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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF THE 



THIRTY-FOURTH MEETING 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCRMRNT OF SCIENCE 



HELD AT 



BATH IN SEPTEMBER 1864. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREKT. 

1865. 



PniNTED BY 
XATLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET, 



AI.KHB T FLAMM&M. 





CONTENTS. 



Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxiv 

Members of Council from commencement xxv . 

Officers and Council, 1864-65 , xxviii 

Officers of Sectional Committees , xxix 

Corresponding Members xxx 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxxi 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1862-63 xxxi 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xlvii 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science xlviii 

Synopsis of Money Grants lii 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes liv 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee Ux 

Arrangement of the General Meetings lix 

Address of the President, Sir Charles Ltell, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S. Ix 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report on Ijbservations of Luminous Meteors, 1863-64. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaishee, F.R.S., of the Royal Obsei-va- 
tory, Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, &c. ; 
RoBEET P. Geeg, F.G.S., &c. ; E. "W. Bratlet, F.R.S., &c. ; and 

Alexander S. Herschel.' B.A 

o2 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Report on the best Means of providing for a Uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science. By a Committee, 
consisting of Lord Weotteslet, D.C.L., F.R.S., The Rt. Hon. C. B. 
Addeklet, M.P., Sir William Armstrong, C.B., F.R.S., The Astro- 
nomer Royal, F.R.S., Samuel Brown, W. Ewart, M.P., T. Graham, 
F.R.S., Sir John Hay, Bart., M.P., F.R.S., Professor Hennessy, 
F.R.S., James Heywood, M.A., F.R.S., Dr. Lee, F.R.S., Dr. Leone 
Levi, F.S.A., F.S.S., Professor W. A. Miller, F.R.S., Professor Ran- 
kine, F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Robinson, F.R.S., CoL Sykes, M.P., F.R.S., 
W. TiTE, M.P., F.R.S., Professor A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., James 
Yates, M.A., F.R.S., and Frederick Pttrdy 102 

Report of Experiments respecting the Development and Migrations of 
the Entozoa. By T. Spencer Cobbold, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., Lec- 
turer on Comparative Anatomy at the Middlesex Hospital Ill 

Report on the Physiological Action of Nitrite of Amyl. By Benjamin 
W. Richardson, M.A., M.D 120 

Report on Tidal Observations made on the Humber and Rivers Trent 
and Ouse, 1864. By a Committee, consisting of James Oldham, C.E.; 
J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S. ; John Scott Russell, C.E., F.R.S. ; and 
Thomas Thompson 129 

Deep-sea Dredging on the Coasts of Northumberland and Durham, in 
1864. Reported by George S. Beady 189 

An Account of Meteorological and Physical Observations in Nine Bal- 
loon Ascents made in the years 1863 and 1864 (in continuation of 
thirteen made in the year 1862 and first part of 1863), under the 
auspices of the Committee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, by James Glaisher, F.R.S., at the request of the 
Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, The Astronomer Royal, Lord 
Wrottesley, Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Dr. Lloyd, Admiral 
FitzRoy, Dr. Lee, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Glaisher, Prof. 
Tyndall, Dr. Fairbairn, and Dr. W. A. Miller 193 

Further Report on Shetland Dredgings. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. 327 

Report of the Committee on the Distribution of the Organic Remains of 
the North Staffordshire Coal-field. — Preliminary Notice. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P., 
F.R.S., Professor T. H. Huxley, F.R.S., and William Molyneux, 
F.G.S. (Reporter) 342 

Report on Standards of Electrical Resistance. By a Committee, consist- 
ing of Professor Williamson, Professor Wheatstone, Professor W. 
Thomson, Professor Miller, Dr. A. Matthiessen, Mr. Fleeming 
Jenkin, Sir Charles Bright, Professor Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, 
Mr. Balfour Stewart, Dr. Joule, and Mr. C. F. Varley 345 

On the FaU of Rain in the British Isles during the Years 1862 and 
1863. By G. J. Symons, M.B.M.S 367 

Preliminary Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of the proposed 
Atlantic Cable. By William Fairbairn, F.R.S 408 



CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS and PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 
Professor Cayley on a Formula of M. Chaslea relating to the Contact of 
Conies 1 

on the Problem of the In-and-circumscribed Triangle .... 1 

Mr. AxEXANDER J. Ellis on Stigmatics 2 

Professor Cremona on the Geometrical Transformation of Plane Curves. 
(Communicated by Mr. T. A. Hirst.) 3 

Mr. T. A. Hirst on a Generalization of the Method of Geometrical Inversion 3 

Mr. M. MoGGRiDGE on an easy Mode of Measuring Heights 4 

Mr. W. H. L. Russell on Symbolical Expansions 4 

ASTEONOMT. 

Mr. W. R. BiBT on Methods of Detecting Changes on the Moon's Surface . . 4 

Rev. W. R. Dawes on the present Aspect of the Discussion respecting the 
Telescopic Appearance of the Solar Photosphere 4 

Rev. Thomas Furlong on the Possibility of constructing Ellipsoidal Lenses 5 

Professor Hennessy on the possible Connexion between the EUipticity of 
Mars and the general Appearance of its Surface 5 

Mr. R. W. Hardy's Speculations on Physical Astronomy 6 

Dr. Lee on an extensive Lunar Plain near the Montes Hercynii, which it is 
proposed to name Otto Struve 6 

Professor Phillips, Notice of the Physical Aspect of the Sun 7 

Rev. T. W. Webb on a suspected Change of Brightness in the Lunar Spot, 

Werner 8 

■ on the Invisible Part of the Moon's Surface 9 



Light. 

Mr. J. Browning on a New Form of Spectroscope, in which Direct Vision is 
obtained with a Single Prism 9 



VI CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. A. Catton on the Connexion between the Form and Optical Properties 
of Crystals 10 

Mr. A. Claudet on Photo-Sculpture 10 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on the Adaptation of Bisulphide-of-Carbon Prisms, and the 
use of Telescopes of Long Focal Distance, m the Examination of the Sun's 
Spectrum 11 

Dr. Gladstone on the Transmission of the Red Ray by many Coloured Solu- 
tions 11 

Professor W. A. Millek and Mr. W. Huggins on the Spectra of some of the 
Heavenly Bodies 12 

Mr. J. J. Walker on a recent Description of an Iris seen in the Lake of 
Lucerne 13 



Electeicitt. 

Mr. Samuel Highley's Description of a Cheap Form of Automatic Regulator 
for the Electric Light 13 

Mr. Fleeming Jenkin on the Retardation of Electrical Signals on Land- 
Lines 13 

's Description of an Electric-resistance Balance constructed 

by Prof. W. Thomson 14 

Mr. II. Keevil on the Development of Electricity from the Rays of the Sun 
and other Sources of Light 14 

Professor H. D. Rogers's Descriptions of the " Liquid Steering Compass " and 
" Monitor Compass " 14 

Mr. J. B. Thompson on the Mechanical Theory and Application of the Laws of 
Magnetic Induction and Electricity 15 



Meteoeologt. 

Mr. C. O. F. Cator on a New Anemometer 16 

Rev. E. B. Ellmar on the Earthquake and Storm in Sussex of 21st August 
1864 16 

Mr. John Hartnup's Diagram of the Great Storm of December 3, 1863, 
from the records of the. self- registering Instruments of the Liverpool Obser- 
vatory 17 

Professor Hennessy on the Regression of Temperature during the Month of 
May 17 

Rev. L. Jenyns on the Temperature and Rainfall at Bath 17 



Mechanics, etc. 

Mr. R. A. Peacock's New Foi-mula for calculating Steam Pressures, Steam 

and Voleanos, Bursting of Boilers 19 

Professor W. J. Macquorn Rankine on the Properties of certain Stream- 
lines 20 

Dr. J. Stevelly on a Mode.of Determining the Velocity of Sound 20 

Mr. C. ToMLiNSON on the Cohesion-Figures of Liquids 21 



CONTENTS. "Vll 



CHEMISTET. 

Page 

Address by William Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.R.C.P., President of the 

Section -1 

Dr. T. Anderson on sonae Bituminous Substances 2-4 

Dr. Henry Bird on the Utilization of Sewage 24 

Rev. G. Browne on the Prismatic Formation of Ice in certain Ice-Caves and 

Glaciers 24 

Mr. F. Crace-Calvebt on a New Method of extracting Gold from Auriferous 

Ores : 25 

Mr. A. R. Catton on the Molecular Constitution of Carbon Compounds .... 26 

on the Direct Conversion of Acetic Acid into Butyric and 26 

Caproic Acids ^6 

Mr. Stewart Clark's Description of an Apparatus for Estimating the Organic 

Impurities in Atmospheric Air and in Water 26 

Dr. Daubeny on the Thermal Waters of Bath 2G 

Mr. Thomas Fairley on the Action of Hydrogen on Polycyanides 26 

Mr. Frederick Field on a Specimen of Tin-ore hitherto undescribed 27 

Ml". Alphonse Gages on the Artificial Production of Anhydrite 27 

Mr. W. Gee's Accoimt of the Mode adopted at the Bradford-on-Avon Union 

for the Utilization of Sewage 28 

Mr. A. Vernon Harcoubt on the Rate of Chemical Change 28 

Dr. W. Bird Herapath on a New Method of detecting Arsenic, Antimony, 
Sulphur, and Phosphorus, by their Hydrogen Compovmds, when in mixed 

Gases 31 

Dr. G. IVEMp's Memorandum on Ozone 32 

Mr. A. C. Kirk on the Production of Cold by the Expansion of Air 32 

Mr. Poole King on the Prematm-e Decay of the Frescoes in the Houses of 

, Parliament, its Cause and Remedy 32 

Mr. Maxwell Lyte on an Apparatus for the Preservation or Disengagement 

of Sulphuretted Hydrogen, Carbonic Acid, or other Gases 32 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam on the Pollution of Rivers by the Sewage of 

Towns 32 

Dr. A. T, Machattie's Suggestion on the Detection of Poisons by Dialysis. . 34 

on the Presence of Nickel in Metallic Lead 34 

Professor W. A. Miller's Chemical Examination of a Hot Spring in Wheal 

Clifiord, Cornwall 35 

Dr. S. Mobsman's Obsei-vations on the Constitution of the Atmosphere .... 36 

Mr. A. Noble on Reaumur's Porcelain 36 

Dr. Paul on the Disposal of Town Refuse 36 

Dr. B. H. Paul on Crude Paraffin Oil 36 

on Usefiil Applications of Slag from Iron Smelting 37 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on the Black Stones which fell from the Atmosphere at 

Birmingham in 1858 37 

on the Medicinal Muds of the Island of Ischia, Bay of 

Naples 38 



VIU CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor W. B. Rogers's Accoxint of Apparatus and Processes for the Che- 
mical and Photometrical Testing of Illuminating Gas 39 

on an Invention by Mr. Cornelius, of Philadelphia, 

for Lighting Gas by Electricity 40 

Professor Roscoe's Contributions towards the Foundation of Quantitative 
Photography 40 

Description of a Chemical Photometer for Meteorological 

Observation 41 

Note on the Existence of Lithium, Strontium, and Copper 

in the Bath Waters 41 

Mr. AV. L. Scott on some probable New Sources of Thallimn 41 

Mr. P. Spence on Copper-smelting 41 

Dr. Sullivan on the Precipitation of Aluminous Silicates from Solution .... 42 

Professor Tennant on the Colouring of Agates 42 

Mr. J. Alfbed Wanklyn on the Rational Fonmda of Rosaniline 42 

's Note on the Probable Constitution of Kolbe and 

Schmitt's Coloiu-ing Matter obtained by acting upon Carbolic Acid with 
Oxalic and Sulphuric Acids 44 

on a curious Example of Etherification 44 

Dr. Williamson on Isomorphism 45 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by John Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the 
Section 45 

Mr. W. Hellieb Baily on some New Points in the Structure of Palaechinus 49 

— on the Occurrence of Fish Remains in the Old Red 

Sandstone at Portishead, near Bristol 49 

Mr. A. Bassett on the South Wales Mineral Basin 50 

Mr. Henby B. Bbady on the Foraminifera of the Middle and Upper Lias of 
Somersetshire 50 

Mr. Henby W. Beistow on the Rhaetic (or Penarth) Beds of the Neighbour- 
hood of Biistol and the South-West of England. (Communicated by Sir 
RoDEBicK L MuBcmsoN, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.) 50 

Rev. P. B. Bbodie's Remarks on two outliers of Lias in South Warwickshire, 
and on the presence of the Rhtetic Bone-bed at Knowle, its furthest north- 
em extension hitherto recognized in that County 62 

Rev. C. F. Bboavne on the Formation and Condition of the Ice in certain Ice 
Caves of the Jura, Vosgian Jura, Dauphine, and Savoy 52 

Dr. Philip P. Cabpenteb on the Connexion between the Crag Formations 
and the recent North Pacific Faunas 52 

Mr. Handel Cossham on the Geological Formation of the District aroimd 
Kingswood Hill, with especial reference to the supposed development of 
Millstone Grit in that neighbourhood 52 

Dr. Daubeny on the Cause of the Extrication of Carbonic Acid from the In- 
terior of the Earth, and on its Chemical Action upon the Constituents of 
Felspathic Rocks 52 

Mr. W. Boyd Da'wtcins on the Newer Pliocene Fauna of the Caverns and 
River-Deposits of Somersetshire 53 



CONTENTS. IX 

Dr, Falconer on Fossil and Human Remains of the Gibraltar Cave 53 

Professor Hahkxess on the Lower Silurian Rocks of the South-East of Cum- 
berland and the North-East of Westmoreland 53 

M. F. VON Hauer's Notice of the latest labours of the Imperial Geological 
Institute of the Austrian Empire 54 

Dr. James Hector on the Geology of the Province of Otago, New Zealand . . 54 

Professor Hennessy on the Possible Conditions of Geological Climate 55 

M. Hebekt's Note on some of the Oolitic Strata seen at Dundry 57 

Jlr. E. S. HiGGiNS on Otolites 57 

Mr. H. C. Hodge on the Origin of certain Rocks, and on the Ossiferous 
Caverns of the South of Devonshire 57 

Dr. T. Hodgkin's Notice of some Geological Appearances in the North-west 
of Morocco 58 

Mr. William Keene on the Coal-measures of New South Wales with 
Sjnnfer, Glossopteris, and Lepidodendron 58 

Mr. E. R. Lankester on the Species of the Genus Ptermim 58 

Mr. John Leckenby on the Boulder-clay and Drift of Scarborough and East 
Yorkshire 58 

Sir W. Logan, Dr. Dawson, and Dr. Sterry Hunt on Organic Remains in 
Laurentian Rocks in Canada 58 

Mr. J. Mackenzie on the New South Wales Coal Field 50 

Mr. C. MooHE on the Geology of the South -West of England 59 

Sir R. I. Murchison's Note on the Occurrence of the same Fossil Plants in 
the Permian Rocks of Westmoreland and Durham 59 

Mr. C. W. Peach on Traces of Glacial Drift in the Shetland Islands 59 

*s Additional List of Fossils from the Boulder-clay of Caith- 
ness 61 

Mr. W. Pengelly on an Accumulation of Shells, with Human Industrial 
Remains, found on a hill near the River Teign in Devonshire 63 

on Changes of Relative Level of Land and Sea in South- 

Eastem Devonshire, in Connexion with the Antiquity of Mankind 63 

Professor Phillips on the Formation of Valleys near Kirkby Lonsdale 63 

on the Measure of Geological Time by Natural Chrono- 
meters 64 

on the Distribution of Granite Blocks from Wasdale Craig. 65 

Commander B. Pim's Notes on the Volcanic Phenomena and Mineral and 
Thermal Waters of Nicaragua 66 

Mr. J. Randell on the Position in the Great Oolite, and the Mode of Work- 
ing, of the Bath Freestone 66 

Professor W. B. Rogers on a Pecidiar Fossil found in the Mesozoic Sand- 
stone of the Connecticut Valley 66 

Dr. R. N. RuBiDGE on the Relations of the Silurian Schist with the Quartzose 
Rocks of South Africa 66 

Mr. J. W. Salter on some New Forms of Glenoid Trilobites from the Lowest 
Fossiliferous Rocks of Wales , 67 

on the Old Pre-Cambrian (Laurentian) Island of St. David's, 

Pembrokeshire 67 

Mr. W. Sanders's Brief Explanation of a Geological Map of the Bristol Coal- 
field 68 



X CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. W. A. Sanfobd's Notice of Carnassial and Canine Teeth from the Mendip 
Caverns, probably belonging to Felis antiqua (sj'n. Pardus) 69 

Mr. Harby Seeley on the Pterodactyle as Evidence of a new Subclass of 
Vertebrata (Saurornia) 69 

on the Significance of the Sequence of Rocks and Fossils 69 

Mr. W. W. Smyth on the Thermal Water of the Clifford Amalgamated Mines 
of Cornwall 70 

Mr. H. C. Sorby on the Conclusion to be drawn from the Physical Structure 
of some Meteorites 70 

Mr. W. W. SroDDART on the Lowest Beds of the Clifton Carboniferous Series 71 

Professor Tennant on Agates found on our Coasts 72 

Rev. H. B. Tbistbam on a Bone Breccia with Flints in Lebanon 72 

on the Sulphur and Bitumen Deposit at the South-West 

Comer of the Dead Sea 73 

Mr. Henry Woodward on the Family of the Eurypteridae, with Descrip- 
tions of some New Genera and Species 73 

Dr. Thomas Wbight on the Development of Ammonites 73 

on the ^Tiite Lias of Dorsetshire 75 



BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

Address by Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S., President of the Section 75 

Botany. 

Professor Balfour's Notice of some Rare Scotch Plants 86 

Professor Buckman on a Curious Form of Aquilegia vulgaris 86 

on Datura Stramonium and Datura Tatula 87 

Dr. Daubeny on the Decay of Species, and on the Natural Provisions for Ex- 
tending their Dm-ation 87 

Mr. M. MoGGRiDGE on the Old Welsh Mistletoe Cure for St Vitus's Dance . . 87 

Dr. MiJLLER on Etiphorbiacece 87 

Dr. R. Riddell on Balatta and other Gums regarded as a Substitute for Gutta 

Percha 87 

Zoology. 

Dr. Baikie on the Mamitm Vogelii. (Extract of a Letter to Sir .Tohn Ri- 
chardson.) 88 

Mr. C. Spence Bate on an Ancient Cornish Barrow 88 

. on a Human Skull and the Bones of Animals foimd with 

Pottery in a Kjokkenmodden on the Coast of Cornwall 88 

Mr. Richard Beck's Observations on the Spinnerets of Spiders 88 

Dr. B. Beddoe on the Testimony of Local Phenomena to the Permanence of 

. Type 89 

Mr. Frank Buckland on the Natural History and Cultivation of the Oyster 89 

on Salmon-hatchmg and Salmon-ladders 90 

Mr. G. Busk on a veiy Ancient Human Cranium from Gibraltar 91 



CONTENTS. XI 

-n , . . Page 

Dr. Edwards Cbisp's Contri'butions to the Anatomy of the Quadrumana, with 
a Comparative Estimate of the Intelligence of the Apes and Monkej's .... 92 

• on the Anatomy of the Stridhionidce, Ostriches, Rheas, 

and Casuaries 92 

Mr. J. E. Daniel on the MoUusca of Bath, and an account of Parasites foimd 
in Anodon cygnea 93 

Dr. John Davy's Obsei-vations on the Salmonidas, chiefly relating to their 
Generative Power 93 

Mr. F. G.\LTON, First Steps towards the Domestication of Animals 93 

Dr. Geobge Duncan Gibb on the Essential Points of Difference between the 
Lai-jTix of the Negro and that of the White Man 94 

Dr. J. E. Gbat on the New Corals from the Shetlands 95 

's Notes on the Whalebone Wliales ; with a Synopsis of the 

Species 95 

Mr. C. Ottbey Gboom on the Food of Birds 95 

Dr. W. Bird Herapath on the Pedicellarise of the Echinodermata 95 

on the Genus Synapta 97 

Mr. Samtjel Highley on the Application of Photography and the Magic 
Lantern to Class Demonstrations in Microscopic Science and Natural 
History 98 

Eev. Thomas Hincks on some New Hydroid Zoophytes, and on the Classifica- 
tion and Terminology of the Hydroida 98 

on the Medusoid of a Tubularian Zoophyte, and its Re- 

tiu-n to a fixed Condition after the Liberation of the Ova 99 

Mr. J. Gavyn Jeffreys's Remarks on Stilifer, a Genus of quasi-Parasitic 
Mollusks, with particulars of the European Species, S. TuHoni 99 

Mr. T. Johnson's Account of the Successful Accomplishment of the Plan to 
transport Salmon-Ova to Australia 99 

Mr. E. R. Lankester on the Genus Pteraspis 100 

Mr. W. A. Sanford's Notice of a New British Ehizopod and some other 
Marine Animals 100 

Dr. Scott on the Turdm torquattts as observed in Devonshire 100 

Mr. Harry Seeley on the Significance of the Septa and Siphuncles of 
Cephalopod Shells 100 



Physiology. 

Address by Dr. Edward Smith, LL.B., F.R.S., President of the Subsection . 101 

Mr. Francis Barham on the Alimentary Character of Nitrogen Gaa 117 

Dr. J. Hughes Bennett on the Physiological Aspect of the Sewerage Ques- 
tion 117 

's Description of M. Marey's New Sphygmograph .... 119 

Dr. R. Boyd's Observations on the Measurements of the Head and Weight 
of the Brain in 696 cases of Insanity 119 

Dr. L. T. a. Carter on the Lymphatics in the Liver of Man and the Pig . . 119 

Dr. T. Spencer Cobbold on Food as a Source of Entozoa 119 

Dr. Edwards Crisp on Valves in the Abdominal Veins 120 

; on the Size of the Blood-corpuscle in relation to the Size 

of the Animal, its Swiftness and Powers of Endurance 121 



XU CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dr. John Davy on the Temperature of the Sexes 121 

. 's Observations on the Horse-chestnut (JlSscidus hippocasta- 

neum) 121 

Mr. J. T. Dickson on Cell Theories 122 

Mr. George Frean on the Use of Milk and Scotch Barley as an Ai-ticle of 
Diet 122 

Mr. R. Garner on the Vocal Organ of the Cortxa, an Aquatic Insect 122 

Dr. George Duncan Gibb on the Various Fonns assumed by the Glottis . . 122 

's Note on the Action of the Bromides of Lithium, 

Zinc, and Lead 123 

Dr. John Goodman on the Functions of the Liver 123 

Mr. Alfred Haviland on the Hour of Death in Acute and Chronic Disease 123 

Dr. Thomas Hayden on the Relative and Special Applications of Fat and 
Sugar as Respiratory Food 124 

Dr. W. Bird Herapath on the Occurrence of Indigo in Purulent Dis- 
charges 124 

Dr. T. JuNOD on the Physiological Effects of the Vacuum Apparatus 125 

Mr. C. G. MoNTEiTH on the Lentil as an Article of Food, and its Use from 
the Earliest Historical Time 125 

Mr. W. E. C. NouBSE on the Action of the Nervous Tissue concerned in Per- 
ception 125 

Mr. W. T. S. Pbideaux on the Functions of the Cerebellum 125 

Dr. B. W. Richardson on the Inhalation of Oxygen Gas 125 

on the Physiological Effects of Tobacco 126 

Dr. Edward Smith, What is the Best Method of Estimating the Nutritive 
Values of Foods and Dietaries ? 128 

Dr. J. Thurnam on Obliteration of the Sutures in One Class of Ancient British 
Skidls 128 

Mr. William Turner on a Supplementary System of Nutrient Arteries for 
the Lungs 129 

on Cranial Deformities — Trigonocephalus 129 



GEOaEAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Address of Sir Roderick I. Murchison, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., 
V.P.G.S., President of the Section 130 

Mr. Keith E. Abbott on the Province of Azerbaijan 136 

Col. Sir James Edward Alexander's Notes on the Maories of New Zea- 
land, with Suggestions for their Pacification and Preservation 136 

Dr. A. Bastian on the Ethnology of Cambodia 136 

Mr. H. W, Bates on the Delta of the Amazons 137 

Dr. H. Bird's Account of the Human Bones found in Tumidi situated on the 
Cotteswold Hills I37 

Sir George Bo wen on the Advance of Colonization in North-Eastem Australia 137 

Captain Burton on the Present State of Dahome I37 

on the River Congo 140 

Mr. John Cameron on the Islands of Kalatoa and Puloweh 140 



CONTENTS. Xau 

Page 

Mr. Hyde Clark on the Iberian Population of Asia Minor anterior to the 
Greeks 140 

Rev. G. Clowes on the Western Shores of the Dead Sea 141 

Viscount Milton and Dr. Cheadle's Account of an Expedition across the 
Rocky Mountains into British Columbia, by the Yellow-Head or Leather 
Pass 141 

Mr. John Cbawfubd on the Sources of the Supply of Tin for the Bronze 
Tools and Weapons of Antiquity 142 



on the Supposed Infecundity of Human Hybrids or 

Crosses 142 

on the Early Migration of Man 143 

on the supposed Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages of So- 



ciety 143 

Mr. Charles M. Doughty on the Yostedal Brae, a large Glacier-system in 
Southern Noi-way 143 

Sir C. Elliot on a recent Earthquake at St. Helena 143 

Rev. T. Fabrar on the Fixity of the Types of Man 143 

Professor Harley on the Poisoned Arrows of Savage Man 144 

M. Alexander Hippius on Russian Trade with Bokhara 145 

M. Nicolas de Ivhanikof on the Ethnology of the Iranian Race 145 

Miss MuiR Mackenzie's Narrative of her Journeys in the South Slavonic 
countries of Austria and Turkey in Europe .145 

Mr. Kenneth Maclea on a remarkable Storm and Beach Wave at St. Shotts, 
Ne^vfoundland 145 

Mr. Alexander Michie's Travelling Notes on China, Mongolia, and Siberia, 
1863 145 

Mr. Samuel Mobsman on the Atmosphere, showing that there is a difierence 

in its Vital Constituents North and South of the Equator 146 

Mr. John Petherick, Latest News from Mr. S. Baker, the Traveller in 
Central Africa 146 

Mr. Reg. Stuart Poole on the Ethnic Relations of the Egyptian Race .... 146 

Mr. T. S. Pbideaux on the Principles of Ethnology 147 

The Due de Rousillon on the Scythians 147 

Sir Robert Schomburgk's Journey to Xiengmai and Moulmein 147 

Dr. Shortt on some Rude Tribes supposed to be the Aborigines of Southern 
India 147 

Lieut.-Col. Showers on the Meenas, a Wild Tribe of Central India 147 

Mr. Richard Spruce on the Physical Geography of the Peruvian Coast 
Valleys of Chira and Piura, and the adjacent Deserts 148 

on the River Pui'us 148 

Mr. M'DouALL Stuart's Account of his Journey across Australia 148 

Mr. J. G. Taylor's Notes on Kurdistan 148 

Rev. H. B. Tristram on the Physical and Political Geogi'aphy of the Jordan 
Valley and Eastern Palestine 148 

M. Vambery on the Turcoman Tribes of Central Asia 148 

, A Visit to Samarcand 148 

Mr. Albert Walker's Journey along the West Coast of Middle Island, New 
Zealand 148 

Mr. Alfred R. Wallace on the Progress of Civilization in Northern Celebes 149 



XIV CONTENTS. 

Page 

Mr. James Fox Wilson on the Increasing Desiccation of Inner Southern 

Africa 1^^ 

Mr. W. Martin Wood on the Hairy Men of Jesso 150 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE axd STATISTICS. 

Address by William Farb, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., the President of the Sec- 
tion l-'jl 

Mr. Samuel Brown on the Rates of Mortality and Marriage amongst Euro- 
peans in India 1^-^ 

Mr. W. Chetwynd on the Progress of Postal Banks (Post-Office Savings- 
Banks) 163 

Mr. Handel Cossham, Statistics relative to the Bristol Coal-Field 164 

Mr. E. B. Elliott on Military Statistics of certain iVrmies, especially those 
of the United States 164 

Dr. William Fabr's Life Tables, by the Swedish Calculating Machine (with 

Photographs of the Machine bj' A. Claudet) 165 

Professor Henry Fawcett on the Causes which Produce the Present High 
Rate of Discount 165 

Colonel C. W. Grant's Notes on a Cotton Chai't, showing the Effect on 
Cotton of the CivU War in America 166 

Mr. R. T. Gore's Statement of the Mortality of the City of Bath 167 

M. GuERRY on Crime in England and France 167 

Major-General Hannyngton's remarks on the French Calculating Machine . 167 

Mr. R. Herbert, Statistics of Live Stock 167 

Mr. James Heywood on the Recommendations of the Public School Com- 
missioners for the Distribution of School Time 167 

Rev. Dr. Hume on the Locality of the various Religious Bodies in Ireland . . 169 

Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy on the British Home and Colonial Empire in 
its Mutual Relations 169 

Professor Leone Levi on the Economical Administration of the Navy 169 

, Statistics on the Number and Occupations of Foreigners 

in England 169 

Mr. A. B. MiDDLETON on the Sanitary Statistics of Salisbury 169 

Mr. I. Pitman on Brief Writing 169 

Mr. Fbedebick Pubdy on the Quantity and Value of Foreign Grain imported 
into the United Kingdom since the Repeal of the Corn Laws 171 

Mr. T. W. Saundebs, Statistics of Crime and Criminals in England 172 

Mr. Edward Spender on the " Truck System " in some Parts of the West 
of England 175 

Dr. J. A. Symonds on the Sanitary Statistics of Clifton 176 

Mr. William Tite on the Comparative Rates of Mortality in Paris and 
London 177 

Colonel ToRRENs on the Land-Transfer of Australia as applicable to Ireland . 179 

Mr. W. Westgarth, Statistics of Crime in Australia 180 

Mr. J. Wilson on the Registration of Births and Deaths in Ireland 180 

Dr. Edward Wilson, Sanitary Statistics of Cheltenham 180 



CONTENTS. XV 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Page 
Address by John Hawkshaw, F.R.S., F.G.S., President of the Section .... 18.3 

Mr. Peter W. Barlow on the Power i-equired to overcome the Vis Inertice 
of Railway Trains, with a Description of a Machine to propel Trains between 
' Stations at frequent Intervals without Locomotives 184 

Admiral Sir E. Belcheb on Improvements in the Defence of Ships of War. . 185 

Mr. EDW.A.RD Chahlesworth on the New Elevator Gim 185 

Mr. Zerah Colbuhn on Steam Boilers 185 

Captain Doty on the Torpedoes used by the Confederate States in the Destruc- 
tion of some of the Federal Ships of War, and the Mode of attaching them 
to the Rams. (Communicated by Admiral Sir E. Belcher.) 185 

Mr. G. Fawcus on Suggested Improvements in Doors 186 

on Improvements in Scaling- and other Ladders 186 

Mr. George Bell Galloway on Improvements in Screw Propellers 186 

on Lifeboats for Ships and Steamers 186 

Mr. George Glover on Instruments for the Measurement of Gas 186 

Mr. G. Hartmann's Description of a Parallel Gauge 186 

Captain A. Henbebson on the Practical Progress of Naval Architecture in 
Ocean and River Steamers, vdth Suggestions for Improvements in the Steer- 
age of the Great Eastern and large and small Ironclads, Rams, and Gunboats, 
similar to the Assam Nautilus, by the use of Balanced Rudders in Bow and 
Stem 186 

Mr. R. A. Peacock on Chain-cable and Anchor Testing 187 

Mr. T. Symes Prideaux on the Constniction of Shot-proof Targets 187 

Professor W. J. Macquorn Ranking on some of the Strains of Ships 187 

on Units of Measure 188 

Captain Selwyn on Submarine Telegraphy 188 

Mr. J. L. Stothert and Mr. Robert Pitt on a Machine for Testing Girders 189 

Mr. H.C. SoRBYonMicroscopicalPhotographsofvarious Kinds of Iron andSteel 189 

Mr. Symons on the Working of Undergi-ound Railways by Hydraulic Power 189 

Mr. James Williams's Experiments on the Elasticity of Iron 190 

Captain Wheatley on Plated Ships and their Armament 190 

on Revolving Sails 190 

on Improvements in the Defence of Ships of War 190 



List of Papers of which Abstracts have not been received 191 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic dii'ection to scientific inquiry,— to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

E U L E S. 

ADMISSION OF MEilBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in lilie manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its CouncU 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitous! >/ the Eeports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
(/ratuitousJ)j the Eeports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay ivithout intennission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year. Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to aU the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Eeports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1864. h 



xviii RULES or the association. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Keports, gratis, or to purcliase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 184.5 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a compo- 
sition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members^ Pnces, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3 . Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the fii'st seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasui'er or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers 
of the Association. 

GENEHAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 
■ 2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION, XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Yice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoiat, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Keports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings, 

COMMITTEE OF KECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Eecommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science^ 

All Eecommendations of Grants of Money, Eequests for Special Ee- 
searches, and Eeports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Eecommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Eecom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICEES. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasui-er, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee, 

COUNCIL, 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Coimcil appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPEES AND COMMTTNIOATIONS, 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOITNTS. 

The Accoimts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auclitors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

■ 62 



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MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXV 



II. Tablo showing the Names of Members of the British Association "svho 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Aberdeen, Earl of, LL.D., K.G-., K.T., 
F.E.S. (deceased). 

Aeland, Sir T. D., Bart.,M.A.,D.C.L.,P.E.S. 

Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.R.S. 

Adams, Prof. J. Couch, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Ainshe, Rev. Gilbert, CD., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airy,G. B.,M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astr. Royal. 

Alison, ProfessorW. P.,M.D.,F.R.S.E. (decJ). 

Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 

Anderson, Prof. Thomas, M.D. 

Anstf d. Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 

Argyll, Q. Douglas, Duke of, F.R.S. L. & E. 

Armstrong, Sir W. G., F.R.S. 

Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ashburton, William Bingliani, Lord, D.C.L. 

Atkinson, Rt. Hon. R., late Lord Mayor of 
Dublin. 

Babbage, Cliarles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F.R.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Baines, Rt. Hon. M. T., M.A., M.P. (dec"). 

Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd, Esq. 

Balfour, Professor John H., M.D., F.R.S. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Bath, The Most Noble the Marquis of. 

Bath, The Venerable the Archdeacon of. 

Beamish, Richard, Esq., F.R.S. 

Beechey, Rear- Admiral, F.R.S. (deceased). 

Bell, Isaac Lowthian, Esq. 

Bell, Professor Thomas, V.P.L.S., F.R.S. 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., Pres.L.S. 

Bidden, George Arthur, Esq. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 

Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.R.S. 

Boyle, Right Hon. D., Lord Justice-General 
(deceased). 

Brady,TheRt. Hon. Maziere, M.R.I. A., Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 
(deceased). 

Brewster, Sir David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S. L. & E., Principal of the Uni- 
versity of Edinbiu'gh. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. (dec"). 

Brodie, Sir B. C, Bart., D.C.L., P.R.S. 
(deceased). 

Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.R.S. 

Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Brimel, Sir M. I., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Buckland, Very Rev. WiUiam, D.D., F.R.S., 
Dean of Westminster (deceased). 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. (deceased). 

CarUsle, G. W. Fred., Earl of, F.R.S. (dec"). 

Carson, Rev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 

Cathcart, Lt.-Gen., Earl of, KC.B.,r.R.S.E. 
(deceased). 

ChaUis, Rev. J., M.A., F.R.S. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D. (deceased). 



Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

(deceased). 
ChevaUier, Rev. Temple, B.D., F.R.A.S. 
Clu-istie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.R.S. 
Clapham, R. C, Esq. 
Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. (deceased). 
Clark, Rev. Prof, M.D., F.R.S. (Cambridge.) 
Clark, Henry, M.D. 
Clark, G. T., Esq. 
Clear, WiUiam, Esq. (deceased). 
Clerke, Major S., K.H., R.E., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Clift, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Close, Very Rev. P., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 
Cobbold, John Chevaher, Esq., M.P. 
Colqulioun, J. C, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 
Conybeare, Very Rev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 

dafF (deceased). 
Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 
Cork and Orrery, The Rt. Hon. the Earl of, 

Lord-Lieutenant of Somersetshu-e. 
Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Crum, Walter, Esq., F.R.S. 
Ciu-rie, WiUiam WaUace. Esq. (deceased). 
Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Darbishire, R. D., Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 
Dartmouth, WiUiam, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Daubeny, Prof C. G. B., M.D.,LL.D., F.R.S. 
DelaBeche,SirH. T., C.B., F.R.S., Du-ector- 

Gen. Geol. Siut^. L^nited Kingdom (dec"). 
De la Rue, Warren, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Derby, Earl of, D.C.L., Chancellor of the 

University of Oxford. 
Devonshire, W.,Diike of, M. A.,D.C.L.,F.R.S. 
Dickin.son, Francis H., Esq. 
Dickinson, Joseph, M.D., F.R.S. 
DUlwyn, Lewis W, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Donkin, Professor W. F., M.A., F.R.S. 
Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased). 
Ducie, The Earl of, F.R.S. 
Dunraven, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Egcrton,SirP.deM.Grey,Bart.,M.P.,F.R.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

EUesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (dec"). 
EnniskiUen, WUUam, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Fairbairn, WiUiam, LL.D., C.E., F.R.S. 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Ferrers, Rev. N. M., M.A. 
FitzRoy, Rear-Admiral, F.R.S. (deceased). 
FitzwUiiam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, BeU, M.D. 
Foote, Limdy E., Esq. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 
Forbes, Prof Edward, F.R.S. (deceased). 
rorbes,Prof J. D., LL.D., F.R.S.,Sec. R.S.E. 

Principal of University of St. Andrews. 
Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 
Fuller, Professor, M.A. 
Galton, Francis, F.R.S., F.G.S. 



XXVI 



KEPORT 1864. 



Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.E.S. 

Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Gladstone, J. H., Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Goodwin, The Very Eev. H., D.D., Dean of 

Gourlie, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Graham, T., M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Master of 

the Mint. 
Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Gray, Jouathan, Esq. (deceased). 
Gray, WilUam, Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Prof. Joseph Henry, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Griffith, George, M.A., F.C.S. 
Griffith, Sir E. Griffith, Bt., LL.D., M.E.I.A. 
Grove, W. E., Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
HaUam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Hamilton, W. J., Esq., F.E.S., Sec. G.S. 
Hamilton, Sh- Wm. E., LL.D., Astronomer 

Eoyal of Ireland, M.E.I.A., F.R.A.S. 
Hancock, W. Neilson, LL.D. 
Harcom-t, Eev. Wm. Vernon, M.A., F.E.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Pliilip, Earl of, F.E.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.E.S. 
Harrowby, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.E.S. 
Henry, Eev. P. S., D.D., President of Queen's 

College, Belfast. 
Henslow, Eev. Professor, M. A., F.L.S. (dec"). 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Eev. Wm., LL.D., 

F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec''). 
Hereford, The Very Eev. the Dean of. 
Herschel, Su- John F.W., Bart., M.A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.E.S. 
Heywood, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hill, Eev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Eev. Edward, D.D., M.E.I.A. 
Hincks, Eev. Thomas, B.A. 
Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich 

(deceased). 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.E.S. (dec*). 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hogg, John, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 
Hooker, Sh- William J., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Hope, Eev. F. W., M.A., F.E.S. 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Houghton, Lord, D.C.L. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hugall, J. W., Esq. 
Hunt, Aug. H., Esq., B.A.. Ph.D. 
Hutton, Eobert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Ibbetson,Capt.L.L.Boscawen, K.E.E.,F.G.S. 
Inglis, Sir E. H., Bart., D.C.L., M.P. (dec''). 
Inman, Thomas, M.D. 
Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Jardine, Su- William, Bart., F.E.S.E. 
Jeifreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.E.S. 
Jellett, Eev. Professor. 
Jenyns, Eev. Leonard, F.L.S. 



Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 

Jeune, The Eight Eev. P., D.C.L. 

Johnston, Eight Hon. WUliam, late Lord 

Provost of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Prof. J. F. W., M. A., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Keleher, WUliam, Esq. (deceased). 
Kelland, Eev. Prof. P., M.A., F.E.S. L. & E. 
Kildare, The Marquis of. 
Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.E.S. 
Lansdowne, Hen., Marquis of, D.C.L.,F.E.S. 
Larcom, Major, E.E., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Lardner, Eev. Dr. (deceased). 
Lassell, William, Esq., F.E.S. L. & E. 
Latham, E. G., M.D., F.E.S. 
Lee, Very Eev. John, D.D., F.E.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinbui'gh 

(deceased). 
Lee, Eobert, M.D., F.E.S. 
Lefevre, Eiglit Hon. Charles Shaw, late 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Cliarles, Bart., F.E.S. . 
Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased). 
Liddell, Very Eev. H. G., D.D., Dean of 

Christ Cluirch, Oxford. 
Lindley, Professor Jolm, Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Listowel, The Earl of. 
Liveing, Prof G. D., M.A., F.C.S. 
Lloyd, Eev. B., D.D., Provost of Trin. Coll., 

DubUn (deceased). 
Lloyd, Eev. H., D.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. L. &E., 

M.E.I.A. 
Londesborough, Lord, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Luby, Eev. Thomas, 
Lyell, Sh- Charles, Bart.,M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., 

MacCuUagh, Prof, D.C.L., M.E.I.A. (dec"). 

MacDonnell, Eev. E., D.D., M.E.I.A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. 

Macfarlane, The Very Eev. Principal, (dec"). 

MacGee, WiUiam, M.D. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 

MacNeUl, Professor Sir John, F.E.S. 

Malaliide, The Lord Talbot de. 

Malcolm,Vice-Ad. Su- Charles, K.C.B. (dec"). 

Maltby, Edward, D.D., F.R.S., late Lord 
Bishop of Durham (deceased). 

Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Marlborough, Duke of, D.C.L. 

MarshaU, J. G., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 

May, Charles, Esq., F.R.A.S. (deceased). 

Meynell, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 

Middleton, Sir WiUiam F. F., Bart. 

Miller, Prof. W. A., M.D., Treas. & V.P.R.S. 

Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., For. Sec.E.S. 

Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 

MoUlet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 

Monteagle, Lord, F.E.S. 

Moody, J. Sadleu-, Esq. 

Moody, T. F., Esq. 

Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 

Morley, The Earl of. 

Moseley, Eev. Henry, M.A., F.E.S. 

Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 

Mm-chison, SirEoderick I.,G.C. St.S., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXVll 



Neild, AKred, Esq. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Nelson, The Rt. Hon. Earl 
Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Professor J., F.E.S.E., F.G.S. 
Nicol, Eev. J. P., LL.D. 
Noble, Capt. A., E.A. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.K.S. (deceased). 
Northumberland, Hugh, Dukeof, K.G.,M.A., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 
Orpen, John H., LL.D. 
Osier, FoUett, Esq., F.E.S. 
Owen, Prof., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of, F.E.S-, F.G.S. 
Palmerston,Vise.,KG.,G.C.B., M.P., F.E.S. 
Peacock, Very Eev. G., D.D., Dean of Ely, 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Peel,Et.Hon.Su-E.,Bart.,M.P.,D.C.L.(dee'>). 
Pendarves, E. W., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Phillips, Professor Jolm, M.A.,LL.D.,F.E.S. 
PhiUips, Eev. G., B.D., President of Queen's 

College, Cambridge. 
Pigott,The Et. Hon. D. E., M.E.I.A., Lord 

Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 
Porter, G. E., Esq. (deceased). 
Portlock, Major-General,E.E.,LL.D., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Portman, The Lord. 

PoweU, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.E.S. (dec<i). 
Price, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.E.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eamsay, Professor "William, M.A. 
Eansome, George, Esq., F.L.S. 
E«id, Maj.-Gen. Sh- W., K.C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Eendlesham, Et. Hon. Lord, M.P. 
Eennie, George, Esq., F.E.S. 
Rennie, Sir John, F.E.S. 
Eichardson, Sir John, C.B., M.D., LL.D., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Richmond, Duke of, K.G., F.E.S. (dec-i). 
Eipon, Earl of, F.R.G.S. 
Ritchie, Rev. Prof., LL.D., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Robinson, Capt., R.A. 
Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 
Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. 
Robison, Sir John, Sec.E.S.Edin. (deceased). 
Eoche, James, Esq. 
Eoget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.E.S. 
EoUeston, Professor, M.D., F.E.S. 
Eonalds, Francis, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eoscoe, Professor H. E., B.A., F.E.S. 
Eosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Ross, Eear-Admiral Sir J. C, E.N., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Rosse, Wm., Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., M.E.LA. 
Royle, Prof. John F., M.D., P.R.S. (dec"). 
Russell, James, Esq. (deceased). 
Russell, J. Scott, Esq., F.E.S. 
Sabine, Major-GeneralEdward,E. A., D.C.L., 

LL.D., President of the Eoyal Society. 
SaAders, William, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Scoresby, Eev. W., D.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Sedgwick, Rev. Prof., M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 



Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

Sharpey, Professor, M.D., Sec.R.S. 

Sims, Dillwyn, Esq. 

Smith, Lieut.-Col. C. Hamilton, F.R.S.(dec''). 

Smith, Prof. H. J. S., M.A., F.R.S. 

Smith, James, F.E.S. L. & E. 

Spence, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Spottiswoode, W., M.A., F.E.S. 

Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt., M.P., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
St. David's, C.Thh-lwall,D.D.,LordBishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G.G.,M.A.,D.C.L.,Sec.R.S. 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 
Strickland, Hugh E., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Warden of Wadham 

College, Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. John James, B.A. 
Taylor, Hugh, Esq. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Taylor, Eichard, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, WUliam, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Thomson, A., Esq. 

Thomson, Professor William, M. A., F.E.S. 
Tindal, Captain, E.N. (deceased). 
Tite, WiUiam, Esq., M.P., F.E.S. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.E.S.E. 
Tooke, Thomas, F.E.S. (deceased). 
TraiU, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 
Trevclyan, Sir W. C, Bart. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Tm-ner, Samuel, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. (dec"). 
Tiu-uer, Eev. W. 
TjTidaU, Professor John, F.E.S. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Walker, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Eev. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S. 
Warburton, Henry, Esq.,M.A., F.E.S.(dec''). 
Ward, W. Sykes, Esq., F.C.S. 
Wasliington, Captain, R.N., F.R.S. 
Way, A. E., Esq., M.P. 
Webster, Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
West, WUliam, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, Jolm Stuart,Lord,F.E.S.(dec''). 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.E.S. 
WheweU, Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
White, John F., Esq. 
WiUiams, Prof. Charles J. B., M.D., F.E.S. 
WiUis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Wills, WilUam, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Wilson, Thomas, Esq., M.A. 
WHson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Wood, Nicholas, Esq. 

Woollcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (deceased). 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Yates, J. B,, Esq., F,S,A., F.R.G.S. (dee^). 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1864-65. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I. Muechison, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Major-General Edward Sabine, K.A., D.C.L., Prea. E.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Grey Egeetox, Bart, M.P., F.E.S. 

PRESIDENT. 
Sir CHAELES lYELL, Bart., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., F.B.S., F.G.S., P.L.S., F.K.G.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



The Eight Hon. The Earl of Cork aijd Obeeby, 

Lord-Lieutenant of Somersetshire. 
The Most Noble The Marquis or Bath. 
The Bight Hon. Lord Nelson. 
The Lord Portman. 
The Very KeTerend The Dean of Hereford. 



The Venerable The Archdeacon of Bath. 
W. TiTE, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.S.A. 
Arthur Way, Esq., M.P. 
Francis H. Dickinson, Esq. 
William Sanders, Esq., P.B.S., F.G.S. 



JOHN PHILLIPS, 



The Eight Hon. The Earl of Lichfield, Lord 
Lieutenant of Staffordshire. 

The Right Hon. The Eael of Dudley. 

The Eight Hon. LoRD Leigh, Lord- Lieutenant of 
Warwickshire. 

The Right Hon. Lord Lyttelton, Lord- Lieute- 
nant of Worci'stershire. 

The Right Hon. Lord Wkotteslet, M.A., D.C.L., 
F.E.S., F.B.A.S. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.E.S,, F.G.S.; 
in the University of Oxford. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



ProfeBflor of Geology 



The Eight Eeverend The Lord Bishop of Wor- 
cester. 
The Eight Hon. C. B. Adderley, M.P. 
William Scholefield, Esq., M.P. 
J. T. Chance, Esq. 
F. OSLEB, Esq., F.R.S. 
The Rev. Charles Evans, M.A. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT BIRMINGHAM. 

William Mathews, Esq., Jun., F.G.S. 
John Henry Chamberlain, Esq. 
The Rev. G. D. Boyle, M.A. 



LOCAL TREASURER 
W 

ORDINARY 

Baiington, Prof. C. C, F.R.S. 
Bateman, J. F., Esq., F.R.S. 
Crawfurd, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
DelaRue, Warren, Esq., F.R.S. 
Foster, Peter Le Neve, Esq. 
Galton, Capt. Douglas, R.E., F.R. 
Gassiot, J. P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gladstone, Dr., F.R.S. 
Grove, W. R., Esq., F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 



FOR THE MEETING AT BIRMINGHAM. 

ILLIAM Holliday, Esq. 

MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

Miller, Prof. W. A., M.D., F.E.S. 
Sclater, p. L., Esq., F.E.S. 
Smith, Professor Henry, F.B.S. 
Smyth, Prof. Warington, F.B.S. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., See. F.E.S. 
SVKES, Colonel, M.P., F.B.S. 
TiTE, W., Esq., M.P., F.E.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor, F.E.S. 
Webster, Thomas, Esq., F.E.S. 
Williamson, Prof. A. W., F.E.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Yico-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 
years, viz.- 

Sir David Brewster. 

G. B. Airy, Esq., the Astronomer 

Boyal. 
General Sabine, D.C.L. 
William Hopkins, Esq., LL.D. 
The Earl of Harrowby. 
The Duke of Argyll. 



Eev. Professor Sedgwick. 

The Duke of Devonshire. 

Bev. W. V. Harcourt. 

Eev. W.Whewell, D.D. 

The Earl of Eosse. 

Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. 

Sir Boderick I. Murchison, K.C.B. 

The Eev. T. E. Eobinson, D.D. 



Professor Daubeny, M.D. 
The Eev. H. Lloyd. D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
The Lord AVrottesley. 
William Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D. 
The Eev. Professor Willis. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B„ LL,D. 



„ GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

William Hopkins, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., St. Peter's College, Cambridge. 

Francis GAiTOJf, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 42 Butland Gate, Xnightsbridge, London. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

George Griffith, Esq., M.A., Deputy Professor of Exi>erimental Philosophy in the University of 

Oxford. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 

WlLLLiM 6P0TTISW00DE, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, 8.W. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 

Robert Patterson^Esq.^F.E.S., Belfast. 



William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., Torh 

Prof. C. C. Babington,M.A., F.E.S., Cambridge. 

William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh, 

John H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. 

William Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., Bristol. 

Bobert M'Andrew, Esq., F.E.S., Liverpool. 

W. E. Wills, Esq., Birmingham. 

Bobert P. Greg, Esq., F.GiS.. Uanehefter. 

John Gwyn Jetfreys, Esq., F.B.S., Swansea. 



Edmund Smith, Esq., Still. 
Professor W. Thomson, Glasgow. 
Eichard Beamish, Esq., F.B.S., Cheltenham. 
John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., Leeds. 
John Forbes White, Esq., Aberdeen. 
Bev. John Griffiths, M.A.. Oxford. 
Thomas Hodgkin, Esq., yeiccastle-on-Ti/ne. 
Thomas Gill, Esq., Bath, 



J. P. Gassiot, Esq., r.E.S. 



AUDITORS. 

Bobert Hutton, Esq., F.G.S. 



Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S, 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. Xxil 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 

BATH MEETING. 



SECTION- A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President.—Professov Cayley, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., Sadlerian Professor of Ma- 
thematics in tlie University of Cambridg-e, and Correspondent of the Institute. 

Vice-Presidents.—Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S. ; Williana Hopkins, M.A.,F.R.S., Pro- 
fessor Price, F.R.S. ; Professor Rankine, F.R.S. ; Professor Sylvester, F.R.S. 

^cre^artes.— Professor Steyelly, LL.D. ; Rev. Greorge Buckle, M.A. ; Professor 
Fuller, M.A. j Fleeming Je'ukin, C.E. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President.— W. Odling, M.B., F.R.S., F.C.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Siv B. C. Brodie, Bart., F.R.S. ; C. G. B. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. : 

T. 11. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; A. W. WiUiamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Secretaries. — Professor Liveing, M.A., F.C.S. ; A, Vernon Harcoui-t, M.A., F.C.S. ; 



Robert Biggs. 



SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 



President.— J. Phillips, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geology in the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir W. Logan, F.R.S.; Lord Enniskillen, F.R.S.; Professor 
Harkness, F.R.S. ; W. Sanders, F.R.S. ; Rev. W. Symonds, F.G.S. 

Secretaries.— 11. C. Sorby, F.R.S. ; VV. Pengelly, F.R.S. ; W. B. Dawkins, F.G.S. ; 
J. Johnston. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

Presidents. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — C. Spenee Bate, F.R.S. ; Professor Babington, F.R.S. ; Professor 

Balfour, F.R.S. ; Dr. Daubeny, F.R.S. ; J. Gwyn Jefireys, F.R.S. ; Rev. Leonard 

Jenyns, F.R.S. ; Sir John Richardson, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— E. Perceval Wright, M.D., F.L.S.; IL T. Stainton, F.L.S. : C.E. 

Broome, F.L.S. ; H. B. Brady, F.L.S. 

SUB-SECTION D. PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

President— Edi^oxA Smith, M.D., LL.B., F.R.S. 
r/ce-P/mVfc«fe.—Profe.ssorAcland,M.D., F.R.S. ; John Davy, M.D., F.R.S. ; Wil- 

braham Falconer, M.D. ; Thomas Hodgkin, M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Rolleston, 

M.D., F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— 3 . S. Bartrum ; William Turner, M.B., F.R.S.E. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President— Su Roderick I. Murchison, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.R.S., Director- 
General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 

Vice-Presidents. — John Lubbock, F.R.S., President of the Ethnological Society; 
Mdor-Qeneral Sir Henry Rawlinson, K.C.B., V.P.R.G.S. ; John Crawfiu-d, 
F.R.S.; Col. Sir Henry James, R.E., Superintendent Ordnance Survey; Dr. 
Livingstone, F.R.G.S. 

Secretaries. — Thomas Wright, M.A. ; Clements R. Markham, F.R.G.S. ; Captain 
R. M. Mm-chison, F.R.G.S. ; H. W. Bates, Assistant-Secretaiy R.G.S. 



xxx 



REPORT 1864. 



SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President.— Wmum Fan-, M.D., D.C.L., F.K.S. j -o t, o ti Ar.vnv 

Vice.P,-esidents.—fiiv John Bowring, F.R.S. ; James Heywood, F R.S. ; ^Jie -Maj oi 

of Bath ; Right Hon. Joseph Napier; Colonel W. H. Sykes, M.P., t.H.ii. 
Secretaries.— Fi&ievick Purdy ; Edmund Macrory ; E. T. Payne. 

SECTION G. MECHANIOAl SCIENCE. 

President. — J. Hawkshaw, F.R.S. ^ ^ -„ , -^ t> o a j.^; 

Vice-Presidmts.-Siv William Ai-mstrong, F.R.S. ; J. F. Bateman^ F.R.S. ; Admi- 
ral Sii-E. Belcher; Captain Douglas Galton, R.N., F.R.S. ; W. Fairbaim, LL.D., 
F.R.S.; Professor Rankiue, LL.D., F.R.S. ; J. Scott RusseU, J.R.b.j C. Vig- 
noles, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; Robert Pitt. 



CORRESPONDIXG MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 
M. Babinet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 
Dr. H. D. Buys Ballot, Utrecht. 
Dr. D. Bierens de Haan, Amsterdam. 
Professor Bolzani, Kasan. 
Dr. Baith. 

Dr. Bergsma, Utrecht. 
Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evi-eiLx). 
Professor Braschmann, Moscoio. 
Dr. Cams, Leipzig. 
M. Des Cloizeaux. 
Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 
M. Antoine d'Abbadie. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Wilhelm DelfFs, Meidelberg. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
Professor Dumas, Paiis. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carhruhe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Emian, Berlin. 
Professor A. Eseher von der Linth, 

Zurich, Switzerland. 
Professor Esmark, Cliristiania. 
Professor A. Favre, Geneva. 
Professor G. Frirchhammer, Copenhagen. 
M. Leon Foucault, Paris. 
Professor E. Fremy, Paris. 
M. Frisiaui, Milan. 
Dr. Geinitz, Dresden. 
Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. E. Hebert, Paris. 
Professor HeniT, Washington, U.S. 
Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Prof Jessen, Med. 



%cald, Prussia. 



et Phil. Di'., Griess- 



Professor Aug. Kelnile, Ghent, Belgium. 
M. Khanikof, St. Petersburg. 



Prof A. Kolliker, Wurzburg. 

Professor De Koninck, Liege. 

Professor Kreil, Vienna. 

Dr. A. Kupifer, St._ Petersburg. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

M. Le Ven-ier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New York. 

Professor Gustav ]\Iagnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Usa. 

Professor P. Merian, Bale, Stcitzerland. 

Professor von Middendoi-ff, St. Petersburg. 

M. I'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

Dr. Arnold Moritz, Ti/lis. 

Herr Neumayer, Munich. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordenskiold, Helsingfors, 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Prof. B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 

Gustav Plaar, Strasburg. 

Professor Pllicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 

Dr. Siljestrom, StocMohn. 

Professor J. A. de Souza, Universitg of 

Coitnbra. 
Professor Adolph Steen, Copenhagen. 
Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 
M. PieiTe Tchihatchef 
Dr. Otto Torell, University of Lund. 
Dr. Van der Hoeven, Legden. 
M. Vambery, Hungary. 
Professor E. Verdet, Paris. 
M. de Yemeuil, Paris. 
Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Gottingen. 
Professor Wartmann, Geneva. 
Dr. Welwitsch. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXI 

Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee, Wednesday , September 14, 1864. 

1. The Council have receiyed the Eeport of the Kew Committee for the 
past year, which will be laid before the General Committee on Monday. 

2. The Report of the Parliamentary Committee has been received, and the 
CouncU recommend the adoption of this Eeport by the General Committee. 

3. The Council have added to the list of Corresponding Members the names 
of the following Poreign Men of Science, who have been present at Meetings 
of the Association : — 

Dr. Torell, Dr. Buys Ballot, M. Des Cloizeaux, and Prof. Adolph Steen. 

4. The CouncU have received invitations to hold the next Meeting of the 
Association at Birmingham, and another to hold it at Nottingham. An in- 
vitation has also been received from Dundee for the year 1867. 

Report of the Keiv Committee of the British Association for' the 
Advancement of Science for 1863-1864. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Association the fol- 
lowing statement of their proceedings during the past year : — 

A set of SeK-recording Magnetographs, of the same pattern as those at 
Kew, have been ordered by the Italian Government for Professor Donati 
of Florence ; these have been completed by Adie of London, and despatched 
to their destination. 

General Sabine has received letters from Mr. Meldrum, Director of the 
Mauritius Observatory, and from Mr. EUery, Director of that at Melbourne, 
from which there seems to be a good prospect that at no distant date Self- 
recording Magnetographs may be in operation in these locahties. This 
would be a result of very great scientific importance, since there are as yet 
none of these instruments established in the southern hemisphere. 

The Committee have lost with regret the valuable services of Mr. Cham- 
bers, who left the Observatory about the middle of November last for an 
appointment in India. His place as Magnetical Assistant has been supplied 
by Mr. George Whipple, who has given vaxxch. satisfaction in his new office. 

The sum of =£.50 has been received from the Government Grant Pund of 
the Royal Society for the purpose of obtaining printed copies of magnetic 
curves. This has been spent in procuring photolithographic copies of a 
number of the most interesting traces simultaneously produced by the Mag- 
netographs at Kew and Lisbon. These have been published by the Kew and 
Lisbon Observatories, and distributed to scientific men likely to take an in- 
terest in the subject. 

A Unifilar and Dip Cii'cle have been verified at Kew and forwarded to the 
Lisbon Observatory, and a Self-recording Electrometer, on Professor W. 
Thomson's principle, has also been despatched to that institution. 

Two Unifilars and two Dip Circles have likewise been ordered by Colonel 
"Walker, Director of the Trigonometrical Sui'vey of India, and they are at 
present in the hands of the opticians. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements 
continue to be made at Kew, and the Self-recording Magnetographs are in 
constant operation as heretofore, under the superintendence of Mr. Whipple, 
Magnetical Assistant. 

Advantage has again been, taken of these automatic records of the earth's 



XXxii REPORT — 1861. 

magnetism by the Committee engaged in tlie preparation of electrical stand- 
ards, who have found it desirable, for some of their experiments, to ascer- 
tain the contemporaneous readings of the Declination Magnetograph. 

The following papers ha\iug reference to Kew Observatory have been 
communicated to the Eoyal Society by Major- General Sabine, President of 
that body : — 

1. Results of hourly Observations of the Magnetic Declination made by 
Sir Francis Leopold M'^Clintock, li.N., and the Officers of the Yacht ' Fox,' 
at Port Kennedy in the Arctic Sea, in the Winter of 1858-59 ; and a Com- 
parison of these Results with those obtained by Captain Maguire, R.N. and 
the Officers of H.M.S. ' Plover,' in 1852, 1853, and 1854, at Point Barrow. 

2. A Comparison of the most notable Disturbances of the Magnetic Declina- 
tion in 1858 and 1859 at Kew and Ncrtschinsk ; preceded by a brief Retro- 
spective View of the Progress of the Investigation into the Laws and Causes 
of the Magnetic Disturbances. 

A Table of the Mean Declination of the Magnet in each Decade from 
January 1858 to December 1863, derived from the Observations made at 
the Magnetic Observatory at Lisbon, has been dra-wn up by Senhor da Sil- 
veira. Director of that Observatory. 

This Table exhibits the semiannual inequality to which that element is 
subject at Lisbon, and which is of the same nature as that derived from the 
Kew photographs by General Sabine. 

Mr. Stewart, Superintendent of the Kew Observatory, in conjunction 
with Senhor CapeUo of the Lisbon Observatory, has communicated to the 
Royal Societj' a paper, entitled " Results of a Comparison of certain Traces 
produced simultaneously by the Self-recording Magnctographs at Kew and at 
Lisbon, especially of those which record the Magnetic Disturbance of July 15, 
1863." 

Mr. Stewart has likewise communicated to the same Society two short 
papers, one " On the Sudden Squalls of 30th October and 21st ]S"ovember 
1863," and another, entitled " Remarks on Sun-Spots." He has also com- 
municated to the Royal Society of Edinburgh a paper on " Sun-Spots, and 
their Connexion with Planetary Configurations." 

Mr. A. H. Burgess, M.A., being desirous to obtain magnetical instruction, 
is at present visiting the Observatory for the purpose of acquainting himself 
with our method of observation. 

The Meteorological work of the Observatory is now performed by Mr. 
Thomas Baker, who likewise takes charge of the photographic department 
connected with the self-recording instruments, and executes botli offices very 
satisfactorily. 

During the past year 97 Barometers 
„ „ „ 389 Thermometers 

have been verified, and five Standard Thermometers have been supplied to 
men of science and opticians. A set of weights, a standai'd scale, and a 
measure of capacity have likewise been verified. The Self-recording Baro- 
graph continues in constant operation. Through an ingenious suggestion of 
Mr. Beckley traces in duplicate have been obtained, and one of these has been 
regularly forwarded to Admiral FitzRoy. 

The Self-recording Electrometer of Professor W. Thomson has continued in 
constant operation until the beginning of August, when it was sent to the 
optician for repairs. 

The arrangements at the Observatory for testing Sextants remain as before. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXIU 

During the past year eight Sextants, two Quadrants, and one Transit- 
instrument have been verified. 

The sun-spots continue to be observed, after the method of Hofrath 
Schwabe, of Dessau. 

The Kew Heliograph in charge of Mi-. De la Rue has been continuously 
worked by a qualified assistant, under the immediate supervision of Mr. 
Beckley, who has proved of mucli service to the Committee in this as well as 
in other matters. During the past year 175 negatives have been taken, and 
four sets of positives have beeu printed from each, one of which has been 
presented to the Eoyal Society. The negatives are being reduced under the 
superintendence of Mr. De la Eue, and by means of an instrument of his 
construction. Mr. B. Loe^v}% formerly assistant in the Flagstaff Observatory, 
Melbourne, has been engaged in this reduction, which he is executing very 
satisfactorily at Kew. 

Mr. De la Eue is also having an arrangement made, by means of which 
the proportion of the sun's disk obscured by spots may be conveniently 
measured. 

At Mr. De la Rue's request Mr. Loewy is now examining all pictm-es 
preserved at Kew, with reference to distribution of faculae and general ap- 
pearance, and it seems that, out of more than 500 groups hitherto examined, 
about 250 show a nearly equal distribution of faculous matter round the 
penumbra, while of the rest more than 200 have the faculoe decidedly, 
cither entirely or mostly, on the left side. After concluding the examination, 
which will extend over more than 1000 spots, Mr. Loewy will submit the 
result to Mr. De la Rue. 

The Spectroscope belonging to the Chairman has been supplemented with 
a set of eleven sulphuret-of-carbon prisms, made by Mr. Browning, and 
giving the very great angular separation of more than 3' between the two 
lines D. The Chairman has communicated a short description of these prisms, 
and of the appearance of the two lines obtained by this arrangement, to the 
Royal Society. 

That portion of the spectrum between D and E is now being mapped, 
and all the measurements have already been made. The results obtained 
show that the position of any line can be determined with very great accu- 
racy. Mr. Loewy has been the principal observer, and he seems well quali- 
fied for the work. 

Preliminaiy arrangements have been made, under the superintendence of 
Professor Stokes, for experiments on the retardation of the pendulum in 
different gases. 

At the request of the Secretary of State for India, received tkrough the 
Royal Society, arrangements have been made for the preparation of appa- 
ratus to be used for the vibration of i^endulums in vacuo at the different 
stations of the Trigonometrical Survey in India ; and the request has also 
been made that the officer who may conduct this experimental investigation 
should receive instructions at this Observatory. 

The instrument constructed by Mr. Broun for the purpose of estimating the 
magnetic dip by means of soft iron remains at present at the Observatory. 

The balance of the ^40 granted by the British Association in 1861, for an 
additional photographic assistant, has been expended under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. De la Rue, along with fiu'ther sums which have been defrayed 
by Royal Society grants received by that gentleman. 

The Superintendent has likewise received grants from the Royal Society 
for special experiments to be made at Kew, and when these are completed 

1S64. c 



XXXiv REPORT — 1864<. 

an account will be rendered to that Society. It wiU thus be seen that other 
experiments and observations of a nature to further science are made at Kew 
besides those which form the constant work of the Observatory, and of these 
the Spectroscope measurements at present in progress may be mentioned as 
an example ; it will also be noticed that the British Association do not bear 
the expense of these experiments, but this is defrayed by those who bring them 
before the Committee. 

Prom the financial statement which accompanies this Eeport, it will be 
seen that the adverse balance of last year ha.s been considerably reduced, 
but there is stiU a balance against this Observatory amounting to £4-5 17s. 9d. 
The Committee recommend that a sum of JGOO should be granted for the 
expenditure of the current year. 

A correspondence, which is appended to this Report, has taken place be- 
tween the Astronomer Royal and the Chairman, relative to a paragraph con- 
tained in the Report of the former to the Visitors of the Royal Observato7y, 

The Astronomer Royal has further suggested that certain experiments 
should be made in this Observatory : — 

1st. Eor the purpose of investigating the discordances which he has found 
in his observations of the dipping-needle. 

2nd. For the purpose of investigating the displacements which occur in the 
trace of his vertical -force photograph. 

3rd. On the temperature corrections of the force of a magnet made by 
heating it in hot air instead of by hot water. 

The Committee, for the reasons contained in the letter of the Superinten- 
dent (No. VII. Correspondence), considerd that it was not advisable to imder- 
take the experiments suggested by the Astronomer Royal, as one of these 
would necessarily involve the displacement of the Kew vertical-force magneto- 
graph, while the others refer to points which, in the opinion of the Committee, 
have been already decided by previous observations and experiments. 

J. P. Gassiot, Chairman. 
Kew Observatory, 

26th August, 1864. 



Correspondence *. 



I. 

Kew Observatory, Eiclunond, 27tli June, 1864. 

Mt dear Sib, — The attention of the Kew Committee has been drawn to 
the following paragraph in your Report to the Visitors of the Royal Ob- 
servatory : — 

" I consider it certain that the small probable errors which have been 
attributed to ordinary needles are a pure delusion. I know no instrumental 
determination in which, without any breach of faith, the wish for uniformity 
of results wiU be so certainly followed by uniformity of results as in the 
determination of dip." 

It having been suggested that the preceding paragraph may possibly be 
considered to refer to other observations than those made at Greenwich, I 
am requested by the Committee to inquire whether it is intended in any 
measure to refer to dip-observations made at this Observatory, and published 
in the publications of the Royal Society ; the object of the Committee being 
* A copy of this correspondence was forwarded to the Astronomer Eoyal on 26th August. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXV 

ttat, in the interest of Magnetical Science, the precise value of dip-observa- 
tions made in this Observatory should be definitely ascertained. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 
To 0. B. Airy, Esq., F.R.S., (Signed) J. P. Gassiot, 

Astronomer Royal, Observatory, Greenwich. Chairman. 



II. 

Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, S.E., 28tli June, 1864. 

Mr DEAR SiE, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 27th 
inst., in which you state that the attention of the Kew Committee has been 
drawn to a paragraph in my Eeport to the Visitors of the Royal Observatory, 
wherein I express my opinion on the inaccuracy of the small probable errors 
which have been attributed to ordinary dipping-needles ; and in which you 
fm-ther remai'k that the cited paragraph may be considered to refer to other 
observations than those made at Greenwich, and therefore, on the part of 
the Xew Observatory Committee, you inquire whether the paragraph in 
question is intended in any measure to refer to dip-observations made at the 
Kew Observatory, and published in the publications of the Eoyal Society ; 
the object of the Committee being that, in the interest of Magnetical Science, 
the precise value of dip-observations made in the Kew Observatory should 
be definitely ascertained. 

It gives me great pleasure to enter fully upon any matter to which you may 
invite my attention, and particularly so when the object is such as is charac- 
terized in the last paragraph of yoiir letter. 

The inquiiies in your letter are in fact two ; — 

First. Whether the paragraph of my Report refers to other observations 
than those made at Greenwich ? 

To this I reply that it necessaiily refers to other observations. I have 
never succeeded in producing the agreement of results which is implied by 
the smaUness of the probable errors, except by unfair selection among the 
discordant primaiy elements of obsei-vation on. which the result is founded. 
T have stated this repeatedly in my Reports to the Board of Visitors (the 
whole series of which, I believe, are lodged in the Kew Observatory), and 
I have in one at least particularly remarked that the discordance stiU 
exists with the very fine instrument now in use at the Royal Observatory. 

Second. Whether the paragraph of my Report is intended in any measure 
to apply to dip-observations made at the Kew Observatory, and published in 
the publications of the Royal Society ? 

To this I reply that it is intended so to apply, inasmuch as the degree of 
accuracy, to which I do not give my assent as real or weU founded, is claimed 
for the dip-observations made at the Kew Observatory. In support of my 
statement of that claim, I wiU refer to a pamphlet by General Sabine, which 
I am unwilling farther to describe, but which, as I am aware, has been 
forced on your attention and on that of the other members of the Committee 
of Recommendations of the British Association. In it wiU be found the fol- 
lowing sentences: — "The probable error of a single observation of the dip 
with reliable instruments of easy procurement is known to be + V-5. It 
has been shown to be so by a series of 282 observations made at Kew, em- . 
ploying 12 circles and 24 needles, all of the pattern which has been in use 
at Kew for several years past. The observations were made by seven different 
observers : the results are published in the ' Proceedings of the Royal Society,' 
March 1861, from entries in the Kew Observatoiy books, not a single ob- 

c2 



XXXVi REPORT — 1864. 

serviition having been omitted. The probable error + l'-5 ma}? be regarded 
as including constant errors, considering the number of different circles and 
needles which were emploj^ed, as well as the peculiarities of different ob- 
servers, of whom there Averc seven." (The italics are General Sabine's.) 
These are the probable en-ors which I cannot accept as accurate. 

It may not be superfluous to add that I have conversed -with several 
foreign observers (one of whom has very lately quitted me), and that all 
have found discordances comparable to those which I have myself observed. 
I have therefore no novelty to claim, except the suggestion (made by mo 
some years ago) of instabihty in the position of the magnetic axis, and the 
construction (mthin little more than a year) of an instrument whose results 
appear to support that suggestion. 

I should be much gratified if the powers of the Kcw Observatoiy could bo 
devoted to the examination of this and analogous instrumental difficulties. 
These experimental inquiries are not well suited to the system of the esta- 
blishment over which 1 preside. And, speaking as a member of the British 
Association, I think that the Xew Observatory would be better employed in 
that way than in the course which now absorbs so ranch of its strength. It 
was originally intended, and in my opinion wisely intended, for the verifica- 
tion and improvement of instruments, and not for continuous observations. 
If the examination which I propose should be taken up, I shall be happy to 
cooperate, by repetition of observations (as my opportunities might serve), 
and by communication of my results. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 
J. P. Gassiot, Esq., (Signed) G. B, Amy. 

Chairman of the Kew Observatory Committee. 



III. 

Clapham Common, June 30, 1864. 

My dear Sib, — I have to acknowledge receipt of yours of 2Sth inst., 
wherein you state that the paragraph in your recent report " was intended 
to apply to the dip-observations made at Kew, and published in the publica- 
tions of the Eoyal Society, inasmuch as the degree of accuracy, to which you 
do not give your assent as real or well founded, is claimed for these ob- 
servations." 

I have forwarded your letter to Mr. Stewart, the director of the Ob- 
servatory, under whose immediate directions the observations were made, 
and I hope yon will find that the explanation he will offer will satisfy you 
as to the entire truthfulness of the results he obtained, and to the reliability 
that should be placed thereon. 

I have always understood, that to the continued magnetical observations 
which have been made at Kew Observatory has been mainly due the esta- 
blishment of so many magnetical observatories abroad ; it woiild, however, 
ill become me to offer to you any opinion as to their value, although I cannot 
but regret that they do not appear to have met your approval. 

I am sure it would afford Mr. Stewart, as well as the Members of the 
Committee, much pleasure to follow out any experimental iuquiiies which 
you may at any time suggest. 

Believe me, my dear Sir, 

Yours most truly. 
To G. B. Airy, Esq., (Signed) J. P. Gassiot, 

Astronomer lioyal, Greenwich. 



KErORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXVU 

IV. 

Kew Observatory, Richmond, July 4t,h, 1864:*. 

Mr DEAR Sre, — I have perused Mr. Ally's letter to you, in which he states 
that the passage in his lieport to the Board of Visitors, about which you 
wrote to him as Chairman of the Kew Committee, was intended to refer to 
the dip-obseiTations made at the Kew Observatory, and published in the 
publications of the Koyal Society. I have likewise perused your reply, and 
now, in accordance with your request, I shall describe the mode of dip- 
observation at Kew, in order that you may see that Mr. Airy's remark is 
inapplicable to our determinations. 

But before doing so it may be well to state that the list of dip-observa- 
tions recorded in the publication to which Mr. Airj- refers is a faithful and 
complete catalogue of those which have been made at this Observatory. My 
connexion with the publication referred to is therefore this : I look upon it 
simply as an authorized and compendious catalogue of the dip-observations 
which have been made at Kew; and regarding the method in which tlieso 
have been discussed in the publications of the Eoyal Society as not falling 
within the scope of my reply, I shall confine myself -to the question of mental 
bias, and endeavour to show you that our dip-observations are quite free 
from any such source of error. 

In the first place, the circles used at Kew are all of the same pattern ; 
this being one which combines the united experience of several eminent 
magneticians, and which they were several years in bringing to perfection. 
The circles and needles are all likewise made by the same optician (Mr. Henrj^ 
Barrow), who has devoted very great pains to the construction of these instni- 
ments. I mention this latter circumstance, because in this observation it is 
absolutely essential to have a needle constructed with the greatest care. 
Before commencing the observation, the fine hard axle of the needle is 
gently inserted into a piece of soft cork, in order that it may be thoroughly 
cleansed, and the agate knife-edges upon which it is to rest are likewise 
rubbed with cork The needle itself has been previously magnetized by being 
rubbed ten times on each side from centre to pole by a pair of bar magnets. 
After the plane of the magnetic meridian has been determined in the usual 
way, the circle is placed in this plane, and the needle is observed in the four 
following positions : — 

I Face of needle to face of instrument .... Face of instrument East. 
II. „ ,, » ■■■■ „ .. West. 

III. Face of needle reversed .... „ „ West. 

IV. „ „ .. East. 

The poles of the needle are then reversed by ten strokes of the bar magnets 
on each side, and the same set of observations is repeated, the mean of the 
Avhole eight positions giving the dip. 

Both extremities of the needle are in each case successively viewed by 
microscopes attached to an arm, which also carries the verniers by means of 
which the position is read. Before making an observation, the needle _ is 
gently raised frorii its support and lowered again by means of a lifter twice 
or thrice, after which its position is noted. I ought likewise to remark that 
in magnetizing the needle it is always placed in a wooden frame in such a 
manner that the magnets are obliged to pass symmetrically over it. 

In this process it appears to me that the only possible effect a mental 

* This letter, althovigli wi-itten on July 4th, was not sent to Mr. Airy until it had been 
approved of by the Committee at their meeting on August 26tb. 



xxxviii REPORT — 1864. 

bias can be imagined to have is to induce the observer to continue lifting 
the needle before reading, until it has come into what he considers the 
proper position ; but even this is totally precluded by the method of observa- 
tion, for the vernier is not read, and the observer does not know the position 
of his needle until it is at rest and the lifting process at an end. Besides, 
if the obseiwer did know the position of his needle it would avail him little ; 
for while the mean of the eigJit positions is nearly the same for different 
instruments, yet the reading of any one position of the needle may be, and 
usually is, very different from the true or hnally deduced dip. 

Prom all this it will be seen how little scope there is in the dip-observa- 
tions for the operation of mental bias ; but the observers who are supposed 
to have worked our instruments with an unconscious predetermination to 
produce certain results must have had still more formidable difficulties than 
even these to contend with. Por, in order that mental bias should have 
operated in the case under discussion, the preconceived idea of uniformity 
with which the observer approached the instrument must have varied in such 
a measure from season to season and from year to year as to produce in the 
results obtained an annual variation, as well as a secular change, and these 
of such a nature as to conform with the results of other observatories. Mr. 
Airy must acknowledge that the uniformity to which he alludes, and the wish 
for which he supposes has created a mental bias, is that which remains after 
the annual and secular variations have been allowed for. 

Next, with regard to obsei-vers ; we have frequently at Kew gentlemen 
connected with foreign obsei-vatories, who come to receive a magnetical 
equipment. Their desire is to obtain the best possible instruments, but at 
the same time they view those presented to them with a very critical eye. 
One of these was Dr. Bergsma, who spent nearly a month in thoroughly ex- 
amining the dip-circle and in suggesting refinements, but who went away 
convinced of its accuracy. Seuhor da Soiiza of Coimbra, and Senhor Capello 
of Lisbon, have likewise made dip-obsei-vations at Kew, and with the same 
object, namely, to satisfy themselves by their own practical experience as to 
the best dip-circle with which to furnish their respective observatories. 

I shall only allude to one observer more, who, though he only made a 
single observation, has frequently expressed his wish to make a series, but 
has hitherto been prevented by his numerous engagements. I speak of Mr. 
Glaisher, of Greenwich Observatorj-, who, on 21st October last, obtained 
with Circle No. 40 a dip of 63° 12' -2, whHe with Circle No. 33 Mr. Chambers 
on 19th and 20th October obtained 68° 12'-3. 

I have thus endeavoured to show that in the Kew dip-observations there 
is absolutely no opportunity for mental bias to act, and that even if there 
were, many of our observers are not likely to have been the subjects of such 
an influence. 

In thus fidfilliug your request, it is -^dthin my province to notice the 
second part of Mr. Airy's letter only in as far as this is connected with the 
subject of discussion. You will, therefore, perhaps permit me to refer you 
to the following paragraph of his letter, which 1 shall now quote : — ■' I 
have therefore no novelty to claim, except the suggestion (made by me some 
years ago) of instability in the position of the magnetic axis, and the con- 
stniction (within little more than a year) of an instrument whose results 
appear to support that suggestion. 1 should be much gratified if the powers 
of the Kew Observatory could be devoted to the examination of this and 
analogous instrumental difficulties. These experimental inquiries are not weU 
suited to the system of the estabhshment over which I preside. And, speak- 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXIX 

ing as a member of the British Association, I think that the Ke-w Observatory- 
would be better employed in that way than in the course which now absorbs 
so much of its strength. It was originally intended, and in my opinion 
wisely intended, for the verification and improvement of instruments, and 
not for continuous observations. If the examination which I propose should 
be taken up, I should bo happy to cooperate, by repetition of observations 
(as my opportunities might serve), and by communication of my results." 

These words, while they imply a request which has been courteously 
acknowledged by you in your reply, appear also to convey the idea that the 
Kew Observatory has left the biu-den of an experimental iuquiiy regarding 
dip-circles to the Greenwich establishment, which is not well suited to un- 
dertake such a task. 

I think that, whatever opinion be entertained regarding the functions of 
the Kew Observatory, it may be shown that it has fulfilled its duties as 
respects the dip-circle. I give you the following short sketch of our con- 
nexion as an obseiwatory with this problem. 

The Kew Committee, being desirous to promote the construction and em- 
ployment of improved magnetical instruments, procured a dip-circle which 
was too little known, but which they had reason to think was a good practical 
instrument. In making monthly determinations of the dip with this instru- 
ment at Kew, and in bringing these before the notice of men of science, the 
Committee have given the most convincing experimental proof which it was 
in their power to afford of the excellence of this instnmient, and they have 
the satisfaction to think that their work has not been in vain, for the 
directors of many foreign observatories have supplied themselves with these 
circles, and as many as could do it have personally inspected them at Kew. 
Mr. Airy appears to have adopted a different course ; as far as I am aware, 
he has not yet honoured us with a visit to Kew, in order to inspect our dip- 
circle and become personally acquainted with oirr method of observation. 
On the other hand, he has instituted experiments of his own, but has not 
succeeded in producing a good instrument, and the results which he has thus 
obtained have induced him to beUeve that the Kew determinations (although 
made with a different instrument, which is also handled in a somewhat 
different manner) are not correct. 

The Kew Committee have combated this conclusion, and are not shaken 
in their belief that they have obtained a nearly perfect dip-circle. They 
may be right or wrong in this opinion ; but while they retain it they cannot 
surely be justly reproached with having left to the Greenwich Observatory 
the burden of an experimental inquiry which they can only regard as super- 
fluous and self-imposed. 

I remain, my dear Sir, 
To J. P. Gassiot, Esq., F.B.S., Yours very truly. 

Chairman of the Kew Committee, (Signed) B. Stewart. 



V. 

Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, July 11, 1864*. 
Mt dear Sir, — You were so good as to hold out to me the expectation 
that probably the Kew Observatory Committee might be able to assist this 
observatory in some important examinations of discordances in the results 
of magnetic observations, which have given me great anxiety and trouble. 
To bring this matter more distinctly to a point I wLU indicate three subjects, 

* At the date of this letter Mr. Airy had not received a copv of Mr. Stewart's letter of 
July 4th. 



xl REPORT — 1864. 

of which two have been before me for several years, and the third has lately 
come before me with great force. 

1st. You are in some measure aware of the discordances which I have 
found in observations of the dipping-needle, made Avith the smallest con- 
ceivable change in the circumstances of bearing, or even (as in some experi- 
ments which I have lately transmitted to Prof. Stokes) without lifting the 
needle at all. I am sure the Kew Observatory would do well in thoroughly 
investigating this matter by experiment. 

2nd. I have been troubled for many years with small displacements in 
the trace of the vertical-force photograph. I should bo glad to have these 
investigated at the Kew Observatory ; but it wiU be necessary for this pur- 
pose to modify the adjustments of the vertical-force instrument at Kew, 
which at present is incompetent to exhibit such displacements, and masks 
all that may ever have occurred. 

3rd. I should be very glad indeed to have a set of experiments on the 
temperature con-ections of the force of a magnet, made by heating it in liot 
air instead of by hot water. My own experiments leave us in most distress- 
ing doubts. 

It win give me great pleasm-e to cooperate as far as possible with the Kew 
Committee in these matters ; any record of our experiments and any ap- 
paratus that we can possibly spare wiU be at their command. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Yours very tnily, 
To J. P. Oassiot, Esq., (Signed) G. B. Aiky. 

CPmirman of the Kew Observatory Committee. 



VI. 

Clapham Common, July 13, 1864. 
My dear Sir, — I have your letter of the 11th, suggesting certain experi- 
ments in relation to magnetic instruments, which I Avill lay before the Kew 
Committee at its next meeting. 

I have in the mean time forwarded your letter to Mr. Stewart, the 
Director of Kew Observatory, who will, I am confident, give it his best 
attention. I remain, yours truly, 

(Signed) J. P. Gassiot. 

To O. B. Airy, Esq., Astronomer Boyal. 



VII. 

Kew Observatory, July 30, 18C4. 

Mt dhar Sir, — I have i^erused Mr. Airy's letter, addressed to yourself as 
Chairman of the Kew Committee, in which he suggests that certain experi- 
ments should be made at the Kew Observatory, and I now reply to your 
request that I should report concerning this letter for the information of the 
Committee. 

From the correspondence which has passed between Mr. Airy and yourself, 
I have little difficulty in finding the proper basis for this report ; the ques- 
tion resolves itself into the following: — Is it expedient in the interest of 
magnetical science that the Committee should undertake these experiments ? 

If the suggestions of Mr. Airy refer to points which have not been settled, 
the Committee are surely indebted to him for bringing these before them ; 
but if, on the other hand, it be the opinion of the Committee that these 
points have already been discussed and finally disposed of, Mr. Airy cannot 
blame them if they decline making the experiments which he suggests. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. xli 

I -will take these rcqiiests in succession, 

1. His first relates to dip experiments and observations. Abont tAVcnty- 
five years ago, a few magneticians, including General Sabine and the late ISir 
J ; C. Ross, M'ho were zealous for the advance of magnetical science, set them- 
selves to vrork to improve the dip-circle. In this problem they had the ad- 
vantage of the cooperation of the late Mr. Robinson, an excellent mecha- 
nician, who had also the subject very much at heart, and whose attention 
was especially directed to the a.vle of the needle with remarkable success. 
On his premature death, his process was continued by Mr. H. Barrow. Other 
improvements were afterwards made, and the Kew Observatory having in 
the mean time been estabHshed, that institution was not slow to recognize 
the practical excellence of this circle, and the Committee felt themselves 
able to recommend its general adoption. In order to justify their preference, 
they instituted a series of monthly obsei-vations, the result of which, in their 
opinion, as weU as in that of very many scientific men, has been to demon- 
strate the practical goodness of this instrument. Not fewer than forty-two 
of these instruments have been made by Mr. Barrow, and these are, for the 
most part, in use in different parts of the globe. Many directors of foreign 
observatories who were previously acquainted with other dip-circles, suspect- 
ing these to be inferior to that at Kew, have repaired to our observatory for 
the purpose of convincing themselves by their own experience that the per- 
formance of the Kew circle was not exaggerated. I believe that, Avithout 
exception, they have been satisfied with our results ; but I need not dwell 
on this topic, as I have akeady in a previous letter endeavoured to show that 
our observations arc quite trustworthy. 

It was the wish of General Sabine, who had taken such an active part in 
dip-observations, as well as in the construction of the new circle, to exhibit in 
a scientific manner the probable error of a complete observation of the dip with 
any Kew instrument ; and for this purpose he requested me to furnish him 
with a complete Hst of the results obtained at Kew since 1857, omitting none. 

These observations were printed in the publications of the Royal Society, 
and I may be admitted to express my belief that, in the method of reduc- 
tion employed, the observations were coinbined in the manner most approved 
by physicists. I may likewise mention that the probable error therein ob- 
tained, small as it is, must not be regarded as wholly due to instrumental 
inaccuracy, but in part at least to the occurrence of disturbances during 
some of the observations, a source of error which cannot be avoided. If 
Mr. Airy will refer to the results of the Kew observations in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1863, art. 12, he wiU see an example of the advantage of 
employing an inclinometer with the small probable error of that of Kew, in 
problems of much theoretical importance. 

It would thus appear that the Kew Committee have already obtained an 
almost perfect dip-ciixle, so that it is not easy to conceive what advantage 
is to be derived from the experiments proposed by Mr. Airy, especially since, 
in order to obtain the result which he desires, he has only to become per- 
sonally acquainted with the working of our instrument, as has been done by 
those scientific men who have already visited Kew for this pm-pose. 

2. Mr. Airy states, — " I have been troubled for many years with small 
displacements in the trace of the vertical-force photograph. I should be 
glad to have these investigated at the Kew Observatory ; but it wiU be neces- 
sary for this purpose to modify the adjustments of the vertical-force instru- 
ment at Kew, which at present is incompetent to exhibit such displacements, 
and masks aU that may ever have occurred." 



xlii REPORT — 1864. 

I shall take this request in connexion with the following paragraph from 
Mr. Airy's last Report to the Board of Visitors of Greenwich Observatory: — 

" The vertical-force magnetometer stUl exhibits sometimes the dislocations 
in the photographic trace. There is no evidence, I believe, that these dis- 
locations do not exist in the curves of every vertical-force instrument, for 
they are always accompanied with vibration ; and no vertical-force instru- 
ment, I beUcvo, except that of Greenwich, gives a trace strong enough to 
exliibit vibrations, and the dislocations, therefore, with any other instriunent 
would appear merely as interruptions of the trace, and would not attract 
much attention"*. 

Before discussing Mr. Airy's request, I shall endeavour to show that our 
vertical-force instrument is free from objection. In the first place I am able 
to state, from having examined our vertical-force ciu'ves in conjunction with 
my assistant, that when cause of disturbance takes place the vibrations of 
our needle are impressed upon the photographic paper. Whenever a change 
takes place in the direction of the forces acting upon a freely suspended 
magnet, the impulse is followed, and the magnet, after an interval, which 
may be longer or shorter according to its time of vibration, assumes the 
new direction. If the changes of force succeed each other more rapidly than 
will admit of the magnet becoming stationary between their occurrence, it 
does not cease to vibrate until the intervals between the changes become long 
enough to permit it to do sof. This state of vibration is quite perceptible 
in the photographic records at Kew ; but when the time of vibration is so 
small as in the Kew instrument, where it is seven seconds only, the mean 
place corresponding to a desired instant is almost always obtainable from the 
trace. It may suffice that in the six months from July 1 to December 31, 
1863 (the records of which are now imder reduction), and in which there 
should be 4416 equidistant hourly positions, there are only five wanting by 
reason of failures from all causes whatever. In one of these the disturb- 
ance was so excessive that the trace ran off the recording paper ; in the 
other four the vibrations corresponding to the fluctuations in the directions 
of the disturbing force were too rapid to permit the trace to be sufficiently 
distinct for measurement. Should it be hereafter desii-able to investigate 
more particularly the phenomena of the changes thus rapidlj" succeeding each 
other, a shorter, not a longer, magnet than the one in use at Kew woidd be 
required, having a shorter time of vibration than seven seconds ; but in the 
mean time, and for the present wants of science, there is, I think, every 
reason to believe that Mr. Welsh exercised a sound judgment in deter- 
mining the dimensions, shape, and weight of the Kew vertical-force magnet. 
The self-recording instruments at Kew are now in the seventh year of their 
performance, and the curves of each magnetograph, including those of the 
vertical force, have been carefully examined preparatorj- to reducing them, 
with the view of eliminating everything of the nature of displacements, 
whether due to instrumental defects or to the approach of magnetic matter. 
The curves of the vertical force under this very severe scnitiny have proved 
themselves as perfect as those of the other magnetometers, that is to say, 
they are practically faultless as far as one can judge by this means. 

General Sabine has kindly iiudertaken the reduction of the traces afforded 
by eur magnetographs, and tinds that the vertical-force magnet is capable 

* As far as I am aware, Mr. Airy has not seen any original negative from our vertical- 
force magnetograph. 

f It has already been recognized by Gauss as a law, that no magnet can correctly record 
those changes of which the period is not considerably more than that of its own vibration. 



REPORT or THE KEW COMMITTEE. xliii 

of being applied in conjunction with the horizontal force to several important 
problems in which the theoretical bearings of the variations of the dip and 
total force are concerned, which will be shown as soon as the reductions, 
already far advanced, are completed; meanwhile instruments of the same 
pattern have been ordered by the directors of several foreign observatories, 
who have themselves personally examined the Kew instruments and the 
records of their performance, and have expressed their intention of working 
in concert with Kew. 

The displacements and dislocations which have occasioned Mr. Aiiy so 
much trouble for several years past in the Greenwich vertical-force instru- 
ments are obviously due to a cause or causes very different from that which 
has been noticed above. From his own description of them, we learn that 
the results in one sheet cannot be compared with those in another, and that 
in 1859 the vertical-force magnet exhibited for the daily magnetic curve a 
form approaching much more nearly to a straight line than it had usually 
given. The imperfection of such an instrument is sufficiently manifest, 
and it would not be difficult, perhaps, to assign its probable cause or causes; 
but as it is no longer designed to be used by Mr. Airy himself, I submit 
that it would be inexpedient to employ the time of the observatory in in- 
vestigating how much the defect of an instrument which is given up by its 
employer may bo due to one cause and how much to another. The Kew 
instrument has no such defect ; in other words, it is, to use Mr. Airy's 
expression, " incompetent to exhibit the displacements " (or dislocations) 
which take place in the Greenwich instrument. 

Again, in order to investigate these dislocations experimentally, it would 
be necessary that the Committee should dismount our present insti-ument and 
mount one similar to that which Mr. Airy has discarded, if not that very 
mag-net itself, and Mr. Airy in his request intimates that some such change 
would be necessary. To dismount an instrument so usefully employed as that 
at Kew, and with the performance of which for the purposes for which it was 
devised we have reason to be fully satisfied, for the chance of^ constructing 
one of a different form, which might probably not give us equal satisfaction, 
would seem to be a species of treason to the branch of science which we 
are endeavoimng to advance, as well as to ourselves, and to those who have 
provided themselves with similar instruments to work in concert with us. 

3. Mr. Airy's third request is that we should make experiments in order 
to determine if there be any difference in the temperature correction as de- 
rived when the magnet employed is placed in hot and cold air instead of in 
water, as is usually the case. 

Let me first of all direct your attention to the principle on which the Kew 
Committee have proceeded for several years past in reference to the subject 
of temperature corrections. This principle has been to avoid, as far as 
jjossible, the occasion for such corrections, and the Committee will be glad to 
learn that Mr. Airy has latterly expressed his intention of adoptiog the same 
principle. At the Kew Obseiwatory the variation of temperatm-e to which 
the magnetographs are exposed is ouly half a degree Fahr. in twenty-four 
hours. In like manner, in the instniment for absolute determinations, by 
making the deflections and vibrations sufficiently near to one another in 
point of time, the correction for temperatiu-e is reduced to a minimum. 

But in former days a number of experiments were made on the temperature 
correction, some with the purpose of proving that magnetic changes are not 
caused by the varying temperature of the aii-, and others which exactly cor- 
respond to the point referred to by Mr. Airy, and these lead to the belief that 



Xliv REPORT 18G4'. 

temperature corrections determined by hot and cold water experiments arc 
almost identical with those determined by hot and cold air. 

I find that at Toronto the temperature change of the vertical-force magnet 
found by comparing together days of different natural temperature was 
•00011 for 1° Fahr., while the same dctei-mined by hot and cold water 
experiments was -00009. At Makerstoun, also, the temperature correction 
of the balance magnet, as determined by hot and cold days, was -000071), 
while that determined by hot and cold water experiments was -000073. 

These agreements are very near, and the first had induced General f?abinc 
to remark that the hot and cold water method was sufficiently correct; while 
the same conclusion was also arrived at by Mr. Broun of Makerstoun, and, 
as far as I am aware, has been generally received. 

It is impossible for me, after such evidence that both methods give very 
nearly the same corrections, to doubt that Mr. Airy's vcrij great difference 
must have been occasioned by error of experiment. 

As a principle, Mr. Aiiy will, I think, allow that in such an experiment 
it is better to have the hot and cold air filling a whole room than filling 
only a copper box ; while at the same time it may be extremely difficult to 
indicate the precise source of error in his arrangement. I do not think 
that the Kew Committee are called upon to undertake this task, especially 
since (as has been shown) the comparison of corrections derived from heated 
air and heated water Ims already received due attention, the result of which 
has been to set that matter at rest in the minds of other magneticians ; and 
also since the temperature corrections which will be hereafter required at 
Greenwich will not be of such magnitude as heretofore, and therefore are not 
likely to occasion Mi'. Airy the same distressing doubts as those spoken of 
by him. 

I remain, my dear Sir, 
J. P. Gctssiot, Esq., Yours very truly, 

Chairman of the Keiu Committee. (Signed) | B. Stewart. 



The two following letters, although of later date than the Kew Report, have 
been attached to this correspondence by order of the Council. 

VIII. 
Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, S.E., 1864, October 19th. 

Mt dear Sir, — I have to thank you for your kindness in transmitting for 
my inspection the Kew Vertical-Force Photograms for the months of June, 
July, and August 1863. They shall be returned by hand at an early oppor- 
tunity. I have examined them with much interest, and take leave to com- 
municate to you the following remarks on them. 

1. The curves are traced more strongly than those which I had previously 
seen. I think this change a great improvement. 

2. The sheets are very neat, uniform, and distinct — more uniform than the 
Greenwich sheets have been to the end of 1^03, but, I think, not more 
uniform than the Greenwich sheets are now. This change in the Greenwich 
sheets, I beheve, is to be attributed entirely to our gain of nearly uniform 
temperature, every part of our chemical process being the same as formerly. 

3. The small perturbations are recorded with great delicacy — more clearly 
than in the former Greenwich sheets (though I believe that nearly all can 
be traced in our curves), but not more clearly than in our new sheets. I 
make the latter statement from examination of the general character of both, 
as I have not been able to compare corresponding sheets. 



REPonT or THE kew committee. xlv 

4. The vibrations of the magnet arc not well shown. The largest are those 
of June 9'^ 2" 10'" (some doubt about this), June 20'' 14'^ 1 7'", and July 30" 0'' 8"^; 
all these are really small, yet they are exhibited very feebly. It seems pro- 
bable that a larger vibration would leave no visible trace. 

5. I conclude from this that very violent and rapid changes of magnetism 
could not be shown. 

6. In this respect the process used at Greenwich (fully detailed in the 
" Magnetical and Meteorological Eesults," 1862), which appears to be more 
sensitive to rax)id movements, seems preferable to that used at Kew. I do 
not propose to make any change for our magnetic instruments ; although for 
our exposed thermometers, in which the changes are not sudden, is yet under 
consideration whether a process hkc that of Kew shoidd be introduced. 

7. I find upon close inspection that the Kew curves are not free from dis- 
locations ; these are, however, smaller than those of the Greenwich curves. 
A few of them have caught tlie attention of the Kew observer, and are in- 
dicated by dots of red ink. Among these, I think, are June 17" 23'' 50", 
and June 19" 22'' 40'". But there are many others (all small), as Jime 
23" 23" 40"\ June 29" 23" 0'", July 1" 21" 30™, July 3" 22" 50'", 23" 30'", 
23'' 35'", &e. etc. ; July 13" 5" 0'" (which I note as occurring at a different hour 
of the day), &c. These are imimportant as affecting the readings of the 
curves, but not unimportant as affecting the possible explanation. 

8. The comparison of the readings at Greenwich and at Kew, on days when 
tlie dislocations at Greenwich are sensible, entirely supports the view which 
I have entertained for many years, that the dislocations are transient phe- 
nomena, in no wise affecting the zero-measurement, and whose effects can by 
judicious attention be entirely remedied. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 
John P. Gassiot, Esq., (Signed) G. B. Airy. 

Chairman of the Keiu Committee. 



IX. 

Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, S.E., 18G4, November 15th. 
My dear Sir, — You are aware, perhaps, that Mr. Glaisher has visited 
the Kew Observatory, and that Mr. B. Stewart and Mr. "Whipple have 
visited this Observatory, and that two of the Kew Dip iustniments have 
been transported backwards and forwards ; and that observations have been 
made \nih. them by all the gentlemen Avhom I have mentioned, at Green- 
wich and at Kew ; and that during these operations I have myself carefully 
examined the principal parts of the instruments, though I have not made 
any complete observations with them. The result of these operations is as 
follows : — 

1. As far as depends on the mechanical construction, of the instruments 
including the needles, the workmanship of the instruments (I am not now 
speaking of the extent of applicability but of the workmanship of the important 
parts) is very good, of the same class as ours ; I think ours better in some 
respects, but they may be considered as the same class. 

2. As regards the results of observations, those made with the Kew instru- 
ments are consistent to a degree which I never saw before. And in the 
experiment which, as made with our needles, has perplexed me most, namely, 
that of rotating the instrument in azimuth Avithout touching or lifting the 
needles, and remarking the change in their indications, the Kew needles 
appear to be nearly or entirely free from such change. 



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REPORT OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. xlvii 

The results for Dip obtainable with the Kew Dip instruments are un- 
doubtedly more consistent and more certain than I had supposed them to be. 
In considering the possible cause of this difference in the phenomena of 
the two sets of needles, I am led to the strong belief that it is not in any way 
mechanical. The mechanical structure and treatment is the same. I am 
inclined to suppose that it depends on the original quality and the subsequent 
tempering of the steel. I am not aware that the Kew Committee have 
published anything on this point. 

I am, my dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 
John P. Gassiot, Esq., (Signed) G. B. Airy. 

Chairman of the Kew Committee. 



Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Bath, September 186-1. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as foUows : — 

The Dukes of Devonshire and Argyll, the Earls of Harrowby and Ennis- 
killen, and Sir John Pakingtou, have vacated their seats, but youi* Committee 
recommend their re-election. 

Your Committee recommend that the Vacancy in the House of Commons' 
List be supplied by the election of Mr. Goschen. 

Your Committee suggest that they should be permitted to propose for 
Election Members of either House of Parliament, in addition to the thirteen 
Members now constituting their Committee, whenever such addition may 
appear desirable. 

These additional Members might be considered as Supernumerary, and any 
Vacancy ia the Supernumerary List supplied, or not, as may be thought ex- 
pedient, when the Vacancy occurs. 

Your Committee also recommend that a Resolution, passed at Liverpool in 
1854, be rescinded, and the following substituted : — 

" That any Member of the Parliamentary .(Committee, who shall not attend 
any one of four consecutive Meetings of that Committee, shall be considered 
as having resigned, but shall be eligible for re-election." 

No subject was referred to your Committee at Newcastle, but several of its 
Members have supported, or signified their intention to support, the valuable 
suggestion of the Royal Commissioners, that the study of Natural Science 
should be introduced into certain Public Schools, and likewise the Bill for 
legalizing the use of the Metric System of "Weights and Measures. 

In thus acting, the Committee conceive that they are properly fulfilling the 
important duty imposed upon them of " Watching over the interests of 
Science." 

Weotteslet, Chairman. 

17tli August, 1864. 



xlviii REPORT — 1864. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the Eath 
Meeting in SEPTEMiiEii 1864. 

[When Committees are aijpointod, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of .£600 he placed at the disposal of the Council for maiii- 
taiuiug the Establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That Mr. J. Glaishef , Lord E-osse, The Rev. T. W. Webb, Mr. W. E. Birt, 
Dr. Lee, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Mr. W. E. Dawes, Sir J. Herschol, Bart., Pro- 
fessor Philhps, Mr. J. Nasmyth, Mr. Warren De la Rue, and Mr. H. S. Ellis 
be a Committee (with power to add to their number) for the purpose of 
preparing forms for registering the various craters and visible objects on 
the Moon's surface, and for constructing an outline map of four times the 
scale of that of Beer and Miidler according to the j^kin proposed by Mr. Birt, 
and also for conducting an extensive correspondence with philosophers on 
the subject. That Mr. J. Glaisher be .the Chairman of the Committee, and 
Mr. W. R. Birt bo the Secretary; and that the sum of £35 be placed at 
their disposal for the piu'pose. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors and Aerolites, consisting of 
Mr. Glaisher, Mr. R. P. Greg, Mr. E. W. Brayley, and Mr. Alexander 
Hersehel be reappointed ; that Mr. Herschel be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of £40 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Electrical Standards, consisting of Professor Wil- 
liamson, Professor Wheatstone, Professor W. Thomson, Professor Miller, 
Dr. A. Matthiessen, Mr. Eleeming Jenkin, Sir Charles Bright, Professor 
Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Dr. Joule, aud Mr. C. 
F. Varley, be reappointed ; that Mr. Eleeming Jenkin be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Balloon Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, Professor Airy, Lord 
Wrottcslcy, Sir David Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Lloyd, Admiral 
EitzRoy, Dr. Lee, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Eairbairn, Dr. Tyudall, 
Dr. W. A. Miller, and Mr. Glaisher, be reappointed for the purpose of winter 
observations, night observations, electrical observations, if possible, and 
making experiments in months and seasons in which no observation has yet 
been made ; that Mr. Glaisher be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£150 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. G. J. Symons be requested to report on the Rainfall of the 
British Isles during the years 1863 and 1864, and also to have constructed 
and to transmit Rain-gauges to districts where observations are not at pre- 
sent made. The Gauges to be sent within the British Isles, and the instru- 
ments to be recalled should the observations not be satisfactorily made ; and 
that the sum of £30 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Robinson, Professor Wheatstone, Dr. Gladstone, and Professor 
Hennessy be a Committee (with power to add to their number) for the 
purpose of making experiments on the Transmission of Sound under Water ; 
and tliat the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Matthiessen, Mr. Koad, and Dr. D. Price be a Committee for the 
purpose of investigating the Chemical Constitution of Cast Iron ; and that 
the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xlix 

That M. Alphonse Gages be requested to continue his examination of the 
Mechanical Structure of Rocks and Artifical Formation of Minerals ; and 
that the sum of .£20 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. A. R. Catton be requested to complete his Examination and 
Analysis of Organic Acids formed synthetically ; and that the sum o i.£20 be 
placed at his disposal for the pui^iose. 

That Prof. A. W. "Williamson be requested to undertake the analysis of the 
gases evolved from the Bath "Waters, and to make arrangements for their sys- 
tematic collection ; and that the sum of <£20 be placed at his disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Professor "Wanklyn be requested to make experiments and report 
upon the difference between the two sets of Hexylic Compounds ; and that 
the sum of £20 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Phillips, The Earl of Ennislullen, and Mr. C. Spence Bate 
be a Committee for the purpose of assisting Mr. H. "Woodward in Researches 
on Eurypterus and other fossil Crustacea ; and that the sum of <£50 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sii- R. I. Murchison, Sir P. Grey Egerton, Bart., and Professor Phillips 
be a Committee for the purpose of promoting researches in the Ossiferous Caves 
of Gibraltar, imder the direction of Dr. Ealconer and Professor Busk ; and 
that the sum of .£150 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Falconer, Professor Busk, and Captain Spratt, R.N. be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of promoting researches in the Ossiferous Caves of 
Malta, under the direction of Dr. Adam ; and that the sum of £30 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir C. LyeU, Bart., Professor PhiUips, Mr. John Lubbock, Mr. John 
Evans, Mr. E. Vivian, and Mr. "WiUiam PengeUy be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of promoting researches on special points not yet sufficiently explored in 
Kent's Hole, Torquay, provided satisfactory arrangements can be made for the 
final disposition of the specimens ; that Mr. W. PengeUy be the Secretary, 
and that the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. W. Salter, Mr. Robert Lightfoot, Mr. Vicary, and Mr. J. E. 
Lee be a Committee for the purpose of assisting Mr. Hicks in fui-ther excava- 
tions in the Lingula Flags at St. David's, the results to be communicated to 
the next Meeting of the Association ; and that the sum of £10 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir William Jardine, Bart., Dr. P. L. Sclater, Mr. H. T. Stainton, Mr. 
A. R. Wallace, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. J. E. Gray, Dr. 
P. P. Carpenter, Mr. A. Newton, Professor C. C. Babington, Dr. J. D. Hooker, 
Professor T. H. Huxley, Dr. Francis, Professor Balfour, Professor Allman, 
Mr. A. H. HaUiday, Mr. T. V. WoUaston, and Mr. G. Bentham be reappointed 
as a Committee to consider the question of Zoological Nomenclature ; and 
that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for that purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Rev. W. Gregor, Mr. R. Dawson, Rev. J. Yuill, 
Dr. Grieve, and Professor Thomas Bell be a Committee for the purpose of 
dredging the Coasts of Aberdeenshire ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. R. M*^ Andrew, Mr. John Leckenby, Mr. 
C. Spence Bate, Mr. E. Waller, Rev. A. M. Norman, and Mr. H. K. Jordan be 
a Committee for the purpose of dredging the Coasts of the Channel Islands ; 
and that the sum of £50 be ])laced at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. Perceval Wright, Professor Babington, Professor Harvey 
(Dublin), Mr. H. C. Watson, Dr. D. Moore (Dublin), and Mr. A. G. Moore 
1864. d 



1 REPORT 1864. 

be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the distribution of the Irish 
PJora ; and that the sum of £2b be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 
That Professor /Vllman and Dr. E. P. Wright be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of concluding and siippk'menting a llcport on the Hydi'oida ; and that 
the sum of =£13 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the sum of £3 9s. Od. be granted to Dr. P. P. Carpenter for the 
pui-pose of defraying the expenses incui'red by him (over and above a sum of 
£10 granted in 1803) in preparing his Report on American Mollusca. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, The Rev. Thomas Hincks, Mr. C. Spence Bate, 
Mr. J. Couch, Mr. Charles Stuart, Mr. J. B. Eowe, and Mr. J. Ralfs be a 
Committee for investigating the marine Fauna and Flora of the southern 
coasts of Cornwall and Devon ; and that the sum of .£25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. B. W. Richardson be requested to continue his researches on the 
Physiological Action of some Amyl Compounds ; and that the sum of .£20 be 
placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. E. Gray, Mr. M'^Andrew, Mr. C. Spence Bate, and Mr. Frank 
Buckland be a Committee for the purpose of examining and reporting on the 
breeding of Oysters, and with special reference to the possibility of renewing 
old beds, and introducing other kinds of oysters ; and that the sum of .£25 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. John Lubbock, Mr. John Crawfurd, and Sir Roderick I. Murchi- 
son be a Committee for the purpose of aiding the Researches of Mr. George 
Busk on Typical Crania ; and that the sum of .£50, granted last year but not 
drawn, be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee, consisting of Lord Wrottesley, The Right Hon. C. 
B. Adderley, M.P., Sir William Armstrong, The Astronomer Royal, Samuel 
Brown, W. Ewart, M.P., T. Graham, Sir John Hay, Bart., Professor Hen- 
nessy, James Heywood, Dr. Lee, Dr. Leone Levi, Professor A. W. Miller, 
Professor Rankine, Rev. Dr. Robinson, Colonel Sykes, M.P., W. Tite, M.P., 
Professor W. A. Williamson, and Frederick Purdy (with power to add to 
their number), be reappointed to report on the best means of providing for 
a uniformity of weights and measures with reference to the interests of science ; 
and that the sum of =£20 be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee for the purpose of experimenting on the difference 
between the resistance of floating bodies mo\ing along the surface of water 
and similar bodies moving under water, consisting of Professor Rankine, 
Mr. James R. Napier, and Mr. Scott RusseU, be reappointed, with the addi- 
tion of Mr. W. Fronde ; and that the sum of .£1 00, granted last year and 
not drawn, be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a sum of =£6 8s., excess of expenditure by the Committee on the 
Tides of the Humber and Ouse beyond the grant of .£50, be paid to Mr. J. 
Oldham. 

That Mr. J. Hawkshaw, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. J. Oldham, Mr. W. 
Parks, Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. Thomas Webster, Mr. C. Vignoles, Sir J. 
Rennie, and Mr. G. P. Bidder, jun., be a Committee for the purpose of 
arranging and analyzing the Tidal operations which have already been 
made on the coasts and estuaries of Great Britain, and making such further 
observations and investigations as the Committee may deem desirable for 
recording and exhibiting Tidal phenomena; and that the sum of ,£200 be 
placed at their disposal for that purpose. 

That the Patent Law Committee be reappointed, and that it consist of the 
following Members : — Mr. Thomas Webster, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mr. J. F. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. ll 

Bateman, Mr. W. Fairbairn, Mr. John Hawkshaw, Mr. J. Scott Eussell, and 
Mr. John Bethcll (with power to add to their number) ; and that the grant 
of ^30, previously made and not drawn, be renewed. 

Applications for Reports and Researcfies not involvi?i(/ Grants 

of Money. 

That Mr. Fleeming Jenkin be requested to continue his Eeport on Thermo- 
Electrical Phenomena. 

That the Committee on Fog Signals, consisting of Dr. Robinson, Professor 
Wheatstone, and Dr. Gladstone, be reappointed (with power to add to their 
number), and requested to continue their labours. 

That Mr. Hirst be requested to report on certain new developments of 
Geometrical Methods. 

That Professor Stokes be requested to continue his Report on the present 
state of Physical Optics. 

That Professor Griffith and Dr. Akin be requested to continue their Report 
on the Transmutation of Spectral Rays. 

That Dr. Pavil be requested to draw up a Report upon the application of 
Chemistry to Geology. 

That Dr. Baker Edwards be requested to make experiments, and report 
upon the alkaloidal principles of Calabar Beans. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. J. E. Gray, Mr. R. M^indrew, Dr. Colling- 
wood, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Rev. A. M. Norman, Dr. E. P. Wright, and Rev. 
Thomas Hincks be a Committee for the purpose of acting as a General Dredging 
Committee. 

That the Committee on Scientific E^idence in Courts of Law, consisting of 
The Rev. W. V. Harcourt, Professor Williamson, The Right Hon. J. Napier, 
Mr. W. Tite, M.P., Professor Christison, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. J. F. 
Bateman, Mr. Thomas Webster, Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., and Prof. W. A. 
Miller (with power to add to their number), be reappointed ; and that Prof. 
Wilhamson be the Secretary. 

That the Gim-cotton Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Fairbairn, Mr. Joseph 
Whitworth, Mr. James Nasmyth, Mr. J. Scott RusseU, Mr. John Anderson, 
Sir William G. Armstrong, Dr. Gladstone, Professor W. A. Miller, Dr. Frank- 
land, and Mr. Abel, be reappointed and requested to continue their Report. 

That Mr. F. J. Spencer not having been able to complete his report " On 
the different modes of estimating nominal horse-power of Marine Engines, 
with a view of securing the adoption of one uniform system," be requested 
to continue his labours, and to report at the next Meeting of the Association. 

Involving Applications to Governments or Institutions. 

That Major-General Sabine, Sir John Herschel, Bart., Mr. J. P. Gassiot, and 
Sir Roderick I. Murchison be a Committee for the purpose of communicating 
to the Russian Government the opinion of the British Association, that the 
establishment of maguetical observations on the Kew System at the Ob- 
servatory of Tiflis, by Professor Moritz of that place, would largely conduce 
to the furtherance of magnetical science. 

That General Sabine be requested to afford Mr. Neumayer the advice he 
desires as to the best form of pubhcation of the magnetical observations of 
the Melbourne Obsei-vatory. 

fZ2 



Hi REPORT — 1864. 

That the Parliamentary Committee be requested to press on the Govern- 
ment the expediency of instituting a series of experiments on Fog Signals. 

That Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Admiral E.. Collinson, and Mr. A. G. 
Findlay be a Committee for the purpose of forwarding a request to Her 
Majesty's Government that, as far as is compatible with the exigencies of 
Her Majesty's Navy and the discipline of the ships, they should be furnished 
with apparatus (as used in Her Majesty's Ship 'Bulldog') to ascertain the 
depth of the ocean, and to obtain specimens of the bottom on all convenient 
occasions, the particulars to be forwarded to the Hydrographic Department, 
and the specimens to be sent to the Geological Museum. 

That Sir Eoderick I. Murc]iison,;The Lord Alfred Churchill, M.P., Mr. Galton, 
and Mr. Spottiswoode be a Committee for the purpose of requesting the 
Foreign Office to grant to Captain Richard Burton six months' leave to explore 
the sources of the Niger before proceeding to his new post. 

Communications to be printed entire among the Reports. 

That the Addresses of the Presidents of the Sections be printed in the 
Transactions. 

That the Report of the Committee on Tidal Observations on the Humber, 
Trent, and Ouse, with Tables and Diagrams, be published in extenso in the 
Transactions. 

That Mr. W. Fairbairn's paper " On some of the Mechanical Properties of 
the Atlantic Telegraph Cable " be printed at length in the Report. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Bath Meeting in September 1864. The 
names of the Members who would be entitled to call on the General 
Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Kew Observatory. 

£ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory 600 

Mathematics and Physics. 

Glaisher, Mr. — Preparation of Forms for Observation of Moon's 

Surface 35 o 

Glaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors and Aerolites 40 

Williamson, Prof. — Electrical Standards 100 

Sykes, Col. — Balloon Committee 150 

Symons, Mr. — Rain-gauges 30 

Robinson, Dr. — Transmission of Sound 30 

Chemistry, 

Matthiessen, Dr. — Chemical Constitution of Cast Iron (renewed) 30 

Gages, M. — Mechanical Structure of Rocks 20 

Catton, Mr. — Analysis of Organic Acids 20 

Williamson, Prof. — Analysis of Gases of Bath Waters 20 

Wanklyn, Prof. — Hexylic Compounds 20 



KECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITEEE. liu 

Oeology. 

£ s. d. 

Phillips, Prof. — Fossil Crustacea 50 

Murchison, Sir E. — Bone Caves of Gibraltar 150 

Falconer, Dr. — FossU Kemains in Malta 30 

Lyell, Sir C. — Excavations in Kent's Hole 100 

Salter, Mr, J,— Lingula Flags at St. David's 10 

Zoology and Botany. 

Gray, Dr. J. E. — Breeding of Oysters 25 

Jardine, Sir W. — Zoological Nomenclature (renewed) 10 

Jeffi'eys, Mr. — Dredging Coast of Aberdeenshire 25 

Jeffreys, Mr. — Dredging Coast of Channel Islands 50 

Wright, Dr. E. P.— Irish Flora 25 

Allman, Prof.— Hydroida 13 

Carpenter, Dr. P. P. — Report on American Mollusca 3 9 

Jeffi-eys, Mr. — Marine Fauna and Flora 25 

Richardson, Dr. B. W. — Physiological Action of some Amyl Com- 
pounds 20 

Geography and Ethnology. 

Lubbock, Mr. — Typical Crania (renewed) 50 

Statistics and Economic Science. 

Wrottesley, Lord. — Metrical Committee 20 

Mechanics. 

Russell, Scott, Mr. — Resistance of Bodies in Water (renewed) . 100 

Oldham, Mr.— Tides of Humber 6 8 

Hawkshaw, Mr. — Tidal Observations on British Coasts 200 

Webster, Mr. — Patent Laws (renewed) 30 

Total 2037 17 



Kv 



REPORT — 1861. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ «. d. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

jei67 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



dE434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£9\S 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 

Railway Constants 41 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 

Land and Sea Level 267 

Subterranean Temperature 8 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Comiriittee 31 

Thermometers 16 











1 10 
12 10 





6 6 



£956 





7 


5 



12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

riymouUi 63 10 

■Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides , 35 18 6 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vesseis' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 6 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics ■ 50 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









je!5!)5 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations...... 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 9 



£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



30 



8 











7 























12 


8 








18 


6 









GENERAL STATEMENT. 



iv 





















1 


6 


12 











18 


8 














1 


10 


6 


3 















£ «. d. 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs C2 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britanniae 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of ) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) : 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 

£1449 17 8 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 























8 


6 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ s. d- 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuiti'es 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Kails of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 C 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of ) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 



1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew.Observatory 56 7 3 



Ivi 



REPORT — 1864. 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 10 

£981 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15^ 

£830 



s. 



d. 









17 


6 








11 



10 









10 
















3 


7 




3 


















3 


6 



12 8 



14 6 



18 11 



16 8 



11 9 







17 8 



15 






































7 


























14 


8 



9 9 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 



£ 
Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York ^ 12^ 

£685 



s. 


,i. 














16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 
























1 8 



1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 "6 

1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 



GENERAL.' STATEMENT. 



Ivii 



£ s. d. 

Periodical Plienomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 

1851. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (includes part 

of grantin 1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

£391 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 8 

Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 165 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

~£205 

1854. ~ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 3 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 

1855. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon II 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the World 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 ,, 

1855 £500 0/ "'^ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 



d. 













13 


9 



























£734 13 9 



1857. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the MoUusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 































































8 






1858. 
Maintaining'jthe Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidse 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 



£507 15 4 



























5 





13 


2 

















£618 18 2 


































































I 


11 






£684 11 I 



Iviii 



REPOKT 1864. 



1860. £ I- 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 6 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-niechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Grovfth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 

£1241 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 0"! 

1861 £22 0] 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 











































































5 


1 









1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 

MoUusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-East Coast of 

Scotland 6 

Ravages of Teredo 3 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 









6 





















































9 


6 


11 


















£1111 5 10 



£ I. d. 

Balloon Committee 200 Q 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroids 10 

£ 1608 3 10 

1864. " 

Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Baloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



GENERAL MEETINGS. Ux 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific pnqjoses from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Eeport that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, William Spottiswoode, Esq., 59 Grosvenor Place, London, 
S.W., for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time be re- 
quired. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the foiTuer grant for the same object. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, September 14, at 8 p.m., in the Theatre, Sir W. 
G. Armstrong, LL.D., F.R.S., resigned the office of President to Sir Charles 
Lyell, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., who took the Chair, and deUvered 
an Address, for which see page Ix. 

On Thursday Evening, September 15, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Assembly Rooms. 

On Friday Evening, September 16, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Pro- 
fessor Roscoe delivered a Discourse on the Chemical Action of Light. 

On Monday Evening, September 19, at 8 p.m., in the Theatre, Dr. Living- 
stone delivered a Lecture on his recent travels in Central Africa. 

On Tuesday Evening, September 20, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Assembly Room. 

On Wednesday, September 21, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceediags of the General Committee, and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was tiien adjourned to Birmingham*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, September 6, 1865. 



ADDRESS 



BY 



SIR CHARLES LYELL, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 



Gentlemen of the British Association, — The place where we have been 
invited this year to hold our Thirty-fourth Meeting is one of no ordinary 
interest to the cultivators of physical science. It might have been selected 
by my feUow-labourers in geology as a central point of observation, from 
which, by short excursions to the east and west, they might examine those 
rocks wMch constitute, on the one side, the more modem, and on the other 
the more ancient records of the past, while around them and at their feet lie 
monuments of the middle period of the earth's history. But there are other 
sites in England which might successfully compete with Bath as good sur- 
veying stations for the geologist. What renders Bath a peculiar point of 
attraction to the student of natural phenomena is its thermal and mineral 
waters, to the sanatory powers of which the city has owed its origin and 
celebrity. The great volume and high temperature of these waters render 
them not only unique in our island, but perhaps without a parallel in the rest 
of Europe, when we duly take into account their distance from the nearest 
region of violent earthquakes or of active or extinct volcanos. The spot 
where they issue, as we learn from the researches of the historian and anti- 
quary, was lonely and desert when the Romans first landed in this island, 
but in a few years it was converted into one of the chief cities of the newly 
conquered province. On the site of the hot springs was a large morass from 
which clouds of white vapour rose into the air ; and there first was the 
spacious bath-room built, in a highly ornamental style of architecture, and 
decorated with colimms, pUasters, and tessellated pavements. By its side 
was erected a splendid temple dedicated to Minerva, of which some statues 
and altars with their inscriptions, and ornate pillars are still to be seen in 
the Museum of this place. To these edifices the quarters of the garrison, and 
in the course of time the dweUings of new settlers, were added ; and they 
were all encircled by a massive wall, the solid foundations of which still 
remain. 

A dense mass of soil and rubbish, from 10 to 20 feet thick, now separates 
the level on which the present city stands from the level of the ancient 
Aquae SoHs of the Eomans. Digging through this mass of heterogeneous 
materials, coins and coffins of the Saxon period have been found ; and lower 
down, beginning at the depth of fi'om 12 to 15 feet from the surface, coins 
have been disinterred of Imperial Rome, bearing dates from the reign of 
Claudius to that of Maximus in the fifth century. Beneath the whole are 
occasionally seen tessellated pavements stiU retaining their bright colours, 
one of which, on the site of the Mineral-water Hospital, is still carefully pre- 
served, affording us an opportimity of gauging the difference of level of ancient 
and modem Bath. 



ADDRESS. Ixi 

On the slopes and summits of the picturesque hills in the neighbourhood 
rose many a Koman villa, to trace the boundaries of which, and to bring to 
light the treasures of art concealed in them, are tasks which have of late years 
amply rewarded the researches of Mr. Scarth and other learned antiquaries. 
No wonder that on this favoured spot we should meet with so many memo- 
rials of former greatness, when we reflect on the length of time during which 
the imperial troops and rich colonists of a highly civilized people sojourned 
here, having held undisturbed possession of the coimtry for as many years as 
have elapsed from the first discovery of America to our own times. 

One of our former Presidents, Dr. Daubeny, has remarked that nearly aU 
the most celebrated hot springs of Europe, such as those of Aix-la-Chapelle, 
Baden-Baden, Naples, Auvergne, and the Pyrenees, have not declined in 
temperature since the days of the Romans; for many of them stUl retain as 
great a heat as is tolerable to the human body, and yet when employed by the 
ancients they do not seem to have required to be first cooled down by arti- 
ficial means. This uniformity of temperature, maintained in some places for 
more than 2000 years, together with the constancy in the volume of the 
water, which never varies with the seasons, as in ordinary springs, the 
identity also of the mineral ingredients which, century after century, are held 
by each spring in solution, are striking facts, and they tempt us irresistibly 
to speculate on the deep subterranean sources both of the heat and mineral 
matter. How long has this uniformity prevailed? Are the springs really 
ancient in reference to the earth's history, or, like the course of the present 
rivers and the actual shape of our hiUs and valleys, are they only of high 
antiquity when contrasted with the brief space of human annals ? May they 
not be like Vesuvius and Etna, which, although Ihey have been adding to 
their flanks, in the course of the last 2000 years many a stream of lava and 
shower of ashes, were still mountains very much the same as they now are 
in height and dimensions from the earliest times to which we can trace back 
their existence ? Yet although their foundations are tens of thousands of 
years old, they were laid at an era when the Mediterranean was already 
inhabited by the same species of marine shells as those with which it is now 
peopled ; so that these volcanos must be regarded as things of yesterday in 
the geological calendar. 

Notwithstanding the general persistency in character of mineral waters 
and hot springs ever since they were first known to us, we find on inquiry 
that some few of them, even in historical times, have been subject to great 
changes. These have happened during earthquakes which have been violent 
enough to disturb the subterranean drainage and alter the shape of the 
fissures up which the waters ascend. Thus during the great earthquake at 
Lisbon in 1755, the temperature of the spring called La Source de la Eeine 
at Bagneres de Luchon, in the Pyrenees, was suddenly raised as much as 
75° F., or changed from a cold spring to one of 122° F., a heat which it has 
since retained. It is also recorded that the hot springs at Bagneres de 
Bigorre, in the same mountain-chain, became suddenly cold during a great 
earthquake which, in 1660, threw down several houses in that town. 

It has been ascertained that the hot springs of the Pyrenees, the Alps, and 
many other regions are situated in lines along which the rocks have been 
rent, and usually where they have been displaced or "faulted." Similar 
dislocations in the solid crust of the earth are generally supposed to have 
determined the spots where active and extinct volcanos have burst forth ; for 
several of these often affect a linear arrangement, their position seeming to 
have been determined by great lines of fissure. Another connecting link 



Ixii REPORT — 1864. 

between the volcano and tlie hot spring is recognizable in the great abundance 
of hot springs in regions where volcanic eruptions stiU occur from time to 
time. It is also in the same districts that the waters occasionally attain the 
boiliug-temperature, while some of the associated stufas emit steam consider- 
ably above the boiling-point. 13ut in proportion as we recede from the great 
centres of igneous activity, we find the thermal waters decreasing in fre- 
quency and in their average heat, while at the same time they are most con- 
spicuous in those territories where, as in Central France or the Eifcl in 
Germany, there are cones and craters stiU so perfect in their form, and 
streams of lava bearing such a relation to the depth and shape of the existing 
valleys, as to indicate that the internal fires have become dormant in com- 
paratively recent times. If there be exceptions to this rule, it is where 
hot springs are met with in parts of the Alps and Pyrenees which have been 
violently convulsed by modern earthquakes. 

To pursue still further our comparison between the hot spring and the 
volcano, we may regard the water of the spring as representing those vast 
clouds of aqueous vapour which are copiously evolved for days, sometimes for 
weeks, in succession from craters during an eruption. But we shall perhaps 
be asked whether, when we contrast the work done by the two agents in 
question, there is not a marked failure of analogy in one respect — namely a 
want, in the case of the hot spring, of power to raise from great depths in the 
earth voluminous masses of solid matter corresponding to the heaps of scoritE 
and streams of lava which the volcano pours out on the surface. To one who 
urges such an objection it may be said that the quantity of solid as well 
as gaseous matter transferred by springs from the interior of the earth to its 
surface is far more considerable than is commonly imagined. The thermal 
waters of Bath are far from being conspicuous among European hot springs 
for the quantity of mineral matter contained in them in proportion to the 
water which acts as a solvent ; yet Professor Eamsay has calculated that if 
the sulphates of lime and of soda, and the chlorides of sodium and magnesium, 
and the other mineral ingredients which they contain, were solidified, they 
would form in one year a square column 9 feet in diameter, and no less than 
140 feet in height. All this matter is now quietly conveyed by a stream of 
limpid water, in an invisible form, to the Avon, and by the Avon to the sea ; 
but if, instead of being thus removed, it were deposited around the orifice of 
eruption, like the siliceous layers which encrust the circidar basin of an 
Icelandic geyser, we should soon see a considerable cone biiilt up, with a crater 
in the middle ; and if the action of the spring were intermittent, so that ten 
or twenty years should elapse between the periods when solid matter was 
emitted, or (say) an interval of three centuries, as in the case of Vesuvius 
between 1306 and 1631, the discharge would be on so grand a scale as to 
afford no mean object of comparison with the intermittent outpourings of a 
volcano. 

Dr. Daubeny, after devoting a month to the analysis of the Bath waters 
in 1833, ascertained that the daily evolution of nitrogen gas amounted to no 
less than 250 cubic feet in volume. This gas, he remarks, is not only cha- 
racteristic of hot springs, but is largely disengaged from volcanic craters 
during eruptions. In both cases he suggests that the nitrogen may be 
derived from atmospheric air, which is always dissolved in rain-water, and 
which, when this water penetrates the earth's crust, must be carried down 
to great depths, so as to reach the heated interior. When there, it may 
be subjected to deoxidating processes, so that the nitrogen, being left in a 
free state, may be driven upwards by the expansive force of heat and steam, or 



ADDRESS. Ixiii 

by hydrostatic pressure. This theory has been very generally adopted, as best 
accounting for the constant disengagement of large bodies of nitrogen, even 
where the rocks through which the spriug rises are crystalline and unfossili- 
ferous. It %vill, however, of coiirse be admitted, as Professor Bischoff has 
pointed out, that in some places organic matter has supplied a large part 
of the nitrogen evolved. 

Carbonic-acid gas is another of the volatilized substances discharged by 
the Bath waters. Dr. Gustav Bischoff, in the new edition of his valuable 
work on chemical and physical geology, when speaking of the exhalations 
of this gas, remarks that they are of universal occurrence, and that they 
originate at great depths, becoming more abundant the deeper we penetrate. 
He also observes that, when the silicates which enter so largely into the 
composition of the oldest rocks are percolated by this gas, they must be con- 
tinually decomposed, and the carbonates formed by the new combinations 
thence arising must often augment the volume of the altered rocks. This 
increase of bulk, he says, must sometimes give rise to a mechanical force of 
expansion capable of uplifting the incumbent crust of the earth ; and the 
same force may act laterally so as to compress, dislocate, and tilt the strata 
on each side of a mass in which the new chemical changes are developed. 
The calciilations made by this eminent German chemist of the exact amount 
of distention which the origin of new mineral products may cause, by adding 
to the volume of the rocks, deserve the attention of geologists, as affording 
them aid in explaining those reiterated oscillations of level — those risings 
and sinkings of land — which have occurred on so grand a scale at successive 
periods of the past. There are probably many distinct causes of such 
upward, downward, and lateral movements, and any new suggestion on this 
head is most welcome ; but I believe the expansion and contraction of solid 
rocks, when they are alternately heated and cooled, and the fusion and sub- 
sequent consolidation of mineral masses, will continue to rank, as heretofore, 
as the most influential causes of such movements. 

The temperature of the Bath waters varies in the different springs 
from 117° to 120° F. This, as before stated, is exceptionally high, when we 
duly allow for the great distance of Bath from the nearest region of active 
or recently extinct volcanos and of violent earthquakes. The hot springs of 
Aix-la-Chapelle have a much higher temperature, viz. 135° F., but they are 
situated within forty miles of those cones and lava-streams of the Eifel 
which, though they may have spent their force ages before the earliest 
records of history, belong, nevertheless, to the most modern geological period. 
Bath is about 400 miles distant from the same part of Germany, and 440 from 
Auvergne — another volcanic region, the latest eruptions of which were geolo- 
gically coeval Avith those of the Eifel. When these two regions in France 
and Germany were the theatres of frequent convulsions, we may well suppose 
that England was often more rudely shaken than now ; and such shocks as 
that of October last, the sound and rocking motion of which caused so great 
a sensation as it traversed the southern part of the island, and seems to have 
been particularly violent in Herefordshire, may be only a languid reminder 
to us of a force of which the energy has been gradually dying oiit. 

