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Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

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REPORT 



OF TIIF 

THIRTY-FIFTH MEETING 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT 



BIRMINGHAM IN SEPTEMBER 1865. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1866. 



PRINTED BY 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



ALKItK Y FLAMMAM. 





CONTENTS. 



Page 

Objects and Rules of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxv 

Members of Council from commencement xxvi 

Officers and Council, 1865-66 xxx 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxxi 

Corresponding Members xxxii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxxiii 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1864-65 xxxiii 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xxxix 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science xl 

Synopsis of Money Grants xliv 

General Statement of Sums paid on account. of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes xlv 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee 1 

Arrangement of the General Meetings 1 

Address of the President, John Phillips, M.A. Oxon., LL.D. Dublin, 

F.R.S., F.G.S., &c ; li 



REPORTS OE RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Report on Dredging among the Channel Isles. By J. Gwtn Jeffreys, 
F.R.S 1 

Report on the Cultivation of Oysters by Natural and Artificial Methods. 

By Fbank Btjckland, M.A., M.R.C.S., &c 3 

a 2 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

First Report of the Committee for exploring Kent's Cavern, Devonshire. 
The Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor 
Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. John Evans, Mr. Edward 
Vivian, and Mr. William Pengellx- (Reporter) 16 

Report of a Committee " appointed to report on the changes which they 
may consider desirable to make, if any, in the Rules of Zoological 
Nomenclature drawn up by Mr. H. E. Strickland, at the instance of 
the British Association at their Meeting in Manchester in 1842 " . . 25 

Report of the Committee on the Distribution of the Organic Remains of 
the North Staffordshire Coal-field. — Concluding Report. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of Sir Philip de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., F.R.S., 
Professor T. H. Httxlet,E.R.S. Reporter, William Moltneux,F.G.S. 42 

Report of the Committee appointed to explore the Marine Fauna and 
Flora of the Soutb Coast of Devon and Cornwall. — No. 1. Consisting 
of J. Gwtn Jeffreys, F.R.S., Rev. Thomas Hincks, Jonathan Couch, 
F.L.S., Charles Stewart, J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S., and J. Ralfs, 
F.L.S. Reporter, C. Spence Bate, F.R.S., &c 51 

Interim Report of the Committee on the Resistance of Water to Floating 
and Immersed Bodies. By W. J. Macquorn Rankine, C.E., LL.D., 
F.R.S., John Scott Russell, C.E., F.R.S., James R. Napier, Marine 
Engineer, and William Froude, C.E 56 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1864-65. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, &c. ; 
Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., &c. ; E. W. Brayley, F.R.S., Professor of 
Physical Geography and Meteorology in the Loudon Institution, &c. ; 
and Alexander S. Herschel, B.A 57 

Report on Dredging on the Coast of Aberdeenshire. By the Rev. Walter 
Gregor, and Robert Dawson 142 

An Account of Meteorological and Physical Observations in Tbree Bal- 
loon Ascents made in the years 1864 and 1865 (in continuation of 
twenty-two made in the years 1862, 1863, and 1864), under the 
auspices of the Committee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, by James Glaisher, F.R.S., at the request of the 
Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykcs, The Astronomer Royal, Lord 
Wrottesley, Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Lloyd, Dr. Lee, 
Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Glaisher, Prof. Tyndall, Dr. Fair- 
bairn, and Dr. W. A. Miller 145 

Interim Report of the Committee on the Transmission of Sound under 
Water, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Robtnson, Prof. Wheatstone, Dr. 
Gladstone, and Prof. Hennessy 192 

On the Rainfall of the British Isles. By G. J. Symons, M.B.M.S 192 

On the Strength of Materials considered in relation to the Construction 
of Iron Ships. By William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S., &c, and 
Thomas Tate, Esq 243 

Maltese Caves. — Report on Mnaidra Cave. By A. Leith Adams, M.A., 
M.B., F.G.S , 257 



CONTENTS. y 

Pag« 

Eeport of the Gun-cotton Committee, consisting of William Fairbairn, 
LL.D., F.B.S., Joseph Whitworih, LL.D., F.E.S., James Nasmyth, 
C.E., F.B.A.S., J. Scott Eussell, C.E., F.E.S., John Anderson, C.E., 
Sir William Gf. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D., F.E.S., Dr. Gladstone, 
F.E.S., Professor W. A. Miller, M.D., F.E.S., Professor Frankland, 
F.E.S., and F. A. Abel, F.E.S 264 

On the Horary and Diurnal Variations in the Direction and Motion of 
the Air at Wrotteslcy, Liverpool, and Birmingham. By A. Follett 
Oslee, F.E.S 26-4 

Second Eeport on the Physiological Action of certain of the Amyl Com- 
pounds. By Benjamin W. Eichaedson, M.A., M.D., F.E.C.P 272 

Eeport on further Besearches in the Lingula-flags of South Wales. By 
Henry Hicks. With some Notes on the Sections and Fossils, hy J. 
W. Salter, F.G.S., A.L.S ' 281 

Eeport of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
By W. E. Birt, at the request of the Committee, consisting of James 
Glaisher, F.E.S., Lord Eosse, F.E.S., Sir John Herschel, Bart., 
F.E.S., Professor Phillips, F.E.S., Warren de la Eue, F.E.S., Pre- 
sident of the Eoyal Astronomical Society, Dr. Lee, F.E.S., Eev. W. 
E. Dawes, F.E.S., Eev. T.W.Webb, F.E.A.S., J. N. Lockyer, F.E.A.S., 
H. S. Ellis, F.E.A.S., and W. E. Birt, F.E.A.S 286 

Eeport of the Committee on Standards of Electrical Eesistance. By Pro- 
fessor Williamson, Professor Wheatstone, Professor W. Thomson, 
Professor Miller, Dr. A. Matthlessen, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir 
Charles Bright, Professor Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Bal- 
eour Stewart, Dr. Joule, and Mr. C. F. Yaeley 308 

Eeport of the Committee, consisting of Major-General Sabine, P.E.S., Sir 
John Herschel, Bart., F.E.S., J. P. Gassiot, F.E.S., and Sir E. I. Mttr- 
chison, Bart., F.E.S., appointed for the purpose of communicating to 
the Russian Government the opinion of the British Association, that 
the establishment of magnetical observations on the Kew system at 
the Observatory of Tinis, by Professor Moritz of that place, would 
largely conduce to the furtherance of Magnetical Science. By General 
Sabine, P.E.S 313 

Appendix to Eeport of the Committee on the Distribution of the "Verte- 
brate Eemains from the North Staffordshire Coal Field. By John 
Young, M.D., F.E.S. Edinb 317 

First Eeport on the Structure and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea. 
By Henry Woodward, F.G.S 320 

Eeport on the Theory of Numbers. — Part YI. By H. J. Stephen Smith, 
M.A., F.E.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in the University of 
Oxford 322 

Eeport on the best means of providing for a Uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science. By a Committee, 
consisting of Lord Wrottesley, D.C.L., F.E.S., The Et. Hon. C. B. 
Adderley, M.P., Sir William Armstrong, C.B., F.E.S., The Astro- 
nomer Eoyal, F.E.S., Samuel Brown, W. Ewart, M.P., T. Graham, 
F.E.S., Sir John Hay, Bart., M.P., F.E.S., Prof. Hennessy, F.E.S., 



yi CONTENTS. 

Page 

James Heywood, M.A., F.E.S.,Dt.Lee, F.B.S., Dr. Leone Levi, F.S.A., 
F.S.S., Prof. W. A. Miller, F.E.S., Prof. Eankine, F.E.S., Eev.Dr. 
Eobinson, F.E.S., Colonel Sykes, M.P., F.E.S., W. Tite, M.P., F.E.S., 
Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.B.S., James Yates, F.B.S., Sir Eobeet 
Kane, F.E.S., F. P. Fellows, C. W. Siemens, F.E.S., Matthew Arnold, 
M.A., Eight Hon. Earl Fortescue, and Frederick Pttrdy, F.S.S. . . 375 

On the Bed of the Ocean. By A. G. Findlay, F.E.G.S. . . .' 379 

On the Composition of the Gases evolved by the Bath spring called King's 
Bath. By Prof. A. W. "Williamson, University College, London . . 380 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS and PHYSICS. 

Address of W. Spottiswoode, F.R.S., President of the Section 1 

Mathematics. 

Mr. O. Byrne on Dual Arithmetic (i 

Professor A. H. Curtis on certain Theorems in Laplace's Discussion of the 

Figure of the Earth and Precession and Nutation 6 

Rev. R. Harley on the Theory of Differential Eesol vents G 

Professor T. A. Hirst on Chasles's Method of Characteristics 6 

on Quadric Transformation 

Dr. C. M. Ingleby on a Method of discovering Remainders in Arithmetical 

Division 7 

Professor Plucker on a New Method in Geometry 7 

Professor Price on the Extension of Taylor's Theorem by the Method of De- 
rivations 7 

on some Applications of the Theory of Probabilities 7 



CONTENTS. Vll 

Page 
Mr. W. H. L. Russell on the Calculation of the Potential of the Figure of 

the Earth 8 

Br. Stevelly on the application of D'Alemhert's Principle to the Rotation of 

a Rigid Mass 8 

Professor Sylvester on a Special Class of Questions on the Theory of Pro- 

bahilities 8 

on Professor Price's Modification of Arbogast's Method 9 

Light. 

Mr. A. Claudet on Moving Photographic Figures, illustrating some Pheno- 
mena of Vision connected with the Combination of the Stereoscope and the 
Phenakistoscope by means of Photography 9 

Mr. F. Galton on Spectacles for Divers, and on the Vision of Amphibious 

Animals 10 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Refractive Equivalent of Carbon 11 

Mr. H. C. Sohby on a New Form of Spectrum-Microscope 11 

Heat. 

Principal Forbes's Experimental Inquiry into the Laws of the Conduction of 
Heat in Bars, and into the Conductiug-Power of Wrought Iron 12 

Mr. W. J. Macqtjorn Rankine on the Second Law of Thermodynamics .... 13 

Electricity. 

Mr. W. Fairbairn on India-Rubber and Gutta Percha as Insulators for Sub- 
marine Telegraphic Cables 14 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on the Change of Form and Colour which the Stratified 
Discharge assumes when a Varied Resistance is introduced in the Circuit of 
an Extended Series of the Voltaic Battery 15 

Mr. R. Sabine on a New Method, introduced by Messrs. Siemens, for the 
Measurement of Electrical Resistances 16 

Captain Selwyn on some New Arrangements of the Poles of Magnets 17 

Meteorology. 

Mr. F. W. Bbeabey's Remarks upon Aerial Navigation, suggested by Mr. 
Glaisher's late Balloon Ascents 17 

Mr. J. B. Capello on the Great Storm of December 186-4, on the Coast of the 
Peninsula 17 

Mr. J. Park Harbison on the Heat attained by the Moon under Solar Radi- 
ation 17 

Mr. Alfred King on the Self-Registering Barometer at the Liverpool Obser- 
vatory 18 

Mr. A. Follett Osler on an Anemometer for the Registration of Cyclones 
or other Tropical Hurricanes 19 

Mr. T. L. Plant on the Anomalies of our Climate 19 

Mr. D. Smith on the Meteorology of Birmingham 19 

Mr. J. B. Capello and B. Stewart's Description of the Magnetic Storm of 
the Beginning of August 1865, as recorded by the Self-recording Magneto- 
graphs at the Kew and Lisbon Observatories 20 

Mr. W. Symons's Improved Standard Barometer 21 



Mil CONTENTS. 

Page 

Hydrostatics. 

Mr. L. Oertling on the Hydrometer and its Adaptation to the present re- 
quirements of the Board of Inland Revenue 21 

Instruments. 

Mr. S. B. Howlett on a Self-recording Anemometer 21 

Captain Lendy on the Topograph, a new Surveying Instrument 21 

Mr. Cornelius Varley on an Instrument by which any Rainbow that can 
possibly appear within the area of any picture, may be indicated in its right 
place and of the true size 22 



CHEMISTET. 

Address by Professor W. A. Miller, M.D., LL.D., Treas. & V.P.R.S.,P.C.S., 
President of the Section 22 

Mr. F. A. Abel's Notes on Compounds of Copper and Phosphorus 27 

Mr. H. Bird's observations on the Utilization of Sewage, as conducted at 
Stroud, and on the Growth of the Sewage Plant 28 

Mr. J. C. Bowring on the Preservation of the Sheathing of Ships, and Ex- 
traction of Silver from Sea-Water by means of Electricity 28 

on the Direction of the Electric Current 28 

Dr. Crace-Calvert on the Action of Acids on Metals and Alloys 28 

Mr. T. Fairley on the Reactions of Cyanogen. Note on Glycocine, with 
Tables 29 

Mr. Frederick George Finch on the Utilization of Blast-Fumace Slag . . 29 

Mr. David Forbes on some Minerals from South America 29 

on the Colour of Gold as seen by transmitted Light .... 30 

Dr. Frankland on the Constitution of the Acids of the Acetic, Lactic, and 
Acrylic Series 30 

Dr. Hill on the Sanitary and Economical Aspect of the Sewage Question . . 31 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam on the Results of Agricultural Experiments made 
in 1864 -. ; 31 

on Esparto Fibre, or Spanish Grass, and its Em- 
ployment in the Manufacture of Paper 33 

Professor Maskelyne on Crystals of Melaconite, and on Tenorite 33 

Dr. Phipson, a few words on Sponges as a Source of Bromine and of Nitrogen 34 

on the Sublimed Oligist of Vesuvius, and its Artificial Produc- 
tion 34 

on Silicium in Iron 34 

Dr. D. S. Pbice on the Action of Light upon Sulphide of Lead, and its bear- 
ing upon the Preservation of Paintings in Picture Galleries 34 

Mr. Manning Prentice on the Progress of the Manufacture of Gun-Cotton, 
and its Application to Mining, Military, and Sporting Purposes 34 

Mr. Owen Rowland on the Properties of Parkesine, and its application to 
the Arts, Manufactures, and Telegraphy 34 

Mr. Wentworth L. Scott on the Action of the Alkali Metals in determin- 
ing the Explosion of Gun-Cotton 35 

Dr. Angus Smith on a Method of estimating Carbonic Acid in the Air .... 35 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 
Mr. John Smyth, Jim. on an Apparatus for the Determination of the Ozone 
in the Atmosphere, and Experiments made therewith by means of the Aspi- 
rator 37 

Dr. Aug. Yoelcker on Phosphatic Deposits recently discovered in North 

Wales 37 

on the Composition of a Marine-Boiler Incrustation. ... 39 

Dr. J. E. De Vrij on the Possibility of Manufacturing Neroli in the British 
Colonies 39 

— on the Botatory Power of several Essential Oils 40 

Mr. W. Willis on the Aniline Process in Photography 40 

Dr. T. Wood on the New Formulae, with reference to Schools and Examina- 
tions 40 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Sir Bodeiiick I. Murchison, K.C.B., G.C.St.A., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.B.S., V.P.G.S., Director-General of the Geological Survey, and President 
of the Boyal Geographical Society, President of the Section 41 

Mr. S. Bailey on the Economic Value of the various Measures of Coal and 
Ironstone in the South Staffordshire Coal Field 48 

Bev. P. B. Bhodie on the Fossiliferous Beds of the New Bed Sandstone 
(Upper and Lower Keuper) in Warwickshire 48 

on a Section of Lower Lias at Harbury, near Leamington 48 

on Two New Species of Corals in the Lias of Warwick- 
shire 49 

's Remarks on the Drift in part of Warwickshire, and on 

the Evidence of Glacial Action which it affords 49 

Mr. L. P. Capewell on the Organic Bemains of the Coal-Measures 49 

Principal J. W. Dawson on the Fossil Plants of the Post-Pliocene Deposits 
of Canada in Connexion with the Climate of the Period, and the Formation 
of Boulder Clay 50 

■ The Succession of Palaeozoic Floras in North Ame- 
rica 50 

Mr. E. C. H. Day on the Lower Lias of Lyme Begis 51 

on a Head of Hijbodus Delabeckei 51 

on the History of the Jurassic Seas, as evidenced by the 

History of the first Liassic Sea 51 

M. Geheimrath H. von Dechen and Professor E. Romer on the Large 
Prussian Geological Map of the Bhenish Provinces and Westphalia 51 

Mr. David Forbes on the Existence of Gold-bearing Eruptive Bocks in South 
America which have made their appearance at two very distinct Geological 
periods 52 

on the Igneous Bocks of South Staffordshire 53 

Rev. W. Fox on a New Wealden Saurian named Polacanthus 56 

M. W. von Haidinger on the Progress of the Imperial Geological Institute 
of the Austrian Empire 56 

Professor Harkness and H. Nicholson's Additional Observations on the 
Geology of the Lake Country 57 

— on the Silurian Bocks of the Isle 

of Man 58 



X CONTENTS. 

Pago 

Professor Harkness on the Metamorphic Rocks and Serpentine Marbles of 

Connemara and Joyce's Country 59 

Dr. Harvey B. Holi, on the Pre-Cambrian Pocks of Central England 59 

Rev. W. Holland's Remarks on the Geology of Parts of the Sinaitic Penin- 
sula 62 

Rev. H. Housman on the Fossil Footprints in the New Red Sandstone at 
Brewood, near Wolverhampton 62 

Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys's Notice of the Occurrence of certain Fossil Shells 
in the Sea-bed adjoining the Channel Islands 62 

Mr. H. Johnson on the Extent and Duration of the South Staffordshire Coal- 
field 63 

Mr. C. Ketley on the Silurian Rocks and Fossils of Dudley 63 

Mr. E. Ray Lankester on Annelida from Guernsey 65 

on the British Species of Cephalaspis and the Scotch 

Pteraspis 65 

Mr. D. Mackintosh on the Relative Extent of Atmospheric and Oceanic De- 
nudation, with a particular reference to certain Rocks and Valleys in York- 
shire and Derbyshire 65 

Rev. A. W. M c Kay on the Red Sandstone of Nova Scotia 66 

Mr. George Maw on some Fossiliferous Strata occurring between the Bunter 
Sandstone and Mountain Limestone of the Vale of Clwyd, North Wales . . 67 

on an Extensive Distribution of WTiite Sands and Clays in 

North Wales antecedent to the Boulder Clay Drift 68 

Mr. W. S. Mitchell on hitherto unrecorded Leaf Forms, &c, from Alum 
Bay, Isle of Wight 68 

Mr. W. Ness on the Coal-Measures in Mold Valley, and their Products .... 68 

Mr. R. A. Peacock on Steam as the active Agent in Earthquakes 68 

on Extensive and Deep Sinkings of Lands in the Channel 

Islands Seas, and on some Changes of the French Coast of the Bay of Bis- 
cay within the Historical Period 70 

Mr. W. Pengelly on the Insulation of St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall. ... 71 

Mr. Lovibond Percival on a Recent Example of the Formation of Pyrites 
in a South Staffordshire Coal Pit 71 

Professor Phillips on Glacial Striation 71 

Rev. W. Purton on the Geology of Coalbrook Dale 72 

Mr. T. A. Readwtn on the Recent Discovery of Gold at Gwynfynydd, North 
Wales 73 

Mr. George E. Roberts's Notes on the Theory of Repulsion as illustrative 
of Physical Geology propounded by Dr. Winslow of Boston 73 

Professor Ferd. Roemer on a Fossil Spider lately discovered in the Coal- 
measures of Upper Silesia (Prussia) 73 

Mr. G. R. Rumney on a Coal Field in Brazil 73 

Mr. J. W. Salter's Explanation of a Map of the Faults in the Gold District 
of Dolgelly 73 

Mr. A. Startin on the Drift in the Parish of Exhall, North of Coventry. ... 74 

Rev. W. S. Symonds on some Ancient Drifts and Old River Beds of Siluria 74 

Mi-. J. E. Taylor on Contortions in the Chalk at Withingham, near Norwich 76 

Professor Tennant on the Agate* found in England, with specimens from dif- 
ferent countries 76 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Rev. J. D. La Touche on the Nodules in the Limestone of Wenloek Edge. . 76 

Mr. C. Twamley on the Faults in the South Staffordshire Coal Field, and 

their relation to the Igneous Rocks of the District 76 

Mr. Edwabd Whympee's few Notes on the Structure of the Matterhorn .... 76 

Mr. W. Mattietj Williams on the ancient Glaciers North and East of Llan- 
gollen, and more particularly of the Neighbourhood of the Hope Mountain 77 

on some Vegetable Deposits in the Aachensee . . 78 

Mr. C. J. Woodward on a Deposit near Lilleshall, Salop, containing recent 

Marine Shells 79 



BOTANY and ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 

Botany. 

Dr. Cleghobn on the Deodar Forests of the Himalaya ■ 79 

Mr. W. Htern on Ranunculus radians (Revel) as a British Plant 80 

Dr. W. Hinds on the Identity of Origin of Starch and Chlorophylle 81 

on a Monstrosity of the Rose 82 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay on the Relations of the Southern to the Northern 
Flora of New Zealand 82 

Mr. E. J. Lowe on the Propagation of Ferns by means of Spores 83 

Zoology. 

Mr. Spence Bate and Professor Westwood on the Genus Anceus (Anceus 
and Praniza, Auct.) 83 

Dr. P. P. Carpenter on the regard due to Usage and Utility, as well as mere 
Priority in fixing Zoological Nomenclature 83 

Dr. Carte's Notes on the Voracity of Chiasmodus 84 

Dr. Edwards Crisp on the Relative Weight of the Brain, and on the Exter- 
nal Form of this Organ, in relation to the Intelligence of the Animal 84 

on the Food and Habits of the Mole, Sparrow, and of the 

Vespidae 85 

on the External Form of the Hand and Brain of the 

Orang (S. satyrus) 86 

Dr. Duncan's Description of Two New Species of Aporose Madreporaria, from 
Guernsey 86 

Rev. F. Hewlett on the Occurrence of the Bones of Extinct Struthious Birds 
in New Zealand in the same Oven with those of the Dog 86 

Mr. W. R. Hughes's Notes on the Development of a Deep Sea Sponge .... 86 

Dr. G. M. Humphry on the Homologies of the Lower Jaw, and the Bones 
connecting it with the Skidl in Birds, Reptiles, and Fishes 87 

Dr. Jordan's Examination of the British Lepidoptera, with a view to inves- 
tigate the Origin of Species 89 

Sir John Lubbock on the Transformations of C'hloeon (Ephemera) dimidiatum 89 

Miss Irby and Miss Mackenzie on the Characteristics of the South Sclavonic 
Race 90 

Rev. A. W. M c Kay on the Turdus migratorius 90 

Mr. C. R. Mabkham on the Arctic Highlanders 90 

Dr. J. Moefat on Phosphorescence, Storms, and Disease 90 



XU CONTENTS. 

Pape 

Dr. Morch on the Scope of Conchological Inquiries 91 

on the Classification of the Mollusca 91 

on the Zoological Affinities of the Mollusca 91 

Mr. Thomas J. Moore's Bemarks on some Improved Methods of Displaying 
Birds in Public Museums, illustrated by specimens from the Derby Museum 
at Liverpool 92 

Mr. Edward Newton on a remarkable Discovery of Bones of Didus in the 
Island of Bodriguez 92 

Bev. A. M. Norman on the Structure and Development of Salpa spmosa, Otto, 
as observed at Guernsey 92 

Dr. Prideaux, Phrenology, or the Physiology of the Brain, the most impor- 
tant department of Ethnology 92 

Dr. P. O'Callaghan's Bemarks on a curious preserved Specimen of the Black- 
bird 92 

Dr. P. L. Sclater on the Birth of a young Hippopotamus in the Zoological 
Society's Gardens at Amsterdam 93 

Dr. W. B. Scott on the Occurrence of Orcynus alalonga on the Coast of Devon 93 

Mr. H. T. Stainton on the extraordinary partiality shown by Insects of the 
Genus Laverna for Plants of the Order Onagracece 93 

Bev. W. H. Sterling on the Natives of Patagonia and Terra del Fuego .... 9-4 

Mr. J. Thrupp on the Domestication of certain Animals in England between 
the Seventh and Eleventh Centimes 94 



Physiology. 

Address by Henry W. Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.B.S., Regius Professor of 
Medicine in the University of Oxford, President of the Subsection 94 

Dr. Lionel S. Beale on Life 101 

Dr. J. Hughes Bennett on the Formation of Pus, in reference to the doc- 
trine of Cell Pathology 101 

Dr. Cobbold on Beef and Pork as Sources of Entozoa 102 

's Bemarks on Specimens of Entozoa 102 

Dr. John Davy on the Effects of Scanty and Deficient Diet 102 

— — Is the Opinion that a Diet of Animal Food conduces to Lean- 
ness well founded on Facts ? 104 

Dr. W. Dickenson on the Functions of the Cerebellum 106 

Dr. Fleming on the Prevalence of Tapeworm in Birmingham, and its Causes 10G 

Dr. A. Gamgee on Experiments confirmatory of those of Kiihne on the Non- 
existence of Ammonia in Blood 107 

Dr. George Duncan Gibb's Befutation of the View recently propounded that 
the Food comes into contact with the Vocal Cords in Deglutition 107 

Dr. G. M. Humphry's Bemarks on the Skeleton of a Woman set. 104 108 

Dr. W. H. Lightbody on the Vascular Arrangements of the Cornea 108 

Professor Macdonald on the Development of the Vascular System of the 
Foetus in the Vertebrata, with the view to determine the true course of the 
Circulation through the Veins and Arteries of the Hunian Foetus in utero . . 108 

Dr. B. Norris, Bigor Mortis not Muscular Contraction 109 

Mr. Samuel II. Parke s on the Early Development of Organs in Embryonic 
Life 109 



CONTENTS. Mil 

Pagn 

Dr. Eolleston on certain Points in the Anatomy of Lxmbricm terrestris 110 

on certain Points in the Anatomy of Two Animals from the 

Mammoth Cave, Kentucky 110 

Dr. B. W. Eichardson on certain Physiological Experiments with Ozone . . 110 

Dr. Shuttle's few Remarks on the Causes of the Cattle Murrain Ill 

Mr. "William Turner on Variability as manifested in the Construction of the 

Human Body 1 H 



GEOGRAPHY and ETHNOLOGY. 

Mr. T. Balxes on the Victoria Falls of the Eiver Zambesi 112 

Letter from Mr. Samuel Baker to Sir R. I. Murchison 112 

Dr. C. Carter Blake on certain Simious Skulls, with especial reference to a 

Skull from Louth, in Ireland H 4 

Mr. E. Brown's Explorations in the Interior of Vancouyer Island 116 

Mr. W. Chandless on the Ascent of the Eiyer Purus HO 

Dr. Charnock on the Origin of the Gipsies H" 

Dr. E. S. Charnock on Cannibalism in Europe 117 

Mr. J. Crawfurd on the Oriental Negro H ' 

on the Physical and Mental Characteristics of the African 



or OccideDtal Negro 



117 

on Cannibalism in Eelation to Ethnology 118 

Dr. Cullen on the Isthmus of Panama and Inter-Oceanic Ship Canal Eoutes 118 

1 on the Darien Indians 119 

Mr. Eobert Dunn on the Influence of Civilization upon the Development of 

the Brain in the different Eaces of Man 119 

Mr. J. Evans on the Worked Flints of Pressigny le Grand 120 

Eev. Frederic W. Farrar on Language and Ethnology 120 

Mr. George Grove on the Exploration of the Holy Land, as proposed by the 

Palestine Exploration Fund 1-1 

Mr. D. Mackintosh on the Comparative Anthropology of England and Wales 122 

Mr. C. E. Markham on North Polar Exploration 123 

Capt. T. M c Neill and Capt. Wilson's Results of Surveys relating to the 

Water Supply of Jerusalem ' 1-3 

Dr. F. Mueller on M'Tntryre's Journey across Australia, and Discovery of 

Traces of Leichhardt • 1-* 

Bear- Admiral Osemaney on Arctic Exploration 125 

Lieut.-Col. Lewis Pelly on the Seychelle Islands 126 

on the Shores of the Persian Gulf 126 

's Notes on Arabia 126 

on the Comoro Islands 127 

Col. Phayre on the Ethnology of the Hindu- Chinese Nations 128 

Sir H. C. Eawllnson's Notes on the Eussian Frontiers in Central Asia 128 

Mr. A. Adams-Eeilly on a Eecent Survey of the Chain of Mont Blanc 128 

Professor Steenstrup and Sir J. Lubbock on the Flints of Pressigny le Grand 129 
Mr. E. Swixhoe's Notes on the Aborigines of Formosa 120 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

Page 
Mr. E. B. Tylob on the Negro-European Dialects of Surinam and Curacao. . 130 

M. Vambeby on the Origin of the Hungarians 130 

Dr. A. Vambeby on the City Life of Bokhara 131 

Mr. Thomas Weight on the true Assignation of the Bronze Weapons, &c, 
supposed to indicate a Bronze Age in Western and Northern Europe 131 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Address by The Eight Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P., F.R.S., the President of 

the Section 131 

Mr. W. B. Adams on the Division of Labour 135 

Mr. J. T. Ablidge on the Duration of Life, the Prevailing Diseases, and the 
Causes of Death, of Potters 135 

Mr. Thomas Aveby on the Municipal Expenditure of the Borough of Bir- 
mingham 135 

Rev. W. J. Bain on the Social, Educational, and Religious Position of the 
Working Population of South Staffordshire 140 

Professor John H. Bennett's Statistics of Pneumonia 144 

Mr. .T. Thackbay Bunce on the Statistics of Crime in Bimiinghaui, as com- 
pared with other large Towns 145 

Mr. F. P. Fellows on the Practical Advantages of the Metric System of 
Weights and Measures 147 

Mr. G. B. Galloway on Intercommunication between Railway Passengers . . 150 

• on the Means of saving Life from Buildings which may 

be on Fire 150 

's Suggested Improvements applicable to the City of 

London and other large Towns, to improve Health and preserve Life .... 150 

Mr. J. D. Goodman, Statistics of the Small Arms Manufacture of Birming- 
ham 150 

Mr. Alfbed Hill, Statistics of the Post-Office Savings' Banks 152 

Mr. G. J. Johnson, Statistics of the Benefit Building and Freehold Land 
Societies of Birmingham 154 

Professor Leone Levi, Statistical Data in relation to the Representation of 
the People 154 

Dr. T. de Meschin on the proposed Extension of Government Administration 
to Railways 154 

Mr. D. Mobbis on the Past and Present Productive Power of Cotton Ma- 
chinery 155 

Professor Rogebs on Patents and Copyrights 155 

Mr. Henby C. Ropeb on the Physical and Geographical Features of the 
Country ten miles round Dudley, with remarks upon the natural drainage 
area, as they bear upon the Sanitary Condition of the district 155 

Mr. W. L. Sabgant on the Vital Statistics of Birmingham, and seven other 
Towns 155 



Mr. E. Vivian on the Admission of Rlegitimate Children into Workhouses, as 
a means of preventing Infanticide 156 

Mr. R. Wilkinson's Statistical Review of the Police-recognized Drunkenness 
of the Metropolis 156 

Mr. James Yates on Mural Standards for exhibiting the Measures of Length 
legalized in the United Kingdom , . . 159 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 



Dr. Leone Levi, Statistical Data in Relation to the Representation of the 
People 162 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Address by Sir W. .Armstrong, K.C.B., F.R.S., President of the Section . . 164 

Sir W. G. Armstrong on Chain-testing Machines . . . v 165 

Mr. Henry Bessemer on the Manufacture of Cast Steel, its Progress, and 
Employment as a Substitute for Wrought Iron 165 

Mr. F. I. Bramwell on Weldless Tyres, Circular Rolling, and Railway 
Wheels 173 

General Sir J. F. Burgoyne on Railways in War 173 

Mr. G. Burt on a Pneumatic Hammer 175 

Mr. D. K. Clark on Torbite (a new Preparation of Peat) and its Uses 175 

Mr. J. M. Clements on a Machine for stitching Button-holes 176 

Mi\ E. A. Cowper on a new Cotton Gin for separating Cotton Fibre from the 
Seed 176 

on the Effect of Blowing Blast Furnaces with Blast of very 

High Temperatures 177 

Mr. S. N. F. Cox on Siemens's Regenerative Gas-Fumaces and Producers . . 177 

Mr. William Fairbatrn on some of the Causes of the Failure of Deep-sea 
Cables, and Experimental Researches on the Permanency of their Insulators 178 

Mi\ George Fawcus's Suggestions for Improvements in Blocks for Lowering 
Ships' Boats, and for Improvements in Boats 184 

Mr. Nath. J. Holmes on District Private Telegraphs 184 

Mr. W. Hooper on the Applicability of India-rubber as an Insulator for Tele- 
graphic Conductors 184 

Mr. T. Levick on Machinery for Compressing Air, and the Applicability of 
such Compressed Air for working Coal-cutting and other Underground 
Machinery 185 

Mr. J. Robinson on some Developments of and Improvements in Giffard's 
Injector. 186 

Mr. C. W. Siemens on the Outer Covering of Deep-sea Cables 187 

Mr. W. Sissons's description of a Patent Steam Pile-Driver 190 

Mr. B. Smith on Wanning, Lighting, and Ventilating the Birmingham Town 
Hall 190 



List of Papers of which Abstracts have not been received 191 



ERRATA. 

In the present volume. 

Reports, page 72. Column 7. Position, etc. : — 

17th line from bottom, for b read c. 

13th „ ,, for £ read p. 

11th „ „ for ( read r. 

6th „ „ for 30° read 3°. 

5th „ „ for S. of Cassiopeia muZ S. of a. Cassiopeium. 

Sections, pago 62, line I. for Glyptolepis beds read Caithness Flags. 

In the volume for 1864. 

Sections, page 20, 17 lines from bottom, for The time the Bound takes 
read The time the electric current takes. 
Sections, page 188, line 1,for 0-5 read O'Oo. 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



or 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry,— to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

EULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall bo entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Eellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis: 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

186-3. b 






XV111 RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Keports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a compo- 
sition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 
Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 
3 Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 
of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers 
of the Association. 

GENEEAl COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the" Meeting of the \ear by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-offino members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they woidd 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Tice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

62 



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XXVI 



REPORT 1865. 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Aberdeen, Earl of, LL.D., KG-., E.T., 
F.K.S. (deceased). 

Acland, Sir T. D., Bart.,M.A.,D.C.L.,RK.S. 

Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.E.S. 

Adams, Prof. J. Couch, M.A., D.C.L, F.E.S. 

Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Adderley, The Eight Hon. C.B., M.P. 

Ainslie, Eev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airy.G. B.,M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Astr. Eoyal. 

Alison, ProfessorW. P.,M.D.,F.E.S.E. (deo d ). 

Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 

Anderson, Prof. Thomas, M.D. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.E.S. 

Argyll, G. Douglas, Duke of, F.E.S. L. & E. 

Armstrong, Sir W. G., F.E.S. 

Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.E.S. 

Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
(deceased). 

Atkinson, Et. Hon. E., late Lord Mayor of 
Dublin. 

Babbage, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 

Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F.E.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Baines, Et. Hon. M. T., M.A., M.P. (dec"). 

Baker, Thomas Barwick Llovd, Esq. 

Balfour, Professor John H./M.D., F.E.S. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Bath, The Most Noble the Marquis of. 

Bath, The Venerable the Archdeacon of. 

Beamish, Eichard, Esq., F.E.S. 

Beeehey, Bear-Admiral, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Bell, Isaac Lowthian, Esq. 

Bell, Professor Thomas, V.P.L.S., F.E.S. 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., Pres.L.S. 

Biddell, George Arthur, Esq. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.E.S. 

Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.E.S. 

Boyle, Eight Hon. D., Lord Justice-General 
(deceased). 

Brady,TheEt. Hon. Maziere, M.E.I.A., Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.E.S. 
( clccCtisccll • 

Brewster, Sir David, E.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.E.S. L. & E., Principal of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 

Brodie, Sir B. C, Bart., D.C.L, P.E.S. 
(deceased). 

Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.E.S. 

Brown, Eobert, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 



Brunei, Sir M. I., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Buckland, Very Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., 

Dean of Westminster (deceased). 
Bute, John, Marquis of, E.T. (deceased). 
Carlisle, G. W. Fred., Earl of, F.E.S. (dec"). 
Carson, Eev. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 
Cathcart, Lt.-Gen., Earl of, E.C.B.,F.E.S.E. 

(deceased). 
Challis, Eev. J., M.A., F.E.S. 
Chalmers, Eev. T., D.D. (deceased). 
Chance, James, Esq. 
Chance, J. T., Esq. 
Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

(deceased). 
Chevallier, Eev. Templo, B.D., F.E.A.S. 
Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Clapham, E. C, Esq. 
Clare, Peter, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 
Clark, Eev. Prof., M.D., F.E.S. (Cambridge.) 
Clark, Henry, M.D. 
Clark, G. T., Esq. 
Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Gierke, Major S., E.H., E.E., F.E.S. (dcc d ). 
Clift, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Close, Very Eev. F., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 
Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 
Colquhoun, J. G, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 
Conybeare, Very Eev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 

dail' (deceased). 
Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 
Cork and Orrery ,*The Et. Hon. the Earl of, 

Lord-Lieutenant of Somersetshire. 
Corrie, John, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Crum, Walter, Esq., F.E.S. 
Currie, William Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 
Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Daniell, Professor J. F., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Darbishire, E. D., Esq., B.A., F.G.S. 
Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Daubeny, Prof. C. G. B., M.D..LL.D., F.E.S. 
DelaBeche, Sir H. T., C.B., F.E.S., Director- 
Gen. Geol. Surv. United Eingdom (dec d ). 
Dc la Eue, Warren, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Derby, Earl of, D.C.L., Chancellor of the 

University of Oxford. 
Devonshire, W.,Duke of, M.A.,D.C.L.,F.E.S. 
Dickinson, Francis H., Esq. 
Dickinson, Joseph, M.D., F.E.S. 
Dillwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Donkin, Professor W. F., M.A., F.E.S. 
Drinkwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased). 
Ducie, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Dudley, The Eight Hon. the Earl of. 
Dunraven, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Egerton.Sir P. dc M. Grev, Bart,,M.P.,F.E.S. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXVU 



Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesrnere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (clec d ). 
Emiiskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Evans, The Eev. Charles, M.A. 
Fairbairn, William, LL.D., C.E., F.R.S. 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Ferrers, Rev. N. M., M.A. 
FitzRoy, Rear- Admiral, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Fitzwilham, The Earl, D.C.L., F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, BeU, M.D. 
Foote, Lundy E., Esq. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 
Forbes, Prof. Edward, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Forbe8,Prof.J.D.,LL.D.,F.R.S.,Sec.R.S.E., 
Principal of University of St. Andrews. 
Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 
Fuller, Professor, M.A. 
Galton, Francis, F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Gladstone, J. H., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Goodwin, The Very Rev. H., D.D., Dean of 

Gourlie, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Graham, T., M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., Master of 

the Mint. 
Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (deceased). 
Gray, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Prof. Joseph Henry, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Griffith, George, M.A., F.C.S. 
Griffith, Sir R. Griffith, Bt., LL.D., M.R.I. A. 
Grove, W. R, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
HaUam, Henrv, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Hamilton, W. J., Esq., F.R.S., Sec. G.S. 
Hamilton, Sir Wm. R., LL.D., Astronomer 

Royal of Ireland, M.R.I.A., F.R.A.S. 

(deceased). 
Hancock, W. Jseilson, LL.D. 
Harcourt, Rev. Wm. Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L, F.R.S. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.R.S. 
Harrowby, The Earl of, F.R.S. 
Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D., President of Queen's 

College, Belfast. 
Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. (dec d ). 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. Wm., LL.D., 

F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec d ). 
Hereford, The Very Rev. the Dean of. 
Herschel.Sir John F.W., Bart., M.A., D.C.L., 

F.RS. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Heywood, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hill, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.R.I.A. 
Hincks, Rev. Thomas, B.A. 



Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich 

(deceased). 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. (dee d ). 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hogg, John, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Hope, Rev. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. (deceased.) 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Houghton, Lord, D.C.L. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hugall, J. W., Esq. 
Hunt, Aug. H, Esq., B.A., Ph.D. 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Ibbetson,Capt.L.L.Boscawen,K.R.E.,F.G.S. 
Inglis, Sir R. H, Bart., D.C.L., M.P. 

(deceased). 
Inman, Thomas, M.D. 
Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Jartline, Sir William, Bart., F.R.S.E. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.R.S. 
Jellett, Rev. Professor. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Jeune, The Right Rev. F., D.C.L. 
Johnston, Right Hon. William, late Lord 

Provost of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Prof. J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Kelehcr, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Kelland, Rev. Prof. P., M.A., F.R.S. L. & E. 
Kildare, The Marquis of. 
Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.R.S. 
Lansdowne, Hen., Marquis of, D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Larcom, Major, RE., LL.D., F.R.S. 
Lardncr, Rev. Dr. (deceased). 
Lassell, William, Esq., F.R.S. L. & E 
Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. 
Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh 

(deceased). 
Lee, Robert, M.D., F.R.S. 
Leigh, The Right Hon. Lord. 
Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, late 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart., F.R.S. 
Lichfield, The Right Hon. the Earl of. 
Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased). 
Liddell, Very Rev. H. G, D.D., Dean of 

Christ Church, Oxford. 
Lindley, Professor Jolin, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Listowel, The Earl of. 
Liveing, Prof. G. D., M.A., F.C.S. 
Lloyd, Rev. B., D.D., Provost of Trin. Coll., 

Dublin (deceased). 
Lloyd, Rev. H, D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. L.&E., 

M.R.I.A. 
Londesborough, Lord, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Lubbock, Sir John W„ Bart., M.A., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 



XXV1U 



Klil'ORT — 1865. 



Lubv, Eev. Thomas. 

Lyell, Sir Charles,Bart.,M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Lyttelton, The Eight Hon. Lord. 
MacCullagh, Prof., D.C.L., M.E.I.A. (dec" 1 ). 
MacDonnell, Rev. E, D.D., M.E.I.A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Macfarlane, The Very Rev. Principal, (dec 1 '). 
MacGee, William, M.D. 
MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 
MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 
Malahide, The Lord Talbot de. 
Malcolm, Vice- Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B. (dee d ). 
Maltby, Edward, D.D., E.E.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Durham (deceased). 
Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 
Marlborough, Duke of, D.C.L. 
Marshall, J. G., Esq., M.A.. F.G.S. 
May, Charles, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 
Meyuell, Thomas, Esq., E.L.S. 
Middletou, Sir William F. E, Bart. 
Miller, Prof. W. A., M.D.. Treas. & V.P.E.S. 
Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., For. See.R.S. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 
Moillet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 
Monteagle, Lord, F.R.S. (deceased). 
Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 
Moody, T. F., Esq. 
Moody, T. H. C. Esq. 
Morley, The Earl of (deceased). 
Moseley, Eev. Henry, M.A., F.E.S. 
Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest. Vugustus.Earl of. 
Murchison, SirEoderickL, Bart., Gr.C. St.S., 

D.C.L, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Neild, Alfred, Esq. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Nelson, The Et. Hon. Earl 
Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Professor J., F.E.S.E., F.G.S. 
Nicol, Eev. J. P., LL.D. 
Noble, Capt, A., EA. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.E.S. (deceased). 
Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, E.G.,M.A., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 
Orpen,'Jolm H., LL.D. 
Osier, Follett, Esq., F.E.S. 
Owen, Prof, M.D., D.C.L, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Oxford, Samuel Wilberforce, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of, F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Palmerston, Vise, K.G.,G.C.B., M.P., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Peacock, Very Eev. G., D.D., Dean of £lv, 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Peel,Et.Hon.SirE.,Bart,M.P.,D.C.L.(dec d ). 
Pendarves, E. W., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Phillips, Professor John, M.A.,LL.D.,F.E.S. 
Phillips, Eev. G., B.D., President of Queen's 

College. Cambridge. 
Pigott,The Et. Hon. D. R, M.E.I.A., Lord 

Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 
Porter, G. E., Esq. (deceased). 
Portlock, Major-General,R.E.. LL.D., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 



Portman, The Lord. 

Powell, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.E.S. (dec' 1 ). 

Price, Eev. Professor, M.A.. F.E.S. 

Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Eamsay, Professor William, M.A. 

Eansome, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Eeid, Maj.-Gen. Sir W., K.C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Rendlesham, Et. Hon. Lord, M.P. 
Eennie, George, Esq.. F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eennie, Sir John, F.E.S. 
Richardson, Sir John, C.B., M.D., LL.D., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Richmond, Duke of, E.G., F.E.S. (dec d ). 
Eipon, Earl of, F.E.G.S. 
Ritchie, Eev. Prof., LL.D., F.R.S. (dec d ). 
Eobinson, Capt.. E.A. 
Eobinson, Eev. J., D.D. 
Eobinson, Eev. T. E., D.D.. F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 
Eobison, Sir John, Sec.E.S.Edin. (deceased). 
Eoehe, James. Esq. 
Eoget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.E.S. 
Eolleston. Professor, M.D., F.E.S. 
Eonalds, Francis, F.E.S. 
Eoscoe, Professor H. E., B.A., F.E.S. 
Eoseberv, The Earl of, E.T., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Boss, Bear- Admiral Sir J. C, E.N., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Eosse, Wra., Earl of, M.A., F.E.S., M.E.I.A. 
Eoyle, Prof. John F., M.D., F.E.S. (dec' 1 ). 
Eussell, James, Esq. (deceased). 
EusseU, J. Scott, Esq., F.E.S. 
Sabine, Lieut.-GeneralEdward.E.A., D.C.L.. 

LL.D., President of the Eoval Society. 
Sanders, William, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Scholefield. William, M.P. 
Scoresbv, Eev. W., D.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Sedgwick, Eev. Prof, M.A, D.C.L, F.E.S. 
Selbv, Prideaux John, Esq., F.E.S.E. 
Sharpey, Professor, M.D., Sec.E.S. 
Sims, Dilhvyn, Esq. 

Smith, Lieut-Col. C. Hamilton, F.E.S.(dec d ). 
Smith, Prof. H. J. S., M.A.. F.E.S. 
Smith, James, F.E.S. L. & E. 
Spence, William, Esq.. F.E.S. (deceased). 
Spottiswoode, W., M.A., F.E.S. 
Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt, M.P., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
St. David's, C.Tliirlwall.D.D.,LordBishop of. 
Stevellv, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes,'Professor G. G. , M. A., D. C.L. , Sec. Ii . S . 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 
Strickland, Hugh E.. Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H, M.P.. F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Warden of Wadliam 

College. Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox. Esq.. M.A., F.E.S. 
Tayler, Eev. John James, B.A. 
Taylor, Hugh, Esq. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Taylor, Eichard, Esq.. F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S.(deeeascd). 
Thomson, A., Esq. 

Thomson, Professor William. M.A., F.E.S. 
Tindal, Captain, E.N. (deceased). 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXIX 



Tite, William, Esq., M.P., F.K.S. 

Tod, James, Esq., F.E.S.E. 

Tooke, Thomas, F.K.S. (deceased). 

Traill, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 

Trevelyan, Sir W. C, Bart, 

Turner, Edward, M.D.. F.E.S. (deceased). 

Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. (dec"). 

Turner, Rev. W. 

Tvndall, Professor John, F.E.S. 

Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (deceased). 

Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Walker, James, Esq., F.E.S. 

Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 

Walker, Eev. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Warburton, Henry, Esq..M.A., F.E.S.(dec d ). 
Ward, W. *vkes, Esq., F.C.S. 
Washington, Captain, E.N., F.E.S. 
Wav, A. E., Esq., M.P. 
Webster, Thomas, M.A., F.E.S. 
West, William, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 



Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, John Stuart,Lord.F.E.S.(dec d ). 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.E.S. 
Whewell, Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., Master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. (dee d ). 
White, John F., Esq^ 
Williams, Prof. Charles J. B., M.D., F.E.S. 
Willis, Eev. Professor Eobert, M. A., F.E.S. 
Wills, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Wilson, Thomas, Esq.. M.A. 
Wilson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester. John, Marquis of. 
Wood, Nicholas, Esq. (deceased). 
Woollcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (deceased 1 ). 
Worcester, The Et." Eev. the Lord Bishop of. 
Wrotteslev, John, Lord. M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Yates, J. B., Esq., F.S.A., F.E.G.S. (dec d ). 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1865-66. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Eoderick I. Mukchison, Bart, K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Lieut.-General Edward Sabine, E.A., D.C.L., Pres. R.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Geey Egerton, Bart, M.P., P.E.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

JOHN PHILLIPS, Esq., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., P.E.S., F.G.S., Professor of Geology 

in the University of Oxford. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

The Eight Beverend The Lord Bishop of Won- 

CESTER. 

The Eight Hon. C. B. ADDERLEY, M.P. 

William Scholefield, Esq., M.P. 

J. T. Chance, Esq., M.A. 

F. OSLER, Esq., F.E.S. 

The Eev. Charles Evans, M.A. 



The Eight Hon. The Earl of Lichfield, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Staffordshire. 

The Eight Hon. The Earl of Dudley. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Leigh, Lord-Lieutenant of 
Warwickshire. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Lyttelton, Lord-Lieute- 
nant of Worcestershire. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Wrottesley, M.A., D.C.L., 
F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

WILLIAM E. GEOVE, Esq., Q.C., MA., F.E.S 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Et. Hon. J. E. Denison, M.P. 
J. C. Webb, Esq., High-Sheriff of Nottinghamshire. 
Thomas Graham, Esq., F.E.S., Master of the Mint. 
Joseph Hooker. M.D., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.L.S. 
John Eussell Hinds, Esq., F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 
T. Close, Esq. 



His Grace The Duke of Devonshire, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Derbyshire. 

His Grace The Duke of Rutland, Lord- Lieute- 
nant of Leicestershire. 

The Et. Hon. Lord Belper, Lord-Lieutenant of 
Nottinghamshire. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT NOTTINGHAM 

Dr. Robertson. 

Edward J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.A.S., F.L.S. 

The Rev. J. F. M'Callan, M.A. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT NOTTINGHAM. 

I. E. Wright, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



Babington, Prof. C C, F.R.S. 
Bateman, J. F., Esq., F.E.S. 
Crawfurd, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
DelaEue, Warren, Esq., F.E.S. 
Foster, Peter Le Neve, Esq. 
Galton, Capt. Douglas, E.E., F.E.S. 
Gassiot, J. P., Esq., P.R.S. 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Jeffreys, J. Gwyx, Esq., F.R.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John, Bart., F.R.S. 
Miller, Prof.AV.A.,M.D.,F.E.S. 



Odling, William, Esq., M.B., F.E.S. 
Price, Professor, M.A., F.E.S. 
Sclater, P. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Smyth, Prof. Warixutox, P.R.S. 
Stanley, Et. Hon. Lord, M.P., F.E.S. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., Sec. F.E.S. 
Btkes, Colonel, M.P., F.E.S. 
Sylvester, Prof. J. J., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor, F.R.S. 
Webster, Thomas, Esq., F.R.S. 
Williamson, Prof. A. W., F.R.S. 



Eev. Professor Sedgwick. 
The Duke of Devonshire. 
Rev. W. V. Harcourt. 
The Earl of Eosse. 
Sir John F. W. Hersehel, 
Sir E. I. Murehison, Bart- 



Bart. 
K.C.B. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 
years, viz. — 

Sir David Brewster. 

G. B. Airy, Esq., the Astronomer 

Eoyal. 
Lieut.-General Sabine, D.C.L. 
William Hopkins, Esq., LL.D. 
The Earl of Harrow! >y. 
The Duke of Argyll.' 
Professor Daubeny, M.D. 
GENERAL SECRETARY. 
Francis Galton, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 42 Eutland Gate, Knightsbridge, London. 
ASSISTANT CENERAL SECRETARY. 
George Griffith, Esq., M.A., 5 Park Villas, Oxford. 
CENERAL TREASURER. 
William Spottiswoode, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., F.E.G.S., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W 
LOCAL TREASURERS. 



The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. 



The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 
Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
The Lord Wrottesley. 
William Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D. 
The Eev. Professor Willis. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D 
Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.,. 
LL.D. 



William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., York. 
Prof. C. C. B"abington, M.A., F.E.S., Cambridge, 
William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. 
John H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. 
William Sanders, Esq., F.E.S., Bristol. 
Eobert MAndrew, Esq., F.R.S., Liverpool. 
William Holliday, Esq., Birinim/ham. 
Robert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S. , Manchester. 
John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., Swansea. 



James Heywood, Esq., P.R.S. 



Robert Patterson, Esq., F.R.S., Belfast. 
Edmund Smith, Esq., Mull. 
Professor W. Thomson, Glasgow. 
Richard Beamish, Esq., F.R.S., Cheltenham . 
John Medcalfe Smith, Esq., Leeds. 
John Forbes White, Esq., Aberdeen. 
Rev. John Griffiths, M.A.. Oxford. 
Thomas Holgkin, Esq., Neweastle-on-Tgne. 
Thomas Gill, Esq., Ba'h. 

AUDITORS. 

Eobert Hutton, Esq., F.G.S. Dr. Gladstone. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXXI 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
BIRMINGHAM MEETING. . 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President.— W. Spottiswoode, M.A.. F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— W. R. Grove, Q.C., Ph.D., F.R S. ; Professor Sylvester, F.R.S. ; 

Professor Tyndall, F.R.S. ; J. P. Gassiot, F.R.S. ; Dr. Lloyd, F.R.S. ; Professor 

Price, F.R.S.; Professor Stevelly, LL.D.; Principal Forbes, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— Professor H. J. S. Smith, M.A., F.R.S. ; J. M. Wilson, M.A. ; Fleem- 

ing Jenkin, F.R.S. ; G. S. Mathews, M. A. ; Rev. T. Neville Hutchinson, M.A., 

F.C.S. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President— Professor W. A. Miller, M.D., V.P.R.S., Pres. Cheui. Soc 
Vice-Presidents. — Professor A. W. Williamson, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; J. H. Gladstone, 

Ph.D., F.R.S. ; Sir R. Kane, M.D., F.R.S., President of Queen's College, Cork; 

G. Shaw, F.G.S. ; Dr. A. W. Hofmann, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— A. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.C.S. ; Professor Wauklyn, F.C.S. ; H. 

Adkins; A. Winkler Wills. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President.— Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., LL.D., 

F.R.S., F.G.S., Director-General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. 
Vice-Presidents.— Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., F.R.S., F.G.S. ; Principal Dawson, of 

Montreal; Professor Jukes, F.R.S.; Professor Harkness, F.R.S.; Rev. W. 

S. Symonds, F.G.S. ; W. W. Smyth, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. ; W. Pengelly, F.R.S. ; Rev. P. B. Brodie, M.A., 

F.G.S. ; J. Jones, F.G.S. ; Rev. Edward Myers. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President.— T. Thomson, M.D.,*F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Professor Babington, F.R.S. ; Professor Balfour, F.R.S.; G. Ben- 

thani, F.R.S., Pres. Linnean Soc. ; Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.R.S. ; Sir W. 

Jardine, Bart., F.R.S. ; J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. ; P. L. Sclater, Ph.D., F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— E. Perceval Wright, M.D., F.L.S. ; Rev. H. B. Tristram, M.A., 

F.L.S.; John Anthony, M.D. ; Rev. Charles Clarke. 

SUB-SECTION D. PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

President. — Professor Acland, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — John Davy, M.D., F.R.S. ; Professor Rollestou, F.R.S. ; Profes- 
sor Lionel Beale, F.R.S.; Professor Van Der Hoeven; Edward Smith, M.D., 
F.R.S., LL.D. ; Professor John Hughes Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Secretaries. — William Turner, M.B., F.R.S.E. ; Alexander Fleming, M.D. ; Thomas 
P. Heslop, M.D. ; Oliver Pemberton. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Major-General Sir Henry Rawlinson, M.P., K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.; Major-General Sir A. S. Waugh, R.E., F.R.S. ; John 
Crawfurd, F.R.S., Pres. Ethnolog. Soc. ; Dr. Bosworth, F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Clements R. Markham, F.R.G.S. ; H. W. Bates, Assistant-Secretary 
R.G.S. ; Thomas Wright, M.A. ; G. Jabet ; Sebastian Evans, M.A. 

SECTION F. ECONOMIC SCLENCE AND STATISTICS. 

President— The Right Hon. Lord Stanley, M.P., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— The Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, M.P. ; Sir John Bowring, 
F.R.S. ; William Farr, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. ; Professor Fawcett, M.P. ; William 
Newmarch, F.R.S. ; Professor Rogers, of Oxford ; W. L. Sargent. 

Secretaries,— Edmund Macrory, A.M. ; J. D. Goodman ; G, J, Johnson. 



XX.X11 



REPORT 1865. 



SECTION G. MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President— Sir William George Armstrong, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — J. F. Bateman, F.R.S. ; Admiral SirE. Belcher; Capt. Douglas 

Galton, R.E., F.R.S.; William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S.; J. R. Napier; J. 

Nasmyth, F.R.S. ; Professor Rankine, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Charles Vignoles, F.R.S. 
Secretaries.— P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; W. P. Marshall ; Walter May ; Henry 

Lea. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

M. Babinet, Paris. 

Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 

Captain Balavenetz, R.I.N. 

Dr. H. D. Buys Ballot, Utrecht. 

Dr. D. Bierens tie Haan, Amsterdam. 

Professor Bolzani, Kasan. 

Dr. Bergsma, Utrecht. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 

M. Boutigny (d'Evreux). 

Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 

Dr. Cams, Leipzig. 

M. Des Cloizeaux, Paris. 

Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 

M. Antoine dAbbadie. 

Geheimrath von Dechen. 

M. De la Rive, Geneva. 

Professor Wilhelm Delfts, Heidelberg. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Paris. 

Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 

Professor Eneke, Berlin. 

Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 

Professor A. Escher von der Linth, 
Zurich, Switzerland. 

Professor Esmark, Christiania. 

Professor A. Favre, Genera. 

M. Leon Foucault, Paris. 

Professor E. Fremy, Pans. 

M. Frisiani, Milan. 

M. Gaudry. 

Dr. Geinitz, Dresden. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 

Professor Grube. 

M. E. Hebert, Paris. 

Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 

Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna.' 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 

Prof. Jessen, Med. et Phil. Dr., Grie.ss- 
wald, Prussia. 

Professor Aug. Kekule, Ghent, Belgium. 

M. Khanikof, St. Petersburg. 



Professor Kiepert. 

Prof. A. Kolliker, Wurzburg. 

Professor Do Koninck, Liege. 

Professor Kreil, Vienna. 

Dr. Lamont. Munich. 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New Yuri;. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor P. Merian, Bale, Switzerland. 

Professor vonMiddeudorft',»S'i;.Prfws&w<7. 

M. l'Abbe Moigno, Paris, 

Dr. Arnold Moritz, Tiflis. 

Chevalier C. Negri. 

Herr Neumaver, Munich. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordenskiold, Hetsingfors. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Prof. B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 

Gustav Plaar, Strasburg. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor F. Rbmer. 

Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

Professor J. A. de Souza, University of 

Coimbra. 
Professor Adolph Steen, Copenhagen. 
Professor Steenstrup. 
Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 
M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 
Dr. Otto Torell, University of Lund. 
Dr. Van der Hoeven, Ley den. 
M. Vambery, Hungary. 
M. de Verneuil, Paris. 
Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Gbttingen. 
Professor Wartmann, Genera. 
Dr. Welwitsch. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXU1 

Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee, Wednesday , September Q>, 1865. 

1. The Council has received a Report from the Treasurer, W. Spottiswoode, 
Esq., at each of its meetings, and his General Report for the year ending 
September 6, 1865, 'will be presented to the Committee this day. 

2. The Report of the Parliamentary Committee has been received for pre- 
sentation to the General Committee this day. 

3. The Kew Committee has presented a Report to the Council at each of 
its meetings, and the Report for the year 1864-65 -will be laid before the 
General Committee this day. 

4. In addition to the Noblemen and Gentlemen elected at Bath, the Council 
propose the names of the Right Hon. the Earl of Dudley ; the Eight Hon. the 
Lord Lyttelton, Lord-Lieutenant of "Worcestershire ; A. Eollett Osier, Esq., 
F.R.S. ; and the Rev. Charles Evans, M.A., Head Master of King Edward's 
School, as Vice-Presidents of the present Meeting ; and the Rev. G. D. Boyle, 
M.A., as Local Secretary. 

5. The Council have added to the list of Corresponding Members the names 
of the following Foreign Men of Science, who have been present at Meetings 
of the Association : — M. E. Hebert, Dr. Arnold Moritz, Herr Neuniayer, M. 
Vambery, Dr. "Welwitseh. 

6. The Council learn with deep regret that the prolonged illness of Mr. 
Hopkins renders him unable to continue his valuable services in the office of 
General Secretary. 

7. The Council have been informed that invitations will be presented to 
the General Committee at its meeting on Monday, September 11, from 
Nottingham, for the year 1866 ; from Dundee, for the year 1867 ; and from 
Norwich and Southampton for an early meeting. 

Report of the Keio Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1864-65. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the following statement of their proceedings during the past 
year :— 

A short time before the Meeting at Bath, it had been decided by the 
Secretary of State for India, on the recommendation of the President and 
Council of the Royal Society, that pendulum observations should be made 
in India, and that the officer appointed to conduct this experimental inves- 
tigation might receive instruction at Kew Observatory, which might form the 
base-station of the Indian series. 

In consequence of this decision Captain Basevi, R.E., first assistant in 
the Indian Trigonometrical Survey, received instruction at Kew Observatory 
in the method of making and reducing pendulum observations, and in that 
of taking transits. Colonel Walker, R.E., Superintendent of the Survey, also 
attended, in order to make himself acquainted with the details of the' appa- 
ratus and the method of observing. 

The pendulums used were those marked No. 1821 and No. 4, used 
formerly by General Sabine in different parts of the globe. The former was 
also used by Mr. Airy in his Harton Colliery experiments. 

A receiver, by means of which these pendulums might be vibrated in vacuo, 
was constructed by Mr. Adie, optician, London. A convenient room for pen- 
dulum observations was likewise fitted up in the Observatory, the expense 
being defrayed from the Government Grant Fund of the Royal Society; 

1865. c 



xxxiv REPORT — 1865. 

and in this room the preliminary observations were made for determining the 
constants of the two pendulums about to be used in India. These observa- 
tions were made by Mr. Loewy, and the results have been communicated to 
the Eoyal Society by the Superintendent, in conjunction with the observer. 
The pendulums and other apparatus were subsequently taken to India by 
Mr. J. Hennessey, and have arrived safely at the head quarters of the Trigo- 
nometrical Survey. 

General Sabine has been informed by Mr. Meldrum, Director of the 
Mauritius Observatory, that the necessary funds have been .-voted by the 
Government of that colony for hourly meteorological and magnetical observa- 
tions; and that he may shortly be expected in this country, in order to become 
acquainted with the working of the Kew instruments. In consequence of 
this communication, Mr. Adie has constructed a set of self-recording mag- 
netographs, in readiness for Mr. Meldrum's arrival. 

A Dip Circle and Unifilar have been verified at Kew, and will shortly be 
dispatched to Mr. Ellery, Director of the Observatory, Melbourne, Australia. 

Two Dip Circles and two Unifilars, ordered by Colonel Walker, R.E., Super- 
intendent of the Indian Survey, have been Verified in the presence of Colonel 
Walker, who has received instruction in the method of observation with these 
instruments. They have since been sent to India, where they have safely 
arrived. 

Three Dip Circles and three Unifilars, ordered by Colonel Strange, are being 
verified at the Observatory, and likewise one Dip Circle and one Unifilar re- 
cently ordered by Captain J. Belavenetz of the Russian Navy, for the Compass 
Observatory just built at Cronstadt. 

Mr. E. Walker (who has received the Cambridge Adams prize for his 
essay on terrestrial magnetism) has been at Kew Observatory, receiving 
instruction in the use of magnetical instruments. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made ; and the self-recording magnetographs are in constant 
operation, as heretofore, under Mr. Whipple, magnetical assistant, who has 
displayed much care and assiduity in the discharge of his duties. 

The meteorological work of the Observatory continues to be performed by 
Mr. Thomas Baker, who likewise takes charge of the photographic depart- 
ment connected with the self-recording instruments, and executes both 
offices very satisfactorily. 

Since the Meeting at Bath, Senhor da Souza, of the University of Coimbra, 
has ordered a self-recording barograph and thermograph, an anemometer and 
electrograph, tubes for filling by Mr. Welsh's process in order to obtain a 
standard barometer, and a cathetometer. These instruments have been con- 
structed by opticians, and forwarded to Coimbra. 

During the past year, 88 barometers and 420 thermometers have been veri- 
fied, and 6 standard thermometers have been supplied to men of science 
and opticians ; 3 sets of measures of capacity have likewise been verified. 

The Self-recording Barograph continues in constant operation, and traces 
in duplicate are obtained, one set of which has been regularly forwarded to 
the meteorological department of the Board of Trade. 

At the request of Mr. Charles Cator, an anemometer of his construction 
has been tested at the Observatory, and the restdts communicated to him. 
Also, at the request of Professor Roscoe, the photographic action of total 
daylight is daily registered by an apparatus of his construction. 

The Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. De la Rue, continues to be worked 
by a qualified assistant, who gives much satisfaction. During the past 
year 243 negatives have been takeif on 146 days, and four sets of positives 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXV 

have been printed from each, some of which have been given to men of 
science interested in this branch of research. 

The negatives are being reduced under the superintendence of Mr. De 
la Rue, and by means of an instrument of his own construction, which he 
has generously presented to the Kew Committee. Mr. B. Loewy has been 
engaged in the reduction, which he is executing satisfactorily. 

It was mentioned in last Report that an addition to the Micrometer was 
in the course of construction, by means of which the proportion of the sun's 
disk obscured by spots might be conveniently measured. This arrangement 
is now completed; and the materials for measurement have been greatly in- 
creased through the kindness of Mr. Carrington, who has placed his original 
drawings, in which the size and appearance of the spots are delineated with 
great fidelity, at the disposal of the Kew Observatory. It may be desirable 
to state in a few words the proposed method of exhibiting the results of 
these reductions. In the progress of this branch of knowledge observers have 
been led to recognize certain laws which represent the average behaviour of 
sun-spots ; but to all of these laws there are individual exceptions. In this 
state of things it is probable that our knowledge of the subject will ulti- 
mately be advanced, not only by a study of those groups which behave in a 
normal manner, but also by a study of those which are exceptions in their 
behaviour to the general rule; and on this account it has been thought desi- 
rable to publish the results in such a way that anyone may be able to study 
the appearance and behaviour — in fact the whole history — of any one group. 

In order to accomplish this, a lens is being made by Dallmeyer, by means 
of which individual groups may be magnified to a scale on which the diameter 
of the sun will be equal in size to two feet. 

The sun-spots continue to be observed after the method of Hofrath Schwabe, 
of Dessau. 

As Kew is the first public institution which has taken up the subject of 
sun-spots, and as it is intended to continue the method of numbering groups 
so long and successfully adopted by Hofrath Schwabe, it was thought desirable 
to endeavour to procure, if possible, for this countr}- the original drawings made 
by this eminent and assiduous observer during a course of about forty years; 
A joint letter by Mr. De la Rue and Mr. Stewart was consequently addressed 
to Hofrath Schwabe ; and the following answer to it was soon received. 

" Gentlemen, — The request contained in your letter, although in the highest 
degree honourable and complimentary to me, and although it gives me an op- 
portunity to show the Royal Astronomical Society my gratitude for the Royal 
Medal granted to me, has still cost me some struggle before complying with it; 
for it is not easy to part with what has given me very often much pleasure 
and enjoyment as a compensation for the labour - devoted to the work. 

" But in complying with your desire I do so on one condition, viz. that you 
would grant me permission to obtain the observations back again at any time 
that I should be desirous of looking into them, during the short time of life 
still left to me. I do not think that I shall have an occasion to avail myself 
of the permission asked for ; but permit me kindly to believe that it is in my 
power to do so. After my death you may consider the whole of the observa- 
tions as the property of the Royal Astronomical Society. 

" Please to write me if you are willing to agree to the above desire, and 
I shall then immediately send you my astronomical diaries, &c. from 1825 to the 
end of 1864. " I remain, Gentlemen, 

" Tours very faithfully, 

" S. H. Schwabe." 
c2 



xxxvi REPORT — 18G.J. 

In order to realize this generous bequest of Hofrath Schwabe, Mr. Loewy of 
the Kew Observatory went to Dessau, taking with him a selection of dupli- 
cate negatives and prints of the sun, which he presented, in the name of the 
Association, to that gentleman. After receiving Mr. Loewy most courte- 
ously, Hofrath Schwabe expressed his gratification at the high degree of 
perfection attained in photoheliography, which surpassed his most sanguine 
expectations ; he also handed over to Mr. Loewy's trust not only his valu- 
able collection of sun-drawings, but also all his astronomical observations. 
Some of these will be exhibited at the Association. 

It has long been a desideratum in photoheliography, with the view of ob- 
taining the apparent diameter of the sun's disk, to ascertain the absolute values 
in arc of the divisions of the measuring-instrument (Mr. De la Hue's Micro- 
meter), and preliminary experiments were made with that object during the 
period that the Heliograph Avas at the Cranford Observatory. These were only 
partially successful. The mode of operation was this : a suitable object suffici- 
ently distant was photographed by means of the Kew instrument, with the 
lenses in the same positions as when solar pictures were taken. Different por- 
tions of the object (windows, doors, &c. of a house, for example) were then care- 
fully measured so as to ascertain their value in minutes and seconds of arc ; and 
by measuring the pictures of these several portions with the arbitrary scale of 
the Micrometer, the value of the latter in arc could be calculated. The experi- 
ments did not succeed so well as could have been desired, in consequence of 
the disturbance of the images by the undulations of the atmosphere, none 
but very low objects coming within the desired range. More recently, how- 
ever, the experiments have been taken up again with great promise, and 
excellent photographs of the Kew Pagoda have been obtained, which possess 
the requisite sharpness. The object itself, on account of its numerous galleries, 
is peculiarly fitted for such' observations, as it will be possible to ascer- 
tain and allow for any optical distortion of the photographic image. Thus 
it is not improbable that the Pagoda will afford the means of ascertaining, 
photographically, with the greatest accuracy, the angular diameter of the 
sun, and will give data for correcting the assumed semidiameter of the moon, 
by the discussion of photographic pictures of solar eclipses. 

M. Oussew has informed Mr. De la Eue that the Wilna Heliograph is 
now at work under his direction, during the absence, on account of ill health, 
of the Director, Prof. Sabler. At present he experiences some difficulty in 
obtaining perfect photographs, and he has been invited to receive instruction 
at the Kew Observatory. It is considered to be desirable on other accounts 
that M. Gussew shoiild be able to avail himself of the advantage thus 
offered to him, as an arrangement might then be made for the division of the 
labour of reducing the Heliographic observations. 

An apparatus will shortly be added to the Kew Observatory for the important 
object of the ready verification of sextants ; the system of distant mirrors 
now in use, designed by Mr. Galton and erected at his own cost, being only 
available in steady sunshine. 

