in M. Kummer's general theory 
(Comptes Rendus, vol. xxv. pp. 37, 46, 93, 132, 177). In one place, however (p. 181), he 
enunciates, though without demonstrating, the following important result : — 

" If the equation x x -{-i/ K +z K = be resoluble, x, y, z denoting integral numbers prime to 

X, the sum 

1^+2^+3^+.... +(X^ip 

is divisible by X." 

(Compare M. Kummer's memoir in the Berlin Transactions for 1857, p. 64.) 

The investigation of the Last Theorem of Fermat has been twice proposed as a prize- 
question by the Academy of Paris — first at some time previous to 1823 (see Legendre's 
memoir already cited, in vol. vi. of the Memoires de l'Academie des Sciences, p. 2), and again 
in 1850 (Comptes Rendus, vol. xxx. p. 263) : at neither time was the prize adjudged to any 
of the memoirs received. On the last occasion, after several postponements of the date 
originally fixed for the award, the prize was ultimately, in 1857 \ib. vol. xliv. p. 158), con- 
ferred on M. Kummer, who had not been a competitor, for his researches on complex num- 
bers. 

* Liouville, vol. xvi. p. 488, or Crelle, vol. xl. p. 131. 

t See the memoir No. 15 in the list of art. 41. 

J When X is not an exceptional prime, the equation v x -\-y x +z K =Q is irresoluble not only 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 151 

We may suppose that X is greater than 3, and that no two of the numbers 
x, y, z admit any common divisor. And first, let none of them be divisible 

a \ i 

by i— a, a. still representing a root of the equation — =0. Since for x 

we may write a? x, we may assume that x, y, z are of the form 

x=a + (l—ayX, 
y=b + (l- a yY, 
z—c + (l—a.yZ, 

a, b, c denoting integral numbers prime to X, which evidently satisfy the con- 
gruence a+6+c = 0, mod X. The equation x K +y K +z K =0 may then be 
written thus 

(x+ay) (x + a 2 y) (x + a 3 y) (x-\rOt K ~ l y) — — z\ 

No two of the factors of which the left hand member is composed can have 
any common divisor ; each of thein is therefore the product of a perfect \th 
power by a unit; so that we may write, x+a s y=a? e(a.)v\ e(a) denoting 
a real unit. Since v K is an actual number, it follows (remembering that X is 
not an exceptional prime) that v is also actual ; hence v K is congruous, mod X, 
to a certain integral number m. Eliminating m X e(a) between the two con- 
gruences x+a? y=ma. p e(a), and x+a,~ s y=ma.~ p e(a), mod X, we find 
a~ p (x+a s y) — x p (x+a~ s y)=0, mod X. For the modulus (1— a) this 
congruence is identically satisfied *. That it should be satisfied, mod (1 — a) s , 
we must have the relation (a + b)p=bs, mod X ; whence, putting 

s=£, mod X, 

a + b 

we have p=ks, mod X. Substituting this value for p, we find that the con- 
gruence 

a-* s (>+a s y)-a* s (> + a- s y )=() 

is identically satisfied, mod (1— a) 3 ; but in order that it should be satisfied, 
mod (1—a.y, we have the condition 



s 3 b(2k-l)(k-l)-3s(k-L .y"+kx")~0, mod X, 

where x" and y" are the values (fora=l) of the second derived functions 
of a: and y with respect to a. This conditional congruence must be satisfied 
for every value of s ; either therefore AseeI, mod X, or 2£=1, mod X. The 
supposition £ = 1 is inadmissible; for it implies that a=0, mod X, contrary 
to the hypothesis. Hence we must have 2A = 1, and a=b, or, by parity of 
reasoning, a=b^^c, mod X. But also a+Z>+c=0, mod X, whence we again 
infer the inadmissible conclusion «=6=c=0, mod X. 

in ordinary integral numbers, but also in any complex integers composed of Xth roots of 
unity. The demonstration does not possess the same generality when X is an exceptional 
prime satisfying the three conditions cited iu the text. In this case M. Kummer has only 
shown that the equation ^+^+2^=0 is irresoluble when we suppose that x, y, z are 
ordinary integral numbers prime to X, or else complex numbers containing the binary periods 
a-\-a~ ', one of which has a common divisor with X. 

* Since X is divisible by (l-«) x_1 , and since <p{ a )=<p{\)+{ a .-\)<j,'{\)J r {x-\f'^S^. 

+ • • • , it is readily seen that, if r<X— 1, the conditions for the divisibility of <p(a) by 

(1-*)'' are 0(1)^0, 0'(1)=O, ^( r -^(l)=0, mod X. 



152 REPORT — 1860. 

Secondly, let one of the numbers x, y, z (for example, z) be divisible by 
1 — a; it will be convenient to consider the equation in the generalized form 

a>+/ = E(»(l-a)'"'V, (1) 

in which x, y, and z are all prime to 1 — a, and E(a) is any unit. We may 
assume that the values of x and y are of the form 

x=a + (l — a.) 2 X, 
y=b + (l-ay-Y, 

a and b being prime to X, but satisfying the relation a+£=0, mod X. 
In the first place, mmust be greater than 1. For since x x =a\ &n(\y K = b*, 
mod (1 — a)* +1 , if x K +y K be divisible by (I — a)\ a K +b K is divisible by X ! , and 
therefore x K +y K by (1 — a)* +1 . Again, each of the factors x+ay, x+a?y, 
. .. x-\-a x ~ l y is divisible once, and once only, by 1 — a; whence it follows 
that x+y is divisible by (I— a) mK ~ K+1 , and that no two of the X factors of 
x K +y K have any other common divisor than I— ex.. Hence the X factors 
x+y %+a.y x+a K ~ 1 y 

(1— «)«*-*+!' T=o"' 1-a 

are relatively prime, and may be represented by expressions of the form 

e o(«)0o A > «i(*)0i\ e*_,(a)^_,\ 

e o (°0> e i (*)> • • • representing units, and f*, ff, Xth powers prime to 

1 — a. Eliminating x and y from the three equations 

x+y =«.(«) (1-ar^+V. 

x + a r y=e r (cc)(l— a)^./, 
x + a, s y=e s (a.)(l — a)0 s \ 
we obtain a result of the form 

r x + e < a )^ x =E I ( a )(l-a)^- , ' x ^, ... (2) 

e(a) and E, (a) denoting two units. But, as in the former case, it may 
be shown that r A and f s K are congruous, mod X, to real integers, and 
(1 — a) (m_1 *=(), mod X, because m>l. Hence e (a) is also congruous to 
a real integer for the modulus X, and is therefore a perfect Xth power by a 
property of every non-exceptional prime (see art. 52). The equation (2) 
therefore assumes the form 

* 1 ,l +^ A =E 1 ( a )^(l-«) {B! - ,)A . 

If, therefore, the proposed equation (1) be possible, it will follow, by suc- 
cessive applications of this reduction, that the equation 

x x +y K =E(a)(l-afz K 

is also possible. But this equation has been shown to be impossible; the 
equation (1) is therefore p.Iso impossible. 

62. Application to the Theory of Numerical Equations. — In the Monats- 
berichte for June 20, 1853 (see also the Monatsberichte for 1856, p. 203), 
M. Kronecker has enunciated ihe following theorem: — 

" The roots of any Abelian equation, the coefficients of which are integral 
numbers, are rational functions of roots of unity." The demonstration of 
this theorem (Monatsberichte for 1853, p. 371-373) depends on a compa- 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS, 153 

risen of a certain form, of which the resolvent function of any Abelian 
equation is susceptible, with M. Kummer's expression for the resolvent func- 
tion in the case of the equation of the division of the circle (see art. 60). 
It thus involves considerations relating to ideal numbers. 

Two propositions of a more special character, and closely connected with 
one another, have also been given by M. Kronecker (Crelle, vol. liii. p. 173). 
Their demonstration is immediately deducible from the principles of Dirich- 
let's theory of complex units : — 

" If unity be the analytical modulus of every root of an equation, of which 
the first coefficient is unity and all the coefficients are integral numbers, the 
roots of the equation are roots of unity." 

"If all the roots of an equation (having its first coefficient unity and all 
its coefficients integral) be real and inferior in absolute magnitude to 2, so 
that they can be represented by expressions of the form 2 cos a, 2 cos /3, 
2 cos y, . . . . the arcs a, /3, y are commensurable with the complete circum- 
ference." 

In the following proposition M. Kronecker has extended a theorem of 
M. Kummer's (art. 42) relating to complex units composed with roots of 
unity of which the index is a prime, to complex units composed with any 
roots of unity (Crelle, vol. liii. p. 176) : — 

" Every complex unit composed with the roots of the equation w n =],can 
be rendered real by multiplication with a 4wth root of unity. If n be even, 
a 2«th root will always suffice ; and if n be a power of a prime, an wth root 
will suffice." 

The demonstration of this proposition is also deducible from Dirichlet's 
principles. 

63. Tables of Complex Primes — In M. Kummer's earliest memoir on 
complex numbers (Liouville, vol. xii. p. 206) he has given a table of the 
complex factors, composed of Xth roots of unity, which are contained in real 
primes of the form w\ + l inferior to 1000, X representing one of the primes 
5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23. This memoir was written before M. Kummer had 
considered the complex factors of primes of linear forms other than m\+l, 
and before he had introduced the conception of ideal numbers. The com- 
plex prime factors of real primes of those other linear forms are, therefore, 
not exhibited in the Table; and the five numbers of the form 22m +1, 47, 
139, 277, 461, 967, each of which contains 22 ideal factors composed of 23rd 
roots of unity, are represented as products of 11 actual factors (each of 
which contains two reciprocal ideal factors). The tentative methods by 
which the complex factors were discovered are explained in sect. 9 of the 
memoir cited. Since the full development of M. Kummer's theory, Dr. 
Reuschle has undertaken to complete and extend the Table. He has already 
given tables containing the complex prime factors of all real primes less than 
J000, composed of 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, 23rd, and 29th roots of unity, 
together with the complete solution of the congruences corresponding to the 
equations of the periods (see the Monatsberichte for 1859, pp. 488 and 
694, and for 1860, pp. 150 and 714). For 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, the complex 
primes are exhibited in a primary form ; for 19, 23, and 29 they are exhibited 
in a form which satisfies the condition /(a) =/(!), mod (1— a) 2 , but not 
the condition / (a) /(«-!) = [/(I)] 2 , mod X. The ideal factors Dr. 
Reuschle represents by their lowest actual powers ; for 23 this power is the 
cube, for 29 it is the square; for 1 1, 13, 17, 19, as well as for 5 and 7, all 
complex prime factors of real primes less than 1000 are actual. It appears 
from the Table (and it has indeed been proved by M. Kummer), that 29 is 
an "irregular determinant" (see art. 49, note) ; for the number of classes is 



154 REPORT — 1860. 

8, while the square of every ideal number (occurring as a factor of a real 
prime inferior to 1000) is actual. The methods employed by Dr. Reuschle 
in the calculation of his tables have not yet been published by him. In 
some instances, as M. Kummer has observed, they have not led him to the 
simplest possible forms of the ideal primes. 

A particular investigation relating to the ideal factors of 47, composed of 
23rd roots of unity, has been given by Mr. Cayley (Crelle, vol. lv. p. 192, 
and lvi. p. 186). 

64. The investigations relating to Laws of Reciprocity, which have so long 
occupied us in this report, have introduced us to considerations apparently 
so remote from the theory of the residues of powers of integral numbers, that 
it requires a certain effort to bear in mind their connexion with that theory. 
It will be remembered that the complex numbers to which our attention has 
been directed are not of that general kind to which we have referred in art. 41, 
but are exclusively those which are composed of roots of unity. The theory 
of complex numbers, in the widest sense of that term, does indeed present to 
us an important generalization of the theory of the residues of powers; for 
the theorem of Fermat (see art. 53) subsists alike for every species of com- 
plex numbers. But the complex numbers of Gauss, of Jacobi, and of M. 
Kummer force themselves upon our consideration, not because their proper- 
ties are generalizations of the properties of ordinary integers, but because 
certain of the properties of integral numbers can only be explained by a 
reference to them. The law of quadratic reciprocity does not, as we have 
seen, necessarily require for its demonstration any considerations other than 
those relating to ordinary integers ; the real prime numbers of arithmetic are 
here the ultimate elements that enter into the problem. But when we come 
to binomial congruences of higher orders, we find that the true elements of 
the question are no longer real primes, but certain complex factors, composed 
of roots of unity, which are, or may be conceived to be, contained in real 
primes. For we find that the law which expresses the mutual relation (with 
respect to the particular kind of congruences considered) of two of these 
complex factors is a primary and simple one ; while the corresponding rela- 
tions between the real primes themselves are composite and derivative, and, in 
consequence, complicated. It thus becomes indispensable, for the investiga- 
tion of the properties of real numbers, to construct an arithmetic of complex 
integers; and this is what has been accomplished by the researches, of which 
an account has been given in the preceding articles. 

The higher laws of reciprocity (like that of quadratic residues) may be 
considered as furnishing a criterion for the resolubility or irresolubility of 
binomial congruences ; and this, though not the only application of which they 
are susceptible, is that which most naturally suggests itself. When the bi- 
nomial congruence is cubic or biquadratic, it is easy to resolve the real prime 
modulus into factors of the {orma + bp,or a + bi (arts. 37 and 24-), and equally 
easy to determine the value of the critical symbol of reciprocity by a uni- 
form and elementary process (see art. 36). For these, therefore, as well as 
for quadratic congruences, the criterion deducible from the laws of recipro- 
city is all that can be desired. But for binomial congruences of higher 
orders this criterion is not a satisfactory one, because of the difficulty of 
obtaining the resolution of a real prime into its complex factors, and also 
because of the impossibility of determining the value of the critical symbol 
by the conversion of an ordinary fraction into a continued fraction. 

The only known criterion applicable to such congruences is the following, 
the demonstration of which is deducible from the elements of the theory of 
the residues of powers : — Let ai n =A, mod p, represent the proposed con- 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 155 

gruence; it will be resoluble or irresoluble according as the index of A is or 
is not divisible by d, the greatest common divisor of n andjo— 1, i.e. according 

as the exponent to which A appertains is or is not a divisor of ^H_ (see 

d 
arts. 14 and 15). 

65. Solutio7i of Binomial Congruences. — We now come to the problem of 
the actual solution of binomial congruences — a subject upon which our 
knowledge is confined within very narrow limits. 

When a table of indices for the prime p has been constructed, the resolu- 
tion of every binomial congruence, if it be resoluble, or, if not, the demon- 
stration of its irresolubility, is implicitly contained in it. But to use a table 
of indices for the solution of a binomial congruence is, as we have already 
observed in a similar case (art. 16), to solve a problem by means of a recorded 
solution of it. When the congruence x n =A, mod p, is resoluble, its solu- 
tion may always be made to depend on that of a congruence of the form 
x d ^a, mod p, where d is the greatest common divisor of n and p — 1, and 
where a = A s , mod p, and ns=d, mod p— 1. We may therefore suppose 
that, in the congruence x n =A, mod p, n is a divisor of p — 1. This con- 
gruence (if resoluble at all) will have as many roots as it has dimensions ; if 
i, be any one of them, and 1, 0,, 2 , . . . d»-i be the roots of the congruence 
a*==l, modp, the roots of x n =A, modp, will be £, £0 l( £0 2 , ... £d n -i ; so that 
the complete resolution of the congruence a.' a =A, mod p, requires, first, the 
determination of a single root of that congruence itself, and, secondly, the com- 
plete resolution of the congruence x"^^l, mod p. With regard to the first of 
these requisites, in the important case in which the exponent t to which A 
appertains is prime to n, a value ofx satisfying the congruence x n = A, mod p, 
can be determined by a direct method (Disq. Arith. arts. 66, 67). For, in 
this case, it will always happen that one value of a; is a certain power A k of 
A, where k is determined by the congruence #» = 1, mod t. Nor is it 
necessary, in order to determine k, to know the exponent t to which A 
appertains; it is sufficient to have ascertained that it is prime to n; for, if 
we resolve/*— 1 into two factors prime to one another, and such that one of 
them is divisible by n and contains no prime not contained in n, the other 
will be divisible by t, and may be employed as modulus instead of t in the 
congruence %n=l, mod t. When this method is inapplicable, we can only 
investigate a root of the congruence .t"=A, mod p (where A is different 
from 1), by tentative processes, which, however, admit of certain abbreviations 
(Disq. Arith. arts. 67, 68). The work of Poinsot (Reflexions sur la Theorie 
des Nombres, cap. iv. p. 60) contains a very full and elegant exposition of 
the theory of binomial congruences; but neither he nor anv other writer 
subsequent to Gauss has been able to add any other direct method to that 
which we have just mentioned. 

66. Solution of the Congruence x n =l, mod p. — When a single root of the 
congruence x n =A is known, we may, as we have seen, complete its resolu- 
tion by obtaining all the roots of the congruence £"=1, mod p. The methods 
of Gauss, Lagrange, and Abel for the solution of the binomial equation 
a-"— 1=0 are in a certain sense applicable to binomial congruences of this 
special form. It is evident, from a comparison of several passages in the Dis- 
quisitiones Arithmetica? *, that Gauss himself contemplated this arithmetical 
application of his theory of the division of the circle, and that he intended to 
include it in the 8th section of his work, which, however, has never been 
given to the world. In fact, the method of Abelf which comprehends that 

* See Disq. Arith. arts. 61, 73, and especially art. 335. 

t See Abel's memoir, " Sur une classe particuliere d'equations resolubles algebriquement," 



156 REPORT 1860. 

of Gauss, and which gives the solution of any Abelian equation, is equally 
applicable to any Abelian congruence; i. e. to any completely resoluble con- 
gruence of order m, the m roots of which (considered with regard to the 
prime modulus p) may be represented by the series of terms 

r,#(r>f a (r)....f-»(r> 
the symbol <j> denoting a given rational [fractional or integral] function. 
And as we can always express the roots of an Abelian equation by radicals 
(i.e. by the roots of equations of two terms), so also the solution of an Abelian 
congruence depends ultimately on the solution of binomial congruences. 
When, for any prime modulus, an Abelian equation admits of being con- 
sidered as an Abelian congruence, so precise is the correspondence of the 
equation and the congruence, that (as Poinsot has observed in a memoir 
in which he has occupied himself with the comparative analysis of the equa- 
tion ai n =l, and the congruence x n =l, mod p*) we may consider the ana- 
lytical expression of the roots of the equation as also containing an expression 
of the roots of the congruence ; and by giving a congruential interpretation f 
to the radical signs which occur in that expression, we may elicit from it the 
actual values of the roots of the congruence. An example taken from 
Poinsot's memoir will render this intelligible j. The six roots of the equation 
a; 7 — I 

. =0 are comprised in the formula 

x— 1 

l + V 



x=- 



5 +HH^ + §^? + HH^-i'# 



6 

where the signs + and — are to be successively attributed to V — 7, and 
where the product of the two cube roots is + V — 7, or — V — 7, according 
to the sign attributed to V — 7, Considering the equation as a congruence 
with regard to the modulus 43, and observing that 

V^7= ±6, mod 43, V2l= ± 8, mod 43, 
we obtain in the first place 

x = ^-f-^x/ie +JV 7 - 8, mod 43, 

and x==— g-f-^ x/22+ g ^/ — % mod 43, 

the product of the two cube roots being congruous to 4-6 in the first formula, 
and to —6 in the second ; and finally, observing that 

v/16 = 21, — 3, —18, mod 43, 

Z/^8 = 14,-2,-12, mod 43, 

1^22 = — 15, — 4, 19, mod 43, 

^/32 =+ 9, —20, +11, mod 43, 

sect. 3 (CEuvres, vol. i. p. 114, or Crelle, vol. iv. p. 131), and M. Serret's Algebre Superieure, 
26th and 27th lessons. 

* "Sur l'Application de l'Algebre a la Theorie des Nombrcs," Memoires de l'Academie 
des Sciences, vol. iv. p. 99. 

t Gauss employs the symbol \/ A, mod/;, to denote a root of the congruence *" = A, rnod^, 

r> 

just as he emplovs the symbol —, mod p, to denote the root of the congruence A.r=13, 

A 

mod p. The congruential radical f/\, mod /;, has of course as many values as the con- 
gruence ;r n =A, mod p, has solutions; if that congruence be irrcsoluble, the symbol is im- 
possible. 
J See the memoir cited above, p. 125, 



ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS. 157 

and attending to the limitation to which the cube roots are subject, 

ar==— 8, +11, +21, or, -2,+4, +16; mod 43. 

Thus the complete solution of a congruence of the sixth order is obtained by 
means of binomial congruences of the second and third orders only. 

An essential limitation to the usefulness of this method arises from the cir- 
cumstance that it does not always (or even in general) happen that (as in 
the example just given) each surd entering into the expression of the root 
becomes separately rational. For that expression may itself acquire a rational 
value, while certain surds contained in it continue irrational, precisely as, in 
the irreducible case of cubic equations, a real quantity is represented by an 
imaginary formula. To illustrate this point by an example, let us consider 

^ i 

the same congruence =0 with respect to the modulus 29| Here in 

x—l 

the expression 
•1+ V^7 



x=- 



where p denotes a cube root of unity, we have, putting V— 7^ +14, and. 
P = l, 

the irrational cube roots disappearing of themselves. Again, putting 



P=k-l±V-3), 



we find 



*=7± 3 



iv^(|v2i)w+(^y 



~7 + (7)*=7±16 = -6 or -9, 
where every radical becomes rational of itself. Similarly taking the values 
V^7 = — 14, p=o( — !± ^ — 3). we find x = — 5 or — J3. But lastly, 
putting V^7= — 14, p=l, we find 

x=]2 + g [14 + 7 V«]*+g [14-7^2]*. 

To rationalize this expression, we have to observe that 14 + 7 V2, relatively 
to the modulus 29, is the cube of a complex number of similar form ; in fact, 
we have (14±7 V2)=(5±ll V2) 3 , mod 29, whence x=— 4. To elicit, 
therefore, the value of this root from the irrational formula, we are obliged to 
solve the cubic congruence # 3 = 14 + 7 V2, which, although of lower dimen- 
sions than the proposed congruence, is probably less easy to solve tentatively, 
because 29 has 29" — 1 =840 residues of the form a + b V2, and only 29 — 1 
= 28 ordinary integral residues; so that practically the method fails. Theo- 
retically, however, the relation between the analytical expression of the 
equation-roots and the values of the congruence-roots is of considerable 
importance, and the subject would certainly repay a closer examination 
than it has yet received. We may add that, if m be a divisor of p — 1, 

% Ibid. p. 132. 



158 REPORT — 1860. 

the complete solution of an Abelian congruence of order m requires only 
two things, — 1st, the complete solution of the congruence x m — 1^0, 
mod p, and, 2ndly, the determination of a single root of a certain con- 
gruence of the form x m — #=0, mod p, in which a is an ordinary integer; 

so that in this case (which is that of the congruence =0, mod 43) 

we obtain a real, and not only an apparent reduction of the proposed con- 
gruence*. 

It should also be observed that the primitive roots of the equation 

%n J 

= furnish, when rationalized, the primitive roots of the congruence 

x — 1 

%n J 

=0, mod p. This, the only direct method that has ever been suggested 

x — 1 

for the determination of a primitive root, appears to be the same as that 

referred to by Gauss in the Disq. Arith. (art. 73). 

Poinsot expresses the conviction that this method of rationalization is 
applicable to any congruence corresponding to an equation, the roots of 
wfaich can be expressed by radicalsf. With regard to equations of the 
second, third, and fourth orders this is certainly true. If, for example, the 
biquadratic equation F 4 (.t)=0 be completely resoluble when considered as 
a congruence for the modulus p, so that F 4 (#) = (x — «j) (x — a 2 ) (x — a 3 ) 
(or — a,), mod p, it is plain that the four roots of F(a')=0, and the four 
numbers o„ a 2 , « 3 , a 4 may be obtained by substituting, in the general formula 
which expresses the root of any biquadratic equation as an irrational function 
of its coefficients, the values of the coefficients of the functions F(#) and 
(x—a^)(x — a 2 )(# — a 3 ) (x — « 4 ) respectively. But these two sets of coeffi- 
cients differ only by multiples of p; i. e. the values of a x , a 2 , a 3 , a t can be 
deduced from the expressions of the roots of F(;r)=0 by adding multiples 
of p to the numbers which enter into those expression <. But this reasoning 
ceases to be applicable to equations of an order higher than the fourth, 
because no general formula exists representing the roots of an equation of 
the fifth or any higher order. If, therefore, F(.r)=0 be an equation of the 
nth order, the roots of which can be expressed by a radical formula, and 
which is also completely resoluble when considered as a congruence for the 
modulus p, so that F(a,')=(.r — a t )(x — «„)... (x — a n ), mod jo, it will not 
necessarily follow that the formula which gives the roots of F(#)=0 is also 
capable (when we add multiples of p to the numbers contained in it) of 
giving the roots of (x — a 1 )(x — a.,) . . . (x — a„) = 0, i. e. the roots of the con- 
gruence F(#)=0, mod p; and thus the principle enunciated by M. Poinsot 
is, it would seem, not rigorously demonstrated. 

67. Cubic and Biquadratic Congruences The reduction of cubic con- 
gruences to binomial ones has been treated of by Cauchy (Exercices des 
Mathematiques, vol. iv. p. 279), and more completely by M. Oltramare 
(Crelle, vol. xlv. p. 314). Some cases of biquadratic congruences are also 
considered by Cauchy in the memoir cited, p. 286. The following criteria 
for the resolubility or irresolubility of cubic congruences include the results 
obtained by M. Oltramare, /. c, and appear sufficiently simple to deserve 
insertion here : — 

Let the given cubic congruence be 

* This will be at once evident, if we observe that when the congruence x m =\, modjt/, 
is completely resoluble, its roots may be employed to replace, in Abel's method, the roots of 
the equation x m — 1 = 0. 

t See the memoir cited above, p. 107, and M. Libri, Memoires de Mathematique et Phy- 
sique, p. 63. 






ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 159 

ad 3 + 3bd 2 +3cd+d=0, modp, 

p denoting a prime greater than 3, which does not divide the discriminant of 
the congruence; i.e., the number 

D= -a 2 d 2 + 6abcd-iac 3 -4db 3 + 3b 2 c 2 ; 
and in connexion with the congruence consider the allied system of functions* 
U=(a,b,c,d) (x,y) 3 , 
H=(ac—b 2 , \(ad—bc), bd—c 2 ) (x,y) 2 , 

<b=(—a 2 d+3abc-2b 3 , -abd+2ac a +b 2 c, acd-<2b 2 d+bc 2 , 
ad 2 -3bcd+2c 3 ) (x,y) 3 , 
which are connected by the equation 

<J> 2 + Dw 2 =-4H 3 ; 
let also u and <j> denote the values of U and $ corresponding to any given 
values of x and y, which do not render H=0, modp. Then, if (I_\=_i, 

the congruence has always one and only one real root; if (1— )= + !, it has 

either three real roots, or none : viz., if (?^ + w A = + 1, it has three; 
V P h 

if/ 2 ^" 1 " ~ — l\=p ) or =p 2 , it has none. The interpretation of the 

cubic symbol of reciprocity will present no difficulty if we observe that V — D, 
modp, is a real integer if p=3n+l, i.e. if ( ) = 1> an< ^ tnat > ^ p=3n— 1, 

i.e. if (-— j = — 1, we have >J~—b=*/~^3x Vp>=(p— p 2 )V|D, modp, 

so that V — D, mod p, is a complex integer involving p. It will however be 
observed that the application of the criterion requires in either case the solu- 
tion of a quadratic congruence, »- 2 = — D, modp, or r 2 =^D, mod p. 

Similar, but of course less simple, criteria for the resolubility or irresolu- 
bility of biquadratic congruences may be deduced from the known formulae 
for the solution of biquadratic equations. 

68. Quadratic Congruences — Indirect Methods of Solution. — The general 
form of a quadratic congruence is ax 2 -{-2bx-\-c=0, modp, — p denoting an 
uneven prime modulus, and a a number prime top. It may be immediately 
reduced to the binomial form r 2 =D, mod p, by putting r=ax+b, Dss6 2 
— ac, mod p. The number of its solutions is 2, 0, or 1, according as D is a 
quadratic residue or non-residue of p, or is divisible by p, and is therefore 

in every case expressed by the formula l+( — ). 

Ifp=4w + i3, and I — ) = 1> tne congruence r 2 — D=0, modp, is satisfied 

by ?-=D" +1 , and r=— D n+1 , and is in fact resoluble by the direct method 
of art. 65. But no direct method, applicable to the case when p = 4w+l, 
is at present known. Two tentative methods are proposed in the sixth sec- 
tion of the Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. They are both applicable to con- 
gruences with composite as well as with prime modules. This circumstance 

* See a note by Mr. Cayley in Crelle's Journal, vol. 1. p. 285. 



160 REPORT — 1860. 

is important, because, when the modulus is a very great number, we may not 
be able to tell whether it is prime or composite, and, if composite, what the 
primes are of which it is composed, although, when the prime divisors of a 
composite modulus are known, it is simplest first to solve the congruence for 
each of them separately, and afterwards (by a method to which we shall 
hereafter refer) to deduce from these solutions the solution for the given 
composite modulus. To apply the first of Gauss's methods, the congruence 
is written in the form ?- 2 = D + Py, P denoting the modulus. If in the formula 
V=D + Py we substitute for y in succession all integral values which satisfy 

the inequality — „ < y<i P— tj> and select those values of V which are per- 
fect squares, their roots (taken positively and negatively) will give us all the 
solutions of the congruence. We should thus have I|P or 1 -f-I \ P trials to 
make, I denoting the greatest integer contained in the fraction before which it 
is placed. If, however, we take any number E, greater than 2, and prime to 
P (it is simplest to take for E a prime, or power of a prime), of which the 
quadratic non-residues are a, b, c,..., and then determine the values of a, /3, y, 
... in the congruences a=D + «P, mod E, 6=D-f/3P, mod E, &c, -we shall 
find that every value of y contained in one of the linear forms mE + a, 
w*E+/3, &c, gives rise to a value of V which is a quadratic non-residue of 
E, and which cannot, therefore, be a perfect square ; so that we may at once 
exclude these values of y from the series of numbers to be tried. A second 
excludent E' may then be taken, and by its aid another set of linear forms 
may be determined, such that no value of y contained in them can satisfy 
the congruence. Thus the number of trials may be diminished as far as 
we please. The application of this method is still further facilitated by the 
circumstance that it is not necessary actually to solve the congruences 
fl=D+aP, mod E, . . . but only the single congruence D + Py=0, mod E 
(Disq. Arith. art. 322). Gauss's second method depends on the theory of 
quadratic forms; it supposes that the congruence is written in the form 
^-(-DssO, mod P. By a tentative process (abbreviated, as in the first 
method, by the use of excludents) Gauss obtains all possible prime representa- 
tions of P by the quadratic forms of determinant — D; whence the com- 
plete solution of the congruence r 2 -fD=0, mod P, is immediately deduced. 
This method involves the construction of a complete system of quadratic 
forms of determinant — D, or, if the prime factors of D be known, of one 
genus of forms of that system ; it becomes therefore more difficult of appli- 
cation as D increases, whereas the first method is not affected by the increase 
of D. The second method, however, especially recommends itself when P is 
a very great number ; in fact, if we do not employ any excludent, the number 
of trials required by the first method varies (approximately, and when P is 
a great number) as P, whereas, on the same j>upposition, the number of trials 
required by the second method varies as VDx vP. 

M. Desmarest (in his Theorie des Nombres) has proposed a method less 
scientific in its character than those of Gauss, but sometimes easily applicable 
in practice. He has shown that if the congruence ? >2 + D=0, mod P, be re- 
soluble, we can always satisfy the equation mP=x 2 + Dy i with a value of 

p 
m inferior to —- + 3, and of y not superior to 3. The demonstration of this 

16 
theorem is not very satisfactory, and the number of trials that it still leaves 

is very great, viz. 3 ( l-^- + 3 ). 

The application of Gauss's second method is rendered somewhat more uni- 



OX THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 161 

form, and at the same time the necessity for constructing a system of qua- 
dratic forms of determinant — D is avoided by the following modification of 
it: — By a known property of quadratic forms, whenever the congruence 
r 2 +D=0, mod P, is resoluble, the equation mP=r+Dy is resoluble for 

some value of m < 2*/?. By assigning, therefore, to m all values in suc- 
cession which are inferior to that limit, and which satisfy the condition 
( f)) = ( f))' anc * tIien obtaining (by Gauss's method) all prime representa- 
tions of the resulting products by the form a^-j-Dy 5 , we shall have r~± — 



x" 



r = ± -ff> mod P, x', y', x", y" etc. denoting the different pairs of values 

of a: and y in the equation mP=x 2 + Dy 2 . 

69. General Theory of Congruences — We may infer from several passages 
in the Disquisitiones Arithmeticse, that Gauss intended to give a general 
theory of congruences of every order in the 8th section of his work, and 
that, at the time of its publication, he was already in possession of the prin- 
cipal theorems relating to the subject*. These theorems were, however, 
first given by Evariste Galoist, in a note published in the Bulletin de Ferus- 
sac for June, 1830 (vol. xiii. p. 438), and reprinted in Liouville's Journal, 
vol. xi. p. 398. An account of Galois's method (completed and extended in 
some respects) will be found in M. Serret's Cours d'Algebre Superieure, 
lecon 25. The theory has also been independently investigated by iVL Schoe- 
nemann, who seems to have been unacquainted with the earlier researches of 
Galois (see Crelle's Journal, vol. xxxi. p. 269, and vol. xxxii. p. 93). In 
several of Cauchy's arithmetical memoirs (see in particular Exercices de 
Mathematiques, vol. i. p. 160, vol. iv. p. 217; Comptes Rendus, vol. xxiv. 
p. 1117; Exercices d'Analyse et de Physique Mathematique, vol. iv. p. 87) 
we find observations and theorems relating to it. Lastly, in a memoir in 
Crelle's Journal (vol. liv. p. 1) M. Dedekind has given (with important 
accessions) an excellent and lucid resume of the results obtained by his pre- 
decessors. 

In the following account of the principles of this theory, the functional 
symbols F, cp, \p, . . . will represent (as in general throughout this Report) 
rational and integral functions having integral coefficients; we shall use j9 
to denote a prime modulus, and x an absolutely indeterminate quantity. As 
we shall have to consider the functions F(x),f(x), ^(x), etc., only in relation 
to the modulus/*, we shall consider two functions F, (x) and F 2 (x), which 
differ only by multiples of p, as identical, and we shall represent their identity 
by the congruence ? x (#)=F 2 (x), mod p, which is equivalent to an identical 
equation of the form F 1 (x) = F 2 (x)+pp(x). The designation "modular 
function," which has been introduced by Cauchy (Comptes Rendus, vol. xxiv. 
p. 11 18) will serve (though, perhaps, not in itself very appropriate) to indicate 
that the function to which it is applied is thus considered in relation to a 

* See Disq. Arith. art. 11 and 43. 

t Galois was born October 26, 181 1, and lost his life in a duel, May 30, 1832. He was 
consequently eighteen at the time of the publication of the note referred to in the text. His 
mathematical works are collected in Liouville's Journal, vol. xi. p. 331. Obscure and frag- 
mentary as some of these papers are, they nevertheless evince an extraordinary genius, un- 
paralleled, perhaps, for its early maturity," except by that of Pascal. It is impossible to read 
without emotion the letter in which, on the day before his death and in anticipation of it, 
Galois endeavours to rescue from oblivion the unfinished researches which have given him a 
place for ever iu the history of mathematical science. 

I860. M 



162 REPORT — 1860. 

prime modulus. Since in any modular function we may omit those terms 
the coefficients of which are multiples of p, we shall always suppose that 
the coefficient of the highest power of a; in the function is prime top. 

If F(x)=f(x)xf(x), mod p, f(x) and/ 2 (,r) are each of them said to 
be divisors of F(x) for the modulus p, or, more briefly, modular divisors of 
F(#), or even simply divisors of F(x) when no ambiguity can arise from this 
elliptical mode of expression. If a be a function of order zero, i. e. an integral 
number prime to p, a is a divisor, for the modulus/?, of every other modular 
function ; so that we may consider the p— 1 terms a v a. 2 , a 3 , . . . Op_i, of a 
system of residues prime to p, as the units of this theory, and, in any set of 
p— 1 associated functions 

a l F (x), a 2 F(x) a p - x F(x), 

we may distinguish that one as primary in which the highest coefficient is 
congruous to unity (mod p). 

If F(x) be a function which is divisible (mod p) by no other function 
(except the units and its own associates), F(x) is said to be a prime or irre- 
ducible function for the modulus p. And it is a fundamental proposition in 
this theory, that every modular function can be expressed in one way, and 
one way only, as the product of a unit by the powers of primary irreducible 
modular functions. The demonstration of this theorem depends (precisely 
as in the case of ordinary integral numbers) on Euclid's process for finding 
the greatest common divisor, which, it is easy to show, is applicable to the 
modular functions we are considering here. For, if fa (x) and fa (x) be two 
such functions [the degree of fa(x) being not higher than that of fa(x)], 
we can always form the series of congruences 

fa(x)=q 1 (x) i^^ + r^^x), modp, 
fa(x)=q 2 (x)fa(x) + r 2 fa(x), modp, 



in which r v r 2 , . . . denote integral numbers, q x (x), q 2 (x), . . . modular func- 
tions, and fa(x), fa^(x), .... primary modular functions, the orders of which 
are successively lower and lower, until we arrive at a congruence 

fak(x)^q k(x) fak+i (x) + r k <t> k+2 (x), modp, 

in which r£=0, mod p. The function <j>k+\ (x) is then the greatest common 
divisor (mod p) of the given functions fa(x) and fa(x); and, in particular, 
if faic+i(x) be of order zero, those two functions are relatively prime. We 
may add that, if R be the Residtant of fa(x) and ^ 2 (^), the necessary and 
sufficient condition that these functions should have a common modular 
divisor of an order higher than zero is contained in the congruence R=0, 
mod p* — a theorem exactly corresponding to an important algebraical pro- 
position. From the nature of the process by which the greatest common 
divisor is determined, we may infer the fundamental proposition enunciated 
above, by precisely the same reasoning which establishes the corresponding 
theorem in common arithmetic. Similarly, we may obtain the solution of 
the following useful problem : — " Given two relatively prime modular func- 
tions A m and A„, of the orders m and n, to find two other functions, of the 
orders m— 1 and n — 1 respectively, which satisfy the congruence 
A m X n _! — A„X m _i=l, mod p." 

* See Cauchy, Exercices de Mathematiques, vol. i. p. 160, or M. Libri, Memoires de Mathe- 
matique et de Physique, pp. 73, 74. But a proof of this proposition is really contained in 
Lagrange's Additions to Euler's Algebra (sect. 4). 



ON THE THEORY OP NUMBERS. 163 

The assertion that/(V) is a divisor of F(#), for the modulus p is for 
brevity expressed by the congruential formula 

¥(x)=0, mod O, /(#)], 

which represents an equation of the form 

¥(x)=pcj>(x)+f(x)^(x). 

Similarly the congruence ¥ l (x)^¥ 2 (x), mod \_p, /(#)], is equivalent to 
the equation 

F 1 (x) = F 2 (x) + p<p(x)+f(x)4,(x). 
If f(x) be a function of order m, it is evident that any given function is 
congruous, for the compound modulus [p,f(x)2 to one > an( ^ one on 'y> °f 
the p m functions contained in the formula a -\-a 1 x-\- . . . -\-a m —\ x m ~ ', in 
which a , a v ... « m _i may have any values from zero to p — 1 inclusive. 
These p m functions, therefore, represent a complete system of residues for 
the modulus Qp,/(#)]. 

A congruence F(X)=0, mod \_p,f(oc)~], is said to be solved when a func- 
tional value is assigned to X whicli renders the left-hand member divisible 
byy(.r) for the modulus p; and the number of solutions of the congruence 
is the number of functional values (incongruous mod [/>,/(#)]) which may 
be attributed to X. The coefficients of the powers of X in the function F(X) 
may be integral numbers or functions of x. The linear congruence AX= B, 
mod C/>>/(^)], in which A and B denote two modular functions, is, in 
particular, always resoluble when A is prime tof(x), mod p, and admits, in 
that case, of only one solution. 

We shall now suppose that the function f(x) in the compound modulus 
[_Ptf(%)~\ is irreducible for the modulus p, — a supposition which involves the 
consequence that, if a product of two factors be congruous to zero for the 
modulus [p,f(%)~], one > at least, of those factors is separately congruous to 
zero for the same modulus. We thus obtain the principle (cf. art. 11) that 
no congruence can have more solutions, for an irreducible compound modu- 
lus, than it has dimensions. For, if X=£, mod [?>,/('#)], satisfy the con- 
gruence F m (X)=0, mod [p,f(%)~\, we find 

F m (X) = F m (X)-F m (0=(X-OF m _,(X), mod O /(*)], 

F m _ 1 (X) denoting a new function of order m — 1, whence it follows that if 
the principle be true for a congruence of m — 1 dimensions, it is also true for 
one of m dimensions; i. e. it is true universally. 

70. Extension of Fer mat's Theorem Let0 denote any one of the p m — 1 

residues of the modulus [_p, f(x)~] which are prime to f(x) ; it may be 
shown, by a proof exactly similar to Dirichlet's proof of Fermat's theorem, 
that 

B^-issl, mod O, /(*)] (A) 

This result, which is evidently an extension of Fermat's theorem, involves 
several important consequences. 

It implies, in the first place, the existence of a theory of residues of powers 
of modular functions, with respect to a compound modulus, precisely similar 
to the theory of the residues of the powers of integral numbers with regard 
to a common prime modulus. A single example (taken from M. Dedekind's 
memoir) will suffice to show the exact correspondence of the two theories. 
The modular function 6 is or is not a quadratic residue of f(x), for the 
modulus p, according as it is or is not possible to satisfy the quadratic con- 
gruence X 2 =0, mod \_p,f(x)~\. In the former case 6 satisfies the congruence 

m 2 



164 REPORT — 1860. 

0j(P m -»=l, mod [>,/(>)]; in the latter, 04O> m -D=— 1, mod [>, /(*)]• 
And, further, if 6^ and 0. 2 be two primary irreducible modular functions of 

the orders m and n respectively, and if we use the symbols -J and -2 to 
denote the positive or negative units which satisfy the congruences 6i(P n -' l '> 
= P-±] , mod (p, 2 ), and 2 4 {l ' m ~ l) = T^l , mod (j>, d,), respectively, these 

two symbols are connected by the law of reciprocity -1 =(— 1)"" \ -~\- 

But the equation (A) admits also of an immediate application to the theory 
of ordinary congruences with a simple prime modulus. 

In that equation let us assign to 6 the particular value x ; Ave conclude that 
the function ccp 1 "- 1 — 1, is divisible for the modulus p by/(#), *.«• by every 
irreducible modular function of order m. Further, if d be a divisor of m, 
xP m - 1 — 1 is algebraically divisible by xP d ~ l — 1 ; whence it appears that 
x p m -\ — J j s divisible, for the modulus p, by every function of which the 
order is a divisor of m. But it is easily shown that xP m ~ l — 1 is not divisible 
(mod p) by any other modular function, and that it cannot contain any 
multiple modular factors. Hence we have the indeterminate congruence 

#p»-i_1 ==n/0), mod p, (B) 

in which f(je) denotes any primary and irreducible function, the order of 
which is a divisor of m, and the sign of multiplication II extends to every 
value of f{x). This theorem, again, is a generalization of Lagrange's inde- 
terminate congruence (art. 10). We may infer from it that, when m is >1, 
the number of primary functions of order m, which are irreducible for the 
modulus^, is 

i r — m m ~i 

q x , q 2 , . . .denoting the different prime divisors of m. As this expression is 
always different from zero, it follows that there exist functions of any given 
order, which are irreducible for the modulus p. 

A congruence F(.r) = 0, mod p, may be considered resolved when we 
have expressed its left-hand member as a product of irreducible modular 
factors. The linear factors (if any) then give the real solutions ; the factors 
of higher orders may be supposed to represent imaginary solutions. We have 
already observed that even when all the modular factors of F(.r) are linear, 
we possess no general and direct method by which they can be assigned ; it 
is hardly necessary to add that the problem of the direct determination of 
modular factors of higher orders than the first, presents even greater diffi- 
culties. Nevertheless the congruence (B) enables us to advance one step 
toward the decomposition of F(.r) into its irreducible factors; for, by means 
of it, we can separate those divisors of F(.r) which are of the same order, 
not, indeed, from one another, but from all its other divisors. We may first 
of all suppose that F(.r) is cleared of its multiple factors, which may be 
done, as in algebra, by investigating the greatest common divisor of F(.r) 
and F'(.r) for the modulus p. The greatest common divisor (mod p) of 
F(#) and ccP~ l — 1 will then give us the product of all the linear modular 
factors of F(^); let F(.r) be divided (mod p) by that product, and let the 
quotient be F,(.r); the greatest common divisor (mod p) of F 1 (x) and 
scp" 1 - 1 — 1 will give us the product of the irreducible quadratic factors of F (a-*); 






ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 165 

and by continuing this process, we shall obtain the partial resolution of T(x) 
to which we have referred. 

71. Imaginary Solutions of a Congruence. — We have said that the non- 
linear modular factors of F(.r)=0, mod p, may be considered to represent 
imaginary solutions. These imaginary solutions can be actually exhibited, 
if we allow ourselves to assign to x certain complex values. The following 
proposition, which shows in what manner this may be effected, is due to 
Galois : — 

"If f(x) represent an irreducible modular function of order m, the con- 
gruence 

F(fl)=0, mod !>/<»]. 

is completely resoluble when F(x) is an irreducible modular function of 
order in, or of any order the index of which is a divisor of in." 

To establish this theorem, write for x in equation (B); we find Op™- 1 — 1 
=11 F(0), mod />, the sign of multiplication n extending to every irreducible 
modular function having m or a divisor of m for the index of its order. 
But the congruence 0P m - 1 ==l, mod [jo, /(#)], admits of as many roots as 
it has dimensions; therefore also every divisor of flp'"- 1 — ], and, in particular, 
the function F(0) considered as a congruence for the same compound modu- 
lus, admits of as many roots as it has dimensions. 

