(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

? hifh 



[ 



» 



REPORT 



or THE 



THIRTY-FIRST MEETING 



OF THE ; 



... .3 X 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



rOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT MAJ^CHESTEE IN SEPTEMBEE 1861. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MUERAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1863. 



PRINTED BT 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



O 



ALERB y FLAMMAM. 





?r -.^ / 



CONTENTS. 



Pag« 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxiv 

Table of Council from commencement xxv 

Officers and Council xxviii 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxix 

Corresponding Members xxx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxxi 

Report of the Kew Committee xxxiii 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xxxix 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxxix 

Synopsis of Money Grants xliii 

General Statement of Sums paid for Scientific Purposes xlv 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee xlix 

Arrangement of the General Meetings ; xlix 

Address of the President li 

REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1860-61. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological 
Society, &c.; J. H. Gladstone, Esq., i'h.D., F.R.S. &c. ; R. P. 
Greg, Esq., F.G.S. &c. ; and E. J, Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S., M.B.M.S. 
&c I 

Report on the Action of Prison Diet and Discipline on the Bodily 
Functions of Prisoners. — Part I. By Edward Smith, M.D., LL.B., 
F.R.S., Assistant Physician to the Hospital lor Consumption, Bromp- 
ton ; and W. R. Milner, M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Convict Prison, 
Wakefield. With Appendices 44; 

Freight as affected by Differences in the Dynamic Properties of Steam- 
ships. By Charles Atherton, Chief Engineer, H.M. Dockyard, 
Woolwich 82 

Report on the Progress of Celestial Photography since the Aberdeen 
Meeting. By Warren De la Rue, F.R.S 94 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 

On the Theory of Exchanges, and its recent extension. By Balfour 
Stewart, A.M 97 

On the Recent Progress and Present Condition of Manufacturing Che- 
mistry in the South Lancashire District. By Drs. E. Schunck, 
R. Angus Smith, and H. E. Roscoe 108 

On Ethno-Climatology ; or, the Acclimatization of Man. By James 
Hunt, Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Foreign Associate of the Anthropolo- 
gical Society of Paris, Honorary Secretary of the Ethnological Society 
of London 129 

On Experiments on the Gauging of Water by Triangular Notches. By 
James Thomson, M.A., Professor of Civil Engineering, Queen's 
College, Belfast 151 

Report on Field Experiments and Laboratory Researches on the Con- 
stituents of Manures essential to cultivated Crops. By Dr. Augustus 
VoELCKER, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester 158 

Provisional Report on the Present State of our Knowledge respecting 
the Transmission of Sound-signals during Fogs at Sea. By Henry 
Hennessy, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Catholic 
University of Ireland 173 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Birds of the 
Genus Apteryx living in New Zealand. By Philip Lutley Scla- 
ter and Ferdinand von Hochstetter 176 

Report of the Results of Deep-sea Dredging in Zetland ; with a Notice 
of several Species of Mollusca new to Science or to the British Isles. 
By J. GwYN Jeffreys, F.R.S., F.G.S 178 

Contributions to a Report on the Physical Aspect of the Moon. By 
J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Geology, Oxford ... 180 

Contribution to a Report on the Physical Aspect of the Moon. By W. 
R. BiRT, F.R.A.S 181 

Preliminary Report of the Dredging Committee for the Mersey and Dee. 
By Dr. Collingwood and Mr. Byerley 188 

Third Report of the Committee on Steam-ship Performance 190 

Preliminary Report on the Best Mode of Preventing the Ravages of 
Teredo and other Animals in our Ships and Harbours. By J. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, FR.S., F.G.S 200 

Report of the Experiments made at Holyhead (North Wales) to ascer- 
tain the Transit- Velocity of Waves, analogous to Earthquake Waves, 
through the local Rock Formations : by command of the Royal Society 
and of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. By 
Robert Mallet, C.E., F.R.S 201 

On the Explosions in British Coal-Mines during the year 1859. By 
Thomas Dobson, B.A., Head Master of the School Frigate "Con- 
way," Liverpool 236 

Continuation of Report on Steam Navigation at Hull. By James 
Oldham, C.E., Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers 239 

Brief Summary of a Report on the Flora of the North of Ireland. By 
Professor G. Dickie, M.D... 240 



CONTENTS* 

On the Psychical and Physical Characters of the Mincopies, or Natives 
of the Andaman Islands, and on the Relations thereby indicated to 
other Races of Mankind. By Professor Owen, F.R.S. &c 24-1 

Report from the Balloon Committee. By Colonel Sykes, M.P., F.R.S. 249 

Report on the Repetition of the Magnetic Survey of England, made at 
the request of the General Committee of the British Association. 
By Major-General Eeward Sabine, R.A., President of the Royal 
Society ^ 250 

Interim Report of the Committee for Dredging on the North and East 
Coasts of Scotland 280 

On the Resistance of Iron Plates to Statical Pressure and the Force of 
Impact by Projectiles at High Velocities. By William Fairbairn, 
Esq., LL.D., F.R.S. &c.. President of the Association 280 

Continuation of Report to determine the Effect of Vibratory Action and 
long-continued Changes of Load upon Wrought-iron Girders. By 
William Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., &c.. President of the 
Association 286 

Report of the Committee on the Law of Patents 289 

Report on the Theory of Numbers. — Part III. By H. J. Stephen 
Smith, M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford , 292 



VI CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 

Address by G. B. Airy, Astronomer Royal, President of the Section 1 

Mr. A. Cayley on Curves of the Third Order 2 

Mr. Thomas Dobson on the General Forms of the Symmetrical Properties of 
Plane Triangles 2 

C. F. Ekman's Inquiry into the Fundamental Principles of Algebra, chiefly 
with regard to Negative and Imaginary Quantities 4 

M. BiERENS DE Haan on Definite Integrals 4 

Sir W. R. Hamilton on Geometrical Rests in Space 4 

Rev. T. P. KiEKMAN on the Roots of Substitutions 4 

Professor Price on the Influence of the Rotation of the Earth on the Apparent 
Path of a Heavy Particle 6 

Mr. W. H. L. Russell on the Calculus of Functions, with Remarks on the 
Theory of Electricity 9 

Mr. William Spottiswoode on Petzval's Asymptotic Method of solving Dif- 
ferential Equations 10 

on the Reduction cf the decadic Binary Quantic 

to its Canonical Form 11 

Professor Sylvester on the Involution of Axes of Rotation 12 

Astronomy. 

M. N. Adler on the Almanac 12 

The Astronomer Royal's Remarks on Dr. Hincks's Paper on the Acceleration 
of the Moon's Mean Motion as indicated by the Records of Ancient Eclipses 12 

Mr. J. S. Stuart Glennie on the Resistance of the Ether to the Comets and 
Planets, and on the Rotation of the latter 13 

Mr. R. P. Greg on M. Haidinger's Communication on the Origin and Fall 
of Aerolites 13 

M. W. Haidinger's attempt to account for the Physical Condition and the 
Fall of Meteorites upon our Planet 15 

■ Rev. Edward Hincks on the Quantity of the Acceleration of the Moon's 
Mean Motion, as indicated by the Records of certain Ancient Eclipses 22 

Mr. Daniel Vaughan on Cases of Planetary Instability indicated by the ap- 
pearance of Temporary Stars 24 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 
Physics. 

Mr. J. S. Stuart Glennie on the Application of the Principle of the Conser- 
vation of Force to the mechanical explanation of the Correlation of Forces... 26 

Professor W. Thomson's Physical Considerations regarding the Possible Age 
of the Sun's Heat 27 

Light, Heat. 

Sir David Brewster on Photographic Micrometers 28 

■ on the Compensation of Impressions moving over the 

Retina 29 

on the Optical Study of the Retina 29 

on Binocular Lustre 29 



Mr. J. Alexander Davies's Observations upon the Production of Colour by 
the Prism, the Passive Mental Effect or Instinct in comprehending the En- 
largement of the Visual Angle, and other Optical Phenomena 31 

Mr. Thomas Rose on Presentations of Colour produced under novel conditions; 
with their assumed relation to the received Theory of Light and Colour 32 

Mr. William Thomas Shaw's Method of interpreting some of the Pheno- 
mena of Light 33 

Mr. John Smith on the Chromascope, and what it reveals 33 

■ on the Prism and Chromascope 33 

Mr. Thomas Sutton on the Panoramic Lens 33 

Mr. H. H. Vivian's Microscopic Observations on the Structure of Metals 34 

Mr. J. J. Walker's Observations on an Iris seen in Water, near Sunset 35 

Electricity, Magnetism. 

The Astronomer Royal on Spontaneous Terrestrial Galvanic Currents 35 

■ on the Laws of the Principal Inequalities, Solar and 

Lunar, of Terrestrial Magnetic Force in the Horizontal Plane, from obser- 
vations at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, extending from 1848 to 1857... 36 

Mr. Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright on the Formation of Stand- 
ards of Electrical Quantity and Resistance 37 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on the Deposit of Metals from the Negative Terminal of an 
Induction Coil during the Electrical Discharge in Vacuo 38 

Professor Hennessy on a Probable Cause of the Diurnal Variation of Magnetic 
Dip and Declination , 39 

Mr. Fleeminq Jenkin on Permanent Thermo-Electric Currents in Circuits of 
one Metal 39 

Rev. H. Lloyd on the Secular Changes of Terrestrial Magnetism, and their 
Connexion with Disturbances 41 

Mr. C. W. Siemens on an Electric Resistance Thermometer for observing 
Temperatures at inaccessible situations 44 

Messrs. Archibald Smith and F. J- Evans on the Effect produced on the 
Deviation of the Compass by the Length and Arrangement of the Compass 
Needles ; and on a New Mode of Correcting the Quadrantal Deviation 45 

Mr. F. J. Evans on H.M.S. Warrior's Compasses 45 

Mr. B. Stewart on the Photographic Records given at the Kew Observatory 
of the great Magnetic Storm of the end of August and beginning of Septem- 
ber 1859 47 



■ ■« 



. VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney on the Amount of the direct Magnetic Effect of the 
Sun or Moon on Instruments at the Earth's Surface 47 

Mr. Charles Tomlinson on Lightning Figures, chiefly with reference to those 
Tree-like or Ramified Figures sometimes found on the Bodies of Men and 
Animals that have been struck by Lightning 48 

Meteorology. 

Mr. J. Ashe on the Causes of the Phenomena of Cyclones 49 

Mr. John Allan Broun on the supposed Connexion between Meteorological 
Phenomena and the Variations of the Earth's Magnetic Force 49 

Mr. William Danson on the Law of Universal Storms 52 

Mr. William Fairbairn on the Temperature of the Earth's Crust, as exhi- 
bited by Thermometrical Returns obtained during the sinking of the Deep 
Mine at Dukinfield 53 

Rear-Admiral FitzRoy's Tidal Observations 56 

Dr. J. H, Gladstone on the Distribution of Fog around the British Isles 57 

Mr. James Glaisher on a Deep-Sea Thermometer invented by Henry John- 
son, Esq 53 

— ■ on a Deep-Sea Pressure-Gauge invented by Henry John- 
son, Esq 59 

on a Daily Weather Map ; on Admiral FitzRoy's Paper 

presented to Section A. relative to the Royal Charter Storm ; and on some 
Meteorological Documents relating to Mr. Green's Balloon Ascents 61 

Mr. J. T. GoDDARD on the Cloud Mirror and Sunshine Recorder 61 

Professor Hennessy on the Connexion Jbetween Storms and Vertical Disturb- 
ances of the Atmosphere 61 

Mr. William Hopkins on the Theories of Glacial Motion 61 

Mr. W. S. Jevons on the Deficiency of Rain in an Elevated Rain-Gauge, as 
caused by Wind 62 

Mr. H. W. Crawley on a Solar Halo observed at Sydney, Cape Breton, Nova 
Scotia, August 13, 1861 63 

Mr. Peter J. Livsey's Description of a Mercurial Barometer, recently invented 
by Mr. Richard Howson, Engineer of Middlesborough-on-Tees 64 

Mr. E. J. Lowe on the Great Cold of Christmas I860, and its destructive 
Effects 64 

Letter from Captain Maury on the importance of an Expedition to the Antarctic 
Regions, for iMeteorological and other scientific purposes. (Communicated by 
the Lords Commitsioners of the Admiralty) 65 

Mr. John E. Morgan on an Anemometer for Registering the Maximum Force 
and extreme Variation of the Wind 72 

Rev. T. Rankin's Meteorological Observations at Huggate, Yorkshire 73 

Mr. C. W. Siemens on a Bathometer, or Instrument to indicate the Depth of 
the Sea on Board Ship without submerging a Line 73 

Mr. Balfour Stewart on a New Minimum Mercurial Thermometer proposed 
by Mr. Casella 74 

Mr. G. J. Symons on British Rain-fall 74 

Rev. W. Walton on some Signs of Changes of the Weather 74 



CONTENTS. IX 

CHEMISTRY. 

Page 
Address by W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S. &c.. Professor of Chemistry, King's 

College, London 75 

Professor ANDERso>f on the Constitution of Paranaphthaline or Anthracene, 

and some of its Decomposition Products 76 

Professor Andrews on the Effect of Great Pressures combined with Cold on 

the Six Non-condensable Gases 76 

Dr. Grace Calvert on the Chemical Composition of some Woods employed 

in the Navy 'j'j 

on the Chemical Composition of Steel 77 

Professor Daubeny on the Evolution of Ammonia from Volcanos 77 

Mr. H. Deane on a particular Decomposition of Ancient Glass 78 

Dr. Delffs on Morin, and the non-existence of Morotannic acid 78 

Mr. G. C. Foster on Piperic and Hydropiperic Acids 78 

Professor Galloway on the Composition and Valuation of Superphosphates... 79 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Mr. G. Gladstone on an Aluminous Mineral from 

the Upper Chalk near Brighton 7g 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Emission and Absorption of Rays of Light by 

certain Gases 79 

Mr. W. Gossage on the History of the Alkali Manufacture 80 

Mr. J. J. Griffin on the Construction of Gas-Burners for Chemical Use 81 

Mr. W. J. Hurst on the Sulphur Compound formed by the Action of Sulphu- 
retted Hydrogen on Formiate of Lead at a High Temperature 82 

Dr. Joule and Professor W. Thomson on the Thermal Effects of Elastic Fluids 83 

Mr. J. B. Lawes and Dr. J. H. Gilbert on some points in connexion with 

the Exhaustion of Soils 84 

Dr. J. H. Lloyd on Purifying Towns from Sewage by means of Dry Cloacae... 83 

Dr. S. Macadam on the Proportion of Tin present in Tea- Lead 85 

on the Proportion of Arsenic present in Paper-Hangings 86 

on an Economical Mode of boiling Rags, &c. with AlkalineLey 86 

Mr. W. Marriott on the Separation of Ammonia from Coal-gas 86 

Mr. John Mercer on Madder Photographs 87 

Professor W. A. Miller on Photographic Spectra of the Electric Light 87 

Dr. Moffat on Atmospheric Ozone 88 

on Sulphuretted Hydrogen as a Product of Putrefaction 89 

Mr. William Roberts on the Solvent Power of Strong and Weak Solutions 

of the Alkaline Carbonates on Uric Acid Calculi 90 

Professor Roscoe on Perchloric Acid and its Hydrates 91 

Drs. Russell and Matthiessen on Vesicular Structure in Copper 92 

Dr. Smith (of Sydney) on certain Difficullies in the way of separating Gold 

from Quartz 92 

Professor Tennant on a Specimen of Meteoric Iron from Mexico 93 

Mr. Charles Tomlinson on the Cohesion-Figures of Liquids 93 

Dr. Voelcker on the Composition of Crystallized Moroxite, from Jumillo, 

near Alicante 93 

Dr. Wallace on the Composition and Properties of the Water of Loch Katrine, 

as supplied in Glasgow 94 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Drs. Williamson and Russell on an Apparatus for the rapid Separation and 
Measurement of Gases 95 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, President of the Section 95 

Mr. W. H. Baily's Palseontological Remarks upon the Silurian Rocks of Ire- 
land 108 

Mr. T. W. Barrow's Remarks on the Bone-caves of Craven 108 

Mr. E. W. Binney's succinct account of the Geological Features of the neigh- 
bourhood of Manchester 109 

Mr. J. Bonwick on the Extinct Volcanos of Australia 109 

Mr. Antonio Brady on some Flint Instruments, &c. exhibited to the Meeting 110 
Mr. Alexander Bryson on the Aqueous Origin of Granite 110 

Rev. C. R. Gordon on the Laws discoverable as to the Formation of Land on 

the Globe 112 

Mr. C. Gould on the Results of the Geological Survey of Tasmania 112 

Mr. A. H. Green on the Faults of a portion of the Lancashire Coal-field 113 

Dr. Hagen's Comparison of Fossil Insects of England and Bavaria 113 

Professor Harkness on the Old Red Sandstone of South Perthshire 114 

on the Sandstones and their associated Deposits of the 

Valley of the Eden and the Cumberland Plain 115 

Mr. D. Milne Home's Notice of Elongated Ridges of Drift, common in the 
South of Scotland, called ' Kaims ' 115 

Mr. Edward Hull on Isomeric Lines, and the relative Distribution of the 
Calcareous and Sedimentary Strata of the Carboniferous Group of Britain... 116 

Professor Jukes on the Progress of the Survey in Ireland 117 

Mr. J. G. Marshall on the Relation of the Eskdale Granite at Bootle to the 
Schistose Rocks, with Remarks on the General Metamorphic Origin of 
Granite 117 

Mr. George H. Morton on the Pleistocene Deposits of the District around 
Liverpool 120 

Mr. C. Moore's Notes on two Ichthyosauri to be exhibited to the Meeting.... 121 

Information from Professor Haidinger respecting the Present State of the Im- 
perial Geological Institution of Vienna. (Communicated by Sir R. I. Mur- 
chison) 121 

Maps and Sections recently published by the Geological Survej', exhibited by 
Sir R. I. Murchison 121 

Professor Owen on a Dinosaurian Reptile (,Scelidosaurus Ilarrisoni) from the 
Lower Lias of Charmouth 121 

on the Remains of a Plesiosaurian Reptile (Plesiosavrus Aus- 

tralis) from the Oolitic Formation in the Middle Island of New Zealand 122 

Mr. W. Patterson on certain Markings in Sandstones 123 

Mr. W. Pengelly on a new Bone-cave at Brixham 123 

. on the Recent Encroachments of the Sea on the Shores of 

Torbay 124 

on the Relative Age of the Petherwin and Barnstaple Beds. 124 

on the Age of the Granites of Dartmoor 127 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Pioiessor Phillips's Notice of the Post-glacial Gravels of the Valley of the 
Thames 129 

Mr. T. A. Readwin on the Gold of North Wales 129 

Mr. Richardson on the Details of the Carboniferous Limestone, as laid open 
by the Railway Cutting and Tunnel near Almondsbury, north of Bristol 130 

Mr. J. W. Salter on the Nature of SigillaricB, and on the Bivalve Shells of 
the Coal 131 

Mr. R. H. Scott on the Granitic Rocks of Donegal, and the Minerals asso- 
ciated therewith 131 

Mr. Harry Seeley on the Elsworth Rock, and the Clay above it 132 

Rev. W. S. Symonds on some Phenomena connected with the Drifts of the 
Severn, Avon, Wye, and Usk 133 

Professor Vaughan on Subterranean Movements 134 

Mr. W. Whincopp on the Red Crag Deposits of the County of Suffolk, con- 
sidered in relation to the finding of Celts, in France and England, in the 
Drift of the Post-Pliocene Period 134 

Messrs. J. T. Wilkinson and J. Whitaker on the Burnley Coal-field and 
its Fossil Contents 135 

Mr. A. B. Wynne on the Geology of Knockshigowna in Tipperary, Ireland... 135 

Mr. J. Yates on the Excess of Water in the Region of the Earth about New 
Zealand : its Causes and Effects 136 



BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

Remarks by Professor Babington (Chairman) 137 

Dr. T. Alcock on some Points in the Anatomy of Cyprcea 137 

Dr. Philip P. Carpenter on the Cosmopolitan Operations of the Smith- 
sonian Institution 137 

on the Variations of Tecturella grandis 137 

Dr. John Cleland on the Anatomy of Orthagoi-iscun Mola, the short Sunfish 138 

Mr. CuTHBERT Collingwood's Scheme to induce the Mercantile Marine to 
assist in the Advancement of Science by the intelligent Collection of Objects 
of Natural History from all parts of the Globe 138 

Mr. J. CouBURN on the Culture of the Vine in the Open Air 140 

Mr. W. Danson on Barragudo Cotton from the Plains of the Amazon, and on 
the Flax-fibre Cotton of North America 140 

Professor Daubeny on the Functions discharged by the Roots of Plants ; and 
on a Violet peculiar to the Calamine Rocks in the neighbourhood of Aix-la- 
Chapelle 141 

on the Influence exerted by Light on the Function of 

Plants 141 

Mr. H. Fawcett on the Method of Mr. Darwin in his Treatise on the Origin 
of Species 141 

Mr. George D. Gibe on the Arrest of Puparial Metamorphosis of Vanessa 
Antiopa or Camberwell Beauty 143 

Dr. J. E. Gray on the Height of the Gorilla 143 

Mr. H. L. Grindon on the Flora of Manchester 145 

Rev. H. H. HiGGiNS on the Arrangement of Hardy Herbaceous Plants adopted 
in the Botanic Gardens, Liverpool 145 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Rev. T. HiNCKS on the Development of the Hydroid Polyps, Clavatella and 
Stauridia, with Remarks on the Relation between the Polyp and its Medu- 
soid, and between the Polyp and the Medusa 145 

on the Ovicells of the Polyzoa, with reference to the views of 

Professor Huxley 145 

Rev. A. R. HoGAN on Daphnia Schcefferi 146 

Mr. J. GwYN Jeffreys on an Abnormal Form of Cyathina Smithii 146 

Dr. Jessen on the Absorbing Power of the Roots of Plants 147 

Mr. Maxwell T. Masters on the Relation between Pinnate and Palmate 
Leaves 148 

Mr. J. M. Mitchell on the Migration of the Herring 149 

Rev. Alfred Merle Norman on the Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Zoo- 
phytes obtained in Deep-sea Dredging off the Shetland Isles in 1861 151 

Professor Owen on the Cervical and Lumbar Vertebrae of the Mole {Talpa 
Europcea, L.) 152 

• on some Objects of Natural History from the Collection of 

M. DuChaillu 155 

Statistics of the Herring Fishing. (Communicated by Mr. C. W. Peach) 156 

Dr. P. L. Sclater's Remarks on the late Increase of our Knowledge of the 
Struthious Birds 158 

Mr. H. T. Stainton on a New Mining Larva, recently discovered 159 

Mr. A. Stansfield on Varieties of Blechnum Spicant collected in I860 and 
1861 159 

Professor Wyville Thomson's Observations on the Development of Synapta 
inhmrens 162 

Mr. Tuffen West on some Points of Interest in the Structure and Habits of 
Spiders 162 

Physiology. 

Professor Lionel S. Beale on the Structure and Growth of the Elementary 
Parts (Cells) of Living Beings 164 

Dr. John Cleland on a Method of Craniometry, with Observations on the 
Varieties of Form of the Human Skull 164 

Dr. John Davy on the Action of Lime on Animal and Vegetable Substances .. 165 

on the Blood of the Common Earthworm 165 

on the Question whether the Hair is subject or not to a sud- 
den Change of Colour 166 

Mr. R. Garner's Observations on the Encephalon of Mammalia 166 

Mr. Albany Hancock on certain points in the Anatomy and Physiology of 
the Dibranchiate Cephalopoda 166 

Professor Hyrtl on Nerves without End 16/ 

— on the Pneumatic Processes of the Occipital Bone 167 

on Portions of Lungs without Blood-vessels 167 

Dr. Charles Kidd on Chloroform Accidents, and some new Physiological 
Facts as to their Explanation and Removal 167 

Dr. J. D. Morell on the Physical and Physiological Processes involved in 
Sensation ]68 

Dr. Mouatt on Prison Dietary in India 170 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 
Professor H. Muller on the Existence and Arrangement of the Fovea Centra- 
lis Retinae in the Eyes of Animals 171 

Professor Remak on the Influence of the Sympathetic Nerve on Voluntarj' 
Muscles, as witnessed in the Treatment of Progressive Muscular Atrophy by 
Secondary Electric Currents 171 

Dr. B. W. Richardson's Physiological Researches on the Artificial Produc- 
tion of Cataract 171 

Physiological Researches on Resuscitation 172 

Mr. Charles Robertson on the Cervical and Occipital Vertebrae of Osseous 
Fishes 172 

Dr. George Robinson on the Connexion between the Functions of Respira- 
tion and Digestion 173 

Professor Rolleston on the Anatomy of Pferopus 173 

on some Points in the Anatomy of Insectivora 173 

on the Homologies of the Lobes of the Liver in Mammalia 174 

Dr. Edward Smith on the Influence of the Season of the Year on the Human 
System 175 

Mr. J. Toynbee on the Action of the Eustachian Tube in Man, as demonstrated 
by Dr. Politzer's Otoscope 176 

Dr. J. TuRNBULL on the Physiological and Medicinal Properties of Sulphate 
of Aniline, and its Use in the Treatment of Chorea 177 



GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Opening Address by Mr. John Crawfurd, President of the Section, on the 
Connexion between Ethnology and Physical Geography 177 

Mr. R. Alcock's Journey in the Interior of Japan, with the Ascent of Fusi- 
yama 183 

Hon. J. Baker on Australia, including the Recent Explorations of Mr. Macdonald 
Stuart 184 

Dr. Charles T. Beke on the Mountains forming the Eastern side of the Basin 
of the Nile, and the Origin of the Designation ' Mountains of the Moon,' as 
applied to them 184 

's Notice of a Volcanic Eruption on the Coast of Abessinia. 186 

Admiral Sir E. Belcher's Remarks on the Glacial Movements noticed in the 
Vicinity of Mount St. Elias, on the North-west- Coast of America 186 

Extracts from a Letter written by R. Bridge to W. Bollaert on the Great 
Earthquake at Mendoza, 20th March, 1861 187 

Mr. P.O'CALLAGHANon theCromleachs and Rocking- stones considered Ethno- 
logically 187 

Captain Cameron's Notices on the Ethnology, Geography, and Commerce of 
the Caucasus 189 

Mr. P. B. Du Chaillu on the Geography and Natural History of Western 
Equatorial Africa 189 

on the People of Western Equatorial Africa 190 

Mr. John Crawfurd on the Antiquity of Man, from the Evidence of Language 191 

Mr. R. Cull on the Antiquity of the Aryan Languages 193 

Mr. L. Daa on the Ethnology of Finnmark, in Norway 193 

Mr. Henry Duckworth on a New Commercial Route to China 194 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dr. James Hector on the Capabilities for Settlement of the Central Parts of 
British North America 195 

Rev. A. Hume on the Relations of the Population in Ireland, as shown by the 
Statistics of Religious Belief 196 

A Letter from Sir Hercules Robinson, Governor of Hongkong, relating to the 
Journey of Major Sarel, Capt. Blakiston, Dr. Barton, anil another, who are 
endeavouring to pass from China to the North of India. (Communicated by 
Sir R. I.MuRCHisoN) 196 

Substance of a Letter from the Colonial Office, on the Exploration of N.W. 
Australia, under Mr. Gregory. (Communicated by Sir R. I. Murchison)... 197 

Mr. John Ramsay's Remarks on the Proposal to form a Ship Canal between 
East and West Loch Tarbert, Argyllshire 197 

Sir Henry C. Rawlinson on the Direct Overland Telegraph from Constanti- 
nople to Kurrachee 197 

Colonel Shaffner on the Spitzbergen Current, and Active and Extinct Glaciers 
in South Greenland 198 

Mr. B. C. Smart on the English Gipsies and their Dialect 199 

Captain W. P. Snow on the Geographical Science of Arctic Explorations, and 

the advantage of continuing it 201 

Mr. H. Wise's Remarks on a Proposed Railway across the Malay Peninsula.. 201 
Dr. R. Wollaston's Account of the Romans in Britain 201 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 

Address of William Newmarch, F.R.S., President of the Section 201 

Mr. Henry Ashworth on Capital Punishments and their Influence on Crime 203 

on the Progress of Science and Art as developed in the 

Bleaching of Cotton at Bolton 204 

Mr. R. H. Bakewell on the Influence of Density of Population on the Fecun- 
dity of Marriages in England 206 

Mr. Thomas Bazley's Glance at the Cotton Trade 206 

Rev. W. Caine on Ten Years' Statistics of the Mortality amongst the Orphan 
Children taken under the Care of the Dublin Protestant Orphan Societies ... 208 

Mr. David Chadwick on the Progress of Manchester from 1840 to I860 209 

Dr. W. Clarke on a Revision of National Taxation 216 

Mr. J. T. Danson on the Growth of the Human Body in Height and Weight 
in Males from 17 to 30 Years of Age 216 

Mr. William Danson's Observations on the Manufacture of the Human Hair, 
as an Article of Consumption and General Use 217 

Captain Donnelly on the Aid now granted by the State tf)wards the instruction 
of the Industrial Classes in Elementary Science — its Nature and Results 217 

Dr. W. Farr on the Recent Improvements in the Health of the British Army. 219 

Mrs. FisoN on Sanitary Improvements 220 

Mr. James T. Hammick on the General Results of the Census of the United 
Kingdom in 1861 220 

Mr. J. Heywood on the Inspection of Endowed Educational Institutions 222 

Rev. A. Hume on the Condition of National Schools in Liverpool as compaied 
with the Population, 1861 223 

Mr. C. E. Macqueen on the True Principles of Taxation 225 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 
Rev. W. N. MoLESwoRTH on the Progress of Cooperation at Rochdale 225 

Alderman Neild on the Price of Printing Cloth and Upland Cotton from 1812 
to 1860 229 

Mr. W. Newmarch on the Extent to which Sound Principles of Taxation are 
embodied in the Legislation of the United Kingdom 230 

Mr. Edmund Potter on Cooperation and its Tendencies 230 

Mr. Frederick Purdy on the Relative Pauperism of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, 1851-1860 231 

Mr. E. J. Reed on the Iron-cased Ships of the British Navy 232 

Rev. Canon Richson on the Income-Tax 240 

Professor J. E. T. Rogers, Can Patents be defended on Economical Grounds ? 240 

on the Definition and Incidence of Taxation 240 

Mr. John Shuttlewokth's Account of the Manchester Gasworks 240 

Dr. John Strang on the Altered Condition of the Embroidery Manufacture 
of Scotland and Ireland since 1857 243 

• on the Comparative Progress of the English and Scottish 

Population as shown by the Census of 1861 243 

Colonel Sykes's Notes on the Progress and Prospects of the Trade of England 
with China since 1833 246 

Mr. Charles Thompson on some Exceptional Articles of Commerce and Un- 
desirable Sources of Revenue 247 

Rev. W. R. Thorburn on Cooperative Stores ; their Bearing on Athenaeums, &c. 248 

Miss Twining on the Employment of Women in Workhouses 248 

Dr. J. Watts on Strikes 249 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address of J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S., President of the Section 250 

Sir W. G. Armstrong on the Patent Laws 252 

Dr. G. Arnott on Railway Accidents, from Trains running off the Rails 252 

Mr. T. Aston on Elongated Projectiles for Rifled Fire-arms 253 

Mr. J. F. Bateman on Street-Pipe Arrangements for Extinguishing Fires 255 

Mr. Edward T. Bellhouse on the Applications of the Hydraulic Press 255 

Captain Blakely on Artillery versus Armour 255 

Mr. David Chadwick on Recent Improvements in Cotton-Gins 256 

Dr. Eddy's Proposal for a Class of Gunboats capable of engaging Armour- 
plated Ships at Sea, accompanied with Suggestions for fastening on Armour- 
Plates 257 

Mr. Peter Effertz on a Brick-making Machine 258 

Mr. John Haworth on a Perambulator and Street Railway 258 

Mr. Andrew Henderson on the Rise and Progress of Clipper and Steam 
Navigation on the Coasts and Rivers of China and India 258 

Mr. James Higgin on a Sledge Railway Break 262 

Colonel Sir Henry James on Photozincography, by means of which Photo- 
graphic Copies of the Ordnance Maps are chiefly multiplied, either on their 
original or on a reduced or enlarged scale 263 

Mr. W. B. Johnson on the Application of the Direct- Action Principle 263 



XVI CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. R. A. Macfib on Patents considered Internationally 263 

Professor W. J. Macquorn Rankine on the Resistance of Ships 263 

Appendix to a Paper " On the Resist- 
ance of Ships " 264 

Mr. J. Robinson on the Application of Workshop Tools to the Construction 

of Steam-Engines and other Machinery 264 

Mr. C. W. Siemens on a System of Telegraphic Communication adopted in 

Berlin in case of Fires 264 

Mr. F. W. Sheilds on Iron Construction ; with Remarks on the Strength of 

Iron Columns and Arches 265 

Mr. W. Spence on Patent Tribunals 265 

Mr. B. B. Stoney on the Deflection of Iron Girders 265 

Mr. W. Tate on Bailey's Steam-pressure Gauge 266 

Mr. T. Webster on Property in Invention, and its Effects on the Arts and 
Manufactures 266 

APPENDIX. 

Mr. Isaac Ashe on the Causes of the Phenomena of Cyclones 266 

Professor J. E. T. Rogers on Prices in England 1582-1620, and the Effect of 
the American Discoveries upon them during that period 269 

Mr. Daniel Stone on the Rochdale Cooperative Societies 269 

Mr. William Westgarth on the Commerce and Manufactures of the Colony 

of Victoria 269 

Mr. Richard Valpy on the Commercial Relations between England and 

France 269 

Mr. T. A. Welton's Examination of the increase of density of Population 

in England and Wales 1851-61 269 

Mr. Henry Fawcett on the Economical Effects of the recent Gold Discoveries 269 

Professor F. Grace Calvert on some Woods employed in the Navy 269 

Messrs. Silver on Telegraphic Wires 269 

Mr. Septimus Mason on a Locomotive for Common Roads 269 

Mr. T. S. Prideaitx on Economy in Fuel 269 

Mr. S. Bateson on an improved Feed Water Heater, for Locomotive and other 
Boilers 269 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OF 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference vvitli the gronnd occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — -To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1861. b 



Xviii RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which viore than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has beenprintedinits Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met, 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting, 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Tiie General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

Ail Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in inaking arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFlCEIlS. 

A President, two ot more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affiiirs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

&2 



13 

OS 



CO 

O 
P-t 



a 






<u 






-a 






.r< 






m 






a 






u 






P4 






^ 






-1^ 






-fH 






^ 


• 




•N 


a 




c 


<u 




2 


S 




*-4J 


(U 




.2 


u 




*G 


rt 




o 


a 




<1 


a 


in 




o 


z 


rd 


O 


u 


CO 


m 


o 


-*-3 


-M 


u> 


' ;_( 


• f— 1 


111 


FP 


a 


Q. 



(U o 

o _w 

S3 -S 

1^ 



00 

o 



£C 
O 








o 


3 


p 


u 








a. 


is' 


3J 


o 




'XI 


•£ 


g 


■< 




a 


« 


o 


o 


z 


pS 








K 


a 




M 


H 




> 




u 




u 





^:^ 

n r 

•^^^ 

> o S 



: :=« S : 

. iw > : 
: : «"^ • 

:w -5=". 

• oj »! i„ C5 

: ^ ^^, 



bo 



W 



■•^ « »; :r: ~ 



K 



u 



f^ c/^ 



O • t4 






.-c-g 



a ■ ■ 



a; ■ « ^^ 

t^ ^ Q w - 

C -.^ ■ /3 ^ 

O X > c p, 



•"* t-> 

• O 

- 60 

.J o 



^ c f. ^ 



>f I 

<| £ o 

-p. 1-1 



Esq 




'i^b'h 


^ 


HXJS 




^/" 




02 






PS 






fa 






» 






J 






d 






d 






^ 






d 






d 




r^ 


q' 




03 


>• 




^ 


o 




^ 


ij 






ij 




3 






CiD 


fx 




3 


u 


< 


< 




s 


3 


*^ 


cC 


n 

9 



.W 



m 



CO . 

00* O* o* 



EC'S a 
§ s" 

.00 a 

" • 2 

flj ►^ j3 



tn 

O 

Px* 

pi - 



[z] 



r« 0) 4) 

o o,- 

M to 

O O J3 



• -CO 

: ':< 

: :« 

• • ^ - 

: iB^d 
: Ij^ 

: :«< 

: rfeH 
: : .-K 

« :S . 

6 0; J § 



•S SWQ 









■op 



-a t3 ja &. 

CJ fiJ O 0) 

J5 J3 J3.t!ta 



is". 

■"" S* •" 
") " cr 

0-3 «- 

C MS 

9 S3 

So g 

sa« 

4rt 



^c 



ij : 









CO 

•«^ S.S ■ 
§ §■? 2 - 

g JJ O 4) ^- 

.iij t; . -- ^ 

QW Jo « 
« «j «j 

t-'E-'Htna: 



q 

Qco 
J-S5 



■ B 
. V 

■ (O 

• •a 
. h 



CO .- .O) 



^ 



m S O . 

■-5 8 S^ 



cot"H-< 










■<■ 
.B-S S 



u o p 



.■a • 

:c : 
:.a : 

:i : 
:t) : 

^ aT ', 

■ "J •_■ 

«£«!* • 

0<».ta O ; 

S ►. -«(« 

2 " ^ < «■ S 
.-Sq2 - - 



. . t*-. w-t . - oj rt — 3 

"Si. "-s^iso^ 

fc.>-*u5-t-oo 
rt<u3eaOV9:(» 

M«aw>J> s s 

H H H H H H B. Ph 



+J « JS .— N S « 

« "i!^ o a a-^ 

H H tn oo Eh "^ •-» 



o 5 

tr ° 



g -3 to «• a ^ 

>» ■ ^.iJ fc. »- 
*-■ >■ ^ ^.« o o 
a) £ a;< S g 

J3j3ja -22 
H h fr< O II, CL, 



i2 a* 9 




2 


D : 




PU 






Gja '. 










g 


-S : 




.3 








p. . 


00 








B! 


J3 • 


.;' 


PS 


cu : 


!? 


^ 




.a 










fl • 




<! 


n- 


O 


s 


•c • 


H 


CO 


ft • 


a 


jT,;a 


n 


& 


!l 






rt S 


u 


« 


B^ 




> 


Z >, 




Pi 


^■s 





«« 



CO 



N © o o o o 
r-t c o o o o 



-^ O «>. O »ffl CO 
C^ »0 ^ O (>i 04 
<M CO T)< 1.-5 



ooooooeooooooeo 

OOOOCOOOOOOOOinO 

ojoooicoooir^ooooo^f^ 
t>.04e^irar-ie^oio cooWr-i M 



1— I 
H 



O 

o 






p^ 

H 

w 
o a 

GO S:; 



5^ 



to a 



: 00 o 1 


: i-i 05 


: CO >n 

■ Ol 


: to : 






t/2 



>. 


efl 


^ 


;-< 




11 


Tl 


C 


Lh 




CJ 


H 


^ 


— ' 


^ , 


W 


o 


a 






o 




-H 




ho 




i-J 




Til 


o 




c 




rt 


-^ 



o 
u 



to ! 

c < 






-t> '-^ 
1^ 

a 2 

o ^ 

O 9J 
O «^ 

CO 

P^ 
P5 
cc 

P5 

w 
"^ 

CD 

w 
a 



a £, a 

aj a;i (D 

ca 



i;5 to 

f^ a 



•2^ 






^ to 
to.3 

a "^ 

■2 y 



o 

< V 



o © 

O <M 






a o 

O lO 

g=rt 



o 

HO O ^O 

=2 00 CO 

ajg-i-^ 

r^ a -w _ 



— >^ -e a 'ts 
^ f^ o o 

■a c3 bo to 

a -S -TS -= x 



3 



a : S 

R c o 
.o to.iJ 

& 5 

> a 

so M — 



C3 



20 
H -a 






CO 


•* 




CO 


CO 




r- ( 


»— 4 




M* 


t>. 




-^ 


CO 




(N 


00 








<^ 





=« 



o 



ta ' 



S -^^g o g 



0) " 



O) 



rt 



-;-T3 tn-73 a^l 



-3 -J? C3 • 



r= o 



wiSSwfifi 



a 

1/2 fcW 



TO pj « a =-" 



a "^ 






n. tu *" 



tn<! 
to a ■ 



a; 'g „ 
-a c rt 
-♦J ea cj 

« H 



o .2 



ca 

I ° s 



^3 



00 © O O O 



o; t^o o o © 






I »o en CO o c^ 

t~» (M CO «0 -* IM 



00 






H 

o 



<:_-■ 



° ° 2 p. 
-3 CO 



© 



S Ji o o 

o •? .t; .tj ., 

^ rt a . 
o o «r 



© 



o 
c^ 



CO 
CO 

c^^ 



"tois o •- 
a «3 vj t-* 
o o ^ 

!; R. a "to 

?^ S-a « 
So go 

ca .^ a £rt 
cq !-!•«!■< 

o 
El 



a CD c 
^ o o 



" a a'S 

o o o ° 

ea '^ ca 

h^ © OI 



o 

Q 

^ ° 
« to 

fciO -^ 

2 «) p- ■ 

CD V2 s- 

S to^ 

S^ a 
g-t^ « 

o 

Pl4 



o 

13 

e 
a 

a 

C3 



s 

<a 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXV 



II. Table shomng the Names of Members of the British Association "who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Aberdeen, Earl of, LL.D., E.G., K.T., 

RE.S. (dec"). 
Acland, Sir Thomas D., Bart., M.A., D.C.L., 

Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.E.S. 

Adams, Prof. J. Couch, M.A., D.C.L., P.K.S. 

Adamson, Jolm, Esq., F.L.S. 

Ainslie, Eev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airy,G. B.,M. A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Astronomer 
Koyal. 

Alison, Professor W. P.,M.D.,F.E.S.E.(decd). 

Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 

Anderson, Prof. Thomas, M.D. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.E.S. 

Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.E.S. 
L. &E. 

Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.E.S. 

Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 

Atkinson, Et. Hon. E.,LordMayor of Dublin. 

Babbage, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 

Babinglon, Professor C. C, M.A., F.E.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Baines, Et. Hon. M. T., M.A., M.P. (dec"). 

Baker, Thomas Barwick Llovd, Esq. 

Balfour, Professor .Tolm H.,"M.D., F.E.S. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Beamish, Eichard, Esq., F.E.S. 

Beechey, Eear-Admiral, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Bell, Professor Thomas, V.P.L.S., F.E.S. 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., Prcs.L.S. 

Biddell, George Arthur, Esq. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.E.S. 

BoUeau, Sir John P., Bart., F.E.S. 

Boyle, Et.Hon. D., Lord Justice-Gen', (dec"*). 

Brady.The Et. Hon. Maziere, M.E.I.A., Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. 

Brand, WiUiam, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.E.S. 

Brewster, Su- David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.E.S. L. & E., Principal of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 

Brodie, SirB. C, Bart., D.C.L., V.P.E.S. 

Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.E.S. 

Brown, Eobert, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Brunei, Sir M. I., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Buckland, Very Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., 
Dean of Westminster (deceased). 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. (deceased). 
Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.E.S. 
Carson, Eev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 
Cathcart,Lt.-Gen.,Earlof, KC.B., F.E.S.E. 

(deceased). 
Chalmers, Eev. T., D.D. (deceased). 
Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 
Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.E.S. 
Clare, Peter, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 
Clark, Eev. Prof., M.D., F.E.S. (Cambridge.) 



Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 

Clerke, Major S., KH., E.E., F.E.S. (dcci). 

Clift, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Close, Very Eev. F., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 

Cobbold, John aievalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colqulioun, J. C, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 

Conybeare, Very Eev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 

daff (deceased). 
Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 
Corrie, John, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Crum, Walter, Esq., F.E.S. 
Currie, William Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 
Dalton, Jolui, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Daniell, Professor J. F., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Darbishire, E. D., B.A., F.G.S. 
Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Daubeny, Prof C. G. B., M.D.,LL.D., F.E.S. 
DelaBeche,SirH. T., C.B., F.E.S., Dii-ector- 

Gen. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom (dec"). 
De la Euc, Warren, Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Derby, Earl of, D.C.L., Chancellor of the 

University of Oxford. 
Devonshire, William, Duke of, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Dickinson, Joseph, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dillwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Donkin, Professor W. F., M.A., F.E.S. 
Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased). 
Ducie, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Dunraven, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Egcrton, Sir P. de M. Grey, Bart., M.P., 

F.E.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

EUesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (dec"). 
EnniskiUen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Fairbairn, William, LL.D., C.E., F.E.S. 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
FitzEov, Eear-Admiral, F.E.S. 
Fitzwiliiam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Fleming, MV., M.D. 
Fletcher, BeU, M.D. 
Foote, Lundy E., Esq. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 
Forbes, Prof. Edward, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Forbes,Prof. J. D., LL.D., F.E.S.,Sec. E.S.E., 

Principal of the University of St. An- 
drews. 
Fox, Eobert Were, Esq., F.E.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 
Fuller, Professor, M.A. 
Galton, Francis, F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.E.S. 
Gilbert, Davics, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Gladstone, J. H., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Gourlie, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Graham, T., M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Master of 

the Mint. 
Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (deceased). 



XXVI 



REPORT — 1861. 



Gray, WilHam, Esq., F.G-.S. 

Green, Prof. Joseph Henry, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Griffith, George, M.A., F.C.S. 

Griffith, SirE. Griffith, Bt., LL.D., M.R.I.A. 

Grove, W. E., Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A.. F.R.S. (dec"). 

Hamilton, W.'J., Esq., F.R.S., For. Sec. G.S. 

Hamilton, Sir Wm. R., LL.D., Asti'onomer 

Royal of Ireland, M.R.I.A., F.R.A.S. 
Hancock, W. Neilson, LL.D. 
Harcoiirt, R«v. Wm. Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles PhiUji, Earl of, F.R.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C L., F.R.S. 
Harris, Sii- W. Snow, F.R.S. 
Harrowby, The Earl of, F.R.S. 
Hatfeild,"WiUiam, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Hem-y, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D.,Pre8identof Queen's 

College, Belfast. 
Henslow, R«v. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. (dec""). 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. Wm., LL.D., 

F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec''). 
Herschel, Sir John F.W., Bart., M.A., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, JEsq., F.R.S. 
HiU, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.R.I.A. 
Hincks, Rev. Thomas, B.A. 
Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich 

(deceased). 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. (dec*). 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., Pres.G.S. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hugall, J. W., Esq. 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Ibbetson,Capt.L.L.Boscawen,KR.E.,F.G.S. 
Inglis, Sir R. H., Bart., D.C.L., M.P. (deCi). 
Inman, Thomas, M.D. 
Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S.E. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 
Jellett, Rev. Professor. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Jeune, Rev. F., D.D., Vice-Chancellor of the 

University of Oxford. 
Johnston, Right Hon. William, late Lord 

Provost of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Prof. J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Eeleher, William, Esq. (deceased). 
KeUand, Rev. Prof. P., M.A. F.R.S. L. & E. 
Ejldare, The Marquis of. 
Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S. 
Lansdowne, Hen., Marquis of, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 
Larcom, Major, R.E., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lardner, Rev. Dr. (deceased). 



Lasscll, William, Esq., F.R.S. L. & E. 

Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 

Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh 
(deceased). 

Lee, Robert, M.D., F.R.S. 

Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, late 
Speaker of the House of Commons. 

Lemon, Su- Charles, Bart., F.R.S. 

Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased)^ 

Liddell, Very Rev. H. G., D.D., Dean of 
Christ Chiu-ch, Oxford. 

Lindley, Professor Jolm, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Listowel, The Earl of. 

Lloyd, Rev. B., CD., Provost of Trin. Coll., 
Dublin (dec"). 

Lloyd, Rev. H., D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. L.&E., 
M.R.I.A. 

Londesborough, Lord, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 

Luby, Rev. Thomas. 

LyeU, Sir Charles, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., 

MacCuIlagh, Prof., D.C.L., M.R.I.A. (dec"). 

MacDoimell, Rev. R., D.D., M.R.I.A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal, (dec"). 

MacGee, William, M.D. 

MacLeay, WiUiam Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 

MacNeiU, Professor Sir Jolm, F.R.S. 

Malahide, The Lord Talbot de. 

Malcolm,Vice-Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B. (dec"). 

Maltby, Edward, D.D., F.R.S., late Lord 
Bishop of Dm-ham (deceased). 

Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Marlborough, Duke of, D.C.L. 

Marshall, J. G., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
May, Charles, Esq., F.R.A.S. (deceased). 
MeyneU, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 
Middleton, Sir William F. F., Bart. 
Miller, Professor W. A., M.D., Treas. and 

V.P.R.S. 
Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., For. Sec.R.S. 
Milnes, R. Monekton, Esq., D.C.L., M.P. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 
MoUlet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 
Monteagle, Lord, F.R.S. 
Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 
Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 
Moody, T. F., Esq. 
Morley, The Earl of. 
Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 
Mount-Edgeciunbe, ErnestAugustus,Earl of. 
Murcliison, Sir Roderick I.,G.C. St.S., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.R.S. 
Neild, Alfred, Esq. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Professor J., F.R.S.E., F.G.S. 
Nicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 
Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 

qms of, V.P.R.S. (deceased). 
Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.G.,M.A., 

F.R.S. (deceased). 
Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXVU 



Orpen, Jolin H., LL.D. 

Osier, FoUett, Esq., F.E.S. 

Owen, Professor Eielid.,M.D.,D.C.L.,LL.D., 

r.E.s. 

Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Palmerston, Viscount, KG., G.C.B., M.P., 

F.E.S. 
Peacock, Very Eev. G., D.D., Dean of Elv, 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Peel,Et.H:on.SirR.,Bart.,M.P.,D.C.L.(dec''). 
Pendarves, E. W., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
PhiUips, Professor John, M.A.,LL.D.,F.E.S. 
Pigott,The Et. Hon. D. E., M.E.I.A., Lord 

Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 
Porter, G. E., Esq. (deceased). 
Portlock, Major-General,E.E.,LL.D., F.E.S. 
Powell, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.E.S. (deC). 
Price, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Ramsay, Professor WiUiam, M.A. 
Eansome, G^eorge, Esq., F.L.S. 
Eeid, Maj.-Gen. Sir W., K.C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Eendlesham, Et. Hon. Lord, M.P. 
Eennie, George, Esq., F.E.S. 
E«nnie, Sir Jolm, F.E.S. 
Eichardson, Sir John, C.B., M.D., LL.D., 

F.E.S. 
Eichmond, Duke of, E.G., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Eipon, Earl of, F.E.G.S. 
Eitchie, Eev. Prof., LL.D., F.E.S. (dec"*). 
Eobinson, Capt., E.A. 
Eobinson, Eev. J., D.D. 
Eobinson, Eev. T. E., D.D., P.E.S., F.E.A.S. 
Eobison, Sir Jolm, Sec.E.S.Edin. (decea.sed). 
Eoche, James, Esq. 
Eoget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.E.S. 
EoUeston, George, M.D., F.L.S. 
Eonalds, Francis, F.E.S. 
Eoscoe, Professor H. E., B.A. 
Eosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eoss, Eear- Admiral Sir J. C, E.N., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eosse, Wm., Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., M.E.LA. 
Eoyle, Prof. John F., M.D., F.E.S. (Aec^). 
EusseU, James, Esq. (deceased). 
Eussell, J. Scott, Esq., F.E.S. 
Sabine, Major-GeneralEdward,E.A., D.C.L., 

LL.D., President of the Eoyal Society. 
Sanders, WiUiam, Esq., F.G.S. 
Scoresby, Eev. W., D.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Sedgwick, Eev. Prof. Adam, M.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Sharpey, Professor, M.D., Sec.E.S. 
Sims, DiUwyn, Esq. 
Smith, Lieut. -Colonel C. Hamilton, F.E.S. 

(deceased). 



Smith, Prof. H. J. S., M.A., F.E.S. 

Smith, James, F.E.S. L. & E. 

Spence, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Spottiswoode, W., M.A., F.E.S. 

Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt., M.P., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
St. David's, C.ThirlwaU,D.D.,LordBishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G.G.,M.A.,D.C.L.,Sec.E.S. 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 
Strickland, Hugh E., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., F.E.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Warden of Wadham 

College, Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Tayler, Eev. John James, B.A. 
Tavlor, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S.(deceased). 
Thomson, A., Esq. 

Thomson, Professor WiUiam, M. A., F.E.S. 
Tindal, Captain, E.N. (deceased). 
Tite, WiUiam, Esq., M.P.. F.E.S. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Tooke, Thomas, F.R.S. (deceased). 
TraUl, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. (dec"). 
Turner, Eev. W. 
TyndaU, Professor John, F.E.S. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Walker, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Eev. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S. 
Warburton, Hem-T, Esq..M.A., F.E.S.(dec<';. 
Ward, W. Sykes,'Esq., F.C.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N., F.R.S. 
Webster, Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
West, WilUam, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
WharncUffe, Jolm Stuart,Lord,F.R.S.(deci). 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 
WheweU, Rev. WilUam, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity CoUcge, Cambridge. 
White, John F., Esq. 
WUUams, Prof. Charles J. B., M.D., F.R.S. 
WiUis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.E.S. 
WUls, WUUam, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Wilson, Thomas, Esq., M.A. 
Wilson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
WooUcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (deceased). 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A.,D.C.L.,F.E.S. 
Tarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
YarreU, WiUiam, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Yates, J. B., Esq., F.S.A., F.E.G.S. (dec"). 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1861-62. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

8ir EOBEEICK I. MUECHISON, G.C.St.S., F.R.S. 
Major-General Edt^aed Sabi>e, K.A., D.C.L., Pros. E.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Geey Egeeton, Bart., M.P., F.K.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

WIllIAM FAIEBAIEN, Esq., LL.D., C.E., F.B.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Eael of Ellesmeee, F.E.G.S. 

The LoED Stanley, M.P., D.C.L., F.E.G.S. 

The LoBD Bishop OF Maxchesteb, D.D., F.E.S., 

Sir Philip de Malpas Geey Egeetok, Bart., 

M.P., r.E.S., F.G.S. 
Sir Bekjamin Heyavood, Bart., r.E.6. 



Thomas Eazley, Esq., M.P. 

James Aspinall Tl ekee, Esq., M.P. 

Jajies Peescott Joule, Esq., LL.D., r.E.S., Pre- 
sident of the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Manchester. 

Joseph Whitmoeth, Esq., F.E.S., M.I.C.E. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 
Kev. E. WILLIS, M.A., F.E.S., Jaclsonian Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy 

in the University of Cambridge. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



J. C. Adams, Esq., M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Pres.C.P.S., 

Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry 

in the University of Cambridge. 
G. G. Stokes, Esq., M.A.,D.C.L., Sec. E.S.,Lucasian 

Professor of Mathematics in the UniTersity of 

Cambridge. 



The Very EeT. H. GooDWiN, D.D., Dean of Ely. 
The Eev. W. Whewell, D.D., F.E.S., Master of 

Trinity CoUeee, Cambridge. 
The Eev. A. Sedgwick, M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., 
Woodwardian Professor of Geology in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. 
G. B. AiEY', Esq., M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Astronomer 
Eoyal. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT CAMBRIDGE. 
C. C. Babikgton, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.L.S., Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. 
G. D. LiTElSG, Esq., M.A., F.C.S., Professor of C hemistry in the University of Cambridge. 
The Eev. N". M. Feeeees, M.A., Gonrille and Cains College. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT CAMBRIDGE. 

The Eev. W. M. Campion, M.A., Queen's College. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Gladstone, Dr. J. H., F.E.8. 
Geove, William E., F.E.S. 
HEyn ooD, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
HlTTTON, Eobeet, F.G.S. 
Lyell, Sir C, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
MiLLEE, Prof.W. A., M.D., F.E.S. 
PoBTLOCK, General, E.E., F.R.S. 
Peice, Eev. Prof., M.A., F.E.S. 



Shaepey, Professor, See. E.S. 
Spottis\\ OODE, W., M.A., F.R,S. 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., 

F.E.S. 
TiTE, William, M.P., F.E.S. 
Wfbstee, Thomas, F.R.S. 
Wheatstoke, Prof., F.E.S. 
Williamson, Prof. A. W.,F.E.S. 



Bateman, J. F., F.E.S. 
Cea^-tued, John, Esq., F.E.S., 

Prts. Eth. Soc. 
Daubeky, Dr. C. G. B., F.E.S. 
De la Eue, Waeeen, Ph.D., 

F.E.S. 
FiTzEoY', Eear- Admiral, F.E.S. 
Galton, Feakcis, F.E.S. 
Gassiot, John P., F.E.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Trcasm-er, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former years, 

Tiz Eev. Professor Stdgivick. The Marquis of Lansdowne. The Duke of Devonshire. Eev. W. V. Har- 

court. The Marquis of Breadalbane. Eev. W. Wh.eweU, D.D. The Earl of Eosse. Sir John F. W. 
Herschel, Bart. Sir Eoderick I. Murchison. The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. Sir David Brewster. 
G. B. Airy, Esq., the Astronomer Eoyal. General Sabine. William Hopkins, Esq., LL.D. The Earl of 
Harrovrby. The Duke of Argyll. Professor Daubeny, M.D. The Eev. H. Lloyd, D.D. Professor 
Owen, M.D., D.C.L. The Lord Wrottesley. 

GENERAL SECRETARY. 

William Hopkins, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

John Phillips, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geology in the UniTersity of Oxford, 

Museum House, Oxford. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

William Spotiiswoode, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S.. F.E.A.S., 10 Chester Street, 
Belgrave Square, London, S.W. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 



William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., Tnrl: 

C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., Camiridge. 

William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. 

John H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. 

William Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Bristol. 

Eobert M'Andrevr, Esq., F.E.S., Liverpool. 

W. R. Wills, Esq., JBirmivpham. 

Professor Ramsay, M.A., Olaf/joic 

Eobert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.B., Manchester. 



John Gwyn Jefircye, Esq., F.E.S., Sxantea 

J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ifieirich. 

Robert Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., Belfjsi. 

Edmund Smith, Esq., Sull. 

Richard Beamish, Esq., F.E.S., Cheltenham. 

John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., Leeds. 

John Forbes White, Esq., Aberdeen, 

Eev. John Griffiths, M.A., Oxford. 



Dr. Norton Shaw. 



AUDITORS. 
John F. Gassiot Esq. 



Dr. E. Lankestcr. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL. COMMITTEES. XXIX 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
MANCHESTER MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. — G. B. Airy, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 

Vice-Presidents.— J. P. Joule, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. Professor Price, M.A., F.R.S. ; 
The Lord Wrottesley, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Major-General Sabine. R.A.. D.C.L., 
LL.D., Pres.R.S. ; Sir David Brewster, K.H., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. L. &E,; Rev. 
T. P. Kirkman, M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Professor J. Stevelly, LL.D. ; Professor H. J. S. Smith, M. A., F.R.S. ; 
Professor R. B. Clifton, B.A., F.R.A.S. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGPvICULTURE AND THE APvTS. 

President.— W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in King's College, 
London. 

Vice-Presidents, — Professor Anderson, M.D., F.R.S. E.; Professor Andrews, M.D., 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A.; J. P. Gassiot, F.R.S. ; J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S.; W. R. 
Grove, M.A., F.R.S. ; Dr. Schunck, F.R.S. ; Dr. Stenhouse, F.R.S. ; Professor A. W. 
Williamson. Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — G. D. Liveing, M.A. ; A. Vernon Harcourt, M.A. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

PreszVenf.— Sir R.I. Murchison,G.C.St.S..D.C.L.,LL.D.,F.R.S.,Director.Gene- 
ral of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 

Vice-Presidents.— E. W. Binney, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Sir P. de M. G. Egerton, Bart., 
M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Earl of Enniskillen, F. R.S.. F.G.S. ; J. Beete Jukes. F.R.S., 
F.G.S. ; General Portlock, F.R.S., M.R.I.A., F.G.S.; Rev. Professor Sedgwick, 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Secretaries.— Professor Harkness, F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Edward Hull, B.A., F.G.S. ; 
T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. ; G. W. Ormerod, M.A., F.G.S. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — C. C, Babington, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Botany in the University 
of Cambridge. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor W. C. Williamson, F.R.S. ; Professor Owen, M.D., 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Daubeny, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

6'eere<aries.— Thomas Alcock, M.D. ; Edwin Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. ; P. L. 
Sclater, Ph.D., M.A., F.R.S. ; E. Percival Wright, M.A., M.D., M.R.I.A., F.L.S. 

SUB-SECTION D. PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

Presit/en^— John Davy, M.D., F.R.S. L. & E. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Rolleston, M.D., F.L.S. ; Professor C. J. B. Williams, 
M.D., F.R.S. ; Dr. Roget, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.- Edward Smith, M.D., F.R.S.; William Roberts, M.D. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— John Crawfurd, Esq., F.R.S., President of the Ethnological Society, 
London. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sk R. I. Murchison, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rear-Admiral Sir 
James C. Ross, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Vice-Admiral Sir E. Belcher, C.B., F.R.S. ; Colonel 
Sir H. Rawlinson ; Rev. Professor Sedgwick, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. ; Major-General 
Chesney. R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — James Hunt, Ph.D.; J. Kingsley; Norton Shaw, M.D. ; W. Spot- 
tiswoode, M.A., F.R.S. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President. — William Newmarch, F.R.S. 

rice-Presi(fe«<s.— William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; James Heywood, F.R.S. ; 
Lord Monteagle, F.R.S.; Alderman Neild ; Right Hon. Joseph Napier; Edwin 
Chadwick, C.B, ; Daniel Noble, M.D. ; Rev. Canon Richson, M.A. ; Colonel Sykes, 
M.P., F.R.S.; W. N. Massey, M.P.; William Tite, M.P., F.R.S. 



XXX 



REPORT 1861. 



Secretaries.— Rev. Professor J. E. T. Rogers, M.A. ; Edmund Macrory, M.A. 
Professor R. C. Christie, M.A. ; David Chadwick, F.S.S,, Assoc. Inst. C.E, 



SECTION O. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— 3 . F. Bateman, Esq., C.E., F.R.S. 

J'ice-Presidents.—S'ir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S. ; Thomas Fairbairn, Esq. ; 
Captain Douglas Galton, F.R.S. ; The Mayor of Manchester ; Rev. T. R. Robinson, 
D.D., F.R.S.; J. Scott Russell, Esq., F.R.S.; Thomas Webster, M.A., F.R.S.; 
Rev. Professor Willis, M.A., F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— P. he Neve Foster, Esq., M.A. ; John Robinson, Esq. ; Henry 
Wright, Esq. 

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

M. Babinet, Paris. 

Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 

Dr. D. Bierens de Haan, Amsterdam. 

Professor Bolzani, Kazan. 

Dr. Barth. 

Dr. Bergsma, Utrecht. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 

M. Boutigny (d'Evreux). 

Professor Braschmaun, Moscow. 

Dr. Carus, Leipzig. 

Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 

M. Antoine d'Abbadie. 

M. De la Rive, Geneva. 

Professor Wilhelm Delffs, Heidelberg. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 

Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 

Professor Encke, Berlin. 

Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 

Professor A. Escher von der Linth, 
Zurich, Switzerland. 

Professor Esmark, Christiania. 

Prof. A. Favre, Geneva. 

Professor G. Forchhammer, Copenhagen. 

M. Leon Foucault, Paris. 

Prof. E. Fremy, Paris. 

M. Frisiani, Milan. 

Dr. Geinitz, Dresden. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U. S. 

Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 

Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna. 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 

Prof. lessen, Med. et Phil. Dr., Griess- 
wald, Prussia. 

Professor Aug. Kekule, Ghent, Belgium. 

M. Khanikoff, St. Petersburg. 

Prof. A. Kolliker, Wurzburg. 



Prof. De Koninck, Liege. 

Professor Kreil, Vienna. 

Dr. A. Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Prof. F. Lanza. 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New York. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor P. Merian, Bale, Switzerland. 

Professor von MiddendorfF,S<.Pe/ers6!«r^. 

M. I'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordenskiold, Finland. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Prof. B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 

Viscenza Pisani, Florence. 

Gustave Plaar, Strasburg. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin, 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussek. 

Prof. Retzius, Stockholm. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

Professor J. A. de Souza, University of 

Coimbra. 
M. Struve, Pvlkowa. 
Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 
M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 
Dr. Van der Hoeven, Leyden. 
Prof. E. Verdet, Paris. 
M. de Verneuil, Paris. 
Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Gottingen. 
Professor Wartmann, Geneva. 



REPORT OP THE COUNCIL. XXXI 

Repo7't of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee at Manchester, September 4, 1861. 

(1) The Council were directed by the General Committee at Oxford to 
maintain the Establishment of the Kew Observatory by aid of a grant of 
£500. At each of the meetings of the Council, the Committee of the Observa- 
tory have presented a detailed statement of their proceedings, and they have 
transmitted the General Report for the year 1860-1861, which is annexed. 

(2) A sum not exceeding £90 was granted for one year, and placed at the 
disposal of the Council for the payment of an additional Photographer for 
carrying on the Photoheliographical Observations at Kew. On this subject 
the Report of the Kew Committee, which is annexed, may be consulted. 

(3) A further sum of £30 was placed at the disposal of Mr. Broun, Dr. 
Lloyd, and Mr. Stoney, for the construction of an Induction Dip-Circle, in 
connexion with the Observatory at Kew. The result of this recommenda- 
tion is stated in the Report of the Kew Committee. 

(4) The Report of the Parliamentary Committee has been received by the 
Council for presentation to the General Committee to-day, and is printed for 
the information of the Members. 

(5) Professor Phillips was requested to complete and print, before the 
Manchester Meeting, a Classified Index to the Transactions of the Associa- 
tion from 1831 to 1860 inclusive, and was authorized to employ, during this 
period, an Assistant ; and the sum of £100 was placed at his disposal for the 
purpose. 

Professor Phillips reports that he has secured the assistance of Mr. G. 
Griffith, of Jesus College, Oxford, in carrying on the Index, which had been 
already much advanced by the help of Mr. Askham, and states that with the 
aid thus afforded he had hoped to be able to complete the work within the 
time specified. Though this expectation has not been realized, specimens of 
the work are laid before the Meeting. 

(6) Professor Phillips requested the attention of the Council to circum- 
stances regarding his own health and occupations, which are gradually rcrider- 
ing it necessary for him to prepare to withdraw from the duties of the As- 
sistant General Secretary, which have been for many years intrusted to him; 
and suggested that opportunity might be taken of this announcement to con- 
sider whether the arrangements connected with the Secretariate should remain 
unchanged, or be modified. 

The Council regret to have received letters from Professor Walker, General 
Secretary, dated 15th March and 20th April, stating that, on account of in- 
disposition which required cessation from labour, it would not be in his power 
to continue his attention to the official business of the Association at the next 
Meeting. 

Under these circumstances the Council requested Professor Phillips to draw 
up in writing such statements and suggestions as might appear to him likely 
to assist the Council in considering the steps to be taken in consequence of 
these announcements*. 

(7) The communication of Professor Phillips in reference to the appoint- 
ment of a General Secretary having been considered, the following Resolu- 
tion was adopted : — 

That the President, and the gentlemen who have formerly acted as General 
Secretaries, viz. the Rev. W. V. Harcourt, Sir R. I. Murchison, and 

* The statement drawn up by Professor Phillips in consequence of this request was 
printed in the Minutes of tlae Council, and separate copies were laid before the General 
Committee. 



r 



XXxii REPORT — 1861. 

Major-General Sabine, together with Professor Phillips, be a Committee 
to consider and report the steps which they deem it advisable for the 
Council to take in regard to the appointment of a General Secretary ; 
and that their Report be printed and circulated among the Members of 
Council previous to their meeting in Manchester on the -ith of Septem- 
ber next. 
By the following Report, which has been received from these gentlemen, 
the General Committee will learn with satisfaction that, if it be their 
pleasure to elect him, the services of a most efficient and experienced Mem- 
ber, who has discharged many offices, including the Presidency, with great 
benefit to the Association, are at their disposal for the duty of General 
Secretary. 

Report of the Rev, W. V. Harcourt, Sir R. I. Murchison, and Major- 

General Sabine. 

Considering the present state of health of the General Secretary of the 
British Association, the Rev. Professor Walker, F.R.S., and the announced 
withdrawal at no distant period of Professor John Phillips, F.R.S., from the 
post of Assistant General Secretary, which he has so long held, and with such 
very great advantage to the British Association, we the undersigned, as 
requested by the Council to propose some suitable arrangement, have now to 
express our unanimous opinion that Mv. William Hopkins, F.R.S., of St. 
Peter's College, Cambridge, is eminently qualified to fill the post of Joint 
General Secretary. 

We beg to add that, having applied to Mr. Hopkins, we find that he cor- 
dially accepts the offer, and, with the sanction of the Council, will be ready 
to commence his duties at the ensuing Manchester Meeting. 

The consideration of the future relation of Professor Phillips to the British 
Association is postponed, in compliance with his own request. 

William Vernon Harcourt, ^ -n. ^ , 

T) T i\/r , Former General 

Rod. I. Murchison, f c f • 

July 25, 1861. Edward Sabine, J secretaries. 

The Council have resolved, in conformity with the recommendation of this 
Report, to propose to-day in the General Committee that W. Hopkins, Esq., 
M.A., F.R.S., be elected General Secretary. 

(8) The following Foreign gentlemen, eminent in Science, who were 
present at the late Oxford Meeting and took part in the proceedings, were 
elected Corresponding Members of the British Association : — 



Dr. Bergsma, Utrecht. 
Dr. Carus, Leipzig. 
Prof. A. Favre, Geneva. 
Dr. Geinitz, Dresden. 
Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna. 



M. Khanikoff, St. Petersburg. 
M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 
Prof. B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 
Prof. E. Verdet, Paris. 



(9) Major-General Sabine communicated a copy of the Statutes of the 
Humboldt Foundation, now definitely organized, and of a Circular issued by 
the Committee, announcing that about £8000 had been secured as a Capital 
Fund, and that about £260 will be available in tlie year 1862 for the general 
object of assisting Researches in Natural Science and Travels, in which Hum- 
boldt was conspicuously active. The disposition of the fund rests with the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin, and is open to applications from Sci- 
entific Travellers of all nations. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXUl 

(10) The Council are informed that Invitations will be presented to the 
General Committee at its Meeting on Monday, September 9, to hold the next 
meeting in Cambridge. The invitations formerly offered on the part of 
Birmingham and Newcastle-on-Tyne will be renewed on this occasion ; and 
other invitations will be presented from Bath and Nottingham. 

Report of the Keio Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1860-1861. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory beg to submit to the Association 
the following Report of their proceedings during the past year. 

It was noticed in a previous Report that General Sabine had undertaken 
to tabulate the hourly values of the magnetic elements from tlie curves given 
by these instruments. These values have been reduced under his super- 
intendence, and some of the results have been embodied in the following 
papers which he has communicated to the Royal Society : — 

(1) On the Solar-diurnal Variation of the Magnetic Declination at Pekin. 
— Proceedings of the Royal Societ)', vol. x. p. 360. 

(2) On the Laws of the Phenomena of the larger Disturbances of the 
Magnetic Declination in the Kew Observatory : with notices of the progress 
of our knowledge regarding the Magnetic Storms. — Proceedings of the 
Royal Society, vol. x. p. 624. 

(3) On the Lunar-diurnal Variation of the Magnetic Declination obtained 
from the Kew Photograms in the years 1858, 1839, and 1860. — Proceedings 
of the Royal Society, vol. xi. p. 73. 

The Superintendent, Mr. Stewart, has also communicated to the Royal 
Society a description of the great magnetic storm at the end of August and 
beginning of September 1859, deduced from the Kew Photographs. 

Mr. Chambers continues to be zealously employed in the magnetical de- 
partment, and attends to the self-recording magnetographs, which have been 
maintained in constant operation. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made ; and the dip observations from November 1857 to the 
present date (282 in all), a large portion of which were made by the late 
Mr. Welsh and Mr. Chambers, have been made available by General Sabine 
in connexion with some previous observations of his own for determining 
the secular change in the magnetic dip in London, between the years 1821 
and 1860. See Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. xi. p. 144. 

The instruments for the Dutch Government alluded to in the last Report 
have been verified at Kew and taken away. They consisted of a set of self- 
recording magnetographs with a tabulating instrument, two Dip Circles, and 
one Fox's Dip Circle for Dr. Bergsma ; also of two Unifilars, one for Dr. 
Bergsma and one for Dr. Buys Ballot. 

Shortly after the despatch of these instruments, another set of self-record- 
ing Magnetographs were received at Kew, in order to be tested previous to 
their being sent to Dr. Bache, of the United States, and these were despatched 
in the early part of this year to America, along with a tabulating instrument, 
a Unifilar, and Dip Circle, all of which were verified at Kew. 

The staff at Kew are at present occupied with a third set of these instru- 
ments, along with a Dip Circle and Unifilar, for the University of Coimbra ; 
and Prof. Da Souza of that University is engaged at present at the Kew 
Observatory in examining his instruments, and in receiving instructions 
regarding them. 

It will thus be seen that no fewer than three sets of these instruments 
1861. . c 



XXxiv REPORT 1861. 

have been furnished during this last year, under the superintendence of the 
Committee, and it has hitherto been deemed advisable for the interests of 
science that no charge should be made for their verification. As this, how- 
ever, is an operation involving labour and a large expenditure of time, an 
application was made to the Royal Society for the sum of £90 from the 
Donation Fund, in order to cover the expense of verifying these three sets 
of instruments, while it was arranged that in future a charge of £30 for 
verification should be added to the cost of each set. This sum was at once 
granted by the Council of the Royal Society, and it will be found among 
the receipts in the financial statement appended to this Report. 

In addition to the instruments already mentioned, the following have also 
been verified at Kew Observatory : — 

For the Havana Observatory, a set of differential magnetic instruments, 
also a Unifilar, Dip Circle, and an altitude and azimuth instrument for abso- 
lute determinations of the magnetic elements. 

For Dr. Smallwood, Montreal, a Unifilar, Dip Circle, and Differential 
Declinometer. 

For the Astronomer Royal, Greenwich, a 9-inch Unifilar. 

For the Rev. W. Scott, Sydney, a Unifilar and Dip Circle. 

For Dr. Livingstone, Africa, a Unifilar, Dip Circle, and Azimuth Compass. 

For Mr. Jackson, Bach, of Science, Ceylon, a Unifilar and Dip Circle. 

Mr. Jackson and M. Capello, of the Lisbon Observatory, have also received 
instruction at Kew in the use of instruments. 

The meteorological work of the Observatory continues to be performed in 
a satisfactory manner by Mr. George Whipple ; and here the Committee de- 
sire to mention that, both from the report of the Superintendent and from 
their own observation, each member of the staff at present attached to the 
establishment seems to interest himself in the duties he is called upon to 
discharge. 

During the past year, 150 Barometers, 660 Thermometers, and 8 Hydro- 
meters have been verified at the Observatory. 

Seven Standard Thermometers have also been constructed and disposed 
of. Dr. Bergsma and Dr. Buys Ballot were each presented with one of 
these instruments. 

For some time telegraphic reports of the meteorological elements were 
daily sent to Admiral FitzRoy's office, the expense being defrayed by the 
Board of Trade ; but these despatches were ultimately discontinued, on 
account of the Board of Trade having only a limited sum disposable for 
meteorological telegraphy, and Kew being too near London to prove a use- 
ful station. 

At the last Meeting at Oxford it was announced that the Kew Heliograph 
was about to be transported to Spain for the purpose of photographing, if 
possible, the so-called red flames visible on the occasion of a total solar 
eclipse. That the mission had most successfully accomplished the object 
contemplated was known in England on the morning of the 19th of July, 
1860 (the day after the eclipse), by the publication in the • Times' news- 
paper of a telegram sent by Mr. Warren De la Rue from Rivabellosa, near 
Miranda, where the Kew party were stationed. 

It will be remembered that, at the suggestion of the Astronomer Royal, 
the Admiralty had placed at the disposal of the expedition of astronomers 
H.M. Ship ' Himalaya,' and that the Government Grant Committee of the 
Royal Society had voted the sum of £150 for the purpose of defraying the 
expenses of transporting the Kew Heliograph with a staff of assistants to 
Spain. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXV 

As the scheme became matured, it was deemed desirable to extend con- 
siderably the preparations originally contemplated ; and actual experience 
subsequently proved that no provision which had been made could have 
been safely omitted. Originally it was thought that a mere temporary tent 
for developing the photographs might have answered the purpose ; but on 
maturing the scheme of operations, it became evident that a complete photo- 
graphic observatory, with its dark developing-room, cistern of water, sink, 
and shelves to hold the photographs, would be absolutely necessary to ensure 
success. An observatory was therefore constructed in such a manner that 
it could be taken to pieces and made into packages of small weight for easy 
transport, and at the same time be readily put together again on the locality 
selected. The house when completed weighed 1248 lbs., and was made up 
in eight cases. Altogether the packages, including house and apparatus, 
amounted in number to thirty, and in weight to 34 cwt. 

Besides the Heliograph, the apparatus comprised a small transit theodolite 
for determining the position of the meridian, and ascertaining local time and 
the latitude and longitude of the station, and also a very fine three-inch 
achromatic telescope, by Dallmeyer, for the optical observation of the phe- 
nomena of the eclipse. Complete sets of chemicals were packed in du- 
plicate in separate boxes, to guard against failure through a possible accident 
to one set of the chemicals. Collodion of different qualities was made 
sensitive in London, and some was taken not rendered sensitive, so as to 
secure as far as possible good results. Distilled water, weighing 139 lbs., 
had to be included ; and engineers' and carpenters' tools, weighing 113 lbs., 
were taken. 

Mr. Casella lent some thermometers and a barometer, and Messrs. 
Elliott an aneroid barometer to the expedition. 

The preparations were commenced by Mr. Beckley (of the Kew Observa- 
tory) early in the year 1860; and in June Mr. De la Rue engaged Mr. 
Reynolds to assist Mr. Beckley in completing them. 

Mr. Beckley and Mr. Reynolds were charged with the erection of the 
Observatory at Rivabellosa ; and so well were the plans organized that the 
Observatory and Heliograph were in actual operation on the 12th of July, 
the expedition having sailed from Plymouth in the ' Himalaya ' on the 
morning of the 7th. This could not, however, have been so expeditiously 
accomplished without the energetic cooperation of Mr. Vignoles, who met 
the ' Himalaya ' in a small steamer he had chartered to convey the expedi- 
tion and their apparatus into the port of Bilbao, and who despatched the 
Kew apparatus, as soon as it was landed, to the locality he and Mr. De la Rue 
had agreed upon. This was situated seventy miles distant from the port of 
landing, and accessible only through a difficult pass. Mr. Vignoles had also 
taken the trouble to make arrangements for accommodating the Kew party, 
and for the due supply of provisions — a matter of some importance in such 
a locality. 

Besides Mr. De la Rue, Mr. Beckley, and Mr. Reynolds, the party con- 
sisted of Mr. Downes and Mr. E. Beck, two gentlemen who gave their 
gratuitous services, and of Mr. Clark, who acted as interpreter, also kindly 
assisting during the eclipse. Each of the party had only one thing to attend 
to ; and thus rapidity of operation and certainty of result were secured. 

The total expenditure of this expedition amounted to £512 ; the balance 
of £362 over the amount granted by the Royal Society has been generously 
defrayed by Mr. De la Rue. 

Upwards of forty photographs were taken during the eclipse and a little 
before and after it, two being taken during the totality, on which are depicted 

c2 



XXXvI REPORT — 1861. 

the luminous prominences with a piecision impossible of attainment by hand 
drawings. The measurements which have been made of these prominences 
by Mr. De la Rue show incontrovertibiy tliat they must belong to the sun, 
and that they are not produced by the deflection of the sun's light through 
the valleys ot the moon. The same prominences, except those covered over 
during the moon's progress, correspond exactly when one negative is laid 
over the other ; and by copying these by means of a camera, when so placed, 
a representation is obtained of the whole of the prominences visible during 
the eclipse in their true relative position. The photographs of the several 
phases of the eclipse have served to trace out the path of the moon's centre 
in reference to the sun's centre during the progress of the phenomenon. 
Now, Rivabellosa being north of the central line of the moon's shadow, the 
moon's centre did not pass exactly across the sun's centre, but was depressed 
a little btlow it, so that a little more of the prominences situated on the 
north (the upper) limb of the sun became visible than would have been the 
case exactly under the central line, while, on the other hand, a little of those 
on the southern limb was shut off. It has been proved, by measuring the 
photographs, that the moon during the totality covered and uncovered the 
prominences to the extent of about 94" of arc in the direction of her path, 
and that a prominence situated at a right angle to the path shifted its angular 
position with respect to the moon's centre by lagging behind .5° 55'. On 
both the photographs is recorded a prominence, not visible optically, showing 
that photography can render visible phenomena which without its aid would 
escape observation. Copies of the two totality pictures are being made to 
illustrate Mr. De la Rue's paper in the Report of the ' Himalaya ' Expedition 
by the Astronomer Royal. ; 

Positive enlarged copies of the phases of the eclipse, nine inches in dia- 
meter, have also been made by means of the camera, and will be exhibited 
at the Manchester Meeting. 

The Heliograph has since been replaced in the Observatory ; but few 
opportunities have occurred for using it, in consequence of the pressure of 
other work ; latterlj', however, Mr. Beckley has been requested to carry on 
some experiments with the view of ascertaining whether any more details 
are rendered visible when the full aperture of 3 inches of the telescope is 
used, than when it is reduced to about one inch and a half. Up to the pre- 
sent time no definite conclusion can be drawn from the results obtained ; so 
that, at all events, an increase of aperture does not appear to give a strikingly 
better result when a picture of the same size is taken with various aperture's 
of the object-glass. IMore experiments, however, are needed before this 
point, which is one of some importance in guiding us in the construction of 
future instruments, can be. answered definitely. Mr. Beckley has obtained 
sun-pictures of great beauty during the course of these experiments. 

The work of the Kew Observatory is now so increased that it has become 
absolutely imperative to make some provision for working the Heliograph 
in a way that will not interfere with the current work of that establishment ; 
and Mr. De la Rue has been requested by his colleagues of the Kew Com- 
mittee to take charge of the instrument at his observatorj', where celestial 
photography is continuously, carried on. This request Mr. De la Rue has 
kindly acceded to ; and he will for a time undertake to record the sun-spots 
at Craiiford. as long as it is found not to interfere with his other observations. 
INIr. De la Rue has contrived, and had made by ^Messrs. Simms at his own 
expense, an instrument for measuring the photographs, which will much facili- 
tate the reduction of the results. It consists of a fixed frame in which work 
two slides, moving at right angles to each other. Each is furnished with a 



BEPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXVU 

vernier reading to To'oo^th of an inch. The top slide works on the lower 
slide, and carries a hollow axis 44 inches diameter, on which rotates hori- 
zontally a divided circle reading to 10", and this carries a second circle on 
the face of which are fixed four centering screws. An image intended to 
be measured is placed on the upper circle, and is centred by means of the 
adjusting screws ; it is then adjusted by means of the upper circle in any 
required angular position with respect to the lower divided circle, so as to 
bring the cross lines of the photograph in position under a fixed microscope, 
supported on an arm from the fixed frame. By means of this instrument 
the sun-pictures are measured so as to determine the diameter to xoVoth of 
the radius ; the angular position of any part of a sun-spot and its distance 
from the centre are thus readily ascertained ; or the differences of the right 
ascension and declination with respect to the centre are as easily read off to 
the same degree of accuracy. 

Mr. De la Rue has recently produced by his large Telescope an image of 
a solar spot, and portion of the sun's disc, far superior to anything before 
effected, and which leads to the hope that a new era is opened in heliography, 
and that the resources of this Observatory might be further developed in 
that direction. 

At the last Meeting of the Association the sum of £90 was voted for an 
additional photographer, and of this sum £50 has been received. The Com- 
mittee suggest that the balance of £40 be granted again at this Meeting, as 
the full sura will be required during the ensuing year. A detailed account 
of this expenditure will be presented in the next Annual Report- 
Allusion was made in last Report to an instrument constructed by Prof. 
William Thomson, of Glasgow, for determining photographically the electric 
state of the atmosphere. This instrument has been fitted up at Kew, where 
it has been in constant operation since the beginning of February last. It 
has been found to answer well in a photographic point of view, and Prof. 
Thomson has expressed himself much pleased with the results obtained. 
The mechanical arrangements connected with the fitting up of this instru- 
ment were devised and executed with much skill by Mr. Beckley, the 
Mechanical Assistant, who has also recently made a working drawing of the 
instrument for Prof. Thomson, who intends to publish a description of it. 

The arrangements made by Mr. Francis Galton, in the Observatory Park, 
for testing sextants, and which were alluded to in last Report, are now almost 
complete ; and six sextants sent by Captain Washington, R.N., Her Majesty's 
Hydrographer, have been verified. 

The Observatory was honoured with a visit from His Imperial Highness 
Prince Napoleon on the 9th of September last. His Highness expressed 
much satisfaction at witnessing the eflScient state of the Institution. 

Application has been made to the Commissioners for the International 
Exhibition of 1862, for a space of 40 feet by 20, in which to exhibit as 
many as possible of the instruments in use at the Observatory, including 
those which are self-recording. 

The Committee desire to express their thanks for a valuable addition 
which has been made to the Library at Kew, consisting of a very large number 
of the Greenwich publications, presented to them through the kindness of the 
Astronomer Royal. 

It will be observed by the annexed statement that the expenditure of last 
year has exceeded the income by about ^690 ; but as this year comprised 
five quarters, it is hoped that the usual annual grant of £500 will cover the 
expense until the next Meeting of the Association. 

Kew Observatory, JoHN P. Gassiot, 

"August 30, 18C1. Chairman. 



XXXVlll 



REPORT — 1861. 






o >-i o o> iM e4 <» o o 

CO T»" <D O O O «0 O O 

in 



«rt s 


o 


^H 


(M 




,_J— 


,, ' 


io 


1 


C 


(U 


-a 

s 


60 

S 










m 








<U 


« 


■e 




rt 

S 


>% 


a< 


■♦J 



o o 

o o 



© 
o 



© 
o 






o o 

o CO 



© 
© 

CO 



© 
© 



'^' 





' w 








<u 


CO 






QJ 


Oi 


t3 


r>« 






•T3 




C 



* i-i o 

« I- £ 

da CC -g OS 

•C o ■- 



a 



a 



' 3 



-to 



2- 



to 

c 

■3 
e 

a 



: .a 

; a 



V . -^ 



to 



5<S 

5^ nn 



^ -J Js 00 
., CO >. » 



■3 
a 

^© 

•—I o 



T »H 


of '• 


: "— ' 


t4 • 




« t 


* r^ 


^ . 


:ii 


a : 


: =4 


o : 


■■S 






<L) : 


: to 


OJ . 


• c 


to : 


■ -a 


a • 






; " 


a • 




0) : 



■a 



J20 



t« 69 ^ . 
^ O m M 

S' « « -k^ 

=^ '-' o -^ 

CM CO ?,3 to 

00 "^ CX5 

6'-' d-^ 



H « (5 



♦^ a 

o S 
^ ■£ ^ 
c3 ^ a 

ii C3 O 

5^ « S 
S . C3 « 

2 t"0 -3 

i: a tog 
ts 2 a =i 

« s-g « 

(^^ 5 .S ^ 
c-o-E o 



C- 2 ^ ■ S o 

Oi ** 5J ♦f -+J 

^ a H = o 

" a. § a o 

a^ «: -T3 

"J s i; — a 

>! u " .-ti J 

« 2 o "5 

;f ^- M a 

° o o <u 



5 OS 
I ^ 



« ° 



-§.2 



S **• 



o 

H 

pi 



03 



0) 


o 


C 


=8 










«j 


CJ 


Pn 


OS 



^ in o 

rf CO o 



o 


© 


00 t^ 


in 


o 


in CO 


00 


o 


O CJ 
CO t>» 



CO 
a, 

04 



*^ c c? c^ 

oj 00 O I— I 



t? 



t» to 

r-t in 



-^ ; a o 
"* o i^ 



o 



CO 



'-' >- 3 

3 -*J ea 



H o 



«« "S s 
o O rt 



o a 



1° 



.2 « 

ed CO 

ta u 

'C -S 

=* a 
1 1 



° a. 
CO «• 

« to 



o t5 



CO 



V 



•S CO 

a s 

a E 

o o 



•a a 
§.§ 

|i 
§ > 

O ID 



i ^ £ 

^-' -< >« 



'eS o) 



a 



S « a 

g ^g. 

a< .S a 

^^ J-" ^'^ 

. ■= ^ 

is " P 

«2 £ o 

a ia £ 

O OJ ^ 

1.2 g 

J5 ^ J3 

ill 

t4-l ** ?3 

O Si « 

. « g 

a 

o 



rt o I- <u 

•S «2 Oh a 



o 


CJ 


> 




a> 




,a 


•a 










,a 


O) 




Oi 


& 


a> 



— -^ 



a. -5 b 
^ § Si. 



3 CO 

O CO 



«^ 

J ° 

« s 

<o a 



a 

3 

i to 

£. CO 



a ^ S 






^~ "^ 



CO 



-a 






O 
J3 



RECOMMEN'DATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. XXxix 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Manchester, in September 1861. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report : — 

That on the 19th of July they met the Steam Performance Committee, by 
appointment, at the Admiralty, and had, in company with the Members of 
that Committee, an interview with the Duke of Somerset. 

That in the course of that interview the Chairman of your Committee 
shortly explained the motives which had induced the British Association to 
appoint the Steam Performance Committee, and called upon Mr, Fairbairn, 
who thereupon stated and explained the principal suggestions contained in 
the Report of the Steam Performance Committee, which had been prepared 
and agreed upon, and will be presented to this Meeting ; and urged upon 
His Grace the expediency of carrying them into effect. 

The Duke of Somerset, in reply, stated certain objections which he en- 
tertained to some of the suggestions, founded chiefly upon the circumstances 
that suflicient time could not be allowed for the various experiments con- 
sistently with the interests of the service, and that the ships of the Royal 
Navy only employed steam occasionally, and only as an auxiliary power ; 
but His Grace was understood to agree to supply such information to the 
scientific public as could be done without improperly interfering with the 
performance of ordinary duties. 

The Dukes of Devonshire and Argyll, the Earls of Enniskillen, Har- 
rowby, Rosse and De Grey, Lord Stanley and Sir John Pakington, must be 
considered as having vacated their seats in your Committee, in pursuance of 
the resolution adopted at Liverpool in 1854 ; but your Committee recommend 
that they should be re-elected. Your Committee also recommend that 
the two vacancies in the House of Commons List be filled by the election of 
Sir Joseph Paxton and Lieut.-Col. Sykes. 

Wrottesley, Chairman. 



recomme>fdations adopted bt the general committee at the 
Manchester Meeting in September 1861. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary of 
the Committee, except there be a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of £500 be appropriated, under the sanction of the Council, 
for maintaining the Establishment at Kew. 

That the sum of £4'0 be placed at the disposal of the Kew Committee for 
the employment of the Photo-heliometer. 

That the cooperation of the Royal Society be requested in obtaining a 
series of photographic pictures of the Solar Surface; and that the sum of 
£150 be placed at the disposal of the Kew Committee for the purpose. 

That Professor Airy, Lord Wrottesley, Sir D. Brewster, Col. Sykes, Sir 
J. Herschel, General Sabine, Dr. Lloyd, Admiral FitzRoy, Dr. Lee, Dr. Ro- 
binson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Glaisher, Dr. Tyndall, and Dr. W. A. Miller be 
requested to form a Balloon Committee ; and that the sum of £200 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Williamson, Professor Wheatstone, Professor W. Thomson, 
Professor Miller (of Cambridge), Dr. Matthiessen, and Mr. F. Jenkin be a 



Xl REPORT — 1861. 

Committee to report upon Standards of Electrical Resistance ; and that the 
sum of £.50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Glaisher, Mr. R. P.Greg, Mr. E. W. Brayley, and Mr. Alex. 
Herschel be a Committee to report upon Luminous Meteors and Aerolites ; 
and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Fleeming Jenkin be requested to continue his Experiments for 
determining the Laws of Permanent Thermo-electric Currents in broken 
metallic circuits, and to report thereon ; and that the sum of £20 be placed 
at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Hennessy, Admiral FitzRoy, and Mr. Glaisher be a Com- 
mittee to studj^ by the aid of instruments specially devised for the purpose, 
the connexion of small vertical disturbances of the atmosphere with storms, 
and to report thereon ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That Mr. Alphonse Gages be requested to continue his Researches on 
Mechanico-Chemical Analysis of Minerals ; and that the sum of £8 remaining 
undrawn from the grant of last year be again placed at his disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Hooker, Mr. Binney, and Professor Morris be a Committee to 
prepare a Report on the connexion between the external form and internal 
microscopical structure of the Fossil Wood from the Lower Coal-?vIeasures of 
Lancashire ; and that the sum of £40 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Sir C. F. Bunbury*, Mr. Binney, and Mr. H. Ormerod be requested 
to prepare a Report on the Flora of the Lancashire Coal-fields ; and that the 
sum of £40 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. H. Scott, Sir Richard Griffith, Bart., and the Rev. Professor 
Haughton be a Committee to prepare a Report on the Chemical and Mine- 
raloo'ical Composition of the Granites of Donegal and the Rocks associated 
therewith ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Alder, and the Rev. Thomas Hincks be a 
Committee to Dredge the Dogger Bank and portions of the Sea Coast of 
Durham and Northumberland ; and that the sura of £25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. Dickie, Professor Nicol, Dr. Dyce, and 
Dr. Ogilvie be a Committee for Dredging on the North and East Coasts of 
Scotland ; and that tiie sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 
That Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. Kinahan, Dr. Carter, and Mr. E. Waller be a 
Committee for conducting the Dredging Report of the Bay of Dublin ; and 
that the sum of £15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. CoUingwood, Mr. Isaac Byerley, Rev. H. 
H. Higgins, and Dr. Edwards be a Committee to Dredge the River Mersey 
and Dee ; and that the sum of £5 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 
That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. Lukis, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. A. Han- 
cock, Dr. Verloren, and Professor Archer be a Committee for the purpose of 
Reporting on the best mode of preventing the ravages of the different kinds 
of Teredo and other Animals in our Ships and Harbours; and that the sum 
of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. P. Lutley Sclater, Mr. R. J. Tomes, and Dr. Giinther be a 
Committee to Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the West 
Indian Vertebrata ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

* Sir C. r. Bunbury has declined to act. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xli 

That Dr. P. Lutley Sclater and Dr. F. Hochstetter be a Committee for the 
purpose of continuing their investigations as to the Species oi Apteryx in New 
Zealand ; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. Perceval Wright and Professor W. H. Harvey be a Committee 
to draw up a Report on the Fishes of Dublin Bay and the Coasts of Leinster ; 
and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. P. Lutley Sclater and Dr. E. Perceval Wright be a Committee 
to assist Dr. P. P. Carpenter in preparing a Supplementary Report on the 
MoUusca of N.W. America ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Dr. CoUingwood, Mr. John Lubbock, Mr. R. Patterson, Dr. P. P 
Carpenter, Mr. J. A. Turner, RI.P., and the Rev. H. H. Higgins be a Com- 
mittee to Report on the Collecting of Objects of Natural History by the 
Mercantile Marine, with £5 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Edward Smith, F.R.S., and Mr. W. R. Milner be requested to 
continue their inquiries into the influence of Prison Discipline and Dietary 
over the Bodily Functions of Prisoners ; and that the sura of £20 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Thomas Webster, the Right Hon. Joseph Napier, Sir W. Arm- 
strong, Mr. W. Fairba rn, Mr. W. R. Grove, Mr. James Hey wood, and Ge- 
neral Sabine be a Committee (with power to add to their number) for the 
purpose of taking such steps as may appear expedient for rendering the 
Patent Law more efficient for the reward of the meritorious Inventor and 
the advancement of Practical Science ; and that the sum of £50 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor J. Thomson be requested to complete his Report of Ex- 
periments on the Gauging of Water ; and that the sum of £15 be placed at 
his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. William Fairbairn, Mr, J. E. M<^ConneIl, and Mr. William Smith 
be a Committee (with power to add to their number) to investigate and re- 
port on some of the Causes of Accidents on Railways, more particularly those 
accidents consequent upon the failure of the materials and apparatus used in 
the Construction and Working of Railways, and in the Rolling Stock ; that 
the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Steam-ship Performance be reappointed ; that the 
attention of the Committee be also directed to the obtaining of information 
respecting the performance of vessels under Sail, with a view to comparing 
the results of the two powers of Wind and Steam, in order to their more 
effective and economical combination ; and that the sum of £150 be placed at 
their disposal. That the following noblemen and gentlemen be requested to 
serve on the Committee, with power to add to their number: — The Duke 
of Sutherland; The Earl of GiflTord, M.P.; The Earl of Caithness; Lord 
Dufferin; Mr. William Fairbairn, F.R.S.; Mr. J. Scott Russell, F.R.S.; 
Admiral Paris; The Hon. Captain Egerton, R.N. ; The Hon. Leopold Agar 
Ellis, M.P. ; Mr. J. E. M<^Connell ; Mr. W. Smith ; Professor J. Macquorn 
Rankine ; Mr. James R. Napier; Mr. Richard Roberts ; Mr. Henry Wright, 
to be Honorary Secretary. 

That Mr. J. Oldham, C.E., Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. J. Scott Russell, and 
Mr. T. Thompson be a Committee to conduct a series of Tidal Observations 
in the Humber ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the sum of £600 be appropriated for the purpose of printing an Index 
to the Volumes of Reports and Sectional Proceedings of the Association, 
from 1831 to 1860 inclusive. 



xHi REPORT — 1861. 

That Professor Phillips be authorized to employ for the ensuing year an 
Assistant, and that the sum of £100 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

Applications /or Reports and Researches not involving Grants 

of Money. 

That Professor G. G. Stokes be again requested to furnish a Report on 
Physical Optics. 

That Mr. A. Cayley be again requested to furnish a Report on the Recent 
Progress in the Solution of certain Problems in Dynamics. 

That Mr. Archibald Smith and Mr. F. J. Evans be requested to abstract 
and report upon the three Reports of the Liverpool Compass Committee, 
and other recent publications on the same subject. 

That Mr. Johnstone Stoney be requested to report on the Present State 
of Molecular Physics. 

That Dr. Lloyd, General Sabine, Mr. A. Smith, Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney, 
Professor Airy, Professor Donkin, Professor W. Thomson, Mr. Cayley, and 
the Rev. Professor Price be requested to inquire into the adequacy of exist- 
ing data for carrying into effect the suggestion of Gauss to apply his General 
-Theory of Magnetism to Magnetic Variations ; and to report on the steps 
proper to be taken to supply what may still be wanting, and generally on the 
course to be adopted to carry out Gauss's suggestion. 

That Dr. Grace Calvert be requested to draw up a Report on the Che- 
mical Composition and Physical Properties of the Wood employed for Naval 
Construction. 

That Dr. Williamson, Dr. W. A. Miller, Dr. Andrews, Professor Brodie, 
Professor W. H. Miller, Dr. Lyon Playfair, and Dr. Angus Smith (with 
power to add to their number) be requested to inquire into the best means 
of effecting a registration and publication of the Numerical Facts of Che- 
mistry. 

That Dr. Williamson, Dr. Angus Smith, Dr. Christison, Mr. W. De la Rue, 
Mr. Grove, Mr. Webster, Mr. Bateman, Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, Professor 
Brodie, and Professor W. A. Miller be requested to consider whether any im- 
provements can be suggested in the present practice respecting scientific 
evidence, as taken in courts of law, and to report any such suggestions of 
improvement as may appear practicable to the ensuing Meeting at Cam- 
bridge ; that the Committee have power to add to their number. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. R. MacAndrew, Mr. G. C. Hyndman, 
Dr. Edwards, Dr. Dickie, Mr. C. L. Stewart, Dr. Collingwood, Dr. Kinahan, 
Mr. J. S. Worthey, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, Mr. J. Ray Greene, Rev. 
Thomas Hincks, and Mr. R. D. Darbyshire to act as a General Dredging 
Committee, with a general superintendence of all other Dredging Com- 
mittees appointed by the Association. 

That M. Foster, M.D. be reappointed to report upon the Present State of 
our Knowledge in reference to Muscular Irritability, he having been unable 
from ill health to prepare it for the present Meeting. 

That Admiral Sir E. Belcher, Sir J. Rennie, Mr. G. Rennie, and Mr. Smith 
be requested to report on the Rise and Progress of Steam Navigation in 
the Port of London. 

That Mr. W. Fairbairn, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Professor Thomson, and Mr. 
J. G. Lynde be requested to report on Experiments to be made at the Man- 
chester Waterworks on the Gauging of Water; with power to add to their 
number. 

That in the opinion of the Committee a large and extensive Reform in the 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xUii 

Patent Laws and their administration is necessary and urgent ; that the dis- 
cussion which took place indicated the means for effecting such reform ; that 
the Parliamentary Committee of this Association might be advantageously 
employed in bringing the subject before Parliament, and that they be re- 
quested to give their attention to the subject, and to take the necessary steps 
for the purpose. That Mr. Webster and Mr. Grove be requested to make the 
communication to the Parliamentary Committee. 

The following recommendation was referred to the Parliamentary Com- 
mittee: — "That application be made to the Charity Commissioners of Eng- 
land and Wales to provide sufficient means for the Classification and Con- 
densation of the Accounts of Charities sent in Annually to the Charity Com- 
missioners." That Mr. Heywood be requested to communicate with the 
Parliamentary Committee. 

Involving Applications to Government or Public Institutions. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Robinson, Professor Wheatstone, 
and Dr. Gladstone, be requested to make application to the Board of Trade 
for Experiments on the Transmission of Sound Signals during Fogs. 

That it be represented to the Secretary of State for India, that inquiries 
into Prisons similar to those made by Dr. Mouat on the Prisons of Bengal, 
as detailed by him from his printed Reports, be instituted in the other Pre- 
sidencies of India, especially in those of the Punjaub and the North-West 
Provinces. 

That Dr. Davy, Dr. Smith, and Mr. Miller be a Committee to make a 
representation in this matter to the Secretary of State for India. 

Communications to be printed entire among the Reports. 

That Dr. Lloyd's Paper, on the Secular Changes of Terrestrial Magnetism 
and their Connexion with Disturbances, be printed entire in the Sectional 
Proceedings of the Association. 

That the Report of Drs. Schunck, Smith, and Roscoe, on the Recent Pro- 
gress and Present Condition of Manufacturing Chemistry in the South 
Lancashire District, be printed entire among the Reports. 

That Dr. James Hunt's Paper, on the Acclimatization of Man, be printed 
entire among the Reports. 

That Mr. Charles Atherton's Paper, on Freight as affected by difference 
of the Dynamic Performance of Steam-Ships, be printed entire among the 
Reports. 

That Mr. E. J. Reed's Paper, on the Iron-Cased Ships of the British Ad^ 
miralty, be printed entire in the Sectional Proceedings. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Manchester Meeting in September 
1861, with the name of the Member, who alone, or as the First of a 
Committee, is entitled to draw the Money. 

Kew Observatory. ^ , 

For maintaining the Establishment at Kew 500 

Carried forward £500 



Xliv REPORT — 1861. 

£ s. d. 

Brought forward 500 

For Photo-heliometry at Kew 40 

For Photographic pictures of the Sun 150 

3Iafhematics and Physics. 

Sykes, Colonel, and Committee. — Balloon Ascents 200 

Williamson, Professor, and Committee. — Electrical Resist- 
ance 50 

Glaisher, Mr., and Committee. — Luminous Meteors 20 

Jenkin, Mr.— Thermo-Electricity 20 

Hennessy, Professor, and Committee. — Connexion of Storms 20 

Cheinical Science. 

Gages, Mr. — Analysis of Rocks 8 

Geology. 

Hooker, Dr., and Committee. — Lancashire Fossil Wood 40 

Hooker, Dr., and Committee. — Lancashire Carbonaceous 

Flora 40 

Scott, Mr., and Committee. — Rocks of Donegal 25 

Zoology and Botany. 

Jeffreys, Mr., and Committee. — Dredging Coasts of Durham 

and Northumberland 25 

Jeffreys, Mr., and Committee. — Dredging North-East Coast 

oflreland 25 

Jeffreys, Mr., and Committee. — Dredging in Dublin Bay ... 15 

Jeffreys, Mr., and Committee. — Dredging in the Mersey ... 5 

Jeffreys, Mr., and Committee. — Ravages of Teredo 10 

ScLATER, Dr., and Committee. — West Indian Vertebrata 10 

Sclater, Dr., and Committee. — Apteryx 50 

Wright, Dr., and Committee. — Fishes in Dublin Bay 10 

Sclater, Dr., and Committee. — MoUusca, N.W. America ... 10 
CoLLiNGWOOD, Dr., and Committee. — Collecting of Natural 

History 5 

Physiology. 

Smith, Dr. E., and Mr. Milner. — Effects of Prison Discipline 20 

3Iechanical Science. 

Webster, Mr., and Committee. — OnPatentLaws 50 

Thomson, Professor J. — Gauging 15 

Fairbairn, Mr., and Committee. — Railway Accidents 25 

Sutherland, Duke of, and Committee. — Steam-ship Perform- 
ance 150 

Oldham, Mr., and Committee — Tide Observations, Humber 25 

For Printing of Index to Reports and Transactions and Sec- 
tions, from 1831 to 1860 inclusive 600 

For Assistance to Professor Phillips 100 

Total £2263 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlv 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for 

Scientific Purposes. 



£ «. d. 
IS34. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£-918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 319 5 

Thermometers 16 4 



je956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 



£ ». d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles '. 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



1 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








8 


6 








6 


6 














1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









Jei595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


6 











7 





13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology ]5 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) , 185 



xlvi 



REPORT — 1861. 



£ 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology I 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

• British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race 7 

£IU9 



s. 


d. 


5 





19 


6 































1 6 
12 





18 8 





1 10 
6 3 





10 U 



11 2 

12 
8 

14 7 

17 6 

5 











10 







8 6 





























1 


11 


9 






17 8 



mi. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars , 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie andlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 
Materials 60 



5. 


d. 














6 





12 

8 


2 

10 



16 



1 


4 
8 



7 










18 


3 














4 
3 


14 


6 
8 


11 













5 


8 




















4 


10 









^£1505 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlvii 



£ t. d. 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 11 10 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and MoUusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1S42 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 10 3 6 

£981 12 8 



1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 C 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 18 43 15 14 8 

dESSO 9 9 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 
Stars 1844 211 



£ 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds i...........l844 2 

Vitahty of Seeds .............1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain .,,.., 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 



(. 


d. 














16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









16 



15 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

f,-:r"- £275 



15 


11 


10 


.9 


15 
























1 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 



xlviii 



REPORT — 1861. 



£ s. d. 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. " 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 2 

TheoryofHeat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

JE39I 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1 850) ... 233 17 S 

Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

^£304 6 7 

1853. ==^==* 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kevf Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 

1854. ^=== 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kev/ Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Eflfects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

1b'380 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 o 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 n 

Map of the World '.'...., 15 o 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



£ ». d. 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 O"! 

1855 £500 OJ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 

Chemical Action of Light 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 



575 



100 

9 

20 





13 










1857. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 



£734 13 9 


























£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 13 2 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£618 18 2 

1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidae 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam Vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils , 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 


































































1 


1 






£684 11 1 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



xHx 



1860. £ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellovp Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 



JE1241 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory 500 



Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 ^50 0> ,, 

1861 £22 J ^^ 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-Vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



s. d. 


















































































£1111 5 10 



Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, William Spottiswoode, Esq., 19 Chester Street, Belgrave 
Square, London, S.W., for such portion of the sum granted as may from 
time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



1861. 



1 REPORT — 1861. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, September ■i, at 8 p.m., in the Free Trade Hall, 
The Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S., resigned the office of President to William Fair- 
bairn, Esq., F.R.S., who took the Chair and delivered an Address, for which 
see page li. 

On Thursday Evening, September 5, at 8 p.m., a Soiree, with Microscopes, 
took place in the Free Trade Hall. 

On Friday Evening, September 6, at 8 p.m., in the Concert Room, Pro- 
fessor W. A. Miller, F.R.S., delivered a Discourse on Spectrum Analysis. 

On Saturday Evening, September 7, at 8 p.m., a Soiree, with Tt legraphs, 
took place in the Free Trade Hall. 

On Monday Evening, September 9, at 8 p.m., Professor Airy, Astronomer 
Royal, delivered a Discourse on the late Eclipse of the Sun. 

On Tuesday Evening, September 10, at 8 p.m., the attention of the 
Members was called by Dr. E. Lankester, F.R.S., to the labours of the 
Field Naturalist's Society, and to the large collections in Natural History 
placed in the Free Trade Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 11, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place in the Free Trade Hall, when the Proceedings of the General 
Committee, and the Grants of Money for Scientific purposes, were explained 
to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Cambridge*. 

* The Meeting is appointeil to take place on Wednesday, the 1st of October, 1862. 



ADDRESS 



BY 



WILLIAM PAIRBAIRN, Esq., LL.D., C.E., E.R.S. 



Gentlemen, — Ever since my election to the high office I now occupy, I 
have been deeply sensible of my own unfitness for a post of so much distinc- 
tion and responsibility. And when I call to mind the illustrious men who 
have preceded me in this Chair, and see around me so many persons much 
better qualified for the office than my-ielf, I feel the novelty of my position 
and unfeigned embarrassment in addressing you. 

I should, however, very imperfectly discharge the duties which devolve 
upon me, as the successor of the distinguished nobleman who presided over 
the meetings of last year, if I neglected to thank you for the honourable 
position in which you have placed me, and to express, at the outset, my 
gratitude to those valued friends with whom I have been united for many 
years in the labours of the Sections of this Association, and from whom I 
have invariably received every mark of esteem. 

A careful perusal of the history of this Association will demonstrate that 
it was the first and for a long time the only institution which brought toge- 
ther for a common object the learned Professors of our Universities and the 
workers in practical science. These periodical reunions have been of incalcu- 
lable benefit, in giving to practice that soundness of principle and certainty 
of progressive improvement, which can only be obtained by the accurate 
study of science and its application to the arts. On the other hand, the men 
of actual practice have reciprocated the benefits thus received from theory, 
in testing by actual experiment deductions which were doubtful, and recti- 
fying those which were erroneous. Guided by an extended experience, and 
exercising a sound and disciplined judgment, they have often corrected 
theories apparently accurate, but nevertheless founded on incomplete data or 
on false assumptions inadvertently introduced. If the British Association 
had effected nothing more than the removal of the anomalous separation of 
theory and practice, it would have gained imperishable renown in the benefit 
thus conferred. 

Were I to enlarge on the relation of the achievements of science to the 
comforts and enjoyments of man, 1 should have to refer to the present epoch as 
one of the most important in the history of the world. At no former period 
did science contribute so much to the uses of life and the wants of society. And 
in doing this it has only been fulfilling that mission which Bacon, the great 
father of modern science, appointed for it, when he wrote that " the legiti- 
mate goal of the sciences is the endowment of human life with new inventions 
and riches," and when he sought for a natural philosophy which, not spending 

d2 



lii REPORT — 1861. 

its energy on barren disquisitions, " should be operative for the benefit and 
endowment of mankind." 

Looking, then, to the fact that, whilst in our time all the sciences have 
yielded this fruit, Engineering science, with which I have been most inti- 
mately connected, has preeminently advanced the power, the wealth, and the 
comforts of mankind, 1 shall probably best discharge the duties of the office 
I have the honour to fill, by stating as briefly as possible the more recent 
scientific discoveries which have so influenced the relations of social life. 1 
shall, therefore, not dwell so much on the progress of abstract science, im- 
portant as that is, but shall rather endeavour briefly to examine the applica- 
tion of science to the useful arts, and the results which have followed, and 
are likely to follow, in the improvement of the condition of society. 

The history of man throughout the gradations and changes which he 
undergoes in advancing from a primitive barbarism to a state of civilization, 
shows that he has been chiefly stimulated to the cultivation of science and 
the development of his inventive powers by the urgent necessity of providing 
for his wants and securing his safety. There is no nation, however barba- 
rous, which does not inherit the germs of civilization, and there is scarcely 
any which has not done something towards applying the rudiments of science 
to the purposes of daily life. 

Amongst the South Sea Islanders, when discovered by Cook, the applied 
sciences (if I may use the term) were not entirely unknown. They had 
observed something of the motions of the heavenly bodies, and watched with 
interest their revolutions, in order to apply this knowledge to the division of 
time. They were not entirely deficient in the construction of instruments of 
husbandry, of war, and of music. They had made themselves acquainted 
with the rudiments of shipbuilding and navigation, in the construction and 
management of their canoes. Cut off from the influence of European civili- 
zation, and deprived of intercourse with higher grades of mind, we still find 
the inherent principle of progression exhibiting itself, and the inventive and 
reasoning powers developed in the attempt to secure the means of subsistence. 

Again, if we compare man as he exists in small communities with his con- 
dition where large numbers are congregated together, we find that densely 
populated countries are the most prolific in inventions, and advance most 
rapidly in science. Because the wants of the many are greater than those of 
the few, there is a more vigorous struggle against the natural limitations of 
supply, a more careful husbanding of resources, and there are more minds 
at work. 

This fact is strikingly exemplified in the history of Mexico and Peru, and 
its attestation is found in the numerous monuments of the past which are 
seen in Central America, where the remains of cities and temples, and vast 
public works, erected by a people endowed with high intellectual acquire- 
ments, can still be traced. There have been discovered a system of canals 
for irrigation ; long mining-galleries cut in the solid rock, in search of lead, 
tin, and copper ; pyramids not unlike those of Egypt ; earthenware vases 
and cups, and manuscripts containing the records of their history ; all testi- 
fying to so high a degree of scientific culture and practical skill that, looking 
at the cruelties which attended the conquests of Cortes and Pizarro, we may 
well hesitate as to which had the stronger claims on our sympathy, the victors 
or the vanquished. 

In attempting to notice those branches of science with which I am but 
imperfectly acquainted, I shall have to claim your indulgence. This Asso- 
ciation, as you are aware, does not confine its discussions and investigations 
to any particular science; and one great advantage of this is, that it leads to 



ADDRESS. 



liit 



the division of labour, whilst the attention which each department receives, 
and the harmony with which the plan has hitherto worked, afford the best 
guarantee of its wisdom and proof of its success. 

In the early history of Astronomy, how vague and unsatisactory were the 
wild theories and conjectures which supplied the place of demonstrated 
physical truths and carefully observed laws ! How immeasurably small, 
what a very speck does man appear, with all the wonders of his invention, 
when contrasted with the mighty works of the Creator; and how imperfect 
is our apprehension, even in the highest fligiits of poetic imagination, of the 
boundless depths of space I These reflections naturally suggest themselves 
in the contemplation of the works of an Almighty Power, and impress the 
mind with a reverential awe for the great Author of our existence. 

The great revolution which laid the foundation of modern Astronomy, 
and which, indeed, marks the birth of modern physical science, is chiefly 
due to three or four distinguished philosophers. Tycho Brahe, by his 
system of accurate measurement of the positions of the heavenly bodies, 
Copernicus, by his theory of the solar system, Galileo, by the application of 
the telescope, and Kepler, by the discovery of the laws of the planetary 
motions, all assisted in advancing, by prodigious strides, towards a true 
knowledge of the constitution of the universe. It remained for Newton to 
introduce, at a later period, the idea of an attraction varying directly as the 
mass, and inversely as the square of the distance, and thus to reduce celes- 
tial phenomena to the greatest simplicity, by comprehending them under a 
single law. Without tracing the details of the history of this science, we 
may notice that in more recent times astronomical discoveries have been 
closely connected with high mechanical skill in the construction of instru- 
ments of precision. The telescope has enormously increased the catalogue 
of the fixed stars, or those " landmarks of the universe," as Sir John Herschel 
terms them, " which never deceive the astronomer, navigator, or surveyor." 
The number of known planets and asteroids has also been greatly enlarged. 
The discovery of Uranus resulted immediately from the perfection attained 
by Sir William Herschel in the construction of his telescope. More recently, 
the structure of the nebulae has been unfolded through the application to 
their study of the colossal telescope of Lord Rosse. In all these directions 
much has been done both by our present distinguished Astronomer Royal 
and also by amateur observers in private observatories, all of whom, with 
Mr. Lassell at their head, are making rapid advances in this department of 
physical science. 