The new apparatus has been designed by Mr. Thomas Cooke, the well- 
known optician. In principle, it consists of four collimators fixed radially, 
at various angles apart, round the table on which the sextant is to be laid 
for examination. The cross wires of the collimators in each of their com- 
binations are to be brought successively into contact by the sextant. Then 
a comparison of its readings with the constant angles of construction of the 
apparatus determines the error of the sextant at various points of its arc. 
However, in practice, to avoid the cost of very large collimators, whose 



REPORT OF THE &EW COMMITTEE. XXXV11 

object-glasses would suffice to include the rays proceeding both to the index 
and to the horizon-glasses of large sextants, Mr. Cooke employs double colli- 
mators of moderate size ; and he adjusts each pair to strict parallelism by 
aid of a detached telescope. 

The coloured shades of the sextant are readily examined by strongly illu- 
minating the fields of two of the collimators, after contact of their cross wires 
has been made in the ordinary manner. 

On the application of Mr. Galton, backed by the recommendation of the 
Kew Committee, the Council of the Eoyal (Society has allotted .£80 from the 
Government Grant, to defray the estimated cost of Mr. Cooke's apparatus, 
and its establishment in the Observatory at Kew. 

The apparatus will be erected in the basement-hall of the Observatory; 
and when the arrangement is complete it is hoped that the Observatory will 
become a place where quadrants and sextants can be verified with great 
facility, and where scientific travellers or officers in Her Majesty's Service 
may receive instruction in the use of geographical instruments. 

The solar spectrum is being mapped by the spectroscope belonging to the 
Chairman. All the measurements for the region between D and E have 
been made and carefully verified ; and a map of this region, in accordance 
with these measurements, has been constructed by Mr. Loewy. Many more 
lines are exhibited in this map than in that lately made by Professor Kirch- 
hoff. Observations made by this instrument have likewise brought out 
several new lines in the spectrum of ignited sodium. 

At the joint suggestion of Professor Tait of Edinburgh and the Superin- 
tendent, an ingenious apparatus has been constructed by Mr. Eeckley, by 
means of which a disk can be made to revolve in vacuo with great velocity ; 
and a short description of some experiments performed by means of this 
instrument, with the view of ascertaining whether visible as well as mole- 
cular motion is dissipated by a medium pervading space, has been commu- 
nicated to the Eoyal Society by the Superintendent in conjunction with 
Professor Tait. 

The instrument devised by Mr. Broun, for the purpose of estimating the 
magnetic dip by means of soft iron, remains at present at the Observatory. 

The Superintendent has received grants from the Eoyal Society for special 
experiments ; and when these are completed, an account will be rendered to 
that Society. 

It will be seen from the foregoing Eeport, that many other experiments 
and observations, of a nature to advance science, are made under the sanc- 
tion of the Committee, besides those which form the ordinary work of the 
Observatory; it is, however, always stipulated that the cost of such experi- 
ments shall be defrayed by their promoters. 

J. P. Gassiot, 

C hairman. 
Kew Observatory, 

31st August, 1865. 



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REPORT OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. XXXlX 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Birmingham, September 1865. 

The Parliamentary Committe have the honour to report as follows :— 

By a Resolution passed at Bath your Committee were requested to press 
on the Government the expediency of instituting a series of experiments oir 
Foo- Signals, but on consulting some of the Members of the Committee 
appointed for the purpose of making experiments on the transmission of 
sound under water, your Committee were informed that no action on the part 
of the Government was at present necessary. 

Your Committee brought under the notice of the Council the unsatisfactory 
character of the provisions of the Public Schools Bill of last Session, so far as 
they affected the interests of Science. 

Your Committee advocated such alterations therein as they believed would 
be most likely to promote these interests ; and it was at the suggestion of one 
of their members that Professors Sharpey, W. A. Miller, Huxley, and TynclaU 
were applied to, and gave the admirable evidence on the extent to which 
Physical Science might with advantage be introduced into the studies of our 
great Public Schools, which will be foimd in the Appendix to the Report of 
the Committee of the House of Lords on the Bill above referred to, and to 
which the attention of all engaged in the instruction of youth may be usefully 
directed. Some valuable remarks on the same subject by our President Elect 
had been previously referred to in the course of the Debate ; and the evidence 
of our President, Drs. Carpenter and Hooker, the Astronomer Royal, and 
others, before the Public School Commissioners, furnishes an additional proof, 
if any were wanting, of the zeal and energy with which the Cultivators of 
Science continue to remonstrate against the system, which still unhappily 
prevails in many of our Schools, of ignoring the claims of Science. 

Whottesley, Chairman. 
31st August, 1865. 



xl REroiiT — 1863. 

recommendations adopted by the genekal committee at the blkjunghajl 

Meeting in September 1865. 

[Whcu Committees are appointed, the Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That trie sum of .£'600 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That the Lunar Committee, consisting of Mr. J. Glaisher, Lord Eosse, 
The Rev. T. W. Webb, Mr. W. E. Birt, Dr. Lee, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, Rev. 
"W. E. Dawes, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Frofessor Phillips, Mr. J. Nasmyth, 
Mr. Warren De la Rue, and Mr. H. S. Ellis, be reappointed, with the object of 
making further progress in mapping the surface of the Moon ; that Mr. W. 
E. Birt be Secretary, and that the sum of .£100 be placed at their disposal 
for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Electrical Standards, consisting of Professor 
Williamson, Professor Wheatstone, Professor W. Thomson, Professor W. A. 
Miller, Dr. A. Matthiessen, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir Charles Bright, Pro- 
fessor Maxwell, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Dr. Joule, and 
Mr. C. F. Yarley, be reappointed, with power to add to their number ; that 
Mr. Fleeming Jenkin be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors and Aerolites, consisting of 
Mr. Glaisher, Mr. E. P. Greg, Mr. E. W. Brayley, and Mr. Alexander 
Herschel, be reappointed ; that Mr. Herschel be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Balloon Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, Mr. Airy, 
Lord Wrottesley, Sir David Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Lee, Dr. 
Eobinson, Mr. Fairbairn, Dr. Tyndall, Dr. W. A. Miller, and Mr. Glaisher, 
be reappointed for the purpose of making night observations at any time of 
the year, and day observations in the months of October to April ; and elec- 
trical observations if possible ; that Mr. Glaisher bo the Secretary, and that 
the sum of .£100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Eobinson, Professor Wheatstone, Dr. Gladstone, and Professor 
Hennessy be reappointed (with power to add to their number) for the purpose 
of making experiments on the Transmission of Sound under Water ; and that 
the sum of £30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Glaisher, Lord Wrottesley, Professor Phillips, Professor Tyndall, 
Dr. Lee, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. F. J. Bateman, and Mr. E. W. Mylne be a 
Committee for the purpose of continuing the Eeports on the Eainfall of the 
British Isles ; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for that 
purpose. 

That the Astronomer Royal, Lord Wrottesley, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Lee, 
Mr. W. De la Eue, and Mr. Glaisher (with power to add to their number) be a 
Committee for the purpose of examining the late Dr. Bumker's Astronomical 
Observations in the Southern Hemisphere ; and in case they should be of 
opinion that it is desirable these observations should be reduced for publica- 
tion, a sum of £150 be granted to Professor G. Eiimker, M.A., for that 
purpose. 

That Mr. Thomas Fairley be requested to continue his researches on the 



RECOMMENDATIONS Oi' THE 6ENERA£ COMMITTEE. xli 

Polycyanides of Organic Radicals ; and that £20 be placed at his disposal for 
that purpose. 

That Dr. Matthiessen be requested to investigate the chemical constitution 
of Cast Iron ; and that the sum of =£'-50 be placed at his disposal for the 
purpose. 

That the Committee appointed at Bath (Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor 
Phillips, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart,, Mr. J. Evans, Mr. E. Vivian, and Mr. W. 
Pengelly) to investigate Kent's Hole, Torquay, be requested to continue 
the exploration ; that Mr. "W. Pengelly be the Secretary, and that the further 
sum of £200 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Messrs. W. S. Mitchell, J. Prestwich, and H. Woodward be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Fossil-Leaf Bed in Alum Bay, 
Isle of Wight ; that the specimens be placed in the British Museum ; and 
that the sum of .£20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. Perceval Wright and Professor Harkness be a Committee for 
the purpose of assisting Mr. Brownrig in exploring the Kilkenny Coal 
Field ; that the Fossils thus obtained be placed in some National museum ; 
and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor Busk and Captain Spratt be a Committee for the purpose 
of continuing to assist Dr. Leith Adams in the exploration of the Maltese 
Caverns ; and that the further sum of =£30 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Sir Roderick I. Murchison, Professor Owen, the Earl of Dueie, Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, and the llev. H. B. Tristram be a Committee for the 
purpose of aiding the Palestine Exploration Fund in exploring the Geology, 
Geography, and Zoology of the Holy Land ; and that the sum of =£100 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee appointed at Bath, consisting of Mr. J. W. Salter, 
Mr. R. Lightbody, Mr. Ticary, and Mr. J. E. Lee, be reappointed for the 
purpose of assisting Mr. Hicks in further excavations in the Lingula Flags at 
St. David's ; and that an illustrative suite of the Fossils be placed in the 
Miiseum of Practical Geology, Jerniyn Street ; and that the sum of =£20 be 
placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Bryce, Mr. Milne Home, and Mr. M c Farlan be a Committee 
for the purpose of studying Earthquake Shocks in Scotland ; and that the 
sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. Perceval Wright and Dr. Carte be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of reporting on the Irish Annelids ; and that the sum of £15 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. A. Newton, llev. H. B. Tristram, and Dr. Sclater be a Committee 
for the purpose of assisting Mr. E. Newton in his researches for the remains 
of the extinct Didino birds of the Mascareen Islands, and to report thereon 
at the next Meeting of the Association ; and that the sum of £50 be placed 
at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Bobert M c Andrew, Mr. Edward Waller, 
Rev. A. M. Norman, and Mr. II. K. Jordan be a Committee for the purpose 
of exploring the Coasts of the Hebrides by means of the dredge ; and that the 
sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. John Couch, Mr. B. 
Rowe, Mr. C. Stewart, and the Bev. Dr. Hincks be a Committee for inves- 
tigating the Marine Flora and Fauna of the southern coasts of Devon and 
Cornwall ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 



xlii report — 1865. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Rev. W. Gregbr, and Mr. Robert Dawson be a 
Committee for tbe purpose of exploring the Coasts of Aberdeenshire and 
Banffshire ; and that the sum of .£25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Dr. Scott, Mr. C. Stewart, and Mr. H. S. Ellis be a Committee for 
the purpose of .making experiments on Oyster Culture in the West of 
England ; and that the sum of =£10 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Dr. Collingwood, Rev. H. H. Higgins, Mr. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. J. B. Edwards, and Mr. Thomas J. Moore be a Committee 
for the purpose of dredging the Estuary of the Mersey ; and that the sum of 
£5 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. J. E. Gray, Mr. C. Spence Bate, and Mr. Frank Buckland be a 
Committee for the purpose of reporting on Oyster Culture ; and that the sum 
of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir John Lubbock Bart., Sir Henry Rawlinson, Mr. Jolm Crawfurd, 
Professor Huxley, and Mr. Francis Galton be a Committee for the purpose 
of aiding the researches of Mr. George Busk on Typical Crania ; and that the 
sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. Barnard Davis, Professor Acland, and Professor Rolleston be a 
Committee for the purpose of preparing a Catalogue of Crania ; and that the 
sum of =£50 be placed at their disposal for that purpose. 

That a grant of .£10 be made to Dr. Richard Norris to enable him to 
pursue physiological experiments on Rigor Mortis. 

That a grant of £25 be made to Dr. B. W. Richardson to enable him to 
pursue his physiological experiments on the Aniyl Series and allied organic 
compounds. 

That Sir John Bowring, Lord Wrottesley, The Bight Hon. C. B. Adderley, 
Sir William Armstrong, The Astronomer Royal, Samuel Brown, W. Ewart, 
T. Graham, Sir John Hay, Bart., Professor flennessy, James Heywood, Dr. 
Lee, Dr. Leone Levi, Professor W. A. Miller, Professor Rankine, Rev. Dr. 
Robinson, Colonel Sykes, W. Tito, Professor A. W. Williamson, James Yates, 
Sir Robert Kane, F. P. Fellows, C. W. Siemens, Matthew Arnold, Right 
Hon. Earl Fortescue, Dr. Dieterici, Follett Osier, Ralph Hcaton, I. de 
Meschen, and P. Le Neve Foster (with power to add to their number), be a 
Committee, with power to use such measures as they may deem expedient for 
promoting the extensive use of the Metric System in scientific documents, as 
well as the teaching of the system in schools and colleges, and for the general 
information of the people ; that Professor Leone Levi be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the furtherance of these 
objects. 

That the Patent Law Committee be reappointed, and that it consist of the 
following Members : — Mr. Thomas Webster, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mr. J. F. 
Bateman, Mr. W. Fairbairn, Mr. John Hawkshaw, Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. 
John Bethel, and Mr. Peter Le Neve Foster ; and that the grant of £30, pre- 
viously made and not drawn, be renewed. 

That the Committee for the purpose of experimenting on the difference 
between the resistance of water to floating and to immersed bodies, consisting 
of J. Scott Russell, Mr. J. R. Napier, Professor Rankine, and Mr. W. Froude, 
be reappointed ; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xliU 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants 

of Money. 

That Professor Stokes be requested to continue his Eeport on Physical 
Optics. 

That Professor Smith be requested to continue and conclude his Eeport on 
the Theory of Numbers. 

That Professor "Wanklyn be requested to continue his Research on the 
Hexylic Compounds. 

That the Committee on Scientific Evidence in Courts of Law, consisting 
of the Rev. "W. Y. Harcourt, Professor "Williamson, TheRight Hon. J. Napier, 
Mr. W. Tite, Professor Christison, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. J. P. Bateman, 
Mr. Thomas Webster, Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., and Professor "W. A. 
Miller (with power to add to their number) be reappointed ; and that Pro- 
fessor "Williamson be the Secretary. 

That Dr. Paul be requested to continue his Report on the Application of 
Chemistry to Geology. 

That Dr. Baker Edwards be requested to continue his Research on the 
Alkaloidal Principles of the Calabar Bean. 

That Mr. J. F. Spencer, not having been able to'complete his Report " On 
the different modes of estimating the nominal horse-power of Marine En- 
gines, with a view of securing a uniform system," be requested to continue 
his labours, and Report at the next Meeting. 

That the Gun-Cotton Committee, consisting of Mr. Fairbairn, Mr. Joseph 
"Whitworth, Mr. James Nasmyth, Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. John Anderson, 
Sir William G. Armstrong, Dr. Gladstone, Professor YV. A. Miller, Dr. Frank- 
land, and Mr. Abel, be reappointed and requested to continue their Report. 

Involving Application to Government. 

That Sir Roderick Murchison, Admiral R. Collinson, Admiral Ommanney, 
and Mr. C. R. Markham be a Committee for the purpose of representing to 
Her Majesty's Government the advantage to several branches of Science 
that would be derived from the ^exploration of the unknown region around 
the North Pole. 

Communications to be printed in extenso. 

That the Addresses of the Presidents of the Sections be printed in extenso 
in the Transactions. 

That the Paper read by Mr. Follett Osier on September 11, "On the 
Horary and Diurnal Variations in the Motion of the Air," with Diagrams 
illustrating the same, be printed in extenso in the Reports of the Asso- 
ciation. • 

That Mr. Bessemer's Paper " On the Manufacture of Cast Steel, its pro- 
gress and employment as a substitute for "Wrought Don," be printed in extenso 
in the Transactions of the Sections. 



That the title of Section D be changed to Biology, and that the Council be 
charged with making the requisite arrangements. 

The Committee unanimously recommend that for the word " Subsection " 
in the third paragraph of the business of Sections the word " Department " 
be substituted. 



xliv REPORT — 18G5. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 
the General Committee at the Birmingham Meeting in September 
1865. The names of the Members who ivould be entitled to call on 
the General Treasurer for the respective Grants are prefixed. 

Kew Observatory. £ s. J. 

Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory 600 

Mathematics and Physics. 

Glaisher, Mr.— Lunar Committee 100 

Williamson, Prof.— Electrical Standards 100 

Glaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors and Aerolites 50 

Sykes, Col.— Balloon Experiments 100 

Robinson, Dr. — Sound under "Water (renewed) 30 

Glaisher, Mr.— British Rainfall 50 

Airy, Mr. — Reduction of Riimker Observations 150 

Chemistry. 

Fairlcy, Mr. — Polycyanides of Organic Radicals 20 

Matthiessen, Dr.— Chemical Constitution of Cast Iron (renewed) 50 

Geology. 

Lyell, Sir C— Kent's Hole Investigation 200 

Mitchell, Mr.— Alum Bay Eossil Leaf Bed 20 

Wright, Dr. E. P.— Kilkenny Coal-field 20 

Busk, Professor. — Maltese Caverns Explorations 30 

Murchison, Sir R. — Palestine Explorations 100 

Salter, Mr. J. W.— Lingnla Elags at St. David's 20 

Bryce, Mr. J. — Researches on Earthquakes in Scotland 25 

Zoology, Botany, and Physiology. 

Wright, Dr. E. P.— Irish Annelida 15 

Newton, Mr. — Didine Birds of Mascareen Islands 50 

Jeffreys, Mr.— Hebrides Coast Dredging 50 

Jeffreys, Mr. — Marine Fanna and Flora (Devon and Cornwall) 25 

Jeffreys, Mr.— Aberdeen and Banffshire Coast Dredging .... 25 

Scott, Mr.— Oyster Culture in the West of England 10 

Jeffreys, Mr. — Mersey Dredging 5 

Gray, Dr. J. E.— Oyster Culture 25 

Davis, Dr. Barnard.— Catalogue of Crania 50 

Norris, Dr. Richard. — Observations on Rigor Mortis 10 

Richardson, Dr. B. W. — Amyl Compounds 25 

Geography and Ethnology. 

Lubbock, Sir J.— Typical Crania (renewed) 50 

Statistics and Economic Science. 

Bowring, Sir J. — Metrical Committee 50 

Mechanics. 

Webster, Mr.— Patent Laws (renewed) 30 

Russell, J. Scott, Mr. — Resistance of Water to Floating Bodies 50 

Total "2135 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlv 



General Statement of Bums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 

1334. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

£167 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain-Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 



£434 14 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 I 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 

Mud in Rivers , 

Education Committee 

Heart Experiments 

Land and Sea Level , 

Subterranean Temperature . 

Steam-vessels 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 

Thermometers 16 4 




6 6 



tu 
3 
50 



5 

267 




7 

8 6 
100 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides , , 35 18 6 



£ ». d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 
Temperature 

Vitrification Experiments 

Cast Iron Experiments 

Railway Constants 

Land and Sea Level 

Steam-vessels' Engines 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 

Stars in Lacaille 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 

Animal Secretions 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 

Atmospheric Air 

Cast and Wrought Iron 

Heat on Organic Bodies 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 

Fossil Reptiles 

Mining Statistics 

£l 



21 


11 





9 


4 


7 


100 








28 


7 


2 


274 


1 


4 


100 








331 


18 


(i 


11 











16 


6 


10 


10 





50 








16 


1 





40 








3 








22 








49 


7 


8 


118 


2 


9 


50 









595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth SO 

Magnetical Observations 185 

£1546 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 


(i 





u 


15 








(1 








17 


6 


1 


6 















7 




13 9 



16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 



30 



8 











7 








1) 











(i 


12 


8 





l) 


18 


6 


tl 


U 



xlvi 



report — 1865. 



JE 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 

Forms of Vessels 193 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leiih 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 

Tabulating Observations 9 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals .jj 2_ 

£1235 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 

Anoplura Britannise 52 

Tides at Bristol 59 

Gases on Light 30 

Chronometers 26 

Marine Zoology 1 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels ISO 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 

Questions on Human Race 7 

£1449 



s. d. 

5 

19 6 













1 6 
12 





18 8 




1 10 
6 3 





10 11 



11 


2 


12 





8 





14 


7 


17 


6 


5 



































10 


































1 11 

9 



17 







1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

tionsatKingussieandlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 
Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 18 3 

Registration* of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 
Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 




5 




8 




















14 


1(1 





» 











1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlvii 



£ s. 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 17 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 11 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollusca of the 

jEgean and Red Seas 1S42 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 7 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 10 3 

£981 12 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 14 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 18 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 11 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 17 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1S43 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1S44 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 14 

~£830 9~ 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 



I 



6 



10 











£ 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 



s. 


d. 














16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 





3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



5 4 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Vitality of Seeds 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

£275 



15 


11 


10 


9 


15 

















1849. 

Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 
ditto 76 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 
Observations 13 

£159 19 



2 


5 


8 


1 














9 






1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ... 50 



18 




xl 



vm 



REPORT — 18G5. 



£ s. d. 

Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

£345 18 

1891. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

KewObservatory (includes part 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

"16391 9 7 

1852. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 8 
Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 

Hda 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 

1853. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 1C5 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne* 

Hda 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland ]0 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 
1S54. " 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flax n 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena j0 

British Annelida '", ' 10 

Vitality of Seeds ....!.!!!!!!!"!!! 5 
Conduction of Heat !"" 4 

' £380 19 7 

1855. ~" 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 495 

Earthquake Movements '." 10 

Physical Aspect of the Moon!!! 1 1 

Vitality of Seeds ]0 

Map of the AVorld .,..,', ] 5 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast ,",'!,!!!!!!! 4 

£480 16 A 



2 


9 




















6 











fi 


7 














o- 






























2 


3 


2 


















8 


5 


t 


11 





















185(5. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory : — 

1854 £ 75 01 

1855 £500 0/ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 



575 









13 


9 



























£734 13 9 



1857. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 
Researches on British Annelida 25 
Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 

Life-Boats 5 























7 8 

7 4 





£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining.the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 



























5 





13 




















£618 18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidse 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

of Ireland 10 

Photographic Chemistry 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents 39 



























































1 


11 






£G84 1 1 I 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlix 









6 












1860. £ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging in Dublin Hay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico- mechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

ofManures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts 1 13 6 



£1241 7 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1860 £50 01 

1861 £22 0J 

Excavations at Dura Den 20 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 










72 

























5 1 





£1111 5 10 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 216 

Mollusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photoheliometer at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North- East Coast of 

Scotland 6 9 6 

Ravages of Teredo , 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 

1865. 



£ 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thermo-lilectric Currents 5 

£1293 

1863. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

D urham 17 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity , 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydroids 10 

£1608 

1864. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Coal Fossils '. 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon underpressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrjte of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 

Cast Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289~ 



s. 


d 


























10 


















16 6 





































































3 


10 

















































































3 10 

















































































15 


8 



























15 8 



1 



REPORT 1865. 



Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 

Luminous Meteors 40 



s. 


d. 
























































10 












£1591 7 10 



1865. £ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee 100 

Ilvdroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexylic Compounds 20 

Amyl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American Mollusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 

Lingula Flags Excavation 10 

Eurypterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call on 
the Treasurer, William Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W., 
for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 

General Meetings. 

On Wednesday Evening, September 6, at 8 p.m., in the Town Hall, Sir 
Charles Lyell, Bart., M.A.,D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., resigned the ofiice of 
President" to Professor John Phillips, M.A., LL.D., P.R.S., E.G.S., who took 
the Chair, and delivered an Address, for which see page li. 

On Thursday Evening, September 7, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Town Hall. 

On Eriday Evening, September 8, at 8.30 p.m., in the Town Hall, Joseph 
Beete Jukes, Esq., E.R.S., E.G.S., delivered a Discourse on the "Probabili- 
ties as to the Position and Extent of the Coal-Measures beneath the Red 
Rocks of the Midland Counties." 

On Monday Evening, September 11, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place at the 
•Exhibition of the Society of Artists. 

On Tuesday Evening, September 12, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Town Hall. 

On Wednesday, September 13, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Nottingham*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, August 22, 1866. 



* ADDRESS 

OF 

JOHN PHILLIPS, 

M.A. OXOST.; LL.D. DUBLIN; F.E.S.; F.G.S.; ETC. 



Assembled for the third time in this busy centre of industrious England, 
amid the roar of engines and the clang of hammers, where the strongest 
powers of nature are trained to work in the fairy chains of art, how softly 
falls upon the ear the accent of Science, the friend of that art, and the 
guide of that industry ! Here, where Priestley analyzed the air, and Watt 
obtained the mastery over steam, it well becomes the students of nature to 
gather round the standard which they carried so far into the fields of know- 
ledge. And when, on other occasions, we meet in quiet colleges and Aca- 
demic halls, how gladly welcome is the union of fresh discoveries and new 
inventions with the solid and venerable truths which are there treasured and 
taught. Long may such union last ; the fair alliance of cultivated thought 
and practical skill ; for by it labour is dignified and science fertilized, and the 
condition of human society exalted ! 

Through this happy combination of science and art, the young life of the 
British Association — one-third of a century — has been illustrated by disco- 
veries and enriched by useful inventions in a degree never surpassed. How 
else could we have gained that knowledge of the laws of nature which has 
added to the working strength of a thousand millions of men the mightier 
power of steam *, extracted from the buried ruins of primeval forests their 
treasured elements of heat and light and colour, and brought under the con- 
trol of the human finger, and converted into a messenger of man's gentlest 
thoughts, the dangerous mystery of the lightning f ? 

How many questions have we asked — not always in vain — regarding the 
constitution of the earth, its history as a planet, its place in creation ; — now 
probing with sharpened eyes the peopled space around — peopled with a thou- 
sand times ten thousand stars ; — now floating above the clouds in colder and 
clearer air; — now traversing the polar ice — the desert sand— the virgin 
forest — the unconquered mountain ; — now sounding the depths of the ocean, 
or diving into the dark places of the earth. Everywhere curiosity, every - 

* The quantity of coal dug in Great Britain in the year 1864 appears by the returns of 
Mr. E. Hunt to have been 92,787,873 tons. This would yield, if employed in steam- 
engines of good construction, an amount of available force about equal to that of the 
whole human race. But in the combustion of coal not less than ten times this amount of 
force is actually set free — nine-tenths being at present unavailable, according to the state- 
ment of Sir William Armstrong, in his Address to the Meeting at Newcastle in 1863. 

t The definite magnetic effect of an electrical current was the discovery of Oersted in 
1819 ; Cooke and Wheatstone's patent for an Electric Telegraph is dated in 1837 ; the first 
message across the Atlantic was delivered in 1858. Tantse mobs erat. 

(12 



Hi report — 1865. 

where disco very, everywhere enjoyment, everywhere some useful and there- 
fore some worthy result. Life in every form, of every grade, in every stage ; 
man in every clime and under all conditions ; the life that now surrounds 
us, and that which has passed away ; — -these subjects of high contemplation 
have been examined often, if not always, in the spirit of that philosophy 
which is slowly raising, on a broad security of observed facts, sure induc- 
tions, and repeated experiments, the steady columns of the temple of physi- 
cal truth. 

Few of the great branches of the study of nature on which modern philo- 
sophy is intent were left unconsidered in the schools of Athens ; hardly one 
of them was or indeed could be made the subject of accurate experiment. 
The precious instruments of exact research — -the measures of time, and space, 
and force, and motion — are of very modern date. If instead of the few 
lenses and mirrors of which traces appear in Greek and Roman writers *, 
there had been even the first Galilean or the smallest Newtonian telescope in 
the hands of Hipparchus, Eratosthenes, or Ptolemy, would it have been left 
to their remote successors to be still struggling with the elements of physical 
astronomy, and waiting with impatience till another quarter of a century 
shall have rolled away and given us one more good chance of measuring the 
distance of the Sun by the transit of Venus ? Had such instruments as 
Wheatstone's Chronoscope been invented, would it have been left to Foucault 
to condense into his own apartment an experimental proof of the velocity of 
light, and within a tract of thirty feet to determine the rate of its movement 
through all the vast planetary space of millions and thousands of millions of 
miles, more exactly than had been inferred by astronomers from observa- 
tions of the satellites of Jupiter t ? By this experiment the velocity of light 
appears to be less, sensibly less, than was previously admitted ; and this con- 
clusion is of the highest interest. For, as by assuming too long a radius for 
the orbit of Jupiter the calculated rate of light-mavement was too great ; so 
now by employing the more exact rate and the same measures of time we 
can correct the estimated distance of Jupiter and all the other planets from 
the sun. We have in fact a really independent measure of planetary space ; 
and it concurs with observations of the parallax of Mars, in requiring a con- 
siderable reduction of the assumed diameters of the planetary paths. The 
distance of the earth from the sun must be reduced from above ninety-five 
to less than ninety-three millions of miles, and by this scale the other space- 
measures of the solar system, excepting the diameter of the earth and the 
distance and diameter of the moon, may be corrected +. 

* The effect of lenses or globes of glass or crystal (iJaXo?) in collecting the solar rays 
to a point are familiarly referred to by Aristophanes in the Nubes, 76G ; and the orna- 
mental use of convex and concave reflectors is known by the curious discussions in tile 
IVth Book of Lucretius. 

t Fizeau performed experiments on the velocity of light between Suresnes and the 
Butte Montmartre, by means of the oxyhydrogen light, reflected back in its own path. 

1 
The space was 28,324 feet Engl. Twice this distance was traversed in 7iT7jn77 of a 

second = 167,528 geogr. miles in a second. From observations of Jupiter's satellites De- 
lambre inferred 107,976 miles, Struve 166,096. The experiment of M. Foucault gives 
298,000,000 metres = 160,920 geogr. miles. 

J Estimates of the earth's distance from the sun have varied much. Cassiniand 
Flair steed, using observations of the parallax of Mars, ascribe to it 10,000 or 11,000 
diameters of the earth = 79 or 89 millions of miles. Huyghens estimated it at 12,000 = 
95 millions of miles. In 1745, Button reported it as the common opinion of astronomers 
at 30 millions of leagues (Fr.)=90 millions miles (Engl.), but after the transit of Venus 



ADDRESS. 



liii 



The light and heat which are emitted from the sun reach the earth without 
great diminution by the absorptive action of the atmosphere ; but the waste 
of heat from the surface of our planet through radiation into space is pre- 
vented, or rather lessened by this same atmosphere. Many transparent 
bodies admit freely heat-rays derived from a source of high temperature, but 
stop the rays which emanate from bodies only slightly warmed. The atmo- 
sphere possesses this quality in a remarkable degree, and owes it to the pre- 
sence of diffused water and vapour ; a fact which Dr. Tyndall has placed in 
the clear light of complete and varied experiment *. The application of this 
truth to the history of the earth and of the other planets is obvious. The 
vaporous atmosphere acts like warm clothing to the earth. Hy an augmented 
quantity of vapour dissolved, and water suspended in the air, the waste of 
surface-heat of the earth would be more impeded ; the soil, the water, and 
the lower parts of the atmosphere woiild grow wanner; the climates would 
be more equalized ; the general conditions more like what has been supposed 
to be the state of land, sea, and air during the geological period of the Coal- 
measures. 

Such an augmentation of the watery constituents in the atmosphere would 
be a natural consequence of that greater flow of heat from the interior, which 
by many geologists, mathematicians, and chemists is supposed to have hap- 
pened in the earlier periods of the history of the earth. 

By the same considerations we may understand how the planet Mars, which 
receives not half so much heat from the sun f as the earth does, may yet 
enjoy, as in fact it seems to enjoy, nearly a similar climate, with snows alter- 
nately gathering on one or the other of its poles, and spreading over large 
spaces around, but not, apparently, beyond the latitude of 50° or 40°; the 
equatorial band of 30° or 40° north or south being always free from snow- 
masses bright enough and large enough to catch the eye of the observer. 
Mars may therefore be inhabited, and we may see in the present state of 
this inquiry reason to pause before refusing the probability of any life to 
Jupiter and even more distant planets. 

The history of suns and planets is in truth the history of the effects of 
light and heat manifested in them, or emanating from them. Nothing in 
the universe escapes their influence ; no part of space is too distant to be 
penetrated by their energy ; no kind of matter is able to resist their trans- 
forming agency. Many if not all the special forces which act in the parti- 
cles of matter are found to be reducible into the general form of heat ; as 
this is convertible and practically is converted into proportionate measures of 
special energy. Under this comprehensive idea of convertibility of force, 
familiar to us now by the researches of Joule J, the reasonings of Grove § and 
Helmholtz, and the theorems of Eankine |[, it has been attempted by Mayer, 
Waterston, and Thomson^! to assign a cause for the maintenance of the heat- 
giving power of the sun in the appulse of showers of aerolites and small 

in 1769, he allowed 33 millions. Such was the effect of that now supposed erroneous ex- 
periment on the opinions of astronomers. (Epoques de la Nature.) 

* Proc. of Koy. Soc. 1861. The Rumford Medal was adjudged to Dr. Tyndall in 1864. 

t The proportion is about ^§r according to the received measure of the mean dis- 
tance. 

J Phil. Mag. 1843; Reports of the British Association, 1845 ; Trans, of the Royal 
Society, 1850. 

§ Grove on the Correlation of Phvsical Forces, 1846. 

|| Rankine, Trans, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1850-51 ; Phil. Trans, 1854. 

*|[ Communication to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1 854. 



liv REPORT — 18G5. 

masses of matter, and the extinction of their motion on the surface of the 
luminary. By calculations of the same order, depending on the rate of radi- 
ation of heat into space, the past antiquity of the earth and the future 
duration of sunshine have heen expressed in thousands or millions of centu- 
ries *. In like manner the physical changes on the sun's disk, by which 
portions of his darkly heated body become visible through the luminous 
photosphere, have been connected, if not distinctly as a cause, certainly as a 
coincident phenomenon, with particular magnetic disturbances on the surface 
of the earth; the solar spots and the magnetic deflections concurring in 
periods of maxima and minima of ten or eleven years' duration. Thus even 
these aberrant phenomena become part of that amazing system of periodical 
variation which Sabine and his fellow-labourers, British, French, German, 
Russian, and American, have established by contemporaneous observation over 
a large part of the globe t. 

With every change in the aspect and position of the sun, with every alte- 
ration in the place and attitude of the moon, with every passing hour, the 
magnetism of the earth submits to regular and calculable deviation. Through 
the substance of the ground, and across the world of waters. Nature, ever 
the beneficent guide to Science, has conveyed her messages and executed her 
purposes, by the electric current, before the discovery of Oersted and the 
magical inventions of "Wheatstone revealed the secret of her work. 

Even radiant light in the language of the new Philosophy is conceived of 
by Maxwell J as a form of electro-magnetic motion. And thus the impon- 
derable, all-pervading powers, by which molecular energy is excited and 
exchanged, are gathered into the one idea of restless activity among the 
particles of matter : — 

. . . seterno percita niotu : 

ever-moving and being moved, elements of a system of perpetual change in 
every part, and constant preservation of the whole. 

What message comes to us with the light which springs from the distant 
stars, and shoots through the depths of space to fall upon the earth after 
tens, or hundreds, or thousands of years ? It is a message from the very 
birthplace of light, and tells us what are the elementary substances which 
have influenced the refraction of the ray. Spectral analysis, that new and 
powerful instrument of chemical research for which we arc indebted to 
Kirchhoff, has been taught by our countrymen to scrutinize not only planets 
and stars, but even to reveal the constitution of the nebula?, those mysterious 
masses out of which it has been thought new suns and planets might be 
evolved — nursing-mothers of the stars. For a time, indeed, the resolution 

* Professor Thomson assigns to the sun's heat, supposing it to be maintained by 
the appulse of masses of matter, a limit of 300,000 years ; and to the period of cooling of 
the earth from universal fusion to its actual state, 98 million years. These are the lowest 
estimates sanctioned by any mathematician. 

t A m ong the interesting researches which have been undertaken on the subject of the 
spots, may be mentioned those of Wolf (Comptes Kendus, 1859), who finds the number 
and periodicity of the spots to be dependent on the position of Venus, the Earth, Jupiter, 
and Saturn. Stewart has made a special study of the relation of the spots to the path of 
Venus (Proc. of the Koy. Soc. 186-1) ; and Cliacornac is now engaged iu unfolding his 
conception of the spots as the visible effect of volcanic excitement. The peculiar features 
of the solar surface are under examination by these and other good observers ; such as 
Dawes, Nasmyth, Secchi, Stone, Fletcher, Howlett, and Lockyer. 

| Proc. of Eoy. Soc. 1864. The elder Herschel appears to have regarded the light of 
the sun and of the fixed stars as perhaps the effect of an electro-magnetic process — a per- 
petual aurora. 



ADDRESS. lv 

of some nebuhe, by the giant mirror of Lord Rosse, afforded ground for 
opposing the speculation of Herschel and the reasoning of Laplace, which 
required for their very starting-point the admission of the existence of thin 
gaseous expansions, with or without points or centres of incipient condensa- 
tion, with or without marks of internal movement. The latest results, how- 
ever, of spectral analysis of stars and nebulas by Mr. Huggins and Professor 
W. A. Miller, have fairly restored the balance. The nebulas are indeed found 
to have in some instances stellar points, but they are not stars ; the whole 
resembles an enormous mass of luminous gas, with an interrupted spectrum 
of three lines, probably agreeing with nitrogen, hydrogen, and a substance at 
present unknown*. Stars tested by the same accurate hands are found to 
have a constitution like that of our own Sun, and, like it, to show the pre- 
sence of several terrestrial elements — as sodium, magnesium, iron, and very 
often hydrogen. While in the Moon and Venus no lines whatever are found 
due to an atmosphere, in Jupiter and Saturn, besides the lines which are 
identical with some produced in our own atmosphere, there is one in the red, 
which may be caused by the presence of some unknown gas or vapour. Mars 
is still more peculiar, and enough is ascertained to discountenance the notion 
of his redness being due to a peculiarity of the soil f. 

To aid researches into the condition of celestial bodies, the new powers of 
light, discovered by Niepce, Dagucrre, and Talbot, have been employed by 
Bond, Draper, De la Rue, and other astronomers. To our countryman, in 
particular, belongs the honour of successful experiments on the rose-coloured 
flames which extend from certain points of the sun's border during an 
eclipse ; as well as of valuable contributions through the same agency to that 
enlarged survey of the physical aspect of the moon, which, since 1852, the 
Association has striven to promote. By another application of the same 
beautiful art, in connexion with clock-work, the momentary changes of 
magnetic force and direction, the variations of temperature, the fluctuations 
of atmospheric pressure, the force of the wind, the fall of rain, the propor- 
tion of ozone in the air, are registered in our observatories ; and thus the 
inventions of Ronalds and his successors have engaged the solar rays in 
measuring and comparing contemporaneous phenomena of the same order 
over lar£ e parts of the globe — phenomena some of which are occasioned by 
those very rays. 

As we ascend above the earth, heat, moisture, and magnetic force decrease, 
the velocity of wind augments, and the proportion of oxygen and nitrogen 
remains the same. The decrease of heat as we rise into the air is no new 
subject of inquiry, nor have the views respecting it been very limited or very 
accordant. Leslie considered it mathematically in relation to pressure ; 
Humboldt gave the result of a large inquiry at points on the earth's surface, 
unequally elevated above the sea ; and finally, Mr. Glaisher and Mr. Coxwell, 
during many balloon ascents to the zones of life-destroying cold, far above 
our mountain tops, have obtained innumerable data, in all seasons of the year, 
through a vast range of vertical height. The result is to show much more 
rapid decrease near the earth, much slower decrease at great elevations ; 
thus agreeing in general with the decrease of density, and yet throwing no 
discredit on the determinations of Humboldt, which do not refer to the free 
atmospheric ocean, but to the mere borders of it where it touches the earth, 
and is influenced thereby J. 

* Proc. Roy. Soe. and Phil. Trans. 1864. t Phil. Trans. 1864. 

t Reports of the British Association for 1862, 1863, 1864. 



lvi REPORT — 1865. 

The proportion of carbonic acid gas in the atmosphere at great heights is 
not yet ascertained : it is not likely to be the same as that generally found 
near the earth ; but its proportion may be more constant, since in those 
regions it is exempt from the influence of the actions and reactions which 
are always in progress on the land and in the water, and do not necessarily 
compensate one another at every place and at every moment. 

Other information bearing on the constitution of the atmosphere comes to 
us from the auroral beams and other meteoric lights known as shooting-stars. 
For some of these objects not only appear at heights of ten, fifty, and one 
hundred or more miles above the earth, but at the height of fifty miles it is 
on record that shooting-stars or fire-balls have left waving trains of light, 
whose changes of form were in seeming accordance to varying pressure in the 
elevated and attenuated atmosphere *. 

Researches of every kind have so enriched meteorology since our early 
friend, Professor J. Forbes, printed his suggestive reports on that subject, and 
so great have been the benefits conferred on it by the electric telegraph, that 
at this moment in M. Leverrier's observatory at Paris, and the office so lately 
presided over by Admiral FitzEoy in London, the messages are arriving from 
all parts of Europe to declare the present weather, and furnish grounds for 
reasonable expectation of the next probable change. Hardly now within 
the seas of Europe can a cyclone begin its career of devastation, before the 
warning signal is raised in our sea-ports, to restrain the too confident sailor. 
The gentle spirit which employed this knowledge in the cause of humanity 
has passed away, leaving an example of unselfish devotion, in a work which 
must not fail through any lack of energy on the part of this Association, the 
Royal Society, or the Government. We must extend these researches and 
enlarge these benefits by the aid of the telegraph bringing the ends of the 
world together. Soon may that thread of communication unite the two great 
sections of the Anglo-Saxon race, and bring and return through the broad 
Atlantic the happy and mutual congratulations for peace restored and friend- 
ships renewed. 

The possible combinations of force by which, in the view we have been 
considering, the characteristic forms and special phenomena of solid, liquid, 
and gaseous matter are determined, may be innumerable. Practically, how- 
ever, they appear to be limited, as natural products, to less than one thousand 
distinguishable compounds, and less than one hundred f elementary sub- 
stances. Of these elements the most prevalent are few on the earth ; as of 
gases, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen ; of solids, silicon, calcium, magnesium, 
sodium, iron ; and it is interesting to learn by analysis of the light of stars 
and planets, that these substances, or some of them, are found in most of the 
celestial objects yet examined, and that, except in one or two instances, no 
other substances have been traced therein. Even the wandering meteoric 
stones, which fall from their courses, and are examined on the earth, betray 
only well-known mineral elements, though in the manner in which these are 
combined, some differences appear, which by chemical research and the aid 
of transparent sections Professor Maskelyne and Mr. Sorby are engaged in 
studying and interpreting +. 

* This is the result of a careful discussion made by myself of observations on a meteor 
seen from Rouen to Yorkshire, and from Cornwall to Kent, Jan. 7, 1856. 

f At the present moment the number of " elementary substances " is sixty-one. 

f Professor Maskelyne has made a convenient classification of the large collection of 
meteorites in the British Museum, under the titles of "Aerolite or Meteoric Stone;" 
* Aerosiderite or Meteoric Iron ;" and " Aerosiderohtes," which includes the intervening 



ADDRESS. lvii 

By the labours of Lavoisier and his contemporaries, Chemistry acquired a 
fixed logic and an accurate nomenclature. Dalton and the great physicists 
of the early part of this century gave that law of definite combination by 
proportionate weights of the elements which is for chemistry what the law 
of gravitation is for celestial mechanics. A great expansion of the meaning 
of the atomic theory took place, when Mitscherlich announced his views of 
isomorphous, isomeric, and dimorphous bodies. For thus it came gradually 
to appear that particular forces resided in crystals in virtue of their struc- 
ture, lay in certain directions, and exhibited definite physical effects, if the 
chemical elements, without being the same, were combined in similar propor- 
tions, and aggregated into similar crystals. Some years later, ozone was 
discovered by Schonbein, and it concurred with a few other allotropic sub- 
stances in reviving, among philosophic chemists, the inquiry as to the relative 
situation of the particles in a compound body, and the effects of such 
arrangements : an idea which had been expressed by Dalton in diagrams of 
atoms, and afterwards exercised the ingenuity of Exley, Mac Vicar, and 
others *. 

' Everything connected with this view of the modification of physical pro- 
perties by the arrangement of the particles- — whether elementary or com- 
pound — is of the highest importance to mineralogy, a branch of study by no 
means so much in favour even with chemists as its own merits and its col- 
lateral bearings might justly deserve. Yet it is in a great measure by help 
of this branch of study that the opinions now current regarding metamor- 
phism of rocks in situ, and the formation of mineral veins, must acquire that 
solid support and general consent which at present they do not possess. 
Crystals, indeed, whether regarded as to their origin in nature, their fabrica- 
tion by art, or their action on the rays of light, the waves of heat and sound, 
and the distribution of electricity, have not been neglected by the Association 
or its members. In one of the earliest Reports, Dr. "Whewell calls attention 
to the state of crystallographical theory, and to the artificial production of 
crystals ; and in another Report, Professor Johnston notices epigene and 
pseudomorphous crystallisation ; and for many years, at almost every meet- 
ing, new and brilliant discoveries in the action of crystals on light were 
made known by Brewster t, and compared with the undulatory theory by 
Herschel, MacCullagh, Airy, Hamilton, "Whewell, Powell, Challis, Lloyd, and 
Stokes. 

The unequal expansion of crystals by heat, in different directions, first 
observed by Mitscherlich, has been carefully examined in the cases of 
sulphate and carbonate of lime by Professor W. H. Miller J, who has also 
considered their elasticity, originally measured in different relations to the 
axis by Savart. These and many other interesting relations of crystals have 

varieties. Mr. Sorby, whose latest results are unpublished, but will be communicated to 
the Royal Society, is of opinion that the substance of meteorites has undergone changes 
due to physical conditions in some ancient period not now to be paralleled on our planet, 
or on the moon, but rather to be looked for only in the immediate neighbourhood of the 
sun. Professor Haidinger has also made a special study of meteorites. 

* Dalton, Chemistry, vol. i. 1808. A clear view of the simpler applications of Dalton's 
ideas is given by the illustrious author in Daubeny's Treatise on the Atomic Theory, 1850. 
Exley, Nat. and Exp. Philosophy, 1829. Mac Vicar, Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1855 ; Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Edinb., &c. 

t " Sir David Brewster must be considered as in a degree the creator of the science 
which studies the mutual dependence of optical properties and crystalline forms." 
(Whewell, in Report on Mineralogy, Brit. Assoc. 1832, p. 336.) 

X Rep. Proc. 1837, pp. 43, 44. 



lviii report — 1865. 

been attended to ; but the Association has not yet succeeded in obtaining a 
complete digest of the facts and theories connected with the appearance of 
crystals in nature — in the fissures of rocks ; in the smaller cavities of rocks ; 
in the solid substance or liquid contents of other crystals. Such an inquiry, 
however, it did earnestly demand, and some steps have been taken by our 
own chemists, mineralogists, and geologists. But more abundant information 
on this class of subjects is still needed, even after the admirable contributions 
and recent discoveries of Bischof, Delesse, and Daubre'e *. 

Within our Association-period both the nomenclature of chemistry and the 
conception of the atomic theory have received not indeed a change, but such 
an addition to its ordinary expression as the more general language and 
larger meaning of Algebra have conferred on common arithmetical values. 
The theory of compound radicals, as these views of Liebig, Dumas, and Hof- 
mann may be justly termed, embraces the consideration of groups of elements 
united in pairs by the ordinary law, these groups being for the purpose in 
hand treated as single elements of combination. The nomenclature which 
attempts in ordinary words to express these relations grows very unma- 
nageable even in languages more easily capable of polysyllabic combinations 
than ours ; but symbols of composition — the true language of chemistry — 
are no more embarrassed in the expression of these new ideas than are the 
mathematical symbols which deal with operations of much greater com- 
plexity on quantities more various and more variable f. The study of these 
compound radicals conies in aid of experimental research into those numerous 
and complex substances which appear as the result of chemical transforma- 
tions in organic bodies. Thus in some instances the very substances have 
been recomposed by art which the vital processes are every moment pro- 
ducing in nature ; in others the steps of the process are clearly traced ; in all 
the changes become better understood through which so great a variety of 
substances and structures are yielded by one circulating fluid ; and the result 
is almost a new branch of animal and vegetable physiology, not less import- 
ant for the health of mankind than essential to the progress of scientific 
agriculture. 

The greater our progress in the study of the economy of nature, the more 
she unveils herself as one vast whole ; one comprehensive plan ; one universal 
rule, in a yet unexhausted series of individual peculiarities. Such is the 
aspect of this moving, working, living system of force and law : such it has 
ever been, if we rightly interpret the history of our own portion of this rich 
inheritance of mind, the history of that Earth from which we spring, with 
which so many of our thoughts are coordinated, and to which all but our 
thoughts and hopes will again return. 

How should we prize this history ! and exult in the thought that in our 
own days, within our own memories, the very foundations of the Series of 
Strata, deposited in the beginning of time, have been explored by our living 
friends, our Murchison and Sedgwick, while the higher and more complicated 
parts of the structure have been minutely examined by our Lyell, Forbes, 
and Prestwich + ! How instructive the history of that long series of inhabi- 

* Bischof, Chemical Geology (published by the Cavendish Society, 1856). 

Delesse, Etudes sur le Metamorphisme, 1858, and other works. 

Daubree, Sur la Relation des Sources Thermales des Plombieres, avec les Filons Metal- 
liferes et la Formation des Zeolithes, 1858, and other works. 

+ On the Nomenclature of Organic Compounds, by Dr. Daubeny. Reports of British 
Association, 1851. 

I The investigations of Murchison and Sedgwick in the Cambrian and Silurian Strnta 
began in 1831 ; the views of Sir C. Lyell on Tertiary periods were made known in 1829. 



ADDRESS. Hx 

tants which received in primeval times the gift of life, and filled the land, 
sea, and air with rejoicing myriads, through innumerable revolutions of the 
planet, before in the fulness of time it pleased the Giver of all good to place 
man upon the Earth, and hid him look up to Heaven. 

Wave succeeding wave, the forms of ancient life sweep across the ever- 
changing surface of the earth ; revealing to us the height of the land, the 
depth of the sea, the quality of the air, the course of the rivers, the extent of 
the forest, the system of life and death — yes, the growth, decay, and death 
of individuals, the beginning and ending of races, of many successive races 
of plants and animals, in seas now dried, on sand-banks now raised into 
mountains, on continents now sunk beneath the waters. 

Had that series a beginning ? Was the earth ever uninhabited, after it 
became a globe turning on its axis and revolving round the sun ? Was there 
ever a period since land and sea were separated — a period which we can 
trace — when the land was not shaded by plants, the ocean not alive with 
animals '? The answer, as it comes to us from the latest observation, declares 
that in the lowest deposits of the most ancient seas in the stratified crust of 
the globe, the monuments of life remain. They extend to the earliest sedi- 
ments of water, now in part so changed as to appear like the products of fire. 
What life ? Only the simpler and less specially organized fabrics have as 
yet rewarded research among these old Laurentian rocks — only the aggre- 
gated structures of Foraminifera have been found in what, for the present at 
least, must be accepted as the first deposits of the oldest sea. The most 
ancient of all known fossils, the Eozoon Canadense of Sir W. Logan, is of 
this low, we may even say lowest, type of animal organization. 

Then step by step we are guided through the old Cambrian and Silurian 
systems, rich in Trilobites and Brachiopoda, the delights of Salter and Da- 
vidson ; with Agassiz and Miller and Egerton we read the history of the 
strange old fishes of the Devonian rocks ; Brongniart, and Goppert, and 
Dawson, and Binney, and Hooker unveil the mystery of the mighty forests 
now converted to coal ; Mantell and Owen and Huxley restore for us the 
giant reptiles of the Lias, the Oolite, and the Wealden ; Edwards and 
Wright almost revive the beauteous corals and echinodermata ; which Avith 
all the preceding tribes have come and gone before the dawn of the later 
periods, when fragments of mammoths and hippopotami were buried in 
caves and river sediments to reward the researches of Cuvier and Buckland, 
Prestwich and Christy, Lartet and Falconer. 

And what is the latest term in this long series of successive existence ? 
Surely the monuments of ever- advancing art — the temples whose origin is in 
caverns of the rocks ; the cities which have taken the place of holes in the 
ground, or heaps of stones and timber in a lake ; the ships which have out- 
grown the canoe, as that was modelled from the floating trunk of a tree, are 
sufficient proof of the late arrival of man upon the Earth, after it had under- 
gone many changes and had become adapted to his physical, intellectual, and 
moral nature. 

Compared with the periods which elapsed in the accomplishment of these 
changes, how short is the date of those yet standing monoliths, cromlechs, 
and circles of unhewn stone which are the oldest of human structures raised 
in Western Europe, or of those more regular fabrics which attest the early 
importance of the monarchs and people of Egypt, Assyria, and some parts of 
America ! Yet tried by monuments of natural events which happened within 
the age of man, the human family is old enough in Western Europe to have 
been sheltered by caverns in the rocks, while herds of reindeer roamed in 



1* REPORT — 18G5. 

Southern France*, and bears and hyenas were denizens of the South of 
England f. More than this, remains of the rudest human art ever seen are 
certainly found buried with and are thought to belong to races who lived 
contemporaneously with the mammoth and rhinoceros, and experienced the 
cold of a Gallic or British winter, from which the woolly covering of the 
wild animals was a fitting protection. 

Our own annals begin with the Kelts, if indeed we are entitled to call by 
that historic name the really separate nations, Belgian, Iberian, and Teu- 
tonic, whom the Roman writers recognize as settlers in Britain J ; settlers 
among a really earlier family, our rudest and oldest forefathers, who may 
have been, as they thought themselves to be, the primitive people of the 
land§. But beyond the KeXrai who occupied the sources of the Danube 
and the slopes of the Pyrenees, and were known to Borne in later days, there 
was present to the mind of the father of Grecian history a still more western 
race, the Cynetae, who may perhaps be supposed the very earliest people of 
the extreme west of the continent of Europe. Were those the people, the 
first poor pilgrims from the East, whose footsteps we are slowly tracing in 
the vaUeys of Picardy and the south of England, if not on the borders of the 
lakes of Switzerland ? Are their kindred still to be found among the Rhaetic 
Alps and the Asturian cliffs, if not amid the wilds of Connemara, pressed 
into those mountainous recesses by the legions of Borne, the spear of the 
Visigoth, and the sword of the Saxon ? Or must we regard them as races of 
an earlier type, who had ceased to chip flints before the arrival of Saxon, or 
Goth, or Kelt, or Cynetian ? These questions of romantic interest in the 
study of the distribution and languages of the families of man are part of a 
large circle of inquiry which finds sympathy in several of our Sections, 
especially those devoted to Zoology, Physiology, and Ethnology. Let us not 
expect or desire for them a very quick, or, at present, a very definite settle- 
ment. Deep shadows have gathered over all the earlier ages of mankind, 
which perhaps still longer periods of time may not avail to remove. Yet let 
U3 not undervalue the progress of ethnological inquiry, nor fail to mark how, 
within the period to which our recollections cling, the revelations of early 
Egypt have been followed by a Chronology of the ancient kingdoms on the 
Tigris and Euphrates, through the same rigorous study of language. Thus 
has our Rawlinson added another page to the briUiant discoveries of Young 
and Champollion, Lepsius and Bosellini. 

Nor, though obtained in a different way, must we forget the new know- 
ledge of a people nearer home, which the philosophic mind of Keller has 
opened to us among his native mountains. There, on the borders of the 
Alpine lakes, before the great Roman general crossed the Bhone, lived a 
people older than the Helvetians ; whose rude lives, passed in hunting and 
fishing, were nevertheless marked by some of the many inventions which 
everywhere, even in the most unfavourable situations, accompany the least 
civihzed of mankind. Implements of stone and pottery of the rudest sort 
belong to the earliest of these people ; while ornamented iron weapons of war, 
and innumerable other fabrics in that metal, appear about the later habita- 

* See the Memoirs of M. Lartet on the Caves of the Dordogne, 1863-64. 

t In the caves of Gower, Devon, and Somerset, flint flakes occur with several extinct 
animals. 

J Gallic or Belgian on the south-east coast ; Iberian in South Wales ; German at the 
foot of the Grampians. (Tacitus, Vita Agricola?.) 

§ " Britannic® pars interior ab iis incolitur, quos natos in insula ipsa memoria pro- 
dituvn dicunt." (Caesar, v. 12.) 



ADDRESS. lxi 

tions, and correspond probably to tbe period of tbe true Helvetii, who quitted 
their home and contended with Caesar for richer settlements in Gaul. The 
people of whom these are the traces on almost every lake in Switzerland are 
recognized as well in the ancient lake-basins of Lombardy and among the 
Tyrolean Alps, and further on the north side of the mountains ; and probably 
fresh discoveries may connect them with the country of the Sarmatians and 
the Scythians. 

Thus at length is fairly opened, for archaeology and palaeontology to read, 
a new chapter of the world's histoiy, which begins in the pleistocene periods 
of geology, and reaches to the prehistoric ages of man. Did our ancestors 
really contend, as the poets fancied*, with stones and clubs against the lion 
and the rhinoceros, and thus expel them from their native haunts, or have 
they been removed by change of climate or local physical conditions ? Was 
the existence of the hyena and the elephant only possible in Western Europe 
while a climate prevailed there such as now belongs to Africa or India ? and 
was this period of high temperature reduced in a later time for the elk, rein- 
deer, and musk ox, which undoubtedly roamed over the hills of England and 
France? If we think so, what a vista of long duration stretches before us, for no 
such changes of climate can be supposed to have occurred except as the effect of 
great physical changes, requiring a lapse of many thousands of years. And 
though we may think such changes of climate not proved, and probably 
careful weighing of evidence may justify our disbelief, still, if the valleys in 
Picardy have been excavated since the deposit of the gravel of St. Acheulf, 
and the whole face of the country has been altered about the caverns of 
Torquay since they received remains of animals and traces of man J — how 
can we admit these facts and yet refuse the time required for their accomplish- 
ment '? First, let us be sure of the facts, and especially of that main fact 
upon which all the argument involving immensity of time really turns, viz. 
the contemporaneous existence of man with the mammoth of the plains and 
the bear of the caverns. The remains of men are certainly buried with those 
of extinct quadrupeds ; but did they live in the same days, or do we see relics 
of different periods gathered into one locality by natural processes of a later 
date, or confused by the operations of men ? 

Before replying finally to these qiuvstions, further researches of an exact 
kind are desirable, and the Association has given its aid towards them, both in 
respect to the old cavern of Kent's Hole, and the newly opened fissure of 
Gibraltar, from which we expect great results, though the best of our la- 
bourers has ceased from his honourable toil§. When these and many other 
researches are completed, some future Lyell, if not our own great geologist, 
may add some fresh chapters to the ' Antiquity of Man.' 

In judging of this antiqiuty, in counting the centuries which may have 
elapsed since smoothed flints fitted with handles of wood were used as chisels 
and axes by the earliest people of Scandinavia or Helvetia, and flakes of flint 
were employed to cleanse the skins of the reindeer in the caves of the Dor- 
dogne, or stronger tools broke up the ice in the valley of the Somme, we 
must be careful not to take what is the mark of low civilization for the indi- 
cation of very remote time. In every country, among every race of men, 

* Lucretius, v. 964-1283. 

t Prestwich, Transactions of the Royal Society, 1860, and Proc. of Roy. Inst., Feb. 
1864. 

X Pengelly, Reports of the British Association, 1864. 

§ The late Dr. Hugh Falconer, whose knowledge of the fossil animals of caves was re- 
markably exact, took a great share in these examinations. 



lxii report — 1865. 

such rude weapons and tools are used now, or were used formerly. On the 
banks of the Ohio, no less than on the English hills, mounds of earth, rude 
pottery, and stone weapons occur in abundance ; and indicate similar wants, 
contrivances, customs, ideas, in different races of men living in different 
periods. Even when in the same country, as in Switzerland, or England, or 
Denmark, successive deposits of instruments of stone, bronze, or iron ; suc- 
cessive burials of pines, beeches, and oaks ; successively extinguished races of 
elephants, elks, and reindeer, give us a real scale of elapsed time, it is one of 
which the divisions are not yet valued in years or centuries of years. 

Toward a right judgment of the length of this scale of human occupation, 
two other lines of evidence may be thought worthy of notice ; one founded 
on the anatomical study of the remains of early men, the other on the laws of 
language. If the varieties of physical structure in man, and the deviations 
of language from an original type, be natural effects of time and circumstance, 
the length of time may be in some degree estimated by the amount of the 
diversities which are observed to have happened, compared with the varia- 
tion which is now known to be happening. This process becomes imaginary, 
unless we assume all mankind to have had one local centre, and one original 
language. Its results must be erroneous, unless we take fully into account the 
superior fixity of languages which are represented in writing, and the greater 
tendency to diversity of every kind which must have prevailed in early times, 
when geographical impediments were aggravated by dissocial habits of life. It 
appears, however, certain that some differences of language, organization, 
and habits have separated men of apparently unlike races during periods 
longer than those which rest on historical facts*. 

Ever since the days of Aristotle, the analogy existing among all parts of 
the animal kingdom, and in a general sense we may say among all the forms 
of life, has become more and more the subject of special study. Related as 
all living beings are to the element in which they move and breathe, to 
the mechanical energies of nature which they employ or resist, and to the 
molecular forces which penetrate and transform them, some general confor- 
mity of structure, some frequently recurring resemblance of function, must 
be present, and cannot be overlooked. In the several classes this analogy 
grows stronger, and in the subdivisions of these classes real family affinity is 
recognized. In the smallest divisions which have this family relation in the 
highest degree, there seems to be a line which circumscribes each group, 
within which variations occur, from food, exercise, climate, and transmitted 
peculiarities. Often one specific group approaches another, or several others, 
and a question arises whether, though now distinct, or rather distinguishable, 
they always have been so from their beginning, or will be always so until 
their disappearance. 

Whether what we call species are so many original creations or derivations 
from a few types or one type, is discussed at length in the elegant treatise of 
Darwin f, himself a naturalist of eminent rank. It had been often discussed 
before. Nor will any one think lightly of such inquiries, who remembers 
the essay of Linnaeus, " De Tulluris orbis incremento," or the investigations 
of Brown, Prichard, Forbes, Agassiz, and Hooker regarding the local origin 
of different species, genera, and families of plants and animals, both on the 
land and in the sea. Still less will he be disposed to undervalue its import- 
ance, when he reflects on the many successive races of living forms more or 
less resembling our existing quadrupeds, reptiles, fishes, and mollusca, which 

* Max Miiller on the Science of Language. t On the Origin of Species, 1859. 



ADDRESS. lxiii 

appeared to have occupied definite and different parts of the depths of an- 
cient time ; as now the tiger and the jaguar, the cayman and the gavial, live 
on different parts of the terrestrial surface. Is the living elephant of Ceylon 
the lineal descendant of that mammoth which roamed over Siberia and Eu- 
rope and North America, or of one of those sub-Himalayan tribes which Dr. 
Falconer has made known, or was it a species dwelling only in circumpolar 
regions ? Can our domestic cattle, horses and dogs, our beasts of chace and 
our beasts of prey, be traced back to their source in older types, contempo- 
raries of the IJrus, Megaceros, and Hyena on the plains of Europe ? If so, 
what range of variation in structure does it indicate ? if not so, by what 
characters are the living races separated from those of earlier date ? 

Specific questions of this kind must be answered before the general pro- 
position, that the forms of life are indefinitely variable with time and cir- 
cumstance, can be even examined by the light of adequate evidence. That 
such evidence will be gathered and rightly interpreted, I for one neither 
doubt nor fear ; nor will any be too hasty in adopting extreme opinions or 
too fearful of the final result, who remember how often that which is true 
has been found very different from that which was plausible, and how often 
out of the nettles of danger we have plucked the flowers of safety. At the 
present moment the three propositions which were ever present to the mind 
of Edward Forbes may be successfully maintained, as agreeing with many 
observed phenomena ; and around them as a basis of classification may be 
gathered most of the facts and most of the speculations which relate to the 
history of life*. First, it may be admitted that plants and animals form 
many natural groups, the members of which have several common characters, 
and are parted from other groups by a real boundary line, or rather unoccu- 
pied space. Next, that each of these groups has a limited distribution in 
space, often restrained by high mountains or deep seas, or parallels of tem- 
perature, within which it has been brought into being. Thirdly, that each 
group has been submitted to, or is now undergoing, the pressure of a general 
law, by which its duration is limited in geological time ; the same group 
never reappearing after being removed from the series. 

How important, in the view of this and many other questions, is that 
never-tiring spirit of geographical and maritime discovery, to which through 
four hundred years Europe has sent her noblest sons and her most famous 
expeditions ; sent them, alas ! too often to an early grave. Alas ! for 
Franklin, who carried the magnetic flag into the Icy Sea from which he had 
already brought trophies to Science ! Alas ! for Speke, who came home with 
honour from the head waters of the Nile ! Forgotten they can never be, 
whenever, on occasions like this, we mourn the absence of our bravest and 
our best ; praise, never-ending praise be theirs, while men retain the generous 
impulse which prompts them to enterprises worthy of their country and bene- 
ficial to mankind ! 

'Aei <T0o5)' kXcos eooerai kclt ulav. 

If it be asked, what share in the discoveries and inventions of the last 
thirty-three years is claimed for the British Association ; let us answer fear- 
lessly — We had a part in all. In some of them we took the foremost place 
by the frequency of our discussions, the urgency of our recommendations, 
the employment of our influence, and the grant of our funds. For others we 
gave all our strength, to support the Eoyal Society and other institutions in 

* See the remarkable Essay of E. Forbes on the distribution of the existing Fauna and 
Flora of the British Isles, in Memoirs of Geol. Survey of Britain, vol. i. p. 336. 



lxiv REPORT — 1865. 

their efforts to accomplish purposes which we approve. In all instances our 
elastic system responds quickly to pressure, and returns the friendly impulse. 
If we look back on the work of previous years, it is easy to mark the special 
action of the Association in fields which hardly could be entered by any other 
adventurers. 

Many of the most valuable labours of which we are now reaping the fruits, 
were undertaken in consequence of the reports on special branches of Science 
which appear in the early volumes of our Transactions — reports in which 
particular data were requested for confirming or correcting known genera- 
lizations, or for establishing new ones. Thus a passage in Professor Airy's 
report on Physical Astronomy* first turned the attention of Adams to the 
mathematical vision of Neptune ; Lubbock's Report on Tides f came before 
the experimental researches and reductions, which since 1834 have so often 
engaged the attention of Whewell and Airy and Haughton, with results so 
valuable and so suggestive of further undertakings. Among these results 
may be placed additional knowledge of the probable depth of the channels of 
the sea. For before the desire of telegraphic communication with America 
had caused the bed of the North Atlantic to be explored by soundings to a 
depth seldom exceeding three miles, there was reason to conclude from the 
investigations of Whewell on Cotidal Lines J that a depth of nine miles was 
attained in the Sonth Atlantic, and from the separate computations of Aiiy 
and Haughton that a somewhat greater depth occurred in a part of the course 
of the tide-wave which washes the coast of Ireland§. The greater portion of 
the sea-bed is within reach of soundings directed by the superior skill and 
greater perseverance of modern scientific navigators ; a depth of six miles is 
said to have been reached in one small tract of the North Atlantic ; depths of 
nine or ten miles in the deepest channels of the sea are probable from consi- 
dering the general proportion which is likely to obtain between sea-depths 
and mountain-tops. Thus the data are gradually being collected for a com- 
plete survey of the bed of the sea, including among other things information, 
at least, concerning the distribution of animal and vegetable life beneath tbe 
waters. 

Waves — their origin, the mechanism of their motion, their velocity, their 
elevation, the resistance they offer to vessels of given form, these subjects 
have been firmly kept in view by the Association, since first Professor Challis || 
reported on the mathematical problems they suggest, and Sir J. Robison and 
Mr. Scott Russell undertook to study them experimentally^. Out of this in- 
quiry has come a better knowledge of the forms which ought to be given to 
the ' lines ' of ships, followed by swifter passages across the sea, both by 
sailing vessels and steamers, of larger size and greater lengths than were ever 
tried before**. 

One of the earliest subjects to acquire importance in our thoughts, was the 
unexplored region of meteorology laid open in Professor J. Forbes's Reportsft. 
Several of the points to which he called attention have been successfully at- 
tained. The admirable instruments of Whewell, Osier, and Robinson have 
replaced the older and ruder anemometers, and are everywhere in full opera- 

* Reports of the British Association for 1832, p. 154. Laplace had indeed observed 
that " the planet Uranus and his satellites, lately discovered, give reason to suspect the 
existence of some planets not yet observed ;" thereby encouraging the search for new dis- 
coveries in our own system. (Exp. du Syst. du Monde, 1799, 4to, p. 350.) 

t Reports of the British Association, 1832. % Trans, of Roy. Soc. 1833. 

§ Trans, of Roy. Irish Acad. 1855. || Reports of the British Association, 1833, 1836. 

1 Ibid. 1837 and following years. ** Ibid. 1840-1843. 

tt Ibid. 1832-1840. 



ADDRESS. l.KV 

tion, to record the momentary variations of pressure, or sum the varying 
velocities of the 'wind. No small thanks were due to Mr. Marshall and Mr. 
Miller* for their enterprise and perseverance in placing rain-gauges and 
thermometers amidst the peaks of Cumberland and Westmoreland. These 
experiments are now renewed in both counties and in North Wales ; and I 
hope to hear of similar efforts among the mountains of the West of Ireland 
and the West of Scotland. Our meteorological instruments of every kind 
have been improved ; our system of photographic registration has spread 
from Kew into other observatories ; and our corresponding member, Pro- 
fessor Dove, has collected into systematic maps and tables the lines and 
figures which represent annual and monthly climate over every land and 
sea. 

In the same manner, by no sudden impulse or accidental circumstance, 
rose to its high importance that great system of magnetic observations, on 
which for more than a quarter of a century the British Association and the 
Royal Society, acting in concert, have been intent. First, we had Eeports 
on the mathematical theory and experimental researches of magnetism by 
Christie (1833), Whewell (1835), and Sabine (1835) : — afterwards, a magnetic 
survey of the British Islands t ; then, the establishment of a complete obser- 
vatory at Dublin, with newly arranged instruments, by Dr. Lloyd, in 1838. 
On all this gathered experience we founded a memorial to Her Majesty's 
Government, made a grant of £400 from our funds for preliminary expenses, 
and presented to the Meeting of this Association in Birmingham, in 1839, a 
Report of progress, signed by Herschel and Lloyd. From that time how 
great the labour, how inestimable the fruits ! Ross sails to the magnetic 
pole of the south ; America and Russia cooperate with our observers at Kew, 
Toronto, and St. Helena ; and General Sabine, by combining all this united 
labour, has the happiness of seeing results established of which no man 
dreamed — laws of harmonious variation affecting the magnetic elements of 
the globe, in definite relation to the earth's movement, the position of the 
sun and moon, the distribution of temperature, and the situation in latitude 
and longitude J. 

