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Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxiv 

Members of Council from commencement xxv 

Officers and Council, 18G3-64 xxviii 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxix 

Corresponding Members xxx 

Eeport of the Coimcil to the General Committee xxxi 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1862-63* xxxi 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xxxviii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science xxxix 

Synopsis of Money Grants xliii 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes xlv 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee 1 

Arrangement of the General Meetings 1 

Address of the President, Sir Wm. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. li 


Report on the Application of Gnn-cotton to "Warlike purposes. By a 
Committee, consisting of J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. , Professor 
W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S., and Professor E. Frankland, Ph.D., 
F.R.S., from Section B. ; and W. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S., Joseph 
Wmm-oRTH, F.R.S., James Nasmtth, C.E., F.R.A.S., J. Scott 
RTJS.SELL, C.E., F.R.S., John Anderson, C.E., and Sir W. G, Arm- 
strong, C.B., LL.D.. F.R.S., from Section G. (Plates I.-IV.) 1 



llcport on the Chemical Nature of Alloys, By A. Matthiessen, F.R.S., 
Lecturer on Chemistry in St. Mary's Hospital. (Plate V.) .^7 

On the Chemical and Mineralogical Constitution of the Granites of 
Donegal, and of the Rocks associated with them. By a Committee, 
consisting of E.obebt H. Scott, Sir B-. Geiffith, Bart., and the llev. 
S, Haughton, M.D., F.R.S 48 

Report of the Committee appointed for Exploring the Coasts of Shetland 
by means of the Dredge. By J. Gwtn Jeffkets, F.R.S 70 

Report on the Physiological Effects of the Bromide of Ammonium. By 
Geokge D. Gibb, M.D., M.A., F.G.S., F.A.S., Physician to the West 
London Hospital, and Assistant-Physician and Medical Registrar to 
the Westminster Hospital, London 81 

On the Transmutation of Spectral Rays. — Part I. By Dr. C. K. Akin. 93 

Report of the Committee on Fog Signals. By the Rev. Dr. Robinson. . 105 

Report on Standards of Electrical Resistance. By a Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor Wkeatstone, Professor ' Williamson, Mr. C. F. 
Vaklet, Professor Thomson, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Mr. C. W. 
Siemens, Dr. A. Matthiessen, Professor Maxwell, Professor Miller, 
Dr. Joule, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Dr. Esselbach, and Sir C. Bright. 
(Plate yi.) Ill 

Abstract of Report by the Indian Government on the Foods used by the 
Free and Jail Populations of India. By Edward Smith, M.D., LL.B., 
F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, Assistant Phj'sician 
to the Hospital for Consumption at Brompton, &c 176 

Synthetical Researches on the Formation of Minerals, &c. By M. 
Alphonse Gages 203 

Preliminary Report on the Experimental Determination of the Tempe- 
ratures of Volcanic Foci, and of the Temperature, State of Saturation, 
and Velocity of the issuing Gases and Vapours. By Robert Mallet, 
C.E., F.R.S., F.G.S 20S 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1862-63. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaishek, F.R.S., of the Royal Observa- 
torjs Greenmch, Secretary to the British Meteorological Societv, &c. ; 
Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., &c.; E. W. Bratlet, F.R.S., «S:c.'; and 
Alexander S. Hekschel, B.A 209 

Fifth Report of the Committee on Steamship Performance (Plates VII. 
& VIII.) 339 

Report on the Present State of our Knowledge of the Reproductive 
System in the Hydi-oida. By George J. Allman, M.D., F.R.C.S.I., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E., M.R.I. A., Regius Professor of Natural History in 
the University of Edinburgh 351 



An Account of Meteorological and Physical Observations in Five Bal- 
loon Ascents in the year 1863 (in continuation of Eight made in the 
preceding year), under the auspices of the Committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, by James Glaisher, 
F.R.S., at the request of the Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, 
The Astronomer Royal, Lord Wrottesley, Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Her- 
schel. Dr. Lloyd, Admii-al FitzRoy, Dr. Lee, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, 
Mr. Glaisher, Prof. Tyndall, Dr.'Fairhaim, and Dr. W. A. Miller . . 426 

Supplementary Report on the Present State of our Knowledge with 
regard to the MoUusca of the West Coast of North America. By 
Philip P. Carpenter, B.A., Ph.D 517 

Report on Steam-Boiler Explosions. By Professor Airy, F.R.S., Astro- 
nomer Royal 686 

Observations on the Electrical Resistance and Electrification of some 
Insulating Materials under Pressures up to 300 Atmospheres. By 
C. W. SiEJiENs, C.E., F.R.S 688 

On the Construction of Iron Ships and the Progress of Iron Shipbuilding 
on the Tyne, Wear, and Tees, By Charles M. Palmer 694 

On the Chemical Manufsictures of the Northern Districts. By Thomas 
Richardson, M.A., F.R.S.E. ; J. C. Stevenson, F.C.S. ; and R. C. 
Clapham 701 

On the Local Manufacture of Lead, Copper, Zinc, Antimony, &c. By 
T. Sopwith, F.R.S., and T. Richardson, M.A., F.R.S.E., &e 715 

On the Magnesian Limestone of Durham. By John Daglish, F.G.S., 
and G. B. Forster, M.A 726 

On the Manufacture of Iron in connexion with the Northumberland and 
Durham Coal-field. By Isaac Lowthian Bell, Mayor of Newcastle. 730 

On the Manufacture of Steel in the Northern District. By Thomas 
Spencer, M.I.M.E 764 

Report on the Theory of Numbers. — Part Y. By H. J. Stephen Smith, 
M.A., F.R.S., Savilian Professor of Geometiy in the University of 
Oxford 768 






Address by Professor W. J. Macquorn Ranklne, LL.D., F.R.S., President 

of the Section 1 

iL-. W. H. L. Russell on a certain Class of Mathematical Symbols 1 

Professor Sylvester on the Quantity and Centre of Gravity of Figures given 
in Perspective, or Honiography 2 

Mr. J. J. Walker on the Conditions of the Resolvability of Homogeneous 
Algebraical Polj-nomials into Factors 3 


Mr. Stephen Alexander on the Augmentation of the Apparent Diameter of 
a Body by its Atmospheric Refi-actiou 3 

Mr. W. R. BiHT on the Selenographical Relations between the Chain of Lunar 
Mountains the .\lps with the Mare Imbriimi and the Mare P Vigoris. (Com- 
municated by Dr. Lee.) 8 

Mr. R. S. Browne on the relative Distances of the Planets from the Sun . . 5 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Star Chromatoscope 5 

Rev. Dr. E. Hincks on the Relationship between the Vai'iation of the Excen- 
tricity of the Earth's Orbit and the Moon's Mean Motion in Longitude .... 6 

Description of a Solar Eyepiece invented by the Rev. W. R. Da'wes. (Com- 
municated by Dr. Lee.) 6 

Dr. Lee on the Lunar "Mare Smythii," the walled Plain " Rosse," the " Percy 
Moimtains," and the newly named Craters, "Phillips," " Wrottesley," 
" Chevallier," and " Piazzi Smyth " 7 

Mr. J. J. Murphy on the Distribution of Heat on the Sun's Surface, and the 
Currents in its Atmosphere 9 

Professor Phillips's Researches on the Moon 9 

Professor C. Piazzi Smyth on the Changing Colour of the Star 95 Herculis. . 10 

]\L. B. Stewart on Sun-spots and then* connexion with Planetary Configu- 
rations 11 


Light and Heat. 


Dr. C. K. Ajkin's Account of Preliminary Experiments on Calcescence 11 

J\Ir. A. Claudet on some Phenomena produced by the Refractive Power of 

the Eye 11 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Rev. T. P. Dale on Specific Refractive Energy . . 12 

Mr. W. Ladd on a New Form of Syren 14 

M. Soleil's Tenebroscope, for illustrating the Invisibility of Light. (Exhi- 
bited and described by the Abbe Moigno.) 14 

M. SoLEiL on a New Micrometer. (Exhibited and explained by the Abb<5 

MoiGxo.) 15 

Professor PlIjcker on Spectral Analysis 15 

]Mr. Barnard S. Phoctor on the Focal Adjustment of the Eye 16 

Mr. H. Swan on a new kind of Miniature possessing apparent Solidity by 

means of a Combination of Prisms 17 

Mr. T. Tate on the Elasticity of the Vapour of Sulphuric Acid 17 

Electeicitt, Magnetism. 

Mr. W. Cook on Bonelli's Printing Telegi-aph 18 

Mr. D. E. Hughes on a Printing Telegraph 18 

Mr. W. Ladd on an Acoustic Telegraph 19 

on an Electromotive Engine 19 

M. OuDEY on Galvanic Copper and its Applications. (Conunimicated by the 

Abb^ Moigno.) 19 

Specimens of Telegraphic Facsimiles, produced by Caselli's Method. (Ex- 
hibited and explained by the Abbe Moigno.) 20 

Meteoeologt, etc. 

Professor Bxjts-Ballot on the System of Forecasting the Weather pursued 
in HoUand 20 

Professor Chevallieb's Description of an Instrument for ascertaining the 
Height of a Cloud 21 

Professor Coffin on the Path of a Meteoric Fii-eball relatively to the Earth's 
Surface 21 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on Fogs 21 

Mr. E. J. Lowe on Ozone and Ozone Tests 22 

Dr. Moffat on the Connexion that exists between Admiral FitzRoy's " Cau- 
tion Telegrams " and the Luminosity of Phosphorus 24 

Abb^ Jeannon's Free Air Barometer and Thermometer, exhibited and ex- 
plained by the Abb6 Moigno 24 

M. Naudet's Metallic or Holosteric Barometer, exhibited and explained by 
the Ahh6 Moigno 24 

Rev. Thomas Rankin's Meteorological Observations recorded at Huggate, 
Yorkshire 25 

Mr. H. Schlagintweit on a new Revolving Scale for Measuiing Curved Lines 25 



Professor C. Piazzi Smyth on a Proof of the Dioptric and Actinic Quality of 
the Atmosphere at a High Elevation 25 

Mr. Balfottr Stewart on the Comparison of the Curves afforded hy Self- 
recording Magnetographs at Kew and Lisbon, for July 1863 25 

Mr. J. W. Swan on a Mercmial Air-Pump 26 

Mr. Gr. J. Symons's Description of the Experimental Series of Rain-Gauges 
erected at Calne 26 

Mr. W. Symons on a New Marine and Mountain Barometer 27 

on a Maximum Thermometer with a New Index 27 

Professor W. Thomson on the Residt of Reductions of Curves obtained from 
the Self-recording Electrometer at Kew 27 


Addi-ess by Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., President of the Section. . 28 

Professor Abkl on some Results of Experiments on Lucifer Matches and 
others ignited by Friction 32 

Mr. W. Baker on the Impurities contained in Lead, and their Influence in 
its Technical Uses 32 

Mr. I. L. Bell on the Manufacture of Aluminium 32 

on Thallium 34 

Mr. R. Calvert Clapham and Mr. John Daolish on Minerals and Salts 
found in Coal-pits 37 

Mr. H. B. CoNDY on Disinfectants 40 

Mr. Joseph Cowen, Jun., on Fii'e-clay Goods 40 

Mr. W. Crookes on the Extraction of Thallium on a large scale from the 
Flue-dust of Pyi'ites-bumers 41 

Mr. Duncan C. Dallas on Photelectric Engi-aving, and Observations upon 
sundry Processes of Photographic Engraving 42 

Dr. John Davy on the Slacking of Quicklime 43 

Mr. G. Gore on a new Gas-Fumace for melting Gold, Silver, Copper, Cast 
Iron, Glass, &c., by means of Coal-gas, without the aid of a bellows or tall 
chimney 43 

M. L. I^issLER on the Commercial Advantages of a new Carbonate of Soda . 43 

on Glass-engraving by Hydrofluoric Acid 44 

on a New System of Evaporating Liquids 44 

Mr. H. KiLGOUR, Are Nitrogen and Carbonic Oxide the Oxide of Carbon in 
different AUotropic or Isomeric States ? 45 

Mr. C. T. Maling on the Manufacture of Earthenware at Newcastle 45 

Dr. A. Matthiessen and Mr. G. C. Foster on the Constitution and Rational 
Formula of Narcotine 46 

Short Communications on Galvanic Copper, Photolithography, and Photo- 
microscopic Specimens. By the Abbe Moigno 48 

Mr. J. Pattinson on a Deposit in the Gas-tubes of the Cleveland Blast Fur- 
naces 48 

on Zinc, Nickel, and Cobalt in the Cleveland Ironstone . . 49 

on the various kinds of Pja'ites used on the Tyne and 

Neighbourhood in the Manufacture of Sulphiu'ic Acid 49 


Dr, T. L. Phipson on a New Method of Measuring the Chemical Action of 

the Sun's Rays 50 

on Musical Sounds produced by Carbon 50 

on the Constant Increase of Organic Matter in Cultivated 

Soils 51 

The late Mr. John Lee's, and Dr. Thomas Eichabdson's Researches on the 

Manufacture of Prussiate of Potash 51 

Dr. Thomas Richabdson on the Separation of Lead and Antimony 52 

and IVIr. T. W. Bunning on the Use of Fuel in 

Marine BoUers 53 

— , Analysis of a Deposit from a Colliery Water con- 
taining Sulphate of Baryta 54 

Dr. Otto Richter on the Chemical and Physical Principles in connexion 

with the Specific Gravity of Liquid and Solid Substances 54 

Dr. Riley on Titanium in Iron 55 

Mr. R. W. SwiNBOUHNE on Glass 55 

Mr. W. Symons on a New Form of Gas-Battery 56 

Dr. Mttbbay Thomson on the Composition of some New Zealand Lignites . . 56 

M. G. ViLL, D^finer par la Vegetation I't^tat mol^culaire des Corps. Ana- 
lyser la Force vegetale par des Essais raisona^s de Culture 57 

Professor Wanklyn on the Oxidation of Beta-Hexylic Alcohol 57 

on Fractional Distillation 58 

Dr. T. Wood on Oxidation by Ozone 58 

Dr. Zenneb on Impxirities in Lead and Molecular Motion 58 


Address by Warington W. Smyth, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the 
Section 59 

Professor D. T. Ansted on the Metamorphic Origin of the Poi-phyritic Rocks 
of Chamwood Forest 64 

— on a Deposit of Sulphur in Corfu 64 

Mr. C. Attwood on some Facts observed iu Weardale 64 

Mr. W. Bainbridge on the Pennine Fault in connexion with the Volcanic 
Rocks at the foot of Crossfell ; and with the Tyndale Fault, called " The 
Ninety-fathom Dyke " 64 

Rev. James Brodie on the Physical Condition of the Earth in the Earlier 
Epochs of its History 67 

Mr. Alexander Bryson on Ai'tificially produced Quartzites 67 

Mr. J. Alexander Davtes on the Causes of Earthquakes and Volcanic 

Eruptions 67 

Dr. Dawson on two new Coal-plants from Nova Scotia 67 

Mr. W. Matthias Dunn on the Relations of the Cumberland Coal-field to the 

Red Sandstone 68 

Dr. Geinitz on a Salamander in the Rothliegendes 68 

Mr. R. A. C. Godwin- Austen on the Alluvial Accumulation in the Valley 
of the Sonime and of the Ouse 68 



Professor Hahkness on the Reptiliferous and Footprint Sandstones of the 

North-east of Scotland 69 

on the Fossils of the Skiddaw Slates 69 

on the Homblendic Greenstones, and their relations to 

the Metamorphic and Silurian Rocks of the County of Tyrone 70 

IMr. John Hogg on the Fossil Teeth of a Horse found in the Red Clay at 

Stockton 70 

Dr. Harvey B. Holl on the Metamorphic Rocks of the Malvern Hills .... 70 

Dr. HuLBURT on some Facts relating to the Hydrography of the St. Lawi'ence 

and the Great Lakes 73 

Mr. J. GwYN Jeffreys on the Upper Tertiary Fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden 73 

Professor T. Rupert Jones and Mr. J. W. Ivirkby, Synopsis of the Bivalved 
Entomostraca of the Carboniferous Strata of Great Britain and L-eland .... 80 

and Mr. W. K. Parker on some Fossil and 

Recent Foraminifera, collected in Jamaica by the late Lucas Barrett, F.G.S. 80 

Mj.*. J. Beete Jukes on certain Markings on some of the Bones of a Meyaceros 
hibernicus lately found in Ireland 81 

Professor W. King on the Neanderthal Skull, or Reasons for believing it to 
belong to the Clydian Period, and to a Species different from that repre- 
sented by Man 81 

]\Ir. J. W. liiHKBY on some Fossil Fishes from the Permian Limestone of 
Fulwell, near Sunderland 82 

Mr. J. P. Lesley on the Coal-measures of Sydney, Cape Breton 82 

Mr. John Marley on the Discovery of Rock-salt in the New Red Sandstone 
at Middlesbrough 82 

Mr. Charles Moore on the Equivalents of the Cleveland Ironstones in the 
West of England 83 

on the Organic Contents of the Lead Veins of Allen- 

heads, and other Lead Veins of Yorkshire 83 

Sir R. I. Murchison's Observations upon the Permian Group of the North- 
west of England, in communicating the outline of a Memoir thereon by 
Prof. R. Harkness and himself 83 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the Chronological Value of the Triassic Rocks of De- 
vonshire 85 

Professor Phillips on the Drift Beds of Mundesley, Norfolk 85 

on the Deposit of the Gravel, Sand, and Loam with Flint 

Implements at St. Acheul 85 

Mr. T. A. Readwin on the Recent Discovery of Gold near Bala Lake, Merio- 
nethshire .• 86 

Mr. G. E. Roberts on some Remains of Bothriolepis 87 

on the Discovery of Elephant and other Mammalian Re- 
mains in Oxfordshire 87 

Mr. H. Seeley on a Help to the Identification of Fossil Bivalve Shells 87 

Mr. T. SopwiTH on a Section of the Sti-ata from Hownes Gill to Cross Fell. . 88 

Mr. H. C. SoRBY on Models illustrating Contortions in Mica-Schist and Slate 88 

Mr. George Tate's Description of a Sea-star, CribelUtes carbonariu^:, from the 
Mountain Limestone Formation of Northumberland, with a notice of its 
association ^^^th Carboniferous Plants 88 

Professor J. Thomson on the Origin of the Jointed Prismatic Structure in 
Basalts and other Igneous Rocks 89 



Mr. Nicholas Wood and Mr. Edwabd F. Boyd on "the Wash," a remark- 
able Denudation through a Portion of the Coal-field of Durham 89 



Address by Professor Balfoue, F.R.S., President of the Section 91 


Professor Balfotjk's Description of the Fruit of Ckrodemlron Thomsonce (Balf. ), 

from Old Calabar 95 

Mr. T. Bewley's Description of a New Plant-house. (Communicated by Mr. 

N. B. Wabd.) 95 

Mr. John Hogg on Proliferous Cones of the Common Larch 95 

— , List of rarer Phajnogamous Plants discovered in the South- 
east of Durham since 1829 96 

Dr. Hulbubt's Notes on Canadian Forests 96 

Dr. Maxa\-ell T. Masters on certain Influences regulating the Forms of 
Leaves, &c "7 


Mr. Joshua Aldeb's Descriptions of New British Polyzoa, with Remarks on 

some imperfectly known Species 97 

Mr. C. Spence Bate on a New Species of lone 98 

Mr. C. Cabteb Blake on the Sj-ndactylous Condition of the Hand in Man 

and the Anthropoid Apes 98 

Mr. George S. Brady on the Marine Cyclopoid Entomostraca {Calanidee), 

with Notices of some Species new to Britain 99 

on the Zoology of Hylton Dene, near Sunderland .... 100 

Mr. Henry B. Brady's Notes on Foraminifera new to the British Fauna . . 100 
Mr. W. Habpeb Pease on the principal Divisions of the Pacific Fauna. 

(Communicated by Dr. P. P. Caepenter.) 101 

Dr. John JixYY on the Colour of the Sahuon 102 

Mr. Geobge Hodge's List of the British Pycnogonoidea, with Descriptions 

of several New Species 102 

Mr. John Hogg on the Roman Imperial and Crested Eagles 104 

Mr. T. Johnson on the Attempts to Transport Salmon to Australia 105 

Professor T. Rupert Jones and INIi-. W. K. Parker on some Foraminifera 

dredged by the late Mr. Lucas Barrett at Jamaica 105 

Mr. J. Leckenby's Abstract of the Report of a three-weeks' Dredging-Cmise 

ofl' Scarborough 105 

Mr. A. Newton on the Li-uption of Syrrluqites paradoxus 106 

Rev. Alfred Merle Norman on the Morphology of the Ophiuroidea 106 

on British Holothuriadse with reference to 

New Species 106 

Mr. C. W. Peach on the Occurrence of the Sperm Whale {Physeter macro- 

cephalus) near Wick, N. B 106 

Mr. C. W. Rose on a Monstrosity in a Whiting 106 

Mr. H. T. Stainton on the Generic Characters furnished by_ the different 

Modes of mining Leaves adopted by the Larvfe of Micro-Lepidoptera 106 



Eev. H. B. Tbistram on some Elucidations of the Geological Hlstoiy of North 
Africa, supplied by its lacustrine Fauna 107 

on certain Facts on the Variation of Species, which point 

to Western Asia as the centre of Creation for the Paliisarctic Region 107 

Mr. Alfred R. Wallace on the Physical Geography of the Malay Archi- 
pelago 107 

on the Geographical Distribution of Animal Life . 108 


Address by Professor Eolleston, F.R.S., President of the Subsection 109 

Mr. Stewart Clark on the Ventilation of Barracks and other Public Build- 
ings in India Ill 

Dr. Cleland on the Ligamentous Action of the Long Muscles in Man and 
other Animals Ill 

■^ on the Change of Attitude which takes place in Infants begin- 
ning to Walk 112 

Dr. John Davy's Observations on the Eggs of Bii-ds 112 

• Observations on the Blood, chieily in relation to the question, 

la Ammonia one of its Normal Constituents ? 112 

Dr. Embleton's Notes on certain Parts of the Anatomy of a Young Chim- 
panzee 113 

Mr. R. Garner on the Reciprocal Action between Plants and Gases 113 

on a Parasitical Acarus of the Anodon 114 

Dr. George D. Gibe's further Observations on the Normal Position of the 
Epiglottis 114 

on Voluntary Closure of the Glottis, independently of 

the Act of Breathing 115 

Mr. A. Hancock on the Renal Organ (the so-called Water System) in the 
Nudibranchiate Mollusks 116 

Dr. Junod on the Physiological Effect produced by Apparatus contrived for 
the pm'pose of causing a 'N^acuum upon the entire Body, or a part thereof. . 116 

Dr. Charles Kidd on how to Restore Drowned Persons, Patients in Chloro- 
form Accidents, &c 110 

Dr. W. Murray on the Investigation of Instinctive Actions 119 

Dr. G. Robinson on the Practicability of Arresting the Development of Epi- 
demic Diseases by the Internal Use of Antizymotic Agents 119 

on the Nature and Varieties of Organic Effluvia 120 

Professor Rolleston on the Condition of the Uterus after Delivery in certain 
of the Mammalia 122 

Dr. J. Samuelson on Life in the Atmosphere 123 

Dr. E. Smith on the Dietary of the Lancashire Operatives 128 

on the Dietaries of the Labouring Classes 123 

Dr. William Turner on Cranial Deformities, more especially on the Scapho- 
cephalic Skidl " 124 

Mr. John White on the Means of passing unharmed through Noxious Gases 
or Vapours 125 

Dr. Wilson on the Coal-Miners of Durham and Northumberland, their Habits 
and Diseases 126 




Addi-ess by Sir Roderick I. Muechison, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Tre- 

sident of the Section 126 

Professor Anstkd on some Ciu-iosities of Physical Geogi-aphy in the Ionian 

Isles 133 

Mr. C. Cabteb Blake on some Points in the Cranioscopy of South American 

Nations 133 

Mr. R. S. Charnock on Celtic Languages 134 

Mr. Cbaft on a Visit to Dahomey 135 

Mr. John Crawfurd on the Commixture of the Races of Man, as affecting 
the Progress of Civilization in Eastern Asia and the Malay and Polynesian 

Islands 135 

on the Origin of the Gipsies 135 

on the so-called Celtic Languages, in reference to the 

Question of Race 135 

on Sir Charles Lyell's ' Antiquity of Man ' 136 

Mr. Henry Duckworth on a Human Cranium from Amiens 136 

Captain G. Fleming on the Ethnology of Eastern Mantchuria 136 

's Joiu-ney from Tientsin (North China) to the Capital of 

Tartary 136 

Captain J. A. Grant on the Discovery of the Sources of the Nile 137 

Rev. G. R. Hall on the Aboriginal Occupation of North Tynedale and Western 
Northumberland : an Illustration of the Social Life of the Northumbrian 

Celts 137 

Captain Henderson on Routes between India and China 137 

Baron von Heuglin on his Exploration of certain Affluents of the Nile 138 

]Mr. John Hogg on some Old Maps of Africa, placing the Central Equatorial 
Lakes (especially Nyanza and Tanganyika) nearly in their true positions . . 138 

Dr. James Hunt on Anthropological Classification 139 

— on the Physical and Mental Characters of the Negi'o 140 

Mr. J. A. Lapham on some Facts respecting the Great Lakes of North America 140 

Mr. R. Lee on the Extinction of Ra^es 140 

Lord Loa^aine on the recent Discovery of Lacustrine Human Habitations in 

Wigtonshire 141 

The Hon. R. Mabsham on Two Ascents of the Volcano of Misti 143 

Signor Miani on his Travels towards the Sources of the Nile 143 

Colonel Pelly on the Tribes, Trade, and Resources around the Shore-line of 

the Persian Gulf 143 

Mr. G. Petrie on the Antiquities of the Orkneys 143 

Captain Bedford Pim's proposed Interoceanic and International Transit 

Route through Central America 143 

Rev. J. L. Pboctor on the Marganza 146 

Mr. E. Roberts and Professor Busk on the Opening of a Cist of the Stone 

Age near the Coast of the Moray Firth 146 

Mr. 0. Salat:n on the Physical Geogi-aphy of Guatemala 146 

Mr. Hermann Schlagintweit on Ethnogi-aphical Casts 146 



iMuTU CooMABA SwAMY on the Ethnology of Ceylon, referring especially 
to its Sinhalese and Tamil Inhabitants 146 

Mr. William Ttjbneii on the Anatomical Characters of the SlaJl found by 
Mr. Duckworth 147 

Mr. Alfbed R. Wallace on the Varieties of Men in the Malay Ai-chipelago 147 

Mr. W. Wheel-weight on the Central Argentine Eailway from Rosario to 
Cordova, and across the Coi-dillera of the Andes 148 

Professor D. Wilson's Notice of the Discoveiy of Three additional Runic In- 
■ scrip tious in St. Molio's Cave, Holy Island, Argj'leshire 148 

Rev. J. E. Wood on the Rivers of the Interior of Australia 148 


Address by William Tite, M.P., F.R.S., President of the Section 149 

Lieut. -Colonel Henby C. Allhusen on the Volunteer Force; its Comparative 
Cost, Development, present State and Pro.spects 150 

Dr. James Bird on the Vital and Sanitaiy Statistics of our European Army . 
in India, compared with those of the French Army imder like conditions of 
Climate and Locality 151 

Mr. C. H. Beacebbidge on the Coventry Freehold Land Society 151 

Dr. Camps on the Sanitary Condition of the Troops in India 152 

Mr. W. H. Charlton's Statistical Account of the Parish of Bellingham .... 153 

Mr. W. Fallows on the Origin of the Stockton and Darlington Railway . . . 153 

Dr. Hancock on the Difference between Irish and English Poor-law 153 

Mr. James Heyw'OOd on the Opening and Extension of Durham University 
Academical Endowments 154 

Remarks on Native Colonial Schools and Hospitals, from the Sanitary Statistics 
of the Aborigines of British Colonies, collected by Miss Nightingale. (Pre- 
sented by James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S.) 155 

Mr. John Lamb on the Reduction of the Death-rate in Gateshead by Sanitary 
Measures 156 

Mi\ Feederick Ptjbdy on the Decrease of the Agricultural Population of 
England, 1851-61 156 

on the Mortality of Lancashire, &c., during the year 

ended at Midsummer 186.3 159 

The late T. C. Angus's Statistics of the Tanning Trade of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. (Communicated by Mr. James Potts.) 161 

Colonel Sykes's Comparison of the Organization and Cost in detail of the 
English and French Armies for 1863-64 163 

Mr. Thomas Robins's Observations on Criminals 166 

Mr. W. Tite on the Paris Improvements and their Cost 168 


Admiral Sir Edwabd Belcheb on an Improved Caisson Gate 170 

; 's Description of a Spirit-level Telescope for 

observing Altitudes and obtaining Latitudes independently of natural or 
artificial Horizons jyO 



Amiral Sir Edward Belcher on a Mode of rendering Timber-built Ships Im- 
pregnable and Unsinkable under INIoderate Crew Power, as in Leaky Vessels 171 

Mr. Robert Davison on the Decortication of Cereals 171 

on Improvements in Machinery and Apparatus for 

Cleansing and Purifying Casks 172 

Mr. George Fawcus on Improvements in Waggons and Gun-Carriages .... 172 

on a New Method of Constructing Boats 172 

Captain Douglas Galton's Remarks on Armour-Plating for Ships 173 

Mr. J. J.AJiESON on Air- Engines and an Air-compressing Apparatus 173 

Mr. C. B. King on Extinguishing Fires 174 

Mr. D. D. Main on the Newcastle and Gateshead Water-Works 175 

Mr. T. Page on Bridge Foimdations 176 

Mr. R. A. Peacock's New Plan for Hanging Dock-Gates 177 

Professor William Pole's Description of the Large Gyroscope used by Sir 
William G. Armstrong in his investigations on Rifled Projectiles 177 

Mr. C. T. Porter on Richards's Indicator for Steam-Engines 178 

Mr. D. PusELEY on Thompson's Universal Stopper for Bottles, &c 180 

Professor W. J. Macquorn Rankine's Investigation on Plane Water-lines . 180 

Mr. George Redford's Description of Corrugated Armour of Steel or Iron 
for Ships of War 182 

Mr. G. Richards's Rifled Ordnance 182 

Mr. W. H. Richardson on the Paper Manufactures of Northumberland and 
Durham 183 

Mr. J. Robinson on an Improved Manufacture of Biscuits 183 

Mr. E. Salmon's Reports and Sections relating to Captain B. Pirn's projected 
Transit Route through Central America, showing the rtwdus operandi of 
Surveying in the Forests of that Countiy 183 

Mr. W. Smith's Portable Machinery or Apparatus for Riveting, Chipping, 
&c., the invention of Mr. J. M'Farlane Gray, of Livei-pool 184 

on a novel AiTangement of Direct-acting Steam-Engines . . 186 

on a novel Method of covering Boilers, Pipes, and Cylinders of 

Steam-Engines for preventing the Radiation of Heat, the invention of Mr. 
James Spence, of H.M. Dockyard, Portsmouth 187 

on an improved Valve and Apparatus for Atmospheric Railways 188 

Mr. John Sturgeon on Self-acting Valve Motion for Steam Hammers .... 189 

Mr. R. Taylorson on the Diagonal Principle of Iron Shipbuilding 189 

Dr. White on the Prevention of Folding of Ships' Bottoms 189 

List of Papers of which the Abstracts were not received 191 


Page 95, line 3 of note, for was very faint read is very faint. 
,, 96, line 18, for so far as read as far as. 
„ 97, 5th line of par. 8, for states read state. 
,, 100, line 12, for takes read take. 

„ „ last Hne of note, for Phil. Mag. xxiv. 2. read Phil. Mag. xxiv. p. 2, 
„ 101, Kne 20, for colouring-matter or its combustion read colouring-matter and 

its combustion. 
„ ,, in note **, 6th line from bottom of page, for Mr. Wedgwood read Th. 

„ 103, Une 12, for were read was. 
„ 339, middle of page, for Fourth Eeport read Fifth Befort. 





The Associatiox contemplates no interference -with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, -with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtaui a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 



AH persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
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The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
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Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
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Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive ciratuitoushj the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
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of the Association. ' 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
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and for the years in which they continue to pay ivithoiit intermission their 
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Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1863. J 


The Association consists of the following classes : — 

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And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
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Annual Members who have intermitted their Amiual Subscrip- 

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3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
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Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 


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of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
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of the Association. 


The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
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The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
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and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
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A President, two or more Vice-Presidents,. one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 


In the intervals of the Meetings, the aifairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a CouncU appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 


The Author of any paper or communication shall be at Liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 


The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 











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II. Table shoTring the Xames of Members of the Eritish Association who 
hare served on the Coimcil in former years. 

Aberdeen, Earl of. LL.D,, K.G., K.T., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Acland. Sir Thomas D., Bart., M.A., D.C.L., 

Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.E.S. 
Adams, Prof. J. Couch, M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Adamson, John, Esq.. F.L.S. 
Ainshe, Eev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 
Airy,G.B.,M.A.,D.C.L., F.E.S., Astronomer 

Alison, ProfessorW. P.,M.D.,F.E.S.E. (deed). 
Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 
Anderson, Prof. Thomas, M.D. 
Austed, Professor D. T., M.A., F.E.S. 
Ai'gyll, G-eorge Douglas, Duke of, F.E.S. 

L. &E. 
Armstrong, SirW.G.. F.E.S. 
Amott, Neil, M.D., F.E.S. 
Ashburton, WilHam Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
Atkinson, Et. Hon. E., late Lord Mayor of 

Babbage, Cliarles, Esq.. M.A., F.E.S. 
Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F.E.S. 
Bailv, Francis, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Baines, Et. Hon. M. T.. M.A., M.P. (dec"). 
Baker, Thomas Earwick Llo^d, Esq. 
Balfour, Professor John H.,'M.D., F.E.S. 
Barker, George, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Beamish, Eichard, Esq., F.E.S. 
Beechey, Eear-Acbuiral, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Bell, Isaac Losvthian, Esq. 
Bell, Professor Thomas, V.P.L.S., F.E.S. 
Bengougli, George, Esq. 
Bentham. George, Esq., Pres.L.S. 
Biddell, George Arthm-, Esq. 
Bigge, Charles. Esq. 
Blakiston, Peyton, M.-D., F.E.S. 
Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.E.S. 
Boyle, Eight Hon. D., Lord Justice-General 

Brady, The Et. Hon. Maziere, M.E.I. A., Lord 

Chancellor of Ireland. 
Brand, William, Esq. 
Breadalbane, Jolm, Marquis of, K.T., F.E.S. 

Brewster, Sir David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.E.S. L. & E., Principal of the Uni- 

versity of Edinburgh. 
Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 

K.C.B., G.C.H.. D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Brodie, Sir B. C, Bart., D.C.L., V.P.E.S. 

Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.E.S. 
Brown, Eobert, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Brunei, Sir M. I., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Buckland, Very Eev. WilHam. D.D., F.E.S., 

Dean of Westminster (deceased). 
Bute. John, Marquis of, K.T. (deceased). 
Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.E.S. 
Carson, Eev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 
Cathcart, Lt.-Gen., Earl of, K.C.B.,F.E.S.E. 

Challis, Eev. J.. M.A., F.E.S. 

Chalmers, Eev. T., D.D. (deceased). 

Chance. James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

ChevaUier, Eev. Temple, B.D., F.E.A.S. 

Chi-istie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.E.S. 

Clapham, E. C, Esq. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 

Clark, Eev. Prof, M.D., F.E.S. (Cambridge.) 

Clark. Henry. M.D. 

Clark, G. T.', Esq. 

Clear, William. Esq. (deceased). 

Clerke, Major S., K.H., E.E., F.E.S. (dec"). 

CUft, AVilUam, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Close, Yery Eev. F., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 

Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq.. M.P. (deceased). 

Conybeare, Very Eev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 
daii' (deceased). 

Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased) 

Crmn, Walter, Esq., F.E.S. 

Currie, William Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 

Dalton. Jolm. D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Darbishu-e, E. D.. Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 

Dartmouth, WiUiam, Earl of, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A.. F.E.S. 

Daubeuv, Prof C. G. B.. M.D.,LL.D., F.E.S. 

DelaBeehe.SirH. T., C.B.. F.E.S.. Director- 
Gen. Geol. Surv. United Kingdom (dec"). 

De la Eue, Warren, Ph.D.. F.E.S. 

Derby. Earl of, D.C.L.. ChanceUor of the 
University of Oxford. 

Devonshire, William, Duke of, M.A., D.C.L., 

Dickinson, Joseph, M.D.. F.E.S. 

Dillwvn, LeivisW., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Donkin, Professor W. F., M.A.. F.E.S. 

Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased). 

Ducie, The Earl of F.E.S. 

Dunraven, The Earl of, F.E.S. 

Egerton, Sir P. de M. Grev, Bart., M.P., 

Eliot. Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (dec"). 

Enniskillen, WUKam. Earl of, D.C.L, F.E.S. 

Estcom-t, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 

Fail-bairn, William, LL.D., C.E., F.E.S. 

Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Ferrers, Eev. N. M.. M.A. 

FitzEov, Eear- Admiral, F.E.S. 

Fitzwiliiam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 

Fleming, W., M.D. 

Fletcher. BeU, M.D. 

Foote, Lundy E., Esq. 

Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 

Forbes, Prof. Edward, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Forbes.Prof J.D.,LL.D.,F.E.S.,Sec.E.S.E. 
Principal of the University of St. An- 

Fox, Eobert Were, Esq., F.E.S. 

Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 

Fuller, Professor, M.A. 

Galton, Francis, F.E.S., F.G.S. 


REPORT 1863. 

G-assiot, John P., Esq., F.E.S. 

Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Gladstone, J. H., Ph.D., F.E.S. 

Goodwin, The Very Eev. H., D.D., Dean of 

Gourlie, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Graham, T., M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Master of 

the Mint. 
Gray, Jolm E., Esq., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Gray, Jonathan. Esq. (deceased). 
Gray, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Prof. Joseph Henfy, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Griffith, George, M.A., F.C.S. 
Griffith, SirE. Griffith, Bt., LL.D., M.E.I. A. 
Grove, W. E., Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
HaUam. Henry, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. (dec*). 
HamUton, W.'J., Esq., F.E.S., Sec. G.S. 
Hamilton, Sh" Wm. E.. LL.D., Asti-onomer 

Eoyal of Ireland, M.E.I.A., F.E.A.S. 
Hancock, W. Xeilson, LL.D. 
Harcoiu-t, Eev. Wm. Yernon, M.A., F.E.S. 
Hardwicke. Charles Pliilip, Earl of, F.E.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Harris, Su* W. Snow, F.E.S. 
Harrowby, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Hatfeild,' William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.E.S. 
Henry. Eev. P. S.. D.D., President of Queen's 

College, Belfast. 
Henslow, Eev. Professor, M.A.,F.L.S.(dec''). 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Eev. Wm., LL.D., 

F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec*). 
Herschel, Su- John F. W., Bart., M. A., D.C.L., 

Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.E.S. 
Heyivood, James, Esq.. F.E.S. 
Hill. Eev. Edward, JI.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Eev. Edward, D.D., M.E.I.A. 
Hincks, Eev. Thomas, B.A. 
Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich 

Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.E.S. (dec*). 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Hope, Eev. F. W., M.A., F.E.S. 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M. A., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq.. F.E.S. (deceased). 
Houghton, Lord, D.C.L. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hugall, J. W., Esq. 
Hunt, Aug. H., Esq., B.A., Ph.D. 
Hutton, Eobert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq.. F.G.S. (deceased). 
IngHs, Su-E. H., Bart., D.C.L., M.P. (dec"). 
Inman, Thomas, M.D. 
Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor E., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Jardine, Sir William, Bart., F.E.S.E. 
Jefireys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.E.S. 
JeUett, Eev. Professor. 
Jenyns, Eev. Leonard. F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Jeune, The Eight Eev. R, D.C.L. 

Johnston, Eight Hon. William, late Lord 

Provost of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Prof J. F. W., M.A., F.E.S. 

Xeleher, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Kelland, Eev. Prof P., M.A., F.E.S. L. & E. 
Kildare, The Marqiiis of. 
Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.E.S. 
Lansdowne, Hen., Marquisof, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Lar^-om, Major, E.E., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Lardner, Eev. Dr. (deceased). 
Lassell, WiUiam, Esq., F.E.S. L. & E. 
Latham, E. G., M.D., F.E.S. 
Lee, Yery Eev. Jolm, D.D., F.E.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the LTniversity of Edinburgh 

Lee, Eobert, M.D., F.E.S. 
Lefevi-e, Eiglit Hon. Charles Shaw, late 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., F.E.S. 
LiddeU, Andi-ew, Esq. (deceased). 
LiddeU, Yery Eev. H. G., D.D., Dean of 

Christ Church, Oxford. 
Lindlev, Professor John, Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Listowel, The Earl of. 
Liveing. Prof. G. D., M.A., F.C.S. 
Lloyd, Eev. B., D.D., Provost of Trin. Coll., 

DubUn (deceased). 
Lloyd, Eev. H., D.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. L.&E., 

Londesborough, Lord, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Lubbock, Su- John W., Bart., M.A., F.E.S. 
Lubv, Eev. Thomas. 
Lyeil, Sir Charles, Bart„M.A.,LL.D.,D.C.L., 

MacCuUagh, Prof, D.C.L., M.E.I.A. (dc'C'). 

MacDomiell, Eev. E., D.D., JiI.E.I.A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Macfarlanc. The Yery Eev. Principal, (dec"*). 

MacGee, WilUam, M.D. 

MacLeay, WiUiam Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 

MacNeiil, Professor Sir Jolm, F.E.S. 

Malahide, The Lord Talbot de. 

Malcolm, Yice-Ad. Sir Charles. K.C.B. (dec"). 

Maltby, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 
Bishop of Dm-ham (deceased). 

Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Marlborough, Duke of, D.C.L. 

MarshaU, J. G., Esq., M.A.. F.G.S. 

May, Charles, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 

MeyneU, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 

Middleton, Sir William F. F., Bart. 

Miller, Professor W. A., M.D., Treas. and 

MiUer, Professor W. H., M.A., For. Sec.E.S. 

Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 

MoiUet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 

Monteagle, Lord, F.E.S. 

Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 

Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 

Moody, T. F., Esq. 

Morley, The Earl of. 

Moseley, Eev. Henry, M.A., F.E.S. 

Mount-Edgecumbe, EmestAugustus,Earl of. 

Murchison, SirEoderickI.,G.C. St.S.,D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.E.S. 

Neild, Alfred. Esq. ' 



Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.E.S.E. 

Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Professor J., F.E.S.E., P.G.S. 

Nicol, Kev. J. P., LL.D. 

Noble, Capt. A., R.A. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. (deceased). 

Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, Ka.,M. A., 
F.E.S. (deceased). 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., E.G.S. 

Orpeu, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 

Orpen, John H., LL.D. 

Osier, Eollett, Esq., F.E.S. 

Owen, Professor Eichd.,M.D.,D.C.L.,LL.D., 

Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D.. Lord 
Bishop of, P.E.S., F.G.S. 

Pahnerston, Viscount, KG., G.C.B., M.P., 

Peacock, Very Eev. G., D.D., Dean of Ely, 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Pendarves, E. W., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Pliillips, Professor John, M.A., LL.D.,F.E.S. 
Phillips, Eev. G., B.D., President of Queen's 

College, Cambridge. 
Pigott,The Et. Hon. D. E., M.E.I.A., Lord 

Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 
Porter, G. E., Esq. (deceased). 
PoweU, Eev. Professor, M. A., F.E.S. (dec"'). 
Price, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eamsay, Professor William, M.A. 
Eansome, George, Esq., F.L.S. 
Eeid, Maj.-Gen. Sh- \Y., K.C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 

Eendlesham, Et. Hon. Lord, M.P. 
Eennie, George, Esq., F.E.S. 
Eennie, Sii- John, F.E.S. 
Eichardson, Sii- John, C.B., M.D., LL.D., 

T' "R S 
Eichmond, Duke of. K.G., F.E.S. (dec^). 
Eipon, Earl of, F.E.G.S. 
Eitchie, Eev. Prof., LL.D., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Eobinson, Capt., E.A. 
Eobinson, Eev. J., D.D. 
Eobinson, Eev. T. E., D.D., F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 
Eobison, Sir John, Seo.E.S.Edin. (deceased). 
Eoche, James, Esq. 
Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.E.S. 
Eolleston, Professor, M.D., F.E.S. 
Eonalds, Francis, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eoscoe, Professor H. E., B.A., F.E.S. 
Eosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Eoss, Eear-Admiral Sii- J. C, E.N., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eosse, Wm., Earl of, M.A., F.E.S., M.E.I.A. 
Eoyle, Prof. John F., M.D., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Eussell, James, Esq. (deceased). 
EusseH, J. Scott, Esq., F.E.S. 
Sabine, Major-GeneralEdward.E.A., D.C.L., 

LL.D., President of the Eoyal Society. 
Sanders, WiUiam, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F E.S. (deceased). 
Sedgwick, Eev. Prof. Adam, M.A., D.C.L., 


Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.E.S.E. 
Shai-pey, Professor, M.D., Sec.E.S. 
Sims, Dillwyn, Esq. 
Smith, Lieut.-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.E.S. 

Smith, Prof. H. J. S., M.A., F.E.S. 
Smith, James, F.E.S. L. & E. 
Spence, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Spottiswoode, W., M.A., F.E.S. 
Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staimton. Sir G. T., Bt.. M.P., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
St. David's, C.Thii-lwall,D.D.,LordBishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 
Sti-ickland, Hugh E., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., F.E.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Warden of Wadham 

College. Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Tayler, Eev. John James, B.A. 
Taylor, Hugh, Esq. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Taylor, Eiehard, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Thomson, A., Esq. 

Thomson, Professor William, M.A., F.E.S. 
Tindal, Captain, E.N. (deceased). 
Tite, William, Esq., M.P., F.E.S. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.E.S.E. 
Tooke, Tliomas, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Traill, J. S.. M.D. (deceased). 
Trevelyan, Sii- W. C, Bart. 
Tiu-ner, Edward, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Tm-ner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. (dec"). 
Turner, Rev. W. 
TvndaU, Professor John, F.R.S. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (decea.sed). 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Walker, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Eev. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S. 
Warbiu-ton, Henry. Esq.-M.A., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Ward, W. Sykes,'Esq., F.C.S. 
Washington,' Captaiu, E.N., F.E.S. 
Webster, Thomas, M. A., F.E.S. 
West, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
WharncUffe, John Stuai-t,Lord,F.E.S.(dec"). 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.E.S. 
WlieweU, Eev.WilUam, D.D., F.E.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
White, John F., Esq. 
WilHams, Prof. Charles J. B., M.D., F.E.S. 
Willis, Eev. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S. 
WiUs, Wilham, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Wilson, Thomas, Esq., M.A. 
Wilson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Wood, Nicholas, Esq. 

WooUcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (deceased). 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A.,D.C.L.,F.E.S. 
Tarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Yates, J. B., Esq., F.S.A., F.E.G.S. (dee"). 



Sir EoDERiCK I. MuKCHisox, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Major-Geueral Edwaed Sabixe, E.A., D.C.I.., Prcs, U.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Geey Egertox, Bart, M.P., F.E.S. 



Sir Walter C. Teevelyan, Bart., M.A. 

Sir Charles Lyell, LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S. 

HvfiH Tay-loe, Esq. 

Isaac Lowthian Bell, Esq. 

Nicholas Wood, Esq. 

Eev. Temple Chevallier, B.D., F.E.A.S. 

William Faibd.uex, Esq., LL.D., F.E.S. 

Sir CHAELES LYELL, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.E.G.S. 


Aethi'E Watt, Esq., M.P. 
F. H. Dickinson, Esq. 
WiLLi.vjr Sanders, Esq., F.G.S. 

Lord Poetman. 

Maequis of Bath. 

Lord Nelson. 

AVilllam The, Esq., M.P., F.E.S., F.G.S., F.S.A 


Chables Moore, Esq., F.G.S. 

C. E. Davis, Esq. 

The Eev. H. H. \\"INW00D. 


Thomas Gill, Esq. 


Babington, Prof. C. C, F.E.S. 
Bateman, J. F., Esq. 
Crawfued, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
De la Eue,Wareen, Esq., F.E.S. 
FiTzEoY, Admii-al, F.E.S. 
Foster, Peter Le Neve, Esq. 
Gassiot, J. P., Esq., F.E.8. 

Gladstone, Dr., F.E.S. 
Graham, Professor, F.R.S. 
Grove, W. E., E.'^q.. F.R.S. 
Heyavood, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hogg, John, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 
HUTTON, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Miller, Prof. W. A., MT.D., F.E.S. 

Phillips. Professor, M.A. .F.R.S. 
Shaepey, Professor, Sec.E.S. 
Smith, Professor Henry, F.R.S. 
Smyth, Prof WAEiNGfoN,l.E.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor, F.K.b. 
Weestee, Thomas, Esq., F.R.S. 
WiLLiAJisoN, Prof. A.W., F.R.S. 


The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former years, 
via.— Rev. Professor Sedgwick. The Duke of Devonshire. Rev. W. V. Harcourt. Rev. W. Whewelf, D.D. 
The Earl of Rosse. Sir John F. W. Hersehel, Bart. Sir Roderick I. Murchison, K.C.B. The Rev. 
T. E. Eobinson, D.D. Sir David Brewster. G. B. Airv, Esq., the Astronomer Eoval. General Sabine, 
D.C.L. William Hopkins, Esq., LL.D. The Earl of Harrowbr. The Duke of ArfoH- Professor Dau- 
bcny, M.D. The Eev. H. Lloyd, D.D. Richard Owen, M.D.', D.C.L. The Lord Wrott^-sley. William 
Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D. The Eev. Professor Willis. 


William Hopkins, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., St. Peter's College, Cambridge. 

Francis Galton, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S., 42 Rutland Gate, Knightsbridge, London. 


GeOBGE GkIFFITH, Esq., M.A., Deputy Professor of Experimental Philosophy in the Vniveieitv of 



William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.G.S., -50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 


William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., York. 

Prof C. C. Babington,M.A., F.E.S., Cambridge. 

William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. 

John H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. 

William Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Bristol. 

Eobert M'Audrew, Esq., F.E.S., Liverpool. 

W. E. AVilis, Esq., Birmingham. 

Eobert P. Greg, Esq., F.GiS., Manchester. 

John Gwm Jeffreys, Esq., F.E.S. , Swansea. 
Robert P'atterson.Esq., F.R.S., 
Edmund Smith, Esq., SuU. 
Richard Beamish, Esq., F.R.S., Cheltenham. 
John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., Leeds. 
John Forbes White, Esq.. Aberdeen. 
Rev. John Griffiths, M.A., Oxford. 
Thomas Hodgkin, Esq., IfeKcastle-on-Tt/ne. 

J. P. Gaseiot. Esq. 


Eobert Hutton, Eiq. 

James lleywood, Esq. 




President. — W. J. Macquom Eankine, C.E., F.R.S., L. & E., Professor of Engineer- 
ing in the University of Glasgow. 

Vice-Presidents. — Major-General Sabiue, President U.S. ; Professor Sylvester, 
F.R.S. ; W. Spottiswoode; M.A., F.R.S., General Treasui-er of the British Asso- 

Secretaries. — Professor Stevelly ; Rev. C T. "NVhitley, M. A. ; Professor Fuller ; 
Rev. N. Ferrers, M.A. ; Fleeming Jenkin, C.E. 



President. — Alex. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. , Professor of Chemistry in Uni- 
versity College, London, President of the Chemical Society. 

Vice-Presidents. — Dr. Andrews ; I. L. l>ell. Mayor of Newcastle ; J. P. Gassiot, 
F.R.S. ; Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S. ; Professor W. A. Miller, F.R.S. .; Dr. T. Richard- 

Secretaries. — Professor Liveing, M.A., F.C.S. ; H. L. Pattinson ; J. C. Stevenson, 


President.— WamgtoTi W. Smyth, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Professor of Mining and 

Mineralogy at the Royal School of Mines, London. 
Vice-Presidents. — E. W. Biuuev, F.R.S. ; Dr. Falconer, F.R.S. ; R. Godwin- Austen, 

F.R.S. ; J. Beete Jukes, F.R.S. ; Professor Phillips, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— E. F. Boydj John Daglish, F.G.S. j H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. j Thomas 

Sopwith, F.R.S. 


Presidetit.—Protessox Balfour, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Joshua Alder ; Albanv Hancock, F.L.S. ; John Hogg, M.A., 

F.R.S.; Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.; J. Gwvn Jeftreys, F.R.S.; Richard 

Owen, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Robert Patterson, F.R.S.' 
Secretaries. — E. Charlton, M.D. ; A. Newton, M.A., F.L.S,: Rev. H. B. Tristram, 

M.A., F.L.S. 5 E. Perceval Wright, M.D.,F.R.C.S.L 


President.— Professor Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— John Daw, M.D., F.R.S. ; F. W. Pavy, M.D., F.R.S. ; Edward 

Smith, M.D., F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Dennis Embleton, M.D. ; William Turner, M.B., F.R.S.E. 


President.— Sir Roderick I. Murchison, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.R.S., President 
of the Royal Geographical Societv, Director-General of the Geological Survey. 

Vice-Presidents.— J. C. Bruce, LL.D., F.S.A. ; J. Crawfurd, F.R.S. ; Francis Gal- 
ton, M.A., F.R.S.; Sir John Richardson, M.D., F.R.S.; General Sabine, Pre- 
sident R.S. 

Secretaries.— Clements R. Markham, F.S.A., F.R.G.S. ; R. S. Watson; C. Carter 
Blake, F.G.S. ; Hume Greenfield, Assistant-Secretary R.G.S. 





PmiWeMi!.— William Tite, M.P., F.E.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Christian AUhiisen ; Neilson Hancock, LL.D. ; James Hevwood, 

F.E.S. ; Sir John OgilTv, Bart., M.P. ; Colonel W. H. Sykes, :SI.P., F.E'.S. 
Secretaries. — Frederick Piirdy ; Edmund Macrory ; Thomas Doubleday ; James 



President. — Eev. Eohert WUUs, M.A., F.R.S., Jacksonian Professor of Natural and 

Experimental Philosophy in the Uni^-ersity of Cambridge. 
Vice-Presidents. — Professor S. DoT\-ning ; J. G. Appold, F.E.S. ; W. Fairbaim, 

F.E.S. ; J. Hawkshaw, F.E.S. ; J. Scott Eussell, F.E.S. ; James Nasmyth, 

F.E.S.; R. S. Newall; G. W. Eendelj Professor James Thomson, M.A. ; 

Thomas Webster, F.E.S. 
Beeretaries, — P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; P. Westmacott, C.E. ; J. F. Spencer. 


Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 

M. Babiaet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 
Dr. D. Biereus de Haan, Amsterdam. 
Professor Bolzaui, Kasan. 
Dr. Barth. 

Dr. Bergsma, Utrecht. 
Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evi'eux). 
Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 
Dr. Carus, Leipzig. 
Dr. Ferdinand Cohu, Breslau. 
M. .Antoine d'Abbadie. 
M. De la Eive, Genera. 
Professor Wilhelm Delffs, IIei<lelberg. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carhriihe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor A. Escher A'on der Linth, 

Zurich, Swiizerlund. 
Professor Esmark, Christiania. 
Professor A. Favro, Geneva. 
Professor G. Fiirchhammer, Copenhagen. 
M. L^on Foucault, Paris. 
Professor E. Fremy, Paris. 
M. Fiisiani, 3Iilan. 
Dr. Geinitz, Dresden. 
Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 
Professor Hemy, Washington, U.S. 
Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Prof Jessen, Med. et Phil. Dr., Griess- 

v:ald, Prussia. 
Professor Aug. Kolnile, Ghent, Belgium. 
M. Khanikoff, St. Petersburg. 
Prof A. Kolliker, Wurzburg. 
Professor De Koninck, Liege. 
Professor Ki'eil, Vienna, 

Dr. A. Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Lament, Munich. 

Prof F. Lanza. 

M. Le Yenier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, 3Iunich. 

Professor Loomis, Neio York. 

Professor Gustav 3Iagnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor P. ^Feiian, Bale, Switzerland. 


M. I'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordenskiold, Finland. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Prof B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 

"S'iscenza Pisani, Florotce. 

Gustav Plaar, Strasburg. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

Professor PlUcker, Bofin. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Prof. Eetzius, Stockholm. 

Professor W. B. Sogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor H. Eose, Berlin. 

Herman Sehlagintweit, Beiiin. 

Eobert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 

Dr. Siljesti-om, StockJiolm. 

Professor J. A. de Souza, University of 

M. Struve, Pulkotva. 
Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 
M. Pien-e Tchihatchef 
Dr. Van der Hoeven, Leyden. 
Professor E. Verdet, Paris. 
M. de Yemeuil, Paris. 
Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Professor Wartmann, Geneva. 
Dr. H. D. Buys Ballot. 
M. Des Cloizeaux. 

Professor Adolph Steen, Copenhagen. 
Dr. Otto Toreil, University of Lund. 


Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee, Wednesday, August 26, 1863. 

1. The Eeport of the Kew Committee has been presented at each 
of the Meetings of the Council, and the General Eeport for the year 
1862-63 has been received, and is now presented to the General 

2. The Eeport of the Parliamentary Committee has been received 
for presentation to the General Committee tliis day. 

3. It will be in the recollection of the General Committee that at 
the Cambridge Meeting, when Professor Phillips resigned the office of 
Assistant-General Secretary, which he had held from the beginning of 
the Association, he was prevailed upon to join Mr. Hopkins as Joint- 
General Secretary until the present Meeting. The attention of the 
Council was called to this arrangement on the 5th of June last by Pro- 
fessor Phillips, who, in claiming permission to retire from office, recom- 
mended that in filling this office permanently at the Newcastle Meeting, 
regard should be had to the advantage of having one of the General 
Secretaries resident in London. 

On this a Committee was appointed, consistiug of the General Se- 
cretaries, and the gentlemen who had formerly filled that office, for the 
purpose of reporting a recommendation to the Council of a successor to 
Professor Phillips. The CouncU have received the following Eeport : — 
" Professor Phillips, F.E.S., having kindly consented, at the re- 
quest of the General Committee of the British Association, to hold, 
in conjunction with Mr. Hopkins, F.E.S., the office of General Se- 
cretary, and being now desirous of retiring from the office ; We, the 
undersigned, having been requested by the Council to suggest a 
suitable successor to Professor Phillips, beg to express our unanimous 
opinion that Mr. Francis Galton, M.A., F.E.S., of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, is well qualified to fill the office of Joint-General Secre- 
tary of the Association. " W. V. Haecotjet. 


" E. SABnra:. 
" W. HopKrN^s. 
" J. Phuliiis." 

4. The CouncU have been informed that invitations will be presented 
to the General Committee, at its Meeting on Monday, August 31st, 
from Bu-mingham, Bath, ISTottingham, Dundee, Southampton, and the 

Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1862-1863. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Association the 
following statement of then- proceedings during the past year. 

It was mentioned in last Eeport that the Director of the Lisbon Observa- 
tory had requested the Committee to superintend the construction of a set of 
Self-recording Magnetographs. This request has been complied with by the 
Committee, and a set of Self-recording Magnetographs have been constructed 
by Adie mider their direction. These, along with a tabulating instrument by 
Gibson, have been verified at Kew, where Seiior Capello, of the Lisbon Obser- 
vatory, resided for some time, in order to become familiar with the working of 
his instruments. 

xxxii REPORT — 1863. 

This verification was completed in December last, and Senor Capello then 
left England for Lisbon, taking his instruments with him. These arrived 
safely at their destination ; and so rapid was the progress made with the Ob- 
servatory, that on the 1st of July the builchng was finished, and the Magneto- 
graphs in continuous operation. 

Mr. Stewart has lately received from tSeiior Capello copies of the tracings 
furnished by these instruments from July 14th to l(3th, during which period 
a magnetic disturbance occurred simultaneously at Lisbon and at Kew. 
These tracings, along with the corresponding Kew curves, arc exhibited to 
the Association. 

When the two sets are viewed side by side, features of resemblance become 
manifest, which appear to show that very great advantage to magnetical 
science will ultimately be derived from the intercomparison of such photo- 
grai)hic traces taken simultaneously at difterent localities. 

Mr. Stewart has likewise heard from Senor De Souza, of the University of 
Coimbra, who writes that, after many preliminary difficulties, his Observatory 
is now maldng rapid progress towards completion. 

Before his departure from this country, Sefior Capello addressed the follow- 
ing letter to the Chairman of the Kew Committee : — 

" Kew Observatory, November 28, 1862. 
" My deae Sie,— I should much desire to obtain for the Lisbon Observa- 
tory some memorial of ray visit to Kew, where I have received much vahiable 
instruction in Magnetism, as well as great kindness from yourself, from 
General Sabine, and from other Members of the Kew Committee. 

" Might I request of you, dear Sir, to endeavour to obtain for me a set of 
the ' Transactions of the British Association,' wherewith to enrich our Library 
at Lisbon ? 

" Win you also at the same time kindly permit us to continue sending to 
your Library, as a slight token of our goodwill, the monthly records of our 
Observatory ? 

" I remain, 

" Dear Sir, 

" Yours sincerely, 
(Signed^ "J. C. Beito Capello." 
'^ J. P. Gassiot, Esq., F.R.S., 

Chairman of the Kew Committee of the 
British Association," 

The request of this letter has been complied with by the Council of the 
Association, and a complete set of the ' Transactions ' have been despatched 
to Lisbon. 

The Committee have likewise been requested to superintend the construc- 
tion of a set of Self-recording Magnetographs for Prof. Kuptfer, of the 
St. Petersburg Central Observatory. These were constructed as before, the 
Magnetographs by Adie, and the tabulating instrument by Gibson ; and, 
after having been verified at Kew, they were despatched to St. Petersburg. 

Prof. Kupffer desired also a Diff'erential Yertieal-force Magnetometer for 
Pekin, which has likewise been constructed by Adie, and verified at Kew ; it 
remains in readiaess to be fbrwarded by the first suitable opportunity to its 

In addition to these instruments. Prof. Kupffer is obtaining from Adie a 
Barograph and a Self- registering Anemometer, both of the Kew pattern. 


Prof. Kupffer proposes visiting Kow in October, for the purpose of acquaint- 
ing himself with the mode of working the instruments adopted there. 

It was mentioned in hist Eei)ort that Lieut, llokebj', of the lloyal Marines, 
was desirous of making magnetical and meteorological observations in the 
Island of Ascension during his term of service at that station, and that the 
Board of Trade had sanctioned the expenditure of £G0 to pro-\dde a suitable 

Lieut. Eokeby has since been zealously engaged with his observations, and 
has already transmitted the records to General Sabine. 

In order to complete his meteorological equipment, a Self-recording 
Anemometer was necessary, and one of these on the Kew pattern has been 
constructed by Adie, and forwarded to Ascension, for the cost of which 
application has been made to the Government Grant Committee of the Eoyal 

It may be allowed to use this opportunity of stating, that already no fewer 
than nine Self-recording Anemometers on Beckley's or the Kew pattern 
have been made for different Observatories. 

The Observatory of the M'^Gill College at Montreal has been completed, 
and Dr. Smallwood writes that the absolute determination of the three mag- 
netic elements and hourly observations of the Declinometer were to have 
been commenced there in July last. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements 
continue to be made at Kew, and the Self-recording Magnetographs are 
in constant operation as heretofore, under the zealous superintendence of 
Mr. Chambers, the Magnetical Assistant. 

Advantage has been taken of these automatic records of the earth's mag- 
netism by the Committee engaged in the preparation of electrical standards, 
who have found it desirable for some of their experiments to ascertain the 
contemporaneous readings of the Declination Mag-netograph. 

The extensive use of iron in the construction of modem ships has rendered 
a careful determination of its effect upon ships' compasses essentially re- 
quisite to safe navigation. A demand has consequently arisen for the aid of 
persons who have made the subject one of special study, in order to make the 
observations that are most desirable, and to supply the required information, 
the process generally adopted being to swing the vessel round with her head 
towards tlie different points of the compass in succession. The needs of the 
Eoyal Navy in this resj^ect are amply provided for ; but hitherto Govern- 
ment has taken no steps towards extending the system adopted in that de- 
partment to ships of the Mercantile Marine. On this account the Committee 
have much pleasure in reporting that Mr. Chambers has practically taken up 
the subject, and has obtained from the Director of the Observatory occasional 
leave of absence, when this shall be necessary, to enable him to attend at 
the swinging of ships. In this work his long experience of accurate and 
varied magnetic observations at Kew, and his familiar acquaintance with the 
" theory of deviations of the compass," must prove to be of great value ; and 
the Committee desire to record their opinion that in thus affording to the 
observers at Kew an excellent training, which is capable of most useful appli- 
cation in the public service, the maintenance of the Observatory is shown to 
be attended with indirect advantages scarcely less important than the valuable 
results of observations which it is the more immediate province of the Obser- 
vatory to secure. 

Major-General Sabine, President of the Eoyal Society, has communicated to 
that body a paper on the " Eesults of the Magnetic Observations at the Kew 

1863. c 

XXxiv REPORT — 1863. 

Observatory, from 1857 to 1862 inclusive." In this communication the fol- 
lowing subjects are discussed :— 

1. The disturbance-diunial variation of the declination. 

2. The solar-diurnal variation of the declination. 

3. The semiannual inequality of the solar-diurnal variation of the decli- 

4. The lunar-diurnal variation of the declination. 

5. The secular change, and the annual variation of the declination, dip, and 
total force. 

The values of these changes at Kew are compared with those at the dif- 
ferent Colonial Magnetic Observatories, and results of much interest and im- 
portance are obtained. 

A copy of this paper wiU be sent to each Member of the Committee 
of Recommendations of the Association as soon as it is out of the printer's 

At the request of the Astronomer Royal, the Kew curves of declination and 
horizontal force for 14th December last (a time of disturbance) were for- 
warded to Greenvdch, in order that Mr. Aiiy might compare them with the 
records of earth- currents obtained there at the same date. 

In return Mr. Airy kindly sent copies of these latter records to Kew, and 
a comparison of these with the indications afforded by the Kew Magneto- 
graphs forms the subject of a short communication by Mr. Stewart, which is 
published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society. 

Mr. Stewart has Ukevsise communicated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh 
a paper on " Earth Currents during Magnetic Calms, and their Connexion 
with Magnetic Changes," which is about to be pubLLshed in the Transactions 
of that body. He has likewise communicated to the Royal Society of London 
an account of some experiments made at Kew, in order to determine the 
increase between 32° Fahr. and 212° Eahr. of the elasticity of dry atmospheric 
air, the volume of which remains constant, and also to determine the freez- 
ing-point of mercury. 

This communication will be published in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society. The expeiiments were made by means of an air-thermometer, in 
the construction of which great assistance was derived from Mr. Beckley, 
Mechanical Assistant, while Mr. George Whipple, Meteorological Assistant, 
was of much use in observing. 

Mr. Chambers has communicated to the Royal Society a paper " On the 
Nature of the Sun's Magnetic Action upon the Earth," in which it is argued 
that, in causing the daily variation, the sun does not act as a magnet. 

The Meteorological work of the Observatory continues to be performed 
satisfactorily by Mr. George Whipple, and all the Staff interest themselves 
much in the business of the Observatoiy. 

Duiing the past year 

130 Barometers, 
296 Thermometers, and 
22 Hydrometers 

have been verified ; and Mi-. Kemp, philosophical instrument maker, Edin- 
burgh, has been furnished with a standard Thermometer. 

The self-recording Barograph has been in constant operation since 8th 
November last. A suggestion by Mr. Beckley to put two papers at the same 
time upon the cylinder, the one imder the other, has proved successful ; and 
two traces haye thua been secm-ed, one of which has been regularly forwarded 


to Admiral FitzKoy, at his request, while the other has been retained at the 

On 30th December, the Superintendent received the following letter from 
Admiral FitzRoy : — 

" Meteorological Department, 2 Parliament Street, London, 
30th December, 1862. 

" Sir, — I have the honour of addressing the Kew Committee of the British 
Association, through yourself, as Superintendent at their Magnetic and 
Meteorologic Observatory, to request, on behalf of the Board of Trade, that 
daily meteorologic communications may be again made to this Office, as for- 

" Having extended our operations, and therefore incurred greater responsi- 
bility, it is considered advisable to acquire, if possible, the best strengthening 
support available. 

" On account of economical reasons solely, as you are aware, the Board of 
Trade asked for discontinuance of those Kew telegrams (which were then re- 
ceived as regularly as satisfactorily) ; but now, being able to add their expense 
(comparatively small) to the current charges of this Office, it is my pleasing 
duty to make this application. 

" The Kew Observatory is so iveJl situated for Meteorologic purposes, be- 
cause separated from all local causes of error — neither on a hUl nor in a 
valley, surrounded by grass land, on a level only about 35 feet above the 
sea, and to windward of our extensive Metropolis during the greater part of 
the year — that a better locality for reference and intercomparison need not 
be desired. 

" It is sufficiently far from London to be uninfluenced by its heated air, 
smoke, or other pecidiarities of atmosphere (inseparable from such an area of 
fires, population, and altered radiation), while it is within an easy railway 

" But while such are the well-known exterior recommendations of the 
Kew Observatory for its specialities of Magnetism and Meteorology, there are 
sterling advantages obtainable within its walls not to be found elsewhere. 
Scrupulously careful, exact, and truly-principled observations (inseparably 
connected with the names of Eonalds and Welsh) gave character and initiated 
proceedings of which results are now patent — not only in improvements of 
many kinds, afiectiug instruments and methods, but in general instruction. 

" Nowhere else is there a Cathetometer by which barometiic instruments 
can be perfectly verified. Other methods used elsewhere are inferior as to 
range, principle, and practice. To that instrument much more is due than 
may be yet generally recognized. 

" Persons aware of these facts are naturally desirous that Kew should have 
a place in the reports now pubUshed daily in most of the newspapers, and 
as the Board of Trade will defray such small contingent expenses as may be 
requisite, I am led to believe that the Kew Committee will consent to the 
necessary steps, through your obliging attention. 

" With this letter is a copy of the arrangements existing now, which are 
somewhat altered from those already known to yourself. 

" It may be convement to permit morning observations to be made, soon 
after eight, by a resident at the Observatory, and to employ a special mes- 
senger to carry them to the Telegraph Office, in order that we may receive 
them here early. The contingent charge would be borne by this Office. 

" Lists of the places with which we now communicate, and forms for our 
daily Weather Reports, are enclosed — all which may help to show what im- 



portance should he attached to the cooperation and prestige of the Kew Obser- 

" I have the honour to be, 
" Sir, 
" Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) " Eobt. FitzEoy." 
''Balfour Steivart, Esq., F.S.S., 

" Siiperintendinr/ Kew Ohservatory " 

In compHance with the request of this letter, telegrams were regularly 
furnished up to the end of May ; but at that date the Superintendent received 
another letter fi'oin the Admiral, thanking the Observatory for the regularity 
and acciu'acy of its telegrams, but mentioning that, in consequence of two 
additional Foreign Stations being added to his list, there woidd not be space 
available for Kew, which reallj- gave nearly the same indications as London. 
In consequence of this, telegrams were discontinued after the end of May. 

The self-recording Electrometer of Prof. AV. Thomson continues in con- 
stant operation. 

The arrangements at the Observatoiy for testing Sextants remain as 
before -svithout alteration, but it has been thought advisable to reduce the 
verification-fee from 5s. to 2s. Qd. for ordinary instruments, leaving that for 
an extremely accurate verification of a supei'ior instrument the same as 

Eleven sextants and one altitude and azimuth instrument have been veri- 
fied at Kew since the last Meeting of the British Association. 

The Chairman has procured a Spectroscope affording very great angular 
separation, which remains at Kew. and he has also ordered a Hehostat from 
Paris ; by those means it is hoped that tlic minutiae of the solar spectrum may 
soon be capable of being examined with great facility. 

The solar spots are now regularly observed at Kew, after the method of 
Dr. Schwabe, of Dessau, who has been communicated with, and wiU be 
written to from time to time, in order to ensure that both observers pursue 
exactly the same method of observation. 

It wiU be remembered that in the Report of the Committee at the Cam- 
bridge Meeting, it was stated that Mr. De la Piue had taken 177 photographs 
of the Sim, and that the number of available days from February 7 to 
September 12, 1862, was 124. The Kew Heliograph was worked at Cranford 
up to February 7, 1863, and photographs were procured on 42 other days 
between Sept. 12, 1862, and February 7, 1S63, making 166 working days in 
the whole year. The series of negatives are now iu course of measurement 
and reduction by Dr. Yon Bose ; the micrometer employed is the same as that 
constructed for and used in the measurements of the eclipse-pictures obtained 
in Spain in 1860, a detailed descrij^tion of which instrument is given in Mr. 
De la Pue's paper in the Phil. Trans, vol. chi. pp. 373 to 380. 

Of the 1862-1863 series, the measurements are finished up to the end of 
June, and the reductions to the end of April 1862 ; both will be completed at 
the end of this year. 

In February of the present year the HeHograph was removed from Cranford 
to the Kew Observatory, and erected again in the dome. A new and com- 
modious photographic-room has been built on the roof of the Observatory, 
close to the dome, and has been fitted up with the requirements necessary for 
the successful prosecution of astronomical photography. The expense of this 
room has been defrayed out of the sum of £100 granted for that object at the 






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xxxviii REPORT — 1863. 

Cambridge Meeting. The ackial sum expended up to the present time 
amounts to <£89, leaving a balance of ^11, which will cover the outlay for a 
few pieces of apparatus which are stiU required. 

Between February 7 and May of the present year pictures of the sun were 
occasionally procured at Kew ; but the Heliograph could not be faii-ly got to 
work until the completion of the photographic-room and the final adjust- 
ment of the instrument itself. Erom the 1st of May to the present time the 
Heliograph has been continuously worked by a qualified Assistant, under the 
immediate supei-vision of Mr. Beckley. Two photographs are taken on every 
working day, one to the east, and the other to the west of the meridian, when 
atmospheric conditions permit of this being done. From May 1st to August 
14th inclusive, there have been fifty-fom- working days. Four positive copies 
are made regularly from each negative, one of which it is proposed to retain 
at Kew, and it is in contemplation to distribute the others. 

Mr. Stewart, after an inspection of aU the sun-pictui-es obtained by the 
Kew Heliograph, is inclined to think that the behaviour of solar spots with 
respect to increase and diminution has reference to ecUptical longitudes, and 
is possibly connected with the position of the nearer planets ; but it will re- 
quire a longer series of pictures to determine this, than that which has yet 
been obtained. 

The Heliograph constructed by Mr. Dallmeyer for Wilna, under Mr. Be la 
Rue's superintendence, has been completed, and will be shortly sent to Russia, 
together with a micrometer and protractor constructed by Messrs. Troughton 
and Simms, which will be employed in the measurement and reduction of the 

Of the £150 granted by the Association in 1861 for the purpose of 
obtaining a series of photographic pictiires of the solar surface, a sum of 
£137 3s. has been expended fi-om February 1862 to February 1863, and the 
balance, £12 17s., has been returned to the Association. 

In 1860 a sum of £90 was voted for an additional Photographic Assistant, 
of which £50 was received and expended in that year. The balance, £40, 
was again granted in 1861, out of which £20 2s. lOr?. have been expended. 

The working of the Kew Photoheliograph during the year, commencing 
in February 1863, vrill be defrayed out of a grant placed in the hands of 
Mr. De la Rue by the Royal Society for that purpose. 

It wiU be seen from the Statement appended to this Report, that the expen- 
diture of the Observatory has exceeded its income by £7 8s. 6(1. ; but there 
is £30 to be received from the Russian Government for the verification of 
instruments. The Committee recommend that a sum of £600 should be 
granted for the expenditure of the current year. 

Zew Observatory, JoHN P. Gassiot, 

14 August, 1863. Chairman. 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee, to the Meeting of the British 
Association, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in August, 1863. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows : — 
" The Earls of Rosse and De Grey, Lord Stanley, and Sir Joseph Paxton 

have vacated their seats ; but your Committee recommend that Lords Rosse 

and Stanley be re-elected. 

" Your Committee also recommend that two of the vacancies be supplied 

by the election of Lord Houghton and Mr. N. Kendall. 


" A Committee of the House of Commons having reported in favour of the 
adoption of the Metrical System of "Weights and Measures, and it being un- 
derstood that a BUI to carry into effect such recommendation will be intro- 
duced in the ensiling Session of Parliament, your Committee venture to 
suggest that the expediency of such a measure might be discussed at the 
ensuing Meeting. 

" No subject has been referred to your Committee since the last Meeting 
at Cambridge." 

"WbottesIiBY, Chairman. 

24 August 1863. 

Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne Meeting in August and Septembke 1863. 

[When Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of ^600 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors and Aerolites, consisting of 
Mr. Glaisher, Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. E. W. Brayley, and Mr. Alexander Her- 
schel, be reappointed ; and that the sum of =£20 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That the Committee on the Connexion of Vertical Movements of the 
Atmosphere with Storms, consisting of Professor Hennessy, Admiral FitzRoy, 
and Mr. Glaisher, be reappointed ; and that the sum of <£30 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. G. J. Symons be requested to report on the Rain-fall of the 
British Isles duiing the years 1862 and 1863 ; and that the sum of .£20 be 
placed at his disposal for the purpose of constructing and transmitting Rain- 
guages to districts where observations are not at present made. The Gauges 
to be sent within the British Isles, and the loan to be cancelled should the 
observations not be satisfactorily made. 

That the Committee on Electrical Standards, consisting of Professor 
Williamson, Professor "^Tieatstone, Professor W. Thomson, Professor MiUer, 
Dr. A. Matthiessen, Mr. Fleeming Jenkrn, Dr. Esselbach, Sir C. Bright, 
Professor Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, and Mr. Balfour Stewart, be re- 
appointed, with the addition of Dr. Joule and Mr. C. P. Varley ; and that the 
sum of .£100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose ; and that the co- 
operation of the Royal Society be requested in the construction of Standard 
Electrical Instruments. 

That Mr. Griffith and Dr. Akin be a Committee for the purpose of execu- 
ting the experiments suggested by Dr. Akin in his paper on the Trans- 
mutation of Spectral Rays ; and that the sum of £45 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That the Balloon Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, Professor Airy, 
Lord "Wrottesley, Sir David Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Dr. Lloyd, Admiral 
FitzRoy, Dr. Lee, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Glaisher, Dr. TyndaU, 
Mr. Fairbairn, and Dr. "W. A. MUler, be reappointed ; and that the sum of 
£200 be placed at their disposal for the following purposes : — 1st. To ex- 

Xl REPORT — 1863. 

amine the Electrical Condition of the Atmosphere at different heights. 2nd. 
To verify the law of decrease of temperature obtained by Mr. Glaisher, and 
to compare the constants obtained in different states of the Atmosphere. 

That Dr. Matthiesscn be requested to investigate the Chemical Consti- 
tution of Cast Iron ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at his disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Dr. Dupre be requested to continue his Kesearches on the Action of 
Reagents on Carbon imder pressure ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at 
his disposal for the iDiu-pose. 

That Mr. Alphonso Gages be requested to continue his examinations of the 
Mechanical Structure of Rocks and Artificial Formation of Minerals; and 
that the sum of =£10 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Huxley and Sir P. Egerton be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of enabling Mr. Molyneux to continue his Researches into the Fossil 
Contents of North Staffordshire ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Su- W. Armstrong. Professor Phillips, Professor AYarington Smyth, and 
Professor Pole be a Committee for the purpose of inqiiiring into the probable 
duration of those scams of coal upon which the prospeiity of the country 
depends; and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the 

That Professor Hiixley and the Rev. Mr. Macbride be a Committee for the 
purpose of conducting Experiments on the Artifical Fecundation of the 
Herring; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 
That Dr. Carpenter, Professor Haxley, and Professor T. Rupert Jones, 
assisted by Mr. Parker, be a Committee for the purpose of constructing a 
Series of Models showing the External and Internal Structure of the Fora- 
minifera ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 

That Sir W. Jardine, Mr. A. R. Wallace, Dr. J. E. Gray, Professor 
C. C. Babington, Dr. Francis, Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. 
P. P. Carpenter, Dr. J. D. Hooker, Professor Balfour, Mr. H. T. Stainton, 
Mr. J. Gywn Jeffreys, Mr. A Newton, Professor T. H. Huxley, Professor 
AUman, and Mr. Bentham, with power to add to their number, be a Com- 
mittee to rejjort on the cliangcs which they ma}^ consider it desirable to 
make, if any, in the lUiles of ISToraenclature drawn up at the instance of the 
British Association in 1843 by Mr. Strickland and others, with power to 
reprint these Rules, and to correspond with Foreign natui'alists and others, 
on the best means of ensuring their general adoption ; and that the sum of 
£15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. B. "W. Richardson, Dr. George RoUeston, and Dr. George Gibb 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Physiological Action of 
Nitrite of Amyle ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Dr. AUman be requested to complete his Report on the Hydi'oida, 
and that Dr. AUman and Dr. E. Perceval Wright bo a Committee for that 
purpose ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for that purpose. 
That Mr. J. Gywn Jeffreys, Mr. Joshua Alder, Mr. H. T. MenneU, Mr. J. 
S. Brady, and Mr. Albany Hancock be a Committee for the purpose of ex- 
ploring the coasts of Durham and Northumberland by means of the Dredge ; 
and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the pm-pose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Rev. A. M. Norman, Professor AUman, Rev, 
Thomas Hincks, and Mr. J. Leckenby be a Committee for the purpose of 


(li-edging the coasts of Shetlaucl by means of the Dredge ; and that the sum 
of ^75 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That IVIr. J. Gwyu Jeffreys, Mr. Robert M^^lndrew, Mr. G. C. Hyndman, 
Professor Allman, Dr. Colliugwood, Dr. Edwards, Professor Greene, Pev. 
Thomas Hincks, Mr. P. D. Darbishire, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Eev. A. M. 
Norman, and Dr. E. Perceval Wright be reappointed as a General Dredging 
Committee ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the 

That Mr. John CraAvfurd, Mr. John Lubbock, Professor Huxley, and Mr. 
Francis Galton as Secretary, be a Committee for the pui-pose of aiding the 
Researches of Mr. George Busk on Typical Crania ; and that the sum of £50 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Rankine, Mr. James R. Napier, and Mr. Scott Russell be a 
Committee for the purpose of experimenting on the difference between the 
resistance of floating bodies moving along the surface of the water and similar 
bodies moving imder water ; and that the sum of £100 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Steamship Performance, consisting of the Duke of 
Sutherland, The Earl of Giftbrd, The Earl of Caithness, Lord Dufferin, Mr, 
W. Fau-bairn, Mr. J. Scott Russell, Admiral Paris, The Hon. Captain Egerton, 
R.N., The Hon. L. A. Ellis, Mr. J. E. M'^Connell, Mr. W. Smith, Professor 
J. Macquorn Rankine, Mr. James Napier, Mr. Richard Roberts, Mr. Henry 
AVright to be Honorary Secretary, be reappointed, and requested to continue 
their labours and report in a more condensed form than heretofore the returns 
of Steamship Performance received by them ; and that the sum of £60 be 
placed at their disposal for the pui^Dose. 

That the Committee for Tidal Observations in the Humber, consisting of 
Mr. J. Oldham, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. J. Scott Russell, and Mr. Thomson, 
be reappointed ; and that the grant of £50 made last year and not drawn be 

That the Joint Committee on Gun-Cottoa, consisting of Mr. W. Fairbairn, 
Mr. Joseph "Whitworth, Mr. James Nasmyth, Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. John 
Anderson, Sir W. Armstrong, Dr. Gladstone, Professor W. A. Miller, and 
Dr. Frankland, be reappointed, with the addition of Mr. Abel ; and that the 
sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That in consideration of the long and valuable services of the late Mr. 
"W. Askham, and the insufficient provision made for his family, the sum of 
£50 be presented to his widow. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants of 


That Mr. Fleeming Jenkin be requested to continue his Report on Thermo- 
Electrical Phenomena. 

That the Committee on Fog Signals, consisting of Dr. Robinson, _ Professor 
Wheatstone, Dr. Gladstone, and Professor Hennessy, be reappointed and 
requested to continue their labours. 

That Professor Foster be requested to continue his Report on Organic 

That Dr. J. E. Gray, Dr. Sclater, Mr. A. Newton, and Mr. A. R. Wallace 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the subject of the Geogra- 
phical Distribution of Domestic Animals. 

xlii REPORT — 1863. 

That Mr. S. Gregson, M.P., Dr. Neilson Hancock, Mr. James Heywood, 
Mr. W. Tite, M.P., Mr. Thomas Wilson, and Mr. F. Purdy as Secretaiy (with 
power to add to their number), be a Committee for the purpose of considering 
and reporting on the subject of Agrieultiu'al Statistics. 

That Mr. Francis Galton be requested to report on Systems of Weights 
and Measures, other than piirely decimal, suitable for general adoption. 

That Professor Raukine, Sir WiUiam Armstrong, Lord Wrottesley, Sir 
John Herschel, The Astronomer Eoyal, General Sabine, Dr. Lee, The Eev. 
Dr. Eobinson, Mr. W. Tite, M.P., Colonel Sykes, M.P., Sir John Hay, Bart., 
M.P., the Right Hon. C. B. Adderley, M.P., Mi-. W. Ewart, M.P., Mi-. James 
Heywood, Professor Williamson, Professor Miller, and Mr. F. Purdy, as 
Secretary (with power to add to their number), be a Committee to prepare 
a Report on the best means of providing for a ■- Uniformity of Weights and 
Measures with reference to the interests of Science. 

That the Committee on Scientific Evidence iu Courts of Law, consisting 
of the Rev. W. Vernon Harcom-t, Right Hon. Joseph Napier, Mr. W. Tite, 
M.P., Professor Christison, Mr. J. Heywood, Mr. J. E. Bateman, Mr. T. 
Webster (with power to add to their number), be reappointed, and that Dr. 
Miller, Professor WiUiamson, and Sir B. C. Brodie, Bart, be added to the 

Involving Applications to Governments. 

That the President of the British Association be requested to transmit the 
thanks of the Association to the English and Austrian Governments for the 
facilities they have aff'orded for the investigation into the properties and 
applications of Gim.-Cotton contained in the Report of the Committee. 

That it appears fi-om the Report presented at this Meeting by the Joint 
Committees of the Chemical and Mechanical Sections, and by the discussions 
which have followed its presentation, that the subject of Gun-cotton is possibly 
one of very great public interest and importance, and that whilst the General 
Committee have taken measures to continue on their own account the 
inquiries which have been prosecuted in the last year, they are sensible that 
the British Association does not possess means for its adequate examination ; 
they are desirous therefore of drawing the attention of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment to the importance of a full and searching inquiry, conducted by a Royal 
Commission, into the various practical applications connected with the pubUc 
service for which this material may be suitable, and that with this view the 
Assistant-General Secretai-y be requested to cause the Report, with its 
accompanying documents, to be printed with as little delay as possible, and 
copies presented (accompanied by the Resolution) to the Right Honourable the 
Secretary of State for War by a deputation consisting of the President and 
Officers of the Association, accompanied by the Presidents of the Chemical 
and Mechanical Sections. 

Communications to be printed entire among the Reports. 

That the General and Assistant-General Secretaries ascertain, in reference 
to the papers which have been provisonally passed for printing in exteoiso, the 
probable extent of the printing involved, and the probable extra cost in tables, 
diagrams and plates, and the suitability of the paper in other respects, before 
ordering the printing of them ; the Secretaries being authorized to obtain any 
assistance from the Presidents of Sections or other competent persons. 


That an Account of the Ne-wcastle-on-Tyne Time-gim, hy Professor Piazzi 
Smyth, be printed entire among the Reports. 

That the Report on the Metallurgy of the District, by Messrs. Bell, 
Richardson, Sopvrith, and Spencer, be printed in extenso in the Proceedings of 
the Association. 

That the Report on the Chemical Manufactures of the Northern District, by 
Messrs. J. C. Stevenson, R. C. Clapham, and T. Richardson, be printed in 
extenso in the Transactions of the Association. 

That the Paper by Messrs. Daglish and Foster, on the Magnesian Lime- 
stone of the County of Dui'ham, be printed in full in the Report. 

That Mr. Palmer's Paper on Iron Ship-building on the Tyne and the 
neighbouring districts be printed in full in the Transactions. 

That Dr. Allman's Report on Hydroida be published in extenso, with illus- 
trations, in the Proceedings. 

That an abstract by Dr. Edward Smith of the Report by Civil Medical 
Officers on the nature, growth, and mode of preparation of the various alimen- 
tary articles consumed as food by the industrial and labouring population in 
the several districts of Bengal, be printed entire among the Reports. 

That Mr. C. W. Siemens's Paper on the Electrification of Gutta Percha be 
printed in extenso. 

That Dr. Akin's Paper on the Transmutation of Spectral Rays be printed 
in extenso. 

That Professor Airy's Paper on Steam-BoUer Explosions be printed in 
full in the Transactions. 

That the Address of Sir Roderick Murchison, the President of Section E, 
be printed. 

That the Address of Professor "Williamson, President of Section B, be 
printed in extenso. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Newcastle Meeting in August and Sep- 
tember 1863, with the name of the Member who alone, or as the 
First of a Committee, is entitled to draw the Money. 

Eetu Observatory. 

Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory 600 

Mathematics and Physics. 

Glaisher, Mr. — Meteors 20 

Hennessy, Prof. — Vertical Atmospheric Movements 30 

Symons, Mi-.— RainfaU in 1862-63 20 

Williamson, Prof. — Electrical Standards 100 

Griffith, Mr. — Transmutation of Spectral Rays 45 

Sykes, Col. — Balloon Ascents 200 



xliv REPORT — 1863. 


£ s. d. 

Matthiessen, Dr. — Cast Iron 20 

Diipre, M. — Carbon under pressure 10 

Gages, Mr. — Mechanical Structure of Eocks 10 


Huxley, Prof.— Fossil Contents of the Staffordshire Coal Field . 20 

Armstrong, Sir W. — Quantity of Coal 100 

Zoology and Botany. 

Huxley, Prof. — Herrings 10 

Carpenter, Dr. — Foraminifera 25 

Jardine, Sir "W. — I^omenclature 15 

Eichardson, Dr. — Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Allman, Prof.— Hydroida 10 

Jeffrej'S, Mr. — Dredging (coast of Durham and Northumberland) 25 

Jeffreys, Mr. — Dredging (Shetland) 75 

Jeffreys, Mr. — General Dredging Committee 10 

Geograjphy and Ethnology. 

Crawfurd, Mr. J. — Crania 50 


Eankine, Prof. — Eesistance of Moving Bodies 100 

Sutherland, Duke of. — Steamships 60 

Oldham, Mr. — Tidal Observations 50 

Fail-bairn, Mr. W.— Gun-Cotton 50 


Aslcham, Mr 50 

Total 1715 



General Statement of Sums lohich have been paid on Account of Ch'ants 

for Scientific Purposes. 

Tide Discussions 


.. 20 



Tide Discussions 

.. 62 
.. 105 

Biitisli Fossil Iclitliyology .... 


Tide Discussions 

.. 163 



British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experinnents on long-continued 
Heat -- 17 



Refraction Experiments 

.. 15 

Lunar Nutation 

.. 60 


.. 15 



Tide Discussions 

.. 284 







Chemical Constants 

.. 24 


Lunar Nutation 

.. 70 


Observations on Waves. ........ 

.. 100 

Tides at Bristol 



Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature SO 


Vitrification Experiments 

.. 150 


Barometric Observations 

.. 30 



... 11 




Tide Discussions 

... 29 






Meteorological Observations and 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants .-. 41 


Bristol Tides 

... 50 


Growth of Plants 

... 75 

Mud in Rivers 



Education Committee 

... 50 

Heart Experiments 



Land and Sea Level 

Subterranean Temperature ... 

... 267 
... 8 
... 100 


Meteorological Comtnittee ... 

... 31 
... 16 







Fossil Ichthyology 

Meteorological Observations 

... 110 





Mechanism of Waves 

... 144 

Bristol Tides , ,„.., 

... 35 


£ *. d. 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Ivxperiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



















£1595 11 


Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 204 

Atmospheric Air -. 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 





















Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 


REPORT 1863. 

jG s. d. 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

"£1235 10 11 


Dynamometric Instruments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 

£1449 17 8 


Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 
Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 
Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 
Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 

dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 























10 2 


Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds ...1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 10 


Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15^ 










7 3 

3 6 

12 8 

14 C 

18 11 

16 8 

11 9 

17 8 





British Association Catalogue of 
Stars 1844 211 



Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 




















6 3 


Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 






8 6 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 









Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 


REPORT 1863. 

£ s. 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

iE345 18 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Ke w Observatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 C 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 tT 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant Iw 1850) ... 233 17 
Experiments on the Conduction 

ofHeat 5 2 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

"£304 (T 

1853. ^^^"^^^^ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 


1854. ■== 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

~£380 19 

1855. =^= 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Pliysical Aspect of the Moon 1 1 8 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 

Map of the World 15 o 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast ., 4 

£480 16 

£ «. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory: — 

1S54 £ 75 Ol 

1855 £500 OJ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 


13 9 

£734 13 9 


Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

of California 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 


£507 15 4 

Maintaining'the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 






Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusida? 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents , ,,.,, 39 



£684 11 1 




1860. £ t. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kgw Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast IG 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Cheniico-niechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 

£1241 7 


Maintaining the Establishment , 

of Kew Observatory 500 C 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

ofScotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

isno J50 01 7, 

ISGl £22 J '- " " 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 5 1 

Constituents of Manures 25 

JElUl 5 10 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 216 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 


Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Kocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Duvhnm and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-East Coast of 

Scotland 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 







IG 6 

Maintaining Establishment of 

Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings...-. 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograpli 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroids 10 

£1608 3 10 



1 REPORT 1863. 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Eeport that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, William Spottiswoode, Esq., 59 Grosvenor Place, London, 
S.W., for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time be re- 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In aU cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, August 26, at 8 p.m., in the Town HaU, the Rev. 
R. Willis, M.A., F.R.S., resigned the office of President to Sir- W. G. Arm- 
strong, LL.D., F.R.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an Address, for 
which see page li. 

On Thursday Evening, August 27, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Central Exchange News Room. 

On Eriday Evening, August 28, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town HaU, Professor 
Williamson delivered a Discourse on the Chemistry of the Galvanic Battery 
considered in relation to Dynamics. 

On Monday Evening, August 31, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the Cen- 
tral Exchange News Room. 

On Tuesday Evening, September 1, at 8.30 p.m., Mr. Glaisher gave an 
accoimt of the Balloon Ascents made for the British Association. 

On Wednesday, September 2, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was tiien adjourned to Bath*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, September 14, 1864. 




Gentlemen of the British Association, — I esteem it the greatest honour of 
ray life that I am called upon to assume the office of your President. In that 
capacity, and as representing your body, I may be allowed to advert to the 
gratifying reception which the British Association met with on their former 
visit to this region of mining and manufacturing industry, and, as a member 
of the community which you have again honoured with a visit, I undertake to 
convey to you the assurance of a renewed and hearty welcome. A quarter of 
a century has elapsed since the Association assembled in this town, and in no 
former period of equal duration has so great a progress been made in physical 
Icnowledge. In mechanical science, and especially in those branches of it 
which are concerned in the application of steam power to effect interchange 
between distant communities, the progress made since 1838 has no parallel 
in history. The railway system was then in its infancy, and the great 
problem of transatlantic steam na\-igation had only received its complete 
solution in the preceding year. Since that time railways have extended to 
cveiy continent, and steamships have covered the ocean. These reflections 
claim our attention on this occasion, because the locality in which we hold 
our present meeting is the birthplace of railways, and because the coal-mines 
of this district have contributed more largely than any others to supply the 
motive power by which steam communication by land and water has been 
established on so gigantic a scale. 

The histoiy of railways shows what grand results may have their origin in 
small beginnings. When coal was first conveyed in this neighbourhood from 
the pit to the shipping-place on the Tyne, the pack-horse, carrying a burden 
of 3 cwt., was the only mode of transport employed. As soon as roads 
suitable for wheeled carriages were formed, carts were introduced, and this 
first step in mechanical appliance to facilitate transport had the effect of 
increasing the load which the horse was enabled to convey from 3 cwt. to 
1 7 cwt. The next improvement consisted in laying wooden bars or rails for 
the wheels of the carts to run upon, and this was followed by the substitution 
of the four-wheeled wagon for the two-wheeled cart. By this fiu'ther appli- 
cation of mechanical principles the original horseload of 3 cwt. was aug- 
mented to 42 cwt. These were important results, and they were not obtained 
■without the shipwreck of the fortunes of at least one adventurous man whose 
ideas were in advance of the times in which he lived. We read, in a record 
published in the year 1649, that " one Master Beaumont, a gentleman of 
great ingenuity and rare parts, adventured into the mines of Northumberland 
with his .£30,000, and brought with him many rare engines not then known 
in that shire, and wagons with one horse to carry down coal from the pits to 
the river, but within a few years he consumed all his money and rode home 
upon his light horse." The next step in the progress of railways was the 
attachment of slips of iron to the wooden rails. Then came the iron tram- 


Hi REPORT — 1863. 

way, consisting of cast-iron bars of an angular section : in this arrange- 
ment the upright flange of the bar acted as a guide to keep the wheel on the 
track. The next advance was an important one, and consisted in transferring 
the guiding flange from the rail to the wheel : this improvement enabled 
cast-iron edge rails to be used. Finally, in 1820, after the lapse of about 
200 years from the first employment of wooden bars, wi'ought-iron rails, rolled 
in long lengths, and of suitable section, were made in this neighbourhood, 
and eventually superseded all other forms of railway. Thus, the railway 
system, like all large inventions, has risen to its present importance by a 
series of steps ; and so gradual has been its progress, that Europe finds itself 
committed to a gauge fortuitously determined by the distance between the 
wheels of the carts for which Avooden rails were originally laid down. 

Last of all came the locomotive engine, that crowiiing achievement of me- 
chanical science, which enables us to convej^ a load of 200 tons at a cost of fuel 
scarcely exceeding that of the corn and hay which the original pack-horse 
consumed in conveying its load of 3 cwt. an equal distance. 

It was chiefly in this locality that the railway system was thus reared 
from earliest infancy to full maturity, and amongst the many names associated 
with its growth, that of George Stephenson stands preeminent. 

In thus glancing at the history of railways, we may observe how promptly 
the inventive faculty of man supplies the device which the circumstances of 
the moment require. No sooner is a road formed fit for wheeled carriages to 
pass along, than the cart takes the place of the pack-saddle : no sooner is 
the wooden railway provided tlian the wagon is substituted for the cart : and 
no sooner is an iron railway formed, capable of carrying heavy loads, than 
the locomotive engine is found ready to commence its career. As in the 
vegetable kingdom fit conditions of soil and climate quickly cause the appear- 
ance of suitable plants, so in the intellectual world fitness of time and circum- 
stance promptly calls forth appropriate devices. The seeds of invention exist, 
as it were, in the air, ready to germinate whenever suitable conditions arise, 
and no legislative interference is needed to ensure their growth in proper 

The coal-fields of this district, so intimately connected with the railway 
system, both in its origin and maintenance, will doubtless receive much at- 
tention from the Association at their present meeting. 

To persons who contend that all geological phenomena may be attributed 
to causes identical in nature and degree with those now in operation, the 
formation of coal must present peculiar difficulty. The rankness of vegeta- 
tion which must have existed in the carboniferous era, and the uniformity of 
climate which appears to have prevailed almost from the Poles to the Equator, 
woiild seem to implj- a higher temperature of the earth's crust, and an atmo- 
sphere more laden with humidity and carbonic acid than exist in our 
day. But whatever may have been the geological conditions aifecting the 
origin of coal, we may regard the deposits of that mineral as vast magazines 
of power stored up at periods immeasurably distant for our use. 

The principle of conservation of force and the relationship now established 
between heat and motion, enable us to trace back the effects which we now 
derive from coal to equivalent agencies exercised at the periods of its forma- 
tion. The philosophical mind of George Stephenson, unaided by theoretical 
knowledge, rightly saw that coal was the embodiment of power originally 
derived from the sun. That small j)eucil of solar radiation which is arrested 
by our planet, and which constitutes less than the 2000-millionth part of the 
total energy sent forth from the sun, must be regarded as the power which 

ADDRESS. liii 

enabled the plants of the carboniferous period to -svrest the carbon they re- 
quired from the oxygen with which it was combined, and eventually to deposit 
it as the soUd material of coal. In our day, the reunion of that carbon with 
oxygen restores the energy expended in the former process, and thus we 
are enabled to utilize the power originally derived from the luminous centre 
of our planetary system. 

But the agency of the sun in originating coal does not stop at this point. 
In every ^period of geological history the waters of the ocean have been lifted 
by the action of the sun and precipitated in rain iipon the earth. This has 
given rise to all those sedimentary actions by which mineral substances have 
been coUeeted at particular locahties, and there deposited in a stratified form 
with a protecting cover to preserve them for future use. The phase of the 
earth's existence suitable for the extensive formation of coal ajjpears to have 
passed away for ever ; but the quantity of that invaluable mineral which has 
been stored up throughout the globe for our benefit is sufficient (if used 
discreetly) to serve the purposes of the human race for many thousands of 
years. In fact, the entire quantity of coal may be considered as practically 
inexhaiistible. Turning, however, to our own particiilar countiy, and con- 
templating the rate at which we are expending those seams of coal which 
yield the best quality of fuel, and can be worked at the least expense, we 
shall find much cause for anxiety. The greatness of England much de- 
pends upon the superiority of her coal in cheapness and quality over that of 
other nations ; but we have akeady di'awn from our choicest mines a far 
larger quantity of coal than has been raised in all other parts of the world 
put together, and the time is not remote when we shall have to encoimter 
the -disadvantages of increased cost of working and diminished value of 

Estimates have been made at various periods of the time which would bo 
required to produce complete exhaustion of all the accessible coal in the 
British Islands. These estimates are extremely discordant ; but the discre- 
pancies arise, not from any important disagreement as to the available quan- 
tity of coal, but from the enormous difference in the rate of consumption at 
the various dates when the estimates were made, and also from the dift'erent 
views which have been entertained as to the probable increase of consumption 
in future years. The quantity of coal yearly worked from British mines 
has been almost trebled during the last twenty years, and has probably in- 
creased tenfold since the commencement of the present century ; but as this 
increase has taken place pending the introduction of steam navigation and 
railway transit, and luider exceptional conditions of manufacturing develop- 
ment, it would be too much to assume that it will continue to advance with 
equal rapidity. The statistics collected by Mr. Hunt, of the Mining Record 
Office, show that at the end of 18G1 the quantity of coal raised in the 
United Kingdom had reached the enormous total of 8G millions of tons, and 
that the average annual increase of the eight preceding years amoimted to 
2^ millions of tons. Let us inquire, then, what will be the duration of our 
coal-fields if this more moderate rate of increase be maintained. 

By combining the known thickness of the various workable seams of coal, 
and computing the area of the surface under which they lie, it is easy to 
arrive at an estimate of the total quantity comprised in our coal-bearing 
strata. Assuming 4000 feet as the greatest depth at which it will ever be 
possible to carry on mining operations, and rejecting all seams of less than 
2 feet in thickness, the entire quantity of available coal existing in these 
Islands has beea calculated to amount to about 80,000 millions of tons. 

liV REPORT — 1863. 

which, at the j^resent rate of consumption, would be exhausted in 930 years, 
but, with a continued yearly increase of 2| millions of tons, would only 
last 212 years. It is clear that long before complete exhaustion takes place, 
England will have ceased to be a coal-producing country on an extensive 
scale. Other nations, and especially the United States of America, which 
possess coal-fields 37 times more extensive than om-s, will then be work- 
ing more accessible beds at a smaller cost, and will be able to displace the 
English coal from every market. The question is, not how long our coal 
will endure before absolute exhaustion is effected, but how long will those 
particular coal-seams last which yield coal of a quality and at a price to 
enable this country to maintain her present supremacy in manufacturing 
industry. So far as this particular district is concerned, it is generally 
admitted that 200 years will be sufficient to exhaust the principal seams 
eve7i at the present rate of working. If the production should continue 
to increase as it is now doing, the dui'ation of those seams will not reach half 
that period. How the case may stand in other coal-mining disti'icts I 
have not the means of ascertaining ; but as the best and most accessible 
coal will always be worked in preference to any other, I fear the same rapid 
exhaustion of our most valuable seams is everywhere taking place. Were 
we reaping the full advantage of all the coal we bui-nt, no objection could 
be made to the largeness of the quantity, but we are using it wastefuUy and 
extravagantly in all its applications. It is probable that fuUy one-fourth 
of the entire quantity of coal raised from our mines is used in the pro- 
duction of heat for motive power ; but, much as we are in the habit of 
admiring the powers of the steam-engine, our present knowledge of the 
mechanical energy of heat shows that we rcahze in that engine only a small 
part of the thermic effect of the fuel. That a poimd of coal should, in our 
best engines, produce an effect equal to raising a Aveight of a mUliou pounds 
a foot high, is a result which bears the character of the marvellous, and 
seems to defy aU further improvement. Yet the investigations of recent 
years have demonstrated the fact that the mechanical energy resident in a 
pound of coal, and liberated by its combustion, is capable of raising to the 
same height 10 times that weight. But although the power of our most 
economical steam-engines has reached, or perhaps somewhat exceeded, the 
limit of a million pounds raised a foot high per lb. of coal, yet, if we take tlio 
average effect obtained from steam-engines of the various constructions now 
in use, we shall not be justified in assuming it at more than one-third of 
that amount. It follows therefore that the average quantity of coal which 
we expend in realizing a given effect by means of the steam-engine is about 
30 times greater than would be requisite with an absolutely perfect heat- 

The causes which render the application of heat so uneconomic in the 
steam-engine have been brought to light by the discovery of the dynamical 
theory of heat ; and it now remains for mechanicians, guided by the light 
they have thus received, to devise improved practical methods of converting- 
the heat of combustion into available power. 