Our knowledge of the physical constitution of the central body of our 
system seems likely, at the present time, to be much increased. The spots 
on the sun's disk were noticed by Galileo and his contemporaries, and enabled 
them to ascertain the time of its rotation and the inclination of its axis. 
They also correctly inferred, from their appearance, the existence of a lumi- 
nous envelope, in which funnel-shaped depressions revealed a solid and dark 
nucleus. Just a century ago, Alexander Wilson indicated the presence of a 
second and less luminous envelope beneath the outer stratum, and his dis- 
covery was confirmed by Sir William Herschel, who was led to assume the 
presence of a double stratum of clouds, the upper intensely luminous, the 
lower grey, and forming the penumbra of the spots. Observations during 
eclipses have rendered probable the supposition of a third and outermost stra- 
tum of imperfect transparency enclosing concentrically the other envelopes. 
Still more recently,the remarkable discoveries of Kirchhoff andBunsen require 
us to believe that a solid or liquid photosphere is seen through an atmosphere 
containing iron, sodium, lithium, and other metals in a vaporous condition. 



liv REPORT — 1861. 

We must still wait for the application of more perfect instruments, and 
especially for the careful registering of the appearances of the sun bj' the 
photoheliograph of Sir John Herschel, so ably employed by Mr. "Warren De 
la Rue, Mr. Welsh, and others, before we can expect a solution of all tLe 
problems thus suggested. 

Guided by the same principles which have been so successful in Astronomy, 
its sister science, Magnetism, emerging from its infancy, has of late advanced 
rapidly in that stage of development which is marked by assiduous and 
systematic observation of the phenomena, by careful analysis and presenta- 
tion of the facts which they disclose, and by the grouping of these in gene- 
ralizations, which, when the basis on which they rest shall be more extended, 
will prepare the way for the conception of a general physical theory, in which 
all the phenomena shall be comprehended, whilst each shall receive its 
separate and satisfactory explanation. 

It is unnecessary to remind you of the deep interest which the British 
Association has at all times taken in the advancement of this branch of 
natural knowledge, or of the specific recommendations which, made in con- 
junction with the Royal Society, have been productive of such various and 
important results. To refer but to a single instance, we have seen those 
magnetic disturbances, — so mysterious in their origin and so extensive in simul- 
taneous prevalence, and which, less than twenty years ago, were designated 
by a term specially denoting that their laws were wholly unknown, — traced 
to laws of periodical recurrence, revealing, without a doubt, their origin in 
the central body of our system, by inequalities which have for their respect- 
ive periods, the solar day, the solar year, and still more remarkably, an 
until lately unsuspected solar cycle of about ten of our terrestrial years, to 
whose existence they bear testimony in conjunction with the solar spots, 
but whose nature and causes are in all other respects still wrapped in entire 
obscurity. We owe to General Sabine, especially, the recognition and study 
of these and other solar magnetic influences and of the magnetic influence 
of the moon similarly attested by concurrent determinations in many parts of 
the globe, which are now held to constitute a distinct branch of this science 
not inappropriately named " celestial," as distinguished from purely terres- 
trial magnetism. 

We ought not in this town to forget that the very rapid advance which 
has been made in our time by Chemistry is due to the law of equivalents, 
or atomic theory, first discovered by our townsman, Jolin Dalton. Since 
the development of this law its progress has been unimpeded, and it has had 
a most direct bearing on the comforts and enjoyments of life. A knowledge 
of the constituents of food has led to important deductions as to the relative 
nutritive value and commercial importance of different materials. Water 
has been studied in reference to the deleterious impurities with which it is so 
apt to be contaminated in its distribution to the inhabitants of large towns. 
The power of analysis, which enables us to detect adulterations, has been 
invaluable to the public health, and would be much more so, if it were 
possible to obviate the difficulties which have prevented the operation of 
recent legislation on this subject. 

We have another proof of the utility of this science in its application to 
medicine; and the estimation in which it is held by the medical profession 
is the true index of its value in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The 
largest developments of chemistry, however, have been in connexion with 
the useful arts. What would now be the condition of calico-printing, 
bleaching, dyeing, and even agriculture itself, if they had been deprived of 
the aid of theoretic chemistry ? 



ADDRESS. it 

For example, Aniline — first discovered in coal-tar by Dr. Hofmann, who 
has so admirably developed its properties — is now most extensively used as 
the basis of red, blue, violet, and green dyes. This important discovery will 
probably in a few years render this country independent of the world for 
dye-stuffs ; and it is more than probable that England, instead of drawing 
her dye-stuffs from foreign countries, may herself become the centre from 
which all the world will be supplied. 

It is an interesting fact that at the same time in another branch of this 
science, M. Tournet has lately demonstrated that the colours of gems, such 
as the emerald, aqua-marina, amethyst, smoked rock-crystal, and others, are 
due to volatile hydrocarbons, first noticed by Sir David Brewster in clouded 
topaz, and that they are not derived from metallic oxides, as has been hitherto 
believed. 

Another remarkable advance has recently been made by Bunsen and 
Kirchhoff in the application of the coloured rays of the prism to analytical 
research. We may consider their discoveries as the commencement of a new 
era in analytical chemistry, from the extraordinary facilities they afford in 
the qualitative detection of the minutest traces of elementary bodies. The 
value of the method has been proved by the discovery of the new metals 
Caesium and Rubidium by M. Bunsen, and it has yielded another remark- 
able result in demonstrating the existence of iron, and six other known 
metals, in the sun. 

In noticing the more recent discoveries in this important science, I must 
not pass over in silence the valuable light which chemistry has thrown upon 
the composition of iron and steel. Although Despretz demonstrated many 
years ago that iron would combine with nitrogen, yet it was not until 1857 
that Mr. C. Binks proved that nitrogen is an essential element of steel, and 
more recently M. Carou and M. Fremy have further elucidated this subject ; 
the former showing that cyanogen, or cyanide of ammonium, is the essential 
element which converts wrought iron into steel; the latter combining iron 
with nitrogen through the medium of ammonia, and then converting it into 
steel by bringing it at the proper temperature into contact with common 
coal-gas. There is little doubt that in a few years these discoveries will 
enable Sheffield manufacturers to replace their present uncertain, cumbrous, 
and expensive process, by a method at once simple and inexpensive, and so 
completely under control as to admit of any required degree of conversion 
being obtained with absolute certainty. Mr. Grace Calvert also has proved that 
cast iron contains nitrogen, and has shown that it is a definite compound of 
carbon and iron mixed with various proportions of metallic iron, according 
to its nature. 

Before leaving chemical science, I must refer to the interesting discovery 
by M. Deville, by which he succeeded in rapidly melting thirty-eight or 
forty pounds of platinum — a metal till then considered almost infusible. 
This discovery will render the extraction of platinum from the ore more 
perfect, and, by reducing its cost, will greatly facilitate its application to 
the arts. 

It is little more than half a century since Geology assumed the distinctive 
character of a science. Taking into consideration the aspects of nature in 
different epochs of the history of the earth, it has been found that the study 
of the changes at present going on in the world around us enable us to under- 
stand the past revolutions of the globe, and the conditions and circumstances 
under which strata have been formed and organic remains imbedded and 
preserved. The geologist has increasingly tended to believe that the changes 
which have taken place on the face of the globe, from the earliest times to 



Ivi REPORT — 1861. 

the present, are the result of agencies still at work. But whilst it is his 
high office to record the distribution of life in past ages and the evidence of 
physical changes in the arrangement of land and water, his results hitherto 
have indicated no traces of its beginning, nor have they afforded evidence of 
the time of its future duration. Geology has been indebted for this progress 
very largely to the investigations of Sedgwick and the writings of Sir 
Charles Lyell. 

As an example of the application of geology to the'^practical uses of life, 
I may cite the discovery of the gold-fields of Australia, which might long 
have remained hidden, but for the researches of Sir Roderick Murchison in 
the Ural Mountains on the geological position of the strata from which the 
Russian gold is obtained. From this investigation he was led by inductive 
reasoning to believe that gold would be found in similar rocks, specimens of 
which had been sent him from Australia. The last years of the active life 
of this distinguished geologist have been devoted to the re-examination of 
the rocks of his native Highlands of Scotland. Applying to them those 
principles of classification which he long since established, he has demon- 
strated that the crystalline limestone and quartz-rocks which are associated 
with mica schists, &c., belong by their imbedded organic remains to the 
Lower Silurian rocks. Descending from this well-marked horizon, he 
shows the existence beneath all such fossiliferous strata of vast masses of 
sandstone and conglomerate ol' Cambrian age ; and, lastly, he has proved the 
existence of a fundamental gneiss, on which all the other rocks repose, and 
which, occupying the North-western Hebrides and the west coasts of Suther- 
land and Ross, is the oldest rock-formation on the British Isles, it being 
unknown in England, Wales, or Ireland. 

It is well known that the temperature increases, as we descend through 
the earth's crust, from a certain point near the surface, at which the tem- 
perature is constant. In various mines, borings, and artesian wells, the 
temperature has been found to increase about 1^ Fahr. for every 60 or 65 
feet of descent. In some carefully conducted experiments during the sinking 
of Dukinfield Deep Mine (one of the deepest pits in this country), it was 
found that a mean increase of about 1° in 71 feet occurred. If we take the 
ratio thus indicated, and assume it to extend to much greater depths, we 
should reach at two and a half miles from the surface-strata at the tempera- 
ture of boiling water ; and at depths of about fifty or sixty miles the tem- 
perature would be sufficient to melt, under the ordinary pressure of the 
atmosphere, the hardest rocks. Reasoning from these facts, it would appear 
that the mass of the globe, at no great depth, must be in a fluid state. But 
this deduction requires to be modified by other considerations, namely, the 
influence of pressure on the fusing-point, and the relative conductivity of 
the rocks which form the earth's crust. To solve these questions a series of 
important experiments were instituted by Mr. Hopkins, in the prosecution 
of which Dr. Joule and myself took part ; and after a long and laborious 
investigation, it was found that the temperature of fluidity increased about 
1° Fahr. for every 500 lbs. pressure, in the case of spermaceti, bees-wax, and 
other similar substances. However, on extending these experiments to less 
compressible substances, such as tin and barytes, a similar increase was not 
observed. But these series of experiments has been unavoidably interrupted ; 
nor is the series on the conductivity of rocks entirely finished. Until they 
have been completed by Mr. Hopkins, we can only make a partial use of 
them in forming an opinion of the thickness of the earth's solid crust. 
Judging, however, alone from the greater conductivity of the igneous rocks, 
we may calculate that the thickness cannot possibly be less than nearly three 



ADDRESS. Ivi 

times as great as that calculated in the usual suppositions of the conductive 
power of the terrestrial mass at enormous depths, being no greater than that 
of the superficial sedimentary beds. Other modes of investigation which 
Mr. Hopiiins has brought to bear on this question appear to lead to the 
conclusion that the thiclcness of the earth's crust is much greater even than 
that above stated. This would require us to assume that a part of the heat 
in the crust is due to superficial and external, rather than central causes. 
This does not bear directly against the doctrine of central heat, but shows 
that only a part of the increase of temperature observed in mines and deep 
wells is due to the outward flow of that heat. 

Touching those highly interesting branches of science, Botany and Zoology, 
it may be considered presumptuous in me to off'er any remarks. I have, 
however, not entirely neglected in my earlier days to inform myself of certain 
portions of natural history, which cannot but be attractive to all who delight 
in the wonderful beauties of natural objects. How interesting is the organi- 
zation of animals and plants; how admirably adapted to their different func- 
tions and spheres of life ! They want nothing, yet have nothing superfluous. 
Every organ is adapted perfectly to its functions ; and the researches of 
Owen, Agassiz, Darwin, Hooker, Daubeny, Babington, and Jardiiie fully 
illustrate the perfection of the animal and vegetable economy of nature. 

Two other important branches of scientific research, Geography and 
Ethnology, have for some years been united, in this Association, in one 
Section, and that probably the most attractive and popular of them all. We 
are much indebted to Sir Roderick Murchison, among other Members of the 
Association, for its continued prosperity, and the high position it has 
attained in public estimation. The spirit of enterprise, courage, and perse- 
verence displayed by our travellers in all parts of the world have been 
powerfully stimulated and well supported by the Geographical Society ; and 
the prominence and rapid publicity given to discoveries by that body have 
largely promoted geographical research. 

In Physical Geography the late Baron von Humboldt has been one of the 
largest contributors, and we are chiefly indebted to his personal researches 
and numerous writings for the elevated position it now holds among the 
sciences. To Humboldt we owe our knowledge of the physical features of 
Central and Southern America. To Parry, Sir James Ross, and Scoresby, 
we are indebted for discoveries in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Geo- 
graphy has also been advanced by the first voyage of Franklin down the 
Copper Mine River, and along the inhospitable shores of the Northern Seas, 
as far as Point Turn Again ; as also by that ill-fated expedition in search of 
a north-west passage ; followed by others in search of the unfortunate men 
who perished in their attempt to reach those ice-bound regions, so often 
stimulated by the untiring energy of a high-minded woman. In addition to 
these, the discoveries of Dr. Livingstone in Africa have opened to us a wide 
field of future enterprise along the banks of the Zambesi and its tributaries. 
To these we may add the explorations of Captain Burton in the same con- 
tinent; and those also by Captain Speke and Captain Grant, of a hitherto 
unknown region, in which it has been suggested that the White Nile has its 
source, flowing from one of two immense lakes, upwards of 300 miles long 
by 100 broad, and situated at an elevation of 4000 feet above the sea. To 
these remarkable discoveries I ought to add an honourable mention of the 
sagacious and perilous exploration of Central and Northern Australia by 
Mr. M'Dougall Stuart. 

Having glanced, however imperfectly, at some of the most important 
branches of science which engage the attention of Members of this Associa- 



Iviii REPORT — 1861. 

tion, I would now invite attention to the mechanical sciences, with which I 
am more familiarly acquainted. They may be divided into Theoretical 
Mechanics and Dynamics, comprising the conditions of equilibrium and the 
laws of motion; and Applied Mechanics, relating to the construction of 
machines. I have already observed that practice and theory are twin sisters, 
and must work together to ensure a steady progress in mechanical art. Let 
us then maintain this union as the best and safest basis of national progress, 
and, moreover, let us recognize it as one of the distinctive aims of the annual 
reunions of this Association. 

During the last century, the science of Applied Mechanics has made 
strides which astonish us by tlieir magnitude ; but even these, it may reason- 
ably be hoped, are but the promise of future and more wonderful enlarge- 
ments. I therefore propose to offer a succinct history of these improvements, 
as an instance of the influence of scientific progress on the well-being of 
society. I shall take in review the three chief aids which engineering science 
has afforded to national progress, namely, canals, steam-navigation, and rail- 
ways ; each of which has promoted an incalculable extension of the industrial 
resources of the country. 

One hundred years ago, the only means for the conveyance of inland 
merchandize were the pack-horses and waggons on the then imperfect high- 
ways. It was reserved for Brindley, Smeaton, and others to introduce a 
system of canals, which opened up facilities for an interchange of commo- 
dities at a cheap rate over almost every part of the country. The impetus 
given to industrial operations by this new system of conveyance induced 
capitalists to embark in trade, in mining, and in the extension of manufac- 
tures in almost every district. These improvements continued for a series of 
years, until the whole country was intersected by canals requisite to meet 
the demands of a greatly extended industry. But canals, however well 
adapted for the transport of minerals and merchandise, were less suited for 
the conveyance of passengers. The speed of the canal-boats seldom 
exceeded from two and a half to three miles an hour; and in addition to this, 
the projectors of canals sometimes sought to take an unfair advantage of the 
Act of Parliament, which fixed the tariff at so much per ton per mile, by 
adopting circuitous routes, under the erroneous impression that mileage was 
a consideration of great importance to the success of such undertakings. It 
is in consequence of short-sighted views and imperfect legislation that we 
inherit the numerous curves and distortions of our canal system. 

These defects in construction rendered canals almost useless for the con- 
veyance of passengers, and led to the improvement of the common roads 
and the system of stage coaches; so that before the year 1830 the chief 
public highways of the country had attained a remarkable smoothness and 
perfection, and the lightness of our carriages and the celerity vvith which 
they were driven still excites the admiration of those who remember them. 
These days of an efficiently worked system, which tasked the power and 
speed of the horse to the utmost, have now been succeeded by changes more 
wonderful than any that previously occurred in the history of the human 
race. 

Scarcely had the canal system been fully developed when a new means of 
propulsion was adopted, namely, steam. I need not recount to you the 
enterprise, skill, and labour that have been exerted in connexion with steam 
navigation. You have seen its results on every river and every sea ; results 
we owe to the fruitful minds of Miller, Symington, Fulton, and Henry Bell, 
vrho were the pioneers in the great march of progress. 

Viewing the past, with a knowledge of the present and a prospect of the 



ADDRESS. lix 

future, it is difficult to estimate sufficiently the benefits that have been con- 
ferred by this application of mechanical science to the purposes of navigation. 
Power, speed, and certainty of action have been attained on the most 
gigantic scale. The celerity with which a modern steamer, with a thousand 
tons of merchandise and some hundreds of human beings on board, cleaves 
the water and pursues her course, far surpasses the most sanguine expecta- 
tions of a quarter of a century ago, and indeed almost rivals the speed of the 
locomotive itself. Previous to 1812 our intercourse with foreign countries 
and with our colonial possessions depended entirely upon the state of the 
weather. It was only in favourable seasons that a passage was open, and 
we had often to wait days, or even a week, before Dublin could be reached 
from Holyhead. Now this distance of sixty-three miles is accomplished in 
all weathers in little more than three hours. The passage to America used 
to occupy six weeks or two months ; now it is accomplished in eight or nine 
days. The passage round the Cape to India is reduced from nearly half a 
year to less than a third of that time, whilst that country may be reached by 
the overland route in less than a month. These are a few of the benefits 
derived from steam-navigation ; and as it is yet far from perfect, we may 
reasonably calculate on still greater advantages in our intercourse with distant 
nations. 

I will not here enter upon the subject of the numerous improvements 
which have so rapidly advanced the progress of this important service. 
Suffice it to observe that the paddle-wheel system of propulsion has main- 
tained its superiority over every other method yet adopted for the attainment 
of speed, as by it the best results are obtained with the least expenditure of 
power. In ships of war the screw is indispensable, on account of the security 
it affords to the engines and machinery, from their position in the hold below 
the water-line, and because of the facility it offers in the use of sails, when 
the screw is raised from its position in the well to a recess in the stern pre- 
pared for that purpose. It is also preferable in ships which require auxiliary 
power in calms and adverse winds, so as to expedite the voyage and effect a 
considerable saving upon the freight. 

The public mind had scarcely recovered itself from the changes which 
steam-navigation had caused, and the impulse it had given to commerce, 
when a new and even more gigantic power of locomotion was inaugurated. 
Less than a quarter of a century had elapsed since the first steam-boats 
floated on the waters of the Hudson and the Clyde, when the achievements 
thence resulting were followed by the application of the same agency to the 
almost superhuman flight of the locomotive and its attendant train. I well 
remember the competition at Ilairihill in 1830, and the incredulity every- 
where evinced at the proposal to run locomotives at twenty miles an hour. 
Neither George Stephenson himself, nor any one else, had at that time the 
most distant idea of the capabilities of the railway system. On the contrary, 
it was generally considered impossible to exceed ten or twelve miles an hour; 
and our present high velocities, due to high-pressure steam and the tubular 
system of boilers, have surpassed the most sanguine expectations of 
engineers. The sagacity of George Stephenson at once seized upon the 
suggestion of Henry Booth, to employ tubular boilers; and that, united to 
the blast-pipe, previously known, has been the means of effecting all the 
wonders we now witness in a system that has done more for the develop- 
ment of practical science and the civilization of man than any discovery 
since the days of Adam. 

From a consideration of the changes which have been effected in the 
means for the interchange of commodities, I pass on to examine the progress 



Ix REPORT — 1861. 

which has been made in their production. And as the steam-engine has 
been the basis of all our modern manufacturing industry, I shall glance at 
the steps by which it has been perfected. 

Passing over the somewhat mythical fame of the Marquis of Worcester, 
and the labours of Savery, Beigfiton, and Newcomen, we come at once to 
discuss the state of mechanical art at the time when James Watt brought his 
gigantic powers to the improvement of the steam-engine. At that time the 
tools were of the rudest construction, nearly everything being done by hand, 
and, in consequence, wood was much more extensively employed than iron. 
Under these circumstances Watt invented separate condensation, rendered 
the engine double-acting, and converted its rectilinear motion into a circular 
one suitable for the purposes of manufacture. But the discovery at first 
made little way ; the public did not understand it ; and a series of years 
elapsed before the difficulties, commercial and mechanical, which opposed its 
application, could be overcome. When the certainty of success had been 
demonstrated, Watt was harassed by infringements of his patent, and law- 
suits for the maintenance of his rights. Inventors and pretended inventors 
set up claims, and entered into combination with manufacturers, miners, and 
others, to destroy the patent, and deprive him of the just fruits of his labour 
and genius. Such is the selfish heartlessness of mankind in dealing with 
discoveries not their own, but from which they expect to derive benefit. 

The steam-engine, since it was introduced by Watt, has changed our 
habits in almost every condition of life. Things which were luxuries have 
become necessaries ; and it has given to the poor man, in all countries in 
which it exists, a degree of comfort and independence, and a participation 
in intellectual culture unknown before its introduction. It has increased 
our manufactures tenfold, and has lessened the barriers which time and space 
interpose. It ploughs the land, and winnows and grinds the corn. It spins 
and weaves our textile fabrics. In mining it pumps, winds, and crushes the 
ores. It performs these things with powers so great and so energetic as to 
astonish us at their immensity, whilst they are at the same time perfectly 
docile, and completely under human control. 

In war it furnishes the means of aggression, as in peace it affords the bonds 
of conciliation ; and, in fact, places within reach a power which, properly 
applied, produces harmony and goodwill among men, and leads to the 
happiest results in every condition of human existence. We may, therefore, 
well be proud of the honour conferred on this country as the cradle of its 
origin, and as having fostered its development from its earliest applications 
to its present hig.'i state of perfection. 

I cannot conclude this notice of the steam-engine without observing the 
changes it is destined to effect in the cultivation of the soil. It is but a 
short time since it was thought inapplicable to agricultural purposes, from 
its great weight and expense. But more recent experience has proved this 
to be a mistake, and already in most districts we find that it has been pressed 
into the service of the farm. The small locomotive, mounted on a frame with 
four wheels, travels from village to village with its attendant, the thrashing- 
machine, performing the operations of thrashing, winnowing, and cleaning 
at less than one-half the cost by the old and tedious process of hand labour. 
Its application to ploughing and tillage on a large scale is, in my opinion, 
still in its infancy, and I doubt not that many Members of this Association 
will live to see the steam-plough in operation over the whole length 
and breadth of the land. Much has to be done before this important 
change can be successfully accomplished ; but, with the aid of the agri- 
culturist preparing the land so as to meet the requirements of steam- 



ADDRESS. Ixi 

machinery, we may reasonably look forward to a new era in the cultivation 
of the soil. 

The extraordinary developments of practical science in our system of 
textile manufacture are, however, not entirely due to the steam-engine, 
although they are now in a great measure dependent on it. The machinery 
of these manufactures had its origin before the steam-engine had been applied, 
except for mining purposes; and the inventions of Arkwright, Hargreaves, 
and Crompton were not conceived under the impression that steam would 
be their moving power. On the contrary, they depended upon water; and 
the cotton-machinery of this district had attained considerable perfection 
before steam came to the aid of the manufacturer, and ultimately enabled 
him to increase the production to its present enormous extent. 

I shall not attempt a description of the machinery of the textile manufac- 
tures, because ocular inspection will be far more acceptable. I can only 
refer you to a list of establishments in which you may examine their opera- 
tions on a large scale, and which I earnestly recommend to your attention. 
I may, however, advert to a few of the improvements which have marked 
the progress of the manufacturing system in this country. 

When Arkwright patented his water-frames in 1767, the annual consump- 
tion of cotton was about four million pounds weight. Now it is one thousand 
two hundred million pounds weight, — three hundred times as much. Within 
half a century the number of spindles at work, spinning cotton alone, has 
increased tenfold ; whilst, by superior mechanism, each spindle produces 
fifty per cent, more yarn than on the old system. Hence the importance to 
which the cotton trade has risen, equalling at the present time the whole 
revenue of the three kingdoms, or £70,000,000 sterling per annum. As late 
as 1820 the power-loom was not in existence, now it produces about fourteen 
million yards of cloth, or, in more familiar terms, nearly eight thousand 
miles of cloth per diem. I give these numbers to show the immense poM'er 
of production of this country, and to afford some conception of the number 
and quality of the machines which effect such wonderful results. 

Mule-spinning was introduced by Crompton, in 1787, with about twenty 
spindles to each machine. The powers of the machine were, however, 
rapidly increased ; and now it has been so perfected that two thousand or 
even three thousand spindles are directed by a single person. At first the 
winding on, or forming the shape of the cop, was performed by hand ; but 
this has been superseded by rendering the machine automatic, so that it now 
performs the whole operation of drawing, stretching, and twisting the thread, 
and winding it on to the exact form, ready for the reel or shuttle as may be 
required. These, and other improvements in carding, roving, combing, spin- 
ning, and weaving have established in this country an entirely new system of 
industry ; it has given employment to greatly increased numbers, and a more 
intelligent class of work-people. 

Similarly important improvements have been applied to the machinery 
employed in the manufacture of silk, flax, and wool ; and we have only to 
watch the processes in these different departments to be convinced that they 
owe much to the development of the cotton manufacture. In the manufac- 
ture of worsted, the spinning jenny was not employed at Bradford until 1790, 
nor the power loom until about 1825. The production of fancy or mixed 
goods from alpaca and mohair wool, introduced to this country in 1836, is 
perhaps the most striking example of a new creation in the art of manufac- 
ture, and is chiefly due to Mr. Titus Salt, in whose immense palace of 
industry, at Saltaire, it may be seen in the greatest perfection. In flax 
machinery the late Sir Peter Fairbairn was one of the most successful 



Ixii REPORT — 1861. 

inventors, and his improvements have contributed to the rapid extension of 
this manufacture. 

I might greatly extend this description of our manufacturing industry, 
but 1 must for the present be brief, in order to point out the dependence of 
all these improvements on the iron and coal so widely distributed amongst 
the mineral treasures of our island. We are highly favoured in the abun- 
dance of these minerals, deposited with an unsparing hand by the great 
Author of nature, under so slight a covering as to bring them within reach 
of the miner's art. To them we owe our present high state of perfection in 
the useful arts ; and to their extended application we may safely attribute 
our national progress and wealth. So that, looking to the many blessings 
which we daily and hourly receive from these sources alone, we are impressed 
with devotional feelings of gratitude to the Almighty for the manifold 
bounties He has bestowed upon us. 

Previously to the inventions of Henry Cort, the manufacture of wrought 
iron was of the most crude and primitive description. A hearth and a pair 
of bellows was all that was employed. But since the introduction of 
puddling, the iron-masters have increased the production to an extraordinary 
extent, down to the present time, when processes for the direct conversion 
of wrought iron on a large scale are being attempted. A consecutive series 
of chemical researches into the different processes, from the calcining of the 
ore to the production of the bar, carried on by Dr. Percy and others, has led 
to a revolution in the manufacture of iron ; and although it is at the present 
moment in a state of transition, it nevertheless requires no very great dis- 
cernment to perceive that steel and iron of any required tenacity will be 
made in the same furnace, with a facility and certainty never before attained. 
This has been effected, to some extent, by improvements in puddling; but 
the process of Mr. Bessemer, first made known at the meetings of this 
Association at Cheltenham, affords the highest promise of certainty and 
perfection in the operation of converting the melted pig direct into steel or 
iron, and is likely to lead to the most important developments in this manu- 
facture. These improvements in the production of the material must, in 
their turn, stimulate its application on a larger scale and lead to new con- 
structions. 

In iron shipbuilding, an immense field is open before us. Our wooden 
walls have, to all appearance, seen their last days ; and as one of the early 
pioneers in iron construction, as applied to shipbuilding, I am highly gratified 
to witness a change of opinion that augurs well for the security of the 
liberties of the country. From the commencement of iron shipbuilding in 
1830 to the present time, there could be only one opinion amongst those 
best acquainted with the subject, namely, that iron must eventually supersede 
timber in every form of naval construction. The large ocean steamers, the 
' Himalaya,' the ' Persia,' and the ' Great Eastern,' abundantly show what 
can be done with iron ; and we have only to look at the new system of casing 
ships with armour-plates, to be convinced that we can no longer build 
wooden vessels of war with safety to our naval superiority and the best 
interests of the country. I give no opinion as to the details of the recon- 
struction of the navj', — that is reserved for another place, — but I may state 
that I am fully persuaded that the whole of our ships of war must be rebuilt 
of iron, and defended with iron armour calculated to resist projectiles of the 
heaviest description at high velocities. 

In the early stages of iron shipbuilding, I believe I was the first to show, 
by a long series of experiments, the superiority of wrought iron over every 
other description of material in security and strength, when judiciously 



ADDRESS. Ixiii 

applied in the construction of ships of every class. Other considerations, 
however, affect the question of vessels of war; and although numerous 
experiments were made, yet none of the targets were on a scale sufficient 
to resist more than a six-pounder shot. It was reserved for our scientific 
neighbours, the French, to introduce thick iron plates as a defensive armour 
for ships. The success which has attended the adoption of this new system 
of defence affords the prospect of invulnerable ships of war, and hence the 
desire of the Government to remodel the navy on an entirely new principle 
of construction, in order that we may retain its superiority as the great 
bulwarks of the nation. A committee has been appointed by the War Office 
and the Admiralty for the purpose of carrying out a scientific investigation 
of the subject, so as to determine, first, the ;best description of material to 
resist projectiles; secondly, the best method of fastening and applying that 
material to the sides of ships and land fortifications ; and, lastly, the thick- 
ness necessary to resist the different descriptions of ordnance. 

It is asserted, probably with trutii, that whatever thickness of plates are 
adopted for casing ships, guns will be constructed capable of destroying 
them. But their destruction will even then be a work of time ; and I believe, 
from what I have seen in recent experiments, that with proper armour it 
will require, not only the most powerful ordnance, but also a great concen- 
tration of fire, before fracture will ensue. If this be the case, a well-con- 
structed iron ship, covered with sound [)lates of the proper thickness, firmly 
attached to its sides, will, for a considerable time, resist the heaviest guns 
which can be brought to bear against it, and be practically shot-proof. But 
our present means are inadequate for the production of large masses of 
iron, and we may trust that, with new tools and machinery, and the skill, 
energy, and perseverance of our manufacturers, every difficulty will be 
overcome, and armour-plates produced which will resist the heaviest existing 
ordnance. 

The rifling of heavy ordnance, the introduction of wrought iron, and the 
new principle of construction with strained hoops, have given to all countries 
the means of increasing enormously the destructive power of their ordnance. 
One of the results of this introduction of wrought iron, and correct principles 
of manufacture, is the reduction of the weight of the new guns to about 
two-thirds the weight of the older cast-iron ordnance. Hence follows the 
facility with which guns of much greater power can be worked, whilst the 
range and precision of fire are at the same time increased. But these 
improvements cannot be confined to ourselves. Other nations are increasing 
the power and range of their artillery in a similar degree, and the energies 
of the nation must therefore be directed to maintain the superiority of our 
navy in armour as well as in armament. 

We have already seen a new era in the history of the construction of 
bridges, resulting from the use of iron ; and we have only to examine those 
of the tubular form over the Conway and Menai Straits to be convinced of 
the durability, strength, and lightness of tubular constructions applied to the 
support of railways or common roads, in spans which, ten years ago, were 
considered beyond the reach of human skill. When it is considered that 
stone bridges do not exceed 200 feet in span, nor cast-iron bridges 250 feet, 
we can estimate the progress which has been made in crossing rivers 400 or 
500 feet in width, without any support at the middle of the stream. Even 
spans, greatly in excess of this, may be bridged over with safety, provided 
we do not exceed 1800 to 2000 feet, when the structure would be destroyed 
by its own weight. 

It is to the exactitude and accuracy of our machine tools that our 



Ixiv REPORT — 1861. 

machinery of tlie present time owes its smoothness of motion and certainty 
of action. When I first entered this city, the whole of the machinery was 
executed by hand. There were neither planing, slotting, nor shaping 
machines, and, with the exception of very imperfect lathes and a few drills, 
the preparatory operations of construction were effected entirely by the 
hands of the workmen. Now everything is done by machine tools, with a 
degree of accuracy which the unaided hand could never accomplish. The 
automaton, or self-acting machine tool, has within itself an almost creative 
power; in fact, so great are its powers of adaptation, that there is no opera- 
tion of the human hand that it does not imitate. For many of these improve- 
ments, the country is indebted to the genius of our townsmen, Mr. Richard 
Roberts and Mr. Joseph Whitworth. The importance of these constructive 
machines is, moreover, strikingly exemplified in the Government works at 
Woolwich and Enfield Lock, chiefly arranged under the direction of 
Mr. Anderson, the present inspector of machinery, to whose skill and 
ingenuity the country is greatly indebted for the efficient state of those great 
arsenals. 

Amongst the changes which have largely contributed to the comfort and 
enjoyment of life, are the improvements in the sanitary condition of towns. 
These belong, probably, to the province of social rather than mechanical 
science ; but I cannot omit noticing some of the great works that have of 
late years been constructed for the supply of water, and for the drainage of 
towns. In former days, ten gallons of water to each person per day was 
considered an ample allowance. Now thirty gallons is much nearer the rate 
of consumption. I may instance the water-works of this city and of Liver- 
pool, each of which yield a supply of from twenty to thirty gallons of water 
to each inhabitant. In the former case, the water is collected from the 
Cheshire and Derbyshire Hills, and, after being conveyed in tunnels and 
aqueducts a distance of ten miles to a reservoir, where it is strained and 
purified, it is ultimately taken a further distance of eight miles in pipes, in 
a perfectly pure state, ready for distribution. The greatest undertaking of 
this kind, however, yet accomplished, is that by which the pure waters of 
Loch Katrine are distributed to the city of Glasgow. This work, recently 
completed by Mr. Bateman, who was also the constructor of the water-works 
of this city, is of the most gigantic character, the water being conveyed in a 
covered tunnel a distance of twenty-seven miles, through an almost impass- 
able country, to the service reservoir, about eight miles from Glasgow. By 
this means forty million gallons of water per day are conveyed through the 
hills which flank Ben Lomond, and after traversing the sides of Loch Chon 
and Loch Aird, are finally discharged into the Mugdock basin, where the 
water is impounded for distribution. We may reasonably look forward to 
an extension of similar benefits to the metropolis, by the same engineer, 
whose energies are now directed to an examination of the pure fountains of 
Wales, from whence the future supply of water to the great city is likely to 
be derived. A work of so gigantic a character may be looked upon as 
problematical; but when it is known that six or seven millions of money 
would be sufficient for its execution, I can see no reason why an undertaking 
of so much consequence to the health of London should not ultimately be 
accomplished. 

In leaving this subject, I cannot refrain from an expression of deep regret 
at the loss which science has sustained through the death of one of our 
"Vice-Presidents, the late Professor Hodgkinson. For a long series of years 
he and I worked together in the same field of scientific research, and our 
labours are recorded in the Transactions of this and other Associations. 



ADDRESS. IxV 

To Mr. Hodgkinson we owe the determination of the true form of cast-iron 
beams, or section of greatest strength ; the law of the elasticity of iron under 
tensile and compressive forces; and the laws of resistance of columns to 
compression. I look back to the days of our joint labour with unalloyed 
pleasure and satisfaction. * 

I regret to say that another of our Vice-Presidents, my friend Mr. Joseph 
Whitworth, is unable to be present with us through serious, but I hope not 
dangerous, illness. To Mr. Whitworth mechanical science is indebted for 
some of the most accurate and delicate pieces of mechanism ever executed ; 
and the exactitude he has introduced into every mechanical operation will 
long continue to be the admiration of posterity. His system of screw- 
threads and gauges is now in general use throughout Europe. We owe to 
him a machine for measuring with accuracy to the millionth of an inch, 
employed in the production of standard gauges; and his laborious and 
interesting experiments on rifled ordnance have resulted in the production 
of a rifled small-arm and gun which have never been surpassed for range 
and precision of fire. It is with pain that I have to refer to the cause which 
deprives me of his presence and support at this meeting. 

A brief allusion must be made to that marvellous discovery which has 
given to the present generation the power to turn the spark of heaven to the 
uses of speech — to transmit along the slender wire for a thousand miles a 
current of electricity that renders intelligible words and thoughts. This 
wonderful discovery, so familiar to us, and so useful in our communications 
to every part of the globe, we owe to Wheatstone, Thomson, De la Rive, 
and others. In land-telegraphy the chief difficulties have been surmounted, 
but in submarine telegraphy much remains to be accomplished. Failures 
have been repeated so often as to call for a Commission on the part of the 
Government to inquire into the causes, and the best means of overcom- 
ing the difliculties which present themselves. I had the honour to serve on 
that Commission, and I believe that from the report, and mass of evidence and 
experimental research accumulated, the public will derive very important 
information. It is well known that three conditions are essential to success 
in the construction of ocean telegraphs — perfect insulation, external protec- 
tion, and appropriate apparatus for laying the cable safely on its ocean bed. 
That we are far from having succeeded in fulfilling these conditions is 
evident from the fact that out of twelve thousand miles of submarine cable 
which have been laid since 1851, only three thousand miles are actually in 
working order ; so that three-fourths may be considered as a failure and loss 
to the country. The insulators hitherto employed are subject to deteriora- 
tion from mechanical violence, from chemical decomposition or decay, and 
from the absorption of water ; but the last circumstance does not appear to 
influence seriously the durability of cables. Electrically, india-rubber 
possesses high advantages, and, next to it, Wray's compound and pure gutta- 
percha far surpass the commercial gutta-percha hitherto employed ; but it 
remains to be seen whether the mechanical and commercial ditticulties in 
the employment of these new materials can be successfully overcome. The 
external protecting covering is still a subject of anxious consideration. The 
objections to iron wire are its weight and liability to corrosion. Hemp has 
been substituted, but at present with no satisfactory result. All these diffi- 
culties, together with those connected with the coiling and paying out of 
the cable, will no doubt yield to careful experiment and the employment of 
proper instruments in its construction and its final deposit on the bed of 
the ocean. 

Irrespective of inland and international telegraphy, a new system of com- 
munication has been introduced by Professor Wheatstone, whereby inter- 

1861. e 



Ixvi REPORT — 1861. 

course can be carried on between private families, public offices, and the 
works of merchants and manufacturers. This application of electric currents 
cannot be too highly appreciated, from its great efficiency and compara- 
tively small expense. To show to what an extent this improvement has 
been carried, I may state that Aie thousand wires, in a perfect state of 
insulation, may be formed into a rope not exceeding half an inch in 
diameter. 

I must not sit down without directing attention to a subject of deep 
importance to all classes, namely, the amount of protection inventors should 
receive from the laws of the country. It is the opinion of many that patent 
laws are injurious rather than beneficial, and that no legal protection of this 
kind ought to be granted ; in fact, that a free trade in inventions, as in 
everything else, should be established. I confess I am not of that opinion. 
Doubtless there are abuses in the working of the patent law as it at present 
exists, and protection is often granted to pirates and impostors, to the detri- 
ment of real inventors. This, however, does not contravene the principle 
of protection, but rather calls for reform and amendment. It is asserted by 
those who have done the least to benefit their country by inventions, that a 
monopoly is injurious, and that if the patent laws are defended, it should be, 
not on the ground of their benefit to the inventor, but on that of their utility 
to the nation. I believe this to be a dangerous doctrine, and I hope it will 
never be acted upon. I cannot see the right of the nation to appropriate 
the labours of a lifetime, without awarding remuneration. The nation, in 
this case, receives a benefit ; and assuredly the labourer is worthy of his 
hire. I am no friend of monopoly, but neither am I a friend of injustice; 
and I think that before the public are benefited by an invention, the 
inventor should be rewarded either by a fourteen years' monopoly or in 
some other way. Our patent laws are defective, so far as they protect 
pretended inventions ; but they are essential to the best interests of the 
State in stimulating the exertions of a class of eminent men, such as 
Arkwright, Watt, and Crompton, whose inventions have entailed upon all 
countries invaluable benefits, and have done honour to the human race. To 
this Association is committed the task of correcting the abuses of the present 
system, and establishing such legal provisions as shall deal out equal justice 
to the inventor and the nation at large. 

1 must not forget that we owe very much to an entirely new and most 
attractive method of diff"using knowledge, admirably exemplified in the 
Great Exhibition of 185J, and its successors in France, Ireland, and America. 
Most of us remember the gems of art which were accumulated in this city 
during the summer of 1857, and the wonderful results they produced on all 
classes of the community. The improvement of taste and the increase of 
practical knowledge which followed these exhibitions have been deeply felt ; 
and hence the prospects which are now opening before us in regard to the 
Exhibition of the next year cannot be too highly appreciated. That Exhi- 
bition will embrace the whole circle of the sciences, and is likely to elevate 
the general culture of the public to a higher standard than we have ever 
before attained. There will be unfolded almost every known production of 
art, every ingenious contrivance in machinery, and the results of discoveries 
in science from the earliest period. The Fine Arts, which constituted no 
part of the Exhibition of 18.51, and which were only partially represented at 
Paris and Dublin, will be illustrated by new creations from the most dis- 
tinguished masters of the modern school. Looking forwards, I venture to 
hope for a great success and a further development of the principle advo- 
cated by this Association — the union of science and art. 



ADDRESS. Ixvii 

In conclusion, my apologies are due to you for the length of this address, 
and I thank you sincerely for the patient attention with which you have 
listened to the remarks I have had the honour to lay before you. As the 
President of the British Association, I feel that, far beyond the consideration 
of merely personal qualifications, my election was intended as a compliment 
to practical science, and to this great and influential metropolis of manufac- 
ture, where those who cultivate the theory of science may witness, on its 
grandest scale, its application to the industrial arts. As a citizen of Man. 
Chester, I venture to assure the Association that its intentions are appreciated ; 
and to its members, as well as to the strangers who have been attracted here 
by this meeting, I offer a most cordial welcome. 



3^i^:-^?r^^. 




REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1860-61. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, Esq., F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological 
Society, S^c. ; J. H. Gladstone, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. ^c. ; R. P. 
Greg, Esq., F.G.S. ^c. ; and E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S., 
M.B.M.S. 8(C. 

The Committee, in presenting this report upon the Luminous Meteors of 
the past year, feel that the arrangement for collecting this information is far 
from perfect, as for the most part the number of observers, Members of the 
Association, who have sent observations are very few indeed. 

During the entire year 1 860 the number of meteors were few, and the sky 
during the nights of both the August and November epochs was generally 
overcast over the whole country, and scarcely any meteors were seen. 

In the August just passed, the sky for the most part was clear, and many 
meteors were observed. 

It was stated in the Report for last year, that the remarkable meteor of 
March 10, 1860, must have been seen by many persons, and it seems to have 
been so, but no observations were taken by them of elevation, direction, &c. ; 
and we are not in possession, even now, of sufficient information upon which 
to base calculations. 

In the Catalogue of Meteors observed this year, of one alone have accounts 
by three observers been received, that of July 16, 1861, as seen by the Duke of 
Argyll, at Kensington ; Mr. Frost, at the Isle of Wight; and Mr. Howe, at 
Greenwich : the three observers agree as to the place of its origin, viz. near 
a Lyrae, but Mr. Howe says it moved towards the N.E., whilst Mr. Frost 
says its motion was towards the S.W., just in opposite directions to each 
other*. Another meteor, that of August 6, at 11.15, was seen by two ob- 
servers ; the one at Manchester, the other near Macclesfield, but in neither 
case are sufficient data recorded. 

The Committee regret that but one account of all the remaining meteors 
in the catalogue has been received, and nothing can therefore be added to the 
observations themselves. 

* This was also probably the one seen at Tunbridge Wells, at Darlington in Yorkshire, 
and at Namur in Flanders, and of which an approximate orbit has been calculated by Mr. 
Alexander S. Herschell. (See Appendix, No. 3.) 

1861. B 



2 REPORT 1861. 

They would earnestly press upon the Members of the British Association 
the necessity of more complete and numerous observations, noting the times 
of appearance and disappearance, by a watch regulated to railway time, or 
whose error from railway time is known nearly ; the size, colour, and general 
description of the meteor, and its place among the stars at its first appear- 
ance and at its last appearance. If. these particulars were received from 
three or four observers, separated from each other by some little distance, 
sufficient information would be furnished to determine in many cases the 



Date. 



1849. 
Aug. 11 

1859. 
Oct. 25 

1860. 
Mar. 10 

10 

10 

10 



Hour. 



h m 
Midnight 



7 15 p.m, 
9 p.m< 
p.m. 
p.m 
p.m 



Globular; 12 times the 
size of Venus when 
seen in her full 
splendour. 

Very large 



July 



10 
5 
6 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



= fmoon 

Brilliant meteor 



Much the same as at 
Bradford. 



9 p.m, 

10 20 p.m, 

From 10 till 
11 p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 



Brilliant 

= 1st mag. * 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Bright blue . 



Intensely 

white. 

Purple .... 



Scarlet before 
bursting, 
green after, 
wards. 

Reddish 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Burst into fragments of a 
red colour. 



30 seconds 



8 seconds 



8 



10 



Six small meteors 
from 2nd to 4th 
mag. 



Blue 

Colourless 



= Venus, 
bright. 



and 



FromlOp.m. 
till mid- 
night, 

In the two 
hours pre 
ceding 2 
a.m. 

11 15 p.m, 



From 2nd mag. * to = 
Venus. 

From 3rd mag. * to= 
Venus. 



Streak left .. 
Slight trains 



Bluish 



Blue 



Blue or colour- 
less. 



Twice the size of 
Venus, and brighter. 



Train 

Trains , 

Trains long 



Blue 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Left a streak in the sky 
which lingered after the 
meteor had vanished. 



1 second ; movec 
over 20° of sky. 



Rapid 



Rapid ; duratioi 
from O'l sec. t 
lisec. 



Slow ; duration 
second. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 3 

distance of the meteor from the earth, its path, size, velocity, &c., and 
thus render these reports far more valuable than they are at present. The 
following Catalogue contains a list of all the meteors, accounts of which have 
reached the Members of the Committee, arranged in their order of occur- 
rence. 

In the Appendix following the Catalogue are abstracts from some of the 
jpaost important papers which have appeared, during this year, connected with 
this branch of science. 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



In the S. ; burst into fragments 
with a great flash, followed 
by detonation. 



Siberia 



J. Atkinson . 



S.E. to N.W. 



Light as day 



In the westerly part of the 
heavens ; no noise. 



Fell, inclining in an arc of 15° 



Athlone and 

Holyhead. 
Bradford. 

Alderly Edge, 

Cheshire. 
Newport, in 

Salop. 
Leeds. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



See Appendix No. 1. 



■ Collected by 
Mr. Greg. 



Moved downwards towards 

W.S.W. 
From Polaris towards a Ursae 

Majoris. 
In Ursa Major and Ursa Minor 



Blackburn. 
Plymouth... 



From direction of 
Cassiopeia. 



From the zenith towards N.W 
horizon. 



In northern heavens 



In northern heavens 



Fell from direction of zenith 
almost across Mars. 



Counted 17 fine 
meteors. Light- 
ning over France. 

Counted 24 me- 
teors, some very 
brilliant. Fre- 
quent lightning 
over France. 

Very fine and warm. 
Several very 
small meteors 
seen, but not 
nearly so many 
as on the evening 
of 4th and early 
morning of 5th 
instant. 



H. M. S. S. ' Hi- 
malaya,' Ply- 
mouth Break- 
water. 

H. M. S. S. ' Hi- 
malaya,' Bay 
of Biscay. 

Ibid 



Ibid 



Fuente del Mer, 
near Santan- 
der, North 
Spain. 



E. J. Lowe 
Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 



MS. communica- 
tion. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



b2 



4 



REPORT — 1861. 



Date. 



1860 
July 13 



15 or 16 



25 
29 



Aug. 4 



20 



Oct. 13 



15 



20 



Hour. 



h m 
10 10 p.m. 



11 p.m. 



FromlOp.m. 
till 1 a.m. 
of 26th. 



9 28 p.m. 



16 a.m 



9 45 p.m, 



9 p.m 



1 22 a.m 

6 45 p.m. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



= 1st mag. *, aud 
twice as bright. 



About the size of the 
full moon ; oblong. 



Small 



Like a dark perpen- 
dicular line. 



= 2nd mag. * . 



2nd mag. * , 



About i the size ofjWLite 
the moon. 



About the size of 
Venus. 



Splendid meteor . 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Intensely blue 



Train or Sparks. 



No separate streak; disap- 
peared instantaneously. 



Colourless 



Blue. 



Blue, enve 
loped in a 
white mist. 



Brilliant 



Long tail, somewhat re- 
sembling a rocket. 



None 



Red sparks 



Tail like a rocket, and 
with reddish sparks. 



Light train . 
Long streak. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Rapid 



Rapid 



Instantaneous . 



About 1 second 



Slow. 



3 or 4 seconds...... 



0*5 second .... 
5 or 6 seconds. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 5 


Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


From Vega towards west ho- 


Very small meteors 


Reinosa(amongst 


E. J. Lowe 


MS. communica- 


rizon, moving over 8° of sky. 


could be seen, 


the Spanish 




tion. 


Several very small ones, less 


owing to the 


mountains). 






than 6th magnitude. 


great purity of 
the air at this 
great elevation. 
The stars brighter 
than I ever saw 
them before. 








Fell from about 30 degrees 


The state of the 


Banff. 






S.W. of the horizon, passing 


atmosphere was 








a few degrees S. of Arc- 


very electrical ; 








turus. 


several electric 
clouds were seen 
traversing the 
valley of the Spey. 








In various directions 


A nuTTibpr of rae- 


SantanHpr 


E. J. Lowe 


Ibid. 


A <■ T VmM. i\J V%V Vt A& \y\^ V&\^U W Btl***!** *«■ 


teors, all small. 


kjau tuiiuvi «•■••■ 


Fell from the zenith towards 


When a few yards 


Little Bridy 


H. S.Eaton 


Ibid. 


the earth. 


from the earth 
there was a sud- 
den blaze, as of a 
rocket bursting, 
and soon after 
there was a sound 
as of shot falling 
upon the leaves, 
but no!fragments 
have been found. 








From a few degrees N. 
of Arcturus, through 15° 




Craven Hill, 
London. 


J. H. Gladstone.. 


Ibid. 




of space. 










From about the middle of 
the constellation Draco, 




Greenwich Park. 


H. S. Eaton 


Ibid. 




to within a degree of s 










Bootae. 










In the N.E. ; from about 90° 
to 40°. 


When about 20° 
from the zenith. 


New York 




Ibid. 








it burst into two 










pieces, which tra- 










velled parallel to 










each other for 










the remainder of 










the course. 








In the southern sky ; travelled 


Cast shadows, and 


Dover 


R. P. Greg 


Ibid. 


E. and W. for about 25° or 


finally burst into 






30°. 


sparks or frag- 
ments at about 
an elevation of 
40°. Seemed 
very near; could 
hear no report. 








In the N.W., at an eleva- 
tion of 75° ; disappeared in 




Greenwich 


J. MacDonald ... 


Ibid. 




theW. at an elevation of30°. 










From t Persei to a Ursae Ma- 
joris for about two-thirds of 


Atmosphere very 
clear ; bright 


Ibid 


W. T. Lynn, 
J. Howe. 


Ibid. 




the distance. 

1 — 


moon ; day before 
the first quarter. 









REPORT 1861. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1860. h m 
Oct. 20 10 p.m. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



= 2nd mag. * . 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Colourless . . 



Nov. 1 8 30 p.m. Larger than Mars ... 




1 8 35 p.m.' Splendid meteor , 



2 

7 

15 
20 
Dec. 11 



15 



7 3 p.m. = 2nd mag. # 

8 46 p.m. Larger than 1st mag.» 



10 23 p.m 



8 55 p.m. 



6 25 p.m. 



About 2nd mag. * ... 



Larger than 1st mag.# 



Splendid meteor . 



10 15 p.m. = 1st mag. # 



18 6 p.m. till 

10 p.m. 
20] 10 25 p.m. 



1861. 
Jan. 5 



6 2 20 a.m. = 2nd mag.* 



2nd mag * 



Splendid meteor . 



Yellowish ; the 
fragments 
red, blue 
and vellow. 



About the 
colour and 
brightness 
of Arcturus 

Blue 



Blue. 



Bluish 



Blue. 



Train or Sparks. 



None 



Rocket-like discharges, 
and a streak left behind. 



Streak left 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



2 seconds. 



3 seconds 



Detached sparks in its 
track. 



None 



Bluish 



A spark 



As a spark 



Rapid 
Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 



1 second 



Rapid 



Instantaneous 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place, 


Observer. 


Reference. 


In N., starting at an altitude 


This meteor ap- 


Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe 


MS. communica- 


of 45°, falling at an angle 


peared, disap- 


Observatory. 




tion. 


of 45° towards N. horizon, 


peared, and re- 








and terminating at Ursa 


appeared four 








Major. 


d liferent times 
during its pro- 
gress.Manyother 
meteors during 
the evening. 




• 




Moved from S. to \V. ; start- 


The pauses in mo- 


Beeston Observa- 


Id 


Ibid. 


ing from below y Pegasi ; 


tion were very 


tory. 






moving downwards towards 


apparent. The 








W., and when about n 


meteor moving 








Aquarii, burst and threw 


at an angle of 








down fragments like the 


45°, along which 








discharge of a rocket, the 


a streak was left ; 








fragments falling perpen- 


the fragments, 








dicularly down; then moved 


however, fell 








on to I Aquarii, when it burst 


perpendicularly 








a second time, and threw 


down. 


" 






down perpendicularly ; then 










moved on about 3°, and in- 










stantly vanished. 










In the N.^V., passing N. paral- 
lel to the meridian for about 


The sky clear, and 
moon very bright. 


Swanafire 


Rev. F.C.Penrose 


Ibid. 


**J » ■ lAAAtA^^^.' **■■■«*•> 






25° or 30°. 










From altitude of 65° due W. ; 


Brilliant Aurora 


Observatory, 


E. J. Lowe 


Ibid. 


fell perpendicularly down. 


Borealis. 


Beeston. 






From /3 Ursae Majoris, almost 
horizontally towards the E., 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 










inclining downwards 2°. 










Fell down perpendicularly from 
a point a little above Polaris to 




Royal Observa- 
tory. 


W.C.Nash 


Ibid. 








within 15° of the N. horizon. 










Fell 10° amongst cloud, from 


A fine meteor 


Observatory, 


E. J. Lowe 


Ibid. 


altitude of 30° in S.S.E., 




Beeston. 






moving towards S. 










Fell from the zenith towards 


Visible through Leyton, Essex . . . 


H. S. Eaton 


Ibid. 


the S.W. 


Nimbus cloud, 
rain falUng at the 
time. 








In N.W., at about 45° 


Disappeared and. Observatory, 
reappeared four Beeston. 


E. J. Lowe 


Ibid. 






times. Aurora 










Borealis. 










Several meteors ... 

As a spark. It 
appeared, disap- 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


In W.N.W. at about 45° 


Ibid 


Id 










peared, and reap- 










peared several 










times. 








Passed over the Island, and ex- 
ploded some distance from 




Bermuda. 








land with a loud report. 










Shot rapidly across Corona 


Apparentlynear the Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe 


Ibid. 


Borealis, at an angle of 45° 


earth. 


Observatory. 






towards N. horizon. 











REPORT 1861. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1861. 
Jan. 7 



Feb. 11 
11 



h m 

7 51 p.m 



Size of Venus 



Blue. 



Light train of red sparks. 



20 seconds 



6 30 p.m 
8 12 p.m. 



Brighter than any ofiRed 
the fixed stars. 



None 



17 



17 



4 a.m 



Deep blue 



6 28 p.m. 



Large 



Mar. 4 



Like a cone, moving 
base foremost ; the 
light equal to that 
of melting iron. 



10 

Apr. 10 



8 50 p.m. 
10 25 p.m. 



= 2nd mag.* .... 
Splendid meteor , 



12 



May 19 



7 40 p.m, 



8 45 p.m. 



Splendid meteor, 
about t^vice the 
size of J/. . 



Size of n . 



June 30 

30 
July 3 



10 p.m 

Evening. 

Midnight, 
or a few 
minutes 
after. 



= 1st mag. * 



= Jupiter 



2 seconds. 



Tail like a comet. 



Brilliant white 



None 

Long train of light . 



1 to 2 seconds 
Slow 



Straw colour.. 



None 



None 



1 second 



Blue 



Streak long . 



Straw coloxrr., 



None 



About 1 second 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 9 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


1 

Reference. 


Vhen first seen was very near 




Chester 


R. L. Jones ... 


MS. communica- 
tion. 


Mars ; disappeared a few de- 






grees above the horizon. 










I.W., immediately followed by 




Allenheads 


T.Bewick 


Ibid. 


a vivid flash of lightning. 




1 the W. ; fell towards the 




Tavistock Place.. 


Mrs. J. H. Glad- 
stone. 


Ibid. 


horizon from the neighbour- 




hood of the Pleiades. 










ell from the N.E. about 70°, 




Greenwich 


J. MacDonald... 


Ibid. 


and disappeared in the E. 




about 50°. 










1 due S., at an altitude oi 




Highfield House 
Ballarat 


E. J. Lowe 


Ibid. 


48°. 


It appeared to come 
out of a cloud; 


'M.J • ** • JL.^^^ wr \j «■■■*■ 






Australia. 








when it fell to 










the ground, it 










ploughed up the 










earth for a di- 










stance of twelve 










yards. 








fom Capella to the Pleiades... 


Cloudless 


Greenwich 


W. C. Nash...... 


Ibid. 


[oving S.W. to N.E., nearly in 


It suddenly disap- 


Manchester 


R. P. Greg 


Ibid. 


the zenith, at the rate of 25° 


peared as if par- 








in 4 seconds. 


tially bursting, 
leaving a beauti- 
ful purple fire for 
] or 2 seconds. 
The course was 
most distinctly 
serpentine ; seve- 
ral shooting stars 
seen at the same 
time, their paths 
being at right 
angles to the 
larger one. 

Nucleus round, 
and surrounded 
in front and on 
all sides by lumi- 
nosity, even on 
the forward part. 








ppeared in the constellation 




Woking, Surrey. 






Leo, near Jupiter, passing 








through Orion, terminating 










near the Pleiades. 










1 the S., at an elevation of 60° ; 


When at an eleva- 


Greenwich 


J. MacDonald ... 


Ibid. 


disappeared at about 30° 


tion of about 45°, 








behind a clump of trees about 


it disappeared 








half a mile distant. 


behind a cloud 
and reappeared 
at an elevation 
of 40°. 








"ossed Polaris 


Peculiar anrnral 


Highfield House. 


E. J. Lowe 


Ibid. 


'^■*'*"^".* ^ «^41illft AU VV*VV**»##VV***flV9 


glow-like. 




Many fine meteors. 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


:11 from a few degrees under 


Greenwich 


J. MacDonald . . . 


the head of the comet in a 










S.W. direction. 











10 



REPORT 1861. 



Date. 



1861 

July 7 

16 
16 



h m 
10 30 p.m. 

10 50 p.m. 
approximate 

time. 
Before 11 

p.m. 



16 



16 



16 



18 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



p.m. 



11 33 p.m 



Large 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Brilliant 



= 4 times the size of Yellowish. 
1st mag. *. 



Large 



Resembled a signal 
rocket of large size. 



20 

Aug. 6 



11 40 p.m. Magnificent meteor... 
11 30 p.m. Fine, like a rocket ... 



9 p.m. 
9 50 p.m. 



11 42 p.m. 



2 > Venus 

= 1st mag. * ; a very 
fine meteor. 



Small, but bright 



Blue 
White 



Blue 



Train or Sparks. 



Sparks emitted during the 
whole of the course. 



Splendid train. 



None, but one large spark 
was given off just before 
it was lost sight of. 



Burst 



A brilliant train 



Leaving a thin pencil of 
light. 



Long and brilliant train. 



None 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



5 to 6 seconds. 



11 seconds 



5 minutes 



20 to 30 seconds.' 



4 seconds. 



Almost momenta 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 11 



Direction or Altitude. 



rem near ^ Ursae Majoris, in a 
horizontal direction 12 or 15 
degrees. 

assed from a Lyrae in a N.E. 
direction to the horizon. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



the zenith, near a Lyrae, 
going in a S.W. course ; dis- 
appearing a few degrees 
above the horizon. 



Distant thunder 
heard. 

It burst noiselessly 
about 10° from 
the horizon. 

Its extreme bright- 
ness, and its 
rapid and steady 
motion were 
singularly stri- 
king and beauti- 
ful. This meteor 
gave one, irre 
sistibly the im 
pression of a 
body moving 
very near, if not 
quite vrithin the 
atmosphere of 
the earth. 



shot along the sky from E. 
to W. 

iiot straight down to the ho- 
rizon from a moderate alti- 
tude. 



A peculiar feature 
in this train was, 
that although on 
its first appear- 
ance it was to 
the eye perfectly 
straight, it soon 
became curved 
in a direction op 
posite to that in 
which the wind 
was blowing ; 
and as it faded, 
portions of it 
were drifted in 
that direction, 
until they were 
lost in the 
brightness of the 
Milky Way. 



Thelwall, near 
Warrington. 

Greenwich Park, 



Kensiugton 



Observer. 



J. Atkinson , 



J. Howe 



Duke of Argyll. 



Darlington, 

Yorkshire, and 

Namur in 

Flanders. 
Sandown, Isle of|W. M. Frost. 

Wight. 



Reference. 



MS. communica 
tion. 

Ibid. 



See Appendix No.3. 



irst high up in the air 

.om the zenith to the E. of 
aLyrse ; passed to a point afew 
degrees below /5 Ursae Majoris 

kpeared between S Cygni and 
1« Lyrae. 



The moon was 
shining at the 
time, and nearly 
in the position 
of the meteor, 
viz. W.N.W. 



Fine night 



Doe Castle, co, 
Donegal. 



Nantwich. 
Greenwich 



Ibid., 



R. P. Greg 



W. C. Nash. 



Id. 



MS. communica 

tion. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



12 



REPORT — 1861. 



Date. 



1861. 
Aug. 6 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 15 p.m. 



11 15 p.m. 



10 U p.m. 



10 21 
10 25 
10 28 
10 31 
10 32 
10 39 

10 41 
10 43 

10 46 
10 47 
10 51 
10 53 



p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m. 

p.m. 
p.m. 

p.m. 
p.m. 
p.m 
p.m 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



= three times thejVery pale blue 
diameter of Venus. 



18 to 20 seconds 



= 2nd mag. *. 

Small 

= 3rd mag. * . 
Very small .... 
= 2nd mag. *. 



Blue [Small train 

None 



Very brilliant, much 
brighter than Ca- 
pella. 



Small 

Very faint 



Very fine, = 1st mag.» 

Very small 

Very fine 

Very fine, = 1st mag. * 



10 59 p.m. 

11 3 p.m. 
9 58 30 

p.m. 

10 30 
p.m. 

10 14 30 
p.m. 

10 16 30 
p.m. 



10 16 p.m, 

10 18 30 
p.m. 



.None 



None 

None 

Small train ... 



Small but very brilliant 
train. 



None 
None 



1st mag. * 



Very small . 
Ist mag.*. 



=-V-. 



:3rd mag.* 



= 3rdmag.«, and in- 
creased to 1st mag.* 



= 2nd mag.# 



SmaU 



Blue. 



Blue. 



Almost momentary 



From 1 second to 

2 seconds. 
1 second 



Leaving a brilliant train of 
some degrees in length. 
None 



Leaving a train about 20^ 

in length. 
Train 20° in length 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Very rapid 

1 second ... 

2 seconds... 




2 seconds 

Rapid 

2 to 3 seconds. 
2 seconds 



No train or sparks 



None 

Stream of light 



Long tail. 



Duration 0*8 sec. 



Rapid 



Colourless ...As a spark; no stream of Instantaneous . 
light. 



YeUow . 



Yellow 



Streak 



None 



Slight streak 



I 



Duration 0-1 sec... 



1 second 



Duration 0*1 sec. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 13 


Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


n the S.S.E., at an elevation 
half between the horizon and 
the zenith. 

n the S.S.E., appearing to fall 
beyondthe range of surround- 
ing hills. 
Trom Cygnus to « Aquilae 

>hot upwards through Cassio- 


The night was 
beautifully clear. 


Manchester 

Prestbury, near 
Macclesfield. 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid 


R. E. B 

W.N 


MS. communica- 
tion. 

Ibid. 1 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 
[bid. 


Fine clear night ... 

Fine clear night ... 
Fine clear night ... 
Fine clear night ... 
Fine clear night ... 
Fine clear night ... 


J. Howe 


W.C.Nash 

Id 


peia, 
"rom « Andromedae across a 


Ibid 


Pegasi. 
'assed in a westerly direction 

across Vulpecula. 
'assed rapidly from f/. Cygni to 

Sagitta. 
('assed from • Cygni to Del- 

phinus. 
I'ell in a N.E. direction past 
1 and near Capella. Its course 

did not appear longer than 

10° or 12°. 
'assed from Cepheus to Sagitta. 

"rem 9> Draconis to midway 
between 12 Canum Venati- 
corum and « UrsaeMajoris. 

'rom a Lyrae to Cassiopeia ... 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


W. C. Nash and 

J. Howe. 
W.C.Nash 

J. Howe 


Ibid 




Ibid 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


'assed downwards about 10° 

E. of at Ophiuchi. 
Lppeared near /3 Draconis and 

passed to Arcturus. 
rom « Lyrae, passed to the E. of 

a Coronae BoreaUs to /3 Ser- 

pentis. 
ell perpendicularly from a, Co- 




Ibid 


W.C.Nash 

J, Howe 




Ibid 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


W.C.Nash 

J. Howe 


ronae Borealis to the horizon, 
rom ^ Draconis to Polaris ... 




Ibid 


lorizontally from 1° above 




Highfield House 
Observatory. 

Ibid 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 


1 Ursae Majoris, coming from 
' the direction of Perseus. 
:'rom y Aquarii, nearly hori- 




1 zontally, incUning slightly 
' downwards, and ending at 
1 the Milky Way. 
Tom y Lyrae, through 95 Her- 


No increase in size 
Length of arc 15°.. 

Cloudy 


Ibid 


Id 


' €ulis, coming from direction 
of the Swan, 
loving from E. to W. down 


Ibid. 


Id, 


at an angle of 45°, passing 
immediately under S Ursae 
Majoris, and crossing Canes 
Venatici. 
t was seen a little distance 


Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Highfield House 
Observatory. 


W.C.Nash 

E. J. Lowe 


below and to the E. of Ca- 
pella. 

I'own at an angle of 60° from 

1 3° below Arcturus. 






1 











14 



REPORT — 1861. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1861, 
Aug. 9 

9 
9 

9 
9 
9 

9 
9 



h m s 
10 21 p.m. 

10 21 p.m. 

10 24 45 
p.m. 

10 29 p.m. 

10 29 5 

p.m. 
10 31 p.m. 



10 34 30 

p.m. 
10 36 p.m. 



10 37 p.m. 



=2nd mag.# 



Reddish 



= 3rd mag.» 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.# 
Small 



Yellowish. 

Blue 

Blue 

Blue 



10 38 

10 41 
p.m. 



p.m. 
40 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 4th mag.^- 

=3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.» 



Yellow 
Yellow 

Bluish . 



Colourless 



10 43 p.m 



10 47 

10 47 
p.m. 

10 51 

10 52 
p.m. 



10 52 
p.m. 



p.m 
50 

p.m 
30 



31 



=3rd mag.* 

Very bright 
=3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 



= If. in size, and in 
creased in magni- 
tude, andmore espe 
cially in bright 
ness. 

= 6th mag.* 



Reddish 

Reddish 
Blue 



910 55 p.m 

10 56 15 
p.m. 



= lst mag.*. 



= 2nd mag.# 



Colourless 



Deep blue 



Many sparks 



None 

Streak left 

Streak left 
Streak 



Duration 0'2 sec. 



1 second 

Duration 0-2 sec. 



Instantaneous .... 
Instantaneous .... 



Small train 1 second 



Streak , 
Streak . 

Streak , 



Small train 



Streak 




None 



None 



Streak, which remained 
after the meteor had 
itself vanished. 

Streak 



Streak 



Streak 



Instantaneous , 
Instantaneous . 

Instantaneous , 



2 seconds. 



Rapid ; duratio 
0-2 sec. 



1 second 



Leaving a thin streak 



Colourless . . . Streak 



Momentary 

Duration 0'5 sec 

Duration 0'2 sec. 

Duration 0-3 sec 
disappeared 
maximum brigt 
ness suddenly. 

Same speed as lai 
and apparent 
connected \ ' 
it. Rapid. 

Duration 3 sees 



Rapid ; durati 
0-2 sec. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



15 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


tarting 10° N. of Sword- 
handle of Perseus. 

rom Lacerta to a Delphini ... 

rom 5° below Polaris, and 
moving from direction of 
Sword-handle of Perseus. 

cross y Draconis from direc- 
tion of Cassiopeia. 

rom below Polaris, coming 
from direction of Cassiopeia. 

rom a, Aquilee to a. Ophiuchi. 

cross r Cassiopeiae, from di- 
rection of the Swan. 

rom near j Ursae Majoris 
down from durection of 
Perseus. 

rom slightly N. of « Cassio- 
peise ; rose upwards, incli- 
ning slightly N. (from direc- 
tion of Perseus). 

rom « Cygni to a Coronae 
Borealis. 

rom below <j Aurigae, and 
moved upward on a circular 
arc (discordant). 

1 a S.W. direction across 
Equuleus. 

hot out from the clouds near 
Polaris. 

cross a Pegasi, and through 
? Pegasi (from direction of 
Perseus). 

rom X Ursse Majoris (from di- 
rection of Perseus). 

rom about H. 10 Camelopar- 
di, crossing above <? Aurigae 
(from direction of Perseus). 

om H. 7 Camelopardi down- 
wards at an angle of 45°. 

•om near a, Cygni, passing 
beyond and within a few 
degrees of « Pegasi. 
ora H. 15 UrsaB Majoris down 
at an angle of 45^ (from di- 
rection ©f Cassiopeia). 


Disappeared at 
maximum bright- 
ness. Arc 1°. 

Cloudy 


Highfield House 
Obser^'atory. 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenw''. 
Highfield House 

Ibid 


E. J. Lowe 

J.Howe 


MS. communica- 
tion. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Arc 3° 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 


Arc 7° 


Arc5° 


Ibid 


Id 




Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Highfield House 

Ibid 


J. Howe 


Arc5° 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 




ArcO° 30' 


Ibid 


Id 




Greenwich 

Highfield House 
Observatory. 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid 


J. Howe .... 


Arc5° 


E. J. Lowe 

W.C.Nash 

Id 


Cloudy 




Arc7° 


Highfield House 
Ibid 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 


Arc 4° ... . 


ArclO° 


Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


Rather cloudy 

Arc 15° 


Greenwich 

Highfield House 


J. MacDonald... 
E. J. Lowe 















16 



REPORT 1861. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1861. 



h m s 



Aug. 9 10 57 40 
p.m. 



910 59 p.m. 



911 4 p.m 

911 4 1 

p.m. 

9,11 4 2 
p.m. 



= 2nd mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 



= lst mag.4:. 



Colourless 



Colourless 



Reddish 



= 2nd mag.* iReddish 



Streak 

Streak 

Streak 
Streak 



Rapid 



911 16 p.m. 



9 
10 
10 



=3rd mag.:*: 



= 3rd mag.* 



11 33 p.m, 
3 a.m. 
9 15 p.m. 



10 
10 



Fine 

Very small 
Small 



10 



10 



10 



10 



Colourless . . . Streak 



Very rapid ; dur 
tion O'l sec. 

Duration 0*5 sec. 

Duration 0-5 sec. 

Duration 0'2 sec. 



.'None 



1 second 



j Left a train some degrees 

! in length. 
White None 



None 



3 seconds 

Duration 0*5 sec. 
1 second 



9 18 p.m. Small None 

9 20 p.m. Magnificent meteor. iThe head ap- The tail was a long streak 
The length of the; peared a of red fire, from which 
head and body! mass of blue 
together was about fire. The 
equal to the di- body a mis- 
stance between the^ ture of 
the bright pur 
pie and 
crimson 



9 25 p.m, 



9 30 p.m. 



1 second . 
4 seconds. 



pointers of 
Great Bear. 



= lst mag.». 



= lst mag.*. 



9 30 p.m. Small 



9 38 p.m, 



sparks were emitted ; 
which rapidly became 
extinct. 



Left a train 15° long 



Left a train visible for 10 
seconds. 



10 9 43 p.m. =3rd mag.* 



10 9 48 p.m. 




A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEOHS. if 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



rrom midway between * and Arc 10^ iHighfield House E. J. Lowe 

y Ursae Majoris ; fell down 

at an anj-le of •15'^ towards 

the N. horizon (from direc- 
tion of Perseus). 
rom just above a. Ursa; Ma-!Arc5^ (ibid Id. 

joris down towards N. (fronil I 

direction of Perseus). 
)ownwards in S.W., and cross- Arc 18° Ibid 'id. 

ing f Coronre Borealis. I 

rossing Arcturus, and fallingArc 15° llbid .Id. 

downwards (from direction! 

of Perseus), 
town in N. below Polaris (from Arc 5°. (From Ibid Id, 

direction of Perseus). | 11. 10p.m. cloudy| 

night.) 
hot out from behind ihe clouds Roval Observa-.W. C. Nash. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 



Ibid. 



in a N.W. direction across 
Delphinus. 

rom Cassiopeia to J Ursa; Ma- 
joris. 

rom 7 Dracoiiis to within 
about 10° of Arcturus. I 

rom a Cygni to Cepheus 'a very fine night.. 



Thin clouds. 



Royal Observa-,W. C 

tory, Grcen-j 

wich. 
Ibid J. Howe 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



rom Delphinus to « Pegasi ...].. 
-om N.E. to S.W. at an eleva- A 
tion SO'' above the horizon. 
The apparent distance 
travelled by the meteor was 
fully one-third of the chord 
of the celestial arc, occupy- 
ing while visible the cenlr'ql 
part thereof. 



ill from a Lyrae towards the E. 



clearly defined 
streak of yel- 
lowish-red light 
was left behind, 
visible for about 
4 minutes. Se- 
veral meteors 
were seen on this 
evening;. 



Greenwich J. Mac Donald... 1 1 bid. 

Royal Observa- J. Howe [Ibid. 

tory, Green-j 

wicli.' 

Ibid lid Ibid. 

.Midway between !H. Vignoles ... ibid. 

Bilbao and the 

mouth of the 

river about 5 

miles from the 

sea. 



Cranford 



fearly in zenith ; trail re- 
imained visible for 10 seconds 
;to the W. of « I.yra. 
om the neighbourhood oflClear 
Ursa Minor, in the direction 
of Arcturus for about 15°. 
'intre of track E.S.E. from 3'= 
below « Pegasi to a Aquarii. 



tntre of track E.S.E., in a 
direction parallel to N. 3°. 



m Cassiopeia towards a. 
Pegasi. I 



Ibid. 



Greenwich 



Cranford 



Ibid. 



\V. De la Rue , 



Id. 



J. Mac Donald.., 



VV. De la Rue ... 



Id. 



Greenwich !j. MacDonald. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



18 



REPORT — 1861. 



Date. 



18G1 
Aug. 10 



10 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



h m 
9 49 p.m. 



9 53 p.m. 



10 9 56 p.m, 



10 

10 
10 



10 
10 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



10 
10 



10 



31 p.m 

38 p.m 
5G p.m 



= 2nd mag.» 



= 3rd mag.* 



Fine 

= lst mao;.*. 



9 57 p.m. 
9 59 p.m 



10 1 p.m. 

10 1 p.m. 

10 2 p.m, 

10 Gfp.m 

10 7 p.m, 

10 9^ p.m, 



10 lOJp.m 
10 11 p.m 



10 15 p.m. 



= 2nd mag.» 



SmaU 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Blue 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



None 2 seconds 



Leaving a train some de- 3 seconds. 

grees in length. 
Leaving a train 20° in 2 seconds. 

length. 



None 



Nonc 



None 



None 



None 



1 second 



Momentary , 



1 second 



2 seconds. 



1 second 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 19 



Direction or Altitude. 



iJentre of track S.S.W. ; moved 
from [3 Aquilaa for 20°. 



!entre of track E., about 10° 
above horizon. 



'rom a few degrees N. of the ho- 
rizon, continuing very nearly 
pnrallel to it for about 15°. 
fine meteor was seen to pass 
from a Draconis to Arcturus 

rom as AquilK to Cassiopeia... 



General remarks. 



eutre of track S.W. 



assed rapidly from Polaris to 

Ursa3 Majoris. 
entre of track S.E., near a 
AquUse. 



rom X Draconis towards the 

N. horizon, 
entre of track S.S.E., 10 

above horizon, 
entre of track S.S.E., pointing 

to a Aquila;. 
owards the horizon, across 

Camelopardus. 
entre of' track E.N.E., eleva 

tion lb''. 

■ora a point a few degrees 

above Arcturus in a S.W. di 

rcction. 

o\n ji Ophiuchi to Scorpius.. 

litre of path S. through 

Cv^nus. 



'ntre of path S.E., below 
Cygnus. 




Place. 



Cranford 



Ibid., 



Greenwich 



Observer. 



W. Do la Rue . 



Id. 



Reference. 



Ibid., 



J. MacDonald.. 



J. Howe 



Ibid jid. 

Cranford W. De la Rue . 



Greenwich 
Cranford ... 



Greenwich 
Cranford ... 



Ibid., 



Greenwich 
Cranford ... 
Greenwich 



Ibid 

Cranford 



Ibid., 



W.C.Nash..., 
W. De la Rue , 



W.C.Nash.... 
W. De la Rue . 

Id 

W.C.Nash..,, 
W. De la Rue . 
W.C.Nash.... 



MS, communica- 
tion. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Id 

W. De la Rue . 



Id. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



c2 



20. 



KEPOUT 1861. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Masnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



18G1. jh m 
Aug. 1010 IG p.m. 

10.10 18 p.m, 



1010 19 p.m. 
10 10 20 p.m. 
lO'lO 21 p.m. 



:1st mag.*. 



: 1st niag.#, as bril- 
liant as Venus. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Leaving a train about 15° 2 seconds, 
in length. 



= 2nd mag.» Fine train 

Small I None 



10 



10 



10 

10 
10 

10 



jlO 23 p.m. 
10 23 i p.m. 



= 3rd mag.* i 

Small 1 

Small I None 



10 24 p.m, 

10 24 p.m, 

10 23 p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 



10 10 26 p.m. 



10 
10 



10 26 p.m, 
10 27 p.m, 



1010 27 p.m. 
10 10 27 p.m 



A train about 10° in 

length. 
Faint train 



Small 

= lst mag.*. 



fwo meteors, both 
brilliant ; = 1st 
mag.*. 



=2nd mag.* 



:lstmag.». 



=2nd mag.» 



Small 



None 

Leaving a train some de^ 
grees in length. 



None 1 second 



1 second .., 
1 second ... 
1 to 2 sees. 

1 second .,, 

1 second ... 



1 second . 

2 seconds. 



Bluish , 



Left a train , 



A train about 5° in length 



'2 seconds. 



None 'l second 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 21 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



From 3 Ursoe Majoris to within 

a few degrees of Arcturus. 
Centre of path S.S.E 



• ' aAtiuilla 



a Cajtri'corni 



From Equuleus to a Capricorn! 
From Cassiopeia to a Persei ... 
From Lacerta to Delphinus ... 



From y Ursae Majoris to i Vir- 

ginis. 
From a Herculis towards the 

S.W. horizon. 

Centre of path S.W., 3° below 

at. Lyrie. 
From OS Cygni to a. Herculis ... 
From Polaris to Corona Borealis 



Centre of path E. 




near Cygnus. 

Appeared a few degrees below 
« Pegasi, and pursued a 
course about 15° in length 
parallel to the S. horizon. 

Centre of path E.S.E., near 
horizon. 

Centre of path E.S.E 




fPeffasl. 



Place. 



Greenwich 
Cranford ... 



A.ppeared at a point a few 
degrees above a. Andro- 
meda; to between a. and ji 
Pegasi. 

Passed from a Coronse Borealis 
to X Serpentis. 



J.Howe MS. communica- 
tion. 
\V. De la Rue... I Ibid. 



Greenwich 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Cranford .. 

Greenwich 
Ibid 

Cranford .. 



Greenwich 

Cranford .. 
Ibid 



Observer. 



Reference. 



W. C. Nash ... 

J. Howe 

W.C.Nash... 

J, Howe 

W.C.Nash;... 

W. De la Rue 

W.C.Nash... 
J. Howe 

W. De la Rue 



W. C. Nash , 



W. DelaRue.., 
Id. 



Royal Observa- W. C. Nash 
tory, Gieen- 
wich. 



Ibid. 



J. Howe 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



22 



REPORT — 1861. 



Date. 

1861. 
Aug. 10 

LO 
10 

10 

10 
10 
10 

10 

10 
10 

10 

10 

10 
10 
10 



Hour. 



h m 
10 28 p.m. 



10 28 p.m. 
10 29 p,m. 

10 31 p.m. 

10 32 p.m. 
10 32 p.m. 
10 32ip.m. 

10 35^ p.m. 

10 37^ p.m. 
10 38 p.m. 

10 39 p.m, 

10 39 p.m. 

10 42 p.m. 
10 42 p.m. 
10 43 p.m. 

10 45 p.m, 
10 47 p.m. 

10 49 p.m. 

10 50^ p.m, 

10 51 p.tn. 
10 5Hp.m. 

10 52 p.m. 
10 56^ p.m. 

10 58 p.m, 

11 14 p.m. 
11 17 p.m. 

11 59 p.m. 

1 50 a.m. 

1 51 a.m. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Small 



= 1st mag.*, brilliant 
as Venus. 



= 2nd mag.* 



2nd mag.* 
1st mag.* 
2nd mag.* 

1 2nd mag.* 

2nd mag.* 
Fine 



= 1st mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Small 



Very bright 



Small 

Small but very bright 



Small , 

= 3rd mag.* 



Small 
Small 



Small 

3rd mag.* 



Very fine . 



= 1st mag.* 
Small 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Increased to 1 st ra ag.#, 
and disappeared at 
maximum brightness. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Bright , 



Blue. 



Blue. 



Colourless 



Train or Sparks. 



None 



Left a long train 15° long 



Small train 



None 

Train of some degrees in 
length. 



Leaving a train 



None 



Small train 



None 
None 

None 

None 

None 
None 

None 
None 



Leaving a beautiful train 

about 30° in length. 
A train about 20° in length 
None 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1 second 



1 sec. 



1 sec. 



1 sec. 



1 to 2 seconds. 



Momentary . 
2 seconds.... 



2 seconds. 



1 second 



1 second 

1 second 
1 second 

1 second 

1 second 



1 second 

Almost momentarv 



1 second . 

1 second . 

2 seconds. 



2 to 3 seconds. 
1 second 



Small train , 
Streak 



Red,& 3 times Train 
as bright as 
1st mag.*. I 



2 seconds 

Instantaneous . 



Very rapid 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 23 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



From a, Herculis to a Lyrae 



Centre of track E.N.E., 15° 

above horizon. 
Appeared about 30° above ho- 
, rizon, disappeared about 15° 
! above horizon. 
'From Cassiopeia to a Persei ... 



From /3 Draconis to 5 Ursse 

] Majoris. 

iJentre of track E.N.E., about 

\ 30° above horizon. 

r?assed from y Ursae Majoris to 

\ the N.W. horizon. 

?assed from a Andromedae to a 

Pegasi. 

?rom X Pegasi to /3 Pegasi 

?rom f> Ursae Majoris to Leo 

Minor. 
Ilentre of path E.S.E., 4° above 

horizon, 
•■rom a point situated between 

iS Cygni and Sagitta to \i 

HercuUs. 
?rom Corona Borealis to a 

Lyrae. 
Centre of path S.E., 9° above 

horizon, 
'rom I Delphini to a little 

above y Aquilae, 



'rem Serpentis to a Librae... 
'ell perpendicularly from ;3 

Arietis to the horizon. 
'rora a. Herculis to a 

Scorpii. 
'assed from a Cygni to a 

Lyrse. 
■Yom « Cygni to ^ Delphini ... 
'assed rapidly a few degrees 

above y Pegasi. 

'rom i Cygni to Equuleus 

'assed rapidly from n Andro- 
medae to y Pegasi. 
'rom a Pegasi past Delphinus 

to a, Aquilse. 
'rom a LjTae to S Serpentis ... 
'rom ;8 Ursae Majoris towards 

the N. horizon, 
'assed in a S.E, direction across 

>• Pegasi. 
L-cross centre of Pegasus, 

coming from direction of 

Perseus. 
torn direction of Perseus, and 

passing 10° N. of Aldebaran. 



Cloudy. 



Arc 20° 
Arc 9°.. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green 
•wich. 

Cranford 



J. Howe 



Ibid., 



W. De la Rue , 
Id 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
•wich. 

Ibid 



J. Howe 



Id. 



Cranford 



Royal Observa 
tory, GreeU' 
wich. 

Ibid 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Cranford ■ 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid , 



Cranford 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid 

Ibid , 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid., 

Ibid., 
Ibid.. 

Ibid.. 



Highfield House 
Observatory. 



W. DelaRue... 
W.C.Nash 



Id. 



Id 

J. Howe 



J. Howe 



J. Howe ... 
W. C. Nash 



J. Howe .., 
W. C. Nash , 



J. Howe ..., 
W. C. Nash , 



Id. 
Id. 



J. Howe 



W. C. Nash , 
Id , 



Id 

E. J. Lowe 



Ibid., 



Id. 



W. De la Rue ... 
W.C.Nash 



W. DelaRue... 
W.C.Nash... 



MS. communica- 
tion. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



24 



REPORT 1S61. 



Date. 



Hour Appearance and Bnghtness Train or Sparks. 

"°'"^- 1 Magnitude. and Colour. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1861. 
Aug. 11 1 51 20 



11 
11 
11 
11 
11 



11 

11 



h m s 

51 

a.m. 

1 53 a.m 



= 1st mag.», 



3rd mag.» 
1 53 a.ra. =2ndra.ag.* 
1 59 a.m. = 2nd mag.» 
1 59 a.m.' = 2nd raag.* 
= 22^ 



Red, very |Train 
bright. 



Bluish 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 



[Rapid 



Streaks 0*2 sec. 

Streak 02 sec. 

Streak 0-2 sec. 

Streak 0-2 sec. 



1 59 40 
a.m. 



1 59 45 
a.m. 



Very brightlA long tail which lingered Rapid 
red. 



2 2 a.m. =3rdmag* 'Blue 'Streak 



lO-l sec. 



11; 2 5 a.ra.'Small jlndistinct Streak [Rapid 



111 2 5 5 Small 

a.m. { 
111 2 G a.m. =2nd mag.» 



[Streak Rapid 

'Streak Rapid 



11 2 6 30 |=2ndmag.* Blue Streaks iRapid 



11 2 9 30 !=3rdraag.» [Blue Streak Rapid 

a.m. I I 

11 



11 

11 
11 
II 



2 11 a.m.i=2nd niag.» !Red Streak 

i i I 

2 12 a.m. =lst mag.* Red Streak 



2 14 a.m. 



= 2ndmag.* 'Blue Streak 



0-2 sec. 
0-2 sec. 

Rapid . 



i3rd mag.» 'Red Streak Rapid 



2 14 30 

a.m. I I I I 

2 15 a.m.! = 2nd mag.* Colourless ...Streak Rapid 



Hi 2 15 30 

a.m. 
2 17 a.m. 



11 
11 

11 



= 2ndniag.» Colourless 

= 2ndma''.» IBlue 



Streak 
Streak , 



2 17 15 Small 

a.m. I 
2 18 a.m. Small 



Rapid 
Rapid 



11 2 20 a.m.'Small 



Colourless ...iStreak 



I 



Rapid 

Rapid 
Kapid 



11 2 20 15 .Small Colourless ... Streiik 

' a.m. Ill j 

11 2 22 30 =3rdmag.* Colourless ...Streak [Rapid 

I a.m. 11 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATION'S OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 25 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Oljserver. 



Reference. 



Arc 1° 



om direction of Perseus, 
amongst cloud in N.E. ; alti- 
tude 40^ 

•cm 1^-' S. of Sword-handle of 
Perseus. 

■omdirectionof Perseus, start- Arc 5° ; faded at 
ing exactly on Aldebaran. max. brightness. 

om direction of Perseus, down! 

from Capella. I 

■om direction of Perseus, near' 

E. horizon. t 

•om direction of Perseus, Arc 30° 

starting 15° from tlie 
Sword-handle of Perseus, 
and passing across S Urs£e 
Majoris. 



Higlifield Hnuse E. J. Lowe 
Oljbervatorv. 



ne in N.W., altitude 45'-' 
amongst cloud. 
om direction of Perseus, do wn , 
passing midway between 
Pleiades and Capella. 

N., from direction of Per- 
seus. 

Ursa Major 



N., moving towards Ursa 
Major. 

N.E. (from direction of Per- 
seus). 

K E. of Aldebaran, from di 
rection of Perseus. 
pwards across Cassiopeia, 
from direction of Perseus. 
1 N.E., from 15° above the 
horizon, falling perpendicu- 
larly down. 

om direction of Perseus 
moving across the Ram. 
om direction of Perseus, cross- 
ing Pleiades. 

om direction of Perseus, 
starting 3° S. of Pleiades, 
falling down at an angle of 
50°. 

om direction of Perseus 
crossing a Pegasi. 
below Pleiades, from direc- 
tion of Pleiades. 
N.E. amongst clouds 



ora direction of Perseus, 
perpendicularly down to 
Castor. 

own towards Aries, from di- 
rection of Perseus. 
Jove Aries I 'ibid 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid.. 



Arc 10°, from direc-'Ibid. 

tion of Perseus. I 
Arcl0° jlbid. 

Arc 5° 'ibid., 



Arc 5° 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 

Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid., 



Ibid. 
Ilbid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid., 



Ibid. 



om y Pegasi down i 'ibid 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



MS. communica- 
tion. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 
.ilbid. 
.Ibid. 
.Ibid. 

! 
.iibid. 

.Ibid. 

! 
.jlbid. 

Ibid. 
,Ibid. 
Jlbid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



26 



REPORT — 1861. 



Date. 



1861. 
Aug. 11 

11 

11 

11 

11 
11 

11 

11 

12 

12 
12 
12 
12 

12 

12 
12 

12 

12 

12 

12 

12 
12 

12 

12 



Hour. 



h m s 
2 22 30 

a.m. 
2 22 40 

a.m. 
9 20 p.m. 

9 24 p.m. 

10 47 p.m. 
10 47 30 

p.m. 
10 48 p.m. 

10 50 p.m. 

12 59 a.m. 



12 59 20 
a.m. 
1 a.m. 

1 10 
a.m. 
1 2 a.m. 



1 6 30 
a.m. 

1 10 a.m. 
1 14 a.m. 

1 18 a.m, 

1 20 a.m, 

1 20 30 
a.m. 

1 22 a.m, 

1 24 a.m, 
1 27 a.m. 

1 29 30 
a.m. 
10 p.m. 



12110 2 p.m. 
12|10 41ip.m. 



13 



9 25 p.m. 



13 9 26 p.m. 
1310 1 p.m. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



=3rd mag.# 
=3rd mag.» 
=2nd mag.# 
=2nd mag.# 



Small 
Small 



Small 

=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

=:3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.» 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 6th mag.* 
=6th mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 
=:2nd mag.* 



Small 
Small 



Colourless 
Colourless 
Blue 



Colourless 
Colourless 

Colourless 
Colourless 
Colourless 
Colourless 

Colourless 

Colourless 
Colourless 

Colourless 

Colourless 

Colourless 

Colourless 

Colourless 
Colourless 

Colourless 



Small , 

Very bright, = 2nd Blue 

mag.* I 

= lstmag.* Colourless 



:lstmag.# Bluish 

:3rd mag.* Blue 



Train or Sparks. 



Streak - 
Streak , 
Streak , 
Streak , 



Streak . 
Streak., 
Streak . 

Streak . 
Streak . 
Streak . 
Streak . 

Streak . 

Streaks 
Streak . 

Streak . 

Streak . 

Streak . 

Streak ., 

Streak ., 
Streak ., 

Streak . 

None . 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid . 
Rapid . 
0-2 sec. 

0-2 sec. 
O'l sec. 
Rapid . 
Rapid . 



Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid ... 
1 second 



None 1 second 

Leaving a train 10° in 1 to 2 seconds. 

length. 
Train 



Train 
Train 



Slow 



Slow .... 
2 seconds. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 2'J 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


om direction of Perseus ; a< 
2.24 a.m. became cloudy. 
Cassiopeia 




Highfield House 

Observatory. 
Ibid 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 


MS. communica- 
tion. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

II«d. 

Ibid. : 

H)id, 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. ■ 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. i 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 




Dm amongst clouds, in N.E. 
perpendicularly down. 
TOSS Arcturus (from direction 
of Perseus). 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


S.W., balf-way to zenith ... 




Ibid 


Id 


Dm y Capricorni (direction ol 
Perseus). 

)m i Ursae Majoris (from di- 
rection of Perseus). 

Jownwards at an angle of 45° 

;o near S.S.E. horizon. 

Ha direction of Perseus, 

crossing i Delphini. 

)m direction of Swan, cross- 

ng /3 Arietis. 

ross » Pegasi, from direction 

jf Perseus. 

>m about 14 Arietis, from 

Urection of Perseus. 

im direction of Perseus, 
srossing half below a Piscium 
ind y Pegasi. 
reral small meteors 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


Arc 20° 


Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


Arc 7° 


Ibid 


Id 


Arc 15° 


Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 


at Sword-handle of Perseus, 

>n S.E. side. 

•ssing i Pegasi, from direc- 

ion of Perseus. 

N.E., altitude 45°, down at 

n angle of 80^, from direc- 

ion of Perseus. 

N.E., altitude 55°, down at 

,n angle of 45°, from direc- 

ion of Perseus. 

ssing ti Piscium, from direc- 

ion of Perseus. 

t under Polaris 


Arc 12' '...'..'. 


Ibid 


Id ;.:::"' 


ArclO° 

ArclO° 

Arc3° 


Ibid 


Id. 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid ... 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id. . 


Brards from Algol, perpendic. 

Mscordant. 

im from below y Andro- 

leda; (from Cygnus). 

sed from Cassiopeia to a 

'egasi. 

m Polaris to Cassiopeia ... 


Arc3° 


Ibid 


Id 


Arc 5° 


Ibid 


Id 




Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid 


J. Howe 




Id 


m A, Lyrae to a Herculis ... 




Ibid 


W. C. Nash and 

J. Howe. 
E. J. Lowe 

[d 


vn across Aquarius (from 
irection of Perseus). 
n near a Pegasi. Discordant 
sed from (i to y Pegasi 




Highfield House 

Observatory. 
Ibid 






[loyal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 


W.C.Nash 







28 



REPORT 1861. 



Date. 



1861. 
Aug. 14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 

14 
14 
14 

14 
14 

15 

15 

21 



h m 
12 39 

a.m. 
12 39 

a.m. 
12 44 

12 45 

12 47 

12 50 

a.m. 

12 51 

a.m. 



Hour. 



s 
30 

45 

a.m. 

a.m. 

a.m. 

16 

5 



Appearance and 
Maornitude. 



Briglitness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



= 3rd mag.* [Colourless 

= 3rdmag.+ Colourless 



Small train , 
Small train . 
Small train , 



= 4th mag.* Colourless .. 

1 

= 3rd mag.» Colourless ... Streak 

= 3rd mag.» Colourless . ..j Streak 



= 3rdmag.* iReddish 

= 2ndraag.* 'Blue .. 



1 4 a.m. =r3rd mag.* .... 
10 5 p.m., = 1st mag.* White 



Streak , 
Streak , 



Colourless ...Train 



10 15 
10 32 

10 34 

11 14 
11 27 

9 59 

10 8 

8 53 



p.m.! = 2nd mag.» 

p.m.lSraall 

p.m. Small 



p.m. 
p.ra, 

p.m. 

p.m- 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.» 

= 2ndmag.» 

= 2nd mag.» 



A long and bright train . 



Small train 

None 

None 



None 

Small train , 



White 

White 'Short train . 

Small train 
White 



Velocity or 
Duration. 

0'5 sec 

Slow, duration 0'! 

sec. 
Instantaneous 

Rapid, duration O'i 

sec. 
Rapid, duration 0") 

sec. 
Rapid 

0-3 sec 

Instantaneous 

3 seconds 

2 seconds 

1 second 

1 second 

I second 

1 second 

1 second 

1 to 2 seconds...., 

3 or 4 seconds...!. 




APPENDIX. 

No. 1. — A large meteor, October 25tl), 18.59, was seen at Holyhead, 
Anglesea; and at Ballinaman, 13 miles west of Athlune, in Ireland. 

1. As seen by Mr. Harris, C.E., at Holyhead. — At about 7.13 p.m. a bright 
ball of fire appeared directly overhead, illuminating the dense masses of" 
vapour which filled the sky at the time, and rendering objects around as 
visible as if by day. The appearance lasted two or three seconds; it was 
blowing nearly a gale at the time, and immediately after the rain came down 
like a deluge. 

2. As seen by Thomas C. Carter, about 13 miles west of Athlone. — The 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 29 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


iwii across a Arietis, from Arc 5° 

(ill ection of Perseus. 

nni Sword-handle of Perseus. Arc 3^ 


Highfield House 

Observatory. 
Ibid 


E.J.Lowe 

Id 


MS. communica- 
tion. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 


From direction of Perseus. 
ru,s (3 Andromedoe, from 
(li- ection of Perseus. 
;\vn from just above a An- 


.Vic 7° 


Ibid 


Id 


Direction of Cas- 
siopeia. 

Direction of Cas- 
siopeia. 

Arc 3°. Discordant 

ArclS"" 


Ibid 


Id 


(lioraedx. 

)\vii from between (3 and y 

Aiidromedae. 

) from 10' S. of y Andro- 

medsc. 
i rpendicular down, inclining 

E. from Swan to 12^ N. of 

Perseus. 

bm )7 Pegasi towards Cassio- 
peia. 

ssed from 5° E. of a Lyroe to 

a Corona; Borealis. 

Jvgni to Cassiopeia 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id. 


Discordant 


Ibid 


Id 




Blackheath 

New Cross 

Ibid 


J. Glaisher 

J. Howe .. . 




3m a Draconis to S Cvgni ... 




Id. . . 


3m /3 Pegasi direct, downward 





Ibid 


Id 

W.C.Nash 

E. J. Lowe 

W.C.Nash 

J, Howe 


1 course to horizon. 

|3m /S Trianguli to /3 Persei... 




Greenwich 

Highfield House 

Observatory. 
Greenwich 

Ibid 


j)m /3 Persei to « Arietis 




fssed from j3 Cygni to t 

jAquila;. 

Issed from a Cygni to Cas- 

iiopeia. 
descended vertically from 

10" S. of Arcturus for a 
t distance of about 8^, disap- 
ipearing behind a cloud. 
|1 from the neighbourhood 
fjf Polaris towards the 
horthern horizon for about 

no°. 

Id from the zenith, passing 
through the tail of Ursae 

.Majoris, disappearint about 

10^ below. 








Royal Hospital, 
Greenwich. 

Greenwich, Tra- 
falgar Road. 

Greenwich, Nel- 
son Street. 


W.T.Lynn 

J. MacDonald ... 
Id 


Very fine, stars very 
bright. 

Fine 







sky was clear, when about 7.30 p.m. (Irish time ?) a meteor, at first about the 
size of a star of the first magnitude, swiftly approached from the direction of 
the Pleiades; itadvanccd rapidly, increasing in size,foraboutfourorfiveseconds, 
giving out an intensely white light ; at the end of that time it changed colour 
to a bright ruby-red, and then it seemed to change its course as well as to 
lose velocity ; almost immediately after that it burst into fifteen or sixteen 
bright-green particles that remained visible some two seconds more, and then 
altogether disappeared. The whole phenomenon lasted perhaps eight seconds ; 
its direction was about N.W. or N.N.W.* 



* There can be little doubt that these two observations related to one and the same meteor. 



30 REPORT ISGl. 

No, 2. — The following accounts of the remarkable meteor of June 1 1 th, 
1845, of which some descriptions have already been published in preceding 
Reports, have been forwarded to us, as first seen by the Rev. F. Hawletr, 
F.R.A.S., near Adalia, Asia Minor: — 

1. Towards the close of the 18th we started, after one of the sultriest days 
I almost ever experienced; at 11 a.m. the thermometer was 98° in the coolest 
part of Mr. Purdie's house, whilst not a breath of wind was astir. I know 
not whether the stagnant heat may have contributed to the occurrence of a 
very splendid meteor which we witnessed that evening. We had entered the 
mountainous district north-west of Adalia, the sun had recently set in a per- 
fectly cloudless sky, and the twilight was coming on, when there suddenly burst 
out in the north a meteor that resembled in appearance a bright but perma- 
nent flash of lightning, whose upper extremity lay a little to the east of the 
pole-star. The length of the flasii, as near as I could judge, was about 50° — 
certainly more than half the space between the zenith and the horizon 
(sloping downwards towards the west of north) ; and that M'hich I presumed 
was the vapour resulting from the explosion presented for several minutes 
the same shape as the original flash, and being strongly illumined (as I took 
it) by the upslanting rays of the vanished sun, appeared about the bright- 
ness of the rising moon, which was then about at the full. Absorbed as we 
all were by the magnificence of the spectacle, which elicited from the Turks 
repeated cries of "Allah, Allah," 1 forgot to note by my watch the time whicli 
might elapse until an explosion should be audible, and was only reminded of 
the omission upon hearing a dull heavy report like that of a distant piece of 
ordnance boom on ray ear, after an interval we then judged of some 7 or 8 
minutes. According to this estimate, the sound, if it came to us from the 
meteor, and which (it was so peculiar) I think was the case, must have 
travelled to us from a distance of 90 miles (sound travelling 1140 feet per 
second), and owing to the altitude of the meteor must have had its origin in 
the highest and rarest regions of our atmosphere. 

This brilliant visitant gradually appeared to grow larger and more diffuse, 
as to breadth more particularly, and at last to break up into detached por- 
tions, which were beautifully decked in luminous colours of red, orange, and 
silvery green. Finally the coloured portions, having taken meanwhile a 
slightly westerly course, by degrees faded away, having continued visible at 
least 20 minutes to half an hour. We were informed that the meteor was 
sc'^n at Philadelphia (160 miles west). 

2. From ' Malta Mail.' 

The brig 'Victoria' saw this extraordinary appearance when in latitude 
36° 40' 56" north, and longitude 13° 44' 36" east, being becalmed and without 
any appearance of bad weather ; her topgallant and royal masts suddenly 
went over the side, as if carried away by a sudden squall; and two hours after 
it blew very hard from south and east, but suddenly again fell calm, with an 
overpowering stench of sulphur and an unbearable heat. At this moment three 
luminous bodies were seen to issue from the sea at the distance of about half 
a mile from the vessel, which remained visible for about 10 minutes ; soon 
after it came on to blow hard from the south-east, and the vessel ran into a 
current of air the reverse of that just experienced (900 miles west of Adalia). 

3. Letter from Amab, on Mount Lebanon. 

On the same day, about half an hour after sunset (very nearly the same 
time), the heavens presented an extraordinary and beautiful appearance. A 
fiery meteor, composed of two luminous bodies, each appearing at least five 
times larger than the moon, with streamers and appendages to each, joining 
the two, and looking like large flags blown out by a gentle breeze, appeared in 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOT?S METEORS. 31 

the west, remained visible for an hour, and taking an easterly course gradually 
disappeared. The appendages appeared to shine from the reflected light of 
the main bodies, which it was painful to look at for any length of time. The 
moon had risen half an hour before, and there was scarcely any wind (350 
miles south-east of Adalia). 

Accounts from Erzeroum, in Asia Minor, describe a sudden fall of the 
thermometer on June 21st (three days after), which usually ranges in summer 
between 20° and 22° Reaumur, to 5°, and a further fall of two more degrees 
during a heavy snow-storm which lasted three days, after which the thermo- 
meter suddenly rose to 21°. The greatest consternation prevailed among 
the inhabitants, who thought the wqrld was coming to an end. 

At Malta the heat was excessively oppressive, the thermometer ranging 
from 87° indoors in shade to 140° exposed to the hot air. At St. Antonio, 
the coolest spot in the island, the governor was compelled to rig up Indian 
punkahs and order an extra supply of ice*. 

No. 3. — The following additional notice of the meteor of July 16th has 
recently appeared in the 'London Review' of August 10th, 1861, written 
by Mr. Alexander S. Herschel : — 

" Excellent observations at Tunbridge Wells, and at Darlington, in York- 
shire, afford the following conclusions upon the orbit of the first meteor of 
Tuesday evening, the 16th of July. If this were not an electrical phe- 
nomenon of extraordinary magnificence, it came from space as a body of one- 
third of a mile in diameter, drawn towards our sun from some initial path, 
in which it must have had a native velocity of at least twenty-three miles a 
second (exceeding by four miles that of our earth in her orbit). The meteor 
first became visible 320 miles above Namur (in the south of Flanders), and in- 
clined downwards at 20° to about 100 miles above the North Sea, 250 miles 
due east of Perth, where it suddenly disappeared, soon after separating into 
two parts. The whole course of 500 miles was performed in 10 to 12 seconds 
of time ; and if we neglect the action of the earth, which can only deflect a 
satellite 3° in a minute, the path was from over the head of Sagittarius, and 
presents a direct hyperbolic orbit of eccentricity of 1*1 1°, and obliquity 45°, 
leading from the descending node (where it encountered the earth) to an 
apse at 156° in advance along its course, and within 16,000,000 miles of the 
sun." 

Note. — The time of this meteor is not given by Mr. Herschel in this 
notice, but he speaks of it as the first meteor seen that evening ; it is very 
possible that this was the one seen also at Greenwich, the Isle of Wight, and 
Kensington, about 11 p.m., though it does not appear to be quite clear. It 
may be observed that large meteors seem to have been not unfrequently 
observed about the 17th of July. An observed altitude of 320 miles for a 
meteor is most unusual. Though it is true, as observed by Mr. Herschel, and 
proved by elaborate calculations by Walker (see ' American Philosophical 
Transactions' for 1841), that the influence of the earth's attraction is very 
inconsiderable on passing meteors, yet in calculations on the real orbits of 
meteors, taken generally from observations founded on positions more or less 
within the limits of the atmosphere, it must not be forgotten that the elasti- 
city of the atmosphere itself must have a tendency to make the meteor 
deviate more or less from its true path, materially qualifying the elements of 
its ellipticity, and rendering somewhat uncertain whether it is hyperbolic 
or not. 

* Sir W. S. Han-is considers it probable this was an electrical phenomenon. 



32 ■ REPORT — 1861. 

No. 4. — 1. One of the most interesting falls of meteorites, and for a longtime 
the only one of metallic iron which had been witnessed, took place at 
Hraschina, near Agram, on May 26th, 1751. At a meeting of the Imperial 
Academy of Vienna, April 14th, 1859, M. Haidinger produced the Latin 
document referring to ic (wliich had never been published), and the original 
German translation ; also a second document, lately discovered in the Impe- 
rial Cabinet of Minerals at Vienna, accompanied by two plates representing 
the phenomena as observed at Szigetvar (or Gross- Sziget), 75 miles east 
of Hraschina. At a meeting held on February 3rd, 1860, he presented a 
third document, discovered in the archiepiscopal library at Agram, describing 
the same phenomena as seen atBiscupcez, near Warasdin, 17i miles north, a 
little east of Hraschina. 

Prof. Haidinger also drew attention to the meteor seen on May 26, 1751, 
between 6 and 7 p.m., west of Gross-Sziget. It was first observed as a flash 
of light, without noise ; immediately afterwards it resembled a tortuous chain, 
extending directly west, terminating in the middle heiglit of the air as a fire- 
ball, leaving a long tail. On arriving in the lower strata it resembled an 
enormous sparkling fireball, with a chain-like tail in the higher regions, the 
last traces of whicli faded away at about 10 p.m. At Biscupecz ic was 
observed as a small cloud from which some noise emanated, and which after- 
wards disappeared*. 

Two pieces of iron fell to the east of Hraschina, one of 71 lbs. penetrating 
4 feet 6 inches into the ground, at present preserved in the Imperial Cabinet 
of Vienna; the other of 16 lbs., which had been distributed partly at the 
place of its fall, and afterwards at Presburg, every vestige of which is lost. 
From the computations of various observations it appears to have passed from 
Neustadt to Hraschina, or from north to south from 4-8° 35' to 40° 6' 2"; and 
from west to east from 28° 18' to 34°, east of Ferro. 

No observations were taken of its velocity ; but its height before its fall at 
Hraschina, viewed from Szigetvar, was from 30° to 35° — equal to about 43 to 
52^ miles. Prof. Haidinger remarked upon the vast diff'erence between the 
apparent size of the meteor and its solid contents. A body 15 inches in 
diameter at 75 miles distance is invisible; yet the meteor is pictured as if of the 
size of the sun. The appearance of the chain indicates the time when the 
solid portions became visible ; they are, however, only the paths of the lumi- 
nous bodies; and that they do not form straight lines is very natural, if we 
take into consideration the flat shape of the meteorite, which must have been 
tossed from side to side by the resistance of the air. If the rapid compres- 
sion of the air is sufficient to annul the cosmical velocity, it certainly can pro- 
duce the elimination of light — the fiery phenomena. These two points esta- 
blished, as a natural consequence two phenomena result, which belong to 
the character of fiery meteors. The solid nucleus of a meteor is not a globe ; 
it passes undoubtedly through the resisting medium with its centre of gravity 
foremost, producing, on account of the unequal distribution, a rotation of its 
mass, which increases in rapidity, whilst the velocity of its motion diminishes 
in a direct ratio. 

The report of the Hraschina meteor was heard as far as Warasdin, which, 
taking Hraschina as a centre, gives an area of nearly 1000 square miles over 
Avhich the sound was audible. 

The Hraschina iron was the first in M'liich the highly crystalline structure 
of meteoric iron was observed, and Haidinger gives an account of the cir- 
cumstances under which the discovery was made. Alvis von Widmannstiit- 
ten, a highly educated and thorough iron-master, had a plate of the mass cut 
* See American Journal of Science, 2nd series, vol. xxxii. No. 91, July 1801. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 33 

ofF If by 1 inch in size and ^g oz. in weight ; this was carefully polished for 
the purpose of examination when exposed to heat. But what a surprise I 
After the colour of the principal mass had passed through the various shades 
of straw-yellow, brownish-yellow, violet, and blue, there remained groups 
of triangles of straw-colour parallel lines, the blue and violet intervals I to 
•I line wide, the straw-yellow lines ^ to ^ — a splendid phenomenon. This was 
the first observation, and the figures were called " Widmanstatten's figures," 
in honour of the discoverer. The method of etching by acids was introduced 
after this discovery. 

2. Leitform — In a paper on a typical form of meteorites, presented at 
the meeting of the Imperial Academy of Vienna, on April 19th, I860, by 
Prof. Haidinger, he suggests some new and interesting ideas. The paper is 
accompanied by two plates of the appearances of meteoric stones from Stan- 
nern and Gross-Dwina, which are complete in themselves, and may be con- 
sidered as individuals of their kind, which at the same time show distinctly 
one of the periods through which they have passed. 

In viewing meteorites there must be a starting-point from some funda- 
mental considerations proved by the phenomena themselves, in order to arrive 
at an understanding of their forms and conditions. These are, 1st, the stone 
leaving the extra-terrestrial space as a solid ; 2nd, its velocity being greater 
on entering the earth's atmosphere ; 3rd, it is retarded by the resistance of 
the air ; 4th, the " fireball " (or luminous envelope of the meteor) formed by 
the compression of the air and the rotation of the stone resulting therefrom ; 
5th, the termination of the first part of the path is marked by a detonation, 
the so-called explosion, the vacuum inside of the fireball being suddenly filled 
by the surrounding air. 

The Stannern stone seems to have passed through the air with its rounded 
side first, and shows over its surface effects resulting from a uniform action of 
the atmosphere upon it whilst the crust was in a viscous state. The lustrous 
crust is surrounded by a protruding gibbosity ; the stone had sharp edges 
which in the foremost direction of the meteorite were melted off and blown 
towards the back part. The time of the passage through the air generally 
lasts only a few seconds. The rising temperature producing the crust belongs 
to this period, since the stone came from the planetary space wiih a tempera- 
ture of 100° C. below freezing-point. Some meteors get heated very rapidly ; 
masses of iron will sometimes get red-hot whilst one composed of some other 
substance will be quite cold inside ; and as soon as the detonation takes place, 
and the fireball disappears, the inside and outside temperatures of the me- 
teorites are soon counterbalanced and the crust rapidly cools, especially at a 
height where the temperature is very low. 

The stone of Gross-Dwina, which in its general character is allied to those 
of Timochin, Zebrak, and Eichstadt, shows a great dissimilarity on its two 
principal planes, one being smooth, and the other rough. The form is that 
of a fragment altered only on its surface. Characteristic of this meteorite is 
a ridge which passes over the " head " of it; and corresponding with it there 
was one passing over the back part of it. The roundish spots where a 
melting off has commenced have a striking resemblance to the impressions of 
figures in dough ; they are generally to be found on the side best protected 
during its passage. 

3. St. Denis- Westrem. — At a meeting of the Imperial Academy of Vienna 

on October 4th, 1860, Director Haidinger gave an account of this meteorite. 

The fall took place vvithout detonation, and only a slight noise was heard 

similar to the rattling of carriages, on June 7th, 1855, 7| p.m., near the town 

of St. Denis-Westrera, 2\ miles from Ghent. 

1861. D 



34 REPORT — 1861. 

It fell thirty paces from a man and woman, penetrated the ground about 
2 feet, and was immediately dug up; it was hot, of a bluish-black colour, and 
smelled sulphurous. It weighed 700'5 grammes, its sp.gr.=3*293. Its form 
was similar to that of an " ananchites," having a flat elongated base and an 
arched enclosure. It has the character of a real fragment, and is encrusted 
all over. The crust is uneven on one side, wliilst the other is more even and 
equally rounded, the edges between the rough surface and rounded planes 
being well marked. 

The stone resembles those of Reichenbach's second family, " somewhat 
bluish stones." The stone contains disseminated iron and pyrrhotine, — the 
latter, sometimes filling up vein-fissures, giving it the character of a fragment 
from a very large mass — a mountain of rock. Disseminated through the 
whole mass were spots of iron-rust and crystalline globules, which leave im- 
pressions when falling out of the brittle mass. 

4. Indian meteorites. — At the meetings of the Imperial Academy of 
Vienna, on June 8th, November 3rd, and the last one in the year 1860, M. 
Haidinger gives accounts of the Calcutta meteorites which had been acquired 
a short time previously by the Imperial Cabinet of Minerals. 

(1.) The meteorite of Shalka fell in a rice-field about 80 yards south of the 
village, on November 30th, 1850, a iev/ hours before sunrise ; it w^as witnessed 
by two persons. The nqise, compared with thunder, was not very loud; the 
stone penetrated 4 feet into the earth ; fragments were found 3 feet deep in a 
circle of 20 feet radius. Only one stone fell, which may have been 3 feet long. 
It came from the south, at an angle of about 80°. The stone is very peculiar ; 
the white portions resemble pumice, whilst the darker resemble pearlstone ; 
it is friable like cocolite. The real fracture shows greasy lustre. It does 
not contain any metallic iron. It belongs to Reichenbach's first family, 
first group. 