If you consult the geological map of the environs of this city, coloured by 
the Government surveyors, you will perceive that numerous lines of fault or 
displacement of the rocks are there laid down, and one of these has shifted 
the strata vertically as much as 200 feet. Mr. Charles Moore pointed oiit to 
me last spring, when I had the advantage of examining the geology of this 
district under his guidance, that there are other lines of displacement not yet 



Ixiv REPORT — 1864. 

laid down on the Ordnance Map, the existence of which must be inferred from 
the different levels at which the same formations crop out on the flanks of the 
hills to the north and south of the city. I have therefore httle doubt that 
the Bath springs, like most other thermal waters, mark the site of some great 
convulsion and fracture which took place in the crust of the earth at some 
former period — perhaps not a very remote one, geologically speaking. The 
uppermost part of the rent through which the hot water rises is situated in 
horizontal strata of Lias and Trias, 300 feet thick; and this may be more 
modern than the lower part, which passes through the inclined and broken 
strata of the subjacent coal-measures, which are unconformable to the Trias. 
The nature and succession of these rocks penetrated by the Bath waters was 
I first made out by the late "WiUiam Smith in 1817, when a shaft was sunk in 
the vicinity in search for coal. The shock which opened a communication 
through the upper rocks may have been of a much later date than that which 
fractured the older and underlying strata ; for there is a tendency in the 
earth's crust to jdeld most readily along hues of ancient fracture, which con- 
stitute the points of least resistance to a force acting from below. 

If we adopt the theory already alluded to, that the nitrogen is derived 
from the deoxidation of atmospheric air carried down by rain-water, we 
may imagine the supply of this water to be furnished by some mountainous 
region, possibly a distant one, and that it descends through rents or porous 
rocks tiU it encounters some mass of heated matter by which it is converted 
into steam, and then driven upwards through a fissure. In its downward 
passage the water may derive its sulphate of lime, chloride of calcium, and 
other substances from the decomposition of the gypseous, saline, calcareous, 
and other constituents of the rocks which it permeates. The greater part of 
the ingredients are common to sea-water, and might suggest the theory of a 
marine origin ; but the analysis of the Bath springs by Merck and Galloway 
shows that the relative proportion of the solid matter is far from agreeing 
with that of the sea, the chloride of magnesium being absolutely in excess, that 
is, 14 grains of it per gallon for 12 of common salt ; whereas in sea-water 
there are 27 grains of salt, or chloride of sodium, to 4 of the chloride of mag- 
nesium. That some mineral springs, however, may derive an inexhaustible 
supply, through rents and porous rocks, from the leaky bed of the ocean, is 
by no means an unreasonable theory, especially if we believe that the con- 
tiguity of nearly all the active volcanos to the sea is connected with the 
access of salt water to the subterranean foci of volcanic heat. 

Professor Roscoe, of Manchester, has been lately engaged in making a 
careful analysis of the Bath waters, and has discovered in them three metals 
which they were not previously known to contain — namely copper, stron- 
tium, and lithium ; but he has searched in vain for caesium and rubidium, 
those new metals, the existence of which has been revealed to us in the 
course of the last few years by what is called spectrum analysis. By this 
new method the presence of infinitesimal quantities, such as would have 
wholly escaped detection by ordinaiy tests, are made known to the eye by 
the agency of light. Thus, for example, a solid substance such as the 
residue obtained by evaporation from a mineral water is introduced on a 
platinum wii'e into a colourless gas-flame. The substance thus volatilized 
imparts its colour to the flame, and the light, being then made to pass 
through a prism, is viewed through a small telescope or spectroscope, as it is 
called, by the aid of which one or more bright lines or bands are seen in the 
spectrum, which, according to their position, number, and colour, indicate the 
presence of different elementary bodies. 



ADDRESS. IxV 

Professor Bunscn, of Heidelberg, led the way, in 1860, in the application 
of this new test to the hot waters of Baden-Baden and of Diirkheini in 
the Palatinate. He observed in the spectrum some coloured lines of which 
he could not interpret the meaning, and was determined not to rest till ho 
had found out what they meant. This was no easy task, for it was neces- 
sary to evaporate fifty tons of water to obtain 200 grains of what proved to 
be two new metals. Taken together, their proportion to the water was only 
as one to three million. He named the first cfesium, from the blnish-grey lines 
which it presented in the spectrum ; and the second rubidium, from its two 
red lines. Since these successful exi)erimcnts were made, thallium, so called 
from its green line, was discovered in 1861 by Mr. Crookes ; and a foiu-th 
metal named indium, from its indigo-coloured band, was detected by Pro- 
fessor Eichter, of Freiberg, in Saxony in a zinc ore of the Hartz. It is 
impossible not to suspect that the wonderful efficacy of some mineral springs, 
both cold and thermal, in ciuing diseases, which no artificially prepared 
waters have as yet been able to rival, may bo connected vdth the presence 
of one or more of these elementary bodies previously unknown ; and some of 
the newly found ingredients, when procured in larger quantities, may furnish 
medical science with means of combating diseases which have hitherto baffled 
aU himian skill. 

"While I was pursuing my inquiries respecting the Bath waters, I learned 
casually that a hot spring had been discovered at a great depth in a copper- 
mine near Ecdruth in Cornwall, having about as high a temperature as that of 
the Bath waters, and of which, strange to say, no account has yet been 
published. It seems that, in the year 1839, a level was driven from an old 
shaft so as to intersect a rich copper-mine at the depth of 1350 feet from 
the surface. This lode or metalhferous fissure occurred in what were for- 
merly called the United Mines, and which have since been named the Clif- 
ford Amalgamated Mines. Through the contents of the lode a powerful 
spring of hot water was observed to rise, which has continued to flow with 
undiminished strength ever since. At my request, Mr. Horton Davey, of 
Redruth, had the kindness to send up to London many gallons of this water, 
which have been analyzed by Professor WiUiam Allen Miller, F.R.S., who 
finds that the quantity of solid matter is so great as to exceed by more than 
four times the proportion of that yielded by the Bath waters. Its compo- 
sition is also in many respects very different ; for it contains but little sul- 
phate of lime, and is almost free from tlie salts of magnesium. It is rich in 
the chlorides of calcium and sodiiim, and it contains one of the new metals- 
caesium, never before detected in any mineral spring in England: but its 
peculiar characteristic is the extraordinary abundance of lithium, of which a 
mere trace had been found by Professor Roscoe in the Bath waters ; whereas 
in this Cornish hot spring this metal constitutes no less than a twenty-sixth 
part of the whole of the solid contents, which, as before stated, are so volu- 
minous. "When Professor Miller exposed some of these contents to the test of 
spectrum analysis, he gave mc an opportunity of seeing the beautiful bright 
crimson line which the lithium produces in the spectrum. 

Lithium was first made known in 1817 by Arfvedsen, who extracted it 
from petalite ; and it was believed to be extremely rare, until Bunsen and 
Kii-chhoff, in 1860, by means of spectnim analysis, showed that it was a most 
widely diffused substance, existing in minute quantities in almost all mineral 
waters and in the sea, as well as in milk, human blood, and the ashes of some 
plants. It has already been used in medicine, and we may therefore hope 
that, now that it is obtainable in large quantities, and at a much cheaper rate 

1864. e 



Ixvi REPORT — 1864. 

than before the Wheal- Clifford hot spring was analyzed, it may become of 
high value. According to a rough estimate which has been sent to me by Mr. 
Davey, the Wheal-Clifford spring yields no less than 250 gallons per minute, 
which is almost equal to the discharge of the King's Bath or chief spring of 
this city. As to the gases emitted, they are the same as those of the Bath 
water — namely carbonic acid, oxygen, and nitrogen. 

Mr. Wartngton Smyth, who had already visited the Wheal-Clififord lode 
in 1855, re-examined it in July last, chiefly with the view of replying to 
several queries which I had put to him ; and, in spite of the stifling heat, 
ascertained the geological structure of the lode and the exact temperature of 
the water. This last he foimd to be 122° Fahr. at the depth of 1350 feet ; 
but he scarcely doubts that the thermometer would stand two or three 
degrees higher at a distance of 200 feet to the eastward, where the water is 
known to gush up more freely. The Wheal-Clifford lode is a fissure varying 
in width from 6 to 12 feet, one wall consisting of elvan or porphyritic 
granite, and the other of kiUas or clay-slate. Along the line of the rent, 
which runs east and west, there has been a slight throw or shift of the rocks. 
The vein-stuff is chiefly formed of cellular pyrites of copper and iron, the 
porous nature of which allows the hot water to percolate freely through it. 
It seems, however, that in the continuation upwards of the same fissure 
little or no metalliferous ore was deposited, but, in its place, quartz and other 
impermeable substances, which obstructed the coui'se of the hot spring, so as 
to prevent its flowing out on the sui-face of the countiy. It has been always 
a favourite theory of the miners that the high temperatm-e of this Cornish 
spring is due to the oxidation of the sulphurets of copper and iron, which are 
decomposed when air is admitted. That such oxidation must have some 
slight effect is undeniable ; but that it materially influences the temperature 
of so large a body of water is out of the question. Its effect must be almost 
insensible ; for Professor MUler has scarcely been able to detect any 
sulphuric acid in the water, and a minute trace only of iron and copper in 
solution. 

When we compare the temperatm-o of the Bath springs, which issue at a 
level of less than 100 feet above the sea, with the Wheal-Clifford spring found 
at a depth of 1350 feet from the surface, we must of course make allowance for 
the increase of heat always experienced when we descend into the interior 
of the earth. The difference would amount to about 20° Fahr., if we adopt 
the estimate deduced by Mr. Hopkins from an accurate series of observations 
made in the Monkwearmouth shaft, near Durham, and in the Dukinfield 
shaft, near Manchester, each of them 2000 feet in depth. In these shafts 
the temperatiu-e was found to rise at the rate of only 1° Fahi-. for fiyerj 
increase of depth of from 65 to 70 feet. But if the Wlieal-Clifford spring, 
instead of being arrested in its upward course, had continued to rise freely 
through porous and loose materials so as to reach the sm-face, it would 
probably not have lost anything approaching to 20° Fahr., since the re- 
newed heat derived fi-om below would have warmed the waUs and contents 
of the lode, so as to raise their temperature above that which would naturally 
belong to the rocks at corresponding levels on each side of the lode. The 
almost entire absence of magnesium raises an obvious objection to the hypo- 
thesis of this spring deriving its waters from the sea ; or if such a soui'ce be 
suggested for the salt and other marine products, we should be under the 
necessity of supposing the magnesium to be left behind in combination with 
some of the elements of the decomposed and altered rocks through which the 
thermal waters may have passed. 



ADDRESS. 



Ixvii 



Hot springs are, for the most part, charged with alkaline and other highly- 
soluble substances, and, as a rule, are barren of the precious metals, gold, 
silver, and copper, as weU as of tin, platinum, lead, and many others, a 
slight trace of copper in the Bath waters being exceptional. Never- 
theless there is a strong presumption that there exists some relation- 
ship between the action of thermal waters and the fiUing of rents with 
metallic ores. The component elements of these ores may, in the first 
instance, rise from great depths in a state of sublimation or of solution 
in intensely heated water, and may then be precipitated on the walls of a 
fissure as soon as the ascending vapours or fluids begin to part with some of 
their heat. Almost everything, save the alkaline metals, silica, and cer- 
tain gases, may thus be left behind long before the spring reaches the earth's 
surface. If this theory be adopted, it wiU foUow that the metalliferous por- 
tion of a iissure, originally thousands of feet or fathoms deep, wiU never be 
exposed in regions accessible to the miner until it has been upheaved by a long 
series of convulsions, and until the higher parts of the same rent, together 
with its contents and the rocks which it had traversed, have been removed 
by aqueous denudation. Ages before such changes are accomplished ther- 
mal and mineral springs will have ceased to act ; so that the want of identity 
between the mineral ingredients of hot spiings and the contents of metal- 
liferous veins, instead of militating against their intimate relationship, 
is in favour of both being the complementary results of one and the same 
natural operation. 

But there are other characters in the structure of the earth's crust more 
mysterious in their nature than the phenomena of metalliferous veins, on 
which the study of hot springs has thrown light — I allude to the metamor- 
phism of sedimentary rocks. Strata of various ages, many of them once 
full of organic remains, have been rendered partially or wholly crystal- 
line. It is admitted on aU hands that heat has been instrumental in 
bringing about this re-arrangement of particles, which, when the meta- 
morphism has been carried out to its fullest extent, obliterates all trace 
of the imbedded fossils. But as mountain-masses many miles in length and 
breadth, and several thousands of feet in height, have undergone such 
alteration, it has always been difficult to explain in what manner an amount 
of heat capable of so entirely changing the molecular condition of sedimen- 
tary masses could have come into play without utterly annihilating every 
sign of stratification, as well as of organic structure. 

Various experiments have led to the conclusion that the minerals which 
enter most largely into the composition of the metamorphic rocks have not 
been formed by crystallizing from a state of fusion, or in the dry way, but 
that they have been derived from liquid solutions, or in the wet way — a 
jirocess requiring a far less intense degree of heat. Thermal springs, charged 
with carbonic acid and with hydrofluoric acid (which last is often present in 
smaU quantities), are powerful causes of decomposition and chemical reaction 
in rocks through which they percolate. If, therefore, large bodies of hot water 
permeate moimtain-masses at great depths, they may in the course of ages 
superinduce in them a crystalline structure ; and in some cases strata in a 
lower position and of older date may be comparatively unaltered, retaining 
their fossU remains imdefaced, while newer rocks are rendered metamorphic. 
This may happen where the waters, after passing upwards for thousands of 
feet, meet with some obstruction, as in the case of the Wheal-Clifibrd spring, 
causing the same to be laterally diverted so as to percolate the surrounding 
rocks. The efficacy of such hydrothermal action has been admirablv iUus- 

e2 



Ixviii REPORT — 1864 

trated of late years by the experiments and observations of Scnarmont, 
Daubree, Delesse, Schcerer, Sorby, 8tcrry Hunt, aod others. 

The changes which Daubree lias shov.^u to have been produced by the 
alkaline waters of Plombieres, in the Vosges, are more especially instructive. 
These thermal waters have a temperature of 160° F., and were conveyed by 
the llomans to Ijaths through long conduits or aqueducts. The foundations 
of some of their works consisted of a bed of concrete made of lime, frag- 
ments of brick, and sandstone. Through this and other masonry the hot 
waters have been percolating for centuries, and have given rise to various 
zeolites — apophyllite and chabazite among others ; also to calcareous spar, 
arragonite, and iluor spar, together with siliceous minerals, such as opal, — 
all found in the interspaces of the bricks and mortar, or constituting part of 
their rearranged materials. The quantity of heat brought into action in this 
instance in the course of 2000 years has, no doubt, been enormous, although 
the intensity of it developed at any one moment has been always incon- 
siderable. 

The study, of late years, of the constituent parts of granite has in like 
manner led to the conclusion that their consolidation has taken place at 
temperatures far below those formerly supposed to be indispensable. Gustav 
Eose has pointed out that the quartz of granite has the specific gravity 
of 2-6, which characteriz;cs silica when it is precipitated from a liquid 
solvent, and not that inferior density, namely 2-3, which belongs to it when 
it cools and solidifies in the dry way from a state of fusion. 

But some geologists, when made aware of the intervention on a large 
scale, of water, in the formation of the component minerals of the granitic 
and volcanic rocks, appear of late years to have been too much disposed to 
dispense with intense heat when accounting for the formation of the crystal- 
line and unstratified roclcs. As water in a state of solid combination enters 
largely into the aluminous and some other minerals, and therefore plays no 
smaU part in the composition of the earth's crust, it follows that, when rocks 
are melted, water must be present, independently of the supplies of rain- 
water and sea-water which find their way into the regions of siibterranean 
heat. But the existence of water under great pressure affords no argument 
against our attributing an excessively high temperature to the mass with 
which it is mixed up. StiU less does the point to which the melted matter 
must be cooled down before it consolidates or crystallizes into lava or granite 
afford any test of the degree of heat which the same matter must have 
acquired when it was melted and made to fonn lakes and seas in the interior 
of the earth's crust. 

We learn from Bunsen's experiments on the Great Geyser in Iceland, that 
at the depth of only seventy-four feet, at the bottom of the tube, a column of 
water may be in a state of rest, and yet possess a heat of 120° Centigrade, or 
248° F. What, then, may not the temperature of such water be at the depth 
of a few thousand feet ? It might soon attain a white heat under pressure ; 
and as to lava, they who have beheld it issue, as I did in 1858, from the 
south-western flanks of Yesuvius, with a sm-face white and glowing like 
that of the sun, and who have felt the scorching heat which it radiates, will 
form a high conception of the intense temperature of the same lava at the 
bottom of a vertical column several miles high, and communicating with a 
great reservoir of fused matter, which, if it were to begin at once to cool 
down, and were never to receive future accessions of heat, might require a 
whole geological period before it solidified. Of such slow refrigeration hot 
springs may be among the most effective instruments, abstracting slowly 



ADDRESS. Ixix 

from tlic subterranean molten mass that heat which clouds of vapour are 
seen to carry off in a latent form from a volcanic crater during an eruption, 
or from a lava-stream dimng its solidification. It is more than forty years 
since Mr. Scrope, in his work on volcanos, insisted on the important part 
whicli water plays in an eruption, when intimately mixed up with the com- 
ponent materials of lava, aiding, as he supposed, in giving mobility to the 
more solid materials of the fluid mass. But when advocating this igneo- 
aqueous theory, ho never dreamt of impugning the Huttonian doctrine as to 
the intensity of heat which the production of the unstratified rocks, those 
of the plutonic class especially, implies. 

The exact nature of the chemical changes which hydrothcrmal action may 
effect in the earth's interior will long remain obscure to us, because the 
regions where they take place are inaccessible to man ; but the manner in 
which volcanos have shifted their position throughout a vast series of geolo- 
gical epochs — becoming extinct in one region and breaking out in another — 
may, perhaps, explain the increase of heat as we descend towards the interior, 
without the necessity of our appealing to an original central heat or the 
igneous fluidity of the earth's nucleus. 

I hinted, at the beginning of this Address, that the hot springs of Bath 
may be of no high antiquity, geologically speaking, — not that I can establish 
this opinion by any positive proofs, but I infer it from the mighty changes 
which this region has undergone since tlie time when the British seas, 
rivers, and lakes were inhabited by the existing species of Testacea. It is 
already more than a quarter of a century since Sir Eoderick Murchison 
first spoke of the Malvern Straits, meaning thereby a channel of the sea 
which once separated Wales from England. That such marine straits really 
extended, at a modern period, between what are now the estuaries of the 
Severn and the Dee has been lately confirmed in a satisfactory manner by 
the discovery of marine shells of recent species in drift covering the water- 
shed which di%'ides those estuaries. At the time when these shells were 
living, the Cotswold Hills, at the foot of which this city is built, formed one 
of the numerous islands of an archipelago into which England, Ireland, 
and Scotland were then divided. The amount of vertical movement which 
would be necessary to restore such a state of the surface as prevailed when 
the position of land and sea were so different would be very great. 

Nowhere in the world, according to oiu- present information, is the 
evidence of upheaval, as manifested by upraised marine shells, so striking as 
in "Wales. In that country ilr. Trimmer first pointed out, in 1831, the 
occurrence of fossil shells in stratified drift, at the top of a hill called Moel 
Tryfacn, near the Menai Straits, and not far from the base of Snowdon. 
I visited the spot last year, in company with my friend Mr. Symonds, and we 
collected there not a few of the marine Testacea. Mr. Darbishire has obtained 
from the same drift no less than fiftj'-four fossil species, all of them now 
living either in high northern or British seas, and eleven of them being 
exclusively arctic. The whole fauna bears testimony to a climate colder 
than that now experienced in these latitudes, though not to such extreme 
cold as that implied by the fauna of some of the glacial drift of Scotland. 
The shells alluded to were procm-ed at the extraordinary licight of 1360 feet 
above the sea-level, and they demonstrate an upheaval of the bed of the sea 
to that amount in the time of the living Testacea. A considerable part of 
what is called the glacial epoch had already elapsed before the shelly strata 
in question were deposited on Moel Tryfaen, as we may infer from the 
polished and striated siu-faces of rocks on which the drift rests, and the occur- 



IXx REPORT 1864. 

ronce of erratic blocks smoothed and scratched, at the bottom of the same 
drift. 

The evidence of a period of great cold in England and Iforth America, in 
the times referred to, is now so universally admitted by geologists, that I 
shall take it for granted in this Address, and briefly consider what may have 
been the probable causes of the refrigeration of central Europe at the era in 
question. One of these causes, first suggested eleven years ago by a celebrated 
Swiss geologist, has not, I think, received the attention which it well deserved. 
When I proposed, in 183.3, the theory that alterations in physical geography 
might have given rise to those revolutions in climate which the earth's surface 
has experienced at successive epochs, it was objected by many that the signs 
of upheaval and depression were too local to account for such general changes 
of temperature. This objection was thought to be of peculiar weight when 
applied to the glacial period, because of the shortness of the time, geologically 
speaking, which has since transpired. But the more we examine the monu- 
ments of the ages which preceded the historical, the more decided become the 
proofs of a general alteration in the position, depth, and height of seas, con- 
tinents, and mountain -chains since the commencement of the glacial period. 
The meteorologist also has been learning of late years that the quantity of ice 
and snow in certain latitudes depends not merely on the height of mountain- 
chains, but also on the distribution of the surrounding sea and land even to 
considerable distances. 

M. Escher von der Linth gave it as his opinion in 1852, that if it were 
true, as Ritter had suggested, that the groat African desert, or Sahara, was 
submerged within the modern or jiost-tertiary period, that same submergence 
might explain ^why the Alpine glaciers had attained so recently those colossal 
dimensions which, reasoning on geological data, Venetz and Charpentier had 
assigned to them. Since Escher fh'st threw out this hint, the fact that the 
Sahara was reaUy covered by the sea at no distant period has been confirmed 
by many new proofs. The distinguished Swiss geologist himself has just 
returned from an exploring expedition through the eastern part of the 
Algerian desert, in which he was accompanied by M. Desor, of Neuchatel, 
and Professor Martins, of Mont]^)eUier. These three experienced observers 
satisfied themselves, during the last winter, that the Sahara was under water 
diuing the period of the living species of Testacea. We had already learnt in 
1856, from a memoir by M. Charles Laurent, that sands identical with those 
of the nearest shores of the Mediterranean, and containing, among other 
recent shells, the common cockle {Cardium edule), extend over a vast space 
from west to east in the desert, being not only found on the surface, but 
also brought .up from depths of more than 20 feet by the Artesian auger. 
These shells have been met with at heights of more than 900 feet above the 
sea-level, and on ground sunk 300 feet below it; for there are in Africa, as 
in Western Asia, depressions of land below the level of the sea. The same 
cockle has been observed still living in several salt-lakes in the Sahara ; and 
superficial incrustations of salt in many places seem to point to the drying 
\\]) by evaporation of several inland seas in certain districts. 

Mr. Tristram, in his travels in 1859, traced for many miles along the 
southern borders of the French possessions in Africa lines of inland sea- 
cliffs, with caves at their bases, and old sea-beaches forming successive 
terraces, in which recent shells and the casts of them were agglutinated 
together with sand and pebbles, the whole having the form of a conglomerate. 
The ancient sea appears once to have stretched frorCi the GuK of Cabes, in 
Tunis, to the west coast of Africa north of Senegambia, having a vsidth of 



ADDRESS. 



Ixxi 



several hundred (perhaps where greatest, according to Mr. Tristram, 800) 
miles. The high lands of Barbary, including Morocco, Algeria, and Tunis, 
must have been separated at this period from the rest of Africa by a sea. All 
that we have learnt from zoologists and botanists in regard to the present fauna 
and flora of Barbary favours this hypothesis, and seems at the same time 
to point to a former connexion of that country with Spain, Sicily, and South 
Italy. 

^Tien speculating on these changes, we may call to mind that certain 
deposits, full of marine shells of living species, have long been known as 
fringing the borders of the Red Sea, and rising several huudi-ed feet above its 
shores. Evidence has also been obtained that Egypt, placed between the 
Eed Sea and the Sahara, participated in these great continental movements. 
This may be inferred from the old river-terraces, lately described by Messrs. 
Adams and Murie, which skirt the modern alluvial plains of the Nile, and rise 
above them to various heights, from 30 to 100 feet and upwards. In what- 
ever direction, therefore, we look, we see grounds for assuming that a map 
of Africa in the glacial period would no more resemble our present maps of 
that continent than Europe now resembles North America. If, then, argues 
Escher, the Sahara was a sea in post-tertiary times, we may understand why 
the Alpine glaciers formerly attained such gigantic dimensions, and why they 
have left moraines of such magnitude on the plains of northern Italy and the 
lower country of Switzerland. The Swiss peasants have a saying, when they 
talk of the melting of the snow, that the sun could do nothing without the 
Eohn, a name which they give to the well-known sirocco. This wind, after 
sweeping over a wide expanse of parched and burning sand in Africa, blows 
occasionally for days in succession across the Mediterranean, carrying with it 
the scorching heat"of the Sahara to melt the snows of the Apennines and 
Alps. 

M. Denzler, in a memoir on this subject, observes that the Fohn blew 
tempestuously at Algiers on the 17th of July 1841, and then crossing the 
Mediterranean, reached Marseilles in six hours. In five more hours it was 
at Geneva and the Valais, throwing down a large extent of forest in the 
latter district, while in the cantons of Zurich and the Grisons it suddenly 
turned the leaves of many trees from green to yeUow. In a few hours new- 
mown grass was dried and ready for the haystack ; for although in passing 
over the Alpine snows, the sirocco absorbs much moisture, it is stUl far 
below the point of saturation when it reaches the sub-Alpine country to the 
north of the great chain. MM. Escher and Denzler have both of them 
observed on different occasions that a thickness of one foot of snow has dis- 
appeared in four hours during the prevalence of this wind. No wonder, 
therefore, that the Eohn is much dreaded for the sudden inundations which 
it sometimes causes. The snow-line of the Alps was seen by Mr. Irscher, 
the astronomer, from his observatory at Neuchatel, by aid of the telescope, 
to rise sensibly every day wlule this wind was blowing. Its influence is^ by 
no means confined to the summer season, for in the winter of 1852 it visited 
Zurich at Christmas, and in a few days all the suiTounding country was 
stripped of its snow, even in the shadiest places and on the crests of high 
ridges. I feel the better able to appreciate the power of this wind from 
having myself witnessed in Sicily, in 1828, its effect in dissolving, in the 
month of November, the snows which then covered the summit and higher 
parts of Mount Etna. I had been told that I should be unable to ascend to 
the top of the highest cone tiU the following spring ; but in thirty-six hours 
the hot breath of the sirocco stripped off from the mountain its white mantle 
of snow, and I ascended without difficulty. 



Ixxii REPORT — 1861'. 

It is well known that the number of days during which particular winds 
prevail, from year to year, varies considerabl}'. Between the years 1812 and 
1820 the Fohn was less felt in Switzerland than usual; and what was the 
consequence? All the glaciers, during those eight or nine years, iacreased in 
height, and crept down bolow their former limits in their respective valleys. 
Many similar examples might be cited of the seasitiveness of the ice to slight 
variations of temperature. Captain Godwin-Austen has lately given us a 
description of the gigantic glaciers of the western Himalaya in those vallej-s 
where the sources of the Indus rise, between the latitudes 35° and 3G° N. 
The highest peaks of the Karakorum range attain in that region an elevation 
of 28,000 feet above the sea. The glaciers, says Captain Austen, have been 
advancing, within the memory of the living inhabitants, so as greatly to 
encroach on the cultivated lands, and have so altered the climate of the 
adjoining valleys immediately below, that only one crop a year can now be 
reaped from fields which formerly yielded two crops. If such changes can 
be experienced in less than a century, without any perceptible modification 
in the physical geography of that part of Asia, what mighty effects may we 
not imagine the submergence of the Sahara to have produced in adding to 
the size of the Alpine glaciers ? If, between the years 1812 and 1820, a mere 
diminution of the number of days during which the sirocco blew could so 
miich promote the growth and onward movement of the ice, how much 
greater a change would result fi-om the total cessation of the same mnd ! 
But this would give no idea of what must have happened in the glacial 
period ; for we cannot suppose the action of the south wind to have been sus- 
pended: it was not in abeyance, but its character was entirely different, and 
of an opposite nature, under the altered geographical conditions above con- 
templated. First, instead of passing over a parched and scorching desert, 
between the twentieth and thii-ty-fifth parallels of latitude, it woidd plenti- 
fully absorb moisture from a sea many hundreds of miles wide. K^ext, in its 
course over the Mediterranean, it would take up still more aqueous vapour ; 
and when, after complete saturation, it struck the Alps, it would be diivcn 
up into the higher and more rarefied regions of the atmosphere. There the 
aerial current, as fast as it was cooled, would discharge its aqueous burden 
in the form of snow, so that the same wind which is now called " the 
devoiu'er of ice " would become its ])rincipal feeder. 

If we thus embrace Escher's theory, as accounting in no small degree for 
the vast size of the extinct glaciers of Switzerland and Northern Italy, we 
are by no means debarred from accc2)ting at the same time Charpentier's 
suggestion, that the Alps in the glacial period were 2000 or 3000 feet higher 
than they are now. Such a difference in altitude may have been an auxiliary 
cause of the extreme cold, and seems the more probable now that we have 
obtained unequivocal proofs of such great oscillations of level in Wales within 
the period under consideration. We may also avail ourselves of another 
source of refrigeration which may have coincided in time with the submer- 
gence of the Sahara, namelj', the diversion of the Gulf-stream from its j^resent 
course. The shape of Europe and North America, or the boundaries of sea 
and land, depai-ted so widely in the glacial j^eriod from those now established, 
that we cannot suppose the Gulf-stream to have taken at that period its 
l^resent north-eastern course across the Atlantic. If it took some other 
direction, the climate of the north of Scotland would, according to the calcu- 
lations of ilr. Hopkins, suiter a diminution in its average annual temperature 
of 12° E., while that of the Alps would lose 2° E. A combination of all the 
conditions above enumerated would certainly be attended with so great a revo- 



ADRUESS. Ixxiii 

liilion in climate as might go far to account for the excessive cold which was 
(lc^'eloped at so modern a period in the earth's history. But even when we 
assume all three of them to have been simultaneouslj- in action, we have by 
no means exhausted all the resources which a difference in the geographical 
condition of the globe might supply. Thus, for example, to name only one of 
them, we might suppose that the height and quantity of land near the north 
pole was greater at the era in qiiestion than it is now. 

The vast mechanical force that ice exerted in the glacial period has been 
thought by some to demonstrate a want of imiformity in the amount of 
energy which the same natural cause may put forth at two successive epochs. 
But we must be careful, when thus reasoning, to bear in mind that the power 
of ice is here substituted for that of running water. The one becomes a 
mighty agent in transporting huge erratics, and in scoring, abrading, and 
polishing rocks ; but meanwhile the other is in abeyance. When, for example, 
the ancient lihone glacier conveyed its moraines from the upper to the lower 
end of the Lake of Geneva, there was no great river, as there now is, forming 
a delta many miles in extent, and several hundred feet in depth, at the 
iipper end of the lake. 

The more we study and comprehend the geographical changes of the glacial 
period, and the migrations of animals and plants to which it gave rise, the 
higher our conceptions are raised of the duration of that subdivision of time, 
which, though vast when measm-ed by the succession of events comjirised in it, 
was brief, if estimated by the ordinary rules of geological classification. The 
glacial period was, in fact, a mere episode in one of the great epochs of the 
earth's history ; for the inhabitants of the lands and seas, before and after the 
grand development of snow and ice, were nearly the same. As yet we have no 
satisfactory proof that man existed in Europe or elsewhere during the period 
of extreme cold ; but our investigations on this head are still in their infancy. 
In an early portion of the postglacial period it has been ascertained that man 
flourished in Europe ; and in tracing the signs of his existence, from the 
historical ages to those immediately antecedent, and so backward into more 
ancient times, we gradually approach a dissimilar geographical state of 
things, when the climate was colder, and when the configuration of the 
surface departed considerably from that which now prevails. 

Archaeologists are satisfied that in central Eiirope the age of bronze weapons 
preceded the Roman invasion of Switzerland ; and prior to the Swiss-lake 
dwellings of the bronze age were those in which stone weapons alone were 
used. The Danish kitchen-middens seem to have been of about the same 
date ; but what M. Lartet has called the reindeer period of the South of 
France was probably anterior, and connected with a somewhat colder climate. 
Of still higher antiquity was that age of inider implements of stone such as were 
buried in the fluviatile drift of Amiens and Abbeville, and which were mingled 
in the same gravel with the bones of extinct quadrupeds, such as the elephant, 
rhinoceros, bear, tiger, and hyaena. Between the present era and that of 
those earliest vestiges yet discovered of our race, valleys have been deepened 
and widened, the course of subterranean rivers which once flowed through 
caverns has been changed, and many species of wild quadrupeds have dis- 
appeared. The bed of the sea, moreover, has in the same ages been lifted up, 
in many places hundreds of feet, above its former level, and the outlines of 
many a coast entirely altered. 

MM. de Yerneuil and Louis Lartet have recently found, near Madrid, fossil 
teeth of the African elephant, in old valley-drift, containing flint imijlements 
of the same antique type as those of Amiens and Abbeville. Proof of the 



xxiv REPORT — 1864. 

same elephant having inhabited Sicily in the Postpliocene and probably 
within the Human period had previously been brought to light by Baron 
Anca, dming his exploration of the bone-caves of Palermo. We have 
now, therefore, evidence of man having co-existed in Europe vrith three 
species of elephant, two of them extinct (namely, the mammoth and the 
Elephas antiquus), and a third the same as that which still survives in 
Africa. As to the first of these — the mammoth — I am aware that some 
writers contend that it could not have died out many tens of thousands 
of years before our time, because its flesh has been found preserved ia 
ice, in Siberia, in so fresh a state as to serve as food for dogs, bears, and 
wolves ; but this argument seems to me fallacious. Middendorf, in 1843, 
after digging through some tliickness of frozen soil in Siberia, came down 
upon an icy mass, in which the carcase of a mammoth was imbedded, so 
perfect that, among other parts, the pupil of its eye was taken out, and is 
now preserved in the Museuiu of ^Moscow. Xo one will deny that this 
elephant had lain for several thousand years in its icy envelope ; and if it had 
been left undisturbed, and the cold had gone on increasing, for myriads of 
centuries, we might reasonably expect that the frozen flesh might contiuue 
undecayed until a second glacial period had passed away. 

When speciilations on the long series of events which occurred in the glacial 
and postglacial periods are indulged iu, the imagination is apt to take alarm 
at the immensity of the time required to interpret the monuments of these 
ages, all referable to the era of existing species. In order to abridge the 
number of centuries which would otherwise be indispensable, a disposition 
is shown by many to magnify the rate of change in prehistoric times, by 
investing the causes which have modified the animate and inanimate world 
witli extraordinary and excessive energy. It is related of a great Irish orator 
of our day, that when he was about to contribute somewhat parsimoniously 
towards a public charity, he was persuaded by a friend to make a more liberal 
donation. In doing so he apologized for his first apparent want of generosity, 
by saying that his early hfe had been a constant struggle ivith scanty means, 
and that " they who are born to afiluence cannot easily imagine how long a 
time it takes to get the chill of poverty out of one's bones." In like manner, 
we of the living generation, when called upon to make grants of thousands of 
centuries in order to explain the events of what is called the modem 
period, shrink natui-ally at fii'st from making what seems so lavish an 
expenditure of past time. Throughout our early education we have been 
accustomed to such strict economy in all that relates to the chronology of the 
earth and its inhabitants in remote ages, so fettered have we been by old 
traditional beliefs, that even when our reason is convinced, and we are per- 
suaded that we ought to make more liberal grants of time to the geologist, we 
feel how hard it is to get the chill of poverty out of our bones. 

I wiU now briefly allude, in conclusion, to two points on which a gradual 
change of opinion has been taking place among geologists of late years. First, 
as to whether there has been a continuous succession of events in the organic 
and inorganic worlds, uninterrupted by violent and general catastrophes ; and 
secondly, whether clear e\-idence can be obtained of a period antecedent to the 
creation of organic beings on the earth. I am old enough to remember when 
geologists dogmatized on both these questions in a manner very different from 
that in which they would now venture to indulge. I beUeve that by far the 
greater number now inchne to opposite views from those which were once 
most commonly entertained. On the first point it is worthy of remark that 
although a belief in sudden and general convulsions has been losing ground, 



ADDRESS. IXXV 

as also the doctrine of abrupt transitions from one set of species of animals 
and plants to another of a very diiferent type, yet the whole series of the 
records which have been handed down to us are now more than ever regarded 
as fragmentary. They ought to be looked upon as more perfect, because 
numerous gaps have been filled up, and in the formations newly intercalated 
in the series we have foimd many missing Unks and various intermediate 
gradations between the nearest allied forms previously known in the animal 
and vegetable worlds. Yet the whole body of monuments which we arc 
endeavouring to decipher appears more defective than before. Tor my own 
part, I agree with Mr. Darwin in considering them as a mere fraction of 
those which have once existed, while no approach to a perfect series was 
ever formed originally, it having never been part of the plan of Nature to 
leave a complete record of all her works and operations for the enlightenment 
of rational beings who might study them in after- ages. 

In reference to the other great question, or the earliest date of vital 
phenomena on this planet, the late discoveries in Canada have at least demon- 
strated that certain theories founded in Europe on mere negative evidence 
were altogether delusive. In the course of a geological survey, carried 
on under the able direction of Sir WiUiam E. Logan, it has been shown that 
northward of the river St. Lawrence there is a vast series of stratified and 
crystalline rocks of gneiss, mica-schist, quartzite, and hmestone, about 
40,000 feet in thickness, which have been called Laiirentian. They are more 
ancient than the oldest fossihferous strata of Europe, or those to which the 
term primordial had been rashly assigned. In the first place, the newest part 
of this great crystalline series is unconformable to the ancient fossiliferous 
or so-caUed primordial rocks which overlie it ; so that it must have undergone 
disturbing movements before the latter or primordial set were formed. Then 
again, the older half of the Laurentian series is unconformable to the newer 
portion of the same. It is in this lowest and most ancient system of crystal- 
line strata that a limestone, about a thousand feet thick, has been observed, 
containing organic remarus. These fossils have been examined by Dr. 
Dawson, of Montreal, and he has detected in them, by aid of the micro- 
scope, the distinct structure of a large species of Rhizopod. Fine specimens 
of this fossil, called Eozoon Caiutdense, have been brought to 15ath by Sir 
William Logan, to be exhibited to the members of the Association. We have 
every reason to suppose that the rocks in which these animal remains are 
included are of as old a date as any of the formations named azoic in Europe, 
if not older, so that they preceded in date rocks once supposed to have been 
formed before any organic beings had been created. 

But I wiU not venture on speculations respecting " the signs of a begin- 
ning," or " the prospects of an end," of our terrestrial system — that wide 
ocean of scientific conjecture on which so many theorists before my time have 
suffered shipwreck. Without trespassing longer on your time, I will conclude 
by expressing to you my thanks for the honour you have done me in asking 
me to preside over this Meeting. I have every reason to hope, from the 
many members and distinguished strangers whom I already see assembled 
here, that it will not be inferior in interest to any of the gatherings which 
have preceded it. 



1! E P R T S 



ON 



THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 



?l ••! !.* 






/'.■) 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1 863-Gl'. By a Committee, 
consisting of James Glaishek, F.R.S., of the Royal Observatory, 
Greenivich, Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, ^c. ; 
Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., S^-c. ; E. W. Bkayley, F.R.S., ^c. ; and 
Alexander S. Herschel, B.A. 



•^} 



In presenting this Eeport, the Committee have the satisfaction to point out 
among the observations of luminous meteors contributed by Members of the 
Association and by others during the past year, an unusual number of the 
larger class, or fireballs. The largest of these, seen upon the 5th of December, 
1863, produced the vivid impression of lightning over the whole area of the 
British isles. The magnitudes of three fireballs seen at Paris on the 6th 
of June, and 6th and 9th of August 1864, are therefore greatly underrated, 
because the fii-st of these, recorded of the fii'st class, is rated only six times 
brighter than Yenus. The light of full-moon is, on the contrary, at least 
1300 times greater than the light of Venus. 

Many of the observations in the present Catalogue refer particularly to the 
radiant-points of meteors. This inquiry should be promoted with the aid of 
maps especially provided for the pm-pose. Essential service may be rendered 
by obsei-vations recorded ui^on maps, because these accumulate from year to 
year until the observations appeal together to the eye, more correctly than a 
meteoric shower would do observed without their aid. 

Radiant-points were determined on the 30th November, 12th December 
(1863), and on the 2nd January, 10th, 13th, and 20th April (1864), with plane 
perspective maps, which it is feared would otherwise have escaped attention. 
The number of radiant- points that yet remain to be determined appears to be 
strictly measured by the zeal of the observers. Mr. R. P. Greg indicates be- 
tween twenty and thirty radiant-points as giving rise to the greater propor- 
tion of shooting-stai's observed throughout the year (see Appendix), and 
Professor Heis, of Miinster, has supplied a similar list for the use of observers, 
in the Monthly Notices of the Astronomical Society*. That a radiant-point 

* Yol. xxir. p. 214. 
1864« B 



2 REPORT 1864. 

should not, "before the present Eeport, have been assigned to the meteors of 
the 10th of April, appears the more remarkahle, as this date was noticed in 
his Catalogue of fireballs by Baumhauer in 1845, and by Wolf in 1856 ; and 
astronomers have been aware for more than thirty years, that when meteors 
are periodical, they invariably take their directions from a fixed perspective 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1863. 
Jan. 30 

Feb. 



Mar.l2 

17 
JunelO 

Aug. 10 

10 

12 
12 

12 

14 



m 




6 



p.m. 



p.m 



1 a.m. 



7 p.m, 



9 26 p.m, 



10 40 p.m. 
to 11 20 
p.m. 

About 9p.m. 



10 55 p.m. 

11 5 p.m. 

11 39 p.m. 



15 
15 

IG 



Bannockburn 
(Stirling). 

Mil ton Mills (two 
miles south of 
Stirling). 

Island of Rhodes 
(Mediterra- 
nean). 



Large 



Red 



A few seconds 
A few seconds 



Magnificent bolide 



South 

N,E., altitude 45°. 



Burst over the is 
land of Rhodes. 



Ibid 



Bolide 



Brading (Isle of 
Wight). 

Fairlight (Ilast- 

ings). 



Eddystone Rock 

(English 

Channel). 
Euston Road 

(London). 
Ibid 



Very much > 1).... 



Many almost = 
Venus. Others 
quite small. 



White 



Ibid, 



9 58 p.m. Trafalgar Square 
(London). 



9 55 p.m. 



Ibid, 



10 30 p.m. Ibid 



9 23 p.m. 'Sheffield 



= n- 



=3^mag.».., 
=2nd mag.4: 

= lst raag.* 

=2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



=3rd mag.« 



:Ven\is at greatest 
brightness. 



Orange colour 



Bluish 



Bluish 



White 



1 second 



0-8 second 



0*3 second 



0'5 second 



From a few degrees 
E. of 2/. , halfway 
to the horizon. 

Those in N.E. were 
short (1° or 2°) 
and faint, but 
left trains. 

Shot directly across 
« Lyrae. 

From near e Her- 
cuUs. 

From 2° W. of 
Cygni to near 
Aquilae. 

From 4° above Po, 
laris to 1 ^"^ abovi 
d Ursae Majoris. 

Passed above 
Pegasi from 
R. A. 328^°, N 
DecL 20i° 
R. A. 346°, N 
Decl. 15J°. 

From 2° W. of 5 
HercuHs to 
Coronae. 

Passed below 
Andromedae from 
R. A. 354°, N. 
Decl. 30° toR.A 
3",N.Decl.l9i°, 

From 3° E. of y 
Delphini to p An- 
tinoi. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 3 

point, which is called their " Eadiant-point." The near approach of the No- 
vember display of meteors in 1866 (see Appendix), makes it desirable that 
astronomers should note the radiant-points of shootiag-stars, in order that, 
if any exists (from distant latitudes and longitudes), the parallax should be 
detected, and meteors may thus be referred to their true causes. 



I OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Appearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



Like red-hot cinders falling 
from the grate of acoal fire. 
X fiery dragon with a Ion 
tail. Left a train. 



Detonated like a bomb 



Burst 



Flashed among stormy 
clouds, looking very 
close. 

Upwards of 30 falling stars 
in 40 minutes. 



Numbers of bright shoot 
ing-stars about the same 
time. 

No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 



Left a train for2| seconds. 



A brilliant globular meteor 



Length of 
Path. 



10° 



18= 



14° 



13= 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Perpendicular . 
Inclined 



Fell downwards in a 
vertical line from 
Arcturus. 

Came from a dark part 
N. of the north end 
of the Milky Way. 

Directed from Camelo- 
pardalus. 



Towards e Aquilae 



Left a train 



A kite in Scotland is 
called a ' dragon.' 



After its disappearance 
two fresh detonations 
were heard, followed 
by a prolonged hum- 
ming sound. 

No noise heard Id. 



Observer. 



Mrs. Hood. 
J. MacOwen. 



Communicated 
by R. P. Greg, 



Cloudy before this time 



W. Airy. 

J. Rock, Jun. 

F. Howlett. 

T. Crumplen. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

T. Slater. 
"b2 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1SG3. 
Aug.24 



27 



29 



31 
Sept. 1 



Hour. 



h m 

8 29 p.ra- 



7 45 inn. 

8 p.m, 

10 5 p.m. 

8 22 p.m. 



4 9 35 p.m 
4 9 48 p 
4 10 13 p 



,m 



,m 



9 55 p.m. 



9 56 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Eiiston Road 
(London). 



Hawkliurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 



Weston 

Mare. 
HawUliurst 

(Kent). 



super - 



Apparent Size. 



: Venus 



= V. 



Colour. 



Orange colour 



White 



Tliree diameters ofWliite 
Venus. 



:2nd niaG;.* 



= ¥■ 



Trafalgar Square =2^ mag* 

(London). 
Ibid 



Ibid , 



Ibid, 



Wisbech (Cam. 
bridgeshire). 



10 5 p.m.iTrafalgar Square 
(London) 



C!ll p.m, 



9 28 p.m, 



Ilawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 



= 31 mag.* .., 
= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 
>l8t mag * 



Blue 
White 



Duration. 



1-5 second ... 



0'f> second .. 



2 seconds. 



li second ... 
1-2 sec; slov\ 



Wliltc 0-5 second 



White 
Ruddy 



Brilliant white 



White 



:2nd mag.* Dull red 



= 2iid nia^.« 



:2nd mag.* 



Yellow, then 
red. 

Bluish white... 



0-5 second 
0'7 second 



li second. 



1 second 



1"2 second 
li second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From IT, 27 Pegasi 
to V Cvgni and 
2° furtlicr. 



From § to § of the 

distiiuce, reck. 

oned from / 

Pegasi to 9 Pis- 

ciuni. 
From (/ Can. Venat 

to 16" above tlie 

horizon (measur 

cd). 
From (T Andromedae 

to [3 Persei. 
From 1" above Xj 

halfway to a Sa, 

gittarii. 



From near /3 Cygni 
to ? Aquil.T. 

From 3' or 4° above 
a, (3 Arietis. 

From midway be- 
tween a, d Her. 
culis to e Co. 
rons. 

From ^ (j) Came- 
lopardali, b Lyn- 
cis) to § (tt, i) 
Ursae Majoris. 

From cii Cassiopeiaj 
to i (N, P Came- 
lopardali). 

From a CoronoB to 
2° below \ Ser- 
pentis. 

From i {c, ii) Ursse 
Minoris to 3' 
below Polaris. 

From \ Dratonis 
to h Ursa; Ma- 
joris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LtJMIKOUS METEORS. 



Vlipcarance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



Left a spangled train for 
l.V second 8^ in length. 
Head pear-sliapcd, with 
sparks and aura, liriglit 
before and dull bcliiiul. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Slightly pear-shaped; no 
train or sparks. 



Globular ; left no train 



A short path conneeted|4°. 
with a flash by a few 
red sparks. 1 




See sketch 'T. Crumplen 



View of the meteor im- 
paired by clouds, twL 
light and moonlight. 



Fell vertically T. Humphrey, 



A. S. Herschel. 



Almost horizontal 



Bednning, 




\n° 



l.f'ft a dull train 3° or 4° 120" 

in length. 
Left a train 5° in length...' 18° 



Left no train 



25° 



Left a dull train on the30° 
whole of its course. 



Left no train ; slight tail 
of sparks. 



Almost perpendicular. 



Horizontal towards p 

Persei. 
Curved path. Convex 

towards e, Z Herculis. 



Ursse 
Majoris * 



Bright moonlight 



The meteor reappeared 
witli a flash, after dis 
appearing for i°. 



Meteor. 



\V. H. Wood. 
A. S. Herscliel. 



Inclined towards the 
W.S.W. horizon. 

One radiant-point at k 
Cephei, another in 
Musca. 



Corresponds to Wisbech 
Q^ SG"- p.m. (See 
Appendix L) 



On the 9th, 20ai, and 
21st Sept., shooting- 
stars were plentiful 
(7 or 8 per hour). 

View interrupted by 
buildings. 



T. Crumplen. 

Id, 

[d. 

Id. 

S. H. Miller. 

T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 
W. H. Wood. 



6 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1863. 
Sept. 7 



10 
11 
13 

16 

17 
17 
17 
17 

17 

20 

20 

21 

Oct. 4 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 18 p.m. 

11 18 20 
p.m. 

11 21 p.m. 

11 30 p.m. 



Disappear- 
ance 
8 26 38 
p.m. 



8 51 p.m. 

8 45 p.m. 

7 21 p.m. 

10 53 p.m. 

9 11 p.m. 
9 17 p.m. 
9 24 p.m. 
9 43 p.m. 

10 7 p.m. 

8 35 p.m. 
10 1 p.m. 

1 50 a.m. 

7 35 p.m. 



Trafalgar Square 
(Loudon). 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Weston -_super 
Mare. 



BeestonObserva. 
tory (Notting- 
ham). 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Queenstown 
(Ireland). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Euston Road 
(London). 



Wisbech (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 
Ibid 



Euston Road 

(London). 
Wisbech (Cam. 

bridgeshire). 

Euston Road 
(London), 

Wisbech (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 

Trafalgar Square 
(London). 

Coast-guard Sta- 
tion, Camber 
(Hastings). 

Wisbech (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.* 



= H mag.# , 



= lst mag.*. 



=3rd mag.# 



= 2nd mag.*, in 
creasing by im 
pulses to one 
third diameter of 
the moon. 



= 1st mag.*. 



Large and brilliant 
meteor. 

= 3 diameters of 
Venus. 



=Capella. 



Colour. 



Dull white 
Bluish 



White 



Blue 



Yellow 



Blue 



0"4 second ... 
0-3 second ... 

Very brief ... 



2^ seconds ; 
slow. 



6 seconds (17 
per second). 



1 second 



White 



>lst mag.* 
>lst mag.* 

= 2^ mag.* 
>-lst mag.* 

= 3^ mag.* 

>lst raag.» 



Vivid bluish 
white, then 
ruddy and 
dull. 

Yellow ... 



White 
White 



White 



White 



=2-J- mag.* jWhite 



Large meteor Reddish white 



= lstmag.* Yellow 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Very rapid 
speed. 



1 second 



0"8 second .. 



0-5 second .. 



2 seconds 

0-5 second ... 

2 seconds 

0'5 second ... 



2 seconds. 



From near A Dra. 
conis to near jj 
Urs» Majoris. 

From between rj 
and Z Draconis 
to very near n 
Herculis. 

Between /3 and y 
Draconis ; im- 
perfect view. 

From head of Ca- 
melopardalus to 
■5 {k, a) Ursse 
Majoris. 

From -J- (a, t) Aqui- 
lajtol= 30' above 
Arcturus. 



From a Aquilae to a 
point in R. A 
28C°,S.DecL6°. 

Advanced from 
S.W., and disap- 
peared S.E. 

From ^ (c, e) Ursae 
Minoris to 
(«, /3) Ursje Mai 
joris. 

From X Persei to a 
point R. A. 103°, 
N, DecL 54i° 

From 1 Lyrae to 17 

Draconis. 
From <p Persei to tj 

Tarandi. 
From S to » Aquilae 

From \p Cassio- 

peiae to head of 

Cepheus. 
From -i {(3, k) Cas- 

siopeiae to y An 

dromedae. 
From across 6 

Andromedae and 

as far again. 
A few degrees below 

« Persei, 

Moved horizontally 
at a low altitude. 



From <p Persei to jj 
Piscium. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LXTMINOUS METEORS. 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a train on the greater 
part of its course. 

Left a train 5° in length.. 



Left a train upon the 
whole visible course. 



Intermittent light 



When the meteor crossed 
the harbour, the body 
split up into three parts. 

Left no train 



Left a train of linger 
ing sparlis for two or 
three seconds, 35° in 
length. Head kite 
haped ; brightest in 
hont ; disappeared sud- 
denly. 



Length of 
Path. 



30° 



20° 



Almost perpendicularly 
down. 

From right to left, in- 
clined a little down- 
wards. 



5°. 



102°. 



Left a train 10° in length, 
which faded gradually, 
Threw off a few sparks. 



35<= 



Left a traiu 5° iu length. 



Left a train upon its whole 
course. 



Left a train 10° in length, 
as observed by an opera- 
glass. 

Had all the appearance of 
a rocket as to sparks, 
&c., but on a much 
larger scale. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



The train was apparent- 
ly distinct from the 
head. 



Termination only seen. . 



Remarks. 



T. Crumplen. 



Id. 



Observer. 



Id. 



W. H. Wood. 



E. J. Lowe. 



The pai-ts traversed the Lit up the harbour with 
sky rapidly towards 
theE. 



a brightness almost 
equal to day. 
View interrupted by 
clouds. Twilight. 



A fine meteor 



Almost horizontal 



A few degrees to right 
from perpendicular ; 
dow^n. 



S.W. to N.E. 



Faint clouds 
the sky. 



obscured 



W. H. Wood. 

CorkExaminer. 

Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel. 

T. Crumplen, 

S. H. MUler. 
S. H. MUler. 
T. Crumplen. 
S. H. Miller. 

T. Crumplen. 

S. H. Miller. 

T. Crumplen. 



T. Webb (com- 
municated bv 
F. W. Gougli)'. 

S. H. Miller. 



8 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 




1863. 
Oct. 4 

4 

5 

5 

9 

9 
9 

10 

10 
11 

15 

15 

15 

15 


h m s 

7 41 p.m. 

9 23 p.m. 
9 57 p.m. 

9 59 p.m. 

G 2 p.m. 

8 5 p.m. 

8 19 p.m. 

35 a.m. 

2 20 a.m. 

9 15 p.m. 

9 29 55 
p.m. 

9 30 30 
p.m. 
9 59 p.m. 

9 59 49 
p.m. 


Wisbech (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory (Not- 
tingliani), 

ibid 


= lstmag.i;- 

= lst mag.* 

= 2nd mag.» 

= 2na mag * 

Bright 


Yellow 

Bluish white... 

Yellow, not 
bright. 

Yellow 


I J second ... 
1 second 
Rapid 


From 9 Cassiopeine 
to 7r Persei. 

From (21) to (28) 
Lyncis. 

From midway 
between Corona 
BorealisandVega 
coming from the 
direction of the 
clusterin Perseus 

Another from the 


i 






Greenwich Ob- 
servatory. 

Weston - super - 

Mare. 
Ilawlvhiirst 

(Kent). 

Coast-guard Sta- 
tion, Rye. 

Ibid 


Momentary... 

1 second 

3 seconds 

2 seconds 

3 seconds 

2 seconds 


same direction ; 
moved along the 
Great Bear about 
I'above the prin- 
cipal upper stars. 
In the E., passed 
across a Andro- 
medoc. 

From j; Andromeda; 

to P Ariiitis. 
From h Tarandi to 

i (Capella, X 

Persei). 
First appeared alti- 
tude 45° S.W. 

Disappeared 

N.N.Ii. 
From altitude 30° 

to altitude 5° 

S.E. 
From y to (3) 

Aquarii. 

From \ to within 
i° of I Ceti. 

From ft Arietis to | 
Tauri. 




= 2nd mag.» 

=a Cvgni 


Blue 




White, then 
red. 

Reddish blue.. 

Bright wliite .. 
Yellow 

Yellow, then 
blue. 




> 1st mag.* 

2 > 1st mag.* 

— ji 




Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory (Not- 
tingham). 

Ibid 




>■ Mars in opposi- 
tion. 

= 2ud mag.* 








.Margate 


Beautiful meteor... 








Becston Obser- 
vatory (Not- 
tingham). 


Atfirst = lstmag.*. 
At S Ccti = Venus. 
At last = one- 
third diameter of 
the moon. 


.^tfivft yellow, 
then blue. 


5 seconds 


Passed from a point 
inR.A. i'nO^.N. 
Decl. 19° 57', 
across ? Tauri, 
above « and 
across S and 9 
Ceti, and disap- 
peared in R. A. 
01' 20™, S, Decl. 
15°. 





A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



9 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Long lingering train 



K linRcrine tail ... 



Long lingering 



Left a few red sparks. 



^Drew a tail 3° in length, 
I and broke into frag- 
,; ments, green, red, blue, 
! and white. 

ti Perfectly round. Disap- 
!< peareii without change 
1 behind a bank of clouds. 
I Uocket-like. Left a bright 
train and four or five 
bright sparks at last 
I upon its track. 



A part of the luminous 
track gathered itself uj) 
as if attracted to one 
point, and took the ap- 
pearance of a comet, 
remaining visible for 
more than 10 minutes. 

Globular, slightly prolong- 
ed behind. Disappeared 
instantaneously without 
fragments. Left a yel- 
lowish train 10° in 
length, which increased 
with the meteor, but 
not so rapidly. 



Length of 
rath. 



30° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Pcrpendicidar, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Direction N. to S. 
Inclined path. 



Still daylight, just get- 
ting dusk ; Crystal 
Palace distinctly visi- 
ble from the Royal 
Observatory. 



From 4 to 5 falling-stars 
in one hour. 

Reappeared after pass 
ing behind a dense 
cloud. 



The light rendered the 
distant landscape visi- 
ble. The colour be- 
came blue at S Ceti ; 
afterwards intense 
blue. 



Observer. 



S. II. Miller, 
W. II. Wood. 
1^. J. Lowe, 



Id, 



W, C. Nash, 



W. II. M'ood. 
A. S. Herschel, 

H, W, C, Wise 
(conimunicate( 
byF.W.Gough). 

Id. 

W. H, Wood, 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id, 

G. Bowyer. 



E. J. Lowe, 



10 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1863 
Oct. 15 



15 

15 
17 

19 
19 

19 
23 

30 
Nov. 1 



Hour. 



h m s 
10 p.m. 



Combe, Wood- 
stock (Oxford- 
shire). 



10 
12 

12 
12 

12 

12 

12 
12 



10 p.m. 

10 p.m. 

11 47 p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 
10 34 p.m. 

10 42 p.m. 
9 25 p.m. 

9 54 p.m. 
9 6 p.m. 

9 38 p.m. 

9 3 p.m. 

59 57 
a.m. 

1 30 1 

a.m. 
1 44 30 
a.m. 



Cheltenham. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Camberwell 
(London). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 



Wisbech (Cam 

bridgeshire). 

Ibid 



Large meteor 

Large meteor 
= Sirius 



Ibid . 



Regent's Park 
(Loudon). 

Beeston Obser 

vatory. 
Ibid 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



:1st mag.* 
: Venus 



Colour. 



White . 
Yellow 

White . 



Ruby colour, 
surrounded 
by yellow. 



= lst mag.* 



White 



About = Venus at 
its brightest. 



=2nd mag.* 
= 1st mag.*.. 



White or gold 
en, and finally 
blue. 

Blue 



Blue 



^n. 



1 45 30 

a.m. 
1 47 8 
a.m. 



Ibid. 



Euston Road 
(London). 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



1 48 a.m. Weston - super 
Mare. 



1 50 a.m. 



Euston Road 
(London). 



Yellow 



= Sirius, then=2^ 



— oiu uia{j.* 

=3rdmag.* 


= 3rd mag.* 


=3rdma2.* 


= lstmag.* 


— Venus 


= SLrius 



White, then 

blue. 
White 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Disappeared due S. 
at altitude 30° 
(measured). 



I 



2 or 3 seconds Midway between 
zenith and hori 
zon. 

H second ...|From ir Cassiopeiae 
to (4) Lacerta; 



3 seconds From /* Ceti to S 

Piscium. 
2 or 3 seconds From i Orionis to X 

Tauri 



3 second^. 



10 seconds ; 

very rapid 

course. 
Rapid 



YeUow 

Bluish white.. 

Bluish white.. 
White 



Tolerable 
speed. 

6-8 sees. Very 
slow, relaxing! 
its speed. 

1-4 second 



From a Tami to S 
Arietis. 

Through Pisces, 
passing 3° or 4° 
below the moon. 

From l^ below )3 to 
y Ursae Majoris. 

From «AndromedaE 
down towardsW, 
atanangleof47° 

From the tad oi 
Draco to altitudt 
12° N.N.W. 

From I to /3 Bootia 



0-3 second ...'From B Camelopar- 
dali to i (/c, \) 
Draconis. 

0'6 second ... From k Cassiopeiae 
toi(y, t)Cephei, 

0-3 second ... On a line froD 
? Orionis to i 
Canis Majorid 
(centre halfway). 

0-3 second ... From v Orionis toi 
Leporis. 

I'l second ... From SAndromedae 
towards the hoH 



Brilliant 
silvery white. 

Same colour as 
Sirius. 



1^ second ; 
rapid. 

1-5 second . 



rizou. 
Shot on a line from 
7 Geminorum to 
15 Canis Majoris. 
From 3° above y 
Eridaiii tonearan^ 
below /3 Leporis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METHORS. 



11 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



When the meteor disap. 
peared, it flared up 
like an expiring candle, 
and left a cometary 
patch for more than 
ten minutes at that place. 

Left a large comet in the 
sky where it exploded. 



Appeared to be folio wedby a 
train , and burst with aflash 
which shed a faint light, 
Left a yellowish train 18° 
or 20° in length for two 
seconds, pointed at the 
extremities. 
Left a train for 2 or 3 

seconds. 
Left a train for some time 
15° or 20° long. The 
dark part represents 
a ruby colour, the outer 
part a bright yellow. 



Length of 
Path. 



The light was intense even 
in passing near the 
moon. 

Spark-like 



Streak 



A. tailed meteor bursting 
vrith sparks. 

Wter extinction, reappear- 
ed with a bright flash. 
No train or sparks 



)fo train or sparks 
!^o train or sparks 



yieteor sparkled, at length 
dra^Yiug a tail. 



liCft a very slight train 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined, 



VV. to E. ; perfectly ho- 
rizontal. 



Descended obliquely 



E. to W. 



Remarks. 



Measurements from 
memory among par- 
ticular landmarks. 



The ' Comet ' remained 
visible untU clouds 
intervened and cover- 
ed the sky. 

Sky misty 



Observer. 



12° 



E. to W. 



Directed from o Cephei. 



Corresponds to Euston 
Road, l'> 50''' a.m. 
(See Appendix I.) 



J. H. Abrahall. 



' The Times,' 
Oct. 17. 



E. J. G., 'The 
Times,' Oct. 
20. 

W. H. Wood, 



S. H, Miller, 
Id. 



Id. 

J. L. L., 'The 
Standard,' Oct. 
25. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 



Communicated 
by W.H.Wood. 

A. S, Herschel. 

A. S. Herschel 
and W. J. H. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen and 
J. Parkin. 



Id. 

A. S. Herschel 
and W. J, II. 

W, H. Wood. 



T. Crumplen and 
J. Parkin, 



12 




REPORT — 1864. 






Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


i 
Position, or 
Altitude and 
Azimuth. 


1863. 
N!ov.l2 

12 

12 

12 
12 

12 

12 
12 

12 

12 

12 
12 
12 

12 
12 
13 
13 

13 
13 


h m s 
1 02 a.m. 

1 55 a.m. 

1 56 18 
a.m. 

1 59 a.m. 

2 13 33 

a.m. 

2 17 30 
a.m. 

2 46 42 

a.m. 
2 50 a.m. 

2 54 30 

a.m. 

2 55 a.m. 

2 59 a.m. 

8 45 p.m. 

8 46 15 
p.m. 

10 37 18 
p.m. 

11 31 p.m. 

1 30 45 
a.m. 

2 37 30 
a.m. 

2 27 45 
a.m. 

2 48 a.m 


Euston Road 
(London). 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Euston Road 

(London). 
Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 

Euston Road 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Euston Road 

(London). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Euston Road 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Clapham 
(London). 

Ibid 


= 2nd mag.* 

Xearly = y. 

= 3rd mag.* 


Ruddy 


0-5 second ... 

I second ; 
rapid. 

0-0 second ... 


On a line from Z 
Canis Minoris to 
^ Ononis (centre ; 
halfway). 

From jj Leonis 
to a point in 
R. A. 115°, N. 
Deck 9°. 

From i {a Cephei, 
/S Cassiopeia;) to 
ff Lacertfe, and 
3^ further. 

Centre e Eridani ... 

From i (ip Cassio- 
peia; B AC 228) to 
■s (0 Andromeda;, 
V Persei). 

From S -J- of the 
distance to « 
Hydra-. 

From K to a Cas-1 
siopeia;. i. 

To /J Virginis f ofr 
the way from yl 
Leonis. { 

From fi Persei to ij i, 
Tauri. 

From V Gerainorura 
two - thirds of 
the way to Z 
Ononis. y 

From i I Aurigaa, e 
Persei to >; Tauri. 

From « to y Tauri.. 

From 2° above Po- 
laris to /3 Ursae 
Minoris. 

To Polaris, lialfwav 


Yellow 

Yellow 


= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 

=2^ mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

— Procyon 


White 


08 second ... 


RliiivVi 


White 


0-3 second ... 
07 second ... 

04 second ... 

03 second ... 

0-4 second ... 
Rapid 


Ruddy 


White 


Light orange 
colour. 

White 


= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

Very bright 

=2nd mag.* 

= 2ndmag.# 


Rliii'' 


Orange colour 

Orange colour 
Blue 


.Moderate ve- 
locity. 

Rapid 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Wisbech (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 


1 second 


from Capella. I 
From fi to a Gemi-| 
norum. 




= 3rdmag.* 

= 3rdmag.* 

— 2i mac* 


White 


05 second ... 

0-5 second ... 
0'3 second ... 


From i (y Andro- 
meda;, Persei) 
to ^ (i- Andro- 
medje, o Cassio- 
peiae). 

From i {S, k) Perseii 
to i {y An.ff 
dromedae, /5 Tri-I 
anguli). 1. 

From 9io(o AurigaEl, 


YelLw 


Euston Road 
(London). 


Ruddy 







A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



13 



Vpioarance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



>eft a train for half a 
second 18'^ in length. 

jCft a red train for 3 or 4 
seconds 8° in length. 



'^o train or sparks 



^eft a faint train 



Length of 
Path. 



15== 



12° 



io train or sparks 

iCft a nionienlary train 5' 



fo train or sparks 
10 train or sparks 



fo train or spark: 



To train or sparks 
To train or sparks , 



train or sparks 



:< 



^ghtest at middle of its 
bourse. 



Sftatrain 10° in length, 
%hich disappeared sud- 
denly. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



No meteors from 1 "^ 55" 
tC'i^ 10'" a.m. ; after- 
wards overcast. 



Directed from Sirius 



Ohsorver. 



Corresponds to Euston 
Uoad, 2'' 55-» a.m. 
(See Appendix I.) 



Very few meteors 

As large as a tennis-ball 



T. Crumplen and 
J. Parkin. 



\Y. II. Wood. 



A. S. ITerschel 
and W. J. II. 



T. Crumplen and 

J. Parkin. 
A. S. Ilerschel 

and W. J. H. 



r. Crumplen and 
J. Parkin. 



Prom a poiiit R. A. 90°, 
N. Decl. 40°, to a 
point R. A. 73°, N. 
Decl. 39i°. 



\. S. Ilerschel 
and W. J. H. 

T. Crumplen and 
J. Parkin. 

A. S. Herschel 
and W. J. H. 

T. Crumplen and 
J. Parkin. 



A. S. Herschel 
andW.J.H. 
E. J. Lowe. 

V. Fasel. 



Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

S. H. Miller. 

A. S. Herschel 
andW.J. n. 

Id. 



T. Crumplen and 
J. Parkin, 



14 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



1863. 
Nov.13 



13 

13 

13 
13 

13 
14 
14 

14 

14 
14 
14 

15 
15 

15 
15 



18 
29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



Hour. 



h m s 
2 48 30 
a.m. 



2 48 45 
a.m. 

2 51 45 
a.m. 

2 53 a.m. 
2 54 a.m. 



8 p.m. 
11-12 p.m. 
11 18 p.m. 



11 22 30 

p.m. 
11 23 p.m. 

11 26 p.m. 



to 30™ 
a.m. 

30 to 

1 30 a.m. 



1 30 to 

2 a.m. 
11 p.m. 



Euston Road 
(London). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Wolverhampton 
(Staffordshire), 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



About 

p.m. 

6 2 

6 34 

7 10 
7 16 
7 27 



10 30 
p.m 
p.m 
p.m 
p.m 
p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid , 



Ibid. 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Wolverham])ton 

(Staffordshire). 

Ibid 



Ibid 



Flimwell, Hurst 
Green (Sussex) 



Manchester . 



Prestwitch( Man- 
chester). 
Ibid , 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mag.* 
= 2J mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 1 -J mag.* 

= lst mag.* 



White 



White 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= H mag.» .. 
= 2nd mag.* 
-a Lyrae 



All = 2nd mag.* 



-1st mag.* 



Nearly = full moon 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 2^mag.# 

= Hmag.* 

= 4th mag.* 

= 3rdmag.* 



Colour. 



Reddish 



Bluish .. 
Reddish 



0'5 second 

0*6 second 

0*7 second 

0'6 second 
0'5 second 



Blue 



White 

White 
White 



Prismatic, i. e. 
blue vrith red 
tail. 



Golden with 
reddish tint. 



White 



Reddish 



Duration. 



1 second 



0*8 second 

1*5 second 
0'7 second 
3 seconds... 



2-5 to 5 sees. 



3 to 5 seconds 



1 second .., 
0'5 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From R. A. 149°, N, 

Decl. 234°, to 

R. A. 159% N. 

Decl. 22^°. 

From a point R. Ai 

52°, N. Decl. 63i°, 

to R. A. 22*°, N. 

Decl. 52,i°. 

From jj Tauri to \ 

(?2 Ceti, /3 Ari. 

etis). 



From g Orionis to 

E Psalterii. 
From R. A. 149^-=, 

N. Decl. 234°, 

to R. A. 156°, N 

Decl. 20°. 



From a to Z, Her. 
culls. 



From 4 (ic Draconis, 
V Ursae Minoris] 
to ? Draconis. 

FromPCamelop.to 
-J (t, a) Cephei 

From Glor. Fred 
to »; Pegasi. 

From rj Andromeda 
to r, s Piscium. 



From Canis Minoi 
to Eridanus (ju» 
below the heac 
of Cetus). 



First appeared 10'|.. 
from Procyon 
reckoned toward 
y Geminorunj 
Disappeared 3' 
below Betelgeux' 

About altitude 45 
in N.W. 

From y to I Gemi 
norum. 

From a. Lyrae to I 
Herculis. 

From a, Ari etis to 
Piscium. 

To 0, halfway froi 
$1 Ceti. 

To t Herculis .... 






A CATALOGXJE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LTTMINOUS METEORS. 



15 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Left a red train for two 
seconds 5° in length. 

[jeft a train for 2 seconds 
upon half of its course. 



Left a bright train for 3 
seconds on four-fifths of 
its course. 

jjeft a bright train for 2^ 
seconds 10° in length. 

jeft a red train for 2 
seconds 4° in length. 



j'fo train or sparks 



Remarks. 



Obseryer. 



Corresponds to Euston 
Road Observatory, 
2'>48"'a.ra. (See Ap 
pendix I.) 

Corresponds to Euston 
Road Observatory, 2'' 
53"" a.m. (See Ap- 
pendix I.) 

The brightest train seen. 
Crossed i Orionis. 



Very few meteors 



jeft a train for 1 second.. 



Left a train for 2 seconds 
Jo train or sparks 



Left a bluish train for 3| 
seconds. 



left trains throughout 
their course. 



35° 



50° to 70°. 



Perfectly parallel from 
E.to W. ;not 10° de- 
viation. 



2ft a train . 
5ft a train 



15° or 20°. 



5°. 



Bright aurora from 7'' 
30" to 8^ 30" p.m. 

Very few shooting-stars. 
About 10 in the hour. 



W. H. Wood. 



A. S. Herschel 
andW.J.H. 



Id. 



T. Crumplen and 

J. Parkin. 
W. H. Wood. 



A fine shooting-star .. 



Blue with red tail ( after- 
wards overcast. 

About 30 meteors in 

half an hour. 
About 60 meteors in 

one hour. 



Inclining downwards 
from W. to N. 



Directed from t Cygni.. 



Rapid decrease in fre 
quency. 



Sky thick ; moon only 
visible. 



E.J. Lowe. 

W. H. Wood. 

T. M. Simkiss. 

A. S. Herschel 
andH.T. H. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

T. M. Simkiss. 
Id. 

Id. 

F. Hewlett. 



A. Brothers. 

R. P. Greg, 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



16 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



1863. 
Nov. 29 

29 

29 



Hour. 



h m 

7 28 p.m. 

7 31 p.m. 

8 45 p.m. 



29 9 18 p.m. 



29 

30 
30 

Dec. 1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

2 

2 
2 

3 
4 



9 4.T p.m. 
to 10 p.m. 



6 p.m. 
to 6 15 p.m 
9 26 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



l'rest\vitcli(Maii- 

Chester). 
Ibid 



Weston - super ■ 

Mare. 
rest\vitcb(Man. 

Chester). 
Charing Cross 

(Loudon). 



Prest\vitch(Man. 

Chester). 
Weston - super • 

Mare. 



8 8 p.m, 
8 15 p.m. 

8 16 p.m. 

9 5 p.m. 
9 50 p.m. 

8 57 p.m 

9 p.m. 
9 29 p.m. 

10 17 p.m. 

8 45 p.m. 

Between 7 
and 8 p.m. 

5 Shortlyafter 
7 p.m. 

.\bout 7 45 
p.m. 



A. few mi' 

nutes be, 
fore 8 p.m 

A few mi- 
nutes be. 
fore 8 p.m 

A. few mi- 
nutes be. 
fore 8 p.m 



Prestwitcli(Man- 

cliester). 
Ibid 



Ibid., 
[bid., 
tl)id 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.tt 



Bright as the moon; 

very large. 
= 3rd raag.» 

As large round as 
the mouth of r. 
tumbler. 



1^-' diameter 
>lst mag.* 

= 2nd mag.jf 
2 >- Sirius .. 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid . 



Prestwitch(Man. 

Chester). 
Carnarvon 



Kingstown 
(Ireland). 

Ledbury (Here- 
ford). 

Stretton (Here- 
ford). 

Langorse 
(Brecknock). 

Idle, near Brad- 
ford. 



= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 4th mag.* 

>-lst mag.» 

= 2ud mag.* 
= lst mag.* 

= lst mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



Bright white. 
White 



White 



Dark blue, 
then white. 



Bright white... 



Duration. 



0'75 second , 
0'5 second 



1'25 second. 



3 seconds. 
2 seconds. 



Very brilliant mc 
teor. 



Lit the sky like 
sheet lightning. 

A flash like light 
ning. 



Whitish 

lleddish white 



Bright yellow 



Blue 

Dull yellow ... 



Bluish white 
Reddish white 



2 seconds. 



second 



1 second .... 
3 seconds ; 
very slow. 



Blue 



Filled the sky with 
light. 

Brilliant ; = rocket 
at a few hundred 
yards. 



Yellow tinged 
with blue. 



White 



Purple, blue, 
and white. 



i second .., 
05 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



2-5 seconds .. 



Several sees.. 



From /3 Cassiopeia" 
to K Andromeda;, 

From I Cephci to jc, 
Cassiopeia. 

In E., altitude 30° 
to 45°. 

From E Cephei to 
S Cvgni. 

From'20°N. of the 
zenith to Is.E 
altitude 20°. 

From V to ip Ursac 

Majoris. 
From K Draconis to 

ic Cygni, passing 

between j3, y 

Ursaj Minoris. 
Commenced at i 

Lyrpc. 
From p Lyncis 

halfway to ; 

Ursa; Slajuiis. 
From j3 Ursa; Ma, 

joris. I 

From y Pegasi to i' 

Ceti. 
From 2 to Dra 

conis. 
From UrsK Ma 

joris. 
From OGeminorun 
From li. A. 137° 

N. Decl. 35° ti 

the N.E. i N 

horizon. 
From j3 Eridani t 

j3 Orionis. 
From ^ to (T Cephei 

and as far again 
Passed over th 

town to Bon 

Newydd, wher 

it disappeared. 
.\ppeared in the I 

and descende 

into the sea. 
disappeared befoi 

it reached tl 

ground. , 

Nearly in R.A. 15: 

N. Decl. 50°. 



Facing N.W., tl 
11 gilt appeared i 
be behind. 

Burst into sigl 
due \V. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



17 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Ohserver, 



Illuminated the scene. 
Left a train 



Somewhat pear-shaped. 
Vivid. 



20° 



At first dull ; became 
luminous, passing from 
blue to white. 



10° 



Burst into sparks. Left a 
train. 



10 = 



Left a train , 



Left a train . 



4°. 
8°. 



Path uudulatory . 



Left a train 



Disappeared with an ex- 
plosion. 



Large ball of flame with a 
long feathery tail of fire. 

Emitted bright sparks as it 
fell. 

As described in other ac- 
counts. 



Fell vertically down .. 



Interrupted view among 
trees (.' Q"" 45"" p.m. ) 



Began almost over- 
head, and disappeared 
behind buildings. 
(Time certain.) 



Disappeared once, and 
reappeared ; slow mo- 
tion. 



Directed from 6 Cygni. 



Directed from a Ursse 
Majoris. 



5° to left of perpendicu- 
lar ; down. 
E. to W. ; horizontal. 



Descending . 



Descended perpendicu- 
larly. 



Not>. 2= 



The whole path fore- 
shortened to 2°. 

Starlight; several fall- 
ing stars. 



Like the bursting of a 
rocket a few hundred 
yards off. 



R. P. Greg. 

Id. 

Communicated 
by W.H.Wood 
R. P. Greg. 

Communicated 
by T. Grumplen. 

R. P. Greg. 
W. H. Wood. 



R. P. Greg. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

R. P. Greg. 

' Caernarvon 
Herald.' 

The Standard.' 

'Hereford Times,' 

H. C. Key. 



P. L., 'The 
Times.' 

Robert Sutcliffe. 



18 



KEPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1863. 
Dec. 5 



Hour. 



h m 

A few mi- 
nutes be- 
fore 8 
p.m. 



Furnes's Abbey 
(Lancashire). 



Howden (W. of 
Hull). 

Blyth (Northum- 
berland). 

Beaumaris (An- 
glesey). 



7 54 p.m 



7 55 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Bath 

Manchester . 



7 55 p.m. 
7 55 p.m. 
7 55 p.m. 



Hawkshead, 
Windsrmere. 



Parkhill, Ross- 
shire. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Coast-guard Sta. 
tion, Camber 
(Hastings). 

Burton-on-Trent 



Chesterfield 
(Derbyshire). 

Little Horton, 
Bradford. 

Haslingden(Lan- 
cashire). 



Apparent Size. 



Resembled light- 
ning. 



White 



Red and green 



Bright as full moon 



A strong light 

Two bright flashes. 



Bright as full moon 



Like lightning 



Large fireball 

4>1A 

Large fireball 

Large and bright.. 



Cast shadows 



Colour. 



Paleblue.frag. 
ments red. 



White 



Pale blue, tail 
crimson. 

Greenish 
white, twice 
changingtored 
Colours very 
bright. 



Duration. 



2 or 3 seconds 

Momentary ... 
2 or 3 seconds 
Not > 2 sees 



Pale blue . 



3 seconds. 



A few seconds 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



.\bout W.N.W. ; 

almost touched 

the earth. 
First appeared due 

Vi\, altitude 30°. 

The direction ofl 
the Hght was W. 
and S. 



In the same field 
of view with 
Andromedse. 



Proceeded almost 
due S., at a low 
altitude across) 
the sky. 

Facing S.E., the 
flash appeared to 
be behind. 

From about altitude 
35° to about alti- 
tude 40°. 

First appeared 
an altitude of 30° 
N.W. by N. 

Higher up in thi 
sky than Urs 
Major. 

Nearly due W. .. 



From near y Ursa 
Majoris to 4' 
below a Lyrae 
where it burst 
(See sketch.) 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



19 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



[lluminated the scene. 



Nucleus of brilliant light 

Burst into fragments 

like a shell. 
L,eft several flakes, like 

molten drops, in its 

flight. 



Length of 
Path. 



rhe meteor burst twice , 



^s described in other aC' 
counts. 



% ball of light with 

I dull nebulous taU. 

Vanished amid deep 

red falling fragments. 

lluminated the whole sky 



filobe of light with train 
I of 4 or 5 crimson-red 
i flakes. Left no streak, 
disappeared with red 
colour. 

•■ollowed by a long train. 
Disappeared with a 
bright coruscation. 

WUiant egg-shaped nu- 
cleus, followed by a tail 
which tapered to a point. 



20° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Fell quite vertically 



The light appeared on 
the west edge of the 
field of view in a tele 
scope. 



W. to E., slightly as. 
cending. 



Fell vertically , 



Downwards, inclining 
to the left. 



Remarks. 



Seen also at Ulverston.. 



Sky quite covered vrith 
a thick fog. 

"At first the meteor 
appeared stationary 
like Venus out of 
place." (Observa 
tion near Manches 
ter.) 

In 4 or 5 minutes a 
meteoric sound like 
a train crossing 
bridge, which lasted 
2 or 3 seconds. 

Heavy rain 



Thick drizzling rain 



Burst three times 



No report heard ; va- 
nished suddenly. 



Not much inclined to 
the horizon. 



Ursa Major. 



Lyra. 



Meteor. 



Observer. 



H., ' Manehestei 
Guardian.' 



' The Times.' 
M. W, BuUen. 
J. Williams. 



G. H. S., 'The 

Times.' 
A. Brothers. 



Robert S. Hart. 



G. M., 'The 
Times.' 



A. S. Herschel. 



W. E. Buck. 



E. B. K., "The 
Times.' 

Manchester 
Guardian.' 

C, ' Manchester 
Guardian.' 

T. T. Wilkinson 
(Proceedings 
Lit. Phil. Soc. 
of Manches- 
ter). 



c2 



20 



REPORT — 18G4. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



18G3. h ni 
Dec. 5 7 57 p.m. 



Hale (Manches- 
ter). 



Large and bright... 



White ; tail 
purplish red, 



2 or 3 seconds 



Disappeared about 
20° above the 
horizon, and 15° 
from the v^-est 
margin of the 
Milky Way. 



7 57 p.m. 



Liverpool . 



7 58 p.m. 
7 58 p.m. 

7 58 p.m. 
About 8 p.m. 



\bout8p.m, 



Broughton 
Bridge, Salford 
(Manchester). 

West Bromwich 
(Birmingham). 

Stretford (Man- 
chester). 



Preston (Lanca- 
shire). 



Liverpool. 



Selkirk (Scot- 
land). 



Two very vivid 
flashes. 



Large as a hen's 

egg- 



Half < moon , 



Cast shadows 



=full moon. 




Tint blue , 



White, green, 
and pink. 

Purple and 
yellow. 



Blue-purple... 



Pale blue , 



.Vbout 5 or 6 
seconds. 



2 or 3 seconds 



About 2 sees... 



8 or 10 sees... 



A few seconds 



From N.W. to 
N.E. Not fai* 
from the posi- 
tion of the Polar- 
star. 

Fell towards thf 
river near the sus- 
pension-bridge. 

In N.W., altitudt 
about 45°. 



i 



Due W. Disap- 
peared abou' 
halfway from t 
zenith to the hi 
rizon. 

FroraneartheMilb 
Way (W.N.W.'l 
altitude 45°) u\\ 
altitude 15°. 

In N.N.W., altitud( 
40°. 



In the W. (disap 
peared behini'" 
clouds). 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



21 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left sparks, like those off 
ii blacksmith's anvil. 



Like a rocket 



A number of fragments 
parted from the nucleus 
as it descended. 

Purple and yellow balls 
seen falling in the sky 
after two strong flashes 
of light. 

Glaring ball of light, with 
an adhering red and 
fiery tail. 

At first an ordinary falling 
star ; burst suddenly 

. into a large blue light 
when this was fading, a 
red drop ran down from 
it, and terminated in a 
small explosion. (See 
sketch.) 



Round , 



Length of 
Path. 



20° to 30° 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



30° to left of perpendi- 
cular down. 



Almost vertically down 



Slanting downwards to- 
wards S.W. 




Descended with 
waving motion. 



Remarks. 



Clear sky 



The meteor itself was 
hidden behind high 
houses. 



The second flash of 
light stronger than 
the first. 



Clear sky. 
several 
length. 



The tail was 
degrees in 



Observer. 



H. Harrison. 



F. J. Bailey. 



R. Knowles. 



James Hall. 



J. H., ' Manches- 
ter Guardian.' 



J. C, 'The 

Times.' 



W. G. Drysdale. 



The Scotsman. 



32 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1863 
Dec. 5 



Hour. 



h m s 
8 2 p.m. 



8 3 p.m. 

9 50 15 
p.m. 

9 56 p.m. 

10 7 30 
p.m. 

10 7 45 
p.m. 

ro 8 p.m. 
10 15 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



11 13 p.m. 
10 8 p.m. 

10 21 45 
p.m. 



Douglas (Isle of 
Man). 



Royton, Oldham 
(Manchester). 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



Head = diameter of 
fullmooninlength, 
^ ditto in breadth. 

i diameter of full 
moon. 



:Hmag.*, 



Trafalgar Square 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 



Trafalgar Square 
(London). 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



8 



12 



12 



11 56 p.m 

U 56 30 

p.m. 



U 59 30 
p.m. 

5 33 p.m. 



5 40 p.m. 



Ibid, 



=2^ mag.».. 
=2nd mag.» 
=:2nd mag.« 
—2^ mag.% 
= 3^ mag.* . . , 



= Ist mag.Jt. 
=2imag.* ., 



:2nd mag.jt 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Nottingham. 



::2imag.* .. 
=3rd rn^.* 

=2nd mag.« 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Head green, 
tail red and 
yellow. 



White 

White 
White 
White 
Ruddy 
Bluish 

White . 

White . 



As long as the 
flight of a 
rocket. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



4 seconds. 



1-2 second 



0'9 second 



1 second 



White, then 
yellow, then 
red. 



White . 
Yellow 

White , 



1*3 second 
0'5 second 
0-4 second 

1'5 second 
0*4 second 

1"5 second 

0*5 second 
0*5 second 



Oundle (Cam. 
bridgeshire). 



Fine rocket - like 
meteor. 



Prismatic (red 
and blue), 



2 seconds 



2 seconds.. 



In E. or S.E., altl 
tude 30° or 45°, 



In W.S.W., froi 
altitude 50° tt 
altitude 38°. 

From C Camelo- 
pardali to J {j^ 
Persei, S Cassio- 
peiae). 

From 2° W. of d 
Camelopardali to 
A Custodis. 

From fj. Tauri to i 
{y, v) Ceti. 



Fromi(y,X) Tauri 
to ^ (y Arietis, 
Ko Ceti). 

Described a short 
arc round (3 An- 
dromedae. 

From g Gemino 
rum to a few 
degrees above 
and following 
Procyon. 

From 8tok Piscium 

From 3° N. of » 
almost to t Pe- 
gasi. 

From N Camelo- 
pardali to i (y 
Ursse Minoris, a 
Draconis). 

From A Custodis to 
I Cassiopeiae. 

From i;, y, T 
Persei to ^ {(p 
Persei, Cassio- 
peiae). 

From 2° N. of 
K, to 2° preced. 
ing y Andro- 
medae. 

From 2° below y 
Arietis over i) 
and B Piscium to 
X Piscium. 

From i (a. Tri. 
anguli, a Ari- 
etis) across x 
Piscium and y 
Pegasi almost 
to the urn of 
Aquarius. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



23 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Head like a spear-head 
Tail like a long shaft, 
or like a chain of gas 
lights. 

Head lemou - shaped, 
burst at last, leaving 
a band of red fire in two 
places. 

No train or sparks 



About 12°. 



Left a slight train for 1 sec. 



I Left a train for ^ a 
second on a part of the 
course. 

Left a train on f of its 
course for 2 seconds. 



Length of 
Path. 



Descended 



No train or sparks 



No train or sparks . 
No train or sparks . 

No train or sparks . 

No train or sparks 
No train or sparks 

No train or sparks 



5°. 



Left a track 7° or 8° in 
length. 



Disappeared midway be- 
tween 'C, Pegasi and 6 
Piscium. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



30° from perpendicular 
down. 



Remarks. 



Bright as full moonlight; 
clear sky. 



Coi responds to Hawt 
hurst 10'' 7" 45» p.m. 



See Appendix I. 



Observer. 



Dec. 7th, cloudy 



Vertically down 



Commuuicated 
by S. Simpson. 

W. Bentley. 



A. S. Herschcl. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

A. S, Herschel. 

Id. 

T. Crumi)len. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

J. Vertu. 

H. Weightman. 



24 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Obsen'ation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude r.ml 

Azimuth. 



1863. 
Dec. 12 



h m s 
From 6 p.m. 
tolO p.m 



Norwich 



12 8 37 p.m. 



12 

12 
12 

12 

12 

12 
12 

12 
12 

12 

12 

12 
12 

12 

12 

12 
12 
12 



9 10 p.m. 

9 16 p.m. 
9 17 p.m. 

9 18 p.m. 

9 19 p.m. 

9 20 p.m. 
9 23 p.m 

9 29 p.m 
9 52 p.m. 

9 58 p.m 



10 9 15 

p.m. 
10 13 p.m 
10 16 p.m 

10 21 p.m. 



Greenwich 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Weston - super 

Mare. 
Ibid 



[bid. 



10 21 p.m. 



10 23 p.m, 

10 24 45 

p.m. 
10 28 p.m. 



Trafalgar Square 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Trafalgar Square 

(London). 

Weston - super - 

Mare. 
Trafalgar Square 

(London). 



Bright shooting- 
stars. 



:5 th mag.» ; very 
faint. 



=2nd mag.* 

> 1st mag.* 
= 2nd mag.« 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid 



Trafalgar Square 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



=2nd mag.» 

=3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.» 
:1st mag.*.., 



--§n 

:H mag.* 
:]st mag.*. 



=3rd mag.* 



=3Jmag.# . 
-2^ mag.# , 



Ibid, 



=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3| mag.» 
»"3rd mag.* 
=2| mag.* 



Blue 



White 



Clue and white 



White 



Bright yellow 
White 



Less than 
second. 



0-5 second 



1 second .. 

2 seconds.., 

1^ second 
0"4 second 



White 

White 
White 

White 



White 
White 
White 



2 seconds. 

1 second . 

2 seconds, 
i second . , 



0-4 second 

0-5 second 
0-4 second 

0-6 second 



0"5 second 
0'6 second 
08 second 



The part of the 
heavens where 
they were most 
plentiful, and 
whence they ap 
peared to origi- 
nate, was the 
constellation 
Perseus. 
1 From V Ursa; Ma 
joris, directly 
towards a Ursa; 
Majoris. 

From d Camelo- 
pardali to m Cus- 
todis. 

From 6 Lyrae to 
/3 Cygiii. 

From 6 Ursne Mi- 
noris to Head of 
Camelopardalus. 

From S Ursa; Mi- 
noris to Head of 
Camelopardalus. 

From -J (a, y) Ari- 
etis to R. A. Ih 
48™, N.Decl.l0°. 

From 6 Tauri to 
Ceti. 

From TT Orionis to 
2= or 3° E. of « 
Ceti. 

From ? Draconis to 
S Cygni. 

From h (iS, i) Pe- 
gasi to 5° W. of 
? Pegasi. 

From (j;, );) Ursae 
Majoris to the 
north horizon. 

To d Ursae Majoris 

From V to p Persei 

From I Aurigae, half- 
way to Z; Persei. 

From 6 C.issio- 
peiae, two-thirds 
of the way to A 
Andromedae. 

From 5° below 
7 Orionis to 5° 
below V Tauri. 

From a to <5 Ceti... 

From <pto T) Tauri.. 

From P Camelo- 
pardali to | (c, ^) 
Ursae Minoris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



25 



Lppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 








Every few minutes wit- 
nessed their sudden 
display. Hundreds of 
shooting-stars. 


' Norwich Mer- 
cury,' Dec. IC. 

W. C. Nash. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. H. "Wood. 
Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 






















Cloudy after gh 45" p.m. 


0^p1tll1^l1<^ * nn niir1pii(« 






Jphiilniis • wct niirlpus ... 
























..eft a train 15° in length.. 
jpft a. tra.in of snarks 


25° 






T. Crumplen. 

W. II. Wood, 
T. Crumplen. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

A. S. Herschel, 

Id, 

Id, 








.eft a train 10° in lengtli.. 



20° 










Termination concealed 
by buildings. 




6° 


Directed from e Lyncis 











































































26 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1863 
Dec. 12 



12 

12 

12 
12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

13 

13 
13 



13 
13 



13 

13 
13 
13 
13 



h m s 

10 33 45 

p.m. 

10 37 30 
p.m. 

10 41 30 
p.m. 

10 44 15 

p.m. 
10 46 p.m. 

10 47 15 

p.m. 
10 50 p.m. 

10 52 p.m. 

10 56 p.m. 

11 2 30 
p.m. 

11 7 p.m. 

U 16 30 
p.m. 

8 11 p.m. 



8 46 p.m. 

9 40 p.m, 



9 42 p.m, 
9 48 30 
p.m. 

9 49 p.m, 



9 54 30 

p.m. 
10 30 

p.m. 
10 2 p.m, 

10 5 45 

p.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Trafalgar Square 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 
Ibid 
Ibid 
Ibid 



=2i mag.* 
= 2nd mag.» 

=3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
=3^ mag.« 

=2i mag.* 
=3^ mag.* 
=4th mag.* 
=2^ mag.*... 
=2^ mag.* 
= 3^ mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 1 st mag.* 

= H mag.* 
=3i mag.» 



=3rd mag.* 
-Z^ mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 

=3 J mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
=2ndmag.» 



Yellow . 
White . 

Yellow . 

White . 
White . 

White . 
Dull . 
Yellow 
Orange 
White . 
White . 
White . 

White . 



White 



White 
Dull 



White 



1*1 second 
0-6 second 

07 second 

1'2 second 
0*5 second 

0"7 second 
0-6 second 
0"6 second 
1*8 second 
0-7 second 
0-6 second 
1 second ... 



1"2 second 



0-8 second 



1 second 
1 second 



Orange colour 

White 

White 

White 



0'8 second 

1*8 second 
0'6 second 
0-8 second 
1*2 second 



To S Aurigae two- 
thirds of the way 
from c Telescopii 
and 2° further. 

From i (/3 Ursae 
Minoris, a Dra- 
conis) to V Ursae 
Minoris. 

From <p Tauri to ^ 
(»j Tauri, o Per 
sei). 

From 6 Eridani .., 

From i (0, i;) Per. 

sei (centre) to <j> 

Andromedae. 
From 4° below 

Cygni. 
From ? Tauri to a 

Ceti. 
From F Custodis to 

i// Cephei. 
From i Bootis to (3 

Draconis. 
Centre a Tauri 

From 5 Tauri to y 
Ceti. 

To d Eridani, half- 
way from sa- Ori- 
onis. 

From 2° above N 
Camelopardali 
to /3 Ursae Mi- 
noris, 

From below y Pe- 
gasi to below /3 
Piscium. 

From Z Cassio 
peiae to ^ (\ 
Andromedae, g 
Lacertae). 

From fi Orionis 

From i («, /3) 
Arietis towards 
?2 Ceti. 

From i (y Tri, 
angulae, c MuS' 
cae) to i (a 
Triangulae, y Ari- 
etis). 

From n Ceti to ti 
Eridani. 

From /3 Pegasi... 



From 5 to Dra- 
conis. 
From 2 Ceti 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



37 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
audits Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 




8° 




Twenty meteors in two 
hours radiated from 
the neighbourhood of 
r Geminorum. 


A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 
A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 


















7° 


Fell vertically 














6° 


Fell vertically 
































Directed from i Tauri... 














































8° ... 


Vertically down 






8° .. 














Left 3. trEin of snarks 










6° 


Towards g Pegasi 














8° 


Direrted from a. Ceti ... 













28 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1863 
Dec. 13 

13 



13 



13 



27 



27 



27 



27 



27 



27 



27 
31 



1864. 
Jan. 1 



Hour. 



h m s 
10 11 30 

p.m. 

10 18 30 

p.m. 

10 44 30 
p.m. 



10 52 15 
p.m. 



Evening 



About 6 55 
p.m. 



6 55 p.m. 



6 57 p.m. 



6 57 p.m. 



6 58 p.m. 



10 45 p.m. 

6 30 p.m. 

9 51 p.m. 

7 30 p.m. 
to 8 30 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Southampton ... 



Hallow (Worces- 
tershire). 



East Harptree, 
Mendip liills. 



Dulverton (So- 
mersetshire). 



Wittersham Rye 
(Kent). 



Tunbridge Wells 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Weston - super • 
Mare. 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



Apparent Size. 



= 3 J mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Diameter 4^ inches 



Half diameter of 
the moon. 



As large as the 
moon. 



Large meteor 



As large as two 
fists. 



Splendid meteor... 



= n. 



= lst mag.» 



Colour. 



Yellow 
Wliite 

White 
White 



Brilliantgreen, 
passing into 
deep red. 



Bright blue ; 
followers 
crimson. 



Bright bluish 
colour. 



At first pale 
yellow, be- 
coming blue. 

Very bright 
green and 
light red. 



Yellow 



Colourless ; 
brilliant. 



Blue. 



Duration. 



0'6 second .. 

0*6 second .. 

0'8 second .. 

1"2 second .. 



3 seconds. 



5 or 6 seconds 



Slow motion 
20 seconds. 



20 or 30 sees.. 



0-7 second 



Slowly . 



2 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From I (»), X) Tauri 

To a Muscae, | of 
the course from 
^ Persei. 

From 2° N. of 
Andromeda;, f 
of the course to 
V Pegasi. 

From i {r,f) Cus 
todis, two-thirds 
of the course to 
Persei. 

First appeared in 
S.W., and pro 
ceeded to N.W. 



Commenced near 
the Pleiades ; 
disappeared just 
above the south 
horizon. 

Approached thebelt 
of Orion from 15^ 
north of it. 

Over Sandhurst .. 



In the S.W., at no 
great aliiiude. 




Horizon. 

From ^ (« An 
dromedse, /3 Pe 
gasi). 

N.W., altitude 45° 
moving slightly 
downwards to- 
wards N. 

From S Eridaui to 
54 Sceptri. 



I 



A CATALOGUE OJ? OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



29 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Burst into two, leaving a 
second meteor on its 
track. 

From a point became 
circular, drawing 
train of sparks. Burst 
without report, and left 
no sparks. 

[ncreased from a 1st mag.* 
to the diameter of the 
moon ; followed by 
three smaller elongated 
red bodies. 

At first no appendage ; 
afterwards followed by 
a stream of light. 

Became blue in colour, 
and at the same instant 
opened with a stream 
of fire. 



Gradually diminished . 



Long train 



Towards /i Ceti 



10" 



No other meteor seen 
in 30 minutes. 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 



Eight meteors in one Id. 
hour radiated from 
the neighbourhood of 
r Geminorum. 

The first meteor was not 
diminished in size, 
but travelled faster 
than the other. 



Descending slantwise , 



Directed from 6 Cassio- 
peiaz. 



Deepened in colour as it 
increased. The flash 
resembled that of 
vivid lightning. 



Very many meteors .. 



Portsmouth 
Times.' 



R. H. H., ' The 
Times.' 



C. P. Taylor. 



C. M., 'The 
Times.' 



Communicated 
by Mrs. Nares. 

J. B. Caudell. 



A. S. Herschel. 
E. J. Lowe. 

W. H. Wood. 
E. J. Lowe. 



30 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Coloui-. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1864. 
Jan. 2 

2 


h m s 
7 50 p.m. 

10 p.m. 
to 1 a.m. 


Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Prestwitch(Man- 
chester). 


3 times brighter 
than 1st mag.* 

50 shooting-stars. 
4,14,23,2, 7 = 
1st, 2nd, 3rd 
mag.*, &c. 


Intense blue... 




Due N.E., started 
at altitude 45°, 
and moved per- 
pendicularly 
downwards. 

In all parts of the 
sky. 


All bright 
white. 


3, 13, 6, < 4 
1,2 seconds, 
remainder 
not noted. 


2 
2 


10 p.m. 
to mid- 
night. 

10 45 p.m. 


Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

"Weston - super - 
Mare. 


50 shooting-stars. 
3, 21, 17, 3,6 = 
1st, 2nd, 3rd 
mag.*, &c. 

— Sirius 


White or yel- 
low. 

Sirius 


1,16,14,3,4, 

<i, 1,H, 
2 and 3 sees. 

1 second 


In all parts of the 
sky. 

From Cassiopeia, 
halfway to the 
Pleiades. 






2 

3 
3 

7 


11 p.m. 
to 11 30 
p.m. 

About 8 p.m. 
8 25 p.m. 

8 36 p.m. 


Bolton 


10 shooting-stars... 






From Head of 
Hydra to a point 
midway between 
Sirius and 6 Canis 
Majoris. 
At a considerable 

altitude. 
Sank below the 
N.N.E. horizon 
from altitude 10° 
or 12°. 
Visible on two parts 
ofthe course from 
t) Eridani to /3 
Ceti. The third 
part of its course 
hidden by obsta- 
cles. 


Liverpool 


Large meteor 






Epping Forest 
(Essex). 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 


Large meteor 

Width half, length 
two-thirds of the 
moon's diameter. 


Pale blue 

Intense blue. . . 


Moved slowly 

> 2 seconds ; 
very slow. 


7 


8 40 p.m. 


Bridgewater 
(Somersetshire). 


Large meteor 


Blue-green ... 




Descended towards 
^e W. 






7 

8 
21 


8 40 p.m. 

8 40 p.m. 
8 40 p.m. 


Dulverton 
(Somersetshire). 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 


> the meteor of 
Dec. 27. 

= 3rd mag.* 

2 >• Venus 


Diffused light, 
reddish. 

YeUow 


10 or 15 sees.. 

0-6 second ... 
H second ... 


Began 20° S.S.W. 
from Orion's Belt, 
at an altitude ofi 
60°. H 
From i (|3, ?) to *W 

Tauri. 
From t Draconis | 
of the way to the 
horizon, 

1 

1 


Greenish yel- 
low. 







A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOKS. 



31 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



iix left trains ; one 2 > J/, 
burst into sparks. 



Length of 
Path. 



iCft no trains 



'wo very brilliant, and 
eight ordinary falling 
stars. 



'ear-shaped, with a tail of 
I red sparks. 



'ear-shaped, with a tail 
Illuminated the sky at 
last with three rapid 
flashes. 



last a strong light, 

Tail like that of a 

rocket, 
'igure and size of a 

■n alnut. Moved with a 

flickering light. 



fo train or sparks 

'ear-shaped ; left no train 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Two radiant-points ; ? 

Ursaa Majoris and Head 

of Bootes. The latter 

became well defined at 

1^ a.m. 

Radiant - point at c 

Quadrantis Muralis ; 

very definite. 



8° or 10°. 



Remarks. 



Most frequent from ll*" 
to 12'' p.m. 



Going N.N.W., 



Descended at an angle 
of 45°. 




Descended 
the W. 



towards 



Descended towards the 
W. 



X^ 



From 12*" p.m. until P 
or 2'> a.m. Jan. 3rd, 
shooting-stars fell one 
per minute. 



Clear sky 



Tail and outline of 
meteor dimmed by 
fog. Last third part of 
the course hidden by 
obstacles. 



Observer, 



E. J. Lowe. 



R. P. Greg. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Communicated 
by W.H.Wood 



Hugh Weight- 
man. 



W. G. Drysdale. 
' The Standard.' 

W. H. Wood. 



Gas-lights looked dim in 
the light. 

Illuminated the clouds 
like a bright aurora. 
No report in ten mi. 
nutes. 



Termination not seen , 



To left from perpen- 
dicular. 



A. Haviland. 



C. M., 'The 
Times.' 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 



33 



REPORT 1864'. 



Date. 



1864. 
Jan. 21 



Hour. 



21 

21 
23 

29 

29 
29 

29 
29 
29 
Feb. 2 



h m s 
8 40 p.m. 



8 55 p.m 

10 p.m 
AboutSp.m 

8 30 p.m. 

8 42 p.m 

8 49 p.m 

9 8 p.m. 
9 15 p.m 
9 27 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Lamberhurst 
(Kent). 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 

Liverpool. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Weston - super 

Mare. 
Ibid 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



36 a.m. Wimbledon 
(Surrey). 



10 30 p.m 



Apparent Size. 



Bright meteor ... 



Yellow . 



• Venus 



= lst mag.* 
Large meteor 

= 2nd mag.* 



= Sirius 

=3rd mag.* 



= lst mag.*. 
= Sirius .... 



Colour. 



Greenish yel 
low. 



White 



White 



Orange colour 
Blue 



A clear disk. Seen 
through clouds 
which obscured 
Sirius. 



Souihgate Road 
(London). 



=3rd mag.* 



Blue... 

White 

White 



Duration. 



3-5 seconds ; 
relaxing its 
speed. 



0*4 second ... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Low in the N. 



X 



0-6 second ... 



2-5 seconds ... 

2-5 seconds ; 
slow motion. 



= S Ursae Majoris. 



I second 

0-7 second ... 

0*6 second .. 

Rather rapid 
flight for so 
large a me- 
teor. 



From 'C Leonis to 
a point near x 
Leonis, R. A. 1 
52™, N. Dec! 
12°. 

From p to M C» 
melopardali. 

Commenced near 
a Cephei. Dis- 
appeared altitude 
40° N.W. 

From g Lyncis, | 
of the course to-i 
Gerainorura 

From stars (5), (8) 
to 6 Andromedae. 

Commencement in 
R. A. 47°, S. 
Decl. 22° 

From Cor Caroli 
X Bootis. 

From X Herculis to 
i Bootis. 

Commenced at y 
Ceti. 

From a HydraSj 
almost to the 
horizon. 



a. 



1 



In Ursa Major. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



33 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Slightly pear-shaped; di- 
minished to a red spark 
Left no train. 



Resembled the meteor of 
December 5, but not so 
large. 



*Io train or sparks 



jeft a ruddy train for 1 
second, 10° in length. 



^0 train or sparks 

I 

j*{o train or sparks 



Length of 
Path. 



30° 



6°. 




Horizon. 

Exploded and turned 
round, with subdued 
light, as if to revolve 

\. round d Ursae Majoris. 



1864, 



Direction ; noting also 

■whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 




To left from perpen- 
dicular. 
Perpendicularly down. . . 



Cloudy ; full moon , 



Clear sky , 



Vertically down 



Fell vertically , 



One or two degrees from 
perpendicular. Towards 
the right, down. 



Remarks. 



Zodiacal light in the W. 
since the 1st of Jan. 



Nothing but a pale halo 
could be seen at the 
place of Sirius. 



An uncommon appear- 
ance. 



Observer. 



H. Hussey. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

W. G. Drysdale. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. H. Wood. 
Id. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

F. C. Penrose ; 
communicated 
by J. N. Lock- 
yer. 



Communicated 
by T. Crnmp- 
len. 



34 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



1864 
Feb. 6 



Hour. 



h ra 

7 55 p.m 

8 49 p.m 



9 23 p.m. 
7 5 p.m. 



6 7 27 p.m. 
6 7 41 p.m 

7 50 p.m. 



8 46 p.m. 



6 10 p.m. 



8 



11 12 p.m, 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 
8|U 16 p.m. Ibid 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Weston - super 

Mare. 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.., 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
.Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Weston - super - 

Mare. 



Liverpool. 



= 3rd mag.*.. 
= 3rd mag.» 

>-lst mag.* 
= 3rd mag.# 

= lbt mag.* 



= Venus 



811 19 p.m.llbid 



9 9 4 p.m, 



Ibid, 



Large meteor 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.« 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 2ud mag.* 



Colour. 



White . ., 
Dull blue, 



Dull... 
White 



Vellow and 

white. 
DuU 



White 



Duration. 



0-8 second 
2-5 seconds 



Bright orange 



Yellow . 
Yellow . 
White . 
White . 



1 second ... 
0-8 second 

0-5 second 
1-8 second 

2-5 seconds 



2 sees., slow. 



0'6 second 
0"6 second 
08 second 
0*6 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimtlth. 



From K Orionis .., 

From \ Ursae Ma- 
jorls to ? Leouis. 



From y to « Leonis 

From d Ursae Ma. 
joris, one-fourth 
of the course to, 
wards M. Came, 
lopardali. 

From w Arietis to v 
Piscium. 

From <p to 6 Aii- 
dromedae and | 
as far beyond. 

From 1° S. of ? 
Aurigae to 
point midway 
between « Ari- 
etis and (3 Tri 
aiigula;. 

From /3 Canis Mi- 
noris to /3 Canii 
Majoris. 

Commenced near 
Cephei. In the 
N.W. sky.- 

From a to 5 Orionid 

From d Telescopii 
to t Geniiriorura. | 

From (1) to ft. An- 1 ) 
dromeda:. 

rrom u Lyncis, 
halfway to fi 
UrsK Majoris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



35 



appearance i Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



No train or sparks 



Bicame extinct at the 
middle of its course 
and suddenly rekindled. 



No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 
Ni 1 train or sparks 



Left a momentary train 
in tliree-fourths of its 
course, of ruddy co 
lour. 

Resembled the meteor of 
December 5, but not so 
large. 

No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 
No train or sparks 
I No traia or sparks 



Length of 
Path. 



Vertically down 



Direction ; noting also 

vhether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



On the 4th of February, 
at 6'' 45™ p.m., zo- 
diacal light as bright 
as Via Lactca Sagit- 
tarii ; ai)ex at tt 
Arietis ; south edge 
as sharply defined 
as an auroral strea- 
mer ; north edge 
diffuse. Fluctua- 

tion's in light and 
tint from atmospheri- 
cal causes. 



Zodiacal light very 
bright. Axis from (" 
Piscium to d Arietis. 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 
\V. H. Wood. 




From 4'' 20"" to 4'' 40' 
p.m., a vertical bar 
through the sun (see 
fig.). The lower 
branch projected 

nearly one diameter 
of the sun in front 
of a black cloud-bank 
below the sun. 



Id. 

A. S. HerscheL 

\y. II. Wood. 
A. S. Ilerschel. 

(d. 

W. II. Wood. 

W. G. Drysdale. 

A. S. Ilerschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



d2 



86 



REPOBT 1864. 



Date. 



1864 
Feb. 9 



Hour. 



h m 

9 12 p.m. 

10 17 p.m, 



10 

Mar. 1 
1 

2 



10 20 p.m 

8 14 p.m 

9 35 p.m. 
17 a.m. 



5 
6 

6 

9 

12 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkburst 

(Kent). 
Hay (S. Wales)., 



Wolverliarapton 



Hawkburst 

(Kent). 
Weston - super ■ 

Mare. 
Flimwell, Hurst- 
green (Sussex) 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.* 



About tbe greatest 
splendour of 
Venus. 



Colour. 



Yellow . 



Very fine 
yellow. 



7 35 p.m. 

8 to 9 p.m. 

7 50 p.m 

8 37 p.m. 

9 30 to 10 
30 p.m. 

30 a.m 



Diameter 5', or one 
sixtb diameter of 
tbe moon. 



2ndmag.» 
1st mag.*. 

= n 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Hawkburst 

(Kent). 
Manchester , 



Hawkburst 

(Kent). 
Prestwitch(Man- 

cbester). 
Ibid 



Bluisb wbite, 
like Rigel. 



Duration. 



07 second .. 
About 5 sees. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimutb. 



From 2 to A Ursre 
Miuoris. 

From a point one 
third of the dis 
tance from Rigel 
to Sirius, to the 
horizon. 



Orange. 



Dull yellow ... 
Topaz-yellow . 



2| seconds 
while in 
sight. 



2-2 seconds , 
25 sees., slow 
1| second 



Very large meteor. 

Three falling stars. 
Bright meteor 



Blue and yel- 
low. 



= 3rd mag.* ... 

Two shooting-stars 

Quarter diameter of 
the moon. 



From j3 Canis Mi- 
noris directly S 
Termination con- 
cealed by build- 
ings. 

From t to A Dra- 
conis. 

From (T Herculis to 
the horizon. 

From 4° N.E. of| 
Saturn to 3° E 
of Spica. 



I second 



Bluish white.. 



Red 



Slow motion.. 



1 second 



Commencement! 5° 
or 20° above tbe 
N.W. horizon. 



From Polaris to y 

Cephei. 
In the W., altitude 

20°. 



From Polaris to y 

Cephei. 
Near Polaris ... 



In N.W., altitude 
45° ; from Ca- 
pella to Cassio- 
peia. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



37 



Appearance; Train, if any, Length of 



and its Duration. 



A misty object. 




Horizon. 
A well-raarked disk with a 
steady light. Left no 
sparks. 



Fiery appearance. . 

train left. 
View impaired by fog. 



No 



The meteor kept enlarging 
until it disappeared. 



No sparks or trains. 



Occasionally obscured by 
clouds. Tailed. 



One left a train 

Burst with red sparks. 



rath. 



Part of visi- 
ble path 
20'=' 



12° 

10° or 12° 



10° or 12°. 



15° or 20°. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inchned. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Fell vertically , 



N. to S. 



I'"ell vertically , 



i ^h. 



^^ Spica 

Fell vertically. 
Inclined 



Directed from 10° above 
Polaris. 



Continued its light un- 
diminished (except by 
clouds) to the ho- 



Saturn very brilliant 



T. M. Simkiss. 

A. S. Herschel. 
W. H. Wood. 
F. Howlett. 



Inclined. 



Radiant-point between 
Polaris and Capella. 




A. S. Herschel. 
T. W. Webb. 



Communicated 
by W.H.Wood. 



A. S. Herschel. 

E. llardcastle. 

A. S. Herschel. 

R. P. Greg. 

Communicated 
bv R. P. Greg. 



38 



BEPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
Mar.24 



Hour. 



h m 

7 45 p.m. 



25 Between 8 
and 9 p.m. 



Place of 
Obsenation. 



29 10 47 p.m. 



29 

29 

29 

29 
29 
20 

Apr. 2 
10 
10 

10 
10 

10 
10 



Euston Road 
Obsers'atory 
(London). 

Lvmington 
(Hants). 



Hawkliurst 
(Kent). 



10 57 p.m. 

11 4 p.m. 

11 12 p.m. 

11 18 p.m. 
11 19 p.m. 
11 37 p.m. 

8 5 p.m. 
8 24 p.m. 
8 45 p.m. 

8 56 p.m. 

9 30 p.m. 

9 30 p.m. 
9 42 p.m. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

rbid , 
ll)id . 
Ibid , 



Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



= Venus 



Very large meteor.. 



Quite white . 



= 2nd mag.» 
=:2iid mag.if 

= 2nd mag.» 

= 3rd mag.* 

=3rd m.ig.* 
= 3id mag.* 
=3rd mag.# 

= lst roaa;.* 



.\tfirst=:lstmag.*, 
tl»en=3rdmag.* 



= Castor 



Colour. 



Ruddy 3 seconds 



Duration. 



Rapid 



White '0"6 second 



White . 

White . 
Yellow 



1 second 



1 second ... 
0-5 second 



Yellow Ii second 

White !o-5 second 

White 0-7 second 



Bine 



2 seconds. 



At first white, 
then red. 



White 



Trafalgar Square = 1st mag.». 
(London). | 

Royal Observa-2>lst mag.# lYellow 

tory, Green- 
wich. 



10 9 48 p.m. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Ibid , 



= Regains 



= Capel!a, brilliant 



=2ndmag.» 



2'5 seconds . 
1'3 second , 



About 2 sees. 



Brilliant white 4 sees. ; very 
slow. 



Orange yellow 0-8 second . 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth, 



Flame colour.. 



1*4 second .. 



From between «, /3 
Ursae Majoris to 
between y, n Vir- 
ginia. 

Tailed. Left 
long streak. 
Vanished sud- 
denly with many 
sparks. 

From J Aurigae to 
^ {b, d) Camelo 
pardali. 

From a point ^ (9 
Draconis, y Ursae 
Minoris) to a 
point i (k Ce- 
phei, Polaris). 

From Regulus to 
Praesepe Cancri. 

From Q Ursa; Ma- 
joris. 

From 33 Cygni 

From 33 Cygiii 

From a point ^ (9 
Draconis, I Bootis), 
halfway towards ? 
Cygni. 

Three fourthsofthe 
course from Pro 
cyon to Sirius. 

From X Canis Mi 
noris to a Mono- 
cerotis (Bode) 

From i {S Aurigae, 
c Camelopardali) 
to 4 (i, B) Came- 
lopardali. 

From Arcturus to y 
Coronae. 

From the zenith 
near a Ursa; Ma- 
joris to alt. 25°, 
a little left of 
Cassiopeia. 

From ^ (e .Camelo- 
pardaU, m Cus- 
todis) to f (j/, i>) 
Persei. 

From p across L to 
S Camelopardali 
(Bode). 



From \ {y, S) Ursae 
Majoris to ^ (rf 
Ursae Majoris, Q 
Camelopardali). 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 39 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left no train 



Prom below Ursa Major 
to above Orion. Passeri 
high above the Needles. 



No train or sparks 



Brushy appearance 



Brightest at last . 



Length of 
Path. 



100°. 



3°. 

4°. 

3°. 



Direction ; noting also 

■whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicnlar, or 

Inclined. 



E.S.E. to W.N.W., as- 
cending. 



Towards x Ursae Majoris 



Small in half of its course 



Brightest at first, gradu- 
ally decreasing. 



faint streak. 



Towards tt Cygni 
Towards ? Cygni 



25° 



50° or 55°.. 



Pear-shaped, leaving a long 
faint train for half a 
second. 

Brightest at middle of its 
course, and deflected 20" 
or 30°. 



25° 



10° 



Brushy appearance 



Remarks. 



Seen by several persons 



Threw a strong light 
Surrounded by sparks 



Observer. 



Directed from e Virginis 
Directed from y Virginis 

Directed from e Virginis 
Direction N 

Directed from >j Virginis 
Quite crooked 



Corresponds to the fol 
lowing. 



T. Slater. 

A. P. Falconer. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

W. H. Wood. 
A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

W. C. Nash, C. 
Jones, C. P. 
Trapaud. 



Disappeared without 
change. Train visible 
in moonlight. 



Directed from K Virginis 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 




Id. 



40 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size, 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimutii. 



1864 
Apr. 10 

,10 

10 

10 



11 
11 

11 

11 

13 
13 

13 

13 

13 
13 

13 
13 

13 
13 
13 

15 
15 

19 

20 



h m 

9 52 p.m. 

9 56 p.m. 

10 7 p.m. 

10 54 p.m. 

47 a.m. 
2 30 a.m. 

9 35 p.m. 

About 10 
p.m. 

58 a.m. 

1 43 a.m 

1 59 a.m. 

2 2 a.m. 

2 16 a.m. 
2 22 a.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



2 48 a.m. Ibid 



Ibid 

Wolverhampton. 



Tunbridge Wells 
(Kent). 

Prestwitcli(Man' 

chaster). 
Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 



3 a.m. 

3 4 a.m. 

8 50 p.m 

9 23 p.m. 

2 9 a.m. 

2 31 a.m. 

11 12 p.m. 



Ibid. 



Ibid 

London 
Ibid 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid. 



17 a.m. Ibid 



=Regulus ... 
=3rd mag.» 
=Denebola 
=2nd mag.» 

=2nd mag.* 

>- 1st mag.* 
Nearly =2/. 

= lst mag.* 

;3rd mag.« 
=2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2ud mag.* 

:2nd mag.* . 
:3rd mag.* 

=2nd raag.» , 
= 2nd mag.* . 
=2nd mag.* , 



:Arcturus .. 
:3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 



White 

Flame colour.. 

White 

Yellowish... 



Flame colour. 
Bright white. 



White 
White 



Yellowish. 



White 0-8 second 



1'5 second 
1 second ... 
1'7 second 
1"2 second 

1'5 second 



1*1 second 
0-6 second 

0-8 second 



White . 
Yellow . 

Yellow 
Yellow 

Yellow 
White . 
White . 



Like Arcturus 
White 



White 0-8 second 



0'5 second 
0*4 second 

0'7 second 
0*3 second 

0'5 second 
1 second ... 
1 second ... 



2-3 seconds 
1 second ... 



White 



0*9 second 



Across / Leonis to 

a Hydrse. 
From p to a Leonis 

From ^io\ (y, S) 
Leonis. 

From S Leonis to 
d Leonis Mi- 
noris. 

Across /i Bootis to 
T Herculis. 

From nearly over 
head north- 
wards. 

From Polaris 



From TT to ^ Leonis 

From p Maenali to 
y Virginis. 

To [i Bootis, half- 
way from cr Her- 
culis. 

From TT to ^ (e, ^) 
Herculis, and as 
far beyond. 

From r Canium 
Venat. to c 
Corns Beren. 
(Bode). 

From k Lyncis 



From g Draconic 
to X, Ursas Mi- 
noris. 

Centre ^ (a, /3) 
Ophiuchi. 

From \ (n Cygni, 
I Pegasi) to k 
Pegasi. 

From to « Dra 
conis. 

From /3 to flj Ursae 
Minoris. 

From (3 Ursae Mi- 
noris to H Dra 
conis. 

From T Bootis 



From T, two-thirds 

of the course to 

o Virginis. 
From N Camelo 

pardali to <j Ursae 

Majoris. 
From i {g, K) Dra- 

conis to /3 Ursae 

Minoris. 



A CATALOaUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



41 



Apiearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


Stellar. Disappeared sud- 
denly. 
irushy appearance ...... 

Jrushy appearance 

Jrushy appearance 

Jrushy appearance 


20° 


Directed from e Virginis 
Directed from ?; Virginis 
Directed from Z Virginis 
Directed from r/ Virginis 

Directed from.0 Virginis 




A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

J. Pope. 

R. P. Greg. 
A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id, 

Id. 

Id. 


8° 


Reddish aura 


20° 


Slight aura 


20° 


Aura about the nucleus 
Shght aura 


15° 


Long flight 
30° 




?aded away. Left a long 
lupiinous streak. 

'lo train or sparks 


Shot diairnnallv 










.eft a train for 1 second... 
itellar nucleus. Bright... 

itellar nucleus. Bright... 

irushy appearance 


30° 

6° . 


Directed from ellerculis 


A. fine shooting-star ... 


15° 






90° 


Directed from « Uerculis 

Directed from /3 Herculis 
Directed from S HercuUs 

Directed fromMHerculis 
Directedfrom n Herculis 

DirectedfromK Herculis 


Long and rapid 






Jrushy appearance 


] to 


Very rapid 


1 rtO 






5° 






Rapid 
















j 

itellar nucleus. Bright... 

i. fine shooting-star; left 
along train for 1 second. 


6° 


Directed from B Virginis 


Slow, foreshortened ap- 
pearance. 


20° 




Directed from « Lyrse... 








Directed from a Lvra;... 




i 
i 
1 







42 



REPORT — 1864. 



i 



Date. 



Hour. 



1864. 
Apr. 20 



20 
20 

20 

20 
20 

20 
20 

20 

20 

20 
20 

20 

20 

20 
20 

20 
21 
25 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 

40 a.m.jHawkhurst 

(Kent). 



53 a.in. 

59 a.m. 

1 28 a.m. 

1 57 a.m. 

2 25 a.m. 



2 25 30 

a.m. 
2 29 30 

a.m. 



2 40 30 
a.m. 



2 40 a.m 



2 55 30 
a.m. 

3 30 a.m. 



10 46 p.m. 

10 55 p.m, 

11 26 p.m, 
11 36 p.m 

11 40 p.m 

11 20 p.m 

11 30 p.m 



Apparent Size. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Wolverhampton 

Ha'nkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Trafalgar Square 
(London). 

Havpkhurst 

(Kent). 
Wolverhampton 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Wolverhampton 

Nuneaton 
(Coventry). 



= lst mag.*.. 

= lst mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.# 
= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

>lst mag.* 
Nearly = 11 

>lst mag.* 
Nearly =J^ 

= 3rd mag.# 
= % 

= 2^ mag.*.. 
= lst mag.» 

= 3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

>V 

3> n 



Orange yellow 0'8 second 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



White 

Yellow 

Blue 

Yellow 

Yellow 

Yellow 

Yellow 

White 

Bright blue... 

Dull 

Golden red ... 

Yellow 



Yellow, at last 
orange. 



0'7 second 
0'7 second 



0-9 second 
0-7 second 

0-8 second 
0-9 second 

0"9 second 

f second 
0-6 second 

0-6 second 
r2 second 



White 1 second 

White I second 



White 



Silvery blue... 



Pale blue . 



0-9 second 



Very rapid 



4 seconds ; 
very slow. 



...'From^(«,/3) Her 

culis to ^ (k 

Ophiuchi, y Her- 

culis). 
... To X from i (J, |) 

Draconis. 
...To^ {(3,ii) Bootis, 

halfway from jj 

Herculis. 
... From y Ursse Mi- 

noris to 40 Dra 

conis. 
... From \ to S Ophi- 
uchi. 
... From 1° above 

a Lyrae to n 

Lyrae. 
From i (?;, S) to ^ 

(y, X) Cygni. 
From i (a Lyra;, 

I Herculis), half. 

way to d Dra- 

coiiis. 
, To as Equulei, half 

way from * Del- 

phini. 



Disappeared at alti- 
tude 5°, 2\° W 
of magnetic S. 

Fell vertically to < 
Delphini. 

From overhead to- 
wards the east 
horizon. 

From ^ (t, «) Dra- i 
conis to V Ursae 
Minoris. 

From ^ (ii Bootis, 
I Draconis) to A. 
Bootis and 4° 
beyond. 

From 7] Herculis to 
Z Coronae. 

On a line from « 
Draconis to l 
(0, N) Camelo- 
pardali. Centre 
midway. 

From ^ {t}, a), half- 
way to I Her. 
culis. 

From overhead, de- 
scended to the 
west horizon. 

From /3 to r Vir- 
ginis. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



43 



ippearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



xft a white train for 1 
second. 



jeft a faint thin train. 



i/ery bright, 
nucleus. 



Stellar 



vlassive (compact) ap- 
pearance, 
""ine in light and colour. 



)isappeared at greatest 
brightness, leaving a 
white train at the 
spot for 4 seconds. 

Threw off some dull 
sparks at disappear- 
ance. Left a train 5^ 
long. 

Co train or sparks 



Length of 
Path. 



^eft a bright train 



io train or sparks 



jCft a train for 1 second. 



'fo train or sparks 
ifo train or sparks 

Vo train or sparks 



jLeft a long bright train . 



■Well-defined disk. Left 
no train. 



10° 



6°. 



10° 



Direction ; noting n\so 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Directed from a Lyrae. 

Directed from a Lyra;. 
Directed from Lvra . 



Directed from Lyra 
Directed from Lyra 

Directed from Lyra 
Directed from Lyra 



Directed from Lyra ... 



Directed from Altair 



Remarks. 



No train or sparks 

No train or sparks 
No train or sparks 



Corresponds to Trafalgar 
Square, 2'' 40"" a.m 



Directed from Lvra ...P' 15™ a.m.; dawn 
began. 



Directed from Lyra 



Last 4° of the course 
considerably deflected 
towards Ursa Major. 



Observer. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

T. M. Simkiss. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

T. M. Simkiss. 



44 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



18G4. 
Apr. 29 



29 
29 

May 4 
13 



14 

17 

17 

28 



h m 

8 46 p.m. 



10 20 p.m. 
10 58 p.m. 

8 28 p.m. 

9 24 p.m. 



8 p.m. 



4 p.m. 

10 15 p.m, 
10 1 p.m 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Puycharnand 
(France). 

Greenwich ., 



Montauban(Tou. 
louse, France), 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Hay (S. Wales). 



= Arcturus 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



3 > Venus 



:2udmag.* 



• full moon 



Large meteor 



— a, Lyra;.... 
3 or 4 > 2^ 



June 6 



9 48 p.m. 



1 1 4 p.m. 

10 a.m. 

17 a.m. 

56 a.m 



10 



10 p.m 

+ 



8 p.m 



Paris (France)... 



Wolverhampton 
Ibid 

Ibid.. 

Ibid 

St. Heliers 
(Jersey). 

Bagshot( Surrey) 



Venus 



= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Like Arcturus 



2 seconds. 



Whit(! . 
Yellow . 



0-9 second 



Brilliant white 



White 



White 



White 

White, like 1\. 



Nucleus, tail, 
and frag- 
ments white. 



Bluish 
White 



White .... 
Pale blue , 



Quarter diameter 
of the moon. 



Yellow . 



Large meteor 



Ruddy 



1 second 

2^ sees. ; slow 

0'5 second ... 

3 to 5 seconds 

2 or 3 seconds 
Slow motion... 

2 seconds 

2 seconds 

\ second 

2 seconds 

Slow motion. 



Almost mo. 
mentary. 



From /3 Ursse Mi- 
noris to Polaris, 
and i as far 
beyond. 

Centre i Bootis 

From Draconis to 
^.(p Draconis, « 
Cepbei). | 

From 2 Draconis to' 
a. Cephei. i 



Saw about 8° path 
of a meteor in N., 
altitude « Cygni j 
azimuth 10° W. 
of that star. | 

From Leo, passing' 
east of Saturn 
and Spica to a 
few degrees be- 
low Jupiter. 

Descended from 
altitude 45° due 
N. 

Between Auriga 
and Gemini. 

Blazed out -^ or \ 
of the distance 
from Jupiter to 
Spica. 



From between Co- 
rona and the feet 
of Hercules to 
between Perseus 
and Capella. 

From ^ Cygni to 

Persei. 
From overhead, 

halfway to the 

N.E. horizon. 
From T Virginis to 

the horizon. 
From e CassiO'' 

peise to e Au- 

rigae. 
In the S.E., at an 

altitude of about 

20°. 

In the S.E. sky,: 
altitude about 
30°. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



45 



ippcarancc; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



To train or sparks 

To train or sparks 
To train or sparks 



30° 



lickereil like a candle- 
flame, and disappeared 
with two flashes. 



treak 



'ailed meteor. Burst with 
a cloud of sparks, leaving 
a white streak for 15 or 
30 minutes by different 
accounts, 
globe and conical tail of 
light. 



To train or sparks 



U first a minute falling 
Btar ; suddenly blazed 
out on a level with 
Jupiter, and falling 4 
or 5"^, attained three 
or four times his 
brightness. 

ircular, with compact 
conical tail. Broke 
into three fragments, 
■which advanced 3° or 
4° before they disap- 
peared. 

left a short train ; no 
sparks. 

^ft a long train 



1o train or sparks 
'^0 train or sparks 



Uke a globe of light 



3roke into sparks before 
disappearing. 



Length of 
Path. 



7". 



Directed towards ju 
Bootis. 



8° 



10° or 15°. 



15° 



100°. 



20° or 30° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



a Cygni. 
* 



Fell vertically , 



Quite vertically down. 



Remarks. 



Interrupted view, cloudy 
sky. 



Diflfused considerable 
light. 



See Appendix (No. III.) 
(Meteorites of Or 
gueil). 



In full sunshine 



Went out with a scat 
tering of sparks. 



Fell vertically , 



Downwards from right 
to left. Very little 
inclined from hori- 
zontal. 

From left to right, in- 
clining downwards. 



Diffused a considerable 
light ; left no streak. 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

' Les Mondes.' 
W. C. Nash. 



' Comptes Ken 
dus.' 



Communicated 
by W. H. Wood 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. W. Webb. 



' Comptes Ren- 
dus.' 



T. M. Simkiss. 

Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

T. M. Simkiss. 

Id. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

J. Robertson, 



46 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864 
JuoeSO 

July 4 



Hour. 



h 111 
10 52 p.m. 

9 57 p.m. 



A few mi- 
nutes be- 
foielOp.m 



10 p.m. 



30 a.m, 



16 10 55 p.m 



20 
21 
24 

28 

28 
28 

29 
29 



10 45 p.m 

50 a.m 

10 5 p.m 

9 40 p.m 



10 52 and 

10 53 p.m 

11 50 p.m, 



1 5 a.m. 

2 34 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Wolverhampton 
Ibid 



Bettws-y-Coed, 
R. Conway (N, 
Wales). 



Greenwich 



Fairseat, 
Wrotham 
(Sevenoaks). 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Wolverhampton 

Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.* 



Half diameter 
the moon. 



of 



Colour. 



Duration, 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Pale blue , 



= 12-inch globe at 
200 yards. 



= Jupiter. 



Half the size of a 
full moon at the 
same altitude. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

2^ miles N.W, 
from Wolver- 
hampton. 

Wolverhampton 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 



= 2nd mag.* ... 

=3rdmag.» ... 
= 2ndmag.» ... 

Large meteor 

3>V- 

Two meteors = 2nd 

mag.* 
2> 2^ 

= lstmag.* 

>2nd mag.* 



Greenishwhite 



1^ second ...From j3 Ophiuch 

to 7 Herculis. 
About 4 sees. ; Disappeared above 

deliberate | Jupiter, near /3 

speed. Librae. 



Livid white ...I Slow ; 5 or 6'Appeared to be at 

seconds. ' tlieheadofConway 

valley, due S. 




1 



Bluish white... '2 seconds. 



Bright golden A few second; 
colour. 



From 6 Ursa; JNI. 
joris to a point 
below Spica Vir- 
ginis. 

First seen in S.E., 

j at altitude about 

10". 




Bright white .. 

Greenish 

Blue 



Blue 



Orange. 



and 



Slow motion... 



motion. 



Orange 
blue. 
Intense white 



Bright orange 

colour. 
Red 



1-3 second ...[From i Herculis, 
halfway to 
Lyr.TE. 

1 second 'From a Pegasi 

j fi Aquarii. 

1 second From a to x Uri 

Majoris. 
Due N., alt. 50 
rose upwards. 
5 or 6 sees. ;:FromS.W.,alt.35°, 
very slow to N.N.W., alt. 
35°. 
From S Cygni t 

« Draconis. 
FromS.W., alt.30' 
to N.W., altitude 
30°. 
From ? UrsEe Ma- 
joris to Arcturus. 
From a Cygni to a 
Draconis. 



fl 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



47 



Vpp;arance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



jeft a short dull train 



The head flaming, with a 
long sparkling tail. 



Call twenty times longer 
than the head. Outline 
of the meteor uncertain 
and moving, close to the 
tail. Left a dusk-ashy 
streak across the sky for 
some little time. 