Engines in which the motive power is excited by the communication of 
heat to fluids already existing in the aeriform condition, as in those of 
Stirling, Ericson, and Siemens, promise to afford results greatly superior to 
those obtained from the steam-engine. They are aU based upon the principle 
of employing fuel to generate sensible heat, to the exclusion of latent heat, 
which is only another name for heat which has taken the form of improfitable 
motion amongst the particles of the fluid to which it is applied. They also. 


embrace what is called the regenerative principle — a term which has, with 
reason, been objected to, as implying a restoration of expended heat. The 
so called " regenerator " is a contrivance for arresting unutilized heat rejected 
by the engine, and causing it to operate in aid and consequent reduction of 

It is a common observation that before coal is exhausted some other motive 
agent will be discovered to take its place, and electricity is generally cited as 
the coming power. Electricity, like heat, may be converted into motion, and 
both theory and practice have demonstrated that its mechanical application 
does not involve so much waste of power as takes place in a steam-engine ; but 
whether we use heat or electricity as a motive power, we must equally depend 
upon chemical affinity as the source of supply. The act of uniting to form a 
chemical product liberates an energy which assumes the form of heat or 
electricity, from either of which states it is convertible into mechanical effect. 
In contemplating, therefore, the application of electricity as a motive power, 
we must bear in mind that we shall stiU reqiiire to effect chemical combina- 
tions, and in so doing to consume materials. But where are we to find mate- 
rials so economical for this piu'pose as the coal we derive from the earth and 
the oxygen we obtain from the air ? The latter costs absolutely nothing ; 
and every pound of coal, which in the act of combustion enters into chemical 
combination, renders more than two and a half pounds of oxygen available 
for power. We cannot look to water as a practicable source of oxygen, for 
there it exists in the combined state, requiring expenditure of chemical 
energy for its separation from hydrogen. It is in the atmosphere alone that 
it can be found in that free state in which we reqiiire it, and there does not 
appear to me to be the remotest chance, in an economic point of view, of being 
able to dispense with the oxygen of the air as a source either of thermo- 
dynamic or electrodynamic effect. But to use this oxygen we must consume 
some oxidizable substance, and coal is the cheapest we can procure. 

There is another source of motive power to which I am induced to refer, 
as exhibiting a further instance in which solar influence affords the means 
of obtaining mechanical effects from inanimate agents, I aUude to the 
power of water deseendiag from heights to which it has been lifted by 
the evaporative action of the sun. To illustrate Jhe great advantage of 
collecting water for power in elevated situations I may refer to the water- 
works of Greenock, where the collecting-reservoirs are situated at an 
elevation of 512 feet above the river Clyde. The daily yield of these 
reservoirs is said to be nearly 100,000 tons of water, which is derived from 
the rainfall on an area of 5000 acres. The power obtainable from this quantity 
and head of water is equal to that of a steam-engine of about 2000 horse- 
power, and the whole effect might be realized on the margin of the river by 
bringing down the water in a pipe of sufficient capacity, and causing it to 
act as a column on suitable machinery at the foot of the descent. But the 
hydraulic capabilities of the Greenock reservoii'S sink into insignificance when 
compared with those of other localities where the naturally collected waters 
of large areas of surface descend from great elevations in rapid rivers or ver- 
tical falls. Alpine regions abound in falls which, with the aid of artificial 
works to impound the surplus water and equalize the supply, would yield 
thousands of horse-power ; and there is at least one great river in the world 
which in a single plunge developes sufficient power to carry on all the ma- 
nufacturing operations of mankind if concentrated in its neighbourhood. 
Industrial populations have scarcely yet extended to those regions which 
afford this profusion of motive power, but we may anticipate the time 

Ivi REPORT— 1863. 

when these natural falls will be brought into useful operation. In that day 
the heat of the sun, by raising the water to heights from which to flow in 
these great rapids and cascades, will become tlie means of economizing the 
precious stores of motive power, which the solar energy differently directed 
has accumulated at a remote period of geological history, and which when 
once expended may probably never be replaced. 

I have hitherto spoken of coal onty as a source of mechanical power, but 
it is also extensively used for the kindred purpose of relaxing those cohesive 
forces which resist our efforts to give new forms and conditions to solid sub- 
stances. In these applications, which are geiierally of a metallurgical nature, 
the same wasteful expenditure of fuel is everywhere observable. In an ordi- 
narj' furnace employed to fuse or soften any solid substance, it is the excess 
of the heat of combustion over that of the body heated which alone is ren- 
dered available for the purpose intended. The rest of the heat, which in 
many instances constitutes by far the greater proportioia of the whole, is 
allowed to escape uselessly into the chimney. The combustion also in common 
furnaces is so imperfect, that clouds of powdered carbon, in the form of smoke, 
envelope our manufacturing towns, and gases, which ought to be comijletcly 
oxygenized in the fii'e, pass into the air with two-thirds of their heating 
power undeveloped. 

Some remedy for this state of things, we may hope, is at hand, in the gas 
regenerative furnaces recently introduced by Mr. Siemens. In these fur- 
naces the rejected heat is arrested by a so-called " regenerator," as in Stirling's 
air-engine, and is communicated to the new fuel before it enters the furnace. 
The fuel, however, is not solid coal, biit gas previously evolved from coal. A 
stream of this gas raised to a high temperature by the rejected heat of com- 
bustion is admitted into the furnace, and there meets a stream of atmospheric 
air also raised to a high temperature by the same agency. In the combina- 
tion which then ensues, the heat evolved by the combustion is superadded 
to the heat previously acquired by the gases. Thus, in addition to the ad- 
vantage of economy, a greater intensity of heat is attained than by the com- 
bustion of unheated fuel. In fact, as the heat evolved in the furnace, or so 
much of it as is not communicatect to the bodies exposed to its action, con- 
tinually returns to augment the eftcct of the new fuel, there appears to be no 
limit to the temperature attainable, excejit the powers of resistance in the 
materials of which the furnace is composed. 

With regard to smoke, which is at once a waste and a nuisance, having 
myself taken part with Dr, Eichardson and Mr. Longridge in a series of ex- 
periments made in this neighbourhood in the years 1857-58 for the purpose 
of testing the practioabUity of preventing smoke in the combustion of bitu- 
minous coal in steam-engine boilers, I can state with perfect confidence that, 
so far as the raising of steam is concerned, the production of smoke is unne- 
cessary and inexcusable. The experiments to wliich I refer proved beyond 
a doubt, that by an easy method of firing, combined with a due admission of 
air and a proper aiTangement of firegrate, not involving any complexity, the 
emission of smoke might be perfectly avoided, and that the prevention of 
the smoke increased the economic value of the fuel and the evaporative power 
of the boiler. As a rule, there is moj-e smoke evolved from the fires of steam- 
engines than from any others, and it is in these fii-es that it may be most 
easily prevented. Eut in the furnaces used for most manufacturing opera- 
tions the prevention of smoke is much more difficult, and will probably not 
be effected until a radical change is made in the system of applying fuel for 
such operations. 


Not less wasteful and extravagant is our mode of employing coal for 
domestic purposes. It is computed that the consumption of coal in dwelling- 
houses amounts in this coimtry to a ton per head per annum of the entire 
population ; so that upwards of twenty-nine millions of tons are annually 
expended in Groat Britain alone for domestic use. If any one will consider 
that one pound of coal applied to a well-constructed steam-engine boiler eva- 
porates 10 lbs. or one gallon of water, and if he will compare this eifect with 
the insignificant quantity of water which can be boUed off in steam by a 
pound of coal consumed in an ordinary kitchen fire, he wiU be able to appre- 
ciate the enormous waste which takes place by the common method of burn- 
ing coal for culinary purposes. The simplest arrangements to confine the 
heat and concentrate it upon the operation to be performed would sufiice to 
obviate this reprehensible waste. So also in warming houses we consume in 
our open fires about five times as much coal as will produce the same heating 
effect when burnt in a close and j^roperly consti-ucted stove. "Without sacri- 
ficing the luxury of a visible fire, it would be easy, by attending to the prin- 
ciples of radiation and convection, to render available the greater part of the 
heat which is now so improvidently discharged into the chimney. These are 
homely considerations — too much so, perhaps, for an assembly like this ; but I 
trust that an abuse involving a useless expenditure exceeding in amount our 
income-tax, and capable of being rectified by attention to scientific principles, 
may not be deemed unworthy of the notice of some of those whom I have 
the honour of addressing. 

The introduction of the Davy lamp was a great event in the history of 
coal-mining, not as eff"ectiug any great diminution of those disastroiis acci- 
dents which stiU devastate every coUiery chstrict, but as a means of enabling 
mines to be worked which, from their greater explosive tendencies, would 
otherwise have been deemed inaccessible. Thus, while the Davy lamp has 
be«n of great benefit both to the public and the proprietors of coal, it has been 
the means of leading the miners into more peiilous workings, and the fre- 
quency of accident by explosion has in consequence not been diminished to 
the extent which was originally expected. The Davy lamp is a beautiful 
application of a scientific principle to effect a practical purpose, and with 
fair treatment its efficiency is indisputable ; but where Davy lamps are en- 
trusted to hundreds of men, and amongst them to many careless and reck- 
less persons, it is impossible to guard entirely against gross negligence 
and its disastrous consequences. In coal-mines where the most perfect 
system of ventilation prevails, and where proper regulations are, as far as 
practicable, enforced in regard to the use &f Davy lamps, deplorable accidents 
do occasionally occur, and it is impossible at present to point out what addi- 
tional precautions would secure immunity from siich calamities. The only 
gleam of amelioration is in the fact that the loss of life in relation to the quan- 
tity of coal worked is on the decrease, from which we may infer that it is also 
on the decrease taken as a percentage on the number of miners employed. 

The increase of the earth's temperature as we descend below the siu-face 
is a subject which has been discussed at previous Meetings of the British 
Association. It possesses great scientific interest as affecting the computed 
thickness of the crust which covers the molten mass assiuned to constitute 
the interior portions of the earth, and it is also of great practical importance 
as determining the depth at which it would be possible to pursue the work- 
ing of coal and other minerals. The deepest coal-mine in this district is the 
Monkwearmouth Colliery, which reaches a depth of 1800 feet below the 
surface of the ground, and nearly as much below the level of the sea. The 

ivin REPORT — 1863. 

observed temperature of the strata at this depth agrees pretty closely with 
what has been ascertained in other localities, and shows that the increase 
takes place at the rate of 1° Fahr. to about 60 feet of depth. Assuming the 
temperature of subterranean fusion to be 3000°, and that the increase of heat 
at greater depths continvies uniform (which, however, is by no means certain), 
the thickness of the film which separates us from the fiery ocean beneath 
wiU be about thirty-four miles — a thickness which may be fairly repre- 
sented by the skin of a peach taken in relation to the body of the fruit which 
it covers. The depth of 4000 feet, which has been assumed as the limit at 
which coal could be worked, would probably be attended by an increase 
of heat exceeding the powers of hixraan endurance. In the Monkwearmouth 
colliery, which is less than half that depth, the temperature of the air in the 
workings is about 84° Fahr., which is considered to be nearly as high as is 
consistent with the great bodily exertion necessary in the operation of mining. 
The computations therefore of the duration of coal would probably require a 
considerable reduction in consequence of too great a depth being assumed as 

At the last Meeting of the British Association in this town, the import- 
ance of establishing an office for mining records was brought under the notice 
of the Council by Mr. Sopwith, and measures were taken which resulted in 
the formation of the present Mining Eecords Office. The British Association 
may congratulate itself upon having thus been instrumental in establishing an 
office in which plans of abandoned mines are preserved for the information of 
those who, at a future period, may be disposed to incur the expense of bringing 
those mines again into operation. But more than this is required. Many of 
the inferior seams of coal can be profitably worked only in conjunction with 
those of superior quality, and they will be entirely lost if neglected until the 
choicer beds be exhausted. Although coal is private property, its duration 
is a national question, and Government interference would be justified to 
enforce such modes of working as the national interests demand. - But to 
enable Government to exercise any supervision and control, a complete 
mining survey of all our coal-fields should be made, and full plans, sections, 
and reports lodged at the Mining Records Office for the information of the 
legislature and of the public in general. 

• Before cUsmissing the subject of coal, it may be proper to notice the recent 
discovery by Berthelot of a new form of carburctted hydi'ogen possessing 
twice the illimiinating power of ordinary coal-gas. Berthelot succeeded in 
procuring this gas by passing hydrogen between the carbon electrodes of a 
powerfiil battery. Dr. OdHng has since shown that the same gas may be 
prodiiced by mixing carbonic oxide with an equal volume of light carbu- 
rctted hydrogen and exposing the mixture in a porcelain tube to an intense 
heat. Still more recently, Mr. Siemens has detected the same gas in the 
highly heated regenerators of his furnaces, and there is now every reason to 
believe that the new gas will become practically available for iUiuninating- 
purposes. Thus it is that discoveries which in the first instance interest 
the philosopher only almost invariably initiate a rapid series of steps leading 
to results of great practical importance to mankind. 

In the course of the preceding observations I have had occasion to speak of 
the Sim as the great source of motive power on our earth, and I must not omit 
to refer to recent discoveries connected with that most glorious body. Of all 
the results which science has produced within the last few years, none has 
been more unexpected than that by which we are enabled to test the materials 
6i which the sim is made, and prove their identity, in part at least, with those 


of our platiet. The spectrum experiments of Bunsen and Kirchhoffhave not 
only shown all this, but they have also corroborated previous conjectures as 
to the luminous envelope of the sun. I have still to advert to Mr. Nasmyth's 
remarkable discovery, that the bright surface of the sun is composed of an 
aggregation of apparently solid forms, shaped like vrillow-leaves or some well- 
known forms of Diatomacese, and interlacing one another in every direction. 
The forms are so regular in size and shape, as to have led to a suggestion 
from one of our profoundest philosophers of their being organisms, possibly 
even partaking of the nature of Ufe, but at all events closely connected 
with the heating and vivifying influences of the sun. These mysterious 
objects, which, since Mr. Nasmyth discovered them, have been seen by other 
observers as weU, are computed to be each not less than 1000 miles in length 
and about 100 miles in breadth. The enormous chasms in the sun's photo- 
sphere, to which we apply the diminutive term "spots," exhibit the extremities 
of these leaf -like bodies pointing inwards, and fringing the sides of the cavern 
far down into the abyss. Sometimes they form a sort of rope or bridge 
across the chasm, and appear to adhere to one another by lateral attraction. 
I can imagine nothing more deserving of the scrutiny of observers than these 
extraordinary forms. The sympathy also which appears to exist between 
forces operating in the sun and magnetic forces belonging to the earth merits 
a continuance of that close attention which it has already received from the 
British Association, and of labours such as General Sabine has with so much 
ability and effect devoted to the elucidation of the subject. I may here notice 
that most remarkable phenomenon which was seen by independent observers 
at two different places on the 1st of September 1859. A sudden outburst of 
light, far exceeding the brightness of the sun's surface, was seen to take place, 
and sweep like a drifting cloud over a portion of the solar face. This was 
attended with magnetic disturbances of unusual intensity and with exhibitions 
of aurora of extraordinary brilliancy. The identical instant at which the 
effusion of light was observed was recorded by an abrupt and strongly 
marked deflection in the self-registering instruments at Kew. The pheno- 
menon as seen was probably only part of what actually took place, for the 
magnetic storm in the midst of which it occurred commenced before and 
continued after the event. If conjecture be allowable in such a case, we may 
suppose that this remarkable event had some connexion with the means by 
which the sun's heat is renovated. It is a reasonable supposition that the 
sun was at that time in the act of receiving a more than usual accession 
of new energy ; and the theory which assigns the maintenance of its 
power to cosmical matter plunging into it with that prodigious Velocity 
which gravitation would impress upon it as it approached to actual contact 
with the solar orb, would afford an explanation of this sudden exhibition of 
intensified light in harmony with the knowledge we have now attained that 
arrested motion is represented by equivalent heat. Telescopic observations 
wdll probably add new facts to guide our judgment on this subject, and,^taken 
in connexion with observations on terrestrial magnetism, may enlarge and 
correct our views respecting the nature of heat, light, and electricity. Much 
as we have yet to learn respecting these agencies, we know sufficient to infer 
that they cannot be transmitted from the sun to the earth except by com- 
munication from particle to particle of intervening matter. Not that I speak 
of particles in the sense of the atomist. Whatever om* views may be of the 
nature of particles, we must conceive them as centres invested with surround- 
ing forces. We have no evidence, either from our senses or otherwise, of those 
centres being occupied by sojid cores of indivisible incompressible mattei: 

Ix -REPORT 1863. 

essentially distinct from force. Dr. Young has shown that even in so dense 
a body as water, these nuclei, if they exist at all, must be so small in relation 
to the intervening spaces, that a hundi-ed men distributed at equal distances 
over the vrhole surface of England would represent their relative magnitude 
and distance. What then must be these relative dimensions in highly rarefied 
matter ? But why encumber our conceptions of material forces by this unneces- 
sary imagining of a central molecule ? If we retain the forces and reject the 
molecule, we shall still have every property we can recognize in matter by 
the use of our senses or by the aid of our reason. Viewed in this light, matter 
is not merely a thing subject to force, but is itself composed and constituted 
of force. 

The dynamical theory of heat is probably the most important discovery of the 
jjresent century. We now know that each Fahrenheit degree of temperature 
in a pound of water is equivalent to a weight of 772 lbs. lifted 1 foot high, 
and that these amounts of heat and power are reciprocally convertible into 
one another. This theory of heat, with its numerical computation, is chiclly 
due to the labours of Mayer and Joule, though many other names, including 
those of Thomson and Kankine, are deservedly associated with its develop- 
ment. I speak of this discovery as one of the present age because it has 
been established in our time; but if we search back for earlier concep- 
tions of the identity of heat and motion, we shall find (as we always do in 
such cases) that similar ideas have been held before, though in a clouded and 
undemonstrated form. In the writiags of Lord Bacon we find it stated 
that heat is to be regarded as motion and nothing else. In dilating upon 
this subject, that extraordinary man shows that he had grasped the true 
theory of heat to the utmost extent that was compatible -with the state of 
knowledge existing in his time. Even Ai-istotle seems to have entertained 
the idea that motion was to be considered as the foundation not only of heat, 
but of all manifestations of matter ; and, for aught we know, still earlier 
thinkers may have held similar views. 

The science of gunnery, to which I shall make but slight allusion on this 
occasion, is intimately connected with the dynamical theory of heat. When 
gunpowder is exploded in a cannon, the immediate effect of the affinities by 
which the materials of the powder are caused to enter into new combinations, 
is to liberate a force which first appears as heat, and then takes the form of 
mechanical power communicated in part to the shot and in part to the pro- 
ducts of explosion which are also propelled from the gun. The mechanical 
force of the shot is reconverted into heat when the motion is arrested by 
striking an object, and this heat is divided between the shot and the object 
struck, in the proportion of the work done or damage inflicted upon each. 
These considerations recently led me, in conjunction with my friend Captain 
Noble, to determuie experimentally, by the heat elicited in the shot, the loss 
of effect due to its ciiishing when fired against iron plates. Joule's law, and 
the known velocity of the shot, enabled us to compute the number of dyna- 
mical units of heat representing the whole mechanical power in the projectile, 
and by ascertaining the number of vmits developed in it by impact, we arrived 
at the power which took effect upon the shot instead of the plate. These ex- 
periments showed an enormous absorption of power to be caused by the 
yielding nature of the materials of which projectiles are usually formed ; but 
further experiments are required to complete the inquiry. 

Whilst speaking of the subject of gunnery, I must pay a passing tribute of 
praise to that beautiful instrument invented and perfected by Major Navez of 
the Belgian Artillery, for determining, by means of electro-magnetism, the 



velocity of projectiles. This instrument has been of great value in recent 
investigations, and there are questions affecting projectiles which we can 
only hope to solve by its assistance. Experiments are still required to clear 
up several apparently anomalous effects in gunnery, and to determine the con- 
ditions most conducive to efficiency both as regards attack and defence. It is 
gratifying to see our Government acting in accordance with the enlightened 
principles of the age by carrying on scientific experiments to arrive at know- 
ledge, which, in the arts of war as well as in those of peace, is proverbially 
recognized as the true source of human power. 

Professor TyndaU's recent discoveries respecting the absoqition and radi- 
ation of heat by vapoui-s and permanent gases constitute important additions 
to our knowledge. The extreme delicacy of his experiments and the remark- 
able distinctness of their results render them beautiful examples of physical 
research. They are of great value as affording further illustrations of the 
vibratory actions in matter which constitute heat ; but it is in connexion with 
the science of meteorology that they chiefly command our attention. From 
these experiments we learn that the minute quantity of water suspended as 
invisible vapour in the atmosphere acts as a warm clothing to the earth. The 
efficacy of this vapour in arresting heat is, in comparison with that of air, 
perfectly astounding. Although the atmosphere contains on an average 
but one particle of aqueous vapour to 200 of air, yet that single par- 
ticle absorbs 80 times as much heat as the collective 200 particles of air. 
Eemove, says Professor Tyndall, for a single summer night, the aqueous 
vapour from the air which overspreads this countiy, and you would assuredly 
destroy every plant incapable of bearing extreme cold. The warmth of our 
fields and gardens would pour itself unrequited into space, and the sun would 
rise upon an island held fast in the grip of frost. Many meteorological phe- 
nomena receive a feasible explanation from these investigations, which are 
probably destined to throw further light upon the functions of our atmosphere. 

Pew sciences have more practical value than meteorology, and there are 
few of which we as yet know so little. Nothing would contribute more to 
the saving of life and property, and to augmenting the general wealth of the 
world, than the ability to foresee with certainty impending changes of the 
weather. At present our means of doing so are exceedingly imperfect, but, 
such as they are, they have been employed with considerable effect by 
Admiral FitzEoy in warning mariners of the probable approach of storms. 
"We may hope that so good an object wiU be effected with more unvarying 
success when we attain a better knowledge of the causes by which wind and 
rain, heat and cold are determined. The balloon explorations conducted 
with so much intrepidity by Mr. Glaisher, under the auspices of the British 
Association, may perhaps in some degree assist in enlightening us upon 
these important subjects. We have learnt from Mr. Glaisher s observations 
that the decrease of temperature with elevation does not follow the law pre- 
viously assumed of 1° in 300 feet, and that in fact it follows no definite law 
at aU. Mr, Glaisher appears also to have ascertained the interesting fact 
that rain is only precipitated when cloud exists in a double layer. Rain- 
drops, he has found, diminish in size with elevation, merging into wet mist 
and ultimately into dry fog. Mr. Glaisher met with snow for a mile in 
thickness below rain, which is at variance with our preconceived^ ideas. He 
has also rendered good service by testing the efficiency of various instriiments 
at heights which cannot be visited without personal danger. 

The facility now given to the transmission of intelligence and the inter- 
change of thought is one of the most remarkable features of the present 

Ixii REPORT — 1863. 

age. Cheap and rapid postage to all parts of the world — paper and printing 
reduced to the lowest possible cost — electric telegraphs between nation and 
nation, town and town, and now even (thanks to the beautiful inventions of 
Professor Wheatstone) between house and house — aU contribute to aid that 
commerce of ideas by which wealth and knowledge are augmented. But 
while so much facility is given to mental communication by new measures 
and new inventions, the fundamental art of expressing thought by written 
symbols remains as imperfect now as it has been for centuries past. It seems 
strange that while we actually possess a system of shorthand by which words 
can be recorded as rapidly as they can be spoken, we should persist in writing 
a slow and laborious longhand. It is intelligible that grown-up persons who 
have acquired the present conventional art of writing should be reluctant to 
incur the labour of mastering a better system ; but there can be no reason why 
the rising generation should not be instructed in a method of writing more in 
accordance with the activity of mind which now prevails. Even without 
going so far as to adopt for ordinary use a complete system of stenography, 
which it is not easy to acquire, we might greatly abridge the time and laboui' 
of writing by the recognition of a few simple signs to express the syllables 
which are of most frequent occurrence in our language. Our words are in a 
great measure made up of such syllables as com, con, tion, iwj, able, ain, ent, 
'est, mice, &c. These we are now obliged to write out over and over again, as 
if time and laboiu" expended in what may be termed visual speech were of no 
importance. Neither has our written character the advantage of distinctness 
to recommend it : it is only necessary to write such a word as " minimum " 
or " ammunition " to become aware of the want of sufficient difference be- 
tween the letters we employ. I refrain firom enlarging on this subject, 
because I conceive that it belongs to social more than to physical science, 
although the boundary which separates the two is sufficiently indistinct to 
permit of my aUuding to it in the hope of procuring for it the attention 
which its importance deserves. 

Another subject of a social character which demands our consideration is 
the much-debated question of weights and measures. Whatever difference of 
opinion there may be as to the comparative merits of decimal and duodecimal 
division, there can, at aU events, be none as to the importance of assimilating 
the systems of measurement in different countries. Science suffers by the 
want of uniformity, because valuable observations made in one country are in 
a great measuj'e lost to another from the labour required to convert a series 
of quantities into new denomiuations. International commerce is also im- 
peded by the same cause, which is productive of constant inconvenience and 
frequent mistake. It is much to be regretted that two standards of measure 
so nearly alike as the English yard and the French metre should not be made 
absolutely identical. The metric system has already been adopted by other 
nations besides France, and is the only one which has any chance of becoming 
universal. We in England, therefore, have no alternative but to conform 
with France, if we desire general uniformity. The change might easily be 
introduced in scientific literature, and in that case it wo^^ld probably 
extend itself by degrees amongst the commercial classes without much 
legislative pressure. Besides the advantage which would thus be gained 
in regai'd to uniformity, I am convinced that the adoption of the decimal 
division of the French scale would be attended with great convenience, 
both in science and commerce. I can speak fi-om personal experience of 
the superiority of decimal measurement in all cases where accuracy is re- 
quired in mechanical construction. In the Elswick Works, as well as in 



some other large establishments of the same description, the inch is adopted 
as the unit, and all fractional parts are expressed in decimals. No difficulty 
has been experienced in habituating the workmen to the use of this method, 
and it has greatly contributed to precision of workmanship. The iuch, how- 
ever, is too small a unit, and it would be advantageous to substitute the metre 
if general concurrence could be obtained. As to oui- thermometric scale, it 
was originally founded in error; it is also most inconvenient in division, 
and ought at once to be abandoned in favour of the Centigrade scale. The 
recognition of the metric system and of the Centigrade scale by the numerous 
men of science composing the British Association, would be a most important 
step towards effecting that universal adoption of the French standards in this 
country which sooner or later wiU inevitably take place ; and the Association 
in its collective capacity might take the lead in this good work, by excluding 
in futoi-e all other standards from their published proceedings. 

The recent discovery of the source of the Nile by Captains Speke and 
Grant has solved a problem in geography which has been a subject of specu- 
lation from the earliest ages. It is an honour to England that this interest- 
ing discovery has been made by two of her sons, and the British Association, 
which is accustomed to value every addition to knowledge for its own sake, 
whether or not it be attended with any immediate utility, will at once appre- 
ciate the importance of the discovery and the corn-age and devotion by which 
it has been accomplished. The Royal Geographical Society, under the able 
presidency of Sir Roderick Murchison, was chiefly instrumental in prociiring 
the organization of the expedition which has resulted in this great achieve- 
ment, and the success of the Society's labours in connexion with this and 
other cases of African exploration shows how much good may be effected by 
associations for the promotion of scientific objects. 

The science of organic life has of late years been making great and rapid 
strides, and it is gratifying to observe that researches both in zoology and 
botany are characterized in the present day by great accuracy and elaboration. 
Investigations patiently conducted upon true inductive principles cannot fail 
eventually to elicit the hidden laws which govern the animated world. _ Neither 
is there any lack of bold speculation contemporaneously with this painstaking 
spirit of inquiiy. The remarkable work of Mr. Darwin promulgating the 
doctrine of natural selection has produced a profound sensation. The novelty 
of this ingenious theory, the eminence of its author, and his masterly treat- 
ment of the subject have perhaps combined to excite more enthusiasm in its 
favour than is consistent with that dispassionate spirit which it is so necessary 
to preserve in the pui-suit of truth. Mr. Darwin's views have not passed 
unchallenged, and the arguments both for and against have been urged with 
great vigour by the supporters and opponents of the theory. Where good 
reasons can be shown on both sides of a question, the truth is generally to be 
found between the two extremes. In the present instance we may without 
difficulty suppose it to have been part of the great scheme of creation that 
natiu-al selection should be permitted to determine variations amounting even 
ta specific differences where those differences were matters of degi-ee ; but 
when natm-al selection is adduced as a cause adequate to explain the produc- 
tion of a new organ not provided for in original creation, the hypothesis must 
appear, to common apprehensions, to be pushed beyond the limits of reasonable 
conjecture. The Darwinian theory, when fully enunciated, founds the pedi- 
gree of living nature upon the most elementary form of vitalized matter. One 
step further would carry us back, vdthout greater violence to probability, to in- 
organic rudiments, and then we should be called upon to recogniae in ourselves. 

Ixiv REPORT — 1863. 

and in the exquisite elaborations of the animal and vegetable kingdoms, the 
ultimate results of mere material forces left free to follow their own unguided 
tendencies. Siu-ely our minds would in that case be more oppressed with a 
sense of the miraculous than they now are in attributing the wondi'ous things 
around us to the creative hand of a Great presiding IntelHgence. 

The evidences bearing upon the antiquity of man have been recently pro- 
duced in a collected and most logicaU^^-treated form by Sir Charles Lyell. It 
seems no longer possible to doubt that the human race has existed on the 
earth in a barbarian state for a period far exceeding the limit of historical 
record ; but notwithstanding this great antiquity, the proofs still remain un- 
altered that man is the latest as well as the noblest work of God. 

I will not run the risk of wearying this assembly by extending my remarks 
to other branches of science. In conclusion I will express a hope that when 
the time again comes round to receive the British Association in this town, its 
members wiU find the intei-val to have been as fruitful as the corresponding 
period on which we now look back. The tendency of progress is to quicken 
progress, because every acquisition in science is so much vantage ground for 
fresh attainment. We may expect, therefore, to increase our speed as we 
struggle forward ; but however high wo climb in the pursuit of knowledge we 
shall still see heights above us, and the more we extend our view, the more 
conscious we shall be of the immensity which Hes beyond. 




Report on the Application of Gun-cotton to Warlike purposes. By a 
Committee, consisting of J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S., Prof. W. 
A. MiLLEE,M.D., F.R.S., G«(^Prof.E. Fkankland, Ph.D.,F.R.S., 
from Section B. ; and W. Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S., Joseph 
Whitworth, F.R.S., James Nasmytii, C.E., F.R.A.S., J. Scott 
Russell, C.E., F.R.S., John Anderson, C.E., and Sir W. G. 
Armstrong, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., from Section G. 

Since the invention of gun-cotton by Professor Schdiibein of Basle, the 
thoughts of many have been du'ectcd to its application to warlike piirposes. 
Many trials and experiments have been made, especially by the French 
Government ; but such serious difficulties and objections presented themselves, 
that the idea seemed to be abandoned in every country but one. That 
country was Austria. Prom time to time accounts reached England of its 
partial adoption in the Austrian service — though no explanation was afforded 
of the mode in which the difficulties had been overcome, or the extent to 
which these attempts had been successful. 

This was the state of the case when the present Committee was appointed. 

During the year your Committee have been put in possession of the fullest 
information on the subject, mainly from two sources, F. A. Abel, Esq., F.E.S., 
the Chemist to the War Department, and Baron William von Lenk, Major- 
General of the Austrian Ai-tillery, who is the inventor of the system by which 
gun-cotton is made practically available for warlike pui'poses. 

Mr. Abel, by permission of the Secretary of State for War, has communi- 
cated the information g'ven by the Austrian Government to the Government 
of this country, and the results which he has himself arrived at during the 
course of an elaborate series of experiments. 

General von Lenk, on the invitation of your Committee, and by permission 
of the Emperor of Austria, paid a visit to this country, with the object of 
answering any inquiries the Committee might make, and explaining his sys- 
tem thoroughly ; and for this purpose he brought over drawings and samples 
from the Imperial factory. 

1863. & 

3 • REPORT 1863. 

In addition to these principal sources of information, your Committee would 
mention the services rendered by two of their own number. Prof. Frank- 
land was able to corroborate by his own experiments most of the statements 
made in the earlier communications of Mr. Abel. Mr. Whitworth has made 
experiments on the application of gim-cotton in mines, and has sent over to 
Austria rifles and ammunition, to be experimented with by Baron von Lenk, 
with a view of obtaining results, which he has promised to communicate to 
the Committee. 

The following documents form part of this Report, and contain the infor- 
mation received. 

I. Report by Mr. Abel, received February 1863, on the system of manu- 
facture of gun-cotton, as carried on in the Imperial Austrian Estabhshment. 

II. Report by Mr. Abel, dated Febmary 20th, 1863, o-i the composition, 
and some properties, of specimens of gun-cotton prepared at the Austrian 
Government "Works. 

III. Memorandum by Mr. Abel, with reference to experiments in progress 
bearing upon the manufacture of gim-cotton. Received August 27th, 1863. 

IV. General von Leuk's replies to the questions put to him at the Meetings 
of June 22 and July 14. 

V. Extracts from a report on Baron Lenk's gim-cotton by Profs. Redten- 
bacher, Schrotter, and Schneider. Dated June 1863. 

On the data afforded by these documents, and other information com- 
municated personally by Baron Lenk, your Committee have foimded their 
present Report. It must therefore be regarded in the light of a preliminary 
inquiry. Should the Committee be reappointed, they will be happy to im- 
dertake some experiments with the view of clearing up those points which 
are stUI more or less obscure. 

These communications are broken into paragraphs, which are numbered 
for convenience of reference ; those of Mr. Abel are indicated by the letter 
A, those of Baron Lenk are distinguished by the letter L, whUst tiie extracts 
from the Austrian chemists are marked C. 

The following is a simimary of the more important matters referred to in 
this evidence, with the main conclusions which your Committee have drawn 
from them. The subject may naturally be divided into two parts, the che- 
mical and the mechanical. 

1. Chemical Considerations, 

Under this head are included the manufacture of the gun-cotton itself, and 
the answers to such inquiries as those which refer to its liability, or non- 
liability, to deterioration by keeping, the possibility of its spontaneous decom- 
position, and the nature and effects of the products into which it is resolved 
on explosion. 

As to the chemical nature of the material itself. Baron Lenk's gun-cotton 
differs from the gun-cotton generally made, in its complete conversion into a 
uniform chemical compound. It is well known to chemists that, when cotton 
is treated with mixtures of strong nitric and sulphuric acids, compounds may 
be obtained varying considerably in composition, though they all contain the 
elements of the nitric acid, and are all explosive. The most complete com- 
bination, or product of substitution, is that described by Mr. Hadow as 
CjijH^j (9 NO J Og;,, which is identical with that termed by the Austrian chemists 
Trinitrocellulose, C12 H, (3 NO J 0,„. (C. 2.) This is of no use whatever for 
making collodion, but it is Baron Lenk's gim-cotton, and he secures its pro- 
duction by several precautions. Of these the most important are — 


1st. The cleansing and perfect desiccation of the cotton, as a preliminary 
to its immersion in the acids. 

2nd. The employment of the strongest acids attainable in commerce. 

3rd. The steeping of the cotton in a fresh strong mixture of acids, after 
its first immersion and partial conversion into guii-cotton. 

4th. The continuance of the steeping for forty-eight hours. 

5th. The thorough purification of the gun-cotton so produced, from every 
trace of free acid. This is secured by its being washed in a stream of water 
for several weeks. Subsequently a weak solution of potash may be used, but 
this is not essential. 

The prolonged continuance of these processes appears at first sight super- 
fluous, but it is really essential ; for each cotton-fibre is a long narrow tube, 
often twisted and even doubled up, and the acid has fii'st to penetrate into the 
very furthest depths of these tubes, and afterwards has to be soaked out of 
them. Hence the necessity of time. It seems to have been mainly from 
want of these precautious that the gun-cotton experimented on by the French 
Commission gave irregular and unsatisfactory results. (C. 1.) 

From the evidence before the Committee, it appears that this highest 
nitro-compound, when thoroughly free irom acid, is not liable to some of the 
objections which have been urged against that mixture of compounds which 
has been usually employed for experiments on gun-cotton. 

These advantages may be classed as follows : — 

1st. It is of uniform composition, and thus the force of the gases generated 
on explosion may be accurately estimated. (C. 2.) 

2nd. It will not ignite till raised to a temperature of at least 136° C. 
(277° F.), a heat which does not occur unless artificially produced by means 
which would render gunpowder itself liable to ignition. (C. 5.) 

3rd. It is almost absolutely free from ash when exploded in a confined 

4th. It has a very marked superiority in stability over other forms of gun- 
cotton. It has been kept unaltered for fifteen years, and is not liable to 
that spontaneous slow decomposition which is known to render lower products 
worthless after a short time. (C. 4, 6.) Tet there are still some reasons for 
suspecting that even the gun-cotton produced at the Imperial works suffers 
some gradual deterioration, especially when exposed to the sunlight. (A. 20, 
C. 3.) 

The details of the process of manufacture at Hirtenberg are given at length 
in Mr. Abel's first report, in General von Lenk's replies (L. 21), and in a 
patent (ISTo. 1090) taken out by Mr. Thomas Wood Gray, and sealed Oct. 10, 

The course of proceeding recently adopted at the Eoyal Gunpowder 
Works, Yfaltham Abbey, is fully described in Mr. Abel's third memorandiim. 
(A. 10-16.) 

There is one part of the process not yet alluded to, and the value of which 
is more open to doubt, namely, the treatment of the gun-cotton with a solu- 
tion of silicate of potash, commonly called water-glass. Mr. Abel (A. 15) 
and the Austrian chemists think Ughtly of it; but Baron Lenk considers 
that the amount of silica set free on the cotton by the carbonic acid of the 
atmosphere is really of service in retarding the combustion. He adds that 
some of the gun-cotton made at the Austrian Imperial Works has not been 
silicated at aU, and some but imperfectly ; but when the process has been 
thoroughly performed, he finds that the gun-cotton has increased permanently 
about 3 per cent, in weight. A piece of one of the samples left by the 


4 REPORT 1863. 

General was indeed found to contain 2-33 per cent, of mineral matter, con- 
sisting chiefly of silica*. 

Much apprehension has been felt about the effect of the gases produced by 
the explosion of gun-cotton. It has been stated that both nitrous fumes and 
prussic acid are among these gases, and that the one "would corrode the gun, 
and the other poison the artillerymen. Now, though it is true that from 
some kinds of gun-cotton, or by some methods of decomposition, one or both 
of these gases may be produced, the results of the explosion of the Austrian 
gun-cotton, without access of air, arc found by Karolyi to contain neither of 
these, but to consist of nitrogen, carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, water, and a 
little hydrogen, and light carbiu-ettcd hydrogen. (C. 7.) These are compara- 
tively innocuous ; and it is distinctly in evidence that practically the gun is 
less injiu-cd by repeated charges of gun-cotton than of gunpowder, and that 
the men in casemates suffer less from its fumes. (L. 13.) The importance of 
this latter property in a fortress, or a ship, will be at once apparent. 

It seems a disadvantage of this material as compared with gunpowder that it 
explodes at a lower temperature, possibly at 13G° C (277° F.) ; but against the 
greater Liability to accident arising from this cause may be set the greatly 
diminished risk of explosion during the process of manufacture, since the gun- 
cotton is always immersed in liquid, except in the final drjing ; and that 
may be performed, if desirable, at the ordinarj^ temperature of the air. Again, 
if it shoTild be considered ad-s-isable at any time, it may be stored in water, 
and only dried in small quantities when required for use. 

The fact that gun-cotton is not injured by damp like gunpowder, is indeed 
one of its recommendations. It is not even so liable to absorb moisture from 
the atmosphere, 2 per cent, being the usual amount of hygroscopic moisture 
found in it ; and should that quantity be increased thi-ough any extraordinary 
conditions of the air, the gun-cotton speedily parts with its excess of mois- 
ture when the air returns to its ordinary state of dryness. (A. 5 & 8.) 

But a still more important chemical advantage which gun-cotton possesses, 
arises from its being perfectly resolved into gases on explosion, so that there 
is no smoke to obscure the sight of the soldier who is firing, or to point out 
his position to the enemy ; and no residue left in the gun to be got rid of 
before another charge can be introduced. 

2. Mechamcal Considerations. 

At the outset of this inquiry the Mechanical Members of the Committee 
found it difficult to believe that greater eftects are produced by a given volume 
of gases generated from gun-cotton than by an equal volume of gases 
generated from gunpowder ; nevertheless, from the facts as brought before 
the Committee, such contradiction would at first sight appear to exist. 

The great waste of force in gunpowder constitutes an important difference 
between it and gun-cotton, in which there is no waste. According 
to the experiments of Bunsen and Schischkofff, the waste in gunpowder 
is 68 per cent, of its omti weight, and only 32 per cent, is useful. This 
68 per cent, is not only waste in itself, but it wastes the power of the 
remaining 32 per cent. It wastes it mechanically, by using up a large por- 
tion of the mechanical force of the useful gases. The waste of gunpowder 
issues from the gun with much higher velocity than the projectile ; and if it 

* Two combustions of it, made by Dr. Gladstone, gave respectively 2'27 and 2'4 per 
cent, of ash. It was mainly insoluble silica in a state of very fine division, but acids 
dissolved out of it an appreciable amount of lime. 

t Pogg. Annal. 4th Series, vol. xii. p. 131. 


be remembered tbat in 100 lbs. of useful gunpowder this is 68 lbs., it ■svill 
appear that a portion of the 32 lbs. of useful gunpowder gas must be employed 
in impelling a 68 lb. shot composed of the refuse of gunpowder itself. 

There is yet another peculiar feature of gam-cotton ; it can be exploded in 
any quantity instantaneously. This was once considered its great fault ; but 
it was only a fault when we were ignorant of the means to make that velocity 
anything we pleased. General von Lenk has discovered the means of giving 
gmi-cotton any velocity of explosion that is required, by merely varying the 
mechanical arrangements under which it is used. Gun-cotton in his hands 
has any speed of explosion, from 1 foot per second to 1 foot in -j-uVir <^^ * 
second, or to instantaneity. The instantaneous explosion of a large quantity 
of gun-cotton is made use of when it is required to produce destnictive effects 
on the surrounding material. The slow combustion is made use of when it 
is required to produce manageable power, as in the case of gunnery. It is 
plain, therefore, that if we can explode a large mass instantaneously, we get 
out of the gases so exploded the greatest possible power, because all the gas 
is generated before motion commences, and this is the condition of maximum 
effect. It is found that the condition necessary to produce instantaneous 
and complete explosion is the absolute perfection of closeness of the chamber 
containing the gun-cotton. The reason of this is, that the first ignited gases 
must penetrate the whole mass of the cotton ; and this they do (and create 
complete ignition throughout) only under pressure. This pressure need not 
be great. For example, a barrel-load of gun-cotton wtU produce little effect 
and very slow combustion when out of the barrel, but instantaneous and 
powerful explosion when shut up within it. 

On the other hand, if we desire gun-cotton to produce mechanical work and 
not destruction of materials, we must provide for its slower combustion. It 
must be distributed and opened out mechanically, so as to occupy a larger 
space, and in this state it can be made to act even more slowly than gun- 
powder ; and the exact limit for purposes of artUlery General von Lenk has 
found by critical experiments. In general it is found that the proportion of 
11 lbs. of gun-cotton, occupying 1 cubic foot of space, produces a greater 
force than gunpowder (of which from 50 to 60 lbs. occupy the same space), 
and a force of the nature required for ordinary artillery. But each gun and 
each kind of projectile requires a certain density of cartridge. Practically 
gun-cotton is most effective in guns when used as ^ to -i- weight of powder, 
and occupying a space of l^th of the length of the powder cartridge, and 
of such density that 11 lbs. occupy a cubic foot. 

The mechanical structure of the cartridge is of high importance, as affectino- 
its ignition. The cartridge is formed of a mechanical arrangement of spun 
cords ; and the distribution of these, the place and mannc of ignition, the 
form and proportion of the cartridge, all affect the time of complete ignition, 
(A. 19. L. 22.) It is by the complete mastciy he has gained over aU these 
minute points that General Lenk is enabled to give to the action of gun- 
cotton on the projectile any law of force he pleases. 

Even at the present high price of cotton, its cost of production is said 
to be less than that of gunpowder, the price of quantities being compared 
which wiU produce equal effects. (L. 20.) 

Practical Appliccdlotis. 

Gun-cotton is used for artillery in the form of thread or spun yarn. In 
tliis simple form it will conduct combustion plowly in the open air at a 
rate of not more than 1 foot per second. This thread is woven into a 

6 REPORT— 1863. 

texture or circular -web. These webs are made of various diameters ; and it 
is out of these webs that common rifle cartridges arc made, merely by cutting 
them into the proper lengths, and enclosing them in stiff cylinders of paste- 
board, which form the cartridge. In this shape its combustion in the open 
air takes place at a speed of 10 feet per second. In these cylindrical webs 
it is also used to fill explosive shells, as it can be conveniently employed in 
this shape to pass in throiigh the neck of the shell. Gun-cotton thread is 
spun into ropes in the usual way, up to 2 inches diameter, hollow in the 
centre. This is the form used for blasting and mining purposes ; it combines 
great density with speedy explosion, and in this form it is conveniently coUed 
in casks and stowed in boxes. The gun-cotton yarn is used dii'ectly to fomi 
cartridges for large guns, by being wound round a bobbin, so as to form 
a spindle Uke that used in spinning-mills. The bobbin is a hollow tube 
of paper or wood. The object of the wooden rod is to secure in aU cases the 
necessary length of chamber in the gun required for the most effective 
explosion. The gun-cotton circular web is enclosed in tubes of india-rubber 
cloth to form a match-line, in which form it is most convenient, and travels 
with speed and certainty. 

Conveyance and storage of gun-cotton. — It results from the foregoing facts 
that 1 lb. of gim-cotton produces the effect of more than 3 lbs. of gunpoAvder 
in artUlery. This is a material advantage, whether it be carried hy men, by 
horses, or in waggons. It may be placed in store and preserved with great 
safety. (L. 7, &16.) The danger from explosion docs not arise until it is con- 
fined, as it simply bums intensely in the open air. It may become damp, and 
even perfectly wet without injury, and may be dried by mere exposure to the 
air. This is of great value in ships of war ; and in case of danger from fire, 
the magazine may be submerged without injiuy. 

Practical use in artillery. — It is easy to gather from the foregoing general 
facts how gun-cotton keeps the gun clean, and requires less windage, and 
therefore performs much better in continuous firing. In gunpowder there is 
68 per cent, of refuse, or the matter of fouling. In gun-cotton there is no 
residuum, and therefore no fouling. 

Experiments made by the Austrian Committee proved that 100 rounds 
could be fired with gun-cotton against 30 roimds of gunpowder. 

In firing ordnance with gun-cotton, the gun does not heat to any important 
extent. Experiments showed that 100 rounds were fired with a 6-pounder 
in 34 minutes, and the gun was raised by gun-cotton to only 122° Fahrenheit, 
whilst 100 rounds with gunpowder took 100 minutes, and raised the tem- 
perature to such a degree that water was instantly evaporated. The filing 
with the gunpowder was therefore discontinued ; but the rapid filing with 
the gun-cotton was continued up to 180 rounds without any inconvenience. 
(L. 9.) The absence of fouling allows all the mechanism of a gun to have 
more exactness than where allowance is made for fouling. The absence of 
smoke promotes rapid firing and exact aim. 

The fact of snutller recoil from a gun charged with gun-cotton is established 
by direct experiment ; its value is two-thirds of the rccoU from giuipowder 
—the projectUe effect being equal. (L. 5.) To understand this may not be 
easy. The waste of the solids of gunpowder accounts for one part of the 
saving, as in 100 lbs. of gunpowder 68 lbs. have to be projected in addition 
to the shot, and at much higher speed. The remainder General von Lenk 
attributes to the different law of combustion ; but the fact is established. 

The comparative advantage of gun-cotton and gunpowder for producing 
high velocities is shown in the foUowrng experiment with a Krupp's cast 


steel gun, 6-poimder. An ordinary charge, 30 ounces powder, produced 
1338 feet per second. A charge of 13| oz. gun-cotton produced 1563 feet. 

The comparative advantage in shortness of gun is shown in the following 
experiments with a 12-pounder : — 

Charge. Length of gun. Velocity. 

Gunpowder 49-0 oz.* 13| calibres. 1400 

Gun-cotton 15-9 „ 10 „ 1426 

17-0 „ 9 „ 1402 

Advantage imveic/ht of gun. — The fact of the recoil being less, in the ratio 
of 2 : 3, enables a less weight of gun to be employed as well as a shorter gun, 
without the disadvantage to practice arising from lightness of gun. (L. 5.) 

Endurance of gun. — Bronze and cast iron guns have been fired 1000 rounds 
without in the least affecting the endurance of the gun. 

Application to destrttctive exjjhsioiis. Explosion of Shells. — ^From some 
unexplained difference in the action of gun-cotton, there is an extraordinary 
difference of result as compared with gunpowder ; namely, the same sheU is 
exploded by the same quantity of gas into more than double the number of 
pieces. This is partly to be accounted for by the greater velocity of explosion 
when the gun-cotton is confined very closely in very small spaces. It is also 
a peculiarity, that the stronger the shell the smaller the fragments into which 
it is broken. (L. 17.) 

Mining iises. — The fact that the action of gun-cotton is violent and rapid 
in exact proportion to the resistance it encounters, tells us the secret of its far 
higher efficacy in mining than gunpowder. The stronger the rock the less 
gun-cotton comparatively with gunpowder is necessary for the effect; so 
much so that, while gun-cotton is stronger than powder as 3 to 1 in artil- 
lery, it is stronger in the proportion of 6-274 : 1 in a strong and solid rock, 
weight for weight. It is the hoUow rope form which is used for blasting. 
Its power of splitting up the material can be regulated at will. 

Against the gates of a cit>/. — It is a weU-known fact that a bag of gim- 
powder nailed on the gates of a city will blow them open. In this case 
gun-cotton would fail ; a bag of gun-cotton exploded in the same way is 
powerless. If 1 ounce of gunpowder is exploded in scales the balance is 
thrown down ; with an equal force of gun-cotton the scale-pan is not de- 
pressed. To blow up the gates of a city, a very few pounds of gun-cotton 
carried in the hand of a single man wiU be sufficient ; only he mnst know its 
nature. In a bag it is harmless ; exploded in a box it wiU shatter the gates 
to atoms. 

Against the palisades of a fortification. — A small square box containing 
25 lbs. merely flimg down close to them, will open a passage for troops. In 
an actual experiment on palisades a foot diameter and 8 feet high, driven 3 
feet into the ground, backed by a second row of 8 inches diameter, a box of 
25 lbs. cut a clean opening 9 feet wide. On this three times the weight of 
gunpowder produced no effect whatever, except to blacken the piles. 

Against bridges. — A strong bridge of oak, 12 inches scantling, 24 feet span, 
was shattered to atoms by a small box of 25 lbs. laid on its centre : the bridge 
was not broken, it was shivered. 

Under water. — Two tiers of piles 10 inches thick, in water 13 feet deep, 
with stones between them, were blown up by a barrel of 100 lbs. gun-cotton 
placed 3 feet from the face, and 8 feet under water. It made a clean sweep 
through a radius of 15 feet, and raised the water 200 feet. In Yenice, a 

* Ordinary charge of powder. 

8 REPORT— 1863. 

barrel of 400 lbs. placed near a sloop in 10 feet water at 18 feet distance, 
shattered it to pieces and threw the fragments to a height of 400 feet. 

All experiments made by the Austrian Artillery Committee were conducted 
on a grand scale — 36 batteries of 6- and 12-pounders having been con- 
structed for gam-cotton, and practised with that material. The reports of 
the Commissioners arc aU based on trials with ordnance from 6-pounders to 
48-pounders smooth-bore and rifled cannon. The trials with small fu-e- 
arms have been comparatively few, and are not reported on. The trials 
for blasting and mining purposes were also made on a large scale by the 
Imperial Engineers Committee, and several reports have been made on the 

The Committee desire to put upon record their conviction that the subject 
has neither chemically nor mechanically received the thorough investigation 
Avhich it deserves. There remain many exact measures stiU to be made, and 
many important data to be obtained. The phenomena attending the explo- 
sion of both gun-cotton and gunpowder have to be investigated, both as to 
the temperatures generated in the act of explosion, and the nature of the 
compounds which result from them under circumstances strictly analogous 
to those which occur in artillery practice ; and until these are accurately 
ascertained, it is impossible to reconcile the apparent contradictions between 
the mechanical phenomena which result from the employment of gun-cotton 
gases and gunpowder gases, when employed to do the same kind of me- 
chanical work. 


I. — System of Manufacture of Gun-cotton as carried on in tJie Imperial Austrian 
Establishment. By F. A. Abel, F.R.S. 

(1) The cotton employed is of superior quality, tolerably free from seed ; 
it is carded loosely, twisted, and made up into skeins before conversion. The 
strands of the cotton composing the skeins are of two sizes — the larger being 
intended for cannon-cartridges, and the other for small-arm cartridges and 

(2) Preparatory Preparation of the Cotton. — The cotton, made up into 
skeins weighing about 3 ounces each, is washed in a solution of pure carbo- 
nate of potassa of the specific gravity 1-02, being immersed in the boiling 
solution for a short time. Upon removal from the alkaline liquid, the skeins 
are placed in a ccntriftigal machine, by which the greater portion of the 
liquid is separated. The skeins are now washed in clear running water, 
either by allowing them to remain in it for three or four hours, or else by 
washing each skein by hand for a few minutes. They are then again 
worked in a centrifugal machine and afterwards dried — in summer by the 
rays of the sun, but dui-ing winter in a drying-house heated by air-pipes to 
between 30° and 38° C. ; the latter plan usually takes four or five days. 

(3) Production of tlic Gun-cotton. — The nitric acid employed has a spec. grav. 
of 1-53, and the sulphuric acid a spec. grav. of 1-82. They are mixed in the 
proportion of three parts by weight of sulphuric acid and one part of nitric 

Two skeins (about 6 ounces) of the cotton are immersed at one time in 
the mixed acids, and moved about for a few moments with iron paddles. 
They are then raised upon a grating above the level of the acids and submitted 
to gentle pressure ; thence they are transferred to covered stone jars, each of 


■which receives six skeins of kno-mi weight. The jars are then weighed, 
some of the mixed acids being added if necessary, to bring the proportion 
of acids up to 10| lbs. to 1 lb. of cotton. 

The jars are set aside for forty-eight hours in a cool place ; in summer they 
should be placed in cold water. "When that period has elapsed, the acid is 
separated from the cotton as far as possible by means of a centrifugal machine, 
as before described. The m.en worldng the machine are protected from the 
fumes of the acids by a wooden partition. The acids removed from the 
cotton are not used again in the preparation of gun-cotton. 

The skeins of gun-cotton are at once removed from the centrifugal machine 
to perforated receptacles, which are immersed in a stream, where they arc 
allowed to remain at least three weeks. Each skein is afterwards separately 
rinsed in the stream to remove mechanical impurities, and the water is then 
separated by the centrifugal machine. 

The gun-cotton is next submitted to treatment with a solution of carbonate 
of potassa, as in the preliminary process, and again washed after the alkaline 
liquid has been expressed. When the skeins have been allowed to dry 
tolerably by simple exposure to air, they are placed in a large wooden tub 
containing a solution of silicate of soda, the temperature of which is about 
15° C. This solution should have a specific gravity of 1-072, and is prepared 
as required from a solution of spec. grav. 1-216. The cotton remains one 
hour in the solution of sUicate of soda, which is supposed to exercise two 
functions : — 

(ff) That of protecting the cotton by acting as a varnish upon the fibres. 

(6) That of retarding its combustion. 

"Upon removal of the gun-cotton from the bath of water-glass, the liquid is 
partly expressed by hand, and afterwards more fully by means of the centri- 
fugal machine. The skeins must then be thoroughly dried. They are 
afterwards immersed in running water for five or six hours, and each skein 
subsequently washed by hand. The water having been extracted by the 
centrifugal machine, the gun-cotton is removed to the drying-house, where it 
remains eight or ten days. Its manufacture is then completed. 

The gun-cotton is packed in ordinary deal boxes lined vrith paper, and kept 
in dry magazines until required to be made into cartridges, &c. 

_ Well-organized arrangements are employed for mixing the sulphuric and 
nitric acids, immersing the cotton, and for conducting the various other opera- 
tions connected with the manufacture. 

II. — On tlie Composition, and some Properties, of Specimens of Gun-cotfon pre- 
pared at the Austrian Government WorJcs. By F. A. Abel F.R.S. 

(4) Several specimens of gim-cotton prepared at the Imperial Factory at 
Hirtenberg near Vienna*, being the descriptions manufactured for cannon, 
for shells, and for smaU arms, were submitted to chemical examination, to' 
determine the following points : — 

(a) The proportion of hygroscopic moisture existing in them, under 
normal conditions. 

(b) The composition of the different specimens of gun-cotton. 

(c) The proportion and nature of their mineral constituents. 

(5) I. The proportion of moisture expelled from the samples of gun-cotton, 

* Several of these specimens were taken from ammunition, &c., which were being u=ed 
at the time, for experimental practice, by the Austrian autliorities. 

10 KEPORT— -1863. 

by exposiire to desiccation iii vacuo over sulphuric acid, -was very uniform. 
The specimens were examined both in the condition in which they •were 
found on opening the parcel containing them, and after their exposure for 
some time to a temperate and moderately dry atmosphere. The mean pro- 
portion of hygroscopic moisture found in the giin-cotton was 2 per cent. 
Further experiments, relating to the hygroscopic properties of the gun-cotton, 
will be described hereafter. 

(6) II. The composition of the specimens of Austrian gun-cotton, i. e. the 
propoi-tion of hydrogen-atoms which had been replaced, in the original cotton, 
by hyi^nitric acid, was determined by the synthetical method first employed 
by Mr. Hadow, in his examination of the substitution-products obtained by 
the action of nitric acid upon cotton*. The dried specimens of gun-cotton 
were digested in the cold, for twenty-four hours, _ in an alcoholic solution 
of sulphhydride of potassium (KS, HS), prepared as described by Mr. 
Hadow ; and the reduced cotton thus obtained in each case was thorouglily 
washed and dried. These products, after weighing, were proved to be free 
from nitrogen-compounds, by the ignition of portions with hydrate of 
potassa, when no indications of the existence of nitrogen in the specimens 
were obtained. 

The percentage ' of cotton obtained by this synthetical method from four 
specimens of the gun-cotton were as follows 

I. 55-20 per cent. 
II. 55-07 per cent. 

III. 55-13 per cent. 

IV. 54-97 per cent. 

Thefje results show, as might have been predicted from the method of 
treatment of the cotton adopted, that the products obtained at the Austrian 
works consist, very uniformly, of the most highly explosive variety of gun- 
cotton, represented by the formula 0,^ H,, 0^^, 9 NO^, as is shown by a com- 
parison of the above numbers with Mr. Hadow's results, and with the theo- 
retical percentage number : — 

By synthesis. 
Cotton found in Hadow. 

By analysis. 



Austrian samples. 

55-07 55-13 

54-6 55-19 




(7) III. The proportions of non-volatile matter or ash contained in the 
specimens of gun-cotton were determined in the following manner. The 
weighed gun-cotton was thoroughly moistened with distilled water ; it was 
then cut into small fragments, and these were projected from time to time 
into a deep platinum vessel heated to didl redness. In this manner the gun- 
cotton was decomposed very gradually, the expulsion of the volatile portions 
being placed under such complete control as to exclude the possibility of any 
mechanical dispersion of portions of the ash. The heat was finally raised 
sufficiently to bum off any smaU quantity of residual carbon. From the 
ash thus obtained, the proportion was calculated upon the dry gun-cotton. 
Eesults obtained by this method from several dete^^minations, with the same 

* Quart. Journ. Chem. Society, vol. vii. p. 201. 


specimen of gun-cotton, were closely concordant ; but those furnished by 
different specimens varied slightly. 

The following were the mean percentage results obtained : — 

Per cent. 

(a) From a specimen of gun-cotton prepared for cannon 1-14 

(6) Prom a specimen of gun-cotton prepared for small arms and 

shells 0-42 

(c) From a specimen of gun-cotton prepared for blasting-pm-poses 1-90 
(This specimen was slightly discolored, made from a lower quality of 
cotton, and not so perfectly washed as (n) and (b).) 

The analysis of the ash furnished by the gun-cotton in these experiments, 
demonstrated the existence of some differences in the proportions of the 
several mineral constituents of tho different specimens. The ash from (a) 
consisted of 

SUicic acid 0-71 per cent, in the cotton. 

Lime 0"13 „ „ 

Magnesia trace 

Oxide of iron trace 

Alkalies 0-25 „ „ 

Sulphuric acid .... trace 

That furnished by specimen (h) consisted principally of lime ; it contained 
besides traces of magnesia, oxide of iron, and alkalies, and only a small trace 
of silicic acid. 

The ash from (c) consisted of — 

Sand and clay 0*75 per cent, in the cotton. 

Silicic acid, soluble . . 0'53 

}} jj 

Lime 0-27 „ „ 

Alkalies 0-30 „ „ 

Magnesia "1 

Oxide of iron ....[■ traces. 
Sulphuric acid .... J 

The ash was determined for comparison in a specimen of cotton obtained 
from the Austrian Works, which had been submitted to the preparatory 
purifying processes (treatment with carbonate of potassa and long-continued 
washing). The results obtained furnished a mean of 0'63 per cent, of ash, 
which consisted principally of lime and magnesia, and contained a small pro- 
portion of insoluble matter (clay and sand), traces of soluble silicic acid, and 
of alkalies. 

The above determinations and analyses of the ash in the gun-cotton and 
in the unconverted cotton, show that no result of the slightest practical im- 
portance, iu the direction supposed to be aimed at, is obtained by the treat- 
ment with solution of soluble glass, to which the purified gun-cotton is sub- 
mitted, according to the Austrian system of manufacture. 

It is evident that, by the washing in running water for five or six hours, 
and subsequent rinsing of each skein, after the treatment with silicate of 
soda, the proportion of the latter which had in the first instance been 
introduced into the cotton is again extracted, only traces being retained by 
the cotton, besides a very small proportion of silica in the form of pulveru- 
lent sUicatc of lime, resulting from the decomposition of the soluble glass 
by the lime-salts in the spring- or river-water. It wUl be observed that, in 
specimen (b) of gun-cotton, the proportion of non-volatUe constituents is 
actually even less than that found in the purified but unconverted cotton, — a 

13 REPORT 1863. 

fact which is evidently due to the solvent action of the acids upon portions 
of the mineral matter in the cotton. In the place of the comparatively large 
proportions of lime and magnesia in the original cotton, the product which, 
after separation from the acids by very long-continued washing, &g., has 
been submitted to treatment with soluble glass and again washed, contains 
some small quantities (necessarily variable in a product of manufactiire) of 
impurities (clay and sand) derived from the water used, and of silicic acid in 
combination with lime and also with soda, minute quantities of the soluble 
glass having escaped removal or decomposition in the final washing process. 
Supposing that the maximum proportion of silicates (1 per cent.) found in 
the above determinations existed entirely in the form of soluble glass in 
the iinished gun-cotton, a piece of twist 12 feet 10 inches in length, and of 
the size used for Artillery purposes (\ inch thick), would contain only one 
grain of soluble glass. It is evident therefore that no protective effect nor 
retardation in the explosion of the gun-cotton can result fi'om the treatment 
with soluble glass to which it is submitted. 

Experiments on the Hygroscopic Properties of the Aitstrian Gun-cotton. 

(8) It has already been stated that the proportion of moisture contained, 
under normal conditions, in the specimens of Austrian gun-cotton was found 
to be very imiform, the mean proportion being fixed at 2 per cent, by the 
results of several experiments. 

Some gun-cotton prepared from ordinary cotton-wool, and having the same 
composition as the Austrian samples — but not having been submitted to the 
preparatory or subsequent treatment with alkali, nor to the very long-con- 
tinued washing — was examined with regard to its hygroscopic properties, 
in comparison with the Austrian gun-cotton. The proportion of moisture 
existing in the former, under ordinary conditions, was found to be almost 
identical with the average proportion in the Austrian samples. 

Some experiments were instituted to ascertain the rate at which the 
Austrian gun-cotton would absorb moisture, on exposure to a damp atmo- 

The specimens experimented with were first thoroughly dried in vacuo 
over sulphuric acid, and then exposed for successive periods, together with a 
shallow vessel containing water, under a capacious bell jar placed in a 
moderately warm room. The following results were obtained : — 

Specimen. Period of exposure to a damp atmosphere. 

1 hr. 


4 brs. 

20 lira. 

00 lirs. 

72 lirs 

No. 1 .. 

. 1-35 

« • 

, , 



2 ... 

. 1-60 

, , 

, , 


, , 


3 .. 




, ^ 


, , 

4 .. 




• • 


, , 

5 .. 

. 1-77 


, , 

, , 

, , 


These results show that the rate of absorption of moisture by the gun-cotton 
is uniformly rapid up to the point where 2 per cent, (the normal proportion 
of hygroscopic moisture) have been absorbed, and that, when this point has 
been attained, the absorjrtion of further moisture proceeds comparatively 
very slowly*. Several experiments were made to determine, as far as possible, 

* Several determinations of the moisture in cotton rovings, both before and after treat- 
ment with alkali (and repeated washing), show that the proportion of hygroscopic moisture 
in the cotton amounts to between 6 and 7 per cent., this amount being reabsorbed by the 
dried cotton, witlun twenty-four hours, on exposure to air. 


the ma.vi7num amount of moisture which the gun-cotton would absorb from a 
damp confined atmosphere. The great rapidity with which the specimens 
operated upon parted with the water absorbed, on exposure to the ordinary 
atmosphere, after the experiments had been proceeded with for some days, 
rendered the attainment of accurate numbers very difficult. The results, 
however, showed very definitely that no important increase in the amount 
of water absorbed took place when it had reached from 5-5 to 6 per cent. 
"Wlien these specimens had ceased to absorb moisture, they were, after the 
last weighing, exposed to the atmosphere at the ordinary temperature for 
one hour, and again weighed, when they were found to have parted with 
very nearly one-half of the total proportion of water absorbed. After 
further exposure to air for about fom- hours, the proportion of moisture re- 
tained had fallen to the average normal percentage (2 per cent.), and after- 
wards evinced no fui-ther tendency to decrease. 

Two specimens were kept confined as described, together with a vessel of 
water, for several weeks in a moderately warm room. The water had then 
condensed, in numerous minute globules, upon the projecting filaments of tlic 
gun-cotton ; ^ the specimens were therefore very highly charged with mois- 
ture. In this condition they were exposed to the air at the ordinaiy tem- 
perature; within one hoiu- and a half they contained only about 4-5 per 
cent, of moisture. After the lapse of a second similar period, the moisture 
had decreased to about 3 per cent. (3-16 in one specimen and 2-78 in the 
other). "WTien again weighed, after a lapse of about four hours, the percen- 
tage of water had fallen, in both, to the average proportion. 

Expei-iments corresponding to the above were made with the specimen of 
gun-cotton referred to above as ha'sdng been prepared from common cotton- 
wool. The rate of absorption of moisture of this specimen was found to be 
decidedly more rapid than that of the Austrian gun-cotton ; but they very 
closely resembled each other as regarded^the rapidity with which they again 
parted, spontaneously, with the moisture absorbed from a damp atmosphere, 
and the average proportion ultimately retained. The differences noted in the 
rate of absorption of moisture between the two varieties of gun-cotton, is 
most probably due to the diff'erence in their mechanical condition. Some of 
the specimens of Austrian gun-cotton used in these experiments were picked 
asunder, as loosely as possible, instead of being exposed in the form of twists ; 
the difference thus estabhshed in the mechanical condition of the specimens 
did not affect, to any great extent, their relative hygroscopic properties. 
It was found impracticable, however, to reduce the gun-cotton rovings to the 
same mechanical condition as the gun-cotton prepared from finely carded 

It appears from the results above described, that — 
_ (a) The proportion of moistui-e absorbed and retained, under ordinary 
circumstances, by the gun-cotton, is about double that contained under similar 
conditions in good gunpowder (which averages one per cent.). 

(6) Gun-cotton possesses no tendency to absorb moisture beyond that'pro- 
portion, unless in very damp situations ; and even under those circumstances 
the proportion of moisture absorbed is limited. Moreover its capacity for re- 
taining water (beyond the normal proportion) is so feeble that, however 
highly it may have accidentally become impregnated with moisture, it wiU 
return spontaneously to its original condition of dryness by simple exposure 
to the open air for a few hours. In these respects it possesses important 
advantages over gunpowder ; for although the latter contains, under normal 
conditions, less moisture thap gun-cotton, it exhibits great tendency to absorb 

14" RBPOET— 1863. 

water from a moist atmosphere, which it continues to exert until it actually 
becomes pasty. Moreover gunpowder, when once damp, cannot be restored 
to a serviceable condition without being again submitted to the incorporating 
and subsequent processes. 

III. — Memorandum wH7i reference to Experiments in progress hearing upon the 
Manufacture of Gun-cotton. By F. A. Abel, P.R.S, {Received Aug. 23, 

Experiments of a preliminary character. 

(9) The experiments on a manufacturing scale, instituted on the Austrian 
system of preparing gun-cotton for military purposes, were preceded by an 
examination into some of the regidatious laid down for the treatment of the 
cotton — the objects of these preliminary exi)eriments being partly the attain- 
ment of direct proof of the necessity of a strict adherence to certain details 
(relating to the strength of the nitric acid, the duration of the treatment of 
the cotton with the mixed acids, and the rejection of the mixture after being 
once used), and partly the acquirement of experience in the treatment of 
the cotton. 

It was important, before proceeding with these experiments, to detennine 
upon some method, both expeditious and trustworthy, for submitting the 
products of the numerous experimental preparations of gun-cotton to compara- 
tive examination with the highest substitution-product, i. e. the Austrian gun- 

Mr. Hadow's synthetical method of examination, which had been success- 
fully employed in determining the composition of the Austrian gun-cotton, 
though valuable for finally controlling the composition of any particular pro- 
duct, is not sufficiently expeditious for the particular object in view, i. e. the 
examination of small samples from products of manufacture before their 
entire bulk is submitted to the final (purifying) processes *. 

The first method tried for submitting the products of manufacttire to com- 
parative examination was as follows : — The weighed gun-cotton was soaked 
in water, the excess being afterwards expressed ; and it was then placed in 
a glass tube about 18 inches long and open at both ends. Into one extre- 
mity was fitted a delivery-tube, dipping into mercury or water ; the other 
was connected with a gas-holder containing nitrogen ; the communication 
between the latter and the tube could be cut off by means of a stopcock. 
Air was expelled from the tube by means of the nitrogen, and the wet gun- 
cotton was then heated as quickly as possible by an Ai'gand flame, the tube 
being slightly inclined. The gun-cotton was rapidly decomposed, though not 
with explosive violence ; the gases is&liing from the tube were collected and mea- 
sured. The volume of gas fui'nished by different specimens of the Austrian 

* Many experiments were instituted with tliis method of examination, and it was found 
that although the results obtained corresponded closely to theoretical requirements, when 
the starting-point in the examination was the gmi-cotton, results of similar precision were 
not furnished by it when the original cotton itself was taken as the starting-point. That 
is to say, in commencing with a known weight of dry cotton, submitting it to proper treat- 
ment with the mixed acids, washing the product as carefidly as possible, so as to avoid 
mechanical loss, drying the pure gun-cotton, digesting it with sulphhydride of potassium 
solution, and proceeding, with all possible care, exactly according to the prescriptions 
given by Mr. Hadow, the reduced cotton is always somewhat lower in amount than the 
cotton originally employed, the deficiency varying ^Tithin the limits of 1 per cent. This 
deficiency is miquestionably due to the abstraction, by the mixed acids, of portions of 
the mineral constituents and of small proportions of organic matter from the cotton, and 
also, to a slight extent, to mechanical loss in the washing operations, which it appears im- 
possible to guard against altogether. 


gun-cotton, and of several specimens of gun-cotton- twist prepared according 
to the prescribed method, were sufficiently uniform to furnish reliable com- 
parative results ; but the liability of the glass tube to fracture during the 
application of heat, by the water present, led to the abandonment of this 
method of proceeding in favour of the following more simple one. A capa- 
cious glass globe, fitted with a stopcock and copper wii'es passing to the 
interior, is attached to an air-pump, which is also in communication with the 
upper end of a barometric tube. A weighed quantity of the gun-cotton is 
wrapped roimd a platinum wire, stretching from one copper wire in the globe 
to the other. The globe, being again attached to the aii'-pump, is exhausted 
until the mercury in the tube stands at about 29 inches. The gun-cotton is 
then inflamed by the aid of a voltaic current, and the depression of the column 
of mercury is noted when the apparatus has thoroughly cooled. By this 
method, perfectly concordant indications were obtained in employing dif- 
ferent specimens of the Austrian gim-cottou, and of products prepared ac- 
cording to the precise method for producing the most explosive gim-cotton, 
which had furnished proper results when examined synthetically *. 

Experiments have been made with quantities of cotton-wool varying 
from one to two ounces, to ascertain how far' the long-protracted contact (for 
forty-eight hours) of the cotton with the mixed acids, as prescribed in the 
Austrian system, is essential to the complete conversion of the cotton-wool 
into the most explosive gun-cotton. The products obtained by immersion 
of the cotton even for thirty minutes were foimd to be almost perfectly con- 
verted ; the volumes of gas furnished by them and their synthetical exami- 
nation showed, however, that they still probably contained small quantities 
of unconverted cotton. Coiatinuous immersion for twenty-four hours was 
found in aU cases to furnish products completely up to the theoretical standard. 
Considering that the quantity of cotton immersed in one quantity of acid 
in the actual process of manufacture is much more considerable than that with 
which these experiments could be made, and that it is in the form of skeins 
of a somewhat compact roving or yam, it appears a safe and not unnecessary 
precaution, in order to ensure perfect uniformity, to submit the cotton to as 
long a period of immersion as that adopted in Austria. 

A considerable increase in outlay being involved in the employment, on a 
manufacturing scale, of a nitric acid of any specific gravity higher than 1-5, 
comparative experiments have been made on the production of gun-cotton 
with acid of that specific gravity, and of the spec. grav. 1-52 prescribed in the 
Austrian system t, both acids being mixed with the proper proportion of 
strong sulphuric acid. In all the experiments, the resulting products were 
found to be identical in their nature. Considering therefore that, accord- 
ing to the directions laid down, the mixed acids are only to be employed for 
the treatment of one quantity of cotton, there appears to be no advantage 
derivable from the employment of nitric acid of a higher specific gravity 
than 1-5. 

Several experiments have been instituted for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether the rejection of the acids as of no further value, after the immersion in 
them of 07ie quantity of cotton, was likely to be indispensable to the produc- 
tion of uniform results. In one instance, four equal quantities of the same 

* In carrying on experiments to test the mode of examination, some interesting results 
were obtained bearing importantly upon tlie influence exerted over the rapidity and nature 
of decomposition of the gun-cotton by its position relatively to the source of heat, and by 
other variable conditions. These results have led to experin'ieuts now in progress. 

t A sample of the nitric acid employed at Hirtenberg was collected on the spot ; its spe- 
cific gravity was found to be 1-515. 

16 REPORT— 1863. 

description of cotton were successively submitted for equal periods (forty- 
eight hours) to treatment with one and the same quantity of the mixed acids. 
The specific gravity of the latter, at the commencement of the experiment, 
was 1*82. The acid was separated from each quantity of the cotton at the 
expiration of the above period, by means of a small centrifugal machine. 
After two quantities of cotton had been immersed in the acid, its specific 
gravity was reduced to 1'81. The original mixed acids were examined by 
means of a standard solution of carbonate of soda ; a known quantity of the 
mixture neutrahzed 148-3 measures of the solution. After immersion of the 
first quantity of cotton, 147"5 measures were neutralized by an equal quantity 
of the acid, and 146-3 measures after immersion of the second quantity of 
cotton. The reduction in the strength of the acid appeared therefore to be 
very uniform. The four products successively obtained were carefuUy purified 
and dried. The volumes of gas which they furnished upon ignition cor- 
responded very closely with each other and vdih that obtained from a specimen 
of the Austrian gun-cotton. 

In a second similar experiment, five different quantities of cotton were 
submitted successively to treatment for forty-eight hours with one and the 
same mixture of acids. The first three products furnished, upon comparative 
examination by the exploding method, almost identical results ; the fourth 
and fifth afforded indications of less complete conversion. Examined sjn- 
thetically, there was a difference of not quite 1 per cent, between the amount 
of recovered cotton obtained from the first and the fifth products. 

The results of these experiments indicated, therefore, that products cor- 
responding closely in composition can bo obtained by the treatment of even 
more than two quantities of cotton successively with the same acid. It 
shoiild be observed, however, that the above results were obtained with 
cotton in the uuspun condition, and that the proportion borne by the mixed 
acids to the cotton was higher than that prescribed in the Austrian system 
of manufacture. 

Experiments instituted upon a manufacturing scale at ilie Jloyal Gunpoivdcr 

Worhs, Wcdiham Ahhey. 

(10) Very considerable difficulties were experienced in procuring the small 
quantity of cotton (two to three cwts.) required for these experiments, in a 
condition rescmbhug sufficiently closely that employed at Hirtenberg, as its 
production in the form of the thick and the thin loose rovings, or yarn, ne- 
cessitated some deviation from the ordinary method of spinning, which it 
was difficult to induce manufacturers to attempt without the promise of an 
extensive order. Eventually I succeeded, through the kind assistance of Mr. 
Wliitworth, in obtaining the requisite qiiantity of coarse and fine yarn or 
roving, resembling closely in character, and quality of cotton, the specimens 
obtained from Hirtenberg, though in the subsequent operations with the 
coarse or thicker kuad no inconsiderable proportion of it was found to be in 
a much less compact or more lightly twisted form than the Austrian samples. 
The comparatively open condition of this portion, and the impossibility of 
placing it under a sufficient strain to wind it compactly into cartridges, in 
consequence of the weakness of the yarn, must exert considerable inffuence 
upon the rapidity of its combustion ia its employment in ordnance (as a few 
rough experiments at Waltham Abbey have indeed already shown) ; tlie 
gun-cotton prepared from these portions vrill therefore be carefully separated 
from the remainder, and wHI doubtless furnish instx'uctive comparative re- 


suits in the preliminary artillery experiments to be instituted with the gun- 

The acids of the prescribed specific gravities were readUy obtained at 
moderate prices — the sulphuric acid having a specific gravity of 1-84, and 
that of the nitric acid (a light amber-coloured acid) being 1-52. 

The apparatus and implements employed, and the modes of conducting the 
various operations, were, as closely as practicable, in accordance with those in 
use at Hirtenberg — a slight deviation only, in the form or material of some 
of the implements, being adopted Avhere it was decidedly advantageous and 
could not in any way influence the nature of the rcsiilts. The following 
is an account of the details of manufacture : — 

(11) a. Preparation of the Cotton. — The cotton was made up into skeins, 
those of the stout yarn weighing from four to six ounces each, and those of 
fine yarn from three to four ounces. It was then boiled for about fifteen 
minutes in a dilute solution of carbonate of potassa (of specific gravity 1-02, 
containiug one pound of the salt to three gallons of water), and transferred 
thence to a centrifugal machine, which was maintaiued for about five mi- 
nutes at a speed of 500 to 600 revolutions per minute. The alkaline liquid 
was thus very efi'ectually separated from the cotton, which was then washed 
thoroughly, fii'st by hand in a largo tank, and afterwards by submersion in 
a stream for forty-eight hoiu's. At the expiration of that period, the water 
was separated fi'om the skeins by the aid of the centrifugal machine, and the 
purified cotton was then di'ied. Although the cotton was of good quality and 
very faii'ly cleaned from seed (being quite equal in these respects to the Austrian 
samples), it was found to sustain a loss of about 5 per cent, by the treatment 
with alkali and washing. Tho potassa solution in which it was boiled 
acquired a cofi'ee colour. Portions of seed were stiU retained by the piu'ified 
cotton, which were subsequently dissolved out perfectly by the acids. 

(12) b. Preparation of the Adds. — Tho proportions of acids (three parts by 
weight, or 2-45 by volume, of sulphuric acid to one part of nitric acid) were 
weighed oft" and transferred to stoneware barrel-shaped vessels pro^ided with 
taps, two of these receiving the sulphuric acid and a third the nitric acid. The 
barrels were so arranged upon a suitable table that the acids could be dehvcrcd 
from the taps into a deep and very capacious stoneware vessel, fitted with an iron 
lid with suitable apertures and a tap ; this vessel was raised from the ground 
sufficiently to allow of the acids being transferred from it to well-stoppered 
stoneware bottles. ^Idle the acids were flowiug slowly and uniformly from 
the barrels into the covered mixing-vessel, the resulting mixture was kept 
continuously stirred by means of a large ii-on paddle, and after they had been 
entii'ely transferred (which occupied about ten minutes), the stirring was 
continued for about twenty minutes before the mixtnre was drawn off into 
the bottles. The product of this operation had a specific gravity of 1-82. 
The elevation of temperature resulting from the mixture of the acids was 
considerable ; in one obsei-vation the temperature of the acids before mixture 
was found to be 20° C, while that of the mixtiu'o, when complete, was 
38° C. The acid thus prepared was set aside in a cool place, and never em- 
ployed until at least twenty -four hours after the mixture had been made. 

The mixing process and all the other operations -with the acids were con- 
ducted in the open air, the workmen selecting their positions with reference to 
the direction of the wind. Thus no injurious effects, nor even inconvenience, 
were experienced by those employed. 

(13) c. Treatment of the Cottontvith the mixed Acids. — About twelve hours 
before immersion in the acids, the skeins to be operated upon at one time 

1863. c 

18 REPORT— 1863. 

(which had previously been diied in the air) were suspended in a capacious 
and -well-ventilated drying- chamber, the temperature of which was main- 
tained, for the above period, at not less than 49° C. They were then trans- 
ferred, while in the chamber, to stoneware jars with tightly closing lids 
(the same as were used for keeping the cotton immersed ia acid), and were 
allowed to become perfectly cold in these before submission to treatment 
with acid. 

The vessels which were foimd most suitable for use in treating the 
cotton with the acid were large and rather deep stoneware pans : one, 
provided with an iron lid, contained the quantity of mixed acids required 
for the treatment of a certain number of skeins ; a second, which was fitted 
with a perforated ledge of iron, and was surrounded by cold water, served 
for the treatment of the cotton, which was conducted as follows : — a propor- 
tion of the acid having been transferred to the second pan, two skeins were 
thoroughly immersed in it, and stirred about for two or three minutes ; 
when saturated with acid they were raised upon the shelf ard pressed 
together with the paddle, so as to aUow the superfluous acid to flo,v off; the 
quantity of acid absorbed by these skeins was leplaced in the pan by an 
addition of fresh acid, and further skeins were immersed, those which had 
drained being transferred to a jar while tbe freshly immersed ones were 
soaking. In this way the operation of immersion was continued until the 
whole of the skeins to be treated at one time had been transferred to the 
jars, six of the large yarn or nine of the fine being introduced into one of 

The skeins were pressed down in the jars by means of the paddle, and 
sufficient acid was added just to cover the cotton completely. The jars were 
then closed and placed into vessels containing water, in a cool building, 
where they remained for forty-eight hours. 

It was found an important precaution to keep the vessel in which the 
cotton was first immersed siuTounded with water, especially in the warm 
season during which these experiments have been conducted, as the evo- 
lution of heat duiing the first action of the acids upon the cotton is con- 
siderable. The contents of the jars to which the gun-cotton was transferred 
were not found to become heated to any iuiportant extent, even w'lcn not 
surrounded by water. The proportion of acid to cotton said to be contained 
in the jars, as the process is carried out at Hirtcnberg, is that of ten to one ; 
but it was found necessary, in order to cover the cotton completely as di- 
rected, to employ at least fifteen parts of acid to one of cotton. This pro- 
portion would doubtless be much diminished if means were employed for 
compressing the cotton in the jars more highly than was the case in these 

The precaution of adding a fresh supply of the acids to that which remains 
in the immersing-vessel after the A^dthdrawal of each quantity of cotton 
treated, was proved by experiment to be of the greatest importance in 
securing the uniformity of the product. In one of the first operations, 
no fresh quantity of acid was added before immersiag the skeins treated 
last. Iir other respects these skeins were submitted to precisely the same 
treatment as the remainder (i. e. an additional quantity of acid was added 
to them in the jar, they were allowed to remain for forty-eight hours, (fee). 
When examined synthetically, they fiu^nished at least one-haLf per cent, 
more cotton than the skeins first treated in the same operation; and when 
fired in the proof-mortar, a decidedly lower range was obtained with the 
cotton last treated. 


(14) d. Purification of the Chm-cotton. — At the expiration of forty-eight 
hours the jars were conveyed to a centrifugal machine, by which the principal 
quantity of acid was separated from the cotton. The machine employed at 
Hirtenberg for this purpose is made of copper, the one used by me was 
constructed entirely of iron, the sides of the revolving cylinder consisting of 
coarse iron-wire gauze, rendered suiliciently rigid by an iron framework. 
After each operation the machine was washed oiit with an abundant supply 
of water, and thus the corrosive action of the acids upon it has really been 
very trifling. The oxide dissolved by the acid when the skeins were placed 
in the machine was sufficient to colour the liquid, and also to stain the cotton 
in places, but these stains disappeared entirely in the lii'st washing which 
the product received. The skeins were rapidly transferred, by means of 
an ii'on hook, to the machine, and the latter was then set in motion, at first 
slowly, and ultimately at a speed of 800 revolutions per minute. Within 
ten minutes the acid was so far separated from the cotton that the skeins 
were only damp. 

Some precautions were necessary in effecting the first transfer to water 
of the skeins, with acid still clinging to them. If they were simply thrown 
into water so that the latter would penetrate them only gradually, the heat 
resulting fi'om the union of the free acids and the water immediately esta- 
bhshed a violent action of the nitric acid upon the cotton, quantities of nitrous 
vapoiu's being disengaged. At Hirtenberg the gun-cotton, when taken from 
the machine, is quickly placed under a small cascade, where its saturation 
with water is effected with very great rapidity. As this arrangement was not 
attainable at Waltham Abbey, the skeins, directly they were removed from 
the machine, were plunged singly, as rapidly as possible, and moved about 
violently, in a large body of water. They were then washed by hand in a 
stream until no acid taste whatever was perceptible in the cotton, and were 
afterwards immersed in the stream for a period of not less than forty-eight 
hours. Por this purpose they were arranged in rows upon poles fixed in 
frames, which were so placed in the water that the skeins, were in a vertical 
position, the water circulating among them freely. The cm-rent of the 
stream used at Waltham Abbey (at the only available place for these ex- 
periments) was not so rapid as coidd have been desired, and the dryness of 
the season had rendered it unusually sluggish ; stUl it was sufficient to 
afford a continual change of the water surrounding the cotton. The cha- 
racter of this water is by no means such as to render it specially fitted for the 
purification of the gun-cotton. The bed of the stream is :ilways thickly 
covered with luxuriant vegetable growth, and the water itself is conse- 
quently so highly charged with vegetable matter, that, although light was 
excluded as far as possible from the cotton diu'iug its immersion, the skeins 
became covered in many places, within a few days, by vegetable growth, 
which in time attached itself so fu-mly to the cotton as to be very difficult 
of removal by hand- washing. 

The system of purification, as carried on at Hirtenberg, diff'ers very consi- 
derably fi'om that described in General Lenk's process as patented in this 
country. At the above-named estabhshment, the gun-cotton is in the first 
instance left in the stream for three weeks and upwards ; it is afterwards 
washed in a dilute solution of carbonate of potassa, again washed in water, 
dried, and then treated with a solution of soluble glass. After this treatment 
it is dried, washed for six hours in the stream, and finally by hand. 

In the patented process, it is directed that the gun-cotton in the first in- 
stance should be immersed in running water for forty -ei(jlit hours and up- 


20 REPORT— 1863. 

wards ; it is not submitted to any treatment "with carbonate of potassa, but is 
boiled, after the first washing, in a weak solution of soluble glass, and on its 
removal from this, without any intermediate desiccation, it is immersed in the 
stream for about six days. 

The process of purification which I adopted differed from that in use at 
Hirtenberg only in the postponement of the long-continued washing until 
after treatment of the gun-cotton with alkali. At the expiration of forty- 
eight hours the skeins were removed from the stream, the water was separated 
from them in the centrifugal macliine, and they were then boiled for a few 
miuutes in a solution of carbonate of potassa of spec. grav. 1-02. Having 
been returned to the centrifugal machine, for the separation of the alkaline 
liijiior, they were again placed in the washing-frames and left in the stream 
for a period of fourteen to eighteen days. On subsequent removal from the 
stream, each skein was washed by hand, to separate mechanical impurities, 
and one-half of each quantity of gun-cotton prepared was finally left in soak 
in distilled water for some hours. I found that, in consequence of the very 
large quantity of salts of lime iu the river-water, the proportion of minei-al 
matter in the gun-cotton was notably increased (it varied from 1 to 1-5 per 
cent.) ; tliis final Avashing was consequently adopted (there being a good 
supply of distilled water at hand) for the purpose of reducing the propor- 
tion of mineral matter added to the gun-cotton by the long-continued im- 
mersion in the stream. The gun-cotton thus finally purified was dried iu 
the open air. 

(15) e. The treatment of the purified Gun-Cotton ivith Soluble Glass, which 
forms one of the features of the Austrian system of manufacture, was stated by 
the officials at Hirtenberg to eff'ect two important objects, — first, a retardation 
of the combustion of the gim-cotton ; and secondly, its protection from atmo- 
spheric influences, by the formation of a coating upon the fibres of the cotton. 
In my accoimt of the results of examination of the specimens of Austrian 
gun-cotton, I have entered fully into the reasons and facts which lead me to 
the conclusion that the treatment with soluble glass, the subsequent desicca- 
tion, and the final washing of the gun-cotton for five or six hours do not prac- 
tically exert any effect upon the properties of the material, the only result 
being the addition to the mineral constituents of a small proportion of sili- 
cate of lime. 

In General Lenk's process, as described in the English patent, the soluble 
glass is applied, as already stated, to the gun-cotton which, after the removal 
from the acids, has undergone no further treatment than an immersion in 
ruimiiig water for forty-eight hoiu's or thereabouts ; when removed from 
the bath of silicate, the gun-cotton is not dried, but at once immersed 
for a period of six days in rimning water. It is at once obvious that this 
treatment cannot exert any effect upon the cotton, beyond possibly the neu- 
tralization of a miinite trace of free acid stUl retained by it after the first 
washing. That the treatment with soluble glass is not intended to exert any 
other than a purifying effect upon the gun-cotton, appears also to have been 
understood by Professors lledtenbacher, Sclu'otter, and Schneider, in their in- 
quiry into Baron Lenk's system of manufacture ; for the only aUusion which 
in their joint report they make to this point, is as follows, " the treatment 
with soluble glass has no influence on Baron Lenk's gun-cotton, it being pre- 
viously free from acids." 

In order to test, as nearly as possible in its integrity, the system of manu- 
facture as carried on at Hirtenberg, it was determined to submit one-half of 
each quantity of gun-ooltou produced in one operation to the treatment with 


soluble glass, the other half being di-ied, as a finished product, after the im- 
mersion in distilled water'above-mentioned. 

The purified skeins to be treated -with silicate of soda were first exposed to 
air unto, moderately dry, and then soaked for one hour in a boiling solution of 
the silicate, containing ten per cent, of that substance. When the excess of 
the liquid had been subsequently removed by means of the centrifugal ma- 
chine, the gun-cotton stiU retained about 80 per cent, of the solution, which, 
by evaporation, left therefore about 8 per cent, of soluble glass in the material. 
The skeins were thoroughly di-ied in air, and then immersed in the stream for 
about forty-eight hours. A longer period of immersion was adopted than in 
use atHii'tenberg, on account of the comparatively sluggish current of the river. 
The skeins were finally washed by hand and dried, this operation completing 
the manufacture of the g-un-cotton. A comparative examination of the ash of 
a " silicated" product with that of gam-cotton prepared at the same time, 
which had not undergone this treatment, exhibited a difi'ercnce amounting to 
about one-foiu'th of the ash existing in the gun-cotton not treated : the latter 
furnished 1-45 per cent., the silicated left 1-85 per cent, of ash. The pro- 
portion of silica left in the g-un-cotton was decidedly greater than that found 
in the Austrian specimens ; but the portion not treated with soluble glass also 
contained a veiy notable amount of silica, derived from suspended matter 
in the water. A portion of gun-cotton treated with soluble glass has been 
washed for a few hours only, for comparative experiment. 

(16) Artificial heat was not employed in drying any portion of the purified 
gun-cotton. This operation was accomplished by suspending the skeins 
during the day upon lines ia the open air, or in a weU- ventilated shed in wet 
weather and at night. 

Miscellaneous Memoranda. 

(17) 1. Samples of the products of manufacture obtained at Waltham Abbey 
have been submitted to synthetical examination, and furnished restilts as 
uniform as could have been anticipated, and corresponding to those demanded 
by the formula 

a -^^^ 

^3c I 9N0, 1 ^so- 

In the course of the manufacture the increase of weight actually sus- 
tained by the cotton has been directly determined, and it has been found that 
100 lbs. of cotton, pui-ified by the treatment with alkali, furnished about 
177 pounds of gtin-cotton (not silicated). The amount which theoretically 
100 lbs. of cotton should furnish, of gun-cotton of the above composition, is 
183"3 lbs. The discrepancy between these numbers is certainly not gi'cat 
when allowance is made for mechanical loss in the various washings, and for 
the foreign matters dissolved out of the cotton by the acids. 

(18) 2. Several experiments have been instituted for the purpose of exami- 
ning the characters of the product resulting from the ti'eatment of cotton with 
the mixed acids which have already been used once. The quantities of cotton 
treated at one time, and the various steps in the manufacture, did not differ 
in any way from those adopted in the regular system in use. The product 
obtained from the coarse yarn, by means of the once-used acid, has been ex- 
amined synthetically, and found to correspond very nearly in composition to 
gun-cotton of the formula 

^^« I SNO, J ^=°' 
or the next lowest substitution-product to that obtained in the ordinary pro- 

23 REPORT— 1863. 

cess of manufacture. It was found, moreover, that the cotton yam obtained 
in this experiment was very decidedly ■weaker (/. e. could sustain only consi- 
derably less strainj than the ordinary product — a result which must be ascribed 
to the greater predominance of sulphiiric acid in the mixture which has been 
once used. 

Experiments with this mixture and the finer yam, furnished a different re- 
sult to the foregoing. The products corresponded closely in composition to 
the theoretical result attained by the original or first employment of the acids. 
The rotting or weakening effect noticed above was much less apparent in these 
products than in the case of coarse yarn. 

It would appear from these results that the mechanical condition of the 
cotton {i. e. the thickness of the yarn) exerts an important influence upon the 
nature of the product furnished by the once-used acid. Further operations 
are in progress in which this acid is employed ; and the explosive effects of 
the resulting products will bo carefully compared with those of the material 
obtained in the ordinary way. 

(19) 3. No systematic artillery experiments or others Olustrative of the ex- 
plosive effects of gim-cotton prepared at "VValtham Abbey have as yet been in- 
stituted, beyond a few trials of smaU charges in the mortal- employed at the 
Gunpowder Works for purposes of proof. Even these results, however, as far 
as they go, are possessed of considerable interest, as demonstrating some of 
the most important points of difference between gun-cotton and gunpowder, 
when used in cannon, and as illustrating to some extent the value of the simple 
mechanical means devised by Baron Lcnk for regulating the explosive action 
of the gun-cotton. 

A quantity of the coarse roving, corresponding ia weight to one-thii'd of the 
proof-charge of gxmpowder, was wound round a conical wooden plug, with the 
application only of a sHght strain (equal to two oimccs). The range obtained 
by this charge, or cartridge, was fuUy equal to that furnished by a full-proof 
charge of Enfield-rifle powder. The same weight of gun-cotton, wound upon 
a cone of the same dimensions, but kept during the winding under a strain of 
one pound, gave a range which was materially shorter than that furnished by 
the loosely wound charge, but quite equal to the average proof range (or three 
times the weight) of ordinary cannon-powder. Kesults agreeing with the 
above, and in very good accordance with each other, were obtained in frequent 
repetitions of those experiments. 

The variation in composition of exceptional or special products, such as have 
been referred to in the preceding, manifested themselves in a corresponding 
variation in the range obtained with them, when tried under the same condi- 
tions as the ordinary products. Thus the skeins which in one particular 
operation had, as above described, been immersed finally, -without addition 
of fresh acid, and which furnished synthetically a somewhat high proportion 
of cotton, did not yield so long a range as the ordinary products, nor as the 
first skeins obtained in the same operation. Again, the coarse yam which 
had been treated with acid already once used, when wound into cartridges 
with a strain of two ounces on the yarn, did not furnish as long ranges as the 
ordinary products wound under a straui of one pound ; and when made into 
cartridges imder the latter conditions, the ranges it furnished were very con- 
siderably below the average results obtained with the ordinary product. 

The absence of any appreciable residue ia the mortar, and of any but the 
most trifling amount of smoke, only noticeable if watched for, were, it Ls^hardly 
necessary to say, novel and important features in these few proof experiments. 

(20) 4. Some observations made during the drying, and in the preservation 


in store, of the finished gun-cotton, can hardly be passed over altogether with- 
out notice in this comniunication, though the precise nature and cause of the 
result which has manifested itself are stUl undetermined. 

By far the larger proportion of the gun-cotton prepared at Waltham Abbey 
was dried in the open air, being exposed to strong daylight, and very fre- 
quently to powerfiil sunlight. When dry, it was packed into ammunition- 
boxes— large wooden cases containing an internal casing of tinned copper and 
with very tightly closing double lids. In opening some of these boxes con- 
taining gun-cotton, a faint but peculiar odour was accidentally observed, which 
was more distinct in some boxes than others. This observation led to the 
introduction of some pieces of litmus-paper among the skeins in different 
boxes, and these were found in some instances to change, after the lapse of 
time, to rose-colour, some merely at the edges, others more or less perfectly 
throughout. The change of colour was like that produced by carbonic acid 
upon htmus ; and if the boxes were left open for some time, the paper gra- 
dually regained its original colour. If they were again closed for twenty-four 
hours or longer, the reaction upon the litmus-paper was again observed in 
those instances in which it had first been decidedly manifest, but it has been 
noticed to become gradually weaker. It was subsequently found that the 
gun-cotton, after it had been for some time exposed to strong daylight, and 
particularly to sunlight, in the open air, exhibited the same slight acidity, and 
that the reaction noticed in the boxes was always more marked in those which 
contained the gun-cotton most recently exposed for drying. 

As above stated, no satisfactory explanation can as yet bo aiforded of the 
occasional exhibition of this slight acidity in the thoroughly purified gun- 
cotton under the circumstances described ; to whatever causes it may be due, 
it appears evident, on a perusal of the report of Drs. Redtenbacher, Schrotter, 
and Schneider upon Baron Lenk's gun-cotton, that those chemists have no- 
ticed a similar occasional acidity as occurring in the Hirtenberg cotton, and, 
indeed, that this acidity has been dwelt upon as a cause for alarm by persons 
who have feared the sx^ontaneous decomposition of the gun-cotton. The sur- 
mises as to its possible origin, put forward in the report above referred to, are, 
it must be confessed, not very satisfactory ; neither, in the face of the extra- 
ordinary precautions adopted for eff'ecting the complete purification of the 
gun-cotton, is the force of the following concluding paragraph of that part of 
the report which refers to this subject, very ajiparent: — "These acid traces 
should the less evoke surprise when we bear in mind that the gun-cotton in 
process of manufacture had been exposed for forty-eight hours to a strong acid 
bath ; moreover, if the subject of comparison, viz. gunpowder, be tested with 
equal severity, similar evidence of chemical action will be forthcoming." It is 
in a material in which, in the first instance, the most delicate tests fail to de- 
tect the shghtest evidence of free acid, that this slight acidity occasionally be- 
comes evident. That exposure to light wiU, after some time, induce decom- 
position in the most carefully purified gun-cotton, is beyond dispute : as the 
latest of many proofs, which I myself have had of this, I may mention that 
some litmus-paper which has been for a few weeks exposed to light in a stop- 
pered glass bottle, together with a piece of the Hii'tenberg cotton, has become 
already perfectly bleached. But that an indication of change, such as has 
been dwelt upon above, should be afforded by so brief an exposure to light as 
five or six hours, and continue to be afforded after the cotton has been removed 
from hght, appears to me to favour one of the conjectures put forward in the 
report referred to, — namely, that the gun-cotton may contain traces of high 
nitro- compounds which are much more liable to decomposition than it is itself 

24 REPORT — 1863. 

— a conjecture wMch may receive some support from the fact of the cotton 
being exposed for a very long period to the action of the acids. Under any 
circumstances, this is a matter which may be most intimately connected with 
the question of the keeping qualities of the gun-cotton, and which therefore 
reqiiires the strictest investigation. 

(21) 5. While referring to the question of the stabOity of gnin-cotton, it may 
be important to record the following fact. It is pretty generally known that, 
soon after the discovery of gun-cotton by Schcinbein in 1846, Messrs. Hall and 
Son, the extensive gunpowder-manufactiu'ers at Faversh am, entered upon the 
manufacture of this material, but were, after a time, so unfortunate as to have 
a very disastrous explosion of gun-cotton at their works, which, after a 
carcfiil inquiry, was ascribed, by the jury and by all connected with the ma- 
nufacture, to the spontaneous combustion of the material. The manufactiiro 
was stopped on the occurrence of this accident, and a considerable quantity of 
gun-cotton, which existed in the works, was buried by Messrs. HaU's dii'ection 
(in July 1847), being simply thrown into a hole in the ground and covered 
up with earth. At my request, Messrs. HaU. have been so kind as to have a 
sample of this gun-cotton, which has been bmied for sixteen years, dug up and 
forwarded to me. Tliis cottftn, after being freed from dirt by washing, pre- 
sented a discoloured appearance, and is stained in many places with oxide of 
iron, but it exhibits not tlie slightest evidence of having undergone change. 
The fibre is perfect thi'ougiiout, and there is, as might have been anticipated, 
no trace of acidity manifest in any portion. It is not a rapidly burning gun- 
cotton, and leaves, upon ignition, a considerable carbonaceous residue ; it docs 
not therefore consist, or at any rate not entirely, of the most explosive sub- 
stitution-product. A specimen, purified in the first instance by treatment 
with dilute hydi-ochloric acid, has been examined synthetically, and yielded 
59-63 per cent, of cotton, — a residt which agrees most closely to that which 

would be furnished by a product of the composition C3„ j n-^Q i 0^^ (which 

would furnish 60-66 per cent, of cotton). Messrs. Hall maniifactured the 
gun-cotton by Schonbeiu's original process, which consisted, as far as I can 
learn, in the treatment of the cotton for about one hour with a mixture of one 
part of nitric acid of spec. grav. 1-45 to 1-5, and three parts of sulphuric acid 
of 1-85 spec. grav. The cotton was washed in running water until no acid 
was detected by litmus-paper, and afterwards dipped in a very weak solution 
of carbonate of potassa. The finished cotton was sometimes soaked in a weak 
solution of nitrate of potassa. 

The examination of Messrs. Hall's buried gun-cotton appears to afford 
an interesting and important proof of the permanence of gun-cotton when 
excluded from air and light, but not protected from moisture — though it is 
necessary to bear in mind that this particular material does not correspond 
in composition to the reg-ular Austrian product. 

(22) 6. Eeferring once more, in conclusion, to the manufacturing experi- 
ments which form the main subject of this comraunication, it only remains to 
be stated that the very high price paid for the cotton for these experiments, the 
necessarily temporary arrangements, and the impossibility of fully economi- 
zing labour and material in cari-ying out the manufacture with such accommo- 
dation as could be furnished without any important outlay at Waltham Abbey, 
rendered the formation of any reliable estimate regarding the cost of the 
gun-cotton out of the question. But the scale upon which the manufacture 
was conducted has been quite sirfficient to demonstrate most satisfactorily 
that, with a properly organized system of operation, the production of the gun- 


cotton is certainly not more difficult or complicated, and is attended with con- 
siderably less risk of accident to the workmen and the maniifactuiing esta- 
blishment, than the production of gunpowder. 

IV. — Information given by Baron Lenk on June 22 and JvHy 14, 1863. 

1. What weiglit of gun-cotton and gunpoivder give equcd effects'! — In ac- 
cordance with experience, gun-cotton produces the same effect as three limes 
its weight of gunpowder, which proportion, under certain circumstances, may 
be increased to six times its weight of guuijowder ; for the effect of gun-cotton 
in proportion to gunpowder is the greater the more resistance is offered to 
the charge by the sides which enclose it, and'jhe less gas can escaj^e at the 
beginning of the explosion. 

2. What hidJcs of each give equal effect ? — The space required for a gun- 
cotton cartridge, to produce an equal effect, is scarcely half as largo as that of 
a gimpowder cartridge ; and it is only made equally large or shghtly larger, 
if secondary circumstances should demand it. 

3. Is the effect more constant with gun-cotton or with gunpoivder. — The 
effect of small fire-arms and of artiUeiy in general is considerably more 
uniform and constant with the use of gun-cotton than with gunpowder, 
provided the proper charge and cartridge has been taken. 

That siiperiority gun-cotton partly owes to the chemical process by wliicli 
I have produced it, and partly to the uniform formation of the cartridge, 
which can only be attained by its regular texture, using it in the shape of 

4. Wliich admits of more precise aim 1 — On account of the more constant 
effect of gun-cotton, and because its use prevents fouling of the gun, which 
further admits to reduce the space between shot and barrel, and on account of 
less heating of the gun, as well as by the uniform position of the cartridge, 
there must be a more precise aim of shot with gun-cotton — which, moreover, 
lias been fully proved by experience. 