Our efforts have not been fruitless, whether with Mr. Mallet we make ex- 
periments on artificial earth-shocks at Dalkey, or survey the devastations 
round Vesuvius, or tabulate the records of earthquakes since the beginning of 
history§ ; or establish the Kew Observatory as a scientific workshop where 
new instruments of research are made and proved and set to work ||; or 
dredge the sea with Forbes, and Brady, and Jeffreys If; or catalogue the 
stars with Baily** ; or investigate electricity with Harris, Ronalds, Thomson, 

* Mr. Marshall's observations were made in Patterdale, Mr. Miller's about Wastdale 
Head. (British Association Eeports for 1846, and Royal Society's Transactions, 
1850.) 

t The survey was begun in Ireland iu 1835, by Lloyd, Sabine, and Ross ; and com- 
pleted in England, Wales, and Scotland in 1837, by the same magneticians, assisted by 
Fox and PluUips. It was repeated in 1857 and following years by Sabine, Lloyd, Welsh, 
Haughton, Gralbraith, and Stoney. 

t Trans, of the Royal Society for many years ; Reports of the British Association, 
1840 and following years ; Rede Lecture, 1862. 

§ British Association Reports ; Experiments at Dalkey, 1853 ; Report on Earthquakes, 
1840-1858. See also the excellent communications of M. Perrey to the Memoirs of the 
Academy of Dijon. 

|| The Kew Observatory became a part of the system of the Association in 1842. 

IT See Reports of the Dredging Committees from 1842 to 1864 ; Nat. Hist. Trans, of 
Northumberland and Durham ; Jeffrey s's British Conchology. 
• ** British Association Catalogue of Stars, 1845. 

1865. e 



lxvi REPORT — 1865. 

and Jenkin*; or try the action of long-continued heat with Harcourtf: 
in these and a hundred other directions, our attempts to gain knowledge 
have brought back new facts and new laws of phenomena, or better instru- 
ments for attaining or better methods for interpreting them. Even when 
we enter the domain of practical art, and apply scientific methods to test a 
great process of manufacture, we do not fail of success ; because we are 
able to join in united exertion the laborious cultivators of science and the 
scientific employers of labour. 

Am I asked to give an example? Let it be iron, the one substance by 
the possession of which, by the true knowledge and right use of which, 
more than by any other thing, our national greatness is supported. "What 
are the ores of iron — what the peculiarities and improvements of the 
smelting processes — what the quality of the iron — its chemical composi- 
tion — its strength in columns and girders as cast iron ; in rails and 
boiler plate, in tubes and chains, as wrought iron — what are the best 
forms in which to employ it, the best methods of preserving it from 
decay ; — these and many other questions are answered by many special 
Reports in our volumes, bearing the names of Barlow, Mallet, Porter, Fair- 
bairn, Bunsen, Playfair, Percy, Budd, Hodgkinson, Thomson ; and very nu- 
merous other communications from Lucas, Fairbairn, Cooper, Nicholson, 
Price, Crane, Hartley, Davy, Mushet, Hawkes, Penny, Scoresby, Dawes, 
Calvert, Clark, Cox, Hodgkinson, May, Schafhaeutl, Johnston, Clay, and 
Boutigny. Beyond a question, a reader of such of these valuable documents 
as relate to the strength of iron, in its various forms, would be far better in- 
formed of the right course to be followed in experiments on armour-plated 
ships and forts to resist assault, and in the construction of ordnance to at- 
tack them, than he is likely to be from merely witnessing a thousand trials 
of the cannon against the target. Anyone who remembers what the iron 
furnace was forty years ago, and knows its present power of work, or who 
contrasts the rolling mills and hammers of other days with the beautiful ma- 
chines which now, with the gentlest motion but irresistible force, compel the 
strong metal to take up the most delicately moulded form, will acknowledge 
that, within the period since the British Association began to set itself to the 
task of reconciling the separated powers of Theory and Experience, there 
has been a total change in the aspect of each, to the great advantage of both. 

Our undertakings have not been fruitless. We attempted what we had 
well considered, and had the power to accomplish ; and we had the more than 
willing help of competent persons of our own body, the friendly aid of other 
Institutions, and the sanction of the Government, convinced of the sincerity 
of our purpose and the wisdom of our recommendations. 

The same work is ever before us ; the same prudence is always necessary ; the 
same aid is always ready. Great indeed should be our happiness, in reflecting on 
the many occasions, when the Royal Society in particular, and other Institutions 
older than our own, have readily placed themselves by our side, to share our re- 
sponsibility and diminish our difliculties. But for this, our wishes might not al- 
ways have prevailed ; and the horizon of science would not have been so clear 
as now it is. Of late years, indeed, Societies formed on our model have taken 
up special parts of our work ; and thus to some extent have relieved us of the 
pressure of communications relating to the practice of particular professions 
and the progress of some public questions. Not that scientific agriculture, 
social statistics, or physiology are neglected in our meetings, but that these and 

* The latest result of these researches is an instrumental standard of electrical resist-^ 
ance. (Keports of the British Association, 1863-1864. 
f Reports of the British Association, 1846-1860. 



ADDRESS. livii 

other practical subjects are found to have more than one aspect, and to re- 
quire more than one mode of treatment. With us, facts well ascertained, 
conclusions rightly drawn, will ever be welcome, from whatever quarter of 
the horizon of science they make their appearance. Whatever societies cul- 
tivate these objects, they are our allies, and we will help them, if we may. 
With pleasure we receive proofs of the good work done in limited districts by 
the many admirable Field Clubs formed by our countrymen ; whether, like 
those of Tyneside and the Cotswolds, and in this immediate vicinity those of 
Warwickshire, Worcestershire, and Dudley, they explore the minutest re- 
cesses of our hills and glens ; or, bike the rangers of the Alps, bring us new 
facts regarding glaciers, ancient climate, and altered levels of land and sea. 

By these agreeable gatherings natural history is most favourably com- 
mended ; and in the activity and enlarged views of the officers who conduct 
them, the British Association recognizes the qualities by which the vitality 
of scientific research is maintained, and its benefits diffused among the pro- 
vincial Institutions of the Empire. 

Such, Gentlemen, are some of the thoughts which fill the minds of those, 
who, like our Brewster, and Harcourt, and Forbes, and Murchison, and Dau- 
beny, stood, anxious but hopeful, by the cradle of this British Association ; 
and who now meet to judge of its strength, and measure its progress. When, 
more than thirty years ago, this Parliament of science came into being, its 
first child -language was employed to ask questions of Nature ; now, in riper 
years, it founds on the answers received further and more definite inquiries 
directed to the same prolific source of useful knowledge. Of researches in 
science completed, in progress, or in beginning, each of our annual volumes 
contains some three hundred or more passing notices, or full and permanent 
records. This digest and monument of our labours is indeed in some respects 
incomplete, since it does not always contain the narrative or the result of 
undertakings which we started, or fostered, or sustained ; and I own to 
having experienced on this account once or twice a feeling of regret. But 
the regret was soon lost in the gratification of knowing that other and equally 
beneficial channels of pubbcation had been found ; and that by these ex- 
amples it was proved how truly the Association kept to the real purpose of 
its foundation, " the Advancement of Science," and how heartily it rejoiced 
in this advancement without looking too closely to its own share in the 
triumph. Here, indeed, is tbe stronghold of the British Association. Where- 
ever and by whatever means sound learning and useful knowledge are ad- 
vanced, there to us are friends. Whoever is privileged to step beyond his 
fellows on the road of scientific discovery, will receive our applause, and, if 
need be, our help. Welcoming and joining in the labour of all, we shall 
keep our place among those who clear the ways and remove the obstacles 
from the paths of science ; and whatever be our own success in the rich 
fields which lie before us, however little we may now know, we shall 
prove that in this our day we knew at least the value of knowledge, and 
joined hearts and hands in the endeavour to promote it. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



Report on Dredging among the Channel Isles. 
By J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. 

Our dredgings, which occupied six weeks, were confined to the coasts of 
Guernsey and Jersey. Owing to the rocky nature of the sea- hed, and to the 
extraordinary rapidity of the tides, the work was very difficult and unsatis- 
factory ; and one of my dredges was unavoidably lost, notwithstanding the 
rope was a new one and every precaution had been taken to prevent an 
accident of this kind. The depth of water seldom exceeded 30 fathoms ; 
although there was one remarkable exception in a long submarine trough, 
called Hurd's Deep, lying about fifteen miles north of Guernsey, and having 
a depth of 60 fathoms and more. 

As regards the Mollusca (to which I shall, as in former Beports, confine 
myself), they exhibit somewhat of a Mediterranean or South-European cha- 
racter. This will appear from the accompanying lists. No new species were 
procured; but scientific research does not consist entirely of such discoveries. 
It may be well questioned whether the reduction of some forms, which have 
heretofore been regarded as species, to the rank of varieties may not be of 
equal importance. The sexual relation of known species, their development, 
mode of growth, food, habits, economy, geographical and bathymetrical dis- 
tribution, are all matters which require careful investigation. I had likewise 
an opportunity of observing for the first time the animals or soft parts of 
several species of shell-bearing Mollusca, and of rectifying the published 
descriptions of other species. In the first of these categories I would 
enumerate Cardium papillosum, Rissoa crenulata, R. striatula, Defrancia 
Philberti, and Mangelia laevigata. In the second category may be placed 
Qaleomma Turtoni, Chiton discrepans, C. cancellatus, and Trochus exasperatus. 
Among the rarer or more local species taken by us were Argiope capsula, 
Cardium papillosum, Tellina balaustina, and Crimora papillata. It was also 
noteworthy that Aplysia depilans and A. punctata (usually considered distinct 
species) copulated when a pair was placed in a vessel of sea-water. This 
genus is not hermaphrodite in the same sense as Helix, inasmuch as each 

1865, B 



2 REPORT 1865. 

individual of Aplysia performs the functions of one sex only, while each snail 
is at the time of sexual union both male and female. 

The tide ebbs far on the coasts of the Channel Isles, especially during the 
equinoxes ; at Guernsey the reflux extends about 30 feet, and at Jersey up- 
wards of 40 feet. This is very different from what takes place in the Medi- 
terranean, and it occasions a remarkable variation of habitat in many species. 
Psammohia costulata lives at Herm in the sand which is laid bare at low 
water, but in Shetland it occurs at a depth of between 80 and 90 fathoms. 
Hence we may infer that the depth of water cannot always be safely pre- 
dicated from a cursory examination of shells either in a recent or fossil state. 
Their comparative solidity and size afford better criteria *. 

A collection of the shells obtained on the present occasion has been placed 
in the British Museum. 

We were indebted to Mr. Lukis, Mr. Gallienne, Mr. Macculloch, Mr. Le 
Lievre and Mr. Cooper, of Guernsey, and to Mr. Piquet and Mr. Rose of 
Jersey, for much assistance and pleasant companionship. From the first- 
named of these gentlemen I received Purpura hcemastoma, from the second 
Emarginula cancellata, and from the third Triton (or Murex) cutaceus, all of 
which had been taken alive at Guernsey and Herm. There cannot be the 
slightest reason to doubt that Triton nodiferus, as well as T. cutaceus, inhabit 
this part of our seas. MM. Cailliaud and Tasle have recorded the latter 
species, and M. Cailliaud the former, as natives of the coast of Brittany. 

Off Jersey were dredged a few worn specimens of Cerithium vulgatum, a 
species which does not seem to have been observed in a living state anywhere 
on the shores of the North Atlantic. It is common throughout the Medi- 
terranean and Adriatic. M. Cailliaud has included it in his list of shells from 
the Loire-Inferieure, but only in a dead and rolled condition. From careful 
inquiries which I made at Jersey, I am enabled to state with some degree 
of certainty that no ballast containing shells has ever been brought there. 
I should be disposed to attribute the presence of C. vulgatum (as a semi- 
fossil shell) on the coasts of Jersey and Lower Brittany to an ancient sub- 
mergence of the land, at a period probably anterior to that when submarine 
forests and peat-beds were formed on the shores of the north of Europe, and 
when the bays of St. Aubin and St. Michel were produced. Fossil shells, of 
Eocene species, were likewise met with ; and they will be noticed in the 
Geological Section of this Meeting. 

The following Tables may be useful to show which species are apparently 
restricted to the more southern limits of Great Britain. 

I. Species found in the Channel Isles but not in Shetland : — 



Argiope decollata. 

capsula. 

Mytilus barbatus. 

Adriaticus. 

Modiolaria costulata. 
Crenella rhombea. 
Area lactea. 
Galeomma Turtoni. 
Lepton squamosum. 

sulcatulum. 

Loripes lacteus. 
Diplodonta rotundata. 
Cardium aculeatum. 



Cardium tuberculatum. 

papillosum. 

Tapes aureus. 
Gastrana fragilis. 
Psammobia vespertina. 
Donax vittatus. 

politus. 

Amplndesma castaneum. 
Mactra glanca. 
Lutraria oblonga. 
Scrobicularia tenuis. 
Solen vagina, 
Mya Binghami. 



* See ' British Conchology,' vol. iii. p. 27. 



ON DREDGING AMONG THE CHANNEL ISLES. 



Gastrochama dubia. 
Pholas daetylus. 
Candida. 



parva. 

Teredo pedicellata. 
Dentalium Tarentinum. 
Chiton discrepans. 
Emarginula rosea. 
Fissurella Grseca (probably). 
Calyptrsea Obinensis. 
Haliotis tuberculata. 
Cyclostrema, Cutlerianuni. 
Trocbus umbilicatus. 

lineatus. 

striatus. 

exasperates. 

granulatus. 

Pbasianella pidla. 
Rissoa calathus. 

costulata. 

cremdata. 

lactea. 

pulebemnia. 

striatula. 

Aclis supranitida. 
ascaris. 



Cbemnitzia scalaris. 

fenestrata. 

excavata. 

Odostomia dolioliformis. 

Warreni. 

— conspicua. 



Lukisi. 



Barleeia rubra. 
Iantbina Britannica. 
Triforis pidcbella. 

adversa. 

Nassa pygmrea. 
Lachesis minima. 
Murex corallinus. 
Triton cutaceus. 

nodiferus. 

Tropbon muricatus. 
Defrancia Pbilberti. 
Mangelia rivfa. 
Ovula patula. 
Bulla cornea. 

bydatis. 

Aplysia pimctata. 
Pleurobranchus plumula. 
Otina otis. 

Melampus denticulatus. 
Sepia elegans. 



Sealaria Turtoni. 
Cbemnitzia simillima. 

In all, 81 species of Testaceous Mollusca. 

About tbe same number of species are found in Shetland but not in the 
Channel Isles. The greater part of the British Mollusca are common to both 
extremities. I estimate the total number to be 520. Of these may be 
reckoned 80 as peculiar to each extremity (and 80 more as inhabiting 
the intermediate area only) ; so that 360 is the probable number of species 
belonging to the Channel Isles and Shetland. The Mediterranean has from 
700 to 800 species. 

II. Species not observed north of the Channel Isles : — 



Argiope decollata, 
Lepton sulcatulum, 
Cardium papillosum, 
Teredo pedicellata, 
Chiton discrepans (probably), 
Emarginula cancellata ?, 
Rissoa pulcherrima, 



Bissoa lactea, 
Purpura haunastoma ?, 
Murex corallinus, 
Triton cutaceus, 

nodiferus, 

Bulla bydatis, 
Sepia elegans, 



being 14 species, of which 2 are doubtful as natives of the British, seas. 



Report on the Cultivation of Oysters by Natural and Artificial 
Methods. By Frank Buckland, M.A., M.R.C.S., §-c. 

Feeling highly honoured with the confidence you have placed in me to_ in- 
quire into this subject— important not only in a physiological but also in a 
commercial bearing — I have since the last Meeting used my best endeavours 
to obtain all the facts and all the information circumstances and labour would 
allow — and this not only near at home, but also at distant localities. I would 

b2 



4 REPORT 1865. 

beg to state that the facts hereafter mentioned are in no ease derived from 
books, but from actual observation and experiment. 

I have found that there is an amazing amount of most valuable informa- 
tion, because the result of practical experience, afloat. This information lias, 
however, never yet been properly collected, sorted, and reduced to a scientific 
bearing. The further, moreover, that I investigate the question of that most 
mysterious mollusk the Oyster, the more I find that, after all, we know little 
or nothing at all about it. 

The cultivation of the full-grown oyster is indeed pretty well known after 
it has arrived over the state of " brood ;" but in its earliest stages of deve- 
lopment comparatively little or nothing is known. It is the more important 
therefore to turn our attention in this direction, as legislation is actually at 
fault in the matter, and, as recent events have proved, those whose duties it 
is to make laws for the fisheries hardly know what laws to make. 

I would propose to divide my Eeport under several heads — 

1. The cultivation of the oyster by natural means. 

2. The cultivation of the oyster by artificial means. 

3. Experiments in hatching by artificial heat. 

4. Experiments on a large scale on the fore shore. 

5. The chemical analysis of the oyster. 

6. On dredging. 

7. Comparison of the French and English system of oyster-culture. 

8. Experiments on oyster-spat. 

9. On the cause of greenness in oysters. 

Although we know not as yet the actual process by means of which the 
delicate and thin-shelled young spat manages to cling to various substances, 
yet we can by observation find out the objects which it seems to prefer; and 
these I woidd place in order as follows : — 

1 . The shell of the living oyster. 

2. The shell of the dead oyster, technically called " Culch." 

3. The shells of mussels, periwinkles, whelks, clams. 

4. Pieces of crockery, glass, tiles, tobacco-pipes. 

5. Iron. 

6. Wood. 

I would propose to examine these in rotation. 

1. T7ie Shell of the Living Oyster. — In the natural state, when not dis- 
turbed by the hand of man, we find that the tendency of the oyster is to 
accumulate in large groups, crowded and packed together in the most fan- 
tastic shapes. You find them of all ages, the nucleus of the group being a 
very old oyster, and around it oysters of ages varying from six or eight years 
to spat of as many months. It is curious to remark that these oysters have 
a tendency to accommodate each other ; for I find that very seldom is there a 
dead one among the group, but that they are for the most part alive and 
thriving. 

There is a locality in the North Sea, known to the deep-sea trawlers, 
not far from the island of Heligoland, in lat. 54° to 55°, long. 5° to 6° : 
the trawlers avoid this spot, because the great clumps of oysters cut then- 
nets and do much damage. By the kindness of my friend Mr ."Thomas, owner 
of the trawling-smack ' Hurricane,' I am enabled to show samples of these 
oysters ; and I cannot but think that, were capital provided, and if expe- 
rienced men undertook the task, the fishing of this oyster-bank, at the present 
high price of oysters, would turn out to be a remunerative speculation. The 



CULTIVATION OF OYSTERS BY NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL METHODS. 5 

oysters are exceedingly thin, but, as direct experiment proves, they are 
capable of being fattened if placed in a favourable locality. 

2. TJie Shells of the Bead Oyster, technically called " Culch" — I look upon 
the study of the culch and its management as one of the most important 
things in oyster-culture ; for upon its state, whether abundant or not abun- 
dant, whether clean or dirty, depends the detaining or the loss of the young 
oysters after they are emitted from the mother's shell, and also the important 
question as to whether the public grounds (or commons) should or should not 
be taken by private companies. 

We start the question with two facts : — 

1. That the oyster will adhere to dead oyster-shells in preference to any 
other substance, even the shells of the living oyster. 

2. That in order that the spat may adhere, tbe culch must be perfectly 
clean and free from mud and weed. 

There are but few localities where the shells of the dead oysters have ac- 
cumulated in sufficient quantity to give the spat a chance of adhering ; it is 
therefore necessary to collect these shells from elsewhere and throw them 
down upon localities where the spat is likely to fall. This process is carried 
out by oyster- culturists on a pretty large scale ; and it seems almost provi- 
dential that beds of oyster-shells should be found in the neighbourhood of 
the grounds which are cultivated. Thus, for instance, you will see on the 
map a place called the " Pan Sand," at the mouth of the Thames. Now, near 
this spot there is an accumulation of oyster-shells ; and dredging-boats from 
various localities dredge up these shells and carry them on to places nearer 
inshore, and throw them again to the bottom of the sea, knowing full well 
that, if there be spat floating about, and if they be in a proper condition to 
adhere, these shells will assuredly catch it. How this Pan Sand oyster-bed 
came into existence I am quite unable to tell you ; but, from the appearance 
of the oysters themselves, I can assert that the oysters were of great age, 
that they had lived there many years undisturbed by dredges, and that a con- 
siderable time has elapsed since they thrived in this locality. 

Hence we learn an important fact, viz. that the spat seems to prefer adher- 
ing to a shell that is partially decayed, and softened, rather than to a new shell 
lately placed down. So great is the value of oyster-shells as " culch," that I 
have often cast a longing eye upon the shells which are carted away in large 
quantities from the oyster-shops in London and thrown on dust-heaps. They 
would be of much greater value if thrown on to the bottom of the sea, where 
they would certainly, if the season were favourable, form a trap for the 
floating spat. Such, however, is the abundance of old oyster-shells on the 
Pan Sand, that having, with the officers of the oyster -fishery with which I am 
connected, considered the idea, we find it would be cheaper to fetch them 
from the Pan Sand. 

I cannot, however, quit the subject of oyster-shells without lamenting 
that no use has yet been found for them on land. They are now to lands- 
men but waste material ; and I cannot help thinking that, if technology were 
to throw her lamp upon the matter, a use might be found for them. True it 
is that they make good lime ; but lime can be obtained from other materials 
at a less expense. The fact, however, of the lime of the oyster-shell being 
so very good has led my friend Mr. Bartlett, Superintendent of the Zoological 
Gardens, to give them in a burnt state to poultry and the more valuable 
breeding pheasants. The birds seem to like it much, and it certainly is be- 
neficial to laying hens and growing chicks. Another use of oyster-shells I 
have lately heard of. Mr. Browning, of Paglesham, tells me that the poor 



6 KEPORT 1865. 

people grind the shell and take as much of the powder as will cover a four- 
penny piece as a cure for ague. 

3. We will now consider the third materials the spat loves to fasten itself 
to. The most prominent of these is " mussels.' 1 I am enabled to show you 
several fine specimens where oysters have adhered to mussels. The reason 
of this is obviously that the shell of the mussel presents the two requisites 
for the adhesion of the spat — perfect cleanliness and great smoothness. 
Oyster-proprietors shoxdd treasure this fact carefully in their memory, and 
should apply it. Mussels in beds form one of the greatest enemies to oysters, 
for they spin their web over them, accumulate mud, and suffocate the oysters 
beneath. They should therefore be dredged up, placed on the foreshore to 
die and decay, and the shells thrown back into the sea at the places where 
the spat is expected to fall. 

For some reason or other the spat seems to like the shell of the common 
whelk, especially when the animal is dead. I now show you several specimens 
to prove this fact. Whelks, however, are far too valuable, not only as hunian 
food, but also as a bait for the cod in the North Sea cod-fishery, to which 
locality they are annually sent in quantities of such enormous money-value, to 
prevent our ever thinking of using whelk-shells as cidch in large quantities. 

The spat will also adhere to clams and to cockles. There is a large bed of 
these shells outside the mouth of the River Crouch in Essex ; and friends 
of mine who have oyster-fisheries in this region dredge large quantities to 
place down on their grounds. I show you samples of all these facts. 

4. We cannot be too observant of facts. I now show you a common 
saucer, on which oysters of three years old have fastened themselves. It was 
dredged up at a place called the Sandheads. at the nioiith of the Thames ; it 
is marked Queen's Channel in the maps. The French oyster-culturists have 
long been aware of the fact shown by the saucer, and in their oyster-parks 
place down all the broken potteryware they can find; and to these the 
oysters will adhere in considerable numbers — that is, in France. Unglazed 
earthenware has also attractions for the oyster ; and upon this fact is founded 
the whole system of catching oysters by means of earthenware tiles, as I 
shall state hereafter. 

5. It has often been a question as to whether oysters will or will not adhere 
to iron. I am able to answer this in the affirmative. The piles which sup- 
port the pier at Heine Bay are covered over with broad-headed iron nails, 
and upon these, when the tides are very low, I have frequently found oysters 
adhering. A dredgerman, moreover, lately brought me in an exceedingly 
fine specimen, viz. the square bit of iron that A\as used formerly to go round 
the head of the wooden stock of an anchor ; upon this square bit of iron I 
found no less than twenty-four oysters pf various sizes and ages. 

6. Oysters will also adhere to wood. Much has been said lately upon the 
advantage of placing down fascines or faggots for the use of the young oyster. 
I at once pronounce this to be a delusion and a snare, and I entreat those 
interested in the matter never to go to any trouble or expense in placing 
down fascines for this purpose. The experiment has been tried over and 
over again in England, and with the simple residt that the fascines are ex- 
cellent cellectors of mud and seaweeds, sometimes of barnacles, but hardly 
ever of spat. I now show you two solitary specimens, one from the Isle of 
Re, and the other from Mr. Wiseman's grounds at Paglesham ; but the 
failures in this direction so much preponderate over the successes that I 
should never advise their use. 

In the experiments now under my charge at Heme Bay, it is true, I have 



CULTIVATION OF OYSTERS Bl NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL METHODS. 7 

used fascines very largely, and this for two reasons — first, to try the expe- 
riment of catching oysters with them ; and secondly, to make the fascines 
do the very work they seemed most inclined to do, viz. to collect the weeds 
and the mud. I made with these fascines enclosures of various sizes and 
shapes, and inside them I placed the tiles, which were thus guarded both 
from the mud and also from the long belt-weed, which bothered me much by 
floating among the tiles and upsetting them. This is a good example of one 
of the difficulties of oyster-culture, and a proof that he who undertakes such 
matters must closely observe the actions of various materials when placed in 
the sea, and use these natural tendencies to the advancement of the object he 
has in view. I show a water-colour drawing of my works at Heme Bay. 

On Dredging. 

The subject of dredging has occupied my most serious attention. It is a 
question upon which legislation is at fault, or rather those who make the 
laws know not what laws they ought to make, as they have not studied the 
natural history of the animal which they wish to protect from injury. 

Dredging consists in sailing over the grounds and scraping the ground with 
an instrument called a dredge ; it is made chiefly of iron : the front part of 
it has a sharpish edge to pick up the oysters, which are received into a network, 
the network being of chain in the deep-sea dredging-boats, of cow's hide- in 
those boats which fish in more shallow water. 

As the dredge passes over the bottom of the sea it performs two opera- 
tions : 
■ 1st. It picks up what oysters it may happen to meet with in its course. 

2nd. It clears away the mud and dirt from the stones over which it passes. 

The failure of spat has been popularly attributed to over dredging, i. e. the 
ground has been so much worked that all the oysters have been taken off 
from it, and none left for breeding-purposes. This theory I hold to be some- 
what fallacious. True it is that the Jersey beds are now unproductive ; but 
I fear that unless they are regularly dredged they will remain for ever \m- 
productive. It is well known — and it is one of the first principles in oyster- 
culture — that in order to enable the spat to adhere the culch must be perfectly 
clean ; if it is not dredged the mud will quickly accumulate on it, and there 
will be no places left fit for the reception of spat, should there happen to be 
spat. 

It has been argued that if no parent oysters are left on the bed to spat 
there can be no young ones bom to adhere to the culch. The answer to this 
is, that no number of dredges can pick up all the oysters on a given space 
of ground, and that there will be enough left to stock the ground should there 
be " a fall of spat," in other words, should the spat live after it has been 
emitted from the mother's shell. 

Supposing the ground to have but few oysters left on it on account of the 
place being so much worked with the dredge, the young oysters (should it 
be a favourable year for them) would find plenty of harbour on the clean 
culch, and the grounds would be restocked. Supposing, on the contrary, that 
the ground is thoroughly stocked with oysters, and has not been dredged for 
some time, they must all of them inevitably perish, on account of the culch 
being covered with mud, even though the year has been favourable for their 
living. 

I would, however, draw a serious distinction as regards locality. In the 
case of the deep-sea oyster-beds, I should certainly not permit any dredging 
to go on during the months that the oysters are spatting, for the simple rea- 



8 REPORT 1865. 

son that there is but very little mud and dirt about, and that therefore it 
cannot collect to a great extent upon the culch. 

In the case, however, of oyster-beds, -whether common or private, situated 
in rivers or near the mouths of rivers, I should advise the dredging to be 
continued with the greatest vigour up to the time that the first spat is seen 
on the culch, and then, and not till then, should the beds be allowed to re- 
main quiet. 

It has been proposed to stop the dredging during the months of May and 
June. What would be the inevitable consequence ? It is during the months 
of May and June that the sea flora is most luxuriant ; every stone and shell 
would become coated with weed and slime-like- material of some kind or 
another, and this vegetable varnish upon it would entirely prevent the young 
oysters adhering to the culch, and they would inevitably perish. If, on the 
contrary, the dredges are kept well going during these two months, the culch 
will become thoroughly clean, and the spat will be able to adhere to the sur- 
face thus prepared for them. 

The dredge in going over the ground would not, I feel convinced, do injury 
cither to the spawning oyster or to the young spat. The former may be 
knocked about without any injury to its constitution, and the latter are so 
very minute that they would escape destruction by the dredge. Shoidd, 
however, even the dredge destroy numbers of them, the mischief done would 
be well compensated by the space of ground cleaned and got ready for others ; 
for it must be recollected that when the oysters on a well-stocked bed are 
at the height of spatting the water must be perfectly full of them. 

Some friends of mine, whose riving depends upon oysters, never think of 
taking off the dredges from their best spatting-ground until they see the 
spat fixed upon the culch. The theory that dredging during spatting-time 
injures the spat, they know perfectly well ; they have therefore tried the 
experiment of leaving certain portions of the ground untouched ; the conse- 
quence has been that less spat was found upon this ground than upon the 
neighbouring grounds where dredging was going on all the time ; the grounds, 
in fact, which had been most dredged had most spat upon them. The case of 
the flats outside Whitstable is very remarkable. Large numbers of boats from 
"VVhitstable and other parts have for many years past been in the habit of 
dredging these flats every day in the year, and all the year round ; it follows 
to reason that, unless it paid the men to go there, they would resort to other 
places. They, however, keep to the flats — a plain proof that oysters are there. 
They are there; and the reason is, that perpetual dredging has kept the 
ground clean, and that the spat floating about from the oysters on the neigh- 
bouring beds, these flats, and other places find a place suited for them, and 
adhere there. Could we look at the bottom of the sea at the mouth of the 
Thames, we should find a well-marked spot covered with oysters more or less, 
whereas all the ground surrounding it woidd be blank, containing no oysters 
at all. In illustration of this fact, I woidd imagine a large number of corn 
seeds thrown from the sky on to Salisbury Plain : should there happen to be 
a ploughed field in the plain, the seed would fall into the earth prepared for 
its reception, would germinate and grow ; whereas if it fell on the ground 
not so prepared it must inevitably perish. 

This question of dredging very seriously affects the taking in of common 
ground and applying it to private purposes. Two cases lately occurred — the 
one where Parliament granted the Heme Bay Company a considerable tract 
which had hitherto been common ground ; the other case is that of the Eoach 
Eiver Fishery, where Parliament refused to give over the commons to a pri- 



CULTIVATION OF OYSTERS BY NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL METHODS. 9 

vate company. I premise by stating that commons are absolutely necessary 
for the stocking of private beds ; they are generally in the neighbourhood of 
private beds, and the spat which falls upon them is the produce of the oysters 
upon the private bed. These commons are worked by poor men to obtain 
what they can upon them, and sell them to the owners of the beds ; in so 
doing they keep the ground clean for the reception of spat. 

In the case of the Roach River Fishery, the commons are situated in a 
comparatively narrow river, and the commons adjoin the private beds almost 
as near as the various paving stones in the streets. The spat, therefore, which 
are born on paving-stone A (which is private) are very likely to fall on 
the neighbouring paving-stone B (which is " commons ") ; anyhow the spat is 
carried up and down by the tide, and must of necessity fall in the river. 
The dredgermen perpetually work these commons, and in so doing keep them 
ready for the reception of spat. When the spat falls, they pick it up in the 
form of brood, and sell it to the oyster-proprietors, from whose oysters it ori- 
ginally came. Now it would not be right that oysters belonging to Mr. A 
should become the property of Mr. B, because they happen to swim over an 
imaginary hue and settle on the adjoining ground ; it would be just the same 
thing as if, a farmer breeding a number of lambs in a private field, these lambs, 
because they happen to get over into a common where donkeys and geese are 
feeding, should become the property of the gipsies. 

The case of the Heme Bay Fishery is different from that of the Roach River. 
Here, as will be seen from the map, the oysters may come from anywhere. 
The Whitstable people said they came from their ground ; a few of them 
might possibly have done so, but experience shows that the set of the tides 
is towards the flats out to sea, and there oysters are always found. The 
authorities who laid down the Admiralty Charts gave their evidence before 
the House of Commons, that the set of the tide at Heme Bay was from east 
to west ; in fact their evidence was hardly needed, as the drift of the shingle 
along the shores of Heme Bay amply proves it. Whitstable being to the 
westward of Heme Bay, the prevailing set of the tide would carry the spat 
back to their ground, and not on to that of the Heme Bay ground. There 
was not very long ago a large number of spat picked up on the Heme Bay 
ground, and I learnt from observant persons living at Heme Bay that at that 
time the wind was from the eastward. 

Periwinkles. — To those who lay oysters on the foreshore I would now ven- 
ture to give a valuable hint, which they may possibly know before. Between 
high- and low-water mark green weed is very apt to accumidate ; this col- 
lects mud, and in other respects docs injury to the oysters. "No amount of 
dredging or other cleaning will keep this green weed off; it is nevertheless 
very desirable to get rid of it ; and this would form an excellent problem for 
those who are in the habit of studying what is called the police of nature — 
that is, to mark the way in which the undue increase of one animal is kept 
down by the increase of another. Everybody knows that periwinkles are 
of great use in keeping clean the walls of an aquarium. My friends Mr. 
Wiseman and Mr. Browning of Paglesham, who are proprietors of large 
oyster-fisheries, have applied the observed fact of periwinkles eating weeds 
to a practical operation on a large scale. 

The foreshore where their oysters are laid is very subject to this green 
weed ; they have therefore turned out large numbers of periwinkles upon it, 
and these, eating up the green weed, clean the foreshore in the most wonder- 
ful way. It is curious to remark how periwinkles, obeying their apparently 
natural instinct, are in the habit of climbing up poles which are put in as 



10 REPORT — 1865. 

beacons ; they crawl up these poles as far as they can, and then, remaining 
out of water till they are nearly dried up, drop back again. 

Expert mints on the Foreshore on a large scale. 

The Heme Bay Oyster Company having deputed me to carry out experi- 
ments on their grounds at Heme Bay according to the much talked-of French 
system of oyster-culture, I have since the month of May last been almost 
exclusively occupied in these experiments. Having carefully studied the 
whole system of tiles and fascines as adopted in the Isle of Be, actual ex- 
perience has shown me that the French system cannot be adopted on the 
English foreshores in exactly the same manner as it has been in France; almost 
at every point minor puzzles occur, which require much foresight and per- 
petual contriving to overcome. The Kemmerer tiles are, as is well known, 
coated with cement on the under side, so that, the oyster having fixed itself, 
the cement can be broken in pieces, and the oyster, when arrived at the age 
of one year, immediately let free. I have not adopted this system, prin- 
cipally on account of the expense it would necessarily entail. I have, how- 
ever, with the assistance of an ingenious brick-maker, contrived a tile of such 
a size and such a consistency, that the necessity of having cement is avoided, 
and the oyster will be able to be set free without fracturing its shell. 

At a comparatively small cost, but with great personal labour, I have laid 
down four thousand of these tiles on the foreshore at Heme Bay. Three great 
difficulties have occurred: these are, firstly, to keep the tiles from being 
knocked over by the waves ; secondly, to obviate their unaccountable desire 
to sink into the mud, and in consequence become useless ; and thirdly, the 
inconvenience of the very short time allowed by the tides to place the tiles 
in their proper position on the foreshore. Most of these matters I have, 
however, seriously considered, and, with the able help of Mr. Dilnot, a trades- 
man of Heme Bay, have overcome. 

The tiles I placed down at three different periods in the year, viz. in June, 
July, and beginning of August ; I examined them carefully every spring tide : 
the waves have displaced them but very slightly, and broken hardly any. 

It is as yet (September) rather early to report the actual result of the ope- 
ration, as the spat would not yet be sufficiently large to be easily appreciable ; 
I therefore hope that the present warm weather may encourage what is called 
the Michaelmas spat, and that the tiles may be found to have caught some. 

In their present condition the tiles are covered with what are locally called 
" Nuns," in other words balani or acom-shells ; but no young oysters are to 
be seen as yet. 

In accordance with the French plan, I have placed in my submarine parks 
and gardens broken pieces of glass, earthenware, pottery, &c. In France these 
objects wo\dd have become covered with oysters. At the locality, however, 
where we placed them the nuns took the place of the oysters. The numbers 
of numerous marine creatiu-es which have adhered to the tiles amply prove 
that their structure is most favourable for the catching of spat, should there 
be any to catch ; and the local fishermen, who first laughed at my operations, 
no longer laugh, but express their opinion that the tiles would be capital 
things, should there be any spat about. 

Anxious to ascertain the fact whether the tiles did not catch spat because 
they were not in structure adapted so to do, o'r because the spat perished be- 
tween the time of its being emitted from the mothers shell and in fixing 
itself, I devised the following experiments : — I procured large glass jars and 
bottles, and, placing in these oysters which I could see to be in a spatting 



CULTIVATION OF OYSTERS BY NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL METHODS. 11 

condition, covered over the top with a material which would admit the water 
freely into the bottle, and placed it at the bottom of the sea, defended from 
injury by fascines. Upon subsequent examination I found that the young 
oysters had not adhered to the sides of the glass, though, in my opinion, there 
was no reason why they should not do so, except the temperature of the water 
surrounding the bottle. Experiment No. 2. — I obtained wooden boxes, and, 
without injuring them, placed in each one or two spatting oysters ; I placed 
tiles over these oysters, and over the tiles a covering of coarse canvas, the 
meshes of the canvas being large enough to let in water, but not let out the 
oyster-spat. My idea in doing this was to prove whether, or not, as has been 
supposed by some, the spat immediately on being emitted from the parent 
fixes itself. These boxes were placed on the foreshore in such a locality that 
they would never be dry ; after they had been down one month I cut off the 
canvas and examined the tiles, but not one single trace of oyster-spat could 
be seen, the oysters which had been shut up in the box underneath the tiles 
I found to be quite hearty, and to have got very fat on their captivity. I 
tried the same idea in closing the spatting oyster between two flower-pots 
wired together; here again the results were nil. To my mind these experi- 
ments prove conclusively that the young ones cannot survive the state of 
things favourable to their parent, and that they certainly do not adhere the 
moment they are sent forth from their mother's shell. 

Comparison of the French and English System of Oyster-culture. 

I have now examined both methods very carefully, and have come to the 
conclusion (and I am bound in honesty to state it) that in my humble opinion 
the French system has been much overrated ; or at least the idea that the 
system is applicable to this country is more or less fallacious. 

The public seem to have got it into their heads that our English system is 
faulty, because for several successive years it failed to produce any large 
number of oysters ; at the same time highly favourable reports were issued 
of the success of cidtivating oysters in France by what is called the artificial 
system. I candidly confess I was one of the first to fall into the trap, and 
to imagine with others that, because the tiles, fascines, &c. were placed in the 
sea, therefore the oysters could be made to breed, and that if you placed tiles 
you would have oysters, if you placed no tiles you would have no oysters. 

As I have explained before, the English system is to catch the spat upon 
culch, the French to catch it upon tiles. I have examined both systems, and 
come to the conclusion that the tiles will (except under certain favourable 
circumstances) never beat the culch. 

I have been to the Isle of Re, and have seen (through the great kindness 
of Dr. Kemmerer) the whole system ; and the long and short of it is this :— 
, For many years the oyster-spat in France was totally neglected, and the in- 
habitants thought nothing about turning their beds to profitable account. 
The learned pisciculturist, M. Coste, suggested the idea of tiles being placed 
down, the idea having, I believe, been first suggested by a poor mason, M. 
Bceuf, with whom I have had a long conversation. The tiles, fascines, &c. 
were placed down under the patronage of the government, and they were 
picked up covered with young oysters. The success was pronounced complete, 
fascines and tiles were all the rage, and all those who had oyster-fisheries 
thought their fortunes were made. 

The fact of the matter is, that the first year these various oyster-catching 
implements were laid down happened to be a year famous for an exceed- 
ingly heavy fall of spat ; in other words, a vast majority of the young spat 



12 REPORT 1865. 

born lived, thrived, and ultimately adhered to whatever they could find to 
adhere to. They found the fascines and tiles, and covered them as bees 
cover the boughs of a tree at swarming-tirne ; and the idea was at once 
started that these fascines and tiles were the means, as it were, of creating 
the oysters which otherwise would not have been created. 

The first two or three years after these tiles, &c., were laid down happened 
to be good years for the spat living ; but for the last few years the spat has 
not lived, and the natural consequence has been that they have not been 
found on the tiles in very large quantities. Oysters, in fact, are just as scarce 
this year in France as they are in England. If the artificial system with 
tiles had been such a great success, and had the tiles caught the sj)at when 
culch would not catch the spat, it would of necessity follow that oysters in 
France would have been very cheap, whereas in fact they are quite as dear as 
in England, and there are so few of them to be had that French agents are 
at this moment in this country buying all they can get hold of. 

There can, however, be no doubt whatever that as a rule the oysters spat 
much more freely on the west coast of France than they do at the mouth of 
the Thames and the adjoining coasts of Essex. The reason of this is, to my 
mind, obvious. Oysters require heat, or rather warmth, in their younger 
state. From the nature of the vegetation the general state of the climate can 
be pretty well ascertained. Now at the headquarters of artificial breeding, 
at the Isle of Re, the temperature is so great that vines grow luxuriantly. 
In England the temperature is such that we can only grow corn, turnips, &c. 

The latitude of the Isle of Re, which is situated in the Bay of Biscay, is about 
46°, whereas the mouth of the Thames is about 51|°; it is natural therefore 
to suppose (as indeed the facts show) that in ordinary years there should be 
a much larger fall of spat at the Isle of Re than on the east coast of England. 
The state of things on the west coast of Ireland seems to confirm this con- 
clusion ; for here, again, the oysters breed much more freely than they do in 
England, the cause being the warm moist climate and the even temperature 
of the air. 

In accordance with hydrographical facts, the oysters bred both in Ireland 
and Re are taken elsewhere to fatten ; those from Ireland are brought round 
by vessels or else in boxes by railway and laid down at the mouth of the 
Thames, where in a year or so they increase greatly in the quantity of meat 
contained in the shells. The shell, too, seems inclined to take on the cha- 
racteristics of the oysters natural to the place, though direct observation will 
not as yet enable me to be sure about the fact " whether the young of trans- 
ported oysters will, if born in the locality where a purer breed of oysters 
exist, assume the character of the natives of the place :" this is a subject of the 
highest importance, about which no facts are yet known. In Re the lean 
oysters are placed in what are called clares — that is to say, mud ponds ; in 
these mud ponds they find food, and certainly become fatter than at the 
place where they were first born. 

Chemical Analysis. 

The object of this investigation is, first, to ascertain whence the oyster 
obtains the mineral material to secrete his house, and, secondly, what those 
materials are ; for, commercially speaking, the proportion of the meat to the 
shell is of the greatest importance to the merchant who has to pay high 
prices for the transport of oysters long distances. If he buys oysters with a 
thick shell, containing a large proportion of mineral, he cannot possibly ob- 
tain as much profit as if there were more meat than shell at a given weight. 



One-fourth. 
One-fifth. 



< 



CULTIVATION OF OYSTERS BY NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL METHODS. 13 

With this idea, I have, with the assistance of my clerk, ascertained the pro- 
portion of meat to shell in nearly forty kinds of oysters. I am indebted to 
Mr. Moore, of the Derby Museum, Liverpool, for many specimens of these 
oysters ; and I shall be exceedingly obliged to any gentleman who will give 
me any specimens to enlarge my table. 

Proportion of Meat to Shell in different hinds of Oysters, ascertained by 

Mr. Frank BucMand. 

Colchester 

Whitstable 

Paglesham 

Heme Bay 

Falmouths 

Callies >• One-sixth. 

Mayor's Bank, Galway J 

Plymouth , 

Tramore Bay, Ireland 

Eastbourne, Sussex )-One -seventh. 

Milford, Wales 

Isle of Skye 

Bed Bank Burrin, Collare, Ireland .... 

Sandheads, Mouth of Thames 

Sir W. Wallace's, Loch Byan, Scotland 

Exmouth Harbour 

Wexford, Ireland >One-eighth 

Clew Bay, Ireland 

Skibbereen, Cape Clear , 

Penmaenmawr, Wales 

Auglimish Bay, Ireland 

Boston, Lincolnshire 

Boss Muck, co. Clare, Ireland 

Waterford, Ireland 

Channel between Dover and France . . 

Hayling Island, near Portsmouth \ One-tenth. 

Beaumaris, Wales 

Shetland 

Howth Bank, Ireland 

Mouth of the Humber ' One-twelfth. 

North Sea One-fifteenth. 

Isle of Be, France One-twentieth. 

It struck me that, whereas the oysters were very different in appearance, 
their mineral ingredients would differ correspondingly. I have therefore 
obtained the assistance of Mr. A. P. Tarner, F.C.S. He finds that the chemical 
ingredients composing the oyster-shell are three — animal matter, phosphate 
of lime, and carbonate of lime. 

Six different kinds of oysters were taken from localities widely apart ; 
and the result (given in the Table) proved directly that, as I had supposed 
from theory, the more animal matter there was in an oyster-shell, and the 
less mineral, the greater value it would be for the market ; it is very satis- 
factory to find that the chemical ingredients of the shell of the oyster tally 
almost exactly with the prices they bear at the market. I have not as yet 
had time to examine the meat of the oyster, but propose to report on this 
at a future time. 



One-ninth. 



} 



One-eleventh. 



14 



REPORT 1865. 



Animal matter. 


Phosphate of lime. 


Carbonate of lime. 


Heme Bay Native. . . 
Rivedoux Rocks ... 


•096 

•087 
•075 
•0G2 
•041 
•037 


Rivedoux Rocks ... 
Herno Bay Native... 
Colchester 


■075 
•047 
•028 
•020 
•020 
•011 


North Sea 


•948 
•943 
•910 
•905 
•857 
•838 


Red Bank Burrin ... 








North Sea 


Red Bank Burrin . . . 


Heme Bay Native... 
Rivedoux Rocks ... 


Red Bank Burrin . . . 





Experiments on the Matching of Oyster-spat. 

It is my firm conviction that one of the chief reasons why the yonng spat 
have died in such countless numbers in the open sea is, that the water is not 
of a sufficient temperature to allow them to live and thrive during the period 
in which the process of adhesion takes place. Sudden alterations of tempe- 
rature, especially from warm to cold, are also particularly fatal in their re- 
sults. I have therefore instituted a series of experiments to endeavour, if 
possible, to give the young spat a continuous supply of water at a constant 
and unvarying temperature. In doing this I have gone to some considerable 
expense ; but, as a set-off against this, I have been greatly aided by Mr. 
Dilnot, a tradesman of Heme Bay, who has most kindly placed his premises 
at my disposal. 

By a somewhat complicated bit of machinery we have been enabled to keep 
up a constant supply of sea-water continually flowing for several weeks, the 
temperature being arranged by an application of artificial heat. Upon exa- 
mining the stones, shells, and other materials in this artificially warmed 
water we were much pleased to find the shells adhering in the position 
usually chosen by the young oyster itself, viz. the underside of the shell, 
The adhesion was pretty firm, but as the water dried the shell became loose, 
and ultimately fell off. I cannot, however, but look at this as a partial ap- 
proach to success. It appears to me that the young creatures had taken up 
the position they intended to occupy, and that they died from some other 
causes. What those causes were I am hardly at present able to state ; but I 
am qiute certain and positive that I know what two of them were, and trust 
to be able to meet the difficulties in future trials. The task of applying 
heat artificially is no easy one, and presents many mechanical difficulties, 
which at present I can hardly see how to meet. I do not, however, despair, 
and propose further experiments during the next season. I mentioned this 
idea at the last Meeting of the Association, at Bath, and have since endea- 
voured to carry it out. Experiments of a similar kind have, I have heard, 
been instituted by Mr. William Crofts ; but I have not seen his apparatus. 
Experiment has shown me the exact temperature the spat like best. 

The Question of Green Oysters. 
This is, both commercially and socially speaking, a most important ques- 
tion. The Biver Roach, situated on the coast of Essex, has for a hundred 
years or more produced large quantities of oysters ; but, strange to say, 
none of these oysters are ever sent to the English market, being all, with- 
out exception, sent to the markets at Dunkirk and Ostend, and thence to 
Baiis, Berlin, and even, I bebeve, as far as St. Petersburgh. The reason 
why they are not sent to the English market is simply that they are green 
in appenrance. I have examined into this question with very great care, and 
in doing so have been greatly assisted by my friend Mr. W. Wiseman, of 
Pagles'ham. The oysters, strange to say, are only green in the winter, and 



CULTIVATION OF OYSTERS BY NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL METHODS. 15 

not in the summer. The greenness docs not extend throughout the whole of 
their body, but simply to their beard or fin. The cause is totally unknown : 
some attribute it to the green weed among which the oysters are placed ; others 
to the infusoria upon which they feed : for all practical purposes suffice it to 
say, they are most excellent and nutritious food to the human frame. Dr. 
"Letheby has made an analysis of them for Mr. Wiseman, and reports that they 
are perfectly wholesome and contain no copper. Practical experience, more- 
over, proves that they are wholesome, and many dozens of them may be eaten 
with impunity. The 03-sters at Marcnnes, in France, are so highly esteemed 
by the French people on account of their greenness, that the oyster-culturists 
at Marennes placed them in pits in order that they might become green. 
From all that I can observe or ascertain, my present opinion is (and is fur- 
ther confirmed by experiments which I have carried out), that the cause of 
the greenness is the presence of chlorophyll in the beard of the oyster. 
From this fact we may deduce an important practical conclusion, viz. that, if 
it be desirable to get off the greenness from the oysters, all that is required 
will be to place them in pits, and place a covering of hurdles, brands, or 
other materials over them, so as to prevent the action of light, the chloro- 
phyll will, I believe, not be formed, and the oyster in consequence not be able 
to take it up. This is a practical suggestion which I have made to Mr. Wise- 
man, and which he has promised at once to experiment on. 

Falmouth Green Oysters. 

The green oysters from Falmouth have undoubtedly a bad reputation, on 
account of their being said to contain copper. Mr. Fox, of Falmouth, has 
been good enough to send me samples of these oysters. I have submitted 
them to the analysis of Mr. Tarner, who reports the presence of copper in 
them, but in very minute quantities, hardly sufficient, I should imagine, to 
do injury to the human system ; still that it is present there can be no doubt. 
It may be that the oysters obtain the copper from a solution in sea-water, 
or from the fresh water running from the copper-mines. I propose, if oppor- 
tunity serves, to visit Falmouth, and inquire more minutely into this fact. 
Falmouth oysters are imported in considerable quantities to the mouth of the 
Thames ; and practical experience shows that they lose all their green colour 
on being exposed for a few months in water suited to their fattening. The 
bodies of these Falmouth oysters when first caught are almost as green as 
arsenical paper ; the shells also look green in external appearance. Upon 
placing them in spirits of wine the spirits become dark green ; there can be 
no doubt whatever that this is caused by the presence of chlorophyll. 

In conclusion, I would remark that so anxious am I about the cultivation 
of the waters, especially with reference to the Salmon and the Oyster, that I 
have established, at my own expense, at the Royal Horticultural Gardens, 
under the Science and Art Department of the South Kensington Mriseum, a 
" Museum of Economic Fish-culture," in which I have exhibited drawings 
and preparations illustrating the habits and natural history of the salmon, 
together with samples of oysters from many parts of the United Kingdom. 
The development of the young oyster from its embryonic state to the time 
that it is fit for market, together with the various modes of its cultivation, 
both by ordinary and by artificial methods, is fully illustrated. Samples of 
oysters, alive or dead, from any part of the world will be most thankfully 
received ; for any fact, however insignificant it may seem to be, is valuable. 



16 REPORT 1865. 

First Report of the Committee for exploring Kent's Cavern, Devon- 
shire. The Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., 
Professor Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. John Evans, 
Mr. Edward Vivian, and Mr. William Pengelly (Reporter) . 

The celebrated Kent's Cavern, or Kent's Hole, is about a mile due east from 
Torquay barbour. It is situated in a small, wooded, limestone hill on tbe 
western side of a valley wbicb, about half a mile to the south, terminates 
on tbe northern shore of Torbay. 

Tbe hills -which surround the district consist of limestone, greenstone, 
clay-slate, and a reddish grit or compact sandstone. Tbe two last are tra- 
versed by veins of quartz ; and, with tbe possible exception of tbe green- 
stone, they all belong to tbe Devonian system. Indeed the entire Torquay 
peninsula is exclusively made up of rocks of this age. 

According to tradition, there were formerly four or five entrances to the 
cavern, of which two only were generally known, the others being merely 
narrow apertures or slits through which, until they were blocked up from 
within, tbe initiated were wont to enter clandestinely. The remaining two 
are about 50 feet apart, and occur in tbe face of one and the same low 
natural cliff, running nearly north and south, on the south-eastern side of 
the hill. The northern entrance is in form a rude triangle, about 6 feet 
high and 8 feet wide at the base. The southern is a natural and tole- 
rably symmetrical arch, 9g feet wide at the base, and 6 feet high. Its 
form is due partly to a gentle curvature of the strata — the apex of the 
opening being in the anticlinal axis — and partly to the actual removal, by 
natural causes, of portions of the limestone beds ; the base of the opening, 
or chord of the arc, consists of undisturbed limestone ; so that the entrance 
may be aptly compared to tbe mouth of an oven. 

From the time of the researches and discoveries which, forty years ago, 
rendered the cavern famous, to the commencement of the exploration under 
the auspices of this Association, the southern entrance has been blocked up, 
the northern alone being vised by visitors. The base of the latter is about 
189 feet above the lovel of mean tide*, whilst that of the former is about 
4 feet lower. 

The Cavern has been known from time immemorial. Even tradition fails 
to reach back to the date of its discovery. It did not, however, attract the 
attention of scientific inquirers until September 1824, when Mr. Northmore 
visited it with the double object, as be stated, " of discovering organic remains, 
and of ascertaining the existence of a temple of Mithras," and he declared 
himself" happy to say that he was successfid in both objects." He was speedily 
followed by Mr. W. C. Trevilyan, who, according to the Rev. Mr. M'Enery, 
" was the first that obtained any results of value to science." Mr. M'Enery, 
whose name must be for ever associated with the cavern, first visited it in the 
summer of 1825. He was at that time quite inexperienced in cavern re- 
searches ; for he states that the party which he had been induced to accom- 
pany was a large one, and that on entering the cavern he " was the last of 
the train, for he could not divest himself of certain undefinable sensations, it 
being his first visit to a scene of this nature." The visit was a memorable 
one ; for, separating himself from his companions, and devoting himself to 

* A " bench mark " of the Ordnance Survey in the road from Torquay to Ilsham farm, 
and which is at no great distance from the cavern, is, as Col. Sir H. James kindly informs 
me, 131'629 feet above the level of mean tide at Liverpool. By pocket aneroid, the base 
of the northern entrance of the cavern is 575 feet above this mark. — W. P. 



ON KENT S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 17 

what he conjectured to be a favourable spot, he found several teeth and 
bones. He thus describes his feelings on the occasion : — " They -were the 
first fossil teeth I had ever seen, and as I laid my hand on these relics of 
extinct races, and witnesses of an order of things which passed away with 
them, I shrank back involuntarily ; though not insensible to the excitement 
attending new discoveries, I am not ashamed to own, that in the presence of 
these remains I felt more of awe than joy." He at once communicated his 
discovery to Dr. Euckland, and with great energy followed up his " good 
fortune " for several years. So far as can be ascertained from his memoranda, 
the date of his latest visit was August 14th, 1S29. 

Though he at one time intended to publish a narrative of his labours and 
discoveries, and had made arrangements for the requisite illustrations, the 
intention was unfortunately abandoned. After his decease, it was feared 
that his manuscripts had been destroyed or lost ; but after experiencing a 
variety of fortune they passed into the hands of Mr. Vivian of Torquay, who 
from them compiled a Memoir which was published in 1859*. 

In 1840, Mr. Godwin- Austen read a paper before the Geological Society 
of London, on the " Bone Caves of Devonshire," when he described the results 
of his investigations in Kent's Hole. 

In 1846, the Torquay Natural History Society appointed a Committee to 
conduct an exploration of a small portion of the cavern. Though their object 
was mainly to obtain specimens for the Society's Museum, very careful atten- 
tion was given to the positions and associations of all the articles found. A 
paper embodying the results of this investigation was drawn up by Mr. 
Vivian, a member of the Committee, and read in 1847 before the Geological 
Society of London. A mention of this communication appeared in the 3rd 
volume of the Quarterly Journal of the Society. 

Though it may be doubted, perhaps, whether any of the foregoing explora- 
tions were conducted with that rigid observance of method which is now held 
to be necessary, all the explorers are unanimous in stating that they found 
flint " implements " mixed up with the remains of extinct animals. 

In 1858, the results of the systematic and careful exploration of Brixham 
Cavern, on the opposite shore of Torbay, induced the scientific world to sus- 
pect that the alleged discoveries which, from time to time during a quarter 
of a century, had been reported from Kent's Hole, might, after all, be en- 
titled to a place amongst the verities of science ; and from that time various 
proposals for further investigations have been made. As is well known, 
these suggestions took a definite form at the last Meeting of this Association, 
when a liberal grant of money was made, and a Committee was appointed 
for the purpose of further exploration. It is the object of this communica- 
tion to state what up to this time the results have been, so far as they are at 
present determined. 

The Committee have great pleasure in stating that, in reply to their appli- 
cation for permission to make the proposed investigation, the proprietor, Sir 
L. Palk, Bart., M.P., assured them most promptly that it would " give him 
great pleasure to place every facility in their hands." He placed the cavern 
in their exclusive custody, and suggested the most satisfactory arrangement 
for the ultimate disposal of such objects of interest as might be found. 

Though large portions of the deposits were broken up by Mr. M'Enery 

and his successors, there is still within the cavern a very considerable amount 

of virgin ground. The Committee, however, were desirous of selecting an 

area in which not only were the deposits certainly intact, but which would 

* Cavern Kesearches. Simpkin, Marshall and Co., 1851?, 

1865. c 



18 REPORT 1865. 

not present any very great difficulties in working. After a visit of inspec- 
tion it was decided to undertake the exploration of the large chamber into 
which the southern entrance immediately opens. The mode of investigation 
was laid down, trustworthy and intelligent workmen were engaged (Mr. 
Charles Keeping, brother of the well-known fossil collector, being the chief), 
and the work, consigned to the superintendence of the two resident members 
of the Committee, Mr. Vivian and the Honorary Secretary, was commenced 
on March 28th of the present year. 

Immediately outside the cave lay a considerable talus of earth and stones, 
the upper portion of which, at least, is believed to have been thrown out by 
Mr. M'Enery, who conducted his researches through the northern opening. 
It was necessary to cut through this mass in order to reach and make avail- 
able the entrance which the Committee had selected for their operations. 
This material was very carefully examined, partly for the purpose of detect- 
ing any objects of interest which it might contain, and partly as an initiatory 
exercise for the workmen. 

The cavern is in no part subject to any considerable amount of drip ; and 
no portion of it is drier than the chamber selected for exploration. Since the 
commencement of the work unusually heavy rains have fallen in the district, 
but water has entered through the roof at a very few points only, and in no 
instance in such an amount as to produce discomfort or inconvenience. 

The following is the succession of deposits, in descending order, which the 
chamber contained. 

1st. Huge blocks of limestone which had manifestly fallen from the roof. 
Many of them required blasting to effect their removal ; and in several 
instances it was necessary to blast even the masses into which they were by 
this means divided. One of the blocks measured 11 feet long, 5| half 
broad, and 2^ thick; hence it contained upwards of 100 cubic feet, and 
must have weighed fully 7 tons. In some cases two or three of them 
lay one on another, and, in a few instances, were firmly cemented together 
by a separate cake of stalagmite between each pair; whilst others lay 
unconformably with considerable interspaces. Occasionally, what appeared 
to be a boss or dome of stalagmite proved to be a block, or two or three 
small blocks, of limestone invested on all sides with a stalagmitic sheet. 
Certain masses, lying at some distance from a drop, were without even a 
trace of stalagmite. 

2nd. Beneath these limestone blocks there was a layer of mould of an almost 
black colour. It varied from a few inches to upwards of a foot in depth. 

3rd. Underneath the black soil came a cake of stalagmitic breccia, made up 
of comparatively small fragments of limestone so very firmly cemented to- 
gether with carbonate of lime as occasionally to require blasting. It was 
rarely less, but not unfrequcntly much more, than a foot thick. Everywhere 
it was firmly attached to the walls, and it occasionally extended completely 
across the chamber. Not unfrequently, however, the centre of the chamber 
was altogether destitute of this breccia, in some instances, because there is 
no drip near the area, in others, because it was intercepted by an overlying 
limestone block. 

4th. The breccia is succeeded by the ordinary reddish cave-loam, which 
contains a large number of limestone fragments, varying in dimensions 
from bits not larger than sixpences, to masses but little smaller than those which 
lay on the surface. They lie at all angles without anything like symmetrical 
arrangement. In fact the entire deposit is without any approach to strati- 
fication. Many of the stones are partially encrusted with calcareous matter, 



on Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 19 

and not unfrequently loam, stones, and splinters of bones are cemented by 
the same substance into a very tough breccia. The presence of a calcareous 
drip is more or less traceable everywhere. Hitherto the cave-earth has been 
excavated to the depth of 4 feet only. How far it extends below this, or 
what may be beneath it, is at present unknown. Where it is not covered 
with the stalagmitic breccia, the black soil lies immediately on it ; but the 
line of junction is everywhere sharply defined. In no instance do the two 
commingle. 

Since the large masses of limestone occur at all levels in the cave-earth as 
well as everywhere above it, it is obvious that whatever may be the cause to 
which their fall is attributable, they cannot be referred to any one and the 
same period. They fell from time to time throughout the accumulation of 
the cave-earth, they continued to fall whilst the stalagmitic breccia was in 
process of formation, as well as during the introduction of the black mould, 
and they are amongst the most recent phenomena which the cavern presents. 
And even of those which lie on the surface, there is conclusive evidence that 
in some cases a considerable interval of time must have elapsed between the 
fall of two blocks lying one on the other — an interval sufficiently great for 
the formation of the cake of stalagmite between them, and which is some- 
times fully 6 inches thick. There can be little doubt that some of them 
fell very recently, even when measured by human standards. 

It is by no means easy to determine the cause which threw them down. 
To call in the aid of convulsion seems undesirable, since it would be necessary 
to do so very frequently. Moreover, it may be doubted whether anything 
short of a violent earthquake would be equal to the effect. Though the roof 
of the chamber is of very great span and entirely unsupported, and though 
it presents appearances which are not calculated to inspire confidence, the 
violent concussions produced by the frequent blastings already mentioned, 
blastings which not unfrequently throw masses of limestone, weighing up- 
wards of a ton, to a distance of several feet, have never brought down even a 
splinter. 

The fall of the blocks has sometimes been attributed to changes of dimen- 
sions in the roof arising from changes of temperature ; but the fact that the 
cavern temperature is all but constant throughout the year, seems fatal to 
this hypothesis. 

The masses lying on the surface were a sufficient guarantee that the de- 
posits beneath them remained intact. There can be no doubt that they are 
at once a proof and the cause of the undisturbed character of the soil they 
cover. A portion of the cavern so easily accessible as is this chamber, 
would not have been spared by Mr. M'Enery, but on account of some great 
difficulty or discouragement ; and in fact he states that the fallen masses 
completely foiled him in his attempts to make explorations in it, excepting 
in one branch some distance south of the area selected by the Committee. 
Their own characters, moreover, render it absolutely certain" that the deposits 
have never been violated. 

The following is the method of exploration which has been observed from 
the commencement, and which it is believed affords a simple and correct 
method of determining the exact position of every object which has been 
found. 

1st. The black soil accessible between the masses of limestone on the sur- 
face was carefully examined and removed. 

2nd. The limestone blocks occupying the surface of the deposits were 
blasted and otherwise broken up, and taken out of the cavern. 

c2 



20 REPORT — 1865. 

3rd. A line, termed the " datum line," is stretched horizontally from a 
fixed point at the entrance to another at the hack of the chamber. 

4th. Lines, one foot apart, are drawn at right angles to the datum line, 
and therefore parallel to one another, across the chamber so as to divide the 
surface of the deposit into belts termed " parallels." 

5th. In each parallel the black mould which the limestone masses had 
covered is first examined and removed, and then the stalagmitic breccia, so 
as to lay bare the surface of the cave-earth. 

Gth. Horizontal lines, a foot apart, are then drawn from side to side across 
the vertical face of the section so as to divide the parallel into four layers or 
" levels," each a foot deep. 

Finally, each level is divided into lengths, called " yards," each 3 feet 
long, and measured right and left from the datum line as an axis of abscissas. 

In fine, the cave-earth is excavated in vertical slices or parallels 4 feet 
high, 1 foot thick, and as long as the chamber is broad where this breadth 
does not exceed 30 feet. Each parallel is taken out in levels 1 foot 
high, and each level in horizontal prisms 3 feet long and a foot square 
in the section, so that each contains three ci;bic feet of material. 

This material, after being carefully examined in sitn by candlelight, is 
taken to the doorway aud reexamined by daylight, after which it is at 
once removed without the cavern. A box is appropriated to each yard ex- 
clusively, and in it are placed all the objects of interest which the prism 
yields. The boxes, each having a label containing the data necessary for 
defining the situation of its contents, are daily sent to the Honorary Secre- 
tary of the Committee, by whom the specimens are at once cleaned and 
packed in fresh boxes. The labels are numbered and packed with the speci- 
mens to which they respectively belong, and a record of the day's work is 
entered in a diary. 

The same method is followed in the examination of the black mould, 
and also of the stalagmitic breccia, with the single exception that in these 
cases the parallels are not divided into levels and yards. 

With very rare exceptions the cavern has been visited daily by one, and 
frequently by both of the Superintendents ; and Monthly Reports of progress 
have been regularly forwarded to Sir Charles Lyell, the Chairman of the 
Committee. 

Though it would be premature to attempt anything like an exhaustive 
list, it may be of interest to furnish a brief and general account of the objects 
which have been found. 

Of the articles met with in the black mould, those occurring between the 
fallen masses of limestone have been kept distinct from such as have been 
detected beneath them. Such a division, however, is not rendered necessary 
by the characters of the objects themselves, and will not be attended to on 
the present occasion. In this category also may be placed the greater num- 
ber of the specimens found in the talus outside the cavern. The collection is 
of a various miscellaneous nature. It consists of stones of various kinds, 
human industrial remains, charred wood, bones of various animals, marine 
and land-shells, and the broken shells of hazel-nuts. It passes from the 
Rabbit's nest fined with clean dry fur and containing a couple of fresh 
green ivy-leaves, and numberless fragments of wine and porter bottles flung 
away by parties who have visited the cavern mainly from a love of frolic, 
back to the age of bronze implements and of flint flakes, and probably repre- 
sents from fifteen hundred to two thousand years. 

The stones are in most cases well rounded, and, at least, some of them are 



on rent's cavern, Devonshire. 21 

of marine origin, since they are distinctly lithodoniized. They consist of 
limestone, quartz, red grit, greenstone, and flint ; all except the last derivable 
from the rocks of the immediate district, and were probably obtained from 
the neighbouring beaches, where also the flints were perhaps found ; for 
though there is no flint in situ within five miles,- it is a well-known fact 
that such pebbles are met with on existing beaches at much greater distances 
from any known accumulation of flints in place. The rounded stones are 
extremely numerous in the black mould, and were undoubtedly selected and 
taken to the cavern ; but for what purpose it may not be easy to determine. 
There are also several pieces of hard greenish-grey grit of an elongated 
form, which were perhaps used as whetstones. Angular pieces of slate are 
also numerous. They are probably fragments of articles fashioned by man, 
as occasionally a piece is met with which is obviously a portion of a curvi- 
lineal plate. Such plates are mentioned by Mr. M'Enery, who supposes 
them to have been used as covers for earthenware vessels. The human in- 
dustrial remains consist of articles in bronze and in bone, pottery, spindle- 
whorls, and flint-flakes. The bronze articles are a fibula, the bowl and 
part of the stem of a spoon, a spear head, a fragment of a socketed celt, two 
or three rings, one eoil of a helical spring, a pin about 3| inches long, and 
and an object resembling a horseshoe in form, but not more than an inch long. 
In this connexion may be mentioned a lump of metal which, from its 
general appearance, would be termed copper ore, but from its interior, a small 
portion of which has been exposed accidentally, it is probably native copper, 
or a mass of metal which has been smelted. A similar mass mentioned by 
Mr. M'Enery, is said to have been analyzed " by Mr. Phillips and found to be 
pure virgin ore." Much of the pottery, excepting one small piece, undoubt- 
edly Samian, is extremely coarse, and in most cases it is unglazed. A large 
number of fragments have been found, but nothing approaching a perfect 
vessel. They are generally ornamented, and from the different .patterns, as 
well as from other facts, it may be concluded that they represent a consider- 
able number of utensils. One piece probably formed part of a vessel in 
which things were burnt, as on its inner surface there is a firm admixture of 
clay and small bits of charcoal. Much of the pottery is without doubt of 
Roman age. 

The objects fashioned in bone are a comb, which in size and outline 
resembles a common shoe-lifter having teeth cut in the broad end ; a 
spoon, neatly formed of a portion of a rib, and measuring about 6 inches long 
and ^jths of an inch broad ; a chisel about 2-jSjths inches in length, and at 
its broad end -jiyths of an inch in width ; a wedge, somewhat rudely fashioned 
out of a horn or antler ; two small fragments which appear to be portions of 
combs, and one of which bears traces of ornamentation ; and an article about 
3 inches long, apparently the handle of some tool. 

The spindle-whorls are formed of different materials, such as Devonian 
red grit, one of the harder varieties of Triassic sandstone (rocks abundant 
in the neighbourhood), a somewhat coarse, greenish, schistose rock not found 
near the district, and Kimmeridge coal. They differ somewhat in dimen- 
sions and in workmanship ; some being well finished, whilst others are so 
roughly made as to render it safer perhaps to call them simply " holed 
stones." "With them may be mentioned a large bead, which appears to con- 
sist of amber or some analogous substance ; and a small, holed, ellipsoidal 
fragment of limestone, which was perforated probably by some lithodomous 
mollusk. 

The flint-flakes are four in number, two of dark and two of light or white 



22 report — 1865. 

flint, the latter being the best formed. The light colour is more or less 
superficial, the centre being of a dark grey. 

The charred wood is very abundant. Some specimens are undistinguish- 
able from prepared charcoal, whilst others are obviously nothing more than 
partially burnt sticks, some of them of considerable size. 