Let the order of the congruence F(0)=O, mod [jo, /(#)], be S, and let 
any one of its roots be represented by r ; it may be shown that all its roots 
are represented by the terms of the series r, rP, rP 2 , . . . rP s ~ l . For, if 
F(r)=0, mod [>,/(»], we have also F(rP)=[F(r)]/'=0, mod [p,f(x)j, 
and similarly F(7-/> 2 ) = [F(r)]^=0, mod p; so that r, rP, rP 2 , . . . rP s ~ x are 
all roots of F(0)=O, mod Ljp, /(»)]. It remains to show that these $ func- 
tions are all incongruous, mod [jo, /(#)]. If possible let rP k+k '^rP k ', 
mod lp,f(x)'], h and k' being less than I; we have, raising each side of this 
congruence to the power p s ~ k ', r p s+k =rP s , mod ip,f(x)~], i.e. rP k =r, or 
r p k -i = l, mod [/»,/(*)], observing that rP*=r, mod [jo,/(»], because 
r p s ~ l — l i s divisible by F(V) for the modulus p. We conclude, therefore, 
that r is a root, mod \_p, /(#)], of some irreducible modular divisor of the 
function Qp k -i — 1, i. e. of some irreducible function of an order lower than d, 
because k is less than 2; r is therefore a root, mod [£>,/(#)], of two different 
irreducible modular functions, which is impossible. 

If, therefore, we suppose x to represent, not an indeterminate quantity, 
but a root of the equation f(x)=0, we may enunciate Galois' theorem as 
follows : — 

" Every irreducible congruence of order in is completely resoluble in com- 
plex numbers composed with roots of any equation which is irreducible for 
the modulus jo, and which has m or a multiple of in for the index of its order. 

"Anil all its roots may be expressed as the powers of any one of them." 

72. Congruences having Powers of Primes for their Modules.— \t remains 
for us to advert to the theory of congruences with composite modules — a sub- 
ject to which (if we except the case of binomial congruences) it would seem 
that the attention of arithmeticians has not been much directed. We shall 
suppose, first, that (he modulus is a power of a prime number. 

The theorem of Lagrange (art. If), and the more general proposition of 
art. 69, in which it is (as we have seen) included, cannot be extended to 
congruences having powers of primes for their modules. 

Let the proposed congruence be F(a-) = 0, modjo" 1 ; and let us suppose 
(what is here a restriction in the generality of the problem) that the coeffi. 



166 REPORT — 1860. 

cient of the highest power of a; in T(x) is prime top, or, which comes to the 
same thing, that it is unity. Let F (x) == PxQ X R . . . mod p, — P, Q, R, 
. . . being powers of different irreducible modular functions. It may then be 
shown that F (x) == P X Q' X R' . . . , mod p m , where P', Q', R', . . . are func- 
tions of the same order as P, Q, R, . . . , respectively congruous to them for 
the modulus p, and deducible from them by the solution of linear congru- 
ences only. We have thus the theorem that F (x), considered with respect 
to the modulus p m , can always be resolved in one way and in one way only, 
into a product of modular functions, each of which is relatively prime (for the 
modulus/?) to all the rest, and is congruous (for the same modulus/)) to a 
power of an irreducible function. We may therefore replace the congruence 
F(#) = 0, modp m , by the congruences P' = 0, modjo'", Q' = 0, mod p m , 
R'^0, mod p m , . . . But no general investigation appears to have been given 
of the peculiarities that may be presented by a congruence of the form 
P'^0, mod p m , in the case in which P is a power of an irreducible function 
(mod p), and not itself such a function — a supposition which implies that the 
discriminant of F(#) is divisible by p. If, however, P be itself an irreduci- 
ble function, the congruence P' = 0, mod p m , gives us one and only one solu- 
tion of the given congruence if P be linear, or, if P be not linear, it may be 
considered as representing as many imaginary solutions as it has dimensions. 
In particular, if we consider the case in which all the divisors P, Q, R, ... 
are linear, we obtain the theorem : — 

"Every congruence which considered with respect to the modulus p has 
as many incongruous solutions as it has dimensions, is also completely reso- 
luble for the modulus j? m , having as many roots as it has dimensions, and no 
more." 

If £=0^, modp, be a solution of the congruence F (#) = 0, mod/?, and 
if that congruence have no other root congruous to a v the corresponding 
solution x = a m , mod /? m , of the congruence F (r) = 0, mod /?'", may be ob- 
tained by the solution of linear congruences only — a proposition which is in- 
cluded in a preceding and more general observation. The process is as 
follows: — If, in the equation 

F(a 1 + kp) = F(a l )+/>pT'(a 1 ) + ^¥"(a l ) + ..., 

we determine k by the congruence — F (a x ) + kF' (a^^O, mod /?, (which is 

always possible because the hypothesis that (.r — a,) 2 is not a divisor of 
F (#), mod p, implies that F'(«j) is not divisible by /?*), and then put a 2 ^ 
a 1 + kp, mod/? 2 , we have F(a 2 ) = 0, mod p 2 . Similarly, from the expansion 

F(a 2 + fy 2 )=F(a 2 )+A/? 2 F' (o a ) + ..., 

a value of k may be deduced which satisfies the congruence F(or 2 -|-#/? 2 )=0, 
or F(a 3 )=0, mod p 3 ; and so on continually until we arrive at a congruence 
of the form F (a my ) = 0, mod p m . But when F (x) is divisible (for the 
modulus/?) by (x — a) 2 or a higher power of x — a, the congruence F(\r)=0, 
mod p m , is either irresoluble or has a plurality of roots incongruous for the 
modulus p m , but all congruous to a for the modulus p. Thus the congruence 
(x — a) 2 +kp(x — 6)=0, mod p 2 , is irresoluble, unless a^b, mod p ; whereas 
if that condition be satisfied, it admits of p incongruous solutions, comprised 
in the formula #=a+^p, mod p 2 , /i=0, 1, 2, 3, . .p— ] . 

" If F (x) s (x— aj) (x), modp, where (a^ is not divisible hyp, we have F' (x) = 
^ (x) + (x— a,) #' (x), modp, or F' (a,) = <j> (a{), modp. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 167 

73. Binomial Congruences having a Poioer of a Prime for their Modulus. 

If M be any number, and i//(M) represent the number of terms in a system 
of residues prime to M, it will follow (from a principle to which we have 
already frequently referred : see arts. 10, 26, 53, 70) that every residue of that 
system satisfies the congruence a?^W==l, mod M, — a proposition which is 
well known as Euler's generalization of Fermat's theorem*. In particular, 
when M=p m , we have xP m ~ x (P-i)sl, mod p m . This congruence has, 
consequently, precisely as many roots as it has dimensions — a property which 
is also possessed by every congruence of the form # d =l, mod p m , d denoting 
a divisor of p m ~' 1 (p—1). This has been established by Gauss in the 3rd 
section of the Disquisitiones Arithmetical, by a particular and somewhat 
tedious method f. The simpler and more general demonstration which he 
intended to give in the 8th section^, was perhaps in principle identical with 
the following; we exclude the casej»=2, to which indeed the theorem itself 
is inapplicable : — 

Let d=Sp n , $ representing a divisor of p— 1, and n being ^ m — 1 ; and let 
us form the indeterminate congruence 

x s — 1 =(#— ej (#—«,) (x— as), mod p m ~ n , 

which is always possible, because x s —l =0, mod p, has 8 incongruous roots. 
It is readily seen that, if A and B represent two numbers prime to p, and if 
A=B, mod p r , Ap s =Bp s , modp r + s ; and conversely, if Ap*=Bp", mod^'+«, 
A = B, modp r §. By applying this principle it may be shown that 

x Spn_ 1 _= r xp n_ a ^ ( pc pn_ a j > n^ ( xp n_ a&p n^ modpt n t 

For if we divide a&>"— 1 by xP n —aP n , the remainder is afP n —\. But, 
because af = 1 , mod p m ~", a x ¥ l = 1 , mod p m ; i. e.xP n — a/ 71 divides^"— 1 
for the modulus p m . Similarly x s P n —l is divisible (modp m ) by xP n —aP n 
etc. ; and since all these divisors are relatively prime for the modulus/?, x s P n — 1 
is divisible (mod p m ) by their product ; i. e., 

x&p n -\ = (j;P n -a 1 P n ) ( x p n -a./ n ) . . . (xP n —asP n ), mod jo». 

We have thus effected the resolution of x s P n — 1 into factors relatively prime, 
each of which is congruous (mod p) to a power of an irreducible function ; 
since evidently (xP n — aP n ) =. (x— a)P n , mod p. To investigate the solutions 
of x s P n — 1=0, modp m , we have therefore only to consider separately the 
<S congruences included in the formula xP n = aP n , mod p m . But each of 
these congruences (by virtue of the principle already referred to) admits 
precisely p n solutions, viz. the p n numbers (incongruous mod p m ) which are 
congruous to a, mod p m ~ n . The whole number of solutions of x*P n — 1=0, 
mod p m , is therefore equal to the index 8p n of the congruence. It further 
appears that the complete solution of the binomial congruence x i P n —l =0, 
may be obtained by a direct method, when the complete solution of the 
simpler congruence x s — 1 =0, modp, has been found. For we may first 

* Euler, Comment. Arith. vol. i. p. 284. 

t Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, arts. 84—88. See also Poinsot, Reflexions sur la Theorie 
des Nombres, cap. iv. art. 6. 

I Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, art. 84. 

§ If A=B, modpr, but not modj»»-+i, we have A=B+ipr, where k is prime to p. 
Hence AP*=(B+kp r )P s =BP s +iBP s - 1 /+'+K!> ,+r , K denoting a coefficient divisible 
hyp ; or AP S ~BP S , mod/ +r , but not modjB s+r+ \ because *BP S_1 is prime to,p. Thi« 
result implies the principle enunciated in the text. 



168 REPORT— 1860. 

(by the method given in the last article) deduce the complete solution of 
x s — 1 = 0, mod p m ~ ■», from that of aP—l==0, mod p ; and then the roots of 
x^p" — 1=0, mod p m , can be written down at once. 

74. Primitive Boots of the Powers of a Prime. — All the elementary pro- 
perties of the residues of powers, considered with regard to a modulus which 
is a power of a prime number, may be deduced from the theorem just proved. 
In particular, the demonstration of the existence and number of primitive 
roots (art. 12) is applicable here also; so that we have the theorem: — 

"There are pm-* (/j— 1) \p (j } ~^) residues prime to p m , the successive 
powers of any one of which represent all residues prime to p m ." These 
residues are of course the primitive roots of p m . 

If y be a primitive root of p, of the p numbers included in the formula 
y + hp (mod/) 2 ), p— 1 precisely will be primitive roots of p*. For y+hp 
is a primitive root of p 2 unless (y + hp)p- 1 =1, modp 2 ; and the congruence 
ttP-i = 1, mod p 2 , has always one, and only one, root congruous to y for the 
modulus p. But every primitive root of p" is a primitive root of p 3 , and of 
every higher power of p, as may be shown by an application of the princi- 
ple proved in a note to the last article, or, again, by observing that every 
primitive root of p m + 1 is necessarily congruous, for the modulus p m , to some 
primitive root of p m , and that there are p times as many primitive roots of 
pm+\ as f pm m (g ee Jacobi's Canon Arithmeticus, Introduction, p. xxxiii ; 
also a problem proposed by Abel in Crelle's Journal, vol. iii. p. 12, with 
Jacobi's answer, ibid. p. 211.) 

75. Case when the Modulus is a Power of 2. — The powers of the even 
prime 2 are excepted from the demonstrations of the two last articles — in 
fact, if m > 3, 2'" has no primitive roots. Gauss, however, has shown (Disq. 
Arith. arts. 90, 91) that the successive powers of any number of the form 
8ra-f 3 represent, for the modulus I" 1 , all numbers of either of the forms 8ra + 3 
or 8w + l ; similarly all numbers of the forms 8«+5 and 8n + 1 are repre- 
sented by successive powers of any number of the form 8n+5. If, there- 
fore, we denote by y any number of either of the two forms 8h + 3 or 8?i + 5, 
we may represent all uneven numbers less than 2'" by the formula ( — l)*y' 3 , 

in which a is to receive the values and l,and /3 the values 1, 2,3, 2'"- 2 . 

A double system of indices may thus be used to replace the simple system 
supplied by a primitive root when sucli roots exist. 

Tables of indices for the powers of 2, and of uneven primes inferior to 
1000, have been appended by Jacobi to his Canon Arithmeticus. 

76. Composite Modules. — No general theory has been given of the repre- 
sentation of rational and integral functions of an indeterminate quantity as 
products of modular functions with regard to a composite modulus divisible 
by more than one prime. And it is possible that no advantage would be 
gained by considering the theory of congruences with composite modules 
from this general point of view. A few isolated theorems relating to par- 
ticular cases have, however, been given by Cauchy (Comptes Rendus, 
vol. xxv. p. 26, 1847). Of these the following may serve as a specimen : — 

"If the congruence F (,r) = 0, mod M, admit as many roots as it has 
dimensions, and if, besides, the differences of these roots Le all relatively 
prime to M, we have the indeterminate congruence 

F (*)=* (r-rj (.v-r 2 ) (.r-r 3 ) . . . (x-r n ), mod M, 

k denoting the coefficient of the highest power of x in F (.r)." 

But if, instead of considering the modular decomposition of the function 
F(.r), we confine ourselves to the determination of the real solutions of the 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. 169 

congruence F(.i') = 0, mod M, it 13 always sufficient to consider the con- 
gruences 

F(.r)=0, mod A, F(.r)=0, mod B, F(»=0, mod C, etc., .... (A) 

where A x B x C . . =M, and A, B, C, . . denote powers of different primes. 
For if .r = rt, mod A, x = b, mod B, X = c, mod C, denote any solutions of 
the first, second, third ... of those congruences respectively, it is evident that, 
if X be a number satisfying the congruences X = a, mod A, X = 6, mod B, 
X = c, mod C (and such a number can always be assigned), we shall have 
F(X) =0 for each of the modules A, B, C, . . separately, and therefore for 
the modulus M; and further, if the congruences (A) admit respectively 
a, (5, y, ... incongruous solutions, the congruence F(.v)=0, mod M, will 
admit aX/3x y . . . in all ; for we can combine any solution of F(.r)=0, 
mod A, with any solution of F(#)=0, mod B, and so on*. 

77. Binomial Congruences with Composite Modules. — The investigation of 
the real solutions of binomial congruences depends (in the manner just stated) 
on the investigation of the real solutions of similar congruences the modules 
of which are the powers of primes. With regard to the relations by which 
these real solutions are connected with one another, little of importance has 
been added to the few observations on this subject in the Disquisitiones 
Arithmeticae (art. 92). If the modulus M=p" q b r c . . . , p, q, r, . . . repre- 
senting different primes, the congruence iC'J'Wss 1, mod M, possesses no 
primitive roots; for if n be the least common multiple of p a ~ l (p — ])> 

qb-\ (q—l), r*- 1 (r— 1) n will be less than and a divisor of £ (M). 

But evidently, if x be any residue prime to M, the congruence x n — 1 =0 
will be satisfied separately for the modules^", q b , r c , . ., and therefore for the 
modulus M ; i. e., no residue exists, the first t/<(M) powers of which are incon- 
gruous, mod M. If, however, M=9p a this conclusion does not hold, since 
the least common multiple of \p (2) and \p (p m ) is ^ (2p"») itself; and we 
find accordingly that every uneven primitive root of p m is a primitive root of 
Qp m . When, as is sometimes the case, it is convenient to employ indices to 
designate the residues prime to a given composite modulus, we must employ 
(as in the case of a power of 2) a system of multiple indices. To take the 
most general case, let M=2 9 p" q b r c ..; let u be any number of either of the 
forms 8w + 3 or 8n + 5, and P, Q, It, . . . primitive roots of p a , q b , r c ,... re- 
spectively. Then, if n be any given number prime to M, it will always be 
possible to find a set of integral numbers e n , w n , a n , p„, y n . . . satisfying the 
conditions 

( - 1 ) e » u">n = n , mod 2* ; < e n < 2, < w„ < 2 e - 2 , 
P*"~n, mod/>°; 0<a n <p"-i(p— 1), 
Q"» == n, mod ?* ; 0<fS n <q -1 (q—l), 
R Y « = n, mod r c ; < X» < r e -i (r— ] ) ; 

• • " • • • • 

and these numbers form a system of indices by which the residue of n for 
each of the modules 2 e , p a , q b , r c , ... (and consequently for the modulus M) 

* " Infra \ue. in the 8th section] congnientias quascumque secundum modulum e pluribus 
prmiis compositum, ad congnientias quarum modulus est primus aut primi potestas reducere 
fusius docebimus " (Disq. Arith. art. 92). It is difficult to sec why Gauss should have em' 
ployed the word " fusius " if his investigation extended no further than the elementary 
observations referred to in the text. Nevertheless it is remarkable that Gauss in the 3rd 
section of the Disq. Arith. sometimes speaks of demonstrations as obscure, which are of 
extreme simplicity when compared with one in the 4th and several in the 5th scct-'on (%pp in 
particular arts. 53, 55, 56). v " 



170 REPORT — 1860. 

is completely determined. (See Dirichlet's memoir on the Arithmetical Pro- 
gression, sect, 7, in the Berlin Memoirs for 1837.) 

78. Primitive Roots of the Powers of Complex Primes. — Diriclilet has 
shown* that, in the theory of complex numbers of the form a + bi, the powers 
of primes of the second species (see art. 25) have primitive roots ; in fact, if 
a + bi be such a prime, and N (a + bi) — a~ + b' 2 =p, every primitive root of 
p m is a primitive root of (a + bi) m . On the other hand, if q be a real prime 
of the form 4n-|-3, q m has no primitive loots in the complex theory. Fur in 
general, if M be any complex modulus, and M=a a i' 3 c"/ . . ., a, b, c, . . being 
different complex primes, and if A = N(a), B = N (b), C = N(c), etc, the 
number of terms in a system of residues prime to M, is A a_l (A — 1) B^ _1 

(B— 1) C y_1 (C— 1) And if we denote this number by \L (M), every 

residue prime to M will satisfy the congruence 

#^< M > = 1, mod M, 
which here corresponds to Eider's extension of Fermat's theorem. If M= q m , 

this congruence becomes xt m ~ (v -0 = 1, mod q m ; but it is easily shown 

that every residue prime to q m satisfies the congruence xQ ^ q — D^], 
mod q m ; i. e., q m has no primitive roots, because the exponent q m ~ l (q 2 — 1) 
is a divisor of, and less than, q^( m - 1 )(q 2 — ]). Nevertheless two numbers y 
and y', can always be assigned, of which one appertains to the exponent q m ~ l 
(q 2 — 1) and the other to the exponent q m ~ 1 , and which are such that no 
power of either of them can become congruous to a power of the other, 
mod q m , without becoming congruous to unity; from which it will appear 
that every residue prime to q m may be represented by the formula y" y'v, if we 
give to x all values from to (q 2 — 1) q m - 1 — 1 inclusive, and toy all values 
from to q m ~ l — 1 inclusive. 

The corresponding investigations for other complex numbers besides those 
of the form a + bi have not been given. 

We here conclude our account of the Theory of Congruences. The 
further continuation of this Report will be occupied with the Theories of 
Quadratic and other Homogeneous Forms. 



Additions to Part I. 

Art. 16. Legendre's investigation of the law of reciprocity (as presented in 
the ' Theorie des Nombres,' vol. i. p. 230, or in the ' Essai,' ed. 2, p. 198) is 
invalid only because it assumes, without a satisfactory proof, that if a be 
a given prime of the form 4ra + l, a prime b of the form 4w + 3 can always 

be assigned, satisfying the equation j - )= — 1 . M. Kummer (in the Memoirs 

of the Academy of Berlin for 1859, pp. 19, 20) says that this postulate is 
easily deducible from the theorem demonstrated by Dirichlet, that every 
arithmetical progression, the terms of which have no common divisor, con- 
tains prime numbers. It would follow from this, that the demonstration of 
Legendre (which depends on a very elegant criterion for the resolubility or 
irresolubility of equations of the form ax 2 + by 2 -\-cz 2 = 0) must be regarded 
as rigorously exact (see, however, the " Additamenta" to arts. 151, 296, 297 
of the Disq. Arith.). In the introduction to the memoir to which we have 
just referred, the reader will find some valuable observations by M. Kummer 
on the principal investigations relating to laws of reciprocity. 

* See sect. 2 of the memoir, Untersuchungen iiber die Thecrie der complexen Zablen, in 
the Berlin Memoirs for 1841. 



ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. l7l 

Art. 20. Dirichlet's demonstration of the formulae (A) and (A') first 
appeared in Crelle's Journal, vol. xvii. p. 57. Some observations in this 
paper on a supposed proof of the same formulae by M. Libri (Crelle, vol. ix. 
p. 187) were inserted by M. Liouville in his Journal, vol. iii. p. 3, and gave 
rise to a controversy (in the Comptes Rendus, vol. x.) between MM. Liouville 
and Libri. The concluding paragraphs of Dirichlet's paper contain the appli- 
cation of the formula? (A) and (A') to the law of reciprocity (Gauss's fourth 
demonstration). 

Art. 22. From a general theorem of M. Kummer's (see arts. 43, 44 of this 

Report), it appears that the congruence r 2 = ( — 1) 2 X, mod q, is or is not 

A— 1 

resoluble, according as q 2 =+1, or = — 1, mod X, — a result which implies 
the theorem of quadratic reciprocity. This very simple demonstration (which 
is, however, only a transformation of Gauss's sixth) appears first to have 
occurred to M. Liouville (see a note by M. Lebesgue in the Comptes Rendus, 
vol. li. pp. 12, 13). 

Art. 24. A note of Dirichlet's, in Crelle, vol. lvii. p. 187, contains an ele- 
mentary demonstration of Gauss's criterion for the biquadratic character of 
2. From the eauation j9=a 2 + 6 2 , we have (a + 6) 2 =2a&, mod p, and hence 
(a + i)4 ( P- 1) = 2i^- 1 5ai(P- 1 )6iCp-i) = (2/')i(/'-i)a4(p-i),or, which is the 
same thing, 

(^)-W"-"(f) (A) 

But ( — | = |- |=L because p=b 2 , mod a; and ( ^t_ ) = ( -£— \ or, ob- 

\p) W V p / \ a + b / 

serving that 2p=(a+by + (a— b) 2 , 

since/ 2 + 1=0, mod p. Substituting these values in the equation (A), we 
find H^p-V =fb ab , mod/), which is in fact Gauss's criterion. 

Art. 25. In the second definition of a primary number, for "b is uneven," 
read " b is even." Although this definition has been adopted by Dirichlet in 
his memoir in Crelle's Journal, vol. xxiv. (see p. 301), yet, in the memoir 
" Untersuchungen iiber die complexen Zahlen " (see the Berlin Memoirs for 
1841), sect. 1, he has preferred to follow Gauss. 

Art. 36. In the algorithm given in the text, the remainders^, p 3 ... are all 
uneven ; and the computation of the value of the symbol ( o ) is thus rendered 

independent of the formula (iii) of art. 28. The algorithm given by Eisen- 
stein is, however, preferable, although the rule to which it leads cannot be 
expressed with the same conciseness, because the continued fraction equi- 
valent to -£-£ terminates more rapidly when the remainders are the least 
possible, and not necessarily uneven. 

Art. 37. In the definition of a primary number, for "« = + ]," read 
" a= — 1." But, for the purposes of the theory of cubic residues, it is 
simpler to consider the two numbers +(a+bp) as both alike primary (see 
arts. 52 and 57). 

Art. 38. Jacobi's two theorems cannot properly be said to involve the 



D+4a», 



172 REPORT— 1860. 

cubic law of reciprocity. If ( £-1 ) =1, it will follow from those theorems that 

(Ei\ = I. But if ( ^i J =p, or p 2 , they do not determine whether ( & ) = P> 
\pj* \PJ* a ' \PJ* 

or p 2 . It is remarkable that these theorems, "forma genuina qua inventa 
sunt," may be obtained by applying the criteria for the resolubility or irreso- 
lubility of cubic congruences (art. 67) to the congruence r 3 — 3\r — XM=0, 
mod q (art. 43), which, by virtue of M. Kummer's theorem (art. 44), is re- 
soluble or irresoluble according as q is or is not a cubic residue of X. 



On the Performance of Steam- Vessels, the Functions of the Screiv, and 
the Relations of its Diameter and Pitch to the Form of the Vessel. 
By Vice-Admiral Moorsom. 

(A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.) 

In this the fourth paper which I now lay before the British Association, it 
may be desirable to recapitulate the points I have brought into issue, and for 
the determination of which, data, only to be obtained by experiments, are 
still wanting, viz. — 

1. There is no agreed method by which the resistance of a ship may be 
calculated under given conditions of wind and sea. 

2. The known methods are empirical, approximate only, and imply smooth 
water and no wind. 

3. The relations in which power and speed stand to form and to size are 
comparatively unknown. 

4. The relations in which the direct and resultant thrust stand to each 
other in any given screw, and how affected by the resislance of the ship, are 
undetermined. 

In order to resolve these questions, specific experiments are needed, and 
none have yet been attempted in such manner as to lead to any satisfactory 
result. 

The Steam Ship Performance Committee of the British Association have 
pressed upon successive First Lords of the Admiralty, the great value to the 
public service which must ensue if the following measures were taken, viz. — 

1. To determine, by specific experiment, the resistance, under given con- 
ditions, of certain vessels, as types; and, at the same time, to measure the 
thrust of the screw. 

2. To record the trials of the Queen's ships, so that the performance in 
smooth water may be compared with the performance at sea, both being re- 
corded in a tabular form, comprising particulars, to indicate the characteris- 
tics of the vessel, of the engine, of the screw, and of the boiler. 

Hitherto nothing has come of these representations. 

In the paper read last year at Aberdeen, I showed, in the case of Lord 
Dufferin's yacht 'Erminia,' how the absence of admitted laws of resistance 
interfered with the adjustment of her screw, and how, therefore, as a matter 
of precaution, a screw was provided capable of a thrust beyond what the 
vessel required. 

1 also showed, in the case of the Duke of Sutherland's yacht ' Undine,' how 
her screw, from being too near the surface of the water, lost a large portion 
of the thrust due to its size and proportions. In other words, a screw capa- 
ble of giving out a resultant thrust in sea water of 5022 lbs., at a speed of 



ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STEAM-VESSELS. 173 

vessel of 926 knots an hour, did actually give out only 3805 lbs. That is to 
say, the effect produced was the same as if that screw had worked in a 
fluid whose weight was about 48 lbs. per cubic foot instead of 64 lbs. 

I am now about to exhibit some other examples from among Her Majesty's 
ships of war. 

The questions now before us are — 

1. The resistance of the hull below the water-line in passing through the 
water, and of the upper works, masts, rigging, &c, passing through the air, 
the weather being calm, and the water smooth. 

2. The relation in which the thrust of the screw stands to this resistance. 

[The Admiral here gave certain results from the ' Marlborough,' the ' Re- 
nown,' and the ' Diadem,' and proposed that a specific issue should be tried 
by means of the ' Diadem.'] 

What would I not give, he observed, for some well-conducted experiments 
to determine this beautiful problem of the laws which govern the action of 
the screw in sea-water 1 It is a problem not only interesting to science, but 
fraught with valuable results in the economical and efficient application of 
the screw propeller. 

After commenting on the performances of the U. S. corvette ' Niagara,' the 
Admiral observed, I have no means of forming a very definite opinion as to 
how she will stay under low sail in a sea-way, how she will wear, how scud 
in a following sea, or how stand up under her sails, or whether her statical 
stability be too much or too little, or how the fore and after bodies are 
balanced. These are points to be determined, not by the mere opinion of 
seamen — for a sailor will vaunt the qualities of his ship even as a lover the 
charms of his mistress — but by careful records of performances in smooth 
water and at sea, and a comparison of such performances with calculated 
results from drawings beforehand. Let a return of such things be annually 
laid before the House of Commons — we shall then know whether we are get- 
ting money's worth for our money ; and also we should receive all the benefits 
of public criticism towards improvement. We should not then allow defects 
to be stereotyped, till chronic blemishes are turned into beauties, or, if not 
so, then defended as things that cannot be remedied. 

I have now completed the task which four years ago I imposed on myself. 
Beginning with simple elementary principles, and ending with minute prac- 
tical details, 1 have, as I conceive, shown the process by which the improve- 
ment of steam-ships must be carried on. 

More than one hundred years ago scientific men, able mathematicians, 
showed the physical laws on which naval architecture must rest. A succes- 
sion of able men have shown how those laws affect various forms of floating 
bodies. Experiments have been made with models to determine the value 
of the resistance practically. With the exception of some experiments of 
Mr. Scott Russell, I am not aware that any have been made with vessels ap- 
proaching the size of ships to determine the relations of resistance to power, 
whether wind or steam. 

Ships have been improved, and modifications of form have been arrived at 
by a long painstaking tentative process. The rules so reached for sailing ships 
have been superseded by steam, and we are still following the same tedious 
process, in order to establish new rules for the application of steam power. 

I think the history of naval architecture shows that it is not an abstract 
science, and that its progress must depend on the close observation and cor- 
rect record of facts ; on the careful collating, and scientific comparing of such 
facts, with a view to the induction of general laws. Now, is there anywhere 
such observing, recording, collating, and comparing? and still more, is there 
such inducting process ? 



174 REPORT 1860. 

I can find no such thing anywhere in such shape that the public can judge 
it by its fruits. 

We are now in full career of a competition of expenditure, and England 
has no reason to flinch from such an encounter, unless her people should tire 
of paying a premium of insurance upon a contingent event that never may 
happen ; and if it should happen without our being insured, might not cost 
as much as the aggregate premiums. Tire they will, sooner or later, but 
they are more likely to continue to pay in faith and hope, if they had some 
confidence that their money is not being spent unnecessarily. 

There is now building at Blackwall the ' Warrior,' a ship to be cased with 
4^-inch plates of iron, whose length at water-line is 380 feet, breadth 58 feet, 
intended draught of water (mean) C 15\ feet, area of section 1 190 square feet, 
and displacement about 8992 tons, and she is to have engines of 1250 nomi- 
nal horse-power. 

Is there any experience respecting the qualities and performance of such 
a ship ? Anything to guide us in reasoning from the known to the unknown ? 
Do the performances of the 'Diadem,' 'Mersey,' and 'Orlando,' inspire 
confidence? Where are the preliminary experiments? 

Before any contract was entered into for the construction of the Britannia 
Bridge, a course of experiments was ordered by the Directors, which cost not 
far short of £7000, and it was well expended. It saved money, and perhaps 
prevented failure. This ship must cost not less than £400,000, and may cost 
a good deal more when ready for sea. But there is another of similar, and two 
others building, of smaller size. What security is there for their success? 

The conditions which such a ship as the ' Warrior' must fulfil in order to 
justify her cost are deserving of some examination. The formidable nature 
of her armament, as well as her supposed impregnability to shot, will natu- 
rally lead other vessels to avoid an encounter. She must therefore be of 
greater speed than other ships of war. To secure this, it is essential that 
her draught of water should be the smallest that is compatible both with 
stability and steadiness of motion, and that she should not be deeper than the 
designer intended. To ensure steadiness it is necessary, among other things, 
that in rolling, the solids, emerged and immersed, should find their axis in 
the longitudinal axis of the ship. To admit of accurate aim with the guns, 
her movement in rolling should be slow and not deep. Every seaman knows 
how few ships unite these requisites. 

It is not quite safe to speculate on the ' Warrior's ' speed ; nevertheless I 
will venture on an estimate, such as I have stated in the case of the ' Great 
Eastern,' whose smooth-water speed I will now assume to be 15f knots, as 
before estimated, with 7732 horse-power, when her draught of water is 23 
feet, her area of section, say 1650 square feet, and her displacement about 
18,588 tons. The speed of the ' Warrior' in smooth water ought not to be 
less than 16 knots, in order that she may force to action unwilling enemies 
whose speed may be 13 to 14 knots. 

The question I propose is the power to secure a smooth-water speed of 
16 knots. 

Reducing the ' Great Eastern ' to the size of the ' Warrior,' and applying 
the corrections for the difference of speed of £ knot, and for their respective 
coefficients of specific resistance "0564 and -07277, the horse-power for 16 
knots is 7543. 

Raising the ' Niagara ' to the size of the • Warrior,' and applying the cor- 
rections for the difference of speed between 10*9 and 16 knots, and for their 
respective coefficients of specific resistance "0797 and '07277, the horse-power 
to give the 'Warrior' a smooth- water speed of 16 knots is 7867, being an 
excess over the estimate from the ' Great Eastern ' of 324 horse-power. 



ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 175 

If the power required for the * Warrior ' be calculated by adaptation from 
the ' Mersey ' and the « Diadem,' it would be 8380 horse-power and 8287 re- 
spectively; from which this inference flows: — that unless the mistakes made 
in the fore and after sections of the 'Mersey' and 'Diadem' are rectified in the 
' Warrior,' she will require above 8000 horse-power for a speed of 16 knots, 
notwithstanding her greater size and increased ratio of length to breadth. 

Before investing more than a million and a half of money in an experiment, 
commercial men would have probably employed a few thousand pounds in 
some sort of test as to the conditions of success. Perhaps such test may have 
been resorted to and kept secret for reasons of public policy. Perhaps it is 
intended that the ' Warrior's' speed should not be greater than that which is 
due to five times her nominal horse-power, which could not exceed 15| knots 
with 6250 horse-power, under the most favourable conditions, and may be 
much less. 

The British Association, by becoming the medium of collecting facts and 
presenting them to the public, has done good service; but that service ought 
not to rest there. Collectively, the Association may be able to do little more. 
It can only act by affording public opinion a means of expression. But indi- 
vidual members may do much. Towards such opinion I am doing my part. 
I ask, in the cause of science, what is the system under which the Queen's 
ships are designed and their steam power apportioned ; the organization by 
which their construction and fitting for sea are carried on ; the supervision 
exercised over their proceedings at sea, in the examination of returns of per- 
formance and of expenditure? 

During part of 1858 and 1859, two committees appointed by the Admi- 
ralty collected evidence and made reports on the Dock Yards and on steam 
machinery. I have read both reports with some attention. They are not 
conclusive, but they are entitled to respect. I have also read the replies and 
objections of the Government officers. There is a clear issue between them 
on some of the most essential principles of effective economical management, 
and on the application of science. 

A Royal Commission has been appointed to inquire into the system of 
control and management in the Dock Yards. This is so far good, but it 
does not go far enough. It does not comprise the steam machinery reported 
on by Admiral Ramsay's Committee, and it cannot enter upon the questions 
I have just enumerated. Yet the efficiency of the fleet depends quite as 
much upon the adaptation of the machinery to the ship, and of the ship to 
the use she is to be put to, as it does upon the manner in which she is built. 
The Commission ought to be enlarged both in objects and in number of 
members. It consists of five members only. 



Report on the Effects of long-continued Heat, illustrative of Geological 

Phenomena. By the Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
The chief occupation of those who during the present century have 
employed themselves in investigating the history of the earth, has been to 
develope the succession of its strata. In following this pursuit, they have 
found their best guide in the study of its organic antiquities, and have not 
been led, for the most part, to very precise views of the physical and chemi- 
cal changes which it has undergone. 

Yet there are questions in Geology to which no answer can be given with- 
out an accurate examination into these. In regard, for example, to the 



176 REPORT— 1860. 

chronology of the earth, the observation of organic remains alone can never 
supply reliable data for reasoning. If we should attempt to draw inferences 
from biological analogies, and measure the duration of beds by the growth of 
imbedded skeletons, we should be stopped by the probability that the first 
species of every series were successively created in a stale of full-grown 
maturity*, and by the intrinsic weakness of all comparisons instituted non 
pari materia. 

Neither can any precarious mechanical analogies render the inquiry more 
definite, or give a logical value to our conclusions. We are not entitled 
to presume that the forces which have operated on the earth's crust have 
always been the same. Were we to compare the beds of modern seas and 
lakes with the ancient strata, and assume proportionable periods for their 
accumulation, we must assume also that chemical and mechanical forces 
were never in a state of higher intensity, that water was never more rapidly 
evaporated, that greater torrents, fluid or gaseous, never flushed the lakes and 
seas, and that more frequent elevations and depressions never gave scope for 
quicker successions of animal life. To gain any real insight into these ob- 
scure pages of ancient history, we must have recourse to a strict induction 
of physical and chemical facts, and thence learn the probable course, and 
causes, of the wonderful series of changes which geology unfolds. 

I am not aware that any full and connected statement has been published 
of the facts which have been contributed by physical observations, and 
chemical experiment, towards elucidating the conditions of those changes, 
and propose therefore to preface the account which I have to give of experi- 
ments designed to throw light upon them, with a sketch of the progress of 
science in that department. 

Forty years have elapsed since the author of the ' Mecanique Celeste ' 
drew attention to the fact that multiplied observations in deep mines, wells, 
and springs, had proved the existence of a temperature in the interior of the 
earth increasing with the depth. He remarked that, by comparing exact 
observations of the increase with the theory of heat, the epoch might be 
determined at which the gradually cooling globe had been first transported 
into space ; he stated the mean increase, collected from actual data, to be a 
centesimal degree for every 32 f metres, and added that this is an element 
of high importance to geology. " Not only," he said, "does it indicate a very 
great heat at the earth's surface in remote times, but if we compare it with 
the theory of heat, we see that at the present moment the temperature of 
the earth is excessive at the depth of a million of metres, and above all at 
the centre ; so that all that part of the globe is probably in a state of fusion, 
and would be reduced into vapour, but for the superincumbent beds, the 

* To suppose otherwise with regard to animals which take care of their young would be 
absurd ; and hence it is probable also that this is the general system of creation. The most 
remarkable fact which modern geology has disclosed is the continual succession of newly- 
created species. It has been attempted to account for thes3 according to known laws ofpro- 
geniture, by supposing numerous non-apparent links of transitional existence to fill up the 
gaps in the chain of derivation by which one species is presumed to have descended from 
another. But this is only twistiug a rope of sand ; conjectural interpolations cannot give 
coherence to a set of chains which are destitute of all evidence of continuity one with 
another, and between which, as far as our experience goes, Nature has interposed a prin- 
ciple of disconnexion. 

In using the word creation, we acknowledge an agent, and own our ignorance of the 
agency, with regard to which, in this case, we only know that it is systematic ; for we see 
successive species accommodated to successive conditions of existence. 

t M. Babinet (Tremblements de Terre, 1856), taking M. Walferdin's measurement from 
artesian borings, which gave 31 metres for 1° C. as the most exact, remarks, that the tem- 
perature at the depth of 3 kilometres must be above the heat of boiling water, and at that 
of 60 kilometres, about 2000° C, sufficing for the fusion of lava, basalt, trachyte, and 
porphyry. 






ON THE EFFECT'S OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAtf. 177 

pressure of which, at those great depths, is immense." " These considera- 
tions," he further added, "will explain a great number of geological phe- 
nomena ; " and he instanced those of hot springs, which he accounted for on 
the supposition that rain-water in channels communicating from super- 
ficial reservoirs with the interior of the earth, thence rises again, heated, 
to the surface. 

Fourier, at the same time, expounded the methods by which, after extended 
observation of the internal temperature, and further experiments on the 
conduction of heat, he conceived that mathematic analysis might determine 
the epoch at which the process of cooling began, concluding in the mean- 
while from facts already known, — 1st, that no sensible diminution of tem- 
perature has taken place during the period of historical chronology ; 2ndly, 
that at a former era the temperature underwent great and rapid changes. 

Thus was a train of graduated causes, physical and chemical, introduced 
into Geology on the foundation of inductive reasoning, which is capable of 
resolving some of the chief difficulties of the science in our comparison of 
the present with the past. 

When, for instance, we read in the organic contents of the strata the 
history of a period when the climate was apparently uniform in all parts of 
the earth, and learn from the imbedded plants that the temperature of Arctio 
lands was once equal to that of warm latitudes at the present day, to account 
for these circumstances, we need no longer bewilder ourselves with hypo- 
theses ; we have a vera causa in the knowledge that the earth has passed 
through a state in which its temperature was due, not so much to a sun then 
veiled in clouds, as to a heat penetrating equally in all directions from the 
centre to the circumference of the globe. 

When, again, we contemplate a mountain range, and view the abrupt pre- 
cipices of some alpine chain, with its enormous masses of rock uplifted to 
the clouds, and descending as many miles into the bosom of the sea, and 
when we compare such abnormal labours of nature with the petty risings 
of the earth's surface in the existing state of things, we have a vera causa 
for that disparity, in the knowledge that there was a time when the eruptive 
forces of the seething mass within were greater, and when a weaker crust 
underwent vaster disturbances. 

Or if we examine the general structure of the strata, and see the same stra- 
tum contemporaneously solidified over large portions of the earth's circum- 
ference, and then observe the absence of consolidation in the actual opera- 
tions of nature, whether under the pressure of deep seas, or elsewhere, 
except in a few foci of igneous action, we have here also a vera causa 
of the difference, in the ancient prevalence of that high temperature which 
the laboratory of nature and art shows to be the most capable of lapidifying 
stony materials. 

Descending into the details of mineralogy, we find the same departure 
from the present order of nature in the constitution of minerals; and in the 
sequence of chemical effects of heat increasing with the age of the stratum, 
we see a real cause for the distinction. 

Thus, for example, to begin with the upper beds, the chemist knows that 
solutions of carbonate of lime, at the ordinary temperature, deposit crystals 
with the common form of calcareous spar, but near the boiling-point of 
water with that of Arragonite. Now in the mineralogical collection of the 
Yorkshire Philosophical Society is a specimen of this mineral investing 
calcite, from the chalk cliffs of Beachy Head ; and if any one will examine the 
caves of calcareous grit on the Yorkshire coast, he will find them in some 
places lined, like those of volcanic rocks, or the mouths of hot springs, with 

1860. n 



178 REPORT 1860. 

Arragonite*. Here then we have proof of a certain modicum of heat existing 
in boiling-springs now extinct, which once pervaded these strata • for had the 
heat of the water which left this deposit been much more, or less, than about 
212° F., no such crystals could have been formed. Not far from the same 
locality, in a thin seam of the cornbrash Oolite, I have found nodules en- 
closing small Crustacea, the interior of which was filled with crystalline 
blende. No other trace of zinc is to be seen in the country around t. The 
same singular phenomenon may be observed in the neighbouring Lias-shale, 
where the chambers of the Ammonites frequently contain blende\. This is 
not a phenomenon peculiar to the district ; it illustrates the general con- 
dition of the earth after these shells were deposited, and is best accounted 
for by the vera causa of an elevated temperature ; it indicates that the fumes 
of zinc, or one of its volatile combinations, must have penetrated the strata, 
taking the form of blende in the chambers of the Ammonite, and having 
been sealed up in these, escaped decomposition. 

The same account is applicable to the dissemination of carbonate and sul- 
phide of lead and copper in the Permian and Triassic strata, and of the 
particles of metallic copper in the mountain limestone; as well as to the de- 
posits of calamine in the hollows of that rock, on the conditions of which de- 
posits light is thrown by an experiment of Delanoue, who found that no pre- 
cipitate of carbonate of zinc is produced by limestone at the common tempera- 
ture, but that it is perfectly thrown down from a. warm solution of its salts. 

And here also it is worthy of remark, that in the experiments of Forch- 
hammer to illustrate the formation of dolomitic strata, when a solution of 
carbonate of lime was mixed with sea-water at a boiling heat, the compound 
formed contained only 18 per cent, of carbonate of magnesia, but that the 
proportion of magnesia increased with an increase of temperature; in the 
experiments of Favre and Marignac, the composition of equal atoms, which 
is that of many natural beds of magnesian limestone, was attained by raising 
the heat to 392° F., and the pressure to 1.5 atmospheres; and in those of 
Morlot a mixture of sulphate of magnesia and calcareous spar was com- 
pletely converted, in the same circumstances, into a double salt of carbonate 
of lime and magnesia, with sulphate of lime. 

The probable history of all the calcareous and magnesian strata, with 
their interstratified cherts and flints, and interspersed chalcedonic fossils, is 
that they are products of submarine solfataras, whence issued successively, 
in basins variously extended, gases and springs capable of dissolving pre- 
existent beds, which caused alternate depositions .of silica and carbonated 
earths, and intermitting from time to time, allowed intervals for the succession 
of organic and animated beings. 

The manner in which materials are furnished for extensive sedimentary 
deposits by processes of disintegration dependent on subterraneous ema- 
nations, has been observed by Bunsen in the solfataras of Iceland. He 
describes the palagonitic rocks, formerly erupted there, as undergoing con- 

* Dr. Murray informs me that this Arragonite is found in a little bay within six miles of 
Scarborough, in the seams and crevices of the upper calcareous grit. He describes it as 
fibrous, compact, or imperfectly mammillated, wanting the oblique cleavage of calcite, 
scratching Iceland spar, and flying into powder in the flame of a taper. Mr. Procter having 
at my request taken the specific gravity of a fibrous specimen, finds it 3, and confirms Dr. 
Murray's description of the other characters of this mineral. 

f The only peculiarity is that a basaltic dike traverses the district at a distance of a few 
miles from the site of the fossils. 

J The Lias fossils sometimes also contain galena. Blum describes a bivalve from a fer- 
ruginous oolitic rock near Semur, the shells of which consist entirely of crystalline lamina; 
of specular iron ; and a cardinia from the lower lias, according to Bischof, likewise consists 
of the same mineral, which we know elsewhere as a result of volcanic action. 






ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 179 

version by these means " into alternate and irregularly penetrating beds of 
white ferruginous, and coloured ferruginous, fumerole clay, the deposits 
being disclosed to a considerable depth, and exhibiting in the clearest man- 
ner the phenomena of alternating colours." " One is astonished," he re- 
marks, " at observing the great similarity between the external phenomena 
of these metamorphic deposits of clay still in the act of being formed, and 
certain structures of the Kenper formation. Thousands of years hence the 
geologist who explores these regions when the last traces of the now active 
fumeroles have vanished, and the clay formations have become consolidated 
into marl-like rocks by the silica with which they are saturated, may suppose, 
from the differently stratified petrographic and chemical character of these 
beds, that he is looking at flceiz strata formed by deposition from water." 
" At the surface, especially, where the deposition is favoured by slow eva- 
poration, innumerable crystals of gypsum, often an inch in diameter, may 
frequently be observed loosely surrounded by an argillaceous mass. At the 
mountain ledge of the Namarfeyall, and at Krisuvik, this gypsum is found 
to penetrate the argillaceous masses in connected strata and floor-like depo- 
sits, which not unfrequently project as small rocks where the lower soil has 
been carried away by the action of the water. These deposits are sometimes 
sparry, corresponding in their exterior very perfectly with the strata of gyp- 
sum so frequently met with in the marl and clay formations of the Trias." 