Train seen 1 second 



k. brilliant ball of fire, the 
light of which exceeded 
that of a full moon. 
Vanished suddenly. 
Collapsed like a soap 
bubble. 



itellar nucleus. No train 
left. 



left a long thin train. 
iCft no train 



Length of 
Path. 



25° to 30°. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Obser\-er. 



T. M. Simkiss. 



Directed from Polaris. ..|No other meteors aboveiCommunicated 
5th magnitude oh- by T. M. Sim- 



From left to right, about 
30° from horizontal, 
downwards. 




served 
night. 



on the same 



Partially cloudy ; meteor 
seen this side of the 
clouds. 



Jurst into a shower of 
sparks ; left a train. 

left a firm, distinct, un- 
changing train of mode- 
rate length. 

ittle or no trains 



ijong feathery train 



liCft a short feathery train 



jjcft a long train. 



S.W. to N.E., or nearly 
S. to N., with a de- 
cided dip. 



Horizontal ; left to right 



Horizontal ; left to right 



kiss. 
H. Holiday. 



W. C. Nash. 



No tail and no train of Communicated 
sparks that could be byW. E. Hick- 
observed, but any 
track it may have left 
was hidden by trees. 



Full moon, no other 
meteor iu 30 minutes 



Givuig time for remarks 



A. S. Herschel. 

T. M. Simkiss. 

Id. 

Miss Wilkinson. 

J, Mayfield. 

T. M. Simkiss. 
T. Lowe. 

T. M. Simkiss. 
Id. 



48 



REPORT^1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1864. 
Jidy29 

29 



29 
29 



h m 
10 p.m. 

10 5 p.m. 



10 44 p.m. 
10 45 p.m. 



Wolverhampton 
Ibid 



= 2nd mae.* Blue 



V- 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Greenwich 



= 3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 



29 

29 
29 

29 



29 



29 



10 49 p.m. 

10 57 p.m. 

11 3 p.m. 

11 40 p.m. 



11 42 p.ra 



Midnight . . 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Ibid 

Ibid 



»lst mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= Sirius 



Greenwich 



Ibid, 



Ibid , 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 4th mag.* 



= 3rd mag.» 



30 

30 

30 
31 
Aug. 1 
1 
2 
2 



10 a.m 



Ibid, 



11 p.m. Weston - super • 
Mare. 

11 18 p.m. Wolverhampton 



30 a.m. 

9 54 p.m. 

9 57 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 



Ibid 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Ibid 



Ibid. 



Beeston Observa- 
tory (Notting- 
ham). 



> 1st mag.* , 

= 2nd mag.# 
= 2nd mag.* 
>-lst mag.* 
>l8t mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
Large meteor 



Very red 



Blue . 
Orange. 

Blue . 



Blue 
Blue 



Not less than 
4 seconds. 

4 second 



Less than I see. 



Brilliant blue 



1 second 

^ second 
1 3 second .. 

Rapid ; less 
than 1 sec. 



Rapid motion 



Momentary . 



Blue 



Very rapid 
motion. 



Yellow . 



f second 



Blue 

Orange 

Bluish white.. 
Pale yellow . . 
Colourless .. 
Blue 



2 seconds. . 
1| second 
I second .. 



2 sees. ; slow 

motion. 
^ second ... 



From X Aquilae to 

Serpentis. 
From a Serpentis 

to X Ursae Ma- 

joris. 
From £ to e Pegasi. 

From/JAndromedcC, 
curved towards c 
Andromedae, and 
disappeared near 
y Pegasi. 



From a Lyrae to S 
Draconis. 

From X Aquilae 

From TT Herculis to 
X Serpentis. 

From direction f ' 
a Lyrje, passe 
across j3 Draco- 
nis to 6 Draco- 
nis. 

From the direction 
of a Andromeda, 
passed rapidly 
across Cygnus, 
and disappeared 
near S Cygni 

A meteor appeared 

nearVulpecula,anfl 

disappeared almost 

immediately with 
scarcely any per 

ceptible path ; a 

flash only. 

From a point near 
^ Cygni across c 
Aquila: and about 
15° heyond that 
star. 

From e Ursae Ma- 
joris to Cor Ca- 
rol!. 

From a Aquilae to S 
Ophiuchi. 

From o to X Ursw 
Majoris. 

From e Pegasi to 6 
Aquilae. 

From 6 to a Pegasi 

From ~ to A. Sagit- 

tarii. 
Moved from N.E. 

to S.W., across 

the zenith. 



t 



t 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



49 



i 

Appearance; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Duration. Path. 


Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 




No train left 






T. M. Simkiss. 

Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

W. H. Wood. 

W. C. Nash. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 
Id. 

W. C. Nash. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

T. M. Simkiss. 

Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 

Miss Wilkinson. 




Left a short train 


















S'o train 




/3Andro- «Andro- 
medae. medae. 

yPegasi. 






If^eft a transient train 










10° 








L,eft a red train for 2 

seconds. 
?aint train 




















8° 










Less than 1° 
40° 








5^0 train 








led tail for 2 seconds 










jcft no train 










lo train left 










icft a white train 










r 

Left a white train 




















jeft a train 




















1864. 








£ 





50 



EEPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
Aug. 2 



Hour. 



h tn 

10 55 p.m, 

11 25 p.m, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Wolverhampton 
Greenwich 



11 27 andlbid 
11 29 p.m. 



8 30 p.m. 'Cherbourg 
(France). 



10 10 p.- 

10 17 p.m. 

10 22 p.m. 
10 35 p.m. 

10 38 p.m. 
10 45 p.m. 
10 50 p.m. 

10 57 p.m. 

11 3 p.m. 



Hay (S. Wales). 



Ibid 



Large fireball 
= lst mag.4t 
= lst mag.i* 

>2nd mag.* 

Very brilliant 
teor. 

Hay (S. Wales).. =lst mag.* 



Wolverhampton 
Greenvyich 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.ff 
= lst mag.*.., 



Small meteors. 



Colour. 



Orange. 
Blue . 

Blue . 



Yellowish 



Whitish 



White 

me- Blue 



Greenwich 



Ilawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Ibid 



11 8 p.m. 'Wolverhampton 

1 a.m. Weston - super - 
to Mare 

1 30 a.m 

2 25 a.m. Wolverhampton 



10 25 p.m. 



Ibid, 



=2nd mag.# 



=3rd mag.* 



=2nd mag.# 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.» 



Many 1st and 2nd 
mag. shooting- 
stars. 

= 2ndmag.» ..., 



Blue 



Colourless 



Colourless 



Colourless 



Golden yellow 



-2nd mag.> 



White 



White 



Duration. 



1^ second 



Rapid motion. 



Very slow mo- 
tion. 



1 second 



H second 



H second 



2 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From i Cassiopeiae 

to 6 Persei. 
To y Draconis 



Two small meteors 
seen beneath 
Ursa Major. 



A few degrees 
above the south 
horizon. 

Centre midway be- 
tween Wega and 
y, /3 Draconis. 

From 6 Cygni to m 
Scutum Sobieski. 

From a Draconis to 
Arcturus. 

Passed above the 
tail-stars of Ursa 
Major to e )5o- 
otis. 

From Scutum So- 
bieski to Bow of 
Sagittarius. 

From Vulpecula, 
across Corona 
Borealis. 

From a Cygni to 
Head of Draco. 



From i (13, jj) Pe- 
gasi nearly to 4 
Pegasi. 

From i (/3, r,) 
Pegasi, nearly 
to a Pegasi, in 
dining towards 
y Pegasi. 

From a Aquilae to 
;; Serpentis. 

Radiant near the 
Pleiades. 

From a Ceti to^ 
wards the south 
horizon. 



From ^ Ursae Ma 
joris to 12 Comae 
Berenices. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



51 



Appearance; Train, if any. 
and its Duration. 



Left a short train 
Train 



Conical; increased as it 
descended. Burst with 
a shower of sparlcs. 

Left a transient streak, 
brightest and broadest 
in the middle. 

Left a train 



No train or sparks 



Fine train ; lasted one 
second after meteor's 
disappearance. 

Brightest at middle of its 
course. 



Faint train 



Ijcft a golden-yellow train 



Slight train . 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Short paths 



Left a long sparkling train 



No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 



No observed uniformity 

of direction. 
Directed from (3 Pe- 

gasi. 

Inclination 
W. E. 



N.N.E. to S.S.W , 



Down the following 
branch of the Milky 
Way. 



Directed from « Dra- 
conis. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



A great number of small 
meteors all night. 



T. M. Simkiss. 
W. C. Nash. 

Id. 



From W.S.W. to E.N.E. 



Bright and steady 



General direction to- 
wards j8 Tauri. 



' Galignani.' 

T. W. Webb. 

Id. 

T. M. Simkiss. 
W. C. Nash. 

T. W. Webb. 
W. C. Nash. 






Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 



Id. 

T. M. Simkiss. 
W. H. Wood. 

T. M. Simkiss. 



W. 



e2 



52 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
Aug. 6 



6 



Hour. 



h m 
9 12 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



9 22 p.m. Ibid 



10 18 p.m, 



10 20 p.m. 



10 21 p.m. 



11 4 p.m. 



11 6 p.m. 



11 15 p.m. 



11 19 p.m. 



11 33 p.m. 



15 a.m. 



18 a.m. 



Stanstead, Seven- 
oaks (Kent). 



Apparent Size. 



=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 



Fairseat, Wro- 
tham (Kent). 



Luyembourg, 
Paris. 



Hawkburst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Ibid 



Ibid 



Ibid 



Ibid 



Greenwich 



Somewhat smaller 
than full moon. 



A small disk, but 
as bright as the 
moon. 



Fireball, 1^-3 
Venus. 



= 3rd mag.» 
=« Lyrae .. 



:2nd mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 



= 2ndmag.# 



=2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



Colour. 



White on first 
appearance 
but the two 
bodies into 
which it di 
vided red 
and blue. 



Dazzling light 
blue. 



White, then 
blue, at length 
green. 



White 



Blue 



Duration. 



About half a 
minute. 



3 seconds. 



^ second 

Nearly 1 sec... 
Slow ; 1^ sec, 
^ second ...... 

I second 

Quick 

Almost mo- 
mentary. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Passed across X 
Andromedae and 
y or a Cassio- 
peias. 

From i (fi Pegasi, 
\ Andromedae) 
to i (/3 Pegasi, e 
Andromedae). 

First seen in the 
eastern part of 
the heavens, at 
an altitude of 
50°. 



In the eastern sky ; 
from altitude 60° 
to altitude 15° 



From between jj and 
/3 Persei (near y 
Persei), to the 
horizon, N.W. 

From below 9 Cas- 
siopeiae to below 
j8 Pegasi. 

Two or three de- 
grees above and 
left of 7] Aquarii. 

From 2° east of 
Polaris towards 
Capella. 

From i {a. An- 
dromedae, /3 Pe- 
gasi) to \ (« 
Andromedae, y 
Pegasi). 

On a line from 
y Draconis to a 
Ophiuchi, nearly 
the whole way. 

From |(a,y Pegasi) 
to 2° above a 
Aquarii. 

From 5 Aquilae to- 
wards the south 
horizon. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 53 



Appearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



No train or sparks 



No train or sparks , 



A bright white oval 
ball, much larger than 
Jupiter, which sepa 
rated into two flam 
beaux of red and blue. 
Both suddenly va 
nislied, one a little 
before the other. 

The disk was small but 
very brilliant, and va- 
nished suddenly in mid- 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



From S. to N., 
inclination 
the earth. 



with an 
towards 



Almost perpendicular ; 
thus — 



Began as a first magni-j25° .... 

tude star. Disappear-I 

ed when two or three; 

times the brightness of| 

Venus. 
Left a train 



Star-like. DisappearedjAlmost sta- 



Remarks. 



Attracted much atten- 
tion about Wrotham 
from its brilliancy. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 



W. Nunn. 



S.E. toN.W 



suddenly at brightest. 

Increased until disappear- 
ance. 



No train or sparks 

No train or sparks 

No train or sparks 
Left a faint train 



tiouary. 



On a line from B Came- 
lopardi to a, Pegasi. 

Fell slightly south-east- 
wards. 



Directed from a Cygni. 



Observer. 



W. E. Hickson. 



Centre of the visible 
path 40° E. for N., 
altitude 20°. 



15° 



\ 



G. Chapelas, and 
Coulvier- 
Gravier. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her. 
schel. 

Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 

W. 0. Nash. 



H 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



1864 
Aug. 7 



Hour. 



h m s 

45 p.m 

9 50 p.m 

9 55 p.m 

10 42 p.m. 

10 42 p.m. 



10 13 

10 16 
p.m. 

10 37 
10 40 



p.m 
30 

p.m 

p.m 



10 44 p.m 



10 45 p.m 



10 54 

10 58 

11 2 



p.m 
p.m 
p.m 



U 7 p.m. 



11 17 
11 20 
11 20 

11 20 
p.m. 

11 25 

11 25 



p.m 
p.m. 
p.m 

30 

p.m. 
p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Greenwich 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Greenwich 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 

Greenwich 



Apparent Size. 



=2nd mag.* 

=3rd mag.-K 
= V- 



:2nd mag.* 
= ] st mag.x- 

=2nd mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 



:2nd mag.« 



=:lst mag.* 



= ¥• 



=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 



= 1st mag.*. 



=:3rd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 



SmaU 



Colour. 



Bright white.. 



Red 



Blue 
Blue 



Reddish 



Blue 



White 



Duration. 



Swift 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



0"5 second ... 
Rapid motion 

Slow motion . 



Very rapid 
motion. 



Slow motion , 



Blue 



Blue. 



Slow. 



Rapid 



Through Taurus 
Poniatowski. 

Centre 5° below y 
Pegasi. 

On a line from a 
Pegasi through tj 
Aquarii, nearly 
to the horizon. 

From b Muscse to a 
Arietis. 

In Lacerta 



Momentary ... 



From T] Ursse Ma- 
joris to ec Bootis 

From direction of 
y Draconis to 
I3ootis. 

Nearly to d Aquarii 



From a point 3° 
above Polaris, 
almost to as Dra- 
conis. 

From a Pegasi 
towards Cassio 
peia. Passed be- 
low I, K, X An- 
dromedae. 

From under i, k, \ 
Andromedae to 
wards « Pegasi. 

Centre 5° W. of t 
Pegasi. 

Nearly from ^ to X 
Aquarii. 

From 3° below I 
Muscae to 3° be 
low a Arietis. 

Between « Lyrae 
and Head of 
Draco. 

From S Cygni along 
the Milky Way. 

From 1 Cassiopeiae 
to (T Cephei. 

In N., fell perpen 
dicularly towards 
the horizon in 
Camelopardus. 

To A. Persei, half- 
way from H Ca- 
melopardi. 

Parallel to and 

close to a, /3 Cygni 

Near Cepheus ; a 
short path only 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



55 



No train or sparks 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Short 



No train or sparks ; large 



12° 

6° or 8° 



Train i second 



Surrounded by aura of 
sparks. Train 1 second. 



No train 



Length of 
Path. 



Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from y Andro- 
med%. 



Short path. 
Short path. 



15° 



15° 



Train 



Left a fine train distinctly 
separated from the 
head. 



No train left 



Left a train . . 
No train left 



7° or 8° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Directed from Cassio- 
peia. 



Directed from a Andro- 
medae. 



Horizontal 



In haze of horizon 



Sky overcast 



Occasionally cloudy ... W. C. Nash 



Observer. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her. 
schel. 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 
Id. 

W. H. Wood. 



Short course 
Short course 



Left a train for A second. 



Directed from H Came- 
lopardi. 



R etuiiifd on course 
of the last. 



Fell vertically 



Conformable to B Ca- 
melopardi. 

Conformable to B Ca- 
melopardi. 



2°. 



Perpendicular , 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

W. C. Nash. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
W. C. Nash. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 



56 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
Aug. 8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

9 
9 



Hour. 



h m s 

11 28 p.m 

11 29 p.m 

11 45 p.m. 

11 48 p.m. 

Midnight... 

4 a.m. 

13 a.m. 



9 17 a.m. 



50 a.m. 



52 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhui'st 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Greenwich 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Luxembourg 
(Paris). 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



8 50 p.m. 



9 22 p.m 
9 31 p.m. 
9 33 p.m 
9 52 p.m 
10 1 p.m.Ibid 
Ibid 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 



10 1 7 
p.m. 

10 2 5 
p.m. 



Apparent Size. 



=3rd mag.« 
=2nd mag.^- 
=3rd mag.» 
= ¥ 



Colour. 



=2nd mag.* 

= ]st mag.*.., 
= 2^ 



Nearly=2/. 

Fireball, 2 >Venus 



Fireball ^ diameter 
of full moou. 



Blue 



Blue ; very 

brilliant. 
Greenish white 



Duration. 



1 to 2 seconds 



White 



White, green, 
and yellow. 




Ibid, 



:2nd mag.4: 

=3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 

1st mag.» 
=4th mag.« 

4th mag.* 

=3rd mag.% 



Orange 

Orange red ... 

Blue 

Orange red ... 

Orange 

Colourless ... 
Colourless ... 

Colourless ... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Not more than 
H second. 



0'5 second 

0"1 second 
O'l second 
0-2 second 
03 second 
0*1 second 
0*1 second 

01 second ' 



From e Cygni to 
I Scuti Sobieski. 

From i {a, /3) to k 
Aquarii. 

Nearly to Fomal- 
haut. 

From y Pegasi to w 
Piscium. 

Across a Coronae 
Borealis. 

From Cepheus to fi 

Pegasi. 
From (i) Muscae, 

halfway to y 

Andromedae. 
From V Persei, 

halfway to j; 

Tauri (Pleiades). 
Centre 10° W. from 

N., altitude 18° ; 

towards the N. 

horizon. 
From b Camelopar. 

di to d Aurigae. 

Reached its full 

dimensions near 

i Aurigae. 



From a Ophiuchi, 

moving towards 

I Ophiuchi. 
Across a Andro 

medae. 
Upvpards through 

Cassiopeia. 
In the zenith ... 



Across Polaris.. 



N. of Nebula in 

Perseus. 
Same place and 

similar to the 

last. 
From 1° E. of 115 

Persei. 



A CATALOGUE Of OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



57 



Vppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


1 
Observer. 


Brightest in middle of its 
course. Long train left. 

Jegan suddenly ; broad 
train. 

lo train left 









Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
W. C. Nash. 

Id. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 

G. Chapelas, and 
Coulvier-Gra- 
vier. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 


Short course 
15° 






Directed fi-om <e Andro- 
medse. 




Jrewto the size of Jupiter. 
No train or sparks. 








Directed from y Dra- 
conis. 

DueS 




'ine train 


30° 




iCft no train 


Short path.. 






left no train 




Directed from a, Persei 
From S. toN 




'i'ollowed by a train of 


10° 




greenish and bluish light. 

1 

\t first a minute star ; 


12° 


Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 




widened quickly to a 
brilliant white head 
greater than a quarter 
of the moon, followed 
by a greenish neck or 
fringe, and a band of 
gold- coloured sparks. 
The whole vanished to- 
gether suddenly. Left 

if train 


20° 




Train of sparks 


14° 






itreak left 


4° 






Streak 


7° 


Directed from Perseus... 




itreak 




Directed from Perseus... 




Streak 


1° 






itreak 








Itreak 


3° 


Downwards at an angle 
of 40°. 





















59 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864 
Aug. 9 



Hour. 



h m s 
10 3 p.m. 



10 4 6 

p.m. 
10 5 p.m. 



10 6 10 
p.m. 

10 8 p.m. 



10 12 10 

p.m. 
10 14 p.m. 

10 17 5 
p.m. 

10 19 p.m. 



10 23 p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 

10 26 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Greenwich 



Apparent Size. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 
Greenwich ... 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



10 27 20 

p.m. 

9 10 30 p.m. 



10 31 p.m. 

10 32 p.m. Ibid 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Greenwich 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 
Ibid 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Ibid. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 
Ibid 



Weston - super . 
Mare. 



10 32 p.m. 



Greenwich 



=3rd mag.* ... 

= 2nd mag.* ... 
= lst mag.* 

= 4th mag.* ... 

=2nd mag.* ... 

=3rd mag.* ... 
=2nd mag.* ... 
= 2nd mag.* ... 

— 1st mag.* ... 

=3rd mag.* ... 
= lst mag.* 

Larger than 1 st 
mag.* 

=3rd mag.* ... 

=3rd mag.* ... 
= lst mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* ... 

= 1st mag.* .... 

= lstmag.* .... 



Colour. 



Blue 



Orange red ... 
Blue, brilliant 

Colourless . . 

Orange 

Orange 

Colourless .. 
Red 

Blue 



Orange red ... 
Orange red ... 

Reddishyellow 



Blue 



Orange red ... 
Orange red ... 

Yellow 



Blue 



Blue 



Duration. 



1 second 



0*1 second 
I second ... 



01 second 

0*2 second 

O'l second 
O'l second 
0'3 second 



1 second 



0-1 second 
0'7 second 

rs second 



1 second 



O'l second 
0'7 second 



1 second 



2 seconds 



1 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From Equuleus to- 
wards the S. ho- 
rizon. 



Across Aries 



From a point be 
tween j3 and n 
Pegasi to the 
left of a Pe 
gasi. 

Halfway between e 
and jS Persei. 



Near Polaris 



In zenith 
In zenith 



Across 7] Ursae Ma- 
joris. 

From e Cygni, 

across Delphinus 

and 6 Aquilae ; 

disappeared 10° 

beyond the latter 

star. 
Just below No. 115 

Persei. 
From y Ursse Mi- 

noris towards y 

Bootis. 
From a Herculis to 

R.A. 251°, Decl. 

S 12° 
From K.A. 268°, 

Decl. N. 7°, to 

R.A. 280°,Decl. 

S. 3°. 
In zenith 

From 1] towards 6 
Persei. 

Through (12), (13) 
Camelopardi. 

From R. A. 75°, 
Decl. N. 83°. 

To Equuleus 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



59 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


ilieht train 






Fine clear night 


W. C. Nash. 

E. J. Lowe. 
W. C. Nash. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

E. J. Lowe. 
Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

E. J. Lowe. 
Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 


Streak 


18° 


\ 




Vain 


15° 






Ito sparks 




Directed from No. 115 
Persei, rose nearly 
perpendicular up- 
wards. 

Directed from No. 115 
Persei. 




5treak 


11° 




;treak 


3° .. .. 




itreak . ... 


3° 






Itreak 


18° 


Directed from No. 115 
Persei. 




'ine train, lasted 2 sees... 
Streak 


45° 




lO 






ptreak 


23° 






IPail of sparks for 2 seconds 






Overcast on the 8th, and 
partially cloudy on 
the 9th. 






Streak 










2° 






fail 


14° 


Horizontal 




PaU 


25° 


40° left of -i-downwards 

Directed from «s Andro- 
medae. 


Slow 


Vain 























60 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
Aug. 9 



Hour. 



h m s 

10 32 30 

p.m. 



Greenwich 



10 35 p.m. 
10 36 p.m. 
10 37 p.m. 
10 42 p.m. 



10 46 20 

p.m. 
10 47 p.m. 



10 48 p.m. 

10 51 p.m 

10 54 p.m. 
10 57 p.m. 

10 59 30 
p.m. 

11 p.m. 

11 2 p.m 

11 2 30 
p.m. 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Ibid 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ibid. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Beeston Obser 

vatory. 
Weston - super ■ 

Mare. 
Beeston Obser 

vatory. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mag.> 



Larger than 1 st 
mag.Hc 
1st mag.» 



=2nd mag.* 

=3rd or 4th mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 
= 4th mag.* 

= 3rd mag.» 



= Polaris 



11 2 30 
p.m. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Greenwich 



:4th mag.# 
=2nd mag.* 
:2nd mag.* 



= m AquUae. 



Colour. 



Blue 



Blue 
Blue 
Blue 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1 second 



Orange red 



i second .., 
1 second .., 

1 second ... 
0"2 second 

02 second 



Colourless ...0"1 second 



Colourless 

Blue 

Red 



=2nd mag.* 



, Cygni 



Small, = 5th mag.* 



Bright white. 



0*1 second 
1 second ... 
0"3 second 



From the centre 
of the space be- 
tween Cassiopeia 
and Perseus due 
N. towards the 
horizon. Point 
of disappearance • 
30° perpendi- 
cularly below i 
Polaris. 

Through (12), (13),; 
Camelopardi. 
Cassiopeise to y i 
Andromedae. 

From a Cassiopeiae 
northwards. 

5° below No. 115 
Persei. 



In Cassiopeia to- 
wards Polaris. 

On the line from 
a Lyrae to • ■ 
Herculis. Centre 
halfway. 

Near Polaris ... 



From 2° below Po- 
laris to i Dra- 
conis. 



In Aquila 



From ju to e Sagit- 

tarii. 
From near 115 

Persei. 

From ? Draconis, 
^ of the way to 
»; Herculis. 

From e Aquila' 
to / Scuti So- 
bieski. 

From 2 or (T Cephei 
across S Cygni to 
F, K Cerbeii, 
and 2° or 3 
further. 



A short path of 3 
or 4" betweeij 
Vulpecula and 
Delphinus. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



61 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

■whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Train 



1 flash ; left a train 



Streak . 



Streak . 



Streak , 



Left a train , 



streak 

rail 

Streak 



Left a train 



15° 
3°.., 



40° 



Left a pale golden-yellow 

train considerably sepa- 
rated from the head ; 

spindle-shaped, shorter 

than the path, and 

lasting three-quarters of 

a second after disap 

pearance of the head. 
So train 3° or 4° 



2°. 



Horizontal 



To N., falling down 
towards the N. ho 
rizon. 



Directed from the Ne^ 
bula in Perseus. 



Discordant 



Perpendicularly down- 
wards. 



Vertically downwards. 



W. C. Nash. 



W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Her. 
schel. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Her 
schel. 

E. J. Lowe. 

W. H. Wood. 
E. J. Lowe. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her. 
schel. 

Id. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



6^ 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



18G4. 
Aug. 9 

9 

9 

9 
9 

9 

9 
9 
9 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 3 p.ni, 



11 5 7 

p.m. 
11 6 p.m. 

11 6 p.m. 
11 6 30 

p.m. 
11 10 5 

p.m. 
11 10 20 

p.m. 
11 10 40 

p.m. 
11 14 6 

p.m. 
11 15 p.m. 



11 18 p.m. 



11 19 30 

p.m. 
11 20 p.m. 

11 22 30 

p.m. 
11 23 40 

p.m. 



11 24 25 

p.m. 
11 25 p.m. 

11 26 p.m. 

(2 meteors). 



11 26 p.m. 

11 27 p.m. 

11 29 10 
p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Greenwich , 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Weston - super . 
Mare. 

Ibid , 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 

Ibid 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 



Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 

Ibid , 



Apparent Size. 



= l8tmag.* ... 

= 2nd mag.* ... 

3= 2nd mag.« ... 

=2nd mag.* ... 
= 2nd mag.* ... 

= 4th mag.* ... 

= 3rdmag.« ... 

=^5th mag.* ... 

a=4th mag.* ... 

«=lstmag.» .... 

«e Venus 

= 2nd mag.# ... 

Larger than 1st 

mag.* 
= 1st mag.* ... 

= lstmag.# ... 

= 4thmag.« ... 

^2ndmag.* ... 

No. 1 =2nd mag.* 
No. 2 = 4th raag.* 



Colour. 



Bluish white... 

Blue 

Blue 

Blue 

Colourless ... 

Colourless 

Colourless 

Colourless , 

Colourless . 

Blue 

Orange .... 

Orange red , 
Red , 

Yellowish..., 
Yellowish... 

Yellowish... 
Yellowish... 
Both blue 



i'2nd mag.« 
= 5th mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Blue 

Yellowish... 
Orange red 



Duration. 



1^ second ... 

0"2 second ... 
1 second ...... 



Near E. horizon ... 
j; to 5 Pegasi 



1 second .. 
0'2 second 



0*1 second ... 
0"1 second ... 
0-1 second ... 
O'l second ... 
1 to 2 seconds 

1 to 2 seconds 

0'2 second ... 

2 seconds 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Each lasted 1 
second. 



In Perseus 



Through e Cassio- 

peiae. 
Through llSPersei 

Near 116 Persei .. 

Toj3Bootis 



1 second 
Rapid ... 



Slow, duration 
2 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



To Delphinus 



ij to ^ Pegasi 
InS 



From the left of a 
Lyrse to a group 
of small stars 
near y Ophiuchi. 

In zenith 



« Capricorni to x 
Sagittarii. 

Across Polaris and 
over Kochab. 

2° below X Draco- 
nis, passing half- 
way between (5and 
6 Ursae Majoris. 

From S toy Cassio- 
peise. 

From Polaris across 
Ursa Minor. 

In N., in the vici- 
nity of Ursa Ma 
jor: No. 1, from 
the direction of 
Polaris almost to 
e Ursae Majoris ; 
No. 2, traversed 
a short distance 
ill the direction 
of the horizon 
near tj Ursae Ma- 
joris. 

From j; Ursse Ma- 
joris to CorCaroli- 

In zenith 



From .1f° above 
No. 1 1 4 Persei 
across e Cassio 
peiae. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



63 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Fine train ; lasted 2 sees.., 



Tail 



Tail ..., 
Streak 



Screak 

Streak 

Streak 

Streak 

Train ; lasted 2 seconds . 



Fine train ; lasted 3 sees... 30" + 



30° 



1° 

6° 

1° 

1° 

20°+ 



Streak 

Red tail ; 2 seconds 

Long train 

Long train 



10" 



21= 



Short train '3^° 

Short train 

No. 1, train ; No. 2, none 



[Many sparks 



No. 1 = 15°; 
No. 2 =3° or 

4°. 



2°... 
4-1° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Directed from « Cassio- 
peiae. 



Upwards 

Horizontally towards N, 
Moved upwards 



Directed from y Dra- 
conis. 



Moving towards Altair, 



\^ 



* 



Ursa Major. 



Upwards , 



Remarks. 



Lightning at the same 
time. 



Fell together. 
Only a glimpse caught.. 



A magnificent meteor.. 



Lightning in E. at the 
same time. 



Two meteors appeared 
almost simultaneously. 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 

E. J. Lowe. 

W. H. Wood. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

Id. 

E. J. Lowe. 
W. H. Wood. 
E. J. Lowe. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
W. C. Nash. 



W. H. Wood. 
E. J. Lowe. 
Id. 



64 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1864. 
Aug. 9 



h n; s 

11 30 27 

p.m. 



11 30 30 

p.m. 
(2 meteors), 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



Greenwich 



11 30 45 
p.m. 

11 33 30 
p.m. 

11 37 35 
p.m. 

U 38 3 
p.m. 

11 38 10 
p.m. 

11 38 30 

p.m. 
11 38 40 

p.m. 

11 39 p.m. 



11 39 p.m 



11 39 30 

p.m. 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Greenwich 



Ibid, 



= lst mag.* 



Red 



Rapid 



Both 2nd or 3rd 
mag.sR 



Blue 



Each lasted J 
second. 



Small 



=2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 1st mag.# 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 



=2nd mag.# 



Ibid, 



Blue 
Blue 
Red . 
Red . 



Yellow 
Yellow 



Blue 



Blue 



Lessthanlsec. 

1 second 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 

1 second 

1 second 

1 second 



From T Andromedee 

towards tj Andro- 

medae, disappear 

ing5°before reach- 

ing that star. 

In the vicinity of 

Ursa Major: No.l 

directed upon e 

Ursse Majoris, 

and No. 2 passed 

a few degrees to 

the right of /3 

Ursae Majoris ; 

direction parallel 

to a line joining 

a and y Ursae 

Majoris. 



•^1 



From the right of 

ct Persei to y 

Persei. 
From a point to thi 

right of a Persei; 

to (3 Persei 
From 0° 30' below « 

Arietis to 2" 30' 

below y Arietis. 
1° above y Andro 

medae to 1° above 

a Trianguli. 
1° above y to 1° 

above « Andro- 

medae. 
From 9 across y 

Ursae Minoris. 
From 0° 30' above 

;3 to 1° above y 

Arietis. 
On the right of 

Perseus. 



From a point 10° 
to the left of /3 
Aurigae towards 
N. horizon. 



A few degrees W. 
of the place o< 
preceding me- 
teor, nearly the 
same altitude. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



65 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whetber Horizontal, 

Peipendicuiar, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Train of sparks 
Train of sparks 



Long streak. 



16° 



No. 1, train ; No. 2, train No. 1=5 

No. 2 = 10° 
or 12°. 



No train 



Faint train 



Train of sparks 
Train of sparks 



Train visible 2 seconds 



Train 



Train 



10° 



10° 



14° 



10° 



These meteors appeared 
with an interval of 
about 3 seconds be- 
tween thera. 



E. J. Lowe. 



W. C. Nash. 



* 



* 



* * V 

•♦■*. 

* 



/ 



8° or 10°... 



/ 



Path parallel to that of 
the preceding meteor. 



/ 



1864. 



Id. 

Id. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

Id. 

Id. 



66 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



Hovir. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colovu'. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1864. 
Aug. 9 

9 

9 



h m s 

11 41 31 

p.m. 

11 42 3 
p.m. 

11 43 30 
p.m. 



11 44 45 

p.m. 

11 46 p.m. 
(2 meteors.) 



11 46 5 

p.m. 
11 48 p.m, 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



Ibid 



Greenwich 



Beeston Obser^ 
vatory. 



Ibid.. 



Ibid , 

Greenwich 



= 4th mag.* 



:4th mag.« 



:2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Yellow , 



YeUow 



Blue 



Rapid ... 
Rapid ... 
1 second 



YeUow . 



Rapid 



Blue 



1 second 



11 48 p.m 



11 48 10 

p.m. 
11 49 32 

p.m. 

11 51 20 

p.m. 
11 52 p.m 



Ibid. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 
Ibid 



Ibid 

Greenwich 



=2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
= 1st mag.* 

=2nd mag.« 



Blue 



Less than 1 
second. 



:1st mag.* ; very 
brilliant. 



Red 

Yellowish., 

Yellowish 
Blue 



Slow.., 
Rapid 



Rapid ... 
1 second 



1 1 53 p.m, 

11 55 30 

p.m. 
11 58 p.m. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 
Ibid .., 



Across Polaris 

From S Ursse Ma- 
joris. 

To a point midway 
between Capella 
and (i Aurigae, 
from 11° above. 

Across Polaris 



One from 4 1 Muscae 
Borealis towards 
the east horizon, 
the other from 
\ Andromedse 
across r] Pegasi. 

From r across /i 

Cygni. 
Across the Pleiades 

towards horizon- 



I 



In the space be- 
tween the upper 
part of Auriga, 
and Perseus. 

r below the Ne- 
bula in Perseus. 

From halfway be 
tween ^i and i 
Cygni across /3 
Delphini. 

FromjSAndromedae 
towards Algenib. 

Across Ursa Major, 
and disappeared 
near y Ursse Ma- 
joris. 



Ibid, 



:5th mag. stars. 
:2nd mag.* .... 
:3rd mag.* .... 



Yellow .. 
Colourless 



Rapid 

Slow.., 



1° west of X Cygni 

to fi Herculis. 
About 10° below 

Corona Borealis. 

coming towards N 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEKVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



67 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Train of sparks 



Train of sparks 



Train 



Train of sparks 



Faint train 



Short streak 
Long streak., 



Long train 
Train 



Train 
Train 



Length of 
Path. 



U° 



W 



17° 



13° 



10° 
10° 



10° 

1°. 
23° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



17° 

15° to 20°. 



33° 



Directed from the 
Cluster in Perseus. 



Towards Arcturus 



Path parallel to those 
of 11'' 39"" (No. 2) 
and n^ 39-" 30\ 



Directed from the 
Cluster in Perseus. 



\ 



Exactly parallel path to 
that of the preceding 
meteor. 



« * * * ./* 




UR9A MAJOR 



Coming towards N. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



E.J. Lowe. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

£. J. Lowe. 
Id. 



Id. 

W. C. NasL, 



Id. 

E. J.Lowe. 
Id. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 



Five shooting-stars ...... E. J. Lowe. 

...jid, 
Discordant jld 

T2 



68 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
Aug. 9 



10 
10 
10 
10 

10 
10 
10 



10 

10 
10 
10 

10 
10 



Hour. 



10 



h m s 
11 59 30 

p.m. 

30 

a.m. 
1 10 

a.m. 
3 40 

a.m. 
7 31 

a.m. 

7 35 

a.m. 
8 40 

a.m. 
10 a.m, 



13 a.m. 



16 45 

a.m. 
17 30 

a.m. 
18 35 

a.m. 

19 30 
a.m. 



21 a.ra. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Greenwich 



Beeston 

vatorv 

Ibid....'. 



Obser 



Apparent Size. 



Verj- brilliant 



= lst mag.* 

= lst mag.* 
i 
Ibid '=2nd mag.* 

Ibid 



Colour. 



Blue 



Duration. 



I second -f- . 



Rapid 



Yellow . 

Yellow Rapid 

Yellow Rapid 

I 

= lst mag.it Yellow Rapid 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 



Ibid. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 
Greenwich ..., 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 



10 
10 



25 30 
a.m. 
(2 meteors.) 



Ibid, 



Greenwich 



==lst mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Yellow 
Yellow 
Blue . 



Rapid ... 
Rapid ... 
1 second 



Ibid, 



29 a.m. 

1 15 40 
a.m. 



Bright meteor . 

=3rd mag.* . 
= 2nd mag.* . 
=3rd mag.* , 

=3rd mag.# . 
= 2nd mag.* . 



Blue 



Colourless ... 
Bluish white.., 
Yellow 



Yellow 



Blue 



1 second 



Slow ... 
1 second 
Rapid ... 



Rapid 



1 second 



No. 1, =3rd mag.* 
No. 2, =lst mag.* 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory. 
Ibid 



=4th mag.* 



:3rd mag.* 



Blue 



Rapid motiou.. 



Orange red 



Rapid 



Fell vertically from 
the space between 
Auriga and Perseus 
towards horizon. 
From I across 

Pegasi. 
From 9 Delphini 

across 9 Antinoi 
From y Trianguli.. 

From 0^ 30' N. ofe 
Cassiopeiae to- 
wards/3 Cephei, 

From jj Pegasi 
across Lacerta. 

X Draconis across 
? Ursae Majoris. 

Passed close to y 
Pegasi ; centre 
of path near that 
star. 



From /3 Aquarii to 
a point near S 
Aquarii. 
From a Tauri per- 
pendicularly down 
Passed about 7' 
below Equuleus. 
From No. 5 Dra- 
conis to 7j Ursae 
Majoris. 
Started halfway 
between « and j8 
Persei. 

From a point mid- 
way between a Pe- 
gasi and the hori- 
zon ; fell almost 
perpendicularly to 
wards S.S.E. hori- 
zon. 

Two meteors pursu- 
ing parallel paths 
in Pegasus ; No 

1 seen before No, 

2 by less than ^ 
second. 



From t) towards 9 
Persei. 

From H 19 Came- 
lopardi to X Dra- 
conis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 



69 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
I and its Duration. 



Train 

Train 
Train 
Train 
Train 



Train 

Train 

Faint train 



Train 



Train 



Length of 
Path. 



15° to 20° 



17' 



9°. 



Towards 1° N. of a 
Arietis. 



14° 

27° 
5°.., 



12° 



1°. 



Train 26" 



Short train 



Train 



15° 



No. 1, no train; No. 2, 
train seen. 



Train 



No. 1, about 

6°. 
No.2, = 15° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



\ 



Directed from y Pegasi| 



Directed from 115 Persei 



Latter portion of path 
curved thus — 






Remarks. 



^yPECAsi 



^°XXf ' 



25° 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 

E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
W. C. Nash. 



Id. 

E. J. Lowe. 
W. C. Nash. 
E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 



Twelve small meteors in 
the last interval. 



Id. 



E. J. Lowe. 
Id. 



70 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1864 
Aug.lO 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 
10 

10 
10 

10 

10 

10 



10 
10 

10 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



h m s 

1 47 a.m. 

2 2 30 
a.m. 

2 2 35 

a.m. 
2 28 a.m. 

2 31 a.m. 

2 32 a.m. 

2 33 a.m. 

2 35 a.m. 

2 40 a.m. 

2 41 a.m. 

2 42 a.m. 

2 43 a.m. 

2 44 a.m. 

2 47 a.m. 
2 53 a.m. 

2 57 a.m. 

3 1 a.m. 

3 2 a.m. 
3 3 a.m. 
3 6 a.m. 



8 15 p.m 
8 45 p.m 

8 50 p.m. 



Beeston Obser- 
vatory, 
[bid 



Ibid, 



Vogogna (Pied- 
mont). 
Ibid , 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid . 
Ibid . 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid . 
Ibid . 

Ibid. 
Ibid , 

Ibid, 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 
(Keut). 

Baveno, Lake 
Maggiore 
(Piedmont). 



Stelvio Pass, 
Bormio 
(Lombardy). 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd raag.«- 
= 2nd mag.* 
=4th mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
=4th mag.* 
=4th mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.« 
= 3rd mag.* 



= 4th mag.* 

= lst mag.* 

= Sirius. 

= Sirius 



= 3rd mag.* 
= Sirius 



= Sirius or 2/. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Yellowish 
Reddish . 
Yellow.... 



Rapid From y Triang\ili, 

across a Arietis. 
y Andromedae 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Like the largest 
rocket. 



= \ diameter of 
the moon. 



Flame colour. 



Orange colour 



Slow ; 1 sec. 



a Andromedae . 



From K Pegasi to -yj 
Delphini. 

From ^ to jj Per- 
sei. 

From 7 Pegasi to a 
Piscium. 

From X Andromedfe 
toy"Lacertae. 

From to a Pi- 
scium. 

From a. Pegasi to w 
Piscium. 

From Algol to 
Musca. 

From ? to Cassio 
peiae. 

From e Andro- 
medae, halfway 
to I Piscium. 

From a CassiopeiaB; 
halfway to f La- 
certse. 

From a. Pegasi to y 
Piscium. 

From y Andro- 
med.T, halfway 
to a. Triangulaj. 

From ( to k Persei 

In Cepheus and 
Andromeda. 

From a to <T Per- 
sei. 

In Triangula ... 



Slow motion... 



Moderate 
speed. 



From I to \ (a., rj) 
Cephei. 



From below a Lyrae 



From t Pegasi to ^3 
Triangula;. 



Disappeared over, 
head, crossing 
the zenith from 
S.W. to N.E. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



71 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Train 

Train 

Train 

Left 110 train 



Length of 
Path. 



11° 



Left no train 



Left a train 
No train left 
No train left 



No train left 
Left a train 



Both meteors left trains. 
Left a train 



Left a train for 4 seconds. 



3°. 



a Lyra; itself scarcely 
visible in the twilight. 

Disappeared in mid-air. 
Drew a train like a 
rocket. 



Shape oval. Disappeared 
■without bursting. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Twelve small meteors in 
the last interval. 

Five small meteors in 
the last interval. 

2'' 4™ 30' a.m., clouds 
came over. 



Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 

Path crooked and fore- 
shortened. 

Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 



Southwards 



Longer 
flight than 
usual. 



Remarks. 



Two meteors in quick 
succession. 



[a the last interval of 
40 minutes forty 
meteors seen : one 
third of the sky 
visible ; clear sky, no 
moon. 



Observer. 



E. J. Lowe. 

Id. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. ■ 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



From S.W. to N.E. 



Seen by many on the 
Place Bellevue. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 



Communicated 
by R. P. Greg. 



72 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864 
Aug. 10 

10 



10 
10 
10 



10 



10 



10 



10 

10 
10 
10 



10 

10 

10 

10 

10 
10 

10 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 

9 4 30 Lee, Kent 
p.m. 

9 22 p.m. Greenwich 



9 29 p.m. 
9 31 p.m. 
9 34 p.m. 



9 35 p.m 



10 5 p.ra 



10 10 p.m. 



10 13 p.m 



10 14 
10 14 
10 16 



p.m 
p.m 
p.m, 



10 17 p.m. 

10 19 p.m. 

10 21 p.m. 

10 23 p.m. 

10 24 p.ra. 
10 25 p.ra. 

10 26 p.m. 



1010 31 p.m, 
1010 34 p.m, 
1010 35 p.m. 

1010 36 p.m, 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Greenwich 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Lee (Kent) 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



= Venus 



= 3rdraag.*. 



Colour. 



Yellow . 



Yellow 1 second 



Duration. 



1 ^ second 



= Hmag.* . 
= lst mag.* 



= lst mag.*. 



Blue 



= lst mag.« 



Yellow 



Slow motion., 
H second .. 



1 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Larger than IstJRed 1 second 

mag.* I I 

= 2(1(1 mag.* Blue I second 

= 3id mag.* iBUie | second 

= 2iid mag.* White blue ...'l second 



= lst mag.# 



Ibid 
Ibid 



Ibid 

Weston - super 

Mare. 
Ibid 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Passed a little be- 
low j3 Ursae Ma- 
joris. 

From a point near 
a Draconis almost 
to K Ursae Ma. 
joris. 

Between a and /3 
Ursae Majoris. 

From Lacerta to 
Vulpecula. 

Passed from a 
point 10° E. of 
? Cygni across 
that star and 
disappeared near 
a Aquilae. 

Near y Ursae Mi- 
noris. 



This meteor moved 
in the same path 
as that at 9^ 
4™ 30% 

From 7 Cassiopeiae 
to TT Pegasi. 

From a Lyrse to 6 

Aquilae. 
Froni/itoeSagittarii 
From/ito sSagittarii 
From y Pegasi 



From j;.T Pegasi to 
below Delphinus 
From j; to 6 
I Aquarii. 
= 2nd mag.* ' iTo a Lyrae 



= 3rd m.ng.* 
= Jupiter 



= lst mag.*. 
= lst mag.* 



Blue . 
Yellow 



1 second 

2-5 seconds .. 



Between d and e 

Pegasi. 

In Lacerta 

From y Pegasi, 50° 

right of -1-. 
From ^ Aquarii to 

R. A. 312°, Decl 

S. 30°. 
Between Delphinus 

and Altair. 
From Polaris ... 



From between a, jS 
Cephei nearly to 
« Lyrae. 

From w Piscium to 
A Fluvii. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



73 



Appearance; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Duration. | I'ath. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



jcft a train 

jctt a train 

'ine streak, lasted 2 sees. 



Horizontal, E. to W. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



b train 25° 



30° to 40° 



isappeared in midway 

and reappeared further 

on ; left a train. 

[ail (red) 



Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 



Fell vertically , 



Horizontal 



Cloudy after 1 0'', 



Train completely broken 
in midwav. 



lil 



:ft a train , 



ain ^ second 
bne 



10° 



10° 



ft a train for 3 seconds. 



I ft a long train 



Short course 



Downwards towards the 
right, 50° from per- 
pendicular. 

Directed towards > 
Aquilae. 



Directed from /3, y 

Cephei. 
Parallel to /3, » Pegasi... 



Clear fine night 



C. W. Jones. 



J. P. Trapaud. 



J. F. \V. Her- 

schel. 
Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel. 
W. C. Nash. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 



C. W. Jones. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Communicated 

byA.S.Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



As if from Polaris lid. 



Short course 



Same as the meteor lO"" 
1 G" p.m 



Parallel to Milky Way., 



Directed towards Ca- 
pella. 



W. H. Wood. 
Id. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Herschel 
Id. 

Id. 



Id. 



74 



REPORT 18G4. 



1864. h m s 
Aug.lO 10 40 p.m 



Date. 



Hour. 



10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 
10 

10 
10 

10 

10 
10 



Place of 
Observation. 



Clifton (lat. 51° 
28' N., long. 
2° 36' E.). 



Apparent Size 



10 43 p.m 
10 46 p.m. 

10 40 30 
p.m. 

11 15 p.m. 

11 26 p.m. 

11 27 p.m. 

11 31 p.m. 
11 31 p.m. 

11 32 p.m. 
11 32 p.m. 

11 33 p.m. 

11 34 p.m. 
11 37 p.m 



Hawlihurst 
(Kent). 

Weston - super • 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 



= 7/. at max. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



10 
10 

10 

10 



Ibid 

Greenwich 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Lady - Well, 

Lewisham. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 2ndmag.+ 
= 2nd mag.# 
= 2nd mag* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 



11 39 30 
p.m. 

11 42 p.m. 



11 42 30 

p.m. 
11 44 p.m. 



Greenwich 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.# 

= 2nd mag.« 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.» 

= 2nd mag.» 
= 3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



Duration. 



2 seconds FromeUrsxMajori 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 




Blue 



Red 



To ») Aquaril 



I second 



1 second 



Whiteandl)lue0-5 second 



Reddish yel- 0-5 second 
low. 

Yellow 05 second 

Blue 0'5 second 



From y Andre 

medae to v P 

sciura. 
From below a Cai 

siopeias to Glori 

Frederici. 
From midway bi 

tween a. Hercul 

and M Serpentis 
From Head of Ai 

riga. 

From /3 Persei.... 



From vAndromed 

to y Pegasi. 
From y Pegasi.... 



Orange yellow 0'5 second ... 
Light blue . . . Less than 1 sec. 



Greenwich 



Lady - Well, 
Lewisham. 



= lst mag.* ; 
liant. 

Larger than 
mag.* 



bril. 



1st 



= 2nd mag.* 



Yellow 0-5 second 

Yellow li second 



Blue 1 second 



Deep yellow... 05 second 



1 second 



Slightly red- \% second 
dish. 



From « Pegasi to 

Aquarii. 
To a point midwi 

between /5 Pers 

and a. Arietis. 
On a line fro 

/3, y Androm. 

X, Persei, cent 

halfway. 
From n Persei to 

Andromedse. 
From ?; Aquilfe t 

wards the h 

rizon. 
Passed rapidly \ 

low Delphini 

across Aquil 
Near (12), (13) C 

melopardi. 

Disappeared neai 

Pegasi. 
From ^, to a poi 

near % Aquilae. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LtTMINOTJS METEORS. 



75 



.ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



eft a train for i second. 



Length of 
Path. 



eft a train . 



eft a train 



eft a train . 



eft a train 8 



eft a train . 

eft a train . 
eft a train , 



eft a train 

perceptible train 



eft a train . 



20° 



ine train, lasted 2 seconds 



eft a train . 



rain 



8°, 



10° 



15"^ 



4°. 



20° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



40^ downwards from 
horizontal, to left. 



Directed from y Andro- 
meda;. 



To left downwards, 
30° from perpendi- 
cular. 

Downwards to right 
45° from perpendi- 
cular. 



Downwards to right, 
50° from perpendi- 
cular. 



Directed from /3 Andro- 
medse. 



Reraarljs. 



Cloudy between 10'' and 
ll"" at Greenwich. 



Observer. 



W. C. Burder. 



Path parallel to y, a, 
and /3 Aquilae. 



10° from horizontal, 
towards the left, 
down. 

Directed from Cassio- 
peia. 

Perpendicular 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

W. H. Wood. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her. 
schel. 

W. H. Wood. 



Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
[d. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Her 
schel. 

W. H. Wood. 

J. P. Trapaud. 

W. C. Nash. 

W. H. Wood. 

W. C. Nash. 
J. P. Trapaud. 



76 



KE PORT— 1864. 



Date. 



18G4. 
Aug. 10 



Hour. 



h m s 

11 44 30 

p.m. 



lOjH 45 p.m, 



10 



11 47 p.m 



1011 47 10 
p.m. 



10 11 48 p.m. 



)0 

10 
10 

10 

10 
10 



11 48 p.m. 



11 50 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ladj- - Well, 
Lewisham. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Lady - Well, 
Lewisham. 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 



11 50 p.m. Ibid 



11 53 p.m. 



11 55 p.m. 



Ibid, 



Ibid. 



11 56 p.m. Lady - Well, 
Lewisham. 



lOjll 59 p.m. 
1 a.m 



11 
11 
11 

11 
11 
11 



4 a.m 



7 a.m, 



13 a.m. 

13 30 
a.m. 
19 a.m. 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.» 
=2nd va&g,* 
= lst mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.# 
= 05 Lyrae 



= 4th mag.* 



Colour. 



Yellow . 



Yellow 



Yellow 



= 3rd raag.# 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.jf 
= 2nd mag.* 



= 4th mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



--n 

= 4th mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Yellow 



Yellow 



Duration. 



2 seconds. 



H second 



1 second 



Moderate du- 
ration. 



lij second 



2 seconds. 



Swift 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From a little below 

6 Cygni to e 

Aquilae. 

From near S Cygni 

■ towards n Aquila;. 

On a line from 
y Cassiopeiae to 
a Lyrae, centre 
halfway. 

From a little above 
a Ophiuchi to 
midway between 
a and j3 Ophi- 
uchi. 

Fell vertically down- 
wards from /3 
Ophiuchi. 

Near m Custodis... 



From Polaris 



From between/3 and 
y to r Ursse Mi- 
noris, and several 
degrees further. 

On a line from 
y Andromedae to 
y Pegasi. Com- 
menced below /3 
Andromedse. 

From T Ursfe Mi- 
noris to i Bootis. 

From a point near 
a Herculis to a 
point near /3 
Ophiuchi. 

From /3 Cygni to f 
Aquilae. 

From a Lacertae to 
■4 (0, f ) Pegasi. 

From /3 Draconii 
towards 2[ Co- 
ronse. 

From near Z Her- 
culis across k 
Herculis, and 
several degrees 
further. 

From k to m Ursa? 
Majoris. 

From (7 to 2° over 
/3 Ursae Majoris. 

From 3° or 4° N. of 
a Cygni nearly 
to $ Draconis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 


77 


Appearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


Left a train 


Somewhat 
less than 
30°. 






J. P. Trapaud. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Iler- 
schel. 

Id. 

J. P. Trapaud. 

Id. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

(d. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

J. P. Trapaud. 

Id. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id, 
Id. 




Parallel to ^, /3 Cygni 






20° 






Slight train 


8^ to 10°... 


Almost perpendicular... 




No train 


Pernendicular 




it equalled a. Lyrae. 


Almost sta- 
tionary. 

Shortcourse 






Directed towards Ca- 

pella. 
Directed from Polaris 
















Left no train 








No train 


15° 


Inclined 




train 


15° 






No train left 








jNo train left 








No train left 




Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from 2 Ursse 
Minoris. 




1 

1 

^Jo train left 






-•eft no train 














j 








\ 











rs 



REPORT — 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1864. 
Aug. 11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 



11 
11 

11 

11 
11 
11 

11 
11 
11 



h m s 

22 a.m. 

23 a.m. 

25 a.m. 

29 a.m. 



Place of 
Obsen'ation. 



31 a.m. Ibid 



Hawkliurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid. 
Ibid, 



34 a.m, 



36 a,m. 

36 15 
a.m. 

40 a.m. 



40 30 
a.m. 
42 a.m 

44 30 
a.m. 

45 45 
a.m. 
46 a.m. Ibid , 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 



49 a.m. 



Greenwich 



11 



11 



11 



50 a.m, 



54 a.m 



55 a.m 



Ibid 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



--V- 

--V- 

:2 nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
-4th mag.« 

= lst map:.* 



► % , nearly 
Venus. 



jDeepyeUow. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



! Bluish white.. 



equal 



:2nd mag.* 



: a Lyrae .. 
:4th mag.« 
>- Venus .. 



'¥ 

:4th mag.* 
:1st mag.*.. 



YeUow 



Blue 



=2nd mag.* 

=4th mag.« 
=:2ud mag.* 



Blue 



Slow motion.. 



Swift 



Fell perpendicularly I 
from a Ophiuchi. 

/3 Cerberi to ■) 
Ophiuchi. 

To 3° below ; 
Aquarii. 

Between a, B Cygn: 



On 






a line fron: 
a Cassiopeiae tc 
Altair, centre al 
? Cygni. 
From 5° E. of 
Pegasi to belo' 
(i> Piscium. 



From 10°below, and 
a few degrees S. 
of y Pegasi. 

From k Norma 
Aquarii to mid- 
way between « 
/3 Capricorni. 

From Aquarii tc 
between « and 
Pegasi. 

From near y Pegaa 

From near y Pegas 

To \ Aquarii fron 
near y Piscium. 



From Algol . 



From y Cassiopeia 
to a Andromedse 

In the E., betweei 
Aries and tht 
upper part o 
Taurus. 



In the same posi 

tion as the pro 

ceding meteoi 

and with a simi 

lar direction. 

From ? to the Ne 

bula near v Anj 

dromedae. 

On the line from i 

Persei to a Ursa 

Majoris, nearer t( 

the latter star thai 

to the former. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



79 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Increased gradually, left a 

broad train. 
Train separate from the 

bead. 



Left a thin sharp tail . 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Long flight, 



12= 



Friin f second, termina- 20"^ 
ted abruptly. I 



15° 



^0 train left 



)ecreased gradually 



iteady light. 



-eft no train. Increased 
steadily to twice the 
brightness of Venus. 

iCft a fine train 



ine train 



15° 



20° 



imt train 



train left Shortcourse 



10° 



Directed from «s Lyrae. 



Directed from a. Andro 

medae. 
Directed from i Cassio. 

peiae. 
Directed from a Cassio, 

peise. 



Directed from y AndrO' 
medae. 



Directed from a Persei., 



Directed from Equuleus 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Ascending 



Directed towards FO' 

malhaut. 
Towards A Fluvii A- 

quarii. 
Dii-ected from a Andro- 

medae. 

Directed from y Cassio- 
peiae. 



Moved towards the ho. 
rizon. 



Path of this meteor ex 
actly parallel to that 
of 0'' 49"". 



The course appeared 
crooked towards the 
E. on arriving at 6 
Aquarii. 



Communicated 

byA.S.Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
W. C. Nash. 



Id. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 



80 



KEPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
Aug.l 1 



11 



Hour. 



h m s 
56 a.m. 



58 a.m. 



11 
11 
11 
11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 
11 

11 
11 
11 

11 
11 
11 

11 
11 



1 2 a.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 
(_Kent). 



Ibid. 

Ibid, 
Ibid. 



1 3 a.m. 1 
1 6 a.m. Ibid.. 
Ibid. 



1 6 30 
a.m. 

1 6 30 
a.m. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



1 7 a.m 
1 11 a.m.'Ibid. 
Ibid. 
1 15 a.m. Ibid , 



1 13 30 
a.m. 



1 15 30 

a.m. 
1 19 30 

a.m. 



1 21 a.m 

1 25 30 

a.m. 
1 31 30 

a.m. 

1 31 45 
a.m. 
1 36 a.ra, 

1 37 a.m. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 



1 37 30 Ibid , 

a.m. 
1 37 45 

a.m. 



Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



= V. 



= 4th mag.* 

= 3rd mag.» 
= 4th mag.* 
= 4th mag.« 
= 5th mag.* 

= 5th mag.* 

= 4th mag.» 

= lst mag.» 

2 >- Venus ., 

3 > Venus ., 



= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 

=4th mag.ti- 



Colour. 



Duration. 



A flasli 



Yellow 



Exceedingly 
swift. 

Exceedingly 
swift. 



= 2nd mag.» 

= 2nd mag.» 
= 3rd mag.» 
=Venus 



= 2nd mag.« 
= 2ad mag.* 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



In the Cluster (x) 
of Perseus. 



Ou a line from the 
head of Perseus 
towards Musca, 
centre midway. 

From Polaris .... 



From ^ Cygni to a 

Aquilse. 
From 5 to 2 Persei. 

From 2° E. of /t to 

2° E. of a An 

dromedae. 
From /3 Andre 

medfe towards y 

Pegasi. 
From ^ (i, k) Pe 

gasi nearly to « 

Cephei. 
On a line from ■) 

Pegasi to Fomal 

haut. 
In Pisces 



To a Cygni, two 
thirds of thi 
course from 
Cassiopeise. 

From j3 Cephei to ij 
Lyrae. 

On the line froi 
X Persei to 
Ursse Majorit 
centre halfway 

FromyAndromedl 

From 8 towards | 

Cassiopeiae. 
From 12° belc 

/3 Andromedse. 

Centre X Piscium. 

From a to 

Cygni. 
Moved on a lin 
continued throug 
9, from y Pers€ 
Commenced 3° ( 
4° from 0. 
From a to 1^° N.I 

? Pegasi. 
From a Andromed 
to y Pegasi. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOllS 

1 


81 


Appearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


, Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


The nucleus becam 
immediately convertet 
into a bright train. 


i Almost sta 
1 tiouary. 

.6° 


- Direction from B Came- 
lopardi. 




Communicated 
by A. S. Her. 
schel. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 






5° 


Towards Capella 




Left a sharp thin train .. 














' 


Left no train 


10° 






Left no train 


10° 




Simultaneous with the 
former. 




25° 












The nucleus became elon- 
gated ; left a faint 

Very l)right and broad 
train. 




Directed from k Persei.. 


















Short course 

Shorteourse 
Short course 
15° 


















jVery broad train 


Parallel to j3, S Andro- 
medae. 










Left a train 








.eft a short broad swelling 
train. 


5° or 4° ... 




























18G4. 








a 



82 



KEPORT 1864. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1864. 
Aug.] 



h m s 
1 39 a.m. 

1 44 30 
a.m. 
1 45 a.m. 

1 45 30 
a.m. 
1 48 a.m. 

1 48 a.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



1 49 a.m. 

1 51 30 

a.m. 
1 55 30 

a.m. 



1 56 30 
a.m. 

59 a.m 



2 a.m. 

2 45 
a.m. 

2 1 a.m. 



9 29 p.m. 
9 36 p.m. 



11 



9 38 p.m. 



11 
11 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid . 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 



Ibid 

Blackheath 



Lee (Kent) 



9 42 30 Ibid 

p.m. 
9 46 15 !lbid. 
p.m. 



Apparent Size. 



=2nd mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 
=:2nd mag.» 
=3rd mag.» 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 2Qd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.« 
=5th mag.# 

= 2nd mag.» 
= 3rd mag.» 



: Venus 



2 or 3 >Venus 



: 1st mag.* 



Very bright ; glo 
bular in form ; 
much larger than 
1st mag.* 



= 1st mag.*. 



= 4th mag.* 



Colour. 



Duration. 



White 



White, with 
green and 
blue rays. 

Blue 



Yellow 



Yellow 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From y Pegasi to- 
wards 5 Aquarii. 
From 5 Arietis ... 

From 7 Andromedoe 

From 7 Andromedse 

ToesAndromedae... 

On a line from 
y^ Persei to y 
Pegasi, centre at 
6 Andromedae. 

To « Aquilae from 
V Cygni. 

To a Lyrae 



Very quick ... 

.Momentary .., 

1 second 

Lessthanlsec 



I second 



f second 
I second 



From 2° S. of 
y Andromedae, 
nearly to a Cas 
siopeiae. 

From a, below /3 
Arietis, halfway 
to Fomalhaut. 

From 2"^ S. of ^ 
Cygni to e Del- 
phini. 

From a Pegasi to 
Delphinus. 

To \ {k, X) Dra- 
conis. 

In Caraelopardus, 
near y Persei. 

Towards N., and 
below y Bootis. 

Dropped from j] 
Ursae Majoris 
towards N.N.W. 
horizon. After 
falling through 
about 12", the 
meteor was hid- 
den behind trees. 

Towards N., below 
a Pegasi. 



Towards N., about 

.^° below a, Aquilae. 

Passed across e 

Bootis in asouth- 

erly direction. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



83 



Appearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer, 




20° 
















byA.S.Herschel. 
Id. 


teft a train 


Short course 
Shortcourse 
15° 


pei*. 
Directed from i («, y) 

Persei. 
Directed from i (y, «) 

Persei. 
Directed from x Persei.. 


' 


Id. 


Left a train 




Id. 


Left a thin train for i sec. 


Two shooting-stars at 
• once. 


Id. 
Id. 


15° 










Id. 


or two seconds. 


12° 


Directed from a Ppnlipi 




Id. 


20° 






Id. 


Left a train 








Id. 




15° 






Id. 


Broad train of light yellow 

sparks. 
Increased rapidly ; train 

widest at middle, yellow 

Increased instantly to a 
brilliant flash. 

Train 








Id. 


20° 






Id. 


Almost sta- 
tionary. 

30° 






Id. 






Charles W.Jones. 


A very fine train 


12°+ 




Bore a great resemblance 
to the falling ball of a 
Roman candle. 


W. C. Nash. 


Xo train 




CharlesW. Jones. 




15° 


ANDROMEDA 
* * ^g PECA9I 

* *a. FECAsr 

y PEC4SI ^^^.-^ — 

Vertical 


Id. 




10° 


[nclined 




Id. 




















&2 



84 



REPORT 1864. 















Position, or 


Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Altitude and 
Azimuth. 


IS 0-1. 
Vug.ll 


h m s 
10 30 


Lee (Kent) 


=2nd mag.* 


I51ue ' 


1 

f second This meteor passed 

left of Draconisi 






p.m. 










in an easterly di- 
rection. 


11 


10 19 p.m. 


Greenwich 


=2nd mag.» 


Blue 


L second 


From the direction 
of Cassiopeia ; 
















passed abovR 














Polaris to the 














vicinity of a 














Draconis. 


11 


10 23 p.m. 


Lee (Kent) 


= 4th mag.* 


Blue 


1 second 


?rom \ Draconis 
to 6 Ursae Majoris. 




11 


10 27 p.m. 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 


= lstmag.* 


White blue ... 


0"5 second ... 


t to (p Sagittarii ... 


11 


10 29 p.m. 


Greenwich 


= lstmag.# 


Yellowish 


1 second 


In N, ; dropped 
perpendicularly 
from an altitude 
of 20°, and dis 
appeared at an; 
altitude of 10°. i 
The point of 
appearance was 
vertically below 
Polaris. 


11 


10 29 45 


Lee (Kent) 


=3rd mag.» 


Blue 


1 second 


This meteor passed 
about 2° below 
















a Corona Borealis 
towards S. 


11 


10 44 p.m. 


Greenwich 


= 3rd mag.* 


Blue 


1 second 


From direction of 
■y Andromedae ; 
















disappeared be- 














low y Pegasi. 


11 


10 50 p.m. 


Ibid 


=4th mag.* 


Bluish white... 


I second 


Fell vertically 
downwards from 
















a point 10" below 














Polaris towards 














horizon, passing 














between t and j; 














Ursae Majoris. 


11 


10 51 p.m. 


Lee (Kent) 


=:2nd raag.» 


Blue 


L second 


Almost exactly in 
the same direc- 
















tion as the meteor 














at 10" 29"" 45'. 


11 


10 51 30 
p.m. 


Ibid 


= 2nd mag.* 


Deep blue ... 


1 second 


Passed downwards 
between aCoronae 














Borealis and y 














Bootis. 


11 


10 52 p.m 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 


Larger than 1 st 
mag.* 


Deep red .,. 


1-5 second .. 


a Aquilae to R. A. 
28U°,DecL S. 10°. 


11 


10 56 p.m 


Lee (Kent) 


=4th mag.* 


Blue 


1 second 


From the direction 






of Polaris, passed 














below a Dra- 














conis. 


11 


11 1 p.m 


Greenwich 


= lstmag.>K 


Bluish white.. 


Less than 1 sec 


Near <p Andro- 
medae. Disap- 
peared almost 
immediately. 

















A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 85 



.Vppearance; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Duration. I Path. 



Train of reddish sparks, 



2 J- seconds. 



10° 



17° 



10° 



25° 



12°+ 



15° 



15° to 20°.. 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks, 



Inclined 



Nearly horizontal 



Perpendicular , 



Inclined 



Perpendicular , 



Inclined 



Perpendicular , 



^DRACONIS POLARIS 



Clear, fine night , 



Observer. 



CharlesW.Jones 



W. C. Nash. 



CharlesW.Jones. 
W. H. Wood. 
W. C. Nash. 



CharlesW.Jones. 



W. C. Nash. 



Id. 



CharlesW.Jones. 

Id. 

W. H. Wood. 
CharlesW.Jones. 

W. C. Nash. 



86 



REPORT 18G1. 



Date. 



1864. 
Aug. 11 

11 



11 

11 

11 

11 

11 
11 

11 

12 

12 



12 
12 

12 

12 

12 
13 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 
11 14 p.m 

11 14 p.m. 



11 17 p.m. 



11 21 30 

p.m. and 
11 22 p.m. 
11 24 p.m 



11 26 p.m. 



11 23 p.m 

11 29 30 
p.m. 



11 34 30 
p.m. 

9 20 p.m 
9 49 p.m 



10 10 p.m. 

10 50 p.m 

11 5 p.m. 



11 14 p.m. 

11 52 p.m. 
5 a.m. 



Greenwich 



Ibid, 



Ibid 



Ibid, 



Lee (Kent) 



Greenwich 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 



Lee (Kent) 



Ibid 



Ibid . 



Lady - Well, 
Lewishara. 



Greenwich 



Ibid 

Ibid 
Ibid . 



Apparent Size. 



=3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.« 

=2nd mag.» 

=2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.» 

= 2nd mag.* 

:1st mag.*.., 
:1st mag.# 

:2nd mag.* 

:2nd mag.» 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= lst mag.*., 

= lst mag.*.. 
:4th ma;;.* 



Colour. 



Blue 



Blue 



Both meteors 
blue. 



Blue 

Blue 

Blue 
Blue 



Bluish white., 



Yellow 



Blue 



Duration. 



Less than 1 sec. 
4 second ... 



1 second each 



1 second 



1 second 



1 second 



Yellow 
Yellow 

Blue . 



Bluish white.. 



Blue 



4 or 5 seconds 



1 second 



1 second 



1 second . 

2 seconds. 



J second 



Less thanl sec. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1 second 



Vertically down to- 
wards horizon, 
across a Herculis. 

From a point near 
6 Ursae Majoris, 
nearly to 12 Ca- 
num Venatico- 
rum. 

From a Serpentis 
to the right of a 
Herculis. 

From direction of 
Polaris to /3 Dra- 
coiiis. 

From the direction 
of S Cassiopeise 
to fi Persei. 

Across (3 Bootis 
towards W. ho- 
rizon. 

From y Cygni to j8 
Draconis. 

From ^ Cygni ; 
passed to the 
left of Delphi- 
nus. 

Moved slowly from 
T Ursae Majoris 
to small stars 
near « Persei. 

From a little above 
j3 Pegasi in tlie 
direction of . 
Audroiiieilas. 

From about 3 
below Polaris 
to a point equi- 
distant between 
a Ursae Ma- 
joris and K Dra- 
conis. 

Across (3 Pegasi, 
downv.ards. 

From near 
Aquilae to 6 
Aquilas. 

From ft Corona; 
Borealis to 
point on the 
right of « Co- 
ronae Borealis. 

From the direc- 
of Cassio- 
to S Ce- 



tion 

peia 

phei 

Across 



/3 Persei 



towards horizon. 
Across t Aurigae 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



87 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



No train 



No train 



No train 



Fine train 



Train ... 
No train 



Length of 
Path. 



15° 



15° 



20° to 25°. 



10° to 12°. 

15° 

15° 

33° 

30° 



IncUned 



About 45°.. 



10° 



15° 



12° 

10° 

10° 

12° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Hotizoiital, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inchned. 



Perpendicular . 



Horizontal. Parallel 
paths. 



Inclined 



Horizontal 



Inclined 



FromW.N.W.toE.S.E., 

nearly liorizontal. 



Remarks. 



Two n-.eteors in the same 
position. 



This meteor moved more 
slowly than any I had 
ever observed. 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 
Arthur Harding. 

W. C. Nash. 

Id. 

Charles W.Jones. 

W. C. Nash. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

CharlesW. Jones. 

Id. 



Id. 

John P. Trapaud. 

Arthur Harding. 

W. C. Nash. 

Id. 
Id. 



88 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864 
Aug.lS 



13 
13 

13 
13 
21 

26 



26 



26 



26 



Hour. 



h m 
9 39 



p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Greenwich 



9 39 p.m 



10 18 p.m. 



10 35 p.m. 

11 13 30 
p.m. 

8 15 p.m 



10 55 p.m 



11 p.m 

11 p.m 
11 p.m. 



Lee (Kent) 



Blackheath 



Greenwich 



Lady - Well, 

Lewisliam. 

Edinburgh .. 



Hay (S. Wales). 



Grantham 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Apparent Size. 



Very brilliant , 



=2nd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 
Large fireball 



Half the size of the 
moon. 



Considerably > 1st 
mag* ; trans- 
mitted consider- 
able light. 

Very large meteor.. 



Bristol . 



Colour. 



Bluish white.. 



Blue . 
Orange 



Duration. 



Momentary ... 



a» 



Orange colour. 
Not a very 
dazzling 
light. 



H second .. 
Quick motion 



3 seconds. 



Bright reddish 
white, chang- 
ing to violet 
j'i'd at last 
deep violet. 

Orange 



Meteor of extraor- Blue 
dinary size. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



The meteor itself 
was not seen, 
but upon Ipok- 
ing up, the 
train was seen 
distinctly ex ■ 
tending from the 
zenith in the vi 
cinity of (5 Dra- 
conis to near 
Coronas Bore- 
alis. 

The same flash seen 



In E. a meteor fell 
perpendicularly 
from the direction 
of a Andromedae. 

From ^ to 6 Gas- 
siopeise. 

From a Herculis 
to (3 Ophiuclii. 

In S.E., about 40° 
above the hori- 
zon. 

From ^ (« Cygiii, 
« Cephei) to I 
(y UrsoB Minoris, 
1} Draconis). 
Disappearing to 
a few dc;-'ree.>. 
above Mizar. 



Moved with an 
apparently 
very slow 
speed. 

Very slow mo- 
tion for a 
meteor; 7 or 
8 seconds. 



From near P ?a 
gittje to the ccn- 
stellation Liljia. 



First appeared 

above the Pieiadc^ 
and set behind u 
hill in N.W. 
Very slow mo-iPassed from near 
tion. the zenith to near 

the horizon in tlie 
constel!.;tion ol 
Ursa Major. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEEVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



89 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



k. sudden very brilliant 
flash like a flash of 
lightning; train after 
disappearance of meteor 
lasted 2 seconds. 



'aint train 



'rain tinged with orange., 



Length of 
Path. 



ifter a startling flash, the 
meteor was seen in the 
zenith as a streak. Ue 
scending, the preceding 
part became more bril 
liant, and at last broke 
out into a pear-shaped 
orange mass, which be- 
came suddenly extin 
' guished, leaving above 
j this spot, and to the left 
f of its path, three or four 
i small green globes, one 
I above another. 



Lew at first appearance 
obstructed by trees 
broke at length into a 
number of beautiful 
fragments. 

ery long and brilliant 
tail. 



t with a profusion of 

;irks. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Perpendicular , 



Inclined 



Very long 
course. 



Obliquely down 
right to left. 



from 



Remarks, 



The flash lit up the street 
with a brilliant white 
light, in strong contra- 
distinction to the yel 
low light given by the 
gas-burners. After 6 
or 7 seconds a dull 
report was heard, 
somewhat doubtful, 
owing to the street 
noises. 

No further information 
than that given at 
Greenwich. 



Time perhaps 5 minutes 
slow. Very few me- 
teors seen the same 
evening. The white 
flash, the increasing 
orange flame, and the 
globes of green light, 
formed three distinct 
features in succession 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 



CharlesW. Jones 



W, C. Nash. 



Arthur Harding. 

John P. Trapaud 

Communicatf d 
by R. r. Greg, 

T. W. Webb. 



Bright frosty night. E. M. Rogers. 
Only two other small 
meteors. 



Commencement of me- 
teor not seen. 



J. H. S. Pjgott. 



Western Dail\ 
Press,' Aug. 29 



90 



REPORT 1864. 



Date. 



1864. 
-VUS.2G 

29 
31 



31 



Hour. 



h m 
11 8 p.m. 



9 24 p.m. 
10 30 p.m. 



About 10 30 
p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Wolverhampton One-fifth diameter 
of lull moon. 



Weston - super ■ 
Mare. 

Exeter (Devon- 
shire). 



Frant (Sussex). 



= lst mag.* .... 
Splendid meteor . 



Orange 



Ball of a Roman 
candle. 



Red ; after- 
wards blue. 



6 seconds 



3 seconds. 



Blue and red ; 
very striking 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Comparatively 
slow. 



From »; or x Cygnj 
to « Serpentis. 



From B Persei to 
Piscium. 

From /, g (near u) 
Aurigse to nea: 
the Pleiades 
little N.), when 
the meteor burst 



(' 



In the S.W. hori 
zon. 



APPENDIX. 

I. Meteors doxtblt observed. 
(1.) Shooting-star; 1863, August 8th, lO^ 55-° p.m. 

A shooting-star of long flight, leaving a long train ; observed at Ports- 
mouth and Hawkhurst (see Catalogue). Path, 142 miles in 2-8 seconds. 
Velocity, forty-nine miles per second. Du-ection, from azimuth "W. from S. 
264°, altitude 30°. Uegan 141 miles above the north of France (N. lat. 
50° 20', long. 3° 3' E.) ; disappeared seventy-one miles above the English 
Channel (N. lat. 50° 9', long. 0° 15' W.). 

(2.) Fireball ; 1863, August 10th, 8'^ 30" p.m. 

Described by Dr. Bianconi (Report for 1863, pp. 274, 335), and observed 
at Venice by Herr v. Wiillerstorf (Proc. Vienna Acad. vol. xlviii., 8th Oct. 
1863). The streaks extended from near Corona to the stars of Scorpius. 
Although, from the motion of the streak, the meteor appeared to be in the 
region of the winds, the two observations, with a base hue of eighty-hve mUes 
from Venice to the Sumoggia, indicate a considerable elevation. The first 
appearance took place at a height of sixty miles, in lat. 45° 18' N., long. 
11° 22' E., between Padua and Mantua. The meteor disappeared at a height 
of twenty miles, between Parma and Carrara, in lat. 44° 25' N., long. 
10° 12' E. Path, eighty miles. Direction, from the weU-known radiant- 
point between Perseus and Cassiopeia. 

(3.) Shooting-star ; 1863, September 5th, 9'^ 55" p.m. 

Observed at London and at Wisbech in Cambridgeshii-e (see Catalogue). 
Path, sixty miles in 1| second. Velocity, forty-eight miles per second. 
Direction, from azimuth W. from S. 283°, altitude 34°. Began 102 mUes 
above the North Sea (N. lat. 53° 29', long. 1° 1' E.) ; disappeared sixty-nine 
miles above the coast of Lincolnshire (N. lat. 53° 35', long. 0° 0'). 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



91 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; notinc; also 

■whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


urst at end of path into 
about five first magni- 
tude and several smaller 
stars. 






Changed colour. Moved 
slowly. Separate por- 
tions very bright after 
bursting. 


Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

W. H. Wood. 

Ed. Parfitt, 'The 
Times,' Sept. 3. 

F. C. R., 'The 
Times,' Sept. 3. 






in length. 

large ball and tail of blue 

light, leaving behind a 

red fragment and several 

sparks. 

he tail was luminous 






The red ball appeared 
to stand still for a 
second, and the blue 
envelope (for such 
it appeared to be) 
passed on, leaving 
a tiain of blue 
light. 

The tail was projected 
from the nucleus in 
jets. 


Ahout 45°.. 




and expanded at the 
extremity like that of a 
comet. 







(4.) Shooting-star; 1863, November 13th, 2" 48° a.m. 

Observed at Euston Road Observatory and Hawkhurst (see Catalogue). 
Path, thirty-nine miles in half a second. Direction, from azimuth W. from 
S. 238°, altitude 69°. Began ninety-three miles above the west of London 
(N. lat. 51° 30', long. 0° 13' W.) ; disappeared fifty-six miles above the 
neighbourhood of Chertsey (N. lat. 51° 30', long. 0^ 13' ^Y.). The velocity 
and duration of the tiight are doubtful. 

(5.) Shooting-star; 1863, November 13th, 2^ 53" a.m. 
Observed at Euston- Road Observatory and Hawkhurst (see Catalogite). 
Path, forty-seven miles in 0-7 second. Direction, from azimuth W. from S. 
302°, altitude 60°. Began eighty-seven miles above the sea (N. lat. 50° 32', 
long. 1° 11' W.) ; disappeared tbrty-seven mUes above the Hampshire coast 
(N. lat. 50° 43', long. 1° 39' W.). 

(6.) Fireball; 1863, December 5th, 7" 55°' p.m. 
A meteor which illuminated all the coasts of Britain with the semblance 
of a flash of lightning (see Catalogue). The locality of the phenomenon was 
thirty or sixty mUes above the sea, between the Lancashire coast and the 
Isle of Man. The accounts of its apparent course are too conflicting for 
discussion. 

(7.) Shooting-star; 1863, December 6th, lO'' 7"" 30' p.m. 
Observed at Euston Road Observatory and Hawkhurst (see Catalogue). 
Path, sixty-five miles in 1-3 second. Velocity, fifty miles per second. Direc- 
tion, from azimuth W. from S. 263°, altitude 6°. Began 122 miles above 
the sea (N. lat. 49° 51', long. 0° 57' E.) ; disappeared 115 miles above the 
sea (N. lat. 49° 44', long. 0° 31' W.). 

(8.) FirebaU; 1863, December 12th, 5" 4-5" p.m. 
Observed at Nottingham and Oundle (see Catalogue). Path, 125 mUes 
in 1| second. Velocity, seventy-one miles per second. Direction, from 



92 REPORT — 1864'. 

azimuth W. from S. 23G°, altitude 9°. Began 126 miles above the North Sea 
(N. lat. 51° 55', long. 1° 55' E.) ; disappeared 108 miles above the Sussex 
coast (N. lat. 50° 55', long. 0° 27' E.). 

(9.) Fireball; 1863, December 27th, 6" 55" p.m. 
Observations, at East Harptree and at Dulverton in Somersetshire (see 
Catalogue), agree with a path of eighty miles in 4 seconds. Direction, from 
azimuth W. from S. 277°, altitude 45°. Began eighty miles above the 
Channel (N. lat. 50° 37', long. 0° 42' W.) ; disappeared twenty-five miles 
above Poole, in Dorsetshire (N. lat. 50° 43', long. 2° 0' W.). The fireball 
agrees with an aerolitic date. 

(10.) EirebaU ; 1864, January 3rd, 8'' 25"" p.m. 
In the north of England ; observed at Liverpool, and Epping, near London 
(see Catalogue). 

(11.) EirebaU ; 1864, January 7th, 8'^ 36'" p.m. 
South of the Cornish coast ; observed at Weston-super-Mare and Dul- 
verton, in Somersetshire (see Catalogue). The overcast state of the sky 
appears to have precluded more general observations. 

(12.) Shooting-star J 1864, AprU 10th, 9" SO"" p.m. 
Observed at Greenwich Observatory and Hawkhurst (see Catalogue). The 
position, in N.W., is luifavom-able for calculation. 

(13.) Shooting-star ; 1864, April 20th, 2" 40™ 30^ a.m. 

Observed at London and Hawkhurst (see Catalogue). The view was im- 
paired by sunrise. 

(14.) EirebaU ; 1864, July 4th, 10'> 0"' p.m. 

Observed at Llanrwst (N. Wales) and at Wolverhampton, by Mr. T. M. 
Simkiss (see Catalog-ue), who concludes the path to have been from fifty miles 
above Stafford to thirty miles above Llandovery (in Wales). The meteor 
observed through clouds at Greemvich (see Catalogue) is perhaps identical 
with this. 

(15.) EirebaU; 1864, August 6th, 10" 20"" p.m. 

Observed at Wrotham (Kent) and at Paris (see Catalogue). It also 
attracted attention in Germany. Erom observations at Miinster, Essen, and 
Kempen, Professor Hcis concludes its path to have been directed from a 
considerable height above the North Sea, north-west of HoUand, to thii-ty or 
thii-ty-five miles above the sea, due north of Holland. It feU with a steep 
incKue from S.W. towards N.E. 

(16.) EirebaU; 1864, August 9th, 0" 52™ a.m. 
Observed at Hawkhurst, and at the Luxembourg in Paris (see Catalogue). 
Path, after the expansion, twenty-nine miles in one second. Direction, 
from azimuth W. from S. 250°, altitude 60°. Expanded 106 miles abovo 
the North Sea (N. lat. 53° 15', long. 3° 22' E.) ; disappeared eighty-two nules 
above the sea (N. lat. 53° 11', long. 3° 4' E.). 

(17.) EirebaU; 1864, August 10th, 8" 45™ 50^ p.m. 
Observed in Italy. Belongs among the few whose paths are known to 
lie from the west to the east of the meridian. Path, sixty miles in 3 or 4 
seconds. Telocity, fifteen or twenty miles per second. Direction, from 
azimuth W. from S. 30°, altitude 12° (near Antares). Began forty miles 
above Lecco (N. lat. 45° 52', long. E. 9° 25') ; disappeared thirty miles above 



I 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



93 



tlie_ Stelvio Pass (N. lat. 46° 30', long. E. 9° 55'). Directed from some 
radiant-point in the southern part of Ophiuehus, or Scorpius, 
(18.) Fireball; 1864, August 26th, 11" O"" p.m. 
Observed at Hay (South Wales), Wolverhampton, and Grantham (see 
Catalogue). Path, 110 miles in 5 seconds. Velocity, twenty-two miles per 
second. Direction, from azimuth W. from S. 330°, altitude 45°. Eegau 100 
miles above Monmouth (N. lat. 51° 50', long. 2° 43' W.) ; disappeared twenty 
miles above Barmouth, in North Wales (N. lat. 52° 43', long. 4° 4' W.). The 
height at first appearance is affected by considerable errors of observation. 

II. Meteoric Shower of August 1864. 
The annual display was less abundant than in 1863, and the meteors of 
the 9th and 10th of August did not exceed the ordinary scale of the phe- 
nomenon, either in numbers, brilliancy, or uniformity of direction. One 
meteor only was simultaneously observed at Greenwich Observatory and at 
Hawkhurst. 

1864, August 9th, 11" 3" G.M.T. 



A shooting-star, leaving a 
train, observed 


Began. 


Ended. 


Azimuth 
W. from S. 


Altitude. 


Azimuth 
W. from S. 


Altitude. 


At Greenwich Observatory. . 
At Hawkhurst (Kent) ...'.. 


312-7 

239-7 


67-7 
84-5 


e 

0-7 
41-0 




45-8 
62-5 . 



Beginning. 


End. 


Lat. 


Long. Height. 


Distance 

from 

Hawkhurst. 


Lat. Long. 


Height. 


Distance 

from 

Hawkhurst. 


51° 8'N. 

1 


Miles. 
0"'44'E. 82 


Miles. 

84 


1 
.50°41'N. 0° 7'E. 


Miles. 
63 


Miles. 
G3 



Length of 
Path. 


Duration at 
Greenwich. 


Velocity. 


Direction of fliglit, from 


Azimuth W. from S. 


Altitude. 


46 


Seconds. 
1-5 


Miles per second. 
31 


221° 


24° 



Apparent brightness 
at Hawkhurst. 


Brightness at 1 mile, 

compared to full 

moon. 


Consumption of 
coal-gas for equal 
luminous effect. 


Weight of meteoric 

matter arrested at 

30 miles per second. 


« Cygni. 


0-06 


Cubic feet. 
1-5 


Grs.* 
14 



* In the last column but one of Table III., p. 330 of the Eeport for 1863, the decimal 
pomt is misjjlaced, and the weights in the last column of that Table are ten times larger 
than the truth. 



94 REPORT — 1864. 

The following are Mr. Lowe's observations at Beeston Observatory, 1864, 
August 9th, P.M. : — 

1st. Number of meteors, & 50"" p.m. to lO*" p.m. = 5 

„ 10-^ „ 11'' „ =18 

„ ll'' „ 12- » =33 

„ 12" „ 1" A.M. = 22 

I'' A.M. to 2^ „ = 27 

2nd. Magnitude of meteors : — Above 1st mag.* ^ 



Equal 1st mag.* = 12 
„ 2nd mag.* = 25 
„ 3rd mag.* =19 
„ „ 4th & 5th mag.* = 49 

3rd. Colours of meteors : — Colouiiess = 14 

Blue = 2 






» » 



Red = 9 

„ „ Orange-red = 11 

„ „ Orange = 4 

Yellow = 25 

4th. Length of path of meteors:- — Under 5° in length = 22 

5° to 10° „ = 5 
„ „ 10° to 20° „ = 15 

20° to 40° „ =9 
5th. Peculiar features : — No very large or bright meteors, 2nd magnitude 
prevailing until midnight, then 4th and 5th magnitude stars, apparently more 
dist9,nt than at lO** p.m. 

Majority very similar in appearance. 
Much fewer blue than usual. 

Point of divergence about H 115 Persei. Very few discordant. 
The paths of meteors in Perseus very short ; those in Ursa Minor and Ursa 
Major very long. 

Mostly veiy rapid, and about equal in speed. 
The point of divergence lower and more northerly than last year. 
On the 9th, at Weston-super-Mare, 8 meteors brighter than 3rd magni- 
tude stars were seen from lO** 30" p.m. to ll"* p.m., by Mr. W. H. Wood. 

Between 10" p.m. on the 9th and 0" 30"" a.m. on the 10th, at Greenwich 
Observatory, Mr. W. C. Nash saw 1 meteor equal to Venus and 20 meteors 
greater than 2nd magnitude stars. 

On the 10th, from 3" a.m. to 3" 40"" a.m., at Vogogna in Italy, Mr. A. S. 
Herschel observed 40 meteors, of which 3 equal Sirius and 6 equal 1st mag- 
nitude star. 

Among 105 meteors observed on this night by Mr. Lowe, 51 left trains ; 
5 meteors with trains were observed by Mr. Wood, 23 by Mr. Nash, and 12 
by Mr. Herschel. The whole, being drawn on a map, present an ill-defined 
radiant-point near the head of Perseus. 

From 10" p.m. on the 10th to 2" a.m. on the morning of the 11th, meteors 
were observed at Hawkhurst to radiate from Perseus and from other coex- 
isting radiant-points. 

Radiant-points of meteors. 

Prom a point between a and y Persei = 48 meteors. 

„ Polaris . . . . = 12 ,, 

„ Pegasus . . . . = 7 ,, 

„ Undetermined radiants . = 11 „ 

Total 78 ,, 



>) 


J> 


)} 


)> 


J> 


}> 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 95 

Number of meteors from 10" to 10'^ 45™ p.m. = 12* 

11"^ 30™ to 12'' „ = 8* 
12'' to 1" A.M. = 24 

1" A.M. to 2" A.M. = 30 

Total 74 

Of these meteors, twenty-four left trains. 

From 10" 30™ p.m. to 11" p.m., ou the 10th, at Baveno (Italy), Mr. A. S. 
Herschel saw 36 meteors. Of these nine left trains : four were equal to 1st 
magnitude stars. 

On the night of the 10th, at Greenwich, there were seen by Messrs. "W. C. 
Nash, C. W. Jones, and P. Trapaud, of the Magnetical and Meteorological 
Department of the Eoyal Observatory, from Q^ p.m. to 1'' a.m., sixteen meteors 
larger than 3rd magnitude stars. The sky was mostly cloudy. 

On the same evening, at Weston-super-Mare, fifteen meteors larger than 
2ud magnitude stars were seen, by Mr. W. H. Wood, from lO*" 15™ to 11'' 45" 
P.M., who reports as follows : — 

" The 8th was overcast ; the 9th clear at intervals ; the lOth and also the 
11th clear and fine. The 9th and 10th were pretty good displays, but far 
inferior to that of August 1863. The meteors were sporadic, with occasional 
cessations ; and they exhibited a singular predominance of red and yellow 
colour." 

Messrs. T. W. Webb and T. M. Simkiss report, respectively, from Hay 
(South Wales) and Wolverhampton, regarding the meteors of the 10th 
August : — 

•' A good many shooting-stars on the night of the 10th, but not so many on 
the whole as on the previous night. 

" Not so many shooting-stars on the night of the 10th as on the previous 
night, but of the same character and general directions." 



III. * Heights of Shooting-staes,' by Professor Newton. 
(Am. Joum. Sci., 2nd ser., vol. xxxvi., July 1864.) 

Many of the heights of shooting-stars obtained by Brandes, Benzenberg, 
Boguslawski, Heis, Schmidt, &c., have been unavoidably advanced on slender 
grounds. The telegraph is now employed to insure identity among the 
meteors simultaneously observedf. Professor H. A. Newton has, however, 
collected upwards of 300 examples where the heights of falling-stars have 
(previously to this practice) been credibly determined. A similar inquiry was 
undertaken for the British Association, on the occasion of an unusually bright 
display of meteors observed in England on the 10th of August 1863, and the 
heights collected were found to correspond with the average of the heights 
observed on that occasion J. A few large bolides are contained in Professor 

* Sky partly overcast and hazy ; afterwards clear. A fifth part of the lime was spent in 
recording the meteors. 

t From tlie 6th to the 10th August (1864), 93 meteors were doubly observed between 
Eome and Civita Vecchia by the intervention of the electric telegraph. Parallax varying from 
15° to 4(J° was observed in the zenith of Rome, corresponding to heights of meteors between 
50 and 150 miles fi-om the surface of the earth. 

X Eeport, 1863, p. 332. Note at the foot of the page. 



96 REPORT— 1864. 

Newton's list, wtich therefore affords wider average limits of height than 
those given in the last Eeport. The results may be thus compared : — 

Average height at first 

appearance, No. of Observations, Reference. 

70-1 Brit. St. miles. 178 since Sept. 1798. B. A. Report, 1863. 

73-5 „ „ 234 „ „ Am. Journ. Sci., July 18G4. 

Average height at dis- 
appearance, No. of Observations, Reference. 
54-2 Brit. St. miles. 210 since Sept. 1798. B. A. Report, 1863. 
50-6 „ „ 290 „ „ Am. Journ. Sci., July 1864. 

The mean height of luminous meteors at appearance is accordingly 72, and 
at disappearance 52 British statute miles above the level of the sea, with a 
probable error of only tiuo miles, 

IV. ' N'ovEMBER Star-showers,' by Professor Newton. 

(Am. Journ. Sci. vol. xxxvii. p. 377, and vol. xxxviii. p. 53.) 

Comparing together the dates of thirteen historic star-showers, from Oc- 
tober 13th, 902, to November 13th, 1833, the existence of a common meteoric 
shotver becomes apparent. The node of the ring has an annual ^»-o-cession of 
l'-711 (reckoned from mean equinox), or of 52"-56 reckoned from a fixed 
equinox along the ecliptic. By this amount the date of the return has been 
delayed one day in every 34 years since the first appearance of the shower ; 
and the narratives are in accordance with a single meteoric phenomenon, of 
which the yearly period is 365-271 days, returning with especial intensity 
four times in every 133 years. A want of punctuality of one, two, or even 
three years in the return of the display may be accounted for by the revo- 
lution of the earth on its axis, by which observers were deprived of a view 
of the spectacle during a part of its existence. The explanation of the 
periodicity depends, not iipon the perturbations of the eartli or of the ring, 
but upon the true periodical time of revolution of the cloud. Its displace- 
ment yI^ parts of a revolution from the node per annum may be accom- 
panied with 0, 1, or 2 complete revolutions round the sun, but with no frac- 
tional i^art of a revolution, because the cloud has been encountered at the 
node with almost equal intensity on two successive years (1832 and 1833). 
The displacement cannot be accompanied vrith any greater intee/ral number 
of revolutions than two, on account of its distance from the sun. As, more- 
over, the true motion of the November meteors is sensibly perpendicular to 
a radius-vector from the sun, probability must be held to decide in favour 
of the nearly circular orbit, with li-j-fi? revolution per annum, and with a 
velocity nearly equal to that of the earth, but in a retrograde direction. The 
inclination observed corresponds to nearly 17° with the echptic. 




Should more than one revolution be performed in one year by the meteoric 
cloud, the two or three successive encounters which compose one principal 
meteoric epoch must fall earlier in the year, and vice versa. Sufficient mate- 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 97 

rials do in fact exist for preferring this alternative. In this case the period 
from node to node is 354-621 days, with a probable error not exceeding 

16 minutes. The orbit is nearly circular, with a semi-major axis 0-9805, a 
velocity of arrival iu the atmosphere (allowing for the attraction of the earth) 
20-17 miles, and a velocity of passage through the atmosphere 38-7 miles, or 
nearly forty miles per second. 

A maximum display on the morning of the 14th November, 1866, is 
expected to be chiefly visible on the western Atlantic. 

Y. Meteoeites. 

(Proc. Vienna Acad. Sci. vols, xlviii. and xlix.)] 

(1.) 1863, August 11th, ll'' 30-" a.m. 

Near Shytal, Dacca, about 150 miles N.E. from Calcutta. A report like 

thunder was presently followed by the fall of a meteoric stone. The stone 

weighed 5 lbs., measuring 4 inches to 6 inches in different parts, and struck 

17 inches into the ground. It is entirely covered by a thin black crust, and 
the interior substance resembles (by large patches) the meteorites of Weston — 
by veins of darker colour the stones of Lixna and Macao, and those of 
Parnallee by a general variegated appearance. It has been forwarded to the 
British Museum through the Asiatic Society of Bengal. A section is destined 
for the Museum of Vienna. The direction of the meteor was from E. to "W. 

(2.) 
Dr. Haidinger, of Vienna, concludes a paper on the physical connexion of 
meteorites with fireballs and shooting-stars by the following remarks (vol. xlix. 
p. 16) : — " One of the conclusions which appear to be established by recent 
observations is, that the three classes of meteorites, fireballs, and shooting- 
stars are assemblages of fragments, finer or coarser. A study of the fused 
surfaces of the meteorites of Stannern shows that these, at least occasionally, 
enter the atmosphere in a crowd. Dr. Schmidt observed a similar structure, 
by aid of the telescope, in the case of a detonating fireball, on the 19th October, 
1863. Mr. Alexander Herschel also arrives at the same conclusion, on in- 
dependent grounds, vpith respect to shooting-stars, and supposes them to 
consist of dust, more or less arenaceous in its form." The fireball observed 
by Dr. Schmidt, the Researches on Metoerites, and those on Shooting-stars, 
referred to in this paragraph, are described in former papers of the Academy. 

(3.) 1863, December 7th, 11'^ a.m. 

Tourinnes la Grosse, Tirlemont, near "Waterloo in Flanders. A baU of 
white-hot matter shot suddenly from S.E. to N.W. across the sky, which was 
cloudy. Shortly afterwards a crash was heard, followed by a whistUng noise. 
Two aerolites were precipitated, 14 lbs. and 15 lbs. in weight, and distant two 
miles from one another, one of which broke the trunk of a fir-tree 12 inches 
in circumference, and buried itself 6 inches in the earth. The second, falling 
on a footway in the village of Tourinnes la Grosse, splintered a flagstone, and 
broke into 25 or 30 fragments, severely burning the fingers of those who 
attempted to collect them. A thii-d stone of 2| lbs. weight, which feU 
■without injury from branch to branch of a tree, is preserved in the Museum 
of Natural History at Paris. Daubree and Haidinger conclude that meteorites 
reach the earth -with a velocity less than that of a cannon-ball. The de- 
tonations are a proof of the violence with which their planetary velocity is 
destroyed by the resistance of the air. The Tourinnes stones are Ught grey, 
and, from the presence of spherules, chondritic. Chladnite (nickeliferous 
iron) and troilite (magnetic iron-pyrites) are disseminated through the stones 

1864. H 



98 REPORT — 1864. 

in grains, and the latter pretty large. The crust is one-fiftieth of an inch 
in thickness, and duU black. 

A stone of 2| ozs. is in the Museum of Mineralogy at Vienna, 2^ lbs. in 
the Museum of Natural History at Paris, and a fragment, 1 lb. in weight, in 
the British Museum. 

(4.) 1864, March 14th, and 1864, May 2nd. 

"May 8tJi to 14th is an aerolitic period, and its radiant-point should he 
determined." (E. P. Greg, Manchester, 14th March, 1864.) 

" May the 12th xvill he the next time to verify, and has of late years heen 
very richly aerolitic." (P. P. Greg, Manchester, 2nd May, 1864.) 

The aerolitic period so defined by Mr. Greg was verified by the fall of a 
meteorite at Orgueil (S. France), on the evening of the 14th May, 1864. 
The meteorites are rich in carbon and soluble salts, among which are those of 
ammonia. (Comptes Rendus, vol. Iviii., for May 23, and following numbers 
contain full particulars. At pp. 1100 and 1212 the trajectory of the meteor 
is described.) 

YI. EADIANT-POUfTS OF ShOOTINS-STAES. 

Showers of meteors are of comparatively frequent occurrence, and, since the 
display of November 1833, it is well kuo'mi that the meteoric tracks on these 
occasions take their directions fi-om a point (termed the radiant- jioint of the 
shower) which retains its apparent place imchanged among the stars during 
the continuance of the shower. The following observations were expressly 
condiicted for the purpose of determining the radiant-points of meteors on 
particular dates, since the last Eeport : — 

Date of Approximate No. of General Accuracy 

Observation. Position of Radiant-point. Observations. of Divergence. 

R.A. N.Decl. 

1863, Aug. 10-11.../.- Persei 43-8 56-2 120 ... Great. 

,, Dec. 12-13. ..r Geniinorum . 105'5 30'5 17 ... Considerable. 

1864, Jan. 2-3 ...e Quadrantis... 234-0 50 9 100 ... Great. 

„ Apr. 10-11...5Virginis 1923 4-2 12 ... Average. 

„ Apr. 12-13. ..Cerberus 270-0 250 16 ... Inconsiderable. 

„ Apr. 19-20. ..near a Lvrsc... 277-5 34-6 23 ... Great. 

„ Aug. 9-10...D Camelopardi 49-8 55-0 87 ... Considerable. 

The position of the radiant-point on the night of the 2nd January differs 
only 5° from the centre of eight very luminous excursions, observed by the 
late Stillman Masters, in America, at davbreak on the 2nd Januarv, 1863 
(E. A. 23S°-0, N. P. D. 43°-6). The fixity of this radiant-point for two suc- 
cessive years, under circumstances so widely difi'cring from one another in 
hour and place, is a strong aVgument for the astronomical uatiu'e of periodical 
meteors. A radiant-point near a Lyra; was observed in America, by the 
late E. C Hen-ick, on the morning of the 19th April, 1839, a qiuirter of a 
century before the observation recorded in this list. Eelying upon the gene- 
ral stability of meteoric phenomena, it is possible to determine the radiant- 
points of sjjoradic meteors (if these exist), in the same manner as the radiant- 
points of periodical shooting-stars, from observations of a long series of years. 
The Eeports of the British Association, Coulvier Gravier's Catalogues, and 
• other less extensive observations atford more than sufficient materials for the 
purpose. The centres of excursion of sjioradic meteors continue for weeks, 
or even months, in one position, until theii' epochs overlap. Two or more 
centres of excursions then coexist for a time, and afterwards give place to 
other radiant-points. The following list of general radiant-points of shootings 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



99 



stars, arranged by Mr. Greg, is remarkably verified in many of its positions 
by the corresponding list of radiant-points contributed by Dr. Heis, in the 
' Monthly Notices' of the Astronomical Society (vol. xxiv. p. 213). 

General Radiant-points of Shooting-stars. 



Comparison of the 


Epochs and Positions of Radiant- 


points of Shooting-stars, concluded 


independently, by R. P. Greg, Esq 


, and Dr. 


E. 11 


sis. 


From Observations contained in the British Association 


Observed at Munster, 1849-61. 


Catalogues, 1843 


-1863. (U. P. G 


reg.) 








(E. Heis.) 


No. 


Epochs in their order 
of commencement. 


62 


Distinctive 
Number. 
(Greg.) 


R.A. 


4) 

Q 


Distinc- 
tive 
Letters. 


R.A. 


Q 


Epochs to the 
nearest half-month. 


1 


Dec. 20 to Jan. 30... 


20 


II 


O 

22 


O 

75 


A: 

A, 




29 
15 




50 
63 


January 1 to 15. 
January 16 to 31. 






2 


Dec. 20 to Jan. 30... 


13 Il.a 


5 


85 


Ni 

'n., 


285 



84 
90 


January 1 to 15. 
January 16 to 31. 


3 


Dec. 21 to Feb. 4 ... 


28 III 


68 


17 


AG, 








4 


January 2 to 3 


52 


I 


234 


51 


; I'. ::::;: 


235 
242 


52 
51 


December 16 to 31. 
January 1 to 15. 






5 


Jan. 2 to Feb. 4 ... 
January 5 to 25 ... 


30 
15 


IV 


133 
173 


40 
32 


i?M ... 
M G, 


166 


52 


January 16 to 31. 


6 


IV.a 


7 


February 4 to 26 ... 


36! V 


147 


34 


M3 ...... 


l.'iO 


60 


February 1 to 14. 


8 


February 7 to 26 ... 
February 9 to 17 ... 


20 vr 


136 


70 


i M, 


130 


63 


February 15 to 28. 


9 


13 


VII 


76 


40 


A3 


65 


51 


February 1 to 14. 














A, 


91 


37 


February 15 to 28. 


10 


Feb. 10 to Mar. 1 7.. . 


21 


VIII 


168 


9 


1; :::::: 

s; 


170 
178 
173 


11 

7 
23 


February 15 to 28. 
March 1 to 15. 
March 16 to 31. 


11 


Feb. 11 to Mar. 16... 


10 


Vlll.a 


37 


1 


s'g, 








12 


February 19 to 25... 


10 


Vl.a 


220 


84 


N3 

N, 



250 


90 
83 


February 1 to 14. 
February 15 to 28. 


13 


March 3 to 27 


11 


XIII 


44 


72 


N 


340 


80 


March 1 to 15. 


14 


March 3 to 31 


30 


IX 


145 


67 


m; 

M, 


125 
140 


52 
50 


March 1 to 15. 
March 16 to 31. 




15 

16 


March 3 to 31 

March 12 to 20 ... 


18 
20 


X 


186 
223 


58 
39 


?M, 

M G., 


140 


50 


March 16 to 31. 


XII 


17 


April 1 to June 2 ... 


52 XI 


194 


f\'> 


i M, 


160 


53 


April 1 to 15. 












1 M, 


150 


61 


April 16 to 30. 


18 


April 2 to May 1 ... 


20 XIV 


189 


4 


! s; 


194 


5 


April 16 to 30. 


to 


April 8 to May 28... 


20 XIX 


227 


-8 


:SG3 








20 


April 13 (a.m.) 


17 XVI 


276 


26 


QG 








21 


.April 16 to May 3 ... 


30 XV 


96 


87 


N 


265 


83 


April 16 to 30. 


21 


April 19 to 20 


25 XVII 


282 


33 


DGj 








23 


April 25 to June 4... 


28 XVIII. ... 


255 


48 


DG, 








24 


April 30 to June 4... 


15 XX 


243 


20 


Qi 


218 


20 


May 1 to 31. 


25 


May 9 to June 3 ... 


16; XVIII.a... 


277 


42 


D 








26 


May 9 to June 4 ... 


8 


XXI 


286 


21 


W 


292 


16 


June 1 to 30. 


27 


May 29 to June 17... 


18 


XXII. ... 


336 


45 


B, 


332 


60 


Mav 1 to 31. 












B.; 


333 


42 


June 1 to 30. 


28 
29 


June 1 to 30 


9 XX.a 

12 xxiri. 


236 
300 


30 

85 


Qo 

N, 

N,„ 


242 
290 
150 


12 
80 
83 


June 1 to 30. 
.May 1 to 31. 
June 1 to 30. 


June 1 to 30 








.■^o 


July 2 to 24 


51 


XXIV. . , 


291 


53 


B 


315 


54 


Julv 1 to 15. 










to 313 


43 










31 


July 10 to Aug. 6 ... 


26 


XXVII. ... 


257 


13 


Q3 


262 


I2I Julv 1 to 15. 


32 


July 20 to Aug. 4 ... 


46 


XXV 


359 


70 


:Nr :::::: 


20 
337 


85 July 1 to 15. 

86 July 16 to Aug. 15. 


1 


















h2 



100 



REPORT — 1864. 



General Radiant-points of Shooting-stars {continued). 



Comparison of the 


Epochs and Positions of Radiant-points of Shooting-stars, concluded 


independently, by R. P. Greg 


, Esq 


, and Dr. 


E. H 


sis. 


From Observations contained in the British Association 


Observed at Munster, 1849-61. 


Catalogues, 1845-1863. (R. P. Greg.) 








(E. Heis.) 


No. 


Epochs in their order 
of commencement. 




Distinctive 
Number. 
(Greg.) 


R.A. 




Distinc- 
tive 
Letters. 


R.A. 


"3 


Epochs to the 
nearest half-month. 


33 


July 22 to Aug. 10... 


70 


XXVI. ... 


O 

344 

to 327 


o 

12 
10 


Ti 


314 


15 


August 16 to 31. 


34 


July 29 to Aug. 22... 


123 


XXI V.a ... 


302 


44 


















to 288 


42 


B, 


306 


59 


August 16 to 31. 










& 298 


58 


Bo 


302 


65 


July 16 to Aug. 15. 


35 


Aug. 6 to Sept. 10... 


80 


XXIX. ... 





90 


?!;::::::: 


295 
130 


79 
84 


August 16 to 31. 
September 1 to 15. 


36 


August 7 to 16 


... 


XXVIII.... 


45 
to 20 


55 
62 


Ao 


50 


51 


July 16 to Aug. 15. 


37 


Aug. 17 to Sept. 12 


9 


XXVII.a... 


245 

to 262 

282 


5 
12 
42 


Q3 


262 


12 


July 1 to 15. 


38 


Aug. 17 to Sept. 30 


18 


XXIV.J, or 


B5 


293 


57 


September 1 to 15. 








XXX.a. 














39 


Aug. 17 to Sept. 30 


150 


XXX 


333 


50 


EG 
















viz.314 


52 


E 


330 


50 


October 16 to 31. 










to 347 


47 


An 


35 


63 


September 1 to 15. 










& 333 


41 


■A.! 2 


44 


63 


September 10 to 30. 










to 333 


62 


A 


51 


61 


October 1 to 15. 


40 


Aug. 18 to Sept. 29 


27 


XXXI., or 


13 


34 


R 


53 


35 


September 1 to 15. 








XXX.*. 






R 


46 


37 


September 10 to 30. 


41 


Aug. 22 to Nov. 5... 


27 


XXXII. ... 


1 


15 


T. 

?: :::::: 


343 

1 
3 


10 
11 
11 


September 1 to 15. 
September 16 to 30. 
October 1 to 15. 


42 


Sept. 6 to Nov. 23... 


18 


XXXIV.... 


22 


-9 


TG 
U 


10 


-11 


October 16 to 31. 


43 


Sept. 20 to Oct. 11... 


35 


XXXV. ... 


83 


48 


AG. 








44 


Sept. 25 to Oct. 10... 


16 


XXXVI. ... 


51 


84 


N,,: 


65 


84 


September 16 to 30. 


45 


Sept. 27 to Nov. 2... 


67 


XXXIII.... 


14 


58 


Au 

A,5 


20 
25 


42 
40 


October 16 to 31. 
December 1 to 15. 


46 


October 3 to 20 


11 


XXXVII... 


140 


45 


L G 
?Li 


115 


55 


December 1 to 15. 


47 


Oct. 4 to Nov. 10 ... 


35 


XXXVIII. 


45 


33 


R, 


45 


32 


October 1 to 15. 


48 


Oct. 18 to Nov. 3 ... 


30 


XXXIX.... 


83 


12 











49 
50 


Oct. 20 to Nov. 21... 
Oct. 31 to Dec. 9 ... 


33 
14 


XL 


91 
139 


56 

7 


F 

LH 


75 


40 


October 16 to 31. 


XLIII. ... 


51 


November 1 to 23... 


75 


XLI 


16 


49 


AG3 








52 


November 7 to 15... 




XLII 


153 


22 


L„ 


150 


28 


November 1 to 30. 


53 


Nov. 23 to Dec. 9... 


9 


XLV 


279 


56 


DG3 








54 


Nov. 24 to Dec. 10... 


37 


XLIV. ... 


59 


58 


■'^■IG 


37 


59 


December 16 to 31. 


55 


Nov. 26 to Dec. 30... 


84 


XLVIL ... 


96 


36 


G 

?Li 


115 


55 


December 1 to 15. 


56 


Nov. 27 to Dec. 19 


10 


XLVI. ... 


157 


71 


KG 










Total days, 1655. 


1746 

















Each of the foregoing fifty-six radiant-points of shooting-stars depends 
upon the average of one meteor recorded per night for thii'ty successive nights, 
which is the average duration of a meteoric shower. Even cursory observa- 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 101 

tions are calculated to add to the precision -with which, it will in future be 
desirable to fix the epochs and positions of these radiant-poiiits. When the 
epochs and positions of the different general radiant-points of shooting-stars 
are more exactly circumscribed, it may be reasonably expected that fireballs 
and meteorites wiU be shown to belong, hke shooting- stars, to meteoric 
showers. 

The results arrived at independently by Professor Heis, of Miinster, are in 
general strongly corroborative of those obtained by Mr. Greg, of Manchester, 
though in certain cases the latter exhibits radiants not given by the former, 
and vice versa. Professor Heis, however, has somewhat arbitrarily divided 
his meteor-showers and radiants into bi-monthly divisions, and has thus 
occasionally presented the same shower with a number of radiants more or 
less closely aUied to each other. 

Mr. Greg has endeavoured to give as nearly as possible the precise dura- 
tion and limit of each shower, as well as the average position of its connected 
radiant. 

The general results may be thus summed up, with a tolerable degree of 
certainty, as regards the meteor-sliowers. 

They appear to endure for almost any period, from twenty-four hours to 
eight or possibly ten weeks, differing from one another in richness or intensity 
of display. In some there appears to be a tendency to maximum display 
on particular days, as for example xlvii., lasting from November 26th to De- 
cember 30th ; but the most abundant display occurs from December 9th to 
13th. In others no such maximum can be perceived. Their number, of 
fully fifty as yet ascertained, will probably not be much exceeded, unless 
by short-lived showers, and by others whose radiants culminate just before 
dawn. There is no confusion or chance in their return, but, on the contrary, 
the showers arc very regularly reciu'rent every year, and, allowing a radiant- 
region of 10° to 15° in diameter for each, the so-called " sporadic" meteors 
wiU become extremely scarce, now that the principal showers and their 
radiants have been pointed out. A well-marked instance of long persistence, 
and remarkable for having its radiant very small and fixed, is the shower of 
August 6th to September 10th, no. xxix. The great majority have, at the 
present time, been as clearly defined (as regards the time of their occurrence, 
duration, and positions of their radiants) as is the case with the older and 
better-knowia showers of August and Ifovember, On the average of many 
years, the radiant-regions of a few are, however, still very extensive. In all, 
a plane, oval, or double-headed region of radiation appears to represent the 
conditions of the showers more correctly than a point. This elongation of 
the radiant-region is in most cases perpendicular to the ecliptic, or parallel 
to the via lacfea, in or near which the greater number of the radiants in the 
latter half of the year are placed. The meteors of particular showers vary 
in their distinctive characters, some being larger and brighter than others, 
some whiter, some more ruddy than others ; some swifter, and drawing after 
them more persistent trains than those of other showers. Their connexion 
with the epochs and directions of large meteors stUl remains to be esta- 
blished. 



lOZ REPOET 1864. 



Report on the best Means of providing for a Umformity of Weights 
and Measures, loith reference to the Interests of Science. By a Com- 
mittee consisting of Lord Wrottesley*^ D.C.L., F.R.S., The Rt. 
Hon. C. B. Adderley*, M.P., Sir William Armstrong, C.B., 
F.R.S., The Astronomer Eoyal, F.R.S., Samuel Brown*, W. 
EwART, M.P., T. Graham, F.R.S., Sir John Hay* Bart., M.P., 
F.R.S., Prof. Hennessy* F.R.S., James Heywood* 3I.A., F.R.S., 
Dr. Lee* F.R.S., Dr. Leone Levi*, F.S.A., F.S.S., Prof. W. A. 
Miller, F.R.S., Prof. Rankine* F.R.S., Rev. Dr. Robinson, 
F.R.S., Col. Sykes*, M.P., F.R.S., W. Tite, M.P., F.R.S., Prof. 
A. W. Williamson*, F.R.S., James Yates, M.A., F.R.S., and 
Frederick Purdy*. 

Foe a uniformity of weights and measures with reference to the interests 
of science, the Committee recommend to the British Association the follow- 
ing resolutions : — 

1, That it is desirable, in the interests of science, to adopt a decimal system 
of Aveights and measures. 

2. That in furtherance of this proposal, it is desirable, from its scientific 
capabilities, to adopt the metric system f. 

o. That as the weights and measures of this country are gradually under- 
going a process of decimaUzation, it would be more advantageous, instead of 
drifting by degrees into a heterogeneous variety of systems, to change at 
once to a really convenient system. 

4. That it be recommended to the Government, in all cases in which 
statistical documents issued by them relate to questions of international 
interest, to give the metric equivalents to English weights and measures. 

5. That in communications respecting weights and measures, presented to 
foreign countries wliich have adopted the metric sj'stem, equivalents in the 
metric system be given for the ordinary English expressions for length, 
capacity, bulk, and weight. 

6. That it be recommended to the authors of scientific communications, in 
all cases where the expense or labour involved would not be too great, to 
give the metric equivalents of the weights and measures mentioned. 

7. That the influence of the British Association would be beneficially 
exerted in obtaining from Paris an authorized set of metric weights and 
measures, to be placed in some pubhc and fre(iuented bi;ilding in London. 

8. That advantage will be derived from the recent publication of metric 
tables, by C. H. Dowling, C.E., in which British standard weights and 
measures are compared Avith those of the metric system J. That treatises 
explaining the metric system, with diagrams, should be forthwith laid before 
the public. That works on arithmetic should contain metric tables of weights 
and measures, with suitable exercises on those tables ; and that inspectors of 
schools should examine candidates for pupil-teachers in the metric system. 

9. On the subject of temperature, it is recommended that the authors of 
Reports to be presented to the British Association, relative to temperature, 

* Those inembers whose names have an asterisk (*) added hare attended meetings of 
the Committee. 

t Professor Rankine has dissented from the second Kesolution. 
J London, Lockvvood and Co., 1864. 



ON THE UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASTJKES. 103 

be requested to give the degrees of heat or cold according to both the 
Centigrade and Fahrenheit's thermometers. 

10. It is recommended that the scales of thermometers constructed for sci- 
entific purposes be divided both according to the Centigrade and Fahrenheit 
scales ; and that barometric scales be divided into fractions of the metre, as 
well as into those of the foot and inch. 

11. That a committee on uniformity of weights and measures be re- 
appointed, with a grant of £20. 

Prince Talleyrand, in 1790, distributed among the members of the Consti- 
tuent Assembly of France a proposal, founded upon the excessive diversity 
and confusion of the weights aud measures then prevailing all over that 
country, for the reformation of the system, or rather for the foundation of a 
new system upon the principle of a single and universal standard*. 

A Committee of the Academy of Sciences, consisting of five of the most 
eminent mathematicians of Europe — Borda, Lagrange, Laplace, Monge, and 
Condorcet — were subse(]uently appointed, under a decree of the Constituent 
Assembly, to report upon the selection of a natural standard ; and the Com- 
mittee proposed in their Report that the ten-millionth part of the quarter of 
the meridian of Dunkirk should be taken as the standard unit of linear 
measure. 

Delambro and Mechain were appointed to measure an are of the meridian 
between Dunkirk and Barcelona. They commenced their labours at the most 
agitated period of the French revolution. At every station of their progress 
in the field-survey they were arrested by the suspicions and alarms of the 
people, who took them for spies or engineers of the invading enemies of 
France. The result was a very wonderful approximation to the true length, 
and one in the highest degree " creditable to the French astronomers and 
geometricians, who carried on their operations, under every difficulty and at 
the hazard of their lives, in the midst of the greatest political convulsion of 
modern times" t. 

By means of the arc of the meridian measured between Dunkirk and Bar- 
celona, and of the arc measiu-ed in Peru, in 1736, by Bougner and La Con- 
damine, the length of the quarter of the meridian, or the distance from the pole 
to the equator, was calculated. This length was partitioned into ten millions 
of equal parts, and one of these parts was taken for the unit of length, and 
called a metre X, from the Greek word nerpov {a measure). 

If the arc of the meridian be calculated from the result of French researches, 
the metre itself is equal, in English measirrement, to 39-37079 inches ; and 
m\xltiplying this length by 10,000,000, the length of the quadrant of the 
meridlian, when converted into feet, will be, 32,808,992 feet. Sir John 
Herschel estimates the length of the quadrant of the meridian at 32,813,000 
feet ; so that, according to his calculation, there is a diiference between the 
French and the new estimate of the quadrant, of 4008 feet, and therefore the 
French length of the quadrant is g-pVr^^ too short, aud the metre is ^J-^th 
of an inch less than the length of the ten-miUiouth part of the quadrant. 

An error of ^J^-th of an inch in the determination of the metre is 
more than counterbalanced by the extreme simplicity, symmetry, and con- 
venience of the metric system. Professor Bessol observed with respect to 

* Eeport of John Quincy Adams on Weights and Measures, p. 49. Washington, 1821. 
. t Essay on the Yard, the Penchilum, and the Metre, by Sir John F. W. Herschel, 
Bart., K.H., M.A., F.E.S., &c., p. 19. London, 1863. 

X Briot's 'Arithmetic,'translatedby J. Spear, Esq.,p.l52. E. Hardwicke : London, 1863. 



104 REPORT— 1864. 

the metre, that, " in the measurement of a length hetween two points on 
the surface of the earth, there is no advantage at all in proving the relation 
of the measured distance to a quadi-ant of the meridian"*. Professor Miller, 
of Cambridge, who quotes this remark, deems the error in the relation of the 
metre to the quadrant of the meridian to be of no consequence ; and he 
mentions another slight error in the metric system, discovered by recent 
research, and relating to the density of water, which he gives in the following 
words of Bessel t: — 

" The kilogramme (1000 grammes) is not exactly the weight of a cubic 
decimetre of water. Many of the late weighings show that water at its maxi- 
mum density has a diiferent density from that which was assumed by the 
Erench philosophers who prepared the original standard of the kilogramme ; 
but nobody wishes to alter the value of the gramme on that account." 

M. Chevalier stated to the Committee of the House of Commons on Weights 
and Measui'es, in 1862, that, in calcidation, the metric system spares both 
time and labour, exactly as a good machine would do for spinning or 
weaving. 

The metric system is considered by Sir William Armstrong to be " the only 
one which has any chance of becoming universal." 

Two important principles form the basis of the metric system. 

1. That the unit of linear measure, applied to matter, in its three forms of 
extension, viz. length, breadth, and thickness, should be the standard of all 
measures of length, sui'face, and solidity. 

2. That the cubic contents of the linear measure, in distilled water, at a 
temperature of great contraction, should furnish at once the standard weight 
and measure of capacity. 

Scientific advisers were summoned to the counsels of King Louis Philippe, 
on his accession to the French throne, and that monarch has the credit of 
having enforced the metric system in France. The opposition to the metric 
system, among the French, had not arisen from the requirements of com- 
merce ; the Department of the Bridges and High Roads and the officials of 
the naval arsenals had, with the consent of the French government, aheady 
adopted the metric system, and the new system came into general operation 
in 1840. 

The Department of Commerce in France superintends the proper observance 
of weights and measures. Standards made for the course of trade are very 
numerous. 

" If you have been walking about Paris," says M. ChevaHer, " you may 
have seen the metre in the streets, fixed in the wall of many a pubhc build- 
ing. It is made by public authority. Any buyer, who is afraid that he has 
been cheated, can go to some street at a short distance, and there he finds the 
measurement of the metre, fixed by authority for the use of the people : besides, 
he has a process more simple, to know whether he has been dealt with fairly ; 
he has his own metre in his pocket." 

Verifiers of weights and measures are appointed in every district (arron- 
dissement) of France, and each verifier has his own set of these instruments. 
Measures are made very cheap in Pai'is : balances furnished with smaU weights 
may be purchased at a small expense ; and in the larger weights, the principal 
expense is in the metal. 

* Eeport of a Committee of the House of Commons on Weights and Measures, p. 109, 
1862. 

t From the ' Populare Vorlesungen,' by Professor Bessel, published in 1848, soon 
after his death. 



ON THE UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



105 



Gutch's 'Literary and Scientific Eegister' for 1864* contains a useful 
comparison of metric and English, measures, compiled by Mr. "Warren De 
la Eue, F.R.S., in which the different quantities of the metric system are 
expressed in their English equivalents, and the value of several important 
English weights and measures is given in the terms of the metric system. 

Until comparative tables of the English and metric systems had been 
published, the labour of converting English weights and measures into the 
metric system was so excessive, that when communications to scientific 
societies were published in England, with merely British weights and 
measures, such papers were frequently not translated in foreign countries, and 
the labours of the Englishman of science were consequently not appreciated 
beyond the limits of Anglo-Saxon dominions. 

Practical inconvenience was felt, during the negotiation of the commereia 
treaty between Erance and England, on accoiuit of the English inch not being 
at that time usually divided, except into quarters and eighths. 

Mr. Ogilvie, Surveyor General of the Custom House in London, who assisted 
Mr. Cobden in the Erench treaty, found the advantage of the minute subdi- 
visions of Erench measui-es, such as the millimetre, which is one-third less than 
one-sixteenth of an inch, and is the one-thousandth part of the metre. 

Erench workmen are familiar with the millimetre as a unit of width, and 
as especially useful with reference to plates of iron or other materials. Duties 
had to be calculated for the treaty on rolled iron, in cases where the work of 
rolling increased the value of the iron, and where a slight diminution of width 
was of great importance. 

The following diagram, from Glitch's ' Scientific Eegister,' wUl show the 
minute subdivision of the millimetre, and will also exhibit the near approxi- 
mation of 100 miUimetres to 4 inches. 

COJIPARISON OF ENGLISH AND METEIC MEASUEEMENT. 

Scale of fovir inches. 



I 1 







Scale ol 


one-tenth of a metre, or ] 


00 millimetres. 






nil iin 


nil nil 


III! nil 


iiiTiiir 


iin nil 


nil nil 


nil nn 


nil HIT 


nil nil 


Ill 























10 



20 



30 



40 



50 



60 



80 



90 



100 



Mr. J. Mumford, Master of the British School at Highgate, recommends 
decimals to be placed immediately after numeration in the ordinary arith- 
metic-books, instead of being put after compound interest and other difficult 
rules. The children in schools, who usually follow the order of subjects in 
an arithmetic-book, would thus learn decimals at an earlier period of their 
education. 

So much time is occupied in schools in committing to memory the various 
tables of English weights and measures, and in working examples of com- 
pound addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, that Mr. James 
Yates is of opinion that a year would be saved in the education of boys. 



* Published by B. Blake, 421 Strand, London. 



106 REPORT 186.1. 

if the metric system were to take the place of the existing tables of weights 
and measures in England. 

The English workmen engaged in building-trades, such as cai-penters, 
masons, and bricklayers, Professor Donaldson considers to be generally very 
intelligent ; and whatever would afford to them facility in calculation would 
be acceptable as soon as it had been explained to them. 

In railway operations a civU engineer ascertains weight by computation 
of measure : he cannot take scales and beams, and weigh pieces of ii'on 
of twenty tons and upwards ; he knows the specific gravity of the iron, 
and he ascertains by measurement the weight of a given quantity of 
that metal. The metric system aids in aU calculations relating to specific 
gravity. 

Mr. W. Crosley, C.E., stated to the Committee of the House of Commons 
on Weights and Measures that he believes the decimal system is extending 
itself very much, especially for scientific purposes and amongst professional 
men. " It is extending itself among them very considerably, without any 
law whatever." 

Chemists, pursuing important researches, employ generally metric weights 
and measures. Thus, in the Eoyal Institution of Great Britain, in Albemarle 
Street, the operations of the laboratoiy arc carried on with the aid of the 
metric system ; and Dr. Frankland, one of the chemists of that Society, finds 
the metric weights and measures particularly valuable in his experimental 
investigations respecting gases. The gramme, with its multiples and minute 
subdivisions, is a popular weight with chemists. 

In the practical business of a di-uggist the metric system of weights and 
measures, if generally adopted, would, in the opinion of Mr. Squire, save a 
great deal of labour to the rising generation. In the metric system, Mr. 
Squire observes, as the divisions and multiplications are all bytcn, the 
subject and the calculations would bo much simplified *. 

A meeting, held in June 1863, of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain, adopted a petition to the House of Commons, in which they recom- 
mended an assimilation of the weights and measures of all nations, as likely 
" to tend greatly to the convenience of pharmaceutists f and the safety of 
the public." 

The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain felt assured that a " very few 
years would famUiarize both prescribers and dispensers with the new 
weights and measures, and that the easy multiplication or division of them 
by the decimal system, universally applied, woiild afford such facilities of 
computation as to recommend it strongly to the adoption of medical men 
and chemists ; and they are strengthened in this opinion by the invariable 
practice of English and all other analytical chemists already to state the 
results of their investigations in decimals." 

Some metric measures and weights approach very nearly to corresponding 
EngHsh quantities : thus, in liquid measure, five litres are nearly equal to 
lyLj gallon, or 1 gallon 0-402 of a quart. 

A half-lvilogramme, or weight of 500 grammes, is equivalent to 1 lb. 1 oz. 
10-191 drams avoirdupois. 

The following brief table, by Mr. Samuel Brown, condenses the systcou of 
all tlie metric pleasures and weights into a small compass : — 

* Pliarmaccutical Joui'iial, July 1863, p. 8. f Ibid. p. 9. 



ON THE UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 
System of Metric Measures and WeigJits. 



lor 



Multiples. 


Length. 


Surface. 


Capacity. 


Weight. 










Myria 


10,000 




. . 


10,000 


Kilo 


1,000 




1,000 


1,000 


Hecto 


100 


100 


100 


100 


Deka 


10 




10 


10 


Units .... 


Metre. 


Are. 


Litre. 


Gramme. 


Divisions. 










Dcci 


•1 




•1 


•1 


Centi 


•01 


•01 


•01 


•01 


Milli 


•001 






•001 



It will be observed that the multiples of the unit, in each case, are 
designated, in the metric system, by Greek prefixes: — Myria, 10,000 ; Kilo, or 
ChiVio, 1000 ; Hecto, or Hecato, 100 ; Deka, 10 : whilst the divisions of the 
unit, in each case, are expressed by Latin prefixes : — Deci, yV*^ > C'e'^^'"? tuu" ' 

The EngUsh equivalents to the measures of length and capacity, and to 
the weights, according to the metric system, arc thus given : — ■ 



Metric Measures of Lenr/th, with Enr/lish equivalents. 



Metric Names. 


English Equivalents. 


MiUimetre (1-lOOOth) 

Centimetre (1-lOOth) 

Decimetre Cl-lOth) 


inches. 
0-039 
0-394 
3-937 
39-371 


feet, inches. 
3 3-371 

32 9-708 


yards. 

1-094 

10-936 

109-363 

1093-633 


1 MFTRE 


Uckametre (10 metres) 

Hectometre (100 metres) .... 
Kilometre (1000 metres) 



Metric Measures of Cktpacity, with Enylish equivalents. 



Metric Names. 



English Equivalents. 



Centilitre 

Decilitre 

Litre 

Dekalitre (10 litres) . 
Hectolitre (100 litres) 



gill. 

0-070 






0-704 


quart. 

0-880 


gallons, quart. 

2 0-604 

22 0-039 



108 



REPORT — 1864. 

Metric WeiffJits, with English equivalents. 



Metric Namea. 



1 decigramme (1-lOth) . . , 

1 GRAMME 

1 dekagramme (10 grammes) 
1 hectogramme (100 grms.) 
1 kilogramme, or kilo (1000 

grammes) 

1 myriagramme (10 kilos). . 
1 metric quintal (or 100 

kilos) 

1 metric tonne (1000 kilos) 



cwt. qrs. 



1 3-874 
19 2-736 



AToirdupois. 




Troy. 


lb. 


oz. 
3-527 


drams. 
5-644 


grains. 
1-543 
15-432 


2-205 








22-046 









Professor Chevalier, in his evidence to the Committee of the House of 
Commons on Weights and Measures, states his oi^inion that some objections 
may be made to the Gramme as the unit of weight. " It is very small : 
perhaps it would have been better to have taken the kilogramme ; but such a 
change can be easily made. If yon think our measure of weight is too small, 
in case you adopt the system, you may take the kilogramme " (observes the 
Professor) "for the unit." 

The metric system of weights and measures has been adopted, not only 
by France, but by Italy (except the portion under Pontifical government), 
Spain, Portugal, Belgium, and Holland ; it has been partially received in 
Switzerland, which adopts the half-kilogramme as the pound. The majority 
of the States composing the " ZoUverein," or Customs League, in Germany, 
have expressed their approval of the metric system. The half-kUogramme 
has been introduced into aU great mercantile operations in Austria. 

At the luternational Statistical Congress, held at Berlin, in September 1863, 
thirty-three nations of Europe and America were represented by statistical 
delegates, and the congress agreed to the following fundamental resolution on 
weights and measures : — 

" The adoption of the same measure in international commerce is of the 
highest importance. The metric system ajjpears to the congress to be the 
most convenient of all the measures that could be recommended for interna- 
tional measures." 

A commission of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg has 
recommended that such alterations should be made jn Russian weights and 
measures as would put them in conformity with the metric system of Prance. 
The Grand Duke Constantine, brother of the Emperor of Russia, is in favour 
of the metric system ; and Dr. Kupffer, a delegate from the Russian govern- 
ment, has declared that Russia would recommend the adoption of the pure 
metric system, if Great Britain would take the lead. 

"We -wish England," said Dr. Kupffer, "to take the lead. England is 
a country of prior civilization. Let England do it, and we are sure to 

foUow." 

In the new Belgian law on weights and measures, the units of the metric 
system have been extended by adopting the doubles of each unit, and of its 
multiples and subdivisions. The Belgians have also adopted the principle of 
Laving weights representing 50, 20, 5, 2, and 1 ; and they have followed a 



ON THE UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 109 

similar arrangement with regard to measures of length and measures of 
capacity. 

In HoUand the law requii-es the use of the metric system in aU things, 
except weighing medicines. The old Dutch names, such as " elle " and 
"palm," are preserved in the metric tables ; the "eUe" is the metre (3-2809 
feet), and the "palm" the decimetre (or 3-937 inches). A "kan" in 
Holland is the name for a litre, or 1-760 pint. In weights, the " ons " is 
the Dutch name for a hectogramme*, or 3-527 ounces; and a "pond" 
corresponds to the kilogramme (=2-205 lbs.). 

In Spain the government has purchased 600 sets of metric weights and 
measures, and it intends to buy more, so that it may supply each important 
town with standards for comparison. On the Spanish railways, distances are 
measured by kilometres, and weights by kilogrammes. Tables are published 
containing the equivalents of the old Spanish weights and measiu'es in metric 
quantities, and calciilated in each case from 1 to 1000. 