Bones are extremely numerous. They are more or less discoloured, and 
have lost a considerable portion of their weight. It may be doubted whether 
the entire elements of any skeleton have been found lying together. 
Amongst them there are the relics of pig, deer, sheep, fox, wolf (?), bat, 
hare, rabbit, with smaller rodents, birds, and various kinds of fish. Some of 
them appear to have been exposed to the action of fire. 

The land shells are principally various kinds of snail, the larger forms 
being the most prevalent. They occur in all stages of growth, and thus 
render it probable that they had established a colony in the cavern. 
Amongst the marine shells are the limpet, whelk, oyster, cockle, mussel, 
pecten, solen or razor-shell, and the internal shell of the cuttle-fish, Sepia 
officinalis. From the unrubbed condition of the last, it was probably not 
found cast ashore on the beach, but taken directly from the cephalopod to 
which it belonged. 

The source of the shells of hazel-nuts is not far to seek. They were no 
doubt obtained from the wood in which the cavern is situated, and were 
perhaps carried in by small animals whose homes were under the fallen 
masses of limestone where the shells were found. Most of them are per- 
forated at one end. 

In passing below the black mould we first encounter the stalagmitic 
breccia. This the workmen carefully break into small fragments, in order to 
detect any articles of interest imbedded in it. The search, though not very 
productive, has not been quite fruitless. In the breccia have been found 
charred wood, marine and land shells, and bones of various animals, some of 
which perhaps are extinct. 

Immediately beneath this cake we enter the red cave-loam, and at once 
find ourselves amongst the relics of several species of extinct animals. The 
only differences in the four successive levels in which, as already stated, the 
red loam is taken out are simply that the first or uppermost is the poorest, 
and the third, perhaps, the richest in osseous remains ; and that the three 
lower levels contain a large amount of minutely comminuted bone, of which 
there are very few instances in the uppermost foot. In other respects the 
levels are the same — everywhere the same in the materials which form the 
staple of the deposit ; in the occurrence of pebbles of various kinds of rock, 
which differ from those in the overlying black mould only in being less 
numerous ; in the presence of bones in the same condition and representing 
the same species of animals ; and in yielding " flint implements " of the 
same types. It will not be necessary, therefore, to describe each level sepa- 
rately or in detail. 

The bones found below the stalagmite are heavier than those met with 
above it. This distinction is so well marked and so constant as to be cha- 
racteristic. It would be easy to assign them to their respective deposits 
by their specific weights alone. Most of those from the red loam are but 
little discoloured, indeed some of them are of a chalk-like whiteness. A few, 
however, occur here and there which have undergone a considerable amount 
of discoloration, a consequence, probably, and also a proof of a greater degree 
of exposure before their inhumation. On most of the latter, certain lines 
and patches of fighter colour not unfrequently present themselves, which 



on Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 23 

may be likened to such as are sometimes left by mosses or lichens on objects 
on which they have grown. 

A large number of bones, including jaws, teeth, and horns, are scored with 
teeth-marks, clearly the work of animals of different kinds. Some of the 
long bones are split longitudinally. Many appear to have been rolled, 
including most of those which have been gnawed ; and in the case of the 
latter, it is tolerably obvious that the rolling was subsequent to the gnawing. 
Some of those found beneath the large masses of fallen limestone are in a 
crushed condition, and thus apparently attest the fact that the deposit on 
which they lay, and on which the blocks fell, was of a compact nature, and 
capable of a firm resistance. 

The minutely comminuted bone already spoken of, is commonly found 
converted with loam and stones into a firni breccia. Not unfrequently, 
however, it occupies the hollow cavities of some of the larger bones. 
"With it there sometimes occurs a cream-coloured substance, which in a few 
instances has been met also in the form of small detached lumps having a 
low specific gravity. This, as well as some of the comminuted bone, has 
been supposed to be of faecal origin. 

In cleaning the bones it is frequently found to be impossible to remove 
entirely the earthy matter from them. They are at least partially invested 
with a thin film, which defies the brush and water. On drying, however, 
this matter commonly scales off, and proves to be a paste or paint composed 
of loam and carbonate of lime, the latter probably derived from drip from 
the roof. 

Large portions of the osseous remains occur in the forms of fragments 
and mere splinters. The identifiable parts are chiefly teeth, which are ex- 
tremely numerous. Amongst the Mammals represented, there are certainly 
the Cave-bear, Cave-lion, Cave-hyaena, Fox, Horse (probably more than 
one species), Ox, several species of Deer, the tichorhine Ehinoceros, and 
Mammoth. Remains of the Hyaena are probably the most abundant, after 
which come those of Ehinoceros and Horse. The relics of the Mammoths 
(both molars and tusks) are those of very young individuals. 

It has already been hinted that " flint implements " occur everywhere in 
the cave-earth mixed up with the remains of extinct Mammals. Several of 
them were found in the presence of, and some of them by, the Superin- 
tendents. Like the bones, they are least abundant in the uppermost 
foot, and occur in greatest numbers in the lowest zones. Altogether, and 
without reckoning doubtful specimens and numerous chips, nearly thirty 
'•implements" have been dug out. Though the designation of "flint" is 
given to all, some of them are perhaps of chert. Of the flints properly so 
called, some are of a dark, and others of a light-grey colour, whilst a third 
kind are almost white, and have a porcellanous aspect. With the exception 
of three, they are all of the kind known as flakes — flat on one side, and more 
or less carinated on the other. Some of them are fragments only, others 
were found broken in the deposit with the parts lying in contact, whilst 
others again are perfect. Some of the broken specimens of the white variety 
show that they are not of this colour throughout their entire mass, but have a 
dark central axis or core. The flakes agree in character with those in the 
black overlying mould. The excepted three are of chert, and are worked on 
both sides. They were found in the second, third, and ftrarth levels ; one in 
each. That from the second foot is about 4| inches long, and, where 
widest, 2| broad. At one end it tapers to a point, and narrows to no more 
than | of an inch at the other. In outline it is rudely a segment of a 



24 REPORT — 18C5. 

curvilineal figure, and is slightly falciform. The inner or concave margin is 
the cutting edge. Unfortunately the tip of the pointed end was broken off 
after exhumation. Those from the third and fourth levels are more highly- 
wrought "implements." They are worked to an edge around the entire 
perimeter. In outline they are rather ovoid than elliptical, being narrower 
at one end than at the other. That from the third foot measures 4-1- inches 
in length, and its greatest breath and thickness are respectively 3^ inches 
and |- of an inch. That found in the fourth zone, the lowest yet reached, is 
the most elaborately finished "implement" of the series. It is lighter in 
colour and somewhat smaller than the preceding two, its dimensions being 
3| inches long, 2\ broad, and ^ in thickness. 

Without intending at present to enter on the consideration of all the 
bearings of the entire evidence produced, the Committee feel at liberty to 
express their conviction that it is totally impossible to doubt either the human 
origin of the "implements," or their inosculation, in undisturbed soil, with 
the remains of the Mammoth, the Cave-bear, and their extinct contem- 
poraries. 

Nor are these the only indications of human existence found in the cave- 
earth. Several small pieces of burnt bone have been met with in the red 
loam, some of them loose and detached, others of small size and incor- 
porated in the breccia composed of loam, stones, and comminuted bone. 

Mention has been made already of the occurrence in the cave- earth of 
rounded stones not derivable from the limestone hill in which the cavern is 
situated. It seems probable that at least some of them were selected and taken 
there by man ; though it may not be easy, perhaps, to determine in all cases 
for what purpose. But, waiving this point, there are two stones which must 
not be hastily dismissed. The first of them is 4| inches long, and something 
less than 1 inch square in the section. It is a mass of hard purplish-grey grit, 
and is undoubtedly a whetstone, or rather a portion of one. It was found 
in the first level of the cave-earth, in a small recess or cavity in the northern 
wall of the chamber, immediately beneath a projecting stratum of limestone 
in situ. In this cavity the stone stood with its longest axis vertical. The 
Superintendents were inclined to the opinion that it had slipped through a 
hole into the cavity at a comparatively recent date ; and they diligently set 
to work to find the means of its ingress. Here, however, they were com- 
pletely foiled. There was no hole or passage, vertical or lateral, by which 
the cavity could have been entered. Not only, as has been said, was 
there a thick stratum of limestone in situ immediately over the recess, 
but over this again, as well as over the red loam, there was a thick com- 
pact mass of stalagmitic breccia, consisting of large and small pieces of lime- 
stone firmly cemented, and having a height of fully 8 feet ; the whole of 
which was removed before the cavity was disclosed or its existence suspected. 
The second stone is a rude flattened spheroid, formed from a pebble of 
coarse, hard, red sandstone, and apparently used for breaking or crushing. 
Its diameters measure 2| and 1| inches. It was found in the second level 
of the red cave-earth, over which lay an enormous block of limestone, but 
no stalagmite. 

In addition to the pleasure which always attends scientific discovery, the 
Committee have had the gratification of confirming most of the statements 
of their predecessors. Any differences observable between the statements 
now made and those of the earlier investigators arise from defective, not 
conflicting evidence. For example, the Committee have not yet been so 
fortunate as to find the remains of Machairodus latidens, mentioned and 



RULES Or ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 25 

figured by Mr. M'Enery *, nor of Hippopotamus major, alluded to by Prof. 
Owen f as occurring in tbe cavern ; nor bare they found anything in the 
least degree calculated to bring the statements alluded to into discredit- 
Again, so far as their researches have gone, the Committee have not, like 
Mr. Godwin-Austen, found the bones of man mixed up, in undisturbed soil, 
with those of extinct animals + ; it will be seen, however, that there is no 
a priori improbability in the statement of the distinguished geologist just 
mentioned ; and the Committee would remind such as may be disposed to 
attach importance to the fact that men's bones are not forthcoming as readily 
as their implements, that in the black mould, as well as in the red loam of 
the cavern, the only indications of man's existence are remnants of his handi- 
work. Pottery, implements and ornaments in bone, metal, and stone, ' the 
remnants of his fires, and the relics of his feasts are numerous, and betoken 
the lapse of at least two milleniums ; but here, as well as in the older de- 
posits below, the Committee have met with no vestige of his osseous system. 
In conclusion, the Committee would observe that the value of their 
labours is not to be measured by the discoveries, or rather the rediscoveries, 
which they have made. They have not only disinterred a valuable body of 
fact, but with it a confirmation of the concurrent statements of M'Enery, 
Godwin-Austen, and the Committee of the Torquay Natural History Society ; 
and have thereby more than doubled the amount of trustworthy evidence 
which they have themselves produced. 



Report of a Committee " appointed to report on the changes which 
they may consider desirable to make, if any, in the Rides of Zoolo- 
gical Nomenclature drawn up by Mr. H. E. Strickland, at the 
instance of the British Association at their Meeting in Manchester 
in 1842." 

Pefokm of the Nomenclature of Zoology was a subject which occupied much 
of the time of the late Hugh E. Strickland §. It was his object that this 
reform should be brought forward under the auspices of the Pritish Asso- 
ciation, and at a meeting of the Council of that body, held in London upon 
11th of February, 1842, it was resolved — "That with a view of securing 
attention to the following important subject, a Committee, consisting of Mr. 
C. Darwin, Professor Henslow, Eev. L. Jenyns, Mr. "W. Ogilby, Mr. J. 
Phillips, Dr. Pichardson, Mr. H. E. Strickland (reporter), Mr. J. 0. "Westwood, 
be appointed, to consider of the rules by which the nomenclature of zoology 
may be established on a uniform and permanent basis ; the Peport to be 
presented to the Zoological Section, and submitted to its committee at the 
Manchester Meeting"^. 

This Committee met at various times in London, and the following gen- 
tlemen were added to it, and assisted in its labours : — W. J. Proderip, 
Professor Owen, W. E. Shuckard, G. P. Waterhouse, and W. Yarrell. An 
outline of the proposed code was drawn up and circulated, and many valuable 

* Cavern Researches, p. 32, and plate F. (8vo Edition). 

t British Fossil Mammals and Birds, p. 410 (1846). 

J Trans. Geol. Soc., Second Series, vol. vi. part 2. pp. 444 & 446. 

§ See Memoirs of Hugh Edwin Strickland, by Sir W. Jardine, Bart., pp. clxxv. and 375. 

^f Report of Twelfth Meeting of the British Association held at Manchester, June 1842, 



26 report — 1865. 

suggestions were received from eminent zoologists at home and abroad. The 
" plan " was further considered by the Committee during the Meeting at 
Manchester, " and the Committee having thus given their best endeavours 
to maturing the plan, beg now to submit it to the approval of the British 
Association under the title of — ' Series of Propositions for rendering the 
nomenclature of zoology uniform and permanent ' "*. 

The propositions were printed in the Reports of the British Association, 
and a grant of money was voted to print copies for circulation. The rules 
thus laid down were very generally adopted by zoologists, both in this 
country and abroad; but in Great Britain having been printed only in 
the volumes of the British Association, 'Annals of Natural History,' and 
'Philosophical Magazine 'f, or depending on private circulation, it was 
deemed advisable that greater publicity should be given to them, and at the 
Meeting at Oxford in 1860 it was resolved, that " The surviving members of 
the Committee appointed in 1842, viz., Mr. C. Darwin, Rev. Professor 
Henslow, Rev. L. Jenyns, Mr. W. Ogilby, Professor Phillips, Sir John 
Richardson, Mr. J. 0. Westwood, Professor Owen, Mr. "W. E. Shuckard, 
and Mr. G. R. "Waterhouse, for the purpose of preparing rules for the esta- 
blishment of a Uniform Zoological Nomenclature, be reappointed, with Sir 
W. Jardine, Bart., and Dr. Sclater. That Sir W. Jardine, Bart., be the 
Reporter, and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose of revising and reprinting the Rules "J. 

Prom the difficulty of bringing such a Committee together, nothing was 
done since the time of its appointment ; but the resolution and a grant of 
money were again renewed at the late Meeting in Newcastle, as follows : — 
"That Sir W.- Jardine, A. R. Wallace, J. E. Gray, Professor Babington, Dr. 
Francis, Dr. Sclater, C. Spence Bate, P. P. Carpenter, Dr. J. D. Hooker, 
Professor Balfour, H. T. Stainton, J. Gwyn Jeffreys, A. Newton, Professor 
T. H. Huxley, Professor Allman, and G. Bentham, be a Committee, with 
power to add to their number, to report on the changes, if any, which they 
may consider it desirable to make in the Rules of Nomenclature drawn up 
at the instance of the Association by Mr. H. E. Strickland and others, with 
power to reprint these Rules, and to correspond with foreign naturalists and 
others on tbe best means of ensuring their general adoption, and that the 
sum of £15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose." 

Accordingly the Rules, as originally approved of, were reprinted, and 
zoologists were requested " to examine them carefully, and to communicate 
any suggestions for alteration or improvement, on or before the 1st of June, 
1864, to Sir William Jardine, Bart., Jardine Hall, by Loclerby, N. B., who 
will consult with the members of the Committee, and report upon the sub- 
ject at the next Meeting of the British Association appointed to be held at 
Bath." 

Erom the press of business at Bath the Committee did little there to com- 
plete further the code of Zoological Nomenclature, and I was directed to 
take some opportunity while in London to call together as many members 
of the Committee as possible. Accordingly in the month of June last I sent 

* Report of Twelfth Meeting, 1842, p. 106. 

t At the Scientific Congress held in 1843 at Padua, the late Prince C. L. Buonaparte 
submitted to the meeting an Italian translation of the ' British Association's Code of Rules,' 
which was generally approved of. A French translation of the Report appeared in the 
scientific journal ' L'Institut,' in which paper much stress was laid on the importance of 
the measure. A review of it was also printed in the ' American Journal of Science.' 

% Reports of the British Association held at Oxford, I860, p. xlvi. 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 27 

a circular to the following members that I considered were within compara- 
tively easy reach, and who I thought might be able to attend in London 
without much inconvenience, viz., Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Wallace, Dr. 
Gray, Professor Babington, Dr. Francis, Dr. Sclater, Dr. J. Hooker, Mr. 
Stainton, Professor Huxley, Mr. A. Newton, and Mr. G. Bentham. Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys kindly permitted this meeting to be held at his house in Devonshire- 
place, and it was attended by myself, Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Wallace, and 
Dr. Sclater ; the other gentlemen who had been invited sending apologies that 
from various causes they were unable to come up to London or to attend. 
Tbey, however, expressed themselves generally favourable to some code of 
rules being adopted. 

Professor Babington having returned his printed copy of the rules with 
his observations written on the margin, the Committee were fully in posession 
of his views. Mr. Wallace had brought with him a written memorandum 
containing notes of what he thought could be altered or modified with 
advantage. The members present then read over the printed rules and 
recommendations one by one, and carefully compared them with the memo- 
randa above mentioned, as well as with many letters from other naturalists, 
and the observations made upon each were taken down at the time. The re- 
commendations of the Committee, which I shall presently read to you, have 
been based upon these observations, and upon the conferences and discussions 
held at Birmingham during the present Meeting. 

Since the time that Mr. H. E. Strickland's Rules and Recommendations 
were printed in the Reports of the British Association, zoological nomen- 
clature has not been improved. Whether it is from the rules and recom- 
mendations not being sufficiently well known, or from an idea that no one 
has any right to interfere with or make rules for others, many gentlemen 
appear to cast them away, and do not recognize them at all, while others 
accept or reject just what pleases themselves ; in consequence many very 
objectionable names have been given, and a very base coinage and spurious 
combinations have been going on. The Committee does not allude to very 
long or harsh sounding names, though they are much to be deprecated even 
when classically compounded ; but they object to indelicate names, or to such 
compounds as Malherbipims, Kawpifalco, Zebrapicus, &c; or, when a new 
form in the genus Procelhria is thought to be discovered, and honour is 
intended to be done to a distinguished navigator, such a word as Coohilaria 
is proposed ; or, when provincial names are attempted to be Latinized, as in 
the case of a fish commonly known as the " Tom Cod," which is entered in 
our systems under the scientific (?) name of Morrhua tomcodus. These may 
be said to be extreme examples, but hundreds might be given, and it is the 
opinion of the Committee that the only way to deal with such names is 
to reject them altogether. 

In this condition of our zoological nomenclature, then, it is of the greatest 
importance that some general code of rules should be adopted and acted 
upon. The Committee were perfectly agreed upon this point, but on calling 
them together during the present Meeting of the British Association, the 
botanists arrived at the conclusion that, having long acted in concert upon 
the rules laid down by Linnaeus in the ' Philosophia Botanica,' and by Sir 
James E. Smith, Decandolle, and others, it was unnecessary for them to have 
Botany included in the Stricklandian code ; at the same time they were sen- 
sible that some generally recognized code would be of the utmost importance 
to zoology. The Committee therefore are of opinion and recommend : — 



28 report— 1865. 

I. That Botany should not be introduced into the Strickland rules and 
recommendations. 
II. That the permanency of names and convenience of practical appli- 
cation being the two chief requisites in any code of rules for scien- 
tific nomenclature, it is not advisable to disturb by any material 
alterations the rules of zoological nomenclature which were au- 
thorized by Section D at the Meeting of the British Association at 
Manchester in 1842. 

III. The Committee are of opinion, after much deliberation, that the 

Xllth edition of the ' Systema Natura) ' is that to which the limit 
of time should apply, viz. 1766. But as the -works of Artedi and 
Scopoli have already been extensively used by ichthyologists and 
entomologists, it is recommended that the names contained in or 
used from these authors should not be affected by this provision. 
This is particularly requisite as regards the generic names of 
Artedi afterwards used by Linnaeus himself. 

In Mr. H. E. Strickland's original draft of these Bules and Recommen- 
dations the edition of Linnaeus was left blank, and the Xllth was inserted by 
the Manchester Committee. This was done not as being the first in which the 
Binomial nomenclature had been used, as it commenced with the Xth, but as 
being the last and most complete edition of Linnoeus's works, and containing 
many species the Xth did not. For these reasons it is now confirmed by 
this Committee, and also because these rules having been used and acted 
upon for twenty-three years, if the date were altered now, many changes of 
names would be required, and in consequence much confusion introduced. 

IV. In Rule 13th, " Specific names, when adopted as generic, must be 

changed." The Committee agree that it is exceedingly injudicious 
to adopt a specific name as a generic name, but they are of opinion 
that where this has been done, it is the generic name which must be 
thrown aside, not the old specific name, and that this rule shoidd 
be so altered as to meet this. 
Y. The recommendations under " Ckisses of objectionable names,'' as 
already pointed out, cannot be too carefully attended to. Specific- 
names from persons have already been sufficiently prostituted, and 
personal generic names have increased to a large and undeserving 
extent. The handing down the name of a naturalist by a genus 
has always been considered as the highest honour that could be 
given, and shoidd never be bestowed lightly*. 

TI. The recommendation, " Specific names to be written with a small 
initial." The Committee propose that this recommendation should 
be omitted. It is not of great importance, and may be safely left 
to naturalists to deal with as they think fit. 

These are the chief alterations and modifications the Committee have to 
suggest. It is scarcely possible to make any code of rules for a subject so 
extensive as zoology either perfect in itself or such as will meet the opinions 
of every one. It must be a matter of compromise, and as working by no 
rides is creating great confusion and an immense increase in synonymy, the 
Committee would ask this Section to approve their present report or finding, 

* " Hoc imieum et siumnum prceinium laboris, sancte servandum, et caste dispen- 
saiidum ad incitaruentuin et oniaruentum Botanices." — Phil. Botan., p. 171. 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 29 

and to give their sanction to these Eules and Recommendations as now pro- 
posed to be modified. 

Signed on the part of the members of Committee 

present at Birmingham * by "Wm. Jardine, Reporter. 

On the preceding Report being read to Section D, upon Tuesday, 19th 
September, the following motion was made and carried unanimously : — 

Moved by Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys, seconded by Dr. Sclater, — That the Re- 
port now read be approved of and adopted by the Section, and that 
the Rides or propositions, as thereby altered and amended, be printed 
in the Reports of the British Association and recommended for the 
general use of zoologists. 

PART I. 

RULES FOR RECTIFYING THE PRESENT ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

[Limitation of the Plan to Systematic Nomenclature.'] 
In proposing a measure for the establishment of a permanent and uni- 
versal zoological nomenclature, it must be premised that we refer solely to 
the Latin or systematic language of zoology. We have nothing to do with 
vernacular appellations. One great cause of the neglect and corruption 
wbich prevails in the scientific nomenclature of zoology, has been the 
frequent and often exclusive use of vernacular names in lieu of the Latin 
binomial designations, which form the only legitimate language of systematic 
zoology. Let us then endeavour to render perfect the Latin or Linnajan 
method of nomenclature, which, being far removed from the scope of national 
vanities and modern antipathies, holds out the only hope of introducing into 
zoology that grand desideratum, an universal language. 

[Laiu of Priority the only effectual and just one.~\ 
It being admitted on all hands that words are only the conventional signs 
of ideas, it is evident that language can only attain its end effectually by 
being permanently established and generally recognized. This consideration 
ought, it would seem, to have checked those who are continually attempting 
to subvert the established language of zoology by substituting terms of their 
own coinage. But, forgetting the true nature of language, they persist in 
confounding the name of a species or group with its definition ; and because 
the former often falls short of the fulness of expression found in the latter, 
they cancel it without hesitation, and introduce some new term which 
appears to them more characteristic, but which is utterly unknown to the 
science, and is therefore devoid of all authority f. If these persons were to 
object to such names of men as Long, Little, Armstrong, Golightly, &c, in cases 
where they fail to apply to the individuals who bear them, or shoidd complain 
of the names Gough, Lawrence, or Harvey, that they were devoid of meaning, 
and should hence propose to change them for more characteristic appella- 
tions, they woidd not act more unphilosophically or inconsiderately than 
they do in the case before us ; for, in truth, it matters not in the least by 
what conventional sound we agree to designate an individual object, provided 
the sign to be employed be stamped with such an authority as will suffice to 

* The Members of the Committee present at Birmingham were A. E. Wallace, Professor 
Babington, Dr. Francis, Dr. Sclater, C. Spence Bate, P. P. Carpenter, Professor Balfour, 
H. T. Stainton, J. Gwyn Jeffreys, A. Newton, G. Bentham, and Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 
(Reporter). 

t Linnseus says on this subject, " Abstinendum ab hac innovatione qure nonquam 
cessaret, quin indies aptiora detegerentur ad infinitum," 



30 REPORT — 1865. 

make it pass current. Kow in zoology no one person can subsequently claim 
an authority equal to that possessed by the person who is the first to define 
a new genus or describe a new species ; and hence it is that the name 
originally given, even though it may be inferior in point of elegance or 
expressiveness to those subsequently proposed, ought as a general principle 
to be permanently retained. To this consideration we ought to add the 
injustice of erasing the name originally selected by the person to whose 
labours we owe our first knowledge of the object ; and we should reflect how 
much the permission of such a practice opens a door to obscure pretenders 
for dragging themselves into notice at the expense of original observers. 
Neither can an author be permitted to alter a name which he himself has 
once published, except in accordance with fixed and equitable laws. It is 
well observed by Decandollc, " L'auteur menie qui a le premier etabli un nom 
n'a pas plus qu'uu autre le droit de le changer pour simple cause d'impro- 
priete. La priorite en effet est un terme fixe, positif, qui n'admet rien, ni 
d'arbitraire ni de partial." 

For these reasons, we have no hesitation in adopting as our fundamental 
maxim, the " law of priority," viz., 

§ 1. The name originally given by the founder of a group or the describer 
of a species shoidd be permanently retained, to the exclusion of all subse- 
quent synonyms (with the exceptions about to be noticed). 

Having laid down this principle, we must next inquire into the limitations 
which are found necessary in carrying it into practice. 

[Not to extend to authors older than Li imams. ~\ 

As our subject matter is strictly confined to the binomial system of nomen- 
clature, or that which indicates species by means of two Latin words, the one 
generic, the other specific, and as this invaluable method originated solely 
with Linnaeus, it is clear that, as far as species are concerned, we ought not 
to attempt to carry back the principle of priority beyond the date of the 12th 
edition of the ' Systems Naturae,' 17G6. Previous to that period, natural- 
ists were wont to indicate species not by a name comprised in one word, but 
by a definition which occupied a sentence, the extreme verbosity of which 
method was productive of great inconvenience. It is true that one word 
sometimes sufficed for the definition of a species, but these rare cases were 
only binomial by accident and not by principle, and ought not therefore in 
any instance to supersede the binomial designations imposed by Linnaeus. 

The same reasons apply also to generic names. Linnaeus was the first to 
attach a definite value to genera, and to give them a systematic character by 
means of exact definitions ; and therefore, although the names used by pre- 
vious authors may often be applied with propriety to modern genera, yet in 
such cases they acquire a new meaning, and should be quoted on the authority 
of the first person who used them in this secondary sense. It is true, that 
several of the old authors 'made occasional approaches to the Linnaean exact- 
ness of generic definition, but still these were but partial attempts ; and it 
is certain that if in our rectification of the binomial nomenclature we once 
trace back our authorities into the obscurity which preceded the epoch of its 
foundation, we shall find no resting-place or fixed boundary for our researches. 
The nomenclature of Eay is chiefly derived from that of Gesner and Aldro- 
vandus, and from these authors we might proceed backward to iElian, Plinv, 
and Aristotle, till our zoological studies would be frittered away amid the 
refinements of classical learning*. 

* "Quis longo sevo recepta vocabula conmmtavet hoclie?" — Zinnaus. 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 31 

We therefore recommend the adoption of the folio-wing proposition : — 
§ 2. The binomial nomenclature having originated with Linnaeus, the law 
of priority in respect of that nomenclature, is not to extend to the writings 
of antecedent authors, and therefore specific names published before 1706 
cannot be used to the prejudice of names published since that date. 

[It should be here explained, that as the works of Artedi and Scopoli have 
already been extensively used by ichthyologists and entomologists, the names 
contained in or used from these authors should not be affected by this provi- 
sion. This is particularly requisite as regards the generic names of Artedi, 
afterwards used by Linnaeus himself. Brisson also, who was a contemporary 
of Linnasus and acquainted with the ' Systema Naturae,' defined and pub- 
lished certain genera of birds which are additional to those in the twelfth edi- 
tion of Linnaeus's works, and which are therefore of perfectly good authority. 
But Brisson still adhered to the old mode of designating species by a sentence 
instead of a word, and therefore while we retain his defined genera, we do 
not extend the same indulgence to the titles of his species, even when the 
latter are accidentally binomial in form. For instance, the PerdLv rubra of 
Brisson is the Tetrao rufus of Linnaous ; therefore as we in this case retain 
the generic name of Brisson and the specific name of Linnaeus, the correct 
title of the species would be Perdix rafa (Linn.). 

[Generic names not to be cancelled in subsequent subdivisions.'] 
As the number of known species which form the groundwork of zoological 
science is always increasing, and our knowledge of their structure becomes 
more complete, fresh generalizations continually occur to the naturalist, and 
the number of genera and other groups requiring appellations is ever becom- 
ing more extensive. It thus becomes necessary to subdivide the contents of 
old grotips, and to make their definitions continually more restricted. In 
carrying out this process, it is an act of justice to the original author 'that his 
generic name should never be lost sight of; and it is no less essential to the 
welfare of the science, that all which is sound in its nomenclature should 
remain unaltered amid the additions which are continually being made to it. 
On this ground we recommend the adoption of the following rule : — 

§ 3. A generic name, when once established, should never be cancelled in 
any subsequent subdivision of the group, but retained in a restricted sense 
for one of the constituent portions. 

[Generic names to be retained for the typical portion of the old genus.] 
When a genus is subdivided into other genera, the original name shoidd 
be retained for that portion of it which exhibits in the greatest degree its 
essential characters as at first defined. Authors frequeutly indicate this by 
selecting some one species as a fixed point of reference, which they term the 
" type of the genus." When they omit doing so, it may still in many 
cases be correctly inferred that the first species mentioned on their list, if 
found accurately to agree with their definition, was regarded by them as the 
type. A specific name, or its synonyms, will also often serve to point out 
the particular species which by implication must be regarded as the original' 
type of a genus. In such cases we are justified in restoring the name of the 
old genus to its typical signification, even when later authors have done 
otherwise. We submit therefore that 

§4. The generic name should always be retained for that portion of the 
original genus which was considered typical by the author. 

Example. — The genus Picumnus was established by Temminck, and in- 



32 report — 1865. 

eluded two groups, one with four toes, the other with three, the former of 
which was regarded by the author as typical. Swainson, however, in raising 
these groups at a later period to the rank of genera, gave a new name, Asthe- 
nurus, to the former group, aud retained Picumnus for the latter. In this 
case we have no choice but to restore the name Picumnus, Temm., to its cor- 
rect sense, cancelling the name Asthenurus, Sw., and imposing a new name 
on the three-toed group which Swainson had called Picumnus. 

[ When no type is indicated, then the original name is to be kept for that 
subsequent subdivision which first received it.'] 

Our next proposition seems to require no explanation : — 
§ 5. When the evidence as to the original type of a genus is not perfectly 
clear and indisputable, then the person who first subdivides the genus may 
affix the original name to any portion of it at his discretion, and no later 
author has a right to transfer that name to any other part of the original 
genus. 

[A later name of the same extent as an earlier to be wholly cancelled.] 

When an author infringes the law of priority by giving a new name to 
a genus which has been properly defined and named ahead}-, the only penalty 
which can be attached to this act of negligence or injustice, is to expel the 
name so introduced from the pale of the science. It is not right, then, in 
such cases to restrict the meaning of the latter name so that it may stand 
side by side with the earlier one, as has sometimes been done. For instance, 
the genus Monaulus, Yieill. 1816, is a precise equivalent to Lop>hophorus, 
Temm. 1813, both authors having adopted the same species as their type, 
and therefore, when the latter genus came in the course of time to be di- 
vided into two, it was incorrect to give the condemned name Monaulus to one 
of the portions. To state this succinctly :— 

§ 6. When two authors define and name the same genus, both making it 
exactly of the same extent, the later name should be cancelled in toto, and 
not retained in a modified sense*. 

This rule admits of the following exception : — 

§ 7. Provided, however, that if these authors select their respective types 
from different sections of the genus, and these sections be afterwards raised 
into genera, then both these names may be retained in a restricted sense for 
the new genera respectively. 

Example — The names (Edemia and Melanetta were originally coextensive 
synonyms, but their respective types were taken from different sections which 
are now raised into genera, distinguished by the above titles. 

[No special ride is required for the cases in which the later of two generic 
names is so defined as to be less extensive in signification than the earlier, 
for if the later includes the type of the eaidier genus, it would be cancelled 
by the operation of § 4 ; and if it does not include that type, it is in fact 
a distinct genus.] 

But when the later name is more extensive than the earlier, the following 
rule comes into operation : — - 

\_A later name equivalent to severed earlier ones is to be cancelled.] 
The saiue principle which is involved in § 6 will apply to § 8. 

* These discarded names may, however, be tolerated, if they have been afterwards 
proposed in a totally new sense, though we trust that in future no one will knowingly 
apply an old name, whether now adopted or not, to a new genus, (See proposition, 
c[. infra.) 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 33 

§ 8. If the later name be so denned as to be equal in extent to two or 
more previously published genera, it must be cancelled in toto. 

Example. — Psarocolius, Wagl. 1827, is equivalent to five or six genera 
previously published under other names, therefore Psarocolius should be 
cancelled. 

If these previously published genera be separately adopted (as is the case 
with the equivalents of Psarocolius), their original names will of course 
prevail ; but if we follow the later author in combining them into one, the 
following rule is necessary : — 

\_A genus compounded of two or more previously proposed genera ivlwse cha- 
racters are now deemed insufficient, should retain the name of one of them.~] 

It sometimes happens that the progress of science requires two or more 
genera, founded on insufficient or erroneous characters, to be combined toge- 
ther into one. In such cases the law of priority forbids us to cancel all the 
original names and impose a new one on this compound genus. We must 
therefore select some one species as a type or example, and give the generic 
name which it formerly bore to the whole group now formed. If these 
original generic names differ in date, the oldest one should be the one 
adopted. 

§ 9. In compounding a genus out of several smaller ones, the earliest of 
them, if otherwise objectionable, should be selected, and its former generic 
name be extended over the new genus so compounded. 

Example. — The genera Accentor and Prunella of Vieillot not being consi- 
dered sufficiently distinct in character, are now united under the general 
name of Accentor, that being the earliest. 

We now proceed to point out those few cases which form exceptions to the 
law of priority, and in which it becomes both justifiable and necessary to 
alter the names originally imposed by authors. 

\_A name should be changed ivhen previously applied to another group ivhich 

still retains it.~\ 

It being essential to the binomial method to indicate objects in natural 
history by means of two words only, without the aid of any further designa- 
tion, it follows that a generic name should only have one meaning — in other 
words, that two genera should never bear the same name. For a similar 
reason, no two species in the same genus should bear the same name. When 
these cases occur, the later of the two duplicate names should be cancelled, 
and a new term, or the earliest synonym, if there be any, substituted. 
When it is necessary to form new words for this purpose, it is desirable to 
make them bear some analogy to those which they are destined to supersede, 
as where the genus of birds Plectorhynchus, being preoccupied in Ichthyology, 
is changed to Plectorhamphus. It is, we conceive, the bounden duty of an 
author, when naming a new genus, to ascertain by careful search that the 
name which he proposes to employ has not been previously adopted in other 
departments of natural history*. By neglecting this precaution he is liable 
to have the name altered and his authority superseded by the first subsequent 
aiithor who may detect the oversight, and for this result, however unfortu- 
nate, we fear there is no remedy, though such cases would be less frequent 

# This laborious and difficult research is now greatly facilitated by the very useful 
work of M. Agassiz, entitled " Nomenclator Zoologicus," and "Index Universalis " to 
that work. 

1865. D 



34 report — 1865. 

if the detectors of these errors would, as an act of courtesy, point them out 
to the author himself, if living, and leave it to him to correct his own inad- 
vertencies. This occasional hardship appears to us to be a less evil than to 
permit the practice of giving the same generic name ad libitum to a multi- 
plicity of genera. "We submit, therefore, that 

§ 10. A name should be changed which has before been proposed for some 
other genus in zoology or botany, or for some other species in the same 
genus, when still retained for such genus or species. 

\_A name whose meaning is glaringly false mag be changed.] 
Our next proposition has no other claim for adoption than that of being a 
concession to human infirmity. If such proper names of places as Covent 
Garden, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Newcastle, Bridgewater, &c, no longer suggest 
the ideas of gardens, fields, castles, or bridges, but refer the mind with the 
quickness of thought to the particular localities which they respectively de- 
signate, there seems no reason why the proper names used in natural history 
should not equally perform the office of correct indication, even when their 
etymological meaning may be wholly inapplicable to the object which they 
typify. But we must remember that the language of science has but a 
limited currency, and hence the words which compose it do not circulate with 
the same freedom and rapidity as those which belong to every-day life. The 
attention is consequently liable in scientific studies to be diverted from the 
contemplation of the thing signified to the etymological meaning of the sign, 
and hence it is necessary to provide that the latter shall not be such as to 
propagate actual error. Instances of this kind are indeed very rare, and in 
some cases, such as that of Monodon, Caprimulgus, JParadisea apoda and 
Monocidus, they have acquired sufficient currency no longer to cause error, 
and are therefore retained without change. But when we find a Batrachian 
reptile named in violation of its true affinities Mastodonsaurus, a Mexican 
species termed (through erroneous information of its habitat) Picus cafer, or 
an olive-coloured one Muscicapa atra, or when a name is derived from an 
accidental monstrosity, as in Picas semirostris of Linnasus, and Helix dis- 
juncta of Turton, we feel justified in cancelling these names, and adopting 
that synonym which stands next in point of date. At the same time we 
think it right to remark that this privilege is very liable to abuse, and 
ought therefore to be applied only to extreme cases and with great caution. 
With these limitations we may concede that 

§ 11. A name may be changed when it implies a false proposition which 
is likely to propagate important errors. 

[Names not clearly defined may be changed.'] 
Unless a species or group is intelligibly defined when the name is given, it 
cannot be recognized by others, and the signification of the name is conse- 
quently lost. Two things are necessary before a zoological term can acquire 
any authority, viz., definition and. publication. Definition properly implies 
a distinct exposition of essential characters, and in all cases we conceive 
this to be indispensable, although some authors maintain that a mere enu- 
meration of the component species, or even of a single type, is sufficient to 
authenticate a genus. To constitute pvMioation) nothing short of the inser- 
tion of the above particvdars in a printed booh can be held sufficient. Many 
birds, for instance, in the Paris and other continental museums, shells in the 
British Museum (in Dr. Leach's time), and fossils in the Scarborough and 
other public collections, have received MS. names, which will bo of no 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 35 

authority until they are published with characters*. Nor can any unpub- 
lished descriptions, however exact (such as those of Forster, which are still 
shut tip in a MS. at Berlin), claim any right of priority till published, and 
then only from the date of their publication. The same rule applies to cases 
where groups or species are published, but not defined, as in some museum 
catalogues, and in Lesson's ' Traite d Ornithologie,' where many species are 
enumerated by name, without any description or reference by which they 
can be identified. Therefore, — 

§ 12. A name winch has never been clearly defined in some published 
work should be changed for the earliest name by which the object shall have 
been so defined. 

[Si>ecijic names, when adopted as generic, must be changed.] 

The necessity for the following ride will be best illustrated by an example. 
The Corvus pyrrhocntrcue, Linn., was afterwards advanced to a genus under 
the name of Pyrrhocorax. Temminck adopts this generic name, and also 
retains the old specific one, so that he terms the species Pyrrhocorax pyr- 
rhocorax. The inelegance of this method is so great as to demand a change 
of the generic name. We propose, therefore, that 

§ 13. A specific name must not be altered in order to use that name for 
the genus ; where this has been already done the old specific name must be 
restored, and a new generic name given to prevent an unharmonious repetition. 

N.B. — It will be seen, however, below that we strongly object to the 
further continuance of this practice of elevating specific names into generic. 

[Latin orthography to he adhered to.'] 

On the subject of orthography it is necessary to lay down one proposi- 
tion, — 

§ 14. In writing zoological names, the rules of Latin orthography must 
be adhered to. 

In Latinizing Greek words there are certain rides of orthography known 
to classical scholars which must never be departed from. For instance, the 
names which modern authors have written Aipucnemia, Zenophasia, poio- 
cephala, must, according to the laws of etymology, be spelt ^Epycnemia, 
Xenoph isia, and pceocephala. In Latinizing modern words the rules of classic 
usage do not apply, and all that we can do is to give to such terms as clas- 
sical an appearance as we can, consistently with the preservation of their 
etymology. In the case of European words whose orthography is fixed, it is 
best to retain the original form, even though it may include letters and com- 
binations unknown in Latin. Such words, for instance, as Woodivardi, 
Knighti, BuUocki, Eschscholtzi, would be qiute unintelligible if they were 
Latinized into J'udvardi, Cnichti, Bidlocei, Essolzi, &e. But words of bar- 
barous origin, having no fixed orthography, are more pliable, and hence, 
when adopted into the Latin, they should be rendered as classical in appear- 
ance as is consistent with the preservation of their original sound. Thus 
the words Tortus, awsuree, argoondah, leundoo, &c., should, when Latinized, 
have been written Toccus, ausure, argunda, cundu, &c. Such words ought, 
in all practicable cases, to have a Latin termination given them, especially if 
they are used generically. 

In Latinizing proper names, the simplest rule appears to be to use the 
termination -us, genitive -i, when the name ends with a consonant, as in 

* These MS. names are hi all cases liable to create confusion, and it is therefore much 
to be desired that the practice of using them should be avoided in future. 

d2 



36 report — 1865. 

the above examples ; and -ius, gen. -ii, when it ends with a vowel, as, 
Latreille, Latreillii, &c. 

In converting Greek words into Latin the following rules must be attended 
to:— 

Greek. Latin. 

ai becomes a?. 
ei „ i. 

os terminal, us. 
ov „ uni. 

ov becomes u. 
01 „ 03. 

v „ y. 

When a name has been erroneously written and its orthography has been 
afterwards amended, we conceive that the authority of the original author 
should still be retained for the name, and not that of the person who makes 
the correction. 



Greek. 

becomes 


Latin 

th. 


X 


ph. 
ch. 


rx 


c. 
nch. 


yy » 


ng. 
h. 



PART II. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE IN FUTURE. 

The above propositions are all which, in the present state of the science, it 
appears practicable to invest with the character of laws. We have endeavoured 
to make them as few and simple as possible, in the hope that they may be 
the more easily comprehended and adopted by naturalists in general. We 
are aware that a large number of other regulations, some of which are here- 
after enumerated, have been proposed and acted upon by various authors who 
have undertaken the difficult task of legislating on the subject ; but as the 
enforcement of such rules would in many cases undermine the invaluable 
principle of priority, we do not feel justified in adopting them. At the same 
time we fully admit that the rides in question are, for the most part, founded 
on just criticism, and therefore, though we do not allow them to operate re- 
trospectively, we are willing to retain them for future guidance. Although 
it is of the first importance that the principle of priority should be held para- 
mount to all others, yet we are not blind to the desirableness of rendering 
our scientific language palatable to the scholar and the man of taste. Many 
zoological terms, which are now marked with the stamp of perpetual cur- 
rency, are yet so far defective in construction, that our inability to remove 
them without infringing the law of priority may be a subject of regret. 
With these terms we cannot interfere, if we adhere to the principles above 
laid down ; nor is there even any remedy, if authors insist on infringing the 
rules of good taste by introducing into the science words of the same inele- 
gant or unclassical character in future. But that which cannot be enforced 
by law may, in some measure, be effected by persuasion ; and with this view 
we submit the following propositions to naturalists, under the title of Recom- 
mendations for the Improvement of Zoological Nomenclature in future. 

[The best names are Latin or Greek characteristic words.'] 
The classical languages being selected for zoology, and words being more 

easily remembered in proportion as they are expressive, it is self-evident that 
§ A. The best zoological names are those which are derived from the 

Latin or Greek, and express some distinguishing characteristic of the object 

to which they are applied. 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 37 

[Classes of objectionable names.'] 

It follows from hence that the following classes of words are more or less 
objectionable in point of taste, though, in the case of genera, it is often neces- 
sary to use them, from the impossibility of finding characteristic words which 
have not before been employed for other genera. We will commence with 
those which appear the least open to objection, such as 

a. Geographical names. — These words being for the most part adjectives 
can rarely be used for genera. As designations of species they have been 
so strongly objected to, that some authors (Wagler, for instance) have gone 
the length of substituting fresh names wherever they occur ; others (e. g. 
Swainson) will only tolerate them where they apply exclusively. We are by 
no means exposed to go to this length. It is not the less true that the 
Hirundo javanica is a Javanese bird, even though it may occur in other 
countries also, and though other species of Hirundo may occur in Java. The 
utmost that can be urged against such words is, that they do not tell the 
whole truth. However, as so many authors object to this class of names, it 
is. better to avoid giving them, except where there is reason to believe that 
the species is confined to the country whose name it bears. 

b. Barbarous names. — Some authors protest strongly against the introduc- 
tion of exotic words into our Latin nomenclature, others defend the practice 
with equal warmth. We may remark, first, that the practice is not contrary 
to classical usage, for the Greeks and Eomans did occasionally, though with 
reluctance, introduce barbarous words in a modified form into their respec- 
tive languages. Secondly, the preservation of trivial names which animals 
bear in their native countries is often of great use to the traveller in aiding 
him to discover and identify species. We do not therefore consider, if such 
words have a Latin termination given to them, that the occasional and judi- 
cious use of them as scientific terms can be justly objected to. 

c. Technical namcs.^-All words expressive of trades and professions have 
been by some writers excluded from zoology, but without sufficient reason. 
Words of this class, when carefully chosen, often express the peculiar cha- 
racters and habits of animals in a metaphorical manner, which is highly 
elegant. We may cite the generic terms Arvicola, Lanius, Pastor, Tyrannus, 
Hegulus, Ploceus, &c, as favourable examples of this class of names. 

d. Mythological or historical names. — When these have no perceptible re- 
ference or allusion to the characters of the object on which they are conferred, 
they may properly be regarded as unmeaning and in bad taste. Thus the 
generic names Lesbia, Leilus, Remus, Corydon, Pasijmae, have been applied 
to a Humming bird, a Butterfly, a Beetle, a Parrot, and a Crab respectively, 
without any perceptible association of ideas. But mythological names may 
sometimes be used as generic with the same propriety as technical ones, in 
cases where a direct allusion can be traced between the narrated actions of a 
personage and the observed habits or structure of an animal. Thus when the 
name Progne is given to a Swallow, Clotho to a Spider, Hydra to a Polyp, Athene 
to an Owl, Nestor to a grey-headed Parrot, &c, a pleasing and beneficial con- 
nexion is established between classical literature and physical science. 

e. Comparative names. — The objections which have been raised to words of 
this class are not without foundation. The names, no less than the defini- 
tions of objects, should, where practicable, be drawn from positive and self- 
evident characters, and not from a comparison with other objects, which may 
be less known to the reader than the one before him. Specific names ex- 
pressive of comparative size are also to be avoided, as they may be rendered 
inaccurate by the after discovery of additional species. The names Picoides, 



38 report — 1865. 

Emberizoides, Pseudoluscinia, rubeculoides, maximus, minor, minimus, &c, are 
examples of this objectionable practice. 

f. Generic names compounded from other genera. — These are in some degree 
open to the same imputation as comparative words ; but as they often serve 
to express the position of a genus as intermediate to, or allied with, two other 
genera, they may occasionally be used with advantage. Care must be taken 
not to adopt such compound words as are of too great length, and not to cor- 
rupt them in trying to render them shorter. The names Gallopavo, Tetrao- 
gallus, Gypaetos, are examples of the appropriate use of compound words. 

g. Specific names derived from persons. — So long as these complimentary 
designations are used with moderation, and are restricted to persons of emi- 
nence as scientific zoologists, they may be employed with propriety in cases 
where expressive or characteristic words are not to be found. But we fully 
concur with those who censure the practice of naming species after persons 
of no scientific reputation, as curiosity dealers (e.g. Caniveti, Boissoneauti), 
Peruvian priestesses (Cora, Amazilia), or Hottentots (Klassi). 

h. Generic names derived from persons. — Words of this class have been ex- 
tensively used in botany, and therefore it would have been «'cll to have 
excluded them wholly from zoology, for the sake of obtaining a memoria 
technica by which the name of a genus would at once tell us to which of the 
kingdoms of nature it belonged. Some personal generic names have, how- 
ever, crept into zoology, as L'uvieria, Mulleria, Rossia, Lessonia, &c, but they 
are rare in comparison with those of botany, and it is perhaps desirable not 
to add to their number. 

i. Names of harsh and inelegant />ronuneiation. — These words are grating to 
the ear, either from inelegance of form, as Hidma, Yuhina, Oraxirex, Esch- 
scholtzi, or from too great length, as chirostrongylosti nus, Opetiorhynchus, bra,- 
chypodioides, Thecodontosaurus. It is needless to enlarge on the advantage of 
consulting euphony in the construction of our language. As a general rule it 
may be recommended to avoid introducing words of more than live .syllables. 

Tc. Ancient names of animals applied in << wrong sense. — If has been cus- 
tomary, in numerous cases, to apply the names of animals found in clas.-ic 
authors at random to exotic genera or species which arc wholly unknown to 
tbe ancients. The names Cebus, Callithrix, Spiza, Kitta, Struthus, ave ex- 
amples. This practice ought by no means to be encouragi d. The usual 
defence for it is, that it is impossible now to identify the species to which 
the name was anciently applied. But it is certain that if any traveller will 
take the trouble to collect the vernacular names used by the modern Greeks 
and Italians for the Ycrtebrata and Mollusca of southern Europe, the mean- 
ing of the ancient names may in most cases lie determined with the greatest 
precision. It has been well remarked that a Cretan fisher-boy is a far better 
commentator on Aristotle's ' History of Animals' than a British or German 
scholar. The use, however, of ancient names, when comvctly applied, is most 
desirable, for " in framing scientific terms, the appropriation of old words is 
preferable to the formation of new ones"*. 

1. Adjective g> n> rie mimes. — The names of genera are in all cases essen- 
tially substantive, and hence adjective terms cannot be employed for them 
without doing violence to grammar. The generic names Hians, Oriniger, 
Cursorius, Nitidula, &c, arc examples of this incorrect usage. 

m. Hybrid names. — Compound words, whose component parts are taken 
from two different languages, are great deformities in nomenclature, and 
naturalists should be especially guarded not to introduce any more such terms 
* Whewell, Phil. Ind. Sc. vol. i. p. lxvii ; Nov. Org. Ken. iv. iii. 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 39 

into zoology, which furnishes too many examples of them already. We have 
them compounded of Greek and Latin, as Denclrofalco, Gymnocorvus, Mono- 
eulus, Arborophila, Jlavkfaster ; Greek and French, as Jacamaralcyon, Jaca- 
merops ; and Greek and English, as BullocJcoides, Gilbertsocrinites. 

n. Names closely resembling other names already used. — By Ride 10 it was 
laid down that when a name is introduced which is identical with one pre- 
viously used, the later one shoidd be changed. Some authors have extended 
the same principle to cases where the later name, when correctly written, 
only approaches in form, without wholly coinciding with, the earlier. We 
do not, however, think it advisable to make this law imperative, first, because 
of the vast extent of our nomenclature, which renders it highly difficult to 
find a name which shall not bear more or less resemblance in sound to some 
other ; and, secondly, because of the impossibility of fixing a limit to the 
degree of approximation beyond which such a law shoidd cease to operate. 
We content ourselves, therefore, with putting forth this proposition merely as 
a recommendation to naturalists, in selecting generic names, to avoid such as 
too closely approximate words already adopted. So with respect to species, 
the judicious naturalist will aim at variety of designation, and will not, for 
example, call a species virens or virescens in a genus which already possesses 
a viridis. 

o. Corrupted words. — In the construction of compound Latin words, there 
are certain grammatical rides which have been known and acted on for two 
thousand years, and which a naturalist is bound to acquaint himself with 
before he tries his skill in coining zoological terms. One of the chief of these 
rules is, that in compounding words all the radical or essential parts of the 
constituent members must be retained, and no change made except in the 
variable termiuations. But several generic names have been lately intro- 
duced which run counter to this ride, and form most unsightly objects to all 
who are conversant with the spirit of the Latin language. A name made 
up of the first half of one word and the last half of another, is as deformed 
a monster in nomenclature as a Mermaid or a Centaur would be in zoo^gy ; 
yet we find examples in the names Corcoran (from Corvus and Pyrrhocorax), 
Oypsnagra (from Cypselus and Tanagra), Merulaxis (Merula and Synallcuvis), 
Loxigilla (Loxia and Fringilla), ike. In other cases, where the commence- 

,it of both the simple words is retained in the compound, a fault is still 
committed by cutting off too much of the radical and vital portions, as is 
the case in Bucorvus (from Buceros and Corvus), Ninox\(Nisus and Noc- 
tua), &c. 

p. Nonsense names. — Some authors having found difficulty in selecting 
generic names which have not been used before, have adopted the plan of 
coining words at random without any .derivation or meaning whatever. The 
following are examples : Viralva, Xema, Azeca, Assiminia, Quedius, Sjoisula. 
To the same class we may refer anagrams of other generic names, as Dacelo 
and Cedola of Alcedo, Zajoornia of Porzana, <kc. Such verbal trifling as this 
is in very bad taste, and is especially calculated to bring the science into 
contempt. It finds no precedent in the Augustan age of Latin, but can be 
compared only to the" puerde quibblings of the middle ages. It is contrary 
to the genius of all languages, which appear never to produce new words by 
spontaneous generation, but always to derive them from some other source, 
however distant or obscure. And it is peculiarly annoying to the etymologist, 
who, after seeking in vain through the vast storehouses of human language 
for the parentage of such words, discovers at last that he has been pursuing 
an ignis fat mis. 



40 REPORT — 1865. 

q. Names previously cancelled by the operation of § 6. — Some authors con- 
sider that when a name has been reduced to a synonym by the operations of 
the laws of priority, they are then at liberty to apply it at pleasure to any 
new group which may be in want of a name. We consider, however, that 
when a word has once been proposed in a given sense, and has afterwards 
sunk into a synonym, it is far better to lay it aside for ever than to run the 
risk of making confusion by re-issuing it with a new meaning attached. 

v. Specific names raised into generic. — It has sometimes been the practice 
in subdividing an old genus to give to the lesser genera so formed, the names 
of their respective typical species. Our Rule 13 authorize^ the forming a 
new generic name in such cases ; but wc further wish to state our objections 
to the practice altogether. Considering as we do that the original specific 
names should as far as possible be held sacred, both on the grounds of justice 
to their authors and of practical convenience to naturalists, we would strongly 
dissuade from the further continuance of a practice which is gratuitous in 
itself, and which involves the necessity of altering old names or making new 
ones. 

We have now pointed out the principal rocks and shoals which lie in the 
path of the nomenclator ; and it will be seen that the navigation through 
them is by no means easy. The task of constructing a language which shall 
supply the demands of scientific accuracy on the one hand, and of literary 
elegance on the other, is not to be inconsiderately undertaken by unqualified 
persons. Our nomenclature presents but too many flaws and inelegancics 
already, and as the stern law of priority forbids their removal, it follows 
that they must remain as monuments of the bad taste or bad scholarship of 
their authors to the latest ages in which zoology shall be studied. 

[Families to end in idae, and Subfamilies in inse.] 

The practice suggested in the following proposition has been adopted by 
many recent authors, and its simplicity and convenience is so great that we 
strongly recommend its universal use. 

§ B. It is recommended that the assemblages of genera termed families 
should be uniformly named by adding the termination idee to the name of the 
earliest known, or most typically characterized genus in them ; and that their 
subdivisions, termed subfamilies, should be similarly constructed, with the 
termination ince. 

These words are formed by changing the last syllable of the genitive case 
into idee or ince, as Strix, Strigis, Strigidce, Buceros, Bucerotis, Bucerotidce, 
not Strividce, Buceridce. 

[The authority for a species, exclusive of the genus, to be followed by a 

distinctive expression.^ 
The systematic names of zoology being still far from that state of fixity 
which is the ultimate aim of the science, it is frequently necessary for correct 
indication to append to them the name of the person on whose authority they 
have been proposed. When the same person is authority both for the specific 
and generic name, the case is very simple ; but when the specific name of 
one author is annexed to the generic name of another, some difficulty occurs. 
For example, the Muscicapa crinita of Linnams belongs to the modern genus 
Tyrannus of Vieillot ; but Swainson was the first to apply the specific name 
of Linnceus to the generic one of Vieillot. The question now arises, Whose 
authority is to be quoted for the name Tyrannus crinitus ? The expression 
Tyrannus crinitus, Linn., would imply what is untrue, for Linnaeus did not 



RULES OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE. 41 

use the term Tyrannus ; and Tyrannus crinitus, Yieill., is equally incorrect, 
for Vieillot did not adopt the name crinitus. If we call it Tyrannus crinitus, 
Sw., it would imply that Swainson was the first to describe the species, and 
Linnaeus would be robbed of his due credit. If we term it Tyrannus, Vieill., 
crinitus, Linn., we use a form which, though expressing the facts correctly, 
and therefore not without advantage in particular cases where great exact- 
ness is required, is yet too lengthy and inconvenient to be used with ease and 
rapidity. Of the three persons concerned with the construction of a bino- 
mial title in the case before us, we conceive that the author who first 
describes and names a species which forms the groundwork of later gene- 
ralizations, possesses a higher claim to have his name recorded than he who 
afterwards defines a genus which is found to embrace that species, or who 
may be the mere accidental means of bringing the generic and specific names 
into contact. By giving the authority for the specific name in preference to 
all others, the inquirer is referred directly to the original description, habitat, 
&c, of the species, and is at the same time reminded of the date of its dis- 
covery ; while genera, being less numerous than species, may be carried in 
the memory, or referred to in systematic works without the necessity of per- 
petually quoting their authorities. The most simple mode then for ordinary 
use seems to be, to append to the original authority for the species, when not 
applying to the genus also, some distinctive mark implying an exclusive re- 
ference to the specific name, as Tyrannus crinitus (Linn.), and to omit this 
expression when the same authority attaches to both genus and species, as 
Ostrea edulis, Linn. Therefore, 

§ C. It is recommended that the authority for a specific name, when not 
applying to the generic name also, should be expressed thus, (Linn.), as Tyran- 
nus crinitus (Linn.). 

[Neiv genera and species to be defined amply and publicly.] 

A large proportion of the complicated mass of synonyms which has now 
become the opprobrium of zoology, has originated either from the slovenly 
and imperfect manner in which species and groups have been originally de- 
fined, or from their definitions having been inserted in obscure local publica- 
tions which have never obtained an extensive circulation. Therefore, 
although under § 12 we have conceded that mere insertion in a printed 
book is sufficient for publication, yet we would strongly advise the authors of 
new groups always to give, in the first instance, a full and accurate defini- 
tion of their characters, and to insert the same in such periodical or other 
works as are likely to obtain an immediate and extensive circulation. To 
state this briefly, 

§ D. It is recommended that new genera or species be amply defined, 
published, and extensively circulated in the first instance. 

[The names to be given to subdivisions of genera to agree in gender with 

the original. genus.~\ 

In order to preserve specific names as far as possible in an unaltered form, 
whatever may be the changes which the genera to which they are referred 
may undergo, it is desirable, when it can be done with propriety, to make 
the new subdivisions of genera agree in gender with the old groups from 
which they are formed. This recommendation does not, however, authorize 
the changing the gender or termination of a genus already established. In 
brief, 

§ E. It is recommended that in subdividing an old genus in future, the 



42 report — 1865. 

9 

names given to the subdivisions should agree in gender with that of the ori- 
ginal group. 

[Etymolor/ies and types of new genera to be stated.'] 

It is obvious that the names of genera would in general be far more care- 
fully constructed, and their definitions would be rendered more exact, if 
authors woidd adopt the following suggestion : — 

§ F. It is recommended that in defining new genera the etymology of 
the name shoidd be always stated, and that one species should be invariably 
selected as a type or standard of reference. 



In concluding this outline of a scheme for the rectification of zoological 
nomenclature, we have only to remark, that almost the whole of the propo- 
sitions contained in it may be applied with equal correctness to the sister 
science of botany. We have preferred, however, in this essay to limit our 
views to zoology, both for the sake of rendering the question less complex, 
and because we conceive that the botanical nomenclature of the present day 
stands in much less need of distinct enactment than the zoological. The 
admirable rides laid down by Linnaeus, Smith, Decandolle. and other botanists 
(to which, no less than to the works of Fabricras, Illigcr, Vigors, Swainson, 
and other zoologists, we have been much indebted in preparing the present 
document), have always exercised a beneficial influence over their disciples. 
Hence the language of botany has attained a more perfect and stable condi- 
tion than that of zoology; and if this attempt at reformation may have the 
effect of advancing zoological nomenclature beyond its present backward and 
abnormal state, the wishes of its promoters will be fully attained. 



Report of the Committee on the Distribution of the Organic Remains 
of the North Staffordshire Coal-jield.- — Concluding lleport. By a 
Committee, cons'/stint/ of Sir Philip db M. Grey Egerton, Bart., 
F.R.S., Professor T. H. Huxley, F.R.S. Reporter, William Mo- 

LYNEUX, F.G.S. 

The coal-measures of North Staffordshire may be divided into four distinct 

groups, namely, 

feet. feet. 

The Lowest Measures from about 800 to 1000 

The Lower Thick Measures „ 2000 to 2500 

The Upper Thick Measures ., 1400 to 1800 

The Upper Measures „ 1000 to 1200 

giving a total vertical thickness of from 5200 to G500 feet. 

The divisional formations of the lowest and lower thick measures in the 
Cheadle-field consist of shaly coarse and fine sandstones, which, although not 
proved by actual workings, would appear to be from 300 to 400 feet thick. 
The extension of these sandstones northwards is checked by an upthrow of 
Millstone-grits near Consall in the Churnet valley, and their place is occupied 
in the Knypersley and Biddulph districts of the extreme northern point by 
masses of black and brown shales and clayey laminated sandstones. The 
divisions of the other groups correspond with this in some respects, but they 
are less marked and massive. Each of these groups is characterized by the 



NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE COIL-FIELD ORGANIC REMAINS. 43 

presence of a distinct series of beds of coal and ironstone of greater or less 
value and persistency. The lowest measures contain seven seams of coal, 
three of which are worked for local use only, but the base is occupied by a 
most valuable bed of Hydrate, known as the Froghall ironstone. The lower 
thick measures contain all the best and thick coals, but only one band of 
ironstone (the Burnt Wood) of sufficient thickness or quality to be worked. 
The upper thick measures afford a remarkable contrast, as containing nearly 
all the workable bands of ironstone, while the upper measures contain thick 
masses of brick clays, with a few thin seams of coal, and but one or two 
bands of ironstone to which any attention has been paid. 

It is probably a somewhat remarkable feature in connexion with these 
great divisions, that in no instance have the two middle groups been found 
to contain deposits showing an extended continuous water-action of a turbulent 
character ; but in the upper part of the lowest measures, and the top beds of 
the upper measures occur rocks resembling in every particular those of the 
Millstone-grit. It may, however, be mentioned that instances have come 
under notice of the occurrence of large rounded quartz pebbles in shales and 
ironstones, lying near the base of the upper thick measures at Apedale ; and 
in another case a large siliceous water-worn boulder, some pounds in weight, 
was met with at considerable depth near a fault in one of the pits of the 
Cheadie coal-field. It not unfrequently happens, however, that large masses, 
composed of fragments of plants, broken shells, and other organic remains, 
intermixed with subangular pieces of ironstone, coal, and shaly sandstones, 
cemented together by a hard paste, are met with in sinkings and workings in 
the neighbourhood of faults, but as a ride the enormous stratigraphical 
deposits of these fields evidence tranquillity of action extending over a very 
long period of time. This conclusion is borne out by the nature and condi- 
tion of the organic remains imbedded in the shales and ironstones of the 
different measures, which are not only exceedingly numerous, but of a most 
remarkable and interesting order ; and it may here be stated as evidence of 
the results of an extended pakeontological inquiry, that before the commence- 
ment of a systematic course of research with reference to the subject, the 
known species of fish-remains were limited to the number of nine, with 
about the same number of shells, including those of a marine type then sup- 
posed to be confined to a single bed belonging to the lowest measures of the 
Churnet valley and its representative at Wetley Moor. The fish-remains 
are, however, now found to consist of from 35 to 40 genera, embracing 
upwards of 80 species, while the mollusca range out into upwards of 22 
genera, represented by about 60 species ; the marine forms extend at intervals 
upwards from the lowest to the upper thick measures, while the frequent 
occurrence of reptilian remains, and the vast number of the smaller crusta- 
ceans indicate the extended range and variety of the organic life of these 
fields during the period of their formation. These reptilian remains consist 
of single internal bones, with occasionally roughly ornamented external 
bones of the head. The range of these animals has been traced from the 
horizon of the Stinking Coal of the lowest beds, here and there up through 
the whole of the measures, to the chalky mine ironstone of the upper thick 
group. They are generally found in association with fish-remains, and appear 
to have been more numerous during the formation of the New Ironstone, the 
Knowles, and the Brown Mine ironstones of Kidsgrove, Fenton, Longton, 
Silverdale, and Apedale. They are, however, by no means confined to these 
localities, traces of them being found over the greater part of the area in- 
cluded in these fields, and also in direct association, both with shells referable 

D D 



44 report — 1865. 

to marine conditions, and those assumed to be of brackish or freshwater 
origin. 

Of all the forms of life met with in these fields the little Cytheropsis is the 
most numerous and persistent. It occurs in almost every distinct mineral 
deposit, and sometimes forms compact masses several inches in thickness, and 
entirely separated from all other organisms ; at others it appears in associa- 
tion with Mieroconchus alone, or is mixed indiscriminately with fish and 
shells, or forms a thin layer'or parting between beds of shale or ironstone, or 
the nucleus of ironstone nodules. It is, however, a fact of some importance 
in the question referable to the conditions under which certain coal and iron- 
stone beds were deposited, that the little fossil has never been found in the 
fields under notice in direct association with shells known to be marine. A 
most interesting example of this severance oecurs in the shales of the Stinking 
Coal at Windsend, in the Churnet valley. The lower parte of these shales im- 
mediately overlying the coal are remarkable for the immense number of Avi- 
culopectens they contain in a compressed form, and associated with Goniatites, 
Orthoceras, and Posidonia. In various instances the same shale-bed has yielded 
Ci/theropsis and Beyriehia, and occasionally Anthracosia ; but these three latter 
fossils are always separated from the former. After repeated examinations, 
it has been ascertained that about two feet above the coal a well-defined 
division occurs in the form of a bone-bed, containing teeth, scales, coprolites, 
and other remains, with frequent concretionary nodules, distinctly compressed 
into the under surface of the shales. Above this line the Avievlopecten never 
passes, and in no instance have the Ci/theropsis or Anthracosia been found 
below it ; but each organic deposit is separated from the other as clearly and 
distinctly as could have been effected by the intervention of thick masses of 
strata. 

With Cytheropsis are frequently found Beyriehia, Mieroconchus, and Ser- 
pula, but the latter genus is by no means so generally distributed. Beyriehia 
oocurs in great numbers in the shales of the Cockshead ironstone at Adderley 
Green, in association with Cytheropsis and Mieroconchus ; but Serpula, so far 
as has been proved, is confined to the shales of the Woodhead coal in the 
Cheadle field. Each of these forms, like Cytheropsis, is confined to the beds 
containing Anthracosia ; they never pass into the marine horizons of either the 
upper or lowest measures. 

Until the present year these fields were not known to contain any of the 
higher order of Crustacea ; recently, however, a fragment of Limulus has 
been met with in a small nodule of the Hard Mine ironstone at Adderley 
Green ; and more recently still a curious ironstone deposit, lying near the 
base of the lowest measures of the Churnet valley, has been found to contain 
Maoruran remains of an interesting form associated with Cytherop>sis and 
Anthracoptera. It is by no means unlikely that these latter organisms may 
be found to pass into the higher strata ; but so far they appear to be con- 
fined to the particular bed in question. 

The fish-remains of these fields are of an exceedingly interesting character, 
and in certain beds occur in great numbers, and in a most beautiful state of 
preservation. Many new forms have been met with, and individual speci- 
mens of well-known species occasional^ come to hand, by which some im- 
portant anatomical points have been satisfactorily established. The whole of 
these remains are now undergoing examination, and ere long a more complete 
knowledge of their specific character will be arrived at. 

Of the Ganoid fishes, the most commonly distributed are the Paheonisci, 
which range throughout the whole of the four great divisions of the fields, 



NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE COAL-FIELD ORGANIC REMAINS. 45 

and pass downwards into the shales of the Millstone-grit and the grey iron- 
stone nodules of the Carboniferous shales. In the Aviculopecten shales of the 
Stinking Coal two or three at present undetermined species are imbedded, 
but rarely in a well-preserved condition. The species of this bed are inter- 
mixed with the marine shells, and appear to be different to those so largely 
distributed amongst the beds of the upper thick measures ; and in no instance 
have they been found in this deposit to pass above the line of the bone-bed 
alluded to, where detached scales are largely intermixed with Lhujulce and 
other organisms in a fragmentary condition. 

Towards the upper part of these lower beds a small species, tolerably per- 
fect, is occasionally found imbedded in nodides of clay ironstone ; but, gene- 
rally speaking, between this point and the shales of the Ash Coal, the base of 
the upper thick measures, evidence of the existence of these fish seldom 
occurs, except in the form of detached scales, scattered over the face of the 
numerous intervening bone-beds. In the Ash-coal shales, however, they 
appear in a more perfect form, and attain their maximum development in 
the shales of the Deep Mine ironstone, 200 yards above it. This latter iron- 
stone is at Longton, on the extreme western boundary of the proved measures, 
1 foot 3 inches thick, and divided into four bands overlaid by a bed of black 
shale, hard, clean, and easily split into thin slabs. As an ichthyolitic 
depository it is one of the most interesting met with, and affords in addition 
some curious data referable to the range of animal life in one distinct horizon. 
This stone is worked at Longton, Fenton, Shelton, Berryhill, Sneyd Green, 
Golden-hill, and other places, but not always under the same name. The 
Longton bed is opened at two points communicating with each other, and from 
the shales of these two workings have been collected, in a remarkable state of 
preservation, specimens of eighteen genera, and about twenty-six species of 
fish. One new genus, under the name of Cycloptychius, occurs in great 
numbers and the most perfect condition ; but beyond the limits of the two 
pits at Longton it has never as yet been known to pass ; and in each direc- 
tion from this point, where the stone has been worked, the whole of its 
organic remains die gradually out to a few detached scales and isolated teeth. 
The restriction of the Palcronisci of this deposit to a definite range would 
appear to indicate the prevalence of either deep or shallow water along this 
particular line ; but it is in the character of its organic contents that this 
peculiarity is the more observable ; the stone itself, where it has been 
pierced, although showing a tendency to thin out towards its eastern out- 
crop, retains over the greater part of the field a tolerably uniform thickness 
and character. 