The great disturbances and fractures, the trappean rocks, and the frag- 
ments of porphyritic, conglomerates, at. the bases of these formations, tend to 
confirm the opinion of Bunsen, that they have had a metamorphic origin, an 
origin very probably common to other beds, whether consisting of marl, shale, 
or sand. AH the sand-beds now forming are clue to the disintegration and 
detritus of ancient, sandstones, a process, which continued through a great 
lapse of time, has but coated some portions of the sea-side with unconsoli- 
dated sand. In the soundings of the Atlantic depths, the microscope.according 
to Maury, has failed to detect a single particle of sand or gravel. For the 
origin and consolidation of the inferior grits and shales we must look to ac- 
tions, mechanical and chemical, more potent than those which the present 
tranquil course of nature presents. In examining the carboniferous sand- 
stones of the Blue Mountains in New South Wales, with their shales and coal- 
beds, more than 12,000 feet in thickness, Darwin was "surprised at obser- 
ving, that though they were evidently of mechanical origin, all the grains of 
quartz in some specimens were so perfectly crystallized that they evidently 
had not in their present form been aggregated in a preceding rock ; " and 
he quotes Wm. Smith as having long since made the same remark on the 
millstone grit of England. If any one, in fact, will observe with a lens the 
surfaces of the quartz pebbles included in that grit, he will find on most of 
them numerous unabraded facets, which bear evidence of a quartz-crystalline 
action having pervaded the rock whilst its consolidation was going on. 

There can be no better proof of widely-spread chemical action due to 
heat than the frequent presence of crystallized silica in every part of the 
stratified rocks. 

The deeper we descend in the strata, the more plentiful are the veins and 
beds of quartz, and the more manifest the signs of metamorphic action. 
Von Buch was the first to explain, on the principle of metamorphism, 
the change of calcareous rocks, in contact with pyroxenic porphyries, into 
dolomites; and in 1835 the same principle was extended by Fournet to 
the metallization of rocks by contact with quartziferous porphyries, and to 
their felspathication and silicification by the contact of granite. " Since 
the theory of a central fire," he observed, " has been confirmed by modern 
researches, all the great questions in the history of the globe appear suscep- 

n2 



180 REPORT— 1860. 

tible of a simple solution, and it is astonishing that chemists have not yet 
carried their views in this direction. From the moment that we consider the 
terrestrial globe as a mass of which the different parts have successively 
undergone the action of fire, we must also conceive, as a necessary conse- 
quence, a series of chemical phenomena, such as calcination, fusion, cemen- 
tation, &c," meaning by this latter term, the mutual molecular inter- 
penetration of bodies in contiguity, a process of which I shall presently have 
to offer a remarkable example. 

There was one mineralogical chemist, however, of high eminence, who had 
long before carried his views in the direction desired by Fournet. In 1823, 
Mitscherlich, having examined the forms, and analysed the ingredients, of 
forty crystalline products of furnaces*, to which Berthier had contributed 
several parallel results of experimental processes, pronounced them identical 
with various native minerals, and in particular with peridot, pyroxene, and 
mica. In the artificial mica, however, he found lime, of which granitic 
mica scarcely contains a trace ; and this led him to speculate on the cause 
of the chief chemical distinction between the granite and trap formations, 
consisting in the absence of calcareous and magnesian silicates from the 
former. Supposing, he argued, that the primary rocks were formed at that 
stage of the earth's refrigeration when -|ths of its water were in a state of 
vapour, the pressure on every part of its surface, computed according to 
Laplace's calculation of the mean depth of the sea, would be 225 atmo- 
spheres f ; but under such a weight the affinity of lime for silica would cease ; 
hence the crystals of uncombined silica in Carrara marble. 

The surmise has since been brought into evidence by an experiment of 
Petzholdt, in which pulverized quartz, heated to whiteness with an equal 
weight of carbonate of lime in an open vessel, was found to form a silicate 
with the lime, but produced no combination when heated in a strong, close 
vessel of iron. 

The crystallization of the primary rocks was supposed by the early Plutonic 
theorists to be due to slow cooling; but this principle alone does not satisfy 
the phenomena. The crystalline structure of granite is seen, for example in 
Glen Tilt, at Shap Fell J, and elsewhere, to be equally uniform in its partial 
irruptions into the superior strata, as where it appears to be the foundation 
stone of the earth's crust ; it has crystallized in its accustomed manner, where 
it has penetrated fissures of the upper beds in plates as thin as the leaves of 
a book and threads as fine as a hair, and even where it is involved in the in- 
vaded stratum so that no junction with any vein can be observed. How 
could it have been thus injected in a state of fusion, unless of the most liquid 
kind ? and how could the heat of such liquidity, in a material of which the 
fusing-point is so high, be otherwise than rapidly cooled down? 

Furthermore, the quartz which forms so large a constituent of granite, 
has always the specific gravity of crystalline silica, which exceeds that of any 
other species of silica. But Deville and others have shown that fusion 

* Annales de Chimie, torn. xxiv. p. 258, 1824. Mitscherlich sur la production artificielle 
des mineraux crystallises — "j'ai trouve, a Fahlun, du silicate et bisilicate de protoxide de 
fer, a Garpenberg, du mica et du pyroxene, les memes figures crystallines, et tous les autres 
caraeteres des mineraux correspondans, le bisilicate de protoxide de fer et de chaux, de 
magnesie et de chaux, les trisilicates de chaux, de chaux et de manganese, le fer oxide (fer- 
rosoferricum), le protoxide de cuivre, le deutoxide de cuivre, 1'oxide de zinc, les sulfures 
de fer, de zinc, de plomb, l'arsenieure de nickel, &c. &c, et beaucoup d'autres substances 
en cristaux bien prononcees. 

t In Mitscherlich's Memoire, as printed in the ' Annales de Chimie et de Physique,' 
tome xxiv. pp. 372, 373, the atmospheres are stated as 2250, deduced from a mean depth of 
sea, 9u,000 feet, with a cipher too much, that is, in both cases. 

\ I understand from Mr. Marshall that the ramified granite of Shap Fell is similarly 
crystallized with the rest of the rock, but finer grained. 






ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 181 

lowers this specific gravity to a constant amount, and that fused silica does 
not recover its density in cooling. Crystalline granite, as Delesse has shown, 
passes by fusion from the density of 2G2 to that of 2*32, and Egyptian 
porphyry from 2*76 to 248. 

Again, the felspar in granite is encrusted by the quartz, the most fusible 
by the least fusible material, contrary to all experience of crystallization 
either from solution or fusion. 

Lastly, all the minerals of which granite is composed have been artificially 
produced, and their production has in every instance taken place at tempera- 
tures far below that of the fusing-point of that rock. The first specimens 
of artificial felspar analysed by Karsten, and measured by Mitscherlich, 
were found in the lining of a copper furnace amongst a sublimate of zinc. 
Mitscherlich tried to obtain the like by fusing several pounds of native felspar 
in a porcelain furnace, and subjecting the mass to a process of slow cooling, 
but without success*. In the Mulden smelting works, Cotta observed the 
walls of the furnace traversed, in the joints of its masonry, and in the cracks 
which it had undergone, by beautiful metallic veins, the sides exhibiting the 
phenomena of impregnation and alteration as in the boundary walls of 
natural veins, and the ores consisting of galena, blende, iron and copper 
pyrites, purple copper, Fahl ore, native copper, &c. In like manner pyro- 

morphite (Pb 3 3? + 3- Pb CI), in well-formed six-sided prisms from the iron 
furnace at Asbach, was found attached to the stones of the masonry. There 
can be no doubt but that Karsten's crystals of felspar, like these, were 
formed by gaseous sublimation ; and an analogous process would account 
for the felspar observed by Haidinger in a basaltic cavity, under the form 
of Laumonite, and by Bischof in a porphyritic bed, in which a Trilobite 
also was found. 

A new view of the production of minerals has been opened by Ebelmtn, 
who obtained the most refractory crystals of the granitic rocks, such as 
spinel, emerald, cymophane, and corundum, by segregation in the interior 
of a fused mass. They were formed at a heat far below that which would 
fuse either those crystals or granite, by means of the evaporation of a fusible 
and volatile medium. Gaudin also, on the same principle using a similar 
alkaline solvent, and substituting sulphuric for boracic and carbonic acids 
as the volatile ingredient, obtained the ruby. 

To the same category may be referred an experiment by Precht, who 
having added to a transparently fused frit, weighing 1^ cwt., a considerable 
quantity of felspar, found, after cooling, that a large portion of this mineral 
had separated itself in foliated masses, and in several distinct crystals. 

The most important light, however, on this subject, especially in relation to 
metamorphic phenomena, is from the experiments of Daubree on the reaction 
of gaseous compounds upon various earthy bases. Conveying the chlorides 
of tin and titanium over lime at heats varying from 572° to 1652° Fahr., 
he produced crystals of tinstone and brookite ; by variations of the same 
principle, at heats not exceeding redness, he obtained all the following mine- 
rals : — wollastonite, staurolite, peridote, ditthene, willemite, idocrase, garnet, 
phenakite, emerald, euclase, corundum, zircon, periclase, spinel, augite, di- 
opside, gahnite, franklinite, haematite, felspar, and tourmaline in hexagonal 
prisms imbedded within crystals of quartz. The process was of this descrip- 
tion : — Chloride of aluminium, passed over lime at a red heat, produced 
corundum ; chloride of silicium, passed in like manner over seven equiva- 
lents of potash or soda and one of alumina, produced the different species 
of felspar : the latter named gas, decomposed by lime at the same heat, or 

* Mr. Marshall fused a large mass of granite, and cooling it slowly obtained no crystals. 



182 REPORT— 1860. 

by magnesia, alumina, or glucina, gave crystallized quartz in the usual form 
of the pyramidal hexagon, passing below into a silicate of the associated 
bases. " The most remarkable part," as Daubree has remarked, " connected 
with these reactions, in a chemical, arid especially a geological point of view, 
is that the silicium and the silicates thus produced have an extreme tendency 
to crystallize, and that the crystallization takes place at a temperature far 
below their points of fusion." " The manner," he adds, " in which quartz and 
the silicates are connected with the granite rocks has long been a difficulty 
in all the hypotheses on the formation of the rocks called primitive. Now 
we find, in our experiments, that quartz crystallizes at the same time with, 
or even later than, the silicates at a temperature scarcely exceeding a cherry- 
red heat, and consequently infinitely below its point of fusion." 

M. Daubree disclaims the supposition that those rocks themselves were 
formed after the formula of his experiments. Nevertheless, considering 
the probability that formations at higher temperatures, now obliterated, may 
have preceded that of the granitic rocks, observing the uniform crystalliza- 
tion of granite in the tenuity of its ramifications, as well as in mass, and 
perceiving that Daubree by his process has reproduced almost all the granitic 
minerals, and among them not only the felspar, but the crystalline quartz 
of granite, — it must be admitted that such a theory is worth attention. 

Durocher has added to Daubree's researches two capital experiments, of 
direct geological application, in obtaining the sulphides of the mineral veins 
by the reaction of sulphuretted hydrogen on the chlorides of the metals in a 
state of vapour, and in having effected the metamorphism of limestone into 
dolomite in an atmosphere of the vapour of chloride of magnesium. 

A theory of sublimation, however, may admit of many modifications, 
and may be combined with the principle of segregation illustrated in the 
experiments of Ebelmen. Deville and Caron, having fused bone phosphate 
at a l'ed heat in excess of chloride and fluoride of calcium, found that lime 
apatite crystallized out in cooling, and was easily separated by washing from 
the soluble salts. In like manner, with different bases and different chlorides, 
they obtained the numerous varieties of apatite and wagnerite. And they 
observed further, that all these minerals became volatile at a slightly elevated 
temperature in the vapour of the chloride amidst which they were formed. 

Senarmont, pursuing another course, had applied a heat somewhat ex- 
ceeding 662° Fahr. to an aqueous solution of hydrochlorate of alumina, con- 
fined in a close tube, and thus decomposing it into its volatile and solid 
ingredients, obtained corundum, distinctly crystallized and mixed with 
diaspore, the same substance under a different form, and with different 
chemical properties, thus repeating in a remarkable manner that process by 
which the same minerals are found in nature similarly intermingled. He 
also succeeded in eliminating crystals of quartz from hydrate of silica by 
dissolving the hydrate in water charged with carbonic acid, and gradually 
raising the temperature of the tube which contained it to a heat of from 
400° to 500° Fahr., and by analogous methods he obtained carbonates and 
sulphides identical with native minerals. In some of these experiments the 
process was so varied as to show that the separation of the anhydrous cry- 
stals was due to the gradual withdrawal of the dissolving gas. The hydrated 
sesquioxide of iron, also heated in water of the temperature of 360° Fahr., 
was dehydrated, becoming magnetic. In an experiment by Wohler, on the 
contrary, apophyllite dissolved in water at the same temperature, returned 
on cooling to its original form, retaining its water of crystallization. To this 
class of discovery Daubree has likewise added some valuable facts, having 
obtained regular crystals of quartz, by decomposing, with the vapour of 
water alone, the interior of a glass tube subjected to a low red heat ; at the 



ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 183 

same time silicates were formed, hydrated or anhydrous, according to the 
degree of heat ; when fragments of obsidian were inserted, crystals of 
Rhyacolite appeared ; and the silicated water of Plombiere being substituted 
for plain water, and kaolin for obsidian, crystals of diopside insinuated 
themselves into the silicated substance of the tube, and the kaolin was 
changed into a substance possessing felspathic characters. 

All these experiments are adverse to the idea that the primary rocks have 
undergone fusion. The best natural criterion, perhaps, of the temperature 
at which they Avere formed, was afforded by the discovery, in 1828, of a 
method of manufacturing ultramarine, based on Vauquelin's identification 
of a furnace-product with the Lapis lazuli found in granite and in primitive 
limestone. In some specimens which I possess of the latter rock, this 
beautiful mineral may be seen enamelling with minute specks, and with 
perfect distinctness, within and without, all the plates of the calcareous 
crystals, which are here and there interspersed with small crystals of sulphate 
of lime. The heat at which the artificial ultramarine is made is that of red- 
ness. A lower temperature will not suffice to produce the colour, and a 
higher destroys it. 

We can now better understand how Hunterite, a white felspathic mineral 
containing 1 1*6 per cent, of water, can have been formed where it is found ; 
a hydrated silicate of alumina in the bosom of molten granite is an anomaly 
for which high pressure would scarcely account; but if the rock was at the 
temperature only of a low red heat, the formation of this mineral, and of 
the hydrated micas, will no longer appear a marvel. 

Other notices of ancient degrees of heat have been observed in the 
strata. In a cavity within a quartz crystal from Dauphine, Davy found a 
viscous inflammable fluid in small quantity, in a perfect vacuum*. In the 
cavities of other quartz crystals he found water and rarefied air. Sorby, 
having determined the amount of rarefaction in one such from a bed of 
mica-slate, in which he detected many others, calculated the temperature of 
the crystal at the time of its formation to have been 320° Fahr. In one case 
Davy found evidence of pressure which had condensed the elastic fluid in a 
crystal of quartz, and Brewster observed the like in crystals of topaz. 

From a general review of the researches now detailed, the following infer- 
ences may be drawn : — 

1. That all the consolidated strata, viewed chemically, bear marks of sub- 
jection to an action of heat agreeable to the theory of the earth's refrigera- 
tion, in direct proportion to the age of their deposit; and that they show that 
action most explicitly in the presence, throughout, but more abundantly as 
the series descends, of that peculiar form of silica which is chemically repro- 
duced by the action of heated volatile matter. 

2. That the igneous minerals were formed by molecular aggregation, at a 
heat not exceeding, perhaps, that of an ordinary fire, either as a residuum 
from the expiration of fusible and volatile materials, or more generally as a 
deposit from volatile forms of matter. 

As there are two classes of eruptive rocks, the quartzose and unguartzose, 
so there are two classes of emanation which accompany them, and deposit 
earthy minerals, differing for each class, in the neighbouring strata. They 
generally mantle round the rock, and but seldom penetrate it ; as if it had 
rather made room for them to rise, than as if they made part of its substance. 
Yet they bear a resemblance to the character of the rock which they follow. 
Thus the crystallized oxide of silicon is the characteristic ingredient of granite 

* Rose quartz from granite, and cornelian from trap, are coloured by a carburet of hydro- 
gen ; crystals of graphite also have been found in quartz ; but as carbonic acid must have 
existed before plants could grow, these facts are no proofs of antecedent organic structure. 



184 REPORT — 1860. 

rocks; and the earthy minerals imbedded in the metamorphic strata around 
such rocks resemble quartz in being simjile crystallized oxides, — innumerable 
gems, for instance, of the crystallized oxide of alumina — vast masses of the 
same, many tons in weight, in the form of emery, encysted in limestone 
which has been metamorphosed by rocks of granitic character, — still greater 
masses of crystalline sesquioxide of iron in similar relation to those rocks, — 
crystalline peroxide of tin shot through them into the strata above. 

In the eruptive rocks which followed the quartzose, these minerals, with 
almost all the quartz, died out, and were succeeded by others of a more 
complex nature appropriate to the porphyritic, trachytic, basaltic, and lavic 
eruptions. Yet all these, as well as the granitic, are attended by similar 
metalliferous veins, which grow very weak in the latest, but still show, at least 
as far as the eruption of the more ancient lavas*, a continued communica- 
tion with a common reservoir deeper seated than any of them. 

Davy saw the lava of Vesuvius issuing, as if forced up by elastic fluids, 
perfectly liquid, and nearly white-hot, its surface in violent agitation, with 
large bubbles rising from it, which emitted clouds of white smoke, consisting 
of common salt in great excf ss, much chloride of iron, and some sulphate of 
lime, accompanied with aqueous vapour, and with hydrochloric and sul- 
phurous acids. It contains also realgar and sulphide of copper, due pro- 
bably to the reaction of sulphuretted hydrogen on the chloride of the metal. 

In the early time of these eruptive emanations, when they escaped at 
many points with little interruption, the land rose only to low levels above 
the waters. As the crust of the earth grew more solid and weighty, and 
the vent was confined to fewer lines of shrinkage, the elastic elements of 
disturbance upheaved the incumbent beds with greater power, and the 

* Though the presence of quartz in lava has been denied, the following account of its 
coexistence with schorl in that of the valley of Maria in Lipari by Spallanzani shows that it 
does exist in ancient, perhaps basaltic, lavas, and strikingly illustrates the theory of its sub- 
limation, as here advanced. " Among the lavas partly decomposed we find pumices and 
enamels containing felspars and scales of black schorls, and certain curious and beautiful 
objects, which derive their origin, in my opinion, from filtration. The lava is white and friable 
to a certain depth, of a petrosiliceous base, full of small cells and cavities, within which these 
objects make their appearance : — First, minute crystals of schorl ; from the inside of these 
cells project very slender schorls, sometimes resembling minute chestnut bristles, sometimes 
a bunch, a plume, or a fan, to be ascribed to filtration after the hardening of the lava, since 
though it is common to find schorls in lavas, they are found incorporated within them, not 
detached as in this ease. The second filtration has produced small quartzose crystals, and 
the manner of their distribution in prodigious numbers renders them a very singular phe- 
nomenon among volcanic objects. Wherever the lava is scabrous, wherever it has folds, 
sinuosities, cavities, or fissures, it is full of these crystallizations. The larger crystals extend 
to 3^ lines, the greater part about \ a line. Tiiey consist of a hexagonal prism, infixed 
by the base into the lava, and terminated by a similar pyramid. Three crystals, among those 
I examined, were terminated by two pyramids, the prism being attached to the lava by a 
few points, and the prisms projecting out. The most regular are in small cavities, but not 
a few are on the surface of the lava. The. lava, embellished with these, forms immense 
rocks and vast elevations hanging over the sea, which, whenever they are broken to a certain 
depth, are found to contain these crystals, with capillary schorls, not \ery numerous. I have 
in my possession a group of needle-formed crystals from Mont St. Gotliard, within which 
are seven small prisms of black striated schorl. The same may be observed in these minute 
crystals. One of these ivas perforated from side to side by a needle of schorl, the two ends 
of which projected out. The formation of these capillary schorls must have preceded that 
of the cpiartzose crystals ; otherwise it is impossible to conceive how the former should have 
penetrated the substance of the latter. In rcmelting the lava in a furnace, the quartz 
crystals remained perfectly unaltered." 

Spallanzani also states, that in this lava are garnets and chrysolites more refractory in the 
fire than the matrix ; and he adds that since Dolomieu's visit to the adjoining stoves, when 
the whole ground on which they stood was saturated with hot vapours issuing everywhere 
from small openings an inch or two in diameter, at the time of his own visit these were 
reduced to one, exhaling some sulphur and encrusted with soft pyrites. 



ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 185 

mountain chains culminated to their utmost height. In the progress of re- 
frigeration the compressing and imprisoned forces became nearly balanced, 
and the residual predominance of the latter produces the phenomena of 
existing earthquakes and volcanoes. 

In the earlier periods, unmutilated skeletons, undisplaced scales, entire 
ink-bags, and florescent fronds, indicate conditions of nature which would 
now be called unnatural, a history of sudden death and speedy embalment, 
common, not to individuals only, but to generations and species. The pre- 
servation, in exquisite casts, of the most delicate organizations indicates a 
speedy but a tranquil entombment, which it would be difficult to refer 
to any other agency than that of gaseous emanation through the waters 
in which the plants and animals existed. Alcyonia and sponges, looking 
like recent specimens preserved in the places where they grew, point to a 
process of silicification, chiefly anhydrous, which anticipated decomposition. 
In the decreasing activity of internal heat and insalubrious emanations, we 
see the advancement of the physical and chemical conditions essential or 
advantageous to life; and with the progress of such conditions, favourable to 
the development of higher and higher forms of organization, we find a perfect 
correspondence in the natural history of organized fossils, and the increasing 
tones of the " Diapason, closing full in Man." 

From the theory of heat and the facts of geology, combined with physio- 
logical considerations, we learn that there was a definite era, in which the 
earth first became capable of supporting vegetable and animal life ; and we 
may account for the late appearance of man, by observing that there were no 
conditions adapted to the well-being and progress of human nature, till this 
state of things had yielded to a healthy atmosphere, a moderate heat, 
differentiated zones of life, stable forces, and a stationary standing ground. 

In the rudimental ages of the earth we behold an ever-changing scene of 
new and fitful conditions passing in rapid succession. Through all the stages 
of its existence previous to the present uniformity, so favourable to the 
exercise of reason and the freedom of will and action, we see force gradually 
subsiding, and the time allowed to life expanded into a wider liberality. Our 
ideas of its duration, as compared with indefinite ages, are equally limited with 
our view of its magnitude, in comparison with space or matter ; we can find in 
geological data no chronology but that of priority; the fossil records even of 
its unconsolidated beds have not yet supplied us with the key of the cypher 
which should connect geology with human history. If ever we come to know 
the age of the primary rocks, or of the protozoic strata, it can only be by 
combining physical data with the experimental reproduction of granite, and 
a knowledge of the heat which the lowest organisms can bear, and live. 

Since Hall first applied chemistry to the service of geology, few attempts 
have been made in this country to pursue the path which he opened. In 
1833 the British Association entrusted to a commission, consisting of Prof. 
Sedgwick,Dr Daubeny.the late Dr. Turner,and myself, the task of illustrating 
geological phenomena by experiments which it was hoped might have thrown 
light on some of the subjects discussed in this Report. Disappointed of the 
greater part of the fruit of these experiments, I yet believe that the few 
results which I now lay on the table of the Section will not prove devoid of 
interest, especially as evidence of the low temperature at which bodies scarcely 
reputed volatile are capable of being sublimed. 

The iron furnaces of Yorkshire having been selected as furnishing the 
best field for these experiments, it fell to my lot to conduct them. Every 
facility was afforded me by the zeal and liberality of the proprietors and 
managers of two furnaces, one of which at Elsicar, belonging to the late Earl 
Fitzwilliam, and managed by Mr. H. Hartop, worked for a period of five 



186 REPORT — 1860. 

years ; the other at Low Moor, belonging to Messrs. Wickhara and Hard)', pro- 
longed its unintermitting blast for fifteen years. The materials for the experi- 
ments, in addition to those which I was myself able to supply, were provided 
partly by a grant from the Association, partly by an extensive donation of 
minerals and fossils from the stores of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society. 
Professor Phillips also, who was then in charge of that Society's Museum, lent 
me his valuable assistance. 

The object kept in view, in devising experiments of so long a duration, was 
to subject the greatest possible variety of materials to the greatest possible 
variety of conditions, such as it might be presumed had formed, or altered, 
rocks, minerals, and mineralized organic remains. 

These were arranged in numerous crucibles, upright and inverted, and 
within two strong tripartite boxes of deal bound with iron thongs ; one 
of these was stored with large blocks and copious powders of granite, basalt, 
limestone, grit, and shale, with whole and pounded minerals of every kind, 
hydrates and anhydrates, the ingredients of a great variety of minerals com- 
pounded in proper proportions, all the different salts and elements calculated 
to react upon them, with almost every metal adapted to form veins or to re- 
gister heat ; the other contained organic substances, fossil and recent plants, 
shells, corals, reptiles, and bones, disposed in clay, sand, chalk, marble, gypsum, 
fluor, sulphates, muriates and other salts of soda and potash which might dis- 
engage volatile elements by their mutual action, to react on fixed constituents. 

At the Elsicar furnace I was allowed, whilst it was being built, to insert 
crucibles in the back of the masonry in immediate contiguity with the body 
of melted iron. At Low Moor it was agreed to place boxes filled with cruci- 
bles and materials under the bottom stone, before the furnace was built. 
This stone, consisting of millstone grit, 15 inches thick, though it gradually 
wears hollow in the centre, retains the iron fused upon it usually for fourteen 
or fifteen years, without being materially impaired. In its crevices are often 
found the beautiful cubic crystals of nitrocyanide of titanium, first brought 
into notice by Dr. Buckland. 

In this situation the temperature to which the contents of the boxes would 
be exposed could not be exactly foreseen. It was presumed that in the centre 
it would be near to the melting-point of cast iron. It will be seen by refer- 
ence to Plates IV. and V., which give a section and plan of the furnace, that 
the boxes did not occupy the whole space beneath the bottom stone. It oc- 
curred to me therefore, when these had been placed in position on a bed of 
sand, covered with the same material, and built up with fire brick, to deposit 
round them in a similar bed of sand, and enclose in like manner within walls 
of brick, lumps of various metals, and of granite, sandstone, fossiliferous 
shale, and limestone. From these supplementary experiments are derived 
the most interesting of the results which I have to describe. 

For when at the expiration of fifteen years the furnace was blown out, I 
found nothing left of the boxes but the iron straps with which they were 
bound, in a state of oxidation ; a few crucibles and portions of crucibles only 
had survived the general wreck of their contents ; granites, basalts, limestone, 
choice minerals, measured pieces, weighed powders and compositions, had 
disappeared ; all the exactness with which Professor Phillips had arranged for 
identifying the altered substances by their position and by comparison with 
reserved specimens, was lost labour. 

Nor did I find the deposits in the Elsicar furnace, at the end of five years, 
to have fared any better. From all these carefully devised experiments I can 
produce but two worthy of notice. One of them exhibits the conversion of 
river sand into sandstone, with a vacuity in its axis left by the volatilization 
of a recent plant. The stone has considerable tenacity, and came out of the 



ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 187 

crucible, with no adhesion to its sides, a perfect cast ; no salt had been added 
to it, nor is any separable from it by boiling. The close cohesion of the 
grains of sand by the action of heat may have been facilitated by the inter- 
mixture of some impurities, referable to oxide of iron, and possibly to felspar. 
The only vestige of the plant is a skin of silica on the surface of the place 
which it occupied in the interior of the sand, coating the vacancy, but not 
furnishing an impression from which the character of the plant can be re- 
covered. The stone showed signs of splitting from shrinkage in an oblique, 
or nearly vertical direction, a tendency which might probably have been more 
conspicuous had the experiment been on a larger scale. 

The other specimen is a translucent mineral of a pure blue colour. This 
colour it does not lose when heated red-hot in the outer flame of a candle. 
Melted into a bead with carbonate of soda, it passes into a pure opake white ; 
the same also with a small proportion of borax ; when the proportion of the 
borax is increased, the bead is transparent and colourless ; dissolved in 
hydrochloric acid, the mineral loses its colour. The solution contains much 
sulphate of lime, and some silica and alumina, whether potash also, or soda, I 
have not determined ; tested with prussiale of potash, it shows no trace of 
copper, and none, or scarcely any, of iron. This substance therefore belongs 
to the class of minerals of which Lapis lazuli and Haiiyne are varieties. It has 
been formed irregularly under a thin crust of sand to which it adheres, is im- 
bedded in sulphate, sulphide, and carbonate of lime, and accompanied with 
crystallized fluoride of lime. Whether this fluoride is a recomposition, or 
part only of the original mixture from which the blue mineral has been 
derived, I cannot say. The crucible certainly contained pounded fluor, and 
a sulphate, which underwent decomposition, and partially decomposed the 
fluoric crystals. 

But the objects to which I have alluded as possessing a new and unexpected 
interest, are the metals above mentioned as having been supplementarily 
placed, outside the boxes, under the bottom stone of the Low Moor furnace. 
The specimens consisted, originally, of pieces, of which chromographic plates 
have been appended to this Report, cut from a bar of zinc, a block of tin, 
a pig of lead, and a plate of tile-copper. They occupied, severally, the places 
marked in the accompanying ground plan of the furnace, 1, 2, 3, 4, as 
numbered at the time of the deposit. It will be seen that none of these 
pieces have undergone fusion, that of which the melting-point is lowest (the 
block tin) preserving perfectly its dimensions, the exact shape into which it 
was cut, and the sharp edges of the cutting. The external coat of the 
tin, to the depth of from ith to ^th of an inch, is converted into deutoxide, 
crystalline, transparent, and of the same specific gravity as the native ore ; 
between this and the metal, intervenes in some parts a space, which, with 
the striation of the metallic surface, indicates that a portion of the substance 
has been dissipated. 

Of the bar-zinc, more than half has been changed, though it preserves its 
original form, into a mass of crystalline oxide, interspersed with globules of 
the metal, burrowed in all directions with drusy cells and cavities, and 
showing extensive sublimation into the indurated sand which envelopes it. 
The nature of the sublimation is manifested by a number of prismatic spicula 
of metallic zinc, about £th of an inch long, standing within the cavities. 

But that which is chiefly remarkable is the tile-copper, in respect both to 
the temperature at which it has been volatilized, and the combination and 
interpenetration which its molecules, in a volatile state, have effected with its 
nearest neighbour, the lead. I have caused a drawing to be made of these 
specimens in their relative positions, as they lay in proximity to, but not 
touching, each other, having a portion of sand interposed. 



188 REPORT — 1860. 

It Mill be seen that a very considerable portion of the copper plate has 
been dissipated, that the surface has been sweated down, and in some parts 
the whole substance has evaporated away. Bright crystals of red oxide of 
copper line the wasted surface, which is also covered above with a coat, 
|-th of an inch thick, of mixed crystalline oxides of copper and lead ; and 
in the hollow which the dissipation of the metal has left between it and the 
indurated sand, is a sublimate consisting of fine twisted coherent threads of 
metallic copper, like those met with in mines and slags. Where nearest to 
the lead, it has so intermixed its exhalations with those proceeding from 
that metal as to have spread over the upper leaden surface a coating of green 
crystals, consisting of a double oxide of copper and lead. Beneath, and round 
the lead, at its contact with the sand (which below has penetrated its sub- 
stance without altering its form), runs a pink skin, marking the path of the 
red oxide of copper. I cut the lump of lead in half, and found it not only 
traversed in the middle by a seam of mixed oxide, but, what was still more 
remarkable, dotted with spots of metallic copper, which had found their way 
to the very centre of the mass, and even reached the opposite side. 

That it was the metal in this case, as in that of the zinc, which became 
volatile, and was subsequently deposited in the form of specks and filaments 
of copper in some places, and combining with oxygen, as a crystallized oxide 
in others, cannot be doubted. To attribute these effects to thermal electricity 
would not be consistent with the facts ; for there was here no contact, and no 
circuit. The penetration of the lead by the molecules of copper may be 
called Cementation, and be supposed to be due to capillary attraction of pores 
distended by heat acting on the volatile particles. 

But the surprising part of the result is, that the sublimation of copper by 
heat should have taken place at so Iowa temperature. These four metals, in 
close proximity, and all acted upon in the same manner, were their own 
mutual thermometers. It was impossible that the heat to which the copper 
plate, as a whole, had been subject could have been higher than the melting- 
point of the unfused lead and tin. I can attribute this unexpected fact to 
no other cause than the continual and protracted passage of hot currents of 
air and vapour, mingled perhaps with carbonaceous gas from the neigh- 
bouring wooden boxes* ; and it seems probable that if the central portion 
of the bottom stone had withstood to the end the action of the furnace, or 
if the buried boxes had been protected with a vault of brick, more light 
might have been thrown on the transfer of molecules at moderate tempera- 
tures by similar effects produced on other materials. 

I owe an apology for having delayed this Report much longer than I 
should have done, had the bulk of the experiments been attended with better 
success. I have been reminded of them by the design of a member of the 
Association to institute some of a similar character with the added conditions 
of pressure and steam. Whoever should now undertake such experiments 
would conduct them on the vantage ground of the later researches which I 
have here noticed, and might obtain results of high interest to geological and 
chemical science. It may be doubted whether heat protracted through many 
years, or even extraordinary pressure, may be essential elements of such 
results. The unintermitted presence of volatile materials, for a considerable 
time, passing over and dwelling among those of greater fixity at temperatures 
mounting up to a red heat, may be the only needful condition ; and if a fur- 

* If I am right in believing that an oolitic Echinus, Pecten, and Coral, and an Ammonite 
from the Lias, which I recovered from the furnace, are those marked in the Plan with the 
Nos. 8, 9, 10, then, as these were reduced to alkalinity, though without change of form or 
markings, it would follow that the carbonic acid under the same circumstances separates 
from lime at an equally low temperature of the mass, under the partial action of hot currents. 



ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 189 

nace were appropriated to this object, it is not difficult to conceive a con- 
struction and application of it which would fulfil such a requirement. 

If any one could succeed in effecting the synthesis of pseudomorphic 
crystals, or of granites and porphyries, he would certainly perform a great 
service to chemical geology. In the first of these subjects of experiment 
success is scarcely to be looked for, except in the metamorphic action of 
heated volatile agents. It is possible that granite also, and porphyry, might 
be formed by a process of volatilization ; or they might perhaps be produced 
as a residual igneous crystallization out of a mass, of which the flux had been 
removed from the denser substances by sublimation, solution, or pressure. 

It should appear that the production of marble is also a problem still un- 
determined. Rose has expressed an opinion, founded on his own ex- 
periments, that the solid substance which Sir J. Hall obtained, by igniting 
chalk under a pressure that prevented the extrication of the carbonic gas, 
cannot have been marble. Possibly the presence of an excess of the acid 
may be an additional requisite to the production of a perfect specimen. 

Since this Report was drawn up, I have seen a memoir by M. Daubree* 
which contains a very able and complete exposition of the progress of 
geological chemistry. His observations on the deposit of zeolitic crystals 
and other minerals discovered in the interstices of the old Roman brick- 
work and concrete at Plombieresf, which have undergone the action of sili- 
cated waters springing from the earth at a temperature not, now at least, 
exceeding 158° F., seem to have solved the problem of the deposit of such 
crystals and minerals in the vesicles of basaltic rocks, and to have proved 
them to be due to aqueous infiltration whilst the rock was still hot. 

His views on the formation of another class of minerals, and the origin of 
the granitic and other early rocks, seem to be not equally satisfactory. To 
these he has been led by his own late experiments on the effect of aqueous 
vapour in decomposing obsidian and glass. He propounds, with the diffidence, 
however, which belongs to a hypothetical speculation, a theory to the 
following effect — that in a primaeval state of the earth, when the heat now 
known to exist in its interior extended to the surface, as that surface cooled 
down to a certain point, the red-hot obsidian, or silicated glass, of its first 
coat was decomposed by water condensed from a state of vapour, under 
great pressure, at a red heat ; thus the quartziferous rocks were formed, at 
first as a plastic sponge, and when the water had evaporated as granite, the 
schist and slates immediately superincumbent upon it being the residuary 
product of the mother-waters. 

But this speculation is open to grave objections. What principle of 
solidification, it may be asked, capable of compacting granite, is included 
in a process of disintegration ? What has become of the silicates involved 
in it, to which we might look for such solidification, but which are absent 
from granite ? The mother -water* which it supposes are incapable of dif- 
fusing the peculiar minerals encysted in the proximity of granitic rocks 
even to the distance of thousands of feet. No less unaccountable would be 
the absence of all the zeolitic and opaline substances that might have been 
expected. Everything tends to show that whatever the power of this process 
may be, it must be confined, at least, to the lavas, basalts, and trachytes. 

That heated water has been so universal a solvent as M. Daubree supposes, 
is rendered very improbable by a circumstance noticed by Cagniard de 
Latour in his celebrated experiments on vapour highly heated and com- 

* Etudes et experiences synthetiques sur le metamorphisme et surla formation des roches 
crystallines, 18G0. 

t The presence of fluorine in the apophyllite of Plombieres is remarkable, the more be- 
cause Vauquelin analysed the waters with the express object of detecting this constituent, 
and denied its supposed existence in them. 



190 REPORT 1860. 

pressed. In one of these, the addition of a crystal or two of chlorate of 
potash to water at the temperature of 648° F., proved sufficient to prevent 
any action of the aqueous vapour on the glass ; so easily was it saturated by 
the presence of a more soluble material. 

Neither is it at all probable that any stratum which can be supposed to have 
preceded granite under extraordinary conditions of heat and pressure, can 
have resembled in any degree obsidian or glass. M. Daubree takes the 
vapour expansion of the ocean over the globe as equivalent to a pressure 
of 250 atmospheres, somewhat exceeding Mitscherlich's supposition before 
quoted. On this pressure Mitscherlich, as has been said, sagaciously re- 
marked, that it would probably materially modify the chemical affinities 
of bodies, and prevent the formation of silicate of lime. His anticipation has 
been experimentally verified ; and an equally remarkable instance of the 
same principle has been lately observed by Mr. Gore, who has found, on 
immersing some fifty substances in carbonic acid liquefied by pressure, that 
in that state it is chemically inert, to such a degree as not to dissolve oxygen 
salts. In these cases it should seem that pressure favours homogeneous, or 
simple, at the expense of heterogeneous, or complex, attractions ; and there is 
all the less reason for admitting M. Daubree's supposition, that obsidian, 
or any vitreous silicates, preceded the granitic rocks. 

We may carry these ideas further ; Ave may extend our speculations from 
the heat and weight of a vaporized sea to the gaseous system of Laplace, and 
the ultimate atoms of Newton. Then, as the heat by degrees radiated into 
space, and as the repulsive force yielded to the forces of attraction, the 
first compounds would be of the simplest order, — water, and hydrochloric 
acid, — the chlorides of potassium, sodium, silicon, and aluminium, the oxides 
of magnesium and calcium, with others of a like class. Here we have both 
the materials of the sea, and of the primary crust of the earth ; and at the 
same time all the power of consolidation which free crystalline force and 
enormous pressure can give to materials indisposed by that pressure to enter 
into complicated combination. 

In contemplating the origin of granite, it is not, however, competent to 
us to regard it as a fundamental rock only, since it preserves the same 
crystalline character under various conditions of heat and pressure. But 
we must remember that the gaseous theory which we are imagining implies 
a residue, in an internal gasometer, of similar primary compounds confined 
in a highly heated, condensed, and elastic state at no great distance under 
our feet, from the sudden or gradual evolution of which it is not difficult 
to conceive that all the eruptive rocks and veins, and many of the pheno- 
mena of consolidation in the sedimentary strata, may be accounted for. 

Every rock of eruption, and every mineral vein, which has shot up into the 
strata, indicates such an origin. The porphyries, trachytes, basalts, and lavas 
are essentially chemical and crystalline compounds. They differ from the quart- 
ziferous rocks only in this, that the chief part of the siliceous ingredients which 
characterize the latter having been antecedently used up, the greater fusi- 
bility of the former has more or less obliterated their crystalline structure. 

In these speculations it matters not from what source we suppose the 
heat of the earth to have been derived. Perhaps, a law of gravity, together 
with the other forces of attraction, imposed on the ultimate particles of 
matter, may account for all the heat which is, or has been in the world. In 
any case, the most probable inductive conclusion from our knowledge of 
the earth's heat, and the phenomena of eruption, with the light thrown on 
the production of minerals by Daubree's_/w-s£ series of experiments, and 
those of Durocher, appears to be, that mineral veins and eruptive rocks 
are the result of gaseous combinations and reactions. As regards mineral 



ON THE EFFECTS OF LONG-CONTINUED HEAT. 191 

veins, this, I believe, is the opinion of most observers. But we see the same 
metamorphic effects which are produced by them, equally produced by the 
presence of any eruptive rock. If a stratum of limestone be invaded, and a 
portion of it included in the invading substance, that portion is not unfre- 
quently impregnated with magnesia and converted into dolomite, equally by 
a mineral vein or a granitic rock. 

The advantages which this theory possesses over any that have yet pre- 
sented themselves, are that it accounts for all the following phenomena: — 

1. The characteristic structures of granite, and of gneiss and mica-slate, — 
which may be compared to the deposits of graphite in gas-retorts, solid 
where the carburetted gas aggregates its decomposed molecules of carbon in 
confinement, hut foliated and quasi-stratified, where the gas chances to escape 
through cracks in the retort into the more open chamber of brick-work ; — 

2. The perfect uniformity of crystalline texture in granite, whether deep or 
superficial, in thin veins or solid masses, showing that neither great pressure 
nor slow cooling have been essential conditions of its crystallization ; — 

3. The wide diffusion of zones or atmospheres round the eruptive, and 
especially the granitic rocks, of mineral substances, and metamorphic effects, 
a phenomenon which, together with that of the filling up of mineral veins 
from below, is not accounted for hy any other theory ; — 

4. The metalliferous and quai'tziferous impregnations of the sedimentary 
strata. 

If, with Cordier, we divide the eruptive rocks into the quartzose (which 
correspond to the granites and earliest porphyries) ; and the unquartzose, 
comprehending the felspathic (which correspond to the later porphyries and 
trachytes); with the pyroxenic (which correspond to the basalts and lavas); 
and if we consider all these as originating from gases, accompanied by 
aqueous vapour, — then the phenomena show the amount of such vapour 
present in the quartzose formations to have been almost infinitesimal, 
whilst that which attended some parts of the pyroxenic formations was con- 
siderable. As regards the sedimentary siliciferous rocks, they show, in the 
semiopaline, semiquartzose composition of the siliceous beds, the action of 
anhydrous gas, aided by aqueous vapour. Aqueous vapour acts on silicates 
only at a heat approaching redness, and conveys no silica. Chloride of silicon 
would carry silica, and would diffuse it at a much lower heat, since it boils 
at a temperature below 140° F. 

Connected with the preceding speculations the following remarks may 
deserve attention. There is a singular resemblance of mineral and crystal- 
line constitution between the pyroxenic rocks and meteoric stones, — a re- 
semblance, in fact, so close as to indicate a similar mode of production out 
of the same materials. The late optico-chemical discoveries of Bunsen and 
Kirchhoff have shown, with a great degree of probability, that molecules of 
iron, nickel, and magnesium abound in the solar atmosphere ; should the 
progress of those discoveries add silicon to this list, we have here again the 
chief materials, both of metcorolites and of pyroxenic rocks. In any case, 
whether we suppose the meteorite to have been contemporaneous with the 
earth, or to be ejected from the moon, or emitted from the sun, our thoughts 
are led back to a time when the whole solar system consisted of the same 
ultimate atoms, and are confirmed in the opinion that the meteorites and the 
fundamental rocks of the earth have undergone similar processes of mole- 
cular and crystalline combination, the vitreous coat of the meteorite, and the 
vitreous character of the later lavas, being due also to the same causes : — 
1st, to the fusibility of the material ; 2ndly, to a more intense heat generated 
by a nearer proximity to an oxidating atmosphere ; .Srdly, to a more rapid 
rate of cooling. 



192 REPORT — 1860. 

What our views, however, of the original constitution of matter may be, 
is a point of less consequence than what are the conclusions in geology to 
which we are conducted by observation and experiment. The general con- 
clusions to be drawn from the foregoing researches seem to be these : — 
That no theory of the earth consists with the phenomena, which does not 
take into account a heat of the surface once amounting to redness; — that 
the most prominent chemical and crystalline compounds which laid the base- 
ment of the earth's crust, and continued to penetrate it, as far as into the 
tertiary strata, have disappeared in the present eruptive system ; — that the 
nature, force, and progress of the past conditions of the earth cannot be 
measured by its existing conditions ; — that to deduce accurate inferences in 
the sciences of observation, the attention requires to be directed less to gene- 
ral analogies than to specific and essential distinctions. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATES IV. & V. 

Section, and Plan, of the furnace in which the deposits lay for 15 years, the number 
of each deposit, external to the boxes, being marked on the plan. 

PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1 (Plan No. 4). Tile copper .5 in. X 2} in. X f in. coated with lamina? of dark, 
red, crystallized oxide of copper, alternating with white and yellow crystallized prot- 
oxide of lead, and with a pink intermixture of crystallized oxides of copper and lead 
covered with sand indurated, but not vitrified, by protoxide of lead. 

a. Twisted filaments of metallic copper. b. Crystals of red oxide. 

bb. Laminae of crystallized red oxide of copper alternating with protoxide of 

lead, and mixture of oxides of lead and copper, 
c Particles of metallic copper. cc. Golden metalline spot. 

Fig. 2 (Plan No. 3). Pig lead, 4.| in. X 3| in. X 2i in. View of upper surface, show- 
ing green and yellow double oxides of lead and copper, with spots of metallic copper. 

d. Cavity from which lead has sublimed. 

e. Spots of metallic copper. 

f. Double oxides of lead and copper. 

PLATE VII. 

Fig. 3 (Plan No. 3). Pig lead, vertical section, showing exterior and interior 
seams of mixed oxides of lead and copper, green, yellow, and red, with spots of me- 
tallic copper. 

g. Red oxide of copper between lead and indurated sand. 
h. Spots of metallic copper in the interior of the lead. 

i. Oxide of copper and lead. kk. Lead hardened by disseminated oxide. 

Fig. 4 (Plan No. 4). Enlarged section of part of fig. 1, showing threads of metallic 
copper. 