(2.) A fall of meteorites occurred on December27th, 1857, at Quenggouk 
in Pegu ; three stones, evidently fragments, were found five and ten miles 
apart. It had the appearance of a large umbrella in flames, as observed 
at a place ninety miles south of Quenggouk, at an altitude of 40° or 50°, 
giving a report like that of a monster gun. Another observation, taken 
on board the ' Semiramis,' about 200 miles S.E. of where it fell, describes it as 
having had at first the appearance of a large star increasing to three times 
the size of the moon, leaving behind a long tail, and falling towards the east. 
Haidinger gives the height at 80 or 120 miles. 

(3.) This fall occurred at Dhurmsala in the Punjab, accompanied by a tre- 
mendous noise, the earth being shaken in convulsions. The direction was 
N.N.W.to S.S.E. The fragments penetrated to a depth of 1 to I5 feet; the 
largest weighed 320 lbs. The fall took place July 14th, 1861. 

(4.) The fall of meteorites at Futtehpore on November 30th, 1822, is men- 
tioned. 

(5.) The real locality of a stone which was found in 1846, and which 
Piddington supposes to be from Assam, is not known. It is beautifully 
marbled, very solid, and resembles the meteorites of Seres, Barbotan, and 
others of the third family of Reichenbach. The crust is dark greyish-black, 
sp. gr. at 17° R. = 3-792. 

(6.) The fall of the Segowolee meteorites took place on March 6th, 1853. 
All the stones were pyramidal, and weighed from | to 4 lbs. The crust is 
very thin, not over | line in thickness, dark-reddish brown. The whole con- 
dition gives proof of a slight fusibility. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 35 

No. 5. The meteoric iron from Tula, Russia. — In the year 1846, a mass of 
iron of over 15 puds (542 lbs.) was found 4^ miles from Marunskoje. Dr. 
Auerbach has given us the first notice of it. The princi)3al mass consists of iron 
with pieces of meteoric stones imbedded. They are real fragments separated 
from larger masses by mechanical force. The metallic nickeliferous iron 
formed veins in the granular rock, the latter consisting of a mixture of me- 
tallic iron and a silicate of iron and magnesia. The VVidmanstaiten's figures 
in this iron show a striking resemblance to those of Burlington, Ovvego 
County, New York. 

Judging from analogies observed upon our earth, Haidinger has come to 
the conclusion that before the stones were imbedded in iron they were united 
as portions of real rocks in one and the same celestial body, from which they 
came to our earth. 

The forms of the larger and smaller lumps show, however, many peculia- 
rities which require a more thorough investigation. 

The meteoric iron from Nebraska was obtained from N. Holmes, Esq., 
of St. Louis. The original mass weighed 35 lbs., and was found 25 miles 
west of Fort Pierre. A segment of the Vienna specimen cut parallel with a 
octahedral plane showed stride of half a line in width, intersecting at angles 
of 60° and 120°, with the triangular and rhombic intervals between the en- 
closing ledges of schreibersite covering the whole etched surface. The 
Widmanstatten's figures show a close resemblance to those of the Red River 
iron preserved in the Yale College cabinet. 

Fall of the Meteor of Parnallee, near Madura, in Hindostan. By 
W. Haidinger, Ordinary Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 
(Presented at the sitting of February 7th, 1861.) — 

A communication from Professor Silliman causes me to report on the fall 
of a meteor which occurred on February 28th, 1857, about noon, near the 
village of Parnallee, south of Madura, at the northern extremity of Hindostan. 
Mr. Silliman wrote to me that the meteorite (which is deposited at Western 
Reserve College, at Hudson, Ohio) had, according to the chemical analysis 
made by Dr. Cassels, of Choktaws, Ohio, been found to contain only 3 per 
cent, of metallic iron, and amongst it 17 per cent, of nickel. He expects to 
receive a fragment of it, and they also intend to send us a portion of the lat- 
ter- Now I was enabled, in answer to the above, to communicate several 
statements which had not been known to Mr. Silliman. 

Already in the summer of 1858, 1 read the excellent account drawn up by 
the head of the American Mission at Madura, Mr. H. S. Taylor, respecting 
the fall of the meteor itself, — two stones of immense size having fallen, one 
weighing 37 lbs. and the other weighing four times as much, or 148 lbs. 
This account is given in the ' Transactions of the Geographical Society of 
Bombay ' for 1857; also the 'Athenaeum ' [probably the Madras 'Athenaeum'] 
contained a notice of it. Only in 1859, when our operations commenced 
for the increase of the collection of the meteorites of the Imperial Mineral 
Cabinet, I wrote to Dr. G. Buist, secretary of the Society and editor of the 
Bombay Times. But Buist was just in the act of removing to Allahabad, 
and could not intercede in the matter; so then I applied to Mr. Taylor 
himself, and I also wrote to Madras. It now became evident that the larger 
stone was being sent to the Museum of Madras, but that the one weighing 
37 lbs. which he received back again, had been sent to Hudson in America. 
Mr.Taylorwas kind enough to give me the address of ProfessorCh. A. Young, 
to whom I then wrote directly, and who already a fortnight ago had the 
kindness to promise us a beautiful specimen of this meteorite of Parnallee, 

d2 



36 



REPORT — 1861. 



which I shall in due course place before the students and fellow-mem- 
bers of my class. I could even have delayed my present communication 
respecting the fall itself until then, as no accounts of it are to be found in 
any European book. 

xlccording to Mr. H. S. Taylor's account, the two stones fell a little north- 
east of the village of Parnallee, 9° 14' N. and 78° 21' east of Greenwich, ac- 
cording to the map of the Government Survey. According to the direction 
of the hole which they made in striking the ground, they came from about 
N. 10° W. inclining to the perpendicular at an angle of from 15° to 20°, the 
smaller one nearly perpendicular. They were fixed in the ground in such 
a manner that that part of the surface which was the most rounded or convex 
was placed towards the bottom ; this was, as Mr. Taylor expressly states, 
in accordance with the centre of gravity, and therefore the very position which 
the meteorites had to take in passing through the resisting atmosphere. The 
larger stone struck into the ground in a ploughed field to the depth of 2 
feet 5 inches, the smaller one to the depth of 2 feet 8 inches ; the smaller 
one had not the appearance as if it Were a fragment of the larger one ; the 
specific weight of the smaller one is, according to Taylor, 3'3. The larger 
stone when grown moist showed on the round surface a crack, which after- 
wards became still wider, pei'haps in consequence of oxidation : the report 
caused by its fall was considered terrible by the natives, like two thunder- 
claps as one stone struck into the ground after the other; and the echo lasted 
for some time, although that was not so loud. They were heard as far as 
Tuticorin, to the south, on the coast of the Gulf of Manaar, at a distance of 
forty English miles ; very loud at Madura, which is sixteen miles off. 

Several persons were near the spot when the fall took place, and yet nobody 
saw either of these large bodies as they fell, owing, as they think, to the velo- 
city of the motion. A cloud of dust rose from the places where they struck 
the ground ; Mr. Taylor could still see the hollow which had been caused in 
the compressed earth. Up to the 21st of April, when he examined the 
locality and obtained the stones, there had been no fall of rain. 

Their shape, although somewhat irregular, is compared to large cannon-balls 
covered with a black crust as if smoked, in the interior like granite, with 
particles of iron. Taking into account the short time during which the phe- 
nomenon lasted, the fact of the stones striking into the ground without any 
one having seen them approaching in the atmosphere, all this might tend to 
show that the ground was struck by a real " horizontal shot." 

M. Haidinger,of Vienna, recommends as convenient in certain cases that the 
observed apparent tracks or paths 
of meteors should be approximately 
mapped down, on the principle of a 
Mercator's chart, and that the alti- 
tude and geographic orientation ^''°l ' ^t^ ' ' '^"^ 

should be carefully inscribed in a 

diagram like the annexed figure, in 

order afterwards to be able, by com- 30° | "~ | f ' I 1 3oo 

parison with the precise time, hour, 

day, and year, to find the point from 

whence they were coming. A B 

would be the track of a meteor seen ^- ^•^- ^- ^■^- ^■ 

first at A at an altitude of 75° in the N.N.E., and disappearing or bursting 

at an altitude of about 40° ; while C D might denote a meteor that seemed 

to move horizontally from 45° N.E. to 45° S.E., its true course being from 





N. 




N.E. 


E. S.E. S 


7 








60° 


J 




-,^ 
















■^x 












c 






© 


M° 


B 






"--, 










~\. 


-r 


F. 













H. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 37 

north to south, but visible from the side. Similarly a meteor appearing at 
A might move obliquely downwards to F, disappearing at 15° in the south- 
east, and be represented by a line joining those two points. 

No. 6. Extracts from a letter from Professor Cocchi, at Florence, to 
Mr. Greg. 

"At 9 o'clock P.M., 25th July, 1847, when I was riding from Prato to 
Florence with a relation of mine and a man-servant, an enormous igneous 
body appeared over our heads, rushing towards the north. Our horses were 
much terrified, and we saw evei'ything around us as if it were daylight. We 
heard no detonations after the disappearance of the meteor, which was many 
times larger than the moon, but a kind of hissing sound, not unlike the flying 
of some bird. I think it must have passed very near us ; at least, we expe- 
rienced a sense of heat at the time, and when its light was extinguished we 
could for some seconds distinguish in the air a phosphorescent light. 

"On the 4th or 5th of October, 1859, I was walking with my two 
brothers near our country seat of Tarrarossa, at about 8 p.m., when suddenly 
our attention was attracted by a splendid fire-ball flying rapidly in a S.W. 
direction ; the apparition lasted some seconds, when it disappeared beneath the 
horizon. I heard no detonation, but my brothers stated they heard it in spite 
of the great distance ; if so, the fragments of this meteoric body fell down 
into the sea, not manv miles from Tarrarossa. 

" My friend Professor Compani, of Siena, wrote to me some time ago about 
a similar event which terrified and dismayed Siena, and made many of its 
citizens leave their shaking houses in a great hurry. He says, ' In December 
last (1860), about the 16th day of the month, an enormous bolide traversed 
the sky over Siena, which a few minutes afterwards made a terrible noise in 
its progress ; it left in its track many sparks. Judging by the ear, the explo- 
sion must have taken place between Asciano and Buonconvento ; some indeed 
aver having seen fall, in some places, sparks of fire ; nothing, however, was 
found." 

" Florence, August 8th, 1861." 

No. 7. — Extract from Dr. Buchner's Work on Fire Meteors. 

" It has been contended by many, in opposition to Chladni's (1820) opinion, 
that large fire-balls are totally different from shooting-stars, that they are 
quite a different class of bodies. Davy, L. Smith, and Shepard, who are the 
advocates of this opinion, among other things insist upon this point, that 
if both are analogous bodies there would also, at the time of the periods 
for shooting-stars, especially in the months of August and November, neces- 
sarily fall more aerolites. They contend that no instance of any observation 
made could be stated, that whenever an aerolite has been seen, it equally made 
its appearance by itself alone, and not in connection with other meteors. 

" Even though the rich November streams of 1779, 1830, and other years 
have not actually been shown to have been abundant as regards meteorites, 
yet the recent modern comparisons made are such as may cause us to fairly 
admit the homogeneous nature of the two phenomena. Baumhauer compared 
the fire-meteors for the single days in the year, as also has Rudolph Wolf at 
Zurich. Accordingly, leaving out the days on which no tire-meteors or a few 
only were observed, we have the following days as having been particularly 
plentiful as regards large fire-balls and falls of meteor-stones. 



38 



REPORT — 1861. 







Baumhauer. 


Wolf. 


Greg*. 






Baumhauer. 


Wolf. 


Greg* 


Janua 


ry2 


... 6 


5 


11 


Augus 


<tlO . 


.. 7 


11 


U 


» 


10 


... 


5 


8 


» 


11 . 


2 


5 


10 


)) 


13 


... 6 





6 


5) 


12 . 


5 





15 


Feb. 


4 





5 


3 


Sept. 


1 . 





5 


7 


>» 


6 


... 7 


7 


7 


» 


10 


.. 7 





9 


)) 


18 


... 6 


5 


8 


)) 


13 . 


6 


6 


7 


Marcl 


1 1 


5 


5 


9 


October 1 . 


6 


6 


11 


»> 


8 


... 5 





6 


)) 


3 . 





5 


7 


1? 


31 


... 


5 


4 


5) 


23 . 


5 





8 


April 


9 


... 5 


5 


5 


Nov. 


9 


4 


6 


13 


)) 


10 


4. 


5 


5 


51 


11 





5 


12 


)> 


19 


4 


5 


7 


55 


12 


8 


7 


11 


May 


17 


5 





5 


)5 


13 


9 


9 


16 


»> 


22 


6 





4 


5» 


16 





15 


10 


June 


7 





5 


6 


55 


19 


5 


8 


14 


July 


17 


.. 10 


7 


11 


55 


29 


5 


5 


9 


» 


29 


6 


8 


10 


Dec. 


2 


4 


5 


6 


August 3 


6 


5 


12 


J? 


8 


4 


7 


12 


» 


5 


4 


5 


10 


>) 


11 





7 


15 


5» 


6 


5 





6 


)) 


13 


6 


5 


10 


55 


7 
8 


5 

4 


6 
5 


12 
6 


M 


30 





5 


8 



" Mr. Greg himself is, however, favourable to the notion that the larger and 
probably aerolitic class of fire-balls, e.g. such as those seen in July or at long 
and uncertain intervals, are dissimilar in character and orbit to the small and 
more common sporadic meteors. It would be, however, premature as yet to 
offer any dogmatic opinion on this point. 

" Upon the whole, it may be taken with some confidence that there are 
periods when a larger class of fire-balls and falling stones are more numerous 
than at others ; and it is rather singular that this class does not seem to be so 
abundant at the August epoch as might have been expected; in fact, they 
seem to be more numerous towards the end of July and the first three or 
four days in August, the great epoch being the 9th and 10th days." 

No. 8. — A. In the volume of the Dublin British Association Report, page 143, 
it states that M. Coulvier-Gravier did not assign any reason why more meteors 
are seen in the east quarter than the west quarter of the heavens. But 
Mr. Bompas seems to have given a very neat solution (page 144), that is, on 
the supposition that all meteors are equally distributed in space, not only the 
reason of that, but why we see more towards 6 a.m. than at 6 p.m. Pro- 
bably his reason is a correct one, and perfectly sound ; there may possibly 
be others. 

In diagram No. 1 let it be supposed there are meteors, AB, crossing obliquely 
and in one direction ; and it is possible the majority of them may really do 
so (or the obliqueness of their paths may be considered the resultant, or ap- 
parent resultant, of the combination of the earth's motion in her orbit and of 
the meteor's motion). If the average of meteors pass the earth's orbit ob- 
liquely, such a result as fig. 1 shows might likewise explain how it is we should 
see more meteors in the early morning than in the evening, and also a ten- 
dency to see a larger proportion in the east than in the west. 

* The uumhers here appended are taken from Mr. Greg's Catalogue published in the 
Oxford Reports for 1860, given here for the sake of comparison. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 39 



The time when most meteors are seen would probably also be the time 
when we should observe them most nearly moving at right angles to their 
true directions. 




a.mG]Easil 

z" observer's zenith. 



0, observer. 

B. Olmsted, in his ' Mechanism of the Heavens,' a popular little hand-book, 
gives a diagram (fig. 2), the object of which is simply to show the reason 



Fig. 2. 




Let ABC be the vault of the sky, and the observer. Let 1, 2, 3, 4 represent par- 
allel lines towards the earth. A meteor passing through I'l, or axis of ■vision, would appear 
stationary at 1'. A body falling at 2 2 would seem to describe the short arc 2' 2', or a 
concave path in the sky ; and similarly a body falling through 3 3 would appear to describe 
the larger arc 3' 3', &e. Hence those meteors which fall nearer the axis of vision would 
describe shorter arcs, and move slower, while those further from the axis and nearer the 
horizon would seem to describe larger arcs, and move with greater velocity. The meteors 
would all seem to radiate from a common centre 1', which was the case on Nov. 13th, 1833. 

why there should appear to be a radiant point for shooting-stars, and why near 
that point in the heavens no meteors or very few were seen, or if seen why 
their tracks near that point appeared so short, and in other parts longer (and 
why perhaps also, on the principle of fig. 1, more numerous towards the east). 



40 



REPORT 1861. 



C. May it not be presumed that the majority of meteors seen at night must 
be coming towards the sun, their average distance from us while visible 
being not more than 50 or 100 miles : while the earth, being 7000 miles in 
diam^eter, would consequently intervene as a shield in keeping out of sight 
the majority of meteors coming directly from the sun, and whose paths we 
come across ? If two meteoric stones struciv opposite sides of the earth at the 
same moment, 12 m., we might almost presume one was going to, and one 
from, the sun. It would certainly be interesting to know whether the ma- 
jority of meteors are going to or from the sun, or passing the earth's path 
at right angles, obliquely or parallel. 

D, It is quite possible that two shooting-stars, m and m' (fig. 8) might each 



Fi". '5. 



tn t 




appear to project on the sky apparently a similar and common track Z' Z", 
though in reality moving nearly at right angles to each other's direction, the 
only difference being a shorter or longer visible path. The angle might even 
in some cases perhaps be more than 90°, and the two meteors coming 
obliquely and from opposite directions ; yet an observer at o would be unable 
to tell in which direction the meteor moved ; in either case it would seem to 
pass downwards in the ordinary way. This helps to show the difficulties in 
these cases, and to negative results in catalogued descriptions giving the 
directions meteors have appeared to move. 

E. Why is it that meteors are so seldom seen near the horizon even on a 
clear night ? Is it because of the atmosphere, or that they would necessarily 
in that position be too far off? If they do not come nearer the earth's sur- 
face than 40 miles without being consumed or extinguished (fig. 4), we should 

Fig. 4. 



z,^ 



ISO. TniJes 



^rtH^P 



W^- 




:S!tsrHi.i sur'Jace. 



more frequently see them at Z', only 40 miles oflF, than at Z, 150 miles distant ; 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 41 

and as thatpossiblj" (say 1,50 miles) is above the average limit of visibility, we 
perceive perhaps why we do not often see shooting-stars very low down in the 
horizon. It might be desirable as frequently as possible to record the length 
of the visible arcs described by shooting-stars, and the time in moving along 
these arcs, to see if the average varies at difi'erent hours of the night, for dif- 
ferent quarters of the heavens, as well as at different times of the year. 

F. In making averages from tabulated statements, say for a whole year, in 
reference to meteors, the enovmous preponderance of meteors seen on a few 
days only, viz. August 9-12 and November 10-13, which, being periodic 
and generally moving in parallel right lines and in one direction, must have 
a tendency to disturb to some extent any attempt to fairly tabulate the more 
scattered observations during the rest of the year. 

However, Olmsted's account of the great meteor-shower in 1833 seems 
to prove that there were then hardly any known meteoric appearances 
(whether as regards tracks, luminosity, size, direction, velocity, &c.) which 
were seen on that night that one is not accustomed to see or read of at 
all other times put together. Most, too, were seen in the east, and moving 
from thence towards the north-west; so that we might not unreasonably infer 
that most shooting-stars at all times much resemble each other. 

G. Humboldt describes a shower in Mexico, on the night of the 12th of 
November, 1799, thus : — " They rose from the horizon between the east and 
north-east points, described arcs of unequal magnitude, and fell towards the 
south." They were seen in many other parts of North and South America 
on the same night, and in Labrador they were observed to fall down towards 
the earth. 

No. 9. — Meteors of Augtist 1860. — At Paris, Coulvier-Gravier states the 
mean hourly number at midnight, of shooting-stars, on August 9th was 62 ; 
on August 10th, 54; or about ten times as large as in the middle of July. 
At Rome, the observations of Secchi gave a decisive maximum on the 10th 
of August. The observations of Bradley at Chicago, and of Herrick at New 
Haven, Connecticut, U. S., gave the increase of shooting-stars on the nights 
of the 9th and 10th of August, 1860, at about six times the common average, 
and their apparent direction nearly all from the vicinity of the constellation 
Perseus. 

At Yale College, Connecticut, U. S., 565 falling stars wereseenon the night 
of the 9th of August and morning of the 10th, between 10 p.m. and 3 a.m., 
by six observers. The majority first appeared in the south-west quarter of 
the sky, with a westerly direction ; several left behind luminous trains, but 
none appeared to explode : none seemed larger than Venus ; three-fourths 
conformed to the usual radiant in Perseus. 

Meteors of November, 1860. — In the United States a slight tendency to an 
increase over the average was noticed; the conformable ones coming from the 
usual point in Leo, exactly as in the great shower of November 13th, 1833. 
Professor Twining, of New York, observed on the morning of the 14-th four- 
teen meteors, of which nine were conformable and five not conformable. 

The total number actually observed by Professor Kirkwood and five 
assistants in Indiana, on the night of the 12th of November and morning of 
the 13th, in six hours, amounted to 381, distributed as follows: — 

From 10 to 11 p.m 45 From 1 to 2 a.m. .... 66 

From 1 1 to midnight .... 66 From 2 to 3 a.m 90 

From midnight to 1 a.m . . . 68 From 3 to 4 a.m 46 

The Shooting-stars of August 1861. — "M. Coulvier-Gravier has forwarded 



42 REPORT 1861. 

to the French Academy his annual report on this subject, especially for 
August 9th, 10th, 11th, but including the time from July 15th to August 
14th. The average number of these meteors per hour, at midnight, for 
July 15th, 18th, 19th, was 6'5 ; for July 28th, 29th, 30th, was ia-6j 
for July 31st, August 1st, 2nd, was 22 'l- ; for August 4th, 5th, 6th, was 
27-2; and for August 9th, 10th, 11th, was 50-8. For August 12th, 13th, 
14th, the average per hour was only 24*4. M. Coulvier-Gravier's calcula- 
tions show that the year 1858 marked the term of the decrease of the number 
of these phenomena since 1848 — the epoch of their greatest number. Since 
1858 their number has gradually risen ; and we may hope therefore for the 
reappearance of the meteoric splendours of August. 

Further observations on these brilliant phenomena, by Father Secchi, at 
Rome, appear in the Cosmos. On August 9th, forty shooting-stars were seen 
between 9 and 10 o'clock p.m.; on August 10th, between 9 and lOj, 133 
appeared ; and in the same period of time on August llth, the number fell 
to seventj'. Secchi therefore concludes that these phenomena are not 
meteorological, but cosmical. He adds that he considers the most rational 
explanation to be the admission that the sun is surrounded, in addition to 
the comets and planets, by a ring formed of small bodies, which cuts the 
ecliptic at the point where the earth is situated on August 10th ; and as every 
year the earth returns to this point on the same day, and as, also, this point 
may correspond with a condensed portion of the ring, we therefore see a 
great number of these small bodies, attracted by the mass of the earth, fall 
into it, and become inflamed by contact with our atmosphere. This theory 
he considers to be confirmed by the constancy of their directions, which are 
parallel and contrary to that of the earth in its orbit on that day." — Extract 
from the ' Illustrated London News' of September 14, 1861. 

Note. — In generalizing from observations on the August periodical meteors 
at any one spot on the earth's surface, it should be remembered that the 
hourly numbers seen vary considerably with the locality. In 1833, the 
great and wonderful display of meteors on November 13th was almost en- 
tirely confined to the area of the United States ; and the total numbers per 
hour observed of late years simultaneously at different stations appear to 
vary. Secchi's theory of the ring of meteors is pretty much that which 
Sir John Herschel advanced some time ago, and seems to be well worthy 
of acceptance ; their orbits must in all probability be more elliptic than 
that of the earth's orbit. 

August Meteors. 
"Sir, — The August meteors this year have been more numerous than usual. 
Last year, both at the August and November epochs, the sky was completely 
overcast ; so that it was impossible to determine their number, or, in short, to 
make any observations at all. During the August epoch of the present year 
(1861), although there was much cloud at times, there were periods of clear 
sky which enabled me to make some good observations. 

" Several letters in the Times have given a Persei as the point of diver- 
gence of the August meteors ; this is not correct, as the point is very near 
t) Persei : a line drawn from jj Persei to a Cassiopeiae will pass through this 
point at a distance of less than 2° from tj Persei. The meteors increased in 
number as the night progressed, i.e. there were more about 2 a.m. than at 

10 P.M. 

" The nearer the meteors were to rj Persei, the shorter were their paths ; 
those with long paths were mostly 45° or more from this point. Those near 
Perseus were longer in moving over 1° of space than those at a distance from 
this point. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 43 

" The meteors about Perseus were mostly small, some only just distinguish- 
able, the larger ones were usually 40° to 60° from r; Persei. 

" A meteor, almost upon the point of divergence, scarcely moved amongst 
the stars. The year before last I saw one exactly on this point ; it became 
visible, increased in magnitude, and then disappeared without moving. 

" No meteor was observed to move towards r\ Persei, all moving away from 
that star. On the 14th there were a number of meteors discordant, but on 
the 11th and 12th scarcely one whose path produced backwards would not 
have touched the point near tj Persei. 

" There was a great similarity in the meteors. Nearly all had tails or streaks 
which lingered for a short time after the meteors themselves had vanished, 
and nearly all were of the 2nd to 4th magnitude. 

"A meteor seen through a telescope of 2| inches aperture, with a power of 
20, had a decidedly planetary appearance, the tail hemg phosphorescent-looking, 
not fire-like. The duration was too brief to make any very careful observa- 
tions ; and the meteor itself was small, viz. 3rd magnitude. 

" The weather on the above days was warm, and the wind between W. and 
S.W. 

" E. J. Lowe." 

" Observatory, Beeston, August 20th, 1861." 

No. 10. — M. Le Verrier has just applied the results of his researches on the 
four planets, Mercury, Venus, the Earth, and Mars, to the rectification of existing 
astronomical tables. From the perturbations observed in the orbits of these 
planets, he has come to the conclusion that there exists in our system a con- 
siderable quantity of matter which has not hitherto been taken into account. 
In thefirst place, he supposes that there must exist within the orbit of Mercury, 
ataboutO"17 of the earth's distance from the sun, amass of matter nearly equal 
in weight to Mercury. As this mass of matter would probably have been 
observed before this, either in transit over the sun's disc or during total 
eclipses of the sun, if it existed as one large planet, M. Le Verrier supposes 
that it exists as a series of asteroids. Secondly, M. Le Verrier sees reason 
to believe that there must be a mass of matter, equal to about one-tenth of 
the mass of the earth, revolving round the sun at very nearly the same dis- 
tance as the earth. This also he supposes to be split up into an immense 
number of asteroids*. Thirdly, M. Le Verrier's researches have led him to 
the conclusion that the groups of asteroids which revolve between Mars and 
Jupiter, and sixty of which have been seen, and named, and had their ele- 
ments determined, must have an aggregate mass equal to one-third of that of 
the earth. He thinks it not at all unlikely that similar groups of asteroids 
exist between Jupiter and Saturn, between Saturn and Herschel's planet, and 
between the latter and Neptune. 

Haidinger reports that M. Julius Schmidt, of the Royal Observatory, 
Athens, is continuing his observations, it is said, on the phenomena pre- 
sented by the luminous trains of meteors, with interesting results. It is in- 
tended to publish some particulars in the next year's report on luminous 
meteors. 

The following recent publications on meteoric literature may be especially 
noticed. 

1. Versuch eines quellenverzeichnisses zur Litteratnr iiber Meteoriten : 
von Dr. Otto Buchner von Giessen. Published at Frankfort-on-Maine, 1861. 

2. By the same author, and a very valuable and comprehensive work, 

* It is very possible the meteorites which from time to time fall to the earth may be the 
representatives of this group of Le Verrier's. 



44 REPORT 1861. 

Die Feuermeteore, insbesondere die Meteoriten historisch und naturwissen- 
schaftlich betraclitet. Giessen, 1859. 

3. Keiigott iiber Meteoriten. Zurich, 1860. 

4. Recherches sur les Meteores et leslois qui les regissent: par M. Coul- 
vier-Gravier. Paris, 1859. 

5. Ueber den Ursprung der Meteorsteine : von P. A. Kesselmeyer. 
Frankfurt am Main ; accompanied with a most valuable catalogue of meteor- 
ites and 3 maps. 



Report on the Action of Prison Diet and Discipline on the Bodily 
Functions of Prisoners -Vstxt I. By Edward Smith, M.D., LL.B., 
F.R.S., Assistant Physician to the Hospital for Consumption, Bromp- 
ton; and W. R. Milner, M.R.C.S., Surgeon to the Convict Prison, 
Wakefield. With Appendices. 

The Committee appointed at the late Meeting of the British Association, 
" to prosecute inquiries as to the effect of prison diet and discipline on the 
bodily functions of prisoners" have the honour to state that they have ful- 
filled the task assigned to them so far as time and opportunity have per- 
mitted ; but they regret that, on the one hand, they have not been able to 
gain access to some information which they required, and, on the other, 
that the great extent of the inquiry has prevented the completion of the 
series of researches, to which they attach great importance. Hence they 
purpose on the present occasion to present the first part of their report, 
which will include some general remarks on the management and present 
system of dietary and punishments in county gaols, with the various re- 
searches which they have hitherto made into the influence of prison disci- 
pline over the weight of the prisoners, the precise influence of prison 
punishments over the respiratory function and the elimination of urinary 
products, with the ordinary discipline of the gaol and with certain forms of 
labour. 

In conducting their researches the Committee have had in view not only 
the letter but the spirit of the resolution by which they were appointed, and 
have understood their prime duty to be the elimination of important physio- 
logical facts, for which the discipline enforced in gaols offers good opportu- 
nities. Whilst, therefore, determining the various matters which will be 
discussed in this the first part of their report, they have also been very de- 
sirous to investigate some of the more recondite questions in nutrition — as, 
for example, the relation of the nitrogen ingested to that egested ; and having 
obtained the valuable aid of Mr. Manning in making chemical analyses, they 
have concluded two extended series of inquiries at Coldbath Fields and 
Wakefield Gaol, in which the relations of the ingested and egested nitrogen 
have been largely inquired into ; but the great care required in this part of 
the inquiry, and the very extended character of the subject, have induced the 
Committee to withhold the results hitherto obtained until another occasion, 
when, should they be permitted to do so, they will present them with addi- 
tional inquiries in the second part of their report. 

With these explanatory observations, the Committee proceed to state the 
results of their inquiries, and, first, to offer some general remarks upon the 
management, the dietary, and the punishments in county gaols. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 45 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 
The Management of County Gaols. 

The management of county prisons is placed almost exclusively in the 
hands of the County Magistracy, and is therefore liable to as much diversity 
as there are Boards of Visiting Justices. The Secretary of State must ap- 
prove of any " rules" within the meaning of the Act, and he also approves 
of the scale of dietary ; but hitherto he has not exercised his power to insist 
upon uniformity in dietary ; and hence, within certain limits, the Visiting Jus- 
tices regulate the dietary. There are also three* (nominally four) Inspectors 
of Prisons for England, appointed by the Home Secretary, who visit the pri- 
sons periodically, and report their condition to the Home Office, and also 
suggest to the Visiting Justices from time to time such changes as they may 
think to be desirable; but they have no power to interfere with the orders 
of the Visiting Justices, if the orders are within the provisions of the law and 
the " rules" of the prison. Hence the sole authority in county gaols under 
normal conditions is the Board of Visiting Justices. There is a scheme of 
dietary which was recommended by the Home Office, under the admini- 
stration of Sir James Graham ; but it is not always adopted, and there is no 
plan whereby uniformity is ensured. 

It thence follows that there is the greatest diversity in the gaols both as 
to punishment and dietarj', and to a consideration of this your Committee 
directed their first attention. 

A " Return of Dietary for Convicts, &c." was issued in 1857, which gives 
the dietary in the various convict and county prisons, but there has not 
been any general return obtained as to the nature of punishment inflicted, 
and the plan pursued in carrying out hard-labour sentences. As it was 
very desirable that some authorized information upon these points should be 
introduced into tiiis report, Mr. Bazley, M.P., most readily and kindly un- 
dertook to move for one in the form given in the Appendix (H.), but, alter 
having it entered upon the "Orders for the day," he failed to obtain the sanc- 
tion of the Government, and withdrew it. The Committee venture to hope 
that the British Association may think this of sufficient importance to lend 
their aid in obtaining it during the next Session of Parliament, and would 
remark that, although the proposed return has a formidable appearance, its 
tabulated character tends to reduce, and not to increase, the expense of print- 
ing and the labour of writing. 

Punishments. 

In the absence of this authorized return, the Committee quote the results 
of an inquiry previously made by Dr. Smith, who addressed a letter to the 
governors of upwards of sixty county gaols, and was favoured with their re- 
plies. The general expression of the results is as follows : — 

" In our county prisons some find no labour at all, others only that of 
ordinary trades, others have crank-labour f alone, others treadwheel-labour 
alone, whilst in many one of the two, or both of the two latter forms of hard 
labour are conjoined with some kind of trade. In many the treadwheel and 
crank are unprofitably employed, whilst in others they are used as mills or 
pumps. In some, women even work some kind of crank and the treadwheel. 

* The number is now reduced to two. — Feb. 1862. 

f When the term " crank " is employed in this report, it is intended to indicate the in- 
strument turned by hand, and technically known as the " hard-labour crank." This differs 
from other hand cranks only in that it is purposely arranged for non-remunerative work, 
and indicates the number of revolutions which have been made in a given period. 



46 REPORT — 1861. 

In some the treadwheel and crank are exceptional emploj'ments; in others they 
are universally used for a small part of the sentence ; whilst in a third class 
they are the constant employments during the whole term of imprisonment. 
In most gaols they are chiefly employed for short sentences, and therefore 
for small crimes, and with insufficient food, whilst the light occupations are 
reserved for long sentences, with greater crimes, or frequent repetition of 
crime, and sufficient food. In some they are worked for an hour without 
intermission ; in others thirty, twenty, fifteen, ten, and down to four minutes 
only at a time. In some they are enforced for three hours daily, and simply 
as exercise ; whilst in others the labour endures ten hours. In many, boys 
of fourteen years of age work the wheel and the crank ; whilst in otiiers, 
able grown men make shoes or pick oakum only. In some the ordinary rate 
of the ascent on the treadwheel is fifty-six steps of 8 inches each per minute, 
whilst in others it is so low as thirty. In some the ordinary pressure on the 
crank is seven pounds ; in others, twelve pounds, — the pressure being certain, 
and demonstrated by weights in one, and uncertain, depending upon the 
turns of a screw in another. In some the ordinary number of revolutions 
per day is 14,400; whilst in others, in which the crank is still the chief in- 
strument of punishment, it varies from 13,500 to 7000 or 6000, at the discre- 
tion of the surgeon, the prisoner being in all these instances without disease. 
In some the day's work may be performed in any part of the twenty-four 
hours, with the index of the instrument in sight of the prisoner; whilst in 
others, as the New Bailey, Salford, it must be performed before the night 
and with the index outside the cell, so that the prisoner is unable to ascer- 
tain, from time to time, how much labour he has yet to perform. In some, 
pumping is employed for an hour only, and even during that short period, 
as at Reading, there is no method of determining if any individual prisoner 
is labouring or not; whilst in others, the labour is for the whole day, pump- 
ing water into the sewers. 

"Oakum-picking is no labour in one prison, and hard labour in another; 
and in the latter it is two pounds for a day's work at Wandsworth, and three 
pounds at the Coldbath Fields, whilst it is five pounds at a workhouse ; and 
the rope itself difiFers greatly in the amount of labour which is required to 
tear it to pieces. In some the prisoner, by good conduct, obtains lighter 
labour, a commendatory badge, and a pecuniary reward ; in others it is tread- 
wheel labour from the beginning to the end of the imprisonment, whilst in 
many, as at Wandsworth, the change of labour is due neither to crime, sen- 
tence, nor conduct, but simply to the variation in the number of the pri- 
soners. 

" In addition to all this, in some prisons the separate system is strictly 
enforced and a mask worn, whilst in others hundreds of prisoners sit together 
in the room picking oakum ; and, finally, in some the cat is so heavy, and 
the officer's arm so strong and willing, that the prisoner is for a time made 
insensible to pain after a few strokes, whilst in other prisons it is so light as 
to leave very little evidence of its use." 

Hence it appears that the utmost diversity exists in the different county 
prisons as to the instruments of punishment employed, the condition in which 
they are kept, the amount of labour which they exact, the amount of a day's 
work, the system ol' progressive change in the use of the various means of 
enforcing labour, and, in fact, in all that concerns the carrying out of the 
sentences of hard labour. 

Dietary. 

In reference to dietary, the diversity is even more striking ; for so various 
are the schemes contained in the " Return of Dietaries for Convicts, &c.," 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 47 

referred to, that it is impossible, by any method, to give an analysis of the 
amount of nutriment which they supply. An abstract of the most notice- 
able parts of the return is given in the Appendix (I.) ; and it is proposed 
to state in this place only a few general facts. 

It is customary to provide several scales of dietary, increasing in the nutri- 
ment supplied according to the duration of the imprisonment; so that with 
the shortest sentences, as three, seven, or fourteen days, the only food given 
is bread and gruel*; whilst for prisoners condemned to long terms of impri- 
sonment the diet is generally an abundant one of meat, vegetables, bread, and 
gruel. The terms of sentence to which these several classes apply vary in 
the different gaols ; but usually a sentence of four months carries with it the 
highest scale of dietary. In nearly all gaols the prisoner is on entrance 
placed upon his proper scale of dietary ; but in the Kendal, Carlisle, and 
other prisons he begins with the lowest scale, and gradually ascends as his 
duration of imprisonment continues. 

It is also usual to vary the dietary from day to day; so that there is a con- 
siderable daily variation, not only in the kind and quantity of food, but in 
the amount of nutriment supplied. There is commonly an increased dietary 
given to those who are condemned to hard labour ; but the modes in which 
sentences of hard labour are carried out differ so much, that this is practically 
valueless. There are gaols in which the treadwheel is worked for short 
periods with a dietary of bread and gruel only*. But in none is there any 
attempt to estimate in a scientific manner the amount of increase of nutri- 
ment which is proportioned to the increased labour. Usually there are three 
meals a day allowed (at St. Albans there were only two) ; and of these the 
first and last consist commonly of bread and gruel. The amount of flesh 
supplied in the highest scale of dietary varies greatly, as, for example, from 
6 ozs. of cooked meat without bone in the Middlesex and Brecon Prisons, 
and 7J ozs. of uncooked meat with bone at Wakefield, to (until very recently) 
an entire absence of that food in the Cardiff Gaol. Very small quantities of 
milk, cocoa, oatmeal, cheese, and tea are given in a few gaols ; but com- 
monly the dietary consists of meat, soup, potatoes, bread, and gruel in various 
proportions, and with various systems of alternation. 

The surgeon has power to add to the dietary if he should see fit ; and such 
additions are commonly bread or milk. Bread and water are rarely given 
as an ordinary dietary*, except for "prison offences;" and for these the pri- 
soners may be condemned to the dark cell and bread-and-water dietary for 
a period not exceeding three days at one time. If the prisoners have been 
condemned to hard labour, this most severe punishment may be extended to 
one month ; but after three days he is fed on bread and gruel. Flogging is 
resorted to in various prisons as a part of the sentence upon prison offences, 
if the prisoner have been convicted of felony ; and a return in reference to it 
has recently been issued. The gaols in which the largest number of prisoners 
were flogged for prison offences were those which had the most non-remu- 
nerative punishments; and in this respect the gaols at Manchester and Liver- 
pool offer a striking contrast. In military prisons it is understood that the 
punishments are still more severe, since they are inflicted under the Mutiny 
Act ; and it is very desirable that authorized returns should be obtained 
from them. 

The foregoing general observations may suffice to show that he who at- 
tempts to ascertain the effect of the present system of prison punishments 
and dietary undertakes an inquiry of the widest kind, and, with the diversity 

* In the Gloucester Gaol bread and water are still given as a dietary. 



48 REPORT 1861. 

of system which exists, he will need to present nearly as many reports as 
there are gaols to be reported upon. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES. 

The Committee now proceed to consider the effect of prison discipline 
over the bodily functions of the prisoners, and will include in their report 
the result of the inquiries made by them into the variation of the weight of 
the prisoners, the excretion of nitrogen and carbon, the quantity of air in- 
spired, and the rate of pulsation and respiration. 

Variation in Weight. 

The value of weight as an indication of the healthfulness and vigour of 
the body is one of a very general character only, and, when applied to test 
the effects of any agent over a number of men relatively to each other, is of 
little worth until all the men have been brought into nearly the same bodily 
condition. The weight of the body is due to many circumstances of very 
different values, as, for example, to the contained food and excretions, the 
amount of fluid in the circulation and in the tissues, the deposited fat, and 
to the size of the bones, quite apart from the nitrogenous elements to which 
reference is essentially made when an estimation is attempted of the vigour 
and healthfulness of men. Many of these elements can never be truthfully 
estimated ; but in prison discipline it has been ascertained that some of them 
are removed during the earlier periods of imprisonment — as, for example, fat 
and superfluous fluid ; and, with the reduction in weight which follows, the 
body gains a higher relative nitrogenous composition. 

When, therefore, the body has been so reduced in weight by the labour 
and discipline enforced, the condition of the men may be compared with 
greater truthfulness, and weight will be a fair index of the vigour and health- 
fulness of the system. Hence, whilst investigations into the influence of 
prison discipline over the weight of the prisoners must be regarded as of 
great value, they must give place in importance to such as determine the 
influence of the discipline over each separate function ol the organism. 

Much difference of opinion exists in gaols as to the value of the test of 
weight, and in many it is so lightly esteemed that it is not applied at all. In 
other gaols it is usual to weigh the prisoners on entrance and discharge ; and 
in a few the weight is taken monthly ; but in none is it effected with such 
rigorous exactitude as to fit the results for the use of the physiologist. It 
is manifest that the weighings should be made before breakfast, and after 
emitting the excretions, and also that the prisoner should be weighed naked, 
or the clothes be weighed apart and the weight of them deducted carefully 
on each occasion ; for otherwise the former will lead to an error of 2 lbs. in 
either direction, and the latter to an error of a smaller amount, even if the 
external clothing be the same on each occasion. This, however, is not at- 
tended to in any gaol, but the prisoners are weighed at various hours, and a 
standard weight is allowed for the clothes. 

Mr. Milner has investigated this subject during a period of more than ten 
years, including several thousands of prisoners, and embracing the questions 
of duration of imprisonment, employment, season, and others of a subordi- 
nate importance; and to these the Committee will now refer. Appendix III. 

The diet on the convict side at the Wakefield House of Correction is 
liberal and uniform, consisting of 20 ozs. of bread, 4 ozs. of cooked beef, 
^ pint of soup, 1 lb. of potatoes, | pint of skimmed milk, and 2 ozs. of oat- 
meal. The dress is sufficiently warm. The prisoners have running and 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 49 

walking exercise during nine hours per weelv, and are all employed in some 
nianul'acturing occupation, as mat- and matting-making, tailoring, or siioe- 
niaking. There are not now any of the proper prison punishments, as tlio 
crank and the treadwheel, used at that gaol. The cells offer a capacity of 
900 cubic feet, and 35 cubic feet of air per minute for each prisoner, with a 
mean monthly temperature varying from 56°'9 in March, to 66°'5 in August. 
The average age of the 4000 prisoners under inquiry was 26^ years, of whom 
25 per cent, were under 21 years, and were therefore still at the period of 
growth. 

In reference to duration of imprisonment, Mr. Milner states as follows :— 

" Duration of Lnprisonnient. — I have divided the time of imprisonment 
at Wakefield into periods of two months each, and have tabulated six of 
these periods, so as to show the variation of tiie weight of the men during 
the first twelve months of their stay. (Appendix IV.) I have not carried 
the table any further, as very few prisoners remained longer than twelve 
months, and those that were detained beyond that time were chiefly invalids, 
and, consequently, cases from which no general inferences could be fairly 
drawn. 

" The table shows the gains and losses in bi-monthly periods, and also the 
proportion of prisonei-s who had to be placed on the extra diet list, who 
were first placed on the list during each period. The number placed on 
extra diet during the first twelve months of their stay, was 1393, out of which 
number 3'14- per cent, were put on during the first two months, and 12'31 
])er cent, during the second two months. 

" The stage of their imprisonment had evidently a very marked effect. 
During the first two months the majority gained weight; in the second 
bi-monthly period a large loss occurred, equal to nearly twice the amount 
gained in the first period; in the third period there was still a loss, but not 
to so great an amount ; the next three periods show a steadily increasing 
gain. 

" For a due understanding of these fluctuations, it is necessary to consider 
the circumstances under which prisoners are received into this prison. They 
are all brought from other prisons after having been tried and sentenced to 
various periods of transportation, or penal servitude ; they have consequently 
passed through the period of anxiety which elapses between committal and 
trial, during which time, I have reason to think, men often fall off very much 
in condition and health. When we receive them their fate is decided, and 
they know the worst. In a large proportion of cases, I believe this is fol- 
lowed by a feeling of relief and by a reaction of the mind against the de- 
pression under which it had previously been suffering ; later on, the con- 
tinued imprisonment begins to tell and it becomes necessary to give extra 
diet to counteract its depressing tendency. A reference to the tables shows 
tiiat it was tliought necessary to give extra diet to a large number of prisoners 
during the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth months. Tlie number of pri- 
soners who were placed on the extra diet list for the first time during these 
four months, was nearly twenty-one per cent, of the prisoners in confinement, 
and 60 per cent, of the whole number who were put on extra diet during 
ihe twelvemonths. 

" The effect of this addition to the diet is shown by the gradual and pro- 
gressive improvement during the last three bi-monthly pciiods, when the 
amount gained, added to the gain of the first period, nearly restored the 
equilibrium of tiie mass. 

" Prison Employment.— In Appendix V. the employments of the prisoners 
•are distributed into five groups, putting into each group the classes of work- 



50 • REPORT — 1861. 

men who, as a class, were most nearly associated in the average amount 
gained or lost during their stay ; and when arranged on this principle, it will be 
found that the groups also represent very accurately the amount of muscular 
force required to be expended in the respective kinds of work at which they 
were employed. 

" The first group consists of men employed in picking oakum, an occupa- 
tion in which the labour is merely nominal ; and it will be seen that these 
men gained nearly two pounds each on the average, and that a large per- 
centage of them were gaining weight. The oakum-pickers are placed in a 
group by themselves, as they consist principally of exceptional cases, a large 
proportion of them being men who, from weakness or infirmity, were unfit for 
real labour; many were, on medical grounds, employed in the garden, and 
had extra allowances. The second groujj contains men working at sedentary 
trades, as tailors and shoemakers, as well as a few employed in writing and 
other light occupations. Of these men a large per-centage gained weight, 
and the average gain was nearly a pound and three quarters per man. The 
third group comprises carpenters, mechanics, and men employed in winding 
the yarn into balls, or winding it on to bobbins for the mat-makers. The 
men in this group generally work standing, and therefore a greater number 
of muscles have to be brought into play. The weight of work, however, is 
thrown on the arms, and the legs have little more to do than to support the 
body in a convenient attitude. A smaller per-centage of these gained weight, 
and the average amount gained was less. The foiirth group contains the 
men employed in weaving canvas, in making mats in the loom or on boards, 
and also a small number (thirty-six) who were engaged in platting coir, or 
in binding mats. The work of all these men is decidedly heavier than that 
of the men forming the preceding groups, and the majority of these were found 
to have lost tveight. The last group contains only one class of work, viz. the 
weaving of coir matting ; but the effects of this were so very decided that 
it was necessary to give it a place to itself. 

" The weaving of coir matting by hand is a very laborious occupation : 
the yarn is coarse and rough, so that the friction between the thread of the 
warp and weft is great, and to produce good firm work the weft has to be 
heavily and repeatedly struck, in doing which the muscles of the arms and 
trunk are brought into powerful action ; the legs have also to be employed 
in working the treddles, and, in consequence of the power required to work 
the loom, the M'eaver cannot work sitting. 

" The effect of this greater expenditure of muscular force is very manifest ; 
for nearly 80 per cent, of the men so employed lost weight during their stay, 
and the average loss per man was nearly seven pounds. 

" The influence of the various employments would have been much more 
marked if it had not been, in some degree, counteracted by the extra diet 
given to those men who were falling off very much in weight; and the nuin- 
bers to whom it was found necessary to give extra diet, in each class, also 
bore a pretty close relation to the amount of muscular force expended. 
Among the men employed in coir-picking, 26*8 per cent, had to be placed 
on extra diet; in the second group 26-4 per cent.; iu the third 36-8 per 
cent. ; in the fourth group 39-4' per cent. ; while of the matting-weavers 
t50*l per cent, required additional food. 

_ " Treadivheel Lahotir. — The Committee have not been immediately asso- 
ciated with inquiries into the influence of the proper prison punishments 
over the weight of the prisoners, such as the treadwheel, crank, and shot-drill ; 
but their inquiries warrant them in stating that the normal action of these 
punishments is to reduce the weight of the prisoners. In the absence of the 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 51 

'Return* above referred to, it will not be possible for the Committee to 
discuss this influence satisfactorily. 

" The only returns in relerence to treadwheel labour which have been 
obtained are given in the Appendix (VI.), and have been kindly furnished 
by the governor of the Wakefield House of Correction ; but they comprehend 
only a small number of prisoners, for the use of that instrument was discon- 
tinued in consequence of the serious loss of weight which it occasioned. 

" The average loss of weight was 263 lbs. per man during the first week's 
labour, 4'57 lbs. at the end of the second week, 6 lbs. at the end of the 
third week, and 7"7 lbs. at the end of the fourth week. The progressive de- 
clension in weight with duration of labour is very striking ; but it must not 
be presumed that it would be continued indefinitely, since a point must be at 
length reached vvhen the weight would be so reduced that it will remain 
nearly stationary ; and the time required to arrive at that point will vary with 
the fulness of the body, the tone of the tissues, the nature of the dietary, and 
the severity of the labour. The greatest loss of weight always occurs in the 
earlier weeks of imprisonment. 

" Affe, Weight, and Season. — On the subordinate questions of age, 
weight, and the season of the year, Mr. Milner found that those prisoners 
who were at the period of growth did not grow according to the scale ob- 
served in others more favourably circumstanced, but lost weight in an in- 
creasing ratio; so that, conversely, he found that the decrease in the virtual 
loss of weight occurred as the age increased. The prisoners gained weight 
from March or April to August or September, and lost in the winter months. 
The loss of Aveight of the prisoners varied as the height ; so that the taller 
men required an increased quantity of extra food. Appendix VII., VIII., 
and IX. 

" Summary. — On summing up the whole question it was found that, with 
the arrangements of that prison, which were more favourable than the ave- 
rage of prisons both in dietary and punishment, there was an average loss 
on the whole weighings, although 3635 of 4000 men were under forty 
years of age." 

From the foregoing tables and remarks it will appear that the weight of 
prisoners is much below that of persons of the same age and height in a 
state of freedom, and also that loss of weight during imprisonment is the 
normal condition of prison discipline. , 

This result doubtless depends partly upon the relation of food and exer- 
tion, and partly upon the inability of the system to assimilate the ordinary 
food of mankind with a rapidity sufficient to meet the wants induced by 
constant and great labour. The Committee do not purpose on the present 
occasion to consider the question of the exact amount of food required to 
meet the wants of the prisoners ; but as in the foregoing remarks reference 
has been frequently made to the necessity of giving extra diet in order to 
avert loss of weight, it is deemed right to introduce two interesting facts 
which came under Mr. Milner's observation. 

Effect of Milk. — The effect of milk in arresting loss of weight was most 
striking, and in a degree far beyond that of the relation of its nutritive 
elements to the waste of the system. Thus the addition upon his recom- 
mendation of only \ pint of skimmed milk, containing not more than 7 grs. 
of nitrogen, to the daily dietary, was followed by a reduction in the extra 
diets from 22*55 per cent, in 1853 to 15'08 per cent, in the first nine months 
after the additions in 1854, 15-27 in 1855, 14-08 per cent, in 1856, to 9-56 
per cent, in 1857. As the extra diets represent the cases permanently losing 
Weight, it is manifest that milk was the proper remedy to meet the loss, and 

e2 



52 . REPORT — 1861. 

that it acted not simply by supplying a small quantity of nitrogen to obviate 
the waste of the nitrogenous tissues, but in an indirect manner by improving 
the general nutrition of the system in the matter pointed out by Dr. Smith 
in the ' Phil. Trans.' of 1859. 

Effect of Tea. — Tiie effect of tea in lessening weight was also largely in- 
vestigated by Mr. Milner in 1857, both as an addition to the ordinary dietary, 
and in substitution of the oatmeal contained in the gruel. 

Four divisions of the prison, each containing between forty and fifty 
prisoners, were cliosen for observation and comparison. 

The divisions chosen were Nos. 2 and 3 in B and C wings. 

The prisoners in the division No. 2 were chiefly employed in mat-weaving, 
and those in division No. 3 in mat-making. 

The prisoners in the 2nd division of B wing had a pint of tea given to 
them in addition to the regular diet of the prison. The prisoners in the 
3rd division of B wing had a pint of tea given to them in jjlace of the pint 
of gruel served out for supper ; tiie prisoners in the 2nd and 3rd divisions 
of C wing remained on the regular diet. All the prisoners in these four 
divisions were weighed every week during the continuance of the observa- 
tions. At the end of the period the result was thus : — 

lb. 
■ The prisoners in the 2nd division of B wing had gained on thel ^.o. 
average J 

The prisoners in the 2nd division of C wing had on the average 1 „ . . 
gained J 

Showing a virtual loss by the prisoners who had had tea in addition \ « , „ 
to the regular diet, of J 

The prisoners in the 3rd division of B wing had gained on the average O'Ol' 
;■ The prisoners in the 3rd division of C wing had gained on the 1 ^.p„ 
average j 

Showing a virtual loss by the prisoners who had had tea in place 1 „ , ^ 
of gruel, of J 

Thus, so far as the results obtained from one set of prisoners may be 
compared with those obtained from other sets, it must be admitted that these 
experiments prove that the use of tea tended to lessen the weight of the 
prisoners, and consequently to show that it is unsuited as an article for extra 
diets. 

Respiration and Pulsation. 

The Committee now proceed to give the details of their inquiries into the 
influence of tlic agents under consideration over some of the vital processes 
of the body, and hrst those of the respiration and pulsation. Tiie inquiries 
comprehend experiments as to the quantity of air inspired and of carbonic 
acid expired, and the rate of the functions of respiration and pulsation. In 
reference to the value of the quantity of respired air as a measure of vital 
action, the Committee refer to the inquiries previously made by Dr. Smitli 
and published in the 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1859, wiiich liave 
shown that, M'iiilst there is not an unvarying relation between the air inspired 
and the carbonic acid expired in ordinary respiration, but that the ratio 
increases with tiie severity of the exertion, there is sucii a correspondence 
that the one may be used as a measure of tiie other in ordinary inquiries, and 
especially tiiat the measure of the air inspired may be used as a measure of 
the relative elfects of similar agents. 

The effects of the most laborious prison occupations, as the treadwheel, 
crank, and shot drill, over the respiratory function and over pulsation have 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 53 

been determined by Dr. Smith, by experiments made upon liimsclf in Cold- 
bath-fields, Wandsworth, the New Bailey Sallbrd, and Canterbury prisons. 
The experiments upon the quantity of air inspired were made by the aid of 
a spirometer, M'hich was a dry gas-meter with an inverted action and enlarged 
apertures, and was connected with the body by a mask which enclosed the 
nose, mouth and chin, and prevented ingress and egress of air, except 
through pre-arranged valvular openings. This was bound upon the head 
with straps. The spirometer was adapted to register from 1 to one million 
cubic inches. The inquiry in reference to the carbonic acid was made by 
the aid of a double set of the apparatus elsewhere described*. 

With Treadwheel Labour. — The effect of treadwheel labour varies in 
different prisons with the rapidity of the ascent, and other phenomena. Thus 
at the Coldbath-fjelds prison the amount of air inspired per minute during 
two minutes after having been upon the wheel five minutes, and again during 
two minutes after having been upon the wheel thirteen minutes, was, in 
various experiments, from five to six times the quantity expired at rest, viz. 
2900, 2605, 2350, 2350, 2435, 2460, and 2450 cubic inches, giving an 
average of 2500 cubic inches per minute. 

At the New Bailey, Salford, the average of experiments made upon two 
days gave only between three and four times the quantity at rest, viz., 1839 
cubic inches per minute. 

At the Canterbury gaol the amount was even less, and varied from 1607 
to 1820 cubic inches per minute ; but as the rate of ascent varied greatly at 
that treadwheel, it was impossible to obtain fair average results. 

The rate of respiration at Coldbath-fields was about double that at rest, 
viz., 27, 26|, 23, 23^, 24^, 25, and 26 per minute. At the New Bailey it was 
24 per minute; at Canterbury it was still less, and varied from 21-1 to 24 per 
minute. The depth of inspiration at Coldbath-fields was from 3 to 4 times 
that at rest, viz., 107^, 911, 94, loo, 99^, 98|^, and 94^ cubic inches. The 
rate of pulsation at Coldbath-fields was more than double of that at rest, viz., 
150, 172, and 168 per minute; at the New Bailey 159, and at Canterbury 
140 to 158 per minute. That of the prisoners was at the New Bailey from 
125 to 155 per minute ; and at Canterbury, from 118 to 142 per minute. 

Such was the effect of the labour during the period of exertion ; but in 
order to determine the full influence it is necessary to refer to the intervening 
periods of rest also ; and in doing so it will be found that, during the whole 
period of rest allowed, the functions were never restored to their normal 
action. 

At Coldbath-fields, after thirteen minutes' rest, the quantity of air inspired 
was still nearly double of that at rest, viz., 980 and 815 cubic inches per 
minute ; and at the New Bailey, after four minutes' rest, it was 855 cubic 
inches. The rate of respiration at Coldbath-fields was reduced to an addi- 
tion of about 5, viz., 18 J, 15, and 16^ per itiinute, and at the New Bailey 
to 18 per minute. 

The depth of respiration was nearly one-half greater than during normal 
rest, viz., 53, 48, and 49 cubic inches at Coldbath-fields. 

The rate of pulsation at Coldbath-fields was one half more than the normal 
. amount, 110,97, and 120 per minute, whilst at the New Bailey it was reduced 
to 109 per minute. 

These two sets of inquiries, when conjoined with the knowledge of 
the prescribed duration of each, enables us to compare the effect of these 
modes of punishment at the different gaols, notwithstanding the almost un- 

* ' Health and Disease as influenced by tlie Daily Seasonal and other Cvclical Changes in 
the Human System.' By Edward Smith, M.D., F.R.S. Walton and Maberly. 



54 REPORT — 1861. 

accountable diversity which exists in the use of them ; and the result will 
show, in a most striking manner, the great accuracj' with which experience 
enables ordinary officials to regulate their system of punishment to the full 
powers of endurance of the prisoners. 

It is customary at Coldbath-fields for the prisoners to work and rest 
during fifteen minutes alternately; but at the New Bailey they are placed 
upon the wheel during twelve minutes, and have only four minutes' rest 
before the labour is renewed. Hence, the actual period of labour at Cold- 
bath-fields is only 3| hours, but at the New Bailey it is six hours daily ; and 
although the labour is lighter at the New Bailey than at Coldbath-fields the 
total effect per day is the same in both prisons, as tl^e following estimate 

proves : — 

Coldbath-fields. 

Total daily. 

Cubic Inches. 

3| hours' work with 2500 cubic inches of air inspired per minute 562,500 

3f „ rest with 1000 „ „ „ 225,000 

787,500 



New Bailey. 

6 hours' work with 1850 cubic inches of air inspired per minute. . 666,000 
2 „ rest with 950 „ „ „ 114,0 00 

780,000 

Thus, with the use of instruments differing so greatly in power over the 
human system, the plan pursued in each gaol is so well adapted to the 
usual powers of the body, that the difference in the effect is only equal to 
about three minutes' actual labour upon the treadwheel at Coldbath-fields, 
and four minutes' at that at the New Bailey. This result illustrates also the 
accuracy of the method of inquiry thus adopted. 

The influence of this kind of labour over the production of carbonic acid 
as well as over the rate of the functions, was established by another set of 
experiments made in a similar manner at Coldbath-fields prison. 

The apparatus employed was that already mentioned, and was used without 
inconvenience when placed upon a shelf over the wheel and at a suitable 
distance from the person to be experimented upon. As tliere was neces- 
sarily some adverse weight placed upon the expiration by the collection of 
the carbonic acid, it Mas not thought advisable to measure the air inspired 
also, lest the result should be vitiated by placing some impediment upon both 
acts of respiration at a time when the deepest and most frequent inspirations 
Mere demanded ; and hence that part of the inquiry M'as abandoned. The 
ascent of the body upon the M'heel M-as 28*65 feet per minute, and the M'eight 
to be lifted was 200 lbs., and hence the labour actually performed Mas 
equal to lifting 575*558 tons through 1 foot per day. The duration of the 
labour M'as a quarter of an hour at a time, and the carbonic acid M'as col- 
lected during three minutes after having been upon the wheel five minutes, 
and during two minutes after ten or after thirteen minutes. Thus the car- 
bonic acid was collected during five of each fifteen minutes. The quantity 
obtained per minute was between five and six times that expired in normal 
rest, viz., 43*36 grains, 42*9 grains, and 48*66 grains on different days, the 
latter quantity having been found soon after a good prison-dinner of soup. 
The average excretion of carbonic acid under the influence of treadwheel- 
labour was thus 45 grains per minute. 

The rate of respiration was 22, 21, and 20, aud that of pulsation 150 per 
minute on each of the occasions referred to. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 55 

The carbonic acid was also collected in the interval which followed the 
labour, viz., during three minutes after four minutes' rest, two minutes after 
ten minutes' rest, and two minutes after thirteen minutes' rest ; and, on the 
average of the whole, the rate of excretion was above that at rest, viz., 9" 14 
grains per minute. The quantity of air inspired was also measured at the 
same periods, and was somewhat less than that which occurred in the previous 
experiments, viz., 680, 590 and 600 cubic inches, 560 and 540 cubic inches, 
and 560 and 570 cubic inches per minute. The rate of respiration was 17, 16 
and 15, and the rate of pulsation at the end of the 15 minutes' rest, was 102 
per minute. 

Thus the results obtained from inquiries into the quantity of air inspired 
and of carbonic acid expired during treadwheel-labour closely correspond, 
and show that at Coklbath-fields the influence of that mode of punishment 
is to increase the elimination of respiratory products from five to six 
times during the period of actual labour. 

With the Hard-labour Crank. — The next series of experiments refer to the 
influence of the crank as an instrument of punishment. This instrument is 
simply a hand-mill which demands a certain expenditure of force to move 
the handle, and is described as having a pressure of such a number of pounds 
as may be requisite to depress the handle from the horizontal to the vertical 
position. It is not used profitably, and is worked by each prisoner separately 
in his cell. Experiments have been made at Wandsworth and the New Bailey 
prisons in the manner already described. 

At Wandsworth the cranks are Appold's patent, and are of superior con- 
struction. They move with a minimum pressure of 7 lbs., but the pressure 
required to move them may be increased to 10 or 12 lbs. by a prepared set 
of weights. The usual number of revolutions which the prisoner must 
make per day of ten hours, is 13,500; but that number may be reduced at 
the discretion of the Surgeon. The index is in sight of the prisoner, so that 
he may ascertain the progress of his work. 

The experiments were made at several periods on two days with 7 lbs. and 
12 lbs. pressure, and witli varying rates of speed. The rate which was the 
most natural was forty revolutions per minute, but the prisoners generally 
performed about thirty per minute. The efl'ect upon the system varied 
much, both with the pressure and the speed ; but, excepting the rate of 
pulsation, the very interesting fact was educed, that the total effect of the 
days work in performing the required number of revolutions was nearly 
the same, whether the rate teas 30 or 45 jwer minute. With 7 lbs. pressure 
and 30 revolutions per minute, the quantity of air inspired was somewhat 
less than double of that at rest, viz., 912|^ cubic inches per minute, with 17 
respirations and 92 pulsations per minute. Witii the speed increased to 
45*7 revolutions per minute, the quantities of air inspired were increased 
to nearly three times that at rest, viz., 1336 cubic inches, with 21*5 re- 
spirations and 113 pulsations per minute. 

With 12 lbs. pressure and 30 revolutions per minute, the quantity of air 
inspired was between 2 and 3 times that at rest, viz., 1260 cubic inches ; 
the rate of respiration 24'7, and the rate of pulsation 11 1*5, per minute. 
Two experiments gave almost identically the same results, the only difference 
being 3 pulsations, -4 respiration, and 3 cubic inches of air per minute. 
With the speed increased to 44*7 revolutions per minute, the average of two 
experiments gave 1898 cubic inches of air, or about 4 times that at rest, 
with 24'7 respirations and 150 pulsations per minute. 

The efl'ect of speed in reference to the day's work of 13,500 revolutions 
may be thus shown : — 



56 REPORT — 1861. ' 

1. With a pressure of 7 lbs. With 30 revolutions per minute 7 hours 
33^ minutes will be employed in completing the task, and the total quantity 
of air inspired will be 4'15,636 cubic inches ; but if the rate be 45*7 revolutions 
per minute, the task may be completed in 4 hours 55*4 minutes, and the 
total quantity of air inspired will be 345,654 cubic inches, giving a diffei-ence 
of 7982 cubic inches, or only 6 minutes' labour at the greater speed in favour 
of the increased speed. 

2. With a pressure of 12 lbs. With 30 revolutions per minute the total 
quantity of air inspired will be 571,158 cubic inches, and with 44*7 revolu- 
tions per minute it will be 573, 19G cubic inches per minute, quantities 
which for all purposes may be regarded as identical. 

Hence the law is established that the effect upon the system of the whole 
day's work varies little with the speed, provided there be a fixed number of 
revolutions per day. 

The experiments in reference to the effect of the two pressures with tlie 
same kind of crank, show that with the ordinary rate of revolution the in- 
fluence of the 7 lbs. to the 12 lbs. is a little more than as 3 to 5, or in general 
terms it may be affirmed that 3\ hours' labour with the 12 lbs. pressure is 
equal to 5 hours with 7 lbs. pressure. When the rate was increased beyond 
the ordinary one, the relative effect of the greater pressure was somewhat 
higher. 

The cranks used at the New Bailey prison are much inferior to those 
found at Wandsworth, and the pressure employed cannot be rigorously 
determined. The medium amount of pressure was estimated at 7 lbs. ; and the 
effect of this labour with a rate of revolution of 36*5, 39*5, and 40 per minute 
was to cause the inspiration of nearly double of that of the 7 lbs. crank at 
Wandsworth, viz., 1793 cubic inches of air per minute, with 21^ respirations 
and 155 pulsations per minute. When the pressure was increased to the 
one of nominally 9 lbs., the quantities were nearly 75 per cent, higher than 
that of the 12 lbs. crank at Wandsworth, viz., 2105 cubic inches of air, with 
23^ respirations per minute. Hence the effect was much greater at this 
than at the Wandsworth prison, and the pressure, although nominally the 
same, was fearfully different. 

Such is the effect of crank-labour, an effect which time for time is less 
than that of the treadwheel ; but the experience in prisons proves that crank- 
labour is not inferior in severity to that of the treadwheel, and, in the ob- 
servation of many, has long been believed to exceed it. The inquiries now 
recorded enable us to determine this question with exactitude, and to show 
that, when the duration of the labour is taken into considci-ation, the effect of 
the crank at the New Bailey is so great that the treadwheel may be used as 
a relief from it. 

In comparing the effect of crank- and trcadwheel-Iabour, it has been shown 
that the 12 lbs. crank at Wandsworth and the so-called 7 lbs. crank at the 
New Bailey, are equal time for time to that of the treadwheel at the New 
Bailey, but that the etrcct of the so-called 9 lbs. crank at the New Bailey is 
nearly equal to that of tlie treadwheel at Coldbath-fields, when considered 
time for time ; but as the time of actual daily labour with the crank is double 
that of tjie actual labour on the treadwheel, the whole daily effect must be 
so striking as double of that of the treadwheel. Can it be wondered at 
that the punishment of the lash and of the dark cell for neglect of work is 
frequent at the New Bailey, and in general in all prisons where the ordinary 
punishments are very severe ? 

fVifh (he Shot-drill. — This punishment is common in military prisons, but 
in civil prisons it is used unfrequently and rather as an exercise and an alle- 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 57 

viation from more severe labour. The labour varies with the weight of the shot 
to be carried, the weight of the body, and the rate of speed. The weight of the 
shot is known and regulated, but varies in different prisons, whilst the speed 
is dependent upon the will of the presiding officer. With a 16 lbs. shot at 
Coldbath -fields, the average of three inquiries showed that the quantity of 
air inspired amounted to nearly 4 times the amount at rest, viz., 1800 cubic 
inches per minute ; and the rate of pulsation was 146 per minute ; but with 
the 24 lbs. shot the quantities increased to 1850 cubic inches, and 154 pulsa- 
tions per minute. The increase in the quantity of air inspired corresponded 
with that observed by Dr. Smith when carrying various weights at the 
" quick march," viz., an increase of 7 cubic inches for each lb. of weight. 
Tlie 32 lbs. shot is commonly employed in military prisons, but no experi- 
ments have been made with it. The chief sense of suffering in this labour 
is found in the arms and back, from the frequent stooping and lifting which 
are required, and therefore it is evident that persons of different height 
and bulk will be influenced variously. 

Emission of Nitrogen. 

The next series of inquiries to which reference will be made, are those 
which show the influence of prison discipline over the excretion of nitrogen, 
and which constitute the most laborious and extended portion of these re- 
searches. They consist of two sets, one of wiiich was prosecuted at Cold- 
bath-fields under the iunnediate supervision of Dr. Smith, and the other at 
Wakefield under that of Mr. Milner. The same series were also employed 
to determine the relation of the ingested and egested nitrogen ; but this part 
of the inquiry will, as has been already mentioned, be reserved for the second 
part of this report. 

Experiments at Coldbath-fields Prison*. 

In the first set of inquiries four prisoners in Coldbath-fields prison were 
selected who had been some time in prison, and who worked the treadwheel 
on three days in each week. Their ages varied from 22 to 43 years, their 
lieight from 5 feet 2^ inches to .5 feet 7 inches, and their weight from 
lOS'l lbs. to 122*6 lbs., and the averages were 32 years, 5 feet 4^ inches, 
and 113"75lbs. They were spare but in good health, and their habits of 
body were tolerably regular. By the kindness of the Visiting Justices and 
the governor of the prison, Mr. Lambert, the third officer, took these men 
under his immediate charge, and collected the urine, weighed the faeces, 
weighed the food and the body, superintended the meals, the period of 
exertion, and the whole general arrangements of the inquiry. The inquiry 
occupied 26 days. The dietary was uniform, with the exceptions to be 
presently mentioned, and consisted of 20 ozs. of brown bread, 1 pint of cocoa, 
1 pint of gruel, 4^ ozs. of lean and 1| oz. of fat cooked meat, 8 ozs. of boiled 
j)otatoes, 1 oz. (reduced to | oz.) of salt, and 30 ozs. of water ; and one of the 
men had 6| ozs. of extra bread per day. The average quantity of solid food 
was 34 oz., and of fluid 70 ozs., daily, besides the ingredients of the gruel 
and cocoa, and the extra bread of one of the prisoners. The exceptions 
made in the dietary were as follows: — No salt, except that in the cooked 
food, was allowed during four days ; and 3g ozs. of extra fat, ^ oz. of tea, 
1| oz. of coffee, and 2 ozs. of alcohol, were separately given through suc- 
ceeding periods of three days each. 

* For further details than are included in this Report, see ' Philosophical Transactions,' 
1861. 



S8 REPORT — 1861. 

. The discipline enforced consisted of treadvvheel-labour on three days 
weekly, from 7^ a.m. to Sj p.m., comprehending a period of 3i hours of 
actual labour, and an actual ascent of 1"432 mile, and was equal to lifting SSI- 
tons through 1 foot daily. On the alternate days the labour was oakura- 
picking, or similar light occupation, and on Sunday there was perfect rest. 

The urine was collected in bottles which were used also whilst passing 
faeces. Two collections only were made on Sundays, viz., those of the day 
and night, but on the weekdays the urine was also collected separately, 
from 6.15 to 7.15 a.m.; and on the treadwheel-days from 7.15 to 8.25, a.m. 
These two latter sets of quantities were termed " basal quantities," since by 
one it was hoped to determine the actual rate of urinary excretion in the 
absence of food, and by the other the influence of treadwheel labour apart 
from any other influence. The analyses for urea and chloride of sodium 
were made by Dr. Smith ; but those of the food and faeces, and the final 
analyses of the urine were kindly made by Mr. Manning. The samples for 
analysis were taken with the utmost care. The details of this investi- 
gation are very numerous; and probably it may sufl[ice to give the follow- 
ing principal results of the inquiry. 

Urea, — The proportion of urea to each lb. of body-weight, both on 
days of labour and on those of rest, was much above that found in the 
ordinary conditions of life, viz., from 4"39 grains to 4'7'i grains, or an 
average of 4'58 grains to each lb. of body-weight. It Avas less than 
4 grains to each lb. on only one occasion in each of the lighter, and 
on three occasions in each of the two heavier men, whilst Dr. Smith 
found in himself with about the same food, but with much greater weight 
of body, an average proportion of only 2*75 grains to each lb. The cause 
as well as the significance of this fact is not clear; for, as it occurs with rest 
as well as labour, it can scarcely be an evidence of increased degradation of 
tissue, and as the food allowed is not much beyond that which a man in 
health would ordinarily eat, it cannot be, the I'esult of an undue ingestion of 
nitrogenous food. The probable explanation is that already referred to, viz., 
that the nitrogenous tissues in the bodies of prisoners after a certain term of 
imprisonment, bear a larger proportion to the weight of the whole body than 
is found in health under ordinary conditions, since, by the labour and disci- 
jjline of the jail, they have lost much of their fat and the fluid contained in 
the tissues is reduced to a minimum quantity. The average weight of these 
men was much below the ordinary weight of men of their age and height. 
If this be the true explanation, the relation of urea to body-weight loses 
much of its physiological importance. 

The urea excreted during treadwheel-labour before breakfast showed that 
such exertion had no definite influence over the elimination of that product. 
In one of the cases the excretion of urea was much greater than in the 
others. There was some diversity in the quantities evolved by the others ; so 
that in one they were the same in labour as at rest, in another there was an 
excess of 2*5 grains per hour with rest, and in the 3rd there was an increase 
of 1'9 grain per hour with labour ; but on the average, of all the three over 
the whole period, there was '2 grain per hour less evolved with labour than 
during rest ; and on the average of all the four prisoners, this defect was so 
much as 2'4' grains per hour. There were numerous occasions on which 
there was an excess with labour, viz. 28, 33, and 71 per cent, of the observation 
in the three cases above separated. The greatest excess with labour was 
7*5 grains, and the greatest defect with labour was 5*3 grains per hour, and 
both occurred in the same person. 

As this inquiry occupied only 80 minutes at one time, it is very probable that. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 59 

the urea produced would not be eliminated within that period, and hence we 
cannot take this as indisputable evidence of the effect of tread wheel -labour. 
The variations above referred to were also, in part at least, due to the varia- 
tion in the quantity of urinary water which was secreted during that period ; 
and it is just possible that, notwithstanding every care, the bladder might not 
have been completely emptied on each occasion. 

The total daily excretion of urea was the least on the Sunday, greater on 
the days of light labour, and the greatest on days of treadwheel-labour, on 
which occasions the average quantities were 494<, 512, and 528 grains, 
giving a daily increase on tread wheel-days of 16 grains over that of days of 
light labour, and of 34 grains over that of perfect rest. There were some di- 
.versities in the results, owing, apparently, to the fact that on two occasions 
the elimination of the urea due to the treadwheel-days was in part deferred 
until the next day, when there were remarkable meteorological disturbances, 
and thus gave the appearance of greater elimination on the days of light or 
of no labour. From this cause one of the cases gave an average de- 
crease of 51 grains of urea on the days of treadwheel-labour, but in the 
other three prisoners the increase with labour was 37, 59, and 21 grains 
daily. The largest increase on the treadwheel-days was Hi grains, and the 
largest decrease 100 grains per day. 

Urinary Water. — The quantity of urinary water evolved was, on the total 
average, lO'-t per cent, greater on tread wheel than on other days, viz., 74'7 
and 67"7 fl. ozs., and the same relation held good in each of the cases. 
Thus 

Register No. of Prisoner. On Treadwheel days. On other days. 

ozs. ozs. 

858 79-4. 73-15 

948 82-87 70-8 

1040 67-9 63-8 

1041 68-9 62-9 

The quantity of fluid drank was the same on each day, and the amount 
lost by perspiration was much greater on treadwheel-days than on other 
days ; and hence the blood and tissues must have lost considerably more fluid 
with great labour than occurs with rest. 

Chloride of Sodium. — The evolution of chloride of sodium was very 
great, owing to the large quantity taken with food, but was somewhat less 
on treadwheel days than on other days, viz., 509 and 520 grains. When 
the quantity of chloride of sodium taken with the food was diminished, the 
same relation was still maintained, but in a less degree, viz., 432 and 437 
grains, ^here was much variation in the results. 

Hence, from all these inquiries, it follows that there is an increased 
elimination of urea and urinary water with treadwheel-labour, but the 
former is much less and the latter much more than we should have expected. 
Neither of them are efficient measures of the true effect of exertion. 

FcBces.— The determination of the daily evacuation of taeces was rendered 
difficult from the habit of one of the prisoners to have an evacuation only on 
alternate days, and the only method by which we could make an approxima- 
tion to the daily evacuation was to divide the quantity on alternate days into 
two equal parts, and reckon one part on the day on which no evacuation 
occurred. The faeces were also placed under the date of the preceding day, 
as they clearly were due to the conditions of that day. The following are 
the principal facts educed : — 

1. The average weight of the faeces daily was double of that found in 



60 REPORT — 1S61. 

ordinary life, and varied on the average of tlie different prisoners, from V'l to 
10*1 ozs., and gave so large a total average as 8*55 ozs. The extremes of 
single observations were 1*75 and 26*59 ozs. The proportion to tiie solid 
food was 22^ per cent. 

2. The weight was increased on Sunday by 44'"3, 70, and 74- per cent, of 
that on all days. 

3. The weight was lessened on the treadwheel-days from that observed 
on Sundays, by 41, 53*3, and 42*6 per cent, in three cases, and from the 
average of all days by 14"8 and 21*1 in two cases, whilst in the 3rd case the 
weight was equal on all days. 

4. The least evacuation occurred on the Saturday (which was also a 
treadwheel-day), and the diminution from the weight of all days was 26"1, 
57'6, and 34*6 per cent., and from that on Sundays no less than 48, 75, and 
62 per cent. 

5. The proportion of water contained in the fajces was very uniform from 
day to day, viz., 73"5 per cent., and varied only from 71*8 to 77*6 per cent, 
on different days. It was above the average on Sundays and a little below 
the average on treadwheel-days. 

6. The quantity of nitrogen in each oz. of fresh fteces varied from 4*36 to 
4*9 grains, and was, on the average, 4*646 grains. The total daily quantity 
thus evacuated, was, on the average, no less than 41*8 grains. There was a 
considerable increase on the Sunday, and a marked decrease on the Saturday, 
and it was below tlie average on treadwheel-days, and in both of these 
respects it corresponded with the gross weight of the faeces. The actual 
amounts under the three conditions were 59*9, 35*8, and 40*53 grains, giving 
an increase of 43*3 per cent, and a decrease of 14*3 and 3 per cent. There 
was a very interesting fact noticed in reference to the relation of nitrogen in 
the urine and faeces on the Sunday, and which showed, proliably, that the 
assimilation of food was lessened on a day of perfect rest following one of 
hard labour, viz., that the increase which was observed in the nitrogen in 
the faeces on the Sunday corresponded accurately with the decrease observed 
in the urine on that day, viz., a decrease of 13 and 18 grains of urea in the 
urine, and an increase of nitrogen, reckoned as urea, in the faeces, of 71*33 
grains. 

7. The case which had the extra allowance of 6 1 ozs. of bread daily, 
evacuated the largest amount of fasces, both on the total average and on 
Sundays, — a fact of great significance in reference to the kind of food which 
should be selected for extra diets. 

Summary. — Thus, on reconsidering the foregoing results obtained from 
this large series of inquiries, the following general facts were cjicited : — 

Tlie prisoners emitted much more urea and faeces than occurs in ordinary 
life. 

On Sundays, with entire rest, the amount of urea was connnonly lessened, 
but the nitrogen in the fteces was increased in the same degree. The whole 
weight of the faeces was increased. 

With treadwheel-labour there was a small increase in the amount of urea 
and of urine evolved, whilst there was a small decrease in the evolution of 
chloride of sodium in the urine, in the weight of the faeces, and the nitrogen 
and the fluid contained in the faeces. 

On Saturdays, with treadwheel-labour, the diminution in the weight and 
nitrogenous matter of the faeces was considerable. 

With increase in the allowance of bread to a prisoner who was believed to 
need extra diet, there was a considerable increase in the weight of the fceces 
and loss of their nitrogen, and particularly with rest. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 61 

Experiments with Fat, Tea, Coffee, and'Alcohol. — The foregoing observations 
will be again referred to at the end of tlie report, and will form a basis upon 
which the Committee may offer some recommendations; and before closing 
the analysis of this inquiry the Committee propose to state the results of 
certain short experiments which were made upon the effect of fat, tea, coffee, 
and alcohol when temporarily added to the dietary. It is not proposed 
on this occasion to enter into detail, since the results obtained point to the 
desirability of conducting similar inquiries through much longer periods. 

The issue of the inquiries was as follows ; — 

1. During the period of the administration of S\ ozs. of extra fat daily, the 
amounts of urea and ui'inary water excreted were 529 grains, and 69*1 7 ozs. 
on the average of all the cases, showing that no noticeable change had been 
produced. 

2. During the withdrawal of :^ of an ounce (328 grains) of chloride of 
sodium daily, the quantity of that salt excreted by the ui'inc was reduced 
from 506 to 184' grains daily, the difference being almost exactly the amount 
which had been withheld. After the full supply was renewed, it was some 
days before the whole again appeai'ed in the urine. 

3. The excretion of urea was lessened during the administration of the tea 
to 402 grains on the second, and 508 grains on the third, which was a 
treadwheel-day. The exact amount of the diminution cannot be determined, 
since in the three preceding days two treadwheel-days were included, and 
thus this basis of comparison was unduly elevated. 

The excretion of chloride of sodium was increased to 542 grains per day. 
The quantity of urinary water evolved remained unchanged. 

4. The urea, which had fallen during the action of tea, remained below the 
average during the action of coffee (which was administered after the ex- 
periments on tea), but it rose 42 grains daily, and at the end of the period 
was scarcely below the quantity normally evolved. The quantity of chloride 
of sodium evolved was 50 grains daily less than with the tea, viz., 494 
grains. 

The quantity of urinary water was not changed. 

5. The urea was also lessened during the action of alcohol, to the extent 
of 26 grains per day below the normal quantity ; but it was still H- grains 
per day higher than the quantity to which it first fell with the tea. The 
effect was much more evident with treadwheel-labour on the first day ; for, 
instead of an increase with labour, there was an elimination of 43 grains less 
than occurred on the previous day with rest, but on the third day the in- 
crease with labour was 111 grains over that evolved on the Sunday. On 
the first day the barometer fell greatly and tended to prevent the elimination 
of urea. The greatest effect was upon the elimination of urinary water, 
being a diminution of no less than 20 ounces per day on the average of the 
three days ; and as there was an unusual thirst during the administration of 
the alcohol (without, however, any additional fluid food being allowed), it is 
ea-sy to see in how great a degree alcohol tends to temporarily fix fluid in the 
tissues of the body, and in doing so to restrain the emission of urea. There 
was also a large diminution in the excretion of chloride of sodium, but it cor- 
responded precisely with the diminution in the urinary water. The quantity 
evolved daily was 352 grains, or a diminution of 27*5 per cent. 

Hence the effect of tea, coffee, and alcohol in lessening the emission of 
urea appeared to be temporary only, and in the case of alcohol was associated 
with retention of fluid in the body, and consequently with an increase of 
weight. The information thus obtained renders it important to test the in- 
fluence of each article over a much longer period. 



69 REPORT — 1861. 

Experiments at the Wakefield Prison. Appendix X. 

Ill June 1861 another series of inquiries were prosecuted in Wakefield Goal 
of a character similar to those just related. Mr. Milner took charge of all 
the observations which were made within the prison ; Dr. Smith made the 
analyses for urea and chloride of sodium ; and Mr. Manning kindly deter- 
nn'iied the dry matter and the nitrogen in the food, faeces, and urine. 

Four men of regular habits and in good state of health were selected. 
Two were weavers of cocoa matting, which is a very laborious occupation, 
find two were tailors. Their ages were 19, 22, 24', and 28 years; tlieir height 
was 64f, 66, 66f, and 67 inches, and their weight was 118 lbs. 11 02s., 
125 lbs. 12i ozs., J46 lbs. 11-3 q^s., and 146 lbs. 15| ozs. The girth around 
the nipples was 32|- inches, 841 in., 35f in., and 35| in., giving an average 
of nearly 34| inches. The total averages of age, height, weight, and girth 
were 23^ years, 66*1 inches, 134 lbs. 8f ozs., and 34^ inches. 

They had been fed on the highest class of prison dietary ; but as that con- 
sisted of some variety of food, it was deemed advisable to give them a uni- 
form daily diet during one week before the experiments began, and it was 
continued without intermission until the inquiry terminated. 

The food supplied daily was in part fixed, and in other part variable in 
quantity. The fixed quantities were those of meat, oatmeal, and potato, 
and the variable ones those of bread, salt, and water. Milk was given in a 
fixed quantity, but the amount supplied was not uniform in both classes of 
prisoners. 

The meat consisted of 5 ozs. of lean and 1 oz. of fat cooked beef, without 
bone. The supply of oatmeal was 2 ozs., and 16 ozs. of cooked potato; 20 ozs. 
of skimmed milk were given to the tailors, and 25 ozs. to the weavers. The 
daily quantity of bread eaten was on the average SO'4 ozs. by the tailors, 
and 34'3 ozs. by the weavers, or a general total of 27 35 ozs. 136*5 grs. of 
chloride of sodium were eaten (besides that contained in the bread) by the 
tailors, and 63"5 grs. by the weavers, giving an average of 100 grs. ; but 
there was some considerable variation from day to day. One of the tailors 
ate an average quantity of 199"3 grs. ; whilst the other tailor ate only 73'8 grs. 

The quantity of water which was drunk, besides that contained in 1 pint 
of gruel, was only 23'8 ozs. on the average, giving with the milk a total sup- 
ply of fluid of 66'3 ozs. The weavers drank much more than the tailors, 
and the total daily quantities in the two classes was 80*5 ozs. and 52*1 ozs. 
The solid food was 51"8 ozs., and the fluid 66*3 ozs., or a total of 118 ounces 
daily. 

The men arose at 6 a.m., and having passed urine and faeces were imme- 
diately weighed. The scales employed were good ones, and the weight was 
taken to 5th of an ounce. The prisoners were weighed naked. The weight 
of the faeces and urine was ascertained daily, by the aid of balances kindly 
lent by Messrs. Avery, of Birmingham, up to 6 1 a.m.; and the degree of con- 
sistence of the faeces was recorded under five heads, viz. scybalous, well- 
formed, formed but soon subsiding, soft, and liquid. A fair sample of the 
bread, oatmeal, potato, meat, and milk was sent up to Mr. Manning from 
time to time as changes in the supply occurred. A portion of the mixed 
quantities of faeces and the urine of each set of prisoners was most carefully 
taken and sent for analysis daily ; but delay sometimes occurred in the trans- 
mission, so that the analyses were usually made on the third day after the 
evacuation. The greatest care was taken to avoid loss by evaporation and 
otherwise, and to prevent decomposition. The observations included thirteen 
days besides the week of preliminary dietary, and the following are the 
principal results which have been obtained : — 



49-1 


39-45 


48-25 


37-9 


51-92 


44-98 


57-25 


43- 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE, 63 

Weight of body. — The average weight of three of the prisoners during the 
inquiry was greater than that recorded on the day preceding the conimence- 
nient of the inquiry, but there was a loss of weight in the fourth. The aver- 
age gain was, in the tailors, IS^ozs. and i7f ozs., and in one of the weavers 
31 ozs., but in the other weaver there was a loss of 3|- ozs. The greatest gain 
in the different cases was 1 lb. 13^ ozs. and ] lb. 7^ ozs. in the tailors, and 
8f ozs. and 1 lb. 11 ozs. in the weavers; and the greatest loss 1^ oz. in one 
tailor, 1 lb. 2^ ozs. and 4^ ozs. in the weavers. There was not an unvarying 
progression in the weight during the week, but in every case there was an 
increase from the Saturday to the Sunday, and the amounts were as follows : — 
11-^ ozs. and 10^ ozs., 9| ozs. and 5 ozs. in the tailors; 6j0zs. and 18^ ozs., 
IQiozs. and 31^ ozs. in the weavers; or an average increase of 13*62 ozs. 
on the Sunday. 

Urine : quantity. — The largest quantities which were evolved in one day 
were 25,321 grs. (56-6 ozs.) and 26,624 grs. (59-17 ozs.) in the tailors, and 
27,791 grs. (62-3 ozs.) and 32,924 grs. (74 ozs.) in the weavers. The average 
daily quantity was 41-2 ozs. in the tailors, and 47-51 ozs. in the weavers, 
giving a total daily average of 44-35 ozs. There was a large increase on the 
Saturday, and a marked decrease on the Sunday, as the following figured 
prove : — 

Friday. Saturday. Sunday, 

ozs. ozs. ozs. 

Two tailors — 

„ ,, ...... 37'85 

Two weavers .... — 

49-5 

The average decrease from the Saturday to the Sunday was 10*29 ozs. 

Specific gravity. — The specific gravity of the urine varied from 1016 to 
1027*5, but there was singular uniformity in the general results. In the 
tailors it was 1023*7 and 1025, and in the weavers 1024*37 and 1024*6, 
giving a total average of 1024*35 in the tailors, and 1024*45 in the weavers. 

Urea. — The analysis for urea was made by Liebig's method, from a test 
solution which had been prepared in large quantity and used daily in other 
experiments. The chloride of sodium was not removed, but its amount was 
duly determined and deducted. 

The total average daily quantity of urea evolved was Q6S'Q5 %\^., of which 
608*4 grs. Avere emitted by the tailors, and 702*9 grs. by the weavers ; the 
maximum and minimum amounts were 790 and 456 grs., the former in the 
weavers, and the latter in the tailors. In the weavers the quantity exceeded 
700 grs. in 7 of 13 days, whilst this occurred only 3 times in the tailors, and 
in only one instance during the inquiry was it below 500 grs. daily. 

The quantity of urea to each pound of body-weight was 4-812 grs. in the 
tailors, and 4*675 grs. in the weavers ; but it varied in the former from 3-72 
to 5*82 grs., and in the latter from 3*62 to 5-39 grs. on different days. 

The quantity of urea was always lessened on the Sunday. In the tailors 
the diminution from the Saturday to the Sunday was 145 grs. and 122 grs., 
and in the weavers 26 and 92 grs., giving a total average diminution of 
96-25 grs. 

The quantity in each ounce of urine was, on the average, 14*9 grs. in the 
tailors, and 15-25 grs. in the weavers, giving a total average of 15-075 grs. 
The maximum and minimum quantities were 18-8 and 12*3 in the tailors, and 
1784 and 13-53 in the weavers. 

Chloride of Sodium. — The average quantity of chloride of sodium evolved 



64 REPORT 1861. 

was 3*37 grs. per oz. in the tailors, and 3"18 grs. per oz. in the weavers, giving 
a daily emission of ISS'S^l- grs. in tlie former, and 148*5 grs. in tiie latter. 

Faces. — The general character of the faeces was homogeneous and mode- 
ratelj' cohesive, but on a few occasions there was a variety in the consistence. 
In the 52 observations 32 exhibited faeces formed but soon subsiding, 7 
well formed, 1 scybalous, 2 soft, and 9 of mixed character, and no one per- 
son offered any marked difference in these characters. The bran of the brown 
bread was easily seen in the faeces. The average daily evacuation was 
6'98 ozs. in the tailors, and 8'52 ozs. in the weavers, giving a total daily aver- 
age of 7*75 ozs. There were somewhat considerable daily variations, so that 
the maximum and minimum quantities were, in the tailors regarded separ- 
ately, 11*41 ozs. and 4*32 ozs., and in the weavers 14*42 ozs. and 1*72 oz., 
but in no instance was there the omission of a daily evacuation. 

The quantity of nitrogen per cent, found by Mr. Manning by the volu- 
metric method varied from*71 gr. to 1*16 gr. in the tailors, and fi'om '97 gr. 
to 1"35 gr. in the weavers; but the total average in the two classes was '93 
in the tailors, and 1*12 in the weavers, giving 1*025 gr. in the whole. 

The total daily elimination of nitrogen by the faeces was found to be 
27*43 grs. in the tailors, and 40*93 grs. in the weavers. The variation in the 
amount of faeces on Sunday from that of other days was not uniform, since 
it was less in the weavers and was equal in the tailors. 

It will have been observed that there were many differences in the results 
obtained from the prisoners occupied in the two kinds of labour ; and as one 
of the objects had in view was to show these differences, the two trades were 
selected which, in that prison, offered the greatest dissimilarity in the amount 
of exertion required. 

Of these two sets of prisoners, the weavers of cocoa matting, when com- 
pared with the tailors, were older, taller, heavier, and broader; they ate 
more bread, milk, and water. They lost weight, whilst the tailors gained 
weight. They emitted more urine, urea, chloride of sodium, and faeces with 
their contained nitrogen ; they exhibited much less diminution of urea on 
the Sunday, and a little less urea to body-weight. 

It is not possible to compare the results of this inquiry very closely with 
those already described at Coldbath-fields, since in the latter inquiry the 
quantity of bread and water was rigidly fixed, whilst in the former there 
were daily variations. The quantity of bread taken was greater at Wakefield 
than at Coldbath-fields, and would so far increase the amount of urea pro- 
duced, whilst the variable quantity of Avater taken from day to day would 
vary the elimination of that product. Yet these causes of variation are not 
of great value, and upon the whole it will be seen that there is a very close 
correspondence between the products of the weavers at Wakefield and those 
who worked the treadwhecl at Coldbath-fields. 

The weight of the men at Wakefield was more than that at Coldbath-fields, 
the quantity of urine and of fluid drank was less, and that of urea was greater, 
but the proportion of urea to body-weight was very nearly the same. In both 
there was more urea with labour, and less on Sunday. There was less chlo- 
ride of sodium in the urine as there was less supplied in the food. The weight 
of the faeces and the contained nitrogen were the same in both places. 

Conclusion. — The Committee cannot close this first part of their report 
without offering a few remarks in the nature of deductions or suggestions, 
but, inasmuch as the duty confided to them is limited to a consideration of 
the influence of prison discipline over the bodily functions of the prisoners, 
and the present is only a part of their report, they feel that they cannot 
express their views at any length. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 65 

The Committee venture to think that the time is approaching when the 
•whole subject of prison discipline must be reconsidered, and when a deter- 
mination may be arrived at as to the propriety oC continuing a system which 
when practised occasions vast waste of the vital powers of the prisoners, 
and vast expenditure of money to provide a dietary which, although scarcely 
sufficient, is far beyond that provided for the poor in workhouses, and beyond 
that obtained by the working classes in general. The different systems 
adopted in prisons are furnishing some evidence as to the relative value of 
three plans, — viz., 1st, waste of animal force by the treadwheel and the crank ; 
2nd, the use of manufacturing operations ; and 3rd, the effect of simple de- 
tention and instruction without labour; and these, when conjoined with the 
intelligent efforts put forth in the sister island, may almost suffice to guide 
those to whom its consideration may be intrusted. 

It is, however, certain that if much bodily labour be enforced, whether in 
a profitable or unprofitable manner, there must be an expensive dietary to 
supply the reparative material ; and no plan can be so wasteful as that which 
enforces profitless labour, and supplies an expensive diet to meet its demands. 

The Committee also think that some steps should be taken to ensure uni- 
formity in prison discipline throughout the kingdom ; so that not only should 
great care be exercised (as at present) to apportion the sentence to the 
crime, but also that wherever the sentence is pronounced the carrying-out 
of it shall be also proportioned to the crime. This may be effected in the 
dietary, and yet allow such a variety of food as may be found relatively 
economical in different parts of the kingdom; for the nutritive value of various 
kinds of food is now tolerably known, and the quantity of each to give the 
same nutriment may be estimated. So also in reference to punishments. It 
is quite possible that the instruments should be of uniform construction, 
that by supervision they should be kept in uniform order, that the speed at 
which they are worked should be uniform, and the amount of a day's work 
should be universally the same, subject only to the opinion of the Surgeon as 
to the fitness of any individual to perform the required task. A committee 
of scientific men would find no difficulty in placing all this upon a satisfac- 
tory basis, if they were only authorized by the Government to do so. 

It is also easy to estimate the amount of labour required in ordinary ma- 
nufactures, at least so far to keep within the bodily powers of the prisoners ; 
for we have the advantage of common experience as to the effect of such 
labour in ordinary life. But the Committee are of opinion that, when all 
the above-mentioned care shall have been taken, the effect of the proper 
prison punishments, as the treadwheel, crank, and shot-drill, upon the pri- 
soners will still be very unequal, since it varies greatly with such natural 
conditions as the height, weight, age, and previous occupation of the person. 
Hence these punishments must be at all times objectionable. 

The Committee defer until another occasion their recommendations in 
reference to the exact adaptation of labour to supply of food ; but they take 
this opportunity of stating that, as it involves the fundamental question of the 
propriety of making the dietary an instrument of punishment, it will be 
necessary in limine to decide the latter question. When Sir James Graham 
appointed the Commissioners to draw up the present scheme of dietary, he 
expressly directed that the dietary should not be used as an instrument of 
punishment; but the Committee venture to affirm that the food supplied in 
the lowest scale is so totally unequal to the wants of the system, that it can 
only be regarded as an instrument of punishment ; and that it is so regarded 
both by criminals and magistrates may be inferred from the dislike which 

1861. F 



66 EEPORT^1861. 

old offenders have to short imprisonment with its low dietary, and from the 
value which magistrates attach to this their most formidable agent. 

Without expressing a strong opinion upon this point, the Committee ven- 
ture to assert that a dietary of bread and water, or Jaread and gruel, cannot be 
enforced without doing serious injury to the prisoner's health ; and that this is 
fundamentally recognized may be inferred from the fact that all agree that 
a high scale of dietary is absolutely demanded in long imprisonments. The 
Committee assert that the injury is one of degree, and that the shortness of 
the imprisonment prevents the ill effects being observed, which with a long 
imprisonment have been proved to increase the mortality in gaols. 

The Committee hope that, on philanthropic grounds, the principle may be 
established in prison discipline, that the prisoner shall not be so treated that 
when he leaves the gaol he shall be less able to earn his living than he was 
M'hen he entered it, and that, punishment and reformation being sought toge- 
ther, some plan may be adopted which shall accord with that principle. 

The fundamental fact of the duty of apportioning food to the labour per- 
formed needs to be re-established. At present the attempt is nugatory ; but 
the Committee venture to hope that the principle will meet with universal 
concurrence, and that their labours afford at least some of the means whereby 
the estimation may be made. 

The great value of the system of extra dietary cannot be too highly esti- 
mated ; but the very admission implies that there is a defective adaptation of 
the general scheme of dietary to the wants of the system, and that almost the 
life of the prisoner is, throughout a large part of the imprisonment, at the 
discretion or negligence of one officer, viz. the Surgeon. 

The Committee also venture to affirm that bread is far inferior to milk as 
an article of extra diet, as the experiments detailed in this report prove. The 
detention in prisons certainly lessens the power of assimilating food ; and 
hence it is quite possible that whilst a given quantity of food would sustain 
a man out of gaol, it would not sustain him with the same labour in gaol. 
The object of extra diet is not so much to give additional material, as to 
give the iiind of food which will aid the system in making a better use of 
that ordinarily supplied. Extra diet of bread (when the dietary is the 
highest scale) is in great part wasted, and increases disproportionately the 
amount of waste passing off by the bowel. 

In conclusion, the Committee urge the great importance of making better 
use than heretofore of the unparalleled opportunities which prisons afford 
of working out the most important and difficult questions in nutrition, with 
a view to supply information for the more just and economical manage- 
ment of gaols, and for the advance of a science which is so essentially con- 
nected with the daily life of the community. Such questions are, the true 
value of white bread over brown bread in prison and other dietary ; the exact 
influence of various kind of food, and especially of such as tea, coffee, milk 
and alcohol, which act chiefly by modifying the action of other food ; the 
exact relation of a given quantity of food to a given amount of labour; the 
causes of the defective power of assimilation of food in prisons, and the relation 
of the elements of the food taken to those which are fixed in and thrown out 
of the body. The Committee feel that the importance of such inquiries is 
not by any means so well understood as it should be, and that some officials 
have a natural repugnance to anything which may interfere with their ordi- 
nary routine ; but they trust that the expression of the opinion of this great 
Association, and the additional knowledge which they and others have en- 
deavoured to discover, may open prisons to such inquiries. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 67 

The Committee will cheerfully undertake to lend their aid in further 
elucidating these matters, if it should be the pleasure of the Association to 
reappoint them ; but they very respectfully represent the urgent necessity 
which exists for the appointment, by the authority of Government, of one or 
more Commissioners to reconsider the subject of dietaries, and to recom- 
mend plans whereby uniformity in the nature and action of the instruments 
used in prison punishments may be effected throughout the kingdom. 



APPENDIX I. 



On the Inequalities in the Dietary of County Prisons ; being an Analysis of 
the "Return of Dietaries for Co7ivicts" S)C., issued in 1857*. 

Forty-three only of eighty-seven county prisons have adopted the scheme 
of dietary recommended by the Government ; and in reference to the forty- 
four prisons which dissent from that scheme, it will be evident, from the fol- 
lowing statement, that much of the inequalities in their various dietaries is 
attributable to the defects of the Government scheme, much to mere caprice, 
something to very defective knowledge as to the requirements of the human 
system, and something more to the absence of a desire to avoid injury to the 
prisoner. We shall first give in a few words the dietary of the Government 
scheme, and then describe the dietaries of all the prisons which have striking 
peculiarities. 

There are five classes of dietaries recommended by the Government, ac- 
cording to the duration of the sentence, and such that the quantity and 
quality of food are increased from the beginning of the imprisonment as the 
duration of the sentence is increased. 

Up to twenty-one days, only bread and gruel are given, but under seven 
days the bread (1 lb.) is given at dinner only, whilst over that period twenty- 
four ounces are distributed over the three meals. Under seven days, females 
receive as much bread for dinner as the males ; but over that period they 
receive but half the quantity. 

From twenty-one to forty-two days with hard labour, and to four months 
without hard labour, three ounces of cooked meat with bread and potatoes 
are given for dinner twice per week, one pint of soup (containing the same 
quantity of meat) with bread twice, and simply bread and potatoes thrice 
per week. 

From forty-two days to four months with hard labour, and beyond four 
months without labour, three ounces of meat is given daily in soup or other- 
wise. 

Beyond four months with hard labour, the quantity of meat is increased 
four times per week to four ounces, and an increase of half a pound of pota- 
toes is added, — soup, potatoes, and bread being supplied on the other days. 
Sweetened cocoa for breakfast is also given thrice per week. 

The erroneous principles upon which this scheme is founded are, the ap- 
portionment of food according to duration of sentence, the insufficiency for 
short sentences and for hard labour, and the variation from day to day ; but 

* It is probable that some changes have been made in the dietaries of some of the County 
Gaols, and particularly in those marked with an asterisk (*), since the return of 1857 was 
issued, and since the following analysis was made ; but of this there is no authorized inform, 
ttion. The analysis will, at least, show the state of the dietaries when the return was issued, 

f2 



68 ' REPORT — 1861. 

having already pointed them out in a paper published in the Transactions of 
the Society for the Promotion of Social Science, we shall not pursue that sub- 
ject on this occasion, but at once proceed to consider the dietaries opposed 
to this scheme. 

The Welsh gaols, as a whole, have a reduced scale of dietary ; but one of 
them, viz. the Cardiff Gaol*, is the most remarkable in the deficiency ; whilst 
another, the Brecon Gaol, is nearly equally remarkable for its plenty. It is 
instructive to notice how widely the schemes differ under different adminis- 
trations, whilst the condition of the inhabitants of the localities must be much 
the same. In the Cardiff Gaol there are four classes of prisoners, the highest 
including all those condemned for periods exceeding fourteen days, a terra 
scarcely equal to the second class of the government dietary, and even in 
that no meat or other animal food in any form is given. For breakfast and 
supper there is half a pound of bread and two ounces of oatmeal made into 
gruel, whilst at dinner there is only half a pound of bread and one pound of 
potatoes. But if the prisoner should be condemned to hard labour he will 
receive one pint and a half of soup, made from two ounces of Scotch barley 
and two ounces of rice, and it is the same whether he is condemned to hard 
labour for fifteen days or fifteen months ! If the prisoner is condemned for 
more than seven and less than fourteen days, he receives for dinner half a 
pound of bread only. If not exceeding three days or seven days, the break- 
fast and supper consist of half a pound of bread only, whilst the dinner is 
composed of half a pound of bread, and in the latter case of one pound of 
potatoes in addition. Thus, if he be confined for three days or for fourteen 
days, half a pound of bread only is sufficient for the dinner; but, if it be for 
seven days, he is supposed to need one pound of potatoes in addition ! This 
is the worst dietary in the whole of the county gaols , but the dietary of the 
Derby Gaol* shows that Englishmen as well as Welshmen are sometimes fed 
with the almost entire absence of animal food. The Derby dietary is divided 
into three classes ; but we are not favoured with the grounds of this division. 
In the first class there are six ounces of bread and one pint of porridge for 
breakfast, whilst in the second and third classes the quantities are increased 
to eight ounces and one pint and a half. The word porridge docs not imply 
that excellent article which we remember to have enjoyed in boyhood, but it 
consists of a quarter of a pint of milk and three-quarters of a pint of water, 
and one ounce and a half of oatmeal, instead of two ounces ordered by the 
Government to each pint of gruel. The supper consists of four ounces of 
bread and one pint of gruel (we are not informed as to the ingredients of the 
gruel) for the first class, six ounces of bread and one pint of porridge for the 
second, and eight ounces of bread and one pint of porridge for the third. 
The dinner in the first class is ten ounces of bread only; in the second class 
there are eight ounces of bread and one pound of potatoes five times per 
week, and eight ounces of bread and one pint of soup twice per week (the 
excellence of the soup is not stated); in the third class eight ounces of bread 
and two pounds of potatoes I twelve ounces of bread and one pint of soup 
thrice, and twelve ounces of bread and four ounces of meat once per week. The 
points of greatest interest are the excessive amount of farinaceous food, and 
the great defect of animal food. There is also a note appended to this return, 
stating that cases do sometimes occur of prisoners losing weight I If in the 
Wakefield Prison, to which we shall refer presently, a very large number of 
the prisoners lose weight under the best management, and with a much better 
etary, it is not wonderful that at Derby they should lose weight sometimes^ 
We should be glad to know if they are weighed accurately and periodically ; 
if they enter the prison having an average weight ; what percentage in each 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 69 

class lose weight during their imprisonment ; and what is the tone of their 
muscular system on discharge? The note also states that when they lose 
weight the surgeon orders them to have extra milk, or bread, or meat. But 
essential articles of diet should not be left to the chance of the negligence or 
indiscretion of even the best of men. 

The Brecon Gaol offers a contrast to both of the foregoing. Thus, for 
periods exceeding fourteen days, the prisoner receives six ounces of meat 
with eight ounces of bread on four days in the week, and also half a pound 
of potatoes if under, and one pound of potatoes if ovei', two months. On the 
other days the dietary is only bi'ead and potatoes. For breakfast and supper 
the dietary for all periods is eight ounces of bread and one pint of gruel, but 
on alternate days the oatmeal is boiled in the meat liquor. There is also a 
further advantage given in substituting for potatoes, when they are bad, four 
ounces of rice and one ounce of treacle or sugar. The Middlesex prisons 
also give six ounces of meat at one meal. In the Coldbath-fields Prison, 
and the House of Correction, Westminster, twenty ounces of bread are equally 
divided between the three meals. There is also a pint of cocoa to the highest 
class (exceeding two months) and one pint of gruel to others', for breakfast ; 
whilst at supper there is one pint of gruel to the highest class, and half a 
pint to others. The dinner, besides bread, contains, in the highest class, six 
ounces of meat and eight ounces of potatoes four times per week, or one pint 
and a half of soup thrice per week. In the second class (two weeks to two 
months) there is the same quantity of meat and potatoes twice, one pint of 
soup twice, and one pint of gruel thrice per week. But in the lowest class 
it consists of bread and gruel only. 

The Lincoln House of Correction at Spalding has also a dietary better 
than that recommended by the Government, since, in addition to the meat, 
there is allowed one pint of soup ; but the ingredients of the soup are not 
stated. It has also the advantage of giving meat daily in the fourth and fifth 
class, apart from the soup, and thus the important article of diet is evenly 
distributed ; and since the soup is probably made from the meat liquor, it 
increases the quantity of fat which is supplied to the prisoners. 

The Newgate Prison, Lincoln Castle, and the Pembroke Gaol are re- 
markable in having but one scale of dietary each for all the prisoners, thus 
avoiding the fallacy which results from varying the dietary according to the 
term of imprisonment. They, however, differ very much in the quantity and 
quality of food which they deem to be proper for their prisoners. Thus the 
Newgate Prison and Lincoln Castle adopt Class 4' of the Government scheme. 
The Pembroke Gaol affords only one quart of oatmeal gruel (the quantity of 
oatmeal is not stated) and three-quarters of a pound of breajl for dinner. At 
breakfast there is a luxury found only at this gaol, viz. tea and butter; so that 
the meal consists of a pint and a half of tea, one pound of bread, and one 
ounce of butter. The supper is composed of one quart of milk pottage (the 
constituents are not given) and three quarters of a pound of bread. This is 
a remarkable dietary, and one which on paper must be very satisfactory, 
except in the absence of animal food. A foot-note states that " the surgeon 
orders extra food when necessary;" but the nature of the food which he may 
order is not stated. The largest quantity of bread is contained in this dietary, 
viz. two pounds and a half of bread daily. We should like to know the 
result of the entire avoidance of fresh vegetables, a circumstance also pecu- 
liar to this prison, if the return be true. 

Another peculiarity is met with in the three Gloucester gaols (one of 
which, the House of Correction at Horsley, is under the direction of a name 



'70 REPORT — 1861. 

well known in prison management), viz. the exhibition of the same food on 
each day of tlie week. The plan of varying the food with the class is pur- 
sued, but, with the exception of the third class, the food is not varied from 
day to day. In the lowest class the food is simply eight ounces of bread at 
each meal. In the second class one pint of gruel is added to the breakfast 
and supper. In the third class eight ounces of potatoes are added daily, and 
three ounces of meat twice in the week. In the fourth and fifth classes the 
meat is given daily, and in the fifth clciss the potatoes are increased to one 
pound. There is also another point worthy of notice which is peculiar to 
these gaols and the Lincoln House of Correction, Spalding, viz. the admi- 
nistration of meat on every day in the week to the two highest classes, apart 
trom or to the exclusion of soup. There are thus two important circum- 
stances redounding greatly to the credit of those who have the supervision 
of these institutions in the county of Gloucester. 

The peculiarity of administering the same food on each day of the week 
is also met with at the Cardiff, Flint, Sussex, and Wilts gaols. The poverty 
of the Cardiff dietary has already been stated, and the Flint Prison dietary 
is very far removed from liberality. Thus for fourteen days it affords simply 
one pound of bread and four ounces and a half of oatmeal daily. For six 
weeks, one pound and a quarter of bread, four ounces and a half of oatmeal, 
and half a pint of milk daily, and for all periods beyond six weeks a quarter 
of a pound of bread is added daily, and two pints of soup per week. 

The Sussex Prison at Lewes gives to all classes half a pound of bread and 
one pint of gruel for breakfast and supper. For fourteen days the dinner is 
eight ounces of bread only ; for six weeks one pint of soup is added on three 
days per week ; for four months the soup is given daily ; and for all periods 
beyond, one pound of potatoes is added daily. The dietary at Petworth is 
more liberal. Thus, after one month the dinner consists of half a pound of 
bread, four ounces of meat, and one pint of soup ; and after three months, 
one pound of potatoes is added daily. The dinner at this prison is therefore 
very excellent after the expiration of the first month. The two county gaols 
in Wiltshire have the same dietary. All prisoners not sentenced to hard 
labour receive one pound and a half of bread and one pint of gruel daily, and 
after fourteen days have one pint of soup in addition. This is all the dietary 
with hard labour from fourteen to forty -two daj's: viz., to fourteen daysAvith 
hard labour the dietary is simply one pound and a half of bread and one pint 
of gruel daily ; from six weeks to three months one pint of soup is added 
daily from the commencement ; and when the term exceeds three months, one 
pound of potatoes is given daily after three months. This scheme is not 
equal to the Gf vernment allowance. 

The dietary in the Lancaster House of Correction at Preston varies chiefly, 
but not exclusively, with age, viz. under set. thirteen, under set. seventeen, 
and over set. seventeen. In these, the breakfast and supper consists of four 
ounces of bread and one pint of gruel, six and two-thirds ounces of bread 
and one pint of gruel, and six and two-thirds ounces of bread and two pints 
of gruel respectively. 

The dinner of the first class is four ounces of bread and one pint of gruel 
thrice; four ounces of bread, four ounces of meat, and one pint of soup 
once; four ounces of meat and half a pound of potatoes once; four ounces 
of bread and one pint of soup once ; and the singular combination of half a 
pound of potatoes with one ounce of cheese once per week. In the second 
class the scheme is varied simply by the administration of six and two-thirds 
ounces of bread daily ; and the third differs from the second in doubling the 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 71 

quaotity of potatoes, cheese, gruel, and soup. The soup, however, does not 
contain meat, and the gruel is very poor. 

Tliere are certain limitations, depending upon the duration of the sentence. 
Thus, for seven days the diet is twelve to twenty ounces of bread daily. For 
fourteen days boys and girls receive half of the second-class rations, and for 
a month adults have half of the third-class rations. There is also a great 
and unique curiosity in the list of limitations which refer to itch patients, 
who receive but twelve ounces of bread per diem, whether as a punishment 
or a cure for their uncleanness is not stated. We cannot but regard this as 
a meagre dietary, since we cannot tell in what degree the discretionary power, 
which a foot-note states to rest with the governor and surgeon, in increasing 
the dietary after three months' imprisonment, is exercised, and, so far as 
adults are concerned, it appears that the only increase which can be made 
extends to ten ounces of bread only. 

A gaol which has for its governor another gentleman of the name of Shep- 
herd, viz. the Wakefield Gaol, is also remarkable in its dietary, but in a dif- 
ferent direction from any of the foregoing. The peculiarity is in the greater 
variety of food and the care which is taken to make it palateable. The di- 
stinction into classes is maintained, and in the highest classes is so extended 
that it begins only after twelve months' imprisonment. The breakfast and 
supper are alike, except in the highest class, and consist of one pint of gruel 
only in the first class (seven days), whilst in the second and third six ounces 
of bread are added ; in the fourth class eight ounces of bread are allowed, 
and in the fifth class the same quantity of bread is allowed, and milk substi- 
tuted for gruel for breakfast, but not for supper. The dinner in the first 
class is one pound of bread. In the second class it consists of half a pound 
of bread and one pound of potatoes twice, four ounces of bread, with one 
pint of pea-soup or a pint and a half of gruel twice, plain pudding and one 
ounce of treacle twice, and twelve ounces of bread alone once per week. In 
the third class the bread and potatoes alone is restricted to once per week ; 
four ounces of bread, one pound of potatoes, and three ounces of cooked 
meat are given once ; four ounces of bread, a plain pudding, and one ounce 
of treacle once ; whilst four ounces of bread and one pint of soup, pea-soup, 
or Irish stew, are given four times per week. In the fourth class the bread, 
meat, and potatoes are given twice (once being instead of bread and potatoes 
alone), the other diets remaining the same. In the fifth class the bread, 
meat, and potatoes are given thrice, the same with half a pint of soup added 
twice, and bread and Irish stew alone twice per week. The soup does not 
contain meat, but is made from meat liquor, oatmeal, and vegetables. The 
pea-soup has the large quantity of six ounces of peas and four ounces of car- 
rots per pint, with mint and pot-herbs. The Irish stew contains three or 
four ounces of meat with sixteen ounces of vegetables. The plain pudding 
is a quart made from eight ounces of flour. As the soup is partly made 
from bones, which are boiled for twenty-four hours, it contains a very essen- 
tial article in abundance, viz. fat. Altogether, this is not only the most 
elaborate dietary in the return, but it seems to be the ultima TTiule in that 
direction, and whatever may be its defects, it certainly evinces an anxious 
desire not only to feed the prisoners suflSciently, but to treat them with the 
consideration due to beings who have the sense of taste. Yet with this diet- 
ary, and with the entire absence of the treadwheel and the crank labour, a 
very large proportion of the prisoners are reported weekly as losing weight. 