5. Which occasions least recoil ? — Chiefly on account of the smaller space of 
time the projectile requires to pass through the barrel of a gun to attain a 
certain initial velocity, the rccoO. of the gun is less than with the use of 
gunpowder. It may be stated that, by the official trials of the Commissioners 
in the year 1860, the recoil of the gun with gun-cotton was found to bo 
0"68 of that with gimpowder. 

6. What is the relative effect as to folding ? — Except an extremely small 
residuum of carbon, there is no deposit with the use of gun-cotton. The 
barrel of a gun requires no cleaning out ; there is no chemical effect upon 
cast- and wrought-iron, steel, or bronze barrels by using gun-cotton car- 

7. Is gun-cotton licchle to decay ichen stored ? — Gun-cotton has been stored 
like gunpowder for twelve years, usually packed in wooden boxes ; and no 
trace of alteration has been discovered. My o-mi experiments go back as 
far as 1846, and have given most favourable results in this respect. 

8. Eov) is it affected by water or damp ?— Gim-cotton placed under water 
is unalterable. Ey the transformation of ordinary cotton into gun-cotton, it 
loses the greater part of its hygroscopic property, so that gun-cotton, properly 
manufactured, resists the influence of damp much better than gunpowder ; and 
moreover it cannot, like gunpowder, get permanently spoiled thereby. Gun- 
cotton, if dried in the open air, contains 2 per cent, moisture ; ordinary cotton 
about 6 per cent. Gun-cotton, placed in a room completely saturated with 

26 REPORT— 1863. 

moisture, after thirty-three days of exposure contaiaed 8 per cent, moisture, 
whilst imder the same circumstances gunpowder was saturated with 79-9 per 
cent, of water ; some weeks afterwards the whole saltpetre of the gunpowder 
was converted into a concentrated solution of saltpetre, whilst gun-cotton 
took no more than 8 per cent, of water as a maximum saturation. 

9. Which admits of most rapidjirinrj ? — The gun being heated considerably 
less by using cotton- cartridges, the absence of a noteworthy residuum and 
smoke admits of a more easy manipulation and sighting of the gun, and 
thereby secures a more continuous and rapid fire. 

It may be stated that 100 rounds with gun-cotton were fired in thirty- 
four miniites, and the barrel was heated to fifty degrees Cent. ; whilst lOO 
rounds with gunpowder-cartridge tu 100 minutes heated the gun so much 
that Avater dropped on the barrel immediately evaporated with noise, though 
three times as much time was required with the powder charges. The 
Commissioners continued the trials with gim-cotton up to 180 rounds without 
any danger from heating being apprehended, whilst the Commissioners 
thought it advisable, for the sake of safety, not to continue firing with 
powder charges imder the above circumstances. 

10. What effect has gxm-cotton on the coolness and cleanness of the gnn? — 
It has been ah'eady mentioned that, with the tlsc of gun-cotton, fii'e-anns 
remain considerably cooler than with gunpowder ; and the slight residuum 
has no influence upon the efi'ect of the gun. 

11. How far is it adapted for hrech-loadinf/. — There being no fouling of 
the gim, it foUows that with the use of breech-loaders the construction of the 
breech may be kept quite tight. 

12. How is it for precision of aim? — Under all circumstances the aim is 
not disturbed or interrupted, there being no smoke attending the discharge 
of the gun. 

13. Has it any special advantages in forts, ships, and casemates ? — From 
many experiments, but especially from the official trials made in the case- 
mates of the fortress of Comorn in the year 1853, it results that under 
circumstances which would render the firing with powder difficult or even 
impossible, there was no trouble or molestation in any way to those serving 
the gims with the use of gun-cotton cartridges. 

The tiials in the fortress of Comorn were made in casemates, ventilation 
being intentionally obviated. After fifteen rounds with powder cartridges, 
fiu-ther sighting of the gun was impossible ; after forty-six rounds, one of 
the men serving the gun fell into convulsions of sufibcation ; a second man 
being ordered in the place of the first disabled man, got immediately sick on 
entering the casemate ; the rest of the men were more or less stupefied ; 
it was necessary to stop filing after fifty rounds given in eighty minutes. By 
using gim-cotton cartridges, on the contrary, after fifty rounds the men 
serving the gun felt not the least molestation, and the aim was always 
clearly visible. 

14. Hoiv is it adapted for mining ? — The more accelerated effect of gun- 
cotton, and the possibility of enclosing in the same space more than double the 
quantity of gases, especially direct us to employ gun-cotton where it is desu-ed 
to attain an energetic effect for miuing-piu'poses, for example, to sccui'c 
harbours by means of sea-mines. 

15. What is the relative danger of mamtfactiire ? — In the manufacture of 
gun-cotton every manipulation, up to its final accomphshmeut, is without any 
danger whatever, whilst with the manufacture of gimpowder danger of ex- 
plosion exists from the beginning of the operation. 


16. What is the comparative r isle in conveyance? — The smaller weight of 
gun-cotton, as well as the smaller volimie of it for an equal eifect, favours tho 
conveyance of gun-cotton considerably ; and it may be taken moreover into 
consideration that the dangerous " getting to dust " of powder cannot take 
place with gun-cotton. 

The transport of gim-cotton to the most distant parts of the empire of 
Austria under intentionally difficult circumstances, has always been eflfectcd 
without difficulty. 

17. How is it adapted for shells? — Shells filled with gun-cotton hold a 
considerably larger quantity of material for the production of gases ; at tho 
same time, it is in the nature of both compounds that gun-cotton developes 
far quicker the gases of combustion than gunpowder ; for this reason, shells 
fiUed with gun-cotton bm-st into at least double the number of pieces. 

18. Is it liable to spontaneous explosion ? — From the last Report, dated Juno 
1863, of the Professors of Chemistry appointed by the Minister for War to 
report on that subject, and to give their opinion, and which is submitted to 
you, the apprehension of self-explosion has in no way any foundation what- 

Without direct ignition, gun-cotton may detonate between iron and iron 
if a heavy blow be struck ; but it is known that only that part explodes which 
was hit, without communicating ignition to the surrounding particles. If, 
however, even with an iron hammer, gun-cotton be struck a heavj- blow upon 
bronze or other soft metals, or upon stone, no detonation can take place. In 
every report of the Austrian Empiro Commissioners, that subject was con- 
sidered and disposed of as not impaii-ing the safety of manipulation. 

19. How far is it possible to regidate its explosive power ? — It has been 
established by experience that it is possible to moderate the force of gun- 
cotton within veiy extensive limits, and thereby to suit it to the different 
purposes without having ground for apprehension that variable effects would 
be the consequence ; that valuable property of gim-cotton, however, requires 
that the trials bo made under the superintendence of an expert, which will 
secm'e the desired effects to a certainty. 

20. What is its cost of manufacture ? — Supposing quantities which would 
produce equal effects, then its cost is considerably less than that of gun- 
powder ; under ordinary circumstances and normal prices of cotton, the cost 
of manufacture of gun-cotton is under fourteen pence per pound, but at the 
present high price of raw cotton its cost will be under twenty pence per 
poimd weight*. 

21 . Give us w7mt in your opinion are the essential points in the manufacture 
of gun-cotton. 

a. Cotton. — Any sort of cotton may be used for the production of gun- 
cotton, provided it be tolerably free from seed-capsules and oleaginous 
matter. Absence of the latter is indeed imperative ; hence factory cotton, as 
ordinarily obtained, must be digested in a weak alkaline solution, aa is usual 
in such cases. 

Other forms of lignine can be substituted for cotton to produce an explo- 
sive material — viz. flax, hemp, bog-grass, maize, straw, rags, sawdust, &c. 
I have given rules so as to meet the case of either of these ; however, it 
is only in some extraordinary cases that any of these materials are to be 
preferred to cotton ; further, idterior applications of the explosive material 
are much facilitated by the device of spinning into threads. 

* Baroii Lenk subsequently reduced this estimate. 

28 REPORT--1863. 

b. Nitric acid. — The nitric acid employed must be in the highest possible 
degree of concentration ; and here the remark should be made, that an impurity 
of hyponitric acid imparted to the acid by concentration, and which is difficult 
to eliminate, does not prejudice the acid for this special apphcation. 

c. Suljjhuric acid. — The ordinary commercial sulphuric acid of spec. grav. 
1'84 answers perfectly. 

d. Mixture of the acids. — This consists of one part hy iveigJit of nitric acid, 
and three jMrts (lueicjht) sulphuric «C(V/,— assuming the nitric acid employed to 
possess an average specific gravity of 1'485. If, however, the specific gravity 
should differ from the above, then cognizance of the amount of anhydrous 
acid supplies the data necessary for regulating the mixtiu-c. 

The mixture is effected by means of an apparatus represented by fig. 1.* 
The vessel C is filled with the predetermined quantity (equivalent to the re- 
quired weight) of nitric acid ; B and D with sulphiuic acid. This being done, 
the acids from the three vessels are allowed to run very slowly into F, in which 
is an agitator T, set in motion by the handle L. As soon as a portion of the 
two acids has been mingled in this manner, the mixtm-e is allowed to riui fi-om 
F to G, and the operation resumed as before. 

The reservoir Gr being completely filled, its contents must be set aside in 
closed vessels. It is advantageous to preserve the mixed acids a considerable 
time in the above vessels ; in no case must the mixture be used until it has 
become qiiite cold. 

e. Process of steeping. — Cotton-wool ordinarily absorbs about 6 per cent, 
of atmospheric moisture, which must be dissipated in a drying-room heated 
to 95° F. previous to dipping the cotton. 

Steeping is effected in an apparatus represented by figs. 2, 2a, and 2h. The 
apparatus, dming the process, is kept cool by a constant change of cold water 
poured into the vessel F. The chamber A contains a store of acid, B sixty 
pounds of the acid mixture, D represents the vessel in which the cotton is 
stored after dipping is accomplished. Two skeins (about 3 ounces) of dried 
cotton are dipped at one operation in the mixture contained in B, the spatiUa 
G being used to effect, by pressure, complete incorporation between acid and 
cotton ; in the next place, the cotton is to be removed from the bath, laid 
upon the rack C, and pressed to such extent that the amount of mixed acids 
left absorbed by the cotton be in the ratio of 10| lbs. of the former to 1 lb. 
of the latter. The cotton being now lifted into the vessel D, this is to be 
fiUed Mdth mixed acids, and the portion of acid absorbed made good by 
means of the tared spoon E, in such manner that the sm-facc in B may 
always maintain the same level for every additional portion of cotton dippecl. 

The vessel D filled in the manner prescribed, is at length set aside, the 
due proportion of its contents being regulated, if necessary : the regulation 
is easily accomplished after a little practice, but it is seldom requisite. The 
cotton is next compressed by the handle H in such manner that it is wholly 
covered by acid, to the further action of which it is left exposed for the space 
of forty-eight hours ; it must be cooled during that exposure, thiis guarding 
against the violent action of the acids resulting in decomposition. 

f. Ucmoval of acid from the gun-cotton. — This is performed by means of a 
centrifugal machine, the di-um of which is of copper, a material which 
lasts a considerable time ; after this manipulation, there still remain 3 lbs. 
of acid in the gun-cotton manufactured from 1 lb. of ordinary cotton. This 
must be got rid of by rapid water affusion applied in some convenient 

* This refers to a drawing exhibited at the time. See Plate III. 


More affusion, however, does not suffice to get rid of all the adherent acid, 
hence the cotton must remain for a yet longer period in a stream of water, 
natural or artificial. 

g. Impregnation of gun-cotton ivith soluble glass. — The object of this process 
is to close the pores of the gun-cotton fibre by silica precipitated within them, 
by which the velocity of explosion of gun-cotton is hereafter retarded ; 
moreover any lingering traces of acid that may remain are neutralized by 
combination with soda liberated from the soluble glass. This operation is 
performed by means of a centrifugal machine, into which a central tube 
passes for supplying the glass solution. By this arrangement the liquid is 
driven in very minute division tlu'ough the gun-cotton ; the glass solution 
employed has a density of 12^ Baumc. The material having been treated 
as described, has next to be dried by atmospheric exposure : as drying pro- 
ceeds, decomposition of the soluble glass goes on. Atmospheric carbonic acid 
uniting with soda, forms carbonate of soda, whilst sihca is precipitated. 

The carbonate of soda thus produced being soluble in water, can be got 
rid of hereafter by washing, whereas the precipitated silicic acid not being 
soluble, remains attached to the cotton fibres, protecting them from de- 
composition under atmospheric influences, however high the temperatiu'C 
may be. 

h. Treatment luith soap. — ^For many purposes it is desirable to retain the 
fibres of gun-cotton soft, in order to guard against the contingency of explo- 
sion fi'om very violent friction, gun-cotton being somewhat harsh to the touch. 

This is readily efl'ected by dipping the material, already treated with 
soluble glass and washed, jjrevious to final drying, into a soap ley, tlie excess 
of which is to be hereafter squeezed out, and the gun-cotton finally dried. 

22. Have you any special information to give the Committee respecting the 
practical applications of gun-cotton'l 

a. In general. — The proper utilization of gun-cotton presupposes a thorough 
knowledge of the nature of its energy and the bearing of its mechanical ad- 
vantages, in order that the object proposed may be gained thi-ough a favour- 
able choice of cii-cumstances. These influences are more perceptible with 
gun-cotton than with gunpowder, inasmuch as gun-cotton admits of variation 
from a point of inefficiency to one of highest energy. 

Ignited in an open space (i. e. not under pressure), the explosive efiect of 
gun-cotton is trifling, very much less than that of gunpowder. Ignited in 
spaces more or less closed, then in proportion as the closm-e is perfect does 
the explosion assimilate itself to that of gninpowder, the force of which under 
certain circumstances it considerably surpasses ; i. e. it is dependent on the re- 
sistance met with. The maximum of the explosive effect of gun-cotton is 
attained when the charge is so regulated, as to dimensions and form, that 
the whole of it becomes ignited before the yielding of any side of a vessel in 
which it is enclosed. 

The products of combustion of gun-cotton are wholly gaseous, whereas 
gunpowder by combustion yields only 31 per cent, of gas, whence it would 
seem that the energy of a charge of gunpowder should be nearly equalled by 
a charge of gun-cotton only one-thii-d of its weight. The available power 
of one part of g-un-cotton by weight, may, under certain circiunstances, bo 
raised to the effect of six parts by weight of gunpowder. 

b. Application of gun-cotton as a charge for smooth-hore guns.— The 
standard of reference was furnished by experiments conducted with a twehc- 
pounder bronze field piece, which gave results as follows ; — • 


REPORT 1863. 

The weight of shot, solid round, used was 12 lbs. 
Diameter of shot 4-5 inches. (English weight and measure.) 
Diameter of bore for gun-cotton 4-56 inches. 
Diameter of bore for gTinpowder 4-67 inches. 





General Observations. 


Length of Bore. 

Material of Charge. 








13i caUt 
IH , 
Hi , 

iH , 



Powder 3 lbs. 1 oz. 

Gun-cotton, 130 oz. 

7-5 in. 



1400 ft. 







"j Cartridges slightly 
1- compressed, filling 
J the whole space. 
1 Hollow cartridges re- 
\ ])rcsonted at Plate 
) II. fig. 2. 

The normal performance of ordinary powder-guns gives result I., as com- 
pared with gun-cotton. With gtm-cotton, when compressed charges were used, 
each of 13-6 oz., result II., gtin 2 ; the gun was not injured ; whUe with 
14-8 oz. of charge, after a few rounds, a considerable enlargement of the bore, 
where the shot lies, took place. A similar result happened to a second gun. 
No, 3, even with a charge of 13-6 oz., after the fii-st few shots. 

When one of the enlarged cartridges, represented at PI . II,, fig. 2, was 
used, occupying 1-1 of the powder-space, the gun's endurance was perfect, 
and no loss of effect was sustained, and its practice remained good, as proved 
by results set forth at III. and V., since equal (harrjes in very different spaces 
(i. e. in the ratio of 5 to 8) still produced equal results. 

In proportion as the tube is shorter, an increased charge is required 
(shown by results V., VI., VII.) ; yet the effect of a nonnal powder-gun and 
charge may be attained by a tube shortened from 13^ to 9 calibres : it foUows 
that guns to be used with gun-cotton may be constructed much shorter than 
if intended to be charged with gunpowder*. 

With the largest charge used, i. e. 17 ounces, about 1000 shots were 
fired from the same gun, without affecting the piece in the slightest— an en- 
durance very satisfactory, and considerably greater than has been experienced 
with gunpowder. 

This experiment was further continued for arriving at results by empirical 
means as to the strength of metal in various parts of the tube. 

The original tube, formed as depicted at PL I. fig. 2, was gradually turned 
off until it assumed the shape figured in. broken lines, but without any dis- 
advantageous effect. The metalhc strength of 3*7 inches close behind the 
seat of the baU, where, according to experience, the greatest strain takes place, 
and 1"'6 at the muzzle, were so moderate that for practical uses no farther 
diminution was desirable ; hence the experiments in this respect were dis- 

Finally, I turned my attention to the object of flattening the trajectory of 
projectiles with this gun, and succeeded to such an extent that a projectile 
fired from the gun horizontally pointed at targets set up at 100 yards from 
each other as far as 1200 yards struck at an even height at 3 feet from the 
ground, and fell ^vithout ricochet at about 3200 yards. 

An experiment made with a Krupp cast-steel 6-pounder, demonstrated 

* No dctaUa are given as to precision. 


that with harder and more resisting metal than bronze, the great power of 
gun-cotton might unhesitatingly be made use of to obtain a more energetic 
projectile force than would have been compatible with the use of gunpowder. 
The results are as follows : — 

A Krupp 6-pounder, cast steel, charged mth "1 1338 feet per second initial 
30 oz. of normal powder '. . . . J velocity of shot. 

A Krupp 6-pounder, cast steel, charged with \ 1563 feet per second initial 
13i oz. of gun-cotton J velocity of shot. 

In practice it is necessary with the use of gun-cotton to reduce the 
" windage " to a minimum ; otherwise larger charges must be used, and with 
no corresponding advantage, 

c. Application of gun-cotton to rifled ordymnce.—ThQ time may have ar- 
rived for breech-loaders, which have lately come into use under such good 
auspices, to be set aside in favour of mu.zzle-loaders, for the service of which 
gun-cotton offers such facilities, because of its leaving no solid residue after 
combustion, and because -windage admits of reduction to a minunum. 

The method of determining the condition of charge differs from the data 
given for smooth bores, in so far that the vehemence of explosion may be 
decreased by mechanical means — such as variation of length of chamber, 
regulating the mode of igiiition so as to attain a sufficiently favourable con- 
dition of starting of the projectUe from rest. This result was easily achieved 
(as demonstrated by experiments conducted in Austria) within the degrees 
of velocity hitherto deemed sufficient, as by the gun shown, PI. I. fig. 1, 
and cartridges, PI. II. fig. 1. 

To what extent these deductions may hold good a!; higher velocities, must 
be determined by further experiraents, which maybe expected, judging from 
present data, to give favourable results. 

The Austrian breech-loading guns (cast iron) of three service cahbres 
(6, 12, and 24-pounders charged -with 13, 30, and 60 lbs. weight projectiles 
respectively) answer perfectly when charged with gun-cottoi, provided the 
chambers are enlarged to 1-1 of the original capacity for powder. Eor larger 
charges, cartridges made in the form of a hoUow rope, similar to those used for 
blasting, would answer ; however, I have to remark that it is more necessary 
in rifled than in smooth-bore guns to reduce the windage to a mininum; 
this, on account of the surprising exactness of work in English factories, would 
be easy of accomplishment, and would raise the effect of gun-cotton. Expe- 
riments performed with a cast-steel gim of 3 inches diameter, weighing only 
50 lbs., firing hollow projectiles with effect to 3000 yards, demonstrate that, on 
account of the short length of tube necessary and the slight recoil, very light 
pieces can be made, PI. I. fig. 3 ; the carriage was about 40 lbs. weight. 

d. Application of gun-cotton to small arms. — In this respect it is important 
to observe that the plasters used with the old round-baU rifles were com- 
pletely torn so long as short cartridges were used. When I elongated the 
cartridges the plasters resisted perfectly, and practice -was very accurate; 
hence it is demonstrated that length is a very important element in the con- 
struction of smaU-arm cartridges. Experiment only can determine the ro- 
per length. 

One circumstance is not to be lost sight of — that w'th a very long cartridge 
the ignition of it in proper time may be difficult to achieve. Practice in the 
application of mechanical means is requisite to secure the proper explosion 
of long cartridges by igniting them well in front. Lastly, experience proves 
that in smaU-arm cartridges separation of the cotton into several layers, by the 

32 REPORT— 1863. 

interposition of paper, influences the result. SmaU-arm cartridges which have 
answered best are composed of three layers of flat woven gun-cotton with 
paper interposed. For the smaU-bore long range rifles used in England, the 
cartridges most suitable may be those represented at PI. II. fig. 3, the precise 
dimensions of them being fixed experimentally. On the 4th and 5th of 
July 1863, there was a prehmiuary trial at Manchester, during which it was 
found that no distortion of the projectiles ensued even when the proper 
conditions of charge were departed from by using too heavy charges. 

e. Application of gun-cotton to purpioses of mining. — Gun-cotton is more 
appropriate to this use than gunpowder, which it sui'passes in proportion as 
the mass to be blasted is more compact. Assuming a solid rock to be blasted, 
and that the proper condition of charge together with the proper distribution of 
holes have both been heeded, the relative proportions of gun-cotton and of 
gunpowder for producing an equal effect are 1 gun-cotton to G-27-i gunpowder 
(weight by weight), whilst the relative proportions for waU-blasting (masonry) 
are 1 gun-cotton to 2*25 gunpowder ; however, here the point must be noted, 
that when these experiments were performed the best shape of charge had 
not been determined. According to experiments more recently conducted, the 
form of charge for blasting which best answers is that of a lioUoiv twisted rope, 
according to sample ; the operation of charging is rendered thus very easy and 
safe — wooden tamping-rods being used until the charge is covered. Accord- 
ing to repeated experiments, the strongest friction of gun-cotton between 
stone is unattended with the slightest danger. For largo charges, it is to bo 
remembered that complete ignition is more difficult than the complete ignition 
of large powder charges ; to accomi^lish this result satisfactorily for mining- 
purposes, it is indispensable to fasten iip the gun-cotton in tiglitly closed 
vessels — which afford the necessary resistance, 7iot yielding until the ivhole mass 
of gun-cotton Jias become ignited. Experiments have proved that little barrels 
with strong hoops answer best. The proper construction of these restrainijig 
cases can be learned experimentally from models, when it will be remarked 
that no smolce results from explosion, and very little fire is seen. 

As a charge for hollow projectiles, gun-cotton substituted for gunpowder 
will produce similar effects; but then the space of shell is owlj partly filled, 
even when the bursting powder charge is raised to its maximum. An in- 
creased charge of gun-cotton may be employed ■udtli advantage, which thus, 
in comparison with gimpowdcr, will give an additional effect, partly referable 
to additional material used, and partly to the occurrence of a more rapid ex- 

With projectiles ha\TJig veiy small holes for filling, the accompanying 
samples were used, because of the ease vrith >vhich fiUing could be conducted. 
When projectiles with cylindiical bore, capable of being thro-wTi open, have 
to be filled, it would be advisable to insert cylindi-ical charges of gun-cotton 
previously compressed. A soft layer of felt is recommended to bo laid in- 
teriorly against the base of the projoctile^though this precaution does not 
seem to be imperative, no premature bursting having taken place in the 
course of any experiments. 

f. Application to fuse-purposes. — For fuses gun-cotton is woven (according 
to pattern given), then steeped in saltpetre and covered with a jacket of india- 
rubber. In this manner the progress of combustion is rapid (over 30 feet 
per second) ; the line wiU bear considerable pressure, and may even be folded 
crossways without fear of the fii-e leaping from one fold to the other. 

If ordinaiy gun-cotton thread be fii'cd in a train loosely, ignition is very 
slow, about 1 foot per second. 



V. — Extracts from a Report on Baron Lenk's Gun-cotton, hy Professors Dr. 
Redtenbacher, Dr. Schroitek, and Dr. Schneider, to His Excellency 
Field-Marshal Johanx Freiherr Kempen ton Fichtenstamji, President of 
the Royal Imperial Commission on Gun-cotton, June 1863. 

(1) "Difference between the French Gun-Cotton and Baron Lenk's. — Ac- 
cording to the method pursued by the French Commission, the raw cotton was 
immersed in the acid mixture for one hour. Baron Lenk leaves his cotton 
forty-eight hours in the acid bath. The French cotton was afterwards 
dipped in running water for an hour or an hour and a half. Baron Lenk's 
gan-cotton lies four, sis, or eight weeks in a stream. The French cotton 
had, after washing, so much free acid left, that wood-ash lye (a solution of car- 
bonate of potash, therefore) was neutralized by contact with it, and after long 
use became sour. Baron Lenk's cotton is so freed from acid by long immersion, 
that a two per cent, solution of potash, in which two cwt. of gun-cotton 
had been boiled, has lost none of its alkaline properties— that is to say, that 
the cotton was completely free from acids, as experiments wholly accordant 
with those of the Imperial (Austrian) Engineers' Committee fully demon- 
strated. The Fi'ench gun-cotton having been prepared in a manner so 
different, it must necessarily have had a different composition to that of Baron 
Lenk's ; hence it is clear that the French experimental results cannot, without 
considerable reserve, be accepted as precedents.'' 

(2) " Analysis of Austrian Gun-cotton. Lahoratory of Engineers' Committee, 


In 100 parts. 


No. 4. 




Hydrogen , 

University Laboratory, 1863. 

In 100 parts. 

No. 3. 

No. 6. 

No. 14. 










Hydrogen .... 





24-6 24-2 
2-6 2-7 





" If this analysis differs somewhat from the theoretical formula of the tri- 
nitro-cellulose, the circumstance must be remembered that cotton is not pure 
cellulose, but that it consists of long-extended vegetable cellules, in which 
there is always a little albuminous substance containing over 50 per cent, 
carbon, and 7 per cent, hydrogen, the presence of which even in such quan- 
tities easily increases the percentage of carbon and hydrogen. The treat- 
ment with soluble glass has no influence on Baron Lenk's gun-cotton, it 
being previously free from acids. Gun-cotton is always put into comparison 
as an explosive compound with gunpowder; but it must be remembered 
that one of the component parts of gunpowder (charcoal) is most irregular 

1863. D 


REPORT 1863. 

in quality, especially where the primitive method of preparing it is followed. 
Still, in theoretical disquisitions upon gunpowder, charcoal is taken into 
account as pure carbon." 

(3) " In the magazines cif gun-cotton at the Neustadter Haide, there are 
stores of various years. In the laboratory of the University there are samples 
of Hirtenberg gun-cotton of three several years, which have been examined 
by the above named artillery officers, and they have been found not to differ 
materially in their composition from trtaitro-cellulose. For instance — 

In 100 parts. 




No. 3, 

No. 6. 


No. 14. 










Hydrogen .... 


24-4 24-5 

2-7 2-8 





23 9 


" If these results are compared with each other, there can be no right to 
say that Hirtenberg gun-cotton alters by keeping. They agree as far with 
each other as analyses of the same material iisually do. It is to be regretted, 
on this as on many other accounts, that during the last twelve years such 
analyses were not fi'equently repeated. If the opponents of gun-cotton, ia 
performing an adverse experiment, heat the substance in a test-tube up to 
100° C, and holding litmus-paper over it, deduce from redness of the latter 
that gun-cotton changes after long keeping, they merely prove thereby that 
gun-cotton changes at 100° C. Of an explosive compound, it can only be 
required that it shall not deteriorate within certain limits of temperature, — a 
requisition amply fitl filled hy LeidvS gun-cotton. 

" Some varieties of gun-cotton, if enclosed together with litmus-paper in a 
tube, often manifest an acid reaction at ordinary temperature. This may 
arise from various causes. There may exist, for example, free acids. These 
acids may be the result of nitrogen partially oxidized, and may result from 
imperfectly worked cotton. This assumption granted, the phenomenon is 
explained, and the cause easily avoided. It may arise from decomposition of 
the gam-cotton, atmospheric dampness having brought about a partial recon- 
stitution of the cellulose." 

(4) " But some specimens of Lenk's cotton do not even yield traces of de- 
composition. A parcel of Hirtenberg cotton was laid for six weeks in a pond, 
and not subsequently treated with potash. It was then deposited in a 
running stream, afterwards exposed for one month to the aii-, being sub- 
jected to all the various influences of dew, rain, and sun, day and night con- 
tinuously. It retains aU its original explosive qualities, and fails to redden 
litmus-paper, even though the latter be wrapped in a mass of this cotton and 
allowed to remain for many days. The results of an analysis of this cotton 
were almost identical with the calculated elements of trinitro-cellulose, as 
the following Table makes apparent : — 

Calculated. Pound. 

Carbon 24-2 24-4 

Hydrogen 2-3 2-8 

(5) " Temperature at which Gtin-cotton ignites. — The rejection of gun-cotton, 
in consequence of the changeable nature or explosive quality of the material 
at low temperatm-es, is so thoroughly and decidedly contradicted in the Ee- 


port of Baron von Ebner, that it would be superfluous to go any further into 
this question — the lowest explosive temperature of the Hirtenberg gun-cotton 
being therein ^ed at 136° C, a temperature which, practically, cannot raise 
any doubts against the use of gun-cotton." 

(6) " Experimental proofs demonstrate that Lenk's Gun-cotton is not sponta- 
neously combustible. — The history of gun-cotton, as chronicled by chemists and 
artiUerists, short though the histoiy be, is so fuU of records of explosion under 
unexpected cii-cumstances, that an unbiased mind can hardly fail to be 
impressed with the behef that, amongst the ordinary conditions of military 
practice, there may be some competent to induce the spontaneous combus- 
tion of this material. Nevertheless the experience of Baron Lenk, acquired 
during a period extending over more than ten years, is more pregnant with 
reliable testimony than can be found in the entire remaining history of this 

" The onanufacture of gun-cotton in Hirtenberg consists of a number of 
perfectly harmless operations ; and it is remarkable that, contrary to what 
happens with gunpowder, if fire be not actually applied, explosion is impos- 
sible. All operations are so arranged that the material acted upon is in a 
moist_ or wet condition— hence not explosive. Drying takes place in a 
capacious building, on every side open to the air. ' The last process of drying 
is carried out in the drying- chamber, where it is efiected by a stove situated 

on the outside, distributing its heat to the building by earthenware pipes 

drying being thus ensured through a gentle warmth. The gun-cotton next 
goes either into a magazine to be packed away in chests, or is at once pre- 
pared for ammunition. In this magazine, Hirtenberg cotton has been stored 
for a period of twelve years, and not a single instance of explosion has taken 
place. How many powder-mills have exploded in that time ? In Prussia, 
however, a diying-chamber has lately blown up. Your Excellency has 
officially been informed, that in Prussia they have worked for eight years 
with gun-cotton, and not a single explosion has occurred except the last- 
named. In the Prussian drying-chamber referred to, a stove with iron 
smoke-pipe was used— a sufficient explanation of the misfortune. 

" During twelve years we have prepared gun-cotton at Hirtenberg for 
ammunition— that is, for yarns, spun ropes, and threads twisted and woven. 
One single case of explosion has occurred in the course of Baron Lenk's manu- 
facture, the result of improper speed of working the spinning machineiy. Now, 
the circumstance hardly need be insisted on, that gunpowder as well as gim- 
cotton can be exploded by friction. Gun-cotton has been used for military 
purposes now more than twelve years ; it has also been employed for mining 
and blasting. It has been subjected to every variety of transport. Packed 
m black wooden chests, it has been exposed to sunshine for months together— 
aU this without one single accident. In the face of such testimony, it cannot 
be SMd that gun-cotton manifests any tendency to explode spontaneously." 

( 7) " Lieutenant von Karolyi's analysis of the gases of combustion of Lenk's 
gun-cotton, which he made in the Chemical Laboratory of the Engineers' Corps 
Committee, may be seen in the ' Report of the Imperial Academy of Science ' 
vol. xlvii. Mathematical and Physical Part, p. 59, and is given in the following 
lable, in which the gases of combustion of powder according toBunsen (vicU 
Poggendorff, 4th series, vol. xii. p. 131) are cited in comparison with those 
01 e-un-cotton. 



REPORT 1863. 

Gases of Combustion. 
Volume per cent. 






1 « 

1 Gun-cotton. 


Nitrogen N . . . . 
Carbonic acid CO^. . . 
Carbonic oxide CO . . . 

Hydrogen H 

Sidphuretted hydi-ogen HS . . . 


Light carburetted hydrogen . . 


















Carbon 1-8 

Water 25-37 


" If we compare the gases of gunpowder with those of gun-cotton, we easily " 
see that the chemical action of the product of combustion of gun-cotton on 
the sides of the barrel, if there exists anj' action at all, must be smaller than 
with the use of gunpowder, because they are less oxidizing- gases than those 
of gunpowder. Should, therefore, bronze barrels be "burnt out " by the use 
of gun-cotton, cast steel may be then used instead of bronze, which, in fact, 
has been successfully done. Moreover bronze gun-barrels have withstood a 
sufficient number of rounds by using an adequate charge of gun-cotton with 
elongated cartridges. In this way no alteration of the bore prejudicial to 
the correctness of aim has taken place. From the steel barrel of a rifle, 
forty rounds have been fu-ed with gun-cotton cartridges, Avhich have hit the 
target 300 yards distant in an unexceptionable manner. After the said 
number of rounds, the barrel was internally as clean and ])olished as a mirror. 
It appears, then, that this problem is solved in a general and satisfactory 

(8) " Application of Gun-cotton to Minim/ Warfare. — Gun-cotton is also 
used for mining-purposes and mining warfare. On this subject nothing but 
what is favoni-able has been reported by the Imperial Engineers (vide Commu- 
nications of the R. I. Engineers' Committee, 1861, vol. i., by Moritz Bai-on 
von Ebner, Colonel of the Engineers). However, it is said that the gases of 
gun-cotton were more poisonous in mines than those of gunpowder, and there- 
fore the use of gun-cotton for mining warfare is not to be recommended. If 
we compare the result of Lieutenant Karolyi's analysis of the combustion-gases 
of gun-cotton with those of gunpowder as above given, we observe that both of 
them contain irrespirable gases ; further, that they contain qualitatively the 
same sort of ii-respirable gases ; and although the relative quantities of some of 
the gases from powder and gun-cotton are different, the effect of those gases 
leads to the same practical result, viz. that, after blowing up a mine, one cannot 
■without danger approach the spot of the explosion before renewing the air 
by ventilation. In this respect, we may say that the gases of gun-cotton will 
be more quicldy removed by ventilation than those of gimpowder, because 
the first-named contain a greater quantity of gases easily dissipated, since 
100 pounds of gunpowder contains 68 pounds of fixed solid matter, which 
alone suffices to make res juration almost impossible. It is not probable that 
an explosive compound will be found which will produce any other but irre- 
spirable gases. It is one and the same in practice, whether a cellar contains 
40 per cent, of carbonic acid and 10 per cent, carbonic oxide, or 30 per cent, 
carbonic oxide and 20 per cent, carbonic acid, inasmuch as no one could, 
■without danger of suffocation, enter such a cellar. Both the gases of gun- 
cotton and of gunpowder, according to Karolyi, may be ignited by a match." 




'Rfi^l W\'^ 





fin -^ 















t ^ 






Report on the Chemical Nature of Alloys. By A. Matthiessen^ F.R.S., 
Lecturer on Chemistry in St. Mary's Hospital. 

Otjr knowledge of this subject is at present very limited ; and, as far as we 
can ascertain, a liquid alloy of two metals may be either 

1. A solution of one metal in another, or 

2. A chemical combination, or 

3. A mechanical mixture, or 

4. A solution or mixture of two or all of the above. 

On the contrary, an alloy in the solid state may be either 

1. A solidified solution of one metal in the other, or 

2. A chemical combination, or 

3. A mechanical mixture, or 

4. A solidified solution or mechanical mixture of two or all of the above. 

Under the term solution of one metal in another, I imderstand one Kke that 
of ether and alcohol ; for these two liquids may be mixed in any proportion, 
and they ■v^tU not separate, by standing, into two layers. Oil and water, on the 
contrary, when shaken up well together, present for a moment a homogeneous 
mass, and as such may be considered a mechanical mixture of the two. The 
case of mixing ether and water together is somewhat different ; for ether 
dissolves a certain amount of water, and water a certain amount of ether : Avhen 
these liquids, say in equal parts, are shaken well together, then, as with oil 
and water, for a time a homogeneous mass will exist ; such a one, however, is 
not a mechanical mixture of ether and water, but a mechanical mixture of a 
solution of ether in water and of water in ether. Again, when sulphuric 
acid is added to a large quantity of water, the solution is not a simple 
one of sulphuric acid in water, but a solution of a chemical combination of 
sulphmic acid and water in water. 

tinder the teiin soHdificd solution, I understand a most intimate mixtnre, 
such as would occur in the sudden conversion of a solution into a solid, and a 
much more intimate mixture than can be obtained by ordinary mechanical 
means— in fact a perfectly homogeneous diffusion of one body in another. An 
excellent example of a homogeneous diffusion is furnished by glass, which is 
formed in the liquid state at a high temperature, and sohdifies on cooling 
without separation of the different silicates. But how are we to find out 
what an alloy is ? Chemistry only affords us means {hy coudysis) by which 
we are enabled to determine whether an alloy is a homogeneous mass or not 
thereby indicating the presence or absence of mechanical mixtures. 

This is not enough for us to determine the chemical nature of alloys ; we 
must therefore look elsewhere and see whether we cannot gain information 
on the subject ; and in doing so we shaU find that the study of their physical 
properties offers a means whereby the chemical nature of an alloy may be 

The physical properties may be divided into two classes — 

I. Those which do not indicate the chemical nature of the alloy. 

II. Those which do indicate the chemical nature of the aUoy. 

To the first belong, for instance — 

1. Siieeific Gravity. — On comparing those observed with those calculated, 
very little difference will be found between the values ; take as example those 
of the bismuth -lead alloys, and those of the metals tin and gold*. 

* PhU. Trans. 1860, p. 177. 


REPORT 1863. 

Bismuth-lead Series. 


Mean of 


specific gravity, 

from volume. 

Specific gravity 


Bi,„ Pb 




































Bi,, Pb 

Bi Pb 

Bi„ Pb 

Bi,„ Pb 

Bi Pb 

Bi„ Pb 

Bi, Pb 

Bi, Pb 

Bi Pb 

Bi Pb, 

Bi Pb, 

Bi Pb„ 

Bi Pb 

Bi Pb „ 

Bi Pb„ 

Bi Pb 

Tin-gold Series. 


Mean of 


specific gravity, 

from volume. 

Specific gravity 


Sn,„„ Au 


























Sn,„ All 

Sn^ Au 

Sn, Au 

Siig Au 

Sn„ Au 

SUg Au 

Sn, Au 

Sn Au 

Sn Au 

Sn Au 

Sn Au 

Now I do not tbitik it possible from such small differences as the above to 
deduce anything definite respecting the chemical nature of the alloys ; still, 
as we shall see, they help in some cases to confirm deductions from' other 

2, Crystalline Form.— When zinc and antimony are fused together in 


different proportions* and allowed to crystallize, the alloys containing from 
20-33 per cent, zinc crystallize in silver-white rhombic crystals, P : P (P : P 
at the terminal edges 118° 24:' and 95° 2-4', at the lateral edges 115° 30'), and 
those containing from 43-70 per cent, zinc in rhombic prisms of 117° 63' 
truncated at the edges. Further, it has been shown that the aUoys of tin 
and gold containing from 25-43-5 per cent, gold crystaUize all in the same 
formt. This is therefore an important point to bear in mind, for it follows 
that alloys of a definite crystalline form are not necessarily chemical com- 

3. Points of Fusion. — It is a matter of common observation that the fusing- 
point of a mixture is lower than the mean fusing-point of the constituents. 
The fluxes so weU known in metallurgy exemplify this, as also do the alloys, 
as well as mixtures of the sohd fatty acids. There is I beheve no case known 
where the fusing-point of a mixture is higher than the mean fusing-point. 
of the components. 

This fact admits of explanation as follows : — 

It is generally admitted that matter in a sohd state exhibits excess of attrac- - 
tion over repulsion, whilst in the liquid state these forces are balanced, and in 
the gaseous state repulsion predominates over attraction. Let us assume that 
similar particles of matter attract each other more powerfully than dissimilar 
ones attract each other. It will then follow that the attraction subsisting 
between the particles of a mixture will be sooner overcome by repiilsion than 
will the attraction in the case of a homogeneous body ; hence mixtures should 
fuse more readily than their constituents. 

To the second class of properties belong 

Coiuluctinij -Powers for Heat and Electricity. — According to some experi- 
menters the values obtained for the conducting-power of the metals J and 
alloys § for heat and electricity are the same; so that, if either of these pro- 
perties be determined for a series of alloys, we shall then be able to deduce 
their chemical nature : but before going into this subject more widely let me 
say a word respecting the other physical properties. To which of the two 
classes many belong it is at present impossible to say ; for the results obtained 
by different observers vary so much, and in most cases only a very few 
alloys have been experimented with. There is, however, no doubt that the 
determination of some of the other physical properties would materially aid 
us in ascertaining the chemical natui-e of the alloys ; but in order to obtain 
such results as will aid us in the inquiry, it is absolutely necessary to employ 
only purified metals. I do not say chemically piu'e ; for no chemist would give 
much credit to anyone stating that he had prepared 5 to 10 kilogrammes of 
any metals in a state of chemical purity, such being the quantities required 
to caiTy out one such research. The only manner to proceed in such cases is 
to satisfy oneself, by repeatedly purifying and by using metals of different 
preparations by different methods, that the amount of impurity remaining 
with the metal has no influence on the results obtained. For of what use is 
a research into the physical properties of the metals and theii- alloys made 
vsith impure metals, when we know that traces of impurity materially affect 
and alter them ? 

I will now proceed to show how we may deduce the chemical nature 

* J. P. Cooke, Journ. Amer. Acad., New Series, vol. v. p. 337. 
t Matthiessen and v. Bose, Proc. Eoyal Soc. (1861) vol. xi. p. 433. 
} Wiedemann and Franz, Pogg. Ann. vol. IxxxLs. p. 497- 
§ Wiedemann, Pogg. Ann. vol. cviii. p. 393. 


EEPORT 1863. 

of alloys in a solid state, from the determination of their conducting-powers 
for electricity*. 

The number of alloys experimented with was upwards of 250 ; they were 
all made of purified metals, and their conducting-power determined with a 
modification of Wheatstone's balance, arranged by Kirchhoff, under whoso 
direction the fii'st results were obtainedf. The method of observation 
emanating from such a distinguished physicist is a suificient proof of its 
accuracy and trustworthiness. And here a great difficulty in carrying out 
such researches may be mentioned ; for one is apt to fall into one of two errors: 
either the metals used for the experiments are not pure, or the method em- 
ployed for the determinations is faulty. Thus, for instance, compare the 
experiments on the influence of temperature on the electric conducting-power 
of the metals between 0° and 100°. Calling the conducting-power of each 
at 0° 100, at 100° it is, according to 

Conducting-power at 100° 

, ^ -^ 

Conductine- t i. a ji e -d in Matthiessen 

power at 0° ^^"^'^ Arndtsen§. Becquerel||. &^.Boset. 

Silver .... 100 74-5 74-5 71-3 716 

Copper .... 100 777 71-7 70-8 70-3 

Gold 100 84-9 .... 74-6 71-7 

Zinc 100 73-1 71-2 

Cadmium . . 100 .... .... 71-2 70-7 

Iron 100 .... 68-3 67-9 61-2** 

Tin 100 71-8 61-8 70-1 

Platinum . . 100 .... 75-4 84-3 

lead 100 71-4 72-6 69-7 70-4 

Antimony.. 100 70-5 

Arsenic 100 69-9 

Bismuth . . 100 70-7 

Now Lenz and Arndtsen experimented with commercially pure metals. 
Arndtsen remarks at the end of his paper, " From the foregoing data it ia 
very probable that the influence of tcmj^erature on the conducting-power of 
all metals in the state of absolute purity would be found to be in all cases 
the same." Bccquercl, on the contrary, used pure metals for his experiments, 
but his method of observation was very indifferent. The results given in the 
last column were obtained hj the employment of KirchhofF's arrangement of 
Wheatstone's balance, as well as pure metals. On looking at the above, it 
is obvious that from the last series we may deduce the law that the conduct- 
ing-power of pure metals (iron excepted) decreases between 0° and 100° in 
the same degree ; whereas from the others the existence of the law is only 

The conclusions drawn from the research on the electric conducting- 
power of alloys were as follows : — 

That in respect to this property the metals may be divided into two classes. 

A. Those metals (lead, tin, zinc, and cadmium) which when alloyed with 
each other conduct electricity in the ratio of their relative volumes. 

B. Those metals (bismuth, antimony, i^latinum, palladium, iron, aluminium, 
gold, copper, silver, and probably most of the other metals) which when 

« Phil. Trans. 1860. + Phil. Mag. Dec. 1859. 

J Pogg. Ann. vol. xxxiv. p. 418, and vol. xlv. p. 105. § Pogg. Ann. vol. civ. p. 1. 

II Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. (3) vol. xvii. p. 242. 

% Phil. Trans. 1862, p. 1. ** Proc. Boyal Soc. vol. xii. p. 472. 


alloyed with one another, or with one of those belonging to Class A, do not 
conduct electricity in the ratio of their relative volumes, but always in a lower 
degree than that calculated from the mean of their volumes. In the above 
statement I have assumed the theoretical conducting-power of an alloy equal 
to that of the components, under the supposition that each of them is a separate 
wire, lying side by side, and soldered together at the ends. 

If we now look at the curves representing the conducting-power of the 
different series of alloys, we shall find that (see Plate V.) — 

I. Those belonging to the alloys made of the metals of Class A with one 
another are almost straight Unes. As type the lead-tin curve is given. 

II. The curves of those made of the metals of Class A with those of Class B 
show a rapid decrement on the side beginning with the metal belonging to 
Class B, and then turning and going in a straight line to the other side, 
namely to the Class A metal. As type the tin-copper curve is given. 

III. The curves of those made of the metals of Class B with one another 
show a rapid decrement on both sides of the curve, and the tiu'ning-points 
connected with each other by nearly straight lines. As type the gold-silver 
curve is given. 

The curves, then, representing the eonducting-powers of the alloys having, 
according to the class of metals of which they are made, almost always the 
same form, we may, if we know to which class the metals composing them 
belong, draw a curve which will approximately represent the conducting- 
power of a series of alloys. Of the exceptions to this rule I shall presently 

Let us now examine the first group of alloys, and see what grounds there 
are for supposing that the solid alloys belonging to it are only solidified 
solutions of the one metal in the other. In order to do this, I shall show that 
they are neither mechanical mixtures (with exception of the lead-zinc alloys) 
nor chemical combinations. 

First. If they were mechanical mixtures, the metals composing them, if 
their specific gravities were not the same, would separate into two layers 
when fused and cooled slowly, as in the cases of the lead-zinc alloys*; for 
when these two metals (say equal parts) are fused together and allowed to 
cool slowly, they separate into two layers, the upper one (zinc) containing 
1-2 per cent, lead, and the lower one (lead) with 1-6 per cent. zinc. Now if, 
instead of cooling the mixtiu-e slowly, it had been cooled rapidly, such an 
aUoy might be regarded as a mechanical mixture of a solidified solution of 
lead in zinc and zinc in lead, or if weU mixed in a liquid state, such a 
mixture would be analogous to one of ether and water when shaken up well 
together, and not as one of lead and zinc analogous to oil and water. 

A true mechanical mixture of two metals, either in the liquid or solid state 
is I believe not known. 

That the alloys of lead and tin, for instance, are not mechanical mix- 
tures, is proved by their not separating into two layers on being slowly 
cooled after fusion ; for, if they were, they would behave like lead and zinc, 
as tin and zinc have nearly the same specific gravities, that of tin being 7-293 
and that of zinc 7' 148. 

2ndly. If these alloys were mechanical mixtures of the metals eomposino- 
them, we should not be able to press homogeneous -wires ; now it has been 
proved that wires of the same alloy have the same conducting-power, whether 
tested at the end coming first or last out of the press, or whether pressed at 
different times, 

* Matthiessen and v. Bose, Proc. Eojal See. toI. xi. p. 430, 

43 REPORT— 1863. 

That these alloys in the solid state are not chemical combinations is 
indicated, First, by their having the theoretical conducting-power, as well 
as the theoretical percentage decrement * in their conducting-power between 
0° and 100° C. ; for the following law has been found to hold good for all 
alloys of the first and third groups, as well as for a part of those belonging 
to the second : The observed percentage decrement in the conducthig -power of 
an alloy between 0° and 100° C. is to that ccdculated between 0° and 100° C. as 
the observed conducting-power at 100° C. is to that calculated at 100° C, 
Secondly. It may be urged that the solidifying point not always being the 
same as the point of fusion (for instance, in the lead-tin alloys), and the 
existence of the so-called stationary points, is a sign of chemical combination. 
They certainly do point to the probable existence of chemical combinations in 
the liquid aUoy, but not in the soUd. That chemical combinations may exist 
at high temperatures in a fused mass, which suffer decomposition on cooling 
or solidifying, becomes very probable from the following experiment : — A\Tien 
iron and excess of iodine are heated together in a stout glass tube, the iodine 
combines with the iron to form a compoimd, which decomposes with evolu- 
tion of iodine on being cooled, the protiodide of ii'on remaining behindf. 
Wanldyn and Carius, who made the above observation, suppose that at the high 
temperature the periodido of iron is formed, and that, on cooling, this salt 
splits up into the protiodide of iron and free iodine. May we not assume that 
what has been shown to occur with iodine may also occur with other elements 
— oxygen, for instance, it forming with some bodies at high temperatm-es 
oxides which suffer decomposition ■svith evolution of oxygen at lower ones. 
This would then give us the explanation of the spitting of silver. Supposing, 
therefore, that chemical combinations can exist at high temperatui'es which 
suffer decomposition on cooling, we can then understand why some alloys 
fuse at one temperature and solidifj" at a lower one : for example, the tin- lead 
alloys, according to PUlichodyt, 

Sn^Pb. SnsPb. Sn^Pb. SnPb. SnPb,,. SnPbj. SnPb^. 

Fuse 187 181 197 235 270 283 292 

Solidify.. 181 181 181 181 181 181 181 

who makes the following remarks on them : — " When the points of solidifica- 
tion are observed by immersing the thermometer in the melted alloy, it 
usually exhibits, dui'ing the passage of the mass from the liquid to the solid 
state, two stationary points. This effect is due to the separation of one or other 
of the component metals, while an alloy of constant composition still remains 
liquid. This alloy has the composition of Suj Pb. An aUoj^ richer in lead 
would first deposit lead, and an alloy containing a lai'ger proportion of tin 
would fii'st deposit tin, — the aUoy Sn^ Pb remaining liquid for a longer or 
shorter time, and iiltimately soHdifying at 181°. This temperature therefore 
corresponds to the lowest melting-point that can be exhibited by an alloy of 
tin and lead, a larger proportion of either metal causing the melting-point to 

These low fusing-points are no proof of the existence of chemical combina- 
tions in the solid alloy, but admit of explanation by assuming that chemical 
attraction between the two metals comes into play as soon as the temperature 
rises, and the moment the smallest portions melt, then the actual chemical 
compound is formed which fuses at the low temperature, and then acts as a 

* Matthiessen and Vogt, Proceedings of tbe Koyal Society, vol. xii. p. 662. 
t Liebig's Ann. vol. cxx. p. 69. X Journ. Chem. Soo. vol. xv. p. 30. 


solvent for the particles of metal next to it, and so promotes the combination 
of the metals where this can take place. When the alloy Sn Pb^, for instance, 
solidifies, it must not be strictly regarded as a homogeneous diffusion of tin 
and lead in one another, if PiUichody's statement be correct (although it wiU 
not be far from it, as aU the tin-lead alloys have the theoretical conducting- 
power), but rather as a homogeneous diffusion of tin and lead in one another 
fi'om the formation of the aUoy Sug Pb, with the excess of lead mechanically 
diffused through the mass, as this, according to him, separates out before the 
aUoy Sug Pb solidifies. 

With respect to the chemical nature of these and other alloys in a liquid 
state httle is kno'wn ; it is, however, very necessary to draw a line between 
the soM and the liquid alloy, when speaking of their chemical constitution. 
No doubt the determination of the electric conducting-power of the liquid will 
throw much light on their chemical nature. The investigation of those 
where the so-called stationary points have been observed, and where the 
melting and solidifying points do not coincide, wiU be especially interesting. 
As yet, I believe, no such observations have been made. 

Passing on now to the alloys of the second group, the question for consider- 
ation will naturally be, what is the cause of the rapid decrement in the 
conducting-power of Class B metals when alloyed with traces of one of the 
Class A metals (in the solid alloy) ? 

That it is not due to the formation of chemical combinations, is proved by 
the following : — 

I. At the turning-points of the curves representing the conducting-power 
of this group of aUoys they contain only very small percentages of the Class A 
metal. Thus, at those of the alloys 

Percentage of 

Bismuth-tin tin 0-6 

Bismuth-lead lead 2*0 

Silver-tin tin 2-6 

II. The great similarity of the curves of this group speaks greatly against 
the existence of chemical combinations in the sohd alloy. The curves of the 
following series show this in a very marked degree : — the bismuth -lead, bis- 
muth-tin, copper-tin, copper- zinc, silver-lead, sUver-tiu. 

III. On examination of that part of the curve where the rapid decrement 
takes place, we find that it requires about twice as much lead as of tin to 
reduce the conducting-power of the Class B metal to the same extent : thus, 
to reduce that of silver to 67, it would require 0-9 vol. per cent, of lead, or 0-7 
per cent, of tin; and to reduce it to 47*6, 1-4 vol. per cent, lead, or 0-7 per 
cent. tin. Again, to reduce bismuth to 0-261, it would require 0-4 vol. per 
cent, lead, or 0-62 per cent, tin ; and to reduce it to 0-255 with lead, or to 
0-245 with tin, it requires 1-76 vol. per cent, lead, or 0-85 per cent, tin *. 

From these facts we can hardlyassume that the rapid decrement in the curve of 
the Class B metal is duo to the existence of chemical combination. The reason 
of this great decrement in the conducting-power might be looked for in the pro- 
cess of sohdification, for it is well known what a great effect traces of foreign 
metals have on the crystalline structui-e of some metals. Cooke has, I think, 
stated that absolutely pure antimony crystallizes with great difficulty, — an ob- 
servation which I can corroborate ; for, when trying to obtain crystals of that 
metal for thermo-electric experiments, I found that the purer the antimony 
the smaller the crystals, in fact I could not obtain any for my purpose. 

* Phil. Trans. 1860, p. 171. 

44 REPORT — 1863. 

Again, Mr. "W. Baker (of Sheffield) infonns me that just the converse takes 
place with lead ; for the jiurer the lead the larger the crystals. Now, these 
facts heing known, it seemed possible that in alloying some metals with traces 
of others, either the crystalline form of the alloy might be altered or the 
tendency to crystallize increased or decreased, and thus cause the great change 
in the conducting-power. This supposition is, however, proved wrong by the 
following experiments* : — 

I. If to melted tin traces of lead or bismuth be added, a decrement in the 
conducting-power is observed which increases vnth each successive addition of 

II. If to melted lead traces of tin be added, an increment in the conducting- 
power is observed ; if, on the contrary, bismuth be added, a decrement. 

III. If to melted bismuth traces of tin or lead be added, a decrement ; but on 
further addition, an increment in the conducting-power will be observed. This 
behaviour corresponds with that of these metals in the solid state ; in fact, if 
the conducting-powers of a series of these alloys in a liquid state were deter- 
miaed, the curve representing them would in all i^robabUity be similar to 
that of the alloys in a solid state. 

The explanation which I would offer of the cause of this behaviour is as 
follows : — 

Let it be assumed that the metals belonging to Class B, when they are 
alloyed either with one another or with one of Class A, undergo a change (in 
otherwords, are converted into an allotropic modification), and that this change 
is brought about by a small quantity of the other metal, the quantity of the 
metal required to complete the conversion being dependent on the metal em- 
ployed. With the help of this hypothesis, we are able to explain many of the 
phenomena which occur -when making the alloys, as weU as the reason of the 
marked change in most of the physical properties of some metals when alloyed 
with traces of another. 

A few examples will show this clearly. Take, for instance, the case of the 
zinc-copper alloys, the curve representing the conducting-power of these 
alloys has the same form as those of the other alloys belonging to this groiqi, 
and the percentage decrement in their conducting-power between 0° and 100° 
is exactly that which would have been deduced from the law which regulates 
this property. From these results it may be deduced that solid alloj-s of zinc 
and copper are only solidified solutions of zinc and of an allotropic modifica- 
tion of copper in one another. 

Some experimenters have expressed their opinion that there exist chemical 
compounds ia these aUoys ; and they base their supposition on the following 
facts : — 

I. ^Mien zinc is added to copper in the melted state, a great evolution of 
heat is observed. 

II. That some of the zinc-copper alloys crystallize more readily than others. 
Storer,in his papert "On the Copper-zinc Alloys," states, "It is a well-known 

fact that the combination of copper with zinc is attended with ebullition of 
considerable violence, so that portions of the melted mass are often thrown to 
a distance of several feet from the crucible. Yet it does not appear to have 
been previously noticed by chemists that this action is much more energetic 
while the first portions of zinc are being added to the copper, and that the 
loss of zinc by volatihzation is far greater at this time than at any subsequent 
stage of the operation." This fact may be explained by assuming that the specific 
heat of the allotropic modification of copper is less than that of copper in its 

* Mattliiessen and Vogt, Phil. Mag., March 1862. 
t Memoirs of the American Academy, vol. viii. p. 26. 


ordinary state ; hence tlie great evolution on the addition of the first portions 
of zinc to the melted copper, for it only requires a small quantity of zinc to 
convert copper into its allotropic modification. Person has already proved that 
heat is evolved when melted lead is added to melted bismuth, and ho explains 
it by assuming that the specific heat of the alloy is less than that of the com- 
ponent metals. The great evolution of heat might possibly be an indication 
of the existence of chemical compounds in the liquid alloy ; but of this we 
have at present no data upon which we can go, as very little is known as to 
the behaviour of these aUoys in a hquid state. 

Storer in the same paper* states, " Upon the assumption that the crystals 
of the alloys of copper and zinc belong to the regular system, as well as upon 
the fact that none of the crystals have been found to contain any larger 
quantity of the component metals than was contained in the remainder of the 
molten liquid from which they were separated, I have based my conclusion 
that the alloys of copper and zinc are isomorphous mixtures of the two metals ; 
on this hypothesis it is of course presumed that both copper and zinc are 
capable of crystallizing in the regular system." And, further on, " Indeed 
these fibres, although described by Calvert and Johnson as prismatic crystals 
indicating that the alloy Cu Sn is a definite chemical compound, are evidently 
nothing more than a collection of octahedral crystals, similar to those which 
form the fibres of sublimed sal-ammoniac and of several metals." 

This answer, respecting the existence of chemical compounds in these alloys, 
is sufficient to prove their non-existence, more especially when it has been 
shown, which I have already pointed out in this Eeport, that alloys of a de- 
finite crystalline form are not necessarily chemical compounds. 

Storer, as will be seen from the above, has arrived at nearly the same con- 
clusions with regard to the chemical nature of these alloys as I have done, 
the main difference being that he has not taken into consideration the marked 
change in most of the physical properties of copper when it is alloyed with 
traces of zinc. 

It has been shown that the action of reagents on these alloys is diff'erent to 
their action on the two metals in contact with one another, and that this 
is an indication of the existence of chemical compounds. By the above 
hypothesis, this behaviour may be explained by assuming that the action of 
reagents on the allotropic modification of copper is not the same as their action 
on ordinary copper ; when, therefore, Ave try the action of diff'erent reagents 
on alloys, we cannot expect to find the same results as when experimenting 
on the metals unalloyed in contact with one another. Another reason for 
the different action of reagents on alloys and on the metals in contact with 
one another is, that in every case one metal is attacked more easily than the 
other, so that after a certain time the mass of the alloy becomes covered with 
a coating of the more difficultly soluble metal, whereby it is protected from 
the further action of the reagent (gold-assaying). 

What was said of the lead-zinc alloys may also apply to those of bismuth- 
zinc ; for when these metals are fused together, they do not mix with each 
other, but sepai-ate into two layers, the upper one (zinc) containing 2-4 per 
cent, bismuth, and the lower one (bismuth) with from 9 to 14 per cent. zinc. 
Here then, again, we have another example of mechanical mixture ; for if these 
metals were mixed together in a liquid state, such a mixture would be one of 
a solution of the allotropic modification of bismuth in zinc, and one of zinc in 
the allotropic modification of bismuth ; or if the mixture were cooled rapidly, 
it would be a mechanical mixtm-e of a solichfied solution of the allotropic 

* Memoirs of the American Academy, vol. viii. p. 29. 

46 REPORT 1863. 

modification of bismuth in zinc, and of zinc in the allotropie modification of 

The above hypothesis explains also why bismuth, when alloyed in the 
liquid state, with traces of lead or tin shows a decrement, but on further 
addition an increment in the conducting-power ; for it may be assumed that 
the metals of Class B, when alloyed in the liquid state with traces of 
another, are also converted into an allotropie modification. This is an import- 
ant deduction ; for it shows that the hypothesis will hold good, not only for 
alloys in a solid, but also for alloys in a Uquid state. Passing on to another 
series of alloys belonging to this group — namely, the tin-gold series, — it will 
be seen that the curve representing the conducting-power of these alloys has 
not the typical form of this group. If it be examined, it will be found that 
the causes of the irregularities are chemical combinations. Beginning at the 
tin side of it, we find a slow decrement in the conducting-power to the alloy 
Suj Au, then a gradual increment to Su^ An, and from this point a slow de- 
crement to Sn Au.,. Owing to the brittleness and infusibility of the alloys 
between Sn Au.^ and that containing 2*7 per cent, tin, no alloy within these 
limits could be pressed or drawn into wii'o. From the alloy containing 2-7 per 
cent, tin to pure gold, the curve becomes a straight line. 

That the alloys at these turning-points may be regarded as chemical 
combinations, is proved by the following facts (see Plate V.) : — 

I. That these points represent alloys of definite chemical composition. 

II. That they represent alloys containing largo percentages of each metal, 
Sn. Au containing GO per cent., Sn^ Au 37 per cent., and Sn Au^ 13 per cent, 

III. That the specific gravity of the alloy Sn. Au is almost equal to that 
calculated, whereas Sn^ Au expands, and Sn Au.^ contracts more than any of 
the other tin-gold alloys experimented with. 

lY. That the percentage decrement in conducting-power of these alloys 
between 0° and 100° does not foUow the before-mentioned law. 

Y. That tin and gold dissolve in one another with great readiness ; for if 
to melted tin gold be added, it dissolves in the tin immcchately, and evolves 
so much heat that it is necessary not to add too much at once for fear of 
losing the contents of the crucible. Copper, on the contrary, placed in melted 
tin, takes a long time to dissolve in it. Assuming that some of the solid gold- 
tin alloys are chemical compounds, we then have examples of sohd alloys 
which are solidified solutions of a metal (tin) and a chemical compound 
(SUj Au) in one another, represented by the part of the curve between pure 
tin and Sn. Au — or solidified solutions of two chemical combinations in one 
another (Sn, Au and Sn.^ Au), represented by that part of the curve between 
Sn^ Au and Sn„ Au, and between Sn^ Au and Sn Au^. 

After what has been already stated, the third group of alloys will require 
very little to be said with regard to their chemical natiu'e; it is only 
necessary to point out that most of them are only solidified solutions of the 
allotropie modifications of the metals in one another. The ciu-ves repre- 
senting the conducting-power of the difi'erent series of alloys all have the 
typical form ; and the conducting-power decreases between 0° and 100° ac- 
cording to the theoretical amount. 

The alloys of copper-silver, however, form an exception ; for some of these 
alloys may be regarded as mechanical mixtures. According to Levol, when 
silver and copper are fused and well stirred together*, if allowed to cool 

* Journ. de Pharm. vol. rvii. p. 111. 

X^'r' Ap.v 

100 90 



100 9 

90 ■■■■■■■■■■ 



; ::::;:: 







"" ■ T ■ ■ 

!i 4 



9 X 





} i- 

- : : : : i : 

' ll.-fw'-l fltifirh jitto.-. ISli:i- 


slowly, different parts of tlie alloy will be found to contain different percent- 
ages of metal. 

Having shown, by examples taken from different groups of alloys, how 
their chemical nature may be indicated by the determination of their con- 
ducting-power for electricity, I will proceed to classify the solid aUoys com- 
posed of two metals, according to their chemical nature : — 

1. As solidified solutions of one metal in another, we hare the lead-tin, 
cadmium-tin, zinc-tin, lead-cadmium, and zinc-cadmium aUoys. 

2. As solidified solutions of one metal in the allotropic modification of the 
other, the lead-bismuth, tin-bismuth, tin-copper, zinc-copper, lead-silver, 
and tin-silver aUoys. 

3. As solidified solutions of the aUotropic modification of metals in one 
another, the bismuth-gold, bismuth- silver, paUadium-silver, platinum-silver, 
gold-copper, and gold-silver alloys. 

4. As chemical combinations, the alloys the composition of which is re- 
presented by Suj An, Sn, Au, and An, Sn. 

5. As solidified solutions of chemical combinations in one another, the alloys 
whose composition lies between Sn. Au and Sn^ Au, and Sn^ Au and Au^ Sn. 

6. As mechanical mixtures of solidified solutions of one metal in another, 
the alloys of lead and zinc when the mixture contains more than 1-2 per cent, 
lead or 1"6 per cent. zinc. 

7. As mechanical mixtures of solidified solutions of one metal in the aUotropic 
modification of the other, the aUoys of zinc and bismuth when the mixture 
contains more than l-L per cent, zinc or 2-4 per cent, bismuth. 

8. As mechanical mixtures of solidified solutions of the allotropic modifi- 
cations of the two metals in one another, most of the silver-copper alloys. 

With regard to the hypothesis which I have brought forward in this Report, 
I would point out that it serves to explain the phenomena which take place 
when some metals are alloyed with others. The assumption of the existence 
of the allotropic modifications of the metals explains the turning-points of the 
curves which represent aUojs containing very small percentages of the one 
metal ; for at these points it is assumed that the conversion into the allotropic 
condition is complete. It must be borne in mind that most of the other phy- 
sical properties of the metals belonging to Class B are also altered in a marked 
degree by the addition of a small percentage of another metal: take, for 
instance, the case of gold or silver, and alloy them with traces of tin or lead, 
and how altered are the tenacity and ductility of the alloy so formed ! 

Until, however, the allotropic modifications have been isolated, the assump- 
tion made in this Eeport must remain an hypothesis. A fact may be mentioned 
in its support ; namely, sulphur when heated to a temperatui-e of 60°, and 
then cooled rapidly, is converted into an allotropic modification. Dietzenbach 
has observed that this conversion is brought about at 120° if ^^ of iodine be 
added to the sulphur, showing that the presence of a small quantity of iodine 
has a marked effect on the conversion of sulphur into an aUotropic condition. 

It may be asked. How can we deduce the chemical nature of a series of 
aUoys from the determination of a physical property such as their conducting- 
power for electricity ? We reply, from this property taken alone it is impos- 
sible to draw any conclusion of the kind, but that since, in the case of those 
alloys whose constitiition is known by direct chemical and other evidence 
(silver-copper (Level), zinc-copper (Storer), gold-silver), their conducting- 
.power is found to be such as their chemical constitution would lead us to ex- 
pect, this property may legitimately be taken in evidence as to the nature of 
those aUoys which have not been examined chemicaUy, and that in this respect 

48 REPORT— 1863. 

the property in question stands exactly upon the same footing as other physical 
properties, such as specific vokime, specific heat, isomorphism, &c., which do 
not directly indicate anything with regard to the chemical properties of 
bodies, but which, after having been found to bear a relation in very many 
cases to those properties, are safely taken as guides in drawing conclusions as 
to the natuj'e of bodies whose chemical character is as yet unknown. 

On the Chemical and Mineralogical Constitution of the Granites of 
Donegal, and of the Rocks associated tviih them. 

By a Committee consisting of Eobert H. Scott, Sir R. Griffith, Bart., and the 
Eev. S. Haughton, M.D., F.R.S., appointed at the Manchester Meeting, 

The county of Donegal consists to a great extent of metamorphic rocks. 
However, in its southern portion there is a district in which strata belonging 
to the Carboniferous period are found. The granites of the county, which 
are the main subject of this report, arc found in several localities. The most 
extensive appearance of rocks of this nature is in a tract whose longer dia- 
meter is about 30 miles in length, and coincides nearly exactly with the axis 
of the valleys of Gweebarra and Glenveagh, which traverses the county in a 
direction from N.E. to S.W. In Glenveagh the granitic district is confined 
to the valley itself, and is flanked on each side by other rocks ; but as soon as 
we reach the head of that glen, we find that the granite extends over the 
whole country to the westward, and forms almost the entire coast fi'om 
Bloody Foreland to the mouth of the Gweebarra Eiver. 

Closely connected with this tract of granite are the isolated patches of the 
same rock which are found at several points, such as Ardara, Urrismenagh 
(near Dunaft' Head), and Ardmalin — all of them situated nearly along the line 
of the great valleys before mentioned. Granite also appears in small quantity 
in Fanad and Rossguill, and on the south coast of Arranmore Island. The 
granite of the Bluestack and Barnesmore Moimtains, in the S.E. of the county, 
is very dissimilar in its appearance to that of the western district ; and although 
they may be generalized in a map sufficiently under a common designation, yet, 
from internal c-vidence, we are not disposed to consider them to be connected 
with each other. 

The other rocks which occur in the district which comes under our notice 
are gneiss, mica slate, quartz-rock, grit, crystalline limestone, and a variety 
of syenitic* rocks, which do not difi'er much from each other in chemical 
constitution, although they are very dissimilar in texture. The true gneiss 
(as distinguished from gneissose granite) and the mica slate are found chiefly 
in the south of the county. 

Before we proceed to discuss the chemical composition of the granites, it 
may be well to give a sketch of the geological features of the district, as 
observed during the several tours made by the members of the Committee in 
pursuit of this investigation. On one of these Mr. Jukes, Local Director of 
the Irish Geological Survey, was kind enough to accompany us and give us the 
benefit of his valuable assistance and experience of similar rocks in Ifew- 

* The term syenite is used for aiiy coarsely crystalline rock containing, as its most im- 
portant constituent, a hornblendic mineral, associated with a feldspar, and occasionally 
with quartz or mica, or both. Some analyses of these rocks are given in Table VI. p. 62. 


We stall commence the description of the county with an account of the 
rocks observed in Innishowen, and proceed in a S.W. direction from that 
barony. In the north of Innishowen the rocks consist of grits, crystaUine 
limestones, mica-slate, and a variety of igneous rocks (greenstones and 
syenites). The whole of these rocks are contorted considerably about Culdaff, 
and from that to Malin Head they exhibit a consecutive section, of which the 
dips increase as you go westward, the beds being nearly horizontal at Culdaff 
and along the shore towards Glengad Head. 

The grits of this part of the county are true grits, not having been suffi- 
ciently metamorphosed to form quartzites until we reach a more westerly 
point. There are a few beds of potstone and soapstone scattered through 
the argillite beds, but they are not of so much importance as those found at 
Convoy, Crohy Head, and in other parts of the county. 

There is also found in the mica-slate a series of beds of chalcedonio 
conglomerate, which is very characteristic of this district. Of this conglo- 
merate the cement is micaceous, and the pebbles are mainlj^ siliceous (of the 
chalcedonic variety), but consist also of feldspar and of portions of the mica- 
slate itself. Similar conglomerates to these are described by Mr. MacFarlane* 
as a characteristic feature of the Hurouian Series of Canada, and of their 
Norwegian equivalents, called by Naumann the TeUemarken Quartz -formation, 
from the district of that name in the south of Norway. Keilhauf says of 
them, that they occur in repeated alternations ^dth hornblende rock ; the 
cement is micaceous, and the pebbles sometimes feldspathic, sometimes 
quartzose, and sometimes of still more varied natures. In some places, he 
says, the concretions are apparently imbedded fragments of the rock itself, 
as if it had been broken up and the pieces had been irregularly joined 

A description of conglomerates similar to these is to be found in the Reports 
of the Geological Survey of Canada ; and we arc of opinion that similar conglo- 
merates have been discovered by two of our number in Scotland, viz. by Sir E. 
Griffith at Anie, not far from CaUander, and by Professor Haughton at the 
summit-level of the Crinan Canal. 

It is very remarkable that the igneous rocks, which, as has been said before, 
are very abundant in the county, are undoubtedly cotemporaneous with the 
sedimentary rocks of Innishowen. This fact is observable along the coast, 
but it is noticeable in the most striking manner between Buncrana and Carn- 
donagh, about five miles from the foi'mer place, the whole of the hills lying 
between Slieve Snaglit and the Eaghtin Mountains being composed of 
alternating beds of quartz-rock and syenite, dipping at a low angle to the 
eastward. This is beautifully exhibited in the mountain of Binmore, lying 
in the district of the Barr of Inch, close to the Mintiagh Lakes. This bill 
with the mountain Bulbin are terraced like the trap hiUs of Antrim ; but on 
a close examination it is found that, although the whole face of the rock 
appears to be columnar, it consists of alternate beds of quartz-rock and 
syenite, as before described. The columnar structure of the former is due to 
the simultaneous development in it of three series of joints inclined to each 
other at angles approaching those of a regular hexagon. These joints are all 

* We should here express our ackuowledgments for the assistauce we have derived 
from Sir W. Logan'3 and Dr. T. Steri-y Hunt's " Report on the Rocks of Canada," now 
in process of publication by the Geological Sui-vey of that country; and from Mr. Mac- 
Parlane's two papers " On the Primitive Formations in Norway and Canada," ' Canadian 
Naturahst and Geologist ' for 1862. 

t Geea Norvegica, pp. 430, 432. 

1863. ^ '^i ' ^ 

50 REPORT— 1863. 

of them traceable in other parts of the county, but it is only here that hey 
assume a development of such importance. 

On passing west from Bimcrana towards Dunaif Head, through the gap of 
Mamore, it is found that, as we approach the granite at Urrismenagh, the 
dip of the beds increases from 45° to nearly absolute verticaHty. The granite 
of Frrismenagh does not present many features of interest, as the rocks in 
immediate contact Avith it are quartzose, and therefore unlikely to yield 
accidental minerals. 

The rocks lying between EathmuUen and Milford are similar to those 
which have been already described as occurring in Innishowen; however, 
the granite of Kindrum in Fanad deserves a special notice, as it is somewhat 
remarkable in its character, resembling the variety which is found at Ardara 
and also in the island of Arranmore, as will be noted hereafter. It is, in 
general, white, and contaias a large quantity of black mica and of sphene ; 
but there is a considerable quantity of a reddish granite found disseminated 
through it. The nature of this granite differs materially from that of the 
typical granite of the central valley. It is a remarkable fact, that all the 
locahties in which this white " sphene-granite " (as we call it, from the great 
abundance of that mineral in it) occurs are situated at a distance from the 
central granitic area. 

At Glen, which is situated close to the head of Sheephaveu, and at the 
northern extremity of the lake of that name, the central granite ends rather 
abruptly ; it is flanked on the east side by a very peculiar, highly micaceous 
gneiss, called in the district " black granite." Of this rock there are two 
varieties, one of which contains a reddish feldspar, the other a grey one, this 
latter exhibiting the striae of an anorthic feldspar. The granite itself is very 
similar in its appearance to that whicli occurs near Doocharry Bridge in the 
Guibarra vaUey, and is characterized by the presence of the two feldspars, 
orthoclase and oligoclase, the orthoclase being of a flesh-red colour. 

Close to Glen, at Lackagh Bridge, on the road to Creeshlagh, we meet with 
a very remarkable Ulustration of the nature and relations of the rocks 
thi-oughout the whole county. A series of quartzites and hornblende slates 
are met with, the latter passing gradually into syenites. Tlieu- strike is 
E. 5° N., and their bedding vertical. They are traversed, along the strike, 
by a series of veins of granite, which rarely cross a bed, but still preserve the 
character of veins, not of beds, as they are decidedly not lenticular. 

Appearances precisely similar to this have been observed at Toberkeen, 
and at Stackamore, about haK a mile north of Leabgarrow in Arranmore. The 
bearing of this fact on the geology of the county wiU be again referred to. 

The chief point noticeable about the neighbourhood of Dunfanaghy is the 
extreme development of a highly crystalline syenite, containing a large 
proportion of titaniferous magnetic iron. The octahedral crystals of this 
mineral are very noticeable on the weathered surface of the rock. The best 
specimens are obtainable close to M'Swjme's Gun, at Horn Head. The mag- 
netite also occurs in a rock composed mainly of black mica — an occurrence 
very similar to that which it has in some parts of Norway. 

The quartz -rock of Horn Head is highly characteristic, being eminently 
flaggy in its nature, and splitting into long fluted blocks resembling Sigillarice 
at first sight. This variety of the rock contains a considerable quantity of 
feldspar disseminated through it in grains, as if in a porphyry. The same 
sort of rock is found also at Crohy Head. There is another variety of quartz- 
rock, which contains mica in large quantity as extraneous element, and is 
found to occur extensively in Ai'ranmore. These two varieties of quartz-rock 


have been noticed as occurring both in Norway and in Canada. In the former 
locality Keilhaii especially refers to the feldspathic variety as being easily 
disiategrable into sand. It is a remarkable confirmation of this, that on the 
flat summit of Muckish Mountain, which is itself composed of this quartz- 
rock, there is a very large deposit of siliceous sand in a condition of nearly 
absolute chemical purity. 

The other variety is mentioned in the Report of the Geological Survey of 
Canada before referred to, in the following words : — " The quartzites have some- 
times the aspect of sandstones, and at other times lose their granular texture 
and become a vitreous quartz. Not unfrequently the quartzite is thin-bedded 
and even schistose in its structure ; and it sometimes holds a little mica, 
passing into a variety of mica-schist." In Mr. MacFarlane's paper, he alludes 
to both varieties as occurring in Norway. 

There is found throughout the county a considerable quantity of highly 
crystalline metamorphic limestone, which is usually of a bluish coloiir. No 
traces of fossils have as yet been discovered in it, although at one locality, 
Culdaff, concretions have been foimd which have been supposed by some 
persons to be the half-obliterated remains of corals. "We do not see any 
reason for attributing an organic origin to tliem. The Hmcstone-beds which 
occur in immediate proximity to the granite, but not in actual contact with 
it, are converted into white marble. Those which are found in contact with 
the granite have undergone a fiirthor alteration, several minerals having been 
generated in them. Among these we may mention garnet, idocrase, epidote, 
tremoUte, &c. 

In almost all the localities where the limestone occurs in the granite, we 
find, in immediate contact with the limestone, a rock which we have termed 
" sphene-rock," as it is characterized by the great abundance of that mineral. 
It consists of orthoclase, green pyroxene, and quartz ; and in it we have 
discovered minute ciystals of blue apatite, and in one locality (Glenleheen) a 
great abundance of white scapolite. 

Dr. T. Sterry Himt, on seeing our sphene-rock, recognized it at once as an 
old friend. He says of it, " Associated with the Laurentian limestones, there 
are frequently found beds of a coarse-grained rock made up of white feldspar 
and dark -green pyroxene with brown sphenc, and occasionally with quartz. 
The feldspar is found to be orthoclase." The rock is also well known to the 
quarrymcn in Canada as the next bed to the limestone. 

Although this seems to point to a certain similarity between the limestones 
of Donegal and those of the Laurentian rocks of Canada, we should say that 
we have not been able to discover any deposits of either apatite or graphite in 
appreciable quantity. These minerals are stated to accompany the Laurentian 
limestones, and to be an important feature in the rocks belonging to that series. 
^ In order to examine the granite more thoroughly, we have crossed it several 
times, and have found the results of aU the sections to be nearly identical. 
The granite is, in general, fine-grained ; but there is one important district to 
which this statement will not apply, viz. that on the west coast, which 
comprises Dun glow, Annagary, and Arranmore Island. In this part of the 
county the rock is coarsely crystallized ; and it is a remarkable fact that the 
same district is further characterized by the appearance in it of a series of 
joint-planes, which do not coincide with those observed in other parts of the 
county. Attention has ah-eady been drawn to this fact by Professor Haughton, 
in a paper in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, vol. 
xviii. p. 405. 

In the veiy heart of its area, the granite, judging from hand-specimens, is 


53 REPORT— 1863. 

true granite ; but when seen in the field, it is found to be stratified, the strike 
of the beds agreeing with that of the uneontorted sedimentary strata of the 
country, and the dip being nearly constant in amount, and uniformly to the 
eastward. In addition to these granitic beds there are numerous others 
(which become more abundant as you approach the edge of the district) which 
would be pronounced gneiss even from an examination of hand-specimens. 
This fact, which has been abundantly confii-med by observations in various 
localities, places the gneissose character of the rock, as a whole, beyond a 
doubt. The gneiss on the eastern edge of the granite, especially near 
Fintown and near Trawenagh Bay, is remarkable for the extraordinary 
development of crystaUized orthoclase, of a led colour, which is to be seen in 
it, giving it an appearance very similar to that of the feldspar-veins at Castle 
Caldwell, which will be mentioned further on. 

As a further illustration of the gueissose character of the granite, we may 
draw attention to the fact that, in numerous localities, portions of highly 
contorted gneiss are found actually within the granite. This is the case at 
Bunbeg, Lough Anure, Annagary, at the head of Glenveagh, above Gartan 
Abbey, at Toberkeen, Lough Pollrory, near Trawenagh Bay, Glenleheen, and 
near Lough Errig. Tliese fragments of gneiss are sometimes of slight extent ; 
sometimes, as at Lough Errig, the}' extend for 40 or 50 yards. Such an 
appearance as this is usually accompanied by the presence in the granite of 
highly crystalline limestones. These occur at the head of Glenveagh, again 
under Altahostia, halfway down the lake, at Glenveagh Bridge, and at the 
Gap of Barncsbeg. At Glenleheen we found that the limestone occurred in 
foiu' distinct beds, possessing a strike of E. 5° N., which is coincident with that 
obtained from the rocks at Lackagh Bridge. The appearance in each locality 
is not absolutely continuous ; but their identity of strike in different localities 
points to the existence of four distinct parallel beds. The thx-ee deposits of 
limestone in Glenveagh probably belong to the same bed, of which the con- 
tinuity has been interrupted. 

It is Avorthy of notice that this occuiTence of non-granitic rocks in the 
granite is not strictly contuied to the district where the texture of the rock is 
most decidedly gneissose, as in some of the localities (such as Toberkeen, 
Annagary, and Lough Anure) the limestone is found in contact with very 
coarse-grained granite. However, in this district there is a] series of small 
patches of limestone extending in a curved line from Bunbeg towards Crohy 
Head and apparently bounding the district of Dunglow, in which the coarse- 
grained granite occurs. 

In illustration of this relation of the rocks to each other I may again quote 
Mr. MacFarlane, who says, after giving a synopsis of the rocks to be met 
with in the Primitive Gneiss of K^orway, which he compares to the Laurentian 
Series of Canada : — 

" As to the mode in which these rocks are associated with each other, the 
whole of them are arranged in parallel layers or zones, side by side, under- 
lying or else overlying each other. Hitherto no regular succession of rocks 
has been marked ; they appear to be interstratified with each other -ndthout 
rule. The granitic masses are partly conformable with the jjarallel masses of 
the schistose rocks, and partly occur irregularly. It has been remarked that, 
when the granite becomes more or less gneissoid, its masses are regularly 
interstratified with the other schistose rocks ; but where the granite is totally 
free from aU traces of gneissoid texture, the form in which it occurs dev'iates 
more or less from that of layers or beds. A remarkable instance of this is 
described by Keilhau as occurring near Norefield*. There he saw a mass of 


granite, which on the whole was gnoissoid and bedded, gradually change at a 
certain place into a perfect granite, and then, in complete uninterrupted 
continuity, pierce the rock in the form of a dyke. Another instance is men- 
tioned of a granite rock occurring in the schistose rocks t ' partly in very regular 
layers, partly as isolated knolls and lumps, and partly as a miiltitude of veins, 
which in several places run through large portions of the neighbouring moun- 
tains as a close network.' In spite of this, however, this granitic rock showed, 
in many places, a gneissoid structure. The relations of the hornblende schists 
and greenstones resemble those of the granite. The hornblende schist is 
regularly interstratified with the gneiss, mica-schist, and other rocks." 

We have been induced to make this long quotation, owing to the great 
analogy which it shows to exist between the district which comes under our 
notice and the Scandinavian peninsula. We have learnt from Mr. Jukes 
that he has observed similar phenomena on the coast of Newfoundland ; and 
they were observed and noticed by Sir R. Griffith upwards of twenty years 
ago, when he was examining the county of Donegal for the purpose of pub- 
lishing his Geological Map. 

The fact that in Donegal this gneissose granite is apparently intrusive in 
many places is abundantly proved by the occurrence of granite dykes cutting 
across the limestone at Drumnaha Gap, near Fintown, and in Dunlewy 
marble-quarry. It appears also in a striking manner at PoUnacally, near 
Trawenagh Bay, where the granite is intrusive into quartz-rock, and sends 
veins into hornblende-rock ; and also at several localities on the south shore 
of Arranmore Island. 

Among the argillaceous beds which lie near the granite are found several 
of anthophyUite slate, which pass gradually into soapstone and potstone, as at 
Crohy Head, Gartan Abbey, Convoy, and elsewhere. At Crohy they are 
associated with a mass of light-green serpentine, which unfortunately does 
not occur in a sufficiently massive condition to be available for commercial 
purposes. The soapstone too is rendered impure by the presence of iron 
pyrites, to such an extent that its utility as a lubricating agent is seriously 

Arranmore Island consists mainly of quartz-rock of the micaceous variety, 
with interstratified and intrusive igneous rocks. At the S.E. corner of the 
island, from Leabgarrow to the chapel at lUion, we find a coarse-grained red 
granite, which takes a fine polish, and is remarkably free from joints. One 
block, measuring superficially 90 x 20 feet, is exposed on the sea-shore. 
Between this point and Torboy at the S.W. corner of the island, a considerable 
portion of the coast is formed of white sphene granite, like that at Ardara. 
At Tordhu it contains some syenite and gneiss, the whole forming in places 
a network of veins, as was so well described by Keilhau in the quotation we 
have already made from ' Giea Norvegica.' 

This granite, as well as the other rocks of the island, and the granite near 
Dunglow, is penetrated by numerous dykes, some of ordinary trap, others of 
amygdaloidal pitchstone, and some of felstone-porphyry. 

In the S.W. part of the county, extending down to Teelin Head, we meet 
with mica-slate, abounding with iron-pyrites. Through this rock, especially 
in the neighbourhood of Ardara, there is disseminated a large quantity of 
syenite passing into hornblende rock. 

The granite of Bluestack and Barnesmore, as has been said before, differs 
in its character from that of the Gweebarra Valley, as it appears to consist of 
red orthoclase and quartz, with very Little mica. It is traversed by numerous 
* Gsea Norvegica, p. 367. t Ibid. p. 343. 

54 REPORT — 1863. 

dykes of pitchstone, some of which are amygdaloidal, and also hy veins of 
amethyst and of smoky quartz, the latter in very large crystals. No lime- 
stone has as yet been found in contact 'vnth it, nor have we been able to detect 
any non-granitic rocks Avithin its area. 

The district to the S.E. of the town of Donegal, extending to the shore of 
Lough Erne, near Belleek, and comprising part of the county Fermanagh, con- 
sists of a gneiss which is diffei-ent in texture from that of other parts of the 
county. Along its northern edge we find mica-slate, abounding with large gar- 
nets, kyanite, schorl, and in some places sphene. In another locality, Agha- 
doey, we find dark-green serpentine with garnet rock ; and the whole district 
is penetrated by numerous veins of granite referable to two distinct types : — 

A. Yeins containing quartz, pink orthoclase, white mica, black mica, and 
schorl. Crystals large. 

B. Yeins containing quartz, pink orthoclase, yellowish-green oHgoclase, 
black mica, with garnets, molybdenite, and copper pyrites. Ciystals 

. moderately large. 

As regards the probable age of the Donegal metamorphic strata, the Com- 
mittee do not wish to bring forward any statements in this Report, as we are 
of opinion that the district is too limited in extent for any safe reasoning of 
this nature to be based on its examination. It appears certain that rocks of 
the same nature occur in part of Connaught and in the west of Scotland ; 
and it is to be hoped that the labours of the Irish Geological Sui-vey in the 
one case, and of the Scotch Survey in the other, will put us in possession of 
data which they alone are in a position to ascertain, and which wUl finally 
determine the relation of these strata to the overlying fossiliferous rocks. 

Before we conclude this portion of our Report, we are bound to express the 
obligations of the Committee to WUHam Harte, Esq., C.E., the county sur- 
veyor of the western district of the co. Donegal, who has been indefatigable 
in his exertions in aid of the researches which have been carried on ; and also 
to J. Vandeleur Stewart, Esq., D.L., of Rock Hill, near Letterkenny, aud to the 
Rev. Frederick Corfield, of Templecrone, fi'om both of whom the Committee 
have derived valuable assistance. 

Chemical Constitution of the Granites. 

In investigating the chemical constitution of the granites of Donegal, wo 
have analyzed fifteen specimens of granitic rocks from that county, and, in 
addition to these, we are enabled to lay before the Association the analyses 
(Nos. XVI., XYII., Table V.) of two specimens selected from a series of Scotch 
granites, for which we are indebted to the kindness of Sir R. I. Murchison. 
These specimens were selected in consequence of their close resemblance to 
some of those which we find in Ireland. "VVe have further analyzed some of the 
syenites, and several specimens of the simple minerals found in the granites 
and the other rocks. 

The resiilt of most of these analyses have akeady been published in the course 
of last year by one of our number. Prof. Haughton, in the • Quarterly Journal 
of the Geological Society of London ' (vol. xviii. p. 403), as a portion of his 
" Experimental Researches on the Granites of Ireland." We shall first speak 
of the individual minerals, then give the analyses of the rock-masses, and 
finally give the results of the mathematical investigation of the mineralogical 
constitution of the granites. 


Minerals of the Granite of Donegal. 

The minerals of the granite of Donegal may be divided into Constituent 
and Accidental Minerals. 



The Constituent Minerals (A) are — 

1. Quartz. 3. Oligoclase. 5. White Mica. 

2. Orthoclase. 4. Black Mica. 6. Hornblende (sometimes). 

Of these the first four are always present, and easily distinguishable from 
each other ; the fifth mineral, white mica, is found locally abundant, particu- 
larly in veins, associated with special accidental minerals ; and the sixth 
mineral, hornblende, is found intimately mixed with black mica [as in lepi- 
domelane, SoUmami] in the more basic varieties of the granite. 
The Accidental Minerals (B) are — 

1. Sphene. 3. Beryl. 5, Molybdenite. 

2. Schorl. 4. Garnet. 6. Copper pyrites. 

Of these latter we may say that sphene is the most characteristic, as it is 
found throughout the coimty. It also occurs in considerable quantity in the 
granite of Galway, which resembles that of Donegal in many respects. 

A. Constituent Minerals. 

1. Quartz. — The quartz entering into the composition of the granite is of 
the usual grey variety ; when found in veins, it sometimes forms fine black 
crystals, as at Brown's HUl, Barnesmore, and sometimes smaller crystals of a 
rose-colour, as at Barnesmore and Sheskina-roan, sometimes of amethyst, as 
in Tawnawully Mountain. 

$, Orthoclase. — The orthoclase of the Donegal granite is generally red, but 
sometimes white : the following analyses show its composition ; — 

Table I. — Orthoclase of the Donegal Granite. 









Iron (peroxide)* .... 








No. 1. Glenveac/h. — White, opaque, milky, forming crystals in the granite. 

No. 2. Croaghonagh, near Lough Mourne, above Barnesmore Gap, — Pound in 
great bunches, isolated, in the middle of a very close-grained mica- 
schist, or gneiss of very fine grain. The feldspar is bright red, and 
associated with milky quartz, containing specular micaceous iron- 
oxide and chlorite. The diameters of some of the bunches are 5 ft, 
They are probably the terminations of veins 2 ft. wide, ending in 
carbonas in the gneiss, and have all the appearance of having been 
filled by aqueous action at a high temperature. 

No. 3. Castlecalclwell. — Found associated with white mica, quartz, black mica, 
and occasionally schorl and iron-pyrites, in veins penetrating the 
fine-grained gneiss of the district. The feldspar of these veins is 
worked for the manufacture of china, and burns white, although 
pink and red in the vein. 

* In all cases the determination of the protoxide of iron, if present, has been effected by 
Margueritte's method. 


EEPORT 1863. 

3. Oligodase. — The oligoclase of Donegal is of a honey-waxy-greenish 
grey colour, and is easily distinguished from the orthoclase which accompanies 
it by its colour and by the fine striated lines that mark certain of its sur- 
faces of crystallization, and prove it to be an anorthic feldspar. The following 
analyses give its composition : — 

Table II. — Donegal Oligoclase. 

No. 1. 

Ko. 2. 

No. 3. 








Iron (peroxide) 





Iron (protoxide) 

Manganese (protoxide) 





No. 1. Oarvarij Wood, near Castlecaldwell, Co. Fermanogli. — Peax'1-grey, 
translucent ; in veins in gneiss ; associated with black mica, some 
orthoclase (pink), copper-pyrites, and molybdenite. 

No. 2. Precise locality/ nnl-nown.—The specimen from which it was taken 
belongs to that variety of granitic syenite into which the granite of 
Donegal sometimes passes, as at the Black Gap, Pettigo. 

No. 3. Knader, near Bcdhjshannon. — This analysis has been made by Pro- 
fessor Apjohn, and was communicated by him to the authors. The 
Bpecimen. is more opaque than that from Gars'ary, and of a lighter 

4. BlacJc Mica. — Black mica forms in Donegal, as in the Moume Moun- 
tains, a constant and important constitiient of the granite; it is always 
present, and becomes green when decomposition sets in. 

The following analyses show its chemical composition : — 

Table III. — BlacJc Mica of Donegal. 

No. 1. 


No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 







Iron (peroxide) 





Iron (protoxide) 

Manganese (protoxide) 
Loss by ignition 








containing also orthoclase 


No. 1. Glenveacjh. — Occurs in coarse gneiss, 

No. 2. Balhjgihen. — Occurs in granite, in |-inch plates, \ inch in thickness. 

No. 3. Garvanj Wood. — Associated with oligoclase, orthoclase, and molyb- 
denite, in veins in gneiss. 

No. 4. Castlecaldwelh — Associated with orthoclase and schorl in veins in 
gneiss. This mica is green, and is obviously the black mica much 

The differences between these analyses are very great, and it is evident 
that No. 4 is decomposing ; it therefore cannot be considered as a fair spe- 
cimen of the mineral. As to the discrepancies between the other three 
analyses, we find that Eammelsberg (' Mineralchemie,' 1860, p. 668) gives, in 
his list of magnesia-micas, minerals in which the amount of magnesia ranges 
from 3 to 30 per cent. For the purposes of the future investigation of the 
mineralogical composition of the granites, we shall take the mean of the two 
analyses Nos. 1 and 2, each of which represents the constitution of a mica 
taken from the central granitic area in Glenveagh and its vicinity. 

5. J]^ite Mica. — This mineral, although not a constituent mineral of the 
granite of Donegal, occurs frequently in veins, and is always associated with 
orthoclase, sometimes with schorl and beryl. It is biaxial, and resembles 
the margarodite of Leinster already described (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond. 
vol. xii. p. 171). 

The following analyses show its composition : — ■ 

Table IV. — White Mica of Donegal. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 






Iron (peroxide) 





Iron (protoxide) 

Manganese (protoxide) 
Loss by ignition 




No. 1. Castlecalchvell. — Found in veins of quartz and pink orthoclase, 

containing schorl and decomposing plates of black mica. Biaxial 

(72° 20'). Angle of plate=125°. 
No. 2. Near Balhjgihen, in Dooish Mountain. — In veins in the granite, not 

associated with black mica; in plates | inch wide, i inch thick. 

Biaxial (62° 10' to 65° 10'). Angle of plate =120°. 

6. Hornhlende. — The granite of 


varies much in texture and 
appearance, as might be expected from its gneissose character. It occasion- 
ally passes into a granitic syenite, composed of hornblende, oligoclase, and a 
little quartz and sphene. The composition of the feldspar of this rock has 
been already given ; that of its hornblende is as foUows : — 

58 EEPORT— 1863. 

Hornblende of Donegal Granitic Syenite. 

SiHca 47-25 

Alumina 5'65 

Iron (peroxide) 19-11 

Lime 11-76 

Magnesia 11-26 

Soda 0-98 

Potash 1-04 

Iron (protoxide) 0-94 

Manganese (protoxide) 1-70 

B. Accidental Minerals. 

1. Sphene. — This mineral is very like the clove-hrown sphene of Norway : 
it is found in the granite, when the latter becomes basic, containing much 
black mica and oligoclase ; but it is principally found in a rock formed of a 
paste of quartz and feldspar, that often lies between the granite and limestone 
of the metamorphic rocks of Donegal. This is especially observable at An- 
nagary and Barnesbeg, where this rock is so abundant as to become entitled 
to the name of sphene-rock; and it cannot be distinguished from similar 
rocks from Norway. 

2. Schorl. — This mineral accompanies orthoclase in veins, and is often 
curved and cracked, showing the wider openings of the fissures next the 
convex side, and filled with quartz, as if the cm-vature of the schorl and the 
filUng of its fissures with quartz were the result of an action that took place 
after the deposition of the mineral. 

3. Beryl. — The only known locality for beryl in Donegal is Sheskina- 
roan, near Dunglow. It is green, with occasionally a shade of blue, and 
occurs both in reefs of quartz traversing the granite along its' leading joints 
and also in the granite itself, which, in this case, becomes very quartzose, and 
its black mica disappears, giving place to fine rhombs of margarodite. 

The beryl of Donegal has never, so far as we know, been analyzed — a cir- 
cumstance which may give some additional value to the following analysis : — 

Beryl, from Sheshina-roan, Co. Donegal. Sp. gr. = 2-686. 

Silica , 65-52 

Alumina 17-22 

Glucina 13-74 

Iron (peroxide) 1-53 

Lime , 0-43 

Magnesia 0-13 

Water 0-90 


4. Garnet. — This mineral, in bright ruby-coloured crystals, is found in the 
granite of Glenties, Annagary, and other localities. Form dodecahedral. 

5. Molybdenite and Copper-pyrites. — These minerals are found in veins of 
granite, at Garvary Wood, near Castlecaldwell, associated with ohgoclase and 
black mica. 

Miner cds occurring in tJie Non-granitic RocJcs of Donegal. 
By reference to the Appendix to this Eeport, it will be seen that the minerals 
which have been hitherto observed in the county are about sixty in nurnber. 


Of these a great number are of minor importance, and only a few have been 
analyzed, in consequence of the difficulty of obtaining them in a sufficiently 
pure state for that purpose. This has been the case with the sphene and the 
scapolite. Allusion has been made to the frequency with which potstone and 
soapstone are met with in the county, and we have therefore considered it to 
be of interest to analyze both it and the silky crystals which are found in it, 
especially at Crohy Head. 

Silica . . 

No. I. No. II. 

Crystals, Massive 


62-52 60-24 

0-36 1-12 

Iron (peroxide) 1"24 1-48 

trace trace 

trace 0-00 


Lime . . . 
Soda .... 
Potash . . 

34-64 35-14 

0-36 0-41 

0-01 0-07 

Water 0-40 




From these analyses it will be seen that the mineral is a true anhydrous 
talc ; and this fact is the more interesting inasmuch as we can trace, both at 
Gartan Abbey and at Crohy, the gradual passage of this mineral into antho- 
phyllite, with the crystalline form of which mineral the radiated sUky crystals 
of that under examination are evidently closely connected. 
' Rammelsberg does not include among his analyses of the hornblende fandly 
any which is absolutely free from Kme, although Scheerer's analysis of the 
asbestus from St. Gotthardt (Mineralchemie, p. 475, No. 7) is nearly so, and 
this mineral accompanies tremolite. On the other hand, the presence of the 

Table V, — Ghemical Composition of 


(jal ( 





o ^ 








83 O 





I. Ardmalin 





























II. Urrisinenagli 

III. Glen 

IV. Glen 

V. Glenveagh 

VI. Glenveagli 

VII. Poison Glen 

VIII. Poison Glen 

IX. Doocharry Bridge 

X. Barnesmore 

XI. Arraniuore 

XII. Tory Island 

XIII. Ardara 

XIV. Dunlewy 

XV. Annaffarv 

XVI. Strontian 











XVII. Tobermory, Mull 


60 REPORT — 1863. 

manganese, which, was clearly detected in both analyses, would tend to bring 
the Crohy specimen out of the type of talc and into that of hornblende. 

Among the other more interesting minerals which have been found, we 
may mention molybdenite in ciystaUine plates, fibrolite, kyanite, schorl (ex- 
tremely abundant), and the minerals which have been already mentioned as 
occurring in the altered limestones. 

I. Arclmalin, near Malin i/^(?«fZ.— Coarse-grained granite, composed of 

(a). Quartz ; very conspicuous {\ in. crystals). 

(h). Red orthoclase feldspar {\ in. crystals). 

(c). Green mica ; in small nests, resembling chlorite. 

II. UrrismenagTi, near Dunaff Head. — Medium-grained granite, containing — ■ 

(a). Quartz ; not very visible. 

(h). Pink feldspar ; probably orthoclase (1 in. crystals), 
(c.) Grey feldspar; probably oligoclase (^ in. crystals). 
{(l). Black mica; -Jg- in. crystals; occasionally passing into a dark 
■ blackish-green mica, in small nests and resembling a mix- 
ture of chlorite and hornblende. 

III. Glen. — Coarse-grained gneissose granite, containing — 

(a). Quartz ; scarcely visible, broken, transparent, grey. 

(h). Red feldspar; probably orthoclase, forming large crystals (partly 

made up of pink translucent feldspar, with bright reflexion), 

duU waxy lustre, opaque, 
(c). TSTiitish translucent feldspar ; probably oligoclase, and quite 

distinct from (6). 
(d). Green mica ; abundant in streaks alternating, as in gneiss, 

with crystalline sheets of red and pink feldspar. 

IV. Olen. — Coarse-grained gneissose granite, apparently in beds in the gra- 

nite No. III., and containing — 

(a). Whitish feldspar; anorthic, semiopaque, and sometimes in 
macles, probably ohgoclasc (crj'stals ^ in. by ^in.). 

(b). Jet-black mica; in great abundance, probably equal to the 
feldspar, which occurs in rounded masses imbedded in the 
black mica, which itself occurs in streaks as in gneiss. 

V. GUnveagli. — Beautiful, coarse-grained, porphyritic granite : — 

(a). Feldspar ; conspicuous, pink (crystals ^ in. to ^ in.), orthoclase. 
(6). Quartz ; inconspicuous, grey, transparent, with rounded an- 

(o). Mica ; jet-black, abundant in minute grains ; the black mica 

and pink feldspar give character to the rock. 

VI. GlenveagJi. — Fine-grained gneissose granite : — 

(a). Quartz , scarcely visible, grey. 

(6). Feldspar ; white, sugary, facets rare, and, when they do occur, 

semitransparent — probably oligoclase. 
(c). Mica ; perfectly black, high lustre. 

VII. Poison Glen. — Medium-grained granite : — 

(a). Quartz ; grey, not prominent. 

(6). Feldspar ; pink, in large crystals (i in. by -1 in.), semitranspa- 
rent, predominant ; orthoclase. 
(c). Mica ; jet-black, bright lustre. 


VIII. Poison Glen. — Coarse-grained granite. 

(«). Quartz ; conspicuous, grej'. 

(6). Feldspar ; pink, in large crystals (| in. by i in.), transparent, 

bright calcspar lustre, set in a paste of quartz and pinkish 

(c). Mica ; an occasional speck of green mica, probably not | per 


IX. Dooeharry Bridge. — Medium-grained granite, tending to become por- 

{a). Quartz. 

(h). Feldspar ; orthoclase, pink, in ^ in. crystals. 
(o). Feldspar ; oligoclase, grey, in -1- in. crystals. 
(d). Mica ; black, ia small grains or specks, and in small quantity. 

X. Barnesmore Gap. — Coarse-graiaed reddish granite, of platy structure, 

one-inch slabs. 
(a). Quartz ; very prominent, grey, occupying a surface only infe- 
rior to the red feldspar. 
' (b). Feldspar ; pale red, uniform in texture, with some weU-deve- 
loped cleavages, not very brilliant, 
(f). Mica ; green, very compact, with few leaves, passing into 
chlorite-earth : this chloritic earth covers the joint- surfaces 
(_l_ in. to -Jjj in.), and is visible in all such partings. It is 
very difficult to distinguish the green mica from hornblende. 

XI. Arranmore Island. — Porphyritic granite ; feldspar predominating. 

(rt). Quartz ; easily visible, abundant, grey. 

(6). Feldspar ; reddish, in distinct crystals (^ in. by ^ in.), cleavage- 
planes distinct, with bright lustre, scmitransparent. 

((•). Mica ; black ; when seen on the edge, it resembles hornblende, 
of which, however, there is not a particle in the rock : facets 
of mica difficult to see, but having a very briUiant reflexion ; 
subordinate to both the quartz and feldspar. 