Fig. 5 (Plan No. 4). Part of fig. 1 ; enlarged view of pink mixture of crystallized 
oxides of copper and lead, with spots and threads of metallic copper. 

PLATE VIII. 

Fig. 6 (Plan No. 2). Block tin, 3 in. X 2 in. X 1 in., with a coat of transparent cry- 
stallized deutoxide from fin. to A inch thick. 

I. Striated surface of metal beneath oxide. 
m. Crystals of deutoxide, transparent and colourless. 
Fig. 7 (Plan No. 1). Zinc bar, in indurated sand, fractured, showing a surface 
partly metallic, partly crystalline. 

n. Spicule of sublimed metal. o. Seam of metal. 

Fig. 8 (Plan No. 1). Showing cavernous face of oxide of zinc with crystals of do. 
p. Cupped hollows set with crystals of oxide of zinc, out of which globules of 
metal have sublimed. 



tepart Brit tssoe.186 



PI ale 4 . 



Section of the Turnace. 




Hate 5. 



REFERENCES 



""'""' /n '" rests '"•'■' l ** *<*<™ Stoned ike space Z feet 4-mches in. the Section 
aid the blast is mtroahuxd at the smalt tfrele in D". The n.jures from 1 to 23 on 
the Orouml Plan represent the orde,- and situation of the Deposits made in the cavity 
on ihe outside of the Boxes. The black hues in the centre of the Ground Plan repre- 

I the t«o Boxes whoso two sides meet e.caetle a, the centre of the Furnace . 
The letters &.B..B.C.D. aaree with those marked on ihe Boaxs. 



NU. Vine bar. 
Block Tin . 

3. /■/,, lead. 

4. Tile Copper. 



coloured. 

8 7 6 



9. Coral in Coral Raa. 

10. Peeler, m Maltan Oolite. 

11. Coral, recent . 
1Z. Chalk 



i Shale -from BlaekIronshme.l&. N°. 11,335. 

6 . Mack bad Irouston, /./. whale Verb bra 

''''■ K Bhelzniestone- wiOv Shells 23. Granite. Tork, Streets 

<n, Malta,, Oolite. IB.Maanesian Lzmestcme. 



LI. Low Moor Piq Iron . 

18 Septarium . 
W. "Flagstone . 
20. Granite . 

U. inmiorate ui lias 
ZZ.Baealb. 



irrt'iii/,1 PI, iii of tiie Furnace 







Front Arch where rh< 
Funi.t,, is worked 



CE YL. 




M 






• . ■ • . 



<* ■• 






4 ' 









:*vr 



- 51 VAV^ 






PLATE 




■ ■ 



.. 



fig. 6. 
(PlarvJr: S) 



Tig. 8 

(PltmA'j) 







On steam-ship performance. 



193 



Second Report of the Committee on Steam-ship Performance. 

CONTENTS. 

Report. 

Appendix No. I. — Table 1. Table showing the results of performances at sea and on 
the measured mile, of 17 vessels of the Royal Navy, of 22 vessels in the Merchant 
Service, and of two vessels of the United States Navy, together with the particulars 
of their machinery. 
Table 2. Return of the results of performances of 49 vessels in the service of the 
Messageries Imperiales of France during the year 1858. 
Appendix No. II. — Table 1. Quarterly returns of the speed and consumption of coal 
of the London and North- Western Company's express and cargo boats, under 
regidated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion ; from January 1 to De- 
cember 31, 1859. 

Table 2. Half-yearly verifications of consumption of coal of the above vessels, 

from January 1 to December 31, 1859. 
Appendix No. III.— No. 1. Form of Log-book used by the Royal Mail Company. 
No. 2. Form of Log-book used by the Pacific Steam Navigation Company. 
No. 3. Form of Engineers log used by the Peninsular and Oriental Company. 
No. 4. The Admiralty Form for recording the trial performances of Her Majesty's 

steam-vessels. 
No. 5. Board of Trade Form of Surveyor's Return of Capabilities. 
Appendix No. IV. — Table 1. Showing the ratio between the indicated horse-power 
and the grate, the tube, the other heating, and total heating surfaces ; also, between 
the grate and heating surfaces, and between the indicated horse-power and the coal 
consumed. 
Appendix No. V. Letter from Mr. Archbold, Engineer-in-Chief, United States Navy. 
Description of the hull, engines, and boilers of the United States Steam Sloop 
' Wyoming'. 

Table 1. Return of performance of the ' Wyoming* under steam alone. 
Table 2. Return of performance of the 'Wyoming' under steam and sail combined. 
Table showing the trial performances of the steam-vessels 'Lima' and 'Bogota' 
when fitted with single cylinder engines, and after being refitted with double 
cylinder engines. Also the sea performances of the same vessels under both these 
conditions of machinery and on the same sea service. 

Report. 

At the Meeting of the British Association, held in Aberdeen in September, 
1859, this Committee was re-appointed in these terms : 

" That the following Members be requested to act as a Committee to con- 
tinue the inquiry into the performance of steam-vessels, to embodv the facts 
in the form now reported to the Association, and to report proceedings to 
the next meeting. 

" That the attention of the Committee be also directed to the obtaining of 
information respecting the performance of vessels under sail, with a view to 
comparing the results of the two powers of wind and steam, in order to their 
most effective and economical combination. 

"That the sum of £150 be placed at the disposal of the Committee for 
these purposes." 

The following gentlemen were nominated to serve on the Committee :— 



1860 



Vice Admiral Moorsom. 

The Marquis of Stafford, M.P. 

The Earl of Caithness. 

The Lord Dufferin. 

William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

J. Scott Russell, F.R.S. 

Admiral Paris, C.B. 

The Hon. Capt. Egerton, R.N. 



William Smith, C.E. 
J. E. M c ConnelI, C.E. 
Charles Atherton, C.E. 
Professor Rankine, LL.D. 
J. R. Napier, C.E. 
Richard Roberts, C.E. 
Henry Wright, Hon. See. 



194 



REFORT 1860. 



Your Committee, having re-elected Admiral Moorsom to be their Chair- 
man, beg leave to present the following Report : — 

They have held monthly meetings, with intermediate meetings of sub- 
Committees appointed to carry out in detail matters referred to them by the 
General Committee. The Committee regret that they were deprived of the 
services of one of their members, Mr. Charles Atherton, at an early stage of 
the present inquiry, his public duties preventing his attending. 

They have been assisted by Corresponding Members ; noblemen and gentle- 
men, who, not being members of your Association, were not, by its rules, 
eligible as members of your Committee. Some of them, however, being 
owners of steam yachts, and others intimately acquainted with all matters 
relating to steam shipping, their cooperation was considered very essential, 
as introducing to the Committee gentlemen, not only capable of dealing with 
the subjects of this inquiry, but who also had it in their power to place in 
the hands of the Committee, materials, which, it is confidently hoped, will 
eventually lead to a correct and scientific knowledge of the laws governing 
economic Steam-Ship Performance. 

The Corresponding Members so elected were: — 



Capt. William Moorsom, R.N. (since 

deceased). 
Mr. John Elder. 
Mr. David Rowan. 
Mr. J. E. Churchward. 
Mr. Thomas Steele. 



Lord Clarence Paget, M.P., C.B., &c. 

Lord Alfred Paget, M.P. 

Lord John Hay, M.P. 

The Hon. L. Agar Ellis, M.P. 

The Earl of Gifford, M.P. 

The Marquis of Hartington, M.P. 

Viscount Hill. 

It will be within the recollection of the Association that the labours of this 
Committee last year were almost exclusively devoted to explaining to the 
various shipping companies and others with whom they were in correspond- 
ence, the objects proposed, and suggesting such forms as, if accurately filled 
in, would accomplish the purposes contemplated by the British Association. 
Log-books were prepared, and copies furnished to the leading Steam Packet 
Companies. 

At their first meeting the Committee took into consideration the manner 
in which the grant of money placed at their disposal by the Association could 
be most judiciously applied, and after mature consideration it was unani- 
mously resolved : — 

" That to procure information from shipbuilders and engineers, it is found 
to be indispensable to hold personal intercourse with them, without which 
little progress is likely to be made." 

The Honorary Secretary was accordingly deputed to wait upon the prin- 
cipal Shipbuilders, Engineei"s, and Steam Shipping Companies in London 
and its vicinity, to explain the objects of the Committee, and to solicit their 
cooperation by furnishing the Committee with authenticated returns of the 
sea performances of vessels, as well as of their trial trips. 

In this your Committee are happy to report that (hey have succeeded. All 
to whom application was made expressed concurrence in the objects of your 
Committee, and their willingness to render every information in their power. 
The great difficulty was to make a suitable selection of vessels as examples 
of ordinary performance in the mercantile navy. Press of business, and 
perhaps want of thoroughly understanding the aims of the Committee, induced 
them to throw the whole labour of making these returns upon the Committee. 
The log-books for a number of years, and any documents the Committee 
desired to see, were freely placed at their service; but the time required to 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 195 

wade through the masses of logs, together with the fact of the Association 
meeting this year near]}- three months earlier than usual, rendered it imprac- 
ticable for more than a limited amount of work to be got through. It was 
therefore determined to make a selection of certain vessels, and to endeavour, 
as far as possible, to render complete the record of a few. 

Your Committee at the same time communicated with the Admiralty, with 
a view of instituting a similar comparison between the trial trips and ordinary 
performances of Her Majesty's vessels at sea. 

They much regret that they have not been able to obtain the latter. The 
Lords Commissioners, however, very courteously entrusted the Committee 
with the original returns of Her Majesty's vessels during the years 1857, 
1858, and 1859, as furnished by the officers who conducted such trials, with 
permission to copy and make any use they thought fit of the information 
they contained. Diagrams of the engines taken on the trials during the year 
1859 were also furnished. 

Your Committee must remark with regard to these trial performances, that 
they do not appear to be instituted with any other view than as a trial of the 
working of the engines, excepting in a few instances, when experiments have 
been made to test the merits of certain screws. In very numerous cases, the 
officer distinctly reports that the boiler power is insufficient. The speed 
may or may not be taken at the convenience of the officers, but in no case 
is any note taken of the economical efficiency of the engines with regard to 
fuel. 

As your Committee are restricted to a record of facts, it is out of place 
here to suggest changes in the mode of conducting the trials of Her Majesty's 
ships. The Committee would, however, fail in their duty if they did not avail 
themselves of this occasion to repeat their conviction, as expressed in their 
last Report, — " That it would tend to the advancement of science, the im- 
provement of both vessels and engines, and to the great advantage of Her 
Majesty's service, if the trials of the Queen's ships were conducted on a more 
comprehensive plan, directed to definite objects of practical utility on a 
scientific basis, and recorded in a uniform manner." 

In addition to the vessels of the British Royal and Mercantile Navies, your 
Committee have great pleasure in being enabled to lay before the British 
Association a return of forty-nine vessels in the service of the Messageries 
Imperiales of France, obligingly furnished by a member of the Committee, 
Admiral Paris, and recorded in the form used by that Company; also, of 
two vessels belonging to the United States Navy, the particulars of which 
have been extracted from the second volume of Mr. Isherwood's recent 
publication, entitled " Engineering Precedents." They have been introduced 
into the Tables (see Appendix, Table I.). 

While this Report was preparing, the Committee were gratified by receiv- 
ing from Mr. Archbold, Engineer-in-Chief, United States Navy, two sets of 
tabulated returns of performance of the United States steam sloop of war 
1 Wyoming,' under steam alone, and under steam and sail. 

These returns are of peculiar value, as comprising particulars in a form 
which the Committee believe has never yet been published. Along with the 
data afforded by Mr. Isherwood's book, they give the area of sail spread and 
the force of wind by notation, together with other particulars, useful for 
calculations of results and for comparisons. 

These Tables are contained in the Appendix, with Mr. Archbold's letter, 
and a description of the hull, engines, and boilers of the ' Wyoming.' 

The returns furnished by the British Admiralty embrace 216 vessels and 
353 trials, with about 900 diagrams. For the same reason as above stated, in 

o2 



196 REPORT— 1860. 

case of merchant vessels your Committee were obliged to make a selection, 
and to endeavour, for the purposes of the present Report, to obtain a complete 
record of a few, in the form suggested by the Committee. With this view, 
application was again made to the Admiralty, asking for the additional parti- 
culars not embraced in the returns of trial performances already furnished, 
and stating that their Lordships were, of course, aware that the particulars 
given in those documents were of comparatively small value without others 
of the vessels, their engines, screws, and boilers. The Committee added 
that they were in possession of such full particulars from both companies and 
private firms, and they trusted also to be favoured with similar information 
from the Admiralty. To this communication, the Lords Commissioners re- 
plied that they regretted they could not at present supply the information 
desired; but they would be glad to receive a copy of the reports obtained 
from companies and private firms. Your Committee thereupon constructed a 
Table embracing the particulars of merchant vessels (Appendix I., Table 1), 
and also a blank table filled in with the names of Her Majesty's vessels, 
selected as before mentioned, and containing the results of the test trials 
already given, and forwarded them to the Admiralty, begging that they 
might be favoured with the return of the table of the ships of war with the 
blanks filled in, adding, that if pressure of public business should prevent 
that being done, your Committee would send a person to copy the particulars 
on receiving the sanction of the Lords Commissioners to such a course. 

As a measure of precaution in case of failure on the part of the Admiralty 
to send the promised particulars in time for printing, your Committee ob- 
tained returns of the machinery of these vessels by application to the manu- 
facturers, personally and by letter. They avail themselves of this opportunity 
to thank Messrs. Boulton and Watt, Maudslay Sons and Field, and John 
Penn and Sons, for having so fully and so promptly responded to the call. 
They are, therefore, now enabled to lay before the Association a table com- 
prising the results of the trials furnished by the Admiralty, together with the 
particulars of engines, &c, furnished by the manufacturers: the figures in 
Clarendon type (see Appendix I. Table 1) denote the Admiralty returns. 

Your Committee regret that there are some particulars of the trials still 
wanting, as, for example, the evaporation of water and the consumption of 
fuel ; but they believe that hitherto those items have not been recorded. It 
is earnestly hoped, now that public attention has been called to the subject, 
that a more exact and careful account may be taken, both on the measured 
mile and on ordinary service at sea. 

In compiling the Table of merchant vessels, a similar course has been 
adopted, viz. of gathering from the best sources the various details necessary 
to complete the Table. The Companies to which the vessels belonged, gave 
every information in their possession, not only of the vessels themselves, but 
also of their actual sea performances, and placed at the disposal of the Com- 
mittee the sea logs for every voyage, with permission to make such extracts 
as they deemed proper. For any additional information, they were referred 
to the constructors of the engines and vessels. Your Committee cannot 
speak in too high terms of the constant readiness to give information, 
although at considerable inconvenience to themselves, which the various 
Companies and private firms have invariably shown. They feel assured that, 
had time permitted, and if the requisite labour could be devoted to it, the 
whole shipping community would willingly contribute their quota of statistics: 
all that is wanted is uniformity of arrangement, and that a form similar to the 
one proposed by the Committee be generally adopted. 

The thanks of the British Association are especially due to the Royal 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 197 

Mail Steam Packet Company, to the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, to 
the London and North-Western Railway Company, to Messrs. Inglis Bro- 
thers, Messrs. Randolph and Elder, Messrs. Caird and Co., Messrs. R. Na- 
pier and Sons, and to Captain Walker, of the Board of Trade. 

Captain W T alker very obligingly placed at the service of the Committee 
some of the books in which the vessels registered and surveyed by the Board 
of Trade are recorded, and your Committee are in possession of copies of the 
entries of 51 vessels, varying from 600 to 2000 tons register and upwards, 
registered in the ports of London, Liverpool, Southampton, and Glasgow, 
during 1858. These have formed a very useful guide in leading to a selec- 
tion of vessels from which to obtain the particulars requisite for comparison. 

Your Committee have been in communication also with the French and 
American ambassadors, with a view to obtaining the statistics of perform- 
ance of their respective navies; and, after referring the matter to their home 
Governments, the Committee have received the assurance of their willingness 
to cooperate. 

Your Committee, being precluded by the terms of their appointment from 
discussing theories, or attempting to deduce laws, have, nevertheless, thought 
it not inconsistent to prepare a table of ratios based on the indicated horse- 
power, and showing the ratio between that element, as developed on the 
measured mile, and the grate, the tube, and other heating surfaces of the 
boilers producing it; also, between the grate and heating surfaces, and be. 
tween the indicated horse-power and the coal consumed. The Committee 
regret that this important item, the coal, is not more frequently recorded, 
very few private trials making any note of it ; and in no instance brought 
under the notice of the Committee, have the Admiralty officers made known 
this element, so necessary for ascertaining the efficiency of the boilers (for 
Table of Ratios, see Appendix IV. Table 1). 

The following is a general summary of the result of the Committee's 
labours during the past session. They have obtained : — 

1. Returns of 353 trials by 216 of Her Majesty's vessels of war during the 
years 1857, 1858, and 1859, with about 900 (898) diagrams taken during 
the trials in 1859; also notes, by the officers conducting the trials, of 
observed facts. 

Of these trials, fifty-eight made by seventeen of the vessels, have been 
selected by way of illustration, with the particulars of machinery obtained from 
the makers, and arranged in a tabular form. 




iey, and ' Virago. 

1 his Table also comprises the two American vessels, < Niagara ' and ' Massa- 
chusetts,' together with the British vessel ' Rattler,' introduced for compari- 
son. 

2. Returns of 68 merchant vessels. 

Four diagrams taken during trials of the ' Atrato.' 

Scale of displacement of the 'Atrato.' 

Lines of ditto. 

Eight diagrams of the ' Shannon ' taken during trials. 




quil,' 'Undine,' ' Erminia,' 'Admiral,' 'Emerald,' and 'John Penn. 

The returns of the first four, belonging to the London and North- Western 



198 REPORT 1860. 

Railway Company, are the mean of a number of trips on actual service be- 
tween Holyhead and Kingstown. The returns of the ' Erminia,' 'Admiral,' 
' Emerald,' aud ' John Perm,' are measured mile performances only ; but the 
remaining 12 vessels, with the exception of the 'Undine,' show their sea 
performances over distances of about 6000 consecutive nautical miles each, 
in addition to the performances on the measured mile. 

3. Return of the results of performance of 49 vessels in the service of the 
Messageries Imperiales of France, recorded in the form used by that Com- 
pany. The whole of these vessels are given in the Appendix. (Appendix I. 
Table 2.) 

4. Quarterly returns of the speed and consumption of coal of the London 
and North-Westeru Company's express and cargo boats, under regulated con- 
ditions of time, pressure, and expansion, from January 1st to December 31st, 
1859 — presented by Admiral Moorsom. (Appendix II. Table 1.) 

Half-yearly verifications of the consumption of coal of the above vessels, 
from January 1st to December 31st, 1859, (Appendix II. Table 2.) 

5. Forms of log-book used by the Royal Mail Company (Appendix III. 
No. 1), by the Pacific Steam Navigation Company (No. 2), by the Peninsular 
and Oriental Mail Company (No. 3), the Admiralty form for recording trials 
of Her Majesty's vessels (No. 4), and the Board of Trade form of return of 
capabilities (No. 5). 

6. Table showing the ratio between the indicated horse-power and the 
grate, the tube, the other heating and total heating surfaces ; also, between 
the grate and heating surfaces, and between the indicated horse-power and 
coal consumed. (Appendix IV.) 

From the above list, it will be readily conceived that the time of the Com- 
mittee has been fully occupied, as the task of copying and condensing from 
log-books is one involving a large amount of labour. Your Committee have 
not therefore, as yet, been enabled to conduct experiments on the plan 
recommended in their first Report presented to the Association in Aberdeen. 
They have, however, kept that branch of their inquiry in view; and through 
the courtesy of Mr. A. P. How, of Mark Lane, and of Messrs, Tylor and 
Sons, of Warwick Lane, they have been presented with apparatus of the 
value of about £60, consisting of salinometers, and an engine counter and 
clock ; they have also at their disposal, for use whenever required, a superior 
dynamometer, and a compound stop-watch, and are now prepared to pro- 
ceed with experiments, should the Association see fit to renew their powers, 
and the consent of the Government be obtained. 

The Committee regret that they have not been able to collect any such 
information respecting the performance, under sail alone, of steam- vessels, 
as was contemplated by the Association, " with a view to comparing the 
results of the two powers of wind and steam, in order to their most effective 
and economical combination." 

They must, however, draw attention to the synopsis given by Mr. Isher- 
wood, of the steam-log of the ' Niagara,' in which her performances, " under 
steam alone," " under steam and fore-and-aft sails," and " under steam and 
square sails combined," are set forth in such manner that those conversant 
with the subject will be enabled, without much difficulty, to assign its approxi- 
mate value to the power of the sails alone. 

In Mr. Archbold's Table of the performance of the ' Wyoming,' the addi- 
tional particulars of the force of the wind by notation, the area of sail set, 
and the indicated horse-power, which are not always stated in Mr. Isher- 
wood's synopsis, afford the means of tolerably accurate comparison. 

It is a duty the Committee owe to themselves, to express thus publicly 






ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 199 

their sense of the services rendered to the Association by Mr. Henry Wright, 
their Honorary Secretary, whose untiring energy, indefatigable labours, judg- 
ment, and discretion, have enabled them to lay this information before the 
meeting. 

To Mr. Smith, a member of the Committee, their acknowledgements are 
due, as well for the use of a room in his offices, as for several sources of 
information opened to them by his influence. 

The Marquis of Stafford, by placing a room in his house at the disposal 
of the Committee for occasional meetings, has contributed materially to the 
personal convenience of the members. 

Of the grant of £150 voted by the Council of the Association, to defray 
the expenses of printing, postage, collecting information, &c, a6l24 3s. lOd. 
has been expended, viz. — 

-C s. d. 

To printing last year's Report 18 1 6 

To printing present Report 78 14 

To stationery and miscellaneous printing 13 15 9 

To postage 5 1 

To sundry expenses, including cab hire and railway fares, incurred 8 12 6 

by the Honorary Secretary whilst collecting information .... 812 6 

Total expenditure 3 6124- 3 10 

Balance of grant remaining unexpended .... £25 16 2 

It was originally intended to institute inquiries, not only in London and its 
vicinity, but also in Glasgow, Liverpool, Hull, Bristol, Southampton, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, &c, and for this purpose it would have been necessary to 
defray the expenses of an agent to conduct the inquiry ; but the shortness 
of the session, together with the extended field which London presents, ren- 
dered that course impracticable. 

Your Committee feel, that a beginning having thus been made towards the 
means of a scientific investigation of the performance of ships under differ- 
ing conditions at sea and in smooth water, it would ill become the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science to drop the question, although 
expense as well as trouble is involved in its successful pursuit. 

They recommend the reappointment of a Committee, with a renewal of 
the grant, and with power to remunerate a clerk for such services as cannot 
be undertaken by any of its members. 

On behalf of the Committee, 

C. R. Moorsom, Vice- Admiral, 
19 Salisbury Street, Strand, London, Chairman. 

June 13th, 1860. 

Note. — Since the above Report was written, and whilst in the press, infor- 
mation was forwarded to the Committee which has enabled them to compile the 
Table given in the Supplementary Appendix, showing very interesting com- 
parative results of two vessels, the 'Lima' and ' Bogota,' when fitted with 
different systems of machinery. The Table shows the results of perform- 
ances on trial of these vessels when fitted with single-cylinder engines, and 
also at sea on a voyage of upwards of 6000 miles ; also their performances 
when fitted with double-cylinder engines. 



ERRATA. — Large Table — Appendix I. 



' Atrato ' on trial, Stokes Bay, Jan. 22, 1857, omit Indicated Horse power 1128-42. 
Ditto, ditto, Mar. 4, 1857, for Indicated Horse power 1198-22 

read 2396-44. 



200 



REPORT— 1860. 



Appendix I. — Table 2. Results of Performances of the Steam-ships in 



Name of vessel. 



Thabor 

Sinai 

Carmel 

Danube 

Cydnus 

Phase 

Pausilippe 

Guirinal 

Euphrate 

Gange 

Indus 

Hydaspe 

Simo'is 

Jourdain 

Borysthene . . 

Meandre 

Hermus 

Cephise 

Clyde 

Tamise 

Mersey 

Alexandre 

Caire 

Egyptus 

Louqsor 

Nil 

Osiris 

Capitole 

Vatican 

Henri IV 

Sully 

Bosphore 

Hellespont .... 

Oronte 

Plrilippe Auguste 

Merovee 

Cheliff 

Mitidja 

Aventin 

Balkan 

Taurus 

Leonidas 

Scamandre 

Sphinx 

Tage 

Tancnkle 

Telemaque 

Amsterdam 

Pericles 



c a 

■%% 
c © 

o > 

V 



Totals . 
Means 



370 

370 

370 

370 

370 

370 

320 

320 

350 

300 

300 

240 

240 

240 

240 

240 

240 

240 

200 

200 

200 

220 

220 

220 

220 

220 

220 

200 

200 

200 

200 

180 

180 

180 

180 

180 

180 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

160 

150 

120 



■s§ 

ss 

■2 =*> 
a » 

B C 

= •2 



» ^3 




■del) 

- - - 






~S« 


a 






85-i 




o 


U > « 

v > c 






& fco.g 

o c -2 


Ci 


■D 

^3 






O 


o *~ o 


* 1 S 




v v 





II ours 



24 

24 

24 

63 

63 

63 

26 

26 

30 

29 

50 

30 

46 

32 

32 

32 

72 

72 

57 

57 

29 

21 

21-5 

21-5 

21 

21 

215 

24 

24 

45 

45 

26'5 

26-5 

25 

265 

25 

46 

50 

26 

28 

28 

22-5 

22-5 

305 

225 



22-5 

24 
27-5 



20-00| 

19-60 

20-56| 

6306 

61-55 

64-72 

23-86 

24-58 

27-87 

26-S8 

4610 

27-42 

47-48 

29-41 

28-31 

29-78 

6608 

68-12 

49-73 

49-47 

27-55 

20-73 

19-74 

21-06 

2202 

20-47 

20-70 

20-44 

20-19 

40-32 

4791 

26-82 

2702 

2408 

2705 

23-25 

45-92 

47-75 

27-12 

27-38 

27-48 

28-14 

1800 

25-351 

20-251 

17-85, 

22-40 

20-33 



11100 
227 



if 



94 



horses. 

308 

302 

317 

370 

361 

380 

293 

302 

325 

278 

276 

219 

247 

223 

216 

223 

225 

227 

174 

173 

190 

212 

202 

215 

230 

214 

211 

170 

168 

206 

213 

182 

187 

173 

183 

167 

179 

152 

166 

156 

157 

129 

128 

132 

144 

126 

159 

127 

121 



leagues. 

4644 
6672 
8658 
8511 
9607 
3085 
7773 
2968 
4668 
9061 
8923 
5492 
6028 
7082 
6859 
8694 
6201 
6336 
9477 
7778 
10572 
5167 
5838 
1545 
6196 
4560 
4031 
0956 
7424 
5474 
6523 
6106 
3244 
4320 
6870 
4218 
6308 
5795 
5393 
5370 
2668 
890 
1174 
5512 
5454 
1233 
6129 
5104 
6374 



10438 
213 



Under 
steam. 



Under 
weigh. 



50 
55 



h n 

1557 2 

2215 

2694 55 

2725 

3299 50 
901 35 

3799 

1406 

1491 

3403 

3394 45 

2168 35 

2416 30 

3686 25 

2634 45 

2973 

2428 

2198 

3897 

3318 

4409 

2144 

2136 
577 

2226 

1834 20 

1571 30 

3371 

3705 

3336 

2882 

2411 

1327 20 

2078 15 

2472 

2128 

2607 

2338 
1930 

2290 30 
937 40 
410 45 



40 
25 
15 
10 



30 
30 



10 

35 
10 



45 
30 



h m 
1462 15 
2077 50 
2556 15 
2622 15 
2786 10 
841 
2211 30 
805 40 
1400 40 
2781 25 
2677 25 
1686 55 
1822 45 
2359 50 
2269 36 
2793 
1967 10 
1911 55 
3108 45 
2537 10 
3514 
1862 
2018 45 
525 20 
2107 30 
1671 15 
1485 15 
2168 55 
2320 25 
1969 
2285 30 
1924 10 
1017 
1424 40 
2102 35 
1489 30 
2206 30 
1989 30 
1646 15 
1630 15 
847 30 
385 50 



COS 
2697 
2563 

839 
2580 
2543 
2528 20 



55 

35 

10 



284945 
5815 



522 



11 '05 30 
2124 
"407 40 
2372 
1904 
2125 55 



0-63 

0-51-5 

0-65-5 

0-58 

0-66-7 

0-64 

0-66-6| 

0-68 

0-61 

0-66 

0-64 

0-64 

0-68 

0-73 

0-67 

0-75 

069 

0-76 

0-49 

0-48-6 

0-50 

0-39 

0-40 

0-41-6 

0-49 

0-52 

0-38 

0-66-5 

0-64 

0-66 

0-65 

0-59 

0-65 

0-00 

0-55 

0-57 

0-61 

0-62 

0-48 

0-82 

0-87 

0-50 

053 

0-37 

0-40 

0-42 

0-48-5 

0-56 

0-55 



0-65 0-50 
0-66 0-45 
0-64 0-42 
0-64 0-60 
0-63-5 0-64 
0-62 0-57 



116152 30 
2370 



92733 
1893 



0-65 

065 

065 

0-66 

067 

0-65 

0-60 

066 

0-68 

0-65 

0-63-5 

063 

0-68 

0-68 

0-65 

0-66-5 

0-71 

0-67-5 

0-70 

005 

0-68 

0-67 

0-67 

0-66 

0-62-5 

0-64 

0-60 

0-63 

065 

0-66 

0-69 

0-66 

0-62 

0-65 

0-63 

0-66 

0-68 

66 

0-66 

0-68 

0(6 

0-63 

064 



0-38 
0-38 
0-46 

0-55 

0-47 
0-35 
0-30 

0-48 
0-50 
0-50 
0-51 
0-38 
0-39 
047 

0-39 
0-54 

0-39 
0-30 
0-51 
0-59 
0-38 
0-30 
0-53 
0-44 
0-34 
0-41 
0-44 
030 
0-40 
0-55 
0-40 
0-42 



0-40 

040 



Note— Metre = 3-2809 feet = 393702 inches 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



201 



the Service of the "Messageries Imperiales" of France during the year 1S58. 







Consumption of coal. 


Consumption of 
oil and tallow. 


•a 
O 

a 


J 


fuel per 
ic speed 
ts. 


h 1000 
>al at the 
nots. 


~ 






^ 


, 


, 






c 


o 

U 




o 


a 
u 


II 


■r. u. 
-=J3 




is 


2 
o 

■a 

03 


H 


<« +5 o 

c ■"■* 
c-a % 


3 "1 G 


S 


1 

3 


Total. 


0) 


1.1 

c 

ss 


1! 

O V 


-a x 
.2 o. 

2| 


Total. 


i o 
u J3 
" T 
C CI 


o 
■ 
B 
B 


93 

■ 

c 
a 

4J 


3 £ ° 
C -_ 


2 _■£ 

<u c o 

! es 

« tua 












i- o 


U o 




u ~ 


S 


M 


o n 


.2 o « 








Fi 


s 


<U P- 


0) p. 




Ph 




A 


u 's 


02 


met. 


met. 


kilo. 


kilo. 


kilo. 


kilo. 


kilo. 


kilo. 


kilo. 


knots 


knots 


kilo. 


metres. 


4-ir 


008 


2.167,966 


1483 


465 


40 


4-8 


3122 


0139 


9-60 




417 


13,517 


414 


0-18 


2,889,775 


1390 


432 


37 


46 


6007 


0188 


9-63 


10-05 


378 


14,684 


3-02 


022 


3,916,147 


1533 


450 


4-1 


4-8 


7113 


0172 


10-20 


10-25 


352 


15,766 


4 0." 


1-29 


3,274,191 


1248 


384 


34 


34 


8140 


0-201 


9-75 


10-00 


328 


16,939 


4-0-1 


1-34 


3,981,000 


1430 


411 


3-8 


3-9 


6933 


0159 


10-35 


10-52 


313 


17,729 


384 


1-02 


1,408,823 


1675 


410 


4-5 


44 


2478 


0-195 


11-05 




303 


18,311 


3-92 


0-38 


3,508,304 


1586 


462 


4-9 


54 


5137 


0174 


1055 


1145 


329 


16,878 


3*88 


028 


1,232,000 


1529 


414 


4-7 


50 


1990 


0186 


1105 


1174 


275 


20,181 


5-2! 


11G 


2,257,560 


1605 


489 


4-5 


4-9 


3182 


0-150 


1000 


1005 


291 


14,181 


5-01 


165 


4,302,349 


1547 


477 


54 


5-5 


4939 


0149 


976 




404 


13,741 


4 'OS 


0-92 


4.378,666 


1644 


495 


54 


5-9 


6952 


0-208 


1002 




396 


14,025 


407 


062 


1,906,185 


1130 


345 


47 


5 1 


3905 


0-230 


9-77 


10-25 


294 


18,843 


4 50 


0-85 


2,227,342 


1222 


369 


50 


4-9 


4109 


0225 


9-95 




303 


18,299 


.OOii 


1-10 


3,003,979 


1268 


423 


5'3 


5-6 


4837 


0-218 


9-00 


9-80 


424 


13,096 


4(17 


0-80 


2.757,184 


1215 


336 


50 


56 


5389 


0-237 


9-08 


9-27 


394 


14,096 


470 


0-67 


3.336,095 


1191 


387 


4-9 


5-3 


5282 


0-185 


9-34 




356 


15,092 


3-48 


1-21 


1,983,785 


1008 


318 


42 


44 


4906 


0-245 


9-50 


10 27 


287 


19,341 


3-52 


1-33 


1,906,803 


997 


300 


44 


4-3 


4151 


0-217 


9-95 


1062 


246 


22,547 


3-90 


1-66 


2,950.203 


941) 


309 


47 


54 


4749 


0-176 


9-22 


9-58 


296 


18,713 


4 07 


1-8'. i 


2,470,000 


972 


315 


4-8 


5-6 


3947 


0-184 


9-25 




300 


18,472 


4-4:: 


005 


3,662,912 


1051 


348 


52 


5-5 


3379 


0120 


902 


9-50 


348 


15,962 


4-K) 


014 


1,935,570 


1038 


393 


47 


4-8 


4068 


0-238 


8-32 


904 


438 


12,673 


4 21 


o-io 


2,180,496 


1082 


372 


49 


5-3 


2001 


0161 


8-67 


9-23 


402 


13,804 


4 1 1 


018 


543,000 


1026 


348 


4-6 


47 


665 


0137 


8-91 




359 


15,484 


4-11 


0-10 


2,268,404 


1070 


366 


5-9 


4-6 


4444 


0-227 


8-82 


911 


381 


14,575 


4-13 


016 


1,704,550 


1020 


372 


4-6 


47 


2338 


0157 


8-20 


900 


450 


12,338 


4-06 


o-oo 


1,414,070 


900 


348 


4-3 


4-5 


2262 


0-165 


814 


8-40 


429 


12,945 


3-43 


0-09 


2,372,294 


1093 


339 


54 


64 


4038 


0-238 


962 


970 


298 


18,639 


3"29 


OK) 


2,i;28,810 


1132 


354 


5-6 


67 


3849 


0-197 


9-60 




311 


17,820 


3-41 


1 61 


1,688,672 


857 


:;oo 


42 


41 


5381 


0-321 


8-35 




358 


15,494 


3 "53 


1-56 


961,356 


807 


300 


42 


4-0 


4384 


0-226 


8-56 




332 


16,715 


290 


0-20 


1.894,091 


989 


309 


54 


54 


3341 


0-231 


9-55 


1040 


275 


20,165 


3 00 


014 


987,162 


970 


303 


5-3 


51 


1000 


0-182 


9-56 


1045 


269 


20,595 


2-1)1 


0-14 


1,247,076 


875 


288 


4-8 


50 


2730 


0-262 


9-10 1 


9-10 


282 


19,C68 


2"90 


015 


2,121,939 


981 


306 


54 


53 


4519 


0-280 


9-53 


10-15 


275 


20,160 


3-06 


0-15 


1,418,184 


952 


336 


5-3 


57 


2356 


0-228 


8-50 




277 


14,723 


0-10 


137 


2,027,570 


919 


321 


54 


54 


3855 


0-232 


8-57 


949 


354 


15,667 


3 J 


0-98 


1,624,569 


817 


279 


51 


5-3 


3153 


0-248 


8-73 


9-31 


297 


18,652 


3-07 


0-3(1 


1.441,148 


875 


267 


54 


5-2 


2766 


0-247 


9-83 


10-27 


224 


24,802 


2"5 5 


005 


1.512,670 


927 


279 


57 


5-9 


2567 


0-226 


9-90 


10-37 


232 


23,856 


-•O'.i 


Oil 


647,553 


764 


246 


47 


4-8 


1297 


0-233 


940 




224 


24,781 


JO." 


007 


272,378 


685 


303 


4-3 


5-3 


425 


0-168 


704 




499 


11,120 


j-00 


0-02 


398,775 


756 


ooo 


47 


5-9 


1191 


0-352 


6-85 




586 


9,469 


9 ,-(ll 


0-45 


1,490,284 


787 


270 


4-9 


5-9 


3928 


0-311 


8-67 




293 


18,985 


'»'. >. 1 


0-25 


1,728,461 


823 


212 


5-0 


57 


5327 


0-365 


8-00 


... 


401 


13,851 


3-4r. 


0-05 


305,741 


623 


282 


39 


4-9 


422 


0-130 


748 




359 


15,460 


>•»/ 


0-21 


2,( »25,500 


853 


330 


5-3 


5-5 


4674 


0-298 


7 - 75 




445 


12,465 


H;; 


0-49 


1.259,626 


709 


261 


47 


5-5 


2701 


0-229 


8-34 


8-81 


287 


19,318 


241 


014 


1,350,790 


635 


210 


5-2 


5-2 


2914 


0-275 


9-00 


9-30 


211 


26,208 


•« 




102,011,500 . 


32746 


17117 


... 


... 1 


184943 1 


10-521 


... 


... 1 


16782 i 


531,295 


3-46 


0-33 


2,081,867 


1099 


358 


4-8 


51 


3774 


0-214 


9-21 


9-82 


342 


16,945 



ilo. = 2-20549 lbs. Avoirdupois. 



202 



REPORT — 1860. 



Appendix II. — Table 1. Chester and Holyhead Railway — Steam-boat 
Express and Cargo Boats, under regulated conditions of Time, 



Vessel. 



Date. 



No. 

of 

trips 

run. 



Passages. 



Longest. 



Shortest, 



Average. 



Average 


Actual 


rate of 


weight 


speed — 


on 


miles. 


valves. 




lbs. 


1340 


15 


13-64 


15 


13-08 


15 


13-95 


15 


1415 


15 


13-45 


15 


13-26 


15 


13-50 


15 


1308 


15 


1403 


10 


13-50 


10 


12-68 


10 


10-39 


15 


10-83 


15 


10-63 


15 


10-31 


15 


8-84 


12 


10-41 


12 


9-39 


12 


8-46 


12 


8-48 


10 


9-37 


10 


1007 


10 


9-27 


10 


10-09 


12 


11-23 


12 


11-44 


12 


10-76 


12 



Express : 
Anglia 



Cambria 



Scotia. 



Telegraph . 



Cargo : 
Hibernia • 



Hercules 



Ocean.. 



Sea Nymph .... 



1859. 
Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept. 
Oct. to 31 Dec. ... 



Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept. 
Oct. to 31 Dec... 



Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept. 
Oct. to 31 Dec... 



Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept. 
Oct, to 31 Dec... 



Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept. 
Oct. to 31 Dec... 



Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept, 
Oct. to 31 Dec . . . 



Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept. 
Oct. to 31 Dec. ... 



Jan. to 31 March 
April to 30 June 
July to 30 Sept. 
Oct. to 31 Dec. . . , 



73 
47 

nil. 
36 

nil. 
36 
75 
44 

81 
34 
nil. 
41 

nil. 
37 
83 
40 

77 
76 
63 

77 

26 

37 
75 
49 

71 

7 

28 

32 

56 
65 
75 
91 



h m 

8 24* 
7 30 

5 26 



5 29 
5 16 
5 55 



7 28* 
6 48 

6 15 



5 

6 7 

6 

9 17 

9 27 

8 33 

12 15 

11 15 
'.) 25 

12 45 

13 35 

10 
8 5 

11 15 
11 15 

13 5 

7 35 

7 30 

8 20 



h m 

4 
4 20 

4 24 



17 
13 



4 21 

4 6 
4 16 

4 20 



4 7 
4 11 

4 27 



40 
44 
45 
40 

15 

55 





6 35 



15 



15 

45 
30 
20 
20 



h in 

4 42 
4 37 

4 49 



4 31 
4 27 
4 41 

4 45 
4 40 

4 49 



4 30 
4 40 
4 58 

6 44 
6 28 
6 35 
6 47 



55 
22 

27 



8 16 



3 

28 
57 
33 



6 56 
6 14 
6 7 
6 30 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



203 



Department. — A Return of the Speed and Consumption of Coal of the 
Pressure, and Expansion, for the undermentioned Period. 





Average 


Proportion of 
steam in cylinder. 


Coals consumed, 






Per trip, 


Per hour, 


Per hour, 




pressure 
worked 


including 


including 


exclusive of 


Remarks. 




at. 




getting up 


raising 


raising 








steam and 


steam, bank- 


steam, bank- 










while lying 


ing fires, 


ing fires, 










at Holyhead. 


&c. 


&c. 






lbs. 




tons cwt. lbs. 


tons cwt. lbs. 


tons cwt, lbs. 






12* 


IS 16 18 
3 6 li7> 3 6 


12 11 12 


2 13 47 


2 1 35 


* Heavy gale, W.N.W. 




13 


^| and none 


11 17 14 


2 11 40 


1 19 28 


Eased engines. 




12* 


if and none 


12 10 3 


2 11 101 


1 19 79 






1% 


24 


11 15 37 


2 12 11 


1 19 80 






13* 


26 


12 2 11 


2 14 33 


2 1 50 






13* 


26 


13 17 66 


2 19 28 


2 6 45 






12 


ijB j_a Bi 

3"6" 3l> 3 (J 


13 13 59 


2 17 65 


2 5 63 


* Heavy gale, W.N.W. 




lQi 
1-2 


M and f| 


12 9 98 


2 15 100 


2 3 98 


Eased engines. 




10| 


M 


13 13 71 


2 16 90 


2 4 71 






1(% 

10 




12 17 60 

13 10 44 


2 17 15 
2 17 98 


2 4 35 
2 5 10 






none 




n 


none 


14 13 25 


2 19 41 


2 6 65 






7* 


j 3 


13 18 11 


2 1 33 


1 13 13 






7 


1 3 


13 13 54 


2 2 32 


1 14 12 






n 


1 3 

3T» 


14 15 96 


2 4 101 


1 16 78 






7% 


i a 
3"F 


14 13 23 


2 4 23 


1 16 






10i 


none 


8 11 64 


1 1 75 


17 98 






11" 
11 




8 8 6 
7 19 28 


1 6 18 
1 1 40 


1 2 41 
17 39 






none 




10i 


none 


9 20 


1 1 89 


17 88 






9 


none 


9 2 32 


1 2 72 


18 19 






9 




11 12 64 

9 17 24 


1 11 16 

1 8 36 


1 6 75 
1 3 83 






none 




84 


none 


11 2 21 


1 9 48 


1 4 95 


Note. — Orders are given 
to the vessels, in gales and 




10 


2nd grade 


11 7 24 


1 12 86 


1 4 45 


heavy head sea, to ease 




10 


1 and 2 grade 


10 8 61 


1 13 51 


1 5 10 


the engines, which occa- 




10 


1 and 2 grade 


10 11 20 


1 14 54 


1 5 6 


sionally increases the ave- 




n 


1 and 2 grade 
and full speed 


11 13 12 


1 15 39 


1 6 103 


rage passage. 



204 



REPORT — 1860. 



Appendix II. — Table 2. Chester and Holyhead Railway — Steam-boat 

Department Chester and Holyhead Steam-boats' Consumption of Coal 

for the Six Months ending 30th June, 1859. 



Name of vessel. 


Three months 
ending 


Num- 
ber of 
trips. 


Average 

number of tons 

each trip. 


Total for 
the six months. 


Total as shown 

by 

general account, 

including 

coal on board. 




1859. 
[March 31... 
\ June 30 ... 

/March 31. 
\ June 30 ... 

/March 31... 
X June 30 ... 

/March 31. 
t June 30 ... 

("March 31... 
X June 30 ... 

("March 31... 
X June 30 ... 

("March 31... 
X June 30 ... 

/March 31... 
X June 30 ... 


73 
47 

36 

81 
34 

37 

77 
76 

26 

37 
21 

7 

56 
65 


tons cwt. lbs. 

12 11 121 
11 17 14/ 

11 15 37 

13 13 591 

12 9 98/ 

12 17 60 

13 18 11 1 

13 13 54/ 

8 11 641 

8 8 6/ 

9 2 321 
11 12 64/ 

11 7 241 
10 8 61 / 


tons cwt. lbs. 

1473 15 78 

423 11 100 
1532 11 47 

476 8 92 
2109 18 23 

533 18 94 

272 16 

1313 19 45 


tons cwt. lb. 

1458 8 

426 4 
1575 13 

498 12 
2101 19 

525 15 

285 11 

1327 1 


Telegraph 


Hercules 






8137 31 


8202 3 


Appendix II. — Table 3. Chester and Holyhead Railway — Steam-boat 

Department Chester and Holyhead Steam- boats' Consumption of 

Coal for the Six Months ending 31st December, 1859. 




1859. 
/ Sept. 30. 
t Dec. 31 ... 

/Sept. 30 ... 
X Dec. 31 ... 

/ Sept, 30. 
\ Dec. 31 ... 

/Sept. 30 ... 
1 Dec. 31 ... 

/Sept. 30 ... 
\ Dec. 31 ... 

/Sept. 30 ... 
X Dec. 31 ... 

/Sept. 30 ... 
X Dec. 31 ... 

/Sept. 30 ... 
X Dec. 31 ... 


36 

75 
44 

41 

83 
40 

63 
77 

75 
49 

28 
32 

75 
91 


tons cwt. lbs. 

12 10 3 

12 2 111 

13 17 66/ 

13 13 71 

13 10 441 

14 13 25 / 

14 15 961 

14 13 23/ 

7 19 281 
9 20/ 

9 17 241 
11 2 21/ 

10 11 201 

11 13 12/ 


tons cwt. lbs. 