Of Coslacanthus there are two species, ft leptums and C. granulates, the 
former being the more common, and of greater range. Detached scales are 
met with in the Hydrate shales, and here and there in the fossiliferous beds 
of the lowest measures, including the Stinking Coal shales. In the Wood- 
head coal-shale of the lower thick measures, 0. lepturus is occasionally found 
in a fair state of preservation, and also in the nedular grey ironstones inter- 
mixed with the grey shales above it. More frequently, however, it occurs as 
detached scales ; and in this form, wherever Palceoniscus is detected, both 
Gcelacanthvs and Platysomus are generally in association with it. The Deep 
Mine ironstone contains numerous fine specimens, and it not unfrequently 
occurs in the Cockshead, Knowles, and Brown Mine ironstones and shales. 

Platysomus, of which there are two species, has a somewhat similar range ; 
but in certain deposits, in different localities, each species appears to be a 
characteristic feature. 



46 report — 1865. 

Many of the coal and ironstone beds are either of local extent, or 
evidence a variation of condition of deposit within a limited area, and con- 
sequently the measures of one district are no sure guides in engineering to 
those of another. This more frequently happens in the upper thick beds 
with the ironstone group, and it is found that this diversity in the character 
of the mineral deposits is partaken of in a somewhat similar degree by the 
forms of life directly associated with them. Taking the Longton and Fenton 
beds as one example, the Deep Mine shales show the predominating form to 
be PalcEoniscus, the Knowles ironstone Platymmus, and the New Ironstone 
Megalichihys. At Silverdale and Apedale Palceoniscus is rare, while the 
Brown Mine teems as it were with Platysomi. Passing to the Kidsgrove 
district, the Brown Mine becomes the New Mine, and Phttysomus gives place 
to Rhizodopsis, and passing downwards to the Woodhead coal, Ccelacanthus 
appears as the characteristic fossil of its bed. The life-zone, as it were, of 
each of these deposits also varies. In the case of the Deep Mine, it is con- 
hned to a few inches of black shale immediately overlying the stone, and in 
no known instance passing into the mineral itself. In the Knowles ironstone 
shales the same conditions are observable ; but the life-zone extends down- 
wards into the stone, fine specimens of Rhizodus, Ccelacanthus. Acanthodes, 
and Megalichihys beim>- of frequent occurrence in the upper division of the 
bed. The Brown Mine of Silverdale and the New Mine of Kidsgrove present 
parallel conditions ; but in the Brown Mine of the latter district the shales 
form only the matrix of its interesting organisms. The beds of ironstone 
and coal enumerated — the Woodhead and Ash coals, and the Cockshead, 
Knowles, Deep Mine, Brown, and New Mine ironstones— appear to be the 
great fish-zones of these fields ; but it may be accepted that the whole of the 
mineral beds contain the remains of either fish or shells, generally both. These 
remains, as previously stated, are rare in certain localities ; but no bed has 
hitherto been found totally unfossiliferous over the whole of its proved area. 
It is also worthy of note, that in almost all, if not every case, the divisional 
line between each seam of coal and band of ironstone and their associated 
shales or bass, consists of a thin film, as it were, of detached scales and teeth 
of fishes or compressed mollusks, showing in a simple but conclusive manner 
that whatever may have been the condition under which each bed of coal 
was formed, it was immediately after its formation covered by water con- 
taining the ordinary forms of life of that period, and which by its agency 
were spread over the surface of each coal-bed before becoming charged with 
the mud now forming its superimposed shales. Frequently the ironstones 
are immediately overlain by thin beds of coal ; and in the case of the New 
Mine at Kidsgrove, this coal is largely intermixed with fragments of Gyra- 
carrihus, Megalichihys, and other fish-remains ; but this is the only instance 
in the field in which such fossils have been detected within the body of coal 
itself ; and in this case the coal which forms a parting between two bands of 
stone is not of the ordinary character of coal-deposits, but evidently the 
aggregated parts of an older bed brought from another point, and redeposited 
by aqueous agency. 

In addition to the Ganoid fishes enumerated, Acanihodes, Acrolepis, 
Gyrolepis, Pyyopterus, Dipkpterus, aai: Megalichihys are forms more or less 
familiar to these beds, most being represented by two or more species, 
winch appear here and there at intervals throughout the entire vertical strata. 
Megalichihys Hibberti is by far the most common form ; but hitherto no 
perfect specimen has been met with. The New Ironstone of Fenton Park, 
the Gubbin ironstone shale of Shelton, and the Chalky Mine ironstone of 



NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE COAL-FIELD ORGANIC REMAINS. 47 

Silverdale, have yielded fine examples of this fish — in the latter case a frag- 
ment of a jaw 16 inches in length. With this fish are frequently associated 
in the New and Knowles ironstones large jaws referred to Rhizodus, and 
others as yet not satisfactorily determined. 

The small cycloidal-scaled fish assigned to Rhizodopsis is also of common 
occurrence, and with it are occasionallyfound large circular scales,with concen- 
tric and radiating lines of ornamentation. Acanthodes is also of wide range, 
heing more abundant in nodules of the Cockshead ironstone, and in the 
Knowles and Deep Mine ironstone shales, which also contain Gyrolepis and 
Pygopterus. Strepsodus, a long somewhat curved tooth with parallel lines, 
also ranges from the Stinking Coal to the upper beds, but always in detached 
forms. Amblypterus so far appears to be extremely rare in these fields. 

The Placoid order of fishes is freely represented, and possesses an equally 
determinate range with the ganoid forms of the field. Pleuracanthus, or the old 
Diplodus gibbosus, occurs in thousands in the New Ironstone at Fenton Park, 
making its first appearance in the shales of the Stinking Coal, and ranging 
upwards to the Red Shag ironstone of the upper beds. The spine described 
as Pleuracanthus, is frequently found associated with the teeth and dermal 
covering of the fish, in a manner which confirms the now received opinion 
of their common origin. Pleura canthus minutus is not so common, but it 
has a wide and general range, and another species is not unfrequent in the 
New Ironstone of Fenton Park, but it is rarely found to pass from this 
horizon. Of the large dorsal spines, Ctenacanthus, the species hybodoides is 
the most familiar, but it is seldom found out of the New Ironstone, Deep 
Mine, Knowles and Brown Mine shales. Gyracanthus formosus is of far 
wider distribution, being found in twelve different beds of the lower and 
upper thick measures. G. tuberculatum is frequently associated with it, but 
it is of less vertical range. Orthaeanthus cylindricus is also confined to the 
upper part of the thick coal and the lower part of the ironstone groups, but, 
like Ctenacanthus and Gyracanthus, the finest specimens are obtained from 
the New Ironstone of Fenton Park. The fossil known as Onchus is remark- 
ably persistent in its distribution, being plentiful in the Stinking and Wood- 
head coal-shales, and in nearly the whole of the coal and ironstone beds of 
the succeeding measures. A form resembling Leptacanthus, and others with 
double or single rows of curious hooked teeth, are not unfrequently met 
with, especially in the New Ironstone, which appears to have been the great 
life-centre of the singular animals to whom those defensive weapons 
belonged. 

The remainder of the Placoid fish consist of the genera Cladodus, Peta- 
lodus, Gtenodus, Orodus, Ctenopty chins, Archodus, Pcecilodus, Helodus, some 
forms resembling Cochliodus, a small tooth with numerous branching cusps, 
and others as yet undetermined. Gtenodus appears to be limited to the New, 
Brown Mine, Knowles, and Black-band ironstones, and is of somewhat rare 
occurrence. Petalodus is of similar range, and Cladodus extends to the 
Woodhead coals, and is frequently found in groups on slabs of the Knowles 
ironstone and Ash-coal shales. Orodus is confined to the Stinking Coal of the 
lowest measures, and also another form of an exceedingly interesting character, 
of which but two specimens have been detected. Ctenoptychius is represented 
by three or four species, of which ap'ualis is the most common, the New 
Ironstone containing remarkably fine examples. Archodus is a rare form, 
and appears to be confined to the latter bed. To Helodus no limit can well 
be given, it being met with in almost all the beds, and in the Knowles is 
frequently of large size. The tooth resembling Cochliodus is rare, and has 



48 report — 1865. 

not been met with in other beds than the Stinking Coal, and in the stony 
8-foot ironstone at Kidsgrove. Pcecilodus is a common form in the Cockshead 
ironstone shales, and has a tolerably wide range from the Stinking Coal 
upwards. The little tooth with numerous cusps is confined to the New and 
Deep Mine ironstones, but is frequent in the former bed. In addition to 
these, there is a fine lancet-shaped tooth rarely found in the Deep Mine, 
Wood's Mine, New, Bassey Mine, and Gubbin ironstones, to which at present 
no name has been assigned. 

The Mollusca of these fields may be divided into three distinct groups — • 
the Avieulopecten and Goniatite group of the lowest measures, the Spirifer- 
and Distinct group of the middle, and the Anthracosia of the entire fields. 
The Avieulopecten of the lowest measures is represented simply by the species 
papyraceus, and is confined to two horizons, that of the Stinking Coal about 
100 feet above the Millstone-grit, and a lean grey ironstone about the same 
distance above the Stinking Coal. In the latter bed it is associated with 
Goniatites, Posidonia, Orthoceras, and Lingula, each of which are invariably 
found to occupy different and successive levels in the deposits to which they 
are confined. 

Immediately upon the coal, which is strongly sulphureous, comes a bed 
of Aviculopectens, from 6 to 8 inches thick ; this is succeeded by a layer of 
Goniatites of similar thickness ; then Posidonia and Orthoceras ; the black 
shales containing fish, and at the top of all comes Lingula mixed with 
scales of Ptdceoniscus. The Avieulopecten, Goniatites, Posidonia, and Ortho- 
ceras bands are generally dovetailed, as it were, into each other, but each 
contains nevertheless its characteristic features. Lingula is, however, always 
sharply cut off from them and confined to one definite line on the top of the 
shales immediately below the bone-bed which separates these fossils from the 
on-coming C'gtheropsis and Anthracosia. The Aviculopecten-bed is of great 
areal extent, and retains a remarkable degree of uniformity in whatever 
district it is found, and in more than one important case the existence of 
certain valuable mineral deposits have been determined by its presence alone. 
In the Goldsitch-moss basin, 10 miles direct north from Ipstones, it forms 
one of the coals worked there under the name of the Thin Seam ; at Wetlcy 
Moor it is represented by the Four-foot coal, at Biddulph by the Biddulph 
Moor coal, and in each locality it contains its characteristic tranquilly 
deposited fossils, in equal numbers and corresponding conditions. 

The other Aviculopecten-hed is a thin grey laminated ironstone about 100 
feet above the Stinking Coal, and hitherto has not been detected beyond the 
limits of the Churnet valley. Its fossils are in a fine state of preservation, 
but so far it has not been found to contain other remains than Avieulopecten 
papyraceus and Posidonia. 

The base of the lowest measures of the Churnet valley is a clayey marl, 
which reposes directly upon the upper beds of the Millstone-grit, and varies 
in thickness from a thin film to 15 feet. This is succeeded by the well- 
known Hydrate, a most curious and remarkable deposit, varying from an 
inch to 2 feet 6 inches. The shales in contact with this ore, and the stone 
itself in certain localities, contain great numbers of Anthracosia acuta — a form 
of life which take3 precedence of all others in the history of the period 
represented by these rocks. Between this bed and the Stinking Coal the 
only recognizable fossils are scanty remains of fishes ; but here, as before 
stated, Anthracosia again comes in, and again gives place to the Avieulo- 
pecten of the laminated ironstone. In the succeeding clay ironstone nodules 
it is accompanied by other species, but from this point up to the marine bed 



NORTH STAFFORDSHIRE COAL-FIELD ORGANIC REMAINS. 49 

opened up at Hawley's sinkings, there are no known indications of the intro- 
duction of other forms of life than those of which this genus is the type. 

In the Woodhead coal-shales of the Cheadle field, and other basement beds 
of the lower thick measures at Norton and Bucknall, Anthracomya and An- 
thracoptera are found in association with Anthracosia, the latter being repre- 
sented by the species subconstricta, robusta, ovalis, and others ; Anthracomya by 
Adamsii, and Anthracoptera by two new species, and others. In the Bullhurst 
coal and its succeeding shales these bivalves frequently occur in immense num- 
bers, especially in the Cockshead ironstone, the Hard Mine, Little Mine, and 
the various Banbury coals of the Silverdale and Kidsgrove districts, and in 
the Bassey Mine, Gutter Mine, Cannel Mine, and Black-band ironstones of 
the upper thick measures. It is however remarkable that, where they are 
unusually abundant, fish-remains become scarce and fragmentary ; in fact 
none of the deposits which retain their original condition afford conclusive 
evidence of other than the occasional commingling of these vertebrate and 
invertebrate animals in the waters of the period, and it is only in the aggre- 
gated bone-beds that their remains are associated in anything like equal 
proportions. 

In many cases the bone-beds covering the surface of coal pass into thick 
irregularly-deposited masses of shells, which by their persistency become 
valuable guides in mining operations. Not unfrequently, however, they are 
confined to a definite horizon, the shales above them being destitute of other 
remains than those of plants matted together and imperfectly preserved. As 
a rule the coal-beds are of greater extent and of a more uniform character 
than ironstone deposits. In the upper measures both are usually but 
slightly divided, and, generally speaking, where the ironstone thickens the 
coal becomes inferior. The Longton ironstone-beds in many instances die 
out altogether, or are but obscurely represented in the Silverdale and the 
more easterly districts, and this is in fact the case with the coal in many 
cases. The position of the shells varies according to the character of their 
matrix ; in some instances they appear in situ, smoothly laid out, and rising 
layer upon layer to the thickness of several feet. In this form they are 
generally compressed, but in many others, such as the Moss coals, Hard 
Mine, and Cockshead ironstone-shales, they retain their original shape. 

Until within the last two or three years there was no published evidence 
to show that the generally received opinion of the restriction of marine 
fossils to the lower measures of the British coal-fields was incorrect; but 
some sinkings at Longton in the spring of 1863 revealed the existence of 
a series of such remains in the shales of a thin unworked coal called the 
Bay Coal, situated towards the base of the upper thick measures. These 
remains consisted of Aviadopecten, Goniatites, languid, Orthoceras, Spirifer, 
Ctenodonta, Macrocheilus, Katicopsis, Nautilus, Loxonema, and Biscina. The 
discovery of Lingula, which at the time was the only form met with, was 
announced in the Report of your Committee read at the Meeting at New- 
castle, and the occurrence of the additional forms was also noticed in their 
Report read at Bath last year. It has, however, been subsequently found 
that, about eight years ago, Discince were discovered in nodules of the Priors- 
field ironstone at Fenton Park. 

From the Bay Coal not being a workable seam, its extension can only be 
proved by sinkings in other parts of the field, where it will have to be looked 
for under different names and position, no other section appearing to agree 
with the one at Longton. The Priors-field ironstone, which lies below the 
Bay Mine, also yielded at the same sinkings Lingulce and Discince, but, 



50 REPORT — 1865. 

except in one instance, of the association of the young of Discina with An- 
thracoptera, none of the other forms were found in direct contact with them. 
Discince have recently been met with at Kidsgrove in grey ironstone nodules, 
which would appear to be representatives of the Longton Priors-field bed. 

The Bay Coal fossils appear to be confined to a thin stratum of shale, 
containing grey flattish nodules of lean ironstone overlying the coal. The 
Lingulce were never known to pass into the ironstone, but appeared to lie 
near the top of the shales in association with Discince. Below these come 
Orthoceras, Spirifer, and the others, and the nodules were generally taken 
up with Aviculopecten, Spirifer, and Productus. Immediately above these 
shales came another nodular bed of ironstone and thick shales, and these 
were the depositories of several species of Anthracosia with Gytheropsis ; but 
here, as in the Stinking Coal, the line of demarcation was in no case passed 
by either of the forms above or below it. The Priors-field group appears to 
be equally defined, Anthracoptera and Gytheropsis overlying the Linyuhe 
and Discince. This isolation of Lingulce from all other than Discince is a 
somewhat curious fact, but the cases cited are not the only ones which have 
come under notice. It occurs in the shales of a coal worked on the western 
flank of Axedge, and referred to the middle beds of the Millstone-grit. 

In June and July of the present year a bed of greyish shale, lying a few feet 
above the Gin Mine coal, belonging to the upper part of the lower thick mea- 
sures, was sunk through on the hill which divides Longton from Adderley Green. 
These shales far surpass the Bay Mine in the number and variety of their 
organic contents. They contain Productus, Chonetes, Lmgula, Aviculopecten, 
Ctenodonta, A-vinus, Natteopsis, Ghemnitzia, Lo.vonema, Platyschism i, Pleu- 
rotomaria, Discites, Goniatites, Nautilus, Orthoceras, and others, most of them 
being represented by two or more species, some of which are new. 

More than one of these forms are common in the carboniferous rocks of 
Scotland, and others are found abundantly in the Millstone-grits of Stafford- 
shire. It is an interesting feature in these deposits that they contain Pro- 
ductus, Spirifer, and Nautilus, which are absent in the lowest measures of 
these fields. The occurrence of this bed is important as showing that the 
two great divisions of the upper and lower thick measures are at widely 
separated intervals, interlined by deposits which point to the sudden cessa- 
tion of one order of natural operations, and the introduction of another, 
which obtained for a comparatively short period and then passed away, to be 
repeated Ion? after in two distinct but less important forms, but still equally 
clear and equally conclusive. Whether there are other instances of these 
isolated marine conditions in the middle measures, or whether they stretch 
into the upper strata of the coal-field, a careful examination of beds passed 
through in future sinkings will alone determine. 

On the extreme western outcrop of the coal strata at Longton a bed of 
limestone, supposed to be of freshwater origin, overlies the Bassey Mine 
ironstone at a distance of about 30 feet. Recent sinkings on the Longton 
Hall estate have revealed a second band of limestone 30 feet below the 
other, and like it divided into three beds by thin partings of clayey shale. 
The upper bed has long been known, but in no other instance has the second 
bed been met with, although there are several pits within the space of 300 
yards. Far above this, however, a little below the base of the brick clays of 
the upper measures, a third, if not a fourth bed of similar limestone has been 
exposed at distant points, in each of which the fossil contents specifically 
agree. The lower beds are the more fossiliferous, and include great numbers 
of Gytheropsis, Microconchus, Anthracosia Phillipsii, with scales and teeth of 



MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA OF SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 51 

Ccelacanthus, Platysomw, Ehizodopsis, MegaUchthys, and Pleuracanthns. 
Anthmcosia PMUipsii is also remarkably abundant in the Bassey Mine and 
the Gutter Mine ironstones, the latter being composed almost wholly of 
compressed forms of this shell. The Black-band ironstone of Apedale is 
also extremely rich in similar species, and contains, in addition, SanguinoUtes, 
with thick masses of Cytheropds. Anthmcosia Phillipsii appear to be the 
characteristic shell of these upper thick measures, occurring abundantly in 
the Cannel Mine and other beds worked in different localities, until it dies 
out in the valueless coal-seams which interline the arenaceous shales of the 
upper beds of Hartshill and Newcastle-under-Lyne. 

It may be stated in conclusion that, in drawing up their Report, your 
Committee have confined themselves as much as possible to the more strik- 
ing particulars of the inquiry. The subject is in itself of too voluminous a 
character for detailed treatment, and a great amount of interesting matter 
has been necessarily omitted. Much of this, however, will be supplied by 
carefully prepared lists of the whole of the fossils found in the various 
measures of the field, which will be arranged in stratigraphical order for 
future publication. 



Report of the Committee appointed to explore the Marine Fauna and 
Flora of the South Coast of Devon and Cornwall. — No. 1. Consist- 
ing of J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., Rev. Thomas Hincks, Jonathan 
Couch, F.L.S., Charles Stewart, J. Brooking Rowe, F.L.S., and 
J. Ralfs, F.L.S. Reporter, C. Spence Bate, F.R.S. fyc. 
In presenting the first Report of the results of the Committee formed for the 
purpose of dredging the southern coast of Devon and Cornwall, we think it 
undesirable to repeat the full list of animals as recorded in our Dredging 
Tables. We shall therefore mention only those species that are either new or 
rare, or exhibit some especial interest from observation of some hitherto unre- 
corded peculiarity of habit or structure. We cannot communicate the residt 
of our labours without expressing our appreciation of the service that we 
received from Her Majesty's Gunnery Ship ' Cambridge.' Capt. Ewart, C.B., 
having kindly offered any assistance that we might require on the water, we 
were not slow to avail ourselves of the ship's launch and crew for the purpose 
of dredging, and were on those occasions accompanied by Dr. Forbes of the 
' Cambridge,' a gentleman known to science for an excellent memoir on the 
History and Topography of Vancouver's Island. 

Pisces. 

In reporting on the Eish, Mr. Couch says that although our success in 
this quarter has not been very abundant, still however our labour has not 
been without some considerable amount of success. 

Among the ordinary inhabitants of our coast we scarcely expected to have 
found the Twait shad, so near the bottom, in rather deep water, as to be taken 
in the trawl ; we were also enabled to obtain a knowledge of tbe ordinary 
food of the Megrim or scaldfish, P. arnoghssus, of which the examples were 
numerous : small specimens of Galathcce were in their stomach. 

We were also fortunate enough to obtain a specimen of the Eilefish, 
Balistes capriscms, the second on record as having been taken in England, 
and offering in some respects a different appearance from the figures given of 

e2 



52 report — 1865. 

it by Willughby and Yarrell ; but tbe particulars of this difference, as well 
as the way in which it was caught, it would be tedious to give now, and 
Mr. Couch reserves them for his work on our native fishes that is now pub- 
lishing. Also an account of another fish which we have obtained within a 
few days (Aug. 18th), and now report for the first time as a visitor to our 
coasts. This is the Short-finned Tunny, Thynnus hraehyterus of Cuvier; an 
example of which we procured from Mevagissy, and a second from Polperro ; 
Mr. Couch has made drawings of both these rare fish. 

We also obtained from the trawl a specimen of Myliobates aquilce, or Eagle 
Ray. 

MOLLTTSCA. 

Among the Mollusca of more or less interest the following are recorded : — 

An exceedingly fine specimen of Octopus vulgaris, as well as of Loligo 
media, Sepia elegans, and S. officinalis. Also the ova of a Sepia, containing 
the rudimentary shell, apparently differing from those of S. officinalis, but of 
what species we have not yet been enabled to determine. 

A beautiful specimen oildalia elegant, far more brightly rose-coloured than 
the figure given by Messrs. Alder and Hancock, from which our specimen 
also differed in the posterior extremity of the foot, terminating in three in- 
stead of a single point. 

We might also mention a specimen of Avicula being taken about half an 
inch longer than the greatest length ascribed to it by Prof. Edward Forbes. 

Crustacea. 

The first species of crab to which we shall allude is that of Achceus 
cranchii, spoken of by Bell as being rare ; two specimens only being re- 
corded, one from Ealmouth, the other from the South of Ireland. 

Certainly this little crab is by no means uncommon off the coast of South 
Devon, in depth from six to twenty fathoms. This circumstance enables us 
to state that the second and third pairs of pereiopoda are not drawn of suffi- 
cient length in proportion to the two posterior, in both Prof. Bell's and Dr. 
Leach's figures of the species. 

Among the specimens that we dredged, we took two from six fathoms of 
water near the Knapbury, that possibly may be a second species. Our atten- 
tion was first drawn to the circumstance from observing a peculiarity in its 
habits from that of the known species, which is that it covers itself with 
weed as we know is done by those of the genus Pisa. 

In Pisa this is no accidental occurrence, since all the spines are sharp- 
pointed and curved ; and my friend Mr. Whitford has informed me that he has 
observed specimens in his aquarium which soon after having cast their 
exuviae, pick up with the claws pieces of weed and place them on the spine. 

In Achceus cranchii the spines are straight, a circumstance that gives the 
animal generally a hairy appearance. In the second form the spines are not 
visible to unassisted observation, and the legs of the animal look smooth and 
free from hairs, but a nearer and closer inspection shows that the spines are 
all hooked as in Pisa. The form of the eye somewhat varies also; but 
whether these are sufficient to ground a specific distinction of the two ani- 
mals, we have not quite determined, particularly as we have observed among 
the mass of straight hairs in A. cranchii a few hooked ones also. 

Of the interesting genus of soldier- crabs, Pagurus, we have taken six or 
seven species, viz. — 

P. bernhardus. P. hyndmanni. P. laevis. 

prideauxii. dillwynii. ulidianus. 

cuanensie. 



MARINE FAUNA AND FLORA OF SOUTH DEVON AND CORNWALL. 53 

Of the last species we have some doubt, as Mr. Bell remarks, it is ex- 
tremely like the young of P. bernliardus, and certainly until we can capture 
a specimen bearing ova we are much inclined to believe that it is so. 

We are glad to be able to record P. dillwynii from the south coast 
of Devon. It is now about fifteen years since the first and only specimen 
was taken on the coast of South Wales. ~No other naturalist appears to have 
fallen in with it, and we found it necessary to take an occasional look at the 
original specimen to assure ourselves that we had not committed a mistake 
in considering it to be distinct. 

A few weeks since, seeing a woman shrimping on the sandy beach at 
Teignmouth, we requested to have a look into her net, and among the com- 
mon shrimp we saw to our great pleasure numerous specimens of P. dillwynii ; 
after purchasing her entire stock we hastened to the beach, and with the in- 
coming tide took numerous specimens which we kept alive for a short time. 
This, the prettiest of all the pretty genus, has the habit of burrowing in the 
sand, and it is probably to this circumstance that it has not been met with 
before ; but, curious enough, we have since taken it with the dredge in about 
four fathoms of water in Bigberry Bay, and again one specimen in six fathoms 
as near to Plymouth as the mouth of the river Yealme. 

An interesting point in the history of this genus we have been enabled to 
make out relative to the development of the young. The end of April or 
the beginning of May is the period when the young appear to be most abun- 
dant. Early in June we were enabled to capture many specimens of the 
young animal in various degrees of progressive development, a circumstance 
that has enabled us to determine that the species Glaucothoe peronii, described 
by Prof. Milne-Edwards in the Annales des Sc. Nat. for March 1830, is none 
other than an immature stage of the genus. At this period the little crea- 
ture swims freely in the ocean, until obliged by increasing age to take refuge 
in a shell, when he settles down and becomes a hermit crab. 

Of the genus Palinurus we would desire to point out a curious and in- 
teresting structural condition of the inferior antennas. In all macrourous 
decapods the inferior pair of antennas is furnished with a lateral scale, or ar- 
ticulated process. This is invariably situated at the extremity of the third 
joint of the peduncle ; now in Palinurus this scale or squamiferous process 
is incorporated with the walls of the peduncle, the third and fourth joints 
being fixed together, and the squamiferous process exists in form only as a 
figure impressed against the sides of the antennae. 

In the elaborate memoir of Prof. Kinahan on the genus Crangon, we think 
that he has erroneously figured the common shrimp, or that the common 
shrimp of the Irish, differs from those of the English, shores. The small and 
delicate second pair of pereiopoda that Mr. Bell describes as being " nearly as 
large as the third," and figures rather shorter than the first, Dr. Kinahan 
makes as long again as the first pair. Prof. Kinahan's figure is also more 
slender than that of our edible shrimp ; neither can we see the desirability or 
convenience of the generic separation which he has made between those hav- 
ing the second pair of pereiopoda short from those that have them a little 
longer. This being only variation in degree, and not structurally important, 
we consider as being only of specific and not generic value. 

Among the prawns we are enabled to add a new genus to the British 
fauna, namely, Caradina of Prof. Milne-Edwards. In making this interest- 
ing addition, we must remark that it is one of name only, since it is, we be- 
lieve, the same that Dr. Leach described under the name of HippoTyte va- 
rious, which has remained so long misinterpreted. We have occasionally 



54 report — 1865. 

taken this species when dredging in Plymouth Sound, but never so abun- 
dantly as of late. 

We have previously observed the peculiar robust looking second pair of 
pereiopoda, but it was not until recently we discovered that it had the pecu- 
liar structural formation pecidiar to the genus Caradina, in which the pro- 
podos articulates with the carpus, not at the centre, but at the infero-anterior 
angle, and thus appears as a partially dislocated joint. 

There is a second specimen that appears to me to be specifically distinct 
from the preceding ; it is more slender, and has the rostrum long and slight. 
The teeth are two above, the one at the base flanked by a lateral tooth on 
each side, and one near the apical extremity ; on the under side there is a 
tooth immediately under the anterior upper tooth, and a second posterior to 
it : to this species we provisionally give the name of Caradina tenuis. 

Among the sessile-eyed Crustacea we have added to our local fauna Mono- 
culodes stimpsoni and Amphithoe albomaeulata ; of the latter we took but a 
single specimen, and remarked the similitude of its colouring to that of half- 
grown specimens of Amplntho'e ridjieaudata. 

Considerable numbers of Tanaia have been captured deeply inserted in the 
crevices of the slate rocks of the coast, a habitat that is also favourable for 
the residence of Anceus, a genus whose sexes have long been placed in sepa- 
rate genera. These we have been enabled to work out with great care, a 
circumstance that enables us to support some of the views of M. Hesse, and 
unite the two supposed genera as the male and female of one. 

We have only to add the peculiar circumstance of our having captured 
Chondrocantha zeia attached parasitically to a specimen of Synopta. 

Annelida. 
Among the Annelida, Mr. J. Brooking Howe remarks that the following 
have been made out, but we have many specimens as yet undetermined. 

Gen. Serpentaria. Gen. Psamathe. 

S. fusca. P. fusca. 

Gen. PontobdeUa. Gen. Ghjcera. 

P. muricata. Two species not yet determined. 

P. verrucata. Gen. Cirratulus. 
Gen. Tomopteris. C. borealis. 

T. onisciformis. C. tentaculatus ? 

Gen. Aphrodita. Gen. Clutstopteris. 

A. aculeata. C. insignis. 

A. hystrix. Gen. Arenicola 
Gen. Lepidonotns. A. piscatorum. 

L. squamatus. A. ecaudata. 

Gen. Siyalion. Gen. Terrebella. 

S. boa. Three species, which appear to 

Gen. Eunice. differ from any previously 

E. sanguinea. described as British. 

Gen. Northia. Gen. Pectinaria. 

N. tubicola. P. belgica. 

N. conchylega? Gen. Sabelht. 

Gen. Nereis. S. penicillus. 

N. brevimana? S. savignii. 

N. pelagica. Gen. Serpida. 
Gen. Eeteronereis. S. vermicularis. 

H. longissima ? 



marine fauna and flora of south devon and cornwall. 55 

Alctonidiad^;. 

Among the Alcyonidiadas we have taken two species, in addition to 
gelatinosum, to which we do not find any reference in the first edition of 
Dr. Johnston's 'Natural History of British Zoophytes.' One of these resembles 
so much the coral Eschara cornu-cervi, that but for its soft texture and 
flexibility it migbt be compared to it. The other resembles a short club, 
almost an oval mallet, on the top of a slender footstalk. Figures of these 
have been taken. 

EcHINODEKMATA. 

Amongst the Echinodermata may be mentioned Echinus flemingii, Spatan- 
guspurpureus, Porania pulvillus (Goniaster templetoni of Forbes), and Pal- 
mi pes placenta : these specimens are often brought in by the trawlers, but some- 
times a maund containing little else than the Pahnipes is procured at one 
time, the others being rather rare. Amongst these and their more common 
associates we have on three occasions found a specimen of Luidia savignii 
about eight inches in the greater diameter, and twice a single ray of what we 
believe to be Luidia sarsii. It is seven inches long, more abruptly tapering 
than in the other species ; its upper surface orange, with purplish-brown 
spots at the base of the spines of the paxilla? ; in all other respects it answers 
the description given of the species by the Rev. A. M. Norman in his paper 
on the genera and species of British Echinodermata published in the ' Annals 
of Natural History.' This is, we believe, the first notice of a western locality 
for this interesting animal, which must have been fifteen inches in its greater 
diameter. On the inner side of the eastern end of the Breakwater, where 
grey mud has collected, six specimens of Amphiura • filiform is, remarkable for 
its pickaxe -shaped spines, occurred in one haul of the dredge. This species 
also has not been noticed here before, the Durham and Northumberland coasts 
being the only English localities yet given. Antedon rosaceus is common in 
the Sound, where it is found principally on the rocks that project from the 
mud and rubble of the bottom ; of late years they have greatly extended 
their colonies, owing probably to the injured specimens having been thrown 
overboard wliilst the boat was moving to a different spot. 

Ophiothrix fragilis (Ophiocoma rosula, Forbes) is common everywhere, its 
colours being most varied. We only mention it here to point out an important 
modification of the spines nearest the cirrhi, they being converted into books 
of two or three points, which must greatly assist them in maintaining their 
hold of the rocks on which they live ; and more especially must these be use- 
ful in the young star-fish_, whose life is for some time spent on sponges, from 
which it is, indeed, often difficult to remove them without injury. Ophio- 
coma nigra often occurs mixed with the last species, but is never so 
numerous. Specimens of Holothuria nigra are sometimes dredged, and 
Ocnus brunneus is not uncommon in the Sound. We have also obtained IPen- 
tacta hyndmanni deeply wedged into the holes made by Sa.vicava in the rocks 
outside the Breakwater. Sipunculus bernhardus, Thalassema neptuni, and one 
example of Syrinx modus have also been found here. From Polperro we have 
received a specimen of Synapta, but was unable to determine its species as 
the preservative fluid had destroyed its anchors and plates. Some years since 
one was also obtained in the Sound, but was not, I believe, preserved. 

Before concluding this Report it may be interesting to briefly describe a 
curious, and probably unique abnormal growth found on the oral surface of 
an Echinus sphcera. On opening the shell the inner surface of this part 
appeared as if sand or some foreign substance had got under the perisoma, 
but on closer examination this was found to be owing to a growth from the 



56 report — 1865. 

shell, principally occurring at the lines of junction of its separate plates. 
It was in the form of short columns and fungoid masses, on the tops of which 
the perisoma rested : this outgrowth presented, on microscopical examination, 
a calcareous network, finer and more loose than the other portions of the 
shell. The Echinus was not altered in form externally, but it seems pro- 
bable that such a growth, by uniting the plates composing the shell and so 
preventing the increase at that part, should ultimately cause some distortion. 



Interim Report of the Committee on the Resistance of Water to Floating 
and Immersed Bodies. By W. J. Macquorn Rankine,C..E., LL.D., 
F.R.S., John Scott Russell, C.E., F.R.S., James R. Napier, 
Marine Engineer, and William Froude, C.E. 

1. The following Interim Report describes the experiments made by the 
Committee up to the day before the commencement of the present Meeting. 
Those experiments are still in active progress. 

2. The Committee held several meetings in the course of the past winter 
and spring, and agreed to a programme of experiments of which the follow- 
ing is a summary. 

3. Two models to be made of painted wood, designated respectively as A 
and B. 

The models to be ship-shape, and each of them to consist of two equal 
and similar halves joined together at the middle water-line. 

Elements of Models. 

A. B. 

Length 4-000 feet 4-000 feet 

Breadth 0-571 foot 0-571 foot 

Total depth 0-571 „ 0-364 „ 

Form of Midship Section. Circle. Ellipse. 

Area of Midship Section 0-256 sq. feet . . . . 0-163 

Form of Water-lines of fore-body Harmonic curves. 

Form of Water-lines of after-body .... Trochoids. 
Stem and stern-post vertical straight lines. 
Length of fore-body : Length of after-body ::3:2 ....3:2 

Mean girth 1-45 foot . . 1 foot. 

Model A to be in two parts joined at the circular midship section, so that 
Toy turning the after-body through a right angle about a longitudinal axis 
the water-lines can be converted into buttock-lines, and vice versd. 

4. Experiments to be made according to the method formerly put in prac- 
tice by Mr. Scott Russell, in which the uniformity of the propelling force is 
maintained by means of a regulating weight hanging from a pulley under 
which the hauling cord passes ; the model to be guided in a straight course 
by means of a stretched wire. 

5. Those experiments to be made principally at speeds not exceeding the 
natural speed of the wave corresponding to the length of the model, viz., about 
two knots per hour ; but a few experiments may be made at higher speeds. 

6. The experiments to be made on each model under two circumstances, 
viz. with the model immersed as nearly as may be to the middle water-line, 
and with the model totally immersed. 

7. The programme of experiments having been thus drawn up by the Com- 
mittee, the superintendence of its execution was undertaken by Mr. Scott Rus- 
sell, as being the only Member of the Committee resident in or near London. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 57 

8. Full-sized drawings of the models having been prepared in conformity 
with the programme, the models were made from those drawings. Both 
drawings are now exhibited, and also model B ; model A, being now in use, 
has not been sent to Birmingham. 

9. The actual performance of the experiments was entrusted by Mr. Russell 
to Mr. J. Quant, Naval Architect, who has performed that duty with great 
skill and assiduity. 

10. Twenty-eight experiments have already been made on model A, upon 
a run of about 98 feet in length on a lake in Blackheath Park, the use of 
which for that purpose has been liberally granted by Dr. Joseph Kidd. 
Further experiments on model A are in active progress ; and when they are 
finished those upon model B will be begun. 

11. The Committee deem it advisable to defer giving a detailed account of 
those experiments until the whole series shall have been completed, because 
the separate publication of the portion of that series which has hitherto been 
made would be but imperfectly useful, and also because, having only yesterday 
(11th Sept. 1865) received the account of those experiments, they have not 
had time to give them due consideration. 

12. The following general results, however, may be stated : — 

I. The resistance of model A when immersed so as to be just covered with 
water, and no more, is more than double of its resistance when half immersed 
at the same speed. 

II. When the after-body of model A is turned so as to convert the water- 
lines into buttock-lines, its resistance is increased, and that whether the 
model is half immersed or just covered. 



Report on Observations of Luminous Me teors, 1861-65. By a Committee, 
consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, fyc. ; 
Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., §•<;.; E. W. Brayley, F.R.S., Professor 
of Physical Geography and Meteorology in the London Institution, 
fyc. ; and Alexander S. Herschel, B.A. 

The Chairman, in presenting the Eeport, said, The class of phenomena 
known as Luminous Meteors includes the familiar appearances of shooting- 
stars and fireballs — in the words of M. Quetelet, (i a much despised phe- 
nomenon, long neglected by astronomers," but which now justly claims their 
attention, and, as shown by the papers contained in this Report, commands 
the consideration of those best able to speculate upon cosmical phenomena. 

The number of meteors observed during the past year has been unusually 
small, partly owing to the cloiidy state of the sky, partly owing to the absence 
this year of certain acknowledged star-showers, namely, those of January, 
April, and August. The November shower, although concealed in England 
by clouds, did not disappoint expectation. It attracted attention, and was 
observed with considerable interest at Malta, as described in the Report. If 
the sky is clear, the circumstances are altogether favourable for its reappear- 
ance in the present year and the next, in the morning of the 13th of No- 
vember. Its greatest display is expected to visit us in 1866 ; but even in the 
present year it is advisable to be prepared for its appearance by organizing a 
competent staff of observers, and furnishing them with the proper means for 
determining the radiant-point, and the heights and velocities of the meteors. 
The British Association in the past year having sanctioned a set of Maps to 
be printed for the use of the Committee, which are now completed and are 

1865. t 



58 repokt — 1865. 

presented with this Eeport, every means will he provided to Members of the 
Association willing to take part in the observations of this shower, to enable 
them to record their observations with facility, and to reduce as far as pos- 
sible the inevitable uncertainty of cloudy nights, which attaches to our in- 
sular climate in November. 

A shower of remarkable meteors observed on the 18th of October last 
(of which a map, showing the radiant-point, was exhibited), coincided with a 
date at which fireballs have made their appearance in more than average 
numbers. The radiant-point of this shower was perfectly denned in Orion, and 
illustrates well the manner in which these maps may be employed. A star- 
shower less conspicuous, on the 28th of July last, was observed with a radiant- 
point equally distinct, close to Fomalhaut, the most southerly star observed 
on our meridian. These and other accurate observations of star-showers are 
included in the Eeport. Continued observation will doubtless reveal other 
radiant-points, and at the same time will lead to determining more exactly 
the position and character of those already known. 

Of large meteors, the greater number described in the Catalogue took place 
in December last. Two detonating meteors were also observed. The first 
occurred in England on the 20th of November last, the second in Scotland on 
the 21st of February. Observations show that on the first of these nights 
shooting-stars were extremely scarce, so that at Weston-super-Mare and 
Hawkhurst only one or two meteors could be counted in an hour. This fact, 
of which the description is contained in the Catalogue, illustrates in a re- 
markable manner the adventitious character of large meteors. Nevertheless 
the 20th of November is one among the well-known dates preferred by fire- 
balls. A third detonating meteor, on the 30th of April, was doubly observed 
at Manchester and Weston-super-Mare, and its height was well determined. 
The nearest approach of this meteor to the earth was thirty-seven miles. 
Startling as are the accounts of detonations heard from such a height, it is 
yet more surprising that the report from such a distance should be brief and 
momentary. The sounds caused by meteors yet offer much which, it is 
hoped, will be explained and illustrated by further observations. 

Interesting papers appear in the Eeport, " On the Origin of Meteorites, 
the series of Physical Processes of which they are the result, and their 
functions in Nature," by Professor Brayley ; and " On the Physical History 
of Meteorites," by Mr. Sorby. It appears from a microscopic analysis of 
their structure by Mr. Sorby, that when aerolites resemble in their appear- 
ance igneous terrestrial rocks, the evidence of their previous history has been 
more or less obliterated, while characteristic peculiarities in their structure 
evince that they could not have originated in the volcanic action of the 
moon or any planet. Mr. Brayley infers that they originate in gaseous 
matter projected from the equator of the sun, and condensed to the solid 
form in its passage through interplanetary space. A gradual condensation 
from a vaporous state is said by Mr. Sorby also to represent more nearly 
than any other the conditions under which they must have been consolidated. 
In this view of the origin of meteorites (including in the term Meteoric 
Irons), their source is considered to be unique, and they are traced to the 
energetic forces whose modes of action are considered in Solar Physics. The 
bodies thus arising are termed by Mr. Brayley Meteoritic Masses, to di- 
stinguish them emphatically from all other members of the solar system, as 
well as from fallen meteorites. 

In another paper contained in this Eeport, which is an abstract of a 
' Memoir on Sporadic Shooting- stars,' Mr. Newton, basing his conclusions 
upon a certain knowledge of their height, arrives at some interesting results 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 59 

regarding the number and distribution of tbese bodies in space. The average 
height of the centres of their visible tracks is sixty miles above the earth. 
Their number in the atmosphere daily is seven and a half millions, and, if 
not intercepted in their flight, there would be found in the space occupied by 
the earth at any instant in its orbit, 13,000 of such bodies pursuing different 
orbits. Of shooting-stars visible in telescopes, Mr. Newton calculates that 
the number is at least fifty times as great as the number of those visible to 
the naked eye. Indeed there appears to be no limit to their minuteness or 
to their numbers. Tbeir velocity is greater than the velocity of the earth in 
its orbit, ard Mr. Newton supposes that they are grouped together according 
to some law, probacy that of rings encompassing the sun, resembling in their 
inclinations and dimensions the orbits of the comets. Mr. Newton, in con- 
clusion, supposes that these bodies, which he terms Meteoroids, are not frag- 
ments of a former world, but rather materials from which new worlds are 
forming ; the latter view is taken by Mr. Brayley. 

Meteoroids and meteoritic masses constitute the two classes of bodies 
which have to be considered in Meteoric Astronomy. It is, however, 
reasonable to suppose that the same forces which in the phase of greatest 
concentration of the solar system give rise to " meteoritic masses," might in 
a phase of vastly greater antiquity, and of greater extension of the solar orb, 
have given rise in a similar manner to the rings of " meteoroids." Continued 
observations directed to the phenomena of shooting-stars will end by remov- 
ing doubt from this province of astronomy, and throw new light on certain 
difficult questions in cosmical philosophy — such, for example, as the existence 
of organic matter (a kind of peat or humus) in the meteorites of Orgueil. 

At the request of the Committee, the following Report for the past year has 
been drawn up by Alexander S. Herschel : — 

The Committee have the satisfaction to present in this Report several 
descriptions of large meteors ; of which the details are given in the Cata- 
logue, and have led in some instances to determining their real heights and 
velocities. In investigating the path of the detonating meteor of the 30th 
of April last (Monthly Notices, R.A.S., 1805, June 9), although resting on 
two observations only, a high degree of accuracy was attainable. The Com- 
mittee take this opportunity of congratulating Members and other, observers 
on the increasing precision of their observations, by which this satisfactory 
result could be obtained (Appendix I. 6). 

A few observations of old date, not previously recorded, are entered in the 
Catalogue, together with extracts from authentic foreign sources. Obser- 
vations of several star-showers are included, of which the results are col- 
lected in Appendix II. Recent additions of meteorites to museums, and 
remarkable meteors, are desciibed in the third and fourth appendices of the 
Catalogue. A number of contributions to literature in meteoric astronomy 
are either noticed or given in full in Appendix V. 

Sky-maps prepared especially for observations of shooting-stars, and par- 
ticularly of their radiant-points, have been placed for constant use in the 
hands of observers. Dr. Heis, of Miiuster, warmly seconding the appeal of 
the Committee, has lithographed copies of these charts, by which the meteors 
observed in the same latitude* at Miinster are conveniently compared with 
those observed at Greenwich. To his courteous zeal and devoted labours, the 
Committee are indebted for the heights of shooting-stars observed at Miinster 
in July and August 1864 and 1865, contained in Appendix YI. 

* The latitude of Greenwich Observatory is 51° 28' 38" : that of Miinster Observatory 
is 51° 58' 10". The difference is therefore 29' 32", or not quite half a degree — about the 
average error unavoidably committed in copying, and producing a requisite quantity of 
lithographic impressions of the maps. 

F2 



GO 



RETORT 1865. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



1784. h m 
Feb. 23 1159 (sid. Slougb (Bucks).. Diameter 15" or 



Apparent Size. 



1840. 
July 28 



1841. 
A112;. 9 



Dec. 10 



time.) 



1842. 
Oct. 5 

1858. 
May 31 



Aug. 9 
to 10 

1860 
Oct. 13 



Night 



8 20 p.m. 
(local time.) 



9 12 p.m. 
11 12 p.m. 



11 p.m. 
1 a.m. 



10'. 



H.M.S. 'Erebus.' 
S. lat. 47°, E. 
lone. 97°. 



H.M.S. 'Erebus.' Brilliant meteor . 
E. Ion?. 164 c 



18', S. lat. 33° 
40'. 
Havvkhurst 
(Kent). 



ibid 

ibid 

H. M. S. ' Fury.' 
Off Jedo (Ja 
pan). 

Baffin's Bay 



18G1. 
Aug:. 6 



:2nd mag.# 



= Jupiter. 



Colour. 



^ diameter of full 



Magnificent meteor 



Large 



About 
p.m. 



10 



Kidderminster 
(Warwick- 
shire). 



Large 



Blue and 
orange. 



Duration. 



second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Near X, Hydra?. 



About 4 sees. . 



From 1) Pegasl 
across (3 Aquarii] 

At the same altij 
tude as fi, ami 
the same azirautl 
as a Lvr<T. 

IntheN'.N.E J 



From near Cassiol 
peia, across Ursiil 
Minor,andlosinf I 
itself in the fold I 
of Draco. 



At an altitude ol 
about 50°. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSE11VATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



61 



OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



■V telescopic meteor with 
a lunula. 



jeft a long broad spark- 
ling train for 5 seconds 

^eft a patch of light of its 
own size at the place for 
2 seconds. 

lurst. Left a train which 
lasted a minute. 



'ollowed hy a tail of light 
20° in length. 



Length of 
Path. 



luminated the whole 
district with its lip-lit. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Fell in a curve with one 
or two bends. 



Stationary 



" Meteors in great num- 
bers were seen darting 
about in all direc- 
tions." 

In one hour fifteen fall 
ing stars. 



Flexure not great, but 
certainly not straight. 



W. Herschel 
(Journal of 
Observations). 

J. C. Ross, 
' Voyage to 
the Southern 
Seas.' 

Id. 



J.F.W.IIerschcl, 
MS. 



Fell in the N.N.E. 



hi. 



1.1. 



Hundreds of meteorsisherard Osborne 



overhead shooting 
from N.E. to W, 

Crossing the beams of 
an aurora. 




S. to N. ; horizontal 



(Japanese 
Waters). 

C. F. Hall. 



Fine starlight night, no H. W. Johnston. 
wind. 



62 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1862. 
Mar.21 



June23 

1863. 
Oct. 30 

31 

Nov. 1 

2 

1864. 
Aug. 3 

8 

10 
16 



h m 



Place'of 
Observation. 



Brisbane 
Observatory 
(Australia). 

Ibid 



8 to 9 p.m 

8 to 9 p.m. 

1 30 to 

2 a.m. 
lltol2p.m. 

7 50 p.m. 

10 7 p.m. 

9 5 p.m. 

About 40 
a.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid . 
Ibid. 



Cherbourg 
(France). 



29 9 24 p.m 

Sept. 2 8 16 30 
p.m. 
5 10 21 p.m 



6 8 55 p.m 



11 
12 
14 

19 

20 



London 



Apparent Size. 



Brilliant meteor 



Small 
Small 



Colour. 



Very large, produ 
cing a strong 
light. 



2nd mag.* 



Eastbourue 
(Sussex). 

Altanca (St. 
Gotthard). 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Greenwich 



Ibid. 



West Linton 
(Scotland). 



9 5 p.m 

8 26 p.m 

41 a.m. 

11 51 p.m. 

11 40 p.m. 

8 21 p.m 



Ibid . 



Hawkhurst =3rd mag.* 

(Kent). 
Wolverhampton =2nd mag.* 



Much brighter than 

Jupiter. 
Large fireball 



= lst mag.*. 
= lst mag.*. 



Yellow 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



In the W. 



Ruddy white.. 



Greater than 1st 
mag.* 

Large 



Orange 

Bluish white. 
Bluish white. 



Large 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 



= Sirius 

=3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 



Bluish 



White 

Blue 

Bright white.. 



YeUow 



Orange. 



Very slow mo- 
tion. 



second 



About 3 sees... 
2 or 3 seconds 



A few degrees 
above the S.E. 
horizon. 

From I- (r), I) 
Herculis to 
Coronse. 

Passed through tl 
Lynx. 



3 seconds. 
1 second . 






From 13 Persei to a 

Piscium. 
From direction of e 

CygnitoePegasi. 
Disappeared near X 
Bootis;poiutof ap- 
pearance not seen.l 
Between E. and 

S.E. 



In the N. 



- 6 second 
1-J second 
| second .., 



0-8 second 



0'8 second 
rapid. 



Centre of the path 

at « Cephei. 
From a. Persei to 6 

Ursse Majoris. 
Began at 25 Lyncisj 



Midway between 
p Cygni and /j 
Laeerta:. 

From g Herculis to 
\ (« Ophiuchi, 
S Tauri Ponia-H 
towski). 

-\\ 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



63 



\ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Conical figure. Increased 
in size until it hurst 
with a shower of sparks 
like a rocket. 

Left a train the same 
length as the path. 



Left a white streak for 
several minutes : broad 
and long, and chan- 
ging its form and 
colour to yellow and 
red. 

Reddish train, 15°in length 



Remarks. 



W.SW. to E.N.E. 



Shooting-stars frequent 
through the night. 

Frequent shooting-stars 
on the 22nd and 27th. 

In one hour, one meteor 

only ; clear sky. 
In one hour six meteors j 

clear sky. 
In thirty minutes no 

meteor seen; clear sky. 
In one hour no meteor 

seen ; clear sky. 

The meteor (? the train) 
remained visible one 
minute. 



Obsen 



Pugh's Directory 
(1864). 

Id. 



5° or a little^ • 
more. 



Train 



Burst like a shell, illu 
minating the heavens 
with a brilliant 

light. 

^eft a long train of light 
which remained visible 
after the meteor itself 
had disappeared. 



do train or sparks 



5° + . 



E. to W. 



Perpendicular , 

Nearly perpendicular ... 



Directed from i] Cephei. 



10° 



2°. 



Downwards towards the 
right 20° from per- 
pendicular. 

Almost stationary 



In twilight 



Sky cloudless ; the light 
of the rr.eteor re 
sembled noonday 
dazzling. 



Slow motion 



Slow motion 



On the same night a 
number of other me- 
teors were seen, 
mostly large. 



Moonlight 



No other shooting-star 
in 50 minutes. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

' The Times.' 

T. Crura plen. 

G. F. Chambers. 

Modena News- 
paper. 

W. II. Wood. 
W. C. Nash. 
Id. 

Walter Bell. 
Id. 



\. S. Herschel. 



T. M. Simkiss. 
W. H. Wood. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 



61 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



1864. h m 
Sept.20 10 35 p.m. Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



20 



10 58 p.m. 



Ibid. 



22,11 52 

2211 59 



23 



p.m. Ibid 
p.m. Ibid 



8 36 p.m. Ibid 



23: 8 48 p.m 



23 
23 



8 49 
8 50 



Ibid 



p.m. Ibid 
p.m 



23 8 54 p.m 



23 1 8 55 
8 59 



23 

23 

2! 



24 
24 

24 
24 
24 



p.m, 
p.m 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 

Ibid 
Ibid , 



9 54 p.m. Ibid 
20 i 



8 26 
8 37 



p.m, 



p.m, 



Mont de Marsan 
(S. France). 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 

[bid 



p.m. Ibid 



8 53 

9 29 
9 32 p.m. Ibid 



p.m. 



Ibid 



24! 9 38 p.m 



Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



= Capella, then = 
2nd or 3rd mac;.* 



= 2nd rnag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
=;3rd mag.* 

= a Lyra: . 

= 3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 



Fireball; large, like 
a bombshell. 



= lst mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



= a. Lyra:, then = 
2nd or 3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



red. 



White 
White 

White 



White . 

White . 
White . 

White . 

White . 
White . 

Yellow 



White . 
White . 

Yellow 
White . 
Yellow 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



White, then 3 seconds ; 



very slow. 



Orange 0-8 second ; 

rapid. 



White, then 
red. 



06 second 
- 7 second 

1-2 second 



1-2 second 



From o Persei to ^ 
(a, 7]) Aurigae. 



To §(« Andromedae, 

y Pegasi), § of 

the way from 

a Triangulee. 

From t to \ Piscium 

Began at /3 Arietis 

Centre of path at 



1 second .., 
1 second ... 

1 second 

1 second .., 
ri second 



- 5 second ; 
rapid. 

Moved rapidly 



Cyj 



disap- 



peared between 
v and J Cygni. 

From Q Camelo- 
pardi to as Ursae 
Majoris. 

From y Lacertse to 
e Cephei. 

From y Ursae Mi- 
noris to | (g, jj) 
Draconis. 

Disappeared mid- 
way between ? 
and e Pegasi. 

Midway between e 
and g Pegasi. 

From r Vulpeculae 
to 4° beyond /3 
Cygni. 

From a. Androme- 
dae to % {y, a) 
Pegasi. 



0-6 second , 
1'2 second 

0'5 second 
4 second , 
- 6 second , 

3 - 4 seconds 



From2 W.of!?Ca- 
melopardi, half- 
way to c Lyncis. 

From -£ (S Coronae, 
■k Serpentis) to 
4° beyond k Ser- 
pentis. 

Began at k Ophi- 
uchi. 

From i («, b) to c 
Draconis. 

Disappeared at i 
(K Cerberi, p 
Cygni). 

From | (£, b) Ursae 
Minoris to K Ca- 
melopardi. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



65 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Diminished in midway 15 
to a dull red star, 
drawing a tail of red 
sparks. 

No train or sparks .... 



No train or sparks 



Xo train or sparks 

S T o train or sparks 

So train or sparks 
So train or sparks 



ntermittent light 
io train or sparks 
ball of fire , 



To train or sparks 
o train or sparks 



20° 



15° 



aniing nucleus, drawing 
a tail of red sparks. 



6°. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



12 C 



Radiant, Ceti 



Directed from a Trian. 
guise. 



A. S. Herschel. 



J Id. 



'Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



Direction from A (j, «.-) 
Pegasi. 



Stationary 



Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

.'id. 
Id. 



Radiant, (3 Aurigae Id. 



N. to S. 



A. report equal to ' La Gironde ' 
twenty pieces of Newspaper, 
cannon fired off to- 
gether, followed the 
meteor, lasting 10J 
seconds. During 

sunshine. (See Ap- 
pendix III.) 

A. S. Herschel. 



DirectedfromeHerculis, 
Radiant, /3 Auriga;. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



Directed from v Cygni.J 'id. 



A singular shooting-star 



Id. 



66 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1864. 
Sept.24 

24 

24 

24 



h m 

9 42 p.m. 

9 47 p.m. 

11 3 p.m. 

11 13 p.m. 



24 11 15 p.m, 



24 11 32 p.m. 



24 
24 
25 
25 



25 
25 
26 
26 

26 
26 
26 

27 



11 44 p.m. 

11 47 p.m. 

8 43 p.m. 

8 45 p.m, 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Wolverhampton 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



9 44 p.m. 

11 45 p.m. 

30 a.m, 

8 2 p.m 

8 4 p.m 

9 50 p.m. 
11 30 p.m 



7 48 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 1st mag.* 
:2nd mag.* 

:3rd mag.* 
=2nd mag.# 
=2nd mag.* 
:3rd mag.* 



Wolverhampton =2nd mag.* 

Ibid =2nd mag.* 

Ibid =2nd mag.* 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



Ibid 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Wolverhampton 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



= 3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

Large fireball 



2 X Mars 



=3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



Yellow 

White 

Yellow 

White 

White 
White 

White 
White 
Yellow 
Yellow 



Orange. 
Blue . 
Blue . 
White . 

White . 
White . 



Golden yellow 



White 



Duration. 



07 second 
0*7 second 
- 3 second 

0'8 second 

1-5 second 
1 second ... 



1*2 second 
0'7 second 
08 second 
1 second .. 



l-J second 
2 seconds.., 
1.2 second 
0-6 second 



1 second 



2 seconds. 



Disappeared at M 

(y, S) Bootis. 
From a. to ft Cepheil 

From O Camelo- 
pardi to y Ursae 
Minoris. 

To i d, 0) Cassio-1 
peiae, halfwayJ 
from ft. Andro-j 
medae. 

From k Draconis toi 
£ Herculis. 

From i (d, it) Au-j 

rigae to i (rfl 

Camelopardi, SI 

Persei). 
From o to jj 

Cygni. 
From a Piscium toH 

Ceti. 
From £ (y, £) to pi 

Draconis. 
From i (a, 3) to y| 

Ursae Majoris. 



0*9 second ... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From a Lyrae to a 
Draconis. 

From a. Aquarii toi 
a. Herculis. 

From a. Ceti to at 
Aquarii. 

From A Custodis 
to II Camelo- 
pardi. 

From n Tarandi 
to 2 (K, BAC 
2326) Camelo-) 
pardi. 

Fell to the W.N.W.f 
horizon from anl 
altitude of about 
30°. 

Began near Polaris 



Began at \ Cygni.. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



67 



Appearance; Train, if any,! Length of 
and its Duration. Path. 



15° 



Left a bright streak for 
2 seconds. 



Left a train 
Left a train . 



10 

15" 
15° 



At first a ruddy 3rd 
magnitude star. At 
the moment of dis 
appearance it flashed 
with a light nearly 
equal to Jupiter, leav- 
ing a luminous spot 
at the place for four 
seconds. 



jeft a short train 



eft a short train separated 
from the head, thus — 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Directed from v Bootis. 



Remarks. 



In two hours nineteen 

meteors. 
Radiant, /3 Aurigae ... 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 



In one hour eleven me- Id. 
teors. 



Radiant, (i Aurigae , 

Radiant, /3 Aurigae , 
Radiant, (5 Aurigae . 



In one hour eight shoot 
ing-stars. 



* 



Downwards towards the 
left, 15° or 20° from 
perpend cular. 

E. to W., nearly hori- 
zontal. 



Directed from £ («, S) 
Cygni. 



Communicated 
by T. M. Sim 
kiss. 

A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



T. M. Simkiss. 



Meteors very frequent Id. 
through the night. 



In one hour eleven me- 
teors. 



Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 



Communicated 
byW.H.Wood. 



Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 



A. S. Herschel. 



68 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1864. 
Sept.27 

27 



27 

27 
27 

27 

27 

27 

27 
27 

27 

27 
27 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m 

7 52 p.m. 

8 7 p.m, 



Apparent Size. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent), 
[bid 



=3rd mag.* 



White 



= a Lyrae, then = 
2nd or 3rd mag.* 



8 1G p.m. Ibid =2ndmag.* 



8 34 p.m. [bid . 

8 44 p.m. [bid . 

8 44 p.m. Ibid. 

8 52 p.m jlbid . 

9 1 p.m. ibid , 



9 14 p.m. Ibid . 
Ibid, 



9 37 p.m. 
9 50 p.m. 



Ibid, 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mas.* 



= a Lyra; .. 
= 3rd mag.* 



9 53 p.m. Ibid. 
9 55 p.m. Ibid , 



= Sirius 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



27 10 27 p.m. Ibid = 3rd mag.* 



27,11 11 p.m. 



27 11 14 p.m, 



29 2 5 a.m, 



30! 9 15 p.m 



Oct. 5 



10 46 p.m 



Ibid , 



Ibid, 



=3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



Wolverhampton :> Mars 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



= lst mag.* 



:2nd mag * 



Colour. 



White, then 
red. 



Yellow 



White . 
Yellow 
White . 



Duration. 



0-7 second 
4 seconds.., 



Fine yellow , 
Yellow ..., 



Red, then 

white. 
Yellow ... 



Yellow 

While . 
White . 

Yellow 

White . 
Yellow 



1-6 second 

1*5 second 
08 second 
- 5 second 

3'8 seconds 
0'6 second 

08 second 
1-3 second 

0-5 second 

0-6 second 
1"4 second 

06 second 

11 second 



Golden yellow 

Yellow, then 
green. 



2i seconds 



White 



11 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From y Draconis! 

to i Hercufis. 
From S Aquilae to 

% (/J, •) Ophi- 

uchi. 

From t Persei to 

i (d, B) Camelo- 

pardi. 
From g Lacertae to 

fi Cephei. 
'From y Cygni to 

Sagittae. 
From e Custodis to 

^ (i, e) Cassio- 

peiae. 
From 7r Cassiopeia; 

to -k Cephei. 
From i (p, S) 

Draconis to \ 

(y Draconis, c 

Cygni). 
Began at a. Aquarii 

From \ (X Andro. 

medae, g Lacertae 

to e Pegasi). 
From£ (?,/x) Cygni 

halfway to a Del- 

phini. 
Began at £ Cephei., 

From /3 Cephei to 
§ (i// Draconis, y 
Ursae Minoris). 

From i (S, L) Ca- 
melopardi to \ 
(Polaris, P Ca- 
melopardi). 

To d Telescopii, f 
of the way from 
Aurigae. 

From i (<p, x) Per 
sei to § (0, k) 
Andromeda;. 

In the E., altitude 
35°. 



About 20 3 above 
the E.N.E. ho-U 
rizon. 



From ^ (h Ursae 
Majoris, X Dra. 
conis) to S Ursae 
Majoris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 69 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Diminished in midway 30° 
to a dull red star, 
drawing a tail of red] 
sparks. 



Began suddenly, gradually 
grew less. 



Drop-like nucleus, with a 
tail of yellow sparks. 



15° 



12° 



-.eft a train , 



30° 
15° 



35° 
10° 



I .. 
20° 

15° 

15° 



o train left 



sft a train for 1 second 
on the whole length of 
its path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Radiant, Ceti 
Radiant, 9 Ceti 



Radiant, f3 Aurigae 



Path undulating. Ra- 
diant, 6 Ceti. 
Radiant, j3 Aurigae 



Towards c Aquarii 
Radiant, (3 Aurigae , 

Radiant, /3 Aurigae , 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

1.1. 

Id. 
Id. 



In one hour twelve me- Id. 
teors. 



In one hour twelve me- 
teors. 



Directed from a Cephei 
Radiant, 6 Ceti 



Radiant, /3 Aurigae 



Radiant, 6 Ceti 

Radiant, /3 Aurigae .. 
Horizontal. S. to N. 



Id. 

1.1. 

id. 

Id. 

Id. 



In one hour ten meteors Id. 
Id. 



\ 



In one hour eleven me- 
teors. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

Id. 



A. S. Herschel. 



70 



REPORT 18G5. 



1864. h m 
Oct. 5 10 49 p.m. 



5 10 56 p.m. 
511 40 p.m 



Date. 



Hour. 



8 9 p.m 

8 15 p.m 

11 10 p.m 

20 a.m 

50 a.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid . 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Kensington =2nd mag.* 

(London). 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 



Wolverhampton 



Ibid 



Ibid 



10 2 32 a.m. Ibid 



10 2 40 a.m. Ibid 



2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



2 x Mars 



= Mars 



= Sirius 



= lst mag.*. 
SxSirius.... 



11 
13 
13 

13 
18 



3 a.m. 

45 a.m. 

56 a.m. 

2 30 a.m. 

9 52 p.m 



18 10 13 p.m 



Ibid 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Wolverhampton 



= lst mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 



2 X Mars 



.Hawkhurst =3rd mag.* 

(Kent). 
Ibid I=3rdmag.* 



White 
Dull... 



Colour. 



White 

White 

Blue and red. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1 - 5 second ...From /3 Auriga; to 

e Lyncis and 6° 

further. 
09 second ... From a Andro- 

medae to \ (j3, /*) 

Pegasi. 
Not more thanJFroinR.A. 10 h 50 m , 



3 seconds. 



1 second 



1 second 



3 seconds. 



2 seconds About 30° above 

W.S.W. horizon. 



Blue 

Green 
White 



2 seconds. 



N. Decl. 67F- to 

R.A.ll h 20 m , N 

Decl. 60°. 
To \ Andromedas, 

iof the way from 

c Lacertae. 
From 7j Piscium, 

halfway to j3 

Arietis. 
From rj to £ Tauri. 



1^ second 

Fully 3£ s<>cs. ; 
very slow- 
motion. 



White I second ; very 

rapid. 
White 0-5 second 



About 20° above the 
E.S.E. horizon 



From y Cassiopeiae 

to a Cygni. 
About 35° above 

the E. horizon 



White 



Golden vellow 



- 6 second 



White 



White, then 
red. 



1'2 second 
1*3 second 



From i («, j3) Genii 

norum to Rigel. 
From c to ^ (k, a) 

Persei. 
Began at £ (L 

Camelopardi, 

Lyncis). 
About 30° above 

the S.E. horizon 



Began at/ Lacertae 

Began at £ (e Ursae 
Minoris, x D ra " 
conis). 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



71 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



.eft a train for 1 second 
in the first half of its 
course. 

eft a faint train visible 
half a second. 



Length of 
Path. 



eft a long bright train , 



eft a long bright train . 



eft a long bright train . 



eft a short train 



small fireball, throwing 
off sparks, and leaving 
a long train. 



. d in the last half of its 
course. 



G J . 



15 ; 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



/ 

7 



Remarks. 



Meteors very frequent 
through the night. 



N. to S. Horizontal 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

G. F. Chambers. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 



Communicated 
by T. M. Sim- 
kiss. 

Id. 



3» 



yy 



Directed from \ (c, d) 
Camelopardi. 



Directed towards /3 Pe- 

gasi. 
Directed from rj Cephei 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 



Communicated 
by T. M. Sim. 
kiss. 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 



72 



REPORT — 1865. 



Date. 



1864. 
Oct. 18 



18 



18 

18 
18 

18 

18 

18 

18 

18 
18 



Hour. 



h m 

10 20 p.m 



10 22 p.m. 

10 20 p.m. 

10 43 p.m. 
10 52 p.m. 

10 58 p.m. 

11 2 p.m. 

11 12 p.m. 
11 14 p.m. 

11 27 p.m. 
11 50 p.m. 



18 11 52 p.m 



18 



19 

19 

19 

19 



o£t APP*^ Size 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



11 58 p.m. 



2 a.m. 
7 a.m. 
14 a.m. 

A.bout 8 
p.m. 



Ibid , 

Ibid . 

Ibid. 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid 
Ibid 

Ibid, 

Ibid , 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Mai ton. 



= a Lyrae 



= a Lvrae 



= 1st mag.* 



= 3rd mag.*. 



•1st mag. 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 
= a Lyra; .. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mas* 



= 2nd mas;.* 



= Mars 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Large as a rocket. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Blue, with 2 - 7 seconds 
short red 

tail. 



Blue, with 
short red 
tail. 



White 



Bright white .. 



White 



Oranse 



2 - 5 seconds , 



L3 second 



06 second 



1 second 



L4 second 



1 second 



0'5 second 
I-G second 

1-2 second 
0'8 second 

0-8 second 



Blue, with 1-5 second 
short red 
tail. 



Bluish white... 



0-6 second 
0-6 second 
0-4 second 

Slow speed 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From \ (L, II) 
Camelopardi t4 
i (?, w ) Dran 
conis. 

From * (P, N) Ca-'j 
melopardi across 
/3 Ursae Minorisj 
to | (v, I) Dra- 
conis. 

From near <r Pi-! 
scium to i (« 
Androruedae, jS 
Pegasi). 

Began at £ (a 
Arietis, (3 Tri- 
angula;). 

Midway between e 
and 9 Gemiuo- 



From k Cephei to 

i (?, w ) Dra- 

conis. 
From y Cassiopeia:! 

three quarters of 

the way to 

Cygni. 
Began at £ (£ Per- 

sei, r) Tauri). 
From t Cassiopeia? 

to r Cygni. 



Centre of path at 
L Camelopardi. 

From i (P Camelo- 
pardi, Polaris) tc 
\ (e, K) Ursa 
Minoris. 

From 1° N. of I 
Persei to i (B,C; 
Camelopardi, anc 
4° further. 

From § (£ Persei J 
b Muscse) to \ 
(v, t) Andro-; 
medae. 



From 2^° S. of i 

Muscae to a Arietis 

From fi to I Ceti ; 

and 30° further.. 
Began 2° S. ofCasj 

siopeiae. 

Disappeared neai 
the S.S.W. ho- 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 73 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



.eft a train on the whole 
length of its path for 2, \ 
seconds. 

eft a red train on the 
whole length of its path 
for 2^ seconds. 



Length of 
Path. 



eft a train for 1^ second 
on the whole length of 
it"» path. 



40° 



30° 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



stationary meteor. 
Left a patch of light 
like a star, which re- 
mained visible 5 sees. 



25 : 



Radiant, v Ononis 



Radiant, v Ononis 



Radiant, v Oriouis 



rhe course appeared 
bent at (3 Ursa Mi- 
noris. 



Directed from the Plei- 
ades. Radiant, v On- 
onis. 



25° 



'G . 



Ift a bright yellow 38' 
train on the whole 
length of its course for 
H seconds. 
ft a train for 1 second... 



"t a train on the whole 
ength of its course 
risible 2 seconds. 



12° 
14° 



Radiant, v Ononis 



Directed from n Tauri. 