Official tables are published in Portugal, containing Portuguese measure- 
ments in metrical quantities, and vice versa. Inspectors of schools, appointed 
by the general superintendents of weights and measures, have inspected 2720 
pubhc and private schools, and schools are established under the same super- 
intendence to explain the new system f. A great number of elementary works 
have been published in Portugal on metrical weights and measures for the use 
of schools, as well as for the public. 

In the United States of America a committee has been appointed by Con- 
gress to consider the subject of metric weights and measures. The Confede- 
rate States of North America have also expressed a wish to introduce into 
tlieir republic the metric system of weights and measures ; and the same 
system has been adopted in Mexico, ChiU, Pertf, New Granada, Bolivia, 
Venezuela, and French and Dutch Guiana. 

Mr. Samuel Brown, in his evidence, in 1862, before the Committee of the 
House of Commons on AVeights and Measui-es, states, that in 1859, of the total 
trade of Great Britain, including 79,405 vessels, there were 47,393 vessels 
going to or from countries using the kilogramme, or about 60 per cent, of 
the total niunber of vessels; and of 19,332,174 tons, there were 7,726,148 
tons carried to or from countries using the kilogramme, or about 40 per cent, 
of the total tonnage. 

Postal arrangements between Great Britain and France are complicated by 
the French weight for letters being somewhat heavier than the English foreign 
weight. 

An English ounce weighs 28-349 grammes ; and the quarter of an ounce, 
or English foreign weight, weighs 7-087 grammes. 

In France the postal weight for single letters from England is 7-5 
grammes; so that the French allow an excess of weight of -413 of a 
gramme, or more than -i-rd of a gramme more than the English. 

If a letter be prepaid by stamps, the advance is 4cZ. in England for every 
quarter of an ounce, and 40 centimes in France for every weight of 7| grammes. 

The postal treaty between the two countries declares that " no letter, of 
which the postage is paid by stamps, is to be treated as an insufficiently paid 
letter, unless the value of the stamps be less than the amount required for its 
payment, according to the weight allowed, not only by the English, but by 
the French scale of weight, of which 7|- grammes is the unit." 

In practice the postal officials in London weigh letters going to France, and 

* Woolhouse's ' Weights and Measiu-es of all Nations,' j). 79. 

t The Marquis d'AvUa's Beport, quoted in Kuggles's ' Keports,' p. 64. 



110 REPORT 1864. 

paid by stamps, with French weights. Sir Eowlaud Hill informed the House 
of Commons Committee, that if the prepaid letter does not exceed the French 
allowance, no additional charge is levied ; if it does exceed that allowance, it 
is marked as insufficiently paid. 

Local letters in France are charged hy a scale similar to that of England. 
It begins at 15 gTammes, then it advances to 30, then to 60, and then to 90 
grammes, and so on. 

Ten grammes are equal to nearly ird of an ounce, 15 grammes are a little 
more than g an ounce, an ounce being 28"349 grammes. 

The use of metric weights and measures has recently been legalized in 
Great Britain ; and the Act on this subject has been passed in 1864, " for the 
promotion and extension of our internal as well as our foreign trade, and for 
the advancement of science." 

Mr. William Ewart, M.P., has ably conducted this measure through the 
House of Commons ; Earl Fortescuc has had the successfid charge of it in the 
House of Lords ; and the BILL has been also supported by the International 
Decimal Association, in whose labours Mr. James Yates has taken an 
active and leading part. The investigations of the Committee of the House 
of Commons on Weights and Measiu'cs, in 1862, have assisted in forming 
an influential parliamentaiy party in its favour. 

Various recommendations were made, in 1862, by the House of Commons 
Committee, at the close of their Eeport, among which were the following : — 

" That a Department of Weights and Measures be estabUshed in connexion 
with the Board of Trade. 

" The metric system should form one of the subjects of examination in the 
competitive examinations of the civil service. 

" The qramme should be used as a weight for foreign letters and books at 
the Post Office. 

" The Committee of Council on Education should require the metric system 
to be taught (as may easily be done, by means of tables and diagrams) in all 
schools receiving grants of public money. 

" The Committee further suggest that, in the public statistics of the 
country, quantities should be expressed in terms of the metric system, in 
juxtaposition with those of our o'mi, as suggested by the International 
Statistical Congress." 

It will be satisfactory to notice that, in a Beport in 1862, by Mr. J. Ball, 
published by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
" On Thermometric Observations in the Alps," the temperatures are given 
according to the Centigrade scale, the corresponding temperatures according 
to Falironhcit being frequently added in brackets. 

Sometimes the observations in this Beport merely record the fluctuations of 
the mercury in the Centigrade thermometer. 

Observations vany, in like manner, be easily registered, both according to 
the English and French scales of temperature, and the fluctuations of the 
barometer may also be noted so as to be intelligible both in France and Great 
Britain. 

At the end of Mr. Dowling's " Metric Tables," a comparison of the scales 
of Fahrenheit's, the Centigrade, and Beaumur's thermometers is given, as 
well as a comparison of the British and metric barometers, the latter con- 
taining the equivalents, from 27 inches to 30*98 inches, in linear inches and 
millimetres. 

Under the head of Chemistry, in the Matriculation Examinations of the 
University of Loudon, candidates are frequently asked, among other ques- 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATIONS OF THE ENTOZOA. Ill 

lions, to convert a given number of degrees of Fahrenheit into the corre- 
sponding degrees of a Reaumur or a Centigrade thermometer. 

Sir William Armstrong remarked, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in his address 
to the British Association in 1863, that our thermometric scale had been 
originally founded in error : he regarded it as most inconvenient in division, 
and advised that the Centigrade scale should be recognized by the numerous 
men of science composing the British Association. 

The distinguished President of the British Association stated his regret 
that two standards of measure, so nearly alike as the English yard and the 
French metre, should not be made absolutely identical. We in England, 
observed Sir William, have no alternative biit to confonn with France, if we 
desire general Uniformity. He was convinced that the adoption of the deci- 
mal division of the French scale would be attended with great convenience, 
both in science and commerce. He could speak, fi-om personal experience, 
of the superiority of decimal measurement in all cases where acciu'acy is 
required in mechanical constiiiction. In the Elswick works, as well as in 
some other large establishmeuts of the same descri^jtion, the inch is adopted 
as the unit, and aU fractional parts are expressed in decimals. " No diffi- 
culty has been experienced in habituating the workmen to the use of this 
method, and it has greatly contributed to the precision of workmanship. 
The inch, however, is too small a unit, and it would be advantageous to 
substitute the metre, if general concurrence could be obtained." 



Report of Experiments respecting the Development and Migrations of 
the Entozoa. By T. Spencer Cobbold, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 
Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy at the Middlesex Hospital. 
At the Cambridge Meeting of this Association in 1862, I offered a brief 
resume of the principal facts then known in relation to the origin and mode 
of development of the Entozoa Uable to infest the human body ; but, not- 
withstanding the very interesting discoveries which Contiaen'tal observers 
had made on this subject, it stiU appeared that there was room for further 
inquiry. In this view I proposed to institute a series of experiments, partly 
for the pui'pose of verifying previously recorded statements, but more par- 
ticularly with the intention of adding to our stock of hehninthological facts. 
The General Committee, in approval, sanctioned and encouraged this pro- 
position J and I therefore proceed to explain the nature of the experiments 
adopted. Though the results arrived at exhibit, for the most part, a nega- 
tive aspect, yet in some instances the reverse of this is the case, whilst, 
under any circumstances, the facts are calculated to prove more or less 
instructive, and all of them tend to advance a department of science in the 
progress of which our present and future social welfare is deeply concerned. 
I have not, indeed, limited my inquuics to particular human parasites, 
but have employed all such helminthic forms as I have been able to procure 
in a satisfactory condition for experiment. In this couutiy, and especially in 
London, great difficulties are placed in the way of any one engaged in 
biological pursuits involving the keeping of dogs and other animals ; and, last 
year (1863), these obstructions were, I fear, somewhat enhanced by certain 
misguided individuals who seem to entertain the idea that phj-'siologists 
delight in the practice of cruelty. The destruction of game by the sports- 
man, the capture of fish by the hook, and the slaughter of domestic animals 



112 REPORT 1864. 

for food are attended with far more inconvenience and misery to the 
creatures thus destroyed than obtains, in the majority of cases, where 
animals are sacrificed on the altar of science ; for, in the latter case, not 
only are the experimental animals generally destroyed suddenly, but, in 
those instances where the act of life-departure is more prolonged, the 
employment of anaesthetics is frequently made use of. Believing, however, 
that it is not necessary to offer any further apology in favour of the experi- 
mental methods commonly adopted in our biological inquiries, I now proceed 
to notice the several species of Entozoa which have been made the subject 
of investigation. 

1. Tcenia ecJiinococcus. — Of all the mischievous parasites known to infest 
the human body, none are capable of producing such dire resiolts as those 
affected by the larvae of this very minute tapeworm. I will merely add, 
that it is not only the cause of the formidable Echinococcus-endemic in 
Iceland, but that it also in this country destroys many persons annually. 

On the 30th September, 1862, I fed a house-dog with several hundred 
Echinococcus-heads (scolices), obtained from the body of a youug person 
who had been destroyed by this parasite. On the 28th of November of the 
same year I killed the dog, but could discover no trace of the Tcenice to which 
these larvae are believed to be referable. 

On the 14th January, 1863, I administered five small Echinococcus- 
vesicles to a dog which ate them greedily. Similar administrations were 
also made on the 2-J:th of the same month, and again on the 6th of February. 
To the results likely to be obtained from these experiments I looked forward 
with considerable interest ; but, on the evening previous to the day I had 
appointed for the dog's destruction, some person liberated the animal. 
Should the experiments in this case happen to have been successful, the 
freedom of the dog could only serve to spread abroad the very formidable 
disease which it is the object of these experiments to check. Those, there- 
fore, who are hostile to our researches should bear in mind that interference 
with our pursuits may be attended with results seriously affecting the welfare 
of the community. 

On the 2nd of February, 1863, I fed another dog with several Echino- 
coccus-vesicles taken from the lungs of a sheep ; and, on the 6th of the 
same month, I repeated the dose with veiy fresh cysts. On the 25th 
of February I also destroyed this dog, but found no examples of the cha- 
racteristic Tcenio'. The animal would not have been destroyed thus early, 
only I feared losing it altogether from the cause above mentioned. 

On the 6th of February, 1863, I gave about fifty Echinococcus-scolices to 
a puppy. This animal was destroyed on the 10th of March, 1863; but, so 
far as the Echinococci were concerned, the result was entirely negative. 

On the 28th of March, 1863, I administered to another dog scrapings 
from the interior of a large Echinococcus-cyst, which, associated with several 
other vesicles, had caused the death of a second person. The first patient 
came under the medical care of Dr. Greenhow, while this case belonged to 
Dr. Murchison. On the 9th of AprU following the animal was destroyed ; 
but I had not succeeded in rearing the Tcenia ecJiinococcus. Had the para- 
sites been present in this or any other of the dogs thus carefully examined, I 
am confident they would not have escaped my notice, especially since the 
possession of specimens of the adiilt tapeworm kindly sent me by Professor 
Leuckart, of Giessen, had rendered me familiar with its characters. 

2. Tcenia serrata. — This well-known species infests the dog in its adult 
stage, the larvae being, beyond all dispute, the well-known pea-shaped 



ox THE DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATIONS OF THE ENTOZOA. 113 

hydatids {Ciisticercus pisiformis) commonly found in rabbits. I offer the fol- 
lowiiij? facts, therefore, partly in confirmation of previously ascertained results. 

On the 21st November, 1862, I administered to a dog one immature 
Cysticercus-vesicle taken from the abdominal cavity of a rabbit ; and to the 
same dog I also gave, on the 24th of the same month, four mature 
examples of Ci/sticercus piisiformis taken from the mesentery of another 
rabbit, one of the larvae being injured. On the 28th of November the dog 
was destroyed; and the result gave three examples of immature Tcenia 
serrata, each measuring about half an inch in length. Their size indicated 
clearly whence they were derived, whilst the non-development of the 
injui-ed Cysticercus, as weU as that of the imperfectly developed larva, is 
sufficiently accounted for, and accords with my previous experience. 

On the 19th January, 1803, on the 6th of Pebruary, and again on the 
23rd of the latter month, I administered several mature examples of 0. 
pkifonnis to the dog, wliich was subsecpently liberated, without my being 
able to ascertain the result of my worm-feedings. 

On the 20th February, 1863, I gave to another dog eight immature larva) 
taken from the abdomen of a rabbit ; and again, on the 6th of March suc- 
ceeding, two mature larva) (C. pisiformis) were given to the same dog. 
This animal was destroyed on the ISth of March, and the result was entirety 
satisfactory. There were two examples of Taniia serrata, each aboiit four inches 
in length, none of the migrating or immature larvte having continued their 
development. 

On the 27th May, four fresh Cysticerci from a rabbit were given to 
another dog, which, on being destroyed on the 3rd of the following June, 
was found to contain four examples of Tcenia serrata. In this instance, I 
believe, only one of the Cysticerci had developed into its strobila-form, one 
being about three inches in length : the others were upwards of a foot 
long, and could not, I presume, be referable to the three other larvae. This 
experiment, therefore, was partially negative. 

3. Tcenia marginata. — On the 5th November, 1862, I fed a monkey with 
eggs of this worm ; but he swallowed only a very small portion of the 
potato in which I had placed them. The destruction of the animal on the 
5th of February, 1863, only yielded a negative result. 

4. Tcenia cucumerina. — On the 8rd November, 1862, I fed several cock- 
roaches (Blcttta orientalis') with mature proglottides of Tcenia cucumerina. 
Subsequent careful dissections of these insects, at various intervals, failed 
to reveal the existence of Cysticerci within their tissues. 

On the 7th of November, 1863, and again on the 12th, I fed other Blattce 
with proglottides and eggs, mixed vrith sugar, treacle, potatoes, and bread ; 
but these administrations only gave negative results. 

On the 2Uth January, 1864, I removed a proglottis of the so-caUed Tcenia 
elliptica (in the act of migrating) from the external surface of the body of a 
cat. I placed it on glass, and noticed that it discharged eggs during its 
movements. The proglottis was subsequently broken up and mixed with 
paste. Five or six Blattce were next captured ; and, on being brought in 
contact with the food, they very soon devoured the paste and all the 
enclosed fragments of the proglottis, including the eggs. Forty-two hours 
afterwards I dissected one of the larger cocki'oaches, and found at least one 
hundred tapeworm eggs in its stomach. Each egg contained a six-hooked 
embryo. There were one or two empty shells ; but I did not succeed in 
finding a free embryo. Here the experiment ended ; for the other Blattce 
successfully made their escape a few days afterwards. 

1864. I 



114 REPORT 1864. 

5. Disfoma liepaticum. — On the 6th of Januaiy, 1863, numerous eggs 
from the uterine tubes of one dozen flukes were placed in a jar of fresh 
water containiag living vegetable matter (Anacharis). An examination of 
the contents of the glass, on the 16th of March, revealed the presence of 
many empty egg-sheUs, and others with immature embryos in their interior. 
On the 13th AprU following, aU the embryos had apparently escaped ; but 
they were not found in the water. Possibly they had been devoured by 
Entomostraca. 

On the 6th January, 1863, a quantity of flukes' eggs were administered 
to a frog ; but a subsequent examination of the reptile, after death, only gave 
a negative result. 

6. Ascaris osculata.— On the 11th October, 1862, sections of two female 
nematodes, taken from a seal, were given to a dog. The seal had recently 
died, its stomach containiag upwards of 200 ascarides. 'None of the eggs in 
these worms contaiaed embryos ; but the yelk was undergoing segmentation. 
Subsequently, eggs of this parasite, containing embryos, were also given to 
the same dog, and likewise, at a stUl later date, several free embryos. On 
destroying the dog, November 28, 1862, no young nematodes could be 
detected in its intestines. 

On the 31st October, 1862, numerous eggs containing embryos were given 
to a dace (Lei(ciscvs rutUus) and to a goldfish (^Cyprinus anratus). On the 
3rd November following, the dace was killed, without my finding any trace 
of the ova ; but on the day following (Nov. 4) I destroyed the gold-carp, 
and found in its intestinal canal numerous empty egg-shells of Ascaris 
osculata. In the large tank, however, I sought in vain for these minute 
embryos. 

On the 29th October, and on the 4th November, 1862, many eggs con- 
taining embryos were administered to frogs. Two of these Batrachians were 
subsequently examined (Nov. 10), without my finding either ova or embiyos 
in their interior; but the water of the large glass vase which had imprisoned 
the frogs was found to contain a number of empty egg-shells of Ascaris 
osculata, as weU as numerous living embryos, apparently referable to 
these ova. 

On the 4th November, 1862, eggs with embryos were given to several 
freshwater fishes (gudgeon, carp, and dace) ; but the subsequent destruction 
and examination of some of these fishes only yielded a negative result. 

On April 13th, 1863, several free embryos of A. osculata were adminis- 
tered to a dog, which was after^vards destroyed on the 3rd of June. No 
young ascarides, however, could be detected. 

On the 11th October, 1862, when I first procured the adult ascarides from 
the seal, some of the ova were placed in a glass jar of fresh water containing 
Chara, others in jars of salt water supplied with Zostera. On the 15th of 
the same month, none of the ova appeared to have undergone any material 
change. On the 29th (18 days) the majority of those placed in the fresh 
water had developed into embryos within theii' shells, and not a few had 
escaped free into the water. At the same date, however, the eggs placed 
LU the salt water had made comparatively little progress. Their yelk-seg- 
mentation had certainly advanced ; but no embryos could be seen. One 
sohtary empty shell was found in the salt water ; but this may have resulted 
from injury. On the 7th November, some of the free embryos in the fresh 
water were found to display signs of growth, and one of them showed a 
tolerably well-developed digestive apparatus. On the 2nd of the following 
December, a largo number of the embryos in the fresh water had either 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATIONS OF THE ENTOZOA. 115 

perished or had been devoured by Entomostraca present in the jar ; others 
were found at the bottom of the vessel inactive, stretched out, and apparently 
dead. By this time (December 2nd, 1862), the development of the salt- 
water ova had much more advanced ; the yelk had, in many instances, 
become transformed into embryos more or less complete, and several of 
the latter had quitted their shells. On the 13th of April these embryos 
had acquired well-marked digestive organs, and I thought I could discern 
the rudiments of an internal reproductive apparatus. They now exhibited 
a condition corresponding with that which the freshwater embiyos had 
obtained at so early a period as the 7th of November. In other words, the 
freshwater embryos at one month (after immersion of the ova^ were as far 
advanced as the salt-water embryos at six months. I do not attempt to 
explain this ; I can only speak to the facts as they were presented. On the 
16th of July, 1863, all the freshwater embryos had disappeared ; a few dead 
ova, with dark granular contents, lay at the bottom of the jar ; and there 
were a great number of empty shells, with parasitic algoids growing from 
their outer surfaces. In the salt water, on the 23rd September, 1863, there 
were stiU many eggs containing segmented yelks, and others -with fully formed 
embryos, these being likewise associated with mmaerous free living embryos. 

On the 2.5th of April, 1864, I still found some embryos aUve in the salt 
water ; but I could not discover any traces of the original eggs. The move- 
ments of the young worms were tolerably free, the largest specimen 
measuring about -^^ of an inch in length. 

A careful search, made on the 21st of July last, failed to reveal any 
evidence of their existence ; but as it is quite possible that one or two may 
stiU. be living, I have retained the contents of the jar for subsequent final 
examination. 

7. Ascaris marginata. — On the 25th February, 1863, a quantity of eggs 
were taken from the uterus of a full-grown female, and placed in fresh 
water supplied vjii^i Anacharis. On the 16th of Jiily following, most of the 
ova appeared to contain embryos, which were moving freely within their 
shells ; but none were foimd to have escaped. On the 23rd September, 1863, 
similar facts presented themselves ; and although I detected no free embryos, 
there were, nevertheless, several empty egg-shells at the bottom of the 
vessel. The same conditions were still observed on the 20th April, 1864 ; 
but when I last examined the water (July 21, 1864), one or two embryos 
were found free. 

8. Ascaris lumhricoides. — On the 8th December, 1862, a large number of 
ova were placed in a jar containing fresh water. By the 13th of March 
many of them appeared to have reached an early stage of embryonic forma- 
tion, and then to have perished. 

9. Ascaris megalocephala . — On the 24th of April, 1863, several thousand 
eggs, in some of which yelk-segmentation had commenced, were placed in 
two jars containing fresh water and Anacharis. On the 17th of the follow- 
ing July, a large proportion of the eggs were found to inclose well-developed 
embryos ; but none were observed free. On the 23rd of September, not only 
were there a quantity of empty shells in both vessels, but also a correspond- 
ing number of free embryos, some of which appeared to have grown con- 
siderably since quitting the egg. 

On the 18th of July, 1863, some of the immature eggs, as well as eggs 
containing embryos, were placed in a small vessel containing pond-mud 
(thin clay). On the 23rd September following, I found the mud to contain 
many eggs still undergoing yelk-segmentation, others with immature em- 

i2 



IIG REPORT— 18u 4. 

bryos, sonic few empty shells, and several highly active embryos adhering- 
by their finely pointed tails to the glass slide on which the mud was spread 
out. The whole aspect and behaviour of these embryo nematodes differed 
very markedly fi'om those of Ascaris osculata, and also from the young 
Anguillulce. The digestive organs were well developed in several ; but at 
least one specimen was dead and disintegrated internally. I could not 
satisfy myself as to the existence of any rudiments of a reproductive 
apparatus. 

On the 18th of July, 1863, I also placed some of the above advanced eggs 
in muddy pond-water, to which I added some cowdung. This was also 
examined on the 23rd September, when a few empty shells were seen, their 
former occupants not being visible. Most of the eggs contained segmented 
yelks and young embryos. On the 2oth of April, 1864, the same conditions 
were still observed : none of the embiyos had escaped. At the above-men- 
tioned date (July 18), ova were also put into another jar of pond-water, 
■with horse-dung added. In this case (September 23) a few living embryos 
were detected, free and active. On the 25th of April, 18G4, I found the 
eggs still segmenting, a few with embryos ; but none of the latter were 
observed free. At the same period (July 18) other eggs were deposited in 
simple horse-dung ; and here also (September 23) a few embryos had freed 
themselves of their egg-covering, and were still living. On the 25th April, 
1864, I found numerous embryos free, active, and much grown. 

On the 23rd December, 1863, I still found the majority of the eggs in 
the fresh water (of April 24th), with theu* embryos coiled in the interior 
and aUve. One free embryo was particulaiiy active, and there were several 
empty shells. On the 25th April, 1864, they still seemed to have under- 
gone no material change, and I did not on this occasion observe any free 
embryos. 

As the free embryos of A. megalocephcda, reared in horse-dung, had, on 
the 4th of January, 1864, attained considerable size, and likewise exhibited 
traces of the sexual organs, I washed them out of the excreta ; and, after 
straining through muslin, they were placed in a large jar with the water 
employed in separating them. My next object was to administer part of 
them to a horse, with the view of rearing the sexually matiu-e woim. This 
was done on the 26th of April, 1864 ; but here again I was prevented 
ascertaining the result. The horse, becoming violent and vicious (from other 
causes), was slaughtered on the seventh day after the worm-feeding ; and, 
by another mischance, I was also prevented from examining the intestines. 

When I last examined the ova first placed in fresh water on the 24th of 
April, 1863, many of them still displayed living embryos in their interior, 
whilst hundreds of embiyos were found free ; the latter, however, showed 
no further advance in growth, and were by no means so active and healthy- 
looking as those contained in the jar of impure water. I satisfied myself, 
moreover, that these last were a trijfie more advanced in development. 

10. Oxyuris vermicularis.— On the 22nd December, 1862, numerous eggs 
were deposited in the substance of the pulp of two partially rotten pears 
and one decayed apple. I had not noticed embryos in cmy of the eggs at 
the time of their lodgment within the parent oviducts ; but, on examining 
the fruits ten days later (January 1st, 1863), I found many of the ova to 
contain the characteristic tadpole-hke embryos of Oxyuris. On the 13th of 
March following, none of the embryos appeared to have escaped their shells ; 
but when I again examined these pears and the apple, on the 17th and 18th 
of the succeechng July, I found multitudes of minute nematodes which, at 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATIONS OP THE ENTOZOA. 117 

the time, I referred to the ova and embryos in question. To add strength to 
that conclusion, I noticed a number of empty egg-shells of Ox-}/iiris amongst 
the loose and decayed vegetable parenchyma. These little nematodes mea- 
sured about ^ of an inch in length, but their form did not correspond vnth 
the shape of the Oxi/uris-emhrjo. The contents of one of the pears and the 
aj^ple were subsequently employed in new experiments ; but the other pear, 
which had now become thoroughly rotten and of a blackish-brown colour, 
Avas retained for the purpose of preserving these j'oimg nematodes. On the 
23rd of September, 1863, I again examined this pear, and found a consider- 
able number of the nematodes which had scarcely advanced in length or 
breadth. On the day following (24th) I had an opportunity of showing 
them to Professor Leuckart, of Giessen, who considered it possible that they 
might be the young of Oxyuris, notwithstanding their little resemblance to 
the tadpole-like condition of the embryo as it exists in ova. He suggested 
the jn'obability, however, of their being AnguUhilce, and was resolved to 
satisfy his doubt on this score by repeating my experiment. It is known 
that AnguilJuJa may suddenly make their aj^pearance in decaying vegetable 
matter under similar conditions to those here recorded : but it seemed rather 
singiilar that they should appear in such remarkable abundance in the three 
specimens of fruit specially selected for my experiment. The fact that 
empty egg-shells were found in the pear, associated with the equally im- 
])ortant fact that, before I introduced the eggs, I took the precaution to 
examine the partially decayed pulp of these fruits, and ascertained that no 
AncfuiUiilce or other nematodes existed in them, appeared at the time to 
warrant the conelusion that the nematodes in question could only be refer- 
able to Oxyiu-ls verniicuJaris. I have, however, since satisfied myself that 
they were true Anguillules {A. pyri, T.S.C.)*. 

On the 18th July, 1863, a portion of decayed pear, containing the Anguil- 
hiles, was placed in cowdung. This mass, though inclosed in a jar, became 
very diy at the surface ; but on the 23rd September, when it was carefully 
examined, several of the young nematodes were still alive, though very little 
advanced in size. One, which appeared dead and rather smaller than the 
others, still measured only the ^^ of an inch. 

At the same date (July 18) others were placed in the same material, with 
water added, and here also I subseqiiently (September 23) found a few 
inactive individuals. One appeared to be quite dead, its parenchyma having 
degenerated into a mass of large fat-globules. 

At the same date (July 18), several Anguillules were placed, with portions 
of the pear, in a small jar of pond-water. Niimbers of these were after- 
wards found (Sept. 23) at the bottom of the vessel, stretched out and 
exhibiting very few signs of vitality. They displayed traces of a phaiynx, 
but the intestinal canal had not devekped. Their bodies only contained a 
quantity of fine granules. 

At the same date (July 18) a considerable number of the Anguillules were 

* Having recently forwarded specimens to Mr. Henry Charlton Bastian, F.L.S., that 
gentleman (who has specially and most successfully devoted his attention to the free 
nematoids) has informed me (December 30th, 1864) that he recognizes two distinct spe- 
cies from the pear. They belong to his genera ApheleucTms and Flectus respectively, 
" two out of the foiu" genera whose members possess extraordinarj' tenacity of life." He 
proposes to call the one AplielevcJms pyri, leaving the other at present imdescribed. The 
portions of pear which I forwarded were perfectly dry and brittle ; and in confirmation of 
my statements rcppccting tlic vitahty of the nematodes, Mr. Bastian remarks, in a letter 
to me, as follows : — " Alter soaking I'or a few hours in water they resumed all their acti- 
vity, as you had obseiTed."— Jan. 21st, 1865. 



118 REPOET— 18G4. 

mixed with simple moist horse-dung, which Avas also examined (September 
23), with the following result : — Many were found alive, one or two being 
active, but most of them closely coiled upora themselves in various ways. 
Those that were stretched out and apparently hfeless were afterwards seen 
to move slowly their slightly curved tails. In one example the digestive 
tube, from mouth to anus, seemed well developed and complete, and in none 
of them did there appear to be any traces of decomposition. 

On the 5th of October, 1863, I re-examined the AnguiUules in the pear 
and found them still aUve. The longest measured ^L-". 

On the 28th October, 1863, I commenced a new series of experiments 
(ten in number), with the view of verifying the previous results. I again 
procured a considerable number of perfectly fresh eggs, containing embryos, 
and placed them in portions of decayed apples and pears ; and in aU cases I 
examined these fruits with high magnifying powers, previous to my employ- 
ing them for experiment. In no single instance could I detect the presence 
of AnguiUulce, or any other kind of animal parasite, within their parenchyma. 

On the 30th December, 1863, T re-examined the apples and pears, which 
had all become mouldy. In none could I find any free embryos ; and the 
contents of the eggs appeared to have perished, the eggs themselves having 
turned to a yellow-brown colour'. I strained off the pulp in water, for sub- 
sequent examination, before finally abandoning this series of experiments. 

On the 4th Januaiy, 1864, I commenced another series of experiments, 
with the view of again testing the results above mentioned. I procured two 
partially decayed pears and one apple, and (having by careful microscopic 
examination satisfied myself that they contained no animal parasites of any 
kind) I inserted several entire female Oxyurides, and also a few loose ova, 
into each. A very large proportion of the eggs contained the characteristic 
tadpole-like embryos. On examiaing the decayed fruits, on the 20th April, 
1864, I could find no trace of the embryonic Oxyurides ; neither were there 
any AnguiUules. 

These several sets of experiments appeared sufficient to establish the fact 
that we cannot rear the eggs of embryos of O.vyuris either in fresh or in de- 
caying vegetable matters. 

The presence of AnguUlules in the original experiment must be regarded 
' as accidental ; but as their development is not without interest, I may, 
before dismissing the subject, further observe that, on the 30th December, 
1863, I reexamined one of the pears, which was first employed for experi- 
ment more than a year previously (December 22nd, 1862). In the pulp 
(which was perfectly free from mould, though stiU in a loosely closed vessel) 
I found large numbers of Anguillides in every conceivable stage of develop- 
ment, from the early free embryo, measuiing -^~', to the sexually mature 
condition, measuring -^J'. Some of , them contained a single egg. There 
were also a few discoloured Oxyurls-eggs, with dead granular contents, and a 
considerable number of free AnguiUuline ova. These latter were pale, almost 
colourless, and contained actively moving embryos in their interior, totally 
unlike those of Oxyuris. On the 20th April, 1864, hundreds of the Anguil- 
lules were stiU living. They were still living on the 21st of July last, and, 
I have no doubt, are yet in the enjoyment of an active vitality. 

Eggs of Oxyuris, containing embryos, placed in water on the 22nd Decem- 
ber, 1862, and others again on the 4th of January, 1864, failed either to 
develope further or to set free their embryonic contents. 

On the 5th October, 1863, I placed some fuU-grown female Oxyurides in 
pure fresh water. On examining the water (December 23, 1863), I found 



ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATIONS OF THE ENTOZOA. 119 

that a largo number of the eggs had escaped (probably by the bursting of the 
worms), some of which contained the characteristic tadpole-like embryos. I 
could not, however, find one single embryo, although there were hundreds 
of empty eggs and broken-up egg-shells. One embryo presented an appear- 
ance of central division — the only instance I had seen up to the date in 
question. 

From a subsequent and final examination, it was clear that the yelk and 
embryonic contents of all the ova had disiategrated, sometimes causing the 
shell to burst. 

On the 2nd of January, 1863, I fed a monkey (Maeacus) with numerous 
eggs of Oxyuris, containing living embrj'os. On the 11th of Pcbruary this 
animal was destroyed ; but there were no young Oxyuiides discoverable in its 
intestinal canal. At one time 1 almost looked for a positive result, as the 
monkey displayed marked signs of anal iiTitation after the worm-feeding. 

On the 10th and on the 14th of January, 1863, fresh eggs of Oxyuns, in 
which the characteristic embryos were well developed, were admiaistered 
to a large goat. This animal was destroyed on the 21st of January, without 
furnishing any other than a negative result. 

11. Strowjylus armatus. — On the 9th of March, 1863, I placed a quantity 
of the eggs of this species in a jar of fresh water, ■without any vegetable 
matter. On examining the contents of the jar, on the 16th of the folio wing- 
July, I could find no embryos, ova, or entire egg-shells ; but there was a 
quantity of granular debris at the bottom of the vessel. 

12. Prosthecosacter injlexus. — Through the kindness of 3Ir. Kiel, I received, 
on the 19th of October, 1863, the lujags of a porpoise which had just died 
at the Zoological Society, Eegent's Park. The hmgs were quite fresh, and 
plugged throughout by the presence of multitudes of this parasite. After 
examining the ova very carefully, I placed a quantity of them, afready con- 
taining incompletely developed embryos, in salt water ; and I also mixed 
some of the bronchial mucus of the porpoise (which, besides eggs, contained 
several free embryos) with salt water in a separate vessel. 

On the 23rd December, 1883, I carefuUy examined the contents of both 
jars. In the jar originally containing eggs only, I found one egg with an 
embryo stiU coiled within it, many of the other eggs having apparently dis- 
appeared, leaving a very small quantity of debris, partly consisting of sheU- 
fragments. Two living embryos were detected, severally measuring about 
yij" and -Jy". They displayed a tolerably complete digestive apparatus ; 
but there were no certain traces of sexual organs. There were a few speci- 
mens of Euplotes traveUing about. 

The jar containing eggs and yoxmg displayed, at the same date of exami- 
nation, several active embryos in all respects resembling those above men- 
tioned, and also an astonishing number of animalcules (Euplotes). But 
there were also several larval nematodes of much larger size, and yet possi- 
bly belonging to the same species. There were, it is tme, some slight 
diiferences, possibly due to their more advanced growth. They measured 
about Jy". 

On 25th April, 1864, I found both jars to contain living embryos, those 
mixed with frothy mucus from the bronchi being more niuuerous and much 
more largely developed. The longest specimen, developed from the ova, 
measured no more than ■^" in length. 

"When I last examined the contents of these jars (July 21, 1864), both 
still contained living worms, the larger specimens reared from the egg still 
measuring only -^L of an inch. The largest embryo from the jar containing 



120 REPORT — 1864. 

the frothy mucus measured, as before, about -^-fj", and displayed, moreover, 
rudimentary traces of male reproductive organs. 



Report on the Physiological Action of Nitrite of Amyl. 
By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A.,M.D. 

The Eeport which I have the honour to lay before the Physiological Section 
springs out of a short paper read at the Newcastle Meeting last year, entitled 
" On the Physiological Action of the Nitrite of Amyl." In that paper I 
stated a few preliminary facts, to one or two of which I would again briefly 
direct attention, in order that the present audience may be enabled to follow 
the subject, connectively, from its commencement. 

The nitrite of amyl is a fluid of amber colour, and having a flavoiu- and 
odour of over-ripe pears. It approaches, in fact, in matter of flavour the 
acetate of oxide of amyl, the substance commonly sold under the name of 
essence of pears. The composition of the nitrite is 0,^11^; NOg+HO. It 
is made by the action of nitrous acid gas on fusel oil — amylic alcohol. The 
fluid, when pure, has a specific gravity of 913, and it boils at lS2'^rahr. It 
is soluble in equal parts of chloroform, pure alcohol, and ether. 

Diffused through the air in a chamber or jar, the vapour of nitrite of 
amyl extinguishes flame unless it be largely diluted with air, or unless the 
flame be introduced slowly. Under the latter circumstances the vapour ex- 
plodes in a sharp puff". 

Placed so as to diffiise through a closed bottle or jar with phosphorus, it 
prevents the oxidation of the phosphorus. 

Placed in a closed jar with animal or vegetable substances, it acts like am- 
monia, ether, chloroform, and alcohol in preventing decomposition. As an 
antiseptic it is equal to ammonia, but is less active in this respect than chlo- 
roform, ether, and alcohol. It also is objectionable in that it destroys the 
colour of both vegetable and ainmal structures, turning the vegetable reds 
brown, and giving to the muscular tissues of animals, fii'st a pale white, and 
afterwards a dirty brown appearance. 

Physical Effect on Dead Organic Matters. 

I have made a large number of experiments to determine the antiseptic 
power of the nitrite, of which I may give a few illustrations. 

Observations. — Series 1. Pive minims of nitrite of amyl were placed in a 
glass jar capable of receiving 40 cubic inches of common air. A rose with 
leaves attached to the stalk was next placed in the jar, and the stopper was 
inserted. In a few minutes the green coloiu- of the rose was turned of a 
dirty brown, and the red colour, moving at first to violet, lapsed also after a 
time into brown. After the colour was in this way destroyed no further 
change followed, and the flower remained in the jar for nine months without 
undergoing the slightest decomposition. This experiment was repeated with 
mignonette, calceolarias, leaves of camellias, and other plants ; the results 
were the same. 

Observations. — Series 2. The %-iscera of animals and portions of the mus- 
cular structiu'e were placed in jars capable of receiving 100 cubic inches of 
air. Into each jar was then poured half a drachm of the nitrite of amyl, 
and the jar was closed. The efltct in every case was to change the animal 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF NITRITE OF AMYL. 121 

tissue of a whitey -brown colour, which in time became dark or dirty looking. 
Decomposition of the tissue was, however, arrested, and I have several speci- 
mens of a pathological character which have been thus preserved for six 
months. 

In the extreme heat of the past summer, I placed in jars of equal size 
two frogs that had recently died ; the jars were lightly covered with cloth 
substance, and each one was covered to the same extent. Into one jar was 
poured ten minims of the nitrite ; the other was left imtouched. The frog in 
the jar that contained common air only was rapidly decomposing in six hours, 
and on the following day was putrid. The frog in the jar through which the 
nitrite was diffused in vapour was quite fresh three days after, and remained 
fresh so long as the smell of the nitrite could be detected, showing that it had 
not entirely evaporated. When the odour could no longer be perceived, 
signs of putrefaction were observed in the animal, and these gradually ad- 
vanced, but the change was very slow, and the body dried up at last rather 
than putrefied. 

Ohservations. — Series 3. Si)ecimens of blood were drawn into open glass 
vessels, containing proportions of nitrite varying from one to fifteen per cent, 
in respect of the blood drawn. The blood thus charged coagulated in the 
usual manner and in the natural space of time ; it became, however, of a dirty 
red colour. Set aside in the open air, serum escaped from the clot ; but the 
upper surface of the blood, instead of soon becoming of a bright red from the 
absorption of oxygen, remained long dark. In proportion to the time of escape 
of the nitrite the blood remained free from decomposition, and the i^eriod of 
change in each vessel (five vessels were used) varied precisely according to 
the degree with which the blood, while in the fluid state, was charged with 
the nitrite. So long as there was distinct odour of the amyl-compound 
there was no change. The tu-st sign of change, which even in the specimens 
containing the lowest chiti-ge was never observed before six hours, consisted 
in reddening of the upper surface of the clot ; then softening followed, decom- 
position, and fluidity. In the heat of summer I found blood containing 
fifteen per cent, of the nitrite remain unchanged for five days. The same 
observations were made on simple albuminous fluids, on fluids from animal 
cysts, and on saliva and certain other of the excretions. 

We gather from these experiments that nitrite of amyl, like chloroform, 
alcohol, or other bodies to which reference has been made, arrests by its pre- 
sence the change known as decomposition, preventing by catalysis the com- 
bination of oxygen. That the nitrite itself remains tmdecomposed admits of 
ready proof, because it can be re-collected ; and that it does not combine with 
the structures or parts of the structures which it preserves, is shown by the 
fact that the process of decomposition is set up only as the nitrite makes its 
escape by evolution. 

Physiological Effects on liyhstg Oeganisms. 

Effects on the Skin. 

Ohservations. — Series 4. When nitrite of amyl is applied to the cuta- 
neous human surface and held in close contact with it by being placed under 
oiled silk or tinfoil, it produces after a brief period some injection of the vessels, 
and a slight tingling sensation with heat. If the skin be prc^dously moist- 
ened with water for a long time, the efi'eet of the nitrite is somewhat increased ; 
but at no time is the action so rapid and marked as is that of chloroform or 
turpentine. To test the relative poAvers of the nitrite and of chloroform, I 



122 REPORT 186 J;. 

placed a pledget of bibulous paper an inch square, and saturated with nitrite, 
on one of my arms, and covered the paper with thin metal. On the other 
arm I placed a similar pledget saturated with chloroform, and covered it in 
the same manner. The nitrite, retained on until it was quite dry, produced 
only pale redness and slight irritation : the chloroform caused great pain, 
so that I had some difficulty to keep it on, intense iujection and redness, and 
some excoriation of skin. 

At the same time I may observe that the nitrite is undoubtedly absorbed 
by the skin. To prove this, I applied it to the skin of a frog by immersiug 
the hinder limbs of the animal in a solution of it. In a few minutes the 
symptoms which markedly characterize the action of the substance, viz., 
violent circulatory action followed by prostration, were developed. I also 
applied some of the substance to my own skin, carefully retaining it in con- 
tact over a six-inch surface : during the application the pulse rose, sensa- 
tion of fullness in the head followed, and other signs which will be more 
fully described in the sequel. 

Observations. — Series 5. Administered by the mouth the nitrite is com- 
paratively slow in its action, but very decisive. Administered to rabbits in 
doses of five, ten, fifteen and tweuty minims, and in more potent doses, its 
effects are striking. It admits of being readily given in tincture diluted 
with water. In five-minim doses it produces on these animals temporary 
excitement. The circulation is quickened, the breathing is quickened, the 
pupil is dilated, and the animal is restless ; the symptoms subside in from five 
to ten mimites, and no harm seems to have been done. In doses of ten 
minims the symptoms are the same, but more marked. In doses of twenty 
minims, after the stage of excitement has passed away, depression follows, 
and continues several minutes, and there may be feeble convulsive action, 
but the animal recovers. There is no indication of vomiting. 

In drachm doses the nitrite is often fatal to dogs, cats, and rabbits. The 
symptoms induced are violent action of the heart, rapid breathing, -v^-ide 
dilatation of the pupil, con\'nlsions, not clonic but quick, and after an inter- 
val of a few minutes rapid collapse and paralysis of motion. The heart falls 
in its beats to a minimum, and the breathing may be reduced to one re- 
spiration in two or even four minutes. To appearance, in fact, the animal is 
nearly dead. It lies hke an animal profoimdly narcotized with chloroform, 
but still it feels. When it is touched at any part or hghtly pinched, it Avinces 
instantly if it has the power to move. The period of death is usually pro- 
longed ; and often when the animal seems so nearly dead that recovery 
appears hopeless, it continues still to breathe, it throws off the nitrite by the 
lungs, and ultimately recovers. 

Observations. — Series 6. Administered by inhalation, the effects of the 
nitrite are elicited with remarkable precision and quickness, and the pheno- 
mena are amongst the most striking, perhaps are the most striking of any I 
have seen in all my large physiological experience. If a piece of bibulous paper 
be formed into a tube, and if an expanded end of the tube be made to absorb 
two or at most three minims of the nitrite, a surface sufficiently charged for 
inhalation even by the human subject is obtained. If the tube, charged as 
directed, be held about two inches from the nose, and respiration be carried 
on in the usual manner, the following symptoms rapidly show themselves. 
The action of the heart is suddenly and greatly increased, so that in one 
minute I have counted it rising eighty beats ; the breathing also becomes 
quickened ; the face becomes deeply suffused with blood, the suffusion extend- 
ing over the whole face, down the neck, and in persons who are bald, more or 






ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF NITRITE OF AMYL. 123 

less over the head. The eyes are also injected, aud occasionally fill with tears ; 
the pupil slightly dilates, and over the suffused surface there is sensation of 
heat, described by some as bixrning heat, and by others as mere tingling. 
When these symptoms are at their height, a peculiar sensation is felt in the 
head, a sensation of tightness across the forehead, of fullness, giddiness, and 
prostration, but with no acute pain. The agent being taken away, the effects 
cease rapidly. 

I have now witnessed these effects on more than two hundred occasions, 
and have experienced them myseK forty times : I can pronounce them abso- 
lute and valid phenomena, in no way dependent on mental exciteinent or 
fancied excitement. They are nevertheless developed differently in intensity 
in different persons, and they even slightly differ in the same person on 
different occasions. I wUl give briefly two examples. 

On Mr. Kempton, a friend who has inhaled the vapour many times, the 
effect on the heart is so rapid that it can be felt after the first three inhala- 
tions. His pulse wiU rise from 72 to 105 in ten seconds, and he is conscious 
of pulsation in every large artery in his body. His face becomes as red as 
vermUion, and is not only subjectively but objectively heated. 

On Dr. Gibb, after inhalation a quarter of a miuute, the pulse rises during 
the followiag quarter minute eight beats, and during the next quarter twenty 
beats ; rising successively from 68 beats per minute to 76 and 88 ; the face 
meantime becomes gTcatly siiffused, and giddiness is experienced. In both 
the gentlemen named, the liiilse comes down to the natm-al standard in twQ 
minutes after cessation of the inhaling process. On myself the symptoms 
are almost identical with those presented by Dr. Gibb. 

In one instance I was so unhappy as to see the inhalation carried to the 
extreme of danger. An incredulous friend seeing a bottle of the nitrite on 
my library mantelshelf, during a minute in which I was absent from the 
room, opened the bottle and commenced inhaling from the mouth. When I 
returned I found him walking the library still inhaling, his face and neck red 
as raw beef. In spite of all I could do, he would continue, till as he said he 
felt some effect. While I was using forcible efforts to get the bottle from 
him, he suddenly gave it me himself, and became speechless. I shall never 
forget the gallop of that man's heart. As he leaned against a table, the 
table vibrated and recorded visibly the pulsations. He panted for breath as 
one who has run to the extremity : I could not get him to move reasonably, 
and had the greatest difficulty in leading him into the open air. In a little 
time the excitement declined, and was succeeded by depression and partial 
loss of power ; but fortunately he slowly recovered, and I do not think he 
was any worse for his misadventure : although, being a stout middle-aged 
man, I feared that during the excitement some paischief might have happened 
to the vessels of the brain. 

In the anxiety of looking after this gentleman, I did not count minute by 
miuute the pulsations of the heart ; but the action was at one time IciO per 
minute, and the violence was extreme : both sounds were lost, or rather they 
occurred so qvdckly that the ear coidd not distinguish them, and the rapid 
motion communicated a peculiar synchronous tremor to the upper limbs. 

My friend explained to me afterwards that his first sensation was that of 
burning in the face, but that he thought this arose from laughing ; that the 
next thing he felt, and which at length alarmed him, was the hearing the 
pulsations of his own body very loudly and painfully. Then he felt a pecu- 
liar powerlessness which could not be described ; but at no time did he lose 
either sensation or consciousness. I estimated, from the loss in the bottle. 



12'i REPORT— 1864. 

that this gentleman had been exposed to the vajjour derived from the escape 
of twenty minima of the nitrite, much of which necessarily was lost by dis- 
tribution in the air. 

In a long series of experiments I have submitted animals to the inhalation 
of the nitrite, and with the most interesting results. I must, at the risk of 
being tedious, give the salient points of observation. 

Into a jar capable of receiving 200 cubic inches of air, a large healthy 
frog was placed, and ten minims of the nitrite were sloAvly introduced. 
The animal, after exhibiting violent vascular action with reddening of the 
feet, sank into a condition which so closely resembled death, that I thought 
it was dead. At 11 o'clock at night it remained the same (the experi- 
ment was made at 8 p.m.), and I laid it aside as dead; but I was struck 
with one fact, that the eyelid was not contracted, as is common in these ani- 
mals after dissolution : on the following morning, upon going into the labo- 
ratory, I found the animal alive and as active as though nothing had happened 
to it. 

Tliis observation led me natiu-ally to make many inquiries as to the con- 
dition of frogs during this state of suspended animation ; and I found little 
difficulty in obtaining a repetition of the phenomenon. The experiment 
usually succeeds well, and the suspension of animation may, under proper 
supervision, be sustained even for days. In one case an animal came back 
to consciousness after nine days. The experimentalist miist, however, be 
prepared for some failiu'es. Thus, if the frogs are not fresh and strong, if 
they have been kept in confinement for some weeks, and are thin and feeble, 
the experiment will fail ; or if after the cessation of motion the animal is left 
too dry, so that he loses water, the experiment will not succeed ; or if the 
amount of am yl -vapour given is too great, the experiment may not succeed. 

In six cases where the animals recovered, I made numerous observations. 
Examining the web of the foot, T found that there was no sign of circulation 
there. Laying open the thigh muscles and exposing them to continuoiis 
galvanic current as well as to the induction-current, and to shocks from the 
positive conductor of the friction-machine, I found no evidence of irritability. 
Exposing the muscles to water warmed to various degrees, from 70° to 120° 
Pahr., there was no evidence of irritability. The only circumstance that 
would lead an observer to infer that death had not actually taken place, was 
that the limbs remained flaccid. In cases where rhjor mortis came on, 
although the animals would lie for many hours without undergoing decom- 
position, they never afterwards showed signs of irritability, but idtimately 
became flaccid and decomposed. 

On warm-blooded animals the nitrite produces conditions similar, but not 
so extreme in character. Administered gradually by inhalation to a strong 
rabbit until complete prostration was induced, I laid the animal on a (able 
and found that the respirations were reduced to one per minute. The limbs 
were flaccid and motionless ; and when they were moved and were laid in any 
given position, there they remained. The pupils were widely dilated, and 
the red portions of the body, as the mucous membranes of the moiith and 
eyelids, were absolutely white ; the action of the heart could not be felt, nor 
was it certain that the motion could be heard with the stethoscope. Cer- 
tainly the two sounds were lost. In this condition, breathing softly but 
sharply once in sixty or eighty seconds, the animal continued for two hours ; 
then the breathing gradually rose. In throe hours and a quarter the action 
of the heart could be felt by the hand ; in three liours there Avas movement 
of the limbs, and in five hours the animal had recovered so as to be able to 



B 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF NITRITE OF AMYL. 125 

move. The animal, whenever he had the power, winced on being touched, 
and showed signs of consciousnes.s. 

In an experiment performed by Dr. Gibb and myself, a cat ■was rapidly 
struck down by being placed in a thousand cubic inch jar through which the 
vapour from one fluid-drachm of the nitrite had been diffused from a surface 
of bibulous paper. Death took place in two minutes. The animal was re- 
moved and was watched with great care, but the breathing had ceased. The 
pupils were dilated to their fullest extent. After a time we laid open the 
chest. On exposure to the air, the heart was found contracting most vigo- 
rously, and soon the muscles of respiration also commenced spontaneously to 
contract, moving the ribs, and disturbing the abdominal viscera. The dia- 
phragm contracted very steadily, and a muscle of the thigh, on being laid 
bare, did the same. These contractions actually continued spontaneously 
from twenty-four minutes past twelve until forty-eight minutes past one in 
the day — a phenomenon which has I believe never before been observed after 
death in any of the muscles of warm-blooded animals except the heart. 

Eespecting the heart itself, in this case it continued contracting on the 
right side when all the other muscles were at rest. To observe the local 
action of the nitrite on the heart, we gradually instilled three minims of it on 
the right auricle. The muscular structure soon became of a dirty white, but 
the contractions continued. At seven in the evening the amicle, with a seg- 
ment of the ventricle, was still contracting five times in the minute ; at ten 
o'clock it was contracting in the same way, although the lower limbs of the 
animal were rigid from rigor mortis ; at twelve (midnight) it was contracting 
at the rate of two per minute ; at one it was reported by Dr. Henry as con- 
tracting strongly from one to two beats per minute ; at five a.m. I found it 
myself contracting three times in a minute and a half, and at eight it made a 
contraction on being touched with a needle. Eor many hours before this all 
the other muscles of the body were rigid. Thus there was witnessed the 
strange phenomenon of muscular contractility in the heart while all the other 
muscles were rigid ; and of muscular contractility of the heart for nearly 
eighteen hours after what would technically be considered the death of the 
animal. 

Observations. — Series 7. If instead of administering the nitrite of amyl 
through the skin, by the mouth, or by the lungs, it be injected under the skin 
with a hollow needle, it exerts its influence in the same way, and leads, 
though more slowly, to the same symptoms. From an injection of twenty 
minims decided symptoms are induced in such animals as rabbits, cats, and 
dogs, but after a time they recover. In the case of a yonng cat. Dr. Gibb 
and I slowly instilled twenty minims of the nitrite under the skin, and when 
the first symptoms had subsided we instilled twenty more. The result was 
that the animal feU into a powerless condition, but continued to breathe. 
Four hours after the last instillation it was the same, and was breathing six 
times in the minute. Eight hoirrs afterwards, the upper and lower limbs 
and the muscles of the neck being rigid, it was breathing once in two minutes, 
and the respiratory motion did not absolutely cease for two hours later. 

Observations. — Series 8. Local effects of the nitrite. I have made some 
very minute observations on the effect of the nitrite upon the capillary vessels 
of the web of the frog's foot. The results are very uniform and decisive. A 
few seconds after the web is treated with the nitrite, the capillary vessels arc 
seen to dilate to more than twice their natural calibre, and the rate of motion 
of blood is immensely quickened. After an interval of fifty or sixty seconds, 
the vessels become tortuous as from irregular contraction of their walls ; then 



126 REPORT— 1864. 

there follo'ws a decided narro\\dng of the vessel at its minutest part, ■which 
continues until at last the vessel becomes indistinct, and all motion of blood 
is lost, except a faint oscillation in vessels which are running transversely 
into a main current. These experiments were confirmed by observations 
made by my friends Dr. Henry and Mr. Yeats. 

Observations. — Series 9. On the Hood. The blood of animals destroyed 
by the nitrite may always be smelt as charged with the substance. On a 
large animal that had been killed by the injection of forty minims, I drew off 
an ounce of blood from the right side of the heart into a flask, and on inha- 
ling from the flask, absorbed suiRcient of the nitrite vapour to induce the 
specific signs of its action. The fluid, however, in no way interferes with 
coagulation, but, as I have said before, it arrests oxidation and decomposition. 
On the corpuscles it exerts a powerful osmotic action. It has no effect on 
them in the way of dissolution, nor does it, when added to them, destroy their 
form or modify the central depression, but it reduces them to half their ordi- 
nary size, leaving them well defined and capable of running together in the 
ordinary and natural way. 

From these narrations of experiments we may learn, in brief, the following 
facts in reference to the physiological action of the nitrite of amyl. 

1. It is absorbed by the bodies of animals however introduced into the 
organism — by the skin, by the stomach, by the lungs, by the cellular tissue. 

2. After its absorption its effects are seen immediately on the heart and 
circulation ; there is in the first instance violent action of the heart with 
dilatation of the capillaries, followed by diminished but not extingiiished 
power of the heart, and contraction of the extreme vessels. As an excitant 
of vascular action, the nitrite of amyl may be considered the most powerful 
agent as yet physiologically discovered. 

3. On animals, such as frogs, whose bodies admit of its removal sponta- 
neously, and whose circulatory and respiratory systems are simple, the nitrite 
suspends animation, and when the animals are placed under favourable con- 
ditions for the process of recovery, they may recover after considerable periods 
of time. There is no other known substance that suspends animation in 
these animals for so long a period. On warm-blooded animals, which are 
clothed in thick and less penetrable skin, and in whose bodies the circulatory 
and respiratory systems are more complicated, the nitiite cannot actually 
stop the movements of respiration and circidation without destroying life. 
Eut even in these animals it can without destroying life reduce the forces of 
respiration and circulation so extremely, that a condition precisely analogous 
to what is known as trance or catalepsy in the human subject, can be brought 
on and sustained for many hoiu's. 

4. The nitrite of amyl is not an ana>sthetic. By it consciousness is 
never destroyed, unless a condition approaching to death be produced. 

5. The effects of the nitrite on the organism are directed to the motive 
force, which it first ■wdldly excites and then subdues. 

6. The modus operandi of the nitrite appears to be by arresting the pro- 
cess of oxidation in the tissues. 

7. Physically the nitrite holds a place between the volatile bodies, such 
as chloroform, and the soUd bodies, such as opium and woorali. Hence its 
effects are less evanescent than those of the very volatile substances, and less 
certainly destructive than the solid substances. In this lies the secret of its 
prolonged action. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF NITRITE OF AMYL. 127 

Pathological Effects of the Nitrite of Amtl. 

In cases where the nitrite of amyl is carried to its extrcmest effects, 
the appearances of the internal organs present some modifications. The 
appearances are not the same in every instance, hut vary according to the 
mode in which the suhstance is administered. If it be administered very 
quickly, the lungs and all the other organs are found blanched and free of 
blood, the right side of the heart is engorged with blood, and the left side is 
empty, the brain being free of congestion. If the substance be administered 
slowly, the lungs are congested, the brain is congested, and blood is found 
both on the right and left sides of the heart. The organs of the body are 
also of a dirty reddish-brown colour, and the blood is similarly discoloured, 
]io distinction in colour existing between the arterial and venous bloods. 
Notwithstanding the violent action of the heart, I have never seen rupture of 
any vessel nor extravasation of blood. The inner lining of the blood-vessels 
is unchanged, and the valvular mechanism of the heart maintains its integrity. 
It is to be remembered that these observations have all been made on healthy 
animals. 

COMFAEISON' OF EfFECTS OF THE NlTEITE WITH OTHER AlITL-COMPOirNDS 

AND OTHER BoDIES. 

Observations. — Series 10. I have compared the action of nitrite of amyl 
with certain other of the amyl-compouuds, but I have not had sufficient time 
to complete this line of research, each new compound opening up for itself a 
new field of observation rich in varietj-. As yet I have only tried the com- 
parison vtith amylene and acetate of amyl. Amylene differs fi-om the ni- 
trite in that it acts as an anaesthetic ; but it resembles the nitrite in exciting 
the circulation in a minor degree and in causing redness of the skin. The 
symptoms produced by amylene are, however, very transitory as compared 
with those following the use of nitrite ; there is this in common, that neither 
of them entirely destroy consciousness, but amylene destroys sensibility, which 
the nitrite does not. T once saw Dr. Snow give amylene to a boy who was 
being subjected to an operation, and who was playing with a ball the whole 
time. The acetate of amyl, in comparison with the nitrite, seems to me to 
produce a more marked local and a less severe general effect. It causes on 
inhalation, not only redness of the face, but swelling and soreness of the 
mucous surfaces, without any violent excitation of the heart. Erom chloro- 
form the nitrite differs in that it does not produce anaesthesia ; and the same 
remark applies to ether, the monochlorm-etted chloride of ethyle, nitrous 
oxide gas, Dutch hquid, turpentine, and ammonia, although it resembles all 
these in that it excites the cii'culation in the early stages of its action. The 
only substance which approaches the nitrite in action is woorah, a vegetable 
compound which is much the same in its elementary composition. Woorali 
produces less preliminary excitement of the circulation, it paralyzes more 
determinately all the muscles except the heart, and being a solid substance, 
possessing no means of escaping from the body except in solution, it is more 
slowly eliminated. Woorali and the nitrite have, however, this in common, 
they produce paralysis of the extreme filaments of nerves before they influence 
the centi-al portions of the nervous circuit. 

Cause of the EAProiTY of the CiRctrLATioN under Nitrite of Ajitl. 
Why the nitrite of amyl should produce such suddenly increased action of 
the heart is a point of great physiological interest. I thought at first that 



/28 REPORT— 18G4. 

r 

\liis must be an effect primarily manifested on the blood, then on the heart, 
and through the increased impetus of the heart, on the capillary circulation. 
It was, however, soon apparent that the injection of the capillary sj'stem was 
too quickly developed to be a sequence of mere overaction of the pulsatoiy 
power of the central organ of the circulation, and the experiments on the web 
of the frog's foot settled the question, I think, absolutely. It is possible 
that the action of the nitrite is exerted immediately upon the extreme fila- 
ments of the vaso-motor nerves, and that the heart beats quickly, because 
the resistance to its force is taken off by the dilatation of the minute vessels 
which it supplies with blood. At the same time the vascular currents of the 
heart itself are quickened, and its movement is intensified proportionately. 

On the facts so far presented in this Report, two questions call for a mo- 
ment's consideration. The first is: — Whether we ought dogmatically to 
deny the possibihty of placing the human body in such a condition that it may 
for some hours, or even some days, assume the appearance of temporary 
death ? We are conversant of rare cases of disease, called cases of trance or 
catalepsy, in which life, seeming for an interval suspended, is restored : we 
have heard of other cases in which it is said that certain natives of India who 
are called Fakirs, produce, by some secret art, an imitation of death so de- 
terminate that the most iateUigent are deceived. I cannot but feel, after 
what I have seen in the experiments on which the present inquiry is based, 
that the explanation of the cataleptic state admits of a better solution than 
ever before it chd, and that the validity of the Fakir experiment is rendered, 
at the least, probable. I doubt not that in catalepsy there is formed in the 
body itself a chemical substance which, without actually stopping the motions 
of the heart and of respiration, suspends them so nearly that passive life only 
is carried on, and that this condition is contimied ixntil such time as the sub- 
stance is removed from the cii'culation. I conceive it is also qiiite reasonable 
to presume that the Fakir holds in his hand some substance derived from the 
vegetable world, which, more effective than the agent that has been before 
us this day, possesses the power, when introduced into the body, of suspend- 
ing the common signs of animation for a certain number of hours, and that 
" in this borrowed likeness of slu'unk death " the facts of the phenomena are 
presented and explained. 

The second question is : — Whether, from what we have learned in this in- 
quiry, any knowledge may be gathered relative to the application of the nitrite 
of amyl as a remedy in disease ? I have been too closely and intently occu- 
pied in the task of obtaining elementary facts, to devote time to the practical 
elucidation of this important point. Eut, subject to further and better ex- 
perience, I should infer that in cases where in a healthy organism sudden 
death is apprehended from failure of the heart, as for example in syncope 
from severe pain, fright, or inhalation of chloroform, the cautious administra- 
tion of the nitrite by inhalation might call into action the faihng organ and 
give it time to recover from the shock to which it has been subjected. Again, 
I believe that in tetanus the nitrite might be employed with advantage. 
Paralyzing the extreme filaments of nerves, and reducing the muscidar power 
of all the voluntary muscles in the same manner as does woorali, the nitrite 
possesses advantages over woorali which the man of science wiU at once 
recognize. It is more easily administered ; it does not necessarily destroy 
the power of the muscles of respiration, and it is much more easily removed 
from the organism by excretion. It might therefore in tetanus, for which 
there is now no remedy, be employed to suspend the violent spasm, and give 
the system time to 1-.: j-,7 off the primary evil. Physiologists have long felt 



m 



sidcrcl 
of the I 



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1 

CNNSBOnOUCK . 
















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HULL 










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numbc 



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.ilondi: 



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IS 

I 



ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 129 

that in tetanus this is tlie direction in which to move, and practice has shown 
that whenever recovery does take place from tetanus, it has been in rare cases 
where time has been gained, in cases, that is to say, where the sufferer has 
lived through the acute stage of the terrible ordeal to which he has been 
subjected. 

As regards the mode of administration of tlie nitrite. It may be given by 
direct inhalation ; it may be given by inhalation in combination with chloro- 
form and ether ; or it may be given by the mouth as an alcoholic tincture in 
doses of three, five, or ten minims, or even in larger doses, according to the 
effects produced. It would of course be the safest jilan to iise it in small 
doses at first, and to keep up the effect by frequent and cautious repetition. 

In the course of prej)aring this lleport, many new lines of inquiry have 
suggested themselves, and many temptations to leave the immediate subject 
and to explore new paths and promising fields of discovery have been offered. 
The examination of the whole of the amyl series of bodies in a physiological 
point of view is particularly important. In this series there is probably to 
be found another and safer anaesthetic than chloroform : in the same series 
we may hope to find bodies analogous in their action to quinine ; and other 
bodies more potent in suspending animation than the one to which I have 
invited attention to-day. But I had one object before me, and that itself has 
demanded undivided work. Should the labours thus far carried out be con- 
sidered by this learned body of sufficient importance to call for further and 
more extended research, I need only add that I shall feel myself the debtor 
of the Section in being again its servant. 



Report on Tidal Observations made on the Humber and Rivers Trent 
and Ouse, 1864. By a Committee, consisting of James Oldham^ 
C.E.; J. F. Bateman, C.E., F.R.S.; John Scott Russell, C.E,, 
r.R.S. ; and Thomas Thompson. 

Tour Committee for the above purpose, after reporting a series of tidal obser- 
vatioris made at Hull, ISTew Holland, and Goole, at the Meeting of the British 
Association at Cambridge in 1862, were reappointed for more extended ob- 
servations, to be reported upon at Newcastle last year, but, owing to circum- 
stances over which we had no control, we were unable then to comply with 
the resolution of the Association ; but as the question of the tides of the 
Humber and some of its tributaries was considered of importance in a scien- 
tific point of view, the request was again repeated, and we your Committee 
reappointed, with a grant of .£50 at their disposal for the expenses attending 
our observations. 

Your Committee have now therefore to report to the Association that they 
have obtained tidal observations at HuE, at Gainsborough on the Trent, and 
at Goole and N"aburn Lock on the Yorkshire Ouse. Those at Hull were 
obtained by your Committee from the Dock Company's gaiigc at that place ; 
those at Goole from that of the Aire and Calder Navigation Company ; for 
those at Naburn Lock permission was kindly given to your Committee by the 
Commissioners of the Eiver Ouse Navigation to use their tide-gauge ; those 
at Gainsborough were made at a point on the town side of the river about 
300 yards below the bridge, from a gauge which we procured and erected. 
The observations at each station were made at intervals of 15 minutes, and 
extended over fifty-four tides, commencing at 12 o'clock at noon on the 9th of 

1864. 



130 



REPORT — 1864. 



May, and ceasing at 12 o'clock at noon on the 6th of June of the present year. 
The books in which the whole of the observations were entered are herewith 
presented to the Association. 

In order, however, to give a more readily comprehended explanation of the 
results of our labours, the entire sets of observations have been drawn in sec- 
tion by contour lines, as will be seen by the accompanjdng drawings, also now 
presented to the Association. The vertical lines give the hours and minutes 
of the observed time of the tides in rising and faUing, and the horizontal lines 
or divisions give in feet and inches the observed height of such rise and fall. 
The red line running through each section represents the datum line of the 
mean rise of the sea at Livei-pool, as given by the Ordnance Survey Board, 
in the published work entitled " Abstracts of the principal lines of Spirit 
Levelling in England and Wales, by Colonel Sir Henry James, E.E., F.R.S., 
&c." The zero of the tide-gauge in each case is represented by a dotted 
line on the section above or below the red line, as the case may be : that of 
Naburn Lock is 1-680 feet above the said line; Goole is 3-823 feet below; 
Gainsborough 3-140 feet above ; and HuU 14-707 feet below. The tidal 
wave is represented by the blue contour lines. 

During the whole of the time the observations were being made the 
weather was not undily influenced by either rain or wind, and therefore the 
tides were natui'al and of a regular character. 

The phenomenon as to the time of high water above a certain point of the 
Hull Dock gauge, referred to in the last Eeport, is again verified, i. e. when 
the tide has reached the 16-feet mark of the tide-gauge above the dock-sill, 
or 1-293 feet above the mean rise of the sea at Liverpool, it then, in every 
tide, wants exactly three hours to high water. 

Tidal Observations taken at the Ship Lock, Goole, as to the time of high 
water after the tide has reached the 8-feet mark, by Mr. Thomas Kendall, 
Dock Master. 



3Iorning. 


Bvening. 


State of 
tides. 


Date. 


Time when 

8 feet watei 

on gauge. 


Time when 
high water. 


Differ- 
ence. 


Time when 

8 feet water 
on gauge. 


Time when 
liigh water. 


Differ- 
ence. 




1864. 


li ni 


h m 


h m 


h m. 


h m 


h m 


Neaps . . 


Aug. 10. 








10 45 


12 45 


2 


>5 ■ • 


11. 


10 50 


12 50 


2 








}> • ■ 


12. 


12 20 


2 


1 40 


12 45 


2 20 


1 35 


?? • • 


13. 


1 20 


3 15 


1 55 


2 


3 45 


1 45 


Springs 


14. 


2 20 


4 40 


2 20 


3 


5 10 


2 10 


)j 


15. 


3 10 


5 20 


2 10 


3 55 


6 10 


2 15 


J5 


16. 


4 15 


6 20 


2 5 


4 40 


7 


2 20 


}> 


17. 


4 25 


6 45 


2 20 


5 25 


7 45 


2 20 


5> 


18. 


5 25 


7 50 


2 25 


6 10 


8 15 


2 5 


S) 


19. 


6 15 


8 10 


1 55 


6 50 


9 


2 10 


>) 


20. 


6 50 


8 55 


2 5 


7 35 


9 40 


2 5 


5> 


21. 


7 35 


9 35 


2 


8 25 


10 30 


2 5 


Neaps . . 


22.: 


8 23 


10 25 


2 2 


9 10 


11 20 


2 10 


>> • • 


23.! 


9 10 


11 30 


2 20 


10 


12 15 


2 15 


>} 


24. 


10 10 


12 20 


2 10 


11 15 


1 15 


2 



ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



131 



The fact exists ; but the immediate cause of this occurrence your Com- 
mittee are still unable to determine, and must therefore leave the solutioa 
for further light and knowledge to be brouglit to bear upon it. 

The nearest approximation to this fixed law occurs at Goole, where we 
find that when the tide has reached the 8-feet mark of the tide-gauge, or 
4-177 feet above the mean rise of the sea at Live -pool, the average time to 
high water, as observed over twenty-seven tides aud recorded in the following 
Tables, is 2 hours and 6 minutes, but the extreme variation is found to ex- 
tend from 1 hour and 35 minutes to 2 hours and 25 minutes. 

In analyzing or reducing the observations of the various stations, the fol- 
lowing are the results on the fifty-four tides in reference to the zero of each 



Place. 



Nabum Lock 
Goole 



Gainsborough 
HuU 



Mean rise 

oyer the 

entire 

observations. 



ft. in. 

6 4 

11 

5 8 

16 3 



Highest tide | Lowest tide 

above zero of abovB zero ol 

gauge. i gauge. 



ft. in. 

10 11 

16 9 

8 11 

26 4 



ft. in. 

4 10 
10 3 

3 
20 3 



Highest low 

water above 

zero of gauge, 



ft. in. 

4 3 

3 10 

3 

10 4 



Lowest low 
water above 
zero of gauge. 



ft. in. 

1 3 

2 3 

0\ 



_ The following Table gives the greatest rise of tide during the observa- 
tions above the Ordnance datum at each station : — 



Place. 


Q-reatest rise above the 
Ordnance datum. 


Naburn Lock, May 9tb, 1864 


feet. 

13-50 
12-25 
12-93 
11-63 


Gainsborough, May 9th, 1864 


Goole, May 25th, 1864 


Hull, May 25th, 1864 





It will be seen by the above that the highest surface-rise occurred on the 
9th of May at Naburn Lock and at Gainsberough, and that at Goole and 
Hull on the_25th of May. The excessive height at Naburn Lock and Gains- 
borough taldng place on the above date, indicates a considerable flush in the 
rivers at the time from' rains which had fallen previously in districts above 
the poLiatsof observation. The superior rise at HuU and Goole only indicates 
tidal influence. 

The following Table gives the time at each station the tides on an average 
requii-e in rising and falling : — 



Place. 


Eising tide. 


Falling tide. 


TTaburn Lock 

Goole 


2 to 2| houi-s. 
about 3 hours. 
2 to 2i hours, 
about 5| hours. 


10 to 10^ hours, 
about 9^ hours. 
10 to lOi hours, 
"about 6|- hours. 


Gainsborough 

Hull 





k2 



132 



REPORT 1864. 



Table giving the time of flood and high water at Naburn Lock, Goole, and 
Gainsborough after it is flood and high water at Hull. 



Place. 


Flood tide. 


High water. 


Naburn Lock 

Goole . 


li m 
7 15 
3 15 

6 20 


h in 
3 50 

1 25 

2 50 


Gainsborough 



The following statement shows the difference between the mean and 
extreme rise of the tides at Hull and Goole as taken in 1862 and 1864: — 



Place. 


Mean rise. 


Extreme rise. 


Hull, 1862 


feet, 
16-95 
16-25 


feet. 

27-92 
26-33 


Hull, 186J 


Difference . . 

Goole, 1862 

Goole, 1864 

Difference . . 


•70 


1-59 


11-67 
11-00 


15-33 
16-75 


•67 


1-42 



By the above it will be observed that the mean rise at Hull in 1864 was 
less by -70 feet than in 1862, and that the extreme rise in 1864 was less by 
1-59 feet than in 1862 ; and at Goole the mean rise was less in 1864 than 
in 1862 by -67 feet, but the extreme rise in 1864 was more by 1-42 feet than 
in 1862. 

In bringing their labours to a conclusion, yoiu" Committee confidently hope 
that, although they may not have shed any new light on the phenomena of 
the tides of the Humber, they may have established such data as may enable 
others to follow out the inquiry so as to lead to valuable results. 

Your Committee cannot close their report without expressing their great 
obligation to W. H. Huifam, Esq., and R. A. MarriUier, Esq., of Hull; 
Thomas Wilson, Esq., and W. H. Bartholomew, Esq., of Leeds ; and Luke 
Thompson, Esq., of York, for the valuable assistance they have received from 
those gentlemen. 



ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



133 



Tidal Observations taken at Hull, Gainsborough, Goolo*, and Naburn Lock, 

May 9 to June 6, 1864. 

May 9.— 1864. 



Hill. 


Gainsborough. 


G 


OOLE. 




Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. ill. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OP.M. 


14 2 




12 P.M 


8 


E.S.E. 


12 P.M. 


II 3 


E.S.E. 


12 OP.M. 


II 10 


E. 


"5 


13 4 




15 


7 9 




15 


10 9 


it 


IS 


II 4 




30 


12 4 




30 


7 6 




30 


10 2 


J) 


30 


10 10 




45 


II 6 




45 


7 3 




45 


9 ic 


') 


4S 


10 4 




I 


10 7 




I 


7 I 




I 


9 6 


J) 


1 


9 11 




15 


10 c 




15 


6 11 




15 


9 2 


>) 


15 


9 8 




30 


9 3 




30 


6 9 




30 


8 10 


J) 


3° 


9 4 




45 


8 7 




45 


6 6 




45 


8 6 


') 


45 


9 




2 


7 10 




2 


6 3 




2 


8 2 


)» 


2. 


8 6: Deals up. 


15 


7 5 




15 


6 I 




IS 


7 11 


>i 


15 


8 c! 


30 


6 8 




3° 


6 




30 


7 7 


)> 


3° 


7 8 




45 


6 2 




45 


5 9 




45 


7 2 


I) 


45 


7 5 


E. 


3 


6- 




3 


5 6i 




3 " 


6 11 


>) 


3 ° 


7 2 




15 


6 I 




15 


5 4 




15 


6 9 


)) 


IS 


6 II 




30 


6 2 




30 


5 2 




30 


6 6 


j» 


30 


6 9 




45 


6 10 




45 


5 ti 




45 


6 3 


)? 


45 


6 6 




4 ° 


7 10 




4 


4 iii 


E. 


4 


5 'I 


)j 


4 ° 


6 4 




15 


8 II 




15 


4 10 




15 


5 9 


J> 


15 


6 2 




30 


10 c 




30 


4 9 




30 


S 7 


)) 


30 


6 




45 


II 1 




45 


4 6^ 




45 


5 4 


)» 


45 


5 IC 


E. 


5 ° 


12 2 




5 


4 5i 




5 ° 


5 2 


»j 


5 


S 8 




15 


13 6 




15 


4 4 




IS 


4 II 


Jj 


15 


5 7 




30 


14 II 




3° 


4 2^ 




30 


4 9 


)) 


30 


5 6 




45 


16 3 




45 


4 c| 




45 


4 8 


E. 


45 


5 4 




6 


'7 4 




6 


4 




6 


4 6 


J> 


6 


S 3 


E. 


15 


18 ic 




15 


3 10 




15 


4 S 


)' 


15 


5 2 




30 


19 11 




30 


3 9 




30 


4 3 


)3 


30 


5 c 




45 


21 c 




45 


3 8 




45 


4 I 


)J 


45 


4 11 




7 ° 


21 II 




7 


3 6i 




7 


3 11 


>> 


7 


4 10 




15 


22 II 




15 


3 6 




IS 


3 10 


;» 


IS 


4 9 




30 


23 3 




30 


3 5 




30 


4 10 


'» 


30 


4 9 




45 


23 II 




45 


3 3 




45 


7 5 


)) 


45 


4 8 




8 


24 4 




8 


3 1^ 




8 


9 6 


)J 


8 


4 7 




'5 


24 8 




15 


3 1 




15 


II 3 


)» 


15 


4 6 




30 


24 II 




30 


3 1 




3° 


12 3 


J) 


30 


4 6 




45 


25 




45 


3 




45 


13 4 


n 


45 


4 6 




9 


24 10 




9 


3 




9 ° 


14 c 


'» 


9 


4 6 




15 


24 5 




15 


4 6 




IS 


14 IC 


)) 


15 


4 S 




30 


23 10 




30 


6 




30 


IS S 


?) 


30 


4 4 




45 


13 3 




45 


6 10 




45 


IS 9 


» 


45 


4 4 




10 


22 5 




10 


7 5 




10 


15 II 


j» 


10 


4 4 




15 


21 5 




IS 


8 




15 


15 10 


)) 


IS 


4 3 




3° 


20 II 




30 


8 3 




30 


IS 7 


)) 


30 


6 2 




45 


20 




45 


8 6 




45 


14 11 


)» 


45 


7 4 




II 


19 3 




II 


8 9 




11 


14 2 


J) 


II 


8 4 




15 


18 3 




15 


8 II 


[ 


15 


13 4 


)) 


IS 


9 3 




30 


17 4 




30 


I 9 


1 


30 


12 9 


») 


30 


9 II 




45r.M 


16 2 




45 P.M. 


8 3 




45 P.M. 


12 c 


M 


45 P.M. 


10 6 





* The obeervations are taken from the lower Sill of the Outer Ship Lock at Goole. 



134 



REPORT — 186-1. 



May 10.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h in 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft, in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.JI. 


15 5 




12 OA.M. 


7 II 


E. 


12 OA.M. 


II 4 


E. 


12 OA.M. 


10 9 


E. 


IS 


14 5 




IS 


7 10 




IS 


10 9 


)5 


IS 


10 II 




30 


13 S 




30 


7 7 




30 


10 2 


») 


30 


10 8 




45 


12 6 




45 


7 4 




45 


9 9 


)> 


45 


10 I 




I 


11 8 




I 


7 2 




I 


9 5 


>> 


I 


9 8 




15 


II 




15 


6 II 




IS 


9 I 


)> 


15 


9 2 




30 


10 2 




30 


6 10 




30 


8 9 


)) 


30 


8 10 




45 


9 7 




45 


6 7 




45 


8 5 


)' 


45 


8 6 




2 


8 10 




a 


6 4 




a 


8 J 


N.E. 


2 


8 2 




IS 


8 3 




IS 


6 2 




IS 


7 8 


)» 


15 


7 II 




30 


7 9 




30 


6 I 




30 


7 5 


)• 


30 


7 8 




45 


7 5 




45 


5 1° 




45 


7 I 


)) 


45 


7 6 




3 


7 2 




3 


5 H 




3 


6 10 


)) 


3 ° 


7 3 




IS 


7 2 




IS 


5 5 




IS 


6 6 


)) 


IS 


7 




30 


7 6 




30 


5 3 




30 


6 3 


)) 


30 


6 10 




45 


8 3 




45 


5 I 




45 


5 II 


)) 


45 


6 8 




4 


9 3 




4 ° 


4 II 




4 


5 8 


J) 


4 ° 


6 5 




15 


10 3 




15 


4 10 




15 


5 5 


a 


15 


6 3 




30 


II 5 




30 


4 H 




30 


5 3 


J) 


30 


6 1 




45 


12 3 




45 


4 6i 




45 


5 I 


)> 


45 


5 II 




S ° 


13 6 




5 ° 


4 5 




5 


4 10 


Jj 


5 ° 


5 10 




15 


14 6 




IS 


4 4i 




15 


4 8 


)3 


15 


5 8 




30 


15 8 




30 


3 115 




30 


4 6 


)) 


30 


5 7 




45 


16 6 




45 


3 9 




45 


4 4 


') 


45 


5 5 




6 


17 6 




6 


3 8 


E.N.E. 


6 


4 3 


E.N.E. 


6 


5 4 


N. 


IS 


18 9 




15 


3 6^ 




15 


4 I 


?) 


15 


5 3 




30 


19 10 




3° 


3 5^ 




30 


4 


J) 


50 


5 I 




45 


20 10 




45 


3 4 




45 


3 10 


)) 


45 


S 




7 


21 9 




7 


3 3 




7 


3 8 


»j 


7 


5 




15 


22 6 




15 


3 2 




15 


3 11 


E. 


15 


4 II 




3° 


23 2 




30 


3 li 




30 


5 4 


n 


30 


4 10 




45 


23 8 




45 


3 




45 


6 10 


jj 


45 


4 9 




8 


24 2 




8 0. 


3 




8 


8 9 


>j 


8 


4 8 




15 


24 7 




15 


2 II 




15 


10 4 


)) 


15 


4 7 




30 


24 10 




30 


2 10 




30 


II 8 


)j 


30 


4 6 




45 


25 




45 


2 9 




45 


12 8 


)) 


45 


4 6 




9 


24 II 




9 ° 


2 9 




9 ° 


13 7 


)» 


9 ° 


4 5 


N.E. 


IS 


24 7 




15 


2 8 




IS 


14 4 


»j 


15 


4 4 




30 


24 I 




30 


4 8 




30 


IS ° 


)» 


30 


4 4 




45 


^3 5 




45 


6 




45 


15 5 


?» 


45 


4 3 




10 


22 9 




10 


6 8 




10 


15 8 


J) 


10 


4 2 




15 


22 




IS 


7 4* 




IS 


IS 9 


9) 


IS 


4 2 




30 


zi 1 




30 


7 9f 




30 


15 7 


J» 


30 


5 6 


N.E. 


45 


20 2 




45 


7 11^ 




45 


15 


»» 


45 


6 5 




II 


19 3 




11 


8 4 




II 


14 2 


)» 


II 


7 5 




15 " 


.8 5 




IS 


8 7 




15 


'3 5 


>» 


15 


8 6 




30 


17 5 




30 


8 8^ 




30 


12 8 


J' 


30 


9 3 




45 A.M. 


16 6 




45 A.M. 


S 6 




45 A.M. 


II 10 


I) 


45 A.M. 


9 9 





ON TTDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



135 



May 10.— 1864, 



Hull. 


Gaihsborough. 


1 
GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h in 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OP.M. 


IS 7 




12 OP.M. 


8 


E.N.E. 


12 OP.M, 


II 4 


E.N.E. 


12 OP.M. 


10 5 


E. 


IS 


14 10 




IS 


7 4^ 




IS 


10 9 


E. 


15 


10 8 




30 


13 9 




30 


7 H 




3° 


10 3 


>) 


30 


10 7 




45 


13 




45 


7 of 




45 


9 9 


»j 


45 


^O I 




1 


12 I 




I 


6 8 




I 


9 3 


J) 


I 


9 6 


N.E. 


15 


II 5 




15 


6 6 




IS 


8 10 


)) 


IS 


9 




30 


10 7 




30 


6 4 




30 


8 7 


n 


30 


8 8 




45 


10 




45 


6 1 




45 


8 4 


J) 


45 


8 4 




a 


9 2 




2 


5 iif 




2 


7 II 


M 


2 


8 c 




15 


8 7 




IS 


5 9 




IS 


7 7 


»J 


IS 


7 8 




30 


8 




30 


5 7 




30 


7 3 


j» 


30 


7 6 




45 


7 7 




45 


5 4i 




45 


7 


» 


45 


7 3 




3 


7 2 




3 ° 


5 3 


N.E. 


3 


6 9 


jj 


3 ° 


7 


N.E. 


15 


6 




IS 


5 oi 




15 


6 6 


)) 


IS 


6 9 




30 


6 8 




30 


4 10 




30 


6 3 


Jj 


30 


6 7 




45 


6 9 




45 


4 9 




45 


S II 


tt 


45 


6 4 




4 


7 2 




4 


4 7 




4 


5 9 


)) 


4 


6 2 




15 


7 ic 




15 


4 6 




IS 


S 7 


i» 


IS 


6 




30 


8 6 




30 


4 4 




30 


S S 


E.S.E. 


30 


S 10 




45 


9 6 




45 


4 2 




45 


S 3 


)j 


45 


S 8 




5 ° 


10 4 




5 


4 I 




5 ° 


5 ° 


)» 


5 


5 6 


E. 


IS 


II 5 




IS 


4 




IS 


4 IC 


)> 


15 


S 4 




30 


12 5 




30 


3 10 




30 


4 8 


)) 


30 


5 3 




45 


13 6 




45 


3 9 




45 


4 6 


j» 


45 


5 2 




6 


'4 S 




6 


3 8A E.N.E. 


6 


4 4 


)> 


6 


S 




15 


15 7 




IS 


3 6 ; 


15 


4 2 


E. 


IS 


4 II 




30 


16 8 




30 


3 4 




.3° 


4 c 


I) 


30 


4 10 




45 


17 8 




45 


3 3 




45 


3 II 


}) 


45 


4 9 




7 


18 7 




7 


3 a 




7 ° 


3 10 


)J 


7 


4 8 


N.E. 


15 


19 9 




IS 


3 1 




IS 


3 9 


)» 


IS 


4 7 




30 


20 8 




30 


3 




30 


3 7 


» 


30 


4 6 




45 


21 5 




45 


2 II 




45 


3 6 


„ 


45 


4 5 




8 


22 2 




8 


2 10 




8 


4 


1! 


8 


4 4 




15 


22 9 




15 


2 9 




IS 


5 5 


)) 


IS 


4 3 




30 


23 2 




30 


2 8 




30 


6 9 


)J 


3° 


4 2 




45 


23 6 




45 


2 6 




45 


8 II 


»» 


45 


4 I 




9 ° 


23 8 




9 


2 6 




9 ° 


10 4 


)» 


9 ° 


4 > 




15 


23 10 




IS 


2 6 




IS 


II S 


E.N.E. 


IS 


4 I 


N.E. 


30 


23 IC 




30 


2 6 




30 


12 3 


J) 


30 


4 




45 


^3 7 




45 


2 6 




45 


12 II 


M 


45 


3 1° 




10 


23 2 




10 


i 6 




10 


13 6 


l» 


10 


3 9 




IS 


22 6 




IS 


4 3 




15 


13 II 


)) 


IS 


3 9 




30 


22 




30 


5 




30 


14 3 


>l 


30 


3 8 




45 


21 5 




45 


5 8 




45 


14 6 


)J 


45 


^ ^ 




II 


20 8 




II 


6 




II 


14 4 


r» 


II 


3 6 




IS 


19 IC 




15 


6 7 




IS 


14 c 


IJ 


15 


4 8 


N.E. 


3° 


19 3 




30 


6 10 




30 


13 3 


N.E. 


1 30 


S 8 




45 P.M. 


,8 5 




45 P.M. 


7 I 




45 P.M. 


12 7 


n 


1 45 P-M 


6 7 





136 



BEFORT — 1864. 



May 11.— 18G4. 



Hull. 


Gain 


3B0R0UGH. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




12 OA.M 


17 7 




12 OA.M 


7 3 


E.N.E. 


12 OA.M. 


II 10 


N.E. 


12 OA.M 


7 4 


N.E. 


15 


16 7 




15 


7 6 




15 


II 3 


5) 


15 


8 c 




30 


15 6 




30 


7 




30 


I I c 


J) 


30 


8 8 




45 


14 8 




45 


7 




45 


10 5 


)) 


45 


9 2 




I 


13 9 




I 


6 10 




I 


9 8 


?) 


1 


9 5 




15 


13 c 




15 


6 7 




15 


9 3 


)> 


IS 


9 3 




30 


12 2 




30 


6 4 




30 


8 II 


I) 


3° 


8 II 




45 


II 7 




45 


6 




45 


8 7 


)) 


45 


8 7 




2 


10 8 




2 


5 95 




2 


8 3 


J> 


2 


8 4 




15 


10 3 




15 


5 7 




15 


7 I' 


)I 


15 


7 10 


M.E. 


30 


9 6 




30 


5 4 




30 


7 8 


)' 


30 


7 5 




45 


9 2 




45 


5 0^ 




45 


7 4 


)5 


45 


7 3 




3 


8 7 




3 ° 


4 10 




3 ° 


7 


)) 


3 ° 


6 ic 




15 


8 3 




15 


4 9's 




15 


6 9 


J) 


15 


6 7 




3° 


8 




30 


4 7 




30 


6 5 


J) 


3>3 


6 5 




45 


8 c 




45 


4 4^ 




45 


6 2 


)) 


45 


6 3 




4 ° 


8 4 




4 ° 


4 c| 




4 ° 


6 c 


)) 


4 ° 


6 c 




IS 


8 9 




IS 


3 iii 




15 


5 9 


)) 


15 


5 IC 




30 


9 6 




30 


3 10 




30 


5 6 


)' 


30 


5 8 




45 


10 3 




45 


3 9, 




45 


5 3 


Jf 


45 


5 6 




5 


u 3 




5 ° 


3 7* 




! 5 ° 


S c 


It 


5 


5 4 


N.E. 


15 


12 2 




15 


3 6 




15 


4 I? 


)> 


15 


5 2 




30 


'3 1 




30 


3 5 




I 30 


4 8 


11 


30 


5 1 




45 


13 10 




45 


3 3 




45 


4 6 


11 


45 


4 II 




6 


14 10 




6 


3 2^ 




6 


4 4 


11 


6 


4 IC 


N.E. 


15 


'5 9 




'5 


3 I 




15 


4 2 


E.N.E. 


15' 


4 9 




30 


16 9 




30 


3 


. 


30 


4 <= 


11 


30 


4 7 




45 


17 7 




45 


2 11 




45 


3 n 


11 


45 


4 6 




7 ° 


.8 7 




7 <^ 


2 9 




7 


3 9 


11 


7 


4 5 




IS 


19 7 




15 


2 8 




15 


3 8 


11 


IS 


4 4 




30 


20 6 




30 


2 6 




30 


3 6 


11 


30 


4 3 




45 


21 3 




45 


2 6 




45 


3 7 


11 


45 


4 2 




8 


22 c 




8 


2 4 




8 


4 4 


11 


8 


4 1 




15 


22 6 




15 


2 3 




15 


5 4 


11 


IS 


4 




30 


22 II 




30 


2 2 




30 


6 7 


If 


30 


4 




45 


23 4 




45 


2 I 




45 


8 c 


11 


45 


3 11 




9 


23 7 




9 


2 




9 


9 7 


11 


9 ° 


3 10 




15 


23 10 




»S 


2 




15 


10 9 


E. 


15 


3 9 




30 


23 II 




30 


I II 




30 


II 9 


,, 


30 


3 9 




45 


23 8 




45 


I 9f 




45 


12 6 


11 


45 


3 8 




10 


^3 5 


j 


10 


I 9i 




10 


13 c 


11 


10 


3 8 


E. 


JS 


22 10 




15 


2 




15 


13 6 


11 


15 


3 6 




30 


22 2 




30 


4 




30 


13 11 


It 


30 


3 6 




45 


21 7 




45 


4 9 




45 


14 3 


11 


45 


3 6 




II 


20 II 




1 1 


5 




11 


14 4 


E.S.E. 


II 


3 5 




15 


20 3 




15 


5 II 




15 


14 2 


)) 


15 


3 II 




30 


19 7 




30 


6 3 




30 


.3 8 


)) 


30 


5 c 




45 A.M. 


18 10 




45 A.M. 


5 8 


; 


45 A.M. 


13 c 


)> 


45 A.M. 


5 n 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



137 



May 11.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabues Lock. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




12 OP.M 


17 IC 




12 P.M 


.6 II 


E.N.E. 


12 OP.M 


12 4| E.S.E. 


12 OP.M 


6 4 


E. 


15. 


17 1 




15 


7 




15 


11 8 


JJ 


15 


7 6 




30 


16 1 




30 


7 




30 


10 11 


>) 


30 


8 4 




45 


'5 4 




45 


6 6 




45 


10 7 


)» 


45 


8 8 




I 


14 6 




1 


6 i^ 




1 


10 1 


JJ 


I 


9 




15 


13 8 




15 


5 10 




15 


9 7 


71 


15 


9 3 




30 


12 10 




3° 


5 8 




30 


9 3 


)) 


30 


8 10 




45 


12 2 




45 


5 6 




45 


8 ic 


)» 


45 


8 5 




2 


II 5 




2 


5 4 




2 


8 6 


)J 


2 


8 


E. 


15 


10 10 




IS 


5 2i 




15 


8 2 


JJ 


15 


7 7 




30 


10 2 




30 


5 ^i 




30 


7 ic 


?; 


30 


7 3 




45 


9 7 




45 


4 ic^ 




45 


7 7 


JJ 


45 


7 




3 


8 10 




3 


4 9 




3 


7 4 


J) 


3 ° 


6 10 




15 


8 5 




15 


4 7 




15 


7 I 


Jj 


15 


6 7 




30 


7 11 




30 


4 5 




30 


6 10 


J? 


30 


6 5 




45 


7 7 




45 


4 3 




45 


6 7 


)) 


45 


6 3 




4 


7 5 




4 


4 a 




4 


6 4 


)J 


4 


6 


E. 


15 


7 i 




15 


4 




15 


6 I 


)) 


IS 


5 10 




30 


7 5 




30 


3 10 




30 


5 ''= 


)3 


30 


5 8 




45 


7 ic 




45 


3 9 




45 


5 7 


JJ 


45 


5 5 




5 


8 6 




5 


3 7 




5 " 


5 4 


») 


5 ° 


5 3 




15 


9 3 




15 


3 6 




15 


5 ' 


E. 


15 


5 I 




30 


10 2 




30 


3 4i 




30 


4 10 


JJ 


3° 


5 ° 




45 


II 2 




45 


3 3 




45 


4 8 


JJ 


45 


4 11 




6 


12 1 


1 


6 


3 H 


E. 


6 


4 6 


jj 


6 


4 9 




15 


12 11 




15 


3 ci 




15 


4 5 


)) 


15 


4 8 




30 


13 9 




30 


2 11 




30 


4 3 


JJ 


30 


4 6 




45 


14 10 




45 


2 9i 




45 


4 I 


it 


45 


4 5 




7 ° 


15 7 




7 


2 8 




7 


3 11 


JJ 


7 


4 4 


N.E. 


J5 


16 6 




15 


2 7 




15 


3 ic 


JJ 


15 


4 3 




30 


17 8 




30 


2 6 




30 


3 S 


JJ 


30 


4 I 




45 


IS 5 




45 


2 5 




45 


3 7 


J) 


45 


4 c 




S 


19 3 




8 


^ 3, 




8 


3 6 


JJ 


8 


3 u 




15 


20 1 




15 


^ If 




15 


3 4 


)J 


IS 


3 10 




30 


20 8 




30 


2 




30 


3 5 


)j 


30 


3 9 




45 


21 6 




45 


I 10 




45 


4 


I) 


45 


3 8 




9 


21 11 




9 


I 9 




9 


5 I 


J 


9 


3 7 


N.E, 


15 


22 3 




15 


1 8 




15 


6 6 


JJ 


15 


3 6 




30 


22 5 




30 


I 8 




30 


8 


JJ 


30 


3 5 




45 


22 8 




45 


I 7 




45 


9 3 


)l 


45 


3 5 




10 


22 9 




10 


I 6 




10 


10 2 


JJ 


10 


3 4 




15 


22 7 




15 


I 6 




15 


II c 


)J 


15 


3 3 




30 


i2 5 




30 


I 6 




30 


II 8 


JJ 


30 


3 3 




45 


12 3 




45 


I 6 




45 


12 2 


JJ 


45 


3 2 




11 


U 7 




II 


2 6 




II 


12 8 


JJ 


11 


3 2 




15 


II 




15 


3 6 




15 


13 c 


1 

JJ 1 


15 


3 I 




30 


lo 6 




30 


1- 




30 


13 2 


JJ 1 


30 


3 I 




45 P-M- 


19 10 


45 P.M. 


i 6 




45 P.M. 


13 2 


" ' 


45 P.M. 


3 J 





138 



REPORT — 1861. 



May 12.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


19 4 




12 OA.M. 


5 


E.N.B. 


12 OA.M. 


12 IC 


E. 


12 OA.M. 


3 




IS 


18 7 




15 


5 6 




IS 


12 3 


E.S.E. 


IS 


4 




3° 


17 8 




30 


5 9h 




3° 


II 9 


)» 


30 


4 9 




45 


16 1 1 




45 


6 




45 


II 2 


J) 


45 


5 6 




I o 


15 II 




I 


6 




I 


10 8 


>j 


I 


6 3 




IS 


IS 4 




15 


5 7 




15 


9 IC 


i» 


IS 


6 II 




30 


14 5 




30 


5 4i 




30 


9 5 


J) 


30 


7 8 




45 


13 8 




45 


5 2 




45 


9 


)) 


45 


7 II 




2 


12 10 




2 


5 




2 


8 8 


)j 


2 


8 




15 


12 4 




15 


4 10 




IS 


8 4 


») 


IS 


7 lO 


N.E. 


3° 


II 6 




30 


4 10 




30 


8 c 


}} 


30 


7 6 




45 


II 




45 


+ 9 




45 


7 8 


>> 


45 


7 2 




3 


10 5 




3 ° 


4 7 




3 


7 4 


)) 


3 


6 10 




IS 


9 8 




15 


4 5 




IS 


7 I 


9t 


IS 


6 6 




30 


9 5 




30 


4 3* 




3" 


6 9 


E. 


30 


6 3 




45 


9 2 




45 


4 2 




45 


6 6 


)) 


45 


6 




4 


8 II 




4 


4 1 




4 


6 3 


J) 


4 


5 10 




IS 


8 10 




15 


3 10 




15 


6 c 


}) 


15 


5 8 




30 


9 




30 


3 9^ 




30 


5 9 


») 


30 


5 6 




45 


9 5 




45 


3 6 




45 


S 6 


)j 


45 


5 5 




5 


10 I 




5 ° 


3 3^ 




5 


5 3 


>' 


5 


5 3 




15 


10 10 




15 


3 2 




IS 


5 c 


M 


15 


5 I 




30 


II 7 




30 


3 ° 




30 


4 ic 


»» 


30 


4 II 




45 


12 3 




45 


2 II 




45 


4 S 


)> 


c^^ 


4 10 




6 


13 3 




6 


2 10 




6 


4 6 


M 


6 


4 9 


N.E. 


15 


14 I 




15 


2 9 




IS 


4 5 


N.E. 


15 


4 8 




30 


14 II 




30 


2 8 




30 


4 2 


)t 


30 


4 7 




45 


15 8 




45 


2 S 




45 


4 c 


j» 


45 


4 6 




7 


16 9 




7 


2 3 




7 


3 11 


jj 


7 


4 5 




15 


17 3 




15 


2 2i 


» 


IS 


3 9 


jt 


15 


4 4 




30 


18 I 




30 


2 I 




30 


3 8 


*i 


30 


4 3 




45 


18 9 




45 


2 




45 


3 6 


)) 


45 


4 I 




8 


19 8 




8 


I II 




8 


3 5 


)' 


8 


4 




IS 


zo 4 




15 


I 105 




15 


3 6 


)) 


15 


3 II 




30 


21 




30 


I 9 




3° 


4 3 


?) 


30 


3 10 




45 


21 6 




45 


I 8^ 




45 


5 I 


j> 


45 


3 9 




9 ° 


22 




9 


I 7 




9 


6 I 


)) 


9 ° 


3 8 


N. 


15 


22 5 




IS 


I 6 




15 


7 I 


)j 


IS 


^ I 




30 


22 9 




30 


I 6 




30 


8 2 


)) 


3° 


^ I 




45 


22 10 




45 


I 5 




45 


9 3 


»» 


45 


3 6 




10 


22 1 1 




10 


I 4 




10 


10 2 


j» 


10 


^ ^ 




IS 


22 10 




IS 


I 3 




IS 


II 


E.N.E. 


IS 


3 4-i 




30 


22 8 




3° 


I zl 




30 


II 8 


») 


30 


3 4 




45 


22 4 




45 


I 2i 




45 


12 2 


)l 


45 


3 35 




II 


21 9 




II 


2 il 




II 


12 8 


]) 


II 


3 3 




15 


21 5 




15 


3 1 




15 


13 c 


5» 


15 


3 2^ 




30 


20 10 




30 


3 9^ 




30 


13 3 


»» 


30 


3 2 




45 A.M. 


20 ^ 




45 A.M. 4 4 




45 A.M 


13 4 


)) 


45 A.M. 


3 I 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



139 



May 12.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


NABUP.N Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OP.M 


19 8 




12 P.M. 


4 10 


N.E. 


12 or.M. 


13 


E.N.E. 


12 P.M. 


3 3 


N.E. 


15 


19 




IS 


5 2 




15 


12 6 


N.E. 


15 


4 




30 


18 3 




30 


5 6 




30 


II 9 


j> 


3° 


4 9 




45 


17 5 




45 


5 9^ 




45 


II 3 


J» 


45 


5 5 




1 


16 7 




I 


6 




I 


10 9 


)) 


I 


6 




15 


15 10 




15 


5 1° 




15 


10 2 


}) 


15 


6 8 




30 


14 1 1 




30 


5 9 




30 


9 8 


tt 


30 


7 4 




45 


14 3 




45 


5 3 




45 


9 3 


J) 


45 


7 9 




2 


13 6 




2 


5 




2 


8 10 


l» 


2 


8 




15 


12 9 




15 


4 9i 




IS 


8 6 


JJ 


15 


7 II 




30 


12 I 




30 


4 9 




30 


8 2 


l> 


3° 


7 7 




45 


II 6 




45 


4 7 




45 


7 10 


jj 


45 


7 2 




3 


10 10 




3 


4 5 




3 


7 7 


)) 


3 ° 


6 9 


N.E. 


IS 


10 5 




15 


4 3^ 




IS 


7 4 


3) 


15 


6 6 




30 


9 9 




30 


4 2 




30 


7 1 


)> 


30 


6 3 




45 


9 3 




45 


4 1 




45 


6 10 


J) 


45 


6 




4. 


8 10 




4 


3 "i 




4 


6 7 


') 


4 


5 1° 




IS 


8 5 




15 


^ 9, 




15 


6 4 


U 


IS 


5 8 




30 


8 3 




30 


3 7^ 




30 


6 I 


n 


30 


S 6 




45 


8 2 




45 


3 6 




45 


5 It 


)j 


45 


5 4 




5 


8 2 




5 


3 4| 




5 


S 7 


?j 


5 


5 I 




15 


8 5 




15 


3 3i- 




IS 


5 4 


iy 


15 


5 ° 




30 


8 10 




30 


3 2 




30 


5 I 


J) 


30 


4 10 




45 


9 5 




^^5 


3 0^ 




45 


4 II 


)) 


45 


4 9 




6 


10 




6 


2 II 




6 


4 9 


ji 


6 


4 7 


N.E. 


15 


10 9 




15 


2 9i 




15 


4 7 


E. 


IS 


4 6 




30 


II 6 




30 


2 8i 




3° 


4 5 


Jl 


30 


4 5 




45 


12 2 




45 


2 7 




45 


4 3 


J» 


45 


4 4 




7 


12 IC 




7 


2 6 




7 


4 1 


») 


7 " 


4 2 




15 


13 7 




IS 


2 5 




IS 


3 II 


IJ 


15 


4. 




30 


14 5 




30 


2 3 




30 


3 9 


» 


30 


3 10 




45 


IS 5 




o'^^ 


2 I 




45 


3 7 


ij 


45 


3 9 




8 


16 2 




8 


2 




8 


3 6 


)» 


8 


3 7 




15 


16 11 




15 


2 




IS 


3 4 


)) 


IS 


3 6 




30 


17 8 




30 


I 11 




30 


3 3 


jj 


3° 


3 S 


N.E. 


45 


18 6 




45 


I 10 




45 


3 I 


)) 


45 


3 4 




9 


18 XI 

19 6 




9 


I 9 




9 


3 I 


ij 


9 ° 


3 3 




15 




15 


I 8 




IS 


3 5 


E.N.E. 


15 


3 2 




30 


20 2 




30 


I 7 




30 


4 


!J 


30 


3 I 




45 


20 7 




45 


I 6 




45 


4 9 


I> 


45 


3 I 




10 


20 IC 




10 


I 5 




10 


5 8 


n 


10 


3 ° 




IS 


21 3 




15 


I 4 




15 


6 8 


)t 


'5 


3 




30 


21 4 




■3° 


' 3 




30 


7 9 


»> 


30 


3 <= 




45 


21 5 




45 


I 2 




45 


8 7 


» 


45 


2 11 




II 


21 4 




II 


1 1 




II 


9 I 


)) 


II 


2 11 




IS 


21 3 




IS 


I 




15 


9 10 


!) 


15 


2 10 




30 


21 c 




30 


I 




30 


10 4 


)) 


30 


2 10 




45 P.M. 


20 S 




45 P-M- 


I 




45 P.M. 


10 9 


N.W. 


45 P.M. 


2 10 





140 



REPORT — 18G4. 



May 13.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLB. 

1 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h in 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. iu. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


20 4 




12 OA.M. 


I 


N. 


12 OA.M. 


II I 


N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


2 9 


N.E. 


15 


19 10 




15 


I 9 




15 


II 5 


Jj 


15 


2 9 




30 


19 5 




30 


2 S 




30 


II 6 


ji 


30 


2 9 




45 


18 II 




45 


2 9 




45 


II 4 


)' 


45 


2 9 




I 


18 3 




I 


3 4 




I 


10 II 


)) 


I 


2 8 




15 


17 7 




IS 


3 10 




15 


10 5 


)» 


15 


3 c 




30 


16 10 




30 


4 2 




30 


9 II 


n 


3° 


3 5 




45 


16 2 




45 


4 5 




45 


9 S 


» 


45 


4 c 




2 


15 3 




2 


4 5 




2 


8 11 


)) 


2 


4 6 


>'. 


15 


14 7 




IS 


4 3 




IS 


8 7 


J) 


IS 


5 




30 


13 10 




30 


4 




30 


8 2 


J7 


30 


5 6 




45 


13 2 




45 


3 10 




45 


7 9 


>» 


45 


S 11 




3 


12 5 




3 ° 


3 7i 




3 


7 6 


)) 


3 


6 2 




15 


II 11 




15 


3 5 




15 


7 3 


)» 


15 


6 2 




30 


II 3 




30 


3 44 




30 


6 II 


)) 


30 


6 c 




45 


10 10 




45 


3 3 




45 


6 8 


)J 


45 


5 9 




4 ° 


10 5 




4 


3 I 




4 


6 5 


)J 


4 


5 6 




15 


10 




15 


2 II 




15 


6 2 


:» 


15 


S 3 




30 


9 9 




30 


2 10 




30 


5 11 


)» 


30 


5 




45 


9 7 




45 


z H 




45 


5 8 


1> 


45 


4 10 




5 ° 


9 8 




5 


2 7 




5 ° 


5 S 


)i 


5 


4 8 




15 


9 10 




15 


2 6 




IS 


5 3 


)' 


IS 


4 6 




30 


10 2 




30 


2 4 




30 


5 


!J 


30 


4 S 




45 


10 7 




45 


2 34 




45 


4 10 


J» 


45 


4 4 




6 


II 2 




6 


i 3 




6 


4 8 


)) 


6 


4 3 


N. 


15 


II 9 




15 


2 2 




IS 


4 6 


)» 


IS 


4 2 




30 


12 5 




30 


2 I 




30 


4 4 


JJ 


3° 


4 J 




45 


13 I 




45 


I 11 




45 


4 1 


)5 


45 


4 




7 


13 10 




7 


I 10 




7 


3 II 


■' 


7 


3 11 




15 


14 6 




IS 


I 9 




15 


3 9 


)) 


IS 


3 10 




30 


15 2 




3° 


I 8 




30 


3 8 


)J 


30 


3 9 




45 


15 9 




45 


i 7 




45 


3 6 


)) 


45 


3 8 




8 


16 5 




8 


I 6 




8 


3 4 


rj 


8 


3 6 




15 


17 I 




15 


I 5 




15 


3 2 


)) 


IS 


3 5 


N.E. 


30 


17 9 




30 


I 4 




3° 


3 1 


)) 


30 


3 4 




45 


18 6 




45 


1 3 




45 


3 I 


N.N.E. 


45 


3 4 




9 


19 2 




9 


I 2 




9 ° 


3 5 


•J 


9 


3 3 




15 


19 9 




IS 


I I 




15 


4 I 


J) 


IS 


3 3 




30 


20 4 




30 


I 




30 


4 7 


IJ 


30 


3 2 




45 


20 9 




45 


I 




45 


5 4 


)) 


45 


3 I 




10 


21 2 




10 


11 




10 


6 


)) 


10 


3 J 




15 


21 4 




15 


10 




15 


6 10 


)> 


15 


3 




30 


21 7 




30 


° 95 




30 


7 8 


5> 


30 


3 


X.E. 


45 


21 8 




45 


8 




45 


8 7 


J) 


45 


2 11 




II 


21 7 




11 


7 




II 


9 3 


)) 


II 


2 11 




15 


21 5 




15 


6:^ 




IS 


9 10 


)» 


IS 


2 IC 




30 


21 2 




30 


6| 




30 


10 5 


)> 


30 


2 IC 




45 A.M. 


20 10 




45 A.M. 


9 




45 A.M. 


10 10 


)» 


45 A.M. 


2 9 





ON TIDAIi OBSERVATIONS. 



141 



May 13.— 1864. 



Hull. 


1 

G-AINSBOROUGII. 


GOOLE. 


Nab URN Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h in 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OP.M. 


20 5 




12 OP..M. 


I 54 


N. 


12 OP.M. 


II 2 


N.N.E. 


12 OP.M. 


2 9 




15 


20 I 




IS 


2 




IS 


II 6 


E.N.E. 


15 


2 8 




30 


19 8 




30 


2 6 




30 


n 7 


» 


30 


2 8 




45 


19 2 




45 


3 




45 


II 7 


jj 


45 


2 7 




I 


18 7 




I 


3 44 




I 


II 2 


» 


I 


2 9 


E. 


IS 


18 c 




15 


3 9 




15 


10 8 


'I 


15 


3 I 




30 


17 3 




30 


4 




30 


10 2 


JJ 


30 


3 8 




45 


16 5 




45 


4 9 




45 


9 8 


)) 


45 


4 3 




2 


15 7 




2 


4 6| 




2 


9 2 


ij 


2 


4 9 




15 


14 10 




IS 


4 3 




IS 


8 9 


E.S.E. 


IS 


5 ^ 




30 


14 2 




30 


4 




30 


8 5 


)> 


30 


I ^ 




45 


13 6 




45 


3 9 




45 


8 I 


)) 


45 


6 I 




3 


12 10 




3 ° 


3 7i 




3 


7 9 


)> 


3 " 


6 3 




'5 

30 


12 3 
II 8 




15 
30 


3 6 

3 34 




IS 

30 


7 S 
7 I 




15 

30 


6 4 
6 5 


[down. 
Deals 


45 


II 1 




45 


3 




45 


6 10 


)! 


45 


6 I 




4 


10 6 




4 ° 


3 2 




4 


6 7 


J) 


4 


5 11 


Deals up. 


15 


10 1 




IS 


3 1 




15 


6 4 


,, 


IS 


5 7 




30 


9 8 




30 


3 ° 




3° 


6 I 


E. 


30 


5 3 


S.E. 


45 


9 3 




45 


2 10 




45 


S II 


)) 


45 


5 




5 ° 


8 11 




5 


2 9 




5 


5 9 


)» 


5 ° 


4 9 




15 


8 9 




15 


2 8 




15 


5 7 


7» 


15 


4 7 




30 


8 7 




30 


1 7 




30 


5 5 


)» 


30 


4 6 




45 


8 8 




45 


2 6 




45 


5 2 


)» 


45 


4 4 




6 


8 10 




6 


2 4 




6 


4 11 


S.E. 


6 


4 3 




IS 


9 2 




IS 


2 24 




15 


4 9 


J) 


IS 


4 I 




30 


9 ^ 




30 


2 I 




30 


4 7 


)' 


30 


4 ° 




45 


10 c 




45 


2 




45 


4 5 


jj 


45 


3 11 


N.E. 


7 


10 5 




7 ° 


I II 




7 ° 


4 3 


J) 


7 


3 9 




15 


II I 




15 


I 10 




IS 


4 


)» 


15 


3 8 




30 


II 7 




30 


I 9 




30 


3 10 


J) 


3° 


3 ^ 




45 


12 5 




45 


I 74 




45 


3 8 


)> 


45 


3 6 




8 


13 2 




8 


I 6 




8 


3 6 


)J 


8 


3 4 




15 


13 10 




15 


I s4 




IS 


3 5 


jj 


15 


3 3 




30 


14 5 




30 


I 44 




30 


3 3 


i» 


30 


3 2 




45 


15 3 




45 


I 4 




45 


3 2 


>J 


45 


3 I 




9 ° 


15 11 




9 


I 3 




9 ° 


3 


)j 


9 ° 


3 


Calm. 


15 


16 9 




15 


I 14 




15 


2 II 


j; 


15 


3 




30 


17 4 




30 


I I 




30 


2 10 


)j 


30 


2 II 




45 


17 II 




45 


I I 




45 


2 9 


» 


45 


2 10 




10 


18 5 




10 


I oi 




10 


3 ° 


'■ 


10 


2 10 




15 


19 2 




IS 


I 




IS 


3 6 


" 


IS 


2 9 




30 


19 7 




30 


II 




30 


4 


j» 


3° 


2 8 




45 


20 




45 


II 




45 


4 8 


n 


45 


2 8 




II 


20 3 




II 


10^ 




II 


S 5 


)? 


II 


2 7 




15 


20 6 




15 


9 




IS 


6 3 


)) 


15 


2 7 




30 


20 7 




30 


8 




30 


7 ° 


" 


30 


2 6 




45 P-"- 


20 8 




45 P.M. 


8 




45 p.jr. 


7 10 


J) 


45 P.M. 


2 6 





143 



REPORT — -1864, 



May 14.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gaiksbouough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


rt. in. 




h m 


Ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h ra 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


20 7 




12 OA.M. 


3 7 


N. 


12 OA.M. 


8 6 


S.E. 


12 oA.M. 


2 6 




IS 


zo 5 




IS 


D 8 




IS 


9 


)) 


15 


2 6 




3° 


20 2 




30 


I 3 




3c 


9 6 


J) 


30 


2 5 




45 


19 II 




45 


' ? 




45 


9 11 


J) 


45 


2 5 




I o 


19 7 




I 


z 6 




I 


10 2 


)j 


I 


2 5 




IS 


19 2 




15 


3 




15 


10 6 


»? 


15 


2 4 




3° 


18 10 




30 


3 5 




30 


10 7 


)» 


30 


2 4 




45 


18 s 




45 


3 7 




45 


10 5 


j« 


45 


2 4 




2 O 


17 9 




2 


4 




2 


10 


j> 


2 


2 3 




15 


17 3 




IS 


4 




15 


9 6 


'J 


IS 


2 6 


N.E. 


30 


16 5 




30 


3 11 




30 


9 3 


?» 


30 


2 10 




45 


15 IC 




45 


3 9 




45 


8 8 


)» 


45 


3 2 




3 


IS 




3 


3 7 




3 ° 


8 4 


)) 


3 


3 6 




IS 


14 5 




IS 


3 6 




IS 


7 II 


N.W. 


15 


3 9 




30 


13 8 




30 


3 3, 




30 


7 6 


JJ 


30 


4 4 




45 


13 2 




45 


3 24 




45 


7 3 


|» 


45 


'l- 9 ^, 


4 


12 6 




4 


3 I 




4 ° 


7 


?» 


4 


5 I Calm. 


15 


II 10 




15 


3 ° 




IS 


^ 1 


)» 


15 


5 2 




30 


II 5 




30 


2 10 




30 


6 6 


»» 


30 


5 3 




45 


11 2 




45 


2 8 




45 


6 c 


>> 


45 


4 II 




5 


10 8 




S 


2 6i 




5 ° 


5 ? 


n 


5 


4 9 




15 


10 6 




IS 


1 4 




15 


5 6 


" 


15 


4 6 




30 


10 5 




30 


2 3, 




30 


5 4 


)? 


30 


4 4 




45 


10 4 




45 


2 li 




45 


5 2 


»> 


45 


4 3 




6 


10 5 




6 


2 


N. 


6 


5 


») 


6 


4 I 


Calm. 


15 


10 8 




15 


I 10 




IS 


4 10 


N.E. 


15 


4 c 




30 


II 2 




30 


I 9 




30 


4 S 


») 


30 


3 II 




45 


II 5 




45 


I 8 




45 


4 f 


ij 


45 


3 10 




7 


II 10 




7 


I 7 




7 


4 4 


j» 


7 


3 9 




15 


12 4 




15 


I 6 




15 


4 2 


JJ 


15 


3 8 




30 


12 II 




30 


I 5 




30 


4 


>j 


30 


3 7 




45 


13 5 




45 


I 4 




45 


3 10 


») 


45 


3 7 




8 


14 I 




8 


I 3 




8 


3 8 


)) 


8 


3 6 


S.E. 


15 


14 8 




15 


I 2 




IS 


3 7 


I) 


15 


3 5 




30 


IS 4 




30 


I I 




30 


3 5 


>i 


30 


3 4 




45 


15 10 




45 


I 




45 


3 4 


>> 


45 


3 2 




9 


16 6 




9 ° 


II 




9 " 


3 2 


9f 


9 


3 2 




15 


17 2 




15 


II 




15 


3 I 


»» 


15 


3 I 




30 


17 9 




30 


10 




30 


3 


>) 


30 


3 I 




45 


'! 5 




45 


9 




45 


3 3 


" 


45 


3 




10 


18 10 




10 


7 




10 


3 9 


S.S.E. 


10 


3 ° 




15 


19 4 




IS 


7 




15 


4 4 


»> 


15 


2 1 1 




30 


19 9 




30 


6 




30 


4 IC 


)» 


3° 


2 10 




45 


20 2 




45 


° 5 




45 


5 4 


)) 


45 


2 9 


S.E. 


II 


20 5 




II 


5 




II 


6 c 


)) 


II 


2 9 




IS 


20 8 




IS 


4^ 




IS 


6 7 


J' 


IS 


2 8 




30 


20 IC 




30 


4J 




30 


7 3 


)) 


30 


2 7 




4SA.M 


20 I] 




45 A.M 


3i 




45 A.M 


8 c 


J) 


45A.M 


2 7 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



143 



May 14.— 1864. 



Hull. 


GAINSBOROUCn. 


GOOLE. 


Nabi 


RN Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 O P.M. 


20 10 




12 OP.M. 


3 


s. 


12 OP.M. 


8 8 


S.S.E. 


12 OP.M. 


2 7 




15 


20 8 




15 


2 




15 


9 3 


S. 


15 


2 7 




30 


20 5 




30 


li 




30 


9 8 


ii 


30 


2 6 




45 


20 2 




45 


7 




45 


10 


i> 


45 


2 6 




I 


19 9 




I 


9 




I 


10 5 


J' 


I 


2 6 




15 


19 5 




15 


I 3 




'5 


10 8 


)» 


15 


* 5 


E. 


30 


19 




30 


1 9 




30 


10 9 


)j 


30 


2 5 




45 


18 7 




45 


2 li 




45 


10 9 


)) 


45 


2 5 




2 


18 I 




2 


2 6 




2 


10 3 


?j 


2 


a 7 




15 


17 5 




15 


z 10 




15 


9 II 


J) 


15 


2 9 




30 


16 8 




30 


3 I 




30 


9 5 


jj 


30 


3 




45 


16 




45 


3 4 




45 


9 


j» 


45 


3 6 




3 


15 4 




3 


3 6 




3 


8 8 


)» 


3 


3 II 




15 


14 8 




15 


3 6 




15 


8 4 


j> 


15 


4 6 




30 


14 




30 


3 4 




30 


7 11 


)i 


30 


5 




45 


13 5 




45 


3 I 




45 


7 7 


»> 


45 


5 3 


[ilomi. 


4 


12 9 




4 


3 ° 


S.E. 


4 ° 


7 4 


)j 


4 


5 8 


Deals 


15 


12 1 




15 


2 10 




'5 


7 I 


M 


15 


5 10 




30 


11 7 




30 


2 9 




30 


6 10 


)» 


30 


5 9 




45 


ii 




45 


2 8 




45 


6 7 


J» 


45 


5 9 




5 


10 7 




5 


2 6i 




5 


6 4 


S.E. 


5 


5 I 


Deals up. 


15 


10 2 




15 


2 6 




15 


6 I 


j» 


15 


4 II 




30 


9 9 




30 


2 4 




30 


5 10 


>» 


3° 


4 8 




45 


9 5 




45 


2 3, 




45 
6 


5 7 


?> 


45 


4 5 




6 


9 I 




6 


2 of 


E.S.E. 


5 5 


») 


6 


4 2 


Calm. 


15 


8 II 




15 


2 




15 


5 3 


>) 


15 


4 1 




30 


8 10 




30 


I 11,} 




30 


5 


» 


30 


3 II 




45 


8 II 




45 


I 9 




45 


4 10 


)» 


45 


3 10 




7 


9 I 




7 


I 9 




7 


4 8 


jj 


7 


3 9 




15 


9 3 




15 


I 8 




15 


4 6 


J) 


15 


3 8 




30 


9 8 




30 


I 7 




30 


4 4 


>j 


3° 


3 6 




o'^5 


10 2 




45 


I 6 




45 
8 


4 2 


)» 


o'^5 


3 4 




8 


10 7 




8 


I 5 




4 


>j 


8 


3 3 




15 


II 3 




15 


I 34 




15 


3 10 


)» 


15 


3 2 




30 


II IC 




30 


I 2i 




30 


3 8 


)j 


30 


3 1 




45 


12 5 




45 


I 2 




45 


3 6 


it 


45 


3 ° 




9 


13 1 




9 


I 1 




9 ° 


3 4 


li 


9 ° 


3 




15 


13 9 




15 


I 




15 


3 2 


it 


15 


2 II 




30 


'4 5 




30 


11 




30 


3 1 


It 


30 


2 9 




45 


15 I 




45 


10^ 




45 
10 


3 


8. 


45 


2 9 




10 


15 9 




10 


10 




2 II 


jj 


10 


2 8 




15 


16 8 




15 


9J 




15 

30 


2 10 


IT 


15 


2 8 




30 


17 3 




30 


9 




2 9 


)» 


30 


2 7 




45 
II 


17 II 

18 s 




45 
II 


84 
7 




45 
II 


2 8 

3 


)1 


45 
II 


2 6 
2 6 




15 


18 10 




15 


61 




15 

30 

45 P.M. 


3 6 


It 


15 


2 5 




30 


19 2 




30 


6 




3 II 


tt 


30 


^ 5 




45 P.M. 


19 7 




45 P.M. 


5^ 




4 6 


It 


45 P.M. 


^ 5 





144 



REPORT — 1864. 



15.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




la oA.M. 


19 II 




12 OA.M. 


si 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


5 I 


s. 


12 oA.m. 


2 4 




IS 


20 2 




15 


5 




IS 


5 II 


w. 


15 


2 4 




3° 


20 3 




30 


4 




30 


6 10 


>» 


30 


2 4 




45 


20 3 




45 


3 




45 


7 6 


>J 


45 


2 3 




I o 


20 3 




I 


2 




I 


8 I 


J) 


I 


a 3 




15 


20 I 




IS 


8 




15 


8 8 


)) 


IS 


2 3 




30 


19 10 




30 


I 




30 


9 2 


)J 


30 


2 2 




45 


19 8 




45 


I 4 




45 


9 7 


JJ 


45 


2 2 




2 


19 5 
19 2 




2 


I 8 




2 


9 10 


JJ 


2 


2 I 




IS 




IS 


I 1 1 




IS 


10 


)l 


15 


2 1 


Calm. 


30 


18 8 




30 


2 3 




30 


10 3 


JI 


30 


2 




45 


18 5 




45 


i 5 




45 


10 2 


JJ 


45 


2 




3 


17 10 




3 


2 8 




3 


9 11 


J) 


3 ° 


2 




IS 


17 3 




15 


2 10 




15 


9 7 


)t 


IS 


2 




30 


16 7 




30 


3 




30 


9 3 


J» 


30 


2 3 




45 


15 II 




45 


2 11^ 




45 


8 10 


JJ 


45 


2 6 




4 ° 


15 I 




4 


2 10 




4 


8 6 


)» 


4 " 


3 




IS 


14 6 




15 


2 9 




15 


8 


)) 


IS 


3 4 




30 


13 8 




30 


2 8 




30 


7 8 


)J 


30 


4 ° 




45 


13 3 




45 


2 7 




45 


7 3 


J» 


45 


4 4 


N.W. 


5 


12 7 




5 ° 


2 6^ 




S 


7 


)J 


5 ° 


4 7 




IS 


12 2 




15 


2 6 




IS 


6 9 


)» 


15 


4 9 




30 


11 8 




30 


2 4^ 




30 


6 6 


)> 


30 


4 10 




45 


II 5 




45 


2 3 




^^^5 


6 3 


>> 


.^^ 


4 8 




6 


lO lO 




6 


2 i4 


W.N.W. 


6 


6 


>' 


6 


4 5 




15 


lO 7 




IS 


2 I 




15 


5 10 


s. 


15 


4 3 




30 


1° 5 




30 


2 




30 


5 7 


)f 


30 


4 




45 


10 4 




45 


I 105 




45 


5 4 


)) 


45 


3 11 




7 


10 3 




7 ° 


I 9* 




7 


5 I 


)» 


7 


3 10 




IS 


10 5 




IS 


I 8 




15 


4 II 


)) 


15 


3 9 




30 


10 8 




30 


I 7 




30 


4 9 


N.W. 


30 


3 8 




45 


1 1 




45 


I 6 




^'^^ 


4 7 


J» 


45 


3 7 




8 


II 5 




8 


I Si 




8 


4 5 


•) 


8 


3 6 


w. 


15 


II 10 




15 


I 3 




15 


4 2 


)» 


15 


3 4 




30 


12 5 




30 


I 3 




30 


4 


)) 


30 


3 3 




45 


12 10 




45 


I I 




45 


3 II 


)) 


45 


3 2 




9 ° 


13 7 




9 


I 




9 ° 


3 9 


)) 


9 ° 


3 I 




IS 


14 1 




15 


oil 




IS 


3 7 


" 


15 


3 ° 




30 


14 7 




30 


10 




30 


3 5 


)» 


30 


2 11 




4S 


IS 2 




45 


9 




45 


3 3 


)» 


45 


2 10 




10 


IS 9 




10 


8 




10 


3 2 


n 


10 


2 9 


w. 


15 


,6 5 




IS 


7 




IS 


3 I 


5) 


IS 


2 8 




30 


17 2 




30 


6i 




30 


3 


)» 


30 


2 7 




45 


17 8 




45 


6 




45 


2 II 


U 


45 


2 6 




II 


18 3 




II 


6 




II 


3 5 


>) 


II 


2 6 




15 


18 10 




IS 


S 




IS 


3 II 


J» 


15 


2 5 




30 


19 4 




30 


5 




30 


4 3 


>) 


30 


* 5 




45 A.M. 


19 9 




45 A.M. 


4-2- 




45 A.M. 


4 9 


)) 


45 A.M. 


2 4 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



145 



May 15.— 1864. 



Hull. 


G-AINSBOROUGII. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in. 




IZ OP.M 


20 2 




12 OP.M. 


4J 


N.W. 


12 OP.M 


5 '• 


N.W. 


I 2 P.M. 


2 4 




IS 


20 5 




15 


4 




15 


5 I' 


jj 


15 


2 4 




30 


20 7 




3^ 


3 




30 


6 8 


)i 


30 


2 3 




45 


20 8 




45 


2i 




45 


7 5 


j> 


45 


2 3 




I 


20 9 




I 


2 




I 


8 2 


J) 


I 


2 3 


w. 


IS 


20 8 




15 


I 




15 


8 7 


») 


15 


2 2 




30 


20 7 




30 


I 




30 


9 4 


j» 


30 


2 2 




4S 


20 5 




45 


5 




45 


9 9 


)> 


45 


2 I 




2 


20 2 




2 


° 5 




2 6 


10 2 


}) 


2 


2 1 




IS 


19 10 




IS 


6 




15 


lo 5 


>) 


15 


2 




30 


19 5 




30 


I I 




30 


10 8 


>» 


30 


2 


w 


45 


19 




45 


' si 




45 


10 8 


?j 


45 


2 




3 


18 6 




3 


I 9 




3 


10 7 


>T 


3 


2 




15 


18 




15 


2 3 




15 


10 4 


J» 


15 


2 2 




30 


17 4 




30 


2 9 




30 


9 10 


)» 


30 


^ 5 




45 


16 7 




45 


3 




45 


9 6 


S.E. 


45 


2 9 




4 


15 11 




4 


3 




4 


9 1 


)t 


4 


3 I 




15 


15 3 




15 


3 4i 




15 


8 8 


,, 


15 


3 6 




30 


14 7 




30 


3 4^ 




30 


8 4 


)j 


30 


4 2 




45 


13 10 




45 


3 4 




45 


8 


>» 


45 


4 6 




5 


13 3 




5 


3 oj 




5 


7 8 


») 


5 ° 


4 II 


w 


15 


12 7 




15 


Z III 




15 


7 4 


JJ 


IS 


5 I 




30 


12 2 




30 


2 9 




30 


7 I 


JJ 


30 


5 




45 


II 6 




,^5 


2 7 




45 


6 10 


JJ 


45 


4 II 




6 


n 




6 


2 7 


N.W. 


6 


6 7 


JJ 


6 


4 9 


w. 


15 


10 5 




15 


2 6 




IS 


6 4 


JJ 


IS 


4 8 




30 


10 




30 


z 44 




30 


6 1 


JJ 


30 


4 6 




45 


9 8 




45 


2 3 




45 


5 1° 


JJ 


45 


4 3 




7 


9 4 




7 


2 I 




7 


5 8 


JJ 


7 


4 I 




IS 


9 I 




15 


2 




15 


5 6 


JJ 


15 


3 II 


S.E. 


30 


8 10 




30 


I 11 




30 


5 4 


JJ 


30 


3 10 




<,^5 


8 II 




0*^5 


I 10 




«'^5 


5 1 


JJ 


45 


3 8 




8 


9 




8 


I 9 




8 


4 ic 


JJ 


8 


3 7 




15 


9 2 




15 


I 7i 




15 


4 8 


JJ 


15 


3 6 




30 


9 6 




30 


I 6t 




30 


4 6 


JJ 


30 


3 6 




45 


9 10 




45 


I 5 




45 


4 4 


JJ 


45 


3 5 




9 


10 3 




9 


I 4 




9 


4 2 


JJ 


9 ° 


3 4 




15 


10 10 




15 


I 3 




15 


4 


JJ 


IS 


3 2 




30 


11 5 




30 


1 2 




30 


3 10 


JJ 


30 


3 I 




45 


12 2 




45 


I I 




45 


3 8 


JJ 


45 


3 




10 


12 9 




10 


I 




10 


3 6 


JJ 


10 


3 




15 


13 6 




15 


3 11 




15 


3 4 


,, 


15 


2 II 




30 


14 2 




30 


3 10 




30 


3 3 


JJ 


30 


2 Jo 




45 


14 9 




45 


D 9 




45 


3 I 


JJ 


45 


2 9 




II 


•5 5 




II 


3 8 




II 


2 II 


JJ 


II 


2 8 




IS 


16 2 




IS 


74 




IS 


2 10 


JJ 


15 


2 7 




30 


16 8 




30 


3 7 




30 


2 9 


JJ 


30 


2 6 




45 P-M. 


17 6 




45 P.M. 


3 6 




45 P.M. 


2 8 


JJ 


45 P.M. 


2 6 





1864. 



146 



REPORT — 1864. 



May 16.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabukn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m ft. in. 




h m ft. in. 




I a oA.M. 


i8 a 




12 oA.M. 


3 5 


N.N.E. 


12 OA.M. 


2 9 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


2 5 




rS 


18 7 




IS 


3 5 




IS 


5 


E. 


IS 


* 5 




3° 


19 2 




30 


4i 




30 


3 8 


>» 


30 


2 4 




4S 


19 6 




45 


4i 




45 


4 3 


f> 


45 


2 4 


Calm. 


I o 


19 10 




I 


4 




I 


4 II 


)» 


I 


a 3 




15 


20 I 




15 


32 




15 


5 8 


)) 


15 


2 3 




30 


20 4 




30 


3 




3° 


6 5 


J) 


30 


2 2 




45 


20 5 




45 


2 




-45 


7 2 


»» 


45 


2 2 




2 


20 7 




2 


1^ 




2 


7 II 


J) 


2 


2 I 




15 


20 6 




15 


li 




15 


8 7 


»» 


'S 


2 




30 


20 4 




30 


I 




30 


9 2 


n 


30 


2 




45 


20 2 




45 


5 




45 


9 7 


)) 


45 


2 




3 


19 10 




3 


6 




3 


9 10 


)5 


3 


I 11 




IS 


19 7 




15 


I 




15 


10 3 


»» 


15 


I II 




30 


19 2 




30 


1 5 




30 


10 5 


»> 


30 


I II 




45 


18 10 




45 


I II 




45 


10 6 


)l 


45 


I 10 


Calm. 


4 


18 4 




4 


2 7 




4 


10 5 


» 


4 ° 


I 10 




15 


17 10 




15 


2 10 




15 


10 2 


» 


15 


I 10 




30 


17 2 




30 


3 




30 


9 9 


»» 


30 


2 I 




45 


16 6 




45 


3 * 




45 


9 4 


If 


45 


* 3 




5 


15 9 




5 ° 


3 * 




5 ° 


8 11 


>J 


5 


2 8 




15 


15 2 




IS 


3 I 




15 


8 7 


») 


15 


3 I 




30 


14 6 




30 


3 I 




30 


8 2 


)) 


30 


3 7 




45 


13 10 




45 


3 ° 




45 


7 9 


f» 


45 


4 2 




6 


13 2 




6 


3 


E.S.E. 


6 


7 5 


»» 


6 


4 6 


Calm. 


15 


12 8 




15 


2 8 




15 


7 3 


S.E. 