XII. Tory Island. — Coarse granite, almost entirely composed of quartz and 

feldspar, platy structure, one-inch slabs, 
(rt). Quartz ; conspicuous, crystals {^ in.), grey. 
(b). Feldspar ; uniform red, with cleavage -planes of dull lustre, 

(f). Mica; greenish, sometimes white, in occasional very small 


XIII. Ardara. — Coarse-grained gneissose granite : — 

(rt). Quartz ; small grains. 

(6). Feldspar; pink orthoclase | j^ ^ ^^^^^^^^ 

(c). Feldspar ; grey oligoclase J ^•' 

{(l). Mica ; black, in large quantity, giving a gneissose appearance 
to the rock. 
Sphene occurs disseminated in small crystals. 

XIV. Danhwy. — Consists of quartz and feldspar intimately blended together 

and very similar in colour, whitish grey. In this paste are nume- 
rous crystals of feldspar (orthoclase) with definite {\ in.), lustrous, 
smooth faces . Also occasional stains of greenish mica, looking like 


REPOKT 1863. 

chlorite, and small crystals of garnet. This granite occurs imme- 
diately beside the limestone marble of Dunlewy quarry. 

XY. — Annagary. — A feldspathic paste, -with large crystals of orthoclase and 
fragments of quartz : contains also crystals of sphene, locally 
abundant (and occasional hornblende (?) in i in. crystals). It is 
fomid beside the limestone, -whenever the latter comes in contact 
with the granite, as at Annagary, Glenleheen, and Bamesbeg. 

XVl. Strontian, Argyllshire.— This gi'anite is somewhat like that of ^irdara 
in appearance, and also like the black gneissose granite, which 
is found as a variety at Glen. It is medium-grained, and con- 
tains : — 

(rt). Quartz, 

(b). Feldspar ; white (ohgoclase), having the characteristic striae. 

(f). Black mica ; abimdant. 

XYII. Tobermory, Mull. — A coarse-grained granite, resembling the coarser 
varieties of the typical granite of Donegal. It contains — 
(a). Quartz ; abiuidant. 

(6). Pink orthoclase; large crystals {\ in. by \ ia.). 
(c). White oligoclase ; striated. 
{d). Black mica ; not abundant, 
(e). Sphene facets ; occasional. 

The rocks whose analyses are contained in the above Table are hardly to be 
considered as all true granites. Nos. IV. and XIII. are rather to be considered 
gneiss than granite, and No. XY. is a feldspathic paste ; but in the mode of 
their occurrence they do not differ from the granites, and it is impossible to 
say exactly where the granite begins and the gneiss ends. 

Table YI.- 


Composition of Donegal Syenites*. 







S 2 




M 0~ 








Lough Anui-e.. 




7-12 1-95 








Kilrean, near 




6-45 2-11 
7-05 103 








Doouan Hill . . 


2-39 0-57 


Locality unknown 58-04 


8-27 0-45 6-52 


t-65 2-21 



I. A medium-grained syenite or crystalline greenstone, composed of small 

plates of black mica with hornblende aggregated together, and of 
a feldspar which seems to be oligoclase. 

II. A coarse-grained syenite, containing — 

(rt). Long crystals of green hornblende. 

(6). White feldspar. 

(c). Specks of iron-pyrites. 

In addition to the composition given in the analysis, the rock 

contained 1-078 per cent, of sulphm-, which no doubt was present 

in the form of pyrites. 

* For a description of the relations of these rocks to the other rocks of the county, see 
p. 48 et seq. 


III. A crystalline greasy trap rock, forming a dyke which penetrates the 

lower arenaceous Carboniferous limestone, and expands into a mass 
on the top of the hUl, close to the town of Donegal. It contains 
black hornblende and a green feldspar. 

IV. The analyses of the feldspar and hornblende of this rock have abeady 

been given. The precise locality of the specimen analyzed is 
unknown ; but it resembles very closely the syenites of the Black 
Gap and BaUykillowen. It forms a liak between the granites and 
the syenites. It contains — 

(a). Quartz. 

(6). Oligoclase of a pinkish-yeUow colour ; large crystals, brOliant 

((•). Hornblende, dark glossy blackish green, passing into black 

(cZ). Occasional crystals of sphene. 

Determination of the Minercdogical Composition of the Donegal Granites*. 

The determiaation of the mineralogical constitution of a granite is a pro- 
blem whose solution has been frequently attempted ; and at first sight it does 
not seem to present features of extraordinaiy difiiciilty. It may be stated as 
follows : — 

Given the chemical composition of a rock and of its supposed constituent 
minerals, it is required to find the proportions in which these minercds are 
associated in it. 

In the case which is now under our consideration, we assume that the four 
minerals, quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, and black mica, aU of which have 
been observed ta the granite, are its constituents, and we take their chemical 
composition as ascertained by the analysis of specimens obtained exclusively 
within the county Donegal. 

The principle of this investigation has already been published by Professor 
Haughton, in the paper already referred to (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Lond. 
vol. xviii. p. 403), and its complete discussion -wall be laid by him before the 
Geological Society of London at an early date. It may, however, be of 
interest to lay before the Association the results at which he has arrived. 

By the conditions of the question, we obtain four equations to determine 
the same number of unknown quantities, as will be seen by a reference to the 
paper. From the coefficients of the several quantities we obtain, by actual 
multiplication, the following ten constants: — 

a = 69077. /3 =-188220. y = 196703. 

a' =-113443. /3'= 211768. y' = 79167. 

a"= 41702. /3"=- 24442. y" =— 163140. 

K =34131692. 
Once these constants have been determined, nothing but simple multipli- 
cation and division is required, in order to ascertain at once with absolute 
certainty the percentage of each of the four minerals, whose analysis has been 
given, in the granite, e. g. : — 

Percentage of orthoclase= 10000 | ^^+^^ + Cy 1 ^ 

The results of the application of these constants to each of the seventeen 
granites whose analysis is contained in Table V. is given in Table YII. 

* This portion of the Eeport is solely due to Professor Haughton. 


REPORT-i— 1863. 

Tabie Yll.—Mineralo(jicctl Cc 


of Donegal 




















































XV.* . . 







According to this Table, it ajipears that eight of the granites (those mai-ked 
■with an asterisk in the Table) give positive values for. all the unknown quan- 
tities, -while the remaining nine have one or more of them negative. Hence 
it follows that more than one-half of the granites in question are certainly 
not composed of the four minerals which have been assumed to be in them. 
In the case of eight of the granites it has been proved that they »i/^7i< he com- 
posed of four minerals, having the oxygen-ratios of those which have been 
analyzed ; but it still remains to be proved whether they are so composed or 

It is well known to be the opinion of many petrologists that it is unsafe to 
draw conclusions as to the constitution of a crystalline rock, like granite, from 
the analyses of crystals picked out from those portions of the rock which are 
coarse-grained enough to allow of such a process of extraction of minerals. 
Here we may be allowed to remark that if there be this doubt as to the 
validity of reasoning based on the analj-sis of minerals picked out of the very 
rock to which that reasoning is applied, it is « fortiori much more rash to call 
to oMi aid analyses of minerals from other localities, which have never been 
proved to exist in the district under examination, and the evidence of whose 
existence depends at best on the results of a microscopic examination. 

In order to ascertain how far this suspicion is founded on truth in the case 
of the granites of Donegal, we must call to our aid the auxiliary equations 
-which have not yet been employed. These depend on the iron, lime, soda, 
potash, &c., and have hitherto been grouped together in the equation con- 
taining the oxj'gen-ratio of the protoxides. 

It is evident that, before we can say that a granite is really composed of 
the minerals whose composition has been given in the preceding part of the 
Eeport, we must be certain that aU the equations of condition furnished by 
each|constituent are fulfilled, as well as those depending on the oxygen -ratios 
of the protoxides, peroxides, and silica. 

On applying these test equations, it is found that not a single one of the 
eight granites which have satisfied the first test fulfils these conditions accu- 
rately, and therefore that not a single granite of those which have been 
examined can be composed of quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, and black mica 
having the precise composition which has been assumed for them. 


The test is a very severe one, and in order to show the degree of approxi- 
mation which has been attained by the method, we take the instance of the 
granite of Doochary Bridge, N'o. IX., and give the value of each constituent 
as calculated from the result given in Table VII., and as obtained by actual 
analysis of the rock. 

Composition of Granite of Doochary Bridge. 




. . 72-24 . 

. . . 72-24 


. . 14-92 . 

. . . 15-05 

Iron and manganese oxides . . 

. . 2-18 . 



1-68 . 

. . . 2-91 


0-36 . 



. . 3-51 . 

. . . 2-89 


. . 5-10 . 

. . . 4-90 

99-99 99-99 

Hence we see that, although we may assume that a considerable proportion 
of the granites of Donegal are composed of the four minerals in question, yet 
the constitution of these minerals, when present in the mass of the rock, must 
differ slightly from that ascertained by the analysis of the larger crystals. 

In conclusion, we may state that complete series of the minerals and rocks 
described in this Report are preserved in the Geological Museums of Trinity 
College, Dublin, and of the Eoyal Dublin Society, the actual specimens 
which were subjected to analysis being in the first-mentioned collection. 


The following catalogue of localities has been compiled, partly from the 
published accounts of the tours undertaken by Sir Charles Giesecke, in the 
years 1826-27, at the expense of the Royal DubKn Society, and partly from 
the results of the explorations carried out in the preparation of the preceding 
Report. Much valuable information has been derived from the gentlemen 
whose names have been already mentioned, and from an examination of spe- 
cimens collected by the late R. Townsend, Esq., C.E., who resided in the 
county for some years. 

The names of Messrs. Greg and Lettsom are given as authority for loca- 
lities given in their ' Manual of Mineralogy,' which we cannot otherwise 
identify. "We regret to say that much reliance cannot be placed on these 
localities, as they have not been personally identified by the authors of that 
work (see under Analcime and Qypsum). 

All localities which have been identified by the British Association Com- 
mittee, in the progress of their investigations, are marked with an asterisk. 


Simple Elements. 
Graphite. Found in rolled pieces on the shore of Sheephaven, near Ards 
House ; in the Burndale, Convoy ; in situ at Fintown. 


Galena. Has been worked in several localities, the chief of which are 
KUdrum ; Marfagh j Ards ; Fintown ; Drumnacross j Kilrean ; Mullanti- 
1863. n 

66 REPORT — 1863. 

boyle ; Welchtown ; Malinbeg ; Abbey Lands and Abbey Island, Bally- 
shannon ; BaUymagrorty ; Finner ; Tonregee ; Glentogher, Carndonagb ; Cas- 
tlegrove, Letterkenny. (Griffith's " Mining Localities of Ireland," Jonrn. 
Geol. See. Dub. vol. ix. p. 143.) 

Molybdenite. In hexagonal plates with actynolite, disseminated through 
elvan at Lough Laragh*, near Glenties ; at Lough Anure. 

Note. — Molybdenite also occurs in the oligoclase veins at Garvary*, near 
Castlecaldwell, two miles from the county of Donegal. 

Bleioje. Occurs with galena at several of the localities mentioned for that 
species, especially Xilrean* and Fintown. 

Copper-Pteites. Not very common ; occui's crystallized at Kildrum. 

Ieon-Pyeites. Cubes of iron-pyrites are abundant in the mica-slate and 
accompanying rocks, in various j)arts of the county, particularly near Killy- 
begs* and at Culdaif* and Mahn. At Crohy Head* large ciystals occur iu 
the soapstone. 

MagneIIC Ftrites. Occurs in detached crystals in the metamorphic rocks 
about the Barnesmore Mountains, and at Leaght ; at Doorin Rock*. The 
variety found at Barnesmore contains traces of nickel and cobalt. 

PiuoR Spae. Occiu-s in the limestone near Donegal ; the variety is phos- 
phorescent ; at " the PuUans " ; at RathmuUen. 

Oxides (Metallic). 

Rtttile. Prisms of this species occur in quartz-pebbles in the River Dale, 
and in mica-slate in Arranmore ; at Malinbeg, large prisms in quartz (Greg 
and Lettsom) ; at Ards. 

Sapphiee. a few roUcd crystals were brought from the county of Donegal 
by R. Townsend, Esq., and given by him to Professor Apjohn. Precise 
locality not known. 

Magnetic Iron. Octahedral crystals occur in the syenite at Horn Head*, 
and throughout the Dunfanaghy district. Also in serpentine at Aghadoey*, 
and in anthophyllite at Crohy Head*. 

Ilmenite. Plates of this species, called rutile by Sir C. Giesecke, occur in 
quartz at Woodland Dooish, near Stranorlar ; and at Edergole, near Corabber 
Bridge, Lough Eask ; at Breaghy Head. 

Speculae Iron. At Glenkeeragh and Fox Hall. 

Micaceous Iron. Near Malrn*, and at Croaghonagh Quarry*, Lough 

Red HiEMATiTE. At Innishkeel ; pseudomorphous in cubes, replacing iron 
pyrites, at Woodland Dooish, near Stranorlar. 

Broavn HEMATITE. At Malinbeg, in a lode. 

Bocj Iron Ore. — Very abundant throughout the mica-slate district of the 

PsiLOMELANE. Impiu'c psilomelaue occurs in Arranmore and in the Slieve 
League district. 

Oxides op Silicon, &c. 

Qtjaetz. Eock Crystals. — Leabgarrow*, Arranmore Island (very fine) ; 
Slieve League. 

Rose Quartz. — Bradlieve Mountain, near BaUintra ; in veins in granite, 
PoUakeeran Hill, near Lough Mourne ; Maghery. 

Amethyst. — In vetus in granite, at the Waterfall in Barnes River*, half a 
mile above- Barnes Lough, and on Edergole Mountain. 

Smohe Quartz, — Yery fine crystals, with graphic granite in a vein at 


Brown's Hill*, Barnesmore Mountains; Slieve League; Bamesbeg Gap; 

- Chalcbdont. In rolled pieces at St. Peter's Lough, Mountcliarles ; in 
amygdaloidal trap at Doorin Eoek* ; Cloghan (Greg and Lettsom) ; Ards. 
Very abundant in micaceous conglomerate in the baronies of Raphoe and 

Opal. At Mountcharles. 

Siliceous Sand. In great abundance, and extremely pure, on top of 
Muckish Mountain. 

Ltdian Stone. Common in the Carboniferous Limestone between Donegal 
and BaUyshannon. 

ANirrmioTJS Silicates. 


Andalusite. In mica-slate, at Clooney Lough*, near Narin; on Scalp 
Mountain, four miles "W.N.W. of Muff (Greg and Lettsom) ; at Barnesbeg 

Chiastolite. Barnesbeg Gap. 

KxANiTE. In mica-slate, with garnets, schorl, and sphene, in the reef of 
rock which runs from Fin M'Coul's Pan, Bally killo wen*, to Lough Derg; at 
Altnapaste ; near Doocharry Bridge. 

FiBROLiTE. In gneiss, in several localities, where that rock occurs in the 
granite, Croaghnamaddy*, nearDunglow; Lough Anure*, at the north end; 
Annagary Hill*, behind the pound. The best crystals are at Lough Anure. 

Beryl. In quartz veins and in granite, at Sheskinarone*, one mile north 
of Dunglow, on the road to Annagary. 

Beryl occiu-s also, disseminated through the granite, at the same locality, 
in a subcrystalline condition, forming beryl granite. 

Tourmaline. Schorl is very abundant in the gneiss in the neighbourhood 
of Ballyshanon and Donegal, especially about BaUintra*, and atKnader; 
with garnets and kyanite at Bally killo wen* and Golard*, near Donegal ; in 
garnet-rock at Aghadoey* ; in granite at Annagary* ; at Cloghan ; at Kil- 
madoo, parish of Clondehorkey ; and at GHnsk, in Fanad. 

Indicolite. — Some dark-coloured prismatic crystals, from the county of 
Donegal, occurring in granite, and labelled augite, proved on examination by 
Dr. Aquila Smith to be indicolite. 

Sphene. Very abundant in granite throughout the county, especially in 
the white granite of l^arin*, and Aphort*, Arranmore. 

In gneiss, with kyanite, schorl, and garnets, at BaUykillowen*. 

In a peculiar rock, consisting of orthoclase, green pyroxene, and quartz 
(sphene rock), which occurs in contact with the highly crystalline limestone 
of the granitic district of the country. 

It is most abundant at Annagary*, where there are two types of sphene 
rock — one containing small crystals of sphene, with dark green prisms of 
pyroxene, the other containing sphene in larger crystals, and in much greater 
abundance, and in it the pyroxene is of a light green colour and less distinctly 
crystallized. Also at Barnesbeg* Gap, near Kilmacrenan, where large nests 
of sphene are found ; in Glenleheen*; and in the neighbourhood of Lough 
Nambradden*, near Fin town ; at Cloghercor, parish of Innishkeel ; and at 
Tirlyn, near Creeshlagh. 

AtTGITE section, 

Pthoxene. Two varieties, coloured light and dark green, occur with or- 
thoclase and quartz, forming sphene rock, at most of the localities where 


68 RiPORT — 1863. 

limestone is found in the granite, e. g. Annagary*, Glenleheen*, and Barnes- 
beg* ; Knockastoller and Derryloaghan. 

Saldite. — Occurs in quartz at Lough Nambradden, near Fintown ; at Glen- 

Aug'ite. — In prisms, imbedded in greenstone, at Tory Island. 

Tbemolite. Abundant in crystalHne limestone, with idocrase and garnet, 
especially at Annagary* and Bunbeg*. 

Anthophyllite. At Finmore ; the Craigs, Eaphoe ; Crohy Head*, in the 
cliff, 200 yards from the eastern extremity of Aghnish Lough ; at the mill 
near Gartan Abbey*, close to the soapstone. 

AcTTNOLiTE. In clvan, with molybdenite, at Lough Laragh, near Glenties*; 
at Gartan and DrumsaUagh. 

Asbestifonn Adynolite. — At Tirlyn ; Aghalative, near Ards ; GlenaboghiU ; 
and Fin town. 

Hornblende. Abundant in syenite throughout the county, especially at 
Loughrosmore ; Horn Head*; at the Black Gap*, and in the townland of 
Golard*; Lough Anure. 

Hornblende Eoek. — Is found at Kilrean*, near Ardara ; Eaneany Bridge*, 
near Laghy. 

Asbestus. At Kilrean, near Ardara*; at Crohy Head; at EathmuUen ; 
in potstone, at Leaght, parish of Donaghmore. 

Chondrodite. In crystalline dolomite near the Guidore (Greg and Lett- 

Olivine, — In a trap-dyke at Drumnaliffcrny, parish of Gartan. 


Garnet. Occurs disseminated through gneiss and mica-schist in the S.E. 
part of the county, especially at Golard* and Ballj'killowen*, parish of Tem- 
plecarne; at Aghadoey*, it occurs in the gneiss in such quantities as to form 
garnet-rock. Clear varieties occiu' in granite at Shallogan Bridge, and on the 
south side of the Guibarra valley ; in the Poison Glen ; at Tirlyn and Kil- 
loughcarran, near Ci'ceshlagh; and in limestone at Aphort, Arranmore*. 

Opake varieties occur, with hair-brown idocrase, epidote, and trcmolite, in 
crystalline limestone in many places, e.g. Glerdehcen*; Derryloaghan; 
Toberkeen*, nearDungloe; Anuagai'y*; Lough Anure*; Bunbeg*; Barnes- 
beg Gap*, near Kilmacrenan; Tirlyn. 

At Toberkeen, loose crystals, many of them pitted and worn by the action 
of the sea-water, are found on the beach. They are frequently 2 inches or 
more in diameter. 

Cinnamon-stone.-^-At Trawenagh Bar. 

Grossular. — At Annagary* ; at Bunbeg. 

Idocrase. The baeillar variety occurs in limestone at most of the localities 
above mentioned for opaque garnets ; also at Madavagh, near Lettermacaward. 
On the promontory, at the north end of Lough Anure*, it is found in four- 
sided crystals ; also at Toberkeen. 

Epidote. Occurs pretty commonly, with garnet and idocrase, in the altered 
limestone. At Drumnaha, Glenleheen*, it is found well crystalUzed; at 
Aphort*, Arranmore, in great abundance ; in gneiss close to the limestone at 
PoUnacaUy* ; Crohy, in a vein in syenite ; at Woodquarter, parish of Mcvagh ; 
at Muckamish and EathmuUen, parish of Killygarvan ; at Lough Laragh, 
near Glenties. 

ScAPOLiTE. In sphene'rock at the Cross Eoads, in Glenleheen*; at 



Oethoclase. Of a pinkish colour, yeiy abundant in gneiss along the 
southern edge of the granite, about Lough Errig* and Glenleheen*; at 
Lough Barra ; also in veins in the granite at other localities, especially at 
PoUnacally*, and near Lettermacaward ; at Breaghy Head ; white in Glen- 
veagh*; at KnockastoUer ; crystallized specimens occiir with the beryls at 
Sheaskin na Eone*, and also in the neighbourhood of Lough Nambraddan*, 
near Fintown. 

In a quartz vein, with chlorite and micaceous iron, at Croaghonagh* 
Quarry, near Lough Moume. 

Oligoclase. Abundant in gi-anite, accompanying orthoclase, throughout 
the county, especially at Annagary* ; in gneiss at Glen*, near Creeshlagh* ; 
in syenite, at Black Gap*, near Pettigo, and at Bally killowen* ; at Kimder, 
near Ballyshannon. 

Note. — The veins of greenish oligoclase and black mica, containing molyb- 
denite and copper-pyrites, which were discovered by the Eev. S. Haughton, 
occur at Garvary Wood, near Castlecaldwell, county of Fermanagh, about two 
miles from the border of the county Donegal. 

Labeadokite. Opalescent feldspar, supposed to be labradorite, occurs in 
boulders of granite in the Gweebarra valley, and along the shore of the Bosses. 

Aventtirine feldspar. — Was found by Sir C. Giesecke in the Doochary dis- 

PiTcnsTONE. Dykes of this rock, some of which are amygdaloidal, pene- 
trate the granite of Barnesmore*, and are also found in other parts of the 

Felstone. Felstone porphyry occurs in a columnar dyke in granite be- 
tween Tordhu and Cladaghillie, in Arranmore*. 

Hallotsite. At Drumsallagh. 


White Mica. This occurs in considerable quantities in the granite, toge- 
ther with black mica. It is common at Sheaskin na Eone*, near Dunglow, 
with the beryls; also at BaUaghgeeha Gap*, Dooish Mountain; in gneiss 
(speckled) at Breesy Mountain*; at Madavagh, near Lettermacaward. 

BxACK Mica. This occurs in small plates throughout the whole area of 
the granite, and also in the gneiss on its flanks, especially at Glen*, near 
Creeshlagh. It is also found in nests in the granite, as is the case at Newry ; 
also in syenite and hornblende rock, but sparingly, at Kilrean*, near Ardara. 

Large crystals are found in quartz at Annagary* ; also at BaUaghgeeha 
Gap*, Dooish Mountain, and at Doochary Bridge. 

Green Mica, produced by weathering from the foregoing, is found in a 
remarkable granite- vein which penetrates the gneiss near the Black Gap*; 
also radiated, on quartz, near Eockhill. 

Chlorite. In quartz at Malin*; with orthoclase and quartz at Lough 
Mourne* ; at KiUybegs* ; Ards. 

HroROUs Silicates. 


Talc. At Crohy Head*, crystallized, with iron pyrites; Foxhall; Glen- 
keeragh ; at the Eeelan Bridge. 

SoAPSTONE. At Crohy Head* ; at the mill, near Gartan Abbey* ; at Ards ; 
at GHnsk, in Eoss Guill. 

PoTSTONE. Called "Cambstone" in the neighbourhood, at Convoy*; at 
Leaght, parish of Donaghmore ; near Killygordon; at Culdaff * 

70 BEPOET 1863. 

Sebpentinx. Common serpentine, with magnetic iron, occurs at Agha- 
doey*, near Donegal, close to the garnet rock; at RossnakUl*, inPanad; 
Qear Dunfanaghy (Greg and Lettsom). 

NohU serpentine. — Occurs near Drumbo. 

Verde antique marble. — Occurs at Crohy Head*, near the coast-guard 


Nateolite. In the cavities of the amygdaloidal trap-dyke caUcd Doorin 
Rock*, near Mountcharles ; also in Barnesmore Mountain*, in pitchstone 
dykes ; in trap-dykes at Lough Barra, and in the Poison Glen. 

AiTALCiME. In opaque crystals, with garnet and idocrase, near the Guidore 
(Greg and Lettsom) [?]. 

Carbonates, Sulphates, &c. 

Calcitb. At Cloghan ; in the neighbourhood of Donegal, at Lacken and 
Laghy quarries (phosphorescent when heated). 

Bl<ick. — At Rathmidlen and Ciddaff*. 

Pinh. — At Ards ; at the Eeelan Bridge. 

Abragonite. In limestone at " the PuUans," near BroAvn HaU. 

Marble, white (statuary marble), at several localities, especially Dunlewy*; 
Marble Hill* ; Glenveagh* ; Dunfanaghy*; Croaghanai'get*, parish of Kil- 

Pinlc. — At Axds ; at Muckish Mountain. 

Sparry Iron. At Glentogher, Innishowen ; at TircaUan, near Stranorlar. 

CALAiiiyE. Near BaUyshannon. 
. Lead, Carbonate of. At Keeldrum mine. 

Heavy Spar. Occurs as a gangue at Fintown*. 

Gypsitm. a quantity of fibrous gypsum is lying at WoodhiU, Ardara, which 
is said to have been found by Major Nesbit, the late owner, on the property, 
about thirty years ago : no person is able to give any information about it. 
The locality given by Gregg and Lettsom, >'iz. BaUintemple Glen, parish of 
Errigal, appears to be incorrect, as Errigal parish is not in the county of 

Pybojiobphite. At Keeldrmn mine. 

Apatite. In brownish-black mica near Annagary ; in sphene rock at 

Report of the Committee appointed for Exploring the Coasts of Shetland 
by means of the Dredge. By J. (jwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. 

Of all the objects connected with natural history which have been promoted 
by the Association, and which pai-ticularly engage the attention of a large 
class of its members, probably no one is more useful and interesting than the 
exploration of the British seas by means of the di'edge. In a zoological point 
of view, such investigations are absolutely necessary for the study and 
elucidation of our marine fauna. Comparatively but few of the Invertebrata 
are met with on the shore or between tide-marks ; the great bidk of them 
are found seawards. Every " zone," or bathymetrical district, has some 
characteristic or peculiar species of its own, — although these zones cannot be 
precisely defined, and many species inhabit more zones than one. Every- 
thing in nature is gradual, and merges one into the other. There are in 


reality no sharp and abrupt lines in the picture, such as the inventive but 
partially instructed mind of man is apt to conceive when he frames wtat he 
considers a perfect system of classification. Marine animals do not seem to 
care so much whether there are five or five hundred fathoms of water over 
them, as whether they have a sufiicient supply of food and the requisite 
shelter. It is extremely desirable to know more about the conditions of their 
habitability and the Umits of depth within which each species can thrive or 
exist. In a geological point of view, the importance of this subject cannot be too 
highly estimated, especially as regards the last-mentioned subject of inquiry. 
At present we have no satisfactory information as to the depth of the primeval 
seas. It was at one time conjectured that the absence of colour was a test of 
depth ; but it has now been ascertained that the most brilliant and variegated 
hues are not wanting in living creatures obtained from the abysses of the 
ocean. My fiiend Dr. Otto Torell informs mc that during his last expedition 
to the Arctic seas, which was undertaken at the instance and cost of the 
Swedish Government, he found a large and undescribed kiud of coral, on which 
were three live specimens of an Actinia of a bright red coloiu-. The coral and 
its appendages were entangled in the machine which was sunk to the bottom 
of the sea. The depth was 1480 fathoms, being more than a mile and two- 
thirds in vertical measurement. Dr. Wallich has also given, in his valuable 
work ' The North- Atlantic Sea-bed,' a highly interesting account of the 
capture of living and full-grown star-fishes (Ophiocoma granulata), of a dusky- 
brown colour, at a depth of 1260 fathoms. It is beyond all doubt that the 
coral, sea-anemones, and starfishes actually lived on the sea-bottom whence 
they were taken, and that they had not been accidentally transported to the 
spot by any current, much less that any of them could have been swimming 
or floating, so as to become thus entangled in the soxtnding-apparatus or rope 
on its passage upwards through the water. Dr. Wallich has clearly refuted 
the objection, which was at one time made to his statement, that the star- 
fishes might either have been drifted to the position in which they were 
discovered by a superficial or deep-seated current, or else that they might 
have propelled themselves to it from some distant coast-line. The habits of 
these animals, and the nature of the organisms found in theii- digestive cavities, 
would render the latter proposition extremely improbable, if not impossible ; 
while the direction of the only upper current which is known to flow in that 
course, and the conditions resulting from a lower current (if any such exists), 
would show that the phenomenon could not be explained in this way. In 
our own seas, and especially in that part which washes the coasts of Shetland, 
I have frequently dredged, at depths between 80 and 90 fathoms, hving 
Mollusca whose shells were marked with stripes, bands, and spots of the 
most vivid colour; and these were of species which also inhabit shallow 
water on other parts of our coast, and which are often in the latter case 
colourless. Pectunculus glycymeris was here found to be variegated by rich 
streaks and zigzag blotches of reddish-brown ; Tellina pusilla had bright rosy 
rays ; Psammohia costulata exhibited delicate pink markings ; TrocJms zizy- 
phinus had a uniform brick -red hue; and Natica inarodiiensis was spotted with 
purplish-brown. The animal of Marginella l<xvis also was beautifully painted, 
and displayed its gaudy tints of green, pink, and flake-white. Other geological 
problems of equal interest may be solved by the use of the dredge ; and some 
of them win be presently noticed. 

There is likewise another aspect in which these researches may be regarded 
in connexion with the British Association. The first object of the Association, 
as declared by its promoters and accepted as the basis of the institution, is 

73 REPORT — 1863. 

"to give a stronger impulse and a more systematic direction to scientific 
inquiry." This object is especially promoted by means of the votes granted 
for di'edging on the British coasts. Such undertakings, if properly conducted 
are veiy expensive, and tax heavily the private resources of membera who 
pursue them on their own account and unaided. To make a short trip now and 
then in a small sailing- or roAving-boat, going out after breakfast and dredging 
for a few hours in the shallow bays on our southern and western coasts — the 
weather being fine, and the amateur dredgers not very sea-sick — is a very 
pleasant and inexpensive afiair. To make an expedition to the most northern 
part of our seas in a steamer or good-sized sailing-vessel, occupying several 
weeks, for the purpose of exploring the open and deep sea at a distance of not 
less than twenty miles from the land— the weather being most capricious and 
often stormy — involves a considerable outlay and some personal risk, to say 
nothing of the preparatory work, or of the toil, discomfort, and anxiety which 
attend such an undertaking. In the latter case the natiu-alist is sometimes 
obliged to leave the shore (where he must have quarters in order to work out 
the results of his dredging) in the evening or at dead of night, when the wind 
generally lulls ; he finds himself in the morning in the spot which he has 
marked for his operations ; he has the dredges put out and all ready for action ; 
the wind suddenly and without any warning rises, and increases from a stiff 
breeze to half a gale ; it is useless to persevere, as the dredges wiU not lie on 
the bottom ; and immediate return is unavoidable. If a sailing-vessel is 
employed, much time is lost in getting to the ground ; and I have been cruising 
for eighteen hours in a smart and fast yacht before I could reach the desired 
spot, only 45 miles distant from the land. Sometimes a dead calm would ensue 
and last for two or three days together ; it was impossible even to get out of 
harbour. Having experienced this difficulty on former occasions, I chartered 
this year a steamer from Scarborough, and proceeded to Aberdeen, where I 
was joined by Mr. Eobert Dawson of Cruden, a most zealous and intelligent 
conchologist. We there attempted to dredge, remaining a week for that 
purpose; but the weather was too coarse, and the sea far too rough, to admit 
of our doing anything. At the end of that time we were joined by 
Mr. Edward Waller and the llev. Alfred Merle Norman, both of them 
excellent naturalists, and the last well known by his numerous contributions 
to the study of our marine Invertcbrata. From Aberdeen we all went straight 
to Shetland, and anchored in Balta Sound, Unst, which is the most remote of 
this northern group of islands. To indicate its whereabouts might be said by 
some to be a work of supererogation ; but when it is recollected that Byron 
confounded the Orknej-s with the Hebrides*, and that many otherwise well- 
informed persons have an indistinct idea that the Shetland Isles are either 
Scotch or else lie somewhere near Scotland, I trust I may be excused for 
sapng a few words as to the position of these sea-girt isles that stud " the 
unadorned bosom of the deep." To show the comparatively high latitude in 
which Unst, the most northern of this group, is situate, I would observe that 
the lighthouse erected at its northern extremity lies in nearly 60°!^., and within 
7 degrees of the Arctic circle. It is 10 degrees north of the Scilly Isles. At 

Balta we were most kindly rcceivedand hospitably entertained by Dr. Edmonston 
(a name honoured in the annals of science) and by Mrs. Spence of Hammer. 
But we were again doomed to be bafiled by the weather, and therefore we could 
not do as much as we had fondly anticipated. The results will be hereafter 

* " The fair-hair'd offspring of the Hebrides, 

Where roars the Pentland, with its wlui-ling seas." 

The Island, Canto 2. 


shown. The expense of this expedition was about .£300. It cannot be denied 
that the present case is one in aid and furtherance of which the funds of the 
Association may be properly applied. The grants amounted to .£75 ; and the 
remainder of the expense was borne by myself and friends, including 
Mr. Leckenby, of Scarborough, who liberally contributed his money in the 
cause of science, although he was unfortunately prevented from personally 
assisting in the work of the expedition. The marketable value of all the 
objects of natural history which were procured by means of this expedition 
cannot be estimated at more than =£5. It was purely a scientific inquiry ; 
and the British Association gave a stronger impulse to it than if it had been 
undertaken by any naturalist for the mere sake of enriching his collection. 
The grant and prestige attached to it encouraged the Committee, and they 
endeavoured to the best of their ability to fulfil the charge with which they 
were entrusted. These grants supply to a certain extent the shortcomings 
of Government in respect of exploring-expeditions, such as used to be 
undertaken, and by means of which our present first-rate school of naturalists 
has been formed. Some fears must be confessed for the future. In the 
Belfast and Doggerbank dredging-excursions, which were liberally assisted by 
grants from this Association, many young and rising naturalists have been 
trained, and a taste inculcated for the study of marine zoology. Good fruit 
always follows good cultivation. I believe the Association has benefited in a 
pecimiary as weU as scientific sense, by increasing the number of subscribers, 
and recruiting its ranks from local naturalists who take an interest in these 

The exploration of the Shetland seas has long been an object of mys- 
terious and high ambition to British naturalists. In " An Account of 
some new and rare Marine British Shells and Animals," pubhshed in the 
' Transactions of the Linnean Society ' for 1811, Col. Montagu first described, 
as indigenous to our seas, Terelratula cranium (Miiller), Crania ancmmla 
(Miiller), and Rissoa Zetlandica (Montagu), all of which had been discovered 
on the south coast of Shetland by Dr. Fleming, when minister of Bressay. 
The two fii-st-named species had previously been known only as inhabitino- 
the Scandinavian seas ; and the third was new to science. In 1828 Dr. Fleming 
published some more discoveries in his ' History of British Animals.' 
Tereh-atula caput-ser])€ntis (Linne), 8pirialis Fleminc/ii (Forbes and Hanley), 
and Scissurella crispata (Fleming), besides several jSTudibranchs, were the 
result of his further investigations. In the autumn of 1839 Professor Edward 
Forbes visited Lerwick, and did his usual good work, chiefly in the Echino- 
dermata and Acalephce, by dredging in the bays and fiords. The following 
extract from his note-book * wiU show his opinion of this district as a hunting- 
field:— ""We have done very well, on the whole, in our visit to Shetland, 
especially considering how short our time has been. To add eleven or twelve 
new animals to the British fauna, and to see as many more exceedingly rare 
species, confined to this locality, is no small harvest for a natui-ahst to reap 
in a fortnight, especially Avhen it is considered that six days of that fortnight 

were lost, in a manner, at sea." And then follows a characteristic oiota bene : 

" Must go back to Shetland." In 1841 1 went to Lerwick, and dredged there, 
not being aware of Forbes having preceded me. Twenty-one species of 
testaceous MoUusca, none of which had been noticed by Fleming as Zetlandic 
were the fruits of that excursion. Tliracia villosiuscula (MacgillivrayJ, Eissoa 
rufilahrvm (Alder), and Mangelia ? nana (Loven) were added by me to the 
British fauna on that occasion. Forbes accompanied his friend Mr. M'Andi-ew, 
» 'Life of Edward Forbes,' by Wilson and Geikie, p. 245. 

74 REPORT — 1863. 

in the year 1845, in a yachting voyage to the west coast of Shetland ; and he 
was enabled to make another addition to the list, in Troclms occidentalis 
(Mighels and Adams), Cerithiopsis metida (Lovcn), and Aporrliais pes-carhonis 
(Brongniart?). This excm'sion occupied some time. Besides the last-men- 
tioned Mollusca, Forbes discovered many new species of Medusa and two new 
Echinoderms. In 1848 I again took my dredge to Lerwick, in order to 
complete a monograph on the British and Irish species of Odostomia for the 
Meeting of the Association held that year at Swansea. I found one more 
novelty in the way of Mollusca, \\z. CyJkhna conidus (S. Wood), which was 
then known only as a coraUine-crag shell. My late friend, Mr. Barlee, went, 
at my suggestion, to Lerwick in 1857, and to the Wlialscy or Outer Skerries, 
on the east coast of Shetland, in 1858, dredging for many weeks each year. 
I was by his means enabled to increase the list of indigenous Testacea by the 
goodly number of nine, viz. Pecten aratus (Gmehn), Area nodidosa (Midler), 
Poromya ? subtrigona (Jeifreys), Skenea nitida (Jeffi-eys), Jeffreysia ylobulans 
(Jeffreys), Eulima stenostoma (Jeffreys), Odostomia minima. (Jeffreys), and a 
shell belonging to a new genus allied to Tricliotropis, and which I provisionally 
named Beduzia aperia. A good yacht having been lent to me in 1801 by a 
relative, I revisited Shetland for the thii'd time, being accompanied by my 
friends WaUer and Norman. We took up our quarters at the Out- Skerries 
Lighthouse. In spite of storms and calms, wo were tolerably successful ; and 
I presented to the Association, at the Manchester Meeting in that year, a 
communication relative to the deep-sea dredging of Mollusca. Mr. Norman 
followed suit with regard to the Crustacea and Echinodenns. The Ileport 
for 1861 will testify to the amount of work done. Among the Mollusca were 
two quite new to science, viz. Adis Wallen (Jeffreys) and A. septemradiatus 
( Jefireys), and nine other species which had not before been found or noticed in 
our seas, viz. Leda peniida (MiiUer), Necera rostrata (Chemnitz), Cleodora 
pyramidata (Eydoux and Souleyet), Dentalium ahyssorum (Sars), Margarita 
macidata (Searles Wood), Cerithiopsis costulata (MoUer), Pleurotoma nivale 
(Loven), Fusus Ishimlicus (Chemnitz), and Cylidma alba (Brown). The 
Cithara is unusually interesting in a geological point of view. It is an un- 
described fossil of the upper miocene, and has not been discovered in any 
newer formation. I lately detected two specimens (one adult and the other 
young) in the extensive collection of M. F. CailUaud at Nantes from the 
" faluus " of Touraine ; and he most obligingly presented them to mc for the 
sake of comparison. I afterwards showed these specimens to the great 
palaBontologist, Deshayes ; but he was unacquainted with the species. Even 
the animal of the genus to which it belongs (CytJua-a, Schumacher) was 
previously unknown to science. With respect to the Margarita I may 
remark that the recent shell is of a pure and delicate pearl-white, with 
an iridescent gloss, and so unlike in appearance to the small and dingy 
fossil specimens found in the Coralline Crag that I had at first no 
suspicion that they were the same species, and I proposed to give to the 
recent shell the name of elegantida. The name of macidata is derived 
from ferruginous blotches wldch disfigure some of the fossil specimens. 
However, I am now satisfied that the Shetland specimens do not differ 
specifically from those of the Crag, and I must relinquish the name of 
elegantula in favour of the name given by its first discoverer, although the 
latter is exceedingly inappropriate and likely to mislead. The animal, as weU 
as the shell, are exquisitely beautiful objects. Many novelties were also 
discovered among the Nudibranchs, Crustacea, Echinoderms, and Hydroid 
Polypes, for which I must refer to the valuable communications of Mr, Alder 


and Mr. Norman. I could not resist the temptation of repeating my visit, last 
year, to the " ultima Thule " (if the ancients knew Shetland and called it by 
that name) ; and I was much pleased to have Professor Allman as my colleague 
This time we stayed at Balta. The vessel I hired, although neat to the eye, 
turned out to he a poor and unseaworthy craft, and consequently was not of 
much use. We were greatly disappointed ; and our dredging was cut short 
by the rudder-post being broken in a heavy sea. I succeeded, nevertheless, 
in procui-ing a live specimen of Limopsis aunta (Brocchi), only known before 
as a miocene fossil and from the Coralline Crag ; and Mr. ^Ya]lev detected in 
some of the dredged sand, which I sent to him for examination, two fresh 
valves of Lima Sarsli (Loven), a new species of Eissoa (to which he proposes 
to give my name), and Chodora infuncUbuhnn (S. Wood), the latter also a 
Corallme Crag species, and hitherto unnoticed as recent. This year were 
obtamed two more species of Mollusca new to the British fauna, viz 
Area ohliqua (Philipiji) and Scaphander Ubrarius (Loven), besides 'four 
perfect specimens of Limopsis aurita (three of them Uving), three speci- 
mens of Eissoa Jeffreysi, the same number of Cithara haliaetl (one Ltvin"-) 
and a few very rare species, such as Spirialis Macandrei and Axinus Crouli- 
neims. Two species (Aclis unica and Odostomia cijUndrica), which had 
been considered southern forms, occurred for the first time in these northern 
latitudes. I had likewise an opportunity of confii-ming and extending some 
observations which I had made on former occasions as to the nature of the 
sea-bottom and bathymetrical conditions, as weU as with respect to the 
bearing of these dredging-operations on certain geological phenomena. 

The detaQed result of aU the explorations diu-ing the last few years in 
the Shetland seas, so far as they relate to the MoUusca, will be stated at 
the end of this Eeport. The first Table contains a list of species which 
I have added from this source to the British fnuna since the pubUcation of 
Forbes and Hanley's work. They are twenty-two in number. The second 
gives only a single species, which is as yet unknown elsewhere, either as recent 
or fossil. The third comprises the species (seven in number) which are unknown 
elsewhere, except in a fossil state ; and the fourth such as are confined to this 
part of theBritish seas, being twenty-three in number. AU these last-mentioned 
species are Scandinavian— a result which might have been expected from 
S*' |S?gf P^iical situation of the dredging-ground. The distance between 
the Whalsey or Out-Skerries and the opposite coasts of Norway is scarcely 
150 miles ; and this is reduced by from 20 to 50 miles where the dredgings 
were mostly carried on. 

Besides the MoUusca, some of the rarest and finest Echinoderms (e.g. 
Astrophyton UnUi, Ec7iinarac7mi(s plcccenta, and Cidaris p,apillosa) are only 
to be found as British in this part of our seas. Mr. Spence Bate and Mr 
Norman have described from this source several new Crustacea, Mr Alder 
some Nudibranchs and Zoophytes, and Professor Busk species of Polyzoa 
which had been previously considered as belonging only to the Coralline 
Crag ; and Mr. Brady has noticed a great many forms or species of Forami- 
nifera heretofore said to be peculiar to the chalk and tertiary strata. 

Beyond twenty mUes seaward of Unst the tides are scarcely, if at aU, felt ; 
and the dredgmgs afforded no evidence of any marine current. In calm 
weather, the rope when hauled up was perpendicular, or (as saUors caU it) 
•' straight up and down." The depth was about 85 fathoms, and it varied 
but httle for several miles further out to sea or in a paraUel Une. Here and 
for many square leagues north, east, and west there seems to be a stUl or 
quiescent region at the bottom of the ocean, unaffected by the storms which 

76 REPORT— 1863. 

so often vex the surface. From this part of the sea-bed were often brought 
up loose boulders, stones, and pebbles, of various sizes ; some of them were 
rounded, and others angular, but all more or less covered T\dth Zoophytes. 
Some of the so-called corals attached to these stones were exceedingly fragile 
and delicate ; and if the sea-bottom from which they were taken had been 
subject to the action of tides or currents, however feeble, the corals would 
assuredly be broken to pieces by the stones being rolled and coming into con- 
tact with each other. Even the underside of the smallest pebbles was usually 
encrusted with exquisitely fine living Polyzoa, which had not suffered any 
injury by lying loose on the ground. But, of course, the sea at such depths 
never stagnates ; it has a constant and free circulation throughout, and a 
ceaseless interchange of particles. In this region now live the species pre- 
viously known only in a fossil state and occurring in the middle and upper 
tertiary strata, and which might therefore be supposed to have become extinct 
on the advent of the glacial epoch. Considering the vast extent of sea-bottom 
which has never been touched by the di-edge, the exceedingly limited space 
measured in square acres which can be explored by means of it, and the in- 
finite variety of ground comprised within any given area, I would suggest that 
great caution should be used, and further inquiries made, before the common 
expression is hazarded that certain species are now " dying out," whether 
slowly, gradually, or rapidly. I do not believe that such is the case. The 
fact of finding only dead shells in a j^articular spot is no proof that living 
ones cannot be met with in the same district. There may be, and often is, 
an accumulation of dead shells in one place, like bones in a grave-yard, in 
consequence of the shell-fish having deserted it for some reason with which 
we are not acquainted, while the living brood migrates or shifts its quarters. 
The proportion of dead to living specimens, even of common species which 
are not supposed to be " dying out," is often remarkable. Among many 
hundred single valves of Lima subamiculata which were this year dredged 
in Shetland, there was only one live specimen. Scalaria Turtoni has lately been 
dredged in considerable numbers off the Yorkshire coast ; but all the speci- 
mens were dead. No one has yet found a live Adeorhis suhcarinatus, although 
it is by no means uncommon in the greater part of the European seas. The 
late Professor Forbes described, in his admirable contribution to the Memoirs 
of the Geological Survey for 1846, what he called " a boreal outlier," or 
isolated assemblage of northern shells, which he found while di-edging with 
Mr. M' Andrew in the deeps of Loch Fyne. He said, " The dead Mollusks 
taken were Ahra Boysii, a species of similar range with Nucida nucleus ; 
Cardium Lovini, a Scandinavian species ; and Pecten Danicus, a Norwegian 
species found only in the British seas, in the lochs of the Clyde, and then 
rarely ahve, though dead shells are abundant, as if the species thus isolated 
were now dying out." Having had peculiar opportunities of studying the 
geographical distribution of the British MoUusca, I may mention that the 
species first named {Ahra Boysii, or Scrohicidaria alba) inhabits the Mediter- 
ranean, as well as the western coast of France ; Cardium Loveni, or 0. Sueci- 
cum, is identical with C. minimum of Philippi, and is also a Mediterranean 
species ; and Pecten Danicus (or P. septemradiatus, ahas P. adspersus) has 
an equally southern range, although it is known in France and Italy by 
names differing from those which have been given to the same species in the 
north. P. septemradiatus is taken alive in considerable numbers by the fisher- 
men in Loch Fyne, during the herring-season. Mr. Barlee obtained from them, 
ten years ago, two or three hundred perfect specimens during a short stay at 
Inverary; the principal shell-dealers continually receive supplies of this 


pretty shell, and the stock seems to be inexhaustible. 'Mr. Norman reminds me 
of Pomatoceros arietinus, Caryophyllia clavus, Oornatula Sarsii, and Echinus 
Norvegkus as occurring under similar conditions. I am confident that if my 
distinguished friend were now alive, he would candidly acknowledge that 
his first impression had not been confirmed, or at least that it was modified 
by subsequent observations. 

No species appears to be confined to any limited district, although it may 
be locally distributed. The circumstance of its not having been found else- 
where is by no means a satisfactory proof that it does not exist beyond the sup- 
posed boundaiy. The more the bottom of the sea is explored, the greater 
will be the known extent of distribution. Instances in support of this pro- 
position are so numerous that it is hardly necessary to adduce them. Among 
the bivalves, Lejytofi squamosum, and among the univalves, Hissoa ahyssicoJa, 
may be cited as examples. Both of them were at one time said to be pecu- 
liar to our seas ; but it has now been ascertained that they have a wide range, 
north as well as south of Great Britain, in other parts of the Atlantic 

The sea-bed is often greatly diversified within the same district, both as regards 
its shape and composition. Whenever the vessel was of sufficient size, I have 
had two dredges put out at the same time ; so that directly one has been taken 
up the other is being haided in. It has more than once happened that the 
contents of the second dredge were quite difierent from those of the first, the 
one consisting of shell-sand and the other of stones, or vice versa. The 
depth of water remained the same. This change of ground must have taken 
place in the interval of a few minutes, when the first di'edge was being 
taken up, and during which the vessel could not have drifted more than a 
couple of hundred yards. The vessel's head is always kept nearly to 
windward while she is di-edgiug, so that she may not have too much way. 
A mile an hoxu: is reckoned quite fast enough to keep her steadily at work. 

Yast numbers of Glohigerhue abound everywhere in the dredged sheU- 
sand. Dr. AYaUich says *, " It is evident that there is an intimate associa- 
tion between the Ghhigerlna-A&^oAts and the Gulf-stream ; for wherever 
we trace the one sweeping across the siu'face of the ocean, we are almost sure 
to detect the other resting on the sea-bed ; and when we fail to trace the 
one, we almost as surely fail to detect the other." But it does not appear 
that the Gulf-stream impinges on the northern or eastern coasts of Shetland. 
No seeds, no lanthinai, VeleUce, or driftwood from the tropics have ever 
been picked up on these shores. On the contrary, the only driftwood 
which is here found floating or cast ashore consists of pine-trees from Nor- 
way — sometimes with their roots, and usually drilled by Teredo nana, being 
the same species that attacks fixed and submerged wood or boats lying long at 
anchor on the Shetland and Scandinavian coasts. "Wood is too scarce and 
valuable a commodity in the treeless isles of Shetland to be disregarded by 
the natives. A Norway log is one of their chief prizes. It would seem 
from the foregomg facts that the (y?oZ»i'grcrma-deposits are generally distri- 
buted over the floor of the deep sea thi'oughout a very extensive tract, irre- 
spective of the course of the Galf-stream. 

Occasionally a httle world of living animals is seen to occupy a single 
dead shell. An instance of such a microcosm was observed on a specimen 
of Buccinojjsis Dalei, var. ehurnea. Par within the shell an Annelid took up 
its abode. This may have been the first occupant after the true inhabitant 
had been cleared out, and it probably assisted in the evacuation. A Hermit 
* The North Atlantic Sea-bed, p. 137, 

78 REPOKT— 1863. 

Crab (Pagurus Prideauxii) kept possession of the body or last 'whorl ; and a 
Sea-anemone {Adamsia palliata) enreloped the whole surface of the sheU 
with its shmy mass. This grouj) of various animals formed " a happy 
family," and did not seem to interfere ia the least with one another. 

There is good reason to believe that the sea-bed in this district has sunk 
considerably since the close of the glacial epoch. Single valves of Rhyn- 
clionella psittacea, Pecten Islandicus, Astarte borealis (or arctiea), Tellina cal- 
carea (or proxhna), and Mya trimcafa, var. Uddevallensis, as well as dead 
shells of Trophon clathratiis (or sccdariformis), are occasionally brought up 
by the dredge from depths of between 75 and 85 fathoms, and in various 
parts of our northern sea. All the specimens have an unmistakeably fossilized 
or dull appearance, compared with that which distinguishes dead shells of 
other species stiU existing in the same locality. They are very different in 
that respect from the shells of Colmnbella HolboUii, and other species dredged 
oif the coast of Antrim but not alive. These last are quite fresh-looking, 
and may never have been exposed to the air or parted with the animal matter 
which permeates the shell. None of the species first enumerated have ever 
been foiuid in a living or recent state in the British seas. All are essentially 
Arctic forms. Their usual habitat is in rather shallow water ; and the variety 
of 3Iya trimcafa lives between tide-marks. Other species of MoUusca, which 
are common in our seas, and inhabit the sublittoral or laminarian zone on 
the south'ern coasts, are found only in deep water off the Shetland Isles. 
Such are Lamellaria perspicua, Nassa incrassaia, and Cyprcea Europcea. 
Not one of these last is an Arctic form. I have already noticed the pecu- 
liarity of their occurrence at the above-mentioned depths, in the Eeport 
which I had the honour to present to the Association in 1861, and I ven- 
tured to express an opinion that it was owing to this part of our northern 
sea-bed having sunk within a comparatively recent period. Dr. Wallich 
has since confii-med this impression on my part by his history of the " sunken 
land of Buss," in the North Atlantic, not far from which supposed tract he 
found several specimens of Ophiocoma f/ranidata living at the enormous depth 
of 1260 fathoms, the same species inhabiting on the opposite coast of Iceland 
from 10 to 20 fathoms only. Now, inasmuch as Pecten Islandicus and the 
other Arctic species above named are large and conspicuous forms, as well as 
gregarioiTs in the places where they are now found, the question naturally 
arises, " Why has not a single living individual ever been discovered in that 
part of the British sea where the dead shells are not uncommon, although 
it has been sufficiently explored ? " It cannot be said that they have died 
out, or become extinct, in consequence of the water having become of a 
higher temperature than it was during the period when they formerly in- 
habited the same part of the sea, or because some other conditions, unfa- 
vourable to their existence, have supervened. We have no proof or reason 
to believe that the temperature of the sea at a depth exceeding 75 fathoms 
has been at any time since that period different from what it is at present. 
Very many species of MoUusca, which are natives of the Polar sea, are also 
inhabitants of our coasts, where they apparently have not suffered the least 
diminution in number or vigour, although they may have dwindled in size. 
Several of the pecuHarly Arctic forms above referred to, and which no longer 
live in the British seas, continue to exist in a parallel latitude on the 
coast of Noi-way ; and two of them (Astarte borealis and Tellina calcarea) 
survive in Kiel Bay, more than 5° south of Unst, at a depth not exceeding 
25 fathoms. I therefore can only account for this apparent extermina- 
tion in our seas of the six species in question by suggesting that the 


bed which they once inhabited was raised and became dry land ; that it 
remained in that state for a period sufficiently long not only to destroy the 
entire brood, but also to semifossilize the shells by exposure to the action of 
the open air ; that subsequently the tract was submerged, and again formed 
the sea-bed ; and that it is still sinking by slow and perhaps imperceptible 
degi'ees. In this way the shallow-water species, as Nassa incrassata, would 
be gi-adually habituated to greater and greater depths, like the Korth At- 
lantic Starfishes. 

Living Mollusca, procured from a depth of 75 fathoms and upwards, being 
placed in a shallow vessel of sea-water taken from the beach, did not seem 
to be in the slightest degi-ee affected by the sudden change of bathymetrical 
conditions. With a solitary exception (that of Clthara haliaeti), all continued 
for a long time vigorous and active. They fed, crawled, leapt, and swam or 
floated immediately below the surface of the water ia an inverted position. 
One pair of Marginella Icevis was actually engaged for several hoiu's together 
in celebrating the rites of " alma Yenus " ! It was not necessary to renew 
often the supply of water in order to ensure this state of liveliness. I kept 
many of them, and observed their habits, for three days, when they were 
killed for the sake of their shells. 

I consider all maiine beds, of comparatively recent formation, to be 
necessarily fossiliferous, assuming that the same causes which now exist were 
in operation during that period. Even if these beds do not contain the shells 
of MoUusca, the remains of other animals, or certainly some microscopic 
organisms (such as Foraminifera and Diatoms), can be detected by a careful 
examination. I am aware that this opinion is opposed to that of some able 
geologists. Mr. Geikie says, in his recent treatise ' On the Phenomena of 
the Glacial Drift of Scotland' (p. 126), " I believe the gi'eater part of this 
drift, though it is imfossUiferous, to be of marine origin. Its occurrence on 
water-sheds or on the sides of mountains and hills far out of the reach 
of any stream seems sufficient evidence that in such cases fluviatUe action 
must have been impossible. And in these situations the mounds of sand and 
gravel are exactly comparable with others which occur in lower parts of 
the country. It is difficult, therefore, to avoid regarding the whole as due 
to the operation of some one general agency. This agency was, in all like- 
lihood, the waters of the ocean." The non-existence of fluviatile action in 
the places above referred to, at the time when the so-called drift was de- 
posited, does not seem to me proved, taking into consideration the changes 
of level which may have since taken place. In certain inlets or arms of the 
sea, rivers flowing into them may have a sufficient velocity to sweep the 
middle of the channel, and prevent the deposit of any mud or sediment 
which would shelter certain animals. Indeed the continual action of the 
current might preclude the possibility of any animal living within the pro- 
hibited area ; and in that case the central bed of the channel might be partly 
covered with clear sand, devoid of any organized structure. An illustration 
of this phenomenon will be found in Dr, Wallich's account of Hamilton's 
Inlet, Labrador. But such cases are rare, if not exceptional ; and not only are 
the limits of such lifeless areas very cii-cumscribed, but the absence of marine 
organisms may be attributable to the destructive property of fresh water. 
Many kinds of animals are known to- exist and flourish iu the most rapid 
tideways and even in whirlpools ; and the water of the ocean everywhere 
teems with life. The di-edge has never yet failed to bring up organic re- 
mains from every part of the sea-bed which has been explored, however un- 
promising it may appear to the naturalist. Even in the cleanest-looking 

80 REPORT— 1863. 

sand, taken from any spot beyond the reach of fluviatile action, some ma- 
rine debris may be found. Having these facts and some experience to 
guide us in the inquiry, I think we ought not to call any strata which are 
unfossUiferous marine, unless there are sufficient grounds for supposing that 
the absence of fossUs is caused by cliemical absorption or decomposition. 

The subjoined Appendix will show the additions made to the list of British 
MoUusca in consequence of the Shetland dredgings. 

Mr. Norman and Mr. Brady will give in subsequent papers the results as 
regards other departments of the marine Invertcbrata ; and we hope to com- 
plete and publish next year a full catalogue of all the species. 

I submitted to the inspection of Mr. Prestwich a sample of small gravel 
di'edged up from 85 fathoms, and aboiit 25 miles oif Unst ; and that eminent 
geologist has favoui'cd me with the report which will be also found appended 
to this communication. One of these specimens deserves especial notice. It is 
a piece of conglomerate, composed of granitic and other fragments cemented 
by carbonate of lime. There is no calcareous rock within a considerable 
distance from the spot where this piece of conglomerate was found. It may 
be doubted whether the cement could have arisen from the re-solution of 
dead shells. The probability is that the specimen in question may have 
been carried diuing the glacial epoch by an iceberg or coast-ice fi-om Nor- 
way. I have a large mass of conglomerate, composed principally of recent 
shells of a southern form, which was dredged between Jersey and the oppo- 
site coast of France ; but this may have been formed by a submarine spring, 
charged either with carbonate of lime derived from the underlying chalk, or 
with carbonic acid sufficiently strong to dissolve any calcareous matter within 
the range of its action. The shells contained in the last-mentioned piece of 
conglomerate have not imdergone any dissolution. I agree with Dr. Wal- 
lieh as to the probability that "' the demand for carbonate of Ume at the 
bottom of the sea is limited only by the supply," and that there is no evi- 
dence of supersatui'ation as regards a material so essential to the construc- 
tion of shells and similar organisms. Por the elucidation of such minor pro^ 
blems as this we invite the attention of chemists and geologists. 



1. Species found in Shetland, and added to the list since the publication of 

Forbes and Hanleifs work. 

Rissoa Jeffrej'si, Waller. 
Odostomia minima, Jeffreys. 

Pecten aratus, GmeUn. {V. a\\\ca,\MS, Miill.) 

Lima Sarsii, Loven. 

Leda perniila, Midler. 

Limopsis aurita, Brocchi. 

Area nodulosa, Miillcr. 

A. obliqua, PkiUppi. (A. Korenii, Daniels- 

Neajra rostrata, Chemnitz. 

Cleodora infundibulum, 8. Wood. 

C. pyramidata, Eycloux and Souleyef. 

Dentalium abyssorum, Sars. 

Margarita maculata, 8. Wood. (M. elegan- 
tula, Jeffreys, MS.) 

Aclis Wallcri, Jeffreys, MS. 
Eulima stenostoma, Jeffreys. 
Cerithiopsis costulata, Moller. (Cerithium 

niveum, Jeffreys.) 

? aperta, Jeffreys (as Recluzia aperta). 

Plem-ostoma nivale, Loven. 

Cithara lialiaeti, Jeffreys, MS. 

Fusus Islandicus, Channifs. 

Scaphander librarius, Loven. 

Cylielma alba, Brown. (C. triticea, Cou- 


2. Species unhwivn elsewhere, either as recent or fossil. 
Jeffreysia globularis, Jeffreys. 



3. Species luiknown elseivhere, except as fossil. 

Odostomia minima. Coralline Crag. 
Aporrhais pes-carbonis, Brongniart^ Mio- 
Cylichnaconulus, S Wood. Coralline Crag. 

Limopsis anrita. Miocene and Pliocene. 
Cleodora infundibulum. Coralline Crag. 
Margarita maculata. Coralline Crag. 
Skenea nitida, Philippi. (S. lajvia, Forbes 
and Hanley.) Sicilian Tertiaries. 

4. Species confined to this part of the British seas, hut also Scandinavian. 

Terebratula craniiun, 3fiiller. 

Pecten aratua. 

Lima Sarsii. 

Leda pernula. 

Area nodulosa. 

A. obliqua (Sicilian). 

Neacra rostrata (Mediterranean). 

Cleodora pyramidata (North Atlantic). 

Chiton albus, Linne. 

DentaUum abyssorum. 

Scissurella crispata, Fleming. 

Eissoa Jeffreysi. 

Odostomia ? eximia. 
AcUs Walleri. 
Eulima stenostoma. 
Cerithiopsis costulata, 
C. metula, Loven. 
C. ? aperta. 
Plem'otoma niyalis. 
Cithara haliaeti. 
Fusiis Islandicus. 
Scaphander librarius. 
Cyllchna alba. 

5. Description of small rock-fragments or 

off the north coast 

4 fragments of white quartz-pebbles. 
2 angular fragments of white (vein) quartz. 
2 subangular fragments of dark grey quartz- 

1 subangular fragment of light brown cal- 

careous sandstone. 

2 subangular fragments of brown micaceous 

sandstone, slightly calcareous. 
1 subangular fragment of argillaceous black 

4 angular fragments of hornblende rock. 

1 subangular fragment of red syenite. 

2 angular fragments of red syenite. 

3 angular fragments of light red granite. 
2 pebbles of light red granite. 

gravel dredged up from 85 fathoms 
of Shetland. 

subangular fragment of red pygmalite. 

subangular fragments of light red quartz- 
ose sandstone. 

subangular fragment of white quartzosa 

subangular fragments of red porphyry. 

angular fragments of light-coloured gra- 

subangular fragment of dark red porphyry. 

angular fragment of grey quartzit«. 

small pebble of grey granite. 

fragment of pebble of hornblende rock. 

fragment of conglomerate, composed of 
the above materials, with a calcareous 

N.B. Mr. Prestwich remarks that these rock-fragments are so small that 
it is possible, or rather probable, that the frag-ments designated " pygma- 
tite," " porphyry," and " hornblende " may in fact all belong to one granite 
rock. He is of opinion that the cement of the conglomerate may be derived 
from the calcareous matter of shells or Bryozoa. 

Report on the Physiological Effects of the Bromide of Ammonium. By 
George D. Gibb, MJD., M.A., F.G.S., F.A.S., Physician to the 
West London Hospital, and Assistant-Physician and Medical 
Registrar to the Westminster Hospital, London. 
BROinNE and its salts have been known for many years to possess con- 
siderable virtues, and some remarkable instances of their peculiar effects, 
physiological and medical, have been placed upon record. Amongst others' 
the power of absorbing hypertrophied structure has been observed, especially 
enlargements of the spleen and liver, lymphatic glands, and scirrhous 

8^ REPORT — 1863. 

In an excellent essay by Dr. R. M. Glover (at one time a resident in 
Newcastle and afterwards in London), published in the Edin. Med. and 
Surg. Journ. for October 1842, there is a list of the diseases in which either 
bromine or some one of its preparations has been employed, but amongst 
the latter the bromide of ammonium is not mentioned. 

The salt hitherto, it may be said almost solely, in use has been the bro- 
mide of potassium, considered by many physiologists analogous in its eifects 
to the iodide of the same base, only that it is slower in its action. The persons 
whose names are deserving of mention in relation to the potassium salt, are 
the late Dr. T. Williams of London, who found it of great benefit in enlarged 
spleen ; Pourche, who treated bronchocele and scrofula with success ; and in 
a number of cases of pseudo-membranous disease, including a few of croup, 
M. Ozanam found it of especial value. Cancer is another disease successfully 
treated with it by Mr. Spencer Wells, in doses of five to ten grains three 
times a day, with cod-liver oil (Med. Times, July 1857, p. 31). 

In the course of its use M. Huette observed that anasOiesia of the fauces 
was a result which its administration caused ; and this circumstance, at first 
looked upon as objectionable, I have endeavoured to turn to account, as a 
I^hysiological result of extreme value and importance in the practice of medi- 
cine, either in examinations of the throat and nostrils, or for the perform- 
ance of operations upon either, or in the interior of the windpipe from above, 
by means of the laryngeal mirror. 

To effect this object the bromide of potassium was freely given internally 
in large doses, but it failed to bring about this result, unless in a very few 
instances, its action varying according to the idiosyncrasy possessed by the 
individuals experimented upon. Its local action, although perhaps a little 
more certain and decided, was not to be relied upon. 

On looking through the other salts of bromine, none Beemed likely to 
possess more of the anaesthetic power than that of potassium ; having had 
some experience, nevertheless, of the reliable value of the preparation known 
as the iodide of ammonium, it struck me that the analogous substance (bro- 
mide of ammonium) might prove more efiicacious than the potassium salt, 
from the union of bromine with a base of great power, ready absorption, 
exerting a decided influence upon the fluidity of the blood, and moreover 
the remedy for poisoning by bromine, as recommended by Mr. Alfred Smee, 
namely ammonium. I was not aware at the time that it was employed for 
photographic pm'poses, probably more or less impiire, but had the salt care- 
fully prepared for my experiments by Messrs. Fincham of Baker Street, 

The bromide of ammonium when pure is perfectly white and amorphous, 
with a feeble odour of sea-weeds. Under the microscope the salt is clear 
and transparent, and not crystalline nor deliquescent. It can, however, be 
crystallized in cakes or quadrangular prisms. It possesses a slightly pungent 
saline taste, not so sharp as that of common salt, nor so acrid as the bromide 
of potassiiun. 

Agreeably to the request of the General Committee, I have performed a 
large number of experiments since bringing the subject before the Association 
last year at Cambridge, but the present Report combines the whole of the 
more important of my experiments from the first use of the salt, and from 
which are deduced its physiological and therapeutical properties. 

In pursuing this inquiry, the salt has been administered in small doses at 
intervals more or less long-continued, in large doses frequently Z'epeated or 
given at intervals, and in single daily doses. A comparison is also instituted 


between the relative effects of this salt and the bromide of potassium. It 
may be mentioned that in these different experiments healthy persons were 
selected ; and according to the results obtained, so were certain diseases sub- 
mitted to treatment to more fully bear put and confirm the physiological 
effects noticed. 

Effects of small Doses. — About one hundred healthy persons, male and 
female, of various ages, were given small doses of the salt, ranging from one 
to five grains, three times or more a day? in water as a vehicle, and in some 
combined with a simple colouring agent, such as the tincture of alkanet 
root or other substance. The period of its continuance varied from three 
weeks to several months, and the results were carefully noted. All were in 
tolerably good health, or nearly so ; or if affected with any particular ailment, 
it did not appear to be likely to interfere with the action of the drug. 

Two striking results were soon noticed in the greater number ; namely, 
increase in the power of the appetite, and improvement of the complexion. 
With regard to the former, its action was that of a decided tonic ; for whilst 
the persons ate more food than had been their custom, they were able to 
digest it well ; the drug appeared to impart a soothing and comfortable sensa- 
tion. There never was any tormina nor the slightest tendency to intestinal 
relaxation; but the general functions appeared to be regularly and con- 
sistently performed. The tongue assumed a natural and clean appearance, 
and was moist ; the skin and mucous membrane (presently to be noticed) 
performed their functions well ; the circulation was not increased nor lessened ; 
the heart's action continued regular, the pulse possessing good power and 
volume, and comfort was experienced after meals. If there were indications 
of indigestion or dyspepsia before the use of the salt, they yielded to the 
small doses given. In six or seven cases, a mild diuretic effect was observed. 

If the small doses were continued for some time these effects were not 
always continuous, and in a few persons slight nausea was produced, with 
an impairment of the appetite ; this was especially so if the drug was given 
in four- or five-grain doses. In three cases only was there a little headache, 
with giddiness and hght-headedness, but the intellectual faculties were 

Coincident with the increase of appetite was a marked clearing of the 
complexion, particularly observable if the face was naturally florid or the 
skin very red. This redness or floridity became paler, decidedly paler, and 
the skin assumed a fine transparent freshness, indicative of healthy function. 

Dinginess, slight sallowness, or a heightened complexion became modified 
or altered, so that a more healthy, slightly pink colour was assumed. These 
effects were noticed sometimes when the salt had been taken but a few days ; 
and the improvement in the skin was so apparent, that it has attracted the 
notice of the friends of the persons under experiment. 

Applying this result pathologically, I found the salt very serviceable in a 
variety of cutaneous affections, the eruptioiis fading away reasonably fast, 
and the individuals looking as clean and as clear about the complexion as if 
they had just come out of a bath. The results were very striking, and posi- 
tively beneficial upon the skin. They are produced also by the other salts 
of bromine, biit perhaps not in the same degree ; I therefore feel justified in 
denominating the bromide of ammonium, amongst its other properties, as a 
beautifier of the complexion and cleanser of the skin. It appears to act by 
gently stimulating the capillaries of both the skin and mucous membrane ; 
and secretion is excited in both by small doses of the salt, independently of 
exercise and increased diet. 


84 REPORT — 1863. 

Local and Constitutional Effects on the Mucous Membrane. — If the mucous 
membrane of the mouth and throat has been diy, or secreted less than natural, 
a healthy moisture is produced by small doses internally, which has proved 
veiy agreeable. In an instance wherein the taste was blunted and impaired, 
so that the sapid character of the solution employed locally was not noticed, 
it almost immediately improved, and became more sensitive to impressions. 
This is known to be the reverse with salts of iodine, which often produce a 
disagreeably bitter taste, pervading in some instances almost everything 

Although it will improve sensation in small doses or single applications, its 
essential property is exerted upon the sensation of the minute nerves of the 
mucous membrane of the soft palate and j)haryux, the former especially. 
\Yhen locally applied, dissolved in water, or glycerine and water, a remark- 
ably tranquil soothing influence is brought about, which continues for a 
certain period of time, and then passes off. 

If the strength of the solution is increased, the perhaps heretofore dry 
membrane has its follicles stimulated; and whilst secretion is increased, 
sensation is somewhat diminished ; but this last property varies in different 
individuals. If now topical application be resorted to through the aid of a 
tolerably strong solution of the salt, say from two to eight ckachms, or even 
more, in six ounces of water, used either as a gargle or a paint every half- 
hour, the throat will become in a condition of mild local anaesthesia, that is 
to say, loss of sensation confined to the fauces, which will be more or less 
complete according to the susceptibilities of the individual and the period 
during which the sohition is employed. I have seen it occm- from the first 
to the ninth day ; and the continuance of the ana3sthesia wiU afterwards 
depend upon the amount of the salt locally absorbed, but generally diminish- 
ing after the first twenty-four hours, and not unfi-eqi;ently continuing as 
long as three days. 

Knowing that this anaesthetic property was attributed to the bromide of 
potassium by M. Huette, and applied by M. Gosselin in staphyloraphy*, I 
was prepared for its occurrence with the salt of ammonium, but the result of 
my expeiiments warrant me in saying that, whilst the amesthesia is more 
complete and certain, it produces less inconvenience in relation to the sense 
of taste than does the bromide of potassium. The importance of this anaes- 
thetic property cannot indeed be over-estimated in its application to a num- 
ber of subjects connected with the throat especially, as modifying degrees of 
natural irritability, pain, sensation, secretion, mobility, and absorption. 

Effects of large Doses. — It may be as well to mention here that the ex- 
periments of M. Huette with the sister salt, the bromide of potassium, went 
to show that headache was sometimes observed on the third day, but ordi- 
narily occurred from the fourth to the seventh day, when the daily dose of 
the salt had reached from two to five drachms f. 

According to its continuance in large doses, so were produced torpor and 
drowsiness, lowering of the pulse (40 to 48), vomiting and continued sleep, 
and finally a form of peculiar intoxication, characterized by unpaired sight 
and hearing, utter helplessness and insensibility. Weakness of the mind and 
torpor of the genitals were other efiects noticed. Among the special effects 
of the salt, one of the most remarkable, even from a feeble dose, observes 
M. Huette, is profound insensibility of the velum and pharynx, which persists 
throughout the duration of the treatment. How far the bromide of ammo- 

* Gazette Medicale, April 14, 1860, p. 223. 
t Annuaire de Therapeuticiue, 1851, p. 216. 


nuim resembles the potassium salt, the foUovring experiments will determine. 
Huette's experiments with the latter show well its influence upon various 
parts of the mucous tract, although he says nothing about the skin; M. 
Rames, however, observed an instance wherein the skin was so completely 
insensible that its puncture with a needle was not felt, and tickling of the 
conjunctiva or fauces with a feather produced neither winking nor desire to 

It was soon apparent in my own experiments with the bromide of ammo- 
nium that the entire miicous tract could be greatly influenced for good or 
for evil, according to the desire of the physiologist. And yet with proper 
care and judgment, we are furnished with an agent in this salt that promises 
to be of immense benefit to suffering humanity in many obscure and hereto- 
fore intractable diseases. 

Experiment 1. — A mau aged 27, in robust health, was given half a drachm 
of the bromide of ammonium in an ounce of water, Avith a little syrup, every 
four hours. The fii-st dose was given at eight, the next at twelve, the third 
at four, and the fourth at eight p.m. Nothing unusual was observed at 
night beyond an alteration in the sense of taste. Next day the dose was 
continued, and the taste gradually diminished until, at night, there was com- 
plete loss of it, and insensibility of the throat and fauces. The application 
of metallic or other substances was not felt, and apparently anything could 
have been done with the individual. The sense of smeU was afiiected ; the 
nose, however, did possess some sensation, and also the conjunctivte. The 
mucous membrane was pale, watery, and not congested. Although taste 
was gone, he felt he had a tongue, and could swallow as usual, for the 
muscles retained their contractile power. Nothing else was specially ob- 
served, and in three days all the natural functions were restored, and sensa- 
tion was quite regained. 

Uxp. 2. — The same experiment was repeated with the bromide of potassium 
in another man aged 32 ; and beyond some amount of nausea, slight head- 
ache, and very slight impairment of sensation and taste, nothing further was 

Exjj. 3. — A man aged 37, in good health, with the exception of chronic 
hoarseness, was ordered half a drachm of the bromide of ammonium three 
times a day ; this was regularly taken for three days, in aU nine doses, equal 
to four and a half drachms. On the fourth day, although sensation was 
blunted, it was not absent, for the man had had a bilious attack just before 
commencing the salt, followed by vomiting. I now gave him thirty grains on 
the spot, and ordered two other similar quantities during the afternoon. 
These latter he did not take ; nevertheless I succeeded in passing a little 
iastrument into his windpipe with comparatively little or no sensation until 
it touched the epiglottis, when it was at once rejected. I now ordered him 
four doses of half a drachm each for the next day, beginning at three p.m., so 
that on the morning after he would have just swallowed the fourth before 
coming to me. This he did most punctually ; and when he was examined, 
there was complete anaesthesia of the mucous membrane of the fauces, nose, 
eyes, and eyelids. He had little or no taste, and no sensation in swallowing 
food, impaired smell, looked a little pale, but otherwise said he was well. 
Several times were instruments passed into the larynx without sensation, 
imtil they touched the epiglottis, and reflex action compelled their with- 
drawal. He was now given chloroform to insensibility ; and on recovering 
from it, the anaesthesia of the mucous membrane still remained, so that the 

* Joum, de Pliarm., Dec. 1849. 

8^ = REPORT 1863. 

■whole of the eye could be touched with perfect impunity without winkrag. 
Two days after this most of these effects had disappeared, a previously 
haggard look had gone, and he felt all right again. Pour days later he was 
perfectly well. He had taken altogether seven drachms of the salt. 

Ex^J. 4 — Male, aged 42, health good. For thi-ee weeks the salt was given in 
doses of from four to eight grains thrice a day, which diminished the sensi- 
bility of the fauces. In the next two days half-drachm doses were given 
thrice a day; and as insensibihty was not complete, a scruple was given 
every three hours for two days more. The result of this was complete 
anaesthesia, so that bodies could be introduced into the larynx ; but, as in 
the previous experiment, when coming into contact with the epiglottis, they 
had to be withdrawn from the excitation of reflex action. In from five to 
seven days sensation was quite regaiaed, and all the functions restored with^ 
out any tuconvenience. 

Exj).',5. — Male, aged 51, health good, excepting a laryngeal voice. For fifteen 
days he was given at first 2| and then 5 grains of the salt twice a day, with 
no noticeable effect beyond improving the appetite, voice, and complexion. 
He was then given twenty grains of the bromide four times a day for four 
days ; and on the morning of the fifth day there was anaesthesia of the fauces, 
nose, moxith, and tongue ; and all the special senses were somcAvhat affected. 
The stomach likewise, for he had no desire for food, although feehng well 
in health ; and he had little or no sensation in micturition. The countenance 
was paler than usual, the skin very clear, and the tongue clean. Differing 
from previous cases, the epiglottis was almost completely insensible, and but 
feebly influenced by the contact of instruments passed into the trachea. 
Next day he felt a little giddy and stupid ; but in the three following days 
the senses of taste and smell were returning, appetite indifferent, tongue 
much fuiTcd, intestinal and renal secretions regidar and normal in quantity, 
and sensatioti restored to the urethra. 

Eight days later he was sleepless, and had no desire for food nor for sleep ; 
a bitter taste was present in the mouth, with an odour of ptyalism ; the 
primse viae were disordered : throat was now sensitive. In a few days aU 
these symptoms disappeared ; but it must be stated that they were partly 
due to an attack of cold from which he was then suffering. 

ExjJ. 6. — As in the first experiment, half a drachm of the salt was given 
to a man aged 35, in good health, every two hoiirs, using chiefly a tea and 
bread diet. During the first day he took four drachms, the second the same 
quantity, and the third a similar quantity, when it had to be stojjped. The 
syttiptoms the first day wore very much Ukc those iii Exp. 1 ; on the 
second there was some giddiness and stupor, with impairment of sensation 
both in the skin and mucous membrane, but not amounting to complete 
anaesthesia ; on the third day he had passed a restless night, and towards 
evening he Was like a man intoxicated ; he felt light-headed and drowsy ; 
speech, hearing, and sight were materially affected ; he had no sense of smell 
no:i? taste, nor any sensation in the mucous membrane of the throat, nose, 
ears, eyelids, and alimentary canal. Pressure was scarcely felt over the 
stomach atid bowels ; there was no sensation in the lu'ethra, and but little in 
the rectum ; and the bladder would have been distended if he had not been 
requested to empty it ; its contractile power was unimpaired. The sensibility 
of the skifi Was blunted, but not gone. 

General anaesthesia of the entire mucous tract, more or less, had been 
herfe produced, and it was deemed prudent not to carry out the administra- 
tion of the salt further ; the pulse was slow and regular, and forty-four per 


ttimute ; the breathing quiet and tranquil ; the membrane of the fauces was 
secreting a transparent fluid, and there was no congestion. The symptoms 
were allowed to subside sua sjponte. The salt was readily detected in the 
urine the first and subsequent days, and also in the saliva. In four days 
sensation had returned in the upper mucous tract, and then in the lower. 
Some nausea and anorexia remained for a week or ten days, and he regained 
his normal condition. AU his powers were whoUy unimpaired. 

Exp. 7. — Precisely similar steps were followed out with the bromide of 
potassium in a man aged 42 in good health, but the general results were by 
no means similar as affecting sensation. It was impaired, and slight anaes- 
thesia was produced in the fauces. Yet the stupor was not so great, but 
headache was a prominent symptom, subsequently followed by giddiness and 
derangement of the digestive organs. 

Estimating the power of the two agents, the ammonium salt appeared to 
be more active, and produced the peculiar effects of bromine quicker than the 
potassium salt. 

In Experiments 6 and 7, four drachms of the respective salts were taken 
each day for three days, equivalent to 1| ounce. In the following the 
quantity was increased. 

Exp. 8. — A young man, aged 23, ruddy complexion, health good, voice 
weak, was given half a drachm every hour for twelve hours, beginning at 
seven in the morning. It was regularly taken with a drachm of the tincture 
of cardamoms to each dose. By the seventh dose, nausea and headache were 
produced ; these were lessened by the ninth, and at the tenth stui)idity and 
drowsiness were manifest. When the twelfth was taken, intoxication 
seemed to be present, with incoherency of speech. It was difficult to say 
whether there was complete ansesthesia from the man's condition, but he 
seemed to feel nothing, and the conjunctivae could be touched with tlie end 
of the finger without winking. Pricking of the skin was not felt each time 
it was done. Breathmg was slow, and the pulse fifty-tWo, quite regular. 
He slept very sound that night, and the next few days he felt giddy and 
confused, with impaired sensation of the mucous membrane of the fauces 
for two or three days, but recovered well. The quantity taken in twelve 
hours was six drachms. 

Exp. 9. — The same experiment was repeated in a female of 32, in fair 
average health. Nothing particular was observed whilst taking the drug 
beyond a little pallor, and reduction of the pidse from eighty to sixty-four. 
At night she felt more drowsy than usual, and faucial sensibility was dimi- 
nished. After a sound sleep of some hours during the night, she awoke 
with a fuiTcd tongue and offensive breath, and some nausea. On the third 
day the catamenia set in very profusely, and continued for some days. In 
the foregoing experiment, and also in Exp. 8, the bromide was readUy detected 
in the urine. 

Exp. 10. — Male, aged 78, in good general health, but seldom sleeping at 
night, was given ten grains twice a day for four days, then fifteen grains for 
six days, and then twenty grains for twelve days. The digestive functions 
continued good throughout, and the pulse remamed constantly at seventy-six, 
regular, and with the hardness of old age. His strength was considerably 
increased, but no other change occurred deserving of note. He was a thin 
spare man. 

Exp. 11. — Twenty grains Were given to a female aged 27 twice a day for 
foiu-teen days, without any inconvenience beyond losing flesh, and impaired 
sensibility of the throat. 

88 REPORT — 1863. 

Eccp. 12. — The same quantity was given three times a day to a man of 35, 
and persisted in for five weeks. At the end of that time he had anorexia 
and chronic anaesthesia of the throat, ?'. e. impaired sensibility, which had 
been present for ten days. It was also diminished in the conjunctivae and 
nostrils ; rhinoscopy was very easy. 

E.vp- 13. — Thirty grains were given to a woman twice a day for a fort- 
night, and the symptoms produced were not unlike those in the previous 

Exp. 14. — A similar quantity, three times a day, was given to a young 
man of 26. He took it well for six days, when it had to be stopped, for he 
felt light-headed and queer, with some restlessness of the limbs. The 
mucous membrane of the fauces was feebly sensible, and could be freely 
touched without any inconvenience or resistance. 

Ea-p. 15. — In another person, thirty grains given three times a day for ten 
days produced no decided change whatever beyond altering the complexion. 

E.vp. 16. — Half a di'achm was injected into the rectum of a male aged 31 
every four hours for two days. It was readily detected in the urine, and 
exerted its influence chiefly in diminishing sensation in the genito-iirinary 
tract of mucous membrane and lower part of the alimentary canal, which 
felt benumbed. It seemed also as if sensation was diminished in the fauces. 

Exp. 17. — The same experiment, repeated upon another man, caused a 
slight attack of diarrhoea, but sensation was nevertheless sensibly impaired. 

Exp. 18. — A scruple in half an ounce of water was injected into the male 
bladder, and repeated twice at intervals of two hours. It was quickly ab- 
sorbed, for reagents indicated the presence of but a smaU quantity in the 
urine voided before each recurrence of the injection. Yery slight antesthesia 
was experienced at the neck of the bladder ; and in seven hours from the 
first injection there was copious diuresis. 

Exp. 19. — An eight-ounce mixture, containing half a di'achm of each of 
the iodide and bromide of ammonium, was ordered in tablespoonful-doses 
twice a day to a healthy female aged 22. The first dose caused severe sickness 
and vomiting, with great prostration and syncope ; severe abdominal pain, 
but no diarrhoea. She remained very poorly the remainder of the day. 

Exp. 20. — A similar mixture, containing a di-achm each of the two salts, 
was ordered for a female aged 28, with aphonia — on the same day as in the 
preceding experiment. The first dose was swallowed at the chemist's, and on 
her waj^ home she was seized with sickness and vomiting, great pain in the 
bowels, prostration and diarrhoea. Next day she was wcU again. 

Although the symptoms were the same in each experiment, excepting the 
presence in one and absence in the other of diarrhoea, yet they clearly 
proved that the salts of iodine and bromine are incompatible. I did not 
like to repeat the experiment. In Exp. 19 the quantity of each salt taken 
was about two grains, whilst in Exp. 20 it was about four grains. The 
general symptoms were certainly severer in the latter, which may account 
for the presence of the diarrhoea. 

I have performed several experiments upon animals with bromide of am- 
monium, and have given various quantities by the stomach, with compara- 
tively no inconvenience, and they rather go to prove that tolerably large 
doses may be given even to very young childi-en without anj^ ill effect ; in- 
deed I have administered pretty large doses to infants and childi'en for 
hooping-cough and other diseases, with the most satisfactory results. 

I have not injected solutions of the salt into the circulation in animals, for 
the reason that no valuable or practicable inference? would have been fur- 


nished, beyond the mere fact tliat death ■would have ensued from almost any 
quantity, as in Dr. Glover's experiments with the sister salt, the bromide of 
potassium. Nor have I destroyed one single life, nor caused a pang of misery 
to any dumb creature, — not that I disapprove of such experiments if impera- 
tively demanded by the exigencies of science. 

In some of the foregoing experiments it will be observed that whilst large 
doses, frequently repeated, produced certain specific results in the majority 
of persons, in some these were comparatively slight, depending most pro- 
bably upon some idiosyncrasial influence, antagonistic to the bromine salt. 

The skia is seldom devoid of sensation, unless large and poisonous doses are 
persisted in ; the same may be said of the gastro-intestinal tract of mucous 
membrane, which I infer to be equally in a state of anaesthesia from insen- 
sibility to pressure over the abdomen, and the presence of anorexia. Two sets 
of nerves are evidently influenced, those of special sensation, and some of the 
branches of the sympathetic supplying the intestinal mucous tract ; why this 
should be so I shall not undertake to explain, but the fact is patent that the 
entire mucous tract of the body is more or less afi'ected in sensation by large 
and continuous doses. The respiratory tract I also infer to be included in 
this, from the subsidence of any irritation giving rise to cough or spasm • no 
impediment to breathing has ever been noticed. 

It may not be out of place to mention here that the sister salt, bromide of 
potassium, is given at the hospital for epilepsy and paralysis in London, in from 
ten to twenty, and sometimes thirty grains, three times a day, as I Icam from 
Dr. Jackson, one of the physicians. He further informs me that the patients 
there have not been obsei-ved to get notably thinner, nor has he noticed any 
special symptoms after the use of the salt, beyond the alleviation of their 

Effects on Atheroma, CJiolesterine, and Fat in the general economy. — "Whe- 
ther"given in small, frequently repeated (two to five grains thrice a day), or 
in moderately large, less frequent doses (five to ten or fifteen grains once to 
thi-ee times a day), a distinct influence was noticed upon the various agents 
which more or less constitute the adipose element throughout the body — a 
result that at first was quite unexpected upon my part. 

Various degrees of rotimditj, ijicreasing to positive corpulence or poly- 
sarcia, in persons otherwise in good health, yet in whom there was a decided 
and positive indication of excess of atheroma and cholesterine in the system 
as manifested by the presence of the atheromatous expression*, were sensibly 
aflPected according to the period of administration, the dose, or the combina- 
tion of the drug with a certain moderate dietetic regimen. 

Of some five-and-thirty cases, in which corpulence may be said to have been 
present in various degrees, in aU, with some five or six exceptions, did the 
bromide of ammonium exert a decided efi'ect in diminishing weight and im- 
proving the general comfort. That is to say, when this agent was persisted in 
for some months, and in doses of three or four grains twice or three times a day, 
several pounds in weight were gradually lost, and the individuals seemed to get 
thinner; nevertheless the general health continued imimpaired, or improved 
still fui-ther under its use, the adipose development became decidedly less, the 
secretion from the oily sudoriparous glands, seen in a shining face, was modi- 
fied and diminished, and altogether there was an improved appearance in the 
countenance, which the persons themselves were fully sensible of. But Avhen 
the diet was moderately regulated, and the drug given in the mornings only 
before breakfast, the reduction in weight was more speedy, more decided and 

* For a description of this, see a paper by the author in ' The Lancet ' of May 13, 1860. 

90 REPORT — 1863. 

pefmatieiitj aiid the general health continued excellent. In most of my 
earlier experiments the pure bromide of ammonium was used to bring about 
these various results. I am now in the habit, however, of directing from one 
to three (or more) teaspoonfuls of the effervescing bromide, an elegant and 
most agreeable salt prepared by Messrs. Fincham, of Baker Street, London, 
to be taken before breakfast, in water, to neutralize or combine with the 
various fatty agents in the economy, which so materially aid in shortening 
the period of human existence. It may be here mentioned that a drachm of 
the effervescing bromide contains two grains of the salt, and that this quantity 
is equivalent to a teaspoouful. If it is desired to give this agent but once daily, 
no better fonn could be chosen, as four or six grains of the piu-e salt may be thus 
administered with great comfort and certainty. It does not undergo decom- 
position in the stomach, but is absorbed or acts in its condition of bromide. 

Before giving a few illustrative cases, it may be further mentioned that 
the general use of this agent in many hundreds of different individuals de- 
monstrated some remarkable and striking facts, which an experience of some 
years, pathologically, will determine the value of, and they are as follows :— 
When the atheromatous or calcareo- atheromatous expressions have been 
present, not necessarily associated with corpulence, but where the proneness 
to adipose changes or development was apparent ; and in examples of persons 
undergoing atheromatous conversions, besides the changes last mentioned, 
there was noticed a marked clearness in the fatty eye, the arcus or annulus 
adiposus vel senilis, if present, became less yellow and oily-looking, the face 
was brighter, the integument not being so greasy, the mental faculties seemed 
to become more active and the mind sharper, and the bodily energy was 
Gertainly greater. 

The foregoing changes were significant of others not less important going 
on within ; for although the general health was good, it was quite evident in 
Some that the expression already referred to was an index of atheromatous 
deposits, and a preponderance of cholesterine in the great blood-vesseld 
springing from the heart, and also in the smaller vessels at the base of the 
brain. In some there could be no doubt of the coexistence of a large and 
flabby heart, with true fatty degeneration of its muscular structure, indicated 
by physical signs which it is not necessary to enter into here. 

If the effects of this salt were so manifest in its external aspects, it is but 
reasonable to assume that the internal were not the less positive and certain. 
And this seemed to me powerfully confirmed by the increased vigour of the 
intellect, the increased power in the rhythm of the heart, the soundness in 
breathing, and the softness of the pulse, with an apparent decrease of the 
rigidity and hardness of the coats of the blood-vessels at the wrist and some 
other places. 

Exp, 21. — J. F., aged 43j health good, moderately polysarciouS, athe- 
romatous expression well marked, annidus adiposus, appetite indifferent, 
weight 173 lbs. Took three grains bromide of ammoniiim for seven months; 
For the first thirteen weeks lost a pound a week, and afterwards from half to 
three-qUarter poimd per week, until his weight was reduced to 157 lbs., when 
it appeared to be stationary^ His health continued excellent, and his appe- 
tite ivas better, although he ate a smaller quantity of food. 

Exp. 22.-— A. Di K., aged 57, a stout corpulent person, weighing 227 lbs., 
a good example of polysarcia. Health moderate ; face red and greasy ; eyes 
congested and fatty, with no arcus ; cracked voice from deposit of atheroma 
in the vocal chords ; sWeet taste in the mouth constant ; no glucosuria ; faucial 
mucous membrane congested^ red and oily-looking ; appetite at times inordi- 



nate. Five grains bromide admioistered twice a day, and his diet regulated. 
No change for the first fortnight ; in third week 3 lbs. were lost, and then 
the diminution went on pretty regularly for about four months, averaging 
about a pound a week ; at this time he weighed 208 lbs. The bro- 
mide was given in ten-grain doses every morning before breakfast for six 
weeks, and the decrease in that period was 11 pounds ; it now caused a little 
nausea, and was intermitted for a short time, and yet diminution stiU went 
on, and the health became very good. It was resumed in foui'-grain doses in 
the morning, and after the lapse of ten months from the commencement he 
had lost 53 poundsj which brought him, he said, to something like his normal 
standard. He has latterly been taking the effervescing bromide, which he 
finds exceedingly grateful to the stomach, but with no very sensible diminu- 
tion in his weight now. AU the other symptoms improved, as in Exp. 21. 
This person had previously given a long trial to the Fmxis vesiculosits, until 
" his vitals turned against it," and without the slightest benefit. 

Erp. 23. — Major J., aged 44, very corpulent, with reddish face and stout 
limbs. Palpitation of the heart and feeling of fulness in the chest, very fond 
of puddings and port wine, which he said he digested well. Weight 198 lbs., 
which was uncomfortable, as he was a short man. Eight grains of bromide 
given twice a day : the puddings were stopped and the port wine changed. In 
five months there was a loss of 23 lbs., and in another three months 8| lbs. 
more, so that he was reduced to 166| lbs. 

£ip. 24. — Mrs. St , aged 47, moderately stout, but with aU the expres- 
sion of great deposit of atheroma and cholesterine in the vessels. Weight 
182 lbs. The bromide was given in the mornings before breakfast only, in 
doses of six grains. One of the first effects noticed was the subsidence of a 
most irritable temper, and improvement in the facial expression ; this was 
followed by slow and gtadual loss of weight, until in five months she was 
reduced to 163 lbs. The diet was regulated here as WeU. 

Exp. 25. — Rev. P. J., aged 64, getting so stout that it Was a constant source 
of discomfort ; weight 213 lbs. The bromide was given pretty regularly, at 
fii'st in small doses, then in larger, without any appreciable benefit. An effort 
was at the same time made to regulate the diet, but great difficulty was ex- 
perienced in effecting this. The diminution therefore was comparatively slight, 
more especially as milk was freely indulged in. 

Exj). 26. — Mary P , aged 36, inclined to be stout, with a large flabby 

heart, and from the facial expression and general appearance, the subject 
most probably of disease of the large blood-vessels at the heart and base of 
the brain, taken together with a family history which seemed strongly td 
cohfinn it. Weight 162 lbs. The bromide here was most invaluable, for a 
marked improvement followed, and the weight was deduced sensibly and 
comfortably, although not more than 11 IbS: 

Exp. 27. — Julia D., aged 28, with the atheromatous expression, slight 
dyspnoea, fair enihonpoint, good digestion and excellent health; Three-grain 
doses of the bromide twice a day, taken for many weeks, most sensibly acted 
on the first three, and she became a little thinner, Tvliich was shown by the 
general loosening of her garments. 

Expts. 28, 29, 30. — ^Three males, aged 27, 32j ahd 41, who "vTere moderately 
stout, and in whom from 7 to 14 lbs. were reduced in Weight by five grains of 
the bromide twice a day for seven months. 

Expts. 31 aiid 32. — Two females, aged 39 and 43, also moderately stout, 
Whose weight Was likewise diihinished in the same ratio, by a eifftilar quan^ 
tity of the salt taken for six months. 

93 REPORT— 1863. 

Exp. 33. — Man, aged 37, inclined to become very stout, and an imbiber of 
much malt liquor, reduced himself in weight 15 lbs. in eight months, by small 
doses of the salt, almost constantly taken. 

Of the remaining dozen cases the diminution in weight was mostly a few 
pounds, but they were not good examples of polysarcia as in some of the first 
experiments related. Moderate corpulence or inclination to stoutness were 
the prevaihng features, and the quantity of adipose or other matter therefore 
to be got rid of was necessarily not large. In some the weight was increased 
instead of being diminished, which I attributed to increased appetite and the 
consumption of more food. 

The foregoing experiments prove that some peculiar property is possessed 
by the ammonium salt, through the agency of the blood, in resolving some of 
the constituents of the adipose element. "Whether this is of a chemical na- 
ture or otherwise I am not prepared to say, but am disposed to favour the 
former, for the potassium salt does not appear to possess this property, else it 
would have attracted attention ere this. And although the ammonium salt 
alone will in some persons absorb fat as an abnormal element, it is ably 
assisted by regulating the diet, and prohibiting such articles of food as keep 
up the tendency to its deposition. Dr. Glover has asserted that the bromides 
of potassium and sodium have little action of a corrosive character, but I will 
say of the bromide of ammonium that it has none at all, and assimilates 
better than either, seldom or never disagreeing even with the food when 
taken immediately before or after meals. Its influence upon the disease of 
the inner coats of the blood-vessels I attribute more to its direct chemical 
agency than to its absorbent powers. Nevertheless, whatever may be the 
rationale of its operation, it is an agent calculated to prolong life to a good 
old age, from the remarkable properties it possesses in this respect. 

It docs not cause atrophy of healthy organs, and curiously enough when 
given to thin people in small doses, its tonic properties increase the appe- 
tite, and thus adds to the weight of the body, which some might consider a 
physiological paradox, but the circumstance readily explains itself. 

The use of the Bromide of Ammonium in Medicine.— The length of the pre- 
sent Report vsdll permit of a brief notice only of the value of the salt in the 
treatment of disease. 

As is the case with the salts of iodine in absorbing hypertrophied structure, 
so is it with those of bromine, and the bromide of ammoniimi is not inferior 
to any other preparation iii its powers in this respect. The iodide and 
bromide of ammonium possess this property, and possibly the chloride of 
ammonium hereafter may be found also to possess it ; for it is well known 
that between chlorine, bromine, and iodine and their compounds, exact and, 
as it has been said, beautiful chemical relations subsist. With regard to 
chlorine, the fact is deserving of remembrance, that persons employed in 
bleaching-factories lose their fat or other hypertrophied tissues, and become 
thin without impairment of their general health. 

As an absorbent and resolvent, the bromide of ammonium has been used in 
hypertrophy of the tongue, liver, spleen, heart, thyroid and other glands, and 
other parts of the body with fair results, and it is strongly recommended for 
trial, more especially in hypertrophy of the sjjleen, heart, and early bron- 

In various cerebral or nervous affections, such as epilepsy, some forms of 
mild paralysis, neuralgia, especially of the uterine organs, nervousness, and 
tremors, and mild forms of cervical neuralgia, it wiU be found to possess 


various degrees of usefulness. It here seems to act as an antispasmodic, for 
it calms irritation and allays nervous excitability. 

Fatty disease of the heart and diseases of the blood-vessels are amenable 
to it. 

Bronchitis, asthma, pertussis, affections of the trachea, throat, antriun, and 
nose, in fact vrherever the mucous membrane is implicated will the salt be 
found to possess some degree of usefulness. 

Some forms of chronic rheumatism and diseases of the skin are benefited 
by it. And amongst other properties it occasionally possesses that of an 
emmenagogue, and has proved useful in amenorrhoea. 

Administered in certain ways, it may be found hereafter valuable in diseases 
of the geni to-urinary mucous membrane. 

In these few remarks I prefer to point out the direction in which the agent 
may be made useful, than to say much at present upon the subject. 

To obtain its good effects it should be given wiih comparatively few com- 
binations, for the union of its constituents, although by no means readily 
broken, is at any rate influenced by certain substances which negative its 
properties. Incompatible substances must especially be avoided, and the 
antagonism between it and salts of iodine must not be forgotten. 

Not the least of its advantages is, that it can be given in those constitutions 
wherein the preparations of iodine disagree. 

General conclusions. — These may be stated as follows : — 

1. In smaU doses, more or less long continued, bromide of ammonium acts 
as a tonic and absorbent, and exerts its peculiar properties upon the skin and 
mucous membrane. 

2. It diminishes the weight of the body in polysarcia, causing the absorption 
of fat, cholestcrine, and atheroma, when combined with a regulated diet ; and 
this is effected with greater certainty than by any other knovni substance. 

3. It improves the intellectual powers, increases the bodHy capacity, and 
promotes healthy function. 

4. Locally it possesses a soothing influence on the mucous membrane, and 
according to the strength and mode of its application, so does it diminish 

5. In large, frequently repeated doses, or given at intervals, it influences 
the entire mucous tract; it affects all the special senses, and produces 
anaesthesia or impaii'ed sensibility of the various mucous outlets. 

6. All the poisonous effects are produced by very large doses as from the 
bromide of potassium, but in smaller doses it is more certain and rehable, 
causes no diarrhoea or diuresis, nor anaphrodisiasis, and its special properties 
are exerted sooner and with less inconvenience. 

On the Transmutation of Spectral Rays.' — Part I. 
By Dr. C. K. Akin. 

The discovery of fluorescence, by Professor Stokes, has opened to science a new 
and wide field of research of the greatest promise ; nevertheless, though a 
few persons have more or less clearly perceived the existence of outlj'ing 
ground*, no one has actually attempted to carry cultivation beyond the ex- 
tent from which Prof. Stokes, by his labom-s, has derived such remarkable 

« See Appendix, p. 97. 

94 REPORT — 1863. 

results 5 nor has it been but tried to subject the whole field to a systematic 
survey, by which future investigators might be guided in their researches. 

1 . The discovery of Prof, Stokes is well known to have consisted in this : — 
He found that very many substances, upon the incidence of invisible rays of 
greater refrangibility than the violet, scattered visible rays, and were thence 
rendered perceptible to the eye, in what would otherwise have been complete 
darkness; and also, that most of such substances, upon the incidence of ordinary 
visible rays, had the power to produce, in the diffused (or re-emitted) beam, 
other visible rays, of less refrangibiUty than the incident. Such substances 
Prof. Stokes eallei fluorescent. Now the above facts natm-ally suggest several 
questions, to explain which briefly and clearly it is necessary to advert to 
the constitution of the solar or other similar spectra as evolved by a neU" 
tral or non-absorbent prism. Every such spectrum consists of three com- 
partments, distinguished by physiological — or generally, extrinsic — rather 
than intrinsic peculiarities, but which it is yet necessary for present purposes 
to consider separately. In order to avoid the mischievous ambiguity attendant 
on the adoption of the terms actually in use, it is proposed to employ in the 
sequel the following new nomenclatm-e as applied to the thi'ee compartments 
of the spectrum, and the species of rays which each of them contains. The 
medium compartment, and the \'isible rays of which it consists, will be called 
Newtonic ; the compartment bordering on the red end of the Newtonic, and 
the invisible rays composing it, will be called IlerschelUe ; finally, the com- 
partment bordering on the violet end of the Newtonic, and the similarly in- 
visible rays of which it is composed, will be called Ritteric — the name given 
being formed in each case from that of the first discoverer of the given species 
of rays, 

2. Considei-ing the different nature of rays as just described, and the con- 
vertibility of some of them into others of a different refrangibility exhibited 
in the phenomena of fluorescence, the question, implying several distinct pro- 
positions, must naturally arise in the mind whether, upon the whole, changes 
in regard to wave-length and refrangibility, or transnndations of rays corre- 
sponding in number and kind to the following list, may not either spon- 
taneously occur in nature, or be capable of production by experiments specially 
directed to the piu-pose, viz. : — 


1. of Eitteric rays into less refrangible Ritteric rays, 

2. „ „ (,,) Newtonic rays, 

3. „ „ („) HerschelUc rays, 

4. of Newtonic „ „ Newtonic rays, 

5. „ „ („) HerscheUic rays, 

6. of HerscheUic „ „ HerscheUic rays ; 
also 7. „ „ more refrangible HerscheUic rays, 

8. „ „ („) Newtonic rays, 

9. „ „ (,») Eitteric rays, 

10. of Newtonic „ „ Newtonic rays, 

11. „ „ („) Eitteric rays, and 

12. of Eitteric „ „ Eitteric rays. 

3. Of the enumerated list, the transmutations (2) and (4) belong to fluo- 
rescence ; the question of feasibility extends, hence, only to the remaining 
ten. Of these, the transmutation (8) deserves most attention, as being, at once, 
the counterpart of (2), and implying, cquaUy with the latter, a conversion of 
invisible rays into visible. But, since both the species of transmutations ac- 


tually effected belong to the first series only, extending from (1) to (6), any 
one of the transmutations from (7) to (12), which, instead of as the former a 
diminution, imply an increase of refrangibility in the transmuted beam, woiild. 
possess an interest of its own if accompUshed. More particularly would this 
be so in the case of the transmutation (10), which is the counterpart or con- 
verse of the transmutation (4) occurring in fluorescence, and which, from its 
coiiceniing exclusively visible rays, would be, at once, easiest to prove, and, 
next to (8), practically most important. 

It is the object of this paper to propose three several experiments, which, 
it is supposed, would be found capable of realizing the two transmutations (8) 
and (10) spoken of above. The mode of conducting each of them, as applica- 
ble to the transmutation (8), is described in what foUows. 

Experiment I. 