450 108 
1518 11 33 

560 18 111 
1708 11 60 

£060 15 91 

1037 12 56 

C31 12 

1852 11 16 


tons cwt. lb. 

449 17 
1496 10 

568 6 
1688 3 

2074 16 

1048 10 

640 1 

1861 3 








Hercules 


Ocean 


Sea Nymph 


9820 14 27 


9827 6 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



205 



co 



-a 









bD 

'u 



a 
o 
a 

fa 





L> *-■ 

« - 

► w 

J* 

Is 

o g- 


! 








M 

P. 




1 

C 

o 
o 

a 

4* 

B) 
(U 

o 

c 

rt 

to 

'-3 

§ 

to 

.3 

a 

w 

n 




Remarks. 

In this column is to be minutely I 
stance connected with the Con 


c 
.2 
E 

a 

l-H 


-1 




a 
.2 

.5 

«- 

N 
> 




-a 

a 

M 

o 
Ex 




0) . 

c ■/. 




*C go 
Mm 00 

. eS 
O « 

.2. 






•JljSl.l.U m ift!S '6J130D 

jo uotjdumeaoD Ajjnojj 






fco o 

O -C 

>-3 « 




99 
V 

M 

.s 
§ 

■ 
tu 

pd 

n 
Ed 

■? 

CCS 

I* 




•Xjinoq 3Lii5jio.iv 

O.USUvdi'O JO 00i3.1( J 






IP 

§ 

o 
.a 

u 
3 

.2 

>> 

ha 

B 

> 

w 


■aSjuip 






y, O 




■si 

1" 




jo ^uSpq a3ej3Ay 






•Jtjo SaiAioiq 3-iqpq 
Jajioq ui 

J^lC.W JO A}ISU3(J 






"S o 
o 




[5 


en 

a 
o 








•sip .Vi 5oq 
jo a.in.iBJoduiaj, 






■StS 

-*- I- 

I- 3 




-U3 JO UOp«JTl(X 






•jsjatuojuq 
Dm9u3 JO 3qSl3q ubdjvi 







O 


"to 

B 

■ 








— .-= 




•qojE.vv i3d suoiqnto.vDH 




•ajnuira jad suoiinjoAoa 






•39n«3-nn!3js jo jqSiisn 






e 

tu 

B 




o 

a 


CO 








•ijojc.vv iji! 
pouinsuoa sjcog 






•J38 SJIBS jo -ojvl 






(j -a 
v — 

12- 




•spui.v\. 






CD 

o 


■ 

■ 

c 

Q 








•sinoq}Ej 






u 

H 

el 
en 

5 




•sjonx 






•sssjnoQ 








c 

c 

to 
o 

o 


c 
o 
>-. « 

.t: mi 
c rt 

3 u 


.St) 

" u 

"3 - 

3 •*• 
S 3 
CO 
K O 
W 3 


■ 
3 

S 

V 

p3 


C 




•sjnof{ 







206 



REPORT 1860. 



<D 

a 
>> 

O 



- 

a 

C8 

1) 

CO 

&5 



o 

a. 

P* 



a. 
3 



a 
eS 

CD 

CO 
a> 



> ~ 



>>» 

S . 
cS es 

^ s 

S 3 
§5 



eS J4 

*■§ 

d cS 
c3 O 



co g 
«►* 

eS t> 
&H o 

JS eS 

£ 3 
O g 

CD pu 

.s a 

fcfl p 

<= eS 

es g> 

£> 
o es 

0=2 



CD 

-a 

c 

es 



O 

CJ 

c 
u 

s 



CS 

'a 



— 
o 



T3 
cj 

-C 
c 
a; 



>-> 

cS 

c 

CS 



T3 
<D 

'Ph 
3 
O 
CJ 

o 

CS 0) 
- 53 



00 



>» 

es 
-a 



CD 

JS 

-t-t 

-a 

CD 
CJ 

S3 

a 
a 

o 
U 



VB, 
u 

o 

o 

.c 

-*a 

O 

'■£ 

o 
o 
CD 

,5 

>> 
C3 

a 

O 

Ft 

S3 

s 

CD 


Here state the condition of hull and machinery ; 
the cause of delay, if any should occur ; the quality 
and description of coal, patent fuel, &c. 




T3 

s- 

O 

.o 
o 


•3J8BAI U0M03 


CO 






•-aoirsi 


n 

5 






•\\o uouttnoo 








•fio uuadg 


*5d 






•srsog 


1 






to 

t£ 
cd 
E 

4 


■}iod o} }jod mooj 
suoiimjOAaj jo - ojj 








\moq jad 

RajjojJS JO "0^1 








•areata jo amssa I j 








\moq jad janj 
jo uot)dnmsao3 








vmoq jad paadg 








■q3i9i\ japtij2 


a 

J3 






•aSBctdojg 


J3 


1 


m 

f 

R 


•ja}«.u jo }qSnBJQ 








••moH 








•nva 








03 

i 

1 


•aajBii jo iqSn«J<i 






C 

= s 

|l 

.9 c 

Jl 

si 

§8 


Remaining on 
board at the 
termination 
of the voyage. 


•jnoH 




■*wa 




a 

J« 

rrt 03 

o >. 

•*= O 

•s f 

'SI 

o 
Ph 


Quantity remaining 

on board from last 

voyage. 



33 S 3 
o w 

to CD 



w 



S e 2 * 
O to 



a 

03 






•? 



I 












ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



207 



Appendix III. — Table 3. Peninsular and Oriental Company's Engineer's 

Los. 



Date. 



CJ £ 



d.S 



II 



O oo 

s 



3 ^ 



a 3 



3 o 






Observations. 



Appendix III. — Table 4. 



Yard. 



Report of trial of Her Majesty's steam Teasel 



Date 



When tried 

Where tried 

Draught of water. ,.| ,. rc 

Number of revolutions of the engines 

Pressure on safety valve 

Vacuum in Condensers 

Power as shown by indicator 

Speed of vessel 

Indicator cards and tracings are attached to this Report. 



Remarks as to the performance of the engines, boilers, &e. 



No. of rnns. 


^Revolutions of 
engines per minute. 


Observed 
time. 


Speed due 
to time. 


Mean speeds. 


True mean 
speeds. 


Min. 


Sec. 


1 














2 














3 














4 














5 














6 














Mean revo- "1 
lutions ... J 










Knots mean \ 
of means. J 













[Note — Appendix III. No. 5 carried to bottom of Tables opposite page 216. 



208 



REPORT — 1860. 



Appendix IV. — Table showing the Ratios between the indicated Horse- 
indicated Horse-power; also, between the grate and heating sur- 



name of vessel. 



Place and nature of performance. 



Speed. 






Vessels of the United States Navy. 

Niagara (screw) 

n 

» 

n 

it 

Massachusetts (screw) 

it 

ii 

ii 

Vessels op the Eoyal Navy. 

Rattler (screw) 

ii 

ii 

n 

Diadem (screw) 

ii * 

ii 

ii 

ii 

ii • • 

Doris (screw) 

„ (witli common screw) 

„ (common scrpw increased to 20) ... 
„ (Ditto, with two foremost corners 

cut off ) 

„ (Ditto, with four corners cut off) ... 

„ (Griffiths' screw) 

„ (Ditto ditto) 

„ (Ditto ditto) 

Marlborough (screw) 

ii 

„ (with half -boiler power) . . . 

ii 

Mersey (screw) 

Renown (screw) 



Performance in smooth water , 

Ordinary actual performance at sea under 

Bteam alone 

Ditto ditto, steam and square sad combined 
Ditto ditto, steam and fore-and-aft sails... 
Mean of the above sea performance 



Performance in smooth water 

Ordinary performance at sea under steam 

alone 

Ditto ditto, steam and sail combined 

Mean of the above sea performances 



On trial, Thames, Sept. 5, 1844 
Ditto ditto Jan. 1845 .. 

Ditto ditto Sept, 5, 1851 

Ditto ditto Sept. 5, 1851 



Ditto, Stokes Bay, Oct. 20, 1857 

Ditto ditto Oct. 21, „ .. 

Ditto ditto Nov. 7, „ ... 

Ditto ditto Dec. 1, „ .., 

Ditto ditto Jan. 1, 1858 .., 

Ditto ditto Aprd 1G, 1858 



Ditto, Stokes Bay, May 27, 1859 . 
Ditto ditto Aprd 21, ,, , 
Ditto ditto May 5, „ , 



Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 

Ditto ditto 



May 9, 
May 23, 
May 25, 
May 27, 
June 3, 



Ditto, Stokes Bay, June 1, 1859 
Ditto ditto June 2, „ 
Ditto ditto June 2, „ 
Ditto ditto May 28, „ 



Ditto, Stokes Bay, March 23, 1859 



Ditto, Stokes Bay, April 19, 1858 

Ditto, between Sheerness and Nore, Oc- 
tober 5, 1S57 

Ditto, between Sheerness and Sunk Light, 
October 5, 1857 

Ditto, between Sheerness and Swim Middle, 
October 30, 1857 

Ditto, down the Swim, October 30, 1857 . . . 



12-56 

8-06 

11-51 

8-55 

9-75 

7-948 

5-597 
8-268 
6-469 



11-605 
11104 
11255 
10-530 

13-30 
1343 
13-54 
13-72 
13-70 
13-82 



123 
620 
623 

879 
837 
802 
130 
006 



1294 
1292 
10-62 
12-24 

1531 

12-902 

12533 

12-533 

14573 
14-573 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



209 



power and the Grate, the Tube, the other heating and total heating surfaces and the 
faces, and between the indicated Horse-power and the Coal consumed. 



Horse-power. 


u 

£ 

•32 

C j 

a 2 
Ij 

° s 

.2| 


o ^ 

O 0J 
•j-> DO 

.2 2 
«~ "^2 
0-3 
a 


. 

■j- 

?a 

i Jh 
+* O 
03,4 

&ra 

o.S 
"43 "9 

as £ 
W 51 


. 

■» t. 

O £ 

fa 

is 

S 

j> 
•■S'-a 
rt a 


Hatio of other heating 

surface to indicated 

horse-power. 


Eatio of total heating 

surface to indicated 

horse-power. 


as 



•2 

CXT* 

.2 3 

\g CD 

•J 2 


be v 

p u 

A f 

11 

£ 
•2 % 

B2 


Coal consumed per hour 
per indicated horse- 
power. 


Water evaporated per 

hour per indicated 

horse-power. 


u 

CJ ■ 

•«a 

"03 

*H . 

J5 

« 

ft 

II 


1 

•3 

3 


i 

1 

o 


1955-09 


700 


•358 


2-793 


•247 


6-556 


2192 


8-748 


35-336 


•334 


lbs. 
3-529 


lbs. 


lbs. 


1 879-28 
773 65 
837-31 

| 824-48 


700 
700 
700 
700 


•796 
•905 
•836 
•819 


1-256 
1105 
1196 
1-178 


•554 
•625 

•578 
•587 


14-577 
16-567 
15-308 
15-546 


4-873 
5-538 
5117 
5197 


19-451 
22107 
20-426 
20-744 


35-336 
35-336 
35-336 
35-336 


•334 
•334 
•334 
•334 


4-617 
4-904 
4-987 
4-790 


41-813 
42-743 
42156 
42-269 


9 058 
8-716 
8-452 
8-597 


24074 




... 




•361 




10-280 


10-281 


28-448 


... 


4029 






16881 
149-61 
162-54 


... 


... 


... 


•514 
•588 
•535 


'0 

•-Q - 
O 

/ 5 I 


14-661 
16-543 
15-227 


14661 
16-543 
15-227 


28-448 
28-448 
28-448 


... 


4-401 
4-491 
4-429 






428 
436-7 
499-2 
519-2 


200 
200 
200 
200 


•467 
•458 
•401 
■385 


2140 
2184 

2-496 
2-596 




















2324-42 

2325-96 
2663-60 
2587-50 
2685 04 
2979 


800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
800 


•344 
•343 
•300 
•309 
■298 
•268 


2906 
2-907 
3-330 
3-234 
3-356 
3-724 


•234 
•234 
•204 
•210 
•203 
•183 


5131 
5035 

4-478 
4-609 
4-441 
4-004 


•991 
•987 
•865 
•894 
•858 
•773 


6122 
6022 
5-343 
5-503 
5-299 
4-777 


26-16 
2616 
2616 
2616 
2616 
2616 


•193 
•193 
•193 
•193 
•193 
•193 








3091 
2921-2 

2788-4 


800 
800 
800 


•259 

•278 
•287 


3-864 
3-652 
3-486 


176 
•186 
•195 


* 


... 


4-659 
4-929 

5-161 


26-47 
26-47 
26-47 










2884-4 
2920-32 
2825-6 
(3091-1 
300903 


800 
800 
800 
800 
800 


•278 
•274 
•283 
•259 
■266 


3-606 
3-650 
3-532 
3-864 
3-761 


•189 
•186 
192 
•176 

•188 


... 


... 


4-992 
4-931 
5096 
4-658 
4-786 


26-47 
2647 
2647 
26-47 
2647 










3022 
3054-26 
1 172208 
2738-94 


800 
800 
800 
800 


•265 
•262 
•465 
•292 


3-778 
3-818 
2153 
3-424 


•180 
•178 
•316 
•199 


3-947 
3-905 
6-926 
4-355 


•762 

•754 

1-338 

•841 


4-709 
4659 
8264 
5-196 


2616 
2616 
2616 
2616 


•193 
•193 
•193 
•193 








4044 


1000 


•247 


4044 


108 


3-702 


•736 


4-438 


26-40 


•198 








3183 


800 


•251 


3-979 


171 


* 




4-524 


26 47 










2864-75 


800 


•2S0 


3-581 


•190 






5 027 


26-47 










2759-95 


800 


•290 


3-450 


•197 


... 




5-218 


26-47 










2837-36 
2793 


800 
800 


•282 
•286 


3547 
3491 


•192 
•195 


... 




5075 
5150 


26-47 
2647 











* Particulars of the tube-surface were not furnished by the manufacturers of the engines. 
1 860. p 



210 



REPORT 1860. 

Table (continued). 



Name of vessel. 



Place and nature of performance. 



Speed. 



Eenown (screw) 

, , (with h alf -boiler power ) 

ii - 

Orlando (screw) 

ii 

Algerine (screw) 

Leyeii (screw) 

Lee (screw) 

Slaney 

Plying Pish (screw) 

ii 

ii 

ii 

ii 

ii 

James Watt (screw) 

11 

Virago (paddle) 

ii 

!» 

Hydra (paddle) 

n 

Centaur (paddle) 

ii 

Industry (screw) 

ii 

Bullfinch (screw) 

,, (Griffith's propeller, with in 

clined blades) 

„ (Ditto ditto ditto) .. 

„ (Lowe's propeller) 

„ (Ditto ditto) 

„ (Medwin's propeller) 

„ (Ditto reduced) 

„ (Philp's propeller) 

,. (Ditto ditto) 

„ (Hirsch's propeller) 

„ (Ditto ditto) 



On trial, Stokes Bay, March 15, 1858 

Ditto ditto March 16 

Ditto ditto April 19, „ 

Ditto, Plymouth, August 22, 1859 

Ditto, outside Breakwater, Oct. 7, 1859 .. 

Ditto, Stokes Bay, April 9, 1858 

Ditto, Stokes Bay, April 29, 1858 

Ditto, Stokes Bay, April 13, 1858 

Ditto, Stokes Bay, April 28, 1858 

Ditto, Stokes Bay, June 20, 1858 

Ditto ditto June 30, „ 

Ditto ditto July 2, „ 

Ditto ditto July 6, ,, 

Ditto ditto July 8, „ 

Ditto ditto July 10, „ 

Ditto in Basin (Keyham), Mar. 28, 1859 
Ditto outside Breakwater (Keyham) May 4, 
1859 

Ditto in Basin (Keyham), Sept. 6, 1858 ... 
Ditto outside Breakwater, Sept. 18, 1859.., 
Ditto in Basin (Keyham), Sept. 1, 1859 ... 

Ditto between Sheerness and Sunk Light, 
March 23, 1858 

Ditto outside Breakwater (Keyliam), No- 
vembers, 1858 

Ditto in Basin (Keyham), July 13, 1859 ... 
Ditto outside Breakwater, Oct. 22, ,, ... 

Ditto Long Reach, Jan. 12, 1858 

Ditto Lower Hope, Aug. 24, 1858 

Ditto, Lower Hope, March 5, 1856 

Ditto ditto June 24, 1857 

Ditto ditto June 26, „ 

Ditto ditto Sept. 10, „ 

Ditto ditto March 20, 1858 

Ditto, Stokes Bay, July 8, 1859 

Ditto ditto March 2, 1859 

Ditto ditto July 1, , 

Ditto ditto Sept. 27, „ 

Ditto ditto Oct. 13, „ 

Ditto ditto Peb. 24, , 



13167 
10-535 
13-611 

14-97 
1516 

10-71 

10-68 

1068 

1077 

13-52 
12-43 
12-70 
12-56 
12-71 
13-29 



11-60 



8-41 
10-50 

1013 

9-71 
936 
8-57 
9-83 
930 
835 
9-20 
877 
9-23 
7-88 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 

Table {continued). 



211 



Horse-power. 


U 

o <0 

il 

'a a; 

Jl 

■!"§ 


o a 

OS o 
R CI 


o . 

*» u 

s * 
- p. 

?s 

.£ O 
(-■ . 


O . 

« > 


Ratio of other heating 

surface to indicated 

horse-power. 


Ratio of total heating 

surface to indicated 

horse-power. 




U 

.5 3 
•2° 

PS 


Z. ' 

o o 

Cf-I -W 

„ 

•SJ 


Coal consumed per hour 
per indicated horse- 
power- 


Water evaporated per 

hour per indicated 

horse-power. 


i4* 

p/u 

*- . 
On 

as 

> S 

Is 


Indicated. 


■<3 

o 


m to 

U 

v. aj 

SI 

Ph-S 


2754-64 


800 


•291 


3-443 


•198 






5-240 


26-47 










1429 


800 


•560 


1-786 


•381 






10077 


26-47 










3182 6 


800 


•251 


3-978 


171 






4-525 


26-47 










3617 


1000 


•276 


3-617 


•188 


* 




5021 


26-71 










3992 


1000 


•251 


3-992 


•170 


... 




4-549 


26-71 










293-9 


80 


•272 


3674 


•136 


4-627 


•476 


5103 


37-50 


•103 








299-5 


80 


•267 


3-744 


•133 


4-541 


•467 


5 008 


37 50 


•103 








303-6 


80 


•264 


3-791 


•132 


4-479 


•461 


4-941 


37-50 


103 








299-8 


80 


•267 


3-748 


133 


4533 


•467 


5003 


37-50 


•103 








1166 


350 


•300 


3-331 


•212 


4-819 


1089 


5-909 


27-89 


•226 








1090S8 


350 


•321 


3117 


•226 


5152 


1165 


6-316 


27-89 


•226 








108960 


350 


•321 


3113 


•227 


5157 


1165 


6323 


27-89 


•226 








1266-9 


350 


•276 


3-619 


195 


4-436 


1002 


5-439 


27-89 


•226 








1174-88 


350 


•298 


3-357 


•210 


4-783 


1-081 


5-864 


27-89 


•226 








10J9-68 


350 


•334 


2-999 


•236 


5 367 


1-209 


6-579 


27-89 


•226 








1195 


600 


•502 


1-992 


•326 


6-587 
5-482 


1-889 
1-572 


8-477 
7054 


25-97 
25-97 


•286 
•286 








1436 


600 


•417 


2-393 


•271 


















258 


300 


1162 


•860 


•868 


















408-6 


300 


•734 


1-362 


•548 


















480 


300 


•625 


1-600 


•466 






8-981 












453124 


220 


•486 


2059 


•300 


none 


5-442 


5-442 


1813 










394 


220 


•558 


1-791 


•345 


none 


6-259 


6-259 


18-13 










1122 


540 


•481 


2078 


■267 


3-863 


5117 


8-981 


33-59 


1-324 








954 


540 


•566 


1-767 


•314 


4-544 


6018 


10-563 


3359 


1-324 








261-6 


80 


•306 


3-270 


•229 


4-556 


•906 


5-463 


33-82 


•198 








3174 


80 


•252 


3-968 


•189 


3-755 


•746 


4-502 


23-82 


•198 








283 


60 


•212 


4717 


120 


•jf 




3-943 


32631 










240-62 


60 


•250 


4010 


142 






4-638 


32-631 










216-50 


60 


•277 


3 608 


•158 








5155 32 631 










22267 


60 


•269 


3711 


•153 








5 01232-631 










241-48 


60 


•248 


4025 


•142 








4-621 


32-631 










19682 


60 


•305 


3-280 


•174 








5-620 


32-631 










223-90 


60 


•268 


3-731 


•153 








4-984 


32-631 










22013 


60 


•273 


3-669 


•155 








5069 


32631 










211-62 


60 


•283 


3-527 


•166 








5-274 


32-631 










240 60 


60 


•249 


4010 


•142 






... 


4-638 32-631 










199-68 


60 


•300 


3-328 


171 




•■ 




5-589 32-631 











* Particulars of the tube-surface were not furnished by the manufacturers of the engines. 

p2 



212 



fcEPORT— 1860. 
Table (continued). 



Uame Of veaseli 



Place and nature of performance. 



Speed. 



Merchant Vessels. 

Anglia (paddle) 'Mean of sis special trips on ordinary 

service between Holyhead and Kings 
town, 29th September to 3rd October, 
1864 



Cambria (paddle) .. 

Scotia (paddle) 

Telegraph (paddle) 
Atrato (paddle) 



Mersey (paddle) ... 
Paramatta (paddle) 
Shannon (paddle) ... 



Tasnianian (screw) 

Oneida (screw) 

Callao (paddle) 

Lima (paddle) 



Valparaiso (paddle) 

Bogota (paddle) 

San Carlos (screw) 
Guayaquil (screw)... 



Undine (screw) 



Erminia (screw) 
John Pcnn (paddle). 



Ditto ditto, 22nd to 26th May, 1856... 

Ditto ditto, 17th to 21st May, 1855 ... 
Ditto of two trips, 29th May, 1855 



On trial, Stokes Bay, March 13, 1854 

Ditto ditto January 22, 1857 ... 
Ditto ditto March 4, 1857 



Ditto, Stokes Bay, April 21, 1859 
Ditto, Stokes Bay, June 7, 1859 .. 



Ditto, Frith of Clyde, July 8, 1859. 
Ditto, Stokes Bay, August 1, ,, . 



Ditto, Stokes Bay, June 15, 1858 

Ditto, Stokes Bay, July 27, 1858 

Ditto, Glasgow to Liverpool, Oct. 22, 1858. 

Ditto, Liverpool to Kingstown, May 20, 
1859 



Ditto in the Clyde, Sept, 1G, 1859 

Ditto, Glasgow to Liverpool, Sept. 22, 1859 

Ditto in the Mersey, February 20, 1860 . . 

Ditto, Glasgow to Liverpool, March 22, 
1860 



Measured mile, Greenhithe, July 6, 1858.. 
Holvhead to Mull of Cantyre, July 29, 30. 

1858 

Run in Lochs Ness and Lochy, Oct. 26, 

27,28, 1858 



Ditto in Stokes Bay, Oct. 12, 1858 
Ditto, Lower Hope, Feb. 6, 1860... 



14-93 
1407 
1568 
15-24 
15-80 

15-31 

1608 

1601 
16-60 

16-42 

14-86 

14-86 

13-82 
13-28 
14-40 
13-54 

13-82 
10-67 
11-49 
9-48 
6-87 
17-63 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 

Table (continued). 



213 



Horse-power. 



81607 

995-35 

934-18 

1165-98 

2396-44 

1088 

2940 

2928-5 
3790 

2800 

1912 

1050 

1160 

800 
1100 

500 

600 
15709 
158-77 
160-84 
54 59 
798 



330-52 

392-10 

379-92 

448 

800 
800 
800 

250 

764 

774 
774 

550 

450 

320 

320 
320 
320 
120 

120 

50 
50 
50 
30 
150 



2 o 
"•= 

OT3 



*% 



op - 

O £ 

eg O 

u ft 

2 ,' 

x » 

M fa 

« .£ 

t- 

bJT3 

o^ 
o.2 
■J3"0 

C8 C 



•405 
•394 
•407 
•384 

•334 

•230 

•260 

•264 
•204 

•196 

•235 

•305 

•27Q 
•400 
•291 
•240 

•200 
•318 
•315 
•311 

•550 
•188 



2-469 
2-538 
2-458 
2-603 

2-995 
4-352 

3-848 

3-783 
4-897 

5091 

4-249 

3-281 

3-625 
2-500 
3-438 
4167 

5 COO 
3142 
3175 
3217 
1-819 
5-320 



•196 
166 

•199 
142 

•217 

163 

•202 

•193 
•149 

•182 

•222 

133 

•117 
162 
127 

•152 

123 

•287 
■284 
•281 

■162 



<S 2 
II 



£3 

O 5 

S-5 



4-769 
5-544 
4-943 
6332 

3-346 
4044 

4-998 

5042 

3-896 

3-768 
4789 
1-904 

1-465 

none 
1-818 
none 



4-697 
4-648 
4-588 
8172 



"do 
pC' m ft 

+i O ' 

O -+-> CD 

*ssg 

o«g.§ 



•558 

•452 

•627 

1-377 

3-703 
•925 

•872 

1-259 
•973 

•537 

•795 

1142 

1-293 
1091 






o o o 



1-311 
1-297 
1-281 
1 702 



5-327 
5-996 
5-571 
7-368 

7-049 

4-960 

5-871 

6-302 
4-869 

4-306 

5-584 

3047 

2-758 
3000 
2 909 
4400 

3-666 
6009 
5 945 
5-869 
9-8/5 
4-229 



.2-2 



2717 
3617 

27-98 

5168 

47-91 
47-91 
4791 

3039 

2905 

32-55 
32-55 

23-641 

2517 

22-85 

23-53 
18-46 
22-85 

28-94 

29-73 

20-90 
20-90 
20-90 
38174 



? a 



•117 

•081 

•127 

•164 

1106 
1106 
1106 

•228 

•174 

•249 
•249 

•142 

•166 

•600 



lbs. 
6-837 

5-787 

6-679 

6-691 

3-739 



•600 



•279 
•279 

•279 
•208 



3-000 
3-514 
2133 

2-615 
3080 
2036 
2-352 

1-866 



S/3 

^ 3 *- 

o> ft £ 

u u o 

1» 3fl 



214 REPORT — 1860. 

Appendix V. — Letter from Mr. Archbold, Engineer-in-Chief, U. S. Navy. 

Office of Eugineer-in-Chief, 
Washington, D.C., May 12th, 1860. 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit herewith, an abstract of the perform- 
ance of the U. S. Steam-sloop ' Wyoming,' under steam alone, and under 
steam and sail, on the passage from Philadelphia to Valparaiso, Chili, col- 
lated from the logs of the engineer department of the ship. 

I am unable to give you any account of her performances under sail alone, 
as in these logs no note of the sail is made when not under steam, and the 
ship's logs are not sent to the Navy Department until the end of the cruise. 
No trial of the ship was made in smooth water uninfluenced by sea from 
which any data of value can be obtained. We do not try our ships at the 
measured mile, the guarantees required of the contractors of the machinery 
being on performances at sea, and for an extended length of time. The re- 
sults for each day, as shown by the abstracts, are not assumed to be strictly 
correct, as the data from which they are calculated are taken from the ordi- 
nary observations of the engine-room, subject to errors and inaccuracies 
unavoidable when the observers are so many, on duty for so short a time, 
and when attention is necessarily engrossed for the greater portion of the 
time in the care of the machinery. But as the errors are as likely to be on 
the one side of the truth as the other, the average and means will not be far 
from correct. 

Indicator diagrams were not found in the logs for each day, which will 
account for the omissions in some of the columns, and there was but one set 
taken during each twenty-four hours. The horse-power for the day was cal- 
culated from these diagrams, correcting for the average revolutions for the 
day ; and the horse-power for those days during which no diagrams were 
taken, is calculated from those taken on days when the circumstances of wind 
and sea were as nearly similar as could be found. The force of wind is 
expressed in our logs by numbers, as follows: — 0, for calm ; 1, light air; 
2, light breeze ; 3, gentle breeze ; 4, moderate breeze ; 5, fresh topgallant 
breeze ; 6, strong single-reefed topsail breeze ; 7, moderate gale, or double- 
reefed topsails ; 8, fresh gale, or three-reefed topsails ; 9, strong gale, or 
close-reefed topsails and reefed courses ; 10, heavy gale, or close-reefed 
maintopsails and reefed trysails; 11, storm trysails, or storm staysails; 12, 
hurricane, or when no sail would stand. 

In the column headed " cut-off," the figures indicate the distance in inches 
the steam followed the piston. 

The apparent discrepancy in the consumption of coal for the days between 
October 25 and 31 inclusive, and some of the columns of which the coal 
was the dividend, arises from the distilling apparatus having been in use, 
making fresh water for ship's use; the amount of fuel due to the water 
freshened having been deducted before dividing. It should be remarked, in 
justice to our system of surface condensing, that the vacuum shown by these 
abstracts is not so good by from 10 to 12 per cent, as has been obtained by 
the same engines on former occasions, or by condensers of the same class in 
other ships. 

I trust you will find in the abstracts everything necessary to the object 
you have in view, and you may depend upon the truthfulness of the result 
as nearly as they could be obtained from the data we have before us. We 
have, in common with your Association, felt the want of systematized 
authentic information upon steam-ship performance, and should feel obliged 
by the receipt of any facts in relation to any of your modern vessels of war, 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 215 

which the plan you have organized has developed ; in return for which we 
shall be happy to render further service if desired. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 

Samuel Archbold, 
Engineer-in- Chief, U.S. Navy. 
Vice-Admiral C. JR. Moorsom, 
Chairman of the Committee on Steamship Performance, British Association. 



Description and dimensions of the Hull, Engines, and 
Boilers of United States Sloop ' Wyoming.' 

Hull. ,, 

ft. in. 

Length over all 232 9 

Length on spar deck 209 9 

Length between perpendiculars 198 6 

Length of keel from back part of forward stern post 158 

Width of beam, moulded 32 2 

Width of beam, extreme 33 

Depth of hold 15 10 

Space allotted to machinery 50 8 

Draft of water (loaded) forward 13 3 

Draft of water (loaded) aft 13 4 

Area of immersed midship section sq. 391 

tons. 

Displacement 1475 

Tonnage 997 

Mean angle of entrance 17° 30' 

Mean angle of exit 15° 30' 

Engines. 
Two in number, horizontal, with double piston rods, and direct-acting; 
slide valves, and independent cut-off valves, and situated 76 feet 6 inches from 
screw. One surface condenser common to both engines, containing 3000 
square feet of tube-surface. 

ft. in. 

Cylinder, not jacketed, diameter 4 2 

Cylinder, stroke of piston 2 6 

The air-pump (one to each engine) is worked directly from the cross-head, 
and consequently has the same stroke as the steam-piston. Its piston is a 
barrel plunger, packed by a gland in the centre of the pump. The foot 
valves of vulcanized rubber are situated beneath the plunger, and the deli- 
veries above it. 

ft. in. 

Capacity of air-pump, one revolution cubic 3 3 

Area of foot valves, one end sq. 179 5 

Area of delivery valves, one end sq. 270 

There is also a cold water circulating pump to each engine of the same 
dimensions as the air-pump. 

Boilers. 
Three boilers, with vertical water space tubes over the furnaces. Shells of 



216 REPORT — 1860. 

iron, tubes of brass, placed two on one side of the ship (of which one con- 
sists of a single furnace and is used as an auxiliary or " donkey," and to sup- 
ply the deficiency of fresh water caused by leakage, &c.) and one on the 
other side, facing each other, with a fire-room fore and aft between them. 

ft. in. 

Length of boiler 24 9 

Breadth, including fire-room 29 

Depth, exclusive of steam drum 10 2 

Depth, inclusive of steam drum 10 ft. diameter 14 2 

Fire-room, length 21< 9 

Fire-room, width 8 6 

Heating surface in all boilers sq. 7890 

Tubes, in length 2 1\ 

Tubes, internal diameter 2 

Tubes, in number 4-230 

Furnaces. 

ft. in. 

Breadth, except " donkey," which is 2 ft. 6 in 3 

Length ". 5 10 

Area of all grates sq. 242 

Smoke-pipe, one telescopic, height when up (above grate) ... 52 

Diameter 6 10 

Area sq. 36 7 

Least area between tubes in all boilers sq. 35 65 

tons. 

Weight of boilers 74*75 

Weight of water in boilers 41*37 

ft, in. 

Cubic contents of water space 1484 

Cubic contents of steam space 1318 

Contents of combustion chamber, each furnace 6183 

Distance of fire-bars from top of furnace 2 

Distance of fire-bars from ash-pit 1 4 

Propeller, one true screw of brass. 

ft. in. 

Number of blades 4 

Diameter of screw 12 13 

Diameter of boss 1 9| 

Pitch 19 

Length 2 6 

Projected area at right angles of axis sq. 41*36 

Total weight of machinery, spars, &c, with Avater in boilers tons 227 

Carries 235 tons Anthracite coal. 

The coal used was Blackheuth Anthracite of the hardest variety. Its 
analysis, as given by Professor Johnson, is — carbon, 92*12 ; water, hydrogen, 
and volatile matter, 4*83 ; ashes, &c, 3*05. Specific gravity 1*477. 

















Atpendix V. — 


Table 1. 


tarformSDCe of Uu ted State* 


-i.. .mi Sloop ' Wyoming ' tind 


r Steam a 


„,, 


















[To face p. 216. 




3 


_ 




{Had. 


i 

1 


! 

■: 
1 

i 

= 


i 


Enpor. 




Ooll-n 


1 

T 

f 


| 


u 
p 


1 

h 

1* 

J 


is 




1 
| 

■5 


B-pjU*. 


J 


I 


: 


1 

I 


I 

1 
| 


1 


ij 

I] 


1 ; 




t 




is 

h 

i -- 


ij 


1 


1 


L 

1* 
6 s 






- 


1: 


1! 
Hi 


i 


= ^ 


M 

Ii 


■ 


; ".V, 


1 ■ - 


K.W 


a 




Smooth. 


1.1 


k I- 
i :; 


in 3 


... 


ba, 

12-4? 


ra-i 


■I 


'■' 1 


Vnri.il.lv 


-i 


-,:. 


SMS 


7 


iili-5 


JIMS 


ibt 

an 




It* 
lull 


20-4 






li'i 


■- 






2135 


J 


ItM- 


It* 




r.a 32 




- i 


a 






u 


<l 7 


68- I 


ir . 


- ;.i i.i 


93 








H7 


75 


.IIM 












1 


15 a 


il.il 


151 - 


ISA 


922 




4 0!J 


3 llil 










f.i IS 


BJt bi E. 




:i 


2* 




IK 


7 a 


:.:. ; 


14 1 


9-355 


?.i 




1 1 


1>7 


SI 


74 














Mi 






Mri- 










..., 










IS 1" 


12 bjfl 




13 


1 






;. |l 


■Ih-f! 


15 


50118 


;•;! 


us 


- 




si; 


711 


.-I-.M 












y,i 


III* 




II7.H 


l.-iu.lr, 




153 75 




4 80 


nr, 


10 82 


49 




13 08 


- i by 8 


v 1 k, g 


l 


2 






II 7 


52 


in 


7717 


■■;i i 


in 


'-' 






7!' 


294 












HJfi 


hi-: 


733 


I-7-.-I 


h.i;i;i; 


7 as 


2:171 


3-B9 


a so 


9* 


11-34 


54-4 


1. 


. , . 


■ ■ ■ 


i 


U 






7 II 


.-■7 :i 


hi . 


- 901 


SB -.' 


10 5 


B 1 






79 


.:.' 1 












'17' 


16 


830 


NM-ii 


l.i 


817 


II KI 15 


3 25 


3-73 


9*7 




35 8 




ss .,- 


• i E 


- H 1 ■: 


I 








7 7 


57 5 


16 A 


; 113 


S3 


III 5 






ua 


711 


.'■; i 












W 


•',i 


694-5 


II.--: 




775 


.-.-..1 1!5 


8-65 


373 


■-,:,:, 


II j 


349 




so a ■ 




s 


2'5 


ii 


Uodorats 




7 ft 


55 




7-BI7 


tfl 


In 


-' '" i 








w 














•fl 










3-B9 






113 


33 


.. 11 


n i 


B ) W. 


s - B 


23 






uu 


■i ;i 


■V'-ll 


15 


7472 


S3 


lo-5 


.' ' 


72 


us 


-1 


:\..:\ 












MA 




833 








;ii;ii 


8-|j 


919 


32-7 


Nonmbrr I* 21 37 - 


3:i 35 


; ■ 




I 






4 


c, a 


ftl-JI 


15 


6 347 


SS 


111 


15 1 


H 


S.1 


;;i 


WC-H 


i. 


n2 12 


I3A1-6 






llll' 


"1 


839 






518 


.1M9 




9-2 


45-5 


lm™!. .- I.' 1 1 


5S.W.I W 
SAW. 


s 






11 


a 2 


IS 1 


1115 


."■-.-; 


2.1 


ki :. 




KU 


72 


83-5 


7 


110*5 


1845 






looi 


1,1 


S50 


I'm I 101 84 837 




3-S 


578 


5-72 


6-28 


24 2 


ik 3} la 


SI 17 


ObJid. 









7 


7 1 


BO i 


III 


5 ::, 


21-5 




3 1 K 


87 


llll 














*4-i 






Iik.-. :ji 81 7-oa 






3-76 








10 39 18 


BS in; 




]■: 


i 


III 




2U 


7 H 


i!U 


IS'S 


;i; 




tl-TS 




77 
















ii-,- 


ID 


Oil 


159-5 133-5 ii-41 


J.'S 1: 


4D2 


;i-tK5 


B-8 


8-3 


-Hi.' 


SO i-' i" 


js IS 




w s vr. 


2 


H 




in ; a 




19-0 


S . W 








73 
















II.-,! 




864 


146" 


11." IN. 




|f;-s 


G39 


5-048 








11 43 iu 


SO 4? 






25 




Lnng 'mil 


IS s s 
































.,.,, 


20 


741 


lll'i ,' 


11176 


884 


207-5 


446 


3568 


6-37 


715 


32 


Btt is II 


ia o.i 


9.W. 


W.K.W. 


25 


Ii 




4H'H 




7 1 










<-■< 
















II II 









I--I-.H 




214-8 




403 


6-82 


8-7 


368 


2? 50 44 


G7 12 


S.S.W 


S.W. 


a 5 


S 


Smooth. 


15 8 


mi 


17 8 


1 1 m 


22 ■(' 


1025 


i; i |l l 


98 


SI 


27-1 


10 


176 7 


5636 




i. 


.' 


14 2 


1716 


228-a 


1115 NS 


1164 


537-2 


3-72 


3-17 


5S6 


7-33 


23--1 






i :il 


IS 


149 ; i 


52 s 


17 


B«tS MM 


III 12 


2 4 1 1 1 


B6 li'J 1 


--HH 








30 


"■".■■ 


1066 


18-40 


..;;■. 


IjMi 


121 1 


-77-' »sr<H 


1 12 


:n;2i 


771 


9 39 


as bs 

















































































Appendix V. — Table 2. Pprrormancc of UnitnJl latcs Sleam Sloop • Wyoming' under Steam and Sail. 




1 
■ 1 ■ . 1 
■ 



u bj S 
B.W. 

■■■'■■ 

a w. 

B is w. 



1. ■ ■ 

1 

t 1 

B bj 1: 



[I 58 7 

7 G 58'1 

7 :i GB 5 

- I ;.:i I 

7 1 sa 

1; 9 W'fl 

r. 1 .-.-.■•; 

B 7 51 S 

; lO-i 






.'.' ■ 

7 BOB S3 
1 11 9 1 

8 SS-3 

B 70S B 

inn: 13 
■ ■ 

tag a 

1 su » 

■i 187 .'.'-. 
B'3I5 :■-' 
7-imii 20.'. 
Q-BOO lll-S 
D-050 IS 
0-S3B 2- 1 

.-1 rss --' 

7 2115 22 5 

I -Hi, .■■, 



13 HI B5J5 -'- i'. ■ 1 



ilii-;. 



;:. .-i>7 





1 






li 


it 




v- 














:i..or. 


112-5 


-M1-7 


105-4 


6758 


;»5s7 


S.IIIS 


121 5 


il HI II 


11. - 2 


712 


127 


,;>.-•; 


in". |i 


H77 




771 s 





10-8 10-.1 1 1.-..-.1 bos 



nil !■■;_; nuns | ;1 ;; si; i:i2>2 1n721 s -ju 2SU,*2 II IIH- 2 HH >M«. UU iisol 



All plain. 

.lib ami iitnrsiil- 
F.-rv unci' all 



Bqnw 
Fort 1 ..i 



970; 



\, pj m.i ..in. I mi 1 !, 1 D gut IV pogo 207 ) SutvejOlV Return of Capabilities returned by tlic 321st -eelion of tlie Act 17 & IS Via cap. 104. 

(Juuod by tlic Marine Department of the Hnord of Trade in purMiniicc oflhe Morobnnt Shipping Act, 185i. 



. 


w* 


1 


iVo 1 




1'r.Air 

ImI-ILm 






.: .,„,,„, 


Dot 


- 


WoJgbj 


■ 
UHddnO 


Call 11. 


DMttt 


muUjnUuainU 

■ 


.. 


(Tin -. 1 


' 


St, 


^SSU 


tr« 


C.librv 








WI..I, 




1. tjgtli 


1 


1 - ■ 


\\ ii.ti mad* 


IL -fl| 


1 (it i.f ujlinilur 


Whir tdo 


So. 




















mm 




il,. ..Ill 


Aft 


II, ■ ... . 


Who« 


(fominnl II. 1* 


1 ■ Il o( llMIfl 


m,™ 


[)>-*oriplion 












1 






B] 




It, ,llll 




Orou 


By "i 


i"... « 


Itorolulionl pu minuli 


By »bom 


Cuioknou 

























































/_ 




TM.I 


MM* 


„! f,' .1 


' nl 

|,,.,r. 


f™" 






>., ... 




v lomni 


■J.J„ 
as'ip 


210 

isg bo 

170 
170-18 


34 
IS SB 

32'. 
11-18 


96 


320 
100 


31 
l(i 


33 


330 


U0 

116 


33 
14-6 


00 


330 


K 


W 


330 


155 


iS'iao 




400 







. ... l-.| 
ToWu- 



1.-MJ *| ,,-M ■ 






at.. 



lag 



Tnbe I7«« 
.... i loo 
I Omt* 253 

'l.jl- f,HI*> 

■ Oibra 1600 
I Onta 140 

i ib iouo 

I Otha 1200 



■■ 

rlir.-.i^h 


n>b» 






"- 






Ib te 


la 




SO 


»s 


« It 


b ii 


"T 


IMI 


ii.m 


f! 


3i 


Brew. 


CO 


ass 





M 


r™. 


M 


1100 


II 


? 


Bra». 



Furm.l,..! bj M.-t-. Ran.k.lph, [.;!,!„, „ rll | , ■. . 
fcitrartwl fr.,n, loy-boot of I'h.-jIIo Slfo.ni Novipitio 



«hdl hj- Mtwra Knndolph, Et.trr. .it,. l Co 
Bttrutod frvm log-book of FuiAe Steam Kbi ig 

uapliono) oool per indie hotw-poTrorparhoursS-lOOlb. 
Eilrai'twl from log-book of PooiDe Steam Noi [gutioo Cbmpanj 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION-COMMITTEE Of STEAMS 

Table showing the Results of Performance on the Meosutcd ffij e of Seventeen Vessels of the Royal Navy ; "!' Twenty-mo Vessels in the Merchant Service, and in ailditi"t ■"'"' s ' : ' lv i 





1 vtssia. 


































\, ru 












priors ll-shs 












raRIMIuiAXCE CKDER TRIAL. 








i. Ml VSUBBIIHKTS OP SUIP 


i. , - . 


.,.,,,»,. 








«, 


,-™-r.»,„., 


"5? 


ii 


\ 


jii 




= ! 


S a 

1 1 i tg 

I'.T, 

n .i 

W 

■ 

I-. ■ 


;=: 
:•-»■ 

mi: 
M 


III 

II KU 

nob 

13 OH 

11*13 

li'iol 

IUK0 

11 .'! : ; 
njio 

ion* 

10 u* 

13 ta- 
ll 11- 

nil* 

D1U 

11 IU 

»» 

1413 

I HI 
8Ut 
CMS 

7 090 

7 011 

1011 

noss 
10m 

11030 
11438 

io ooi 

1T3D 

. 
Oil 

• 
I 

■ 

OTTO 
DUO 

IMU 

, ■■ 

in.; 

. . . 

i 
Knot 

1.1711 

i ■ , 
\V#* 
WWII 

■ 

III!.' 

|..ir 
1111 

una 

l»S 

l% 

OWf 

ouij 

ii ii 

ID , 


i n . ■ ■ 


ol W«m 




'K.;' 




i 

i 


a 


1 

3 


j o 


i 


: 11: 


J I 

i i 

... 
■Ill, 



. .. 1 


s 

•3 

I 


Ill 

1 | I 


- 
1 


i 


1 

r 


i 


li 




DM 


"- 


„,.,„,.., 


»- 


Kii 


«. 


I 


3! II 

m 

33 

3it S 

11 
..,, , 

» a 

» .. 

U 1 

in ii 

90 ii 

H i. 

n i, 
.. ,, 
30 
30 li 
30 li 
» 
30 u 
;» ii 

ig ii 

.:■ 


1 


i 




ytssils or rsi cs s»vt 

TCSSXLS 0* m MTAi MTT. 




Sirs...™,-. i. 




■- ■ >- ■ !.,.. dnsti bna 










- 

-1 


■ 


mi u 

:r:v- 

isn i 

am & j 

■■«S [VI 

tHll 

mi i 

:^i 

■.•ii ■:• 

ION 
97M-M 

MM 

MM B 

.-:;■■■ :■> 


I. , 

M 

u 

I.-. .-I 

w 

i.-: 
IMI 

■ 
II 

■ 

■ 
.ii i.i 


IM 10) 
["»■> 

■ton 
in « 

IU 
900 

IM 

lirj J 
US 8 

BH '1 

v.'.l E 
DO I 

Mi 13 

»i o 

.11 J 

■ 
ttlkpp i 

in .. 