15 


4 9 




30 


12 




30 


2 6 




30 


6 II 


)> 


30 


5 




45 


II 7 




45 


2 4 




45 


6 8 


>i 


45 


5 ° 




7 


II 2 




7 


2 2 




7 


6 5 


)) 


7 


4 9 




15 


10 10 




15 


2 I 




15 


6 2 


)f 


15 


4 7 




30 


10 5 




30 


2 




30 


S II 


ti 


30 


4 5 




45 


10 3 




45 


I II 




45 


5 ? 


ti 


45 


4 3 


S.E. 


8 


10 2 




8 


I 9i 




8 


5 6 


5» 


8 


4 I 




15 


10 I 




IS 


I 8 




15 


5 4 


J) 


15 


3 II 




30 


10 3 




30 


I 7 




30 


5 1 


>J 


30 


3 9 




45 


10 6 




45 


I 5 




45 


4 10 


J» 


45 


3 8 




9 


10 10 




9 ° 


I 4 




9 ° 


4 8 


J» 


9 ° 


3 7 




15 


" 3 




IS 


I 4 




15 


4 6 


)l 


15 


3 6 




30 


11 9 




30 


I 34 




30 


4 4 


)> 


30 


3 5 




45 


12 5 




45 


I 3 




45 


4 2 


11 


45 


3 4 




10 


12 II 




10 


I H 




10 


4 


») 


10 


3 3 


S.E. 


15 


13 7 




IS 


1 I 




15 


3 II 


>J 


15 


3 2 




30 


14 I 




30 


I 




30 


3 9 


» 


30 


3 I 




45 


14 8 




45 


II 




45 


3 7 


»» 


45 


3 ° 




II 


IS 4 




II 


9i 




II 


3 5 


)> 


II 


2 II 




15 


16 




IS 


9 




15 


3 3 


ti 


15 


2 10 




30 


16 8 




30 


8 




30 


3 I 


>» 


30 


2 9 


s. 


45A.M 


17 4 




4SA.M. 


7 




45 A.M. 


3 c 


II 


45 A.M. 


2 9 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



147 



May 16.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabusn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OP.M. 


17 10 




12 OP.M. 


6 


E.S.E. 


12 OP.M. 


2 11 


s. 


12 OP.M. 


z 8 


s. 


IS 


18 6 




15 


6 




15 


3 3 


s.s.w. 


15 


2 7 




3° 


19 I 




30 


° 5^ 




30 


3 10 


)) 


30 


2 7 




45 


19 6 




45 


S 




45 


4 4 


») 


45 


2 6 




I o 


19 10 




I 


4! 




I 


4 10 


)) 


I 


2 6 




15 


20 3 




15 


4i 




15 


5 5 


)> 


15 


2 5 




30 


20 6 




30 


4 




30 


6 


)) 


30 


2 4 




45 


20 8 




45 


3i 




45 


6 8 


>J 


45 


2 4 




a 


20 10 




2 


3 




2 


7 7 


)J 


2 


2 3 


S.E. 


15 


20 10 




15 


2I 




15 


8 5 


S.E. 


15 


2 3 




30 


20 9 




30 


li 




30 


9 


J> 


30 


2 2 




45 


20 6 




45 


I 




45 


9 7 


JJ 


45 


2 2 




3 


20 3 




3 ° 


I 




3 


9 IC 


)> 


3 


2 I 




15 


19 II 




15 


2| 




15 


10 7 


J? 


15 


2 I 




30 


19 7 




30 


8 




30 


10 8 


)» 


30 


2 




45 


19 2 




45 


I 3 




45 


lo 10 


)) 


45 


2 




4 


18 8 




4 


I 6 




4 ° 


10 10 


?» 


4 


2 I 




'5 


18 1 




15 


2 




15 


10 8 


M 


15 


2 4 


S.E. 


30 


'7 4 




30 


2 95 




30 


10 3 


J) 


30 


2 6 




45 


r6 7 




45 


2 10 




45 


9 8 


J» 


45 


2 9 




5 


15 10 




5 ° 


3 I 




S ° 


9 5 


>» 


5 ° 


3 I 




15 


IS 2 




15 


3 5 




15 


9 I 


>J 


15 


3 7 




30 


14 6 




30 


3 6 




30 


8 9 


J) 


30 


4 I 


[down. 


45 


13 9 




45 


3 Si 




45 


8 5 


J) 


45 


4 6!n™i^ 1 


6 


13 




6 


3 3i 


E.S.E. 


6 


8 I 


)) 


6 


5 6 




15 


12 5 




15 


3 oi 




IS 


7 9 


)J 


15 


5 10 




30 


II 10 




30 


3 




30 


7 5 


)» 


30 


6 




45 


II 2 




45 


2 9^ 




45 


7 I 


J) 


45 


6 I 


S.E. 


7 


lo 7 




7 


2 Si 




7 


6 10 


)) 


7 


S II 




IS 


10 2 




15 


2 7 




IS 


6 7 


)) 


15 


5 10 




30 


9 10 




30 


2 6 




30 


6 4 


JJ 


30 


5 9 




45 


9 4 




45 


2 4i 




45 


6 I 


)) 


45 


5 O'neals up.! 


8 


8 II 




8 


2 3 




8 


5 10 


)» 


8 


4 9 1 


15 


8 7 




15 


2 




15 


5 8 


5> 


IS 


4 5 




30 


8 3 




30 


I II 




30 


5 6 


)» 


30 


4 I 


■ .S.E. 


45 


8 2 




45 


I II 




45 


5 4 


)J 


45 


3 II 




9 


8 2 




9 ° 


I 10 




9 ° 


5 1 


)» 


9 


3 9 




15 


8 4 




15 


I 8i 




15 


4 10 


») 


15 


3 7 




30 


8 8 




30 


I 7i 




30 


4 7 


)» 


30 


3 5 




45 


9 I 




45 


I 6 




45 


4 5 


J> 


45 


3 3 




10 


9 6 




10 


I 6 




10 


4 2 


)) 


10 


3 I 




15 


10 2 




IS 


I Si 




15 


4 


)J 


15 


3 




30 


10 10 




30 


I 4 




30 


3 10 


»» 


30 


2 II 




45 


II 6 




45 


I 3 




45 


3 8 


)) 


45 


2 10 




II 


12 2 




II 


I 2 




II 


3 6 


>> 


II 


2 8 




15 


12 11 




IS 


I 




IS 


3 4 


JJ 


15 


2 7 




30 


13 9 




30 


11^ 




30 


3 2 


>) 


30 


2 6 




45 P.M. 


14 7 




45 P.M. 


loj 




45 P.M. 


3 I 


)J 


45 P.M. 


2 S 





i2 



148 



REPORT — 186i. 



May 17.— 1864. 



Hull. 

1 


Gainsborough. 


GrOOLE. 

1 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 


1 


h m 


Pt. in. 


1 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


15 3 




12 OA.M. 


3 9 


E.S.E. 


12 OA.M. 3 c| 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


2 4 




IS 


16 1 




IS 


8 




15 2 II| 


n 


15 


2 4 




3° 


i6 8 




30 


7 




30 


2 9 


7) 


30 


* 3 




45 


17 5 




45 


6 




45 


2 8 


J) 


45 


2 2 




1 o 


17 11 




I 


Si 




I 


2 8 


)J 


I 


2 2 




15 


ig 6 




15 


5 




15 


2 10 


)> 


IS 


2 1 




30 


19 2 




30 


45 




30 


3 4 


JJ 


30 


2 




45 


19 8 




45 


4 




45 


4 1 


JJ 


45 


2 




2 


20 I 




2 


34 




2 


4 10 


;> 


2 


2 




IS 


20 5 




IS 


3 




15 


5 10 


Ji 


IS 


I II 




30 


20 8 




30 


24 




30 


6 9 


J> 


30 


I 10 




45 


20 10 




45 


2 




45 


7 7 


)' 


45 


I 9 




3 


20 II 




3 ° 


li 




3 ° 


8 5 


)j 


3 


I 8 




IS 


20 10 




IS 


H 




IS 


9 ° 


J) 


15 


I 7 




30 


20 8 




30 


I 




30 


9 6 


)) 


30 


I 7 




45 


20 5 




45 


I 




45 


10 


J> 


45 


I 6 




4 


20 2 




4 ° 


4 




4 


10 4 


)J 


4 


I 6 




15 


19 8 




IS 


10 




15 


10 8 


" 


IS 


I 6 




30 


19 3 




30 


I 3 




30 


10 10 


J) 


30 


I 6 




45 


18 II 




45 


I 9 




45 


II 


>» 


45 


I 7 




5 


18 5 




5 


2 2 




5 ° 


10 10 


J> 


5 ° 


I 9 




IS 


17 8 




IS 


2 6 




15 


10 7 


JJ 


IS 


I 11 




30 


17 a 




30 


3 




30 


10 


JJ 


30 


2 3 




45 


16 5 




45 


3 4 




,"••5 


9 7 


JJ 


45 


2 8 




6 


IS 8 




6 


3 6 


E.S.E. 


6 


9 2 


S.S.E. 


6 


3 2 


S.E. 


IS 


14 10 




15 


3 7 




15 


8 10 


JJ 


15 


3 7 




30 


14 3 




30 


3 7 




30 


8 5 


JJ 


30 


4 I 




45 


13 6 




45 


3 6 




45 


8 


JJ 


45 


4 6 


[down. 


7 


12 9 




7 ° 


3 4 




7 


7 8 


JJ 


7 ° 


4 11 


Deals 


IS 


12 2 




IS 


3 2 




15 • 


7 5 


JJ 


15 


5 7 




30 


II 8 




30 


3 I 




30 


7 2 


JJ 


30 


6 2 




45 


II I 




45 


2 10 




45 


6 10 


JJ 


45 


6 I 




8 


10 7 




8 


2 8J 




8 


6 7 


V 


8 


6 




15 


10 2 




15 


2 7 




IS 


6 4 


JJ 


15 


5 10 




30 


10 8 




30 


2 6 




30 


6 I 


JJ 


30 


5 8 




45 


9 4 




45 


2 44 




45 


5 10 


j» 


45 


5 ° 


Deals up. 


9 ° 


9 2 




9 ° 


2 3 




9 ° 


5 7 


JJ 


9 ° 


4 7 




15 


8 10 




15 


2 1 




15 


5 4 


JJ 


15 


4 4 




3° 


8 II 




30 


I II 




30 


5 2 


JJ 


30 


4 1 




45 


9 2 




45 


I 10 




45 


4 II 


JJ 


45 


3 II 




10 


9 5 




10 


I 9 




10 


4 9 


JJ 


10 


3 9 


S.E. 


15 


9 10 




15 


I 8 




15 


4 7 


JJ 


15 


3 7 




30 


10 6 




30 


I 7 




30 


4 5 


JJ 


30 


3 6 




45 


II 2 




45 


I 6 




45 


4 3 


JJ 


45 


3 5 




11 


II 10 




11 


I 4 




II 


4 


JJ 


II 


3 4 




15 


12 7 




15 


I 3 




15 


3 10 


JJ 


15 


3 3 




30 


13 3 




30 


I 2 




30 


3 8 


JJ 


30 


3 2 




45A.M 


14 c 




45A.M 


I I 




45 A.M. 


3 7 


JJ 


45A.M 


3 1 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



149 



May 17.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


iWind. 

1 


h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft, in 




h m 


ft. in 




12 OP.M 


14 9 




12 OP.M 


I 


s.w. 


12 OP.M 


3 5 


S.E. 


12 OP.M 


3 


S.E. 


IS 


15 6 




IS 


I It 




IS 


3 3 


S. 


15 


2 11 




30 


:6 3 




30 


11 




30 


3 I 




30 


2 10 




45 


17 2 




45 


10 




45 


3 


.» 


45 


2 9 




I 


17 9 




1 


9 




I 


2 II 


ij 


I 


2 9 




15 


18 5 




IS 


8 




15 


2 10 


n 


15 


2 8 




30 


19 1 




30 


7 




30 


3 


J) 


30 


2 7 




45 


19 9 




45 


6 




45 


3 6 


)j 


45 


2 7 




2 


20 2 




2 


4i 




2 


4 3 


)» 


2 


2 7 




15 


20 8 




15 


3^ 




15 


5 


fi 


IS 


2 8 




30 


21 




30 


3 




30 


5 II 


}j 


30 


2 8 




45 


21 4 




45 


25 




45 


7 3 


)) 


45 


2 8 




3 


21 6 




3 


I 




3 


8 c 


)> 


3 


2 8 


.S.E. 


IS 


21 7 




IS 


I 




15 


9 


-'» 


15 


2 8 


1 


30 


21 6 




30 


I 




30 


9 IC 


!> 


30 


2 9 




45 


21 5 




45 


I 




45 


10 9 


!) 


45 


2 9 




4 


20 II 




4 


I 




4 


10 IC 


)) 


4 


2 9 




15 


20 6 




IS 


6 




IS 


II 3 


,, 


IS 


2 IC 




30 


20 J 




30 


I H 




3° 


II 7 


S.E. 


30 


2 10 




45 


19 7 




45 


2 




45 


II 9 


») 


45 


2 II 




5 ° 


19 




5 


2 6 




5 


II 10 


)> 


S 


2 II 


S.E. 


15 


ig 4 




IS 


3 °^ 




15 


II 8 


)> 


15 


3 




30 


17 8 




3° 


3 6 




30 


II 4 


J) 


30 


3 3 




45 


16 IT 




,'^5 


3 9 


1 


,^^5 


10 6 


)) 


45 


3 7 




6 


16 2 




6 


4 ° 


S.E. 


6 


10 2 


)» 


6 


4 I 


E. 


IS 


IS 4 




15 


4 3 




15 


9 9 


n 


IS 


4 IC 




30 


14 7 




30 


4 4 




30 


9 4 


)J 


30 


5 5 




45 


13 10 




45 


4 2 




45 


8 10 


J) 


45 


S II 




7 


13 c 




7 


3 10 




7 


8 5 


)) 


7 


6 5 




15 


12 5 




15 


3 6j 




IS 


8 I 


)) 


15 


6 8 




3° 


II 8 




3° 


3 S 




30 


7 9 


r» 


30 


6 10 




45 


II c 




45 


3 4 




45 


7 S 


)> 


45 


6 10 




8 


10 3 




8 


3 3 




8 


7 2 


)> 


8 


6 6 




IS 


9 10 




15 


3 1 




IS 


6 IC 


)) 


IS 


6 4 




30 


9 3 




30 


2 II 




30 


6 7 


M 


30 


6 2 




45 


8 8 




45 


2 9 




45 


6 4 


Ji 


45 


6 




9 


8 2 




9 


2 7 




9 


6 I 


•) 


9 


S 10 


S.E. 


15 


7 II 




15 


2 6 




15 


S 10 


J) 


IS 


5 7 




30 


7 3 




30 


2 5 




30 


5 7 


J) 


30 


5 6 




45 


7 6 




45 


2 4 




45 


5 A 


1) 


45 


5 5 




10 


7 6 




10 


2 3i 




10. 


5 I 


)) 


10 


5 4 




15 


7 9 




IS 


2 2^ 




IS 


4 IC 


5J 


15 


5 3 




30 


8 2 




30 


2 2 




30 


4 8 


') 


30 


5 2 




45 


8 8 




45 


2 I 




45 


4 5 


>» 


45 


5 I 




II 


9 8 




n 


2 




II 


4 3 


)) 


II 


5 




15 


10 2 




15 


I II 




15 


4 I 


1 


15 


5 ° 




30 


10 IC 




30 


I loi 




30 


3 11 


)5 


30 


4 12 




45 P.M. 


II 9 




45 P.M. 


I 8 




45 P.M. 


3 9 


1» 


45 P.M. 


4 II 





150 



REPOET — 1864 



May 18.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12, OA.M. 


12 6 




12 OA.M. 


I 6 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


3 7 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


4 10 


Calm. 


15 


13 S 




IS 


I 7 




IS 


3 6 


S. 


15 


4 10 




3° 


14 3 




3° 


I S 




30 


3 5 


t 




30 


4 9 




45 


15 2 




45 


I ^i 




45 


3 3 


) 




45 


4 8 




I 


16 I 




1 


1 oi 




I 


3 I 


, 




I 


4 8 




15 


16 8 




15 


I oi 




IS 


2 II 


J 




15 


4 7 




30 


17 6 




3° 


iii 




30 


2 10 


J 




30 


4 7 




45 


18 5 




45 


loj 




45 


2 9 


J 




45 


4 6 




2 


18 II 




2 


8 




2 


2 9 


) 




2 


4 6 




15 


19 9 




15 


6^ 




15 


3 1 


) 




IS 


4 5 




30 


20 5 




30 


6 




30 


4 


> 




30 


4 5 




45 


20 II 




45 


5 




45 


5 


: 




45 


4 4 




3 


21 5 




3 


4* 




3 


6 2 


, 




3 


4 4 




15 


21 8 




15 


4 




IS 


7 7 


. 9 




.15 


4 3 




30 


21 II 




30 


3 




30 


8 7 


) 




30 


4 2 




45 


22 2 




45 


zi 




45 


9 S 


J 




45 


4 I 




4 


22 2 




4 


2 




4 


10 


J 




4 


4 




15 


21 10 




15 


ji 




15 


10 9 


J 




15 


3 II 




30 


21 7 




30 


I 




30 


II I 


) 




30 


3 II 




45 


21 4 




45 


8^ 




45 


II 6 


I 




45 


3 II 




5 


20 9 




S 


I 3 


N. 


5 ° 


12 


) 




S ° 


3 10 




15 


20 3 




IS 


2 




15 


12 3 


) 




IS 


3 9 




30 


19 8 




30 


2 7 




30 


12 4 


) 




30 


3 8 




45 


19 I 




45 


3 6 




45 


12 3 


I 




45 


3 8 




6 


18 7 




6 


3 10 


N. 


6 


II 10 


> 




6 


3 9 




IS 


17 9 




15 


4 3 




IS 


II 3 


) 




15 


4 2 




30 


16 II 




30 


4 6 




30 


10 8 


) 




30 


4 10 




45 


16 1 




45 


4 7 




45 


10 I 


) 




45 


5 6 




7 


15 3 




7 


4 9 




7 


9 7 


) 




7 


6 




15 


14 6 




15 


4 6 




15 


9 ^ 


J 




15 


6 6 


N.W. 


30 


13 9 




30 


4 3 




30 


8 9 


J 




30 


6 10 




45 


13 




45 


3 9 




o'^5 


8 4 


J 




45 


7 2 




S 


12 4 




8 


3 7 




8 


8 


» 




8 


7 4 




15 


II 8 




15 


3 6 




15 


7 8 


> 




IS 


7 2 




30 


II 2 




30 


3 S 




30 


7 5 


) 




30 


6 10 




45 


10 7 




45 


3 4 




45 


7 I 


) 




45 


6 8 




9 


10 




9 


3 2 




9 


6 10 


) 




9 


6 4 




15 


9 6 




15 


3 




IS 


6 7 


) 




IS 


6 1 




30 


9 J 




30 


2 10 




30 


6 4 


N. 


V. 


30 


5 10 




45 


8 9 




45 


2 8 




45 


6 1 


J 




45 


S 6 




10 


8 




10 


2 6 




10 


5 10 


» 




10 


S 4 




15 


8 4 




15 


2 S 




15 


S 7 


) 




IS 


5 3 




30 


8 5 




30 


2 3 




30 


5 4 


) 




30 


5 i 




45 


8 8 




45 


2 2 




45 


S I 


> 




45 


5 


N.AV. 


1 1 


9 I 




II 


2 0-2 




11 


4 10 


J 




II 


4 10 




IS 


9 8 




IS 


I ni 




15 


4 8 


) 




15 


4 8 




30 


10 4 




3° 


I 10^ 




30 


4 6 


J 




30 


^ I 




45 A.M. 


11 




45 A.M. 


I H 




45 A.M. 


4 3 


) 




45 A.M. 


4 6 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATJONS. 



15X 



May IS.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 O P.M. 


II 9 




12 OP.M. 


I 6i 


N.W. 


12 P.M. 


4 I 


N.W. 


12 OP.M. 


4 5 




IS 


12 7 




IS 


I Si 




15 


3 lo 


i> 


IS 


4 4 




3° 


13 7 




30 


I 3i 




30 


3 8 


)» 


30 


4 3 




45 


14 5 




45 


I 24 




45 


3 7 


j> 


45 


4 I 




I o 


IS 3 




I 


I I 


E.bjN. 


I 


3 6 


jj 


I 


4 ° 


N. 


IS 


16 




15 


I 




IS 


3 4 


»j 


IS 


3 10 




30 


16 10 




30 


11 




30 


3 2 


}» 


30 


3 8 




4S 


17 10 




45 


10 




45 


3 ° 


>> 


45 


3 7 




2 


18 7 




2 


8 




2 


2 II 


jj 


2 


3 6 




IS 


19 5 




15 


7 




15 


2 10 


)) 


15 


3 5 




30 


20 1 




30 


6 




30 


3 3 


n 


30 


3 4 




4S 


20 10 




45 


4 




45 


4 


n 


45 


3 3 




3 ° 


21 4 




3 


3 




3 


4 II 


J) 


3 


3 2 




IS 


21 9 




IS 


ii 




15 


6 


>» 


15 


3 I 




30 


22 2 




30 


2 




30 


7 5 


»i 


30 


3 




45 


22 4 




45 


li 




45 


8 7 


») 


45 


3 ° 




4 


22 6 




4 


1 




4 


9 8 


jj 


4 ° 


2 II 




IS 


Z2 7 




15 


of 




IS 


10 8 


>» 


15 


2 II 


w. 


30 


22 4 




30 


o4 




30 


II 3 


)) 


30 


2 10 




45 


22 




45 


oj 




45 


II 9 


)) 


45 


2 10 




5 ° 


21 6 




5 


I 2 




S 


12 2 


>» 


5 ° 


2 9 




15 


21 




IS 


2 




IS 


12 6 


)» 


IS 


2 9 




30 


20 5 




30 


2 8 




30 


12 9 


»f 


30 


2 9 




45 


19 10 




.+5 


3 3i 




.^^5 


12 10 


E.S.E. 


45 


2 9 




6 


19 2 




6 


3 II 


E.N.E. 


6 


12 8 


)j 


6 


3 2 




IS 


18 5 




15 


4 3 




IS 


12 2 


S.E. 


15 


3 6 


E. 


30 


17 7 




30 


^ 7 




30 


II 9 


>) 


30 


4 




45 


16 8 




45 


5 ° 




45 


10 10 


?i 


45 


4 9 




7 


15 8 




7 


5 2 




7 


10 3 


n 


7 


5 4 




IS 


14 10 




15 


5 2 




15 


9 9 


»> 


15 


6 




30 


14 




30 


5 




30 


9 4 


>> 


30 


6 7 




45 


13 I 




4S 


4 6 




45 


8 6 


)) 


45 


7 I 




8 


12 3 




8 


4 3 




8 


8 3 


J) 


8 


7 5 


E. 


IS 


II 7 




IS 


3 115 




IS 


8 


« 


15 


7 5 




30 


10 10 




30 


3 10 




30 


7 9 


)) 


30 


7 




45 


10. 2 




45 


3 10 




45 


7 6 


)) 


45 


6 8 




9 


9 7 




9 


3 7 




9 


7 3 


?» 


9 ° 


6 4 




IS 


9 




TS 


3 5 




IS 


7 


j» 


15 


6 I 




30 


8 5 




30 


3 4 




30 


6 9 


)) 


30 


5 10 




45 


8 




45 


3 34 




45 


6 S 


5) 


45 


5 7 




lo 


7 7 




10 


3 2 




10 


6 2 


J) 


10 


S 3 




15 


7 2 




15 


3 1 




IS 


S 1° 


JJ 


IS 


5 ° 




30 


6 II 




30 


2 II 




30 


5 7 


>» 


3° 


4 10 




4S 


6 10 




45 


2 10 




45 


5 4 


)> 


45 


4 8 




1 1 


6 II 




II 


2 81 




II 


S I 


)J 


II 


4 7 




IS 


7 3 




15 


2 Si 




15 


4 I' 


J1 


IS 


4 S 




30 


7 10 




30 


2 4i 




30 


4 9 


J» 


3° 


4 3 




45 P.M. 


8 6 




45 P-M- 


2 4 




45 P.M. 


4 7 


)J 


45 P.M. 


4 1 





152 



REroRT — 1864. 



May 19.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


9 4 




12 oA.M. 


2 2 


E.N.E. 


12 OA.M. 


4 4 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


4 




IS 


10 I 




IS 


2 oi 




15 


4 2 


E. 


15 


3 II 




30 


II I 




30 


2 




30 


4 




30 


3 9 


Calm. 


45 


II II 




45 


I II 




45 


3 10 




45 


3 7 




I 


12 10 




I 


I 10 




I 


3 8 




I 


3 6 




15 


13 9 




IS 


I 8i 




15 


3 6 




15 


3 5 




30 


14 10 




30 


I 7 




30 


3 4 




30 


3 4 




45 


15 10 




45 


I 6 




45 


3 3 




45 


3 3 




2 


16 10 




2 


I 5 




2 


3 2 




2 


3 I 




IS 


18 3 




15 


I 4 




IS 


3 




15 


3 °l 1 


30 


18 II 




30 


I Zi 




30 


2 11 




30 


3 




45 


19 9 




45 


I 2 




45 


2 10 




45 


2 II 


Calm. 


3 


20 5 




3 


I 




3 


2 10 




3 ° 


2 11 




IS 


21 2 




15 


10 




IS 


3 7 




15 


2 10 




30 


21 9 




30 


8 




30 


4 9 




30 


2 10 




45 


22 2 




45 


6 




45 


5 11 




45 


2 9 




4 


22 6 




4 


4i 




4 


7 3 




4 


2 9 


Calm. 


15 


22 9 




IS 


34 




15 


8 10 




IS 


2 8 




30 


22 11 




30 


3 




30 


10 2 




30 


2 6 




45 


22 11 




45 


2| 




45 


II 3 




45 


2 5 




5 


22 10 




5 


2 




5 


11 10 




S ° 


2 4 


Calm. 


IS 


22 5 




15 


I 




15 


12 5 E.S.E. 


IS 


2 4 




30 


22 




30 


10 




30 


12 10 


11 


3° 


2 4 




45 


21 5 




.^^5 


2 6 




45 


13 2 


M 


45 


2 3 




6 


20 I J 




6 


3 5 


E.N.E. 


6 


13 4 


It 


6 


2 3 




15 


20 4 




15 


4 I 




15 


13 5 


11 


15 


2 2 


Calm. 


30 


19 8 




30 


4 5 




30 


13 2 


11 


30 


2 2 




45 


19 




45 


4 10 




45 


12 6 


11 


45 


3 




7 ° 


18 2 




7 


5 2 




'■ 7 


II 10 


11 


7 ° 


4 




IS 


17 4 




15 


5 4 




i ^5 


II 3 


11 


IS 


4 11 




30 


16 5 




30 


5 7 




1 30 


10 7 


11 


30 


5 10 




45 


15 6 




45 


5 7 




„''-5 


10 I 


It 


45 


6 6 




8 


14 7 




8 


5 6 




8 


9 7 


11 


8 


7 




IS 


13 9 




IS 


5 .° 




IS 


9 3 


11 


15 


7 6 


S.E. 


30 


13 1 




30 


4 7 




30 


8 10 


It 


30 


7 9 




45 


12 2 




45 


4 3 




45 


8 5 


It 


45 


7 8 




9 


II 7 




9 


4 1 




9 


8 I 


)» 


9 ° 


7 5 




IS 


10 10 




'5 


4 




15 


7 9 


11 


15 


7 




30 


10 4 




30 


3 II 




30 


7 6 


11 


30 


6 7 




45 


9 5 




45 


3 9 




45 


7 2 


11 


45 


6 3 




to 


8 10 




10 


3 H 




10 


6 10 


11 


10 


5 10 




15 


8 5 




IS 


3 5 




i '5 


6 7 


11 


15 


5 7 




30 


8 




30 


3 3 




30 


6 4 


It 


30 


S 4 1 


45 


7 8 




45 


3 '1 




1 45 


6 


It 


45 


5 2 




11 


7 S 




110 


2 ii| 




II 


5 9 


11 


II 


5 


E. 


IS 


7 4 




'5 


•^ 9i 




' IS 


5 6 


11 


15 


4 10 




30 


7 5 




30 


2 6^ 




30 


5 3 


11 


30 


4 7 




45 A.M. 


7 II 




45 A.M. 


2 Si 




45 A.M. 


5 


11 


45 


4 4 





ox TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



153 



May 19.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsbobocgh. 


GOOLE. 

, 


Kabur.v Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


1 
Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 


i 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




la o P.M. 


8 6 




12 OP.M. 


z 4 


E, 


12 OP.M. 


4 9 


E.S.E. 


12 P.M. 


4 3 




JS 


9 2 




15 


a 3 




IS 


4 7 


E.S.E. 


15 


4 2 




30 


10 a 




30 


2 I 




30 


4 5 


J) 


30 


4 




45 


II I 




45 


I iif 




45 


4 3 


»» 


45 


3 10 




I 


la a 




I 


I 10 




1 


4 I 


!» 


I 


3 9 


S.E. 


>5 


13 2 




IS 


I 9 




IS 


3 II 


J) 


15 


3 8 




30 


14 1 




30 


I 6i 




30 


3 9 


;) 


30 


3 6 




45 


IS c 




45 


I Sf 




45 


3 7 


>J 


45 


3 5 




2 


IS 11 




2 


I 4i 




a 


3 5 


') 


2 


3 4 




IS 


16 II 




15 


I 3 




IS 


3 3 


:> 


15 


3 3 




30 


17 11 




30 


I zl 




30 


3 I 


)j 


30 


3 I 




45 


19 




45 


I 1 




45 


3 


?j 


45 


3 




3 


19 10 




3 


I 




3 ° 


2 11 


91 


3 ° 


2 II 


S.E. 


IS 


ao 6 




15 


lO-J 




15 


3 ° 


?) 


IS 


2 10 




30 


ai 4 




30 


8-' 




3° 


4 I 


,, 


30 


2 9 




45 


21 Ji 




45 


7J 




45 


5 4 


?J 


45 


2 8 




4 


aa s 




4 


6i 




4 ° 


6 8 


" 


4 


a 7 




15 


22 10 




IS 


6 




IS 


8 2 


JJ 


IS 


2 6 




30 


23 2 




30 


45 




30 


9 7 


)J 


30 


2 5 




45 


^3 3 




45 


4 




45 


lO^ 9 


J> 


45 


2 5 




5 


ii 3 




5 


3 




5 ° 


IX 6 


n 


5 


a 4 




15 


23 2 




15 


ai 




15 


12 4 


;) 


15 


a 4 




30 


22 9 




30 


H 




30 


13 c 


JI 


30 


a 4 




r'^5 


22 3 




.^5 


2 5 




45 


13 4 


)> 


-r'^^ 


2 4 




6 


21 9 




6 


3 3 


E. 


. 6 


13 8 


)> 


% 


2 3 




15 


21 




15 


4 ° 




'5 


13 10 


S.E. 


15 


2 2 


E, 


3° 


20 4 




30 


4 6 




30 


13 10 


J» 


30 


2 2 




45 


19 6 




45 


5 




45 


13 7 


JJ 


\ 45 


2 9 




7 


18 8 




7 


5 6 




7 


12 ic 


?> 


7 


3 8 




15 


17 11 




IS 


S 9 




I '5 


12 4 


j> 


IS 


4 3 




30 


16 II 




30 


6 


S. 


30 


II 9 


3' 


3° 


5 4 




45 


16 




45 


6 I 




45 


11 


:» 


45 


6 




8 


'5 ° 




8 


6 




8 


10 6 


•3 


8 


6 11 




15 


14 1 




IS 


5 6i 


E. 


15 


10 


1 " 


IS 


7 7 




30 


IS 2 




30 


5 ^i 




3° 


9 7 


)» 


30 


8 




45 


12 3 




45 


4 9i 




45 


9 I 


)> 


45 


8 3 


S. 


9 ° 


II 7 




9 


4 6 




9 


8 8 


J» 


9 


8 I 




IS 


10 IC 




15 


4 44 




IS 


8 3 


)) 


IS 


7 7 




30 


10 a 




30 


4 3 




30 


7 11 


JI 


30 


7 I 




45 


9 4 




45 


4 i-a- 




45 


7 7 


]} 


! 45 


6 7 




10 


8 8 




10 


4 




10 


7 3 


)) 


10 


6 4 




15 


8 c 




15 


3 II 




IS 


6 II 


r) 


15 


6 




30 


7 6 




30 


3 10 




30 


6 8 


n 


1 30 


5 1° 




45 


6 II 




45 


3 9 




45 


6 S 


j» 


45 


5 8 




II 


^ 5 




II 


3 7 




II 


6 1 


)i 


II 


5 6 




15 


6 I 




'5 


3 5 




IS 


5 II 


!J 


15 


5 4 




30 


5 1° 




30 


3 2 




30 


5 8 


ij 


30 


5 2 




45 P -«• 


5 9 




45 P.M. 


3 ° 




4S P.M. 


S 4 


1 


4SP.M. 


4 II 





154 



REPORT 186J'. 



May 20.— 1864. 



Hull. 


GrAINSBOROUGH. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




IZ OA.M. 


6 a 




12 OA.M. 


2 9i 


E. 


12 OA.M. 


5 I 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


4 8 




15 


6 8 




15 


2 6i 




15 


4 10 


N.W. 


15 


4 6 




30 


7 7 




30 


2 4 




30 


4 7 


>» 


30 


4 4 




45 


8 6 




45 


2 2 




45 


4 4 


)) 


45 


4 2 




I 


9 7 




1 


2 li 




I 


4 2 


)} 


I 


4 


Calm. 


15 


10 6 




15 


I 11^ 




15 


4 ° 


>5 


15 


3 10 




30 


II 8 




30 


I 10 




30 


3 10 


)) 


30 


3 8 




45 


12 7 




45 


1 9 




45 


3 8 


)) 


45 


3 6 




2 


13 8 




2 


I n\ 




2 


3 6 


J) 


2 


3 5 




15 


14 10 




15 


I 5 




IS 


3 4 


)) 


IS 


3 3 




30 


15 II 




30 


I 2i 




3° 


3 2 


JJ 


30 


3 I 




45 


17 




45 


I 1 




45 


3 1 


J) 


45 


3 




3 


18 2 




3 ° 


I 




3 


3 


») 


3 


2 10 




15 


19 3 




15 


11^ 




15 


2 II 


)> 


IS 


2 9 




3° 


20 I 




30 


II 




30 


2 10 


)) 


3'3 


2 8 




45 


21 




45 


10^ 




45 


2 9 


)) 


45 


2 7 




4 ° 


21 9 




4 


9 




4 


3 S 


'> 


4 


2 6 


Calm. 


15 


22 5 




15 


8^ 




IS 


4 II 


>) 


15 


2 5 




30 


22 II 




30 


7i 




30 


6 9 


» 


30 


2 5 




45 


23 2 




45 


6^ 




45 


8 6 


)5 


45 


2 4 




5 ° 


23 4 




5 ° 


5i 




5 ° 


9 9 


»» 


S ° 


2 4 




15 


23 6 




15 


4^ 




15 


11 I 


»» 


IS 


2 3 




30 


23 6 




30 


3i 




30 


12 I 


)) 


30 


2 2 




45 


23 3 




45 


%\ 




45 


12 8 


)» 


45 


2 2 




6 


22 10 


!• 


6 


i\ 


N. 


6 


13 3 


)) 


6 


2 2 


Calm. 


15 


22 3 




15 


2 9 




15 


13 7 


» 


15 


2 1 




30 


21 8 




30 


3 9 




30 


13 9 


>) 


30 


2 1 




45 


20 10 




45 


4 8 




45 


13 11 


>) 


45 


2 




7 


20 2 




7 


5 I 


S.W. 


7 ° 


13 10 


»J 


7 


2 




15 


19 8 




15 


5 6 




IS 


13 6 


)) 


15 


2 8 


Calm. 


30 


18 6 




30 


5 9 




30 


12 II 


J) 


30 


3 6 




45 


17 8 




45 


6 o" 




4S 


12 I 


)J 


45 


4 5 




8 


16 10 




8 


6 3 




8 


II 5 


)) 


8 


5 3 




15 


16 




15 


6 3 




IS 


10 9 


)» 


IS 


6 2 




30 


15 5 




30 


6 




30 


10 3 


)J 


30 


7 




45 


14 2 




45 


5 6 




45 


9 9 


It 


45 


7 8 




9 ° 


13 4 




9 ° 


5 2 




9 ° 


9 3 


w. 


9 


8 2 


S. 


IS 


12 3 




15 


4 9 




IS 


I 9 


»» 


IS 


8 3 




30 


II 6 




3° 


4 8 




30 


8 4 


*) 


30 


8 c 




45 


10 8 




45 


4 54 




45 


8 


»> 


45 


7 6 




10 


10 




10 


4 3 




10 


7 9 


I) 


10 


7 




15 


9 2 




15 


4 1 




15 


7 5 


J) 


15 


6 8 




30 


8 6 




30 


4 




30 


7 I 


>J 


30 


6 4 


S.E. 


45 


7 " 




45 


3 94 




45 


^ ? 


n 


45 


6 




11 


7 5 




II 


3 74 




II 


6 6 


)) 


11 


5 9 




15 


6 10 




15 


3 6 




15 


6 2 


n 


15 


5 6 




30 


6 5 




30 


3 34 




30 


5 10 


?) 


30 


5 3 




45 A.M. 


6 2 




45 A.M. 


3 14 




45 A.M. 


5 7 


)) 


45 A.M. 


5 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



155 



May 20.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsboeouch. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


i Time. 


Tide, j Wind. 


h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in.j 


12 O P.M 


1 " 




12 OP.M. 


2 ii| 


s.w. 


12 or.M. 


5 4 


w. 


12 OP.M. 


4 10 




15 


6 




IS 


2 10 




IS 


5 1 


s. 


15 


4 8 




30 


6 6 




30 


2 7 




3° 


4 10 


)» 


30 


4 6 




45 


7 2 




45 


2 6 




45 


4 8 


)» 


45 


4 4 


s. 


I 


8 




I 


2 3* 




I 


4 6 


)5 


I 


4 1 




IS 


9 3 




15 


2 oi 




15 


4 4 


)» 


15 


3 II 




30 


10 5 




30 


2 




30 


4 2 


J> 


3° 


3 9 




45 


II 7 




45 


I lO^ 




45 


4 


J» 


45 


3 7 




2 


12 7 




2 


I 9 




2 


3 10 


»J 


2 


3 6 


s. 


15 


13 8 




15 


I 7i 




15 


3 8 


)) 


15 


3 5 




30 


14 9 




30 


I 6 


s. 


30 


3 6 


S.E. 


30 


3 4 




45 


15 10 




45 


I 4i 




45 


3 4 


>» 


45 


3 3 


w. 


3 


17 




3 


I 3^ 


s.w. 


3 


3 2 


)) 


3 ° 


3 2 




IS 


18 I 




15 


1 li 




15 


3 1 


j» 


15 


3 i| 1 


30 


19 6 




30 


I oi 




30 


3 


)j 


30 


3 


w. 


45 


20 6 




45 


I 


W.N.W. 


45 


2 II 


»j 


45 


2 11 




4 


21 3 




4 


11^ 




4 ° 


2 10 


J) 


4 


2 10 




15 


22 2 




15 


9 




15 


3 6 


)» 


15 


2 9 




30 


22 9 




30 


8 




30 


4 4 


»» 


30 


2 8 




45 


23 3 




45 


7 




45 


6 8 


N.W. 


45 


2 8 




5 


^3 7 




5 ° 


6i 




5 " 


8 6 


)» 


5 ° 


2 7 




15 


23 9 




IS 


6 




15 


10 2 


'» 


15 


2 6 


N. 


30 


23 10 




30 


5 




30 


11 6 


J» 


30 


2 5 




^^^ 


23 10 




45 


4 




45 


12 3 


» 


45 


2 5 




6 


23 8 




6 


3 


N. 


6 


13 ° 


'» 


6 


2 4 


N.W. 


IS 


^3 3 




15 


3 




15 


13 5 


N.W. 


15 


2 3 




30 


22 8 




30 


2 9 




30 


13 10 


ji 1 


3° 


2 3 




45 


21 10 




45 


3 10 




45 


14 


s> 


45 


2 3 




7 


21 2 




7 


4 S 




7 


14 2 


j» 


7 


2 2 




15 


20 4 




15 


5 1 




15 


14 I 


») 


15 


2 2 




30 


19 6 




30 


5 7 


, 


30 


.3 8 


II 


30 


2 6 


X.W. 


0^^^ 


18 6 




45 


5 " 




45 


12 10 


N. 


45 


3 9 




8 


17 6 




8 


6 3 




8 


12 3 


)j 


8 


4 7 




15 


i6 6 




15 


6 6 




15 


11 6 


3> 


15 


5 9 




30 


15 8 




30 


6 8 




30 


10 II 


>r 


30 


6 6 




45 


14 10 




45 


6 6 




45 


10 4 


1 


45 


7 5 




9 


13 10 




9 ° 


5 iH 




9 ° 


9 10 


>) 


9 ° 


8 3 


rtiowB. 

Deals 


15 


12 11 




15 


5 6 




IS 


9 5 


)) 


IS 


8 9 


30 


12 




30 


5 04 




30 


9 


)! 


30 


8 7 




45 


II 3 




45 


4 9 




45 


8 7 


J' 


45 


8 2 




10 


10 7 




10 


4 7 




10 


8 3 


)) 


10 


7 9 


N.W. 


15 


9 8 




15 


4 S 




15 


7 II 


J» 


IS 


7 3 


Deals uji. 


30 


9 2 




30 


4 3 




30 


7 7 


)J 


30 


6 7 




45 


8 5 




45 


4 2 




45 


7 3 


)» 


45 


6 3 




II 


7 9 




II 


4 




II 


6 11 


>) 


11 


6 11 




15 


7 2 




15 


3 10 




15 


6 7 


JJ 


15 


S 9 




30 


6 8 




30 


3 8 




30 


6 4 


» 


30 


S 6 




45r-M. 


6 




45 P.M. 


3 6 




45 P.M. 


6 


l» f 


45 P.M. 


5 3 





156 



KEPOKT — 1861. 



May 21.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 

\ 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




12 OA.M. 


5 8 




12 OA.M. 


3 4 


N. 


12 OA.M 


5 S 


N. 


12 OA.M 


5 I 




15 


5 7 




15 


3 2 




IS 


5 6 


» 


'5 


4 IC 




30 


5 10 




30 


3 I 




30 


5 3 


)) 


30 


4 8 




45 


6 3 




45 


3 




45 


5 c 


J) 


45 


4 6 




I 


7 1 




I 


2 10^ 




I 


4 IC 


!> 


I 


4 4 




15 


8 2 




15 


2 8 




15 


4 8 


J) 


IS 


4 2 




30 


9 5 




30 


2 7 




30 


4 6 


)J 


30 


4 




45 


10 5 




45 


2 6 




45 


4 4 


)J 


45 


3 10 




a 


U 6 




2 


2 44 




2 


4 2 


)J 


2 


3 8 




IS 


12 8 




15 


a 3 




15 


4 


)t 


15 


3 6 




30 


14 




30 


2 2 




30 


3 10 


)J 


30 


3 4 




45 


15 c 




45 


2 




45 


3 8 


») 


45 


3 3 




3 


16 2 




3 


I 10 J 




3 


3 6 


" 


3 ° 


3 2 




15 


'7 4 




15 


I 9 




15 


3 4 


)) 


IS 


3 I 




30 


18 11 




30 


I 8 




30 


3 2 


1} 


30 


3 ° 




45 


20 




45 


I 7 




45 


3 


N.N.W. 


45 


2 11 




4 


20 10 




4 


I 5 




4 


2 10 


)» 


4 


2 10 




15 


22 I 




IS 


I 34 




15 


2 9 


)» 


15 


2 9 




30 


22 10 




30 


I I 




30 


3 2 


)) 


30 


2 9 


N. 


45 


23 6 




45 


11^ 




45 


5 


>> 


45 


2 8 




5 


23 9 




5 


10 




5 


7 6 


j» 


5 ° 


2 7 




15 


24 5 




15 


9 




15 


9 3 


>» 


15 


2 7 




30 


24 8 




30 


8i 




30 


II 3 


J) 


30 


2 6 




45 


24 10 




45 


8 




45 


12 6 


j» 


45 


2 6 




6 


25 




6 


7 


N. 


6 


13 6 


»» 


6 


2 6 




15 


24 ic 




15 


6 




15 


14 4 


N.N.W. 


15 


2 6 


N.W. 


30 


24 8 




30 


4 




30 


14 10 


J) 


3° 


2 6 




45 


24 




45 


3 6 




45 


15 3 


)» 


45 


2 6 




7 


23 I 




7 


4 7 




7 


15 5 


J» 


7 


2 5 




15 


22 6 




15 


5 




15 


15 6 


J) 


IS 


2 5 




30 


21 9 




30 


6 




30 


15 2 


J) 


30 


2 5 


N. 


45 


20 II 




45 


6 9 




45 


14 7 


tj 


45 


3 6 




8 


20 a 




8 


7 2 




8 


13 10 


It 


8 


4 7 




15 


19 2 




15 


7 6 




15 


12 IC 


yl 


15 


5 8 




30 


»8 3 




30 


7 9 




30 


12 


It 


30 


6 II 




45 


17 3 




45 


7 9i 




45 


II 5 


t> 


45 


8 




9 


16 4 




9 


7 7 




9 


10 10 


tt 


9 


9 




15 


'5 5 




15 


6 8 




15 


10 4 


J» 


15 


9 7 




30 


14 6 




30 


6 3 




30 


9 9 


tt 


30 


10 




45 


'3 5 




45 


6 




45 


9 3 


tt 


45 


9 II 




10 


12 7 




10 


S 6 




10 


8 10 


)J 


10 


9 S 


N. 


J5 


II 8 




15 


5 4 




15 


8 6 


t» 


15 


8 10 




30 


10 II 




30 


5 3 




30 


8 2 


Ji 


30 


8 3 




45 


10 




45 


5 1 




45 


7 10 


)» 


45 


7 10 




II 


9 5 




II 


4 10 




II 


7 6 


j» 


II 


7 6 




15 


8 9 




15 


4 9 




15 


7 2 


>) 


15 


7 2 




30 


8 




30 


4 7 




30 


6 II 


J» 


30 


6 10 




45 A.M. 


7 5 




45 A.M. 


4 3 




45 A.M. 


6 9i 


j» 


45 A.M. 


6 5 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



5/ 



May 21.— 1864. 



Hull. 


GAIN6B0E0UGir. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OP.M. 


7 




12 OP.M. 


4 14 


N. 


12 OP.M. 


6 7 


N.N.W. 


12 OP.M. 


6 I 




15 


6 7 




15 


3 xo 




IS 


6 3 


N. 


15 


5 10 


N.W. 


3° 


6 3 




30 


3 9 




30 


6 „ 1 


30 


5 8 




45 


6 2 




45 


3 7-J 




45 


5 9 




J 


45 


5 6 




I o 


6 5 




X 


3 6 


W. 


X 


5 6 




J 


I 


5 4 




15 


7 




15 


3 3^ 




15 


5 3 




> 


15 


5 3 




30 


7 10 




3° 


3 2 




3° 


5 




) 


30 


5 I 




45 


9 c 




45 


3 




45 


4 10 




1 


45 


4 II 




2 


9 9 




2 


2 9i 




2 


4 8 




I 


2 


4 9 




15 


IX 




»5 


2 8- 




15 


4 6 




J 


15 


4 7 




30 


12 2 




30 


2 6. 




30 


4 3 




» 


30 


4 5 




45 


13 3 




45 


1 5^ 




45 


4 I 




J 


45 


4 4 




3 ° 


14 5 




3 


2 3i 




3 ° 


3 II 




) 


3 


4 3 


s. 


15 


15 8 




15 


2 2 




15 


3 9 




) 


IS 


4 2 




3° 


16 10 




30 


I Hi 




30 


3 7 




J 


30 


4 




45 


18 2 




45 


I 10 




45 


3 5 




) 


45 


3 11 




4 


19 6 




4 


I 9 




4 


3 4 




) 


4 


3 9 




15 


20 6 




15 


I 8 




15 


3 3 




) 


15 


3 8 




30 


21 7 




30 


I 7 




30 


3 2 




) 


30 


3 7, w. 1 


45 


22 6 




45 


I 6 




45 


3 I 




) 


45 


3 6 




5 


23 2 




5 ° 


I 42 




5 ° 


4 I 




) 


5 


3 6 




15 


23 10 




15 


I 3 




15 


6 8 




' 


15 


3 5 




30 


24 3 




30 


I 2 




30 


8 8 




» 


30 


3 4 




^^^ 


24 7 




."^5 


I I 




45 


1° 5 




) 


45 


3 3 




6 


24 9 




6 


X 


w. 


6 


12 I 




I 


6 


3 3 




15 


24 10 




15 


I 




15 


13 2 


N. 


W. 


15 


3 2 




30 


24 7 




30 


II 




30 


14 




) 


30 


3 I 


w. 


45 


24 3 




45 


10 




45 


14 10 




J 


45 


3 1 




7 


23 8 




7 


3 6 




7 


15 4 




» 


7 


3 ° 




15 


22 11 




15 


4 6 




15 


15 6 




) 


IS 


3 




30 


22 2 




30 


5 5 




30 


15 7 




t 


30 


2 II 




45 


21 4 




45 


6 3 




45 


15 6 




J 


45 


2 II 




8 


20 5 




8 


6 10 




8 


15 I 




) 


8 


4 1 


w. 


15 


19 5 




15 


7 2 




15 


14 3 




> 


15 


5 3 




30 


18 4 




30 


7 6 




30 


13 7 




J 


30 


6 3 




45 


'^ ^ 




45 


7 8 




45 


12 9 




) 


45 


7 6 




9 


16 8 




9 


7 9 




9 ° 


12 




) 


9 


8 7 




15 


15 7 




15 


7 6 




15 


IX 4 




) 


15 


9 6 




30 


14 7 


• 


30 


7 




30 


10 9 




» 


30 


10 


w. 


45 


13 8 




45 


6 3 




45 


10 3 




J 


45 


10 2 




10 


12 9 




xo 


6 




10 


9 9 




» 


10 


9 u 




15 


IX 8 




15 


5 9 




15 


9 3 




) 


15 


9 6 




30 


lo 10 




30 


5 6 




30 


8 xo 




, 


30 


9 




45 


10 




45 


5 3 




45 


8 5 




) 


45 


8 5 




II 


9 4 




IX 


4 II 




ix 


8 




) 


IX 


7 9 




15 


8 8 




15 


4 9 




15 


7 8 




» 


15 


7 4 




30 


7 XI 




30 


4 6 




30 


7 4 




, 


30 


7 c 




45 P.M. 


7 a 




45 P.M. 


4 3 




45 P.M. 


7 




J 


45 P.M. 


6 8 





158 



REPORT — 1864. 



May 22.— 1864. 



Hull. 


G.VINSBOEOUGII. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. ill. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


6 6 




12 OA.M. 


4 ° 


N.N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


6 9 


N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


6 5 


w. 


15 


6 2 




15 


3 10 




15 


6 6 


ji 


15 


6 3 




3° 


5 7 




3° 


3 H 




30 


6 2 


) 




3° 


6 




45 


5 2 




45 


3 6 




45 


5 11 


) 




45 


5 9 




I o 


5 2 




I 


3 4 




1 


5 8 


) 




I 


5 6 




15 


5 5 




15 


3 2 




15 


5 5 


J 




15 


5 3 




30 


6 2 




30 


3 o* 




30 


5 2 


i 




30 


S I 




45 


7 3 




45 


2 10 




45 


4 11 


1 




45 


4 11 




2 


8 5 




2 


2 9 




2 


4 8 


i 




2 


4 9 


w. 


15 


9 3 




15 


2 74 




15 


4 6 


J 




15 


4 7 




30 


10 9 




30 


2 5 




3° 


4 4 


) 




30 


4 5 




45 


II II 




45 


2 4 




45 


4 2 


) 




45 


4 3 




3 


13 




3 


2 25 




3 


4 ° 


> 




3 


4 1 




15 


14 3 




15 


2 I 




15 


3 10 


J 




15 


3 u 




30 


IS 6 




30 


I 10 




30 


3 8 


J 




30 


3 9 




45 


16 9 




45 


I 9 




45 


3 6 


J 




45 


3 7 




4 ° 


17 10 




4 


I 8 




4 


3 5 


> 




4 


3 6 




15 


>9 3 




15 


I 7 




15 


3 4 


J 




15 


3 5 




30 


20 6 




30 


I 5 




30 


3 3 


» 




30 


3 4 




45 


21 4 




45 


I 4 




45 


3 2 


) 




45 


3 3 




5 


22 10 




5 


I 2 




5 


3 


> 




5 ° 


3 3 




15 


23 3 




15 


I ri 




15 


3 6 


J 




15 


3 2 




30 


24 2 




30 


I I 




30 


5 " 


) 




30 


3 1 




45 


24 7 




45 


I 




45 


8 2 


) 




45 


3 




6 


24 10 




6 


I 


N.N.W. 


6 


9 10 


) 




6 


2 11 




15 


25 2 




15 


I 




15 


II 6 


t 




15 


2 10 




30 


25 5 




30 


I 




30 


12 10 


1 




30 


2 10 




45 


25 4 




45 


u 




45 


13 II 


' 




45 


2 9 




7 


25 




7 


10 




7 


14 9 


) 




7 


2 9 




15 


24 7 




15 


3 4 




15 


15 5 


I 




15 


2 8 




30 


23 10 




30 


4 8 




30 


15 9 


) 




30 


2 7 




45 


23 




45 


5 4 




45 


15 II 


J 




45 


2 7 




8 


22 3 




8 


6 4 


N. by w. 


8 


IS 8 


, 




8 


2 6 




15 


21 5 




15 


6 I, 




15 


15 2 


, 




15 


2 6 




30 


20 6 




30 


7 6 




30 


14 5 


) 




30 


4 




45 


19 5 




45 


^ 9 




45 


13 7 


1 




45 


5 6 




9 


18 7 




9 


8 




9 


12 9 


) 




9 ° 


6 7 


N.W. 


15 


17 8 




15 


8 2i 




15 


12 


» 




15 


8 




30 


16 7 




30 


8 




30 


II 4 


) 




30. 


9 1 




45 


15 6 




45 


7 7 




45 


lo 9 


t 




45 


9 " 




10 


14 8 




10 


7 




10 


10 3 


t 




10 


10 3 




15 


13 8 




J5 


^ K 




15 


9 8 


» 




15 


10 3 




30 


12 9 




30 


5 iii 




30 


9 2 


> 




30 


9 9 


N.W. 


45 


II 10 




45 


5 8i 




45 


8 9 


} 




45 


9 1 




11 


II I 




II 


5 5 




II 


8 5 


) 




II 


8 7 




15 


10 2 




15 


5 3 




15 


8 I 


? 




15 


7 11 




30 


9 5 




30 


5 I 




30 


7 9 


) 




30 


7 6 


1 


4SA.M. 


8 9 




45 A.M. 


4 11 




45A.M- 


7 5 


) 




45 A.M. 


7 2 


1 
1 



ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



159 



May 22.— 1864. 



HULI,. 


Gainsboeougii. Goole. 


N.4BURN Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind.ij Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. ill. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 O P.M. 


8 




12 OP.M. 


4 9 


w.s.w. 


12 OP.M. 


7 1 


N.W. 


12 OP.M. 


6 9 




15 


7 6 




IS 


4 6 




IS 


6 10 


» 


15 


6 7 




30 


6 10 




30 


4 24 




3° 


6 7 


)) 


30 


6 3 




45 


6 3 




45 


4 1 




45 


6 4 


)j 


45 


6 




1 


5 " 




I 


4 




I 


6 I 


'» 


I 


5 9 




IS 


5 I 




15 


3 io4 




15 


5 11 


J) 


IS 


5 6 


w. 


30 


5 8 




30 


3 8 




30 


5 8 


jj 


30 


5 4 




45 


6 2 




45 


3 6 




45 


5 5 


J) 


45 


5 I 




2 


6 10 




2 


3 4 




2 


5 ^ 


j> 


2 


4 10 




IS 


7 10 




15 


3 2 




15 


4 11 


)) 


15 


4 8 




30 


8 II 




30 


2 11^ 




30 


4 8 


»i 


30 


4 6 




45 


lo 




45 


2 loi 




45 


4 6 


J) 


45 


4 4 




3 


II 3 




3 ° 


2 8| 




3 


4 4 


)> 


3 


4 2 




15 


12 4 




15 


2 6| 




15 


4 2 


II 


IS 


4 I 




30 


13 7 




30 


2 4 




30 


4 


II 


30 


3 u 




45 


14 9 




45 


2 3 




45 


3 10 


II 


45 


3 9 




4 


16 2 




4 


2 2i 




4 ° 


3 9 


II 


4 


3 8 


s.w. 


15 


17 9 




15 


2 




IS 


3 8 


)i 


15 


3 6 




30 


19 




3° 


I 10 




30 


3 6 


11 


30 


3 4 




45 


20 




45 


I 9i 




45 


3 4 


ji 


45 


3 3 




5 


21 2 




5 ° 


I 9 




5 


3 3 


II 


5 


3 2 




'S 


22 3 




15 


I 8 




15 


3 2 


11 


IS 


3 




30 


23 I 




30 


I 6 




3° 


3 4 


i> 


30 


2 11 




45 


23 10 




45 


I 5 




45 


5 6 


II 


45 


2 11 




6 


24 2 




6 


I 4 


E. 


6 


7 9 


II 


6 


2 10 




15 


24 8 




15 


I 3 




IS 


9 8 


S.E. 


IS 


2 9 




30 


24 II 




30 


1 i^ 




3° 


II 3 


II 


30 


2 8 




45 


25 2 




45 


I I 




45 


12 9 


n 


45 


2 7 




7 


25 2 




7 ° 


I 04 




7 ° 


13 9 


N.W. 


7 


2 6 


w. 


15 


25 1 




IS 


I 




IS 


14 9 


JI 


15 


2 6 




30 


24 7 




3° 


3 3 




30 


15 7 


II 


30 


2 5 




45 


24 




45 


4 6 




45 


15 10 


11 


45 


2 5 




8 


23 2 




8 


5 H 


w. 


8 


16 


JI 


8 


2 4 




15 


22 6 




15 


6 3 




15 


16 I 


•I 


15 


2 3 




30 


21 7 




30 


7 




• 30 


15 11 


W. 


30 


3 II 




45 


20 8 




45 


7 6 




45 


IS 5 


ij 


45 


4 2 


w. 


9 ° 


19 8 




9 ° 


I 9 




9 ° 


14 8 


II 


9 


5 7 




15 


18 10 




15 


8 I 




15 


13 10 


II 


IS 


6 8 




30 


18 I 




30 


8 2 




30 


12 II 


ij 


30 


8 




45 


16 10 




45 


8 




45 


12 I 


II 


45 


9 




10 


16 




10 


7 6 




10 


II 6 


II 


10 


9 lo 




15 


15 




15 


7 




15 


10 II 


IJ 


IS 


10 4 




30 


13 II 




30 


6 6 




30 


10 3 


JI 


3° 


10 5 




45 


12 9 




45 


6 




45 


9 9 


JI 


45 


10 




11 


II 10 




II 


5 9 




II 


9 3 


II 


II 


9 5 




IS 


II 




15 


5 6 




15 


8 10 


II 


15 


8 7 




30 


10 3 




30 


5 3 




30 


8 5 


II 


30 


8 




45 P.M. 


9 5 


45 P.M. 


5 2 




45 P.M. 


8 0| 


JI 


45 P.M. 


7 7 


w 



I 



160 



REPORT — 1864. 



May 23.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gain.sbouougii. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


8 7 




la A.M. 


5 


N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


7 8 


w. 


12 OA.M. 


7 3 




15 


8 




15 


4 II 




15 


7 5 


N.W. 


15 


6 u 




3° 


7 2 




30 


4 8 




30 


7 I 




30 


6 6 




45 


6 7 




45 


4 5 




45 


6 9 




45 


6 3 




I o 


5 II 




I 


4 3 




I 


6 5 




I 


6 


w. 


15 


5 5 




15 


4 




15 


6 2 




IS 


5 9 




30 


4 10 




30 


3 JO 




30 


5 II 




3° 


S 7 




45 


4 8 




45 


3 7 




45 


5 8 




45 


S 4 




2 


4 II 




2 


3 H 




2 


5 5 




2 


S 2 




15 


5 8 




15 


3 3 




15 


5 2 




15 


4 II 




30 


6 7 




30 


3 I 




30 


4 II 




30 


4 8 




45 


7 6 




45 


1 10 




45 


4 8 




45 


4 5 




3 


8 9 




3 


2 8 




3 ° 


4 6 




3 


4 3 




15 


10 4 




IS 


2 6 




15 


4 4 




IS 


4 I 




30 


II 5 




30 


2 4 




30 


4 2 




30 


3 11 




45 


12 9 




45 


2 2 




45 


4 




45 


3 9 




4 


14 




4 ° 


2 1 




4 


3 10 




4 


3 7 




15 


15 6 




'5 


2 




15 


3 8 




15 


3 5 




30 


16 8 




30 


I Hi 




30 


3 6 




30 


3 4 




45 


18 I 




45 


I 10 




45 


3 4 




45 


3 2 




5 


19 9 




5 ° 


I 9 




5 


3 3 




S 


3 1 


N.W. 


15 


20 11 




15 


I 8 




IS 


3 I 




15 


2 11 




30 


21 II 




30 


I 7 




30 


3 




30 


2 10 




45 


22 10 




45 


I 6 




45 


2 II 




45 


2 9 




6 


23 8 




6 


I 5 




6 


3 3 




6 


2 8 


N.W. 


15 


24 5 




15 


I 4 




IS 


6 




15 


2 7 




30 


24 II 




30 


I 3 




30 


8 3 




30 


2 6 




45 


25 4 




45 


I li 




45 


lO 6 




45 


2 5 




7 


25 7 




7 


I I 




7 


12 3 




7 


2 4 




15 


25 11 




15 


I 




15 


13 6 




IS 


2 3 




30 


25 10 




30 


I 




30 


14 7 




30 


2 3 


N. 


45 


25 7 




45 


11 




45 


IS S 




45 


3 2 


[down. 
Deals 


8 


25 2 




8 


4 




8 


16 




8 


3 2 


Deals up. 


15 


24 6 




15 


5 




15 


16 5 




15 


3 




30 


23 9 




30 


6 I 


N. 


30 


16 6 


N. 


3° 


3 




45 


23 




45 


6 9 




45 


16 6 




45 


3 ° 




9 


22 4 




9 ° 


7 6 




9 ° 


16 3 




9 ° 


3 7 


N. 


15 


21 4 




15 


8 




IS 


15 10 




15 


4 II 




30 


20 5 




30 


8 4 




3° 


15 




30 


6 3 




45 


19 5 




45 


8 8 




45 


14 2 




45 


I ^ 




10 


18 6 




10 


8 9 




10 


13 3 




10 


8 7 




15 


17 6 




15 


8 3i 




15 


12 7 




15 


9 6 




30 


16 6 




30 


8 3 




3° 


II 10 




30 


10 3 




45 


15 4 




45 


^ 7, 




45 


II 3 




45 


10 8 




II 


14 6 




11 


7 0^ 




11 


10 S 




II 


10 9 


N. 


15 


13 7 




15 


5 6 




15 


10 2 




15 


10 4 




30 


12 8 




30 


6 14 




30 


9 8 




3° 


9 6 




4SA.M. 


II II 




45 A.M. 


5 " 




45 A.M. 


9 3 




45 A.M. 


9 II 





ox TIDAL OBSERVATIONS, 



161 



May 23.— 1864, 



Hull. 


G-AINSBOROUGII. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




Noon. 


II 2 


, 


Noon. 


5 9 


N.N.E. 


Noon. 


8 io| N.W. 


Noon. 


8 < 




12 15 P.M 


. 10 i, 


^ 


12 15 P.M 


• 5 6^ 


■ 


12 15 P.M 


8 t 


N. 


12 15 P.M 


. 7 10 


30 


9 i 


) 


30 


5 4 




30 


8 2 


»» 


30 


7 4 


45 


I 5 


» 


45 


5 2 




45 


7 9 


ji 


45 


7 c 




1 


8 2 




I 


5 




I 


7 5 


M 


I 


6 s 


N. 


»S 


7 € 




15 


4 9 




IS 


7 I 


)» 


IS 


6 5 




30 


7 I 




30 


4 6 




30 


6 9 


)» 


30 


6 1 




45 


6 8 




45 


4 4 




45 


6 5 


J» 


45 


S 10 




2 


6 5 




2 


4 H 




2 


6 2 


J» 


2 


5 7 




15 


6 6 




IS 


4 oi 




15 


5 II 


)» 


15 


5 4 




30 


6 10 




30 


3 10 




30 


S 8 


»» 


30 


5 1 




45 


7 7 




45 


3 H 




45 


5 5 


J» 


45 


4 10 




3 


8 7 




3 


3 7 




3 


5 2 


»J 


3 


4 8 


N. 


IS 


9 8 




IS 


3 5 




15 


4 II 


JT 


IS 


4 6 




30 


10 10 




30 


3 3 




30 


4 8 


»» 


30 


4 3 




45 


12 




45 


3 I 




45 


4 6 


J) 


45 


4 




4 


13 5 




4 


3 




4 ° 


4 4 


)> 


4 


3 10 




15 


14 6 




15 


2 loi 




15 


4 2 


;j 


15 


3 8 




30 


15 9 




30 


2 9;^ 




30 


4 


)) 


30 


3 7 




45 


16 II 




45 


2 7,i 




45 


3 10 


>T 


45 


3 6 


N. 


5 ° 


18 I 




5 


2 6 




5 


3 8 


J» 


S ° 


3 4 




15 


19 5 




15 


1 44 




15 


3 6 


J» 


15 


3 2 




30 


20 9 




3° 


2 3 




30 


3 4 


tt 


30 


3 




,"^5 


21 9 




45 


2 1^ 




^'^5 


3 3 


)J 


45 


2 11 




6 


22 10 




6 


2 




6 


3 2 


)) 


6 


2 10 


N. 


15 


23 8 




IS 


I II 




15 


4 7 


N.W. 


15 


2 9 




30 


24 5 




30 


I 10 




30 


7 5 


ij 


30 


2 8 




45 


24 9 




45 


I 9 




45 


9 2 


» 


45 


2 6 




7 


25 2 




7 


I 8 




7 


II I 


>j 


7 


2 5 




15 


25 4 




IS 


I 61 




15 


12 7 


}f 


15 


2 4 




30 


25 6 




30 


I 5 




30 


13 10 


»» 


30 


2 3 




45 


25 5 




45 


I 4 




45 
8 


14 II 


)» 


45 


2 3 




8 


25 2 




8 


I 3 




15 7 


jj 


8 


2 2 


N. 


IS 


24 8 




IS 


4 3 




15 


15 11 


») 


15 


2 I 




30 


23 II 




30 


5 5 




30 


16 I 


J) 


30 


2 I 




45 


23 I 




45 


6 3 




45 


16 2 


)j 


45 


2 




9 


22 2 




9 


7 I 




9 


16 2 


»» 


9 ° 


2 




15 


21 5 




15 


7 9 




IS 


15 II 


N. 


IS 


3 7 




30 


20 6 




30 


8 




30 


15 3 


J» 


30 


4 8 




45 


19 6 




45 


8 5 




45 


14 4 


>> 


45 


6 1 




10 


18 9 




10 


8 6 




10 


13 6 


J» 


10 


7 4 


Calm. 


15 


17 9 




IS 


8 6 




IS 


12 8 


)J 


IS 


8 6 




30 


16 9 




30 


8 3 




30 


II 11 


»» 


30 


9 7 




45 


15 8 




45 


7 7 




45 


II 3 


»» 


45 


10 2 




n 


14 7 




II 


6 II 




II 


ro 8 


jj 


II 


10 7 




15 


13 9 




15 


5 5 




15 


[0 I 


)) 


15 


10 2 




30 


12 10 




30 


5 1 




30 


9 7 


5) 


30 


9 9 




45 P.M. 


12 




45 P.M. 


5 9 


45 P.M. 


9 2 


1i 


45 P.M. 


9 3 





1864. 



M 



163 



REPORT 1864. 



May 24.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborougu. 


GOOLE. 




Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. ' 


Wind. 


Time. 


Kde. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m i 


fc. in. 




h m f 


t. in. 




h m ft. in. 




h m ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


ti 2 




12 OA.M. 


) 6 


N.N.E. 


12 OA.M. 


8 9 


N. 


12 OA.M. 


8 8 




15 


'0 5 




IS 


) 3 




15 


8 S 


)) 


IS 


8 1 


N.W. 


30 


9 7 




30 


5 




3c 


8 I 


)) 


30 


7 6 




45 


8 9 




45 


}. TO 




45 


7 9 


)» 


45 


7 2- 




I 


7 10 




1 i 


^ 8 




I 


7 5 


jj 


I 


6 II 




IS 


7 6 




15 


1- 5 




15 


7 I 


ji 


IS 


6 8 




30 


6 10 




30 


4 34 




30 


6 9 


)» 


30 


6 4 




45 


6 4 




45 


4 I 




45 


6 5 


)> 


45 


6 




2 


5 lo 




2 


3 10 




2 


6 2 


)> 


2 


S 9 
5 6 




15 


5 8 




15 


3 8 




15 


5 II 


j> 


15 


Calm. 


30 


5 7 




30 


3 6 




30 


5 8 


») 


30 


5 3 




45 


5 II 




45 


3 4 




45 


5 S 


j» 


45 


4 II 




3 


6 9 




3 


3 2 




3 


5 2 


») 


3 


4 8 




15 


7 9 




IS 


3 




IS 


4 II 


j> 


15 


4 S 




30 


9 




3° 


2 10 




30 


4 8 


»j 


30 


4 3 




45 


10 I 




45 


2 8 




45 


4 6 


)» 


45 


4 2 




4 


II 5 




4 


2 6 




4 


4 4 


)» 


4 ° 


4 




15 


12 6 




15 


2 5 




IS 


4 2 


j> 


IS 


3 10 




30 


13 8 




30 


2 4 




30 


4 


J) 


30 


3 8 




45 


14 lo 




45 


^ 3 




45 


3 10 


)) 


45 


3 6 




S 


16 3 




5 


2 2 




5 


3 ? 


n 


5 


3 4 




15 


17 5 




15 


2 I 




15 


3 8 


)> 


15 


3 2 




30 


i8 9 




30 


I 11 




30 


3 7 


)) 


30 


3 I 




45 


20 




45 


I 10 




45 


3 5 


»» 


45 


3 ° 




6 


21 




6 


I 9 




6 


3 3 


J) 


6 


2 II 




IS 


22 3 




15 


t 8 




IS 


3 I 


N.N.W. 


IS 


2 IC 




30 


23 




30 


I 7 




30 


3 3 


»J 


30 


2 9 




45 


23 10 




45 


1 6 




45 


5 4 


»j 


45 


2 7 




7 


24 6 




7 


I 5 




7 


7 10 


n 


7 


2 6 


N. 


15 


24 1 1 




15 


I 4* 




15 


9 7 


») 


IS 


2 5 


[downi . 


30 


25 3 




30 


' 3, 




30 


II 7 


J) 


30 


2 9 


Deals 


o'^^ 


25 6 




45 


I i4 




45 


12 10 


>) 


45 


2 10 




8 


25 8 




8 


I 




8 


13 10 


J» 


8 


3 




15 


25 5 




IS 


I 




IS 


15 


n 


IS 


2 8 


Deals up. 


30 


25 I 




3° 


I 




30 


15 9 


)) 


30 


* 5 




45 


24 5 




45 


4 6 




45 


16 I 


» 


45 


2 3 




9 


23 9 




9 ° 


5 6 




9 


16 3 


It 


9 ° 


2 I 




15 


22 11 




IS 


6 3 




15 


16 3 


)» 


15 


2 




30 


22 I 




30 


7 I 




30 


16 I 


») 


30 


2 




45 


21 




45 


7 8 




45 


15 7 


j> 


45 


3 II 




10 


20 c 




10 


8 




10 


14 10 


)) 


10 


5 




15 


18 II 




IS 


I 5 




15 


13 10 


)) 


15 


6 5 




30 


18 c 




30 


I 3 




30 


13 


>) 


30 


7 11 




45 


17 c 




45 


8 3 




45 


12 2 


»j 


45 


8 II 




II 


16 c 




II 


7 II 




II 


II 6 


n 


11 


9 ic 




15 


14 I] 




15 


I 3 




15 


10 1 1 


j> 


15 


10 5 




30 


14 c 


) 


30 


6 6 




30 


10 3 


,, 


30 


10 7 


S.W. 


45A.JI 


12 I) 




45A.M 


6 1 




45A.M 


9 9 


» 


4SA.M 


10 3 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



163 



May 24.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide, Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


II 11 




Noon. 


5 9 


N.E. 


Noon. 


9 3 


N.N.W. 


Noon. 


9 7 




12 15 P.M. 


11 2 




12 15 P.M. 


5 H 




12 15 P.M. 


8 10 


E. 


12 15 P.M. 


8 10 




30 


10 3 




30 


5 4 




30 


8 6 


J) 


30 


8 3 




45 


9 4 




45 


5 2 




45 


8 1 


)j 


45 


7 5 


N.W. 


I 


8 6 




I 


5 ° 




I 


7 9 


n 


I 


7 2 




15 


7 9 




15 


4 10 




IS 


7 4 


>■ 


15 


6 II 




30 


7 




30 


4 7 


E. 


30 


7 


jj 


30 


6 7 




45 


6 3 




45 


4 5 




45 


6 9 


)i 


45 


6 4 




2 


5 8 




2 


4 ^i 




2 


6 5 


)} 


2 


6 I 




15 


5 I 




15 


4 




IS 


6 I 


)» 


15 


5 10 




30 


4 8 




30 


3 10 




30 


5 10 


)) 


30 


5 7 




45 


4 5 




45 


3 8 




45 


5 7 


)» 


45 


5 3 




3 


4 7 




3 


3 H 




3 


5 4 


5) 


3 


5 


s. 


15 


5 I 




15 


3 4i 




15 


5 1 


»J 


IS 


4 9 




30 


6 1 




30 


3 3 




30 


4 II 


J) 


30 


4 6 




45 


7 2 




45 


3 H 




45 


4 8 


)> 


45 


4 4 




4 


8 3 




4 


2 II 




4 


4 6 


)) 


4 


4 2 




15 


9 6 




15 


2 10 




IS 


4 4 


J» 


15 


4 




30 


10 7 




30 


2 8^ 




30 


4 2 


J) 


30 


3 10 




45 


II II 




45 • 


z 6 




45 


4 


)» 


45 


3 8 




5 


13 I 




5 


2 4 




5 


3 10 


J1 


5 


3 6 


Calm. 


15 


14 6 




15 


2 3 




IS 


3 8 


17 


15 


3 4 




30 


15 9 




3° 


2 2 




30 


3 6 


?> 


30 


3 2 




45 


17 




45 


2 0^ 




45 


3 4 


)> 


45 


3 I 




6 


18 3 




6 


I II 




6 


3 3 


» 


6 


3 




15 


19 6 




15 


I 9i 




15 


3 2 


W.S.W. 


15 


2 11 




3° 


20 




3° 


I 8 




30 


3 


»J 


30 


2 10 




45 


21 9 




45 


1 7 




45 


2 10 


f> 


45 


2 9 




7 


22 6 




7 


I 6 


s. 


7 


2 9 


)> 


7 


2 8 


s.w. 


15 


^3 3 




15 


I 5 




15 


4 ° 


7f 


15 


2 7 




30 


23 10 




3° 


I 4 




30 


6 7 


J) 


3° 


2 5 




45 


24 3 




45 


I 3 




45 


8 9 


Jl 


45 


2 3 




8 


24 6 




8 


I 2 




8 


10 8 


JJ 


8 


z 2 




'5 


24 9 




IS 


I I 




IS 


12 


)J 


15 


2 2 




30 


24 10 




30 


I oj 




30 


13 3 


» 


30 


2 I 




45 


24 8 




45 


I 




45 


14 2 


)> 


45 


2 I 




9 


24 4 




9 


II 




9 


14 9 


s.w. 


9 ° 


2 


s.w. 


15 


23 9 




IS 


3 9 




15 


15 2 


»> 


15 


Z 




30 


23 2 




30 


5 




3° 


15 5 


)J 


30 


2 




45 


22 4 




45 


S 8 




45 


15 5 


)) 


45 


1 II 




10 


21 6 




10 


6 I 




10 


15 4 


J) 


10 


I 11 




15 


20 8 




15 


6 8 




15 


14 11 


)J 


15 


3 


Calm. 


30 


19 9 




30 


7 2 




30 


14 2 


» 


30 


4 2 




45 


18 9 




45 


7 5 




45 


13 4 


)) 


45 


5 4 




11 


17 10 




II 


7 8 




II 


12 6 


)J 


II 


6 7 




15 


16 6 




15 


7 3 




15 


II 8 


>J 


15 


7 9 




30 


15 10 




30 


7 ° 




30 


10 II 


» 


30 


8 8, 




45 P.M. 


14 10 




45 P.M. 


6 II 




45 P.M. 


10 4 


JJ 


45 P.M. 


9 8| 





M 2 



164 



REPORT — 18G4. 



May 25.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 

1 


GOOLE. 




Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. iu. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




la OA.M. 


13 10 




12 OA.M. 


6 4 


s. 


12 OA.M. 


9 II 


s.w. 


12 OA.M. 


10 5 




IS 


13 




15 


6 




15 


9 6 


N.W. 


15 


9 II 




3° 


12 




30 


5 9 




30 


9 ° 


)) 


30 


9 7 




45 


II 




45 


5 6 




45 


8 7 


»J 


45 


9 2 




I o 


10 3 




I 


5 2 




I 


8 3 


)) 


I 


8 7 




15 


9 6 




15 


5 °, 




15 


7 9 


J) 


15 


7 9 




30 


8 8 




30 


4 9i 




30 


7 5 


j» 


30 


7 2 




45 


8 




45 


4 6 




45 


7 ° 


?> 


45 


6 6 




2 


7 4 




2 


4 4 




2 


6 9 


)) 


2 


6 2 




15 


6 8 




15 


4 I 




15 


6 5 


>j 


15 


5 II 




30 


6 1 




30 


3 10 




3° 


6 I 


jj 


30 


5 7 




45 


5 7 




45 


3 7^ 




45 


5 10 


)» 


45 


5 3 




3 " 


5 4 




3 


3 5 




3 


5 7 


!J 


3 


5 


w 


15 


5 4 




15 


3 3 




15 


5 4 


)J 


IS 


4 lo 




30 


5 9 




30 


3 I 




30 


5 1 


J» 


30 


4 7 




45 


6 9 




45 


2 II 




45 


4 II 


)) 


45 


4 5 




4 ° 


7 10 




4 


2 9 




4 


4 8 


)> 


4 


4 3 




15 


9 ° 




'5 


a 7 




15 


4 6 


)t 


15 


4 1 




30 


10 5 




30 


2 6 


w. 


30 


4 4 


)> 


30 


3 II 




45 


II 8 




45 


i 5 




45 


4 1 


n 


45 


3 9 




5 


12 8 




5 


2 3 




5 


3 11 


jj 


5 


3 7 


s.w. 


15 


13 10 




15 


2 2 




15 


3 9 


)» 


15 


3 6 




30 


15 4 




30 


2 I 




30 


3 7 


n 


30 


3 3 




45 


16 5 




45 


2 




45 


3 5 


)» 


45 


3 2 




6 


17 7 




6 


I 10 


N.W. 


6 


3 3 


n 


6 


3 


.s.w. 


15 


19 




15 


I 9 




15 


3 a 


)» 


IS 


2 II 




30 


20 8 




30 


I 7* 




30 


3 I 


)> 


30 


2 10 




45 


21 10 




45 


I 6 




45 


3 


)) 


45 


2 9 


w. 


7 


22 9 




7 ° 


I 5 




7 


2 11 


J) 


7 


2 7 




15 

30 


23 8 

24 5 




15 
30 


I 4 
I 3 




IS 

30 


3 I 
5 8 


11 


IS 
30 


2 6 
2 9 


[down. 
Deals 


45 


25 1 




45 


I 2 




45 


8 I 


)> 


45 


2 II 




8 


25 6 




8 


I li 




8 


10 


11 


8 


2 7 


Deals up. 


15 


25 10 




15 


I I 




IS 


12 


)) 


15 


2 6 




30 


26 2 




30 


I 




30 


13 3 


II 


30 


2 4 




45 


26 4 




45 


II 




45 


14 6 


ij 


45 


2 2 




9 


26 2 




9 ° 


10 




9 ° 


15 3 


11 


9 


2 I 


N. 


15 


25 9 




15 


3 8 




15 


16 


II 


15 


2 




30 


25 4 




30 


4 II 




30 


16 5 


II 


30 


I ii 




45 


24 6 




45 


5 10 




45 


,6 7 


II 


45 


I lo 




10 


23 8 




10 


6 8 




10 


16 9 


II 


10 


I lo 




»5 


22 II 




15 


7 S 




IS 


16 7 


11 


15 


1 10 




30 


22 1 




30 


8 




3° 


16 I 


II 


30 


3 6 




45 


21 2 




45 


8 ii 




45 


15 3 


II 


45 


5 




II 


20 3 




11 


8 8 




II 


14 3 


)) 


II 


6 6 


N.W. 


15 


19 3 




IS 


8 9* 




15 


13 6 


II 


15 


7 II 




30 


18 4 




30 


8 9 




30 


12 7 


I) 


30 


8 11 




45 A.M. 


17 3 




45 A.M. 


8 2 




45 A.M. 


II 10 


II 


45 A.M. 


10 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



165 



May 25.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsboeough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




li m 


ft. in 




Noon. 


16 I 




Noon. 


7 5 


N.W. 


Noon. 


II 2 


N.W. 


Noon. 


10 6 


N.W. 


12 15 P.M. 


IS 




12 15 P.M 


6 9 




12 15 P.M 


10 8 


)j 


12 15P.M 


10 9 




30 


14 




30 


6 3 




30 


10 


)) 


30 


10 5 




45 


13 2 




45 


6 




45 


9 8 


)j 


45 


9 9 




I 


12 4 




I 


5 9 




I 


9 3 


jj 


I 


9 2 




15 


II 5 




IS 


5 7 




IS 


8 II 


)> 


IS 


8 6 




30 


10 8 




3° 


5 5 




30 


8 5 


)j 


30 


7 10 




45 


9 lo 




45 


5 3 




45 


8 I 


>) 


45 


7 5 




2 


9 I 




2 


5 




2 


7 9 


)J 


2 


7 I 




15 


g 6 




IS 


4 9 




IS 


7 S 


» 


IS 


6 8 




30 


7 10 




30 


4 7 




30 


7 I 


)> 


30 


6 S 


N. 


45 


7 4 




45 


4 S 




45 


6 10 


J) 


45 


6 I 




3 


6 10 




3 


4 3 




3 


6 7 


E. 


3 ° 


5 1° 




15 


6 6 




15 


4 I 




>5 


6 3 


J) 


IS 


5 6 




30 


6 4 




30 


3 II 




30 


6 


" 


30 


5 3 




45 


6 5 




45 


3 9, 




45 


5 9 


" 


45 


S I 




4 


7 I 




4 


3 7^ 




4 ° 


5 6 


" 


4 


4 10 




15 


7 9 




'5 


3 S 




IS 


5 3 


» 


IS 


4 7 




30 


8 10 




30 


3 3 




30 


5 


)j 


i 30 


4 5 




45 


9 lo 




45 


3 I 




45 


4 9 


)) 


45 


4 3 


N.E. 


5 


11 2 




5 


3 




5 


4 7 


)) 


5 ° 


4 I 




15 


12 4 




IS 


2 10 




IS 


4 S 


)j 


15 


3 11 




30 


13 4 




30 


2 9 




30 


4 3 


J) 


30 


3 9 




,'^5 


14 6 




."^5 


2 7 




45 


4 I 


>i 


45 


3 7 




6 


15 9 




6 


2 S 


N.W. 


6 


3 II 


») 


6 


3 5 




15 


17 




15 


2 3 




IS 


3 9 


>) 


IS 


3 3 




30 


18 4 




30 


2 i^ 




30 


3 7 


]} 


30 


3 I 




45 


19 6 




45 


2 o| 




45 


3 6 


ij 


45 


3 




7 


20 6 




7 


2 




7 ° 


3 4 


jj 


7 ° 


2 11 




15 


21 9 




'5 


I 10^ 




IS 


3 2 


J) 


15 


2 9 




30 


22 7 




30 


I 9 




30 


3 


») 


30 


2 7 




45 


23 6 




45 


I 8 




45 


4 


»i 


45 


2 6 




8 


24 




8 


I 64 




8 


6 6 


)) 


8 


2 5 


N. 


IS 


24 7 




IS 


I 6 




15 


8 9 


1) 


15 


2 4 




3° 


25 




30 


I 5 




30 


10 5 


!t 


30 


2 3 




45 


25 5 




45 


I 4 




45 


12 2 


)) 


45 


2 2 




9 ° 


^5 7 




9 


I 3 




9 


13 4 


» 


9 ° 


2 2 




15 


25 S 




IS 


I zi 




IS 


14 3 


») 


15 


2 I 




30 


^5 7 




30 


I 2 




30 


IS 3 


>) 


30 


2 




45 


25 2 




45 


4 




45 


15 10 


)» 


45 


2 




10 


24 9 




10 


5 




10 


16 I 


'J 


10 


I II 




IS 


24 




15 


S 10 




15 


i6 2 


>> 


IS 


I 10 




30 


23 3 




30 


6 8 




30 


16 2 


» 


30 


I 10 




45 


22 7 




45 


7 3 




45 


16 1 


J» 


45 


3 




11 


21 8 




II 


7 8 




II 


15 8 


n 


II 


4 4 


N. 


15 


21 




IS 


8 




IS 


14 10 


» 


IS 


5 5 




30 


20 2 




30 


8 3 




3° 


14 


)» 


30 


6 10 




45 P.M. 


19 




45 P.M. 


8 4 




45 P.M. 


13 2 


!) 


45 P.M. 


8 





166 



REPORT 1801, 



May 26.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLB. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind.! 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li in 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


18 




12 OA.M. 


8 


N. 


12 OA.M. 


12 4 


E. 


12 OA.M. 


9 




15 


17 3 




15 


7 6 




15 


11 8 


N. 


15 


9 9 




30 


16 I 




3° 


6 10 




3° 


II I 


)) 


30 


lo 3 




45 


15 2 




45 


6 4 




45 


10 6 


» 


45 


10 6 




I 


14 3 




I 


6 




I 


9 II 


>) 


I 


10 2 


N. 


15 


13 5 




15 


S 9 




IS 


9 7 


)t 


15 


9 6 




30 


12 7 




30 


5 7 




3° 


9 2 


j» 


30 


8 10 




45 


II 9 




45 


5 5 




45 


8 9 


)j 


45 


8 2 




2 


11 




2 


5 3 




2 


8 5 


J' 


2 


7 9 




15 


10 6 




15 


5 I 




15 


8 I 


9) 


15 


7 4 




30 


9 10 




30 


4 II 




30 


7 9 


)» 


30 


7 ° 




45 


9 3 




45 


4 9 




45 


7 5 


)J 


45 


6 8 




3 ° 


8 9 




3 ° 


4 7 




3 


7 I 


)> 


3 ° 


6 4 




15 


8 4 




15 


4 5 




15 


6 10 


)) 


15 


6 




3° 


8 I 




30 


4 3 




30 


6 7 


J) 


30 


5 9 




45 


7 10 




45 


4 °i 




45 


6 4 


>J 


45 


5 6 




4 


8 I 




4 ° 


3 10 




4 


6 


'. 


4 


5 3 


N.W. 


15 


8 7 




15 


3 8 




15 


S 8 


}1 


15 


5 ° 




30 


9 4 




3° 


3 6 




30 


5 4 


J1 


30 


4 9 




45 


10 4 




45 


3 4 




45 


5 I 


)J 


45 


4 6 




5 


II 6 




5 


3 a 




5 ° 


4 10 


N.W. 


5 


4 3 




15 


12 4 




IS 


3 




15 


4 8 


J) 


15 


4 I 




30 


13 5 




3° 


2 11 




30 


4 6 


» 


30 


3 II 




.+5 


14 6 




45 


2 10 




45 


4 4 


») 


45 


3 9 




6 


'5 5 




6 


2 8 


N. 


6 


4 2 


)j 


6 


3 7 




15 


16 6 




15 


i 7 




15 


4 


N.N.W. 


15 


3 6 


N. 


30 


17 6 




3° 


2 5 




30 


3 1° 


j» 


30 


3 5 




45 


18 9 




45 


2 4 




45 


3 8 


11 


45 


3 4 




7 


19 11 




7 


2 2 




7 


3 6 


J) 


7 ° 


3 1 




15 


21 




15 


2 I 




IS 


3 5 


)) 


15 


3 




30 


22 




30 


2 




30 


3 3 


») 


3° 


2 II 




o'^5 


22 1 1 




45 


I II 




45 


3 8 


)> 


45 


2 10 




8 


23 7 




8 


I 9 




8 


5 2 


tj 


8 


2 9 


N. 1 


15 


24 2 




15 


I 8 




15 


7 3 


)» 


15 


2 8 




30 


24 7 




30 


I 7 




30 


9 1 


N. 


30 


2 7 




45 


25 




45 


I 6 




45 


11 


» 


45 


2 6 




9 


25 2 




9 


I 5 




9 


12 5 


)) 


9 ° 


2 5 




15 


^5 5 




15 


I 4 




15 


13 6 


n 


15 


2 3 




30 


25 4 




30 


I 3 




30 


14 4 


J) 


30 


2 2 




45 


25 1 




45 


I 2 




45 


15 


- >> 


45 


2 I 




10 


24 8 




10 


4 I 




10 


15 6 


)» 


10 


2 1 


N. 


J5 


23 10 




15 


5 




15 


15 8 


N.N.E. 


15 


2 




30 


23 3 




30 


6 




30 


15 9 


»> 


30 


I II 




45 


22 4 




45 


6 74 




45 


15 9 


)l 


45 


I 10 




II 


21 5 




II 


7 I 




II 


15 5 


n 


11 


3 3 




15 


20 7 




15 


7 6 




15 


14 8 


»> 


15 


4 6 




30 


19 10 




30 


7 9 




30 


13 10 


» 


30 


5 10 




45 A.M. 


19 I 




45 A.M. 


8 




45 A.M. 


13 


» 


45 A.M. 


7 I 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS 



167 



May 26.— 1864. 



Hull. 


GAIlfSBOROUGII. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


18 a 




Noon. 


8 I 


K. 


Noon. 


12 4 


N.N.E. 


Noon. 


8 2 




IZ 15 P.M. 


17 




12 15 P.M. 


7 H 




12 15 P.M. 


II 7 


N. 


12 15 P.M. 


9 ° 




30 


16 




30 


6 loi 




30 


II 


jj 


30 


9 9 




45 


IS 




45 


6 5h 




45 


10 6 


)» 


45 


10 


N.E. 


I 


14 




I 


6 1 




I 


9 II 


)» 


I 


9 11 




IS 


13 2 




15 


5 9 




IS 


9 6 


)} 


15 


9 5 




30 


12 5 




30 


5 6 




30 


9 I 


J» 


30 


8 9 




45 


II 6 




45 


5 3i 




45 


8 9 


j> 


45 


8 1 




2. 


10 10 




2 


5 li 




2 


8 4 


j> 


2 


7 6 




15 


9 II 




15 


5 ° 




15 


7 11 


JJ 


15 


7 




30 


9 2 




30 


4 9? 




30 


7 7 


>J 


30 


6 7 


N. 


45 


8 5 




45 


4 74 




45 


7 3 


)j 


45 


6 4 




3 


7 9 




3 ° 


4 6 




3 


7 


)) 


3 


6 




15 


7 4 




IS 


4 4 




IS 


6 9 


}f 


15 


5 8 




30 


6 8 




30 


4 2 




30 


6 5 


)j 


3° 


5 5 




45 


6 3 




45 


4 




45 


6 2 


)i 


45 


5 3 




4 ° 


5 1° 




4 


3 10 




4 


5 11 


J' 


4 ° 


5 




IS 


5 7 




IS 


3 H 




15 


5 8 


j» 


15 


4 9 


N. 


30 


5 7 




30 


3 6| 




30 


5 5 


») 


30 


4 6 




45 


5 II 




45 


3 5 




45 


5 2 


>) 


45 


4 3 




5 ° 


6 5 




5 ° 


3 44 




5 


5 


>) 


5 ° 


4 




15 


7 3 




15 


3 2 




15 


4 10 


)) 


15 


3 10 




30 


8 2 




30 


3 I 




30 


4 8 


)> 


30 


3 8 




45 


9 3 




45 


2 10 




45 


4 5 


»» 


45 


3 6 




6 


10 3 




6 


2 8i 


N. 


6 


4 3 


>» 


6 


3 4 




15 


II 4 




15 


2 7 




15 


4 1 


N.E. 


15 


3 3 




30 


12 6 




30 


2 6 




30 


3 II 


j» 


30 


3 2 


N. 


45 


13 5 




45 


2 44 




45 


3 9 


jt 


45 


3 1 




7 


14 6 




7 


2 3 




7 


3 7 


J) 


7 ° 


3 




IS 


IS 8 




IS 


2 i| 




15 


3 5 


j» 


IS 


2 9 




30 


16 10 




30 


2 




30 


3 3 


5» 


3° 


2 7 




45 


17 10 




45 


I ii 




45 


3 2 


J) 


45 


2 6 




8 


18 10 




8 


I 10 




8 


3 


J) 


8 


2 S 




15 


19 10 




IS 


I 9 




15 


2 10 


>> 


15 


2 4 




30 


20 9 




30 


1 8 




30 


2 9 


)) 


30 


2 3 




45 


21 7 




45 


I 6^ 




45 


2 10 


)> 


45 


2 2 




9 ° 


22 2 




9 


I 5 




9 ° 


4 3 


»» 


9 ° 


2 I 




15 


22 8 




15 


1 4 




15 


6 9 


)) 


15 


2 I 




30 


23 




30 


I 3 




30 


8 4 


>J 


30 


2 




45 


23 3 




45 


I 2 




45 


9 10 


I) 


45 


2 




10 


23 4 




10 


I I 




10 


II 


)J 


10 


2 


N. 


15 


23 5 




15 


I 




15 


II II 


J) 


15 


III 




30 


23 4 




30 


II 




30 


12 7 


N.N.E. 


30 


I II 




45 


23 1 




45 


10 




45 


13 2 


» 


45 


I 10 




ir 


22 8 




II 


2 II 




II 


13 7 


J) 


II 


I 10 




15 


22 




15 


3 10 




15 


13 9 


)i 


15 


I 10 




30 


21 4 




30 


5 




30 


13 II 


)) 


30 


I 9 




45 P.M. 


20 8 




45 P.M. 


5 7 




45 P.M. 


13 II 


JJ 


45 P.M. 


I 9 





168 



REPORT 1864. 



May 27.— 1864. 



H 


ULL. 

1 


G-AINSBOROUGn. 


GOOLE. 


Nabukn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. Wind. 

1 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li OA.M. 


19 10 




12 OA.M. 


6 


N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


13 7 


N.N.E. 


12 OA.M. 


a 5 




IS 


19 2 




IS 


6 4 




IS 


13 


N.E. 


15 


3 4 




30 


18 3 




30 


6 8 




30 


12 5 


It 


30 


4 5 




45 


17 4 




45 


6 II 




45 


11 8 


)> 


45 


5 ^ 




1 


i6 5 




I 


7 I 




I 


II 2 


)) 


I 


6 6 


Calm. 


15 


15 6 




15 


7 I 




IS 


lO 6 


n 


15 


7 a 




30 


14 6 




30 


6 10 




30 


10 


J' 


30 


7 9 




45 


13 7 




45 


6 2 




45 


9 6 


f) 


45 


8 3 




2 


12 9 




2 


5 7 




2 


9 1 


n 


2 


8 5 




IS 


12 




15 


S 3 




15 


8 9 


)» 


15 


8 I 




30 


II 2 




3° 


4 lis 




30 


8 4 


)» 


30 


7 6 




45 


10 7 




45 


4 84 




45 


7 11 


j» 


45 


6 II 




3 


9 9 




3 


4 4 




3 ° 


7 7 


)» 


3 ° 


6 5 




15 


9 2 




IS 


4 I 




15 


7 3 


)» 


IS 


6 




30 


8 6 




30 


3 10^ 




30 


7 ° 


»» 


30 


5 9 




45 


7 10 




45 


3 8 




45 


6 9 


)) 


45 


5 6 


Calm. 


4 


7 7 




4 


3 6| 




4 


6 5 


}) 


4 ° 


5 3 




15 


7 a 




IS 


3 Si 




IS 


6 2 


jj 


'5 


5 




30 


6 10 




30 


3 34 




30 


5 1° 


J) 


30 


4 10 




45 


6 10 




45 


3 1 




45 


5 7 


)» 


45 


4 7 




5 


7 a 




S 


3 




5 


5 4 


)) 


5 


4 4 




15 


7 8 




IS 


2 10 




IS 


5 I 


)> 


IS 


4 1 




30 


8 9 




30 


2 9 




30 


4 10 


J> 


30 


3 10 




45 


9 9 




,+5 


2 7 




."^5 


4 7 


»» 


45 


3 7 




6 


10 10 




6 


2 S 


N.W. 


6 


4 4 


>J 


6 


3 5 




IS 


11 10 




15 


i 3 




15 


4 2 


N.W. 


IS 


3 3 




30 


12 8 




3^^ 


a 14 




30 


4 ° 


)j 


3° 


3 2 




45 


13 11 




45 


2 I 




45 


3 10 


)) 


45 


3 1 




7 


14 9 




7 


I 11^ 




7 


3 8 


" 


7 ° 


3 


w. 


IS 


15 9 




15 


I 10 




15 


3 6 


j» 


IS 


2 II 




30 


16 8 




30 


I 9 




30 


3 4 


» 


30 


2 10 




45 


17 9 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 3 


)l 


45 


2 9 


[down. 


8 


19 




8 


1 7 




8 


3 I 


)» 


8 


3 ° 


Deals 


15 


20 




15 


I 6 




15 


2 II 


»j 


15 


2 8 


Deals up. 


30 


21 




30 


I 44 




30 


2 10 


»» 


30 


2 6 




45 


21 




45 


I 3 




45 


2 II 


jj 


45 


a 5 




9 ° 


22 7 




9 


I 2 




9 ° 


4 4 


}i 


9 


2 3 




15 


23 2 




IS 


I I 




15 


6 2 


>) 


IS 


2 2 




30 


23 7 




30 


I 




30 


7 II 


>» 


30 


2 I 




45 


23 10 




45 


11 




45 


9 6 


>» 


45 


2 




10 


24 I 




10 


10 




10 


10 II 


J) 


10 


I II 


W. 


'5 


24 2 




IS 


9 




IS 


12 


>) 


IS 


I II 




30 


24 1 




30 


8^ 




30 


12 9 


It 


30 


I 10 




45 


23 9 




45 


8 




45 


13 5 


)» 


45 


I 9 




II 


23 5 




11 


2 


w. 


II 


13 10 


J) 


11 


I S 




15 


22 10 




IS 


3 7 




15 


14 I 


)i 


15 


1 7 




30 


22 3 




30 


4 3 




30 


14 3 


5» 


30 


I 6 




45 A.M. 


21 5 




45 A.M. 


4 II 




45 A.M. 


14 3 


»> 


45 A.M. 


I 6 





ON TIDAL OBSBKVATIONS. 



169 



May 27.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


20 8 




Noon. 


5 6 


w. 


Noon. 


14 


N.W. 


Noon. 


I 6 




12 15P.M 


19 10 




12 15 P.M. 


5 9 




12 15 P.M. 


13 8 


;j 


12 15 P.M. 


3 




30 


19 1 




30 


6 




30 


12 8 


)j 


1 30 


4 




45 


18 2 




45 


6 4 




45 


II 10 


)> 


i 4S 


4 II 




I 


17 4 




1 


6 6 




I 


II I 


J) 


I 


6 


w. 


IS 


16 3 




15 


6 3 




IS 


10 7 


jj 


15 


6 II 




30 


15 4 




30 


6 I 




30 


10 I 


J) 


30 


7 9 




45 


14 4 




45 


5 6 




45 


9 7 


)) 


45 


8 3 




2 


13 7 




2 


4 11^ 




2 


9 1 


J) 


2 


8 5 




15 


12 8 




15 


4 9i 




IS 


8 7 


n 


1 IS 


8 3 




30 


II 10 




3° 


4 7^ 




30 


8 2 


)) 


30 


7 7 




45 


11 




45 


4 S 




45 


7 9 


5) 


45 


7 ° 




3 


10 3 




3 


4 3 




3 


7 5 


JJ 


3 ° 


6 6 


w. 


IS 


9 8 




IS 


4 2 


W.N.W. 


15 


7 2 


i> 


15 


6 




30 


8 11 




30 


4 




3° 


6 II 


)> 


30 


5 7 




45 


8 3 




45 


3 1° 




45 


6 7 


!J 


45 


5 3 




4 


7 8 




4 ° 


3 8 




4 


6 3 


') 


4 ° 


•5 ° 




15 


7 2 




IS 


3 6 




IS 


6 


)) 


IS 


4 9 




30 


6 8 




30 


3 5 




30 


5 9 


)> 


30 


4 6 




45 


6 4 




45 


3 3 




45 


5 6 


)> 


45 


4 4 




5 


6 2 




S 


3 I 




S ° 


5 3 


;) 


5 


4 2 


w. 


15 


6 5 




IS 


3 




IS 


5 


)) 


15 


4 




30 


6 8 




30 


2 II 




30 


4 10 


») 


30 


3 10 




45 


7 3 




45 


2 9 




45 


4 8 


)) 


45 


3 8 




6 


8 




6 


2 6 


W.N.W. 


6 


4 5 


>) 


6 


3 6 




15 


8 9 




15 


2 5 




IS 


4 3 


J) 


15 


3 4 


K. 


30 


9 ^ 




30 


2 4 




30 


4 


3> 


30 


3 2 




45 


10 6 




45 


2 3 




45 


3 10 


91 


45 


3 




7 


II 6 




7 ° 


2 2 




7 


3 8 


)' 


7 


2 II 




15 


12 6 




IS 


2 




15 


3 6 


J> 


IS 


2 9 




30 


13 9 




3° 


I II 




30 


3 4 


J» 


30 


2 7 




45 


14 8 




45 


I 10 




45 


3 2 


E. 


45 


2 6 




8 


15 8 




8 


I 9 




8 


3 I 


jj 


8 


2 4 


N. 


IS 


16 8 




15 


I 8 




IS 


2 II 


?) 


15 


2 3 




30 


17 n 




30 


I 7 




30 


2 10 


)j 


30 


2 I 




45 


18 II 




45 


I 6 




45 


2 9 


» 


45 


2 




9 ° 


19 10 




9 


I 5 




9 


2 8 


JJ 


9 ° 


2 




IS 


20 9 




IS 


I 4 




15 


2 7 


JJ 


15 


2 




30 


21 7 




30 


I 3 




30 


3 2 


N.E. 


3° 


I II 




45 


22 3 




45 


I 2 




45 


4 6 


J> 


45 


I II 




10 


22 7 




10 


I I 




10 


6 3 


JJ 


10 


I 10 




15 


23 




IS 


II 




IS 


8 1 


JJ 


IS 


I 10 




30 


23 4 




30 


gi 




30 


9 7 


JJ 


30 


I 9 




45 


23 6 




45 


8 




45 


10 8 


JJ 


45 


I 9 




II 


23 8 




II 


7i 




II 


II 7 


JJ 


II 


I 8 


N. 


IS 


23 7 




15 


7 




IS 


12 3 


N. 


15 


I 8 




30 


23 6 




30 


6i 




30 


13 


JJ 


30 


I 7 




45 P.M. 


23 2 




45 PM- 


6 


45 P.M. 


13 5 


JJ 


45 P.M. 


I 7 





170 



KEPOKT 1864. 



May 28.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsboeough. 


1 

GOOLE. 


Nabden Lock. 


Time. 


Tide., Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


'wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




ih m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


22 8 




12 OA.M. 


I 6 


>-. 


12 OA.M. 


13 9 


N. 


12 OA.M. 


I 6 




15 


22 2 




IS 


^ 3 




15 


13 II 


N.W. 


; 15 


I 6 




3° 


21 7 




30 


2 II 




30 


14 I 


»» 


30 


I 5 




45 


20 10 




45 


3 6 




45 


13 10 


» 


45 


I 5 




I o 


20 4 




I 


4 ° 




I 


13 4 


»» 


I 


2 II 


N.W. 


15 


19 71 


15 


4 5 




15 


12 5 


1: 


IS 


3 10 




3° 


18 8 




3° 


4 10 




30 


II II 


» 


• 30 


4 9 




45 


17 9 




45 


5 4 




45 


II 2 


>) 


45 


5 9 




2 O 


17 




2 


5 9 




2 


10 8 


}f 


2 


6 6 




15 


16 




15 


6 




15 


10 I 


)> 


15 


7 5 




30 


15 I 




30 


5 10 




30 


9 7 


» 


30 


7 11 




45 


14 3 




45 


5 6 




45 


9 2 


») 


45 


8 3 




3 


13 6 




3 


5 




3 


8 8 


J» 


3 


8 4 




15 


12 9 




15 


4 9 




IS 


8 3 


» 


15 


7 10 




30 


12 




30 


4 6 




30 


7 H 


»» 


30 


7 2 




45 


ir 4 




45 


4 3 




45 


7 7 


?> 


45 


6 6 




4 ° 


10 9 




4 


4 




4 


7 4 


J) 


4 


5 II 


N.W. 


15 


10 2 




'5 


3 10 




^5 


7 


}) 


15 


S 7 




30 


9 8 




30 


3 9 




30 


6 8 


)> 


30 


5 4 




45 


9 a 




45 


3 8 




45 


6 5 


J) 


45 


5 2 




5 ° 


8 10 


5 


3 7 




5 


6 2 


)> 


5 


5 ° 




IS 


8 8 




15 


3 6 




15 


5 II 


)) 


15 


4 10 




30 


8 7 




30 


3 4 




30 


5 8 


)> 


30 


4 7 




45 


8 9 




.^^5 


3 a 




45 


S 5 


M 


45 


4 4 




6 


9 3 




6 


3 




6 


5 2 


») 


6 


4 I 




15 


9 9 




15 


2 10^ 




IS 


S 


N.N.W. 


15 


3 II 




30 


10 6 




30 


2 9 




30 


4 lo 


'» 


30 


3 9 




45 


" 5 




45 


2 8 




45 


4 8 


)) 


45 


3 8 




7 ° 


12 2 




7 


2 6 




7 


4 5 


)) 


7 


3 7 


N.W. 


15 


12 10 




15 


2 4 




15 


4 3 


»» 


15 


3 6 




30 


13 9 




30 


2 2 




30 


4 


}) 


30 


3 4 




45 


14 9 




45 


2 I 




45 


3 10 


)» 


45 


3 2 




8 


15 6 




8 


2 




8 


3 8 


»» 


8 


3 




15 


16 6 




15 


III 


E.\.E. 


15 


3 6 


)) 


15 


a 10 




30 


17 4 




30 


I 10 




30 


3 4 


»> 


30 


2 8 




45 


18 8 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 3 


» 


45 


2 7 




9 ° 


19 6 




9 ° 


1 7 




9 


3 1 


j» 


9 


2 6 




15 


20 5 




15 


I 6 




IS 


3 


>» 


15 


2 5 




3° 


21 3 




30 


I 5 




30 


3 6 


J» 


30 


2 4 




45 


21 




45 


I 4 




45 


4 8 


)» 


45 


2 3 




10 


22 5 




10 


I 2 




10 


5 9 


»» 


10 


2 2 


N.W. 


15 


22 II 




15 


I 




IS 


7 4 


» 


15 


a 1 




30 


23 5 




30 


I 




30 


8 10 


n 


30 


2 




45 


23 8 




45 


II 




45 


10 I 


)» 


45 


2 




11 


23 10 




II 


10 




II 


II 2 


ft 


II 


I It 




15 


23 10 




15 


9 




15 


12 


it 


15 


I 10 




30 


=3 9 




30 


8 




30 


12 8 


)> 


30 


I 9 




45 A.M. 


23 4 




45 A.M. 


7 




45 A.M. 


'3 4 


II 


45 A.M. 


I 8 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



171 



May 28.— 1864. 



Hull. 


GAINSBOEOUGn. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 'wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


j Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




ii m 


ft. in. 




1 
h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


22 10 




Noon. 


2 6 


E.N.B. 


Noon. 


13 9 


N.N.W. 


Noon. 


I 7 




12 15 P.M. 


22 4 




12 15 P.M. 


3 4i 




12 15 P.M. 


14 


n 


12 15 P.M. 


1 6 




30 


21 8 




30 


4 




30 


14 I 


j» 


30 


I 6 




45 


21 I 




45 


4 7 




45 


14 I 


)» 


45 


I 10 




i ' ° 


20 4 




I 


5 04 




1 


13 10 


j» 


I 


3 ° 


N.>V. 


15 ■ 


19 8 




IS 


5 6 




15 


13 9 


)» 


15 


3 10 




1 30 


18 9 




30 


5 10 




30 


12 6 


j> 


I 30 


4 6 




45 


17 10 




45 


6 I 




45 


II 10 


» 


! 45 


S 9 




2 


16 11 




2 


6 3 




2 


II 2 


)j 


1 2 


6 8 




15 


16 




IS 


6 3- 




IS 


10 8 


)) 


1 
IS 


7 6 




30 


IS 2 




30 


5 10 




30 


10 1 


J) 


30 


8 1 




45 


14 5 
.3 6 




45 


5 5 




45 


9 7 


}i 


45 


8 5 




3 




3 


5 




3 ° 


9 2 


3> 


3 


8 S 


w. 


'5 


12 9 




15 


4 9 




15 


8 9 


)» 


15 


8 2 




30 


12 




30 


4 6 




30 


8 4 


J» 


30 


7 7 




45 


II 3 




45 


4 S 




45 


8 


J) 


45 


7 1 




4 


10 6 




4 


4 3 




4 


7 8 


)» 


4 


6 6 




IS 


9 10 




IS 


4 I 




15 


7 4 


)) 


IS 


6 I 




30 


9 2 




30 


3 11 




30 


7 I 


)) 


30 


5 10 




45 


8 6 




45 


3 9, 




45 


6 10 


»» 


45 


S 7 




5 


8 




5 


3 7i 




S ° 


6 7 


») 


5 


S 2 


w. 


»S 


7 5 




IS 


3 6 




15 


6 4 


)» 


15 


4 II 




30 


7 2 




30 


3 34 




30 


6 I 


J) 


30 


4 8 




45 
6 


6 10 
6 8 
6 8 
6 II 




45 
6 


3 2 
3 




45 
6 


5 10 

5 7 




45 
6 


4 S 
4 3 




15 




IS 


2 10^ 




15 


S 3 


s» 


IS 


4 I 




30 




30 


2 94 




30 


S 


jj 


; 30 


4 ° 


w. 


45 


7 5 




45 


i 74 




45 


4 9 


)> 


45 


3 9 




7 


8 2 




7 


2 6 




7 ° 


4 7 


»» 


7 ° 


3 6 




15 


8 10 




IS 


2 44 




IS 


4 5 


I) 


IS 


3 5 




30 


9 7 
10 6 




30 


^ 3 




30 


4 3 


» 


30 


3 3 




45 
8 




4S 


2 li 




45 


4 


S) 


45 


3 I 




II 6 




8 


2 oi 


W. 


8 


3 10 


J» 


8 


3 ° 




15 


12 3 




IS 


I 11 




IS 


3 8 


?) 


15 


2 10 




30 


13 3 




30 


I lO 




30 


3 7 


)) 


30 


2 8 




45 


14 3 




45 


I 9 




45 


3 6 


J) 


45 


2 7 




9 


15 




9 


t 74 




9 


3 4 


)J 


9 ° 


2 6 


\v. 


15 


15 II 




15 


I 6 




IS 


3 2 


J> 


15 


2 S 




30 


17 




30 


I 44 




30 


3 


>» 


30 


2 4 




45 


17 10 




45 


I 34 




45 


2 II 


»> 


45 


2 3 




10 


i8 7 




10 


I 2i 




10 


2 9 


M 


10 


2 I 




15 


19 5 




15 


I 2 




15 


2 8 


t) 


15 


2 




30 


20 2 




30 


I i4 




30 


2 8 


it 


30 


I 11 




45 


20 9 




45 


I I 




45 


3 4 


») 


45 


I 10 




11 


21 4 




II 


I 


N. 


II 


4 5 




II 


I 10 


w. 


15 


21 8 




IS 


11 




I? 


5 5 


)) 


15 


I 9 




30 


21 II 




30 


10 




3° 


6 10 




30 


I 8 




45 r.M. 


22 I 




45 P.M. 


9 




* 45 P-M. 


8 I 


5> 


45 P.M. 


I 7 





17 



70. 



REPORT — 1864. 



May 29.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


'22 2 




12 OA.M. 


8 


N. 


12 OA.M. 


9 3 


N.N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


1 7 




IS 


22 3 




15 


8 




15 


10 3 


N.W. 


15 


I 6 




3° 


22 I 




30 


I io4 




30 


10 8 


JJ 


30 


I 6 




45 


21 10 




45 


2 8 




45 


II 3 


j> 


45 


I 5 




I o 


21 7 




I 


3 4 




I 


II 7 


)> 


I 


I 5 




IS 


21 I 




15 


3 II 




IS 


12 c 


j» 


15 


I 5 




3° 


20 6 




30 


4 4 




30 


12 3 


)) 


30 


1 4 




45 


19 11 




45 


4 8* 




45 


12 4 


)j 


45 


I 4 




2 O 


19 4 




2 


5 ^i 




2 


12 2 


>) 


2 


I 4 




15 


18 7 




IS 


5 4 




15 


II 10 


») 


15 


2 2 




3° 


17 10 




30 


5 6 




30 


II 3 


)» 


30 


2 9 




45 


17 I 




45 


5 6 




45 


10 9 


J) 


45 


3 6 


w.s.w. 


3 o 


16 2 




3 ° 


5 2 




3 


10 2 


)) 


3 


4 




IS 


15 2 




15 


4 10 




IS 


9 8 


J) 


IS 


4 9 




30 


14 5 




3" 


4 7 




30 


9 2 


J» 


30 


S 5 




45 


13 7 




45 


4 4 




45 


8 8 


)j 


45 


6 c 




4 


12 II 




4 


4 2 




4 


8 3 


J) 


4 ° 


^ 5 




15 


12 3 




15 


4 




15 


7 10 


>» 


IS 


6 8 




3° 


II 7 




30 


3 10 




30 


7 6 


j> 


30 


6 6 




45 


II 




45 


3 8 




45 


7 2 


)) 


45 


6 I 




5 


10 5 




5 


3 6 




5 


6 10 


» 


5 


5 9 




IS 


9 10 




15 


3 4 


• 


15 


6 6 


)j 


IS 


S 4 




30 


9 II 




30 


3 2 




30 


6 3 


)? 


30 


5 




45 


8 9 




45 


3 °4 




45 


6 


)) 


45 


4 8 




6 


8 6 




6 


2 II 


N. 


6 


5 9 


)) 


6 


4 5 




IS 


8 4 




15 


2 9* 




15 


5 6 


N. 


IS 


4 I 


N. 


30 


8 3 




30 


2 7 




30 


5 4 


I) 


30 


3 II 




45 


8 5 




45 


2 6 




45 


5 2 


Jj 


45 


3 8 




7 


8 II 




7 


2 4 




7 ° 


5 ° 


'» 


7 


3 6 




15 


9 7 




15 


2 3 




15 


4 10 


)) 


15 


3 4 




30 


10 7 




30 


2 2 




30 


4 8 


)» 


30 


3 2 




45 


II 7 




45 


2 I 




45 


4. 5 


N.N.E. 


45 


3 




8 


12 6 




8 


2 




8 


4 2 


JJ 


8 


2 10 


N. 


IS 


13 4 




IS 


I 10 




15 


4 


)j 


15 


2 8 




30 


14 2 




3° 


I Si 




30 


3 10 


ij 


30 


2 7 




45 


15 I 




45 


I 7 




45 


3 8 


JJ 


45 


2 6 




9 


15 10 




9 


I 6 




9 ° 


3 6 


J' 


9 ° 


2 5 




15 


16 9 




15 


I 5* 




15 


3 4 


JJ 


IS 


2 4 




30 


17 7 




30 


I 4 




30 


3 3 


)j 


30 


2 3 




45 


18 7 




45 


I 3 




45 


3 2 


JJ 


45 


2 2 




lO 


19 5 




10 


1 2 




10 


3 I 


JJ 


10 


2 I 


N. 


15 


20 4 




IS 


I 14 




IS 


2 11 


JJ 


IS 


2 




30 


21 1 




30 


I 




30 


3 3 


JJ 


30 


I II 




45 


21 II 




45 


II 




45 


4 3 


J' 


45 


1 10 




II 


22 5 


1 


II 


10 




II 


5 3 


j» 


II 


I 8 




15 


22 10 


IS 1 


9 




15 


6 7 


N. 


IS 


I 7 




30 


23 3 




30 


8J 




3° 


8 I 


JJ 


30 


I 6 




45 A.M. 


23 6 




45 A.M. 


8 ■ 




45 A.M. 


9 3 


)j 


45A.M. 


I 5 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



173 



May 29.— 1864. 



HULI,. 


GAINSBOROUGn. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. jWind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


23 8 




Noon. 


7 


N. 


Noon. 


10 6 


N. 


Noon. 


I 5 




12 15 P.M. 


23 9 




12 15 P.M. 


6 




12 15 P.M. 


II 7 


X.N.E. 


12 15 P.M 


I 4 




30 


23 8 




30 


5 




30 


12 2 


ii 


30 


I 3 




45 


23 5 




45 


° 5 




45 


12 II 


)) 


45 


I 3 




I 


23 




1 


I 10 




I 


13 4 


)> 


I 


I 3 


N. 


15 


22 6 




IS 


3 




15 


13 10 


J> 


15 


I 3 




30 


21 10 




30 


3 9 




3° 


14 I 


)» 


30 


I 3 




45 


21 3 




45 


4 5 




45 


14 1 


»» 


45 


' 5 




2 


20 7 




2 


4 loi 




2 


13 II 


>J 


2 


2 I 




15 


19 10 




15 


5 2 




15 


13 6 


)» 


15 


2 8 




30 


19 




3° 


5 6 




30 


12 9 


j> 


3° 


3 5 




45 


18 2 




45 


5 1° 




45 


12 I 


J) 


45 


4 3 




3 


17 2 




3 


6 




3 


II 6 


)? 


3 ° 


5 3 


N. 


15 


16 5 




15 


6 I 




15 


II 


»j 


15 


6 3 




30 


15 6 




30 


5 II 




30 


10 3 


J) 


30 


7 




45 


14 9 




45 


5 5 




45 


9 8 


JJ 


45 


7 6 




4 


14 




4 


5 I 




4 


9 3 


}} 


4 


8 




15 


13 4 




15 


4 9 


W. 


IS 


8 10 


)> 


IS 


7 10 




30 


12 6 




30 


4 H 




30 


8 6 


» 


3° 


7 7 




45 


II 10 




45 


4 Si 




45 


8 T 


JJ 


45 


7 1 




5 


II 2 




5 


4 2i 




5 ° 


7 9 


J) 


5 


6 6 


N. 


15 


10 7 




IS 


4 H 




15 


7 5 


>J 


IS 


6 




30 


10 2 




30 


4 




30 


7 1 


J» 


3° 


5 7 




£^^5 


9 6 




.+5 


3 II 




45 


6 10 


)J 


45 


S 3 




6 


9 ° 




6 


3 9 


W. 


6 


6 7 


)» 


6 


5 ° 




15 . 


8 6 




IS 


3 7 




15 


6 4 


N.W. 


15 


4 10 




30 


8 I 




30 


3 5 




30 


6 


J) 


30 


4 8 




45 


7 9 




45 


3 3 




45 


5 9 


)» 


45 


4 5 




7 


7 7 




7 


3 H 




7 


5 7 


)j 


7 " 


4 2 


Calm. 


15 


7 5 




15 


3 




15 


5 4 


J) 


15 


4 




30 


7 6 




30 


2 lOj 




30 


5 I 


?» 


30 


3 10 




0^5 


7 8 




45 


2 9 




45 


4 II 


N. 


45 


3 8 




8 


8 2 




8 


2 7 




8 


4 9 


JJ 


8 


3 6 




15 


8 8 




IS 


» 5 




15 


4 6 


)j 


15 


3 4 




30 


9 4 




30 


1 3 




30 


4 3 


JJ 


30 


3 2 




45 


10 2 




45 


2 i^ 




45 


4 1 


N.E. 


45 


3 




9 


10 II 




9 


2 




9 ° 


3 II 


JJ 


9 


2 10 




15 


II 10 




15 


I loi 




IS 


3 9 


JJ 


15 


2 8 




30 


12 10 




30 


1 9" 




30 


3 7 


JJ 


30 


2 6 


Calm. 


45 


13 8 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 5 


JJ 


45 


2 4 




10 


14 8 




10 


I 7 




10 


3 3 


JJ 


10 


2 3 




J5 


IS 8 




15 


I 6 




15 


3 I 


JJ 


15 


2 2 




30 


16 6 




30 


I 5 




30 


3 


JJ 


30 


2 1 




45 


17 6 




45 


I 4 




45 


2 10 


j> 


45 


2 c 




II 


18 4 




II 


I 34 




II 


2 9 


JJ 


II 


III 




15 


19 




15 


I 3 




15 


2 7 


JJ 


IS 


I 10 




30 


19 8 




30 


I 2 




30 


2 6 


JJ 


30 


I 9 




45 P.M. 


20 6 




45 P.M. 


I I 




45 P.M. 


3 I 


)J 


45 P.M. 


I 8 


Calm. 



174 



REPORT — 1864. 



May 30.— 1864. 



H 


ULL. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. ^ 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


r.'ird. 


Time. 


Tide. Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 1 


't. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


't. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. ' 


II 2 




12 OA.M. 


I 


s.w. 


12 OA.M. 


4 


K.E. 


12 OA.M. 


I 7 




15 


ii 6 




15 


3 II 




15 


5 I 


S.W. 


IS 


I 6 




3° 


II 10 




30 


10 




30 


6 6 


»? 


30 


I 6 




45 


12 I 




45 


9 




45 


7 JO 


)» 


45 


I 5 




I o 


Z2 2 




I 


8 




I 


8 11 


J» 


I 


I 5 




IS 


12 4 




IS 


7 




IS 


9 II 


)T 


15 


I 5 




30 


22 4 




30 


6 




30 


10 8 


>) 


30 


I 4 




45 


22 2 




45 


° 5, 




45 


II 2 


)» 


45 


I 4 




2 


21 II 




2 


I 34 




2 


11 8 


)) 


2 


I 4 




15 


21 7 




15 


I II 




IS 


12 


*J 


15 


I 3 




30 


21 2 




3° 


2 7 




30 


12 3 


)' 


30 


I 3 




45 


20 8 




45 


3 I 




45 


12 6 


it 


45 


I 3 




3 ° 


20 2 




3 ° 


3 6 




3 


12 6 


J) 


3 


I 3 




IS 


19 6 




15 


3 II 




15 


II 9 


>i 


IS 


I 6 




30 


18 9 




30 


4 2 




30 


II 3 


)J 


30 


2 




45 


17 10 




45 


4 5 




45 


10 8 


J) 


45 


2 lo 




4 


16 10 




4 ° 


4 8 




4 ° 


10 2 


)) 


4 


3 8 




IS 


16 




IS 


4 9 




IS 


9 8 


»j 


15 


4 3 




30 


'5 ^ 




30 


4 9 




30 


9 2 


)J 


30 


5 




45 


14 4 




45 


4 8 




45 


8 8 


l» 


45 


5 7 




5 


13 7 




5 ° 


4 5 




5 ° 


8 2 


1) 


5 




15 


12 II 




15 


4 I 




IS 


7 8 


u 


IS 


6 7 


s.w. 


30 


12 4 




30 


3 9 




1 3° 


7 5 


>J 


30 


6 9 




45 


II 8 




45 


3 7 




45 


7 2 


j> 


c"^^ 


6 7 




6 


II 




6 


3 6 




6 


6 II 


" 


6 


6 3 




15 


10 5 




IS 


3 5 




'5 


6 8 


W. 


15 


S 1° 




30 


9 II 




30 


3 2 




30 


6 5 


j> 


30 


5 6 




45 


9 S 




45 


3 




45 


6 3 


J) 


45 


5 I 


w. 


7 


9 I 




7 


2 11 




7 


6 


)) 


7 


4 9 




15 


8 9 




15 


2 9 




IS 


5 9 


») 


IS 


4 6 




30 


8 7 




30 


2 8 




30 


5 6 


)> 


30 


4 4 




45 


8 6 




45 


2 7 




45 


5 3 


)) 


45 


4 2 




8 


8 8 




8 


2 6 


w. 


8 o- 


5 


)) 


8 


4 




15 


8 II 




IS 


2 5 




15 


4 10 


n 


IS 


3 lo 




30 


9 6 




30 


2 3 




30 


4 8 


)» 


30 


3 8 




45 


10 3 




45 


2 2 




45 


4 6 


>» 


45 


3 6 




9 


10 10 




9 ° 


2 I 




9 


4 4 


j» 


9 


3 3 


w. 


15 


II 9 




15 


2 




IS 


4 I 


J) 


15 


3 ° 




30 


12 S 




30 


I 10 




30 


3 II 


w.s.w. 


30 


2 10 




45 


13 6 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 9 


J1 


45 


2 9 




10 


14 4 




10 


I 7 




10 


3 7 


)' 


10 


2 8 




IS 


15 1 




IS 


I 5 




15 


3 5 


>T 


IS 


2 7 




30 


16 2 




30 


I 3i 




30 


3 3 


)> 


30 


2 6 




45 


17 I 




45 


I 2i 




45 


3 I 


»» 


45 


2 4 




II 


17 IC 




II 


I ij 




II 


2 II 




II 


2 3 


w. 


15 


18 S 




15 


I o-> 




15 


2 10 


»1 


IS 


2 2 




Z'^ 


19 6 




30 


III 




30 


2 8 


)» 


30 


2 I 




45A.M 


20 4 




45 A.M 


. lOJ 


c 


45A.M 


2 8 


>» 


45 A.M 


2 c 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS, 



May 30.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


zo 11 




Noon. 


9^ 




Noon. 


3 5 


w.s.w. 


Noon. 


I II 




la 15 P.M. 


21 6 




12 I 5 P.M. 


8 




12 15 P.M. 


4 3 


N.W. 


12 I 5 P.M. 


I 10 




30 


22 




30 


7 




30 


5 3 


J) 


30 


I 9 


w. 


45 


22 5 




45 


6 




45 


6 10 


jj 


45 


I 8 




I 


22 8 




I 


l\ 




I 


8 5 


)> 


I 


I 7 




15 


22 9 




15 


4* 




15 


9 3 


)) 


15 


I 7 




30 


22 II 




30 


%\ 




30 


10 3 


J) 


30 


I 6 




45 


22 8 




45 


25 




45 


II 


)i 


45 


I 6 




2 


22 6 




2 


x\ 




2 


II 5 


)» 


2 


I 5 




15 


22 2 




15 


0^ 




15 


II II 


j» 


15 


I 5 




30 


21 8 




30 


9 


s.w. 


30 


12 3 


j» 


30 


I 4 




45 


21 2 




45 


2 




45 


12 6 


» 


45 


I 4 




3 


20 6 




3 


2 6^ 




3 ° 


12 8 


)» 


3 ° 


I 4 




15 


19 lo 




15 


3 I 




15 


12 7 


n 


15 


I 4 




30 


19 I 




30 


3 6 




30 


12 2 


1} 


30 


I 6 




45 


18 4 




45 


3 "i 




45 


II 7 


it 


45 


2 7 




4 


17 6 




4 


4 3 




4 


II 2 


)) 


4 ° 


3 4 




15 


16 8 




15 


4 6 




15 


10 5 


jj 


15 


3 II 


s.w. 


30 


15 8 




30 


4 7^ 




30 


9 II 


>j 


30 


4 8 




45 


14 8 




45 


4 9 




45 


9 4 


)j 


45 


5 6 




5 


13 II 




S 


4 8 




5 ° 


8 10 


)j 


5 ° 


6 3 




15 


13 




15 


4 3 




15 


8 5 


)> 


15 


6 6 




30 


12 5 




30 


3 9* 




30 


8 


I) 


30 


6 10 




r^5 


II 9 




,"^5 


3 7i 




45 


7 8 


»> 


45 


6 10 




6 


II I 




6 


3 6 


s.w. 


6 


7 4 


)j 


6 


6 6 




15 


10 5 




15 


3 4 




15 


7 


)) 


15 


6 




30 


9 8 




30 


3 ^i 




30 


6 9 


)) 


30 


5 8 




45 


9 I 
8 6 




45 


3 li 




45 


6 6 


J> 


45 


5 4 


s.w. 


7 




7 


3 




7 


6 3 


>> 


7 


5 




J5 


7 II 




^5 


2 9^ 




15 


5 II 


)) 


15 


4 8 




30 


7 6 




30 


2 9 




30 


5 8 


)} 


30 


4 4 




45 


7 I 




45 


^ 74 




45 


5 5 


1) 


45 


4 I 




8 




8 


2 6 




8 


5 2 


jj 


8 


3 10 




15 


6 6 

6 ^ 
6 10 




15 


2 4 




15 


4 II 


jj 


15 


3 8 




30 




30 


2 2i 




30 


4 9 


J) 


30 


3 6 




45 




45 


2 I 




45 


4 7 


>j 


45 


3 4 




9 




9 


2 




9 


4 5 


J) 


9 ° 


3 2 


s.w. 


15 


7 6 




15 


I 10 




15 


4 2 


)j 


15 


3 




30 


8 3 




30 


I 8^ 




30 


4 


3J 


30 


2 10 




45 


9 




45 


I 7 




45 


3 10 


)) 


45 


2 9 




10 


9 7 




10 


I 6 




10 


3 8 


JJ 


10 


2 8 




15 


1° 5 




15 


I 5 




15 


3 6 


5> 


15 


2 7 




30 


II 6 




30 


I 4 




30 


3 4 


Jl 


30 


2 6 




45 


12 4 




45 


I 3 




45 


3 2 


)) 


45 


2 5 




II 


13 3 




II 


I 2 




II 


3 


)» 


II 


2 4 




15 


14 3 




15 


I I 




15 


2 11 


>J 


15 


2 3 




30 


15 3 




30 


I 




30 


2 9 


)) 


30 


2 2 


s.w. 


45 P-i*' 


16 2 




45 P.M. 


I 




45 P.M. 


2 8 


'> 


45 P.M. 


2 





176 



REPORT — 1864. 



May 31.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLB. 


Nabubn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




1 2 A.M. 


16 11 




12 OA.M. 


II 


s.w. 


12 OA.M. 


2 7 


N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


I 11 




'5 


17 10 




15 


10 




15 


2 6 


N.N.W. 


15 


I 10 




30 


18 10 




30 


9 




30 


i 5 




30 


I 9 




45 


19 9 




45 


8 




45 


2 3 




45 


I 8 




I 


20 5 




I 


0. 7 




I 


2 6 




I 


I 7 


s.w. 


IS 


21 1 




15 


o- 6 




15 


3 5 




15 


I 6 




30 


21 7 




30 


5I 




30 


4 4 




30 


I S 




45 


21 II 




45 


4I 




45 


6 




45 


I 4 




2 


22 2 




2 


3i 




2 


I 5 




2 


I 4 




15 


22 4 




15 


2 




15 


8 7 




IS 


1 4 




30 


22 6 




30 


I 




30 


8 8 




3° 


I 4 




45 


22 7 




45 


of 




45 


10 6 




45 


I 3 




3 


22 6 




3 


0^ 




3 


II 3 




3 


I 3 




15 


22 5 




15 


8 


N. 


15 


II 8 




15 


I 3 




30 


22 




30 


I 10 




30 


12 c 




30 


I 2 




45 


21 7 




45 


2 6 




45 


12 4 




45 


I 2 




4 


21 




4 


3 oi 




4 ° 


12 7 




4 


1 2 




15 


20 6 




»S 


3 4* 




15 


12 8 




IS 


I 2 




30 


19 9 




3° 


3 8 




30 


12 5 




30 


1 2 




45 


18 10 




45 


3 10 




45 


12 




45 


I 9 




5 


18 2 




5 ° 


4 




5 


II 6 




5 ° 


2 6 


N.W. 


15 


17 9 




15 


4 3 




15 


10 11 




IS 


3 2 




30 


16 5 




3° 


4 6 


N.E. 


30 


10 3 




30 


3 8 




45 


15 7 




.45 


4 9 




45 


9 9 




45 


4 7 




6 


14 9 




6 


4 7 


N.E. 


6 


9 3 




6 


S S 




15 


14 




15 


4 3 




15 


8 10 




IS 


6 




30 


13 3 




30 


3 II 




30 


8 5 




30 


6 6 




45 


12 6 




45 


3 8 




45 


8 




45 


6 10 




7 


II II 




7 


3 6 




7 ° 


7 7 




7 ° 


6 8 


N.W. 


15 


II 3 




15 


3 4 




15 


7 3 




IS 


6 5 




30 


10 8 




30 


3 3 




3° 


6 II 




30 


6 




45 


10 I 




45 


3 2 




45 


6 8 




45 


5 8 




8 


9 8 




8 


3 




8 


6 4 




8 


5 4 




15 


9 3 




15 


2 10 




15 


6 I 




IS 


5 ° 




30 


8 II 




30 


2 8 




30 


5 10 




30 


4 9 




45 


8 10 




45 


2 6 




45 


5 7 




45 


4 6 




9 


8 9 




9 " 


2 4 




9 


5 4 




9 ° 


4 3 




15 


8 II 




15 


2 2 




IS 


5 I 




IS 


4 




30 


9 6 




30 


2 I 




30 


4 II 




30 


3 9 




45 


10 




45 


2 




45 


4 9 




45 


3 6 




10 


10 9 




10 


2 




10 


4 6 




10 


3 4 


N.W. 