The Hertford Gaol at St. Albans * off'ers some peculiarities by which it 
might have been ranged with the foregoing, but it has one which is quite 



Y2 REPORT — 1861. 

distinctive, viz. the absence of supper. The hours of meals are not given ; 
but the fact is stated that onlj' breakfast and dinner are allowed, even to 
those condemned to hard labour, both males and females. Surely this is 
cruelty, and must result from gross ignorance of the wants of the system and 
the responsibilities of those who devised and retain the plan. If there is no 
excess of food left over from the previous day, in those prisons where a meal 
is given at 6 p.m., upon what do the St. Albans prisoners sustain the exer- 
tion of hard labour before the breakfast, when the previous meal was the 
dinner on the previous day ? If sleeplessness results from both repletion 
and want of food, we should like to know how deep is the repose of the 
Hertfordshire felons. The unenviable refinement to which we have referred 
is also further seen in the absence of division of the classes by time, so that 
all the prisoners are fed alike during the first week of imprisonment, whether 
they are sentenced to hard labour or not, and for whatever duration; and 
after the first week the dietary is the same, except that it is varied in refer- 
ence to labour, and further varied in reference to the sex condemned to hard 
labour. Thus there is no increase in the dietary, and hence the nature of 
that dietary is of vast importance. The breakfast uniformly consists of 
twelve ounces of bread and a pint of gruel, except when associated with 
hard labour, when there are sixteen ounces of bread for the men. The 
dinner consists of twelve ounces of bread and one pint of soup (the ingre- 
dients are not stated) four times, and twelve ounces of bread alone thrice 
per week. To females condemned to hard labour, the soup is given daily, 
and there is a further addition for males of four ounces of bread. There 
are thus one pound and a half or two pounds of bread given daily as in 
other schemes of dietary, but it is ill distributed, and whilst there are several 
points in the dietary to be commended, the absence of supper deserves con- 
demnation. As a contrast to this we may refer to the Welsh gaol at Car- 
narvon, in which supper is not only allowed, but it is enriched by the addi- 
tion of a pint to a pint and a half of broth ; but to this we shall again advert. 

We may now consider certain peculiarities in reference to the articles of 
food supplied, which have a certain degree of interest, and in a few instances 
affect an important principle. 

In the four Northumberland gaols the quantity of oatmeal is increased and 
given as porridge where the Government has recommended simply gruel. 
This contains six ounces of oatmeal, instead of two ounces, as ordered for 
gruel, and milk or treacle water. There is also one pound of suet pudding 
given in the third, fourth, and fifth classes in place of the meat, bread, and 
potatoes recommended by Government. It may be questioned if one pound 
of suet pudding is equal to three ounces of cooked meat without bone, half 
a pound of bread, and half a pound of potatoes ; and as the quantities of the 
component articles are not stated, we cannot determine such an inquiry. It 
has, however, this merit, which involves a principle so much neglected in 
prison dietary, viz. the administration of fat with the starch, and is therefore 
so far to be commended. It is also to be noticed to the credit of these in- 
stitutions, that the dietary of the first two classes is better than that recom- 
mended by the Government, since in the first class each prisoner receives 
eight ounces additional oatmeal, besides milk, and in the second class there 
is an addition of eight ounces of potatoes to the dinner. In the return of 
the Alnwick House of Correction there is no provision made for prisoners 
sentenced to a larger term of imprisonment than six weeks, and there is spe- 
cific mention of half a pint of milk in addition to one pint of porridge for the 
breakfast and the supper, but no bread is allowed at those meals. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 73 

The other north-country gaols, of Cumberland and Westmoreland, also 
make large use of oatmeal and milk in their schemes of diet, and the scheme 
is the same in both gaols. The quantity of bread is reduced, and to so re- 
prehensible a degree that, for prisoners confined from seven to fourteen days, 
four ounces of bread alone constitute the whole dinner, — a quantity of food 
less than is supplied at any other prison. For seven days six ounces of bread 
are given at each meal ; with hard labour for six weeks, and no labour for 
three months, one pint of soup is added to the dinner thrice, one pound of 
potatoes thrice, and three quarters of a pint of milk once per week ; and 
when the terms are increased to three months, and beyond three months re- 
spectively, three ounces of cooked meat and half a pound of potatoes are 
given, instead of one pound of potatoes, twice per week. When the sentence 
of hard labour is beyond three months, four ounces of uncooked meat, four 
ounces of bread, and one pound of potatoes are given for dinner thrice per 
week, whilst one pint of soup supplants the meat thrice per week, and three- 
quarters of a pint of milk and six ounces of bread constitute the Sunday's 
dinner. The use of oatmeal is restricted to the breakfast and supper, when 
four or five ounces, with half a pint of milk, without bread, constitute the 
meal. 

The Monmouth Gaol is also remarkable in the quantity of oatmeal sup- 
plied to the prisoners, and for the introduction of Indian meal as an article 
of diet. The two first classes are unchanged, except that the term of the 
second is extended to four weeks. In the third and fourth classes, which 
extend respectively to three months and beyond three months, the breakfast 
consists of no less than eight ounces of oatmeal and half a pint of milk, and 
the supper of six ounces of oatmeal with half a pint of milk and half a pound 
of bread. Both of these are largely in excess of the Government allowances, 
and approach much nearer to the wants of the system. The dinner in the 
third class consists daily of eight ounces of Indian meal and half a pint of 
milk, whilst in the fourth or highest class that food is administered on three 
days per week ; four ounces of cooked meat, without bone, and twelve ounces 
of potatoes twice, and one pint of broth (containing three ounces of cooked 
meat without bone) twice in the week. We believe this to be a better diet- 
ary than that recommended by the Government ; and a foot-note appended to 
the return is satisfactory on this head. It states : " The general health of 
the prisoners is good ; and, for the most part, they leave the prison in better 
condition than when they came in. Prisoners of the third and fourth class 
are weighed on receipt and discharge ; they are kept in association, and they 
almost invariably increase in weight while in prison." It would be interest- 
ing to know if they enter with an average weight. 

A large division of the gaols which offer peculiarities of detail are the 
Welsh. We have already remarked that generally the dietary of the gaols 
of the Principality is less nutritious than that of English gaols, and we may 
further state that only three of the thirteen county gaols have accepted the 
Government scheme. 

In the Carmarthen Gaol the prisoners condemned to hard labour for any 
term receive meat but twice per week ; and that is in the form of soup, of 
which a quart is given ; but the ingredients are not stated ; twelve ounces of 
bread are given with it for terms exceeding two months. When the term 
exceeds three months two ounces of cheese and one pound of potatoes, or 
one pint of gruel, substitute the meat soup on three days per week ; but no 
cheese is allowed for shorter periods ; and thus a prisoner may be kept at 
hard labour for three months and receive twelve ounces of bread for dinner 



74 REPORT — 1861. 

daily, with a quart of meat soup twice, and one pound of potatoes, and one 
pint of gruel each thrice per weeii. The breakfast and supper invariably 
consist of half a pound of bread and one pint of gruel. 

The Carnarvon Gaol introduces a new article of diet, and is unique in 
this particular, viz. buttermilk, one pint of which is added to the dinner 
twice per week. The whole dietary differs from that recommended by the 
Government, and is a subject on which the authorities of the gaol have 
either doubt or pride, if we may judge by the multitude of certificates which 
they have been pleased to append to the return. In all the classes a pint 
to a pint and a half of broth is administered for supper thrice per week 
instead of gruel, and given alone in the first two classes, but with six or eight 
ounces of bread in all the others. This is made from the meat liquor, with 
two ounces of peas, and with green vegetables, and is, therefore, a very valu- 
able addition to the dietary. There is a diminution in the quantity of bread 
and an increase in that of potatoes in the proportion of two ounces of the 
former to half a pound of the latter. Soup is given on three days per week 
to prisoners condemned for periods exceeding twenty-one days ; but no meat 
is allowed separately, except for longer periods than three months, and then 
three ounce's of meat are given separately on three other days per week. 
Taken as a whole, it is an improved dietary. 

The dietary of the Merioneth Gaol at Dolgelly is full of peculiarities. It 
introduces four new articles of diet, viz. cheese, bacon, milk, and boiled rice ; 
but they are not all given on one day or on any fixed rota, but each is con- 
tingent : so that three ounces of bacon meat, without bone, may be substi- 
tuted for eight ounces of bread and four ounces of cheese, or one quart of 
pea-soup or broth, and four ounces of bread ; and one pound and a half of 
boiled rice is regarded as an equivalent for the bread and cheese in one 
place, and for half a pound of bread alone in another. One quart of milk 
and eight ounces of bread may be substituted once per week for any of the 
above dinners. Excepting these various contingencies, which give a com- 
plex air, the scheme is simple ; for it only provides for two classes, compre- 
hending prisoners condemned, respectively, to fourteen and exceeding four- 
teen daj's, without labour; so that a plain bread-and-chee«e dinner, or any of 
the above-mentioned alternatives, is considered sufficient for dinner for any 
period, however long. Broth or soup is given for dinner to the first class. 
The gruel, broth, and pea-soup are each weaker than the gruel and soup re- 
commended by the Government. We cannot but regard this dietary as defec- 
tive in having so many contingencies, and those which differ much in nutri- 
tive value, whilst they are regarded as good substitutes for each other; but 
since the average use of each kind of diet is not stated, it is impossible to 
estimate the true value of this dietary. The extra food allowed for hard 
labour is ridiculously insufficient, viz. six ounces of bread per day ; and the 
whole scheme demands immediate revision. 

The Montgomery Gaol also provides bacon as an article of diet to the 
highest class, or those exceeding three months' imprisonment. The quantity 
allowed is two ounces without bone, added to one pound of potatoes and half 
a pound of bread four times per week, whilst on other days the dinner con- 
sists of one pint of soup and half a pound of bread. For periods varying 
from two weeks to three months, the bacon is omitted. In the first class, one 
pint of soup is given on the Sunday, whilst on other days the dinner consists 
of half a pound of bread only. Bacon as an article of prison dietary is valu- 
able, since it supplies fat, and is also savoury. 

'1 he Denbigh County Gaol at Ruthen introduces us to another noveltj'. 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 75 

viz., scouse, which is composed of beef cut into small pieces, and potatoes, 
in such proportion that one pound and a half of scouse contains 2*18 ounces 
of meat. This has the very patent evil of inaccurate division to each pri- 
soner. The whole dietary is very meagre, since, for all prisoners condemned 
to an imprisonment exceeding a month, the dinner thrice per week is one and 
a half pound of scouse, half a pound of bread, and one pound of potatoes 
four times per week. When the term does not exceed one month, the din- 
ner is composed of five and one-third ounces of bread and one pound of 
potatoes, whilst for seven days five and one-third ounces of bread only con- 
stitutes the dinner. 

In the Glamorgan Gaol at Swansea, the prisoner sentenced to more than 
one month's imprisonment receives a bread-and-cheese dinner, as at some 
other Welsh gaols; but in this one pound of potatoes is added. This is 
given thrice per week, whilst half a pound of bread and a pint and a half of 
soup, containing four ounces of coarse meat, are given four times per week. 
No meat and cheese are allowed for a less period than one month. 

Space will not permit us to continue the analysis of these returns further ; 
but we may remark that at the Bucks and some other county prisons no 
extra food for hard labour is stated in the return ; at the Dorset Gaol, a bread- 
and-cheese dinner is provided three times per week for the highest class ; at 
Durham the dietary is reduced in value for periods up to six months ; at 
Huntingdon there are some meaningless changes in reference to the quantity 
of bread allowed; at the Southampton Gaol, three ounces of cheese are 
considered an equivalent for one pint of soup containing four ounces of raw 
meat without bone, four ounces of potatoes, one ounce of rice, &c. ; and at 
Devon, the soup contains but two ounces of raw meat per pint. 

We have thus made it very evident that uniformity in dietary is not one 
of the characteristics of our prisons, and that those who are condemned to 
imprisonment receive very different treatment in different parts of the king- 
dom. Indeed the diversity is so great, that it would be in vain to prepare a 
tabular statement of the dietary of the forty-four prisons of such moderate 
dimensions, and with so much approach to uniformity, that even the most 
painstaking student could study it with the hope of understanding it; for it 
would be impossible to reduce the return to more general forms, with a view 
of comparing them and committing them to memory. 



Appendix II. 

Punishments and Dietaries of Prisoners, — Address for Returns of the punish- 
ments inflicted under sentences to " hard labour" — 
Of the working of the treadwheel ; 
Of the pressure and working of the crank ; 

Of the weight of Prisoners, and the variations of it due to treadwheel 
and crank labour ; 
in the City, Borough, and County Gaols of the United Kingdom : 
And, of the Dietaries sanctioned for Prisoners in the City and Borough Pri- 
sons of the United Kingdom, and in those County Prisons of the United 
Kingdom in which the Dietary has been changed since the Return of 
" Dietaries for Convicts, &c." ordered by the House of Commons to be 
printed, 21st day of March, 1857, or in which the Dietary is not correctly- 
set forth in that Return : — 



76 



REPORT — 1861. 



Hard 
Labour. 


Treadwheel. 


Crank. 


"E. 

a 

m 

"S 

(U 

E 

s 

a. 
E- 


O) 

to 

3 

£ 

a) 

-M 

J= 
o 

IS 

is 

c 

;-< 

O 

o 


■a 

(U 

■*^ 
^o 

'B 

en 
« 

.2 

(£ 

to 

3 

'a 

s 

"S 

j: 
-.^ 
be 
s 

OJ 
4> 


a 


a 

a 

o 


0) 

ST 

so 

■o 

w 

"5) 
'S 

3 


Number 


i 

o 

'% 

eS 

;-• 

Cm 
O 
CO 

3 
o 


S 

i 

O 


>> 

'3 

-3 
a; 

1 

5 

c 

*^ 
p 


Total 
height in 

feet 
ascended 

daily. 


"3 

0) 

.a 

c 

o. 

3 
4) 

a 
o 

aj 

a, 

a 


C 
3 
3 
1 

-a 
o 

■3 

to— 

0) « 

-3 J= 
*^ 


1 

>> 

« 

D 

J= 
*J 

a 
c 

2- 

tn 

"3 

CD 
< 


Various amounts of pressure in lbs. required to move 
the cranks. 


1 
— 
to 

-3 

a 
ta 

E 

GO 

U 

CO 


^3 
-^ 
■a 

3 

■a 

t/i 

>^ 
"a 

■3 
2 •- 

'S 4) 

a. ^ 


a .a 

a — 
■5 >- 


1^ 

0^ 



GO 

a; 



'to 

.s 

■? 

;^ 

(U 

-a 

c 

GO 


i. 

'$■ 

a 
■a 
ki 
<u 

a< 

CO 

a 
g 

S 
"o 

U 

11 

a S 
>.£ 




1 



J3 

3 
'^ 

a 

?» 



3 . 

a >J 

u 

11 

CO a 
■3 >. 

3 !3 
2 « 




4^ 

.:>£ 

e 

g 

1 



lU 

1 

a 

«4-l 

a 

(U 


a 

S 

s 

a 
a 

a 

u 

s 

a u 
3 

^■§ 
— 

J" 

- 


of steps 
ascended 

per 
minute. 


S 

a 

3 

d 


c 


1 

c 


V 

a 

















































Weight. 






40 
















Average loss of weight 


Hour 






a 


Prisoners received in 


1858, 










with Treadwheel or Crank 


of 




3 

-3 


1859, 


md 1860, of each age 










labour of all prisoners 


weighing. 


£ 


1.1 
"3^ 




on entrance. 












in 1860, committed with 




•a 

to 

a) 


eight re 
n. 










a 
g 


a5 
to 

a 


c3 
a 


sentences of 
























i 


^1 












■ la 




1 














u 


"^ <a 












a 



'O 


-a 














a 


a - 














— 


^ 


. 














-M 










. 


;^^ 

















« 




to 
a 




.a 
to 
'3 


— 













"So 


cn 


1 

a 


3 

a 


CO 

-** 




CO 

S 


C0 

1 



S 


'0 


^ 


a 





CO 


lO 


3 






a 
to 


'/3 




^ 


2 




a 


a 

<u 

a 



a 



CO 

1— 1 


a"! 

s 




to 






CO 


a 
a 


X5 

a 

3 


3 
^ 


C3 


■a 

H 




a 

I— 1 




1— 1 


CO 




CO 



































































ON PRISON JJIET AND DISCIPLINE. 



77- 



Dietaries for Convicted Prisoners, in City and Borough Prisons, and in those 
County Prisons in which the Dietary has been changed since the Return of 
"Dietaries for Convicts, &c." ordered the 27th day of February, 1857. 

llotal quantities per week in each Scale of Dietary, in ounces and parts of an ounce. 



I Scale 

I No. 



1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
&c. 



o o 



o ■ 



Milk, 



1,^ 



Other 

articles of 

dietary. 



Appendix VI. — West-Riding Prison, Wakefield. 

A Table showing the average Weight of Prisoners on Receipt and Discharge 

in each Class of Diet. (Taken for Two Years.) 





Number of 
Prisoners 
weighed. 


Average weight on 




Receipt. 


Discharge. 


1856. 

Table 1 


64 

1030 

757 

156 

48 


lbs. 
113-7 
124-3 
121-5 
128-5 
127-6 


lbs. 
112-9 
122-4 
119-6 
129-4 
125-9 




„ 2 


„ 3 


„ 4 


„ 5 






2055 


123-45 


121-80 




1860. 

Table 1 


174 

1091 

799 

108 

72 


128-9 
124-1 
121-1 
126-7 
125-4 


128-0 
121-8 
118-3 
125-4 
1265 




„ 2 


„ 3 


„ 4 


„ 5 






2244 


123-50 


121-29 





A Statement of the Number and Weight of Prisoners employed at the Tread- 
.----•- - • (Total of Classes.) 



mill in the West-Riding Prison at Wakefield. 



Weeks on Treadmill. 


Persons. 


Loss in lbs. 


Average 

loss 
in lbs. 




One week on Treadmill 

Two weeks „ 


41 

26 

10 

5 


108 

119 

60 

38 


2-63 
4-57 
6-0 

7-7 




Three weeks „ 


Four weeks „ 





78. 



REPORT — 1861. 



bo 
-a 



O cc 

CO ^ 

03 C3 

s.i 

53 .S 



o o 

£^ 

S 



bo 


3 


JUCO 


^ 


o3 


C^ 










^ 


^ 


o 


t4 


l-l 


OJ 




J3 


<1! 


-•^ 


hn 


<u 


m 


fcO 




O 


« 




> 




CIS 


a> 


0) 


&• 


J= 


rli 


•4-9 


3 






br 


O 


B 


a 






> 


^ 


O 


O 


.n 


to 


m 


<J<J 






bl 




vJ 




ca 




<J 


fN 


H 


CO 


< 


t— ( 


1 


T 


1 






OS 


i-t 


a; 


1— 1 
t— 1 


>> 


M 




l-l 




Q 




Z 




W 




ti< 




h 




<1 





«5 


•SS01 


CO Oi <J5 05 (>• 

© .^ F^ 6 "^ 


in 

to 














' 


•BS01 

•sqi 


« 
O 

C5 CO "5 *0 — 
irj -j: ■* ;o 00 

O "91 ■-< 
I—" ^^ 


to 
© 

CO 






en 



5i 

a* 
< 


1 05 •-< 
1 Til© © IN 

t^ <N ffl IN 


IN 


■eianoBUj 


-«c O t>»«0 CO 

to « m ifj -* 


in 
<N 






m 

1-1 


in t>» m OS CO 

in CO — IN m 
CO to IN to © 
iN'co'in -* in 

CO 


CO 

©~ 
in 


00 


•eeoi 
aSBj3Ay 


CO (N © in CO 

1^ tN (N 9» CO 


to 

IM 


©' 
to 

CO 
1— 1 


OS -* »>.(N >7l 
© *> IN r^ F^ 


f-H 

IN 
IN 


•seoi 
•Bqt 


c^ to ira iri © 

— lO to CO (M 


IN 

CO 
■I" 


a 

'5 

. O 

■^'M CO OS © 
t= — ©1 CO 00 

l-l to '^^ 1-1 

IN IN 


00 

s 

in 




Ph 
d 


i^t- © © ■* 
>— IN -ai t>. •* 

"-"iNIN IN in" 

l-H 


CD 

cs 

CO 

©" 

IN 


•ejanoBijj 
■OS. 


CO X5 CO 05 — 
OS -«< <N iM to 

^ ao i-i 


to 
©1 


1)1 -H OS 00 5» 
!» OS OS O t^ 
l-H © »>»l-l 

1^ 


IN 


to 


Brought forward 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 




• 


■SS01 


-.(^^ .-1 to to 

A CO CO *< © 


o 

CO 


cs 

1-^ 


OS © OS IN >— 
© *» IN © >-H 


© 
IN 


g 

H 


•esOT; 
■sen 


05 >n 05 CO -^ 
OS ITS 05 ■«* ITS 

COIN 


OS 
to 


■3 '3 

hh in OS CO CO 
© «^t>.co OS 

^ IN CO 
IN IN 


OS 
IM 

to 


J 

EUD 
CO 
b 

u 
k 

-t1 


CO to m 

in to © IN to 

eocoesiN'^ 


1 


•Bianosijj 


© 00 ■» — t>» 

OS in oj (» t-. 

-HOO-H 
l-H 


CO 
<N 


»-. CO t>. i-i IN 

© CO © COOS 

l-H -H » l-H 

1— 1 


© 

IN 

IN 


Hi 


-<# to t^iN to 

to to -fli l-« © 
to -Ji OS^OO ■'f 

ao''i»to-<j<"co 


in 

in 

CO 
CO 


CO 
l-H 


•SSOrt 
oSBjaAy 


^- 03 CO CO P3 


CO 

to 

CO 


00 

in 

00 


to IN -"f IN CO 
© IN IN >^ >^ 



IN 


•esoi 
•eqi 


© -»(" 00^ CO 

m CO t>. CO IN 

« m OS in ©^ 
■^ ©» 


to 

to 

00 


'3 

CO© If -H CO 

to ». CO CO CO 

CO CO — IN 
IN IN 


m 


6 

12; 


to to -* to in 
00 05 IN in in 

-«)< IN CO <N c>_ 
(N IN IN on" in" 


f-H 


•Bjanosuj 


OS t^in ^ ^H 

CO (N to -* t-. 
(N >>.i-i 


to 

05 
<N 
IN 


to CO © to in 
© " OS m *^ 

-HCOOO-H 
?-H 


© 
m 




IN CO ■># m to 
in in in in in 

GO 00 CO 00 OD 
•— 1 rH l-H r^ ^H 


in 

GO 


•BBOri; 

oSBJSAy 


■* CO OS CC M 
F^ CO CO CO IN 


in 

CO 


m 

CO 


to CS OS in to 


OS 


•BS01 

•Bqi 


OS CO -^ (M 1-1 

o in to CO © 
l-H m <M in <N 

■^ CO 


to 
to 

00 


'3 *3 
00 

CO to -H to CO 

m CO CO OS OS 
p-« — toiN 
©1 "^ 


CO 
to 

CO 






•^ 




■swnoBuj 

•Oil' 


in 00 00 — -<* 

M 00 rt 

l-H 


to 

00 


•^ OS m 00 00 

OS Tji s-i cs in 

'H OS -H 

l-H 


IN 
IN 


s 

a 

s 


. 


-- (N CO-* m 




si 


-H CI rt 1^ in 






5 1 











ox PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 



73 





■^ rt ^ CO 00 CO 


© 


•|)3ip 1!j;X3 


^ »» GO 05 C3 CO 


© 


no poomd 


M *f^ 05 OS iH CO 
rt ©^ (N i-i 


S 


sSBjudoaoj; 




^H 






® -* . . 


3! 




1 '"?' 


© 






1 66 ' ' ' 


© 




Hi a is 






all 
C5 0.& 


-« »^*it>. 






<>' 1 I 9 r r 


1 


S" !^ 






«1 


oo O.S 


©«>.-*«>. >o 


(>. 




"^ 1?^ r^ Ci ^ © 


T 




8-=S 


(M (N <N " (N IN 


(N 




tSa-2 








•- ti ,• 








P-S a 
'S'E's 


(>.« "N CO lO W 


(N 




Its 03 — — ■>! T- 


(M 




^ -^ <>« (>^ 5N CO 


IN 




O H.!^ 










c © 


© 




s 


1 -i"* 1 1 1 


to 




o 


1 — 'M 1 1 1 


t-. 




Hi 


to to 


to 






OS -" 


•—1 




lO © ifl o 








C5 1 1 CO M — 


1 






«•) 1 1 tc ^ in 


1 




C5 


OS -qi tc US 








ifl O m O O lO 


in 


B 


-1^ 


00 O to 05 © O 


«>. 


13 


o 


© 30 00 © ro © 




S 


H) 


— M— o«ooo 


l-H 


3 




00 03 00 <» -Tf (N 


© 


o 






CO 




© © in © "5 Its 


in 




S 


00 05 (M >>« CO .- 


1— 1 


15 




CO ^ 50 t» -)" to 


^ 


'S 


© i>. o t iri CO 


-»fi - 




cS 


© «5 !0 «0 LO CO 








»-^ 


CO 


E 


§^ 


00 lO «>. «5 00 (N 


© 




■J&' 


CO Ci ©J © © — 


© 


8 


5 ca 


1— t 1— I 1— t 






ai 






C43 


CO to © CO f! «0 


t^ 





■s.a= 


■M (N © IC -* "-1 


to 


o 


O 1, 


-* irj m ■* -^ ■* 


-* 


f 


1-^ is 






^t3 


C5 © CO ■r? t>.o 


-1< 










t4 




00 O.© '* -* ». 


CO 


r? 

^ 




■^ CO ^ "^ "^ ^ 


■<i< 




S • 


in — © CO '-H ». 


t-. 




.2 t^ 


© in -ti © so ^ 


0^ 


g 


13 


t-» t^ «>*»>* in CO 


CO 
CO 




00 






p-( 




-* F-. CO ■<*' © CO 


-* 




'S ^ 


t>. -)i CO t — !0 


«>. 






CO — CO © CO CO 


© 




i-J S 


CO -* CO CO S'J F-" 


CO 


(jji . 






a 


"S 


-H 00 © CO — t^ 


in 


3 




© 00 © to CO ^ 


<N 


^ 


31 


© © © © CO in 


CO 


CO (N CO IN (M ^ 


to 


•paqSiaM 


© © CO in i-H t>. 


to 


Bjsnosud 


© 00 ID t>. Ol N 


N 


JO'OM 


«-» t>. t>. to in SO 


00 
CO 


*3 






1- 


i -a =i 




§2 


"3 5 ^ M-S & 




i 

O *3 


•S 2 S S ^ -2 


o 




H 




03 







•^aip 


GO 


■^ 


00 -^ 


^H 


CO 




■Bj^xa iio 


fO 


«o 


to © 


o 


in 




aSBjuaojoj; 


(N 


(N 


CO CO 


^ 


CO 

00 






IP 






CO 


•-4 






ftc^ 


1 


I 


1 '^ 


QO 


i-H 






















^■ai 






' ^ 


<ffl 


® 






g|1 


cn 


1— t 


© 










a g'M 


GO 


«>. 


■^ 1 


1 


1 






































OaS: 














u 






























> 

< 






W 


■* »-. 


-* 


s 






^'S a 


00 


© 


© © 


© 


© 






".2 o 


t-» 


'i" 


»n m 


© 


to 






1-^ a 














n n ^. 
















J -J tc 




1>» 


to »— 


(^ 


(M 


1~ 
s 
o 




.s s;s 




to 


in m 

«b in 


CO 


OS 

in 


■^ 










m 


© 


© 


h-l 








I 


1 ■* 


>-H 


in 




o 


1 


1 


1 <N 


to 


OJ 


o 

-4^ 


-»3 


Hi 






CO 
(N 


IN 


I--. 


•4^ 




© 


in 


© 






60 




a 
■3 


® 

CO 


© 


§5 1 


1 


1 


OJ 




O 




IN 


CO 






'^ 






in 


in 


O "S 


O 


in 


^«-l 




^ 


(— ( 


,^ 


(>• o> 


I— 1 


© 


o 


ns 


o 


CO 


© 


CO t^ 


-* 


-* 




h^ 




to 




■T 






s 




!N 


to 


l-H 


-H 


o 


o 












l-H 




^ 














-»H 














oj 


•s 




in 


© 


© o 


© 


m 


<U 




4) 


l-H 


© 


© in 


© 


in 




;?; 






© 


to m 


OO 


-H 


4) 


s 


CO 


© 


© m 


l-H 


O 




c 




in 


-* 






















M 


ec 




CO 


CO 


to (N 


to 


!>. 




§ 


f— 1 


m 


in -^ 


l-H 


-* 


% 


« § 


»-H 










o 




05 
















1* 


» 


CO 00 


■^ 


00 




o 


•s tJ" 


(M 


«>. 


o» in 


CO 


CO 






O -J 


CO 


« 


CO lO 


*>- 


-* 


> 


M 


H^ S 










1 
















X 




'S'EJo 


CO 


to 


to © 


© 
o 


in 

to 


Q 


1^ 


in 


in 


m ■* 


(N 


-^ 




a 












Oi 


m 


.2 A 


00 


m 


in to 


CO 


t 


(U 








t>. 


— CO 




CO 


< 


o 










•■^ 




x 

p^ 


tr-ij 


CO 


-t 


«>» <M 


m 


^^ 






O: 


S'- 


© in 


-J' 


in 




^ 


o ^ 




in 


^^ l-H 


l-H 


© 

l-H 




-i2 
















bD - 
















n - 


<~ 


S: 


«» to 


t^ 


(N 




3 


"STo 


■fl 


^H 


■^ (rj 


CO 


to 




Izi 






oc 


-< CO 




CO 




•psqgian 




■-< © -f 


>n 


^ 




Bjauosud 


t^ l-H to to 
■* (N © 


oo 


© 




jo-o^ 






(N 




■^ 














































.s§ 












t c» I 


•: 2 






■«•-• 














. u 












w r 






• OJ 








^1 


t 

c 

c 
C 


: £ 

O 0. 

S c 
ho: 


5 « •- 




J "1 > 2 
£ ^ ea 3 

S ^ g^ 

•^ « ^-2 

« ci s cs 


o-.S 

H £ 


1 



80 



REPORT — 1861. 



CD 



Ml 



C 
O 



Si 

a 
o 

CO 



n 

Hi 

<3 



•:j9Tp 'B.tpC^ 








no 






9SB^aaojaj 








la's 


1£5 O *^ t^ 


00 






I 1 1 O O CO © 1 






1 1 1 O-^HO^ 1 


© 




i-^l as 






Co ?; 


^ (N t>. to 






CC CO o — 

^^^ 1 1 1 1 _ 


1 


to 


cb p^fe 














t>- 


i" ■" 






<1 


as^ 


©-^ij:5«>.OININt^ 


<N 




»oco;oOi-H»r5COCO 


© 




g s s 


■^^■^iflOtbsbiJi 


to 




h^ c- 






5< t- ^■ 










cioto-^ooifsmco 


(N 




co^>ocoM©-*»o 


C5 




«>»5bii3'i5>ntbtb«b 


Its 




O aac 










lO Its Its © 


© 






1 1 I m 00 -" to 1 


in 







1 1 1 r- CT lO lO 1 


IN 




Kl 


^ CO o. 


»» 


0^ 




F— I 






lO lO lis © 








■^ b* to 1 1 1 1 OD 


1 




§ 


t»tD in 1 1 1 1 (N 


1 




C5 


-H to CO CO 




OQ 




©itSicSifSiniOiOits 


lO 




■s 


05©(NtOCCO-. tot^ 


© 




OSCOCO— •-"OCOirs 


■* 


1^ 


■^ to 00 iC c^ ic to 


». 


£ 


CO (N <M 


•— ' 


%- 






'"' 










u 


•c 


io©o©©©>ts«ts 


in 


^ 


1 


eoocos — ©cc©in 


in 


H 


.g 


t>.05ao©o-. -*coco 


l-H 


p 


3 


(N©O5CCC0tOQ0C5 


© 


|Zi 


4 


i-i (^^ <M »— 


1—4 


12 


■2 b 


00aD©«>.tO'>9lO5t» 


«>. 


o 


|g 


■^(Mtoirsco-^usifl 


■<* 


•c 


cc 














•11° 


ipt-»b»CCiC©00© 

lo-^Cicc-rfiojcb-- 


00 

cfc 




O IJ 


C0C0^-*«5-*"S-^ 


'fll 


bQ 


ri ^ 






1 










t^ioecirsoitococo 


in 


f" 


g-ajD 


CJiMCOiC — tC©CO 


to 


a 


'S g 


lOtOifS'^'-^-^l'irS 


-* 


Ph 


|& 








a 






n 


-2 b 


COODOOSOOIN — to 


t- 


?i 


ss 


0» rt CO ^ -* i-i 


00 


o 


00 






g 


&C*i 


iM©tO— «>«©C5tO 


>— 4 


eq©cotot>-tot^'— 


s 


O 


o S 


^H rH f-H ICS *<t CO ^^ 


C5 
r- 1 


-o 








M^ 








d3 ^ 


W©O0©-*0O-nip-l 


(M 


p 


eoooi>.«5-*cocciifs 


to 


fe 


l-H 1-4 1— 1 M" "^ 0^ •— t 










•p 


auosud 


(MCC^©C5©-*CO 


© 


tD0DC0C0»C'^©CO 

<N CO CO © c; t>. «^ 


© 
© 


i 


o-oii 


rH 


T)l 










































■a 












































« 






















i: 






















a, 






o 
















3 






^ 










-*© © — 

(NCO^^ 


_< 


























« 


o 






O.OOSSO'-'O^-^ 


H 






^— -<<NIMIMC0-<1< 





ffi 






C 
O 












o 

CO 



p 
<3 



•!}9Tp -8.1^:3 


© 05 S-l in C5 


CO 




UO 


© in CO ^ to 


in 


0Sb:JU90J3^ 


5^ (N eo-^ in 


CO 




f- ^-d 








?; i^ 


in o 


00 






1 1 1 C5 — 


»— I 




s.i.5f 


1 1 ' ©A, 


© 












i-:i afc 






^ t- r-J 








?^ i s 


1-. (Ne^ 






-S "I" 


00 ■* © 1 1 


1 




©6© ' 1 




bJD 


Cba^ 






















t> 


^ ti 






■< 


!-§s 


-* © eq ^ M 


IM 




-^ Oi t^ © Ci 


© 




J-p 


■<ji Tji in b« t^ 


to 




in in to rt © 


(N 




.£i:a 


1^ to to l>. -H 


05 




in in in to t- 


m 




cS a** 










© in 


© 




CD 


1 1 I <N -^ 


ih 






int^ 


<N 


_^ 


l-i 


C5 


CO 


125 










m ©© 








«>.co CO 1 1 


1 




(S 


FH CO -* 1 


1 




c5 


5^ 




05 




© in o in in 


in 




■419 


© (N CC (M «>. 


© 


§ 




■<? CO O 00 t^ 


-* 




h^ 


CO CO t>»<N 


«>. 


Ph 


^ to CO 


f— 4 


tt-. 






l-H 










u 




in 'n © in © 


in 


-o 


01 


t^ © — © to 


in 


fl 




m t^ in CO © 




3 




in CO 00 oq 


© 


fc 


c!s 


" to N 


^ 


s 


.2>> 


© CC © to in 


». 


o 


« « 


m CO m -* i-i 


Tl4 


'S 


tc 












H^ 




© „ _ TJH 05 


QO 


o 




in <>* t^ CO CO 


CC 




O OJ 


''5' "^ ■'!)' in ir: 


■<t 


b£ 


1-^ s 








P 








.55 


© -H qip to 

© c; t« (fl -fl- 


in 
to 


ij 


■S £ 


in Tp -ai ■* ■* 


•<* 


Ph 


cb^ 








a 








.2 k> 


i-i (M «>. to F^ 


i>» 


fl 


« « 


I-H 


CC 


.2 


tc 












Ph 


•si 


C «:^ CO «>. m 


^m( 




to © CO CO 


in 


"T^ 




<N -H in 


OS 




3b 


l-H 










d 


a -S 


© CC CO <N a 


51 


3 




— (» «•> IN 0^ 


to 


a 




IM — ■» 


CO 

4— 1 


■p 


aijSiaM 


o t^ CO in in 


© 


BJ 


auoeud 


C<1 to -T © tc 
m CO © 


© 
© 


J 


o-oil 


(N rt 


-"Jl 




0' 




























fl 














l-H 


05 














"* (N to © ■>* 


, , 




-4^ 

•a 


J^tDtOWb. 






'^ \ 11 


o 




a> 


^ C5 « «>.-H 


H 




w 


fin to to »> 





^r 



ITofact panes].'} 



Appendix X.— Experimcnls made at Wakefield Gaol, 1861. 
Two Tailors — Light labour. 



Date. 


Daily Ingesta. \ 


Daily Egcsla. 




Weight of body, 

in lbs. and oM. 

avoirdupois. 


Urea 

to 1 lb. 

of 

body- 
weight. 


Bread. 


Chloride of Sodium 

besides ihflt in Ibe 

bread. 


W.ler 
(not in food). 


Fiecea. 


Urine. 
Quantity. 




Nitrogen, daily. 


Chloride of 
Sodium. 


Quantity. 


Nitrogen. 






No. No. 
182. 181. 


Aver- 
age. 


No. 
182. 


No. 
164. 


Avenge. 


No. 
182. 


No. 

184. 


ATcr- 

«Se. 


No. 
182. 


No. 
164. 


Per 
CAnt., 
both. 


Total 
daily 
quan- 
tity. 


No. 
182. 


No. 
1S4. 


Aver- 
age. 


Per 
'of' 


Total 
daily. 


Urine. 


Total in 
urine 
and 
ficces. 


[ncacli 

11. oz 

of 

urine. 


Total 
daily 

urine. 


No. 
182. 


No. 
184. 


Aver- 
age. 


1861. 

Jane 28 
.. 29 
,. 301 

Sundaj/ 

July 1 

" 2 

„ 3 

,, fi 

SundBy} 
July 8 
-. 9 
,. 10 


10,913: 10,S98 
10,849 10.338 
10,;9l' 11,192 

10.908 10.748 
10.988 10,721 
12.612, 10.500 

9.652; 10,145 
10,430 10,446 

4.275 10.095 

10,854 10,343 

10.206: 9.187 
9.830! 11.331 
9,893 11,256 


grs. 
I0.90G 
10.594 

10.992 
10.828 
10.658 
11.556 
9,699 
10.438 
10.685 

10.599 
9,69- 
10.58 
10.575 


P5. 
194 
Uli 

20U 
187t 
190 

ire' 

■221 
202 
190) 
192 
231 


gn-i gra. 
49 121-5 
75i 108-5 
45^' 123-5 
8;i 137-5 
86 , 138 
92 142-2 
102V 140*2 
115 1 169-5 
143!, 1!2 7 
42} 166-5 

3? i 116 
4U 136-2 
40 1 128-5 


18 
16 
15 

4 
29 
10 

9 

8 
17i 

91 

5 
15 

Hi 


a.oe. 

1?' 
17 
10 
31 

5 

3i 

l* 
11 

9 
7 
9! 


8. oz. 
14* 
Wi 
16 

7 
30 

12} 
10* 

7 
11 

Hi 


oz. 

6-88 

4-33 

5G 

7-53 

5-55 

4-83 

; 7-09 

1 5-55 

1 6-21 

5-66 

4-83 

1 509 

5-53 


oz. 
9-66 
7-19 
10-85 

n-41 
5-35 
9-64 

10-28 
506 

1082 

59 
10-1 
4-53 
5-73 


gra. 

•789 

■71 
103 
•88 
•77 
1-08 
■79 
■98 

■93 
116 
1-14 


grs. 

28-5 

24-43 

24-51 

27-59 

2927 

25-1 

29-45 

24-77 

30-48 

24-42 

28-23 


fl. oz. 
44-4 
59^17 
35^4 
400 
31-7 
32-4 
34 9 
35-7 
49-0 
33-3 
38^4 
33-8 
39-3 


11. OE, 

56-6 
39-04 

4345 

50-67 
43-3 
38-5 
41-0 
40-0 
47-5 
42-5 

390 
41-5 
40-0 


fl. OZ. 

SO-.-) 

4D1 

39-45 

4.5-38 

37-5 

35 45 

3795 

37-85 

48-25 

37-9 

38-7 
3765 
39-G5 


grs. 

14-4 

14-76 

14-7 

12-30 

13-36 

13-71 

14-44 

15-64 

13-83 

14-4 

17-04 

18-8 

164 


725 
580 

569 
501 
45G 
547 
592 
GG8 
540 
C60 
708 
650 


gis. 
330-4 
338-8 
271-0 
265-8 
234-1 
2130 
2.'i5-6 
278-5 
3121 
255-5 
307-4 
376-fi 
303 7 


g". 

299-5 

295-23 

258fil 

240-59 

284-87 

303 G 

341-55 

280-27 
337-88 
401 02 
33193 


grs. 
3-0 
3-6 
3-0 

2-7 
3-0 
2-7 
3-6 
3-6 
2-7 
4-0 
40 
4-0 
4-0 


,ri'-5 

176-7 
118-3 
122-4 
112-5 
95-7 
136-6 
1350 
130-27 
151-G 
154-8 
150 
158-6 


125 23 
125 2 

125 IH 

125 105 
125 Bj 
125 13^ 
120 3j 
120 21 

125 Ibi, 

126 4i 
120 

125 m 

125 13i 


117 8 
118 

UB IH 

118 55 

119 
118 133 

118 10? 

119 7 

118 9i 

119 3i 

119 H 

118 9 

119 5i 


121-35 
121 35 
121-28 
122-21 
122-0 
122-26 
122-36 
122-43 
122-8 
12227 
122-75 
122-53 
12214 
1220 


i'i2 

5-91 
4-74 
4-66 
409 
3-72 
4-46 
4-82 
5-46 
4.44 

5.39 
5-79 
5-3 

























Two Matting Weavers. — Heavy 


abour 
























Daily Ingesta. 


Daily Egesta. 




Weight of body, 

in lbs. and ozs. 

avoirdupois. 




Date. 


Bread. 


Chloride of Sodium 

besides that iu the 

bread. 


Water 
(not in food). 


Ffficea. 


Urine. 
Quantity. 


Urea. 


Nitrogen, dally. 


Chloride of 
Sodium. 


Urea 

to 1 lb. 

of 

body- 
weight. 


Quantity. 


Nitrogen. 


























Total 








Per 






Total in 


IneachI Total 










No. 


No. 


Aver- 


No 


No 


Average. 


No. 


No, 




No. 


No 




daily 


No. 


No. 


Aver- 


fl. oz. 


Total 


Urine. 


urine 


fl, oz. 


daily 


No. 


No. 


Aver- 


* 




7. 


39. 


age. 


7. 


39. 


7. 


39. 


age. 


7. 


39. 


both. 


quan- 


7. 


39. 


age. 


of 


daily. 


and 


of 


in 


7. 


39. 


age. 




























tity. 








urine. 








urine. 


mine. 










1861. 


m. 


grs. 


m- 'f^ 


pT». 


gn. 


fl.oz. fl.oz 


fl.oz. 


oz 


oz. 


gn. 


grs. 


fl.oz. 


fl.oz. 


fl.oz. 


g". 1 grs. 


grs. 


grs. 


grs. 


grs. 


140 e)'i47 34 


146-87 


grs. 


Jone28 n2.9Be: 12,848 12,918 86j 


38 


625 


31i , 60 


454 










30-8 


62-3 


49-55 




313-4 






1189 


140 10 |14G Gj 


146-51 




„ 29 ; 14.543. 14.664 14.604 88 


39 


63-7 


40 !gi 


50+ 




5-9r, 






427 


6115 


5J 92 


138 1 717 


3350 




2-7 


140 1 


140 3^146 4^ 


14625 


4-9 


,. 30 


11.526 14,305 12,917 7fH 


Son. 




14 


IG 


15 






1-03 


26-41 


41-06 


48-9 


44-98 


15-36 1 691 


3229 


349-31 


24 


107-9 


147 6*140 11 


147-1 


4 7 


July 1 


13.607,13.475 13.541 69 


37 i 


53-2 


40 


174 


283 




10.33 


l-?4 


34 10 


53^8 


40- 


46-9 


14-761 G92 


323-3 


357-46 


3-3 


164-7 


147 94146 11 


147-15 


4-7 


.. 2 


13.127! 12,407 12,767! 73 


37 


55 


40 


29 


344 


10-11 


8-5? 


lift 


46-26 


53-9 


35-7 


408 


13-89 


63 7 


297-3 


343-56 


3-9 


178G 


146 10i:i40 13^ 


14675 


4-34 






13.629! 13.758 13.694 88i 


42 


65-2 


29 


40 


34i 


80 


1.3 


1-10 


50/1 


29-4 


42-9 


40-15 


15-42 


55K 


202G 


313-31 


3-6 


166-8 


147 0^146 \V; 


146-9 


3 62 




, 4 




4i}\ 


72-7 


40 


40 


40 


5-35 


9-?3 


104 


34-60 


455 


45- 


4525 


159 


710 


331-8 


306-40 


3G 


162 9 


147 .51140 14 


147-11 


4-83 






41 


G3-5 


4» 


40 


40 


4-32 


7-94 


0-97 


2001 


55- 


44- 


49-5 


15-45 


765 


357-3 


383 31 


3-3 


103 3 


147 2 il46 05;UG-5t 


5-21 






50 


715 


40 


29 


34* 


10-94 


864 


1-35 


57-8 


74- 


40-5 


57-25 


13 .'i3 


775 


362-1 


519-9 


2-7 


154-5 


MO 4 146 10 1 140-4; 


529 








25^ 


58-7 


30* 


14 


22i 


1-72 


14-4 


1-00 


35-28 


48-5 


37-5 


43- 


15-87 


683 


3191 


354-38 


27 


1101 


148 3il47 12^|l47-9f 


461 








54 


74-5 


33 


411 


36i 


10-7 


5-28 


V31 


45-81 


49- 


44- 


4G-5 


15-2 


707 


330-3 


37611 


3-0 


107-4 


146 I4i 


M7 12 


147-32 


4-8 








76J 


82 '2 


50 


40 


45 


0-74 


1284 


1-05 


45-03 


46- 


40- 


46- 


100 


736 


343-9 


388-93 


3-6 


1650 


144 15] 


147 IH 


146-31 


5 02 






6G 


73 


40 


2tt 


34i 


10-48 


10-45 


105 


481 


42^ 


46-5 


44-25 


17-84 


790 


3691 


417-2 


3-6 


159-3 


144 9^ 


147 2^ 


140-36J 5-39 1 



ON PRISON DIET AND DISCIPLINE. 



81 







-* ■* ^•^ — O CO 


^ o 


■* 


CO 






6o6' ' ' ' '66l6 


r 1 1 <? 


o ' 


o 
o 




MS.* 










o S-a 












-c i 


, . , rt -- IM 00 O f 


05 »■ 


00 




li 

e , 

> 

< 


a o-6„ 


! 1 \ttttt 1 l§ I 

o 


issi 


IS 


1 




»0-^^^O■^C^M<*r5«>•^HOCa 


05 M OS 05 


o to 


CO 




» S-s 


C>JINCO--C>)COOO';<(NOC1 


CM (M O O 


CI r-> 


f^ 




S-cS 


<N<N(NC^INC4(NCJ^CMIN.^ 


(fa cj CO IN 


it N 


CI 




►^ or 












tOr-(rt-J>iOt^--tD-*«3T)<cO 


O ■* M -H 


o 00 


■* 




c °;3 

c3 "E 3 


C^OOO»y*cO«;^t— tOMt-HOi— < 


O -9< CO >^. 


O CO 


<>1 




NiNF^^i(ra(Ne^MiN(Ncgc^ 


N N <N OJ 


(N IN 


N 




O ^"5 












^ 


tp O O kO o o 


lO o 


in 


in 






o 1 , eb 


00 1 


in 




^ 


r-l 1 CT> 


<=> 


05 




O ' ' TJI 


^ ' 


ffO 


«3 

!2i 




M 


-«< 


o 


t^ 




iO irt o o o o 


oo 


o 






d 


1 1 i^^O»^^^ebi |<J3| 
1 lcoeo-n<05m I li-H 1 

' ' ' " OiCM CO ' ' ' 


, CO o , 
I o « 1 


1 ^ 

Is 


1 




■3 




O 






i-i c^ 


O) -H 


■»• 




09 




ooiprfspoiooirtoino 


»o O O ip 


o ta 


in 




■J 


•Tj<i— t(>jaoin»^»ncooirtCiO 


«^ •* Ci o 


oo CO 


i^ 


3 


o 


«^.n«^«^cjcDcoccoooc>j.o 


CI »rt c^ o^ 


00 o 


T!< 


o 


)^ 


(NOCOIOI^CO^'J'OOICOCO 


o »^ «5 >n 


CM 'Tt* 


4-^ 


Ph 




■v-'rincococococ^-vcococo 


CO o o> o 


■*}* O 


•* 


tt-l 

o 

in 






— ' — ' -^ 


CM CM 


^ 


'O 


irtOoooo»ooooi/50 


O lO o o 


in in 


o 


J3 


.s 


eoooDOinwocicoiOLOt^ 


c^ «^ c> ^^ 


c> to 


to 


(M,j<rt^^jCJc^t^O-H^CO 


00 tO O Ci 


i^ to 


■^ 


a 


03 


l^-^Ot^OOCOM-GDCOincOW 


■^ CO ^ o 


00 -w 


CO 


^ 


o 


eocOi-ceocOiOCO-*cococoeo 


00 CM — c O 


00 TI> 


CO 








"^ — 1 — ' 


-^ CM 


■^ 


(a 
u 




e^r-ico-*«poa3t>.05e*icoc» 


00 lO ■* CO 


CO o 


■?* 


OOOOOOCSOOCJOOOOO^ 


(i) OS c» CI 


6» 6i 


o 




re 


>-l r^ 










'^cOOCTi^^OO'— t^HCOiOCO 


to -* tp -^ 


05 O 


t>. 


o 


"3 ti) 

31 


CSQOIM'i^OCS*^ .br-^*^'^*^ 


CO CO o o 


C^ CO 


to 


0) 

-2 
a 


^-5<to-<i<-<j<co-*eoo-<(.-.j.-fl« 


ir5 '^ -^ "^ 


-^ -Tt* 


-V 




■*Ortl-.c0-*(>l(>lOO(M00 


O rt O CO 


00 o 


OJ 


i! 


c be 


(N.^mOT-rtOub©cbir5C< 


»-^ l^ t^ CO 


o «>. 


CO 


1^ 


II 


^'3>(M-^-*iO-q<0^'a'il<-«« 


CO -). T>> -V 


•<J< Tjt 


■* 




1 


OX<NONCOCOMCT>MC^(N 


to to ■* to 


CM O 


CM 




la" 


»— ti-^Oin*rtirt*5*coc^-ri^o 


0^(0 


to t>. 


CO 


E 

s 


cococococoeocococoeocorj 


o o o o 


o o 




CQ 




r— rH r-i 


CM CM 


■o< 




0000(M-(<-«in<OrH^00CON 


00 CO 00 CO 


1— t -M 


CM 


1— lOi^oosira-^^Hoo^*— "00 


O lO CO to 


to o» 


in 


O 


00. Sr 

o a 


OOO^C4^Wy3"^iOC^OOt-tOO 


oj^oo CO o^ 


o ■* 


in 


t( 


1^ is 


f-T i-T C^ rt ^ ,4" r-T rH -^ rH i-T i-T 


lo'V-^in" 


fH-qT 


o" 


^ 
S 








•-H 


CM 


'5 S 


tf^^-iOOCOt^OOOJCO'^-^OC* 


-# 00 m Oi 


CO »>. 


O 


'3<^OCO!M— cCMOt^C^CO— • 


to 1^ o t>» 


^^ t>» 


CM 




^D_»I^O^t>*^(0^0 O^ "^ to «D iO 


CM CM 0> «>. 


O CM 


CO 




CjS^ 




-<<^ itT TjT TlT 


oTo 


cT 








l-H 


r-t 


•s 


0) , 


Ot>.CJcOco — -H«-*-*-Hco 


00 t» ^ oo 


O 00 


-<J< 




S-^ 


»-^'^coC5l>»eo^H.^3^0oeoc^in 


kO C> '^ o 


to CO 


O 


d 


2 M 


0D^«^<Ot^Ot>»O"^5OI>«OiO 


C^i-^tO_05 


•-<_00^ 


o 


to 


■Rl 


eo CO co'co co'c<o"coco'co''cO co'co" 


« ,-^o"cr 


Cm'-h" 


■^ 






i— 1 l-H i-H -H 


CM CM 


■^ 




t 

c 

•-a 




c 


c 


> 


, 1 

■-3 


_> 


a 
■• t 

< 


oil 

ui O 


ii 


1. 2, ts 3 

-4J O k- J-" 

.S « -S o 


n 

-S s 

.s a 


Is 

"3 



1861. 



82 REPORT— 1861. 

Freight as affected by Differences in the Dynamic Properties of Steam- 
ships. By Charles Atherton, Chief Engineer, H.M. Dockyard, 
Woolwich. 

The national importance of steam shipping is a theme which demands no 
demonstration; and any attempt to originate, promulgate, and popularize 
inquiry into the comparatively economic capabilities of the steam-ship as 
devoted to the international conveyance and interchange of the products of 
nature and of manufacturing art, irrespective of its application as an engine 
of war, is a task which requires no laboured introduction in support of its 
being favourably received for consideration by an association devoted to the 
advancement of science. 

The former papers on ' Tonnage,' 'Steam-Ship Capability,' and 'Mercan- 
tile Steam Transport Economy,' which tiie author of this further communica- 
tion has been permitted to present to the British Association, and which 
appear in the volumes of its 'Transactions' for the years 1856, 1857, and 
1859, were devoted to an exposition of the technicalities of the subject as 
respects the mutual quantitative relations which displacement, speed, power, 
and coal hold to each other in the construction and equipment of steam- 
ships with a view to the realization of definite steaming results. So far, 
therefore, these investigations have had reference to the constructive equip- 
ment of steam-ships; but the course of inquiry now submitted for considera- 
tion is intended to be a practical exposition of the extent to which the expense 
per ton weight of cargo conveyed is affected by the various conditions of 
size of ship, dynamic quality of hull with reference to type of form, weight 
of hull with reference to its build, the economic properties of the engines 
with reference to the consumption of fuel, and the steaming speed at which 
the service is required to be performed, all which circumstances, respectively 
and in their combinations, affect the economic capabilities of steam-ships for 
the conveyance of mercantile cargo, and consequently freights charged, to 
an extent not publicly known because hitherto not specially inquired into 
nor promulgated by the press, and which in the distinctive details above set 
forth do not appear to have been duly appreciated even by the parties most 
deeply concerned in the mercantile control and prosecution of steam-shipping 
affairs. The aggregate expenses incidental to the prosecution of steam 
transport service must generally regulate the average rates of freight at , 
which goods are conveyed; and, seeing to what an extent the ultimate cost 
of manufactured goods is dependent on the cost of transport, often repeated, 
as freight charges generally are in the various stages of transition of material 
from the raw to its manufactured condition and its ultimate consumption as 
a manufactured article, it becomes evident that this investigation especially 
concerns the manufacturing interests of the country. Economy of price 
inducing quantity of consumption, is the characteristic feature of the manu- 
facturing enterprise of the present day ; and it is the absolute cost of goods 
which affects consumption, irrespectively of the various causes in detail by 
which the cost may have been enhanced. Under these circumstances, it is 
remarkable to what extent the manufacturing interests, though keenly alive 
to legislative imposts, whether foreign or domestic, affecting the cost of 
goods, and sensitively jealous of legislative interference in the control of 
labour, as affecting the cost of manufacture, pass wholly unheeded deficien- 
cies and imperfections in the practical control of shipping with reference to 
freight charges, though equally affecting the ultimate price of manufactures. 
Such incongruity demonstrates the necessity for popular exposition and 
inquiry into the various circumstances and combinations of circumstance* 



ON FREIGHT AS AFFECTED BY DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 83 

which directly affect the expenses incidental to the conveyance of merchan- 
dise by steam-ships, and by which the rates of freight are in the aggregate 
necessarily regulated. Freight, therefore, is the text of the following dis- 
course, to which attention is directed under the variouc aspects of steam- 
ship construction and management, by which freight charge is affected, and 
which may be classified under ten heads or sections, as follow : — 

Section A. — Freight, as affected by variations of the size of the ship by 
which the service is performed. 
B. — Freight, as afiected by variations in the constructive type of 

form of the hull. 
C. — Freight, as affected by variations in the working economy 

of the engines, with reference to the consumption of coal. 
D. — Freight as affected by variations in the constructive weight 

of the hull, with reference to its load displacement. 
E. — Freight, as affected by variations in the constructive type 
of form combined with variations in the working economy 
of the engines. 
F. — Freight, as affected by variations in the size of ship com- 
bined with variations in the constructive type of form and 
in the working economy of the engines. 
G. — Freight, as affected by variations of the steaming speed at 

which it is required that the service shall be performed. 
H Freight, as affected by variations of the size of ship com- 
bined with variations of speed. 
I. — Freight, as affected by variations of the speed combined 

with variations of the working economy of the engines. 
K. — Freight, as affected by variations of the speed combined 
with variations in the type of form, working economy of the 
engines, and weight of hull. 
It will be observed that it is not proposed to determine the actual amount 
of prime-cost expenses incidental to the prosecution of steam-ship enterprise, 
by which the scale of freight charge may be chiefly regulated, but it is pro- 
posed to demonstrate, with reference to a specified unit of performance, the 
ratio or comparative scale of cost, in which the prime-cost expenses incidental 
to the conveyance of cargo per ton weight of goods conveyed on a given 
passage is, cceteris paribus, affected by each of the various circumstances or 
conditions set fortli under the ten different heads above referred to. 

The fundamental consideration on which it is proposed to base this inves- 
tigation is this, that, within moderate limits of variation, the investment inci- 
dental to the fitting-out of steam-ships for commercial transport service is 
approximately proportional to the quantity of shipping as measured by the 
constructors' load displacement of the ships, and the amount of working- 
power employed as measured by the indicated horse-power, also that the 
interest on investment, upholding of stock, and all other annual expanses in- 
cidental to the working of steam-ships, such as coals, stores, and wages, 
harbour dues, insurance, and pilotage, are approximately proportional to such 
investment ; and further, as the mercantile service of steam-ships employed 
on a given station generally requires that their passages shall be periodical, it 
is assumed in the following calculations that the number of passages made 
annually by each ship is the same in all the different vessels assumed to be 
employed on the same service and brought into comparison with each other. 
It is particularly to be observed that these calculations and deductions of 
comparative freight charges are not of general application to different 
services, but have reference only to the special service which, as an example 

g2 



84 KEPOUT — 1861. 

of the system of calculation for any service, lias been adopted as the unit of 
performance, namelj', the performance of a ship of 5000 tons displacement, 
employed on a passage of 3000 nautical miles and steaming at ten knots per 

hour, — the coetficient of performance, by the formula j--j—j^ = C, being 

C=250, and the consumption of coal being at the rate of 21bs. per indicated 
horse-power per hour, which data have been assumed as the base of the fol- 
lowing tabular statement, consisting of 21 columns, the purport of which is 
as follows : — 

Column 1st. — Reference to divisions or sections of the subject under con- 
sideration. 

2nd and 21st. — Designations of the vessels referred to in the various 
sections. 

3rd. — Size of the ship as determined by displacement at the draft to which 
it is intended by the constructor that the ship shall be loaded. 

4th. — Steaming speed at which the vessel is required to perform the 
passage. 

5th. — Coefficient of dynamic performance of the vessel by the formula 

— —— — ^— =C 

Ind. h.p 

6th. — Consumption of coal per indicated horse-power per hour expressed 
in lbs. 

7th. — Coefficient of dynamic duty with reference to coal consumed by 

formula — tt^ W being the average consumption of coal expressed in cwts. 

per hour. 

8th Power required to propel the vessel at the required speed expressed 

in indicated horse-power and calculated by the formula, indicated horse- 

V^D4 
power =^ — p-^ 

9th. — Length of passage to be performed by the ship without re-coaling 
expressed in nautical miles. 

10th.— Weight of hull, including all equipment complete for sea (exclu- 
sive of engines, coal, and cargo), taken at 40 per cent, of the load displace- 
ment. 

nth. — Weight of engines and boilers in working order, including all 
equipment for sea, taken at the rate of 5 cwt. per indicated horse-power. 

12th. — Weight of coal required for the passage, calculated on the fore- 
going data. 

13th. — Cargo, as determined by the load displacement less the weight of 
hull, engines, and coal. 

14th. — Investment in the hull of the ship, including rigging, furnishing, 
and all other equipment complete for sea, taken at £50 per ton weight of hull. 

15th Investment in the engines, including spare gear and all equipment 

for sea, taken at £15 per indicated horse-power. 

16th. — Total investment in hull and e4)gines. 

17th. — Comparative rates of freight or ratios of cost expenses per ton of 
cargo, being proportional to the investment divided by the tons weight of 
cargo conveyed. 

18th. — Ratios of cost expenses per ton of cargo, with reference to that 
incurred by ship A, taken as the unit of performance, and which is expressed 
by the number 100. 

19th. — Ratios of cost expenses per ton of cargo with reference to the cost 



ON FREIGHT AS AFFECTED BY DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 85 

incurred by ship A, taken as the unit of performance, and which is expressed 
by £1 per ton. 

20th. — Comparative freight on 100,000 tons of goods, assuming the freight 
by ship A to be at the rate of £1 per ton of goods conveyed. 

2 1st. — Designations of vessels referred to in the sections. ; 

The table (next page) may be interpreted as follows : — 

Section A. — Freight, as affected (ccsteris paribus) by variations of the 
size of ship. 

By reference to the table (next page) it will be observed that as the ship's 
size (column 3) is reduced from 5000 tons displacement to 4000 tons, [the 
expenses per ton of cargo (column 17) become increased in the ratio of 49 
to 51, that is, in the ratio of 100 to 104 (column 18), showing an increase 
of 4 per cent.; or, expressed in money, assuming £1 per ton to be the rate 
of freight by ship A, of 5000 tons displacement, the rate by ship A,, of 
4000 tons displacement will be £1 05. 10c?., and by following the table it 
appears that the rate of freight by ship A^, of 3000 tons, will, as compared 
with ship A, of 5000, be increased 8 per cent., amounting to £1 \s, 8d. 
per ton. 

The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods (column 20) 
by the vessels A, Aj, A^, respectively would be £100,000, £104,000 and 
£108,000. 

Thus, in a merely mechanical point of view, and irrespectively of various 
mercantile and nautical considerations which may limit the size of ships, we 
see the benefit of performing goods transport service by large vessels in pre- 
ference to small ones,' provided that adequate cargo be always obtained and 
that no delay be thereby incurred. But it is to be observed that if the 
5000-tons ship A, instead of being loaded with its full cargo of 2395 tons, 
be loaded only with the quantity of cargo (1878 tons) that could be carried 
by the 4000-tons ship, A,, the freight expenses per ton of cargo would, in 
this case, be enhanced in the proportion of 63 to 49, that is, in the proportion 
of 128 to 100, or 28 per cent., or, expressed in monej', in the proportion of 
£1 4s. lOd. to £1, the same being a higher rate by 24 per cent, than the 
freight charge at which the 4000-tons ship, Aj, would perform the service. 
By pursuing the calculations from the data adduced by the table, it will be 
found that the economic advantage of the 5000-tons ship. A, as compared 
with the 4000-tons ship. A,, wilt be entirely sacrificed if its cargo be reduced 
from 2395 tons to 2305 tons, or be only 90 tons, or 3J per cent, deficient 
of its full load. Also, as compared with the ship A,, of 3000 tons, the 
advantage of the 5000-tons ship A will be lost if its cargo be reduced from 
2395 tons to 2218, or be only 117 tons deficient of its full load. 

Hence it appears that the superior economic capabilities of large ships in 
a mechanical point of view for the conveyance of goods may, in a mercantile 
point of view, be very soon sacrificed by mismanagement in assigning larger 
vessels for the discharge of mercantile service than is demanded by the trade, 
notwithstanding the economic superiority of large ships when promptly and 
fully loaded. 

Section B. — Freight, as affected {rcBteris paribus) by variations in the 
constructive type of torm of the hull. 

The relative constructive efficiency of mercantile ships in a purely dynamic 
point of view, as respects type of form (irrespectively of materials and 
workmanship), is now generally recognized as being determined by their co- 
efficients (C^ of dynamic performance, as deduced from actual trial of the 

V^ D2- 
ships, and calculated by the following formula :j — . .'' =0, which may be 

expressed as follows : — 



86 



REPORT — 1861. 



1 


2 


3 

• 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


a 
g 


§i 

4) 


o3 


CJ3 

en 


.11 

il 

O p. 


ii 




V 

1 


ci 

1 


Weight of 




1-^ 


Section. 


A 


Tons. 

5000 


Knots. 
10 


V3DS 


Lbs. 
2 


V3D| 


Ind. h.p. 
1170 


N- miles. 

3000 


Tons. 
2000 


Tons. 
292 


Xnd.b.p. 
250 


W. 

14,000 


A 


Ai 


4000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1008 


3000 


1600 


252 


- 


A^ 


3000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


832 


3000 


1200 


208 


r 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


B 


Bi 


5000 


10 


200 


2 


11,200 


1462 


3000 


2000 


365 


- 


B2 


5000 


10 


150 


2 


8,400 


1950 


3000 


2000 


487 


r 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


c 


Ci 


5000 


10 


250 


3 


9,333 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


- 


C2 


5000 


10 


250 


4 


7,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 

1 


f 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


D 


D, 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2500 


292 




Dj 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


3000 


292 i 




A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


E - 


El 


5000 


10 


200 


3 


7,467 


1462 


3000 


2000 


365 


^- 


E, 


5000 


10 


150 


4 


4,200 


1950 


3000 


2000 


484 

1 


r 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


F 


F. 


4000 


10 


200 


3 


7,467 


1260 


3000 


1600 


315 ,1 


V, 


F. 


3000 


10 


150 


4 


4,200 


1386 


3000 


1200 


346 


r 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


G 


Gi 


5000 


12 


250 


2 


14,000 


2021 


3000 


2000 


505 ' 


^ 


G. 


5000 


14 


250 


2 


14,000 


3209 


3000 


2000 


802 


H ■ 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2O0O 


292 


Hi 


4000 


12 


250 


2 


14,000 


1702 


3000 


1600 


425 


H, 


3000 


14 


250 


2 


14,000 


2283 


3000 


1200 


571 


r 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


I - 


Ii 


5000 


12 


250 


3 


9,333 


2021 


3000 


2000 


505 


L 


I. 


5000 


14 


250 


4 


7,000 


3209 


3000 


2000 


802 


K 1 


A 


5000 


10 


250 


2 


14,000 


1170 


3000 


2000 


292 


Ki 


5000 


12 


225 


3 


8,333 


2245 


3000 


2250 


561 


K, 


5000 


14 


200 


4 


5,600 


4012 


3000 


2500 


1003 

























ON FREIGHT AS AFFECTED BY DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 



87 



12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 




AVeigbt of 


I 


NVESTMENT. 


"So 
.£ cbp 

rt 0) rt 
b a; u 
a « , 

c « ° 


< 

■ss.s-i 


ja S.B-S 

Is " Si 


pi 

O J- g 


O 




-J 


1 


o 

^ o ja 
«- to 

^ V 9 

3 0.1S 

K 


OS •-< . 
C u " 

«5 


■3 
1 




Tons. 

313 


Tons. 
2395 


£ 
100,000 


17,550 


£ 
117,550 


Investment 


Ratios. 
100 


£ s. d 

1 


£ 

100,000 




Cargo. 
49 




270 


1878 


80,000 


15,120 


95,120 


61 


104 


1 10 


104,000[Ai 




223 


1369 


60,000 


12,480 


72,480 


53 


108 


1 1 8 


108,000 A, 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


1 


100,000 A 




392 


2243 


100,000 


21,930 


121,930 


54 


110 


12 


110,000 B, 




522 


1991 


100,000 


29,250 


129,250 


65 


132 


1 6 5 


132,000 B, 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


10 


100,000 A 




470 


2238 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


52 


106 


1 1 2 


106,000Ci 




627 


2081 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


56 


114 


1 2 10 


114,000 C, 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


1 


lOO.OOOA 




313 


1895 


125,000 


17,550 


142,550 


75 


153 


1 10 7 


153,0000, 




313 


1395 


150,000 


17,550 


167,550 


120 


245 


2 9 


245,000 D^ 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


1 


100,000 A 




588 


2047 


100,000 


21,930 


121,930 


59 


120 


14 


120,000 £i 




1044 


1472 


100,000 


29,250 


129,250 


88 


179 


1 15 10 


179,000 E, 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


1 


100,000 A 




506 


1579 


80,000 


18,900 


98,900 


62 


126 


15 2 


126,000 Fj 




742 


712 


60,000 


20,790 


80,790 


113 


230 


2 6 


230,000 F, 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


10 


100,000 A 




451 


2044 


100,000 


30,315 


130,315 


04 


131 


1 6 2 


131,000 Gj 




614 


1584 


100,000 


48,135 


148,135 


93 


182 


1 16 5 


182,000 


G. 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


1 


100,000 


A 




380 


1595 


80,000 


25,530 


105,530 


66 


134 


1 6 10 


134,000Hi 




437 


792 


60,000 


34,245 


94,245 


119 


243 


2 8 7 


243,000, 


H, 




313 


2395 


100,008 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


1 


100,000 


A 




677 


1818 


100,000 


30,315 


130,315 


72 


147 


1 9 5 


147,0001, 




1228 


970 


100,000 


48,135 


148,135 


152 


310 


3 2 


310,0001, 




313 


2395 


100,000 


17,550 


117,550 


49 


100 


1 100,000,A 




751 
1535 


1438 



112,500 


33,675 

• •• 


146,175 


102 


208 


2 1 8 


208,000 







88 REPORT — 18G1. 

Multiply the cube of the speed (V^) by the cube root of the square of the 
displacement (D|), and divide the product by the indicated horse-power 
(Ind. h. p.) ; the quotient will be the coefficient (C) of dynamic performance. 

To enter upon the various uses to which this formula is applied would be 
irrelevant to the matter now under consideration. Suffice it to say that 
the numeral co-efficient obtained as above set forth affords practically a 
means by which the mutual relations of displacement, power, and speed 
of a steam-ship of given type of form, and of which the coefficient is 
known, may (ccBteris paribus) be deduced, and it affords a criterion indi- 
cating, whatever be the size of the ship, the constructive adaptation of its 
type of form for mechanical propulsion, as compared with other types of 
form tested by the same rule — the condition of the vessels as respects clean- 
ness of immersed surface, stability, and other essential properties, being 
assumed to be the same ; and we now proceed to show to what extent, 
under given conditions, freight per ton of goods conveyed is affected by- 
variations of type of form, as represented by variations of the coefficient 
of performance. 

By reference to the table (Section B), it will be observed that as the 
co-efficient of dynamic performance is reduced from 250 to 150, the ex- 
penses become increased in the ratio of 100 to 132, or 32 per cent, or, 
assuming the freight by ship A, of which the coefficient of dynamic per- 
formance is 250, to be at the rate of £1 per ton of cargo, the charge by 
ship Bj, of the same size, but of which the coefficient is 200, will be 
£1 2s., being an increase of 10 per cent.; and the charge by ship B^, of 
the same size, but of which the coefficient is 150, will be £1 6s. 5d., being 
an increase of 32 per cent., as compared with the rate of freit(ht by ship 
A, of which the coefficient is 250. 

The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods by the vessels 
A, Bj, B,, respectively, would be £100,000, £110,000. and £132,000. 

Seeing, therefore, that variations of the type of form, as indicated by 
variations of the coefficient of dynamic performance, even within the limits 
of 250 and 150, which are of ordinary occurrence in steam-shipping, affect 
the expenses incidental to the conveyance of mercantile cargo, under the con- 
ditions referred to, to the extent of 32 per cent,, the coefficient of dynamic 
performance which a ship may be capable of realizing, being thus (cateris 
paribus) a criterion of the economic working of the ship with reference to 
power, becomes a highly important matter for directorial consideration in the 
purchasing or disposal of steam-ships. 

Section C Freight as affected (cwteris paribus) by variations in the 

working economy of the engines with reference to coal. 

The relative working economy of marine engines as respects the con- 
sumption of coal per indicated horse-power per hour is evidently an important 
element for consideration as affecting freight, — to illustrate which, it has been 
assumed that variations in mercantile practice extend from 2 lbs. per indicated 
horse-power per hour to 4 lbs. The consumption of so little as 2 lbs. per 
indicated horse-power per hour is not usually attained, but being now ad- 
mitted to have been achieved, and such having become a matter of contract 
stipulation, it may be looked forward to as the probable future consumption 
on board ship generally, although the ordinary consumption of existing 
steamers cannot at the present time be rated at less than 4lbs. per indicated 
horse-power per hour. 

By reference to the table (Section C), it appears that, under the special 
conditions of the service under consideration (namely vessels of 5000 tons 
displacement employed on a passage of 3000 nautical miles, and steaming at 



ON FREIGHT AS AFFECTED BY DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 89 

the speed of 10 knots an hour), by increasing the consumption of coal from 
2 lbs. to 4 lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour, the expense per ton of 
goods conveyed becomes increased in the proportion of 49 to 56, that is, in 
the proportion of 100 to 114, being an increase of 14 percent., or, assuming 
the freight by the standard ship A, consuming 2 lbs. of coal per indicated 
horse-power per hour, to be at the rate of £1 per ton of cargo conveyed, the 
rate of freight by ship C^, consuming 3 lbs. per indicated horse-power per 
hour, will be £1 Is. '2d., being an increase of 6 per cent., and the rate of 
freight by ship C^, consuming 4 lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour, will be 
£\ 2s. \0d., being an increase of 14 per cent, per ton of goods conveyed 
under the conditions referred to. 

The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods by the vessels 
A, C,, Cj, respectively would be £100,000, £106,000, and £114,000. 

Section D. — Freight charge as affected (cteteris parihvs) by variations in 
the constructive weight of hull with reference to the size of the ship as de- 
termined by the load displacement. 

To illustrate this matter it has been assumed that the weight of hull, 
including the whole equipment complete for sea (exclusive of engines, coal, 
and cargo) may vary from 40 per cent, of the load displacement to 60 per 
cent., under which limitations, by reference to table (Section D), it appears 
that, under the special conditions of the service underjconsideration, by in- 
creasing the weight of hull from 40 per cent, of its displacement to 60 per 
cent., and assuming the cost of the hull to be in proportion to its weight of 
materials, the expenses or freight charge per ton of cargo conveyed become 
increased in the proportion of 49 to 120, that is, in the proportion of 100 to 
245, being an increase of 140 per cent., or, assuming the freight charge by 
the standard ship A, of which the weight of hull is 40 per cent, of the load 
displacement (2000 tons) to be at the rate of £1 per ton of goods conveyed, the 
rate of freight by ship T)^, of v/hich the weight of hull is 50 per cent, of the 
load displacement (2500 tons), will be £1 10s. Id, per ton, being an increase 
of 53 per cent., and by ship Dj, of which the weight of hull is 60 per cent, 
of the load displacement (3000 tons), the rate of freight becomes £2 9s. per 
ton, being an increase of 145 per cent, per ton of goods conveyed under the 
conditions referred to. 

The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods by the vessels 
A, Dj, D,, respectively, would be £100,000, £153,000, and £245,000. 

Hence,in the construction of steam-ships we see the importance of quality of 
material and excellence of fastening as a means of reducing weight, and the dis- 
advantage that attends heavy-built ships, such as war-steamers, for discharging 
mercantile service. Hence also we see the deficient steaming endurance or 
limited armament of high-speed armoured ships unless built of enormous 
size, as measured by their load displacement, and the disadvantage of types of 
form which require the aid of ballast to insure stability. 

Section E. — Freight is affected (cceferis paribus) by variations in the 
constructive type of form combined with variations in the working economy 
of the engines. 

By reference to the Table (Section E), it appears, under the special con- 
ditions of the service under consideration, that by an inferior type of form, as 
indicated by the coefficient of perlormance being reduced from 250 to 1.50, 
combined with an inferior construction of engines, as indicated by the con- 
sumption of fuel being increased from 2 lbs. to 4lbs. per indicated horse-power 
per hour, thereby reducing the coefficient of dynamic duty (column 7) from 
14,000 to 4200, the expense or freight charge per ton of goods conveyed 
becomes increased in tfie ratio of 100 to 179, being an increase of 79 per 



90 REPORT 1861. 

cent. ; or, assuming the freight charge by the standard ship A, of which the 
coefficient of performance is 250 and rate of consumption 2 lbs. per indicated 
horse-power per hour (giving a coefficient of dynamic duty 14,000), to be at 
the rate of £1 per ton of goods conveyed, the rate of freight by ship E^, of 
which the coefficient ofperforniance is 200, and consumption of coals 3lbs. per 
indicated horse-power per hour (coefficient of dynamic duty 7467) becomes 
,361 4s. per ton, being an increase of 20 per cent., and by ship E^, of 
which the coefficient of performance is 150, and the consumption of coal at the 
rate of 4 lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour (coefficient of dynamic 
duty 4200), the rate of freight becomes £1 15s. Wd., being an increase of 
79 per cent, per ton of goods conveyed under the conditions referred to. 
The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods bv the vessels A, 
Ej, E,, respectively, would be 36100,000, ^6120,000, and ^179,000. 

Hence, in the control of steam-shipping, we see the importance of the co- 
efficient of dynamic duty (column 7), as indicating the economic efficiency 
of the ship in a mercantile point of view, with reference to the merits of her 
hull and engine construction being made a subject of contract stipulation. 

Section F. — Freight as aWected (cceteris paribus) by variations in the size 
of the ship combined with variations in the constructive type of form and in 
the working economy of the engines. 

By reference to the Table (Section F), it appears, under the special con- 
ditions of service under consideration, that by the size of the ship being 
reduced from 5000 tons displacement to 3000 tons displacement, combined 
with an inferior type of form, as indicated by the coefficient of performance 
being reduced from 250 to 150, and an inferior construction of engine, as 
indicated by the consumption of coals being increased from 2 lbs. to 4 lbs. per 
indicated horse-power per hour, the expense or freight charge per ton of 
goods conveyed becomes increased in the ratio of 49 to 113, that is, in the 
ratio of 100 to 230, being an increase of 130 per cent.; or, assuming the 
freight by the standard ship A, of 5000 tons, of which the coefficient of per- 
formance is 250, and the consumption of coal at the rate of 2 lbs. per indicated 
horse-power per hour, to be at the rate of ^1 per ton of goods conveyed, the 
rate of freight by ship F^, of 4000 tons, of which the coefficient of per- 
formance is 200 and the consumption of coal at the rale of 3 lbs. per indicated 
horse-power per hour, will be a61 5s. '2d., being an increase of 26 per cent., and 
by ship Fj, of 3000 tons displacement, of which the coefficient of performance 
is 150 and the consumption of coal at the rate of 4 lbs. per indicated horse- 
power per hour, the rate of freight becomes ^62 6s., being an increase of 130 
per cent, per ton of goods conveyed under the conditions referred to. 

The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods by the vessels 
A, Fj, F,, respectively, would be ^6100,000, 36126,000, and ^6230,000. 

Hence also we observe by comparison of ships E.^ and F,, how important 
becomes the question of magnitude when ships of inferior dynamic duty are 
employed on a given service, the comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons 
of goods conveyed by the vessels E, and F^, on the service referred to, being 
^6179,000 and 36230,000, being an increase of 28 per cent, solely in conse- 
quence of the magnitude of the ship being reduced from 5000 tons displace- 
ment to 3000 tons, the coefficient of dynamic duty (4200) being in both 
cases the same. 

Section G. — Freight as affected (cceteris paribus) by variations of the 
steaming speed at which it is required that the service shall be performed. 

It is proposed to illustrate this most important elemental consideration by 
reference to rates of speed within the range of present practice, namely, from 
10 to 14 knots per hour. 



ON FREIGHT AS AFFECTED BY DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 91 

By reference to the Table (Section G), it appears that, under the special 
conditions of the service under consideration, by increasing the speed from 
10 to 12 knots per hour, the expense or required rate of freight per ton of 
goods conveyed becomes increased in the ratio of 49 to 64, that is, in the 
ratio of 100 to 131, being an increase of 31 per cent.; and by increasing the 
speed from 10 to 14 knots, the expense, or required rate of freight per ton of 
goods, becomes increased in the ratio of 49 to 93, that is, in the ratio of 100 
to 182, being an increase of 82 per cent. Hence, assuming the freight by the 
standard ship A, of 5000 *ons, making a passage of 3000 nautical miles at 
10 knots per hour, to be at the rate of £1 per ton weight of goods conveyed, 
the rate of freight by ship Gj, steaming at 12 knots per hour, will be required 
to be £1 6s. 2d. per ton weight of goods conveyed, and the rate of freight by 
ship Gj, steaming at 14knots per hour, will be required to be £1 I6s. 5d. per 
ton of goods conveyed. The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons 
of goods, by the vessels A, Gj, G.„ steaming at 10, 12, and 14 knots per hour 
respectively, would be jei00,000,"3ei31,000, and 36182,000. 

Hence we see how onerous are the obligations which usually impose on 
mail-packets a rate of speed higher than that which would be adopteil for 
prosecuting a purely mercantile service ; and as no service can be permanently 
and satisfactorily performed which does not pay, it follows that the inade- 
quacy, if any, of a high-speed postal subsidy must be made "up by surcharge 
on passengers and cargo, and is therefore, pro tanto, a tax upon trade. 

Section H — Freight a.s SiSecieA {cceteris paribus) by variations of the size 
of ships combined with variations of steaming-speed. 

We will suppose the size of the ships to be 5000, 4000, and .3000 tons 
displacement, and the steaming-speed to be at the rates of 10 knots, 12 knots, 
and 14 knots per hour respectively. 

By reference to the Table (Section H), it appears that, under the special 
conditions of the service under consideration, by reducing the size of the ship 
from 5000 to 4000 tons, and increasing the speed from 10 to 12 knots per 
hour, the expense or required freight charge becomes increased in the ratio 
of 49 to 66, that is, in the ratio of 100 to 134, or 34 per cent. ; and by re- 
ducing the size of ship from 5000 to 3000 tons, and increasing the speed 
from lO knots to 14 knots, the required frfight charge becomes increased 
in the ratio of 49 to 1 19, that is, in the ratio of 100 to 243, being an increase 
of 143 per cent., or a multiple of 2y times nearly. Hence, assuming the 
rate of freight by the standard ship A, of 5000 tons, steaming at 10 knots, to 
be at £1 per ton weight of goods conveyed, the required rate of freight by 
ship Hj, of 4000 tons, steaming at 12 knots, will be £i 6s. 10c?., and the 
required rate of freight charge by ship H^, steaming at 14 knots per hour, 
will be at the rate of £2 8s. Id. per ton weight of goods conveyed. 

The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods by the vessels 
A, Hj, H,, respectively, will be ^6100,000, ^ei 34,000, and ^6243,000. 

Hence also we observe by comparison of ships G^ and H^, how important 
becomes the question of magnitude when the service demands a high rate of 
speed, the comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods conveyed 
by the vessels G^ and H^, on the service referred to, being £182,000 and 
£243,000, being an increase of 33y per cent., solely in consequence of the 
ship being reduced from 5000 tons displacement to 3000 tons, the coefficient 
of dynamic duty (14,000) being in both cases the same. 

Section I. — Freight as affected by variations of speed combined with 
variations of the working economy of the engines. 

Assuming the rate of speed to be 10 knots, 12 knots, and 14 knots, and 
the consumption of coal to be 2 lbs., 3 lbs. and 4 lbs. per indicated horse-power 



92 REPORT— 1861. 

per hour respectively, bj' reference to the Table (Section I.) it appears that 
by increasing the speed from 10 knots to 12 knots an hour, the rate of con- 
sumption of coal being also increased from 2 lbs. to 3 lbs. per indicated horse- 
power per hour, the required freight charge becomes increased in the ratio of 
49 to 72, that is, in the ratio of 100 to 14-7, or 47 per cent. ; and by increasing 
the speed from 10 knots to 14 knots per hour, the rate of consumption of 
coal being also increased from 2 lbs. to 4 lbs. per indicated horse-power per 
hour, the required freight charge becomes increased in the ratio of 49 to 152, 
that is, in the ratio of 100 to 310, being an increase of 210 per cent., or 
more than trebled. Hence, assuming the expense or required freight charge 
by the standard ship A, steaming at lOknots per hour, and consuming 2 lbs. 
coal per indicated horse-power per hour, to be at the rate of £1 per ton of 
goods conveyed, the required freight charge by ship 1^, steaming at 12 knots 
an hour and consuming 3 lbs. of coal per indicated horse-power per hour, will 
be at the rate of sfil Gs.Sd.per ton of goods, and the required freight charge 
by ship I3, steaming at 14 knots per hour and consuming 4 lbs. of coal per 
indicated horse-power per hour, will be at the rate of 363 25. per ton of goods 
conveyed. The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods by the 
vessels A, I,, I^, respectively, would be 36100,000 36147,000, and 36310,000. 

Hence we see how onerous are the obligations of increased speed, if at- 
tempted to be performed with engines of inferior contruction, as respects 
economy of fuel. 

Section K. — Freight as affected (c^tens paribus) by variations of the 
speed combined with variations in the type of form, working economy of the 
engines, and weight of hull. 

The object of this section is to show the effect even of small differences 
of practical construction, when operating collectively to the detriment of a 
ship, combined with the obligation of increased speed. 

By reference to the Table (Section K) it appears that, under the special 
conditions of the service under consideration, by increasing the speed from 
10 to 12 knots, with a ship of inferior type of form, as indicated by the co- 
efficient of performance being reduced from 250 to 225, and of inferior 
engine arrangement, as indicated by the consumption of fuel being increased 
from 2 to 3 lbs. per indicated horse-power per hour, the weight of hull being 
also increased 5 per cent., namely, from 40 per cent, to 45 per cent, of the 
constructor's load displacement, — by this combination, the expense per ton of 
goods conveyed becomes increased in the proportion of 49 to 102, that is, in the 
proportionof J 00 to208,beinganincreaseof 108 per cent.,or more than doubled ; 
or, assuming the freight by the standard ship A to be at the rate of £1 per ton, 
the rate of freight by ship Kj, under the differences above referred to, 
becomes £2 \s. Sd.; and it is to observed that if the speed be increased to 14 
knots, whilst at the same time the coefficient of performance is reduced to 
200, the consumption of fuel increased from 2 lbs. to 4lbs. per indicated horse- 
power per hour, and the weight of the hull increased 10 per cent., namely, from 
40 per cent, of the load displacement to 50 per cent., — under these conditions 
the entire load displacement of the ship K^ will be appropriated by the weight 
of the hull, engines, and coal, leaving no displacement whatever available 
for cargo ; that is to say, the vessel K^ is utterly unable to perform the con- 
ditions of the service as a mercantile steamer. 

The comparative freight charges on 100,000 tons of goods by the vessels 
A and K, respectively would be £100,000 and £208,000. 

Having thus fully explained the Table, it may be observed that, as re- 
spects the relation which subsists between the dynamic properties of vessel 
A, taken as the standard of comparison in the foregoing sections, and the 



ON FREIGHT AS AFFECTED BY DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 93 

dynamic properties of mercantile steam-ships generally at the present time, 
it might be regarded as invidious to refer to and particularize the actual per- 
formances of vessels presentlj' employed on commercial service ; but it may 
be affirmed generally that the ocean performance of mercantile steam-fleets 

does not average a coefficient of economic duty, by the formula ^ , 

exceeding 5600, whilst modern naval architecture and engineering have prac- 
tically shown that with certain types of form the coefficient of performance 
may be expected to vary fr^m 250 to 300, and that some engines of modern 
construction have consumed only from 2 lbs. to 2| lbs. of coal per indicated 
horse-power per hour, thus practically constituting a possible coefficient of 
economic duty as high as 14,000, which has therefore been assigned to ship 
A in the foregoing table, and whereby, under the conditions of the service 
referred to, viz. ships of 5000 tons displacement steaming at 10 knots per 
hour on a passage of 3000 miles, the conveyance of goods per ton weight 
may be expected to be performed at fully 30 per cent, less cost than would 
be necessarily incurred under the same circumstances by vessels of the same 
size, but of which the coefficient of economic duty does not exceed 5600 ; and 
this comparative difference would be greatly exceeded if the size of ships be 
reduced, the length of passage increased, or the speed accelerated. 

From the foregoing statements it appears that public interests in the great 
matter of Freight demand that steam-ships only of the most effective con- 
struction, as respects hull and engines, be employed on mercantile service. 
Bad types of hull and wasteful engines, necessarily, as we have seen, enhance 
freight, increase the cost of production, and consequently curtail consumption, 
thus constituting a blight on national industry. A check on these evils, 
highly conducive to the gradual reduction of freight expenses by steam-ships, 
would at once be instituted by making it a matter of contract slipula- 

tion that a definite coefficient of dynamic duty, by the formula • ^ 

should be realized on test trial of the ship, at the builder's load displacement 
and steaming at the stipulated speed. Unquestionably, for years past, in our 
popular marine engineering, prejudice and expediency have retarded pro- 
gress ; marine engineering practice has not duly availed itself of the established 
truths and science of the times : expansion, superheating, and surface con- 
densation, now being reanimated as the basis of modern improvements, are 
but the legacies of a bygone age hitherto neglected. 

It is only by directing public opinion to bear on such subjects of general 
interest, that any prevalent evil can be corrected ; and surely an appeal on 
the important subject of " freight," as affected by differences in the dynamic 
properties of steam-ships, cannot be more appropriately made to any public 
body than to the British Association, under the presidency of a man especially 
distinguished and honoured in the path of practical science, and assembled 
at Manchester, the birth-place of free trade, and the manufacturing capital 
of the world. 

CHAS. ATHERTON, 
Chief Engineer, H.M. Dockyard, Woolwich. 



94 REPORT — 1861. 

Report on the Progress of Celestial Photography since the Aberdeen 
Meeting. By Warren De la Rce, F.R.S. 

At the Aberdeen Meeting I had the honour of communicating to this 
Section a Report on the State of Celestial Photography in England, which 
has since appeared in the Transactions of the Association. 

Since that period I have pursued my investigations in this branch of 
astronomy, and have ascertained some facts which 1 believe will be of interest 
to the Meeting. 

In the first place I beg to recall to the recollection of Members who may 
have read my paper, and to re-state for the information of those who have not 
done so, that it was intended at the period of the Aberdeen meeting that the 
Kew photo-heliograph should be taken to Spain in order, if possible, to photo- 
graph the luminous prominences, or, as they are usually called, the red 
flames, seen on the occasion of a total solar eclipse. 

The words implying a doubt as to the success of the undertaking were 
advisedly inserted, because very little information could be collected from the 
accounts of those observers who had witnessed previous total eclipses, as to 
the probable intensity of the light of the corona and red flames in comparison 
with that of other luminous bodies. My impression was that I should fail in 
depicting the prominences in the time available for doing so, because I had had 
the Kew instrument tried upon the moon and had failed utterly in getting even 
a trace of her image on the sensitive plate, and the corona and prominences 
together were not supposed to give as much light as the moon. I therefore 
pointed out the desirability of other astronomers making attempts to depict 
the phenomena of totality by projecting the image of the prominences direct 
on to the collodion-plate without enlarging it by a secondary magnifier, as is 
done in the Kew instrument. 

It was fair to assume, with the great experience I had acquired in celestial 
photography, that I should succeed with the Kew instrument if success were 
attainable ; and I knew that far more reliable results would be obtained by 
its means than by the other method, which I recommended simply because it 
seemed to me to offer a greater chance of at least a partial success. 

Two theories existed, as is well known, to account for the red prominences. 
The one, prominently supported by the Astronomer Royal, was that they 
belonged to the sun ; the other, which is still supported even by an astrono- 
mer who obtained photographs of them at the last eclipse, was that they are 
produced by the diff"raction of the sun's light by the periphery of the moon. 

It will be seen, therefore, not only how essential it was to obtain photo- 
graphic images of the prominences, but also how important it was to obtain 
such perfect images of them that they could not be confounded with 
purely diff'ractive phenomena if such existed, and that the images should be 
on such a scale that the defects common to collodion could not be confounded 
with them. "The pretty near" would have been far more readily accom- 
plished ; but having the whole bearing of the subject fully impressed on 
my mind, I preferred to make a bold venture, and either accomplish what I 
aimed at or fail entirely. 

Fortunately 1 was successful, and to that success the steadiness of my 
staff much contributed. We now know that the luminous prominences 
which surround the sun (for they do belong to him) can be depicted in 
from 20 to 60 seconds, on the scale of the sun's diameter equal ^ of the 
object-glass employed. That is to say, an object-glass of 3 inches aperture 
will give a picture of the prominences surrounding the moon 4 inches in 
diameter. 



ON THE PROGRESS OP CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 95 

The next subject to which I have to call your attention is the photographic 
depiction of groups of stars — for example, such as form a constellation like 
Orion, — in other words, the mapping down the stars by means of photography. 
I have made several experiments in this direction, and have obtained satis- 
factory results, and I believe that at last I have hit upon an expedient 
which will render this method of mapping stars easy of accomplishment. 
The instrument best adapted for this object is a camera of short focal length 
compared with its aperture, Jike the ordinary portrait-camera, — the size of the 
lens being selected to suit the scale of the intended photographic map, and the 
camera, of course, mounted on an equatorial stand with a clock-work motion. 

The fixed stars depict themselves with great rapidity on a collodion- 
plate; and I have experienced no difficulty in obtaining pictures of the 
Pleiades by a moderate exposure even in the focus of my telescope ; they 
would be fixed much more rapidly by a portrait-camera. The difficulty 
in star-mapping does not consist in the difficulty of fixing the images of 
stars, but in finding the images when they are imprinted ; for they are no 
bigger than the specks common to the best collodion. It is of no service 
attempting to overcome the difficulty by enlarging the whole picture ; but 
something may be done by causing the images of the stars, which are 
mere spots, to spread out into a cone of rays by putting the image out of 
focus and thus imprinting a disc on the plate instead of a point. Last year 
was so fully employed that I have not yet had time to develope fully this 
method, but I have ascertained its practicability. 

Some curiosity naturally exists as to the possibility of applying photo- 
graphy to the depiction of those wonderful bodies the comets, which arrive 
generally without anything being known of their previous history and abso- 
lutely nothing as to their physical nature. It would be valuable to have 
photographic records of them, especially of the nucleus and corona, which 
undergo changes from day to day; and hence such a means of recording 
these changes as photography ofl^ers would be the best, beyond comparison, if 
the light of the comet were sufficiently intense to imprint itself. 

On the appearance of Donati's comet in 1858 I made several unsuccessful 
attempts to delineate it with my reflector on a collodion film, but without 
success ; and on the appearance of the comet of the present year I made 
numerous attempts to depict it, not only with my telescope, but also with a 
portrait-camera; but, even M'ith an exposure of 15 minutes (minutes, not 
seconds), I failed in getting the slightest impression, even with a portrait- 
lens. Hence the conclusion may be arrived at that the actinic ray does not 
exist in sufficient intensity in such a comet as that of 1861 to imprint itself, 
and therefore photography at present is inapplicable to the recording of the 
appearances of these wonderful bodies. 

I now return to Heliography. Experiments conducted at the Kew 
Observatory by my request have shown that, for an image of the sun of any 
given size, when once the aperture of the telescope has been ascertained 
which IS sufficient to produce the picture with the necessary degree of 
rapidity, it is not beneficial to increase that aperture ; that is to say, no more 
details are depicted, nor does the picture become sharper, so as to bear a 
greater subsequent enlargement in copying, than when the smaller aperture 
IS used. It has also been established, experimentally, that it is not well to 
enlarge the image beyond a certain point by increasing the magnifyine 
power of the secondary magnifier and thus to cause the rays to emerge at a 
very great angle. These results are such as I should have anticipated • but 
as It was, nevertheless, desirable to produce i)ictures of the sun's spots.'with 
a view to their close study, on a scale considerably greater than the pictures 



96 REPORT— 1861. 

produced by the Kew instrument, I commenced some preparations at my 
own observatory for the purpose of trying whether it would be possible to 
procure sucli pictures with my reflector. On maturing my plans I found that 
the apparatus which it would be necessary to use would be so weighty that 
the telescope would require to be strengthened considerably to support the 
additional weight in the awkward position in which it would have to be placed ; 
and it did not at first appear how this could be ronveniently done. 

Ultimately I found the means of adding a radius-bar and of supporting the 
plate-holder, which carries a plate 18 inches square at a distance of 4> feet 
from the eye-piece ; but here another difficulty occurred, namely, that the 
image of the sun was so powerfully heating, that, if allowed to remain for a 
very short time on the instantaneous slide, it heated it and ultimately set fire 
to some part of the apparatus. A trap easy to be moved over the mouth 
of the telescope had to be contrived, so as to open just before the instantane- 
ous apparatus was brought into action and shut again immediately after- 
wards. At last these mechanical difficulties were surmounted, and I 
commenced my experiments to ascertain the best form for the secondary mag- 
nifier : these experiments are still in progress, and some important difficulties 
remain to be overcome before pictures of the sun's spots will be obtained 
with that degree of sharpness which shall leave nothing to be desired. 

With an ordinary Huyghenian eye-piece, employed as a secondary magnifier 
and placed somewhat nearer the great mirror than would be its position for the 
most perfect optical picture, in order to throw the chemical rays further on and 
thus bring them to focus on the plate, I have obtained some sun-pictures, of 
very considerable promise, on the extremely large scale of the sun's diameter 
equal to 3 feet. These pictures have only been very recently procured, and 
I submit them to the Section because I believe that an interest is felt in the 
progress of celestial photography, and that the Members prefer to take part 
in the experiments, as it were, by watching their progress, rather than to 
wait until the most perfect results have been brought about. I may state 
that the mechanical and chemical difficulties have been surmounted, and that 
the only outstanding one is the form of the secondary magnifier*. When this 
has been worked out, perfect sun-pictures 3 feet in diameter will be obtain- 
able with a telescope of 1 foot aperture, in less than the 20th of a second 
of time. These pictures, when taken under suitable circumstances, may be 
grouped so as to produce stereoscopic pictures, which must throw consider- 
able light on the nature of the spots. 

It appears to me that such results must be of value to science, and that 
the records of the state of the sun's photosphere, both as regards spots and 
other changing phenomena, which are obtainable by means of photography, 
are worth collecting and discussing, and that ultimately they will throw con- 
siderable light on terrestrial meteorology. 

It is agreeable to me to work at this problem so as to point out the means 
by which success is attainable, and I may for a time carry on the records ; 
but it will, on reflection, be seen that these observations (if continued, as 
they should be, for years) are likely to prove a too serious tax upon the 
leisure and purse of a private individual. 

* Mr. Dallmeyer has lately assisted me in working out this problem, and has produced 
already two new secondary magnifiers, each of a somewhat different construction. With their 
aid I made a considerable step in advance, but on November 7th, 1861, was stopped by the 
lateness of the season. 



ON THE THEORY OF EXCHANGES. 97 

On the Theory of Exchanges, audits recent extension. 
By Balfour Stewart, A.M. 

It is now somewhere about seventy years since Professor Pierre Prevost 
of Geneva conceived the rudimentary idea which ultimately became de- 
veloped into the Theory of Exchanges. In the 'Journal de Physique' for 
April 1791, we find a memoir by him "'On the Equilibrium of Heat;" and 
from that period until 1832 he wrote many memoirs in confirmation and 
extension of his views. 

The leading feature of this hypothesis is perhaps best expressed in the words 
which Prevost himself employed to characterize it, when he called his theory 
that of a moveable equilibrium of temperature. 

In order to comprehend more precisely the meaning of this phrase, let us 
imagine to ourselves a large vacuum-chamber, the walls of which are black, 
and do not reflect light or heal. Lampblack will therefore be the most 
appropriate substance with which to cover them. Let us also suppose that 
the whole chamber is kept at a uniform temperature, and that we place a 
thermometer in the enclosure. It is well known that this thermometer will 
ultimately denote the same temperature to whatever portion of the enclosure 
it may be carried, and that this temperature will be that of the Avails of the 
chamber. The bulb of the instrument is therefore in a state of equilibrium 
with regard to heat, — a condition of things brought about and sustained, not 
by currents of air, since the chamber is supposed to be a vacuum, but by that 
faculty called radiation, in virtue of which a hot body communicates its heat 
to a distant cold one, even through an absolutely vacant space. This equili- 
brium may be of two kinds. 

1. It may be a statical or tensional equilibrium, that is to say, an equili- 
brium of repose, in which, from the exact balancing of two opposite tendencies, 
the bulb of the thermometer neither receives heat nor gives it away. 

2. It may also be an active, or, as Prevost calls it, a moveable equilibrium, 
in which the bulb is constantly giving away heat to the enclosure and re- 
ceiving back in return precisely as much as it gives away, so that its tem- 
perature is neither increased nor diminished. 

It was this latter view of the subject which Prevost took, — a view which, 
besides having a certain amount of inherent probability, has, I think, earned 
a fair claim, from the great number of facts which it groups together under 
one law, to be viewed as a correct expression of the truth. To return to our 
thermometer: the bulb, under the circumstances above mentioned, is supposed 
by this theory to be constantly giving forth radiant heat at a rate depending 
only on the temperature of the bulb, and independent of that of the enclosure. 
On the other hand, it is receiving back from tiie enclosure an amount of heat 
depending only on the temperature of the enclosure, and wholly independent 
of that of the bulb. Thus its expenditure depends upon its own temperature, 
its receipts upon that of the enclosure, and when these two are of the same 
temperature, the expenditure of the bulb is exactly balanced by its receipts. 

The circumstance which seems to have brought this idea vividly before 
the mind of Prevost, was the well-known experiment by whicii Professor 
Pictet* showed what may be termed the reflexion and concentration of cold. 
That philosopher took two concave reflectors, making them face one another, 
and while in the focus of the one he placed a thermometer, in that of the 
other he placed a lump of ice, the effect of which was tliat flic temperature 
of the thermometer immediately began to fall. If we admit that cold is a 
positive principle, and not a mere negation, we shall of course be able to ex- 

* Essais de Phvs. p. 82. 
1861. „ 



9S REPORT— 1861. 

plain this experiment as easily as if a hot bulb had been placed in the one 
focus, raising the temperature of the thermometer in the other. But this 
explanation being inadmissible, it occurred to Prevost that the theory of 
a moveable equilibrium would account for the phenomenon. Let us adopt 
this hypothesis, and suppose, in the first instance, that a body of the same 
temperature as the thermometer is placed in the other focus. It is obvious 
that this body will not aflPect the thermometer. Heat is doubtless con- 
tinually leaving the bulb ; but this receives back precisely as much heat as it 
radiates, a considerable portion of that which it receives being the heat which 
leaves the body in the opposite focus, and which by the laws of reflexion is 
concentrated on the bulb. If we next suppose that the other body is of a 
higher temperature than the thermometer, it is easy to see that the same laws 
of reflexion will cause an increase of heat to be especially felt by the bulb, 
since each of the rays of heat which reach it by virtue of the reflector will 
be more intense than the corresponding ray which it gives away. Should, 
however, the body in the opposite focus be of a lower temperature than the 
thermometer, the rays which the former emits, and which, by virtue of the 
reflector, reach the bulb, will all be less intense than the corresponding rays which 
the bulb gives forth, and thus the same cause which formerly made the ther- 
mometer peculiarly sensitive to an increase in the temperature of the opposite 
body, will now make it equally sensitive to a diminution of the same. 

We are thus furnished by the theory of exchanges with an explanation of this 
important experiment, which, it is remarked by Prevost in his first memoir of 
1791» cannot well be explained by an immoveable equilibrium. 

When Leslie* published his experiments on Heat, the theory of exchanges 
was not slow to exhibit that appropriating quality which is ever the mark 
of truth. In the hands of Prevost, these experiments, instead of demand- 
ing a new hypothesis, were easily explained by means of the old one. Let 
us take, for instance, the fact discovered by Leslie, that good reflectors of 
heat, such as metals, are bad radiators. Prevost (in a treatise on Radiant Heat, 
Paris, 1809) shows how this fact follows from his theory, remarking that in 
a place of uniform temperature a reflector does not alter the distribution of 
heat, which it would do if, joined to a good reflecting power, it possessed also 
that of being a good radiator. It is interesting to note Prevost's mode of 
expressing himself on this subject, as it shows that he entertained an opinion 
correct, as far as it went, with regard to internal radiation. He conjectures 
that a good reflector is a bad radiator, because, as it reflects the heat from 
without, so it also reflects the heat from within. 

Lambertf of Berlin, and Leslie, both proved by experiment that the radia- 
tion of a heated surface in any direction is proportional to the sine of the 
angle which this direction makes with the surface ; and it was demonstrated 
by FourierJ that this law is the necessary consequence of the theory of ex- 
changes, in those cases where the reflecting power of the body may be dis- 
regarded. He shows, in this demonstration, that if we refuse to admit the 
truth of the law of sines, and suppose that the intensity of the rays emitted 
does not vary with the obliquity of the surface, a central molecule can 
only acquire a temperature equal to half that of the surrounding enclosure- 
Fourier accompanied this proof with an attempt to account for the law of 
sines, in which he supposes that there is in every case a physical surface of 
very small thickness, in which surface the radiant heat emitted by a body 
takes its rise ; but, with the knowledge which we now possess, this cannot, I 
think, be considered a very happy explanation. 

* Inquiry into the Nature and Propagation of Heat. 1804. f Pyrometrie. 

X Translated in the Philosophical Magazine for February 1833. 



ON THE THEORY OP EXCHANGES. 99 

I now come to the researches of Dulong and Petit on Radiation* (trans- 
lated in the ' Annals of Philosophy,' vol. xiii. p. 241), which afford a peculiar 
evidence in favour of the theory of exchanges. In order to perceive the bear- 
ing of this evidence, let us take the case of a black body, say a thermometer 
with a blackened bulb, cooKng in a black enclosure, devoid of air, through 
the influence of radiation alone. In this case Dulong and Petit proved, by ex- 
periment, that the velocity with which the bulb cools will be in every instance 
accurately represented, if we suppose it to radiate heat at a rate depending 
only on its own temperature, and to receive back heat at a rate depending only 
on the temperature of the enclosure. Whatever evidence may be derived 
from this research is therefore wholly in favour of the theory of exchanges. 

The next step in the progress of this theory was one which led to a truer 
conception of that law of which the law of sines may be considered an approxi- 
mate expression, and was made by Provostaye and Desains. In a paper pub- 
lished in the ' Annales de Chimie' for 1848, these authors prove experiment- 
ally that which was theoretically recognized by Fourier, viz. that, when there 
is reflexion, the law of the proportionality of the radiating power to the sine 
of the angle which the ray makes with the surface becomes altered. In the 
case of glass in a field of constant temperature, they show that the sum of 
the reflected and radiated heat at all angles will be a constant quantity, and 
equal to 93*9 per cent, of the lampblack radiation of that temperature, the 
difference, viz. 6'1 per cent., being supposed to be due to diffusion. The idea 
which pervades this paper is one which had previously been recognized by 
Prevost and Fourier, but which proved particularly fertile when worked out 
by Provostaye and Desains. It may be stated thus. Returning to our 
hypothetical chamber of constant temperature, with a thermometer placed 
inside of it, this instrument will give the same indication in whatever manner 
we alter the substance of the walls, provided their temperature be left the 
same ; whence we may infer that the sum of the radiated and reflected heat 
from any given portion of the walls which strikes the thermometer, will be 
independent of the substance of which this portion is composed. We thus 
perceive that it is not precisely correct to assert that the reflective power of a 
body varies inversely as its radiative power, the proper statement being that, 
in the case of constant temperature, the sum of the heat radiated and re- 
flected by a body is a constant quantity. 

But these authors were aware that something more than this was necessary 
in order to ensure a complete equilibrium of temperature; they perceived that 
the sum of the radiated and reflected heat from a body, while equal to the lamp- 
black radiation, must also be unpolarized, even as the heat from lampblack is 
unpolarized, in order that both streams under comparison may behave in the 
same manner with respect to any surface on which they may happen to fall. 
Since therefore the radiated and reflected heat taken together must be un- 
polarized, and since the latter portion is at a certain angle polarized in the 
plane of incidence | it follows that the former, or the radiated heat, must be 
partly polarized in a plane perpendicular to that of emission. Experimen- 
tally this is known to be the case. It had been previously shown by Arago 
that the rays which leave solid and liquid incandescent bodies obliquely 
are polarized in a plane perpendicular to that of emission, and Provostaye 
and Desains found the same law to hold with regard to heat. Their ex- 
periments are contained in the ' Annales de Chimie ' for 1849, their source of 
heat being a plate of platinum maintained at a red heat by the flame of an 
alcohol lamp. 

We thus perceive that at this stage of the inquiry a perfectly distinct con- 
• Ann. de Chiip. et de Phys. vol. vii. p. 113. t Professor Forbes, Edin. PhiL Trans. 1835, 

h2 



100 REPORT 1S61. 

ception had been formed of the character, with respect to intensity and 
polarization, of the heat emanating from the surface of a body in different 
directions, necessary in order that the condition of equilibrium of tempe- 
rature be fulfilled. No attempt, however, seems to have been made to split 
up this body of heat into its constituent wave-lengths, with the view of ascer- 
tainino- whether the same laws of equilibrium hold for each of these which 
hold for the body of heat taken as a whole. Internal radiation, as a subject 
for experiment, seems also to have been overlooked, and its essential con- 
nexion with the theory of exchanges does not appear to have been recognized. 
In March 1858, I communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh the 
results of an experimental research having reference to the two points just 
mentioned. By means of a thermo-electric pile and galvanometer the fol- 
lowing facts were established : — 

1. The radiating power of thin polished plates of different substances was 
found to vary as their absorptive power; so that the radiation of a plate of 
rock-salt was only 15 per cent, of the total lampblack radiation for the same 
temperature. 

2. It was shown that the radiation from thick plates of diathermanous 
substance is greater than that from thin plates, no such difference being 
manifested when the substances are athermanous. 

3. It was found that heat radiated by a thin diathermanous plate is less 
transmissible through a screen of the same material as the heated plate than 
ordinary or lampblack heat, this difference being very marked in the case of 
rock-salt. 

4. Lastly, heat from a thick diathermanous plate is more easily transmitted 
through a screen of the same nature as the source of heat than that from a 
thin plate. 

All these facts are easily explained by means of the theory of exchanges. 
Let us recur to the hypothetical chamber before introduced, the sides of which 
are covered with lampblack and kept at a constant temperature, and let us 
hang up in this chamber two slices of polished rock-salt, of which the one is 
twice as thick as the other ; these plates will ultimately attain the temperature 
of the sides of the chamber, when their radiation will exactly equal their 
absorption. Now, since the thick plate will absorb more than the thin one of 
the heat which falls upon them from the walls, it will therefore also have a 
greater radiation than the latter; as, however, both plates, being diathermanous, 
absorb only a small portion of the heat which falls upon them, the radiation 
of both will be comparatively small. We have thus an explanation of the 
experimental fact that diathermanous bodies radiate very little heat, and that 
their radiation increases with their thickness. We see also why in an ather- 
manous body an increase of thickness does not augment the radiation, — the 
reason being that, since it is already athermanous, this increase cannot pos- 
sibly make it absorb more heat, and therefore cannot make it radiate more. 

We are therefore brought to recognize internal radiation as a consequence 
of the theory of exchanges ; but the question now arises, Is the radiation of a 
particle independent of its distance from the surface ? A little reflection will 
enable us to answer this question in the affirmative ; for it is evident (neg- 
lecting the surface reflexion, which does not really alter the result arrived at) 
that the amount of heat absorbed by two plates of any substance placed 
loosely together is not different from that absorbed by a plate equal in thick- 
ness to the two, and hence the radiation is the same also in both these cases. 
I have likewise shown experimentally that the heat from two plates of rock- 
salt placed the one behind the other, is the same as that from a single plate 
equal iu thickness to the two. 



ON THE THEORY OF EXCHANGES. 101 

Presuming therefore that the radiation of a particle is independent of its 
distance from the surface, let us endeavour to realize what takes place in the 
interior of a substance of indefinite thickness in all directions, and kept at a 
constant temperature. Let us suppose that a stream of radiant heat is con- 
stantly ilowing past a particle A in the direction of the next particle B. Now 
since the radiation of B is by hypothesis equal to that of A, the absorption 
of B must be equal to that of A. But Itt us notice what has happened to 
the stream of heat in passing A. Part of it has been absorbed by A, but on 
the other hand it has been recruited by the radiation of A, and this being 
equal to the absorption, the stream of heat when it has passed A will be 
found unaltered by its passage with regard to quantity. But it must also 
remain unaltered with respect to quality, otherwise when it falls on B, the 
amount absorbed by B will be different from that absorbed by A ; and hence 
the radiation of B will be different from that of A, which is contrary to 
hypothesis. The absorption of A is therefore equal to its radiation in quality 
as well as in quantity ; or in other words, we have a separate equilibrium for 
every description of heat. We have thus an explanation of the experimental 
fact already alluded to, that a body is particularly opake with regard to that 
heat which it radiates, since we see that a substance is predisposed to radiate 
that description of heat which it absorbs. 

It is easy also to perceive why heat from a thick plate may be more easily 
transmitted through a screen of the same nature as the source of heat, than 
that from a thin plate, the reason being that the rays from the furthest por- 
tion of the heated plate have already been sifted in their passage through the 
plate, and hence that that portion of them which escapes is more easily able 
to penetrate a screen of the same material. 

I have before alluded to a conclusion derived by Provostaye and Desains 
from the theory of exchanges, that in an enclosure of constant temperature 
the sum of the radiated and reflected heat from any portion of the walls is 
equal to the lampblack radiation of that temperature. This is a case which 
evidently comes under the scope of the law, which provides for a separate 
equilibrium for every description of heat ; hence we may assert that the sum 
of the radiated and reflected heat is in this case equal to the lampblack radi- 
ation in quality as well as in quantity ; and we are thus also led to perceive 
why opake bodies heated up to the same temperature always radiate the same 
description of heat. 

We come now to the subject of light ; and since radiant light and heat 
have been shown by Melloni, Forbes, and others to possess very many pro- 
perties in common, it was of course only natural to suppose that facts analo- 
gous to those mentioned should hold also with regard to light. One instance 
will at once occuff in which this analogy is perfect. For, as all opake bodies 
heated up to the same temperature radiate the same description of heat, so 
also when their common temperature is still further increased, they acquire 
a red heat, or a yellow heat, or a white heat simultaneously. 

The idea of applying these views to light had occurred independently to 
Professor Kirchhoft' and myself; but, although Kirchhoff slightly preceded 
me in publication, it will be convenient to defer the mention of his researches 
till I come to the subject of lines in the spectrum. 