Radiant, v Ononis. 
Radiant, v Orionis 



Directed from /3 Auriga:. 

Radiant, v Orionis. 
Radiant, v Orionis ... 



"t a train for 2 seconds 13° 



ft a wide yellow train 32° 
In the whole length 
f its course visible 
Jur seconds ; widest 
i the middle of the 
ourse. 



| a white train on the 

hole length of its path 

sible 2 seconds. 
i d intensely bright. 

eft a long streak for 

>me seconds. 

B5IT r ~ 



Radiant, v Orionis 



Radiant, v Orionis 



8° Radiant, v Orionis , 

12° IRadiant, v Orionis . 



Directed from & (<p, n) 
Persei. Radiant, v 
Orionis. 

N.N.E. to S.S.W 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

I 
lid. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



Adark nigbt, illuminated ' The Times, 
all objects sufficiently 
to recognize them. 



a 



74 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



Oct. 1 9 



Hour. 



1864. h rc 



Place of 
Observation. 



11 28 p.m. 



19 11 43 p.m. 



20 
20 

20 
20 
20 

20 
20 



8 8 p.m 
8 10 p.m 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid. 
Ibid, 

Ibid 



8 30 p.m. Ibid. 

9 1G p.m. Ibid, 
9 34 p.m. Ibid , 



9 37 p.m 
9 39 p.m, 



22 10 48 p.m. 



Ibid, 
Ibid 



Greenwich 



24 7 12 p.m. Ibid 



24 
24 

24 
24 



9 16 p.m. 
9 26 p.m, 

9 49 p.m 
10 32 p.m 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



24 10 49 p.m 



25 



11 19 p.m. 



iDid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid 

IbW 
Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



= 1st mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
;2nd mag.* 
:3rd mag.* 

:2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Yellowish 
white. 



Bright white... 

White 

White 



Duration. 



White 

Bright white.. 
Yellow 



= lst mag.* ; bril- 
liant. 

:2nd mag.*; 
bright. 



White . 
Yellow 

Blue . 



Blue 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag* 
=3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



1-3 second 

1/2 second 
1-2 second 
1 second .. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



- 6 second 
0*4 second 
0*9 second 



1 second .. 
0-9 second 



Rapid motion. 



From 3° S. of J 
Tauri, i of thl 
way to J (j3, J 
Arietis. 

Began at (3 Arieti, 

Disappeared at iH 

Piscium. 
From y to i («, /5l 

Equulei. 

At L Camel opardifl 

At i (», 3) DrJ 

conis. 

From i (A CuJ 
todis, H Camelcl 
pardi) to 3° be 
yond C Camelcl 
pardi. 

To B, halfwav froil 
F Cerberi. 

From $ (A Custc 
dis, H Camek 
pardi) to c Ci| 
melopardi. 

Across Aldebaran.i 



Directed towarc 
horizon ; pat 
parallel to a Hi 
joining a Andre 
medse and a V> 
gasi, at a distan< 
of 20° from I 
Pegasi. 



White 

Bright white 

White 

White 

White 

White 



1-2 second .. 

1-8 second .. 

0-7 second .. 

0'8 second .. 

1-2 second .. 

1*4 second .. 



Began at ^ i| 
Delphini, e P 
gasi). 

From Piscius 
to 5° beyoij 
h (H 2 Peg*,! 
■k Aquarii). 

Disappeared at 1 

Eridani. 
From e Pegf' 

to 4° beyond 

Equulei. 
From /3 Eridani | 

/3 Orionis. 
From \ (e Muscl 

p Persei) to | 

(y Pegasi, a A, 

dromedee). 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 75 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a streak the whole 
way for 2 seconds. 



Length of 
Path. 



■eft a patch of light for 
2 seconds. 
I stationary meteor ... 



5°. 
5°. 



12- 



12 : 



eft a streak for 2 seconds 



eft a streak for 2 seconds 

eft a streak on all its 
course for 2* seconds. 



5°. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



From Radiant, v Orionis 



Directed towards k An- 

dromedae. 
Directed from /3 Arietis 



Nearly stationary 
Stationary 



Observer. 



No other shooting-star 
in 45 minutes. 



Another followed the 
same path on the 
23rd. 



N. to S., horizontal 



« Androniedse. 

* * p> 

Pegasus. 

* y * a. 



Cloudy sky. The posi- 
tion could not be de- 
finitely determined. 



X 



Directed from i (aCygni 
to a Lyrae). 



Directed from Aldebaran 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

W. C. Nash. 
Id. 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



76 



REPORT — 1865. 



Date. 



1864. 
Oct. 30 



31 
Nov. 1 
1 

1 
1 

4 
4 



Hour. 



li in 

7 7 p.m. 

11 p.m. 

2 5 a.m. 

2 14 a.m. 

2 17 a.m. 

2 32 a.m. 
15 a.m. 
17 a.m. 

40 a.m. 

47 a.m. 

58 a.m. 

1 a.m. 

3 a.m. 

3 G a.m. 

8 10 p.m. 



Place nf 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



8 28 p 

9 16 p. 



m 



,m, 



4 9 40 p.m. 



7 2 46 
7 2 49 



l.m. 
l.m. 



7 2 53 a.m. 



3 13 a.m. 



Tunbridge(Kcr.t) 



Hawkliurst 

(Kent) 
Ibid 



= Mars 



= 3 rd maj.* 



Same colour as 
Mars. 



White 



= 3rd mag.* White 



Ibid 



= 3rd mac.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



Ibid 

Ibid j = 3rd mag.* 

Ibid = 3rd mag.* 



Ibid. 

Ibid , 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid 
Ibid 

Ibid 
Ibid 

Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid , 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



=3rd raag » 



= 3rd mag.* 



=3rd max.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



:3rd mag.* 



:4th mag.* and 
==5th mag.* 



= 3rd raag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 



:1st mag.* 



White . 

White . 
White . 
White . 

Yellow 

Yellow . 
White . 



White 08 second 



White . 
Yellow 

White . 
Yellow . 

White . 
White . 

White . 

White . 
White . 

White . 



1-2 second 
- 8 second 
07 second 

0-8 second 
- 4 second 
0-8 second 
09 second 

06 second 
0'9 second 



Yellow, then 
red. 



0-6 second 
1-2 second 

0-5 second 
0-5 second 

- 6 second 
1-3 second 



1 second 



0-7 second 
0'8 second 

1-3 second 



1 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Began a few de- 
grees E. of the 
zenith. 

Began at in Mono- 
cerotis. 

From a» 2 to a Taun 

To i|/ Caucri, half- 
way from n 
Lyncis. 

To B, halfway frorr 
t Tauri. 

From »; to v Gemi- 
norum. 

From T to r Cepbe 

From e Leonis 

Minoris to § (54 

Leonis Minoris 

? Leonis). 
From o to v Pis 

cium, and half I 

far again. 
From fi Ursa; Mi) 

noris to N Dra 

conis. 
From f to j 

Leonis Minorisi 

and half as fa 

again. 
From o Lynci 

to £ Ursa; Ma 

joris. 
From D Urss 

Majoris to 

(« Ursae Ma 

joris, \ Dra 1 

conis). 
From § to r Urs:, 

Minoris. 
From S Vulpeculf! 

to p Aquila;. 

From g to i Vuf 

peculae. 
From i (ij, p) ?'i 

scium to •£■ (5i 

Piscium, y P(' 

gasi). 
From 26 to p. Dk 

conis. 
From ? to « 2 Tau:, 
From g Lyncis to : 

Geminorum. 
From % («, j3) Gc 

minorum to 

Cancri. 
3° below a Hvdr 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 77 



Appearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Left a train on the whole 
length of its path. 



5° 
8°... 



^eft a streak for 3 seconds 



wo meteors simulta- 
neous, about one degree 
apart. 

o train or sparks 



isappeared suddenly 



o train or sparks 
o traiu or sparks 



3 train or sparks 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Downwards towards 
S.S.E. horizon. 

Directed from Orion ... 



Remarks. 



From Radiant, £ Persei.. 



From Radiant, % Persei.. 
From Radiant, $ Persei. 
From Radiant, h Lvncis 

From Radiant, £ Persei. 



Observer. 



From Radiant, £ Persei. 



In one hour six meteors; 

clear sky. 
From Radiant, £Leonis !d. 

From Radiant, £ Persei.. Id. 



T. Crumplen. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Td. 

Id. 

Id. 



From Radiant, £ Persei. 



From Radiant, h Lvncis 



From Radiant, £ Persei. 



In one hour nine 
meteors ; clear sky. 

From Radiant, £ Persei.. 



Coextensive and parallel 
flights. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



Stationary 



In one hour five meteors; Id. 
clear sky. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



Appeared to oscillate , 



78 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1864. 
Nov. 7 

7 

7 



Hour. 



h m 

3 36 a.m. 

3 45 a.m. 

3 50 a.m. 

2 20 a.m. 



2 32 a.m. Ibid 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



Ibid 



Ibid 



8j 2 51 a.m. 



9 10 23 p.m, 



11 5 26 p.m, 



11 
11 

11 
11 

13 



5 35 p.m, 
5 35 p.m, 



set. 
5 35 



Ibid 



Greenwich 



Rhodez 
(S. France), 
Dep. Aveiron. 



West Pcckham 
Maidstone 
(Kent). 

Pamiers 
(S. France), 
Dep. Ariege. 



About sun- Chambon 
(France), 
Dep. Creuse. 
.m. Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



12 a.m. 
to 
4 a.m. 



S. S. ' Ellora,' off 
Malta. 



-3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 1st mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



= 1st mag.* ; bril- 
liant. 



= to Venus 



Very brilliant me- 
teor. 



Larger than full 
moon. 



2 x Venus. 



Colour. 



White 
White 
White 

White 

White 
White 



Bluish white. 



White, red, 
and blue. 



Colourless 



Green 



0-4 second 
0'5 second 
0'5 second 

- 4 second 

05 second 
- 4 second 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



3 or 4 seconds 



From t I.eonis to 

Virginis. 
From 7rLeonis, half. 

way to a Hydraei 
From e Lyncis to \ 

(57 Telescopii, /3 

Aurigae). 
From o Leonia 

Minoris to 

Ursae Majoris, 

and half as far 

again. 
From S Ursae Mi. 

noris to ^ (j8, k) 

Cephei. 
From M to Q Ca-j 

melopardi. 



Fell iu N.N.W.I 
from altitude 20 c |' 
to about altitudei 
10° ; point of j 
appearance per-) 
pendicularly be-! 
low y Draconis. I 

Passed 25° W. of 
the zenith. 



Deliberate 
speed. 

Moderate 
speed. 



3 seconds 

5 or 6 seconds 



Disappeared 12° 
above the S. by 
£. horizon. 

20° above the NJ 
horizon. 



Passed over the val- 
ley from W.N.W.! 
to S.S.W. 

From i Ceti to 
Piscis Australia. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



79 



Vppearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



.eft a streak for 2 seconds 
.eft a streak for 2£ sees 



to train or sparks 



Jo train or sparks 



irushy appearance . 



rain straight, linear, daz- 
zling white. Soon it 
enlarged and diminish- 
ed in brilliancy. At 
the end of 5 minutes 
it remained »s a some 
what irregular reddis! 
cloud, 12° or 15° long 
and 1° or 2° wide 
composed of cherry- 
red and dark - red 
sparks. 

eft a tapering train 4° or 
5° long. 

n elongated globe ; sepa- 
rated into portions and 
disappeared suddenly ; 
left a long train on its 
whole course. 

ike a firebrand, elon- 
gated behind with dif- 
fused light. 

eft a tapering train for 
10 seconds of the 
same colour as the 
I meteor. 



Length of 
Path. 



10" 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



In one hour seven 
meteors ; clear sky, 
frosty. 



Observer. 



;0°or80°. 



15° 



12° 



Nearly from N. to S. 



Nearly horizontal 

E. to W., horizontal .. 



N. to S. 



Directed from Capella... 



fn 45 minutes six 
meteors. Sky foggy. 
Overcast on succeed- 
ing days. 



Eclipsed the mooulight. 
Seen also at Blaye 
and at Perigueux. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



M. Boissy 
(Comptes 
Rendus, vol. 
lix. No. 20). 



The tail was almost as 
brilliant as the meteor. 

Cloudless sky. No de- 
tonation. Train of 
the same appearance 
as the meteor ; re- 
mained visible four 
minutes. 



Seen in twilight .... 



Grand display of meteors 
all through the watch 
None on the morning 
of the 14th. (See Ap- 
pendix II. 2.) 



E. Jones. 



Abbe Sans (Les 
Mondes). 



Legrip (Cosmos). 



A. S. Herschel 
and H. T. Hum- 
phreys. 

Communicated 
by A. S. Herschel. 



80 



REPORT — 1865. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


18G4. 
N'ov.13 

13 

14 

20 
20 

20 
20 

20 

20 
20 

20 

20 
20 

22 
22 

22 


h m 
U 27 p.m. 

11 41 p.m 

to 
2 15 a.m. 
8 40 p.m. 

8 50 p.m. 

8 55 p.m. 
8 55 p.m. 

8 57 p.m. 

A few mi- 
nutes be- 
fore 9 p.m. 

9 p.m. 

About9p.m. 

10 to 
12 p.m. 

11 1 p.m. 

6 20 p.m. 
9 17 p.m. 

11 20 p.m. 


llawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 




White 


4 seconds ... 


From /3 Auriga;, 
halfway to A 
Draconis. 

From 55 Persei 


White 


Trafa'gar Square 

(London). 
Leamington 
(Warwickshire). 
Beeston Uuscr 
vatory. 

Mobberlv 
(N. Cheshire). 

Ilallaton, 
Uppingham 
(Rutland). 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Manchester , ,.. 

Luton (Oxon) ... 

Hawk hurst 
(Kent). 






to i (y, <j,) Pe- 
gasi. 


Brilliant meteor ... 

Larger than the 
moon. 

As bright as the 
sun. 

Half the size of the 
moon ; light like 
lightning. 

Splendid meteor... 

Six small meteors 
in two hours. 


Green 


A few seconds 


In the N.E. sky ... 


Blue 


U first red; 
(hen dazzling 
bluish white. 




Almost from the 




zenith, falling 
downwards in 
the N.E. through 
about 45°. 

Appeared first near 
the horizon in 
the N.E., and 
travelling west- 
ward, disap- 
peared at an al- 
titude of about 
60°. 

From R.A. 164°, 
N. Decl. 67°, to 
R.A. 158°, N. 
Decl. 50°. 

From near Capella 
to near Mars. 

Fell to the N.E. by 
E. horizon. 

The flash appeared 
to come from the 
W. 


Vari-coloured; 
head orange. 

Blue 


Moved slowly, 
about 3 sees. 

A few seconds 


Blue and 
orange. 

Blue 


Very brief ... 




White 


1"3 second ... 

Less than 1 
second. 


Disappeared at J 
(i; Tauri, « Per-: 
sei). 

From e Tauri to E 
Psalterii. 

In N. ; point of 
appearance 10° 
above ?Ursas Ma- 
joiis, pursued an 
almost horizontal 
pathl2°westward. 

From R.A. 20°, S. 
Decl. 13°, to R.A. 
9°, S. Decl. 11°. 


Ibid 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 


Blue 









A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOllS. 



81 



ppcarance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



15 c 



;ft a streak on all itsG0° 
course for 3 seconds. 



\ fine meteor. After 
wards quite overcast. 



Observer. 



'sappeared with a very 
vivid flash of light. 
;ploded into three fras- 
ments, which moved, 
one perpendicularly 

|down, the other two, 
one on either side, at an 
angle of 60°. 

first diminished, and 
again flashed forth more 
bright than sheet light- 
ning. Disappeared with- 
out any sparks. 



Perpendicular, down 



rst with orange sparks 
and streamers and vivid 
light. Tail blue. 



appeared with niagnifi- About 20° 
ent blue light. 



Towards N.E. 



Sky overcast. Heavy T. Crumplen. 

rain before morning, 
Sky cloudy ; a few stais M. G. Ilorslev. 

visible. 
Imperfect view through |E. J. Lowe. 

fog. Light equal to 

that of dav. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



Id. 



Fell perpendicularly 



Seen through clouds 
which obscured the 
stars. No report 
heard. 



. Stars obscured by 
stratus cloud. About 
nine o'clock there 
was a rumbling 
noise as of distant 
cannon firing, which 
lasted several se 
conds. 
... No other meteors seen ; 
in one hour one me 
teor only. 



Proc. Brit. Met, 
Soc, ii. 324. 



The Times,' 
Nov. 23. 



lliant globe, followed 
y another equally bril-j 
■ ant but of smaller 
ize. 

e a flash of lightning, 
laminating the whole 
istrict. 



Nearly as bright 
noonday ; sky cloudy. 
A few stars visible. 

Lit up the landscape ... 



reased gradually and5° Directed from A Tauri 

isappeared suddenly. 



Radiating from t) Tauri; Sky generally clear ; no 
moon. 



shy appearance; 
led by a streak, 
train 



pur- 



l 12°+ 



Nearly horizonta', E. to 
W. 



W. II. Wood. 

R. S. Bibby. 
J. F. Hawkins. 

1 Evening Star.' 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 



W. H. Wood. 



82 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1804. 
Nov.28 



28 
28 



Hour. 



h m 

7 53 p.m 



9 13 p.m. 
9 50 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawk hurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 



Wisbech (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



= 2nd mag.* 



■3rd mag.* 



= a. Orionis ; very 
bright. 



White 

White 
Yellow 



View just before disappearance. The head seemed to 
separate from the train sharp and clear like a drop of liquid 
metal, and then the train brightened up. 



28 

29 

29 
29 

29 



29 
29 

29 



29 
29 



29 
29 

29 

29 
29 
29 
29 
29 



10 30 p.m. 
1 30 a.m. 

1 36 a.m. 
1 37 a.m. 



1 40 a.m. 



1 55 a.m 

2 1 a.m 



2 40 a.m 
2 59 a.m 



3 15 a.m. Ibid 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



Ibid 
Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid , 
Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid 
Ibid 



6 56 p.m. 

7 13 p.m. 

8 8 p.m. 
8 16 p/m. 

8 39 p.m. 

9 16 p.m. 
9 45 p.m. 



Paris. 



Wisbech (Cam 
bridgeshire). 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid , 
Ibid. 
Ibid 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



Very voluminous 
disk. 



= Sirius 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 2r.d mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



White 

White 
White 

White 



White . 
White . 

Yellow . 



White 
White 



From k Fegasi I 
\ (a Delphini 1 
Vulpecute). 

To i, halfway froi 
a Draconis. 

2 seconds From r\ Persei I 

t Tauri. 



- 5 second 



1 second 



Position, or , 
Altitude and |l 
Azimuth. 



05 second 

0-6 second 
0'5 second 

- 4 second 



1 second .. 
0-6 second 



08 second 



0'6 second 
0*8 second 



White 0*8 second 

3 seconds.. 



Brilliant 
yellow. 

• Bright white... 

White 

White 

White 

White 



2\ seconds 

0-8 second 

07 second 
06 second 

08 second 
0-6 second 



From H 2 to 10 C 

melopardi. 
From i (,,, j8) H 

draj to o Mon 

cerotis. 
From 0) to v Ur; 

Majoris. 
From d Ursa; M 

joris to \ Dr 

conis. 
From i (29 Urs 

Majoris, P Dr 

conis) to N Dr 

conis. 
From a. to jj Cepb 
From m Lyncis 

t Geiuinorum. 
From k Gemin 

rum to J (y, i 

Cancri. 
From k to g Lyni 
From r Ursae M 

joris to n T 

randi. 
From Pollux to 

Cancri. 
Centre of path 5*i 

above the hoi 

zon, 40° E. fro I 

S. 
From f3 Aurid 

to % (a, y) Cetl 

Began at y AndrJ 

medae. 
From Z, Cassiope 

to g Lacerta?. 
From S to 36 Dr, 

conis. 
From £ to y Ursi 

Minoris. 
From aAndromed; 

to /3 Pegasi. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



83 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



o train or sparks 



le train brightened up 25 c 
after the disappearance 
of the head, and ran 
back. 



ft a streak for 1 second 



It a faint streak for half 
second. 



-e a large rocket burn-130 
)g very slowly. 



;t a rocket-like train 
isible 3 seconds. 



50° 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



From Radiant, D. 



From Radiant (R 3 ) 



W. to E., nearly per- 
pendicularly down. 



[n one hour six meteors 

Clear evening. Three 
2nd mag. meteors and 
9 smaller from Cassio- 
peia, through Perseus. 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 

S. H. Miller. 



From Radiant, $ Leonis 

From Radiant, K G .. 
From Radiant, D 



From Radiant, A l 



From Radiant, D 



From Radiant, A 1G . 
From Radiant, K G. 



In one hour sixteen me- 
teors ; clear sky. 

'From Radiant, K G 
JFrom Radiant, KG 



W. H. Wood. 
A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



From Radiant, D in one hour fifteen me- 
teors ; clear skv. 



S.W. to N.E. Perfectly 
horizontal. 



Directed from 9 Persei 



No report heard 



The stream of light grew 
brighter as the meteor 
advanced. 

From Radiant, K G 



Id. 

Id. 

M. 



Id. 



From Radiant, A 1(! 



From Radiant, A, G In one hour seven me- 



teors ; clear sky. 
From Radiant, A 16 



From Radiant, R, In one hour nine me- 
teors ; clear skv. 



M. Tissot (' Les 
Mondes,' 1S64, 
Dec. 8). 

S. II. Miller. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



84 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1864. h m s 
Nov.29 11 37 30 
p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Bus ton Road 
Observatory. 



Colour. 



29 
30 

30 

30 
30 

30 

30 

Dec. 1 

2 
2 



11 51 p.m. [bid, 
25 a.m. Ibid , 



1 6 a.m. Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



1 23 a.m. Ibid , 

I 
1 39 a.m. Ibid 



2 5 a.m. Ibid 



9 52 p.m. Weston - super 

Mare. 
5 58 p.m. Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 

40 a.m. Ibid 

1 13 a.m. Ibid 



= 4th mag.* Bluish 



= 4th mag.# 
= Sinus 



= 3rd mag.* 



=3rd mag* 



= 3rd mag* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd macr.* 



Bluish 
White 

White 

White 
White 

White 

Blue 

White 

White 



Duration. 



04 second ... 
04 second ... 



2, 1 19 a.m. Ibid . 
2 1 36 a.m. Ibid, 



2 141 a.m. Ibid 



2 6 8 p.m. Ibid 



3 3 30 a.m. Ibid 



= 2nd mag.* 'White 

= 3rdmag.* White 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



White 



White 



White 



Size of full moon... Nucleus white, 
tail red. 



4,2 a.m. Taranaki (N'ewAs large as the sun 
(local time). Zealand). 



6 56 p.m. Paris 



5 10 45 p.m. Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



As large as an 
orange. 



= 3rd mag.* 



White 



05 second 

05 second 
07 second 

0-4 second 



1 second 
1 second 



06 second 
06 second 

06 second 

0-4 second 



- 4 second ... 

1 second 

1 or 2 seconds 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From 6 to |° abi 

«c Orionis and 

further. 
Began 3° abovi 

Orionis. 
Began at 10° abti 

the E. horizi 

Disappeared 1 

low the horizo 
From ^ (£ Dra< 

nis, a Cephei) 

3° beyond | i 

j/) Cephei. 
To r.„ halfway fro 

B "Hydra;. 
From o Leoi 

Minoris to 

beyond 57 Ur: 

Majoris. 
From i (/, e) Le. 

nis Minoris to 

Ursa; Majoris. 
From a Pegasi to 

Piscium. 
From g to N Dr, 

conis. 
From y to o Cam 
From y Geminoru 

to 126 Tauri. 
Disappeared at 

Ursac Majoris. 
From 3 Ursa? M 

joris to B. A. • 

4287 Can. Vena 

and half as f. 

again. 
From d Leonis M 

noris to ^ (fi, 

Leonis). 
From £ (o, ff) H'! 

norium to 9 Ai 

dromedae. 
Overhead I 






4 seconds. 



1 second 



Began near C^l 
pella. Disap 
peared betwee' 
a and /3 Urs 
Majoris. 

From d to c &•• 
melopardi, an 
nearly as fa 1 
again. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



85 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 

Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



'iin on whole length of. 

p.uk. 



bio on whole length of 10° 
mth. 

l>bular ; left no train . 



Towards m Monocerotis 
Directed from t, Leonis 



Remarks. 



t a streak for 2 seconds 



Two others from same 

Radiant in 10 minutes. 

Meteors very plentiful... 



From Radiant, K G. 

From Radiant, L II. 
From Radiant, I, II. 



Observer. 



From Radiant, L II In one hour fourteen 

meteors ; clear skv. 



eshortened and crooked 3°. 
[■girt. 



From Radiant, K g . 



in thirty minutes four 

meteors ; clear sky. 
From Radiant, KG... 
From Kadiant, L H... 



Directed from q Came- From Radiant, K G. 
lopardi. 

From Radiant, D.... 



' From Radiant, KG. 



a streak on the middle 1 , 
'its course for 2 sees.. 



Iped like a fish. The 30° or 40°.. From E. to W. 
■;ht made all objects! 

stinctly visible, 
(tone fell in the sea'. 
I ro miles from land ; 

lother fell at Turakina. 



In one hour fifteen me- 
teors ; clear sky. 

From Radiant, KG... 



T. Crumplen. 

Id. 
Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

W. II. Wood. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



a train of many 30° 
i loured sparks visible 
|r 2 seconds. 



S.S.E. to N.N.W. 



Foggy and dark morning Communicated 
byA.S. Herschel 

Detonated with a report Vienna Acad., 
equal to a hundred^ ' Sitzungsbe- 
cannons. Seen also richt,' 1865, 
at 'H'anganua, eighty June 30. 
miles from Taranaki. 

M. Lartigues 
(Comptes 
Rendus). 

From Radiant, D A. S. Herschel. 



86 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



i 1S64. 
Dec. 5 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 p.ra, 



Place of 
Observation. 



5 11 6 p.m. 

5 11 13 p.m.llbid 

511 19 p.m.Ibid 



Hawkburst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



5 11 30 p.m. 
5 11 36 p.m. 



Ibid 



Ibid 



5 11 39 p.m.Ibid 



9 49 p.m. Wisbech (Cam 
bridgeshire). 



10 17 p.m. 

3 45 a.m. 

3 50 a.m. 

4 30 a.m 

4 31 a.m 

5 42 p.m 



13 



1865. 
Jan. 1 



9 7 p.m. Paris 



Vlancbester . 
Ibid 



Hawkburst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mac.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



White, then 

orange. 
White 



= Mars 



= lst mag.* ; very 

bright. 
Brilliant meteor 



Colour. 



White 
White 

White 
White 

White 



Orange colour 



Duration. 



1*6 second 
0-5 second 
06 second 
0*6 second 

06 second 
06 second 

06 second 
2 seconds.. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



3 X Venus. 



White, thev 
pure green. 



17 a.m 



3 30 

a.m. 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



Manchester . 



Greenwich 



Small, but very 
brilliant disk. 



Exhibiting a well- 
defined disk. 



— 2ad mag.* ; 
bright. 



110 17 p.m. Hawkburst 
(Kent). 



White 

White 

Bluish white... 



Ibout 4 sees.. 
About 2 sees., 
l - 2 second .. 

0-5 second .. 
0-5 second .. 
Rapid 



From /3 Aurigae 

8 Cassiopeia?. 
Began at % (k, 

Aurigae. 
From i to ? Di 

conis. 
From k Lyn 

to e Ursae If. 

joris. 
From i (i, »,) A 

rigae to ? Pers 
From % (q Can 

lopardi, D Ut 

Majoris), hi 

way to P Can 

lopardi. 
To i (/,, t) Ui 

Majoris, ha 

way from m 

Lyncis. 
From a (k, 

Monocerotis 

* (P, *) 1 

dani. 
Near the stars 

Ursa Major. I 
IntbeN.E II 

From £ Cassiope I 
to i (o Honor ) 
g Lacertae). 

Began at ij Virgil 



From a Leonis t 

Hydrae. 
Across Lyra to' 

Aquilae. 



Less than I sec. 



Bluish white... 



About 2 sees. 



Bluish white , 



White, then 
orange red. 



Centre of 1j | 
visible path | 
above the ho 
zon, 61° E. fn I 
S. 
From the cenlf 
of Cassiopeii I 
chain to midw 
between « / 
dromedac and 
Cygni. 

From the directnl 

of p Geminorn 
passed betwt ' 
t) and a Leoiii 

2 sees., slower From n Monoot 
at last. rotis to p Ca. 

Majoris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



87 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



jft a streak on all its 
course for 1J second. 



Length of 
Path. 



3°. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Towards /3 Tauri. 



sappeared suddenly 



ft a streak for half a 
second. 



ft a streak for 1$ second 



ft a train divided into 
two streams. 



1 sappeared suddenly 



I possessed great illumi- 
mating power. 
t train or sparks 



t; train or sparks 
t: train or sparks 
I train 



25° 



10 : 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



From Radiant, D... 
From Radiant, D... 
From Radiant, K g 
From Radiant, D... 



From Radiant, D 



N. to S., horizontal 



20 c 



sembling that of Nov. 



irks from the head, 
(specially near disap- 
earance. Momentary 
ain on the whole 
sngth of its course. 



train 



dually increased to an 
ongated disk and va- 
ished suddenly ; left 
o streak. 



Very short, 
inclined. 



40- 



Directed from e Canes 
Venatici. 



From Radiant, D. 
From Radiant, D. 



In one hour thirteen 
meteors ; clear sky. 



Threw a faint light on 
all objects. 



Downwards towards the 
right, 30° from hori- 
zontal. 



Perpendicularly down in 
NAY. 



Inclined 



In one hour twenty-one 
meteors. 



A very short view ob- 
tained between the 
roofs of houses. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



J. Webb. 

'Manchester 
Guardian.' 
A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 



M. Tissot, 'Les 
Mondes.' 



Moonlight ; much scud T. Heelis. 
from S.E. 



Partially clear . 



W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Herschel. 



88 



REPORT — 1865. 



Date. Hour. 



1865. 
Jan. 1 



2 
2 

4 

6 

6 

15 

20 

22 
28 
Feb. 10? 

10 

17 

17 



h m 

10 34 p.m 

1 26 a.m 

1 28 a.m. 

1 49 a.m 

1 51 a.m, 

8 25 to 

8 45 p.m 

10 36 p.m 

10 59 p.m 

11 54 p.m, 



8 to 
8 30 p.m, 

11 15 p.m 

11 18 p.m 
Evening ... 



6 40 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



llawklinrst 
(Kent). 



[bid 

Ibid, 

Ibid . 
[bid. 
Ibid . 



= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.# 

= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag * 



Yellow 12 seconds. 



Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 



Hawkluirst 
(Kent). 



super 



Weston 

Mare. 
Hawlcliurst 

(Kent). 
Bangalore, 

Mysore 

(S. India). 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= lst mag.* ; bril- 
liant. 



Two small meteors 



White 
Dull... 



White 
White 



Yellow 0-8 second . 



White 



Greenwich 



5 50 p.m. -Vuteuil (France\ Fireball 



Bright .. 
= Sirius 



= Mars 



White 



Blue 



10 4 p.m. Royal Observa 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



= 3rd maa;.* 



Blue 



- 8 second 

08 second 

0-5 second 
0-6 second 



- 7 second ... 



Less than 1 sec, 



1 second 



From Y DracotJ 
to a Ursse Ml 

joris. 
From ^ (h, v) Ursj 

Majoris to 

Lyncis. 
From b Lvncl 

to % («, ft) A I 

rigas. 
From M to Q CI 

melopardi. 
Disappeared at I 

Cassiopeiae. 



From/>Camelopan 
halfway to 'A 
Ursae Majoris. 

From \ (k LeoniJ 
r Lyncis) to 
(8, «) Cancri. 

From a point a fel 
degrees from I 
Leonis towari 
a Cancri. Abo 1 
the moon. 



[n the E 

From [3 to a Leon, 



From the spati 
midway betweci 
Ursa Major ar 
Gemini ; fell pe 
pendicularly. 

Between I and In the N j 

2 seconds. 



\ second 



From a point near | 
midway betweO 
S and o- Dracon ) 
towards <* C 
phei. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS IHETEORS. 89 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
aud its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



;ft a momentary train 



6°. 



train or sparks 



train perceived 



• bular; increased ra 
idly ; disappeared with 
ut bursting. 



15° 



li;htest at last ; disap- 
eared suddenly. 



t train 



e a streak 4° or 5° in 
ngth j visible several 
inutes. 



25 ' : 



Drain 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



In one hour four meteors A. S. Herschel 



Clear sky; no moon ... Id. 



Directed from y Cephei 



In thirty minutes five 

meteors. 
No meteors in twenty 

minutes; clear sky; 

half moon. 



In thirty minutes two 
meteors ; clear sky. 

Bright moonlight night 



On the 21st, from 8" 
to 8 h 45 m p.m., clear 
sky ; no moon ; no 
meteors. 



Id. 



Id. 



i,l. 
I.l. 



1<1. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Communicated 
by W. H. Wood 
A. S. Herschel. 



Perpendicular , 



Horizontal 



Path curved 

^Draconis. trDraconis. 



A large meteor fell and Communicated 

burst in the S.S.E. byA.S. Herschel 

(See a letter from 

Bangalore, 1865, Feb. 

10; Appendix III. 3.) 
Moon full, hazy 



Apparent motion; seen 
also at Sevres, moving 
from S. to N., -where 
the streak endured 
ten minutes. 

Faint aurora , 



* « Cephei. 



W. C. Nash. 



Villicrs du Ter 
rage. 



W. C. Nash, 
Arthur Harding 



90 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1865. 
Feb. 19 

19 

19 

20 



Hour. 



20 
20 

21 

21 



h ni s 

10 20 p.m. 

10 40 p.m. 

10 50 p.m 

10 49 p.m 

11 30 p.m 

11 30 30 
p.m. 

9 12 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Slough (Bucks). 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



= lst mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 



Ibid. 



About 9 30 
p.m. 



= Sirius 

3rd mag.* 



White 

White .... 
White .... 
Yellowish 

Orange . 



Duration. 



1*4 second 
1 second ... 

I second ... 

II second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Arbroath (For- 
farshire), N.B 



Pratis (Fife- 
shire), N. B. 



2 seconds. 



Size of full moon.., 



Size of full moon... 



Same colour 
as the moon. 



Dazzlingwhite 



25 

25 

25 

25 

25 

25 
Mar. 2 
17 
17 

17 

17 



40 a.m 

52 a.m. 

1 6 a.m 

I 25 a.m. 

10 45 p.m. 

11 30 p.m, 
7 10 p.m. 

10 56 p.m. 

II 7 p.m. 

11 12 p.m 
11 14 p.m 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Ibid 

Egham (Surrey) 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid, 



Ibid 



=3rd mag.* . 

= 1st mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
= lstmag.*... 
= lst mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 



A few seconds 



6 or 8 seconds 



White . 

White . 

White . 

White . 

Yellow 

Yellow 
White . 
White , 
White 

White 



Began at (3 Canis 

Minoris. 
From v Aurigas to 

I Tauri. 
To /t Camelopardi.. 



From a Tarandi, I 

halfway to 6\ | 

Persei. 
From i] Draconisil 

to R. A. 313°, N. 

Decl. 62°. 
IFrom R. A. 327° J ! 

N. Decl. 80°, to] 

R. A. 327°, N. | 

Decl. 60°. 
From £ (Mars Al-'i 

debaran) to Be-1 



telgeux. 

Began in the N., 
and disappeared 
in the south-west, 
quarter. 



0'9 second 

1"3 second 

0'8 second 

0*8 second 

0*5 second 

0-5 second 
1*3 second 
06 second 
2 seconds.. 



White 



07 second 
0-5 second 



To y Bootis, half- 

way from m Ca- 

numVenaticorum. 

From z Bootis to \ 

(w Serpentis, ? 

Corona?). 
To 7T Serpentis, | 

of the way from 

X, Bootis. 
From k Ursa? Ma- 

joris to I Tele- 

scopii. 
To /3 Leonis, half- 

way from / Can 1 

Venaticorum. 
From a to p Caneii 

Venatici. 
From j8 Cancri to 

Monocerotis. 
To <p, 3° directed 

from z Virginis. '. 
From i (p Leo- 
nis, / Sextan J 

tis) to v 2 Hy 

drae. 
From ^ (»j, a) Her 

culis to i Her 

culis. 
At k Cephei 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



91 



Appearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


, Length of 
Path. 


Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 




16° 


Direction from (p Lyncis 




A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

A. Brown. 

J. Anderson. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

td. 













Directed from <r Ursa 
Majoris. 


Lightning frequent in 
N.E. 

In one hour two me- 
teors ; clear sky. 


















Bright display of Au- 
rora ; and again on 
the 20th of March, 
from 8 h to 12 h p.m. 

Seen also at Innerleithen 
and Walkerburn. 

A vivid light reflected 
from the snow. A 
minute after the me- 
teor disappeared, a 
long rumbling noise 
was heard in the north 
resembling thunder. 
The noise lasted two 
minutes, and gradu- 
ally died away. 


Drew a long tapering and 
waving tail, green at the 

; base, and yellow at the 
point. 

Nucleus pear - shaped, 
tapering to a point two 
and a half diameters of 
the moon from the head. 
The point was red, and 
threw off bright red 
sparks. 









N.E. to S.W. ; hori- 
zontal. 


.•eft a train on the whole 
course for 1 second. 




















In one hour eight me- 
teors ; clear sky. 
















(ieft no train 


15° 
































L° 













h2 



92 




REPORT — 1865. 






Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or | 
Altitude and 1 
Azimuth. 


1865. 
Mar. 17 

20 

25 

30 

30 

Apr. 3 
3 
3 

7 

7 
8 
9 

10 

12 

15 
19 

20 

20 
20 

20 


h m s 
11 15 p.m. 

9 10 p.m. 

10 54 p.m. 

1 35 a.m. 

11 12 p.m. 

5 a.m. 

5 30 
a.m. 
39 a.m. 

2 40 a.m. 

3 4 a.m. 
9 49 p.m. 
5 a.m. 

11 30 p.m. 
9 10 p.m. 

11 25 p.m. 

10 13 1 

p.m. 

9 58 p.m. 

10 20 57 

p.m. 
10 21 p.m. 

10 26 45 
p.m. 


Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 


=2ud mag.* 


White 


0'6 second ... 
1*3 second ... 

0-G second ... 

0-7 second ... 

04 second ... 
- 4 second ... 
0-5 second ... 

0*4 second ... 
- 4 second ... 


From v, halfway J 

e Bootis. 
From i (a, 

Leonis to G 11 

dras. 
From X Bootis, j 
the way to oCar 
Venatici. 
From 2° E. of 

Serpentis to 

Ophiiichi. 
From i (13, 6) tr 

(/3, h) Ursa: M 

joris. 
From [3 to -} (v, 

Draconis. 
From A 2 to t Hd 

culis. 
From i (y, , 
Cephei (o m Ci 
todis. 
From ? to % Di 

conis. 
Disappeared at 

Vulpecnlae. 
Across a Dracot. 

to y Draconis. 
Began 30° abo. 

the N.N.E. hoi 

eon. 


White 


Ibid 


Ibid 


White 


Ibid 


White 


Ibid 


White 


Ibid 


White 


Ibid 


White 


Ibid 


White 


Ibid 


White 


Weston - super • 
Mare. 


White 


Bright white .. 




Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Brompton 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 


2xVenus 


Blue 


Rapid ; less 
than 1 sec. 

11 second ... 

08 second ... 

0-5 second ... 
Momentary ... 

06 second ... 


From S.E., altitu; 
40°, to near 
pella. 

From the direct!'! 

of x to v Ur 1 

Majoris. 
From d Canes V 

natici to £ L 

onis. 
From 1° above j 

Virginis to i 

above (3 LeoniJ 
From y to k Ur;| 

Majoris. 
Altitude, PolariJ 

azimuth 10° \| 

of that star ; di | 

appeared insta 1 

taneously. 
From a to « Urs! 

Majoris. 




Blue 




Bluish white... 
Bluish white... 
White 

























A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



93 



ippearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



'ispppeared by degrees, 
o train or sparks 



o train or sparks 
o train or sparks 



:ft a train , 



5°. 



15 : 



ar-shaped; illuminated 
all objects. Burst with 
red sparks. Left a 
bright yellow streak. 
)> train 



12° 



I ft a train for 2 seconds 



rew off a few sparks 
and gradually disap- 
peared. 



(sudden flash 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



In one hour seven me- 
teors. 

In one hour two me- 
teors ; clear sky. 



Observer. 



Directed from n Lyrae. 



/ 



In one hour four me- 
teors ; clear sky. 

In thirty minutes one 
meteor. 



Bright moonlight 



A strict watch main- 
tained for meteors ; 
none seen. A fine 
bright night. 



A. S. Herschel, 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

W. H. Wood. 



Well observed ; left a 
train 5° long. 



W. C. Nash. 

Communicated 
byW. H.Wood, 

W. C. Nash. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. Crumplen. 

A. S. Herschel. 
W. C. Nash. 

A. S. Herschel. 



94 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1865. 
Apr. 20 



20 



Hour. 



h m s 
10 27 p.m 



10 35 p.m. 



20 10 45 15 
p.m. 



20 

20 
20 



20 
20 

21 

21 

21 
22 

23 

23 



10 46 p.m. 

10 50 p.m, 
10 57 p.m, 



10 58 58 
p.m. 

11 15 p.m 



10 15 p.m. 

11 35 p.m. 

12 p.m. 
12 a.m. 

45 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Greenwich 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Greenwich 



Bayswater 

(London). 
Greenwich . 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Weston - super 

Mare. 



Ibid, 

Ibid 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



1 a.m. Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



=4th mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.*.. 

=2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
:1st mag.*.. 

= 1st mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 

:2nd mag.* 



Colour. 



Blue 



Bluish white... 



White 



Brilliant white 



Yellow 



Duration. 



Less than 1 sec. 



Lessthanlsec. 



0*5 second ... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Bright blue ... Less than 1 sec. 



White . 
Orange. 

Blue . 

Blue . 

Blue . 
Blue ., 

Blue ., 

Blue .. 



09 second 



0*5 second 



1 second 



0-5 second 



0-5 second 



0-5 second 



0-5 second 



Altitude 55°; az 

muth about 5° V 

of preceding mc 

teor; passed almo 

horizontally aero; 

o Ursse Majoris. 

Altitude, Polaris 

azimuth 7° E. 

that star ; fc 

almost perpend 

cularly towan 

the N. horizon. 

To v, halfway froi 

9 Ursae Majoris 



Between Comae B( 
renices and lj 
Canum Venati 
corum. 

From jSGeminoruif 

From 9 Urs;e Mi! 
joris towards Vi 
horizon. 



From y Herculisf i 
5 Serpentis. 

From R. A. 252' 1 
S. Decl. 5°, (\ 
R. A. 247°, { 
Decl. 12°. 

From R. A. 253'ii 
N. Decl. 68°, t 
R. A. 268°, m 
Decl. 52°. 

From R. A. 255';! 
N. Decl. 6°, « 
R. A. 238°, S 
Decl. 12°. 

From R. A. 253°, V 
Decl. 6°, to RJ\ 
238°, S. Decl. 5 

From R. A. 278' 
N. Decl. 22°, t 
R. A. 281°, > 
Decl. 2°. 

From R. A. 21 l c 
N. Decl. 21°, t 
R. A. 201°, T» 
Decl. 17°. 

From R. A. 280 C| 
N. Decl. 33°, t 
R. A. 288°, > : 
Decl. 27°. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



95 



Vppearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



Mo train 



"Jo train 



ilight train . 



ilight train . 



I>eft a train for 1 second 



Length of 
Path. 



15 c 



15 : 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



G J . 



5° 

10° or 12°. 



Nearly horizontal 



Nearly perpendicular , 



Horizontal 



Perpendicularly down. 



ned 



Tncli 




Remarks. 



At Ramsgate, Mr. R 
Cramp reports no me- 
teors before ll h p.m. 
on the 20th, although 
the sky was clear. 



Imperfect view 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 
Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. C. Nash. 

H.T.Humphreys 
W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Herschel. 
W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



06 



REPORT — 1865. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1865. 
Apr. 23 

23 

23 

25 

25 
25 

25 

25 

25 

25 
26 

26 
26 

27 

27 

27 

3d 


h m 

1 8 a.m. 

2 5 a.m. 

2 20 a.m. 

7 44 p.m. 

9 3 p.m. 
9 21 p.m. 

9 30 p.m. 

9 48 p.m. 

11 p.m. 

11 30 p.m. 
15 a.m. 

About 10 

p.m. 
10 14 p.m. 

23 a.m. 

10 5 p.m. 

About 10 15 
p m. 

41 a.m. 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Ibid 




Dull yellow ... 
Blue 


0-5 second ... 

1*5 second ... 

Slow motion.. 

1*2 second ... 
1*8 second ... 

Moved slowly 

1 second 

Remarkably 
slow motion. 

2 seconds ... 


From R. A. 270°, 
N. Decl. 37°, to 
R. A. 290°, N. 
Decl. 35°. 

From R. A. 151°, 
N. Decl. 22°, to 
R. A. 147°, N. 
Decl. 15°. 

From R. A. 119°, 
N. Decl. 60°, to 
R. A. 106°, N. 
Decl. 43°. 

From y Gemino- 
rum, halfway to 
9 Canis Majoris. 

In the S 


Ibid 


Blue 


Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 


White 


— Jupiter 


White . 
White 


Ibid 




Began at r] Virginis 

From £ to X Hern 

culis. 
From y Ursa; Mi-! 

noris to I Urscel 

Majoris. 
From R. A. 190° 1 


Ibid 


White 


Ibid 




Ibid 


Blue 


Frant (Sussex)... 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Woodstock 

(Oxon.). 
Weston - super - 

Mare. 

Ibid 


Blue 


N. Decl. 40°, tol 
R. A. 175°, N.I 
Decl. 55°. 
In the N.E., alti-1 


Nearly = Jupiter ... 


tude 45°. 
From R. A. 130°,| 

N. Decl. 50°, tol 

R. A. 110°, N. 

Decl. 37°. 
In the S 


White 


Blue 


From R. A. C8°,J 
N. Decl. 80°, tol 
R. A. 65°, N.I 
Decl. 55°. 

From R. A. 225°, 1 


Yellow 

Yellow 


Ibid 


N. Decl. 5°, tol 

R. A. 237°, N.J 

Decl. 8°. 
From R. A. 192°,l 

N. Decl. 5°, tol 

R. A. 184°, S. 

Decl. 20°. 
Near the S.S.W.H 

horizon, altitude 

5°. 

First seen at a point! 
R.A. 15 h 56' n ,N.j 
Decl. 6°. Disap-* 
peared in R. A.fli 
16 h 18 m , S.Decl.I 
19° 0'. 


Woodstock 
(Oxon.). 


2xVenus 


Brownish 
yellow. 

At first red ; 
afterwards 
bluish white. 


Rapid motion 

From 2 to 2\ 
seconds. 


Considerably ex- 
ceeding Jupiter, 
presenting a very 
sensible disk. 

















A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



97 



>pearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



ft a very bright train , 



train or sparks 



:'t a train on all its 
:ourse for 2 seconds. 



lobular ; gradually di- 
uinished. Left no train 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; notiug also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



10° or 12°.. 
8° 



Descending 

Directed from p Yirginis 



W. to E. 



Seen also overhead at 
Reading. In forty 
minutes five meteors; 
clear sky. 



Observer. 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



W. to E. ; horizontal 



'iew off red fragments 
efore disappearance. 

!!r proceeding two or 
nee degrees across 
le sky it flared up to 
irice its proper size 
id burst. 

thad two maxima of 
ightness in its flight, 
id a tapering train 
ree or four degrees 



3° or 4° 



Auroral arch on the 
25th, at 9 h 15 m p.m. 



Horizontal ; W. to E.. . . Left no train ; no report 
heard. 



The path was not The train appeared to 
straight, but slightly consist of a number 
waved. of much smaller me- 

teors. 



Id. 



Communicated 
by A. S. Her- 
schel. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 

R. H. Allnatt. 
W. H. Wood. 

J. H. Abrahall. 
W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 

J. H. Abrahall. 

Jos. Baxendell. 



98 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1865 
Apr. 30 



30 

30 

May 1 



h m 

45 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Apparent Size. 



2 x Venus 



Colour. 



Yellow, red, 
and green. 



Duration. 



5 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From R. A. 0°, M 
Decl.58°,toR./l 
315°, N. Dec 
30°. Began pn 
cisely at /3 Caj 
siopeiae; well oil 
served. 



a, 




1. First appearance. 

2. Appearance after first quarter of its course : a b, expanded diameter ; c, con- 
tracted diameter. 

3. Appearance near the end of its course: de = 12', diameter of temporary 
white envelope of the nucleus ; /, contracted diameter of the nucleus, green. 



1 5 a.m. 

1 30 a.m. 

9 40 p.m. 

10 30 p.m. 

10 31 p.m. 

16 a.m. 

11 5 p.m. 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Greenwich 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid 



== 1st mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 




Yellow 



Blue 



Bluish white... 



Blue 



Bright blue .. 



White 



Orange red 



1 second 
1 second 

^ second 



Less than 1 sec 

- 7 second ... 

0'7 second ... 
4 - 5 seconds ... 



From R. A. 0°, N 
Decl. 58°, to R. A 
6°, N. Decl. 56°. 

From R. A. 20 c 
N. Decl. 51°, t 1 
R. A. 30°, Ni 
Decl. 42°. 

From direction c| 
a Ursae Majoris 
disappeared nea 
t Ursae Majoris. 

From the directio 
of a Lyra; ; dis 
appeared near 
Cephei. 

From v Draconisi 
disappeared afe\ 
degrees above 
Lyrae. 

om ^- y, w Cf 
phei to / Cus 
todis. 

From T Cephei to 
point midwaybe 
tween 23 and 3 
Cygni. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



99 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



int train 



un 



ial to a 1st mag.*. 
onsisting entirely of a 
tream of red sparks ; 
nd having a flash, or 
laximum of brightness 
= 1/. some distance be 
jre disappearance. 



10°+ 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



8° to 10°. 



16° 



Perpendicular , 



Nearly horizontal 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Began as a mere lumi- 
nous point. Grew to 
equal a 1st mag.* (yel- 
low with yellow tail), 
in the first quarter of 
its course. Equal to 
Venus at half its 
course (green with red 
flame-like protube- 
rances behind) ; tail 
18° long, and bright 
yellow. Expanded and 
contracted alternately 
four or five times, in 
the second half of its 
course, increasing in 
brightness until it 
burst with a flash 
twice as bright as 
Venus, faintly illumi- 
nating the country. 
The train remained 
3 seconds ; 8 or 10 
minutes after disap- 
pearance, a rumbling 
noise was heard which 
lasted 3 seconds. 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



Id. 



Three minutes later a 
report, like that of a 
cannon at some miles 
distance was heard. 



\V. C. Nash. 



Id. 



Id. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 



100 



REPORT — 1865. 



Date. 



1865. 
May 6 



8 

18 

24 

25 



Hour. 



h in 
11 53 p.m 



25 

25 
25 

June 8 



20 

20 
20 



5 a.in 

11 20 p.m. 

11 20 p.m. 

4 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Greenwich 



1 40 a.m. 

11 10 p.m. 
11 13 p.m. 

8 a.m. 



10 41 p.m, 

10 57 p.m, 

11 32 p.m. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 



Manchester . 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Ibid, 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Weston - super 
Mare. 



Greenwich 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



Larger than 1st 
mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 



a. Lyrse 



Colour. 



White 



-3rd, then = 1st Pale blue, 
mag.* 



3rd mag.* 

3rd mag.* 
1st mag.* 

= Venus 

= 2nd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 



Duration. 



About 1 sec. 



Smoky blue.. 



Bluish white.. 



Blue 

White 
Blue 



Yellowish 
white. 



- 4 second 



2 seconds. 



0-9 second 



1*5 second 



0-5 second 

- 5 second 
1*5 second 



2 seconds. 



White 

Yellow 
White 



0'5 second 

0-7 second 
1 second .., 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From a point b 
tween a and »Cyi 
ni ; flew upwarc 
across X Lyrae,an 
disappeared 1' 
2° beyond the la 
ter star. 
From \ Ursae M 
noris to S Urs;| 
Majoris. 
From R. A. 195 'II 
N. Decl. 28°, tl 
R. A. 205°, >| 
Decl. 15°. 
From (3 Cephei tl 
4/ Cygni. 

From R. A. 262^ 

S. Decl. 8°, ti 
R. A. 264°, H 
Decl. 4°. 



From R. A. 8° 
N. Decl. 57°, t. 
R. A. 32°, N; 
Decl. 59°. 

To/, halfway fron 
»' Canum Venati 
corum. 

From R. A. 348° 
N. Decl. 60°, t( 
R. A. 17°, N: 
Decl. 67°. 

From a poin : 
near d Draconis 
passed acros: 
(3 Cephei am 
y Cassiopeia;, t(i 
a point 5° be' 
yond the latte 
star. 

Appeared midwa; 
between f La! 
certaj and a 
Cygni. 

From /tot Pegasi 
and as far again 

From e Delphini 
halfway to A 
Equulei. 




A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 101 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



'ine train 



Length of 
Path. 



25 c 



eft a smoky streak 4° in 
length. 



lightly denned disk, 
Left a momentary 
train. 




Ax=4° 
xy—\h' 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Directed from Tarandus 



In thirty minutes one 
meteor. 



Radiant, N s R. P. Greg. 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Herschel. 



W. II. Wood. 



Rose vertically from The last 8° of the patl 
Radiant Q 1( Q 2 . were convex towards 

the west. 



'■> train or sparks 



liin 



!* train or sparks 6° 



40° -r- 



^ train or sparks 

r o maxima of brightness 
i its flight. 



Perpendicular , 



M 7 , D w, and D G 2 this 
year; occurred in April 
and May, rather than 
in May and June. 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



A. S. Herschel. 



W. H. Wood. 



Directed from e Cephei 



A very brilliant meteor.. W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Herschel. 

(d. 
Id. 



102 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1865. 
June20 

July 1 
2 


h m s 
11 35 p.m. 

11 50 p.m. 

35 + 
a.m. 


Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Weston - super - 

Mare. 

Ibid 




Yellow 

Blue 


- 5 second ... 
0*5 second ... 

0*5 second ... 


From c to n Pega 

From 190° + 58' 
to 193 + 50. 

From 168° + 72' 
to 161 + 52 


Blue 






2 


1 20 a.m. 


Ibid 




Blue 


1 second 


From 270° + 30 c 
to 245 + 35. 






9 
15 

17 

17 


Night ; 

12 + 

p.m. 
11 35 p.m. 

11 4 p.m. 
11 20 p.m. 


Ibid 




Vari-coloured 


Several sees... 


From a little W. 
N. to some di 
tance E. of N. 

First appeared ne 
a Pegasi, passt 
very near to 
Lacertae, abo> 
midway betwe< 
a. and j3 Cephe 
and disappears 
at a point n 
far from (i Urs 
Minoris. 


Warrington 
(Lancashire). 

Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Ibid .. 


Very large 


— 2nd mag.* 




1-5 second ... 
0-25 second... 




From 231° + 12 c l 
to 228 + 5. 
From 267° - 3 C 






to 267 — 10. 


19 

19 
19 


10 26 p.m. 

10 26 40 
p.m. 

10 30 + 






Blue 


Lessthan 1 sec. 

3 seconds ... 
Several sees... 


From a point mill 


Blue 


way between 
Ursae Major 
and a. Draconis 
pursued a pat 
for 10° or 12 
parallel to a Hi 
joining d and 
Ursae Majori 
and directed h 
wards Capella. 

From /3 Ursae Miml 
ris ; disappear! 
near X Draconi 

From due S. toEi 




19 


p.m. 
10 32 p.m. 






Brilliantbluish 
white. 


Lesstlianlsec. 


From a little belo| 
e Ursae Major, 
to ip Ursse M 




28 
28 
28 


10 30 p.m. 
10 39 p.m. 
10 56 p.m. 


Hawlshurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 




White 


- 6 second ... 
2-5 seconds ... 
1*4 second ... 


j oris. 
From <p, halfway j 

2 Draconis. 
From i (C, F) Hei 

culis to a Corom, 
From i} Ursa; M:| 

joris to^ (Sdo., 

Canum Venat 


White, then 
red. 


Ibid 


















corum). 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



103 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



o train or sparks 
o train or sparks 

d train or sparks . 

) train or sparks . 



:ceedingly luminous 
■with superb changes of 
colour, 
ke a large rocket. The 
light increased rapidly 
in the first 10° of its 
flight. A bluish phos- 
phorescent train was 
.hen developed, which 
continued visible some 
seconds after the me- 
;eor itself had disap 
jeared. 
I train or sparks 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



75° 



Remarks. 



* train or sparks 



k train 



in 



10° or 12° 



Loeteor of considerable 
rilliancy ; left a tail of 
slden fire. 



<:rain or sparks 



N sparks following the 

lcleus. 
Brain or sparks 



14 ; 



The phosphorescent 
track terminated 

about the point where 
the increase of light 
terminated. 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 
W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 



' Weston-super- 
Mare Mer- 
curv.' 

T. G. Rylands. 



Inclined 



20° 



Very short 

path. 
38° 



Inclined 



Very rapid in its motion 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



Nearly stationary 



Directed from Fomal- 

haut. 
From a southern Radiant 



This meteor scintillated 
considerably, and dis 
appeared very sud 
denly. 



J. P. Trapaud. 



' Bristol Daily 
Post.' 

W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 



104 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1865 
July 28 



28 

28 

28 

28 

29 
29 

29 

29 

29 
29 

29 
29 
29 



h m 

10 58 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



11 14 p.m. Ibid 

11 17 p.m. Ibid 

11 32 p.m. Ibid , 

11 35 p.m. Ibid , 



10 a.m. 
12 a.m. 

15 a.m. 



20 a.m. 

36 a.m. 
44 a.m. 

52 a.m. 

53 a.m. 

10 10 p.m. 



29 10 45 p.m, 



29 
29 
29 

29 
29 



10 46 p.m. 

11 p.m. 
11 12 p.m. 

11 14 p.m. 
11 16 p.m. 



Ibid . 
Ibid . 

Ibid. 



Ibid 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Combe, near 
Woodstock 
(Oxon.). 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



- 1st mag.*, then 
twice as bright 
as V-- 



= 2nd mas* 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 1st map;.* 



■1st mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rdnia<r.*.. 



= 1st mag.* 

= 1st mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



= Sirius 



= 3rd mag.* 



White 



Yellow 



Yellow 



White, then 
orange. 



White 



White . 
Yellow 

White . 



White . 

Yellow , 
White . 

White , 
White . 



§ the size of Venus Pale yellow 



= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



White . 

White . 
White . 
Yellow 

White . 
White . 



Duration. 



L"7 second 

1-5 second 

0-9 second 

1'8 second 

07 second 

0-5 second 
1"5 second 

07 second 
1 second ... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



0-9 second .. 
1*3 second .. 

0-9 second .. 



1 second , 

Slow motion.. 

05 second .. 

0-5 second .., 
0-8 second ... 
15 second .., 

0*6 second .., 
07 second ... 



From £ (/3 Aqua 

as Equulei) to 

(a Aquarii, \ 

gasi). 
To (i Cassiopei 

halfway from 

Pegasi. 
From 9 Pegasi tc 

(/3 Aquarii, 

Equulei). 
From ^ (v, 

Cygni to | (£, 

Cephei. 
From r Tarandi 

i (p, r) Cephe 

Close to J Dracoi 

From ? Cephei t< 
Ursae Minoris. 

From Y Dracoi 
to y Ursa; W 
joris. 

FromaHonorium 
a Lacertae, a 
as far again. 

From y to $ (9, 
Piscium. 

From X Honorit 
to /3 Cassiopei 
and half as 
again. 

To 4 Ursae Majo 
halfway from 
Camelopardi. 

To X Pegasi, £ 
the way fron 
Andromeda;. 

Appeared in the 
at a mode 
altitude, ant 
moved towa 
S.E. 

From a to 

Cygni, and 

far again. 
First appeared a 

Custodis. 
From /3 Cephei 

7r Draconis 
From i (k C; 

ni, a Cephei), 

* (jS. y) Ui 

Minoris. 
Disappeared at 

Pegasi. 
From a. Androi 

daj, halfway tc 

Pegasi. 



A CATALOGUE Of OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



105 



)pearance ; Train, if any, 
aud its Duration. 



Length of 
Tath. 



sappeared with a flash 7° or 8° .. 
about one degree in 
length, at which place a 
train remained 4 sees, 
. tiaiu or sparks 



i train or sparks 



23° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



From a southern Radiant 1 U. S. Ilerschel 



Directed from Fomal- 
haut. 



dulatiug, throwing off 
iery sparks in the last 
lalf of its course, 
conical train remained 
ipon the whole course 
1% seconds. 

train or sparks 

train or sparks 



train or sparks 



leak 2 seconds. 



23° 



No path 
26° 



train or sparks 
train or sparks 



i ! t a streak upon the 
hole path for 3 sees. 



Strain or sparks 



Bntained a uniform 
Tightness. Drew a 
am of sparks. 



Directed from Fomal 
haut. 



Stationary 

Directed from Fomal- 
haut. 



Undulating motion in 
the last half of its 
course. 



1.1. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



21 : 



Directed from a southern 

Radiant. 
Directed from Fomal 

haut. 



•train or sparks 



Long path.. 



6 a streak for 2 seconds 
b a streak for 2 seconds 
i rain or sparks 



c rain or sparks 
Drain or sparks 



30 c 



Almost horizontal, in- 
clining downwards. 



Directed from x Persei. 



Directed from Fomal 
haut. 



Directed from /3 Cygni. 



In 2 h 30 m forty-three 
meteors : one observer ; 
clear sky ; no moon. 
A second at 10 h 20 m , 
equally bright ; de- 
scended vertically. A 
third appeared at the 
same hour on the fol- 
lowing night. 



rd. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
J. H. Abrahall. 

A. S. Ilerschel. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



106 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1865. 
July 29 

29 



29 
29 

29 

29 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 
11 38 p.m. Hawkhurst 
(Kent) 



30 



30 



30 



11 39 p.m 



11 50 p.m, 

11 52 p.m. 

11 55 p.m, 

11 56 p.m, 



10 25 p.m. 



11 46 p.m, 



11 56 p.m 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



3012 p.m. 



31 

31 

31 

31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 

Aug. 3 



4 a.m. 

13 a.m. 

28 a.m. 

34 a.m 

39 a.m 

40 a.m 

41 a.m 

44 a.m 

44 30 
a.m. 

8 40 p.m, 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 

Ibid, 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



St. Helier's 

(Jersey). 



Apparent Size. 



11 25 p.m. Weston - super - =Sirius 
Mare. 



=2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Large 



Colour. 



White 
White 

White 
White 

White 
White 

White 

White 

White 

White 

White 

White , 

White . 

White . 
White . 
White . 
White . 
White . 
Yellow 



Red 



Duration. 



Bright yellow 



0*6 second ., 
0*8 second . 

0-8 second . 
07 second . 

- 9 second ., 
- 8 second .. 

- 5 second .. 

1'9 second ., 

0*8 second .. 
0-5 second .. 

- 8 second ... 

- 6 second 

0-7 second 

0*8 second 
- 5 second 
- 9 second 
1 second ... 
1 second ... 
l'l second 



A few seconds, 
very brief. 



0'5 second 



Position, or I 
Altitude and I 
Azimuth. 



From K, halfway! 

p Camelopardil 
From OAndrome'l 

to ■=. (a And:l 

metlse, t Pegas 
From 2 to y Lyi 

and as far aga 
To i Cephei, J 

the way fror 

Cassiopeia;. 
From * Cassiope 

to v Persei. 
From /3 Cephei 1 

Draconis. 



From 150° + • 

to 163 + 31 

To 5 (a Dracon 

£ Ursa} Majon 

i of the 

from L Camel 

pardi. 
From I Cyg 

halfway to 

Lacertae. 
To o Ursae Majo 

3 of the way frc 

L Camelopardi 
To i Honorium, 

of the way frc 

a Andromedse. 
To r, halfway fret 

2 Ursae Minor 

and 4° further, 
From \ (X, u) 

norium to m | 

certse. 
From to d 

gasi. 
From u) to ^ (v, 

Andromeda. 
From a. to /3 

rigae. 
From 2 Cassiope- 

to m Custodis 
From g to \ (i, 

Draconis. 
From i (\, u) H 

noriuni to Cs 

siopeiae. 
Dropped verticalll 

to the S.E. ill 

E. horizon, fro, 

altitude 10° + 

«= 2= 
From 233° + 3 g 
to 234 + 7 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 107 



ppearancej Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



) train or sparks 
> train or sparks 

train or sparks . 
train or sparks . 

train or sparks . 
train or sparks . 



't a train . 



t a streak on the whole 
f its course for 2 sees. 



train or sparks 

train or sparks 

train or sparks 

a streak for 2 seconds 
a streak for 2 seconds 



ik 1| second 

a streak for 1 second 
rain or sparks 

Jrain or sparks 

Drain or sparks 

•rain or sparks 



t>td like a cricket-ball. 
Jsappeared without 
lltrsting. 



kuucleus appeared sen- 
sly elongated. 



10 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



In one hour sixteen me- 
teors : one observer ; 
clear sky ; no moon. 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



In one hour twenty-four ] 

meteors : one observer ; 

clear sky ; no moon. 
Seen by several persons Communicated 



at St. Helier's. 



Bright moonlight 



byA.S. Herschel 



W. H. Wood. 



1 2 



108 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1865. 

Aug. 5 

8 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 

9 35 p.m. St. Malo (France) 

8 55 p.m.lDax (S. France) 

9 20 p.m. Ibid 



9 
10 



11 



11 



11 



11 



9 40 p.m. 



9 4G p.m. 
9 47 p.m. 



Ibid 



9 57 p.m. 
10 20 p.m, 

10 42 p.m 

11 37 p.m 
to 1 a.m 



9 41 15 

p.m. 

9 48 ± 
p.m. 

9 48 10 
p.m. 

9 51 45 
p.m. 



Ibid 
[bid , 



Ibid, 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Ibid 

Greenwich 
Surbiton ... 



Greenwich 



Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



:2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
:3rd mag.* 
:2nd mag.* 

;2nd mag.* 

= v- 



=2nd mag.* 



-1st mag.* 
:2nd mag.* 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green 
wicb. 



Ibid . 



= 4th mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



=4th mag.* 



White 
White 
White 
White 



-1st mag.* .... 



Colour. 



White 

Blue and red- 



Duration. 



0"8 second 
0-7 second 
0'9 second 
0-7 second 

0-7 second 
1*5 second 



White 



Blue 



Blue 

Bluish white. 



07 second 

- 5 second 

0-5 second 
.j second .. 



Blue 



llcddish 



Bluish white... 



Bluish white... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From c Draconin 
7r Ilerculis. 

From /i to i 
Lyrx. 

From Q Cepheil 
j; Draconis. 

From e Ursse M 
joris to £ I 
Ursaj Majorisl 
Canum Venatil 
rum). 

From -J (y, t) til 
Cephei. 

From ip, across! 

Cephei,toi//Cyd 



From y to ji Cl 
siopeiae. 

From 138° + 5 
to 151 +4 



Across Draco * 
wards « Lyra; 



| second 



Less than 1 
second. 



second 



Less than J sec. 



From the direct' ^ 
of ft Bootis 1 
a point N. o.J 
Bootis. 

From a point ' I 
of y Bootis t 
point near )| 
Bootis. 

From a point it'/ 
way betweei 
and S Buotis 
v^ Bootis. 

Between y an«' 
Draconis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



109 



Ippearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



} train or sparks 
) train or sparks , 
) train or sparks , 
train or sparks . 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Ohscrver. 



ft a streak for 1 second 



lue nucleus, surrounded 30 c 
rind followed by red 
sparks. Diminished to 
1 point, and disappeared 
without bursting. The 
streak remained visible 
15 seconds. 



Directed from Perseus. 



A. S. Hcrschel. 

id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



In the latter part of its Id. 
course the flight and 
the streak were twice 

inflected. 



tft a streak for 2 seconds 



I streak visible. 



train 



train 



< train 



a. Commencement. 



Streak. 
b. Termination of the meteor. 



I5 C 



8°. 



Inclined 



In one hour six meteors: 
one observer; clear sky 
moon nearly full. 
Full moonlight; 2nd 
mag. stars not dis- 
tinguishable. 
riiree meteors from 10' 
to ll h 1 j"> p.m. 



In one hour no meteors 
seen: sky partial); 
clear ; full moon. A 
terrific storm of light- 
ning and rain before 
midnight. 

.V fine clear night 



Id. 



w. 


II 


M'ood 


Id. 






\v. 


c. 


Nash. 



10 Inclined 



itrain 



I train 



Inclined 



a Lyra;. y Draconis. 



/ 



F. Cruniplcn. 



Arthur Harding. 



Id. 



;\V. C. Nash. 



Id. 



/3 Diaeonis. 



110 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1865. 
Aug.l] 

11 
11 


h m s 
10 p.m. 

10 5 
p.m. 

10 1 5 
p.m. 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid 


—3rd mag.* 

= 4th mag.* 


Blue 


05 second ... 
Less than 1 sec. 

Rapid motion.. 




Bluish white... 
Bluish white... 


From 175° + 5;j 

to 191 + 4(j 

From the view 

of a Cygni, i, 

appeared nea) 

Cygni. 
Fell through Eqi 

leus towards 1 




11 

11 
11 


10 7 30 
p.m. 

10 8 p.m. 

10 10 30 

p.m. 


Ibid 




Blue ... 


More than 1 
second. 

0-75 second ... 
1 second 


rizon. 
From the directi 
of /3 Peg! 
passed acr 
Delphinus ant 
Aquilae to a po 
5° beyond 1 
latter star. 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 


White 


= 1st mag.* ...... 


Bluish white... 


From 0° 4- 2if 

to -flJ 

InN.N.W.,altitit 

60°, directed 1 

wards W. 


11 
11 

11 


10 19 15 
p.m. 

10 19 42 
p.m. 

10 21 30 
p.m. 


Ibid 




Bluish white... 
Bluish white... 

Bluish white... 




In W., from a poj 
10° below a Lyii 
passed across 
Ophiucbi. 


Ibid 




Ibid 


= 2nd mag.* 


in the vicin 
of i) Dracoi 
to a point 1 
W. of 1) Uil 
Majoris. 




tion of Co 
Berenices, c | 


11 

11 
11 


10 23 41 
p.m. 

10 25 p.m. 

10 31 30 
p.m. 


Ibid 




Bluish white... 
Blue 


0*5 second ... 


appeared nea: 
Bb'otis. 
From a point ' 
below 7] Ui' 
Majoris towa; 
Arcturus. 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 


Bluish white- 


From 37° + 5! 

to 23 + 6: 
From a position 
W. of 12 Cani 
Venaticorum 
wards the 
horizon ; dis: 
peared at a I 
tude 10°+. ! 