15 


II 8 




15 


2 




IS 


4 4 




15 


3 3 




30 


12 7 




30 


I 9i 




30 


4 I 




30 


3 I 




45 


13 6 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 11 




45 


3 




u 


14 4 




II 


I 7 




ri 


3 9 




II 


2 11 




15 


15 4 




15 


I 6 




15 


3 7 




IS 


2 10 




30 


16 3 




30 


I 5 




30 


3 5 




30 


2 9 




45 A.M. 


17 2 




45 A.M. 


I 4 




45 A.M. 


3 3 




45 A.M. 


2 7 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



177 



May 31.— 1864. 



.Hull. 


Gaiksboeough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabukn Lock. 




Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 




h 111 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 






Noon. 


18 J 




Noon. 


I 3i 


N. 


Noon. 


3 I 


N.N.W. 


Noon. 


2 6 






12 15P.M 


19 2 




12 I5P.M 


I i^ 




12 15P.M 


2 II 


E.S.E. 


12 15P.M 


2 5 






30 


20 1 




3-3 


I 0^ 




30 


2 9 


»j 


30 


2 4 






45 


20 u 




45 


I 




45 


2 II 


)) 


45 


2 3 






I 


21 7 




1 


10^ 




I 


3. 1° 


J) 


1 


2 2 


N.E. 




15 


22 3 




15 


9^ 




15 


4 II 


)) 


15 


2 I 






30 


22 10 




30 


8" 




30 


6 8 


)} 


30 


2 






45 


23 5 




45 


7i 




45 


7 II 


jj 


45 


1 II 






2 


23 9 




2 


6 




2 


9 


Jj 


2 


I 10 






15 


24 




15 


5i 




15 


10 7 


>! 


15 


I 10 






30 


24 3 




30 


4 




30 


II 8 


)) 


30 


I 9 






45 


24 4 




45 


3 




45 


12 10 


J) 


45 


I 9 






3 


24 2 




3 


H 




3 


13 2 


tJ 


3 


1 8 






15 


23 9 




15 


I 9 




15 


13 8 


)J 


15 


I 7 






30 


23 3 




30 


2 3 




30 


14 


J» 


30 


1 7 






45 


22 9 




45 


3 °i 




45 


14 3 


»J 


45 


I 6 


S.E. 




4 


22 2 




4 


3 10 




4 


14 6 


)» 


4 


1 6 






'5 


21 6 




15 


4 7 




15 


14 7 


S.E. 


15 


2 2 






30 


20 9 




30 


5 2 




30 


14 3 


J» 


30 


3 ° 






45 


19 II 




45 


5 6 




45 


13 7 


)» 


45 


3 9 






5 


19 




5 


5 II 




5 


13 I 


J) 


5 ° 


4 9 






15 


17 II 




15 


6 2i 




IS 


12 5 


>» 


15 


5 8 






30 


17 I 




30 


6 44 




30 


II 9 


)» 


30 


6 6 






,^5 


16 4 




45 


6 6 




45 


II 1 


)) 


45 


7 6 






6 


IS 6 




6 


6 2 




6 


10 6 


n 


6 


8 3 






15 


14 9 




15 


5 9 




15 


10 


Jj 


15 


8 6 






30 


13 11 




30 


5 3 




30 


9 7 


)) 


30 


8 II 






45 


13 3 




45 


4 10 




45 


9 3 


)) 


45 


8 8 






7 


12 6 




7 


4 74 




7 


8 10 


JJ 


7 


8 2 


S.E. 




15 


11 9 




15 


4 6 




15 


8 6 


J) 


15 


7 8 






30 


11 I 




30 


4 34 




30 


8 2 


JJ 


30 


7 I 






45 


10 5 




0+5 


4 a 




45 


7 10 


JJ 


45 


6 7 






8 


9 10 




8 


4 




8 


7 6 


JJ 


8 


6 3 






15 


9 2 




15 


3 II 




15 


7 2 


JJ 


15 


5 II 






30 


8 5 




30 


3 8 




30 


6 10 


JJ 


30 


5 8 






45 


8 2 




45 


3 6| 




45 


6 7 


JJ 


45 


5 5 






9 


7 10 




9 


3 5 




9 ° 


6 3 


JJ 


9 


5 2 






J5 


7 7 




15 


3 34 




15 


6 


J) 


15 


4 II S.E. 1 




30 


7 5 




30 


3 2 




30 


5 9 


JJ 


30 


4 8 






45 


7 4 




45 


3 




45 


5 6 


JJ 


45 


4 5 






10 


7 6 




10 


2 104 




10 


5 3 


JJ 


10 


4 3 






15 


7 II 




15 


2 9 




15 


5 I 


J> 


15 


4 I 






30 


8 5 




30 


2 74 




30 


4 10 


JJ 


30 


3 11 






45 


9 i 




45 


z 6 




45 


4' 8 


JJ 


45 


3 9 






1 1 


9 'i 




II 


i 5 




11 


4 5 


JJ 


II 


3 7 






15 


10 8 




15 


2 4 




15 


4 3 


JJ 


15 


3 5 






30 


II 7 




30 


i 3 




30 


4 I 


JJ 


30 


3 3 


S.E. 




45 P.M. 


12 6 




45 P.M. 


2 I 




45 P.M. 


3 II 


JJ 


45 P.M. 


3 2 







1864. 



K 



178 



REPORT 1864. 



June 1.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




la OA.M. 


13 8 




12 OA.M. 


2 


W. 


12 OA.M. 


3 9 


S.E. 


12 OA.M. 


3 I 




15 


14 6 




15 


I 10^ 




15 


3 7 


s. 


IS 


3 




3° 


IS 7 




30 


I 9 




30 


3 5 


)] 


30 


a 10 




45 


16 7 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 4 


»J 


45 


2 9 




I 


17 6 




I 


I 7 




I 


3 3 


}) 


I 


a 8 


S.E. 


IS 


18 4 




IS 


1 6 




15 


3 2 


»f 


15 


a 7 




3° 


19 a 




30 


I 44 




30 


3 


>) 


30 


* 5 




45 


ao 3 




45 


I 3 




45 


2 10 


)» 


45 


2 4 




2 O 


20 9 




2 


I 2 




2 


2 II 


)» 


2 


2 3 




15 


21 5 




IS 


I 02 




IS 


3 3 


J» 


15 


2 I 




30 


21 II 




30 


II 




30 


5 


)) 


30 


I II 




45 


22 5 




45 


10 




45 


6 8 


)» 


45 


I 10 




3 


22 8 




3 


9 




3 


8 3 


J) 


3 


I 9 




15 


22 10 




15 


8 




15 


9 6 


»> 


15 


I 8 




30 


22 11 




30 


7 




30 


10 4 


n 


30 


I 7 




45 


23 




45 


6 




45 


II 2 


» 


45 


I 6 




4 


23 10 




4 


S 




4 


II 11 


» 


4 


I 6 


Calm. 


15 


22 8 




IS 


44 




IS 


12 3 


n 


15 


I 6 




30 


22 4 




30 


3 




30 


12 8 


n 


30 


I 6 




45 


21 10 




45 


a S 


N.W. 


45 


12 II 


N.W. 


45 


I 6 




5 


21 3 




5 


3 3 




5 


13 I 


)) 


5 ° 


I 5 




15 


20 7 




IS 


3 8 




15 


13 I 


>» 


15 


I 5 




3° 


19 10 




30 


* i 




30 


12 9 


J» 


30 


I 5 




45 


19 




45 


4 8 




.'^5 


12 I 


>» 


45 


2 9 




6 


18 3 




6 


4 II 


N.W 


6 


II 8 


J> 


6 


3 8 




15 


17 3 




15 


5 2 




15 


11 I 


)> 


IS 


4 6 




30 


16 5 




30 


5 3 




30 


10 6 


»> 


30 


5 3 




45 


IS 7 




45 


5 3 




45 


9 10 


i» 


45 


6 1 




7 


14 8 




7 


4 II 




7 


9 5 


>» 


7 


6 8 




15 


13 II 




IS 


4 7 




15 


9 ° 


)? 


15 


7 1 


s.w. 


30 


13 




30 


4 3 




30 


8 7 


J) 


30 


7 6 




45 


12 3 




45 


4 ° 




„+5 
8 


8 2 


jt 


45 


7 6 




8 


II 5 




8 


3 10 




7 9 


?» 


8 


7 2 




15 


10 9 




15 


3 9 




15 


7 5 


i» 


15 


6 8 




30 


10 I 




30 


3 8 




30 


7 I 


>» 


3° 


6 I 




45 


9 5 




45 


3 6 




45 


6 10 


»i 


45 


5 10 




9 


9 




9 


3 5 




9 


6 6 


j» 


9 ° 


S 6 


w. 


15 


8 6 




IS 


3 3, 




15 


6 3 


j» 


IS 


S I 




30 


8 2 




30 


3 i4 




3° 


6 


n 


30 


4 IC 




45 


7 10 




45 


3 




45 


5 9 


»» 


45 


4 7 




10 


7 8 




10 


2 105 




10 


5 6 


)) 


10 


4 4 




15 


I 9 




15 


2 .9 




15 


5 3 


»» 


15 


4 2 




30 


8 




30 


2 6 




30 


5 c 


»j 


30 


4 




45 


8 8 




45 


2 4i 




45 


4 10 


>> 


45 


3 10 


w. 


II 


9 4 




II 


1 3 




II 


4 7 


J) 


II 


3 8 




15 


10 2 




15 


2 i^ 




15 


4 5 


j» 


15 


3 6 




30 


11 I 




30 


2 




30 


4 2 


i> 


30 


3 4 




4SA.M. 


II II 




45 A.M. 


I lof 




45 A.M. 


4 


II 


45 A.M. 


3 2 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS, 



179 



June 1.— 1864. 



Hull. 


1! 
Gainsbokougii. !' GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noou. 


12 8 




Noon. \ 


I gi 




Noon. 


3 10 


N.W. 


Noon. 


3 




12 i5r.M. 


13 10 




12 I 5 P.M. 


I H 




12 15 P.M. 


3 8 


» 


12 I 5 P.M. 


2 11 




30 


14 10 




30 


I 7 




30 


3 6 


j» 


30 


2 10 




45 


16 




45 


I 6 




45 


3 4 


f> 


45 


* I 


w. 


I 


17 




I 


I 44 




I 


3 a 


>» 


I 


2 8 




IS 


i8 1 




15 


I 4 




15 


3 


• .. 


IS 


2 7 




30 


18 11 




30 


I 2f 




30 


2 10 


» 


30 


2 6 




45 


20 




45 


I of 




45 


2 9 


j> 


45 


2 5 




2 


20 10 




2 


I 


w. 


2 


2 8 


jj 


2 


2 4 




15 


21 7 




15 


io| 




15 


3 ° 


)) 


15 


2 3 


w. 


30 


22 2 




30 


10 




30 


4 8 


»> 


30 


2 2 




45 


22 8 




45 


9 




45 


5 10 


j» 


45 


2 I 




3 


23 2 




3 ° 


8i 




3 


7 6 


)> 


3 


2 




'5 


-3 S 




15 


7i 




15 


8 II 


ji 


15 


I 10 




30 


23 7 




30 


6 




30 


10 3 


« 


30 


' % 


w. 


45 


23 8 




45 


° 5 




45 


II 7 


)) 


45 


I 8 




4 


23 7 




4 ° 


4 




4 ° 


12 2 


JI 


4 


I 7 




15 


23 5 




15 


35 




15 


12 10 


fi 


15 


I 7 




30 


22 II 




30 


3i 




30 


13 3 


)9 


30 


1 7 




45 


22 5 




45 


2 6 




45 


13 8 


1) 


45 


I 7 




5 


21 8 




5 


3 6 




5 


15 10 


)} 


S 


1 6 




15 


21 




IS 


4 oi 




15 


13 11 


II 


15 


I 5 




30 . 


20 4 




30 


4 7 




3° 


13 8 


19 


30 


I 5 




45 


19 6 




45 


S 




45 


13 2 


II 


45 


2 4 




6 


18 9 




6 


5 44 


N.W. 


6 


12 7 


II 


6 


3 6 




15 


17 10 




15 


1 '* 




15 


12 


II 


IS 


4 3 




30 


16 II 




30 


6 




30 


II S 


?> 


30 


5 ° 


w. 


45 


16 I 




45 


6 oj 




45 


10 9 


II 


45 


S II 




7 


15 2 




7 


5 II 




7 


10 I 


II 


7 


6 10 




15 


14 3 




15 


5 6 




15 


9 8 


11 


15 


7 6 




30 


.3 6 




30 


5 




30 


9 3 


II 


30 


7 II 




J^ 


12 8 




45 


4 7h 




45 


8 9 


11 


45 


8 I 




8 


II II 




8 


4 4 




8 


8 4 


II 


8 


7 10 




15 


II I 




15 


4 2 




15 


8 c 


JI 


15 


7 3 


w. 


30 


lo 4 




30 


4 05 




30 


7 9 


J) 


30 


6 9 




45 


9 8 




45 


3 104 




45 


7 5 


11 


45 


6 3 




9 


9 ° 




9 


^ § 




9 ° 


7 1 


JI 


9 


5 II 




15 


8 4 




15 


3 8 




15 


6 10 


II 


15 


5 7 




30 


7 9 




30 


3 6 




30 


6 7 


IJ 


3° 


5 3 


Calm. 


45 


7 3 




45 


3 4 




45 


6 4 


JI 


45 


S ° 




10 


6 10 




10 


3 24 




10 


6 I 


i| 


10 


4 9 




15 


6 6 




15 


3 0-1 




IS 


5 10 


»J 


15 


4 6 




30 


^ 3 




30 


2 II 




30 


5 7 


J' 


30 


4 3 




45 


6 3 




45 


2 9-2- 




45 


5 4 


JJ 


45 


4 




II 


6 7 




II 


2 8 




II 


5 I 


JJ 


II 


3 10 




IS 


7 1 




15 


2 6 




15 


4 10 


JI 


IS 


3 8 




30 


7 10 




30 


^. 5 




30 


4 8 


II 


30 


3 6 


Calm. 


45 P.M. 


8 9] 


45 P.M. 


2 34 


45 P.M. 


4 S 


II 


45 P.M. 


3 4 





it2 



180 



REPORT 1864'. 



June 2.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


9 8 




12 OA.M. 


2 2 


N. 


12 OA.M. 


4 3 


N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


3 3 




IS 


10 6 




15 


2 0^ 




15 


4 


)» 


15 


3 I 




30 


II 9 




30 


I 11 




30 


3 10 


jj 


30 


2 11 




45 


12 9 




45 


I 9h 




45 


3 8 


)) 


45 


2 9 




I 


13 9 




I 


I 8 




I 


3 6 


)) 


I 


2 8 


Calm. 


IS 


14 10 




IS 


' \ 




15 


3 4 


" 


IS 


2 6 




30 


IS II 




30 


I 5l 




30 


3 2 


" 


30 


2 5 




4S 


17 




45 


I 44 




45 


3 


J) 


45 


2 4 




2 


18 




2 


I 2| 




2 


2 II 


>) 


2 


2 3 




15 


19 I 




IS 


I I5 




15 


2 10 


J) 


IS 


2 2 




30 


20 




30 


I 




30 


2 9 


»» 


30 


2 I 




45 


21 




45 


II 




45 


2 8 


jj 


45 


2 




3 


21 9 




3 ° 


10 




3 


3 c 


)) 


3 


I 11 




15 


22 5 




IS 


9 




15 


4 8 


jj 


15 


I 10 




30 


22 11 




30 


8 




30 


6 6 


)? 


30 


I 9 




45 


23 4 




45 


7 




45 


8 6 


») 


45 


1 8 




4 


23 7 




4 


6 




4 ° 


9 9 


)j 


4 ° 


I 7 




15 


23 10 




15 


5 




15 


II 2 


») 


15 


I 7 




30 


23 II 




30 


4 




30 


12 I 


i» 


30 


1 7 




45 


23 II 




45 


3 




45 


12 9 


)) 


45 


1 6 




5 


23 8 




5 


3 




5 


13 5 


>» 


5 


I 6 




IS 


23 4 




15 


I 10 




15 


13 10 


)? 


15 


I 6 




30 


22 10 




30 


3 3 




30 


14 I 


J) 


30 


I 5 




45 


22 2 




.^^5 


4 




45 


14 3 


)» 


45 


I 5 




6 


21 7 




6 


4 6 


N. 


6 


14 4 


») 


6 


I 5 


N.W. 


IS 


20 10 




15 


5 3 




15 


14 3 


N.E. 


IS 


I 5 




30 


20 I 




30 


5 7 




30 


13 10 


jj 


30 


2 6 




45 


19 4 




45 


5 11 




45 


13 2 


jj 


45 


3 5 




7 ° 


18 s 




7 


6 3 




7 


12 5 


jj 


7 ° 


4 9 




IS 


17 6 




15 


6 5 




\ '5 


II 9 


»» 


15 


5 9 




30 


16 8 




30 


6 6 




1 30 


II I 


>) 


30 


6 8 




45 


IS 7 




n'^5 


6 3 




1 45 


10 7 


E.N.E. 


45 


7 6 




8 


14 9 




8 


5 II 


E. 


8 


10 1 


)i 


8 


8 


E. 


15 


13 10 




IS 


5 3 




IS 


9 7 


»j 


IS 


8 6 




30 


13 




30 


4 II 




30 


9 2 


)» 


30 


8 6 




45 


12 3 




45 


4 9 




45 


8 9 


)) 


45 


8 2 




9 


II 6 




9 


4 5 




9 


8 5 


11 


9 ° 


7 8 




IS 


10 9 




15 


4 3 




15 


8 I 


a 


15 


7 3 




30 


10 I 




30 


4 2 




30 


7 9 


)» 


30 


6 9 


N.E. 


45 


9 5 




45 


4 ° 




45 


7 5 


>j 


45 


6 3 




10 


8 10 




10 


3 11 




lO 


7 I 


?J 


10 


5 10 




IS 


8 3 




15 


3 9, 




15 


6 10 


J» 


15 


5 7 




30 


7 10 




30 


3 6^ 




30 


6 6 


)> 


30 


5 4 




45 


7 5 




45 


3 44 




45 


6 2 


)J 


45 


S 1 




II 


7 3 




II 


3 3 




II 


5 II 


>» 


II 


4 10 




15 


7 2 




IS 


3 2 




15 


5 8 


J> 


15 


4 7 


E. 


30 


7 5 




30 


3 ° 




30 


5, 5 


)) 


30 


4 5 




45 A.M. 


8 




45 A.M. 


2 loj 




45 A.M. 


5 2 


31 


45 A.M. 


4 2 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



181 



June 2.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLB. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


8 10 




Noon. 


2 9 


E. 


Noon. 


4 II 


E.N.E. 


Noon. 


4 




12 15P.M 


9 10 




12 15 P.M 


2 7i 




12 15 PM 


4 9 


E. 


12 I5P-5I 


3 10 




30 


10 11 




30 


2 6 




30 


4 6 


>» 


30 


3 8 




4S 


II II 




45 


2 45 




45 


4 4 


M 


45 


3 6 




I 


12 II 




I 


'^ ^ 




I 


4 2 


)) 


I 


3 4 




15 


14 




15 


2 li 




15 


4 


E.S.E. 


15 


3 2 




30 


IS 2 




30 


I 11^ 




3° 


3 10 


jj 


30 


3 1 




45 


16 3 




45 


I 10 




45 


3 8 


M 


45 


3 


E. 


2 


17 2 




2 


I 9 




2 


3 6 


'» 


2 


2 10 




IS 


18 3 




15 


1 8 




15 


3 4 


n 


15 


2 9 




30 


19 6 




3° 


1 6| 




30 


3 2 


H 


30 


2 8 




45 


20 7 




45 


I 5, 




45 


3 


)» 


45 


2 7 




3 


20 6 




3 


I 34 




3 


2 10 


'» 


3 ° 


2 6 




'5 


22 6 




15 


I 2 




15 


3 ? 


)» 


IS 


2 5 


E. 


30 


^3 3 




30 


I I 




3° 


5 6 


)» 


• 30 


2 4 




45 


23 10 




45 


I o\ 




45 


7 6 


J» 


45 


2 3 




4 


24 2 




4 


I 




4 ° 


9 4 


), 


4 ° 


2 I 




»5 


24 5 




15 


lof 




IS 


10 10 


J» 


15 


2 




30 


24 8 




30 


9^ 




30 


12 2 


?) 


30 


I II 




45 


24 10 




45 


8i 




45 


13 6 


n 


45 


I 10 




5 


24 10 


■ 


5 


7^- 




5 ° 


14 2 


)) 


5 ° 


1 10 


E. 


15 


24 5 




IS 


6J 




15 


14 8 


)j 


IS 


I 10 




3° 


23 II 




30 


3 3 




30 


15 2 


jj 


30 


I 9 




.^^5 


23 2 




45 


4 5 




45 


15 4 


n 


45 


I 8 




6 


22 6 




6 


5 


E. 


6 


15 5 


t) 


6 


I 8 




15 


21 9 




IS 


5 9^ 




15 


IS 5 


)» 


IS 


I 7 




30 


21 




30 


6 3 




30 


IS I 


)» 


30 


2 II 




45 


20 I 




45 


6 7 




45 


14 6 


»» 


45 


3 11 




7 


19 4 




7 


7 




7 


13 9 


n 


7 


5 


E. 


15 


18 5 




15 


7 4i 




15 


13 


)) 


15 


6 4 




30 


17 6 




30 


7 5 




30 


12 4 


>» 


30 


7 6 




o'^5 


16 6 




.,45 


7 \\ 




45 


11 7 


rj 


45 


8 4 




8 


IS 6 




8 


6 95 




8 


II 


jj 


8 


9 




15 


•4 7 




15 


6 3 




15 


lo 6 


j» 


15 


9 6 




30 


13 9 




30 


5 n 




30 


lO I 


)J 


30 


9 8 




45 


12 10 




45 


5 4 




45 


9 7 


J) 


45 


9 4 




9 


12 2 




9 


5 I 




9 ° 


9 3 


)) 


9 


8 9 


Calm. 


'5 


II 4 




15 


4 10 




15 


8 II 


jj 


15 


8 2 




30 


10 7 




30 


4 8 




30 


8 6 


J» 


30 


7 6 




45 


9 10 




45 


4 64 




45 


8 2 


J) 


45 


7 




10 


9 a 




10 


4 44 




10 


7 10 


») 


10 


6 7 




'5 


8 7 


1 


15 


4 2i 




15 


7 7 


)> 


15 


6 3 




30 


7 11 




30 


4 I 




30 


7 3 


>) 


30 


6 c 




45 


7 5 




45 


3 II 




45 


7 


3» 


45 


5 9 




II 


7 ° 




II 


3 84 




II 


6 8 


)) 


11 


5 6 


Calm. 


15 


6 8 




15 


3 7 




IS 


6 5 


)» 


15 


5 3 




30 


6 6 




30 


3 6 




30 


6 I 


J, 


30 


5 c 




45 P.M. 


6 7 




45 P.M. 


3 4 




45 P.M. 


5 10 


I» 


4S P.M. 


4 9 





183 



REl'OKT 1864. 



June 3.— 1864, 



Hull. 


Gainsboeough. 


GOOLB. 


Nabc 


as Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




li m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


7 




12 OA.M. 


3 2 


E. 


12 OA.M. 


5 7 


E.8.E. 


12 OA.M. 


4 6 




15 


7 8 




IS 


3 




15 


5 4 


»» 


IS 


4 4 




30 


8 6 




30 


2 10 




3C 


S a 


)) 


30 


4 2 




45 


9 5 




4S 


2 8 




45 


5 


)» 


45 


4 




1 


10 5 




I 


2 6 




I 


4 10 


■)) 


I 


3 10 


Calm. 


IS 


II 6 




IS 


2 4i 




15 


4 7 


j; 


15 


3 8 




30 


la 6 




30 


2 3 




30 


4 4 


)) 


30 


3 6 




45 


13 8 




45 


2 I* 




45 


4 2 


)' 


45 


3 4 




z 


14 7 




2 


2 




2 


4 


J) 


2 


3 2 




IS 


15 9 




IS 


I loj 




IS 


3 10 


'J 


IS 


3 ° 




30 


16 10 




30 


I 9 




30 


3 8 


)) 


30 


2 10 




45 


17 10 




45 


I 1\ 




45 


3 6 


3) 


45 


2 8 




3 


19 




3 


I 6 




3 


3 4 


J> 


3 


2 7 




IS 


20 2 




15 


I 5 




15 


3 2 


3» 


IS 


2 6 




30 


21 2 




30 


I 4 




30 


3 


>) 


30 


2 S 




45 


22 I 




45 


I 3 




45 


3 2 


)? 


45 


2 4 




4 


22 9 




4 


I 2 




4 


4 8 


)' 


4 ° 


2 3 




15 


23 4 




15 


I I 




15 


6 9 


)» 


15 


2 2 




30 


23 9 




30 


I 




30 


8 8 


)' 


30 


2 I 




45 


24 I 




45 


II 




45 


10 2 


»» 


45 


2 




S 


24 4 




S 


10 




5 


II 7 


J» 


S ° 


I 11 




15 


^4 5 




IS 


9 




IS 


12 9 


)» 


15 


I 10 




30 


24 5 




30 


8 




30 


13 8 


)) 


30 


I 9 




r^^ 


24 2 




."^5 


7 




45 


14 2 


») 


45 


I 8 




6 


23 9 




6 


2 


E. 


6 


14 7 


J) 


6 


I 7 




IS 


23 2 




15 


4 




IS 


14 9 


S.E. 


15 


I 6 




30 


22 6 




30 


4 8 




30 


14 II 


>) 


30 


I 6 




45 


21 10 




45 


5 7 




45 


14 II 


»» 


45 


1 5 




7 


21 I 




7 


5 10 




7 


14 9 


)? 


7 ° 


I 5 


E. 


IS 


20 3 




15 


^ ? 




15 


'4 3 


s. 


15 


3 I 




30 


19 4 




30 


6 6 




30 


13 5 


») 


30 


4 




5^5 


18 6 




0'^^ 


6 9 




45 


12 7 


)J 


45 


5 4 




8 


17 6 




8 


7 




8 


12 


}I 


8 


6 6 




IS 


16 5 




15 


7 




15 


II 4 


>> 


IS 


7 6 




30 


IS 6 




30 


6 6 




3° 


10 8 


)» 


30 


8 3 




45 


14 7 




45 


6 2 




45 


10 2 


)J 


45 


8 10 




9 


13 9 




9 


S 7 




9 " 


9 9 


)> 


9 


9 I 




IS 


12 10 




IS 


5 3 




IS 


9 3 


>» 


15 


9 




30 


12 




30 


4 II 




30 


8 10 


S.S.E. 


30 


8 6 




45 


11 2 




4S 


4 9 




45 


8 6 


)» 


45 


7 10 




10 


10 5 




10 


4 7 


K.E. 


10 


8 2 


>t 


10 


7 5 


N.W. 


IS 


9 8 




IS 


4 Si 




IS 


7 lo 


r. 


15 


6 9 




30 


8 II 




30 


4 3 




30 


7 6 


)' 


30 


6 3 




45 


8 2 




45 


4 I 




45 


7 2 


»J 


45 


5 10 




II 


7 7 




11 


3 11 


S. 


II 


6 10 


)i 


II 


5 6 




15 


7 I 




IS 


3 9 




IS 


6 6 


)» 


15 


5 3 




30 


6 8 




30 


3 7 




30 


6 3 


J) 


30 


S 




45 A.M. 


6 5 




45A.M 


3 Si 




45 A.M. 


6 


jj 


45 A.M. 


4 10 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



183 



June 3.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


W 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




!Xoon. 


6 3 




Noon. 


3 3i 




Noon. 


5 9 


S..S.E. 


Noon. 


4 7 




12 15 P.M. 


6 6 




12 I 5 P.M. 


3 14 




12 15 P.M. 


5 6 


E.S.E. 


12 I 5 P.M. 


4 5 




3° 


7 




30 


3 




30 


S 3 


it 


30 


4 3 




45 


7 10 




45 


2 io| 




45 


5 


ii 


45 


4 




I 


8 10 




I 


2 9 




I 


4 9 


)} 


I 


3 9 


E. 


15 


9 10 




15 


2 7 




15 


4 6 


»» 


15 


3 6 




30 


II 




30 


2 5 




30 


4 4 


)i 


30 


3 4 




45 


12 2 




45 


2 3 




45 


4 2 


)i 


45 


3 3 




2 


13 3 




2 


2 li 




2 


4 


J) 


2 


3 2 




15 


14 4 




15 


2 0^ 




IS 


3 10 


)» 


15 


3 1 




30 


15 6 




30 


I 11 




30 


3 8 


M 


30 


3 




45 


16 8 




45 


I 10 




45 


3 6 


Tl 


45 


2 II 




3 


17 II 




3 


I 8 




3 


3 4 


)) 


3 ° 


2 10 




15 


19 2 




IS 


I 74 


N. 


15 


3 2 


II 


15 


2 8 




30 


20 4 




30 


' 7, 




30 


3 


II 


30 


2 7 




45 


21 5 




45 


I H 




45 


2 II 


11 


45 


2 6 




4 


22 3 




4 


I 4^ 




4 


2 10 


II 


4 


2 5 


E. 


15 


23 1 




IS 


I 3 




15 


3 II 


II 


15 


2 4 




30 


23 9 




3° 


I 2 




30 


6 7 


II 


30 


2 3 




45 


^4 3 




45 


I I 




45 


8 5 


II 


45 


2 2 




5 


24 7 




5 ° 


I 




5 ° 


9 10 


11 


5 ° 


2 




15 


24 10 




15 


I 0-1 




15 


II 8 


II 


15 


1 10 




30 


24 II 




30 


10 




30 


12 II 


11 


30 


I 9 




<:'^5 


25 




45 


9 




45 


13 10 


II 


45 


I 8 




6 


24 10 




6 


8^ 


N.E. 


6 


14 7 


11 


6 


I 6 




15 


24 4 




15 


3 




IS 


IS 1 


11 


IS 


I 6 




30 


23 9 




30 


4 




30 


15 5 


II 


30 


I 5 




45 


23 1 




45 


5 * 




45 


IS 7 


11 


45 


I 5 




7 


22 4 




7 


5 10 




7 


IS 7 


II 


7 


I 5 




15 


21 6 




15 


6 3 




IS 


15 6 


11 


15 


I 5 




30 


20 8 




30 


6 9 




30 


15 


E. 


30 


3 3 




o'^^ 


19 8 




45 


7 0^ 




45 


14 3 


11 


45 


4 6 




8 


18 11 




8 


7 42 




8 


13 7 


11 


8 


S 6 




15 


17 11 




15 


7 6J 




IS 


12 8 


II 


15 


7 




30 


17 




30 


7 6 




30 


12 


II 


30 


8 I 




45 


IS II 




45 


7 




45 


II 4 


II 


45 


8 II 




9 . 


15 I 




9 ° 


6 8 




9 


10 9 


11 


9 


9 7 


Calm. 


15 


14 1 




15 


6 




IS 


10 3 


II 


15 


9 10 




30 


13 3 




3° 


5 8 




30 


9 10 


II 


30 


9 7 




45 


12 5 




45 


5 4^ 




45 


9 S 


II 


45 


9 ° 




10 


II 7 




10 


5 0^ 




10 


9 ° 


II 


10 


8 4 




15 


10 9 




15 


4 102 




IS 


8 8 


II 


15 


7 9 




30 


10 




30 


4 9 




30 


8 4 


II 


30 


7 2 




45 


9 2 




45 


4 7 




45 


8 


II 


45 


6 9 




II 


8 6 




II 


4 S 




II 


7 8 


11 


II 


6 4 




IS 


7 io 




15 


4 iJ 




IS 


7 4 


II 


15 


6 




30 


7 3 




30 


4 oj 




30 


7 I 


11 


30 


^ ? 


Calm. 


4S P.M. 


6 9 




45 P.M. 


3 104 




45 P.M. 


6 9 


II 


45 P.M. 


5 6 





184 



REPORT — 186i. 



June 4.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




I a oA.M. 


6 4 




I a oA.M. 


3 n 


N.E. 


12 OA.M. 


6 6 


E. 


12 OA.M. 


5 3 




15 


6 ^ 




IS 


3 6 




IS 


6 2 


N.W. 


IS 


5 




30 


6 I 




30 


3 3^ 




30 


5 10 


J» 


30 


4 9 




45 


6 5 




45 


3 I* 




45 


5 7 


)) 


45 


4 7 




I 


7 1 




I 


2 iii 




I 


5 4 


jj 


I 


4 5 


Calm. 


15 


8 




15 


2 10 




15 


5 I 


)> 


15 


4 3 




30 


9 ° 




30 


2 8^ 




30 


4 II 


J) 


3° 


4 1 




45 


10 2 




45 


2 7 




45 


4 9 


>j 


45 


3 II 




a 


II 2 




2 


2 5i 




2 


4 6 


»j 


2 


3 9 




15 


12 3 




15 


a 4i 




IS 


4 4 


»> 


IS 


3 7 




30 


13 5 




30 


2 3 




30 


4 2 


)) 


30 


3 5 




45 


14 7 




45 


2 li 




45 


4 


)> 


45 


3 3 




3 


15 9 




3 


2 




3 


3 10 


W.N.W. 


3 ° 


3 1 




15 


16 II 




15 


I io4 




15 


3 8 


J) 


IS 


2 11 




30 


18 I 




30 


I 9 




30 


3 6 


>) 


30 


2 9 




45 


19 4 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 4 


)) 


45 


a 7 




4 


20 6 




4 ° 


I 7 




4 


3 2 


)» 


4 


2 5 




IS 


21 6 




15 


I S\ 




IS 


3 


5) 


IS 


2 4 




30 


22 s 




30 


I 4i 




30 


3 2 


)) 


30 


2 3 




45 


23 2 




45 


I 3i 




45 


4 9 


}f 


45 


2 2 




5 


23 8 




5 


I 2i 




5 


6 II 


)) 


5 


2 I 




15 


24 2 




^^ 


1 li 




IS 


8 10 


AV. 


IS 


2 




30 


24 6 




30 


I oi 




30 


10 10 


5» 


30 


I II 




45 


24 9 




45 


I 




45 


12 2 


J» 


45 


I 10 




6 


24 10 




6 


II 


N.E. 


6 


13 2 


!) 


6 


I 10 




15 


24 10 




15 


10 




15 


14 


s.w. 


15 


I 9 




30 


24 6 




30 


10 




30 


14 7 


>) 


30 


I 8 




45 


23 II 




4^ 


3 6 




45 


15 


5) 


45 


I 7 




7 


13 5 




7 ° 


4 3 




7 


15 3 


JJ 


7 


I 6 




IS 


22 8 




IS 


5 3 




IS 


IS S 


)J 


15 


I 6 




30 


21 11 




30 


6 




30 


IS 5 


J) 


30 


I 5 




45 


21 I 




45 


6 5 




45 


IS 1 


!» 


45 


2 4 




8 


20 3 




8 


6 9 




8 


14 6 


w.s.w. 


8 


3 10 




15 


19 4 




15 


7 2 




IS 


13 8 


)} 


IS 


5 




30 


18 5 




30 


7 3 




30 


12 10 


)) 


30 


6 I 




45 


17 6 




45 


7 5 




45 


12 


J» 


45 


7 3 


w. 


9 ° 


16 6 




9 


7 1 




9 ° 


II 4 


)» 


9 


8 2 




15 


15 5 




15 


6 5 




15 


10 10 


)> 


15 


8 II 




30 


14 6 
13 6 




30 


6 I 




30 


10 3 


)» 


30 


9 4 




45 




45 


5 9 




45 


9 9 


TV. 


45 


9 6 




10 


12 9 




10 


5 4 




10 


9 4 


)) 


10 


9 7 




15 


II 10 




15 


5 0^ 




IS 


8 II 


)» 


15 


9 2 




30 


II 




30 


4 II 




30 


8 6 


u 


30 


8 I 




45 


10 2 




45 


4 9 




45 


S 2 


W.N.W. 


45 


7 7 




II 


9 5 




II 


4 6^ 




II 


7 10 


»j 


II 


6 II 




15 


8 8 


1 


15 


4 5 




15 


7 6 


)) 


15 


6 5 




30 


8 




30 


4 3 




30 


7 3 


)) 


30 


6 




45A.JI. 


7 4 


45 A.M. 


4 I 


1 


45 A.M. 


6 II 


» 


45 A.M. 


5 9 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



185 



I 



June 4.— 1864. 





Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 




Time. 


Tide 


. Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


. Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


.Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 




h in 
Noon. 


ft. iu 
6 


9 


h m 

Noon. 


ft. in 
3 10 




h m 
Noon. 


ft. in 
6 


5 w.N.w. 


h m 
Noon. 


ft. in. 
5 6 




12 15 r.M 


. 6 


I 


12 15P.M 


■3 9 




12 15 p.ij 


. 6 4 s.w. 


12 15 P.M 


■J 

■ 5 ' 






30 


5 i< 


3 


30 


3 7 


W.N.W. 


30 


6 „ 


30 

45 
I 


5 o\ 1 




45 
I 


5 ! 

5 i 

6 2 


3 

5 


45 
I 


3 4- 
3 3- 


1 
1 

s 


45 
I 


5 9 „ 
5 6 „ 


4 S 
4 ( 


w. 




IS 




15 


3 1' 


s 


15 


5 3 ., 


15 


4 3 






30 
45 


7 <■ 

8 c 


3 

> 


30 
45 


3 
2 9, 


' 


30 
45 


50,, 
4 9.. 


30 
45 


4 3 

3 IC 






2 


9 J 




2 


2 8 




2 


4 f 


„ 


2 


3 8 






15 


10 3 




15 


2 7 




15 


4 4I .. 


IS 

30 
45 


3 € 






30 
45 


11 ( 

12 8 




30 

45 


2 6 

2 4^ 




30 
45 


4 2 
4 c 


J) 


3 4 
3 2 


w. 




3 


13 ic 




3 


2 3 




3 


3 IC 


>. 


3 ° 
15 


3 1 






15 


15 1 

16 3 




IS 


2 li 




15 


3 8 


)J 


3 
2 11 






30 




30 


2 




30 


3 6 


>) 


30 






45 


17 7 

18 9 




45 


I lOi 




45 


3 4 


JJ 


45 


2 10 






4 




4 


I 9 




4 


3 2 


)) 


4 ° 
15 


2 9 
2 8 






15 


20 2 




15 


I 8 




IS 


3 I 


J) 






30 


21 3 




30 


I 7 




30 


3 


>* 


30 


2 7 


w. 




45 


22 3 




45 


I 6 




45 


2 u 


J) 


45 


2 6 






5 


23- ] 




SO |i 4^ 




5 " 


3 4 


?? 


5 ° 
IS 
30 


=1 S 
2 4 

2 3 






'5 


23 9 




15 


I 3 




15 


5 6 


•J 






30 


24 4 




30 


1 2| 




30 


» 3 


?» 









24 4 




^^^5 


I I 




45 


10 I 


!f 


45 
6 


2 2 






24 I] 




6 


I 


N.W. 


6 


II 8 


)) 


2 






15 


25 2 




15 


I 




15 


12 II 


>) 


15 


1 11 






30 


25 2 




30 


I 




30 


14 3 


)) 


30 


I 10 






45 


24 11 
24 6 




45 






45 


14 9 


J> 


45 


I 9 
I 8 


w. 




7 




70 29 




7 


15 3 


7) 


7 ° 






15 


23 10 




15 


4 




15 


15 6 


JJ 


15 


I 7 
I 6 






30 


23 2 




3° 


5 ° 




30 


15 8 


>J 


30 






S 


22 3 
21 6 




45 
8 


5 9 
5 3i 




45 
8 


IS 8 
15 6 


J) 


45 
8 


I 5 
I 5 

3 I 

4 6 






15 


20 7 




15 


5 10 




IS 


14 II 


M 


15 






30 


19 9 
18 9 
18 
16 II 




30 


7 2 




3° 


14 2 


)J 


30 






45 




45 


7 5^ 




45 


13 2 


J» 


45 


5 7 






9 




9 


7 74 




9 


12 6 


)J 


9 
15 


■J f 1 

6 10 1 




15 




15 


7 7 




15 


II 9 


}) 


8 1 






30 


'5 " 




30 7 3 1 




30 


II I 


J> 


30 


9 
9 8 
9 11 
9 S 
8 8 




1 


45 



[4 11 
4 I 




45 f 
[O ( 


) 6 

2 




45 

[O 


[Q 6 





45 







15 ' 


3 2 




15 5 


8 




15 


9 6 


)) 


15 






30 1 


2 3 




30 5 


3 




30 


9 I 


)» 


30 






45 I 


I 4 




45 5 


I 




45 


8 8 


)J 


45 
I 


8 I 




] 


i I 


6 


1 


10 ^ 


II 


1 


I 


8 4 


., I 


7 6 s.w. 




'5 


9 9 




15 4 Xi 




15 


8 


>) 


15 


7 ■ 
6 6 




30 


9 1 




3° 4 (>k 




30 


7 8 


jj 


30 


— 


45 P.M. 


8 4 




45 P.M. 4 4 




45 P-M- 


7 4 


.) 


45 P.M. 


6 I 





186 



iiEPOiiT — 18G4. 



Jiine 5.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gai.v 


BBOROUGII. 


GOOLE. 


Nabubn Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft, in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




12 OA.M. 


7 9 




I a OA.M. 


4 2 


N.TV. 


12 OA.M. 


7 


N.W. 


12 OA.M. 


5 1° 




15 


7 3 




15 


4 




IS 


6 9 


)) 


15 


5 7 




30 


6 8 




3° 


3 loi 




30 


6 5 


>) 


30 


5 4 




45 


6 4 




45 


3 8 




■ 45 


6 2 


)) 


45 


S 1 




I 


6 I 




I 


3 Si 




I 


5 10 


J' 


I 


4 10 




15 


6 2 




15 


3 3 




IS 


S 6 


)) 


IS 


4 7 




30 


6 7 




3° 


3 i^ 




30 


5 3 


)) 


30 


4 S 




45 


7 6 




45 


3 




45 


5 c 


J) 


45 


4 2 




2 


8 5 




2 


2 II 




2 


4 9 


if 


2 


4 




15 


9 5 




15 


2 10 




IS 


4 7 


J) 


IS 


3 10 




30 


10 6 




3° 


2 H 




30 


4 5 


j» 


30 


3 8 




45 


II 9 




45 


2 7i 




45 


4 3 


)j 


45 


3 6 




3 


12 10 




3 


2 6 




3 


4 I 


') 


3 


3 4 




15 


14 




^5 


i S 




IS 


3 11 


>j 


IS 


3 2 




30 


'S I 




30 


i 3i 




30 


3 9 


>) 


3° 


3 




45 


16 4 




45 


2 2 




45 


3 7 


)> 


45 


2 10 




4 


17 6 




4 


2 Oi 




4 


3 5 


„ 


4 


2 8 




15 


18 8 




15 


I 10 




15 


3 3 


J) 


15 


2 6 




30 


19 II 




30 


I 9 




30 


3 I 


)» 


3° 


2 S 




45 


21 




45 


I 8 




45 


3 


>i 


45 


2 4 


w. 


5 


22 




5 


I 7 




5 


2 II 


)) 


S ° 


2 3 




15 


22 10 




IS 


I 6 




15 


3 8 


it 


15 


2 2 




30 


23 6 




30 


I 5 




30 


6 2 


j» 


30 


2 I 




45 


24 2 




45 


I 4 




.'^5 


8 


W.N.W. 


45 


2 




6 


24 7 




6 


I 2| 


w.s.w. 


6 


9 8 


M 


6 


I 11 




15 


24 10 




15 


I I^ 




15 


II 4 


W. 


IS 


I 10 




30 


25 I 




30 


I oi 




30 


12 8 


if 


30 


I 9 




45 


25 2 




45 


II 




45 


13 7 


a 


45 


I 8 




7 


24 II 




7 


lOj 




7 


■4 5 


,, 


7 


I 7 




15 


24 7 




15 


9* 




15 


15 c 


W.S.W. 


15 


I 6 




30 


24 




30 


3 8 




30 


15 5 


»> 


30 


I S 




45 


23 3 




45 


4 6 




o45 


IS 7 


„ 


45 


I 4 




8 


22 7 




8 


5 7 


w. by s. 


8 


IS 8 


)) 


8 


I 3 




15 


21 8 




15 


6 3 




IS 


15 6 


)1 


IS 


I 3 




30 


20 10 




30 


6 7 




30 


15 I 


)) 


30 


2 6 


s.w. 


45 


19 II 




45 


7 




45 


14 3 


J» 


45 


3 8 




9 


19 




9 .0 


7 3 




9 


13 6 


)> 


9 ° 


S 6 




15 


18 I 




15 


7 6 




IS 


12 8 


)> 


15 


6 8 




30 


17 2 




30 


7 7 




30 


II II 


;) 


30 


7 1° 




45 


16 I 




45 


7 S 




45 


II 4 


)) 


45 


8 9 




10 


15 2 




10 


6 9 




10 


10 8 


)) 


10 


9 3 




15 


14 3 




15 


6 2 




15 


10 I 


)) 


IS 


9 6 




30 


13 4 




30 


5 8 




3° 


9 7 


Jt 


30 


9 S 




45 


12 4 




45 


5 4 




45 


9 2 


»J 


4S 


S II 




II 


II 6 




II 


5 




II 


8 9 


)) 


II 


8 3 




15 


10 9 




IS 


4 10 




15 


8 S 


») 


15 


7 8 




30 


9 II 




30 


4 n 




30 


8 I 


)» 


30 


7 2 




45 A.M. 


9 2 




45 A.M. 


4 7 




45 A.M. 


7 9 


)> 


45 A.M. 


6 6 





ON TIDAL OBSERVATIONS. 



187 



June 5.— 1864. 



Hull. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Naburx Lock. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


h m 


^t. in. 




h. m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




h m 


ft. in. 




Noon. 


8 4 




Noon. 


4 4 


W.S.W. 


Noon. 


7 5 


w.s.w. 


Noon. 


6 I 


s.w. 


I a 1 5 P.M. 


7 8 




12 I 5 P.M. 


4 * 




12 15 P.M. 


7 I 


s.w. 


12 15 P.M. 


5 10 




3° 


7 




30 


4 0* 




30 


6 9 


>j 


30 


5 6 




45 


6 5 




45 


3 10 




45 


6 5 


M 


45 


S 4 




I o 


5 1° 




I 


3 8- 




I 


6 2 


)) 


I 


5 2 




15 


5 5 




15 


3 7is 




15 


5 II 


)) 


15 


4 9 




30 


5 3 




30 


3 S? 




30 


5 7 


») 


30 


4 7 




45 


5 3 




45 


3 3¥ 




45 


5 4 


j> 


45 


4 5 




2 


5 9 




2 


3 H 




2 


5 1 


J) 


2 


4 2 


s.w. 


15 


6 7 




IS 


3 




15 


4 10 


)» 


IS 


4 




30 


7 7 




30 


2 lOi 




30 


4 7 


)? 


30 


3 9 




45 


8 8 




45 


2 9 




45 


4 5 


)) 


45 


3 7 




3 


9 9 




3 


2 7 




3 ° 


4 3 


») 


3 ° 


3 5 




'5 


10 11 




IS 


2 4 




15 


4 I 


» 


IS 


3 3 




30 


iz 2 




30 


2 3 




30 


3 II 


>» 


30 


3 I 




45 


13 4 




45 


2 li 




45 


3 9 


)> 


45 


2 II 




4 


14 6 




4 


2 




4 


3 7 


)) 


4 


2 9 


s.w. 


15 


IS II 




IS 


I II 




IS 


3 5 


" 


IS 


2 8 




30 


17 2 




30 


I 94 




30 


3 3 


)» 


30 


* 7 




45 


18 5 




45 


I 8* 




45 


3 I 


)) 


45 


2 6 




5 


19 8 




S 


I 7 




5 


3 f- 


)> 


5 


2 S 




15 


20 9 




IS 


I 6 




15 


2 u 


)» 


IS 


2 3 




30 


21 9 




30 


I 44 




30 


2 9 


jj 


30 


2 2 




45 


22 6 




45 


I 3 




."^5 


2 8 


ti 


45 


2 I 




6 


23 4 




6 


1 2i 


s.w. 


6 


4 5 


J) 


6 


2 




15 


24 




15 


I li 




15 


7 


>t 


IS 


I II 




30 


24 4 




30 


I 




30 


9 


)> 


30 


I 10 




45 


24 7 




45 


11^ 




45 


II 


?j 


45 


I 9 




7 ° 


24 8 




7 


11 




7 


12 5 


)) 


7 


I 8 




1.5 


24 9 




IS 


10 




15 


13 4 


ij 


IS 


I 7 




30 


24 6 




30 


9 




30 


14 I 


it 


30 


I 7 




45 


24 J 




„+5 


^ 




45 


14 9 


»» 


45 


I 7 




8 


23 7 




8 


2 4 




8 


15 


)i 


8 


I 6 




15 


22 10 




15 


4 I 




IS 


IS 1 


J) 


15 


I 6 




30 


22 2 




30 


5 ° 




30 


15 2 


»> 


30 


I 5 




45 


21 3 




45 


5 84 




45 


15 


»i 


45 


I 5 




9 


20 6 




9 


6 I 




9 


14 6 


!) 


9 


I S 


s. 


15 


19 7 




IS 


6 74 




IS 


13 9 


J> 


IS 


3 6 




30 


18 7 




30 


5 II 




30 


12 II 


J) 


30 


1 3 




45 


17 8 




45 


7 




45 


12 2 


it 


45 


6 6 




10 


16 9 




10 


7 14 




10 


II 5 


J) 


10 


7 6 




15 


15 8 




15 


6 8 




IS 


10 10 


3) 


IS 


8 4 




30 


14 9 




30 


6 3 




30 


10 4 


» 


3° 


8 10 




45 


13 9 




45 


5 10 




45 


9 10 


») 


45 


9 1 




II 


12 II 




II 


5 6 




II 


9 4 


n 


II 


9 ° 


s. 


15 


12 I 




IS 


5 a 




IS 


8 II 


)) 


IS 


8 6 




30 


II 2 




30 


4 10 




30 


8 6 


)) 


30 


7 10 




45 P.M 


10 ^ 




45 P.M 


4 7 




45 P.M. 


8 2 


>) 


45 P.M. 


7 3 





188 



KEPORT 18G4. 



June G.— 18G4. 





[lULL. 


Gainsborough. 


GOOLE. 


Nabuen Lock. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide. 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Time. 


Tide 


Wind. 


Ii m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




h m 


ft. in 




12 OA.M 


9 7 




12 OA.M 


4 4 


s. 


12 OA.M 


7 io| s.w. 


12 OA.M 


6 8 




IS 


8 ic 




IS 


4 I 




IS 


7 f 


N.W. 


IS 


6 3 




30 


8 2 




30 


3 11 




3° 


7 2 


>> 


30 


S ic 




45 


7 7 




45 


3 9 




45 


6 IC 


» 


45 


5 6 




I 


7 




I 


3 7 




I 


6 6 


i> 


I 


5 3 




IS 


6 6 




15 


3 5 




IS 


6 2 


?) 


15 


S 




30 


6 2 




30 


3 3 




30 


5 11 


»> 


30 


4 9 




45 


6 




45 


3 I 




45 


5 7 


)) 


45 


4 6 




2 


6 1 




2 


211^ 




2 


5 4 


)j 


2 


4 3 




15 


6 8 




15 


2 10 




IS 


5 I 


>J 


IS 


4 


w. 


30 


7 6 




30 


2 %\ 




30 


4 10 


)) 


30 


3 9 




45 


8 8 




45 


i 7 




45 


4 7 


)) 


45 


3 7 




3 


9 10 




3 


2 54 




3 


4 5 


jj 


3 ° 


3 5 




IS 


II I 




IS 


s 4 




IS 


4 3 


)i 


15 


3 3 




30 


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DREDGING ON THE COASTS OF NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAM. 189 

Deep-sea Dredging on the Coasts of Northumberland and Durham, 
in 1864. Reported by George S. Brady. 

The following Heport is intended to embrace notices only of the more inter- 
esting captures of the present year. Next year wo hope to be able to lay 
before the section a general account of the results which have been obtained 
during the three years in which our dredging has been assisted by the grants 
of the British Association. 

In the course of the summer, eight days have been spent in dredging — hvo 
of these on the Durham coast, and six off the northern shores of Northumber- 
land. The weather, on the whole, was good, or at least such as not to put a 
stop to our operations, except during the two days spent on the Durham 
coast, on both of which we were unfortunately driven into harboui' by violent 
gales rising suddenly and unespectedlj\ 

The Mollusca obtained this year are very poor, and afford little to remark 
upon, the only species new to the district being Chiton alius, L., of which a 
single specimen was dredged off Holy Island. Some of the sand-covered 
Ascidians taken on the Durham coast require further examination. Two fine 
examples of Stylifer Turtoni were dredged off Holy Island, adherent to an 
Echinus pictus. With reference to this species, it maybe mentioned that, 
though the dredges were put down, as we thought, on the very spot where we 
obtained, last year, abundance oi Echinus neglect as (in some cases with Sty lifers 
attached), this time not one specimen of the Echinus came up. There must 
have been plenty of it within a few yards of the dredge ; for the nature of 
the locality, almost close beneath the cliffs of one of the Parne Islands, 
precluded the possibility of any great error in this respect. 

Amongst stalk-eyedCmstacea the followingdeservenotice: — Atelecyclus hete- 
roclon, Pagurus cuanensis, P.Hgndmanni, and P. ferrugineus, C'rangon AJlmani , 
C'.S2)inosus,C. nanus, and C'.fasciatus. Pagurus ferrugineiis andCrangonf ascia- 
tus are new to the district. The most important Amphipoda are the following : 
— Lysianassa Gostce, Anonyx Solbdllii, IJaploops tuhicola, Monocuiocles cari- 
natus, Westwoodilla ccecula, Protomedeia Whitei, GEdiceros parvimanus, Urothoe 
marinus, Dexamine vedlomensis, Ccdliope hidentata (undescribed), Eusirus Uel- 
vetice, Heiscladus longieaudatus, Cheirocratus Mantis and Unciolaplanipes, the 
two last named being new species, descriptions of which, by the Eev. A. M. 
Norman, are appended to this Report. Of Ostracoda, besides Cythere contortcc 
and C. avena, the following new species, also described by Mr. Norman, were 
taken : — Cythere latissima, C. guttata, C. multifora, C. Icevata, C. declivis, C. 
Bradii, Cythereis dunelmensis, and C. limicola. A new Pycnogon, Nymphon 
ruber, Hodge, was got on the Durham coast, and is described in the Appen- 
dix. Thirty-two species of Echinodermata were obtained, and amongst them 
several species of great interest. Off Dunstanbro' were taken three speci- 
mens oi Antedon rosaceus, a very rarely noticed inhabitant of our district, and 
several remarkably fine examples of Ophiopholis aculeata. A small Echinus 
exhibited by Mr. Norman at the Manchester Meeting of the British Associ- 
ation, and called by him E. neglectus, var. /3, was taken abundantly. This, 
however, has claims to be regarded as a distinct species, and will be described 
by Mr. Norman from his Shetland specimens under the name of Echinus 
pictus. A single fine specimen of Evhinocardiimi pennatijidum, Norman*, 
was dredged off Holy Island. This is the more interesting as the specimen 

* This is the sjiecies described by the late Mr. Barrett from Shetland under the name 
of Amphidetus gihhosus, Agassiz (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2nd ser. vol. six. p. 33, pi. 7. 
fig. 2). It is not, however, Agassiz's species. 



190 REPORT— 18G4.. 

taken by Mr. Barrett, in Shetland, from which alone the species has been 
recognized as British, appears to have been lost. Three or four specimens of 
Psolus squarnutas 'were taken off Holy Island. 

Amongst Polyzoa, Mr. Alder reports the following as being new to the 
. coast : — Lepralia annulata and TuhuJipora hhidata. Bugida Murrayana was 
abundant, and appears to be pretty nearly confined to the east coast. 
Among Hydrozoa the most interesting captm-es were Tahiclava cornucopia} (a 
new species lately described by Mr. Norman from specimens taken in Shetland), 
Plumularia mt/riophyllum, a rare species new to this coast, and Halicium 
labrosum. 

Several fine Sponges were obtained off Dunstanbro', but these and the Fora- 
miuifera have not yet been examined. 

Appendix. 
Nymphon ruber, Hodge (nov. sp.). 

" Body moderately stout. Lateral abdominal processes distant, once and 
a half as long as broad. Rostrum short, stout, not equal in length to the first 
joint of the footjaAvs. Palpi equal in length to the fij-st joint of the footjaws. 
Legs long, furnished with strong spines : first and thiixl joints equal ; second 
as long as both ; fourth longer than fii-st ; fifth longer than fourth ; sixth longer 
than fifth. Tarsus as long as, or sHghtly longer than hand, with a strong 
spine at joint on the inner side. Hand slightly ciuwed, -nith fom- large spines 
and a few hairs along the margin. Claw about half the length of the hand ; 
auxiliary claws more than half the length of claw. Colour of body bright 
red ; limbs banded with red," 

Subfam. Gammarides, Bate & Westwood. 

Genus Cheirocratiis (x€'p> Kparos), Norman (nov. gen.). 

Superior antennae having a secondary appendage, shorter than the inferior. 
First gnathopods not subchelate ; second subchelate and very large. Last 
pair of pereiopods very long. Telson deeply and widely cleft. 

Chcirocratus Mantis, Norman (n. sp.). 

Eyes irreg-ularly roimd, of moderate size, placed between the bases of the 
antennaj. Svjyerior anfenna; not longer than four first segments of the body ; 
the first joint of the ])cduncle much thicker than, but not qiiite so long as, the 
second ; third joint half the length of the second : filament consisting of 
about twenty articulations, scarcely, if at all, longer than the peduncle. 
Inferior antennce (imperfect in the ty])ical specimen) having the peduncle 
greatly developed, the end of the penultimate joint reaching to half the 
length of the filament of the superior antennae ; the olfactoiy denticle is large, 
and there is a small spine on the lower side of the termination of the third 
joint. First gnathopods not subchelate ; the propodos 3-4 times as long as 
broad ; dactylos scarcely curved, broad, furnished with numerous short spines 
on the posterior margin. Second gnathopods having a long basis, which 
gradually widens towards the distal extremity, and is fringed anteriorly with 
very long simple hairs, and posteriorly with a few short and very minute 
hairs ; carpus triangular, widening towards the extremity to receive the very 
large propodos, but not produced either above or below ; propodos as long as 
the first three segments of the body, about two and a half times as long as 
broad, widest at the commencement of the palm, which is very oblique, occu- 
pies half the length of the propodos, and is furnished with three large tooth- 



DREDGING ON THE COASTS OF NORTHUMBERLAND AND DURHAJI. 191 

like processes ; dactylos strong, much, curved, rather more than half the length 
of the palm, and having the inner margin simple. The basis of the last 
three pereiopods is about twice as long as broad, the anterior margin fm-nished 
with strong (spine-like) hairs, the posterior with very minute and slender 
hairs set in little notches. Posterior pereiopods very long, and having the 
propodos greatly developed and flat. The fii'st pair of tu'opods extend con- 
siderably beyond the second ; th.e last pair were mutilated. Telson so deeply 
and widely excavated in the centre as to appear double until closely examined, 
each portion ha\'ing an obliqiiely truncate extremity terminating in spines. 
Lateral margins of 2nd and 3rd segments of pleon fringed with hairs, and 
produced posteriorly into a spine-like point. Fourth segment of ploon dorsally 
produced into two or three spines. Fifth segment having two dorsal spines 
on either side of the central fine. Coxee of all the legs shallow. 

Genus Uneiola, Say. 

Superior antennse with a minute secondary appendage; filaments of both pairs 
of antenna} multiarticiilate. First gnathopods subchelate ; second not sub- 
chelate. Telson squamiform, simple. Last uropods double-branched, very 
minute, scarcely longer than peduncle of the preceding pair, tipped with small 
spines. First two pairs of iiropods having their branches truncate at the end, 
and furnished with strong spines. 

Uneiola planipes, Norman (n. sp.). 
Superior antennce with first joint of peduncle not so long as the second, and 
slightly longer than the third ; filament (17-jointed) equal in length to the 
peduncle ; secondary appendage very minute, consisting of a single joint only, 
and not longer than the first joint of the filament. Inferior anlennee with the 
peduncle equal in length to that of the sui^erior, but the filament only half 
the length. First joint of peduncle much shorter than the second, which is 
of the same length as the third. Ifead rostrated. First (jnatliopoJs subchelate, 
beset on each margin with tufts of simple haii's ; propodos slightly longer 
than the carpus (which has the distal angle rounded, and of equal width with 
the articulating propodos), somewhat ovate, and having the palm very oblique 
and undefined ; dactylos simple, gently curved. Second gnathopods not sub- 
chelate; carpus and propodos much flattened, and fringed with thick-set hairs; 
dactylos small, springing from the inferior half of the tnincated apex of the 
propodos, and immersed in a dense tuft of hair which springs from the upper 
portion of the distal extremity and from the sides of the propodos. Dactyli 
of the posterior pereiopods large and falciform, margined within with a row 
simple spines. Body very slender, and coxae of all the legs very small ; 
posterior lateral angles of first three abdominal segments produced into 
conspicuous teeth. No trace of an eye. Posterior uropods very minute, 
scarcely as long as the telson. 

Gythere latissima, Norman (n. sp.). 

Peach-stone-formed or shortly ovate, with a short central posterior pro- 
jecting process ; greatest height subcentral ; length to breadth as one and a 
half to one ; excessively tumid and gibbous. The ventral margins of the valves 
are produced into a conspicuous keel, on either side of which the carapace is 
extremely broad, the valves being projected directly outwards in the form of 
a strong ridge which externally bends outwards and downwards so as to reach 
below the level of the margin of the valves. The tumidity of the cai-apacc in 
this part is excessive, and from thence the valves slope rapidly to the dorsal 



192 REPORT— 186 J.. 

margin. End view triangular. Carajjace white, opaque, punctate. Length 
one -third of a line. 

Cijilicre guttata, Worman (n. sp.). 

Ovate or peach-stone-shaped, slightly produced to a central point behind ; 
greatest height and greatest tumidity before the centre ; very tumid. Dorsal 
margin nearly straight in the centre, suddenly sloping posteaUy, and forming 
in conjunction with the infero-posteal similarly suddenly sloping margin a 
small truncated i^rojection. Ventral margin sHghtly waved. Anterior ex- 
tremity broadly rounded. Carapace excavated with large cells, whicli have 
a somewhat concentric arrangement. Length a quarter of a line. 

Cytliere multlfora, Norman (n. sp.). 

Oblongo-ovate, of nearly equal height throughout ; length to breadth as 
two and a half to one ; abruptly swollen immediately above the margin of the 
valves, and thence sloping to the dorsal margin. Dorsal and ventral margins 
nearly straight and subparallel; both extremities rounded. Dorsal view 
prismoidal (parallel-sided, with conical extremities). Carapace excavated with 
large, deep cells, which leave the interstices standing out in the form of an 
elegant network. Junction of the valves keeled. Length one-fourth of a Hue. 

Cijthere lavata, Norman (n. sp.). 

Oblongo-ovate, highest before the middle at the commencement of the 
supero-anteal slope; length to breadth as one and three-quarters to one; 
moderately convex. Ventral margin slightly concave on the anterior half, 
and convex posteriorly ; dorsal margin nearly straight, the anterior slope the 
longer. Anterior extremity well rounded, gradually arched iuto the supeiior 
margin above, more suddenly rounded below. Posterior extremity slightly 
produced centrally ; the superior and inferior slopes nearly equal. Lucid spots 
consisting of four oblong impressions in a transverse line, and a semicircular 
spot in front. Carapace white, smooth, polished, with a few small scattered 
punctures ; valves bordered by a keel-lLke hllet, which is more conspicuous 
behind. Length not one-third of a line. 



'o'- 



Otjthere declivis, Nonuan (n. sp.). 

Subtriangular, closely resembling a miniature 3L/iihis cdulis in form; 
liighest before the middle ; length to breadth as about one and three-quarters 
to one ; subcomi^ressed. Ventral margin slightly (rarely considerably) in- 
curved in the centre ; dorsal margin anteriorly well arched, but sloping rajjidly 
from about the middle towards the posterior extremity. Anterior end wide 
and well rounded ; posterior extremity narrow, rounded. Lucid spots con- 
sisting of four, placed close together in a transverse curved line (of which the 
lowest is the largest, and each of those above smaller than its predecessor) ; 
and in front of these a large comma-formed spot, apparently formed by the 
coalescence of two. Ventral view cimeiform, moderately convex behind, much 
compressed in front ; juncture of the valves impressed. Carapace white, trans- 
lucent, smooth, but marked with conspicuous opaque-white, scattered pimc- 
lures; anterior margin with radiating rib-like markings. Length not quite 
one-third of a line. 

Cythere Bradii, Norman (n. sp.). 

Oblongo-ovate, of nearly equal height throughout ; length to breadth as 
two and a half to one ; very tumid. Ventral margin nearly straight, very 
slightly incurved a little before the middle; dorsal margin subparallel to 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 193 

ventral, having a nearly equal slope at the two extremities, the anterior of 
which is well and equally rounded, while the posterior, which is slightly the 
wider of the two, and a little more produced below, has the dorsal curve much 
longer than the ventral. Lucid spots consisting of a transverse row of four 
placed close to each other, and two others at some distance in advance of these, 
and separated from each other. Dorsal view elongated ovate. End view 
nearly round. Hinge-margin crenulated throughout its length. Carapace 
white, smooth, but studded with scattered opaque-white punctures. Length 
half a line. 

Cythereis Dunelmensis, Norman (n. sp.). 

Oblong. Dorsal and ventral margins straight, but not parallel, gradually 
inclining towards each other from the broad, well-rounded anterior extremity 
to the rectangularly truncate posterior end. Surface of valves excavated with 
cells, the interstices between which stand out as a network. Carapace mar- 
gined in front by a row of bead-hke spines ; posteal extremity of ventral 
margin bearing four large, semierect, flattened, linguiform processes ; other 
parts of the sui'face ai-e also anned with small spines, conspicuous among 
which is a tubercular spine at the anterior extremity of the hinge-line. 
Length half a Hne. 



-'o'^ 



Cythereis limicola, Norman (n. sp.). 

Oblong, short ; greatest height at the commencement of the antero-dorsal 
slope ; length to breadth as one and thi-ee -quarters to one ; subcompressed. 
Ventral margin straight ; dorsal having a long anterior slope from the highest 
point, and a gradual downward inclination from the same point posteriorwards. 
Anterior extremity wide, rounded ; posterior extremity rather narrower and 
subtruncate. Carapace having a greatly elevated longitudinal rib a little 
within the ventral margin, from the anterior extremity of which about three 
smaller ribs or crenations proceed divergingly to the front of the valve ; there 
are also two nodular humps placed side by side near the posterior termination 
of the hinge-margin. Length about one-fourth of a line. 



An Account of Meteorological and Physical Observations in Nine 
Balloon Ascents made in the years 1863 and 1864 (in continuation of 
thirteen made in the year 1862 and first part of 1863), under the 
auspices of the Committee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, by James Glaisher, F.R.S., at the request of the 
Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, the Astronomer Royal, Lord 
Wrottesley, Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Dr. Lloyd, Admiral 
FitzRoy, Dr. Lee, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Glaisher, Prof. 
Tyndall, Dr. Fairbairn, and Dr. W. A. Miller. 

The Committee on Balloon Experiments was appointed last year for the 
following purposes : — 

1st. To examine the electrical condition of the air at different heights. 

2nd. To verify the law of the decrease of temperature, and to compare the 
constants in different states of the atmosphere. 

With respect to the first of these objects, no progress whatever has been 
1864. Q 



194 REPORT — 1864. 

made in the past year, with the exception of preparing an instrument and 
apparatus for the investigation. 

At the request of the Committee Mr. Flecming Jenkin kindly undertook 
to superintend the construction of the instrument best adapted for the purpose, 
but it unfortunately happens that no flame or fire of any kind can be admitted 
into the car of the balloon for fear of igniting the gas, and this instrument, 
Avhich was furnished a little before the end of the year 1863, was constructed 
to be used with fire. It therefore had to be altered so that it covild be used 
with water, but is not yet quite in a state for observation. 

It happens unfortunately that electrical experiments in balloons necessitate 
the use of one constant flow of water, and occasionally of two flowing at the 
same time, just below the car of the balloon. 

The Committee felt that the presence of water but little removed from 
the instruments, if exercising no influence when the balloon was rising, 
might exercise such an influence on the balloon falling and passing through 
the just moistened atmosphere as to throw a very considerable doubt on 
some of the experiments, particularly on those relating to the hxmiidity of 
the air (a primary object of research), that I was requested to defer taking 
them, that no doubt might rest on the results, till our knowledge on this 
subject was much increased. 

The Committee consider that the general laws on the humidity of the air 
have now so advanced, that electrical experiments may now be included, 
providing that such observations can be made with safety to ourselves. 

With respect to the second of these objects, viz. verifying the law of the 
decrease of temperature in different states of the atmosphere. The Committee 
considered that this would be best attained by taking as many observations 
as possible, at times in the year and at times in the day at which no experi- 
ments had been made, for the purpose of determining whether the laivs which 
hold good at one time in the year, hold good at other times in the year, and 
also to determine whether the laws which hold good at noon, apply equally 
well at all other times in the day. 

The Committee at all times have pressed on me the importance of magnetic 
observations in the higher regions of the atmosphere, the Astronomer Eoyal 
suggesting the use of a horizontal magnet, and taking the times of its vibra- 
tion at different elevations, a method which is seldom practicable, owing to 
the balloon almost constantly revolving on its own axis. To obviate the 
effect of this, Dr. Lloyd suggested the use of a dipping-needle placed 
horizontal when on the ground by means of a magnet adjustible above it, so 
that when in the balloon the deviation from horizontality might be readily 
noticed, and which deviation would be independent of the revolving motion 
of the balloon, and could thus be noticed at any instant. 

I have been unable to attempt the latter method, as Dr. Lloyd wished some 
experiments to be made before the instrument should be constructed. 

At Newcastle a very general wish was expressed by the Members of 
the Council that I should not ascend to heights exceeding 4 or 5 miles. To 
this I readily consented, because for the most part, from the preceding experi- 
ments, aU the observations above 5 miles could have been inferred from those 
made below 5 miles ; and there was another reason, that the balloon, after 
the many rough descents, had become, in Mr. CoxweU's opinion, too unsafe 
for exti'eme high ascents. 

I have therefore no report to give upon any extreme high elevation 
attained during the past year, yet new facts and new physical conditions 
have become known in some of the nine ascents upon which I have to speak. 



on nine balloon ascents in 1863 and 1864. 195 

§ 1. Insteuminxs and Apparatus. 

The instruments used were for the most part the same in construction with 
those of the two preceding years, consisting of mercurial and aneroid baro- 
meters ; Daniell's and Eegnaidt's hygrometers ; maximum and minimum ther- 
mometers, blackened bulb thermometers,, both fi-ee and enclosed in vacuum 
tubes ; Herschel's actinomcter ; — all these instruments have been frequently 
in the hands of Mr. Zambra, who superintended their replacement when 
broken, and their perfect order at all times ; two spectroscopes, one lent by 
the Astronomer Eoyal, the other by Mr. Simms ; a magnet for horizontal 
vibration ; large caoutchouc bags, furnished by Professor Tyndall, for collect- 
ing air at high elevations, ozone-papers, &c. 

In all the highest ascents both a mercurial and an aneroid barometer (the 
one which was used on the ascent of September 5, 1862), and which was 
found to read in close accordance with the merciu'ial barometer to very low 
readings, were used; in the ascents to moderate elevatioiLs, the same aneroid 
was used alone, it being examined both before and after the ascents, with 
the mercurial barometer, and occasionally with the mercurial barometer when 
placed ia an exhausted receiver under an aii--pump. 

§ 2. Observing Aeeangements 

Were precisely similar to those in previous years ; viz. in the high ascents, 
a board was placed across the car which carried the several instruments, so 
placed as to be readily read by myself, seated at one end of the ear, with my 
face towards Mr. Coxwcll ; in the other ascents, when a smaller number of 
iiistruments were used, they were placed upon a board projecting beyond the 
car, casUy read by myself standing at one end, with my back to Mr. Coxwell. 

Circumstances of the Ascents, and General Observations, 

The ascents to April 6 were made by the same balloon as all the preceding 
ascents ; those on June 13, 20, and 27 by a new and larger balloon, and that 
on August 29 by the old balloon. 

Ascent from NeivcastJe, Aur/ust 31, 1863. — The situation of Newcastle, as 
regards the Tyne and the sea, is such as to cause anxiety in respect to any 
balloon ascent from there. 

The balloon left the earth at 6'' 12" p.m. ; the wind was North ; in 4 
minutes we were over the High-Level Bridge, at an elevation of 1800 feet ; 
we passed over Gateshead at 6^ 21"', being ] mile from the earth, and in 
10 minutes afterwards the height of If mile was reached. 

"We continued nearly at this level for some little time, and then began our 
downward journey ; passed into cloud at 6^ 54" at the height of 1600 feet, 
out of it at 1800 feet, in cloud again at 2000 feet, then turned to descend, 
passing again through clouds at 1900 feet. At 6'' 57"" we saw Durham 
Cathedral, and reached the ground at 5 minutes past seven at Pittingtou, 
near Durham. 

The colours of the clouds observed in this ascent are very remarkable : — 
_ At 6'^ 32" 30", at 7912 feet high, the colours of the clouds in the east oppo- 
site to the sun were as foUows : — the upper layer brown ; next below bluish 
black, then a darker bluish black ; lower stUl, a thin layer of white cumulo- 
stratus, next a greenish brown resting on uniform white rocky clouds. 

At 6" 35" 30", at 7329 feet, the colours of the clouds in the west, or under 
the sun, were as foUows : — the upper layer was brown, the second dark blue, 

o 2 



196 REPORT — 1864. 

•under which was a whitish-greyish black resting on uniform white rocky 
cumuhis clouds. 

At 6^ 37" 10% at the height of 6981 feet, the colours of the clouds in the 
south were : — the top layer brown, under which was bluish brown, then 
rocky-brown cumulostratus, below bluish black resting on a base of rocky 
cumulus. 

At 6'' 43'", peaks after peaks, apparently rising up to our level, and clearly 
defined against the sky ; cloud with a little red in it not opposite to the sun. 

At 6" 54™ 10% at the height of 1580 feet, colours of clouds were as follows : 
— top layer deep greenish blue ; next bluish black, below green rocky clouds, 
then slightly rocky cumulus clouds. 

Ascent from Woherham^jfon, Septemher 29, 1863. — The gas used on this 
occasion was specially prepared in the mouth of July, as a high ascent was 
arranged to have taken place before the Meeting of the Association last year, 
but circumstances prevented it, and the Directors of the Gas Works had most 
obligingly devoted a gasometer to our use from July to September, much to 
their own inconvenience. 

The balloon was filled the preceduig day, and watched all night. On 
leaving. Lord Wrottesley quietly said, " Beware of the Wash," at the same 
time pressing my hand, and repeating, " Beware of the Wash ; I fear that is 
your direction." We left the earth at 7'' 43™ a.m. with a cloudy sky and a 
south-west wind. At 7'' 5>2"', at the height of 3000 feet, the sun's disk was 
seen, and the earth was obscured by mist. 

At S** 4™, at the height of 6000 feet, clouds were situated both above and 
below; at 8'' 18™, at the height of 8200 feet, there were two layers of clouds 
below us, and very dense clouds stiU far above. 

When at 11,000 feet clouds were stiU a mile higher; there was a beau- 
tiful sea of cloud below mth a blue tinge over its surface, and the peeps of 
the earth as seen through the breaks in the clouds were beautiful, having a 
purple hue ; when at 13,000 feet, clouds were still at a higher elevation, and 
after this they began to dissipate ; and at 9'' 38™, at 14,000 feet, the sun shone 
brightly, and we thought we might gradually approach a height of 5 miles, 
and remain in the higher regions tiU after noon, so that I might make a series 
of actinometer and blackened bulb observations ; but, to our deep regret, at 
gh 48^ -^e found ourselves moving directly for the Wash, as seen through a 
break in the lower clouds, at an estimated distance of 10 mUes only, and we 
were compelled to begin om- descent ; at 10'' 19™, at the height of 3000 feet, 
we saw by the benrling of the trees that a gale of wind from the south was 
blowing on the earth, and we had a rough descent, being drawn over hedges, 
across fields and ditches ; indeed so strong was the wind that the balloon was 
torn from top to bottom, and was very much injured, but it was only by the 
almost destruction of the balloon that its course was stopped ; we ourselves 
escaped with slight injuries. 

Ascent from the Crt/stal Palace, October 9, 1863. — The balloon left the 
Crystal Palace at 4" 29™ p.m. ; in 4 minutes it was 2500 feet high ; at 4'' 46" 
was 7300 feet, and directly over London Bridge, at which height with one 
glance the vast number of buildings comprising the whole of London covdd be 
seen, some so plainly that the plans of their inner courts could have easily been 
drawn ; in this situation it was difficult to persuade oneself that that small 
building directly imder us was the Cathedral of fit. Paul's ; we then gradually 
descended to 2300 feet at 5" 15™, ascended to 3600 feet by 5'' 24™, and de- 
scended again to 1500 feet by 5'' 36'" ; ascended to 8600 feet by 6'', and 



I 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 197 

reached the earth by 6'' 40"" at Pirton Grange on the boundaries of Hertford 
and Bedford. 

Ascent from WoolwicJi Arsenal, Januarij 12, 1864. — The Secretary of 
State for War, the Right Hon. Earl de Grey and Eipon, having kindly granted 
permission to the Committee of the British Association to avail themselves of 
the facilities afforded in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, for future balloon 
ascents for scientific purposes, the ascent took place from there. The ascent 
was intended to have been made on December 21, the day of the winter 
solstice, and from this time to the end of the year the balloon was frequently 
partially inflated : on December 30 it was fiUed, but its completion was at too 
late an hour to ascend ; it was left filled in the care of watchmen, but a strong 
wind arose at night, and it was driven against a gasometer, and so injured as 
to require repairing, and it was not tiU January 12 that we succeeded. 

The balloon on this day left the earth at 2'' 7"" p.m. ; in 3 minutes the 
height of 1.500 feet was attained ; at 2" 14™ we crossed the Tilbury Railway 
line, and in 7 minutes afterwards we were over Hainault Forest ; at 2^ 26™ 
3000 feet was reached ; the first mile was passed at 2'> 32™, the second at 
3" 24™, and the height of 12,000 feet was attained by S^ 31™. The balloon 
then began to descend and touched the ground at 4'' 10™, at Lakenheath 
Warren, near Brandon, the descent not having taken one-half the time of 
ascent. 

On the earth the wind was S.E. ; at the height of 1300 feet we entered a 
strong S.W. cm-rent ; we continued in this current tiU we reached a height 
of 4000 feet, when the wind changed to the south ; and after some little time 
we determined upon ascending. At the height of 8000 feet the wind changed 
to S.S.W. ; at the height of 4000 feet the wind changed to S.S.E. ; at 
11,000 feet we met with fine granular snow; passed through snow on de- 
scending till we were within 8000 feet of the earth ; entered clouds at 7000 
feet, and passed out of them at about 6000 feet into mist. 

Ascent from Woohuicji Arsenal, April 6, 1864.— This ascent was intended 
to be made as near March 21 as possible; but although frequent attempts 
were made, it was not till April 6 that we succeeded. 

The balloon left Woolwich on this day at 4^ 7™ p.m., with a south-east 
wind ; in 9 minutes, when at the height of 3000 feet, we crossed over the River 
Thames, ascending very evenly at the j-ate of 1000 feet in little more than 3 
minutes, till 11,000 feet was attained at 4^ 37™, and descended at about the 
same rate tiU within 1500 feet of the earth, when the rapidity of the descent 
was checked, reaching the ground at 5^ 25™, on the outskirts of a pine plan- 
tation in Wilderness Park, near Sevenoaks, in Kent. 

Our course in this ascent was most remarkable ; having first passed over the 
River Thames into Essex, we must have repassed and moved in a directly 
opposite direction, and continued thus till we approached the earth, when we 
again moved in the same direction as at first. 

After the great injuiy to the balloon on September 29, in addition to the 
numbers of repairs that it had previously needed, it was not, when again 
repaired, in such a condition as (in Mr. CoxweU's opinion) to be quite safe 
to ourselves for extreme high ascents; and after those of January 12 and 
April 6, having been made at a time of year that any balloon would be most 
severely tested, Mr. Coxwell determined, before venturing again with myself 
to any great elevation, to build a new balloon. 

This he did, and one of a capacity capable of containing 10,000 cubic feet 
more than the old one, so that, if need be, two observers could ascend to- 
gether to the height of 5 miles. 



198 REPORT — 1864. 

A new balloon, however, needs trying in low ascents till it proves to be 
gas-tight, before it can be used for great elevations. 

Ascent from the Crystal Palace, June 13, 1864. — On this ascent the balloon 
left the grounds of tJae Crystal Palace at 7 o'clock. The sky was cloudless, 
and the air perfectly clear, excepting in the dii-ection of London. 

An elevation of 1000 feet was reached in 1^ minute; 3000 feet was at- 
tained at T** 8™, when the balloon turned to desceud, and passed down to 2300 
feet by T*" 13'" ; on reascending, 3400 feet was gained at 7^ 20™ ; after taking 
a slight dip, it again ascended to 3550 feet (the highest point) by 7*" 28" ; then 
descended to 2500 feet, and after several small ascents, began the downward 
journey at 7'' 50" from the height of 2800 feet, reaching the ground at East 
Horndon, 5 miles fi-om Brentwood, at S"" 14". 

Ascent from Derhi/, Jane 20, 1864. — The balloon left Derby at 17 minutes 
past 6"^ p.m. ; at G" 30" the height of 1000 feet was reached, the next 1000 feet 
being passed in half a minute ; then ascended less rapidly ; cloud was entered 
at 6" 26", 3600 feet being gained, and 4000 feet at 6'' 30" ; descended to 
2700 feet by 6** 36", being over Ilkeston ; Ifottingham^ and its race-course 
were visible at 6*^ 41" ; we then reascended to 4300 feet at G^ 50" ; on de- 
scending, passed over Southwell at O"" 56", and touched the groimd at 7'' 16" 
on a farm at Norwell Woodhouse, near K^ewark. 

Ascent from the Cri/stal Palace, June 27, 1864. — The balloon left the 
grounds of the Crystal Palace at 6"^ 33|" ; the sky was cloudy, and the wind 
was blowing from the West. 

At 6^" 38", when 1000 feet fi-om the earth, we crossed over Penge, reached 
1500 feet high at 6'' 43", descended to 800 feet by 6"^ 48", being over Short- 
lands ; ascended to 1200 feet by 6'' 52", being over Hayes Common ; remained 
at about this elevation for 8 minutes, descended about 300 feet, and then as- 
cended to 4200 feet by 7^ 16" ; descended 1000 feet slowly, and reascended. 
to the height of 5000 feet by 7^ 42" ; began to descend, passing over the Ictt 
of Tonbridge, near the village of Hudlow, and over the Medway on reaching 
2400 feet at S^ 8" ; we then ascended 1200 feet, andTaegan to descend again 
at 8^ 15", passing between Hawkhurst and Cranbrook ; were within 600 feet 
of the earth at 8'' 55", being nearly over Teuterden ; we then reascended, 
and in 13 minutes had attained an elevation of 6000 feet, and reached the 
earth at 9"^ 21" in llomney Marsh, about half a mile fi'om Cheyne Court, 
4 miles from Lydd, and 5 miles from the coast. 

These several trial trips of the new balloon were made, and it had gradu- 
ally become gas-tight, and capable of any work reqidred, when at Leicester, 
I regret to say, it was destroyed with all its appurtenances. 

One would scarcely beheve it possible that such an act could take place in 
the centre of England in the present day, but it was so destroyed, and eflect- 
ually stopped all the preaiTanged experiments. The Mayor of Leicester has 
presided over meetings for the purpose of collecting subscriptions to assist 
Mr. Coxwell to rebuild a new balloon, which I hope will help to remove the 
stigma now resting upon Leicester ; and I trust the Foresters will also help 
to remove the stain now resting upon them ; for if not the act of the Foresters 
themselves, it was at one of their gatherings, under their supeiintendence, 
and the destruction of the balloon was not, so far as I can learn, attempted 
to be stopped by those Foresters present. 

!Mr. Coxwell then had recourse fb the old balloon, which he had repaiix'd as 
best he could, and the next and last ascent of which I have to speak took place. 

Ascent from the Crystal Palace, August 29, 1864. — At 4' 6" 30' the balloon 
rose from the Crystal Palace, passing the first 3000 feet in 4 minutes, after 



I 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 186i, 199 

which it did not rise so rapidly. At 4'' SS"", at the height of 11,000 feet, it was 
over Lewisham ; at 4'' 42"" neariy stationary ; over Charlton at 4'' 46", and 
Woolwich at 4'^ SO-" when at the height of 13,500 feet. It then began to 
descend ; was over Erith at 5'' 9"", moving quickly, crossed over the river 
at 5" IS"", and reached the ground at 6" 32"" at Wybridge, near Kainham, in 
Essex. 

§ 3. Description of the Table of Observations. 

All the meteorological observations taken during the ascents axe contained 
in Table I. 

Column 1 contains the times at which the observations were made. Column 
2 contains observations of the siphon barometer corrected for temperature and 
index error. Column 3 contains the readings of the thermometer attached 
to the barometer. Column 4 contains the readings of an aneroid barometer. 
Column 5 contains the height above the level of the sea, as reduced from the 
barometric readings in column 2 on the days the siphon barometer was used, 
and from column 4 on other days, by the formula of Baily, checked at inter- 
vals by that of Laplace, which is as follows : — 

Z=logf^) X 60159(1 + it^^^Vl + 0-002837 cos 2 lVi + ^+^??^V 
\h'J \ 900 A A 20886900/' 

where Z is the height required, and h, h', t and t' the height of the barometer 
corrected for temperature, and the temperature of the air at the lower and 
upper stations respectively, L the latitude. The temperature of the air for the 
position of the balloon has been derived from the readings in column 10, 
when such have been taken, otherwise from column 6. Columns 6 to 9 
contain the observations with the dry- and wet-bulb thermometers free, 
and the deduced dew-point. Column 10 contains the readmgs of a 
gridiron thermometer. Columns 11 to 14 contain the observations with 
the diy- and wet-bidb thermometers aspii-ated, and the deduced dew- 
point. Columns 15 and 16 contain the direct dew-point observations mth 
DanieU's and Regnault's hygrometers. When mmabers are entered in 
columns 15 and 16 with " no dew" affixed to them, it is meant that the 
temperature of the hygrometer has been lowered to the degree stated, but that 
no dew has been deposited. Column 17 contains the readings of a very deli- 
cate blackened bulb thermometer fully exposed to the sun's rays. 

The Astronomer Eoyal had observations made every 10 minutes at the 
Eoyal Obsei-vatorj^, Greenwich, on five days of ascents ; Lord Wrottesley had 
observations made by Mr. Hough at Wrottesley Observatory on the ascent 
from Wolverhampton ; E. J. Lowe, Esq., had observations made at Beeston 
Observatory for the ascents at Wolverhampton and Derby ; and observations 
were made at my house at Blackheath by Messrs. Yair and Howe on June 27 
and August 29. 

In calculating the height of the balloon, the observations made at the Philo- 
sophical Society's Rooms, Ifewcastle, have been employed for August 31 • 
those at Wrottesley for September 29 ; those at the Eoyal Observatory for 
October 9, 1863, January 12, April 6, June 13, and June 27, 1864 j those 
at Nottingham for June 20 ; and those at Blackheath for August 29, 1864. 

The height of Greenwich above the mean sea-level= 159 -feet. 

The height of Wrottesley above the mean sea-level=531 feet. 

The height of Newcastle above the mean sea-level=121 feet. 

The height of Nottingham above the mean sea-level =174 feet. 

The height of Blackheath above the mean sca-level=160 feet. 



200 



REPORT — 186 1<. 





Table I 


— Meteorological Observations made 


in the Fourteenth 


u 




Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 




Dry and Wet Ther. 














«2 


Time. 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 


Att. 
Therm. 


Barometer, 
No. 2. 


sea-level. 


Dry. 


Wet. 






h m s 


in. 




in. 


feet. 












6 o o p.m. 


3970 






ground • 


64-0 


600 






6 6 o „ 


2970 






64-0 


60-0 






670,, 


2970 






64-0 


6o-o 




(1) 


6 12 „ 


29-55 






196 


56-0 


54-0 




(^) 


6 13 „ 


29-30 






422 


560 


53-5 




(y) 


6 13 30 „ 








(650) 








(4) 


6 13 40 „ 


















6 14 „ 


28-80 






874 


55*5 


53-0 






6 14 20 „ 


28-64 






1,109 


54-2 


52-1 




(i5) 


6 14 30 „ 


28-50 






1.145 


53-5 


51-2 




(«) 


6 14 40 „ 








(1,262) 
(1.496) 








(7) 


6 15 „ 














(«) 


6 15 40 „ 


27-70 






1,963 


51-5 


49-0 






6 16 „ 


27-40 






2,270 


50-5 


48-5 






6 17 „ 


27-00 






2,670 


50-5 


47-2 




CJ) 


6 17 40 „ 








(2,737) 










6 18 „ 


26-9S 






2,770 


47-8 


45-1 






6 18 30 „ 


26-42 






3,263 


47-2 


44-0 






6 18 40 „ 


26-00 






3,694 


46-0 


42-1 






6 18 50 „ 


25-92 






3.778 


45-2 


41-1 






6 19 „ 


25-55 






4,167 


45-2 


40-5 






6 20 „ 


25-30 






4.425 


45-0 


40-5 






6 20 20 „ 


25-JO 






4,632 


43-5 


38-8 




(lU) 


6 20 30 „ 


24-85 






4.907 


43-0 


382 






6 20 40 „ 


24-48 






5,403 


42-0 


37-1 






6 21 10 „ 


24-00 






5.844 


40-0 


35'S 




(ii) 


6 21 30 „ 


23-50 






6,404 


37-0 


32-5 






6 22 „ 


23-30 






6,627 


35-5 


30-5 






6 22 30 „ 


23-00 






6,963 


350 


29-0 






6 23 .. 


22-95 






7,022 


34-5 


290 




(lli) 


6 23 30 „ 


22-90 






7,080 


34-0 


28-5 






6 24 „ 


22-70 






7,315 


34'o 


287 






6 24 10 „ 


22-65 






7,374 


33-9 


28-5 






6 25 „ 


22-50 







7,549 


33-5 


27-8 




(ly) 


6 25 40 „ 








(7,629) 






_■ 


(14) 


6 27 „ 


22-30 






7,790 


34-0 


28-5 


1 




6 27 50 .. 


22-30 






7,790 


34-0 


28-5 


1 




6 28 „ 


22-20 






7,912 


34'o 


28-5 


1 




6 28 30 „ 


22-20 






7,912 


34-0 


28-5 


V 




6 29 „ 


22-20 






7,912 


34-0 


28-5 





5. 



Notes and 

(1) Left the eartli a few seconds earlier. (2) Over suburbs of Newcastle. 

(3) Heard people shouting. (4) Over Manors railway station. 

(5) Entering cloud. (6) Above clouds. 

(7) Over the Tjne , cumulus below in detached masses. 

(8) Tynemouth very clear ; cumulus and scud far below ; sun shining beautifully on the 
balloon ; over Newcastle ; lower clouds moving apparently faster than we are ; railway' whistle 
heard ; can see an island in the Tyne higher up than Newcastle ; hear loud buzzing noise. 

(9) Passing over the High Level Bridge. Can see masls of .ships in Tyne ; cumulus in 
white heaps on our level ; sun shining on some clouds and not on others ; can see fields and 
houses through distant break in clouds ; gas cloudy. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



201 



Balloon Ascent, from Newcastle, August 31, 1863. 



raometers (free). 



Diff. Dew-point 



4-0 
4-0 
4-0 

2*0 



2"S 
2-1 

2-3 



2-5 

2'0 

3-3 

27 
3-2 

3"9 
4" I 

47 
4-5 
47 
4-8 

4-9 
4-5 
4'5 
5-0 
6-0 

5-5 
5-5 
53 

5*4 
57 

5'5 
5"5 
S'5 
5-5 
5-5 



567 
567 

567 
52-1 

51-1 



50-6 
500 
48-5 



46-4 
464 

437 

42-3 
40-4 
37-6 
36-4 
35"° 
35-3 
337 
32"4 
31-1 
29*6 

26'I 
22'5 
19-4 
19-3 
180 
19-4 

i9'o 
17-1 

i8-8 
18? 
i8-8 
i8-8 
i8-8 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



64'0 
64-0 
63-8 



53*5 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated), 



Dry. 



47-8 



40 'o 



34-0 



34-0 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



I 



Darnell's. 



Dew-point. 



57-0 



48-0 
45-0 

34-0 
30'o 

25'0 



Regnault's, 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



52-0 



19-5 
20'0 



46-0 



42-5 



37'o 



8. 



General Ekmarks. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(10) No ozone; cumulus in beautiful hills. Over Gateshead; balloon full; cirrocumulus 
above us at angles of 45° and 75° ; cumulus far above, the same as on July 2l8t, 1862. 

(11) Cirrus above; balloon quite full; gas coming out; opened valve; Tyne visible 
almost to its source ; clouds piled up in heaps around, above, and below us, peak upon peak • 
a very dark cloud with a little blue in it. ' 

(12) Wind blowing in our faces; clouds piled up in heaps around us ; blue sky above us ■ 
opened valve. ' 

(13) Undoing the grapnel ; cirrus, cirrocumulus, and a blackish-brown ■stratus above ; 
clouds of all shapes and sizes ; masses of cumulus in distorted forms, 

(14) Let grapnel down ; can see Newcastle. 



203 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Fourteenth 



bZ 



(1) 

(2) 
(3) 
(4) 

(5) 

(6) 

(7) 



(8) 

(0) 
(10) 

(11) 
(12) 
(13) 
(14) 
(15) 
(16) 



(17) 
(18) 



Time. 



h 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 



29 
29 
31 

3^ 
3^ 
33 
33 
34 
35 
35 
36 

37 
37 
37 
38 
39 
40 

40 
42 
42 
43 
43 
44 
44 
45 
6 45 
6 46 
6 46 
47 
47 
47 
48 
48 
48 
48 

49 
49 
49 



30 p.m. 

50 .. 

o „ 

o „ 

3° '. 

o „ 

30 .. 

o ,, 
o „ 

30 >. 

o „ 
o „ 

10 „ 
30 .. 
30 .. 

o „ 
o „ 

10 „ 

o „ 

30 .. 
30 I. 

20 „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 .> 

o „ 

15 .. 

o „ 

10 „ 
30 » 

10 „ 

20 „ 
3° .' 

o „ 

30 '. 

45 .. 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 3J° Fahr. 



22'IO 
22'20 
22'20 
22-35 



22-45 



22-70 
22*90 
23-00 



23-10 
23-32 
23-50 
23-65 
23-70 
23-95 
24-40 
24-40 
24-55 



24-92 
25-00 
25-30 
25-50 

25-70 
25-90 



26-20 
26-41 
26-65 
26-71 



26-90 

27-20 
27-35 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



Height above 
sea-level. 



feet. 
8,033 

(8.°33) 
8,033 
7,912 
7,912 
7.770 

(7,696) 
7,621 

(7,480) 
7.327 
7.124 
7,022 

(6,980) 
6,898 
6,626 
6,404 
6,233 
6,176 
5.891 
5.389 
S.389 
5.235 

(4.927) 
4,865 

4.784 
4.452 

4.231 
4,009 

3.787 
(3.6S5) 
3.480 
3,264 
3.018 

2.957 
(2,908) 
2,762 
2,466 
2.317 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



34° 

34-0 

34'0 
34-0 

35-0 

36-0 

365 

37-2 
38-0 

38-5 
383 

38-2 

38-5 
38-5 
38-2 

38-5 
38-5 
38-5 

39-0 

39'5 
395 
40-5 
41-5 
42-1 

42-1 
42-8 
43-1 
43-8 

44-1 
45-2 
45-2 



Wet. 



285 

28-5 
28-5 
28-5 
30-0 

32-0 

32-0 
33'i 
33-5 

34*2 
34-2 
34-2 
34-2 
34-5 
35-» 
35"o 
35-0 

34-8 

36-1 
37'2 
37-1 

37-8 

38-5 
40-5 

40-8 
41-2 
42-8 
42-1 

43-0 
44-1 
45 "o 



1. 



4. 



6. 



7. 



(1) Cricket ground at Newcastle, the place we left, visible ; rainbow seen between lower 
cumulus and upper clouds ; sense of warmth ; small patches of cirrus. 

(2) Can see rainbow again ; over cumulus in rocky heaps ; smi shining on us ; can see 
Newcastle through break in clouds. Colour of clouds opposite to the sun: Top (1) brovro 
stratus; (2) bluish-black stratus; (3) darker bluish-black stratus; (4) thin layer of while 
cumidostratus ; (5) greenish-brown stratus ; (6) imiform rocky clouds forming the base of 
everything. (3) Blue sky above ; wind felt in our face. 

(4) Uniform rocky clouds below us. Colour of clouds under the sim: Top (1) brown 
stratus; (2) dark -blue stratus ; (3) whitish-greyish black stratus; (4) uniform rocky cumulus. 

(.5) Perfectly quiet ; cumuli visible, apparently resting on the earth. Colour of clouds 
opposite to the sun: Top (1) brown stratus; (2) bluish-brown stratus; (3) rocky brown 
cumulostratus ; (4) bluish-black stratus ; (5) uniform base of rocky cumulus. 

(6) Losing sight of the sun ; beautiful gilded edge of clouds visible ; travelling along over 
a line of railway in the direction of Diu-ham ; wind gentle ; no ozone ; can see fields with 
sheaves of corn throuaih a break in the clouds. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from ITewcastle, August 31, 1863. 



203 



mometers (free). 



Difif. 



5-5 

S'S 
SS 
S-5 
S-o 

4-0 

35 

4' I 
4-5 

43 
4' 
4-0 

43 
40 

31 
3-5 
35 
37 

29 

^•3 
2-4 

27 

3'° 
1-6 

'•3 
1-6 

°"3 

17 

IT 
IT 

0'2 



8. 



Dew-point. 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



i8-8 

1 8-8 
i8-8 
188 

22-0 
26'0 
25-3 

27'3 
27-4 

28-4 
28-6 
28-8 
284 
290 
3i'o 

30'3 
30-3 

298 

32*2 

34" 3 
34-0 
34-8 

337 
38-5 

39-2 
40-9 
42-4 
40'3 

417 
42-8 
44-8 



38-0 



392 



4r6 



45-4 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



19-5 



280 



3J'S 



35-0 



43-0 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



37'o 

390 

390 
38-2 

39-0 



42'0 



42-5 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(7) Edge of cumulus and brownish cloud tinged by the sun. The tops of the peaks of 
the rocky clouds on nearly the same level as oiu-selves; saw struggling bits of cloud between 
the upper and lower stratum. 

(8) Peaks after peaks of cloud (apparently) rising up on every side so much as to greallv 
confine the new; car hanging rather on one side ; cloud with a little red in it, not oijposite 
to the Sim. (9) Gas clearing ; valve faintly seen. 

(10) In basm of clouds; higher on three sides than on the foLu-th. 

(11) Gas clearer; netting visible. (12) Getting into cloud. 

(13) Clouds appear to be rising. (14) In basin of cloud; misty. 

(15) In cloud ; gas clearer still, but not quite clear. 

(16) In white mist or cloud; blue above; can see earth clearly, with the river; over a 
railway ; can see two trains. 

(17) Over heaps of smoking lime; can see Lambdon Castle with its wgods; scaffolding 
poles visible surrounding it. 

(18) Heavy leaden sky above; layers of detached clouds below, 



204 



REPORT 1864. 



Table I.- 



-Meteorological Observations made in the Pourteentli 



is 
§1- 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 


Height above 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 










jiZ 




corrected 


Att. 


No. 2. 


sea-level. 


Dry. 


Wet. 




«- 




and reduced 
to 32° Fahr. 


Tlierm. 














h ra 5 


in. 




■ in. 


feet. 









CD 


6 50 o p.m. 






(2,061) 








(2) 


6 50 10 „ 


2778 






1,891 


46-8 


46-2 






6 51 „ 


27-95 






1,724 


47-2 


46-8 






6 51 10 „ 


28-25 






1.43+ 


47-8 


47-0 






6 51 30 „ 


28-50 






1. 193 


48-2 


47-5 






6 52 „ 


28-70 






1,003 


49-0 


48-2 




(3) 


6 53 .. 
6 53 10 „ 


28-85 
28-90 






859 
812 


49-8 


490 






6 53 20 „ 


28-90 






812 


5o'5 


50-0 






6 53 3° .. 


28-75 






1,050 


51-0 


50-0 




(4) 


6 54 ° .. 


28-40 






1,287 


510 


50-5 




(5) 


6 54 10 „ 


28-10 






1,580 


50-5 


50-5 






6 54 20 „ 


27-90 






1.775 


50-5 


498 






6 54 30 „ 


27-72 






1.954 


50-5 


48-9 




(6) 


6 55 „ 


27-65 






2,024 


49-8 


48-5 


■• 




6 55 30 „ 


27-68 






1.995 


50-0 


48-0 




(7) 


6 56 „ 








(J.793) 








(«) 


6 56 30 „ 









(1.597) 








(9) 


6 57 30 .. 


28-50 






1,200 


5°-5 


50-0 






6 58 „ 


28-53 






1,171 


5o'5 


50-0 






6 58 30 „ 


28-80 






909 


510 


50-0 




(10) 


6 59 ° .. 


28-90 






840 


53-0 


52'5 




(11) 


6 59 30 .. 


29-10 






704 


53"a 


52-4 




(12) 


700,, 


29-20 






635 


53'5 


52-5 






710.. 


29-25 






600 


537 


52"5 






730,, 


29-35 






531 


53-8 






(13) 


7 5°.. 
7 »5 .. 
7 29 ° .. 








• ground < 


53-5 
53-5 







Meteorological Observations made in the Fifteenth 



(14) 

(15) 
(16) 



6 o 

7 12 

7 33 
7 36 
7 42 
7 43 
7 45 
7 46 
7 46 3° 
7 47 o 



o a.m. 

o „ 

o .. 

o .. 

o „ 

o ., 

o ,. 

o „ 



29-436 
29-427 
29-459 
29483 

29-176 
29-018 
28-791 
28-644 
28-247 



56-5 



29-58 



29'55 
29-55 

29"55 



28-85 
28-72 
28-30 



T3 

a 
3 
o 



731 

879 

1,092 

1,270 

1,853 



44-2 
47-2 

47-5 
48-0 
47-0 
46-0 
45-2 
45'i 
45'i 



43-8 
46-0 

45-5 
46-1 

45'i 
44-2 
44-1 
43-8 
43-0 



3. 



(1) A uniform stratum of cloud above. (2) Can see Castle clearly ; sheep visible. 

(3) Gras clearing ; over tbin wood ; can see small village or liamlet. 

(4) In clouds ; valve opened ; can see the sky. of a greenish colour. 

(5) Above clouds. Colour of clouds: Top (1) deep greenisli blue; (2) bluish blaclc 
(3) green rocky clouds ; (4) slightly rocky clouds. (6) In clouds again. 

(7) In cloucts ; descending rapidly ; cannot see earth. 

(8) Descending slowly ; profound silence ; in white mist; gas beautifully clear. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 
Balloon Ascent, from Newcastle, August 31, 1863. 



205 



mometers (free). 




Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 


Delicate 




























Thermo- 










Daniell's. 


Regnault's. 


Blackened 




Diff. 


Dew-point 


meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Difif. 


point. 


Dew-point. 


Dew-point. 


Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 




























! 




0-6 


45'4 












45 'o 








°'4 


463 




















0-8 


461 


48-0 


















07 


467 
















48-5 




o'8 


47-3 




















0-8 


48-1 












48-0 








0-; 


45-5 


50-5 


















i-o 


49-0 




















0-5 


50*0 












50'o 








CO 


50-5 




















0-7 


48-2 












49-0 








1-6 


47-2 
















■ 




13 


47-1 




















%-o 


45-9 













46-5 




Si-0 




o'S 


49'S 












50-0 








o'S 


495 












50*0 








I'O 


49-0 




















°'5 


520 




















0-8 


51-6 












51-0 








vo 


51-5 




















I-2 


51-3 




















Balloon Ascent, from Wolverliampton, September 29, 1863. 




0-4 


43*4 


44-6 


44' 5 


43-5 


i*o 


42-4 


43'5 








12 


447 




















2-0 


43-4 




















1-9 


44-1 


480 


















1-9 


43-0 




















1-8 


42-2 




















I'l 


42-9 




















i'3 


41-2 




















2*1 


407 


45'2 
















8- 9- 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 


(9) Can see earth faintly ; can hear children's voices ; can see furnaces and tramways ; 
Durham Mmster in sight on a hill ; Leamside Junction visible. 


(10) Going towards hdls beyond Leamside. (11) Crossed the North-Eastern Railway. 
(}2 Over tram way. (13) On the ground near Pittington. 
(14) Cloudy sky ; wind S.W. v ^ b s 


(15) Misty all round ; east clearest. 




(16) Ct 


m see the 


top of a h 


igh hill 


; query 


theW 


rekin. 









206 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I.- 



-Meteorological Observations made in the Fifteenth 



i ° 



Time. 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



Height above 
sea-level. 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



Wet. 



(1) 

(2) 

(3) 

(5) 
(6) 
(7) 
(8) 

(9) 
(10) 

(11) 
(12) 
(13) 
(14) 
(15) 
(10) 
(17) 
(18) 
(19) 

(20) 
(21) 
(22) 
(23) 

(24) 
(25) 

(26) 

(27) 
(28) 
(29) 
(30) 

(31) 
(32) 



47 

5° 

52 

52 

54 

55 

56 

57 

59 

o 

I 

2 

2 

3 

4 

4 

5 

6 

6 

7 

9 

10 
n 
II 
12 

13 
14 
8 15 
8 16 
8 18 
8 19 
8 20 
8 20 
8 21 
8 21 
8 22 
8 22 
8 23 
8 24 
8 25 



8 



8 



50 a.m. 

o „ 

o ., 

30 » 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o ,, 

o „ 

o ., 

o „ 

30 .. 

o ,, 

o „ 

30 >! 

o ,. 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

3° I. 

o » 

o ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

o ., 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 „ 

30 .. 

30 » 

o .. 

o ,. 

o „ 



28-049 

27-849 

26-950 
26-451 
26-154 

25-859 



24-619 
24-469 
24-270 

23-972 
23-873 
23-783 
23-674 



23-496 

23-528 

23-529 

23'53i 
23-382 

23-362 

23-103 

22-884 
22-734 

22-485 
22-387 

22-188 

22-109 

21-999 

21-909 
21-840 



21-790 
21-690 
21-590 



2I"5II 

21-192 

21- 142 



49-0 
49-0 
49-0 
49-0 
48-0 

46-0 

42-5 
42-5 

42-0 
41-0 

40-5 

40-0 

39-0 



37-0 
37-0 
36-5 

36-0 
36-0 
360 
35'o 
34'5 
34-0 



34-0 

33'5 
330 

33'o 
33'5 



27-00 
26-50 
26-20 



25-70 

24' 7 5 
24-42 



24-00 
23-81 



23-52 
23'55 

23-55 
23-40 



23-12 
22-85 



22-50 



22*12 
22-OI 



21-85 



21-50 
21-48 



feet. 
2,129 
2,197 
2,870 

3.278 
3,685 

(3-8J1) 

3.938 

(4.398) 

5.3 14 
5.473 
5.789 

6,000 

6,117 
6,321 

(6.375) 
6,429 
6,385 
6,385 
6.385 

6,647 

6.659 
6,966 

7,201 
7.436 
7.671 
7,806 
8,024 
8,041 
8,259 
8,364 
8,446 

(8,475) 
8,504 
8,621 
8,726 

(8,726) 
8,819 

9.193 
9,252 



449 
44-8 
42-0 

415 
40-0 

38-5 
38-0 

37-5 
35-2 

33-8 
33-0 
32-2 

31-5 

3i"3 
31-0 

3o'5 
30-0 

30-5 
29*0 

29-5 

29'3 
29-0 
28-5 
28-0 

27-2 
260 
26-0 
260 
27-0 
26-5 
26-2 



25-0 

25-0 
24-5 

23-5 

21-5 

21-3 



43-0 
43-0 
411 
39-0 

37'5 
36-5 
35-8 
350 
32*2 
311 
30-4 
29-8 

29-0 

29-2 
290 
28-5 
287 
27-8 

27-8 
27-5 
27-1 
26-0 

257 
25-0 
24- 1 
24-0 
24-0 
25-1 
24-8 
24-8 



32-0 



32-0 



I. 



6. 



(1) Assisted Mr. Coswell in lowering the grapnel. 

(2) Sun faint. (3) Misty over the earth. 

(4) The sun is not visible. (5) The lines from B to G visible ; sky spectrum. 

(()) Jerks in the balloon; the line F is beautifully defmed ; cannot see A, and can just 
see G ; sky spectrum. 

(7) No ozone by paper. (8) No sun ; no ozone by powder. 

(9) Mist in straight lines in places, and spread out in other places; very misty on 11 :e 
earth everywhere. (10) Valve opened. (11) Gas cloudy. 

(12) Clouds above and below. (13) Clouds very high above \is. 

(14) B to G; sky spectrum. (15) Sand out. 

(16) Fine view to the E. ; no sun. (17) Gas heavy; sand out. 

(18) Gleam of light. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 18G4. 

Balloon Ascent, from "Wolverhampton, September 29, 1863. 



20; 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



19 
1-8 
0-9 

2-2 

2'5 
3-0 
27 
2-6 
2-4 

2-5 

i-s' 

15 
1-8 

I'2 

17 

1-8 
1-9 

2-S 
23 
2-2 

19 

2'0 
2"0 

'■9 
1-7 
I '4 



Dew-point 



408 
40-9 
40 o 

35-9 
34'i 
337 
32-8 
316 
27-5 
286 
25-2 
24-4 

22-9 

24-3 
25-9 
23-8 
257 
23-4 

247 

21'3 
20-2 
I9'2 
1 6-2 

15-2 
14-4 

13-8 
13-8 
16-4 
167 
17-9 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



41-5 



37-5 



29-5 



26-2 



25*0 
24*0 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



45 'o 



37-5 



27'0 

26-5 



Wet. 



43-0 



35-2 



24-8 
24-6 



Diff. 



2-3 



2-2 
19 



Dew- 
point. 



407 



32-1 



147 
15-5 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



4i'0 



35'S 
[no dew, 
38-0 



260 



26-5 

21'0 
210 
20*5 



15-0 



ISO 



15-5 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



43-0 



36-0 
34-2 



31-8 

31-5 
3i'o 



27'2 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(19) Balloon is quite fiill, and on examination appeared to be quite sound. 

(20) Faint gleams of light. (21) Cannot get any dew on Eegnault's hygrometer. 
(22) Gun lieard. (2.3) Over a town ; 'can see two spires. 

(24) Apparently moving more south. 

(2o) Dense clouds above il«, very high indeed ; there are two layers below us. 
(26) A very winding canal. (27) Temperature of gas z^^-o in neck of balloon. 

(28) Temperatiu-e of gas in baUoon 29^°. (29) Gas clearing a little. 

(.30) No sun here, but is sliining on the landscape over a large space about 30 miles distant, 
which appears vei-y bright in contrast with all around. 

(31) Many clouds apparently on the ground ; twelve cumuli in a patch. 

(32) Detached cumuli apparently resting on the ground, like huge swans in some places, in 
Others as if there had been a simultaneous discharge of heavy ordnance ; three distinct layers 
of cloud. 



208 



REPORT 1864. 



4. 





Table I. — ^Meteorological Observations made 


in tlie Pifteenti 


L 


h 


Time. 




Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 
Barometer, 


Height above 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 


Att. 
Therm. 








Is 






corrected 
and reduced 


No. 2. 




Dry. 


Wet. 










to 32'' Fahr. 
















h m s 




in. 





in. 


feet. 










(1) 


8 27 o 


n 


21*090 


34-0 


21-00 


9,310 


2I*0 






(2) 


8 2S O 


)) 


20*895 


31-0 


2090 


9-563 


21-5 


21-5 






8 29 30 


J) 


20-547 


30-0 




10,005 


211 


18-5 




C-i) 


8 30 


)) 








(10,300) 








(4) 


8 32 


)) 


20*002 


27-5 


20'00 


10,646 


18-1 


14-2 






8 33 


)) 


19-902 


27-3 


19-90 


10,785 


17-2 


14-1 






8 34 


j> 


19-802 


27-2 




10,924 


17-0 


13-9 




(5) 


8 34 40 


)) 








(11,082) 








(«) 


8 35 
8 36 




19-702 


27-2 


19-70 


11,062 


17-5 


14-2 






8 37 


)> 








(11.075) 


i7'5 


14-1 






8 3? 


H 


19-552 


26-8 




11,082 


16-2 


,4-, 






8 39 


»J 


19-523 


26-0 




11,127 


16-5 


142 




(7) 


8 40 


)> 


19*303 




19-30 


11,592 


16-2 


14-0 




(») 


8 41 


J) 


19-253 


260 




11,654 


16-0 


14-0 




(y) 


8 42 


)J 


19-105 




19-10 


11,857 


160 


14-0 






8 43 


)) 


18-905 






12,1 13 


15-5 


14-8 




(10) 


8 44 


>> 


18-756 




18-70 


12,305 


13-8 


12-5 




(11) 


8 44 30 


JJ 


18*705 






12,416 


12-2 


11-5 




(12) 


8 45 
8 46 


J) 


18705 






12,416 

(12,415) 


130 


12-1 




(13) 


8 46 30 


)) 








(12,415) 










8 47 


9) 


18-706 


24-5 


18-70 


12,414 


14-2 








8 48 




i8-6o6 


24-5 


18-60 


12,800 


13-0 








8 48 30 


II 
















(14) 


8 49 


)» 


18-506 


24-5 




12,857 


16-2 


15-0 






8 50 


Jt 


18*507 


24-0 


18-50 


12,857 








(15) 


8 51 


J) 


18-307 


24-0 




12,972 


16-0 








8 52 


)) 


18-357 


24"0 




12,900 


i6-o 






(IG) 


8 52 30 


J> 








(12,800) 










8 53 




18-560 






12,666 


17-8 






(17) 


8 54 




18-633 




18-62 


12533 


17-8 


17-0 




(18) 


8 54 30 


)♦ 


18-714 






12,818 








(19) 


8 55 


J) 








12,818 


17-5 


16-9 




(2U) 


8 57 


)> 


18-548 


180 


18-50 


12,704 


17-5 






(21) 


8 58 


)> 


i8-6i8 






12,593 


175 


16-9 






8 59 


H 


18-318 




18-30 


12,926 


14-0 


13-5 




(22) 


900 


J' 


i8'3i8 




18-30 


12,926 


11-5 


11-5 






910 




18-315 






12,926 


11-8 


n-5 




(23) 


9 I 15 


)) 








12,926 








(24) 


9 1 30 


JJ 


18-315 




18-30 


12,926 


12-5 


12-0 



t). 



7. 



(1) A faint sun ; the liquid in the actinometer did not move at all ; wind below apparently. 

(2) A faint sun ; examined everywhere with small spectroscope ; the spectrum the same as 
on the earth. 

(3) Looks like a beautiful garden at places from 20 to 30 miles distant, upon which the 
sun is sliining brightly ; in some places the sun is shining on beautifully curved clouds. 

(4) Gleam of sun. (o) Beautiful bed of clouds ; beautiful blue tinge over clouds. 

(6) Clouds a mile above us at least. 

(7) Passing a large town ; query Nottingham or Ashby de la Zouch. 

(8) Ozone powders = 4; dotted clouds. (9) Ice on water. 
(10) Moving straight for the Wash. (11) No sun. 
(12) Image of the sun faint. (13) Gun heard. 

(14) Clouds above. (15) Clouds far above us, at least a mile. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from Wolverhampton, September 29, 1863. 



209 



9. 



10, 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



mometers (free). 




Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 


Delicate 






Gridiron 














Thermo- 










Dauiell's. 


Regnault's 
Dew-point. 


Blackened 


Diff. 


Dew-point 


meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 
point. 


Dew-point. 


Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 









21-2 





















23-0 


2-6 


07 












5-0 






39 


— i4'o 
















18-4 


3-1 


- 94 
















3"i 


- 97 


17-2 
















33 


— 10-9 


17-5 










60 






3-4 


— u-8 


















a-i 


— 2-0 


















2-3 


- 34 


















2-2 


- 27 












^'5 








- 14 












30 






2-0 


- 1-4 


i6-o 
















07 


95 


















13 


2-4 


















07 


6i 












5° 




12-5 


09 


5-0 













TO 
4-5 





165 

17-0 


1-2 


5-8 


160 










13-5 
10-5 




l6'2 
20-0 


08 


no 
















19-5 


0-6 


125 


















' ■o.6 














125 




20-9 


12-5 












13-0 




o-s 


ii-S 












135 






00 


ii-S 












II'O 




13-0 


0-3 


92 






























III 






0-5 


8-1 


12-8 

















17. 



(16) Stratus clouds, some on our level, and some at a higher elevation. 

9il\ T^® actinometer reading decreased on exposing the chamber of the instrument. 

(18) A very great variety of clouds. 

(19) Stratus on our level; sixteen distinct cumuli resting apparently on the earth; like 
the smoke on discharging ordnance : dark shadow on the ground. 

(20) Beautiful tinge of blue. 

foo^ i^*^°^^'^^*®''°°^^''^°'^^' "''^*' patches of Ught on the earth. 

{^^) bmoke streammg up to a height of l-J- mile ; counted forty separate emnuli, appa- 
^rently restmg on the earth. ^^ 

! (^) ^as clear ; examined balloon internally for holes or rents, 
i (^4) Gas clear; examined the balloon internally for rents; the dome of the balloon appeared 

1864"''''^^ ^ ^^^ ' ^°^^ ^°°^"S through a volume of gas apparently enlarge objects ? 



210 



REPORT 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Fifteenth 



u o 



Siphon Barometer. 



Time. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



Height above 
sea-level. 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



Wet. 



(1) 

(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 

(6) 
(7) 
(8) 

(9) 
(10) 

(11) 
(12) 

(13) 

(14) 
(15) 
(16) 
(17) 
(18) 
(19) 



(20) 

(21) 
(22) 



(23) 
(24) 
(25) 
(26) 
(27) 



h m 


B 


9 2 


£ 


9 3 





9 4 





9 5 





9 7 
9 8 






9 9 





9 10 





9 lo 


30 


9 11 





9 II 


IS 


9 12 





9 12 


30 


9 13 





9 14 





9 15 
9 16 






9 17 
9 18 






9 20 





9 22 





9 23 





9 24 





9 25 





9 ^7 
9 28 






9 29 





9 31 





9 32 





9 33 





9 34 





9 35 
9 36 
9 38 







9 40 





9 41 





9 43 





9 44 






m. 



18-265 
18-215 
18-215 
18-215 

i8-2i5 
18-215 



18-105 
18-065 



17-815 

17-645 
17-663 

17713 
17-713 



17-613 
17-613 
17-613 



17-513 

17-513 
17-643 

i7'5i3 
16-514 
16-013 
15-815 

I7'3i7 
17-417 
17-417 
17-517 



17-417 
17-618 
17-618 



240 
24-0 
24-0 
24-0 



21-0 

21-0 
20-0 
19-0 

18-0 



18-0 



17-5 



15-20 
18-20 



17-70 



17-30 
17-50 



l7'6o 



feet. 

12.975 

13,025 

13.025 
13.025 
13,030 
13,160 



13.279 
13.321 



(13,602) 
13,882 

14,218 
14,096 

13.791 
13,805 



13.695 
13,695 
13.695 
(13,738) 
13,982 
13,982 
13,807 
13,982 

15.517 
16,284 
16,590 
14,295 

14,235 
14,219 

14,175 



14,203 
13.897 
13.897 



15-0 
15-0 
15-0 
15-0 
16-0 

15-1 
15-0 



14-5 

13-1 
12-8 

12*2 
14-5 
14-5 

1-0 

8-0 

7-2 



5-0 

3-5 
3-0 
2-5 
2-0 
1-2 
0-0 

4'S 
7'5 
6-0 



5'5 
6-0 



i4'5 
14-8 

14-8 



14-5 
14-5 



14-0 



12-4 

11*2 

27*0 



2-0 
l-O 
0-2 



5'9 
4"9 



5. 



6. 



7. 



(1) Shadow of cloud upon mist very fine ; earth has a violet colour. 

(2) Sun bringing mist up vertically. 

(3) The sun was shining ; the increase of scale reading in one minute by the actinometer 
was 5 divisions. 

(4) Clouds above ; a bright sun ; actinometer increased 4 divisions in one minute. 

(5) Clouds above us still ; the sun was bright ; actinometer increased 7 divisions in one 
minute, and fell 3 divisions in the shade in one minute. 

(6) Stratus on our level. (7) Crossing a river ; query Trent. 

(8) Sand out ; suspect the direction of the wind changed here. 

(9) A slirill whistle up the balloon was followed by a ringing sound for 10 seconds, after- 
awards passmg down the balloon. 

(10) Tlie air is very nearly saturated ; clouds above us stiU. 

(11) Sun shining ; spectrum everywhere. (12) B to G ; P very distinct ; sky spectrum. 

(13) Water applied to Wet-bulb Thermometer; no ozone paper coloured anywhere. 

(14) Sun shining on Q-ridii'Ou Thermometer. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from "Wolverhampton, September 29, 1863. 



211 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



0-5 
0'2 



0-6 

0-5 



04 

i-o 



0-5 



VI 



Dew-point. 



io"4 

13-3 
13-3 



9-8 
io"6 



101 



93 
35 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



I3'o 



5-0 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's 
Dew-point. 



14-0 
ii-S 

12-0 
13-0 

II-5 



• 4-0 
■ yo 

■lO'O 

-lO'O 
■lO'O 



1*2 

5"° 
4*5 
4-0 

4-5 
3-0 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



15-0 

l6-5 
i9"o 



13-1 

I2'2 



6-0 

4-6 
3-0 



lO'O 

8-5 



8. 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(15) Blue sky; actinometer increased 5 divisions in one minute. 

(16) Sun spectrum H clear, dark beyond. (17) Sim spectrum A clear. 

(18) Many lines in sun spectrum. 

(19) Lines clear aud numerous in the sun spectrum, extending from A to beyond H. 

(20) Filled bag with air. 

(21) Opened ralve, gas expanding rapidly; filled bags with air; saw outUne of coast 
through a break in the clouds from N. of Yarmouth and to the West. 

(22) Opened valve. 

(23) Sun shining brightly ; increase of 7 divisions in the actinometer scale in one minute. 

(24) The sun spectrum extended from A to far beyond H, and was veary beautiful. 

(25) Packed up Eegnault's Hygrometer ; opened valve ; gas expanding rapidly. 

(26) Line H in the spectrum clear and vivid ; beautiful ring on black bulb of Hygrometer ; 
packed up Dry and Wet aspirated. 

(27) The sun spectrum very vivid aud very long, H made up of fine lines ; moving directly 
towards the Wash. 

p2 



312 



REPORT 1864. 



Table I. 



-Meteorological Observations made in the Fifteenth 



DO . 






Siphon barometer. 


Aneroid 


Height above 


Dry and Wet Ther- 












sz 


Time. 




Reading 




Jarometer, 










1^ 






corrected 
and reduced 
to 32° Kahr. 


Therm. 


No. 2. 




Dry. 


Wet. 






h m s 




in. 





in. 


feet. 










(1) 


9 45 o a.m. [ 


I7'468 






14,224 


9-0 


7-5 






9 46 


u 








14,190 


9-3 


8-2 




(-0 


9 47 


j> 


17-418 






14,155 


9"5 


8-6 




(•■i) 


9 48 


!) 


17-318 




17-30 


14,308 


11-5 


I i-o 




(4) 


9 49 
9 49 30 


5> 


17-518 






14,031 


13-0 
13-9 


12-3 
13-2 






9 50 


)> 


17-117 




17-00 


I3>i75 


14-1 


13-5 




0^) 


9 52 


T) 


17-117 




17-10 


i3>i75 


15-1 


14- 1 






9 54 


., 


17-318 






14.459 


131 


12-6 






9 55 


!» 


17-518 






14.347 


13-2 


1 2- 1 




w 


9 56 


,, 


I7-7I8 






13.947 


i3"5 


11-9 






9 56 30 


>? 








(13.947) 


13-5 


11 -0 




(V) 


9 57 


It 


17-718 






13.947 


13-2 


ii-o 




(«) 


9 57 3° 


it 


17-818 




17-80 


13.747 


13-2 


10-5 






9 58 


)l 


18-118 




■••.«• 


13.332 


14-1 


no 






9 58 30 


?» 


















9 59 


»» 


18-619 







12,642 


17-0 


14-5 






10 


tt 


18-719 




18-70 


12,504 


17-2 


15-0 






10 1 


tt 


18-919 







12,225 


17-5 


15-0 






10 I 30 


It 


19-069 






12,030 


17-2 


14-5 






10 2 


)> 


19-210 


23-0 


19-20 


11,834 


17-5 








10 3 


tt 








(10,964) 


195 


I6-I 




(y) 


10 3 30 


It 


19-210 




20-20 


10,534 


21-0 


i6-5 






10 4 


)> 


20-410 






10,284 


22-0 


17-8 






10 4 30 


»> 


20-66o 




20-65 


10,084 


23-2 


18-1 




(10) 


1050 
10 s 30 


It 
II 


20-909 


24-0 


20-90 


9,671 
(9.425) 


23-0 


19-0 






10 6 


>l 


21-309 






9.179 


25-2 


20-5 






10 6 30 


l> 


21-509 






8.933 


260 


21-0 






10 7 


)» 


21-909 




21-90 


8.439 


26-5 


21-0 


( 




10 7 30 


II 


22-109 






8,209 


27-0 


2I-I 






10 8 


II 


22-659 







7,626 


29-0 


24-5 




4V 


10 9 


l» 


22-809 






7,396 


31-0 


26-8 




(12) 


10 II 


II 


24-398 


295 




5.613 


34-5 


30-9 






10 13 


11 


24-888 






5.°78 


35-2 


30-9 






10 13 30 


II 


25-492 








36-0 


311 




(la) 


10 14 


II 




32-0 


25'5o 


4.438 


37-2 


311 






10 15 


11 


25-992 






3.933 


39-2 


33-0 






10 15 30 


11 


26-391 






3.529 


395 


33-0 






10 16 


II 


26-689 


33-0 




3.224 


41-2 


23-5 




(14) 


10 17 


II 


27-007 


34-0 




2,828 


42-0 


33-8 






10 19 




27-881 






2,039 


47-0 


37-5 




(15) 


10 19 lo 


II 


27981 






1,881 










10 20 


II 


27-979 






1,881 


48-0 


40-0 






10 21 


11 


27-777 






1,717 


48-0 


40-5 




(16) 


10 23 


»l 


28-471 






1,469 


50-0 


45-0 




(17) 


10 30 


11 








ground. 









3. 



6. 



7. 



(1) Gim again heard. (2) Can see 50 miles of coast well. 

(3) Supposed to be about 10 miles from the mouth of the Wash ; we cannot go higher, 
but must descend. 

(4) An increase of 8 divisions in the reading of the actinometer in one minute, ia full 
rays of the sun. 

(5) An increase of 7 divisions in the reading of the actinometer in one minute, in full rays 
of the sun, and then of 8 divisions in one minute. 

(6) Wash obscm-ed by second layer of clouds. (7) No ozone. (8) Ozone powder =8. 
(9) A railway seen, (10) Balloon collapsing. (11) Sun warm. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from Wolverhampton, September 29, 1863. 



213 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



I'S 
I-I 

0-9 

o'S 
07 
07 
0-6 
vo 

°"5 
I'l 
1-6 
^•5 

2"2 
27 
31 

22 

27 

4'5 
4-2 

SI 
4-0 

47 
S'° 
S-5 
5-9 
4' 5 
4-2 
3-6 
4-3 

49 
6-1 

6-2 
6-5 
77 
8-2 

95 

80 

7-5 
5-0 



8. 



Dew-point, 



7-2 
6-9 
•/•8 
8-9 
6-4 
8-8 
3-6 

- 0-5 

- 8-4 

- 6-0 
- 10-4 
-i3'o 

- 47 

- 17 

- 4-0 

- 60 

- 87 
-14-4 

- 99 
-13-9 

- 6-1 

- 5-5 

- 4-0 

- 6-9 

- 59 
8-2 

15-5 
24-9 

24- 1 

23-8 

22-5 
249 
246 
23-8 
237 
26-8 

31-2 
32-3 

397 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



11-5 

i'3-8 
13-5 

17-5 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



29-0 
31-5 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers, 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



3-0 
2'0 



8-0 
8-0 



7-0 



- 3"° 



- 6-0 



5° 



-- 5-0 



Delicate 

Regnaulfs. 1^'?;=''™*'* 
Bulb Ther- 

_ . ^ mometer. 

Dew-point. 



25*0 



25-0 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



1.5. 



16. 



I2'0 
17-1 

189 
18-9 
152 
15-0 
17-2 

17-5 
i9'o 

21-0 



25-2 

27'0 

28-5 

29 5 

30'o 

31-9 



39"o 
391 



49-2 
49-0 
53-0 



17. 



(12) The readings of the actinometer increased 20 divisions in one minute in full ravs of 
the sun. j-^ "'■ 

(13) Packed up Aneroid Barometer ; trees are bending before the wind ; there seems to 
be a gale below. 

(14) Packed up DanieU's Hygrometer ; the reading of the actinometer increased 25 div 
^^ /^rs ^V^^^^' ^"'^ ^^^^^ ^5 divisions in one minute ; can hear the barking of a doff 

(15) The wmd rough. ^' 

oJ'^f^ F^'^^^^ "P ^^ ^^^ instruments; on the ground at Temple Bruer, 6 miles from 
Bieatora. (17) The increase of the actinometer in one minute was 48 diTisions 



314 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Sixteenth 



4. 



6. 



ii 






Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 


Height above 


Dry and Wet Ther- 












ii 


Time. 




Reading 


Att. 


Barometer, 


sea-level. 








£^ 






corrected 


No. 2. 




Dry. 


Wet. 




tfS 






and reduced 
to 32° Fahr. 


Therm. 














h m s 




in. 





in. 


feet. 










(1) 


300 p.m. 






*9"34 












3 3° ° 




*9'35 




29-29 












400 








29-30 




53-8 


48-6 




(2) 


4 5 












53-0 


49-2 






4 27 








29-23 




54*5 


49*2 






4 28 30 








29-32 










(3) 


4 29 




















4 2^9 3° 








29-12 


426 


53"o 


47-9 






4 30 








28-70 


845 


52-0 


46-8 




(4) 


4 30 30 








28-42 


899 


50-0 


45-5 




(5) 


4 31 








27-92 


1.573 


48-2 


44-1 






4 31 40 








27-70 


1,748 


47-8 


43-0 






4 31 50 








27-60 


1,887 


47-4 


42-8 






4 32 








27-50 


1,984 


46-8 


42-5 






4 32 15 








27-35 


2,131 


46-0 


42-0 




(6) 


4 32 30 








27-20 


2,279 


45-2 


41-1 






4 32 45 








27-08 


2.399 


44-8 


40-5 




(7) 


4 33 








27-00 


2,474 


43-5 


40-0 




(8) 


4 33 30 








26-42 


3,060 


42-0 


38-4 




(9) 


4 34 








25-80 


3,700 


41-0 


37-2 






4 34 30 









25-70 


3.805 


40-8 


36-8 






4 3S 








25-62 


3,878 


40-5 


36-5 




(10) 


4 35 30 








25-40 


4.1 14 


39-2 


35-6 




(11) 


4 36 








25-20 


4,219 


37*5 


33-0 




(12) 


4 37 










(5,200) 








(13) 


4 37 30 








23-95 


5,672 


34-2 


31-5 




(14) 


4 38 








24-10 


5.499 


33-0 


30-5 






4 38 30 








24-00 


5.605 


32-5 


29-7 






4 39 








23-90 


5.717 


32-0 


29-5 




(15) 


4 39 3° 








23-40 


6,277 


31-5 


28-2 






4 39 45 








23-31 


6,378 


31-3 


28-4 




(16) 


4 40 








23-20 


6,506 


31-2 


28-5 






4 4° 30 








23-10 


6,619 


31-2 


28-5 




(17) 


4 41 








23-00 


6,732 


31-0 


28-5 




(18) 


4 41 30 








22-95 


6,796 


31-5 


28-7 






4 42 








22-75 


7,030 


31-8 


28-9 






4 42 30 


















(19) 


4 43 









22-62 


7.184 


3i'o 


27-1 






4 43 3° 








22-6o 


7.193 


30-5 


27-1 




(20) 


4 44 








22-60 


7.193 


29-5 


27-1 




(21) 


4 45 








22-55 


7,2^2 


29-2 


27-1 




(22) 


4 46 








22-52 


7.303 


29-0 


27-1 




(2a) 


4 46 30 








22-50 


7,310 


30-0 


27-1 


'' 


(24) 


4 47 








22-55 


7,267 


31-5 


27*2 





7. 



(1) Clear sky generally ; fine wind S.E. 

(2) Both the Gridiron Thermometer and the Blackened Bulb Thermometer were broken 



just before leaving 

(4) A very rapid decline of temperature. 

(6) Golden sunset ; colours very intense 

(8) Rising quickly. 
(10) Temperature falling quickly again. 

(12) The mouth of the Thames visible, and surrounding coast. 
(1.3) The sea beyond the mouth of the Thames visible. 
(14) Gas like smoke on coming out of the lower valve or neck of balloon 



(.3) Left the earth. 

(.5) Sky cloudless except near the horizon. 
(7) Sand out. 

(0) Wind changed from S.E. to S. 
(11) The Thames visible to its mouth. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

BaUoon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, October 9, 1863. 



215 



mometers (free). 



DifF. 



Dew-point. 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet 



DifF. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Darnell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



5*2 

3-8 
S'3 



5*1 

5"i 
4-5 
4"i 
4-8 
4-6 

4-3 
4-0 

4' I 
4*3 
3-5 
3-6 

3-8 
4-0 
4-0 
3-6 
4-5 

^^^ 

a-8 
*'S 
33 
2-9 

a-y 
2-7 

2-5 
z-8 
2-9 

3"9 
3 '4 
2-4 

2" I 

1-9 
2-9 
4'3 



8. 