4. The oxyhydrogen flame is well known to excite in lime, chalk, and 
other similar substances a most brilliant Hght, if brought into contact with 
them. The flame by itself, on the contrary, is but sparingly visible, and hence 
deficient in Newtouic rays ; whilst, from the experiment mentioned below*, it 
appears similarly poor in Kitteric rays. Considering these circumstances, 
and the high calefactory power of the oxyhydrogen flame, it seems fair to 
conclude that the rays principally emitted by it are of the Herschellic species. 
Now the Newtonic rays emanating from the flame upon the introduction of 
lime, &e.,— which, there is reason to believe, are accompanied also by a strong 
beam of Ritteric rays, — cannot but be owing to a transmutation, in statu 
nascenti so to speak, of the rays originally emitted by the flame when frcQ 
from foreign matter, and therefore most probably evidence a phenomenon of 
the kind which it is intended to produce. But, to render the experiment com- 
pletely simOar to those of fluorescence, the following arrangement would have 
to be adopted. 

Let two conjugate mirrors of large size be placed opposite to each other, one 
containing in its focus the oxyhydrogen flame, the other a piece of chalk or 
lime. Let, further, absorbents be employed to cut off as many of the Newtonic 
and Ritteric rays as the flame may be found to emit, from access to the focus 
wherein the lime is placed. If the mirrors are of suflicient size to render the 
temperature at the distant focus approximately equal to that of the flame 
itself, there is every reason to believe that the lime therein contained will 
begin to shine out, or, in other words, wiU emit Newtonic rays consequent 
upon the incidence of Herschellic rays, in the same way as a fluorescent sub- 
stance emits Newtonic rays consequent upon the incidence of Ritteric rays, 
The possible dui'ation of the luminosity thus produced beyond the time of 

* Prof. W. A. Miller has observed (see Chem. News, March 21, 1863) that the photo- 
graphic impressiou produced by an oxyhydrogen ilame, after twenty seconds' exposure of 
the sensitive paper, was very faint ; the impression produced by lime^light, after the same 
time, being, on the contrary, very strong. Seeing that the chemical action of Newtonic rays 
is generally less than that of Kitteric rays, this observation tends to demonstrate the defi- 
ciency of the oxyhydrogen flame in Ritteric rays when in its natural state, and at the same 
time to indicate that the transmutations taking place in the flame upon the introduction of 
Ume are of the nature supposed in the text. 

[On the reading of the present Paper at Newcastle, Prof. Miller, being present, mentioned 
the following further fact, of similar tendency : — The rays of the oxyhydrogen flame, if con- 
centrated by a glass lens upon an ordinary thermoscope, produce little or no effect before 
the introduction of lime, but a considerable efiect after its introduction. This seems to be 
owing to the diminished absorption which glass exercises upon the more refrangible rays 
as compared with the less refrangible.] 

96 KEPORT— 1863. 

incidence of the rays of the flame would in no way subvert the similarity just 
pointed out*. 

Experiment II. 

5. The foregoing experiment recommends itself for the reason of the almost 
total absence of Newtonic and Ptitteric rays from the ray-producing soui'ce, 
whose presence, at least for the production of the transmutation (8), is not 
wanted. On the other hand, the execution of the experiment would be liable 
to considerable practical, if not other, difficulties ; and hence that next to be 
described may be considered as, upon the whole, perhaps, more hopeful. 

Let, as radiating source, the sun be chosen, and, as test-object, a piece of 
metal — best of all a thin j)iece of platinum-foil, which place in the focus of a 
large mirror exposed to the sun. If the mirror be of sufficient size, the pla- 
tinum will become incandescent, and may even meltf. Let the former result 
only bo supposed to happen. All the three kinds of rays, Eitteric, Newtonic, 
and Herschellic, being present at the focus of the mirror, each will have con- 
tributed a certain share to the production of the temperature of incandescence 
of the piece of platinum exposed to their joint calorific action. Let this 
action, so far as the Eitteric and Newtonic rays jointly are concerned, be re- 
presented by a, and that of the Herschellic rays, by themselves, be denoted 
by /8. If the two former sjiecies of rays be prevented by absorbents from 
reaching the platinum J, but the deficiency of calorific action caused by their 
withdrawal be replaced, either by employing a mirror capable of concentrating 
a pencil of Herschellic rays of the separate calorific action {a.-\-(^), or by some 
other independent means, then there does not appear any reason why the 
platinum should not be rendered incandescent, or made to emit Newtonic 
rays upon the sole incidence of Herschellic rays, as heretofore upon the inci- 
dence of the unsifted solar beams. An experiment of this nature would bear 
the closest similarity to those by which fluorescent phenomena were fii'st of 
aU discovered. ■ 

Experiment III. 

6. The third and last experiment to be proposed is founded upon the fol- 
lowing considerations : — 

Fluorescence Prof. Stokes is inclined to consider as owing to the vibrations 
of the material molecules of matter when acted ui^on by incident rays §. 
Adopting this \aew of the matter, and recollecting that each substance by 
itself constitutes a distinct source of rays, the efficiency of which depends on 
temperature or on impressed molecular motion, it is natural to suppose that, 
in the rays emitted in the act of fluorescence, the spontaneous and incident 
become blended in a certain manner by some kind of interference. That this 
is true to some extent seems to result, among others, from the observed influ- 
ence of temperature on the power of substances to fluoresce |i ; consequently, 
the law established by Prof. Stokes with reference to aU fluorescent pheno- 
mena may be shown to be capable of a different construction from that usually 
put on it. Ecmembering that the incident rays, in fluorescence, are either 

* Cf. Part II. Art. 4, p. 102. 

t Cf. e. g. the accounts of experiments with bui-ning-mirrors in Phil. Trans. 1686, (vol. 
xvi.) p. 352, and 1719, (rol. sxs.) p. 976, some of which refer, if not actually to platinum, 
to silver, which is almost equally refractory. 

\ For simplicity, the absorjition which the Herschellic rays would, practically, undergo 
simultaneously with the remainder has been left out of consideration. 

§ Phil. Trans. 1852, p. 548. 

II See (Prof. Stokes) Phil. Trans. 1852, p. 532 and ; (M. 0. Fiebig) Pogg. Ann. vol. cxir. 
p. 292 (1861). 


Ritteric or Newtonic ; -whilst the spontaneous rays of substances, at the tem- 
peratures at which their fluorescent nature has been investigated, are of the 
HerscheUic species ; the transmuted or resiiltant rays, finally, being of the 
Newtonic species ; the law adverted to, which requires the transmuted rays 
to be of inferior refrangibility to the incident, may be interpreted also as im- 
plying that the transmuted ray should be of a mean between the incident 
and spontaneous in regard to refrangibility*. Assuming such to be the case, 
the question becomes natural whether, if the order of the rays employed in 
ordinary fluorescence were reversed, by taking for test-object a substance 
naturally emitting Eitteric rays (either alone or in sensible proportion with 
others), and allowing HerscheUic rays to be incident on it, the result might 
not be the same as in fluorescence — namely, an emission of Newtonic rays, 
seeing that the circumstances of the experiment, though reversed, are essen- 
tially the same in the two cases. 

7. As objects of experiment, many different kinds of flame might be em- 
ployed, as, likewise, the electric vacuum-discharge. Upon the whole, however, 
of the three experiments proposed, least reliance should perhaps be placed on 
tho present, as having the least basis of fact, but principally conjecture, to rest 
upon. The views upon which it is founded imply also a contradiction of the 
principles by which the preceding two experiments are supported, and, if 
pushed to extremes, would similarly be in opposition to certain facts of fluo- 
rescence; nevertheless they will probably be found to accord with truth 
within limits. 

8. The question which has been advanced for solution in this paper, and 
the experiments proposed, might naturally lead to the consideration of some 
incidental subjects, the most important of which may be worthy of mention. 
The first experiment suggests an investigation of the mode of action of foreign 
matter, whether in the solid or gaseous states, upon comburescent gases or 
flames with reference to the rays emitted by the same ; the second experiment 
involves some discussion of the incandescence of matter in its relations to 
various other similar phenomena ; whilst the third might throw some light on 
the action of gaseous incandescent matter upon rays in general. The bearing 
of all the three experiments, and the considerations which they imply, on the 
subject of ray- absorption are too evident to need pointing out. 


9. In this Appendix it is intended to present a short historical review of 
the several publications on the collateral phenomena of fluorescence, alluded 
to in the beginning of this paper, which have come to the knowledge of the 
author. They almost aU owe their origin to the following observation by 
Pusinieri, which, however, is generally, though erroneously, ascribed to Mel- 
loni. Fusinieri had noticed, and pubhshed his observation as early as the 

* The account of the origin of fluorescence given by Prof. Stokes (see Phil. Trans. 1852, 
p. 584) seems to leave it doubtful whether fluorescence depends on the cooperation of the 
spontaneous rays with the incident, or not ; for, though some kind of interference is men- 
tioned, the expression seems to refer to the successive impulses given to a molecule by a con- 
tinually impinging ray, rather than to the mutual action of the incident and spontaneous rays. 
On the other hand, though independently formed, the speculations put forth in the text bear 
some similarity to the theory of fluorescence suggested by M. Lommel, in Pogg. Ann. 
vol. crrii. p. 642 (Dec. 1862). This writer, however, mistakes in stating that the wave- 
length of the transmuted beam is necessarily equal to the difference of the wave-lengths of 
. the incident and spontaneous rays, which is not in accordance with facts. 

1863. H 

98 REPOftT— 1863. 

year 1831*, that enow shaded by trees, or generally by objects suspended 
from the ground, melted more rapidly than enow freely exposed to the radi- 
ating action of the sun or skies. To explain this apparently anomalous fact, 
Melloni thought it sufficient, in his comments t on a later paper by Fusinieri 
on the same subject J, to ascribe to snow a difference of absorptive powers for 
different rays, which he attempted also to prove by direct experiment. He 
denies that a conversion of light into heat — or, as we should more correctly 
express it, of Newtonic into Herschellic rays — can account for the effects ob- 
served, thinking the assumption to be disproved by the following experiment. 
The incidence of the rays emanating from some lamp produced in a thermo- 
electric pile § a current which, measured by the galvanometer attached, was 
equal to 15° when the rays passed freely tlu'ough the air, but of 30°-5 when 
the rays were first transmitted through a sheet of paper. When the rays were 
first of all transmitted through glass rendered opake by lamp-black, the re- 
sultant current was as 18°-19° to 10°-11°, according as the paper also was 
interposed or not. As the increase of calorific effect upon the interposition 
of the paper sheet thus occurred in the absence as well as in the presence of 
light — that is to say, of visible or Newtonic rays, — Melloni concludes that a 
conversion of the latter into heat — or, as we should say, into Herschellic rays — 
cannot be the cause of the augmentation observed. This argument, however, 
as well as the explanation attempted by MeUoni himself, is evidently falla- 
cious. To the latter, already Fusinieri very reasonably objected || that, since 
the direct beam issuing from a radiating source must necessarily contain all 
the rays to be found in the same after diffusion or reflection i[ — besides, gene- 
rally, others, — the diffused or reflected beam could never offer to any substance 
more rays absorbable by it than the direct beam. On the other hand, Mel- 
loni's experiment, so far from disproving the conversion of visible into other 
rays, tends rather to prove that, besides this conversion, a transmutation of 
invisible rays also into others, probably of less refrangibihty, is possible ; 
since the interposition of the paper sheet, in the absence of visible rays, stUl 
produced an increase of calorific action of 8°, against the 18°-5 which it caused 
in the presence of hght**. As for Fusinieri's own speculations on the subject, 
it is unnecessary to advert to them, since, besides not being clear, his expla- 
nation involves the materiality of rays, and proceeds from a negation of the 
discoveries of MeUoni with reference to radiant heat. 

10. In 1861, Prince Salm called attention to Fusinieri's observation, as 
the author of which he names Melloni ft- Without entering further into 
the matter, M. Salm considers the fact as proving the fluorescence of heat, — 
leaving it doubtful to some extent what the meaning is which he attaches to 
the expression. 

11. Induced by the above, M. Emsmann published in 1861 a note it, in 
which he quotes a paragraph from an article contributed by him, in 1859, to 

* Annali delle Scienze, vol. i. p. 196. 

t Comptes Eendus, vol. -n. p. 801 (1838). 

\ Annali delle Scienze, vol. viii. p. 38 (1838). 

I It may be useful to mention that the exposed face of the thermo-electric pile Was 
covered with white-lead. 

II Annali delle Scienze, vol. viii. p. 227. 

*if Cases of ray-transmutation excepted, the Occurrence of which Melloni strives to dis- 

** Another instance in which the interposition of a screen produced an augmentation of 
calorific effect was mentioned by Melloni, upon an earlier occasion, in Ann. de Chim. et de 
Phys. vol. Iv. p. 387 (1834) Also Taylor's Scientific Memoirs^ vol. i. p. 08 (1837). 

ft Pogg. Ann. vol. cxiii. p. 54 (1861). 

X% Pogg. Ann. vol. cxiv. p. 651 (1861). 


Cornelius aud Marbach's ' Physikal. Lexicon,' showing that he then enter- 
tained the question of the possibility of phenomena the reverse of fluorescence, 
or of the transmutation of Herschellic into Newtonic rays. In the sequel, how- 
ever, M. Emsmann adduces facts which in his opinion exemplify phenomena 
of this kind, rendering thereby his estimation of what constitutes fluorescence, 
or its converse, of doubtful clearness. Iodide of mercury, which is commonly 
scarlet, upon sublimation becomes transformed into yellow crystals, which 
may be preserved for some time; several other substances exhibit similar 
changes of colour. Steel also alters its colour by heating. In all these in- 
stances, according to M. Emsmann, by the action of heating, " that is to say, 
by heat-vibrations," substances are made to reflect rays of higher refrangi- 
bility than would otherwise happen. Similarly, the rays emitted by incan- 
descent matter increase in refrangibility with the increase of temperature. 

Now it is easy to show that none of these facts in the least exemplify what 
they are intended for. In the first place, substances which change their 
colour in consequence of heating do so, generally, by selecting different rays 
for simple diffusion in their several states ; if the incident beam was deficient 
in the rays which are reflexible, or consisted merely of invisible rays, then 
such a substance would turn black. This is the case with the iodide of mer- 
cury for instance. Such substances, on the other hand, which, being self- 
luminous, assume different tints at different temperatures, as, for instance, 
incandescent metals, do so independently of incident rays, or, at any rate, not 
in a manner proving obviously or necessarily the transmutation of HerscheUic 
into Newtonic rays. Nor does this fact show that, similarly as •' the dark 
chemical (or Ritteric) rays may produce modifications of one kind in the 
colour of the luminous (or Newtonic)," so also the dark heat (or Herschellic) 
rays may modify the colour of the same rays in an opposite direction — in 
which way M. Emsmann defines fluorescence and its converse in one place. 
As for steel, its coloration is generally supposed to be simply an instance of 
the coloration of thin plates ; so that, upon the whole, none of the phenomena 
adduced can be considered as bearing any resemblance to those of fluorescence, 
or those which might be conceived as its counterpart. 

12. Another publication is by M. Dammer*, who observed in the winter of 
1862 a fact already noticed by Fusinieri, if not in exactly the same way, that 
ice beneath leaves, whether imbedded on the surface or in the midst of the crust, 
melts sooner than ice freely exposed to the rays of the sun. This, according 
to M. Dammer, is a phenomenon analogous to that adverted to by M. Salm. 
The fact, however, may be dependent rather on conduction than on radiation, 
and hence capable of explanation without the aid of assumed transmutations. 
It is, besides, to some extent similar to one of Franklin's observations tj which, 
though directed to show difierences dependent on colour, incidentally proved 
also that snow beneath strips of cloth melted more rapidly than if uncovered. 

13. In conclusion, it wiU be but just to state that Prof. Stokes, in his 
paper on fluorescence |, had adverted to the probability that transmutations of 
visible (Newtonic) into invisible (Herschellic) rays might account for the dis- 
appearance of light in cases of ray-absorption which cannot be classed under 

* Pogg. Ann. vol. csv. p. 659 (1862). 

t 'Letters and Papers on Philosopliical Subjects' (Appendix to 'Exp. and Obs. on Elec- 
tricity'), London, 1769, p. 465. 
X Phil. Tran.s. 1852, p. 554. 


100 EEPORT — 1863. 

Part II. 

In the first part of this paper three experiments were described, having 
for purpose the production of the converse phenomenon of fluorescence. It 
is the object of tliis second part to discuss in greater detail one of the experi- 
ments proposed, viz. the second, in its relations especially to the subjects of 
phosphorescence and incandescence. 

1. The luminosity of matter, or the emission (in the language explained in 
the preceding part) of Newtonic rays — as Avell as radiation upon the whole — ■ 
may arise in a twofold manner, which it seems important to distinguish. In 
the first case, there is a production of light by certain processes which do not 
imply pre-existing radiations ; whilst, in the other, only a reproduction and 
communication of rays actually takes place. Above and beyond these, a third 
case, of what, for the present at least, must be called spontaneous radiatiou, 
may be distinguished ; to which has to be referred the luminosity of the sun 
for instance, and of the fixed stars. In these latter instances, no adequate 
cause can be, or has hitherto been, assigned for the light emitted, except (if 
we suppose the radiascent state to indicate molecidar vibrations) a certain 
velocity impressed on the molecules from all beginning and certain inter- 
molecuJar relations, corresponding in some degree to the tangential tendency 
and gravitating force which rule the motions of the heavenly bodies*. 

2. The causes of production of light, as of rays generally, may be con- 
sidered as threefold, viz. — 1, morphological and chemical ; 2, electrical ; and 
3, mechanical. The cases of reproduction, on the other hand, appear separable 
into two classes, according as the matter whose radiascence is considered is in 
immediate contact with the primarily radiating source, or not. The first kind 
of reproduction— to make our meaning clear — is exemplified principally in 
the phenomena of ignition exhibited by foreign matter, such as precipitated 
carbon -particles or certain vapours, mixed with comburescent gases or flames ; 
or by such instances as the incandescence of platinum wire in the common 
gas-flame, or of lime in the oxyhydrogen flame. The second kind of repro- 
duction, on the other hand, comprises all such appearances of light as are 
caused by the incidence of radiations emanating from distant sources, as, for 
instance, the sun, and presents to our consideration two different orders of 
phenomena, which require to be kept apart. The necessity^of this distinction 
is, first of all, suggested by the fact that the rays reproduced by the secondary 
radiator are sometimes identical with, but at others different from, those 
emitted by the primary radiator as to the characteristic of wave-length or 
refrangibility ; but there are cases which, without implying any such change, 
belong yet to the same class as those which do. As the operative cause of 
this distinction, the best authorities seem to be agreed in considering the 
compound nature of matter ; the one kind of reproduction, ordinarily termed 
diffusion, being ascribed to the agency of ether, whilst the other kind, which 
is generally if not always accompanied by transmutation (in the sense of the 
word explained in the preceding part), and for which the term renovation 
might perhaps be suitably adopted, is assumed to arise from the inteiwention 
of the ponderable molecules of matter f. 

3. The mode of reproduction which has been noticed in the first place, and 
which occurs on the contact of radiascent substances of different natui'es, may 

* The above simile was employed already by Sir H. Davy, in kis '^Essay on Heat, Light, 
and the Combination of Light' (see Works, vol. ii. p. 15), though not quite consistently ap- 
plied tliroughout. 

t Cf. (Prof. Stokes) PhU. Trans. 1852, p. 548; also (Dr. Young) Phil* Trans. 1802, 

p. 47. M. Angstrom (see Phil. Mag. xxir. 2. 18G2) seems to entertain a different opinion. 


With great probability be considered as comiug under the head of renovation. 
The most remarkable instances of this kind are those in which light is en- 
gendered by the contact of two non -luminous substances, generally of different 
temperatures. The earliest well-substantiated instance of this description 
seems to be afforded by Boyle's experiments on the celebrated Clayton diamond, 
which became luminous in a dark room by contact with an iron plate heated 
to a temperature below redness, or with warm parts of the human body *, 
A similar though perhaps not quite the same phenomenon was noticed by 
Canton, whose artificial phosjihorus, after exposure to light and subsidence 
into apparent darkness, had its light restored by the appUcation of heated 
non-luminous matterf. In the case of Canton's phosphorus, the necessity of 
a previous exposure to light in order to produce the phenomenon just described 
seems to be rigorously established, but with regard to diamonds it is perhaps 
stiU doubtful J. It is equally iindecided whether some kind of morphological 
change, or combustion, or nothing of the kind, causes or accompanies this 
evolution of light upon the contact of dark unequably heated bodies. The 
observations of Sir D. Brewster on the loss of colour which green iiuor-spar 
exhibits after calcination, simultaneously with the loss of abUity to shine by 
subsequent exposure to light or to high temperatures §, at first sight would 
indicate that colouring-matter or its combustion are the cause of the lumi- 
nosity observed before calcination, which ceases of course after the expulsion 
of the colouring-matter, which takes place at the higher temperatures. But 
the observations of Dessaignes || on the revival of the phosphorescent power 
through electrical shocks, which, according toPearsaU^, is attended by a resto- 
ration of colour, do not seem to countenance such an opinion, but rather to 
point to molecular disarrangement as the cause both of the phosphorescence 
and its destruction. 

Other though less clear examples of ray-renovation on the contact of two 
radiators of different descriptions have been alluded to in that part of the 
preceding paragraph which refers to the phenomena of flame. These appear 
to show that matter, whether in the solid or gaseous state, introduced into 
gaseous combiu-escent substances, may change the rays emitted by the same, 
as it Avere in statu mtscenti ; or take upon itself, seemingly, the function of 
principal radiator. One of these phenomena has suggested the speculations 
contained in the present paper, and serves as foundation for one of the three 
experiments proposed in the preceding part ; a full consideration of the whole 
subject, however, is reserved for a future occasion**. 

4. The renovation and transmutation of rays incident from distant radi- 

* Appendix to ' Considerations, &c., toucliing Colours,' London, 1764, p. 416. The phos- 
phorescence of diamonds, consequent on insolation, was first noticed by Dr. Wall (see Phil. 
Trans. 1704-5, p. 69). 

t Phil. Trans. 1768, p. 342. 

t Cf. Priestley's ' History, &c., of Light, &c.,' p. 373 ; and (M. O. Fiebig) Pogg. Ann. 
vol. cxiv. p. 292 (1861). 

§ Edinb. PhH. Journ. vol. i. p. 386 (1819). 

II Journ. de Phys. vol. Ixxi. p. 67 (1810) ; also ibid. vol. Ixviii. p. 465 (1809). 

•f Journ. Eoy. Inst. vol. i. p. 277 (1831). It should be observed that the colour given 
to fluor-spar by electricity is not generally the same as possessed by the mineral before 

** A remarkable example of a phenomenon in many respects similar to those of flames, 
adverted to in the text, is exhibited in the ingenious experiment performed by Mr. Wedg- 
wood (see Phil. Trans. 1792, p. 271), in which, by a hot stream of non-luminous air, a piece 
of gold-foU was rendered incandescent. In the same paper, Wedgwood advances also the 
question, remarkable for its time, " Whether a body can be made red-hot by concentrated 
rays of other colours." It should be recalled, however, that Wedgwood's views ou the 
nature of, and relation between, light and heat are not those now prevailing. 

103 . REPORT— 1863. 

ating bodies, by the agency of certain kinds of matter, has been principally 
brought into notice through Prof. Stokes's discovery of fluorescence. It is true 
that already Benjamin WUson contended, against Beccaria*, that the light of 
phosphorescent substances is generally independent as to colour, of the colour 
of the incident light. It is true also that WUson sagaciously remarked that 
the emission of the light of phosphorescence must take place during as weU 
as after action on the part of the active incident light, though it may ordi- 
narily be hidden from observation by the greater intensity of the non-reno- 
vated, non-transmuted, diffused lightt ; both which facts, that referring to 
colour as vrell as that referring to time, -were clearly proved by the later ex- 
periments of Grosser on diamondsj. It is true, finally, that Seebeck had 
noticed phosphorescence produced by rays near the violet border of the spec- 
trum, of doubtful visibihty, and hence pertaining, perhaps, to the Eitteric 
compartment § ; that M. Matteucci and M. E. Becquerel, later, actually ob- 
served phosphorescence to occur in regions of the spectrum undoubtedly 
forming part of the Eitteric compartment!! ; as also, lastly, that M. E. Bec- 
querel, in one or two instances, noticed the occurrence of such phosphorescence 
during the time"'of incidence of the active Eitteric rays^. Still, phospho- 
rescence, before the time whence Prof. Stokes's experiments date, was princi- 
pally considered as a phenomenon interesting in so far as showing an emission 
of light, without refereiwe to colour, consequent iipon and after exposure of the 
given substance to iacident light. It was Prof. Stokes's discovery, arrived at 
from quite a different and apparently unpromising starting-poiat, which first 
drew general attention to the change of refrangibiLity which Neivtonic as well 
as Bitteric rays may undergo whilst incident on properly selected matter**. 
This, in the end, taught us to consider phosphorescence as only a species of the 
phenomena just described, distinguished for the protraction of the state of 
emission by renovation beyond the duration of incidence tf. But this quality, 
to which at first had attached the principal interest, now may be considered 
as of secondary importance. 

The most general law relating to fluorescence, including phosphorescence, 
has been already adverted to in the preceding part, and is generally expressed 

» (Beccaria) Phil. Trans. 1771, p. 212. (Wilson) Joum. de Phys. vol. xv. p. 93 (1780). 
The same fact which Wilson maintains, had been experimentally estabHshed in 1728 by 
Algarotti, acting upon the suggestion of F. Zanotti (see Comment. Bonon. vol. i. p. 203). 

t (WUson) I. c. p. 95. The original work of Wilson on phosphorescence, of which two 
editions seem to have been published, the author has not been able to consult. 

I Joum. de Phys. vol. xx. p. 277 (1782). 

§ Ibid. Comptes Rendus, vol. xiv. p. 903 ; being the translation, by Arago, of a passage 
from the Appendix to the original edition of Goethe's ' Farbenlehre.' 

II (Matteucci) Bibl. Univ. vol. xl. p. 161 (1842). (E. Becquerel) ibid. p. 360 ; also Tay- 
lor's Scientific Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 552 (1843). 

% Ann. de Cliim. et de Phys. vol. ix. p. 320 (1843). 

** The fact, likewise, that liquids, like solids, may act as ray-renovators, was first of all 
established through the discovery of Prof. Stokes. 

ft Cf. Engl. C^cl. (Arts and Sciences) vol. iv. p. 124. Now that the identity, in the main, 
between phosphorescence and fluorescence has been pointed out, some further facts may be 
adduced in support of the theory of fluorescence advanced in Part)I. Art. 6. Of these new 
facts, the most interesting (which was first observed by Benjamin Wilson, and later again 
by Seebeck and others) is the negative or extinguishing action of little-refrangible Newtonic 
rays upon the state of luminosity of phosphorescent bodies. Another observation, by Can- 
ton (see PhU. Trans. 1768, p. 341), has shown the influence which temperature, and hence 
the spontaneous rays of bodies, have on the duration of phosphorescence ; which influence, 
according to M. E.' Becquerel (see Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. vol. Iv. p. 102, 1859), extends 
also to the colour of the light emitted. All these facts tend to prove that the rays emitted 
by renovation are owing to a kind of interference between the incident and spontaneous ; 
but it would not be difficult to test this view by some more direct experiments. 



as requiring the rays emitted by renovation to be of less or, at the utmost, of 
equal refrangibility to that of the incident*. If this law, of which, however, 
a different interpretation was proposed in Part I. Art. 6, held good with re- 
spect to ray-renovation upon the whole, it is evident that, of the transmutations 
enumerated in Art. 2 of the previous part, only the first six would be feasible, 
whilst the remainder would be impossible by the natm-e of things. Several 
experiments have been adduced in the preceding part, both to show the pro- 
bability that phenomena the converse of fluorescence may occur, and to provide 
for their realization in a way analogous to the ordinary form of fluorescent 
appearances. The remainder of this paper is devoted to the detailed consi- 
deration of some of the circumstances relating to that of the proposed ex- 
periments which were designated before as the most hopeful. 

5. According to Prof, Draper's experiments f, the incandescent state of 
metals, and the order of Newtonic rays which they emit, are strictly determined 
by their temperature, and independent of their natui-e. Other substances, 
however, such as chalk, marble, and fluor-spar, become luminous at different 
temperatures from the metals, which is also the case with gases. Now with 
respect to metals, if, as stated, their incandescent state is conditional upon a 
certain temperature alone, it is evident that, in whatsoever manner this tem- 
perature be imparted, the result wiU always be the same, viz. an emission 
of Newtonic rays. One means for the production of high temperatures is to 
be found in the concentrated rays of the sun, which produce an effect com- 
pounded of the aggregate effects of the different species of rays coexistent in 
each solar beam. The heating effect of any given kind of rays depends — 
1, on their amplitude ; 2, on the absorptive power of the substance on which 
they are incident for the particular kind of rays. The calorific power of the 
solar rays as evolved by a non-absorbent prism and absorbed by lampblack, 
which has been foimd to absorb (Newtonic and Herschellic rays at least) more 
equably and completely than any other known substance, has been investigated 
in a masterly manner by MeUoniJ, and more recently again by Prof. Midler, 
of Fribourg§. Both these philosophers agree in assigning the greatest calorific 
action to the rays situated in the Herschellic part of the spectrum, at some 
distance from the red border of the Nefwtonic ; and though the greater 
crowding which dispersion causes in this part of the spectrum may partially 
account for thLj result, it is not liable to any doubt that, independently of 
that circumstance, the Herschellic bands of the spectrum separately, and stiU 
more in the aggregate, possess considerable heating power in comparison with 
the remainder of the spectrum. Again, the reflective power of the metals for 
Herschellic rays, though great, is not absolute ; and, considering that the 
supply of Herschellic rays from the sun is almost unlimited, it cannot be 
doubtful that if the rays of the sun were concentrated by means of a very 
large mirror, but only their HerseheUic components allowed to be incident 
on a piece of platinum-foil, for instance, placed in the focus, the platinum 
would be rendered incandescent, in the same way as a cone of unsifted solar 
beams reflected by a smaller mirror would make it. 

At the same time, if, instead of excluding all the Newtonic and Ritteric 
rays from the focus, some of the less refrangible among the Newtonic were 
allowed to accompany the Herschellic rays which meet there, there is every 
reason to believe that, by a suitable adjustment, incandescence might be pro- 

* M. E. Becquerel (see Ann. de Chitn. et de Phys. vol. Ivii. p. 85, 1859) mentions an excep- 
tion to this law, which, however, as M. Becquerel also considers, is only an apparent one. 
t Phil. Mag. vol. xxx. p. 347 (1847). J Bibl. Univ. vol. xlix. p. 141 (1844). 

§ Pogg. Ann. vol. cv. p. 350 (1858) ; also Phil. Mag. vol. xvii. p. 233 (1859). 

104 REPORT — 1863. 

duced, characterized by rays of greater refrangibility than the most refrangible 
among the incident Ne-ni:onic ; so that, by this means, the converse of what 
may be called the second phenomenon of fluorescence — the transmutation of 
Newtonic rays into other but less refrangible Newtonic rays — might be effected. 

6. Supposing that, by means of the experiment proposed, the transmutation 
of HerscheUic into ifewtonic rays, and of Newtonic into more refrangible 
Newtonic rays, had been successfully performed, there -n-ould still remain 
some difficulties, which, in the opinion of some perhaps, would mar the paral- 
lelism between the class of phenomena thus realized and those of ordinary 
fluorescence. As the most important of these differences the following may 
be mentioned: — According to Prof. Draper*, incandescent metals emit rays 
forming an unbroken spectrum, which, with the increase of temperature, ex- 
tends more and more through the Newtonic in the direction of the Ritteric 
compartment, whilst retaining all the rays previously emitted. But in fluo- 
rescence or phosphorescence, on the contrary, the spectrum of the rays emitted 
is very often broken in a manner perfectly characteristic of the substance by 
which they are emittedf. Again, in fluorescence, all the transmuted rays 
appear of less refrangibility than the active incident ; but in incandescence, 
supposing it was produced by rays of a certain mean refrangibility, most 
probably both more and less refrangible rays than the incident would be 
found amongst those of the transmuted beam. The fact also that fluorescence 
may be excited by rays of comparatively small intensity, whilst the produc- 
tion of incandescence, in any case, requires rays of unusually great intensity, 
may appear as an objection ; but, in regard to this, (besides the doubtful com- 
parability of rays of different quality) it should be considered that the intensity 
of the active rays required to produce cither phenomenon necessarily varies 
from substance to substance, according to the absorptive powers of each. 

Some further discrepancies of a similar nature to the last may yet be in- 
stanced. The i)roduction of incandescence by ii-radiation may possibly require 
time, or, so to speak, a repetition of the irradiation ; its duration may be 
protracted beyond the time of incidence, and its extent not strictly confined 
to that of the actually irradiated spot. But fluorescence is instantaneous in 
its appearance and disappearance, as well as definite and hmited in regard 
to extent. As, however, phosphorescence, which outlasts irradiation, seems 
now to be alloM'ed as a variety of fluorescence, and the other two difler- 
ences, besides being of doubtful occurrence, also refer to questions of degree 
rather than of kind, perhaps not too much weight need be attached to them. 

7. But, whether incandescence produced by irradiation J and fluorescence be 
parallel phenomena or not, the production of the former, either by means of 
HerscheUic rays only, or by Herschelhc and slightly refrangible Newtonic rays 
(to be exceeded in refrangibility by the transmuted), in a manner analogous to 
ordinary fluorescent experiments, as described in this paper, cannot but de- 
serve a practical trial. The requirements for such an attempt, in the way of 
apparatus, consist principally of a large concave mirror, best of all of metal ; 

* Phil. Mag. vol. xss. p. 349. 

t Cf. (Prof. Stokes) Phil. Trans. 1852, p. 517; (M. E. Becquerel) Ann. de Chim. ct de 
Phys. vol. Ivii. tab. 2 (1859). 

I The term incandescence is probably best employed as, in many respects at least, the 
covinterpart of pTiostplwrescence, both h\ its wider and in its more limited meaning. To 
designate the phenomenon which is the principal subject of the present paper, or the coun- 
terpart of fluoi"escenc€ as defined in Ai-t. 6, the term calcescence has been suggested to the 
author— from calcium, the name of the characteristic chemical element of the substance 
whose action on the oxybydrogen flame has first of aU given rise to the speculations con- 
tained in this paper. 


a contrivance for viewing the incandescence produced in exterior darkness ; 
and several absorbents, partly for the sifting of the incident beams, and partly 
for the intercomparison of the transmuted rays with the incident. 

Report of the Committee on Fog Signals. By the Eev. Dr. Robinson. 

This Committee, consisting of Dr. Robinson, Professor Wheatstone, Dr. Glad- 
stone, and Professor Hennessy, was appointed at Manchester " to confer as to 
experiments on fog-signals, and to act as a deputation to the Board of Trade 
in order to impress on that body the importance of inquiries on the subject." 

The matter was discussed by them at several meetings of the Committee, 
both in reference to what is practically known of it, and to methods which, 
though yet untried, seem to promise better results than any now in use. After 
matm-e deliberation, in which they have to acknowledge the valuable aid of 
Admirals FitzRoy and Washington, it was considered most advisable to embody 
in a Memorial to the President of the Board of Trade the facts which we had 
collected, to point out how defective is our knowledge of many things con- 
nected with the efficiency of these signals, and to indicate the nature of the 
experiments which are necessary to complete that knowledge. 

In accordance with this decision, I drew up the following Memorial, which, 
being approved of by the other Members of the Committee, was forwarded to 
the Right Honourable T. Milner Gibson, M.P., on June 18, 1863. 


"Sir, — In consequence of an application from the Belfast Chamber of 
Commerce and several of the leading merchants of that important city, re- 
questing the British Association to cause experiments to be made with a v-iew 
to determine what kind of signals are best for indicating to sailors in foggy 
weather the vicinity and position of a danger, that body, after careful delibe- 
ration, came to the conclusion that, from the momentous bearings of such an 
inquiry on the preservation of property and stiU more of life, it ought to be 
regarded as of national importance, and as such was a fit subject for investi- 
gation by the Government. 

" It therefore appointed a Committee, consisting of 

Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S., Chairman, 
Charles Wheatstone, P.R.S., 
J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S., 
H. Hennessy, F.R.S., 
and directed them to bring the matter under your consideration, — to point out 
the defects of the existing fog-signals, and to express a hope that under 
your auspices some methods may be devised which wiU, if not entirely 
remove, yet greatly diminish the chance of such fearful calamities as that 
which within the last few days has spread sorrow through the land*. 

" Nearly aU that is known about fog- signals is to be found in the Report 
on Lights and Beacons ; and of it much is little better than conjecture ; its 
substance is as follows : — 

" Light is scarcely available for this purpose. Blue lights are used in 
the Hooghly ; but it is not stated at what distance they are visible in fog : 
their glare may be seen further than theii- flame. It might, however, be 
desirable to ascertain how far the electric hght or its flash can be traced. 

" Sound is the only known means really effective ; but about it testimonies 

* The loss of the ' Anglo Saxon,' with most of her crew ^nd passengers, in a fog. 

106 REPORT— 1863. 

are conflicting, and there is scarcely one fact relating to its use as a signal 
which can be considered as established. Even the most important of all, the 
distance at which it ceases to be heard, is undecided. But it is the more 
necessary on this account to lose no time in obtaining results which shall 
come with such authority that they may command respect and acquiescence. 

" Up to the present time all signal-sounds have been made in air, though 
this medium has grave disadvantages : its own currents interfere with the 
sound-waves, so that a gun or bell which is heard several miles cloivn the 
wind is inaudible at more than a few furlongs ?/p it. A still greater evil is 
that it is least effective when most needed ; for fog is a powei-ful damper of 
sound : it is a mixtiu-e of air and globules of water, and at each of the innu- 
merable surfaces where these two touch, a portion of the 'v-ibration is reflected 
and lost. This has a familiar illustration in a glass of champagne, which 
when struck will only give a dull sound while effervescing, but rings clearly 
when the gas has escaped. Snow produces a similar eflect, and one still 
more injurious. 

" "Water transmits sound with great power, and seems to possess in some 
other respects a decided superiority over air, but has been so little studied 
in this point of view that we can neither pronounce on the best mode of 
applying its powers or the practical diiflculties which we may have to 

" The signal which (judging from the Eeport referred to) is most approved 
by sailors is a gun stationed at or near the danger, and fired at intervals, 
mostly of half an hour ; in the case of the Holyhead mail-steamers, of fifteen 
minutes, when they are expected. The gun must be heavy, and the cost of 
ammunition is about £200 a year. The Holyhead gun is said to be ' heard 
in all weathers at Skerries, nine miles off;' but this distance is greater than 
any other which appears in the evidence. It must be remarked that half- 
hour intervals are much too long for rapid steamers, which in that time might 
run seven or eight miles — a space through which the gun could not be heard 
in thick fog. Against gun-signals there are also the objections that they de- 
pend on the punctuality of the signal-men, and that they are often fired by 
ships in distress. 

"BeUs and gongs are also extensively used ; but we have no exacf infor- 
mation as to the proper size, the force of blow required, or the distance at 
which they can be relied on. In many cases they have been abandoned for 
guns. The most effective one described is at the Copeland Light, in Belfast 
Lough, which is toUed by machinery, and is stated to have been heard at 
thirteen miles' distance. But it must be noted that this verr/ spot is notorwus 
for wrecks in foggy weather ; so that even this powerful bell is of little avail. 
The gong of" the Warner has been heard at the Nab, three miles off; but 
several instances are given where bells or gongs could not be heard at a 
quarter of a mUe. The gong is said to be heard best down the wind, the 
bell up it. An ingenious contrivance to intensify the sound of a bell, and at 
the same time to send it in a given direction, has been tried at Boulogne : the 
beU is put in the focus of a parabolic reflector made of mason-work, which 
ought to concentrate the sound in the direction of its axis. It seems not to 
have succeeded well ; the sound-rays diffuse more than those of light, and 
probably the reflexion is imperfect. On the whole, the evidence leaves an 
Impression on the mind that sounds excited by percussion cannot %iniversally 
be trusted for half a mile. Drums seem not to have been tried. 

" The third class of signals is made by wind instruments, including in that 
category those blown by steam. These seem the most promising, but their 


efficiency can only be imperfectly estimated in the absence of authentic data. 
The steam-whistle is the best-known of them, and is stated to act well. It 
is said that one used in the Bay of Fundy had been heard eight miles against 
the wind (the velocity of which, however, is not given). One witness thinks 
that in rough weather it is heard further than a gun. It is possible that 
some loss of sound may take place with it where the steam comes into con- 
tact with the air. 

" An. air- whistle, by WeUs, is reported as * very feeble at 2^ miles ;' it was 
blown by bellows. Horns and trumpets are preferred by some : blown by 
men, they are said to be heard in Nova Scotia from two to three miles, and 
probably with steam or condensed air will be much further. The instru- 
ments of Holmes* (so weU known by his electric light) and of DaboU are said 
to have great power. 

" This summary shows how little is known of the facts on which the 
efficiency of fog-signals depends, even of that which is the most important 
— the distance at Avhich they can surely be heard under those circumstances 
where they are most necessary. 

" A. At the outset, it is obvious that, to make experiments comparable, we 
must have some measure of the fog's power of stopping sound, without 
attending to which the most anomalous results may be expected. It seems 
probable that this will bear some simple relation to its opacity to light, and 
that the distance at which a given object, as a flag or pole, disappears may be 
taken as the measure. It is easily ascertained, and should be noted both at 
the signal-station and the observing one : the fog may have many fluctua- 
tions of density between them ; so that this will only be an approximate 
estimate, but one which will aid in insuring that the signals shall have suf- 
ficient power to pass the minimum of efficiency. That minimum is when a 
ship, putting down her helm on hearing the signal, can just come round clear 
of the da^iger. For very large steamers this cannot be done in less than 
two miles ; and, allowing for sea and currents, that limit should at least be 
doubled ; so that it may be assumed as a law, that (except in harbour) all fog- 
signals should he distinctly audible for at least four miles under every circum- 

" B. The range of soimd depends on causes not thoroughly understood, and 
sometimes is very diiferent from what might be expected. Some sounds which 
near at hand are very loud, as the explosions of fulminating compounds, reach 
but a very little way. Others fail from want of intensity, though the quantity 
of sound is enormous : thus thunder, however violent, is not heard at twenty 
miles' distance, while heavy ordnance is said to have reached two hundred. 
Experiment can alone decide. It should therefore be ascertained by trial, 
first, what source of sound (of course among those already mentioned as suitable 
to this particular object) has the greatest space-penetrating power in still and 
clear air. Secondly, besides the natural decay of soimd due to distance alone, 
it is, in the case which interests us, stifled by other sounds near the listener. 
The movements of the crew, the noise of the engines, the rush of the vessel 
through the sea, the murmur of winds and waves are close at hand to prevent 
it from being noticed (though stiU of sufficient power to be heard), unless it 
have some peculiar character which prevents it from blending with them. 

* Holmes's trumpet has a strong reed, and is blown by steam of about 20 lbs. pressure. 
He thinks low pitch is heard the fm-thest, and compound sounds still better. One at 
Dungeness has been heard in fog at five mUes, when a bell of 8 cwt. was inaudible at Kttle 
more than two. One larger, and an octave lower, was heard certainly at nine and a half 
miles. These require less steam than the whistle. 

108 KEPORT — 1863. 

Such character must he iu its pitch and in its peculiar quality of tone (iim- 
bre), both of which should differ as much as possible from those which con- 
tend with it. The effect of interrupted soimds should also be tested. 

" This is the most important portion of the inquiry. 

" C. All this is of stiU more moment when the air is made a discontinuous 
medium by the presence of fog, rain, or snow ; and it is probable that the 
origin and quahty of the sound may in such cases exert a still greater in- 
fluence than in clear weather. The remarkable power of fog to deaden the 
report of guns has often been noticed, but it should be carefully studied for 
each of the three classes of signals which have been mentioned. It is also 
possible that the signals which are best in clear weather may not be so under 
these conditions, 

" D. Experiments are required on the degree of accuracy with which the 
direction of a sound can be ascertained ; and whether such estimation can be 
assisted by a hearing-trumpet, a tense membrane, or other acoiistic aids. 

" E. It is of even greater importance to try the transmission of soimd 
through water, which seems to offer peculiar advantages, if we may judge from 
the few experiments which have been made by CoUadon and others, some of 
the details of which are given in a report furnished by one of us to the Bi'i- 
tish Association (a copy of which is ti'ansmitted with this). It may be ex- 
pected that greater distances will be commanded, that there wiU be fewer dis- 
turbing causes, and that the direction will be more easily determined. Such 
conclusions, at least, follow from two facts observed by Colladon. A small 
bell struck by a hammer under water was heard easily across the Lake of Ge- 
neva, at nine miles' distance ; and its sound diverged much less behind a screen 
than it would have done in air. These subaqueous sounds, however, do not 
easUy pass out from water into air, being reflected at the surface of junction ; 
and they must be hstened to with a kind of hearing-tube dipped in the water. 
This presents little difficulty, and (at least in iron ships) the huU of the vessel 
may perhaps itself serve as the sound-catcher. A bell, however, is not the 
only nor even the best means of making these sounds. Small cartridges of 
powder fired under water at regular intervals would correspoiid to guns, and 
would undoubtedly be heard at verj^ great distances. The Siren is still more 
promising : it is a box whose lid is made to revolve by the passage of a stream 
of some fluid through a number of obUque apertures, which are thus alter- 
nately opened and closed. This instrument gives under water a musical 
tone of extraordinary- fulness and power, which could not be easUy mistaken 
for any other sound. And, lastly, one of us (Professor Wheatstone) has found 
that tubes fitted vnih. the embouchures of organ-pipes, and made to speah 
under water by a current of that fluid, produce a sound of exceeding inten- 
sity. The success of any of these subaqueous signals depends on the power 
of distinguishing them from sounds due to the vessel itself. In particular, 
the paddles or screw, and the impact of waves on the bow, must be powerful 
generators of submarine sounds ; but it is highly probable that the character 
of the signal-sounds will be entirely different from them. 

" If, as we hope, you feel sulRcient interest in the matters above mentioned 
to direct such an investigation of them as may lead to practical results, we 
would fui'ther take the liberty of suggesting what seems to us likely to be 
the most effective and economical way of carrying it out, at the same time 
offering whatever further information we may be able to afford. 

" The experiments might centre in the flag-ship at Spithead. One of its 
ofiicers might probably be found who would take an interest in the research, 
or a supernumerary might be appoiuted for this special object. He should 


be charged with the general control, and in particular with making the sig- 
nals. These should be observed from various points, at Portsmouth and on 
the Isle of Wight, so disposed as to give a series of distances from two to ten 
miles, if possible — and so distributed that some may always have the signal 
up, others down the wind, which is an essential condition. 

" Portland seems also to be very suitable, or perhaps "Weymouth. 
" Coast-guards or other local officials can probably be foimd at any of 
these stations to observe the signals ; but, in any case, it is necessary that 
the persons engaged should be habitually on the spot, so as to profit by the 
occurrence of a fog without any delay. 
" The process would be of this sort : — 

" When the fog seems to the directing officer sufficiently thick, he sends 
word to the different observers of the time and nature of the intended sig- 
nals ; he and they then measure the fog by the means already suggested, or 
some equivalent. 

" The signals, if fully carried out, should be — 
"1. Guns. 

" 2. Bells, gongs, drums. 

" 3. Steam-whistle, blown by steam from a small boiler, and by air con- 
densed to the same pressure (unless it be found that both sounds are equally 
audible). The pressures should be recorded. 

" 4. Two organ-pipes, one whose pitch can be varied at pleasure, the other 
with a reed, connected so that they can be blown together or separately. 

" 5. Holmes's ti-umpet, Daboll's, or any other which appears to deserve a 

" 6. A Siren of 8 inches diameter, suppKed with water by a hand-pump 
under a head of about 30 feet (which head must be recorded) : by increasing 
the pressure, the pitch rises. 

" 7. An organ-pipe of variable length, to be sounded under water as the 

" The chief points to be attended to in these signals are — 
" 1. The relative efficiency of guns of various calibre, and with varied 
charges of powder. 

" 2. Weights of bells, and force of blows, measured by the weight and faU 
of the hammers. 

"3. In the wind instruments, the effect of varying the pressure. It is 
probable that each will have some appropriate force of blast which will give 
a maximum result. 

" 4. The two pipes are first to be sounded separately on the same note, to 
ascertain if the reed have any advantages. Then the variable one is to be 
gradually sharpened through a considerable range, to find what pitch is best 
for distance ; and lastly, both sounding in unison, one is to be sharpened, so 
as to examine the iafluence of concords and discords through a large portion 
of the scale. They should be sounded not only continuously, but also with 
short interruptions. 

" 5. The Sii-en should be tried in a metallic cylinder, to learn if this will 
intercept its sound. If so, by making apertures in the cylinder and causing 
it to revolve, it may be as possible to identify such signals as revolving lights. 
" Each observer, when he hears these signals, should note the time and his 
impression as to their distinctness. He should also try how near he can 
estimate their direction. For this purpose (unless he can thoroughly depend 
on his freedom from bias) he should be blindfolded and turned about to lose 
his bearings. He should also try, as above suggested, the aid of acoustic 

110 REPORT— 1863. 

tubes. A common speaking-trumpet will in the first instance be the most 
convenient. The direction and velocity of the wind should be recorded. 

" The returns from each station should be sent, without delay or comparison^ 
to the directing officer. 

" When a series of these experiments shall have given the comparative 
values of the above-mentioned signals, and their ranges as found by observers 
at rest, the work would be incomplete unless it were extended to the con- 
ditions which must occur in practice ; and it should be tried, the observer 
being in a steam-ship under luay, both in calm and rourjJi iveather. The pre- 
liminary trials will have sifted out much tmeertainty, and only those cases 
which give good promise need be examined ; so that, with a moderate expen- 
diture of money and labour, we should possess a complete collection of the 
facts on which this element of nautical safety must be founded. 

" The money value of any one of the himdreds of ships which perish 
yearly through the inefficiency of the present fog-signals would far more 
than pay the cost of the experiments proposed ; but who will price the gal- 
lant men who perish with them ? 

" I have the honour to be, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

« Armagli Observatory, " T. E. RoBlNSOH, CJiaii-man." 

May 23, 1863." 

On the 6th of July, the Secretary of the Marine Department acknowledged 
the receipt of this letter, and informed me that " Tlicir Lordships are in 
communication with the Trinity House of London on this subject, with the 
\aew of having experiments made." 

On August 6th I wrote to Mr. Farrer, inquiring if any further steps had 
been taken ; and on the 14th received an answer, enclosing a letter from the 
Secretaiy of the Trinity House, and Dr. Faraday's report referred to in it. 
Its substance is, " That though the Elder Brethren entertain the opinions so 
ably enunciated in Professor Faraday's letter, they are earnestly desirous of 
obtaining an elucidation of the important and comprehensive questions in- 
volved in the proposed inquiry, and wiU be ready to cooperate in any measm-es 
which their Lordships may desire to adopt for the attainment of that result." 

I fear this implies that the Tiinity House will make no great exertion for 
such " attainment" — the " opinions enunciated by Professor Faraday " being, 
in fact, that no attempt should be made by that Corporation to carry out the 
researches which we recommended to the Board of Trade. These opinions 
Dr. Faraday seems to have formed, not from any doiibt of the importance of 
the subject, to which he bears the fullest testimony, nor from any conviction 
that the proposed experiments are useless or impracticable — for he does not 
discuss them at all, — but from a dread of the difficulty, the magnitude, and 
the expense of the investigation. These we believe he exaggerates ; but even 
taking them at his estimate, we think they wiE not be accepted by the public 
as a satisfactory excuse for the inertia of this powerful body in a matter which 
touches so deeply, not merely the commercial interests of the nation, but even 
the common iiistiiicts of humanity . 

I have not replied to the Secretary of the Board of Trade, as, before I 
coiild learn the opinions of my colleagues (to whom I at once forwarded the 
papers) our commission would have expired by the meeting of the Association. 
If it be its pleasure to reappoint us with instructions to persevere in seeking 
a more favourable result, I can answer for myself and the rest of the Com- 
mittee that our best efforts shall be directed to fulfil our trust. 


Report of the Committee appointed by the British Association 
on Standards of Electrical Resistance. 

The Committee consists of — Professor Wheatstone, Professor "Williamson, 
Mr. C. F. Varley, Professor Thomson, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Mr. C. W. 
Siemens, Dr. A. Matthiessen, Professor Maxwell, Professor Miller, Dr. 
Joule, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Dr. Esselbach, Sir C. Bright. 

The Committee on Electrical Measurements, appointed in 1862, have not 
confined their attention to determiaing the best unit of electrical resistance, 
the point to which the duties of the Committee of 1S61 were nominally re- 
stricted, but have viewed this comparatively limited question as one part only 
of the much larger subject of general electrical measurement. The Committee, 
after mature consideration, are of opuiion that the system of so-called abso- 
lute electrical units, based on purely mechanical measurements, is not only 
the best system yet proposed, but is the only one consistent with our present 
knowledge both of the relations existing between the various electrical phe- 
nomena and of the connexion between these and the fundamental measure- 
ments of time, space, and mass. The only hesitation felt by the Committee 
was caused by doubts as to the degree of accuracy with which this admirable 
system could be or had been reduced to practice. 

The measurement of voltaic currents, electromotive force, and quantity 
would offer little difficulty, provided only electrical resistance could be mea- 
sured in absolute units, and for this purpose it would be sufficient that the 
resistance of a single standard conductor should be so determined, since copies 
of this standard could be multiplied at wiU with any desired precision, and 
from comparison with these copies the absolute resistance of any circuit what- 
ever could be obtained by methods requiring comparatively Uttle sluU and 
well known to aU electricians. The practical adoption of the absolute system 
was felt therefore to depend on the accuracy with which the absolute resist- 
ance of some one standard conductor could be measured ; and while doubts 
existed on this point, it was thought premature to make any extended expe- 
riments on the application of the absolute system to voltaic currents, electro- 
motive force, or quantity. The Committee are happy to report that these 
doubts have been dispelled by the success of the experiments, made for the 
Committee by Professor J. Clerk Maxwell, Mr. Balfour Stewart, and Mr. 
Fleeming Jenkin, according to the method de\'ised by Professor W. Thomson. 
These experiments have been actively prosecuted at King's College for the 
last five months with continually increasing success, as, one by one, successive 
mechanical and electrical improvements have been introduced, and the various 
sources of error discovered and eliminated. 

The Sub-Committee are confident that considerably greater accuracy can 
yet be obtained by the further removal of slight defects, the importance of 
which only became apparent when the main difficulties had been overcome. 
In order, therefore, to secure the best attainable result, and still further to 
test the accuracy and concordance of the experiments before taking any irre- 
vocable step, the Committee have decided not to issue standard coils at the 
present Meeting ; but the results already obtained leave no room for doubt 
that the absolute system may be adopted, and that the final standard of re- 
sistance may be constructed without any serious delay. Over-ha.ste might 
eventually entail corrections as inconvenient as those which would foUow an 
arbitrary and unscientific choice of units, and the very experiments made by 
the Sub-Committee prove that the hesitation of many to adopt the absolute 

113 REPORT— 1863. 

units as hitherto determined was Avell founded. It is certain that resistance- 
coils purporting to have been constructed from previous absolute determina- 
tions do not agree one with another within 7, 8, or even 12 per cent. 

Before further alluding to the results obtained by the Sub- Committee, it is 
desirable that the experiments themselves should be understood, and to this 
end the Committee have thought fit that a full explanation of the meaning of 
absolute measurement, and of the principles by which absolute electrical units 
are determined, should form part of the present Report, especially as the only 
information on the subject now extant is scattered in detached papers by 
Weber, Thomson, Helmholtz, and others, requiring considerable labour to 
collect and understand. In order to make this account as clear as possible, it 
has been thought best to disregard entirely the chronological order of the 
discoveries and writings on which the absolute system is founded, and this 
has rendered it veiy difiicult to refer to the original source of each statement 
or conclusion. In the Appendix (C.) this want is, it is hoped, remedied. 

The word " absolute " in the present sense is used as opposed to the word 
" relative," and by no means implies that the measurement is accurately 
made, or that the unit employed is of perfect construction ; in other words, it 
does not mean that the measurements or units are absolutely correct, but only 
that the measurement, instead of being a simple comparison with an arbitrary 
quantity of the same kind as that measured, is made by reference to certain 
fundamental imits of another kind treated as postulates. An example will 
make this clearer. When the power exerted by an engine is expressed as 
equal to the power of so many horses, the measurement is not what is called 
absolute ; it is simply the comparison of one power with another arbitrarily 
selected, without reference to units of space, mass, or time, although these 
ideas are necessarily involved in any idea of work. Nor would this measure- 
ment be at all more absolute if some particular horse could be found who was 
always in exactly the same condition and could do exactly the same quantity 
of work in an hour at all times. The foot-pound, on the other hand, is one 
derived unit of work, and the power of an engine when expressed in foot- 
pounds is measui'ed in a kind of absolute measurement, i. e. not by reference 
to another soui'ce of power, such as a horse or a man, but by reference to the 
units of weight and length simply — units which have been long in general 
use, and may be ti'cated as fundamental. In this illustration, chosen for its 
simplicity, the unit of force is assumed as fundamental, and as equal to that 
exerted by gravitation on the unit mass ; but this force is itself arbitrarily 
chosen, and is inconstant, depending on the latitude of the place of the 

In true absolute measurement the unit of force is defined as the force 
capable of producing the unit velocity in the unit of mass when it has acted 
on it for the unit of time. Hence this force acting through the unit of space 
performs the absolute unit of work. In these two definitions, time, mass, and 
space are alone involved, and the units in which these are measured, i. e. the 
second, gramme, and metre, will alone, in what follows, be considered as funda- 
mental units. Stni simpler examples of absolute and non-absolute measure- 
ments may be taken from the standards of capacity. The gallon is an arbi- 
trary or non-absolute unit. The cubic foot and the litre or cubic decimetre 
are absolute units. In fine, the word absolute is intended to convey the idea 
that the natural connexion between one kind of magnitude and another has been 
attended to, and that aU the units form part of a coherent system. It appears 
probable that the name of " derived units " would more readily convey the re- 
quired idea than the word " absolute," or the name of mechanical units might 


have been adopted ; but when a word has once been generally accepted, it is 
undesirable to introduce a new word to express the same idea. The object 
or use of the absolute system of units may be expressed by saying that it 
avoids useless coefficients in passing from one kind of measurement to 
another. Thus, in calculating the contents of a tank, if the dimensions are in 
feet, the cubic contents are given in cubic feet, without the introduction of any 
coefficient or divisor ; but to obtain the contents in gallons, the divisor 6-25 
is required. If the power of an engine is to be deduced from the pressure on 
the piston and its speed, it is given in foot-pounds or metre -kilograumes per 
second by a simple multiplication ; to obtain it in horse-power, the coefficients 
33,000 or 550 must be used. 'No doubt all the natural relations bei^ween 
the various magnitudes to be measured may be expressed and made use of, 
however arbitrary and incoherent the units may be. N'evertheless the intro- 
duction of the numerous factors then required in every calculation is a very 
serious annoyance, and moreover, where the relations between various kinds of 
measurement are not immediately apparent, the use of the coherent or ab- 
solute system will lead miich more rapidly to a general knowledge of these 
relations than the mere publication of formulae. 

The absolute system is, however, not only the best practical system, but 
it is the only rational system. Eveiy one will readily perceive the absurdity 
of attempting to teach gcometiy with a unit of capacity so defined that the 
contents of a cube should be 6^ times the arithmetical cube of one side, or 
with a unit of surface of such dimensions that the surface of a rectangle 
would be equal to 0-000023 times the product of its sides ; but geometry so 
taught would not be one whit more absurd than the science of. electricity 
would become unless the absolute system of units were adopted. 

In determining the uuit of electrical resistance and the other electrical 
units, we must simply foUow the natural relation existing between the various 
electrical quantities, and between these and the fundamental units of time, 
mass, and space. The electrical phenomena susceptible of measurement are 
f jur in number — current, electromotive force, resistance, and quantity. The 
definitions of these need not now be given, but will be found in the Appen- 
dix (C. 14, 15, 16, and 17). Their relations one to another are extremely 
simple, and may be expressed by two equations. 

First, by Ohm's law, experimentally determined, we have the equation 

^=1 (1) 

where C=current, E= electromotive force, and R=resistance. From this 

foiTaula it follows that the unit electromotive force must produce the imit 

current in a cu'cuit of unit resistance ; for if units were chosen bearing any 

other relation to each other, C would be equal to .r =p, where x would be a useless 

and absurd factor, complicating all calculation, and confusing the very simple 
conception of the relation estabhshed by Ohm's law. 

Secondly, it has been experimentally proved by Dr. Faraday that the 
statical quantity of electricity conveyed by any given current is simply pro- 
portional to the strength of the current, whether electromagneticaUy or 
electrochemicaUy measured, and to the time during which it flows ; hence, in 
mathematical language, we have the equation 

Q = Ct, (2) 

where t=time, and Q= quantity. From this equation it follows that the unit 
of quantity must be the quantity conveyed by the unit current in the tuiit of 
1863. I 

114 REPORT 1863. 

time; otherwise we shoiild have Q=yCt, where y would he a Becond use- 
less and ahsurd coefficient. From equations (1) and (2) it follows that only 
two of the electrical units could be arbitrarily chosen, even if the natural 
relation between electrical and mechanical measurements were disregarded. 
Thus if the electromotive force of a Darnell's cell were taken as the unit of 
electromotive force, and the resistance of a metre of mercury of one milli- 
metre section at 0° were taken as the unit of resistance, it would folloAv from 
equations (1) and (2) that the unit of current must be that which would be 
produced by the Daniell's cell in a circuit of the above resistance, and the 
imit of quantity would be the quantity conveyed by that current in a second 
of time. Such a system would be coherent ; and if aU mechanical, chemical, 
and thermal effects produced by electricity could be neglected, such a system 
might perhaps be called absolute. But all our knowledge of electricity is 
derived from the mechanical, chemical, and thermal effects which it pro- 
duces, and these effects cannot be ignored in a true absolute system. Che- 
mical and thermal effects are, however, now all measured by reference to the 
mechanical unit of work ; and therefore, in forming a coherent electrical 
system, the chemical and thermal effects may be neglected, and it is only 
necessary to attend to the connexion between electrical magnitudes and the 
mechanical units. What, then, are the mechanical effects obser\'ed in con- 
nexion with electricity ? First, it has been proved that whenever a current 
flows through any circuit it performs work, or produces heat or chemical 
action equivalent to work. This work or its equivalent was experimentally 
proved by Dr. Joule to bo directly proportional to the square of the current, 
to the time during which it acts, and to the resistance of the circuit ; and it 
depends on these magnitudes only. In mathematical language this is ex- 
pressed by the equation ■W = C' Ht, (3), 

where "W=the work equivalent to all the effects produced in the circuit, and 
the other letters retain their previous signification. This is the third funda- 
mental equation affecting the four electrical quantities, and represents the 
most important connexion between them and the mechanical units. From 
equation (3) it follows (unless another absurd coefficient be introduced) that 
the unit cvirrent flowing for a unit of time thi-ough a circuit of unit re- 
sistance will perform a tmit of work or its equivalent. If eveiy relation 
existing between electrical and mechanical measiu-ements were expressed by 
the three fundamental equations now given, they would still leave the series 
of units undefined, and one unit might be arbitrarily chosen from which the 
three other units would be deduced by the three equations ; but these three 
equations by no means exhaust the natural relations between mechanical and 
electrical measurements. For instance, it is observed that two equal and 
similar quantities of electricity collected in two points repel one another with 
a force (F) directly proportional to the quantity Q, and inversely to the 
square of the distance (d) between the points. This gives the equation 

^4'-- (*) 

from which it would follow that the unit quantity should be that which at 
a unit distance repels a similar and equal quantity with unit force. The 
four equations now given are sufficient to measure all electrical phenomena 
by reference to time, mass, and space only, or, in other words, to determine 
the foirr electrical units by reference to mechanical units. Equation (4) at 
once determines the unit of quantity, which, by equation (2), determines the 
unit current ; the unit of resistance is then detennined by equation (3), and the 
unit electromotive force by equation (1). Here, then, is one absolute or coherent 


system, starting from an effect produced by electricity when at rest. The 
units based on these four equations are precisely those called by Weber elec- 
trostatical units, although it may be observed that he chose those units 
without reference to what is here called the third fundamental equation, or, 
in other words, without reference to the idea of work, introduced into the 
system by Thomson and Helmholtz*. 

The four equations are sufficient to determine the foiu" units, and into this 
system no new relation can be introduced. The first three equations may, 
however, be retained, and a distinct absolute system estabUshed by substi- 
tuting some other relation between electrical and mechanical magnitudes 
than is expressed in equation (4) ; and, indeed, the electrostatical system just 
defined is not that which will be found most generally useful. It is based on 
a statical phenomenon, whereas at present the chief applications of electricity 
are dynamic, depending on electricity in motion, or on voltaic currents with 
their accompanying electromagnetic effects. Now the force exerted on the 
pole of a magnet by a current in its neighbourhood is a purely mechanical 
phenomenon. This force (/) is proportional to the magnetic strength (m) of 
the pole of the magnet, and to the strength of the current C ; and if the con- 
ductor be at all points equidistant from the pole, or, in other words, be bent 
in a circle of the radius I- round the pole, the force is proportional to the 
length of the conductor (L) : it is also inversely proportional to the square of 
the distance (1-) of the pole from the conductor, and is affected by no other 
circumstances than those named. Hence we have 

/=^' (6) 

From this equation it follows that the unit length of the unit current must pro- 
duce the imit force on a unit pole at the unit distance. If the equations (1), (2), 
(3), and (5) are adopted as fundamental, they give a distinct absolute system 
of units, called by Weber the electromagnetic units. Equations (4) and (5) are 
incompatible one with another, if equation (2) be considered fundamental ; but 
the electromagnetic units have a constant and natural relation to the elec- 
trostatic units. It will be seen that in the fundamental equation (.5) of the 
electromagnetic system, besides the measurements of time, space, and mass, 
alone entering into the other equations, a fourth measurement (m) of a mag- 
netic pole is required ; but this measurement is in itself made in terms of the 
mechanical vmits, for the unit pole is simply that which repels another equal 
pole at unit distance with unit force. Thus in the electromagnetic as in the 
electrostatic system all measurements are ultimately referred to the funda- 
mental units of time, space, and mass. The electromagnetic units are found 
much the more convenient when dealing, as we have now chiefly occasion to 
do, with electromagnetic phenomena. 

The relations of the electromagnetic units one to another and to the 
mechanical units may be summed up as follows : — The unit current conveys 
a unit quantity of electricity through the circuit in a unit of time. The unit 
current in a conductor of unit resistance produces an effect equivalent to the 
unit of work in the unit of time. The imit current will be produced ra a 
cii'cuit of unit resistance by the unit electromotive force. The unit current 
flowing through a conductor of unit length wiU exert the unit force on a unit 
pole at a unit distance. (In the electrostatic system all the above propositions 
hold good except the last, for which the following must be substituted : — the 
unit quantity of electricity will repel a similar quantity at the unit distance 
with a unit force.) 

* 77?de Appendix C. §31. 


116 ftEPORT— 1863. 

It remains to be explained how electrical measurements can be practically 
made in electromagnetic units. Of all the magnitudes, currents are the most 
easily measured, provided the horizontal force (H) of the earth's magnetism be 
known. Let a length (L) of wire be wound so as to form a circular coU of 
small section as compared with its radius (k). 

Let a short magnet be hung in the centre of the coil placed in the 
magnetic meridian, as in the ordinaiy tangent galvanometer, and let the 
deflection produced by the current C be called d, then it is easily* proved from 
the fundamental equation (5) that 

C=^'tanc? (6) 

Thus, where the value of H is known, a tangent galvanometer only is required 
to determine the magnitude of a current in electromagnetic absolute mea- 
surement, although neither the resistance of the cu'cuit nor the electromotive 
force producing the current may be known. The measurement of quantity 
can be obtained from that of a current by a make-and-break apparatus, or 
" Wippe," in a well-known manner, or by measuring the swing of a galvano- 
meter needle when a single instantaneous discharge is allowed to pass through 
it (Appendix C. § 25). If, therefore, we could measure resistance in abso- 
lute measure, the whole system of practical absolute measurement would be 
complete, since, when the ciu'rent and resistance are kno"mi, equation (1) 
(Ohm's law) directly gives the electromotive force produeiag the current. 
The object of the experiments of the Sub-Committee (made at King's College, 
by the kind permission of the Principal) was therefore to determine the re- 
Bistance of a certain piece of wire in the absolute system, in order from this 
one careful determination to construct the material representative of the 
absolute imit with which all other resistances would be compared by well- 
known methods. 

There are several means by which the absolute resistance of a wire can 
bemeasxired. Starting from equation (3), Professor Thomson, in 1851, deter- 
mined the absolute resistance of a wire by means of Dr. Joiile's experimental 
measurement of the heat developed in the wire by a current t ; find by this 
method he obtained a result which agrees within about 5 per cent, with our 
latest experiments. This method is the simplest of all, so far as the mental 
conception is concerned, and is probably susceptible of very considerable 

Indirect methods depending on the electromotive force induced in a wire 
moving across a magnetic field have, however, now been more accurately 
applied ; but, before describing these methods, it wiU be necessary to point 

* The resultant electromagnetic force (/) exerted at the centre of the coil by a current (C) 
■will, by equation (5), hej'= -j^, and the short magnet hung in the centre TriU experience a 

couple acting in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the coU equal to — =-:; — , ■where 

ml=th.e product of the strength of one of the poles into the length of the magnet, or, in 
other -words, its magnetic moment. The strength of the couple acting perpendicularly 
to the axis of the magnet, when it has deflected to an angle d under the influence of the 

ciirrent, ■wUl be cos d — rj- > at the same time the equal and opposite couple exerted 

on the magnet by the earth's magnetism wiU be sin d Uml, heuce 

„ H^a Bind Kk^ 

L cos d L 
t Phil. Mag. vol. ii. Ser. 4, 1851, p. 551. 


oiit the connexion between the electromotive force induced in the above 
manner and the fundamental equations adopted for the absolute system. The 
exact sense in which the terms are employed is defined in the accompanying 
foot-note, along with some simple corollaries from those definitions *. 

A current (C) in a straight conductor of length (L) crossing the lines of 
force of a magnetic field of the intensity (S) at right angles will experience the 
same force (/') as if aU the points of the conductor were at the unit distance 
from a pole of the strength (S). The force in this case exerted on the magnet 
is, by equation (5), equal to SLC, and, conversely, an equal force is exerted by 
the magnet on the current. Hence we have equation (7), expressing the value 
of the force (/) exerted on a current crossing a magnetic field at right angles, 

/=SLC (7) 

Let us imagine this straight conductor to have its two ends resting on two 
conducting rails of large section in connexion with the earth, and let the whole 
sensible resistance (R) of the circiiit thus formed be constant for aU positions 
of the conductor. Let us further imagine the rails so placed that when the 
conductor slips along them it moves perpendicularly to the mag-uctic lines of 
force and to its own length. Bj experiment we know that when the con- 
ductor is moved along the rails cutting these lines of force, a current will be 
developed in the circuit, and that the action of the magnetic force on this 
current will cause a resistance (/) to the motion (due to electromagnetic 
causes only) ; and, by equation (7), we find that this resistance /"= SLC. 

Let the motion be uniform, and its velocity be called V ; and let the work 
done in the imit of time in overcoming the resistance to motion due to elec- 
tromagnetic causes be called W ; then"VY=YSLC. But this force produces 

* Definition 1. — A magnetic field is any space in the neighbourhood of a magnet. 

Definition 2. — The unit magnetic pole is that which, at a unit distance from a similar 
pole, is repelled with unit force. 

Definition 3. — The intensity of a magnetic field at any point is equal to the force which 
the unit pole would experience at that point. 

Corollary 1. — A pole of given strength (S) will produce a magnetic field which (if un- 
influenced by other magnetic forces) wiU at the unit distance from the pole be of the in- 
tensity S, i. e. numerically equal to the strength of the pole ; for, at that distance, the force 
exerted on a unit pole would, by def. 2, be equal to S, and hence, by def. 3, the intensity 
of the magnetic field at that point would be equal to S. 

Definition 4. — The direction of the force in the field is the direction in which any pole 
is urged by the magnetism of the field ; this is the direction which a short-balanced, freely 
suspended magnet would assume. 

Eemark. — The properties of a magnetic field, as shown by Dr. Faraday, may be con- 
veniently and accurately conceived as represented by littes of force (each Une representing 
a force of constant intensity). The direction of the lines will indicate the direction of the 
force at all points ; and the number of Unes which pass through the unit area of cross sec- 
tion ^vill represent the magnetic intensity of the field resolved pei-pendicularly to that area. 

Definition 5. — A unifonn magnetic field is one in which the intensity is equal through- 
out, and hence, as demonstrated by Professor W. Thomson, the lines of force parallel. 

Example. — The earth is a gi'eat magnet. The instrument-room, where experiments are 
tried, is a magnetic field. The dipping-needle is an insti-ument by which the du-ection of the 
lines of force is found. The intensity of the field is fovmd by a method described in the 
'Admiralty Manual,' 3rd edit., article "Ten-estrial Magnetism." The number of lines of 
force passing through the unit of area perpendicularly to the dipping-needle in the room 
must be conceived as proportional to this intensity, and the direction to correspond with 
that of the dipping-needle. The magnitude and du-ection of the earth's force at a point 
are generally expressed by resolving it into two components, one horizontal and the other 
vertical. The mean horizontal component in England for 1862 was at Kew = 3-8] 54 
British units, or 1'7592 metrical ; i.e. s, unit pole weighing one gramme, and free to move 
in a horizontal plane, would, under the action of the earth's horizontal force, acquire, at 
the end of a second, a velocity equal to 1-7592 metres per second, ( Vide also Appendix C. 
§5 to 12.) 

118 REPORT 1863. 

no other effect than the current, and the work done by the current must 
therefore be=W, or equivalent to that done in moving the conductor against 
the force/; but, by equation (3), ■W=C-E, and hence 

Il=I^ (8) 

It has already been shown that C and S can be obtained iu absolute mea- 
sure; hence the second member of equation (8) contains no unknown quantities, 
and, by the experiment described, the absolute resistance (R) of a wire might 
be determined. One curious consequence of these considerations is, that the 
resistance of a conductor in absolute measure is really expressed by a velo- 
city ; for, by equation (8), when SL=C we have E = V, that is to say, the 
resistance of a conductor may be expressed or defined as equal to the velocity 
with which it must move, if placed in the conditions described, iii order to 
generate a current equal to the product of the length of the conductor into 
the intensity of the magnetic field ; or more simply, the resistance of a circuit 
is the velocity with which a conductor of imit length must move across a mag- 
netic field of unit intensity in order to generate a unit current in the circuit. 
Moreover it can be shown that this velocity is independent of the magnitude 
of the fundamental luiits on which the expression of the magnetic intensity of 
the field or strength of the current is based, and hence that electrical resist- 
ance really is measured by an absolute velocity in nature, quite iudependently 
of the units of time and space in which it is expressed. (Appendix C, § 39.) By 

equation (8) we have C=-^ , but by equation (1) C= jt» tence 

E=YSL; (9) 

that is to say, the electromotive force produced between two ends of a 
straight conductor moved perpendicularly to its own length and to the lines 
of force of a magnetic field is equal to the product of the intensity of the 
field into the length of the conductor and the velocity of the motion ; or, more 
simply, the unit length of a conductor moving with unit velocity perpendicu- 
larly across the lines of force of a magnetic field will produce a unit electro- 
motive force (or difference of potential) between its two ends. This was by 
"Weber made a fundamental equation, in place of equation (3), first shown 
by Thomson and Helmholtz to be consistent with Weber's electromagnetic 
equation. These simple and beautiful relations between inductive effects and 
the simple voltaic effects first described are well adapted to show the rational 
and coherent character of the absolute system. 

The experiment last described, as a method of finding the absolute resistance 
of a conductor by measuring the velocity of motion of a straight vrire, would 
be barely practicable ; but it will be easily understood that we can, by cal- 
culation, pass from this simple case to the more complex case of a circular 
coil of known dimensions revolving with known velocity about an axis in a 
magnetic field of known intensity. "Weber, from these elements, determined 
the absolute resistance of many vrires ; but this method requires that the in- 
tensity of the magnetic field be known ; and the detennination of this element 
is laborious, while its value, for the earth at least, is very inconstant. A 
method due to Professor Thomson, by which a knowledge of this element is 
rendered unnecessary, has therefore been adopted in the experiments of the 
Sub-Committee at King's College. In this plan a small magnet, screened 
from the effect of the air, is hung at the centre of a revolving coil, which is 
divided into two parts to allow the suspending fibre to pass freely. 

By calculation it can be shown that when the coil revolves round a vertical 


axis, tlie couple exerted on a magnetic needle of the moment ml, when deflected 
to the angle d, mU be ml cos d. 

The equal and opposite couple caused by the earth's magnetism mil be 
TLml sin d. Hence 

^=4P^.; ^^^) 

an equation from which the earth's magnetic force and the moment of the sus- 
pended magnet have been eliminated, and by which the absolute resistance 
(R) can be calculated in terms of the length, L, the velocity, V, the radius, k, 
and the deflection, d. The resistance thus calculated is expressed in electro- 
magnetic absolute units, because equation (10) is a simple consequence of equa- 
tions (1), (3), and (5) — fundamental equations in the electromagnetic system. 
The essence of Professor Thomson's method consists in substituting, by aid 
of the laws of electromagnetic induction, the measurements of a velocity and 
a deflection for the more complex and therefore less accurate measurements 
of work and force required in the simple fundamental equations. But, how- 
ever simple in theory the method may be, the practical determination of the 
absolute resistance of a conductor by its means required great care and very 
numerous precautions,— some of an obvious character, while the need of others 
only became apparent during the course of the experiments. 

The apparatus consisted of two circular coils of copper wire, about one foot 
in diameter, placed side by side, and connected in series ; these coils revolved 
round a vertical axis, and were driven by a belt from a hand-winch, fitted 
with Huyghens' gear to produce a sensibly constant driving-power. A small 
magnet, with a mirror attached, was hung in the centre of the two coils, and the 
deflections of this magnet were read by a telescope from the reflection of a scale 
in the mirror. A frictional governor controlled the speed of the revolving 
coil. The details and a drawing of the apparatus are given in Appendix 
D. and Plate VI. ; but a short account may fitly be given here of the points 
of chief practical importance, the difficulties encountered, and the improve- 
ments still desirable. 

It is essential that the dimensions of the coil be very accurately known, 
that the axis round which it revolves should be truly vertical, and that, except 
iu the coil itself, no currents affecting the position of the magnet be indiiced in 
any part of the apparatus. To measure the angular deflection the distance 
of the scale from the mirror is required, and the scale must be truly parallel 
to the mirror when the magnet is undeflected, or, in other words, when the 
coil is at rest. All these conditions were fulfilled without difficulty ; but 
the scale by the reflection of which the deflections were measured was, 
towards the end of the experiments, found not to be very accvu'ately divided ; 
and although a correction for this inaccuracy has been applied in the calcu- 
lations, an improvement can in futiire experiments be effected by the use of 
a more perfect scale. The magnet was suspended by a single silk fibre, eight 
feet long, inside a wooden case, and by suitable adjustments was brought very 
carefully to the centre of the coUs. The whole suspended system was so 
screened from currents of air, and so well protected from vibration, that when 
the coil revolved at its full speed of 350 revolutions per minute, the reflection 
in the mirror was as clear and undisturbed as when the coil was at rest. 
The torsion of the long fibre was determined by experiment, and the slight 

120 REPOET — 1863. 

necessary corrections applied in the calculations. The Huyghens' gearing for 
the driving hand-winch was somewhat roughly constructed, and could certainly 
be improved; nevertheless there was little difficulty in maintaining a sensibly 
constant driving-power for twenty minutes at a time. The speed of the coil 
was controlled by a frictional governor of novel form, designed by Mi-. Jenkin 
for another purpose, and lent for the experiments in question. The action of 
this governor, combined with that of the driving-gear, was such that in many 
experiments the oscillations in deflection due to a change of speed were not 
so great as those due to the passage of steamers in the river when all parts of 
the apparatus were at rest ; so that the deflections during twenty minutes 
could be quite as accurately observed as the slightly imperfect zero-point 
from which they were measured. Still better results are expected with a 
larger governor, made specially for the apparatus, on the joint plans of Pro- 
fessor Thomson and Mi'. Jenkin. The oscillations produced by the passage 
of steamers on the Thames at no great distance from the place of experiments 
were of very sensible magnitude ; and although by carefully observing the 
limit of every oscillation during every experiment the error due to this cause 
was in great part eliminated, it is desirable that any future experiments should 
be conducted in some spot free from all local magnetic disiiu'bance. 

The speed of the coil was determined by observing on a chronometer the 
instant at which a small gong was struck by a detent released once in every 
hundred revolutions. Mr. Balfour Stewart's skill in this kind of observation 
enabled him thus to determine the velocity with great accuracy, especially 
as the observations frequently lasted for twenty minutes without material 
alteration in the speed. 

Some error M'as apprehended in the necessary measurement of the length 
of the copper wii-e used, o^\^ug to the extension that would be caused by the 
strain usually required to straighten the wire. This really serious diificidty 
was eluded almost by accident, in a manner amusing from its simplicity. 
At the conclusion of the experiments, the wii-e to be measured was uncoiled 
in the Museum at King's College and lay in awkward bends on the planked 
floor. The straight planks formed an obvious contrast to the crooked wire, 
and a joint between the planks was found where the opening was just suffi- 
cient to hold the wire when pushed into this little groove. Held in this way, 
the wire when measured was quite straight, and yet was never stretched. 

No other measui'cmeuts than those akeady described are required by the 
simple theory ; but this theory, as hitherto stated, stands in need of various 
slight corrections. The currents induced by the earth's magnetism are modi- 
fied by the cui-rents induced from the little suspended magnet, and also by 
the induction of the coil on itself. The force deflecting the magnet is also 
modified by the lateral distance of the coils from the vertical axis. An ela- 
borate analysis of the corrections required on these groimds was made by 
Professor Maxwell (Appendix D.) ; and to allow of these corrections, the mo- 
ment of the suspended magnet was measured, and the position of every turn 
of the copper coU carefully observed. An expenmental determination of the 
induction of the coil on itself, by a method due to Professor Maxwell, agreed 
with the calculated correction vpithiu one quarter per cent. 

The resistance of the copper coil measured by these laborious experiments 
varied each day, and during each day, according to the temperature; and, 
moreover, this temperature could at no time be determined with sufficient ac- 
curacy. It was therefore intended that at each experiment a small German- 
silver coU, at a known temperature, should have been prepared exactly equal 
in resistance to the copper coil during that experiment, and these small coils 


were to have been kept as permanent records of the resistance]of the copper coil 
on each occasion ; but this resistance was found to vary so rapidly that the 
little copies could not be accurately adjusted with sufficient rapidity, and the 
resistance of the copper coil was therefore simply measured at the beginning 
and end of each experiment, in terms of an arbitrary unit. This propor- 
tional measiu'ement was made with rapidity and precision by a new method, 
which, it is believed, is superior to the usual plan depending on the division 
or calibration of a comparatively short wire in the Wheatstone balance. (Ap- 
pendix D. Part II.) 

One unforeseen difficulty was caused by the change of direction of the 
earth's magnetic force dm-ing each experiment. Our method is indeed inde- 
pendent of the intensity of the earth's magnetism, but depends essentially on 
its direction, since it depends on the value of a deflection from the magnetic 
meridian. When this source of error was discovered by the continual and 
gradual change of zero observed, the absolute time of each experiment was 
noted, and a continuous correction obtained from the contemporaneous records 
at Kew, which agreed closely with the total changes observed at the beginning 
and end of each experiment. As the change of zero frequently reached three 
or four divisions in the course of the day, and as the whole deflection seldom 
exceeded 300 divisions, the importance of this correction is apparent. 

The presence of stationary masses of iron does not affect the experiments 
injuriously, so long as the uniformity of the magnetic field in which the coil 
resolves is undistui-bed — a point carefidly tested before the experiments 
began ; but a change in the position of iron in the neighbourhood during any 
expei-iment produces a corresponding error in the result, and the serious 
effect of moving very small masses of iron at a great distance from the coil 
was only fully appreciated in the later experiments. 

When it is considered that the method described is the simplest known, the 
discrepancy between the few determinations hitherto made in absolute mea- 
surement will cause no sm-prise. The time, labour, and money required 
could hardly be expected to be given by any one person, and in researches of 
this kind the value of the cooperation secured by the committees of the 
Association is especially evident. 

The absolute unit of the Sub-Committee is about eight per cent, larger than 
the unit as derived from a German-silver coil lately measured by Professor 
Weber. It is about six and a half per cent, larger than the unit as derived 
from a value published by Professor Weber of Dr. Siemens's mercury units. 
It is about five per cent, smaller than the unit as derived from coUs issued by 
Professor Thomson in 1858, based on Jacobi's standard and a previous deter- 
mination by Professor Weber. It is about five per cent, smaller than Thom- 
son's determination from Joule's sUver wire. It agrees most closely with an 
old determination of a copper standard made by Weber for Professor Thomson, 
which it exceeds by only a very small fraction. 

The experiments of the Sub-Committee agree much better than the above 
one with another. Owing to the gradual improvement in the method and 
apparatus, the experiments of the last three days are alone considered satis- 
factory. On the first day the maximum deviation in six distinct experiments 
from their mean result was 2-4 per cent. On the second day the maximum 
deviation in four experiments from their mean was 1-3 per cent. On the 
third day the maximum deviation in five experiments from their mean was 
1-15 per cent. The maximum deviation in the means of the three days' ex- 
periments from the mean of the whole is only four-tenths per cent. 

These results are not unsatisfactory, and are perhaps more accurate than 

mm REPORT 1863. 

any measurement yet made of the relative values of heat and work — a mea- 
surement corresponding to a great extent in its nature with that undertaken by 
the Committee. Nevertheless, considering the discrepancy of the various 
independent results, the Committee are of opinion that it is essential that 
the results of the Sub-Committee should be checked by a fresh series of expe- 
riments with a new coil in a distinct place, when every separate measure- 
ment wiU necessarily be repeated. The Sub-Committee especially Tirge the 
repetition of the experiments, as vrith the improvements already enume- 
rated, and other minor alterations, they confidently expect a considerably closer 
approximation to the absolute unit than they have hitherto obtained. It will be 
weUhere to remark that, according to the resolution of the Committee of 1861, 
the coils, when issued, will not be called absolute units, but the units of the 
British Association ; so that any subsequent improvement in experimental 
absolute measurement will not entail a. change in the standard, but only a 
trifling correction in those calculations which involve the correlation of the 
physical forces. 

It is now time to leave the question of absolute measurement and pass to 
some of the other points under the consideration of the Committee. Dr. 
Matthiessen has, by careful experiment, proved the permanence for a year at 
least of the electrical resistance of certain wires ; but he has detected a change 
in others, due, apparently, to the influence of time. Certain specimens of sil- 
ver, gold, and copper have varied ; but other specimens of the same metals 
have remained constant. All the specimens of platinum and gold-silver aUoy 
have remained constant, and all the specimens of German silver have changed 
considerably. It is proposed to continue and extend these experiments, and 
it is much to be hoped that the defect observed in the German silver tested 
wUl not be found common to aU the varieties of this alloy, in other respects so 
well adapted for the construction of resistance -coils. Dr. Matthiessen found 
no difference in the resistance of wires of any of the above metals before and 
after the passage of a powerful current transmitted through them continually 
for a fortnight. The details of these experiments are given in Appendix A. 
Dr. Matthiessen has also continued his experiments with the object of find- 
ing an alloy with a minimum variation of resistance due to change of tem- 
perature, but has been unable to produce a wire superior in this respect 
to the silver-platinum aUoy mentioned in Appendix A. of the Report of 
last year, as decreasing in conducting power 3-1 per cent, between 100° and 
0° Centigrade. German silver was found to decrease under the same circum- 
stances 4-4 per cent. 

The valuable experiments by Mr. Sabine, for Dr. Werner Siemens of Berlin, 
on the reproduction of standards by means of mercury, although not under- 
taken for the Committee, yet bear so directly on the subject before them that 
the results cannot be allowed to pass unmentioned. Dr. Siemens has con- 
clusively proved that he can, in his laboratory, reproduce a standard by means 
of mercury with an error of less than 0-05 per cent. This admirable result, 
while it seriously affects the question of the best material for the construction 
and reproduction of the standard, leaves, of course, the question of the best 
magnitude for the standard quite untouched. Dr. Matthiessen thinks that 
several of the solid metals are equally fitted for the purposes of reproduc- 
tion, and, if aided by the Association, is disposed to put his conviction to 
experimental proof. It is especially desirable that the various methods pro- 
posed should be tested by the concordance of the results obtained from a 
number of independent observers. 

"With reference to the construction of the material standard, it is proposed 


that the British Association units shall be represented by several equal stan- 
dards made of the different metals, which, so far as our limited experience 
goes, show the greatest signs of constancy. Two at least of those standards 
would be made of mercury, in the manner proposed by Dr. Siemens. The 
permanent agreement between several of these standards would afford the 
strongest possible proof of their constancy. 

Passing to other electrical measurements, the Committee have to report that 
Professor W. Thomson has successfully constracted a material standard gauge 
by which electromotive force or difference of potentials can be directly mea- 
sured. This instrument is founded on a measurement of the electrical attrac- 
tion exerted on a small moveable portion of a large conducting-plane by 
another large parallel plane fixed at a constant distance, and electrified to a 
different potential. The force exerted is ultimately measured by the torsion 
of a platinum wire ; but the difference of potential corresponding to any one 
gauge is simply indicated by the motion of an index to a sighted position. 
If the planes are brought sufficiently close, with a given torsion in the 
platinum -wire, the moveable piece will be in a condition of unstable equili- 
brium when its index is in the sighted position, but if moved to a greater 
distance the equilibrium wiU be stable ; hence, by a correct choice of the 
distance between the two planes, or initial torsion in the platinum wire, as 
compared with the difference of potential to be measured, any required 
deHcacy of indication is obtained. The constancy of the gauge, like that 
of all standards, depends simply on the constancy of the materials of which 
it is constructed, and there is no reason to apprehend any special difficulty 
in the present case. 

Professor Thomson has also on the same principle constructed an electro- 
meter in which the distance between the parallel planes is made variable, 
and is adjusted by a micrometer-screw. The plane conductor, of which the 
small moveable index forms part, is in this instrument permanently main- 
tained at a high potential by connexion with the inner coating of a Leyden 
jar, and the other plane is connected with the body to be tested. Calcula- 
tion, confirmed by experiment, shows that in these instruments the difference 
of potentials between any two bodies, successively tested, is directly pro- 
portional to the difference of the distances between the parallel planes 
required in each case to bring the index to its sighted position. This 
difference of distance is the same whatever be the charge of the Leyden 
jar, provided only it remains constant during the comparison of the two 
bodies. With this limitation, the indications of the instrument may be 
called independent of the charge of the Leyden jar. There can be little 
doubt that gauges of electromotive force and electrometers, fulfilling the 
above conditions, will shortly become as necessary to all practical electricians 
as standards of resistance and sets of resistance-coils. 

No progress has been made in the measurement of currents, and much 
remains to be done in this respect. The method already described, depending on 
the use of a tangent galvanometer, requires a knowledge of the horizontal force 
of the earth's magnetism, and is, therefore, in most cases beyond the reach of 
observers where greater accuracy is required than can be obtained by taking 
their value from the scientific almanacs. Next year it is hoped that this 
want may be remedied, and the present Report may fitly conclude by the 
enumeration of objects to be pursued by the Committee, if reappointed at the 
present Meeting : — 

Ist. The experiments on the determination of the absolute unit of resist- 
ance will be continued. 

124 REPORT— 1863. 

2nd. Immediately on the conclusion of these experiments, equal standards, 
constructed of such metals as promise the greatest constancy, will be depo- 
sited at Kew, where the permanence of theii- equahty will be rigorously tested. 

3rd. Unit resistance-coils of the best known construction will be issued to 
the public. 

4th. The experiments already begun on the permanence of the electrical 
resistance of wires and alloys under various circumstances wiU be continued 
and extended. 

5th. The experiments on the reproduction of standards by chemical means 
will be continued. 

6th. Experiments on the best construction of gauges of electromotive force 
or difference of potential, and on electrometers, v.'iR be continued. 

7th. A standard galvanometer, for the measurement of currents in absolute 
measure, wiU be constructed, and electro-dynamometers for the same purpose 
compared with the standard instrument, and issued to the public. 

8th. Experiments on the ratio between the electrostatic units and the 
electromagnetic units will be undertaken. 

9th. Experiments will be made on the development of heat in conductors 
of known absolute resistance with currents of known absolute magnitude. 
The resixlts of this experiment will give, by equation (3), a new and very 
acciurate detennination of the mechanical value of the imit of heat. 

The conclusion of the experiments on absolute resistance, and the adoption 
of the absolute system as the basis of aU electrical measm-emeut, will, it is 
hoped, allow considerable progress to be made in most of these researches. 

I Cut from the same piece ; pure. 

Appendix A. — On tJie Electrical Permanency of Metals and Alloys. 

By A. Matthiessen, F.R.S. 

The following are the results obtained with the metals and alloys described 

in Appendix B. of the Report on Standards of Electrical Resistance by your 

Committee : — 

The wires to be experimented on were — 

1. Silver: hard drawn 

2. Silver : annealed 

3. Silver : hard-drawn 1 Cut from the same piece, but different 

4. Silver : annealed | from 1 and 2 ; pm-e. 

5. Copper : hard-drawn 1 q^^ f^om the same piece ; pure. 

6. Copper: annealed J _ 

7. Copper : hard-drawn ] Cut from the same piece, but different 

8. Copper : annealed J from 5 and 6 ; pure. 

9. Gold : hard-di-awn 1 q^^ from the same piece ; pure. 

10. Gold: annealed J . ,.,.«. 

11. Gold: hard-di-awn 1 Cut from the same piece, but different 

12! Gold ": annealed ..!!!!."... | from 9 and 10 ; pure. 

13. Platinum : hard-drawn XcvA from the same piece ; commercial. 

14. Platinum: hard-di'awn .... J 

15. Gold-silver alloy : hard-di'awn 1 Cut from same piece. Made by Messrs. 

16. Gold-silver alloy : hard-drawn J Johnson and Matthey. 

'Cut from the same piece. No. 19 ar- 
ranged with longer connectors, and 
used as normal wire with which the 
rest were compared. 

These were first tested on May 9th, 1862, and at intervals between that 

17. German silver : annealed 

18. German silver : annealed 

19. German silver : annealed 



date and June 14th, 1863, when they were last tested. During the time 
when not used, they were hung up in a room where in the winter a fire was 
kept all day, so that the temperature may have varied at times some 10 or 
12 degrees in the twenty-four hours. 

The following Table contains the results of the first and last comparisons. 
I have taken the conducting power in the first in all cases equal to 100 as 
compared with No. 19 ; in the last I have assumed that the conducting 
power of No. 15 has remained imaltered : — 

Conducting powers foimd, as 
compared with No. 19= 100. 


power found, as 

compared mth 

No. 15=100. 




May 9, 


June 14, 



1 . Silver : hard-drawn 



























2. Silver: annealed 


3. Silver : hard-drawn 

4. Silver : annealed 

5. Copper : hard-drawn 

6. Copper: annealed 

7. Copper: hard-drawn 

8. Copper: annealed 

9. Grold : hard-drawn 

10. Gold: annealed 

11. Gold: hard-drawn 

12. Gold: annealed 

13. Platinum: hard-drawn 

14. Platinum: hard-di-awn 

15. Gold-silver alloy : hard-drawn 

16. Gold-silver alloy : hard-drawn 

1 7. German silver : annealed 

18. German silver : annealed 

19. German silver : annealed 

From the above it would appear that if the conducting power of No. 19 
has remained constant, that of aU the others has altered ; but supposing 
such to be the case, it wiU be foiuid on comparing the values that the con- 
ducting powers have all altered in a like extent. Is this probable ? Is it 
not more probable that the conducting power of the German silver has 
changed, than that that of aU the others should have altered in the same 
degree ? If that or the gold-silver aUoy, No. 15, be called 100-00 instead of 
99-793, then, as wiU be seen from column 3, very few show any change in 
their conducting power. Those which show no sensible change are as follows :- 

Values taken from column 3. 

No. 2. Silver : annealed 99-9-17 

No. 4. Silver : annealed 100-031 

No. 6. Copper: annealed 100-015 

No. 9. Gold : hard-di-awn 100-045 

No. 10. Gold: annealed 100-062 

No. 13. Platinum : hard-drawn 99-951 

No. 14. Platinum : hard-drawn 99-999 

No. 15. Gold-silver alloy : hard-drawn . . 100-000 

No. 16. Gold-silver alloy : hard-drawn . . 99-963 

126 REPORT--1863. 

The differences in the above are probably due to temperature ; for as the 
wires are in tubes filled with carbonic-acid gas, we can never be absolutely 
sure that wire has exactly the same temperature as the bath. In properly 
made resistance-coils this source of error is materially diminished, and in 
some experiments which are about to be made to further test the electrical 
permanency of metals and alloys this source of error will be almost entirely 
obviated. It may be here again mentioned, that the reason of placing the 
wires in glass tubes filled with carbonic-acid gas was to obviate the oxidation 
of the metal or alloy by the oxygen of the air, or from the acids produced by 
the oxidation of the oil or fat with which the wires are covered when drawn, 
as the holes in the draw-plates are generally oiled or greased, &c. 

Those whose conducting power has changed are as follows : — 

Values taken from column 3. 

No. 1. Silver: hard-drawn 103-915 

No. 3. Silver : hard-drawn 102-807 

No. 5. Copper : hard-drawn 100-248 

No. 7. Copper: hard-drawn 100-149 

No. 8. Copper : annealed 95-556 

No. 11. Gold : hard-di-awn 99-869 

No. 12. Gold : annealed 99-877 

No. 17. German silver : annealed , 100-162 

No. 18. German silver: annealed 100-145 

No. 19. German silver : annealed 100-217. 

The cause of the change in the conducting powers of the alloys Nos. 1, 3, 
5, 7 is undoubtedly due to their becoming somewhat annealed by age*. With 
No. 8 the alteration may be attributed to favdty soldering. That the con- 
ducting power of the German silver experimented with has altered is not a 
proof that all German silver will do so ; for we find the gold wires Nos. 9 and 
10 not altered, but Nos. 11 and 12 (which were cut from the same piece, 
but of a different one from the one from which Nos. 9 and 10 were taken) 
have altered. Further experiments are, however, required to prove whether 
the metals and alloys given above as constant in their conducting power 
are so or not. 

Schroder van der Kolk states f that the conducting power of copper -wire 
undergoes a change when even weak currents are allowed to pass through it. 
In order to see whether that of the above wires would suffer any change, 
the following experiment was arranged: — Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17 
were connected together, and a current from two Bunsen's cells was allowed 
to pass through them day and night for six days. The cells were cleaned 
every morning and evening, and the dilute sulphuric acid renewed. The ex- 
periment was carried out soon after, June 14, 1863. In the subjoined Table 
the conducting powers are given as found before and after the trial, com- 
pared with No. 19. 

Conducting power obserTed, as compared 

with No. 19=100. 

No. 1 103-700 

No. 2 99-740 

No. 5 100-040 

No. 6 99-807 

No. 9 99-838 

No. 10 99-855 

* Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1862, p. 139. t ^ogg. Ann. 110, 452. 























No. 13 99-744 20-2 99-766 20-2 

No. 15 99-793 20-2 99-762 20-2 

No. 17 99-955 200 99-926 20-2 

From the above numbers it wiU be seen that the conducting power has not 
changed, the differences in the values being in all probability due, as above 
stated, to temperature. 

K the passage of a current really altered the conducting power of a wire, 
then of what use would resistance- coils be ? The above experiments prove 
that a much stronger current than is used for testing the resistance of a wire 
has no effect on it. 

Appendix B. — On the Variation of the Electric Resistance of Alloys due to 
Change of Temperature. By A. Matthiessen, F.R.S. 

In the Appendix to the Eeport of your Committee read at the Meeting 
held last year, I gave a Table containing the results of experiments with 
some alloys, made with a view to find out the alloy whose conducting power 
decreases with an increase of temperature in the smallest degree. With the 
same apparatus, <fec., I have, in conjunction with Dr. C. Vogt, experimented 
vrith the following alloys. 

(With each series the formula deduced from the observations for the cor- 
rection of the conducting power for temperature is given, where \ is equal 
to the conducting power at the temperature t° C. Silver (hard-drawn) is 
taken at 0° = 100.) 

Composition of alloy by weight. 

(1) Gold 95-3 

Iron 4-7 

Made from pure metals. 


Length 226 mm. ; diameter 0-470 mm, 
T. Conducting power. 

120 2-3573 

56-0 2-3138 

100-0 2-2798 

(2) Gold 95-0 

Iron 5-0 


X=2-3708— 0-0011555<+0-000002454<=. 

Length 284 mm. j diameter 1-217 mm. 

T. . Conducting power. 
15-0 2-0819 

57-5 2-0424 

100-0 2-0067 

This and the two following alloys were made by Messrs. Johnson and 
Matthey. No. 2 was made to check the results obtained with No. 1 ; for 
those given with Nos. 3 and 4 appeared to show that some mistake had been 
made with No. 1. That this was not the case is proved by No. 2. It is, how- 
ever, a very curious fact that the percentage decrement increases in this 
manner, for in no other series of aUoys has this behaviour been noticed. Its 
cause may be attributed to the existence of chemical combinations in the 
solid alloys of gold and iron. 

Nos. 3 and 4 are very brittle, and therefore difficult to draw. 

(3) Gold .. 
Iron . . 
Hard- drawn. 


Length 184 mm. 

; diameter 0-943 mm. 



Conducting power. 









REPORT 1863. 


Gold . . 
Iron . . 


Length 145 mm. 




: diameter 0-758 mm. 
Conducting power. 





Length 520 mm. 




; diameter 0-802 mm. 
Conducting power. 




(5) Silver 75-0 

Palladium 25-0 

Made by Messrs. Johnson and 


X=S-51.52-0-0027644<— 0-000001313<-. 

This alloy was formerly used by dentists on account of its elasticity, 
was tested, as it appeared to answer some of the conditions required. 


(6) Copper 63-3 

Zinc 30-7 

Made from pure metals. 

Length 296-6 mm.; diameter 0-576 mm. 

X=22-274— 0-030601<+0-00002980<\ 

Conducting power. 

(7) Copper 


Made from pure metals. 


X=22-076— 0-028100* -|-0-00002945f'. 

Length 190 mm. ; diameter 0-381 mm. 

Conducting power. 

These alloys are given, as they approach in composition to that of brass. 
It seemed very desirable to test the influence of temperature on the aUoy, aa 
it was proposed by Jacobi as a unit of electric resistance. 

(8) Copper 90-3 

Tin 9-7 

Made from pure metals. 

Length 322-5 mm. 

; diameter 0-524 mm. 
Conducting power. 











(9) Copper 89-7 

Tin 10-3 

Made from pure metals. 

Length 429 mm. 



; diameter 0-627 mm. 
Conducting power. 



These alloys are given, as they approach in composition to that of ordinary 


(10) Gun-metal (Austrian). 

Length 904-5 mm. j diameter 0-650 mm. 


Conducting power 







A specimen ohtained through 
the kindness of Mr. F. Abel. 

X=27-084— 0-058750<-|-0-00009116t*. 

The conducting power of this alloy increased by heating to 100° for one 
day 5-7 per cent. — a larger increment than has been observed with any alloy. 
Generally, the conducting power of an aUoy either remains constant or only 
varies 0-1 or 0-2 per cent, under the same conditions. 

Length 1564 mm. 

\ = 72-548- 0-24692< -I- 0-0005531<\ 


Proof gold. 

diameter 0-525 mm. 
Conducting power, 





Standard silver. 
Hard- drawn. 

Length 2328 mm. ; diameter 0-525 mm. 


-0-221 96<-|-0-0003.518<\ 

Conducting power. 

In the following Table I have given the results here obtained, with those 
of last year, in such a manner that they may be easily compared : — 

Pure iron* 

Pure thallium* 

Other pure metals in a solid state 
Gold, with 15 p.c. ii'on 

Proof gold . 

Standard silver 

Gun-metal (Austrian) 

Gold, with 10 p.c. iron 

Gold, -n-ith 14-3 p.c. silver and 7-4 p.c. copper 

Copper, wdth 36-7 p.c. zinc 

Copper, with 25 p.c. zinc 

at 0°. 




Percentage de- 
crement in con- 
ducting power 
between 0°& 100° 













* Proc. Roy. Sop. xii. 472, ISO".. 


REPORT 1863. 

Table (^continued). 

Silver, with 5 p.c. platinum* 

Silver, with 9-8 p.c. platinum* 

Copper, with 9-7 p.c. tin 

The gold-silver alloy* 

Platmum, with 33-4 p.c. iridium 

Copper, with 10-3 p.c. tin 

Gold, with 18-1 p.c. silver and 15-4 p.c. copper* 
Gold, with 15-2 p.c. silver and 26-5 p.c. copper^ 

German silver* 

Gold, with 5 p.c. iron 

Gold, with 4-7 p.c. iron 

Silver, with 25 p.c. palladium 

Silver, with 33-4 p.c. platinum f 

It win he ohserved that I have not yet been able to find an alloy whose 
conducting power decreases between 0° and 100° less than that of the alloy of 
silver with 33-4 p.c. platinum ; and from results obtained in this direction 
in conjunction with Dr. Vogt, I am of opinion there wiU be great difficulty 
in doing so. We have already tested upwards of 100 alloys, and it is curious 
how few we have found whose conducting power varies less than that of Ger- 
man silver between 0° and 100°. 