It) 
UU 

in o 

i.i . 


10| 


-:_. 


10 ii 

1a i 

: ...i i 

E0 1 


11 ? 
30 1 

:n i, 

30 1 

31 11 

n g 

30 
39 8 


1—- 1 

8 8 

3 3 

« II 
« 8 


ill 

i ii 
i ii 








5 


Cum. M (a u 

.•a 

l! 

.... 


1 :i 


Ml 












-r- .I *"l 
laiwiul 80 




■ 




S«ri, olm 


















\... -....,,'. biiopnmw 




=::: 


hi 


1 i 


tori 
i -i 

Tree.. 

I. ■- 

I Mi a 

Dim 

IMl.. 
Ilannmul 

I Mill 

DlnrMdni 

In... 


91 








-0 






■ 
■ 


k: 


^jui^^I ....'.'. 








a i 2? 2 

IS 4 17 S 

life 
■ -in a 

6 1 21 4 
B10"f 
Q 10 11 

34 3 
33 1 34 3 

• 10 3 


™ 

" 
... 


11 31 3 3 71 
19 91 3 3 T[ 

19 31 3 8 

19 33 3 1 

19 M 3 1 
19 31 3 1 

ID o -a a in 
v.i o -a o || 

is IS' :ii 

10 4 9; 8[ 
8 1 T 1 Oj 
8 8 T It 1 II 

H ill i? 

i\ 8 11 8| 

•ia si a) n jj 'J; 

\> :: so |. ;; 'J 

19 11 30 1 h >> 
13 9| 14 0) [j » 

11 3 13 Hi 3 

o o ii o i io 

110 HI 10 
HOMO 10 

8 10 1 i 

■ 


i ■ 

.1 O V| 

III i 1, ill 

■ 

3 9 

■ 

3 11 


11 ■■ 

10 IS ': 
l" 15 ' 
IU 13 li 
V! 1 ■ 

0*3. 

... a t i ii 

„ !J 1 s n 
3 17 . .. 

1 17 1 

6 0.. 

g i. i 

11 1 
11 1 

O 1- 1 
12 | 

11 1 . 


[Si 














l"o 




£* 


















■ 
1 


IU0 

us: . 

. 
■ 

II'jSO 

HI II 

am 

(IM 

10BQ 6 j 
UN I 
MM 

] i : i --i 

lOJ'J to 
UI1TI 

UfrlM 

' m 

■u s 

.I7i 

I Ufl 

MM 

M< 

...... | 

HI 
IM-8 

U7 

IN 

■ 

OB) || 

,:. . ■ 
|.. . 

Mi- 

I . ■ . 
■ ■ 




















A»t3», 1*: lMB« 








1 11 
1 " 










■ 








o e 
■ 1 

'■ '■: 

o o 


o t 

7 
7 O 
7 ( 






£ 
















J* 13. Mat 




n ,, 










)(• 3, •• •uriwl h» 

X- 6, .W ... . 

x i <i— i 






1 nncMm. 

. WHOM 

. tea.. . .. 

. til ntjF^fcl 
Bjt. tj_«| 


■ ' 
■ 








11 s 


! -1 




■ 


in J 

m j 

10 3 
[0 1 

i io 

11 
11 6 
11 1 

11 1 

■ ■ 

1 1 

-i 3 

7 H 

I 10 


u 

12 
11 1 

11 
14 
IS 

11 

U 

-- 
.1 

1 

7 1 
7 1 

1 






iniicj 
ih,-.. 
i..< . 

IW.IUi.o« r->r-l 

Win, 




















. , . . 

IS i 1 



ii. ir 

■ 

■ 


II fin 

IM ii ii 

_ .', 11 

1. 

7 

II ii ii 



- i . 


1 






•Vfio-li 








£fc" 




a ii " 

.■ \B .1 






1 It.nu.oul 

1 Ki - lOdm -i 
l-.li. 






T-— . 


















1 

Pbrnu '!■'■ i Iripi 

■ 


| 






KOOUXT TZXZLS. 

It—, 






.■■i i 
■ 

r 

3) 

a 
ii ■ 


1.1 i 


■ 


1173 

....I 

■ ■ 

..--■ 
■ 
Btl 

1 149 

1 MO 
1110 

U " 

.... 
■..II 

00 


ir in 
i: io 

11 ■■■ 

11 :-' 

|,i 1. 


i .. 

H .i 
.-i .i 

1 ' 

1 M 


i ii 
I 1 

■! J 
.,,.11. 


| |0 


:::: 

1 




\ 

II 

m 

■ 

I II M . 
1 1 CI 11 1 

""L 

M 

■i 

- IT 1 

ii ii ii g 

n 

.. i i, . 


,1 in ,, 
li 10 

1 « 
■l 11 -. 

II 

1 



.. II ,. 

.. r . 

ii a i 

, . i 

- ■ i 

. g „ 
o a n 

■ . .. 


3 B 

i .. 

i ; 
i .> 


hi ii. 

1 : .- 1 

.. . i 

9 11 

18 

; 

l 

i sJ 


is no c 

n too - 

■ ..i 

... 

i ■■' . 

pw oo i) 

■. ,.i. 

■ ■■ 

■-.«■■ 


1 I 

D 11 

I i. 

1 8 

I .1| 

1 " 
i ., 

i a 


Il-ml.tr [ul.nl ijllnJ" . 

-.I ... 

i. ..;■. nil ..i-.i.,.!.. 
■■. i i. ... 

-.1. 1 ,.r 
|M,., 

OtdUiUii 

D 

nth 

■■■ 

DUm 

■ ■ ■ 
1 

Vmial (niil panl 

IM,.. 

H»W|.H "I KVlrf. 1 
I'tui.i .Mb irti-uw 1 

■ 

o .i.n... 

Intl.. dlKs. . 

tm ntnl.nl in «i> r l.a( II 

I..-I, ,.„-.. ,,. 

■ ■ ■ 


■ 

to ■ 

:■'. 












«% 33 w )bf s*. MM _ 

■ 
■ - 




i'«inlaliiini| 






4.11, 


■ 
■ 

v3t* 


- I-: 
u e 

.. . : ' 

.. . ■ ■ 

... , ,.. - 




- .,e., 

1- — -H 11 ii ( i aJUT- 


111— ■■■n.Mlrtl^w 


II 


lUnu 


III 

.■•1 

in 

1 

,■■. 


00 

.. . 
i <i 




fthti »-i«ii 5" > 




80 

.... 






■ 

Ikn loa.** 

(9) U. «>«,...,. *») „,tl. «,_ «, 


rayVfh 


', ., ! 
1 

■ 
■ 
■ 

1 


[I 






h^u»t«.^l^™. 






■ 

,:: 


V" 
! ::. 
. 'I: 
1 1 

1 10 


■ 
■ ■ ■ ■ 

. . „ , 
1 








■ 








Ltjto-in 





















. 0jl ,i-*/i 










' "I- 


l., I'-!. 


i 




t 


TWhIuI 


■ 


:,,. 


o< ■ 


... 


. ■ 
, »-.! Ll.i ri-niijip, ..1 lb* mull ■- 


•JMM 



H ASSOCIATION.-COJfflnTEE o^T \MSIIir PERFORMANCE 

so M~>- MHo 




*«rm.\l« 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 217 

Interim Rejwii on the Gauging of Water by Triangular Notches. 

2 Donegal Square West, Belfast, 
23rd June, 1860. 

Dear Sir, — With reference to the experiments on the gauging of water 
by its flow in triangular notches, authorized by the General Committee at 
Abeideen, I have to report, for the information of the Association, that, as 
they have to be carried on in the open air in a field adjacent to a waterfall 
at several miles distance from home, and as they require the formation of 
ponds and the construction of measuring tanks, sluices, &c, and involve 
careful and repeated observations continued often through whole days, fine 
summer weather free from both rain and wind is almost quite essential, and 
winter weather is peculiarly unsuitable. For these reasons, and on account 
of my duties at Queen's College here, I could not enter on the construction 
of the experimental works until the close of the College Session, which 
occurred only on the 9th inst. I have now, however, got the principal parts 
of the works constructed, and have got preliminary trials made, but I have 
found it impossible to have the final experiments ready for the very early 
Meeting of the Association which occurs in the present year. For these 
experiments a grant of £10 was placed at my disposal ; and in order to meet 
the costs already incurred, of which some, from the nature of the case, are at 
present uncertain, I now apply to the Treasurer for the whole amount of the 
grant, for which I shall account at next year's Meeting, giving at that meet- 
ing my report on the experiments now in progress. 

I am, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

James Thomson. 
To John Phillips, Esq., LL.D., F.B.S., 
Assistant General Secretary, British Association. 



List of the British Marine Invertebrate Fauna. 

[For the Dredging Committee of the British Association.] 

NOTICE. 

The following lists have been prepared in conformity with the desire of the 
Committee of the Natural History Section of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, which, at my suggestion, recommended the appoint- 
ment of a general Dredging Committee, with a liberal grant of money for 
the carrying out of its objects. 

It is intended to place these lists in the hands of the local Dredging Com- 
mittees and naturalists engaged in researches in the most important districts 
of the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland, with a request that they may be 
returned, with notes on the conditions under which each species of the par- 
ticular district has been found, and memoranda of such additional species as 
may be obtained. By this means it is hoped to collect local lists of great 
interest, and materials for a more complete catalogue of the Invertebrate 
Fauna of the British Seas. In the preparation of the present lists, I have 
been assisted by Dr. Baird and Mr. S. Woodward and other members of the 
Dredging Committee. The catalogue of Mollusca is taken from the work 
of Messrs. Forbes and Hanley ; that of Crustacea has been obligingly fur- 
nished by Mr. Spcnce Bate; of Radiata by Mr. Stuart, of the Koyaf College 



218 



REPORT 1860. 



of Surgeons; of Sponges by Dr. Bowerbank; of Rhizopoda by Messrs. 
Rupert Jones and Parker; and to Dr. J. E. Gray I am indebted for permis- 
sion to extract the list of Annelida from an unpublished work by the late 
Dr. Johnston, of Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

ROBERT M<ANDREW. 
Isleworth House, Feb. 10, 1860. 

*** The nomenclature and arrangement are taken (with a few slight modifications) 
from the "British Mollusca" of Messrs. Forbes and Hanley. 

t+t The species marked with an asterisk have been recorded as British since the time 
when Mr. Barrett prepared the following list. 



Octopus, Cuvier. 

vulgaris, Lam. 
Eledone, Leach. 

octopodia, Penn. 
Rossia, Owen. 

Owenii, Ball. 

macrosoma, Belle Chiaje. 
Sepiola, Leach. 

Rondeletii, Leach. 



CEPHALOPODA. 

Atlantica, B' Orhigny. 
Ominastrephes, 2)' Orhigny . 

sagittatus, Lam. 

todarus, Belle Chiaje. 

Eblance, Ball. 
Loligo, Lamarck. 

vulgaris, Lam.? (Forbesi, 



media, Linn. 

marmorse, Verany (media, 
var.). 
Sepia, Linneeus. 
officinalis, Linn. 
elegans, Bl. 
biserialis, Be Montfort. 



Murex, Linnaeus. 

erinaceus, Linn. 

corallinus, Scacchi. 
Trophon, Montfort. 

clathratus, Linn. 

muricatus, Mont. 

Barvicensis, Johnston. 
Fusus, Lamarck. 

gracilis, Ba Costa. 

propinquus, Alder. 

Berniciensis, King. 

Dalei, J. Sowcrby. 

fusiformis, Broderip. 

antiquus, Linn. 

Norvegicus, Chemn. 

Turtoni, Bean. 
Buccinum, Linnasus. 

undatum, Linn. 

Humphresianum, Bennett. 
Nassa, Lamarck. 

reticulata, Linn. 

pygmaea, Lamarck. 

incrassata, Mutter. 
Purpura, Lamarck. 

lapillus, Linn. 
Columbella, Lam. 

nana, Loven. 
Mangelia, Leach. 

attenuata, Mont. 

costata, Pennant. 

brachystoma, Philippi. 
*Ginnaniana, Philippi. 

gracilis, Mont. 

Leufroyi, Michaud. 

linearis, Mont. 

nebula, Mont. 

purpurea, Mont. 

rufa, Mont. 



GASTEROPODA. 
Order PROSOBRANCHIATA. 

septangularis, Mont. 

6triolata, Scacchi. 

teres, Forbes. 

Trevelliana, Turton. 

turricula, Mont. 
Lachesis, Bisso. 

minima, Mont. 
Marginella, Lamarck. 

Ia3vis, Bonovan. 
Ovula, Lamarck. 

patula, Pennant. 

? acuminata, Bruguiere. 
Cyprrca, Linneeus. 

Europa'a, Mont. 
Natica, Lamarck. 

monilifera, Lamarck. 

nitida, Bonovan. 

sordida, Philippi. 

Montagui, Forbes. 

helicoides, Johnston. 

pusilla, Say. 

Kingii, Forbes. 
Lameliaria, Montagu. 

perspicua, Linn. 

tentaculata, Mont. 
Velutina, Fleming. 

flexilis, Mont. 

lasvigata, Linn. 
? Otina, Gray. 

otis, Turton. 
Trichotropis, Broderip. 

borealis, Brod. 
*Triton, Lamarck. 

cutaceus, Lam. 

nodiferus, Lam. 
Cerithiopsis, Forbes &f Hanley. 
♦Naiadis, Woodw. 
*nivea, Jeffr. 



*pulchella, Jeffr. 

tubercularis, Mont. 
Odostomia, Fleming. 

acuta, Jeffreys. 

alba, Jeffreys. 

conoidea, Brocchi. 

conspicua, Alder. 

cylindrica, Alder. 

decussata, Mont. 

dolioliformis, Jeffreys. 

dubia, Jeffreys. 

eulimoides, Hanley. 

excavata, Philippi. 

glabrata, Muhlfeldt. 

Grulsonte, Clark. 

insculpta, Mont. 

interstincta, Mont. 

minuta, Jeffreys. 

nitida, Alder. 

obliqua, Alder. 

pallida, Mont. 

plicata, Mont. 

rissoides, Hanley. 

spiralis, Mont. 

striolata, Alder. 

truncatula, Jeffreys. 

unidentata, Mont. 

Warrenii, Thompson. 
*Lukisii, Jeffr. 
Euhmella, Forbes. 

acicula, Philippi. 

affinis, Philippi. 

clavula, Low n. 

Scilla;, Scacchi. 
Chemnitzia, B' Orbigny. 

clathrata, Jeffreys. 

elegantissima, Mont. 

fenestrata, Jeffreys. 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 219 



formosa, Jeffreys. 
fulvocincta, Thomps. 
indistincta, Mont. 
rufa, Philippi. 
rufescens, Forbes. 
scalaris, Philippi. 
eximia, Jeffreys. 
Eulinia, Risso. 
polita, Linn. 
distorta, Deshayes. 
subulata, Donovan. 
bilineata, Alder. 
*stenostoma, Hanley. 
Stylina, Fleming. 

Turtoni, Broderip. 
Cerithium, Bruguiere. 
metula, Loven. 
reticulatum, Da Costa. 
adversum, Mont. 
*niTeuin, Jeffr. 
Aporrhais, Aldrovandus. 
pes-carbonis, Brongniart. 
pes-pelecani, Linn. 
Turritella, Lamarck. 
communis, Risso. 
Aclis, Loven. 
ascaris, Turton. 
supranitida, S. Wood. 
? unica, Mont. 
niticlissima, Mont. 
Coecutn, Fleming. 
trachea, Mont. 
glabrum, Mont. 
Scalaria, Lamarck. 
Turtoni, Turton. 
communis, Lamarclc. 
clathratula, Mont. 
Groenlandica, Chemnitz. 
Trevelyana, Leach. 
Skenea, Fleming. 
? costulata, Midler. 
? lrevis, Philippi. 
planorbis, Fair. 
? nitidissima, Adams. 
?rota, Forbes. 
Truncatella, Risso. 
Montagui, Lowe. 
Jctireysia, Aider. 
opalina, Jeffreys. 
diaphana, Alder. 
globularis, Jeffreys. 
Rissoa, Fremen vi/le. 
*Alderi, Jeffr. 
abyssicola, Forbes. 
anatina, Drop. 
Beairii, Hanley. 
calathus, Forbes. 
cingillus, Mont. 



costata, Adams. 
costulata, Risso. 
crenulata, Michaud. 

fidgida, Adams. 

inconspicua, Alder. 

labiosa, Mont. 

lactea, Michaud. 

littorea, Delle Chiaje. 

muriatica, Lam. 

parva, Da Costa. 

proxima, Alder. 

pulcherrima, Jeffreys. 

punctura, Mont. 

rubra, Adams. 

rufilabrum, Alder. 

sculpta, Philippi. 

semistriata, Mont. 

soluta, Philippi. 

striata, Mont. 

striatula, Mont. 

ulvae, Pennant. 

rentrosa, Mont. 

vitrea, Mont. 

Zetlandica, Mont. 
Assiminea, Leach. 

Grayana, Leach. 
Lacuna, Turton. 

crassior, Mont. 

vincta, Mont. 

puteolus, Turton. 

pallidula, Da Costa. 
Litorina, Ferussac. 

fabalis, Turton. 

litora'is, Linn. 

litorea, Linn. 

neritoides, Linn. 
tenebrosa, Mont. 
palliata, Say. 

patula, Jeffreys. 
rudis, Donovan. 
saxatilis, Johnston. 
Adeorbis, 5. Wood. 
subcarinata, Mont. 
divisa, Fleming. 
Trochus, Linn. 
alabastrum, Beck. 
cinerarius, Linn. 
conulus, Linn. 
exiguus, Pulteney. 
granulatus, Born. 
crassus, Pulteney (lineatus, 

Da Costa). 
magus, Linn. 
mil:egranus, Philippi. 
Montagui, Gray. 
striatus, Linn. 
tumidus, Mont. 
umbilicatus. Mont. 



lineatus, Da Costa. 
zizyphinus, Linn. 
Margarita, Leach. 
undulata, Sowerby. 
helicina, Fabr. 
pusilla, Jeffreys. 
Cutleriana, Clark. 
Phasianella, Lamarck. 

pullus, Linn. 
Ianthina, Lamarck. 
exigua, Lamarck. 
communis, Lamarck. 
pallida, Harvey. 
Scissurella, D Orbigny. 

crispata, Fleming. 
Haliotis, Linn. 

tuberculata, Linn. 
Emarginula, Lamarck. 
reticulata, J. Sow. 
rosea, Bell. 
crassa, J. Soiv. 
Punctur el 1 a, Lo we. 
Noachina, Linn. 
Fissurella, Lamarck. 

reticulata, Donovan. 
Pileopsis, Lamarck. 
Hungaricus, Linn. 
Calyptraea, Lamarck. 

Sinensis, Linn. 
Acmwa, Eschscholtz. 
testudina^is, Mutter. 
virginea, Mutter. 
Patella, Linnaus. 
Tidgata, Linn. 
athletica, Bean. 
pellucida, Linn. 
lsevis, Pennant. 
Pilidium, Forbes. 
fulvum, Mutter. 
Propilidium, Forbes (Lepeta, 
Gr.). 
ancyloide, Forbes. 
Dentalium, Linnteus. 
entale, Linn. 
Tarentinum, Lam. 
Chiton, Linnmus. 
faseicularis, Linn. 
discrepans, Brown. 
Hanleyi, Bean. 
ruber, Linn. 
cinereus, Linn. 
albus, Linn. 
asellus, Chemn. 
cancellatus, Sow. 
tevis, Pennant. 
marmoreus, 0. Fabr. 



Tornatella, Lamarck. 
fasciata, Linn. 

Bulla, Lamarck. 
hydatis, Linn, 
C'ranchii, Leach. 



Order OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 

Akera, Midler. 

bullata, Linn. 
Cyliclina, Loven. 

cylindracea, Pennant. 

conulus, Desh. 



*Lajoukaireana, Basterot. 
manrillata, Philippi. 
nitidula, Loven. 
obtusa, Mont. 
strigella, Loven. 



220 



REPORT — 1860. 



truncata, Adams. 

iimbilicata, Mont. 
Amphisphyra, Loven. 

hyalina, Turton. 
Scaphander, Mont fort. 

lignarius, Linn. 



(From the 

Doris, Linn. 

tuberculate, Cuv. 

flammea, A. 4' H. 

Zetlandica, A. Sf H. 

millegrana, A. $■ H. 

Johnstoni, A. Sf H. 

planata, A. $ H. 

coccinea, Forbes. 

repanda, A. <f H. 

aspera, A. Sf H. 

proxima, A. <|" H. 

muricata, Mull. 

Ulidiana, Thomps. 

diaphana, A. §■ H. 

oblonga, A. <$f H. 

bilamellata, L. 

depressa, A. cf H. 

inconspicua, A. §■ H. 

pusilla, A. Sf H. 

sparsa, A. <?' H. 

pilosa, Mull. 

subquadrate, A. <f H. 
Goniodoris, Forbes. 

nodosa, Mont. 

castanea, A. Sf H. 
Triopa, Johnston. 

claviger, Mill!. 
JEgirus, Loven. 

punctilucens, B" Orb. 
Thecacera, Fleming. 

pennigera, Mont. 

virescens, A. cf H. 

capitate, A. Sf H. 
Polycera, Cuvier. 

quadrilineata, Mull. 

ocellata, A. Sf H. 
Lessonii, B' Orb. 
Ancula, Loven. 

cristata, Alder. 
Idalia, Leuckart. 



Hyalea, Lamarck. 
trispinosa, Lcsucur. 



Ostrea, Linnaus. 

edidis, Linn. 
Anomia, Linnaus. 

aculeata, Miillcr. 

ephippium, Linn. 

striata, Loven. 

patelliformis, Linn. 



Bullica, Lamarck. 
aperta, Linn. 
quadrat a, S. Wood. 
scabra, Miillcr. 
catena, Mont. 
punctata, Clark. 
pruinosa, Clark. 



Aplysia, Gmelin. 

hybrids, Sow. 
Pleurobranchus, Cu vier. 

plumula, Mont. 

membrauaceus, Mont. 
Diphyllidia, Cuvier. 

lineata, Otto. 



Order NUDIBKANCHIATA. 

Monograph of Messrs. Alder and Hancock, 1856.) 



elegans, Leuck. 
Leachii, A. Sf H. 
aspersa, A. Sf H. 
insequalis, Forbes. 
pulchella, A. Sf H. 
quadricornis, Mont. 
Tritonia, Cuvier. 
Hombergii, Cuv. 
alba, A. Sf H. 
plebeia, Johnston. 
lineata, A. Sf H. 
Scyllsea, Linn. 

pelagica, Linn. 
Lomanotus, Vcrany. 
marnioratus, A. Sf H. 
flavidus, A. Sf H. 
Dendronotus, A. Sf H. 

arborescens, Mull. 
Doto, Oken. 
fragilis, Forbes. 
pinnatifida, Mont. 
coronata, Midi. 
iEolis, Cuvier. 
papillosa, Linn. 
glauca, A. Sf H. 
Alderi, Cocks. 
coronata, Forbes. 
Drummondi, Thomps. 

punctata, A. Sf H. 

elegans, A. Sf H. 

rufibranchialis, Johnst. 

lineata, Lov. 

smaragdina, A. Sf H. 

gracilis, A. Sf H. 

pellueida, A. Sf H. 

Landsburgii, A. Sf H. 

alba, A. 6f H. 

carnea, A. Sf H. 

glaucoides, A. Sf H. 

Peachii, A. Sf H. 

PTEROPODA. 

Spirialis, Eydoux Sf Souhyct. 
Fleiningii, Forbes. 
Jeffreysii, Forbes. 
MacAndrei, Forbes. 



nana, A. Sf H. 

stipata, A. Sf H. 

angulata, A. Sf H. 

inornate, A. Sf H. 

concinna, A. Sf H. 

olivacea, A. Sf H. 

aurantiaca, A. Sf H. 

pustulate, A. Sf H. ' 

Couchii, Cocks. 

amcena, A. Sf H. 

Northumbrica, A. Sf H. 

arenicola, Forbes. 

Glottensis, A. Sf H. 

viridis, Forbes. 

purpurascens, Flcm. 

cingulata, A. Sf H. 

vittate, A. Sf H. 

cserulea, Mont. 

pi eta, A. Sf H. 

tricolor, Forbes. 

amethystina, A. Sf H. 

Farrani, A. Sf H. 

exigua, A. Sf H. 

despecta, Johnst. 
Embletonia, A. Sf H. 

pulchra, A. Sf H. 

minute, F. Sf G. 

pallida, A. Sf H. 
Fiona, A. Sf H. 

nobilis, A. Sf H. 
Hermrea, Loven. 

bifida, Mont. 

dendritica, A. Sf H. 
Alderia, Allman. 

modesta, Loven. 
Proctonotus, A. Sf H. 

mucronil'erus, A. Sf H. 
Antiopa, A. Sf H. 

cristata, Bel. Ch. 

hyalina, A. Sf H. 



Clio, Miillcr. 
borealis, Linn. 



LAMELL1BRANCHIA 

Pecten, 0. F. Midler. 
*aratus, Gmelin. 
Danicus, Chemnitz. 
masimus, Linn. 
niveus, Macgillirray. 
opercularis, Linn. 
pusio, Pennant. 
similis, Laskey. 



FA. 

tigrinus, Miillcr. 
Tarius, Linn. 
striatals, Mutter. 

furtivus, Loven. 
Lima, Bruguiere. 
hians, Gmelin. 
Loscombii, Sowerby. 
subauriculata, Mont. 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 221 



Avicula, Bruguiere. 

Tarentina, Lam. 
Pinna, Linneeus. 

pectinata, Linn. 
Mytilus, LhiiKSus. 

ednlis, Linn. 
Modiola, Lamarck, 

barbata, Linn. 

modiolus, Linn. 

*ovalis, G. B. Shy. 

phaseolina, Philippi. 

tulipa, Lam. 
Crenella, Brown. 

costulata, Risso. 

decussata, Mont. 

discors, Linn. 

nigra, Gray. 

marmorata, Forbes. 

rhombea, Berkeley. 
Area, Linnams. 

lactea, Linn. 
*nodulosa, Miiller. 

raridentata, 8. Wood. 

tetragona, Poll. 
Pectunculus, Lamarck. 

glycimeris, Linn. 
Nucula, Lamarck. 

decussata, Sow. 

nitida, Sow. 

nucleus, Linn. 

radiata, Hanley. 

tenuis, Mont. 
Leda, Schumacher. 

caudata, Don. 

pygruaea, Minister. 
Cardium, Linneeus. 

aculeatum, Linn. 

echinatum, Linn. 

edide, Linn. 

fasciatum, Mont. 

nodosum, Turton. 

Norvegicimi, Speng. 
♦papillosum, Bolt. 

pygma'um, Don. 

rusticum, Linn. 

Suecicum, Reeve. 
Lucina, Bruguiere. 

borealis, Linn. 

divaricata, Linn. 

ferruginosa, Forbes. 

flexuosa, Mont. 

leucoma, Turton. 

spinifera, Mont. 
Diplodonta, Bronn. 

rotundata, Mont. 
Kellia, Tar ton. 

suborbieuluris, Mont. 

rubra, Mont. 
Turtonia, Hanley. 

minuta, O. Fabr. 
Montacuta, Turton. 

bidentata, Mont. 

ferruginosa, Munt. 

substriata, Mont. 
Lepton, Turton. 

Clarkia3, Clark. 



nitidum, Turton. 

squamosum, Mont. 

♦suloatulum, Jejf'r. 
Galeomma, Turton. 

Turtoni, Sow. 
Cyprina, Lamarck. 

lslandica, Linn. 
Circe, Schumacher. 

minima, Mont. 
Astarte, Sowerby. 

arctica, Gray. 

compressa, Mont. 

erebricostata, Forbes. 

elliptica, Brown. 

sulcata, Da Costa. 

triangularis, Mont. 
Isocardia, Lamarck. 

cor, Linn. 
Venus, Linnams. 

easina, Linn. 

fasciata, Don. 

ovata, Pennant. 

striatula, Don. 

verrucosa, Linn. 
Cytherea, Lamarck. 

chione, Linn. 
Artemis, Poli. 

exoleta, Linn. 

lincta, Pult. 
Lucinopsis, Forbes. 

undata, Perm. 
Tapes, Miihlfeldt. 

aurea, Gmelin. 

decussata, Linn. 

pullastra, Wood. 

virginea, Linn. 
Venerupis, Lamarck. 

irus, Linn. 
Petricola, Lamarck. 

lithophaga, Retzius. 
Mactra, Linnams. 

ellij>tica, Brown. 

helvacea, Chemnitz. 

solida, Linn. 

stultorum, Linn. 

subtruueata, Da Costa. 

truncata, Mont. 
Lutraria, Lamarck. 

elliptica, Linn. 

oblonga, Che mn. 
Tellina, Linnams. 

balaustina, Linn. 

crassa, Perm. 

donacina, Linn. 

fabula, Gronov. 

incarnata, Linn. 

proxima, Brown. 

pygmaja, Philippi. 

solidula, Pult. 

tenuis, Da Costa. 
Gastrana, Sch. (Diodonta, F. 

k h.). 

fragilis, Linn. 
Psaimnobia, Lamarck. 
costulata, Turt. 
Ferroensis. Che mil. 



tellinolla, Lam. 

vespertina, Chemn, 
Syndosmya, Recluz. 

alba, Wood. 

intermedia, Thompi, 

prismatica, Mont. 

tenuis, Mont. 
Scrobicularia, Schumacher, 

piperata, Gmelin. 
Ervilia, Turton. 

castanea, Mont. 
Donax, Linneeus. 

anatinus, Lam. 

politus, Poli. 
Solon, Linnams. 

ensis, Linn. 

marginatum, Pult. 

pellucidus, Perm. 

siliqua, Linn. 
Ceratisolen, Forbes. 

legumen, Linn. 
Solecurtus, Blainville. 

candidus, Renicri. 

coarctatus, Gmelin. 
Mya, Linneeus. 

arenaria, Linn. 

truncata, Linn. 
Corbula, Bruguiere, 

nucleus, Lam. 

ovata, Forbes. 

rosea, Brown. 
Sphenia, Turton. 

Binghami, Turton. 
Neaera, Gray. 

abbreviata, Forbes. 

costellata, Desk. 

cuspidata, Olivi. 
Poromya, Forbes (= Thetis, 
Sby.). 

granulata, Nyst. 
Panopa;a, Menarddela Groye. 

Norvegica, Speng. 
Saxicava, Belle cue.' 

arctica, Linn. 
*fragilis, Nyst. 

rugosa, Linn. 
CocModesma, Leach (=Peri- 
ploma, Sch.). 

prajtenue, Pult. 
Thracia, Leach. 

convexa, Wood. 

distorta, Mont. 

phaseolina, Lam. 

pubescens, Pult. 

villosiuscula, Macgill. 
Lyonsia, Turton. 

Norvegica, Chemn. 
Pandora, Bruguiere. 

obtusa, Leach. 

rostrata, Lam. 
Orastrochsena, Spengler. 

modiolina, Lam. 
Pholas, Linnams. 

Candida, Linn. 

crispata, Linn. 

dactylus, Linn. 



222 



REPORT — 1860. 



parva, Penn. 
striata, Linn. 
Pholadidea, Turton. 
lamellata, Turton. 
papyracea, Solander. 

Crania, Betzius. 

anomala, Mutter. 
Rhynchonella, Fischer. 

psittacea, Chemn. 

Aplidium, Savigny. 

ficus, Linn. 

fallax, Johnst. 

nutans, Johnst. 
Sidnyurn, Savigny. 

turbinatum, Savig. 
Polyclinum, Savigny. 

aurantium, M.-Edw. 
Amouroucium, M.-Edw. 

proliferum, M.-Edw. 

Nordmanni, M.-Edw. 

Argus, M.-Edw. 
Leptoclinum, M.-Edw. 

maculosum, M.-Edw. 

asperum, M.-Edw. 

aureum, M.-Edw. 

gelatinosum, M.-Edw. 

Listerianum, M.-Edw. 

pimctatum, Forbes. 
Distoma, Gaertner. 

rubruni, Savig. 

variolosurn, Gaertner. 
Botryllus, Gaertner. 

Schlosseri, Pallas. 

polycyclus, Savig. 

gemmeus, Savig. 

violaceus, M.-Edw. 

smaragdus, M.-Edw. 

■virescens, A. Sf H. 

biyittatus, M.-Edw. 



Stenorhynchus, Lamarck. 

phalangium, Pennant. 

tenuirostris, Leach. 
Achasus, Leach. 

Cranchii, Leach. 
Inachus, Fabr. 

Dorsettensis, Penn. 

dorhynchus, Leach. 

leptochirus, Leach. 
Pisa, Leach (Arctopsis, Lam). 

tetraodon, Leach. 

Gibbsii, Leach (lanata, Lam.) 
Hyas, Leach. 

araneus, Fabr. 

coarctatus, Leach. 
Maia, Lam. 

squinado, Herbst. 
Eurynome, Leach. 

aspera, Leach. 
Xantho, Leach. 

florida, Leach. 

rivulosa, Edw. 



Xylophaga, Turton. 

dorsalis, Turton. 
Teredo, Adanson. 

bipennata, Turton. 

malleolus, Turton. 

BRACHIOPODA. 

Terebratula, Bruguiere. 
caput serpentis, Linn. 
cranium, Mutter. 
capsula, Jeffreys. 

TUNICATA. 

rubens, A. Sf H. 

castaneus, A. Sf H. 
Botrylloides, M.-Edw. 

Leachii, Savig. 

ramulosa, A. Sf H. 

albicans, M.-Edw. 

radiata, A. Sf H. 

rotifera, M.-Edw. 

rubra, M.-Edw. 
Clavelina, Savigny. 

lepadiformis, 0. F. Mutter. 
Perophora, Wiegmann. 

Listeri, Wiegm. 
Syntethys, Forbes Sf Goodsir. 

Hebridicus, F. 8f G. 
Ascidia, Baster. 

intestinalis, Linn. 

canina, 0. F. Mull. 

venosa, O. F. Mull. 

mentida, 0. F. Mull. 

araebnoidea, E. Forbes. 

scabra, 0. F. Mull. 

virginea, 0. F. Mull. 

parallelogramma, 0. F. 
Mull. 

prunum, Mull. ? 

orbicularis, Mull. 

depressa, A. 8f H. 

aspersa, Mull. 

vitrea, Van Beneden. 

CRUSTACEA. 
BRACHnJEA. 

tuberculata, Couch. 
Cancer, Linn. 

pagurus, Linn. 
Pilumnus, Leach. 

birtellus, Leach. 
Pirimela, Leach. 

denticulata, Mont. 
Carcinus, Leach. 

mamas, Linn. 
Portumnus, Leach. 

rariegatus, Leach (latipes, 
Penn.). 
Portunus, Leach. 

puber, Linn. 

corrugatus, Leach. 

arcuatus, Leach. 

depurator, Leach. 

marmoreus, Leach. 

holsatus, Fabr. 

pusillus, Leach. 

longipes, Bisso. 

plicatus, Bisso. 



megotara, Hanley. 
navalis, Linn. 
Norvegica, Speng. 
palmulata, Lam. 



Argiope, Deslongehatnps. 
cistellula, Searles Wood. 
*decollata, Chemn. 



conchilega, O. F. Mull. 

echinata, Linn. 

sordida, A. 8f H. 

albida, A. 8f H. 

elliptica, A. Sf H. 

pellucida, A. Sf H. 
Molgula, E. Forbes. 

oculata, E. Forbes. 

arenosa, A. 8f H. 
Cynthia, Savigny. 

microcosmus, Savig. 

claudicans, Savig. 

tuberosa, Macgittivray. 

quadrangularis, E. Forbes. 

informis, E. Forbes. 

tessellata, E. Forbes. 

limaeina, E. Forbes. 

morns, E. Forbes. 

rustica, Linn. 

grossularia, Van Beneden. 

ampulla, Brug. 

mamillaris, Pallas. 

aggregata, Bathlce. 

coriacea, A. &f H. 
Pelonaia, Forbes &f Goodsir. 

corrugata, Forbes &c Hani. 

glabra, Forbes Sf Hani. 
Salpa, Chamisso. 

runcinata, Cham. 
Appendicularia, Chamisso, sp. 



carcinoides, Kin. 
Poly bius, Leach. 

Henslowii, Leach. 
Pinnotheres, Latr. 

pisum, Penn. 

veterum, Bosc. 
Gonoplax, Leach. 

angulata, Leach. 
Planes, Leach. 

Linnseana, Leach. 
Ebalia, Leach. 

Pennantii(tuberosa, Penn.). 

Bryerii, Leach (tumefacta, 
Mont.). 

Cranchii, Leach. 
Atelecyclus, Leach. 

heterodon, Leach (septem- 
dentatus, Mont.). 
Corystes, Leach. 

Cassivelaunus, Leach. 
Thia, Leach. 

polita, Leach. 



LIST OP THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 223 



Dromia, Edw. 

vulgaris, Edw. 
Lithodes, Latr. 

Maia, Leach. 
Pagurus, Fabr. 

Bernhardus, Linn. 

Prideauxii, Leach. 

Cuanensis, Thompson. 

Ulidianus, Thompson. 



Scyllarus, Fabr. 

arctus, Linn. 
Palinurus, Fabr. 

Hotnarus, Linn. 
Callianassa, Leach. 

subterranea, Leach. 
Gebia, Leach. 

stellata, Mont. 

deltura, Leach. 
Axius, Leach. 

stirhynchus, Leach. 
Calocaris, Bell. 

Macandrese, Bell. 
Astacus, Fabr. 

gammarus (Z.) (marinus, 
Fabr. ; vulgaris, Edw.). 
Nephrops, Leach. 

Norvegicus, Linn. 
Crangon, Fabr. 

vulgaris, Fabr. 

fasciatus, Bisso. 

spinosus, Leach. 

sculptus, Bell. 



Mysis, Latr. 

chamseleon, V. Thompson. 

vulgaris, V. Thompson. 

GrifRthsice, Bell. 

Lamornse, Couch. 

productus, Gosse. 

Oberon, Couch. 
Thysanopoda, Edw. 

Couchii, Bell. 
Macromysis, Whife(Themisto, 
Goodsir, Bell). 

longispinosus, Goodsir. 

brevispinosus, Goodsir. 
Cynthilia, White (Cynthia, 
V. Thomps., Bell). 



ANOMOUEA. 

Hyndmanni, Thompson. 
la; vis, Thompson. 
Forbesii, Bell. 
Thoinpsoni, Bell. 
fasciatus, Bell. 
Dillwynii, Spence Bate. 
Porcellana, Lamarck. 
platyoheles, Penn. 
longicornis, Penn. 

MACEOUEA. 

trispinosus, Hailstone. 

bispinosus, Westw., Kina- 
han. 

Allmarmi, Kin. 

Pattersonii, Kin. 
Alpheus, Fabr. 

ruber, Edw. 

affinis, Guise. 
Autonoinea, Bisso. 

Olivii, Bisso. 
Nika, Risso. 

edulis, Bisso. 

Couchii, Bell. 
Athanas, Leach. 

nitescens, Mont., Leach. 
Hippolyte, Leach. 

spinus, Sowerby. 

varians, Leach. 

Cranchii, Leach. 

Thompsoni, Bell. 

Prideauxiana, Leach. 

Gordoni, Spence Bate. 

fascigera, Gosse. 

STOMAPODA. 

Flemingii, Goodsir. 
Cuma, Edwards. 

seorpioides, Mont. 

unguiculata, Spence Bate. 
Vaunthomsonia, Spence Bate. 

Edwardsii, Kroyer. 

eristata, Spence Bate. 
Diastylis, Say (Alauna, Good- 
sir, Bell). 

Eathkii, Kr. (rostrata, 
Goodsir, Bell). 
Eudora, Spence Bate. 

truncatula, Spence Bate. 



Galathea, Fabr. 

squamifera, Leach. 

dispersa, Spence Bate. 

strigosa, Fabr. 

nexa, Emb. 

Andrewsii, Kinahan. 
Munida, Leach. 

Banifica,P«i«. (Eondeletii, 
Bell). 



Grayana, Thompson. 

Mitchelli. Thompson. 

Whitei, Thompson. 

Yarrellii, Thmnpson. 

Barleei, Spence Bate. 

pandaliforniis, Bell. 

pusiola, Kroyer. 
Pandalus, Leach. 

Jeffreysii, Spence Bate, 
Kinahan. 

annulicornis, Leach. 

leptorhynchus, Kin. 
Pakemon, Fabr. 

serratus, Penn. 

squilla, Fabr. 

Leachii, Bell. 

varians, Leach. 
Pasiphaea, Savigny. 

sivado, Bisso. 
Penseus, Fabr. 

carainote, Risso. 



Iphithoe, Spence Bate (Halia, 
Spence Bate, White). 

trispinosa, Goodsir. 
Bodotria, Goodsir. 

arenosa, Goodsir. 
Cyrianassa, Spence Bate (Ve- 
nilia, SpenceBate, White). 

gracilis, SpenceBate. 

longicornis, Spence Bate. 
Squilla, Fabr. 

Desmarestii, Risso. 

mantis, Rondelet. 
Phyllosoma, Leach. 

Cranchii, Leach. 



Talitrus, Latr. 

locusta, Auct. 
Orchestia, Leach. 
littorea, Mont. 
Deshayesii, Savig. 
Mediterranea, Costa (hevis, 
S. Bate ; littorea, var., 
White). 
Allorchestes, Dana. 

Nilssonii, Kroyer (Danai, 

Spence Bate). 
imbricatus, Spence Bate. 



AMPHIPODA NOEMALIA. 

Nicea, Nicolet (Galanthis, 
Spence Bate). 
Lubbockiana, Spence Bate. 
Montagua, Spence Bate. 
monoculoides, Montagu 
(Typhis monoculoides, 
White, Gosse). 
marina, Spence Bate. 
Alderii, Spence Bate. 
pollexiana, Sp>ence Bate. 
Danaia, Spence Bate. 
dubia, Spence Bate. 



Lysianassa, M.-Edw. 
Costas, M.-Edw. 
Audouiniana, Spence Bate. 
longicornis, Lucas (Chau- 

sica, Sp.B., notM.-E.). 
Atlantica, Edw. (marina, 
Spence Bate). 
Callisoma, Hope (Scopelo- 
cheirus, Spence Bate). 
crenata, Spence Bate. 
Anonyx, Kroyer. 
Edwardsii, Kroyer. 



224 



REPORT — 1860. 



Edwardsii, Krdyer. 

minutus, Krdyer. 

Holbolli, Krdyer. 

ampulla, Krdyer. 

denticulatus, Spcitce Bate. 

longipes, Spence Bate. 

obesus, Spence Bate. 

longicornis, Spence Bate. 
Opis, Kroyer. 

typica, Krdyer. 
Ampelisca, Krdyer (Tetro- 
matus, Spence Bate). 

Gaimardii, Kroyer (typica, 
Spence Bate). 

Belliana, Spence Bate. 
We3twoodilla (Westwoodia, 
Spence Bate). 

crecula, Spence Bate. 

hyalina, Spence Bate. 
Monoculodes, Stimpson. 

carinatus, Spence Bate. 
Eroyera, Spence Bate. 

arenaria, Spence Bate. 
Phoxus, Kroyer. 

simplex, Sp. Bate (Eroyeri, 
Spence Bate, not Stim/p- 
son). 

plumosus, Holbbll. 

Holbolli, Krdy. 
Sulcator, Spence Bate. 

areuarius, Spence Bate. 
Urothoe, Dana. 

marinus, Spence Bate (Sul- 
cator marimis). 

Bairdii, Spence Bate. 

medius, Spence Bate. 

elegans, Spence Bate. 
Grayia, Spence Bate. 

imbricata, Spence Bate. 
Liljeborgia, Spence Bate. 

pallida, Spence Bate. 
Phajdra, Spence Bate. 

antiqua, Spence Bate. 

Einahani, Spence Bate. 
Issea, M.-Edwards. 

Montagui, M.-Edw. 
Iphimedia, Bathke. 



obesa, Bathke. 

Eblamr, Spence Bate. 
Otus, Spence Bate. 

carinatus, Spence Bate. 
Acanthonotus, Owen. 

testudo, Montagu. 
Dexamine, Leach. 

Lougbrinii, Spence Bate. 

spinosa, Mont. 
Eusirus, Kroyer. 

Edwardi, Spence Bate. 

Helvetia, Spence Bate. 
Atylus, Leach. 

bispinosus, Spence Bate. 

Huxleyanus, Spence Bate. 

Gordonianus, Spence Bate. 
Pherusa, Leach. 

cirrus, Spence Bate. 

fucicola, Edw. 
Calliope, Leach. 

Leacbii, Spence Bate. 
Lembos, Spence Bate. 

Cambriensis, Sptcuce Bate. 

versiculatus, Spence Bate. 

Websterii, Spence Bate. 

Danmoniensis, Spence Bate. 
Aora, Kroy. (=Lalaria, JS'i- 
colet). 

gracilis, Spence Bate. 
Eurystheus, Spence Bate. 

tridentatus, Spence Bate. 

tubei-culosus, Spence Bate. 
Gammarella, Sjicnce Bate. 

brevicaudata, M.-Edw. ( = 
G. orchestiformis, Spence 
Bate). 
Crangonyx, Spence Bate. 

subterranea, Spence Bate. 
Amatliia, Bathke. 

Sabinii, Leach. 
Gammarus. Fabr. 

locusta, Fahr. 

fluviatilis, Bcesel. 

gracilis, Bathke. 

camptolops, Leach. 

marinus, Leach. 

laminatus, Johnston. 

AMPHIPODA HYPERINA. 



longimanus, Leach. 

palmatus, Mont, (infequi- 
manus, Sjwice Bate). 

grossimanus, Mont. 

maculatus, Johnston. 
Bathyporeia, Lindstrdm 

"(Thersites, Spence Bate). 

pilosa, Lindstrdm. 

pelagica, Spence Bate. 

Robertsoni, Spence Bate. 
Leucothoe, Leach, not Kroyer. 

articulosa, Mont. 

furina, Sacig. (procera, Sp. 
Bate). 
Pleonexes, Spence Bate. 

gammaroides, Spence Bate. 
Auiphithoe, Leach. 

rubricata, Mont. 

littorina, Spence Bate. 

? obtusata, Leach. 

? dubia, Johnston. 
Sunainpliithoe, Spence Bate. 

hamulus, Spence Bate. 

conformata, Spence Bate. 
Podocerus, Leach. 

falcatus, Mont. 

rariegatus, Leach. 

pulchellus, Leach. 
Jassa '?, Leach. 

pelagica, Leach. 
Sipboncecetus, Krdyer. 