11 


10 32 p.m. 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 


>lst mag.* 












From 162° 4- 5*1 | 
to 170 +4; 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Ill 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



o train or sparks 



i train 



j train 



ne train ; lasted 1 sec. 



12° 

10° 
25° 



) train or sparks 
le train 



lie train. 



ic train. 



lall train 



ft a train . 
he train.... 



lft a train for 2 seconds 



Length of 
Path. 



12 



" 



Perpendicular 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



s 



Almost perpendicularly 
down. 



The meteor ascended 
apparently. 



Remarks. 



The nights of the 9th 
and 10 th were over- 
cast. 



Observer. 



A very brilliant meteor. 



Id. 



Id. 



Very brilliant 



Very brilliant 



12 Can. Ven. 



W. H. Wood. 



\V. C. Nash. 



W. H. Wood. 
Ernest Jones. 

W. C. Nash. 
Id. 

Ernest Jones. 

W. C. Nash. 

W. II. Wood. 
Ernest Jones. 



W. H. Wood. 



112 




REPORT — 18G5. 






Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1865. 
Aug.ll 

11 
11 

11 

11 
11 
11 


h m s 

10 33 31 

p.m. 

10 40 p.m. 

10 40 15 
p.m. 

10 47 15 
p.m. 

10 49 p.m. 
10 52 p.m. 
10 52 n.m. 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 

[bid 


— 1st mag.* 


Bluish white... 


More than 1 
second. 

1 second 

06 second ... 
0-75 second ... 
Very rapid ... 

Greater than 
1 second. 

Momentary ... 
Slow motion.. 


From direction . 
y Persei t 
wards » Urs 
Majoris. Cent 
of path midw; 
between tho 
stars. 

a= = 

From 212° + 22 
to 216 + 8. 
From the dire 

tion of k Dr. 

conis to a poii 

between a Dr; 

conis and i) Urs 

Majoris. 
From a point b 

tween a Urs. 

Majoris and Pi 

laris to a point? 

of k Draconis. 




= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mn.g.* 

= 3rd mag.* 


Bluish white... 
Blue 


\\ eston - super - 
Mare. 

Iljid . 


Blue 


From 195 D + 45 '1 
to 199 +37. 
From 24° -f 70 c ,| 


Weston - super - 
Mare. 

Ibid 


Blue 


to 32 + Cl.'f 
From the direclioij 


11 10 56 n.m. 


Red 


of X Bootis. 


11 
11 

11 

11 
11 

11 
11 


10 58 p.m. 

10 58 45 
p.m. 

11 1 45 
p.m. 

11 6 30 

p.m. 
11 10 15 

p.m. 

11 17 45 
p.m. 

11 26 p.m. 


Blue 


From 205° + 52 c I 
to 212 + 20. 
From 190° + 58 c i'J 


Ibid 




Blue 


to 193 + 44.)j 
Passed below < Drai 


Blue 


conis from thedi 1 
rection of t Ursr'l 
Minoris. 
From the direction! 


Ibid 


White 


of y Draconis i> 1 

a point S. of J! 

Cygni. 
From a point W. Oi I 

Polaris. 
From l3 Cygni ii 

the direction o, 

a Ophiuchi. 
Between £ and « 


Ibid 


Blue 


Ibid 


Blue 


Ibid 


Bluish white... 


Cygni. 

From Cassiopeia/' 
shot 20° towards 
Capella. 



















A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 113 



pearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



kin 



opened in colour and 
ei reased in size. 



Hit train 25 



1 train or sparks 



train or sparks 



Utrain 

Strain or sparks 

irain or sparks 



rain 



rain 



rain 
rain 



Length of 
Path. 



10 c 



10 : 



20° 

10° 
12° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Nearly horizontal 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 



Perpendicular , 



Inclined 



Clear sky from 10 1 ' to 11 
15 m p.m. ; 12 meteors 
seen : one observer. 



Almost perpendicular. 
Inclined 



Curved path 



20° Almost perpendicular. 



I Cygni. 




Cygni. 



W. II. Wood. 



Arthur Harding. 



Id. 



W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Arthur Harding. 
W. II. Wood. 

Id. 

Arthur Harding. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



114 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1865. 
Aug. 11 



11 



11 



11 



12 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

12 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 27 30 

p.ru. 



11 33 30 
p.m. 

11 39 47 
p.m. 



11 40 p.m 



9 10 p.m. 



11 7 p.m. 
11 12 p.m. 
11 16 p.m. 
11 2f p.m. 
11 25 p.m. 
11 31 p.m. 
11 36 p.m. 

11 40 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Greenwich 



Ibid. 



Ibid 



Ibid. 



Combe, near 
Woodstock 
(Oxon.). 



| the size of Venus 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich .... 
Ibid 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



■■ 1st mag.* 



= 1st mag.*. 



: 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 



Blue 



Bluish white... 



Bluish white.. 



Blue 



Pale yellow , 



Blue 



Blue 



= 3rd mag.* Blue 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 1st mag.* 



= 1st mag.*. 



Blue 



Blue 



Bluish white., 



Bluish 



Blue 



Duration. 



H second 



1 second 



Less than 1 sec, 



| second 



0-5 second 



0"5 second 



0-25 second .. 



1 second 



- 5 second 



Rapid motion. 



t; second 



0-5 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From the direc- 
tion of /3 Ursa 
Minoris to z 
point between I 
Draconis and % 
Ursae Majoris. 

From a point abova 
Capella ; disap- 
peared 5° below 
|8 Auriga?. 

From a point 5 C 
W. of a Ursa] 
Majoris ; passetj 
below S Ursa' 
Majoris to i 
point about 7 C 
below e Ursa 
Majoris. 

From the directiorj 
of X Draconis 
passed above <] 
Ursae Majoris 
a point below 
Ursoe Majoris. 

Fell to very nea 
the S.W. horizon I 



From 242° + 63° 
to 214 + 51. 

From 190° + 40° 
to 193 + 34. 

From 127° + 53° 
to 133 +47. 

From 24° + 70° 
to 50 + 67. ' 

From 265° + 70° 
to 263 +51.1 

In the W. ; disapj 
peared near Co' 
rona Borealis. , 

From the directioi 
of Sagitta; dis; 
appeared near 
Herculis. 

*= S=\ 

From 186° + 71° 
to 190 + 58 ! 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



115 



ippearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



'rain 



(o train 



fo train 



Ifo train or sparks 



To train or sparks 



io train or sparks 



.'o train or sparks 



fo train or sparks 



To train or sparks 



. T o train 
light train 

eft a train 



Length of 
Path. 



15° 



11V 



\r 



12- 



15 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Inclined 



Inclined 



Inclined 



Inclined 



N.E. toS.W 



Almost perpendicular. . . 



Remarks. 



A brilliant meteor 



A second, nearly as 
bright, appeared at 
10 h 15 m p.m., falling 

thus— S. to N. 



\ 



Very cloudy. 



Clear sky ; six meteors 
from 10 h 50 m to ll h 
50 m p.m., for a single 
observer. 



Observer. 



Arthur Harding. 



W. C. Nash. 



Id. 



Arthur Harding. 



J. H. Abrahall. 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



Id. 



W. H. Wood. 



116 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1865 
Aug. 13 



13 

13 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 
9 53 p.m. 



9 56 p.m. 

10 2 15 
p.m. 



Tooting, Surrey. 



13 
13 

13 

14 

11 

17 
17 

17 
17 
17 



10 6 p.m. 



10 36 p.m. 



11 30 50 
p.m. 

10 23 p.m. 



10 40 to 
11 p.m. 



9 12 p.m 
10 5 p.m 

10 15 p.m 

10 25 p.m 

11 31 p.m 



Ibid 

Greenwich 



Ibid 



rooting, Surrey. 



Greenwich 



Apparent Size. 



1st mag.* 

= 1st mag,* 
= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* ... 



= 1st mag.*. 



1st mas *. 



Ibid 



Combe, near 
Woodstock 
(Oxon.). 



Greenwich 



iVrgeles (Ilautes 
Pyrenees). 



Ibid 
Ibid 

Ibid 



= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 4th mag.* ; 
> a Lyras. 



Colour. 



= 3rd mag.* ... 
3 or 4 times % ... 



Bluish white.. 

Bluish white., 
Blue 



2 seconds. 



Blue 



Bluish 



Bluish white. 



Bluish white 



Bluish white. 
White 



then 



Duration. 



I second 
I second 



2 second 



I second 



1 second 



1 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Disappeared near | 
Lyra;. 



From y Buotis b 

wards y Serpentis 

From direction o 

i Ursac Minoris 

passed between 

and a. Draconis. 

Fellperpcndicularl; 

from a point 

little to the lef 

of Arcturus. 

From a point 5' 

below y Bootis 

disappeared nea 

e Boo I is. 

Fell almost perpen 

diculailyinW.fron 

near y Serpentis 

From a point 

little below 

Draconis to 

Draconis. 



Yellow 
White , 



Orange, then 



l.essthanlscc 
05 second ... 

1*3 second ... 
D4 second ... 
10-12 seconds 



red. 



In the N.N.W. 
altitude 20°. 

Emerged from 
cloud at a poin 
midway betweei 
X, and i) Urss! 
Majoris. 

To y Cephei, § o, 
the way from | 
Honorium. 

From y Pegasi to I 
(<t>, i) Piscium 
and as far again 

From \ (k Cygni, 
Draconis) to j (i 
K) Camelopardi 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



117 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



ne train, 
o train . 

o train . 



Length of 
Path. 



20° 



ight train . 



ain 



ne train. 



train 



eteor not seen. The 
streak remained visihle 
15 seconds. Fusiform, 
fading from the ends 
towards the centre, 
o train or sparks 



;ft a streak for 1 second 



jual to a 4th mag.* in 
the first half of its 
course ; gradually in- 
creasing, it drew a train 
of ruddy sparks 3° in 
length behind it. In 
the last 10° of its course 
it was followed by four 
or five distinct balls of 
light, thus — 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



yra. & 

it * 



Lyr 
# 
Nearly horizontal .... 

Almost perpendicular. 



Perpendicular . 



Almost perpendicular. . 



12° Nearly horizontal; 

to W. 
Length of Direction from t Dra- 
streak 6°. conis. 



50° 



Uiisht meteor 



Three or four bright me- 
teors seen together. 
Shooting-stars by no 
means plentiful. A few 
bright meteors were 
also seen on the 13th. 

Very cloudy; no stars 
discernible. 

The meteor lighted up 
the landscape with a 
bright flash. 



The meteor and the 
fragments gradually 
disappeared. The 

duration of the flight 
was from 10 to 12 
seconds, well counted 
immediately after the 
disappearance of the 
meteor. 



Ernest Jones. 

Id. 

Arthur Harding. 

Id. 

Ernest Jones. 

W. C. Nash. 
Ernest Jones. 

J. II. Abrahall. 

W. C. Nash. 
A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 
fd. 



118 



REPORT 1865. 



Date. 



1865. 
Aug.17 

19 



19 
21 

22 

22 
24 

25 

25 



25 



25 



26 



26 



26 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 51 p.m 

8 40 p.m 



9 p.m 

9 12 18 
p.m. 



8 55 30 
p.m. 

8 59 p.m. 

8 27 p.m, 



8 58 30 
p m. 

9 34 p.m. 



9 35 30 
p.m. 



9 41 p.m 

10 43 30 ■ 
p.m. 

6 a.m 
9 10 p.m 
9 35 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Argeles (Hautes 
Pyrenees). 

Lac de Gaube 
(Pyrenees). 

Ibid 

Greenwich 

Blackheath 

Ibid 



Halton, Hastings 

(Sussex). 



Greenwich 
Ibid 

Ibid ....... 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= Venus 

= 4th mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 

= 2nd mag.* 
= lst mag.*.. 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 4th mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



White . 
White . 

White . 
Blue . 

Blue . 

White . 
Reddish 



Brilliant blue 
White 

Blue 

Bluish white .. 
Blue 

Blue 

Blue 

Bluish white.. 



Duration. 



- 7 second 
0-7 second 

0-5 second 
1$ second 

5 seconds 

l second ... 



3 seconds. 



Very rapid 
motion. 



1 second 



f second 



Very rapid 
motion. 



1 second 



second 



i second 



Rapid motion. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From X to e Cygi 

From e Aquila; i 

i (8 Aquila', I 

Serpentis). 
First appeared at I 

Herculis. 
From the zeniij 

to a point a 

on the right of] 

Draconis. 
From a point r.ea 

4> Pegasi to 

Trianguli. 

Fell from a poiij 
in the vicinity ( 
a Persei. 

Appeared near/3 Al 
dromedffi, passe 
3° under y Al 
droinedae, an 
disappeared clos 
to (3 Persei. 

From the directiol 
of tp Cassiopeil 
to a point abo\ ! 
e Cassiopeia;. 

Towards horizon! 
path parallel to I 
line connecting I 
and /3 Ursas Mil 
joris. 



From a point 'M 
left of r] Urs I 
Majoris, in tt' 
direction of 
Bootis. 

Passed between 1 
and « Serpent 
towards y Booti 

Passed above 
Corona? Boreal 
in the directio 
of a Serpentis. , 

From direction J 
a Cephei, disa] 
peared near j 
Draconis. 

From the dirert 
tion of ij Urs 
Majoris to 
Bootis. 

Passed above a. Ail 
dromedae towart 
y Andromeda;. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 119 



>pearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



> train or sparks 
) 'rain or sparks 

> train or sparks 



int train 



train 



light short train 



h train 



f train 



train 



J train 



! -rain 



crain 



Length of 
Path. 



6°.., 
15° 



10° 



Wtrain , 6° 



11 : 



(train 10° 



7°. 



7°. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Directed from ^Lyra. 

Almost perpendicular. ..Slow motion 



Nearly horizontal 



Perpendicular . 



Inclined 



oUrs.Maj. 

* 



/SUrs.Maj. 
Inclined .. 



Burst about 1 second 
before disappearance, 
throwing off a shower 
of sparks. 



Nearly horizontal, to. 
wards N. 



Inclined 



Inclined 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

Arthur Harding. 

Id. 

F. Howlett. 



Arthur Harding. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



Id. 



Arthur Harding. 



120 



REPORT — 1865. 



Date. Hour. 



1865. 
Aug. 2 6 



20 

26 

27 
27 
29 



h iu s 
9 52 30 
p.m. 

10 4 p.m. 



10 25 p.m 

8 15 p.m 

9 5 p.m 



Greenwich 



Place of 
Observation. 



Ibid 



Ibid 



Perigueux (S. 
France). 



Ibid 



8 38 p.m. Greenwich 



Apparent Size. 



= Venus 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 4th mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



= lst mag.* 



Colour. 



Blue 



Blue 



Blue 



White 



White 



White 



Duration. 



S seconds. 



h second 



Very rapid 
motion. 



- 7 second 
07 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From i Cassiopeia! 
disappeared 
the neighbou 
hood of a Perse 

From direction ill 
ft Cephei ; di 
appeared near i 
Corona; Boreali i 



From the directic 1 
of <r Ursse M 
noris to a poii 
aboveaDraconi 

To o Honorium, ' 
of the way fro 
e Cephei. 

From 9 Cassiopeil 
to £ (S Cassiij 
peiai, x Persei' 

From a point 5d 
altitude ; 5° rigl 
of Polaris to 
point midwi 
between S Urs 
Majoris and 
Draconis. 



APPENDIX. 

I. Meteors doubly observed. 

(1.) Fireball; 1864, August 31st, 10 h 31 ra p.m. 

At Exeter, the meteor disappeared at an altitude of 18° in the E.N.E., 
whilst at Frant in Sussex it appeared to move at an altitude of about 50° in 
the W., disappearing S.W. From Exeter to Frant, the direct distance is 
1G7 British statute miles, and the distance of the meteor from the earth at 
disappearance was from forty-five to fifty miles above Chichester, on the 
coast of Sussex. The character of the data does not permit the investigation 
to be carried further. 

(2.) Fireball; 1864, November 11th, 5 h 35 m p.m. 

The meteor was vertical over the west of Auvergne, where it was seen in 
twilight, and over the valleys of the Lot, Dordogne, and Garonne, in the 
south of France. It was observed at Hawkhurst, Tunbridge, and West 
Pcckham, near Maidstone, in Kent. The height at disappearance, derived 
from the English, compared with the French observations, is forty -five miles, 
between Limoges and Rhodez. The flight, of more than eighty miles, was 
accompanied by a brilliant streak, which remained visible several minutes in 
the twilight. This was nearly horizontal, directed from between N.E. and N. 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



121 



ipearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



glit train 



I train 5° 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



20° 



( train 10 



Remarks. 



Inclined 



Very slow motion 



train or sparks 
train or sparks 
e train 



Observer. 



\rthur Harding. 



W. C. Nash. 



Arthur Harding. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 



F. P. Trapaud ; 
Ernest Jones. 



(3.) Detonating Meteor ; 1864, November 20th, 9 h 50 ra p.m. 
Disappeared over the North Sea, not far from the mouth of the Humber 
oft the coast of Lincolnshire. A few minutes after the appearance a report 
was heard near Uppingham, in Rutlandshire, like the discharge of cannons in 
the distance. The descriptions at Manchester, Mobberly, Weston-super-Mare 
&c, leave no doubt that the meteor was directed from N.E. The detonating 
S aU ^T hlch occurred under similar circumstances of time and place, on the 
19th of November 1861, was directed from a little E. of S., or very nearly 
trom an opposite direction. In other respects the two meteors resemble one 
another veiy closely (v. Report, 1862, p. 79). 

(4.) Fireball ; 1864, December 9th, 3 h 45 m a.m. 

The meteor observed at Manchester disappeared N.E. At Hawkhurst the 
point ot disappearance was 8° above the horizon, N.N.W. The situation of 
this point is therefore fixed. The flight was directed from the usual radiant 
ot the 6th to the 13th of December, between Gemini and Auriga, and thus 
the rest of the flight is easily determined. Path seventy-five miles in 
1-3 second, directed from R. A. 95°, N. Deck 30°. Velocity fifty-eight miles 
per second. Began ninety miles above Todmorden, in Lancashire. Disap- 
peared thirty miles over York. Although a vivid meteor, no report succeeded 
its appearance at Manchester. 

1865. 



122 report — 1865. 

(5.) Detonating Meteor; 1805, February 21st, 9 h 25 m p.m. 

Over Perthshire, in the neighbourhood of Perth and Stirling. In Fife- 
shire, a concussion like prolonged thunder was heard in the N. The light 
reflected from the snow had a very imposing effect. The track of the meteor 
was from between N. and N.E., with no great inclination towards the earth. 

(6.) Detonating Meteor ; 1865, April 30th, h 45 ra a.m. 

Observed at Manchester, and Weston-super-Mare, in Somersetshire (vide 
R. A. S. Monthly Notices, 1865, June 9th). 

Path seventy-five miles in two and a half, to five seconds, directed from 
azimuth 161° W. from S., altitude 12°, near the star CapeMa. Velocity 
twenty miles per second. Began fifty-two miles above Lichfield (N. lat. 52° 43', 
"W. long. 1° 52'). Disappeared thirty-seven miles above Oxford (N. lat. 
51° 44', W. long. 1° 16'). The disappearance took place with a flash, at a 
distance of eighty-six miles from "Weston-super-Mare, where eight or ten 
minutes afterwards a rumbling report was heard, which lasted a few seconds. 
Sound, with its ordinary velocity of 1090 feet per second, would take seven 
minutes to travel the same distance. This meteor belongs to the few whose 
real tracks are found to lie from the "W. to the E. side of the meridian. 

II. Meteoric Showers and their Radiants. 
(1.) (R. A. S. Monthly Notices, 1864, Dec. 9.) 

The radiants T and A G„ (of the list contained in the last Report) were 
conspicuous on the night of the 27th of September 1864. The first, evidently 
an early appearance of F (No. 49 in the same list), remained in force until 
the 6th of October, producing swift white meteors, almost entirely dissolving 
into streaks. A third radiant, (No. 48 of the same list), was for the first 
time observed during the occurrence of a considerable shower of ruddy 
meteors, on the night of the 18th of October 1864. The meteors of this 
shower are swift and leave voluminous streaks. 

(2.) November Star-shower. 

The sky was generally cloudy in England on the morning of the 13th of 
November 1864. The following extract from a letter addressed to the 
Secretary, Mr. Herschel, proves that the shower was observed at Malta on 
the morning of the 13th of November, ami that no trace of it remained on 
the morning of the 14th : — 

S. S. Ellora, off Malta, 1864, November 14. " There was a grand display 
of meteors from midnight to 4 h a.m., all through the watch, the night before 
last. The watch, an old ' salt,' and an intelligent man, said that it was the 
grandest shower he had ever seen, and that the whole watch had been look- 
ing at them with delight. There were no very striking ones, and none burst. 
Last night [Sunday night] I watched till ll h 30 m myself, and told the watch 
to wake me up if any were seen, and at all events at 5 o'clock. He did so, 
but reported that not one single one had been visible. The sky was clear 
enough, but bright moonlight. I looked out a little while, but not a single 
shot. The watch told me in the morning that there had not been a single 
one visible till daylight." 

(3.) (R. A. S. Monthly Notices, 1865, March 10.) 
Two fireballs, on the 9th and 13th of December 1864, were shown to be 
conformable to G, the general radiant of smaller meteors, which reaches its 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 123 

maximum about this period. The radiant coincided, as in the previous year, 
with a point between r and fl Geminorum, 

(4.) Star-showers of April, July, and August. 

The numbers of meteors recorded on the nights of the lst-2nd of January, 
19th-20th of April, and lOth-llth of August, in the year 1865, were not 
greater than ordinary. The return of these well-known star-showers was 
either altogether wanting, especially in January, or very inconsiderable, as in 
April and August. On the 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th of August, a few 
meteors were observed. Several large meteors appeared on the night of the 
25th of April 1865. The same was also noticed by Sir John Herschel on the 
25th of April 1843 (Proceedings, Brit. Met. Soc. Jan. 1865 ; p. 314). 

During a considerable shower of meteors on the 28th of July 1865, a 
radiant of novel and interesting character was observed at Hawkhurst. The 
new radiant was situated- close to Fomalhaut, and belongs properly to the 
southern hemisphere. The letter H, omitted by Dr. Heis from his nomen- 
clature of radiant-points, is chosen to designate the shower. 

Epoch of the shower; 1865, July 28-9. Position; R. A. 338°, S. Decl. 28°. 

The following extract from Sir James C. Ross's ' Voyage to the Southern 
Seas ' (vol. i. p. 98), may be noticed in connexion with this shower. 

" H. M. S. Erebus, S. lat. 47°, E. long. 97°, 1840, July 28th to 29th. The 
gale continued all night with a heavy cross sea ; there was much lightning 
to the eastward ; meteors in great numbers were seen darting about in all 
directions, and the whole aspect of the sky proclaimed a convulsion or dis- 
turbance of the atmosphere of an unusual character." 

The position of Fomalhaut above the horizon, at the time and place of this 
observation, on board the ' Erebus' was 17° from the zenith. Only one such 
meteor was observed at Hawkhurst on the night of the 29th. 



v 



(5.) General Radiant-points of shooting-stars (Proceedings, Brit. Met. 
Soc. 1865, Jan., vol. ii. p. 302). 

A list of fifty-six General Radiant-points of shooting-stars, which appeared 
in the last Report, was founded upon a series of charts prepared by Mr. Greg. 
The accompanying reduced engravings of meteor tracks contained in three of 
these charts, illustrate four of the most interesting general radiant-points of 
shooting-stars occurring in January, February, and March. (Pp. 124, 125.) 

The radiant A G l (fig. 1.), near Aldebaran (No. 3 in the list), embraces the 
period from Dec. 21 to Eeb. 4. A remarkable display of it was first noticed 
by Mr. Herschel, and by other observers, on the night of the 24th of December 
1861. (Report 1862, pp. 40, 80.) 

M 3 (fig. 2) represents a radiant between Leo Minor and the head of Leo 
(No. 7 in the list), enduring from February 4th to 26th, and having a tendency 
to a maximum on the 13-1 5th of the month. It was first noticed by Mr. Greg, 
Mr. Herschel, and Mr. Wood, in February 1863. 

In other showers no tendency to a maximum can be perceived. The 
radiants M., M 6 are of this kind (Nos. 14, 15 in the list), and form a double 
or twin radiant (fig. 3), advancing, with the time, across the principal stars of 
Ursa Major, from March 3rd to 31st. The same radiant afterwards advances 
as far as the last star in the Tail of Ursa Major, presenting an interesting and 
well-established instance of the same meteoric shower enduring (from March 
3rd to June 2nd) a period of thirteen weeks, and having a radiant advancing 
throughout the interval in a right line. 

k2 



124 



REPORT — 1805. 



(6.) Shooting-stars observed at Minister, 1864-65. 
Simultaneous observations by Dr. Heis and his assistants were continued 

Fig. 1. 




'alar 



Fis. 2 




'alor 



from the 27th of July to the 10th of August 1864, and from the 27th of July 
to the 9th of August 1865, at Minister, Peckeloh, Gaesdonck, Lippstadt, and 



A. CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



125 



Papenburg. The situations of these places, with the exception of Lippstadt, 
E. long, (from Greenwich) 33 m 20 s -9, N. lat. 51° 41', and Papenburg, E. long. 

Fia;. 3. 




'a lor 



(from Greenwich) 29 m 31 s -0, N. lat. 53° 4' 30", are given in the Report for 
1863. The comparative observations given in Tables I. and II. (p. 126) were 
obtained : — 

No. 4. Length of Path ninety-one miles. 

No. 5. Length of Path sixty miles. 

No. 6. At both stations blue : shot upwards ; at Minister from altitude 51° 
to 71°, at Peckeloh from altitude 45° to 56°. 

The radiants observed at Miinster in the year 1865 were as follows : — 

1865, Apr. 15-29 / ^ ' a= ?i?°' ? = t flo 1 in all 38 meteors. 
' l \M g .a=l/o , <5= +54° J 



1865, July 27 to 
Aug. 10. 



' From A came 26 meteors=21 per cent 

„ B „ 43 „ =35 „ 

■\T z, A 

„ Uncertain radiants ,,49 „ =40 „ 



In all 123 meteors. 

III. Large Meteors. 
(1.) 1864, September 24th, 12" 20 m (noon). Tarbes (S. France). 

The occurrence is described in the ' Comptes Rendus' (for 1864, October 3rd 
and 10th). The meteor presented the appearance of a ball of fire moving with 
the rapidity of a flash of lightning, and leaving a cloud of smoke for several 
minutes. It was seen in broad day as far south as the Balearic Islands, and 
as far north as Nerac, and Couzon in Creuse. The point of disappearance was 
nearly over Tarbes, and the flight assigned by M. Le Verrier is forty miles 
high above the Department of Gers. The following extract of a letter from 



126 report — 1865. 

Table I.— Heights of Meteors, 1864, July 27th to August 10th. 























Height in 






' Hour, 




£ £ 




First appear- 


Ei**' 


English 


Ref. 

No. 


Date, 
1864. 


Miinster 
mean 


a 


55 


Train, &c. 


ance. 






69-16 = 1° 
miles. 






time. 


tS • 


to -- 


















1/3 






a = 


5 = 


«8 = 


3= 


Beg. 


End. 






h m s 








o 




O 


O 






1. 


July 27 
27 
27 

28 


10 3 39 


M 


? 


With 


299 


+27 


299 


+ 15 






2. 
3. 
4. 


11 9 36 
11 22 36 
10 21 21 


Pe 
M 
Pe 

M 
Pe 
M 


3 
1 
1 
1 

1 

n 


With 


281 
331 
307 
307 
285 
*23 


33 
5 
6 
21 
15 
60 


273 
325 
276 
298 
267 
232 


16 
48 
32 
10 
3 
10 


39 
30 
39 


32 

28 
28 


With 


With 


With 


With 


Red, with ... 








Pe 


i 


sparks. With 


214 


52 


211 


23 


184 


32 


5. 


28 


10 37 36 


M 


2* 




245 


62 


211 


63 












Pe 


2 




246 


55 


245 


56 


138 


115 


6. 


28 


10 56 36 


M 
L 


i 


With 


357 
253 


60 
76 


346 
321 


43 

70 


89 


53 




7. 


30 


10 41 3 


M 


$ 


Red. Train 


278 


38 


210 


55 












Pe 


n 


one minute 


267 


30 


321 


41 


60 


46 


8. 


30 


11 3 48 


M 


2 




315 


15 


308 


6 












Pe 


3 




289 


29 


289 


7 


> 


42 


9. 


Aug. 5 


9 32 18 


M 


2 




345 


85 


107 


85 












Pe 


3 




323 


+52 


211 


+ 67 


51 


45 


10. 


5 


10 16 30 


M 


3* 




310 


- 1 


318 


- 9 












Pe 


4 




303 


-14 


307 


-11 


84 


42 


1). 


5 


10 26 44 


M 


2 




213 


+58 


199 


+ 56 












Pe 


2 




212 


43 


195 


43 


45 


42 


12. 


5 


10 43 51 


M 


2* 




7 


71 


32 


81 












Pe 


4 




233 


77 


241 


71 


39 


39 


13. 


6 


9 40 48 


M 


2 




299 


14 


294 


8 












Pe 


2 




282 


15 


268 


15 


39 


30 


14. 


10 


9 47 


Pe 


1 




333 


33 


316 


10 












G 


1 




346 


25 


336 


18 


194 


175 


15. 


10 


11 23 25 


M 


2 




300 


21 


291 


2 












G 


1 




41 


+20 


47 


+ 7 


111 


101 


Av 


erage heig 


htsof 14 M< 


teors 












82 61 

















* [?«=223°.] 
Table II.— Heights of Meteors, 1865, July 27th to August 9th. 



Ref. 

No. 


Date, 
1865. 


Hour, 

Miinster 

mean 

time. 


c 
o 

id 
GO 


<U -f- 

? ■- 

CO V 

a a. 


Train, &c. 


First appear- 
ance. 


End. 


Height in 

English 

miles. 


«= 


ff= 


•= 


E = 


Beg. 


End. 


1. 
2. 
3 
4. 
5. 
6. 


July 27 

27 

•28 

28 

Aug. 9 

9 


h m s 
10 20 18 

10 37 28 

9 52 39 

9 57 30 

9 30 25 

9 48 22 


M 
Pe 
M 
Pe 
M 
Pe 
M 
Pe 
M 
Pa 
M 
Pe 


? 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
2 
3 
1 
1 

y- 

2 


Colour blue. 
Burst. With 

Blue. Long 
path. With 
With 


o 

278 
257 
340 
318 
254 
239 
315 
265 
140 
175 
205 
20 


O 

+31 
24 
26 
29 
31 
28 
32 
5 
62 
68 
73 

+56 


o 
259 
245 
353 
340 
240 
225 
195 
205 
155 
194 
255 
234 


O 

+33 
26 
18 
27 
31 
29 
57 
44 
50 
44 
59 

+ 46 


65 
32 
60 
86 
81 
60 


65 
29 
53 
29 
52 
55 


With 


Blue. Shot up- 
wards. With 


Average 




64 

















A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 127 

a resident at Pau to a relative in England, describes the character of the 
meteor : — 

" Pau, 1864, October 6th. On Saturday, 24th September, the day before 
I arrived here, M — heard in the house, like many others, a loud report 
(louder than any cannon). The report was so loud says another, sitting in 
the English Club, that he thought the windows were smashed in. Another 
eyewitness here at Pau says he observed a flash of light in a dark cloud, fol- 
lowed immediately afterwards by a tremendous detonation. The enclosed 
extract from the newspaper will give you the description of it as experienced 
at Lembeye, twenty miles distant from this (see Catalogue). The detonation 
was also heard startlingly loud at Orthez, twenty-four miles from this ; also 
at Monein, twelve miles from this, and at Mont-de-Marsan. These places 
are relatively situated thus (see fig.). At Monein they thought the houses 
were coming down about their ears. I cannot discover that any meteorite 

fell." 

Mont-de-Marsan. 

O 



Orthez. CX. 

Lembeye. 




Monein. Pau. 

(2.) 1864, August 10th, 6 h p.m. Island of Milos (Cyclades). 
A detonating meteor appeared over Milos and the Cyclades thirteen minutes 
before sunset, in full sunlight, leaving a cloud of smoke for more than a 
quarter of an hour. The meteor was seen at Athens, and the streak was 
visible sixteen minutes. The heights at appearance and disappearance are 
estimated by Dr. Julius Schmidt at twenty-five and twenty-three English 
miles respectively, over iEgina and Paros. The direction was from Leo, and 
the velocity about thirty miles per second. Stones are reported to have 
fallen upon the island of Polinos, but their meteoric character is not con- 
firmed. The detonation was heard at Milos, where the train of smoke was 
visible more than a quarter of an hour. 

(3.) 1865, February 9th, 6 h 50 m p.m. Salem, Carnatic (S. India). 

The following extract of a letter from an English gentleman residing at 
Bangalore, situated on the high road from Bombay to Madras, was received 
by Mr. Herschel from a relative in England, to whom the letter was 
addressed. 

" Bangalore, 1865, February 10th. We have had a splendid meteor. I 
was walking with H — , and at first I thought it was a blue light. It came 
perpendicularly down ; at first it was bright blue, then purple, and at last 
deep red. It lit up all the country with just the same glare that a blue light 
makes. Everything could be seen most distinctly. At Salem*, I read in a 
newspaper it was accompanied by a noise equal to 100 cannons. You could 
see the trace of it for nearly five minutes after. The moon was up, and 

* Salem, in the Carnatic, is eighty miles S.S.E. from Bangalore. 



128 report— 1865. 

the body itself was larger than it. My boy told me it only comes when 
a king dies, and curiously enough we hear that the Eajah of Mysore has 
just died." 

IV. Meteorites, Siderites, Siderolites. (See also V. (5) to (8.)) 
(1.) 1863, December 10th, 3 L a.m. Trebizond (Asia Minor). 

Three days after the meteoric fall of Tourinnes-la-Grosse, and five days 
after the largest meteor described in the Catalogue of the last Report, a de- 
tonating meteor of very unusual character passed over Samoronitza, near 
Trebizond. The meteor desoended with a report equal to a hundred cannons, 
into a wood near Inly (twelve miles from Samaronitza), which it set on fire. 
A thick fall of snow following, a few fragments, only, of doubtful meteoric 
character, could be recovered on the 6th of March 1864. The real substance 
of the meteorite appears to have eluded search, from its pulverulent or 
otherwise easily destructible nature*. Large meteors on the 3rd, 9th, and 
13th of December are described in the present Catalogue. They indicate a 
return of this aerolitic period, rendered famous by the earlier falls of Benares, 
Wold Cottage, and "Weston, and by the recent fall of Montrejeau, near Tou- 
louse, on the 9th of December 1858. 

Incendiary meteors have twice been recorded to have taken place upon 
the 13th of November. The first instance is described in the ' Astronomische 
Nachrichten ' (vol. viii. p. 107), — a meteor which fell near Prague on the 
13th of November 1829, and burned the surface of a field brick-red. The 
second meteor set fire to a bam at Ain, in France, on the 13th of November 
1835. The " phosphorescent lines of light " observed in great numbers in 
the great November shower of 1833, are perhaps meteors of the same 
description. 

Among the municipal records of the town of Ludlow, in Shropshire, there 
is preserved, in vellum, a roll of bailiffs from the time of Queen Elizabeth. 
Under the date 1594, occurs the following passage : — 

" A greate barne in Lempster [Leominster, Hereford] fired by a comett, and 
burned 15 dayes." 

The occurrence must have created considerable sensation at the time, or it 
would not have been recorded in such a document ; and the writer of the 
record certainly lived at the time, and in the neighbourhood. 

(2.) Siderites. 

Two large blocks of iron at Western-port, near Melbourne (Victoria), 
weighing 5 to 6 and 1| tons respectively, have been examined in situ by 
Dr. Neumayer, who supposes them to be of meteoric origin. The larger is 
now in the British Museum. A third, weighing \\ ton, has been transported 
to Melbourne from the Dandenog hills, sixty miles east of Melbourne, and 
some miles to the north of Western-port (Vienna Acad. Sitzungsber., 1861, 
April 18, and June 6). 

A portion of metallic iron labelled " native iron " in the Museum at 
Ziirich, has been recognized by Dr. Haidinger as a fragment of the meteoric 
iron of Steinbach, in Saxony (Vienna Acad. Sitzungsber., 1864, April 28). 

(3.) Siderolites. (Vienna Acad. Sitzungsber., 1864, May 12.) 
A large block of mixed meteoric iron and stone (Siderolite), similar to the 

4 

* Vienna Acad. Sitzungsber., 1864, April 28. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 129 

meteorite of Hainholtz, has been discovered near the Sierra de Chaco (Chili), 
in the neighbourhood of the celebrated locality of meteoric iron of Atacama 
(Comptes Bendus, 1864, Mar. 28). 

A new specimen of meteoric iron, weighing 20 cwt., is described at 
Toconado, 120 miles north of the former locality of Atacama, where the iron 
is exhausted. A breccia-like fragment of similar iron and stone, found at 
Copiapo, 300 miles south of Atacama, has been examined by Dr. Haidinger. 
The included minerals contain a larger proportion of nickel than the iron by 
which they are surrounded. 

(4.) Aerolites. 

M. Wohler, who in 1860 analyzed the aerolites of Cold-Bokkeveldt, and 
Kaba (Vienna Acad. Sitzungsber., 1860, July 5), reports the analysis by M. 
Clbez, of the meteorites of Orgueil. Besides the usual inorganic constituents, 
they contain 6 per cent, of a black amorphous organic substance, composed 
of the organic elements, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in proportions quite 
similar to those in which they occur in lignite and peat ; in other words, a 
veritable humus. M. Wohler infers from all the facts that wherever meteo- 
rites originate, organic matter, — and hence probably, also, organized matter — 
must have an existence. 

(5.) Catalogue of the Collection of Meteorites belonging to B. P. Greg, Esq., 

Manchester. 

The meteorites in this Catalogue are described under a new system of ar- 
rangement, based upon those of Shepard and Bose, and altered so as to 
bring similar meteorites together by their resemblance to different terrestrial 
minerals. Great uncertainties still exist in the classifications adopted by 
Shepard, Bose, and Beichenbach, over which this natural system of arrange- 
ment in many instances possesses an advantage. 

Y. Papers bearing on Meteoric Astronomy. 

(1.) Cold days in February and May. 

Brandes, at the beginning of the present century, first pointed out the 
existence of a hesitation in the curve of temperature of the air about the 
12th of February. Madler, in 1834, drew attention to a similar depression 
of temperature about the 12th of May. Erman, in the year 1840, ascribed 
these cold days of the year to the obscuration of the sun by the passage of 
meteorites across its disk. At the opposite extremities of their orbits, one 
ring of these meteorites furnishes us with the meteors of August, another 
passes us in November. At these latter periods, M. Petit has shown that 
the temperature of the air undergoes a small but appreciable elevation. In 
support of Erman's theory, M. Ch. S. C. Deville cites the mean temperature 
at Paris of the cold and warm days in question for fifty-seven years from 
1806 to 1863 (Comptes Bendus, 1865, Mar. 27). M. Faye remarks upon this 
mode of accounting for the anomalies in the temperature of the air, that the 
theory must be received with caution. A slight glance at Mr. Glaisher's 
Table, showing the adopted mean temperature of every day in the year, as 
determined from aU the therm ometrical observations taken at the Boyal Ob- 
servatory, Greenwich, in fifty years, from 1814 to 1863, is sufficient to show 
that a great break in the continuity of the temperature-curve, perhaps the 
most remarkable of any in the year, takes place at the end of November, 



130 KEPORT — 1865. 

causing a maximum of temperature on the 3rd of December, which cannot 
be explained by any regular appearance of meteors at that date. 

M. Le Verrier communicates to the Academy of Paris the observation, at 
Constantinople, of a black body seen to cross the disk of the sun in forty-six 
minutes, between 9 h and 10 h a.m. (local time), on the 8th of May 1865. The 
observation adds interest to the former paper on the remarkable variations of 
temperature in the months of spring (Comptes Eendus, 1865, May 29). 

(2.) Heights, and Numbers of Meteors (Am. Journ. Sci. vol. xxxix. p. 193, and 
Mem. Am. Acad. 1864, Aug. 6). 

From the table of heights of meteors contained in the Am. Journ. Sci. (vol. 
xxxviii. p. 135*), Professor Newton estimates the mean height of the centre 
of the paths of shooting-stars above the earth to be 95-55 kilometres, or not 
quite sixty miles (see also ' Les Mondes,' vol. v. p. 756). Their distribution 
at other altitudes above the earth's surface is plainly indicated by the 
following Table : — 

From 19 to 38 miles ( 30 kilom. to 60). Total 114 meteors. 
38 „ 56 „ ( 60 „ 90). „ 243 „ 






56 „ 75 „ ( 90 „ 120). „ 277 

75 „ 94 „ (120 „ 150). „ 106 

94 „ 112 „ (150 „ 180). „ 57 



A consideration of 1393 meteors (recorded by about forty observers) shows 
that the whole number of meteors visible at one place is 50-35 times the 
number visible within 10° of the zenith, and therefore 50-35 times the 
number of meteors occurring within this cone. If m represents the hourly 
number, N the total number visible over the whole earth in the same time, it 
is shown from the law of distribution in altitude, already stated, that 

N=10,460xm. 

Thirty meteors per hour in all the sky, concluded from the careful obser- 
vations of M. Pouvard (Comptes Eendus, xiii. p. 1029), is not too large for 
the mean value of m. It may therefore be concluded that the average 
number of meteors traversing the atmosphere daily, and large enough to be 
seen with the naked eye on a dark clear night, is more than seven and a half 
millions. 

The number of such meteors traversing a space equal to the sphere of the 
earth (radius R), at any moment, with an average relative velocity (V), is 

116-2 x y meteors, omitting the effect of the earth's attraction. 

The average length of flight of shooting-stars is 12°-6. The mean distance 
of the centres from the observer is upwards of ninety miles, the average 
length of path upwards of twenty-five miles, and the average velocity calcu- 
lated from a mean duration of 0-45 second, is at least forty-eight miles per 
second. If, however, the average velocity is only thirty miles per second, it 
follows from this formula that in each volume of the size of the earth, on 
the track of its orbit about the sun, there are as many as 13,000 meteoroids, 
large enough to furnish shooting- stars visible to tbe naked eye. 

Of telescopic meteors, it is shown that their numbers are at least forty-fold 
as great. 

* Misprinted vol. xxxvi. in Appendix III. of last Report. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 131 

Their average velocity, greater than that of the earth, implies that the 
meteoroids are not closely grouped about the earth's orbit. That they are 
grouped according to some law is, however, altogether probable. 

1st. They may form a number of rings, like the August ring, cutting or 
passing near the earth's orbit at many points along its track. The sporadic 
shooting-stars may be outliers of such rings. 

2nd. They may form a disk in or near the plane of the orbits of the 
planets. 

3rd. They may be distributed at random like the orbits of the comets. 

According to the first of these suppositions there should be a succession of 
radiants corresponding to the several rings. Dr. Heis and Mr. B,. P. Gre<* 
believe that they have detected such a series. Continued observation di- 
rected to this end will probably decide whether the meteoroids belong entirely 
or mostly to rings. 

The meteoroids neither belong exclusively, nor even largely to a disk, or to 
a lenticular-shaped group about the sun, like that which the zodiacal light is 
often supposed to indicate. The orbits of their rings are not in general cir- 
cular, as may be inferred from their great velocity, but resemble more the 
orbits of the comets. Finally, they cannot be regarded as the fragments of 
former worlds, but may rather be described as the materials from which new 
worlds are forming. (See pp. 135, 136). 

(3.) Streaks, Detonations, ifcc. of Meteors (Vienna Acad. Sitzungsber., 

1864, November 10th). 

From a carefully revised catalogue of 2950 meteors in the northern hemi- 
sphere, the percentages of detonating, caudate, and aerolitic meteors are sepa- 
rately determined by Dr. Julius Schmidt for every month. The percentage 
of detonating meteors in August is three times less than in March. The 
greatest percentage of aerolitic meteors is observed in May, when the per- 
centage of caudate meteors is the least. On the average of the whole year, 
different coloured shooting-stars are observed in the following proportions :— 

White 75-8 per cent. Eed 5-7 per cent. 

Yellow ..15-9 „ Green ..2-6 „ 

The average durations in seconds, for the different colours, are as follows : 

White meteors 0-775 sec. Red meteors 1-905 see. 

Yellow meteors ..0-921 „ Green meteors ..3-127 sees. 

If the meteor of the 18th of October 1863 is omitted from the thirty- 
two green meteors, included in the last average, the average duration of the 
remaining thirty-one green meteors is 2-584 sees. 

(4.) Meteorological Observations at the Flagstaff Observatory, Melbourne 

Victoria, 1859 to 1862, p. 137. 
From the mean of 1428 meteors observed in 668 hours, in three years 
l)r. Neumayer concludes the following hourly numbers of meteors at Mel- 
bourne, in the different months : — 

January 2-1 April 1-4 July 2-7 October 2-9 

February 1-9 May 1-9 August 2-7 November 1-7 
March 1-7 June 2-8 September 2-5 December 2-8 



132 report — 1865. 

The following hourly numbers were observed at seasons when meteors were 
most frequent : — 

Between Jan. 25 and 27 5-0 Between Aug. 31 and Sept. 4 4-3 
June 2 „ 10 41 „ Dec. 11 „ „ 13 4-5 

„ July 26 „ 31 7-5 „ „ 23 „ „ 25 5-2 

Aug. 13 „ 18 7-8 
It may be noticed that, at Melbourne, meteors at the latter end of July 
are nearly as abundant as in August. 

(5.) Inferences and Suggestions in Cosmical and Geological Philosophy. New 
Theory of the Origin and Formation of Meteorites. By Professor E. W. 
Brayley, E.E.S. 

Professor Brayley, a Member of the Committee, communicated to the Royal 
Society on the 23rd of February last (1865), a paper entitled " Inferences and 
Suggestions in Cosmical and Geological Philosophy," an abstract of which was 
read on March 23rd, and appears in the ' Proceedings ' of the Society, No. 73, 
vol. xiv. p. 120-129. In this paper a new theory of the origin and formation 
of meteorites is enunciated. 

In the introductory section, the author calls attention to the fact that the 
position, powers, and functions of the Sun, as the physical centre of the solar 
system, are peculiar, and in fact unique. The " Primary Induction " from 
them, — indicating, in his opinion, " the principle of philosophical investiga- 
tion " which should be applied to the Sun, — is conceived by him to be " That 
they imply a corresponding uniqueness and peculiarity in its constitution, 
characterizing also the nature as well as the disposition of the substances of 
which it essentially consists. But the particular density of the Sun indicates 
that it actually consists both of ponderable and imponderable matter. The 
nature of the former as constituting apparently its relatively exterior regions 
[is] believed to be made known in part by Professor Kirchhoffs researches in 
Prismatic Chemistry applied to the Sun, as showing that some of the ele- 
mentary substances of the Earth exist also in the Sun"*. 

The author proceeds to state some of his reasons for believing " that, as a 
class, the stars are the most ancient objects in the creation, and also (each in 
its own sphere of action) the origins of the series of physical agencies and 
processes by which the planets and other classes of heavenly bodies were 
finally produced and are maintained." This being admitted, he infers that 
the original production of ponderable matter takes place in the stars, and in 
our Sun as one of them — a conception to which he had been led by the pre- 
ceding and other considerations long before the application of prismatic che- 
mistry to the Sun. 

The energy set free in the condensation within the Sun, of matter in its 
highest and most elementary character, of course imponderable, which is 
conceived by the author to be essential to it, into ponderable matter (an ex- 
pression which is shown not to be a solecism) and eventually into the me- 
tallic vapours which the observations of Kirchhoif and other spectroscopists 
have discovered in the Sun and other stars, is inferred to be at once the ex- 
clusive proximate source of the heat and light and other energies of the Sun, 
and (in our solar system) the only and universal origin of ponderable matter, 
the absolute synthesis of which, from its imponderable elements, is thus be- 
lieved to take place in the Sun. 

In the second section, the " Cause and Nature of the Phenomena called the 

* Syllabus of Lectures on Astronomical Physics, delivered at the London Institution in 
1864, here cited from a revised edition, printed for private use. Lecture V. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 133 

Solar spots" are considered. The energy arising from the transition from im- 
ponderable into ponderable matter, will in part become, it is here said, the 
centrifugal or projectile force by which the torrents of matter (finally assum- 
ing the gaseous form) so produced, are impelled through the denser envelopes 
of the Sun, causing the spots and the other phenomena of ebullition of which 
the photosphere is the scene. 

The next subjects of discussion are 

The Origin of Meteorites, Series of Physical Processes of which they are the 
result, and their Functions in Nature. 

The vapours of metallic and other elementary matter evolved or discharged in 
the ebullition of the photosphere of the Sun, partly remain upon the Sun, consti- 
tuting its atmospheres*, but are principally aggregated into masses of immense 
magnitude (terrestrially speaking), of the nature of bubbles. Having undergone 
a certain amount of condensation, these first become visible to us as those particles 
the collective brighness of which reveals to us the existence of the zodiacal light, 
and are, in fact, the matter separated from the Sun's equator by rotation. These 

Jiarticles, termed by the author meteoritic masses, are projected from the zodiacal 
ight by the force to which its variable extension is owing, and are further gradually 
condensed during their passage through the interplanetary spaces into the liquid 
and solid state, constituting eventually the nuclei of meteors, which are finally 
precipitated upon the Earth (and doubtless upon the other planets) in the form of 
Meteorites. 

The sudden outburst of light over a solar spot, witnessed on September 1, 1859, 
by Mr. Carrington and Mr. Hodgson, the author regards as a fact confirmatory of 
this view, and as having been the consequence or accompaniment of the produc- 
tion, and the transfer with immense rapidity from within to without some exterior 
region of the Sun, of a meteoritic mass, or more probably of an immense congeries 
of such masses, enabled by its consisting of ponderable matter to manifest the 
higher temperature and consequent greater effulgence of the interior regions of the 
luminary, whence it was originally derived. Certain phenomena before recorded 
by astronomers, but not yet understood, are probably of the same nature. 

The structural characters of meteorites are those of bodies which have been origi- 
nally condensed from heterogeneous vapours — the mingled vapours of uncombined 
elementary substances variable in their nature, and requiring different temperatures 
for their maintenance in the gaseous form, but all existing originally at a very high 
temperature ; and their adequate investigation may afford, as an experimentum 
crucis, an independent confirmation of Kirchhoff's discovery, and of the truth of 
the spectrum-analysis of the composition of bodies distant from us in space. They 
consist, mineralogically, of two groups, meteoric iron and meteoric stones, forming, 
however, by graduation into each other, as first pointed out by the author many 
years since, one series of bodies \. The intermediate examples, and indeed most 
of the stones, are aggregates of earthy matter partly in the crystalline and partly 
(as Mr. H. G. Sorby has shown J) in the vitreous state, and distinct portions of 
metallic iron alloyed with other metals. They are, in fact, always heterogeneous 
aggregates, in conformity with the origin here assigned to them. While, as a 
class, meteorites are perfectly distinct from all terrestrial rocks — the presence of 
metallic iron as a mineral constituent imparting to them, indeed, a character which 
is perfectly unique— some of their constituent minerals, and all the elementary 
substances of which they are composed, are such as are found, but differently asso- 
ciated, in the Earth's crust, although there are many other terrestrial elements 
which have not yet been discovered in them. 

"Ten, or perhaps more, of the elements of the solar atmosphere," according to 
Kirchhoff and Angstrom, " are also those of meteorites— iron, nickel, cobalt, chro- 
mium, and magnesium being characteristically such. But the non-metallic base 

* Companion to the Almanac for 1864, p. 46; for 1865, p. 53. 

t Annals of Philosophy (January 1824), second series, vol. vii. p. 73; Philosophical 
Magazine (December 1841), third series, vol. xix. p. 501. 

\ Proc. Eoy. Soc, vol. xiii. p. 333. Article V. (7) of this Appendix. 



134 report — 1865. 

silicon, which, in union with oxygen as silica, is an abundant and equally charac- 
teristic element of meteorites, is absent in the Sun, according to our present know- 
ledge, in which also other elements of meteorites, including oxygen itself, are not 
known to be present"*. It cannot be doubted, however, that by the further pro- 
secution of spectrum-analysis, other elements will be discovered in the Sun. It 
must be remembered also that our knowledge of meteorites is confined to a few only 
of those which have fallen upon the Earth, and that during a very small space of 
time, physically speaking, not exceeding a few thousand years, or perhaps even not 
many centuries ; while the synthesis of ponderable matter in the Sun may reason- 
ably be supposed to vary from time to time as to the particular chemical elements 
produced. A remarkable and instructive fact, in the actual condition of science on 
this subject, is that the metal iron is now known to be an abundant and character- 
istic element of the Sun, of Meteorites, and of the Earth. 

In harmony with these views on the origin of meteorites is a recorded, but per- 
haps hitherto unpublished opinion of Sir H. Davy, that they originally consist of 
the metallic and other combustible bases of the earths and alkalies of which me- 
teoric stones are principally composed. But whether the oxidation of these bases 
is effected in the Earth's atmosphere, as he also suggested, or whether in some cases, 
though not in all, oxygen is present in the original assemblage of elementary 
vapours, and combines with certain bases, and with portions of others, as the con- 
densation proceeds, is a difficult question. The latter theory may be thought to 
agree better with the entire series of phenomena presented by meteors, and with 
the constitution of meteorites as a peculiar class of mineral aggregates ; but some 
facts relating to either branch of the subject tend to support the former. Both 
may be true to a certain extent. The facts, however, that scarcely any oxidation 
of the iron meteorites has taken place, and that there are no meteorites which con- 
sist principally of oxide of iron, while there are some in which metallic iron and 
earthy matter (oxides) are present in nearly equal proportions, but that even in 
these no excess of oxide of iron occurs, are opposed to the supposition that meteor- 
ites have derived any considerable part of their oxygen from the atmosphere ; with 
which also the existence of sidphide of calcium in certain meteorites is incon- 
sistent. 

In what part of space between the zodiacal light and the Earth the final conden- 
sation takes place is not at present determinable. It would seem that these masses 
must retain much of their original heat, and therefore to a great extent an aeriform 
or vaporous condition (though one of greater density than that in which they left 
the Sun, or even the zodiacal light, and mingled with liquid or solid matter as just 
suggested) in the interplanetary spaces where the ether alone exists, and that 
their entire conversion into a liquid and finally a solid form may not occur imtil 
their arrival in a region of positive cold in the vicinity of the Earth or other planets. 
Mr. Sorby has lately inferred, from the equable manner in which mineral ingredients 
greatly differing in specific gravity as well as fusibdity are mingled in meteorites, 
that their formation must have taken place in some physical iocality where the 
force of gravitation is small ; " that they come either from the outside of a very 
small planet much less than the moon, or else from the interior of a larger planet 
since broken up"f. The first inference is in perfect accordance with the theory of 
meteorites announced in this paper ; for it is evident that the force of gravity in 
the original meteoritic masses must be very small, quite inadequate to interfere with 
the disposition within them, and among one another, of their proximate elements, 
however discordant in fusibility or specific gravity. It will follow also that the 

* Companion to the Almanac for 1865, p. 65. 

t Letter to the author [dated July 29, 1864. At the Meeting of the British Association 
in September 1864, Mr. Sorby stated his inference in a somewhat different form, suggesting 
" that the fusion and cooling " of metallic meteorites (such as the Pallas Iron) " might have 
taken place in the metallic centre of small independent bodies, where the specific gravity was 
nil, the meteorites being fragments of such bodies entering subsequently within the earth's 
attraction, or that each meteorite had been itself a separate small body cooled in space." — 
Quart. Journ. of Science (Oct. 1864) vol. i. p. 747. The last alternative, it will be seen, is 
exactly the description of a meteoritic mass as contemplated in this paper. The equable 
diffusion of proximate elements is equally characteristic of meteoric stones]. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 135 

final condensation of these vaporous masses cannot take place either very near the 
Sun or very near the Earth. 

According to observations of the author already published*, the iron meteorites, 
if not certain single meteoric stones (and most probably also the entire nucleus, 
which in some cases is broken up and falls as a shower of meteorites), have the 
form (resembling that of the meteors themselves, which is nearly that of a flame) 
of the solid of least resistance, or of one derived from it, and received in fact from 
the resistance of a medium they have traversed, but having in general one termi- 
nation, and sometimes the other also, truncated to a variable extent. This would 
seem to prove that they must once have been — as individual masses, and not 
merely as portions of a body of which they originally formed part, nor as to their 
preexisting materials only — in a fluid or mobile condition. These and other sig- 
nificant circumstances are adduced in the paper as tending to the discrimination of 
the physical changes by which meteoritic masses are affected prior to their entering 
the Earth's atmosphere, from those which they afterwards undergo within it, and 
from its action — the conclusion arrived at being that the solid meteorite is finally left, 
with a slight alteration in figure, and however greatly reduced in volume, in the 
approximate actual form — that of a bubble elongated by being impelled in a certain 
direction through a resisting medium — in which, when in a gaseous state, it left 
the Sun. 

The phenomena of luminous meteors (shooting- stars and fireballs) more or less 
examined by physicists from the latter part of the preceding century (the author 
having himself endeavoured to elucidate certain characteristic phenomena of fire- 
balls by applying to them the results of modem science t), but which, since the 
appearance of the persistent meteor-shower in November 1833, have been so assi- 
duously observed and discussed by meteorologists, especially in relation to the 
periodicity they exhibit, are shown to be entirely conformable to the views of their 
origin which are enunciated in this paper. The petrological characters of meteor- 
ites themselves, as recently investigated by mineralogists J , together with others 
before noticed by the author §, are also accounted for by these views, though, with 
respect to the former, in a very different manner from that hitherto accepted. 

The long-continued study of meteorites and of the phenomena which attend 
their fall, affected by the consideration of the probable synthesis of ponderable 
matter in the Sim, and — since the conclusions of Kirchhoff have been announced — 
the special study of solar physics and chemistry, in connexion with both subjects, 
appear to the author to justify him in entertaining the hope that he may thus have 
succeeded — by means partly of a new deductive cosmical hypothesis submitted for 
verification, and parti}- by uniting, and in some cases newly interpreting, preceding 
inductions on particular points of their physical history — in effecting at least the 
approximate solution of the problem of the origin and formation of meteorites, 
which has been sought by philosophers from the time of the communication to the 
Royal Society, now sixty-three years since, of Edward Howard's paper, demon- 
strating their peculiar nature and establishing the reality of their fall||. 

In the succeeding section of the paper, relating to the " Original Forma- 
tion of the Planets," it is remarked that the only known phenomenon in which 
the process of the formation of the Earth as a planet is actually observed, is 

* First announced in Lectures on Igneous Meteors and Meteorites given at the Royal 
Institution in 1839, and at the London Institution in 1841. See English Cyclopedia, Div. 
Arts and Sciences, Meteors, Igneous or Luminous, vol. v. col. 604. 

t See " A Sketch of the Progress of Science respecting Igneous Meteors and Meteorites 
during the year 1823," read before "the Meteorological Society," May 12, 182 i, and pub- 
lished in the Philosophical Magazine (for October of the latter year), first series, vol. lxiv. 
pp. 288-292 ; also, Second Supplement to the Penny Cyclopaedia, "Meteors, Igneous or 
Luminous ; " and English Cyclopaedia, as referred to in the preceding note. 

I Reichenbach, Haidinger, G-. Rose, Maskelyne, Sorby, R. P. Greg. 

§ Syllabus of Lectures on Igneous Meteors and Meteorites, delivered at the London In- 
stitution in 1841, as reprinted in Phil. Mag., third series, vol. xix. p. 501, with addition, 
p. 502. 

|| Read February 25, 1802; published in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for that 
year, part 1. 



136 



REPORT- 



-1865. 



that of the fall of Meteorites upon it, by which its magnitude is augmented, 
and that by the addition of materials homogeneous with those of its existing 
elementary constitution, being chiefly "those chemical elements which are 
present in the greatest quantity in the Earth's crust, and seem to be most 
essential to its constitution. According to the principle of the adequacy of 
Existing Causes, therefore, we must conclude that the fall of Meteorites is a 
continuation or a residue of the process of formation of our planet, and that 
the Earth was originally produced by the aggregation and coalescence of 
Meteorites, or of greater masses into which they had previously coalesced. 

The " Theory of the Minor Planets " is briefly considered. All the pheno- 
mena they present are regarded as supporting the conclusion that their pecu- 
liar relations and community of character are not, as hitherto supposed, 
effects of their having formerly constituted one heavenly body which has been 
reduced to fragments, but of their being bodies intrinsically of the same 
nature, meteoritic masses in fact, in an advanced intermediate state between 
the condition of meteorites and that of true planets, in process of gradual 
convergence towards each other, preparatory to their coalescence into one 
greater planet. 



(6.) On the Microscopical Structure of Crystals. By H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. &c. 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xiv. pp. 453-500). 

From the size of the vacuities seen by the aid of the microscope in certain 
cavities contained in quartz, felspar, and other crystalline minerals, it is pos- 
sible to calculate the circumstances of heat and pressure under which the 
crystals were originally consolidated. On heating the crystals gradually, the 
vacuous spaces gradually diminish and ultimately disappear. Their dimen- 
sions in the natural state are therefore an exact measure of the contraction of 
the incarcerated fluids in cooling down from the originally high temperature 
of consolidation. Great liquid pressures at the time of consolidation tend to 
diminish, and great temperatures to increase the size of the vacuous spaces 
contained in the cavities in their ultimate or natural state. These fluid 
cavities exist by millions in every specimen of ordinary quartz, and cause the 
opacity of this (and the generality of other crystalline minerals) to the pas- 
sage of the rays of light. Decrepitating crystals are familiar examples of 
their occurrence among artificial products, such as those of salt, sulphate of 
potash, nitre, &c. They are indeed of such universal occurrence in crystals, 
as to form in mineralogy a microscopical test of crystalline aggregation. 



Fig. 2. 



By alternate overgrowths and restorations of the 
crystalline figure in deposition, minute cavities are 
constantly formed, especially when the deposition 
is rapid (fig. 2). In these cavities a portion of the 
flux, or mother-liquor, becomes incarcerated. The 
foreign substance by which the deposition is for a 
moment arrested so as to form the cavity is also 
frequently caught up and confined within the 
cavity. The cavities are irregular in size, but 
generally take their figure from the crystalline 
figure of the mineral. After being cooled down 
from the temperature of deposition, the cavities 
exhibit a variety of solid, fluid, and gaseous con- 
tents, as well as a vacuity due to the total con- 
traction of the incarcerated fluid. Various examples of cavities in the crystals 




A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 137 

of minerals are given in the figures at the end of this paper. These consist of, 
fluid cavities, glass cavities, gas cavities, and stone cavities, according to the 
different materials by which the cavities were filled in deposition. The 
coexistence of all of these in the crystalline minerals of igneous rocks, is a 
certain proof of the combined influence of igneous fusion, aqueous solutio n 
and gaseous sublimation in the process of their consolidation. The fluid 
commonly enclosed in mineral crystals is an aqueous solution of chlorides of 
potassium and sodium, sulphates of potash, magnesia and lime, and free 
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. It forms in some specimens of quartz, fully 
one per eent. of the total weight of the mineral. 

If for various specific reasons a dull red heat (680° F.) is adopted as the 
ordinary temperature of consolidation of the igneous rocks, lavas, trachytes, 
and granites, a fluid pressure of 4000 feet of superincumbent rock would 
exactly equipoise the vapour-tension at this temperature of the saline fluids. 
If a greater liquid pressure prevailed than this, which would generally be 
the case, no vacuity could be formed within the cavities, until by cooling 
and contraction the liquid pressure within them should decrease so far as not 
to exceed the vapour-tension of the fluid. If p be the excess of pressure at 
the time of consolidation at a temperature of 680° F., measured in feet of 
superincumbent rock, v the observed proportion of vacuity to liquid volume 
in the cavities at 0° C. (32° F.), the equation between these quantities, 
derived from the best data of the elasticity of water, and of its vapour, in 
combination with saline substances, is briefly 

A.Q 

^=369,0003^^ (10) 

If P be the total pressure of superincumbent rock, including the vapour- 
tension at 680° F. at the time of consolidation, 

P= 4000 +28,385 (0-3-«). 
The contraction of the fluids can be observed with considerable accuracy by 
the aid of the microscope, in cavities that are equiaxial, or else (as in figs. 50, 
101) in such as are long and slender, or very thin and flat. The value of v 
varies in different specimens of quartz from 0-04 to 0-25, and from these the 
following Table was calculated of depths at which a variety of igneous rocks 
submitted to the microscope were probably consolidated : — 

Depth in feet. 

Trachyte of Ponza 4,000 

Elvan of Gwennap 18,100 

Granite at St. Austell 32,400 

Mean of Cornish Elvans 40,300 

More recent veins of Aberdeen Granite . . . 42,000 

Mean of Cornish Granites 50,000 

Elvan, at Swanpool, near Falmouth 53,900 

Granite from Ding-Dong Mine, Penzance . . . 63,600 
Mean of the Highland Porphyry Dykes .... 69,000 
Exterior of the main mass of the Aberdeen Granite 69,000 

Mean of the Highland Granites 76,000 

Centre of the main mass of the Aberdeen Granite 78,000 

Mean of all the igneous rocks . . . .49,692 
The greater depths of the Aberdeenshire granites over those of Cornwall 
(figs. 100, 116), shown in this Table, are conformable to general opinions 
concerning these granites, derived from purely geological considerations. 
1865. T 



138 



REPORT 1865. 



The mean depth of consolidation of all the igneous or gneissoid rocks of the 
Table is nearly 50,000 feet, and a rate of increase of 1° in 85 feet, according 
to the information of Mr. R. Hunt, observed in descending to the bottom of the 
deepest mines in England, would require a temperature of 680° F. (adopted in 
calculating this Table) at a depth below the surface of 53,500 feet, very nearly 
in accordance with the original supposition. 

The molten lava of Mount Teneriffe can hardly be supposed to have an 
actual depth less than that of 30,000 feet. The height of the mountain 
and the depth of the ocean near its western side, indeed, amount together to 
28,000 feet, and if the lava have any lateral extension to a moderate distance 
in the same direction, a few thousand feet of rock must necessarily intervene 
between its surface and the ocean-bed. The igneous rocks, hitherto examined 
in the microscope, appear therefore to have been consolidated at depths com- 
mensurate with those of modern lavas. In other words, granites, trachytes, 
and gneissoid rocks are unerupted lavas of older volcanoes, consolidated by 
loss of temperature, and variously protruded to the surface along with the 
superincumbent strata. 



50 



c 






Explanations of the Figures. The sign of multiplication indicates the ampli- 
fying power employed ; in linear measure. 

Fig. 2. (p. 136). A portion of the growing edge of a crystal of chloride of 
sodium, x 200 : showing how the fluid cavities are formed. The shaded part 
represents the concentrated solution entering into a deep notch formed by the 
irregular growth of the crystal. The notch may be enclosed by a plane sur- 
face, or, as shown by the dotted line, by the further growth of the crystal, 
and cavities like those upon the right or left of the figure will be the result. 

Fig. 50. A fluid-cavity. 

Fig. 80. A fluid-cavity in the nepheline of a block ejected from Vesuvius. 
X 1000. 

Figs. 81, 82. The cavity, fig. 80, after having been subjected to a more 
or less bright red-heat. 

Fig. 86. A gas-cavity in the nepheline of a block ejected from Vesuvius, 
in a natural state, x 1000. 

Fig. 90. A glass-cavity in the nepheline of a block ejected from Vesuvius, 
X 1200. 

Fig. 91. The cavity, fig. 90, after having been subjected to a bright red heat. 

Figs. 100, 101. Fluid-cavities in the quarti of a Trachyte from Ponza; 
100. x 2000 ; 101, x 800. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 139 

Fig. 116. A fluid-cavity in the quartz of the main mass of granite at 
Aberdeen, x 2000. 

Fig. 117. A stone-cavity in the quartz of the granite at St. Austell, Corn- 
wall, x 1000. 

(7.) On the Microscopical Structure of Meteorites. 

By H. C. Sorby, F.R.S., &c. 
(From the Proceedings of the Royal Society, June 16th, 1864.) 

" For some time past I have endeavoured to apply to the study of meteorites the 
principles I have made use of in the investigation of terrestrial rocks, as described 
in my various papers, and especially in that on the microscopical structure of crystals 
(Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1858, vol. xiv. p. 453. See the preceding Article). I 
therein showed that the presence in crystals of ' fluid-, glass-, stone-, or gas- 
cavities ' enables us to determine in a very- satisfactory manner under what con- 
ditions the crystals were formed. There are also other methods of inquiry still 
requiring much investigation, and a number of experiments must be made which 
will occupy much time ; yet, not wishing to postpone the publication of certain 
facte, I purpose now to give a short account of them, to be extended and completed 
on a subsequent occasion*. 

"In the first place it is important to remark that the olivine of meteorites 
contains most excellent 'glass-cavities,' similar to those in the olivine of 
lavas, thus proving that the material was at one time in a state of igneous 
fusion. The olivine also contains ' gas-cavities,' like those so common in volcanic 
minerals, thus indicating the presence of some gas or vapour (Aussun, Parnallee). 
To see these cavities distinctly, a carefully prepared thin section, and a magnify- 
ing power of several hundreds are required. The vitreous substance found in the 
cavities is also met with outside and amongst the crystals, in such a manner as to 
show that it is the uncrystalline residue of the material in which they were 
form id ( Mezo-Madaras, Parnallee). It is of a claret or brownish colour, and pos- 
sesses the characteristic structure and optical properties of artificial glasses. Some 
isolated portions of meteorites have also a structure very similar to that of stony 
lavas, where the shape and mutual relations of the crystals to each other prove 
that they were formed in situ, on solidification. Possibly some entire meteorites 
should be considered to possess this peculiarity (Stannern, New Concord), but the 
evidence is by no means conclusive, and what crystallization has taken place in situ 
may have been a secondary result ; whilst in others the constituent particles have 
all the characters of broken fragments (L'Aigle). This sometimes gives rise to a 
structure remarkably like that of consolidated volcanic ashes, so much, indeed, that 
I have specimens which, at first sight, might readily be mistaken for sections of 
meteorites. It would therefore appear that, after the material of the meteorites 
was melted, a considerable portion was broken up into small fragments, subsequently 
collected together, and more or less consolidated by mechanical and chemical ac- 
tions, amongst which must be classed a segregation of iron, either in the metallic 
state or in combination with other substances. Apparently this breaking up oc- 
curred in some cases when the melted matter had become crystalline, but in others 
the forms of the particles lead me to conclude that it was broken up into detached 
globules whilst still melted (Mezo-Madaras, Parnallee). This seems to have been 
the origin of some of the round grains met with in meteorites ; for they occasion- 
ally still contain a considerable amount of glass, and the crystals which have been 
formed in it are arranged in groups, radiating from one or more points on the ex- 
ternal surface, in such a manner as to indicate that they were developed after the 
fraa-nients had acquired their present spheroidal shape (Aussun, &c). In this they 
differ most characteristically from the general type of concretionary globules found 
in terrestrial rocks, in which they radiate from the centre ; the only case that I 
know at all analogous being that of certain oolitic grains in the Kelloways rock 
at Scarborough, which have undergone a secondary crystallization. These facts 
are all quite independent of the fused black crust. 