Percentage de- 
crement in con- 
ducting power 
between 0°& 100° 


























Appendix C. — Chi ilie Elementary Relations letiveen Electrical Measurements. 
By Professor J. Cierk Max-\vell and Mr. Fleeming Jenkin. 

Part I. — Introductory. 

1. Objects of Treatise. — The progress and extension of the electric telegraph, 
has made a practical knowledge of electric and magnetic phenomena necessary 
to a large number of persons who arc more or less occupied in the construc- 
tion and working of the lines, and interesting to many others who are un- 
willing to be igiiorant of the use of the network of wires which surrounds 
them. The discoveries of Yolta and Galvani, of Oersted, and of Faraday are 
familiar in the mouths of all who talk of science, while the results of those 
discoveries are the foundation of branches of industry conducted by many 
who have perhaps never heard of those illustrious names. Between the 
student's mere knowledge of the history of discovery and the workman's 
practical famiharity with particular operations which can only be commmii-- 
cated to others by direct imitation, we are in want of a set of rules, or rather 
principles, by which the laws remembered in their abstract form can be 
applied to estimate the forces required to effect any given practical result. 

We may be called on to construct electrical apparatus for a particular 
purpose. In order to know how many cells are required for the battery, and 
of what size they should be, we require to know the strength of current 
required, the electromotive force of the cells, and the resistance of the circuit. 
If we know the results of previous scientific inquiry, and are acquainted with 
the method of adapting them to the case before us, we may discover the 
proper arrangement at once. If we ai-e unable to make any estimate of what 
is reqiiired before constructing the apparatus, we may have to encounter 

* Proc. Eoy. Soe. xii. 472, 1863. 

t Brit. Assoc. Eeport, 1862, p. 137. 


numerous failures which might have been avoided if we had known how to 
make a proper use of existing data. 

All exact knowledge is founded on the comparison of one quantity with 
another. In many experimental researches conducted by single individuals, 
the absolute values of those quantities are of no importance ; but whenever 
many persons are to act together, it is necessary that they should have a 
common understanding of the measures to be employed. The object of the 
present treatise is to assist in attaining this common understanding as to 
electrical measiu'cments. 

2. Derivation of Units from fundamental Standards. — ^Every distinct kind 
of quantity requires a standard of its own, and these standards might be 
chosen quite independently of each other, and in many cases have been so 
chosen ; but it is possible to deduce all standards of quantity from the 
fundamental standards adopted for length, time, and mass ; and it is of great 
scientific and practical importance to deduce them from these standards in 
a systematic manner. Thus it is easy to understand what a square foot is 
when we know what a linear foot is, or to find the number of cubic feet in a 
room from its length, breadth, and height ; because the foot, the square foot, 
and the cubic foot are parts of the same system of units. But the pint, 
gallon, &c., form another set of measures of volume which has been formed 
without reference to the system based on length; and in order to reduce 
the one set of nmnbers to the other, we have to multiply by a troublesome 
fraction, difficult to remember, and therefore a fruitful source of error. 

The varieties of weights and measures which formerly prevailed in this 
country, when different measures were adopted for different kinds of goods, 
may be taken as an example of the principle of unsystematized standards, 
while the modern French system, in which everything is derived from the 
elementary standards, exhibits the simplicitj" of the systematic arrangement. 

In the opinion of the most practical and the most scientific men, a system 
in which every unit is derived from the primary units with decimal subdivi- 
sions is the best whenever it can be introduced. It is easily learnt; it 
renders calculation of all kinds simpler ; it is more readily accepted by the 
world at large ; and it bears the stamp of the authority, not of this or that 
legislator or man of science, but of nature. 

The phenomena by which electricity is known to us are of a mechanical 
kind, and therefore they must be measured by mechanical units or standards. 
Om- task is to explain how these units may be derived from the elementary 
ones ; in other words, we shall endeavour to show how all electric phenomena 
may be measured in terms of time, mass, and space only, referring briefly in 
each case to a practical method of effecting the observation. 

3. Standard Mechanical Units. — In this country the standard of length is 
one yard, but a foot is the imit popularly adopted. In France it is the ten 
millionth part of the distance from the pole to the equator, measured along 
the earth's surface, according to the calculations of Delambre, and this mea- 
sure is caUed a metre, and is equal to 3-280899 feet, or 39-37079 inches. 

The standard unit of time in all civilized countries is deduced from the time 
of rotation of the earth about its axis. The sidereal day, or the true period 
of rotation of the earth, can be ascertained with, great exactness by the ordi- 
nary observations of astronomers ; and the mean solar day can be deduced 
from this by our knowledge of the length of the year. The unit of time 
adopted in all physical researches is one second of mean solar time. 

The standard unit of mass is in this country the avoirdupois pound, as we 
received it from our ancestors. The grain is one 7000th of a pound. In the 


133 REPORT— 1863. 

Prench system it is tho gramme derived from the unit of length, by the 
use of water at a standard temperature as a standard of density. One cubic 
centimetre of water is a gramme=15-43235 grains = -00220462 lbs. 

A table, showing the relative value of the standard and derived units in the 
British and metrical system, is given in § 55. 

The unit of force adopted in this treatise is that force which will produce 
a unit of velocity in a free unit mass, by acting on it during a unit of time. 
This unit of force is equal to the weight of the unit mass divided by g, 
where g is the accelerating force of gravity 

=32-088 (1 + 0-005133 sin= X) in British units 1 at the level of the 
or =9-78024 (1 + 0-005133 sin- \) in metrical units J sea, 

\ being the latitude of the place of observation. A unit of force still very 
generally adopted is the weight of the standard mass. The value of the new 

unit is - times the old or gravitation imit. 

The unit of work ado])ted in this treatise is the unit of force, defined as 
above, acting through the unit of space {vide § 55). 

4. Dimensions of Derived Units. — Every measurement of which we have to 
speak involves as factors measurements of time, space, and mass only ; but 
these measurements enter sometimes at one power, and sometimes at another. 
In passing from one set of fundamental units to another, and for other piu-- 
poscs, it is useful to know at what power each of these fundamental measure- 
ments enters into the derived measure. 

Thus the value of a force is directly proportional to a length and a mass, 
but inversely proportional to the square of a time. This is expressed by 

saying that the dimensions of a force are -— - ; in other words, if we wish to 
pass from the English to the Erench system of measurements, the French 
unit of force will be to the English as 3-28 x lo-43 . ^^ ^^ ^^ -^.^ ^^ ^ . ^^_ 

caiise there are 3-28 feet in a metre, and 15-43 grains in a gramme. If the 
minute were chosen as the unit of time, the unit of force would, in either 

system, be -=-—^ of that founded on the second as unit. 

A table of the dimensions of every unit adopted in the present treatise is 

given in § 55. 

Part II. — TuE MEAsrEEMENT of Magitetic Phenomena. 

5. Magnets and Magnetic Poles. — Certain natural bodies, as the iron ore 
called loadstone, the earth itself, and pieces of steel after being subjected to 
certain treatment, are found to possess the following properties, and are 
called magnets. 

If one of these bodies be free to turn in any direction, the presence of 
another will cause it to set itself in a position which is conveniently described 
or defined by reference to certain imaginary lines occupying a fixed position 
in the two bodies, and called their magnetic axes. One object of our magnetic 
measurements will be to determine the force which one magnet exerts upon 
another. It is found by experiment that the greatest manifestation of force 
exerted by one long thin magnet on another occurs very near the ends of the 
two bars, and that the two ends of any one long thin magnet possess opposite 
qualities. This peculiarity has caused the name of " poles "' to be given to 


the ends of long magnets ; and this conception of a magnet, as having two 
poles capable of exerting opposite forces joined by a bar exerting no force, is 
so ranch the most familiar that we shall not hesitate to employ it, especially 
as many of the properties of magnets may be correctly expressed in this way ; 
but it must be borne in mind, in speaking of poles, that they do not really 
exist as points or centres of force at the ends of the bar, except in the case of 
long, iniinitely thin, imiformly magnetized rods. 

If we mark the poles of any two magnets which possess similar qualities, 
we find that the two marked poles repel each other, that two unmarked poles 
also repel each other ; but that a marked and an unmarked pole attract each 
other. The pole which is repelled from the northern regions of the earth is 
called a positive pole ; the other end the negative pole. The negative pole is 
generall}- marked N" by British instrument-makers, and is sometimes called 
the north pole of the magnet, whereas it is obviously similar to the earth's 
south pole. 

The strength of a pole is necessarily defined as proportional to the force it 
is capable of exerting on any other pole. Hence the force / exerted between 
two poles of the strengths m and m^ must be proportional to the product m m^. 
The force, /, is also found to be inversely proportional to the square of the 
distance, D, separating the poles, and to depend on no other quantity ; hence 
we have, unless an absurd and useless coefficient be introduced, 

/='-^ (1) 

From which equation it follows that the unit pole will be that which at rmit 
distance repels another similar pole with unit force ; / wUl be an attraction 
or a repulsion according as the poles are of opposite or the same kinds. The 

dimensions of the imit magnetic pole are — = — • 

6. Magnetic Field. — It is clear that the presence of a magnet in some way 
modifies the surrounding space, since any other magnet brought into that 
space experiences a peculiar force. The neighbourhood of a magnet is, for 
convenience, called a magnetic field ; and for the same reason the effect pro- 
duced by a magnet is often spoken of as due to the magnetic field, instead of 
to the magnet itself. This mode of expression is the more proper, inasmuch 
as the same or a similar condition of space may be produced by the passage 
of electrical currents in the neighbourhood, without the presence of a magnet. 
Since the peculiarity of the magnetic field consists in the presence of a certain 
force, we may numerically express the properties of the field by measuring 
the strength and direction of the force, or, as it may be worded, the intensity 
of the field and the dii'ection of the lines of force. 

This direction at any point is the direction in which the force tends to move 
a free pole ; and the intensity, H, of the field is necessarily defined as propor- 
tional to the force,/, with which it acts on a free pole ; but this force,/, is also 
proportional to the strength, m, of the pole introduced into the field, and it 
depends on no other quantities ; hence 

/=mH, (2) 

and therefore the field of unit intensity wiU be that which acts with unit 
force on the unit pole. 

The dimensions of H are 

The lines of force produced by a long thin bar-magnet near its poles wiU 

134 REPORT — 1863. 

radiate from the poles, and the intensity of the field will be equal to the 
quotient of the strength of the pole divided by the square of the distance 
from the pole ; thus the unit field will be produced at the unit distance from 
the unit pole. In a uniform magnetic field the lines of force, as may be 
demonstrated, will be parallel ; such a field can only be produced by special 
combinations of magnets, but a small field at a great distance from any one 
pole wiU be sensibly imiform. Thus, in any room imafi'ected by the neigh- 
bourhood of iron or magnets, the magnetic field due to the earth will be 
sensibly iinifonn ; its direction will be that assumed by the dipping-needle. 

7. Magnetic Moment. — In reality we can never have a single pole entirely 
free or disconnected from its opposite pole, and it is time to pass to the con- 
sideration of the eff'ect produced on a material bar-magnet in a magnetic field. 
In a uniform field two equal opposite and parallel forces act on its poles, and 
tend to set it with the line joining those poles in the dij-ection of the force of 
the field. When the magnet is so placed that the line joining the poles is at 
right angles to the lines of force in the field, this tendency to turn or " couple," 
G, is proportional to the intensity of the field, H, the strength of the poles, in, 
and the distance between them, I ; or 

G=mm (3) 

ml, or the product of the strength of the poles into the length between them, 
is called the magnetic moment of the magnet ; and from equation (3) it follows 
that, in a field of unit intensity, the couple actually experienced by any 
magnet in the above position measures its moment. The dimensions of the 

unit of magnetic moment are evidently — — — • 

8. Intensity of Magnetization. — The intensity of magnetization of a magnet 
may be measured by its magnetic moment divided by its volume. 

The dimensions of the unit of magnetization are therefore — t- , 

the same as in the case of intensity of field. 

9. Coefficient of Magnetic Induction. — -"When certain bodies, such as soft 
iron, &c., are placed in the magnetic field, they become magnetized by " induc- 
tion " ; so that the intensity of magnetization is (except when great) nearly 
proportional to the intensity of the field. 

In diamag-netic bodies, such as bismuth, the direction of magnetization is 
opposite to that of the field. In paramagnetic bodies, such as iron, nickel, &c., 
the direction of magnetization is the same as that of the field. 

The coefiicient of magnetic induction is the ratio of the intensity of mag- 
netization to the intensity of the field, and is therefore a numerical quantity, 
positive for paramagnetic bodies, negative for diamagnetic bodies. 

10. Magnetic Potentials and Ec[uipotential Surfaces.— li we take a very 
long magnet, and, keeping one pole well out of the way, move the other pole 
from one point to another of the magnetic field, we shall find that the forces 
in the field do work on the pole, or that they act as a resistance to its motion, 
according as the motion is with or contrary to the force acting on the pole. 
If the pole moves at right angles to the force, no work is done. 

The magnetic potenticd at any point in a magnetic field is measured by the 
work done by the magnetic forces on a unit pole during its motion from an 
infinite distance from the magnet producing the field to the point in question, 
supposing the unit pole to exercise no influence on the magnetic field in 
question. The idea of potential as a mathematical quantity having different 


values at different points of space, was brought into form by Laplace*. The 
name of potential, and the application to a great number of electric and 
magnetic investigations, were introduced by George Green, in his Essay on 
Electricity (Nottingham, 1828). 

An equipotential surface in a magnetic field is a surface so drawn, that the 
potential of all its points shall be equal. By drawing a series of equipotential 

surfaces corresponding to potentials 1, 2, 3 7i, we may map out 

any magnetic field, so as to indicate its properties. 

The magnetic force at any point is perpendicular to the equipotential sur- 
face at that point, and its intensity is the reciprocal of the distance between 
one surface and the next at that point. The dimensions of the unit of mag- 

netic potential are — = — 

11. Lines of Magnetic Force. — There is another way of exploring the 
magnetic field, and indicating the direction and magnitude of the force at 
any point. The conception and application of this method in aU its com- 
pleteness is due to Faraday f. The fuU importance of this method cannot be 
recognized till we come to electromagnetic phenomena (§§ 22, 23, & 24). 

A line, whose direction at any point always coincides with that of the force 
acting on the pole of a magnet at that point, is called a line of magnetic force. 
By drawing a suiBcient number of such lines, we may indicate the direc- 
tion of the force in every part of the magnetic field ; but by drawing them 
according to rule, we may indicate the intensity of the force at any point 
as well as its direction. It has been shown J that if, in any part of 
their course, the number of lines passing through unit of area is proportional 
to the intensity there, the same proportion between the number of lines in 
unit of area and the intensity will hold good in every part of the course of 
the lines. 

All that we have to do, therefore, is to space out the lines in any part of 
their course, so that the number of lines which start from unit of area is 
equal to the number representing the intensity of the field there. The 
intensity at any other part of the field will then be measured by the number 
of lilies which pass through unit of area there ; each line indicates a constant 
and equal force. 

12. Relation between Lines of Force and Equipotential Surfaces. — The lines 
of force are always perpendicular to the equipotential surfaces ; and the 
number of lines passing through unit of area of an equipotential sxirface is 
the reciprocal of the distance between that equipotential surface and the next 
in order-^a statement made above in slightly difi"erent language. 

In a uniform field the hues of force are straight, parallel, and equi- 
distant ; and the equipotential surfaces are planes perpendicular to the lines 
of force, and equidistant from each other. 

If one magnetic pole of strength m be alone in the field, its lines of 
force are straight Unes, radiating from the pole equally in all directions ; 
and their number is 4:Trm. The equipotential surfaces are a series of spheres, 
whose centres are at the pole, and whose radii are m, ^m, ^m, ^m, &c. In 
other magnetic arrangements these lines and surfaces are more complicated, 
but in all cases the calculation is simple ; and in many cases the lines and 
surfaces can be graphically constructed without any calculation. 

* Mecanique Celeste, liv. iii. 

+ Experimental Eesearches, vol. iii. art. 3122 et passim. 

X Vide Maxwell on Faraday's Lines of Force, Cambridge Phil. Trans. 1857. 

136 REPORT — 1863. 

Part ITI.- — Measttremejtt of Electric Phenomena bt their Electbo- 

MAGNETic Effects. 

13. Preliminary. — Before treating of electrical measurements, the exact 
meaning in -wliich the words " quantity," " current," " electromotive force," 
and " resistance" are used mil be explained. But, in giving these explana- 
tions, we shall assume the reader to be acquainted with the meaning of such 
expressions as conductor, insulator, voltaic battery, &c. 

14. Meaning of the ivords " Electric Quantity.'"- — When two light conduct- 
ing bodies are connected with the same pole of a voltaic battery, while the 
other pole is connected with the earth, they may be observed to repel one 
another. The two poles produce equal and similar effects. "WTien the two 
bodies are connected with opposite poles, they attract one another. Bodies, 
when in a condition to exert this pecidiar force one on the other, are said to 
be electrified, or charged with electricit)-. These words arc mere names given 
to a peculiar condition of matter. If a piece of glass and a piece of resin are 
rubbed together, tlie glass will be found to be in the same condition as an 
insulated body connected with the copper pole of the battery, and the resin 
in the same condition as the body connected with the zinc pole of the 
battery. The former is said to be positively, and the latter negatively 
electrified. The propriety of this antithesis wiU soon appear. The force with 
which one electrified body acts on another, even at a constant distance, varies 
with different ch-cumstances. When the force between the two bodies at a 
constant distance, and se2)arated by air, is observed to increase, it is said to 
be duo to an increase in the quantity of electricity ; and the quantity at any 
spot is defined as proportional to the force with which it acts, through air, on 
some other constant quantity at a distance. If two bodies, charged each 
with a given quantity of electricity, are incorporated, the single body thus 
composed will be charged with the sum of the two quantities. It is this fact 
which justifies the use of the word '• quantity." 

Thus the quality in virtue of which a body exerts the peculiar force 
described is called electricity, and its quantity is measured (cceteris paribus) 
by measuring force. 

The quantity thus defined produced on two similar balls similarly circum- 
stanced, but connected mth opposite poles of a voltaic battery, is equal, but 
opposite ; so that the sum of these two equal and opposite quantities is zero ; 
hence the conception of positive and negative quantities. 

In speaking of a quantity of electricity, we need not conceive it as a sepa- 
rate thing, or entity distinct from ponderable matter, any m.ore than in 
speaking of sound we conceive it as having a distinct existence. Still it is 
convenient to speak of the intensity or velocity of sound, to avoid tedious 
circumlocution ; and quite similarly we may speak of electricity, without for 
a moment imagining that any real electric fluid exists. 

The laws according to which the force described varies, as the shape of the 
conductors, their combinations, and their distances are varied, have been 
established by Coulomb, Poissou, Green, W. Thomson, and others. These 
will be found accurately described, independently of all hypothesis, in papers 
by Professor W. Thomson, published in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal, 
vol. i. p. 75 (1846), and a scries of papers in 1848 and 1849. 

15. Meaning of tlie words " Electric Ourrent." — ~V\Tien two balls charged by 
the opposite poles of a battery, mth opposite and equal quantities of elec- 
tricity, are joined by a conductor, they lose in a very short time their pecu- 
liar properties, and assume a neutral condition intermediate between the 


positive and negative states, exhibiting no electrical symptoms whatever, and 
hence described as unelectrilied, or containing no electricity. But, during the 
first moment of their junction, the conductor is found to possess certain new 
and peculiar properties : any one part of the conductor exerts a force upon 
any other part of the conductor; it exerts a force on any magnet in the 
neighbourhood ; and if any part of the conductor be formed by one of those 
compound bodies called electrolytes, a certain portion of this body will be 
decomposed. These peculiar effects are said to be due to a current of elec- 
tricity in the conductor. The j'ositive quantity, or excess, is conceived as 
flowing into the deficiency caused by the negative quantity ; so that the whole 
combination is reduced to the neutral condition. This neutral condition is 
similar to that of the earth where the experiment is tried. If the balls are 
continually recharged by the battery, and discharged or neutralized by the 
wire, a rapid succession of the so-called ciirrents vrHl be sent ; and it is 
found that the force with which a magnet is deflected by this rapid si;cees- 
sion of currents is proportional (cceteris parihus) to the quantity of electricity 
passed through the coiiductor or neutralized per second ; it is also found that 
the amount of chemical action, measured by the weights of the bodies decom- 
posed, is proportional to the same quantity. The currents just described are 
intermittent ; but a wire or conductor, used simply to join the two poles of a 
batter}-, acquires permanently the same properties as when used to discharge 
the balls as above with great rapidity ; and the greater the rapidity with 
Avhich the balls are discharged, the more perfect the similarity of the con- 
dition of the ware in the two cases. The wire in the latter case is therefore 
said to convey a permanent current of electricity, the magnitude or strength 
of which is defined as proportional to the quantity conveyed per second. 
This definition is expressed by the equation 

G=% (4) 

where C is the current, Q the quantity, and t the time. A permanent current 
flowing through a wire may be measured by the force which it exerts on a 
magnet ; the actual quantity it conveys may be obtained by comparing this 
force with the force exerted under otherwise similar conditions, when a 
known quantity is sent through the same wire by discharges. The strength 
of a permanent current is found at any one time to be equal in all parts of 
the conductor. Conductors conveying currents exert a peculiar force one 
upon another ; and during their increase or decrease they produce currents 
in neighbouring conductors. (Similar effects are produced as they approach 
or recede from neighbouring conductors. The laws according to which 
currents act upon magnets and upon one another wUl be found in the writings 
of Ampere and Weber. 

16. Meaning of the words " Electromotive Force.'" — Hitherto we have spoken 
simply of statical effects ; but it is found that a current of electricity, as above 
defined, cannot exist without effecting work or its equivalent. Thus it 
either heats the conductor, or raises a weight, or magnetizes soft iron, or 
effects chemical decomposition ; in fine, in some shape it effects work, and 
this work bears a definite relation to the current. Work done presupposes 
a force in action. The immediate force producing a current, or, in other 
words, causing the transfer of a certain quantity of electricity, is called an 
electromotive force. This force Ls necessarily assumed as ultimately due to 
that part of a circuit where a " degradation " or consumption of energy takes 
place : thus we speak of the electromotive force of the voltaic or thermo- 

138 REPORT— 1863. 

electric couple ; but the term is also used independently of the source of 
power, to express the fact that, however caused, a certain force tending to do 
work by setting electricity in motion does, under certain cii'cumstances, 
exist between two points of a conductor or between two separate bodies. But 
equal quantities of electricity transferred in a given time do not necessarily or 
usually produce equal amounts of work ; and the electromotive force between 
two points, the proximate cause of the work, is defined as proportional to the 
amount of work done between those points when a given quantity of elec- 
tricity is transferred from one point to another. Thus if, with equal currents 
in two distinct conductors, the work done in the one is double that done in 
the second in the same time, the electromotive force in the first case is said 
to be double that in the second ; but if the work done in two circuits is 
found strictly proportional to the two cm-rents, the electromotive force acting 
on the two currents is said to be the same. Defined in this way, the electro- 
motive force of a voltaic battery is found to be constant so long as the 
materials of which it is formed remain in a similar or constant condition. 
The above definitions, in mathematical language, give W=EC^, 

where E is the electromotive force, and W the work done. Thus the elec- 
tromotive force producing a current in a conductor is equal to the ratio 
between the work done in the unit of time and the current effecting the 
work. This conception of the relations of work, electromotive force, current, 
and quantity will be aided by the following analogy : — A quantity of elec- 
tricity may be compared to a quantity or given mass of water ; cm-rents of 
water in pipes in which equal quantities passed each spot in equal times 
would then correspond to equal currents of electricity ; electromotive force 
would correspond to the head of water producing the current. Thus if, with 
two pipes conveying equal currents, the head forcing the water through the 
first was double that forcing it through the second, the work done by the 
water in flowing through the first pipe would necessarily be twice that done 
by the water in the second pipe ; but if twice as much water passed through 
the first pipe as passed through the second, the work done by water in the 
first pipe would again be doubled. This corresponds exactly Avith the 
increase of work done by the electrical cm-rent when the electromotive force 
is doubled, and when the quantity is doubled. 

Thus, to recapitulate, the quality of a battery or source of electricity, in 
virtue of which it tends to do work by the transfer of electricity from one 
point to another, is called its electromotive force, and this force is measiired 
by measuring the work done during the transfer of a given quantity of 
electricity between those points. The relations between electromotive force 
and work were first fully explained in a paper by Professor W. Thomson on 
the application of the principle of mechanical effect to the measurement of 
electromotive forces published in the Philosophical Magazine for December 

17. Meaning of the words "Electric Resistance.^' — It is found by experiment, 
that even when the electromotive force between two points remains constant, 
so that the work done by the transfer of a given quantity of electricity 
remains constant, nevertheless, \>j modifying the material and form of the 
conductor, this transfer may be made to take place in very different times ; 
or, in other words, currents of very different magnitudes are produced, and 
very different amounts of work are done, in the unit of time, The quality of 


the conductor in virtue of wMch it prevents the performance of more than a 
certain amount of work in a given time by a given electromotive force is 
called its electrical resistance. The resistance of a conductor is therefore 
inversely proportional to the work done in it when a given electromotive 
force is maintained between its two ends ; and hence, by equation (5), it is 
inversely proportional to the currents which will then be produced in the 
respective conductors. But it is found by experiment that the current pro- 
duced in any case in anyone conductor is simply proportional to the electro- 

motive force between its ends ; hence the ratio - will bo a constant quantity, 


to which the resistance as above defined must be proportional, and may with 

convenience be made equal ; thus 

K=e' (6) 

an equation expressing Ohm's law. In order to carry on the parallel with 
the pipes of water, the resistance overcome by the water must be of such 
nature that twice the quantity of water wlU flow through any one pipe when 
twice the head is applied. This would not be the result of a constant me- 
chanical resistance, but of a resistance which increased in direct proportion 
to the speed of the current ; thus the electrical resistance must not be looked 
on as analogous to a simple mechanical resistance, but rather to a coefficient 
by which the speed of the current must be multiplied to obtain the whole 
mechanical resistance. Thus if the electrical resistance of a conductor be 
called E, the work, W, is not equal to CUf, but C x CR x t, or 

W=C-R<*, (7) 

where C may be looked on as analogous to a quantity moving at a certain 
speed, and CR as analogous to the mechanical resistance which it meets with 
in its progress, and which increases in direct proportion to the quantity con- 
veyed in the unit of time. 

18. Measurement of Electric Currents by their Action on a Magnetic 
Needle. — In 1820, Oersted discovered the action of an electric current upon 
a magnet at a distance, and one method of measurement may be based on 
this action. Let us suppose the current to be in the circumference of a 
vertical circle, so that in the upper part it runs from left to right. Then a 
magnet suspended in the centre of the circle will turn with the end which 
points to the north away from the observer. This may be taken as the 
simplest case, as every part of the circuit is at the same distance from the 
magnet, and tends to tm^n it the same way. The force is proportional to 
the ^moment of the magnet, to the strength of the current as defined by 
§ 15, to its length, and inversely to the square of its distance from the 

Let the moment of the magnet be ml, the strength of the current C, the 
radius of the circle I', the number of times the cuiTent passes round the 
circle n, the angle between the axis of the magnet and the plane of the 
circle 0, and the moment tending to turn the magnet G, then 

G=mlC .2Trnk y^cosd, (^8) 

which will be unity if ml, C, I; and the length of the circuit be unitv 
and if 0=0°. ^' 

* By equation (5) we have W=CEi;; but by equaHon(fi)E=?; henceW = C2E?'.— Q.E.D. 

140 REPORT — 1863. 

The unit of current founded on this relation, and called the electromag- 
netic unit, is therefore that current of Avhieh the unit of length placed along 
the circumference of a circle of unit radius produces a unit of magnetic force 
at the centre. 

The usual way of measuring C, the strength of a current, is hy making it 
describe a circle about a magnet, the plane of the circle being vertical and 
mao-netic north and south. Thus, if H be the intensity of the horizontal 
component of terrestrial magnetism, and G the moment of this on the mag- 
net, G=m/Hsin 6, whence the strength of the cuiTent — 

C=j^Htan9, (9) 

where h is the radius of the circle, n the number of turns, H the intensity 
of the horizontal part of the earth's magnetic force as determined by the 
usual method, and 6 the angle of deviation of the magnet suspended Ln the 
centre of the circle. As the strength of the cm-rent is proportional to the 
tano-ent of the angle 6, an instrument constructed on this plan is called a 
tan"-ent galvanometer. The instrument called a sine galvanometer may 
also be used, provided the coil is circular. The equation is similar to that 
just given, substituting sin 6 for tan Q. 

To find the dimensions of C, we must consider that what we observe is 
the force acting between a magnetic pole, m, and a current of given length, L, 

at a given distance, Lj, and that this force = -^— ^ . Hence the dimensions of C, 

an electric current thus measured, are . 

19. Measurement of Electric Currents by their mutual action on one another. 
— Hitherto we have spoken of the measurement of currents as dependent on 
their action upon magnets ; but this measurement in the same miits can as 
simply be founded on their mutual action upon one another. Ampere has in- 
vestigated the laws of mechanical actioTi between conductors carrying currents. 
He has shown that the action of a small closed circuit at a distance is the 
same as that of a small magnet, pro^-ided the axis of the magnet be placed 
normal to the plane of the circuit, and the moment of the magnet be equal 
to the product of the current into the area of the circuit which it traverses. 

Thus, let two small circuits liaA^ng areas Aand Ajbe placed at a gi'eat distance 
D from each other in such a way that their planes are at right angles to each 
other, and that the line D is in the intersection of the planes. Now let cur- 
rents C and Cj circulate in these conductors ; a force wiU act between them 
tending to make their planes parallel, and the direction of the currents op- 
posite. The moment of this couple will be 

^^ACxA^, ^jQ^ 

Hence the unit electric current conducted round two ciixuits of imit area 
in vertical planes at right angles to each other, one circuit being at a great 
distance, D, vertically above the other, will cause a couple to act between the 

circuits of a magnitude -jp- The definition of the unit current (identical with 

the unit founded on the relations given in § 18) might be founded on this 
action quite independently of the idea of magnetism. 


20. Weber s Eledro-Difnamometer. — The measurement described in the last 
paragraph is only accurate when D is very great, and therefore the moment to be 
measured very small. Hence it is better to make the experimental measure- 
ments in another form. For this purpose, let a length (?) of wire be made into 
a circular coil of radius k ; let a length {l^) of wire be made into a coil of very 
much smaller radius, l\. Let the second coil be hung in the centre of the 
first, the planes being vertical and at the angle d. Then, if a current C tra- 
verses both coils, the moment of the force tending to bring them parallel 
will be 

G=|C^ ^^ sin (11) 

This force may be measured in mechanical units by the angle through 
which it turns the suspended coil, the forces called into play by the mecha- 
nical arrangements of suspension being known from the construction of the 
instrument. Weber used a bifilar suspension, by which the weight of the 
smaller coil was used to resist the moment produced by the action of the 

21. Comparison of the Electro-magnetic and Electro-chemical action of 
Currents. — Currents of electricity, when passed through certain compound 
substances, decompose them ; and it is found that, with any given substance, 
the weight of the body decomposed in a given time is proportional to the 
strength of the current as already defined with reference to its electromagnetic 
effect. The voltameter is an apparatus of this kind, in which water is the sub- 
stance decomposed. Special precautions have to be taken, in carrying this 
method of measurement into effect, to prevent variations in the resistance of 
the cii-cuit, and consequently in the strength of the current. This subject is 
more fully treated in Part V. §§ 53, 54. 

22. Magnetic Field near a Current. — Since a current exerts a force on the 
pole of a magnet in its neighbourhood, it may be said to produce a magnetic 
field (§ 6), and, by exploring this field with a magnet, we may draw lines of 
force and equipotential surfaces of the same nature as those already described 
for magnetic fields caused by the presence of magnets. 

When the current is a straight line of indefinite length, like a telegraph- 
wire, a magnetic pole in its neighbourhood is urged by a force tending to turn 
it round the wire, so that this force is at any point perpendicular to the plane 
passing through this point and the axis of the current. 

The equipotential surfaces are therefore a series of planes passing through 
the axis of the current, and inclined at equal angles to each other. The 
number of these planes is Air C, where C is the strength of the current. 

The lines of magnetic force are circles, having their centres in the axis of 
the current, and their planes perpendicular to it. The intensity of the mag- 
netic force at a distance, Ic, from the current is the reciprocal of the distance 

between two equipotential surfaces, which shows the force to be — -. 


The work done on a unit magnetic pole in going completely round the 
current is 4n- C, whatever the path which the pole describes. 

23. Mechanical Action of a Magnetic Field on a closed Conductor conveying a 
Current. — ^^Vhen there is mechanical action between a conductor carrying a 
Current and a magnet, the force acting on the conductor must be equal and 
opposite to that acting on the magnet. Every part of the conductor is there- 
fore acted on by a force perpendicular to the plane passing through its ovm 
direction and the lines of magnetic force due to the magnet,, and equal to the 

142 • REPORT — 1863. 

product of the length of the conductor, into the strength of the current, the in- 
tensity of the magnetic field, and the sine of the angle between the lines of 
force and the direction of the current. This may be more concisely expressed 
by saying, that if a conductor carrying a current is moved in a magnetic field, 
the -work done on the conductor by the electromagnetic forces is equal to the 
product of the strength of the current into the number of lines of force which 
it cuts during its motion. 

Hence we arrive at the following general law, for determining the mecha- 
nical action on a closed conductor carrying a cuiTcnt and placed in a magnetic 
field : — 

Draw the Unes of magnetic force. Count the number which pass through 
the circuit of the conductor, then any motion which increases this number 
will be aided by the electromagnetic forces, so that the work done during the 
motion wiU be the product of the strength of the current and the number of 
additional lines of force. 

For instance, let the lines of force be due to a single magnetic pole of 
strength m. These are 47rm in number, and are in this case straight lines 
radiating equally in all directions from the pole. Describe a sphere about 
the pole, and project the circuit on its surface by lines drawn to the pole. 
The surface of the area so described on the sphere will measure the solid 
angle subtended by the circuit at the pole. Let this solid angle =u), then 
the number of hnes passing through the closed surface will be mu ; and if C 
be the strength of the current, the amount of work done by bringing the 
magnet and circuit from an infinite distance to their present position wiU be 
Ciiioj. This shows that the magnetic potential of a closed circuit carrying a 
unit current with respect to a unit magnetic pole placed at any point is equal 
to the solid angle which the cii'cuit subtends at that point. 

By considering at what points the circuit subtends equal solid angles, we 
may form an idea of the surfaces of equal potential. They form a series of 
sheets, all intersecting each other in the cii-cuit itself, which forms the boun- 
dary of every sheet. The number of sheets is in C, where C is the strength 
of the current. The lines of magnetic force intersect these surfaces at right 
angles, and therefore form a system of rings, encircling every point of the 
circuit. When we have studied the general form of the lines of force, we can 
form some idea of the electromagnetic action of that current, after which the 
difficulties of numerical calculation arise entirely from the imperfection of our 
mathematical skill. 

24. General Law of the Mechanical Action befiveen Electric Currents and 
other Electric Currents or Magnets.- — ^Draw the lines of magnetic force due to 
all the currents, magnets, &c., in the field, supposing the strength of each 
current or magnet to be reduced from its actual value to unity. Call the 
number of lines of force due to a circuit or magnet, which pass through 
another circuit, the potential coefficient between the one and the other. This 
number is to be reckoned positive when the lines of force pass through the 
circuit in the same direction as those due to a cun-ent in that circuit, and 
negative when they pass in the opposite direction. 

If we now ascertain the change of the potential coefficient due to any dis- 
placement, this increment multiphed by the product of the strengths of the 
currents or magnets wiU be the amoimt of work done by the mutual action of 
these two bodies during the displacement. The determination of the actual 
value of the potential coefficient of two things, in various cases, is an import- 
ant part of mathematics as applied to electricity. (See the mathematical dis- 
cussion of the experiments, Appendix D.) 


25. Electromagnetic Measurement of Electric Quantity. — A conducting body 
insulated at all points from the neighbouring conductors may in various ways 
be electrified, or made to hold a quantity of electricity. This quantity (§ 14) 
is perfectly definite in any given circumstances ; it cannot be augmented or 
diminished so long as the conductor is insulated, and is called the charge of 
the conductor. Its magnitude depends on the dimensions and shape and 
position of the insulated and the neighboirring conductors, on the insulating 
material, and finally on the electromotive force between the insulated and the 
neighbouring conductors, at the moment when the charge was produced. The 
weU-kuowii Leyden jar is an arrangement by which a considerable charge 
can be obtained on a small conductor with moderate electromotive force be- 
tween the inner and outer coatings which constitute respectively the "insu- 
lated " and " neighboming " conductors referred to in general. We need not 
enter into the general laws determining the charge, since our object is only 
to show how it may be measored when already existing ; but it may be well 
to state that the quantity on the charged insulated conductor necessarily im- 
plies an equal and opposite quantity on the surrounding or neighbouring 

"We have ah-eady defined the magnitude of a current of electricity as sim- 
ply proportional to the quantity of electricity conveyed in a given time, and 
we have shown a method of measuring currents consonant with this definition. 
The unit quantity will, therefore, be that conveyed by the unit current as 
above defined in the unit of time. Thus, if a unit current is allowed to flow 
for a unit of time in any wire connecting the two coatings of a Leyden phial, 
the quantity which one coating loses, or which the other gains, is the electro- 
magnetic imit quantity*. The measurement thus defined of the quantity in 
a given statical charge can be made by observing the swing of a galvanometer- 
needle produced by allowing the charge to pass through the coil of the galva- 
nometer in a time extremely short compared with that occupied by an oscil- 
lation of the needle. 

Let Q be the whole quantity of electricity in an instantaneous current, then 

Q=2^sinii, (12) 


where Cj=the strength of a current giving a unit deflection (45° on a tangent 
or 90° on a sine galvanometer), t= half the period or time of a complete 
oscillation of the needle of the galvanometer under the influence of terrestrial 
magnetism alone, and i= the angle to which the needle is observed to svring 
from a position of rest, when the discharge takes place ; Cj is a constant 
which need only be determined once for each instrument, provided the hori- 
zontal force of the earth's magnetism remain unchanged. In the case of the 
tangent galvanometer, the formula for obtaining it has already been given. 
From equations (9) and (12) we have for a tangent galvanometer 

Q=-LH<sini?-, (13) 

TT n 

where, as before, lcz= the radius of the coU, and n= the number of turns 
made by the wire round the coU. 

The quantity in a given charge which can be continually reproduced under 
fixed conditions may be measured by allowing a succession of discharges to " 
pass at regular and very short intervals through a galvanometer, so as to pro- 

* Weber calls this quantity two vmits — a fact wbicli must not be lost sight of in com« 
paring his results ^vith those of the Committee. 

144 REPORT — 1863. 

duce a permanent deflection. The value of a current producing this deflection 
can be ascertained, and the quotient of this value by the number of discharges 
taking place in the " second," gives the value of each charge in electromag- 
netic measure. 

To find the dimensions of Q, we simply observe that the unit of electricity 
is that which is transferred by the unit current in the unit of time. ISIulti- 

plying the dimensions of C by T, we find the dimensions of Q are L' M^'. 

26. Electric Capacity of a Conductor. — It is found by experiment that, 
other circumstances remaining the same, the charge on an insulated conductor 
is simply proportional to the electromotive force between it and the surround- 
ing conductors, or, in other words, to the diff'erence of potentials (47). The 
charge that would be produced by the unit electromotive force is said to 
measure the electric capacity of a conductor. Thus, generally, the capacity 

of a conductor S= ^, where Q is the whole quantity in the charge produced 

by the electromotive force, E. "When the electromotive force producing the 
charge is capable of maintaining a current, the capacity of the conductor may 
be obtained without a knowledge of the value either of Q or E, provided we 
have the means of measuring the resistance of a circuit in electromagnetic 
measure. For let E be the resistance of a circuit, in which the given elec- 
tromotive force, E, will produce the unit deflection on a tangent galvanometer, 
then, from equations (6) and (12), we have 

" " Trli, ' ^ ^ 

where t and i retain the same signification as in equation (13) (§ 2.5). 

27. Direct Measurement of Electromotive Force. — The meaning of the words 
" electromotive force" has abeady been explained (§ 16) ; this force tends to 
do work by means of a current or transfer of electricity, and may therefore 
be said to produce and maintain the current. In any given combination in 
which electric currents flow, the immediate source of the power by which the 
work is done is said to produce the electromotive force. The sources of power 
producing electromotive force are various. Of these, chemical action in the 
voltaic battery, unequal distribution of temperature in circuits of ditferent 
conductors, the friction of difterent substances, magnetoeleetric induction, 
and simple electric induction are the most familiar. An electromotive force 
may exist between two points of a conductor, or between two points of an 
insulator, or between an insulator and a conductor, — in fine, between any 
points whatever. This electromotive force may be capable of maintaining a 
current for a long time, as in a voltaic battery, or may instantly cease after 
producing a current of no sensible dm-ation, as when two points of the atmo- 
sphere at difl'erent potentials (§ 47) are joined by a conductor; but in eveiy 
case in which a constant electromotive force, E, is maintained between any two 
points, however situated, the work spent or gained in transferring a quantity, 
Q, of electricity from one of those points to the other will be constant ; nor 
will this work be afi^ected by the manner or method of the transfer. If the 
electricity be slowly conveyed as a static charge on an insulated ball, the work 

•will be spent or gained in accelerating or retarding the ball; if the electncity 
be conveyed rapidly through a conductor of smaU resistance, or more slowly 
through a conductor of great resistance, the work may be spent in heating 
the conductor, or it may electrolyze a solution, or be thermoelectrially or 
mechanicnllv used: but in all rasc"? the change effected, measured ns equiva- 


lent to work done, will be the same, and equal to EQ. Hence the electro- 
motive force between two jjoints is unity, if a unit of mechanical work is spent 
(or gained) in the transfer of a unit of electricity from one point to the other. 
This general definition is due to Professor W. Thomson. 

The direct measurement of electromotive force Avould be given by the mea- 
sure, in any given case, of the work done by the transfer of a given quantity 
of electricity. The ratio between the numbers measuring the work done, and 
the quantity transferred, would measure the electromotive force. This mea- 
surement has been made by Dr. Joule and Professor Thomson, by determining 
the heat developed in a wire by a given current measured as in (§ 18)*. 

28. Indirect Measurements of Electromotive Force. — The direct method of 
measurement is in most cases inconvenient, and in many impossible ; but the 
indirect methods are numerous and easily apphcd. The relation between the 
current, C, the resistance, R, and the electromotive force, E, expressed by 
Ohm's law (equation G), wiU determine the electromotive force of a battery 
whenever E. and C are known. A second indirect method depends on the 
measurement of the statical force with which two bodies attract one another 
when the given electromotive force is maintained between them. This me- 
thod is fully treated in Part lY. (43). The j)henomenon on which it is based 
admits of an easy comparison between various electromotive forces by electro- 
meters. This method is appHcable even to those c^es in which the electro- 
motive force to be measured is incapable of maintaining a cm-rent. The laws 
of chemical electrolysis and electromagnetic induction afford two other indirect 
methods of estimating electromotive force in special cases (54 and 31). 

29. Measurement of Electric Resistance. — We have already stated that the 
resistance of a conductor is that property in virtue of which it limits the 
amount of work performed by a given electromotive force in a given time, 


and we have shown that it may be measured by the ratio _ of the elec- 
tromotive force between two ends of a conductor to the current maintained 
by it. The unit resistance is, therefore, that in which the unit electromotive 
force produces the unit current, and therefore performs the unit of work in 
the unit of time. If in any circuit we can measure the current and electro- 
motive force, or even the ratio of these magnitudes, we should, ijjso facto, 
have measured the resistance of the circuit. The methods by which this 
ratio has been measured, foimded on the laws of electromagnetic induction, 
are fully described in Appendix D. Other methods may be founded on the 
measurement of currents and electromotive forces, described in 18, 19, 20, 27, 
and 28. Lastly, a method founded on the gradual loss of charge through very 
great resistances will be found in Part IV. (45). The equation (25) there 
given for electrostatic measure is applicable to electromagnetic measure when 
the capacity and difference of potentials are expressed in electromagnetic units. 

30. Electric Resistance in Electronmgnetic Units is measured by an Absolute 
Velocity. — The dimensions of E are found, by comparing those of E and C, 

to be — , or those of a simple velocity. This velocity, as was pointed out by 

Weber, is an absolute velocity in nature, quite independent of the magnitude 
of the fundamental units in which it is expressed. The following illustration, 
due to Professor Thomson, will show how a velocity may express a resist- 
ance, and also how that expression may be independent of the magnitude of 
the units of time and space. 

• Phil. Mag. vol. ii. 4th Ser. 1851, p. 551. 
1863. 1 

146 REPORT — 1863, 

Let a wire of any material be bent into an arc of 57-^° with any radius, Ic. 
Let this arc be placed in the magnetic meridian of any magnetic field, vrith a 
magnet of any strength freely suspended in the centre of the arc. Let two 
vertical wires or rails, separated by a distance equal to h, be attached to the 
ends of the arc ; and let a cross piece slide along these rails, inducing a current 
in the arc. Then it may be shown that the speed required to produce a 
deflection of 45° on the magnet will measure the resistance of the circuit, 
which is assumed to be constant. This speed will be the same whatever be 
the value of 1c, or the intensity of the magnetic field, or the moment of the 
magnet. In this form the experiment could not be easily carried out ; but 
if a length, I, of wire be taken and rolled into a circular coil at the radius A-, 

and the distance between the vertical rails be taken equal to y, then if the 


resistance of the circuit be the same as in the previous case, the deflection of 
45° wiU be produced by the same velocity in the cross piece, measuiing that 

resistance ; or, generally, if the distance between the rails be p — , then p 


times the velocity reqiiired to produce the unit deflection (45°) wiU measure 
the resistance. The truth of this proposition can easily be established when 
the laws of magneto- electric induction have been understood (31). 

31. Magneto-electric Induction. — Let a conducting circuit be placed in a 
magnetic field. Let C be the intensity of any ciu-rent in that circuit ; E the 
magnitude of the electromotive force acting in the circuit. Let the circuit 
be so moved that the nmnber of lines of magnetic force (11) passing through 
it is increased by N in the time t, then (23) the electromagnetic forces will 
contribute towards the motion an amount of work measured by CN. Now 
Q, the quantity of electricity which passes, is equal to Ct ; so that the work 
done on the current is EQ or CE<. By the principle of conservation of 
energy, the work done by the electromagnetic forces must be at the expense 
of that done by the electromotive forces, or 


or dividing by Ct, we find that 

E=-y; (15) 

or, in other words, if the number of lines of force passing through a circuit 
be increased, an electromotive force in the negative direction will act in the 
circuit measui-ed by the number of lines of force added per second. 

If R be the resistance of the circuit, we have by Ohm's law (equation 6) 
E = CR ; and therefore 

N = — E«=-RCV=-EQ; (16) 

or, in other words, if the number of lines of magnetic force passing through 
the circuit is altered, a current will be produced in the cii'cuit in the direc- 
tion opposite to that of a current which would have produced lines of force 
in the direction of those added, and the quantity of electricity which passes 
multiplied by the resistance of the circuit measures the number of additional 
lines passing through the circuit. 

The facts of magneto-electric induction were discovered by Faraday, and 
described by him in the First Series of his " Experimental Researches in 
Electricity," read to the Royal Society, 24th November, 1831. 

He has shown* the relation between the induced current and the lines of 

■* Experimental Eesearches, 3082, &c. 


force cut by the circuit, and he has also described the state of a conductor in 
a field of force as a state the change of which is a cause of currents. He calls 
it the electrotonic state, and, as we have just seen, the electrotonic state may 
be measured by the number of Lines of force which pass through the circuit 
at any time. 

The measure of electromotive force used by "W. Weber, and derived by him 
(independently of the principle of conservation of energy) from the motion of 
a conductor in a magnetic field, is the same as that at which we have arrived ; 
for, fi'om equation (15), we find that the unit electromotive force will be pro- 
duced by motion in a magnetic field when one line of force is added (or sub- 
tracted) per unit of time, and this will occur when in a field of unit intensity 
a straight bar of unit length, forming part of a circuit otherwise at rest, is 
moved with imit velocity pei-pendicularly to the lines of force and to its own 

To "W. Weber, whose numerical determinations of electrical magnitudes are 
the starting-point of exact science in electricity, we owe this, the first defini- 
tion of the unit of electromotive force ; but to Professor Helmholtz* and to 
Professor W. Thomson t, working independently of each other, we owe the 
proof of the necessary existence of magneto-electric induction and the deter- 
mination of electromotive force on strictly mechanical principles. 

32. Oti Material Standards for the Measurement of Electrical Magnitudes. — 
The comparison between two different electrical magnitudes of the same na- 
ture, e. g. between two currents or between two resistances, is in all cases 
much simpler than the direct measurements of these magnitudes in terms of 
time, mass, and space, as described in the foregoing pages. Much labour is, 
therefore, saved by the use of standards of each magnitude ; and the construc- 
tion and diffusion of those standards form part of the duties of the Committee, 

Electric currents are most simply compared by "electro-dynamometers" (20) 
— ^instruments which, unlike galvanometers, are practically independent of the 
intensity of the earth's magnetism. When an instrument of this kind has 
been constructed, with which the values of the currents corresponding to 
each deflection have been measured (19, 20), other instruments may easily 
be so compared with this standard, that the relative value of the deflections 
produced by equal currents on the standard and the copies shall be known, 
Hence the absolute value of the current indicated by each deflection of each 
copy wiU be known in absolute measure. In other words, in order to obtain 
the electromagnetic measure of a current in the system described, each obser- 
ver ia possession of an electro-dynamometer which has been compared with 
the standard instrument wdl simply multiply by a constant niunber the de- 
flection produced by the current on his instrument (or the tangent or sine of 
the deflection, according to the particular construction of the instrument). 

Electric quantities may be compared by the swing of the needle of a gal- 
vanometer of any kind. They may be measured by any one in possession of a 
standard electro-dynamometer, or resistance-coU, since the observer wiU then 
be in a position directly to determine C\ in equation (12), or Rj in equation (14). 
Capacities may be compared by the methods described (26) ; and a Leyden 
jar or condenser (41) of unit capacity, and copies derived from it, may be pre- 
pared and distributed. The owner of such a condenser, if he can measure 
electromotive force, can determine the quantity in his condenser. 

* Paper read before the Physical Society of Berlin, 1847 {vide Taylor's Scientific 
Memoirs, part ii. Feb. 1853, p. 114). 
t Transactions of the British Association, 1848 ; Phil. Mag. Dec, 1851. 

L 2 

148 REPORT — 1863. 

The material standard for electromotive force derived from electromagnetic 
phenomena would naturally be a conductor of known shape and dimensions, 
moving in a known manner in a known magnetic field. Such a standard as 
this would be far too complex to be practically useful : fortunately a very 
simple and practical standard or gauge of electromotive force can be based 
on its statical effects, and will be described in treating of those effects (Part 
IV. 43). A practical standard for approximate measurements might be 
formed by a voltaic couple, the constituent parts of which were in a standard 
condition. It is probable that the Daniell's cell may form a practical stand- 
ard of reference in this way, when its value in electromagnetic measure is 
known. This value lies between 9 x 10' and 11 x 10^ 

Resistances are compared by comparing currents produced in the several 
conductors by one and the same electromotive force. The unit resistance, 
determined as in Appendix D, will be represented by a material conductor ; 
simple coils of insulated wii'e compared with this standard, and issued by the 
Committee, will allow any observer to measure any resistance in electro- 
magnetic measure. 

Part IV. — Measueement of Electric Phenomena, by Statical Effects. 

33. Electrostatic Measure of Electric Qi(a7ititif. — By the application of a 
sufficient electromotive force between two parts of a conductor which does 
not form a circuit, it is possible to communicate to either part a cJiarr/e of 
electricity which may be maintained in both parts, if pi-operly insulated (14). 
With the ordinary electromotive forces due to induction or chemical action, 
and the ordinary size of insulated conductors; the charge of electricity in 
electromagnetic measure is exceedingly small ; but when the capacity of the 
conductor is great, as in the case of long submarine cables, the charge may 
be considerable. By making use of the electromotive force produced by the 
friction of unlike substances, the charge or electrification even of small bodies 
may be made to produce visible effects. The electricity in a charge is 
not essentially in motion, as is the case with the electricity in a current. 
In other words, a charge may be permanently maintained without the per- 
formance of work. Electricity in this condition is therefore frequently 
spoken of as statical electricity, and its effects, to distinguish them from 
those produced by currents, may be called statical effects. The peculiar pro- 
. perties of electrically charged bodies are these : — 

1. When one body is charged positively (14), some other body or bodies 
must be charged negatively to the same extent. 

2. Two bodies repel one another when both are charged positively, or both 
negatively, and attract when oppositely charged. 

3. These forces are inversely proportional to the square of the distance of 
the attracting or repelling charges of electricity. 

4. If a body electrified in any given invariable manner be placed in the 
neighbourhood of any number of electrified bodies, it will experience a force 
which is the resultant of the forces that would be separately exerted upon it 
by the different bodies if they were placed in succession in the positions 
which they actually occupy, without any alteration in their electrical con- 

From these propositions it follows that, at a given distance, the force,/, 
with which two small electrified bodies i-epel one another is proportional to 
the product of the charges, q and q^, upon them. But when the distance 


varies, this force,/, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance, d, 
between them ; hence 

_ /-f • ; • • ■(^') 

Wlien q and q^ are of dissimilar signs, / becomes negative, i. e. there is an 
attraction, and not a repulsion. This equation is incompatible ■ndth the 
electromagnetic definitions given in Part III., and, if it be allowed to be 
fundamental, gives a new definition of the unit quantity of electricity, as 
that quantity which, if placed at unit distance from another equal quantity 
of the same kind, repels it with unit force. 

34. Electrostatic System of Units. — This new measurement of quantity 
forms the foundation of a chstinct system or series of units, which may be 
called the electrostatic units, and measurements in these units will in these 
pages be designated by the use of small letters ; thus, as Q, C, &c., sig- 
nified quantity, 'current, &c., in electromagnetic measure, so q, c, c, and r, &c., 
wiR represent the electrostatic measure of quantity, current, electromotive 
force, resistance, &c. 

The relations between current and quantity, between work, current, and 
electromotive force, and between electromotive force, current, and resistance, 
remain unchanged by the change from the electromagnetic to the electro- 
static system. 

35. Eatio between Electrostatic and Electromagnetic Measures of Quantity. 
— Since the expression forming the second member of equation (17) represents 

LM L^'M^ 

a force the dimensions of which are -^ , the dimensions of q are — n^— . The 

dimensions of the unit of electricity, Q, in the electromagnetic system are 

L M' (2-5). Hence, since in passing from the one system to the other we 


must employ the ratio A, this ratio will be of the dimensions _ ; that is to 

say, the ratio ^ is a velocity. In the present treatise this velocity will be 

designated by the letter v. 

The first estimate of the relation between quantity of electricity measured 
statically and the quantity transferred by a current in a given time was made 
by Faraday*. A careful experimental investigation by MM. Weber and 
Kohlrauschf not only confii-ms the conclusion that the two kinds of measure- 
ment are consistent, but shows that the velocity i' = i is 310,740,000 metres 

per second — a velocity not diifering from the estimated velocity of light more 
than the different determinations of the latter quantity differ from each other. 
V must always be a constant, real velocity in nature, and should be measured 
in tei-ms of the system of fundamental imits adopted in electrical measure- 
ments (3 and 55). A redetermination of v (46) will form part of the present 
Committee's business in 1863-64. It wiU be seen that, by definition, the 
quantity transmitted by an electromagnetic unit cuiTent in the unit time is 
equal to v electrostatic units of quantity. 

36. Electrostatic Measure of Currents. — In any coherent system, a current 

* Experimental Researches, series iii. § 361, &e. 

t Abhandlungen der Konig. Siichsischen Ges. Bd. iii. (1857) p. 260; or, Poggeudorff's 
Annalen, Bd. 90. p. 10 (Aug. 1856). 

150 REPORT — 1863, 

is measured by the quantity of electricity which passes in the unit of time 
(15) ; if both current and quantity are measured iu electrostatic units, then 

^=f (18) 

The dimensions of c are therefore - ; and in order to reduce a current 

from electromagnetic to electrostatic measure, we must multiply C by v, or 

c=v^ (19) 

37. Electrostatic Measure of Electromotive Force. — The statical measure of 
an electromotive force is the work which would be done by electrical forces 
during the passage of a unit of electricity from one point to another. The 
only difference between this definition and the electromagnetic definition 
(16 and 27) consists in the change of the unit of electricity from the electro- 
magnetic to the electrostatic. 

Hence if q units of electricity are transferred from one place to another, 
the electromotive force between those places being e, the work done during 
the transfer will be qe ; but we found (27) that if E and Q be the electro- 
magnetic measures of the same quantities, the work done would be expressed 
by QE ; hence 


but (35) q=vQ„ 

therefore 6=- (20) 


Thus, to reduce electromotive force from electromagnetic to electrostatic 
measure, we must divide by v. 

The dimensions of e are rp • 

38. Electrostatic Measure of Resistance. — If an electromotive force, e, act 
on a conductor whose resistance in electrostatic measiu'e is r, and produce a 
current, c, then by Ohm's law 

"•=- (21) 

Substituting for e and c their equivalents in electromagnetic measure (equa- 
tions 19 and 20), we have 

_1 E 

but (eq. 7) E=5, 


and therefore »*=-^Il (22) 


To reduce a resistance measured in electromagnetic units to its electrostatic 
value, we must divide by ^'^. 

The dimensions of r are — , or the reciprocal of a velocity. 


39. Electric Besistaiice in Electrostatic Units is measured by the Recijorocal 
of an Absolute Velocity. — We have seen from the last paragraph that the 


dimensions of )• establish this proposition ; but the following independent de- 
finition, due to Professor W. Thomson, assists the mind in receiving this con- 
ception as a necessary natm-al tnxth. Conceive a sphere of radius h, charged 
^th a given qixantity of electricity, Q. The potential of the sphere, when 

at a distance from all other bodies, will be ^ (40, 41, and 47). Let it now 


be discharged through a certain resistance, r. Then if the sphere could col- 
lapse with such a velocity that its potential should remain constant, or, in 
other words, that the ratio of the quantity on the sphere to its radius should 
remain constant, during the discharge, then the time occupied by its radius in 
shrinking the unit of length would measure the resistance of the discharging 
conductor in electrostatic measure, or the velocity with which its radius 
diminished would measure the conducting power (50) of the discharging 
conductor. Thus the conducting power of a few yards of sUk in dry weather 
might be an inch per second, in damp weather a yard per second. The re- 
sistance of 1000 rmles of pure copper wire, ^ inch in diameter, would be 
about 0-00000141 of a second per metre, or its conducting power one metre 
per 0-00000141 of a second, or 7089S0 metres per second. 

40. Electrostatic Measure of the Capacitrj of a Conductor. — The electrostatic 
capacity of a conductor is equal to the quantity of electricity with which it 
can be charged by the unit electromotive force. This definition is identical 
with that given of capacity measured in electromagnetic imits (26). Let s 
be the capacity of a conductor, q the electricity in it, and e the electromotive 
force charging it ; then 

q=se (23) 

From this equation we can see that the dimension of the quantity s is a 
length only. It wOl also be seen that 

s=v'% (24) 

where S is the electromagnetic measure of the capacity of the conductor with 
the electrostatic capacity, s. 

The capacity of a spherical conductor in an open space is, in electrostatic 
measure, equal to the radius of the sphere — a fact demonstrable from the 
fundamental equation (17). 

Experimentally to determine s, the capacity of the conductor in electro- 
static measure, charge it with a quantity, q, of electricity, and measure in any 
unit its potential (47) or tension (49), e. Then bring it into electrical con- 
nexion with another conductor whose capacity, s,, is known. Measure the 
potential, e^, of s and s^ after the charge is divided between them ; then 


and hence s=-^s^ (25) 


In this measurement we do not require to know e and e^ in absolute measure, 
since the ratio of these two quantities only is required. We must, how- 
ever, know the value of s^, and hence we must begin either with a spherical 
conductor in a large open space, whose capacity is measured by its radius, 
or with some other form of absolute condenser alluded to in the following 

41. Absolute Condenser. Practical Measurement of Quantity. — As soon as 
the electromotive force of a source of electricity is known in electrostatic 
measure, the quantity which it will produce in the form of charge on simple 
forms is known by the laws of electrical distribution experimentally proved 

152 REPORT— 1863. 

by Coulomb. Simple forms of this kind maj'- be termed absolute condensers. 
A sphere in an open space is such a condenser, and the quantity it contains 
is se (eq. 23). A more convenient form is a sphere of radius x, suspended 
in the centre of a hollow sphere, radius y, the latter being in communication 
with the earth. The capacity, s, of the internal sphere is then, by calculation, 

s=^!L (26) 


By a series of condensers of increasing capacity, we may measure the capacity 
of any condenser, however large. The compaiison is made bj'^ the method 
described above (40). Thus, the practical method of measuring quantity in 
electrostatic measure is first to determine the capacity of the conductor con- 
taining the charge, and then to multiply that capacity by the electromotive 
force producing the charge (43). 

42. Practical Measurement of Currents. — The electrostatic value of currents 
can be obtained from equation (21), when e and r are known, or from equa- 
tion (19), when v and C are known, or by comparison with a succession of 
discharges of known quantities from an absolute condenser. 

43. Practical 3Ieasurement of Electromotive Force. — The relations expressed 
by eq. (17) and (23) show that in any given circumstances the force exerted 
between two bodies due to the effects of statical electricity will be proportional 
to the electromotive force or difference of potential (47) between them. This 
fact allows us to construct gauges of electromotive force, or instruments so 
arranged that a given electromotive force between two parts of the apparatus 
brings an index into a sighted position. In order that the gauge should serve 
to measure the electi-omotive force absolutely, it is necessary that two things 
should be known : first, the distribution of the electricity over the two attract- 
ing or repeUing masses (or, in other words, the capacity of each part); secondly, 
the absolute force exerted between them. For simple forms, the distribution, 
or capacity of each part can be calculated from the fundamental principles 
(33); the force actually exerted can be weighed by a balance. By these 
means Professor W. Thomson* determined the electromotive force of a 
DanieU's cell to be 0-0021 in British electrostatic units, or 0-0002951 in 
metrical units. This proposition is equivalent to saying that two balls of a 
metre radius, at a distance d apart in a large open space, and in connexion 
with the opposite poles of a DanieU's cell, would attract one another with a 

f^,... »^„oi +^ 0-0002951 , , , ., 0-0000239 . , , 

lorce equal to absolute units, or ^ gramme weight. 

An apparatus by which such a measurement as the foregoing can be carried 
out is called an absolute electrometer. It will be observed that, although 
the definition of electromotive force is founded on the idea of work, its 
practical measurement is effected by observing a force, inasmuch as when 
this force exerted between two conductors of simple shape is known, the work 
which the passage of a unit of electricity between them would perform may 
be calculated by known laws. 

44. Comparison of Electromotive Forces by their Statical Effects. — This 
comparison is simpler than the absolute measurement, inasmuch as it is not 
necessary, in comparing two forces, to know the absolute values of either. In- 
struments by which the comparison can be made are called electrometers. 
Their arrangement is of necessity such that the force exerted between two 
given parts of the instrument shall be proportional to the difference of potential 

* Paper read before the Eojal Society, February 1860. Tide Proceedings of the Eoyal 
Society, vol. x. p. 318, and Phil. Mag. vol. xj. 4th Ser. 1860, p. 233. 


between them. This force may be variable and measured by the torsion of a 
wire, as in Thomson's reflecting electrometer, or it may be constant, and the 
electromotive forces producing it may be compared by measuring the distance 
required in each case between the two electrified bodies to produce that 
constant force. The latter arrangement is adopted in Professor Thomson's 
portable electrometer, first exhibited at the present meeting of the Association. 
The indications of a gauge or electrometer not in itself absolute may be re- 
duced to absolute measurement by multiplication into a constant coefficient. 

45. Practical Measurement of Electric Resistance. — The electrostatic resist- 
ance of a conductor of great resistance (such as gutta percha or india rubber) 
might be directly obtained in the following manner : — Let a body of known 
capacity, s (40), be charged to a given potential, P (47), and let it be gradually 
discharged thi-ough the conductor of great resistance, r. Let the time, t, be 
noted at the end of which the potential of the body has fallen to p. The rate 

of loss of electricity will then be i-. Hence »=P, «»-and— =log — . Hence 

sr SI J} 


from which equation r can be deduced, if 5, t, and the ratio _ be known, t can 


be directly observed, s can be measured (40), and the ratio — can be measured 

by an electrometer (44) in constant connexion with the charged body. This 
ratio can also be measured by the relative discharges through a galvanometer 
first, immediately after the body has been charged to the potential P, and 
again when, after having been recharged to the potential P, it has, after a time 
t, fallen to potential p. (This latter plan has long been practically used by 
Messrs. Siemens, although the resiilts have not been expressed in absolute 

Unfortunately, in those bodies, such as gutta percha and india rubber, the 
resistance of which is sufficiently great to make t a mensurable number, the 
phenomenon of absorption due to continued electrification * so complicates the 
experiment as to render it practically unavailable for any exact determination. 
The apparent effect of absorption is to cause r, the resistance of the material 
to be a quantity variable with the time t, and the laws of the variation are 
very imperfectly known. 

46. E.vperimental Determination of theHatio, v, between Electromagnetic and 
Electrostatic Measures of Quantity. — In order to obtain the value of v, it is 
necessary and sufficient that we should obtain a common electrostatic and 
electromagnetic measure of some one quantity, current, resistance, electro- 
motive force, or capacity. There are thus five known methods by which the 
value can be obtained. 

1°. By a common measure of quantity. Let a condenser of known capacity, 
s, be prepared (40). Let it be charged to a given potential P (47). Then 
the quantity in the condenser will be sP in electrostatic measure. The 
charge can next be measured by discharge through a galvanometer (25) in 
electromagnetic measure. The ratio between the two numbers wiU give the 
value of V. The only difficulty in this method consists in the measurement 

* Vide Transactions of British Association, 1859, p. 248, and Eeport of the Committee of 
Board of Trade on Submarine Cables, pp. 136 & 464. 

154 REPORT — 1863. 

of the potential P, entailing the measurement of an absolute force between 
two electrified bodies. This method was proposed and adopted by Weber*. 

2°. By a comparison of the measure of electromotive force. The electro- 
motive force produced by a battery, in electrostatic measure, can be directly 
weighed (43). Its electromotive force, in electromagnetic measure, can be 
obtained from the current it produces in a given resistance (28) . The ratio 
of the two numbers will give the value of v. This method has been carried 
out by Professor W. Thomson, who was not, however, at the time in pos- 
session of the means of determining accurately either the absolute resistance 
of his circuit or the absolute value of the cuiTentf. 

3°. By a common measure of resistance. We know (29 and 45) how to 
measure resistances in electromagnetic and electrostatic measure. The ratio 
between these measures is equal to v^. The measure of resistance in electro- 
static measure is not as yet susceptible of great accuracy. 

4". By a comparison of currents. The electromagnetic value of a current 
produced by a continuous succession of discharges from a condenser of capacity 
s can be measured (18, 19). The electrostatic value of the current will be 
known if the potential to which the condenser is charged be known. The 
ratio of the two numbers is equal to v. 

5°. By a common measure of capacity. The two measurements can be 
effected by the methods given (26 and 40). The ratio between the two 
measurements wiU give v''. This method would probably yield very accurate 

Part V. — Electrical MEAstnuEjrENTS derived from the five elementary 
Measurements; and Conclusion. 

47. Electric Potential. — The word " potential," as applied by G. Green to the 
condition of an electrified body and the space siu'rounding it, is now coming 
into extensive use, but is perhaps less generally understood than any other 
electrical term. Electric potential is defined by Prof. W. Thomson as follows J: 

" The potential, at any point in the neighbourhood of or within an electrified 
body, is the quantity of work that would be required to bring a unit of posi- 
tive electricity from an infinite distance to that point, if the given distribution 
of electricity remained unaltered." 

It wiU be observed that this definition is exactly analogous to that given 
of magnetic potential (10), with the substitution of the unit quantity of 
electricity for the unit magnetic pole. (Analogous definitions might be given 
of gravitation potential, heat potential, and every one of these potentials 
coexist at every point of space quite independently one of the other.) In 
another paper § Professor Thomson describes electric potential as foUows : — 
"The amount of work required to move a imit of electricity against electric 
repulsion from any one position to any other position is equal to the excess 
of the electric potential of the first position above the electric potential of the 
second position." 

The two definitions given are virtually identical, since the potential at 
every point of infinity is zero, and it will be seen that the difi'erence of 

* Pogg. Ann. Aug. 1856, Ed. 99. p. 10. Abhandlungen der Kon. Sachsischen Gtcsell- 
schaft, vol. iii. (1857) p. 266. 

t Paper read before the Eoyal Society, February 1860. Vide Proceedings of the Eoyal 
Society, vol. x. p. 319. 

I Paper read before British Association, 1852. Vide Phil. Mag. 1853, p. 288. 

§ Paper read before the Eoyal Society, February 1860. Vide Proceedings of the Eoyal 
Society, vol. 5, p. 334. 


potential defined in the second passage quoted is identical with what we 
hare called the electromotive force between the two points (16 and 27). 

When, instead of a difference of potentials, the potential simply of a 
point is spoken of, the difference of potential between the point and the 
earth is referred to, or, as we might say, the electromotive force between the 
point and the earth. 

The potential at all points close to the surface and in the interior of any 
simple metallic body is constant ; that is to say, no electromotive force can be 
produced in a simple metallic body by mere electrical distribution ; the 
potential at the body may therefore be called the potential of the body. The 
potential of a metallic body varies according to the distribvition, dimensions, 
position, and electrification of aU surrounding bodies. It also depends on the 
substance forming the dielectric. 

In any given circumstances, the potential of the body will be simply pro- 
portional to the quantity of electricity with which it is charged ; but if the 
circumstances are altered, the potential will vary although the total amoimt 
of the charge may remain constant. 

In a closed circuit in which a current circulates, the potential of all parts 
of the circuit is different ; the difference depends on the resistance of each 
part and on the electromotive force of the source of electricity, i. e. on the 
difference of potentials which it is capable of causing when its two electrodes 
are separated by an iasulator or dielectric. The different parts of a conductor 
moving in a magnetic field are maintained at different potentials, inasmuch 
as we have shown that an electromotive force is produced in this case. The 
potential of a body moving in an electric field (i, e. in the neighbourhood of 
electrified bodies) is constantly changing, but at any given moment the 
potential of all the parts is equal. The use of the word " potential " has the 
following advantages. It enables us to be more concise than if we were 
continually obliged to use the circumlocution, " electromotive force between 
the point and the earth ; " and it avoids the conception of a force capable of 
generating a current, which almost necessarily, although falsely, is attached 
to " electromotive force." 

Equipotential surfaces and lines of force in an electric field may be con- 
ceived for statically electrified bodies ; these siu'faces and lines would be 
drawn on similar principles and possess analogous properties to those described 
in a magnetic field (10). It is hardly necessary to observe that the magnetic 
and the electric fields are totally distinct, and coexist without producing any 
mutual influence or interference. 

The rate of variation of electric potential per unit of length along a line of 
force is at any point equal to the electrostatic force at that point, i. e. to the 
force which a unit of electricity placed there would experience. The unit 
difference of potential is identical with the unit electromotive force ; and the 
electrometer spoken of as measuring electromotive force measures potentials 
or differences of potential. 

48. Density, Besultant Electne Force, Electric Pressure. — The three fol- 
lowing definitions are taken almost literally from a paper by Professor W. 
Thomson *. Oiu- treatise would be incomplete without reference to these 
terms, and Professor Thomson's definitions can hardly be improved. 

" Electric Density. — This term was introduced by Coulomb to designate the 
quantity of electricity per unit of area in any part of the surface of a con- 

» Paper read before the Eoyal Society, Feb. 1860. Vide Proc. E. S. vol. x. p. 819 (1860), 
and PhU. Mag. vol. xx. Ser. 4 (1860) p. 322. 

156 REPORT — 18G3. 

ductor. He showed how to measure it, though not in absolute measure, by 
his proof-plane. 

" Resultant Electric Force. — The resultant force in air or other insulating 
fluid in the neighbourhood of an electrified body is the force which a unit of 
electricity concentrated at that point would experience if it exercised no 
influence on the electric distributions in the neighbourhood. The resultant 
force at any point in the air close to the surface of a conductor is perpen- 
dicular to the surface, and equal to 4 7rp, if p designates the electric density of 
the surface in the neighbourhood. 

"Electric Press" re from the Surface of a Conductor balanced by Air. — A 
thin metallic sheU or liquid film, as for instance a soap-bubble if electrified, 
experiences a real mechanical force in a direction perpcndicidar to the sur- 
face outwards, equal in amount per unit of area to 2Trp', p denoting as before 
the electric density at the part of the surface considered. In the case of a 
soap-bubble its effect will be to cause a slight enlargement of the bubble on 
electrification with either vitreous or resinous electricity, and a corresponding 
coUapse on being perfectly discharged. In every case we may consider it as 
constituting a deduction from the amount of air-pressure which the body ex- 
periences when unelectrified. The amount of deduction being different at 
different parts according to the square of the electric density, its resultant 
action on the whole body disturbs its equilibrium, and constitutes in fact tho 
resultant electric force experienced by the body." 

49. Tension. — The use of this word has been intentionally avoided by us 
in this treatise, because the term has been somewhat loosely used by various 
writers, sometimes apparently expressing what we have called the density, 
and at others diminution of air-pressure. By the most accurate writers it 
has been used in the sense of a magnitude proportional to potential or differ- 
ence of potentials, but without the conception of absolute measurement, or 
without reference to the idea of work essential in the conception of potential. 
We believe also that it has not been generally, if ever, apphed to that con- 
dition of an insulating fluid in virtue of which each point has an electric 
potential, although no sensible quantity of electricity be present at the point. 
The expression " tension " might be used to designate what we have termed 
the potential of a body. The tension between two points would then be 
equivalent to the electromotive force between those points, or to their differ- 
ence of potentials, and would be measured in the same unit. 

50. Conductimj Power, Specific Resistance, and Specific Conducting Potver. 

Conducting Power, or Conductivittj. — These expressions are employed to sig- 
nify the reciprocal of the resistance of any conductor. Thus, if the resistance 
of a wire be expressed by the number 2, its conducting power will be 0-5. 

Specific Resistance referred to unit of Mass. — The specific resistance of a 
material at a given temperature may be defined as the resistance of the unit 
mass formed into a conductor of unit length and of uniform section. Thus 
the specific resistance of a metnl in the metrical system is the resistance of a 
wire of that metal, one metre long, and weighing one gramme. 

The Specific Conducting Power of a material is the reciprocal of its specific 

Specific resistance, referred to unit of volume, is the resistance opposed by 
the unit cube of the material to the passage of electricity between two opposed 
faces. It may easily be deduced from the specific resistance referred to unit 
of mass, when the specific gravity of the material Ls known. 

Specific Conducting Power may also be referred to unit of volume. It is of 
course the reciprocal of the specific resistance referred to the same unit. 


It is somewhat more convenient to refer to the unit of mass with long 
uniform conductors, such as metal wires, of which the size is frequently and 
easily measured by the weight per foot or metre ; and it is, on the other hand, 
more convenient to refer to the unit of volume bodies, such as gutta percha, 
glass, &c., which do not generally occur as conducting-rods of uniform section, 
while their dimensions can always be measured with at least as much accu- 
racy as their weights. 

51. Specific Inductive Capacity*. — Faraday discovered that the capacity 
of a conductor does not depend simply on its dimensions or on its position 
relatively to other conductors, but is influeiiced ift amount by the nature of 
the insulator or dielectric separating it from them. The laws of induction 
are assumed to be the same in all insulating materials, although the amount 
be different. The name " inductive capacity " is given to that quality of an 
insulator in virtue of which it affects the capacity of the conductor it sur- 
rounds, and this quality is measured by reference to air, which is assumed 
to possess the unit inductive capacity. The specific inductive capacity of a 
material is therefore equal to the quotient of the capacity of any conductor 
insulated by that material from the surrounded conductors, divided by the 
capacity of the same conductor in the same position separated from them by 
air only. It is not improbable that this view of induction may be here- 
after modified. 

52. Heat jirodaced in a Conductor by a Current. — The work done in driving 
a current, C, for a unit of time through a conductor whose resistance is R,by an 
electromotive force E, is EC = EC^ (§17). This work is lost as electrical 
energy, and is transformed into heat. As Dr. Joule has ascertained the 
quantity of mechanical work equivalent to one unit of heat, we can calculate 
the quantity of heat produced in a conductor in a given time, if we know 
C and R in absolute measure. In the metrical series of units founded on 
the metre gramme and second, if we call the total heat 9, taking as unit the 
quantity required to raise one gramme of water one degree Centigrade, we 

^=^4157 W 

In the British system, founded on feet, grains, seconds, with a unit of heat 
equal to the quantity required to raise one grain of water one degree Fahr., 
we must substitute the number 24-861 for -4157 in the above equation. 

53. Electrochemical Equivalents. — Dr. Faraday has shown f that when an 
electric current passes through certain substances and decomposes them, the 
quantity of each substance decomposed is proportional to the quantity of 
electricity which passes. Hence we may call that quantity of a substance 
which is decomposed by unit current in unit time the electrochemical equi- 
valent of that substance. 

This equivalent is a certain number of grammes of the substance. The 
equivalents of different substances are in the proportion of their combiaing 
nmnbers ; and if all chemical compounds were electrolytes, we should be able 
to construct experimentally a table of equivalents in which the weight of 
each substance decomposed by a unit of electricity would be given. The 
electrochemical equivalent of water, in electromagnetic measure, is about 
0-02 in British, 0-0092 J in the metrical system. The electrochemical equi- 
valents of all other electrolytes can be deduced from this measurement with 
the aid of their combining niunbers. 

* Esperimental Eesearches, series si. f Experimental Eesearches, series vii. 

t -009375 by Weber and Kohlrausch . 

158 REPORT— 1863. 

54. Electromotive Force of Chemical Affinity. — When two substances 
having a tendency to combine are brought together and enter into combina- 
tion, they enter into a new state in which the intrinsic energy of the system 
is generally less than it was before, that is, the substances are less able to 
effect chemical changes, or to produce heat or mechanical action, than before. 

The energy thus lost appears dming the combination as heat or electrical 
or mechanical action, and can be measured in many cases *. 

The energy given out during the combination of two substances may, like 
all other forms of energy, be considered as the product of two factors t — the 
tendency to combine, and the amount of combination effected. Now the 
amount of combination may be measured by the number of electrochemical 
equivalents which enter into combination ; so that the tendency to combine 
may also be ascertained by dividing the energy given out by the number of 
electrochemical equivalents which enter into combination. 

If the whole energy appears in the form of electric currents, the energy of 
the current is measured by the product of the electromotive force and the 
quantity of electricity which passes. Now the quantity of electricity which 
passes is equal to the number of electrochemical equivalents which enter on 
either side into combination. Hence the total energy given out, divided by 
this number, will give the electromotive force of combination. Thus, if N 
electrochemical equivalents enter into combination imder a chemical affinity 
I, and in doing so give out energy equal to W, either as heat or as electrical 
action, then 


But if W be given out as electrical action, and causes a quantity of electricity 
Q, to traverse a conductor under an electromotive force E, we shall have 


By the definition of electrochemical equivalents, E=N, 
therefore I=E; 

or the force of chemical affinity may in these cases be measured as electro- 
motive force. 

This method of ascertaining the electromotive force due to chemical com- 
bination, which gives lis a clear insight into the meaning and the measure- 
ment of " chemical affinity," is due to Professor W. Thomson J. 

The field of investigation presented to us by these considerations is very 
wide. We have to measure the intrinsic energy of substances as dependent 
on volume, temperature, and state of combination. When this is done, the 
energy duo to any combination will be found by subtracting the energy of 
the compound from that of the components before combination. 

As the tendency to mcrease in volume is measured as pressure, and as the 
tendency to part with heat is measured by the temperature, so in chemical 
dynamics the tendency to combine will be properly measured by the electro- 
motive force of combination. 

55. — Tables of Dimensions and other Constants: — 

Fundamental Units. 
Length=L. Time=T. Mass=M. 

* Eeport British Association, 1850, p. 63, audPliil. Mag. vol. xxxii. Ser. 3. See papers 
by Prof. Andrews, and Favre and Silbermann, " On the Heat given out in Chemical Action," 
C'omptes Reudus, vols, xxxvi. and xxxvii. 

t See Eankine " On tlie General Law of Transfoi-mation of Energy," Phil. Mag. 1858. 

% "On the Mechanical Theory of Electrolysis," Phil. Mag. Dec. 1851. 





Derived Mechanical Units. 

rorce=P=3^. Velocity=V=^. 

Derived Magnetical Units. 

Strength of the pole of a magnet m=L^ T M^ 

Moment of a magnet toZ=L^ T M' 

Intensity of magnetic field H=L ^ T M* 

Electromagnetic System of Units. 

Quantity of electricity Q=L* x M* 

Strength of electric current C=L* T~* M* 

Electromotive force E=L^ T~^M^ 

Resistance of conductor 

E=L T 


Electrostatic System of Units. 

Quantity of electricity q=li^ T 

Strength of electric currents c=lP T 

Electromotive force 

— 1 . 



Eesistance of conductor r=L T 

Let V be the ratio of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic imit of quantity 
(35 and 46) ; then v= 310,740,000 metres per second approximately, and we 






Table for {lie Conversion of British {foot-grain-second) System to Metrical 
(metre-gramme-second) System. 

Number of 

metrical units 

contained in a 

British unit. 



Number of 
British units 
contained in a 
metrical unit. 

1" for M 







2 2955749 












2" for L, ^,E,landY.. 
1 r 

3°for r (also for foot-grains 
and metre-grammes) . 


5° for H and electro- 
chemical equivalents. 

6" for Q, C, and e 

7" for E, m, q, and c . . . . 

8" for heat 

At Paris ^ t^" ^"^g^* '^^ ^ gramme^ g.g^ggg ^^^^^^^^ ^j^^ ^^ j force, 
or metre-gramme I work. 

160 REPORT— 1863. 

British System, — Relation between Absolute and other Units. 

Oue absolute unit of | ^°"'"f = 0-0310666 jj^^ ^^ ^ S^'*^^ 1 in London. 
[ work loot-grains J 

In London | ^^^f ^^ ^ ?r^^^=32-1889 absolute units of | ^'^^'"f- 
[ one loot-grain y work. 

rv 1, 1 x ■,. e\ force 1 f unit weight 1 , 

Due absolute unit 01 < , =_ -^ . .° . > everywhere. 

[ work n \ unit weight x unit length J .? " ^ '<=• 

g in British system = 32-088 (1 + 0-00ol33 siu= X), where \=the latitude of 
the place at which the observation is made. 

Heat. — The unit of heat is the quantity required to raise the temperature of 
one grain of water at its maximum density 1° Fahrenheit. 

Absolute mechanical equivalent of unit of heat = 24861 = 772 foot-grains 
at Manchester. 

Thermal equivalent of an absolute unit of work = 0-000040224. 

Thermal equivalent of a foot-grain at Manchester = 0-0012953. 

Electrochemical equivalent of water = 0-02, nearly. 

Metrical System. — Relation between Absolute and other Units. 

One absolute unit of | ^^'^'^f = 0-0809821 ^^|g^^ *^^ ^ ^'^"^"^^ \ at Paris. 
y work metre-gramme j 

r\ V 1 i. -J. i> f force 1 unit weight "1 , 

One absolute unit of -^ i =- -j. • uj. -j. i t.\. }■ everywhere. 
y work q umt weight x umt length J -' 

g in metrical system = 9- 78024 (1-1-0-005133 sin'^ X), where X=the latitude 
of the place where the experiment is made. 

Heat. — The unit of heat is the quantity required to raise one gramme of 
water at its maximum density 1° Centigrade. 

Absolute mechanical equivalent of the unit of heat=4157-25=423-542 
metre-grammes at Manchester. 

Thermal equivalent of an absolute unit of work = 0-00024054. 

Thermal equivalent of a metre-gramme at Manchester =0-00236154. 

Electrochemical equivalent of water =0-0092, nearly. 

56. Note to the Table of Dimensions, by Professor Cleric Maxwell. — All the 
measurements of which we have hitherto treated are supposed to be made in 
the same medium — ordinary air ; but Faraday has shown that other media 
have different properties. Paramagnetic bodies, such as oxygen and salts of 
iron, when placed in media less paramagnetic than themselves, behave as 
paramagnetic bodies ; but when placed in media more paramagnetic than 
themselves, they behave as diamagnetic bodies. 

Hence magnetic phenomena are influenced by the nature of the medium in 
which the bodies are placed, and the system of units and of measurements 
which we adopt depends on the nature of the medium in which our experi- 
ments are made. If we made our experiments in highly condensed oxj'gen, 
magnets would attract each other less, and currents would attract each other 
more, than they do in common air ; and the reverse would be the case if we 
worked in a sea of melted bismuth. 

Now if we take into account the " coefficient of magnetic induction " of the 
medium in which we work, and instead of assuming that of common air to be 
unity, assume it proportional to the density of that part of the medium to 



which the magnetic action is due, we shall have the repulsion of two 

poles = -, where m m^ are the two poles, fi the density of the magnetic 

medium, and r the distance. Now a density is a mass, M,, divided by U, the 
unit of volume. Hence the dimensions of m are . /_r^|; or if we can 
measure the density of the magnetic medium in the same unit of mass as that 
employed for other purposes, the dimensions of m would be simply — . Those 

of H would then be — , or a velocity. 

If we suppose the density of the magnetic medium to be taken account of 
in the electromagnetic units, their dimensions become 

Quantity of electricity . .Q=L^ or equivalent to an area. 

Strength of current . . . . C= — 

Electromotive force . . . . E = — 


Resistance of conductor R= 

TTie electromagnetic unit of quantity of electricity is equal to the electro-, 
static imit multiplied by a certain velocity, depending on the elasticity of the 
magnetic medium, and proportional or probably equal to the velocity of pro- 
pagation of vibrations in it. Hence the dimensions of 

Electrostatic quantity q = LT 

Electrostatic current c = L 

Electrostatic electromotive force e=-z^ 


Resistance r= — 

As we have no knowledge of the density, elasticity, &c., of the magnetic 
mediimi, we assume it as ha\T[ng a standard state in common air ; and sup- 
posing all measurements to be made in air, the original table of dimensions is 
sufficient for expressing measurements made according to one system in terms 
of any other system. 

57. Magnitude of Units and Nomenclature. — In connexion with the system 
of measurement explained in this treatise, two points hitherto unmentioned 
deserve attention — first, the absolute magnitude of the imits, and secondly, 
the nomenclature. 

The absolute magnitude is in most cases an inconvenient one, leading to 
the use either of exceedingly small or exceedingly large numbers. Thus the 
units of electromagnetic resistance and electromotive force and quantity, and 
of electrostatic currents, are inconveniently small ; the unit of electrostatic 
resistance is inconveniently large. Decimal multiples and submultiples of 
these units will therefore probably have to be adopted in practice. The 
choice of these multiples and submultiples forms part of the business of the 

The nomenclature hitherto adopted is extremely defective. In referring 
to each measurement, we have to say that the number expresses the value in 
electrostatic or electromagnetic absolute units : if a multiple is to be used, this-, 
multiple will also have to be named ; and further, the standard units of length.' 

1863. 3t 


REPOKT 1863. 

mass, and time have to be referred to, inasmuch as some writers use the pound 
and some the grain, some the metre and some the millimetre, as fundamental 
units. This cumbrous diction, and the risk of error imported by it, would 
he avoided if each unit received a short distinctive name in the manner pro- 
posed by Sir Charles Bright and Mr. Latimer Clark, in a paper read before 
the British Association at Manchester, 1861. 

Part I. — Intkodtjctoby. 

1. Objects of treatise. 

2. Derivation of units from fundamental 


3. Staudai'd mechanical units. 

4. Dimensions of derived units. 

Part II. — The Measttrejient of Magnetic Phenomena, 

5. Magnets and magnetic poles. 

6. Magnetic field. 

7. Magnetic moment. 

8. Intensity of magnetization. 

9. Coefficient of magnetic iaduction. 

10. Magnetic potentials and equipoten- 

tlal surfaces. 

11. Liues of magnetic force. 

12. Relation between lines of force and 

equipotential surfaces. 

Part III. — Measitrement of Eleoteic Phenomena by theib 
Electromagnetic Effects. 


Meaning of the words "electric 

Meaning of the words "electric 

Meaning of the words "electro- 
motive force." 

Meaning of the words "electric 

Measurement of elective currents by 
their action on a magnetic needle. 

Measurement of electiic cmrents by 
their mutual action on one another. 

Weber's Electi-o-djTiamometer. 

21. Comparison of the electi-omagnetic 

and electrochemical action of 

22. Magnetic field near a cun-ent. 

23. Mechanical action of a magnetic field 





on a closed conductor conveying 
a current. 
General law of the mechanical action 
between electric cm-rents and 
other electric cmTents or magnets. 

25. Electromagnetic measurement of 

electric quantity. 

26. Electric capacitj' of a conductor. 

27. Direct measiu'ement of electromotive 


Indirect measurements of electro- 
motive force. 

Measurement of electric resistance. 

Electric resistance in electromagne- 
tic units is measiured by an abso- 
lute velocity. 

Magneto-electric induction. 

On material standards for the mea- 
surement of electric magnitudes. 




Part IV, — Measurement of Electric Phenomena bt Statical Effects. 






Electrostatic measure of electric 

Electi'ostatic system of units. 

Ratio betweenelectrostatic and elec- 
tromagnetic measures of quantity. 

Electrostatic measure of currents. 

Electrostatic measure of electromo- 
tive force. 

Electrostatic measure of resistance. 

Electric resistance in electi'ostatic 
units is measured by the recipro- 
cal of an absolute velocity. 

Electrostatic meas\u"e of the capacity 
of a conductor. 

41. Absolute condenser — practical mea- 

surement of quantity. 

42. Practical measm-ement of currents. 

43. Practical measm-ement of electro- 

motive force. 

44. Comparison of electromotive forces 

by their statical eflects. 

45. Pi-actieal measurement of electric 


46. Experimental determination of the 

ratio V between electromagnetic 
and electrostatic measures of 


Part V. — Electbicai Measxteeiients debited from the Five Elementary 


47. Electric potential _ I 53. Electrochemical equivalents 

48. Density — resultant electric force — 

electric pressure. 

49. Tension. 

60. Conducting power, specific resist- 
ance, and specific conducting 

51. Specific inductive capacity. 

62. Eleat produced in a conductor by a 

54. Electi-omotive force of chemical 


55. Tables of dimensions and other con- 


56. Note to the table of dimensions, by 

Professor Clerk Maxwell. 

57. Magnitude of units and nomen- 


Appendix J).— Description of an Experimental Measurement of Electrical 
Eesistance, made at Kings College. By Professor J, Clerk Maxwell and 
Messrs. Balfoub Stewart and Fleeming Jenkin. 

Parts I., III., and IV., by Professor Maxwell. 
Part II., by Mr. ELEEjfiNG Jenkin. 

Part I. General description of the method employed. — In the general 
Eeport of the Committee, and in Appendix C, it has akeady been shown that 
the most important aid to the exact science of electricity woiild be the de- 
termination of the resistance of a wire in absolute measure, and the publica- 
tion of standards of resistance derived from this wire. This has already 
been done by Weber* ; but it is desirable that the determination of a quantity 
80 important should not be left in the hands of a single person. 

"Weber has employed two methods. 

1st. By suddenly turning a coil of wire about an axis so as to alter its 
position relatively to the terrestrial magnetic lines of force, he produced an 
electromotive force acting for a short time in the coil. This coil was con- 
nected with another fixed coil having a magnet suspended in its centre. The 
current generated by the electromotive force passed through both coils and 
gave the magnet a sudden impulse, the amount of which was measured by 
its extreme deflection. 

Thus an electromotive force of short duration produced a current of short 
duration. The total amount of electromotive force depended on the size of 
the moveable coil and on the intensity of terrestrial magnetism. The total 
amount of the current is measured by the impulse given to the magnet, and 
the mechanical value of the impulse is measured by the angle through which 
it swings. The resistance of the whole circuit, consisting of both coils is 
then ascertained by dividing the electromotive force by the current. ' 

2nd. Weber's second method consisted in causing a powerful magnet to 
oscillate within a coil of wire. By the motion of the magnet currents are 
produced in the coil, and these, reacting on the magnet, retard its motion. 
The rate of diminution of the amplitude of the oscillations, when compared 
with the rate of diminution when the circuit is broken, affords the means of 
determining the resistance of the circuit. 

Professor W. Thomson has designed an apparatus by which the resistance of 
a coil can be determined in electromagnetic measure by the observation of 
the constant deflection of a magnet, and his arrangement has been adopted 
tor the experiments made by the Committee. 

* Pogg. Ann. Ed. 82. p. 337 (March 1851) ; Electrische Maasbestimmungen, Leipziff 
Plil M'*°"lkf ^°''''" "^ *^^ -^^^^ ^^'^^ ""^ Sciences of Sasony, vol. i. p. 197; and 


164 REPORT — 1863. 

The coil of wire is made to revolve about a vertical diameter with constant 
velocity. The motion of the coil among the lines of force due to the earth's 
magnetism produces induced currents in the coil which are alternately in 
opposite directions with respect to the coil itself, the direction changing as 
the plane of the coil passes through the east and west direction. If we con- 
sider the direction of the current with respect to a fixed line in the east and 
west direction, we shall find that the changes in the current are accompanied 
with changes in the face of the coU presented to the east, so that the absolute 
direction of the current, as seen from the east, remains always the same. If 
a magnet be suspended in the centre of the coU, it will be deflected from the 
north and south line by the action of these currents, and will be turned in 
the same direction as the coil revolves. The force producing this deflection 
is continually varying in magnitude and direction, but as the periodic time 
is small, the oscillations of the magnet may be rendered insensible by in- 
creasing the mass of the apparatus along with which it is suspended. The 
resistance of the coil may be found when we know the dimensions of the 
coil, the velocity of rotation, and the deflection of the magnet. The intensity 
of terrestrial magnetism enters into the measurement of the electromotive 
force, and also into the measurement of the current ; but the measure of the 
resistance, which is the ratio of these two quantities, is quite independent of 
the value of the magnetic intensity. 

■ Pakt II. Description of the Apparatus. — For convenience of description, 
the apparatus with which the experiments were made may be divided into 
five parts : — 1°, the driving gear ; 2°, the revolving coU ; 3°, the governor ; 
4°, the scale, with its telescope, by which the deflections of the magnet were 
observed ; 5°, the electric balance, by which the resistance of the copper coil 
was compared with a German-silver arbitrary standard. 

The general arrangement of the first four parts is sho-\vn in the diagram, 
fig. 4, Plate VI. 

The driving gear consisted of a leaden flywheel X on a shaft A, turned 
by hand, and communicating its motion by a band, hh^ h^. . . . , arranged in 
a way equivalent to Huyghens's gearing, to a shaft B, a pulley on which drove 

the revolving coU by a simple band aa^a^ The arrangement of the band 

hh^h^. . . . communicating the motion of shaft A to shaft B may be easily 
understood from the diagram. C C are two guide-pulleys running loose on 
pins attached to the main framing. D D are two loose pulleys maintained at 
a constant distance by the strut E, to which the weight W is hung. 

When the rotation of shaft B is opposed by a suflicient resistance, the 
effect of turning the flywheel in the direction shown by the arrow is to lift 
the weight W from the ground, tending to turn the shaft B with a definite 
force, which will be sensibly constant so long as the weight is kept off' the 
ground and the band hb^b^. . . . remains unaltered in length. Wherever, as 
in the present experiments, the resistance increases with the speed of rota- 
tion, the speed of the driving-wheel can easily be regulated by hand, so as to 
keep the weight from falling so low as to touch the ground, or rising so high 
as to foul the gear, and thus, with a little care, a constant driving force can 
be applied to the shaft B, and to the machinery connected with it. 

The revolving coil formed the most important part of the apparatus. It is 
shown one-fifth full size in figs. 1 and 2, Plate VI. 

A strong brass frame H H was bolted down by three brass bolts F F F, 
doweUed into a heavy stone. It could be accurately levelled by three stout 
screws GGG. The brass rings 11^, on which the insulated copper wire 
was coiled, were supported on the frame by a pivot J, woi'kiiig in lignum 

33^R^cn-t Tb-itish Jss-oc.iS63 


ion of ElecOi'caL Resistance in 

Fie/ . 3 . 


J. '^ LoivTy J'cu2p^ 

TUu 6 . 

"^. ^^* 

■•^Bfp'nt /hint/t Jjr.>e ifl. 

awoi'CTioPf AipiiwniATrs, 

fiv-tJu dfM-mint'''"" of EU^Otmi Iicsi*tai» 


vitae, and by a hollow bearing K, working in brass : this bearing worked in 
a kind of stuffing-box k (fig. 3), which by three screws and a flat spring 
washer between it and the frame at j, conld be adjusted to fit the collar e 
with great nicety, preventing all tendency to bind or shake. Supported in 
this way the coil revolved with the utmost freedom and steadiness. 
_ The coU of copper wire was necessarily divided into two parts on the two 
rings IIj, to permit the suspension of the magnet S. The two brass rings 
were each formed of two distinct halves, insulated from one another by vul- 
canite at the flanges //j. This insulation was necessary to prevent the in- 
duction of currents in the brass rings. These rings, after being bolted 
together, were turned with great accuracy by Messrs. Elliott Brothers. The 
insulated copper wire was wound in one direction on both rings ; the inner 
end of the second was soldered to the outer end of the first ; the two extreme 
ends of the conductor thus formed were soldered to two copper terminals h h', 
insulated by the vulcanite piece x bolted to the brass rings. Each terminal 
was provided with a strong copper binding screw, and had a mercury-cup 
drilled into its upper surface. The two coils could be joined, so as to form a' 
closed circuit, by a short copper bar between the binding screws. The bar, 
binding screws, and nuts were amalgamated to ensure perfect contact. When 
the copper coils were to be connected with the electric balance, the short 
copper bar was removed and the required connexions were made by short 
copper rods, one quarter of an inch in diameter, dipping at one end into the 
mercury-cups on the terminals h h', and at the other end into the mercury- 
cups of the electric balance. The absence of all induced currents influencing 
the suspended magnet when the circuit was broken at h h' was repeatedly 
proved by experiment. 

Rotation was communicated to the coils by a catgut band simply making 
half a turn round the small V-pulley I. The band could be tightened as 
required by the jockey pulley z and weight w (fig. 4). 

A short screw of large diameter, n, gearing into a spur-wheel of one hun- 
dred teeth, 0, formed the counter from which the speed of rotation was 
obtained, as follows. A pin p on the wheel o lifted the spring q as it 
passed ; this spring in its rebound struck the gong M. The blow was of 
course repeated at every hundred revolutions, and the time of each blow was 
observed on a chronometer. The arrangement was equally adapted for rota- 
tion in either direction. 

A second V-puUey r served for the band c c, communicating motion to the 
governor by which the speed was controlled. 

The manner in which the suspended magnet was introduced to the centre 
of the coil is best seen in fig. 3. A brass tripod N, bolted to the main 
frame, supported the long brass tube 0, which passed freely through the 
hollow bearing at K. A cylindrical wooden box P slipped on to the end of 
the tube 0. The magnet hung inside this box, the lower part of which 
could be removed to allow the exact position of the magnet to be verified. 
The support N also carried a short brass tube R, on which the glass case 
T could be secured by a little sliding tube. The mirror t, attached to the 
magnet S by a rigid brass wire, hung inside this glass case by a single 
cocoon fibre about eight feet long. This fibre was protected against currents 
of air by a wooden case (not shown in the Plate), extending from the point 
of support down to the glass case. A little sliding paper prolongation of the 
wooden case made it nearly wind-proof by fitting at the bottom against the 
main brass frame. An opening in the case allowed the mirror to be seen.. 
The fibre at the top was suspended from a torsion head, by which it could 


REPORT — 1863. 

be turned ; it could also be raised and lowered by a smaU barrel, and was 
adjustible in a horizontal plane by three set screws. The care taken in sus- 
pending the magnet and in protecting it both against cun-ents of air and 
vibration was repaid by success, for the image of the scale reflected in the 
magnet was as clear and steady when the coU was making 400 revolutions 
per minute as when it was at rest. 

The governor used was lent by one of the Committee and wiU not be 
described in detail, as an improved governor on the same principle will be 
adopted in future experiments, in describing which an account of its construc- 
tion will be given. It may be said, however, that the Mttle instrument actually 
employed generally controlled the speed to such uniformity as allowed the 
deflections to be observed with as much accuracy as the zero-point. 

The scale and telescope hardly require special description; they were 
arranged in the usual manner for this kind of experiment, at about three 
metres from the mirror. The scale was an engine-divided paper scale nailed 
to a wooden bar. This plan will in future experiments be abandoned, as 
variations in the weather had a very perceptible influence on the scale. 

The annexed diagram shows the electric balance by which the copper coLl 

C was compared with an arbitrary German-silver standard S before and 
after each induction experiment. The arrangement is that of the ordinary 
"Wheatstone's balance, as described in Appendix H of the Eeport of your 
Committee for 1862. A and C represent the arms of the balance as there 
described, S the German-silver standard, and R the copper coil to be mea- 
sured. J Jj, H H,, M Mj, and L L^ are four stout copper bars with mercury- 
cups at a rtj ffl^ . . , hh^ b^. .,cc^, and d d^. Two short copper rods F and Fj can 
be used to connect a with b and c with d. When this is done the arrange- 
ment is exactly that of the simple Wheatstone balance with the keys at K 
and Kj, as described in Appendix H of the last Report. A and C were coils 
formed of about 300 inches of No. 31* German-silver wire, and were adjusted 
to equaUty with extreme nicety, and each assumed equal to 100 arbitrary 
units. If R on any occasion had been exactly equal to S, the galvanometer G 
would have been unaffected on depressing the keys KKj, when a was joined 

* Diameter =001 inch. 


to h and do dhj¥ and F^, rods of no sensible resistance. This exact eqiiality 
between R and S could never be obtained, owing to slight changes in tempera- 
ture which aiFected the two coils very differently. The object of the modifica- 
tions introduced was to allow the ratio between S and R, differing by a 
small amount only, to be measured with great accuracy. 

For this purpose a number of German-silver coils were adjusted, represent- 
ing 1, 2, 4, 8 ... . 512 in the arbitrary units, equal to the hundredth part of A 
or C. These coils were so arranged that any one or more of them could be 
introduced between the bars H H, and J J^. A single coil, equal to 1 in the 
same arbitrary unit, could be introduced between the bars L L^ and M Mj. 
In the diagram this coU is shown in its position and the rod F^ withdrawn. 
Similarly F is withdrawn from between H and G, and the coU 1 joins a^ and 
6j in the bars H H, and J Jj. If no other coils were placed between H H^ and 
J Jj, the ai-ms of the balance would now be 101 and 101 respectively, instead 
of 100 and 100 ; but the ratio would still be that of equality. Let us now 
suppose that, when the circuit with the battery is completed, the galvanometer 
by its deflection shows that R is bigger than S, we can reduce the resistance 
of the arm between D and Y by various small graduated and definite amounts 
by introducing the coils 2, 4, 8, tfec. between H Hj and J J,. Let us first 
suppose the coO. 2 introduced. The resistance between H and J will be the 
reciprocal of 1-5 or 0-6667 ; for where various resistances are added in 
multiple arc, the resistance of the compound arc is the reciprocal of the 
sum of theii" conducting-powers, and the conducting-power of a wire is the 
reciprocal of its resistance. The ratio between the two arms will now be 
101 ; 100*6667. Let us suppose that on completing the circuit the galvano- 
meter still deflects in the same direction as before, the arm between D and T 
must be still further reduced by including fresh coils between H H^ and J Jj. 
It is very easy by trial to find the combination which maintains the galvano- 
meter at zero when the circuit is completed. Let us suppose that, as in the 
diagram, the coils included were 1, 2, 4, 8, and 64. The reciprocals of 
these numbers are 1, 0-5, 0-25, 0-125, and 0-015625. The conducting-power 
between H and J is therefore 1-890625 the sum of these numbers. The 
resistance between H and J is 0-52893, the reciprocal of the last number, and 
the ratio between the arms will be 101 : 100-52893. A little consideration 
will show that with the coils named any ratio between 101 to 100-5, and 101 
to 101 can be obtained by steps not exceeding 0-00195, the reciprocal of 512, 
the largest coil or smallest conducting-power which can be included between 
the copper bars H H^ and J J;. By substituting the rod F for the coil 1 be- 
tween L L, and M M,, the observer can obtain a fresh series of ratios with the 
same steps between 101 to 100 and 100-5 to 100. In this way it -will be seen 
that imless the coils R and S differ by more than one per cent., their ratia 
can be measured in the manner described wdthin 0-002 per cent. 

It should further be observed that extreme accuracy in the coils 1, 2, 4, 
&c. is not necessary, since an error of one per cent, in the sum of these, as 
compared with their true relative value to the coil C, would only affect the 
final result 0-01 per cent. 