In February 1860, I communicated to the Royal Society of London a 
paper in which certain properties of radiant light were investigated, similar 
to those already treated of with respect to heat. 

In this paper it was mentioned that the amount of light radiated by 
coloured glasses is in propojtion to their depth of colour, transparent glass 
giving out very little light; also that the radiation from red glass has a 
greenish tint, while that from green glass has a reddish tint. 



102 REPORT — 1861 

It was also mentioned that polished metal gives out less light than tar- 
nished metal, and that, when a piece of black and white porcelain is heated 
in the fire, the black parts give out much more light than the white, thereby 
producing a curious reversal of the pattern. 

All these facts are comprehended in the statement that in a constant tem- 
perature the absorption of a particle is equal to its radiation, and that for 
every description of light. 

It was also noticed that all coloured glasses ultimately lose their colour in 
the fire as they approach in temperature the coals around them, the expla- 
nation being, that while red glass, for instance, gives out a greenish light, it 
passes red light from the coals behind it, while it absorbs the green, in such 
a manner that the light which it radiates precisely makes up for that which it 
absorbs, so that we have virtually a coal radiation coming partly from and 
partly through the glass. 

In another paper communicated to the Royal Society in May of the same 
year, it was shown that tourmaline, which absorbs in excess the ordinary ray 
of light, also radiates, when heated, this description of light in excess, but that 
when the heated tourmaline is viewed against an illuminated background of 
the same temperature as itself this peculiarity disappears. 

It is now time to advert to the spectrum observations which have recently 
excited so much attention, and which are intimately connected with the sub- 
ject of this Report. Our countryman Wollaston*, and after him Fraunhofer, 
were the first to show that in the solar spectrum numerous dark bands occur 
which indicate the absence of light of certain definite refrangibility. Other 
new bands were artificially produced by Sir David Brewsterf in his remark- 
able experiment, in which the spectrum was made to pass through nitrous- 
acid gas; and it was thus rendered probable that those which occur in tlie 
solar spectrum are also in some way due to absorption. Professor W. H. 
Miller of Cambridge, and the late Professor DaniellJ, extended this property 
to chlorine, iodine, bromine, euchlorine, and indigo. 

When the spectra produced by the ignition of various substances were 
examined by Sir D. Brewster§, Sir J. Herschel||, Messrs. Talbot^, Wheat- 
stone**, W. A. Millerff, and others, their contrast to the solar spectrum 
was exceedingly remarkable. 

While the latter may be described as a continuous spectrum intersected 
with dark bands, the spectra of artificial substances are for the most part 
made up of bright, discontinuous, highly characteristic bands of light in a 
dark background, and their general appearance is that of the solar spectrum 
reversed :}:$. I think Fraunhofer was the first to notice that a bright band 
corresponding in refrangibility to the double dark band Dof the solar spectrum 
was produced by the yellow light of a flame containing sodium ; and this ray 
was shown by Professor W. A. Miller §§ to occur in the flames of lime, 
strontia, baryta, zinc, iron, and platinum, while, according to Angstrom, it 
was found in the electric flames of every metal examined by him. Professor 
Swan II II afterwards showed that an exceedingly small proportion of common 
salt called forth this line. All these philosophers, but particularly Angstrom, 

* Philosophical Transactions 1802, p. 378. 

t London and Edinb. Philosophical Magazine, vol. ii. p. 381. 

X Philosophical Magazine, 1833. § Edinburgh Phil. Trans. 1822. 

II Edinburgh Phil. Trans. 1822. "jf Brewster's Journal of Science, vol. v. 

** British Association Report for 1835. 

tt British Association Report for 1845, or Philosophical Magazine, vol. xxvii. p. 81. 

Jt Professor W. A. Miller exhibited at this Meeting of the British Association (Manches- 
ter 1861) photographs of the spectra of several metals, and I have since been informed that 
he is pm-suing the subject with success. 

§§ Philosophical Magazine, August 1845. |||| Edinburgh Transactions, 1856. 



ON THE THEORY OF EXCHANGES. 105 

seem to have been impressed with the idea that the same physical cause 
which produces the dark bands of the solar spectrum, produces also the bright 
bands in the spectra of incandescent bodies. 

In a paper by Angstrom* (a translation of which will be found in the 
' Philosophical Magazine' for May 1855), the author refers to a conjecture 
by Euler, that a body absorbs all the series of oscillations which it can itself 
assume ; " and it follows from this, says Angstrom, that the same body when 
heated so as to become luminous must emit the precise rays which at ordi- 
nary temperatures are absorbed ;" after which remarkable conjecture, now 
amply verified by experiment, he goes on to say, " I am therefore convinced 
that the explanation of the dark lines in the solar spectrum embraces that of 
the luminous lines in the electric spectrum." 

In connexion with this subject it may not be out of place to introduce the 
following extract of a letter from Prof. W. Thomson to Prof. KirchhofF, 
dated 1860. Professor Thomson thus writes : — " Professor Stokes mentioned 
tor me at Cambridge some time ago, probably about ten years, that Professor 
Miller had made an experiment testing to a very high degree of accuracy 
the agreement of the double dark line D of the solar spectrum with the 
double bright line constituting the spectrum of the spirit-lamp burning with 
salt. I remarked that there must be some physical connexion between two 
agencies presenting so marked a characteristic in common. He assented, 
and said he believed a mechanical explanation of the cause was to be had 
on some such principles as the following : — Vapour of sodium must possess 
by its molecular structure a tendency to vibrate in the periods correspond- 
ing to the degrees of refrangibility of the double line D. Hence the pre- 
sence of sodium in a source of light must tend to originate light of that 
quality. On the other hand, vapour of sodium in an atmosphere round a 
source, must have a great tendency to retain in itself, i. e. to absorb and to 
iiave its temperature raised by light from the source, of the precise quality 
in question. In the atmosphere around the sun, therefore, there must be 
present vapour of sodium, which, according to the mechanical explanation 
thus suggested, being particularly opake for light of that quality, prevents 
such of it as is emitted from the sun from penetrating to any considerable 
distance through the surrounding atmosphere. The test of this theory must 
be had in ascertaining vvliether or not vapour of sodium has the special 
absorbing power anticipated. I liave the impression that some Frenchman 
did make this out by experiment, but I can find no reference on the point." 

The experiment alluded to by Professor Stokes in this conversation was 
made by M. Foucault, who in July 184'9 communicated to the Institute the 
result of some observations on the voltaic arc formed between charcoal poles. 
He found, to use his own words, that this arc, placed in the path of a beam 
of solar light, absorbs the rays D, so that the dark line D of the solar light is 
considerably strengthened when the two spectra are exactly superposed. 
When, on the contrary, they jut out one beyond the other, the line D appears 
darker than usual in the solar light, and stands out bright in the electric 
spectrum, which allows one easily to judge of their perfect coincidence. 
Thus the arc, he continues, presents us with a medium which emits the rays 
D on its own account, and which at the same time absorbs them when they 
come from another quarter. 

To make the experiment in a manner still more decisive, Foucault pro- 
jected on the arc the reflected image of one of the charcoal points, which, 
like all solid bodies in ignition, give no lines ; and under these circumstances 
the line D appeared as in the solar spectrum. 

* Poggcndorff's ' Annalen,' vol. xciv-. p. 141. 



104 REPORT ISGl. 

In October 1859, Professor Kirchhoff of Hcitlclberg matic a comiminica- 
tion to the Berlin Academj' on tlie snbjpct of Frauiiliofer's liiirs, wliicli, along 
with Foucault's communication, has been inserted by Professor Stokes in the 
* Philosophical Magazine ' for March 1860. Professor Kirchhoft' thus de- 
scribes the result of his experiments : — 

" On the occasion of an examination of the spectra of coloured flames, not 
yet published, conducted by Bunsen and myself in common, by which it has 
become possible for us to recognize tiie qualitative composition of complicated 
mixtures from the appearance of the spectrum of their blowpipe-flame, I 
made some observations which disclose an unexpected explanation of the 
origin of Fraunhofer's lines, and authorize conclusions therefrom respecting 
the material constitution of the atmosphere of the sun, and perhaps also of 
the brighter fixed stars. 

" Fraunhofer had remarked that in the spectrum of the flame of a candle 
there appear two bright lines, which coincide with the two dark lines D of the 
solar spectrum. The same bright lines are obtained of greater intensity from 
a flame into which some common salt is put. I formed a solar spectrum by 
projection, and allowed the solar rays concerned, before they fell on the slit, 
to pass through a powerful salt-flame. If the sunlight were sufliciently re- 
duced, there appeared in place of the two dark lines D two bright lines ; if, 
on the other hand, its intensity surpassed a certain limit, the two dark lines 
D showed themselves in much greater distinctness than without the employ- 
ment of the salt-flame. 

" The spectrum of the Drummond light contains, as a general rule, the two 
bright lines of sodium, if the luminous spot of the cylinder of lime has not 
long been exposed to the white heat; if the cylinder remains unmoved these 
lines become weaker, and finally vanish altogether. If they have vanished, 
or only faintly appear, an alcohol flame into which salt has been put, and 
which is placed between the cylinder of lime and the slit, (;auses two dark 
lines of remarkable sharpness and fineness, which in that respect agree with 
the lines D of the solar spectrum, to show themselves in their stead. Thus 
the lines D of the solar spectrum are artificially evoked in a spectrum in 
which naturally they are not present. 

" If chloride of lithium is brought into the flame of Bunsen's gas-lamp, the 
spectrum of the flame shows a very bright sharply defined line, which lies 
midway between Fraunhofer's lines B and C. If, now, solar rays of moderate 
intensity are allowed to fall through the flame on the slit, the line at the 
place pointed out is seen bright on a darker ground ; but with greater strength 
of sunlight there appears in its place a dark line, which has quite the same 
character as Fraunhofer's lines. If the flame be taken away, the line disap- 
pears, as far as I have been able to see, completely. 

" I concluded from these observations that coloured flames in the spectra of 
which bright sharp lines present themselves, so weaken rays of the colour of 
these lines, when such rays pass through the flames, that in place of the 
bright lines dark ones appear as soon as there is brought behind the flame a 
source of light of sufficient intensity, in the spectrum of which these lines 
are otherwise wanting. I conclude further, that the dark lines of the solar 
spectrum which are not evoked by the atmosphere of the earth, exist in 
consequence of the presence, in the incandescent atmosphere of the sun, of 
those substances which in the spectrum of a flame produce bright lines at 
the same place 

<' The examination of the spectra of coloured flames has accordingly ac- 
quired a new and high interest; I will carry it out in conjunction with Bunsen 
as far as our means allow. In connexion therewith we will investigate the 



ON THE THEORY OF EXCHANGES. 105 

weakening of rays of light in flames that has been established by my observa- 
tions. In the course of the experiments which have at present been instituted 
by us in this direction, a fact has already shown itself which seems to us to 
be of great importance. The Drummond light requires, in order that the 
lines D should come out in it dark, a salt-flame of lower temperature. The 
flame of alcohol containing water is fitted for this, but the flame of Bunsen's 
gas-lamp is not. With the latter the smallest mixture of common salt, as 
soon as it makes itself generally perceptible, causes the bright lines of sodium 
to show themselves." 

This interesting investigation, which was translated by Professor Stokes 
in the 'Philosophical Magazine' for March 1850, came before me in time to 
permit of my adding a supplement to a paper " On the Light radiated by 
Heated Bodies," which has been already alluded to. In this supplement it 
was attempted to explain tiie fact noticed by Kirchhoff', that the Drummond 
light requires, in order that the lines D should come out in it dark, a salt-flame 
of lower temperature. This is a phenomenon analogous to that presented 
when a piece of ruby glass is heated in the fire. As long as the ruby glass 
is of a lower temperature than the coals behind it, the light given out is of a 
red description, because the ruby glass stops the green : the green light is 
therefore precisely analogous to the line D wiiich is stopped by an alcohol 
flame into which salt has been put. Should, however, the ruby glass be of a 
much higher temperature than the coals behind it, the greenish light which 
it radiates overpowers the red which it transmits, so that the light which 
reaches the eye is more green than red. This is precisely analogous to what 
is observed when a Bunsen's gas-flame with a little salt is placed before the 
Drummond light, when the line D is no longer dark, but bright. 

Such was the explanation ; but in the meantime Professor Kirchhoff had not 
been idle. Pondering on tiie circumstance that the Drummond light re- 
quires a salt-flame of lower temperature, in order that the line D should come 
out in it dark, he was soon led to see the connexion between this fact and 
the theory of exchanges. In a communication laid before the Berlin Academy 
of Sciences on the 15th of December 1859, he had already recognized this con- 
nexion, and in a subsequent communication to Poggendorff"s ' Annalen,' dated 
January 1860, he shows it to be a mathematical consequence of the theory 
of exchanges that a definite relation must subsist between the radiating and 
absorbing power of bodies for individual descriptions of light and heat. 

This investigation proceeds upon the assumption that in an enclosure of 
uniform temperature the distribution of radiant heat will remain unaltered, if 
any one body be removed and another of a diflferent substance, but similar 
dimensions, be substituted exactly in its place. The reasoning is somewhat 
elaborate, but ultimately leads the author to a definite relation between the 
radiating and absorbing powers of bodies for individual descriptions of light 
and heat. 

He has expressed this relation very clearly in the following form. 

Let R denote the intensity of radiation of a particle for a given description 
of light at a given temperature, and let A denote the proportion of rays of 

this description incident on the particle which it absorbs ; then — has the 

A 
same value for all bodies at the same temperature, that is to say, this quotient 
is a function of the temperature only. 

Professor Kirchhoff" in this communication details some experiments which 
he had made upon incandescent bodies. In confirmation of his assertion 
that a body which remains perfectly transparent at the highest temperature 
never becomes red-hot, he placed in a platinum ring of about 5 millims, dia. 



106 REl'ORT — 1861. 

meter a small portion of phosphate of soda, and heated it in the dull flame of 
Bunsen's lamp. The salt melted, formed a fluid lens, and remained perfectly 
transparent ; it, however, emitted no light, while the platinum ring with which 
it was in contact glowed brilliantly. Kirchhoff" also showed that a plate of 
tourmaline cut parallel to the axis which absorbs the ordinary rays in excess, 
radiates the same in excess. These results are similar to those which I com- 
municated shortly afterwards to the Royal Society, and which have been 
already mentioned. 

It was likewise stated by KirchhoS" in this paper, that Bunsen and he had 
reversed the brighter lines of the spectra of potassium, calcium, strontium, 
and barium, by exploding before the slit of the spectral instrument mixtures 
of sugar of milk and chlorates of the respective metals during the passage of 
the sun's ra3's. 

Allusion has already been made to Kirchhoff"s application of this law of 
reversal, in order to determine the constituents of the solar atmosphere. By 
means of this principle he has been enabled, he believes, to trace the presence 
of iron and other metals in the photosphere of our luminary, having found 
that the bright lines whicii occur in the electric spectra of those metals cor- 
respond in position with dark lines in tiie solar spectrum. " Iron," he says, 
*' is remarkable on account of the number of the lines which it causes in 
the solar spectrum. Less striking, but still quite distinctly visible, are tiie 
dark solar lines coincident with the bright lines of chromium and nickel. 
The occurrence of these substances in the sun may therefore be regarded as 
certain. Many metals, however, appear to be absent ; for although silver, 
copper, zinc, aluminium, cobalt, and antimony possess very characteristic 
spectra, still these do not coincide with any (or at least with any distinct) 
dark lines of the solar spectrum." 

It has been shown, in the course of this Report, how the law which connects 
together the radiating and absorbing power of bodies for individual descrip- 
tions of heat or light follows immediately from the theory of exchanges. 
But physicists have been anxious to establish this law as the result of some 
simple fundamental property of matter. Euler, we have seen, and Angstrom 
after him, predicted its existence, assuming as a fundamental principle, that 
a body absorbs all the series of oscillations which it can itself assume. 

Professor Stokes also, in commenting on the discovery of Foucault and 
Kirchhoff" (Philosophical JVIagazine, March 1860), uses these words : — " The 
remarkable phenomenon discovered by Foucault, and rediscovered and ex- 
tended by Kirchhoff, that a body may be at the same time a source of light 
giving out rays of a definite refrangibility, and an absorbing medium ex- 
tinguishing rays of the same refrangibility which traverse it, seems readily 
to admit of a dynamical illustration borrowed from sound. We know that 
a stretched string which on being struck gives out a certain note (suppose 
its fundamental note) is capable of being thrown into the same state of vibra- 
tion by aerial vibrations corresponding to the same note. Suppose now a 
portion of space to contain a great number of such stretched strings, forming 
thus the analogue of a 'medium.' It is evident that such a medium on 
being agitated would give out the note above mentioned, while on the other 
hand, if that note were sounded in air at a distance, the incident vibrations 
would throw the strings into vibration, and consequently would themselves 
be gradually extinguished, since otherwise there would be a creation ot vis 
viva. The optical application of this illustration is too obvious to need com- 
ment." 

Professor Tyndall also, in the Bakerian Lecture for this year, " On the 
Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours, and on the Physical 



ON THE THEORY OF EXCHANGES. 10/ 

Connexion between Radiation, Absorption, and Conduction," has given a very 
lucid statement of a hypothesis of tliis kind, accompanied with a remarkable 
experimental verification. 

On the supposition that an ether envelopes the molecules of matter (just 
as the air surrounds the string of a musical instrument), the author points out 
tiiat the reciprocity of absorption and radiation is a necessary mechanical 
consequence of this theory, on the principle of the equality of action and 
reaction. He then goes on to say, " the elementary gases which have been 
examined all exhibit extremely feeble powers, both of absorption and radia- 
tion, in comparison with the compound ones. In the former case we have 
oscillating atoms, in the latter oscillating systems of atoms. Uniting tlie 
atomic theory with the conception of an ether, it follows that the compound 
molecule, which furnishes points d'appui to the ether, must be capable of 
accepting and generating motion in a far greater degree than the single atom, 
which we may figure to our minds as an oscillating sphere. Thus oxygen and 
hydrogen, which taken separately or mixed mechanically produce a scarcely 
sensible eff"ect, when united chemically to form oscillating systems, as in 
aqueous vapour, produce a powerful effect. Thus also nitrogen and hydrogen, 
which when separate or mixed produce but little action, when combined 
to form ammonia produce a great action. So also nitrogen and oxygen, 
which, as air, are feeble absorbents and radiators, when united to form 
oscillating systems, as in nitrous oxide, are very powerful in both capacities." 

This great absorbing power which belongs to a compound molecule is a 
very interesting result, and seems to be well explained by this hypothesis ; but 
M'hether all compound gases without exception are more absorptive than their 
components, in the absence of experimental evidence may, I think, admit of 
being questioned. 

It has been shown in this Report that internal radiation follows immediately 
from the theory of exchanges, and is independent of the distance from the 
surface. In an uncrystallized medium, this radiation will, by the principle 
of sufficient reason, be equal in all directions ; but here a question arises 
which shapes itself thus : — Let us suppose a polished surface of indefinite 
extent, bounding an uncrystallized medium of indefinite thickness; and placed 
opposite to this surface and parallel to it let us imagine an indefinitely ex- 
tended surface of lampblack ; and finally, let the whole arrangement be ke\it 
at a constant temperature. Now we know the quantity of heat which radiates 
from the lampblack in directions making different angles with the surface ; 
and since the proportion of this heat which after striking the polished surface 
penetrates it in a certain direction must be equal to the quantity of heat 
which leaves this surface from the interior in the same direction, it can be 
readily conceived how, by means of optical laws, we may be enabled to tell 
the internal radiation, in different directions, of the solid to which this surface 
belongs. It is remarkable that the internal radiation deduced by this method 
for an uncrystallized body is equal in all directions — a result which we have 
seen may also be arrived at by the principle of sufficient reason. 

In order to define internal radiation, let us conceive a square unit of sur- 
face to be placed in the midst of a solid of indefinite thickness on all sides, 
and consider the amount of radiant heat which passes across this square unit of 
surface in unit of time, in directions very nearly perpendicular to the surface, 
and comprehending an exceedingly small solid angle h<p. Call this heat Rt^, 
then R may be viewed as the intensity of the radiation in this direction. 

Now if R denote the radiation of lampblack, and /.i the index of refraction 
of an uncrystallized medium, it may be shown, that the internal radiation as 
thus defined is equal to R/:^^ 



108 REPORT— 1861. 

Before concluding this Report, tliere is one fiict which I think internal 
radiation may serve to explain in some such way as the following. Suppose 
we have two substances opposite one another, one having the temperature 
of 0", and the other of 100°, the latter will of course lose heat to the former ; 
let us call its velocity of cooling 100. Suppose now that, while the first 
surface still retains the temperature 0°, the second has acquired that of 400° ; 
then we might naturally expect the velocity of cooling to be denoted by 400 ; 
but by Dulong and Petit's law it is much greater. The reason of the increase 
may perhaps be thus accounted for : — At the temperature of 100° we may 
suppose that only the exterior row of particles of the body supplies the radia- 
tion, the heat from the interior particles being all stopped by the exterior ones, 
as the substance is very opake for heat of 100°; while at 400°, for the heat 
of which the particles are less opake, we may imagine that part of the 
radiation from the interior particles is allowed to pass, thereby sM'elling up 
the total radiation to that which it is by Dulong and Petit's law. 



On the Recent Progress and Present Condition of Manvfaduring 
Chemistry in the South Lancashire District. By Drs. E. Schunck, 
R. Angus Smith, und H. E. Roscoe. 

It has been frequently suggested by persons engaged in manufacturing che- 
mistry in this neighbourhood, that, as Manchester is the centre of a large 
district in which the growth of those branches of industry immediatdy de- 
pendent upon chemical science has been so extraordinarily rapid, and in 
which their extent is now so vast, it would be fitting and desirable to pre- 
sent to the Chemical Section of the British Association, at its Meeting in 
Manchester, a short report on the recent progress and present condition of 
the chemical manufactures of the South Lancashire district. 

In drawing up such u Report, those to whom the task of collecting and 
editing the matter was entrusted have endeavoured, in the first place, to give 
some idea of the progress which has been made in the trade, by describing 
as concisely as possible those new processes, or those improvements on old 
ones, in which any point of sufficient scientific interest presented itself; and 
in the second place, to give a statistical account, as accurate as possible, of the 
present yield of the very large number of chemical works in the South Lan- 
cashire district. As a description of the rise of the Lancashire chemical 
trade from its commencement would have much exceeded the limits of such a 
Report, the authors decided upon confining themselves, as a rule, to the collec- 
tion of facts regarding the improvements and new processes introduced du- 
ring the last ten years. Notwithstanding this limitation it has, however, been 
found that the labour of arranging the matter was much more considerable 
than was at first supposed ; and the authors feel that, in spite of the great 
amount of time and trouble they have expended upon it, the Report is still 
far from complete, and they fear that in one or two minor points inaccuracies 
may have crept in : they believe, however, that several points of great scien- 
tific interest will be presented to the notice of the Section — points which 
hitherto have only been known to the practical manufacturer; and they feel 
sure that the statistics they have been able to collect will give to the scientific 
world a notion of the importance, in a national point of view, of the chemical 
trade of South Lancashire. 

The authors wish especially to remark that by far the largest portion of 
the facts and statements which they are about to lay before the Section have 



PROGRESS OP CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 109 

been verbally communicated to them by various gentlemen practically engaged 
in the chemical manufactures of this neighbourhood, who have, in a most 
liberal manner, not only opened their works to minute inspection, but have 
themselves devoted a considerable amount of time and personal labour in 
minutely explaining all those processes which they deemed of scientific in- 
terest, thus throwing open their accumulated store of practical as well as 
theoretical experience. 

Where the attention and interest shown by all the numerous gentlemen to 
whom the authors had occasion to apply has been so great, it appears almost 
invidious to mention any names; but in thanking all, the authors cannot for- 
bear to state that to Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co. of Cornbrook, Mr. Gos- 
sage and Mr. Deacon of Widnes, Mr. Spence of Pendleton, Mr. Shanks of 
St. Helens, and Mr. Higgin and Mr. Hart of Manchester they are especially 
indebted for a large amount of valuable information. 

In conclusion, it may be stated that it has been the aim throughout the 
Report to describe the various improvements effected during the last ten years 
so far only as they are of scientific interest, and carefully to avoid entering 
into those details of manufacture whicli to a great extent regulate the economic 
production of the article, and which, though they are all-important to the 
trader, are of slight interest to the man of science. 

I. Sulphuric Acid. 

No substance produced by the manufacturing chemist is equal in import- 
ance to sulphuric acid, since it is quite indispensable in the production of 
many other articles, as well as in many manufacturing processes. In the 
production of soda-ash, and consequently of soap and glass, of muriatic, 
nitric, and other acids, of alum, sulphate of copper, bleaching powder, &e., 
in bleaching and dyeing, its use is quite essential. To produce it econo- 
mically on the large scale is therefore an object of considerable importance, 
and numerous improvements have consequently been introduced into the 
manufacture with the view of bringing it to the highest state of perfection. 
In order to give an idea of the degree of economy practised, we may men- 
tion that an eminent manufacturer informs us tiiat he obtains from 100 parts 
of sulphur 280-290 parts of sulphuric acid of sp. gr. 1-85, which, even sup- 
posing the sulphur to be pure, is as near the calculated quantity (306) as can 
be expected in practice. Very few manufacturers, however, employ sulphur ; 
most of them use pyrites, the only objection to the latter being that it con- 
tains arsenic, so that the product is consequently contaminated with arsenious 
acid. The Irish pyrites contains 33 per cent, of sulphur, whilst the Spanish 
pyrites contains as much as 46 per cent. The ordinary burner for pyrites is 
well known, and answers sufficiently well when the ore is in large lumps, 
since the quantity of sulphur left in the residue does not exceed 3 per cent. ; 
but considerable difficulty is experienced in operating on the smaller pieces 
and powder, technically called smalls. In burning these in the ordinary 
way, in the case of Spanish pyrites, from 8 to 10 per cent, of sulphur remains 
behind and is lost. By mixing them with clay and forming the mixture into 
balls before burning, this loss may be reduced to about 4 per cent. It is 
indeed possible to continue the operation until the quantity of sulphur left 
unconsumed amounts to only 2 per cent., but the time required for this pur- 
pose is found to be too long to make it worth while to do so. Mr. Spence 
of Manchester has, however, devised a plan for effecting this object in an 
economical manner, which may be shortly described as follows : — In the first 
place the smalls are riddled out, the large lumps being put into the ordinary 



110 REPORT 1861. 

burner. The smalls are then placed on a hearth of firebrick 40 feet long 
and 6 or 7 feet wide, which is heated from below, and has a current of air 
passing over it to burn the sulphur and convey the sulphurous acid into the 
chambers. The material 's introduced at the end furthest from the fire, 
where it only experiences a gentle heat, and is gradually moved forward to 
where the heat is greatest. If the ore is ground, the sulphur may in this 
kiln be completely burnt. We may mention, by the way, that the introduc- 
tion of Spanish and Portuguese pyrites has caused the rise of a new branch 
of industry in the extraction of the small quantity of copper which these 
ores contain. The manufacturers do not, however, find it advisable in gene- 
ral to extract the copper themselves ; they sell it to the smelter. 

The manufacturers of oil of vitriol have recently availed themselves of 
anotlier source of sulphurous acid. In Hill's process of purifying gas, 
hydrated peroxide of iron is employed instead of lime. After being used for 
some time the material is exposed to the atmosphere, in order to re-oxidize 
the reduced oxide of iron. The process is repeated thirty or forty time?, 
after which it can no longer be employed for the purification of gas. It 
contains, however, 40 per cent, of sulphur, and the manufacturers make use 
of it in the same way as pyrites for the production of sulphurous acid. 
From 1 ton of the material they obtain about 1^ ton of hydrated sulphuric 
acid. 

Mr. Harrison Blair's improved sulphur-burner is especially valuable as 
economizing space in the chambers, by preventing the sulphu'rous acid from 
being diluted with too large an excess of air, as is the case with the ordinary 
sulphur-burners. In this arrangement the sulphur falls into the burner 
through a vertical hopper, air being admitted by an opening in front in suf- 
ficient quantity to cause combustion of a portion of the sulphur, and by the 
heat thus evolved to melt and volatilize the remainder. The vapour of the 
sulphur is then supplied with a jet of air, from the side, carefully regulated, 
and burns with a flame of great size. By means of this arrangement, one 
chamber of a capacity of 25,000 cubic feet is stated to produce weekly 
21 tons of rectified acid, whereas, by using the ordinary burner, a chamber of 
the same capacity would produce only 11 tons. 

The tendency in this district has been to increase the size of the sulphuric- 
acid-chambers. The largest that we have heard of has a capacity of 1 12,000 
cubic feet. 

Many manufacturers employ Gay-Lussac's method, invented sixteen or 
seventeen years ago for economizing nitric oxide. Pure sulphuric acid of 
sp. gr. 1*75 is poured down a column filled with coke, so as completely to 
moisten it. The waste nitrous fumes from the chambers, which would other- 
wise be lost, are then passed through the column and absorbed. The liquid 
is diluted with water to a sp. gr. of 1*50 and heated with steam, nitrous 
fumes are evolved, which pass off into the chambers and are used instead of 
fresh gas. By this means a saving of more than 50 per cent, of nitrate of 
soda is effected. Others, however, do not employ this method, as they find 
that with the present low price of nitrate of soda, £12 per ton, it does not 
pay to collect and absorb the waste oxides of nitrogen. 

The use of platinum stills for the rectification of sulphuric acid has 
been almost entirely abandoned, and their place supplied by glass retorts, 
which are now made much larger and of better quality than formerly. They 
are placed either over the naked fire, or else in iron pots containing a little 
sand ; and when carefully protected from currents of air, the breakage is not 
found to be excessive. The acid thus obtained is said to be more transpa- 
rent and less coloured than that prepared with platinum. 



PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. Ill 

Wc estimate the weekly production of sulphuric acid of sp. gr. 1*85, in 
this district, exclusive of that which is used in the manufacture of sodu-ash, 
at about 700 tons. 

II. The Manufacture of Soda. 

In the most important chemical manufacture of the district, that of soda- 
ash, but few changes in principle have taken place during the last ten years, 
the essential points of the original method of Leblanc (1797) being still 
adhered to, although minor alterations have been introduced in the various 
processes. The extent of the manufacture has, however, largely increased 
since the year 1851. The value of alkali made annually in England is 
estimated at two million pounds sterling ; of this, half is made in the South 
Lancashire and half in the Newcastle district. In the year 1860 the average 
quantity of common salt (chloride of sodium) decomposed per week in the 
alkali works of the South Lancashire district amounted to 2600 tons. This 
quantity of salt requires for its decomposition 3110 tons of sulphuric acid 
of sp. gr. 1*60, and produces 3400 ions of hydrochloric acid of sp. gr. 1"15. 
The weight of salt decomposed serves as the simplest measure of the activity 
of the alkali trade, as this raw material is worked up into a variety of pro- 
ducts the exact relative quantities of which it is not easy to estimate. 
Through the kindness of the leading firms in the alkali trade in this neigh- 
bourhood we are, however, enabled to lay before the Section a reliable 
approximate estimate of the total quantities of these various products now 
made in the district; viz. salt-cake, soda-ash, soda crystals, caustic soda, and 
bicarbonate of soda : — 

Statistics of the Lancashire Alkali- Trade, 1 86 1 . 

Tons. 

Common salt (Na CI) decomposed per week 2600 

Sulphui-ic acid (sp. gr. 1'6) used 3110 

Hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1*15) produced 3400 

Soda-ash sold per week 1800 

Salt-cake sold per week 180 

Soda crystals (NaO CO^-f- 10 HO) sold per week 170 

Bicarbonate of soda sold per week 225 

Caustic soda (solid) sold per week 90 

Since the year 1852 the alkali-trade in the South Lancashire district has 
more than tripled, in that year only 772 tons of common salt being con- 
sumed per week. 

These large quantities of products now manufactured are derived from about 
twenty-five works, varying from a yield of 175 to 25 tons of ash per week; 
the chief localities in which the trade is carried on are, St. Helens, Runcorn 
Gap, and Widnes Dock near Warrington, the neighbourhood of Bolton, and 
Newton Heath near Manchester*. Some idea may be formed of the extent 
of the Lancashire alkali-trade when it is stated that two large firms are 
engaged solely in breaking the limestone used by the alkali makers in the 
Widnes district alone. 

I It would far exceed the limits of this Report were we even to mention the 

' very numerous patents for improvements in the alkali-trade taken out since 

1851. Suffice it to say that none have succeeded in materially altering the 

process. Many plans have been proposed for avoiding the loss of sulphur, 

* The numbers here given include the yield of three works beyond the limit of the 
county — two situated on the Cheshire side of the Mersey at Runcoru, and one at Hint — but 
all sending their products to the Lancashire markets. 



112 REPORT— 1861. 

the great drawback of Leblanc's original method ; but none have been as yet 
found to be practicallysuccessful, if, indeed, we except a process used by the St. 
Helens Patent Alkali Company, in which the bisulphide of iron (iron pyrites), 
being roasted in a reverberatory furnace with common salt, yields volatile 
sesquicliloride of iron, salt-cake, and peroxide of iron, which are sepax'ated 
by lixiviation. A process, theoretically most promising, has been proposed by 
Mr. Gossage, to whom the alkali-trade owes so much, by which all loss of 
sulphur is avoided ; but even this plan has not yet been successfully worked. 
It depends ujjon the following facts : (1) that moist carbonic acid decomposes 
sulphide of sodium, forming carbonate of soda and sulphuretted hydrogen ; 
and (2) that dry peroxide of iron is reduced by sulphuretted hydrogen — free 
sulphur, water, and protoxide of iron being formed, — the latter part of the 
process having been patented by Mr. Thomas Spencer in 1859. The salt- 
cake, made in the usual way, is in this process reduced by coal, and the fused 
sulphide allowed to flow through a tower filled with heated coke, in which it 
meets a current of moist carbonic acid ; the carbonate of soda runs out at 
the bottom of the tower, whilst the sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid 
gases pass upwards through a tower tilled with peroxide of iron in porous 
masses. The sulphur is there deposited upon the oxide of iron, and the mass 
only needs burning in the ordinary pyrites-kilns to yield sulphurous acid 
again. The numerous plans proposed for regaining the sulphur from the 
alkali-waste have also all proved abortive ; nor indeed is this to be wondered 
at when we consider the mechanical difficulties of dealing with a mass of 
material amounting in some works to 600 tons weekly, and when we like- 
wise remember that the waste contains only from 15 to 20 per cent, of sul- 
phur, which, if it could all be easily extracted, Avould only make the mass 
worth about 15*. per ton. 

The improvements of detail effected in the soda- manufacture since the 
year 1851 have mainly been the following: — 

(!) Greater attention to economical working in all the branches than was 
formerly given, especially in the burning of pyrites, and in the evaporation 
of the black-ash liquors, which is now wholly effected by the waste heat 
from the black-ash furnaces. The arrangement for the evaporation of the 
black-ash liquors by means of the spent heat of the black-ash furnaces was 
proposed by Mr. Gamble of St. Helens, and by him liberally presented to 
his co-manufacturers. 

(2) The process of lixiviation of the black ash is more completely accom- 
plished than formerly by the employment of the very ingenious and simple 
arrangement originally proposed by Mr. Shanks, and by him given to the 
soda-trade. According to Mr. Shanks's method, all pumping of the liquors 
or handling of the black ash is avoided, a much more perfect abstraction of 
the soluble constituents is gained, and a great saving in expense of evapora- 
tion is effected. 

(3) In some works the black ash is now made by machinery, under a 
patent granted to Messrs. Elliot and Russell in 1853, and more recently 
improved by Messrs. Stevenson and Williamson of the Yarrow Chemical 
Works, Newcastle. In this method the mixture of salt-cake, coal, and lime- 
stone is introduced into revolving iron cylinders, lined with firebricks, and 
heated by a furnace, so that thus the process of manual stirring is avoided. 

(i) The soda-ash is now in many alkali-works packed into casks by 
machinery. 

Since the year 1851 an entirely new branch of the manufacture has been 
introduced by the preparation of solid caustic soda, an article now largely 
exported to America and other localities, to which carriage is expensive. 



PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 113 

In the preparation of solid caustic soda advantage is taken of the facts, that 
in all the black-ash liquors nearly one-third of the total alkali is present 
as the hydrate, and that on concentrating these liquors by boiling, the whole 
of the carbonate, and the greater part of the chloride, sulphate, and other 
neutral salts separate, and may be removed by mechanical means, leaving 
in solution the caustic alkali with a small quantity of sulphides and cyanides 
<vhich are oxidized by nitrate of soda, as afterwards described. Sometimes, 
however, it is found convenient to caustitize with linie the whole of the 
black-ash liquor before evaporation : the caustic alkali must then be prepared 
in a dilute solution ; otherwise, as is well known, a complete decomposition 
does not occur. In order to utilize the heat wasted by the necessary evapo- 
ration of the lye, Mr. Dale has patented a plan for boiling down the caustic 
liquors iu closed iron boilers, employing the steam for motive power or for 
heating purposes. . Mr. Dale finds that the liquors may be thus concentrated 
to sp. gr. ISO without in any way injuring the boilers. When the lye has 
obtained the above strength, it is concentrated in open iron pans, and nitrate 
of soda is added to oxidize the sulphides and sulphites, large quantities of 
ammonia being evolved. As soon as the greater portion of the uncombined 
water has gone off, and the mass begins to undergo igneous fusion, the 
cyanides are decomposed by the nitrate — nitrogen and oxygen gases being 
liberated, and the carbon of the cyanogen appearing as a crust of finely 
divided graphite. This interesting fact of the production of graphite by 
decomposition, probably, of the cyanides, was first observed by Dr. Pauli of 
the Union Alkali-works of St. Helens. The caustic soda thus prepared is 
often perfectly white, although generally of a greenish colour from traces of 
manganese; it contains neither iron noralumina, the former being precipitated 
as an insoluble anhydrous peroxide, and the latter separating out as a crystal- 
line alkaline silicate of alumina. 

In concentrating the strong lye, the manufacturers were much troubled by 
the continual boiling over of the fusing mass, but this has been remedied by 
an ingenious application of the "Geyser" principle, also used in the kiers 
employed in bleaching cotton goods, which we saw in operation at Messrs. 
Gaskell and Deacon's Works at Widnes. At the bottom of the round pan 
in which the evaporation is conducted is placed a conical pipe of sheet iron, 
open at both ends, and reaching about an inch above the level of the fusing 
mass. This tube does not rest close to the bottom of the pan, openings 
being left for the entrance of the liquid. In contact with the heated iron, 
steam is formed at the bottom of the tube, and the liquid is thus forced out 
at the top of the tube, preventing altogether any violent ebullition occurring 
in the other part of the pan, and consequently effectually stopping the boiling 
over of the fused mass. 

The proposition recently made by Kuhlmann for the employment of the 
alkali-waste as a cement is not new, Mr. Deacon of Widnes having used this 
waste material for making floors twelve years ago. 

The investigations of Mr. Gossage on the constitution of black ash have 
been the base of a very important branch of that manufacture. This gentle- 
man, so long ago as 1838, expressed his doubts as to the correctness of the 
view taken by Dumas and other chemists concerning the composition of the 
black ash, namely, that the separation of the soluble carbonate of soda from 
the compounds of sulphur and lime by treatment with water depends upon 
the formation of an insoluble oxysulphide of calcium. Mr. Gossage showed 
that in all the liquors obtained by dissolving the black ash nearly one-third of 
the total quantity of alkali is present as caustic soda, and that this closely 
corresponds to the excess of caustic lime practically employed, whereas in 

186J. J 



114 REPORT 1861. 

the dry substance no caustic soda can be dissolved out by alcohol. Hence 
he concluded that the black ash consists of a mixture of carbonate of soda, 
caustic lime, and monosulphide of calcium, and that when the mass is treated 
with water, caustic soda and carbonate of lime are formed, the monosulphide 
of calcium itself being insoluble in water. This theory of the composition 
of black ash is now generally adopted by chemists practically engaged in 
aliiali -making, and has received confirmation by the subsequent analyses of 
Mr. F. Claudet and others. 

The growth of the soda-ash manufacture has been so rapid, and so many 
changes have been caused by it in the chemical arts, that a short sketch of 
its history may with great propriety be added to this portion of our subject — 
this sketch being in the main an abridgement of Mr. Gossage's paper read 
before the Section. Previous to 1793, soda was made almost entirely from 
the ashes of sea-weed obtained from Alicante, Sicily, Teneriffe, Scotland, and 
Ireland. Potash from Russia, France, and America supplied its place to a 
large extent ; now, however, soda supplies the place of potash, even in those 
countries from which we formerly obtained potash. In ITOl a French Com- 
mission decided that Leblanc's soda-ash process was the best proposed. The 
Government made it known to the public in 1797. The inventor died in 
poverty; but many manufacturers rose up in France and obtained great suc- 
cess. It was little known in this country till 1823, when the duty of j630 a 
ton was taken off salt. 

In connexion with soda, muriatic acid and chlorine must be named. 
Although Scheele, a Swede, discovered chlorine, Berthollet discovered its 
bleaching properties. The process was introduced into Scotland by Professor 
Copeland of Aberdeen; and in 1798 Mr. Charles Tennant of Glasgow 
patented a solution of chloride of lime as a bleaching-liquor, which was fol- 
lowed up by the invention of the present bleaching-powder. When com- 
mon salt is decomposed by sulphuric acid, the muriatic acid from which the 
chlorine is obtained is set free ; when this process was performed by bleachers 
the duty on the salt was remitted, but they were compelled to throw away all 
the sulphate of soda formed— -a strange and most wasteful act. This con- 
tinued till ISl-i. About this time occurred the expiration of Tennant's patent 
for bleaching ; and crystals of carbonate of soda were gradually introduced at 
3630 per ton. Mr. Losh, of Newcastle, had made use of Leblanc's process 
almost from its publication, but on a small scale. In 1802 he sold soda-crystals 
at £60 per ton ; the present price is £i 10s. But in 1823 may be dated the 
commencement of the soda-ash manufacture in this country, when Mr. James 
Muspratt erected his works at Liverpool. 

The decomposition of the salt was made chiefly in open furnaces ; so that 
an enormous amount of muriatic acid was sent into the air, and soda-works 
were removed from towns when the Woulfe's apparatus was not used for con- 
densation. To remedy this loss, Mr. Gossage invented, in the year 1836, the 
coke tower as at present used. The acid gases percolate through a deep 
bed of coke, which fills a high tower, and which is supplied with water 
trickling through the porous material. Mr. Gossage and Mr. Shanks are said 
to have so purified the gas at Messrs. Crossfield's works at St. Helens, that it 
did not even render a solution of nitrate of silver turbid. 

In 1838, when the King of the Two Sicilies monopolized the trade in 
sulphur, it was raised in price from £5 to £14 per ton, when the Irish pyrites 
began to be used. This again led to the extraction of the copper from 
the spent pyrites, and also of the silver, a process commenced by Mr. Gos- 
sage in 1850. Mr. John Wilson began to extract the gold, but without com- 
mercial success. 



PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 11.5 

Since Mr. Muspratt began his works the price of soda has been reduced 
60 per cent., although the raw materials have fallen only 10 per cent. 

There are about fifty soda-works in Great Britain ; and the following 
amounts are made, as far as is known : — 

3000 tons of soda-ash per week. 
2000 tons of soda-crystals per week. 

2,50 tons of bicarbonate of soda per week. 

400 tons of bleaching-powder per week. 

About 10,000 persons are employed in these operations, exclusive of those 
engaged in procuring salt, coal, pyrites, and limestone, and in the transporta- 
tion of the materials. 

The new French Treaty reduces the import duty into France 15 per cent., 
or 36*. per ton. At the time of making the Treaty, it was estimated that 
59,000 tons of salt were used in France for soda, and 260,000 in Great 
Britain. 

The following Table gives the amount of materials used at present for the 
production of 1 ton of soda-ash, and their prices : — 

£ s. d. 

1^ ton of Irish pyrites 1 15 

1 cwt. nitrate of soda 12 

li ton of salt 10 

1:^ ton of limestone 10 

3] tons of fuel 1 1 



364- 8 





Chronology of the Soda Trade. 




Period. 


Raw Materials used and Prices. 


Quantity 
manufactured. 


Prices. 


1790 
1792 

1814 

1823 

and 
1824 

1861 


Barilla and Kelp. 

Leblanc's process invented aud ap- 
plied in France. 

Crystals of soda, made from bleach- 
er's residua, and by Mr. Losh from 
brine. 

Mr. Muspratt's Works commenced, 
using — 

Common salt at 15s. per ton. 

Sulphur at £8 per ton. 

Lime at 155. per ton. 


Not known. 
Not known. 

Not known. 

Probably 100 tons per 
weekof crystalsand 
soda-ash. 

5000 tons per week. 


Not known. 
Not known. 

Soda-crystals £ JO 
per ton. 

Soda-crystals JE18 

per ton. 
Soda-ash £24 per 

ton. 

Soda-crystals £i 
10s. per ton. 

Soda-ash £8 per 
ton. 


Coal at 8s. per ton. 


50 works in operation in Great Bri- 
tain, using Leblanc's process, raw 
materials in Lancashire costing, 

Common salt 8s. per ton. 

Sulphur from pyrites £5 per ton. 

Limestone...., 6s. Sd. per ton. 

Fuel • 6s. Der ton. 





III. Bi.EACHING-PoWDER. 

In some alkali-works the waste hydrochloric acid is employed to evolve 
fcarbonic acid from limestone for the manufacture of bicarbonate of soda from 
soda-crystals; in others the acid is used for the preparation of bleaching-pow- 

I 2 



116 REPORT— 1861. 

der and bleaching-liquor, both of which products are made in large quantities 
in the district, 155 tons of bleaching-powder* being made each week. 
The only points in this manufacture which call for remark are : — 

(1) An ingenious process for preparing chlorine without the use of 
binoxide of manganese is used by Mr. Shanks of St. Helens. The process is 
as follows : — Hydrochloric acid is added to chromate of lime, sesquichloride 
of chromium and free chlorine are produced, and the free chlorine is used 
for making bleaching-powder. Then lime is added to the sesquichloride of 
chromium, and the precipitated sesquioxide reconverted into chromate by 
heating with lime in a reverberatory furnace. 

(2) The regeneration of peroxide of manganese from the waste liquors 
containing chloride of manganese has, as is well known, been performed with 
success by Mr. Charles Dunlop, so much so that the product obtained is 
almost pure. Dr. Gerland of Newton-le-Willows has communicated to us the 
following process for recovering from these liquors not only peroxide of 
manganese, but also the nickel and cobalt which they contain. The liquors 
are first neutralized with limestone, and then caustic lime is added until all 
the iron is precipitated as hydrated peroxide of iron. The precipitate, after 
washing and drying, may be used as yellow ochre. The filtrate contains 
manganese, nickel, and cobalt. The two latter metals are precipitated as 
sulphides by means of a solution of sulphide of calcium (obtained from black- 
ash waste), which is added until the precipitate ceases to be of a pure black. 
The precipitate is now collected and subjected to the well-known manipula- 
tions for separating the metals. The supernatant liquid is siphoned ofl", and 
the manganese contained in it is precipitated as hydrated protoxide by adding 
milk of lime. The oxide is washed by decantation and thrown on calico for 
draining. It is converted into the higher oxide simply by the agency of 
heat and air, and is generally obtained as a fine black powder containing 
70 per cent, of peroxide. The average quantity of cobalt contained in 1 ton 
of manganese is 10 lbs., and of nickel 5 lbs. 

IV. Chlorate of Potash. 

From 4 to 5 tons of this salt are manufactured weekly in this district. 
It is employed for making matches, and also as an oxidizing agent in steam 
colours on calico. 

V. Hyposulphite of Soda. 

This salt is manufactured by Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co., to the extent 
of 3 tons weekly. It is prepared by passing sulphurous acid through a solu- 
tion of sulphide of sodium, and purified by recrystallization. It is used by 
paper-makers, by photographers, and by bleachers (known as antichlor). 

VI. Silicate of Soda. 

The experiments of Fuchs, Kuhlmann, and others have shown that the 
alkaline silicates may be employed with success for the purpose of coating 
building-stones of a soft or porous nature, thus enabling them to resist 
the action both of air and water. Another use has been found for them 
in this district, viz. as a substitute for cow-dung in calico-printing ; and they 
are also extensively employed by soap-manufacturers in place of the resinates. 
Silicate of soda is the compound employed. The process of manufacture is 
simple. Sand and carbonate of soda are melted together, a sufficient quan- 

* Of this quantity 70 tons are produced at St. Helens, 40 at Runcorn and Runcorn Gap, 
and 45 in Flint. 



PROGRESS OP CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 117 

tity of the latter being taken to prevent the watery solution afterwards gela- 
tinizing. The product has the appearance of glass, transparent in thin 
layers, and variously coloured in mass, from pale yellow to brown or black, 
the colour being due to the presence of carbon. Occasionally it is of a pale 
green. As it is difficult to reduce it into fragments by pounding, on account 
of its extreme brittleness, it is found advantageous to allow the fused mass 
to run directly into water, by which means it is immediately broken up into 
pieces of a convenient size. About 10 tons per week are produced in this 
neighbourhood. 

VII. Arseniate of Soda. 

This salt has of late come into very general use as a substitute for cow- 
dung in calico-printing, for which purpose it is much better adapted than 
the phosphate or silicate of soda, as it does not attack the alumina mordants 
to so great an extent as those salts. It is generally prepared by fusing 
arsenious acid with nitrate of soda and caustic soda. Without the addition 
of caustic soda, an acid arseniate would be formed. In this way, however, 
a considerable loss of arsenious acid takes place. Mr. Higgin, of this city, 
has therefore invented and patented a process, by which this loss is prevented. 
He dissolves the arsenious acid in caustic soda, adds nitrate of soda, introduces 
the mixture into a reverberatory furnace, and allows the heat of the fire to 
pass over the surface. In the first instance ammonia is given off, then nitric 
oxide. The heating is continued until the paste is perfectly dry. This pro- 
cess is attended by a saving, not only of arsenious acid, but also of nitrate 
of soda. The advantages attending the use of arseniate of soda for dung- 
ing are, that a greater proportion of the mordants becomes fixed, and that 
the colours are superior and the whites purer after dyeing than with other 
materials. Its use is also attended with greater economy. It is to be re- 
gretted that so valuable a substance as this should also be one of so highly 
poisonous a nature. 

The quantity produced in this district amounts to 10 or 12 tons per week. 

VIII. Bichromate of Potash. 

We have nothing new to report regarding the manufacture of this salt. 
About 14 tons are produced weekly in our district. 

IX. Prussiates of Potash. 

From 4 to 5 tons of yellow prussiate of potash and 1 ton of red prussiate 
are produced in this district per week. 

X. Superphosphate of Lime. 
Weekly production in this district, 500 to 600 tons. 

XL Sulphate of Baryta. 

Of this salt, which is usually sold under the name of " blanc fixe," about 
2 tons are made in this district by precipitation. The plan pursued is very 
simple : Derbyshire heavy spar is heated with carbon, the sulphide of 
barium thus obtained is decomposed with muriatic acid, and from the solution 
the baryta is precipitated as sulphate. When prepared in this manner, it is 
found to be better adapted for the purpose to which it is applied than the ore 
simply ground, as it possesses more body as a paint than the latter. 

XII. Epsom Salts. 
Weekly production in this district, 20 tons. 



118 REPORT — 1861. 

XIII. Alum. 

One of the most important improvements introduced into our chemical 
manufactures during the last twenty years is the new process of making 
alum, first patented by INIr. Spence in IS^S, and carried out on a large scale 
by Messrs. Spence and Dickson since 1847. Before that time the alum 
manufactured in this district was confined to a small quantity made from 
pipeclay, our chief supplies being derived from Whitby. By the old process, 
60 tons of the oolitic shale of Yorkshire were required in order to produce 
1 ton of potash alum and 1 ton of Epsom salts. By Mr. Spence's process 
50 tons of shale yield 65 tons of ammonia-alum. Mr. Spence employs the 
shale found underlying the seams of coal in this district. This shale, which 
is black from the organic matter contained in it, is piled up in heaps about 
4- or 5 feet high, and slowly calcined at a heat approaching to redness. Before 
calcination the alumina of the shale will not dissolve in sulphuric acid ; and, 
on the other hand, if the heat be raised too high, so as to induce a partial 
vitrification of the clay, the alumina is again rendered quite insoluble in acid. 
The calcination lasts ten days, the heaps being supplied daily with fresh shale. 
When suflficiently calcined, the material is soft and porous, and of a pale brick- 
red colour. The calcined shale is then placed in covered pans, each capable 
of holding 20 tons of the material, and is there digested from thirty-six to 
forty-eight hours with sulphuric acid of sp. gr. 1'35. The liquid is kept at 
a temperature of 230° Fahr., partly by fire underneath the pans, and partly 
by the introduction of vapour from a boiler containing gas-liquor. This 
part of the process was patented by Mr. Spence in 1858-59, it having been 
found unnecessary to treat first with acid and then with alkali, the com- 
bined treatment answering quite as well, provided there is an excess of acid 
present. The volatile ammonia-salts of the gas-liquor pass over into the pans 
and are decomposed by the acid ; the ammonia of the remainder is liberated 
by the addition of lime. The liquor is now run off into cisterns, and kept 
continually agitated while it cools, in order to promote the formation of 
small crystals. The crystals are allowed to drain, and washed with the 
liquor which runs off from the blocks of alum. No iron is found in the 
crystals, though there is an abundance in the mother-liquor in the shape 
of persulphate of iron. To this succeeds the so-called Hoching process, 
which simply consists in rapidly recrystallizing. This is effected by Mr. 
Spence through the agency of steam, without the addition of water. The 
crystals are thrown into a hopper, at the bottom of which they come into 
contact with a current of steam, which dissolves them rapidly, fresh crystals 
being successively added in quantities sufficient to prevent the escape of the 
steam. By this means 4 tons of crjstals may be dissolved in one half to three 
quarters of an hour. The solution runs immediately into a leaden tank, 
where it is allowed to settle for three hours, and deposits a quantity of matter 
insoluble both in water and acid, supposed to be a compound consisting of, or 
containing subsulphate of alumina. The clear liquor is now allowed to run 
into tubs, the bottoms of which are formed of Yorkshire flags each 6 feet in 
diameter, and the sides of moveable staves 6 feet long, which are kept in their 
places by hoops and screws. After standing from five to eight days, the 
hoops are unscrewed and the staves removed, when a mass of crystallized 
alum of the form of the tub appears. After standing eight days longer, a 
hole is made at 8-10 inches from the bottom, and a quantity of liquor runs 
out. The mass is generally 18 inches thick at the bottom, and 1 foot at the 
sides, and contains 3 tons of marketable alum, while the liquor contains 1 ton, 
which goes back to the pans. 



PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 119 

In 1850-51, Mr. Spence made about 20 tons of alum per week. The 
quantity now made by him amounts to 110 tons, of which 70 tons are pro- 
duced in this district. Fully half of the total quantity manufactured in 
England (300 tons per week) is made by his process. 

XIV. Protosulphate of Iron. ' 

This salt is manufactured in large quantities in this district, principally for 
the use of dyers, the amount being about 80 tons per week. The process of 
manufacture pursued here is as follows : — Iron pyrites, derived from the coal- 
measures, and commonly called here coal brasses, is piled up in heaps, 
watered and exposed to the atmosphere. A process of slow oxidation takes 
place. Sulphate of iron with an excess of sulphuric acid is formed. The 
latter is removed by means of scrap iron. The salt is obtained by evapora- 
tion of the liquor, and is tolerably pure. An inferior quality is procured 
from the mother-liquor, which contains alumina. 

XV. Compounds of Tin. 

Chlorides of Tiji. — The quantity of these compounds (estimated as crystal- 
lized protochloride of tin) manufactured in this district amounts to about 
I65 tons per week. 

Stannate of Soda. — This compound has for some time been extensively 
used for the purpose of preparing calicoes which are intended to be printed 
with so-called steam colours. It is usually obtained by fusing metallic tin 
or finely powdered tin ore with nitrate of soda. It has been found that the 
addition of 5 per cent, of arseniate of soda causes a saving in tin, by render- 
ing, as it seems, the oxide of tin less soluble in the sulphuric acid, through 
which the goods are subsequently passed. 

Stannate of soda is also prepared from scrap tin by Mr. Higgin's process. 
Various attempts, with more or less success, have been made at various times 
to separate the tin and the iron of scrap tin, or waste tinned iron, and so 
utilize the former metal. Mr. Higgin acts on the scrap with a mixture of 
muriatic acid and a little nitrate of soda. When muriatic acid is used 
alone, the iron diissolves more rapidly than the tin, but when nitrate of soda 
is added, the tin is acted on in preference. The whole of the nitrate of soda 
disappears, and the resulting products are bichloride of tin, chloride of 
ammonium, and chloride of sodium, in accordance with the following equa- 
tion: 

4Sn+10ClH + NaNOe=4.SnCl,-fNH,Cl-fNaCl + 6HO. 
The bichloride of tin is then converted, by the excess of tin present, into 
protochloride. A little iron dissolves at the same time and is separated by 
means of chalk, which precipitates the protoxide of tin, leaving the iron in 
solution. The former is then converted, by fusion with nitrate of soda and 
caustic soda, into stannate of soda, with evolution of ammonia. The iron 
stripped of the tin is employed for the precipitation of copper. 

XVI. Copper Ores. 

Mr. William Henderson has introduced into this district a mode of dealing 
with very weak copper ores, which has been found extremely successful at 
Alderley, where the sandstone contains only \\ per cent, of copper, in the 
form of carbonate and arseniate. The sand containing the copper is put 
into wooden vats with muriatic acid, and fresh sand added until the amount 
of copper is sufficient for saturation. The solution is then drawn off, and the 
copper precipitated by waste or scrap iron. In this way ores otherwise use- 
less have become valuable. 



120 REPORT — 1861. 

Another mode of attaining this object, and one in many cases to be pre- 
ferred, is by using sulphuric acid and boiling down the solution of sulphate 
of copper so as to obtain crystals, or still further, viz. to dryness. This is 
then heated in a furnace having a plate, or floor, of brickwork or tiles, the 
fire being applied beneath, and not passing over the salt of copper : the 
sulphate is decomposed, and sulphuric acid passes off. But the decomposi- 
tion is more effectual when carbon is added ; in this way sulphurous acid is 
driven off, and it is then led into a chamber, and being treated with nitrous 
fumes in the usual way, sulphuric acid is formed, which is again used for the 
solution of the copper in the ore. If the ore contains suboxide of copper, it 
is previously roasted for oxidation. Phosphates, arseniates, carbonates, and 
oxides may be treated by this process. 

For sulphides of copper Mr. Henderson roasts with common salt, having 
previously reduced the ore to fine powder. The chloride of copper is vola- 
tilized and condensed in a Gossage coke tower. The sulphate of soda re- 
maining may be washed out of the non-volatile portion, and the copper pre- 
cipitated from the solution flowing from the tower. He separates by this 
means the metals whose chlorides have a different rate of volatilization : 
chlorides such as chloride of silver are obtained in the flue close to the fur- 
nace. 

We do not allude to the other inventions contained in Mr. Henderson's 
patents, as we are not aware of any being in use in this district. 

XVII. Nitric Acid. 

About 48 tons of nitrate of soda per week are used in this district for 
making nitric acid. The salt yields its own weight of acid of sp. gr. ] -40. 
Nitric acid is used here for making the nitrates of copper, lead, alumina, 
and iron, for oxidizing tin, for etching, and also for making aniline from 
benzole. 

XVIII. Oxalic Acid. 

One of the most important and most interesting of the new manufacturing 
processes which we have to describe in this Report is one for the preparation 
of oxalic acid, invented and patented by Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co., 
gentlemen to whom we owe a number of highly ingenious and useful prac- 
tical processes. The method of preparing oxalic acid hitherto employed 
consists, as is well known, in acting on organic substances, such as sugar or 
starch, with nitric acid. This process has now been superseded by that of 
Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co., which depends on the action exerted by 
caustic alkalies on various organic substances at a high temperature. That 
oxalic acid is one of the products formed by this action is a fact well known 
to chemists, but one that has not until recently been turned to any practical 
use. In the year 1829, Gay-Lussac published a short memoir*, in which 
he announced that he had succeeded in obtaining oxalic acid by heating 
cotton, sawdust, sugar, starch, gum, tartaric acid, and other organic acids 
with caustic potash in a platinum crucible. Since that time the subject 
has not been attended to either by scientific chemists or by practical men, so 
far as we know. Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co. are, we believe, the first 
persons who have succeeded in carrying out the process in practice on a 
large scale. In their attempt to do so they were met by a number of 
serious obstacles, chiefly of a practical nature. These, however, they have, 
by dint of uncommon ingenuity, and by the application of an amount of 
perseverance of which, perhaps, but few men are capable, succeeded in 

* Annales de Chim. et de Phys. t. xli. p. 398. 



PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 121 

overcoming, and the process is now in full and successful operation at their 
works at Warrington. With a most praiseworthy liberality, these gentlemen 
have furnished us with full particulars regarding their process. They have 
also allowed us to see it in operation, and we are therefore able to lay before 
the Section all the details necessary for becoming acquainted with its prin- 
cipal features. 

The only practical suggestion contained in Gay-Lussac's memoir, consists 
in his proposal to convert cream of tartar by this method into oxalate of pot- 
ash. At that time tartaric acid was cheaper than oxalic acid, and the sug- 
gestion might therefore, under the circumstances of the time, have proved of 
some practical value. It was evident, however, that for the purpose of ensu- 
ring success a cheaper material had to be chosen. Messrs. Roberts, Dale 
and Co. found woody fibre in the shape of sawdust to answer perfectly. Gay- 
Lussac states, as the result of his experiments, that potash may be replaced 
by caustic soda. Mr. Dale found, however, that woody fibre produces hardly 
any oxalic acid with caustic soda. On the other hand, when potash is used 
alone, the process is not remunerative. This difficulty was overcome by em- 
ploying a mixture of soda and potash, in the proportion of two equivalents of 
the former to one of the latter, which produces the desired effect quite as well 
as potash alone. In what manner the soda acts in this case can only be con- 
jectured : whether in conjunction with the potash it takes the place of the 
latter, or whether it merely promotes the fusibility of the mixture, is merely a 
matter for speculation. The solution of the mixed alkalies having been 
evaporated to about 1*35 sp. gr., sawdust is introduced, so as to form a thick 
paste. This paste is then placed on iron plates in thin layers and gradually 
heated, the mass being kept constantly stirred. During the heating-process, 
water is in the first instance given off. The mass then swells up and disen- 
gages a quantity of inflammable gas, consisting of hydrogen and carburetted 
hydrogen. A peculiar aromatic odour is at the same time evolved. After 
the temperature has been maintained at 400° Fahr. for one or two hours, 
this part of the process may be considered as complete. The whole of 
the woody fibre is now decomposed, and the mass, which has a dark- 
brown colour, is entirely soluble in water. It contains, however, only from 
1^ per cent, of oxalic acid, and about 0*5 per cent, of formic, but no acetic 
acid. What the nature of the principal product intermediate between the 
woody fibre and the oxalic acid is has not yet been determined ; it seems 
well worthy of further investigation. The mass is now exposed still longer 
to the same temperature, care being taken to avoid any charring, which 
would cause a loss of oxalic acid. When perfectly dry, it contains the 
maximum quantity of oxalic acid, viz. from 28-30 per cent. (C^ O3 + 3 HO), 
but still no acetic acid, and very little more formic acid than before. The 
absence of acetic acid is surprising, as it is generally supposed to be an 
essential product of this process of decomposition. It is possible that the 
acetates may be converted into oxalates as they are formed ; but, on the other 
hand Gay-Lussac states that acetates when heated with caustic alkalies yield 
chiefly carbonates, and but a trifling proportion of oxalates — a conclusion to 
which Mr. Dale has also been led from direct experiments with acetates*. 

The product of the heating-process, which is a grey powder, is in the next 
place treated with water heated to about 60° Fahr. In this the whole dissolves, 
with the exception of the oxalate of soda which is either contained in it, or 
is formed by double decomposition on the addition of water, and which, on 
account of its slight degree of solubility, falls to the bottom. The use of the 

* It may be mentioned that the process of decomposition takes place equally well in close 
vessels. It must therefore be accompanied by a decomposition of water. 



122 REPORT — 1861. 

soda in this part of the process is sufficiently apparent. The supernatant 
liquid is drawn off and evaporated to dryness, and the residual mass is heated 
in furnaces in order to destroy the organic matter and recover the alkalies 
which it contains, and which are employed again after being causticized for 
acting on fresh sawdust. In consequence of the elimination of soda, the 
relative proportion of the two alkalies recovered from the liquor is, of course, 
different to what it was at the commencement; and before being used again 
the quantity of each alkali contained in the mixture must be ascertained. 

The oxalate of soda, after being washed, is decomposed by boiling with 
hydrate of lime. Oxalate of lime falls to the bottom, and caustic soda passes 
into solution, and may be employed again for any purpose to which it is ap- 
plicable. The resulting oxalate of lime is decomposed by means of sulphuric 
acid, the proportions employed being three equivalents of acid to one of the 
oxalate ; and the liquor decanted from the sulphate of lime is evaporated to 
crystallization in leaden vessels. The crystals of oxalic acid, which are slightly 
coloured by organic matter, are purified by recrystallization. 

From about 2 lbs. of sawdust 1 lb. of crystallized oxalic acid may be 
obtained. There is no loss of oxalic acid. The only loss experienced is in 
alkalies. The quantity of acid at present manufactured by Messrs. Roberts, 
Dale and Co. amounts to 9 tons per week ; and their works are capable of 
being extended so as to produce 15 tons, which is supposed to be the total 
quantity consumed throughout the world. Their plant is extensive and 
costly, and bears evidence of an uncommon spirit of enterprise on the part 
of the proprietors. 

In order to give an idea of the effect which the introduction of this pro- 
cess has had on the market, it may be mentioned that the selling price of the 
aeid at this time is 8c?. to 9c?. per lb., whereas in 1851 it was 15d. to 16c?. 
per lb. 

Oxalic acid is used extensively in calico-printing, woollen-dyeing, woollen- 
printing, silk-dyeing with wood colours, in straw-bleaching, and for making 
binoxalate of potash, the so-called "salt of lemons." 

XIX. Pyroligneous Acid. 

The only improvement introduced into the manufacture of this acid during 
the last few years consists in the use of sawdust instead of wood in the 
process of destructive distillation. The sawdust is introduced into the front 
of the retort through a hopper, and is gradually moved to the other end by 
means of an endless screw, worked by machinery. During its transit it 
becomes completely carbonized, the gaseous and liquid products escape 
through a pipe, while the charcoal is allowed to fall into a vessel of water. 
The latter precaution is necessary, since the carbon is obtained in such a 
minute state of division that no cooling in the air or in closed vessels would 
be sufficient to stop the combustion. In other respects the process does 
not differ essentially from that with wood. No more acid is obtained than 
with wood, and less naphtha. The quantity of the former varies, however, 
with the temperature employed. The usual temperature is that of a dull red 
heat. From 1 ton of sawdust 100-120 gallons of liquid, containing 4 per 
cent, of glacial acid and 15 gallons of tar, are obtained, and 100 parts of 
the crude distillate yield 3 of naphtha. The advantage consists in the 
cheapness of the material employed ; but, on the other hand, one of 
the resulting products, viz. the finely divided charcoal, is comparatively 
worthless. 

This invention forms the subject of Mr. Halliday's patent, which was taken 
out in the year 184'8-4'9. Quite recently Mr. Bowers has patented another 



PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 123 

plan, which consists in passing the sawdust into the retorts by means of an 
inclined plane, and a series of scrapers. 

Quantity of acid manufactured weekly in Manchester: — 12,000 gallons, 
containing about 4 per cent, of glacial acid. 

The value of the acid is £3 per ton, whilst that of the tar is from £4< to 
£4^ 10s. 

The quantities of red liquor (acetate of alumina) and iron liquor (prot- 
acetate of iron) made may be stated here, as they are always made by means 
of pyroligneous acid, and generally by the same parties who manufacture the 
acid. Red liquor, 12,000 gallons. Iron liquor, 6000 gallons. 

XX. Starch and Artificial Gums. 

About 20 tons of starch and 34 tons of gum-substitutes, made by roasting 
farina and other kinds of starch, are produced in this district per week. 

No change has taken place in the process of manufacturing starch from 
flour. The old process of fermentation is still adhered to. 

XXI. Purification of Kesin. 

Several very interesting and successful processes have lately been patented 
by Messrs. Hunt and Pochin of Salford, for the purification of resin. The 
aim of these gentlemen, who have devoted a large amount of time and atten- 
tion to this subject, is to produce a bright, nearly colourless, solid and brittle 
resin from the common dark and impure commercial article. This end 
they attain by distilling the resin in an atmosphere of steam at about 10 lbs. 
pressure. The several resinous acids which on distillation by themselves 
split up into gaseous products and volatile oils of very variable composition, 
are mechanically carried over, it would appear, in presence of steam, as is 
well known to be the case with stearic and the other higher fatty acids ; and 
a solid product, which cannot be distinguished from the finest resin, is 
obtained from a very impure material. In their patent of 1858, Messrs. 
Hunt and Pochin specify the formation of three distinct solid products 
during diff"erent stages of the process ; these they distinguish as a, /3, and _ 
y resin. These three several substances present the characteristics of resins, 
but clarified and to a great extent deprived of colour. They are either 
separately or in combination applicable to and useful in the manufacture of 
several important articles, such as soap, size, candles, paper-size, varnish, 
and japan ; and they may be used for distilling to produce resin-oils. 

About 60 tons per week of this purified resin are now manufactured in 
this district under this patent. 

XXII. Organic Colouring-Matters. 

There are few substances of more importance to the manufacturers of this 
district than those which are employed in imparting colour to the various 
fabrics, especially those of cotton, produced here. Of these substances the 
majority are derived from the animal or vegetable kingdom. Indeed, with 
the exception of oxide of iron and chromate of lead, very few mineral sub- 
stances are at the present time made use of alone by the dyer or printer. 
The greater intensity, beauty, and variety of the dyes which are wholly or 
in part composed of organic matters causes them to be preferred ; and the 
increase of skill and knowledge of scientific principles on the part of dyers 
and printers has also led to their more exclusive employment. When it 
is stated that the quantity of dye-woods (logwood, peachwood, sapanwood, 
barwood, fustic, quercitron bark) consumed weekly by the dyers of this 



124 REPORT 1861. 

district amounts to 300 or 400 tons, that the weekly consumption of the 
same by printers is about 60 tons, that from 150 to 200 tons are in the same 
time converted into extracts, and that 150 tons per week of madder are 
used up, exclusive of what is used for garancine, &c., some idea of the mag- 
nitude of the interests depending on tlie employment of these materials may 
be formed. 

The chemistry of colouring-matters is still in its infancy. Indeed, so few 
of them have as yet been prepared in a state of purity, that we have hitherto 
been able merely to lay down a few general principles applicable to ail. The 
direct applications of science in this branch of the arts are therefore few. 
The purely practical improvements which have been introduced in dyeing 
and printing within the last twenty years are, however, numerous and im- 
portant. Among these may be mentioned the invention of steam colours, 
which certainly dates from an earlier period, but has of late years received a 
much more extensive application — the improved methods of preparing extracts 
of dye-woods — the fixation of insoluble pigments on fabrics by means of 
albumen — the introduction of artificial colouring matters, such as murexide, 
and the various colours from aniline. 

In the present Report we must, however, confine ourselves to the improve- 
ments which have been made in the preparation of the materials used for the 
purpose of dyeing, without entering into the subject of the dyeing-processes 
themselves. 

No dyeing-material has received so much attention, both on the part of 
scientific chemists and of practical men, as indigo. The chemical properties 
of its most important constituent have been fully investigated, and its beha- 
viour when applied in practice carefully examined. It is perhaps on this 
very account that we find nothing of importance to report under this head. 
With the exception of a new method of reducing indigo by means of finely 
divided metals, patented by Leonard, we do not suppose that any important 
improvement has been introduced in connexion with this dye-stuff. 

Of no less importance in the art of dyeing is madder, the material with 
which the most permanent reds, purples, and blacks are produced. The 
methods which have been proposed for more effectually utilizing this impor- 
tant dye-stuff are very numerous indeed, though exceedingly few of them 
have been found to be of practical value. They may be divided into two 
classes, viz., those having for their object to render available the greatest 
amount of colouring-matter, and those which tend to produce more perma- 
nent or more beautiful colours. The first object seems to be perfectly 
attained by converting the madder by the action of acid into garancine. 
This preparation is becoming more and more extensively used. There are 
printing-establishments in which nothing else is employed in the production 
of madder colours. Even in turkey-red dyeing it is beginning to be much 
used, thus proving the fallacy of the opinion formerly entertained, that no 
preparation of madder could be made to supply the place of the crude mate- 
rial in this process. The garancine for this purpose is manufactured in 
Holland. It is said to be made by treating the roots with dilute sulphuric 
acid containing 35 per cent, of the weight of the madder of concentrated 
acid (the usual proportion in this country being .about 25 per cent.), and 
boiling for several hours. By this means the pectic acid, one of the most 
hurtful constituents of the root, is removed. The residue left after the ordi- 
nary process of madder dyeing still contains a quantity of colouring-matter 
in a state of combination. By treating it with sulphuric acid a product is 
obtained called garanceux, which is again used for dyeing. The quantity of 
garancine manufactured in this district, exclusive of garanceux (which is 



PROGRESS OF CHEMISTRY TN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 125 

mostly made and consumed by printers themselves), is estimated at about 
1200 tons per annum, which would require about three times its weight of 
madder for its production. 

Of the second class of inventions bearing on madder, perhaps the most 
successful is that which was patented by Pincoffs and Schunck in the year 
1853. It is well known that in order to produce the finer descriptions of 
madder colours, such as pink and lilac, on cotton fabrics, it is necessary 
to subject the dyed goods to a long series of operations, such as soaping, 
adding, &c. These processes are always attended with some risk of failure; 
and besides that, a very large quantity of madder (an excess, in fact) must 
be employed in dyeing, in order to obtain the ultimate effect desired. It is 
evident that, if the impurities (resins, pectine, &c.) accompanying the 
colouring-matters in the root could be removed or destroyed, the opera- 
tions necessary after dyeing might be dispensed with or much curtailed, 
since the object of these operations is precisely the removal of these im- 
purities from the dyed fabric. lu the preparation of ordinary garancine 
a portion of these impurities is removed, but those which are insoluble, 
or difficulty soluble in water, remain behind for the most part, and subse- 
quently exert a prejudicial effect in dyeing. Now the invention referred to 
above consists in subjecting garancine whilst in a moist state to the influ- 
ence of an elevated temperature in close vessels (or what comes to precisely 
the same thing, to the action of high-pressure steam) for several hours. 
What takes place during this process is not exactly known. According to 
some experiments undertaken by one of us, if appears that the two red 
colouring-matters contained in madder, viz. alizarine and purpurine, are not 
in the least degree affected by it, whereas the pectic acid and some of the 
resinous colouring-matters are charred, and thus rendered insoluble and inno- 
cuous. Be this as it may, the result of the process is a product which, when 
used for dyeing, yields colours requiring very little after-treatment in order 
to give them the required degree of brilliancy, whilst they are quite as per- 
manent as those produced by madder itself. The use of this material is 
attended by a saving in dye-stuff, mordants, and soap, as well as in time and 
labour. The results are also more certain. Moreover, when other colours, 
such as brown and orange, are introduced in combination with madder colours, 
the effect is much superior to that produced with madder, where the soapings 
required to yield the desirable brightness deteriorate tlie other colours. 
There are other advantages of a practical nature attending its use which 
need not be here referred to. It has, however, one disadvantage, viz. that from 
some unexplained cause it is not well adapted for dyeing pink ; and for this 
colour it is therefore still necessary to employ unprepared madder. The pro- 
duct has obtained the name of Commercial Alizarine, since the effect in dye- 
ing is similar to that of the pure colouring matter, alizarine. It is manufac- 
tured on a large scale by Messrs. Pincoffs and Co. Since its introduction in 
1853, more than three million pieces of calico have been dyed with it in our 
district and in Scotland. 

Mr. Higgin prepares commercial alizarine by boiling garancine with water, 
carbonate of soda, and a little ammonia. The liquid, which is alkaline at 
first, is boiled until it becomes acid. A short boiling gives a garancine 
adapted for dyeing purple, whilst a boiling of twenty-four hours yields aliza- 
rine. 

We may here mention Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co.'s process for pre- 
paring lakes, as the compounds of organic colouring-matters with various 
bases are usually called. Such lakes, with a basis of alumina, have for a long 
time been made from peachwood, sapanwood, and other dye-woods; but 



126 REPORT 1861. 

they had several disadvantages, which restricted their use in practice. They 
were not permanent, they had little body, and they were gelatinous and con- 
sequently cracked in drying. These disadvantages have been obviated by 
Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co., who employ oxide of tin as a base instead of 
alumina, and produce lakes which, owing partly to their physical condition, 
and partly to their chemical composition, possess the requisite degree of per- 
manency and intensity of colour. The lakes prepared by the above-men- 
tioned firm are sold to the paper-stainers, who make use of them for the 
manufacture of a peculiar style of paper, called mock flocks, which form an 
excellent imitation of true flock papers, and are consequently used in large 
quantities. 

Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co.'s process for making a scarlet lake from 
barwood, which is peculiar, may be here shortly described. The colouring- 
matter of this wood is very slightly soluble in water. The ground wood is 
therefore simply treated with boiling water, to which the requisite quantity 
of precipitated oxide of tin is added. The boiling water dissolves some 
colouring-matter, which is immediately separated by the oxide of tin, and 
more colouring-matter then passes into solution to be precipitated as before, 
the process being continued until the compound acquires the requisite inten- 
sity of colour, and the wood is exhausted. The whole being now left to 
repose, the wood, which is heavier than the dyed oxide of tin, sinks to the 
bottom, leaving the pigment floating in the liquid. The latter is decanted 
off", passed through fine sieves to separate some woody fibre, and allowed to 
stand. The lake is deposited, and after being pressed is ready for use. The 
quantity of this lake manufactured weekly by this firm is 2 tons, and the 
price 8af. per lb. 

The production of artificial colouring-matters for practical purposes has 
of late attracted much attention among scientific men and manufacturers. 
To this class of products belongs Murexide, a body which, as far as we know, 
does not occur ready-formed in nature. This substance, which was first 
discovered by Prout, and subsequently examined by Liebig and Wohler, was 
until very recently unknown out of the laboratory of the chemist. This arose 
from the circumstance that uric acid, the only known source of murexide, 
has not until recently been found to occur anywhere in large quantities. 
The discovery of large beds of guano in various parts of the world has fur- 
nished us with a material containing a sufficient quantity, however small, of 
that acid to render the manufacture of murexide on a larger scale practicable ; 
and it is now prepared in quantities surprising to those who have only seen 
it made on the small scale in the laboratory. The process pursued may be 
shortly described as follows : — The guano is first treated with dilute acid, in 
order to decompose the ammoniacal salts contained in it. The residue left 
by the acid is treated with caustic soda in order to dissolve the uric acid, and 
the solution, decanted from the insoluble portion (consisting of phosphates, 
sand, &c.), is supersaturated with muriatic acid. The precipitated uric acid 
is filtered off, washed with water, and dried, when it has the appearance of a 
brownish-white crystalline powder. The next part of the process consists in 
treating the uric acid with nitric acid. Measured quantities of the latter are 
poured into pots of about 1 gallon capacity, which stand in water for the 
purpose of being kept cool. A certain weight of uric acid is then introduced, 
in small quantities at a time, into each pot — a process which occupies about 
ten hours. The liquid has now a dark-brown colour, and is generally covered 
with a crystalline crust, consisting of alloxan and alloxantine. It may be 
remarked that the process does not succeed well unless both these substances 
are present — a fact already known from the researches of Liebig and Wohler. 



PROGRESS OP CHEMISTRY IN SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 127 

The liquid is then transferred to an enamelled vessel, diluted with water, and 
mixed with an excess of carbonate of ammonia when the object is to pro- 
duce murexide or purpurate of ammonia. Generally, however, carbonate 
of soda is used, and in this case the product is purpurate of soda. The pre- 
cipitated murexide or purpurate of soda is separated by filtration, washed 
and dried. It has the appearance of an amorphous, puce-coloured powder. 
The quantity manufactured by Mr. Rumney, of Manchester, amounted at 
one time to 12 cwt. per week, for which about 12 tons of guano were re- 
quired. The price was at first 305. per lb., but has now fallen to 15s. In 
printing cotton goods with murexide, nitrate of lead is used as a solvent, the 
solution properly thickened is printed, and the goods are then passed through 
a bath of corrosive sublimate. Other methods are employed, but they all 
depend on the use of salts of lead and mercury. The colour produced by 
murexide is so brilliant as almost to justify the belief entertained by Liebig 
and Wohier, that the celebrated Tyrian purple of the ancients was obtained 
by its means. 

XXIII. Aniline Colours. 

The artificial colouring-matters from aniline and other bases have of late 
attracted much attention, and various plans have been devised for pro- 
ducing them. The usual method of obtaining aniline-purple, the so-called 
" Mauve," consists in submitting salts of aniline in watery solution to 
the action of oxidizing agents, such as chromates or permanganates, or 
the peroxides of manganese and lead. To these processes we may add 
another, patented by Messrs. J. Dale and A. Caro, and carried out in prac- 
tice by Messrs. Roberts, Dale and Co. This process is based upon the 
fact that salts of aniline, when heated with solutions of perchloride of 
copper, completely reduce it to the state of protochloride, with the simul- 
taneous formation of a black precipitate containing aniline-purple. Messrs. 
Dale and Caro dissolve one equivalent of a neutral salt of aniline in water, 
and boil this solution during several hours with a mixture of copper salts 
and alkaline chlorides corresponding to 6 equivalents of perchloride of 
copper. After the reaction is completed the mixture is filtered, the black 
precipitate well washed and dried, and afterwards extracted repeatedly with 
dilute alcohol in order to dissolve out the colouring-matters, which it con- 
tains in a remarkably pure state. These manufacturers have also produced 
aniline-reds by heating anhydrous hydrochlorate of aniline with nitrate of 
lead at 360° F. The product of this reaction is a bronze-like brittle mass, 
which contains aniline-red, always accompanied by purple colours. Boiling 
water extracts the red colouring-matters and separates them from the purple 
dyes, which after some purification constitute valuable substitutes for the 
mauve colour. 

The method of fixing these colouring-matters to cotton, invented by 
Mr. Dale, jun., which promises to be valuable, may be mentioned here. The 
goods are prepared with a solution of colouring-matter and tannin, and are 
then passed through a bath containing tartar emetic. The aflSnity of the 
former substances for antimony determines the fixation of the colour on 
the fabric. 

XXIV. Disinfectants. 

The manufacture of disinfectants has now become a regular and constant 
one ; and since the inquiries instituted on the subject by one of us and Mr. 
M'Dougall of this city, the use of those made in this district has been 
enormously increased. Mr. M'Dougall manufactures, near Oldham, a disin- 



128 REPORT 1861. 

fecting-powder, in which the properties of carbolic and sulphurous acid are 
taken advantage of. This powder is used to prevent decomposition in 
stables, cowhouses, and among accumulations of putrescible matter, and 
generally for the prevention of decomposition in manures. A liquid is also 
prepared with carbolic acid and lime-M'ater, which is applied for the purpose 
of preventing decomposition in sewers, thus carrying out the idea first started 
by one of us, of purifying whole cities by preventing the generation of gases 
in sewer water, or among accumulations of refuse. This liquid is also used 
to prevent the decomposition of animal matter when it cannot at once be 
made use of, especially in the case of meat brought to market, or animals 
that have died in the fields. The powder, which is called " M'Dougall's 
disinfecting-powder," is simply a mixture of the sulphites of lime and mag- 
nesia with the carbolates of the same beises. The carbolates of lime and 
magnesia are formed by simply boiling carbolic acid for a long time with the 
bases in a caustic state. The solution consists of carbolic acid dissoU'ed in 
lime-water. It is extremely bulky ; still xvVo*-'^ ^o TrrVrrt'^ P^""* of t'^e bulk of 
the sewer water is sufficient to disinfect the latter. The solution of the powder 
has also been used to some extent in dissecting-rooms, where it immediately 
destroys any noxious smell, and at once liberates the fingers of the operator 
from the peculiarly nauseous odour which so often attaches to them. It has 
also been found useful in the treatment of sores, as well as of dysentery. 
M. Leraaire has lately read papers on tar oil and phenic acid ; but Man- 
chester claims priority in the application and explanation of these prepa- 
rations. 

Mr. M'Dougall has also applied carbolic acid to the destruction of para- 
sitic insects on sheep, and has in many districts entirely driven out the 
arsenical preparations by the use of this acid united with fatty substances. 
Sheep dipped in it are not liable to be attacked by tick, even when left for 
some months among other sheep infested with it. Foot-rot and other diseases 
of sheep are also said to be prevented and cured by its use. 

Mr. Pochin has introduced lately a very extensive manufacture which has 
greatly affected the mode of using alumina, and also the manufacture of 
alum. The substance is called alum-cake. It is sulphate of alumina with 
about 16 equivalents of water and silica. Very fine white clay is stirred 
round with sulphuric acid of about 140*0 sp. gravity, then warmed to about 
100° F., and poured into a square trough with moveable sides. In a few 
minutes the action of the acid on the clay becomes very violent, and a 
sulphate of alumina is formed with the silica of the clay intimately mixed. 
If very strong sulphuric acid is used, the action becomes so violent that the 
whole mass is thrown out of the trough. The whole hardens into a compact 
mass difficult to break. To facilitate the fracture, wedges of iron were 
pressed into the mass when soft, the sides of the trough were taken down, 
and by striking the wedges the whole was broken into pieces. Now, how- 
ever, a more elaborate machine is used to break it up into small portions. 

In this manufactured article there is a large quantity of alumina, viz. 12"8 
per cent, in a soluble form ; the trouble of crystallizing is avoided, and the 
silica is in no way injurious in most cases. In some cases, where alum is 
used with resin for paper size, the addition of the silica is indeed consi- 
dered an advantage. At any rate, the manufacture is constantly increasing ; 
if silica be objected to, it is allowed to fall down, and a clear solution of 
sulphate of alumina remains. 



ON ETHNO-CLTAIATOLOGY. 129 

On Elhno-Climatology ; or, the Acclimatization of Man. By James 
Hunt, Ph. D., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Foreign Associate of the An- 
thropological Society of Paris, Honorary Secretary of the Ethnolo- 
gical Society of London. 

[A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 

One of the most important and practical duties of the ethnologist at the 
present day is the endeavour to discover the laws which regulate the health 
of man in his migrations over tlie world. The generally received opinions 
on this important subject are, however, vague and unsatisfactory. 

From some cause, it is the popular belief that man stands entirely alone 
in the animal kingdom with regard to the influence exerted on him by 
external causes. We are told that man can thrive equally well in the 
burning heat of the tropics and in the icy regions at the poles. 

I purpose, therefore, in this paper to examine how far the supposition of 
man's cosmopolitan power is warranted by an induction from the facts at 
present known to us.] We can gain nathing in Climatology from ^' a priori" 
arguments, as it is entirely an experimental science ; and hitherto we have 
not been able to foretell with any certainty the exact effect wliicii any 
climate would exert on an individual or a race. No one who reflects on the 
important bearings which the question of man's cosmopolitanisnt introduces 
will be inclined to doubt the gravity of the question, and its claims to tlie 
serious attention, not only of ethnologists, but of all wiio are interested in 
the great problem of man's future. destiny. This question then has equal 
claims on the attention of the philosopher and the statesman. Our data 
may be at present insufficient to found an exact science of Ethno-Clim ito- 
logy, but I trust to be able to show that there exist the outlines of a great 
science, which bids fair to prevent that waste of human life which has 
hitherto characterized the reckless policy of British colonization. Dr. Bou- 
din, who is well known for his researciies on this and kindred subjects, has 
recently called the attention of the Anthropological Society of Paris to the 
question, and laments the great inattention which public men have hitherto 
given to such an important and grave subject. He very justly observes, 
" The problem is certainly one of the most important in the science of 
ethnology; for it governs the great questions of colonization, of recruiting 
men destined for distant expeditions, and of fixing the duration of the sojourn 
of foreign troops at certain stations, so as to render them effective in war. 
This question touches public health and social economy." Nor will it bo 
necessary for me further to ask attention, when it is considered how largely 
the British nation is practically interested in having a correct and physiolo- 
gical system of colonization. 1 therefore bring this subject under your con- 
sideration with a desire of calling public attention to the powers of acclima- 
tization possessed by the races of man in general, and by Europeans in 
particular. It is asserted that to man belongs the exclusive privilege of 
being the denizen of every region; for that with plants and animals such is 
not the case. This explanation has as often been accepted as satisfactorily 
showing that man enjoys privileges over the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 
That races of men are found in every climate is perfectly true ; but a slight 
examination into the differences and peculiarities of the races of men will 
show that this argument is not so forcible as at first sight it appears. 
Theorists have often indulged in boasting of the superiority of man over 
the animal kingdom in his migrations over the world; but these writers 
have forgotten that it is civilization which greatly aids man to adapt himself 
(for a time) to every climate. Wc have heard much, too, of the acclimati- 

1861. K 



130 REPORT 1861. 

zation of animals ; but there has been great exaggeration as to what has been 
really effected. 

No one will attempt to deny that, physically, mentally, and morally, there 
does exist a very considerable difference between the denizens of different 
parts of the earth ; and it is not proposed to inquire whether the various 
agents which constitute climate, and their collateral effects, are sufficient to 
produce the changes in physique, mind, and morals which we find ; but, 
simply taking the various types of man as they now occur on the earth, we 
have to determine whether we are justified in assuming that man is a cos- 
mopolitan animal, and whether the power of acclimatization be possessed 
equally by all the races of man known to us. 

The conditions which prevent or retard the acclimatization of man are 
physical, mental, and moral. It is, however, impossible to discuss the effect 
of climate only on man, because we find that food is inseparably connected 
with climate, and that both are modified by the physical conformation of the 
districts inhabited. The exercise or neglect of mental culture must also be 
considered. It is therefore nearly impossible to decide to Avhich class we 
must ascribe certain effects ; but there can be little doubt that all these causes 
act in harmony, and are insensibly bound together. In speaking, therefore, 
of climate, I use the word in its fullest sense, and include the whole cosmic 
phenomena. Thus, the physical qualities of a country have an important 
connexion with climate ; and we must not simply consider the latitude and 
longitude of a given locality, but its elevation or depression, its soil, its 
atmospheric influences, and also the quantity of light, the nature of its 
water, the predominance of certain winds, the electrical state of the air, &'C., 
atmospheric pressure, vegetation, and aliment, as all these are connected with 
the question of climate. 

Now we find man scattered over the globe, and existing and flourishing 
under the most opposite circumstances. Indeed, there seems no part of the 
earth in which man could not, for a period at least, take up his dwelling. 
When Capt. Parry reached Si" of north latitude, it was the ice, and not 
the climate, which prevented him from reaching the pole. Man may live 
where the temperature exceeds the heat of his blood, and also where mer- 
cury would freeze ; so man may exist where the atmospheric pressure is 
only one-half of what it is at the level of the sea. Men have been found 
permanently residing 12,000 feet above that level. 

There is a difference between the climate of the N. and S. hemispheres 
under apparently the same circumstances. Thus, the European cannot live 
for any time at any great elevation in the northern hemisphere. The 
highest inhabited place of Europe has generally been considered to be the 
Casa Inglese, a small building of lava on Mount Etna, near the foot of the 
uppermost crater, 9200 feet above the level of the sea. There is, however, 
a house in the Theodal Pass, between Wallis and Piedmont, at an elevation 
of 10,000 feet*. These buildings are, however, only inhabited during the 
summer months. In the southern hemisphere there are permanent inhabit- 
ants in regions from ten thousand five hundred feet to twelve thousand feet 
above the level of the sea. Dr. Tschudi, who has himself resided in these 
regions, describes what is known as the " Puna sickness," which is what may 
i)e called a mountain-sickness, and very much resembles sea-sickness. The 
Peruvians live and thrive well at elevations of from seven to fifteen thousand 
feet above the level of the sea — heights said by some ob.-ervers to be often 
destructive to the whites. This difference between the north and south 
hemispheres is caused, perhaps, by the difference in attraction at the north 

* Perty, Vorschall der Natunvissenschaften, 1853. 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 131 

pole. In the northern hemisphere the ascent of a high mountain causes a 
rush of blood to the head, and in the southern there is an attraction of blood 
10 the feet; hence the cause of the sickness. 

An examination of the human race shows us that every family presents 
different modifications, which are doubtless connected in some way with the 
nature of the cosmic influences by which they are surrounded. We know 
that some plants and animals are peculiar to certain regions, and that if trans- 
planted to other climates they degenerate or die ; such is the case with man. 
In every climate we find man organized in harmony with the climate; and if 
lie is not in harmony, he will cease to exist. The general scale of power for 
enduring change is in certain respects in unison with the mental power of 
the race, and is also dependent on the purity of blood. Uncivilized and 
mixed races have the least power, and civilized pure races the greatest. 
Every race of man, however, has certain prescribed geographical salubrious 
limits from which it cannot with impunity be displaced. Such, at least, is 
tlie lesson I have drawn from existing data. It is civilization which chiefly 
enables the European to bear the extremes of climate. Indeed, a people 
must be civilized to some extent before they desire to visit distant regions. 
The Esquimaux, for instance, is perfectly happy in his own way, and has 
no desire to move to a warmer climate. His whole body and mind are 
suited for the locality ; and were he moved to a warm climate, he would 
certainly perish. The whole organism of the Esquimaux is fitted solely 
for a cold climate ; nor is such a supposition problematical and inexpli- 
cable by known physical laws. On the contrary, the physiological expla- 
nation of such a phenomenon is quite simple. Thus, the European going 
to the tropics becomes subject to dysentery; and the Negro coming to 
Europe, to pulmonary complaints. Europeans who have recently arrived 
at the tropics are instantly known by their walk and general activity. This, 
however, soon subsides, the organic functions become disturbed, the pulse 
and circulation are more active, the respiration less so, while the muscular 
fibre loses its energy ; the stomach also becomes very weak. The action of 
the skin becomes abnormal, while the heat acts on and excites the liver. 

It rs often stated that tropical climates stimulate the organs of generation, 
but this is contrary to experience. That there is a low state of morality, 
and that the inhabitants of these regions are essentially sensual, cannot be 
denied ; just as the cold region is distinguished by the gluttony of its 
inhabitants, and temperate regions by increased activity of brain. 

The geography of disease has a most important bearing on this subject. 
It is somewhat strange that man sufl'ers more from epidemics than animals, 
and this is probably owing to his neglect of the laws of diet, which require 
to be adapted to every climate. Thus we find that the temperate zone, 
which ought to be by far the healthiest, has more diseases than either the 
hot or the cold zones. The cold zone has but a small number of diseases ; 
and in the torrid zone the number is not large, although the diseases 
are generally very malignant. Attempts have been made to classify diseases 
into three categories — those of hot, cold, and temperate regions. Such a 
classification is, however, arbitrary and most unsatisfactory ; for the same 
climate may be found in each of the three regions. In the tropics there are 
temperate and cold regions, just as there is equatorial heat in the temperate 
zone. Dr. Fuchs* distinguishes these three regions of disease. The first he 
calls the Catarrhal region. This is so denominated because catarrh of the 
respiratory organs predominates in it. "Catarrh," he says, "is the com- 

• Mediciniscbe Gecgrapliie. By Dr. C. Fuchs, 1853. 

k2 



132 REPORT— 1861. 

moil cause of disease in tlie north temperate zone, between 1300 and 3000 
feet above the level of the sea; in the central temperate zone, between two 
and seven thousand ; within the tropics, between seven and fourteen thou- 
sand feet; in the cold zone, near tiie level of the sea." The other two 
regions he culls the Entero-mesenteric region, in which gastric complaints 
predominate, and the Dysenteric region, in which there is no scrofula or 
tubercular disease. Without entering into the value of this classification, 
medical statistics seem to prove that there are three zones: — 1st, the cold 
or catarrhal zone ; 2nd, the tropical or dysenteric zone ; and 3rd, the tem- 
perate or gastric and scrofulous zone. This last zone, however, seems to 
be subject to the diseases of the other two zones, which prevail respectively 
according to the seasons. The scrofulous zone ceases at an altitude of two 
thousand feet above the level of the sea; here there is no pulmonary con- 
sumption, scrofula, cancer, or typhus fever. 

It has been suggested that the perfection of the races in the temperate 
zone depends on the conflict to whicli they are subjected by the irruption 
of diseases from the otiier zones, — the unfavourable climatic conditions 
producing a human organism capable of resisting them. Dr. Russdorf* 
says, " The climatic conditions of the temperate zone act in the formation 
of blood in such a manner that a large quantity of albumen is present in 
it. This richness in albumen is manifestly requisite to produce and nourish 
the powerful brain which distinguishes the Caucasian race; ibr the brain 
mainly consists of albumen combined with phosphoi'ated fatty matter." 
"It is the brain of the Caucasian which determines his superiorit}- over 
the other races ; it is tiie standard of the power ol' the organism ; it might be 
termed the architect of the body, as its influence upon the formation of 
matter is paramount. The effect of the atmosphere upon the formative acti- 
vity of the organism and upon the nietamorph.osis of matter is so great, that 
it is, for instance, on the intiuence of the oxygen absorbed by the skin and 
the lungs that the metamoi'f)hosis of tlie albumen into muscle, &C., directly 
depends. The atmosphere of the temperate zone favours such a change of 
matter that the blood remains rich in albumen, so that a large brain can be 
nourished. But this richness in albumen is also the cause of many charac- 
teristic diseases, when this substance, under the process of infiauunation, is 
morbidly excited in the tissue of the organs and destroys their anatomical 
structure or organic mechanism. That general condition, in which the con- 
sumption of the albumen by the organic metamorphosis is deficient, is well 
known as the scrofulous predisposition of tlie European, which is unknown 
among the inhabitants of the tropics and the cold zone." 

Two questions then await a solution : l.-t. Can any race of men flourish, 
unchanged both mentally and physically, in a different ethnic centre from 
that to which it belongs ? 

'ind. Can any race of men move from its own ethnic centre into another, 
and become changed into the type of that race Mhich inhabits the region 
to which it migrates? 

Now, races of men moving from one region to another must either dege- 
nerate and become extinct, or flourish with the same distinctive characters 
that they have in their own regions, or they must gradually become changed 
into new types of men suited to their new positions. 

That new races of men are being formed at this time is highly probable, 
as where, for instance, we have in a particular region a class of' men with the 
same temperament and character. This may, as in the case of America, 

* Vortiugc zur Forderung der Gesnndheitslehre (The Influence of European Climate). 
By Dr. C. von llussdorf, 1854. Berlin. 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 133 

• 

give rise to a new race, but still belonging to the European type, just as we 
have in this country the distinctive class of the Quakers, &c. But this 
change in the so-called Anglo-Saxon race could have been effected without 
removing them out of their own region. If these men had congregated 
togetiier in Europe, we should have had a group of men with different feel- 
ings and opinions from our own. The congregation of a number of men 
and women of similar character would always tend to increase or intensify 
the special characteristics of the descendants of such people. Some writers, 
in their anxiety to prove that climate has nothing to do with the varieties 
of man, deny that there is any change in the European inhabitants of 
America ; but recent events have given strong proof that there is a change, 
both in mind, morals, and physique ; and while this change is not to be 
entirely ascribed to the climate, there still is good presumptive evidence that 
the Europeans have changed in America, especially in North America. In 
the children of the colonists there is a general languor, great excitability, 
and a want of cool energy. As they grow up, they neglect all manly sports. 
This general excitability and want of coolness and energy are also seen in the 
whole Yankee race. The women become decrepit very early, and conse- 
quently cease to breed while still young. It is also affirmed that the second 
and third generations of European colonists have small families. Some 
fifteen years ago. Dr. Knox stated publicly that he believed the Anglo- 
Saxons would die out in America if the supply of new blood from Europe 
was cut off. Such an assertion was, indeed, startling for any man to make ; 
it seemed to bear on the face of it a palpable absurdity. But, as time 
has passed on, this statement certainly becan)e less baseless, and is now, at 
least, an hypothesis as worthy of our attention as any other explanation of 
tliis difficult question. Emerson has recently remarked on this extraordinary 
statement of Dr. Knox, that there is more probability of its truth than is 
generally thought. Emerson* says, " Look at the unpalatable conclusions 
of Knox — a rash and unsatisfactory writer, but charged with pungent and 
unforgetable truths." He continues, " The German and Irish miUions, like 
the Negro, have a deal of guano in their destiny. They are ferried over the 
Atlantic, and carted over America to ditch and to drudge, to make corn 
cheap, and then to lie down prematurely to make a spot of green grass on 
the prairie." 

I do not purpose to give any categorical answers to the queries suggested, 
but simply to bring forward some facts, and to give the opinions of some 
men who have paid attention to this and allied questions. Thus I trust to 
lay a basis for further investigation, and induce more labourers to enter the 
field for the purpose of developing this important question. 

We must not take latitude simply as any test of climate ; for the general 
climatological influences are very different in various regions. Thus, it has 
been noticed that the west coast is colder than the cast in the southern 
liemisphere, while in the northern the cast is colder than the westf. In 
the French Antilles, the temperature is between 62° F. to 77° F. on the 
shore, and descends to 55° F. or 60° F. at eight hundred metres above the 
level of the sea. At Fernando Po, the greatest heat known was from 83° to 
100° F. ; generally it is about 73° F. So French Guiana is said not to have 
a higher temperature than Algeria. Some parts of Australia and New 
Zealand are nearer the equator than Algiers, and yet the temperature and 
salubrity are very different. The effect of light is also most important, and 

* The Conduct of Life. By R. W. Emerson, p. 10. 

t See what Darwin says respecting the fig and grape ripening in South America much 
better on the east than on the west coast. 



134 REPORT — 1861. 

is not merely confined to the skin, but affects the whole organism. The pre- 
sence of light modifies the qualities of the air; it also acts on the nervous 
system. If we look at the analogy of the effect of the absence of light on 
organized beings generally, we shall readily understand the influence whicii 
it exerts on man. Europeans, indeed, who live in darkness have colourless 
skin, the muscles soft, and the whole body bloated. It is, therefore, a ques- 
tion which has yet to be decided, how far the Esquimaux's ill- formed frame 
may be produced by the want of light. And here we find that insensibly 
our attention is called to the vexed question of the unity or the plurality of 
origin of mankind. With that subject, however, we have at present nothing 
to do. It is, however, on the assuuiption of unity of origin that the cos- 
mopolitan powers of man have been imagined to exist. I hold the questions 
of unity or plurality, however, to be of little or no consequence in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge. 

When we see that plants and animals vary in different climates, we are led 
to expect that man will also vary with the climate. Plants growing like 
trees in the tropics, become dwarfed in cold climates. It would, indeed, be 
strange that, as all animals vary, man should remain unchanged. But while 
admitting that man exists in harmony with external circumstances, we do 
not admit that one type of man can be changed into another. As the rose 
will under no change of external circumstances become a blackberry, so 
neither will a dog become a wolf, nor a European an African Negro. We 
shall, therefore, principally confine our attention to the inquiry whether man 
migrating from one region to another gradually degenerates. If there is 
degeneration going on, it is simply a question of time, as to how soon his 
race will become extinct. I shall, therefore, contend that any race migrating 
from one centre to another does degenerate both mentally and physically. 
Indeed, the psychical change produced in man by climatological influence is 
as soon visible as the change produced on his physical i'rame. When, for 
instance, the European goes to Africa, he, for a short time, retains his vigour 
of mind ; but soon he finds his energies exhausted, and becomes listless, and 
nearly as indifferent to surrounding events as the natives. There is, how- 
ever, a considerable difference in the effects produced both on individuals of 
the same race, as also on the different races of men. Some are affected im- 
mediately on their arrival, and then appear to become partially acclimatized ; 
often the disease increases until it becomes very serious ; again, others are 
attacked, without any warning, with either inflammation of the brain or liver. 
Others, again, do not appear at first to be at all affected ; but gradually the 
strength gives way, the countenance becomes despondent, and chronic disease 
of the liver or stomach results. 

Neither can the inhabitants of tropical regions generally withstand the 
influence of removal to a cold climate. Much, however, depends on race ; 
for the different races of man have different degrees of adaptability for 
change of climate. We cannot, however, yet decide the exact powers of 
each race, as ethno-climatology is a new study, and a long series of obser- 
vations is required before a satisfactory answer can be given. 

Before I proceed to indicate the sort of evidence we can get from that 
most valuable of all modern sciences, statistical science, I think it will 
be well that I should quote some few authorities to show that there is an 
agreement between the most recent writers on this subject and the lesson 
we learn from statistics. Dr. A. S. Thomson, who has paid great attention 
to this subject, observes, " There is little doubt that the tropical parts of 
the world are not suited by nature for the settlement of natives of a tem- 
perate zone. European life is but with difficulty prolonged, much sickness 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 135 

is suffered, and their offspring become degenerate and cease to propagate 
(heir species in a few generations; and should necessity force Europeans to 
perform the drudgery of labouring in the field, their lives will be rendered 
still shorter, and their existence little better than a prolonged sickness." 
Dr. Thomson has entered into the various attempts of the Portuguese, Dutch, 
English, JVench, and Danes to colonize India. He has also dwelt on the 
attempts of the Dutch and Spaniards at colonization in the Indian Archi- 
pelago, and also on the state of European colonies in tropical Africa and 
tropical America. His conclusion is, " that man can only flourish in climates 
analogous to that under which his race exists, and that any great change is 
injurious to liis increase and also to his mental and physical development." 

Sir Alexander Tulloch well observes, that military returns, properly orga-. 
nized and digested, serve as the most useful guides " to point out the limits 
intended by nature for particular races, and in which alone they can thrive 
and increase" — boundaries which neither the pursuit of wealth nor the dreams 
of ambition should induce them to pass, and proclaim, in forcible language, 
tiiat man, like the elements, is controlled by a Power which hath said, 
" Hither slialt thou come, but no further." 

Let us glance at the attempts of tiie French to colonize the North of Africa. 

The mortality of the civil population in France is about twenty-five in a 
thousand, while the average mortality of the civil population in Algiers, in 
1853, was 435, and in ISS*, 53*2 in a thousand. "In all the localities of 
Algiers, without exception," says M. Boudin, " the mortality of the Euro- 
pean population exceeds by far, not merely the normal mortality of England 
and France, but even that of the cholera years in these two countries." 
Notwithstanding these facts, the population is annually increasing by the 
influx of inmiigrants. As regards other colonies, the following table, quoted 
by M. Boudin from the official report of the Ministry of Algeria, published 
in 1859, speaks for itself: — 

Births. Deaths. 

Guadaloupe 20,095 20,675 

Guiana 2,333 2,830 

Reunion 18,934 20,775 

This would be more satisfactory had the proportion of the women to men 
been also given. 

But, before I proceed on this side of the question, I would call attention 
to the statement frequently made by the President of this Section. On 
one occasion, for instance, Mr. Crawfurd* said, " It has been confidently 
asserted that the British possessions in India are an unfit residence for the 
permanent dwelling of Englishmen, although within the same latitudes with 
the warm parts of America, and portions of it even more distant from the 
equator." " No less an authority," continues Mr. Crawfurd, " than the late 
Duke of Wellington gave it as his opinion that Europeans, especially in 
Lower Bengal, most of which is without the tropics, would die out in a third 
generation ; but it is certain that this was an hypothesis of His Grace un- 
supported by facts." Mr. Crawfurd further contends that the Duke of 
Wellington's observation was made at an unfavourable time, and that at 
present the case is very different. Now all recent facts and observations 
prove that the Duke of Wellington was right. From numerous private in- 
quiries of residents in India I have obtained confirmation of this opinion. 
We have, moreover, the most extensive writers and observers on tropical 
diseases giving exactly similar opinions. 

* " On the Effects of Commixture, Locality, Climate," &c., Transactions of the Ethnologi- 
cal Society, New Series, vol. i. p. 89, 1861. 



13G REPORT — 1861. 

Sir Ranald Martin* says, "Of those Europrans who arrive 6n the banks 
of the Gangps, many fall early victims to the climate, as will be shown here- 
after. That others droop, and are forced, ere many years, to seek their 
native air, is also well known. That the successors of all would gradually 
and assuredly degenerate if tliey remained in the country cannot be ques- 
tioned ; for already we know that the third generation of unmixed Europeans 
is nowhere to he found in BengaW 

William Twining also made the same assertion many years ago. 

Another recent authority on India t, Mr. Julius Jeffreys, saj's, "Few 
children of pure English blood can be reared in the plains of India, and 
of that few the majority have constitutions which might cause them to 
envy the lot of those who die in their childhood. The mortality of bar- 
rack children is appalling, especially in the months of June, September, 
and October. At Cawnpore from twenty to thirty have died in one month. 
In short, the soldiery leave no descendants of unmixed blood." Major- 
General Bagnold % has also said, that the oldest English regiment, the 
Bombay " Toughs," notwithstanding that marriages with British females 
are encouraged, have never been able, from the time of Charles II. to this 
time, to raise boys enough to supply the drummers and fifers. Dr. Ewart § 
says, " Our race in process of time undergoes deterioration, physically and 
intellectually, with each succeeding generation, and ultimately ceases to 
multiply and replenish the earth." He also says, " that there is a certain 
deterioration of our race always, under present circumstances, tending to 
extinction in this country." 

It remains, therefore, with Mr. Crawfurd and those who agree with him to 
accept these facts, or explain wliat has become of the descendants of the half 
million of people who have gone to India. It is generally supposed that there 
is a process of acclimatization going on with Europeans living in the tropics; 
but the reverse is rather the case. It is true that the mortality is sometimes 
greater at first, but this is owing to tlie clearing out of the weakened and other 
defective constitutions whicli had been broken down by disease or intempe- 
rance. When this has taken place, there appears to be an improvement; but 
after the first year there is a gradual decline in health, and sickness and 
mortality greatly increase. We have exhaustion and degeneracy, but no real 
acclimatization. Although Europeans suffer less on going to colder regions, 
Btill we observe the same fact in that case. Dr. Armstrong and others have 
observed that Europeans resist the cold of the polar regions better the first 
year than they do the second, and that every subsec^uent year they feel the 
efTeets of climate more. 

This fact can be amply proved by statistics. As age increases, so does 
mortality in any place out of the native land of a people. 

Dr. Farr gives the average per thousand of England and Wales as — 



Ages 20— 24'. 


25—9. 


30—34. 


35—39. 


40 and upwards 


Mortality 842 


9-21 


10-23 


11 -03 


13-55 



Now, if we compare this with a part of a valuable fable prepared by Sir 
Alexander Tulloch ||, we at once can estimate some of the deleterious effects 
of change to different climates on Europeans, from January 1, 1830, to 
March 31, 1837. 

* Influence of Tropical Climates, &c., 2nd edit., bv Sir R. J. Martin, p. 137, 1861. 

t The British Army in India. By Julius Jeffreys,' F.R.S. 1858, p. 172. 

% Indigenous Races of the Earth. Article " Acclimatization," by Dr. Nott, p. 557. 

§ Digest of the Vital Statistics of Eurojieans in India. By Joseph Ewart, M.D. 1859. 

II Report of the Comniissioners on the Reorganization of the Indian Army. 1859, p. 179. 



ON ETIINO-CLIMATOLOGY. 



137 



Stations. 



Gibraltar ] 

Malta >■ Mediterranean 

Ionian Islands J 

Mediterranean Stations generally... 

Bermudas "1 

Nova Scotia .... > North America.., 

Canada J 

Windward and Leeward command , 

Jamaica 

Cape of Good Hope 

Mauritius 

Ceylon 

Bombay 

Madras 

Bengal 



18 to 25. 


25 to 33. 


33 to 40. 


40 to 50. 


187 


23-6 


29-5 


344 


13 


233 


34 


567 


12-2 


201 


244 


24-2 


155 


22-2 


28-1 


33- 


16 


42 


42 


76- 


11 


225 


30-8 


41 5 


197 


27-8 


37-8 


35 


50 


74 


07 


123 


70 


107 


131 


128 


9 


20-6 


297 


32 


20-8 


37-5 


527 


86-6 


24 


55 


86-4 


1266 


18-2 


34-6 


46-8 


711 


26 


59-3 


707 


86-5 


23-8 


50-3 


50-6 


83-3 



A modification of the same results is found from 1837 to 1847. 



Age. 
20—25. 
Mediterranean 

stations 
Canada ) , q. 

Nova Scotia / 
Jamaica 60* 



'} 



16-3 
13-1 



Age. Age. Age. Age. 

25—30. 30—35. 35—40. 40 and upwards. 

15-1 16-4 23-4 34-4 

17-7 19-2 20-3 35-6 

50- 73- 83- 97- 

The following very useful table I have collated from the valuable Army 
Report for 1859. It would be very desirable if some tables were given to 
show tiic different periods that men had been located at each station. 

Although this table is valuable, it must be borne in mind that it is only for 
one year. Troops are so continually changing stations that we must only 
receive the .'^uscestivc evidence of such a table for what it is worth. It will 

CTC5 

be seen that there are no deaths in some stations at forty years of age and 
upwards ; this is, however, simply because it frequently happens that there 
are no men in a regiment above that age. 

Annual ratio of deaths per thousand living, at the following ages, in 1859 : 



Healthy districts in England and \ 

Wales J 

England and Wales generally 

Household Cavalry 

Dragoon Guards and Dragoons 

Foot Guards 

Infantry Regiments 

Depot I3attalions , 

Bermuda , 

Nova Scotia, &c 

Newfoundland 

Canada 

Mediterranean generally 

Cape of Good Hope 

Australian Colonies 

Negro in W. Indies, W. and L. 1 

command J 

Ceylon Ritles 



I 

o 



1 

01 



CO 

I 

e 

P3 



5-83 


7-30 


741 


8-42 


• •• 


3-38 


5 07 


40 


7-92 


7-34 


5-82 


7-21 


6-31 


20 13 


• > • 


10-0 


10-20 


506 


8"85 


8-94 


9-28 


12 01 


• •• 


7-93 


... 


1 94 


971 


11-24 


10-99 


8-23 



7-93 

921 
6-85 

12 96 
7S0 
7-80 

12-39 
5-35 
2-51 

ll-'54 

20-78 

14-69 

6-91 



8-36 

10-23 
905 
15-0 
1207 
11-97 
20-11 
2415 
3615 

i'42 

25-64 

9-31 

7-06 



32-41 39-02 



8-72 






9- 

11-63 
16-13 
15-86 
26-47 
1831 
37-97 
48-08 

13-51 
15-27 
1215 

14-78 
2659 

6-25 

9 68 I 11-05 



r^ in 

l£ 

3 


9-86 


13-55 


15-04 


34-48 


971 


15-50 


44-78 


10-38 


55-55 


•60 


23-81 


14-49 



138 



REPORT — 1861. 



With ofBcers and the civil servants in Bengal, we also find that the mor- 
tality greatly increases with length of residence, notwithstanding the great 
advantage which they have of being able to return to their native country. 
"Out of 1184< deaths among officers," says Sir Ranald Martin*, "the pro- 
portion occurring annually in each rank, and at each age, has been as 
follows : — 



Percentage of 
deaths. 


c " 

i 


Lieut. -Colonels, 
average age 51. 

Majors, 
average age 40. 


Captains, 
average age 36. 


Lieutenants, 

average age 

18 to 33. 


Cornets and En- 
signs, average 
age 18 to 33. 


to 


Died annually "l 
per thousand > 
of each class. J 


59-4 


48-4 


41-0 


34-5 


27-5 


23-4 


31-2 



" The mortality among the civil servants, for a period of forty-six years, 
from 1790 to 183G, exhibits almost precisely the same results, viz. : — 





2 S 


O ^ 


\n *o 


="5 


»n« 


'^ a 


uT 




S" 


S=^ 


TT CT 




m -^ 




*"« 




£."« 






o 


o 






Percentage of 






5o 


s:^ 




■o 


ss 


deaths. 


ove .'> 
f age, 
f serv 


O 0) 

-J- <y 










> 
9 t. 