Wbitei, Gosse. 
Erichthonius, M.-Edw. 

difformis, M.-Edw. 
Cyrtopbium, Dana. 

Darwinii, Spoice Bate. 
Coropbium, Latreille. 

longicome, Fabr. 
Cbelura, Philippi. 

terebrans, Phil. 
Hyperia, Latreille. 

Galba, Mont. (Latreillii, 
Edw. = Metoecbus medu- 
sarum, Latr.). 

oblivia, Kroy. 



Lsestrigonus, Guerin. 
Fabricii, M.-Edw. 

AMPHIPODA 

Dulichia, Kroyer. 

porrecta, Spence Bate. 

falcata, Spence Bale. 
Proto, Leach. 

pedata. Leach. 

Goodsirii, Spence Bate. 



Phronima, Latr. 
sedentaria, Forsk. 



Typhis, Bisso. 
nolens, Johnston. 






ABERRANTIA. (Eemodipoda of Latreille.) 

Protella, Dana. acuminifera, M.-Edw. 

longispina, Kroyer. Cyamus. Latreille. 

Caprella, Lamarck. ceti, Linn. 

linearis, Latr. ovalis, Boussel. 

Pennautii, Leach. gracilis, Boussel. 

tuberculosa, Goodsir. Tliompsoui, Gosse. 

lobata, Miiller. 



ISOPODA ABEERAXTIA. (Axisopoda of Dana.) 



Arctuvus, Lair. (Astaeilla, 
Johnston; Leachia, John- 
ston.) 
longicornis, Sow. 



intermedins, Goodsir. 
gracilis, Goodsir. 
Authura, Leach. 
gracilis, Mont. 



cylindricus, Mont. 
Tanais, M.-Edw. 
Didongii. And. 
hirticaudatus, Spence 



Bate. 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 



225 



Apseudes, Leach. 

talpa, Mont. 
Anceus, Risso. 

maxillaris, Mont. 

rapax, M.-Edw. 
Praniza, Leach. 

ceruleata, Mont. 



Munna, Krbyer. 

Kroyeri, Goods/ r. 

Whiteanaj Spence Bate. 
Jrera, Leach. 

albifrons, Leach. 
Oniscoda, Latrcille. 

maculosa, Leach. 

Deshayesii, Litcas. 
Limnoria, Leach. 

lignorum, Rathke (tere- 
brans, Leach). 
Idotea, Fabr. 

pelagica, Leach. 

tricuspidata, Desm. 

emarginata, Fabr. 

linearis, Latr. 



fusca?, Johnston. 

Edwardii, Spence Bate. 
Liriope, Krijycr. 

balani, Spence Bate. 
lone, Mont. 

thoracica, Mont. 

ISOPODA (jSTORMALIA). 

acuminata, Leach. 

appendiculata, Risso. 
Ligia, Fabr. 

oceanica, Linn. 
Sphseroma, Latr. 

serratum, Fabr. 

rugicauda, Leach. 

Hookeri, Leach. 
Cymodocea, Leach. 

truncata, Leach. 

emarginata, Leach. 

Montagui, Leach. 

rubra, Leach. 

viridis, Leach. 
Neraw, Leach. 

bidentata, Adams. 



Bopyrus, Latr. 

squillarum, Latr. 

hippo'.ytes, Kroycr. 
Phrvxus, Rathke. 

liippolytes, Rathke. 

paguri, Rathke. 



Campecopea, Leach. 

hirsuta, Mont. 

Crancliii, Leach. 
Cirolana, Leach. 

Crancliii, Leach. 
Eurydice, Leach. 

pulchra, Leach. 
iEga, Leach. 

bicarinata, Leach. 

tridens, Leach. 
Conilera, Leach. 

cylindracea, Mont. 
Eocinela, Leach. 

Danmoniensis, Leach. 

monophthalrna, Johnston. 



Order I. PHYLLOPODA. 

Nebalia, Leach. 

bipes, 0. Fabr. 
Artemia, Leach. 

salina, Linn. 

Order II. CLADOCERA. 

Evadne, Loven. 
Nordmanui, Loven. 

Order III. OSTEACODA. 
Fam. I. Cytheridae. 

Cythere, Midler. 
flavida, Midi. 
reniformis, Baird. 
albo-maculata, Baird. 
alba, Baird. 
variabilis, Baird. 
aurantia, Baird. 
nigrescens, Baird. 
Minna, Baird. 
angustata, Miinster. 
acuta, Baird. 
pellucida, Baird. 
impressa, Baird. 



ENTOMOSTRACA. 

quadridentata, Baird. 
convexa, Baird. 
Cythereis, Rupert Jones. 
Whitei, Baird. 
Jonesii, Baird. 
antiquata, Baird. 

Fam. II. Cypridinidae. 

Cypridina, M.-Edw. 
Macandrei, Baird. 
Brenda, Baird. 
Maria', Baird. 
interpuncta, Baird. 

Order IV. COPEPODA. 
Fam. I. Cyclopidae. 

Canthocamptus, Westivood. 

Strbmii, Baird. 

furcatus, Baird. 

minuticornis, Mull. 
Arpacticus, M.-Edw. 

chelifer, Mull. 

nobilis, Baird. 
Alteutha, Baird. 

depressa, Baird. 



Fam. II. Diaptomidse. 

Temora, Baird. 

Finmarchica, Gunner. 
Calanus. 

eucliaita, Lidiboek. 

Anglicus, Lubbock. 
Anomalocera, Templeton. 

Patersonii, Templeton. 

Fam. III. Cetochilidse. 

Cetochilus, Vauzeme. 

septentrionalis, Goodsir. 
Pontella, Dana. 

Wollastoni, Lubbock. 
Pontellina, Dana. 

brevicornis, Lubbock. 
Peltidium, Philippi. 

purpureum ?, Phil. 
Corycreus, Dana. 

Anglicus, Lubbock. 

Fam. IV. MonstrillidaB. 

Monstrilla, Dana. 
Anglica, Lubbock. 



Species. 






Order V. 
SIPHONOSTOMA. 



On what ani- 
mals found. 




Fam. I. Caligidae. 

Caligus, Miiller. 

diaphanus, Nordm 'various fishes. 

rapax. M.-Edw various fishes. 

1860. 



Mulleri, Leach 

centrodonti, Baird 

minutus, Otto 

curtus, Midi 

Lepeophtheirus, Nordmann. 

Stromii, Baird 

pectoralis, Mii 11. 



On what ani- 
mals found. 



various fishes, 
sea bream, 
holibut. 
ray. 

on salmon, 
various fishes. 

Q 



226 



REPORT — 1860. 



Species. 


On what ani- 
mals found. 


Species. 


On what ani- 
mals found. 


Nordmarmi, M.-Edw 

hippoelossi, Krby 


sun-fish, 
holibut. 
brill, 
turbot. 

on mackerel. 

on skate. 

on shark, 
on shark. 

on shark, 
on sun-fish. 
on sun-fish. 

on shark. 

on gills of lobster 


Pam. VI. 
Chondracanthidae. 

Chondracaiithus,'.Z)ff la Boche. 
Zei Be la Boche 




obscurus, Baird 




Thompsoni, Baird 


gills of dory. 

gills of sole, 
gills of gurnard, 
pouches of an- 
gler. 
shark. 


Chalimus, Bnrmcister. 


Lernentoma. Be BlainviUe. 


Trebius, Kroyer. 


asellina, L 


caudatus, Krby 




Fam. II. Pandaridae. 

Dinemoura, Latreille. 


Lemeopoda, Be BlainviUe. 
eloneata. Grant 




shark. 






salmon. 


Fam. III. Cecropidae. 

Pandarus, Leach. 

bicolor, Leach 


Fam. VII. Anchorellidae. 

Anchorella, Cuvier. 
uncinata, Mull. 


on the cod. 


Cecrops, Leach. 

Latreillei, Leach 


rueosa. Kriiy 


on the cod. 


Pam. VIII. Lerneidae. 
Lernea, L. 

branchialis, L 




Lsemargus, Kroyer. 

muricatus, Krby 




Fam. IV. Anthosomidae. 

Anthosoma, Leach. 

Smithii, Leach 


gills of cod. 
on the sprat. 


Lerneonema, M.-Edwards. 

spratta, Shy 

Bairdii, Salter 

encrasicoli, Turt 


Fam. V. Ergasilidas. 


herring, 
sprat. 


Nicothoe, M.-Edwards. 
astaci, M.-Edw 









Fam. I. Balanidae. 

Balanus (Listei-). 

tintinnabulum, Linn. 

spongicola, Brown. 

perforates, Bruguiire. 

Amphitrite, Barwin. 

eburneus, Aug. Goidd. 

improvisus, Barwin. 

porcatus, Ba Costa. 

crenatus, Bruguiire. 

balanoides, Linn. 

Hameri, Ascanius. 
Acasta, Leach. 

spongites, Poll. 



Order PODOSOMATA. 

Fam. I. Pycnogonidae. 

Pycnogonum, Fahricius. 

littorale, Strom. 
Phoxichilus, Latreille. 

spinosus, Mont. 



CIKRIPEDIA. 

Pyrgoma, Leach. 

Anglicum, G. B. Shy. 

Xenobalanus, Sfeenstrxp. 

globicipitis, Stccnslrup. 
Chtharnalus, Banzani. 

stellatus, Poli. 
Verruca, Schumacher. 

Stroniia, 0. Miiller. 
Alcippe, Hancock. 

lampas, Hancock. 

Pam. II. Lepadidae. 

Lepas, Linn. 
anatifcra, Linn. 
Hillii, Leach. 

AKACHNIDA. 
Fam. II. Nymphonidae. 

Phoxichilidium. M.-Edwards. 

coccineum, Johnst. 

globosum. 

olivaeeum. 
Pallene, Johnston. 

brevii-ostris, Johnst. 



anserifera, Linn. 

pectinata, Spengler. 

i'ascicu\aris,E/lis tfSolander. 
Conchoderma, Offers. 

aurita, Linn. 

virgata, Spengler. 
Alepas, Sander-Bang. 

parasita, Sander-Bang. 
Anelasma, Barwin. 

squalicola, Loven. 
Scalpellum, Leach. 

vulgare, Leach. 
Pollicipes, Leach. 

cornucopia, Leach. 



Nymphon, Fahricius. 
gracile, Leach. 
grossipes, 0. Fair. 
femoratum, Leach. 
pictum. 
giganteum, Johnst. 



ANNELIDA. 

*** The following list of British Marine Worms is copied, by farour of Dr. J. E. Gray, 
from an unpublished Catalogue by the late Dr. Johnston. 

Order I. TUEBELLAEIA. subauriculata. Johnston. ellipsis, Balyett. 

tremellaris, Miiller. Eurylepta, Ehrrnberg. 

Fam. I. Planoceridae. flexilis, Bali/dl. cornuta, Midler. 

Leptoplana, Ehrenberg. atomata, Mutter. Dalyellii, Johnston. 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 



227 



sanguinolenta, Quatrefages. 
vittata, Montagu. 
Planocera, Blainville. 
folium, G-rube. 

Fain. II. Planariadae. 

Planaria. 3 fuller. 
uItsd, Oersted. 
affinis, Oersted. 
alba, Dalyell. 
variegata, Dalyell. 
? gracilis, Dalyell. 
? falcata, Dalyell. 

Fam. III. Dalyellidae. 

Typhloplana, Ehrenberg. 

flustroe, Dalyell. 
Conroluta, Oersted. 

paradoxa, Oersted. 

Doubtful species of this fam. 
Planoides fusca, Dalyell. 
Planaria hirudo, Johnston. 

Astemnia, Oersted. 

rufifrons, Johnston. 

filiformis, Johnston. 
Cephalotrix, Oersted. 

lineatus, Dalyell. 

flustra;, Dalyell. 
Tetrastemrna, Ehrenberg. 

varicolor, Oersted. 

variegatum, Dalyell. 

? alga?, Dalyell. 
Borlasia, Johnston. 

olivacea, Johnston. 

octoculata, Johnston. 

purpurea, Johnston. 

Gessereusis, Midler. 

striata, Bathlce. 
Onimatoplea, Ehrenberg. 

gracilis, Johnston. 

rosea, Midler. 

alba, Thompson. 

melanoccpbala, Johnston. 

pulchra, Johnston. 
Stylus, Johnston. 

viridis, Dalyell. 

purpureas,, Dalyell. 

fragilis, Dalyell. 

fasciatus, Dalyell. 
Lineus. T. W. Simmons. 

longissimus, Simmons. 

gracilis, Goodsir. 

lineatus, Johnston. 

murenoides. D. Chiaje. 

fasciatus, Johnston, 

viridis, Dalyell. 

albus, Dalyell. 
Meckelia, Lcnckart. 

annulata, Montagu. 

tenia, Dalyell. 
Serpentaria, H. D. S. Goodsir. 

fragilis, Goodsir. 

fusca, Dalyell. 



Order II. 
BDELLOMORPHA. 

Fam. I. 
Malacobdellidae. 

Malacobdella, Blainville. 
grossa, Mutter. 
Valenciennai, Blanchard. 
anceps, Dalyell. 

Order III. BDELLIDEA. 
Fam. I. Branchelliadae. 

Branchellion, Savigny. 
torpedinis, Savigny. 

Fam. II. Piscicolidae. 

Pontobdella, Leach. 
muricata, Linn. 
verrucata, Grube. 
areolata, Leach. 
la; vis, Blainville. 
littoralis, Johnston. 
campanulata, Dalyell. 

Order IV. SCOLICES. 
Fam. I. Lumbricidae. 

Saenuris, Hoffmeister. 

lineata, Midler. 
Clitellio, Savigny. 

arenarius, Midler. 
Yalla, Johnston. 

ciliata, Midler. 

Order V. GYMNOCOPA. 

Fam. I. Tomopteridae. 

Tomopteris, Esehscholtz. 
oniseiformis, Grube. 

Order VI. CH^TOPODA. 
Fam. I. Aphroditidae. 

Aphrodita, Leach. 

aculeata, Linn. 

borealis, Johnston. 

hystrix, Savigny. 
Lepidonotus, Leach. 

squainatus, Linn. 

clava, Montagu. 

impar, Johnston. 

pharebratus. Johnston. 

eirratus, Fair. 

semisculptus, Leach. 

pellucidus, Dyster. 

imbricatus, Linn. 

Species not defined. "* 
Aplirodita squamata, Dal 
yell. 
lepidota, Pallas. 
minuta, Pennant. 
annulata, Pennant. 
velox, Dalyell, 
Lepidonotus floccosus ?, 

Dalyell. 
Polynoe semisquamosa, 
Williams. 



Polynoe, Oersted. 

scolopendrina, Savigny. 
Pholoe, Johnston. 

inornata, Johnston. 

eximia, Dyster. 
Sigalion, And. $■ M.-Edwards. 

boa, Johnston. 

Fam. II. 

Amphinomenidae. 
Euphrosyne, Savigny. 

foliosa, Aud. SfM.-Edwarda. 
borealis, Oersted. 

Fam. III. Euniceidae. 
Eunice, And. § M.-Edwards. 

Norvegica, Linn. 

annulicornis, Brit. Mas. 

antennata, Savigny. 

Harassii, Aud. cf M.-Edw. 

sanguinea, Montagu. 

margaritacea, Williams. 
Northia, Johnston. 

tubicola, Miiller. 

conchylega, Sars. 
Lycidice, Savigny. 

Ninetta, Aud. # M.-Edw. 

rufa, Gosse. 
Lumbrineris, Blainville. 

tricolor, Leach. 

Fam. IV. Nereidae. 

Nereis, Cuvier. 

brevimana, Johnston. 

pelagica, Linn. 

diversicolor, Midler. 

cwrulea, Linn. 

fimbriata, Mutter. 

imbecillis, Grube. 

Dumerilii, Aud. $ M.-Edw. 

pulsatoria, Montagu. 
Nereilepas, Oersted. 

fucata, Savigny. 
BTeteronereis, Oersted. 

lobulata, Savigny. 

renalis, Johnston. 

longissima, Johnston. 

margaritacea, Johnston. 

Fam. V. Nephthyidae. 

Nephtbys, Cuvier. 
caeca, Fabr. 
longisetosa, Oersted. 
Hombergii, Cuv. ? ? 

Fam. VI. Phyllodoceidae. 
Phyllodoce, Cuvier. 

lamelligera, Turton. 

bilineata, Johnston. 

maculata, Linn. 

viridis, Linn. 

ellipsis, Dalyell. 

Griffithsii, Johnston. 

cordifolia, Dyster. 
Psamatbe, Johnston. 

punctata, Mutter. 
Q2 



228 



REPORT — 1860. 



Fam. VII. Glyceridae. 
Glycera, Savigny. 

mitis, Johnston. 

dubia, Blaini'ille. 

capitata, Oersted. 

nigripes, Johnston. 
Goniada. Aud. 4' M.-Edwards. 

maculata, Oersted. 

Fam. VIII. Syllidae. 

Syllis, Savigny. 

armillaris, Muller. 

cornuta, H. Eathke. 

prolit'era, Midler. 

? ruonoceros, Dalyell. 
Gattiola, Johnston. 

spectabilis, Johnston. 
Myrianida, M.-Edw. 

pinnigera, Montagu. 
Ioida, Johnston. 

macrophtbalma, Johnston. 

'Earn. IX. Amytideidae. 

Amytidea, Grnbe. 

maculosa (Nereis), Montagu 

Fam. X. Ariciadae. 

Nerine, Johnston. 
vulgaris, Johiston. 
coniocepbala, Johnston. 

Doubtful species. 
Nerine contorta (Nereis), 

Dalyell. 
Spio, Turton. 

filicornis, Muller. 

seticornis, Turton. 

crenatieornis, Montagu. 
Leucodore, Johnston. 

ciliatus, Johnston. 
Ephesia, Eathke. 

gracilis, Eathke. 
Spbtcrodorum, Oersted. 

peripatus, Johnst. 
Cirratidus, Lamarck. 

tentaculatus, Mont. 

borealis, Lanik. 
Dodecaceria, Oersted. 

concbarum, Oersted. 

Fam. XI. Opheliadas. 

Ophelia, Savigny. 

acuminata, Oersted. 
Amrnotrypane, Eathke. 

limacina, Eathke. 
Travisia, Johnston. 

Forbesii, Johnst. 
Eumenia, Oersted. 

crassa, Oersted. 

Fam. XII. 
Siphonostomidae. 

Siphonostoma, Cuvier. 

uncinate, And. 4' M.-Edw. 
Trophonia, Cuvier. 

plumosa, Muller. 



Fam. XIII. Telethusidae. 

Arenicola, Savigny. 
piscatorum, Lamk. 
branchialis.^rf. fy M.-Edw. 
ecaudata, Johnst. 

Fam. XIV. Maldaniadae. 
Clymene, Savigny. 
borealis, Dalyell. 

Fam. XV. Terebellidae. 

Terebella, Montagu. 

conchilega, Pallas. 

littoralis. Dalyell. 

eirrata, Mont. 

nebulosa, Mont. 

gigantea, Mont. 

constrictor, Mont. 

venustula, Mont. 

tuberculata, Dalyell. 

textrix, Dalyell. 

maculata, Dalyell. 
Venusia, Johnston. 

punctata, Johnst. 
Terebellides, Sars. 

Strcemii, Sars. 
Pectinaria, Lamarck. 

Belgica, Pal/as. 

granulate, Linn. 

Fam. XVI. Sabellariadae. 

Sabellaria, Lamarck. 
Anglica, Ellis. 
crassissima, Lamk. 
lumbricalis, Mont. 

Fam. XVII. Serpulidae. 

Arippasa. Johnston. 

infundibulum, Mont. 
Sabella, Savigny. 

paTonina, Savigny. 

penicillus, Linn. 

vesiculosa. Mont. 

bombyx, Dalyell. 

Savignii, Johnst. 

volutacornis, Mont. 
Doubtful species. 
Sabella unispira, Sav. 

rosea (Ampliitrite)? Sow, 

luna (Ampliitrite), Dal. 

curta (Ampliitrite), Mnt, 

Protula, Eisso. 

protensa, Philippi. 

Dysteri, Huxley. 
Serpula. Linnaus. 

vermicularis, Ellis. 

intricata, Linn. 

reversa, Mont. 

Berkeleyi, Johnst. 

conica, Flem. 

arniata, Flem. 

Dysteri, Johnst. 
Ditrupa, Berkeley. 

subulata, Deshayes. 



Filograna, Berkeley. 

implexa, Berk. 
Otlionia, Johnston. 

Fabricii, Johnst. 

Fam. XVIII. 
Campontiadae . 

Campontia, Johnston. 
eruciformis, Johnst. 

Fam. XIX. ? Maeadae. 

Mica, Johnston. 
mirabilis, Johnst. 

Fam. XX. ? Sipunculidae. 

Syrinx, Bohadsch. 

nudus, Linn. 

papillosus, Thomps. 

Harveii, Forbes. 
Sipuncidus, Linnceus. 

Bernhardus, Forbes. 
Macrorhyncbopterus, Eondel. 

Johnstoni, Forbes. 

saccatus, Flem. 

tenuicinctus, M'Coy. 

Forbesii, M'Coy. 

granulosus, M'Coy. 

Pallasii, Forbes. 

Fam. XXI. Priapulidae. 

Priapulus, Lamarck. 
caudatua, Flem. 

Fam. XXII. 
Thalassemidae. 

Tbalassema, Cuvier. 

Neptuni, Gaertner. 
Echiurus, Cuvier. 

oxyurus, Pall. 

Species inquirenda. 
Nereis, Cuvier. 

iricolor, Mont. 

margarita, Mont. 

lineata, Mont. 

maculosa, Mont. 

rufa, Penn. 

mollis, Linn. 

octenteculata, Mont. 

punctata, Encycl. Meth. 

noctiluca, Linn. 

pinnigera, Mont. 
Aphrodita, Leach. 

annulate, Penn. 

minuta, Penn. 
Spio, Turton. 

seticornis, Turt. 

crenatieornis, Mont. 

calcarea, Templeton. 
Brancbiarius, Mont. 

quadrangularis, Mont. 
Diplotis, Mont. 

byalina, Mont. 
Derris, Ada?ns. 

sanguiuea, Adams. 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 229 



ENTOZOA. 

* # * From Dr. Baird's British Museum Catalogue ; and Dr. Bellingham's List of Irish 
Entozoa, in the ' Annals of Natural History,' 1844. 



Species. 



Order NEMATOIDEA. 

Fam. Filariadse. 

Filaria, Midler. 

? marina, Linn 

inflexo-caudata, Siebold . 



sp. 



Trichosoma, Eudolphi. 

gracilis, Bellingh 

Spiroptera, Eudolphi. 

S P 



Fam. Ascaridae. 
Ascaris, Limueus. 

osculata, Bud 

aucta, Bud 

rigida, Bud 

capsularia, Bud 

collaris, Bud 

clavata, Bud. 

constricta, Bud 

rotundata. Bud 

acus, Block 

angulata, Bud 

tenuissima, Zcder 

succisa, Bud 



In what ani- 
mals found. 



Fam. Sclerostomidae. 

Cucullanus, Midler. 

minutus, Bud 

heterochrous, Bud 

foveolatus, Lain 

Stenurus, Dujardin. 

inflexus, Bud. (part.) .... 
Prosthecosacter, Diesing. 

inflexus, Bud 

convolutus, Kuhn 



Order TREMATODA. 

Fam. Onchobothriadae. 

Octobothrium, LeucJcart. 
lanceolatum, Leuck 



shad and cod. 

porpoise. 

red gurnard and 

mullet, 
hake. 

skate. 



seal. [ny, 

viviparous blen- 
lophius. 
cod, &e. 
flounder, &c. 
cod, &c. 

sea-scorpion, &c 
skate. 
herring, 
lophius. 
whiting, 
lump-fish. 



flounder, 
flounder, 
plaice and dab. 

porpoise. 

porpoise, 
porpoise. 



shad. 



Fam. Capsalidae. 
Capsala, Bosc. 

coccinea, C'uv , 

elongata, Nitzsch 

Fam. Distomidae. 

Monostoma, Zeder. 

filicolle, Bud 

trigonocephalum, Bud. 
Distoma, Eetzius. 

appendiculatum, Bud. 

hispidum, Viborg ]sturgeon. 

megastomum, Bud .'....'smooth shark. 

microcephalum, Baird . . . (spinous shark. 



sun-fish, 
sturgeon. 



sea bream, 
turtle. 

shad, &c. 




tumidulum, Bud.... 

fulvum, Bud 

varicum 

gibbosum ?, Bud 

rufo-riride, Bud 

reflexum ? 

excisum, Bud 

scabrum, Zcder ... 
contortum, Bud. ... 
nigro-flavum, Bud. 
Hirudinella, Garsin. 
clavata, Mcnzics ... 



Order 
ACANTHOCEPHALA. 

Fam. Echinorhynchidae 

Echinorhynchus, Midler. 

proteus, Wcstrumb 

acus, Bud. 

gibbosus, Bud 

strumosus, Bud 



pipe-fish. 

skate. 

salmon. 

haddock. 

conger-eel. 

cyclopterus. 

mackerel. 

whiting. 

sun-fish. 

sun-fish, 

Bonito. 



flounder, 
cod, &c. 
herring, 
seal. 



Order CESTOIDEA. 
Fam. Rhynchobothridae 

Bhynchobothrium, Blainville. 

corollatnm, Ahildg 

Tetrarhynchus, Budolph i. 

megacephalus, Bud 

solidus, Brum 

grossus. Bud 

rugosus, Baird 

Tetrabothriorhynchus, Dies. 

barbatus, Linn 



Fam. Taeniadae. 

Bothriocephalus, Budolphi. 

fragilis, Bud 

proboscideus, Batsch. ... 

jrtunctatus, Bud 

tumidu'us, Bud 

microccphalus, Bud. ... 

coronatus, Bud 

corollalus, Bud , 

paleaeeus, Bud 

Fam. Scolecidae. 

Scolex, Midler. 

polymorphus, Bud 

Order CYSTICA. 
Fam. Cysticidae. 

Anthocephalus, Eudolphi. 

elongatus, Bicd 

granulosus?, Bud. 

paradoxus, Drum 



In what ani- 
mals found. 



smooth shark. 

spotted dog-fish. • 

salmon. 

salmon. 



lemon sole. 



shad. 

salmon, &c. 
turbot, &c. 
ray. 

sun-fish, 
skate, 
dog-fish, 
dog-fish. 



turbot, &c. 



sun-fish, 
whiting, &c 
turbot. 



230 



REPORT — 1860. 



Class ECHWODERMATA. 



Order CRINOIDEA. 

Comatula, Lamarck. 
rosacea, Link. 
Celtica, Barrett. 
JSarsii, Diiben tf Koren, 

Order OPHIUROIDEA. 

Fam. Ophiuridae. 

Ophiura, Lamarck. 

texturata, Lamk. 

albida, Forbes. 
Ophiocoma, Agassiz. 

neglecta, Johnst. 

punctata, Forbes. 

filiformis, Miiller. 

securigera, D. 8f K. 

bellis, Link. 

brachiata, Mont. 

Ballii, Thomps. 

Goodsiri, Forbes. 

granulata, Link. 

rosula, Link. 

minuta, Forbes. 

Subfam. Euryalidae. 
Astrophyton, Link. 

scutatuin, LAnk. 
*Asteronyx, Midi. 8f Troschel. 

Loveni, M. &[ T. 

Order ASTEROIDEA. 

Pam. Asteriadae. 

Uraster, Agassiz. 

glacialis, Linn. 

rubens, Linn. 

violacea, Miiller. 

hispida, Penn. 

rosea, Miiller. 
Echinaster, Miiller §• Troschel. 

oculatus, Penn. 
Solaster, Forbes. 

endeca, Linn. 

papposa, Linn. 



Palinipes, Link. 

membranaceus, Betz. 
Asterina, Nardo. 

gibbosa, Penn. 
Goniaster, Agassiz. 

Templetoni, Thomps. 

equestris, Gmelin. 

Abbensis, Forbes. 
Asterias, Linnaus. 

aurantiaca, Linn. 
Luidia, Forbes. 

fragilissinia, Forbes. 

Savignii, Audouin. 

Order ECHINOIDEA. 

Fam. Cidaridae. 
Cidaris, Leske. 

papillata, Leske. 
Echinus, Linnceus. 

sphtera, Midler. 

Flemingii, Ball. 

miliaris, Leske. 

lividus, Lamk. 

melo, Lamk. 

Norvegicus, L>. $■ K. 

neglectus, Lamk. 

Fam. Clypeasteridae. 

Echinocyainus, Leske. 

pusillus, Mii/hr. 
Echinaracnnius, Leske. 

placenta, Gmelin. 

Fam. Spatangidae. 

Spatangus, Klein. 

purpureus, Miiller. 
Brissas, Klein. 

lyrifer, Forbes. 
Ampmdotus, Agassiz. 

cordatus, Penn. 

roseus, Forbes. 

gibbosus, Barrett. 



POLYZOA. 



Order HOLOTHUROIDEA. 

Fam. Pentactidae. 
Cucumaria, C'uvier. 

frondosa, Gunner. 

?fucicola, Forbes $ Goodsir. 

pentactes, Miiller. 

? Montagui, Flem. 

? Neil Hi, Flem. 

? dissimilis, Flem. 

f usiformis, Forbes 8r Goodsir. 

Hyndmanni, Thomps. 
Ocnus, Forbes ( = Cucuma- 
ria?). 

brunneus, Forbes. 

lacteus, Forbes if Goodsir. 
Psolinus, Forbes. 

brevis, Forbes $■ Goodsir. 

Fam. Thyonidae. 
Thy one, Oken. 

fusus, Mull, (papillosa, 
Abildg.) 

raphanus, Diiben <f Koren. 

communis, F. 8f G. (Thy- 
onidium, L>. $ K.) 

Portlockii, Forbes. 

Drummondii, Thomps. 

pellucida, Vahl (Cucuma- 
ria hyalina, F.). \ 
flolothuria, Linn. 

nigra, Couch. 

intestinalis. 

tubulosa, Linn. 

Fam. Psolidae. 
Psolus, Oken. 
phantopus, Linn. 
Forbesii. 

Fam. Synaptidae. 

Synapta, Esch. 
inhterens, Midi. 
digitata, Mont. 



*** Classified as in the British Museum Catalogue by Mr. George Busk. 



Order I. 
INFUNDIBULATA. 
Suborder I. Cheilostomata. 
Fam. II. Salicornariadae. 
Salicornaria, C'uvier. 
farcimiuoides, Johnst. 
Johnstoni, Busk. 
sinuosa, Hassall. 
Onchopora, Busk. 
borealis, Busk. 

Fam. III. Cellulariadae. 

Cellularia, Pallas. 
Peachii, Busk. 



cuspidata, Busk. 
Menipea, Lamouroux. 

ternata, Ellis 8f Soland. 
Scrupocellaria, Van Beneden. 

scrupea, Busk. 

ecruposa, Linn. 
Canda, Lamouroux. 

reptans, Pall. 

Fam. IV. Scrupariadae. 
Scruparia, Oken. 

chelata, Linn. 

clavata, Hincks. 
Salpingia, Coppin. 

Hassallii, Coppin. 



Hippothoa, Lamouroux. 

catenularia, Jameson. 

divaricata, Lamx. 
.ffitea, Lamouroux. 

anguina, Linn. 

truncata, Landsb. 

recta, Hincks. 
Beania, Johnston. 

mirabilis, Johnst. 

Fam. VI. Gemellariadae. 
Gemellaria, Savigny. 

loricata, Linn. 
Notamia, Fleming. 

bursaria, Linn. 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 



231 



Fam. VII. Cabereadae. 

Caberea, Lamouroux. 
Hookeri, F\em. 
Boryi, Aud. 

Fam. VIII. Bicellariadae. 

Bicellaria, Be Blainville. 

ciliata, Linn. 

Alderi, Busk. 
Bugula, OJcen. 

neritina, Linn. 

flabellata, J. V. Thomps. 

avicularia, Pall. 

plumosa, Pall. 

Murrayana, Bean. 

turbinata, Alder. 

fastigiata, Fabr. 

Fam. IX. Flustradae. 

Flustra, Linn. 

foliacea, Linn. 

papjraeea, Ellis. 

truncata, Linn. 

Barleei, Busk. 
Carbasea, Gray. 

papyrea, Pall. 

Fam. X. 
Membraniporidae. 

Membranipora, De Blainville. 

membranacea, Linn. 

pilosa, Pall. 

coriacea, Esper. 

lineata, Linn. 

Flemingii, Busk. 

Kosselii, Audouin. 

Lacroixii, Savigny. 

monostachys, Busk. 

hexagona, Busk. 

Pouilletii, Audouin. 

spinifera, Johnst. 

craticula, Alder. 

unicornis, Flem. 

imbellis, Hincks. 
Lepralia, Johnston. 

Brongniartii, Aud. 

Landsborovii, Johnst. 

reticulata, Macgillivray. 

auriculata, Hassall. 

concinna, Busk. 

verrucosa, Esper. 

violacea, Johnst. 

spinifera, Johnst. 

trispinosa, Johnst. 

coccinea, Abildg. 

linearis, Hassall. 

ciliata, Pall. 

Gattya?, Landsb. 

Hyndinanni, Johnst. 

variolosa, Johnst. 

nitida, Fabr. 

annulata, Fabr. 

bispinosa, Johnst. 

Peachii, Johnst. 

ventricosa, Hassall. 



melolontha, Landsb. 
innominata, Couch. 
punctata, Hassall. 
figularis, Johnst. 
pertusa, Esper. 
Pallasiana. 
labrosa, Busk. 
simplex, Johnst. 
Malusii, Aud. 
granifera, Johnst. 
hyalina, Linn. 
ansata, Johnst. 
unicornis, Flem. 
ringens, Busk. 
fissa, Busk. 
Cecilii, Audouin. 
Barleei, Busk. 
canthariformis, Busk. 
umbonata, Busk. 
discoidea, Busk. 
bella, Busk. 
monodon, Busk. 
alba, Hincks. 
eximia, Hincks. 
Woodiana, Busk. 
Alysidota, Busk. 
Alderi, Busk. 

Fam. XI. Celleporidae. 

Cellepora, Fabr. 
pumicosa, Linn. 
Hassallii, Johnst. 
vitrina, Couch. 
ramulosa, Linn. 
Skenei, Ellis 8f Soland. 
tubigera, Busk. 
armata, Hincks. 
avicularis, Hincks. 

Fam. XII. Escharidae. 

Eschara, Bay. 

foliacea, Ellis 8f Soland. 
cervicornis, Soland. 
cribraria, Johnst. 
Retepora, Lamarck. 
cellulosa, Linn. 
Beaniana, King. 

Suborder II. Cyclostomata. 

Fam. I. Tubuliporidae. 

Tubulipora, Lamarck. 

patina, Linn. 

hispida, Flem. 

penicillata, Johnst. 

truncata, Jameson. 

lobulata, Hassall. 

phalangea, Couch. 

flabellaris, Fabr. 

serpens, Linn. 

hyalina, Couch. 
Diastopora, Lamouroux. 

obelia, Flem. 
Idmonea, Lamouroux. 

Atlantica, Forbes. 
Pustulipora, Be Blainville. 

proboscidea, M.-Edw. 



deflexa, Couch. 
Orcadensis, Busk. 
Alecto, Lamouroux. 
granulata, M.-Edw. 
major, Johnst. 
dilatans, Johnst. 
incurvata, Hincks. 

Fam. II. Crisiadae. 
Crisia, Lamouroux. 

eburnea, Linn. 

denticulata, Lamk. 

aculeata, Hassall. 

geniculata, M.-Edw. 
Crisidia, M- Edwards. 

cornuta, Linn. 

setacea, Ccuch. 

Suborder III. Ctenostomata. 

Fam. I. Alcyonidiadae. 

Alcyonidium, Lamouroux. 

gelatinosum, Pallas. 

hirsutum, Flem. 

parasiticum, Flem. 

mamillatum, Alder. 

albidum, Alder. 

hexagonum, Hincks. 
Cycloum, Hass. 

papillosum, Hass. 
Sarcochitum, Hass. 

polyoum, Johnst. 

Fam. II. Vesiculariadae. 

Amathia, Lamouroux. 

lendigera, Linn. 
Vesicularia, Thompson. 

spinosa, Linn. 
Valkeria, Fleming. 

cuscuta, Ellis. 

uva, Linn. 

pustulosa, Johnst. 
Mimosella, Hincks. 

gracilis, Hincks. 
Avenella, Balyell. 

fusca, Balyell. 
Notella, Gosse. 

stipata, Gosse. 
Bowerbankia, Farre. 

imbricata, Johnst. 
Farrella, Ehrenberg. 

repens, Johnst. 

elongata. 

gigantea. 

pedicellata, Alder. 

dilatata, Hincks. 
Anguinella, Van Beneden. 

palmata, V. Ben. 
Buskia, Alder. 

nitens, Alder. 

Fam. III. Pedicellinidae. 
Pedicellina, Sars. 

echinata, Sars. 

Belgica. 

gracilis. 



232 



REPORT 1860. 



Subkingdom Ccelenterata. 

Class HYDROZOA. 

*** This list is compiled from Dr. Johnston's " British Zoophytes " (2nd edit.), Forbes's 
"British Naked-eyed Medusa?," and the works of Mr. Alder, Prof. Allman, Mr. Cobbold, 
Mr. Gosse, Professor Greene, Rev. Thomas Hincks, Professor Huxley, Dr. T. Strethill 
Wright, &c. 



Order CORYOTD.E. 
Fam. I. Coryniadas. 
Clara, Gmclin. 

multicornis, Johnston (re- 
pens, T. S. Wright ; dis- 
creta, Allman). 
cornea, T. S. Wright. 
membranacea, T. S. Wright. 
Torticlava, Alder. 
humilis, Alder. 
Lar, Gosse. 

Sabellarum, Gosse. 
Hydractinia, Van Beneden 
(Podocoryna, Sars). 
echinata, Flcm. 
carnea, Sars. 
Myriothela, Sars. 

arctica, Sars. 
Clavatella, Hincks. 
prolifera, Hincks. 
Coryne, Gaertner. 
pusilla, Ehr. 
Sarsii, Loven (decipiens, 

Dujardiri). 
ramosa, Ehr. (Listerii, Van 

Beneden). 
sessilis, Gosse. 
gravata. T. S. Wright. 
eximia, Allman. 
implexa, T. S. Wright 
(Tubularia implexa, 

Alder ; ? C. Briareus, 
Allman). 
Cerberus, Gosse. 
stauridia, Bujardin. 

[Should be referred to 
the next genus.] 
Stauridia. T. 8. Wright. 

producta, T. S. Wriqht. 
Trichvdra, T. S. Wright. 
pudica, T. S. Wright. 

Fam. II. Tubulariadae. 

Eudendrium, Ehrenberg. 

ramosum, Linn. 

rameum, Pall. 

capillare, Alder. 

arbuscula, T. S. Wright. 
Atractylis, T. S. Wright. 

ramosa, Van Beneden. 

repens, T. S. Wright. 

sessilis, T. S. Wright. 
Dieoryne, Allman. 

conferta, Alder (Eudend. 
confertum, Alder). 
Garveia, T. S. Wright. 

nutans, T. S. Wright. 



Bimeria, T. S. Wright. 

restita (Manicella fusca, 
Allman). 
Tubularia, Linnaus. 

iudivisa, Linn. 

Dumortierii, Van Beneden. 

larynx, Ellis. 

gracilis, Harvey. 
Corymorpha, Sars. 

nutans, Sars. 

nana, Alder. 

Order SERTULARID.E. 
Fam. I. Sertulariadae. 

Halecium, Oken. 

halecinum, Ellis. 

Beanii, Jbhnst. 

muricatum, Ellis &f Soland. 

labrosum, Alder. 

tenellum, Hi?icks. 
Sertularia. Linnaus. 

polyzonias, Linn. 

tricuspidata, Alder. 

tenella. Alder. 

Gayi, Lamx. 

rugosa, Ellis. 

rosacea, Linn. 

pumila, Linn. 

gracilis. Hassatt. 

Evansii, Ellis &f Soland. 

nigra. Pa/las. 

pinnata, l'allas. 

alata, Hincks. 

pinaster, Ellis Sf Soland. 

Margareta, Hassall. 

fallax. Johnst. 

tamarisca, Linn. 

abietina, I. inn. 

filicula, Mis Sr Soland. 

operculata. Linn. 

argentea, Ellis &r Soland. 

cupressina, Linn. 

fusca. Johnst. 
Thuiaria, Fleming. 

thuia, Linn. 

articulata, Pallas. 
Antennularia, Lamarck. 

antennina, Linn. 

ramosa, Lamx. 
Plumularia, Lamarck. 

falcata, Linn. 

cristata. Lamk. 

pennatula, Ellis &,• Soland. 

myriophyllum, Linn. 

tubulifera, Hincks. 

pinnata, Linn. 

setacea, Ellis. 



C'atherina, Johtist. 
echinulata, Lamk. 
similis, Hincks. 
frutescens, Ellis &/■ Soland. 
halecioides, Alder. 
obliqua, Saunders (Lao- 
medea obliqua, Johnst. ). 

Fam. II. 
Campanulariadae. 

Laomedea. Lamouroux. 

dichotoma, Linn. 

longissima, Pallas. 

geniculata, Linn. 

flexuosa, Hincks. 

Loveni, Allman. 

gelatinosa, Pallas. 

angulata, Hincks. 

neglecta, Alder. < 

pulchella. Wyville Thomson. 

lacerata, Johnst. 

tenuis, Allman. 

acuminata, Alder. 
Campanularia, Lamarck. 

Tolubilis, Linn. 

Johnstoni, Alder. 

Hincksii, Alder. 

raridentata, Alder. 

integra, Macgiliivray. 

caliculata. Hincks. 

verticdlata, Linn. 

[intertexta. Couch — a very 
doubtful species.] 
Calicella, Hincks. 

dumosa, Flcm. 

graciliima. Alder. 

parvula, Hincks. 

syringa, Linn. 

fastigiata. Alder. 

humilis, Hincks. 
Reticularia, Wymlle Thomson. 

serpens, Hassall. 
Grammaria, Stimpson. 

ramosa, Alder. 
Coppinia, Hass. [The position 

of this genus is doubtful.] 

arcta, Daly ell. 

Order CALYCOPHORID.E. 

Fam. Diphydae. 
Diphyes, Cuvier. 

appendiculata, Eschscholtz. 

Order PHTSOPHORID^:. 
Fam. I. Stephanomiadae. 
(?) Halistemma, Huxley. 
rubrum, Vogt. 



LIST OP THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 



233 



Fam. II. Physaliadse. 

Physalia, Lamarck. 

pe'agica, Eschscholtz. 
Velella, Lamarck. 

apirana, Forsk. 

Order MEDUSID^E. 
Fain. I. Willsiadae. 

Willsia, Forbes. 
Btellata, Forbes. 

Fam. II. Oceanidae. 

Turris, Lesson. 

digitalis, O. F. Midler. 

neglecta, Lesson. 

constricta, Patterson. 
Saphenia, Eschscholtz. 

dinema, Piron. 

Titania, Gosse. 
Oceania, Peron. 

octona, Flem. 

epiacopalis, Forbes. 

turrita, Forbes. 

globulosa, Forbes. 

ducalia, Forbes Sf Goodsir. 

pusilla, Gosse. 

Fam. III. JEquoreadae. 

Stomobrachium, Brandt. 

octoeoatatum, Sars. 
Polyxenia, Eschscholtz. 

Alderi, Forbes. 
./Equorea, Peron. 

Forskalii, Forbes. 

Forbesiana, Gosse. 

vitrina, Gosse. 

formosa, Greene. 

sp., Greene. 

Fam. IV. Circeadae. 

Circe, Mertens. 
rosea, Forbes. 

Fam. V. Geryoniadae. 

Geryonia, Peron. 

appendiculata, Forbes. 
Tima, Eschscholtz. 

Bairdii, Johnst. 



Geryonopsia, Forbes. 

delicatula, Forbes. 
Tiaropsis, Agassiz. 

Pattersonii, Greene. 
Thauinantias, Eschscholtz. 

piloaella, Forbes. 

quadrata, Forbes. 

aeronautica, Forbes. 

octona, Forbes. 

maculata, Forbes. 

melanops, Forbes. 

globosa, Forbes. 

conrexa, Forbes. 

gibbosa, Forbes. 

lineata, Forbes. 

pileata, Forbes. 

Sarnica, Forbes. 

Tbompaoni, Forbes. 

heniispbierica, O.F. Midler. 

inconspicua, Forbes. 

punctata, Forbes. 

lucifera, Forbes. 

Buskiana, Gosse. 

corynetes, Gosse. 

undulata, Forbes &f Goodsir. 

confluena, Forbes §■ Goodsir. 

achroa, Cobbold. 

neglecta, Greene. 

typica, Greene. 
Slabberia, Forbes. 

halterata, Forbes. 

catenata, Forbes 8f Goodsir. 

Fam. VI. Sarsiadae. 
Plancia, Forbes 8r Goodsir. 

gracilis, Forbes Sf Goodsir. 
Goodairea, Strethill Wright. 

mirabilia, S. Wright. 
Sarsia, Lesson. 

tubulosa, Sars. 

pulchella, Forbes. 

gemmifera, Forbes. 

prolifera, Forbes. 
Hippocrene, Mertens. 

Britannica, Forbes. 
nigritella, Forbes. 
pyramidata, Forbes &; Good- 
sir. 

Class ACTINOZOA. 



crucifera, Forbes &f Goodsir' 

simplex, Forbes &f Goodsir 

dinema, Greene. 
Lizzia, Forbes. 

octopunctata, Sars. 

blondina, Forbes. 

ap., Claparede. 
Modeeria, Forbes. 

formosa, Forbes. 
Diplonema, Greene. 

Islandica, Greene. 
Euphysa, Forbes. 

aurata, Forbes. 
Steenstrupia, Forbes. 

rubra, Forbes. 

flaveola, Forbes. 

Owenii, Greene. 

Order LUCERNARID.E. 
Fam. I. Lucernariadae. 

Lucernaria, Miiller. 

auricula, Fabr. 

campanulata, Lamx. 

fascicularia, Flem. 
Depaatrum, Gosse. 

stellifrons, Gosse. 
Carduella, Allman. 

cyathiformia, Sars. 

Fam. II. Pelagidas. 