The position of R and S in the balance relatively to A and C, &c. is of course 

The diagram is not intended at all to represent the practical arrangement, 
but simply to show the connexions. The electric balance described in Ap- 
pendix H of last year's Report (Plate I. figs. 1 to 6, Report 1862) was used 
with a stout copper rod between the cups e «,, and two additional boards with 
the copper bars H H^, J J^, L Lj, and M M^, fitted as in the above diagram. The 

168 REPORT— 1863. 

coils 1, 2, 4, &c. had amalgamated copper terminals which simply dropped 
into mercury-cups on the copper bars. The observations could be made very 
rapidly and accurately, as the galvanometer was sensitive enough with four 
Daniell's cells to indicate the addition or subtraction of the 512 coil with per- 
fect distinctness. The reduction of the observations to find the ratio seems 
somewhat complicated at first, but with the aid of a table of reciprocals it 
takes but little time. No improvement seems necessary in this part of the 
apparatus. The idea of using large coils combined with small ones in mul- 
tiple arc to obtain extremely minute differences of resistance, was suggested 
to the writer by Professor W. Thomson, and wUl be found useful in very 
many ways. 

Part III. — Mathematical Theokt of the Expeeiment. 

A circular coil of copper wire is made to revolve with uniform velocity 
about a vertical diameter. A small magnet is suspended by a silken fibre in 
the middle of the coU. Its position is observed when the coil is at rest, and 
when the coil revolves with velocity lo the magnet is deflected through an 
angle f. Currents are induced in the coU by the action of the earth's mag- 
netism, and these act on the magnet and deflect it from the magnetic meri- 
dian. By observing the deflection and the velocity of rotation, we can deter- 
mine the resistance of the eoU in electromagnetic units. 

In determining the strength of the current we may neglect the motion of 
the suspended magnet, as it is found, both by theory and by experiment, to 
be insensible. "We have therefore, in the first place, to determine the elec- 
tromagnetic potential of the coil with respect to the earth's magnetism, with 
respect to the suspended magnet, and with respect to itself. 

Ist. Let H be the horizontal component of the earth's magnetism, 
y the strength of the current in the coil. 
Gr the total area enclosed by all the windings of the wire. 
6 the angle between the plane of the coil and the magnetic meri- 
Then the potential of the coU with respect to the earth is 

— HyGsine. 

2nd. Let M be the magnetic moment of the suspended magnet. 

^ the angle between the axis of the magnet and the magnetic 

K the magnetic force at the centre of the coil due to unit current 
in the wire. 
Then the potential of the coil with respect to the magnet is 

— MyK8in(0— ^). 
3rd. Let |L be the potential of the coil on itself for unit current. 
Then the potential due to a current y is 

Let P be the electromotive force, and E the resistance, then the work 
spent in keeping up the current is Py in unit of time ; or, since P=Ry, the 
work spent in keeping up the current for a time ht is 

Ry ot. 

If the current is at the same time increased from y to y-|-Sy, the work 
spent in increasing the current will be 

Ly ^y. 


If the angular motion of the coil he 29, the work spent in keeping up the 
rotation against the electromagnetic force is 

HyG cos 0c?9+ MyK cos (0—0) c^0. 

Since this work is exactly consumed in keeping up or increasing the current, 
we must have 

HyGcos ddd+M.y'Kco8(d—<p)dd='Ry'' dt+Lydy. 

Since 9=w< and — =w, the solution of this equation is 

-{GH (R cos 0+Lw sin 0)+KM (Rcos (0— 0) + Lw sin (0-^)) } 


+ Ce-L' , 
the last tenn becoming Lasensible soon after the beginning of the experiment. 

We can now find the equation of motion of the magnet. 

Let A be its moment of inertia, MHr the torsion of the fibre per unit of 
angular rotation, then 

K^=MKy cos (rf) -0)— MH(sin d) + r0). 

Substituting the value of y and separating terms in 0, we find 

^^^1_M^ |GH(Ecos0+La»sind.) + KMR| -MH(sin0-T0) 
d^ 2 R^ + i'^w I ' J 

+ 1^^^ |GH(Rcos(20-.|,) + La>sin(20-.p)) 

+KM(R cos 2 (0-0) + Lw sin 2 (0— (/>)) | . 

In order that (j> may continue as it does nearly constant, the part indepen- 
dent of must vanish, or 

l_JIKa;_ f(jH(Rcos0+Lujsin0)+E:MRl -MH(sin0+T0)=O. 
2 R^ + L^o)^ (^ J 

This gives the following quadratic equation for R, 

-,,, 1 GKw / . , KM\ 1 GKLw^ j ^ 
R— -U ( cos (? + -;=-= ) = ^ ; — —Lat\ 

2^sin0 + r0\ GH/ 2.^^^ 6 

The solution of this equation may be expressed to a suificient degree of accu- 
racy as follows : — 

^^__GKc^_ri KM^^ _2L/2L_A^^^ ) 
2tanp(l + r)t GH ^ GKVgK J ^J 

To determiae the quantities occurring in this equation, we must measure 
the dimensions of the coil, the strength of the magnet, and the force of ten- 
sion of the fibre. 

Ist. Dimensions of the coil. 

Let a=mean radius of the coil = 0-1566 metre. 

w=number of windings of wire =307 

I =effective length of wire=27rnrt =302-063 metres. 

6= breadth of section of coU perpendicular to the 

plane of the coil = -0185 metre. 


REPORT 1863. 

c= depth of section in the plane of the coU = 

6'= distance of mean plane of coU from axis of 

motion = 

a=angle subtended at axis by radius of coil=83° 1'. 

cos a =-=-12245; 

•0132 metre. 
•01915 „ 

ThenG=7rna^A + ^^A 

K=?^ sin' a 1 1 + -1 4 (2-15 sin^ a cos^ a) 
a { 

21 a^ 

1 y^ 

^- _ (15 sin^ a cos'^ a — 3 sin'^ 
24 ci 



f 1 ^^<^ 

Ic^ , 5&^ 



C • 2 

sin a cos- a — ^ — sm 

8 a' 8 rt^ 


If the dimensions of the coil are measured in metres, GK wiU be ex- 
pressed in metres. 

Let T be the time of 100 revolutions of the coil, expressed in seconds, then 

Ta) = 2007r, 





Let D be the distance of the scale from the mirror, S the scale-reading mea- 
sured from the point of the scale which is nearest to the mirror, then 

tan 20=1; 



2 tan (j) B 

To determine MHr, the coefficient of torsion, let the magnet be turned 
round so as to twist the fibre nearly 360°. Let the difference of reading due 
to the torsion be 3', then 

a' 1 





To determine — =, let the suspended magnet A be removed, and let another 


magnet, which we shall call B, be put in its place. Let the magnet A be now 
placed east or west of B, at a distance equal to the mean distance of the coil, 
or V o^ + b'^. Let the deflection of B when the north or south end of A is 
directed to it be ju, then 


The determination of the quantity L, the electromagnetic capacity of the 
coil, requires a more complex calciilation which must be explained separately. 
In the actual experiment the de^'iation (j) was always small, and therefore 
tan^ (j> was very small, so that the term depending on L was never important. 

We may now write the value of R, 



{1 + corrections}. 


In this expression the quantities determined before the experi- 
ment is made. The only quantities to be observed are T, the number of 
seconds in 100 revolutions, and 2, the deviation in millimetres of the scale. 

Part IV. — Details of the Experiments. 

In the experiments at King's College, June 1863, 
n, the number of windings, was 307. 
I, the effective length of wire, 302-063 metres, 
sin' a=l --021756. 
D, the distance from the mirror to the scale, 2-9853 metres. 

Determination of Velocity. 

A wheel of 100 teeth turned by an endless screw caused a bell to be struck 
every 100 revolutions of the coil. The times of the bells, as observed with 
a chronometer, serve to determine T. 

Determination of Deviation. 

h is the difference between the reading of the scale when the mag-net is 
acted on by the earth only, and when it is acted on also by the induced cur- 
rents in the coil. To determine ^, the reading of the scale is made when the 
coil is at rest, or when the cu-cuit is broken. Another reading is taken with 
the connexion complete and the coil in motion. If the earth's magnetism 
remains the same, the difference of these readings is the true value of ^ ; but 
since the direction of the earth's magnetic action is continually varying, we 
must find the difference of declination between the times of the two readings, 
and calculate what would have been the undisturbed reading of the scale at 
the time when the deviation was observed. 

In our experiments this correction was made by comparison with the pho- 
tographic registers of magnetic declination made at Kew at the same time 
that our experiments were going on. 


The corrections being small may be taken separately. Each has to be 
multiplied by the factor already considered, 

R= ^^^^^![!2!^?i^{ 1 + A + B + C -H D H- E -I- F -I- G + H + &c. } . 

A. Correction for the dimensions of the section of the coU. 

Ic^ 5h--c^ . „ „ 1¥ . ^ 
A=± — +^ — 7- sin= acos^ a—--^ sm= a 
6 a' 8 a' So" 

= +•000075. 

B. Correction for level. Let the axis of rotation be inclined to the vertical 
at an angle /3 measured towards the north, and let the angle of the dipping- 
needle with the horizontal be I, then there will be a correction, 

B=— tanIsin/3. 
In the actual experiment the level was taken with a spirit-level reading to 
12", and found correct to at least that degree of accuracy. 

C. Correction for the induction of the suspended magnet on the coil. The 
strength of the magnet, as compared with that of the magnetic field, was mea- 

172 REPORT— 1863. 

sured by means of a magnetometer from Kew by the ordinary method. The 
correction found was 

C = + tan n 
= •00780. 

The small magnet generates induction currents in the coil which react on 
the magnet, and tend to turn it in the direction in which the coil revolves. 
If there were no horizontal magnetic force due to the earth, the coil would 
drag the magnet round after it. In the actual case it makes the deviation 
greater than it should be by -0078. 

D. Correction for torsion of the fibre 


= -•00132. 

This correction depends on the relation between the stiffness of the fibre 
and the directive force of the suspended magnet. The fibre was a single 
fibre of silk 7 feet long ; the magnet was a steel sphere -^ inch diameter, 
and not magnetized to saturation. The correction for torsion was therefore 
much larger than if a stronger magnet had been used. 

E. Correction for position of suspended magnet. 

Let the centre of the magnet be at a distance ^ above or below the centre 
of the coil, jj north or south of the axis of motion, and ^ east or west of the 
axis, then there will be a correction, 

lb 1^ a or or I 

Here ff=156-6 millimetres, and the place of the magnet was so adjusted that 
it could not vary one millimetre in any direction without the error being 
observed. Hence this correction is negligible. 

F. Correction for irregularity in the magnetic field due to iron or magnets 
near the instrument. 

Let t be the time of oscillation of a magnet at the centre of the coil \, and 
<2 at distances z above and below that point, then 

,_ 3«^ r 2<-(i,+g ] 

~^16zU t J 

This correction may also be neglected. 

G. Correction of scale-reading. The quantity observed is tan 2^, the quan- 
tity to be found is tan 0. The correction to the value of R is 

4 W 
H. Correction for electromagnetic capacity of the coil. 
Let L be the value of the electromagnetic capacity, the correction is 

__ia'2L/2L ..X 

In the actual coil L was found by calculation= 397750 metres, and by a 
rough experiment =398500 metres. 
Now GK=560245 metres. 

The correction is therefore— 1— (0^596234)=H. 

4 D^ 

This correction is of the same form with G, and may be taken along with it. 


The complete expression for E is therefore 

R=_l 538145581730+13055-5. 

io 1 

The nature of the electrical action in the experiment may be stated as 
follows : — 

Suppose the plane of the coil to coincide with magnetic north and south, 
and that the coil is revolving in the direction of the hands of a watch. Then 
the north side of the coil is moving from west to east, and therefore expe- 
riences an electromotive force tending to produce an upward current. The 
south side of the coil is moving from east to west, and therefore there is a 
tendency to produce a downward current in it. If the circuit is closed there 
will be a current upwards on the north side, and downwards on the south side 
round the coil. 

Now this current wiU tend to turn the north end of the suspended magnet 
towards the east. But the earth's magnetic force tends to turn it towards 
the north, so that the actual position assumed by the magnet must depend on 
the relation between the strength of the current and the strength of the 
earth's magnetism. But the strength of the current depends only on the 
velocity of rotation, the resistance of the coil, and the strength of the earth's 
magnetism. Hence the position of the magnet will not depend on the strength 
of the earth's magnetism, but only on the velocity and the resistance of the 

We must remember that the coil in its revolution comes into other posi- 
tions than that which we have mentioned. As the north side moves towards 
the east, the current continually diminishes till it ceases when it is due east. 
The current then commences in the opposite direction with respect to the 
coil ; but since the coil itself is now in a reversed position, the effect of the 
current on the suspended magnet is still to turn the north end to the east. 
The action of the current on the magnet is therefore of an intermittent 
nature, and the position of the magnet is not fixed, but continually oscillating. 
The extent of these osciUatious, however, is exceedingly small. In fact, if T 
be the time of vibration of the magnet from rest to rest under the action of 
the earth, and if t be one quarter of the time of revolution of the coil, and if 
S be the deviation as read on the scale, then the same amplitude of these 
oscillations will be 


In the actual experiment i= about-—, and h less than 400 miUimetres, 

so that the whole extent of vibration would be less than ^i^ of a milh'metre 
on the scale. This vibration was never observed and did not interfere with 
the distinctness of vision. 

The only oscillations observed were the free oscillations of the magnet. 
They arose from accidental causes at the beginning of the experiment, and 
were subject to slight alterations in magnitude due to changes of speed of 
rotation, the passage of iron steamers in the Thames, &c. The time of one 
vibration was about 9-6 seconds, and by reading the scale at the extremities 
of every vibration a series of readings was obtained, the intervals between 
which were approximately equal. 

Now since the deviation is proportional to the velocity 


174 REPORT— 1863. 

and if we take values of S at small intervals dt and sum them, we shall get 


where x is the whole distance travelled in the time. 

Hence all we have to do is to observe the deviation at every oscillation, 
and to ascertain the whole number of revolutions during the time of observa- 
tion, and the exact beginning and ending of that time. This was done in the 
following way. 

The coU was made to revolve by means of the driving machine, and its 
velocity was regulated by the governor. While the required velocity was 
being attained, the oscillations of the magnet were reduced within convenient 
limits by means of a quieting bar at a distance. The quieting bar was then 
put in its proper place and the observation commenced. 

One observer, A, took the readings of the scale as seen in the telescope, 
writing down the deviation at the extremity of every oscillation, and thus 
obtaining a reading every 9-6 seconds. 

Another observer, B, with a chronometer, wrote down the times of every 
third stroke of the bell. The times thus found were at intervals of 300 
revolutions. When the observer B noted the time, the observer A made a 
mark on his paper, so that after the experiment the readings of deviation 
could be compared with the readings of the chronometer taken at the same 

The mean time of revolution between any two times of observation could 
thus be found and compared with the mean deviation between the same 
limits of time, and any portion of an experiment accidentally vitiated could 
be rejected by itself. 

The experiments of each day commenced with a comparison by means of 
an electric balance* between the resistance of the experimental coil and that 
of a German-silver coil (called " June 4 "). 

Then a series of readings of the scale was taken to determine the undis- 
turbed position of the magnet. The times of beginning and ending this 
series were noted, and called Times of 1st Zero. 

Then the coil was made to revolve, and readings of deviation and of time 
were taken as already described, and caUed 1st Spin4-. 

Then the direction of rotation was reversed and a second set of readings 
obtained, and called •2nd Spin—. 

Then the undisturbed position was again observed with a note of the time. 
This was called 2nd Zero. 

Lastly, the resistance was compared again with the standard coil. This 
series of experiments was then repeated if there was time. 

From the values of 1st zero and 2nd zero, together with the infoi-mation 
obtained from the photographic registers at Kew, the true value of the un- 
disturbed reading during the 1st spin and 2nd spin was obtained. The dif- 
ference between this and the actual reading is the de^dation I due to the elec- 
tric currents. T was got by the chronometer readings. Now let r be the 
resistance of the standard coil at standard temperatui'e, E the resistance of 
the experimental coU during the experiment, then by the comparison of re- 
sistances we find 


where x is the ratio observed by means of the electric balance. But we also 
* Vide Eeport, 1862, p. 159, and present Appendix, p. 166. 


know that R=—- + correction, where N is a known number given at p. 146. 


Hence r, the resistance of the standard coO., may be found in absolute measure 
by the formula 

/•=-—+ a small correction; 

the value of xTS should therefore be nearly constant. 

Thus, on June 23rd, 1863, the experiments were made as foUows : — 

At 12'' 15™ the resistance of the copper experimental coil was compared 
with that of standard coil " June 4 " taken at 101, and found to be 101-26. 

From 12" 36°' to 12" 45"» the undisturbed position of the suspended mag- 
net was observed, and found to be 590-28 scale-divisions as the mean of aU 
the readings. 

The position of the declinometer at Kew at the same time was 7-689 of its 
own scale-divisions. 

From 12" 47" 51'-5 to 1" S" 13' the position of the magnet was again 
observed while the coil was revolving ; 104 readings of the scale were taken, 
of which the mean was 930-59. This, when corrected for scale-error, gives 
931-48 as the true reading. The position of the dechnometer at Kew during 
the same time was 7-679. The resistance, measured after the experiment, 
was 101-28. 

The number of revolutions was 6300 during the time of observation, so 
that the time of 100 revolutions was 14'-464. 

By compariag the Kew apparatus with that at King's CoUege, it appears 
that 1-0 of the Kew scale=19-137 of the King's College scale. The undis- 
turbed readings at King's College were found actually to vary very nearly in 
this proportion to those at Kew. 

Hence it is easy to find the undisturbed reading during any given experi- 
ment by comparison with the Kew numbers. 

Thus, for the first experiment on 23rd June we get 

Corrected undisturbed reading 591-54 

Deflected reading 931-48 

Deflection ^ = -|- 339-94^ 

Time of 100 revolutions =T = 14-464 

Product Td = 4916-90 

Eesistance at time of experiment x = 101-28 

Ta.^' = 4979-75 

Three other experiments were made on June 23rd. The result of the four 
experiments was as follows : — 

Ist experiment. Positive Rotation ... . T.a.a;=4979-75 

2nd „ Negative T.a.o,- .... =5071-18 

3rd „ Positive T.a.a7=5093-35 

4th „ Negative T.S.x =5007-66 

Mean Positive result 5036-55 ' 

Mean Negative result =5039-42 

Mean result of June 23rd 5037-98 

Mean result of June 19th 5075-77 

Mean result of June 16th 5046-18 

Mean of three days 5053-32 

176 REPORT — 1863. 

It will be observed that the mean results of each day are more concordant 
than the individual experiments made on the same day. The errors, there- 
fore, which we have hitherto been unable to get rid of are not of a kind 
which would have the effect of making the result depend on the arrange- 
ments adopted on the day of experiment, but are rather such as would de- 
stroy one another ia any long series of experiments. 

Dividing N by the number just found, we get for the resistance called 100 
provisionaUy, 106493470 + 61100=10655470, 

the second term being the correction for seK-induction and for scale-reading. 

Since the coil of German silver, marked June 4th, was called provisionally 
101, we find as the result of the experiments for the resistance of " June 4 " 
in absolute measure 

107620116 metres per second. 

Knowing the absolute resistance of " June 4," we may construct coUs of 
given resistance by known methods. 

Abstract of Report by the Indian Government on the Foods used by 
the Free and Jail Populatioiis of India. By Edward Smith, M.D., 
LL.B., F.R.S., Felloio of the Royal College of Physicians, Assistant 
Physician to the Hospital for Consumption at Brompton, &^c. 

The Meeting of the British Association held at Manchester in 1861 re- 
quested Dr. John Davy and myself to represent to the Secretary of State for 
India the advantage which would accrue to science if a Report were obtained 
on the dietary of jaUs throughout India, on the plan pursued by Dr. Moiiat in 
his Report on the jails in Lower Bengal. The Secretary of State was pleased to 
accede to this request, and during the early part of the year 1863 copies of 
the Report so obtained were courteously sent to me, and probably to others 
interested in the matter ; and as so valuable a collection of facts could not be 
duly appreciated by the members of the British Association in the volumi- 
nous form in which they Avere presented, I thought it might add to the service 
which the Report wiU render if I prepared an abstract of it which should 
contain the most important facts. My proposition to do this was accepted by 
the Meeting of the British Association held at Newcastle in 1863, and it was 
directed that the abstract should be printed amongst the Reports * . 

The Report contains information from more than one hundred military and 
civil surgeons, and comprehends the districts of Bengal, the North-western 
Provinces, the Punjab, Oude, and British Birmah. Some of these reports are 
of considerable length, and offer much information on the natural history, 

* Whilst preparing this abstract, I have been much impressed with the desirability, I 
may almost say the necessity, of a calculation being made of the nutritive elements con- 
tained in the following extensive series of dietaries, since, without this, the reports are of 
comparatively httle value, and may be likened to a bill of parcels with the prices omitted ; 
but as the calculations woidd have occupied fully a month, I felt that it would not be just 
to myself to imdertake them, in addition to the great labour necessarily involved in 
abstracting upwards of 100 reports ; and, moreover, so important a public service should 
be performed under the direction of some department of the Government. It is a curious 
coincidence that the medical department of the Privy Council has, during the present 
year, desired me to make a similar inquiry in reference to the British Islands ; and these 
are the only serious attempts wliich have been made in any country to determine the natiu-e 
and nutritive value of the national dietary. The absence of the calculations just referred 
to renders the Indian returns valueless for comparison with the British inquiries. 


preparation, and use of foods, with descriptions of the several classes and 
castes of the people and their habits with regard to dietary. Many give explicit 
answers to one of the questions which seem to have been proposed to the 
writers, viz. the daily diet of an adult labourer ; but many, unfortunately, omit 
this return altogether ; whilst others mention the quantity of the several foods 
which would be eaten daily, when used, but do not select, out of the number re- 
ferred to, those articles which together constitute the daU}' dietary. Hence, 
whilst much physiological, botanical, ethnological, and social information has 
been given by the reporters when thus left to their own discretion, it is certain 
that an exact form of report upon this essential question of the daily dietary 
would have added greatly to the value of the inquiry. In abstracting the 
retixrus, I have almost limited myself to the two questions upon which infor- 
mation was especially desired — -the food and daily dietaries of the free and 
imprisoned populations ; but have added information respecting the inhabitants, 
and their selection and preparation of food, with the effect of this food on their 
health and strength. When the remarks were important, I have usually stated 
them almost in the words of the reporters. As there are great numbers of 
both vegetable and animal foods the names of which are unknown here, I have 
seldom transcribed them ; and in reference to weight, I have given them in 
English ounces and pounds, reckoning 1 seer=21bs., and 1 chittak=2ozs., 
except in two or three localities where the weight was stated to differ from 
that standard. 

The reports in reference to jail dietaries have been obtained at an vmfor- 
tunate period, since a new scheme of jail dietary was promulgated by Dr. 
Mouat in 1862, and time had not been given to ascertain its effect. Several 
schemes have been devised and ordered to be adopted within the last twelve 
years: viz., the old scale, 1857; the Medical Board scale; Mi\ Lock's scale, 
1854 ; Dr. Mouat's scale, 1858 ; another scale, 1860 ; and Dr. Mouat's new 
scale, in 1862, When the new scale had been adopted at any jaU, I have not 
considered it necessary to quote the older ones, or to refer to their effect upon 
the i)risoners. The tables which are issued with the different reports have a 
formidable appearance to the reader ; but, on careful scrutiny, I find that they 
may be referred to about twenty-five types, and I have arranged them in an 
Appendix, and referred to them by number at the end of each report. 

Bengal. — Dacca Ciecle, 

1. Dr. H. M. Davies, of Noakhally, .states that rice is the principal food 
in use, and that it is eaten with dal (leguminous seeds), chillies, garlic, onions, 
and other vegetables, as cucumbers, melons, plantains, beans, and pulse, with 
fish and milk and flesh occasionally. All are usually boiled together and 
made into curry. The food is of low nutritive quaUty, and the inhabitants 
are not robust. He gives the dietary at Noakhally Jail. (Diet No. 1 in the 

2. Dr. E. C. Chandra, of the district of Tipperah, states that rice is the 
staff of life, and is eaten twice or thrice a day, in a total quantity of 1 to 1| 
seer=32 ozs. to 40 ozs. The two ordinary meals are taken at 10 or 11 a.m. 
and after sunset, whilst the third, when eaten, is taken early in the morning, 
before going to work. Vegetables are made into curry and eaten once a day. 
Fish, fresh or salted, is eaten twice or thrice a week. Dal is rarely eaten 
— only five to seven times a month. Meat (fowl, beef, and goat) is rarely 
eaten by Hindoos, and only eight or ten times a month by Mahomedans. 
The condiments are mustard-oil, salt, ginger, turmeric, and chilli; and among 
the Mahomedans, onions and garlic, vegetable acids, and mangoes. Indian 

1863. jf 

178 KEPORT— 1863. 

plum and tamarinds are eaten eight or ten times a month. There is but 
little nitrogen in the food, but it is sufficient. The spare use of dal and 
vegetable acid is significant. He gives the dietary at the jail, divided into 
that of the labouring and non-labouring classes, and remarks that it is suffi- 
cient in qiiantity, but deficient in quality. Dal is given too often, as it is 
difficult of digestion and causes bowel-complaint. There is a deficiency of 
vegetable acid. (Diet No. 13.) 

3. Dr. E. BuNBUKT, of Mymensing, states that at the early morning, mid- 
day, and evening meals from 2 lbs. to 3 lbs. of rice is eaten, -with dal 4 ozs. to 
8 ozs., fish from 2 ozs. to 1 lb., vegetables (foliaceous or succulent) 4 ozs. to 
8 ozs., oil or ghee, with various condiments. The very poor eat 3 lbs., and 
others 4 lbs. to 8 lbs., of solid food daily. Dal produces bowel diseases, and fish 
cutaneous or bowel diseases, particularly on the eastern side of the district, 
where 1 lb. of fish is eaten daily. He gives the jail dietary, both old and 
new, and states that less than the ordinary quantity, but more than the 
ordinary quality, of food is needful in confinement. Prisoners, when young 
and robust, lose weight after a few months' incarceration ; and the quality 
(animal food) does not restore the loss. (Diet No. 1.) 

4. Dr. A. Simpson, of Dacca, states that 1| lb. to 2 lbs. of rice (8 kinds) is 
required at each of the meals. It is simply boiled, when it is called hhdt, or 
is prepared into cJioora, mooree, Jchoi, or moorlcee ; but bhdt is the only whole- 
some form as a daily food. Rice should be kept three years before it is used, as, 
when new, it is not easily digestible, and causes dyspepsia and diarrhoea. Dal 
(7 kinds) 8 ozs., or 1 poa, are eaten daily. It is boiled with turmeric until it 
is quite soft, when condiments are added, and it is eaten with rice or bread. 
Dais are very nutritioxis, but diff'er in digestibility. They grow and are used 
universally ia the district, and the cost varies from 1 anna to 2 pice per 
2 lbs. Barley is rarely used, except on the last day in the year, when it is 
parched and finely powdered, and 8 to 24 ozs. eaten : it is digestible and nutri- 
tious, and is sold in the husk at from 12 annas to 1 rupee per maud. Wheat 
is eaten chiefly by natives of the Upper Provinces, and is imported from 
Malda and Patna. Fine flour, costing 2 annas per 2 lbs., is made into 
sweetmeats and fermented or unfermented bread. The only baked bread of 
the Hindoos is prepared at home, and is the cJiapattee ; it is made into 
small biscuits, and eaten, when hot, with cihee or clarified butter. The rich 
Hindoos eat another preparation, ^nalpooah. In the towns both Hindoos 
and Mahomedans eat two principal meals, consisting of rice, fish, and curries, 
the Mahomedans eating meat also, whilst bread and mitliias (sweetmeats) 
are eaten between meals. He mentions twenty-one kinds of vegetables, 
besides leaves, stalks, and fniits (including potatoes, cabbage, cauliflower, 
lettuce, turnips, carrots, beetroot, celery, radishes, French beans, cresses, »fec.), 
of which about 8 ozs. are eaten at a meal. They are generally digestible and 
nutritious ; they grow in the district, and cost 1 pice to 1 anna per 2 lbs. He 
gives the mode of cooking. Forty-five kinds of fish, with cow's, buffalo's, 
and goat's milk, and various kinds of meat, eggs, and game, are quoted ; and 
of these febout 8 ozs. are taken at the two meals. Fish is fried in oil, with 
condiments, and added to the prepared vegetables. Milk is eaten simply 
boiled, or boiled until it becomes a semi-solid mass ; or is curdled by heat 
or acid, and eaten with the curd separated or otherwise. Butter is gene- 
rally made from the douhee (milk curdled with acid), and sometimes from milk ; 
it is rarely eaten by the natives, who prefer ghee or clarified butter, and fry 
their food in it. Sho)- or malai is milk kept at a low heat for six hours, 
until the cream rises (as in making the clotted cream in Devon) . Hindoos 



may eat only tlie flesh, of the he-goat offered to some god or goddess. They 
eat pigeons and ducks occasionally, and turtle during the two first months 
of the cold season. They also eat ducks' and turtles' eggs, but not fowls' 
eggs. The Mahomedans eat all kinds of meat, except that of swine and 
turtle. Fish is cheap ; milk is dear (1^ anna per 2 lbs.). Meat costs from 
1^ to 3 annas per 2 lbs. Eruits are largely eaten at each meal ; they are 
cheap, and for the most part nutritious and digestible ; twenty-nine kinds are 
named. The dietary in the jail varies with dui'ation of imprisonment (one, 
two, or three months) and labour. (Diets Nos. 5, 6, and 7.) 

5. Dr. E. J. Gateb, of Burrisaul, states that the industrial classes eat two 
meals daily, costing 6 pice each, and each consists of rice 1 lb., fish 6 ozs., 
dal 4 ozs., and vegetables 6 ozs. The food is prepared only from the best rice 
(the cheaper kinds being eaten by those who can only afford 4 to 5 pice a 
day), and is made iato curry. The foods are aU wholesome. The jail dietary 
is very poor — only about half of the dietary in freedom. It is monotonous 
and injurious to health. The weight of the prisoners in i-^| cases lessened, 
and on the whole 273 the average loss was 9 ozs. The rice is boiled sepa- 
rately, and the fish, dal, &c. made into curry, as in freedom. The kind of 
food varies somewhat with each month. There is no variation in food with 
duration of imprisonment, and on Sunday it is in all cases that of the non- 
labouring class. 

6. Dr. J. H. Thoenton, jail at Cherra Poonjee, states that the better class 
live upon rice and fish, the latter fresh (yet decomposed) in the cold season 
and dried in the sun in the rainy season. They also eat boiled vegetables, 
opium, bhang, &c., drink strong spirits, and smoke tobacco. Afterwards they 
eat meat. The poorer HiU-class find rice too expensive, and live upon potatoes 
and other vegetables. In the interior they eat millet, maize, &c. Where 
very poor, they live chiefly upon roots. The diet and habits are most injurious 
to health. The mortality is very great, and fevers, bowel-complaints, rheu- 
matism, &c., prevail. The jail dietary is varied only with, the labour. 
(Diet No. 3.) 

7. Dr. J. G. French, of Assam, gives an account of the various kinds of 
rice, and of its harvesting and cooking. The poorer class eat from 1| to 2 lbs. 
daily, but the wealthier persons eat only from 10 to 16 ozs., and obtain other 
foods not procurable by the poor. Dal is eaten by the higher classes to the 
extent of 2 to 3 ozs. daily, whilst the poor do not obtain it, or get only the 
coarser kinds. Some kinds are unwholesome, and produce bowel-complaints. 
Fish is very plentiful, except in the heavy rains ; and the small ones, in a state 
of decomposition, are eaten by the poor. The daily quantity is about 4 ozs. 
for the poor and 6 ozs. for the higher classes. Milk is not much used, except 
by the better classes. Mustard-oU is eaten to the extent of | oz. by the poor, 
and 1 oz. by the rich, or the latter obtain ghee. Meat is not eaten by 
Hindoos. Salt to the extent of | to 1 oz. is eaten daily, or in its absence the 
ashes of the plantain. Vegetables and fruits are used largely, and a long list 
of them is given, under the heads of, first, leaves and stems ; second, roots and 
fruits ; and third, acid or seasoning articles ; and about 8 ozs. of them a day is 

Mussulmen eat the same food as the Hindoos, and in addition eat the flesh, 
of goats, kids, cows, buffaloes, &c. ; but there are not many Mussulmen 
there. Hill -men take food similar to that of the Mussulmen ; and in addition 
eat pigs', pups', and leopards' flesh. They also drink much moad, an intoxi- 
cating drink obtained from rice. The following is the scheme of quantity, 
and cost of food. 



KEPORT 1863. 

Poorest Class — Hindoo Labourers. 

Better Class. 









ch. k. 


a. p. 




ch. k. 

1 2 






Mustard-oLl (not often used) 




or 39 ozs. 


17 2i 
or 35| ozs. 


The Assamese are stronger than other Hindoos ; but the Hill-men and 
Mussulmen eating flesh are superior in muscular development, activity, strength, 
and courage. Opium-eating prevails, and renders the victims susceptible to 
attacks of epidemics and malaria. Rice and curries compose the meals. He 
thinks the new jail dietary sufficient, viz. 28 ozs. for non-laboming, and 24 ozs. 
for labouring prisoners ; and approves the plan of putting all prisoners on the 
first to begin with, until accustomed to the regiilar dietary of the jaU and in 
full work. He gives the present scale of diet, which varies with the race 
and labour. (Diets Nos. 1 and 3.) 

8. Dr. W. B. Beatson, of Chittagong, states that rice to the extent of about 
27 ozs. is the daily food. New rice is generally eaten, and is cheaper than 
old, but not so nutritious. It is said to be productive of rheumatism, per- 
haps from the formation of excess of lactic acid. The rice-water is not 
always thrown away. Labourers take an early breakfast of the rice left from 
yesterday, and two other meals of rice and vegetables. Chillies are eaten so 
largely as 3 lbs. per month. Oil or ghee and dais are too expensive, and 
therefore but Httle eaten. The skins of seeds are rejected as indigestible, and 
some of the dais are unwholesome. Vegetables are eaten abundantly, and 
cooked with condiments, fish, and shrimps. A loathsome compound for 
human food is made from the refuse of fish diied in the sun, aud mixed with 
the excrements of the crows feeding upon it. The Mussulmen eat animal 
food in considerable quantity when they can afford it. A boat's crew of 
twelve men ate the fore quarter of a large hog-deer, with oil and rice, at 
one meal ; and would eat at a meal 10 lbs. of pumpkin, 18 lbs. of rice, 8 ozs. 
of shrimps, 2 ozs. of chilHes, 4 ozs. of salt, with sometimes 2 lbs. of dal 
cooked with salt and chillies. MiUc is highly appreciated, and particularly 
by the Hindoos. The Feringhees eat more largely of poultry, pork, and 
other animal foods. The Mughs are almost carnivorous, eating snakes, 
lizards, &c. Spirits and intoxicating drugs are largely taken. The Mughs 
in the hilly districts are the finest race of men, and then the Hindoos of the 
fishermen caste. The Feringhees are a weak and degenerate class, and as a 
race the Mussulman and Hindoo natives are anything but robust. Hygienic 
conditions are very defective, and miasma is rife. The new jaU system of 
^dietary had been too recently introduced to enable him to show the efiect of 


it, but he thinks it ■vdll improve the condition of the prisoners. The former 
scale was also sufficient. 

9. Dr. B. BosE, of Furreedpore, enters largely into the general value and 
influence of vegetable and animal aliments. Among the amylaceous ali- 
ments he includes rice, wheat, barley, sweet and common potatoes, yams, 
maize, ole, and green plantains. Eice is the national Bengalee food, and the 
others are only supplements. The daily quantity is 26 ozs. among the 
labourers, and 20 to 22 ozs. among the higher classes. Yarious modes of 
cooking it are given. Fish, flesh, dais, vegetables, and condiments are eaten 
as largely as the means will allow ; but they never supplant rice. Legu- 
minous seeds are treated as under the head of amylo-albuminous aliments, and 
Dr. F. Watson's analyses are quoted. The daily consumption is 3 ozs. Of 
oleaginous aliments, mustard-oil is particularly referred to, and its external 
use in rendering the skin soft, in protecting it from heat, in restraining evapo- 
ration*, and in various other ways, is pointed out. The cocoa-nut, both in its 
fluid and kernel, is treated of. About 1 oz. of oil is eaten daUy. Sugars are 
eaten to the extent of about 2 ozs. a day, and are made into sweetmeats or 
festive aliments. The sweet fruits and other sources of sugar are largely con- 
sidered. Mucilaginous substances are eaten to the extent of 4 ozs. daily ; 
also acidulous and bitter foods and condiments in an unascertained quantity. 
Fish is a most important part of the diet, and is almost the only source of 
animal aliment. Milk is used not uncommonly. Butter is used only on 
special occasions. Ghee is simply butter melted by heat, and will keep good 
for many months; it is less digestible than butter. Skimmed mUk and 
buttermilk are eaten, and he describes various preparations of milk. Flesh, 
being dear, is seldom used by the working classes, whether Hindoos or Maho- 
medans : the latter consume fowls, beef, and mutton. Eggs are rarely eaten, 
but are sold. Hindoos eat he-goats, kids, turtles, pigeons, and ducks, and 
their eggs; but the kids must be sacrificed to their gods. Palaows, Tcaleeas, 
Tcormas, Icoptas, and katee-hababs are the most common dishes, and their pre- 
paration is described. The daily consumption of animal food, including fish, 
mUk, and flesh, is 7 ozs. The jaU dietary is varied with labour and duration 
of imprisonment, and is described. (Diets Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8.) 

10. Il.BRowN,Esq., of Sylhet, states that flesh is eatenverysparingly. Fowls 
are eaten occasionally. Fish is plentiful, and is a most important and staple 
animal food. The kinds of fish and the modes of cooking are described. Rice, 
from its cheapness, constitutes a large part of the dietary, and next in im- 
portance is dal. He names the vegetables and fruits in use. Milk, ghee, &c. 
are very httle used except by the ryots, who keep cows, and they use them 
in considerable quantities. A quarter-ounce of ghee is used to a half-pound of 
dal. Sweetmeats are eaten very sparingly by the poor. Spices and onions 
are used largely. Opium-eating prevails among Mussuhnen and Hindoos, 
and drinking of spirits by those living in the hiUs. There are usually three 
meals daily, the chief of which is that at midday. The following are the 
quantities (see Table, p. 182). 

In some places fish is almost the only article of diet. The jaU dietary 
varies with race and labour, and is given. (Diets Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4.) 


11. Dr. R. Fryer, Bancoorah, divides the inhabitants into two classes, of 

* As shown in my work, ' Health and Disease as influenced by the cyclical Changes in the 
Human System." London, 1860. . 


KEPORT 1863. 





Fish or curry 



Fish or dal . 


Vegetables . 



Massalahs . . . 
Buttermilk . 















whom the Cliasa, Salee, Khoihut, Sorah, Sooree, and Agoree castes are in 
tolerably good circumstances. They eat thrice a day. The morning meal 
consists of somewhat less than 2 ozs. of rice, which they eat parched. The 
midday meal consists of rice 1 lb., vegetables 2 ozs., dal 1 oz., salt \ tolah, 
and oil 1 tolah. The evening meal is composed of rice 8 ozs., vegetables 
1 oz., dal 1 oz., salt A tolah, and oil 1 tolah. A quarter of a pice worth of 
massalah is eaten with the midday and evening meal. The second class, 
consisting of the Khoira, Lohar, Bagdee, Majee, Baoree, Santhal, Koorme, 
Bhoomig, Bhooea, Mall, and Khariah castes, are in inferior circumstances, 
and live chiefly upon animal food. They rarely eat much rice, and only 
diiring six or seven months of the year. During the remainder of the year 
they live upon jungle-leaves, fruits, and seeds, with almost all kinds of 
iungle animals and fowls. The jail dietary varies with labour, the Sunday's 
food containing 2 ozs. of rice and 2 ozs. vegetables less than that of the other 
days, and the non-labouring classes have the Sunday's food daily. The food 
of the labouring prisoners on six days of the week contains 3| ozs. more food 
than that of the free population, and upon it the prisoners keep up their 
health and weight. (Diet No. 9, nearly the same as No. 4.) 

12. Baboo K. C. Chatterjee, Baraset, states that the ordinary food of the 
labouring population consists of rice (both varieties, aoos and amun), fish, 
vegetables, dal, oil, salt, condiments, and occasionally acidulous fruits, milk, 
curd, whey, and flesh. The vegetables are of the indigenous and cheap 
' kinds ; the fish fresh, dry, and salted. Dais are eaten once or twice a week. 
The Hindoos eat only the he-goat among animal foods, and then only on 
festive occasions ; whilst the Mahomedans eat goat, sheep, fowl, (fee, and 
eggs; but, though not prohibited by tbeir rehgion, they seldom eat beef. 
The Kaorahs and Domes eat pigs, and the Mooehees the flesh of buffaloes and 
dead cows. Mustard-oil, turmeric, sea-salt, chiUies, black pepper, and miis- 
tard-paste are eaten by all classes, but onions and garHc by the Mahomedans 
and lower orders of Hindoos only. The farmers occasionally eat milk, curd 
and whey, and molasses is largely eaten by both Hindoos and Mahomedans. 
The jail dietary differs from the free dietary only in the absence of milk ; 



and the following Table shows the weekly quantity and kind of food, varying 
with duration of imprisonment, and compared with the free dietary. 

Free Lab 










3 months. 

2 to 3 

1 to 2 

1 month. 



s. cli. 

8. ch. 

8. ch. 

8. ch. 

s. ch. 





4 5 

4 1 

4 1 

3 14 











1 4 






















Onions and garlic 












The rice used is the coarse kind only. The varieties of dal are limited. Goat's 
flesh is given when fish is scarce. Two meals daily are given, at 11 a.m. and 
after 5 p.m. Mahomedans are stronger and healthier than Hindoos because 
of intennixture of races and more nutritious food. The locality is low and 
marshy, and induces endemic diseases. The prisoners sufl'er from bowel-com- 
plaints, mental despondency, &c. ; and, from confinement, the digestive powers 
cease in a few months to take or digest the allowed quantity of food. 

13. Dr. A. J. Sheridan, of Beerbhoom, gives a detailed account of the foods, 
and their preparation, in use there ; and, after stating that it is difiicult to 
get reliable information, shows that at the two meals daily the following 
food is eaten : — rice 24 ozs., dal 3 ozs., parched rice (moorhee) 4 ozs., vege- 
tables 6 ozs., oil 1 oz., massalah 1 oz., salt 1 oz. = 40 ozs. daily. Sometimes 
3 or 4 ozs. of fish is substituted for the dal and vegetables ; and when more 
food is required, the dearer kinds are omitted, and the cheaper increased. 
The poor food renders them liable to endemic, sporadic, and epidemic diseases. 
The jail dietary varies with the labour, and on Sundays it is that of the non- 
labouring classes. He deprecates the cooping-up of the prisoners by high 
double and triple walls, and the deficient supply of fresh air. (Diet No. 1.) 

14. Dr. A. A. Mantell, of Balasore, describes in detail the several foods 
in use, as well as their modes of preparation, and includes spirits and intoxi- 
cating drugs. The inhabitants not addicted to the latter enjoy good health ; 
but the smaUness of the quantity of protein- compounds prevents a high state 
of vigour among the Hindoos. The sedentary become fat. Fever and bowel- 
complaints prevail. The long intervals between meals predispose to endemic 
disease. The jail dietary varies with labour and duration of imprisonment, 
and is sufiicient for health. The mortality has doubled since 1859, and is due 
to the confinement of the prisoners within the walls instead of being employed 
(Ml the roads. (Diets Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8.) 

15. Dr. H. J. Williams, Burdwan, after describing the foods under the 
heads of rice (two kinds, hona and rokum), dal (seven kinds), fish, flesh (very 
rarely eaten), milk (eaten by all classes), vegetables (twenty kinds), acid. 

18 t REPORT 1863. 

fruits (six kinds), rire fruits (thirteen kinds), with sweetmeats, pawn, and 
tobacco, states that the average health is good, and the people are well 
nourished. The jail dietary varies with labour and duration of imprison- 
ment. The sameness of food and the small quantity of animal food and phos- 
phates lead to phthisis, and the lowest and poorest classes think life scarcely 
worth possessing in the absence of pawn and tobacco. (Diets Nos. 5, 6, 7, 
and 10.) 

16. Dr. R. Peingle, Cuttack, states that among the coolies and the lowest 
class, rice, with watercresses and the small crabs found in tanks and jheels, 
is almost the sole food. The quantity of rice is f seer ( = 79 tolahs), two- 
thirds eaten at the morning and one-third at the evening meal. The natives 
generally add 1 chit, of dal and perhaps 2 chit, of vegetables to the evening 
meal. When wood is dear, the evening meal is the only hot one. The 
natives are almost exclusively Hindoos, and eat very little animal food. On the 
sea-coast fish constitutes half the diet, whilst inland they consume an increased 
quantity of vegetables, rice, and dal ; and in the independent States, at a dis- 
tance from rivers and cultivation, rice is almost the sole food. The inhabitants 
of the coast are in the best health. Only the lowest class of Hindoos take 
opium and spirits. Mussulmen arc well fed, since, in addition to the food of 
the Hindoo, they take from 2 to 3 chit, of flesh daily. The jail dietary varies 
with labour and duration of sentence, and is the best on Sundays. The diet 
is sufficient. (Diets Nos. 5, 6, and 7.) 

17. H. Collins, Esq., Darjeelung, states that in the hills there are four 
distinct races, viz., Leiyehas (natives of Sikkim), Bootias (natives of Bootan), 
Nepaulese, and Plains-men of all castes. The Lepehas, Bootias, and Nepaulese 
eat twice in the day, the two former 11 ozs., the last 12 ozs. to 16 ozs. of 
rice ; the two former 8 ozs. of meat, chiefly pork, with a small quantity 
of salt, 2 to 4 ozs. of vegetables, and Ij pint of a fermented liquor (murnui), 
whilst the latter, in addition to the rice, take 6 ozs. to 8 ozs. of dal and a small 
quantity of salt and vegetables, chiefly potatoes. The last also sometimes 
eat goat's meat, mutton, pigeons and fowls, and bread made of wheat, millet, 
or Indian com. The two former take tea instead of murrua in the morning, 
if they can afford it. The higher castes of Nepaulese do not eat meat after 
their marriage, and never drink fermented liquors ; whilst the lower castes 
indulge in both, when they can procure them. The Lepehas and Bootias, 
and particularly the former, are remarkably healthy, and have well-developed 
leg-muscles, but have not great powers of endurance. The Nepaidese are 
short, active, and wiry, with little muscular development, but great powers of 
endurance. They arc moderately healthy, but liable to disease of the lungs 
and bowels, the latter due to the farinaceous food, and the fonner to insuffi- 
cient clothing. The Lepehas and Bootias wear woollen clothing. The jail 
dietary varies with labour, diu-ation of sentence, and day of the week, and is 
insufficient to maintain health and weight, especially for the Lepehas and 
Bootias. (Diets Nos. 5 and 11.) 

18. Dr. S. C. Amesburt, Dinagepore, states that rice, vegetables, fruit, 
massalahs, fish rarely, and meat occasionally, constitute the dietary. The 
daily quantity is, rice 24 ozs., and vegetables, including dal \ a pice worth. 
There are three meals a day, the first consisting of the food left from the 
former meal. The respectable classes, with food of good quality and well 
cooked, are in good health, whilst the poorer, having the opposite conditions, 
are liable to scurvy, diarrhoea, and general debility. The jail dietary is suffi- 
cient, as the prisoners gain weight. He agrees with Dr. Mouat that fresh 
vegetables are better food than dal. The dietary varies with labour, and 


somewhat with the day of the week, and on Sundays it is that of the non- 
labouring class. (Diet No. 4.) 

19. Dr. J. Elliot, Hooghly, states that the dietaiy of the free labourer is 
much larger than that of prisoners, and that the occupation of the former in 
the open au- improves the appetite and digestion. The dietary in jails varies 
with labour, and somewhat with the day of the week, and on Sundays is that 
of the non-labouring prisoners. The prisoners are as healthy as the same 
class when free. He gives two tables shomng the dietaiy in various classes 
or castes of the people, with their occupations, and the kind, quantity, and 
price of foods. Cowherds and milk-seUers eat 2| lbs. of rice, | lb. of dal, 
and 1 lb. of milk, costing six pice, whilst numerous others supplant the mUk 
by 2 ozs. of fish or the flesh of dead cattle or other meat, the daily cost vary- 
ing from four to six pice. The Hindoo labourer takes no animal food but 
lish, whilst the Mahomedan always eats meat. (Diet No. 11.) 

20. Baboo H. Mookerjee, Ooterparrah Dispensary, states that the food 
consists of cereals, as rice, grain, &c., eaten with milk, rancid butter, fish, 
mustard- and linseed-oil, vegetables and leaves ; roots and tubers, as potatoes, 
carrots, onions, turnips, radishes, &c. ; fruits, as plantains, water-melons, 
mangoes, tamarinds, &c. ; peas, beans, and other varieties of pulse ; molasses 
and sugar. The effect of the dietary is salutary. 

21. Dr. T. W. E. Amesbuey, Jessore, states that at two meals daily some 
or all the following are eaten : — rice 24 ozs., dal 8 ozs., vegetables 8 ozs., fish 
12 ozs., oil 12 ozs. (■?), salt | oz., spices | oz., milk 2 lbs., ghee 6 oz., and to 
these the Mahomedans add flesh. They regard quantity rather than quality, 
and consider the quantity of rice as the measure of the meal. Vegetable food 
is more adapted to the climate than animal food, and the latter of inferior 
kind is the cause of skin-disease among the Mahomedans. Ghee is less eaten 
than oil by the weU-to-do people, and too much of it leads to hepatic disease. 
The Hindoos take only miUi and fish among animal foods. All classes, ex- 
cept strict religionists, eat intoxicating drugs. Those who live without the 
latter and on vegetable food thrive well, but cannot resist disease. The jail 
dietary varies with race, labour, and day of the week, that of Sunday being 
that of the non-labouring class. (Diets Nos. 1 and 2.) 

22. Dr. E. P. Thompson, Maldah, states that wheat and rice are eaten in 
equal proportion by the descendants of the Hindostanee stock, but rice only 
by the pure Bengalee. Barley-meal or parched barley is much rehshed 
when seasoned with milk and sugar. Barley bread and wheaten bread and 
confectionary are used. Dal, fish (which is cheap and abundant), meat (not 
in general use), milk,, and dhoe (used universally), ghee (a great favourite), 
mustard-oU, vegetables, particularly the potato, salt, mangoes, and river 
water constitute the dietary. The jail dietary varies vdth labour. Thus, 
with labour, the oldest rice 20 ozs., dal 4 ozs., vegetables 4 ozs. (fish 4 ozs., 
in lieu of vegetables, twice a week), salt, chilhes, and oU } oz. The diet of 
the free labourer is, the cheapest rice 20 ozs., dal, fish, or vegetables 4 to 6 
ozs., or perhaps only dhoe. The jail dietary is as good as the free dietary, 
and the health of the convicts is good. 

23. W. J. Ellis, Esq., Manubhoom, states that the working-classes are 
mostly low-caste Hindoos, as the Botvrees ; yet they wiU eat almost aU kinds 
of flesh, as that of tigers, rats, serpents, and even the cow. The principal 
diet is rice and Indian corn, on which they live entirely for six months of 
the year. Vegetables of even inferior kinds, and fish, which is scarce, con- 
stitute the food. Those who work in the Mofussil live on gruel made with 
rice steeped in much water, with or without vegetables boiled with salt. 

186 REPORT — 1863. 

They do not eat dal or curry, and the oil is used only for anointing their 
bodies. The town labourers take three meals daily, the first consisting of 
the remnants of the last evening's meal, and all classes take the rice-gruel 
with their other food. Such labourers earn from six to twelve pice a day ; 
but where only three or four pice are obtained, the midday meal is dispensed 
with. The Indian corn is parched or ground into meal, and eaten with water. 
The lower classes are dissolute and drunken. The jail dietary is ample, and 
the labour exacted is small. Compared with free labour, it is as follows : — 
Convicts, rice 24 ozs., dal 6 ozs., vegetables 4 ozs., salt 1 oz., oil 1 oz., massalah 

1 oz. ; whilst the free labourer has 4 ozs. of dal and 1 oz. of massalah, and 

2 ozs. of fish alternating with the dal. (Diet No. 12.) 

24. Dr. B. Kendall, Midnapore, gives the daily free dietary as follows : — 
rice 24 ozs. to 28 ozs., vegetables 4 ozs. to 6 ozs., dal 2 ozs. to 4 ozs. once 
or twice a week, and fiish when they catch any. Besides these two meals, 
parched rice and molasses or sweetmeats are eaten once a day. Most of the 
farm-labourers have cows or goats, and take milk and ghee in small quan- 
tities, whilst in towns they buy a little duhee and buttermilk. The Mus- 
sulmen also eat flesh, but irregularly. The Sonthcds and Bhanghurs eat rats, 
squirrels, and some species of snakes. Bowrees eat cats and decomposing 
animals which have died in any way. The Swalghur or Kuclier caste eat 
jackals, crows, and carrion. The jail dietary of 1858 (diet No. 13 appended) 
was deficient in fresh vegetables, and caused much sickness and mortality j 
and that of 1862 is insufficient in rice. The dietary varies with the race, 
labour, and day of the week, that of Sunday being the non-labouring scale. 
(Diets Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4.) 

25. J. H. Guise, Esq., Moorshedabad, states that the free dietary is as 
foUows : — coarse rice 24 ozs. to 32 ozs., dal 4 ozs., vegetables 2 ozs. to 4 ozs., 
and fish 2 ozs., besides condiments; and with 4 ozs. of onions for the Maho- 
medans. In the eastei-n districts attali is used with rice. There is the 
morning meal of 4 ozs. of rice, and the two regular meals at one to two p.m. 
and eight to nine p.m. They smoke tobacco before and after eating. They 
are undersized and unhealthy. Many suffer from disease of the spleen and 
diarrhcea, due probably to the Ul-ventilated huts and badly located dwellings. 
The jail dietary is sufficient ; for although less than the free dietary, the pri- 
soners generally gain iu weight. It varies with duration of sentence, and 
on Sundays the short-term prisoners have more food. (Diet No. 8.) 

26. Dr. J. J. Dfeant, Pooree, states that rice is the staple food, then vege- 
tables, and then dal. Animal food, except fish, is too expensive. They are 
indolent and unenterprising people, living in low, dirty places, and covering 
their skins with turmeric paste as a safeguard against the bad effects of the 
sea air, which causes it to be of a yeUow or jaundiced colour. All ages and 
sexes smoke, and drink narcotics. A detailed account of the various foods is 
given; and the daily dietary consists of from 16 to 18 chit.* of rice, or even 
double that quantity, at three or four meals, vegetables 1 to 2 chits., dal or fish 
1 to 4 chits, once or twice a week, parched grain 2 to 4 chits, about noon, and 
salt and massalahs | chit. This is sufficient in variety and quantity for an 
inactive people in an equable climate. They are very weak and ansemic, and 
should live better, particularly on animal food, and reside in more healthy 
localities. The jail dietary is insufficient in quantity, if not in nutriment, and 
leads to bowel-complaints. The allowance for the labouring convicts is, rice 12 
chits., dal 3 chits., salt \ chit., oil \ chit., massalahs i chit., vegetables 2 chits,, 
fish 2 chits. = 19f chits. (Diet No. 9.) 

* This is the Cuttack seer = 22^ chittaks. 


27. S. M. Shikcore, Esq., Kajshahye, states that 2 lbs. of rice, 4 ozs. of 
dal, 4 ozs. to 6 ozs. of vegetables, 10 ozs. of fish, 1| oz. of oil, 1| oz. of mas- 
salahs, 2 ozs. of milk, 8 ozs. of dhoi, and 8 ozs. of julpaun constitute the daily 
dietary of the labouring classes. The dal and dhoi are, hoAvever, obtained 
only ten or twelve times a month, and the milk only occasionally. Julpaun 
consists of parched rice, peas, and grain, with salt, and is taken as the early 
morning meal. The class are, on the whole, pretty healthy ; but they suffer 
from ague, enlarged spleen, dyspepsia, and bowel- diseases. The jaU dietary 
now varies with labour and the day of the week, that of Sunday being of 
the non-labouring class. (Diets Nos. 9, 1, and 14.) 

28. Dr. E. J. Roberts, Ilajmahal, states that rice is the staple food, and 
the leguminous dais next. Vegetables are invariably eaten ; fish is plentiful ; 
and kids and pork are eaten by certatu castes. Cakes are made from barley, 
oats, maize, or dais in a powdered state, and, with cold water, salt, and chilli, 
are eaten uncooked. Dry parched grain is eaten without further cooking. 
Bauf/ahs eat flesh, including rats ; and the Sonihals and Pahareas eat almost 
any kind of flesh, as that of buffaloes, bullocks, deer, pigs, rats, snakes, tigers, 
leopards, game, and birds of all kinds. The poorest eat Ig lb. of rice, and 6 
to 8 chits, of vegetables, with salt and condiments, or substitute wild 
herbs for vegetables. Few can afford dal or fish. This costs 9 pice to 1 anna ; 
but when ] | to 4 annas can be spent, dal and fish or flesh are added, and 
then the rice may be reduced to 10 chits. Some low-caste Hindoos eat pigs. 
The new jail dietary varies with labour and day of the week, the latter 
substituting 4 ozs. of vegetables for 4 ozs. of fish on certain days. (Diet 
No. 8, B.) 

29. G. K. PooiE, Esq., Rungpore, states the free daily dietai-y as follows : — 
coarse rice 20 ozs., dal 2 ozs., vegetables 8 ozs., mustard-oil, salt, and 
massalahs | oz. each. Old rice is dearer, and is preferred. Rice under six 
months old is unwholesome. The mustard-oU is the only fat used, and when 
used in large quantities causes irritation of the bowels. Fish and meat are 
taken once in ten or fifteen days, and are not cheap or abundant. Milk 
and duhee are used occasionally. Bread or attah is not used. Tobacco is 
smoked. Betel-nuts are chewed, and as an astringent promote digestion. 
The diet, when the food is good, keeps them in health. The former jail dietary 
was insufficient, and the present one varies with labour and day of the week. 
(Diet No. 11.) 

30. Dr. A. V. Best, Eaneegunge, states that the people work in the coal-mines 
or on the land. Animal food of all kinds is eaten largely by the mining and 
jungle castes, except by the Brahmins. Fish, especially small shrimps, is a 
favourite article of food. Ghee and duhee from buffalo-milk are eaten by 
the better classes, and mustard-oU by the poorer ; but some do not obtain any. 
Rice is the staple food, and dais are largely used. Maize is eaten, and attah is 
too expensive. Fruits, roots, leaves, fungi, and a common spirit are used. 
The prisoners are allowed three pice per day, and live as at home. They do 
not suffer in health. 

31. A. J. Meter, Chyebarra, states that it is a hiUy district, and the coolies, 
being mountaineers, differ in their dietary from the other classes. In their 
jungles they eat rice and vegetables, and the flesh of all animals, birds, and ants, 
even if dead, and drink much strong di'ink. The latter in certain forms fortifies 
the constitution against disease. One meal a day, with the spirits (hurreah), 
suffices, and keeps them in excellent health. It consists of 1 lb. of rice, with 
dal or vegetables, seasoned with salt and chilli, but without fat, oil, onions, 
or garHc. Meat is rarely eaten. The other races eat two or three meals 


REPORT — 1863. 

daily, including 1 lb. or 1| lb. of rice, -with vegetables, milk, or dal, A list 
of the different vegetables which are used is given. The jail dietary varies 
with labour, duration of sentence, and day of the week. That for short sen- 
tences is abundant ; but long-sentenced prisoners lose weight, and nine out of 
twelve (Coolie or Sonthal) fall victims to the diseases of prisons. (Diets 
Nos. 11, 5, 6, and 7.) 

32. Dr. N. Jackson, Sumbulpore, states that twelve chittaks of rice are 
eaten daily. Wheat is eaten occasionally ; dal, vegetable, and fish univer- 
sally. Maize, three or four chits., occasionally. Meat, six or eight chits., 
once a week by the well-to-do classes. Milk, 1 lb. dady by the higher, and 
every four or five days by the lower class. Cheese, oil, ghee (|- oz.) by the 
better classes, ' til ' oil by the lower. Sugar or molasses 1 to 4 ozs. when 
chapattees are eaten. Massalahs from | to 1 oz. daily. Spirits are in gene-r 
raluse. The total weight of food daily is 3 lbs. The jail diet is too same 
and uniform, and there is no surer way of extinguishing an unhealthy man 
than by lengthened confinement in jad. 

33. Dr. G. M. Govan, Ranchee, states that tribes and sects differ much in 
dietary, and he describes them. The coolies work hard, and (a man, or a 
man and his wife ?) eat, thirteen out of fom'teon days, 8 lbs. of rice, 8 ozs. of 
vegetable, and i oz. of salt daily ; on the remaining day they eat 6 lbs. of rice, 
4 ozs. of dal, 1 oz. of vegetable oil, and 2 lbs. of flesh at two meals (midday 
and 6 p.m.) daily. They drink fermented beer and spirits. They are very 
healthy. The jail dietaiy is a good one, and consists of coarse rice 24 ozs., 
dal 6 ozs., vegetables 4 ozs., salt and seasoning i oz., and 4 ozs. of flesh once a 
week for such as choose to have it. 

34. Dr. "W. W. Hende, Nagpore, shows that the dietary dififers with caste, 
and gives the following as the daily food, in ounces, taken at two meals : — 



fl P 







33 bO 






























6 8 






Dheers and other 1 


low-caste Hindoos J 






but aU these foods are not eaten on the same day. The jail dietary varies with 
labour ; the highest mortality with sentences of under one year. Both jail 
and free popidations suffer from fever and bowel-comi)laints. (Diet No. 15.) 

35. Dr. W. E. Grtlls, Chindwarrah, states that the Gonds proper and Koor- 
Jcoos eat daily 2 lbs. of coarse wheat-flour, unleavened, 4 or 5 ozs. of dal, one 
or two chillies, salt, vegetables, and condiments. They are fond of any land 
of flesh, and drink intoxicating fluids. The Goojurs eat only vegetable food, 
and do not di'ink spirits. The Mer/rahs are apathetic, and will eat and drink 
anything. All eat vegetable oil ; but ghee is too dear. Eice is almost un- 
known. The jail dietary varies with labour and sex, and rice is substituted 
for wheat-flour twice a week. (Diet No. 16, and in another Eeport^ No. 15.) 

36. Dr. S. J.WTND0WE,Ehundarrah, states that the Mahomedans eatl 6 ozs. 
of rice, 16 ozs. of attah, 4 ozs. of meat, 8 ozs. of vegetables, and ■!■ oz. of curry- 
stuff daily ; the Brahmins the same quantity of rice, attah, vegetables, and 
curry-stuif, with 6 ozs. of dal, 8 ozs. of milk, and 2 ozs. of ghee ; the Hindoos 
8 ozs. of rice, 16 ozs. of attah, 4 ozs. of dal, 4 ozs. of vegetables, 2 ozs. of ghee, 


and i oz. of curry-stuff; whilst the low castes, Dheers, «&;c. eat 4 ozs. of dal, 
16 ozs. of jowaree, 4 ozs. of vegetables, ^ oz. of curry-stuff, 4 ozs. of fish, 
and 1 oz. of oil. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of the week. 
The food is cooked for the midday meal, and is eaten cold at the five p.m. meal. 
The people are spare and weakly, and stomach and bowel diseases with fever 
are common. (Diet No. 15.) 

37. Dr. C. E. W. Benslet, Raepore, states that both rice and wheat are 
largely grown there, and the latter sometimes supplements the former. He 
gives two scales of free dietary, one containing rice 24 to 32 ozs., attah 6 to 
8 ozs., dal or vegetables 6 to 8 ozs. ; fish or meat once a fortnight, in lieu 
of dal and vegetable, 8 ozs. ; milk, dhye, or buttermilk 12 to 16 ozs., with a 
little ghee or oU and condiments. The other contains the same quantity of 
rice, dal, and vegetables, with buttermilk every thi-ee or four days 16 ozs. 
Fish or meat only once a month, and milk or dhye once in two or three 
weeks. The labouring classes are agriculturists and possess cows. Those 
living on the second scale are not so strong as the others. The whole district 
is miasmatic. Dyspepsia prevails among aU classes. The jail dietary varies 
with labour. The improved dietary had been beneficial. (Diet Ko. 17.) 

38. J. H. Carr, Esq., Belaspore, states the kind of foods iised, and the 
quantity eaten at a time, but does not give a complete daily dietary for any 
class. The jail dietary consists of 18^^ ozs. of wheat-fiour (or 15 ozs. of 
rice), 3^ ozs. of dal, or 7^ ozs. of green vegetable, with a little salt, oil, and 

39. T. King, Esq., Kowtah, states that the dietary of the industrial popu- 
lation is as foUows : — attah or wheat, with the bran partly removed, 24 to 
32 ozs., rice 16 to 24 ozs., dal 2 to 4 ozs., Indian corn, roasted between 
meals, 2 to 4 heads, and gram 2 to 4 ozs. The labouring classes eat 24 to 
40 ozs. of jowaree (a species of imphey-seed), 2 to 4 ozs. of dal (lauk), and 
4 to 6 heads of Indian corn. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of 
the week. (Diet No. 18.) 


40. Dr. J. B. Allen, Behar, gives a list of the various kinds of foods and 
tobaccos in use, and the following is the quantity of the former which is 
eaten by the free labouring classes at one meal, but he does not state whether 
more than one meal is eaten daily, viz. :— rice 8 chits.* or flour 12 chits., 
dal 2 chits., vegetables 3 chits., mustard-oU and spices | chit, each, salt 
I chit., and occasionally 8 chits, of rneat. The jaU dietary is less than the 
home dietary, and the piisoners are dejected and depressed from confine- 
ment and absence of tobacco, yet they increase in weight. It consists of 
rice 24 ozs., or an equivalent in flour, dal 6 ozs., vegetables 4 ozs., ghee, salt, 
and massalahs | oz. each. (Diet No. 13.) 

41. Dr. T. B. Farncombe, Bhangulpore, states that the food, except rice, of 
the agricultural classes varies much with the season and locality. The jaU. 
dietary varies with labour and length of sentence. (Diets Nos. 11, 5, 6, 
and 7.) 

42. Dr. N. C. Macnamara, Tirhoot, divides the inhabitants into four classes, 
and largely describes them and their dietary. The Brahmins eat 1 to l|lb. 
of bread, 1 to 1| lb. of rice, 6 ozs. of dal, with butter, vegetables, and salt, 
and sometimes i lb. of fish or flesh daily. Some take 1 to l-L pint of milk once or 
twice a day. Gwallas and Koormees, who are shepherds, eat 1 to 1^ lb. of 

* The seer here = 2 lbs. 12 drachms when bought in quantities of 5 seers and upwards, 
but ouly = 1 lb. 13 ozs. 9 drachms at the bazaar-rate below 5 seers. 

190 REPORT— 1863. 

Indian com and barley-bread, 1| lb. of rice, 5 ozs. of dal, 1 to 2 ozs. of butter, 
^ lb. of duhee, with vegetable and salt, and | lb. of fish or flesh thrice a week. 
The jail dietary now varies with labour, and is also divided into classes. 
(Diet IS^o. 14.) 

43. Dr. J. M. CoATES, Chumparura, states that about 2 lbs. of rice, 1 lb. of 
dal or fish, | lb. of vegetables, and | oz. of oil, spices, and salt each, is the or- 
dinary free dietaiy ; and describes the mode of cooking them. Some oUs are 
eaten in the cold and others in the hot season, whilst but little dhoe and ghee 
are obtained. The jail diet varies with labour and day of the week. The 
Sunday's diet is that of the non-labouring class, and it suits the prisoners, 
[As I think it probable that there is an error in the report, in quoting ounces 
instead of chittaks, I do not transcribe the table.] 

44. Dr. J. Sutherland, Patna, shows that the jail diet varies with labour, 
and describes at length the various kinds of food eaten by the population, 
with the cost, and with remarks added. (Diet No. 19.) 

45. Dr. T. Dtjka, Monghyr, states that his information has been derived 
at second-hand. The lower classes eat three meals a day. The jail dietary 
varies with labour. The free dietary is not given in daily combination. 
(Diet No. 20.) 

46. Dr. E.. F. Hutchinson, Shahabad, shows that the total weight of food 
obtained by the free labourers varies from 18 to 24 chits, daily ; but he does 
not state of what it is composed, and the weight of each kind. He shows 
the evils of the jail system, and states that scurvy and diarrhoea are the jail 
pests. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of the week, and perhaps 
with race. (Diets Nos. 11 and 2.) 

47. Dr. A. G. Crewe, Purneah, states that the dietary of the free popula- 
tion consists of rice 20 ozs., dal 4 to 6 ozs., fish 4 to 8 ozs. sometimes, and 
vegetables 4 to 8 ozs. ; milk and curd are much used. The new jail dietary 
varies with labour. (Diet No. 14.) 

48. Dr. "W. F. Goss, Sonthal Pergunnahs, states that the Hindoos use but 
little animal food, and that is fish, milk, kid, and ghee. Only the lower classes 
eat pigeons, mutton, water-fowl, and pork. The Sonthals eat aU kinds of 
flesh. Vegetables, fruits, and various kinds of grain are eaten. The jail 
diet consists of rice 24 ozs., dal 4 ozs., salt, massalahs, and oQ | oz. each, daily, 
and sustains the health. 

49. Dr. S. Delpratt, Hazareebaugh, states that the daily quantities of 
food obtained by the fi-ee labourers consists of 28 ozs. of various kinds of 
grain, dal or vegetables 12 ozs., with salt and condiments, and sometimes 
parched rice, gram, wheat, or Indian corn in addition. They eat three 
meals daily. The jaU diet varies Avith labour, the non-labouring receiving 
no meat, and 2 ozs. less of rice and vegetables than the labouring. The mor- 
tality was excessive, but the health is now better. (Diet nearly like No. 11.) 

50. Dr. C. J. Jackson, Sanin, states that the constant food of the free 
labourer is the cerealia and their allies, leguminous seeds, and condiments. 
The occasional additions are tubers and succulent roots, leaves, fruits, and 
melons. He states the chemical and botanical characters and the price of 
each. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of the week. (Diet No. 14.) 


51. Dr. A. H. Cheke, Benares, states that the foods in ordinary use are 
flour, rice, dal, curds and whey, goor or treacle -cakes, with acid mixtiu'es, as 
tamarinds and other spices. The flour is prepared from wheat, barley, Indian 


com, &c., and is ground between stones. Dal is used daily, but rice is not 
much appreciated. The weight of food is 2 lbs. at the principal meal, 
but the daily quantity is not given. The jaQ dietary is composed of barley, 
ground gram, flour, rice, dal, vegetables, oil, and salt ; and parched gram is 
given at noon, instead of prepared food. The health of the convicts is better 
than that of free labourers. 

52. Dr. W. R. Hooper, Azimghur, states that rice is dear and but little used. 
Wheat is dear, but is eaten more largely than rice; whilst barley is the staple 
food, as rice is in Bengal. Dais, cui-ries, molasses, fish, and fruits are extensively 
and largely eaten. Animal food is not obtained by the poor, but is exten- 
sively consumed by the higher classes. Beef is eaten only by Mahomedans ; 
mutton and goat's flesh only by the better classes ; whilst pigs are kept in 
large numbers, and eaten by the labouring classes. Arrack is consumed in 
very large quantities, except by high-caste Hindoos. The poor, as a rule, 
take only one substantial meal daily, and that in the evening ; others take 
two meals. The daily weight of food is 2 lbs. The jail dietary varies with 
labour and day of the week. The prisoners enioy very good health. (Diet 
No. 21.) 

53. Dr. A. J. Dale, Joimpore, infonns us that there is much variation in 
the statements of the quantities of food eaten. About 1^ lb. {2^ lbs. to 2| lbs.) 
of cereals, dal, and vegetables is eaten daily, and meat, fish, and fowl occasion- 
ally. The jail dietary varies with the day of the week. (Diet No. 21, B.) 

54. Dr. A. Garden, Ghazeepore, describes at great length the various articles 
of food, with their price, in use there. The dietary is chiefly vegetables, from 
want of means, or inclination, and from religious prejudices. Two classes and 
castes only abstain from meat entirely, viz. Brahmins and Bhugguls ; but 
they take milk. Mussulmen, Kaeths, Chumars, Domes, and all very low-caste 
Hindoos eat meat whenever they can get it, whilst Boonhars, Chuttrees, and 
Agcjur-wallahis eat it only occasionally. High- and middle-caste Hindoos eat 
only mutton and goat's flesh ; whilst mutton, beef, buff'alo-flesh, goat's flesh, 
and fowls are eaten by the Mahomedans. The quality of meat varies much ; 
and if the animals die naturally, some eat the flesh. Milk of the cow, buflixlo, 
and goat is the most important and largely consumed animal food by aU 
classes. Ghee and oU are eaten largely by the well-to-do classes, but the 
poor obtain but httle. Wheat and barley, with Indian corn, are the 
staple cereals ; dais, gram, vegetables, and spices are eaten largely and uni- 
versally ; salt is eaten by all ; sugar is largely eaten ; pickles are luxuries ; 
spirits are largely consumed by some, and detested by others ; tobacco is 
much more used than bhang or opium. There are two meals daily, except 
by the very poor, who have one in the evening, and take suttoo and water 
and parched grain at other parts of the day. The amount is very imperfectly 
stated. Diseases of low type abound among the worst-fed. The jaU dietary 
varies with labour and day of the week. (Diet No. 21.) 

55. Dr. J. A. Jackson, Allahabad, gives the jaU dietary, which varies with 
labour and day of the week. The prisoners enioy excellent health. (Diet 
No. 21.) . ' ' V 

56. T. T. Sherlock, Esq., Futtehpore, states the kinds of food in use, with 
the quantity of meat which is consumed by an adult prisoner, but does not 
give the daily dietary. 

57. Dr. J. Jones, Cawnpore, states that the foods in general use are wheat, 
barley, maize, &c. among the cereals, pulses, dais, and spices. Rice is rarely 
used. Ghee is eaten by the well-to-do classes ; fish is eaten by all classes. 

192 REPORT— 1863. 

Mahomedans refuse pork, and think beef indigestible. Hindoos, except those 
who believe in transmigration, eat fish and kid. The daily quantity eaten 
by a labourer is 2 lbs. of attah, 4 ozs. of dal, and 8 ozs. of vegetables. When 
ghee is used, 2 ozs. suffices. The health is sustained on these quantities if 
the foods are properly prepared. Diarrhoea and cholera prevail in the melon- 
season. The jail diet consists of 20 ozs. of wheat attah, 4 ozs. of dal, 4 ozs. 
of parched corn, and 67^ grains of salt ; 90 grains of oil and 8 ozs. of vege- 
tables are given twice a week. The prisoners enjoy average health, but 
suffer from emaciation, impaired assimilation, and sloughing of the cornea, as 
the result of a deficient supply of oil ; also boils and skin-diseases from defi- 
ciency of fresh vegetables. 

58. Dr. G. Grant, Futtehgurh, states that vegetable food is the staple 
dietary, and that animal food is rarely consumed. The dietary contains 
cereals, legumes, fresh vegetables, fruits, nulk, with its preparation of ghee, 
dhy, rubree, and sugar ; the two latter are not obtained by the very poorest. 
Fish are not eaten, except when they can be readily caught, as during the 
rains. The daily quantity of food for an outdoor labourer is 24 to 32 ozs. 
of attah (Horn- from the cereals) and legumes, 4 ozs. of pulse, and 8 to 
12 ozs. of vegetables : artisans and indoor labourers eat less. There are two 
meals daily, at about noon and sunset. The floiu- is made into unleavened 
cakes or into porridge. Parched unground grain is eaten when traveUing, or 
when unable to cook. The dais are split, and then boiled, and eaten with 
ghee or garlic, &c. ; vegetables are stewed with water, ghee, or oil, salt, and 
condiments ; meat is boiled ynth salt and condiments ; fish is fried ■nith oil, 
salt, and condiments ; curds are produced by curdhng warm mUk ; ghee is 
obtained by constantly agitating curdled milk ; rubree is produced by evapo- 
rating nulk. "NMieat is regarded as wholesome and nutritious ; dais as heating ; 
potatoes as hot and very digestible ; onions and garlic as hot and stimulating, 
and purifying the blood ; caiTots, tui-nips, &c. as cold and strengthening, but 
not of easy digestion ; melons as hot, and increasing appetite ; milk and its 
preparations as heating, nutritious, and constipating ; animal food as heating, 
nutritious, and digestible ; and fish as more heating than meat. The jail 
diet resembles the free labourers' diet, and varies with labour and day of the 
week ; the effect upon health and strength is good. (Diet No. 21.) 

59. Dr. G. Bernard, Mynpoorie, quotes the kinds of food which are eaten, 
and the average quantity, but does not give a daily dietaiy. The ilussul- 
man popidation is in good health. The veiy poor are liable to scurvy, bowel- 
complaints, and skin-disease. The jail diet varies -ndth labour and day of 
the week, and the prisoners keep in health and strength. (Diet No. 21.) 

60. Dr. J. Sheetz, Etawah, states that about 2 lbs. of wheat -floiir is eaten 
daily, except by the veiy poor, who eat grains inferior to wheat in gluten, as 
jowar and bajra, and then fall into ill-health, as shown by the coarse and 
scaly epidennis, pale conjunctiva, large abdomen, and deficient muscular 
development. The jail dietarj- varies with sex and labour. (Diet No. 21.) 

61. Dr. H. S. SiiiiH, Gonickpore, states that the neighbourhood is very 
fertile, and produces all tropical and European vegetables. The natives eat 
two meals daily, at noon and at eight or nine p.m., the fonner consisting of 
parched corn or young maize, and the latter of rice, jowar, or chapattees, made 
from wheat- and barley-floiu-, with dal, mustard-oil, or curry-powder, fish, 
ghee, and milk. Fish is veiy abundant, and yet is often eaten when putrid, 
also raw vegetables (Cuciu'bitaceee), causing epidemics. 8 ozs. of Indian corn 
is eaten at the morning meal ; and 24 ozs. of rice, wheat, or barley is enough 


for the day. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of the week ; it is 
ample. (Diet No. 21.) 

62. Dr. J. H. Loch, Mirzapore, states that in cities the first and second 
classes eat 12 to 16 ozs. of wheat-flour, 4 ozs. of rice, 4 to 6 ozs. of dais, 4 to 
8 ozs. of vegetables, and ^1 oz. of pickles and ghee. The richer the man, the 
more ghee and rice he consumes. The third class eat bread of barley-flour, 
and not soaked in ghee ; some have only one meal daily. The dietary con- 
sists of 24 ozs. of flour and 6 to 8 ozs. of dal ; and when parched grain is oaten, 
the quantity is 8 to 16 ozs. ; and when they have rice, they eat about 8 ozs. 
at each meal. The fourth class have still coarser food ; and the quantity is, 
flour 2 lbs., dal 4 ozs., and parched grain 8 to 16 ozs. Nearly all eat meat 
and fish occasionally, when they can afford it ; and the Kayasts (Hindoos) eat 
about 1 lb. of goat's flesh daily. In the country, the first and second classes 
use wheat-flour ; and the daily quantity is, flonr 1 lb., dal 4 ozs., rice 8 ozs., 
ghee 4 ozs., milk lib., vegetables 2 ozs. The third class eat barley-bread, 
and consume, daily, flour 24 ozs., dal 6 ozs., ghee (when used) 2 ozs., rice 
20 ozs., and vegetables 8 ozs. The fourth class live very poorly, and the food 
consists of flour 24 to 32 ozs. and dal 4 ozs. The jail diet varies with 
labour and day of the week ; and the prisoners gain weight upon it. (Diet 
No. 21.) 

63. R. CocKBTTEN, Esq., Allahabad, states that wheat, barley, bajra, jowar, 
&c. are the principal grains ; rice is but little eaten ; maize is seldom eaten 
as bread, but is roasted whole in the ear before it is quite ripe ; dais are 
generally used. The daily dietary is not given. 


64. Dr. J. C. Whiskaw, Oude, describes at great length the various foods 
in use. He remarks upon the difiiculty of obtaining exact information. 
Poverty is common, but destitution very rare. A very large proportion of the 
poor scarcely ever cook, but live for weeks on suttoo, cheap fruits, with such 
seeds as they collect. Some keep pigeons, which, having collected grain, are 
made to vomit it up for human use. The unchanged grain is washed out of 
the dung of oxen when treading out the com. This class is very liable to 
disease. Kitnjers, living in jimgles, will eat jackals, snakes, wild cats, and every 
kind of animal and vegetable food. Mussulmen eat all ordinary food, except 
pork. Buff'alo-flesh is cheap, and the animal must be killed with the proper 
ceremonies. The low- caste Hindoos eat the flesh of animals dying naturally, 
and pork largely. Brahmins, <fec., may eat any game, as deer, porcupines, 
birds, and flesh. Some Chuttrees eat goat's flesh. The high-caste Hindoos 
do not eat onions, and some refuse garlic or turnips. Among all castes there 
are Bhaghuts, who swear not to eat meat or drink intoxicating liquors. The 
Chuttrees, earning from 5 to 8 rupees a month, eat daily from Ig to 2 lbs. of 
wheat or barley, unleavened bread, with 4 ozs. of boiled dal and some chillies. 
They cook only once a day, and eat only parched grain at other periods ; 
very few eat meat daily ; fish is a more common diet ; milk is not a uni- 
versal food ; ghee is always eaten when it can be obtained. Some of the rich 
drink half a pint to 3 pints of milk a day, and become very fat. Eggs are eaten 
by Mussulmen, and chiefly by the rich ; they attach great importance to 
water, and will say that one is light and wanting in strength, whilst another 
is good and full of body. Salt is indispensable ; lime is eaten daily, either 
mixed with tobacco or otherwise. There is no well-detailed daily dietary. 
The jail dietary varies with sex and labour, and to some extent with day of 

1863. o 

194 REPORT — 1863. 

the week, and is better than that usually obtained in freedom. The pri- 
soners are liable to diarrhoea and dysentery, but it is not due to the dietary, 
(Diet No. 22.) 

6.5. J. W. H. Condon, Esq., Hurdin, describes the various native races and 
castes, under the heads of their religion, manner of living, and food. The 
Hindoos are a much more energetic race than the Mahomedans. The lo-wer 
castes, as Parsees, &e., pursue agriculture, and take but one substantial meal 
daily, and that is after sunset. They may eat perhaps a little cold bread ui the 
early morning, and at midday they have a handful of parched gram. The 
lower classes of the Mahomedans are weavers, &c., and eat two meals daUy. 
Mahomedans will eat any flesh but pig, on account of its uncleanly habits, 
provided the animal had its throat cut ; whilst many castes of Hindoos, as 
Brahmins and Bunneahs, live entirely upon vegetable food. All Hindoos eat 
chapattee, which is a thin flat cake baked from flour of various grains. The 
cultivator of the land eats about 24 ozs. of this bread, with an ounce of ghee, a 
handful of dal, and vegetables ; but when very poor, they have scarcely any food 
but the chapattee. All like sweetmeats, and aU eat milk plentifully. There is 
great want of muscular development ; but they are well-formed and have great 
powers of endurance. They are patient in sufifering ; wounds readily heal, 
and yet the people readily sink under severe disease. The jail diet varies 
with labour, and to some extent with the day of the week. The health of 
the prisoners is good. Ophthalmia prevails ; and yet the diet is better than 
the majority obtain when free. (Diet No. 22.) 

66. Dr. E. Setons, Pertabghur, experienced difficulty in obtaining the 
information. Some castes (rarely the poorest classes), as AJieers and Gurereas, 
occasionally get a little milk, ghee, or buttermilk. Parsees, when rich 
enough, keep and eat pigs. The food is chiefly vegetables, and varies with 
the three harvest seasons — September, November, and March. The daily 
quantity of the labourer is 1| lb. of attah, 4 ozs. of dal, 2 ozs. of ghee, or a 
little oil, with salt and pepper ; green vegetables are eaten instead of dal, in 
their season. When meat is regularly eaten, the quantity is about 1 lb. per 
day ; but Hindoos, who eat it only rarely, then take a much larger quantity. 
The labouring classes eat only one meal, and that in the evening ; but they 
have 2 to 6 ozs. of chahena, or gram, at other periods. The better classes 
eat two meals daily. The meat is eaten as stew or curry. Various kinds of 
corn and legumens are ground into flour and made into chapattces ; they are 
smeared with oil or ghee, and eaten with dal or green vegetables, which are 
boiled with oQ or ghee. The diet is deficient in fat and flesh ; the legu- 
minous seeds are very important. The large quantity of food eaten at one 
meal is injurious, leads to chronic dyspepsia, and retards convalescence 
from disease. Ihe jail diet is varied with labour and somewhat with the 
day of the week. (Diet No. 22.) 

67. Dr. G. W. Bonavia, Durriabad, states that a labourer, working in the 
fields from eight to ten hours daily, eats of wheat or other flour ^ to 1^ seer*, 
rice 2 to -f seer, dal 2 to 4 chits., ghee ^ to | chit., salt j chit., condiments J-g- 
chit. Wheat is preferred, and the coarse bran only is taken out ; the flour ia 
made into chapattees. Some grains are used both as flour and as dal, and are 
eaten as the latter, with 1 or 2 ozs. of ghee, by all but the poorest. Goat's 
flesh or fish is eaten from three to twelve times a year in quantities from \ 
to ^ seer. Most vUlagers keep cows or buff'aloes, and take the mUk, ghee, or 
butter for their own use, the latter iff quantity of ^^ to 1 seer daily, or two 

* Pukka-weight, 


or three times a week. They use about ^ of a seer of vegetables three or four 
times a month, and parched com, to the extent of 1 seer, is eaten every third 
or fourth day. The above are the standard quantities ; but less is taken by 
the coolies, who are very poor and seldom able-bodied. 

68. Dr. C. LowDELL, Gonda, states that the customary food is fish (abun- 
dant all the year), goat's flesh, mutton, and other meats, with vegetables. 
Dal and rice are the staple food ; fish and flesh are cooked in one mess with 
the vegetables, dal, coniments, and ghee or oU. The cost of foods is given. 
The jail dietary varies with labour, and somewhat with the day. The attah 
is composed of half wheat and half barley. The prisoners have been healthy. 
(Diet No. 21, nearly.) 

69. E. C. Bexslet, Esq., Bar^itch, experienced difiiculty in obtaining the 
information. He does not give a daily dietary. The jail dietary varies 
with sex and labour, and somewhat with the day. (Diet No. 22. ) 

70. Dr. J. Ellis, Oonao, states that the food is almost entirely vegetable, 
and is derived from the Gramineae and Leguminosse. Wheat, barley, rice, 
maize, peas, and vetches enter into it. About Ij to l^lb. of wheaten bread 
is used, and this is the staple food. The jail diet varies with sex and labour, 
and somewhat with the day. (Diet No. 22.) 

71. Dr. F. Carxee, Lukhimpore, gives a list of the various grains, vegetables, 
and fruits in use. Wheat is most used by the better, and barley and Indian 
com by the poorer classes. Of fresh vegetables, potatoes and yams are most 
abundant. Diarrhoea, dysentery, goitre, enlarged spleen, dropsy, and fever 
prevail. The diet varies with sex, labour, and day of the week, and is well 
suited to the prisoners. (Diet No. 22.) 

72. A. W. Baillie, Esq., Seetapore, states that the agricultural labourers 
constitute the mass of the people, who are Hindoos, and receive their pay 
chiefly in kind. Grain is almost the whole food of the lower classes ; green 
vegetables are little used by the lower classes, though they grow freely, and 
meat is not eaten. They are tall, vigorous, and frequently powerful men. 
Their diseases are not those of nutrition. The jail dietary varies with age, 
labour, and day of the week, and maintains health. (Diet No. 22.) 

73. Dr. H. M. Cannon, Inspector of Prisons, Oude, ofi^ers observations upon 
the diet and diseases of prisoners, and considers that the Punjab prison dietary 
is as complete and wholesome a scale as can well be followed. It contains 
3"7 of carboniferous to 1 of nitrogenous food. (Diet No. 22.) 

74. Dr. W. Constant, Sultanpore, gives a short description of the district, 
and then states that the diet is essentially a vegetable one. Wheat is abundant 
and fine, and is the staple food ; rice is very little eaten ; various other grains 
are made into bread. All dais, if eaten in excess and with their skins, cause 
diarrhoea, &c. Vegetables and fruit abound. All Mussulmen eat the meat 
of the cow, buffalo, camel, goat, sheep, hare, wild-fowl, game, and fish. All 
Hindoos, except Brahmins and Bhagats, eat the flesh of sheep and goats when 
they can get it, and are fond of fish and fowl. Sugar-cane is chewed, and 
fattens ; spirits are drunk largely, and intoxicating drugs are eaten by low- 
caste Hindoos. The Talookdars usually eat meat, thin chapattee, and the 
finest dal, and take two meals daily. The landholders and tradespeople 
live chiefly on vegetable food, and eat at two meals much more than that 
eaten by a European ; but they do not drink generally, and their health is 
good. The agricultural labourers and the very poor live on inferior grains, 
pulse, and vegetables, and eat flesh when they can get it ; they are very 
insufficiently fed and sheltered. Such eat but once a day, and that at noon ; 
and their health is not good. He cannot give a daily dietary. The jaU diet 


196 REPORT— 1863. 

varies with sex, labour, and somewhat with the day of the week, and main- 
tains health. (Diet No. 22.) 


75. G. Harper, Esq., UmbaUa, states shortly the foods in use. The quan- 
tity of flour or rice consumed daily varies from 1 to 2 lbs. ; and the health is 
good. He does not give a daily dietary. The jail diet consists of 48 ozs. of 
attah daUy, 4 ozs. of dal weekly, and 1 oz. of ghee thrice a week. 

76. Dr. W. P. Harris, Budaon, gives a statement of the kind of food, with 
the quantity of each, and the effect upon the body ; but it is not stated 
whether the quantity is per day or per meal, and no daily dietary is given. 
The jail dietary varies with labour. (Diet l^o. 21.) 

77. Dr. C. T. Pasee, Saharumpore, enters largely into the consideration of 
the various animal and vegetable foods in use, with their modes of prepara- 
tion and effects upon the body. Chapattee is the staple food, as bread is in 
England, and is eaten with ghee by the wealthier classes. The poor cannot 
obtain ghee. The quantity of this " attah " which is eaten daily is from 1 to 
1^ lb. ; barley is less eaten than wheat ; oats are not used by men ; maize 
is largely grown and used ; rice is largely eaten ; the refuse of sugar, " gour," 
is much eaten, as is also the sugar-cane itself ; potatoes are cheap, and uni- 
vei-sally used ; onions and garlic are used in making curry ; spices are used 
extensively, and are a remedy for their weak digestive powers, induced by 
long fasts and badly cooked food ; animal food is occasionally eaten, but not 
nearly so much as in cold climates ; the flesh eaten is that of the cow, pig, goat, 
sheep, and some kinds of game ; ghee is eaten with every food, and even 
alone, and the more rancid the better. As a man can afford it, he becomes fat. 
Salt, milk", and eggs are also largely iisod. The water used is usually from 
wells ; spirits and intoxicating drugs are largely used. The jail dietary 
varies with labour and the day of the week, and agrees with the prisoners. 
(Diet No. 21 very nearly.^ 

78. Dr. Isaac Newton, Kurnaul, shortly describes the various grains in 
use, and states that wheat, barley, and rice are the most valued. He does 
not give a daily dietary, but states that 2 lbs. of all the foods together is the 
daUy quantity, eaten at two meals. The jail dietary varies with labour, and 
consists of 16 to 20 ozs. of attah and 4 ozs. of dal ; vegetables twice a week, 
instead of dal ; oil 45 grains, salt 67 grains, and chillies 37 gi-ains. The 
imprisonment does not exceed one month, and the health is not injured. 

79. J. M. Cunningham, Esq., Bareilly, refers only to jail dietaiy, and shows 
that it varies with sex, labour, and day of the week. Attah is made with 
three-fourths wheat (of second quahty) and one-fifth barley, and the husks of 
both remain in the flour. He says, " It is one of the great sources of com- 
plaint among prisoners that the unsifted flom* disagrees with them ; but the 
complaint is unjust, as it is very unusual for any free man, unless in easy cir- 
cumstances, to have his flour sifted before using it." 20 ozs. of attah should 
make 28 ozs. when cooked into chapattees. In addition to the regular diet, 
which is prepared at 3| p.m., when work is over, he has 4 ozs. of parched 
grain, which he eats in the morning. Women and boys under set. 15 
have the diet of the non-labouring class. The jail dietary is sufficient. 
(Diet No. 21. ) 

80. Dr. J. Hutchinson, DehraDoon, states that 28 ozs. of attah is consumed 
daily (16 ozs. in the morning and 12 ozs. in the evening). Some prefer 14 ozs. 
of rice for the morning meal; also 6 ozs. of dais (when not supplanted by 
vegetables) ; ^ to | lb. of meat is eaten occasionally by Mahomedans and low- 



caste Hindoos, and fish when procurable. Milk and curdled milk (" dahee ") 
are largely consumed, and chiefly by the Hindoos ; vegetables are freely eaten ; 
parched grain and oil are much desired, and this food maintains health. The 
diet of the poorer classes varies much, as their income and the prices of food 
vary. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of the week, and main- 
tains health and strength. (Diet N"o. 21.) 

81. Adam Tatiok, Esq., Rohtuck, quotes the different kinds of food in use, 
but does not give the daily quantities. The jail dietary varies with sex and 
labour, and somewhat with the week. Barley may be mixed with the wheat 
in the proportion of 4 to 35 parts. 1 part of bran out of eveiy 40 parts of 
attah is taken out. Labouring prisoners have 4 ozs. of parched gram daily, 
except on Sundays. (Diet No. 22.) 

82. Dr. F. Parsoxs, Hissar, states that wheat is given most abundantly, 
and is preferred to many other grains ; barley stands next in order. Eice is 
eaten by all classes ; curdled milk, ghee, and buttermilk are also eaten. 

83. W. B. Butt, Esq., Loodiana, gives four valuable tables of the daily 
quantities of food. The field-labourers eat daUy, in the hot weather, flour, 
made into imleavened chapattees, about 2 lbs., gram dal 10 ozs., parched gram 
4 ozs., melons, sugar-cane, and buttermilk in large quantities, and ghee g oz. 
In the cold weather, about 3 lbs. of flour from inferior grains, 8 ozs. of moth 
dal, 4 ozs. of parched grain or Indian com, 8 ozs. of fresh vegetables, | oz. of 
ghee, and much buttermilk. The orcUnarj- diet of caste-men, Chumars and 
Sweepers, tfec, consists of flesh, including pork, largely stewed with vegetables 
and condiments, | oz. of ghee, 2 lbs. of flour of wheat and other grain, 4 ozs. 
of parched grain, and large quantities of raw vegetables and of buttermilk. 
That of the Cashmeeres is flesh, except pork, about 8 ozs., milk haK-pint, 
cream 1 oz., rice 1 lb., green tea 1 dr., large quantities of fresh vegetables, 
1 lb. of wheaten bread, and 1 oz. of mustard-oU. The Jat SiekJis are strong, 
hardy, and industrious, and live chiefly on vegetables, eating flesh only a few 
times yearly ; they do not usually drink spirits. The Punjabee Mussulmen 
are similar, but eat flesh two or three times a month. The Chumars are 
inferior ; they eat less bread and dal, but more meat, and often that of dying 
animals ; they eat opium and drink spirits. The Siueepers are rough and 
strong, and eat flesh, particularly that of a lizard, " Sanda." The Cashmeeres 
are of good height, well made, and muscular ; when they work out of doors 
they are healthy, but they generally are shawl-makers and of dirty habits ; 
they live well, and do not take opium or spirits. They are liable to ophthal- 
mia, scrofula, and diseases of the lungs. The jail diet varies with labour 
and day of the week, and the prisoners are healthy. (Diet No. 22.) 

84. J. Brake, Esq., Simla, states that the daily dietary of a strong 
man is wheat or Indian flour 2 lbs. and dal 4 ozs., or rice 24 ozs. and dal 4 ozs., 
with a variable quantity of vegetables. An old man eats 16 ozs. of the cereals 
and 4 ozs. of dal ; milk and ghee are eaten sparingly on account of the cost ; 
wild birds, wild pigs, and goats are eaten freely when obtainable. The jail 
diet is attah 16 ozs., dal 4 ozs., salt 4^ murhas ; but the prisoners are detained 
only a few days. 

85. Dr. E. A. Minas, Bhutty Territory, states that the district is arid, and 
the crops small and uncertain ; hence the poor often subsist on wild fruits, 
bark, and seeds, and seek for quantity rather than quality. Wheat is the 
staple food, and about 20 oz. of it is eaten. When rice is preferred, the 
quantity consumed is 1 lb. He describes numerous articles of food, but does 
not give a daily dietary. The jail dietaiy varies with sex and labour. The 
bran is carefully taken from the wheat to the extent of 1 to 1^ seer in a 

198 REPORT— 1863. 

maud, to prevent the occurrence of diarrhoea. The chapattees are cooked 
in ovens sunk in the ground; 5 parts of barley may be added to 35 of 
wheat. Ghee is given, instead of oil, to prisoners sentenced to more than six 
months' imprisonment ; and vegetables are given twice a week. The pri- 
soners are better fed than free labourers. The jaU. manual contains some 
valuable directions. (Diet No. 22.) 

86. Dr. J. L. Stewart, Bijnour, gives a lengthened and interesting account 
of the locality, and of the various foods in use. The consimiption of wheat, 
pulse, (fee. is much greater in spring and summer, when they are abxmdant 
and cheap. Of all cereals, wheat and rice are in the highest repute, and are 
the staple food. It is to be regretted that, with so much infonnation, the 
daily dietary and quantity of food is not given. It is only stated that with 
20 or 24 ozs. of bread or rice, with pulse, the Hindoo will eat 3 to 4 ozs. of 
flesh ; also, that the average daily food is 20 to 24 ozs. of the cereals and 
4 ozs. of pulse. The average weight of prisoners is, Hindoos 100 lbs., Mus- 
sulmen 96 lbs. 

87. Dr. C. 0. Danfexl, Hoshyarpore, gives a list of numerous foods in 
use ; their local, English, and scientific names ; the extent of their cultivation 
and mode of preparation, and, in some instances, the amount of them which 
is eaten daily. There is not, however, a daily dietary given. 

88. Dr. C. N. Bose, Thung, states that wheat and other grains are made 
into thick cakes. The bread is eaten with dal and sag, with vegetables and 
condiments. Meat is eaten only very occasionally, or when a diseased 
animal is killed. They drink water or buttermilk. There are two meals 
daily, viz. at 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. in the hot, and 9 a.m. and 8 p.m. in the cold 
season, and they consist of about 40 ozs. of food. The people are generally 
healthy, but liable to diarrhoja from the use of fruits and coarsely ground 
grains. The industrial classes obtain more animal food, and take from 24 to 
32 ozs. of food daily. The jail dietary varies with sex, labour, and day of 
the week, and consists of attah 20 ozs., dal 2 ozs., salt 67^ grains, and chillies 
37 grains, daily, with 8 ozs. of vegetables and i tollah of oil weekly, besides 
2 ozs. of parched grain given to the labouring prisoners. Women have the 
diet of the non-labouring class. The food is not prejudicial to health. 
(Diet No. 22 nearly.) 

89. Dr. C. F. Oldham, Googaira, states that the inhabitants are Mussul- 
men, and consist of the pastoral tribes, who wander about and live in reed huts 
in the jungle, and also of the agricultural and trading classes. Milk, fresh or 
curdled or as buttermilk, is the most important food of the pastoral tribes ; 
and when they can, they obtain attah, with ghee. They say, " A man may 
live without bread; but without buttermilk he dies." They do not cidtivate 
vegetables, but eat them when they get them. Curries are not common, and 
chillies are not much used. The daily quantity of food is, milk or butter- 
milk 4 to 6 lbs., attah 12 to 16 ozs., and ghee 2 to 4 ozs. ; dal is seldom used, 
and beef and mutton only occasionally; sugar or molasses is mixed with 
milk ; alcohol is seldom, and opium never, used. Among the industrial tribes 
milk is still used to the extent of 2 lbs., attah from 16 to 22 ozs., and 2 to 4 
ozs. of ghee. Vegetables are eaten in large quantities, and chillies daily ; dal is 
seldom used ; spirits and tobacco are largely consumed, and opium is taken 
chiefly in towns. Another class, Chhura, do the dirty work of the commu- 
nity ; they eat much milk and attah, besides the flesh of snakes, lizards, and 
reptiles, wolves, jackals, horses, and cattle, which have died naturally. They 
cut the flesh into strips, and dry it in the sun when not required for use. 
The pastoral tribes are one of the finest races in India, taU, straight, muscular. 


handsome, active, enduring, and brave ; they regard the agricultural class 
•with contempt. The agricultui'al class are also a fine race and healthy. The 
Chhura or Sweeper class are very healthy and robust. The jail dietaiy varies 
with sex, labour, and day of the week ; it is sufficient, although less than 
that to which they are accustomed. The chief diseases are those of the 
bowels and lungs. (Diet N'o. 23.) 

90. Dr. W. A. Geeen, Leia, states that the food of the labouring and in- 
dustrial classes is chiefly farinaceous, and a never-changing sort of meal. 
Animal food is a dainty luxury, eaten only on special days. Wheat, maize, 
barley, jowar, and sui'war are usually made into cakes. The quantity of 
grains or pulses eaten is 2 lbs. to 3 lbs. daily. Dais are seldom or never used 
by these classes. Turnip is the favourite vegetable, and vegetables and fruits 
are largely eaten. MUk, butter, and buttermilk are very extensively used ; 
the latter is regarded as in.dispensable, and they prefer it to a meal. Those 
living on the Thull (the sandy and unproductive districts) live solely upon 
milk, especially camel's milk, which is brackish, has but little fat, and is dmnk 
diluted with water. It is laxative to those unaccustomed to its use. The 
people are hearty and vigorous, sturdy and robust. The sameness of food has 
no bad .effect. In jails the diet is too little and too limited, leaving out the 
indispensable buttermilk (which is antiscorbutic) and fruits, and forcing upon 
the prisoner the dais to which he is not accustomed. Want of exercise 
is also another cause of evil. It is a great misfortune that the daily quan- 
tity of food is not given, seeing that the dietary is peculiar. 

91. Dr. T. M<-'Shaht, Dera Ismail Khan, gives a table showing the kinds 
of food in use, and the daily quantity of each which is eaten ; but as all are 
not eaten on the same day, the daily dietarj" cannot be inferred from it. The 
daily ration of rice is 2 lbs., but it is fjeldom eaten; of the usual grains 2| lbs.; 
of meat 1 to 2 lbs., but only eaten very occasionally; of buttermilk 10 Ibs.^ 
used as drink ; of milk 2 lbs. ; of ghee 4 ozs. ; and of various vegetables from 
2 to 4 lbs. Onions are seldom eaten. The jail dietary varies with sex, 
labour, and day of the week. (Diet No. 23.) 

92. Dr. S. A. Homan, TaUunder, states the nature of the diet of the dif- 
ferent classes in hot and cold weather, with the quantity of each eaten daily, 
the mode of preparation, and the frequency of their use ; and supplies the daily 
dietary of the different classes. The higher-class Hindoos at all seasons take 
16 ozs. of attah of wheat, or 12 ozs. of khichree, with 4 ozs. of dal and 2 ozs. 
of ghee, daily ; also 12 ozs. of rice and 8 ozs. of vegetables now and then ; 
and a few eat occasionally 8 ozs. of meat. The lower-class Hindoos take in 
cold weather 2 lbs. of Indian com or other grain for making rotee, 4 ozs. of 
dal (or 8 ozs. of vegetables now and then), 1 oz. of ghee, and some of them 
24 ozs. of attah of wheat, if procurable. In hot weather, 2 lbs. of attah of bar- 
ley, &c. is substituted for Indian com, &e. The higher-class Mussulmen eat, 
in both hot and cold weather, 16 ozs. of attah of wheat in chapattees, 8 ozs. of 
rice, 8 ozs. of meat (for boiling), 8 ozs. of vegetables, 4 ozs. of various dais, 
and the ghee used in frying the food. The lower class in cold weather eat 
2 lbs. of Indian-corn attah or other grain, or 24 ozs. of attah of wheat, with 
4 ozs. of various dais, 8 ozs. of vegetables and some ghee, with 8 ozs. of meat 
now and then. In hot weather 2 lbs. of attah of barley, or Baisnee rotee, is 
substituted for other grain. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of 
the week ; it consists of 20 ozs. of attah of wheat for making chapattees, or 
12 ozs. of rice, 4 ozs. of dal, or 8 ozs. of vegetables twice a week, 1 oz. of 
ghee, 80 grains of salt, and 2 massalahs of chillies. This is a very valuable 
report. (Diet No. 23 nearly.) 

200 REPORT— 1863. 

93. Dr. J. C. Penny, Madhapore, gives a list of the articles of food in use, 
with the daily average quantity of each which is eaten (when they are eaten), 
the mode of preparation, and other remarks upon them, hut does not give a 
daily dietary. Barley is used chiefly by the poor, and is surreptitiously mixed 
with the attah of wheat ; but there is much prejudice against its use. Rice 
is not a common food. Dal is used imiversally. The cow yields but little 
milk ; so that the supply of milk is chiefly from buffaloes and goats, and it is 
eaten by the prosperous classes only. Ghee is sometimes used externally as 
an inunction. Eeef is confined to Mahomedans, and pork to the Seikhs. 
Mutton is plentiful, and generally enjoyed. The jail dietary varies with 
sex, labour, and day of the week. (Diet No. 23.) 

94. Dr. Gr. A. Watson, Shahpore, gives in detail the articles of diet used 
in the jail. The dietary varies with duration of imprisonment. Oil is given 
only to those sentenced to less than six months', and ghee to those sentenced 
to more than six months' imprisonment. He also supplies a long list of the 
articles of food, and of the nitrogenous substances eaten by the free inhabit- 
ants, with a statement of the cultivation, consumption, and mode of prepa- 
ration ; biit he does not give a daily dietary. 