_Q U O 


to aj 






ta a 




tog 




<: 


< " 


< " 


< « 


< « 


< 


< 


Died annually 1 
















per thousand I 


48-6 


36-4 


354 


23-4 


16-6 


20-8 


19-9 


of each class. J 

















" Between ten and fifteen years' service is the period when leave of absence 
is allowed to those who choose to return to Europe for three years, whicli 
of course must have a material tendency in reducing the mortality of that 
class." 

The high mortality of our own army at home may also be greatly ascribed 
to the weakening influence of the climates of many of our foreign stations. 
The annual mortality per thousand was — 

Age. Age. 

20—24'. 25—29. 
Infantry. 
From 1837 to 181^6 

In 1859 

Depot battalions, 

in 1857 
England and Wales (^ g.^g 9-21 10-23 l]-63 13-55 

generally 

In the useful Army Statistical Report, from which these facts are taken, this 
high mortality of the depot battalions is acknowledged to be " attributable 
to the number of men serving in them whose constitutions have been im- 
paired by foreign service, and many of whom have been sent home to the 
depot labouring under chronic disease contracted abroad f." 

We can best estimate the deleterious influence of climate by comparing 
the relative mortality of native and foreign troops. Everywhere we see the 
same law. At Gibraltar, the deaths per thousand of the Malta Fencibles 



} 

} 



17-8 
7-21 
10-13 

8-42 



19-8 

7-80 
12-39 



Age. 
30—34. 


Age. 
35—39. 


Age. 
40 and upwards 


12-8 


21- 


23-4. ' 


11-97 


18-31 


15-50 


20-11 


37-97 


44--78 



* Loc. cit. p. 96. 



t Statistical, Sanitary, and Medical Report for 1859, p. 28. 



ON ETHNO-CL.IMATOLOGY. 139 

(although nearly all old men) was, in 1859, 8-19, while with the British 
troops it was 18"08 per thousand. On the West Coast of Africa, there are 
no white troops to compare with the black troops. The Army Report says, 
" The force consisted entirely of blacks, with the exception of four or five 
European sergeant-majors, of whom three died in the course of the year — 
two of fever at the Gambia, and a third of dysentery at Accra." 

The deaths of black troops at Sierra Leone, in a thousand, was 14;"02 ; 
at the Gambia, SS'ii ; and on the Gold Coast, 25-06. The mortality 
of the white troops serving at Ceylon, from 1837 to ISiG, was 41 •74 
per thousand ; and in 1859 the mortality decreased to 35*06 : while, with 
the so-called black troops, the deaths in a thousand, from 1837 to 184'6, 
were 26*71 ; and in 1859, 10-19. The ratio of mortality with the Ceylon 
Rifles (Malays) is the same as that of the male population of this country. 
In the same Report we find, under the head of China, what are called 
" native troops," which we discover to be Bengal Native Infantry, &c. The 
mortality of these troops from India is at the rate of 53-73 per thousand, 
without reckoning those who died subsequently from disease contracted 
in China; while, with the British troops serving in China, the mortality 
slightly exceeded that of the Indian troops, being 59*35 per thousand — no 
less than 42-58 of this number having died of miasmatic disease. Sir T. G. 
Logan, in his Report on the Sanitary State of the Army, says, " The topo- 
graphical character, however, of Hong Kong was acknowledged to preclude 
improvement to any considerable extent in the health of European troops, 
and its retention as the chief military station of the command could not 
be thought desirable in a sanitary point of view. .The principal medical 
officer's report refers to the circumstance that the annual expenditure of 
men by death and invaliding had been averaged at 20 per cent., being more 
than double of what it is in India ; and that, notwithstanding every means 
had been taken, and no expense spared, to preserve the health of the troops, 
the results were still very unsatisfactory." 

But the great mistake which most writers on the. diseases of tropical 
countries commit is the neglect to ascribe the large amount of disease to 
the true source, viz. the inadaptibility of Europeans to tropical countries. 
Nearly every medical writer on the diseases of India tries to prove that the 
large mortality is produced by some preventable cause ; but a little inquiry 
into the diseases which attack the natives and Europeans will destroy this 
delusive hope. First, then, with a given strength of Europeans and natives 
we find that, with the three sorts of fevers, intermittent, remittent, and 
continued, there are in 

Bengal 3-76 deaths of Europeans to 1 Native. 

Bombay 2*54 „ „ to 1 „ 

Madras 1-23 „ „ to 1 „ 

The admissions for fever amongst Europeans were from 

Percentage of admis- 
sions to strength. Deaths. 

Bengal /l812tol815 84*85 650 

^ ■)l850tol854 100-25 100*06 

Bombav jl811tol814 66-34 2-21 

liombay |i850tol854 63-10 0*78 

Madras 11829 to 1832 29-52 1-21 

1 1848 to 1851 28-46 0-52 



140 REPORT — 1861. 

While with the native troops the following is the result : — 

Percentage of admis- Percentage of deaths 
■ sions to strength. to admissions. 

„ ,. ri826tol838 41-30 1-32 

Bengalfrom-^jg^g^^jg.2 ^g.jg ^.g^ 

p , f 1803 to 1828 53-lS 1-80 

L.ombay „ | j §28 to 1853 46-55 MS 

,r , /1827tol835 21-27 1-46 

iuaarab „ |i842tol852 28-5 1-01 

The large amount of deaths among the native soldiers may be greatly 
ascribed to tlie inadaptibility of our English pharmacopcEia. Since our con- 
tact with the natives they are every year becoming more liable to all sorts 
of diseases, but especially fevers and bovicl diseases. The high mortality 
amongst the natives must, therefore, be greatly ascribed to our inability to 
check disease in tiiem. The deaths to the number of admissions are even 
greater amongst the natives tlian amongst Europeans. This, in itself, is a 
pretty good evidence for the assertion that a healing art has yet to be dis- 
covered for their constitutions. 

Then with dysentery and diarrhcea, the proportion of deaths of Euro- 
peans to natives is in 

Bengal 11-67 of Europeans to I Native. 

Bombay 8-73 „ to 1 „ 

Madras 6*53 „ to 1 „ 

The contrast is sufficiently great with fevers and dysentery ; but it is still 
more marked with hepatitis : — 

lu Bengal, 60 Europeans die of hepatitis to 1 Native. 
Bombay, 44 „ „ 1 „ 

Madras, 30 „ „ 1 „ 

Even in those hot-beds of disease, the Indian jails, we find the inmates arc 
far more free from hepatitis than our own troops in Bombaj' : the Europeans 
are attacked thirteen times oftener than the natives; in Bengal, forty-three 
times; and in Madras, our soldiers one hundred and seventy-eight times 
oftener. 

Some writers have endeavoured to show that this disease is produced in 
Europeans by intemperance. But Dr. INIorehead* says, " The evidence 
that intemperance in drinking exerts a particular influence in the produc- 
tion of hepatitis is by no means conclusive ;" and he also says, " The occur- 
rence of hepatitis, on the other hand, in its severest form is not an unusual 
event in persons of temperate habits, — a statement which practitioners in 
India generally will, I am sure, amply confirm." 
With CHOLERA, the ratio of mortality is in 

Bengal 6' Europeans to 1 Native. 

Bombay 2-6 „ 1 „ 

Madras 1*18 „ 1 „ 

There is also another fact which demands attention, viz. the increase of 
mortality in cases attacked with this disease. Whatever may be the cause, 
there seems to have been far higher mortality in Bengal since 1838, and in 
Madras since 1842, than before those periods. Thus, the relative mortality to 
the cases treated in Bengal lias risen in each period of five years, from 1818 
to 1853, from 267], 31-17, 21-80, 26-91, 55-53, 45*22, and 41*92 per 
cent; and in Bombay, during the same time, from 18-53, 22-71, 30-58, 

* Diseases of India. By Charles Morehead. 2nd edit. ISGl, p. 363. Longman and Co, 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 141 

18-87, 37-33, 45-46, and 43-17; and in Madras, from 1829 to 1851, from 
27-11,27-63, 48, and 62-31. 

Tliere has been an increase of mortality of natives to cases treated, in 
Madras, of 7'26 per cent.; in Bengal the mortality is about the same; and 
a decrease of 3 per cent, in Madras. 

With phthisis (consumption) the percentage of mortality to a given 
strength is^r 

In Bengal 11 deaths of Europeans to 1 Native. 

Bombay 4 „ „ 1 „ 

Thus, the deaths of Europeans from phthisis even exceed the native pri- 
soners in our Indian jails. 

In the various other diseases which have not been mentioned, the 
mortality is far higher, being, in Bengal, as 3 Europeans to 1 native, and in 
Bombay as 3-2 Europeans to 1 native. 

Many Avriters have observed that, with the natives, those most free from 
disease are those who toil all day in the burning sun, with no covering at all 
on the head. Ignorance as to the difference of race has induced some 
commanders to attempt thus to harden the Europeans, with results some- 
thing frightful to contemplate. 

One of the regiments that had been the longest in India, the Madras 
Fusileers, is stated to have been reduced from eight iiundred and fifty to 
one hundred and ninety fit for duty. M^ny similar cases have been pro- 
duced by needless exposure. Mr. Jeffreys says, " that Her Majesty's 41th 
Regiment in 1823 were nine hundred strong, and a very fine body of men. 
The commanding officer insisted that confinement of the men during the 
day was effeminate, and continued drilling them after the hot season had 
begun. But the men suffered the penalty of the officer's ignorance. For 
some months," says Mr. Jeffreys, " not less than one-third, and for some 
weeks one-half, of the men were in hospital at once, chiefly witli fever, 
dysentery, and cholera. I remember to have seen, for some time, from five 
to ten bodies in the dead-room of a morning, many of them specimens of 
athletes." Experience has shown that it is not tiie absolute exposure to 
the sun from which Europeans suffer; it is the subsequent effects which are 
to be dreaded. On a march, the European will appear to be equal to the 
thick-skinned native; but he soon learns that such is not tiie case. 

The European soldier is also unfitted to stand the effects of a cold climate 
after some years' residence in India, and dreads to return home to encounter 
tiie cold and hardships of English peasant-life. With officers, who can 
return to enjoy all the comforts and luxuries of civilization, the case is dif- 
ferent. The few soldiers who remairj in India have more or less chronic 
diseases, which, says Mr. Jeffreys, " would render the attainment of any- 
thing like longevity out of the question." 

Seventy-seven per cent, of the European troops in Bengal are under thirty, 
twenty-three per cent, above that age; or ninety-four per cent, are under 
thirty-five, the remaining six above that age. 

From Dr. Ewart* we learn that the European army has hitherto disap- 
peared in Bengal in about ten and a half years; in Bombay, in thirteen and 
a half; in Madras, in seventeen and a half; or in all India, in about thirteen 
and a half years. We find the percentage of deaths to strength amongst 
European regiments, in Bengal, 6-94; in Bombay, 5-52; in Madras, 3-88. 

Thus we find that, on adding all these diseases of European troops together, 
we get a mortality of at least seven per cent, for the whole of India, while 

* A Digest of the Vital Statistics of the European and Native Armies in India. By Joseph 
Ewait, M.D., Bengal Med. Staff. . 



142 REPORT — 1861. 

with the native troops the mortality does not amount to a half per cent. 
Sir A. TuUocIi says, that " the total loss from all causes has been at least 
seventy per thousand ;" and that " the proportion invalided annually may be 
taken at about twenty-five per thousand more, and twcnty-five per thousand 
to men not renewing their engagements ;" making altogether twelve per 
cent., or one hundred and twenly per thousand. He further observes, that 
the number of recruits raised during peace, from 184-5 to 1849 inclusive, 
was less than twelve thousand ; and that, with a force of eighty thousand in 
India, we shall require nine thousand and six hundred of them for India, 
" unless," as he observes, " means can be adopted to reduce mortality and 

invaliding." 

Mr. Jeffreys says, the mortality of troops in India amounts to ten per 
cent. He observes, " The casualties amongst the troops have, during peace, 
amounted per annum to at least one thousand in every ten thousand; in 
England and her healthy colonies they have ranged from about ninety to a 
little above two hundred." Such being the undisputed fact, there is no 
doubt, as Sir A. Tulloch has observed, that " the selection of healthier 
stations for our troops than those they have hitherto occupied is no longer 
a matter of choice, but one of necessity, as we cannot hope to keep up the 
lart^e European army required to hold India without the strictest attention 
to "this important measure." The late Sir H. Lawrence devoted much of 
his life to the solution of this question in a practical manner. I'here is no 
doubt that removing our military stations to the hills is a measure demanding 
serious attention. Sir Ranald Martin is of opinion that, in Bengal and 
the N.W. Provinces, the malaria might be escaped by an elevation of from 
two thousand five hundred to four thousand feet. That this would be ad- 
vantao-eous is quite probable ; but we shall not find in the hills the same 
climare we have in this country. We may escape the influence of malaria- 
diseases, just as we escape the yellow fever in the West Indies, at an eleva- 
tion of from two to three thousand feet. The Report for the Re-organization 
of the Indian Army gives the mortality from 1815 to 1855, exclusive of 
casualties, at a hundred thousand men, " the greater portion of whose lives," 
the Report says, " might have been preserved had better localities been 
selected for the military occupation of that country." But are there any 
places even in the hills in which Europeans can be reared without gradually 
becomino- degenerated? This is a serious question, to which science can as 
yet five no positive reply. Looking at the wisdom which is displayed in 
the general distribution of mankind, we shall be inclined to answer in the 
negative. It has been presumed that, because yellow fever is in a great 
measure escaped in Jamaica at an elevation of about two thousand five 
hundred feet, this elevation would be sufficient to escape malarious dis- 
eases in other parts of the world ; but such is not the case. If we ascend 
to any great height, we often get out of the region of malaria, and into the 
region of bowel-diseases. It is also affirmed* that " intermittent fever origi- 
nates in some of the Himalayah stations. At Aboo also, during the malarious 
months, ague is very prevalent. Dr. Cooke (Bombay service), in his annual 
report of the Khelat agency, states that ' Khelat, the highest inhabited spot 
of the Beloochistan table-land, standing seven thousand feet above the level 
of the sea, is also malarious.'" 

It has also been said by Sir John Lawrence, Brigadier-General Chamber- 
lain, and Lieutenant-Colonel Edwards, that, besides our soldiers not liking 
to live in the hills, the natives have not the power of believing in what they 

* Diseases of India. By Dr. Moore, Bombay Medical Service, and in charge of the Sani- 
tarium for European troops at Mount Aboo. 1861,p. 48. • 



A 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 143 

cannot see ; and they join in asserting that " there are sick men whom the 
liills make worse, and healthy men whom they make sick*." General Sir 
A. TuUoch also allowsf that the stations at 8000 or 9000 feet of elevation 
" are less healthy than was expected, because the men suffer from what is 
called a hill diarrhoea, which reduces them very much indeed." Many other 
authorities and facts tend to show that it is a great fallacy to assume that 
temperature and climate are at all the same thing. There may be the 
same ethnic climate, with vast difference of temperature. China, for in- 
stance, has very different temperatures ; but this has hardly a perceptible 
effect on the race. 

Dr. Ewart, like many other writers on this subject, has a theory which he 
believes would enable Europeans to be reared in India. He says, "The 
average standard of health of our race in this country would bear compa- 
rison with that of any race on the face of the civilized world, or of any 
people in Europe, provided the sources of malaria were dried up." 

Although this is wholly a gratuitous assumption, we still have evidence 
to show that a very slight ctiange is sufficient to make a considerable 
change in the health of soldiers. Mr. M'Clelland| says, " that out of a 
European force of little more than one thousand, there were four or six 
funerals daily ; and this great mortality was checked by a change to the hills, 
which were only one hundred or one hundred and fifty feet high. It is 
probably a mistake, however, to attribute this favourable change in the 
mortality to the climate ; it was doubtless far more due to the influence on 
the brain and nervous system. If the cause which produces eimui amongst 
all classes of European residents in India could be eradicated, then perhaps 
the case might be different. A number of plans have been proposed to en- 
able the European to live in India. In 1853-4, the expenditure for cinchona 
bark and quinine amounted to a6ll,686. It is now proposed to give quinine 
as a prophylactic for fevers, and there will be a demand for 3646,744 worth§. 
But the process that is now seriously proposed by Desmartis ||, in harmony 
with his theory of inoculation, is to transfuse a small quantity of blood taken 
from the natives into the veins of Europeans visiting such places as India, 
Brazil, or the West Coast of Africa ! I would only beg to express a hope 
that in transfusing this blood they will not also transfer any of the mental or 
moral characteristics of these indigenous races into the European. If any 
process, however, can be devised to make Europeans like the natives, then we 
must remember that, instead of being able to hold down one hundred and 
fifty millions of people with about one hundred thousand men, we should 
want a very different number. It is only possible to hold India as long as 
Europeans remain the superior race. It has been asserted that, although 
they cannot bear the sudden change to a tropical climate, they can gradually 
become accustomed to the change. It seems a fair test of the influence of 
climate on race, to study its effects on the children of those who have be- 
come accustomed to the change, or, as it is sometimes falsely called, " accli- 
matized." Here there can be no question as to the effects of climate. We 
have seen what is the result of attempting to raise European children in India, 
and nearly the same result meets us elsewhere. Speaking of the effect of 
climatic influence on such children in Ceylon, Sir Emerson Tennent^observcs, 
"If suitably clothed, and not injudiciously fed, children may remain in tiie 

* Papers connected with the Reorganization of the Indian Army. 1859, p. 6. 

t Minutes of Evidence on the Reorganization of the Indian Army, p. 2G6. 

t Medical Topography of Bengal, &c. 1859, p. 135. 

§ Ewart, p. 47. 

II Quelques mots sur les Prophylaxies. Par S. P. Desmartis. Paris, 1 859. 

II Ceylon. By Sir James Emerson Tennent. 1860, p. 79. 



144 nEPORT — 18G1. 

island till eight or ten years of age, when anxiety begins to be excited by the 
attenuation of the frame and the apparent absence of strength in proportion 
to development. These symptoms, liie result of relaxed tone and defective 
nutrition, are to be remedied by change of climate, either to the more lofty 
ranges of the mountains or more providently to Europe." 

Many writers, who contend that Europeans can become completely ac- 
climatized, contradict themselves in their statements respecting the rearing of 
children. Mr. Robert Clarke, who has some eighteen years' experience on the 
Gold Coast and at Sierra Leone, goes so far as to say*, " It is questionable 
whether persons of colour are better able to bear up against the influence 
of climate than persons of pure European blood, provided the latter are 
sober in their habits. There can be no doubt that Europeans, on their first 
arrival in West Africa, are in greater danger of losing their lives than the 
former; but when once they have become acclimatized, they seem generally 
to withstand tiie influence of the climate better than coloured people, 
provided, I repeat, they are temperate in their habits." If this be so, we 
should not expect to find great mortality amongst children born of " tempe- 
rate, acclimated Europeans." But Mr. Clarke saysf, "Great difficulty is 
experienced in rearing European children. They in general thrive admi- 
rably until teething begins. It is at this epoch they are frequently harassed 
with intermittent iever, which by repeated occurrence causes enlargement 
of the spleen and functional disturbance of the stomach and bowels, when 
they soon became cachectic, and unless removed to a more genial climate 
drop into an early grave." 

Some authors think that the question of the European propagating himself 
in the tropics has been settled by the fact that for three centuries the Spanish 
race has lived and thrived in tropical America. Mr. Crawfurd says, "The 
question whetiier the European race is capable of living and multiplying in 
a tropical or other hot region seems to have been settled in the affirmative 
on a large scale in America. Of the pure Spanish race there are at present 
probably not fewer than six millions, mostly within the tropics." But it is 
a wholly gratuitous assumption, unsupported by facts, to suppose that any- 
thing like this number of the Spanish race exist in America. If we were to 
read for Mr. Crawfurd's "millions" the word " thousands," we should per- 
haps be nearer the truth. In Mexico it is estimated that there are not more 
than ten thousand of the pure racej, reckoning both Creoles and immigrants. 
What a small proportion is this to those who left their native land and have 
never returned again! For three hundred years Spain has poured out her 
richest blood on her American colonies, almost at the price of her own 
extinction, without the slightest prospect of being able to establish a Spanish 
race in Central America. Never was there a greater failure than the attempt 
of the Spaniards to colonize tropical America. Those who have watched 
the gradual change of the Spanish colonies must be convinced of the fallacy 
of quoting this as a case of successful colonization of tropical countries by 
Europeans. When the continual influx of new blood from Sjjain was taking 
place, the change was not so much observed ; but, now emigration has ceased, 
the pure Spanish race is diminishing rapidly. All recent observations show 
that the Indian blood is again showing out in a most remarkable maimer. In- 
stead of the Spaniards flourishing, there seems every prospect of their entire 

* Reports of II. M. Colonial Possessions for 1858, Part ii. p. 33. 

f Topography and Diseases of the Gold Coast, ISGl, p. 48. 

J It has since been asserted in the Cortes, by Don Pachero, that the pure Spanish race in 
Mexico does not amount to more than eight thousand. In 1793, Humboldt estimated the 
pure Spanish race in New Spaia to consist of 1,200,000. 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 145 

extinction, unless fresh blood is sent from Europe. The extinction of the 
Spanish race in America was likewise predicted more than twenty years ago 
by Dr. Knox. There is no doubt that this result has been greatly owing to 
tlie mixture of Spanish and Indian blood. 

The laws regulating the mixture of human races do not directly concern 
the question of acclimatization; it has been found, however, that there is a 
different vitality between the offspring of the Spaniard and the Indian female, 
from that between the Englishman and the Indian woman. So also there is 
a different power of life between the offspring of the Portuguese and English 
with the negro woman. It can hardly be questioned that the Spanish race, 
like all other dark Europeans, are better suited for warm climates than the 
white Europeans. M. Boudin gives some statistics to show that the Spaniards 
and Italians also suffered less in the Great Russian campaign. Perhaps this 
may be explained by other causes. 

On several occasions the Spaniards have attempted to colonize the beau- 
tiful island, Fernando Po, but have entirely failed. The last trial was made 
in 1859, when three hundred and fifty colonists were sent out, provided with 
every necessary; but at the beginning of 1861 they had nearly all died, the 
few remaining returning home entirely broken down in health. 

On the change effected in Europeans by a residence in Ceylon, Sir J. 
Emerson Tennent observes*, " The pallid complexion peculiar to old resi- 
dents is not alone ascribable to an organic change in the skin from its 
being the medium of perpetual exudation, but in part to a deficiency of red 
globules in the blood, and mainly to a reduced vigour in the whole muscular 
apparatus, including the action of the heart, which imperfectly compensates 
by increase of rapidity for diminution of power." This author very properly 
warns all habitual dyspeptics from a long sojourn at Ceylon. Gouty patients 
are, however, owing to the greater cutaneous excretion, entirely cured. We 
find that Europeans die mostly of cholera and inflammation of the liver, 
while negroes die of pulmonary consumption. Ceylon is hot for Europeans, 
and cold, especially in the forests, in comparison to the coast of Guinea. 

Of the island of Cuba, Mr. Tylor has just writtenf, " The climate of the 
island is not unfavourable for a mixed negro and European race, while to 
the pure whites it is deadly. It is only by intermarriage with Europeans, 
and continual supplies of emigrants from Europe, that the white population 
is kept up." 

In the Reports of the Colonies for 1858 and 1859, we only find the births 
and deaths of the different populations of one colony given. From these we 
learn that, at Antigua, in 

1858 the births of white population were 50 deaths 75 

1859 „ „ „ 91 „ 140 

1858 „ black „ 952 „ 979 

1859 „ „ „ 1005 „ 894. 

1858 „ coloured „ 238 „ 226 

1859 „ „ „ 250 „ 205 
Although this classification (of white, black, and coloured)! is not very 
scientific, yet it would be of very great utility to get such simple returns 
from all our colonies, with the percentage of women. 

Our experience of other races than the European is limited. Mr. Craw-; 
furd contends that the Chinese become easily acclimatized in nearly all re-. 

* Loc. cit. p. 78. 

t Anahuac ; or, Mexico and the Mexicans. By Edward B. Tylor, 1861, p. 12. 
X The coloured population are sometimes called browu. These terms are generally used 
to signify a mongrel breed of some sort, 

1861. L 



346 REPORT — 1861. 

gions; and Pruner-Bay says " that the Turanian is, in physical respects, the 
true cosmopolite." 

I have already stated that latitude is no test of climate ; so 1 would now 
state, that as neither heat nor cold is the cause of the physical differences of 
mankind, so neither is it mere heat or cold which affects man injuriously. 
That the Chinese have a large range of temperature is true, but they have 
not the great power of being acclimatized that many imagine. Fifty thou- 
sand Chinese have gone to Australia, and the same number to California ; 
and perhaps about twenty or thirty thousand to Cuba, and six thousand to 
the Mauritius. This is a misfortune for both Australia and California; but 
there is hope for Cuba, as the Chinese are said not to be able to work there. 
Mr. Tylor says*, " Fortunately for them, they cannot bear the severe planta- 
tion-work. Some die after a few days of such labour and exposure, many 
more kill themselves; and the utter indifference with which they commit 
suicide, as soon as life seems not worth having, contributes to moderate 
the exactions of their masters. A friend of ours in Cuba had a Chinese 
servant who was impertinent one day, and his master turned him out of the 
room, dismissing him with a kick. The other servants woke their master 
early next morning with the intelligence that the Chinese had killed himself 
in the night to expiate the insult he had received." 

We are at present quite unable to say whether the Chinese will ever be- 
come acclimatized in California or Australia. It is to be hoped, however, 
that they will not be able. The Chinese have taken no women with them to 
either place ; but in Australia some of them are living with native women, 
and this may be the means of producing a hybrid race of Chinese-Aus- 
tralians. Whether this may stay the current of extinction which seems 
settling on the Australians, or whether it may aid in their destruction, are 
questions beyond the limits of this paper. Of the Indian immigrants to the 
Mauritius, we learn that the deaths exceeded the births by three hundred 
and eleven, but we are not told of the percentage of women. 

The mortality generally of the colony was — 

In 1854 7 percent. 

1855 3-5 „ 

1856 5-0 „ 

1857 2-5 „ 

1858 2-7 „ 

In Trinidad, the total Indian population was, in 1859, thirteen thousand 
four hundred and forty-seven, and the deaths 2*7 per cent. ; but amongst 
the arrivals from Madras, the mortality was 7*7 per cent. 
In 1859, the mortality of the Calcutta coolies was 2 per cent. 
Of the Malays all we know is, that the Dutch took some to the Cape, 
and the race still remains there, but whether pure or mixed we know very 
little; we also are not informed if their numbers are increasing or decreas- 
ing. Of the Red Indians we only know that, on being removed from their 
native soil, they soon perish : it is uncertain how much of this must be 
ascribed to the climate, or how much to the inability of the race to alter their 
manners and customs. 

The royp,! family of the Sandwich Islands who visited England in 1827 
all died, as did most of their attendants, of tubercular disease, after only three 

months' visit. 

So the Andaman Islander taken to Calcutta by Dr. Mouat was soon 
affected by the climate, and obliged to be returned to his native land to save 
his life. 

* Loc. cit. p. 13. 



I 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 14? 

But perhaps the negroes offer the strongest proof of the fallacy of saying 
that all races of men are cosmopolitan. We have ample and positive evidence 
that they cannot perpetuate themselves beyond about the fortieth degree of 
north or south latitude. Indeed, in their own region the ascent of a high 
mountain will kill them, sometimes nearly instantly. Thus, out of the eight 
Africans who ascended with Beecroft the Saint Isabel Mountain*, at Fer- 
nando Po, no less than five died. 

The negro seems to thrive in the southern states of America ; but it is 
far from probable that he is suited to all tropical countries. Sir A. Tulloch 
and Dr. Bennett Dowler coincide in opinion that the negro will die out in 
the West Indies and the Mauritius. At Cuba, Mr. Tylor sajsf, " there are 
fifteen thousand slaves imported annually;" he also adds, "that the Creoles 
of the country are a poor degenerate race, and die out in the fourth genera* 
tion." The race is only kept up in Egypt and Algiers by constant immigra- 
tion. 

In the Mauritius, the deaths in five years exceeded the births by upwards 
of six thousand, in a population of sixty thousand. 

Dr. Boudin says, " In Ceylon, in ISil, there was not a trace of the nine 
thousand negroes imported by the Dutch government before the English 
domination. Of the five thousand negroes imported by the English since 
1803, there remained only, in IS^l, about two hundred to three hundred, 
although females were imported to preserve them." 

Of the 4th West Indian Regiment placed, in 1819, in garrison at Gibraltar, 
nearly all perished of pulmonary disease in fifteen months. 

The statistics of the mortality of negroes in the different States have clearly 
shown the influence of climate. The farther they go north, the higher be- 
comes the rate of mortality ; they seem to die of consumption, just like the 
monkeys and lions in the Zoological Gardens. 

It is difficult to determine the exact amount of influence exerted by race 
in resisting particular diseases. It has, however, been shown that the negro 
race on the West Coast of Africa, especially, is exempted from yellow fever, 
and that a very small portion of African blood is sufficient to resist the 
influence of this disease. 

All the dark races seem less liable to yellow fever than the white man. 
Both the Red Indian and the Southern European are more exempt than 
the Englishman. 

Mr. Clarke;]; says, that when the yellow fever broke out at Sierra Leone 
in 1837-8-9, 1847, and 1859, he never knew of a single negro or even of 
a man of mixed blood being attacked. He also says, that in 1837 and 1839 
small-pox broke out among the negroes, and disappeared at the same times 
as the yellow fever appeared. With the plague the dark races are aflTected 
far more than the white, being the reverse of the law with the yellow fever. 
Dr. Nott contends that the predisposition to yellow fever is just in proportion 
to the lightness of the skin ; and that with plague the reverse is the case. 

The Jewish race, and not the Chinese race, are, however, nearest to being 
cosmopolitan. It is asserted that they live and thrive all over the. world. If, 
however, we come to examine the evidence of this fact, we find that many 
of the people reputed to be Jews have no claim whatever to that question- 
able honour ; such, for instance, as the many reputed cases of black Jews. 

Dr. Boudin, although an advocate for the non-cosmopolitan powers of 

* The greatest height at which this mountain was ever estimated was that by Consul 
Hutchinson, who thought it was twelve thousand feet, 
t Loc. cit. p, 12, 
t Remarks on the Topography and Diseases of the Gold Coast, p. 28. 

l2 



148 REPORT — 1861. 

man generally, makes an exception in favour of the Jewish race, and says 
that this race has settled the question that one race is cosmopolitan. 

The statistics which have been published respecting the Jews in different 
countries seem to show that the Jew is subject to different physiological laws 
from those of the people by whom he may be surrounded. This phenomenon 
may, however, be explained by other physiological laws. M. Boudin supports 
his views from the difference in the statistics of disease and death of the 
Jews and the other colonists in Algeria. But the conditions of these two 
are very different. The Jews have been in Algeria for a considerable time, 
while the colonists are going there daily. Had M. Boudin proved that a 
number of Jews and Frenchmen went to Algeria at the same time, and that 
the Jews became more easily acclimatized, it might go some way towards 
showing the advantage of the Jewish race over the Frenchman, if we could 
not explain the phenomenon on other grounds. Had M. Boudin proved 
satisfactorily that the Jew was cosmopolitan, we should not easily be in- 
duced to admit that this was inexplicable by physiological laws. I do not 
pretend to enter into any of the causes which may have enabled the Jew to 
appear favoured ; but we must not hurriedly admit tliat there are excep- 
tional laws in favour of any one race. On the same plea that M. Boudin 
has claimed an exception in favour of the Jews, we may also advocate owe 
on the part of the Gipsies. The chief cause, however, of the apparent 
superiority of the Jews over some other races is the fact that they are a pure 
race. All pure races support the influence of change better than mixed races. 
The nomadic Arabs, as long as they remain pure, can also live in very differ- 
ent temperatures and climates. The Chinese are also generally a pure race ; 
and it is possible that the nearer the race approach the original type, the 
greater power they have in enduring change of climate. But enduring 
change of climate is not acclimatization. A process of acclimatization should 
enable a race to perpetuate itself in a new region, without supplies of new 
blood from its own region, and without, of course, mixing with the indigenous 
races of the invaded country. The recorded historical migrations of nations 
do not give us sufficient evidence to make us believe in different laws from 
those which are in existence at this time. 

I am fully sensible of the great difficulty there is at present of defining 
the exact limits of the various ethnic centres. When I speak therefore of 
the European centre, I would also observe that this region is not necessarily 
confined to the portion of the earth we call Europe ; on the contrary, I 
should include the whole of those original inhabitants of the Mediterranean, 
such as the Phoenicians, as belonging to the European centre. The modern 
Jews*, for instance, who are most probably lineal descendants of the old 
Phoenician merchants, are vastly superior to any purely Asiatic race. Never 
was the Jew more calumniated than by saying that he is an Asiatic ! We 
all know the distinctive characteristics of the various Asiatic races, and 
nowhere do we find a people at all resembling the Jews. The only explana- 
tion I have ever heard given of this contradiction is that by Mr. Burke. 
That gentleman contends that there is a hierarchy not only in ethnic centres, 
but similarly in their climates ; and that any race coming from an inferior 
centre to a higher centre is thereby improved, other conditions being equal, 
and provided of course that the change be not too violent. Thus he points 
out the fact that the Jew has not degenerated in Europe, but has greatly 
improved in spite of all disadvantages. He also very truly observes, that 
no one will contend that the climate of Palestine will suit an Englishman as 

* I do not include in this term the fair-haired, blue-eyed race found in the Levant, and 
who are called Jews by Mr. Lajard and Dr. Bsddoe. 



1 



ON ETHNO-CLIMATOLOGY. 149 

that ©f England suits a Jew. We have, however, evidence to show that the 
climate of Palestine does not suit a Jew — a pretty good test that it is not his 
native land. Many writers have noticed this; but I will only quote the im- 
partial evidence of Eliot Warburton, who says*, "It is a curious but well- 
ascertained fact that the Jews do not multiply at present in the native city 
of their race ; few children attain to puberty, and the mortality altogether is 
so great, that the constant reinforcements from Europe scarcely maintain the 
average population." 

The great majority of the Jewish race is in Europe. The entire number of 
Jews, according to M. Boudin, is computed to be four millions three hundred 
thousand ; and of these there are in Europe three millions six hundred thou- 
sand, in Africa four hundred and fifty thousand, in Asia two hundred thou- 
sand, America forty-eight thousand, and in Australia two thousand. Thus, 
more than three-fourths of the entire number of Jews are in Europe, and 
only a fraction of ^ in Asia. Mr. Burke conceives it possible that even the 
Negro might be improved in the long run by coming to Europe under 
favourable circumstances, " though this," says Mr. Burke, " would not apply 
to the lower and unprogressive portions of the type, but to its advancing 
sections." Our researches have rather tended to show, however, that 
although they may not degenerate like Europeans going to an inferior 
centre, they still are incapable of becoming acclimatized anywhere iu 
Europe, and we much doubt if even out of Africa. We are unable, in the 
present state of our science, to do more than see that ethnic centres d& exist, 
tvithout being able to define their exact limits or their number. 

In a former part of this paper I incidentally touched on the influence of 
the mind in conquering physical agents. Maltebrun, Goethe, and Kant 
have all given their testimony in favour of the power of the mind in resisting 
disease. And this subject becomes important with reference to some statis- 
tical facts respecting the difference in mortality between the officers and 
men in India and elsewhere. Thus, with bowel-complaints in India, there 
were in Bengal only three more deaths of European officers in a ratio of 
ten thousand than in the same number of sepoys ; and in Madras eighteen 
fewer deaths took place than in a similar number of sepoysf. Dr. Cameron 
also affirms that the ravages of cholera did not affect the officers or other 
Europeans in a like grade of life ; and he says that " the small mortality 
amongst the officers of European regiments in Ceylon is very remarkable J." 
Indeed, the whole medical records teem with instances of the influences 
whicii the mind possesses in the production and removal of disease. It is 
possible that much may be done to enable our troops to exist in India and else- 
where by attention to the necessity that exists for mental as well as physical 
exercise. Much might also be efl'ected were the differences of temperaments 
more studied, and a judicious selection made of those fitted for hot, and those 
for cold, climates. 

Two questions were asked Sir Ranald Martin, who is a great advocate for 
hill-stations and for other reforms in the army; his answers§ are important. 

" 1st. But is there no such thing as acclimatization? 

" A. No, I believe not. 

" 2nd. Physically, you do not think that acclimatization exists ? 

" A. I think it does not." 

These answers express the result of my own inquiries into this subject. 

I have endeavoured to show from such facts as are at hand that man 

* The Crescent and the Cross, 1851, eighth edition, p. 334. 

t Ewart, p. 122. I A note in Sir E. Tennent's ' Ceylon,' p. 82. 

§ Minutes of Evidence, ' On the Reorganization of the Indian Army,' p. 172. 



150 REPORT — 1861. 

cannot be rapidly displaced from one region and located in another without 
injury. This must be admitted ; but it may be answered that it can be done 
slowly — that if it cannot be done in one generation, it may be done in time. 
Now it is quite evident that " time is no agent " in this case ; and unless there 
is some sign of acclimatization in one generation, there is no such process. 
A race may be living and flourishing in its own centre, but sometimes a very 
slight change into a new region will produce the most disastrous results. 
The Spaniards, for instance, cannot with impunity migrate into the new re- 
gion on the opposite coast. In Egypt we see exemplified perhaps the most 
remarkable proof of what I have stated. From time immemorial Egypt has 
been ruled by foreign races, but not one has left any descendants. Mr. War- 
burton* has briefly expressed himself on this point in these words: — " The 
Turk never or rarely intermarries with Egyptians, and it is a well-known fact 
that children born of other women in this country rapidly degenerate or die ; 
there are few indigenous Turks in Egypt. Through the long reign of the 
Mamelukes there was not one instance, I believe, of a son succeeding to his 
father's power and possessions." These Mamelukes were generally adopted • 
Circassian slaves, who adopted others in their turn; and they had plenty of 
Circassian women imported to perpetuate their race, but witli no better results 
than have met all other invaders. Of the English residents at Cairo the 
same writer observes, '* The English seem to succumb, for the most part, 
to the fatal influence of this voluptuous climate, and, with some admirable 
exceptions, do little credit to the proud character of their country." 

The English also, when sent to any part of the Mediterranean, suff"er far 
more than in England. It has been proposed to locate British troops at these 
stations for a time, before they proceed to India. The caution that a warm 
climate requires change of habits might do good ; but we strongly suspect 
that if troops were located in the Mediterranean for a few years before pro- 
ceeding to India, the mortality would be far higher when they arrived there. 
If also, with a view of colonizing India, we were to send a colony, for a ge- 
neration or more, to dwell in the Mediterranean, we should get a degenerate 
race who would have few of the qualities of the British race. Wherever we 
go, we may apply the question in a similar manner. The distribution of 
mankind over the globe is the result of law, order and harmony, and not of 
mere chance and accidental circumstances, as too many would have us 
believe. From the earliest dawn of history, races of men existed very much 
as they do now, and in the same locations. Jewish history, both monumental 
and written, tells us that the Jew has not changed for the last three thousand 
years; and the same is the case with all other races who have kept their blood 
pure. I would therefore say that it is as difficult to plant a race out of its 
own centre, as it is to extinguish any race without driving it from its natural 
centre. The Tasmanians and American Indians have both been extinguished 
by removal from their native soil; and this is nearly the only process yet 
discovered of extinguishing any race of man. The object of this paper, 
however, is simply to suggest to ethnologists and geographers the necessity 
of a further investigation of the important question of acclimatization. 

* Loc. cit. p. 67. 



ON THE GAUGING OF yV^ATER BY TRIANGULAR NOTCHES. 151 

On Experiments on the Gauging of Watei' by Triangular Notches. By 
James Thomson, M.A., Professor of Civil Engineering, Queen's 
College, Belfast. 

In 1858 I presented to the Association an interim Report on the new me- 
thod which I had proposed for the gauging of flowing water by triangular (or 
V-siiaped) notches, in vertical plates, instead of the rectangular notches, with 
level bottom and upright sides, in ordinary use. I there pointed out that the 
ordinary rectangular notches, although for many purposes suitable and con- 
venient, are but ill adapted for the measurement of very variable quantities 
of water, such as commonly occur to the engineer to be gauged in rivers and 
streams ; because, if the rectangular notch be made wide enough to allow the 
water to pass through it in flood times, it must be so wide that for long 
periods, in moderately dry weather, the water flows so shallow over its crest, 
that its indications cannot be relied on. I showed that this objection would 
be removed by the employment of triangular notches, because, in them, when 
the quantity flowing is small, the flow is confined to a narrow and shallow 
space, admitting of accurate measurement ; and as the quantity flowing 
increases, the width and depth of the space occupied in the notch increase 
both in the same ratio, and the space remains of the same form as before, 
though increased in magnitude. I proposed that in cases in which it might 
not be convenient to form a deep pool of quiet water at the upstream side of 
the weir-board, the bottom of the channel of approach, when the triangular 
notch is used, may be formed as a level floor, starting exactly from the ver- 
tex of the notch, and extending both up stream and laterally so far as that 
the water entering on it at its margin may be practically considered as still 
water, of which the height of the surface above the vertex of the notch may 
be measured in order to determine the quantity flowing. 1 indicated theo- 
retic considerations which led to the anticipation that in the triangular 
notch, both without and with the floor, the quantity flowing would be pro- 
portional, or very nearly so, to the ^ power of the height of the still-water 
surface above the vertex of the notch. As the result of moderately accurate 
experiments which I had at that time been able to make on the flow in a right- 
angled notch, without floor, I gave the formula Q=0'317 H^, where Q is the 
quantity of water in cubic feet per minute, and H the head of water, as 
measured vertically, in inches, from the still- water level of the pool down to 
the vertex of the notch. This formula I submitted at that time tempo- 
rarily, as being accurate enough for use for many ordinary practical pur» 
poses for the measurement of water by notches similar to the one experi- 
mented on, and for quantities of water limited to nearly the same range as 
those in the experiments (from about two to ten cubic feet per minute), but 
as being subject to amendment by future experiments which might be of 
greater accuracy, and might extend over a wider range of quantities of water. 
Having been requested by the General Committee of the Association to 
continue my experiments on this subject, with a grant placed at my dis- 
posal for the purpose, 1 have, in the course of last summer and of the present 
summer, devoted much time to the carrying out of more extended and more 
accurate experiments. The results which I have now obtained are highly 
satisfactory. I am confident of their being very accurate. 1 find them to 
be in close accordance with the law which had been indicated by theoretical 
considerations ; and I am satisfied that the new system of gauging, now by 
these experiments made completely ready for general application, will prove to 
be of great practical utility, and will aff'ord, for a large class of cases, import- 
ant advantages over the ordinary method — for such cases, especially, as the 
very varying flows of rivers and streams. 



152 . REPORT — 1861. 

The experiments were made in the open air, in a field adjacent to a corn- 
mill belonging to Mr. Henry Neeson, in Carr's Glen, near Belfast. The 
water-supply was obtained from the course leading to the water-wheel of the 
mill, and means were arranged to allow of a regula^pd supply, variable at plea- 
sure, being drawn from that course to flow into a pond, in one side of which the 
weir-board with the experimental notcli was inserted. The inflowing stream 
was so screened from the part of the pond next the gauge-notch, as to prevent 
any sensible agitation being propagated from it to the notch, or to the place 
where the water level was measured. For measuring the water level, a vertical 
slide-wand of wood was used, with the bottom end cut to 
the form of a hook (as shown in the marginal figure), the 
point of which was a small level surface of about one- 
eighth of an inch square. This point of the hook, by 
being brought up to the surface of the water from below, 
gave a very accurate means for determining the water 
level, or its rise or fall, which could be read oflF by an 
index mark near the top of the wand, sliding in contact 
with the edge of a scale of inches on a fixed framing which 
carried the wand. 

By other experimenters a sharp-pointed hook, like a 
fishing-hook, has sometimes, especially of late, been used 
for the same purpose, and such a hook affords very accu- . r t i 
rate indications. The result of my experience, however, jg ^^^ii^ ^S^^^f^^ 
leads me to incline to prefer something larger than the 
sharp-pointed hook, and capable of producing an effect on 
the water surface more easily seen than that of a sharp-pointed hook ; and 
on the whole I would recommend a level line like a knife-edge, which might 
be from one-eighth to half an inch long, in preference either to a blunt point 
with level top or a sharp point. The blunt point which I used was so small, 
however, as to suit very perfectly. If the point be too large, it holds the 
water up too much on its top as the water in the pond descends, and makes 
too deep a pit in the surface as the water ascends and begins to flow 
over it. The knife-edge would be free from this kind of action, and would, 
I conceive, serve every purpose perfectly, except when the water has a sen- 
sible velocity of flow past the hook, and in that case, perhaps, the sharp point, 
like that of a fishing-hook, might be best. 

To afi"ord the means for keeping the water surface during an experiment 
exactly at a constant level, as indicated by the point of the wooden hook, a 
small outlet waste-sluice was fitted in the weir-board. The quantity of water 
admitted to the pond was always adjusted so as to be slightly in excess of 
that required to maintain the water level in the pond at the height at 
which the hook was fixed for that experiment. Then a person lying 
down, so as to get a close view of the contact of the water surface with 
the point of the hook, worked this little waste or regulating sluice, so as to 
maintain the water level constantly coincident with the point of the hook. 

The water issuing from the experimental notch was caught in a long trough, 
which conveyed it forward with slight declivity, so as to be about seven or 
eight feet above the ground further down the hill-side, where two large 
measuring-barrels were placed side by side at about six feet distance apart 
from centre to centre. Across and underneath the end of the long trough 
just mentioned, a tilting-trough 6 feet long was placed, and it was connected at 
its middle with the end of the long trough by a leather flexible joint, in such 
a way that it would receive the whole of the water without loss, and convey 
it at pleasure to either of the barrels, according as it was tilted to one side 
or the other. 



ON THE GAUGING OF WATER BY TRIANGULAR NOTCHES. 155 

Each barrel had a valve in the bottom, covering an aperture six inches 
square, and the valve could be opened at pleasure, and was capable of 
emptying the barrel very speedily. The capacity of the two barrels jointly 
was about 230 gallons, and. their content up to marks fixed near the top for 
the purpose of the experiments was accurately ascertained by gaugings 
repeated several times with two- or four-gallon measures with narrow necks. 

By tilting the small trough so as to deliver the water alternately into the 
one barrel and the other, and emptying each barrel by its valve while the other 
was filling, the process of measuring the flowing water could be accurately 
carried on for as long time as might be desired. With this apparatus, quan- 
tities of water up to about 38 cubic feet per minute could be measured with 
very satisfactory accuracy. 

The experiments of which I have now to report the results were made on 
two widths of notches in vertical plane surfaces. The notches were accu- 
rately formed in thin sheet iron, and were fixed so as to present next the 
water in the pond a plane surface, continuous with that of the weir-board. 

The one notch was right-angled, with its sides sloping at 45° with the 
horizon, so that its horizontal width was twice its depth. The other notch 
had its sides each sloping two horizontal to one vertical, so that its horizontal 
width was four times its depth. 

In each case experiments were made both on the simple notch without a 
floor, and on the same notch with a level floor starting from its vertex, and 
extending for a considerable distance both up stream and laterally. The 
floor extended about 2 feet on each side of the centre of the notch, and about 
2g feet in the direction up stream, and this size was sufficient to allow the 
water to enter on it with only a very slow motion — so slow as to be quite 
unimportant. The height of the water surface above the vertex of the 
notch was measured by the sliding hook at a place outside the floor, where 
the water of the pond was deep and still. 

The principal results of the experiments on the flow of the water in the 
right-angled notch without floor are briefly given in the annexed table, the 



H. 


Q. 


c. 


7 


39-69 


•3061 


6 


26-87 


•3048 


5 


17-07 


•3053 


4. 


9-819 


•3068 


3 


4-780 


•3067 


2 


1-748 


•3088 



quantity of water given in column 2 for each height of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 
inches being the average obtained from numerous experiments comprised in 
two series, one made in 1860, and the other made in 1861, as a check on the 
former set, and with a view to the attainment of greater certainty on one or 
two points of slight doubt. The second set was quite independent of the 
first, the various adjustments and gaugings being made entirely anew. The 
two sets agreed very closely, and 1 present an average of the two sets in the 
table as being probably a little more nearly true than either of them sepa- 
rately. The third column contains the values of the coefficient c, calculated 
for the formula Q=cH^, from the several heights and corresponding quantities 
of water given in the first and second columns, H being the height, as mea- 
sured vertically in inches from the vertex of the notch up to the still-water 
surface of the pond, and Q being the corresponding quantity of water in 
cubic feet per minute, as ascertained by the experiments. It will be ob- 
served from this table that, while the quantity of water varies so greatly as 



154 REPORT — 1861. 

from If cubic feet per minute to 39, the coefficient c renriains almost abso- 
lutely constant; and thus the theoretic anticipation that the quantity should 
be proportional, or very nearly so, to the f power of the depth is fully con- 
firmed by experiment. The mean of these six values of c is •3064- ; but, being 
inclined to give rather more weight, in the determination of the coefficient 
as to its amount, to some of the experiments made this year than to those of 
last year, I adopt "305 as the coefficient, so that the formula for the right- 
angled notch without floor will be 

Q=-305 nt 

My experiments on the right-angled notch with the level floor, fitted as 
already described, comprised the flow of water for depths of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 
6 inches. They indicate no variation in the value of c for different depths 
of the water, but what may be attributed to the slight errors of observation. 
The mean value which they show for c is '308 ; and as this differs so little 
from that in the formula for the same notch without the floor, and as the 
difference is within the limits of the errors of observation, and because some 
consecutive experiments, made without and with the floor, indicated no 
change of the coefficient on the insertion of the floor, I would say that the 
experiments prove that, with the right-angled notch, the introduction of the 
floor produces scarcely any increase or diminution on the quantity flowing for 
any given depth, but do not show what the amount of any such small increase 
or diminution may be, and I would give the formula 

Q=-305 H* 
as sufficiently accurate for use in both cases. The experiments in both 
cases were made with care, and are without doubt of very satisfactory accu- 
racy ; but those for the notch without the floor are, I consider, slightly the 
more accurate of the two sets. 

The experiments with the notch with edges sloping two horizontal to one 
vertical showed an altered feature in the flow of the issuing vein as com- 
pared with the flow of the vein issuing from the right-angled notch. The 
edges of the vein, on issuing from the notch with slopes two to one, had 
a great tendency to cling to the outside of the iron notch and weir-board, 
while the portions of the vein issuing at the deeper parts of the notch would 
shoot out and fall clear of the weir-board. Thus, the vein of water assumed 
the appearance of a transparent bell, as of glass, or rather of the half of 
a bell closed in on one side by the weir-board and enclosing air. Some 
of this air was usually carried away in bulibles by the stream at bottom, 
and the remainder continued shut up by the bell of water, and existing under 
slightly less than atmospheric pressure. The diminution of pressure of the 
enclosed air was manifested by the sides of the bell being drawn in towards 
one anotlier, and sometimes even drawn together, so as to collapse with 
one another at their edges which clung to the outside of the weir-board. 
On the full atmospheric pressure being admitted, by the insertion of a knife 
into the bell of falling water, the collapsed sides would instantly spring out 
again. The vein of water did not always form itself into the bell ; and when 
the bell was formed, the tendency to the withdrawal of air in bubbles was 
not constant, but was subject to various casual influences. Now it evidently 
could not be supposed that the formation of the bell and the diminution of 
the pressure of the confined air could occur as described without producing 
some irregular influences on the quantity flowing through the notch for any 
particular depth of flow, and this circumstance must detract more or less 
from the value of the wider notches as means for gauging water in compa- 
rison with the right-angled notch with edges inclined at 45° with the hori- 



ON THE GAUGING OF WATER BY TRIANGULAR NOTCHES. 155 

zon. I therefore made numerous experiments to determine what might be 
the amount of the ordinary or of the greatest effect due to the diminution 
of pressure of the air within the bell. I usually failed to meet with any per- 
ceptible alteration in the quantity flowing due to this cause, but sometimes 
the quantity seemed to be increased by some small fraction, such as one, or 
perhaps two, per cent. On the whole, then, I do not think that this circum- 
stance need prevent the use, for many practical purposes, of notches of any 
desired width for a given depth. 

My experiments give as the formula for the notch, with slopes of two 
horizontal to one vertical, and without the floor, 

Q=0-636 H^ 
and for the same notch, with the horizontal floor at the level of its vertex, 

Q=0-628 nt 
In all the experiments from which these formulas are derived, the bell of 
falling water was kept open by the insertion of a knife or strip of iron, so 
as to admit the atmospheric pressure to the interior. The quantity flowing 
at various depths was not far from being proportional to the f power of the 
depth, but it appeared that the coefficient in the formula increased slightly 
for very small depths, such as one or two inches. For instance, in the notch 
with slopes 2 to 1 without the floor, the coefficient for the depth of two 
inches came out experimentally O-G^Q, instead of 0'636, which appeared to 
be very correctly its amount for four inches' depth. It is possible that the 
deviation from proportionality to the f power of the depth, which in this 
notch has appeared to be greater than in the right-angled notch, may be 
due partly to small errors in the experiments on this notch, and partly to the 
clinging of the falling vein of water to the outside of the notch, which would 
evidently produce a much greater proportionate eff'ect on the very small 
flows than on great flows. The special purpose for which the wide notches 
have been proposed is to serve for the measurement of wide rivers or streams 
in cases in which it would be inconvenient or impracticable to dam them up 
deep enough to effect their flow through a right-angled notch. In such 
cases I would now further propose that, instead of a single wide notch, two, 
three, or more right-angled notches might be formed side by side in the 
same weir-board, with their vertices at the same level, as shown in the an- 




nexed figure. In cases in which this method may be selected, the personsr 
using It, or making comparisons of gaugings obtained by it, will have the 
satisfaction of being concerned with only a single standard form of gauge- 
fiotch throughout the investigation in which they may be engaged. 

By comparison of the formulas given above for the flows through the two 
notches experimented on, of which one is twice as wide for a given depth 
as the other, it will be seen that in the formula for the wider notch the co- 
efficient -636 is rather more than double the coefficient -305 in the other. 
Ihis indicates that as the width of a notch, considered as variable, increases 
trom that of a right-angled notch upwards, the quantity of water flowing 



156 REPORT— 1861. 

increases somewhat more rapidly than the width of the notch for a given depth. 
Now, it is to be observed that the contraction of the stream issuing from an 
orifice open above in a vertical plate is of two distinct kinds at different parts 
round the surface of the vein. One of these kinds is the contraction at the 
places where the water shoots off from the edges of the plate. The curved 
surface of the fluid leaving the plate is necessarily tangential with the surface 
of the plate along which the water has been flowing, as an infinite force 
would be required to divert any moving particle suddenly out of its previous 
course*. The other kind of contraction in orifices open above consists in 
the sinking of the upper surface, which begins gradually within the pond or 
reservoir, and continues after the water has passed the orifice. These two 
contractions come into play in very difl'erent degrees, according as the notch 
(whether triangular, rectangular, or with curved edges) is made deep and 
narrow, or wide and shallow. From considerations of the kind here briefly 
touched upon, I would not be disposed to expect theoretically that the coeffi- 
cient c for the formula for Y-shaped notches should be at all truly proportional 
to the horizontal width of the orifice for a given depth ; and the experi- 
mental results last referred to are in accordance with this supposition. I 
would, however, think that, from the experimental determination now arrived 
at, of the coefficient for a notch so wide as four times its depth, we might 
very safely, or without danger of falling into important error, pass on to 
notches wider in any degree, by simply increasing the coefficient in the same 
ratio as the width of the notch for a given depth is increased. 

Appendix. — April 1862. 

With reference to the comparison made, in the concluding sentences of the 
foregoing Report, between tiie quantities of water which, for any given depth 
of flow, are discharged by notches of different widths, and to the opinion 
there expressed, that we might, without danger of falling into important 
error, pass from the experimental determination of the coefficient for a 
notch so wide as four times its depth, to the employment of notches wider in 
any degree, by simply increasing the coefficient in the same ratio as the width 
of the notch for a given depth is increased, I now wish to add an investi- 
gation since made, which confirms that opinion, and extends the determina- 
tion of the discharge, beyond the notches experimented on, to notches of any 
widths great in proportion to their depths. This investigation is founded on 
the formula for the flow of water in rectangular notches obtained from ela- 
borate and careful experiments made on a very large scale by Mr. James B. 
Francis, in his capacity as engineer to the Water-power Corporations at 
Lowell, Massachusetts, and described in a work by him, entitled ' Lowell 
Hydraulic Experiments,' Boston, }855f. That formula, for either the case 
in which there are no end-contractions of the vein, or for that in which the 
length of the weir is great in proportion to the depth of the water over its 
crest, and the flow over a portion of its length not extending to either end is 
alone considered, is 

Qj=3-33L,H^t (1) 

where Lj = length of the weir over which the water flows, without end-con- 
tractions; or length of any part of the weir not extending to 
the ends, in feet : 

* This condition appears not to have been generally noticed by experimenters and writera 
on hydrodynamics. Even MM. Poncelet and Lesbros, in their dehncations of the forms 
of veins of water issuing from orifices in thin jolates, after elaborate measurements of those 
forms, represent the surface of the fluid as making a shai-p angle with the plate in leaving 
its edge. f The formida is to be found at page 133 of that work. 



ON THE GAUGING OP WATER BY TRIANGULAR NOTCHES. IS? 

Hi= height of the surface-level of the impounded water, measured 
vertically from the crest of the weir, in feet : 
and Q^= discharge in cubic feet per second over the length Lj of the weir. 

It is to be understood that, in cases to which this formula is applicable, 
the weir has a vertical face on the upstream side, terminating at top in a 
level crest ; and the water, on leaving the crest, is discharged through the 
air, as if the weir were a vertical thin plate. 

To apply this to the case of a very wide triangular notch : — Let A B C be 




the crest of the notch, and A C the water level in the impounded pool. Let 
the slopes of the crest be each m horizontal to 1 vertical ; or, what is the 
same, let the cotangent of the inclination of each side of the crest to the 

horizon be =m. Let A E, a variable length, =^x. Then E D^ — . Let 

m 

E G be an infinitely small element of (he horizontal length or width from A 

to C. Then EG may be denoted h^ dx. Let ^-^quantity in cubic feet 

per second flowing under the length x, that is, under A E in the figure. 

Then dq will be the quantity discharged per second between E D and G F. 

Then, by the Lowell formula just cited, we have 

whence, by integrating, we get 

5r=3-33Ar-f^* + C, 
mi 

in which the constant quantity is to be put ^0, because when a;=0, q also 
=0. Hence we have 

9=fx3-33-L.a?^ (2) 

Let now H2= height in feet from the vertex of the notch up to the level 
surface of the impounded water =BK in the figure. Then A K=m Hg. 
Let also Qo = the discharge per second in the whole triangular notch = 
twice the quantity discharged under A K. Then, by formula (2), we get 



Q,=|X3-33X^(«IH,)% 



or 



Qj=2-664 m H,* (3) 

To bring the notation to correspond with that used in the foregoing Report, 
let Q=the quantity of water in cubic feet per minute, and H=the height 
of the water level above the vertex in inches. 

Q H 

Then 0,^= and Yi^=-— ; and, by substitution in (3), we get 

Q=-320 m H* (4) 

This formula then gives, deduced from the Lowell formula, the flow in 
cubic feet per minute through a very wide notch in a vertical thin plate, when 
H is the height from the vertex of the notch up to the water level, in inches, 
and when the slopes of the notch are each m horizontal to 1 vertical. 



158 REPORT 1861. 

As to the confidence which may be placed in this formula, I think it clear 
that, for the case in which the notch is so wide, or, what is the same, the slopes 
of its edges are so slight, that the water may flow over each infinitely small 
element of the length of its crest without being sensibly influenced in quan- 
tity by lateral contraction arising from the inclination of the edges, the for- 
mula may be relied on as having all the accuracy of the Lowell formula 
from which it has been derived ; and I would suppose that when the notch is 
of such width as to have slopes of about four or five to one, or when it is of 
any greater width whatever, the deviation from accuracy in consequence of 
lateral contraction might safely be neglected as being practically unimportant 
or inappreciable. 

This formula for wide notches bears very satisfactorily a comparison with 
the formulas obtained experimentally for narrower notches, as described in 

the foregoing Report. For slopes of one to one the formula was Q=*305 H'-*, 

and for slopes of two to one the formula was Q=*636 H*. To compare 
these with the one now deduced for any very slight slopes, we may express 
them thus : — 

For slopes of 1 to 1 Q=-305»tH^ 

And for slopes of 2 to 1 Q=-S18?wH^ 

While for any very slight slopes, or for any very 

wide notches, the formula now deduced from s 

the Lowell one is Q=-320mH. 

The very slight increase from '318 to '320 here shown in passing from 
the experimental formula for notches with slopes of two to one, to notches 
wider in any degree — that slight change, too, being in the right direction, 
as is indicated by the increase from -305 to '318 in passing from slopes of 
one to one, to slopes of two to one — gives a verification of the concluding 
remarks in the foregoing Report ; and this may serve to induce confidence 
in the application in practice of the formula now oflTered for wide notches. 



Report on Field Experiments and Laboratory Researches on the Con- 
stituents of Manures essential to cultivated Crops. i?t/ Dr. Augustus 
VoELCKER, Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

In a Report read at the Aberdeen meeting, and subsequently printed in the 
' Transactions of the British As-sociation,' will be found recorded a number 
of field experiments on turnips and on wheat. Siiflilar experiments upon 
these two crops have since been continued from year to year, and a new 
series of field experiments has been undertaken on the growth of barley. 

In connexion with these field trials I have made numerous laboratory 
experiments on the solubility of the various forms and conditions in which 
phosphate of lime is likely to be presented to growing plants, and have 
likewise studied to some extent the influence of ammoniacal salts and a few 
other saline combinations on the solubility of the various forms in which 
phosphate of lime occurs in recent and fossil bones, in apatite, and other 
phosphatic materials. 

The present Report will comprehend two sections. In the first I shall 
give the results of my field experiments on turnips, wheat, and barley ; in 
the second section reference will be made to the solubility of phosphatic 
materials in various saline liquids. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS ON MANURE CONSTITUENTS. 159 

1st Part : Field Experiments. 

Before giving an account of recent experiments on turnips, wheat, and 
barley, not incorporated in the Report for 1859, it may appear desirable 
briefly to state the chief deductions that naturally flow from my previous 
experiments, extending over five seasons. 

In these experiments I found that, amongst other particulars — 

1. Ammoniacal salts, such as sulphate of ammonia, used alone, had a 
decidedly injurious effect upon the turnip crop, even when used in small 
quantities. 

2. Purely ammoniacal manures applied to swedes at first checked the 
growth of the plant, and had ultimately no beneficial effect on the crop, 
either alone or in conjunction with phosphates. 

3. Phosphates used alone, but in a readily available condition, produced a 
larger increase in the yield of turnips than mixtures of phosphates with 
ammoniacal matters. 

4. Sulphates of potash and soda had no decided effect on turnips. 

5- Sulphate of lime likewise was ineffective as a manure for turnips on the 
soil on which the experiments were tried. 

■ 6. On the other hand, ammoniacal manures, so inefficacious for root-crops, 
produced a considerable increase in the yield of wheat, grown on a soil 
similar to that of the experimental turnip-field. 

7. Nitrate of soda, applied by itself, and still more soWn conjunction with 
common salt, gave a very large increase per acre, both in straw and corn. 

These are the principal results of previous field trials. Chemico-agri- 
cuUural experiments, however, are of little or no practical utility, unless 
they are continued I'rom year to year for a long period, and tried on a variety 
of soils, in good and in bad seasons, in a manner which allows us, if not to 
eliminate, yet clearly to recognize the disturbing influences of climate, sea- 
son, condition of soils, and other circumstances which often affect the produce 
in a higher degree than the manures on which we experiment. A single 
field experiment is as likely to lead us in a wrong as in a right direction. 

I have therefore continued field experiments similar to those already re- 
ported upon, and proceed with an account of field trials on turnips made in 
1859. 

Field Experiments on Swedish Turnips made in 1 859. 

The field selected for experimental trials in 1859 was in tolerably good 
condition. It bore clover in 1857, and wheat in 1858. The soil is mode- 
rately deep and well drained. A portion of the soil, taken from a large 
sample from different parts of the field, was submitted to analysis, and the 
following results obtained : — 

Moisture (when analysed) 3-960 

Organic matter and water of combination 9*616 

Oxides of iron and alumina 19*660 

Carbonate of lime 3*805 

Sulphate of lime *345 

Phosphoric acid '075 

Magnesia '783 

Potash 1-239 

Soda -090 

Insoluble siliceous matter (chiefly clay) 60*525 

9 100-098 



160 REPORT 1861. 

This soil contained hardly any sand that can be separated by the mechanical 
process of washing and decantation. It contains, like most of the soils on 
our farm, an appreciable quantity of sulphate of lime and also of phosphoric 
acid. It is not so rich in carbonate of lime as many others of our fields, and 
is rich enough in clay to be called a good agricultural clay. 

An acre of this land was divided into 20 parts. The difFerent manures, 
after having been mixed with burnt soil for the sake of better distribution, 
were sown on the 6th of June, the land was ridged up, and the seed (Skirving's 
swedes) drilled on the following day. The distance between the drills was 
22 inches ; the plants were singled out 12 inches apart. The portion of the 
field on which the experiments were tried was left unmanured. 

The following list exhibits the arrangement of the experimental field, the 
kinds of manure employed, and their quantities calculated per acre : — 

Experiments upon Skirving's Swedes, infield No. 7, Royal Agricultural 
College Farm, Cirencester, 1 859. 

per acre. ^ 

Plot 1 was manured with 15 tons of rotten dung. 

Plot 2 was manured with 15 tons of rotten dung and 2 cwt. of super- 
phosphate. 

Plot 3 was manured with 3 cwt. of superphosphate. 

Plot 4 was mauuijpd with 1 cwt. of superphosphate. 

Plot 5 was manured with 6 cwt. of superphosphate. 

Plot 6 was manured with 3 cwt. of gypsum. 

Plot 7 was manured with 2 cwt. of superphosphate and 1 cwt. of guano. 

Plot 8 was manured with 3 cwt. of guano. 

Plot 9 was manured with 1 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia. 

Plot 10 was left unmanured. 

Plot 1 1 was manured with 3 cwt. of fine bone-dust. 

Plot 12 was manured with 2 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia. 

Plot 13 was manured with 3 cwt. of turnip manure. 

Plot 14- was manured with 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda. 

Plot 15 was manured with 6 cwt. of turnip manure. 

Plot 16 was manured with 3 cwt. of salt. 

Plot 17 was manured with 3 cwt. of bone-ash treated with sulphuric acid. 

Plot 18 was manured with 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash and I cwt. of sul- 
phate of ammonia. 

Plot 19 was manured with 3 cwt. of sulphate of potash. 

Plot 20 was manured with 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash and 1 cwt. of 
nitrate of soda. 

On each plot of the experimental field a remarkably even and good plant 
was obtained. The roots continued to grow as late as November ; they were 
therefore left in the field until the 8th of December, when the crop was 
taken up. The roots were topped and tailed and cleaned, and the whole 
produce of each plat then carefully weighed, with the following results : — 

Table showing the produce per acre of swedes, topped and tailed and 
cleaned, and increase per acre over the unmanured portion in field No. 7, 
Royal Agricultural College Farm, Cirencester, 1859. 

Produce per acre. Increase per acre. 

Plot. Manure. tons. cwt. qrs. lbs. tons. cwt. qrs. lbs. 

1. 15 tons of farmyard manure .18 10 2 24 ... 3 16 1 20 

2. 15 tons of farmyard manure and 2 

cwt. of superphosphate 17 6 3 4 ... 2 12 2 



FIELD EXPERIME>fTS OS MAVUBE CONSTITUENTS. 161 

Troduce per acre. Increase per acre. 

J^'ot- Manure. tons. cwt. qrs. lbs, tons. cwt. qrs. lbs. 

3. 3 cwt. of superphosphate 17 11 2 10 ... 2 17 1 6 

4. ] cwt. of superphosphate 27 6 3 4- ... 2 12 2 

5. 6 cwt. of superphosphate 21 2 3 12 ... 6 8 2 8 

6. 3 cwt. of gypsum 16 H 1 4 ... 2 

7. 2 cwt. of superphosphate and 1 cwt. 

of Peruvian guano 18 11 1 20 ... 3 17 6 

8. 3 cwt. of Peruvian guano 18 17 2 20 ... 4 3 1 16 

9. 1 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia ... 15 17 3 12 ... 1 3 2 8 

10. No manure 14 14 1 4 ... 

11. 3 cwt. of fine bone-dust 18 9 2 16 ... 3 15 1 12 

12. 2 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia ... 16 17 3 12 ... 2 3 2 8 

13. 3 cwt. of turnip manure 20 1 1 20 ... 5 7 16 

14. 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda 18 9 1 4 ... 3 15 

15. 6 cwt. of turnip manure 20 7 16 ... 5 12 3 12 

16. 3 cwt. of common salt 15 16 1 ... 1 13 24 

17. 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash 20 15 2 24 ... 6 11 20 

18. 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash and 

1 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia 20 6 3 24 ... 5 12 2 20 

19. 3 cwt. of sulphate of potash 17 2 4 ... 2 6 1 

20. 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-asii and 

1 cwt. of nitrate of soda 21 2 4 ... 6 6 1 

In looking over the list of the different manures employed in these experi- 
ments, it will be noticed, in the first place, that certain simple salts which 
commonly enter into the composition of artificial manures have been used 
separately. It is not likely that we shall ever understand the action of com- 
plicated manures if we do not carefully study the separate effect of their 
component parts on vegetation. For this reason one plot was manured with 
sulphate of ammonia, another with sulphate of lime, a third with sulphate of 
potash, a fourth with chloride of sodium, and, finally, one with nitrate of soda. 

In the next place, we have in Plot 17 phosphates chiefly in a soluble con- 
dition, and free from organic matter or anything else but sulpliate of lime, 
which is necessarily produced when bone-ash is treated with sulphuric acid. 
In another plot (No. 18) we have the same materials in conjunction with 
sulphate of ammonia ; and in No. 20 we have them united with nitrate of 
soda. Then with respect to the form in which the nitrogen is applied in 
these experiments, I would observe that we find it in farm-yard manure, 
partly as ready-formed ammonia, partly in the stage of semi-decomposed 
nitrogenized organic matter. In sulphate of ammonia it exists of course as 
a salt of ammonia; for nitrate of soda, v/e apply nitrogen in the shape of 
nitric acid. In guano nitrogen exists, partly, only in tlie form of ammoniacal 
salts,— the greater portion of nitrogen being present as uric acid and other 
organic compounds, which readily yield ammonia on decomposition. And 
lastly, we have all these different forms in which nitrogen can be conveniently 
applied to the land combined, together with phosphates, in the turnip manure. 

The results of these experiments, though unsatisfactory in some respects, 
are nevertheless interesting and suggestive in others, and worthy of some 
comments. 

Plot 1. Manured witli 15 tons of farmyard manure per acre : — 

tons. cwt. qrs. lbs. 

Produce 18 10 2 24 

Increase 3 16 1 20 

Plot 2. Manured with 15 tons of farmyard manure and 2 cwt. of super- 
phosphate per acre : — 

1861. j^ 



162 REPORT— 1861. 

tons. cwt. qra, lbs. 

Produce 17 6 3 4. 

Increase 2 12 2 

In comparing the weight of roots from these two plots, it would appear 
that the additional quantity of supersulphate has had rather an injurious than a 
beneficial eifect. We must, however, not entertain such a view, although 
the experiments before us appear to favour it ; for the common experience 
of farmers is, that even well-manured land yields a better crop of swedes when 
the seed is drilled in with 2 or 3 cwt. of superphosphate of lime. I have 
reason for believing that on plot No. 1 more roots were grown than on 
plot No. 2 ; for I find the land on one side of the experimental plots yielded 

17 tons 6 cwt. 1 qr. 20 lbs. per acre, and on the other side it gave 17 tons 

18 cwt. 24? lbs. per acre. This land was manured with about 15 tons of 
farmyard manure and 3 cwt. of superphosphate per acre. This produce 
agrees well with the weight of the roots on the second plot, manured with 
dung and superphosphate. Still we have a difference of nearly 12 cwt. of 
roots in the two plots adjoining the experimental lots ; and ought, therefore, 
to remember that the natural variations of the land, and other purely acci- 
dental circumstances, may readily give a difference in the produce of differ- 
ent portions of land which have been treated in every respect alike. Indeed, 
if the difference in the produce does not amount to more than 1 ton or even 
I5 ton, I fear we cannot do much with the results. It certainly would be 
rash to lay stress on such differences, and to use them as arguments in proving 
or denying the efficacy of certain manuring matters. 

Plots 3, 4, and 5. Manured with superphosphate of lime. 

The superphosphate used in these experiments had the following composi- 
tions : — 

Manure 10-80 

Organic matter* 4'21 

Biphosphate of lime 20*28 

Equal to bone-earth (rendered soluble) (31"63) 

Insoluble phosphates 4*11 

Hy drated sulphate of lime 46'63 

Alkaline salts (common salt chiefly) 10*78 

Sand 3-19 



100-00 

This superphosphate was chiefly made from bone-ash, and contained but 
very little nitrogen. We have thus here another proof that a good crop of 
roots can be obtained on clay land with superphosphate alone, containing but 
little nitrogenized or other organic matters. 

Plot 7. Manured with Peruvian guano and superphosphate. 

Plot 8. Manured with Peruvian guano. 

The difference in the yield of these two plots is not more than 6 cwt., which 
is too insignificant to decide the question whether in the case before us 
Peruvian guano alone had a better effect upon the crop than the mixture of 
superphosphate and guano. In former years, however, I have found that 
Peruvian guano produced not nearly so great an increase as superphosphate 
alone, or a mixture of superphospjiate and guano. There are, no doubt, 
soils for which guano is the mqst- profitable manure, even for root-crops; 
but this is rather the exception, and not the rule. 

On the soil of the experimental field, nitrogenized matters a[)pear to have 

* Containing nitrogen ...» -34 

Equal to ammonia -41 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS ON MANURE CONSTITUENTS. 163 

liad a slight beneficial effect, which was not the case in the experiments 
which I tried on other soils in past years. 

Plots 9 and 12. Manured with sulphate of ammonia. 

The sulphate of ammonia used on Plot 12 has had a better effect on 
swedes than in former years. The effect, however, was not great when com- 
pared with that produced by phosphatic manures. 

Plot 11. Manured with 3 cwt. of fine bone-dust. 

Bone-dust, as might have been anticipated, gave a considerable increase. 
The bone-dust used in this experiment was very fine, it having been specially 
reduced to a coarse meal. On analysis it was found to consist of — 

Moisture 10'58 

Organic matter* 30*61 

Phosphates of lime and magnesia 51*67 

Carbonate of lime 6*03 

Alkaline salts -58 

Sand '53 



100-00 

Plot 14. Manured with 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda. 

I am not aware of any accurate experiments in which nitrate of soda has 
been used by itself for turnips. The effect which so small a quantity as 
1 cwt. of nitrate of soda produced on the crop was decidedly beneficial, for 
it will be seen that as large a produce was obtained with 1 cwt. of nitrate of 
soda as with 3 cwt. of fine bone-dust. This result is certainly encouraging, 
and suggests a series of trials with nitrate of soda upon root-crops. Tlie 
nitrate should be used in such trials by itself, as well as in conjunction with 
superphosphate or bones. 

The nitrate of soda used in this experiment was a good sample, which 
contained 95-68 per cent, of the pure salt. 

Plot 16. Manured with 3 cwt. of common salt. 

Common salt, it will appear, has had little or no effect in this experiment ; 
but it does not follow that it may not be beneficially applied to swedes, in 
conjunction with phosphatic fertilizers. 

Plot 17. Manured with 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash. 

In preparing this manure, 100 lbs. of good commercial bone-ash were 
mixed with 70 lbs. of brown sulphuric acid ; and after some time this mixture 
was dried up with 50 lbs. of sulphate of lime. By this means an excellent 
superphosphate was obtained, aswill be seen by the following analysis. The 
manure, being made of bone-ash, did not contain any ammoniacal salts nor 
appreciable quantities of nitrogen. 

Composition of dissolved bone- ask. 

Moisture 5-65 

Organic matter 3-51 

Biphosphate of lime 19*64' 

Equal to bone-earth rendered soluble (30-65) 

Insoluble phosphates -86 

Hydrated sulphate of lime 64'-96 

Alkaline salts 1-83 

Sand 3.55 

100-00 

* Containing nitrogen , 3*71 

Equal to ammonia ,,....... 4-50, 

m2 



1(54 REPORT — 1861. 

The result of this plot affords another proof that a good crop of swedes 
may be obtained nith a superphosphate in which all the pjiosphates are 
rendered soluble, and which contains no nitrogenized matters. 

Plot 18. Manured with 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash and 1 cwt. of sulphate 
of ammonia. 

In this experiment the addition of sulphate of ammonia to dissolved bone- 
ash appears to have done no good whatever. 

Plot 19. Manured with 3 cwt. of sulphate of potash. 

The sulphate of potash used in this experiment was a good commercial 
sulphate. It produced about the same increase as 2 cwt. of sulphate of 
ammonia ; and, in comparison to the effect which phosphatic manures pro- 
duced, must be considered as a manuring constituent which did not seem to 
be required on the soil on which the experiments were tried. 

Plot 20. Manured with 3 cwt. of dissolved bone-ash and 1 cwt. of nitrate 
of soda. 

The addition of nitrate of soda to the dissolved bone-ash gave only 14 cwt. 
more roots than the dissolved bone-ash used by itself — a quantity far too small 
to be regarded as a proof that nitrate of soda increased the efficacy of the 
dissolved bone-ash. From the preceding experiments I think we may safely 
draw the following conclusions : — 

1. They point out in the most decided manner the great superiority of 
phosphatic matters as manuring constituents for root-crops. 

2. It appears that a sufficient quantity of soluble phosphates renders other 
fertilizing matters superfluous on soils that have a constitution similar to that 
of the experimental field. 

3. Ammoniacal salts do not appear to have any specific effect on the 
turnip-crop. 

4. Alkaline chlorides and sulphates produced no effect. 

5. Nitrate of soda had a beneficial effect upon the turnips. 

6. Sulphate of lime was inefficacious as a fertilizer for swedes in the ex- 
perimental field. 

Wheat Expenments made iti 1 860. 

The field on which the experiments were tried is quite level. It contains 
numerous fragments of oolitic limestones, no sand, and a large proportion of 
clay. The depth of the cultivated soil is about 9 inciies on an average. 
The surface soil was well cultivated; it passes by degrees into limestone- 
rubble mixed with clay, and then rests on the great oolite limestone-rock. 
Two acres of this field were accurately divided into 8 plots, measuring l of 
an acre each. 

Plot 1 was manured with 4 cwt. of wheat manure per acre, specially pre- 
pared, being a mixed mineral and ammoniacal manure ; cost £1 125. per acre. 

Plot 2 was manured with 2|^ cwt. of Peruvian guano per acre; cost£l I2s.6cf. 

Plot 3 was manured with 1| cwt. of nitrate of soda; cost £1 105. per acre. 

Plot 4 was manured with 1^ cwt. of nitrate of soda and 3 cwt. of common 
salt ; cost £1 135. per acre. 

Plot 5 was manured with 3 cwt. of common salt per acre ; cost 3*. 

Plot 6 (unmanured). 

Plot 7 was manured with 2 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia ; cost £1 165. per 
acre. 

Plot 8 was manured with 32 bushels of soot per acre ; cost IBs. 

These manures were all sifted through a fine sieve and mixed with coal- 
ashes, so as to obtain, for the sake of better distribution, 20 bushels of the 
mixture. This was sown by broadcast distribution, on the 27th March, 1860. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS ON MANURE CONSTITUENTS. 165 

The wheat dressed with nitrate of soda, and that dressed with nitrate of 
foda and salt, began to show the effects of these dressings four days after 
their application^ by a much deeper green colour than could be observed on 
any of tiie other plots. After a week's time the wheat on the plot dressed 
with sulphate of ammonia, next to the plot manured with guano, assumed 
a darker green colour; and lastly, the wheat on plot No. 1 turned darker 
green. There was a marked difference of the plots 5 and 6, dressed with salt 
and left unmanured, and the rest of the experimental plots. The nitrate of 
soda plots, throughout the growing season, looked more luxuriant and darker 
green than the rest ; and the wheat here was rather taller than on the other 
plots. On plot 6, manured with salt, the wheat was shorter in the straw than 
on plot 5, where no manure was applied. The wheat-crop was reaped in the 
last week of August, and thrashed out on the 27th of September, 1860. 

The guano used as a top-dressing was genuine Peruvian guano of best 
quality. 

The nitrate of soda contained 95| per cent, of pure nitrate. 

In the commercial sulphate of ammonia I found 96^ per cent, of pure 
sulphate, and in the soot 2i per cent of ammonia. 

The wheat manure was the same as that employed in my experiments made 
in 1859, and contained in 100 parts — 

Moisture 13-60 

Sulphate of ammonia* 10'97 

Soluble organic matterf 8'08 

Insoluble organic matter t 14"72 

Biphosphate of lime S'S^ 

Equal to bone-earth rendered soluble ... (5*52) 

Insoluble phosphates (bone-earth) 9*45 

Sulphate of magnesia '61 

Hydrated sulphate of lime 19"73 

Sand 2-46 



10000 



The following table gives the yield in corn and straw of each experimental 
plot, the manures employed, and the produce calculated per acre. 

Manures employed, and sown Produce thrashed out, 

March 27, 1860. September 24, 18C0. 

f Grain, 2480 lbs., or 42 bushels 
Plot 1. Mixed mineral and ammoniacal J g lbs. ; calculated at 59 lbs. per 
wheat-manure, 4 cwt. per acre. ) bushel. Straw 1 ton 13 cwt. 

1 qr. 20 lbs. 
Grain, 2720 lbs., or 46 bushels 6 
lbs. ; weight of bushel, 59 lbs. 
Straw, 1 ton 16 cwt. 12 lbs. 
Grain, 2576 lbs., or 44 bushels 10 
lbs. Straw, 1 ton 17 cwt. 3 
qrs. 16 lbs. 
, Grain, 2804 lbs., or 47 bushels 
Plot 4. Nitrate of soda and salt, 1| cwt. J 31 jbs., at 59 lbs. per bushel, 
and 3 cwt. i Straw, 1 ton 19 cwt. 3 qrs. 24 



Plot 2. Peruvian guano, 2^ cwt.per acre 
Plot 3. Nitrate of soda, H cwt. per acre. , 



lb 



s. 



* Containing nitrogen 2'32 f Contaiijing nitrogen 3*53 

Equal to ammonia 2'82 Equal to ammonia 4"28 



166 REPORT — 1861. 

Manures employed, and sown Produce thrashed out, 

Mifrch 27, 1860. September 24, 1860. 

I Grain, 2080 lbs., or 35 bushels 15 
Plot 5. 3 cwt. of common salt. < lbs., at 59 lbs. per bushel. Straw, 

[ 1 ton 3 cwt. 3 qrs. 16 lbs. 
r Grain, 2004 lbs., or 33 bushels 57 
Plot 6. Unmanured. \ lbs., at 59 lbs. per bushel. Straw, 

[ 1 ton 7 cwt. 20 lbs. 

_, „ , , „ • ^ ^ f Grain, 2596 lbs., or ii bushels, at 

Plot 7. Sulphate of ammonia, 2 cwt. per I ^g ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^^^ 

acre. 1^ 18 cwt. 8 lbs. 

r Grain, 2460 lbs., or 41 bushels 41 
Plot 8. 32 bushels of soot. \ lbs., at 59 lbs. per bushel. Straw, 

[ 1 ton 13 cwt. 3 qrs. 24 lbs. 

This tabular statement of results suggests the following remarks : — 

1. The natural produce of this field, it will be seen, amounted to nearly 
34 bushels. The grain on all plots was lighter than it is usually, and weighed 
only 59 lbs. per bushel. 

2. Nitrate of soda and salt produced the greatest increase in grain and 
straw — a result well corresponding with the results obtained in 1859. In 
grain we have an increase of 13 bushels per acre, and in straw an increase 
of 12 cwt. 3 qrs. 4 lbs., upon the unmanured portion of the field. 

This large increase was obtained with an expenditure of £1 13*. per acre — 
an outlay which, even at a lower market-price of wheat, paid excellent interest. 

3. Nitrate of soda applied by itself was not quite so beneficial, but still 
gave a large increase both of grain and straw. 

4. Chloride of sodium, or common salt, on the other hand, hardly increased 
the yield in grain, and slightly reduced the yield in straw. 

Common salt certainly has the eff'ect of checking the growth of wheat, and 
is therefore frequently employed in cases in Avhich the wheat is too luxuriant 
or, as it is called by farmers, too proud-looking. Such wheat has a tendency 
to fall down before the grain is quite ripe, especially if the season happens to 
be wet and stormy. Common salt is used by farmers for the purpose of pre- 
venting the laying of wheat, and is said to strengthen the straw. It does so, 
not by supplying to the wheat-plant a constituent deficient in the soil, but by 
retarding the abundant development of the halm of wheat and other cereals. 

5. Next to nitrate of soda, Peruvian guano was the most efficacious and 
most economical manure for wheat. 2^ cwt. per acre gave an increase of 
12 bushels of wheat over the unmanured portion, besides an increase of 9 
cwt. of straw. 

6. 2 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia per acre, applied by itself, gave a larger 
increase than 4 cwt. of a mixed mineral and ammoniacal manure, containing 
less ammoniacal and more mineral compounds than the 2 cwt. of sulphate 
of ammonia. 

Thus, the latter gave an increase of 10 bushels of grain and II cwt. of 
straw, whilst the mixed mineral and ammoniacal manure gave only an increase 
of 8 bushels of grain and 6 cwt. of straw, in round numbers. 

Field Experiments on Barley made in 1860. 

Precisely the same experiments as those made upon wheat were tried on 
barley. Two acres of the barley-field were divided into plots of | of an acre 
each, and the various top-dressings sown by manure distributor on the 25th 
of April. 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS ON MANUBE CONSTITUENTS. 167 

The soil of this field is considered a good barley soil. It is full of lime- 
stone, gravel, and fragments of oolitic stones of larger size, and, like most 
soils in the neighbourhood of Cirencester, contains much clay. On analysis 
it gave — 

Manure 10-254 

Organic matter and matter of combination 6*947 

Oxides of iron and alumina 12"754 

Phosphoric acid -659 

Carbonate of lime 18'64'0 

Sulphate of lime -397 

Magnesia -195 

Potash -967 

Soda -309 

Silica (soluble in dilute caustic potash) I^'OIS 

Insoluble siliceous matter and loss (chiefly clay) Si'SGi 

100-000 
The following tabular statement embodies the yield in grain and straw 
which the several plots furnished. 

Produce of Corn and Straw. — Experiments ivith top-dressings on Barley. 

Grain. Straw. 

f ^ -^ 

At 56 lbs. per bushel. 

No. 1 . Mixed mineral and ammoniacal 1 ibs. bush. lbs. cwt. qrs. ib». 

manure, 4 cwt. per acre ; 1 2524 45 4 22 2 16 

cost£l 125. j 

No. 2. Peruvian guano, 2| cwt. per acre; 1 24,32 43 24 21 2 8 

cost £1 125. ad. J 

No. 3. Nitrate of soda, I5 cwt. perl 2753 49 14 24 3 

acre; cost £1 IO5. per acre, j 
No. 4. Nitrate of soda l\ cwt., and 1 

3 cwt. of common salt; cost I 2706 48 18 23 3 16 

£1 135. J 

No. 5. 3 cwt. of salt per acre ; cost 35. 2308 41 12 16 2 

No. 6. Nothing 2174 38 46 12 2 12 

No. 7. Sulphate of ammonia, 2 cwt. I 2642 47 10 22 22 

per acre; cost £1 I65. j 

No. 8. Soot, 32 bushels per acre; cost") 2688 44 4 20 2 26 

165. j 

These barley experiments, on the whole, gave results corresponding to the 
results obtained in the wheat experiments. Thus, the plots dressed with 
nitrate of soda gave the largest increase, and sulphate of ammonia used alone 
gave a larger increase than the mixed mineral and ammoniacal manure. 

The results do not, it is true, exactly agree in all particulars ; but perfect 
agreement cannot be expected in field-experiments. 

Thus, in the barley experiments, guano appears to have produced a less 
favouraljle result than in the wheat experiments, whilst the mixed mineral 
and ammoniacal manure appeared to be better adapted for barley than for 
wheat. 

"Whether this was the case, or whether the apparent differences in the 
effects of the same dressings on barley and wheat were due to differences in 
the composition and condition of the soil of the experimental fields, I am 
unable to decide. - 



168 REPORT — 1861. 

The preceding experiruents, I think, furnish convincing proofs that, through 
the instrumentality of purely nitrogenous manures, the produce of our grain- 
crops may be very considerably increased, whilst the same manures appear to 
be of no beneficial effect upon root-crops, at least on soils similar in character 
to those on which the experiments were made. 

In making this statement, it is not maintained that mineral matters are less 
essential to cereals than to root-crops ; for I take it for granted thai no che- 
mist or vegetable physiologist at the present time will consider the ash- 
constituents of plants less essential for cereals than for turnips and other 
root-crops. No amount of nitrogenous manure can replace these earthy 
matters, which enter into the composition of all cultivated plants. 

But, at the same time, it is a matter of experience that on many soils no 
reasonable amount of mineral fertilizing constituents will increase the yield 
of wheat or barley, whilst on these soils a moderate amount of a purely 
nitrogenous manure will contribute to a large increase in the amount of 
corn which can be raised from the same soils. 

It is hardly necessary to say, that the larger increase, as a matter of course, 
removes more mineral matter from a land dressed with an ammoniacal or purely 
nitrogenous manure than from land not so treated ; nor can it be denied 
that on sandy and naturally sterile soils the application of fertilizing materials 
containingexclusivelynitrogen, in some form or theother.will tend to the rapid 
exhaustion of such soils ; it is nevertheless a fact that the great majority of 
English soils are so rich in mineral matters that no fear need be entertained 
of the land becoming permanently deteriorated by the occasional use of 
nitrogenous matters on wheat-soils. 

With respect to the combination in which nitrogen appears to be most 
generally assimilated by plants, and to be most grateful to wheat and barley, 
and probably to vegetation in general, I am of opinion that nitric acid is 
by far the most usual form in which nitrogen is taken up by plants. Nitrates 
certainly produce a more rapid and more energetic effect than ammoniacal 
salts on all plants which are benefited by nitrogenous matters. 

Nitrates have been found, by Dr. Sullivan and by myself, in a great variety 
of plants, and may be detected without much difficulty in everj' arable soil, 
when a suflBciently large quantity of soil is operated upon. In porous lime- 
stones, and in soils containing chalk and gravel, ammoniacal salts appear to 
be readily transformed into nitrates; hence the constant presence of traces 
of nitric acid in the limestones of buildings, and of the occurrence of nitrates 
in more considerable quantities in the well-water of towns. During the 
period of the most energetic growth of plants, that is, during the summer 
season, the process of nitrification no doubt proceeds with greater rapidity 
in the soil than during autumn and winter ; and, in all probability, the luxu? 
riant growth of plants during summer is materially assisted by the greater 
proportion. of nitrates in the soil. Ammoniacal salts certainly benefit vege- 
tation, and so do nitrogenous organic matters, but it may be questioned 
whether these matters have not to be ultimately converted into nitrates 
before they can be of real utility to vegetation. Taking into account all the 
laborious experiments which have been made of late by Boussingault, by 
De Ville, and Dr. Gilbert and Mr. Lawes, with respect to the assimilation 
of nitrogen by plants, and bearing in mind agricultural experience and the 
results of direct manuring experiments, I think we shall find — 

1. That there is suflficient evidence for regarding the free nitrogen of the 
atmosphere as incapable of supplying plants with food M'hich they can utilize 
in forming albuminous matters. 

2. That nitrogenous organic matters, such as hoofs, horn, wool, hair, and 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS ON MANURE CONSTITUENTS, 169 

similar substances, are slow-acting fertilizers, which have to be transformed 
into soluble combinations before they can benefit plants. 

3. That ammoniacal salts are more energetic fertilizing matters, which, 
however, are fixed in the soil at first, and retained in it during the colder 
periods of the j'ear, and which are gradually changed into nitrates and 
rendered soluble during the most active period of plant-growth. 

4. That, in the shape of nitrates, nitrogen is not only the most active, but 
also the most abundant and common combination from which plants derive 
their nitrogen. 

2nd Part : On the solubility of pJiosphate of lime in various forms of phos- 
phate of lime and phospliate of magnesia, in pure distilled water, and in 
various saline solutions. 

Solubility of various phosphatic matters in distilled water. 

The amount of phosphate of lime which water is capable of taking up 
from different materials depends. amongst other circumstances, on the physical 
condition of the materials. 

Thus, hard crystalline phosphatic materials, even when finely powdered 
and left a long time in contact with water, do not yield so much phosphate 
of lime to water as more porous substances in a shorter period. 

In the following experiments, a considerable excess of the finely powdered 
materials was mixed with about half a gallon of cold distilled water, and 
repeatedly shaken up from time to time and left in contact with the water 
for a week, except otherwise stated. The clear liquid was then drawn off 
with a siphon, and filtered perfectly clear. A pint was then evaporated to 
dryness, the residue dissolved in as little hydrochloric acid as possible, then 
precipitated with ammonia, and in some instances the precipitated phos- 
phates were redissolved and thrown down a second time with ammonia. 

In experimenting with phosphatic minerals, it is not sufficient merely to 
evaporate the watery solution to dryness ; for, besides phosphate of lime, 
water dissolves more or less carbonate of lime, magnesia, traces of alkalies, 
&c., which, added to the weight of the phosphate of lime, in many instances 
would give the latter far too high. In each case 2 pints of liquid were 
evaporated separately, and the following results obtained : — 

Amount of phosphate of lime 
(3CaO, POj) dissolved in 
1 pint. per gallon. 

Exp. gTs. grs. 

Pure tribasic phosphate of lime, precipitated, burnt, 1 1st '28 2'24 

and finely ground f 2nd '27 2*16 

Pure tribasic phosphate of lime, precipitated and 1 1st "72 5'76 

still moist J 2nd '67 5-36 

Pure bone-ash, made from the shank-bone of ahorse, I 1st '13 1'04< 

washed with water for a long time before trying I 2nd '17 1*36 

the solubility in water. (This bone-ash was made j 3rd 'l* 1*12 

of a very solid bone.) J ■ith '15 1*20 

Amount of tribasic phosphate of 
lime dissolved in 
1 pint. per gallon. 

Exp. grs. grs. 

Commercial sample of American bone-ash ■{ i , JB^ 2^ 

^ \2nd -22 1'76 

It will be seen that precipitated phosphate of lime in a moist condition is 



170 REPORT — 1861. 

greatly more soluble in water than the same material dried, burnt, and then 
finely ground. 

In the next place, I have experimented upon bones in various forms and 
conditions, as will be seen by the following data. 

Shank-bones of ox, coarsely ground and long soaked in water before 
the experiment was begun. This bone-dust was very hard and close in texture. 
The first pint, which was evaporated to dryness and further treated as stated 
above, was removed from the bone-dust after the water had been in contact for 
3 days. After that time 1 pint contained -06 grs., or -48 grs. per gallon, of 
phosphate of lime left for 12 days in contact with bone-dust; the 2nd pint 
produced '10, or "80 per gallon. 

^ . , , , , f 1st pint gave '46, or 3*68 per gallon. 

Commercial bone-bust i ^ i • - r-n a ctA n 

V.V/ c V. a u^u^ uix -y 2,j(i pint gave '53, or 4*24! per gallon. 

A very porous sample of commercial bone- j .^^ ^^ ^.^^ ,^^^^ 

dust, 7000 grs. of solution gave J ' f & • 

Amount of phosphate of lime 
dissolved 
by 7000 grs. of sohition ; by 1 gallon. 

Boiled bones (the refuse of glue-makers) '59 or 5*90 

Boiled bones (the same sample, after it had 1 

become quite rotten by keeping 10 weeks j- -62 or 6'20 

in water) < 

The pith of ox horns (sloushs rather de- 1 , • , ^^ ^ „„ 

composed) ^ | 1 pmt gave "67 or 5-36 

It has been noticed already some years ago, by Professor Wohler, that 
rotten bones yield to water more phosphate of lime than fresh ones. My 
experiments fully confirm this observation, and they moreover show that 
the more porous the bone, the more readily it yields phosphate of lime to 
water. 

I may mention here that, some time ago, I examined the tank-water con- 
taining the drainings and washings of the kennels at Harlow. The 
drainings were highly offensive to the smell, although not much discoloured. 
An imperial gallon, filtered perfectly clear, on evaporation furnished 36*86 
grs. of solid residue, and in this residue I found '44 of phosphate of iron and 
4*28 grs. of phosphate of lime, thus showing that phosphate of lime is soluble 
to a considerable extent in water charged with putrefying animal matter. 

Phosphate of magnesia, and phosphate of magnesia and ammonia, are con- 
siderably more soluble than phosphate of lime, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing determinations : — 

Amount dissolved by 
1 pint. by 1 gallon. 

Exp. grs. grs. 

Phosphateofraagnesia(3MgOi,P05), burnt 1 1st -87 6-96 

and finely ground J 2nd '89 7-12 

The same in moist condition j 1^*, ^'P 1*"2* 

l2ndl-80 14-48 

Phosphate of magnesia and ammonia(2MgO, \ 1st 1-62 12'96 



/2: 



PO5, NHp), in moist condition j 2nd 1-68 13-50 

In the next place, I give the amount of phosphate of lime dissolved by 
distilled water from the following phosphatic materials :— 

In 1 pint. In 1 gallon. 

Exp. grs. grs. 

Peruvian guano i l^*- '^^ 2*46 

I2nd -33 2-64 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS ON MANURE CONSTITUENTS. 



171 



Kooria mooria guano 

Sombrero phosphate, or crust guano 

Monks Island phosphate 

SuflPolk coprolites 

Cambridgeshire coprolites 

Estramadura phosphorite , 

Norwegian apatite 



In I pint. 


In I gallon 


Exp. grs. 


grs. 


1st -15 


1-20 


2nd -18 


1-44 


1st -10 . 


•80 


2nd -11 


•88 


1st -13 . 


ro4. 


2nd -12 . 


•96 


1st -09 . 


•72 


2nd -07 


'56 


1st -08 


•64. 


2nd -07 . 


•56 


1st -10 . 


•80 


2nd -10 . 


•80 


1st -06 


•48 


2nd -05 


•40 


1st -33 


2^64 


2nd -35 


2-80 



Norwegian apatite treated with water charged 
with carbonic acid 

It will be seen that the harder and the crystallized phosphatic minerals 
yield a much smaller quantity of phosphate of lime to water than the more 
porous and amorphous materials. 

Solubility of phosphate of lime in solutions of sal ammoniac. 

The solution of sal ammoniac employed in the following experiments con- 
tained 1 per cent, of sal ammoniac. A large excess of phosphate of lime was 
placed in a bottle and repeatedly shaken with a solution of sal ammoniac. 
After a lapse of seven days the clear liquid was drawn from the undissolved 
phosphate of lime and filtered ; 1 pint was then evaporated to dryness and 
heated ; the residue was dissolved in a few drops of HCl, and the solution 
precipitated with ammonia. 

In the same manner the experiments with bones, bone-ash, and Cambridge- 
shire and Suffolk coprolites were executed, and the following results obtained : 

Amotmt of phosphate of lime dissolved hy ivater containing 1 per cent, of sal 

amtnoniac in solution. 



1 pint contained, 

Exp. 



grs. 

2-77 



Calculated 
per gallon. 

grs. 

22-16 
21-36 



•39 



^ phosphates ' 
of lime and 
magnesia 

•40 of bone-ash 

•37 „ 



( of phosphates 1 
< of lime and > j 
( magnesia ) 



3-12 



Precipitated phosphate of lime (SCaO, PO5), "I 1st 

still moist J 2nd 2*67 

Pure bone-ash yielded to distilled water ] 

1*20 grs. of phosphate per gallon J 

Commercial bone-ash yielded to distilled 1 1st 

water 1*76 of phosphate per gallon J 2nd 

Coarse hard bone-dust yielded to distilled 1 , . 

water, after 3 days,^48 of bone-earth ; after y n a 

12 days, -80 J ^ ° 

Cambridgeshire coprolites yielded to dis- 1 i „f 

tilled water '56 grs. of phosphate per I Opj 

gallon I 

Suffolk coprolites yielded to distilled water ^ 1st 

•56 grs. of phosphate per gallon j 2nd 

In all these experiments the solubility of phosphate of lime has been con 



•12 after 3 days 
•47 after 12 days 

•20 

•18 

'15 

•13 



3-20 
2-96 

•96 
3-76 

l^60 
1-44 

1-20 
1-04 



172 



REPORT 1861. 



siderably increased by the presence of sal ammoniac in the water with which 
the phosphatic materials have been brought into contact. 

In the case of precipitated phosphate of" lime, the difference in the solu- 
bility in distilled water and water containing sal ammoniac is very great 
indeed. In mineral analyses in which phosphate of lime has to be determined, 
the filtrate from the phosphates contains usually sal ammoniac, and in this 
solution phosphate of lime, it has been shown, is soluble to a considerable 
extent ; it is therefore desirable to remove from this solution the lime by oxa- 
late of ammonia, then to evaporate to dryness, and to drive off the ammonia- 
cal salts by heat. In the residue the small but appreciable quantity which ought 
by no means to be neglected in accurate analysis will be found, and may 
be determined by 2NaO, POg and ammonia. 

Solubility of phosphate of lime in solutions containing 1 per cent, of carbonate 

of ammonia. 

Carbonateof ammonia, like sal ammoniac, appears likewise to render phos- 
phate of lime more readily soluble than it is in pure water. This will be seen 
by the following results : — 

Amount of phosphate Calculated 
dissolved in 1 pint. per gallon. 

Exp. grs. grs. 

'1st 1-42 11-36 

2nd 1-40 11-20 

1st -21 1-68 

2nd -22 1-76 

1st -19 1-52 

2nd -21 1-68 



Precipitated phosphate of lime 

Suffolk coprolites 

Cambridgeshire coprolites 



Solubility of phosphate of lime in water containing 1 per cent, of common salt. 

I have now to mention experiments which have shown me that neither 
chloride of sodium nor nitrate of soda has increased in any marked manner 
the solubility of phosphate of lime in the materials used in my experiments. 

The results obtained with solutions containing 1 per cent, of chloride of 
sodium are embodied in the following table : — 

Amount of phosphates dissolved by water containing 1 per cent, of chloride 

of sodium in solution. 

Calculated 
In 1 pint. per gallon. 

Exp. grs. grs, 

rist -52 4-16 

\ 2nd '55 4-40 

3rd -58 4-64 

4th -57 4-56 



Precipitated phosphate of lime 



Pure bone-ash yielded 1-20 grs. of bone- 
earth to water per gallon 

Commercial bone-ash yielded 1-76 grs. of 
bone-earth to water per gallon 

Cambridgeshire coprolites 



Suffolk coprolites 



1st 
2nd 
fist 
2nd 
1st 
2nd 



•16 
•18 
•10 
•12 
•10 
•12 



It might appear that in the first four experiments the presence 
salt had reduced the solubility of precipitated phosphate of lime 



•96 

V28 
1-44 
•80 
•96 
•80 
•96 

of common 
but I do 



TRANSMISSION OP SOUND-SIGNALS DURING FOGS AT SEA. 173 

not think this was the case in reality, for the difference in the results obtained 
with distilled water and water containing 1 per cent, of salt is due to the 
fact that in evaporating the solution of phosphate of lime a considerable 
quantity of common salt is left, the removal of which necessitates the use of 
distilled water. The washings necessarily contain a little phosphate of lime ; 
hence the apparent diminished solubility of phosphate of lime in solutions 
containing 1 per cent, of salt. 

Solubility of phosphate of lime in solutions containing 1 per cent, of nitrate of 

soda. 
The following results were obtained in precisely the same way as in the 
experiments with chloride of sodium : — 

Amount of phosphate 



1 

Exp. ■ 

Precipitated phosphate of lime in moist) 1st 
condition J 2nd 

Commercial bone-ash J ~^ , 

2nd 



J 1st 
I 2nd 



ssolved by Calculated 


nt. 


per gallon. 


grs. 


grs. 


87 .. 


6-96 


B5 .. 


6-80 


•18 .. 


r44< 


•20 .. 


1-60 


•13 .. 


1-04. 


•10 .. 


•80 


•12 .. 


•96 


•15 .. 


1-20 



Suffolk coprolites , 

Cambridgeshire coprolites i ^^ , 

It appears from these experiments that nitrate of soda has no influence on 
the solubility of phosphate of lime ; for the differences in the amount of phos- 
phate of lime obtained from solutions containing 1 per cent, of nitrate of 
soda, and from distilled water left in contact with phosphate of lime, are too 
small to be due to any other cause than to the necessary errors which attach 
to all analytical determinations of this kind. 



Provisional Report on the Present State of our Knowledge respecting 
the Transmission of Sound-signals during Fogs at Sea. By Henry 
Hennessy, F.R.S.^ Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Catholic 
University of Ireland. 

In accordance with a request from the President and Committee of Section 
A, I have drawn up the following provisional report on the state of our 
knowledge relative to sound-signals during fogs at sea. 

It is unnecessary to enter into any details as to the methods in actual use 
for signalling vessels during fogs. These methods are admittedly imperfect ; 
they have been devised with little regard to scientific principles, and they do 
not fulfil the purposes for which they are intended*. The objects to be at- 
tained by sound-signals during fogs are twofold : first, to reveal the presence 
of ships to each other, or of light-houses and beacons to ships ; secondly, to 

* Admiral FitzRoy furnishes an illustration, by an extract from a letter of the late Captain 
Boyd, relative to a dense fog which prevailed in a part of the Irish Channel on the day be- 
fore the ' Royal Charter ' storm. Only a few explosions from guns fired with full charges 
fifom the seaward side of the flagship at Kingstown were heard on board the Holyhead 
packet, when the distance of the latter did not exceed one mile. The fog-bell was heaid 
when the packet was about half a mile distant, but only when the fog had lifted. We may 
conclude, therefore, that as long as this fog rested on the water the bell was useless, and 
the heavy firing was only partially useful. See " Storms of the British Isles. Tenth num- 
ber of Meteorological Tapers, published by authority of the Board of Trade," p. 44. 



174 REPORT — 1861. 

reveal the relative directions in which such objects may happen to lie. On 
both of these points some information has been collected by the recent 
Commission of Light-houses and Beacons. The amount of this information 
is, however, remarkably meagre when contrasted with the elaborate details 
furnished by the portion of the report relative to optical signals. This cir- 
cumstance is freely admitted ; and at p. xviii of the Report the desirableness 
of further experiments on the question of sound-signals is distinctly declared. 
But as the Commissioners received suggestions from several men of science 
who had paid attention to the phenomena of sound, a condensed sketch of 
such suggestions will be found to present much of the knowledge we possess 
upon this question. Before presenting a brief summary of these views, it is 
right to point out that the earliest experiments which have any important 
bearing upon the subject were instituted many years ago by M. CoUadon, 
on the Lake of Geneva. I refer to his well-known researches on the pro- 
pagation of sound in water. The manner in which the acoustical properties 
of air are diminished by fogs has recently induced men of science (including 
many of those who communicated their views to the Commissioners of Light- 
houses) to recommend the employment of water as a medium for the trans- 
mission of sound. Almost all we know upon this matter is due to M. Col- 
ladon*. At first he found that subaqueous sounds were totally reflected at 
the surface, at such angles as rendered it impossible to hear them above 
water for distances exceeding 200 metres. To remove this obstacle to his 
researches he contrived a very ingenious apparatus, that we may for brevity 
call a hydrophone. Its shape resembled that of a common tobacco-pipe, 
with a broad and very shallow bowl. Its total length was about 5 metres, 
or a little more than 16 feet. The pipe was about 18 inches in diameter, 
tapering at the end close to the ear, where it terminated in an orifice of about 
8 inches. The mouth of the bowl was closed by a partition, whose surface 
amounted to a little more than 2 square feet (20 square decimetres). The 
hydroplione was entirely made of thin sheets of tinned iron. With this ap- 
paratus M. CoUadon could hear a bell under water at a distance of 14,000 
metres as well as he could by simply plunging the head at a distance of 200 
metres. Subsequent to his earlier experiments, M. CoUadon succeeded in 
transmitting distinctly audible sounds under water to the distance of 35,000 
metres. The noise of the waves and wind produced little or no effect in 
diminishing the subaqueous sound, which could be clearly distinguished 
even when the observer's boat had to be held by several anchors in tempes- 
tuous weather. The intensity of the sound was so little weakened by di- 
stance, that M. CoUadon concludes that the decrease is as the simple distance, 
and not as the square of the distance, as in the air. This is explained by 
considering that the propagation of sound takes place in a sheet of water, 
limited between two surfaces, from which vibrations are totally reflected at 
acute angles. On these grounds, as well as from his experiments, he foresees 
the possibility of transmitting sounds at sea to distances of some hundreds of 
thousands of metres, and of applying such sounds to purposes connected with 
navigation, such as occupy us in the present inquiry. One of his most re- 
markable results is that of the existence of an acoustic shadow under water. 
7his was proved by the eflPect of an interposed wall, in experiments made 
along the shore of the lake. This result is especially important in assisting 
in determining the direction of a given sound by the interposition of screens, 
and on this point water seems to possess decided advantages over air. 

* Mem. de I'Inst. Savants Etrangers, v. p. 320. Letter to M. Arago, Antiales de Chimie 
et de Physique, p. 525, vol. ii. 3« serie. 



TRANSMISSION OF SOUND-SIGNALS DURING FOGS AT SEA. 1'J5 

The suggestions of scientific men to the Commissioners of Light-houses 
refer principally to sounds propagated in air. Dr. Robinson points out that 
the sound should be as discordant as possible with that of the wind and 
waves, which are said to belong to C. He thinks that sound should be pro- 
duced as near the sea-level as possible. Mr. Mallet calls attention to explo- 
sive sounds as assisting the ear in ascertaining direction. Admiral FitzRoy 
suggests sharp high-pitched notes, with trumpet-mouthed devices for ascertain- 
ing the direction. He thinks that the source of sound should be at a low 
level. Sir John Herschel recommends the trial of a battery of steam-whistles 
blown by high-pressure steam ; by a combination of three or several sets of 
three whistles pitched exactly to harmonic intervals (key note third, fifth, and 
octave), and with a rattle which intensifies the action on the auditory nerve. 
He also suggests concave reflectors, and the subaqueous propagation of sound 
by explosions in the foci of large and heavy parabolic reflectors. Professor 
Potter suggests the use of ear-trumpets, in order to assist observers. Pro- 
fessor Rankine recommends a parabolic ear-trumpet for the determination of 
direction. The Abbe Moigno maintains that a continuous grave sound spreads 
further than a very acute violent sound. Thus he instances the greater 
distance at which the sound of a cannon can be heard compared to thunder. 
He suggests resonant tubes like those attached to Savart's acoustical ap- 
paratus. He thinks such resonant tubes far more effective than reflectors. 
He also recommends, for ascertaining direction, the use of a dififerential ear- 
trumpet, like Dr. Scott Alison's stethophone*. He thinks that sound should 
be produced close to, or even in the water, and that a series of defined sounds 
could be arranged beforehand, one being assigned to each maritime station. 
He refers to M. Colladon's experiments for details relative to subaqueous 
sounds. Mr. J. Mackintosh, of Liverpool, makes a suggestion in complete 
accordance with M. Colladon's (inclusions. He suggests a deep well in 
light-ships, whence the sound of a large bell might be propagated all around 
through the water. A kind of hydrophone applied from a vessel to the 
water might enable an observer to find the position of the light-ship. These 
suggestions contain nearly all the information presented in the Report on 
Light-houses and Beacons. Remarks made by other gentlemen are either 
equivalent to some of the foregoing, or have reference only to some improve- 
ments in the details of the existing system of fog-bells. 

Professor Wheatstone has informed me that it had been his intention, in 
co-operation with the late Mr. Robert Stephenson, to institute a series of ex- 
periments on sound, with reference to fog-signals. For this purpose Mr. 
Stephenson intended to employ his own yacht ; and had he been spared longer 
to science, the information we possess would probably have been less meagre 
than it is. Professor Wheatstone thinks that a battery of shrill whistles 
very nearly, but not entirely in unison would be most effective in forcing 
sound through a fog. Liquid and solid conductors should be as much as 
possible availed of during fogs. Water would be a far better conducting^ 
medium than air for assisting in the determination of direction. 

If we are entitled to come to any positive decision upon the evidence which 
we possess, I should say that water seems to present in a higher degree 
than air during fogs, the qualities required in a sound conductor. High- 
pitched sounds seem to be generally acknowledged as most penetrating 
during fogs, but we have little information as to the detection of the direction 
of such sounds. On the other hand, we already possess a clue to the direc- 
tion of subaqueous sounds in M. Colladon's acoustic shadow. Upon the 

* Proceedings of the Royal Society, and Phil. Mag. May 1858. 



176 REPORT 1861. 

whole, I have been led to the conviction that further experiments are re- 
quired, which, if properly devised, will not only lead to some important 
practical results, but perhaps throw light on obscure portions of the theory 
of sound. I may be permitted to suggest, therefore, that experiments should 
be made, 1st, on the best kind of sound for penetrating fogs; 2nd, on the 
adaptation of the principle of interferences for determining directions ; 3rd, 
on the best mode of utilizing the sound-conducting properties of water, by 
the use of screens and hydrophones ; ith, on the best construction of double 
ear-trumpets for assisting observers in deciding upon the direction of a given 
sound ; 5th, on the influence of winds in modifying the intensity and ap- 
parent direction of sounds. 



Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Birds of 
the Genus Apteryx living in Neio Zealand. By Philip Lutley 
ScLATER and Ferdinand von Hochstetter. 

There appears to be sufficient evidence of the present existence of at least 
four species of birds of the genus Apteryx in New Zealand, concerning 
which we beg to offer the following remarks, taking the species one after 
the other, in the order that they have become successively known to science. 

1. Apteryx AusTRALis. 

Apteryx australis, Shaw, Nat. Misc. xxiv. pis. 1057, 1058, and Gen. Zool. 
Xiii. p. 71; Bartlett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 275; Yarrell, Trans. Zool. 
Soc. i. p. 71. pi. 10. 

The Apteryx australis was originally made known to science by Dr. Shaw 
about the year 1813, from an example obtained in New Zealand by Capt. 
Barclay, of the ship ' Providence.' This bird, which was deposited in the 
collection of the late Lord Derby, was afterwards described at greater lengtii 
in 1833 in the 'Transactions of the Zoological Society' by Mr. Yarrell, 
and was still at that date the only specimen of tliis singular form known to 
exist. Examples oi Apteryx subsequently obtained, though generally referreil 
to the present species, have mostly belonged to the closely allied Apteryx 
mantelli of Bartlett, as we shall presently show, though specimens of the 
true Apteryx australis exist in the British Museum and several other 
collections. 

The original bird described by Dr. Shaw is stated by Mr. Bartlett (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 276) to have come from Dusky Bay in the province of 
Otago, Middle Island, where Dr. Mantell's specimen, upon which Mr. Bart- 
lett grounded his observations as to the distinctness of this species and 
Apteryx maiitelli, was also procured. 

Dr. Hochstetter was able to learn nothing of the existence of this Apteryx 
in the province of Nelson in the same island ; and the species is so closely 
allied to the Apteryx mantelli, as to render it very desirable that furtiier 
examples of it should be obtained, and a rigid comparison instituted between 
the two. At present, however, we must regard this form of Apteryx as 
belonging to the southern portion of the Middle Island. 

2. Apteryx owenii. 

Apteryx owenii, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. 184<7, p. 94 ; Birds of Australia, 
vi. pi. 3. 