43*5 
46-0 
44-1 



42*8 

41-5 
407 

39-6 
377 
37*7 
377 
37'4 
36-4 
3S-6 
35'9 
33*9 
32'4 
31-8 

3i"4 
30-8 
26-8 

26*9 

23-8 

24"2 
20"0 
21'0 
22*3 
217 
22*2 
21-8 
22"0 

i6'9 
17*2 
19-1 
19-8 

20*2 

i8-o 
i6-s 



9. 



29"0 



22'0 



i9"o 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(15) Over London ; the roar of London deep. 

(16) Koar of London loud and continuous. (17) The river Thames like a canal. " 
(18) London looks very fine indeed. (19) Nearly over London Bridge. 

(20) The sunset is gorgeous ; rose-coloured cumuli extending from near the place of the 
Sim to the S. and N. ; white cumuli in the E. ; no clouds except near the horizon. 

(21) The ships in the Thames appear long and narrow, and steamboats like moving toys 

(22) The Docks distinct and very clear. ^ 

(23) Can see the inner court of the Bank ; St. Paul's looks very small ; aU streets in the 
city are distinctly visible ; Milbank Prison and Oxford Street seen very clearly 

(24) Over the Thames. " ^ 



216 



EEPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Sixteenth 



^z 



(2) 
(3) 



(4) 



(5) 



(6) 
(7) 
(8) 



(9) 

(10) 

(11) 
(12) 

(13) 
(14) 



(15) 



(16) 



h 


m 


s 


4 


48 





4 49 





4 


5° 





4 


51 





4 


52 


30 


4 


52 


45 


4 


53 





4 


53 


30 


4 


54 





4 55 





4 55 


10 


4 


5" 





4 


57 





4 


57 


30 


4 


57 45 


4 


58 





4 


58 


3° 


4 


59 





5 








5 


I 





5 


I 


30 


5 


2 





5 


3 





5 


4 





5 


4 


30 


5 


4 45 


5 


5 





5 


6 





5 


6 


30 


5 


7 





5 


8 





5 


10 





5 


II 





5 


12 





5 


13 





5 


14 





S 


14 


15 


5 


14 


30 


5 


15 





5 


16 






p.m. 



5 17 

5 

5 



18 
»9 



20 
20 
21 
22 



o 
o 
o 
o 

30 

o 

o 



siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height aboTe 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Att. 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 




to 32° Fahr. 














in. 





in. 


feet. 














22-69 


7,087 


30-0 


27-2 








23-00 


6,731 


30-5 


27-2 




*....• 




23-15 


6.557 


31-0 


27-5 








23-60 


6,310 


317 


28-0 








24-00 


5,600 


32-0 


29-2 








24-15 


5.433 


32-5 


29-5 








24-50 


5.°52 


33-0 


29-8 








25'55 


3,928 


33'2 


300 








24-70 


4.835 


34-0 


30-5 








25-10 


2,409 


34-8 


30-7 








25-20 


4,302 


34-8 


31-2 








25-40 


4,095 


35-5 


32-0 








25-55 


4,024 


36-0 


32-0 








25-70 


3-783 


36-5 


32-5 








25-80 


3,679 


37-0 


33'o 








25-80 


3,679 


37-0 


33-0 








25-80 


3,679 


37-0 


33-1 








25-85 


3.548 


37-0 


33-2 








26-20 


3,268 


38-0 


34-2 








26-42 


3,046 
(3,043) 


38-7 


35-1 








26-42 


3.C40 


39-0 


35'i 








26-40 


3,067 


39-2 


35-5 








26-38 


3,087 


39-0 


35'i 








26-35 


3,125 
(3,220) 


39-2 


35'i 








26-15 


3,323 


39'5 


35-5 








26-15 


3,330 


39-2 


35-5 








2615 


3.323 


39-5 


35-5 








26-20 


3.272 


39'2 


35-1 








26-31 


3159 


390 


35-5 








26-60 


2,863 


39'5 


36-0 








26-70 


2,765 


40-5 


36-1 








26-80 


2,665 


40-5 


37-0 








26-75 


2,715 


41-0 


37-8 








27-08 


2,386 


42-0 


38-5 








27-14 


2.327 


42-0 


392 








27-14 


2,327 


42-0 


39-0 








27-10 


2,369 


42-5 


39-1 








2685 


2,629 


42-0 


38-5 








26-72 


2,750 


42-5 


381 








26-60 


2,870 


420 


37-5 








2655 


2,920 


41-5 


37-0 








26-35 


3,121 


410 


368 








26-20 


3,275 


40-7 


36-2 








26-15 


3,323 


40-5 


361 








26*10 


3,368 


40-0 


36-0 





4. 



i). 



(1) Roar of London deep : some blue smoke of London seen curTing upward. 

(2) Mist towards the S. of London, bounded by straight lines. 

(3) All the S. of London is bounded by mist m"ixed with smoke, all N. of London clear. 

(4) Leaving London, 

(5) The wet thermometer reading is increasing more rapidly than the dry bulb. 

(6) Nearly over Tottenham, 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, October 9, 1863. 



317 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



2-8 
3-3 

rs 

37 
2-8 
3-0 
3-2 

3'2 

rs 

4' I 
3-6 

3*5 
4-0 
4-0 
4-0 
4-0 
3'9 
3-8 
3-8 
3-6 

3"9 
37 
3-9 
41 

4'o 
37 
4-0 

4' I 
35 
3-5 
4-4 
3-5 
3'2 

3*5 
2-8 

30 
34 
3-5 
4"4 
4-5 
4-5 
4-2 

4-5 
44 
4-0 



8. 



Dew-point. 



l8-o 
177 
i8-i 

19-5 
227 
23-1 
23-4 
23'6 
24-4 
24*2 

2S'3 
266 
26-0 
26-6 

27-3 
27-3 
27-5 

277 
29-0 

30'3 



29-9 
30-6 
299 
29'6 

30'2 
30-6 
30-2 
296 
30-8 

31-4 
30-4 

32-5 

337 

34-2 

357 
35'3 
349 
34"2 
327 
32-0 
31-4 
31-5 

30'2 

30-4 

30-8 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated) 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



26*0 



28-0 
[dew off. 

27-5 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



25*5 



26-0 



24-0 
26'0 



28-5 



2)S-0 



29-0 

[dew off. 

30'o 



25-0 



10. 



11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 



(7) Noise of London still heard. 

(8) Beautiful golden sunset (9) changed dii-ection of motion. 
}S t-T ^f'*™"^ ""^ »11 ^'^'^e^- (11) Misty over the land. 

U ?f ^ ''/^^ ^i""- . ■ ^^^. ?^'' ^^^ ^'^^^ = t^° "iles from Tottenham 

/^i ft^ « ^^"'''^ ''"?*^"' *"^''^''* ' "^"^'"S ^•^^- (15) Beautiful sunset. 

(lb) ti.E. current. 



218 



REPORT 1864. 





Table I. — Meteorological 


Observations made 


in the Sixteenth 




S ° 
^2 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Att. 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32= Fahr. 
















h m s 


in. 




in. 


feet. 










(1) 


5 22 30 p.m. 







2610 


3,368 


39-5 


36-2 






5 24 I. 







2633 


3.59° 


395 


36-1 




(2) 


s 25 ° .. 


_ 





26-40 


3,382 


39-8 


36-5 






5 25 30 „ 







26-56 


2,905 


40-5 


36-2 






5 25 4.5 „ 






26-65 


2,905 


40-5 


36-5 






5 26 „ 






26-91 


2,554 


41-0 


37-1 






5 27 „ 






27-05 


2,386 


415 


37-8 






S 28 „ 






27*20 


2,268 


42-0 


39-1 






5 29 „ 






27-40 


2,072 


43-0 


40-5 






S 30 >. 




•••... 


27-45 


2,042 


43-0 


41-0 






s 31 ° » 






27-50 


1,976 


43-8 


41-5 






5 31 3° » 






27-50 


1,970 


44-0 


42-1 






5 32 15 .. 






27-50 


1,958 


435 


42-1 




(3) 


5 32 3° ». 






27-50 


1,930 


44-0 


42-5 






5 33 30 .. 






27-55 


1,890 


44-0 


425 






5 34 ° >' 






27-60 


1,877 


44-0 


42-s 






5 34 30 .• 






27-65 


1,827 


44-0 


42-5 






S 35 " 






27-75 


1,831 


44-5 


42-8 






5 35 30 » 






27-85 


1,633 


44-2 


43-1 






5 36 .. 






27-90 


1,586 


44-5 


43-2 






5 36 3° .' 






2800 


1,490 


44-8 


43-6 






5 37 .. 






2770 


1,782 


44-8 


43-6 






5 38 .. 






27-55 


1,927 


45-0 


43-4 






5 39 ° >. 






27-35 


2,120 


45-2 


43-1 






5 4° ° » 






27-35 


2,124 


45-0 


43-1 






5 4» .. 






26-92 


2,552 


44-2 


43-0 






5 42 „ 






26-85 


2,619 


43° 


^J'^ 




(4) 


5 42 15 .. 






26-56 


2,910 


42-5 


38-5 






5 42 30 .. 






26-30 


3.174 


41-5 


37-5 




(5) 


5 43 .. 






26-15 


3,326 


4i'o 


37-2 






5 43 15 „ 






26-00 


3.476 


39-S 


36-0 






5 43 30 .. 






25-75 


3.735 


39-2 


35-0 






5 44 ° 5. 







25-72 


3.762 


38-5 


33-0 






5 45 ». 







25-30 


4,3i8 


37-8 


32-5 






5 45 30 .. 






25-25 


4.259 


37-2 


35-1 






5 46 „ 







25-25 


4.303 


37-2 


35-0 






5 46 30 ., 






25-00 


4.584 


37-° 


35-2 






5 47 .. 






24-75 


4.786 


366 


32-5 






5 48 „ 






24-60 


4.949 


36*0 


31-S 






5 48 3° >. 







24-50 


5.052 


36-0 


31-5 






S 49 ° .. 


•••■•• 




24-30 


5,263 


35-0 


31-8 






5 49 3° .. 







24-20 


5.377 


34*2 


31-0 






5 49 45 .. 






23-80 


5.813 


33-0 


30-8 




(6) 


5 5°°.. 






23-55 


6,091 


32-5 


28-2 






5 51 .. 






23-10 


6,310 


31-2 


27-5 






5 5^ ° .' 






22-75 


6,992 


29-8 








5 S3 ° .. 






22*40 


7,305 


29-a 


25-2 






5 54 .. 






22-20 


7.633 


28-5 








5 55 .' 






22'IO 


7.755 


28-5 


24-5 


- 




5 55 3° '. 






21-90 


7,988 


28-1 


24-5 






1. 2. 3. 4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 1 


(1) I 


)irection N.W. 








(2) 1 


'he western sky is magnificent ; the eastern sky is d 


otted with fii 


tie cumuli 




(3) 1 


^ thin mist. 

















ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, October 9, 1863, 



219 



mometers (free). 


Gridiron 


Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


















Thermo. 










Diff. 


Dew-point, 


meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 
point. 


O 

3-3 



31-8 

















3^4 


31-6 












33 


32-2 












43 


30-6 












40 


31-4 












39 


32-2 












37 


33-2 












2-9 


35'S 












25 


37-5 












2-0 


38-6 












*-3 


388 












1-9 


39-8 












1-4 


41 "0 












I'S 


407 






*.. ... 






15 


407 












'S 


407 












15 


407 












17 


407 












i-i 


418 












1-3 


41-4 












I 'a 


42-1 












I'a 


42-1 












1-6 


41-5 












2*1 


407 












'•9 


40-9 












12 


41-6 












i-s 


37-5 












4-0 


33-5 












4-0 


32-5 












3-8 


32-4 












3-5 


31-4 












4-2 


29-5 












5-5 


25-6 












5-3 


34-2 












21 


32-1 












22 


32-0 












1-8 


327 












41 


26*5 












4-5 


247 












4-S 


247 












3-2 


267 












3-2 


25-4 












2'2 


26*4 












4-3 


190 












37 


176 












4-0 


107 












40 


9-1 












3-6 


97 













Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



31-5 

33-5 
34-0 

36-0 
38-5 
40'0 



40'o 

40*0 

41 "o 
43-0 

4i'o 
33'o 



10. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



4l"o 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(4) Sudden dryness. 

% SrthTook^dtr' "^'^"" ^''^'""'^ "'' ^'^'''"^''^ tygrometers after this time. 



220 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Sixteenth 



^2 
«5 



(1) 

(2) 



(3) 



Time. 



h m s 
5560 p.m. 
5 56 30 >. 
5 57 o „ 
5 58 ° » 
5 59 ° .. 
600,, 



Siphon Barometer. 



Heading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



m. 

2l-8o 

2I'6o 

21-55 

21'50 
2I*40 
21'30 



Height above 
sea-level. 



feet. 
8,108 

8,354 
8,416 
8,467 

8,499 

8,714 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



28-0 
28-0 

27'5 
27*0 
27*0 
26'5 



Wet. 



24'I 

24' o 

23-5 

23'o 
23-0 
23-0 



Meteorological Observations made in the Seventeenth 



(4) 
(5) 
(6) 

(7) 

(8) 

(9) 

(10) 

(11) 
(12) 



(1.3) 
(14) 
(15) 



(16) 

(17) 
(18) 

(19) 
(20) 
(21) 



(22) 



o p.m. 

o ,, 

o ,, 

o „ 

3° :. 

o ,, 

o „ 

30 .. 

o » 

30 » 

o ,. 

30 >. 

o ,> 

30 ,. 

o „ 

o ,. 

3° 1. 

o „ 

30 ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

o I, 

o >. 

o >. 

30 .. 

o » 

45 ., 

o „ 

o ,, 

o „ 

o „ 



3o"i 10 



29-856 
29-717 
29-409 
28-679 
28-389 
28-469 
28-560 
28*610 
28-871 
28-713 
28-593 
28-383 
28-313 
28243 
28-163 



28-073 
27-963 
27-763 
27-314 
27-264 
27-213 
27-173 
27-223 
27-262 
26-262 
26-943 
26-663 
26-266 





30-11 


45-0 




29 90 


45 'o 




44' 5 





44"5 




44" 3 


2842 


44*3 





44-0 


28-60 


437 


28-65 


43-5 


28-90 


43-0 




43-0 


28-60 


43-0 




43-0 


28-34 


43-0 




43-0 




43-0 


28-11 


43-0 




43-0 




43-0 




43-0 


27-31 


44-0 


27-25 


44-0 




44-0 




44*0 




44-5 


27-30 


44-0 




44-0 





368 
655 

1,328 
1,598 
1,518 

1 ,436 
1,390 

1,148 
1,336 

1,733 
1,773 
1,787 
1,801 
1,816 
(1,860) 
1,903 
2,010 
2,204 
2,639 
2,687 
2.735 
2,775 
(2,670) 
'2,689 
2,689 
3,005 
3,282 
3,675 



42-0 


4i'5 


40-0 


38-5 


39-5 


397 


40-0 


41-5 


41*5 


41-0 


415 


41-7 


42-0 


42-5 


43-0 


43-2 


44-0 


440 


44-0 


44-0 


44*0 


44-0 


44-2 


44'5 


44" S 


43-S 


42-2 



39'3 



390 

3'8-2 
37-2 
38-1 
38-3 
38-5 
39"5 
39"5 
39'5 
39"5 
39-8 
40-1 
40-3 
40-5 

41-0 
43"i 
4i"5 
41-2 
41-1 
41-2 
41-0 

41-0 
41-0 
40-8 

39*5 
38-1 



1. 



3. 



6. 



(1) Too dark to read well. (2) Not sure of decimals in thermometer readings. 

(3) Can scarcely take this reading ; could not read after this ; came down at 6'' 30" at 

Pirton Grange, on the boundary of the counties of Hertford and Bedford ; from 6'' I was 

watcliing the mcreasing darkness of the earth ; the earth began to get dark at half -past 5 

o'clock ; it continuously increased. 

(•")) Great deposit on Eegnault's Hygrometer. 
(7) Over the river. 
(9) Moving directly down the river. 
(1 1) We are now going N.E. 



(4) Cloudy ; overcast ; misty ; thick. 
(G) Balloon left the eartli. 
(8) Changing direction towards S.W. 
(10) The wind below is S.E. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, October 9, 1863. 



221 





mometers (free). 




Dry and Wet Tlierms. (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 






Diff. 


Dew-point. 


Gridiron 

Ther- 
mometer, 


Dry. 


Wet. Diff. 


Dew- 
point. 


Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 


Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 


Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 




o 


























3-9 


81 


















4-0 


7-6 




















4-0 


4-9 




















4'o 


4-6 




















4-0 


4-6 












. 








3-5 


6-x 




















Balloon Ascent, from the Eoyal Arsenal, Woolwich, January 12, 1864. 




27 


360 


42-0 


417 


39-2 


2'S 


36-'i' 


35-0 
[dew ofif. 


350 


41-8 




z-5 


35-9 












36-5 




40 'O 




1-8 


35-9 


39-5 














395 




1-3 


35-4 




















'•4 


36-3 




















i"4 


36-4 




















1-5 


366 




















2'0 


37-1 




















2*0 


37-1 




















i-S 


377 


40-3 














41*0 




20 


37-1 


















1 


1-9 


37-4 


















1 


1-9 


377 




















2'2 


37-5 




















2-5 


37-5 


43-6 










39'o 




43-5 




2'2 


38-4 




















0-9 


42*0 




44-0 


43-1 


0-9 


42*0 








1 


a-5 


38-5 




44-2 


42-1 


3-1 


37-5 




37'o 






2'8 


37-9 


44-0 


44-0 


41-2 


2-8 


37.9 






44-0 




2-9 


377 


44-0 


44-0 


4i"o 


3-0 


37'S 






44-0 




2-8 


37-9 


44-1 














44-1 




3-0 


37-5 




44-0 


41-0 


3-0 


37-5 




37-5 


44-0 




3"2 


37-3 
















440 




3-5 


37-0 


44'5 














45-0 




37 


36-4 

















447 




4-0 


347 
















43-0 




4-1 


33-1 




















8- 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 


17. 




(12) Sensibly warm. (13) Mist. Crossing TUbury line ; ofl 


' the river. 




(14) Higher ; moving more easterly ; crossing Tilbury railway again. 






(15) Quite warm. 






(16) Mr. Norris from tliis time noted the first appearance of dew on the hvero 


meter. 




(17) StiU S.W. wind; going N.E. (18) Cloudy. 






(19) Crossing Hainault Forest; in fog; all ponds covered with ice; the earth ] 


ooks dull. 




(20) Calm and warm to sense. 






(21) Going due N.E ; cannot go high with this wind. 






(22) C 


Tas let out 


; the eart 


b looks 


dull an 


d bare. 











222 



REPORT 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Seventeenth 



cS 

V o 

PJ-2 



(1) 
(2) 



i^) 



'(4) 
(5) 
(6) 

(7) 
(8) 

(9) 
(10) 



(11) 

(12) 
(13) 
(14) 



(15) 

(16) 
(17) 
(18) 



(19) 
(20) 



Time. 



h m 
2 28 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



30 
3» 
31 
32 

33 
34 
34 
35 
36 
37 
37 

39 
40 

41 
41 
43 
44 
45 
46 
46 
47 
47 
47 
48 

49 
50 
51 
5* 
5* 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 

59 
o 

I 
2 
3 
4 
5 
5 
6 
8 

9 



30 p.m. 

o » 

o „ 

15 .. 

3° » 

o ,. 

o „ 

3° .. 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 >. 

o „ 

o .. 

o ,> 

30 .. 

o >, 

o ,. 

o >, 

o „ 

10 „ 

o „ 

15 .. 

30 ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

o » 

o „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

O .1 

o ,, 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o ,. 

o ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

o ,. 

o „ 

o >. 

30 -. 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reariing 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



in. 

26"ii9 

25'89o 
24-972 



24-575 
24-397 
24-088 
23-880 
23-681 
23-601 
23531 
23-282 
23-232 
23-283 
23-493 
23-433 
23'3S5 



23-187 



23-187 
23-087 



23-037 
22-967 
22-937 
22-738 

22-6o8 

22-488 

22-438 
22-398 

22-388 

22-438 
22-489 

22-889 

22-089 
23-039 
22-439 

22439 

22*293 
22-143 
22-043 

21-993 



21-944 

2'-595 
21-485 



Att. 
Therm. 



39-0 
37'5 

360 



35'o 

35-0 



35'o 



34-5 
34'i 
34-0 
34-0 



34-0 



32-0 
32-0 



31-5 
31-0 
31-0 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



24-60 
24-40 



23-90 
23-70 
23-62 



23-25 
23-40 



23-20 
23-10 



23-40 
22-50 



Height above 
sea-level. 



23-05 



2i-6o 



feet. 
3,821 
4,044 
5,001 
(5,200) 
5,401 
5,610 

5.9^4 
6,144 
6,364 

6>453 
6,516 
6,802 
6,844 



6,678 
6,650 
6,692 

(6,790) 
6,885 

(6,885) 
6,885 
6,984 

(7,006) 
7,029 
7,118 
7,089 

7>277 
7,448 
7,602 
7,666 

7,730 
7,741 
7,666 
7,614 

7,044 
8,148 
6,768 
7,666 
7,666 

7.931 
8,086 
8,189 
8,230 
(8,288) 
8,346 
8,766 
8,894 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



41-5 
38-0 
36-2 
36-0 
34-2 

33-2 
32-2 

31-5 
310 
306 
30-2 
29-2 
29-2 
298 
30-0 
29-5 
29-2 
29-4 



30-8 
307 

30-7 
31-1 
31-0 

30-5 
29-2 
29-2 
28-5 



29-2 
29-2 
30-5 
30-5 
305 
29-1 
28-5 
27-2 
27-2 
27-2 
27-0 

26-5 
26-0 
25-5 



1. 



2. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



(1) Sudden change of temperature and dii-ection. (2) Going N. ; wind S. 

(3) The wind below is S.E. (4) Cloudy ; gas opake. 

(5) Can see Chelmsford. (6) Can bear machinery in action. 

(7) Can hear steam-plougliing and a thrashing-machine. 

(8) Can see up balloon now; gas not quite transparent. 

(9) Can just see tlie Thames south of us ; going N. still. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 233 

Balloon Ascent, from the Royal Arsenal, "Woolwicli, January 12, 1864. 



mometers (free). 



Diff, 



5*3 
4-S 
3-1 
3-8 
27 

1*7 
I'l 
10 



4-2 
47 
4-5 

2-2 
2 I 

3"3 
3-0 

3-4 
4"o 
4-0 

4" 
41 

37 
3-5 

2-8' 

3*5 
29 



8. 



Dew-point, 



29-5 
27-4 
285 
26-5 

27-3 
28-8 
29-3 
30-I 



9-8 

7-5 
6-7 

193 

20'6 

I7'6 
i8-8 

I7'2 

IO-6 
9-0 
4-2 
4-2 
6-5 
7-4 

10"2 

47 
7-2 



Gridiron 

Tliermo- 

meter. 



4i'S 



32-0 
31-0 



30-0 
29'3 



307 



31-0 
3i"o 



26*0 



10. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



27-2 



^rs 



Wet. 



22'2 



22-8 



Diff. 



5-0 



27 



Dew- 
point. 



-0-8 



8-5 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell'a. 
Dew-point. 



15 no dew 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



27-5 
26-1 
29-5 

26'2 



lis 
irS 



95 
9-0 



4-5 
6-0 



50 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer 



16. 



41-5 



32*0 
327 



29-8 
30"o 
29-3 



307 



3i'o 



29-0 

29*2 
30-5 

305 



28-0 

27-5 

27'2 



26-5 
26*0 



17. 



(10) Can hear people's voices. H n Wt^ ovo ™,.„ 

(12) Can see BLf ater ; estinaated distance from coa^^e^' m -1^"^ "^'™- 

(Icf) troing N. still ; determined to go higher. (14) Ozone = i 

^, Q< 7?^"^^^ cm-rent. ( 1 (j) In another current. (17) Going N N E • wind S «? W 

(18) Could not get Daniell lower than 1 5°. nm Qzonl 1 1 ' 

(-0) Iodine paper slightly coloured in 5 minutes. 



224 



REPORT 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorolog-ical Observations made in the Seventeenth 



11 

rt2 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Att. 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fahr. 
















h ni s 


in. 





in. 


feet. 










(1) 


3 10 op. m. 


21-296 


3°-5 




9,104 


24-5 


21-2 




(^) 


3 II o „ 

3 12 o „ 


21-295 
21-197 


31-0 




9,105 
9,217 


23-0 
22-8 


19s 






3 13 o „ 


21097 






9.327 


21-5 


ice. 




^^J 


3 14 o .. 


21-OOI 






9.437 


20-5 


25-0 




(4) 


3 IS ° .. 


21-001 


28-0 




9.437 


20-5 


25-0 






3 15 30 .. 


20-951 


28-0 




9,500 


20-5 


19-0 




(W 


3 16 „ 


20-951 


28-0 


20-95 


9,500 


20-5 


17-5 






3 16 30 „ 


20-951 


28-0 


20-95 


9,500 


20*5 


18-4 




{^) 


3 17 .. 


20-921 






9.536 


21-0 


i8-5 






3 17 3° ,. 


20-902 


27-s 


20*90 


9,560 


21-0 


187 




^V 


3 18 ,. 


20-882 






9,586 


21-0 


i8-5 




(«) 


3 19 ° >' 


20-702 






9,822 


20-0 


18-5 




(9) 


3 20 „ 


20-402 






10,017 


17-5 


16-2 




(10) 


3 21 „ 


20-352 






10,090 


17-2 


15-0 






3 21 20 „ 


20-355 


26-0 


20-35 


10,090 


17-2 


15-0 




(ii) 


3 21 40 .. 


20-205 






10,319 


16-2 


14-1 






3 22 „ 


20-155 






10,394 


i5'9 


13-8 






3 22 3° » 


20"105 




20-10 


10,469 


15-5 


13-1 






3 23 ° " 


20-105 


25-0 


20*10 


10,469 


15-0 


13-0 






3 24 .. 


20-005 






10,619 


14-0 


110 




(12) 


3 25 „ 


19-606 






11,016 


13-2 


III 




(13) 


3 26 „ 


19-406 




19-40 


11,278 


12-1 


9'4 






3 27 ° „ 


19-386 






11,429 


11-5 


9-2 






3 27 30 >. 


19-307 




19-30 


11,533 


111 


9-2 




(14) 


3 28 „ 


19-209 






11,664 


11-2 


91 






3 29 „ 


19-209 






11,664 


III 


9-0 


J 


(lb) 


3 29 30 „ 


19-160 







11,708 


11-0 


8-7 


M 


(16) 


3 29 45 .. 
3 30 30 >. 


I9-II0 
19-060 






11,761 


110 

11-2 


8-7 
8-5 


1 




3 31 3° .. 


19-012 






11,897 


Il'O 


8-3 


1 


(17) 


3 32 „ 


I9-II2 






11.774 


13-2 


12-5 


-M 


(18J 


3 33 .. 


19-313 







11,528 






I 




3 34 .. 


19-313 






11,528 


H'S 


13-8 


■ 


(19) 


3 35 .. 


i9"433 






11.353 






1 




3 35 3° .. 


19-663 






11,071 


15-0 


13-8 


■ 


(2U) 


3 36 „ 


19714 






11,007 






■ 


(21) 


3 36 3° .. 


19-814 






10,879 






a 




3 37 „ 


19-914 






10,751 


16-0 


14-0 


■ 




3 37 3" .. 


19-964 






10,697 


160 


15-2 


M 




3 38 „ 


20-064 






10,561 


16-2 


15-8 


u 




3 38 15 ,, 


20-365 




20-25 


10,289 


i6-2 


i6*o 


^^ 




3 38 3° .. 


20-316 


20-0 


20-30 


10,221 


16-2 


16-0 


^M 




3 39 .. 


20-416 




20-40 


10,085 


I 6-2 


i6-o 


^M 




3 39 10 .. 


20-466 


20-0 


20-45 


10,017 


16-2 


i6-o 


^M 


(22) 


3 39 20 „ 


20536 


20-0 


20-50 


9,921 


16-5 


16-3 


™ 


1. 


2. 3. 


4. 5. 6. 7. 


(1) Ozone =1. 


(2; 


Applied water to wet-bulb thermometer. 


(3) On a level with Har\ 


vicli or Colcliester. 


(4) Eegnault failed ; misty. 


(5) Ozone = i ; Iodine = 


= 1. 


(6) Ozone = i ; Iodine paper = i. 


(7) Eegnault's Hygrome 


ter will not act. 


(8) Cloudy. 


(9) Cold to sense ; cliang 


ed direction ; wind S.S 


3.E. 


(10) E 


egnault difficult to 


work and to 


get dew d 


eposited. 


(11) 


Oyer Ne\ 


rmarket. 





ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 225 

Balloon Ascent, from the Eoyal Arsenal, "Woolmcli, January 12, 1864. 



mometers (free) . 



Diff. 



Dew-point 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
'Blackened 
iBulb Ther- 
mometer. 



3"3 

3'S 



IS 

3° 

*-s 

2"S 

IS 
i'3 

2'i 

2' I 
2*1 

2-4 

2'0 

3-0 

2"I 

27 

2-3 
I 9 

2"I 
2'1 

2-3 
2-3 

*7 
27 
07 

07 

I '2 



20 

0-8 

0-4 

0-2 
0'2 
0'2 
0'2 



+ 2'4 

- o"S 



+ 
+ 



8-6 

3-S 
3-8 

i"3 
2-9 

13 

7-8 

+ 6-4 

- 17 

- 17 

- 2-1 

- 2"4 

- a"S 

- I2'2 

- 5'* 
-11-5 

- 8-6 

- S'S 

- 7"a 

- 7-3 

- 7'4 

- 7-4 
-12-5 
-127 
+ 7-1 

8-3 
+ 4-5 



- 1-4 
+ 9"o 
14-3 
14s 
i4'S 
14' S 
14s 
148 



24-5 



9. 



23'0 



20'0 
20"5 
20'5 



2I-0 

20"0 



198 



I9"2 

i7'o 
i8-S 



18s 

18s 



3-2 



08 
35 

2'0 



2-S 
2-5 



i3'S 

-7'5 
4'S 



i"5 
I'S 



15-2 
15-0 



II-2 



2* I 



— 2*0 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



H'5 



20'5 

205 

20'5 
20'5 

21'0 
2I*0 

20'0 

17*2 
17-1 
l6-2 

15-2 
150 

i4'o 



165 
i6-2 

l6'2 
l6'2 

i6-s 



17. 



(12) Hoar-frost on ropes and all round the neck of the balloon in long fringes. 

(13) Earth nearly obscured. (14) Filled one air-bag ; Eegnault failed again. 

(15) Fine anow under us. 

(16) Filled the second bag with air ; can rise no higher. (17) Snow granular. 

(18) Eepeated application of ether to Daniell's Hygrometer was not followed by the usual 
deposition of dew on the blackened bulb. (19) Babbits heavy and dull. 

(20) Snow fine and thin. (21) Dog whining. (22) Snow still granular. 

1864. o 



336 



REPORT 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Seventeenth 



1. 



6. 



CO 

II 


Time. 


siphon Barometer. 




Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


1 

Att. 
Therm. 


Aneroid 

3arometer, 

No. 2. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fahr. 
















h m s 


in. 




in 


feet. 










(1) 


3 39 3oP-m. 


20-836 


20-0 




9,516 


16-8 


16-5 






3 39 45 .. 


20'9i6 


20-0 




9,408 


17-2 


17-0 






3 4° o >> 


2I'Ol6 






9.^73 


18-0 


i8-o 






3 4° 3° " 


2i"o65 




21-05 


9,316 


18-0 


18-0 




(y) 


3 4' » 
3 41 15 .. 


21-215 
21-265 





21 -20 

21-25 


9.'99 

9,156 


18-5 


18-3 




m 


3 41 30 .. 


21-415 




21-40 


9,026 


20-0 


198 






3 41 45 .. 


2i"5i5 




21-55 


8.939 


21-0 


20-5 






3 4^ 30 .. 


21-714 




21-70 


8.765 


21-0 


20-5 






3 44 ° >' 


21-444 







8,904 


21-8 


21-5 






3 44 3° .. 


22-213 


22-0 




7.993 


22-5 


22-0 




(4) 


3 45 .. 


22-433 


22-0 




I'lV- 


22-5 


22-0 




(t*) 


3 47 .. 


22723 






l^^M 


23-2 


22*9 




(«) 


3 47 30 .. 


22-863 






7,226 


24-0 


24-0 






3 47 45 " 


22-963 






7,136 


24*2 


24-0 




(7) 


3 48 „ 


23-113 


22-0 




6,967 


24-5 


24-4 




(«) 


3 49 ° " 


23'4H 






6,640 


25-2 


25-1 




(y) 


3 49 30 -. 


23713 






6.313 


26-0 


25-8 






3 50 » 


23-813 






6,204 


26-2 


26-0 




(10) 


3 50 30 >, 


23-962 






6,040 


26-5 


26-0 






3 51 .. 


24-062 






S.93* 


26-9 


26-8 






3 51 30 .. 


24-161 






5.824 


27-0 


26-8 






3 52 ° » 


24-311 






5,670 


27-6 


27-3 






3 5^ 30 .. 


24-360 


24-0 




5,619 


28-1 


27-9 






3 53 .. 


24-509 






5.465 


28-5 


28-3 






3 53 30 „ 


24-588 






5. 3 84 


29-1 


28-8 




(ii) 


3 54 ). 


24-687 






5.284 


29-2 


29-0 


i 




3 54 30 .. 


24-827 






5,142 


30-3 


30-3 


\ 




3 55 .. 


25-306 






4,636 


31-0 


30-7 


1 




3 55 3° » 


25-206 






4.739 


31-2 


31-1 


? 




3 56 .. 


25-804 


27-0 




4,121 










3 56 15 ., 









(4.183) 


3I-S 


31-2 






3 56 30 ,> 


25-703 


27-0 




4,224 


32-2 


30-8 






3 57 .. 


25-951 


28-0 




3.973^ 


3*-S 


32-0 






3 58 „ 








(3.703) 


34-2 


32-0 






3 59 .. 


26-500 






3.433 


36-0 






(12) 


400,, 


26-550 






3.384 


36-2 






(13) 


4 ° 30 >) 


26-779 






3.159 








(14) 


410,, 
4 I IS >. 


26849 
26-984 






3,091 
2.953 


37-2 

37-S 








4 I 30 .. 


27-122 


29-5 




2,821 


38-0 








420,, 


27-445 






2,451 


38-5 


38-S 






4 a 30 „ 


27-511 


32-0 




2,384 


39-2 


38-5 






4 3 » 


27-811 


32-2 




2,096 


39-8 


39-a 






4 3 30 » 


28-089 


33-0 




1,878 


40-8 


40-0 




(16) 


440,. 


28-188 


33-5 




1,807 


41-0 


40-5 






4 5°.. 


28-586 







1.41S 


40-0 


39-° 


- 




4 7°., 


28-633 






1,366 


40-0 


39'S 





7. 



(1) 



I am redder than usual, and my eyes are suffused. Mr. Norris is reddish blue. 

(2) Note-book covered with snow. The ether is not good. 

(3) Clouds below us ; very dense cloud above us. 

(4) Above cloud j the view is beautiful. Line of cloud due N. and S. 
(6) Line of cloud remarkably well defined. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 227 

Balloon Ascent, from the Royal Arsenal, "Woolwicli, January 12, 1864. 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



0-3 
o'a 

o-o 

0-2 



0-3 

2"2 



8. 



Dew-point. 



I4"3 

i8-o 
i8-o 
i6*9 



o-z 


18-4 


°'S 


17-1 


o'S 


lyi 


0-3 


19-6 


0-5 


18-9 


o"5 


18-9 


0-3 


211 


o-o 


24-0 


0-2 


22-9 


o-i 


23-9 


o-i 


24-6 


0-2 


24-8 


0-2 


25-1 


0-5 


23-7 


O-I 


26-4 


0-2 


25-9 


0-3 


26-0 


0-2 


27-1 


0-2 


27-6 


0-3 


27-8 


0-2 


28-4 


o-o 


3°-3 


0-3 


299 


O-I 


308 



3o'S 
27-7 
31-0 
28-2 



0-0 


38-5 


07 


37-6 


0-6 


38-5 


0-8 


39-0 


o-s 


39'9 


i-o 


36-5 


o'5 


37-6 



9. 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated) 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point- 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Regnault's. Blackened 
^ Bulb Ther 

Dew-point. 



10. 



11. 



12. 13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



(G) About entering cloud. 

(8) Out of cloud. (9) 

(11) Ozone =1. 

(13) Can see a circle of trees. 

(15) Cannot see two miles ahead. 



i6-8 
17-2 
i8-2 
i8-2 
i8-5 



2 1-0 
2I-0 

22-5 

23-2 



28-5 
30-5 



37'S 



17. 



(7) In cloud. 
Cannot tell where we are. (10) Very misty. 

(12) Applied water to the Wet-bulb; forest of pine's. 
(14) Villages scarce. 

q2 



228 



KEPORT 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Seventeenth 



«2 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


DryandWetTher- 


Beading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Att. 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fahr. 
















h m s 


in. 




in. 


feet. 












480 p.m. 


28-581 






1,420 


39-8 


38-0 




(1) 


4 8 30 „ 


28-680 






I.3H 


40-0 


395 






4 9°" 


28-498 






i.SH 


40-4 


398 




(2) 


4 9 ao ,. 


















4 9 30 .. 


29-977 






ground. 


41-8 


40-7 




Meteorological Observations made in the Eighteenth 




(3) 




30-204 
30204 




30-24 
30-24 




46-2 


431 




3 20 p.m. 







47-0 


44-2 






4 7 " 


30-114 




30-19 




46-0 


42-5 






480,, 


30-114 




30-19 




46-0 


42-5 






490,, 


30-094 




30-17 




457 








4 9 10 .. 











45'5 








4 9 30 .. 


29-875 






320 


45-5 


42-0 






4 9 4°'. 


29-604 


45-5 


29-65 


557 


44-8 


41-5 




W 


4 10 10 „ 
4 " 3° » 


29-274 
28-876 







867 
1,219 


42-0 


38-7 






4 12 „ 


28-658 


45-0 




1,400 


408 


37-2 






4 13 » 


28-258 


45-0 


28-25 


i>749 








(5) 


4 14 „ 


27-879 




28-00 


2,161 


37-8 


36-1 




(«) 


4 14 30 .. 


27-762 




27-73 


2,170 


365 


35-5 




(7) 


4 IS .. 


27-564 






2,469 


36-0 


35-2 




(«) 


4 16 „ 


27-245 


42-5 


27-25 


a,775 








(y) 


4 »6 30 » 


26-817 


42-0 




3,194 


34-5 


33-2 




(10) 


4 16 45 » 

4 17 „ 


26-649 




26-68 


3.362 








(11) 


4 18 „ 


26490 




26-51 


3'5°7 


33"i 


32-5 




(12) 


4 19 „ 


26-152 


40-5 


26-15 


3,884 








(13) 


4 19 3° ,. 
















(14) 


4 20 „ 


25-873 






4,260 


33-0 


32-1 




(lo) 


4 ao 30 .. 


25-724 


39-5 


25-70 


4,404 


34-2 


32-2 






4 22 „ 


25-175 






4.873 


36-0 


34-1 




(16) 


4 23 „ 


24-825 




24-85 


5.251 


36-2 


35-2 






4 *S .. 


24-296 




24-31 


5.827 


36-0 


34-5 




(17) 


4 as 30 - 








(6,163) 










4 26 „ 


23-696 






6,500 


34-2 


33-1 




(18) 


4 ^6 30 „ 








(6,627) 








(19) 


4 *7 3° " 


23-378 


39-0 


23-40 


6,882 


38-5 


37-2 




(20) 


4 28 „ 


23-001 






7.281 










4 29 „ 


22-834 




22-85 


7.493 


40-2 


36-0 




(21) 


4 30 „ 


22-329 




22-35 


8,083 


39-0 


33-1 






4 32 „ 


21-898 




21-92 


8,594 


35-6 


30-5 






4 34 .. 


21-678 






8,854 


34-2 


30-0 




(22) 


4 34 30 .. 


21-487 




21*51 


9,090 


34-5 


29-1 




1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 7. 


(1) Can scarcely see to i 


ead ; very n 


listy. 






1 


(2) On the ground at La 


kenheath W 


an-en, nea 


r Brandor 


1. Never sa 


w the sun, and there 1 


was therefore no opportun 


ty for using 


the actinc 


meter, po 


arisoope, or 


spectroscope. 1 


(3) The sky uniformly c 


loudy ; no s 


un ; objec 


ts misty in 


the distana 


3 ; wind S.E. 


(4) Very misty. (.5 


) Entered a 


W.S.W. c 


m-rent. 


(6) Mistj 


; entering cloud. ' 


(7) Moving down the ri 


ver. 


(8) 


ver the ed 


^e of the rivf 


;r on the Essex side. 


(9) I 


n cloud. 


[10) Getting 


' lighter. 


(11 


) The goat 1 


measy; ft 


)g wetting 





ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 229 

Balloon Ascent, fi-om the Eoyal Arsenal, Wool-\\ach, January 12, 1864. 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



1-8 

°'5 
0-6 



Dew-point 



357 
37-6 

39'° 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Hygrometers. 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Darnell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



BaUoon Ascent, from the Eoyal Arsenal, "Woolwich, April 6, 1864. 



31 

2-8 

35 
35 



3-5 
3-3 

3'3 
3-6 

17 
10 
08 

13 



06 



0-9 

2-0 

i'9 

I'O 

J'5 
I'l 

13 

4-2 
59 
5'» 
4-2 

5-4 



39-6 
4i"o 
3S-5 
385 



37-9 

377 

346 
326 

33-8 
34-0 

339 
3i'o 



3i'5 



303 
287 
312 
33*4 

32"2 
285 

35'4 

30-6 
25-3 

22'6 
22-6 
20"0 



41-8 



34-5 



32*0 



33*3 

34-2 
34-8 

35-5 



360 



36-0 



36*1 



42-5 
40'o 



32'o 



35-0 



327 



33-a 



33-0 



25-0 



43 'o 



359 



34' I 



35"5 

38-1 
362 

34-8 



42'I 



35"i 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(}f) ^"^cl} liglite'*; , , (13) In mist; can see the sun's outline. 

(14) Two layers of cloud. (15) Goat Jess uneasy. 

(16) Can see a very large oval in the cloud, with balloon in the centre ; no prismatic 

*^!m"c.i. "P ^""^^^ ''' *-^^ ^^°^^''- (^'^) ^""^ <=^*'^''*'^- (18) Immense halo upon the cloud 
(ly) bhadow of balloon on clouds ; very fine; blue sky. 

(20) Beautifxil sound heard when closing the valve. 

(21) Can feel wind pressing against us. (22) Sun warm. 



330 



BEPORT 1864. 





Table I. 


— Meteorological Observations made in the Eighteenth 




to 

Si 

S3 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


DryandWetTher- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Att. 
Tlierm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Falir. 
















h m s 


m. 





in. 


feet. 












4. 35 op.m. 


21-276 






9.378 


34-5 


27-2 






4 36 , 




20-676 




20-72 • 


10,155 


35-2 


27-5 






4 36 30 , 




20-177 




20-20 


10,805 


36-0 


27-8 




(1) 


4 37 ° . 




19-976 




20-00 


11,075 


36-5 






(y) 


4 37 3° . 




















4 38 , 




20*026 






10,987 


39'o 


29-2 






4 38 + . 










(10,730) 










4 39 . 




20-474 




20-50 


10,470 


43-0 


33-8 






4 39 + . 










(10,300) 










4 39 10 , 




20-673 


43-0 




10,240 










4 40 , 




20873 




2o-go 


10,010 


46-0 


351 






4 40 30 , 




20-972 




21-00 


9.895 


46-1 


350 




(3) 


4 41 , 




21-271 


44-0 




9.513 


46-2 


35'i 






4 42 , 




21-967 


45-0 




8,642 


46-8 


37-1 






4 43 > 




22676 






7,783 










4 44 , 




22-744 


46-0 




7,696 


47-2 


37-8 






4 44 + . 










(7,610) 










4 44 30 , 




22-764 




22-80 


7.524 


462 


37-1 






4 46 , 




22-564 






7,869 


46-0 


36-5 






4 46 30 , 




22-514 






7.947 


460 


37-5 




(4) 


4 47 . 




22-564 






7.553 


46-0 


37-5 






4 47 30 . 




22-98 1 


48-0 




7.410 


46-2 


38-5 






4 48 , 




23-309 


48-0 


23-38 


7,036 


46-2 


38-4 






4 50 , 


















(5) 


4 5° 30 . 




24-060 






6.153 


44-0 


37-8 




(«) 


4 SI . 




24-537 






5.536 


43-8 


38-3 






4 52 , 




24-906 




25-00 


5.213 


43-0 


38-0 






4 5^ 30 . 




25'955 






4,163 


42-2 


38-0 






4 S3 . 










(4.049) 










4 53 30 . 










(3.935) 










4 54 , 




26-254 






3,821 


41-0 


38-0 




(7) 


4 54 3° . 




26654 






3.405 


41-0 


37-1 






4 54 45 . 




26-773 






3,280 


40-4 


36-8 




(«) 


4 55 . 




26953 






3,071 


399 


36-s 






4 56 , 




27-153 






2,881 


39-1 


36-0 






4 56 30 , 




27-352 







2,691 


395 


362 






4 58 , 




28-250 






1,836 


39-8 


37-1 






4 59 . 




28-670 






1.437 


40-0 


37-8 






4 59 3° . 




28-949 






1,163 


40-6 


38-1 






500, 




29-049 




29-10 


1,069 


41 -s 


38-6 






5 ' ° . 




29099 






1,024 


41-8 


38-7 






520, 




29-149 






979 


41-9 


38-8 






530, 




29268 






869 


42-0 


38-7 






540. 




29-468 






725 


42-9 


39'4 






5 5°. 




29-628 






545 


43-5 


39-9 






560, 




29.678 






497 


45-0 


41 -a 






5 7°, 




29-748 






416 


45-8 






(y) 


5 25 . 




29-828 


48-1 


2.9-85 


ground. 


47-0 


42-a 






1 2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 6, 


7. 




(1) A rent in the balloon ; ve 


ry high uj 


). 


(2) Very warm. 






(3) Heard r 


ailwa 


f trains. 






(4) Val 


ye opened 




1 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, April 6, 1864. 



231 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



Dew-point. 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter, 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



DifiF. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



7'3 
77 
8a 



9-8 



10-9 

III 

97 

9'4 

91 
9"S 
8-5 
8s 

77 
7-8 

"e-z 

S'S 
5-0 
4-2 



3-0 

39 
3-6 

3"4 
3'i 
3"3 
^.■^ 

2'2 

2'S 
2-9 

31 
31 

33 
35 
3-6 
3-8 

4-8 



8. 



15-0 
15-2 
15-5 



16-3 
227 



22'7 
22-4 
22'5 
26-2 

26-2 

267 
25-6 
27-8 
27-8 
29-6 
29-5 

30-4 
31-6 
32-0 
32-9 



34-2 
32-2 
32-2 

32'0 

319 
318 

336 

34"9 
34-9 
34'9 
34-8 

35'° 
346 
35-2 

35-5 
368 

368 



34'o 



48-5 



22'7 



4i'o 



47-0 



23'0 



26-0 



25-0 



34-0 



34-0 



37'o 



10. 



11. 



12. 13. 



14. 



15. 



i6'o 



[no dew 

35-0 



24-5 



35-0 



37"5 



16. 



4i'o 



48-5 



5i-a 

52'0 



53'o 
53-0 
53-0 

54-0 
537 

47-0 



4i'o 



43-6 



17. 



(5) Entered cloud and lost sight of sun. 
(7) We are over water. (8) Earning. 



(6) Stratus clouds on oiu* level. 

(9) On the ground in Wilderness Park. 



233 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I.— Meteorological Observations made in the Nineteenth 



u 

(S2 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Att. 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fahr. 
















h m s 


in. 




in. 


feet. 








(1) 


6 58 p.m. 

700,, 






29-30 
29-30 




61-S 
61-8 


52-5 
517 






7 10 „ 






29-25 


317 


60-0 


510 






7 20 „ 






29-13 


491 


591 


50-1 






7 30 „ 






28-92 


691 


59"^ 


50-1 






7 I >. 






28-75 


885 


59'i 


50-0 




(^) 


7 1 30 .. 






28-47 


1.155 


58-2 


50-2 






720,, 






28-36 


1,265 


57-2 


48-2 






7 2 10 >, 






28-15 


1.437 


56-8 


48-1 






7 2 30 » 






27-95 


1.635 


56-0 


481 






7 2 45 " 






27-90 


1,685 


55-5 


48-1 






7 3 IS '• 






27-61 


1,982 


541 


46- 5 






74-0,, 






27"45 


2,132 


54-2 


47-1 




(«) 


7 5°.. 






27-30 


2,282 


54-0 


47-1 






7 5 20 .. 




...... 


27-18 


2,301 


52*5 


47"i 






7 5 55 .. 






27-05 


2,530 


52-2 


46-1 






760,, 






2695 


2,630 


52-1 


46-1 






7 6 30 „ 






26-80 


2,780 


52-1 


46-2 






770.. 






26-74 


2,840 


52'5 


457 






7 7 15 .. 






26-70 


2,880 


(52-2) 








7 7 30 .. 






26-70 


2,880 


52-0 


45-5 






780,, 






26-56 


3,031 


Si"5 


45-0 






79°" 






26-65 


2.937 


51-0 


451 






7 10 „ 






26-75 


(2,630) 


(517) 








7 10 30 " 






27-05 


2,530 


52-5 


45-6 






7 II „ 






27-05 


2,520 


52-5 


46-0 




(^) 


7 11 3° " 
7 12 „ 






27-20 


2,380 
(2,330) 


52-8 
(53-3) 


459 






7 12 30 '. 






27-20 


2,280 


53-8 


46-6 






7 13 On 






27-15 


2,327 


52-8 


46-0 






7 13 30 >. 






27-13 


2.337 


51-5 


45-2 






7 14 .. 






27-05 


2,522 


51-0 


450 






7 14 30 '• 






2695 


2,604 


50-5 


448 




(^) 


7 »5 '. 






26-87 


2,694 


50-2 


44-2 






7 16 „ 






26-70 


2,854 


49-0 


43'5 






7 16 3° .' 






26-56 


3,004 


48-2 


43-5 






7 17 .. 








(3.055) 










7 17 3° .. 






26-47 


3,106 


47-2 


42-6 




(«) 


7 18 „ 








(3.234) 










7 18 10 „ 






26-30 


3,276 


46-8 


42-5 






7 18 40 „ 






26-32 


3,296 


46-9 


42-0 






7 19 ° '• 








(3.337) 


(467) 








7 20 „ 






26-13 


3.461 


466 


42-1 




(7) 


7 21 „ 
7 22 „ 






26-35 
26-33 


3.291 

3.307 


46-5 


42-1 






7 22 30 „ 


1 




26-33 


3.3°7 


47-2 


44-1 






7 23 .. 






26-35 


3.327 


47-2 


44" I 




(S) 


7 23 30 „ 






26-35 


3.327 


47-2 


44-0 






7 25 „ 






26-24 


3.407 


48-0 


44- J 





1. 



(1) Cloudless; horizon misty ; moon bright ; left the earth. 

(2) London misty ; apparently going over the Isle of Dogs. 

(3) Sun on water dazzling in the direction of London, 
(o) In a line with Charlton. 



(4) Sun bright. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, June 13, 1864. 



233 



niomcters (free). 


Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 


Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 


Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 




DifF. 


Dew-point. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Difif. 


Dew- 
point. 


Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 


Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 




o 





























9'o 


447 














44'° 






lo-i 


431 




















90 


43-1 




















9° 


42- 1 




















91 


41-9 




















91 


41 9 




















8-0 


430 




















90 


40-0 




















87 


44-1 




















79 


407 




















7 "4 


43-0 




















7-6 


39° 















40'5 






7'i 


40' 1 




















6-9 


40-3 




















5-4 


41*6 




















6-1 


39'9 




















60 


40'o 




















5 9 


40*2 




















6-8 


38-8 




















"e-'s 


38-9 
















53'° 




6-5 


39-8 














38-5 






5-9 


39-0 




















■■6-9 


3'8-5' 


















53'° 




6-5 


39-5 




















6-9 


39-0 
















55-5 






















56'o 




7-2 


39-6 




i 














68 


39'2 




! 














6-3 


38-8 




i 














60 


38-8 




















57 


38-9 




















6-0 


37-8 




















5-5 


37-S 




















47 


38-3 




















■4-6 


37-4 














35-0 


47-5 




4' 3 


377 




















4-9 


36-5 
















46-3 




4-S 
4-4 


37-0 
38-4 














37*5 






3-1 


40-9 




















3"i 


40-9 




















vz 


41 "o 












4o-o4- 






3'9 


39"8 

















10. 



11. 



12. 



13, 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(6) In a line with Woolwich. 

(7) Heard a gun fired on Woolwich Common. Eeport heard 10 seconds after seeing (he 

(8) Lowerbg grapnel. Gas transparent. 



334 



EEPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations in tlie Nineteeth 



^2 


Time. 




Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Att. 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 










to 32° Fahr. 
















h m s 




in. 


o 


in. 


feet. 









7 26 o 


p.m. 






26-17 


3.459 


48-2 


44-2 






7 27 


» 






26-15 


3.463 


48-5 


44-1 






7 27 30 


n 






26-06 


3.536 


47-0 


41-2 




(1) 


7 28 30 


n 






26-05 


3.543 


47-1 


41-1 






7 29 


>. 






26-05 


3.543 


47-0 


41-0 




(^) 


7 30 


»> 






26-05 


3.543 


46-0 


40-5 




(«) 


7 31 
7 32 








26-13 


3.517 
(3.445) 


46-0 


40-5 






7 32 30 


It 






26-27 


3.409 


47-0 


41-8 






7 32 45 


)» 






26-35 


3.349 


482 


43-0 






7 33 


.. 






26-70 


3.097 


49-0 


44-2 






7 34 


.1 






26-87 


2.755 


51-2 


45-0- 






7 35 


>. 






26-90 


2,680 


5I-I 


44' 5 






7 36 


tt 







27-05 


2,527 


51-0 


44-8 






7 36 3° 


tt 






27-05 


2,527 


Si-i 


45*5 




(4J 


7 37 3° 


it 






26-94 


2,740 


50-5 


45-0 






7 38 


>f 






26-90 


2,782 


50-2 


45-0 






7 38 10 


>l 









(2,790) 








(W 


7 39 


>» 






26-85 


2,834 


49-5 


44-2 






7 39 30 


>. 






26-83 


2,854 


50-2 


45-0 






7 40 


» 






26-85 


2,834 


51-0 


45'i 






7 42 


>. 






26-87 


2,812 


51-8 


457 






7 43 ° 


» 






26-94 


2,740 


Si-8 


45-8 






7 44 


J. 








(2.683) 


52-0 


46-0 






7 45 


*» 






27-05 


2,625 


51-9 


46-0 






7 46 


.1 






27-20 


(2,550) 
2,470 


(52-0) 
52-0 


46-1 






7 46 30 


)> 










7 47 3° 


J. 






26-95 


2,629 


51-0 


45"5 






7 48 


.» 






2689 


2,689 


51-0 


45-0 






7 49 


>. 






26-83 


2,740 


51-5 


45-2 






7 49 3° 


»> 






26-75 


2,823 


Si-8 


45-0 


, 




7 50 


>J 






26-65 


2,927 


51-5 


46-0 


j 




7 50 30 


»> 






26-56 


3,017 


510 


46-2 






7 51 


II 






26-55 


3.027 










7 52 


II 






26-53 


3.053 


49-2 


43-0 






7 52 3° 


11 






26-83 


2.753 


49-0 


43'4 






7 53 


II 






26-95 


2,613 


49 "o 


44-0 






7 54 


11 






27-20 


2,363 


50-5 


46-0 






7 55 


11 







27-40 


2,003 


517 


47-6 






7 56 


11 






27-65 


1,923 


53-0 


50-0 






7 58 


11 






27-77 


1,807 


53-2 


50-0 






800 


11 






27-85 


1,726 


53"S 


50-0 




(^) 


820 


11 






28-35 


1,238 


53"S 


50-0 




(7) 


8 14 
8 15 


II 






29-49 ■ 
29-50 


ground. 


53-3 
54'o 


49-1 
50-0 





3. 



(1) Mist in horizon all round. 

(2) Going towards Erith. 

(3^ Erith Church nearly under us. 
(4) Over the river bank at 7^ 36™ 51'. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



235 



Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, June 13, 1864. 



mometers (free). 


Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter, 


Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 


Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 




Diff. 


Dew-point. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 
point. 


Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 


Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 




o 


o 
























4-0 


36-8 




















4"4 


39'3 




















5-8 


347 




















6o 


34'4 




















6-0 


34-3 




















55 


34-2 




















S'S 


34-a 














35'° 






5'2 


35-5 




















^'o 


37-3 
















48-5 




4-8 


39-0 




















6-z 


38-6 




















6-6 


377 




















6-2 


38-3 




















5-6 


397 




















5-5 


39'4 




















5-2 


39'S 















395 






5"3 


38-5 




















5-2 


39'S 




















5-9 


39'° 




















6i 


39*5 




















6-0 


397 




















6-0 


39'9 




















5'9 


40*0 














39-5 






S'9 


40- 1 
















520 




S'S 


39-8 




















6o 


38-8 




















6-3 


38-4 




















6-8 


38-1 




















S'5 


40-4 




















4-8 


41-2 














390 






6-2 


36-3 




















S-6 


37*3 




















S-o 


38-6 




















4-S 


4i"3 




















4" J 


43'4 




















3-0 


47-0 




















3-2 


46-8 




















3-5 


46-6 




















3*5 


46-6 




















4-2 


44'9 




















4"° 


46-1 



















10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(5) Over the river bank on Essex side at 7^ 38"" 36', therefore the river was crossed in 
!■» 35». 

(6) Packed up the instruments. 

(7) On the ground at East Hendon, five miles from Brentwood. 



236 



REPORT 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in tlie Twentieth 



•S^ 



(1) 
(2) 



(3) 
(4) 

(6) 
(7) 
(8) 
(9) 
(10) 



(11) 
(12) 
(13) 
(14) 
(15) 
(16) 
(17) 



(18) 
(19) 

(20) 



(21) 
(22) 



(23) 



Time. 



4. lo o p.m. 

5 15 o ,. 

6 10 o ,, 



6 17 o 
6 17 30 
6 18 o 
6 18 20 
6 18 30 



19 
19 
19 

20 
20 
21 
21 

22 
22 

23 

24 
24 

25 

26 
26 

27 
27 
28 
28 
28 
29 

30 
30 

31 

32 

33 
34 
35 

35 
36 
36 
36 

37 



o 
30 
45 

o 
30 

o 

30 

o 

20 

o 

o 

30 

o 
o 

30 

o 

30 

o 
10 

30 

o 

o 

30 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

15 

o 

30 
40 

o 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



29-91 
29-88 



2986 
29-56 
29-28 
29-01 
28-95 

28-56 



Height above 
sea-level. 



28-23 
28-01 
27-91 
27-84 
27-36 

27-27 
26-96 
2681 



26-34 

26-1 1 
26 05 
26-01 
25-97 
25-95 

25-95 
25-93 
25-97 
26-04 
26-19 
26-77 
26-81 
27-01 
27*16 
27-26 
27-26 



^7-26 



feet. 



511 

772 
1,022 
1,082 



1,462 
(1,582) 

1,702 
2,006 
2,106 
2,236 
2,696 

2,786 
3,086 
3,214 

(3.375) 
3,696 

3.978 
4,038 
4,068 
4,082 
4,102 
4,102 
4,122 
4,082 
4,oc6 
3,841 
3,242 
3,202 
3,002 
2,840 
2,740 
2,740 
(2,740) 
2,740 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Ury. 



66-8 

65-8 
66-0 
66-5 

65-0 
65-0 
63-2 

62-1 

60-9 

60-5 

(59'o) 

58-2 
58-2 

58-2 
58-2 
55'5 

54'5 
54-0 
54-0 ■ 
53-0 
52-0 

52-5 
52-2 

517 
51-2 

51-2 
51-2 

51-2 
51-2 
51-2 
51-2 

52-0 
52-2 

52-8 

53"5 
53'5 

54-0 



Wet. 



59'5 
58-9 
60-0 

59"5 
60-0 
58-0 
57'i 

56-1 

55-5 
55-0 



54-1 
54' I 
54-0 
53-1 

52-0 

51-0 
51-0 

51-0 
50-6 
50*0 

50-2 
50-2 
50-2 
497 
497 
492 

49"S 
49'5 
49-2 
49-2 
50-0 

5o'S 
50-1 

51-2 
5i"S 

52-0 



1. 



6. 



(1) In Ml-. Webster's garden, wind W. 

(2) In Mr. Webster's garden, wind W.S.W. ; cloudy. 

(3) Left the earth. (4) Passing over Derby. 

(5) Moving .due E. ; cloudy sky. Over the railway. 

(6) Going towards Mansfield. (7) Over the Derwent ; misty all round. 

(8) Over meadows. 

(9) The car has turned half round since leaving the earth ; can see people as specs. 

(10) Can see sheep ; scud above ; cannot see people in the fields ; gas very nearly clear. 

(11) Lowering the grapnel ; wind felt in the face ; can only see people on the roads. 

(12) Fou.r miles from Derby. (13) Derby in mist. 
(14) Gas thick and cloudy issuing from the valve; clouds under us. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND ISGl. 



337 



Balloon Ascent, from Derby, June 20, 1864. 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



7'3 
6-9 
6-0 
7-0 

S'o 
7-0 
6i 

6-0 

f4 
5-5 



4' I 

4' I 
4'2 
SI 
3*5 

3"5 
3-0 
3-0 
2-4 

2'0 

2-3 
2'0 

IS 
IS 
'•S 

2'0 

17 

17 

2*0 
2"0 
2'0 

17 
27 

*'3 
2'0 

2'0 



Dew-point. 



S3'2 
53'S 
SS'I 
S3'9 
55'9 
52-3 
51-9 

50-9 
50-8 

50'2 



50-4 
50-4 

50'2 

48-4 
48-6 

47-6 
48-1 
48-1 
48-0 
48-0 

4y9 
48-2 
487 
48-1 
48-1 
47'i 
477 
477 
47-1 
47-1 
48-0 
48-8 
47"2 

48-9 
495 

50*0 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therm, (aspirated.) 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



45-0 



48-1 



48-3 



48-0 



48-0 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



66-0 



59-0 

58-2 
S8-3 



8. 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



gas issuing from the neck of the balloon : earth misty. 



(15) Clouds around ub 

(16) Eutering cloud. 

(17) In a white cloud; fog; can see nothing; clouds blacker above than below; gas 
muddy looking ; warm. (18) Can hear watch ticking plainly. 

(19) Heard a railway train. 

(20) At 6h 31" 30« at 3938 feet. Mr. Goodchild's pulsations were 90 in a minute ; Mr. 
AUport's the same ; Master Glaisher's 86 ; Mr. Jackson's and Mr. Coxwell's 94 • Mr 
Glaisher's 90 ; Mr. Knight's 110 ; and Mr. Bourne's 112. 

Over Ilkeston, or about 10 miles from Derby ; saw ten furnaces, &c. ; counted ten brido-es 
over the river. (21) Gas clear; heard shouting ; can see men, sheep, &o. 

(22) Gas bright. (23) Can see Nottingham. 



238 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twentieth 



^ ^ 



(1) 

(2) 

(3) 
(4) 

(^^ 
(6) 

(7) 
(8) 



(9) 
(10) 



(11) 
(12) 

(13) 
(14) 
(15) 
(16) 



(17) 



Time. 



37 
38 
39 
39 
40 
40 

41 
42 

43 
44 
45 
45 
45 
46 
46 
47 
47 
48 

49 
49 
50 
5° 
51 
51 
52 
52 
53 
53 
54 
54 
54 
55 
56 
56 
57 
57 
58 

59 
o 
I 
2 

3 
16 

25 
30 



30 p.m. 
o „ 
o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

30 „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o » 

o ,. 

o „ 

lo „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

30 >. 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

30 ). 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

3° .. 

o „ 

30 » 

45 .. 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o ., 

o ,, 

o „ 

o ,. 

o „ 



Siphon Barometer. 



Heading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



m. 

27'26 
27-18 
27'li 
27*06 

27"OI 
27"01 

26-95 
26-88 
26-78 
26-47 

26-36 

26-27 
26-26 

26-27 



26*02 

25-91 
25-81 
25-78 
25-78 
25-78 



2577 



25-81 
25-81 
25-86 
25-91 
25-91 

26-07 
26-56 

2668 
2684 

27-27 
27-28 

27-56 

28-01 

28-78 
28-96 

29-58 

29-78 



Height above 
sea-level. 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



feet. 

2,740 
2,820 
2,890 
2,940 
2,990 
2,990 

3.050 
3,120 

3.237 

3.549 
3,669 

3.758 
3,768 

3.759 
(3,886) 
4,013 

4, '23 
4,230 
4,271 

4.271 
4,271 
(4,276) 
4,280 

(4.255) 
4,230 
4,230 
4,180 
4,130 
4.130 
4,080 

3.390 

3,360 
3.187 
2,696 
2,688 

2,493 
2,088 
1,388 
1,061 



Dry. 



54-0 
53-9 
S4'o 
54-0 

53-9 
54-0 
54'o 
54-0 
54'o 

53'5 
53-0 

52-2 
51-0 

51-5 

507 
50-2 
50-0 
49-2 
49-2 
49'2 

49^5 

49'5 
49-5 
49"S 
49-2 

49'3 
495 
512 

515 

52-0 

57-5 
580 
58-0 

59-3 
60-4 
6i-8 

64-6 
64-0 



I 



Wet. 



52-1 
51-2 
52-0 
51-7 

5i"5 
5i'5 
5i"5 
5i'5 
5i"5 
52-0 

5°'S 

49'5 
50-0 

50-0 

49-8 
49-2 
49-2 
49-2 
49-2 
49-2 

49-0 

48-2 
48-1 
48-1 
48-1 
48-1 
48- 1 

49"5 

50-0 
5»'5 
53"2 
54-8 

55'o 
54-8 
56-2 

57-5 

58-5 
58-2 



1. 



6. 



7. 



(1) Gas clear. 

(2) Nottmgham race-course and Burford seen. Gas eomirig out fast from the neck of 
the balloon. Nottingham appeared covered with smoke ; moving towards Sherwood Forest. 

(3) Over railway. (4) Mist below ; can see the earth clearly. 
(.5) Black mist below. 

(6) Lost sight of the earth on entering cloud ; clouds apparently blacker below than 
above ; gas getting cloudy. (7) Can hear sounds. 

(8) Gas much cloudier ; lighter ; gas coming out of the neck of the balloon ; light all 
round ; gas thick. (9) Heard a gun ; still in cloud. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from Derby, June 20, 1864. 



239 



mometers (free). 


Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 


Delicaec 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 




Diff. 


Dew-point. 


Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 
point 


Darnell's. 
Dew-point. 


BegnaiUt's. 
Dew-point. 




o 































1-9 


50-2 




















2-7 


48-5 














48*0 






2'0 


50-0 




















2-3 


49'5 




















2-4 


49-1 




















2-5 


49-1 




















2-5 


.49"i 




















2*5 


49-1 




















2-S 


49-1 




















i-s 


50-5 




















2'S 


48-0 




















2-7 


467 




















lO 


49-0 




















1-5 


48-5 




















0-9 


48-8 




















i"o 


48-1 




















O'g 


48-3 




















0"0 


49-2 














49'o 






O'O 


49-2 




















O'O 


49-2 




















o-s 48-5 




































47-5 






13 


46-8 




















i'4 


46-6 




















I "4 


466 




















11 


46-8 




















I"2 


468 




















1-4 


46-6 




















1-7 


477 















47-0 






i-s 


48-5 




















0-5 


51-0 




















43 


49'3 




















3-2 


52-0 




















3-0 


52-3 




















4-5 


51-0 




















4-2 


52-6 




















4'3 


53-9 




















6-1 


53-4 




















5-8 


53'9 


















8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 


(10) The numbei* of pulsations per minute were as follows :— Mr. Coxwell, 94; Mr. 


Bourne, 98 ; Mr. Goodchild, 86 ; Mr. Allport, 84 ; Mr. Jackson, 90 ; Mr. Knight, 90. 


(11) Valve opened ; slight wind against the face. 


(12) Can hear a church-clock striking ; clouds darker. 


(13) Can see the earth ; over fields. 


(14) Earth clear ; can see the edges of the clouds ; cannot see people. 


(1.5) Can see people ; over a park ; going over Southwell. 


(16) Over Nottingham and Lincoln Eailway ; see sun faintly. 




(17) 


n the groL 


ind at No\ 


veil Wo 


odhous 


3, abou 


, 9 mile 


s from Nev 


rark. 





240 



REPORT 1864. 

Table I.— Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-first 



1. 







Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 


Height above 


Dry and Wet Ther- 












S o 

1° 


Time. 


Reading 


Att. 
Therm. 


Sarometer, 


sea-level. 










corrected 
and reduced 


No. 2. 




Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fahr. 
















h m s 


in. 





in. 


feet. 










(1) 


6 31 p.m. 
6 33 „ 






2975 




631 


55-5 








29-75 


I ground ■! 


64-0 


56 + 






6 33 30 „ 






2975 


1_ 


630 


54-0 






6 34 ° » 
6 34 30 „ 

6 34 45 .. 






29-67 


432 


61-5 


52-0 




(2) 






29-64 

29"6i 


484 
514 


62-0 
6o-i 


52-1 
51-2 






6 35 „ 







29-51 


610 


60-1 


5i"3 






6 35 50 „ 






29-38 


719 


59-5 


51-2 




(3) 
(4) 


6 37 „ 






29-21 


865 


58-5 


50-2 




6 38 „ 






29-08 


970 


58-0 


50-0 




(5) 


6 38 30 „ 






28-98 


1.054 


57-8 


50-0 




6 39 „ 






28-88 


1,138 


57-2 


49-5 






6 4.0 ,, 
t » 






28-81 


1,188 


57-2 


50-0 






6 42 „ 






28-56 


1.493 


56-8 


50-0 






6 42 30 „ 






29'S5 


1.497 


56'S 


50-0 




(6) 


6 43 ° .> 






28-55 


1.497 


56-2 


49-8 




6 47 „ 






29-18 


891 


57-0 


51-0 




(7) 


6 48 „ 






29-24 


S40 


57-2 


5i'5 




(8) 


6 48 30 „ 






29-35 


750 


57-8 


51-9 






6 49 „ 






29-36 


747 


57-9 


52-0 






6 49 10 „ 






2q"40 


717 










6 49 20 „ 






29-38 


714 


58-0 


51-5 




(9) 


6 49 30 „ 






29-37 


713 


57-8 


51-2 




(10) 


6 50 „ 






29-24 


841 


57'S 


50-9 




(11) 


6 50 30 „ 






29-17 


903 








6 51 30 „ 








(980) 


S7-2 


5°-5 




(12) 


6 52 „ 






29-05 


1,019 


57-0 


50-3 




(13) 


6 S3 .. 






28-74 


1,309 


56-2 


50-0 


> 


(14) 


6 54 3° ., 






28-45 


1,589 


55-5 


48-9 




6 54 45 ,. 






28-41 


1,621 


55'* 


48-9 




(15) 


6 56 „ 







28-38 


1,660 


55-2 


48-2 




6 56 30 „ 






28-37 


1,670 


54-9 


48-2 






6 59 30 „ 






28-81 


1,188 


55-0 


49-2 


1 




7 1 !) 






29-06 


95° 


55-a 


49-2 






7 13°!. 






28-98 


1,004 


56-0 


49"S 




(16) 


720,, 






28-86 


1,134 


55-9 


49-0 




(17) 


7 2 30 „ 






28-64 


1,370 


55'2 


49-2 




(18) 


7 3°!. 






28-56 


1,460 


55-0 


48-5 




(19) 


7 3 30 .. 






28-51 


1,514 


54-5 


48-0 




(20) 


740.. 







28-45 


1,578 


54-0 


47-8 






7 4 30 .> 






28-31 


1,714 


53'2 


46-8 




(21) 


7 5 !. 






28-05 


1,979 


52-7 


46- 1 






7 5 3°.. 






28-oc 


2,026 


52-2 


46-1 





4. 



o. 



7. 



(I) Sky cloudy ; cirrocumulus ; -wind N.N.W. (2) Miaty. 
(3) Over Penge. _ (-i) Going towards Bromley. 

(5) Over Chatham and Dover line of railway. 

(6) The number of pulsations per minute were as follows: — Mr. E. Atkinson, 78; 
Mr. Glaisber, 104 ; Mr. Ingelow, 108 ; Mr. Collins, 108 ; and Mr. Woodroffe, 120. 

(7) Over Shortlands. 

(8) Can see the fountains playing at the Crystal Palace. 

(9) See New Church at Bromley. (10) Passing south of Bromley. 

(II) Thirty vibration* of iiorizontal magnet in 48 seconds. 
(12) On a level with Bromley. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, June 27, 1864. 



241 



-_ 


moraeters 


(free). 


Gridiron 


Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 


Delicate 


1 










1 




Thermo- 








Dauieirs. 


Regnault's 


Blackened 




Diff. 


Dew-point 


meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. ?jr 






Bulb Ther- 
















pUlIIL. 


Dew-point. 


Dew-point. 


mometer. 






7-6 


o 

49-1 
49 4 




















, 
45-6 







9-0 


46-4 


















• 


95 


437 




















99 


43"6 




















8-9 


43-4 




















8-8 
8-3 


43-5 
















59-2 




43'9 
















59"o 




P 


42-8 
















58-0 




8o 


42-8 




















7-8 


43-0 







1 








57-0 




Tl 


42-5 




















7-2 


43-4 




















6-8 


43-8 




















6-5 


44-0 
















55'o 




6-4 


43-8 




















6o 


45-5 




















57 


46-3 




















59 


467 




















59 


467 




















6-s"' 


43-8 

















56-8 




6-6 


45-3 




















6-6 


45-1 




















6-7 


44-5 




















6-7 

6-2 


44-2 
44-8 
















55-9 




6-6 


437 




















6-3 


42-9 




















7-0 


41-5 




















6-7 


43-a 




















5-8 


43-6 




















6o 


43-4 




















6-5 


43-4 




















6-9 


42-5 




















6o 


43-4 




















6-s 


422 




















6-5 
6-6 


417 
417 
40-4 
















54-0 




6-4 
















53-5 




6-6 


396 




















6i 


39-9 



















10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



1.5. 



16. 



17. 



(13) Going over Hayos Common. 

(14) Crystal Palace looks well. 

(15) The number of respirations per minute were as follows:— Mr. Collins, 11 • Mr 
M? w' ^''^\i■ '""] ^l- ?;„-^^^"^°°' both 17 ; Mr. Ingelovv, IS ; Mr. Glai her.'lS^ • 
themTtm U°e r^me' ' ^'- ^'''^'°' "'P''''^'^ "^^ experiments and found 

/1!^N ^^''"S-Paper tinged to 1 ; ozone-powder coloured to 2. 

5 mT •^^'^oT'^ "' ^^'^ ^"^'^- (^^) P^^^'"g 'lo^'i t'^" Sevenoaks road. 

(9) Moving SE. (20) Sun at edge of cloud. 

(^1) bun visible. 
1S64. 



243 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I.— Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-first 



lU o 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



(5) 
(6) 



(7) 



(8) 

(9) 
(10) 

(11) 

(12) 
(13) 



Time. 



21 

22 

22 



op 

30 
30 

o 
o 

30 

o 

30 

45 
o 

30 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

30 

o 
20 



7 20 o 

7 20 30 



o 

o 

IS 



22 30 

24 o 

25 o 

26 o 

26 30 

27 o 

28 
29 

30 



7 31 

7 32 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

34 30 

35 o 

35 30 

36 o 

o 
o 
o 



33 

34 



37 
38 
39 



siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



in. 

27-97 
2775 
27-41 
27-36 
27'o8 
27-00 
26-91 
26-81 
26-56 
26-27 
26-17 

26-II 

26*01 

25-96 
25-88 
25-91 
25-91 

26-00 
26-06 
26-11 
26-25 
26-26 
2637 
26"4i 
26-41 
26-46 
26-51 
26-54 
26-57 
26-57 
26-61 
26-71 
26-73 
26-76 
26-85 
26-86 
26-90 
26-81 
26-61 
26-48 
.26-44 



Height above 
sea-level, 



26-06 
25-86 

25-78 
2561 
25-41 
25-36 



feet. 
2,057 
2,295 
2,603 
2,648 
2,941 
3,021 
3, HI 
3,202 

3.454 
3.767 

3,831 
3.871 
3.965 
4,017 
4,086 
4,131 

4.13" 

4,040 

3,98s 
3.845 
3,795 
3>79° 
3,680 
3,640 
3,640 
3.590 
3,511 
3.487 
3.453 
3,453 
3,423 
3,322 
3,302 
3,277 
3,187 
3,197 

3. 119 
3,209 

3,415 
3,527 
3,561 
(3,734) 
3,9°7 
4,191 
4,270 

4,467 
4,661 

4,716 



Dry. 



52-2 

Si-5 
50-5 
49"5 
49-6 

49-2 
49"5 
495 
48-4 
469 
46-s 
46-2 

45-9 
45-S 
44-2 
43-1 

43 'o 
43-0 

43-1 

43-1 

43'9 
44-0 

44-1 

44-2 

44-8 

44"S 
43-2 
45-2 

45'9 

47-2 
47-2 
47-5 
47-5 
47-8 

47-5 
47-2 
47-0 
47-0 
46-5 

43-0 
42-8 

43-0 
43-0 

437 
43-0 



3. 



5. 



6. 



(1) Near New Bromley. (2) Golden tinge over water. (3) Sun again seen. 

(4) Thirty vibrations of horizontal magnet was observed in 49-1 seconds. 
(.5) Sim shining on Blackened Bulb Thermometer. 

(6) Can see Farningham ; passing Madamseourt HiU. 

(7) Thirty vibrations of liorizontal magnet was observed in 49 seconds. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, June 27, 1864. 



243 



8. 



mo meters 


(free). 




Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 






Diff. 


Dew-point 


Thermo- 
meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 
point. 


Darnell's. 
Dew-point. 


Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 


Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 




































6r 


399 




















ys 


41-2 




















5-4 


40-3 




















4-5 
4-6 
4-0 
4-3 
4-4 
3-9 
3-9 
4-4 
4-1 
3-8 

3-4 
31 
2-6 
3-0 

2-6 

2-6 
2-9 

2'0 
2-2 
2-1 

2-7 

1-4 
i-i 
2-7 
2-9 

2-7 
2-5 
3-4 
3-6 
3-8 

'.I 

4-8 

4'4 

17 
1-3 

lO 

i-o 

22 

17 


40-2 
40-1 
40-9 
40-6 

40-4 

38-1 
38-6 
37-1 

37-4 
377 
38-2 

37-S 
37-4 
36-4 

37-4 
37-4 

37-4 
37-6 
39-6 

39'3 
39-6 

38-8 

4i'3 
40-8 

39'4 
397 

41-5 

42-2 

42-4 
40-2 

39"4 
36-4 
36-8 
36-8 

37-1 

39-2 

40-2 
40-8 
40-8 
38-8 
39-2 














39-2 
34-5 


45-0 
42-0 

45-0 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(8) Tliii-ty Tibi-ations of horizontal magnet was observed in 48'9 seconds. 

(9) Sevenoaks on our level. (10) Crossing Sevenoaks line. 

(11) Can see Knoll House. 

(12) Ozone by paper was coloured to 2, that by powder 3. 

(13) Thirty vibrations of horizontal magnet was observed in 49'2 seconds. 

k2 



244 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-first 



Mz 



(1) 



(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(5) 
(6) 



(7) 
(8) 

(9) 
(10) 

(11) 

(12) 
(13) 



(14) 
(15) 

(16) 

(17) 
(18) 
(19) 



(20) 
(21) 
(22) 

(23) 
(24) 



Time. 



m 

39 

40 

41 
41 
42 

42 
42 

43 
44 
44 
45 
46 
48 
49 
49 
49 
5° 
51 
52 
53 
53 
53 
54 
54 
55 
56 
56 
57 
58 
58 
59 
o 



I 
2 
3 
3 
S 4 

8 5 
g 6 

8 7 
8 8 



30 p.m. 

o .. 

o „ 

30 ., 

o „ 

30 .. 

45 .. 

o „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

o ,, 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

20 „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

o ,. 

30 » 

30 „ 

45 » 

o „ 

30 >. 

3° .. 

o „ 

30 .. 

3° >. 

o „ 

30 !< 

o „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

30 .. 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 ,. 

o >, 

o „ 

o ., 

o ,, 

o „ 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to .32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



in. 
25'28 

25-18 
25-18 
25-18 

2526 

25-28 
25-36 
25-38 

25'45 
25-45 
25-38 
25-36 
25'45 
25'55 
25'57 
25'57 
25-68 
25-91 
26-06 



26-06 
26-06 
26-06 
26-08 
26-06 
26-06 
26-08 



26*36 
26-41 
26-45 
26-48 
26-55 
26-66 
2676 
26-86 
26-96 
27-01 
27-26 
27-31 
27-41 
27-56 
27-58 



Height above 
sea-level. 



feet. 
4.796 
4.898 
4,898 
4,898 
4,816 

4.796 
4,722 

4.699 
4.597 
4.597 
4.699 
4,692 

4.597 
4.492 
4.471 
4.471 
4.357 
4.115 
3.958 
(3.958) 
3.958 
3.958 
3.958 
3.936 
3.958 
3.958 
3.936 
(3.686) 

3.637 
3,588 

3.547 
3,604 

3.45° 
3.343 
3.244 
3.144 
3.044 
2.994 
2,744 
2,694 

2.594 

2,440 

2,409 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. Wet. 



44-1 
429 
428 
42-2 
41-9 
422 
41-9 
41-2 
41-2 
40-2 
40-2 
40-2 
40-9 
409 
41-0 
41-0 
41-0 
41-2 
42-0 
42-0 
42-0 
41-9 
41-9 

41 9 
41-9 

41-5 
41-5 

41-9 
42-0 
41-9 
41-9 
42-1 
42-1 
42-5 
42-5 
425 
43-0 

43-5 
44-0 

44'5 
449 
449 



6. 



(1) Over the Weald of Jvent ; temperature of gas in balloon 55''. 

(2) Very misty; no object at any distance can be seen. 

(.3) Thirty vibrations of horizontal magnet in 492 seconds. 

(4) Tlie sky clear and light blue ; detached cumuli. 

(5) Heard dog barking ; passing to the left of Tuubridge. 

(6) Thirty vibrations of horizontal magnet in 49 seconds. 

(7) Very misty. (8) Very misty. 

(9) Ozone paper coloured to 3, powder to 4. 

(10) Can see Tunbridge Wells to the right and S. of us. 

(11) Can hear voices, but see no one on the earth. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 
Ealloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, June 27, 1864. 



245 



mometers (free). 



Diflf. 



3'9 

1-8 

1 7 
a'l 

2-3 
3'4 

27 
27 

2-4 
2-4 
2-4 

27 
27 

2-8 
2-8 
2-8 

27 

3-8 

4-0 

31 
2-9 
27 

2*9 

2-9 

2*0 
2-4 

2-8 

2'1 
2-1 

2"3 
2- 1 

25 

2'0 
2'0 
2'0 

2-5 
2-5 
2-5 

29 

2-9 



8. 

(12) 
(14) 
(15) 
(16) 
(18) 
(19) 
(21) 
(22) 
(23) 
(24) 



Dew-point, 



35'6 
39-1 
38-8 
38-4 

37'i 

37-0 

34;3 
35"i 
35-1 

347 
347 
347 
347 
347 
347 
347 
347 
35-1 
33"5 
33'i 
35'o 
35-4 
359 
35-4 
35-4 
37'o 
36-9 

36-6 

357 

37-1 

37"i 
36-9 

37'4 
37"o 
38-0 
38-0 
38-6 
38-0 

3S-5 
390 
38-6 
38-6 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Hygrometers. 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnauli's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



41-5 



4i"5 



44-0 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



IG. 



17. 



(13) Near viUage of Hadlow. 



The sun at edge of cloud. 

Nearly over the Medway. 

Thirty vibrations of horizontal magnet in 49 seconds. 

We are changing our direction. (17) Heard a gain. 

Can see main line of the Soutli-Eastern Eailway ; a train coming towards us 

Can see people. (20) Belt across the sun apparently on our level. 

Can see two horses, and a man leading them. 

Tiiirty vibrations of horizontal magnet in 487 seconds. 

Heard a gun ; can see three trains. 

Can just see the edge of the sun. 



346 



REPORT 1864!. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-first 



fez 



(1) 

(2) 



(3) 

(4) 
(5) 



(6) 
(7) 

(8) 
(9) 

(10) 



(11) 
(12) 



(13) 



(14) 



Time. 



8 8 30 p.m. 
8 9 30 „ 
8 10 o „ 
8 II o „ 
8 14 o „ 
8 15 o „ 
8 15 30 „ 
8 16 o „ 
8 17 o „ 
8 18 o „ 
8 19 o „ 
8 20 o „ 
8 20 30 „ 
8 20 45 ,, 
8 21 o „ 
8 22 o „ 



8 23 
8 24 
8 25 
8 26 

8 27 
8 27 
8 28 
8 28 
8 28 
8 29 
8 29 
8 29 
8 30 
8 30 
8 30 

8 31 
8 32 
8 32 
8 32 
8 33 
S 33 
8 34 

8 35 
8 36 
8 36 
8 37 
8 37 
8 38 
8 38 
8 38 
8 39 



o 
o 
o 
o 
o 

30 

o 
20 

30 

o 
3° 
45 

o 

15 

30 

o 
o 

30 

45 
o 

30 
o 

3° 
o 

30 
o 

30 

o 

15 

30 

o 



Siphon Barometer. 



Beading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32' Fahx- 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



m. 

27-46 

27'o6 

2676 

26-66 

26-51 

26-41 

26-41 

26-41 

26-56 

26-66 

26-71 

26-76 

27-01 

27-01 

27-01 

27-n 

27-16 

27-16 

27-26 

27-27 

27-56 

27-66 

27-71 

2776 

27-78 

27-81 

27-96 

28-01 

28-06 

28-08 

28-08 

28-15 

28-18 

28-18 

28-16 

28-16 

28-11 

2806 

27-95 
27-88 
27-84 
27-78 
27-76 
27-68 
27-66 
27-64 
27-64 
27-66 



Height above 
sea-level. 



feet. 

2,529 

2,929 

3,229 

3.329 

3.479 

3.579 

3.579 

3.579 

3.444 

3.340 

3,288 

3,236 

2,978 

2,978 

2,978 

2,878 

2,828 

2,828 

2,720 

2,710 

2.434 

2.337 

2,289 

2,241 

2,221 

2,199 

2,151 

2,003 

1.955 
1.937 
1.937 
1,910 
1,831 

1,831 

1,884 

1,884 

1,936. 

1,988 

2,098 

2,168 

2,208 

2,268 

2,288 

2,322 

2.337 

2,348 

2,348 

2,337 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



45-0 
45-2 
44-8 
44-8 
43-9 
43'5 
43-5, 
43-3 
43-1 

43 'o 
43'i 
43-2 

43-5 
43-5 
43-5 
43-8 
44-0 
44-0 
44-2 

44-5 
45-2 
45-0 

45-9 
46-0 

46-0 

46-2 

46-2 

47-0 

47-0 

47-2 

47-1 

47-5 
47-5 
477 
47'9 
48-0 
48-2 
48-2 
47-8 
47-8 

47'9 
47-8 
47-6 
47-6 
47-2 
47-2 
47-2 
47-2 



Wet. 



42-2 
42-3 
42-5 
420 

4i"5 
41-0 
41-0 
41-0 
40-5 
40-1 
40-5 
40-5 
40-8 

41-5 
41-2 
41-2 

41-5 
42*0 
42*0 
42-2 
43-2 
43-0 
43-0 

43"9 
435 
44-0 

44-0 
44-1 
44-1 
44-2 

44'2 
44-2 

44'2 
447 
446 

44'5 
447 
44"9 
44' 5 
442 
44-0 
44-0 
44-0 
44-2 

43 '9 
43'9 
440 

437 



1. 



3. 



4. 



6. 



(1) Heard the whistle of a train. 

(2) Sixteen vibrations of horizontal magnet in 26-5 seconds. 

(3) Lowered grapnel ; clear sky above. 

(4) Going over Goudhurst. (.5) Sunset. 
(()) We are passing between Hawkhurst and Cranbrook. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, June 27, 1864. 



247 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



a-8 
2-9 
a-3 
a-8 
2-4 
a-s 
2-5 
a-3 
a-6 
2-9 
2-6 
2-7 
27 

2-0 

a-3 
2-6 

2-0 
2-2 

a-o 
2"o 

2-9 
2-1 

^5 

2*2 
2*2 
2-9 
2-9 

3-0 

2-9 

3-3 
33 
3'o 
33 
3-5 
3-5 
33 
3-3 
3-6 

39 
3-8 
3-6 

3 '4 
3'3 
3'3 
3-2 



Dew-point, 



38-9 
38-9 

38-8 

387 
386 
38-0 
38-0 
38-3 

37-4 
38-6 

37-4 
37-3 
37-6 
39-2 
38-4 
38-1 

38-5 
39-6 

39*4 
39-4 
40-9 
407 
397 

4i'S 
40-6 

41-5 
41-5 
40-8 
40-8 
40-8 
40-9 
40-5 
40-5 
41-4 
40-9 
40-6 
40-8 

4I"2 

40-8 
40-2 

397 
39-8 
40*0 
40-4 
40*2 

4-C'2 

40-4 

39-8 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Di£f. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 



Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-poiqt. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



(7) Thirty vibrations of horizontal magnet in 48'5 seconds. 

(8) Cranbrook very distinct. (9) Sounds very distinctly heard. 

(10) The country is very beautiful indeed. 

(11) A bell heard with a clear sound. (12) The shades of evening are coining over. 
(13) Over Tenterden. (14) Heard a gun. 



2J,8 



KEPORT 18G4'. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-first 



V o 



(1) 

(2) 
(3) 



Siphon Barometer. 



(5) 
(6) 



(7) 
(8) 
(9) 



Time. 



h ru s 



8 39 
8 39 
8 40 
8 41 
8 41 
8 42 
8 42 
8 43 
8 43 
8 44 
8 44 
8 45 
8 45 
8 46 
8 47 
8 48 
8 50 
8 SI 
8 51 
8 52 
8 52 
8 53 
8 54 
8 54 
8 54 
8 55 
8 55 
8 56 
8 56 
8 57 
8 57 
8 58 
8 58 
8 59 

8 59 

9 o 
9 1 
9 I 
9 2 
9 3 
9 3 
9 4 

9 
9 
9 
9 
9 



6 

7 

8 

21 

30 



30 p.m. 

45 " 

o „ 

o ,, 

30 „ 

o „ 

30 „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 ,. 

o „ 

30 „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

3° .. 

o „ 

o „ 

15 .. 

3° .. 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

30 .> 

o „ 

30 » 

o ,, 

30 ,. 

30 ,. 

15 .. 

30 .. 

o „ 

o „ 

3° .. 

o ,, 



Keariing 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



m. 

27-66 

27*66 

27-81 

27-86 

27-91 

27-94 

28-01 

28-16 

28-21 

28-28 

28-28 

28-35 

28-36 

28-41 

28-42 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Height above 
sea-level. 



28-84 
28-91 
28-91 
28-98 
29-06 
2yo6 
29-21 
29-21 
29-26 
29-23 
29-16 
29-06 
28-91 
28-66 
28-56 
28-41 
2S-31 
28-26 
28-16 
27-36 
27-06 
26-78 
26-81 
26-31 
26-06 
25-91 
25-78 
25-06 
24-66 
24-06 

29-96 



feet. 

2.337 

a.337 

2,187 

2,136 

2,086 

2,056 

1,986 

1,836 

1,786 

1,716 

1,716 

1,668 

1,678 

1,628 

1,618 

(i>478) 

1,198 

1,114 

1,114 

1,030 

944 

944 

770 

770 

662 

698 

772 

890 

949 

1.245 

1.363 

1,540 

1,658 

1,717 

1.843 

2,651 

2.954 
3.244 
3.214 
3-517 
3.964 
4,019 
4,166 

4.956 
5,396 
6,168 

ground 



Dry. 



47-2 
47-2 
47-0 
47-0 
47-0 

47' 3 
47-2 
47-0 
47-2 

47*5 
47-8 

48-2 
48-S 
48-7 
48-9 
49-1 
49-0 
49-0 
49-0 
49-0 
49-0 

49° 
49-0 
49-0 

49° 
48-8 

48-9 

48-9 

486 

48-8 

48-5 

47"9 
47-0 

46-5 

46-0 

47-2 

47-5 
46-5 
46-7 
46-9 
46-0 
44-8 
44'5 



46-5 



Wet. 



43'5 
43-5 
43'5 
43-6 

437 
439 

439 

44-0 

44"5 
45"i 
44-8 

44-5 
45-2 

45'i 
45-S 

45-5 
44-2 
44-0 

43 "9 
43'5 
43"2 
43"5 
44-0 
44-0 
43-8 
43-5 
435 
43-2 
42-8 

42-3 
42-2 
42-0 
41-8 
40-6 
41-0 
42-2 

427 
42-5 

41-5 
41-2 

40-5 



45-2 



1. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



(1) Gas clear. (2) Mist over marshes. 

(3) Packed up tlie Hygrometer and Blackened Bulb Thermometer. 

(4) Still over Tenterden ; came within the influence of a westerly current. 

(5) Difficult to read the instrumenis. 

(6) In fog. 

(7) Could not see to read the instruments. 



/. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, June 27, 1864. 



219 



mometers (free). 



Diff. 



37 
37 
3-5 
3 4 
3-3 
3-4 
3-3 
3-0 
2-7 
2-4 
j-o 
37 
33 
3-6 
3-4 

3*5 
4-8 

S'S 
5-8 
55 
S"o 
5-0 
5'o 
5*4 
5-4 
5'4 
6-0 
6-2 
57 
SO 
47 
5*4 
6-0 

53 
3-8 
4-2 

5-4 
4-8 

4'3 



i'3 



Dew-point 



393 
393 
39-5 
397 

39'9 
40-1 

40-2 

40'6 

41 4 

43'4 
41-4 

40-4 

4r6 

41'2 

41 -8 

417 
39-0 
386 
38-4 
37-5 
369 

37-5 
386 
386 

38-3 
37-8 
37-8 

37-3 
36-2 

35-5 

35*9 
36-4 

36-4 
34"4 
34-1 
36-3 
38-4 
377 
35-4 
357 
3S'5 



43-8 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Hygrometers. 



Dew- 
point. 



Daniell's 
Dew-point. 



Ilcgnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



10. 



II. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 



17. 



^n} ?" J^® ground at Eomney Marsh, about half a mile from Cheynecourt 
(9) At the Alliance Inn Brookland at midnight, Mr. CoweH's pulsations were 90 in a 
minute ; Mr. Glaisher s 88 ; Mr. CoUins's 94, and Mr. J. Atkinson's 74. The number of 
respirations per minute were-Mr. Coxwell, 18 ; Mr. Glaisher 17, and Mr. Collins ic At 
the hour of i" a.m., June 28, 30 vibrations of the same horizontal magnet were observed as 
tollow8:-in 47-2 ; again 47-2 ; again 47-2 ; again 465 ; and in 472 seconds 



250 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-second 






(1) 



(2) 
(3) 



(4) 
(5) 



(G) 
(7) 

(«) 



(9) 



(10) 
(11) 



(12) 
(13) 
(14) 
(15) 



Time. 



9 

lO 
10 

II 
II 

12 

1+ 

IS 
i6 

17 
17 
18 

19 

20 

as 
24 
24 

^S 
26 
26 
27 
28 
28 
28 
29 
29 
30 

31 
32 

32 
33 
34 
36 
38 
38 
39 
39 
39 
42 

44 
45 



o p.m. 

20 „ 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

30 >. 

o „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

o „ 

o ., 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 ,, 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 „ 

o ,, 

30 .. 

o .. 

o >. 

30 » 

o ., 

o „ 

30 I. 

45 .. 

o ,, 

30 „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

o „ 

30 !. 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

20 ,, 

o „ 

30 ,. 

45 ,. 

o ,. 

o „ 



siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



m. 
29*64 

29-54 
29-26 
28-49 
28-10 

27-54 
26-84 
26-59 
26-34 
26-09 
25-79 
25-80 
25-46 
25-44 
25-36 
25-29 
25-06 
24-86 

24' 5 3 
24-44 
23-79 
23-49 



23-24 
2296 
22-89 
22-54 

22-34 
22-14 
22-04 
21-92 
21-44 
21-34 
20-59 
20*46 
20-36 
19-94 
19-64 
19-07 



18-94 
18-82 
1884 
18-34 



Height above 
sea-level. 



feet, 
ground. 

444 

769 

1,484 

1,883 

2.433 
3,166 

3.427 
4.034 
4,644 

5.370 
5.347 
4,612 

4.635 
4.730 
4,808 
5,066 
5,289 
5,664 
S.767 
6,513 
6,858 

(7.008) 
7.158 
7.496 
7,578 
7,994 

8,224 

8,454 
8,568 
8,719 
9,322 
9,610 

10,575 
10,744 
10,875 
1 1,422 
11,813 
12,605 



12,773 

12,954 
12,924 

13-675 



(14,293) 



Dry and -Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



72-5 

72-0 
71-2 
71-0 
68-2 
64-5 
62-2 
6i-o 
60-5 
58-5 
56-2 
55"o 
52-5 
53"2 
54-2 

54' 3 
54'2 
542 
54-2 
54'2 
51-2 
51-2 

51-2 

51-0 
50-2 
48-9 

45-0 
44-2 
43-2 
43-2 
42-0 
41-2 
41-2 

40-5 
40-2 
36-0 

35-5 
34-2 

32-8 
32-8 
33-2 
34-2 



1. 



3. 



4. 



5. 



6. 



(1) Left the earth. (2) Balloon revolving once in 3 minutes. 

(4) Deep blue sky ; horizon very misty ; eim above. 

(5) Tried vibrations of a horizontal magnet, but failed. 

(6) Changed direction to move west. (7) Mo-ving quickly. 
(8) Sliips look small. 



(3) No wind. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, August 29, 1864. 



251 



10. 



11. 12, 



13. 



14. 



15. 



16. 





-nometers (free). 




Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated) 


Hygrometers. 










Gridiron 
Thermo- 










Darnell's. [ Regnault's 


Blackened 




DifF. 


Dew-point 


meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 


Bulb Ther- 


















Dew-point. • Dew-point. 


mometer. 


O 

JSS 



45 '4 




























150 


457 




















140 


467 




















15-0 


45-2 




















127 

11-5 


45-6 
436 

















70-0 
645 




II'2 


41-4 




















ii-S 


39-5 




















120 


380 




















11-3 


37-1 




















lO'O 


36-9 




















90 


37-4 




















r^ 


41-5 




















6-1 


410 




















S-o 
51 


44" 3 
44-2 














43-5 


54-0 




57 


42-9 
















54-8 




57 


42-9 




















3-0 


47 '9 




















60 
6-2 


4^-3 
38-6 
















S2-0 




6-2 


386 




















7*1 
8-5 


37-1 
33-6 
















33'° 
38-0 






97 
lo-o 


30-2 

28-1 














29-5 


S2-0 




7-8 


28-1 




















7-1 


287 




















6-7 


28-5 










. 










7-2 


27-4 




















5-8 


29*0 




















S-2 


29-5 




















5-* 


29-5 




















5-5 


28-0 




















5-4 

rs 


27-8 
167 














25-0 






9*3 


I2*I 




















6-2 


17-1 




















's-6 


i6'o 
















35"o 




6-6 


13-0 














I2'0 


35"2 




77 


100 


















__ 


D 


















42*0 



(9) Tried vibrations of horizontal magnet again, but failed 

(10) The fountains of the Crystal Palace look very smaU ; ozone coloured to i. 

(11) Dreadnought looks small (12) Applied water to Wet-bulb. 

^l^} mu-''^*'"'u ^^-^^^ ^"^'^^^ ^^^^ ''^^^- (14) S"^ bot to the face. 

UO) J-turty vibrations of a horizontal magnet in 42 seconds. 






RKPORT 1864?. 



Table I. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-second 






(1) 

(2) 
(3) 



(4) 
(5) 



(6) 



(7) 



(8) 
(9) 



Time. 



m 
46 

47 



4 47 



48 
49 
49 

50 

52 
S3 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
58 

59 
o 
I 

3 

n 

1 
8 

9 
II 
II 

12 
14 
14 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 15 



16 
17 
17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 
23 

25 

26 

27 



5 32 



o p.m. 

o „ 

30 ,. 

30 .. 

o „ 

30 I. 

o „ 

o ,. 

30 .- 

o „ 

30 .. 

o ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

3° » 

o ,. 

o .-. 

30 ., 

o » 

o „ 

30 .. 

o .. 

o „ 

o „ 

3° .- 

o „ 

o „ 

30 „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ ' 

o .. 

o ,. 

o ,> 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 



siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Att. 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



in. 
I7'94 

i7'94 
17-92 
17-84 
1774 
'774 



17-89 
1792 

17-94 
18-04 



18-04 
18-09 



18-14 
18-26 
18-29 
18-74 
18-84 
20-64 
20-79 

21-05 
21-42 
21-52 
21-65 
22-34 
22-69 
22-74 
23-00 
23-29 
23-69 
24-18 
2526 

2549 

25-70 
26-14 
26-74 
26-74 
28-06 
28-54 
29-86 



Height above 
sea-level. 



feet. 

14.293 
14,293 

14.317 
14.415 
14,581 

14.581 
(14,580) 

14.330 
14,281 

14,248 
14,086 



14,086 
13.991 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



13.895 
13.730 
13,688 
13,016 
12,866 

9.943 
9,868 

9.740 
9,268 

9.143 
8,981 
8,146 

7,726 
7,666 

7.35' 
7,018 
6,558 
5.996 
4,815 
4.550 
4,326 

3.857 
3.225 
3.238 
1,902 

1.417 
on the ground 



Dry. 



352 
35'2 
35-5 
33"2 
33"2 
34-2 

33'o 
33-0 
32-3 
32-0 

295 
28-5 

29-0 
30-0 
31-0 
30-0 
31-0 
34-0 
34-2 

36-2 
362 
37-2 
37-8 
41-2 

41-5 
41-0 
42-5 
44-2 

45'5 
47-0 

49'5 
51-2 

52-5 
53-5 
54-2 
58-2 

64-0 
69-0 



Wet. 



31-0 

30-7 

30-5 
31-1 
3i'o 
3o'9 

30-5 
30-0 
28-1 
26-1 

22"0 
22-1 

22-0 
23-1 
22-5 
22-0 
22-7 
28-9 
29-0 

30-2 

3o'5 
30-5 
30-9 
32-0 
3,-8 

31-8 
32-0 

33"5 
38-1 
42-8 
46-2 
48-1 
48-1 

49'5 
49-1 

49'5 

5S-0 
57-2 



1. 



6. 



(1) Ozone paper coloured to 2 ; 28 vibrations of a horizontal magnet in 49-5 seconds. 

(2) Mr. Glaisher's pulsations were 110, and respirations 20 in a minute, 
(.j) Mr. Glaisher's pulsations were 97 in a minute. 

(4) Field appeared 20 feet square. 

(5) Nearly over Erith. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

Balloon Ascent, from the Crystal Palace, August 29, 1864. 



253 



momcters (free). 



Diff. 



4-2 

45 
J-o 

2-1 

2'2 

33 

4-2 
59 

7-5 
6-4 

yo 
6-9 

8-5 
8-0 

8-3 
S'« 
S'i 

6o 

57 
6-7 
6-9 
9-2 

97 

9-2 

lo-s 

lo-y 

7'4 
4-2 

33 
31 

4-4 
4-0 

51 
87 

9-0 
II-8 



8. 



Dew-point 



25-3 
23-5 
22-8 

27-0 
27-0 

251 

25-5 

24-0 

18-9 

22'5 
3-0 

- i"4 

- 1-6 

- 3-4 

+ '-4 

- 0-4 

- 3'2 
-j- 0-4 

20-0 

19-9 

212 

22'0 
311 

317 

20'5 

197 

20'2 
19-2 
20'9 

29-6 

381 

43-0 

44-9 
43-6 

45 -o 
441 
41-6 

47-5 
47'9 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Di/r. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened 
Bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



3-0 

3'o 



190 



42-0 
35-5 

37-0 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



42-0 
43-0 



51-0 



14. 



1.5. 



16. 



J!l^h\ftS'nn!^tf''''%\''' """i' 99 ; Mr. Coxwell's 102 ; Messrs. Norris and Cran- 
Mr Noti 10 Mr r « '■ « ' "Tt" °^ '«!P»-^tions in one minute were as follows :- 
ivir iNoius, 10, Mr. Glaisher, 18 ; and Messrs. Coxwell and Cranston each 22 

9 OnTl i '^^'f.'t ?^T ^^^^^•'^- (8) Sand out. 

(y) On the ground at Wybndge, near Eainham, in Essex. 



254 



REPORT 1864. 



§ 4. Adopted Temperatures of the Air and Dew-Point, with Height, 
IN THE Fourteenth to the Twenty-second Balloon Ascents, 

From all the observations of the temperatm*e and of the dew-point in the preceding 
Tables, a determination was made of both elements, with the corresponding readings of the 
barometer and heights. Some of the numbers in the column for heights have been interpo- 
lated when either of these elements have been observed without a correspionding observation 
of the barometer. The numbers thus found are within brackets. The results are contained 
in the following Tables. 

Table II. — Showing tlie adopted Reading of the Barometer, calculated Height 
above the Sea, Temperatures of the Air, Wet-bulb, and the Dew-point, 
in the Fourteenth to the Twenty-second Balloon Ascents. — Fourteenth 
Ascent. — August 31, 1863. 



Time of 

observa- 

tinn. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 
above the 
level of 
the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 
Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
I educed 
to 32° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 
Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m s 


in. 


feet. 











h m s 


in. 


feet. 











6 o o 


2970 




64-0 


60-0 


56-7 


6 40 


23-65 


6233 


38-5 


34-2 


28-4 


6 o 


2970 


64-0 


60-0 


567 


40 10 


23-70 


6176 


38-5 


34-5 


29-0 


7 o 


2970 


64-0 


600 


56-7 


42 


23-95 


5891 


38-2 


35-1 


31-0 


12 O 


29"S5 


196 


56-0 


54-0 


52-1 


42 30 


24-40 


5389 


38-5 


35-0 


3o"3 


13 


29-30 


422 


56-0 


53-5 


51-1 


43 


24-40 


5389 


3o'5 


35-0 


3°"3 


14 


28-80 


874 


55-5 


53-0 


50-6 


43 3= 


24-45 


5339 


38-5 


34-8 


29-8 


14 20 


28-64 


1 109 


54-2 


54-1- 


54-0 


44 30 


24-92 


3865 


39-1 


36-1 


32-2 


14 30 


28-50 


1145 


53-5 


51-2 


48-5 


45 c 


25-00 


4784 


39-S 


37-2 


34-3 


15 40 


27-70 


1963 


51-5 


49-0 


46-4 


45 3° 


25-30 


4452 


39-5 


3^0 


34-0 


16 


27-40 


2270 


50-5 


48-5 


46-4 


46 c 


25-50 


4231 


40-5 


37-8 


34-8 


17 


27-00 


2670 


50-5 


47-2 


43-7 


46 15 


25-70 


4009 


41-5 


38-5 


33-7 


18 


26-90 


2770 


47-8 


45-1 


42-3 


47 ° 


25-90 


3787 


42-1 


40-5 


38-5 


18 30 


26-42 


3263 


47-2 


44-0 


40-4 


47 30 


26-20 


3480 


42-1 


40-8 


39-2 


18 40 


26-00 


3694 


46-0 


42-1 


37-6 


48 c 


26-41 


3264 


42-8 


41-2 


40-9 


18 SO 


25-92 


3778 


45-2 


41-1 


36-4 


48 10 


26-65 


3018 


43-1 


42-8 


42-4 


19 


25-55 


4167 


45-2 


40-5 


35-0 


48 20 


26-71 


2957 


43-8 


42-1 


40-3 


20 


25-30 


4425 


45-0 


40-5 


35-3 


49 


26-90 


2762 


44-1 


43-0 


41-7 


20 20 


25-10 


4632 


43-5 


38-8 


33-7 


49 3° 


27-20 


2466 


45-3 


44-1 


42-9 


20 30 


24-85 


4907 


43-0 


38-2 


32-4 


49 45 


27-35 


2317 


45-2 


45-0 


44-8 


20 40 


24-48 


5403 


42-0 


37-1 


31-1 


50 10 


27-78 


1803 


46-8 


46-2 


45-2 


21 10 


24-00 


5844 


40-0 


35-5 


29-6 


51 


27-95 


1724 


47-2 


468 


46-3 


21 30 


23-50 


6404 


37-0 


32-5 


26-1 


51 10 


2825 


1434 


47-9 


47-0 


46-1 


22 


23-30 


6627 


35-5 


30-5 


22-5 


SI 30 


28-50 


1193 


482 


47-5 


46-7 


22 30 


23-00 


6963 


35-0 


29-0 


19-4 


52 


28-70 


1003 


49-0 


48-2 


47-3 


23 


22-95 


7022 


34-5 


29-0 


19-3 


53 


28-85 


859 


49-8 


49"° 


48-1 


23 30 


22-90 


7080 


34-0 


28-5 


18-0 


53 1° 


28-90 


812 


.... 


.... 


48-0 


24 


22-70 


7315 


34-0 


287 


19-4 


53 20 


2890 


812 


.50-5 


50-0 


45-5 


24 10 


22-50 


7549 


33-9 


28-5 


19-0 


53 3° 


28-75 


1050 


51-0 


50-0 


49-0 


25 


22-50 


7549 


33-5 


27-8 


I7-I 


54 


28-40 


1287 


51-0 


50-5 


50-0 


27 


22-30 


7790 


34-0 


28-5 


18-8 


54 10 


28-10 


1580 


50-5 


50-5 


^S'l 


27 50 


22-30 


7790 


34-0 


28-5 


18-S 


54 20 


27-90 


1775 


50-5 


49-8 


48-6 


28 


22-20 


7912 


34-0 


28-5 


18-8 


54 3° 


27-72 


1954 


50-5 


48-9 


47-2 


28 30 


22-20 


7912 


34-0 


28-5 


i8-8 


55 ° 


27-65 


2024 


49-8 


48-5 


47-1 


29 


22-20 


7912 


34-0 


28-5 


i8-8 


55 3c 


27-63 


1995 


50-0 


48-0 


45-9 


29 30 


22-10 


8033 


34-0 


28-5 


i8-8 


57 3° 


28-50 


1200 


50-5 


50-0 


49'5 


31 


22-10 


8033 


34-0 


28-5 


i8-8 


58 


28-53 


1171 


50-5 


50-0 


49-5 


32 


22-20 


7912 


34-0 


2S-5 


18-8 


58 30 


28-80 


909 


51-0 


50-0 


49-0 


32 30 


22-20 


7912 


34-0 


28-5 


18-8 


59 c 


28-90 


840 


53-0 


52-5 


52-0 


33 


22-35 


7770 


35-0 


30-0 


22-0 


59 3° 


29-10 


704 


53-2 


52-4 


51-6 


34 


22-45 


7621 


36-0 


32-0 


26-0 


700 


29-20 


635 


53-5 


52-5 


51-5 


35 30 


22-70 


7327 


36-5 


32-0 


25-3 


I 


29-25 


600 


53-7 


52-5 


51-3 


36 


22-90 


7124 


37-2 


33-1 


27-3 


3 <= 


29-35 


531 


53-8 






37 


23-00 


7022 


38-0 


33-5 


27-4 


5 




, "^ ., 








37 30 


23-10 


6898 


38-5. 


34-2 


28-4 


15 


.... 




53-5 






38 30 


23-32 


6626 


38-3 


34-2 


28-6 


29 


.... 


53-5 






39 023-50 


6404 


38-2 


34-2 


28-8 


i 









ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1861. 



255 



Table II. (continued.) — Flfteenth Ascent. — September 29, 1863. 



1 

Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

A.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reducec 
to 32° F 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp 

of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


1 

Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

A.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reducec 
to 32° F 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp 
of the 
Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m s 


in. 


feet. 











h m s 

8 37 c 


in. 


feet. 
(11075) 



17-5 




14-1 


-11-8 


7 12 


29-436 


© ^ 


44-2 


438 


43"4 


38 c 


19-552 


1 1082 


16-2 


141 


— 2-0 


33 o 


29-427 


\^B . 


47-2 


46-0 


447 


j 39 c 


19-523 


11127 


i6-s 


142 


- 3-4 


36 


^9-459 


il 


47-5 


45-5 


43 '4 


40 


19-303 


11592 


16-2 


14-0 


- 2-7 


42 


29-483 


^ bo 


48-0 


461 


44-1 


41 


19-253 


11654 


160 


14-0 


- 1-4 


43 


29-176 


731 


47-0 


45-1 


43-0 


42 


19-105 


11857 


16-0 


14-0 


- 1-4 


45 


29-018 


879 


46 


44'2 


42-2 


43 


18-905 


12113 


15-5 


12-5 


9-5 


46 


28-791 


1092 


45-2 


44-1 


429 


44 


18-756 


12305 


13-8 


12-5 


2-4 


46 30 


28-64.^ 


1270 


451 


438 


41-2 


44 30 


18-705 


12416 


12-2 


11-5 


6-1 


47 ° 


28-247 


1853 


45-1 


43-0 


40-7 


45 


18-705 


12416 


13-0 


121 


5-0 


47 5° 


28-049 


2129 


44-9 


43-0 


40-8 


46 




(12415) 




.... 


7-0 


50 


27-849 


2197 


44-9 


43-0 


40-8 


47 


18-706 


12414 


14-2 






Sa 


26-950 


2870 


42-0 


411 


40-0 


.... 


18-606 


12800 


130 






52 30 


26-451 


3278 


41-5 


390 


359 


.... 


.... 


.... 


17-0 


.... 


4-5 


54 


26-154 


3685 


40-0 


37-5 


34-2 


49 


18-506 


12857 


16-2 


15-0 


5-8 


55 





(38,1) 


38-5 


36-5 


337 


50 


18-507 


12857 


.... 






56 


25-859 


3938 


38-0 


35-8 


32-8 


51 


18-307 


12972 


i6-o 






57 





(4398) 


37-5 


35-0 


3,-6 


52 


18-357 


12900 


160 






59 


24-619 


5314 


353 


32-2 


27-5 


52 30 




(12800) 


■ > • • 


• « • • 


13-5 


800 


24-469 


5473 


33-8 


31-1 


28-6 


53 


18-560 


12666 


17-8 


• . . . 


10-5 


I 


24-270 


5789 


336 


30-4 


25-2 


54 


18-633 


12533 


17-8 


17-0 


li-o 


2 


23-972 


6000 


32-2 


29-8 


24-4 


54 30 


18-714 


I1818 








3 


23-783 


6117 


31-5 


29-0 


22-9 






■ > • • 


17-5 


16-9 


12-5 


4 


23-674 


6321 


31-3 






• • • * 


• • • • 


■ • • • 




.... 


12-5 


4 30 


.... 


(6375) 


31-0 


29-2 


24-3 


57 


18-548 


12704 


20-9 




5 


23-496 


6429 


3o"5 


29-0 


25-9 


58 


i8-6i8 


12593 


17-5 


16-9 


12-5 


6 


23-528 


6385 


30-0 


28-5 


23-8 


59 


18-318 


12926 


14-0 


13-5 


ii'5 


6 30 


23-529 


6385 


30-5 


28-7 


25-7 


900 


18-318 


12926 


11-5 


II-5 


9-5 


7 


23-531 


6385 


29-0 


27-8 


23-4 


I 


18-315 


12926 


ii'-8 


11-5 


92 


9 


23-382 


6647 


29-5 


27-8 


247 


I 15 




• • • • 


* • • • 




11-1 


10 


23-362 


6659 


29-3 


27-5 


21-3 


I 30 


18-3^5 


12926 


12-5 


12-0 


8-1 


11 


23-103 


6966 


29-0 


27-1 


20-3 


2 


18-265 


12975 








II 30 


22-884 


7201 


28-5 


26-0 


19-2 


3 


18-215 


13025 


15-0 


14-5 


10-4 


12 


22-734 


7436 


28-0 


25-7 


16-2 


4 


18-215 


13025 


150 


14-8 


I3'3 


13 


22-485 


7671 


27-2 


25-0 


15-2 


5 


18-215 


13025 


15-0 


14-8 


13-3 


14 


22-387 


7806 


26-0 


24-1 


14-4 


7 


18-215 


13030 


i6-5 


15-0 


3-5 


IS 


22-188 


8024 


26-0 


24-0 


13-8 


8 


18-215 


13160 


160 






16 
18 


22-109 


8041 


26-0 


24-0 


13-8 


10 


18-105 


13279 


15-1 


14-5 


p-8 


21-999 


8259 


27-0 


25-1 


16-4 


10 30 


18-065 


13321 


15-0 


14-5 


10-6 


19 


21-909 


8364 


26-s 


24-8 


16-7 


.... 


• t • • 








101 


20 


21-840 


8446 
(8475) 


26-2 


24-8 


17-9 


12 


17-815 


13882 


14-5 


140 


ii'5 


20 30 





.... 





15-0 


13 


17-645 


14218 


13-1 






21 


21-790 
21-690 


8504 


25-0 


32-0 




14 


17-663 


14096 


12-8 


12-4 


9-3 


21 30 


8621 


25-0 


32-0 




15 


17-713 


13791 


12-2 


112 


3-5 


22 


21-590 


8726 


24-5 


32-0 




16 


17-713 


13805 


14-5 






22 30 


.... 


(8726) 


. . . . 


.... 


15-5 


.... 






14-5 






23 


21-511 


8819 


23-5 






20 


17-613 


13695 


i-o 


.... 


0-0 


24 


21-192 


9193 


21-5 






22 


17613 


13695 


8-0 






25 


21-142 


9252 


213 






23 


17-613 


13695 


7-2 






27 


21-090 


9310 


21-0 


26-0 




24 




(13738,) 




.... 


— 4-0 


28 


20-895 


9563 


21-5 


21-5 




25 


17-513 


13982 


5-0 






29 30 


20-547 


10005 
(10300) 


21-1 


18-5 


0-7 


27 


'7-513 


13982 


3-5 






31 







.... 


5-0 


28 


17-643 


13807 


3-0 




— 7-0 


32 


20-002 


10646 


18-1 


14-2 


— 14-0 


2g 


17-513 


13982 


2-5 


2-0 


— lo-o 


33 


19-902 
19-802 


10785 


17-2 


14-1 


- 94 


31 


17-514 


15517 


20 


10 


— lo-o 


34 


10924 


17-0 


13-9 


- 97 


32 


16-OI-3 


16284 


1-2 


0-2 




35 


19-702 


11062 


17-5 


14-2 


— 10-9 


33 15-815 


16590 


0-0 


0-2 





256 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table II. (continued.)- 


—Fifteenth Ascent.- 


—September 2£ 


(continued 


. 


Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

A.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp. 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

A.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


li m s 


in. 


feet. 











h m 


s 


in. 


feet. 











9 34 o 


17-317 


14295 








to 2 





19-210 


11834 


17-5 






35 o 


17-417 


14235 


4-5 


.... 


— 12 


.... 








19-5 


16-1 


— 0'2 


36 


17-417 


I4219 


7-5 


■ > . . 


5-0 


3 


30 


20-2IO 


10534 


21-0 


16-5 


— 14'4 


38 


17-517 


14175 


6-0 


5-9 


4-5 


4 





20-410 


10284 


22-0 


,7-8 


- 9-9 


40 




.... 


.... 


.... 


4-0 


4 


30 


20-660 


10084 


23-2 


18-1 


-13-9 


4.1 


17-417 


14203 


5-5 




4-5 


5 





21-909 


9671 


23-0 


19-0 


— 6-1 


43 


17-618 


13897 


7-2 


4-9 


- 3-0 


6 





21-309 


9179 


25-0 


205 


- 4-3 


44 


17-618 


13897 








6 


30 


21-509 


8933 


26-0 


21-0 


- 4-0 


45 


17-468 


14224 


9-0 


y5 


- 3'o 


7 





22-909 


8439 


26-5 


21-0 


- 6-9 


46 


■ ■ • . 


(14190) 


9'3 


8-2 


— 2-0 


7 


30 


22-109 


8209 


27-0 


21-1 


- 5-9 


47 


17-418 


14155 


9'5 


8-6 


0-9 


8 





22-659 


7626 


29-0 


24-5 


4- 8-2 


48 


17-318 


14308 


11-5 


11-5 


11-5 


9 





22-809 


7396 


31-0 


26-8 


i5'5 


49 


17-518 


14031 


13-0 


12-3 


6-9 


11 





24-398 


5613 


34-5 


30-9 


24-9 


50 


17-117 


13175 


13-9 
14-1 


13-2 
13-5 


7-8 
8-9 


13 





24-888 


5078 


35-2 
360 


30-9 
311 


24-1 
33-8 


52 


17-117 


13175 


15-0 


141 


6-4 


14 





25-492 


4438 


372 


31-1 


22-5 


54 


17-318 


14459 


13-1 


12-6 


8-8 


'5 





25-992 


3933 


39-3 


33-0 


24-9 


55 


17-518 


14347 


13-2 


121 


3-6 


15 


30 


26-391 


3529 


39-5 


33-0 


24-6 


56 


17-718 


13947 


13-5 


11-9 


- 0-5 


16 





26-689 


3224 


41-2 


33-5 


23-8 


56 30 




(13947) 


13-5 


110 


- 8-4 


17 





27-007 


2828 


42-0 


33-8 


23-7 


57 


17-718 


13947 


13-2 


1 i-o 


- 6-0 


19 





27-881 


2039 


47-0 


37-5 


268 


57 30 


17-818 


13747 


13-2 


10-5 


— 10-4 


191 





27-981 


1881 








58 


18-118 


1333^ 


15-1 


110 


-13-c 


20 





27-979 


1881 


48-0 


40-0 


31-2 


59 ° 


18-619 


12642 


17-0 


145 


- 47 


21 





27777 


1717 


48-0 


40-5 


32-3 


10 


18-719 


12504 


17-2 


15-0 




23 





28-471 


1469 


50-0 


45-0 


397 


I 


18-919 


12225 


17-5 


151 


- 4-0 


30 





.... 


ground 


53-0 






I 30 


19-069 


12030 


17-2 


14-5 


- 6-0 


















i 


SlXTEl 


:nxh a 


SCENT.- 


—October 9, li 


B63. 








P.M. 

400 29'30 


on the 


53-8 


48-6 


43-5 


P.M. 

4 41 


0^ 23-00 


6732 


31-0 


.8-5 


22-2 


27 


29-23 


ground 


54-5 


49-2 


44-1 


41 


30 22-95 


6796 


31-5 


28-7 


21-8 


29 30 


29-12 


426 


53-0 


47-9 


42-8 


42 


22-75 


7030 


31-8 


28-9 


22-0 


30 


28-70 


' 845 


52-0 


468 


41-5 


43 


22-62 


7184 


31-0 


27-1 


16-9 


30 30 


28-42 


899 


50-0 


45-5 


40-7 


43 


30 22-62 


7161 


30-5 


27-1 


17-2 


31 


27-92 


1573 


48-2 


44' 1 


39"6 


44 


22-60 


7193 


29-5 


27-1 


19-1 


31 40 


27-70 


1748 


47-8 


43-0 


377 


45 


22-55 


7252 


29-2 


27-1 


19-8 


31 50 


27-60 


1887 


47 '4 


42-8 


377 


46 


22-52 


7303 


29-0 


27-1 


20-2 


32 


27-50 


1984 


46-8 


42-5 


377 


46 


3o| 22-50 


7310 


30-0 


27-1 


18-0 


32 15 


27-35 


2131 


46-0 


42-0 


37*4 


47 





22-55 


7267 


31-5 


27-2 


16-5 


32 30 


27-20 


2279 


45-2 


41-1 


36-4 


48 





22-69 


7087 


30-0 


27-2 


18-0 


32 45 


27-00 


2399 


44-8 


40-5 


35-6 


49 





23-00 


6731 


30-5 


27-2 


17-7 


33 


27-00 


2474 


43-5 


40-0 


35-9 


50 





23-15 


6557 


31-0 


275 


181 


33 30 


26-42 


3060 


42-0 


38-4 


33-9 


51 





23-60 


6310 


31-7 


28-0 


19-5 


34 


25-80 


3700 


41-0 


37-2 


32-4 


' 52 


30 


24-00 


5600 


32-0 


29-2 


22-7 


34 30 


25-70 


38°5 


40-8 


36-8 


31-8 


5^ 


45 24-15 


5433 


32-5 


29-5 


23-1 


35 


25-62 


3878 


40-5 


36-5 


3i'4 


53 


0, 24-50 


5052 


33-0 


29-8 


23-4 


35 30 


25-40 


4114 


392 


35-6 


30-8 


53 


30| 25-55 


3928 


33-2 


30-0 


23-6 


36 


25-20 


4219 


37-5 


33-° 


26-8 


54 


0] 24-70 


4835 


34-0 


30-5 


24-4 


37 30 


2395 


5672 


34-2 


31-5 


26-9 


55 


0125-10 


4409 


34-8 


30-7 


24-2 


38 c 


24-10 


5499 


33-0 


3o'5 


25-5 


55 


10 25-20 


4302 


34-8 


31-2 


25-3 


38 30 


24-00 


5605 


32-5 


29-7 


23-8 


56 


25-40 


4095 


35-5 


32-0 


26-6 


39 


23-90 


5717 


32-0 


29-5 


24-2 


57 


25-55 


4024 


36-0 


32-0 


26-0 


39 30 


23-40 


6277 


31-5 


282 


20-0 


57 


3°| 25-70 


3783 


36-5 


32-5 


26-6 


39 45 23'3i 


637S 


31-3 


28-4 


21-0 


57 45 


25-80 


3679 


37-0 


33-0 


27-3 1 


40 23'20 


6506 


31-2 


28-5 


2-i-3 


58 





25-80 


3679 


37-0 


330 


27-3 1 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 18G3 AND 18G1. 



o- 



0/ 



Table II. (continued.) — Sixteenth Ascent. — October 9, 18G3. 



Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 



m 

. 58 

59 
o 
I 

2 
3 
4 
4 
5 
6 
6 

7 
8 

10 
1 1 
12 
'3 
H 
14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

'9 

20 
20 
21 
22 
22 
24 
25 
25 
25 
26 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
31 
32 
32 



Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 



25-80 

25-85 
26-20 
26-42 
26-42 
26-40 
26-38 
26-35 
26-15 
26-15 
26-15 
26-20 
26-31 
26-60 
26-70 
26-80 
26-75 
27-08 
27-14 
27-14 
27-10 
2685 
26-72 
26-60 
26-55 
26-35 
26-20 
26-15 
26-10 
26-10 
2633 
26-00 
26-56 
26-65 
26-91 
27-05 
27-20 
27-40 

27-45 
27-50 
27-50 
27-50 
27-50 



HeiKht 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 



feet. 
3679 

3548 
326S 
3046 
3040 
3067 
3087 
3125 
3323 
3330 
3323 
3272 

3159 
2863 
2765 
2665 
2715 
2386 
2327 
2327 
2369 
2629 
2750 
2870 
2920 
3121 
3275 
3323 
3368 
3368 
3590 

3479 
2905 
2905 

2554 
a386 
2268 
2072 
2042 
1976 
1970 
1958 
1930 



Temp. 

of the 

Air. 



37'o 
37-0 
38-0 

387 
39-0 
39-2 
39-0 
39-2 

39'5 
39-2 

39'5 
39-2 
39-0 

39-5 
40-5 
40-5 
41-0 
42-0 
42-0 
42-0 
42-5 
42-0 
42-5 
42-0 

41-5 
41-0 
40-7 
40-5 
40-0 
39'5 
39-5 
39-8 
40-5 
40-5 
4i'o 

41-5 
42-0 
43-0 
43-0 
43-8 
44-0 

43'5 
44-0 



Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 



33"I 

34-2 

34'2 
35'i 
35'i 
35'5 
35'i 
351 
35'5 
35*5 
35-5 
35-1 
35-5 
36-0 
36-1 
37-0 
37-8 
38-5 
39"3 
390 
39-1 

385 
38-1 

37-5 
37-0 
36-8 
36-2 
36-1 
36-0 
36-5 
36-1 
36-5 
362 
36-5 
37-1 
37-8 
39-1 
40-5 
41-0 

4f5 
42-1 
42-1 
42-5 



Temp, 
of the 
Uew- 
point. 



27-5 

277 
29-0 

3o'3 
29-9 
30-6 
29-9 
29-6 
30-2 
30-6 
30-2 
29-6 
30-8 

31-4 
30-4 
32-5 

33'7 
342 

357 
35'3 

34-9 
34-2 
32-7 
32-0 
31-4 
31-5 
30-2 
30-4 
30-8 
326 
31-6 
32-2 
30-6 

314 
322 
33-2 
35-5 
37*5 
38-6 

38-8 
39-8 
41-0 

40-7 



Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 



Rcadinp; 

of the 

Barom. 

reduced 

10 32°^ 



h m 

5 33 
34 
34 
35 
35 
36 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

41 
42 

42 
42 

43 
43 
43 
44 
45 
45 
46 
46 

47 
48 

48 
49 
49 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
55 
56 
56 
57 
58 

59 
6 o 



n. 

27-65 
27-60 
30' 27-65 
ol 27-75 

30! 27-85 
o 27-90 

30' 28-00 
o 27-70 

27-55 
27-35 
27-35 

26-92 
26-85 



Height 
above the 

level of 
the sea. 



26-30 
26-15 
26-00 

25-75 
25-72 
25-20 
25-25 
25-25 
25-00 

24-75 
2460 
24-50 
24-30 
24-20 
23-80 

23-55 
23-10 
22-75 
22-40 
22'20 

22-ro 
21-90 
21-80 
21-60 

21-55 

21-50 
21-40 
21-30 



feet. 

1890 

1877 

1827 

1731 

1633 

1586 

1490 

1782 

1927 

2120 

2124 

2552 
2619 

(2910) 

3174 
3326 
3476 

3735 
3762 

4318 

4259 

43°3 
4584 
4786 

4949 
5052 

5263 

5377 
5813 
6091 
6310 
6992 
7305 
7633 

7755 
7988 
8108 

8354 
8416 
8467 

8499 
8714 



Temp, 
of the 
Air 



45-0 
44-0 
44-0 

44-5 
44-2 

44-5 
44-8 
44-8 
45-0 
45-2 

45-0 
44-2 
43-0 
42-5 

41-5 
41-0 

39-5 
392 

38-5 
37-8 
37-2 
37-2 
37-2 
36-6 
360 
36-0 
35-0 
34-2 
33-0 
32-5 
31-2 
298 
29-2 
28-5 
28-5 
28-1 
28-0 
28-0 

27-5 
27-0 
27-0 
26-5 



Temp, 
of the 
M'et- 
bulb. 



42-5 
42-5 
42-5 
42-8 
43-1 

43-2 
43-6 

43-6 
43'4 
43-1 

43-1 
43-0 

41-5 
38-5 

37-5 
37-2 
36-0 
35-0 
33-0 
32-5 
35-1 
35-1 
35-2 
32-5 
31-8 
31-5 
31-8 
31-0 
30-8 
28-2 
27-5 

25-2 
23-0 
24-5 
24-5 
24-1 
24-0 

23-5 
230 
23-0 
23-0 



Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 

puint. 



40-7 
40-7 
40-7 
40-7 

41-8 

41-4 

42-1 

42-1 

41-5 

40-7 

40-9 
41-6 

37-5 
33-5 
32-5 
32-4 
31-4 
29-5 
25-6 
34-2 
32-1 
321 
32-1 
26-5 

25-5 
24-9 
26-7 
25-4 
26-4 
19-0 
17-6 

10-7 
1-8 
9-1 

9-7 
8-1 

7-6 

4-9 
4-6 
4-6 
6-1 



Setenteenth Ascext. — January 12, 1864. 



1 






30-110 


7 
8 






29-856 


8 


30 


29-717 


9 
10 
10 
II 






30 




29-409 
28-679 
28-389 
28-469 



B 
3 
O 



368 

655 
I32S 
1598 
I518 



42-0 


39'3 


36-0 
35-0 


4>-7 


.... 


36-, 


41-5 


39-0 


35-9 


40-0 


38-2 


35-9 


385 


37-2 


35-4 


39-5 


38-, 


36-3 


39-7 


38-3 


36-4 



II 

12 
12 
13 



13 3° 

14 c 

15 '^ 

15 3c 

16 c 



1864. 






28-560 
28-610 
28-871 
28-713 
28-593 
2S-383 
28-313 
2S-243 
28-163 



1436 
1390 
1 148 
1336 
1733 
1773 
i;87 
1801 
1816 



40-0 


38-5 


366 


41-5 


39-5 


37-1 


41-5 


39-5 


37-1 


41-0 


39-5 


377 


41-5 


39-5 


37-1 


41-7 


39-8 


37-4 


42-0 


40-1 


37-7 


42-5 


40-3 


37-6 


42-0 


40-5 


37-5 



258 REPORT — 1864. 

Table II. (continued.) — Setenteenth Ascent. — January 12 (continued). 





Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to32°F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


observa- g^^^ 

*">"■ reduced 
^•"- to32°F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 




h m s 


in. 


feet. 










h m s 


in. 


feet. 













a i6 30 




(i860) 






39-0 


360 


21-944 


8346 


26-S 


23-7 


J 0-2 




17 


28-073 


1903 


43-2 


41-0 


38-8 


8 


21-595 


8766 


26-0 


22-5 


47 




18 


27-963 


2010 


44-0 


43-1 


42-0 


9 ° 


21-485 


8894 


25-5 


22-6 


7-2 




19 


27-763 


2204 


44-0 


4i"5 


38-4 


10 


21-296 


9104 


24-5 


21-2 


2*4 




20 


27-314 


2639 


44-0 


41-2 


37-9 


II 


21-295 


9105 


23-0 
22-8 


19-S 


- 0-5 




21 


27-263 


2687 


44-0 


41-1 


37-6 


12 


21-197 


9217 








zi 30 


27-213 


273s 


44-0 


41-2 


37*9 


13 


21-099 


9327 


21-5 








23 


27T73 


2775 


44-0 


41-0 


37'S 


14 


21-001 


9437 


20-5 








23 45 




(2670) 




.... 