95. Dr. H. N. Elton, Sealkote, gives a similar hst of foods, with a state- 
ment of the daily quantity of each when eaten, the mode of preparation, and 
the eflfect upon the health, &c., but does not quote a daily dietary. Attah of 
wheat is eaten by all classes, at 10 a.m. and 8 p.m., in a quantity of 2 lbs. daily. 
It is made into cakes, baked in an oven or pan, and smeared with ghee. 
Gram, barley, ifec. are generally eaten by the working zemindars. Dal and 
certaia vegetables are eaten by all classes. Eice is not a daily food, but is 
used at entertainments. Goats, sheep, fowls, and fish, in quantity of 1 lb., 
are eaten by all classes, but not daily by the poor. Milk and buttermilk are 
used in quantities of 24 ozs. daily. The jail dietary varies with sex, labour, 
and day of the week. (Diet No. 23.) 

96. Dr. G. Henderson, Thelum, gives a list of foods eaten by the inhabit- 
ants, both free and in jaU, with a shoi't statement of the mode of prepara- 
tion, but does not quote the daUy dietary. 

97. Dr. R. Parker, Kangra, states at length the various foods eaten iu his 
district, with the daily consumption, mode of preparation, influence upon 
health, &c., but does not give a daily dietary. Rice is eaten by all classes at 
midday ; wheat-flour by the higher class, and by Cashmeeres and Mussul- 
men all the year, and by Hindoos in the hot and rainy seasons. Maize is 
principally eaten by the zemindars, except in the hottest season ; millet only 
by the poorer classes ; barley-flour chiefly by the zemindars ; dal and condi- 
ments by all classes, and vegetables by all classes at times. Meat is eaten in 
all seasons ; carrion in quantities of 1 lb. at a time ; and aU flesh, except that 
of jackals and dogs, agrees with them. Tea is sometimes used, morning and 
evening. The jaU diet varies with sex, laboiir, and day of the week, and is 
ample in quantity and excellent in quality. Weevil and bran should be, and 
are, excluded from the wheat-flour. 

98. Dr. T. S. Neale, GoojranwaUah, gives a very similar report, and does 
not cite a daily dietary. Wheat-flour and the best kinds of rice ai-e eaten by 
the opulent classes ; this, with barley-meal, maize, and inferior rice, by the 
inferior classes. MUk is drunk in enormous quantities by the Sheikhs, and 
these, with the Mahomedans, are the chief consumers ; it is scarcely attain- 
able by the poor. Ghee is not obtained by the poor except in very small 
quantities — once in ten or fourteen days, and often not for a year. The poor 
obtaiaed damaged, but not sound, meat. The quantity of each, when eaten. 


is 2 lbs, of the cereals, 6 to 8 ozs. of dais, 2 to 4 ozs. of milk, 2 to 4 ozs. of 
ghee, 8 ozs. of butter, 16 ozs. of meat. 

99. M. L. Hug, Pindadun Khan, supplies a list of the articles of food, 
with their cultivation, consumption, and mode of preparation, but does not 
give a daily dietary. Wheat is the principal food of aU classes ; rice is eaten 
by the rich, and barley by the poor. Indian com is not usually eaten by 
the_ poor, but is given to horses. The sugar-cane is used by aU classes for 
its juice, and vinegar is made from it. Cauliflowers, cabbage, and potatoes 
are neither cultivated nor eaten ; turnips, radishes, mustard, onions, garlic, 
carrots, ifec, are used by aU. Mutton is only of middling, whilst beef is of 
bad quality : both are eaten by Mahomedans, and the former by some Hindoos 
(not Hindoo women), and much is consumed. Fowls and eggs are scarcely 
used. Ghee and milk are plentifully consumed by all. Fish is very scarce. 
The higher-caste Hindoos live totally on vegetable food, excepting mUk and 
ghee, and are healthier than others. The agriculturists live on chapattees 
(from grain-flours), raw onions, and lussee. The middle classes take all kinds 
of food. 


100. B. HooKEE, Esq., Tavoy, Burmah, states that rice is the most important 
and the principal aliment, and is not of the best quality, and induces obsti- 
nate constipation, with its consequences. Masticated rice is given to infants, 
and destroys nearly all which are not strong and healthy born. The ordinary 
flesh in use is from the elk, and is fresh or diied ; but the Burmese will eat 
the flesh of elephant, tapir, and rhinoceros, and the Karens that of monkeys 
and some kinds of snakes. Fish is very plentiful, and is kept closely packed 
in vessels untU it decomposes, causing choleraic symptoms. There is no en- 
demic disease. Tea is used at every meal when it can be aff'orded. The 
Chinese eat more meat than the Burmese, and take a glass of spirits before 
meals. The daily dietary of a Chinese consists of rice 24 ozs., pork 8 ozs., 
fish or flesh 4 ozs., vegetables 8 ozs., condiments 1| oz., ghee or oil ^ oz., 
pickles I oz., salt 1 oz., tea 1 oz., and arrack 8 ozs. : that of a Burmese con- 
tains rice 2 lbs., fish or flesh 8 ozs., vegetables 6 ozs., condiments 1 oz., ghee 
or oH 11 oz., salt 1^ oz., tea 4 oz., and gnape 3 ozs. The jail dietary varies 
with labour and day of the week. (Diet No. 24.) 

101. E. T. Stjffrein, Esq., Tounghoo, states that the natives there consist 
of Burmese, Shans, and Karens, the dietary of the latter dififering from that 
of the two former. The Burmese Hve on rice and vegetables seasoned with 
curry-stuifs, with considerable quantities of fish, and the flesh of animals 
dying naturally, except that of the dog and cat. Their religion prohibits 
them from taking away life. Fish is dried, salted, or smoked. Prawns and 
small fish are beaten to a paste, and are an important article of diet. Fruits, 
both ripe and unripe, are eaten largely. The Burmese are muscular and en- 
during, and are very temperate. The Karens eat chiefly rice and vegetables, 
besides large quantities of beef, pork, poultry, and game, with a little fish. 
They are intemperate, and a less robust race than the Burmese, although eat- 
ing more nutritious food. The jail dietary is similar to that in freedom, and 
causes increase of weight. The daily diet in freedom consists of rice 29 ozs., 
fish, flesh, or gnape 11 ozs., vegetables 14 ozs., ghee 1 oz., oil 1 oz.,salt 1 oz., 
eurry-stufi' 1 oz. : that in jail contains rice 26 ozs., fish, flesh, or gnape 3 ozs., 
vegetables 14 ozs., oil 1 oz., salt 1 oz., and curry-stuff 1 oz., and does not vary 
with labour. 

202 REPORT — 1863. 

102. A. Thomas, Esq., Kyoiik Phyoo, states that the dietary is similar to that 
in Lower Bengal, but is prepared differently. Eice is the chief food, and is 
eaten in quantities of 1| to 2 lbs. daily; their gnape having an abominable 
smell, and made by pounding shrimps, prawns, crabs, or fish. Fish and 
vegetables are eaten generally. The curries wiU weigh 1| lb. to 2 lbs. daily; 
and besides these, they eat sweets and fi-uits at all hours. The people are 
muscular, robust, and enduring. The jail dietary varies with labour and 
day of the week. (Diet No. 11.) 

103. C. E. PysTER, Esq., Sandoway, states that the daily dietary of a 
labouring man consists of rice 2 lbs., fish or flesh 3 ozs., gnape 1 oz., vege- 
tables 10 ozs., salt ^ oz., chilHes &c. ^ oz. : that of the Bengalesc contains 
rice 24 ozs., dal 4 ozs., or fish 4 ozs., vegetables 2 ozs., mustard-oil 1 oz., 
spices 1 oz., and salt 1 oz. The jail dietary varies with laboiu", and in part 
with day of the week. Yery little, if any, iU-eftects can be attributed to it. 
(Diet No. 11.) 

104. Dr. G. Make, Moulmeia, in reference to the daily dietarj' of the free 
population, has evidently made an error in reducing the native weight to 
oimces, and instead of dividing by 2 should have multijilied by 2, as may be 
inferred from the jail dietary. With this correction, the daUy dietary of 
natives of India contains rice 28 ozs., dal 4 ozs., fish or flesh 4 ozs., vegetables 
5 ozs., ghee 2 ozs., oil 2 ozs., salt 1 oz., condiments 1| oz. ; whilst that of the 
Burmans contains rice 40 ozs., fish or flesh 24 ozs., vegetables 24 ozs., oil 
4 ozs., with salt and condiments. Eice is the staple food. Dal is not given 
there. Fish is abundant, and is eaten alternately with flesh of all kinds. 
Vegetables and oU gengeUi are in daily use. The Burmese are short and mus- 
cular, and inclined to obesity. They are well fed and contented. Those 
living in jungles and forests are not so well fed. A Barman will not kill an 
animal for food, but mil eat any dead one. The jail dietary varies with 
labour, and to some extent with the day of the week. (Diet No. 25.) 

105. A. J. CowiE, Esq., Akyab, states that two meals daily are taken. 
The well-to-do classes eat daily as follows : — best rice 20 ozs., dal 4 ozs., 
vegetables 4 ozs., oil or ghee 2 ozs., fish 3 ozs., sweetmeats and sugar 3 ozs., 
salt and spices | oz. each. ^Mieat-flour 16 ozs., cow's or goat's milk 2i pints. 
A labourer eats daily, rice 24 ozs., dal 4 ozs., fish 4 ozs., vegetables 6 ozs., salt 
and spices ^ oz. of each, and meat occasionally 8 ozs., and milk 1 pint daily. 
Wheat-flour is used sometimes, instead of rice, to the extent of 10 ozs. in the 
latter class ; and I am doubtful whether in the first class both rice and wheat 
are eaten on the same day, although it so stands in the table. Mussulmen 
eat meat instead of fish ; those of the first class on alternate days. Eice is 
washed and boiled, and the water thrown away. Dal is boiled with spices, 
ghee or oU, and salt ; fish is generally fried fii-st, and then boiled with spices, 
ghee or oil, and salt. Yegetables are first fried in oU or ghee, and then 
boiled ; they are sometimes made into cuny with meat. Flour is made into 
chapattees. Meat is fried in ghee or oU, and then boiled ^\ith spices and 
salt. The Arracanees eat daily, rice 28 ozs., fish or flesh 4 ozs., salt, oU, and 
gnape ■!■ oz. each, spices ^ oz., vegetables 4 ozs. They eat much fruit and un- 
cooked vegetables ; and more than the above, with any other digestible sub- 
stance which they can obtain. He states that 167 varieties of rice are 
cultivated. The jail dietary varies with labour and day of the week. The 
Sunday's diet is that of the non-labouring class. There are also here two 
scales of hospital-jail dietary. The jail diet is sufficient and wholesome. 
Fever, intestinal worms, and dyspepsy prevail. Dr. Snow's views as to the 

the Scales of 

[To face paye 202. 


. 6 No. 12. 

No. 13. 















Dr. Mouat's, 1858. 

One to Tw 


I. 1 oz. 

1 oz. 




d! i^'^^y- 

! Mond. 







I 24 














Fish or Flesh. 






























Chillies and 




0. 1 No. 25. 


B. i 













Tues. I 


Tues. Mond. 




• ■ 







28 ; 24 
















4 once a wee 

k 4.. 





Fish or Flesh. 









Ghee i 










1 1 








. 1 

i { 

Chillies and 






ay al 

liave tl 

le 1 

APPENDIX.— Showing the Scales of Joil Dietary referred to in this 



On Suni]ay oil liuve tlie iion-laboniiiig rations of .Vlomlay. 



spread of cholera are supported by facts here : all the outbreaks of cholera 
have been preceded by a murrain in cattle. (Diet No. 11.) 

106. J. J. Heffernan, Thyet-Myo, states that the daily dietary of the free 
population contains rice 1 to li lb., dal 2 to 3 ozs., fish or flesh 2 to 4 ozs., 
vegetables 4 to 5 ozs., oil ^ oz. (seldom used), gnape (nearly always used in- 
stead of salt), and condiments. The Bunnese, except those addicted to the 
use of intoxicating liquors and drags, enjoy average health. 

Synthetical Researches on the Formation of Minerals, ^c. 
By M. Alfhonse Gages. 
Since my last Report my experiments have been chiefly directed to the 
synthesis of serpentine and some other magnesian minerals, — to the action of 
animal organic matter in the production of minerals (a subject which has 
been often discussed, but is always worth being more fuUy studied from an 
experimental point of view), — and lastly, to the action which solutions con- 
taining the materials of felspar may have had in altering the composition 
and structure of Cambrian and other ancient rocks. The results which I 
propose to give here must necessarily be fragmentary, both from the nature 
of the investigation itself, and the fact of its being stiU in progress. 

_ My first object has been to ascertain the kind of action which alkaline solu- 
tions exert on the hydrated silicates, of magnesia, iron, and lime, and to 
endeavour to determine synthetically the formation of serpentine and some 
other rocks allied to it. 

The composition of the mineral known as serpentine is almost constant, 
whUe the rock known by that name, though essentially agreeing in composi- 
tion with the mineral, contains nevertheless various foreign matters. The 
circumstances under which sei-pentine -rocks are found and their general 
character indicate that they are not generally derived from the gradual alter- 
ation of a preexisting rock, but have been produced by the direct deposition 
of sihcates which accidentally enclosed foreign substances, and which by 
dialysis lost alkahes, and by subsequent infiltration may have gained some 
other constituents and led to the formation of other minerals in the mass. 

The process I have employed to arrive at the synthesis of serpentine is 
based on the solubility of the hydrated silicate ofmagnesia{2'ilg(},Z^iO^-\-ATLO) 
in alkalies, and on the precipitation which results when a diluted solution of 
bicarbonate of magnesia is added. 

1st Experiment. — A given quantity of silicate of magnesia in the gelati- 
nous state was introduced into a muslin bag and held in suspension in a 
diluted solution of caustic potash. After some days the sHicate enclosed in 
the bag was found entirely dissolved. This solution, left in repose in a glass 
cylinder for some months, deposited a transparent coUoid, which, after being 
washed and dried, presented the following composition : — 

Silica 50-036 

Magnesia 19-419 

Potash 17-642 

Water 12-980 


204 REPORT — 1863. 

This substance, ■when dried, had a semivitreous transparent aspect. Heated 
to a dull red, it becomes insoluble in acids. 

2nd Experiment. — A satiu'ated solution of the hydra ted silicate of mag- 
nesia (2MgO, 3 SiOj + 4H0) in caustic potash, treated bj a dilute solution of 
bicarbonate of magnesia, gives a gelatinous precipitate, which, after having 
been washed till the action of acids no longer disengages carbonic acid, had 
the following composition : — 

Silica 40-285 

Magnesia 38-250 

Water| 19-428 . 

Carbonic acid 1-450 


The substance thus obtained would represent a serpentine with three equiva- 
lents of water ; it has the composition of the Deweylite of Thompson, which 
is, in fact, a variety of serpentine. 

As the bicarbonate of magnesia which remains in solution with the silicate 
of potash has a tendency to form with the latter double salts but slightly soluble, 
it is well to employ only dilute Liquors. This tendency of magnesia to replace 
the alkalies in silicates is exemplified in a great number of hydrated magnesian 
compounds. On the other hand, the zeolites are in general remarkable by 
the absence of magnesia ; and in one or two exceptional eases, such as the 
Picrothomsonite for example, in which magnesia enters into the constitution 
of the mineral, the augmentation of magnesia is attended by a corresponding 
diminution of the alkalies. Thus sei-jjentine should have been the result of 
the action of water containing alkalies on magnesian rocks. The same phe- 
nomenon is shoAvn on a small scale in certain basaltic tufas, in which we meet 
with a deposit of magnesian silicate, accompanied often by arragonite and 
calcareous spar, containing more or less magnesia, while the alkalies of the 
basalt have completely disappeared *, 

Solubility of Silicate of Hydrated Protoxide of Iron. 

The silicate of the hydrated protoxide of iron is soluble in the cold in 
alkalies, if we take care to exclude air ; this solution is more readily effected 
in presence of magnesia, which appears to protect the liquor from further 
oxidation. "We can obtain compounds in which magnesia and protoxide of 
iron exist in various proportions. 

The solutions in potash of the silicates of protoxide of iron, magnesia, and 
alumina, left exposed to the air on a plate, dry and acqmre a gelatinous state 
without undergoing alteration, the iron remaining in the state of protoxide ; 
the potash separates itself partially from the compotaid ; the substance, then 
washed and dried, has the form of green scales. Weak hydrochloric acid re- 
moves the bases, leaving the siliceous skeleton unaltered, in the shape of soft 
and nacreous scales like certain chlorites. 

The following analysis will give an idea of the solubility of the silicate of 
protoxide of iron, and of the number of bases which can thus be dissolved and 
precipitated by evaporation, or by the action of Co.^ : — 

* Besides the artificial Deweylite, of -which I have just given the analysis, I have 
obtained a great number of other precipitates of variable composition, which strikingly 
represent the composition of many serpentine-rocks, to which I shall return on another 


Silica 59-004 

FeO 13-836 

Mo,0 8-351 

Al,03 8-103 

HO 11-800 


The slow metamorphosis which some slates appear to have undergone, and 
their insensible transition from slate to chloritic slate, show, as I think, the 
latent part that alkalies have had in that transformation, by their reaction on 
alumina, protoxide of iron, and magnesia, and also by their faculty of partially 
separating fi-om the combination once formed. Chlorite always contains more 
or less alkalies ; and even Andalusite found in these rocks often retains traces 
of alkalies as the last evidence of its mode of formation. 

The coUoid condition assumed by these aluminous silicates, obtained at a 
moderate temperature, may lead to the conclusion that the foliated structure 
assumed by chloritic schists is more or less connected with phenomena of this 

Silicate of protoxide of iron dissolved in caustic potash is not precipitated by 
the alkaline sulphides, and the solution acquires the well-known green tint 
which the slight traces of sulphide of iron remaining in solution give it when 
we precipitate a salt of iron by an alkaline sulphide. 

Some drops of acid added to the solution of the silicate in the alkaline sulphide 
give an emerald-green precipitate, which is decomposed with evolution of 
sulphide of hydrogen on the addition of an excess of acid. The green sub- 
stance loses its colour as soon as it ceases to be under the influence of the 
sulphides. A porous body saturated with this solution loses its green tint by 
desiccation ; the colour reappears with a bluish tinge if the substance be 
exposed to the vapours of sulphide of ammonium. The colour may be thus 
revived for a certain number of times, after which the phenomenon no longer 
takes place. 

This phenomenon has relation to the natural formation of ultramarine, a 
substance which is always accompanied by pyrites of iron. The silicate of 
iron dissolved in the sulphides of potassium leaves upon the side of the glass 
an ultramarine blue tint ; but other circumstances may lead us rather to 
suspect that this blue eoloiir is due to a molecular condition of the sulphur 
itself, since a sulphide left to the air in a vase exhibits on the sides of the 
glass a fugitive blue tint. 

Action of the AlTcalies on Silicate of Lime. 
The direct action of the alkalies, when carbonic acid is not present, on the 
hydrated silicate of lime is very simple, and may be briefly stated thus .-—If 
the hydrated siUcate of lime, 2 SiO, CaO, 2 HO, be treated with caustic potash, 
it loses an equivalent of silica, and becomes transformed into SiO„ CaO, HO ; 
this silicate loses its equivalent of water at a duU red heat, and is 'then found 
to have the composition of tabular spar, CaO, SiO^. 

II. Pkoduction of Sulphiteet op Zinc, Blende, Selenite, and Calamine, 


The reaction of sulphate of zinc on carbonate of lime or magnesia easily 
explains the production of Smithsonite, or carbonate of zincj but when we 

206 REPORT— 1863. 

inqmre into the production of blende and galena ia fossiliferous formations, 
we have to seek this reaction in the compounds of sulphur produced by the 
decomposition of animal matter, or in the reduction of the siilphates under the 
same influences. The hydrated silicates of ziac which accompany these 
minerals prove that other forces were in action at the same time ; and the 
hydrated argillaceous clays which form the metalliferous beds further attest 
these last reactions. 

The sulphides of zinc and lead, the former found iu mammiUated masses 
and often in transparent lamellae, have evidently been formed at the expense 
of organic matter. 

200 grammes of sulphate of zinc, dissolved in two litres of water in which 
were suspended the fleshy parts of twelve oysters, were enclosed in a bag; with 
this liquor were introduced some shells, in order to obtain the conversion of 
the sulphate of zinc into carbonate. The mixture was kept for several months, 
tUl putrid fermentation had ceased. The liquor no longer contained zinc ; the 
shells were partially transformed into carbonate of zinc, accompanied by 
crystals of selenite ; the surface of parts of the shells had acquired a trans- 
parent rosy tint, produced by a deposit of blende permeating the shell. Left 
for some time in weak acetic acid (strong acid would decompose it), the trans- 
parent rosy tint became more developed ; a part of this substance examined 
was dissolved in hydrochloric acid, with evolution of sulphide of hydrogen, 
and had the composition and characters of Blende. 

Conversion of Carbonate of Lead into Galena. — Some grammes of carbonate 
of lead recently precipitated were placed in a bag and suspended in two litres 
of water saturated with carbonic acid ; putrid fermentation was kept up in 
the liquid for some months, in the manner indicated iu the last experiment. 
The shells introduced into the liquid were soon covered with a metallic layer 
of sulphuret of lead. 

A weak solution of chloride of lead treated in the same way gave no 

Double Sulphate of Copper and Iron. — The double sulphate of iron and 
copper, by the reaction of carbonate of lime, and under the influence of putre- 
faction, gave, as the final result, carbonate of iron, blue carbonate of copper 
in distinct rhomboidal prisms, and semitransparent crystals of selenite. 

One of the shells, after treatment by weak acetic acid so as to uncover the 
surface, left exposed after suitable washing, and on some parts only, spots 
presenting the metallic grey and the iridescence of the suli)hide of copper, 
and presenting its characters to the blowpipe. The quantity of sulphide 
found in the mixture was extremely small. The ammonia which is deve- 
loped during the fermentation must tend to decompose the sulphide of copper 
and transform it into ammoniacal sulphate. It is what takes place when 
the sulphide of copper is exposed to the vapours of sulphide of ammonium. 

The decomposition of putrescible organic matter of the nature of that 
employed in contact with sulphate of iron and earthy carbonates leads to 
difl'erent results according to the conditions in which we operate. If we 
employ a very deep vase and an abundant quantity of water, we obtain sul- 
phide of iron, free sulphur, and carbonate of the protoxide, the sulphate of 
lime which is formed remaining in the solution. If the vase, on the contrary, 
present a large surface, the sulphide of ii'on disappears, and the oxide of iron 
passes at the maximum of oxidation, and organic matter is consumed. In 
neither case is the iron pyrites formed, which appears to be the result of a 
slow reduction of the sulphate of sesquioxide of iron in presence of carbonates. 


III. Inflttencb op the Felspatkec Solution on the Stbitctttee of some 

Cambrian Rocks. 

The schistose deposits of Bray Head, regarded as the lowest stratijSed beds 
of the Cambrian system, containing the fossil Oldhamia, considered as the 
most ancient vestige of animal life on the globe, exhibit a well-marked example- 
of felspathic metamorphism effected by the agency of water. This' rock is 
specially remarkable by the system of joints which it possesses, these joints 
separating into rhomboidal prisms, presenting the angles of cleavage of the 
orthoclase felspar, the planes of bedding corresponding to the planes of cleavage 
of the felspar. IITevertheless, as we might expect in a rock which has been 
submitted to the influence of other mechanical forces, the angles do not pre- 
sent that exactitude which a crystal of pure felspar would present. Hydro- 
chloric acid does not alter the structure of the rock ; after the action of the 
acid, it can be divided into plates as thin as paper. These plates, examined 
by the microscope, exhibit a felspathic paste in crystals often distinct, and 
enveloping grains of sand. 

We have here a felspathic solution which has modified a sedimentary rock 
containing fossils, the existence of which is not contested, and has com- 
municated to it its physical characteristics. Whatever may be the first origin 
of the felspathic solution, the rock could not be deposited except under the 
action of water, having its fossils disposed in horizontal layers. The system 
of joints which this rock presents is not a simple mechanical accident ; it is 
evidently due to the natural arrangement which the molecules of the felspar 
have assumed when deposited from the solution. It is, in fact, a simple 
phenomenon of crystallization ; that is, the jointing was guided by the planes 
of cleavage, as being the direction of least resistance. 

Microscopic examination after the treatment by acid shows almost always 
carbonaceous matter in the neighbourhood, or accompanying the prints of 
fossils, that matter being often enveloped by the felspathic paste. 

Metamorphosed Arenaceous Hocls of the same Formation. — As in the pre- 
ceding rocks, the felspathic solution has sensibly influenced the form which 
the quartz-rock affects ; the crystalline forms of orthoclase predominate at all 
points. This latter mineral has impressed its mineralogical characters on the 
rock in a rude manner, it is true, but still sufficiently sensible not to escape 

By an analogous phenomenon to that which takes place in the sandstone 
of Fontainebleau, but in a manner less strildng, the active solution percolating 
through the arenaceous matter has communicated to it its crystalline charac- 
ters. The prints of felspar, which often show themselves on the surface of 
these rocks, are sometimes identical in form and in size with the large ones 
found in the granite locahty of Dalkey. 

It is not always easy to follow the transition of these felspathic rocks, and 
there is a moment when they are nearly indistinguishable from rocks con- 
sidered as granite veins. There is, in reality, no great difference between some 
of the Cambiian rocks containing a felspathic paste sensibly crystalhne and 
enclosing grains of quartz, and the veins of Eurite filling the cracks and 
crevices of the Dalkey granite, this paste of Eurite often containing Garnets, 
and always isolated grains of quartz which could not be developed in it. 
Logically, I do not see why these veins shoidd not be due to causes analo- 
gous to those which have produced the felspar of the Cambrian rocks. 

208 REPORT— 1863. 

Preliminary Report on the Experimental Determination of the Tempe- 
ratures of Volcanic Foci, and of the Temperature, State of Saturation, 
and Velocity of the issuing Gases and Vapours. By Robert Mallet, 
C.E., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

At the Cambridge Meeting of the British Association a grant of ^100 was 
made, at the joint recommendation of the Physical and the Geological Sec- 
tions, to the Reporter, in furtherance of the above-stated research. Since that 
period a like sum has been granted to him by the Royal Society of London, 
with the same object. 

The estimated cost of the investigation, as carefully calculated as the sub- 
ject admits, has been found to amount to ,£350 — a sum which so largely ex- 
ceeds that derived from both grants, that the author felt some hesitation at 
further pursuing the matter. In view, however, of the fact that the rare 
occurrence of the peculiarly favourable form of secondary crater existing on 
Vesuvius might alter at any moment, and perhaps never again present the 
same faciEties for pyrometric experiment, he resolved not to risk the oppor- 
tunity by losing further time, and to take upon himself whatever pecuniary 
risk may be involved in performing the task he has proposed, presuming that, 
should his work prove satisfactory in adding to our positive knowledge of 
vulcanology, he may be indemnified in some way for such necessary ex- 
penditure as may be incurred in excess of the two grants made. 

He has, therefore, arranged the whole of the apparatus and instruments 
required, and their construction is now in progress. These consist of the 
mechanical arrangements for suspending, passing in over, and lowering into 
the crater, and again withdrawing, various instruments of greater or less 
weight ; and of the instruments themselves, both for pyrometry and for de- 
termining the velocity and state of the issuing blast of steam and gases. 
The pp-ometers finally adopted consist of resistance-coils, with their various 
electrical arrangements, which are heing prepared by Messrs. Siemens, 
Halske & Co., of London and Berlin, with the able assistance of the author's 
friend Mr. Charles T. Siemens (C.E., of London) ; and, as a means of con- 
trol as well as of separate and distinct determination, instruments have been 
devised by the author dependent upon Peclet's mode of determining specific 
heats. By a modification of the arrangements to be employed, the author 
anticipates heing enabled to make the fused lava itself become the means of 
revealing its own temperatures at points that cannot be directly reached 
even instrumentaUy. The latter pyrometric instruments, as weU as some of 
the suspension apparatus, are being prepared by Messrs. Siebe, engineers, of 
London. A series of thermometers and other minute apparatus are in hand, 
by Mr. CaseUa and by Mr. Adie, both of London. For the observation of 
the velocity of the issuing vapours and gases, the anemometer of Dr. Ro- 
binson has been modified in construction and in its metallic material, so as 
to work satisfactorily at a bright red heat ; and the instrument in this form 
has been ah-eady completed in a skilful manner by Mr. CaseUa. 

Of other remaining instrumental or other arrangements made or in pre- 
paration it does not seem necessary here to give any detail. The author 
expects to have ever}'thing complete and forwarded on to Naples before the 
end of 1863 ; and hopes to start himself for Vesuvius about the commence- 
ment of next year. 

K successful there to the extent he anticipates, he may possibly try to 
extend his observations to some other volcanic vents, more especially to 


Lipari or Etna, though the limitation of the funds placed at his disposal 
renders this less probable. 

The author proposes to himself collaterally to examine some other dynamical 
and physical questions relative to the superficial phenomena of volcanic action 
that appear to him as yet not to have engaged sufficient attention, and is 
anxious to receive from vulcanologists suggestions as to such subjects for 
inquiry, with a view to which he has addressed himself by letter to a few of 
the leading minds in this branch of terrestrial physics. 

Report on Observations of Lvminous Meteors, 1862-63. By a 
Committee, consisting 0/ James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological 
Society, S^-c. ; Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., ^-c. ; E. W. Brayley, 
F.R.S., ^c. ; and Alexander S. Herschel, B.A. 

In presenting this Report upon the Luminous Meteors of the past year the 
Committee have much pleasure in drawing attention to the marked advance 
in the number of coincident observations of meteors, regarding it as a most 
satisfactory proof of increased vigilance on the part of observers. Thus, of 
one meteor, viz., that of November 27th, 1862, no less than thirty-eight ac- 
counts have been received, of which ten of the most tnistworthy have been 
used for the determination of the path of this detonating meteor. (See Ap- 
pendix No. II.) Of many other meteors also, have duplicate accounts been 

To several meteors, of which accounts have been printed in previous 
Reports, satisfactory tracks have been assigned, which appear in the series of 
papers forming No. I. of the Appendix. 

For the better determination of the heights and velocities of meteors during 
the August epoch, many observations were made on the 10th of August, 1863, 
in the S. and E. of England, and the paths and magnitudes of twenty have 
been calculated. (See Appendix No. Y.) 

Respecting the Catalogue itself no change of form has been made from 
that followed in preceding years, but it is enriched by the addition of several 
ancient observations, collected from uncommon, and generally inaccessible 
sources. In selection of the observations, meteors inferior to the 3rd mag- 
nitude of stars have generally been excluded from the Catalogue. 

In the Appendix (following the papers bearing more immediately upon the 
observations contained in the Catalogue) will be found abstracts from some 
of the most important papers upon Meteoric Science which have appeared 
during the past and previous years. 



REPORT 1863. 




Feb. 7 

Place of 

h m 

8 30 p.m. Winbourn, Dor- 

Apr. 29 

Oct. 17 

Jan. 12 


2 48 a.m. 

7 p.m. 
7 45 p.m 

1 30 a.m. 


Observatory ; 
Hotel Cluny, 


Apparent Size. 



Light enough 
to pick a 
pin from the 

Globe of fire ; one- Bright red 
third diameter of 

St. Neots, Hunt- 
and at London. 

Splendour equal to 
that of broad 

9 in. in diameter. . . 

High Holborn 
Tower Hill, 
and at London, 

Lasted at least 
5 minutes 
(while leav 
ing the car- 
riage to run 
into the 

40 seconds 

With great ve 

Position, or i 

Altitude and] 



26 seconds ... Began immediate 
S. of Capella. 

It appeared 
come from t 

9 11 p.m. ; Hurworth, Dar-j2 X full moon at 

same hourl lington, Dur- rising 

to a minute] ham 

as that of 

August 18, 


6 40 p.m. Amoy, China 

Vivid flame- Lasted a few 

colour, dark 
red over- 



.Globe 4 or 5 in. in Light blue 

diameter to size| 
of a man's head. 

Half a minute; Rose a very lit 
grew swifter height above t 
as it rose. water in the h 

hour ; disappe 
ed overhead. 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

ike two pillars on the 
top of the house, 
\Vlien it disappeared, 
it seemed to move for 
wa d and to sink down 
below the roof. The in 
teriors of tl>e rooms were 
plainly visible from the 
outside bv the diffused 
ith long tail like a rocket 

1 extraordinary lumiDous 

Length of 


ball of fire seen 

•ngues and corusca- 
tions all round ; globu- 
lar; golden - coloured 
neck. Tail silvery, 
vaporous, full of amber- 
coloured sparks from 
one side of the sky to 
the other ; lasted a few 
seconds ; much ex 
panded at the point 

jf first 

hreased at first, 
ng off sparks 
;ood height like 
jets from 
column of 






at a 




then decreased 
;radually. Left a 

rail from the first, 
emaiuing overhead 
en minutes, becoming 

Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 



Fell perpendicularly 

N. to S. 

Course directed towards 
the £. 

Intensely dark night. It 
was also seen 6 miles 
from this, lasting 
apparently half a 
minute. .' Aurora. 

The moon greatly di- 
minished in bright, 
ness. Sky almost 
entirely overcast. 
Wind S.E. 

A similar meteor ob- 
served iu France. 

Silent. Providentially 
no person received 
any hurt. 


Annual Register, 

M. Messier, As. 
tronomer at 

Annual Register, 


Was attended with noise Annual Registei 
resembling thunder. ' 1769. 

N.E. to S.W. AppearerilTail very extraordinary. E. Collins, 
pretty low down and. Seen also at Durham,! 
passed exactly over- Dundee, SheflBeld 
head. Set below the (Dr. Uick). 

Rose vertically 

Many persons observed 
the trail of light, 
which was like a rent 
in the blue sky. The 
sun had not yet set. 



REPORT 1863. 


Oct. 4 

Aug. 11 

July 16 


h ni 

9 5 p.m 

10 10 p.m 



Place of 

Roorkee,N. India 

Far brighter than 
any star then 
visible in the sky. 

Newhaven, Con- 

Vauxhall, Lon- 

Apparent Size. 

46 shoqting-stars. 

Beautiful meteor. 

7 10 p.m. Lat. 22" 21' S., 
Long. 3° 17' E. 



7 55 p.m. 

About 10 

Lat. 19° 44' S. 
Long. 0»18'W 

= 3rd mag.» White 



Slow motion 
at beginning 
and end, 
quick in the 

Position, or 

Altitude and 


Appeared at alti^i 
tude 12°, dw 
E. ; passed 
vrithin 5° of 
the zenith, and 
disappeared at 
altitude 20°, 2i" 
S. of W. 

= 3rd mag.» 


Dieppe (France);Very brilliant 

Newhaven, Con 
necticut, N. 

Burlington, New 

7 p.m. 

7 49 p.m. 

7 35 p.m. 
9 5 p.m. 

8 30 p.m. 
8 32 p.m. 


95 shooting-stars.. 

289 shooting-stars. 

Lat. G° 19' N.,«Cygni 

Long. 25° 43'| 

Lat. 9° 48' N.. 

Long. 17° 10' 

Lat. 10° 6' N., 

Long. 28° 15' 

Lat. 10° 46' N., 

Long. 29° 28' 

Lat. 50° 37' N., 

Long. 0° 16' 


1*2 second .. 

2 seconds. 


Descended towards 
the earth in ( 
northerly direc- 

From Saturn 
towards thi 

horizon, alon| 
axis of the zodi 
acal light. 

From near S Ceni 
tauri to west 
em side o 
Crater. 1 

Disappeared behiml 
hills in AV. : fron 
altitude 45°. i 

= lst mag.# 

>- » Ursa Major... 


= 2ndraag.* 

= lst raag.# 

Slightly red- 1 second 
dish. ! 

Bluish white.. 



Deep rose-red 

2 seconds. 

Not >0"5 sec. 
Not > 0-5 sec. 

a Cephei towardi 
a Cygni. 

Through Cepheus.j 

« Draconis to \ 
Ursae Majoris. 

to »j Dracow 
and onwards. 

fi Serpentis to th 

From near x ^^ 
towards S. hi 


ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

Length of 

ir most brilliant at the 
centre of its course ; a 
tail began to follow it as 
it rose. A fine meteor 
from first to last. 

ft a long and bril 
liant tail behind it 
near the horizon 
the head burst and 
emitted a light 
similar to what we 
see when a sky-rocket 
I track left ; no sparks... 

track left ; no sparks. 

merous shooting-stars 
iverhead in all di- 
ections. Some lasted 
ine or two seconds. 

f ht train seen through 

r in disappearing at same 
me as meteor. 

'track left; no sparks., 

Itrack left ; no sparks., 

ftrack left ; no sparks.. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


E.N.E. to W.S.W. ... 


Gave irresistibly the im- 
pression of a body 
becoming luminous 
on entering the at- 


J. Herschel. 

36 or 80 per cent 
emanated from a 
point; R. A. 48° 6', 
N. Decl. 50° 57'. 

Its course was in a 
northerly direction. 

Along axis of the zodi 
acal light. 

E, C. Herrick. 

Illustrated Lon- 
don News.' 

A fog then filled the 
sky ; calm air. 

80 per cent, radiated'/? Camel. ; R. A. 48° 6', 

from R. A. 47° 56', 
N. Decl. 47° 56'. 
88 per cent. ra<Iiated 
from R. A. 48° 6', 
N. Decl. 50° 57'. 

N. Decl. 50° 57', 

S. to N. 

Very rapid 

T, Halis. 


Jas. Philp. 

E. C. Herrick, 

V, Marsh and 
— Gummen, 

T, Halis. 







REPORT 1863. 




h m 

9 45 p.ra 

Dec. 5 

Place of 

Apparent Size. 




Very surprising 

Colour a finej About 60° 

7 15 p.m. Lat. 6° 2' N.,' = lst mag.» 

Long. 17° 45' 

8 20 p.m. Seacombe (near 

Half diameter of 
full moon. Light 
like the sun, 
casting deep 
shadows on all 



Jan. 20 

Feb. 2 



5 15 a.m. 

9 p.ra. 

9 20 p.m. 

8 35 p.ra. 

7 15 p.m. 

8 52 p.ra 
G. M. T, 

Lat. 1° 13' N., 
Long. 19° W. 

Lat. 35° 54' S., 
Long. 5°14'E. 

Lat. 37° 55' S., 

Long. 23° 28' 

Lat. 21° 30' S., 

Long. 74° 20' 

Lat. 9° 55' N 

between Ceylon 

and Madras. 
Cambridge Ob 


9 25 p.m. 

9 20 p.m 

= 2nd mag* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 


Auroral arch 

Weston - super 

bay), India. 

Light as strong as 




large Blue 

1*5 sec. 

1-5 sec. . 
3 seconds. 

Position, or 

Altitude and 


From CassiopB 
through Lynx, i 

ft disappearw 

about 40° al)o»i 
the horizon, nal 
the three briglj 
stars of Draco. 

Endured a 

Crucis throu|' 

/3 to « Ce, 

Greater Magellar. 

cloud to C 

Cano))us towari 


J Hydrae Austral 
to V Toucani. ' 

From Monoceros I 
30° above i 

Gradually rose « 
wards the zeni' 
Passed over t 
Pole-star at i 

. 52°" p.m. 

2 or 3 seconds 

From nearly due 
under Bigel 
the Pleiades. , 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

ead much brighter 
than the tail, of a 
parabolic shape, about 
25' across the broadest 
part. Behind the head 
extended a tail about 
5° in lengtli and 
12' broad in the 

Length of 

arge fireballs, or rather 
more than one. They' 
almost immediately,! 
suddenly, became ex-! 
tinct as soon as seen.] 
A few dull red sparks 
remained, but these also 
vanished very quickly. 


;ft no track ; no sparks., 

s brightest part was 
towards the E. 

5 light was comparable 
to a flash of lightning 
two miles from the 
spectator. Very in- 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 






After proceeding about J. H. Davis 
60°, the meteor broke 
up into a great 
number of pieces and 
finally disappeared. 

No report heard . 

T. Halis. 

J. M'Innes. 

T. Halis. 


N.E. to S.W. 

Its vertex was appa- 
rently upon the mag. 
netic meridian. 




James Challis. 


H. Temple Hum- 


REPORT 1863. 



Place of 

Apparent Size. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 


June 4 




July 8 


Aug. 4 








b m 

8 30 p.m. 

9 20 p.m. 
7 15 p.m. 
9 p.m. 
6 30 p.m. 

10 15 toll 
7 15 p.m 

9 45 p.m. 

Urbino, Rimini Fine bolide . . , 

(Italy). I 

Lat. 52° N., =2nd mag.* 

Long. 89° 35' 

Lat. 1° 7' S., 

8 30 to 13 

10 p.m. 
10 14 p.m. 

Long. 85° 45' 

Lat. 7° 1' S., 

Long. 79° 20' 

Lat. 33° 17' S., 

Long. 32° 45' 

Prestwitch, near 

Lat. 28° 48' S., 

Long. 9° 54' 

Eiiston Road, 


Brussels, and 
also at Ha- 

Rome ; Observa- 
tory of the 

Havannah and 

Euston Road, 


:4th mag.* 
=2nd mag.«^ 
>-lst mag.* 

White ... 
White ... 
Rich red 

1*5 second ... 

1 second 

3 seconds 

2 seconds 

From ? Centauri to 

Through Centaun, 
to S.S.E. 

From near jSTriang..i 
Aust. to S 
Arae. ,1 

X Scorpit towardti 

Not a single shoot- 
= 2nd maj?.* 


Fine meteor, equal 
to 1st mag.* 

10 49 p.m. Ibid 

10 52 p.m. 

11 1 p.m. 
11 11 p.m. 

11 35 p.m. 

11 41 p.m. 


Flimwell, Hurst- 
green (Sussex). 

Green vfich 


Flimwell, Hurst- 
green (Sussex). 

19 shooting - stars 

31 and 54 shooting, 
stars per hour. 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd to3rdmag.» 

= 1st mag.*. 

=2nd mag.* . 
= 1st mag.*.... 
Bright meteor 



=> Ursae Majoris...i White 
= lstmag.* 

1 second [i] Serpentis to S 

Taur. Toniat. 

5 seconds From star BAC 219.1 

todo. BACIOOI. 

4 seconds. 

Orcupied only 
2 or 3 sees, 
in passage. 

1-2 second ... 


Moved very 

0-5 second 


76 Ursae Majorisll 
to 3 Can. Venat. 

Appeared in abso- . 

lute conjunction 

with Mizar, and 

vanished just 

under it. 
From 85 llercnlislii 

to 62 Ilerculis. 

From i (Z Urssfj 

.\laj., K Bootis) 

to fi Bootis. 
From (3 Draco. 

nis to A Her- 

■Appeared from ths 

W., aii.l swept 

close below thei 

' Pointers ' to- 


Centre at ic Bootis.. I 

/■lom 15 Vulpecula! 
to 5° below i 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

Length of 

o track left ; no sparks... 
ift no track ; no sparks., 
ain same colour as head 

) track left ; no sparks.. 
ft a train for 3 seconds. 

ro to three shooting- 
itars per hour. 

small fireball. First 
»nd second magnitude 

train left 

: a slight train 

rkled slightly 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 




Slow motion 

Moderately rapid. 

Moon 11-2 days old 

at noon. 
Clear sky, fine night ... 

Jac. Bianconi 
T. Halis. 




R. P. Greg. 
T. Halis. 

Radiated from the head 
ofCeplieus and cluster 
of Perseus. 

Sky particularly clouded 

Had a very 
long run 

rack left 

Seen through clouds ; 
part of passage quite 

Towards i Bootis 

T. Cruraplen 
and J. Towns- 

Ad. Quetelet, 
Andres Poey. 

Madame Scar- 

Andres Poey, 

Coulvicr Gra- 

T. Crumplen 

and J. 



A. S. Herschel. 

F. Howlett. 

W. Airy and W. 

A. S, Herschel. 
F. Howlett. 


REPORT 1863. 


Aug. 12 





h m 

11 48 p.m. 

13 a.m. 

15 a.m. 

30 a.m, 

1911 30 p.m, 

23 4 p.m 

23 9 55 p.m 
Sept. 16 9 10 p. 


Place of 

Flirawell, Hurst, 
green (Sussex) 




Hay, S. Wales.. 

Georgia (North 

Weston - super - 


Apparent Size. 

= lst mag.*. 
-a Aquilse . 
=a Aquilae . 

= Arcturus . 

= 2nd mag.* 

Great luminosity. 

16 9 14 p.m. 

16 9 38 p.m. 

1610 p.m. 

16 10 17 p.m. 


8 54 p.m 

18 8 58 p.m 

18 9 30 p.m 

19 6 10 p.m. 

19 10 15 p.m. 








Ramsbury, near 



Brilliant meteor 
lit up the sky. 

= to Mars at his 

= 2nd mag.» 

-2nd mag.» 

= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.*... 

= to Venus. 

= Arcturus 

Very bright meteor 

Large meteor in 
broad day, just 
after sunset. 

Bright yellow 



0*6 second 
1 second ... 

1 second 




Dull yellow . 

Bright yellow 

li sec; rapid 

1^ sec. ; slow 

2 sees. ; very 

2^ sees. ; slow 

li second ... 

Position, or 

Altitude and 



From 41 Antinoi t 
55 Sagittarii. 

Appeared 1° W 
of 7r Ursae Ma 
joris. ! 

From ^ (k a.) Drs 

conis to near 

Ursae Majoris. 

A- to r Can. Venat 

Halfway betweei 
Ursa Major an 
Minor. Paralh 
to S « Ursae Mj 

High up in the sk 


to W. i 

H 69 Ursa; Major I 

to { Bootis. 

Fell vertically 8 

below X I''"' 

From V Ursae Mi 

joris to 15 Leon 

1} Per»ei to Capel 

S Cephei to 1 

4 sees. ; very 

2 seconds. 

very quickly 


(3 toX Ophiuchi , 

fi to Z Hercnlis 

Fell down in tl 

Passed among 
the stars 
Aries.M usca, ai 



Appearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 

<o track left 

'aint track 4° long, 1 sec 

To track left 

like a sword. Handle 
silver, blade and point 
red, ten times as long 
as broad. 

eft a large luminous 

eft a narrow j'ellowish 
streak 30°, 3 seconds 
t] Ursae Majoris ap 
peared through it. 

icreased in size. An ad 
hering dull red tail 8' 

icreased in size and 
brilliancy. From first 
magnitude star, be- 
came very bright. 
' globular, and suddenly 
slender adhering tail 

ball of fire with a long 
tail of sparks. 

Length of 

6° or 7° ... 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


Towards 6 Ursae Majoris 

Towards n Ursae Majoris 

Slight deflection in last 
half of course. 

S to a Ursa; Majoris 

Pointed for S.W. to N.E, 




F. Hewlett. 

A. S. Herschel. 



T. W. Webb. 

•Monticello Jour- 
nal (Florida). 

W. H. Wood. 

About one shooting-star Id. 
every 5 minutes for 
1 1 hour. 






A large meteor wasThomas Bum 

also seen at South- 
ampton on the same 
date ( — Burning- 
ham, Jun.). 


A. ButsoD. 


REPORT 1863, 


Sept. 19 










h m 

9 55 p.m 

10 p.m. 
10 12 p.m. 

Place of 

Gaen (Nor- 

Manchester , 
Chiswick .... 

10 15 p.m. iVruside Tower.. 

10 15 pm. 

10 15 p.m 

Wellington (So- 

Great Malvern. 

10 15 p.m. Peckham Rye, 

5 a.m. St. John's Wood 

22 p.m 

Manchester . 

Euston Road, 

Apparent Size. 


Globe as large as al 
fist. Vividly il 
luminated all 

Strong glare seen ; 

from behind the 

Light more intense 

than any single 

flash of lightning. 

Brilliant glare seen 

4 times V. or 10 
times Sinus. 

As large as a small 
plate ; very 

= 8th-10th magni- 
tude stars. 

= to Mars 

Globe as blue 
as some 
light, yellow, 
then deep 

Meteor bluish. 

Body and train 

Ruddy . 


Position, or 

Altitude and 


A few seconds 

Not very rapid 

3 sees.; slow 
and uniform 

From the middle o: 
a l3 y Aurigse t( 
the middle of > 
ft 4' Ursae Ma. 

Moved along in ai 
upward course. 

Exactly overheae 
when first per 
ceived. From I 
little west o: 
Vega toward) 
the S.W. 

Moved along th« 
sky in a N.E 

Appeared aboui 
4° north o: 
the Pleiades 
Moved N.W. 
descending fron| 
Z Persei to jEj 
Aurigae. \ 

The track ex^ 
tended fron 

Capella direetl; 
towards thi 

Pleiades, but die 
not reach thi 

A broken line o 
fire extendei 
from the zenitl 
to the Grea 

Position not ascer 

Chiefly in the N.E 

From 10° E. o 
Delphinus, an< 
same altitudi 
as Deli'l-.inu 
to 7° belov 



ippearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

.t first a large caudate 
shooting-star ; tail 
continuous. Expanded 
suddenly like a bouquet, 
whence issued a blue 
giobe ■with a tail 
f'liraed into parcels. 
Left a train nf rocket- 
lil<e sparks after disap- 

ril aants were falling from 


lobe scattered blue 
light ; became egg- 
shaped, elongated itself, 
and disappeared without 
sparks. Track like a 
fluttering riband three 
or four inches broad 
Yellow - orange colour 
near Vega, the rest 
beautiful blue, 
ke the electiic light. It 
had a tail, and many 
sparks and stars. 

Length of 

J;teor not seen, but the 
8ash only. 

^ arge meteor 

lescopic meteors ; one, 
^wo, or even three 
)n every fine 

i^rain 5° long 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 



No report heard , 


Elides Deslong 

by R. P. Greg. 

S. Richards,Jun., 
by T. Slater, 

by R. P. Greg 

James Glaisher. 

Striking frequency of 


byT.Crump or, 


Jos. Baxendell. 

T. Slater. 


REPORT 1863. 



Place of 

Apparent Size. 

1862. h ni s 
Sept.22 10 22 p.m. Etchinghara 



10 23 p.m 

10 23 30 







= 1st mag.*. 

= 4tlimag.#. 



Red and blue, 


Position, or 

Altitude and 


4i to 5 sees... Started very nea 
Delphinus; tra 
veiled throng' 
Pegasus and di 
appeared hal 
way between 
Arietis and 

Rapid Described a curv 

round the hea 
of Delphinus. 


10 26 p.rn Euston Road, 

= 3rdmag.#. 

10 47 p.m. Ibid =2ndmag.* 

11 3 p.m. Ibid =lstmag.*. 


Described a revers 
curve i.bout Cc 
pella. , 

Rapid ; 1 sec. y Pegasi to 22 Ai " 
i droinedae. 

White 1 second 

White il second 


11 31 30 

About 11 48 


About 6p.m. I Smedmore, Kira-jVery bright ball of 
or very ! nieridge (Dor-i light, 
little set) 


= 2nd or 3rd mag.* 
= 2ndmaa;.# 

25 Shortly be- 
fore 6 30 

Between Llan- 
gollen and 




6 28 p.m. Oakley, Bishop 
or 6 30 Stortford (Es 

Half size of the 

X Cygni to 5°beloi 

T Cygni. 
Crossed a point (Hh 

48' followin; 

and 0° 5' S. c 

2 seconds From 

to 1 
Rapid motion . From 


8° below. 
Presented itself li 

altitude 70 

going towan 


A splendid meteor. 

6 50 p.m. 


As large as the! Bright hues of 
planet Jupiter. blue and red 

10 seconds 

Appeared fallii 
towards the \* 
as if down upi 
a hill, bi. 
disappeared b 
hind it. 

Descended in ■ 
westerly dire, 

FromE. toN.W..)fe 




ppearance ; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Duration. Path. 

eteor reddish, and tail 
blue, or vice versa. Ex- 
traordinary for its pro- 
tracted course. 


ght train , 

il of 2° 

iin of 10°, lasted one 
iecond, fading gradually 

ft a train of 7° 
't a slight train 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 




er attaining its greatest 
leight, burst into about 
wo dozen sinall balls! 
»f the same light as the 
neteor, and retaining 
he same direction for 

or 4 seconds. Left a 
light smoky track be 
iiiid it. 
■y bright, and appeared 

be quite close. 

y biilliant appearance 
ren in the evening 
ty. In the dark it 
ould undoubtedly 

ave been as fine as 
le large meteor of 
eptember 19th. 


No meteor ever seen to 
travel so slowly. 


39 minutes after sunset, 


F. Hewlett. 



T. Crumplen. 


T. Slater and J, 

T. Crumplen. 

by Sir John 

'The Standard,' 
Oct. 10, 1862 

'The Standard,' 
Oct. 2, 1862, 


REPORT — 1863. 






Oct. 3 


h m 
About 7 








8 32 p.m. 

Soon after 
8 p.m. 

8 49 30 

7 35 p.m 

8 p.m 

12 30 p.m 

9 1 p.m 

Place of 


Brighton , 


Manchester . 

Apparent Size. 

Fine meteor ; 

= lst 



Most brilliant 

Several splendid 

Decidedly > Ca- 
pella ; nearly = 
to Mars. 

One-fifth diameter 
of the moon. 

9 It p.m. 
9 24 p.m. 

9 30 p.m. 

9-10 p.m. 

9-10 p.m. 

9-10 p.m. 

9-10 p.m. 

9 25 p.m. 

10 36 p.m. 
6 34 p.m. 

Mens, Fiirsten- 
berg (Meck- 

(near Berlin). 



(near Berlin). 

Lake Constance 
S.W. end. 


20 9 49 p.m. [Greenwich 


White, then 

Bluish white.. 

Yellow in 
centre ; 
greenish on 
outer edges 
and on tail. 


Aerolite, 16 lbs. 

7' diameter 

5' diameter ... 
Large fireball 

I' diameter 
= Venus ... 




2 X full-moon. 

Large fireball . 
Large fireball . 
= 2nd mag.* . 




0-8 second 

li to 2 sees. 

2 seconds. 

Greenish blue, 
then red. 

Greenish blue, 

then red. 
Greenish ... 



: Capella. 

A little less 

= 2nd mag.* 



Bluish white. 

Intense white 

Position, or 

Altitude and 



From near Polar 
to 3° above 
Ursse Minoris. 

Descending in tl 


Traversed tha 
eastern sky. S 

From R. A. 1" 58 
2H° to R. A. 
51'", Declinatil 
N. 30°. 

Altitude 34° I 

From near Arctur'' 
to below the h" 

2^ seconds 
2 seconds... 

2^ seconds 
34 seconds 

I second 
1 second 

1 second, or a 
little less. 

1 second 

From near Perse- 
to feet of Ui 
Major. ., 

From Pleiades ill 
wards Cetus. ij 

From altitude 11 
to about 10° al 
tude at last. 

Polaris, past L' 
to S.W. 

From 20° altitu* 
ill E. to 30° a I 


From a Persei 
the Pleiades. 

In N. ; diii^ 
peared near 1 ( 
Draconis. 'd 

From 2° W. off 
Pegasi to 1" (^ 
of and abovef 
Aqiiarii. V 

From Perseus fa" 




^pearance; Train, if any,' Length of 
and its Duration. i Path. 

it a train of 1 ° 

LTiged from silvery 
rightness to a most 
eaiitiful green colour, 
the same time emit- 
ng sparks. 

i or three were trans- 
indently bright and 
!ry eccentric in their 
overaents, one per- 
rraing for many de- 
eesa snake-like course. 
!ft no train behind it, 
it threw off two or 
ree fragments in a 
wnward direction at 
e moment of its ex- 
of 30' in length . 

a train for a second 


into sparks 

red fiery train 



train . 
'ain . 

tail, leaving a faint 

train , 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 




Descended S.W. tojLight breeze and pass 
N'N.E. ing clouds. 

T. Cruraplen. 
F. E. Harrison. 

Serpentine course Starlight night after an 'Kent and Sussex 

extensive distant Advertiser,' 

Its course was undula- 

E.S.E. to W.N. W. down- 
wards at an angle of 

Sept. 30. 

Jos. Baxendell. 

Fell vertically 

Described with other 
meteors by Dr. Haid- 

Oblique path in the 


H. Wolf. 

T. Cnimplen. 

Earth and; sand] was Communication 
thrown up into a by Dr. Hald. 

shepherd's face. 

Inclined slightly up- 
wards towards Ursa 

N.E. to S.W 

T. Brorsen. 

Probably October 15 ... 

Probably October 15 ... 
Probably October 15 ... 

E. to W. 


J. Miiller. 

T. Brorsen. 
R. P. Greg. 


W. C. Nash. 


T. Crumplen, 

W. C. Nash 


REPORT — 1863. 


Oct. 20 





h m 

9 52 pm, 

11 58 p.m, 

11 59 p.m. 
10 21 p.m. 

7 45 p.m. 

Place of 



Hay (S. Wales).. 

Weston - super - 



Nov. 2 

9 p.m 
mate time 
9 30 p.m 

Apparent Size. 

= 2nd mag.* ... 
=2nd mag.* ... 

=3rd mag.* ... 
=:lstmag.* ... 

A sudden brilliant 


Blue . 

Blue . 
Yellow . 


Colour of 

streak bright 


Weston - super 

6 30 p.m. 

8 45 p.m. 

10 7 p.m 

= 1st mag.* 

= Mars 


Weston - super 



= 1st mag.* 



1 second , 
1 second . 


Position, orj 
Altitude anq 

Meteor not 
more than 
1 sec. ; not 

From Cassiopeia 

a. Pegasi. 
From direction 

the Pleiades t( 

From >- to ? C 

From 5° below 

Aquarii to 

above J Aquai 

Brightest oi 
curved part S. 
byW. ; altiM 


1 second 


Fell from a p^ 
a few degree* 
of the Pleiade 

From altitude 
S.W., down 
the horizon 
below it, iu S 

1 second 

A sudden Meteor white- 
illuminated every blue, 

A little after 
10 p.m. 


6 p.m. 

6 10 p.m. 


Nearly as large as 
fuU moon. 


Manchester, 10 
miles S. 


Four shooting-stars 
in a moderate 

As large as an 
orange, or 5' dia- 

Altitude 40" 

From altitude 
in W. 

Fell down fror 
great eleve 
to below 
horizon ; a 1 
N. of W, 

Large fireball 

Quite white . 

It appeared ti 
falling tow 
the horizon ; 

the N.W. o) 


2i seconds 

2 seconds. 

In the E. 
from alt 
30° to alt 

From N.N.E. ' 


pearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

it train 

ly shooting-stars ob- 
Tved this evening, 
wo of first magnitude 
jpeared together, 
luminosity remained 
ree minutes. Disap- 
fared and reappeared 
veral times, the light 
ictuating from richt 

Length of 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


a train a few degrees 


A little inclined to the 





two red sparks, the 
er one brightest. 
h disappeared with 
meteor. No streak 

of white flame ; 
I of red sparks 
stars, four or five 
lumber. Appeared 
I extraordinary sud- 

Perpendicular down, 

W. C. Nash. 


T. W. Webb. 

W. H. Wood. 

J. MacDonald. 


round; no tail or 


8 and tail of sparks 

S. toN 

Nearly vertical down . 

Many meteors in this W. H. Wood, 

Radiant, ill-defined, near 
bead of the Lynx. 

In bright moonlight ... 

Sky e.xtremely clear at 
the place where the, 
meteor appeared : 
bright moonshine. 

16° or 18°. .[Downwards towards the 
left, 70° from hori 

Full moonlight .., 
During moonhght 

J. Schiickle. 

W. H. Wood. 

Professor W. 

Paragraph in 
' Glasgow 
Herald,' No- 
vember 4. 

R. P. Greg. 
H. Gair. 

R. P. Greg. 



REPORT 1863. 


Nov. 9 


Place of 

Apparent Size. 

h h in 
7 to 7 30 
9 9 3 p.m. 

9,10 41 p.m. 

Prestwitch.Man- Not one shooting. 

Chester. | star. 

Weston - super - >-Mars 





7 to 7 30 

7 10 p.m 






=2nd mag.« 


Silvery white. 


Prestwitch (Man- 


Two shooting-stars 

8 45 to 9 Weston - super 
p.m. Mare. 

9 10 p.m, 

9 28 


10 30 to 11 

6 5 


7 46 p.m 



= lst mag.* 


li second 

Less than Isec, 

Position, or 

Altitude and 


From altitude 1 
S. ; to altiti 
2°, 5° W. 

From direction 
a Peisei towa 
N. ; disappeai 
about 15° bel 

Fell down in N.\ 

Very bright 

Very slow mo- 

Two or three shoot 
ing-stars; =3rd 

= 3rdmag.# 

= 3rd mag.* 


Accrington (Lan- 

Weston - super • 

No shooting-stars 

=2nd mag.* ... 

8 45 p.m. Accrington (Lan- 

9-10 p.m.; Prest witch(Man 

=to « Lvrae 


=3rd mag.* ... 
Fotir shootiug-stars 




1 second 

1 second 

From a Ursff >* 
joris to I I 
Majoris, bu 
turned a ) 
feet half cir 
round J U 

From Mars 
wards the 
and from 'i U 
culis vertic 

From direction , 
Capella, aln ; 
to Ursse ' 

From Cepheus i 

Faint white ... 


Bright white.. 

Until 9 p.m. Weston - super - 


6 28 p.m. Accringtou(Lan 

Rather slow... 

2i seconds 

Rapid ; instan- 

Fell from Pegas- 

From Mizar 

About 10° al 

Two at the > 
horizon, I 
Draco. Tl 
others eas 
ward, fro 

No shooting-stars 


Mars Yellow, some- 2 or 3 seconds; From 


what dull. 


under Ca| - 
towards It 
ades, whii k. 
it near ' 




ipcarance; Train, if any, 
nd its Duration. 

Length of 

liar briihancy, increas- 
Dg ; left no tail ; sud- 
lenly vanished. 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 



•eared within one 
linute of each other; 
o other shooting-stars 
ien in 30 minutes. 
dy light, at last fading 

Long paths. 



Sky very favourable ; R. P. Greg, 
moon rising. 

W. H. Wood. 

Directed apparently 
from Mars. 


Course like a fish-hook, 

Fine clear night, moon 
shining brightly. 

Favourable sky 

minima of size, 

near centre of 

■vse; thin adhering 

About 10°. 
Long path. 

Almost vertically, but 
inclining westwards 

;wo near the horizon 
ist have been brilliant 
ere they fell. 


smaller, as if burn- 
itself out. Drew a 
light train of sparks 

Fell vertically 

No radiant point dis. 

Then overcast , 

W. C. Nash. 

R. P. Greg. 

T. Humphrey. 

Bright moonlight .... 

W. H. Wood. 

W. C. Nash. 


R. P. Greg. 

L. E. Becker. 

W. H. Wood. 

L. E. Becker. 
R. P. Greg. 

W. H. Wood. 
L. E. Becker. 


REPORT 1863. 








Place of 

h m 

10 40 p.m. Hampstead(Lou- 

10 48 p.m. 

9 2 p.m. 

7 8 p.m. 

8 30 p.m. 

6 40 p.m. 

Weston - super 




6 48 p.m. 

26 About 7p.m 





7 45 p.m. 

4 55 p.m, 

5 40 p.m. 

5 45 p.m 

Bright meteor, like 
a globe. 

Twice as large as 
Venus ; light = 
half moon. 

Resembled Mars ... 

Two shooting-stars, 
1st and 2nd mag 

Quarter moon's dia- 



Selkirk (Rox- 

Melbourne (S 


of the River 
Thames, oppo 
site Greenwich 


Apparent Size. 

Bright meteor . 

Double the size of 
the largest planet, 

Light like the moon 

Fully as large as 
the moon. Light 
quite eclipsed 
the moonlight. 

Great fireball 


Nucleus white, 
track green- 

Bright yellow. 



Deep orange., 


Position, or 

Altitude and 


very rapid. 

1 1 second 

3° or 4° in 1 
sec. ; very 

More slowly 
than any 

Appeared 2( 
below, and 
little west 

From 4° S.E. 

From (j> Pisciun 
T Ceti. Pas 

within 3 

of Mars. 
Disappeared i 

Appeared 3° ( 

Eridani. I 

den from n 

after falling 

or 5°. 


In Ursa Majc 

Very rapid 

Appeared to be as 
large as the full 

Pale, but in- 
tensely bright 

Green, yellow, 
blue, alter- 

Apparent size 
full moon. 

of Colour of full 

Appeared in Tv 
Passed witli g i 
velocity across 
heavens to S.: 
Passed overlit a 
altitude 42 , 
\\. from S. 
Passed near 

2 seconds. 

Appeared near 
zenith, alj 
moved on 
inclined pat! 
wards S.hori 

Began and 
E. of Mars? 
Lower thij 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

eft a streak for a short 

lar-sbaped and tailed 
Burst -with a shower 
of 1st magnitude yellow 
stars which fell vertl 
ght intermittent 

Length of 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


15° or 20°. 

veral until IC p.m., in 
same place and direc- 
tion, the last a 1st mag 
Ditude star, blue. 

ce ball of a Roman 
candle. Disappeared in 
bank of clouds which 
rose up within five 

iminated the whole 
;ountry with extraordi- 
lary brilliancy. 

ploded at the end of its 
course with a very bright 

harly round, rather elon- 
ated. Finally disap- 
)eared behind a dark 

train of pale-coloured 
jght remained for some 

low sparks thrown off 
broughout the whole 
ourse ; a train also 
een after meteor's dis 
ppearance for half a 

4° or 5° 

Downwards to the right, 
30° ft-om horizontal. 

Parallel to the ecliptic, 


Sky and sea calm 

Radiated from v Cassio 

Fell nearly vertical 


first mistaken for the 
lOon ; circular ; then 
yriform, and exploded, 
footing out behind it a 
rilliant crimson flame, 
ke fireworks. 

28 '^ 

Another account. 

• • 

In a southerly direction 

N.W. to S.E. 

In a S. by W. direction, 

E. to "W., sensibly hori- 


In 4 minutes rumbling 
concussions were 

heard for 90 seconds.. 

A prolonged report fol 
lowed the appearance 
in about one minute. 

At right angles to the 
usual course of such 

Peebles ' Adver- 
tiser ' (R. 

G. Lewis. 

Owen's Adver- 

The meteor fell behind 
St. Alphege church, 
Greenwich, exhibiting 
that building in bold 
relief from surround- 
ing objects ; then 
suddenly disappeared, 
leaving all objects 
totally undistinguish 

T. Potter ; H. T. 

W. H. Wood. 



John Marshall. 

Cosmos, Paris, 
December 5th- 

J. R. Nash. 

W. Pengelly. 


REPORT 1863. 


Nov. 27 


h m s 
5 45 p.m. 



Place of 


5 45 

5 45 




Springfield (Es- 

Apparent Size. 








5 45 p.m 
5 45 p.m 
5 45 p.m. 

5 47 5 

5 47 5 




3 seconds. 

Saltford (Bath). 


Sandgate (uear 

At the end, behind 
houses, the light 
increased very 

Half diameter of 


Position, or 

Altitude and 


From near Ma 
passed under ( 
moon, and bu 
at altitude 2 
above the he 

From altitude 
38° E. from S 
altitudes", 5° 
from S. 

Passed some d 
tance below 
moon into a lo 
dark cloud tot 
right of it. 


Magnificent meteor Red, then blue 
then red. 


Greatest width 
13' ; greatest 
length 0° 26' 
Would certainly 
have appeared a 
bright body on 
the surface of the 

Width across the 
head 31'; length 
longitudinally 1° 
17'; by compa- 
rison with the 

While a per- 
son might 
walk ten 

Barely 3 sees... 

6 or 8 seconds 

Colour of me- Not more than 
teor white,' 4 or 5 sees. ; 
but reflected! motion slow, 
light bluish. 


From about al 
altitude 35°. 

From altitude 1 \ 
S.E., to altitui) 
10°,17r E.froi 

It appeared to 
about a mile o 
and 400 or 6(| 
yards high. 

.■Appeared at R. . 
23 \ S. Decl. 7 
and disappeani 
at R. A. 20" 40' 
S. Decl. aboi 


From«Ceti to 
endof course 
8 seconds. 

View commenp 
near c CJ 
passed ale 
across j3 
and then 
mediately abf 
nishing 4° 
yond this 
and about 
above the 
zon. hroi 
balls of 
between (3 
and Fomalha 



pearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

ke a globe of phos- 
hhorus driving a dark- 
holoured liead or bolt 
|)urning before it. Left a 
(;olden thread behind it 
liurst with a crackling 

no permanent streak, 

ut sparks only, upon a 

hort train. 

elongated, intensely 
lue pear-shapes, raced 
losely side by side, 
receded by a flat- 
ned orb of vivid red, 
ne-eighth of the mag- 
itude of the whole, 
lUowed by a stream of 
ght like that of a 

tared sparks like a 
ece of white-hot iron 
•ought out of a smith's 

Length of 

iged from red to blue, 
again to red,whenj 

shape, or like Prince 
pert's drop. A train 
red sparks left in the 
no coloured balls 
n to 

drop from the 

shaped ; light most 
inse in front, in a 
scent form, expanding 
asionally almost to a 
lie. Cone milky white, 
isphorescent, or dim 
:omparison. A train 
uddy sparks, lasting 
• 3 seconds, followed 
meteor. Large blue 
s, which burst into 
■ks, fell perpendicu- 
from the head. 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


Sloped gently down tO' 
wards the W. 

Almost horizontal, 

slightly inclining 




N.E.byN.toS.W. byS 

Azimuths doubtful ; but 
altitudes correct, by 
house roofs, &c. 

G. Brown (Deal 

Rev. G. IlyflTe, 

Writer in 'The 

Path perpendicular to 
the line of the moon's 
cusps. Produced 

backwards, would 
have passed halfway 
between Mars and the 

Although the moon (; 
days old) was ex 
tremely bright and 
clear, its light was 
lessened by the 

James Rock, Jun 

Francis Cotterell, 

Writer in ' The 
Morning Star.' 

H. P. Finlayson. 

The meteor gradually 
increased in size, but 
not uniformly, an oc- 
casional decrease in 
size and brightness 
taking place. Mo- 
mentary checks in the 
velocity each time 
that it discharged a 
shower of balls. It 
vanished at its maxi- 
mum brightness, not 
bursting, but as if 
going behind some 
opaque body. 

E. J. Lowe. 


KEPORT — 1863, 



Place of 

Apparent Size. 



Position, 01 

Altitude anc 



h m 

5 48 p.m. 


Many colours.. 

Steady motion 

Moved from 
Houses tow 
the W. belo^ 


5 49 p.m. 
5 50 p.m. 

Euston Square 

Kensal - green 

Diameter equal half 
diameter of moon, 
but more brilliant 
than the full 

Like the moon at 
the time. 

Very bright 

Nucleus of a 
light green 


First seen at 1 
23"40">, S.I 
6° or 8°. 
appeared i 
view at R 

From 2° or 3 
about 15° or 
S. of the mo 


5 50 p.m. 

Clapham (near 

Very large meteor.. 


About 5 sees... 

From 28° E. : 
S. altitude 
to 11° W. ( 
altitude 17' 



5 50 p.m. 
5 50 p.m. 

Near Windsor ... 

fiight suflScient to 
read by. 

The light appeared 
to flash while 
the meteor was 
hidden behind 


Bluish white, 
yellow at the 
edges, and 
red at the 
extremity of 
the tail. " 

Moved three 
and a half 
times its 
own length 
in a second. 

Altitude 8- , 
S.E. by E. 11 
by E. ' 



5 50 p.m. 
5 50 p.m. 



As large as the 

Outshonethe moon; 

light sufficient to 

read by. 





3 seconds 



jpearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

Length of 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


green ; tail golden 
I ' appeared in a spark- 
111. 2 shower of colours. 

11 .ike a rocket; begin. 
niiig and end hidden. 

form somewhat oval. 
I train stretched far 
)ehind, composed of 
imber- and crimson- 
loloured sparks. Balls 
fell from it, which burst 
nto other balls. 

first small, but grew 
ery bright, and left a 
■ain of sparks. Disap- 
eared without bursting. 

Nearly horizontal 




A serene night and sky 
Moon seven days old. 

As the meteor shot for 
ward it increased and 
diminished alternately 
in size, especially just 
before disappearance. 


H. R., writer in 
« The Times 


C. H. Bright. 

it, with a rugged About 40° . 
ppearance, movedl 

ong the tail and 
>rmed sparks for an 
istant behind it. 

»wcd by a train of 

streak remained, but 
arks followed thinly 
a train ; beginning 
'd end hidden by 
Jstacles. Flakes of 
;ht were left behind 

Ascended somewhat ... 

Inclined downwards 4° 
or 5° from horizontal. 

Positions measured by 
description the follow 
ing evening. 

Disappeared from sight 
behind buildings. 

by A. S. Her. 



E, to W., obliquely 

Downwards towards the 

right at a consider 

able slope. 

The light caused the 
observer to turn 
round towards the 

Writer in 

H. P. Horner. 


E. Hussey. 

F. Young. 


REPORT — 1863. 









Place of 

h m 

5 50 p.m.jCaen (Nor 

mandy). (Seen 
also at Cher- 

5 53 



5 55 
5 55 p.m. 

5 55 p.m. 

5 55 p.m. 

Between 5 
and 6 p.m. 

Weston • 


Apparent Size. 


Glare from behindJFirst red, 
only perceived. then blue. 


Position, I 

Altitude ail 


Between 5 
and 6 p.m. 


Feckham Rye 

Mile End Road, 



One-third diameter Silvery white, 
of moon. 

jA ball as large as 

two fists; lighted 

up the pathway. 
Most beautiful Beautiful blue 

meteor ; large tinge. 

as au ordinary 

Width of head one- Bright yellow 

eighth diameteri shading tu 

of moon. rose pink 

and rich 
i violet. 
As large as full Very blue 



moon ; light suf- 
ficient to read by. 

Ball of bright blue ; 
light like a Ro- 
man candle. 


Blue, red, 

Splendid meteor .. 

Nearly every 

Moon and haze 
scured the sta 

4 to 5 seconds From N.E., altit« 
altitude 10°. 

Did not travel 
at a very 
rapid rate. 

4 to 6 seconds About 15° abc 
the horizon. 

Very slow mo 
tion; visible 
3 seconds. 

My eyes rest 
on the Pleiad' ' 
just below th • 
issued a mass'> 
light. Themeti ■ 
cast off spaj' • 
when nearingl'- 
Needles. The' : 
when it got oi' ■ 
the Needles, 'J. 
nished away u' i 




Direction ; noting also 

tearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

Length of 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 





turning round, a streak 
f red sparks was seen, 

N E. to S W. 

Report like distant 
thunder heard in one 

Eudes Deslong- 
champs and 

l~ • Jj» m\f *Jt *»• •**•*•«*■•• 

ying away. 

to one and a half 
minutes, at Caen 
Colleville, Lion-sur- 

Described in L'Ordre 
et la Liberte of Caen 
LeMoniteur de Calva- 
dos, and Le Moniteut 
Universel de Paris. 

M. Toussaint. 

first small, gradually 

30° of the 

W, H. Wood. 

icreased ; halted half- 

path were 

ay, with great shower 


F sparks. In E., threw 

through a 

It a yellow tail 18° 


ng, green at junction 


ith head. Head 

Bar-shaped ; burst at 

St into ten large 

eces which advanced 

jliquely towards the 


G. M. G., writer 
in 'The Times.' 

a tail in its progress. . 

H. Spaliroolfp 

ariding whip, moving 
itt-end first. Burst 

E.N.E. to W.S.W., ex- 
actly parallel to the 

Writer in ' The 

ith a flash like light- 



Bared to divide, and 

Descended at a slight 

C. J. C, writer 
in 'The Times.' 

en to burst with a 

rprising aud brilliant 


iw off sparks in curls 

Horizontal till the last 

It forced its way along 
as if impeded. 

A. P. Falconer. 

ove and below, behind 

moment, when it 

like the scales from 

turned upwards to- 

anvil. Crimson-red 

wards the moon. 

the centre, interlined 

ove with greenish 

le, and below bright 


How. Some sparks 

1 downwards. 

as small when first 
in, an<l gradually be- 

E. to W 

F. Reeves. 

[fle large. It seemed 

halt midway, and a 

iendid shower of 

»rks came forth of 


arly every colour. 





REPORT 1863. 


Nov. 2 7 







h m 
Shortly be- 
fore 6 p.m, 

6 p.m. 

6 p.m. 

6 p.m. 

6 p.m. 

6 p.m. 

6 p.m 



Place of 

6 p.m 

Havre (France). 

Newport, Isle of 

Wrotham (Maid, 

Apparent Size. 

Great fireball 

About equal to the 
moon; light not 
quite so bright. 

Rather longer than 
moon's diameter; 
twice as long as 


English Dicknor 
Forest of Dean 

Sutton Court, 

Cambridge Ob- Overpowered the 
servatory. light of the moon 

with intermittent 

6 3 


Ho niton, near 

Pendock (Wor- 



With astonish- 
ing rapidity. 


Light white, 
like moon- 

Intense blue. 

Deep blue 

Larger than full 

Half size of full 


Slowly pur 
sued its 

Intensely blue 

Intense blue... 

Very slow mo- 
tion, lOsecs, 
at least. 

3 or 4 seconds 

Position, or i 

Altitude andl 


Passed oVer 

Passed under 
moon, more 
to the moon 
to the horizui 

Passed under 

N.E. to 
greatest he 
ahout 20°. 

The height ab( 
the horizon 
guessed to 
about 60°. 


Passed at 
112° N.P, 
S.E. to S.W. 


Judging from ' 
moon, the a 
tude was ahi 
35° from 20° 

Appeared betv.i 
Pleiades a" 
Aries. Pass'' 
under Ms'' 

and burst i' 
mediately belt', I 
the moon. ! 



learance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

y: a luminous 
ehind it. 


earance like a Roman 
mdle ; a cylinder ten 
!• twelve diameters in 
ngth of uniform 
.•ightness ; not pear- 
laped or kite-shaped, 
o other tail. 

iticular when first seen, 


Length of 

isappeared as a shoot- 
g-star might do, va- 
sliiiig not quite sud- 


or two solitary 
arks, at first increased 

a stream until the 
Jteor was formed, 
te meteor increased 

glory and volume 
til it vanished. 

udden disappearance 
▼ery remarkable, 
sre being apparently 

obstacle to hide it. 

flashes resembled 
nmer lightning, 

ching nearly to the 
lith. Dispersed 

trks on all sides 

no streak ; went out 
ing of red and blue 
it with tail appended: 
i account). 

llow halo and long 
linous tail. Nume- 
sparks scattered 
ea it burst. 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


N. to S. 

E. to W. ; straight and 
level course. 

Moved downwards to- 
wards W.S.W., at an 
angle inclined 6° to 
the horizontal. 

Rose in N.E., moved 
horizontally, and dis- 
appeared in S.E. 



Seen also at Bolbec, (Cosmos, Paris, 

Ivetol, and Rouen. 

The moon shone 

Dec. 5th). 
James Rock, Jun. 

J. C. Kent. 

.\lmost horizontal ; 

somewhat depressed 

The same remark made 
at Hazely Heath, 
Hants, by Mr. J, 

Ring of red and blue 
light with a tail ap- 
pended (second ae 

Charles Walke 

J. Burdor. 

No report was heard 

J. Kent. 

H. Todd. 

J. Huyshe. 

W. S. Symonds. 


REPORT 1863. 






Dec. 3 








h ID 
6 30 



8 48 p.m. 

7 30, 

Greenwich Park.. 



6-6^ p.m, 

8-9 p.m 


10 15 p.m 

10 20 p.m. 

10 30 p.m 

10 26 p.m 
6 50 p.m 

Place of 


Apparent Size. 

Bray (County 

Weston - super 






Dordogne Puy- 

Cast shadows 

through a window 

more strong than 

those of the 


Width at head half 
tapering to ex- 
tremity of tail; 
four moon's dia- 
meters in length, 

One-third diameter 
of moon. 

=:lst mag.» 

As large as the 
moon when full. 

Large bolide 

10 or 12 meteors: 
1st mag.» 

= lst raag.#. 


About twice as large 
as Sirius. 

= lst mag.*, bril 

Twice Venus , 


Blue andgreen 






Lasted only a 
few seconds. 


I second 

Very rapid ; 
10 or 12 sees. 

1 second 

2 seconds. 

0*5 second ... 

I second 

Moved slowlv. 

moon. Altit 
about 15°. 

Appeared aln 
due E., 
moved rap 
to about 
S.E. at an 1 
tudeof 5° or 

Appeared t 
Mars ; descen 
across the sky, 
derthemoon. 1 
appeared half' 
from the mooi 
the horizon. 

From direction 
« Draconis ti 

Went S. in a 

Position, or 

Altitude and 


Needle rocksJ 
descended il 
the sea ; from 
of Ursa Majoi 

From aUitude2Sl 
a little higheil 
the altit I 
10° S. or S.S.J 

In all quarters" 
the sky. 

Fell down |,^ 

pendicularlyfi j 

a few degrees I 

of the Pleiad( 
Passed from 

Ononis in 

S.W. direct 

for 10°. 
Seemed to 

from 9 


5° above 

burst at 

2° from i 

From a Geminor^ 

to y (Irionis. 
Appeared near 

Pole, and mo;i 

towards the 





)nis. i|, 
lear ji 


ijearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

Length of 

ke into three parts lil<e 
lie great meteor of 

in mber of sparks 
ere left behind in 
> progress, and just 
fire disappearance it 
raw out the most 
jilliant light, blue 
Id green, like the ex 
psion of an enormous 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


E. to W. 


It moved nearly hori. 

ions particles, and a 
la like that of a 
let followed it. 

adform; left a train, 
h became disunited 
before the meteor 
; the train lasted 
t 0*4 sec. 

f white light 

5° or 6" 

Radiant point perfectly 
marked between Au- 
riga and Gemini. 




S.E. to N.W. 


Writer in ' The 
Daily Tele- 

Philip Barring- 

Nearly horizontal W. C. Nash 

Writer in ' The 

A. P. Falconer. 

During a brilliant aurora 

byW. Il.Wood, 

R. P. Greg. 

J. MacDonalJ. 


C. Trapaud. 

W. C. Nash. 

Writer in 
' Cosmos.' 



KEPORT 1863. 


Dec. 15 


Jan. 2 




Feb. 7 


h m 
11 30 p.m. 

4 22 p.m. 



9 20 to 
9 40 p.m 
7 30 p.m 

6 55 p.m 

6 30 p.m 

8 7 p.m 

The sun had 
set 18 miu 
4 55 p.m 

4 55 p.m. 

A little after 
6 p.m. 

7 G 30 p.m 

Place of 

Apparent Size. 

Twice Venus White Slow motion 


Hamburg, Stet. 
tin, Magde- 
burg, &c. 

Hurst - green 

Greenwich Park 



Plean (six miles 
S. of Stirling) 

Edinburgh, five 
to six miles W. 

Glencorse Rail 
way Station 



Width quarter dia- 
meter of moon. 

2nd and 4th 

mag. stars. 

Nearly as large as 

the moon. 

Large meteor 

-Mars or Venus... 


= Sirius 

Large luminous 

Very brilliant me 

Large meteor 

1^ feet in diameter 

Very red 

Bright white., 


Brilliant rose 


The sparks red 

Very slow mo- 
tion. Dura- 
tion 30 sees 

3 seconds. 

3 seconds. 


Altitude ai 


From magnet 
altitude 3t 
true S.W. 

In Taurus, ( 

Struck acrosi 
heavens fro' 
N. to the V 

From q r, b< 
TT Orionis \ 
Eridani. , 

slowly, 4 or 
5 seconds 

From near 1 
to imme 

Passed perp« 
larly throu 

Passed ovi 
and pro 
peared be 
rising groi 

A few seconds Descended 


Appeared tc 
scend b« 
House and 
Milns, aliii' 
the horizon 

Appeared t 

50 or lOO 
off. Desc 
from 20 
yards to ^ 
yards frou 



earance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

jlobe of white light, 
milar to that seen at 
' SO™ p.m. 

Jsser irregular-shaped 
)dy followed it 
id a third still 
nailer, upon a long 
id brilliant train of 


Length of 

illiant meteor 

About 50° 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 



E. to W. 

Radiated from Aide- 
I baran. 


Writer in 
' Cosmos.' 

W. Lawton. 

a slight tail and 
arks, but no lu- 
nous track. Burst 
th a flash, and 
nished at maximum 

itly pear-shaped, with 
?ht tail, which did 
t remain. 

last oflF a portion 
iM'head, and two 
rks as it proceeded 
vards. One spark 

from it perpen- 
alarly, when it va- 

brilliant for a few 
)Dds, then de- 
ised as it de- 
ided like red-hot 
lers falling from 

grate of a coal 

id red sparks, not 

stream, but at ir- 

ilar intervals of 

it half a second. 

blown ox-bladder 
of 4 yards, and red 
« flying from it 
ppeared without 
apparent cause in 

A nearly 

horizontal No report heard , 



It fell nearly perpendi- 
cular, S.W.toN.E. 

It no doubt crossed the 

N.W. to S.E. At SIX 
miles W. of Edinburgh 
it appeared to fall about 
Ravelrigg Hill. 

Bright twilight after a 
fine day. A stone 
picked up ; not mete- 
oric (J. A. Smith and 
M. Thomson). 

J. C. Thomson. 

Paragraph in 

' Bristol Daily 


by Dr. O. 

P. Hewlett. 

W. Airy. 

J. MacDonald. 

James Hunter 
(Proceedings of 
the Roy. Phys 
Soc. Edinb.). 

P. Mackenzie ; 
by R. P. Greg. 

Seen also at Alyth andlEdinburgh Daily 
Dublin, and (?)Syden- Journal, 
ham (London). 

No higher than 
telegraph posts. 


David Pirrie ; 
by Sir J. Rich 



REPORT — 1863. 


Feb. 7 


Place of 

Apparent Size. 


h m 

6 45 p.m. 

7 6 30 p.m 

6 30 p.m 







An hour 
after sun 

6 15 p.nic 
9-12 p.m 

7 57 p.m. 
7 57 p.m, 

8-11 p.m 

and 2 a.m. 

2 a.m 

)0 16 p.m 

11 30 to 
11 45 p.m. 

EUe (Fife) 

A glimmer seen 
upon the sea, not 
intense, like sheet 

Leven (Fife), 
60 yards from 
Windygates on 
the Leven - 

Farm of West- 
mains, Thirle- 
stane. Lauder 

Glare of light on all 
objects round. 

East side of Loch 
Fine (Argyll- 






Weston - super 



Place (Edin- 

Larger than the 


Size of the moon : 
light sufficient to 
pick up a pin. 

2, 4, 4, 3, 2, 1, of 
1st, 2nd, &c. 

= lst mag.#. 

= 1st mag.*. 

1,3, 3, 0, 1 = to 
Venus, lstmag.,&c 
> Venus, very large 

Very beautiful me- 
teor, = to Venus. 

Astonishing fireball 

Meteor in- 
blue in the 

ruddy sky. 


Glimmer on 
the water 
2 seconds ; 
meteor seen 
i- second. 

The meteor 
was caught 
sight of for 
2 or 3 sees, 

Bluish colour. 

11 white, 2 
yellow, 3 red 

White, yellow, 

1 bluish white 

Bluish white. 


Body flame 
coloured ; 
tail red. 

Position, o; 

Altitude ail 


Two or three 

7, 5, 4 under 
^ second, 
1 second, 
and 2 sees. 

1'5 second ... 

Appeared to 
Arthur's Sea 
the peak of 
altitude a 
5°, 16^° ^ 

The course 
Haugh Spit 
Mills; alt.l 
(From 133° 
to 41° 57', 

Appeared, alti 
heads ; d 
peared, alti 
10°, behin 
hill a littli 
of Blainslie, 
(From 70° 
39° I', Azii 
W. of S.) 

The greatest h 

was 18°, ai 


a hill in 


Greatest alt: 
25°; disapp« 
behind a n 
bouring hill 


2 A seconds ... 

R. A. 8°, N. 


N. Decl. 52 
R.A. 141°,N. 


N. Decl. 21< 
In all parts 

From 8° N. 

Leonis tfl 

Ursa; Major 

From R. A. 44 

Decl. 66° to 

12°, N. Decl 

Rose over the S 

of VVemyss I 

across Queei 

Gardens (S.'^ 

N.E.), & van, 

over the hous 




pearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

appeared without 

lange of course, explo- 
on. or sparlis. Broad 
|ue streak like a ribband 
/ice twisted, immediate 
I disappeared. 

c a rocket, not globu- 
ir. Emitted beautifull)i 
i'iglit colours in a 
raigbt line behind it 

own-coloured tail was 
en at one and the same 
me the whole length 

Length of 

lat it travelled. 

1:0 Volans, with tail a 
ird or two long, but no 
•aiks seen. 

il two or three yards 
length, like the me- 

01 itself. A fiery kite 

'1 igonwithalongtail. 

shooting - stars 

nee had a sparkling 

licarance. No tracks 

jkling appearance ; no 
1 ; ruddy before dis- 

ileft a train for a few 
tnuls; 8 shooting-stars. 
!i a train for a few 


)iidid train, 2 seconds ; 

le a bar of hght 1° to 

i broad. 

1 of fire, and a con- 

5 erable tail : like a 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


N.W. to S.E., in a line 
nearly horizontal, bu 
somewhat dipping 

Horizontal course 


In the blush of sunset 
momentary view of 
disappearance only. 

Came from N.W., and 
proceeded to S.E 
declining downwards. 

N.W, to S.E, 

Radiant at top of Lion's 

Still serene evening 
without a cloud. Po- 
sitions from memorv. 

Positions from memory 


W. Wood. 

W. M. G. Miller. 
by SirH. James, 

— Edgeby ; 


by S. Whitton! 

and Alexander! 

bvSirH. James. 

A fine evening after a James Shaw ; 
rainy day. communicated 

by Dr. G. 

The flash like lightning 
was noticed in closed 

Radiant point /* Leonis, 

From overhead to N. 

Vertically down inN.W., 
as if from Dubhe. 

S.W. to N.E., in an ap- 
parently almost hori- 
zontal line. 

— Malholland ; 
by Dr. Rankin 

A. S, Herschel, 

Tail and body travelled 
together with regular 


W. H, Wood. 


R. P. Greg. 

P. A. Dassauville 
(Proc. Royal 
Phvs. Soc. 


REPORT 1863. 



Place of 

Apparent Size. 



Position, oi 

Altitude and 


Feb. 13 


h m 
11 45 p.m 

12 p.m. 

St. Andrew's 

Shipston - upon- 
Stour (Wor- 

The tail and body 
extended one de- 

One-eighth sun's 
disc, almost daZ' 

Brilliant red... 


About one mi- 

5 or 6 seconds 


Passed over 
centre of 

1^ — 

















8-10 pm, 

10 30 to 

11 30 p.m 

8 56 p.m. 

9 p.m. 

Easdale (West 






A little after 
6 p.m. 

6 37 p.m 

8 57 p.m 

8 54 p.m 

U 30 p.m. 

11 35 p.m. 

8-11 p.m. 

8 9 p.m. 

8 49 p.m. 

Very splendid me- 

9, 3, 1, of 3rd, 4th 
magnitude, &c. 

Fair number of 
shooting - stars, 
mostly very small 

Nucleus = star of 
5th mag. 


... Passed overheat. 

10,2, 1, white 
yellow, red. 

1 sec, 2 sees., 












= 2nd mag.» 

= 4th mag.* 

Very brilliant me- 

Large meteor 

= 2nd mag.» 
= l^mag.#.. 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

3, 3, 4, 3, 2, of 1st 
and 2nd mags., &c. 

= 4th, then 2nd 
mag. star. 

= li mag.« . 


Yellow, red... 

1-5 sec, 4° 

2*4 seconds . 

0-7 second 

Of a white 

Bluish white... 


White, then 


Straw colour... 

Bright straw 

11,2, 3, white, 
yellow, red. 


White, then 





Gemini and Orii 

In Ursa, Can- 
Cepheus, ..Vc. 

R.A.96°, S. 1 
5° to R. A. ; 
S. Decl. 7 . 

R.A. 54°, K. n 
1° to R. A. ( 
N. Decl. 6% 

R.A. 71°, N. D. 
N. Decl. 83°." 

R. A.144°,N.Dj 
58° to R. A. 9'^ 
N. Decl. 63°. 

A little to the 
of Sirius, andT 
a line with it, ; 
seconds ; Fell vertically ^ 
W. from 45"* 
10° altitude. 

very slow 

1-2 second 

1 second 

Rather rapid 
2 seconds. 

7,3,4,1, i sec. 

1 sec, 2 sees. 

aud>-2 sees. 
1-6 second .. 

1-5 second ... 

69° to R.A. 
N- Decl. 6.3 

Appeared 5" ^\ 
a point mid' 
between Be 
geux and Siri 

ed 10° further 

Camelopardalus • 
Auriga, &c. 

R.A. 74°, N.D' 
36° to R. A. 9 
N.Decl. 25».;f 


R.A. 114°,N.D 

29° to R.A. Is, 
N. Decl. 19".;^ 


ance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

Length of 

i cent meteor. Of a 

lut red appearance, 

tL very bright flame- 

c flashes in front. 

dazzhng appear. 

, the hinder part 

taking into sparks. 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 




een shooting-stars ; 5 

tails or a sparkling 

earance ; no tracks left 

Passed over the centre 
of the town, taking a 
N.E. direction. 

Eastward, horizontal, 
below Cassiopeia. 


5° to 30° ... Radiant, X Leonis 

)unded by a brushy 
nebulous envelope a 

St tailed; red; long 
d arrow-like. 

id in the quadrant of 
ircle round Polaris. 

slightly undulating., 

Presented a good radiant 
point in Leo Minor. 

enly disappeared. 

t train. 

t tailed ; nucleus and 
arrow-like, dull red. 


peared suddenly. 

n shooting - stars ; 
> were tailed; one 
a track for 1 sec. 
peared for 2^ ; reap- 
red 2nd magnitude, 

Ifing a track 6°, one 

iond, white, 
t tailed; nucleus and 
arrow-like, dull red. 


Almost horizontal, N.W 
to S.E. 

On Feb. 15th, 9" 20" 
p.m. to 9" 50° p.m., 
8 appeared in 30 min 

On the 14th, 6 appeared 
in 30 minutes. 

Moved towards IV. of a 
watcbface held with 
XII. vertical. 

Fell verticallv E. to W.. 

One - third 
to Sirius 

to Sirius. 

10° to 35°.. 

Good view, clear sky . . . 
Remarkable appearance 

St. Andrew's 
Gazette,' Feb 

James Gorle. 

J. White ; com 
municated by 
A. Buchan. 

A. S. Herschel 

No detonation 

Horizontal, W. to E. 

Sensibly horizontal 
S.E. to N.W. 

Two radiants, Leo's 
head and Capella. 

R. P. Greg. 

A. S. Herschel. 


R. P. Greg. 


Mrs. M<^Leod. 

by Dr. O. 

T. Crumplen. 

A. S. Herschel. 
W. Pengelly. 


A. S. Herschel. 




REPORT 1863. 


Feb. 20 


Mar. 4 


h m 

6 25 p.m. 

10 35 p.m. 

10 45 p.m. 
6 36 p.m 

Place of 

Giessen (Ger- 


Eccles, near 


Large meteor 

:1st mag.* 

6 36 p.m. 

6 30 to 
6 45 p.m. 

Apparent Size. 


Train greenish 


Half diameter of 
moon. Like the 
crown of a hat. 

6 30 p.m. 

6 32 p.m. 

6 4 p.m. 

6 1 p.m 


Accounts from 
12 Coastguard 
Stations, Hast- 

Hereford , 

Bredon (Tewkes- 



Brilliant meteor , 

Equal to a 12-lb. 
rocket. Flash 
observed when 
the meteor was 
hidden by cliffs 

Meteor like a rocket 

Brilliant as the 

Splendid meteor . 

2'2 seconds 

Yellow, then 
white, at 
last red. 


3 to 4 seconds 

White, then 


Altitude an 


2A seconds 

Silvery white, 3 to 5 seconds 
then bright 
blue ; fiery 
red before it 

In colour like 
the moon. 

Brilliant blue, 
changing to 


In the S.E. 

R.A. 83°, N.] 
20° to R.A. 
N. Decl.23° 
W., altitude 
Fell due S., 
about the alti 
of Canis Maj 
Came nearly 
the Pole, or 
the end of 
Great Bear's 
Passed behii 
tree, alt. 9°, 4 
of E., and 
down to thi 
point of the 
rizou. 2ndly, 
among trees 
18° N. of 
altitude 3^' 
14° N. of 
altitude 2°, i 
towards 9° 1 
E., upon th( 

Appeared alti 
15°, 5° S. « 
titude 3° 
E.S.E., i E. 
Appeared N. ( 
byW. Burs 
tween Gallej 
and Dung' 
Point ;orott 
buildings, as 
from Bexl 
Station flag 
Almost ton 
the water b 
it disappear! 
Rather low in t 
It reached' 
horizon, ori 
lost in the it 
of the horiz 

5 or 6 seconds 
at least. 

Across the skv, 
to S.E. 

Near Cor Caio 



earancc; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

eak train of greenish 

ilour. Disappeared 


orm motion and ap 

:arance. No tail or 


Lensith of 

II at first and like a 
ndle - flame. Then 
paiided to a brilliant 
lite ball near the 
)on, sparks flying from 
derneath,like a horn, 
sappeared gradually 
low the horizon as a 
i ball the size of a hat, 
thout sparks. 

k train of sparks , 

(■st globular ; at last 
I a rainbow-coloured 
tarn behind it (like a 
tiet's) consisting of 
l6t brilliant light. No 
(rks from it at disap- 
rance, for it did not 
3t, but was lost sight 

teor resembling a 
:et, leaving a long 
1, uith sparks, 
nd it. 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 




Downwards towards the No detonation Communicated 

right ; 40^ from hori- | l)y Dr. O. 

zontal. Buchiier. 

S. to N. ; horizontal 'a. S. Hersthel. 

Came nearly from the 
Pole, or from the end 
of the Great Bear's 
tail ; or from altitude 
14i°, 12° E. from N 
It was descending at 
a slope of 23^° to the 
horizon when it disap- 

Downwards towards the 
right, 50" from hori 

in a very low transit. 

, T. Mackereth. 

J. Birch; T. 
Humphrey; F. 
Reeves ; J. 

by A. S. Her- 

R. P. Greg. 

Full moon; no clouds,! Communicated 

but a 

hazy atmo 

Descended gradually 

idid meteor 

^. to S., in a slanting 
direction towards the 

by F. W. 
Gough, R.N. 


Full moon effaced the 
stars, but meteor 
eclipsed the moon. 

by J. Glaisher. 

by T. Crump- 


KEPORT — 1863. 


Mar. 4 


h m 

7 p.m. 

About 7 30 








7 35 p.m, 

7 30 to 
11 30 p.m. 

10-11 p.m. 

10 30 p.m. 
9 48 p.m. 

11 3 p.m 

Place of 

Erbacb (Odeii- 


(many places) 

Weston - super ■ 



Weston - super • 





8 30 to 
12 p.m 

8 33 p.m 

8 53 p.m. 

9 11 p.m. 

8 20 p.m. 
10 17 p.m 

10 27 p.m 

Ibid , 




Apparent Size. 

Very brilliant 

Brilliant meteor , 

Very brilliant 

:1st mag.* . 

colours were 
red, white; 
and blue. 

9, 0, 2, 3, 1, of 1st 
mag., 2nd mag., 

No shooting-stars 

above 4th mag 
Remarkable meteor 

=to Sirius 

= lst mag.* 


Slowly disap- 

Travelled at 
great speed. 

Dull red 

7, 1,2, 5, blue 
yellow, red, 


3,8, 9, 8, 1, of 1st 
mag., 2ud mag 

= lst mag.*. 

Reddish white 

10 white ; the 
rest reddish 
white, or 



Weston - super - 

= 5th mag.* 

= 2nd mag.*, then 
=:4th mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 

= Sirius 

: Venus 



7 sees. ; slow 

7,4,3,1, < 
sec.,< 1 sec, 
< 2 sees., & 
= 7 sees. 

075 second.. 

1 second 

Position, oil 

Altitude an(| 



disappear L! 
the horizon. 
Passed over 
cing College. 

In the W 

R.A. 155°,N.I 
32^0 R.A. 2 
N. Decl. 62°. 

In all parts of 

White, then 



12,12,2, < 
sec.,-< 1 sec, 
< 2 sees. 

1'2 sec. ; fast. 

0'7 sec. ; very 

1-5 second 

0*3 second .. 

2*3 seconds , 

Yellow . 

3 seconds. 

In the N. . 

R.A. 149°, S.I 
29°to R.A.I 
S. Decl. 32", 

R. A. 161 
Decl. 75" tu 
348°, N. 1 

In Lyn-x, G i 
Leo, Hydr- 
Viigo. " 

R.A.120°,N. 1 
24° to R. A. 1 
N. Decl. 4°, 
tude 58° to 
tude 20°. 

Centre fi Can 

R.A. 186°,N.l* 
59° to R.A ■ 
N. Decl. Cr 

In Camelopan 

R. A.124°,N.l 
14° to R. .V. 
N. Decl. 26°, , 
tude about 5 

R.A. 158°, N.I* 
2° toR.A. 1'^ 
S. Decl. 6' 


;arance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 

coloured train , 

Length of 

Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 



! train 

N.W. to S.E., towards 
the sea. 

; ruddy taU 6° 
g, curled off until 
nucleus was ex- 

.11 fireball, 2 conical- 
ed meteors, &c. = 

ibled a dumb-bell 
it a disc; no track 


5° to 60°.. 

N. to S. 

Last half of course 
snake-like and curvi 


Remarkable object 

by Dr. 0. 

' Sussex Adver- 
tiser,' Mar. 12. 

by D)-. 0. 

W. H. Wood. 

One with snake - like No radiant point dis 


ntary train. 

rushy or misty, and 
left a track ; one 
a long track and 


in or sparks 

No moon ; hazy sky ... 

2° to 40°,.. Radiant point not dis- 
cernible. Perhaps a 
radiant point in Virgo, 


il. A cluster i° 4° or 5° ... 
!. Totals 5th mag. 

rted termination 
mag.; orange and 
red. No sparks or 

a or sparks , 

Vertically, N. to S. 

Horizontal, E. to W. 

Good view ; clear sky... 

train and small 

ed from 2nd mag. 
le star. Vanished at 
Dttum brightness ; 
iw bright yellow tail 
sparks, redatjunc 
(vith the nucleus. 

From Leo Minor , 

Horizontal, S.S.W. to 


The only shooting-star 
from 8-9 p.m. ; sky 
partly cloudy. 


A. S. Herschel. 
C. Pooley. 
R. P. Greg. 



A. S. Herschel. 



R. P. Greg. 

A fine object 

W. H. Wood. 


REPUKT 1863. 

Date. Hour. 

Mar. 15 








h m 

7 45 to 

8 15 p.m, 

12 .SO to 

1 30 a.m 

1 12 a.m. 

8 58 p.m, 

10 30 p.m. 

Place of 



Apparent Size. 



Position, or 

Altitude auJ 


No shooting-stars . 
above 5th mag. i 

= 4tli and 5th mag, 

= Sirius 

White and 


Weston - super - >lst mag.» 


= ¥■ 

Blue, then 


11-12 p.m. Prestwitch(Man- 
8-11 p.m. Hawkhurst 

11 9 p.m. London 

8 4 p.m. Ibid 

23 8 29 p.m. 

No shooting-stars 

= 3rd to 5th mag. 

= 3rd mag.», then 

= 1st mag.« 
= 7th mag.* 





Wilmslow (Man- 

8 20 p.m, 

8 30 p.m. 

8 30 p.m. 

8 30 p.m. 

Very brilliant 


1'2 second 

1| second 

0-7 secoud 

[n all parts .... 

R. A. 189°, S. E ,' 
9° to R.A. Ill 

R. A. 87°, N. D| 

18° to R.A. 

S. Decl. 8°. 

R.A. 171°, N.I 
62° to R.A.I 
N. Decl. 705 

White and Rapid 

White, then 1 second 

blue. I 

Ruddy 0-1 second 

2 seconds. 

In all parts .... 

In R.A. 20.^ : 
Decl. 33 •• 

Crossed the at 
of Orion. 






At maximum equal 
to Sirius. 

Weston - super - 

Hay, S, Wales... 



changed to 
intense blue. 



White (?). 

faint ; reached 
full size and bril- 
liancy after half 
its course. 

1"5 second (.') 

2 seconds. 

Pale bluish 

Rather a slow 

Brilliant pale 
yellow, or! 
else red 
with green 

R.A. 95°, S. I 
8° to R. A. 1 
S. Decl. 19i', 

R.A.160°, S.l 
14° to R.A, 

(+), S. De.l 

R. A. 141 , 

Decl. 10- to 

117°, S. 1 

25°. Pathm 

reached to 


Passed 3° or 4* 

of the bdtti 




'ai.ince; Train, if any, 
anil its Duration. 

Length of 

licoting-stars (one = 
• ill <) ; no tracks left. 
I rain or sparks. Dis- 
([icared abruptly at 
I Hi, St brightness. 

,-,\i from blue to 
ite ; with bluish 
oky conical tail 3' 


itest at middle of 

h. Brushy ; no tail 

Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 


No radiant point discern- 



Sky somewhat hazy ; 
then overcast sud 
denly without wind. 

Iiooting-stars. No 
:k left. 

ly increased, and 
dly diminished. 
ie, with power of 80 
•neters. Faint gaseous 
it upon the track, 
t-like. Burned low 
a rocket. 


W.S.W. to E.N.E. 

No path 

baped, with nebu- 
envelope surround 
the nucleus. Left a 
sparks and a train 
for a few mo- 

ied and disappeare