ON THE BIRDS OF NEW ZEALAND. 177 

Owen's Apteryx, which is readily distinguished from the preceding species 
and A. manfelli by its smaller size, transversely barred plumage and slender 
bill, was first described by Mr. Gould in 184'7, from an example procured 
by Mr. F. Strange, and " believed to have been obtained from the South 
Island." Since that period other specimens have been received in this 
country, which have sufficed to establish the species ; and from the informa- 
tion obtained by Dr. v. Hochstetter, there is no doubt of this being the com- 
mon Apteryx of the northern portion of the JNIiddle Island. 

" In the spurs of the Southern Alps, on Cook's Straits, in the province of 
Nelson," says Dr. v. Hochstetter, " that is, in the higher wooded mountain- 
valleys of the Wairau chain, as also westwards of Blind Bay, in the wooded 
mountains between the Motucka and Aorere valleys, Kiwis of this species are 
still found in great numbers. During my stay in the province of Nelson I 
had myself two living examples (male and female) of this species. They 
were procured by some natives, whom I sent out for this purpose, in the 
upper wooded valleys of the River ' State,' a confluent of the Aorere, in a 
country elevated from 2000 to 3000 feet above the sea-level. It appears that 
this Apteryx still lives very numerously and widely spread in the extended 
southern continuations of the Alps." 

3. Apteryx mantklli. 

Apteryx attstralis, Gould, Birds of Australia, vi. pi. 5. 

mantelU, Bartlett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 93. 

The characters which distinguish this commoner and better-known Ap/ery.v 
from the true A. australis of Shaw were pointed out by Mr, Bartlett at the 
meeting of the Zoological Society held on the 10th of December, 1850. 
" This bird differs from the original Apteryx australis of Dr. Shaw," says 
Mr. Bartlett, "in its smaller size; its darker and more rufous colour ; its 
longer tarsus, which is scutellated in front; its shorter toes and claws, which 
are horn-coloured ; its smaller wings, which have much stronger and thicker 
quills; and also in having long straggling hairs on the face." 

Mr. Bartlett tells us that, as far as he has been able to ascertain, all speci- 
mens of Apteryx mantelli are from the Northern Island ; and this is completely 
confirmed by Dr. von Hochstetter's observations, which are as follows: — 

" In the northern districts of the Northern Island this species of Apteryx 
appears to have become quite extinct. But in the island called Hou-tourou, 
or Little Barrier Island (a small island, completely wooded, ranging about 
1000 feet above the sea-level, and only accessible when the sea is quite calm), 
which is situated in the Gulf of Hauraki, near Auckland, it is said to be 
still tolerably common. In the inhabited portions of the southern districts 
of the Northern Island also, it is become nearly exterminated by men, dogs 
and wild cats, and here is only to be found in the more inaccessible and less 
populous mountain-chains — that is, in the wooded mountains between Cape 
Palliser and East Cape. 

" But the inhabitants of the Northern Island speak also of two sorts of 
Kiwi, which they distinguish as Kiivi-nui (Large Kiwi) and Kiwiiti (Small 
Kiwi). The Kiwi-nui is said to be found in the Tuhna district, west of Lake 
Taupo, and is, in my opinion, Apteryx mantelli. The Kiwi-iti may possibly 
\iQ Apteryx owenii, though I can give no certain information on this subject." 

4. ApteiiyX maxima. 

•* The Fireman," Gould in Birds of Australia, sub tab. 3. vol. vi. 
Apteryx maxima, Ep. 
18G1. N 



l78 REPORT — 1861. 

" Roa-roa" of the natives of tlie Southern Island. 

The existence of a larger species of Apteryx in the Middle Island of New 
Zealand has long ago been affirmed, and though no specimens of this bird 
have yet reached Europe, the following remarks of Dr. v. Hochstetter seem 
to leave no reasonable doubt of its actual existence : — 

" Besides 4/^-'V/«^ oiosnii, a second larger species lives on the Middle 
Island, of vvhich, although no examples have yet reached Europe, the existence 
is nevertheless quite certain. The natives distinguish this species not as a 
Kiwi, but as a Roa, because it is larger tlian A. owenii (Roa meaning ' long' 
or ' tali '). 

"John Rochfort, Provincial Surveyor in Nelson, who returned from an 
expedition to the western coast of the province while I was staying at Nelson 
in his Report, which appeared in the 'Nelson Examiner' of August 24th, 
1859, describes this species, which is said to be by no means uncommon in 
the Paparoa chain (a wooded range of about 2000 to 3000 feet in elevation 
between the Grey and Buller Rivers), in tiie following terms : — ' A Kiwi 
about the size of a Turkey, very powerful, having spurs on his feet, which, 
when attacked by a dog, defends himself so well as frequently to come off 
victorious.' 

" My friend Julius Haart, a German, who was my travelling companion in 
New Zealand, and in the beginning of the year 1860 undertook an exploring 
expedition to the southern and M-estern parts of the province of Nelson, 
writes to me in a letter dated July 1860, ten miles above the mouth of 
the river Buller, on the mountains of the Buller chain (which, at a height of 
from 3000 to 4000 feet, were at that time — it being winter in New Zealand — 
slightly covered with snow), that the tracks of a large Kiwi of the size of a 
Turkey were very common in the snow, and that at night he had often heard 
the singular cry of this bird, but that, as he had no dog with him, he had 
not succeeded in getting an example of it. He had, nevertheless, left M'ith 
some natives in that district a tin can with spirits, and promised them a 
good reward if they would get him one of these birds in spirits and send 
it to Nelson by one of the vessels which go from time to time to the west 
coast." 

In concluding this brief Report, we wish to call attention to the importance 
of obtaining further knowledge respecting the recent species of this singular 
form of birds whilst it is yet possible to do so. We see that one of them 
(the Ajyteryx mantelli) is already fast disappearing, whilst its history, hal)its, 
mode of nidification, and many other particulars respecting it are as yet 
altogether unknown. We therefore trust that such members of this Asso- 
ciation as have friends or correspondents in any part of New Zealand will 
impress upon them the benefits that they will confer on science by 
endeavouring to procure more specimens of, and additional information con- 
cerning, the different species of the genus Apterijx. 



Rejjort of the Results of Deep-sea Dredying in Zetland ; with a Notice 
of several Species of Mollusca neiv to Science or to the British Isles. 
By J. GwYN Jeffreys, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
The Report was submitted by the author, as one of the General Dredging 
Committee, not so much for the sake of announcing his discovery of new 
species, as of maintaining certain views which he had ventured to suggest on 



RESULTS OP DEEP-SEA DREDGING IN ZETLAND. l79 

former occasions with respect to the geographical distribution of the marine 
fauna of Europe. A yachting excursion which he had taken in the course 
of this summer, accompanied by two scientific friends, to the northernmost 
part of the British Isles, together with an examination of the upper tertiaries 
in SufFoliv and Norfolk which he had since made in company with Mr. Prest- 
wich, gave the author a better insight into the scope of such distribution 
than had resulted from his previous researches, and confirmed his belief that 
the division into separate areas or " provinces," which had been proposed 
by so many systematists (all of whom held different opinions as to the ex- 
tent and limits of such " provinces "), was erroneous, and that the present 
distribution must be referred to a state of things which has indeed passed 
away, but left a very distinct impress of its action. The author is inclined- 
to take the Coralline Crag as a starting-point, and to consider the marine 
fauna of Europe, Northern Asia, the Cis-Atlantic zone of Africa, and part 
of North America, as having been closely related at a comparatively recent 
epoch, and as forming one common area of origin. Many species of Mol- 
lusca once existed at botii extremities of this vast district — e.g. Mya trun- 
cata and Buccinuni undatum ; and other species hitherto supposed to be 
restricted to the Mediterranean (viz. Monodonta limbata and CeritJiium vid- 
gatiim, with its variety C.calabrum) have lately been discovered by Professor 
Sars on tiie coasts of Finmark. It is also probable that the recent exploration 
of the Greenland seas by Otto Torell and otliers may reveal further instances 
of a similar kind. Very little has hitherto been done towards the investiga- 
tion of the Arctic fauna. It by no means follows that an extremely rigorous 
or " arctic " temperature prevailed in those places where we find the remains 
of some Mollusca which now inhabit only the seas of colder regions, or, vice 
versa, that the presence in tliese regions of fossil shells belonging to species 
which now inhabit only more southern seas indicates the former prevalence 
of a warm climate. The temperature of the sea at certain depths is well 
known to be very equable ; and it is only littoral or shallow-water species 
that would be exterminated or affected by a change of climate. Some kinds 
appear to be more hardy than others, and to have survived considerable and 
perhaps frequent changes of temperature; while others have undergone a 
limited modification of form, and are considered by some naturalists as 
distinct (or "representative") species. A great deal, however, yet remains 
to be done, by accumulating facts, and a critical comparison of recent with 
fossil species, before a complete or satisfactory theory of distribution can be 
established. 

Mr. Jeffreys contrasted his experience of this dredging expedition wifli 
those he had made to other parts of the British coasts as well as to the 
Mediterranean, and also with the accounts he had received of similar expe- 
ditions to the coasts of Norway and Sweden — showing the far greater 
difficulties which attended an exploration of our northernmost sea, by reason 
of the variable and often tempestuous weather, and of that line of coast being 
unsheltered from the prevailing winds. He, however, succeeded in procuring 
three species of Mollusca new to science, which he proposed to name Mar- 
garita clegantula, Aclis Walkri, and Nassa ? Haliaeti, besides twelve other 
species which were new to the British Isles. Of these last, ten are Scandi- 
navian, one is Mediterranean, and the other had hitherto been known only 
as a Crag fossil. He reserved the description and particulai's of these species 
for a work on British Conchology which he had undertaken. He ascertained 
that the Gulf-stream never impinges on any part of the coast which he had 
examined, although the climate was temperate. 

■ The author noticed the occurrence at considerable depths (nearlv 80 

n2 



1^0 REPORT — 1861. 

fathoms) of living Mollusca which usually inhabit the shore or very shallow 
water, viz. Lamellaria perspicua, Nassa incrassata, and Cyprcea Europcca, 
all of them being Avidely diffused species, — thus apparently illustrating the 
view entertained by the late Professor Edward Forbes, that those species 
which have the widest horizontal range have the greatest vertical depth. 
Judging, however, from the great depth at which he found the fossil shells 
of some Mollusca {e.g. Pecten Islandicus and Mya tnmcata \ax. Uddeval- 
lensis) which inhabit much shallower water in the Arctic zone, the author is 
disposed to believe that the bed of this part of our Northern Sea has sunk 
since the so-called " glacial " epoch, and that this circumstance may possibly 
account for the above-mentioned occurrence of sublittoral species at such 
depths. 

With respect to the comparative size of those Mollusca which are common 
to the seas of the North as well as of the South of Europe, the author re- 
ferred to an observation made by Mr. Salter, in a recent number of the 
' Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society,' that some fossil shells which 
jNIr. Lamont had brought from Spitzbergen were larger than those of the 
corresponding species in our own mountain limestone ; and he remarked that 
the same rule appears to apply also to marine plants, for he never saw such 
gigantic fronds of the Laminaria saccharina, which fringes all our coast- 
line, as he did in the voes of North Zetland. 

The author concluded by paying a just tribute of respect to the labours of 
Professors Sars and Loven, Malm, Morch, Asbjornsen, and other Scandi- 
navian naturalists, who were investigating the Mollusca of the Northern seas 
with a zeal and accuracy worthy of our emulation. 



Contrihutions to a Report on the Physical Aspect of the Moon. 
By J. Phillips, M.A., LL.D.,F.R.S., Professor of Geoloyy, Oxford. 

Professor Phillips noticed the result of his sketches of parts of the surface 
of the moon, and also described Mi-. Birt's contributions to a report on seleno- 
graphy, which had been undertaken by direction of the General Committee 
at Oxford, with the view of discovering the character of the moon's surface 
as influenced by previous physical events. Professor Phillips's observations 
related especially to the mountain Gassendi, to which his attention had been 
directed by the Committee in 1852, but included also drawings of remarkable 
' rills,' and other interesting peculiarities, in Aristarchus, Archimedes, and 
Plato. 

The rills to which Prof. Phillips had given principal attention were — (1) the 
well-known stag's-horn rill E. of Thebit, which appeared to be what geolo- 
gists call a ' fault ' or ' slip,' one side elevated above the other, and with some 
inequality in the dislocation when the shadow is accurately inspected; (2) 
the long rill on which the small crater called Hyginus is situated ; (3) the 
group of parallel rills about Campanus and Hippalus. Regarding these it 
was remarked that the drawing of Miidler, which, like all the work in his 
great map, was obviously a careful one, differed in one point from that made 
by Prof. Phillips. This difference may be thus stated. In Miidler's drawing 
three parallel rills appear in the space between Campanus and Hippalus ; 
the middle one, shorter than the others, passes between two small hills. 
Prof. Phillips draws these two hills near to each other, and records no rill, 
running between them. The rill between these hills and Hippalus appears in 



ON THE PHYSICAL ASPECT OF THE MOON. 181 

both drawings ; but Prof. Phillips continues it further to the south, even info 
the crater marked A, which is likewise traversed bj' the longest rill of all, 
that, viz., nearest to Campanus. Another rill is traced by Prof. Phillips quite 
across and through the old crater of Hippalus ; and all the rills appear to him 
to be rifts or deep fissures, receiving strong shadows from oblique light, and 
even acquiring brightness on one edge of the cavity. Their breadth appears 
to be only a few hundred feet or yards. He exhibited drawings of these 
objects on a large scale, one being a section across the crater of Gassendi, 
another a map of the curious region extending from Aristarchus and Hero- 
dotus along the interrupted rift or valley which opens by a seeming delta 
into the seeming dried sea-bed with indented coasts on the south. 

Speaking of Gassendi, of which he had made drawings under different 
conditions of light and shade, from sunrise on the mountains to mid-day, 
and slighter, sketches at later hours, he remarked, in addition to what has 
been recorded by Miidler, the much-varied character of the ' rings,' the deep 
narrow fissures across the ring on the S.E. side, the rocky character of the 
central elevations in the interior area, the rough terraces and ridges within 
the great ring on the east and also the north-west side, the occurrence of 
only two small craters in the northern part of the area, and the variation of 
colour on the surface, without shadow, according to the change of the angle 
of incidence of the sun's rays. 

He also drew attention to the existence of delicate ramifications of small 
ridges and hollows in the S.VV. part of the ai-ea, which had a marked con- 
vergence towards the broad lip of the deep-attached cavity known as the 
Spoon. He expressed his great desire to receive drawings of Gassendi as 
Been at iioou and at later hours of the lunar dav. 



Contribution to a Report on the Physical Aspect of the Moon. 
By W. R. BiRT, F.R.A.S, 
On the present occasion I propose confining my contribution to the physical 
features characterizing the well-known spot Plato, some of which are fami- 
liar to astronomers, while others, I have some reason to believe, have not 
hitherto been pointed out. I have included all that have come under obser- 
vation during the twenty-nine months between January 1860 and May 1862, 
inclusive, in a synopsis of objects suitable for further telescopic observation. 
This synopsis of objects is necessarily incomplete. To each object observed 
I have appended, in italics, the number of times it has been the subject of 
special observation ; so that every one inserted in the key-plan has been seen 
by me at some time during the interval of the observations above mentioned. 
The entire period of the visibility of Plato is embraced in the observations, 
which are, however, more numerous under the morning and mid-day illumi- 
nations than under the evening. Those features that have been more fre- 
quently observed may of course be regarded as being more fully established, 
at least for the period embraced by the observations; the synopsis forming a 
groundwork for the more effectual observation of Plato, especially as re- 
gards the interesting questions of absolute repose now existing on the moon's 
surface, or the progress of change such as may be detected by human eyes. 
Forty-five series of observations contributing to the synopsis, and extending 
from January 5, 1860, to July 29, 1861, I have arranged in the order of the 
moon's age, in a MS. volume which is deposited in the library of the lloyal 



183 . EEPORT--1861. 

Astronomical Society. The remainder, twenty-three, bringing the observa- 
tions to May 12, 1862, are at present in my hands, and are intended to form 
part of a second volume, should I be able to pursue the observations. The 
arrangement of the volume is such that it can be used as an ephemeris of 
the successive appearances of the crater, as well as being indicative of those 
objects that require careful and steady watching. 

One of the most interesting objects among those newly pointed out is a 
terrace on the south-west interior slope. It, with a ravine in the same neigh- 
bourhood, is of an exceedingly delicate character, being brought out (espe- 
cially the terrace) by the gradual change in the direction of the incident solar 

Accompanying the synopsis are two illustrative figures. Fig. 1 is a some- 
what rough key-plan of the crater, the ellipse being that of the greatest open- 
ing presented by Plato. This key-plan possesses no pretensions either to 
accuracy of detail or correctness of locality, micrometrically considered; it is 
only offered as a guide to the general and relative positions of the objects 
included in the synopsis. Fig. 2 is a section indicated by observation of the 
south-west interior slope of Plato, showing the terrace or ledge Y, one of the 
new features brought to light by this series of observations. The reader is re- 
ferred to Beer and Madler's large map of the moon, and is specially requested 
to compare the delineation of the crater as they have given it with the key- 
plan accompanying this licport. A careful comparison of them will show 
the features they have in common, and the departures that may exist in those 
determined by the present scries of observations from the representations of 
the same features as given by Beer and Miidler. Schroter has given some 
of the features mentioned, especially the mountain-range (w), which he marks 
H, the mountain r, the shadows of the three peaks y, c, and e, the mountain 
c, which in Scbroter's drawing is marked D, and the crater x. which is no 
longer in existence — if Schroter really saw a perfect crater as he has deline- 
ated it. In another delineation of Plato by Schroter, showing the two mark- 
ings i and k on the interior of the north-east slope as he observed them on 
December 11, 1788, he also gives a remarkably round cloud-like appear- 
ance, not unlike in character to the one that has been so constantly a subject 
of my own observation, marked/ in the key-plan. These delineations may 
be found in his ' Selcnotopographische Fragmente,' t. xxi. 

To render the results of the inquiry of greater value, a careful microme- 
trical survey of Plato, when presented under the greatest visual angle, would 
be important. Every well-determined spot would be laid down in its accu- 
rate position as seen from the earth under that angle ; and if such a survey 
were executed with the requisite precision, one epoch only being fixed on, 
and no reduction to a mean state of libration admitted, it would not be dif- 
ficult, after a few years' observations, to judge of the probable fixity of aspect 
presented by the most prominent features, and changes, if any, would soou 
render themselves apparent. 

Synopsis of objects in Plato suitable for telescopic observation, tvitk reference 
to fixity or variability of absolute aspect. 

By absolute aspect, I mean the aspect dependent on the object itself, its 
form and constitution, — not an aspect dependent on the variability of the 
incidence of solar light, or on the variability of the direction of the visual 
ray as the object is seen from the earth, the one indicated by the moon's age, 
the other by the libration of the moon. 



ON THE PHYSICAL ASPECT OF THE MOON, 



183 



Fig. 1. 




o^ 



^^ 



Key-plan of Plato, from observations by W. R. Birt, F.R.A.S., between January 5, 1860, 

and October 19, 1861. 

I. n. — A short range of mountains running at first nearly at right angles 
to the mountainous rim of Plato, from a break in tlie northern or, rather, 
north-western portion of the rim. This range of mountains is of a curved 
form, and terminates in the mountain i^. It constitutes the western rim of 
a crateriform formation to the north of Plato. 

This mountain- range has been tlie subject of eleven observations between 
January 1860 and May 1862. Schroter had previously observed it, and 
marked it /<. Under a suitable illumination, a shallow depression is seen 
westward of this mountain-range, the land rising a little on the westward of 
it, so that a somewhat narrow valley is enclosed between the two. There are 
two well-defined peaks on the eastern or highest range, and a small one be- 
tween them and the rim. 

II. /. — A break on the north-western rim of Plato, which is doubtless the 
continuation of the narrow valley west of the mountain-range (?i). It is 
distant about 0*75 of the longest diameter of the apparent ellipse from the 
east, and is very distinctly shown in the drawing of Schroter. 

The observations of this break in the rim of Plato have been numerous. 
On three occasions the valley-like character of it has been recorded. Under 
a suitable illumination, u bright streak from Anaxagoras to Plato may be 
seen terminating near this break. 

III. m. — A bright spot on the north-west portion of the rim, close to and 
cast of the valley (0- On the 28th of May, 1860, I have recorded a high 
alpine mountain in the locality of this spot. • ' 

This bright spot has been observed on nine occasions, and on one occasion 
as a dusky spot. 

IV. — The interior slope of the north and north-cast border. This slope 
undergoes variations of luminosity, according as the incidence of the solar 
rays vary ; it has two dark oval markings. 

V. 2.' — Under a somewhat late illumination, 21*5 days moon's age, the 
rim of this part of Plato presents the ayjpcarance of a sharp angle in the 
neighbourhood of the westernmost of the two oval markings, and from this 
point an irregularly formed crag overhangs the slope. This crag has also 
been seen under the morning illumination. 

There are strong indications of a circular range of mountains existing on 
the north of Plato, of which the range (w) forms the western side : the in- 
cluded area is crossed by two dark but narrow lines, which appear tp be of 



184 REPORT— 1861. 

the nature of fissures. Thej', with the circular range, have only been 
observed 07ice. (See key-plan, fig. 1.) 

VI. i. — The westernmost of the two oval markings. 

YII. k. — The easternmost of the two oval markings. 

Schrdter appears to have observed them on December 11, 1788: he has 
figured them on t. xxi. fig. 6. They have been observed by the writer ou 
fifteen or sixteen occasions at least. 

VIII. 7;. — A bay-like indentation in the north-east rim seen under the 
mid-day illumination. It has been observed on Jive occasions. It is not 
shown in the key-plan, but its locality is indicated by the letter p. 

This indentation, which is best seen about full moon, or about fifteen or 
sixteen days of the moon's age, marks, I appreliend, the form of the rim of 
Plato hereabout. It is well shown in a sketch by Webb, under date of 1855, 
October 24, ten to eleven hours ; the sketch is preserved in the volume of 
Observations on Plato deposited in the library of the Royal Astronomical 
Society. It is approximately figured aX jJ, detached from the key-plan of the 
crater, as it is only visible for about two days near the full. 

IX. q. — A short, light spur in the neighbourhood of 7^, which, with the 
shadow w ithin the cavity i, appears to indicate the existence of a ledge or 
terrace in this part of Plato. It has only been observed once. 

X. ^. — A bold rock jutting intq the interior, casting a well-defined shadow 
eastward in the morning and forenoon, and westward on the floor of the 
crater towards sunset : it is more frequently observed as the eastern extre- 
mity of the longest diameter of the apparent ellipse. 

This rock is one of the finest and most conspicuous objects in the neigh- 
bourhood of Plato during the morning illumination, glowing in the rays of 
the sun like molten silver. From about 7*5 to 8*5 days of the moon's age, 
it is seen as a very brilliant point at the eastern extremity of the crater; 
during the next two days (from 8"5 to 10\5 days of the moon's age) it is 
very distinguishable, standing out as a bold rock, and casting a well-defined 
shadow eastward ; during the next three days (from 10"5 to 13*5) it loses its 
shadow, but continues a perceptibly bright object, imparting to the eastern 
extremity its peculiar brilliancy at this age of the moon. It is now lost for 
some time. About nineteen days of the moon's age it has been seen very 
distinctly ; two days later, viz. at twenty-one days, its shadow has been seen 
on the floor of Plato ; and about this time, or rather later, it has been seen 
standing out in fine and bold relief, a magnificent object, its height above 
the general altitude of the ring being apparent not only by the acuminated 
character of its shadow on the floor of the crater, but by its towering consi- 
derably above the general summit. It appears to be a formation in a mea- 
sure distinct from the ring itself, and greatly allied in its character to that of 
Pico on the south of Plato; indeed, it deserves as conspicuous a position on 
a map as Pico. It possesses two bold spurs on the north-east and south- 
east. Its very appearance is exceedingly suggestive, especially when taken 
in connexion with a formation immediately south of it. Both should be most 
carefully and scrupulously watched, in order to determine if any degrading 
forces are at work hereabout. 

This rock has been observed under the morning and forenoon illumina- 
tions on eighteen occasions, and under the evening on four occasions. 
Schrdter gives a rude figure of it in t. xxiii. 

XI. s. — A spot situated on the eastern exterior slope of Plato : it is slightly 
to the north of eastward of the rock i^, and was seen, on October 14, 1861, 
moon's age 10"55 days, to be a gently rising protuberance on the eastern 
slope of the rock 'C, in the neighbourhood of the north-eastern spur. 



ON THE PHYSICAL ASPECT OP THE MOON. 185 

XII. t. — A small crater south of eastward of the rock f : it is described, 
March 22, 9 30 (1861), to be almost due east of the longest diameter of 
Plato. It is situated on one of the spurs of i,. 

The rock i^, the spot s, and the crater t, form a conspicuous triangle, seen 
to great advantage on March 21, 1861. They have been observed in con- 
nexion on three occasions. 

XIII. A. — The largest crater in the neighbourhood of Plato, figured by 
Schroter, t. xxiii., and marked c by him, but A by Beer and Miidler. 

XIV. y^. — Schroter also gives another crater of about the same size, which 
he marks x, north of Plato. In his delineation it is placed about midway 
between Plato and the Mare Frigoris. In the whole course of my observa- 
tions I have not met with this crater, nor have I seen anytliing similar to 
that delineated by Schroter. On the night of August 27, 1861, moon's age 
21'53 days, I found a very interesting object on the northern boundary of 
the bright ground north of Plato. It consisted of a semi-elliptical range of 
mountains very similar to a half-crater, the existing portion of the ring not 
greatly elevated above the surface ; the south-east side was more elevated 
than the south-west, so that its external slope caught the rays of the after- 
noon sun, which rendei'ed it the most brilliant object in the immediate 
locality. The south-west portion of this half-ring was seen to terminate a 
little short of the line of junction of the bright ground north of Plato and 
the dark ground of the Mare Frigoris, the south-east portion being cut 
off sharply by the south edge of the Mare Frigoris. I did not observe any 
difference of level between the lighter rugged ground on which the half-ring 
was seen and the darker and smoother surface of the Mare Frigoris. The 
situation of this half-ring is very near the locality given by Schroter for the 
perfect crater. I have indicated it on the key-plan by Schroter's mark y^. 

I also observed this object on September 13, 1861, under the morning 
illumination, moon's age 8'87 days ; a,nd again on September 25, moon's age 
2P08 days. It requires the precise angle of illumination and visual ray to 
catch it. 

XV. W. — An interesting marking just south of the rock ^, somewhat of 
the character of a crater, apparently triangular in its form, but on closely 
scrutinizing it seen to be a somewhat shallow depression having a gently 
curved rampart. Under a suitable illumination, the shadow of this rampart 
has been seen well defined within the enclosure. The south-east rim of this 
apparent crater, with the contiguous portion of the rim of Plato, forms the 
continuation of a ci'.ain of mountains which takes its rise at an isolated 
mountain south-east of Plato (c) (see key-plan, fig. 1). This chain of moun- 
tains is well seen under the evening illumination about 21 '5 days of the, 
moon's age. 

The position of this depression is on the upper part of the eastern slope of 
Plato. It is separated from the large crater by a portion of the eastern rim 
of Plato, which also forms its western rim. On May 2, 1860, the colour of 
the interior was very slightly, if any, darker than the surface exterior to 
Plato, and much lighter than the floor of Plato. It has been observed on 
fifteen occasions. 

XVI. o. — A small crater at the external common base of the rock 'C, and 
the depression W. It has been observed tiuice. 

XVil. — The south-east rim of the crater Plato. 

XVIII. c. — A mountain south-east of Plato. The chain of mountains, of 
low altitude, running from it in a curved direction to Plato formed part of 
the ring of the ancient crater called Newton by Schroter, It has been 
observed at least on three occasions. 



186 REPORT — 1861. 

The existence of this mountain is well established, having been observed 
by Schroter, and marked by him D ; by Beer and Madler, and marked by 
them c ; and by the writer, as above. The chain of mountains is given 
somewhat difl'erently by each observer, but no doubt can be entertained of 
its existence. 

XIX, Y. — A very narrow ledge or terrace within the interior of the south- 
west border of Plato, appearing as a lucid fringe when the shadow of the 
summit of the border is sufficiently narrow to allow of the illumination of 
the floor of the terrace. See fig. 2, in which 

Fig. 2. 




Section of the south-west interior slope of Tlato, the Hartvrell Ledge, from observations 

by W. R. Birt, F.R.A.S. 

F. Represents the floor of the crater. 
S — S. The south-west interior slope. 

Y. The terrace or ledge. 

a. The summit of the slope. 

Z. A ravine exterior to the crater. 

S — S. The incident ray when the ledge is in deep shadow, the entire floor 
being illuminated. 

S' — S'. The incident ray when the ledge is partly illuminated. 

S" — S". The incident ray when it is wholly so. 

On May 18, 7 0, 1861, I observed the interior shadow of the western rim 
to fine off" on the south-west side. It presented the appearance of a very fine 
line, with two bright spots, as if there were two small mountains on the ledge 
or terrace. With Dr. Lee's permission, I propose to designate this terrace 
the Hartwell Ledge. 

This ledge has been observed on seven occasions. 

XX. aa. — The sunmiit of the south-west slope ; observed on Jive occasions. 

XXI. Z. — A ravine on the surface exterior to Plato ; observed on thirteen 
occasions. 

XXII. y. — A liigh peak on the south-west wall, recognized in the early 
morning illumination by its long shadow stretching far along the floor ; 
observed on six occasions. Schroter has figured the shadow. 

XXIII. I. — A high peak on the west wall, recognized as above, and 
figured by Schroter; observed on tico occasions. 

XXIV. e. — A similar peak on the north-west wall, also figured by Schroter, 
and observed livice. 

These three peaks occasion at sunrise a well-marked indented shadow, 



ON THE PHYSICAL ASPECT OF THE MOON. 18? 

which rather rapidly recedes as the sun becomes elevated above their horizon. 
Beer and Madler have indicated, measured, and marked them respectively 
y, J, and €. The shadows have been well seen by the writer on the floor of 
Plato, with an additional peak. 

XXV. b. — A dark-black spot in the shadow, most probably the peak S, 
which under the early morning illumination would present such an appear- 
ance. My observations under the evening illumination have been too few to 
recognize it as a b)ight spot, nor have I noticed either 7 or e as black spots 
in the morning shadow. This black spot occupies precisely the position of 
f, just north of the termination of the longer axis of the apparent ellipse 
exactly opposite the rock (. It has been observed on three occasions. 

XXVI. X. — A conspicuous mountain south-west of Plato, on the ring of 
Schrdter's Newton, and nearly abutting on the ravine Z (XXL). Beer and 
Madler mark it X, but place it too far to the south-east. It has been observed 
on ?iine occasions. 

Under a very early illumination it may easily be mistaken for a crater 
(see also XXIX. r). There is a gradual rise of the land from the north- 
west towai-ds the mountain, which itself rises from a depression, the western 
cliff of which is very abrupt. 

XXVII. dd. — A group of mountains in the Alps, forming with \ and v an 
isosceles triangle, X and v being the base. There is a little discrepancy here. 
The mountain X has been brought nearer to dd on the key-plan than it would 
be on Beer and Mtidler's map, to give it its proper position with regard to Z, 
aa, and Y (see XXVI. X). It is the author's intention, as early as convenient, 
carefully to triangulate the most conspicuous objects near Plato. 

XXVIII. G. — A small crater, a little to the west of d, somewhat closely 
abutting on the summit ; it is marked G by Beer and Madler. I have 
observed it twice. It i- very probably the same as w, in Schrdter's drawing. 

XXIX. 7: — A mountain on the exterior western slope of Plato : it is 
situated in the line of the longer axis of the apparent ellipse. On March 22, 
1861, it was seen with the shadow eastward ; it had a rounded summit, and 
the western slope was shining with considerable brilliancy. It has been 
observed eir/ht times. Its situation with regard to dd and v (see key- plan ) 
requires to be determined ; also its real character, whether it be a mountain 
or a crater. On some occasions, under an early illumination, it has been 
described as a crater; on others, as a mountain. From the description of 
March 22, 1861, it v/ould appear to be a mountain. It is very conspicuous 
about the time of full moon as a bright lucid spot. 

XXX. ee. — A considerable depression east of r, and between it and the 
w estern rim of Plato. Observed twice, under a very early illumination of 
Plato. 

XXXI. cc. — A somewhat long dark line, in the nature of a shadow with 
a short spur, apparently the shadow of a mountain across the western wall 
of Plato ; the long dark line observed only 07ice, the spur tivice. The exact 
direction of the line requires determination. 

XXXII. V. — A conspicuous mountain north-west of Plato, marked v by 
Beer and Madler ; it is figured by Schrdter with some smaller mountains 
and a crater, cp, north-west of it. It was well seen on May 18, 1861 ; also 
on July 15, 1861 , when two well-marked, distinct rocks were seen north-west 
of it. It has been observed on seven occasions. 

XXXIII. //. — Three mountain-masses (supposed to be v and the moun- 
tains north-west of it; they are not given in the key-plan) in the neighbour- 
hood of the mountain v. The westernmost of these mountains not over- 
bright, but the others very bright. 



188 ' REPORT — 1861. 

XXXIV. gg.—A crater figured by Schroter, and marked by him ^, at tlie 
western extremity of the three mountains //. The writer observed and 
figured it on January 8, 1862; but did not see it on March S, 1862, when 
the moon was nearly of the same age. 

The floor of Plato presents some exceedingly interesting appearances. It 
is figured by Beer and Madler as being crossed by four streaks of a some- 
what lighter tint than that of the general surface of the floor (see the large 
Map). These have not been observed within the epochs limiting the period 
of tiie observations forming the basis of this Report, January 1860 and May 
1862 ; but a remarkable, broad, branching, whitish, cloud-like streak, crossing 
the floor at certain epochs of the moon's age perpendicularly, and at others 
when it is more distinctly apparent in a diagonal direction (/) (see key-plan, 
fig. 1), has been seen very frequently ; in fact, during the continuance of the 
observations, it may be regarded as having possessed a decided characteristic 
of coustunci/. 

The change of direction of this marking as the sun passes from west to 
cast in his lunar-diurnal course is very interesting, and is in some measure 
indicative of the nature of the surface of the floor, the direction being 
apparently dependent on some peculiarity of reflection in the surface. It 
appears to be connected with the bright mountain (m) on the north-west 
rim, as under certain angles of illumination it is seen invariably to take its 
rise therefrom. This is a feature that requires careful watching. It has 
more than once been traced to the rayed crater Anaxagoras, and on a very 
favourable occasion was seen to be connected witli tlie ray that terminates 
near the bright mountain m. It is only visible during certain, epochs of 
illumination. 

Schroter appears to have observed, in December 1788, a somewhat similar 
marking, but of a round form (consult his figs. 6, 7 and 8, t. xxi.). Taking the 
three periods of observation, Schroter's, Beer and Miidler's, and the writer's, 
it would seem tliat the markings of the floor are of a variable character. 

The portion of the floor not covered by this marking, and the whole when 
it is not visible, undergoes variations of tint, from a decided greenish tint just 
after sunrise, when it mostly appears with a delicate smooth surface, to a deep- 
blackish grey, of a diluted inky character, at mid-day, the smoothness of sur- 
face having considerably disappeared. 

Beer and Miidler have indicated three or four minute specks on the sur- 
face ; Gruithuisen detected seven. One, nearly central, I have more or less 
constantly observed under suitable angles of illumination. Tiie Rev. T. W. 
Webb has also observed this central speck. It is marked g on the key-plan. 



Preliminary Report on the Dredging Committee for the Mersey and 
Dee, By Dr. Collingwood and Mr. Byerley. 

This Committee was appointed last year at Oxford, and the present Report 
was a resume of all that had previously, and since then, been ascertained 
concerning the Marine Fauna of that region. The past season having been 
very unfavourable for dredging operations, several important families still 
remained unexplored, chiefly among the minuter Crustacea, Annelids, Ento- 
mostraca and Foraminifera. The following comparison of ascertained 
species with those of the British Fauna will serve to show some of the 
results given. 



ON THE DREDGING COMMITTEE FOR THE MERSEY AND DEE. 189 



I 

U 

a 



O 



■^ S SF^ 



rM -^ -^ 

r as '^ 

SO e- 

s . o 

c 



»— < -H So „ CO 

to O 



cS c3 cQ 

SSI 

"c 'o o 

.3 8 g 
ci i» ^ 



M 



=. a § 

-^-2 3 









f- <s 



rt --H (B ^-- ■ — I 

- « 2 o S 

s s p g-'^ i § 

o i3 ri o o -ti a 
.1 ■? ^ -^ fi g c5 



HI . 
i i 

« wj ?! w 

o SI § 



^■3 






2 " 

00 " 

<x> o 



.3 

a 

o 



CtJ 



en 






iCC 



L-:3 ^ 



a 

■a 

o 






s^ a o 



3 a 

Ph 3 

e a 

o 3 

^ I fii 

o e! 3 1=3 "t: 

I Si" 






3 S'2 2 
1^ oQ 



a 3 

3 Si . 

■%%^ 

O r^ OS 

05 t/i « 
I — I ra 00 

2 j='z: 



I 

s 



• 9 

m o 

3 So 

S a 
§S 

<3 S 

c o 

C6 QJ ^ 




a 

a Oh 






S n- 0!J ^ , 

3 3 ? "3 -2 

o c3 a 03 "" 
C^ OP-( Pm 



§31=1 



.2 CD 
P in 

02 



CO 



C5 
C-1 



o 



CO 






'C " -43 ^. ? =3 
;fe a J S g ft 

^ 3^ § 2 t3 
.S ftM)-5'S-C 

03 ca g'f^S'S 

T T* .2 (u Sh a 

gj ca Qj 1— < , f-t 



'CO 



S 
O 

8.5 



Ph 



-!») 



i-N 



•-^!SiH» i-hj 



-Ht -h-l~ 



-W-K 



§0 






ft 



o ri i-i (■/) 

CO CI 



o 



^ 



^i> 



^ 



Ci 2r-( -^ 



t'Cit' 



O 



SI 



H 

PS 



CO «; S o '-' 

e « s '§ H 

O C m 03 -< 

►5 a p -a « 

■< a «- j^ a 



-< a «- ^ a 



H -5 



-< 
H 



p 

Hi 
1-1 



HO 



. S 

-a 
4 03 



=8 ^-^^ 

a § S 

a ? 

§ § &s 






5 f- 



S 9 
02 



c a -^ 

p o 



1^ o S 



f5 ^ N 



g a ^q 
>^ ^ o o 



: 8 

MM 

I 8J.«'3 8 
gOwO<l a g 

l2 '^ a, 

W <)a2 



The writer avoided entering upon any general considerations, reserving 
them for a future and more complete report. 



190 , REPORT— 1861. 

Third Report of the Committee on Steam-ship Performance. 

Contents. 
Report. 

Appendix, Table 1. — Table showing the results of the performance of H.M. vessels, fur- 
nished by the Admiralty. 
Table 2. — Table showing the results of the performance of six of H.M. vessels under 

various circumstances. 
Table 3. — Table showing the results of the performance of H.M.S. ' Victor Emmanuel,' 

v?hen at sea. 
Table 4. — Return of seven trials on the measured mile in Stokes Bay of H.M.S. ' Victor 

Emmanuel.' 
Table 5. — Table showing the results of the performance of a number of vessels in the 

Merchant Service under various circumstances. 
Table G. — Quarterly returns of the speed and consumption of coal of the London and 

North-Vv'esteni Company's express and cargo boats, imder regulated conditions of 

time, pressure, and expansion ; from January 1st to December 31, 1860. 
Table 7. — Quarterly verifications of consumption of coal of the above vessels, from 

January 1 to December 31, 1860. 
Table 8. — Return from the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company of the average time 

of passage and consumption of coal of the Mail Steamers for six months ending 

June 30, 1860. 
Table 9. — Return from the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company of the average time 

of passage and consumption of coal of the Mail Steamers for three months ending 

September 30, 1860. 
Table 10. — Return of the results of performance of 50 vessels in the service of the 

Messageries Imperiales, 1859. 
Table 11. — Return of the results of performance of 50 vessels in the service of the 

Messageries Imperiales, 1860. 
Table 12. — Return of average passages of Mail Packets and consumption of coal for six 

months ending March 31, 1861. 
Table 13.— Log of Steam-ship ' Ulster,' April 6, 1861. 
Table 14. — Log of Steam-ship ' Leinster,' on trial from Holyhead to Kingstown, 

April 4, 1861. 
Circular as issued from the Committee on Steam-ship Performance. 
Form as issued from the Committee on Steam-ship Performance. 

Report. 
At the meeting of the British Association held at Oxford in June 1S60, 
the Committee was re-appointed in the following terms : — 

"That the Committee on Steam-ship Performance be re-appointed, to 
report proceedings to the next meeting. 

" That the attention of the Committee be also directed to the obtaining of 
information respecting the performance of vessels under sail, with a view to 
comparing the results of the two powers of wind and steam, in order to their 
most effective and economical combination. 

"That the sum of £150 be placed at the disposal of the Committee." 

The following noblemen and gentlemen were nominated to serve on the 
Committee : — 



Vice-Admiral Moorsom, 
The Duke of Sutherland 

(formerly Marquis of Stafford). 
The Earl of Caithness. 
The Lord Dufferin. 
William Fairbairn, F.R.S. 
J. Scott Russell, F.R.S. 
Admiral Paris, C.B. 



The Hon. Capt. Egerton. R.N. 
William Smith, C.E. 
J. E. McConnell, C.E. 
Professor Rankine, LL.D. 
J. R. Napier, C.E. 
R. Roberts, C.E. 
Henry Wright 

(Honorary Secretary). 



With power to add to their number. 

The following gentlemen also assisted your Committee as corresponding 
members ; — 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 191 



Captain Hope, R.N. 
Captain Mangles. 
T. R. Tufnell. 
"William Froude. 
John Elder. 
David Rowan. 
J. McFarlane Gray. 



Lord C. Paget, M.P., C.B. 

Lord Alfred Paget, M.P. 

Lord John Hay, M.P, 

The Earl of Gifford, M.P. 

The Marquis of Hartington, M.P. 

Viscount Hill. 

The Hon. Leopold Agar Ellis, M.P. 

Captain Ryder, R.N. 

Your Committee re-elected Admiral Moorsom to be their Chairman, and 
at his decease the Duke of Sutherland succeeded him. 

Your Committee having held monthly meetings, and intermediate meetings 
of a sub-Committee, presided over by the Chairman, beg leave to present the 
following Reports : — 

At the last meeting of the British Association, after the Committee's Report 
had been presented, Admiral Moorsom read a paper before the Mechanical 
Section on the Performance of Steam Vessels, and a discussion ensued which 
demonstrated the great want that is felt by men of science, both in England 
and in other countries, of definite knowledge based on actual experiment re- 
specting the resistance offered by vessels of various sizes and types, to being 
drawn through the water. As the means of trying such experiments could 
only be satisfactorily obtained from a Government having every description 
of vessel in its service, your Committee determined urgently to renew their 
applications to the British Admiralty, that that body should, for the benefit 
of science generally, conduct a series of experiments ; and to state that the 
Committee were even prepared to advise upon or conduct such experiments, 
if the Admiralty so desired. 

The Chairman accordingly communicated with the First Lord of the Admi- 
ralty, repeating the various arguments hitherto advanced, with concise state- 
ments of the general nature of the detailed experiments deemed necessarj'', 
and which are briefly as follows : — 

1. The specific resistance of certain ships selected as types, and of the fol- 
lowing displacements, viz.,— about 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 
7000 tons, and upwards. Such resistance under traction being measured by 
dynamometer, and under the three following conditions ; — 

(1.) Of the hull when launched. 
(2.) Ditto with machinery on board. 
(3.) Ditto when ready for sea. 

2. The thrust of the screw, measured by dynamometer, when propelled by 
steam under the two last of the above three conditions, and under similar 
circumstances of smooth water and calm. 

3. Full particulars of the dimensions and form of the ships, of the boilers 
and furnaces, of the engines, and of the propeller. 

4. Detailed particulars of the performances of the same or similar ships in 
snooth water at the measured mile, with the particulars and conditions set 
forth in a Form of Return which accompanied the memorandum, or any other, 
more comprehensive or effectual, that might be given. 

5. The actual performance of the same or similar vessels at sea, with the 
particulars and conditions set forth as aforesaid. 

Your Committee would remark in passing, that from the date of their first 
appointment, they have not ceased, on every available occasion, to press this 
subject upon the attention of the authorities ; but, up to the present time, 
your Committee are not aware that any experiments of the kind have been 
undertaken. 

In the Report presented to your Association at Oxford, it is stated that a 



192 REPORT — 1861. 

table of certain of Her Majesty's vessels, seventeen In number, had been con- 
structed, containing the results of the best trials as conducted by the Govern- 
ment officers, and that it had been forwarded to the Admiralty with the 
request that the additional particulars of the hull and machinery' might be filled 
in. The table, however, did not arrive in time to be inserted in their Report. 

Your Committee have great pleasure in being now enabled to lay it before 
your Association in the state it has been received from the Admiralty. 
(Appendix, Table 1.) They would remark in connexion with this return, 
that it appears that the authorities have not been in the habit of recording 
either the quantity of coals consumed or the evaporation of water, and they 
have made application to the Admiralty that in future these desiderata may 
be obtained. 

In compliance with the terms of the resolution appointing the Committee, 
viz., " That the attention of the Committee be also directed to obtaining infor- 
mation respecting the performance of vessels under sail, with a view to com- 
paring the results of the two powers of wind and steam," your Committee 
have to state that hitherto they have been unable to obtain such comparisons 
in the case of merchant vessels, but in the Table given in Appendix, Table 2, 
particulars of one of H.M. vessels are recorded under three conditions, viz., 
under steam alone, under sail alone, and under steam and sail combined, 
and of two under the two latter conditions only. 

These are especially useful, as they show the effects produced by powers 
brought to bear upon the hulls of vessels under the same conditions as to 
draft and trim, but differently applied. 

In endeavouring to collect this Information from officers in H.M.'s service, 
the Committee were desirous that the application should be made with the 
concurrence of the Admiralty, and a circular was accordingly issued to a se- 
lected number of officers, accompanied by a form, which they were requested 
to fill up and return. At the request of the Admiralty, copies of these docu- 
ments were submitted for their Inspection. 

The circular stated that the Committee had apprized the Admiralty of the 
Committee's proposal to communicate with such captains and engineers of 
H.M.'s vessels as might be disposed to assist the British Association in obtain- 
Ino- facts for scientific calculations relating to the performance of ships at sea. 

The form proposed was as simple as was consistent with the object of ob- 
taining data necessary for calculation, and the Committee conceived that the 
time required to fill up such forms would not interfere with the duties of the 
respective officers. It also stated that the Committee Invited the co-opera- 
tion of officers for the benefit of science alone, and that one of the fundamental 
rules laid down by the Association In directing their labours was as follows ; — 

" The object of the Committee is to make public recorded facts, through 
the medium of the Association, which, being accessible to the public in that 
manner, will bring the greatest amount of science to the solution of the diffi- 
culties now existing to the improvement of the forms of vessels and the qua- 
lities of marine engines. They will especially endeavour to guard against 
Information so furnished to them being used in any other way." 

Your Committee Issued the Circular and Form of Return (see Appendix, 
p. 198) to upwards of 200 of H.M.'s captains In commission, and to their chief 
engineers through the captains. 

Numerous replies have been received promising returns ; but the distance 
at which most of the vessels are stationed, namely, China, the East Indies, 
and America, has precluded our receiving such particulars in time for this 
Report. Returns, however, of seven vessels have been received, six of which 
are given In Appendix, Table 2 ; and the seventh vessel, the ' Victor Emman- 
uel,' being returned in a different form, is given separately in Appendix, 



RICSULTATS DK LA NAVIGATION DYS PAQUBHOTS DEH SERVICES MAKITIMES \>KS MKBSAU IJIUKS lUI'tRlALKS PKNUAST VAiJNEE IBM. 



Ani^ri(]ne,, 
Tiiabor 



Danube.., 



Neva 

Paasilippe „ 
(juirinol 

Enphrate 

Indus 

Hjdaspe ..... 
Simols 

Jonrdain 

Borysthftne „, 

Mi!andre 

Hentms 

Cepliise 

Clyde 

TamUe 

Caire 

Louqsor 

Nil 

Osiris 

Cspitole 

Vaticao 

irenrj-rP'. „. 

Sully 

Rosphore 

Hellespont ... 
Ofonte 

Diillippc Augtute. 

Mi^rorie , 

('Miff 

Mitidjah 

Hillian 

Sphinx 

Toge 

Tdljmaquo .... 
AmiteTdam .... 
ViridL-n 



2032 



20-15 
1085 
20-34 

W-43 
4674 



23'6S 
20-16 
27-91 



n 



974.5 
0&72 

eoor 

6177 

70C5 



9789 
7G21 



6316 
4798 
0163 
7538 



37S2 
6012 



63U 
6147 

esol 

6tll6 
4138 
6740 



2200 SO 
17S0 45 
3351 10 



23C9 

42S4 30 

4U01 46 

2S05 26 

3400 26 

3696 16 

1143 45 

2629 66 

1006 4S 

4053 16 

3005 

2797 10 

2166 46 

4260 2S 

3108 10 

2537 35 

2563 45 

1943 45 

1989 40 

1936 60 

2838 16 

3550 16 

3613 16 



2783 
1665 40 
2370 60 



3093 60 

2866 10 

1763 36 

2754 

2800 85 

2163 

1818 46 

2211 86 



I'M 46 

2049 

1654 

2907 60 

3Q18 16 



1606 36 

2216 

2504 25 

2600 35 

2056 

SfrU SO 

2075 20 

3142 45 

ldo3 SO 

1408 

3550 40 

2830 16 

2341 20 

1870 16 

343S 10 



2^12 

1807 

1839 

1791 40 

2327 46 

2-K)8 66 

2257 16 

2330 30 

1220 30 

1041 20 

1162 66 

1702 

3123 15 

1799 

2011 46 

2406 30 

2003 20 

1676 26 

1833 30 

2009 20 

1096 16 

MOl 10 

1023 40 



2,720 20 2,166 35 



Kill). 
61^3.410 
2.907,237 
2,10({.234 
4,417.028 
4,171,231 

8.294,08? 
2,-184,249 
3,228,258 
3,490,687 
3,650,733 

3.690,259 

4,292,740 
4,780,668 
3.650,769 
2,238,734 

1,771,43-4 
4,242.557 

3,300,280 
2,529.560 
1,823,192 

9,909,572 
2,208,000 
2,033,225 
2,306,306 
1,860,667 

1,838,074 

1.751,680 
1.911,600 



1,802,012 
1,008.000 
1.616,700 
1,036,938 
1,455,374 

1,900,310 
1,628,520 
2.338,295 
1,757,697 
1,602,350 

1,397,689 
1,W0,6B5 
1.514.008 
1,659,500 
869,125 
1,063,061 

108,781^640 

2,361,681 



60,4^13 

1,006 



0-277 
0-120 
0161 

0-193 
0-199 

0-207 
0226 
0221 
0151 
0'14S 

0195 
0-147 
0-230 
0-323 



0253 
0-222 
0181 
0-210 

0'2I2 
0168 
0123 
0187 

0-150 



0176 
0-185 

o-ioo 

0148 

0'291 

0'2il3 
0-208 
0217 
0-206 

0-223 

0-186 
0170 
0-227 
0-311 

0-246 

0'250 
0-317 



005 

10-05 
9' 52 

1015 
1025 

10-78 
10-56 

10-68 

06 
074 

10-07 
9-54 

10-24 

S-60 



0-37 
100 

8-64 
9-45 
8-75 



11-50 

10-85 



1035 
1007 



9-70 
10-65 

8-05 
9-65 
9'60 
8'60 



Metni. 
0,888 
I5,5S4 
12,4118 
15.255 
14,240 

19,290 



12,803 
13,010 
14,518 

17,083 
20,278 

11,148 

15.025 
13,717 
17,415 
23,535 

16,283 
21,129 
15,141 
11,532 

12,730 

14,693 
12,172 
16.108 
16,018 
18,892 

16,661 

13,818 
22,403 
23,356 

18,408 



28,678 

17,151 
16,C0S 

19,518 
32,603 
39,714 



601,468 
17,423 



KESn.r.\TS TIT. I.X NAVICATIOS PES PAQIEBOTS DJS 



SERVICES MABITIMES DCS VtSSAOERIES IMl'ElllAI-ES PEXUANT VANNEE IBOa 




TABLE 3.— rERPOBMANCE OP H.M.S. "VICTOR EMANUEL" AT SEA. 



TATE .LV|> SATVRE OP EXPEEI1^:^-T. 



Trial u Stake*' Bay. NoTwnber SS, 1859 . 



. De«nibet 30i 1S53 

Tr:al with fooi-Uidcd screw, Januu; 15. 1S5S,. 

F«bmarj 15, 1858 

• - Februaij- 20, 1858 

Berdum to Gibnltar, Uuch 9. 1S69 

> „ M«ichie,1359 

S;*«-ninsthiwish the Gulf of Gibraltar, Uaroh 17,1856 

> » u July IS, 1859 
A!eciailm to Ca^ Vtasen, with fleet, Angnsl 15, 185' 

> B .. AugTist 16, 185 

Uiln to Gibnltar with fleet, September IS, 1859 

UiIiA to Gibtmltij, iViiK«M Boyol in tow, Sept. 31, 1869 

m « „ Sept. SS, 1859 

Corfti to sea, ship's bottom very fOnl, June i, IBfiO 

Zinri to Ai^wtoli, Jane 11. 1860 

SiMmisgontof Atgi-xtoli, Juiielt,lS60 



Not 
sUted. 



Uilta to Nanrino (fpare scmr), July 4, 1860 , 

> B „ Jnlj-2S,18B0 

„ B B September 7, 1860 . 

„ » , September 13, 1360 . 

„ B „ September 11, 1861 . 
BerroW to Cotfn, October 14, 1960 

, October 15, 1S60 

October 17, 1S60 



Draught of Wstcr. 



S2 lot 

S2 10| 



SO 8 
20 11 



23 Oj 

24 7 



24 8 
24 11 



24 8 

24 8 



23 11 



22 10J 

23 8i 

33 Bi 



« 6i 
Sf 81 
23 7i 
23 8 
83 10 
S3 10 
23 10 



3516 
8544 

95M 
5135 
4955 

4955 
4947 
5067 
5067 
6256 
5255 
6196 
5135 
6105 
&105 
6256 
6000 
6060 
6030 
6045 
6105 
6IU5 
5105 



1000 
1033 
1033 

1032 
1050 
1050 
1079 
1074 
1069 
lOOl 
1056 
1056 
1079 
1010 
1019 
1044 
1017 
1056 
1056 
1056 



11 'Oa 
633 
6-41 
1419 
1387 
12-29 

8-ie 

10-76 
13-27 
13-6 



1012 
903 
8-57 
863 



ill 



Pull speed 

fHlllf power, 1 
Tiro bailors. J 
Throttled 

f ExpRniivsIy 7 
I iind Throttled J 

Espansivcljr 

C Eiu^nsivelj", "J 
i iritii link mo- > 
(.tion,&T!irot.J 



13-10 


11-71 


lOM 


993 


943 


6-3 


10-Ofl 


8'5 


11-35 


7-5 


10-32 


8'76 


7-22 


40 


7'22 


50 



17 

4975 

6ro 

25'5 

20*0 

30-0 

20-6 

200 

2S0 

2U'0 

18'fl 

34-0 

23-75 

ai-35 

210 



Wclah very small 
Welsh Tcry good 



Middling Welsli. 
Good WeUh 



Smull and bad . 



f Price'sTillery : 
(, very good. . 



2 10 3 
lto2 

6 to 6 



Mod. swell 
Smooth water 
lilad. swell 
Smooth water 
Long swell ., 

f Heavy chop. 
i ping sea. 

Smooth 

Mod. swell ., 
Slight swell ,. 



5 Uad.«wDU . 

M .. ■ 

to 2 I Slight swell . 

3 Smooth , 

4 HeavyLeadsi 
Smooth 



0to2 
lto3 



Spointsoi 
1 points 01 

Calm . .. 

Calm 

4pDint8onl>ow 
J 1 point bfl. " 
t fore beam. 
3i points on 
Ipointsonlow 
Calm 

6^ points on 
On the bow 
On tlio quarter 
Hood wind 



6i points a. 
Calm 



None. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Poro & aft Bails. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Fore & aft sails. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

None. 

Ditto, 
f All plniu snil. 
(.Dblc.rccli'dlapaU 

No snil. 
C Toivciilbev, ■ 
\ studding sails. 

None. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

All plain sul. 



Kominal boTse power = 600 

Diameter of cylinder = 76( incbi 

Length of stroke ... = 3feet6i 

PressareperMiaare inch on safety valves = 20 lbs. 
Steam cut off by slides at -C53 of the stroke (meanj. 



SCEEW PuOFELLEKa. 

Ori,nnal. 



Diameter 
Length 
Pitch ... 



Arcaof firo-^ate ... 

Area of opening over bridges 

„ tbrongb tubes . 

Aren of chimney 

ToCiil beating surface 



435 square feet. 
92'4 „ 

IW-7 „ 
45a „ 



Contents of steam space ... ... a 2592 cubic feet. 

Total water at working height ... = 97-7 tons. 
Macbiaery by Mnudslay, Sons, aad Field, made in 1859. 
Engines horizontal direct. 



TABLE 4. 

BETL'RN OF SEVEN TRIALS ON THE MEASURED MILE IN STOKES BAY, OF H.M. SHIP "VICTOR EMANUEL." 



ViCTOB T^ wii rpf. 



Dale Of Trial 

Trial made in , 

HorsePowerby Admiralty Kale 

Maker's Name 

Draught of Water (Forward) 

Ditto (Aft) 

Weight on Safety Valve por square inch 

Pressure of Steam in Boilers (per sq. in.) by Guage , 

Vacaara in (^ndenserg (Forwaid) 

Ditto (Aft) 

Number of Kevolutions of Engines, Klean 

Mean Pressure on Cylinders per square inch 

Indictted Horse Power 

Speed of Ship, Knots 

Weather, Force of ., 

Wind by Admiralty Standard 

Stale of the Sea , 

Ship if Riggod, or otborwise 

Weights on llourd , 



Diameter 

Pitch 

Length ... 



28 Nov. 1856. 
Stokes Boy. 
aOO Horses. 



30 Dec. 1868. 
Stokes Bay. 
000 Horses. 



SO lbs. 
20 lbs. 
23i 
23i 
65^ 
18'5B lbs. 



11923 

No, 3. 



17 ft, 3 in. 
30 ft. II in. 

30 lis. 

18 to 20 lbs. 



56 
19-63 lbs. 
21220 

12000 
No. 3 to 4. 



Not Ringed, 
Not Known. 



Not Rigged. 
Not Known. 



15 Jan. 1858. 
Stokes Bay. 
600 Horsee. 

Uaudslay, 

17 ft. 5 in. 

20 ft. 11 in. 

20 lbs. 

20 lbs. 

23 

23k 

61 

21-13 lbs. 

2076-8 

11-620 

No. 3 to 3 

Direct nil end when 

down tho course. 

Smooth. 

Not Rigged. 

Not Known. 

( 4 Bladed 
j Common 

18'3 



16 Feb. 1868. 
Stokes Bay. 
600 Horeca. 

S0U9& 

17 ft. 5 in. 
31 ft. in, 

30 lbs. 



11-713 
No, 4 to 5. 
Ahead when 

up courae. 

Smooth. 
Not Rigged. 
Not Known. 

4 Bladed. 

fonn of 

18'2 

360 

3-1 



26 Fob. 1858, 
Stokes Bay, 
600 Horses. 

Field 

17 ft. 2 in. 

21 ft. 2 in. 

30 lbs. 

30 Iba. 

23^ 

2^1 

424 

IS'28 lbs. 

13S0'96 

0932 

No. 4. 

On port bow 

when up course 

Smooth, 

Not Rigged. 

Not Known. 

4 Bladed, 7 

Screiv. ) 

18-2 



9 Sopt, 1858, 
Stokes Bay. 
600 Horses. 



Sept, 1858. 
Stokes Bay. 
000 Horses, 



26 ft. in. 

SO lbs. 
SO to 21 lbs. 



22-12 lbs, 
2437-4 
10-874 
No. 4. 



33 ft. 3 ix 
26 ft. ii 



24 

45-875 

14' 12 lbs. 

1277'33 

0-075 



Rigged. 
Not Known. 



3 Bladed. 
18'2 
26-2 



Area of Midship Sotlion at aicau Draft of Wii 
Guns, 01. Length hetwi 



r of IS ft. 2 in. = 78-i'26 square feet. Ditto iit Draft of Wiitcr of 31 ft. 2in. = 1060'0 square feet. 

1 Porpeudiculam, 230 ft. 3 in. Tonnage, 3086, BrcnJth (Eslromc). 65 ft, 4 in. 



■3? '•W.l Soi 



-pB9q(pH 
pot "BBaig on 






K *5 K 2; K 



O ^ 

1 1 



'pnds JO 9]*g aSuMV 



E 5 S = S 
jj •« -» a •» 






s " s e 3 i 






J I . ■ ■ ■ 1 = .2 



8 |. 



O '-> < 

2 S 2 



s - - s 

H, -1 -s O 



i |i I 

i < -^ O 



T I 



hi 



HAi 



B^ ^ 



jj* ■* 



-|-- »* 



I 



s s 





^ 




f:- 




>. 


:2 


& = 




^ 


1, 


1 


1 


I 


'i. 


ii 




■-s 








•-i 






















































1 


< 




h 




























s 








s 
























- 




■^ 











ai 



s 

5 


ill 


?, 1 a s 1 




w 


=e- » "= " - 




H 


Is S8 S g i 




MA 
ft t' 


1^ = 




|„ = =. = 




i;j 2 2 S R 






i 


eS 5 g S S 




1 


^^ -it -? w « 




1 

J 


asS S S 3 ? 






s s a s 2 




C 


1 




1 

> 


iiiii 





\t 





= 





i 





3 


c 





^ 


= 





DO 1003 floipniaui 
'mnn 0,1,1V iiuBuag 


^ i 


i 




i 


i 


10 

5 


-* 


i 


3 


i 




1 s 


s s 


3 


£ 


a 


g 


s 


3 


3 


i 


■illll'lR 


1 - 


s s 


g 


3 


1 


1 


2 


i 


2 


s 




l^isi 


» 


|»SS 


'^EeS 


3 


sss$ 


S§gSi 


si 


Siai 




■U|JXH3D0Bnnj,jo 
«ouii.M omiM*v 


12-3"= 


s f'- 


"SSS 


123" 


a 


oago-* 


"°S"=3 


= » 


2S-"° 






s-'asss 


01 t- 


32SS 


•jXQ^I 


s 


ICt^-^iO 


»■"»• 


^ » 


SS = 2 




■«I|'J.Jo"(|UinK 


ssss 


sg- 


SSSS 


Sass 


s 


SggS 


SS^g 


s^ 


ssas 




{1 




S3 

II 


all- 


1 


ill 
III 


i 


i 


111- 


is 
IJ 


88 
M 


1 

Ii 


1 


"gl-S 

llti 






























■a 




s°i 


< 


.|e 


!' = = 


! = = = 


1 

i 




I- 


J_ 


a 

'A ' ' ' 

■■ 1 





I 



. 



I 



I 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION— COMMITTEE ON STEASISHIP PERFORMANCE. 

— itEIURX 0(' PERKORSUSCE OF HER ilAIE^Tl'S VESSELS, FUilKlSHED BV TBE At 



^.v^ 


< 






„..,„„>- 






















i 

— 1 


rfiill-ELLLS^ 












— 








1 








,.^ 




,..„ 


„».„..„ 




Hi 

W 


A 




I 
J 


i" 


Hi 

w 


il 






«,..«. 


IJ 


.twlur. 


1 


i i 




'1 


^. 




1 
111 


i 

■3 

1 


jl 


1 

1 


1 

•s 


1 


■3 


i 
1 


1 


ll 




c™«„. c»„„.^ 1 




1 


i 
1 


1 


i 


« 1 % . 1 


! 1 


46 
45 

191 
1=1 

TJ 

ISO 
190 
190 

;i 

37 

97 

130 
180 




Cut TU^- 


T,„.™^^ 


mu. 


TVU 


*. 






— ■ i |S|| 








S-lto-ub 


OWT 

Sat r,r..rtnl 


N„'.mefJ»l 

Xslnomlol 

ll«nip»U- 

Xvlnurdal 


UoJmld ndl . 
.Vol R«n)«l 

Sliif.!-... 
X~lKnnl«l 




-_ 




1438 

180 

317' 1 

S321-K 
S3S3-00 

S«3 

1001/88 

10600 
ISOOO 

3061-90 

3WJ 
IM'81 


10 

14 

10 

1800 
48T( 

133 
ISi 

TO 
101 
89 

a 


r-'= ■-: 

IISM 

e«i9 

13«) 

133U0 

13'138 
13-717 
1S40I 

Iff709 
llfOTS 
10 073 

10707 
1!13> 

19710 

19-3*1 

Snr»a..k. 

191117 

I2-J3I> 

DIM 


looas 

7-7M 

7-30 
0-13 
1!(IU3 
11-633 

IIMI 

11-019 

U'iOD 

n-MO 

030 
0-370 

0^350 

u-iwa 

11-917 

■cross 


ri. In, 

930 

105 

aw 
170 a 

sio 

3IU 

SIO 

aoo 

136 
133 

aoo 

Sou 

2U0 

aw 

300 

too 
100 

m 
l«c u 

106 

SIO 

910 
310 

310 

9tl U 

941 D 


m" i"' To7S 
30 449 

36 m 
re 10 933 

39 tU 407 

37 310 

97 11 

48 TOS 

18 760 
18 7<a 

33 ISIB 
93 10O-6 
30 4 300 
30 4 930 

30 4 9sa 

30 4 920 
30 4 3S9 

Ot SI 1100 

01 SI im 

03 870 
99 131 

99 133 
S3 u 133 
99 1330 
S3 131 
93 139 

49 730 
48 738 

48 739 

03 4 767 

M 1 7*7 

36 4 1030 
SS 4 luM 

64 4 low 


14 n 

11 

10 s 

13 

5 1 
8 

93 4 



6 B 


10 t 

10 3 

10 t 

10 * 

10 -l 
93 10 


PL, In. 
IB 3 

IE 1 

13 8 

91 

31 3 

31 8 

8 1 

a 
a 1 

19 7 

19 T 

19 7 
13 7 

J7 3 
T ft 



31 
3t 10 

31 a 

91 B 

31 7 

91 
31 


lOM 


17 ■ o"' 


'1. In. 

33 E 

33 6 
33 B 

7 8 

90 U 

90 11 
30 I) 

95 31 
19 111 

ID 111 

8 IA 

7 31 

0« 
G 81 

oi 

6 0| 

Sill 
39 

31 11 

19 9 
30 

98 


PI. In. 

1 10 
110 

a 7 

S 7 

3 T 

I 2E<liu 

4 3 

ir'is 

(1101 

'!!! 

3 01 

3 Ti 
SIO 

a 


n,iD. 

a 
g fl 

iHi 

3 It 

3 11 
3 M 

3 i 

3 

1 01 


n. In. n, |9. 


3 


4 


Ton. 


am 
so 10 


ri.iB 

7 10 


3 
3 7 


91 

91 

3 


94 


CjdohUl 


Tg». ri.liL 

14 6 10 
14 6 61 

0-S 8 


Di 




In. Pi. in. 

691 3 

Oil s 

Ul 6 
GSl 6 
Ul GO 

R3t • 

341 8 

301 a 

89 4 

83 * 
83 4 

03 t 

18 I 
IS I 

la I 

631 « 3 

681 3 » 
661 a 1 
681 9 3 

MI s a 

S)) 9 3 

83 * 

81 < » 
100 38 4 


4 Oininon... 


Bui 
lod 








Si^Uvkr 1. liSO .. DJtte -. 


1 
















D. 


'"""' 


llFl 


C=f=r 


1 


1 

».!,:: 

3733 1 IS 

3731 ; tS 

3018 H 
5309 30 

i!:: 

307 1 
1083 ' 13 :i 

,«»!.= ., 

1033 ; 13 31 
1033 ■ 13 91 








. : -'".n-r::::::: 




Lbji;.^. 

SUt.IL, 

DiUo 


1 1.1, , l" 

J 7 . a 
1 7 « a 
a X B 
' • • "If.- 
\"°? 

3 ■ 9 

3 > S 
3 0.90 
3 ■ 3 
3 0.10 

3 to > 3 

3 10 . S 3 

tH- 10 


9 * 

on 

SI 

1 II 

101 

1 91 

71 

1 01 

1 

1 
1 

1 
4 10 


am 
ooj 
vei 

0-65 
0-85 
10-90 

two 

(rou 

0013 
O-D07 

4-OOS 

385 

IS 

093 




llOfl 




Oc«>lcr 90.1337 

Octamit.wa 


If.. 








:::: ■.,: 






X«.l0D^lHW.I«^«rW 
XA.tw.i>tU-<<pnaM 
KiituanniUi 

X^itarJoJ 

Kl>.fM..lu>J»«.WM 

XaE.l,aJipci.uM 
X>.l>l>°Llup<».r. 
!f&4i].nlapc«i« 
fi-mwA. 

Sa.lM3up™fw™.,b 

IKlUi an •. !«■ doin aMin 

X».S«oponU.-np<«n. 
Ku. iwLWwmito 

N<>.SIu4uav.k. upcuur. 

(Wa. 

K«,S»p»nhm.l>c«'M 
Xa.adirt<:llrii1<»l<l«-«c 

X«,Slu3«ap,l,.«v«'>"« 
So,S«i..1«wd™»c«uf». 

(XttSi«3,iit...tij>h-.n 

NanonU 

fl'™!;u-n..H.t.'u(«.. 
•<• 














J!!!I!III!!!ri 'ik.''' 






KmfeStUW 

AprilSlUST 

Al«l»,lBi57 _ 






1 . ■—■■.~- 


11. 

DMH. 


LnvH.-'K 
Mile 
Kll« 
DiLU 

DitM 
IMto 
»u 

DitU 

6tak.D., , 

Dill. 












n 








L-r 






r-r^ Fat (wia ft >ni 1 mtwj^ _ 

(*C»> - . 

. 4«a.i («».) 


AfrtaiMT 

J-J/Mwr 

i'licim - 

JiJ»e.i»sr 

J.J,1M»57 


1 




3 CWoen 






' 




^ 








1 .. 


NMnwrM 

OruM 










JaM»t,Wta 

lUr9a.UM 

OMiAbT.UM 


0035 

ci»M 

SIM 
900 

too 
3003 

3n>t 

38U3 

3aiu 

3316 
6330 


90 1 

90 1 

111 












\ulnwM 


I.«,b1.Tmiik -.- 






















a" 




Hinoot'j 

XalnHnM 


" 


- 


I 


ssrii 

3 wo 

811 M 
S«UM 
SS8I4 

98930 

3ouU'oa 

930175 

1!M7'M00 

14» 


9lt 
ITS 

30 

48-93 
tD«33 

U 

fiilSS 

34 


0-no 

8-67 
0817 

13831 
13014 
13«-1 

11018 

ia'7M 
11- 

19S98 
19 OSS 
14607 

)4'6aT 

mm 

19'D06 


T-OBO 

11-890 

1UW' 

1S0J» 


1 91 

81 
111 

01 

1 0) 

3 6 

4 

3 D 

4 3 
4 si 

3 
3 

3 

3 


3 101 
1 It 
Xol 

TlOl' 

5 G 

10 

6 10 

S 1 
8 1 

a I 

a 1 

S 1 






1 "' 

1133 

1UT5 

10-75 

1075 










]' 


Kwt,^. -- 






. (Lc-a-pnvtlM 

. lOnCik-.»..) ..„_ 






"™ 


oiu- 10 

I 81. 1 
1 8 > 1 9 
3 8 ■ 9 

S 8 » S 

3 • !1 

3 8.60 
3 U • 9 

3 0.90 
3 fl . S 


3 1-0 11 


l'..;'.,'. '_ * ■■■ Zu \ o\: 




JsmtKiaa 

SivWbW IOl 19ST 

li«it*ai.ist8 

KirAisai -- 

April W, 1630 

U^ir.it^ .... ^ 

iUjn.tKit 

i(«6.IK* 


thIW.. 

llilK.^, 

IK>I«.. 

l>.ito. 
Ulla.. 

riitu„ 




iH 

I 
31 
Ul 

a ti 

61 

41 
31 

-I 9 

-1 3 

110 
















!l,„.. ;,:': 


811136 4 
, S1130 * 

.. WlW 4 

-■■i .W 4 
■ yy. M 1 

-I ^ * 

1 Ml 30 4 
_ W)3a 4 

... eojai * 

WIW 4 
Wl 38 4 


3 Cmnm 


tio 

110 

no 
no 

110 
HO 

no 


J 






i 


- ii,„ 




(«a-rs,i>;i 












'-"■■ 




''^'rm ud SubV I^jtt 

xUnwM ndltaiiii uiddli 


bmin 
SlwiinciaJiTwiiili 


1 












Pilto , 

DiH- ,.„ 

IhUt. __, 

UllW 




. ,_.., — 


OtM-rJWlM7 
0<trf-r*),IMT 




























K<>.3l~4()>wl<li'i>i<.rl.l> 

Ha.4>1lt1>llTMiF.b.<I»t> 






. ft-^-ViW»««) __ 








1 1 1 1 












., 1 1 1 1 






"1 






















1 


1 


1 


\ 








I 



T 



J 




EM,lMy 






















1 


























t 


. 


,™ 


















- 








„.^,» 






P 


Pb™. 


1 

J3_ 


1 


1 ^ 




11,1' 


11 


1^^ 


1^ 


|S 


■3 




5,1, 


1 


i 


1 

1 
a* 


1 


Die>r'u'<!uj!.?B 


Tuta,u>d 


J 


^ 


1 


Hi ^-h 1 


1 1 


TV..^ 






iJ 


1 


1 


1 


ML 


1 


1 


i 


^ 


i 


i 


i 


ill 


V 


ll 
1 


T 


1 


I 


1 


:., 




swJ^w .. 


IT* 


n. 


w 


ICWK 


;i.'s 


OUD 


lai 


»! 


,% 


r. 


lot 

ft 

w 

X.l 

01 
IS 
IS 

a) 




Caatnw lululv 


1^ In 


fl. In 


IS 10 


is 


n™ 


2SlW 


csh.n. 


SO 


H,,n. 


(*<«. 


so.fl. 


*3S 


70S 


s a 1 a 


Bd^V. |-,«„t 

ri. Id. ri. (n. 

13 3 


s."- 


rni«. 


«, 


;.|- 




niu. 




ml 


K<,i 






IKS 




go 


IJO 

s» 

IM 


9> 








a>l 


tE38 


,„.A.| 




C7linJ-l"tul,ol. 


10 e 


ft 

in 


10 
a 10 


12S< 


;j-i 


030 


IBSS 

071 


10 
10 


ISO 

11777 


atia 


SS7 
S57 


575 
Ml-S 


330 

;i7ua4 


s S 1 8 
3 8 1 S 

17 13 


D I * 

1 1 1 a 
Ilia 


VTb 
318 


J 


87a 
7oe 


t 3 


SI 


', 


Oiioiro"iiisii,o'o"fc 

Ona30'i"lile1i.4'0"<]a. 


in 


■ 


Tml (or .[Mul puioo. not for ijKti. 

TKllo 

Tnjlinlmnploli >|«il ool l«l« rdirf o™i. 




sw 


3ilt4a 


MM 


lOS 


10 






bin 


« 


Si! 

SHI 

ei r. an. 

53 


Its 


ir» 

8117 

oas 




ComuxHi tobuU 




10 a 


11 s 


i«a 


»ia 


lOU 


WWl 


m 


:in 


OIBl. 


8W 


Mn-33 


laTS 


S 3 1 3 


X 3 3 


07-9 




lUO 




"-i 




Oi»17'0-'lil*li,ra"ilii 


1(1 






; J ^-; '^ 


1" 




i<n 




MM 




07 * 


eoo 


10 


ivoo 




I 


IS 10 
13 10 


11 T 
11 7 


13 7 


Xnr. 
3011S 
30114 


IB1» 


3J1'0 
51611 


SMO- 


i 


oo 

HI 


HS77 
13057'S 


3S7 
SMS 


au'is 


E 


S 1 

no 1 a 

110 1 6 


18 3 


137 
lOWJ 




3IS 


G at 

S 

a 

fi 


3t 
St 


I 


Oii.a8'0"liTi-1i,9'10"4-ii 

o<««'O"i.iei.,a'0"ait 
Ou.60'o"i,isi.e'a"d* 


12 




Vo«1 poKlitxa iniD (he »Tn« : iia of mHibi^ 


- 


IS 


• 


100 


MO 


*»TE 






SOD 


lot 


51 


IB'W 


8« 


1B| 






13 10 




„ T 


SOl-M 


IK-SS 


9m-t 


aescr 


•* 


6M 












18 3 


i«/a 




°9M 


a 














" 


IS 


• 










110 t 


«n 


IB 


91. IS 


ItfM 


»MI 


10 




„ 


13 10 


11 7 


n 7 


Mii 


IBtM 


sisi'i 


UK»- 


?^ 


&11 














I0O3 










' 


SO 


" 






in 
















m 


SI.94I 




im 


ISl 










IS 7 




10«S 




ww 




£11 
































Wttll 


(i!!£,a! 


w 


MS 








8o 


m 


HM 


ISIM 


0^ 


l«l 




„ 


13 10 


n ft 


I'l 7 


aui^ 




ai»ii 


.wso' 


31 




1SC678 




OI.VIS 




1 10 1 6 




100-0 








nt 




" 


" 




•■«-»= 










07 




u 


MI 


K-Tl 


low 


SO 






IS 7 


It 




3»7 


3037 


3iKM' 


»7«)- 


33 


7a> 


lSI)7i 


also 




IISS 




I a S 3 


133-3 


.. 


3;!0 




31 




T«5i'a"lii(rb.ro"dik 






























































































m 


U8 


lU 




« 1 


m 


(U 





IIS 


... 


00 

ao 




Cjlindrl UbuU 


10 a 


s e 




S« 


I«« 


131 


110 


3 

1 


as 


lasi 


lOffl 


eo-n 
00-0 


33 


1 a 1 


1110 


a-1 


■• 


JS7 


B 1 




Irviu 


0>u>SO'V'blch,S'!t"Jii. 


as 




















10 




03 




«-a 




00 






10 3 






S70 


wss 






a 


as 






mre 






1110 






337 














9 




(^.Sl 




«U 






M 


w 


m 


_.,.„, 


SI'S 




00 






la a 


1 a 




STO 




131 


*M 




33 


1381 


IIJ07 


eite 


S3 


10 10 


1110 


O'l 




337 


a 1 


,, 






" 




** 




3U 






U 




» 


a 


iims 


T-80 


90 




l"Sui'"l 




10 


3 




7ao 


itsa 


I3M 


IB 


317 


sg;?! 


lliJO 


l«i 


3X 






U-B 














"I 
























































































.KOfi 


)" 






3I»« 






K 


IM 


so 


R 


srt 


»ii 


to 






e 


10 


9 


I1G« 


laa 


isss 


mi 




sn 


M7»i 




*>77 


300 


U>cD»IIn. 




M-fl 




Ilia 




St 


1)™«. 




^ 






- 








HIS 






ti 




ISblSD 


2S 


IT 11 


O'SB 


10 




_ 


IS e 


IS 


a 3 


iiS'O 


70-0 


IS'i8 




la 








1077 








*s-s 














,. 














«Oi 






at 




IStnW 


S3 












IS 


13 


a s 


llfi-B 




1638 




H 
















us 






;r"b 












• 








14!'* 


JB 




Of 


UO 


IDloW 


« 


iwit 


O-M 


m 




_ 








iia'O 


700 




I.IM 


la 


517 


SSTS-i 


ll8i-« 


1077 


300 


UiebOdm. 


llifll lloilcn. 


IS'9 




sio 












- 








M» 






K 


3S0 


ITlulO 


11, S3 


*K> 


8'M 


I9| 




, 


10 3 


10 


11 


ll&O 


iti-a 


ISS8 


laos 




■J 17 


6^73-1 


iiM-a 


1077 


300 


1 1 a 


13 10 












. 


■11 




(Tniil fnr j[«ul poqiom, oi>l fi>r ipKiL Iimtr- 
( iiQli ul M.v. « nf^lin ,iuiBlil|. 


. 


u 


118L.1K1 


1«0 


am 


M'« 




114 at 


am 


91 


io(.M 


SI'S! 


07 


so 




Coimngn Igliulir 


13 11 


11 D 


13 « 


3SM 


oil's 


sroM 


aasn 


:t 


SM 


isn^rs 


ssa 


ois 


m 


1 a 1 a 


1 B J 


ion-n 




ssnfl 


a aj 


St 




On.70'0"l,igli,e-l"d* 
















*«> 




lit S: 


wo 


ITtoM 


ffl. SI 


3130 




i»\ 












sal 


Ill'B 


HTOira 


3030 






110117^ 








10 13 










o; 


9t 






» ., 




■ 






1M« 


*M 


Wtl 




ipi a 


lun 


101 


Sll 


SSO 


an 


m 






■ 1 G 


IS 3 


11 lU 


sate 


XBV 


331 n 


S7W 


33 


083 


ISUS 


asas 


MTO 




a 1 3 


18 9 3 


i7rB 


_ 


OGSO 




8( 


„ 


TV»«S'o"lr((h.fl'a-iI«. 


a .. 














IW 




M 




DO 




ssn 


!!! 


ou 




Olindrl lubvlir 


in s 


It 




■«fl 




1-7 


MUB 


' 


»7a 


SMC 


«'^ 


ss* 


» 


Ills 








%i 


:: 




If™. 


on.sro-'H.M-r'di^ 


S : 












Ul 


]»'■ 




W 




eo 


- - 


.„ ■, ...1 









ttt 


310 


i;i« 




M 




00 




a#so 


... 


eo 




, 


IS B 


* * 


... 


■09 


iss 


IS7 


soo-s 


a 


3)7a 


D7E'S 


S)' 


9S-G 


au 


1 s 1 a 


.„ >. .. 


„ 


aj3 


a 8 




. 




„ ., 








ns 


ta 


!ll 




» 




oo 






















13 5 


1ST 




a 








31-S 




Ills 










> - 














a-ss 


aa 


191) 




3» 




00 




•ow 


.. 


«a 




, 


IS B 


S 4 




U8 


I3S 


IS7 


3006 


3 


a37a 


ms'G 


67' 


W6 


30 


1 s 1 t 


1 11 1 1 83 


STl 






:; ': 












635 


ii(« 


i;s 




ag 




00 






- 


00 




■ 




* * 




M§ 


138 


1!7 


soos 


a 


3370 


0766 


BJ' 


SS'S 


30 


1 t 1 9 


















'■ 






II 


5Mt*H.... 


IW* 


fiitn 






aoo 


Wl 


Ul 




i^as 


»1 




CounDon lgbu1> 




11 a 


11 




ITSfl 


ssoa 


«« 


91 


«1 


nail 




018 


.,.1... 




ll™.. |onrM'tf'Litb.7'e"i.. 


" 






.^mtS 


';: 




in 




(0 




KO 9 


««i 


IBl 
1D| 


at 

so 


SIU 

ss'sa 


Witt 


m 

101 




" 


13 
13 


U 3 

11 a 


11 

11 a 


a>io 


llSfl 


■aio 

2203 


»so 


M 


SIS 


11**1 


saoi 


11 


zV.r, 


1 \ s ' 


imI 


" 


978-* 


8 a. Si 
a|st 




,. 


SO 












va 


IM 


U^ 




IW 1 


<K0 


sal 


M 


ScrTJ 


001 


Snj 




„ 


13 


11 a 


11 B 


a>to 


na-o 


PJIH 


♦030 


SI 


Ml 


nan 


anni 


618 






SI I 1 a 


llg'S 


„- 


376-1 
















IS 




m \ 


3M 


te-ifi 




1W a 


too 


» 


SB 


M67 


ma 


SO 




- 


la 


11 a 


11 u 


owo 


173-0 


si<a 


IW 


S.I 


su 


1I8U 


asoi 


OIS 












a:si 


OjSI 


.. 




31 












in ' 


aouM 


tfr«U 




lOO 1 


6D0 


9H 


SS) 


arts 


ICrM 


»l 




, 


13 B 


11 a 


11 t 


SOk-O 


ITSII 


2303 


laso 


t\ 


s» 


I18M 


5301 


018 


810 




s; I 1 s 


I33S 


. 


SlS-i 


0(-l 














u 








M71 








Sro 


Si 


91-M 


10 
















173D 


MB3 


MOT 








saai 














97^-i 


a a|5. 






so 








IB 




1M» 


tsi 


^UU 




xao 3 


iCO 


m 


£1 


Mill 


OM 


"l 






13 a 


11 a 


13 


as7« 


IJOtt 


3S0S 


3780 


St 


bit 


118SI 


3IM 


000 


aio 




S| 1 1 9 


13S-3 


„ 


S7B'4 


a 0| = 




(h«6i'o"bifib,r6-Ja. 
































lU) 






13 a 


11 3 


IS 












EU 


lltrU 


MOO 
























( Till, mil not uliJtrtorr : llit lb™ Piltnl Lo^ 




18 




10) 


uo 


lloU 




m » 




SO 


sat'ij 


9rlH 


071 


so 




, 


13 a 


11 3 


11 


tare 


m-a 


UBS 


3TB0 


ss 


su 


II8M 


SUU 


000 


sia 




alls 


isa-s 






a ois 


„ 




















































































^ tiru I'lliut La» inn lut, 11» Uurd >Sd:(«J 








im 








IM a 


«w 


so 


SO 


mn 




so 






IS 8 


11 3 


13 
































a ois 














IS 




im i U4 


Mt 




IflO s 


«« 


90 


asl 


107* 


OK 


9U 






M 8 


11 a 


13 l> 


ttrts 


ITOB 


asos 


3760 


91 


6H 


11 8U 


sino 


(M 


810 




si 1 1 s 


2 IJS^ 






a 0|3 


- 


„ 










W 




KXI MS 


BUM 




I., a 






ta|>«so 


I'JIQ 


at» 


an 














178-9 


36113 


3TS1 


SI 


Sll 


11811 












3 lli-S 






als 






Z 


„ 1 








IM WS 


*.! 






H., 


91 


■M( 


'« 


ID'S 


Su 






1.1 B 


11 3 


13 u 


S'.T-* 


i;u-8 


asui 


37MI 


11 


OH 


IIBH 


5W11 


ow 


810 




s: 1 1 a 


J las-a 


- 




oa)s 


.. 












■'"'■^ ""•■'■'" 


























































1 











T 



J 



V.iRIOl'S I IRi ISISTaKCES. 



Hs Na hi 



J I '" 



!ii^ 






aW 



nil 



ll » 1 oj 



1: 



I i 
s 



: Cinrinf 107 tol Jim with Ihrif 



■£"=! 



-T fEBVICE t"N"DEE! VaR[iH 



tJ »'V"£ i.v.Tfir "i 






IB 



3lfl D<J«_ _ < 

Im f;f>I>nlR.m|t»>Llill: 



n l.iiei.»>« .1 sa » 

r 

•-■* ; ( «|-. >ru 1-^ f IWh IS 1 1 ^ 



IH 



.- --^ 








."* 


IS 


SWIO 


ll,H.T.l»t 


IE 


>» 




M 


SM 






*M 


1« 


M 


40O 






m 


MM 


M 


ON 




M 


400 




M 


400 




la 


Va 


U.II.T,1*1 


u 


»» 


E-MO 


M 

1 



fli J 






Tufcnlir- 
b~in]lo4iVi 

TstnlJ 




II illUl»nrla!l.I 





-- 








^ 









w« 


,» 


,„ ~l 




7, 


1" 


... 




U 




« • 






W 


aa 




Ki 




JT 




l«l 




U 




SI 


121} 


u 




»3 


., 








Uob'tAMinw 
DUIu't pti 



LuDb'atilTDln 






JJ 


S3 


"as 


flB*J 


49 


4IG 


Bf.lll. 




»w 


OS 


CO a 


TW 


UK 


6 ID 


70 


310 


ITO 


«M 



^K 



iro"-. .VT 

I .3-2' > 



D'.a'roi" 



JF 



3 3 
Uno 3 



i 

lis 



Mno 1 U 
linn 9' 0" 



tini) 1 I 
Unol I 



) ») 1 3 
. 4t 1 S 

;i 111) 



OnotfO"! 

Ttn vr- db., : 



rODiA'-l"di9..lfnilhW 
1 uttiltT. 



<I'a".40',an»J-ia 



OaaVdiL 

Oiiiro-dii,utti«B,.i(. 



o«3Mi.,»l'IO''lg.,ini>»i 

Oilr>ls"i]ia„-T8;}|„„ 

OntlS"<li..l(> Is.Ug'-tn 
OnD3':i''Ji., 4(flil!;l>.3'3iii 



1. Ruadolph >iiil Rlilrr'i 4ual 



EiincicdrmmLo; OwVoflliBp 8 S C, 
fPIU»i<rilbMn>n.{Uudi>1pb ami EUv,; 

EilncUdrrDDi Log Bunk nflbors N' r 
ComamptiaD ortnl per LHP. pel l.t -:i t 
Eilnclrd fnio L<« Book ol Iha I'. S N I. 



iniuliKl bj (b» n'at iDdu lUd Coit 



Fomihcd bj Uanv O. Rnou md Sn. 

'Eilmi'lid frail T** BsoV by pmnuiioa n( i 

PffiiTuiilAT nnd OtiBDtol Companr' 
Foioiiliwi bj- aipur^ Humphwr sod Tpaniat. 
FomuhBl bj' llaun. G. Reiiaie ud Sod. 



'Bitnclnl rtum Lc^ hook br ntmiiuioa of lb 
, tcninnilirsiKlOHiiibilCainpaay. 
F^mi'hed by the P.ii™iibir and OnenUI Co-i: 
FnniiibHl by Tbnraw Sbip Buildiiii ConiPiaf . 
, undfrsraMmin. PeniiAiidSOn.. 



fomiiJirf by JlMsn. SIUTriion and Co. 

uiiio. 

Fumitlirf by Mfwn. J, and W. tlrulieui. 
Ditto. 

(FamKhal liy PnAv«r J, lUMoomt ItiTi^Jii' D..'.[ 
bj J. U. Ittpi.F. Eniian m JiHn. xhu.,, i t,,: j 

iibnl by Mcvcr.. June 1V.H A CVl 



j«HlB,Iilo„jp„„,i|^,^,jjfjj^^lj^ll^^l^^|.^p^^^^^ j^^^JOJ^^^^^^^-^»in.^^ tr 




nniTMl A8S0C!ATI0N-(Vi:MjriTTEK i 

.^IIOWIXO IIIR ItKSI l.T- OK Tin; I'F.lIlOinlANCK OK tilX ■ 



STEAMSHIP 

IIEK MAJE.'iTV.'< 



ruNguunt non tiiiti. 



lii n 



fin 



1. 






"1„ 



TADLK 5.-K(;TirRS SIIOIVISG TUP. IIESULTS OP PGnFORJIASrR OK RIOIITEEN VESSELS 





I — ^ 






I IS i4 U II 
>1 D I II II I 1 
I >1 U A 



m I _ 

II • # 

U a II a 

l« a M 

ID II 11 u 





r ■ 




i: 
! 


! ,r,,,„. 






ll» •■'.i''!; 


::^ 


;';: 



Patint DsalilaCrUndi 
i Ad.Utm _ .„ 



3 HI DiUn . . 

a n I hMiiDRibU(>liii£i 



ion 


WTl 


11 a 


n a 












U 

t s 

It 
1 


•in 

«t 

10DO 


II D 

U 
* N 


II D 

ir 

10 
tl 



s 


\l 


a *| 

U Od^lnol 

u 11 |V 1 a 


!■ 


s 


in 


1» 


II 


II loir 








I 


> 


,» « 






















V..(,r^1, ri-.<"Ml-,(. 


10 


• r 


IXIIO 

llill.l-r«,li»vrt*H* 
VtnicallriTniAciHci. 


m 


;« 


luntndCJlhidR . . 


to 


1 4 


.. I „ i -ib. 


sa 


9 , 


o«ni.tiw 


M 


:.. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 193 

Tables 3 and 4. This is the more valuable, as the returns of seven trials on 
the measured mile are given with it. 

Your Committee are aware that several officers are conducting a series of 
experiments under various conditions, which it is their intention to report to 
your Association, through this Committee, on their return home. 

The Log-book, compiled by your Committee, is also being filled up by the 
same officers, with a similar object. 

Your Committee have met with great success in their applications to ship- 
owners, engineers, and builders for information respecting the sea performances 
of merchant vessels. In no case have they met with a refusal to supply all 
the data in their possession, and your Committee have reason to believe that 
before long the records kept on the voyages will be amplified, and the data 
thus obtained be published periodically by shipowners themselves. 

The thanks of the Committee are especially due to the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company, to the London and North-Western Company, to the 
Pacific Steam Navigation Company, to the City of Dublin Steam Packet 
Company, to Messrs. Morrison and Co. of Newcastle, to Messrs. Penn and 
Sons, the Thames Shipbuilding Company, Messrs. R. Napier and Son, Messrs. 
Fawcett, Preston and Co., and Messrs. J. and W. Dudgeon. 

The Peninsular and Oriental Company freely offered their books for in- 
spection, and placed the logs of their vessels ' Candia,' ' Ceylon,' ' Columbia,' 
' Delta,' ' Nubia,' and ' Pera,' in the hands of the Committee, to make any 
extracts they deemed useful. 

Copies of voyages from Southampton to Alexandria, and from Aden to 
Calcutta, and return of those vessels respectively, were taken, and the average 
performances worked out. They are given in the Table of Merchant Vessels 
(Appendix, Table 5). 

The London and North- Western Railway Company have furnished your 
Committee with information of especial value, viz., the trial performance and 
ordinary working performance of one of their vessels, the ' Cambria,' under 
two conditions — the first as originally constructed, the second after being 
lengthened 40 feet. Data of this description are precisely those required to 
enable the naval architect to judge what are the qualities which constitute a 
good vessel, and assist him in designing vessels possessed of high speed, 
great capacity, limited draught of water, economy of power, and all the 
qualities which constitute good sea-going ships, with much greater certainty 
than heretofore. 

In the same table (No. 5) your Committee have thought fit to repeat a 
somewhat similar return, given in their last Report, viz., a Table, &c., show- 
ing the Trial Performance of the steam vessels ' Lima ' and ' Bogota ' when 
fitted with single-cylinder engines, and after being refitted with double- 
cyHnder engines ; also the sea performances of the same vessels under both 
these conditions of machinery, and on the same sea-service. 

These returns, therefore, show the difference of performance of a vessel 
with the same machinery but lengthened in her hull, and of two vessels with 
the hull a constant, but with entirely different engines. 

_A glance at the column showing the consumption of coals in each case 
will at once demonstrate the importance of the subject in a commercial point 
of view. 

The London and North- Western Company have likewise furnished returns 
of the speed and consumption of coal of their express and cargo boats, under 
regulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, from January 1 to De- 
cember 31, 1860 (Ai^peudix, Table 6). Similar returns for 1858 and 1859 
are contained in the two former Reports of this Committee, and show the 
regularity with which the service has been conducted. 

1861. 



194 REPORT — 1861. 

■ Your Committee would again call the attention of shipowners to the system 
of trials which has resulted in the combination of perfect regularity and effi- 
ciency of service with economy (so far as the vessels and machinery would 
admit) which this series of returns exhibits. 

In the first Report of this Committee, presented to your Association at the 
Meeting held in Aberdeen, a series of tables are given, showing the method 
which was adopted for ascertaining the working capabilities of each vessel. 
The following explanation was furnished by Admiral Moorsom, and illustrates 
the means by which the proper service to be obtained from a vessel may be 
estimated* : — 

" When the four passenger vessels, ' Anglia,' ' Cambria,' ' Hibernia,' and 
' Scotia,' were first employed in August 1848, the commanders were autho- 
rized to drive them as hard as they could, subject only to the injunction not 
to incur danger." 

After some months' trial the qualities of each vessel and her engines were 
ascertained, and a system was brought into operation which continues to the 
present time. (Tables 3-14.) 

The Returns Nos. 2 and 6 show the results of the hard driving and the 
commencement of the system periods. The column indicating " Time," 
" Pressure," and " Expansion," is the key to the columns "Average Time of 
Passage," "Weight on Safety Valves," and "Proportion of Steam in Cylin- 
der," and, as a sequence, also to the consumption of coal. 

" Time a minimum " shows the hard driving. " Time a constant " shows 
the system. The relations of " pressure " and " expansion " show how, under 
hard driving, the highest pressure and the full cylinder produced the highest 
speed the wind and tide admitted, or how, the time being a constant, those 
two elements were varied at the discretion of the commander, within prescribed 
limits, to meet the conditions of wind and tide. 

The result of the system on the coal is a decreasing consumption. 

The Return No. 1 shows the results of certain trials under favourable con- 
ditions, but in the performance of the daily passage by four of the vessels, 
which results are used as the standard tests with which the results of each 
quarter's returns are compared. 

For example, the, ' Scotia ' at 15-9 statute miles an hour consumes 6840 
lbs. of coal as a standard. (See Table 4.) 

In the Return No. 3, at the speed of 12-96 miles she consumed 5226 lbs. ; 
the first at the rate of 430 lbs. per mile (see Table 5), and the second at 
about 403. 

Again, in the succeeding quarter, the ' Scotia ' consumed 7528 lbs. at 
14'65 miles an hour, or more than 513 lbs. per mile. 

Here was a case for inquiry and explanation. It will be observed that in 
Return No. 1 the consumption of the ' Scotia ' at ordinary work at sea is 
5820 lbs. per hour, and it is only when the consumption exceeds 6840 lbs. 
that it becomes a subject of question, the difference between those figures 
being allowed for contingencies. 

No. 4 (see Tables 12, 13) is a Return which shows the difference between 
the issues of coal each half year, and the aggregate of the returns of con- 
sumption, the object of which needs no elucidation. ^ 

No. 5 (see Table 14) shows the duration of the boilers, with particulars of 
the work done. The saving in money under the return system, as compared 
with hard driving, was of course very considerable, and the latter was only 
justifiable as a necessary means of learning the qualities of each vessel, to be 
afterwards redeemed by the economy of the system. 

Tlie ' Kibernia,' it will be seen, was unequal to the service ; and I may 
* See Volume of Transactions of the Aberdeen Meeting, 1859, page 276. 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 195 

here observe that experience has shown me that in machinery, as in animal 
power, it is essential that it should be considerably above its ordinary work. 

The want of this extra power was a defect of the early locomotive engines, 
whose cost of working per mile was very considerably higher than that of 
the engines now in use. 

This defect, which is that of boiler-power, prevails largely in steam-vessels, 
and especially in the Queen's ships. 

It would be easy to show how system must tend to economy; and the 
saving of coal is apparent from the returns, and of course all the engine stores 
are commensurate. 

But the repairs — the wear and tear — involve a much more important ele- 
ment of economy than even a reduced consumption of coal. 

The Return for 1860 is accompanied by a check account of the consumption 
of coal. (Appendix, Table 7.) 

The City of Dublin Steam Packet Company have obligingly furnished 
returns of the consumption of coal and average time of passages of their mail 
boats ' Prince Arthur,' ' Llewellyn,' ' Eblana,' and ' St. Coluraba,' from Janu- 
ary 1st to December 30th, 1860, the last quarter embracing the fast vessels 
' Leinster ' and ' Ulster.' (Appendix, Tables 8 and 9.) 

Your Committee were invited to attend a trial of the latter vessels between 
Holyhead and Kingstown, and a deputation, consisting of Admiral Moorsom, 
the Duke of Sutherland, Lord Alfred Paget, Mr. Wm. Smith, C.E., Mr. J. 
E. M'^Connell, and Mr. H. Wright, attended. They were kindly assisted by 
Mr. "Watson, the Managing Director of the Company, in obtaining informa- 
tion connected with these vessels and their performances. The particulars 
of these trials will be found in Appendix, Table 5. 

A deputation from your Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Smith and Mr. 
Wright, also at the invitation of the London and North- Western Railway 
Company, attended the trial of the ' Admiral Moorsom,' a new cargo boat 
built expressly for the conveyance of live stock. The particulars are given 
in Appendix, Table 5, to which your Committee would direct attention, as 
the speed obtained, and the steadiness exhibited by the vessel in a very heavy 
sea, excited considerable surprise. They have received numerous invitations 
from other companies and shipowners to attend the trials of their vessels. 

Your Committee have been in correspondence with the Imperial naval 
authorities of France and of the United States. 

The latter have already published various trials conducted with admirable 
skill and precision, and embracing most of the particulars asked for by the 
Committee. 

In France, the Company of the Messageries Imperiales have for some time 
■given annual averages of the results of the navigation of the vessels in their 
service, for private use only ; but on the application of your Committee to be 
supplied with such returns, copies were at once forwarded, with a letter from 
the President stating that, although it was not the usual custom of private 
companies to make public the information requested, and although the Report 
transmitted to them (the Committee's 2nd Report) contained no analogous 
comparison of the state of the great English companies who perform similar 
service, nevertheless they have not hesitated to accede to the Committee's 
wish, by contributing as much as lay in their power, — thus proving their cor- 
dial sympathy with the useful object the British Association have in view. 
• The Tables of Results of their vessels, 50 in number, for the years 1859 
and 1860, are given in Appendix, Tables 10 and 11, constituting, with the 
one given in the last Report, a valuable series extending over three consecu- 
tive years. 

o2 



196 REPORT 1861. 

Your Committee take this opportunity of expressing their satisfaction in 
being able to report, that since the commencement of their labours in 1857, 
the interest that has been taken in Steamship Performance, and the desire to 
assist the Association in eliciting information on the subject, not only by 
officers of the Royal Navy, but also of the merchant service, fully bear out the 
opinion expressed at the meeting of the Association in Dublin, that this subject 
was second to none in importance, and that its steady pursuit would tend 
very materially to the advancement of the science of shipbuilding and marine 
engineering. 

The following is a general summary of the results of the Committee's 
labours during the past season. They have obtained — 

1. The particulars of the machinery and hulls of seventeen of H.M.'s vessels, 
and the details of 58 trials made during the years 1857, 185S, and 1859, sup- 
plied by the Admiralty. The Committee are in possession of copies of the 
diagrams taken during the trials in 1859, with notes of observed facts by the 
officers conducting the trials. The names of the vessels are the ' James Watt,' 
' Virago,' ' Hydra,' ' Centaur,' ' Industry,' ' Diadem,' ' Mersey,' ' Algerine,' 

• Leven,' ' Lee,' ' Slaney,' ' Flying Fish,' ' Marlborough,' ' Orlando,' ' Bull- 
finch,' 'Doris,' and 'Renown.' (Appendix, Table 1.) 

2. Returns of seven of H.M.'s vessels when at sea, under various circum- 
stances, viz., under steam alone, under sail alone, and under sail and steam 
combined. The names of these are the ' Colossus,' ' Chesapeake,' ' Flying 
Fish,' ' St. George,' ' Clio,' ' Sphinx,' and ' Victor Emmanuel.' 

3. Return of the London and North- Western Railway Company's steamboat 
' Cambria's ' trials and ordinarj' performances as originally built, and after being 
lengthened ; also of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company's vessels ' Lima ' 
and 'Bogota,' when fitted with original and other machinery ; also of the new 
cargo boat, the ' Admiral Moorsom.' 

4. Returns of the Peninsular and Oriental Company's boats ' Colombo,' 

• Candia,' ' Ceylon,' ' Delta,' ' Nubia,' and ' Pera,' when on voyages between 
Southampton and Alexandria, and between Suez and Bombay respectively, 
together with particulars of their machinery and hulls furnished by the 
builders and engineers. 

5. Returns of the Pacific Steam Navigation Company's vessels ' Guaya- 
quil ' and ' Valparaiso,' with particulars of trials and sea voyages during 1860. 

6. Returns of the trials of the vessels ' Leouidas,' ' Mavrocordato,' ' Pene- 
lope,' furnished by Messrs. Morrison and Co., and the ' Thunder ' and 'Midge,' 
by Messrs. J. and W. Dudgeon. 

7. Tables showing the Results of the Navigation of the steamboats in the 
service of the Messageries Imperiales, during the years 1859 and 1860. 

8. Returns of the London and North-Western Company's steamboats 
' Anglia,' ' Cambria,' ' Scotia,' ' Telegraph,' ' Hibernia,' 'Hercules,' ' Ocean,' 
and ' Sea Nymph,' under regulated conditions of time, pressure, and expansion, 
from January 1 to December 31, 1860. Half-yearly verification of the con- 
sumption of coals for the same period. 

9 . Return of the average time of passage and consumption of coal of the City 
of Dublin Steam Packet Company's mail steamers ' Prince Arthur,' ' Llewel- 
lyn,' 'Elbana,' and ' St. Columba,' for six months ending June 30th, 1860. 

10. Ditto ditto, with the addition of the fast steamers 'Leinster' and 
'Ulster,' for three months ending September 30th, 1860. 

11. Return of the average passages of the mail packets 'Leinster,' 'Ulster,' 
*Munster,' and ' Connaught,' for six months ending March 31st, 1860. 
(Appendix, Tables 12, 13, and 14.) 

12. Return of the trial of the 'Leinster' and 'Ulster' between Holyhead 
and Kingstown, (Table 5.) 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 



197 



13. Diagrams or indicator cards* have been received, taken from the fol- 
lowing ships : — ' Cambria,' ' Admiral Moorsom,' ' Leinster ' and ' Ulster,' ' Co- 
lombo ' (lengthened), ' Nubia,' and ' Thunder.' 

The sura of £150 voted by the Council of the Association to defray the 
expenses of the Committee has been expended, and the statement of the ex- 
penditure, which could not be prepared in time for publication with this Re- 
port, will be presented by the Committee at the Meeting. 

The thanks of the Committee are especially due to Mr. Wm. Smith, C.E., 
a member of the Committee, for the large amount of assistance he has ren- 
dered in collecting information, as also by placing a room in his offices at the 
disposal of the Committee. 

Your Committee, in conclusion, have the painful duty to record the death 
of their late Chairman, Admiral Moorsom, and the regret which they have 
felt at the melancholy event which has deprived them of their Chairman, and 
their sense of the great loss which has thus been sustained bj^ your Associa- 
tion and by the scientific world at large, as well as by the distinguished pro- 



fession to which he belonged. 



OfBces of the Committee, 
19 Salisbury Street, Adelphi, London. 



(Signed) 



Sutherland, 
Chairman, 



Appendix. — Table 12. 

Return of the Average Passages of Mail Packets and Consumption of Coal 

for Six Months, ending 31st March, 1861. 



Name of Vessel. 


Number 

of 
Trips. 


Average 

Time, 

including 

Fogs, &c. 


Coal consumed, including getting up Steam. 


Anthracite. 


Bituminous. 


Total, 


Average 
per Trip. 


Leinster 


183 
203 
146 
192 


h m s 

3 41 5 
3 50 
3 52 
3 42 


tons. 
2437 
4244 


tons. 
3956 


tons. 
6393 
6560 
5397 
6303 


tons. cwt. 
34 13 
32 6 
36 5 
32 16 


Ulster 


Munster 


2679 2718 
4179 21^4 


Connaught 









Note. — The ' Ulster ' and ' Munster ' encountered a larger proportion of severe weather 
and fogs than the ' Leinster ' and ' Connaught.' 

Appendix. — Table 13. 
Steara-ship ' Leinster.' On trial from Holyhead to Kingstown, April 4, 1861. 





Steam. 


Barometer. 


Revolutions. 


Boiler Gauges. 


Fore. 


Aft. 


First half-hour 


lbs. 

25 

25 

24,} 

24-t 


inches. 
26 

26i 
261 

9fi 


24 

234 

234 

23| 

234 

23f 

24 


27 

264 

26 

264 

26 

20 

264 


264 

26 

254 

254 

254 

26 

25* 


Second „ 


Third „ 


Fourth „ 


Fifth „ 


25 26 
25 oc 


Sixth „ 


Seventh „ 


25 


26^ 



No. of Revolutions as per Counter, 4957. 
Length of Passage, 3 hours 28 minutes. 
Total Consumption about 49 tons. 



* The indicator diagrams may be seen, by any one interested therein, by application at the 
Offices of the Committee. 



198 



REPORT — 1861. 



Appendix. — Table 14. 
Steam-ship * Ulster.' On trial from Kingstown to Holyhead, April 5, 1861. 





Steam. 


Revolutions. 


Counter. 


Vacuum. 


At startincr 


lbs. 

21 

22| 

22i 

23 

23i 

23^ 

224 

22 


per min. 

23 

22| 

23 

22f 

23 

22i 

22i 


"702 
1370 
2026 
2716 
3398 
4095 
4792 


1 m 

J steady. 


First half-hour 


Second „ 


Third „ 


Fourth „ 


Fifth „ 


Sixth' „ 

To arrival 





Time of Passage, 3 hours 30 minutes. Total Consumption, about 36 tons. 

No. of Revolutions as per Counter, 4792. 

Circular re/erred to at page 192. 

British Association. — Committee on Steam-ship Performance. 

19 Salisbury Street, Strand, London, W.C. 
November 21st, 1860. 

Sir, — Enclosed is a Form which the Steam-ship Performance Committee 
of the British Association hope you will kindly fill up at your convenience, 
and transmit to me. 

The Committee have apprised the Admiralty of their intention to commu- 
nicate with such Captains and Engineers of H.M. Ships as may be disposed 
to assist the British Association in obtaining facts for scientific calculations 
relating to the Performance of Ships at sea, and have, at their Lordships' 
request, sent them a copy of the Form. 

The Form proposed is as simple as is consistent with the object of obtaining 
data necessary for calculation, and the Committee are under the impression 
that the time required to fill up such Forms cannot interfere with the duties 
of the respective Oflicers. 

It is, however, to be clearly understood that it is for objects of science 
alone that the Officers are invited thus to aid the labours of the British Asso- 
ciation, one of whose fundamental rules is laid down in the following terms : — 

" The object of the Committee is to make pubhc such recorded facts through 
the medium of the Association, and being accessible to the public in that 
manner, to bring the greatest amount of science to the solution of the diffi- 
culties now existing to the scientific improvement of the forms of vessels and 
the qualities of marine engines. They will especially endeavour to guard 
against information so furnished to them being used in any other way, and 
they trust they may look for the co-operation of Members of the Yacht Club 
having steam yachts, of Shipowners, as well as of Builders and Engineers." 

I am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

C. R. Moorsom, Vice-Admiral and Chairman. 



ERRATA AND ADDENDUM IN TABLE V. 

Col. 12, last line but one, for " about 64,700 ", read " total 64,700." 

Col. 60, for " 2 " read ''with." 

Col. 14 requires the following explanation : — 

Actual speed 106 knots. 

Deducted for tide 0-6 „ 

Speed through the water under sail and steam at 

84 revolutions per minute lO'O „ 

Previously ascertained speed under steam alone at 
84 revolutions , 96 „ 



ON STEAM-SHIP PERFORMANCE. 199 

British Association. — -Committee on Steam-ship Performance. 
Return of H.M's Steam-ship 

Date, day, the day of 18 

Date 

Latitude 

Longitude 

Ship's Course 

Wind : — 

Direction 

Force 

State of Sea , 

Under Sail alone : — 

No. of Hours 

Area of Sail set 

Description of Sail set 

Average Speed per hour 

Under Sail and Steam combined : — 

No. of Hours 

Area of Sail set 

Description of Sail set 

Average Speed per hour 

Under Steam alone : — 

No. of Hours 

Average Speed per hour 

Engines : — 

Cut-ofFin proportion of Stroke 

Lap of Slide Valve 

Average Revolutions per minute 

Mean pressure of Steam at or near Cylinder 

Mean pressure in Cylinder 

Barometer: — 

Vacuum • 

Pressure 

Temperature of Sea-water 

SUp of Screvr 

Boilers : — 

No. of Furnaces at Work 

Square Feet of Grate Surface atAVork. 

Square Feet of Heating Surface at Work 

Weight to which Safety Valve is loaded per Square Inch... 

Pressure of Steam per Square Inch in Steam Chest 

Density of Water 

Consumption of Coal per hour 

Description of Coal during period 

Indicated Horse-power, u)i<A Diagrams 

Evaporation of Water per hour 

Draught of Water : — 
On Leaving Port — Forward 

Ditto ditto Aft 

On Arriving in Port — Forward ■ 

Ditto ditto Aft 

Remarks 

Oifice, 19 Salisbury Street, Strand, 

London, W.C. Signature^ ^ 

Date 



200 REPORT — 1861. 

Preliminary Report on the Best Mode of Preventing the Ravages of 
Teredo and other Animals in our Ships and Harbours. By J. Gwyn 
Jeffreys, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Since the last meeting, Mr. Jeffreys vent to Holland for the purpose of 
investigating the experiments which are being made there, under the direction 
of the Academy of Sciences at Amsterdam, and with the sanction of the 
Dutch Government, in order to check the destructive ravages of the Teredo 
marina; and he was accompanied by Dr. Verloren, of Utrecht, another 
member of the Committee. The progress of these different experiments is 
periodically and carefully recorded ; but it will take many years before the 
result can be shown. From an elaborate report of the Dutch Commission, 
published last year, and which was placed by M. Van der Hoeven in Mr. 
Jeffreys's hands, it appears that no efficacious remedy had at that time been 
discovered. Even the expensive process of creosoting the timber failed in 
one instance where the piece of wood thus treated was in contact with another 
piece which had not been creosoted ; the Teredo having indiscriminately per- 
forated both pieces of wood, first attacking the unrreosoted wood. Mr. Jef- 
freys had also lately seen a piece of wood used in the construction of harbour 
works at Scrabster, which, although it had been creosoted to the extent of 
10 pounds to the square foot (having been first dressed and cut), was exca- 
vated on every side by the Limnoria lignorum. Iron-headed or scupper nails 
afford very little protection, as the Teredo and Lii^moria work their way even 
through the rust, unless it is very thick, the valves of the Teredo becoming 
stained in consequence. The remedy suggested by Mr. Jeffreys (viz. a coating 
of some siliceous or mineral composition) had not been tried in Holland or 
France. Among other communications received by Mr. Jeffreys on the sub- 
ject was one from Mr. William Hutton, of Sunderland, who had recently 
taken out a patent " for preventing the destruction of timber from the action 
of marine animals." His process is to force into the wood a soluble silex, or 
water glass, with muriate of lime. If this process is not expensive, it would 
no doubt answer the desired purpose ; but it is probable that the same object 
would be attained by merely soaking the wood in a solution of this kind, or 
even laying it on the wood with a brush. It would seem to be sufficient if the 
outer layer of the wood were coated or glazed in such a manner that the 
composition would not crack or peel off. 

Although the different kinds of Teredo are locally and partially distributed 
on our coasts, the wood-boring Crustacea (and especially Limnoria lignorum) 
occur everywhere in countless numbers, and on the whole do the greatest 
damage to our harbour works. Mr. Jeffreys endeavoured to obtain, through 
a member of the Committee who resided at Plymouth, permission from the 
Admiralty to institute some experiments in the Dockyard there, having been 
informed that very considerable damage had been sustained in that port 
during many years past from the last-mentioned cause. But, although a 
copy of the Association's Proceedings was furnished to the First Lord and 
Secretary to the Admiralty, and the Port- Admiral expressed his approval of 
the experiments being tried, and forwarded the application to the Admiralty, 
permission was refused. It does not appear that the Admiralty or Govern- 
ment have taken any steps to prevent further loss, or even to inquire into the 
matter. 

Notwithstanding this discouragement, Mr. Jeffreys will persevere, with the 
assistance of the other members of the Committee, in doing all that is possible 
to ensure such an important and national object as the protection of our ships 
and harbours from the destructive attacks of these animals. 