37-5 


15 


21-001 


9437 






8-6 




24 


27-262 


2689 


44-2 


41-0 


37-3 


15 30 


20-951 


9500 


20-5 


19-0 




25 


27-262 


2689 


44' 5 


41-0 


37-0 


16 


20-951 


9500 


20-5 


17*5 


- 3'5 
3-8 




26 


26-943 


3005 


44'5 


408 


36-4 


16 30 


20-951 


9500 


20-5 


184 
18-7 




27 


26-663 


3282 


43-5 


39"5 


34-7 


17 20-921] 


9536 


21-0 


1*3 




28 


26-266 


3675 


42-2 


38-1 


33-1 


17 30 


20-902 


9560 


21-0 


2-9 




28 30 


26-119 


3821 


4i'5 


36-2 


29-s 


18 


20882 


9586 


21-0 


18-S 


1*4 

7-8 

+ 6-4 




30 


25*890 


4044 


380 


33-5 


27-4 


19 


20-702 


9822 


20-0 


16-2 




31 


24-972 


5001 


36-2 


33-1 


28-s 


20 


20-402 


10017 


17-5 




31 '5 




(5200) 


36-0 


32-2 


26-s 


21 


20-352 


10090 


17-2 


15-0 


- 1-7 




32 30 


24*575 


5401 


34-2 


31-5 


27-3 


21 20 


20-352 


IC090 


17-2 
16-2 


15-0 


- 17 




33 ° 


24-397 


5610 


33-2 


31-5 


29-0 


21 40 


20-205 


10319 


14-1 
13*8 


— 2-1 




34 ° 


24-088 


5924 


32-2 


3I-I 


29'3 


22 


20-155 


10394 


15-9 


- 2-4 




34 30 


23-880 


6144 


3i'5 


30-5 


30-1 


22 30 


20-105 


10469 


15s 


131 


- 5*4 




35 ° 


23-681 


6364 


31-0 




26-2 


23 


20-105 


10469 


15-0 


13-0 


- 2-5 




36 


23-601 


6453 


30-6 


29-2 




24 


20-005 


10619 


140 


ii-o 


— 12-2 




37 


23'53i 


6516 


30-2 


31-0 


11-5 


25 


19-606 


11016 


13-2 


1:1 


-+■ S-2 

- 2-8 




37 30 


23-282 


6802 


29-2 


30-0 


II-5 


26 


19-406 


11278 


12-1 


9*4 




39 ° 


23-232 


6844 


29-2 


30-0 




27 


19-386 


11429 


ii-S 


9-2 


— 8-6 




41 


23-403 


6678 


30-0 


30-0 




27 30 


19-307 


11533 


Il-l 


9-2 


- 5'5 




41 30 


23-433 


6650 


29-5 


27-1 


9*5 


28 


19-209 


11664 


11-2 


9-1 


- 7-2 




43 ° 


23385 


6692 


29-2 


27-1 




29 


19-209 


11664 


HI 


90 


- 7-3 




44 ° 




(6790) 


29-4 






29 30 


19-160 


11708 


II-O 


8*7 


- 7-4 




45 ° 


23-187 


6885 








30 30 


19-110 


11761 


11-0 


8-7 


- 7*4 




46 10 


23-187 


6885 








31 30 


19-012 


11897 


Il-O 


8-3 


-12-7 




47 


23-087 


6984 


30-8 


29-0 




32 


19112 


11774 


132 


12-8 


+ 9*8 




47 15 




(7006) 


30-7 


290 




33 


i9"3i3 


11528 






8-3 




47 30 


23-037 


7029 








34 ° 


19313 


1 1 528 


14-5 


13-8 




48 


22-967 


7118 


30-7 


27-8 




35 ° 


19*433 


11353 










49 


22-937 


7089 


31-1 


29-0 




35 3° 


19-663 


11071 


15-0 


13-8 


4*5 




50 


22-738 


7277 


31-0 


28-s 


4"5 


36 
36 30 


19-714 
19-814 


11007 
10879 










51 


22-608 


7448 


3°"5 


26-s 




37 ° 


19-914 


10751 


i6-o 


14-0 


- 1-4 




52 


22-488 


7602 


29-2 


25-0 


6-0 


37 30 


19-964 


10697 


16-0 


152 


+ 9'o 




52 30 


22-438 


7666 


29-2 


24-5 


7'5 


38 


20-064 


10561 


16-2 


158 


14-3 




S3 


22-39? 


7730 


28-5 


24-0 


6-7 


38 IS 


20-265 


10289 


16-2 


160 


14s 




54 c 


22-388 


7741 








38 30 


20-316 


10221 


16-2 


16-0 


14*5 




55 c 


22-435 


7666 


29-2 


27-0 


19-3 


39 ° 


20-416 


10085 


16-2 


16-0 


14-5 




56 c 


22-489 


7614 


29-2 


27-1 


20-6 


39 10 


20-466 


10017 


16-2 


i6-o 


14-5 




57 c 


22-889 


7044 


30-5 


27-2 


.7-6 


39 20 


20-536 


9921 


16-5 


16-3 


14-8 




58 c 


22-089 


8148 


30'S 


27-5 


i8-8 


39 30 


20-836 


9516 


16-8 


16-5 


143 




59 '^ 


23-039 


6768 








39 45 


20-916 


9408 


17-2 


17-0 


15*5 




3 c 


22-439 


7666 


29-1 


25-1 


10-6 


40 


21-016 


9273 


18-0 


18-0 


18-0 




I c 


22-439 


7666 


28-5 


24-5 


9-0 


40 30 


21-065 


9316 


18-0 


180 


18-0 




2 c 


22-29' 


7931 


27-2 


23-1 


4-2 


41 


21-215 


9199 


18-5 


18-3 


16-9 




3 1: 


) 22-14: 


8086 


27-2 


23-1 


4-2 


41 IS 


21-265 


9156 










4 c 


) 22-04; 


8189 


27-2 


23-5 


6-5 


41 3c 


21-415 


9026 


20-0 


19-8 


18-4 




5 c 


) 21-99; 


8230 


27-0 


23"5 


7-4 


41 45 


21-515 


8939 


21-0 


20-5 


17-1 




5 3^ 


) 


(8288) 






S'o 


42 3= 


21-714 


8765 


21-0 


20-5 


17-1 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



259 



Table II. (continued.) — Seventeenth Ascent. — January 12 (continued). 



I Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 



m 

44 o 

44 3° 

45 o 

47 o 
47 3° 
47 45 
4S o 

49 o 

49 30, 

50 o 

50 30 

51 o 



Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 



51 
5^ 



52 30 

53 01 



53 

54 
54 
55 
55 
56 



21-444 

22'2I3 

22'433 

22-733 
22-863 

22-963 

23-113 

|23'4i4 
123-713 
23-813 
23-962 
24-062 
24-161 
24-311 
24-360 
24-509 
24-588 
24-687 
24-827 
25-306 
25206 
25-S04 



Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 



feet. 
8904 

7993 
7732 
7447 
7226 
7136 
6967 
6640 

6313 
6204 
6040 
5932 
5824 
5670 
5619 

5465 

53S4 
5284 

5142 
4636 

4739 
4121 



Temp, 
of the 
Air. 



21-8 

22-5 

22-5 

22-2 

24-0 

24-2 

24-5 

25-2 

260 

26-2 

26-5 

26-9 

27-0 

27-6 

281 

28-5 

29-1 

29-2 

30"3 
31-0 
31-2 



Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 



21-5 
22-0 
22-0 
22-9 
24-0 
24-0 
24-4 
25-1 
25-8 
26-0 
26-0 

26-8 

26-8 

27-3 
27-9 
28-3 
28-8 

29-0 

30'3 
30-7 
31-1 



Temp, j 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 



19-6 
18-9 
18-9 
21-1 
24-0 
22-9 

23"9 
24-6 

24-8 
25-1 
23-7 
26-4 
25-9 
26-0 
27-1 
27-6 
27-8 
28-4 

30-3 
29-9 

30-8 






Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 



15 

30 

o 
o 
o 
o 
30 
o 

15 

30 

o 

30 

o 

30 

o 
o 
o 

o, 



Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 



25-703 
25-951 



26-500 
26-550 
26-779 
26-8491 
26-989 
27-122 

27-445 
27-511 
27-811 
28089 
28-188 
28-586 
28-633 
28-581 

30I 28-6S0 
01 28-498 

30 29-977 



Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 



feet. 

(4473) 
4224 

3973 

(3703) 

3433 

3384 

3159 
3091 
2953 
2821 
2451 
2384 
2096 
1878 
1807 
1415 
1366 
1420 
1324 
1514 
ground 



Temp 
of the 
Air. 



31-5 
32-2 

32-5 
34-2 
36-0 
362 

37-2 

37-5 
38-0 
385 
392 
39-8 
40-8 
41-0 
40-0 
40-0 
39-8 
40-0 
40-4 
41-8 



Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 



31-2 
30-8 
32-0 



38-5 
38-5 

39-2 
400 
40-5 
39-0 

39-S 
38-0 

39-5 
39-8 

40-7 



Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 



bulb, point. 



30-5 

27-7 
31-0 



38-5 
37-6 

38-5 
39-0 

39-9 
365 
37-6 

35-7 

37-6 
39-0 
38-8 



Eighteenth Ascent. — April 6, 1864. 



3 o 
20 

4 7 
8 

9 
9 
9 
9 

10 
II 

12 

»3 
14 

15 
16 
16 

17 
18 

»9 
20 
20 

22 

23 

1 25 

I 25 

I 26 

27 
I 28 
I 29 

I 



30-204 
30-114 
30-114 
30-094 



29-875 
40 29604 

lo 29-274 

13I 28-876 

oj 28-658 

o! 28-258 

o 27-879 

30] 27-862, 

o 27-564^ 
o, 27-245 
30J 26-817 
o' 26-649 
o 26-490 
o 26-152 
o 25-873 

30I 25-724 

o 25-175 
24-825 
24-296 



23-696 

23-378 

23-001 

22-834 






320 

557 

867 

1219 

1405 

1749 
2161 
2170 
2469 

2775 
3J94 
3362 

3507 
3884 
4260 

4404 

4873 
5251 

5827 
(6163) 
6800 
68S2 
72S1 
7493 



46-0 
47-0 
460 
46-0 
45-7 
45-5 
45-5 
44-8 
42-0 

40-8 

37-8 

36-5 
36-0 

34-5 

33-1 
32-0 
33-0 
34-2 
36-0 
36-0 
36-0 

34-2 
38-5 

AO-2 



43-1 

44-2 
42-5 
425 



42-0 

41-5 
38-7 



39-6 
408 
38-5 

38-5 



37-9 

37-7 
34-6 



37-2 


32-6 


36-1 


33-8 


35-S 


34-0 


35-2 


33-9 


33-2 


31-0 


32-5 


32-0 


32-1 


30-3 


32-2 


28-7 


34-1 


31-2 


35-2 


28-7 


34-5 


32-2 




32-7 


33-1 


28-5 


37-* 


35-4 



36-0 30-6 



4 30 o 
32 o 
34 o^ 

34 30 

35 o 

36 o 

36 30 

37 o 

38 o 

38+ 

39 o 

40 c 

40 3c 

41 o 
o 
c 



42 

43 
44 
44+ 
44- 30 
46 o 

46 30 

47 o 

47 3° 

48 o 

50 o 

50 30 

51 o 

52 o 

52 30 

53 o 



22-329 
21-898 
21-678 
21-487 
21-276 
20-676 
20-177 
19-976 
20-026 

20-474 
20-873 
20-972 
21-271 
21967 
22-676 
22-744 

22-864 
22-564 
22-514 
22-864 
22-981 
23-309 

24-060 

24-537 
24-906 

25-955 



8083 
8594 

8854 

9090 

9378 

10155 

10805 

11075 

10987 

(10730) 

10470 

10010 

9895 
9513 
8642 

7783 

7696 

(7610) 

7524 
7869 

7947 

7553 
7410 
7036 

6153 
5536 
5213 
4163 
(4049) 



39-0 

35-6 
34-2 
34-5 
34-5 
35-2 
36-0 
36-5 

39'° 

43-0 
46-0 
461 
46-2 
46-8 

47-2 

46-2 
46-0 
46-0 
46-0 

46 -2 
46-2 

44-0 

43-8 
430 
42-2 



33'i 
30-6 
30-0 
29-1 

27-2 

27-5 
27-8 

29-2 

3V-8 
35-1 

35-0 

35-1 

37-1 

37-8 

37-1 
365 
37*5 
37-5 
38-5 

38-4 

37-8 
38-3 
38-0 
380 



25-3 

22-6 
20'0 
15-0 
15-2 

i5'5 

15-5 
16-3 

i6-o 

22-7 

22-7 

22-4 

22-5 

26-2 

26*2 
26-0 
26-7 
25-6 
27-8 
27-8 
29-6 

29-5 
25-0 
30-4 
31-6 
32-0 
32-9 
34-9 



s2 



260 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table II. (continued.) — Eighteenth Ascent. — April G (contmued). 



Time of " 


eading 
jf the 
arom. 


Height ,p^„,„ Temp. 


Temp. 


Timeof-I^„7f^"/ 


Height „ 




Temp. 


Temp. 


obscrva- , 
tion. 


ibovothe '^f'^P; 


of the 
Wet- 


of the 
Dew- 


''"'• reduced 
^•"- to32°F. 


ibove the ,1V1" 
level of »'?''« 


of the 
Wet- 


of the 
Dew- 


■"•"• tc 


iduccd 
32° F. 


the sea. 


Air. 


bulb. 


point. 


the sea. 


Air. 


bulb. 


point. 


h m 8 1 


n. 


feet. 











h m s 


in. 


feet. 











4 53 3° 


. . . . 


(3935) 






35-0 


500 


19-049 


1069 


41-5 


38-6 


349 


54 0| 26-254 


3821 . 


M"° 


38-0 


34-2 1 


I 


29-099 


1024 


41-8 


387 


34-8 


54 30, 26-654 


3405 


4,1-0 


37'i 


32-2 1 


2 


29-149 


979 


41-9 


388 


350 


54 45i 26-773 


3280 


40-4 


36-8 


32-2 1 


3 ° 


29-268 


869 


42-0 


387 


34-6 


55 c 26-953 


3071 


39'9 


36-5 


32-0 


4 


29-468 


725 


42-9 


39-4 


35'2 


56 0127-153 


2881 


391 


36-0 


31-9 


5 ° 


29-628 


545 


43-5 


39-9 


35-5 


56 3° 27-352 


2691 


39-5 


36-2 


31-8 


6 


29-678 


497 


45-0 


41-2 


36-8 


58 28-250 


1836 


39-8 


37-1 


33-6 


7 


29-74S 


, ground J 


45-8 






59 28-670 


1437 


40-0 


37-8 


34'9 


25 


29728 


47-0 


42-2 


368 


59 30 28-949 1 163 


40-6 


38-1 


349 














Nineteenth Ascent. — June 13, 1864. 




29-300 


.... 


6,-5 


52-5 


447 


7 21 c 26-450 


3126 


46-5 


42-1 


38-4 




29-300 


.... 


61-8 


51-7 


43-1 


22 


26-330 


3307 


.... 


.... 


.... 


7 10 


29-250 


317 


60-0 


51-0 


43'i 


22 3c 


26-330 


3307 


47-2 


44-1 


40-9 


20 


29-130 


490 


59-1 


501 


42-1 


23 


26-350 


3327 


47-2 


44-1 


40-9 


30 


28-920 


691 


59-2 


50-1 


41-9 


23 30 


26-350 


3327 


47-2 


44-0 


41-0 


I 


28-750 


885 


59'i 


50-0 


41-9 


25 


26-240 


3407 


480 


44-1 


39-8 


I 30 


28-470 


"55 


58-2 


50-2 


430 


26 


26-170 


3459 


48-2 


44-2 


398 


2 


28-360 


1265 


57-2 


48-2 


40-0 


27 


26-150 


3463 


48-5 


44-1 


39-3 


2 10 


28-150 


1437 


568 


48-1 


44-1 


27 30 


26-060 


3536 


47-0 


41-2 


347 


2 30 


27-950 


1635 


56-0 


48-1 


40-7 


28 30 


26-050 


3543 


47-1 


41-1 


34-4 


2 45 


27-900 


1685 


55-5 


48-1 


430 


29 


26-050 


3543 


47-0 


41-0 


34-3 


3 15 


27-610 


1982 


54-1 


46-5 


39-0 


30 


26-050 


3543 


460 


40-5 


34-2 


4 


27-450 


2132 


54-2 


47- 1 


40-1 


31 


26-130 


3517 


46-0 


40-5 


34-2 


5 27-300 


2282 


54-0 


47-1 


40-3 


32 





(3445) 


.... 





35-0 


5 20 


27-180 


2301 


54-5 


47-1 


41-6 


32 30 


26-270 


3409 


47-0 


41-8 


35-9 


5 55 


27-050 


2530 


52-2 


46-1 


399 


32 45 


26350 


3349 


48-2 


43-0 


37-3 


6 


26-950 


2630 


52-1 


46-1 


40-0 


33 ° 


26-700 


3°97 


490 


44-2 


39-0 


6 30 


26-800 


2780 


52-1 


46-2 


40-2 


34 


26-870 


2755 


51-2 


45-0 


38-6 


7 


26-740 


2840 


52-5 


457 


38-8 


35 26-900 


2680 


Sii 


44-5 


37-7 


7 15 


26-700 


2880 








36 27*050 


2527 


51-0 


44-8 


38-3 


7 30 


26-700 


2880 


52-0 


45-5 


38-9 


: 36 30, 27-050 


2527 


5I-I 


45'5 


397 


8 


26-560 


3031 


5i'5 


45-0 


39-8 


37 30 


26-940 


2740 


5°"5 


45-0 


394 


9 


27-650 


2937 


51-0 


45'i 


39-0 


38 


26-900 


2782 


50-2 


45-0 


39'5 


10 


27-750 


2630 








38 lO 


.... 


(2790) 








39-5 


10 30 


27-050 


2530 


52-5 


45-6 


38-5 


39 ° 


26-850 


2834 


49'5 


44-2 


38-5 


11 


27-055 


2520 


52-5 


46-0 


39-5 


39 30 


26*830 


2854 


50-2 


45-0 


39-5 


II 30 


27-200 


2310 


52-8 


45'9 


39-0 


40 


26-850 


2834 


51-0 


45-1 


39° 


12 30 


27-200 


2280 


53-8 


466 


39-6 


42 


26-870 


2812 


51-8 


457 


39-5 


13 


27-15C 


2327 


52-8 


46-0 


39-2 


43 


26-940 


2740 


51-8 


45-8 


397 


13 30 


27-I3C 


2337 


51-5 


45-2 


38-8 


44 




(2683) 


52-0 


460 


399 


14 c 


27-05C 


) 2522 


51-0 


45-0 


388 


45 


27-05C 


2625 


5i'9 


46-0 


40-0 


14 3c 


26-95= 


) 2604 


50-5 


44-0 


37-2 


46 c 


.... 


(255°) 








39-5 


15 c 


26-870 


) 2694 


50-2 


44-2 


37-8 


.... 


27-20C 


2470 


52-0 


46-1 


40- 1 


16 c 


26-70C 


3 2854 


49-0 


43-5 


37-5 


47 3= 


26-95C 


) 2629 


510 


45-5 


39-8 


16 3c 


26-56c 


3 3004 


48-2 


43-5 


38-3 


48 c 


26-89C 


) 2689 


51-0 


45-0 


38-8 


17 c 




(3055) 


. . . . 




35-0 


49 ^ 


26-83C 


3 2740 


51-5 


45-2 


38-4 


17 3c 


) 26-47; 


3 3106 


47-2 


42-6 


37'o 


49 3c 


26-75C 


3 2823 


51-8 


45-0 


381 


18 ic 


>! 26-30C 


3 3276 


46-8 


42-5 


377 


50 c 


26-65C 


3 2927 


515 


460 


40-4 


18 4c 


3 26-32C 


3 3296 


46-9 


42-0 


36-5 


50 3c 


26-56C 


3 3017 


51-0 


46-2 


41-2 


19 c 


3 .... 


(3337) 


. . . . 


. . . . 


46-3 


51 c 


) 26-55C 


3 3027 




.... 


39-0 


20 < 


3 26-1 3< 


3 3461 


46-6 


42-1 


37-0 


52 c 


> 26-53C 


3 3053 


49-2 


43-0 


36-3 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 261 

Table II. (continued.) — Nineteenth Ascent. — June 13 (continued.) 



Time of 

obsena- 

tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
rediieed 
to 3-.;° F. 


Height 
above the 

level of 
the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 
Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Uew- 

point. 


Time of 

ob.serva- 

tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 3'-° F. 


Height 
above the 

level of 
the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m s in. 

7 52 30 26-830 
53 0, 26-950 
54. 0, 27-200 

55 °, 27'45o 

56 o[ 27-650 
58 0| 27-770 


feet. 

2753 
2613 
2363 

2003 

1923 
1807 


49°-o 
49-0 

50-5 
51-7 
53-0 
53-2 


43 '4 
44-0 
46-0 
47-6 
50-0 
50-0 



37-3 
38-6 

41-3 
43'4 
47-0 
46-8 j 


h m s 

80c 

2 c 

14 

15 


in. 

27-850 
28-350 
29-490 
29-500 


feet. 
1276 
1238 



53-5 

53"S 
53'3 
54-0 



50-0 
50-0 
49-1 
50 


466 
46-6 

44-9 
46-1 



T^-ENTiEin Ascent. — June 20, 1864. 



6 10 


29-880 


m 


66-0 


6o-o 


55-1 


6 39 


c 


5 27-IIC 


2S9O 


54-0 


52-0 


50-0 







66-5 


595 


53'9 


39 


3^ 


) 27-06C 


2940 


54-0 


517 


49' 5 


17 


29-S6C 


65-0 


60-0 


55-9 


40 


c 


) 27-010 


2990 


53-9 


51-5 


49-1 


17 30 


29-56C 


511 


65-0 


58-0 


52-3 


40 


3c 


27-OIC 


20qo 


54-0 


51-5 


49-1 


18 c 


29-280 


772 


63-2 


57-1 


51-9 


41 


c 


26-950 


3050 


54-0 


51-5 


49-1 


18 20 


29-oic 


1022 








42 


c 


26-880 


3520 


54-0 


51-5 


49-1 


18 30 


28-95C 


1082 


62-1 


56-1 


50-9 


43 


c 


26-780 


3237 


54-0 


5'-5 


49-1 


.... 


.... 


.... 


60-9 


55'5 


50-S 


44 





26-470 


3549 


53'5 


52-0 


505 


19 c 


28-560 


1462 


60-5 


55-° 


50-2 


45 





26-360 


3669 


53-0 


50-5 


48-0 


19 30 





(1582) 


.... 




48-1 


45 


3^ 


26-270 


3758 


52-2 


49'5 


46-7 


20 


28-230 


1702 


5S-2 


54" I 


50-4 


46 





26-260 


3768 


51-0 


50-0 


49-0 


20 3c 


28-010 


2006 


5S-2 


54" I 


50-4 


47 


c 


26-270 


3759 


51-5 


50-0 


48-5 


21 


27-910 


2106 


58-2 


54-0 


50-2 


48 





26-020 


4013 


50-7 


49-8 


48-8 


21 30 


27-840 


2236 


58-2 


53'i 


48-4 


49 





25-910 


4123 


50-2 


49-2 


48-1 


22 


27-360 


2696 


55-5 


52-0 


48-6 


49 


30 


25-810 


4230 


50-0 


49-2 


4S-3 


23 


27-270 


2786 


54-5 


51-0 


47-6 


50 


c 


25-780 


4271 


49-2 


49-2 


49-2 


24 


26960 


30S6 


54-0 


51-0 


48-1 


50 


3° 


25-780 


4271 


49-2 


49-2 


49-2 


24 30 


26-810 


3214 


54-0 


51-0 


48-1 


51 


c 


25-780 


4271 


49-2 


49-2 


49-2 


25 


.... 


(3375) 


53-0 


50-6 


48-0 


52 





25-770 


4280 


49'5 


49-0 


48-5 


26 


26-340 


3696 


52-0 


50-0 


480 


52 


3c 




(4255) 






47-5 


27 


26-110 


3978 


52-5 


50-2 


47-9 


53 


c 


25-810 


4230 


49'5 


48-2 


46-8 


27 30 


26-050 


4038 


52-2 


50-2 


48-2 


53 


30 


25-810 


4230 


49'5 


48-1 


46-6 


28 


26-010 


4068 


51-7 


50-2 


48-7 


54 


c 


25-860 


4180 


49-5 


481 


466 


28 10 


25-970 


4082 


51-2 


49'7 


48-1 


54 


3° 


25-910 


4130 


49-2 


48-1 


46-8 


28 30 


25-950 


4102 


51-2 


497 


48-1 


54 45 


25-910 


4130 


493 


48-1 


46-8 


29 


25-950 


4102 


5''a 


492 


47-1 


55 


3c 


26-070 


4080 


49'5 


48-1 


466 


30 


25-930 


4122 


51-2 


49'5 


477 


56 


c 


26-560 


3390 


51-2 


495 


477 


30 30 


25-970 


4082 


512 


49"5 


477 


57 





26-680 


3360 


51-5 


50-0 


48-5 


31 


26-040 


4006 


51-2 


49-2 


47'i 


57 


30 


26-840 


3187 


52-0 


51-5 


51-0 


32 


26-190 


3841 


51-2 


49-2 


47-1 


58 





27-270 


2696 


57-5 


53-2 


49'3 


33 ° 


26-770 


3242 


52-0 


50-0 


48-0 


59 





27-280 


2688 


58-0 


54-8 


52-0 


34 


26-810 


3202 


52-2 


50-5 


48-8 


7 





27-560 


2493 


58-0 


55-0 


52-3 


35 


27-010 


3002 


52-8 


50-1 


47-2 


I 


c 


28-010 


2088 


59"3 


54-8 


51-0 


35 15 


27-160 


2840 








2 





28-780 


1388 


60-4 


56-2 


52-6 


36 


27-260 


2740 


53-5 


51-2 


48-9 


3 





28-960 


1061 


61-8 


57-5 


539 


36 30 


27-260 


2740 


53-5 


51-5 


49'5 


16 





.... 


1 "? r 








37 


27-260 


2740 


54-0 


52-0 


50-0 


25 





29-580 


■ 1 1 


64-6 


585 


53-4 


37 30 


27-260 


2740 


54-0 


52-1 


50-z 


30 


c 


29-780 





64-0 


58-2 


539 


38 


27-180 


2820 


53-9 


51-2 


48-5 















263 



REPORT 1864. 







Table II. (continued).— T^ 


VENTY- 


FTRfiT Ascent.— 


-June 27, 1864. 




Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to32°F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp. 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp. 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


Time of 

oliserva- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Uew- 
point. 


h m 


s 


in. 


feet. 


, 








h m s 


in. 


feet. 









6 31 





2975 


1 1 J 


63-, 


55-5 


49-1 


7 15 


25-88 


4086 


44-2 


4I-I 


37*5 


33 





2975 


■ ° \ 


64-0 


56 + 


49"4 


16 


25-91 


4131 


43'i 


40-5 


37-4 


33 


30 


2975 




63-0 


54-0 


46-4 


17 


25-91 


4131 


43-0 


40-0 


36-4 


34 





29-67 


432 


6i-5 


52-0 


43'7 


18 


26-00 


4040 


43-0 


40-5 


37-4 


34 


30 


29-64 


484 


62-0 


52-1 


43-6 


18 30 


26-06 


3985 


43'i 


40-5 


37-4 


34 45 


29-61 


514 


60-1 


51-2 


43'4 


19 


26-11 


3845 








35 





29-51 


610 


60*1 


5i'3 


43-5 


19 20 


26-25 


3795 


43*1 


40-5 


37-4 


35 


5° 


29-38 


719 


59*5 


51-2 


43'9 


19 40 


26-26 


3790 


43-9 


41-0 


37-6 


37 





29-21 


865 


58-5 


50-2 


42-8 


20 


26-37 


3680 


44-0 


42-0 


39-6 


37 
38 


30 


29-08 


970 


58-0 


50*0 


42-8 


20 30 


26-41 


3640 


44-1 


41-9 


39-3 





28-98 


1054 


57-8 


50-0 


43 "o 


20 45 


26-41 


3640 


44-2 


42-1 


39-6 


39 





28-88 


II3S 


57-2 


49'5 


42-5 


21 


26-46 


3590 








40 





28-81 


I188 


57-2 


50-0 


43'4 


22 


26-51 


3511 


44-8 


42-1 


3S-8 


42 





28-56 


1493 


56-8 


50-0 


43-8 


22 15 


26-54 


3487 


44" 5 


43' I 


41-3 


42 


30 


28-55 


1497 


56-5 


50-Q 


44-0 


22 30 


26-57 


3453 


43-2 


42-1 


40-8 


43 





28-55 


1497 


56-2 


49-8 


43-8 


24 


26-57 


3453 


45-2 


42-5 


39-4 


47 
48 





29-18 


891 


57-0 


51-0 


45-5 


25 


26-61 


3423 


45'9 


43 -o 


41-7 





29-24 


840 


57-2 


s'-s 


46-3 


26 


26-71 


3322 


47-2 






48 


30 


29-35 


750 


57-8 


51-9 


46-7 


26 30 


2673 


3302 


47-2 


44-0 


4i"5 


49 





29-36 


747 


57-9 


52-0 


46-7 


27 


26-76 


3277 


47'5 


45-0 


42-2 


49 


10 


29-40 


717 








28 


26-85 


3187 


47-5 


44-1 


42-4 


49 


20 


29-38 


714 


58-0 


51-5 


43-8 


29 


26-86 


3197 


47-8 


44-2 


40-2 


49 


30 


29-37 


713 


57-8 


51-2 


45*3 


30 


26-90 


3119 


47-5 


43-7 


39'4 


50 





29-24 


841 


57-5 


50-9 


45' I 


31 


26-81 


3209 


47-2 


42-1 


36-4 


50 


30 


29-17 


903 








32 


26-61 


3415 


47-0 


42-2 


36-8 


51 


30 


.... 


(980) 


57-2 


50-5 


44-5 


33 


26-40 


3527 


47-0 


42-2 


36-8 


52 





29-05 


1019 


57-0 


50-3 


44-2 


34 


26-44 


3561 


46-5 


42-1 


37-1 


53 





28-74 


1309 


56-2 


50-0 


44-8 


35 


26-06 


3907 


43-0 


41-3 


39-2 


54 


30 


28-45 


1589 


55-5 


48-9 


43-7 


35 3° 


25-S6 


4191 


42-8 


41*5 


40-2 


54 45 


28-41 


1621 


55-2 


4S-9 


42-9 


36 


25-78 


4270 


43-0 


42-0 


40-8 


56 
56 





28-38 


1660 


55-2 


48-2 


415 


37 


2561 


4467 


43-0 


42-0 


408 


3° 


28-37 


1670 


54' 9 


48-2 


43-2 


38 


25-41 


4661 


43-7 


41-5 


^■iS 


59 


30 


28-81 


1188 


55-0 


49-2 


43-6 


39 ° 


25-36 


4716 


43-0 


41-3 


39-2 


7 I 


29-00 


950 


55-2 


49-2 


43-4 


39 30 


25-28 


4796 


44-1 


40-2 


35-6 


I 


30 


2S-9B 


1004 


56-0 


49' 5 


43"4 


40 


25-18 


489S 


429 


41-2 


39-1 


2 





28-86 


1134 


55'9 


49-0 


42-5 


41 


25-18 


4898 


42-8 


41-0 


38-g 


2 


30 


28-64 
^ 


1370 


55-2 


49-2 


43-4 


41 30 


25-18 


4898 


42-2 


40-5 


38-4 


3 





28-56 


1460 


35-0 


48-5 


42-2 


42 


25-26 


4816 


41-9 


39-8 


37"i 


3 


30 


28-51 


1514 


54-5 


48-0 


41-7 


42 30 


25-28 


4796 


42-2 


39'9 


37-0 


4 





28-45 


1578 


54-0 


47-8 


41-7 


42 45 


25-36 


4722 


41-9 


38-5 


34-3 


4 


30 


28-31 


1714 


53-2 


46-8 


40-4 


43 ° 


25-38 


4799 


41-2 


38-5 


35-1 


5 





28-05 


1979 


52-7 


46-1 


39-6 


44 ° 


25-45 


4597 


41-2 


38-5 


35-1 


5 
6 
6 


30 


28-00 


2026 


52-2 


461 


39-9 


44 3° 


25-45 


4597 


40-2 


37-8 


34-7 





27-97 


2057 


52-2 


46-1 


39-9 


45 


25-38 


4699 


40-2 


37-8 


34' 7 


30 


27-75 


2295 


51-5 


46-0 


41-2 


46 


25-36 


4692 


40-2 


37-8 


34-7 


7 
8 


30 


27-41 


2603 


50-5 


45-1 


40-3 


48 


25-45 


4597 


40-9 


38-2 


34-7 





27-36 


2648 


49-5 


45-0 


40-2 


49 ° 


25-55 


4492 


40-9 


382 


34-7 


9 





27-08 


2941 


49-6 


45-0 


40-1 


49 20 


25-57 


4471 


41-0 


38-2 


34-7 


9 


30 


27-00 


3021 


49-2 


45-2 


40-9 


49 3° 


25-57 


4471 


41-0 


382 


34-7 


10 





26*91 


3111 


49'5 


45-2 


40-6 


50 


25-68 


4357 


41-0 


382 


34-7 


10 


30 


26-81 


3202 


49'5 


45-1 


40-4 


51 


25-91 


4115 


41-2 


38-5 


35"i 


10 


45 


26-56 


3454 


48-4 


43*5 


38-1 


52 30 


26-06 


3958 


42-0 


38-2 


335 


11 





26-27 


3767 


46-9 


43-0 


38-6 


53 




(3958) 


42-0 


380 


33-1 


II 


30 


26-17 


3831 


46-5 


42-1 


37-1 


53 30 


26-06 


3958 


42-0 


38-9 


35-0 


12 





26-11 


3871 


46-2 


42-1 


37-4 


53 45 


26-06 


3958 


41-9 


39-0 


35'4 


13 





26-px 


3965 


45'i 


42-1 


377 


54 


26-06 


3958 


41-9 


39-2 


35-9 


14 





25-96 


4017 


45-5 


42-1 


38-2 


54 3° 


26-08 


3936 


41-9 


39-0 


35-4 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



263 



Table II. {conti 


nued] 


. TVVENTT-FIEST AsCENT.— 


■June 27 


{continued) 




Time of 


Rending 

of the 

Barom. 

reduced 

to 32° F. 


Height 


Temp. 


Temp. 


Tenip. 


Time of 


Reading 
of the 


Height 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp. 


Temp. 


observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


above the 
level of 
the sea. 


of the 
Air. 


of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


of the 
Dew- 
point, 


observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Barora. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


above the 
level of 
the sea. 


of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


of the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m s 


in. 


feet. 











h m s 


in. 


feet. 











7 55 3° 


26-06 


395S 


41-9 


39-0 


35-4 


8 35 30 


27-88 


2168 


47-8 


44-2 


40-2 


56 


26-06 


3958 


4i"5 


39*5 


37-0 


36 


27-84 


2208 


47"9 


44-0 


39-7 


56 30 


26-08 


3936 


41-5 


39° 


36-9 


36 30 


27-78 


2268 


47-8 


44-0 


39-8 


58 


26-36 


3637 


41-9 


39-5 


366 


37 


27-76 


2288 


47-6 


44-0 


40-0 


58 30 


26-41 


3588 


42-0 


39-2 


357 


37 30 


27-68 


2322 


47-6 


44-2 


40-4 


59 


26-45 


3547 


41-9 


39-8 


37-1 


38 


27-66 


2337 


47-2 


43-9 


40-2 


800 


26-48 


3604 


41-9 


39-8 


37-1 


38 15 


2764 


2348 


47-2 


43-9 


40-2 


30 


26-55 


3450 


42-1 


39-8 


369 


38 30 


27-64 


2348 


47-2 


44-0 


40-4 


I 


26-66 


3343 


42-1 


40-0 


37-4 


39 ° 


27-66 


2337 


47-2 


43-7 


39-8 


I 30 


26-76 


3244 


42-5 


40-0 


37-0 


39 30 


27-66 


2337 


47 -2 


43-5 


39-3 


2 30 


26-86 


3144 


42-5 


40-5 


38-0 


39 45 


27-66 


2337 


47-2 


43-5 


39'3 


3 


26-96 


3044 


42-5 


40-5 


38-0 


40 


27-81 


2187 


47-0 


43-5 


39-5 


3 30 


27-01 


2994 


430 


41-0 


38-6 


41 


27-86 


2136 


47-0 


436 


397 


4 


27-26 


2744 


43"5 


41-0 


38-0 


41 30 


27-91 


2086 


47-0 


43-7 


39'9 


5 


27-31 


2694 


440 


41-5 


38-5 


42 


27-94 


2056 


47-3 


43-9 


40-1 


6 


27-41 


2594 


44-5 


42-0 


39-0 


42 30 


28-01 


1986 


47-2 


43'9 


40-2 


7 


27-56 


2440 


44-9 


42-0 


386 


43 


2816 


1836 


47'° 


44-0 


40-6 


8 


27-58 


2409 


44" 9 


42-0 


386 


43 30 


28-21 


1786 


47-2 


44-5 


41-4 


8 30 


27-46 


2529 


45-0 


42-2 


38-9 


44 


28-28 


1716 


47-5 


45-1 


43-4 


9 3° 


27-06 


2929 


45-0 


42-3 


38-9 


44 3° 


28-28 


1716 


47-8 


44-8 


41-4 


10 


26-76 


3229 


44-8 


42-5 


38-8 


45 


28-35 


1668 


48-2 


44"5 


40-4 


II 


2666 


3329 


44-8 


42-0 


387 


45 30 


28-36 


1678 


48-5 


45-2 


41-6 


14 


26-51 


3479 


439 


41-5 


38-6 


46 


28-41 


1628 


48-7 


45'i 


41-S 


IS 


26-41 


3579 


435 


41-0 


3S-0 


47 


28-42 


1618 


48-9 


45-5 


41-8 


15 30 


26-41 


3579 


435 


41-0 


38-0 


48 


.... 


(1478) 


49-1 






16 


26-41 


3579 


43-3 


41-0 


3S-3 


50 


28-84 


1198 


49-0 


45-5 


41-7 


17 


26-56 


3444 


43-1 


40-5 


37'4 


51 


28-91 


1114 


49-0 


44-2 


39"° 


18 


26-66 


334° 


43-0 


40-1 


38-6 


51 30 


28-91 


11 14 


49-0 


44-0 


38-6 


19 


26-71 


3288 


431 


40-5 


37-4 


52 


28-98 


1030 


49-0 


43-9 


38-4 


20 


26-76 


3236 


43 '2 


40-5 


37-3 


52 30 


29-06 


944 


49-0 


43-5 


37'5 


20 30 


27-01 


2978 


43-5 


408 


37-6 


53 ° 


29-06 


944 


490 


43-2 


36-9 


20 45 


27-01 


2978 


43-5 


41-5 


39-2 


54 


29-21 


770 


49-0 


43-5 


37-5 


21 


27-01 


2978 


435 


41-2 


38-4 


54 15 


29-21 


770 


49-0 


44-0 


38-6 


22 


27-11 


2878 


43-8 


41-2 


38-1 


54 30 


29-26 


662 


49-0 


44-0 


386 


22 30 


27-16 


2828 


44-0 


41-5 


38-5 


55 


29-23 


698 


48-8 


43-8 


38-3 


23 


27-16 


2828 


44-0 


42-0 


39'6 


55 30 


29-16 


772 


48-9 


43-5 


37-8 


24 


27-26 


2720 


44-2 


42-0 


39'4 


56 


29-06 


890 


48-9 


43-5 


37-8 


25 


27-27 


2710 


44'5 


42-2 


39'4 


56 3° 


28-91 


949 


48-6 


43-2 


37-3 


26 


27-56 


2434 


45-2 


43 '2 


40-9 


57 


28-66 


1245 


48-8 


42-8 


36-2 


27 


27-66 


2337 


45-0 


43-0 


40-7 


57 30 


28-56 


1363 


48-5 


42-3 


35-5 


27 30 


27-71 


2289 


45'9 


43-0 


397 


58 


28-41 


1540 


47"9 


42-2 


35'9 


28 


27-76 


2241 


46-0 


43'9 


41-5 


58 30 


28-31 


1658 


47-0 


42-0 


36-4 


28 20 


27-78 


2221 


46-0 


43'5 


40-6 


59 ° 


28-26 


1717 


465 


41-8 


36-4 


28 30 


27-81 


2199 


46-2 


44-0 


41-5 


59 30 


28-16 


1843 


46-0 


40-6 


34*4 


29 


27-96 


2151 


46-2 


44-0 


41-5 


9 15 


27-36 


2651 


47-2 


41-0 


34-1 


29 30 


28-01 


2003 


47-0 


44-1 


40-8 


I 


27-06 


2954 


47-5 


42-2 


36-3 


29 45 


28-06 


1955 


47-0 


44-1 


40-8 


I 30 


26-78 


3244 


46-5 


427 


38-4 


30 


28-08 


1937 


47-2 


44-2 


40-8 


2 


26-81 


3214 


46-7 


42-5 


37-7 


30 15 


28-08 


1937 


47-1 


44-2 


40-9 


3 


26-31 


3517 


46-9 


41-5 


35-5 


30 30 


2815 


1910 


47-5 


44-2 


40-5 


3 30 


26-06 


3964 


46-0 


41-2 


357 


31 


2818 


1831 


47-5 


44-2 


40- 5 


4 


25-91 


4019 


44-8 


40-5 


35-5 


32 


28-18 


1831 


477 


44" 7 


41-4 


5 


25-78 


4166 


44-5 






32 30 


28-16 


1884 


47 '9 


44-6 


40-9 


6 


25-06 


4956 








32 45 


28-16 


1884 


48-0 


44'5 


40-6 


7 


24-66 


5396 








33 


28-11 


1936 


48-2 


447 


40-8 


8 


24-06 


6i68 








33 30 


28-06 


1988 


48-2 


44-9 


41-2 


30 


29-96 


ground 


46-5 


45-2 


43-8 


34 ° 


27-95 


2098 


47-8 44-5 1 


40-8 















264 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table II. (continued) 


.^Twenty-second Ascent.- 


— Angusi 


29, 1864. 




Time of 
observa- 
tion. 
r.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Baroni. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 

aliuvc the 
level of 
the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp. 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Uew- 
point. 


Time of 

observa- 
tion, 
r.,M. 


Reading 
of the 
DaroMi. 
reduced 
to 3-2° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 
Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m 9 


in. 


feet. 











h m s 


in. 


feet. 











460 


29-64 


ground 


72-5 


57-0 


45'4 


4 42 c 


18-34 


13675 


34-2 


33-5 




7 


29-54 


444 


72-0 


57-0 


45"7 


46 


i7'94 


14293 


35-2 


31-0 


25-3 


7 30 


29-26 


769 


71-2 


57-2 


46-7 


47 c 


17-94 


14293 


35-2 


30-7 


23-5 


8 


2S-49 


1484 


71-0 


56-0 


4S'2 


47 3c 


17-92 


14317 


35-5 


30-5 


22-8 


8 30 


28-10 


1883 


64-2 


55-5 


45-6 


48 30 


17-84 


I4415 


33-2 


31-1 


27-0 


9 


27-54 


2433 


64-5 


53-0 


43-6 


49 


17-74 


14581 


33-2 


31-0 


27-0 


10 


26-84 


3166 


62-2 


51-0 


41-4 


49 3° 


17-74 


14581 


34-2 


30-9 


25-1 


10 30 


26-59 


3427 


61-0 


49'5 


39-5 


52 


17-89 


14330 


33-0 


3°*5 


25-S 


II 


26-34 


3632 


60-5 


48-5 


38-0 


52 30 


17-92 


142S1 


33-0 


30-0 


24-0 


II 30 


26-09 


3S37 


58-5 


47-2 


37-1 


53 c 


17-94 


14248 


32-3 


28-1 


18-9 


12 


25-79 


4412 


56-2 


46-2 


36-9 


54 Sc 


18-04 


14086 


32-0 


26-1 


22-5 


13 c 


25-80 


4404 


55-0 


46-0 


37'4 


55 c 






.... 




3-0 


14 


25-46 


4612 


52-5 


47-0 


4i'5 


56 


18-04 


140S6 


29-5 


22-0 


- 2-4 


IS c 


25-44 


4635 


53-2 


47-1 


41-0 


57 c 


tS-09 


15991 


28-5 


22-1 


— 1-6 


16 c 


25-36 


473° 


54-2 


49-2 


'14'3 


58 3° 


1S-14 


13895 


29-0 


22-0 


- 3-4 


17 


25-29 


4808 


54'3 


49-2 


44-2 


59 


18-26 


13730 


jO'O 


23-1 


+ J-4 


17 30 


25-06 


5066 


54-2 


48-5 


42-9 


500 


iS-29 


13688 


31-0 


22-5 


- 0-4 


18 c 


24-86 


5289 


54-2 


48-5 


42-9 


I 30 


18-74 


13016 


30-0 


22-0 


- 3-2 


19 


24-53 


5664 


54-2 


51-0 


47"9 


3 


18-84 


12866 


31-0 


22-7 


+ 0-4 


20 


24-44 


5767 


54-2 


482 


42-3 


7 


20-64 


9943 


34-0 


28-9 


20-0 


23 30 


23-79 


6513 


51-2 


45-0 


38-6 


7 30 


20-79 


9868 


34-2 


29-0 


19-9 


24 


23-49 


6858 


51-2 


45-0 


38-6 


9 ° 


21-05 


9740 


36-2 


30-2 


21-2 


25 


23-24 


7158 


51-2 


44-1 


37-1 


II 


21-42 


9268 


36-2 


30-5 


22-0 


26 


22-96 


7496 


51-0 


42-5 


33-6 


II 30 


21-52 


9143 


37-2 


30-5 


3I-' 


26 30 


2289 


7578 


50-2 


40-5 


30-2 


12 


21-65 


8981 


37-8 


30-9 


31-7 


27 


22-54 


7994 


48-9 


38-9 


28-1 


14 


22-34 


8146 


41-2 


32-0 


20-5 


28 30 


22-34 


8224 


45 "0 


37-2 


28-1 


14 30 


22-69 


7726 


41-5 


31-8 


19-7 


28 45 


22-14 


8454 


44-2 


37-1 


2S-7 


15 


22-74 


7666 


41-0 


31-8 


20-2 


29 


22-04 


S568 


43-2 


36-5 


28-5 


16 


23-00 


7352 


42-5 


32-0 


19-2 


29 30 


21-92 


8719 


43-2 


36-c 


27-4 


17 


23-29 


7018 


44-2 


33-5 


20-9 


30 30 


21-44 


9322 


42-0 


36-2 


29-0 


17 30 


23-69 


6558 


45-S 


38-1 


29-6 


31 


21-34 


9610 


41-2 


36-0 


29-5 


18 


24-18 


5996 


47-0 


42-8 


38-1 


32 


20-59 


i°S75 


41-2 


36-0 


29-5 


19 


25-26 


4815 


49-5 


46-2 


43-0 


32 30 


20-46 


10744 


40-5 


35-0 


28-0 


20 


25-49 


4550 


51-2 


48-1 


44*9 


33 ° 


20-36 


10875 


40-2 


34-8 


27-8 


21 


25-70 


4326 


52-5 


48-1 


43-6 


3+ 


19-94 


1 141 1 


36-0 


28-5 


16-7 


22 


26-14 


3S57 


53-5 


49'5 


45-0 


36 


19-64 


11813 


35-5 


26-2 


12-1 


23 


26-74 


3225 


54-2 


49-1 


44-1 


38 


19-07 


12605 


34-2 


28-0 


17-1 


25 


26-74 


3238 


58-2 


49*5 


41-6 


39 ° 


18-94 


12773 


32-8 


27-2 


16-0 


26 


28-C6 


1902 








39 30 


18-82 


12944 


32-8 


26-2 


13-0 


27 


28-54 


1417 


64-0 


55-0 


47-5 


39 45 


18-84 


12924 


33-2 


45-5 


1 0-0 


32 


29-S6 


ground 


69-0 


57-2 


47-9 



In every ascent a second thermometer has been used to check the accuracy 
of the readings of the dry thermometer, and the truthfulness of the tempera- 
tures shown by it ; in some of the ascents a delicate blackened bulb thermo- 
meter was placed near to the place of the dry-bulb thermometer, fully ex- 
posed to the sun in cloudless skies, or to the sky at all times : the readings of 
this instrument were nearly identical with those of the di-y-bulb thermometer 
in clouded states of the sky, and thus acted as an additional check. At all 
times one or the other, or both Eegnault's and DanicU's hj^grometer, have been 
used sufficiently often at all heights to show whether the wet-bulb thermo- 
meter was in proper action, and to check the results given by the use of the 
dry- and wet-bulb thermometers on the reduction of the observations. 

In all cases the readings of the dry-bulb thermometer for the temperature 
of the air and the temperature of the dew-point, as found from the dry- and 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 265 

wet-bulb thermometer, have been adopted, without combination with similar 
results otherwise derived, excepting only when the wet-bulb failed to act 
either at times when the temperature of the air liad just descended below the 
freezing-point, or just ascended above it, and when I have had occasion to 
apply water to the wet-bulb at such times the dew-point as found from 
either DanieU's or Kcgnault's hygrometer has been used. 

§ 5. Vaeiation- of Tempeeature of the Ate with Height. 

Every reading of temperature in the preceding Tables, or the means of 
smaU groups of readings when observations have been taken in quick succes- 
sion, at about the same altitude, was laid down on a diagram ; all these 
points were joined, and a curved line was drawn passing through or near 
them, giving an e(]ual weight to every point, and such that the area of the 
spaces between the original and adopted lines on one side of the adopted line 
was equal to that of the spaces on the other side of the line. The curves 
thus formed, for the most part, in the previous experiments have shown a 
gradual decrease of temperature with increase of elevation, and a gradual in- 
crease of temperature with decrease of elevation ; biit this was not the case 
this year, and I have not been able to adopt any curves for January 12 and 
April 6. 

On the other days of experiments, a curve of assumed normal temperatui-e 
has been adopted, and by comparison between the results as read from this 
curve, and the observations at the same elevations, the places and amount of 
disturbances are shown in the following Tables. 

The numbers in the first column show the height in feet, beginning at the 
ground and increasing upwards ; the numbers in the second column show the 
interval of time in ascending to the highest point; the notes in the third column 
show the circumstances of the observations ; the niimbers in the fourth and 
fifth columns the observations and the approximate normal temperatures of the 
air ; and those in the next column the difference between the two preceding 
columns, or the most probable efl^'ect of the presence of cloud or mist on the 
temperature, or of other disturbing causes in operation. 

The next group of columns is arranged similarly for the descent, and the 
other groups for succeeding ascents and descents. 



266 



REPORT — 1864. 



Table III. — Showing the Temperature of the Air, as read off the curve 
drawn through the observed temperatures, and as read off the ciu-ve of 
most probable normal temperatiu'e, called adopted temperature, and the 
calculated amount of disturbance from the assumed law of decrease of 
temperature. 

FOTJETEENTH AsCENT. 



1863. 

Height, in feet, 
above the mean 
level of the sea. 



Temperature of the Air. 



Ascending. 



Between „■ „ 
what CTcum 



times. 



August 31. 
8000 

7000 

6000 
5000 
4000 

3000 
2000 



ground. 



1000 
ground. 



S 



o 



s 



stances 



Sun 
shining 



Very 

dark 

cloud 

near us. 



Very 
cold. 



Ob- 
served 
temp. 



Adopted 
temp. 




In 
clouds. 



340 

347 

39-0 
42-8 

45-2 

47-5 
51-3 
S4'9 

64-0 



5o'o 
51-0 
64-0 



33'9 
35-2 

38-1 

41-5 
44-6 

47-6 
50-7 
539 

64-0 



Calcu- 
L-ited 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 



Descending. 



+ 



- o"5 



Between 
what 
times 



o 2 






Circum- 
stances. 



■ l^ 

d 



Cirri 
higher. 



In basin 
ofclouds. 
Just in 
clouds. 



Ob- 
served 
temp. 



Stratum 

ofclouds 

above. 



In 

uniform 

mist. 



34"o 
38-0 

38-3 
389 



41-5 
43-2 

46-3 
49-0 



50"2 

51-0 
53-5 



Adopted 
temp. 



Calcu 
lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 



34-0 
356 
37-2 
38-8 



4i'o 

43-5 

463 
49"4 



50-2 
515 
539 



O'O 

+ 2-4 
+ II 
-I- o-i 



+ o-S 

- 0-3 

O'O 

- 0-4 



O'O 

- 0-5 

- 0-4 



August 31. — The decrease of temperature within the &st 200 feet of the 
earth in this ascent is very remarkable, no such rapid decrease having been 
found in any other ascent : on the ground the temperature was 64°, and by 
the time 200 feet was reached a decrease of 8° had taken place, the tempera- 
tpe at 200 feet being 56° : from this height, up to 1200 feet, there was but 
little change ; and above this the temperatm-e decreased from 2° to 3^° in each 
succeeding 1000 feet, till 7000 feet were passed, when the balloon entered a 
relatively warm current of au-. 

On descending, but Uttle change of temperature was experienced in passing 
downwards from 7000 to 5500 feet ; then there was an increase of 2|° in 
passing from 5000 feet to 4000 feet, and l°-7 from 4000 feet to 3000 feet; 
the temperature then gradually increased to 40° at 1000 feet; at 860 feet it 
was 49°-8, and on descending to nearly 800 feet it was 50|° ; on reaseending 
to 1000 feet it increased to 51°, but decreased to 50° at 2000 feet. The 
balloon then turned to descend, the temperature increasing to 51° on passing 
downwards to 1000 feet, the same temperature as in the last ascension, and 
to 53|° on the ground. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



267 



Table III. (continued.) 

PiFTEENTH AsCENT. 



1863. 






Temperature 


of the . 


\ir. 






















Height, in feet. 




Ascending 








Descending. 






















above the mean 










Calcu- 








Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 
what 


Circum- 


Ob- 
served 


Adopted 


lated 
effect of! 


Between 

what 


Ob- 

Circum- ^^^^^^ 


Adopted 


lated 
etfcct of 




times. 


stances. 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb-; 
ance. ' 


times. 


stances. 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb- 
ance. 


Sept. 29. 




























16000 






I'O 


1-5 


- °-s 




Sun 


1-6 


1-6 


o-o 


15000 
14000 




Sun 

shining. 


2"0 

rs 


4-3 

7-2 


- 2-3 

+ 0-3 




shining 
brightly. 


4-8 
7-5 


4-8 

7*4 


O'O 

+ o-i 


13000 


a 




I4--5 


IO-5 


+ 4"o 






15-2 


ii"o 


+ 4-2 


12000 


No sun. 


149 


135 


+ 1-4; 




17-2 


,4-z 


+ 3'o 


Clouds 


1 1 000 



en 


very 
high. 


16-9 


i6"4 


+ 0-5 






20'0 


17-3 


+ 27 


1 0000 


m 

.a 


A faint 
sun. 


20*4 


19-2 


+ 1-2 


3 




22-9 


20-5 


+ 2-4 
+ 1-6 


9000 


Ov 


Dense 


23-2 


221 







25-0 


23-4 


8000 





clouds 


26*0 


25-0 


+ i-o 


» 




28-2 


26-3 


+ 1-9 


7000 


e 


above us 


29-0 


28-1 


+ o'9 






Sun 
warm. 


3I-I 


29s 


+ 1-6 


Clouds 


6000 


J3 


above 

and 

below. 


32-2 


31-0 


+ i-i 


3 




33'2 


32-6 


+ 06 


5000 


g 




35-6 


34-2 


+ 1-4 


P 




357 


357 


O'O 


4000 


fM 




37-8 


37-2 


+ 0-6 


b 




387 


38-6 


+ O-I 


3000 




Sun 


41 -8 


40-2 


+ 1-6 






415 


42-4 


- 0-9 


2000 




faint. 


45-0 


43'3 


+ 17 






47 "o 


46-8 


-|- 0-2 


1000 




Misty all 


45'5 


46-5 


- 1-9 








. , 


. , 


ground. 




round. ^g.Q 


49'9 


- 1-9 






•• 




•• 



September 29. — On leaving the earth the temperature decreased from 48° 
on the ground to 45^° at 1000 feet, and to 1° at 16,000 feet ; a warm current 
having been met with between 12,000 and 13,500 feet. On descending a warm 
current was passed extending from 14,000 feet to 9000 feet, and afterwards 
the temperature iucreased constantly with decrease of elevation tUl the 
ground was reached. 



268 



KEFORT — 1864. 

Table III. (continued.) 

Sixteenth Ascent. 




October 9. — The temperature before starting from the ground on this daj' 
-v^'as 54i°, decreasing gradually on ascending till the height of 7300 feet was 
reached, where it was 30° ; the balloon then turned to descend, and the tem- 
perature increased gradually to 42° at 2300 feet. On reascending the tem- 
perature was found to be 39|° at 3600 feet ; it increased to 45° on descending 
to 1500 feet, and on again ascending declined to 28° at 7200 feet ; the decline 
of temperature after this was very slight, but it became too dark to read the 
instruments, so that no observations were made either at the highest point 
reached, or during the descent to the earth. 

There were neither warm nor cold ciirrents met with on this day. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



269 



Table III. (continued.) 
Seventeenth Ascent. 



1864. 


Temperature of the Air. 










Height, in feet, 




Ascending. 




Descending. 


















above the mean 






Calcu- 










Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 
what 


n- Ob- 


Adopted ,^^^,1„f 


Between 

what 


Circum- 


Ob- 
served 


Adopted 


lated 
effect of 




times. 


stances. 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb-' 
ance. I 

1 


tiiues. 


stances. 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb- 
ance. 


January 12. 

IIOOO 




Fine 
>auw. 



141 
189 









Snow 

fine and 

thin. 




13-6 
166 








loooo 












Clouds 










Misty. 








!? 


above 








9C00 


a 




23-6 






B 


and 
below. 


20-0 






8000 


B 


Colder 
current. 


2S0 








Snow. 


229 
249 






7000 




30-8 






B 


Near 
cloud. 






6000 


2 




32-8 








Very 
misty. 


29'0 






5000 


e 


Cloudy. 


36-4 








30'o 






4000 


j: 




38-2 






B 




33-0 






3000 


a 




Cloud. 


44-8 








Misty. 


368 






Calm 


2000 


1 


and 
warm to 


43-8 










39-1 






1000 




sense. 


39-1 
















Sensibly 


ground. 




warm. 


41-5 








Misty. 


41-8 






Eighteenth Ascent. 


April 6. 






















11 coo 


rt 




36-5 










39-0 






1 0000 




Sun 


35-0 






i t^ 




44' 3 






9000 
8000 


a 


warm. 


34'4 
39-0 






•1 


B 


Very 
warm. 


46-2 
46-2 






7000 


rn 


Blue 


387 






1 ^ 




46-0 






6coo 





sky. 


35-5 
36-0 








Entered 
cloud. 


43'9 






5000 


•^ 








3 




43-0 






4000 





Fog 


33-0 






B 




41-8 






3000 


B 


wetting. 


336 










39"7 






Enter- 


2000 


a 



ing 
clouds, 


37-5 






g 
13 


Below 
cloud. 


397 








misty. 








3 










1000 


^ 




417 






• 




417 






ground. 




Very 
misty. 


45'5 










45-8 







Janviary 12. — The temperature of the air before starting was 41|°; it de- 
creased very slowly till 1300 feet was reached, a warm current was then met 
with, and at 3000 feet the temperature was nearly 45°, being 3|° higher than 
on the ground, and for a space of 3000 feet in height the temperature was 
higher than on the earth; it then gradually declined to 11° at 11,500 feet, 
and remained at about this degree till the highest point was reached ; on de- 
scending it gradually increased with decrease of elevation, tiU on reaching 
the ground at 4" 10"" it was 41°-8. The results on this day are so remark- 
able that no adopted temperature has been attempted. 

April 6. — This ascent is remarkable for the small decrease of temperature 
with increase of elevation. The temperature of the air was 45|° on leaving 



270 



eeport — 1864. 



the earth, it did not decline at all till after 300 feet had been passed, after 
which it decreased pretty gradually to 33° when 4300 feet was reached ; a 
warm cm-rent was then entered, and the temperature increased till 7500 feet 
was attained, being of the same temperatui-e as has been experienced at 
1500 feet high, viz. 40°, then decreased to 34° at 8800 feet, and then in- 
creased slowly to 36|° at 11,000 feet, a temperature which had been ex- 
perienced at the height of 2170 feet in ascending. 

On descending the temperature increased about 5° in the first 1000 feet ; 
remained at about that temperature till within 7000 feet of the earth, then 
gradually decreased to 40° at 3000 feet, remained at about this point tiU 
1500 feet of the earth, and then increased to nearly 46° on the ground. The 
observed temperatures on this day are so remarkable that no adopted tem- 
peratures have been made. 









Table III. 


{continued.) 
















Nineteenth Ascent. 


1864. 

Height, in feet, 
above the mean 
level of the sea. 


Temperature of the Air. 


Ascending. 


Descending. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 

served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


Calcu- 
lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- ^^- 

st„aces. f "^-l 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


Calcu- 
lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


June 13. 

3000 

2000 

1000 

ground. 


. 

r a 

§00 






51-5 
54-2 
58-8 
6i-8 




54-5 
58-5 
61-5 




-0-3 
+0-3 
+0-3 




Clear. 




51-4 



51-5 



— 0"I 


3000 






48-1 


48-1 


o-o 






49-6 


49'4 


-fo-2 


3000 

2000 

1000 

ground. 






Sro 


5I-0 


O'O 


B 




49-0 

517 
S4-0 
54"o 


49-2 
51-9 

S3'9 
54-0 


— 0-2 

— 0'2 

O-O 



June 13. — The temperature of the air on the groimd before starting was 
62°, declining with increase of elevation till 3000 feet was reached, where 
it was 51 1°; on descending the temperature was found to be 54° at 2300 
feet ; the balloon then reascendcd, the tomperatiu'c declining gradually to 
3100 feet, then began to increase, being 48|° at 3450 feet, but declined to 
47° by passing upwards to 3540 feet ; on again descending it increased evenly 
till at 2700 feet, it being there 51°, and remained about the same for 200 feet ; 
on reascending the temperature scarcely differed from 51° till 3000 feet was 
gained, when a sudden decrease of 2° oecui-red in 35 feet ; then began our 
final descent, the temperature remaining the same for 400 feet, then increased 
to 51|° by 2000 feet, and to 53°-2 at ISOOfeet, below which there was scarcely 
any change till the earth was reached. 

This fact of no change in the temperatur-e of the air within 1800 feet of the 
earth at the time of sunset was very remarkable, for it indicated that if such 
be a law, the law of decrease of temperature with increase of elevation may 
be reversed at night for some distance from the earth. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



271 



Table III. (continued.) 
Twentieth Ascent. 



1864. 

Height, in feet, 






Temperature of the Air. 








Ascending. 


Descending. 










1 
Calcu- 










Calcu- 


above the mean 


Between 




Ob- 




lated 


Between 




Ob- 




lated 


level of the sea. 


what 
times. 


Circum 
stances. 


served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


what 
time. 


Circum- 
stances. 


.served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


June 20. 















°S^ 













4000 
3000 


In 

clouds. 


52-4 
54"° 


51-4 
54-0 


+ ro 

O'O 


^1i 


In 
cloud. 

Out of 
cloud. 


51-2 

52-9 


51-1 
53-9 


-f-o-i 
— i"o 


Enter- 
ing 
clou Ids 


2000 


So 




S8-i 


58-1 


o"o 


B s 










1000 


Misty. 


62-4 


62"4 


O'O 


■ 










ground. 






66-5 


66-6 


-fo-i 












4000 


a 


In 
clouds. 


50-6 


5i"4 


-0-8 


OhrJ 


In 
cloud. 


49-9 


50-2 


-0-3 


3000 


p 1 g 




54-0 


S3"9 


-fl-2 


Tb 




54-1 


54' 5 


-0-4 


Can see 


2000 












^5 


the 
earth. 


6i-i 


598 


+ 1-3 


1000 












v -t^ 


Misty. 


62'0 


62-8 


-0-8 


ground. 












B f 




64-6 


647 


— o-i 








TWENTT-FI 


EST Ascent. 








June 27. 
5000 






42-3 


417 


-1-0-6 




Very 
misty. 


423 


417 


-I-0-6 


4000 
3000 




Sun 
clear. 


437 
49 '4 


437 
48-2 


O'O 
+ I"2 




4i"6 
427 


4i'6 
44-0 


O'O 

-i"3 


2000 






52-4 


52-2 


-f 0'2 


►« •*- 




47-0 


47-4 


-0-4 


1000 


Misty. 


567 


56-9 


— 0-2 


B "b 




48-9 


489 


O'O 


ground. 


s° 




63-0 


67-1 




s- 










4000 


% a 




45-0 


44-8 


4-0'2 












3000 


ar.^ 




46-8 


46-8 


o-o 












2000 


2i^^ 




467 


47-6 


+0-9 












1000 






48-5 


48-5 


O'O 












ground. 


-5 


















. 



June 20. — The temperature of the air on the ground before starting was 
061°, which declined very gradually to 4100 feet, where it was 51°. On 
descending it increased gradually tiU 2700 feet was reached, it then being 
54°. On ascending to 4200 feet, the temperature fell to 49|°. On de- 
scending for the last time, it increased to 61° at 2000 feet, and to 64|° 
on the ground : this was about one hour before sun.set, showing in the last 
2000 feet an increase of temperature of 3°, thus showing that the usual 
law holds good to this time, but apparently with far less energy, as on 
ascending the decrease of temperature in the same space was three times as 
large, or 9°. 

June 27 — On this occasion the temperature was 63° on the ground, 
gradually decreasing to 1000 feet, where it was nearly 57°, then declined 1|° in 
200 feet, then gradually to 2600 feet, when a comparatively warmer current 
was met with, the temperatiu-e declining only lg° in the following 900 feet, 



273 



REPORT — 1864. 



decreased more rapidly in the next 600 feet, and remained nearl}' stationarj^ 
during the following 900 feet, it being at 5000 feet rather more than 42°. 

On descending it slightly dedined in the first 300 feet, then increased slowly 
till 2000 feet, after which it was nearly stationary till within 400 feet of the 
earth, where it was 49°. 

On reascending it declined very slowly till 4000 feet was attained, it being 
then 46°, after which it became too dark to read the thermometers ; this was 
a matter of great regret, for the balloon passed above 6000 feet ; the tempera- 
tare was found to be 46g° on the ground. 

Table III. {continued.') 

TWENTY-SECOXD AsCENT. 



1864. 

Height, in feet, 


Temperature of the Air. 






Ascendin 


?• 


Descending. 










Calcu- 


i 
i 








Calcu- 


above tlie mean 
level of the sea. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 

served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


Between 
what 
time. 


circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


August 29. 




























15000 


a 




33-0 


32'9 


+ 0-I 






33-0 


329 


+ 0-I 


14000 




34-8 


33-8 


+ I-0 


3 




29'0 


33'i 


-4-1 


13000 







33-0 


35-3 


-2-3 




g 




307 


337 


_3-o 


12000 


CO 




35"i 


368 


-1-7 


4>- 




31-9 


34-3 


-2'4 


1 1000 


E 



^ 


39-2 


38-5 


+ 0-7 







327 


34'9 


— 2'2 


1 0000 


-i- 


^ 


4ro 


4i'o 


O'O 


Co 

5 




33-8 


368 


-3-0 


9000 


■V 


2 


427 


43'4 


-07 


0^ 


^ 


37-5 


387 


— I"2 


8000 


2 


3 

3 

u 


48-0 


46'o 


+ 2-0 


°. 


g; 


41-2 


41-2 


O'O 


7000 


a: 



5I-I 


488 


+2-3 








44-3 


44-0 


+0-3 


6000 


n 


a 


53-4 


517 


+ I-7 


t-n 


£- 


46-9 


47 "0 


— 01 


5000 


a 






54'4 


54-8 


-0-4 


i>i 


V! 


49'o 


50-1 


— 11 


4000 


j= 




57-5 


58-1 


-06 


3 




S3-0 


53-7 


-07 


3000 


^ 




628 


6r8 


+ I-0 




58-5 


57-4 


4-I-I 


2000 


a 





67-4 


65-8 


+ 1-6 


"p 




6i-8 


6i*o 


+0-8 


1000 






7I-0 


70'o 


+ I-0 


p 




65-5 


65*0 


+0-S 


ground. 






72-5 


74' 3 


-1-8 






69*0 


690 


o"o 



August 29. — On the ground the temperature of the air was 72^° ; on as- 
cending several warm and cold currents were passed through ; the tempera- 
tm-e was 33° on reaching the highest point, viz. 15,000 feet ; on descending 
the increase of temperature to 14,000 feet was as much as 4°, having en- 
tered a cold current which continued till 9000 feet was passed ; from 8000 
feet the increase of temperature was very regular, and continued so till the 
earth was reached. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 18G3 AND 1864. 273 

It is very clear from the numbers in the following Table, that they differ 
very much from those in previous years, and that they cannot be combined, or 
all used in deducing general laws. The ascent on August 31 was made in 
the evening with a partially clear sky, and the results are somewhat abnormal. 
Some of the numbers in January 12 and April 6 are affected by + signs, 
circumstances never before met with ; on June 13, at sunset, no difference was 
found within 2000 feet of the earth ; and those of Juue 20, made a Uttle before 
sunset, and those of June 27, made a little before and after sunset, aU seem 
to differ from the general laws as found by experiments made when the sun 
is situated at a good altitude. 

The only experiments this year which can be combined with previous re- 
sults are those of September 29 with a cloudy sky, those of October 9 and 
August 29, mostly with clear skies. 

It is certain from the numbers in this Table that there are at times, in the 
higher regions of the earth's atmosphere, spaces subjected to great cold, and 
others to considerable heat ; and from the notes made at the time of passing 
through clouds, that there exist some clouds of very low temperature, and 
some, as those of January 12, of high temperature. 

The presence of such either cold or hot currents passing over the country 
must play an important part in aU our meteorological phenomena, and must 
exert a great influence upon our climate. . 

The numbers in columns 24 and 26 show the mean results from the experi- 
ments of the year, the former when the sky was cloudy, September 29, and 
the latter when clear or mostly clear, on October 9 and August 29. 

The numbers in column 25 show the number of experiments upon which 
each result in column 24 is based ; at heights up to 5000 feet these vary from 
13 to 22, at 6000 feet and 7000 feet to 5 and 7, and to heights exceeding 
7000 feet to 4, these having been made on two days only, viz. June 26 and 
September 29, 1863, on which days the balloon was frequently enveloped in 
fog and clouds to the height of 3 and 4 miles. 

The numbers in column 32 show the total number of experiments upon 
which the numbers in column 31 are based ; they vary from 7 to 17 up to the 
height of 23,000 feet, and there can be but little doubt that the numbers in 
column 31 are very nearly true, and approximate closely to the general law. 
Above 24,000 feet the number of experiments are too few to speak confi- 
dently upon them, but they are in accordance with the series below this ele- 
vation. 

The numbers in column 28 show the decrease of temperature at each 1000 
feet increase of elevation with a cloudy sky, they differ from those in column 
31, showing the decrease for the same space with a clear sky, the former being 
smaller, the latter up to the usual height of the cloud plane, and are nearly 
alike above that plane, but the observations of cloudy skies at heights exceed- 
ing 5000 and 6000 feet, are too few to place great confidence in them. 

In forming the last six columns of the following Table, no use has been 
made of the observations taken on July 17, 1862, Aug-ust 31, 1863, January 
12, April 6, June 13, 20, and 27 of the year 1864. The results on all those 
days are abnormal ; I defer studying the results on these days till I can com- 
pare them with some confidence with the general laws, which may be found 
to hold good at times of the year at which they were made ; their study then 
will be profitable, and probably fruitful in yielding valuable results. 

The numbei-s in column 30 show the average increase of elevation at every 
1000 feet for a decrease of 1° with a cloudy sky ; from these we see that 
up to 1000 feet the average space is 223, the space for each 1000 feet in- 
creasing, till at 22,000 feet it requires more than 1000 feet for a change of 
1° of temperature. 
1864. 



374 



REPORT — 1864. 

Table IV. — Showing the decrease of Temperature 







August 31, 1863. 


Sept. 29, 
1863. 


October 9, 1863. 


i 

January 12, April 6, 1864. June 13, 
1864. 1 ^ ' 1864. 


Height above 

the level of the 

sea. 


State of the Sky. | 


In cloud 

at 1000 

ft. Clear 

above. 


Cloudy 
below 
3000 ft. 


Uniform 
Mist. 


Cloudy. 


Clear. 


Misty. 


Cloudy. 


Clear. 


From 


To 


1 
a 

<u 
u 

< 


1 

1 



■■a 


a 
a 

v 
u 

< 


c 
■■3 


1 

s 

< 


Co 

1 



1 


□ 
•-3 


V 

u 

< 


to 
s 
■■B 

s 
< 


B 

a 

u 

n 

Q 


til 

1 
a 

< 


■■3 
a 


1 

c 


to 
a 

-3 
a 

u 

Q 


ft. 

28000 

27000 

26000 

25000 

24000 

23000 

22000 

21000 

20000 

Igooo 

18000 

17000 

16000 

15000 

14000 

13000 

12000 

nooo 

1 0000 

9000 

8000 

7000 

6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 

2000 

1000 




ft. 

29000 

28000 

27000 

26000 

25000 

24000 

23000 

22000 

21000 

20000 

1 9000 

18000 

17000 

16000 

15000 

14000 

13000 

12000 

1 1000 

10000 

9000 

8000 

7000 

6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 

2000 

1000 




1-3 
a-9 
2-4 

31 
3-0 
3-1 

3-2 
91 




i"6 
1-6 
1-6 

2-2 

2-5 

2-8 

31 




1-3 
24 


c 


1-8 
j-9 

3-3 
3-0 

"■1 
i-8 

2-9 

1-9 

31 

V9 
3-2 
3-0 
3-0 

31 
3-2 

5-4 


c 


J-2 
1-6 

3-6 

3-2 

31 

3-2 
1-9 
1-9 
3-2 

3-1 
3*1 
1-9 

3-8 

r4 

;-o 
5-1 




21 

3-6 
3-6 
3-6 
4-2 
4-6 





ro 
19 
»-3 





1-8 

2-6 

1-6 

2-9 

1-8 
r6 




+ 
+ 


4-8 
47 
4-4 
2-8 

2-0 

3-6 
1-8 
6-6 
l-o 

47 
i-4 


4-0 

3-4 
2-9 

2-0 

4"i 
3-° 
3-8 
2-3 




-1-5 
-0-6 
+4-6 
-0-3 

-3-2 

+0-5 
-3-0 

+0-6 

39 

4-2 

3-8 




... 

5-3 
19 

0"0 

— 0-2 

— 2'I 
-0-9 
— 1'2 

— 2-1 
O-O 

+2-0 

+4-1 




3-0 
4-0 
3-0 



... 1 

• •• ! 

• •• 

■ •• 

• •• 

• t* 

2-0'. 

o-lj; 



No. of Col. 



2. 



a. 



9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 

in every 1000 feet of elevation up to 29,000 feet. 



375 



June 20, 1864. 


June 27, 1864. 


Aug. 29, 
1864. 


Mean. 




General Means (omitting July 17, I862, 
Aug. 31, 1863, Jan. 12, April'e, June 13, 
20,27,1864). 


State of the Sky. 


Cloudy. 


Partially Clear. 


Clear, 


§ 



g 
S 

•s 

s 

3 






s 

C 

0) 

a 
•c 



t- 

v 

1 




Cloudy. 


Clear. 


i 


£b 

l-i 

Z p. 


Space 
passed 

for a 
decline 
of 1°. 




„• 

aj 
IE 


Space 
passed 
for a 
decline 
of 1°. 


a 
c 

< 


id 

a 

1 
o 

1 


1 

< 


.S 
'S 


B 
C 

< 


bo 

.9 
Q 




in 

s 
'3 
B 

V 

u 
« 




V 



to 





o 


o 


o 


o 
















feet. 







feet. 






• ■• 


• •■ 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 






0-8 


I 


1250 




■' 


• •• 


>.• 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


°"9 


I 


iiii 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


::: 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 






... 


I'O 

i"o 


I 

I 


1000 
1000 


1 




... 


■ *. 


>*. 




... 




... 


... 


... 


... 






... 


VI 


2 


909 


::; 

... 


... 


• •■ 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


o'"8 
0-8 
I'l 
0-9 
1-4 
I '3 
12 


2 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 


I250 
1250 

911 
909 

715 
771 

833 


1-3 

I'O 

I'l 

1"2 

'•3 
i"5 

17 
1-9 


2 
4 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 


771 
loco 

911 

833 

771 

666 
588 
526 












■ ** 


... 


... 


... 


3-c 


2 


... 


2 


2-1 


4 


477 


2*2 


9 


455 






... 


• •. 




••• 


... 


u-y 


0-2 

0-6 


2-li 


2 


0-5 


2 


2'0 


4 


500 


17 


9 


588 






• •• 


• • ■ 


... 


• •• 


... 


' i 


3-4 


2 


i-o 


2 


2-3 


4 


435 


2-0 


II 


500 






• •• 


..• 


... 


... 


... 


i-5 


0-6 
0-6 


3-1 


2 


I'O 


2 


2'2 


4 


455 


22 


11 


455 








. . ■ 


... 


*.. 


... 


2"0 


3-0 


2 


13 


2 


2"2 


4 


455 


2-3 


II 


435 








• •• 


... 


... 


... 


'.1'2 


19 


3-0 


2 


2-0 


2 


2" 2 


4 


455 


2-6 


13 


385 






... 


• .• 


... 


... 


... 


24 

2-6 
2-8 


M 


2-9 


2 


2-2 


2 


2*2 


4 


455 


2-4 


12 


417 






... 




... 


'•• 




^5 


2-9 


^^ 


2-6 


2 


2-2 


4 


455 


a'5 


12 


400 








• *. 


... 


•*• 


... 


2-8 


3-2 


2 


2-5 


3 


2-4 


4 


417 


?7 


12 


371 






• •• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


2y 


30 


3-0 


2 


2-3 


5 


2-7 


5 


371 


2-5 


15 


401 


2-6 
4-1 

4-3 
4-2 


2-*8 


1-4 


4*3 


2-0 

4*0 


— o-i 

+2 "4 


2-0 

0-8 

0-9 


3'-i 
3-2 

37 


3 J 
3-6 
37 


3-2 

3-0 
3-4 


2 
2 
2 


27 

3'i 

3-5 


5 
5 
4 


3-2 
3-3 

3-4 


7 
13 

20 


313 

303 
295 


2-6 
2-9 
3'3 


17 
12 
12 


385 
345 
304 


... 


... 


5 3 
3-0 


4*0 
47 


1*4 
I '5 


4-0 
4-2 


3-b 
4-0 


3-iJ 
4-1 


2 
2 


3*5 
4"i 


4 
3 


3-7 
3-6 


22 
21 


271 
278 


3-8 

47 


II 
9 


264 

21'! 


" 




19 1 y 1 


0'2 




4'3 


4-0 


4-3 


2 


4-3 


3 


4-5 


17 


223 


6-2 


9 162 


lb. 


J 6. 


17. 


18. 


19. 


20. 


21. 


22. 


23. 


21. 


25. 


26. 


27. 


28. 


29. 


30. 


31. 


32. 


i 

00 



t2 



276 REPORT— 1864. 

Ill the liist column of Table IV. the same results are sliowu for clear, or 
nearly clear skies, and tlie}- sliow that a change of 1° takes place for an average 
increase of 162 feet ; this space gradually increasing to 1000 feet at 23,000 
feet. 

By comparing the numbers in columns 30 and 33 together, the different 
spaces required to be passed through for a decline of 1° of temperature in the 
two states of the sky wiU be readily seen : up to 23,000 feet it is necessary 
to pass through a much larger change of elevation with a cloudy sky for a 
decline of 1° of temperature than with a clear sky. 

Cloudy Sky. 
By adding together successively the numbers in column 28, we shall find 
the whole decrease of temperature from the earth to the different elevations ; 
the results with a cloudy sky are as follows : — 

feet feet o feet. 

Prom to 1,000 the decrease was 4-5, or 1° on the average of 223 
2,000 „ 8-1 „ 247 

„ 3,000 „ 11-8 „ 255 . 

4,000 „ 15-2 „ 263 

5,000 „ 18-5 „ 271 

6,000 „ 21-7 „ 277 

7,000 „ 24-4 „ 287 

8,000 „ 26-8 „ 299 

9,000 „ 29-0 „ 311 

10,000 „ 31-2 „ 321 

11,000 „ 33-4 „ 329 

12,000 „ 35-6 „ 337 

„ 13,000 „ 37-8 „ 344 

14,000 „ 40-1 „ 349 

15,000 „ 42-1 „ 356 

„ 16,000 „ 44-2 „ ~ 362 

17,000 „ 45-4 „ 375 

18,000 „ 46-7 „ • 386 

19,000 „ 48-1 „ 395 

20,000 „ 49-0 „ 409 

21,000 „ 50-1 „ 419 

22,000 „ 50-9 „ 432 

23,000 „ 51-7 „ 445 

These results, showing the whole decrease of temperature of the air from 
the earth up to 23,000 feet, differ very considerably from those with a clear 
sky, to be spoken of presently. Tlie numbers in the last column show the 
average increment of height for a decline of 1°, as found by using the tempe- 
ratures of the extremities of the column above. To 1000 feet high the average 
is 1° in 223 feet, increasing gradually to 1° in 445 feet at 23,000 feet. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 2111 

Cleak Sky. 

By adding together the numhers in column 31 in the same way the 
following results are found : — 

feet feet o fee'- 

From to 1,000 the decrease was 6-2, or 1° on the average of 1G2 

2,000 „ 10-9 „ 184 

„ 3,000 „ 14-7 „ 204 

„ 4,000 „ 18-0 „ 223 

.5,000 „ 20-9 „ 239 

6,000 „ 23-5 „ 256 

7,000 „ 26-0 „ 271 

8,000 „ 28-7 „ 279 

„ 9,000 „ 31-2 „ 289 

„ 10,000 „ 33-6 „ 298 

„ 11,000 „ 35-6 „ 309 

„ 12,000 „ 37-9 „ 317 

13,000 „ 40-1 „ 324 

14,000 „ 42-1 „ 333 

„ 15,000 „ 43-8 „ 343 

„ 16,000 „ 46-0 „ . 348 

„ 17,000 „ 47-9 „ 355 

18,000 „ 49-6 „ 363 

„ 19,000 „ 51-1 „ 372 

„ 20,000 „ 52-4 „ 382 

„ 21,000 „ 5y-6 „ 392 

„ 22,000 „ 54-7 „ 405 

„ 23,000 „ 55-7 „ 413 

„ 24,000 „ 57-0 . „ 422 

„ 25,000 „ 58-1 „ ' 431 

26,000 „ 59-1 „ 441 

„ 27,000 „ 601 „ 449 

„ 28,000 „ 61-0 „ 459 

„ 29,000 „ 61-8 „ 469 

30,000 „ 62-3 ,, 482 

These results, showing the whole decrease of temperature from the ground 
to 30,000 feet, differ greatly, as just mentioned, from those with a cloudy sky. 

The numbers in the last column, showing the average increase of height for 
a decline of 1° of temperature from the ground to that elevation, are all smaller 
than those with a cloudy sky at the same elevation. Each result is based 
upon at least seven experiments, taken at different times of tlie year, and up 
to this height considerable confidence may be placed in the results ; they show 
that a change takes place in the first 1000 feet of 1° on an average of 102 
feet, increasing to about 300 feet at 10,000 feet ; in the year 1802 this space 
of 300 feet was at 14,000 feet high, and in 1863 at 12,000 feet high, there- 
fore the changes of temperature haTe been less in 1863 than those in 1862, and 
also less in 1864 than in 1863 ; but the experiments have all been taken at 
different times of the year. 

Without exception the fall of 1° has always taken place in the smallest 
space when near the earth. To determine this space, and also the law of de- 
crease near the earth, all the observations of temperature of the air up to 5000 
feet were laid down on large diagrams, and a line was made to pass tlnough 
them, giving equal weight to every observation ; the result at every 200 feet 
was then read out, and in this way the next series of Tables were formed. 



378 



EEPOKT — 1864, 



Table V. — Showing the Mean Temperature of the Air at every 200 feet up 
to 5000 feet. — Fotteteenth Ascent, 



1863. 


Temperature of the Air. 




















Height, in feet, 




Ascending 






Descending. 


























above the mean 










Calcu- 










Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 
what 

times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


Augast 31. 




























5000 






42-8 


41 '5 


+ 1-3 




In basin 


38-9 


38-8 


+0-1 


4800 






43'2 


42-2 


+ I-0 




of 


392 


39-1 


+ 0-I 


4600 






43-6 


42-9 


4-07 




clouds. 


396 


39-6 


O'O 


4400 
4200 




Very 
cold. 


45" 1 

45-2 


43-4 
44-0 


+07 

-fl-2 




Getting 

into 
clouds. 


40' I 
407 


40-1 
40-6 


o-o 
-fo-i 


4000 


, 




45-2 


44-6 


-fo-6 




Just in 


41-5 


41-0 


+0-5 


3800 
3600 


3 




45-2 
46-3 


45-2 
45-8 


o-o 
+0-5 




B 

On 


cloud. 


44-1 
42-1 


41-5 
42'0 


-0-4 

+ 0-I 


In white 


3400 




CO 




47-0 


464 


+0-6 


*. 


mist. 


42-4 


42-5 


— 01 


3200 
3000 
2800 


3 





47 '4 
47-5 
477 


47 "o 
47-6 

48-2 


+o'4 

— 0"I 




43-0 
432 
44-1 


43-0 
43'5 


O'O 

— o*3 


Leaden 




Cumulus 
on our 


-0-5 


Its 


sky 
above. 


44-1 


0"0 


2600 
2400 




a 


level. 


507 
50-7 


48-8 
49 "4 


+1-9 

+ 1-3 


ON 




44-8 
45'i 


447 
45-2 


•fo-i 
— o-i 






2200 




50-9 


50*0 


+0-9 


P^ 




457 


457 


O'O 


2000 
1800 


S 




5i"3 
5i'9 


507 
5 '-4 


+0-6 
+0-5 


B 


Stratum 
of 


46-3 
46-9 


46-3 
46-9 


O'O 
O'O 


1 600 


J3 




52-4 


52-0 


+0-4 


°. 


clouds 


47-5 


47'S 


O-o 


1400 


a 




52-8 


52-6 


-I-0-2 


^3 


above. 


48-0 


48-1 


— o-i 


Above 


1200 
1000 


p 


clouds. 


S3'3 
549 


53-2 
53-9 


-fo-i 
-fi-o 


B 




48-3 
49-0 


48-8 

49'4 


-0-5 
-0-4 


Enter- 


800 




ing into 
cloud. 


557 


54-8 


+0-9 






50-3 






600 




55-8 


55-9 


-o-i 






537 






400 






56-0 


57-4 


-1-4 












200 






56-0 


59"4 


-3'4 












ground. 






64-0 


640 


O'O 












2000 






5°'° 










50-2 


50-2 


O'O 


1800 






50-6 












50-4 


50-4 


0-0 


1600 







5°'3 








^ 




50-5 


50-5 


o-o 


1400 
1200 


-1^ 
ii 


In clouds. 


50-9 
51-0 










In uni- 
form 


50-5 
50-5 


507 
51-1 


— 0-2 

-0-6 


1000 
800 
600 






51-0 

50-5 


... 






■ s- 


mist. 


510 
53-1 

537 


5J"S 
5Z-0 

52"5 


-o'5 

-fl-I 


400 






.. . 


... 










537 


53-0 


4-0-7 


200 






• . . 


. .. 










53-4 


52-4 


+ I-0 


ground. 
















1 


53-5 


53-9 


-0-4 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



379 



Table V. (continued.) 

FrFTEENTH AsCENT. 



1863. 




Temperatur 


B of the Air. 














Ascending. 


Descending. 1 


Height, in feet, 


1 


















above the mean 


1 






Calcu- 










Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 
what 


Circum- 


Ob- 
served 


Adopted 


lated 
effect of 


Between 

what 


Circum- 


Ob- 
served 


Adopted 


lated 
effect of 




times. 


stances 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb- 
ance. 


times. 


stances. 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb- 
ance. 


September 29. 






, 





















5000 






35-6 


34-2 


+ 1-4 






357 


357 


O-O 


4800 






36-0 


347 


+ 1-3 






36-0 


36-0 


0-0 


4600 






366 


35*3 


+ 1-3 






368 


36-5 


+ 0-3 


4400 






37-1 


36-0 


+ i-i 






37-6 


37-0 


-f- 0-6 


4200 


a 

c3 




37-4 


366 


+ 0-8 






38-5 


37-8 


+ 07 


4000 




37-8 


37-2 


-f 0-6 






387 


38-6 


+ o-i 


3800 


m 

Q 




38-6 


37-8 


+ 0-8 


^ 




38-4 


39-2 


- 0-8 


3600 


CO 




40'o 


38-4 


+ 1-6 




38-5 


39-8 


- i'3 


3400 


3 
00 




41-2 


39-0 


+ 2-2 


B 




40-3 


40-7 


- 0-4 


3200 


10 




417 


396 


+ a-i 







412 


41-6 


- 0-4 


3000 




Sun 


41 -8 


40 '2 


+ 1-6 


EC 




4i"5 


42-4 


- 0-9 


2800 


s 


faint. 


42- 1 


40-8 


+ 1-3 






42-2 


43'i 


- 0-9 


2600 






438 


41-4 


+ 2-4 


5 




431 


43-8 


- 07 


2400 




44"o 


42- 1 


+ 1-9 






45-0 


447 


+ 0-3 


2200 


a 




45-0 


427 


+ 2-3 


rl' 




46-4 


45-8 


4- 0-6 


2000 


N 
•* 




45-0 


43-3 


+ 17 







47-0 


468 


-j- 02 


1800 


.a 




45-0 


43-9 


+ i-i 


M 





480 


47-8 


-j- 0-2 


1600 


a 




4S-0 


446 


+ o'4 






49-0 


48-8 


-f 0-2 


1400 


2 




45 "o 


45-2 


— 0-2 








50-0 




I2C0 


PR 


Misty all 
round. 


45 "o 


45'9 


- 0-9 


P 






51-0 




1000 




45-5 


46-5 


— I'O 


B 




• *. 


51-8 




800 






46-0 


47-1 


— I"I 






• • > 


52-6 




600 






47-1 


477 


- 0-6 






• .. 


53-4 




400 






47-8 


48-5 


- 07 






... 


54-5 




200 






47"9 


492 


- 1-3 






*•• 


557 




ground. 






48-0 


49'9 


- 19 






... 


569 




Sixteenth Ascent. 


October 9. 






















5000 




Clear 


35-0 


35'o 


o-o 


^ 
5 




33"6 


33"6 


0-0 


4800 
4600 




sky. 


357 


35-8 


— O'l 



B 




34-0 


317 


-f 2-3 






34-2 


367 


- 2-5 


-ti. 




34'5 


33"6 


+ 0-9 


4400 






36-8 


37-4 


- 06 


(at 




35"o 


34-0 


+ ro 


4200 






37-5 


38-0 


- °-5 


g 




33-8 


34-5 


- 07 


4000 


a 

Pi 




39-8 


38-6 


+ 1-2 


ns 




35-8 


35'9 


4- O-I 


3800 




40-8 


39'3 


+ 1-5 


B 




36-5 


35-5 


+ i-o 


3600 


S 




41-2 


40-1 


+ x-i 


• 




37-0 


35-9 


+ II 


3400 


CO 




41-5 


40-8 


+ 07 




37'5 


365 


+ I-o 


3200 


■^ 


Mist 


41-9 


41-5 


+ o"4 


tf 




38-3 


36-9 


+ 1-4 


3000 
2800 
2600 


-S 


over 
land. 


42-2 
42-8 


42-2 
42-9 


— O'l 


^8 




39-0 
40-7 


37-4 
379 


+ 1-6 
+ 2-8 


a 




431 


43-6 


- °-5 


0. 




41-0 






2400 


ft 




45-0 


44-3 


+ 07 


V 










2200 


a 




457 


45-0 


+ 07 


B 










2000 


Cl 




46-8 


45-8 


+ i-o 












1800 


'^ 




477 


466 


+ i-i 












1600 


a 




48-1 


47 '4 


+ 07 












1400 


2 




48-8 


48-2 


+ 0-6 












1200 


Ph 




49-1 


49-1 


o-o 












1000 






49-8 


500 


— 0-2 












800 






52-5 


5o'9 


+ 1-6 












600 






527 


Si-9 


+ 0-8 












400 






53-0 


52-8 


+ 0-2 












200 






537 


537 


o-o 












grourfcl. 






54'5 


54-6 


— o-i 













380 



Table V. {continued.') 
Sixteenth Ascent (continued.') 



1864. 








Temperature of the Air. 












Height, in feet. 




Ascending 


• 


Descending. 






















above the mean 










Calcu- 










Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 

disturb - 
ance. 


Oct. 9 {cont.). 




























3200 


. 

": a 




4o'6 


... 


... 


d 




40-3 






3000 




41 'O 


... 


... 




40-5 






2800 


da 




42-5 


... 




0, B 




40-9 






2600 


^%.'S 




42-8 


... 


... 


0~> QD 




4i'3 






2400 
2200 






• •• 


... 


'." 






41 9 
42-4 






2000 






... 


... 


... 


'H 




435 






1800 
1600 






... 




... 


A thin 

mist. 


44'4 
44-5 






1400 






... 


... 


... 


6 




447 






5000 






3S'5 


35-S 


O'O 












4800 


a 




36-1 


36-1 


0"0 












4600 




369 


36-9 


o-o 













4300 







37-2 


37-1 


+ o-i 













4200 




37-8 


37-8 


O'O 






p' 






4000 


00 




38-0 


384 


- °'4 






S" 






3800 


^ 




38-5 


390 


- 0-5 






g- 






3600 


■d 




394 


39-6 


— 0'2 






g 






3400 


-S 




40-4 


40' I 


+ 0-3 






Pj 






3200 


a 


A sad- 


4i'3 


40-6 


+ °7 






p.*- 






3000 


den dry- 


42-2 


41-2 


+ i-o 






r 






2800 


ness. 


43-3 


41-8 


+ 1-5 






3' 






2600 


% 




44-4 


42-4 


-f 2-0 












2400 


a 




447 


42-9 


+ 1-8 












2200 


m 




44-8 


43-3 


+ 1-5 






2 






aooo 


»o 




44-8 


43-8 


+ i-o 












1800 


a 




44-8 


44'3 


+ 0-5 












1600 







44-8 


44-8 


o-o 












1400 




447 


45-3 


- 0-6 












Seventeenth Ascent. 


Jan. 12, 1864. 






















5000 






36-4 








Very 


30-0 






4800 






36-6 






? 


misty. 


31-3 






4600 






37-0 











319 






4400 






37-3 








31-5 






4200 




Sudden 


37-8 






XT 




32-5 






4000 




change 


38-2 






\ 




33-0 






3S00 


a 


of temp. 


4I-S 






3 




337 






3600 


ci 




42-5 






0. 




34-5 






3400 


s 




43-0 






^ 




352 






32C0 


r^ 




44-2 






B 




361 






3000 


c< 


Calm 


44-8 






g- 




368 






2800 


-2 


and 


'14"S 






-^ 




37-5 






2600 
2400 


a 


warm to 
sense. 


44-2 
441 






D* 




38-4 
38-<; 






2200 


a 




44-0 











38-8 






2000 


a 


Quite 


43-8 






•« 




39-1 






1800 





warm. 


43-0 






■5 




39'2 






1600 


a 




411 






■ 




39"4 






1400 


1 


Sensibly 
warm. 


40-5 
















1200 






38-9 
















1000 






391 
















800 






39-5 
















600 






397 
















400 






407 
















200 






41-1 
















ground. 






41-5 

















ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



281 



Table V. (continued.) 
Eighteenth Ascent. 



1864. 


Temperature of the Air. 










Height, in feet, 
above the mean 


Ascending. 




Descending 










1 Calcu- 










Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 

served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


Between 

what 
1 times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


April 6. 




























5000 






36-0 


... 








43-0 






4800 






35-8 


... 








42-8 






4600 




4 


35-0 










42-5 






4400 






34-2 


... 








42-3 






4200 






33-0 


... 








42-2 






4000 






33-0 


... 








41-8 






3800 


s 

a 




33-0 


... 




N 




41-2 






3600 
3400 
3200 


Fog 
wetting. 


33-0 
33-5 
33-5 


::: 




d 

B 
■fe 




4i'o 
4i'o 
40-1 






3000 


% 




33-6 






a 




397 






2800 







3S'o 


... 




ID 




392 






2600 


-*^ 




365 


... 




B 




39-5 






2400 


a 


Very 
misty ; 


36-2 


... 




^.t- 




395 






2200 


a 


37-0 


... 









39-6 






2000 


entering 


3y5 






CO 


Below 


397 






l8oo 


% 


cloud. 


38'3 


... 






cloud. 


40' I 






1600 


a 




395 


... 




^ 




40-0 






1400 







40-8 


... 




B 




40-4 






1200 


fe 




41-1 


... 








40-8 






1000 




Very 


417 


• . . 








417 






800 




misty. 


42-4 










42-4 






600 






44-2 










43-2 






400 






452 


... 








45-2 






200 






45-5 


... 








45'S 






ground. 






45-5 


... 








45-8 








Ni 


VETEENTH ASC 


ENT. 




Jime 13. 












S"*^ 










3000 






S^'S 


51-5 


O'O 


«^ ° 


... 


5i"4 


5i'5 


— O'l 


28C0 






51-4 


5^3 


4- o-i 


^m'B 


... 


516 


517 


— 0"1 


2600 






52-7 


527 


- 0-5 


^-3-=- 


... 


52-2 


52-4 


— 0'2 


2400 


g 




52-4 


53-4 


— l-o 


M OC, 


... 


53*1 


53'3 


— 0'2 


22CO 




54-0 


53-6 


+ 0-4 


M " 










2OC0 


£ 




54-2 


S4'5 


- o'3 












1800 


00 




S5'i 


55"^ 


— o"i 












i6co 

I4CO 


£1 




Cloud- 
less. 


56-1 
569 


56-1 

57-1 


O'O 
— 0-2 












1200 


"K 




57-6 


57-8 


— 0'2 












lOCO 


g 




58-8 


58-5 


+ 0-3 












Sco 


p 




591 


589 


-|- 0"2 












600 


A 




59-2 


59'4 


— 0'2 












4c 






597 


59-8 


— 01 












200 






6o-8 


60-5 


+ 0-3 












ground. 






618 


6rs 


+ 0-3 












34CO 


= ^r^ 




48-0 


48-0 


O'O 


?^ 


... 


47-0 


46-8 


+ 0-2 


3200 


1-1 ^ 1-^ 




46-9 


47-0 


— O-I 


^-0 




482 


48-5 


- 0-3 


3000 


^ .c n 
r- r-- 0^ 




48-1 


48-1 


O'O 


?^ B 

3 D- 


... 


49-6 


49*4 


+ 0-2 


2800 


SS 




496 


49' 5 


+ o-i 




508 


50-8 


o-o 


2600 


M CO 




50-8 


50-5 


+ 0-3 




... 


51-0 


51-0 


0-0 


2400 


■hH <^ 




Si-z 


51-5 


- 0-3 


» 3 











282 



REPORT — 1864. 

Table V. (continued.) 
NiiTETEENTH AscENT (continued). 



1864. 

Height, in feet, 


Temperature of the Air. 


Ascending. 


Descending. 






1 












above the mean 








Calcu- 










Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 

what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served- 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


June I'i {con.). 




























3000 


... 


... 


51-0 


510 


O'O 




... 


49-0 


49-2 


— 0'2 


2800 






... 


Si'5 


51'S 


O'O 


3 


... 


49-0 


49'S 


- °-s 


2600 






... 


51-0 


51-0 


o-o 


B 


... 


49-1 


50-0 


- 0-8 


2400 








... 










--4 




50-3 


5°-S 


— 0-2 


2200 




















t-n 




51-1 


51-0 


+ o-i 


2000 






... 














5 


... 


S17 


51-9 


— 0-2 


1800 




















■tS 




53-3 


S2-8 


+ 0-5 


1600 




















B 




537 


53-4 


+ 0-3 


1400 























... 


53-« 


537 


+ o-i 


1200 






... 














00 


... 


53-9 


53-« 


-f O-I 


1000 






... 




• • 












... 


54-0 


53'9 


+ o-i 


800 










.. 










% 
TS 


... 


54-0 


54-° 


O'O 


600 






... 














... 


54-0 


54-0 


o-o 


400 






... 














B 


... 


54-0 


54-0 


o-o 


200 






... 




.. 












... 


54-0 


54-0 


0-0 


ground. 






... 


















54-0 54-0 


o-o 



T'SVENTIETH AsCENT. 



June 20. 






















4000 




In 

clouds. 


.52-4 


51-4 


+ i-o 


^ 




512 


51-4 


— 0-2 


3800 




S2-I 


51-9 


+ 0-2 


0^ 




51-2 


Si'3 


— O-I 


3600 






52-4 


52-4 


0-0 


ui P 




51-6 


51-3 


+ 0-3 


3400 






S3-I 


53-2 


— O'l 


B n- 




51-9 


5J-5 


+ o'4 


3200 


a 




54-0 


53-5 


+ 0-5 


►^ w 




52-0 


52-0 


O-o 


3000 


ft 




54-0 


54-0 


o-o 


B B 




52-9 


53*9 


+ I-o 


2800 


»n 




54-3 


547 


- 0-4 







53-2 


53"S 


- o'3 


2600 


a 




55-9 


55-5 


+ 0-4 












2400 




57-1 


56-6 


+ 0-5 












2200 


„ 




,8-1 


57-4 


+ 0-7 












2000 






S8-i 


S8-I 


0-0 












1800 






58-1 


5«7 


- 0-6 












1600 


r^ 




59-1 


59-5 


- 0-4 












1400 


J3 




60-8 


60-4 


+ o*4 












1200 


i 




61-7 


bi-S 


+ o-a 












1000 




62*4 


62-4 


o-o 












800 


Ph 




63-0 


63-2 


— o-a 












600 






64-2 


64-0 


+ o*2 












400 






652 


64-9 


+ 0-3 












aoo 






66-0 


65-8 


+ 0-2 












ground. 






66-5 


66-6 


— O-I 













ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1804. 



283 



Table V. (continued.) 

Twentieth Ascent (continued). 



1864. 


Temperature of the Air. 










Height, in feet, 


Ascending 






Descending. 
















1 


above the mean 








Calcu- 










Calcu- 


level of the sea. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served, 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of j 
disturb- 
ance. 


Between 

what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 
ance. 


June ao. 




























4200 








50*0 


50*0 


O'O 






49' 3 


49-6 


-0-3 


4000 








50'6 


51-4 


-0-8 






49'9 


50-2 


-0-3 


3800 








5°'9 


S2-0 


— !•! 






50-2 


51-0 


— 0-8 


3600 








53-2 


52-6 


+0-6 






50-8 


5^1 


— i-o 


3400 


a 






537 


53-2 


+0-5 


*^ 




51-2 


52-6 


-1-4 


3200 


di 






54-0 


53-6 


+o"4 


3 




52-0 


53-5 


-i'5 


3000 


to 






54-0 


S3-9 


-fo-i 


B 




54-1 


54-5 


-0-4 


2800 


a 






53-9 


S4-0 


— o-i 


<5 




56-4 


55'5 


+ 0-9 


2600 


ON 

■4- 










... 


^0 




58-0 


566 


+ 1-4 


2400 










... 


... 




58-8 


577 


4-1-1 


2200 









... 




... 


V^ 




6o'2 


587 


+ 1-5 


2000 










... 


... 


CD 




6i-i 


59-8 


+ 1-3 


1800 










... 


... 







6o'9 


6o"6 


+o'3 


1600 


2 








... 








607 


6l'2 


-0-5 


1400 


CO 






... 


... 


... 


C^ 




60-5 


6i7 


— I'2 


1200 











... 


... 


•tj 




6i-i 


62-2 


— I-I 


lOOQ 
800 


a 

1 








... 


... 


B 


Misty. 


62*0 
62-6 


62-8 
63-0 


-0-8 
-0-4 


600 








... 


..• 






63-2 


63-5 


-0-3 


400 








... 


... 


... 






64-0 


64-1 


— O'l 


200 








... 




... 






64-3 


64-5 


— 0"2 


ground. 








... 


... 


... 






64-6 


647 


— 01 




TWE. 


NTT-FI 


BST As 


CENT. 


June 27. 






















5000 






42-3 


417 


-fo-6 








42-3 


417 


-fo-6 


4800 






43-3 


41-9 


+ 1-4 








41-5 


41-5 


O'O 


4600 






+3-3 


42-2 


+ 11 








41-2 


41-2 


o-o 


4400 






43-1 


427 


+0-4 








41-2 


41-2 


O'O 


4200 






42-9 


43 -o 


— O'l 








41-3 


41-3 


O'O 


4000 






437 


437 


O'O 








41-6 


41-6 


O'O 


3800 


, 




447 


447 


O'C 


hri 






41-9 


42-0 


— O'l 


3600 


g 




46'o 


457 


+0-3 


g" 






42'0 


42-5 


-0-5 


3400 


5- 




46-8 


46-6 


-|-0-2 


3 






42-2 


43-0 


-o'8 


3200 




48-0 


47'+ 


-I-0-6 


3" 






42-5 


435 


— 10 


3000 


Sun 
clear. 


49'4 


48-2 


-fl-2 


+; 






427 


44-0 


-i'3 


2800 





49'S 


49-0 


+0-5 


"2 






43-5 


44-6 


— I'l 


2600 


-M 




50-1 


49-8 


+0-3 









44-5 


45-3 


-0-8 


2400 



CO 




50-9 


50*6 


+0-3 


00 

a- 






45-2 


46-0 


-o'8 


2200 


a 




517 


51-4 


+o'3 


4^ 






46-2 


467 


-0-5 


2000 


m 




52-4 


52-2 


+ 0"2 


3 






47 -o 


47-4 


-0-4 


1800 






52-9 


53-0 


— O'l 









47-5 


48-0 


-o's 


1600 


a 




53-4 


53-8 


-0-4 


*T3 






47-6 


48-3 


-07 


1400 







54-1 


54-6 


-°-5 


B 






48-2 


487 


-o'5 


1200 


pR 




54-8 


557 


-t-o-i 








48-5 


48-8 


-0-3 


1000 






567 


56-9 


— 0'2 








48-9 


489 


O'O 


800 






59-5 


58-2 


+ 1-3 








49-0 


49-0 


o"o 


600 






6i"o 


59-8 


+ 1-2 








490 


490 


O'O 


400 






62-5 


62"0 


+0-5 










49-0 




200 








64-4 










Th'ebal 


loon th 


en 


ground. 






... 


67-1 


... 








turned 


to asce 


nd. 



284 



REPORT 1864. 



Table V. (contimied.) 

TwENTY-FiEST AscBNT (continued). 



1864. 

Height, in feet, 




Temperatm 


e of the Air. 




Ascending. 


Descending. 








Calcu- 










Calcu- 


above tlie mean 
level of the sea. 


Between „. 

what jCircum- 


Ob- 

served 


Adopted 


lated 

effect of 


Between 

what 


Circum- 


Ob- 
served 


Adopted 


lated 
effect of 




t,mes. 1 ='='"«^' 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb- 


times. 


stances. 


temp. 


temp. 


disturb- 












ance. 










ance. 


June 27 {con.). 




























4000 








45-0 


44-8 


-fO-2 












3800 








46-3 


45-2 


4-ri 












3600 








46-8 


457 


+ 1-1 












3400 


a 






467 


46-2 


+0-5 












3200 






467 


467 


o-o 












3000 


s. 






46-8 


468 


O'O 












2800 


/ 






47-0 


47-0 


o-o 












2600 


ON 






47-2 


47-2 


O'O 












2400 






47-0 


47*3 


-0-3 












2200 









46-8 


47"4 


-0-6 












2000 


a 






467 


47-6 


O'O 












1800 


'I- 






46-5 


47-8 


-0-3 












1600 


00 






47-3 


48-0 


-07 












1400 


a 






482 


48-2 


-0-9 












1200 


2 






48-6 


48-4 


-fO-2 












1000 


p^ 






48-5 


485 


O'O 












800 








48-5 


48-5 


O'O 












600 








486 


486 


o-o 












400 








48-4 


48-4 


O-o 












200 






















ground. 
























TWE> 


TT-SEC 


OND A 


3CENT. 




August 29. 






















5000 






54'4 


S4-8 


-0-4 






49-0 


So-i 


— 1"1 


4800 






54'4 


55-4 


— i-o 






50-0 


50-8 


-0-8 


4600 






53-0 


56-0 


-3'° 






50-8 


51-5 


-0-7 


4400 






54-5 


56-7 


— 2-2 






52-0 


52-2 


— 0-2 


42C0 


g 




57-0 


57-4 


-0-4 






525 


52-9 


-0-4 


4C00 


£i 




S7-5 


58-1 


-0-6 






53-0 


53-7 


-0-7 


3800 







58-0 


58-8 


-0-8 


>n 




54-0 


54-4 


-0-4 


3600 


s 




irs 


59-5 


O'O 


I 




55-1 


55-1 


0-0 


3400 


t-^ 




6 1 '4 


60-3 


+ I-I 




554 


55"9 


-0-5 


3200 


£: 


>-, 


62-4 


6i-i 


+ 1-3 


Ln 





57-6 


S6-6 


-fi-o 


3000 





CO 


62-8 


6i-8 


-J-i-o 


00 


g 


58-5 


57-4 


+ 1-1 


2800 


2 


631 


62-5 


-I-0-6 


B 


n 
g 

C 


591 


58-1 


+ I-0 


2600 


a 


3 


63-8 


63-2 


+o-e 


\ 


59-8 


58-8 


+ 1-0 


2400 


d^ 


u 


65-0 


64-2 


-I-0-8 


i 


a 


60-5 


59-6 


+0-9 


2200 
2000 




5 


^ 



66-6 

67-4 


65-0 
6s-8 


+ 1-6 
+ 1-6 




"^ 


61-2 

6i-8 


60-3 
6i-o 


+0-9 

-fo-8 


1800 


^O 




68-6 


667 


+ 1-9 


B 




62-5 


617 


+ 0-8 


1600 


si 




69-9 


67-6 


+2-3 


^ 




63-0 


62-4 


-fo-6 


1400 


a 




707 


68-4 


+2-3 


g 




649 


63-2 


-fo-8 


1200 


2 




7I-0 


69*2 


+ 1-8 






64-5 


64-0 


+ 0-5 


1000 


N 




71-0 


70-0 


+ I-0 






65-5 


650 


+ 0-5 


800 






7I-I 


70-8 


+0-3 






660 


658 


+ 0-2 


600 






71-4 


716 


+0-8 






66-6 


66-6 


o-o 


400 






72-1 


72-5 


-0-4 






67-6 


67-4 


-I-0-2 


200 






72-4 


73"4 


— 1-0 






68-0 


68-2 


— 0-2 


ground. 






72-5 


74-3 


-1-8 






690 


69-0 


O-O 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864'. 285 

The mimbers in the following Table differ very much from those in Table VI. 
in the Reports for the year 1862 and ISG'6 ; in these the largest numbers were 
those at the bottom of the column, and the smaller at higher elevations, 
and a decrease of temperature with elevation was shown Avithout exception. 

In the following Table there are instances of departure from both those in- 
dications, and other particulars which present aU the above numbers to be 
combined with previous results. 

In the first remarks on Table III. at page 2G6, the decrease of temperature 
as observed in the first 200 feet was no less than S° ; by the adopted curves 
passing nearly through the observed temperatures, it gives 2^° decline in 
each 100 feet near the earth ; these results seem doubtful ; they differ so much 
from all others, that it seems likely that the readings were affected by the 
presence of many persons near the car of the balloon before starting, or that 
I have read the instruments Avrongly by 5° before leaving the earth. 

On January 12 (the only winter ascent in the series) the numbers are for 
the first time affected by the sign—, showing an increase of temperature 
with increase of elevation, and the numbers near the earth are smaller than 
those at higher elevations. 

On April 6 the numbers are also anomalous as compared with those 
previously obtained ; near the earth there was no change, and then a large 
change, and higher still some numbers are affected with the — sign. 

On June 13, on descending at the time of sunset, it wUl be seen that there 
was scarcely any change of temperature for 1500 feet. 

On June 20, on descending a little before sunset, the change was very 
small, and very different from corresponding changes on the ascent an hour 
before. 

On June 27 there seemed scarcely any change in temperature up to 
3000 feet, at readings taken after sunset, and till it was too dark to read the 
instruments. 

The results on none of these days can be used in deducing general laws. 
The endeavour has been in the past year to take obseiwations at times in 
the day and times in the year at which no observations had previously been 
made, resulting in these very different results. 

The only days this year available for general combination are September 29, 
from observations made between 8^ a.m. and 10*" a.m., with a chiefly cloudy 
sky ; and the numbers in column 28 show the mean values at the different 
elevations, and October 9 and August 29 for clear skies, and these results 
are shown in column 30. 

The numbers in column 32 show the general mean from aU the observa- 
tions with cloudy skies, as based upon the number of experiments as shown 
in column 33 at each elevation, and these vary from 19 to 29. 

The numbers in column 35 show the results for clear or nearly clear skies, 
as based on the number of experiments as shown in the column 36, varying 
in number from 8 to 12. 

In column 34 the space in feet is shown for an increase of 1° with cloudy 
skies, varying from 167 feet near the earth to 334 at heights exceeding 3000 
feet. 

In column 37 the same results are shown for clear skies, being 143 feet 
near the earth, gradually increasing to 334 feet at heights exceeding 1600 
feet. 



286 



REPORT 1864. 



Table VI. — Sho-wing the Decrease of Temperature with ever 



Height 

above the 

level of the 

sea. 



From 



feet, 
4900 
4800 
4700 
4600 
4500 
4400 
4300 
4200 
4100 
4000 
3900 
3800 
3700 
3600 
3500 
3400 
3300 
3200 
3100 
3000 
2900 
2800 
2700 
2600 
2500 
2400 
2300 
2200 
2100 
2000 



To 



feet, 
5000 
4900 
4800 
4700 
4600 
4500 
4400 
4300 
4200 
4100 
4000 
3900 
3800 
3700 
3600 
3500 
3400 
3300 
3200 
3100 
3000 
2900 
2800 
2700 
2600 
2500 
2400 
2300 
2200 
2100 



Aug. 31, 
1863. 



1900,2000 
1800 1900 
I70o'i8oo 
1600 1700 



1500 

1400 

1300 

1200 

1 100 

1000 

900 

Soo 

700 

600 

500 

400 

300 

200 

100 

o 



1600 
1500 
1400 

1300 

1200 

1 100 

1000 

900 

800 

700 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 









&« 



0"I 




0'2 


• • 


0'2 




0-3 


• • 


0-2 




0-3 


•• 


0"2 




0-3 


• • 


0-2 




0-2 


• . 


0'2 




0-3 




0"2 




0-3 


• • 


0'2 


.. 


0-3 


• ■ 


0*2 




0-3 




0-2 




0-3 




03 


• • 


°-3 




0-2 




0-3 




0-2 




0-3 


■ • 


0'2 




0-3 


.. 


0-3 


• • 


0-3 


• • 


0-3 


0"I 


0-3 


O'l 


0-3 


O'O 


0-3 


o-i 


0-3 


o-i 


0-3 


O'l 


0-3 


0"2 


0-4 


0'2 


0-3 


0'2 


0-3 


0-2 




0-2 


. . 


0-3 




0'2 




0-3 




0-2 




0-3 




0-2 




0"2 




0'2 


•• 


0-3 



Sept. 29, 
1863. 



Oct. 9, 
1863. 



Jan. 12, 
1864. 



Apr. 6, 
1864. 



State of the Sky. 



Cloudy, 



0-2 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 

o"3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 

o'3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 
0-4 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-4 



Clear. 



o"i 

0"2 
0"2 
0-3 
0"2 
0-3 

°"4 

0-4 
0-4 

°'4 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 

o'3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-4 
0-4 
0-5 
0-5 
06 
0-5 

°'S 

0-5 

0-5 

0-5 

0-6 

0-6 

0-5 

0-5 

0-4 

0-4 

•4 

■4 

■4 

0-4 

0-5 
0-6 
0-6 
0-6 
0-6 
0-6 



0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
o"5 
o"4 
0-3 

°'3 
0-3 
0-3 
0-3 

o"3 

0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-3 
•0-4 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-4 
0-3 
0-4 

0-3 

0-4 
03 
0-4 
0-4 

o"4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-5 
0-4 
0-5 
0-4 
05 
0-4 
0-5 
0-4 

°"5 
0-4 

0-5 
°"4 



0-3 

o"3 
0-4 
0-4 
0-6 
o"6 
0-4 
03' 
o'3 
0-3 
0-3 
°'3 
0-3 
0-3 

o"3 
02 
0-3 

o'3 
0-3 
0-3 

o'3 
0-3 

o'3 
0-3 
0-3 

O'l 
0"2 
0'2 
0"2 

0-3 

02 
0-3 
0'2 
0-3 
0'2 

o'3 



Misty. 





Ul 


60 


a 


a 


-■3 


'a 




c 








u 


1 


< 


a 



0'2 
0-2 
0-2 
0-2 
01 
0-2 
02 
0-3 
0-2 
0-2 

J'5 
1-6 

0-5 
o-s 
0-3 

0-2 
06 
06 

0-3 
0-3 
-O-I 
-0-2 
-0-2 
-0-2 
-01 
00 

o-o 
-O-I 

-O-I 

-0-1 

-0-4 
-0-4 
-0-9 
-0-9 
-0-3 
-0-3 

-0-8 

-0-8 

01 

O-I 

02 
02 
01 

O'l 

0-5 

0-2 
0-2 
0-2 
0-2 



0-6 
07 
0-3 

°-3 

-0-2 
-0-2 

0-3 

0-2 
0-3 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-4 
0-3 
0-4 

o'S 
0-4 
0-3 
0-3 
0-4 
0-4 
°"S 

O-I 

0-0 

O-I 

0-2 

0"I 

0*2 
01 
0-0 
01 
O'l 



Cloudy. 



-o-j 

-O-I 

-0-4 

-0-4 

-0-4 

-0-4 

-0-6 

-0-6 

O'O 

O'O 

O'O 

0-0 

Q-O 
0-0 
0-2 
0-3 
0-0 
0-0 
O-O 
O-I 

0-7 

0-7 
0-7 

0-8 

-0-2 
-O-I 

0-4 
0-4 
0-3 

0-2 
0-4 
0-4 
0-6 

0-6 
0-6 
0-7 

0"2 
O-J 
0-3 
0-3 

0-3 
0-4 
0-9 
0-9 
0-5 
0-5 

O-I 

02 

O'O 

o-o 



I 



-O-I 
-O-I 

-0-1 
-0-2 
-0-1 

-O-I 

0-0 

-O-I 

-0-2 

-0-2 
-0-3 
-0-3 
-O'l 
-O'l 
O'O 
O'O 

-o'4 
-0-5 

-0'2 

-0-2 

-0-2 

-0-3 

-0-2 

-O-I 

00 

0-0 

00 

O-I 

0-0 

O'l 

0-2 
o-a 

O'l 

O'O 

o'a 
ca 
o-z 
0-2 
0-4 

O'S 
0'4 
0-3 
0-4 
0-4 
i-o 
i-o 

0-2 

o-i 

O-I 
0-2 



June 13, 
1864. 



Clear. 



0-4 
0-4 
0-2 
0-2 
0-3 
0-4 
O'l 
O-I 

0-4 
0-5 
0-3 
0-4 
0-4 

o'5 
O'S 

O-S 
0-3 
0-4 
o'3 
0-4 

0'2 
0-2 
0-2 
0-3 
0-2 
0'2 

o"3 
0-4 

0-5 
O'S 



0-8 
0-9 

0-4 
5 
7 
7 

I 



No. of col. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. G. 7. 8. 9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 1864. 



287 



Increase of Height of 100 feet up to 5000 feet. 



June 20, 
1864. 


June 27, 


Aug. 29, 


Mean. 


General mean (omitting July 17, 1862, August 31, 




1864. 


1864. 




I863, January 12 


, April 6, 


June 13, 


20, and 2 


7, 1864.) 




State of the Sky. 




Cloudy. 


Partially 
clear. 


Clear. 




a 




CO 

1 
B 


Cloudy. 


Clear. 






bD 




ii 




be 






bii 






Space 






Space 




c 


1 

a 


p 


,0 


a> 


a 


to 


u 


a 




a. 




0. 




Number 


passed 




Number 


passed 




'•B 


■■B 




'■B 


■3 

s 


1 


•5 




>j 


V 






Mean. 


of 


through 


Mean. 


of 


througli 




a 




§ 




a 


u 




a 


V 


-o 


"0 


u 


"0 




experi- 


for a. 




experi- 


for a 




^ 


n 


» 


DO 
i? 


w 


V 


OT 





n 

u 


§ 











ments. 


decline 




ments. 


decline 




< 


a 


< 


P 


< 


















3 



2; 






1 






of 1°. 






of 1°. 




o 
















feet. 







feet. 












O-I 


O-I 


•• 


0-2 


0-3 


O-I 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


20 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 












O-I 


0-1 




o"3 


0-4 


0-2 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


20 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 












O-I 


O-I 




0-3 


0-3 


0-2 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


19 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 












0-2 


0-2 




0-3 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


5 


03 


19 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 












0-2 


O-O 




0-3 


°'3 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


5 


0-3 


20 


334 


03 


10 


334 












0-3 


O-O 


•• 


0-4 


0-4 


°"3 


2 


0-4 


5 


°'3 


20 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 












O-I 


O-Q 


•• 


0-3 


0-3 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


S 


0-3 


23 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 












0-2 


O-I 




0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


23 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 








0-5 
0-6 


o"3 


0-3 


O-I 


•• 


0-3 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


o'3 


5 


0-3 


23 


334 


0-3 


12 


334 








0-3 


0-4 


0-2 




0-4 


0-4 


°'3 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


24 


334 


o'3 


12 


334 




0'2 


o-o 


0-4 


0-4 


0-5 


0-2 


0-2 


0-3 


0*3 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


S 


0-3 


24 


334 


0-3 


12 


334 




°"3 


— O'l 


0-5 


0-4 


°'5 


0-2 


0-2 


°"4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


S 


0-3 


24 


334 


0-3 


12 


334 




0'2 


o*o 


0-3 


0-4 


0-5 


0-2 


0-2 


0-3 


0-3 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


25 


334 


0-3 


II 


334 




0-3 


o-o 


0-3 


0-4 


o'5 


0-3 


°-3 


o"4 


0-4 


o'3 


2 


0-3 


S 


0-3 


25 


334 


0-3 


II 


334 




0-4 


0"I 


0-3 


0-4 


°"4 


0-2 


0-2 


0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


25 


334 


0-3 


II 


334 




o"4- 


o-i 


0-3 


0-4 


°'5 


0-3 


0-3 


0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


25 


334 


0-3 


II 


334 




0'2 


0-2 


0'2 


0-4 


0-4 


0-2 


0-2 


0-4 


0-3 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


25 


334 


0-3 


ll 


334 




O'l 


o"3 


0"2 


o-S 


0-4 


0-3 


0-3 


0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


5 


0-3 


25 


334 


0-3 


11 


334 




0'2 


0-4 


O-I 


0-5 


0-4 


0-2 


0-0 


0-3 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


4 


03 


26 


334 


0-3 


10 


334 




°'3 


0-4 


0-2 


0-5 


0-4 


0-3 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


4 


0-4 


25 


251 


o'3 


10 


334 




o"3 


0-3 


0-0 


o'5 


0-4 


0-3 


01 


°'3 


0-3 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


4 


0-4 


26 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




°'4 


0-4 


O-I 


0-5 


0-4 


0-3 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


°'3 


4 


0-4 


26 


251 


o'3 


lo 


334 




o'4 






0-5 
0-6 


0-4 


0-3 


O-I 


0-4 


0-3 


0-3 


2 


0-3 


4 


04 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




o'4 






0-4 


0-4 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


°"3 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




°'5 
0-6 






0-5 


0-4 


0-3 


O'O 


0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


28 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 








0-6 


0-4 


0-4 


O-I 


0-5 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


28 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




0-4 






0-5 


0-4 


03 


CO 


0-4 


03 


0-4 


2 


0-3 


4 


0-4 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




0-4 






0-5 


04 


0-4 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




: °'3 






0-5 
0-6 


0-4 


0-3 


O-I 


0-4 


0-3 


0-4 


2 


0-3 


4 


0-4 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




0-4 






0-4 


0-4 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




°'3 






0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


o"i 


0-4 


0-3 


0-4 


2 


0-3 


4 


0-4 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




°'3 






0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


O-I 


0-5 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


27 


251 


0-3 


10 


334 




0-4 






0-3 


0-4 


O-I 


O-I 


0-4 


0-3 


0-4 


2 


0-3 


4 


0-4 


29 


251 


03 


10 


334 




0-4 






0-3 


0-4 


0-2 


O-I 


0-5 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


4 


04 


29 


251 


o'3 


10 


334 




°*4 






0-2 


0-4 


0-2 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


31 


251 


o'4 


JI 


251 




0-5 






0-3 


0-4 


0-2 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


4 


0-4 


31 


251 


0-4 


11 


251 




0-5 
0-6 




• • 


0-2 


0-5 


O'O 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-4 


28 


251 


0-4 


8 


251 






• • 


0-3 


06 


O'l 


O-I 


0-4 


0-5 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-4 


28 


251 


°'5 


8 


201 




0-4 




•• 


0-3 


0-6 


O-O 


0-0 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-4 


28 


251 


°'S 


8 


201 




0-5 






°"3 


0-6 


O-I 


0-1 


0-4 


o-S 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-4 


28 


251 


o'S 


8 


201 




0-4 






O-I 


06 


0-0 


O-o 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-4 


24 


251 


°'5 


8 


201 




0-4 




• • 


O-I 


0-7 


O-I 


O-O 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-4 


22 


251 


o'5 


8 


201 




0-4 




■ • 


0-2 


0-8 


o-o 


0-0 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


04 


22 


251 


o'5 


8 


201 




0-4 






0-3 


0-8 


O'O 


O-I 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-4 


22 


251 


o'S 


8 


201 




' 0-4 






0-3 


i-i 


O'O 


0-1 


0-4 


0-4 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-5 


20 


201 


°'5 


8 


201 




°'S 






°'3 


I'l 


O-O 


O-I 


°'5 


0-4 


o-S 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-5 


20 


201 


o'5 


8 


201 




: 0-4 






0-2 


1-2 


•• 


• • 


0-4 


0-4 


o-S 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-5 


20 


201 


05 


8 


201 




0-5 






0-2 


12 




• • 


o'S 


0-4 


0-5 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-5 


20 


201 


0-6 


8 


167 




0-4 






O-I 


13 


• • 


• • 


°*S 


0-4 


°'S 


2 


0-4 


3 


0-5 


20 


201 


0-6 


8 


167 




: 0-4 




" ' 


0*1 


I '4 


• • 




o'5 


0-4 


0-5 


2 


°"S 


3 


0-6 


20 


167 


0-7 


8 


143 




19. 


20. 


21. 


22. 


23. 


24. 


25. 


26. 


27. 


28. 


29. 


30. 


3! 


32. 


33. 


34. 


35. 


36. 


37 





288 



REPORT 1864. 



§ 6. Variation- of the Hygrojietric Condition of the Air with Elevation. 

All the adopted readings of the temperature of the dew-point in. Section 4 
were laid down on diagrams, and joined bylines drawn from one to the other. 
In the case of the temperature of the air, when thus joined, a curved line can 
be di-awn through them, giving equal weight to every observation, but tliis 
cannot be done with respect to the temperature of the dew-point, it being far 
more variable than the temperature of the air, and the numbers in the fol- 
lowing Table are those as read at every 1000 feet from the diagram formed 
simply by joining the point of observation. 

Table VII. — Showing the Variation of the Hygrometric condition of the 
Air at every 1000 feet of Height. 

Fourteenth Ascent. 



1863. 

Height, in feet, 








Humidity 


of the Air. 






Ascending. 


Descending. 
















i 




above the mean 
level of the sea. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Tempe- 
rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


Elastic 
force of 
vapour. 


Degree 

of 
humi- 
dity. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Tempe- 
rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


Elastic 
force of 
vapour. 


Degree 

of 
humi- 
dity. 


August 31. 




Sun 




in. 










in. 




8000 
7000 


s s 


shining. 


188 
191 


•102 
•103 


52 
51 


■ !? 


0\ On 

sr s- 




24-5 

27-3 


•132 
•149 


53 
6S 


Very 


6000 
5000 


g 

r^ en 


dark 
cloud 
near us. 


28-6 
322 


•157 
•182 


66 
66 


In basin 


30-3 
31-5 


■169 
•177 


73 
75 


4000 


Tn 


Very 
cold. 


367 


•218 


72 


g 3 

►a irt 


of 
clouds. 


33-9 


•195 


74 


3000 




415 


•262 


79 
88 






42-1 


•268 


97 
95 




2000 




Above 


47-5 


•329 


Just in 


45-0 


•299 


1000 
ground 


A B 


cloud. 


527 
567 


•399 

•461 


93 

77 


B 


clouds. 


47 '4 


•328 


94 


Getting 


Stratum 
of clouds 




»^f 


cloud. 










above. 








2000 


P a -^ 


In 


47-2 


•3^5 


90 


00 3 rr] 


In uni- 


46-0 


•311 


85 


1000 
groimd 


"3 


clouds. 


48-5 


•342 


91 


3? 

V B B 




form 
mist. 


49-1 


■349 


93 



August 31. — The temperature of the dew-point on the ground before 
starting was 56°-7, or 7°-3 below that of the aii- ; at 1100 feet these two 
temperatures were both 54°, the air being satui-ated with moisture ; at 1150 
feet the air suddenly became drier, the difference between the temperatures 
of the air and dew-point was 5° ; at 7100 feet the temperatures of the air 
and dew-point were 34° and 18° respectively, and remained at these values 
nearly, while the balloon ascended to more than 8000 feet and descended to 
7900 feet. The difference between the temperatures of the air and dew-point 
after this was generally less and less to 3000 feet, at which clouds were 
entered, and the air was nearly saturated with moisture ; at 1000 feet high 
the temperature of the air was 49°, and that of the dew-point 47°'4. 

The balloon then reascended, and on again entering cloud at 1580 feet, the 
air was again saturated with moisture, and on descending, it was nearly satu- 
rated at 1200 feet and at 820 feet ; at the latter height the respective tempe- 
ratures were 53° and 52°. 



ON NINE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1863 AND 186 L 

Table VII. (continued.) 
Fifteenth Ascent. 



289 



1863. 

Height, in feet, 






Humidity 


of the Air. 






Ascending. 


Descendin 


g- 
























above the mean 


Between 




Tempe- 


Elastic 


Degree 






Tempe- 


Elastic 


Degree 


level of the sea. 


what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


force of 
vapour. 


of 
humi- 
dity. 


what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


force of 
vapour. 


humi- 
dity. 


September 29. 








in. 










in. 




16000 






















15000 


s 


Sun 


— lo-o 


■026 


54 












14000 


ci 


shining. 


+ o'<; 


•045. 


68 












13000 




CO 




loi 


•06S 


81 


N 




13 


•046 


54 


J 2000 


a 


No sun. 


27 


•049 


5ii 


>? 




2-2 


•048 


51 


1 1 000 


ro 




- 8-6 


029 


31 


, B 




- 3-8 


•036 


33 


1 0000 
9000 
8000 





Dense 
clouds 
above 


— 2-0 

+ 15-5 
137 


•040 
•088 
•081 


36 

71 
53 


^ 
so '-^ 

B 3 




— 10-2 

- 5-5 

2-8 


•026 

•033 
•049 


21 

25 
32 


7000 
6000 


a 

3 


us. 


19s 

24-4 


•105 
•131 


66 

72 


B°- 


Sun 
warm. 


14-8 
208 


•085 

•112 


48 
59 


Clouds 


5000 


above 


28-5 


■156 


75 


S 


... 


23-8 


•128 


56 


4000 




below. 


32-4 


•184 


8i 


. .. 


24-5 


•132 


56 


3000 


r^ 


Sun 


3«-5 


■233 


87 


6 




236 


•127 


49 


2000 
1000 


i 


faint. 


407 
42-6 


•254 
•273 


86 
89 




... 


268 


•146 


45 


Misty all 


ground 


round. 


44-1 


•289 


86 













September 29. — The temperature of the dew-point decreased from 44° ou 
the ground, or 490 feet above the sea, to 42|° at 1000 feet above the sea, 
where mist was prevalent, and the degree of humidity increased from 86 to 89. 

On passing out of the mist at 3000 feet the humidity declined from 87 to 
58 at 8000 feet ; here there were dense clouds both above and below ; at 
9000 feet the degree of humidity was 71. 

There were faint gleams of the sun at 10,000 feet, and the difference between 
the temperature of the air and dew-point was 22\°, the degree of humidity 
being 36, showing a decrease of no less than 35 in a difference of 1000 feet 
of elevation ; at 11,000 feet it was drier still, the temperatures of the air and 
dew-point being 16°-9 and — 8°- 6 respectively, or a difference of 25°-o, and the 
degree of humidity 31 ; at 13,000 feet the difference had decreased to 4°-4 
and the humidity increased to 81 ; at 15,000 feet it was 12°-0, and the hu- 
midity had decreased to 54 ; the balloon continued to ascend, but the humi- 
dity is unknown above the last-mentioned height, tiU on descending to 13,000 
feet it was 54, and the difference between the temperatiu-es of the air and 
dew-point was 13°-9 ; at 10,000 feet the air again became very dry, the two 
temperatures being 22°-9 and — 10°-2 respectively, showing a difference of 
33°-l and a humidity of 21 ; the air then gradually became less dry till 
5000 feet, when the difference was ll°-9 and the humidity 56; after this 
the difference increased in a small amount, and then decreased to 20°-2 at 
2000 feet, where the humidity was 45. 



1864, 



390 



REPORT 1864. 



Table VII. (continued.) 
Sixteenth Ascent. 



1863. 

Height, in feet, 
above the mean 
level of the sea. 


Humidity of the Air. 


Ascending. 


Descending. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Tempe- 
rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


Elastic 
force of 
vapour. 


Degree 

of 
humi- 
dity. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Tempe- 
rature of 
the dew- 
pomt.