Aurelia, Piron. 

aurita, 0. F. Miiller. 

campanula, O. Fabricius. 
Cyanea, Peron. 

capillata, Linn. 

Lamarckii, Piron. 
Pqlagia, Peron et Lesueur. 

cyanella, Peron et Lesueur, 
Chryaaora, Peron. 

hyaoscella, Linn. 

Fam. III. Rhizostomidae. 

Caasiopeia, Peron. 

lunulata, Flem. 
Rhizoatoma, Ciivier. 

pulmo, Gmel. 



*** The Hat of 
Order ZOANTHARIA. 

Fam. I. Actiniadae. 

Actinolobia, Blainville. 

dianthus, Blainv. 
Sagartia, Gosse. 

bellis, Ellis. 

miniata, Gosse. 

rosea, Gosse. 

ornata, Holdsworth. 

ichthystoma, Gosse. 

nivea, Gosse. 

sphyrodeta, Gosse. 

pallida, Holdsworth. 



Zoantharia is taken from Gosse's " Actinologia." 



pui-a, Alder. 

coccinea, Mull. 

troglodytes. Johnst. 

viduata, Mull. 

paraaitica, Johnst. 

chrysosplenium, Cocks 
Adamsia, Forbes. 

palliata, Forbes. 
Phellia, Gosse. 

murocincta, Gosse. 

gausapata, Gosse. 

picta, Gosse. 

Brodricii, Gosse. 



Gregoria, Gosse. 

fenestrata, Gosse. 
Aiptasia, Cocks. 

Couchii, Cocks. 9 

Anthea, Gaertner. 

cereus, Ellis. 
Actinia, Linn. 

mesembryanthemum, Ellis. 
Bolocera, Johnst. 

Tuedia\ Johnst. 

eques, Gosse. 
Bunodes, Gosse. 

gemmacea, Ellis. 

thallia, Gosse. 



234 



REPORT — 1860. 



Ballii, Cocks. 

coronata, Gosse. 
Tealia, Gosse. 

digitata, Mull. 

tuberculata, Cocks. 

crassicomis, Mull. 
Hortnathia, Gosse. 

margarita, Gosse. 
Stomphia, Gosse. 

Churchioe, Gosse. 
Ilyanthus, Forbes. 

Scoticus, Forbes. 

Mitchellii, Gosse. 
Peachia, Gosse. 

hastata, Gosse. 

undata, Gosse. 

triphylla, Gosse. 

cylindrica, Beid. 
Halcampa, Gosse. 

chrysanthemum, Peach. 

microps, Gosse. 
Edwardsia, Quatrefages. 

calhmorpha, Gosse. 

camea, Gosse. 

Beautempsii, Quatref. 
Arachnactis, Sars. 

albida, Sars. 
Cerianthus, J. Haime. 

Lloydii, Gosse. 

vermicularis, Forbes. 
Capnea, Forbes. 

sanguinea, Forbes. 
Aureliania, Gosse. 

angusta, Gosse. 

heterocera, Thomps. 
Corynactis, Allman. 

viridis, Allman. 



Fam. II. Zoanthidae. 
Zoanthus, Cuvier. 
Coucliii, Johnst 
Bulcatu9, Gosse. 
Alderi, Gosse. 

Fam. III. 
Caryophylleadae. 

Cyathina, Ehrenberg. 

Smithii, Flem. 
Paracyathus, M.-Edwards 

Taxilianus, Gosse. 

Thulensis, Gosse. 

pteropus, Gosse. 
Desmophyllum, Ehrenberg. 

Stokesii, M.-Edwards. 
Sphenotrochus, M.-Edwards. 

Macandrewanus, M.-Edw. 

Wrightii, Gosse. 
TJlocyathus, Sars. 

arcticus, Sars. 
Oculina, Lamarck. 

prolifera, Linn. 
Hop'.angia, Gosse. 

Durotrix. Gosse. 
Balanophyllia, Wood. 

regia, Gosse. 

Order ALCYONARIA. 

Fam. I. Pennatuladae. 

Pennatula, Linneeus. 

phosphorea, Linn. 
Virgularia, Lamarck. 

mirabilis, Linn. 
Pavonaria, Cuvier. 

quadrangularis, Pall. 



Fam. II. Alcyonidae. 

Alcyonium, Linnaus. 

digitatum, Linn. 

glomeratuin. 
Sarcodictyon, Forbes. 

catenata, Forbes. 

agglomerata. 

Fam. III. Gorgoniadae. 
Gorgonia, Linnaus. 

verrucosa, Linn. 

pirmata, Linn. 

anceps, Ellis. 
Primnoa, Lamarck. 

lepadifera, Linn. 

Order CTENOPHORA. 

Fam. I. Cydippidae. 

Cydippe, Esch. 
pileus, Miill. 
Flemingii, Forbes. 
infundibulum, Mull. 
lagena, Forbes. 
pomiformis, Paterson. 

Fam. II. Calymnidae. 
Bolina, Paterson. 
Hibernica, Paterson, 

Fam. III. Beroidae. 
Beroe, Miiller. 

cucumis, Fabr. 

fulgens, Flem. 

borealis, Less. 
Alcinoe, Cuv . 

rotunda. 

Smithii. 



Subkingdom Protozoa. 



FORAMINIFEftA. 

* # * This list of British Foraminifera is taken from Prof. Williamson's " Recent 
Foraminifera of Great Britain," published by the Bay Society. 



Proteonina, Williamson. 
fusifornis, Williamson. 
pseudospiralis, Williamson. 
Orbulina, V Orbigny. 

universa, D' Orb. 
Lagena, Walker. 

vulgaris, Williamson. 

var. clavata. 

var. perlucida. 

var. semistriata. 
• var. striata. 

var. interrupta. 

var. gracilis. 

var. substriata. 
Entosolenia, Ehrenberg. 
globosa, Walker. 

var. lineata. 
costata, Williamson. 
marginata, Walker. 

var. lucida. 



var. ornata. 

var. lagenoides. 

var. quadrata. 
squamosa, Mont. 

var. scalariformis. 

var. catenulata. 

var. hexagona. 
Lingulina, D' Orbigny. 

carinata, L)' Orb. 
Nodosaria, Lamarck. 
radicula, Linn. 
pyrula, D' Orb. 
Dentalina, D' Orbigny. 
subarcuata, Mont. 

var. jugosa. 
legumen, Linn. 

var. linearis. 
Frondicularia, De/rance. 
spathulata, Williamson. 
Archiaciana, D' Orb. 



Cristellaria, Lamarck. 

calcar, Linn. 
var. rotifera. 
var. oblonga. 

subarcuatula, Walker. 
var. costata. 
Nonionina, D' Orbigny. 

Barleeana, Williamson. 

crassula, Walker. 

Jeffreysii, Williamson. 

elegans, Williamson. 
Nummulina, D' Orbigny. 

planulata, Lam. 
Polystomella, Lamarck. 

crispa, Linn. 

umbilicatula, Walker. 
var. incerta. 
Peneroplis, Montfort. 

planatus, Ficht. 8; Moll. 
Patellina, Williamson. 



LIST OF THE BRITISH MARINE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. 



235 



corrugata, Williamson. 
Rotalina, D' Orbigny. 

Beccarii, Linn. 

inflata, Mont. 

turgida, Williamson. 

oblonga, Williamson. 

concamerata, Mont. 

nitida, Williamson. 

mamilla, Williamson. 

ochracea, Williamson. 

fusca, Williamson. 
Globigerina, D' Orbigny. 

bulloides, B' Orb. 
Planorbulina, B' Orbigny. 

vulgaris, D' Orb. 
Truncatulina, B' Orbigny. 

lobatula, Walker. 
Bulimina, B' Orbigny. 

pupoides, D' Orb. 
var. marginata. 
var. spinulosa. 
var. fusiformis. 
var. compressa. 



var. convoluta. 
elegantissima, If Orb. 
scabra?, Williamson. 
TJvigerina, D' Orbigny. 
pygmaa, D' Orb. 
angulosa, Williamson. 
Cassidulina, D' Orbigny. 
laevigata, B' Orb. 
obtusa, Williamson. 
Polyrnorphina, B' Orbigny. 
lactea, Walker. 

var. acuminata. 

var. oblonga. 

var. fistulosa. 

var. concava. 

var. communis, 
myristiformis, Williamson. 
Textularia, Befrance. 
cuneiformis, B' Orb. 

var. conica. 
variabilis, Williamson. 

var. spathulata. 

var. difformis. 



var. laevigata. 
Biloculina, D' Orbigny. 
ringens, If Orb. 
var. carinata. 
Spiroloculina, If Orbigny. 
depressa, If Orb. 
var. rotundata. 
var. cymbium. 
Miliolina, Williamson. 
trigonula, Lamk. 
seminulum, Linn. 
var. oblonga. 
var. disciformis. 
bicornis, Walker. 
var. elegans. 
var. angulata. 
Vertebralina, If Orbigny. 

striata, B' Orb. 
Spirillina, Ehrenberg. 
foliacea, Philippi. 
perforata, Schultze. 
arenacea, Williamson. 
margaritifera, Williamson. 



LIST OF BRITISH SPONGES. 



Tethya, Lamarck. 

cranium, Johnst. (notMull.) 

lyncurium, Johnst. 
Geodia, Lamarck. 

Zetlandica, Johnst. 
Pachymatisma, Bowerbank. 

Johnstonia, Bowb. (Hali- 
chondria, Johnst.) 
Halichondria, Fleming. 

panicea, Johnst. 

coalita, Johnst. 

coccinea, Bowb. MS. 

glabra, Bowb. MS. 

inconspicua, Bowb. MS. 

caduca, Bowb. MS. 

distorta, Bowb. MS. 

Dickiei, Bowb. MS. 

Batei, Bowb. MS. 

lingua, Bowb. MS. 

corrugata, Bowb. MS. 

granulata, Bowb. MS. 

Thompsoni, Bowb. MS. 

plumosa, Johnst. 

incrustans, Johnst. 

fallax, Bowb. MS. 

paupera, Bowb. MS. 

Clarkei, Bowb. MS. 

variantia, Bowb. MS. 

Hyndmanni, Bowb. MS. 

nigricans, Bowb. MS. 

Jngalli, Bowb. MS. 

fimbriata, Bowb. MS. 

albula, Bowb. MS. 

farinaria, Bowb. MS. 
Hymeniacidon, Bowerbank 
(Halichondria, Johyist.). 

Thomasii, Bowb. MS. 

fragilis, Bowb. MS. 

Brettii, Bowb. MS. 



albescens, Johnst. 

caruncula, Bowb. MS. 

Alderi, Bowb. MS. 

perlaevis, Johnst. 

aurea, Johnst. 

pachyderma, Bowb. MS. 

crustula, Bowb. MS. 

sanguinea, Johnst. 

armatura, Bowb. MS. 

floreum, Bowb. MS. 

carnosa, Bowb. MS. 

viridans, Bowb. MS. 

sulphurea, Bowb. MS. 

clavigera, Bowb. MS. 

subclavata, Bowb. MS. 

lactea, Bowb. MS. 

Dujardinii (Halisarca), 
Johnst. 

celata, Johnst. 
Halina, Bowerbank (Hali- 
chondria, Johnst.). 

suberea (Halichondria), 
Johnst. 

ficus, Johnst. 

carnosa, Johnst. 

Bucklandi, Bowb. MS. 
Isodictya, Bowerbank (Hali- 
chondria, Johnst.). 

Peachii, Bowb. MS. 

rosea, Bowb. MS. 

permollis, Bowb. MS. 

indistincta, Bowb. MS. 

indefinite, Bowb. MS. 

Macandrevrii, Bowb. MS. 

dichotoma, Bowb. MS. 

cinerea, Johnst. 

ramusculus, Bowb. MS. 

simulo, Bowb. MS. 

mammeata, Bowb. MS. 



fucorum, Johnst. 

Alderi, Bowb. MS. 

Normani, Bowb. MS. 

iobata, Johnst. 

Barleei, Bowb. MS. 

gracilis, Bowb. MS. 

Q-regorii, Bowb. MS. 

Beanii, Bowb. MS. 

clava, Bowb. MS. 

infundibuliformis, Johnst. 
Desmacidon, Bowerbank (Ha- 
lichondria, Johnst.). 

asgagropila, Johnst. 

fruticosa, Johnst. 
Raphyrus, Bowerbank. 

Griffithsii, Bowb. MS. 
Dictyocylindrus, Bowerbank 
(Halichondria, Johnst.). 

stuposus, Johnst. 

Howsei, Bowb. MS. 

ramosus, Johnst. 

aculeatus, Bowb. MS. 

ventilabrum, Bowb. MS. 

fascicularis, Bowb. MS. 

rugosus, Bowb. MS. 
Haliclona, Bowerbank (Hali- 
chondria, Johnst.). 

palmata, Johnst. 

Montagui, Johnst. 

pygmaea, Bowb. 

seriata, Johnst. 

simulans, Johnst. 

columbae, Johnst. 

gracilenta, Bowb. MS. 
Microciona, Bowerbank, MS. 

atro-sanguiuea, Bowb. MS. 

armata, Bowb. MS. 

carnosa, Bowb. MS. 

ambigua, Bowb. MS. 



236 



REPORT — 1860. 



laevis. Bowb. MS. 

spinulenta, Bowb. MS. 
Hymeraphia. Bowerbank, MS. 

Tenniculata, Bowb. MS. 

stellifera. Bowb. MS. 

clavata. Bowb. MS. 
Hymedesmia, Bowerbank, MS. 

Zetlandica, Bowb. MS. 
Halyphysema, Bowerbank, 
MS. 

Tumanowiczii, Bowb. MS. 
Euplectella, Owen. 

mammillaris (Halichon- 
dria), Johnst. 



brevis, Bowb. MS. 

robusta, Bowb. MS. 
Halicneinia, Bowerbank, MS. 

patera, Bowb. MS. 
Pbakellia, Bowb. MS. (Hali- 
chondria, Johnst.). 

ventilabrum, Johnst. 
Dysidea, Johnston. 

fragilis, Johnst. 
Spongia, Linnaus. 

pulchella, Johnst. 

limbata. Johnst. 
Grantia, Fleming. 

compressa, Johnst. 



ciliata, Johnst. 

ensata, Bowb. MS. 

tessellata, Bowb. MS. 
Leuconia, Bowerbank (Gran- 
tia, Johnst.). 

nivea, Johnst. 

fistulo9a, Johnst. 
Leucosolenia, Bowerbank, 
MS. (Grantia, Johnst.). 

botryoides, Johnst. 

coriacea, Johnst. 

lacunosa, Johnst. 

contorta, Bowb. MS. 






NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 
Address by the Rev. Prof. Price, M.A., F.R.S., President of the Section. 

Gentlemen,— A custom has prevailed at our Meetings for some years for the Pre- 
sident of each Section to make a short address at the opening. The object of it I 
take to be twofold; first, to explain to new members the nature of the business which 
we have to transact; and, secondly, to suggest to all the course of procedure, and 
the distribution of subject most convenient for the conduct of our business. The 
area of scientific research which this Section covers is very large, larger perhaps 
than that of any other; and its subjects vary so much, that while to some of 
those who frequent this room certain papers may appear dull, yet to others thev 
will be full of interest. There are many and very good reasons why these subjects 
should be grouped. Some of them possess, probably in the highest degree attain- 
able by the human intellect, the characteristics of perfect and necessary science ; 
while others are at present little more than a conglomeration of observations, made 
indeed with infinite skill and perseverance, and of the greatest value ; capable 
probably in time of greater perfection, nay, perhaps, of most perfect forms, but as 
vet in their infancy, scarcely indicating the process by which that maturity will 
be arrived at, and containing hardly the barest outline of their ultimate laws" We 
have indeed sciences intermediate to these two extremes, in which some of the laws 
are already capable of mathematical expression, and from which residts have been 
derived, and still many phenomena are as yet not brought within their comprehen- 
sion. But as all subjects which we regard in this Section are of one type, so are 
they rightly combined; and it will be, I venture to think, an evil day for natural 
knowledge, when we cease to regard the forms of the sciences of space, number, 
and^ motion, as those to which all others ought to assimilate themselves. 

Now first of all in our Section stand Mathematics, both pure and applied. These, 
indeed, require very heavy and arduous study, inasmuch as thev have peculiar 
nomenclature, language, and processes, and thus it is only to the few generally who 
have made them their particular study that they oiler great interest. Mathematics 
have also now become so large in their grasp and so curious in their details, that I 
am, 1 am sure, only expressing the opinions of most analysts when I say that the 
whole of a man's life is not sufficient for more than one branch of it. Indeed 
and we are proud to say so, some members of this Association are devotino- whole' 
lives, and intellects too of the highest order, to the advancement of our knowledge 
in a particular direction. Take, for instance, the theory of homogeneous forms : 
in the history of science the names of Boole, Cavlev, * Sylvester will always be 
recorded, and in scientific treatises their labours will find a place. Or take again 
the theory of elliptic functions, or the calculus of probabilities ; the difficulties of 
these subjects require the utmost tension of the human mind, and even then thev 
transcend its limits. To many of the usual attendants on this Section, these and 
kindred subjects may be dry and uninteresting. Well, if they are so to any of you 
i must beg you to bear with us for a short time; these things have a deep "and 
1860. i 



2 REPORT— 1860. 

significant meaning ; and be assured too that they are not uninteresting to all ; to 
many they give the purest pleasure ; and I must ask you not to grudge them that 
during the few papers on the higher mathematics which we shall probably have. 
In passing, too, I would remind you that very frequently our knowledge of natural 
phenomena depends on certain integrals, the properties of which can only be 
studied with a profound knowledge of the higher mathematics; and thus the pro- 
gress of one branch of knowledge depends on another, and is frequently stopped by 
our ignorance of that. 

To most of us, probably, the questions of applied mathematics will have greater 
interest ; we are more familiar with the laws of nature, the mathematical interpre- 
tation of which, mixed mathematics, as they are called, take cognizance of ; we 
most eagerly catch at the results of those laws. Consider the Newtonian law of 
gravitation in its most general form ; in its highest development in the lunar and 
planetary theories, a dry mathematical paper will thin our room; an astronomical 
paper will often fill it ; and now too, perhaps, more than heretofore ; for our 
interest in the subject has been keenly aroused of late. The lunar disturbances 
have been, as you know, calculated with greater precision, and new results have 
been arrived at, which exhibit certain discrepancies relatively to the old. I 
need do no more than allude to what has lately taken place at our own Royal 
Astronomical Society and at the French Academy ; and express a hope that we 
shall have some communication on this subject from those who are here present, and 
are so well qualified to give it. Mathematicians, however, have been startled by 
an announcement that " what is commonly called mathematical evidence is not so 
certain as many persons imagine; and that it ultimately depends on moral evidence ;" 
and moreover we are told that the " results of long and complicated mathematical 
calculations are not more than probably true." This we can hardly believe; it 
takes us quite by surprise, and we hope for further light ; if, however, we must 
wait for light, we must wait patiently; let us not forestal a conclusion which many 
of us venture to think is as yet, not to say more, unproved ; let us wait for the 
new lunar theories, which are as yet unpublished, and for the new lunar tables, 
which are the results of these theories. I am told, however, already that Baron 
Plana has corrected his calculations, and that he finds the results arrived at by 
Delaunay and Adams to be in accordance with his amended formula?. These new 
lunar calculations have taken us by surprise ; but again I would say let us wait, 
"magna est Veritas et praevalebit." 

We are desirous, so far as is possible consistently with the convenience of con- 
tributors, to take the papers on mathematical subjects on the early days of our 
meeting ; and we shall be glad therefore if members who have papers on these sub- 
jects will announce them to the Secretaries without delay. And before I proceed 
further, we have a debt to pay, due by the cultivators of these branches of science, 
to those who have lately contributed reports on particular parts of our science to 
the British Association; — to Mr. Cayley for his report on the present state of 
Theoretical Dynamics, and to Mr. Smith for the first part of his report on the 
Theory of Numbers. It is only they who have had to go through the existing 
literature in any one problem, say the Lagrangian equations, or the theory of the 
motion of a material system, that can form an adequate value of such papers a3 
those I refer to: the literature is catalogued, indexed, and analysed; we know 
thereby all that has been done up to a certain point, and in our subsequent inves- 
tigations our commencement starts from the close of other men's labours. We 
are hereby prevented from travelling over other men's ground ; and we avoid that 
most unsatisfactory plagiarism of them, " qui nostra ante nos dixerunt." Vast and 
various are the benefits of our Association ; but I am inclined to consider as one of 
the greatest, the series of valuable reports which our published volumes contain ; 
and those last reports to which I have referred, for their learning, their deep re- 
search, their comprehensive views of the theories explained in them, will maintain 
the character shared by their predecessors. While we lament the loss of Dr. Pea- 
cock and others, to whom we owe the very able reports contained in the early 
volumes of our proceedings, we are proud to have worthy successors in our present 
talented contributors. 

We propose, next in order, to take those papers which treat of subjects within the 
grasp of mathematical symbols, at least partially, if not wholly; those whose laws 






TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 6 

are sufficiently general for functional symbols, and from particular forms of which 
by mathematical processes other truths may be derived. Such are the subjects of 
Light, Heat, Sound, Electricity, Magnetism ; we propose to take these subjects in 
the latter days of this week, and the first day of next. We shall, of course, con- 
sult the convenience of contributors ; but it will tend, we think, to the orderly 
arrangement of our business if this order can be adopted. Vast indeed in their 
subjects are these sciences; and as discoveries are being daily made in them, 
we have a right to expect some interesting communications, either in the way 
of mathematical deduction from received laws, or as mathematical explana- 
tions of observed phenomena, or as simple experiments. I cannot help observing 
here the advantage of combining these sciences in the same Section with pure 
mathematics ; it seems to indicate that the laws of all are to be brought to the 
same test, — to the never-failing, to the unerring accuracy of measurement and num- 
ber ; we show hereby the character of the knowledge we are in search of; not for- 
tuitous observation, but precise laws. The mind will wander in its imagination ; 
there is, indeed, no boundary to it ; once, however, bring it back to the severe test 
of number and weight and" measurement, and the discovery or the observation 
becomes valuable for its precision ; it thus leads to general laws, and sound mathe- 
matical reasoning derives from them the results they are pregnant with. 

And, finally, we come to the facts of meteorology and its kindred subjects, many 
of which are scarcely yet brought within any law at all ; analogies have been traced, 
and concurrent events have been indicated in many cases ; little, however, has been 
done towards a satisfactory proof of a connexion between cause and effect. It is 
true that curves are traced, which purport to exhibit these effects ; and they do so 
most graphically ; but, as mathematicians say, these curves are traced only hyjmints, 
and the law is not known, or, in other words, we do not know the equation of the 
curve ; so long as this is the case, our knowledge lacks precision. These papers, 
however, are frequently valuable, because they supply us with accurately observed 
facts, which will doubtless hereafter be brought within a law. This, however, I 
suppose at present to be the state of the case ; but we must not despise the lesser 
light because we have not the greater. I cannot pass over this class of papers (papers 
of observed facts) without alluding to the loss which we all feel in the death of the 
late able Professor of Geometry, Professor Baden Powell. For some years past 
has he continued his reports on the meteors or falling stars, or whatever you call 
them ; this year we have his last report, which, indeed, he has not lived to finish, 
but has been placed in the hands of Mr. Glaisher, and completed by him. In 
some of these subjects we shall, I hope, obtain large accessions to our knowledge. 

Some few years ago I remember reading a complaint made by an eminent philo- 
sopher on the decay of mathematical knowledge in Great Britain, and especially in 
that of physico-mathematical knowledge. It is not my duty to make invidious 
distinctions ; but I am sure I am repeating the now common opinion of foreigners 
when I tell you that that complaint was made in quite the infancy of some of 
our older philosophers, and before the days of Cayley, Sylvester,' Boole, Mac- 
cullagh, Stokes, W. Thomson, and Adams. To this revival of science amongst 
us, doubtless, many causes have contributed ; and I believe that the periodical nieet- 
ings of this Association have done good service towards that revival ; we have 
hereby become acquainted with others who are engaged in the same pursuits as our- 
selves, and stores of knowledge are communicated. Let us, however, bear in mind 
that our Association is formed for the advancement of science, and that we do not 
meet to hear of old things again in the old form; our motto is "progress." Old 
things we do not discard, for they may be put before us in new forms : but we meet 
especially to promote the advance of the boundaries of natural knowledge, and we ask 
our members and others to lay before us the results of their investigations. And not 
only m the papers which shall be read, but also in the elucidation of any difficulties 
which authors may favour us with, and in the discussions which it is my duty to 
invite you to take upon these papers, will additions to our knowledge be made • 
and many remarks will, I venture to think, be made pregnant with matter for 
thoughtful meditation hereafter. In all these discussions difference of opinion 
will doubtless arise ; but I am sure that a spirit of friendly and mutual concession 
will prevail ; and that in our search after truth we shall gladly and readily attribute 
to those who differ from us the same pure motives which we claim to ourselves. 

1* 



4< REPORT — i860. 

On some Solutions of the Problem of Tactions of Apollonius of Perga by 
means of Modern Geometry. By Dr. Brennecke, of Posen. 
The author suggested a new solution, depending on a remarkable property of the 
centres of similitude of three given circles; e. y. a circle described around an exter- 
nal centre of similitude, with a radius equal to the geometrical proportional of its 
potential distances from the two circles, intersects all homogeneously touching circles 
orthogonally (around an internal centre all heterogeneously touching circles). Such 
a circle is called a potential circle. To get the two circles which touch the three 
given circles simultaneously internally or externally, take two external centres of 
similitude, draw the two potential circles, find their radical axis, which will contain 
the centre of similitude of the two circles which cut the three given circles in the 
same time externally or internally. By combining the three external centres of 
similitude, you find three potential circles and three radical axes, which all three 
coincide. Having found this straight line, which contains the centres, it is easy to 
find the centres themselves by introducing a fourth circle, the reflected mirror-image 
as it were of any of the three given circles, by means of the found radical axis, and 
finding out the two circles which touch the two symmetrical circles and anyone of 
the three given circles. Dr. Brennecke has treated the subject at large in a book 
which has just now been published at Berlin, ' DieBeruhrungsaufgabe fur Kreis und 
Kugel,' Th. Chr. Fr. Enslin, I860, Svo, illustrated by eighty-four diagrams, in which 
all information will be found concerning the most renowned problem of geometry, 
concerning the problem of tactions of three given circles or four given spheres. 



On a New General Method for establishing the Theory of Conic Sections. 
By the Rev. James Booth, LL.D., F.R.S. 

On the Relations between Hyperconic Sections and Elliptic Integrals. 
By the Rev. James Booth, LL.D., F.R.S. 

In this communication the author extended the analogies that the Continental and 
English geometers had established between elliptic integrals of the third order under 
the circular form, and the arcs of spherical conic sections, to the corresponding rela- 
tions between elliptic integrals of the third order and logarithmic form to the arcs of 
curves described in the surface of a paraboloid. 



On Curves of the Fourth Order having Three Double Points. 
By A. Cayley, F.R.S. 

The paper is a short notice only of researches which the author is engaged in 
with reference to curves of the fourth order having three double points. A curve 
of the kind in question is derived from a conic by the well-known transformation of 
substituting for the original trilinear coordinates their reciprocals ; and the species of 
the curve of the fourth order depends on the position of the conic with respect to the 
fundamental triangle. 

Cn the Triscction of an Angle. By Patrick Cody. 



On the Roots of Substitutions. By the Rev. T. P. Kirkman, A.M., F.R.S. 

To determine the number of roots of a given degree, of a substitution 6 made with 
n letters, and of the rth order. A substitution 6 which has not two circular factors 
of the same order, has no roots which are not found among the series 

of its powers. 

A substitution which has two or more circular factors of the same order, will have 
roots of an order superior to its own, and therefore not among its power. 

Thus the substitution of the 3rd order made with 9 elements, 

. 231564897 

_ 123456789' 

has 1 square root of the 3rd order, 9 square roots of the 6th order, 9 fourth roots 
of the 6th order, 18 cubic roots of the 9th order, and 18 sixth roots of the 9th I 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 5 

order. These roots can be enumerated by a simple general method for 6 of any 
order, made with n letters. 

The fundamental theorem is the following : — 

If «=Aa-f Bb + Cc+ , the number of different groups of the order K, which 

is the least common multiple of ABC . . . ., of the form 

\,6,6\.. .6*-\ 
wheretfhasa circular factors of the order A,& of the order B, &c, is (7rn=l .2.3 .. . n)» 



R K A a B*C c . .TrajriTTC. . . 

R K being the number of integers, unity included, which are less than K and prime 

to it. 
The partition n = 9 = 3.3=Ao 

& ives „ n9 =8.7.5.4 

R 3 33.7r3 

groups, 166' 2 , (G) 

of the third order, which is that of 6 and of d 2 . 
The partition 

n = 9 = 6 . 1 + 3. l=Aa+B6 

6 ives « 9 , =8.7.6.5.3.2 

Re . 6 . 3 

groups, 1$<£ 2 • • • $''» (H) 

of the 6th order. Every group (H) contains a group (G), namely, 

and (f> of the 6th order is the square root of (j> 2 of the 3rd order, and the fourth root 
of <£' of the 3rd order. Also <j)' of the 6th order is the square root of <p\ and the 
fourth root of (ft 2 . 

The number of groups (II) being nine times that of the group (G), the group ]60 2 
will be comprised in nine different groups (H) ; that is, 6 has nine square roots of 
the 6th order, and nine fourth roots of the same order. 

The partition 

w = 9 = 9. l=Aa 

giveS J* =8.7.5.4.3.2 

Rg9 

groups, l^^P • • • V' H ' ^ 

of the 9th order. This comprises the group (G), 

where \^ 3 has the cube roots \j/ \jr l \^ 7 of the 9th order, and the sixth roots yfr* yjr' ^ 
of the same order. There are six times as many groups (J) as groups (G). Therefore 

\66 2 
will be found in six groups (J), and either 6 or 6 2 has IS cube roots, and 18 sixth 
roots all of the 9th order. 

In the same manner it is easily proved that the substitution of the 2nd ordcr(w=8), 

ffl _ 341278 56 
12345678* 
which has four circular factors of the 2nd order, has twelve square roots all of the 
4th order. These form with unity and 8' the two groups following, 

12345678 12345678 

34127856 34127856 

58763214 23418567 

76581432 41236785 

23416785 78561234 

41238567 56783412 

87652143 85674123 

65874321 67852341 



6 REPORT 1860. 

which are of the form (IV.) discovered by Mr. Cayley (Phil. Mag. vol. viii. 1859, 
p. 34), who there first enumerated the forms of groups of eight. 
Two such groups can be completed with unity, and any one of the 

„ n8 =7.6.5.3.2 

substitutions of the form &. 

It is easy to form groups of Mr. Cayley's form (II.) ; e. g., 

12345678 
34127856 
23416785 
41238567 
56781234 
78563412 
67852341 
85674123 

which is-one of the grouped groups whose general theory I have handled in a memoir 
which will shortly see the light. 

On a new Proof of Pascal's Theorem. By the Rev. T. Rennison, M.A. 

On Systems of Indeterminate Linear Equations. 
By H. J. Stephen Smith, M.A., Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. 
The object of this communication was to point out the connexion which exists 
between particular solutions of indeterminate linear equations, and their most gene- 
ral solution. The principle upon which this connexion depends may be explained in 
a very particular case. Let the sytem of indeterminate equations reduce itself to the 
single equation 

Ax+By + Cz=0, (1) 

in which we may suppose A, B, C to have no common divisor ; let also a, b, c and 
a', b', c' be two different solutions of that equation in integral numbers ; then, if the 
three numbers 

bc' — b'c, ca' — ac', ab' — a'b (2) 

admit of no common divisor, the complete solution of the indeterminate equation is 
contained in the formulae 

x = at+a'u, 1 

y=bt+b'u,\ (3) 

Z=ct + c'u, ) 

in which t and u are absolutely indeterminate integral numbers ; but if the condi- 
tion (2) be not satisfied, the formula? (3) will not represent all, but only some of the 
solutions of the equation (1). If, therefore, by any method, as for example that of 
Euler, we have arrived at formula of the type of the formulas (3), which demonstra- 
bly contain the complete solution of the indeterminate equation, we may be certain 
that the three numbers analogous to the numbers (2) admit of no common divisor. 
Thus, by applying Euler's method of solution, which is explained in most books of 
algebra, to the indeterminate equation Ax+By-±-Cz = 0, we obtain the solution of a 
celebrated problem, first considered by Gauss in the 'Disquisitiones Arithmetical,' 
of which the following is the enunciation. 

" Given 3 numbers A, B, C, to find six others, 

a, b, c, 
such that a', b', c', 

A = bc'-b'c, B=ca'-ac', C=ab' -a'b." 
Other methods more symmetrical, and perhaps not more tedious than that of Euler, 
were also suggested in this paper for the treatment of indeterminate equations, and 
for the resolution of an important class of arithmetical problems which depend on 
those equations in the manner just explained. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 7 

On a Generalization of Poncelot's TJieorems for the Linear Representation 
of Quadratic Radicals. By Professor Sylvester, M.A., F.R.S. 

The author explained the application of Poncelet's theorems, to practical ques- 
tions of mechanics in the case of forces acting in a single plane as in the theory of 
bridges. 

He next referred to the mode of extension of this theorem, suggested by Poncelet, 
applicable to the case of forces in space, and pointed out its insufficiency, and, in a 
certain sense, its incorrectness. 

The essential preliminary question to be resolved in the first instance (after which 
the matter became one of easy calculation), was shown to be that of cutting off by 
a plane the smallest possible segment of a sphere that should contain the whole of a 
given set of points lying on the sphere's surface. Some years ago Prof. Sylvester 
had proposed in the * Quarterly Mathematical Journal,' without any suspicion of 
its having any practical applications, the following question : — " Given a set of points 
in a plane to draw the smallest possible circle that should contain them all." By a 
singular coincidence, Professor Pierce, of Cambridge University, U.S., had studied 
this question and obtained a complete solution of it, which he had communicated to 
the author during the present meeting of the British Association. A slight con- 
sideration served to show that precisely the same solution as Professor Pierce had 
found for the problem of points in a plane was applicable with a merely nominal 
change to the sphere also ; and thus the solution of a question set almost in sport 
was found to supply an essential link for the complete development of a method of 
considerable importance in practical mechanics. The author stated that it would 
be easy to draw up tables of the values of the constants appearing in the linear 
function, representing the resultant of three forces at right angles to one another, 
for the principal cases likely to occur in practice, the values of these constants 
depending solely upon the condition of relative magnitude to which the component 
forces are supposed to be subjected. 



Light, Heat. 

On the Influence of very small Apertures on Telescopic Vision. 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. 

[The manuscript of this paper has been lost.] 

On some Optical Illusions connected with the Inversion of Perspective. 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. 

The term "Inversion of Perspective" has been applied to a class of optical 
illusions, well known and easily explained, in which depressions are turned into 
elevations, and elevations into depressions. One of the most remarkable cases of 
this kind, which has not yet been explained, presented itself to the late Lady 
Gcorgiana Wolf, and has been recorded by her husband Dr. Wolf. When she was 
riding on a sand-beach in Egypt, all the footprints of horses appeared as elevations, 
in place of depressions, in the sand. No particulars are mentioned, in reference to 
the place of the sun, or the nature of the siu'rounding objects, to enable us to form 
any conjecture respecting the cause of this phenomenon. Having often tried to see 
this illusion, I was some time ago so fortunate as not only to observe it myself, but 
to show it to others. In walking along the west sands of St. Andrews, the foot- 
prints, both of men and of horses, appeared as elevations. In a short time they 
sank into depressions, and subsequently rose into elevations. The sun was at this 
time not very far from the horizon, on the right hand ; and on the left there were 
large waves of the sea breaking into very bright foam. The only explanation which 
occurred to me was, that the illusion appeared when the observer supposed that 
the footprints were illuminated with the light of the breakers, and not by the sun. 
Having, however, more recently observed the phenomenon, when the sun was very 
high on the right, and the breakers on the left very distant, and consequently very 



8 REPORT 1860. 

faint, I could not consider the preceding explanation as well-founded. Upon 
attending to the circumstances under which they were now seen, I observed that 
the human footprints were all covered with dry sand that had been blown into them, 
so that they were much brighter than the surrounding sand, and than the dark side 
of the impression next the sun ; and hence it is probable that they appeared to be 
nearer the eye than the dark sand in which they were formed, and consequently eleva- 
tions. After repeated examinations of them, I found the footprints appeared as 
elevations as far as the eye could see them ; and they were equally visible with one 
or both eyes. But whenever the eye rested for a little while on the nearest foot- 
print, it resumed its natural concavity. 

I have observed other illusions of this kind, which are more easily explained, 
though they differ from any hitherto described. In the Church of Saint Agostino 
in Rome, there is above each arch a painted festoon suspended on two short pil- 
lars; but instead of appearing in relief, as the painter intended, by shading the one 
side of them, they appeared concave, like an intaglio. In other positions in the 
church they rose into relief. Upon a subsequent visit to the church, I found that 
the festoon, or suspended wreath, was concave when it was illuminated, or rather 
when the observer saw that it was illuminated, b)' a window beneath it, and in re- 
lief when the eye saw that it was illuminated by a window above it, the object 
being similarly illuminated in both cases. In the common cases of inverted per- 
spective, the eye is deceived by looking at the inversion of the shadow in the 
cameo or intaglio itself; but in the present case the eye is deceived by perceiving 
that the body painted, supposed to be in relief, is illuminated by a light either above 
or below it. 

An optical illusion of a different kind presented itself to me in the Church of 
Santa Giustina at Padua. Upon entering the church we see three cupolas. The 
one beneath which we stood appeared very shallow ; the next appeared much 
deeper, and the third deeper still. They were all, however, of the same depth, as 
we ascertained by placing ourselves under each in succession, and observing that it 
was always the shallowest. 

On Microscopic Vision, and a Neiv Form of 3Iicroscope. 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. 

la studying the influence of aperture on the images of bodies as formed in the 
camera, by lenses or mirrors, it occurred to me that in microscopic vision it might 
exercise a still more injurious influence. Opticians have recently exerted their 
skill in producing achromatic object-glasses for the microscope with large angles 
of aperture. In 1848 the late distinguished optician, Mr. Andrew Ross, asserted 
" that 135° was the largest angular pencil that could be passed through a micro- 
scopic object-glass," and yet in 1855 he had increased it to 170° ! while some 
observers speak of angular apertures of 175°. In considering the influence of aper- 
ture, we shall suppose that an achromatic object-glass with an angle of aperture 
of 170° is optically perfect, representing every object without colour and without 
spherical aberration. When the microscopic object is a cube, we shall see five of 
its faces ; and when it is a sphere or a cylinder, we shall see nine-tenths or more of its 
circumference. How then does it happen that large apertures exhibit objects which 
are not seen when small apertures with the same focal length are employed ? 
This superiority is particularly shown with test-objects marked with grooves or 
ridges, and obliquely illuminated. The marginal part of the lens will enlarge the 
grooves and ridges, and they will thus be rendered visible, not because they are 
seen more distinctly, but because they are expanded by the combination of their in- 
coincident images. Hence we have an explanation of the fact — well known to all 
who use the microscope, — that objects are seen more distinctly with object-glasses 
of small angular aperture. In the one case we have, with the same magnifying 
power, not only an enlarged and indistinct image of objects, but a false representa- 
tion of them, from which their true structure cannot be discovered ; while in the 
other we have a smaller and distinct image, and a more correct representation of 
the object. 

But these are not the only objections to large angular apertures and short focal 
lengths. 1. In the first place, it is extremely difficult to illuminate objects when 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 9 

so close to the object-glass. 2. There is a great loss of light, from its oblique in- 
cidence on the surface "of the first lens. 3. The surface of glass, — with the most 
perfect polish, — must be covered with minute pores, produced by the attrition of 
the polishing powder ; and light, falling upon the sides of these pores with extreme 
obliquity, must not only suffer diffraction, but be refracted less perfectly than when 
incident at a less angle. 4. When the object is almost in contact with the anterior 
lens, the microscope is wholly unfit for researches in which mechanical or che- 
mical operations are required, and also for the examination of objects enclosed in 
minerals or other transparent bodies. 5. In object-glasses now in use, the rays 
of light must pass through a great thickness of glass of doubtful homogeneity. It 
is a question yet to be solved whether or not a substance can be truly transparent, 
— in which the elements are not united in definite proportion, — in which the sub- 
stances combined have very different refractive and dispersive powers ; and in 
which the particles are so loosely united that they separate from one another, as in 
the various kinds of decomposition to which glass is liable. 

If the best microscopes are affected by these sources of error, every exertion 
should be made to diminish or remove them. 1. The first step, we conceive, is 
to abandon large angular apertures, and to use object-glasses of moderate focal 
length, effecting at the eye-glass any additional magnifying power that may be re- 
quired. 2. In order to obtain a better illumination, either by light incident verti- 
cally or obliquely, a new form of the microscope would be advantageous. In place of 
directing the microscope to the object itself, placed as it now is almost touching 
the object-glass, let it be directed to an image of the object, formed by the thinnest 
achromatic lens, of such a focal length that the object may be an inch or more 
from the lens, and its image equal to, or greater, or less than the object. In this 
way the observer will be able to illuminate the object, whether opake or trans- 
parent, and may subject it to any experiments he may desire to make upon it. It 
may thus be studied without a covering of glass, and when its parts are developed 
by immersion in a fluid. 3. The sources of error arising from the want of perfect 
polish and perfect homogeneity of the glass of which the lenses are composed, are, 
to some extent, hypothetical ; but there are reasons for believing,— and these 
reasons corroborated by facts, — that a body whose ingredients are united by fusion, 
and kept in a state of constraint from which they are striving to get free, cannot 
possess that homogeneity of structure, or that perfection of polish, which will allow 
the rays of light to be refracted and transmitted without injurious modifications. If 
glass is to be used for the lenses of microscopes, long and careful annealing should 
be adopted, and the polishing process should be continued long after it appears 
perfect to the optician. We believe, however, that the time is not distant when trans- 
parent minerals, in which their elements are united in definite proportions, will be 
substituted for glass. Diamond, topaz, and rock-crystal are those which appear 
best suited for lenses. The white topaz of New Holland is particularly fitted for 
optical purposes, as its double refraction may he removed by cutting it in plates 
perpendicular to one of its optical axes. In rock-crystal the structure is, generally 
speaking, less perfect along the .axis of double refraction than in any other direc- 
tion, but this imperfection does not exist in topaz. 



On the decomposed Glass found at Nmeveh and other places. 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., JF.R.S. 

The different kinds of glass which are in common use, consist of sand or silex 
combined by fusion with earths or alkalies, or metals which either act as fluxes, or 
communicate different colours or different degrees of lustre or refractive power to 
the combination. 

In quartz or rock-crystal, which is pure silex, and in other regularly crystallized 
bodies, the molecules or atoms unite in virtue of regular laws, the pole of one atom 
uniting with the pole of another. Such substances, therefore, do not decompose 
under the ordinary action of the elements. The lens of Hock- Crystal, for example, 
found bj r Mr. Layard at Nineveh, is as sound as it was many thousand years ago 
when in the form of a crystal. 
■ In the case of glass, however, the silex has been melted and forced into union 



10 REPORT 1860. 

with other bodies to which it has no natural affinity ; and therefore its atoms, 
which have their similar poles lying in every possible direction, have a constant 
tendency to recover their crystalline position as when in a state of silex. For the 
same reason, the earths, alkalies and metals, with which the atoms of silex have 
been constrained by fusion to enter into union, all tend to resume their crystalline 
position and separate themselves from the silex. 

Owing to the manner in which melted glass is cooled and annealed, whether it 
is made by flashing or blowing, or moulding, the cohesion of its parts is not the 
same throughout the nias3 ; and consequently its particles are held together with 
different degrees of force, varying in relation to points, lines, and surfaces. Au 
atom of the flux, or other ingredient, may be less firmly united to an atom of silex 
in one place than in another, depending on the degree of heat by which they were 
combined, or upon the relative positions of the poles of the atoms themselves when 
combined. There are some remarkable cases where flint-glass without any rude 
exposure to the elements has become opake, and I have seen specimens iu 'which 
the disintegration had commenced a few years after it was made. In general, how- 
ever, the process is very slow, excepting in stables, where the prevalence of am- 
monia hastens the decomposition and produces all the beautiful colours of the 
soap-bubble. It is, however, from among the ruins of ancient buildings that glass 
is found in all the stages of decomposition ; and there is perhaps no material body 
that ceases to exist with such grace and beauty, when it surrenders itself to time 
and not to disease. 

In damp localities, where acids and alkalies prevail in the soil, the glass rots as 
it were by a process which, owing to the opacity of the rotten part, it is difficult to 
study, it may be broken between the Angers of an infant ; and we often find in the 
middle of the fragment a plate of the original glass which has not yielded to the 
process of decay. 

In dry localities, where Eoman, Greek, and Assyrian glass has been found, the 
process of decomposition is exceedingly interesting," and its resvdts singularly beau- 
tiful. At one or more points in the surface of the glass the decomposition begins. 

Itextends round that point in spherical surfaces so that the first film is a minute 
hemispherical cup of exceeding thinness. Film after film is formed in a similar 
manner, till perhaps twenty or thirty are crowded into the 50th of an inch. They 
now resemble the section of a pearl or of an onion, and as the films are still glass, 
the colours of thin plates are seen when we look down through their edges which 
form the surface of the glass. These thin edges, however, being exposed to the 
elements, suffer decomposition. The particles of silex and the other ingredients 
now readily separate, and the decomposition goes on downwards in films parallel 
to the surface of the glass, the crystals of silex in one specimen forming a white 
ring, and the other ingredients rings of a different colour. ( See the Figure.) 

Such is the process round one point, but the decomposition commences at many 
points, and generally these points lie in lines, so that the circles of decomposition 
meet one another and form sinuous lines. When there are only two points, these 
circles, when they meet, surround the two points of decomposition like the rings 
round two knots of wood ; and in like manner, when there are many points, and 
these points near each other, the curves of decomposition unite as already mentioned, 
and form sinuous lines. When the decomposition is uniform and the little hemi- 
spheres have nearly the same depth, we can separate the upper film from the one 
below it, the convexities of the one falling into the concavities of the other. 

This general description was illustrated bv drawings on the table, all of which 
were executed by Miss Mary King, of Ballylin, now the Hon. Mrs. Ward. 

But beautiful and correct as these drawings are, they convey a very imperfect 
idea of the brilliant colours and singular forms which characterize glass in a parti- 
cular stage of its decomposition, and of th