Sl'/bj^'rl Bnojt, J^^.-^Uum L*A] 



FROM TliE 
PLANS. URAWrNGS ^ SOlTtOrSIGS 





ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 201 

Report of the Experiments made at Holyhead {North Wales) to ascer- 
tain the Transit- Velocity of Waves, analogous to Earthquake Waves, 
through the local Rock Formations : by command of the Royal Society 
and of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. By 
Robert Mallet, C.E., F.R.S. 
In my " Second Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phenomena," in the 
Report of the British Association for 1851, the transit- velocities were expe- 
rimentally determined of waves of impulse produced by the explosion of 
charges of gunpowder, and these velocities shown to be — 

In wet sand 824-915 feet per second, 

In discontinuous granite .... 130C)'4'25 feet per second, 

In more solid granite 1664"574 feet per second, 

the range of sand employed having been that of Killiney Strand, and of 
granite that of Dalkey Island, both on the east coast of Ireland. These 
results produced some surprise on my own part, as well as on that of others, 
the transit-velocities obtained falling greatly below those which theory might 
have suggested as possible, based upon the modulus of elasticity of the 
material constituting the range in either case. 

I suggested as the explanation of the low velocities ascertained, that the 
media of the ranges (like all the solids constituting the crust of the earth) were 
not in fact united and homogeneous elastic solids, but an aggregation of solids 
more or less shattered, heterogeneous, and discontinuous; and that to the loss 
of vis viva, and of time in the propagation of the wave from surface to sur- 
face, was due the extremely low velocities observed. 

The correctness of this view, and a general corroboration of the correct- 
ness of the experimental results themselves, have since been made known by 
the careful determinations by Nbggerath and Schmidt respectively, of the 
transit-velocities of actual earthquake waves in the superficial formations of 
the Rhine country and of Hungary, and by myself in those of Southern Italy, 
all of which present low velocities coordinating readily with my previous 
experimental results. 

In the Report above mentioned, I suggested the desirableness of extending 
the experimental determination of wave-transit to stratified and foliated 
rocks, as likely to present still lower velocities than those obtained for shat- 
tered granite, as well as other important or suggestive phenomena. The 
operations in progress at the Government quarries at Holyhead (Island of 
Anglesea, North Wales), of dislodging vast masses of rock by means of gun- 
powder for the formation of the Asylum Harbour there, appeared to me to 
present a favourable opportunity of making some experiments upon the stra- 
tified rock formations of that locality, by taking advantage of the powerful 
explosions necessary at the quarries. These quarries are situated (see Map, 
PI. II.) on Holyhead Mountain, on its N.E. flank, in metamorphic quartz 
rock, and in 1852 (a vast mass of material having been already removed) 
presented a lofty, irregular, and nearly vertical scarp, reaching to 150 feet in 
height above the floor of the quarry in some places. 

From this wall of solid rock the process of dislodgement was continued, 
not by the usual method of blasting, by means of small charges fired in 
jumper-holes bored into the rock, but by the occasional explosion of large 
mines, containing at times as much as ni)ie tons of gunpowder lodged in one 
or in three or more separate foci deep within the face of the clifi", and formed 
by driving " headings" or galleries from the base of the mural face into the 
rock. From the charges of powder placed in bags at the innermost extre- 
mities of these headings, which were stopped up by several feet of " tamping '* 



202 REPORT— 1861. 

of stone, rubbish, and clay, conducting wires were led out to a suitable and safe 
distance, so that on making by these the circuit complete between the poles of a 
powerful Smee's galvanic batterj', a small piece of thin platinum wire adjusted 
within the charge of gunpowder became heated, and ignited the powder. 
The explosion thus followed instantaneously the making contact between the 
poles of the battery. 

Experience has enabled the engineers charged with the work so exactly 
to proportion the charge of powder to the work it is intended to perform in 
each case, that no rock is thrown to any distance; the whole force is consumed 
in dislocating and dropping down to its base as a vast sloping talus of disrupted 
rock and stone the portion of the cliff operated on ; in fact, at the moment 
of explosion the mass of previously solid rock seems to fall to pieces like 
a lump of suddenly slacked quicklime. The shock or impulse, however, 
delivered by the explosion upon the remaining solid rock, behind and around 
the focus, and propagated through it in all directions outwards, as an elastic 
wave of impulse, was at an early stage of the operations remarked to be so 
powerful, that it could be felt distinctly in the quaking of the ground at 
distances of several hundred yards, and was sufficient even to shake down 
articles of delf ware from the shelves of cottages a long way off from the 
quarries. 

Early in 1853 I visited those quarries, and examined generally the adja- 
cent locality and rock formations, and having satisfied myself that these 
operations could be made available, I applied to my distinguished friend, the 
late lamented Mr. Rendel, C.E., the engineer-in-chief of the Asylum Harbour, 
and readily obtained from him permission to make such experiments as should 
not interfere with the progress of the works. 

The prosecution of these experiments having been favourably represented 
to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, and to the Council 
of the Royal Society, a sum of money was voted by each of these bodies 
respectively, and placed at the author's disposal, with the desire that he should 
undertake and conduct the experiments. 

It was not, however, until the summer of 1856 that my own avocations and 
various preliminaries allowed any progress to be made with the experiments 
themselves. Negotiations had to be entered on with several parties ; with 
the occupier of some land at Pen-y-Brin, about a mile to the east of the 
quarries, where the most suitable spot for placing the seismoscope (the obser- 
ver's station O, see Map) was found, for permission to enter his land, and level 
down to a horizontal surface the face of the rock here occupying the sur- 
face of the ground, and to erect an observer's shed over it; and with the 
Electric Telegraph Company, for the hire of insulating telegraph poles and 
wires, and for their erection over the range intervening between this spot 
and the highest reach of the quarry hill. 

As these great blasts are fired only occasionally and at uncertain intervals, 
and being prepared must he fired without postponement, and within a given 
hour of the day, namely, during the workmen's dinner-hour (12 to 1 p.m.), 
when the quarries are clear of men,and therefore safe from accident, it became 
at once obvious that very frequent journeys, both on my own part and on that 
of such assistants as I should require, would have necessarily to be made to 
and from Holyhead ; and to economize as much as possible the large expen- 
diture that must thus arise, I applied to the City of Dublin Steam Packet 
Company, and to the Chester and Holyhead Railway Company, through 
their respective Secretaries, representing the scientific character of the un- 
dertaking, and requesting on their parts cooperation, by their permitting 
myself and my assistants, with any needful apparatus, to pass free to and 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 203 

from Holyhead by their respective vessels from Kingstown Harbour. After 
much fruitless correspondence I regret to say that both these Companies 
refused to render any assistance whatever, a boon the refusal of which 
greatly increased the expenditure for these experiments. Lastly, I placed 
myself in communication with Messrs. Rigby, the contractors for the vast 
works of the Quarries and Harbour, and in August 1856 received from them 
the assurance of every assistance that they could afford consistently with the 
prosecution of the works. To them, to Mr. R. L. Cousens, C.E., the acting 
engineer for their firm on the works, and to Mr. G. C. Dobson, C.E., chief 
engineer on the work under Mr. Rendel (since under Mr. Hawkshaw), my 
thanks are due for the best and most cordial assistance upon all occasions. 

The position for the observer's station and seismoscope upon the levelled 
floor of rock at Pen-y-Brin having been fixed upon, the first operation neces- 
sary was to obtain an accurate section of the surface in the line between that 
and the quarries, a geological section of the rock formations along the same 
line, and with precision the exact distance in a straight line, from some fixed 
point adjacent to the quarries, to the observer's station. The fixed point 
chosen at the quarries was the flagstaff at the bell, which is rung whenever 
a blast is about to be fired, this being so placed that from it measurements 
and angular bearings, with the line of range O W (Map), from the various 
sites of future explosions could readily be made, and thus the exact distance 
of each focus of explosion (to be hereafter experimented on) from the seismo- 
scope at O ascertained, the flagstaff always remaining undisturbed as a 
fixed terminal at the quarry end of the range. The whole surface, O to W, 
was carefully levelled over, and the distances chained, as given in the diagram, 
PI. III. section 2. fig. 1. The roughness of the ground and its inclination, 
however, rendered direct measurement of the range of wave-path with suf- 
ficient accuracy impracticable, and it was found necessary to obtain it trigo- 
nometrically. For this purpose a base line of 1432 feet in length was mea- 
sured off along the rails of the tramroad which connects the quarry with the 
east breakwater, between the points A and B (Map, PI. II.), where the road 
fortunately was found straight and nearly level. 

This was measured with two brass-shod pine rods, each of 35 feet in length, 
of the same sort, and applied in the same manner, as I used in 1849 for 
measuring the base of one mile on Killiney Strand, for the particulars of 
which the " Second Report on Earthquakes," &c.. Report Brit. Assoc. 
1851, p. 274, &c., may be referred to. The base was measured forwards and 
backwards, with a result differing by less than 3 inches. The flagstaff at the 
spot marked W in the Map is not visible from the observer's station, owing 
to some intervening houses and other objects ; a staff was therefore set up at 
S, upon the hill-side. The point O was connected by angular measurements 
with the extremities of the measured base A and B ; the triangles OBS and 
OSW were then obtained, whence that OBW was arrived at, from which 
finally the distance OW (the constant part of the range) was ascertained to 
be=4584*80 feet. The triangle OBW was used as a check upon that OSW, 
as the angles at O, S, and W had to be taken, owing to local circumstances, 
smaller than is desirable. The lengths of the side OW obtained from the 
two triangles separately closely agreed ; and as a further check, the side 
SW, which gave, trigonometrically, a length of 671 '07 feet, when actually 
measured as a base of verification, gave 672*05 feet. 

I was also enabled to connect the side OS with a trig-point P, upon the 
western breakwater, and another at R, the positions of which are defined 
upon the accurate surveys of the harbour in Mr. Dobson's possession, 
as a further means of verification. We may therefore view the length of the 



204 REPORT — 1861. 

constant part of the range between the observing station and the flagstaff, its 
other permanent terminal, as equal to 4585 (eet, neglecting fractions. 

The base of the staff at S was found to be 68'78 feet above the level of 
the horizontal surface of the rock at Pen-y-Brin (the observing station O), 
and the base of the flagstaff at W is 5*70 feet above the same point O. 
The levelled surface of rock at O is 84 feet above the mean tide-level of the 
sea in the Asylum Harbour ; and the average rise and fall of spring tides at 
Holyhead is 18 feet; the line of rock, therefore, through which the range 
passes is, except as respects surface water, permanently dry to a considerable 
depth. The majority of the headings are driven into the face of the quarry 
cliff horizontally, at from 10 to 20 feet above the level of the floor of the 
quarry, which is on nearly the same level as the point W. Hence, prac- 
tically, the actual range of transmission through the solid rock of the impulse 
from each heading when fired, to the seismoscope at the observer's station, 
may be considered as a horizontal line, and no correction of distance is 
required for difference of elevation at the two extremities of the observing- 
range in the reduction of our results. 

The Island of Holyhead, as may be seen on consulting the sheets (Nos. 77 
and 78) of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, consists mainly of 
chloritic and micaceous schist or slate and of quartz rock. The latter forms 
the north-west portion of the island ; and in it alone are situated the Harbour 
quarries, upon the side of Holyhead Mountain (as it is called), the same 
rock rising to its summit, which is 742 feet above the sea, mean tide-level. 
The junction of the quartz and of the schist or slate rock runs in azimuth 
N. 24° E. where it crosses the line of our range, which it intersects at an 
angle horizontally of 73° 30'. 

The schist or slate rocks here overlie the quartz, abutting against the flank 
of the latter, apparently unconformably, and having an inclined junction whose 
dip is towards the south-east, and probably, at the place where our range 
intersects, having an angle of dip of about 65° with the vertical. The point of 
junction is situated about 900 feet from the flagstaff W ; so that about 2100 
feet, on the average, of our actual ranges lay in quartz rock, and the re- 
mainder, or 3750 feet, in the schist or slate formation, taking the mean total 
range at 5851 feet. The general tendency of the schist is to a dip to the north- 
west, varying from 5° to 20° from the horizontal ; but no well-defined bedding 
is obvious either in it or in the quartz. 

Lithologically, the quartz rock consists of very variable proportions of pure 
white, light grey, and yellowish quartz, and of white or yellowish-white 
aluminous and finally micaceous clays. In many places the mass of the rock 
presents to the lens almost nothing but clear and translucent quartz, breaking 
with a fine waved glassy fracture, striking fire with steel, extremely hard 
and difficult to break, and showing a very ill-defined crystallization of the 
individual particles of quartz, which have all the appearance of pure quartzose 
sea-sand that had become agglutinated by heat and pressure coacting with 
some slight admixture of the nature of a flux. The specific gravity of such 
portions, as determined for me by my friend Mr. Robert H. Scott, A.M., 
Secretary to the Geological Society of Dublin, is 2*658. From this the rock 
passes in many places into a softer and more friable material, consisting, when 
minutely examined, of the same sort of quartz-grains, with a white pulveru- 
lent clay, containing microscopic plates of mica disseminated between them ; 
this fractures readily, but will still strike fire with steel, and its average spe- 
cific gravity is 2'650. 

Both, but particularly the harder variety, are found often in very thick 
masses of nearly uniform quality, separated by great master-joints, though 



EARTHQUAKE CXPERD M ENTS, MOLVHEAD QUAEE I ES. M? 2 

Scriino of surface lo S of Map tnd Cpologrca) Sccl.oo of Range 



lath !i>0 fnl t^i ft.A Toiuj/ » ffi. 




lliTi-.iihil .111.1 /;///.>// St.lirii.^ ,.( Ui< 

Itr" lit llniJii.o V.U I'nn/r. *" ' 




ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OP EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 205 

scarcely to be considered as beds ; but usually the mass, viewed in the large, 
is heterogeneous in the highest degree, massive and thick in one place, full 
of joints and even minutely foliated in others, and everywhere intersected by 
thin and thick veins of harder quartz, agglutinated sand, and, elsewhere, 
friable sand, and of soft sandy clay. 

Both the quartz rock and the schist of the island are intersected by three 
great greenstone dykes (of inconsiderable thickness, however), none of them 
interfering with our range, and by one or more great faults, all of which 
run through nearly the whole island in a N.W. and S.E. direction, and by 
numerous other minor faults and dislocations, some of which may be seen 
as cutting through our line of range ^A f, g, k, I, in Plate III. section 2. 
No. 11. 

At a short distance behind the quarry cliff, and seat of our several ex- 
plosions, a great clay dyke occurs in the quartz rock — a wall, in fact, of. 
about 20 feet in average thickness, running in the direction marked on the 
Map (Plate II.), and with a dip of only about 20" from the vertical. 
This consists of strongly compacted clay, nearly pure white, and more or 
less mixed with fine sand and grains of mica, but cannot be called rock, 
though continually passing into stony masses. Lying as it does in rear of our 
experimental headings, it was of some value, as presenting a dead solid anvil 
to the pulse from each explosion, in the contrary direction to that of the 
observed wave of impulse, and hence causing a larger and more distinctly 
appreciable wave to be transmitted in the direction towards the seismoscope. 

The schist rock, in colour, passes from fawn-colour and light-greenish 
ashen-grey into a rather dark tea-green. It owes its colour to disseminated 
thin layers of chlorite, and probably of black or green mica in minute scales, 
between which are thicker layers of quartz, presenting identically the same 
mineral characters as those of the quartz rock beneath. These layers, owing 
to the small relative hardness and cohesion of the chlorite and mica, present 
planes of weakness and of separation ; the rock is, in fact, everywhere thinly 
foliated, the average thickness of a plate seldom exceeding 0*2 of an inch, and 
averaging about one-half that thickness. These foliations are twisted, bent, 
doubled up, and distorted in every conceivable way : the contortions are 
often large, the curves having radii of some feet, with minor distortions 
within and upon them ; but most commonly they are small ; so that it is rare 
to get even a hand specimen presenting flat and undistorted foliations, while, 
quite commonly, hand specimens may be found presenting, within a cube of 
four or five inches, two or three curves of contrary flexure, often in all three 
axes, and with curvatures short, sharp, and abrupt, almost angular. There 
is a general tendency observable in the greater convolutions to conform more 
or less to the surface contour of the country ; so that the largest and flattest 
folds are found to occupy, with an approach to horizontality, the topmost por- 
tions of the great humps or umbos of schist rock that form the characteristic 
of the landscape, and so rolling off in folds smaller, steeper, and more con- 
voluted towards the steeper sides, as though these masses had slipped and 
doubled upon themselves when soft and pasty. 

Occasionally, however, where deep cuttings have exposed the interior of 
such surface-knolls, it is found sharply convoluted and twisted in all direc- 
tions, and without any relation to the existing surface of the country. Every- 
where this mass of minutely structured, convoluted, and foliated rock is cut 
through by joints of separation, with surfaces in direct and close contact, and 
by thin seams and veins of hard and sometimes pretty well crystallized quartz, 
now and then discoloured by oxide of iron, and with minute cavities filled 
with chlorite and mica, and with others of agglutinated quartzose sand, whose 



206 REPORT — 1861. 

boundirig-lines pass off rapidly, hut ffradatim, into the prevailing substance of 
the rock. It is by no means of equal hardness ; some portions (and these 
occur without any order or traceable relationship throughout the mass) are 
much thinner in the foliation, and the layers of chlorite and mica nearly as 
thick as those of the intervening quai'tz, both being so attenuated, that to 
the naked eye the edge of the foliation presents only a fine streaky appearance 
of lighter and darker green-grey tint. The softest, however, readily strikes 
fire with steel, and throughout the whole mass of the rock (for the length of 
our range) it is so hard, coherent, and intractable as to be only capable of 
being quarried by the aid of gunpowder, and with very closely formed 
jumper-holes. 

The specific gravity of the densest portions of the schist rock reaches 2'7G5 ; 
that of the softer averages 2'7i6. When the rock, whether hard or soft, is 
broken so that the applied surfaces of the foliations are visible, they are 
often found glistening and greasy to the feel, from flattened microscopic 
scales of mica, or possibly of talc. 

The quartz rock fractures under the effect of gunpowder into great lumpy 
masses, with much small rubbish; the schist under that, from jumper-hole 
blasts, breaks up into coarse, angular, knotted, and most irregular wedges, 
the foliations breaking across in irregularly receding steps, and (throughout 
our range at least) a stone with a single flat bed being perhaps unprocurable. 
Both rocks are absolutely dry, or free from all perceptible percolations of 
surface-water issuing as springs, nor does the rain penetrate their substance 
by absorption for any appreciable depth, — both indications of their generally 
compact structure. 

The faults with which our range is intersected, in four places, at a hori- 
zontal angle of about 75°, are not far from vertical, dipping a few degrees to 
the N.W. They occur at the points marked f,ff, k, I, on the Geological Sec- 
tion (Plate III. section 2) ; and the disturbed and shattered plate of rock 
between each pair I'espectively appears to have sustained a downthrow (or 
the rocks at either side the contrary) of a few feet, 10 to 12 probably. 
The surfaces of the walls of these faults, so far as I can judge from rather 
imperfect superficial indications, appear to be in close contact ; and such is the 
character of all the small faults that intersect the formation hereabouts. 

I have been thus tediously minute in describing the character of the rocks 
throughout our range, because, if experimental determinations of earth-wave 
transit are to become useful elements of comparison in the hands of the seis- 
mologists of other countries with the observed transit-times of natural earth- 
quake-waves, and a means of controlling such observations, it is essential 
that the means be afforded of accurately comparing the rock-formation tra- 
versed in both cases. 

From what has been described, it will be remarked that the rock here 
chosen for experiment presents in the highest degree the properties capable 
of producing dispersion, delay, and rapid extinction of the wave of impulse, 
so far as its structure is concerned, although the modulus of elasticity of a 
very large proportion of its mineral constituents (silex) is extremely high, and 
its specific gravity as great as that of Dalkey granite. Added to its minutely 
foliated and mineralogically heterogeneous character, with its multiplied con- 
volutions, we have five great planes of transverse separation in the range, one 
of these forming the plane of junction of the quartz and schist, with innume- 
rable minor planes of separation at all conceivable angles to each other in 
both rocks ; and yet we have highly elastic and dense materials forming the 
substance of both rocks, and their general mass remarkably free from open 
veins, fissures, or cavities. 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OP EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 207 

"We have also two different rocks, the one transmitting the impulse into 
the other, yet neither so widely differing from the other in molecular and other 
physical characters as to make any great or abrupt effect upon the wave at 
the junction probable. In fact, widely, to the first glance, as the quartz 
rock and the schist rock appear to differ, there is less real distinction 
of physical character between them than would be supposed : both are 
composed of the same siliceous sand in about the same size of original 
grains, variously enveloped, in the one in chlorite and mica, and in the 
other in white or grey clay and mica; both have, in ancient geological 
epochs, doubtless derived their materials by degradation and transport from 
a common source, as respects their main constituent, the silex ; both have 
been submitted to approximately similar pressures, and probably like tem- 
peratures ; and the agglutinating flux has probably been mainly the same for 
both, viz. the minute proportions of alkalies derived from the waters of an 
ancient ocean. The main difference in physical structure, viewed upon the 
broad scale, between the quartz rock and the slate is this (as regards our 
experiments) : — that the great joints and planes of separation on the whole 
approximate to verticaliiy in the former, while in the latter, with the ex- 
ception of some larger faults and dykes, the planes of separation are twisted 
and involved in all directions, but tend more to approach horizontality . 

More interesting conditions could thus scarcely be found for experimental 
determination of the transit-rate of earth-waves, or more desirable for future 
comparison with that of earthquake-waves themselves ; much more instructive, 
indeed, were the actual conditions than if the means of experiment presented 
by these vast quarry operations had been in the most regular, undisturbed, 
and horizontal stratified rock, like some of the mountain limestone of Ireland, 
or the finest and densest laminated roofing-slates of Wales. In such ranges 
we can predict that the transit-velocity would at least be high. In the 
medium chosen for these experiments it was impossible even to guess what it 
might be found. 

I proceed to describe the instrumental arrangements made for the observa- 
tion of the impulse-wave transmitted from the blasts chosen, and for the de- 
termination of the transit-time along the range of wave-path. Over the 
surface of solid rock that had been chiselled down to a level tabular surface 
at (O) Pen-y-Brin, a timber-shed was erected, of sufficient size to place the 
observer, an assistant, and all the instruments proper to that spot, under cover 
and secured from the wind. The side to the N.W. was open, to permit of 
observation along the line of range, with the means of partially closing it in 
high winds. 

Along the line of the boundary-wall of the railway next Pen-y-Brin, 
and thence along up to the highest and most distant point of the quarry 
cliffs, a line of telegraph-posts was planted, and upon these two properly 
insulated iron wires were hung, in such a manner that at any point along 
their length over the quarry cliffs, a pair of branch wires (covered' with 
gutta percha) could be led off, and in like manner another pair to the appa- 
ratus in the observing-shed at Pen-y-Brin, thus giving the means of galva- 
nically connecting the extremities of the range in any way that might be 
required. 

The mines in use at the quarries frequently consist of two, three, or four 
separate chambers and charges, which are all fired simultaneously (see PI. IV.); 
but each charge is fired by a distinct pair of wires, igniting a fine platinum 
wire interposed in the circuit and immersed in one of the powder-bags. The 
arrangement of this platinum wire in its hollow wooden frame to prevent 
disturbance, and its connexion with the large conducting wires, are practi- 



208 REPORT— 1861. 

cally the same as those adopted by me in 1849 at Killiney, and will be 
found fully described in " Second Report on Earthquakes," &c., Report of 
British Association for 1851, p. 277. 

When several charges are to be fired simultaneously, all the electro- 
positive wires from each chamber are collected into one mercury-cup in 
connexion with one pole of the batlery, and all the electro-negative wires 
into another mercury-cup. Upon making contact between the latter and 
the second pole of the battery, the current at the same moment ignites all 
the platinum wires passing through each pair of wires as a separate con- 
ducting path. This method requires considerable battery power, but is the 
only certain or reliable one for firing simultaneously a number of separate 
charges. When an attempt is made to pass the current from one pole of 
the battery through a single pair of wires, and through all the fine platinum 
priming wires in succession to the return pole, there is extreme risk that the 
first or second platinum priming, owing to its attenuated section of wire (in 
virtue of which indeed alone it becomes ignited at all), may interpose so 
much resistance to the current as to prevent the ignition of the third, or 
fourth, or other subsequent primings, or that the first priming-wire may 
get absolutely fused or broken by the first-ignited powder, and so cut off all 
communication with the others before they have been heated sufficiently. 

A neglect of this obvious consequence of Ohm's law of resistance 
appears to have been the cause of failure very recently, in an attempt to 
ignite a number of mines of demolition simultaneously, at Chatham. From 
the great magnitude of the charges frequently fired at Holyhead, and the 
very serious consequences that failure of ignition would involve, the battery 
power habitually employed is wisely of superabundant power. It consists 
of a Grove's battery of thirty-two cells, each exposing ninety-six square 
inches of platinum element. It is but justice to my friend Mr. R. L. Cou- 
sens, C.E., to whose assistance in these experiments I am so much indebted, 
to add, that during the several years he has controlled these vast blasting- 
operations a single failure of ignition has never occurred. 

For the above reasons, and from the necessity that in the event of any 
failure of such apparatus as I might require for experiment, in making 
contact and firing the mine at a given moment, the power should still be 
reserved to Mr. Cousins to fire it directly afterwards in the usual way, so as 
not to interfere with the works, I was led, finally, to devise the following 
magneto-galvanic arrangement, by which, at a signal given from tlie sum- 
mit of the quarry cliff (where the firing-battery is usually placed, nearly 
above the mine or heading then to be fired, and at a safe distance back 
from the edge of the cliff, usually about 100 yards) that all was ready, I 
should myself, stationed at the observing-shed (O), be enabled to com- 
plete the contact and fire the mine, and do so in such a way as to register 
by means of the chronograph the interval of time that elapsed between 
the moment that I so made contact (or fired) and the arrival of the wave 
of impulse through the rocks of the range or wave-path, when made visible 
by, and observed by me in, the seismoscope. 

For this purpose such an arrangement was required as, upon contact 
being made by me at the observing-shed (O), should set in motion such a 
contrivance, situated upon the quarry cliff, at the remote end of the tele- 
graph wires, as should there instantly close the poles of the great (Grove's) 
firing-battery and so fire the mine, and in the event from any cause of this 
result not taking place at the preconcerted moment, that then it should be 
free to Mr. Cousens or his assistants to close the poles of the firing-battery by 
baud in the ordinary way. 




% 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OP EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 209 

In PI. IV., in which (fig. 1) this arrangement is figured (without reference 
to scale), A is one of the headings seen in the clifF-face at part of the quarries. 
Above the cliff at B is placed the Grove's firing-battery; the conducting 
wires from its poles pass down the face of the cliff and into the heading, 
uniting at the platinum priming-wire in the midst of the charge of powder, 
tlie further end of tlie wires terminating in mercury-cups at the contact- 
maker C (about to be described). From the electro-magnet of the contact- 
maker, the two insulated wires are led along upon telegraph poles from 
the summit of the cliflT down to the observer's station at Pcn-y-Brin, where 
they terminate also in mercury-cups, one forming the e+ and the other 
the e— pole of the contact-making battery E placed there. This battery 
consisted of six of the usual moistened-sand batteries in use for telegraph 
purposes. 

The chronograph (D) was placed upon the levelled rock adjacent to this 
battery, and conveniently for its lever (m) being acted on by the left hand of 
the observer, when lying at full length upon the ground, with his eye to 
the seismoscope based upon the rock at F, its optic axis being situated in 
the vertical plane of the line of wave-patli or range F A, close to the 
seismoscope, and at the same level as the eyepiece of that instrument. A 
very good achromatic telescope was adjusted upon its stand, so as to bring 
the heading about to be experimented on, together with the whole face of 
the cliff and the firing-battery, ^-c, within its field, — the eyepiece of this 
telescope being fixed at about a distance of 6 or 8 inches from that of the 
seismoscope, and so that the eye of the observer, while lying at ease and 
with the left hand upon the lever of the chronograph (m), could be instantly 
transferred from the one instrument to the other. In this state of things, 
when the proper signal (by the exhibition of a red flag) was made, and at a 
preconcerted time as nearly as was practicable, by those stationed at the 
firing-battery at B, that " all was ready," I applied ray eye to the seismoscope, 
and pressed down the lever (m) of the chronograph with a sharp rapid move- 
ment ; this instantly closed the poles of the contact-making battery C, causing 
the galvanic current to pass through the electro-magnets of the contact-maker 
away at the quarries at C. This directly closed the poles of the Grove's firing- 
battery at B, and fired the mine. The moment I observed the arrival of 
the wave of impulse propagated through the range from the explosion at A 
in the seismoscope at F, I withdrew my hand from the lever of the chro- 
nograph (m), and thus stopped the instrument, the interval of time between 
its having been started and stopped thus registering the (uncorrected) time 
of transit of the wave for the distance A F. It will now be necessary briefly 
to describe the several instruments separately. The seismoscope and chro- 
nograph have been already fully described in the account of the experi- 
ments made in 18i9 at Killiney and Dalkey (Second Report on Earthquakes, 
&c.. Report of Brit. Assoc. 1851), to which reference may be made. 

Briefly, the seismoscope (fig. 3*, PI. IV.) consists of a cast-iron base-plate, 
on the centre ofthe surface ofwhich is placed an accurately formed trough (b), 
12 inches long, 4 inches wide, and 2 inches deep, containing an inch in 
depth of pure mercury, with its surface free from oxide or dust, so as to 
reflect properly. The longer axis of this trough is placed in the direc- 
tion of the wave-path, the base of the instrument being level. At the 
opposite end of the trough are placed standards with suitable adjustments : 
that at the end next the centre of impulse carries a tube (c), provided with 
an achromatic object-glass at its lower end, and a pair of cross wires (hori- 
zontal and vertical); its optic axis is adjusted to 45° incidence with the 
reflecting surface of mercury in the trough. At the other end of the trough 

1861. P 



210 REPORT — 1861. 

an achromatic telescope (a) with a single wire is similarly adjusted, so that 
when the moveable blackened cover (e e) is placed over the trough, &c., no 
light can reach the surface of the mercury except through the tube c. The 
image of the cross wires in the latter is therefore seen through the tele- 
scope a, clearly reflected and defined in the surface of the mercury, so long as 
the fluid metal remains absolutely at rest ; but the moment the slightest 
vibration or disturbance is by any means communicated to the instrument, 
the surface of the fluid mirror is disturbed, and the image is distorted, 
or generally disappears totally. The telescope magnifies 11*39 times 
linearly, and the total magnifying power of the instrument to exalt the 
manifestation to the eye of any slight disturbance of the mercurial mirror is 
nearly twenty-three times. Its actual sensibility is extremely great. In 
the present case, however, this was not needful, as the impulse transmitted 
from these powerful explosions produced in all cases the most complete 
obliteration of the image, and in those of the most powerful mines experi- 
mented on caused a movement in the mercury of the trough that would 
have been visible to the naked eye. Indeed, in that of the S-ith Novem- 
ber, 1860, the amplitude of the wave that reached the seismoscope was so 
great as to cause the mercury to sway forwards and backwards in the trough 
to a depth that might have been measured. 

After the earth-wave has reached This instrument, a certain interval of 
time is necessary for the production of the wave in the mercury, and for its 
transit from the end of the trough next c, where it is produced, to the mid- 
length where it is observed. This involves a correction in the gross transit- 
time as observed with it. For the methods by which the constant for this 
(seismoscope correction) was determined I must refer again to Report of 
Brit. Assoc. 1851, pp. 280, 281. It amounts to 0"'065 in time ; and as the 
eflect of this will in every observation appear to delay the arrival of the 
earth-wave at the instrument, this constant in time, converted into distance, 
must be added to the rate of wave-transit otherwise obtained. 

The chronograph (originally devised by Wheatstone) is shown in fig. 1*, 
PI. IV. It consists, in fact, of a small and finely made clock, deprived of its 
pendulum, but provided with a suitable detent (shown more at large in 
fig. 4*), by which the action of the weight upon it is kept always arrested, 
but can immediately be permitted to take place in giving it motion, upon 
pressing the band quickly upon the lever g. 

The running down of the weight causes the anchor and pallets of the 
escapement (k) rapidly to pass the teeth of the escapement-wheel («), so that 
the clock " runs down " by a succession of minute descents ; and thus the 
motion is practically a uniform one. It follows that as more weight is added 
this velocity becomes greater, and by such addition the instrument may be 
made to measure more and more minute fractions of time. 

It registers time upon two dials (fig. 2*), each with an index : one of these is 
fixed on the axis of the escapement-wheel (a), and its dial is divided into thirty 
smaller and six larger divisions ; the pinion on this axis is to the wheel 
upon the weight-barrel (5) as 1 : 12. This carries the other index, and its dial 
has twelve divisions, so that one of its divisions corresponds to an entire 
revolution of the former one. The value in actual mean time due to the 
movement of the instrument, as thus recorded, requires to be ascertained by 
reference to a clock beating seconds, so that the number of revolutions of 
the index b, and parts of revolutions of that of a, during an interval of, say, 
30 seconds, may be determined by the mean of several experiments. For 
the methods of performing this with the necessary correctness, I again refer to 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 211 

" Second Report on Earthquakes," &c., Report of Brit. Assoc. 1851, pp. 287, 
289, &c. 

On the present occasion, as a considerable time elapsed between the suc- 
cessive experiments, during which the oil on the instrument more or less 
changed its state, and as some were made in summer and others in winter, 
it became necessary to rate the chronograph anew for each experiment, or 
at least to verify the former rating ; for this end it was necessary to provide 
a suitable loud-beating seconds clock with a divided arc to the pendulum, as 
none such could be procured at Holyhead. The same weight was con- 
.stantly used with the chronograph, and the extreme differences found in 
the rating during the several years that these experiments have been in 
progress were no more than the following : — 

// 
Nov. 1856. Value in mean time of one division of the dial (a) = 0*01485 
May 186]. Value of same = 0-01806 

Taking for illustration the former value of the smallest division of the 
dial (a), we see that each division of the dial (J)) is equal to one revolution of 
the index (a), and equal to 

0"-01485 X 30 = 0"-4455, 
and one revolution of the index (&) equal to 

0"-4455 X 12 = 5"-346,— 
an absolute rate of movement of the instrument not widely differing from 
that employed in the experiments of Killiney and Dalkey, with which it is 
desirable that the present results should be comparable. Half a small divi- 
sion of the chronograph can be read ; we therefore in these experiments 
possess the means of recording time to within 0"*0074', or to nearly y^'^'o^ths 
of a second. 

The additional apparatus of the chronograph consisted merely of such 
arrangements that the releasing lever {g), when pressed down by the hand 
applied to the wood insulator at m, should dip at i into a mercury-cup, and 
so make contact by the wires (h, b') between the poles of the contact-making 
battery (E). 

It remains to describe the contact-maker (fig. 2, PI. IV.). c is the base of 
the instrument of mahogany, carrying a vertical and bent arm (d) of cast 
iron, into the upper forked end of which the central iron bars, of about |^ths 
of an inch in diameter, of the electro-magnets a, a (seen in plan in fig. 3) are 
secured by a cotter ; the coils of covered wire round these are continuous, 
the wire (b) from the e+ pole passing at its further end from the first coil 
over to the second, and at the extremity of the latter passing off to the e— pole 
by b', the junctions being effected by mercury-cups in the usual way. n is 
a sliding piece of wood, secured upon the base c when adjusted in place by 
the screw at s ; this carries a wrought-iron lever armature (c), whose arms 
are as 8 : 1, the shorter and rather heavier end being adjusted so as to be 
beneath the poles of the electro-magnets, and at such a distance beneath 
them that, upon passing the current through the coils, the magnets shall 
readily attract the short end of this lever, snatch it up into contact with the 
poles of the magnets, and in doing so depress the other or remote end of 
the lever. The latter extremity of the lever is provided, as seen more at 
large in figs. 4 and 5, with a forked pair of copper poles amalgamated, 
which, when depressed by the action of the electro-magnets, dip into the mer- 
cury of the cups/ and/, and in doing so close the holes of the firing-battery, 
the conducting wires from which {h and Ji) dip respectively into mercury- 
cups, which by a ttibe bored through the wood are in permanent communi- 
cation with /and/ (cups) respectively. The lever and forked poles, &c., 

1'2 



212 REPORT— 1861. 

are provided with various screw adjustments as to position, range, &c., and 
a slender spring beneath the lever, ensuring that it shall not be accidentally 
moved by wind, or other cause, until acted on by the powerful grasp of the 
magnets. 

This instrument was found to answer admirably well. It may be observed, 
in passing, that it gives the means of exploding mines at almost any distance 
through telegraphic Avires, and by any moderate contact-making power, and 
may admit of valuable applications hereafter for the explosion, at a determi- 
nate instant, of mines for purposes of warfare. 

It is obvious that a certain loss of time must occur at this contact-maker, 
in reference to our experiments — that, in fact, the total time registered by 
the chronograph at D is too great by the minute interval that elapses 
between the arrival of the galvanic current in the coils at a and the dipping 
of the poles/, /into the mercury-cups. With the same battery power at E 
and conducting wires, this delai/ is practically constant. Its amount, how- 
ever, required to be determined, and the time, when converted into distance, 
added to the gross transit-rate previously ascertained. 

For this purpose the following little apparatus was employed. Its prin- 
ciple, though not the precise details of its construction, is shown in 
fig. 6, PI. IV. Upon a vertical steel spindle (s) revolving upon an agate step 
at bottom, and in a polished brass collar at top, a cylindric barrel is placed, 
of 1 inch diameter, having an escapement-wheel and anchor-escapement (i>) 
at its lower end, all the parts being made as light as possible. Upon the 
upper end of the spindle a circular disk of Bristol board (cardboard),/ of 
12f inches diameter, is secured by a light screw collar (t) gripping the disk 
firmly, so that it and the spindle must revolve together. Both the upper and 
under surfaces of the card-disk, for an inch or two from the circumference, 
towards the centre, were slightly rubbed with violin-player's hard rosin, and 
the whole, resting upon its base B, placed so that the disk should rotate 
horizontally. A fine elastic silk thread is wound a few turns round the 
barrel, and passing over the sheave (r) sustains a weight (W), by the descent 
of which, when required, rotation can be given to the disk, &c., the weight 
itself being large in proportion to the inertia of the rotating parts. By suit- 
able changes in the disposition of the parts of the contact-maker (chiefly in 
getting the cast-iron arm d, fig. 2, out of the way), it was placed at C with 
respect to the disk ; so that the lower poles of the electro-magnets (a, a) were 
just above the upper surface of the card-disk, and the short end of the lever 
armature (e) just below the same, the card running free in the small space 
between, and the centre of the magnet-poles being exactly at a radius of 
6 inches from the centx-e of the disk. Nearly at right angles on the disk to 
this, the chronograph (D) was placed and firmly fixed : a fixed point (shown 
in part only in the fig. g), formed of a bit of cylindrical mahogany, with its 
lower end rosined, was so fixed as to be about y^th of an inch above the 
upper surface of the disk. The lever (m) of the chronograph, divested of its 
forked pole, and having a small rectangular rod of brass substituted, was so 
adjusted that its sustaining spring beneath should press this brass terminal up 
against the under surface of the disk atp, directly below the fixed point or 
stop (ff), and bending the cardboard there, press its ujjper surface into con- 
tact with the lower end of ^. 

Thus the weight W being free to descend, this arrangement atj9 acted as 
a detent to keep the disk from moving ; but when the lever (w) was pressed 
down to start the chronograph, the disk immediately became released, and 
began to revolve by the action of the weight W. At E the contact-making 
battery, or one of equal power, was placed, one of its poles being connected, 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 213 

through the rheostat (R), by conducting wires with the coil of the electro- 
magnet (a), and terminating at the e+ pole at the mercury-cup (n), which 
was in connexion with the other or e— pole of the batterj'. 

The rheostat was adjusted so tiiat the resistance equalled that of the 
conducting wires along the telegraphic poles between C and D, E (fig. 1, 
PI. IV.). In this state of things, when the lever (m) of the chronograph 
was pressed down, the disk (f) instantly commenced rotating; but directly 
afterwards the electro-magnet (a), whose current was established by the first 
movement, attracted the lever armature (e) through the disk, and the latter 
was arrested by being gripped between the pole of the magnet and the 
armature. The arc of the circumference of the disk then, at the centre 
of the magnec-pole (i.e. with 6 inches radius), that was intercepted between 
the marked spot (p) whence it started and that at which it was arrested, 
became a measure of the time lost or elapsed between starting the chrono- 
graph at the observer's station and making contact at the firing-battery in 
the actual experiments. 

The arc thus intercepted was converted into time, from the descent of the 

jj 
weight (W), by the common formula l=2L-, s being given and equal to yVth 

4 

the length in feet of the arc described by the circumference of the disk before 
being ari'ested ; and this was capable of being controlled by measuring by the 
chronograph itself the actual time of a given number of successive revolu- 
tions, and parts of revolutions, of the disk. The total number of complete 
revolutions made being taken by reckoning the coils wound off the barrel 
upon a mean of ten experiments with this apparatus, the delay at the contact- 
maker appeared to be no more than 0"'0l43, which converted into distance, 
at the greatest transit-rate observed, gives a correction of 17'3 feet per second, 
and at that of the least of 12*S feet per second, both additive. 

It may be remarked that the small error due to inei'tia, &c. in this apparatus 
tends nearly to correct itself, the extremely small time lost at starting of the 
disk being very nearly equalled by its tendency to be carried a little too 
far by the velocity impressed. The whole inertia also of the disk, barrel, Sic. 
was extremely small in proportion to the moving weight W. 

Another correction requiring to be attended to in these experiments was 
the time of hung-Jire in the charge of the mine, that is to say, the time 
required for the burning of such a portion of the whole charge of powder 
as should be sufficient to rupture the rock around, and so start off from 
the focus the Avave-impulse perceived in the seismoscope — in other words, 
the time lost between the instant of first ignition of the powder, viewed 
as simultaneous with that of making contact at the firing-battery B, and 
the starting of the wave of impulse to be measured. 

In my ibrmer experiments at Killiney Bay, it will be recollected that it 
was in my power to determine this experimentally and rigidly, the moderate 
charges of powder there employed admitting of this, and that I found it 
amount for 25 lbs. of powder to 0""050513, or to about ^-^\\x of a second. 
Such is, in fact, the time that the full charge of a 68-pounder takes to burn. 
But in the present case direct experiment was impossible, and the value for 
this correction can only be approximately obtained by observing the time that 
elapsed in some instances between the moment of making contact at B, and 
the first great visible movement of rock at the iace of the heading. This 
observation I made in three instances, noting the time by a delicately made 
chronoscope, by M. Robert, Rue du Coq, Paris. The results gave 0"'05, 
0"'04', and 0"-8 for the time of hang-fire respectively, noting from the first 
visible movement of rock at the face of the heading. This would give a mear 



214 REPORT — 1861. 

of 0"'0566, or very nearly 0"-06 for the time of hang-fire, which can be 
viewed, however, only as an approximation. It must vary slightly with 
every diflPerent " heading," depending as it does upon a great variety of con- 
ditions, but probably much more upon the exact proportion subsisting in any 
given case between the actual resistance of the rock to the powder employed, 
than upon the absolute quantity of the latter, although the total mass of 
powder burnt is also an element. The greatest observed difference between 
the greatest and least hang-fire amounted to 0"*03, which, converted into 
distance at the mean transit-rate of our experiments, would give a. possible 
maximum error due to this cause of about 31 feet per second. The probable 
error cannot be more than about one-half that amount. This correction, 
converted into distance, is also additive. 

By the methods thus described the experiments were commenced and 
conducted up to the middle of 1857; great trouble and difficulty, however, 
were experienced from the outset in keeping the arrangements in working 
order, and so as to be efficient when wanted at the very brief notice that 
could be afforded me beforehand by the officers in charge of the works, 
when suitable headings were about to be fixed. The entire line of telegraph 
wires, the observer's shed, &c., were exposed to mischief and depredation, 
and to injury in that tempestuous place by storms, &c. The long intervals 
between the experiments involved preparations and adjustment of every part 
of the galvanic apparatus afresh upon each occasion ; and for the most trifling 
repairs workmen had to be brought from Conway, or even from Manchester, 
as also, in every case, to make good the branch-conductors from the tele- 
graph wires. The length of the range and hilly character of the ground 
also produced much difficulty in being assured that all was right from end 
to end against the moment at which the firing was obligatory, as well as 
great personal fatigue at a moment when composed ease and freedom from 
fatigue were most desirable for good observation. 

These difficulties, in great part foreseen, had early caused me to turn 
my attention to the practicability of so adjusting at the observing-station a 
telescope of large field and clear definition, and so disposing the Grove's 
firing-battery and other apparatus at the quarry clifi", that all could be clearly 
seen from the former point, and the act of making contact at the firing- 
battery observed by myself with distinctness and certainty, the two extre- 
mities of the range being thus, as it were, visually brought together. 

Two attempts to experiment in the summer and autumn of 1857, ren- 
dered abortive by derangements of the galvanic apparatus, caused me finally 
to abandon it, though unwillingly. I found, however, with some satisfaction, 
that, subject to the possible fatality of a cloud settling over the quarry clifi', 
and so shutting it out from sight just at the critical moment, the telescopic 
arrangement, on trial, really seemed to offer quite as accurate results as the 
more complex method, and more difficult to manage, of galvanic contact- 
making ; and the new mode was thus continued to the end of the experiments. 
The firing-battery being so disposed upon the sloping brow of the quarry cliff 
facing my station as to be clearly visible to me, as well as every movement 
of those employed there, a code of signals was arranged between myself 
and Mr. Cousens, by which we should mutually become cognizant of the 
state of preparation, &c., and successive acts at our respective stations. When 
all was ready at both ends for the explosion, the final signal was made by 
INIr. Cousens, by elevating a bright red flag (mounted upon a short and 
light staff') to a vertical position, the lower end resting on a fixed point; a 
prearranged interval of a few seconds (usually 10") intervened, when he 
dropped the red flag, rotating it upon the loAver end of the staff held in the 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 215 

right hand, and with the left made contact of the poles of the firing-battery 
at the same instant that the flag reached the horizontal position. Standing 
facing me, and as distinctly observable by me upon each occasion as though 
I had been close beside him, my own eye and attention were directed to 
Mr. Cousens's left hand ; at the instant that I observed the contact made by 
him, I released my chronograph, and at once transferred my eye from the 
eyepiece of the observing-telescope to that of the seismoscope. A moment 
elapsed before my own eye adjusted itself to the focus of the latter; but the 
length of transit-period of the wave (always above 4") gave ample time for 
this, and then at the disappearance of the cross wires, as in the former case, I 
arrested the chronograph. The only source of time-error introduced by this 
plan was that of the probability of some slight inequality of speed in dipping 
the poles to make contact on Mr. Cousens's part (which may be called 
his personal equation), and the introduction of a somewhat larger value 
than before to my own personal equation— in the former arrangement that 
being due to consent between my hand and observation by the eye of 
one object, in the latter between the hand and observation of tivo objects. 
As regards the first, several experiments were made by Mr. Cousens and 
myself at the firing-station, by his repeatedly lowering the red flag and making 
(the movement of) contact, the contact-maker (fig.2, Pl.IV.) and chronograph 
being so arraiiged as to register the total interval of time in each case 
between the first visible motion of the red flag and the completion of 
contact; others were so made as to register the time between the hori- 
zontal position of the red flag and the completion of contact. The result 
gave a minimum error of 0"-009, and a maximum of 0"-017. The mean 
error, 0"-013, is thus almost equal to the constant due to the contact- 
maker (in previous arrangement), with this difference, however, that the 
error in the present case might be either + or — . In twelve experiments 
nine were -f, or additive ; that is to say, the contact was made more slowly 
with the left hand than the flag was dropped with the right. The probability 
is therefore 3 : 1 that the error would be always additive, and would not 
exceed 0"-013, even if my observation was wholly directed to the flag; but 
as I directed my attention as completely as possible only to the movement 
of the contact-making hand, it is still less, and therefore, as not amounting 
to more than 6 or 7 feet per second in transit-time, may be neglected alto- 
gether. As regards my own personal equation of observation, it will be seen, 
on reference to "Second Report," &c. (British Association Report, 1851, 
p. 305, &c.), of the former experiments at Killiney, where it was ascertained 
for both observers that its amount is much too minute to enter sensibly 
into the present results ; and it is needless to say that this is a fortiori the 
case as respects the time lost in transmission of the galvanic current through 
the. 12,000 or 13,000 feet of conducting wire. 

The diagrams (Plate III.) give, to one scale, horizontal sections of the 
several headings from the experiments on which transit-results have been 
deduced, and a vertical section also of No. 31, quarry No. 9, as illustrative in 
this respect of all the others. The line of heading, from the face of the cliff up 
to any focus of charge, turns, it will be seen, thrice at right angles to itself, 
the object being more effectually to confine the effort of the powder when 
fired, and prevent the mass of " tamping " from being blown out. Results 
have been deduced from two headings, each of single focus, two of double 
focus, one of triple focus, and one of four foci, — the face of the cliff blown 
out varying, as marked in each case in the figure, from 60 feet to 120 feet 
in height, and the total weight of powder fired at one time being from 2100 
lbs. up to the enprmous charge of 12,000 lbs., or nearly 6 tons. 



216 



REPORT — 1861. 



It was necessary to ascertain the exact distance in a right line from each of 
these headings, wherever situated, to the observing-station O, at Pen-y-Brin ; 
and for tliis purpose, previously to each explosion, the distance of the mouth 
of the heading was measured with accuracy (which the ground admitted 
of) from the ilagstaff at W (see Map, Plate II., and Section 1, Plate III.), 
the exact distance of the latter having been previously determined from the 
observing-station O, as already described. 

The angle of azimuth made at the flagstaff by the line of constant range 
(O W), and by the line joining the flagstaff and mouth of the heading, was 
observed in each case, and we thus had the requisite data, from which was 
calculated, by the usual formulge, 

i(A + B)=90°-iC, 
log tan I- (A-B)=log (a-^^) + log tan | (A + B)— log (A + B), 

C being the observed angle, a and b the known sides from flagstaff to O, 
and from flagstaff to the mouth of the heading. 

Thus the actual range of wave-transit from the focus of each explosion 
to the seismoscope at O was finally obtained. The positions respectively 
of each are marked by a black dot, and numbered in order of the date of 
experiment upon the Map (Plate II.), taken from Mr. Rendel's chart of 1850, 
published by the Admiralty. Upon it the measured base (A B), and tri- 
angulation for obtaining the constant range (O W), and for checking that 
measurement, are marked. The actual wave-paths are therefore in right 
lines from the dots No. I, No. 2, No. 3, &c., to the point O. The coast-line 
and position approximately of the cliff- faces of the quarries, and the superficial 
line of junction of the quartz-rock and of the slate, are also marked. The 
great clay dyke passing through the quartz rock at the quain'ies in rear of 
the headings is marked by a pair of interrupted lines. 

The Map is to a scale of I| inch to 1000 feet, but is not quite exact as 
to filling in details on land ; the important distances here concerned are 
therefore marked in by figures. 

In the opposite Table (p. 217) our chief numerical results are comprised 
at one view. 

The first result that strikes the eye at once in regarding the Table (p. 217) 
is, that, with the exception of the experiment No. 1, all show that the transit- 
rate tends to increase in velocity with the increased quantity of powder 
fired, — in other words, that the loss of velocity in the same rock is less, in 
some proportion, as the force of the originating impulse of the wave is greater, 
and its amplitude greater therefore on starting. 

This is apparent if the uncorrected transit-rates (col. 8) be arranged 
in the order of increased weights of powder exploded, thus : 

Table II. 



Number of experiment 


2 


3 


1 


6 


4 


5 


Weight of powder 


lbs. 
2100 


lbs. 
2600 


lbs. 
3200 


lbs. 
4400 


lbs. 
6200 


lbs. 
12,000 




Uncorrected transit-rate \ 
(feet per second) J'" 


967-93 977-26 


896-12 


996-11 


1173-87 


1210-79 



Experiment No. ] forms the only exceptional case, and the departure is 
not a wide one ; so that the result cannot be viewed as accidental or due to 
any balancing of errors, but as the expression in so far of a fact of nature. 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 21? 



<! 
H 



■a 
a 



Pi 



c 

0) 









c 

c4 



^H 


6 


rH 


(M 


CO 


■* 


in 


to 


l-i 


^ 
















o 


^J8 


o 


(M 


Ol 


1— 1 


t^ 






I—* 


oo 


t>. 


a» 


in 


o 


S'P 


Oi 


J>. 


F-l 


-* 


00 




Trans 

with 

corre 

(col 


J^-^" 


o 


o 


o 


<D 


o 




^, >" 


o 


^ 


1(5 


OO 


to 




^a> 


o 


o 


(M 


IM 


o 




« 














■I-2.S8 1 


<n 00 


in 


IM 


01 


1— i 


t- 




I- -* 


i-H 


d 


o 


O 


'^ 


o 


First t 

correc 

fort 

seismos 

in dist 




C5 


CO 


CO 








-£>« 


o 


to 


i^ 


t^ 


to 




is 














. -d 


o 














bserved 
rate of 
ansit pe 
econd, 
corrccte 


« C^ 


M 


to 


»>. 


C5 


^H 


CO 


W 1— 1 




1^ 


CD 
CO 


o 


r—i 

to 












1— ( 


o^ 




■S«5 


CI 


o> 


r-t 


ca 


o> 




O i-c 


^ 






l-« 


F-4 






nu- . 


^■5 














Total 
bserve 
time 
transit 


00 


-s* 


o 


■—1 


el 




lO 


<M 


o 


to 


'^ 


». 


o^r^ 


to 


>o 


-T< 


r-* 


O) 




S*- 


lO 


o 


o 


^ 


in 




o 


M 














QJ 


















M 


*>• 


-* 


00 


CO 


o> 




. CTJ 


m 


i-H 


-* 




in 


, 


Tota 

distance 

mean ce 

of head 

from 

observ 




to 


J:^ 


CO 


CO 


00 




.« 00 


*>• 


t^ 


o 


CO 


c^ 




'<-' ^ 


■* 


CO 


'^ 


o 


cq 




O 


lO 


to 


to 


in 


in 




« 
















pproximat 
weight of 

rock 
removed. 


. o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




M O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




S o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




-2 o 














t>» 


o 


o 


to 


CO 




r-l 






<N 


CO 


wi 




■< 


















. o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




c« O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


• 


.O Cvl 


1— 1 


to 


CJ 


o 


rf 




t. o a, 


M 


M 


<N 


to 


c^ 


'^ 


















<u 














• 
CO 


tuber 
of 
he 
arry. 


ci 
d 


CO 

d 


• 

d 


c5 
d 


CO 

d 


d 




S5 =* 


;?: 


^ 


S5 


z 


;?^ 


^ 




^^ <u.S 


o 


o 


I-H 


CO 


o 


-* 




■* 


r-< 


CO 


CO 


oo 


00 


(N 




d 


d 


d 


d 


d 


d 




Z 


^ 


^ 


^5 


la 


;zi 




&I1 
































<4-i .::3 
















o Ti 


eo 


on 


CD 


oo 


■«4i 


f^ 


, 


CJ 4> 


r— ( 


r— I 


1— t 


1-^ 


c^ 


r-i 


1— t 


-5^ 


> 

O 




>:» 




>■ 


a 




Q to 




s 




o 




*« 


to 


to 


t^ 


t^ 


o 


•—1 






»n 


o 


>o 


>-0 


o 








00 

i-H 


00 

I— t 


00 

I-* 


00 


00 

»— ( 


00 

r-4 



218 



REPORT — 1861. 



Nor is it due to relative differences of different experiments in the lengths 
of range, in the quartz rock and in the slate respectively, as might be 
imagined ; for the experiments Nos. 2, 5, and 6 had wave-paths of about 
1400 feet in quartz only, and embrace the lowest and the highest velocities, 
while Nos. 1, 3, and 4 had about double this range or wave-path in quartz, 
with velocities not widely different from each other, or from No. 2. 

There are four corrections altogether applicable to the uncorrected transit- 
rates, col. 8, Table I., as already referred to, viz. — 

1st. That for the liquid wave in the seismoscope, which, as a delay in 

time, is, when converted into distance, always + . This correction has 

been already applied in cols. 9 and 10, Table I. 

2ndly. That for the time of hang-fire of each explosion in the rock, the 

constant in time for which has been given, =0"'056. 
It appeared, however, uncertain whether this should be converted into di- 
stance, as probably nearly constant for every experiment, or in what way 
it might be variable, in relation to the weight of powder, and other circum- 
stances of each. The result disclosed in Table II., however, appears to 
indicate that the conversion into distance should be proportionate to the 
respective gross or uncorrected transit-rates, assuming, as we may now do, 
that these are functions of the originating impulses and resistances together, 
in each instance. This may not be absolutely true, but is the nearest ap- 
proximation we can make. This correction in distance is also always + . 
3rdly. The loss of time at making contact, — whether galvanically, in 

which we ascertained the constant in time to be =0 "•0143, when converted 

into distance always -f-j or by the hand (of the firing party), when we found 

it was in time =0"*013, which in distance might be either + or — . 
The probability being so much in favour of the latter being positive, I have 
ventured to apply it as always so, which also renders all the experiments 
more truly comparable. 

4thly. The personal equations of the observer and time of transit of the 

galvanic current, both of which may be neglected. 

Applying these several corrections, we obtain the following Table and final 
numerical results : — 



Table III. — ^Wave-transit Experiments. Corrected Results. 



No. 
of 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


Observed rate of 


2nd correction. 


Transit-rate with 


3rd correction, 


Final 


transit per sec, 


for hang-fire of 


2nd correction, 


making 


corrected 


uncorrected, 


explosion taken 


col. 2+col. 10, 


contact into 


transit-rates, 




col. 8, Tab. I. 


in distance. 


Tab. I. 


distance. 


col. 3-f col. 4. 




feet per sec. 


feet per sec. 


feet per sec. 


feet per sec. 


feet per sec. 


1. 


896-12 


50-183 


1004-551 


11-649 


1016-200 


2. 


967-93 


54-204 


1085-119 


13-831 


1098-958 


3. 


977-26 


54-726 


1095-508 


13-975 


1109-483 


4. 


1173-87 


65-737 


1315-908 


15-260 


1331-168 


5. 


1210-79 


67-804 


1357-295 


15-740 


1373035 


6. 


996-11 


55-792 


1116-649 


12-949 


1129-598 



The limits of error in these results would seem to be, that the 2nd correc- 
tion may amount to 15'5 feet per second in excess, and the error from all 
other instrumental or observational sources may be estimated probably at 
not more than 10 feet per second, so that the results may be deemed true to 
within 25\ feet per second + or — . 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 219 

The general mean derivable from the whole of the experiments taken to- 
gether gives IITS'^O? feet per second for the transit-rate. The results, how- 
ever, obviously form two groups, viz. Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 6 from the smaller 
charges of powder, and Nos. 4 and 5 from the greater ones. 

The mean from the four first is 1088*5597 feet per second, and that from 
the two last is 1352*1015 feet per second ; and taking a mean of means from 
both of these, we obtain a final result of 1220*3306 feet per second as the 
mean transit-velocity of propagation, in the rocks experimented on, of a 
wave-pulse produced by the impulse of a charge not exceeding 12,000 lbs. 
of powder. We may be justified in concluding that the velocity of wave-pro- 
pagation (or transit) really does increase with the force of the original im- 
pulse ; it would be vain, however, to attempt to deduce the law of such 
increase from the results before us. 

The experiments of Mr. Goldingham at Madras, on the retardation of 
sound in moist air, and the theoretical researches of Mr. Earnshaw, both, by 
analogy, rendered a priori probable what is now for the first time, so far 
as I am aware, experimentally shown. 

It follows, then, on reference to my former experiments at Killiney Bay, 
that the rate of wave-propagation in highly stratified, contorted, and foliated 
rock is intermediate between that for dense wet sand and for discontinuous 
and shattered granite. Adopting the first mean from the smaller charges of 
powder, as better comparable with the Killiney experiments, which were 
made with charges of only 25 lbs. of powder, and which would doubtless have 
been higher velocities with heavier charges, we obtain the following series : — 

Transit-rates of Wave-propagation. 

In wet sand 824*915 feet per second. 

In contorted and stratified rock Cquartzl ,„„„ -__ 

andslate) 1 1088*559 

In discontinuous granite 1306*425 „ „ 

In more solid granite 1664*574 „ „ 

We may infer, even adopting the highest mean of these experiments 
(1 352*101 feet per second) for comparison with the transit-rate for discon- 
tinuous granite, and bearing in mind that the former velocity is due to the im- 
pulse originated by a mean charge of 9100 lbs. of powder, while the latter was 
due to one of but 25 lbs., that for equal originating impulses the rate of propaga- 
tion of waves analogous to earthquake-waves of shock must be less generally, 
if not always, in contorted stratified rocks than in crystalline igneous rocks 
analogous to granite, the amount of shattered discontinuity being the same 
in both. 

The general mean obtained, viz. 1220*33 feet per second= 13*877 statute 
English miles per minute, coordinates, as might be expected, with the more 
trustworthy of the older attempts to determine the velocity of propagation 
of earth quake- waves in nature (see Table 8, " Second Report on Earth- 
quakes," &c., Report of Brit. Assoc. 1851, p. 316), and still more so with the 
more recent and exact determinations of such velocities made by Noggerath*, 
who found it 1376 Paris feet per second; by Schmidtf, of the shock about 

* Das Erdbeben vom 29 Juli, 1846, im Rheingebiet, &c. V. Dr. Jakob Noseerath. 4to 
Bonn, 1847. ^ ' 

t Untersuchungen uber das Erdbeben am 15 Jan. 1858. J. F. Schmidt, Astrouom, 
Mittheilungen der Kais.-Konigl. Geog. Gesellschaft, II. Jahrgang, 1858. 



3> 



220 REPORT — 1861. 

Mincow in Hungary, and by myself in the (late) Neapolitan kingdom, after 
the great shock of 1857, Mhere I found that the velocity of propagation iu 
the shattered limestone and argillaceous rocks of the shaken region was even 
below what has been here determined for the harder and more compact rocks 
of Wales, also of stratified structure. Experiment and observation have 
thus alike sustained the three provisional conclusions anticipated by me as 
to the transit-velocities of earthquake-waves in nature (at the conclusion of 
"Second Report," &c., Report of Brit. Assoc. 1851, p. 316), in passing 
through formations different in character. 

In experimenting with these great explosions at Holyhead, I have been 
enabled to see that such great impulses, though offering the advantages of a 
greatly extended range, and hence larger total time-period for measurement, 
do not in reality admit, from various contingent circumstances, of greater, or 
perhaps of as great accuracy of transit determinations, as do much smaller 
explosions, such as those specially madeatKilliney Bay. These great explo- 
sions, however, elicit phenomena visible in the seismoscope, which are too 
faint to be distinct when due to smaller charges, and which analogize closely 
with the succession of vibratory and wave movements observed in natural 
earthquakes. In the larger of these great explosions, as the impulsive wave 
approached the instrument, the previously steady reflected image of the cross 
wires did not at once disappear ; the definition of the wires rapidly became 
obscured, the obscuration increasing fur an instant to a flickering of the 
image, preceding its obliteration, at the same moment that the oscillation 
then communicated to the trough caused the mercury to sway from end to 
end, in a liquid wave, whose amplitude was sufficient to cause variable flashes 
of light to be transmitted to the eye, with the changing inclination of the 
reflecting-surface of the undulating mirror, — the image of the cross Avires 
reappearing (but now oscillating with the movement impressed upon the 
mercury in the direction of the wave-transit) by passing through a second 
phase of flickering and vibration, but in the reverse order, before becoming 
perfect in definition as at the commencement. 

I had thus presented visibly before me the " tremors " that nearly invari- 
ably are described as preceding and following the main shock and destructive 
surface movement in every great earthquake. The phenomena appear to be 
identical, however premature it may be to propose a precise and adequate 
explanation of their production. 

There appear to be three elements upon which the wave-transmissive 
power of a rock-formation mainly depends, viz. the modulus of elasticity of 
its material, the absolute range of its compression by a given impulse or im- 
pact, and the degree of heterogeneity and discontinuity of its parts. As has 
been already described, the range of wave-transit of these experiments 
passed through two rock-formations, quartz and slate, differing in name 
and in several respects in structure, yet very much alike, as has been re- 
marked, in intimate composition. It remains to show experimentally that 
they do not differ in these conditions of transmissive power to such an extent 
as materially to affect the results. 

If a perfectly elastic ball be dropped upon a mass of perfectly elastic rock, 
whose volume may be considered as infinite with respect to that of the ball, 
the latter will rebound to the height from which it descended ; and if the 
same ball, though not perfectly elastic, be dropped in succession upon like 
masses of two different rocks, it will rebound from each to a height less than 
that from which it fell, and the value of which will depend mainly upon the 
elasticity, the depth of the impression, and tlie degree of discontinuity of the 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OP EARTHaUAKE WAVES. 221 

rocks respectlvelj% We have therefore thus got the means of very simply 
determining, in a sufficiently approximate manner, the relation between the 
velocity of impact and that of recoil, a quantity that bears the most intimate 
relation to the wave-transmissive power of rocks or other like bodies. To 
conduct this experiment I dropped an ordinary ivory billiard ball upon a 
number of different masses of the quartz-rock, and also of the slate, both 
in situ, and upon very large isolated blocks, making the impacts both 
transverse to the stratifications and foliation and in the same planes as these, 
in both sorts of rock. The ball was dropped from a constant height of 
5 feet above the point of impact, and beside a graduated scale held vertically 
by an assistant, by means of which, after a little practice, and skill in 
choosing by trial a point of impact, from which the ball shall rebound 
vertically only, it is easy to observe with considerable accuracy the height 
to which it recoils, the eye being gradually brought to the same level as that 
to which the ball rises, so as to read the scale free from parallax. 

If H and h be the height from which the ball has fallen and that to which 
it rebounds, then 

^^^^^ = -=R, 

which may be viewed as a symbol of the above relation, and closely con- 
nected with the wave-retardation respectively. In the quartz-rock I obtained 
the following results : — 

From the hardest and densest blocks or masses, and edgeways to the lami- 
nation, the ball recoiled 2"33 feet; v is therefore =sVJi=12-25l feet per 
second. 

From the softer and more earthy masses, and transverse to the planes of 
lamination, the recoil was 1*50 feet, and 2;=9"822 feet per second. 

And in the slate-rock, — 

From the hardest and densest, edgeways to the foliation, the ball recoiled 
2*00 feet, or V=11'341 feet per second. 

From the least hard and dense, and transverse to the planes of foliation, 
the recoil was 1'417 feet, and 2;=9'546 feet per second. 

The mean value for the quartz rock is thus 

12-25H-9-822 „ „,,. ^ , , 

v= ^ =lr036 feet per second ; 



and for the slate rock, 

11-34.1+9-546 ,^,,„^ 
^_ _ =10443 feet per second ; 

and as H = 5 feet, V =17*935 feet per second, we have 



and 



1 0*443 
R^= ,j„ i =0'576 for the slate, 



T? 11 'O^fi 

^=, ^.QQ- =0'553 for the quartz, 



numbers which differ so slightly from equality as to indicate that there is 
no great difference of transmissive power in the two rocks. Indeed this is 
rendered certain by consideration of the experiments themselves. Previously 
to their commencement I expected that in every instance the range in quartz 



222 



REPORT — 1861. 



would have been extremely short in relation to that in slate, and very nearly 
the same in all cases. The circumstances of the works subsequently obliged 
me to increase the range in the quartz, and to adopt " headings " for experi- 
ment, three of which have a range in quartz of nearly double that of the 
other three, as seen in the two following Tables : — 



Table IV. — Shortest Ranges in Quartz. 



No. of experiment. 



2 
5 
6 



Uncorrected 
transit-rate. 



feet per sec. 

967-93 

1210-79 

996-11 



Range of quartz. 



Uncorrected mean transit-rate of Nos. 2, 5, 6 

Ratio of ranges in quartz to slate 1 : 2-66. 



Range of slate. 



feet. feet. 

1600 3877 

1300 3738 

1400 3829 

,.1058-27 feet per second. 



Table V. — Longest Ranges in Quartz. 



No. of experiment. 



1 

4 
3 



Uncorrected 
transit-rate. 



feet per sec. 
896-12 
1173-87 
977-26 



Range of quartz. 



Uncorrected mean transit-rate of Nos. 1, 4, 3 

Ratio of ranges in quartz to slate 1 : 1-32. 



Range of slate. 



feet. feet. 

2850 3733 

2700 3704 

2650 3727 

1015-75 feet per second. 



In each of the two groups everything is as nearly as possible alike ; there 
are two explosions of moderate charges and one great explosion in each. 
They differ only in this, that in the first group (Table IV.) the range in 
quartz, in proportion to that in slate, is very nearly double that in the latter 
(Table V.), being in the ratio of 2-66 : 1-32; yet, as will be observed, 
the mean transit-rate in both groups is almost alike, being in the ratio of 
1058-27 : 1015 : 75. This would be obviously impossible if either one rock 
or the other exercised any well-marked accelerating or retarding influence 
upon the transmission of the wave. 

In their direct relation to seismology the interest of the foregoing results 
is not as great as when some years since I commenced these experiments. 
At that period no knowledge whatever existed as to the relation that subsists 
in nature between the velocity of transit and the velocity of the particles in 
wave-movement in actual earthquakes. Geological observers, in fact, did 
not appear to be aware of any such physical distinction ; and those who were 
so, presumed that the velocity of the particles M^as like that of transit, ex- 
tremely great, and that some simple relation would probably be found 
between them. 

The first determinations of velocity of the particles in wave-movement that 
have ever been made, namely, those by myself of the great Neapolitan earth- 
quake of 1857, have dissipated this notion, however, and proved that the 
velocity of the particles in even the greatest shocks is extremely small, not 
exceeding 20 feet per second in very great earthquakes, and probably never 
having reached SO feet per second in any shock that has occurred in history. 



ON THE TRANS IT- VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 223 

No simple relation appears as yet between the transit-velocity and that of the 
particles ; and however interes'ting and important both to general physics and 
to seismology may be further determinations with exactness of the former, 
it is to the observation and measurement of the latter, by the methods pointed 
out in the Report upon the Neapolitan Earthquake*, and there employed, 
that we must look as instruments of future seismological research. 

I proceed to lay before the Association the results of some experiments 
upon the modulus of elasticity of perfectly solid portions of both these 
rocks, with a view to the interesting question of the relation between the 
theoretic velocity of transmission, if the rock were all solid and homo- 
geneous (y= ^2q -, e being that modulusY and the actual velocity found 

by the preceding experiments. 

Subsequently to the conclusion of the experiments at Holyhead, referred 
to above, I have been enabled to complete a series of experiments upon the 
compressibility of the rocks which formed my range there, and have de- 
termined their moduli of elasticity, &c. The inferences derivable from this 
latter series form the proper sequel to what has preceded, and they throw 
some new and not unimportant light upon several points of earthquake 
dynamics. The experiments were made upon cubes cut from solid and 
perfect pieces of the rocks by the lapidary's wheel, each 0-707 inch upon 
the edge — each side, therefore, presenting a surface of 0-5 square inch; 
and the utmost care was taken to preserve perfect parallelism between the 
opposite boundary planes, so that, when compressed between hardened steel 
surfaces, fracture should not result by mere inequality of pressure. 

The experiments were made at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, with the 
very accurate and excellent machine used for testing compression and ex- : 
tension of metals in the gun-factory ; and I have to express my thanks to 
Lieut.-Col. Anderson, C.E., the Superintendent of that department, for the 
valuable assistance afforded me through his attention. The specimens ope- 
rated on consisted of two each from the following four classes, namely — 

The hardest and the softest slate-rock, and the hardest and the softest quartz- 
rock, which occur within the range or neighbourhood of my experimental 
explosions at Holyhead ; and from each of these classes or varieties of the 
two rocks, cubic specimens were compressed, 1st, in a direction transverse 
to the plane of lamination, 2nd, parallel to the same, all the cubes being so 
cut out of the rock that two sides were, guam prox., parallel to the plane of 
natural lamination or jointing. The load (50 lbs.) first applied was consi- 
dered zero, being only sufficient to ensure a complete bearing in all parts 
of the instrument. The subsequent loads advanced by 1000 lbs. at a time, 
up to the crushing of the specimen ; and at each fresh load the amount of 
compression was measured by beam-callipers, with instrumental arrange- 
ments that admitted of reading space to -0005 of an inch. 

The experimental results, as obtained, are recorded in the following 
Tables, from No. 1 to No. 8 inclusive ; and in the succeeding Tables 9 
and 10, the results of the former are compared, and the mean compression 
deduced for each 1000 lbs. of pressure applied upon a prism of each of the 
four classes of rock (two of slate and two of quartz), of one inch square 
surface, and one inch in height, and under both conditions as to the relative 
direction of pressure and of lamination. 

* Now in the press. Chapman and Hall, London : 2 vols. 8vo. 



224 



REPORT 1861. 



Holyhead Rock Compression. 

Table I. — Experiments A, on Hard Slate; pressure 
transverse to lamination. 



Hard 



Slate. 



r~n 



Number 
of 


Pressure due to 


Compression 
readings of the 


Compression 
readings due to 


Total compres- 
sions produced 


Total compres- 
sions reduced to 


experi- 


= 1 square inch. 


column 


the successive 


by the load on 


a column of unit 


ment. 


of 0707 inch. 


loads. 


column of 0'707. 


heig;ht=l inch. 




lbs. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 


50 


■085 


•000 


•000 


•000 


2 


1,000 


•081 


•004 


•004 


•0052 


3 


2,000 


•078 + 


•003 + 


•004 


•0052 


4 


3,000 


•078+ 


•003+ 


•004 


•0052 


5 


4,000 


•078 


•003 


•004 


•0052 


6 


5,000 


•078 


•003 


•007 


•0091 


7 


6,000 


•077+ 


•001 + 


•007 


•0091 


8 


7,000 


•077 


•001 


•008 


•0104 


9 


8,000 


•076+ 


•001 + 


•008 


•0104 


10 


9,000 


•076+ 


•001 + 


•008 


•0104 


11 


10,000 


•076+ 


•001 + 


•008 


•0104 


12 


11,000 


•076 


•001 


•008 


•0104 


13 


12,000 


•076 


•001 


•009 


•0117 


14 


13,000 


•075+ 


•001 + 


•009 


•0117 


15 


14,000 


•075+ 


•001 + 


•009 


•0117 


16 


15,000 


•075+ 


•001+ 


•009 


•0117 


17 


16,000 


•075 


•001 


•009 


•0117 


18 


17,000 


•075 


•001 


•009 


•0117 


19 


18,000 


•075 


•001 


•009 


■0117 


20 


19,000 


•075 


•001 


•010 


•0130 


21 


20,000 


•074+ 


•001 + 


•010 


•0130 


22 


21,000 


•074+ 


•001 + 


•010 


•0130 


23 


22,000 


•074 


•001 + 


•010 


•0130 


24 


23,000 


•074 


•001 


•Oil 


•0143 


25 


24,000 


Crushed 


•001 


•Oil 


•0143 



Table II. — Experiments B, on Hard Slate; pressure 
parallel to lamination. 



Hard 



Slate. 



1 


50 


•130 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


2 


1,000 


•120 


•010 


•010 


•0130 


3 


2,000 


•100 


•020 


•030 


•0390 


4 


3,000 


•099 + 


•001+ 


•031 + 


•0403+ 


5 


4,000 


•098 


•001 


•032 


•0416 


6 


5,000 


•097 


■001 


•032 


•0416 


7 


6,000 


•096 


■001 


•032 


•0416 


8 


7,000 


•094 


•002 


•036 


•0468 


9 


8,000 


•092+ 


•002+ 


•038+ 


•0494 


10 


9,000 


•092 + 


•002 + 


•038 + 


•0494 


11 


10,000 


•092+ 


•002+ 


•038 + 


•0494 


12 


11,000 


•092 


•002 


•038+ 


•0494 


13 


12,000 


•092 


•002 


•038+ 


•0494 


14 


13,000 


•092 


•002 


•038 + 


•0494 


15 


14,000 


•092 


•002 


•038+ 


•0494 


16 


15,000 


•090 


•002 


•040 


•0520 


17 


16,000 


•089 


•001 


•041 


•0533 


18 


17,000 


•086 


•003 


•044 


•0572 


19 


18,000 


•085+ 


•001 + 


•045 + 


•0585+ 


20 


19,000 


•085+ 


•001 + 


•045 + 


•0585+ 


21 


20,000 


•085+ 


•001 + 


•045 + 


•0585 + 


22 


21,000 


•085 


•001 


•045+ 


•0585+ 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OP EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 



225 



Table II. (continued.) 



Number 




Compression 


Compression 


Total compres- 


Total compres- 


of 




readings of the 


readings due to 


sions produced 


sions reduced to 


experi- 


= 1 square inch. 


column 


the successive 


by the loads in 


a column of unit 


ment. 


of 0707 inch. 


loads. 


column of 0707. 


heights 1 inch. 




lbs. 


ill. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


23 


22,000 


•085 


•001 


•045+ 


•0585+ 


24 


23,000 


•085 


•001 


•045 + 


•0585 + 


25 


24,000 


•082 


•003 


•048 


•0624 


26 


25,000 


•082 


•003 


•048 


•0624 


27 


26,000 


•080 


•002 


•050 


•0650 


28 


27,000 


•077 


•003 


•053 


•0689 


29 


27,000+ 


Crushed 


•003 


•053 


•0689 



Table III. — Experiments C, on Hard Quartz; pressure 
transverse to lamination. 



Hard 



Quartz. 



1 


50 


•100 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


2 


1,000 


•097 


•003 


•003 


•0039 


3 


2,000 


•095+ 


•002+ 


•003 


•0039 


4 


3,000 


•095+ 


•002+ 


•003 


•0039 


5 


4,000 


•095+ 


•002+ 


•003 


•0039 


6 


5,000 


•095 + 


•002+ 


•003 


•0039 


7 


6,000 


•095 


•002 


•003 


•0039 


8 


7,000 


•095 


•002 


•003 


•0039 


9 


8,000 


•095 


•002 


•005 


•0065 


10 


9,000 


•094 


•001 


•006 


•0078 


11 


10,000 


•093+ 


•001 + 


•006 


•0078 


12 


11,000 


•093+ 


•001 + 


•006 


•0078 


13 


12,000 


•093+ 


•001 + 


•006 


•0078 


14 


13,000 


•093 


•001 


•006 


•0078 


15 


14,000 


•093 


•001 


•006 


•0078 


16 


15,000 


•093 


•001 


•006 


•0078 


17 


16,000 


•093 


•001 


•007 


•0091 


18 


17,000 


•092+ 


•001+ 


•007 


•0091 


19 


18,000 


•092 


•001 


•007 


•0091 


20 


19,000 


•092 


•001 


•008 


•0104 


21 


20,000 


•091 + 


•001 + 


•009+ 


•0117+ 


22 


21,000 


•088 


•003 


•012 


•0156 


23 


22,000 


•083+ 


•0C5+ 


•012 


•0156 


24 


23,000 


•083+ 


•005+ 


•012 


•0156 


25 


24,000 


•083+ 


•005-f- 


•012 


•0156 


26 


25,000 


•083 


•005 


•012 


•0156 


27 


26,000 


•083 


•005 


•017 


•0221 


28 


27,000 


•082+ 


•001 + 


•017 


•0221 


29 


28,000 


•082+ 


•001 + 


•017 


•0221 


30 


29,000 


•082+ 


•001 + 


•017 


•0221 


31 


30,000 


•082 


•001 


•017 


•0221 


32 


31,000 


•082 


•001 


•017 


•0221 


33 


32,000 


•082 


•001 


•018 


•0234 


34 


33,000 


•081 + 


•001 + 


•018 


•0234 


35 


34,000 


•081 


•001 


•019 


•0247 


36 


35,000 


•080+ 


•001+ 


•019 


•0247 


37 


36,000 


•080 


•001 


•020 


•0260 


38 


36,000+ 


Crushed 


•001 


•020 


•0260 



1861. 



Q 



226 



REPORT 1861. 



Table IV. — Experiments D, on Hard Quartz ; pressure 
parallel to lamination. 



Hard 



Quartz. 



Number 


Pressure due to 

the unit of surface 

= 1 square inch. 


Compression 


Compression 


Total compres- 


Total compres- 


of 


readings of the 


readings due to 


sions produced 


sions reduced to 


experi- 


column 


the successive 


by the loads in 


a column of unit 


ment. 


of 0707 inch. 


loads. 


column of 0707. 


height =1 inch. 




lbs. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 


50 


•106 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


2 


1,000 


•106 


•000 


•000 


•oooo 


3 


2,000 


•106 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


4 


3,000 


•106 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


5 


4,000 


•106 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


6 


5,000 


•102 


•004 


•004 


•0052 


7 


6,000 


•100 + 


•002 + 


•004 


•0052 


8 


7,000 


•100 + 


•002+ 


•004 


•0052 


9 


8,000 


•100 + 


•002 + 


•004 


•0052 


10 


9,000 


•100 


•002 


•004 


•0052 


11 


10,000 


•100 


•002 


•004 


•0052 


12 


11,000 


•lOo 


•002 


•006 


•0078 


13 


12,000 


•098 + 


•002 


•006 


•0078 


14 


13,000 


•098 


•002 


•008 


•0104 


15 


14,000 


•097 


•001 


•009 


•0117 


16 


15,000 


•096 


•001 


•010 


•0130 


17 


16.000 


•093 


•003 


•013 


•0169 


18 


17,000 


•092 


•001 


•014 


•0182 


19 


18,000 


•090 + 


•002+ 


•014 


•0182 


20 


19,000 


•090 


•002 


•016 


•0208 


21 


20,000 


Crushed 


•002 


•016 


•0208 



Table V. — Experiments E, on Soft Slate ; pressure 
transverse to lamination. 



L_J 



Soft 



^ Slate. 



1 


50 


•088 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


2 


1,000 


•087 


•001 


•001 


•0014 


3 


2,000 


•086 + 


•001 + 


•001 


•0014 


4 


3,000 


•086 


•001 


•002 


•0029 


5 


4,000 


•085 


•001 


•002 


•0029 


6 


5,000 


•085 


•001 


•003 


•0043 


7 


6,000 


•079 


•006 


•009 


•0129 


8 


7,000 


•077 + 


•002 + 


•009 


•0129 


9 


8,000 


•077+ 


•002+ 


•009 


•0129 


10 


9,000 


•077 


•002 


•009 


•0129 


11 


10,000 


•077 


•002 


•009 


•0129 


12 


11,000 


•077 


•002 


•Oil 


•0158 


13 


12,000 


•075 


•002 


•013 


•0187 


14 


13,000 


•060 


•015 


•028 


•0404 


15 


14,000 


•050 


•010 


•038 


•0548 


16 


15,000 


Crushed 


•010 


•038 


•0518 



Note. — The cube E was 0693 inch on the side, and the necessary reductions have been 
made in column 2 and subsequent ones. 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 



227 



Tab^-e VI. — Experiments F, on Soft Slate ; pressure 
parallel to lamination. 



Soft 



LI 



!!!:'ii Slate. 



r-n 



Number 


Pressure due to 
the unit of surface 


Compression 


Compression 


Total compres- 


Total compres- 


of 
experi- 


readings cf the 
column 


readings due to 
the successive 


sions produced 
bv the loads in 


sions reduced to 
a column of unit 


ment. 




of 0707 inch. 


loads. 


column of 0707. 


height=l inch. 




lbs. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 


50 


•107 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


2 


1000 


•105 


•002 


•002 


•0029 


3 


2000 


•102+ 


•003 + 


•002 


•0029 


4 


3000 


•102 


•003 


•002 


•0029 


5 


4000 


•102 


•003 


•005 


•0072 


6 


5000 


■099 


•003 


•008 


•0115 


7 


6000 


■097 


•002 


•010 


•0147 


8 


7000 


•089 


•008 


•018 


•0129 


9 


8000 


•080 


•009 


•027 


•0389 


10 


8000+ 


Crushed 


•009 


•027 


•0389 



Note. — The cube F lyas 0-693 inch on the side, and the necessary reductions have been 
made in column 2 and subsequent ones. 



Table VII — Experiments G, on Soft Quartz ; pressure 
transverse to lamination. 



Soft 



Quartz. 



1 


50 


•093 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


2 


1,000 


•093 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


3 


2,000 


•093 


•000 


•000 


•0000 


4 


3,000 


•090 


•003 


•003 


•0043 


5 


4,000 


•086 + 


•004+ 


•003 


•0043 


6 


5,000 


•086 + 


•004 + 


•003 


•0043 


7 


6,000 


•086 


•004 


•003 


•0043 


8 


7,000 


•086 


•004 


•007 


•0101 


9 


8,000 


•085 + 


•001 + 


•007 


•OlOl 


10 


9,000 


•085 + 


•001 + 


•007 


•0101 


11 


10,000 


•085 


•001 


•008 


•0115 


12 


11,000 


•084 


•001 


•009 


■0129 


13 


12,000 


•081 


•003 


•012 


•0176 


14 


13,000 


•068 


•013 


■025 


•0359 


15 


14,000 


•060 


Crushed before being fully 


wadded. 



Note. — The cube G was 0-694 inch on the side, and the necessary reductions have been 
made in column 2 and subsequent ones. 



Table VIII Experiments H, on Soft Quartz ; pressure 

parallel to lamination. 



Soft 



11 



Quartz. 



1 


50 


•170 


•000 


■000 


•0000 


2 


1000 


•144 


•026 


■026 


•0374 


3 


2000 


•101 + 


•043 + 


■069 


•0992 


4 


3000 


•101 


■043 


■069 


•0993 


5 


4000 


•100 


•001 


•070 


•1007 


6 


5000 


•099 


■001 


•071 


•1021 


7 


6000 


•098 


■001 


•072 


•1036 


8 


7000 


•049 


■049 


•021 


•1741 


9 


7000+ 


Crushed before the increased load was applied. 



Note. — The cube H was 0-695 inch on the side, and the necessary reductions hare been 
made in column 2 and the subsequent ones. 

q2 



228 



REPORT 1861. 



Table IX Slate Rock. — Results of compression compared — Column of 

unit length = l inch. 







A 


B 


£ 


F 


Number 


Pressure in 










of 


pounds on unit 


Hard slate 


Hard slate 


Soft slate 


Soft slate 


experi- 


of surface 


across lamina. 


with the 


• across 


with the 


ment. 


= 1 square inch. 




lamina. 


lamina. 


lamina. 




lbs. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 


50 


•0000 


•0000 


•0000 


•0000 


2 


1,000 


•0052 


•0130 


•0014 


•0029 


3 


2,000 




•0390 






4 


3,000 




•0403 


•0029 




5 


4,000 





•0416 




•0072 


6 


5,000 


•0091 




•0043 


•0115 


7 


6,000 






•0129 


•01'J7 


8 


7,000 


•0104 


•0468 




•0259 


9 


8,000 




•0494 




•0389 


10 


9,000 








Crushed 


11 


10,000 










12 


11,000 






•0158 




13 


12,000 


•0117 




•0187 




14 


13,000 






•0404 




15 


14,000 






•0518 




16 


15,000 




•0520 


Crushed 




17 


16,000 




•0533 






18 


17,000 




•0572 






19 


18,000 




•0585 






20 


19,000 


•0130 








21 


20,000 










22 


21,000 










23 


22,000 










24 


23,000 


•0143 








25 


24,000 


Crushed 


•0624 






26 


25,000 










27 


26,000 




•0650 






28 


27,000 




•0689 






29 


28,000 




Crushed 






30 


29,000 












in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


Mean compression for 


•0006217 


•0025000 


•0039144 


•0037000 


each 1000 lbs. on-^ 


up to 


up to 


up to 


up to 


unit of surface 


23,000 lbs. 


26,000 lbs. 


14,000 lbs. 


7000 lbs. 



Table X. 

Quartz Rock. — Results of compression compared.— Column of unit 

length=l inch. 







C 


D 


G 


H 


Number 


Pressure in 










of 


pounds on unit 


Hard quartz 


Hard quartz 


Soft quartz 


Soft quartz 


eipen- 


of surface 


across lamina. 


vnth the 


across 


with the 


ment. 


= 1 square inch. 




lamina. 


lamina. 


lamina. 




lbs. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 


50 


•0000 


•0000 


•0000 


•0000 


2 


1000 


•0039 






•0374 


3 


2000 








•0992 


4 


3000 






•0043 


•0993 


5 


4006 








•1007 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OP EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 



229 







Table X. (continued.) 








c 


D 


G 


H 


Number 


Pressure in 










of 


pounds on unit 


Hard quartz 


Hard quartz 


Soft quartz 


Soft quartz 


experi- 


of surface 


across lamina. 


with the 


across 


with the 


ment. 


— 1 square inch. 




lamina. 


lamina. 


lamina. 




lbs. 


in. 


in. 


iu. 


in. 


G 


5,000 




•0052 




•1021 


7 


6,000 








•1036 


8 


7,000 







•oioi 


•1741 


9 


8,000 


•0065 






Crushed 


10 


9,000 


•0078 








11 


10,000 






•0115 




12 


11,000 




•0078 


•0129 




13 


12,000 






•0176 




14 


13,000 




•0104 


•0359 




15 


14,000 




•0117 


Crushed 




16 


15,000 




•0130 






17 


16,000 


•0691 


•0169 






18 


17,000 




•0182 






19 


18,000 










20 


19,000 


•0104 


•0208 






21 


20,000 


•0117 


Crushed 






22 


21,000 


•0156 








23 


22,000 










24 


23,000 










25 


24,000 










26 


25,000 










27 


26,000 


•0221 








28 


27,000 










29 


28,000 










30 


29,000 










31 


30,000 










32 


31,000 










33 


32,000 


•0234 








34 


33,000 










35 


34,000 


•0247 








36 


35,000 










37 


36,000 


■0260 








38 


37,000 


Crushed 










in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


Mean compression for 
each 1000 lbs. on« 
unit of surface 


•0007085 


•0010947 


•0014666 


•0172666 


up to 


up to 


up to 


up to 


35,000 lbs. 


19,000 lbs. 


12,000 lbs. 


6000 lbs. 



An examination of these Tables presents some remarkable and, so far as 
I am aware, now for the first time observed results. 

As might have been expected, the quartz-rock is much less compressible 
generally than the slate-rock, with this exception, however, that the softest 
specimens of quartz-rock, and those alone, are much more compressible than 
the softest slate, when both compressed in the direction of or parallel to the 
lamination. 

i In this direction of compression, the hardest slate is more than double as 
compressible as the hardest quartz. 

When compressed transverse to the lamina, however, the hard slate and 
hard quartz prove to have very nearly the same coefficient of compres- 
sibility, which is very small for both ; while the softest slate and the softest 
quartz, compressed in the same way (transverse to lamina), have also nearly 
the same coefficient of compressibility, but one about four times as great as 
for the hardest like rocks. 

These facts point towards the circumstance of the original deposit and 
formation of these rocks as their efficient causes. Both rocks consist of 



230 



REPORT — 1861. 



particles more or less wedge-shaped and flat, and angular fragments more or 
less crystalline, deposited together, witii their larger dimensions in the planes 
of lamination, which lamination has been produced by enormous compression 
in a direction transverse to its planes. Hence the mass of these rocks has 
already been subjected to enormous compression in the same direction as that 
in which we now find their further compressiliility the least. But, besides 
that we might from this cause alone anticipate a higher compressibility when 
the pressure is applied to them parallel to the lamination, anotlier condition 
comes into play : their aggregation of flat, wedge-shaped particles, when thus 
pressed edgeways, tends powerfully to their mutual lateral expansion, and 
hence to their giving way in the line of pressure. 

The per-saltum way in which all the specimens of both rocks yield, 
in whatever direction pressed, is another noteworthy circumstance. On 
examining the Tables I. to VIII., it will be seen that the compressions do 
not constantly advance with the pressure, but that, on the contrary, the rock 
occasionally suffers almost no sensible compression for several successive 
increments of pressure, and then gives way all at once (though without 
having lost cohesion, or having its elasticity permanently impaired) and com- 
presses thence more or less for three or four or more successive increments 
of pressure, and then holds fast again, and so on. This phenomenon is pro- 
bably due to the mass of the rock being made up of intermixed particles of 
several different simple minerals, each having specific diff'erences of hardness, 
cohesion, and mutual adhesion, and which are, in the order of their resist- 
ances to pressure, in succession broken down, before the final disruption of the 
whole mass (weakened by these minute internal dislocations) takes place. 

Thus it would appear that the micaceous plates and aluminous clay- 
particles interspersed through the mass give way first. The chlorite in the 
slate, and probably felspar-crystals in the quartz-rock, next, and so on in 
order, until finally the elastic skeleton of silex gives way, and the rock is 
crushed. It is observable, also, that this successive disintegration does not 
occur at equal pressures, in the same quality and kind of rock, when com- 
pressed transverse and parallel to the lamination. It follows from this con- 
stitution of these (and probably of all) rocks that very diff'erent powers of 
transmitting wave-impulses must arise when the originating forces vary 
considerably in amount produced of primary compression. It is almost 
superfluous also to point out the great difterences in wave-transmissive power 
in directions transverse and parallel to lamination that these experiments dis- 
close. They prove to us that, in an earthquake shock of given original power, 
the vibrations will have the largest amplitude when transmitted in the line of 
lamination, but may be propagated with the greatest velocity in directions 
transverse to the same, assuming in both cases the Tock solid and unshattered. 

In Table XII. the general results are deduced, and the mean compressions 
for each of the rocks calculated, and finally the moduli of elasticity are 
obtained, in pounds and in feet ; the specific gravities adopted in calculating 
the latter being those given in the body of the paper, as follows : — 

Table XI. 







W^eigbt of a prism 1 foot 
long and 1 inch square. 


Hardest Slate 


sp. gr. 
2-763 
2-746 
2-656 
2-653 
2-7545 
2-6545 
2-7045 


lbs. 
1-1992 
1-1918 
1-1528 
1-1515 
1-1955 
1-1522 
1-1739 


Softest Slate 


Hardest Quartz 


Softest Quartz 


Mean for Slate 


Mean for Quartz 


General mean for both rocks 





ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 231 



n 
<! 
H 

I 

o 

»-( 
03 

m 

tn 

Pk 

S 
o 
O 

O 

o 

< 

>-] 
o 



I- 

a 
v 

nl 

53 -= 






W 



B 

s 
o 



o 



3 

■a 
o 



■a 
u 

3 

•a 



m 

c 

O 





(N O -- O ©COt^'N inw^o -* 


o 


♦* 


i^ ■• 


eoo^-^ eQO-<3'- 


- in © 05 © ■— 


OS 


o» 


"^ODC<l<M C-^-t>» — 


■* QO ^- -T -^ C5 


■^ 


to 




(M — «p oc coi>t»to «pep«p«> "71 


■m 


(N 


rt (jj J5 .^ 


■< -<1l I-. (N rt CO (N -* © -^ 


en 


to 






*— 1 *— 1 








■># CO CO CO 05 C5 -* *» C5 irj in "* ^ 


!M 


in 


idulus 

of 

iticity 


(N in »» ^ «o o> «^ t>» eo o •o' O) ■* 


ip 


l-H 




*1 

in 


to 
oT 


•Soe-jsocD «^oeo>c -^os-^i^. to 


-* 


CO 


^ ^ 


5D«Di-<"cO~ i-<'"(>r>— " •—eij'-^ "^ 


00 


©_ 




•* CO o >- 


- in to i-i (D in -H CO »>. © 


IS) 


OJ 


CO >^ 


tOCDOtO Ot'^^'^t^ ODOOfM GO 


o> 


03 






CO 


© 
oT 


"2 ° "S 


_o -* in o «5 ».,o«^oo o C5 -H -^ to 


>» 


t>» 


5 J 
S u 


'-' © o o "\ (N-*co!N ©^into_>o CO 


C5 


*i 


od"»^i?»-*'" r^ci—* 


©q "^ r^ t-H 




i-h" 


Modulus of 
cohesion 
(compres- 
sion). 


■^ \rnno> ?oao(Nco —S'leo-^ ■* 


^_, 


CO 


. — ai — -i< oc >c m -* ^ CO "S m CO 


■fl< 


O^ 


■g O © lO CO '^'-^"'.^ '^'~.~t'~". ^ 
.« © irf <>r »>r ©fc^Tt-^to" co"<M in (M m 


tC 


CO 

to" 


""©q CO (M rt ^ '-< 


^- Ol <— 1 ^H ^- 


F-^ 


l-H 












ing 
the 
sur- 


©©©© ©o©© ©©©© © 


o 


© 


©oo=> ©©oo ©©©© in 


in 


S 


•^ 5«- " 


^ o c. © ©_ ©. ©.©_ ©_ in in ©__ ©_ t>i 


»>* 


©1 


S£ ° on 


.c -t" i~^ *C ©" in" -if c^ CO ci in CO -^ oo 


of 


of 


— (M CO ijq ©» ^ ^ 


^ O) ^ — ,-, 


I-H 


f-H 


o g-S 
























— 












"fi A d 


©©©© ©©©© ©©©© © 


o 


iP 


;:- fl o 


.®o©© ©©©© ©©©© © 


t? 


ja 


.H Sg 


<^ © © © © ©_©.©,©_ ©_«_©_©_ in 


«>^ 


to 


5 (m" s-i" cc" fC (>i'i-rtotC »>rto"©j'i>r -*~ 


to" 


in 


So" 


<M CO >— ' '" f— r^ 


r-1 ^N F^ i-H p-H 


^^ 


1—4 


«<S &, 












H 












c 












**-t O (l> • 


t»in©t». '*«o©50 ©in©to © 


© 


© 


i^S©-* -^ccoto cot--©© -«< 


-# 


Oi 


lent 

issio 
surf 


S©©S — tc©-o «OCO©CO CO 


CO 


© 


•tot^in© ci-^t^G- 


(M © — -H «J 


■— ( 


05 


C o O ©1 ^■ 


CO -^ CO o. (N — CO o5 oq 


!2 


CO 


o ?J .: = 


"^ © © o c 


C5 © = - 


©© ©o © 


© 


© 


Coeffi 

compi 

unit 

fori 


© © o © 


o©©© ©©»© o 


© 


^ 


.2 


















: • n o ^ 
•■ OS o 


03 

o 


« : 

o • 

• to ; 

T3 :' 

c : 
ca ; 


.5 




















Z 

. a 
: .2 


2 

!3 
i» 

CO 

.11 

.b o 


1 


c 
c 

« 

c 

c: 

&- 
c 

1- 


c 

c- 
C 

c 


c 

.= 

s 

1 


.1 


c 

E 


« 

c 

■£ 

C 

•*- 


c 

1 


i-55is| 

sliliii 


"S 

1 
u 

a 

ca 

a : 

o 

93 


2 S 
«.2 




b « S - 






T3 

s^-; 




o 






^ « - C3 "^ ^ 

ff OJ 5 ^ rrt ^- 

« n « a 53 

O) fc- 0) »-< O) '^ 


VT3 l-H 


1' 




ca 3 rt ^ 


cT t^ oT j- 


!= ^ 


2 c 


en 




ed ^ rt S ca ^ 


§ 


g=^ 


o 


<n 0*w C 


I" E5 CS C 


I" OT COJ O" OT 


C 


U 


* 


i-i eq CO -^ 


in to t^cc 


OS © r- ©I eo 

l-H ^H i-H FH 




m 

i-H 


^ 
















■"— 




»> 

















232 REPORT — 1861. 

In Table XII. the load on the unit of surface (1 square inch) at which the 
elastic limit of the rock is passed, and that at which it is finally crushed, 
together with the modulus of cohesion or resistance to compression, are also 
given, and will be useful to the engineer and architect. In the last column, 
the value of my own modification of Poncelet's coetficient T, (la force vive 
de rupture) is calculated in foot pounds, and represents the relative work 
done at fracture in eacli case. 

To apply the results thus obtained to those of experimental wave-trans- 
mission at Holyhead. 

Poisson has shown (Traite de Mecanique, vol. ii. p. 319) that the velocity 
of wave-transmission (sound) in longitudinal vibrations of elastic prisms is 

V^=^ (I.) 

P 

When g has its usual relation to gravity, I and p are the .length and weight 

of the prism, and 9=^. A being a weight that is capable of elongating the 
c 

prism by an amount=c/, or extending it to the length 

/(Ix^). 
Substituting, we have 

w 

but A : W : : ^ : 1, W being the weight capable of doubling the length of the 
prism. Therefore 

Y2_ghvh_ff[L_^ 
pS I 

orV=v/^ (II.) 

So that L being the modulus of elasticity of the solid, expressed in feet, the 
velocity of wave-transmission through it, if absolutely homogeneous and 
unbroken, is 

V=5-674\/L (III.) 

Where, owing to want of homogeneity, or to shattering, or other such con- 
dition, as found in natural rock, the experimental value of V difiTers from 
the above theoretic one, we may still express the former by the same 
general form of equation — 

V'=a \/l; (IV.) 

in which the coefficient a. expresses the ratio to g that the actual or experi- 
mental bears to the theoretic (or maximum possible) velocity of wave-trans- 
mission. 

In the slate- and quartz-rocks of Holyhead, I ascertained the mean lowest 
velocity of wave-transmission (for small explosions or impulses) to be 1089 
feet per second (omitting decimals), the mean highest velocity 1352 feet 
per second, and the general mtan velocity from all, 1220 feet per second. 

Applying Eq. IV. to these numbers, and adopting the values of L given 
in Table XII. (mean of Nos. 9 and 10), we obtain 

V 
a=: — =; ; 

and for the three preceding velocities, a has the following values : — 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 233 



2...V' = 1352 «=--iS==: 1^^=0-791 

/29172bii 1708 

1220 \qQo 

'V/2917262 1708 ^ ' 

The actual velocity of wave-transmission in the slate and quartz together, 
therefore, was to the theoretic velocity due to the solid material as 

a : ^^2^ or 0-714 : 5-674, or 1-00 : 7-946. 

From which it results, that nearly seven-eigJiths of the full velocity of wave- 
transmission due to the material is lost bj^ reason of the heterogeneity and 
discontinuity or shattering of the rocky mass, as it is found piled together 
in nature. 

This loss would be proportionately larger with still smaller originating 
impulses, and vice versa, but in what proportion we are not at present in a 
position to know. 

If we may (or a moment allude to final causes, we cannot but be struck 
with this beneficent result (amongst others) arising from the shattered and 
broken-up condition of all the rocky masses forming the habitable surface of 
our globe, viz. that the otherwise enormous transit-velocity of the wave-form 
in earthquake shocks is by this simple means so reduced. 

That this retardation is mainly effected by the multiplied subdivisions of 
the rock, and in a very minor degree by differences in the elastic moduli of 
rock of diff'erent species, is apparent on examining the Tables IV. and V. of 
the previous part of this Report referring to the experiments at Holyhead. 

Although, therefore, we are now enabled, from what precedes, to calcu- 
late values for a, for the slate rocks and for the quartz of Holyhead, sepa- 
rately, and thus obtain separate values for V, for each of those rocks ; the 
result would probably be more or less delusive, as we have no possible 
means of deciding what is the relative amount of shattering and disconti- 
nuity for equal horizontal distances, in each of these two rocks ; nor what 
the relative retarding powers, of planes of separation running in variable 
directions, and at all possible angles, across the line of wave-transit, as 
compared with their retarding powers, if either all transverse to, or all in the 
same direction as, the wave-path. 

The greatest possible mean velocity of wave-propagation, in rock as per- 
fectly solid and unsJiattered as our experimental cubes, is determinable for 
both slate and quartz in the two directions of transmission, viz. transverse to 
and in the line of lamination, from Eq. III., and the mean values of L in 
Nos. 9 and 10, and 11 and 12, Table XII., as follows: — 

ft. per sec. 
^ToVniilation""^ '^''^'"^' ^'■•""^^"'■^"} V= 5-674 V 2917262 = 9691 



Mean of slate and quartz m hue ofl ^j rc>-,i /m/.m a r^n? 
, „. .. ^ ^ V=5-674v 910914 =5415, 

lamination j ^ ' 

both in round numbers; or the transverse is to the parallel transit-rate 
nearly as 1-8 : 1-0. 

This great difference of velocity, due to the diff"ercnce in the molecular 
properties of the material of the rocks in their opposite directions, is, as our 
Holyhead experiments prove, almost wholly obliterated by the vastly in- 



234 REPORT — 1861. 

creased degree of discontinuity and shattering, in the directions approaching 
that of lamination, or transverse to the wave-path in the first case. 

It is necessary to guard against any misconception as to the import of this 
result. The fact ascertained and just enunciated is this, that the velocity of 
wave-transmission is greater in the material of these rocks in a direction 
across their lamination than in one longitudinal to the same, provided or 
assuming the material he perfectly unshuttered in both — as homogeneous, in 
fact, as the small specimen-cubes experimented upon. And were the whole 
mass of the rock, as it lies in the mountain-bed, as homogeneous as such 
cubes, then the velocity of wave-transmission would actually be greater 
across long ranges of natural lamination, than edgeways to them. The oppo- 
site, however, is often the case ; the wave-transit period is slower as the 
range of rocky mass is more shattered, discontinuous and dislocated. 

These conditions most affect rocks in nature in or about their planes of 
bedding, lamination, &c., and hence most retard wave-impulses transverse 
to these planes ; so that the more rapid ivave-transmissive power of the 
material of the rock in a directum transverse to the lamination may be more 
than counterbalanced by the discontinuity of its mass transverse to the same 
direction. 

The results of Wertheim, on the transmission of sound in timber, 
proved the velocity to be greatest in a direction longitudinal to the fibres 
and annual layers of wood ; less in a direction perpendicular to the same, 
and radially outwards from the centre of the tree towards its exterior; and 
least of all in a direction, qicam prox., parallel to the annual rings, and per- 
pendicular to the longitudinal fibres ; that is to say, in eac!) case the velocity 
of sound was rapid in proportion to the less compressibility of the wood in 
the same direction. His results might seem at first to conflict with those 
which I have announced. Any such conclusion, however, would be a mistake; 
on the contrary, my results perfectly analogize with those above alluded to. 
The difference between the cases is, that wood in mass, however large, is 
practically homogeneous and unshattered, and that its direction of least 
compressibility is longitudinal to its lamin(B (or annual layers) ; whereas the 
direction of least compressibility of rock is transverse to its lamince which 
have been already powerfully compressed in this direction. In fact, as 
respects the question here in point, there is no true analogy in structure 
between the lamination (by annual rings) of wood, and the lamination or 
bedding of rock. 

It follows from what precedes, that earthquakes and rocks, as both ac- 
tually occur in nature, — the rocks being of a stratified or laminated form 
(generally all sedimentary rocks), — must present the following conditions as 
to rate of transit of shock : — 

1st. If such rocks were perfectly unshattered, and the beds or laminae in 
absolute contact, the shock would be transmitted more rapidly across these 
than in their own direction. 

The difference is more in favour of the transverse line, in proportion as 
the rock is made up more of angular sedimentary particles of very unequal 
dimensions, the longest being parallel to the general lamination, and in 
proportion as the imbedding paste is softer in relation to such particles. 

Some sedimentary rocks no doubt exist, made up of particles perfectly 
uniform and equal in all three dimensions, and without imbedding paste — 
such as the lithographic stones of Germany, the Apeunine marl-beds, &c., 
in which (assuming the above condition as to continuity) the transit-period 
would be alike in all directions probably. 

2nd. The actual amount of shattering and discontinuity in nature being 



ON THE TRANSIT-VELOCITY OF EARTHQUAKE WAVES. 235 

usually greatest, upon the whole, in planes parallel to bedding or lamination, 
the transit-rate of shock is most generally fastest in the line of the beds or 
lamination, rather than across them. 

Or, at least, this latter condition may interfere with the former to the extent 
of partial, complete, or more than complete obliteration. 

I am not aware that any experiments have previously been made upon 
the compressibility, &c., of the slate- and quartz-rocks of Holyhead ; and as 
these rocks are being employed there upon a vast scale for submarine 
building works, it may not be out of place to draw a few conclusions of a 
character useful to the practical engineer from the data that have been ob- 
tained. Some conclusions may be drawn which are applicable to all classes 
of laminated rocks in the hands of the engineer. 

It is a very prevalent belief that slate-rock (for example), in the 
form of the sawed rooting-slate of Anglesea or of Valentia (Ireland), will 
bear a much greater compressive load when the pressure is in the direction 
of the laniinge, than in one across them. This the preceding experiments 
Drove to be wholly a mistake — one that has very probably arisen from some 
vague notion of an analogy with timber compressed the end-way of the 
grain. 

It is now certain that Silurian slates and quartz-rock, and probably all 
sedimentary laminated rocks, whether with cleavage or not, are much weaker 
to resist a crushing force edgeways to the lamina, than across the same, and 
that the range of compressibility is much greater, for equal loads, in the 
former direction. 

The facts now ascertained as to the great relative compressibility of lami- 
nated rock in the direction of the laminae also points out the reason of the 
great bearing power to sustain impulsive loads, which the toughest and 
most cohesive examples of slate-rocks, such as the slates of Caernarvonshire, 
present ; for there can be no grounds to doubt that the high compressibility 
of rocks of this structure in the plane of the lamina is also accompanied 
with a high coefficient of extensibility, although probably confined within 
much narrower limits as to inceptive injury to perfect continuity. 

My experiments point out, that the Silurian slate of Holyhead (the mean 
both of the hard and the soft) is crushed by a load across the lamina of 
about 1250 tons per square foot, and that its molecular arrangement is per- 
manently injured at a little more than 1000 tons per square foot. 

The quartz-rock (the mean of both hard and soft) is crushed by a load, 
applied in the same manner, of 1630 tons per square foot, and its molecular 
arrangement is permanently injured at less than 1000 tons per super foot. 
The quartz-rock gives the highest measure of ultimate resistance, but it is 
the less trustworthy material when loaded heavily. 

Neither of these sorts of rock, if loaded so as to be pressed in the direction 
of the lamina, would sustain more than about 0*7 of the above loads at the 
crushing-point and at that of permanent injury, respectively. From the 
extreme inequality found within narrow limits in both rocks as quarried, 
neither should be trusted for safe load in practice with more than about ^^i^th 
of the mean load that impairs their molecular arrangement, as ascertained 
from selected specimens, or (say) not to more than 50 tons per square foot 
for passive or 25 tons per square foot for impulsive loads. 

The high relative compressibility of laminated rocks in the direction of 
the lamina might probably be made advantageous use of, where they are 
employed as a building material, for the construction of revetment or other 
walls of batteries exposed to the stroke of cannon shot, by building the 
work (under suitable arrangements to obviate splitting up) with the planes 



236 REPORT— 1861. 

of the laminae in the direction of the line of fire, i. e. perpendicular to the 
faces of the work; for on inspecting the last column in Table XII. which con- 
tains the values of T, under the several conditions of rock and of compres- 
sion, it is at once apparent how much greater is the " work done" in crushing 
the slates and the quartz in their toughest and most compressible direction, 
i. e. in the direction of the lamina. Twice as much tvork is, upon the average, 
consumed in crushing the rock in this direction, that suffices to destroy 
its cohesion in the one transverse to the lamina ; and the proportion in the 
two, in the case of the softest quartz (Nos. 5 and 8), is as much as about ^/Je 
to one. 

It would be unsuitable, however, to the present memoir to pursue further 
here such practical deductions suggested by the results obtained experi- 
mentally. 



On the Explosions in British Coal-Mines during the year 1859. By 
Thomas Dobson, B.A., Head Master of the School Frigate " Con- 
way" Liverpool. 

In my Report " On the Relation between Explosions in Coal-mines .and Re- 
volving Storms," read at the Meeting of this Association, at Glasgow, in 
1855, 1 have given my reasons for tliinking that the freedom of the atmo- 
sphere of a mine from noxious gases, and the occasional abundant issue of 
such gases into a mine, are in a great measure dependent upon certain con- 
ditions of the pressure and temperature of the external atmosphere. This 
dependence is, indeed, a consequence so direct and obvious of the first prin- 
ciples of pneumatics, that we may speak with certainty of the ki7id of influ- 
ence exerted by the atmosphere in restraining or augmenting the flow of in- 
flammable gases into a mine ; and we have only to inquire whether this influ- 
ence is ever exercised to such a degree as to charge a mine up to the point 
of explosion. 

It is, I think, now generally admitted that a high atmospheric pressure 
tends to check the issue of gases into the workings of amine, and that a low 
pressure favours their copious efi"usion from the broken coal and deserted 
goaves. 

It is also evident that a low temperature of the external air makes the 
ventilation of a mine brisk and effective, while a high temperature of the air 
above renders the ventilation sluggish, and causes the gases to accumulate 
below. 

I have compared the dates of all the fatal explosions in British coal-mines, 
as given in the Reports of the Government Inspectors of Mines, with the 
corresponding barographical and thennographical records for several years, 
and find that this comparison tends to confirm in a very striking manner the 
conclusions arrived at in my Report of the year 1855. 

Were the Government Inspectors to give in their Reports the dates of all 
explosions of gases in mines, whether fatal or not, and also the dates of days 
when mines have been in a dangerous state from the abundance of gas, but 
explosion avoided, the evidence of atmospheric influence would soon be placed 
beyond doubt. Seeing that the great atmospheric disturbances with which 
we are here concerned generally extend nearly simultaneously over Britain 
and the adjacent countries of the Continent, I have been at some pains to 
obtain the dates of all the great explosions in the coal-mines of France and 
Belgium; but I was told at the Ecole des Mines, in Paris, that they had no 



ON THE EXPLOSIONS IN BRITISH COAL-MINES. 237 

such record, and a communication witli the director of the mines of Belgium 
was also fruitless. 

The dates for the year 1859 of all the fatal explosions in the coal-fields of 
England, Scotland, and Wales are marked in the meteorological diagram 
(Plate v.), in which one day is represented by a horizontal space of one- 
twentieth of an inch, and '20° Fahr. by a vertical height of one inch. 

For the meteorological data I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Milner, 
the surgeon of Wakefield Prison, where the instruments are read every 
six hours, night and day. The portion of the diagram for the months of 
October and November, showing the state of the atmosphere during the 
passage of the ' Royal Charter ' storm, has been compared with observations 
made at Oxford, Kevv, Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, and the Bishop's-rock 
Lighthouse, Scilly Isles ; and the general agreement fully warrants the selec- 
tion of the Wakefield curves as a fair type of the state of our atmosphere 
during the year 1 859-. 

The curve of mean temperature is from results in a paper by Mr. Glaisher 
in the 'Transactions of the Royal Society ' for 1850. 

If there were no connexion whatever between the weather and the condi- 
tions that favour an explosion in a coal-mine, it would be found that the 70 
or 80 vertical lines that denote fatal explosions would be scattered, as if by 
chance, over the whole diagram, without any apparent reference to the great 
depressions in the barometric curve, or to the great and sudden rises in the 
thermometric curve. But this is not the case in any of the years that I have 
examined. On the contrary, it is found that the lines of explosion have a 
very decided tendency to group themselves about the few great atmospheric 
perturbations of each year ; and to leave a very conspicuous and highly sig- 
nificant blank in spaces, of a whole month's duration occasionally, where the 
pressure has been uniformly high and the temperature moderate. 

In the 68 explosions of 1859 are found three dense groups and a number 
of equally instructive blanks. 

The first group falls between the 11th of January and the 17th of Febru- 
ary, during which period the diagram shows that even the nocturnal tem- 
perature was considerably above the mean daily temperature, and the baro- 
metric curve exhibits a succession of deep indentations marking the passage 
of a series of storms. 

The dates and localities of the explosions forming this group are : — 
January 11, Bewdley. 

12, Atherstone. 

15, Huddersneld. 

17, Ayr, Scotland. 

19, Wigan. 

• 25, Stevenston, Scotland. 

29, Burslem, Staffordshire. 



January 29, Aberdare, S. Wales. 
February 2, Dudley. 

3, Coatbridge, Scotland. 

9, Willenhall. 

12, Wednesbury. 

17, Wigan. 



Two cases of death from suffocation by gas fall within this group, viz., — 
On February 1, at St. Helen's,