* " The names given thus (Stannern) indicate what meteorites I more particularly refei 
to in proof of the various facts previously slated. 

1,2 



140 REPORT — 1865. 

" Some of the minerals in meteorites, usually considered to be the same as those 
in volcanic rocks, have yet very characteristic differences in structure (Stannern), 
which I shall describe at greater length on a future occasion. I will then also 
give a full account of the microscopical structure of meteoric iron as compared 
with that produced by various artificial processes, showing that under certain con- 
ditions the latter may be obtained so as to resemble very closely some varieties of 
meteoric origin (Newstead, &c). 

" There are thus certain peculiarities in physical structure which connect meteo- 
rites with volcanic rocks, and at the same time others in which they differ most 
characteristically, — facts which I think must be borne in mind, not only in forming 
a conclusion as to the origin of meteorites, but also in attempting to explain volcanic 
action in general. The discussion of such questions, however, sbould, I think, be 
deferred until a more complete account can be given of all the data on which these 
conclusions are founded." 

(8.) Note on the preceding Articles (5) and (7). By Professor Brayley. 

My friend Mr. Sorby, having resumed his microscopical investigation of the 
structure of meteorites, privately printed and circulated a note, dated July 1865, 
" On the Physical History of Meteorites," in which lie gives in a concise form what 
he terms " a provisional theory " of their formation, announcing also his intention 
to " describe the facts upon which it is founded," and discuss the " objections to 
this and other theories in a [future] communication to the Royal Society." The 
reception of an impression of this note from Mr. Sorby occasioned me to print, also 
for private circulation, a comparison of the physical history of meteorites as in- 
ferred in my own communication to the Royal Society, as above (p. 132), with that 
inferred by him from his new observations of their microscopical structure. This 
was placed in the hands of the officers of the Association, at the Meeting at Bir- 
mingham, but too late to allow of its being read at any of the sectional meetings. 
The present article is a brief abstract of it, with some additions. 

Of the two most important results relative to the origin and formation of 
meteorites obtained by Mr. Sorby, the first is stated, in his note, as follows : — 

"A most careful study of their microscopical structure leads me to conclude that 
their constituents were originally at such a high temperature that they were in a 
state of vapour, like that in which many now occur in the atmosphere of the Sun, 
as proved by the black lines in the solar spectrum." 

As original induction from observed facts, this is in reality a verification, to an 
important extent, of the hypothesis of the origin and formation of meteorites an- 
nounced in my paper. But I had already arrived at, and made public in that paper, 
exactly the same conclusions, with the addition that this vapour had actually been a 
part of the same mass, and was identical in origin, with that forming the atmosphere 
of the Sim, constituted as we believe it to be, on the authority of Kirchhoff and the 
other spectroscopists who have continued and repeated his researches (p. 132). 

Some of Mr. Sorby's subsequent conclusions are also closely parallel to my own. 
" On cooling," he continues, " this vapour condensed into a sort of cometary cloud, 
which was in a state of great commotion." This "cometary cloud" is manifestly 
identical in nature with the bubbles or volumes of gaseous matter consisting of 
the vapours of metallic and other elementary substances, which, having undergone 
a certain amount of condensation, are conceived by me to be projected from the 
Sun and through the Zodiacal Light ; and their gaseous contents having constituted, 
according to my views, the torrents causing the phenomena termed the solar- 
spots, in the stupendous ebullition of the photosphere, they must necessarily be " in 
a state of great commotion," which would be retained long after their projection 
from the Sun. 

Mr. Sorby finally concludes " provisionally that meteorites are records of the 
existence in planetary space of physical conditions more or less similar to those now 
confined to the immediate neighbourhood of the Sun," at a remote cosmical period ; 
a conclusion which he identifies with " a modified nebular hypothesis." 

These physical conditions of planetary space at a former period are those which 

I attribute to the interior regions of the Zodiacal Light as existing now, and of the 

actual nature of which meteorites may be regarded as perpetual records. But I 

. believe it may be shown, by a strict process of reasoning, that one of the necessary 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 141 

results of the " uniqueness and peculiarity of the position, powers, and functions of 
the Sun, as the physical centre of the solar system," is, that such conditions must in 
the nature of things have heen from the beginning, and must ever be, confined to 
it and its immediate vicinity ; that they never have existed, and cannot exist, any- 
where else in the solar system, or in the space which it now occupies. Of the pre- 
sence of the conditions requisite for the genesis of meteorites within, upon, and 
immediately around the Sim, we have actual and ample evidence, quite independent 
of that which may be derivable from meteorites themselves. But all that can be 
said in support of the notion that such conditions could ever extend to distances 
from the Sun comparable to those of the planets, is to adduce the very facts to 
account for which that notion is brought forward, or refer to what are supposed to 
be the probabilities of the "nebular hypothesis" hitherto unverified. 

I deem myself justified in affirming that Mr. Sorby, by his microscopical obser- 
vations of the structure of meteorites, has verified the hypothesis of their origin 
and formation which has been stated in my " Inferences and Suggestions " through 
a great part of their genetic history, — to the extent that is, of their condensation 
from separate volumes or masses (believed to be originally solar bubbles) of aeriform 
matter, consisting of the mingled vapours of their chemical elements, at a very high 
temperature, in intense commotion, and existing, or having existed, in planetary 
space somewhere between the Sun and the Earth*. 

The second most important residt of Mr. Sorby's investigation, is that many 
meteorites have been subjected to a metamorphic action. 

" The particles of the cometary cloud," he saj r s, " moving with great velocity, 
were often broken by collision. After collecting together to form larger masses, 
heat, generated by mutual impact, or that existing in other parts of space through 
which they moved, gave rise to a sensible amount of metainorphism. In some few 
cases, when the whole mass was fused, all evidence of a previous history has been 
obliterated ; and on solidification a structure has been produced quite similar to 
that of terrestrial volcanic rocks." 

The basaltic character of meteoric stones which Dr. Haidinger and Mr. A. S. Her- 
schel have adduced in support of their conclusion, that they must have been frag- 
mentsof true planets previously existing, together with the mineral constitution which 
has led the former inquirer as well as Mr. R. P. Greg to regard them as unerupled 
lavas, are manifestly the results of the metamoi-phism which some have undergone, 
for the discovery of which, thus annoimced, science is indebted to Mr. Sorby. That 
while existing as meteoritic masses resulting from the condensation of solar bub- 
bles and froth, and prior to their coalescence into planetary bodies, or becoming 
the nuclei of meteors, meteorites had undergone metamorphism, or that any which 
had actually fallen upon the Earth had suffered that process, had never occurred to 
me ; although I had been indebted to Mr. Sorby's kindness and liberality for an 
opportunity of examining his series of sections of meteorites prepared for the mi- 
croscope, before my paper was communicated to the Royal Society. This discovery 
has removed an ambiguity, which from the time when the resemblance of certain 
meteorites to volcanic rocks was distinctly recognized, has led to continued misap- 
prehension of the nature of meteorites in general, and of their genetic history. 
From this I had been myself preserved only by the conviction, that a group or 
series of mineral aggregates possessing the unique character that nearly alf its 
terms, even those principally composed of oxides, contained iron in the metallic 
state, while some were entirely devoid of oxygen, consisting exclusively of iron 
and other metals, together with uncombined "carbon, and also sidphur and phos- 
phorus (if not silicon) united merely with portions of those metals, could not have 
had the same origin with another group, volcanic rocks, which are character- 
istically the results of oxidation, all their proximate constituents being oxides, 
whether simple or compound. It was as evident at least that certain meteoric rocks 
were genetically independent of the presence of oxygen, as that all volcanic rocks 
were essentially due to its action ; while the meteorites devoid of oxygen were mani- 

* The four paragraphs which terminate here have already appeared in an article on the 
physical constitution and functions of the Sun, in the ' Companion to the Almanac ' for 
1866, in sequence of two others contained in the same work for the two preceding years. 
In the same article are some further considerations (also derived from my privately printed 
paper) relative to the meteoritic constitution and physical circumstances of the Zodiacal 
Light. 



142 report — 1865. 

festly as typically meteorites as those principally composed of oxides, and must have 
originated in the same cosmical process. Metamorphosis alone, it is evident, could 
not have converted meteorites devoid of oxygen into those which consist chiefly of 
oxides, though a process of reduction resulting from the same cause, and going on 
at the same time, might have converted the latter class into bodies resembling the 
former. But the two groups — or rather the extreme terms of the series of Meteoric 
Rocks — differ so greatly in their chemical composition, that the oxidation of the 
unoxidated group would not result in the production of the oxidated, nor would 
the reduction of the latter have produced the former. The meteoric irons must 
have originated either from the condensation of vapour in which oxygen was not 
present, or under conditions in which its activity was more or less controled. It 
is highly probable, however, that the most perfectly stony meteorites, those most 
nearly resembling Volcanic Rocks, and in which the smallest amount of metallic iron 
occurs, have resulted from a combined process of metamorphosis and oxidation. All 
this is perfectly consistent with my inference recently advanced, that the production 
of terrestrial hypogene rocks " would be one of the final results of the Earth's for- 
mation by the coalescence of meteoritic masses;" an inference which is I believe 
original, and the announcement of which was made previously to Mr. Sorby's dis- 
covery that some fallen meteorites have already undergone metamorphic action. 



Report on Dredging the Coast of Aberdeenshire. 
By the Rev. Walter Gregor, and Robert Dawson. 

The Committee appointed by the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, for dredging the coast of Aberdeenshire, having engaged a smack 
belonging to Banff, left that port on Tuesday, the 4th of July. The voyage 
was continued till they found themselves off Gixdleness, the southern point ox 
the Aberdeenshire coast. On Wednesday evening the distance from land was 
about forty miles, and the depth of water was thirty-eight fathoms, with a bot- 
tom of shingle and broken shells. The vessel was on the bank known as " The 
Long Forties." The dredgings from this spot yielded no Arctic fossil shells, 
although they were found in abundance on a smaller bank, which lies nearer 
the shore, and at a distance of from eight to fifteen miles from land. There 
were, however, brought up, in a decayed state, the four most common littoral 
species, viz. Littorina rudis, Purpura htpillus, Solen siliqua, and Mytilus 
edulis, the last being, with one exception, the small shore variety. 

The Committee then sailed in and dredged in depths of forty fathoms with 
a bottom of sand, forty-eight fathoms with a similar bottom, and fifty-seven 
fathoms with a bottom of mud, shingle, and the concreted sand-tubes of a 
species of Sabellaria, without finding any fossil shells. They continued their 
course N.W. till they sighted the Buchanness Light-House on Thursday 
evening. On Friday, when about ten miles from land, the dredges were put 
out in fifty-four fathoms, with a bottom of mud and shells. The vessel was 
then steered N. by E. for two hours. The dredges were again let down in 
forty-five fathoms, when fossil shells came up in abundance. During the day 
there was a thick fog, accompanied by torrents of rain. By evening it was 
blowing a strong breeze, and the Committee were obliged to make for Peter- 
head Bay. The weather continued unfavourable till Monday, when the Com- 
mittee again sailed. It being almost a dead calm, little way was made, and 
it was late in the afternoon before it was deemed expedient to throw the 
dredges. About seven miles from land the dredges were let down in forty 
fathoms, when large quantities of fossil shells came up. During the night 
the vessel continued her course N. by E. from Buchanness, and by morning 
(Tuesday, 11th July) was twenty-five miles from land. Here the depth was 



ON DREDGING THE COAST OF ABERDEENSHIRE. 143 

found to be 65 fathoms, and the bottom mud. Round this spot the dredging 
was carried on for the day. During the afternoon a breeze sprang up, and 
the working of the dredges became impossible. There was nothing for the 
Committee but to return to Peterhead Bay. 

The portion of the coast explored extends from Girdleness, the southern 
extremity of Aberdeenshire, to a few miles north of Peterhead. There thus 
remains -undredged a distance of rather more than ten miles on the east 
coast, and of twelve miles on the north coast, at the entrance of the Moray 
Firth, from Kinnaird to the Banffshire coast. The Committee regret that the 
weather was not more favourable, as they have every reason to think they 
would have been able to accomplish the dredging of the whole of the Aber- 
deenshire coast, 4 and thus have had the means of presenting to the Association 
a much fuller report than the one now submitted. 

From the soundings, and the nature of the dredgings, the following con- 
clusions may be drawn : — The sea gradually deepens for a distance of eight 
to fifteen miles, when a bank covered with Arctic fossil shells occurs. The 
depth again goes on increasing, till the bank called " The Long Forties " is 
reached. From this bank no Arctic fossil shells were obtained but decayed 
littoral species. The inner bank is, no doubt, composed of drift. It is 
highly probable that the outer bank (" The Long Forties ") was at one period 
an island, or the shore of a continent, which has since been submerged under 
the sea. 

It may be remarked that, along with the littoral species dredged from 
" The Long Forties," there came up a valve of the "West Indian shell, Lucina 
pemylvanica . 

On referring to the Report of the Committee for dredging the North and 
East Coasts of Scotland, laid before the meeting of the Association in 1862, 
it will be found that the number of Mollusca collected by Mr. Dawson on the 
Aberdeenshire coast amounted to 223 species, arranged as follows : — 

Gasteropoda Prosobranchiata 110 

Opisthobranchiata 11 

Nudibranchiata 8 

Pteropoda 1 

Conchifera Lamellibranchiata 92 

Brachiopoda 1 

223 

Since that time 36 species have been added to the list, arranged as 
follows : — 

Gasteropoda Prosobranchiata 14 

Opisthobranchiata 1 

Nudibranciata 14 

Pteropoda 

Conchifera Lamellibranchiata 5 

Brachiopoda 2 

"36 
Formerly found 223 

Making in all 259 species. 

The most interesting of the newly added species are Cerithiopsis tubercu- 
laris (2 specimens), Mangelia laevigata, var. (1 specimen), Buccinopsis Dalei 
(1 specimen), Troehus Grcenlandicus (1 specimen), Fusus propinqims (several 
specimens), Odostomia pallida (1 specimen), Propilidium ancyloides, Am- 



144 report — 1865. 

phisphyra, n. 8. (4 specimens), supposed to be the same species as that found 
by Mr. Dawson in shell-sand from Unst, and noticed by Mr. Jeffreys in his 
Report to the Meeting of the Association of last year, Montacuta Dawsoni, 
described by Mr. Jeffreys in the second volume of his ' British Conchology,' 
Pecten striatus, Panopea plicata, Tellina balaustina (a perfect specimen), 
Crania anomala, and Argiope cistellula. 

Of the Crustacea a full examination has not yet been made ; but what has 
been done has brought to light several additions of interest and importance. 
Of the Macroura only six species were obtained, viz., Stenorhynchus phalan- 
gium and S. tenuirostris (many specimens), Inachus Dorsettenis (a few speci- 
mens), Hyas coarctatus, Ebalia Cranchii (several specimens), and Atelecydus 
heterodon (one small specimen). The total absence of any of the genus 
Portunus, several of which are somewhat common in the Moray Firth, and 
the extreme paucity of Atelecydus heterodon, plentiful on the Banffshire 
coast, are worthy of notice. Of the Anomoura the Paguridas alone have 
been fully examined, and they are as follows : — Pagurus Bernhardus, P. 
Cuanensis, P. Ulidianus (one specimen), P. Hyndmanni (several specimens), 
and another small specimen, not yet identified. Of the Sessile-eyed Crus- 
tacea the examination has not been completed ; but the following interesting 
species have been obtained, viz., Cheirocratus mantis and Unciola planipes, 
two species recently described by the Rev. A. M. Norman in the ' N. H. 
Transactions of Northumberland and Durham'; two Ampeliscce, not yet an- 
nounced as British, but described by Mr. Norman as A. laevigata and A. 
tenuicornis ; Mysis spinifera, not yet recorded as British; and another well- 
marked species, in all probability new. One specimen of Sipuneulus Bern- 
hardus was got. 

The Echinodermata yielded nothing remarkable, except one specimen of 
Brissus lyrifer, which, it may be remarked, has also been found off the 
Banffshire coast, and one of Psolus squamosus, rather common on the Banff- 
shire coast. Besides these the following species were found : — Ophiura tex- 
turata, 0. albida, Ophiocoma bellis, 0. Ballii, O.gramdata, 0. rosida, Uraster 
rubens ; Solaster papposa, Liudia fragilissima (1 specimen), Echinus sphcrra, 
Edi inocyamus pusillus, Spatangus purpureus (many specimens), Amphidotus 
cordatus, and A. roseus (a good many specimens). The absence of Palmipes 
membranaceus and of Goniaster equestris, both rather plentiful on the Banffshire 
coast, is worthy of notice. 

In the examination of the Polyzoa and Hydrozoa little has been done. 
Hornera borealis, a species not found before south of Shetland, was observed; 
and two of the Leprcdia?. may turn out to be new. 

Of the Actinozoa four species only were met with, at a depth of fifty-seven 
fathoms, viz. Tealia crassicornis, Stomphia Churchice (5 specimens), Hor- 
mathia Margarita, and Caryophyllia Smithii (a broken specimen). Of 
Hormathia Margarita} the disk and tentacles only came up ; but these agreed 
in every respect with the description given in the ' Actinologia Britannica.' 
The Hormathia lived for several days, expanding the tentacles, and doing its 
best in the miserable circumstances to enjoy life (!). The smallness of the 
number of the Actinozoa, when compared with the number of species found 
on the Banffshire coast (about eighteen, including the littoral species), is 
somewhat remarkable. One reason for the difference, no doubt, is the nature 
of the sea-bottom, that of Banffshire being in many places rocky or, as it 
is locally called, " hard." 

The few Sponges that were got were sent to Dr. Bowerbank. They con- 
sisted of Polymastia spinula, Hymeraphia stellifera, and a very young Hy- 
meniacidon, which was too immature for satisfactory determination. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1861 AND 1885. 14.5 

It may be added that a small Lumpsucker, which the Committee have 
been unable to identify either from Yarrell's or Couch's « British Fishes,' 
■was brought up. 

To complete the dredging of the coast, the Committee would ask a re- 
newal of the grant. They would also suggest that it would be most de- 
sirable that their researches should be extended along the coast of Banffshire, 
which has already yielded so many species new to Britain and to science. 
A supplementary Report will be laid before the next Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation. 



An Account of Meteorological and Physical Observations in Three 
Balloon Ascents made in the years 1864. and 1865 {in continuation 
of twenty -two made in the years 1862, 1863, and 186-1), under the 
auspices of the Committee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, by James Glaisher, F.R.S., at the request of the 
Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, the Astronomer Royal, Lord 
Wrottesley, Sir D. Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Lloyd, 
Dr. Lee, Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Glaisher, Prof. Tyndall, 
Dr. Fairbairn, and Dr. W. A. Miller. 

TnE Committee on Balloon Experiments was reappointed last year, chiefly 
for the following purposes : — 

1st. To examine the electrical condition of the air, if possible. 

2nd. To verify the law of the decrease of temperature as found from 
summer-day observations, already made, with day observations at other 
seasons of the year, but principally in the winter and adjacent months. 

3rd. It was understood that, in addition, magnetical experiments, when- 
ever possible, were to be made in preference to all others ; observations by 
the spectroscope (particularly on the solar spectrum), on the currents of the 
atmosphere, on solar radiation at different heights, and hygrometical observa- 
tions, though secondaiy, were to be held very important subjects of inves- 
tigation, and to be followed as far as possible, according to circumstances. 

4th. To make arrangements for observations at night, and to make ob- 
servations at night, if possible. 

With respect to the first of these objects, no further progress has been 
made ; the instrument which was prepared last year, was prepared for use 
with an open-burning flame ; this is not admissible with gas in such close 
proximity ; and since the last Meeting I have been in hopes that Mr. Fleeming 
Jenkm, with Mr. Varley and Prof. Thomson, would be able to arrange an 
apparatus that might with safety be used ; but, owing to engagements in 
connexion with the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, these gentlemen have not yet 
succeeded. 

With respect to the second and third objects of research, some progress 
has been made, though not to the exteat contemplated at the beginning of 
the year. 

With respect to the fourth object, having relation to night observations, 
none have actually been made, but some arrangements have been completed, 
of which I will say a few words. 

1865. M 



146 report — 1865. 

To take observations in the air at night, it is imperatively necessary to 
have some power of illumination, so that the instruments can be read. 

Very many suggestions have been made for the benefit of the occupants 
of the car ; among them phosphorus and the use of glow-worms have been 
mentioned. The latter I feared would lose their luminosity at a low tem- 
perature. The best of all seemed, however, to be a well-made miners' Davy- 
lamp ; and through the kindness of my friends T. Sopwith, Esq., F.R.S., and 
E. Potter, Esq., of Tynemouth, two have been most carefully made by Mr. 
H. "Watson, of Newcastle, of copper ; so that their presence near to magnets 
is innocuous. 

These lamps, with their lights burning, have been placed in a volume of 
gas, completely surrounded by it, without any bad effect following the im- ' 
mersion ; and what is more important, I have had one of these lamps burning 
during an ascent made on the 27th of February of this year, coming down 
alight — the only difference between with and without the light being that 
in the latter case I had a source of heat to wann my cold fingers, which I 
never had before. 

I corsider tliat at present all necessary arrangements have been made for 
night observations, so far as light is concerned ; and I cannot but regard this 
as an advance, although I have not any results to present of observations made 
at night, and we therefore are still in utter ignorance, without a single obser- 
vation of the processes in operation at night to guide us, at any distance from 
the earth. Such a series of observations, even though only to the height of 
half a mile, would be veiy valuable indeed. 

§ 1. Instruments and Apparatus. 

The instruments used were for the most part the same in construction as 
those in the preceding year; in addition, however, to them, there was a 
very fine spectroscope by Mr. Browning, and a delicately mounted magnet 
lent by Capt. Evans, F.K.S. 

§ 2. Observing- Arrangements. 

The instruments were in all cases placed on suitable framework attached 
to the outside of the car, and were in this position easily read by myself 
standing at the end of the car. 

Circumstances of the Ascents, and General Observations. 

Up to the last Meeting of the Association there had been 22 ascents, of 
which 17 had been made in the months of June, July, August, and Septembe", 
and 5 only in the other months of the year, viz. 1 in January, 1 in March, 
2 in April, and 1 in October. Of those made in the summer months, one only 
had been made in the morning, and 16 had been made in the afternoon or 
evening, with a declining sun. 

Efforts were therefore directed to day experiments between the months of 
October and April, it being considered that the day and high experiments in 
summer already collected had better be brought together and discussed before 
any more of such experiments were made, and that in future attention should 
be directed to those points of research needing further elucidation. 

I therefore devoted all my leisure between the months of October and April 
to securing as many ascents as I could between these times, and regret to 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 147 

say that I succeeded in three only. The first of these "was on December 1st, 
the second on December 30th, 1864, and the third on February 27th of the 
present year. These three ascents were made from Woolwich Arsenal. 

Although I have so few ascents to speak of, it must be borne in mind that 
winter is the most difficult season of the year to pursue balloon experiments ; 
yet as mountains are not climbed at this time of the year, and so few 
experiments have hitherto been made by means of the balloon, we are in 
almost entire ignorance of everything connected with the higher regions of 
the atmosphere during this cold portion of our year, in respect to the pro- 
gressive diminution of temperature with elevation, the diffusion of vapour 
in the atmosphere, the density of clouds, their extent, and the currents in the 
atmosphere. 

It is therefore the most important season for experiments ; and these will 
be exceeded in value only by night experiments. 

Ascent from Woolwich Arsenal, December 1, 1864. — The balloon left the 
earth at 2 h 37 m p.m., the temperature of the air at the time being 48° ; and 
this value remained almost unchanged till the height of 600 feet was passed 
(increasing slightly in fact at first), and then very gradually declined to 31 1° 
at about one mile in height. 

Ascent from Woolwich Arsenal, December 30, 1864. — The balloon left at 
2 h 13 m p.m., with a temperature at the time of 42^° ; it declined 2° in the 
first 500 feet ; at 1000 feet high it was 37°, or showing a decrease of 5|° ; 
at 2000 feet it was 33|°, showing a further decline of 3|° in this 1000 feet. 
At 2500 feet high we met with cloud ; the temperature was 31°. At 3300 
feet, just at the upper surface of the cloud, the temperature was 27° ; on 
getting above the c^ud the temperature rose, and when 400 feet above it had 
increased to 31 1°. 

Ascent from Woolwich Arsenal, on February 27, 1865. — We left the earth 
at l h 58 m p.m. ; the temperature of the air was 52°, declined gradually to 35°, 
when cloud was reached, which proved to be 1000 feet in thickness ; during 
the passage through it there was no change of temperature, but on passing 
above it the temperature increased with the elevation. 

By comparing these results with those taken in the period of summer they 
differ very greatly, and plainly show that the laws of temperature holding 
good at one season are different from those at other seasons of the year. 

The balloon's courses in these three ascents were very nearly the same 
after attaining a certain elevation. On the 1st of December, on reaching 
1100 feet, the current of air changed from W. to S.W. ; at 2000 feet a 
W.N.W. current was entered ; at 5000 feet the air was moving W.N.W., 
and we approached the sea, compelling us to descend near Rochester at 
4 U 25 m p.m. 

In the second ascent the wind was nearly south on the earth when the in- 
flation began ; it changed to W. nearly, and pilot balloons at a moderate ele- 
vation moved N,W. On leaving, the balloon first moved E.N.E. ; when 500 
feet high we entered a W. current, and, as before, moved towards the sea. It 
was at first intended to descend near the river Thames ; but on coming within 
300 feet of the earth the wind changed and we went somewhat inland, and 
descended, at 3 h 20 m , near to Stamford Le Hope. 

During the month of January, and the greater part of February, as far as 
could be determined from daily observation from the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, the general prevalence of the wind in the higher regions of the 
ah- was W. and S.W. On February 27th the direction of the wind on the earth 



148 report — 18G5. 

was N., and apparently steady in that direction while the balloon was being 
filled. On its completion the wind had changed to the S., and 4 or 5 hours' 
observations were looked forward to. 

On reaching the height of 1500 feet, the balloon again fell in with the pre- 
valent S.W. current, and at 3000 feet was in a nearly W. current, and again 
passed over the like course, directly towards the sea. It was therefore not 
deemed prudent to ascend very high. When above the lower clouds they 
were seen moving at right angles to the balloon's motion. Approaching the 
sea, it was necessary to descend ; and on again reaching the height of 3000 
feet the balloon fell in with the S.W. current, at 1500 feet with the S. current, 
and with this passed somewhat inland ; on again reaching 3000 feet, we 
turned to move again directly towards the sea, and descended at South Han- 
ningfield at 4 h 1 M . 

After this I did not succeed in ascending, and since April I have mostly 
been taking steps towards securing some night ascents. 

It is unfortunate, in one sense, that the wind on these occasions, not- 
withstanding its direction on the land, was so constantly at certain eleva- 
tions moving with a W., W.S.W. or S.W. current, because on all occasions 
it so shortened the time of observation, and limited the elevation to such 
heights only that we were certain of being able to descend before reaching 
the sea. 

Yet the fact is important, and very much so, as proving the constancy of 
the S.W. current during our winter months ; for the evidence of such cur- 
rent is not merely confined to these three clays only, but a continued watch 
was kept on the higher regions from the lloyal Observatory, and whenever 
scud or cloud has been seen at the proper elevation, it has been found to be 
moving in that direction. The high temperature we experience in winter 
seems to be very much due to the prevalence of the warm current. 

In these three ascents, Frederick John Evans, Esq., Staff Commander E.N., 
F.R.S., Superintendent of the Compass Department of Her Majesty's Navy, 
very kindly furnished me with a very delicate magnet, which he uses on board 
of iron ships and in the Compass Department. 

This instrument vibrates in a little more than two seconds on the earth. 
In the ascent on December 1, I was able to take ten sets of vibrations ; and 
notwithstanding the lower temperature of the higher regions, the time of 
vibration was lengthened. 

In the ascent on December 30, the balloon was in a constant state of rota- 
tion, and I was unable to take any magnetic observations. 

In the ascent on February 27, the same needle vibrated in 2-001 seconds 
on the earth, at the height of one mile vibrated in 2-277 seconds nearly. 
These results were confirmed by another magnet, somewhat less delicately 
mounted, its time of vibration being found to be longer at high elevations 
than on the earth. These results agree with those found at other times of 
the year. 

The Lines in the Solar Spectrum. 

At every opportunity I directed the spectroscope to the sun, and always 
saw a very fine spectrum, with veiy many lines, far greater in number than 
when viewed on the earth, and much better defined. The spectrum usually 
extended from A to far beyond H, the latter line being plainly made up of 
fine lines. I have never seen the spectrum of the sun, when viewed on the 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 149 

earth, nearly so brilliant as it always is on rising above the lower atmosphere, 
although I have examined the solar spectrum many hundreds of times on the 
finest days. The spectrum, when viewed from above, is perfect with a much 
narrower opening of the slit than it is on the ground, and consequently lines 
can be resolved clearly which cannot be seen from the earth. 

A very delicate blackencd-bulb thermometer, placed with its bulb near 
to the carefully screened bulb for temperature of the air, in the first of these 
three ascents, generally read the same as that for the temperature of the air, 
occasionally read lower, and never during the ascent read more than 1° in 
excess. The same results were observed in the ascent on December 30tb. 
In the ascent on February 27 it generally read the same; but at times, 
when the sun was shining the brightest, it read from 2° to 3° higher than its 
shaded neighbour. 

No tinge of ozone was shown on any test-paper spread freely about on the 
rigging in any of these journeys. 

§ 3. Description of the Table of Observations. 

All the meteorological observations taken during the ascents are contained 
in Table I. 

Column 1 contains the times at which the observations were made. Column 
2 contains observations of the siphon barometer corrected for temperature and 
index error. Column 3 contains the readings of the thermometer attached 
to the barometer. Column 4 contains the readings of an aneroid barometer. 
Column 5 contains the height above the level of the sea, as reduced from the 
barometric readings in column 2 on the days the siphon barometer was used, 
and from column 4 on other days, by the formula of Baily, checked at inter- 
vals by that of Laplace, which is as follows : — - 

z= 1 „ g (i,) x6 o 158 ( 1+ ^r«) (l+ „,o 283 rc„ s2 L)( 1+ lg|l), 

where Z is the height required, and h, Ji', t and t' the height of the barometer, 
corrected for temperature, and the temperature of the air at the lower and 
upper stations respectively, L the latitude. The temperature of the air for the 
position of the balloon has been derived from the readings in column 10, 
when such have been taken, otherwise from column 6. Columns 6 to 9 
contain the observations with the dry- and wet-bulb thermometers free, 
and the deduced dew-point. Column 10 contains the readings of a 
gridiron thermometer. Columns 11 to 14 contain the observations with 
the dry- and wet-bulb thermometers aspirated, and the deduced dew- 
point. Columns 15 and 16 contain the direct dew-point observations with 
Daniell's and Kcgnault's hygrometers. "When numbers are entered in 
columns 15 and 16 with " no dew " affixed to them, it is meant that the 
temperature of the hygrometer has been lowered to the degree stated, but that 
no dew has been deposited. Column 17 contains the readings of a very de- 
licate blackened-biub thermometer fully exposed to the sun's rays. 

The Astronomer Eoyal had observations made every ten minutes at the 
Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, on the days of ascent, by Mr. Nash of the Mag- 
netical and Meteorological Department. 

The height of Greenwich barometer- cistern above the mean sea-level is 
159 feet. 



150 



REPORT 1865. 





Table I 


A. — 


Meteorological Observations made in 1 


;he Twenty-third 




s » 

Ci o 

4) O 

«- 


Tim 


e. 




Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Beading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Attached 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 












to 32° Fahr. 
















h m 


s 




in. 





in. 


feet. 












II 35 


p.m. 
















(1) 

(2) 












30-15 




46-2 


43-5 










30 - I92 


6i«o 




46-8 


43-2 




i i5 







(3) 


a 30 





>> 


30-063 


50-0 


30-10 


ground. 


48-0 


44-2 




(4) 


2 37 





>> 






29-95 


206 


482 


44' ! 






2 38 





»» " 






29-61 


498 


48-0 


44-0 




(5) 


2 38 


30 


.» 






29-38 


644 


47'5 


43-2 




«) 


2 39 





tt 


29^42 


51-0 


29-20 


890 


47-2 


43'3 




(7) 


2 40 





.. 






28-85 


1,230 


46-0 


42-0 




(«) 


2 41 





»> 


28-413 


51-0 


28-45 


1,618 


45-0 


41-2 




(») 


2 42 





it 






28-23 


1,831 


43'5 


40-2 




(10) 


2 43 





tt 






27-80 


2,248 


43-0 


387 






2 44 





it 






27-40 


2,636 


41-0 


36-0 






2 45 





tt 






26-70 


3.298 


44-0 


36-0 




(11) 


2 46 





tt 


26426 


47*o 


26-42 


3.57o 


39'5 


34"9 






2 48 





it 






26-19 


3.804 


38-5 


33 - o 






2 50 





tt 






25-78 


4222 


38-0 


32-0 






2 51 





11 






25-68 


4.3 2 4 


38-0 


32-0 




(12) 


2- 54 





tt 






25-30 


4,630 


36-0 


29-1 




(13) 


2 55 





>» 


25-110 


47-0 


25-19 


4.74 2 


35-0 


28-5 




(14) 


2 57 





»> 






24-90 


5,038 


33"o 


26-1 






2 58 





11 






24-70 


5,328 


3i'5 


26-1 




(15) 


2 59 





ti 


24-690 


46-0 


24-70 


5,328 


31-5 


26-1 






3 5 





it 






25-50 


4.496 


31-2 


26-5 






3 6 





tt 
















(16) 


3 6 


30 


tt 






25-67 


4>3'9 


31-2 


26-5 






3 8 





>> 






25-80 


4,184 


33 - o 


29-1 




(17) 


3 9 





»> 






2585 


4,128 


33'5 


29-8 






3 1° 





» 






25-80 


4,170 


34'5 


30-0 






3 14 





it 






25-09 


4.766 


32-2 


29-1 




(18) 


3 15 





it 


24-891 


46-0 


2492 


4,909 


31-8 


27-2 




(19) 


3 17 





tt 






24-90 


4.951 


31-0 


27-1 




fyOj 


3 2 3 





11 






24-78 


5.°5 2 


30-2 


25-1 






3 2 4 





it 






24-72 


5,122 


29-8 


25-0 




(21) 


3 26 





it 






24-70 


5-'97 


30-2 


25-1 






3 27 





it 






25-00 


4-93 1 


30-2 


25-2 






3 3 2 





11 






25-50 


4.489 


3 I- 5 


28-1 




(22) 


3 33 





11 






2 5'45 


4.54i 


32-0 


28-1 




(23) 


3 34 





11 






25-20 


4,805 


32-0 


28-1 






1. 






2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


7. 





Notes and 



(1) Sun shining; clear sky ; wind N.N.W., light and variable. 

(2) Cloudy ; a pilot balloon first moved W., then N.W. 

(3) Sky clear. (4) Wind very nearly W. 
(5) A gun fired ; felt the shock. (6) Sun shining brightly. 

(7) Entered a S.W. current, moving towards the part of the river north of Erith. Very 
misty all round. (8) Sun shining brightly. 

(9) Eeport of proving guns at Woolwich ; perceptible vibration, every rope and the in- 
struments were shaken. 

(10) Opened the valve ; nearly opposite Belvedere. 

(11) Sun warm. (12) Between Erith and Belvedere, 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 186-1 AND 1865. 



151 



Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, December 1, 1864. 



mometers (free). 



Difference. 



Dew-point. 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Hygrometers. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Blackened- 
bulb Ther- 
mometer. 



27 

3-6 
3-8 
4 -1 
4'° 
4'3 
3 - 9 
4'° 
3-8 
3"3 
4"3 
5*o 
8-o 
4-6 

5'5 
6-o 

6-o 

6- 9 

6-5 

6- 9 

5-4 
5 - 4 
47 

47 
3'9 
37 
4"5 
3'i 
4-6 

3 '9 

s-i 

4-8 
5 - i 
5-° 
3"4 
3"9 
39 



8. 



40.4 

39" 1 

40'o 

39-6 
396 
38-5 
38-9 

37'4 
36-8 

36'3 

37-9 
297 
297 
28-6 
25 - 6 
23-8 
23-8 
187 

12-5 

I2"2 
I2"2 

156 

i's-6 

ai - 3 

2I"9 

224 

22"0 
166 

i6-s 

9' 1 
9-8 
89 
8-9 
9-6 
9-1 
91 



46-5 



468 
48-0 
482 

48-0 



38-5 



35 - ° 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



General Remarks. 



40'2 

40*0 
40'o 



[dew 
iyo no 

[dew 
15-0 no 



40 - o 



[dew 
16-0 no 

[dew 
19-0 no 



15. 



16. 



56-0 
56-0 

47 ° 
44 - 5 

40'o 

390 
35"S 

33'° 

29-5 

3i-5 
31-0 
30-0 



17. 



(13) Ozone =0. (14) Wind N.N.W. 

(15) Nearly opposite Erith ; hills and dales distinctly visible. 

(16) Sun-spectrum very fine. (17) Sand out. 

(18) A little to the right, or nearly over Dartford. 

(19) Moving towards Cobham Park. 

(20) Cannot get any dew on either Daniell or Regnault. 

(21) No ozone. 

(22) South of Greenhithe ; smoke near the earth moving S., but after reaching 1000 feet 
moving N. 

(23) In a line with Northfleet ; we shall pass over Cobham Park. 



152 



REPORT 1863. 



Table I. a. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-third 






(1) 



(2) 



(3) 
(4) 

(5) 

(6) 



(7) 

(8) 
(9) 

(10) 
(11) 
(12) 
(13) 



(14) 
(15) 
(16) 

(17) 

(18) 
(19) 
(20) 

(21) 



Time. 



3 4° 
3 4i 

42 

43 
44 

45 
4 6 
46 
47 
48 
49 
5° 



5i 

52 

53 

54 

54 

55 

55 

56 

57 

5S 

59 

o 

1 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 



9 

10 

r 3 
'4 
'5 
'5 

17 
iS 

'9 
20 



op.m. 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

° ,, 

o „ 

o „ 

3° >. 

o „ 

o „ 

O 11 

o „ 

o „ 

o .. 

O I) 

3° >> 

° „ 

3° 11 

o „ 

o ,, 

o ,, 

o „ 

o „ 

o ,, 

30 .. 

„ 

° II 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

° .. 

30 .» 

° „ 

o „ 

„ 

° „ 

30 11 

° ,, 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Attached 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer. 

No. 2. 



in. 

2478 

24-63 

24-60 

24-95 

25-52 

26-45 

26-47 

26-45 

26-20 

26-00 

2582 

26-00 

2616 

26-20 

26-20 

26-65 

2675 

2680 

27-00 

27-30 

2 7'45 
27-50 
27-30 
27-30 
27-20 
27-14 
27-25 
27-40 
28-00 
2825 
28-30 
28-42 
28-50 
28-52 
28-60 
28-70 
28-80 
28-60 
28-50 
28-35 
28-40 
28-50 
28-70 



Height above 
sea- level. 



feet. 
5.H5 
5>4°3 
5.431 
5,063 

4.464 
3.4o7 
3-47° 
3-49 1 
3.759 
3.973 
4,170 
3,968 
3.789 
3.744 
3.744 
3,240 

3.' 2 4 
3,082 
2,914 

2,662 
2,536 

2.497 
2,691 
2,691 
27S8 
2,847 

2.744 
2,603 
2,039 
1,804 

1.759 
1,644 

1.569 
i.55° 
J.475 
1,381 
1,280 
1.394 
I.45 1 
r.532 
1,496 
1.424 
1,280 



Dry and Wet Thcr- 



Dry. 



30-0 

295 
29-1 
30-0 
31-2 
32-8 

33"° 
33'° 
33'° 
33'° 
33'° 
33-0 

327 
32-4 
32-1 
32-5 
32-5 
32-8 
33'° 

34-0 
34'5 
35'2 
35'5 
35'6 
35'7 
35'5 
35° 
35'5 
36-2 
37-1 

37'3 
38'3 

38'3 
387 

39'° 

42-0 

42-1 

42-0 

4''5 
41-2 
40-5 

4i'5 
42-0 



3. 



4. 



0. 



6. 



(1) T\ T o dew on either Daniell's or Regnault's Hygrometers. 

(2) A chill to sense; sand thrown out. (3) Heard voices. 

(4) The setting sun illuminated the topmost part of a dark stratus cloud, with a very deep 
orange-colour ; not a cloud in the sky above altitude 15°. Put magnets away. 

(5) A sudden chill again. (6) Sand thrown out. 

(7) Wind W.N.W. ; smoke below moving S. 

(8) Heard a clock strike 4 h plainly. (9) Sand thrown out. 

(10) Saw a railway-train. (11) Heard people calling cut.. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1863. 153 

Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, December 1, 1864 (continued). 



mometers (free). 




Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 






| 




































Daniell's. 


Hegnault's. 


Blackened- 




Difference 


Dew-point 


meter. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


point. 


Dew-point. 


Dew-point. 


bulb Ther- 
mometer. 




o 
2-8 


o 

iX-4 




























3-0 


i6-5 




















3 -o 


i 5 '3 




















z-2 


1 8-4 




















3' 1 


'9 - S 




















3 - 3 


22'9 




















3'5 


22'5 












2I- 5 








3 - * 


23*1 




















3'3 


23 I 














[dew 






5 - i 


>7'4 














15-0 no 


33'o 




5"° 


iS'° 




















5-o 


i5'° 




















4"5 


I9'2 












[dew 








3 9 


2CO 












2o - ono 








3 - 4 


2I"3 




















2 - S 


247 












25-0 








2'0 


25*0 




















2'0 


20/2 




















**9 


27'3 




















2'0 


28-5 












28-0 








i'S 


30-5 




















17 


308 




















>'9 


3°"7 












30-0 








2"0 


30-5 




















2"I 


3°'3 




















24 


29-4 




















2"0 


298 




















2"2 


30-0 




















i - 4 


3 2 "7 




















2*1 


32-3 




















i-6 


33-0 




















1-8 


34' 1 




















i'3 


35' 2 




















I - 2 


358 




















I"0 


367 




















i'7 


368 




















i-9 


379 




















2'5 


364 




















23 


3 6 "3 




















*"S 


35'5 




















'S 


37-1 




















2'0 


37'° 




















2- 3 


36-4 



















10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 16. 17. 



(12) A great deal of moisture on the balloon. 

(13) Nearly south of Gravesend. (14) Heard many voices. 

(15) Can hear cries of " come down ;" wooded country. 

(16) Cobham Park. (17) Moist to sense. 

(18) Moisture almost dropping from the balloon. 

(19) Approaching the Medway. 

(20) Ascending to a higher current to cross the river. 

(21) We can see Eochester Bridge and Castle. 



154 



KEPORT 1865. 



Table I. a. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-third 



V o 

£2 






Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Time. 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Attached 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fakr. 
















h m s 


ill. 




in. 


feet. 












4 21 op.m. 






28-80 


I.20S 


41-2 


397 






4 « 3° »» 






28-82 


1,194 


4i"3 


39'7 






4 22 O ,, 






28-90 


1,137 


41-0 


40-2 






4 2 3 ° .i 






29-12 


979 


4.1-1 


40-2 




(1) 


4 35 o » 

4 33 ° » 






29-82 


V ground ■< 


45-2 


43-0 




Table I. b. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-fourth 




(2) 


2 12 O p.] 

2 12 45 , 


11. 






29-86 


I ground -< 


42-5 


39'° 






2 13 O , 








29-80 


80 


42-1 


38-5 






2 14 O , 








2951 


355 


41-0 


37-2 




(3) 


2 15 O , 








29-25 


602 


40-0 


36-2 






2 15 30 , 








2905 


782 


390 


360 






2 16 O , 








28-95 


877 


38-2 


35-i 




(4) 


2 l6 30 , 








2880 


1,020 


37'2 


34-8 






2 l6 45 , 








2850 


1,321 


36-2 


34-2 






2 17 O , 




















2 l8 O , 




















2 l8 30 , 








27-80 


1.995 


34'i 


32-9 






2 19 O , 








27-60 


2,220 


33'° 


32-0 




<£) 


2 19 30 , 








27-50 


2,310 


32-5 


32-0 




(«) 


2 19 45 , 








2 7'45 


2.355 


32-7 


3 r8 






2 20 O , 








2740 


2,410 


32-5 


31-9 




(7) 


2 21 O , 




















2 22 O , 








27-10 


2,634 


32'2 


3i'5 






2 23 O , 








27-05 


2,699 


319 


30-5 




(«) 


2 23 30 , 








27-05 


2,699 


31-9 


30-8 




w 


2 24 O , 








27-11 


2,641 


319 


30-5 




(10) 


2 25 O , 








27-40 


2,350 


319 


31-0 




(ii) 


2 26 O , 








27 - 45 


2,301 


31-9 


31-2 






2 27 O , 








27-68 


2,077 


3 I- 9 


31-6 




(12) 


2 27 IS , 

2 27 30 , 








27-75 


2,019 


32-3 


32-0 




(13) 


2 28 O , 








2r55 


2,215 


32-2 


32-2 






2 28 15 . 








27-40 


2,362 


3i-5 


31-2 




(14) 


2 28 30 , 








27-21 


2,552 


3i"3 


30-6 




(15) 


2 28 45 , 


















(16) 


2 29 O , 








26-92 


2,822 


29-5 


29-0 






2 29 30 , 








26-71 


3,018 


28-8 


28-3 




(17) 


2 29 45 , 


















(18) 


2 30 O , 








2648 


3,228 


27-5 


27-2 





7. 



(1) On the ground at Delce Farm, near Kochester. 

(2) Left the earth. (3) Mist all round. 

(4) Cold. (5) Dropped the grapnel. 

(6) Approaching cloud. (7) In cloud. 

(8) Just out of cloud ; and over the wall of the river. 

(9) At least 150 vessels in sight. (10) Out of cloud. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 155 

Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, December 1, 1864 (continued). 



momcters (free). 




Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 


Hygrometers. 


Delicate 






















1 






DanieU's. 


Regnault's. 


Blackened- 


Difference. 


Dew-point. 


meter. 


Dry. Wet. 

1 


Diff. 


Dew- 
point. 


Dew-point. 


Dew-point. 


bulb Ther- 
mometer. 


o 








O 

















»*5 


37"4 


















i-6 


37-2 


















o-8 


39-2 


















09 


39'i 


















2"2 


4°\5 


















Balloon Ascent, from "Woolwich Arsenal, December 30, 1864. 


S'5 


34-8 


















3-6 


34"i 


















3-8 


32-4 


















2*8 


31'2 


















3-0 


32-0 


















3'i 


30-9 


















2-4 


3I-S 


















2 - 


31-2 












3°"5 


30-0 




I "2 


30-8 


















I'O 


30-0 


















°"5 


31*0 


















o- 9 


30-0 


















o-6 


307 


















07 


30-0 














28-0 




»"4 


27*1 


















11 


28-3 


















> "4 


27-2 


















0-9 


28-9 


















07 


29*6 


















°'3 


30-9 


3°'5 
















0-3 


3°'4 


















o - o 


32 - 2 


















0-3 


30-4 


















07 


28-9 


















o-5 


27-3 


















°S 


26*4 




















0-3 


26 - o 














27-0 




8 - 9- 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 


(11) Our course is taking each bight of the river. 


(1-) Sand out. (13) Cold to sense : approaching cloud. 


(14) Edge of cloud. ll 8 


(15) Entered cloud ; lost sight of everything. 


(16) Very cold. (17) Much lighter : verv cold. 


(18.) CI 


oud dense 


and cold 


fog da 


zzlingly 


bright. 











156 



REPORT — 1865. 



Table I. b. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-fourth 



<u en 

sz 
w 5 


Time. 




Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Thcr- 


Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Attached 
Therm. 


Pry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fahr. 














h m s 




in. 





in. 


feet. 








(1) 


2 31 


p.m. 






26-28 


3.424 


27-2 


265 




2 32 


jj 






2612 


3-5 8 ° 


30*0 


26-0 


(2) 


2 32 15 


j> 






26-12 


3,580 


29-5 


26-2 




2 33 


i) 






26-00 


3.735 


315 


26-0 


(3) 


2 34 


?» 
















2 34 15 


jj 






26-15 


3.589 


29-5 


26-2 




2 34 30 


jj 






26-15 


3.589 


29-0 


27-2 


(4) 


2 34 40 


)> 
















2 34 45 


» 






26-25 


3.492 


28-2 


27-1 




2 35 


35 






26-50 


3.249 


28-2 


27-0 


(5) 


2 35 30 


JJ 






27-20 


2,570 


28-2 


28-0 


(0) 


2 36 


JJ 






27-65 


2,133 


30-2 


297 




2 37 


JJ 






28-90 


932 


33-0 


32-0 


(7) 


2 38 


JJ 






28-95 


837 


34-0 


32-5 




2 39 


JJ 






2905 


797 


34-5 


329 


(«) 


2 40 


J* 






29-18 


689 


35'2 


335 




2 41 


II 






29-05 


1,009 


35-9 


33-8 


(•9) 


2 41 30 


IJ 






28-90 


1,369 


36-0 


33 - 9 




2 42 


II 






28-72 


1,669 


35'5 


338 




2 43 


II 






28-60 


1,929 


35'5 


33'5 




2 43 30 


It 






28-52 


2,129 


35'5 


33-2 




2 44 


It 






28-48 


2,219 


35'5 


33'2 




2 45 


It 






28-32 


2,589 


34'9 


32-8 




2 45 30 


>> 






28-30 


2,699 


34'5 


33"° 




2 46 


It 






28-26 


2,829 


34'2 


32-5 




2 47 


It 






28-25 


2,860 


34'° 


33'° 




2 47 30 


II 






28-24 


2,946 


34-0 


33"° 




2 48 


II 






28-40 


2,796 


34-0 


33-0 




2 48 30 


11 






28-40 


2,796 


34-0 


33'° 




2 49 


It 






28-40 


2,796 


34-0 


33'° 




2 49 30 


It 






28-45 


2,666 


34'5 


33'3 




2 49 45 


JJ 






28-50 


2,536 


35'° 


33'2 




2 50 


JJ 






2860 


2,276 


35'3 


33"2 




2 50 30 


JJ 






2868 


2,070 


35-6 


335 




2 51 


JJ 






28-85 


1,621 


35-6 


33'5 




2 51 30 


JJ 






28-92 


1,462 


356 


33 8 




2 5 1 45 


JJ 






29-00 


1,256 


35-8 


338 




2 52 


It 






29-10 


1,096 


36-0 


34-0 




2 53 


11 






29-35 


556 


362 


34-0 




2 53 30 


11 






29-38 


5" 


362 


34 - 5 




2 54 


II 






29-39 


495 


36-2 


34-5 




2 54 3° 


II 






29-32 


556 


36-2 


34'5 




2 55 ° 


II 






29-31 


565 


36-1 


34' 5 




2 57 


II 






29-60 


299 


38-2 


3 6 '7 




2 57 3° 


II 






29-31 


570 


38-2 


36-7 


(10) 


2 58 30 


II 






29*20 


670 


38-2 


35"5 




2 59 


II 






28-95 


900 


37-2 


36-0 




300 


II 






28-78 


1,056 


37-2 


36-0 



4. 



o. 



7. 



(1) Sun shining dazzlingly. A beautiful sky of Prussian blue ; not a cloud above us ; 
beautiful sea of cloud below of varied surface, bright and shining. 

(2) Sun brighter still. (3) Sun observed in mist. 
(4) In a very dense cloud. (5) Out of cloud. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 157 

Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, December 30, 1804 (continued). 



moinetcrs (free). 




Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated) 


Hygrometers. 






Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 






Delicate 
Blackened- 
bulb Ther- 
mometer. 


Difference. 


Dew-point. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 
point. 


Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 


Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 


o 



























07 


23-4 


















40 


*3'4 


















3 - 3 


15-0 


















55 


122 












I 5 -0 


I4'0 




3 - 3 


15-1 


















r8 


207 
















29O 


VI 


227 


















i *a 


22'3 


28-5 
















0'2 


27-3 


















OS 


28-3 


















I"0 


30-0 


















IS 


29 - 


















r6 


30-2 
















34'5 


i - 7 


308 


















21 


30-6 


36-0 
















2.' I 


308 


















I "7 


31-2 
















35'5 


2'0 


3I-I 
29-6 
















355 


2-3 


















2-3 


296 


35*3 










3o - o 






2'I 


29-5 


















'5 


30-5 


















»7 


29 - 6 


















IO 


31-2 


















I'O 


3I - 2 


















I"0 


31*2 


















10 


31-2 


















i-o 


31'2 


















1-2 


31-2 


















r8 


30-3 


















21 


29-9 


















2-1 


30-3 


















2T 


30-3 


355 
















1-8 


311 


















2"0 


30-8 








• • ••■ 






30-5 




2-0 


31-0 
















2-2 


30-8 


















17 


32'0 


















17 


32 - 


















17 


32'0 


















1-6 
IS 


32-1 
347 














32-5 




15 


347 


















27 


34 - 9 


















I'2 


34 - 4 


















12 


34'4 



















10. 



11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 1G. 17. 



(G) Falling quickly ; revolving in 2 minutes. 

(7) We are about a mile north of Purfleet. 

(8) Moving W.S.W. 
(1Q) Sand thrown out. 



(9) Moving towards Sea Reach. 



158 



REPORT 1865. 



Table I. b. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-fourth 



Time. 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Attached 
Therm. 



J Aneroid 
Barometer, 
No. 2. 



Height above 
sea-level. 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Dry. 



Wet. 



(1) 



(2) 
(3) 



h 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
3 io 

3 15 



m s 

1 o p.m. 

2 o 



,, 



2 30 

3 ° 

3 45 

4 ° 

5 o 

6 o 
o 
o 



>, 



in. 

28-62 

28-55 

2860 

2870 

29-05 

29-42 

29-50 

29-63 



2982 



feet. 
1,203 
1,266 
I,2i6 
1,116 
766 

39 6 
316 
186 

ground •] 



37-2 
37-2 

37'5 
37-8 

37-8 
38-2 
38-2 
38-2 

38-2 



35'7 
35-6 
360 
36-0 
362 
3 6 4 
36-4 
36-4 

36*5 



Table I. c. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-fifth 





1 


25 


p.m 


(4) 


1 


34 ° 


,. 


(&) 


1 


52 


., 


(«) 


1 


58 


,. 




1 


58 10 


,, 




1 


58 20 


11 




1 


58 30 


». 




1 


59 ° 


», 


(7) 

(8) 


2 





)» 


2 


1 


,, 


(») 


2 


1 30 


,» 




2 


2 




(10) 


2 


2 30 


,1 




2 


2 45 


J, 




2 


3 ° 


J, 


(11) 


2 


3 3° 


;, 


(12) 


2 


4 


j) 


(13) 


2 


5 


,, 


(14) 


2 


5 3° 


9) 




2 


6 




(15) 


2 


6 30 


,, 


(16) 


2 


7 3° 


,, 


(17) 


2 


8 30 


J> 




2 


9 ° 


,, 


(18) 


2 


9 3° 


J) 


(19) 


2 


11 


,, 




2 


11 30 


»> 



30-27 



30-20 



30-13 

30-00 
2992 

2965 

29-30 

28-98 

28-52 

28'2I 
27-78 



2698 
26-72 
26-42 
26-20 
26-05 
26-00 
25*62 
25-39 

*5'34 

25-30 
25-30 
25-25 



ground 



60 
176 
244 

474 
767 

1,085 

1.543 
1,851 
2,279 



3.074 
3.333 
3,632 

3,851 

3.99° 
4,040 

4,418 
4. 6 47 
4- 6 97 
4.737 
4,737 
4795 



477 


42-4 


47 - 5 


42-0 


52-1 


45'* 


51-8 


45-2 


S J *4 


44-8 


51-0 


44-1 


49'5 


42-1 


47-2 


40-9 


46-2 


40-1 


45-2 


40-1 


437 


38-9 


41-2 


37'* 


35'5 


33'° 


34-8 


32-0 


34-8 


32-0 


35"° 


31-6 


34-8 


30-9 


34° 


29-2 


34"o 


28-3 


34'5 


28-5 


35-2 


29-0 


382 


31-1 


382 


30-6 



1. 



4. 



7. 



(1) Moving direct for Sea Reach; we must come down if we do not change our 
direction. 

(2) Packed up all the instruments, cleared the tops of some trees, and came down within 
a mile of the river, near the Railway Station at Stanford le Hope. 

(3) On the ground. 

(4) A pilot balloon went nearly due N. (5) Wind S. (6) Left the earth. 
(7) Over the river. (8) Bells sound very clearly. 

(9) Wind S.W. ; sun obscured by cloud. 

(10) Moving towards Barking Creek ; moving N.E. (11) In cloud; cold. 
(12) In a white cloud. (13) Faint gleams of light. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 159 

Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, December 30, 1864 (continued). 



momcters (free) 



Difference. 



i - 5 
r6 

'•5 
i-8 
r6 
i-8 
r8 
r8 

**7 



Dew-point, 



36-2 

33 - 4 

34-0 

34-2 
34-0 

339 
33'9 
339 

34-z 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Dew- 
point. 



Daniell's. 

"Dew-point. 



Hygrometers. 



Regnault's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 

Blackened 

bulb Ther 

mometer. 



Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, February 27, 1865. 



5-3 


3 6 '5 


5'5 


359 


69 


38-0 


6-6 


38-5 


6-6 


38-1 


6- 9 


3 6 '9 


7"4 


34-1 


b-3 


339 


61 


33'* 


5' 


34 -2 


4-8 


331 


4"i 


32 - 


2 - S 


29T 


2-8 


27-5 


2-8 


27-5 


3 '4 


27-2 


39 


247 


48 


20-9 


57 


18-2 


6-o 


171 


62 


191 


7-i 


2I - 6 


7-6 


20*3 



18-5 



34'2 



29*0 



i9'o 



52'0 

52 - o 
5 r 5 



35-0 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



1G. 



17. 



(14) We are in cloud, and over water; the clouds below are moving much more quickly 
than we ; wind more westerly. 

(15) Sun shining faintly ; clouds at least three or four miles above us, moving W. ; we 
are in a N.W. current. 

(1(3) Clouds below appear to be moving N. ; we are moving towards the E. 

(17) The clouds below are moving at right angles to us. 

(18) Over Barking level ; Tilbury line to our left or N/.'; clouds have a very fine purple 
tm ^s 0v ^ r a - Tery beautiful ey en surface ; N. gloomy and dark ; great contrast. 

(19) Sensibly warmer. 



1G0 



REPORT — 18G5. 





Table I. c- 


-Meteorological Observations made in 


the Twenty-fiftli 


L 


m 

11 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 


Height above 
sea-level. 


Dry and Wet Ther- 


Beading 

corrected 

and reduced 


Attached 
Therm. 


Dry. 


Wet. 








to 32° Fahr. 
















h m s 


in. 





in. 


feet. 










2 12 o p.m. 






2519 


4.855 


387 


30-6 




U) 


2 12 30 „ 






25-17 


4.875 


387 


297 






2 13 O „ 






25-17 


4.875 


39-2 


29-4 






2 17 O „ 






25-08 


4.965 


39'2 


29-2 






2 22 30 „ 










38-2 


29-0 






2 23 O „ 






25-30 


4,828 


38-2 


29-0 




(a) 


2 24 O „ 






25-30 


4,S28 


38-2 


29-0 




(a) 


2 25 O „ 






25-30 


4,828 


38-2 


29-0 






2 27 O „ 






25-30 


4,828 


38-2 


27-5 




(4) 


2 27 30 „ 






25-25 


4,840 


38-2 


27-5 






2 28 O ,, 






25'22 


4.847 


381 


27-2 






2 29 O „ 






25-20 


4.865 


38-2 


27-5 






2 30 O „ 






25-20 


4.S65 


38-2 


27-5 




(i>) 


2 34 „ 






25-60 


4,408 


39-2 


29-5 






2 34 20 „ 






25-60 


4,408 


39'4 


30-0 




l«) 


2 36 „ 






25-50 


4.5*7 


39'2 


30-0 




CO 


2 37 O „ 


















2 38 O „ 






25-42 


4,604 


39"2 


30-0 






2 40 O „ 






25-30 


4.734 


41-2 


3*"5 




(8) 
(9) 


2 41 O „ 






25-30 


4.734 


4i7 
42-0 
42-0 


31-3 
31-0 
31-0 




2 42 „ 






25-50 


4.538 






2 42 30 „ 






25-70 


4.332 


43-2 


32-5 






2 43 » 






25-90 


4,136 


43'3 


33-0 






2 44 „ 






26-60 


3.45° 


42-5 


35-5 




(10) 


2 45 » 






26-78 


3.274 


42-0 


36-0 






2 4S 3° >. 






27-10 . 


2,960 


417 


36-0 






2 46 „ 






27-35 


2,7'5 


407 


35-5 




(11) 


2 46 20 ,, 







27-40 


2,676 


40-5 


360 






2 46 30 „ 






27"55 


2,529 


41-0 


36-5 






2 47 .. 






27-70 


2,382 


41-0 


37'5 






2 48 „ 






27-72 


2,360 


41-0 


38-0 






2 4 s 3° » 






27-72 


2,360 


41-2 


380 






2 49 ° .. 


. . . A . 




27-75 


2,330 


41-8 


380 






2 5° ° .. 






£7-80 


2,281 


43 "° 


39-5 






2 51 „ 






28-05 


2,035 


43-2 


39-0 






2 54 ,. 






29-31 


796 


44-2 


40-2 






2 55 „ 






29-80 


322 


462 


41-0 






2 56 „ 






29-65 


460 


46-2 


41-0 






2 5 6 3° 11 






29-45 


644 


46-0 


41-2 






2 57 3° .. 






29-14 


927 


44 - 5 


40-0 






2 58 „ 






29-1 1 


957 


43-5 


395 






2 59 11 






29-00 


1.057 


43 - 5 


39'° 






2 59 30 .. 






2890 


1. 148 


43'5 


385 






3°°,. 






2892 


1,130 


43-0 


38-5 






310., 






28-98 


1,075 


43-0 


38-5 




(12) 


3 1 jo n 






28-99 


1,066 


43-5 


38-5 






320,, 






29-00 


1,057 


43 - 5 


39-0 






3 3o,. 






29-07 


990 


43'5 


395 






I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 


7. 


(1) < 
(3)] 


Dver Dagenhani Marsh. (2) Lowered grapnel. 
Entered a more southerly current ;; about S.W. (4) Clouds very high. 




W J 


Hust come down. 






(«) 


Sun again 


wight. 







ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



161 



Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, February 27, 1865 {continued). 



mometers (free). 



Difference 



8-1 
9° 

9-8 

IO'O 

9-2 
9 -a 
9 -z 
9 -2 

107 
107 
io"9 
107 
107 
97 

9"4 
92 

9-2 

97 

io - 4 

no 

iro 

107 

10-3 

7-0 

60 

57 

S - a 

4*5 

4'5 

3'5 

3-0 

3 -2 
38 

3'5 
42 

4-0 
5-2 

S" a 
48 

4-5 
4-0 

4*5 

4'5 
4'J 

5-0 

4-5 
4-0 



Dew-point. 



19-4 
I7"7 
165 
161 
1 6-6 
16-6 
166 
166 
i3'o 
13-0 
124 
13-0 
130 
167 
177 
179 

179 

»93 
1*5 

'7-5 

17*5 

197 

207 
27-0 
286 
28-9 

29 - 

30*2 

30-8 
331 

34-2 
34-0 
33'3 
353 
34'° 
35-5 
351 
35-1 
357 
347 
347 
336 
32-6 
33-1 
331 
33*i 
35 - 3 
347 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Hygrometers. 



Dry. 



Wet. 



Diff. 



8. 



Dew- 
point. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



Delicate 
Renault's, likened, 
hull) Thcr- 



Dcw-point. 



15-0 



i7 - o 



15-0+ 



i6'o 



383 



34-0 



35'° 



9. 



10. 



3 3'° 



45-0 

43'5 
435 



42-5 



4i'o 



46-0 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



1G. 



17. 



(7) Moving towards Long Ejacli 
(10) On level with lower clouds. 



(12) Upper clonda moving as bsfore ; no sun 
186o. 



(8) Sin hot. 
(11) Bolow cloud. 



(9) Opoued valve. 



162 report — 1865. 

Table I. c— Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-fifth 



C2 

£2 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 
(5) 
(6) 
(7) 
(8) 



(9) 



Time. 



3 12 
3 13 



3 IS 

3 16 
3 17 
3 17 
3 18 

3 19 

3 20 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



21 

22 

^3 
-4 
as 
26 

27 
28 

29 

3 ° 

30 

3i 

3- 

32 

33 
34 

35 
37 
38 

3S 

39 
40 

4i 
42 
43 
43 
44 



o p.m. 

o „ 

3° » 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 » 

o „ 

O n 

O ,i 

30 » 

o „ 

o „ 

30 „ 

o ,, 

o ,, 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

O 1, 

° ,, 

o ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

3° n 

O ,1 

o ,, 

3° 11 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

o „ 

30 .. 

o „ 

o „ 

° ,. 

o „ 

o „ 

+ ,. 

o „ 



Siphon Barometer. 



Reading 

corrected 

and reduced 

to 32° Fahr. 



Attached 
Therm. 



Aneroid 

Barometer, 

No. 2. 



29 - II 

29-15 
29-50 
29-50 

29-61 
29-63 

29-68 
29-75 

29-80 
29-80 

29-65 

29-32 

2930 
2915 

29-00 
28-90 
28-90 
28-90 
29-08 
29-10 
29-30 

2930 
2930 
2933 
29-50 
2938 

2920 

29-30 

28-72 

28-55 

28-25 

28-00 
27-90 
27-80 

27-72 

27-68 

27-50 

27-30 
27-00 

26-82 
26-82 
26-78 
26-78 

2661 



Dry and Wet Ther- 



Heipht above 
sea-level. 



feet. 

953 
926 

605 
605 
504 
486 
441 

377 
322 
322 

459 
761 

779 

916 

i.o53 

1,148 

1,148 

1,148 

978 

959 

770 

770 

770 

742 

582 

698 

872 

969 

1.375 
1.463 
1,689 

1.944 
2,046 
2,148 
2,230 

2,271 
2.4-5 5 

2,659 
2,965 

3.149 
3.H9 
3.190 
3,190 

3,360 



Dry. 



43 - 5 
43 - 5 
43'5 
44-0 

44'5 
45-0 

45'3 
459 
45'5 
46-0 
46-0 
45-2 
45-2 

45-0 
44-2 
43-2 
43-2 
43-2 
43-2 
43-2 
43-2 
43-2 
432 
43 - i 
43"3 
43'5 
43'5 
43'3 
42-5 
42-0 
40-6 
39' 6 
38-9 
38-0 
37*9 

37-2 
37-2 

36-5 
36-0 
35-2 
35-2 
34-2 
34-2 

34-2 



Wet. 



B. 



4. 



(1) Neck of the balloon tied up. 

(2) Twelve miles from Chelmsford. 

(3) Changed direction ; moving W« I 

(4) Water looks like polished steel. 



think. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 163 

Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, February 27, 18G5 (continued). 



mometers (free). 



Difference 



45 

4"2 
4-5 

47 

45 
4-8 

5-0 

5 '4 

5i 

5° 

5-o 

5* 

5'2 



2'2 
*7 

2-6 

2-5 

2-2 
2'2 
21 

2'0 

2-2 



Dew-point. 



35'3 
34'3 
33-6 
33-8 
347 
34'6 
346 
34*4 
34-6 
353 
35-3 
34° 
34° 



4-8 


34-6 


44 


346 


42 


34-0 


4-2 


34-0 


4'5 


33 - 3 


47 


32-9 


47 


32-9 


5-2 


31-8 


5-2 


31-8 


5-i 


32-0 


45 


33"2 


43 


339 


4"5 


336 


4'3 


34"° 


4 - 3 


339 


5*o 


31-4 


47 


31-6 


4T 


312 


3-6 




3 4 


3i-3 


3-0 


309 


29 


31-0 



31-9 

307 

30-1 
297 
29-5 

29-5 
28-4 
287 

28--! 



9. 



Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated). 



Gridiron 
Thermo- 
meter. 



Drv. 



o o 



Wet. 



Diff. 



Hygrometers. 



Dew- 
point. 



Daniell's. 
Dew-point. 



34-0 



Regnault's 
Dew-point. 



34'° 



3i'o 



33-5 



33-0 



Delicate 

Blackened 

bulb Ther 

mometer. 



34'°+ 



30-5 



30-0 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 



15. 



(5) Country brightened up by the sun. In haze. 

(6) In thicker haze ; only one bag of ballast. 

(7) In cloud. (8) In cloud. 
(9) Mist. 



10. 17 



n2 



164 



REPORT 18C5. 



Table I. c. — Meteorological Observations made in the Twenty-fifth 



■ 

8 " 

ti © 


Time. 


Siphon Barometer. 


Aneroid 
Barometer, 


Height above 
sea- level. 


Dry and Wet Thcr- 


Reading 












corrected 


Attached 


No. 2. 


Dry. 


Wet. 




£ 2 




and reduced 
to 32° Falir. 


Therm. 














h m s 


in. 





in. 


feet. 










(1) 


3 44 3°P- m - 
















(2) 


3 45 o » 






16-45 


3.5»i 


33 - ° 


32-0 




(3) 


3 45 3° » 






26-32 


3.65* 










3 45 4° » 






26-20 


3-772 


33-0 


32-0 




(4) 


3 46 „ 






26-52 


3.415 


32-5 


32-0 






3 47 .. 






26-72 


3,218 


32'5 


317 






3 48 „ 






2690 


3,042 


32-5 


32-0 




(5) 


3 49 » 






27-30 


2,650 


32 - 5 


32-0 






3 50 .. 






27-32 


2.637 


33 - » 


32-7 






3 5' .. 






27-71 


2,252 


34-2 


33-1 






3 5 2 - 






2S20 


1.793 


35"5 


33'° 






3 54 © ,. 






29-00 


1,023 


420 


38-0 






3 55 „ 






29-30 


731 


42'5 


387 






3 5 6 ° .. 






29-40 


634 


43-0 


39-2 






3 56 3° .- 






*9'47 


561 


438 


395 






3 57 „ 






2956 


472 


437 


398 






3 57 3° » 






29-70 


448 


44-0 


40-2 






3 58 „ 






2979 


331 


44-2 


40-6 






3 59 .- 






29-80 


322 


44'4 


40-8 




(«) 


3 59 3° -. 






29-85 


70 


44'5 


40-9 






400,, 






2989 


ground. 


44 - 5 


41-2 





4. 



(1) In cloud ; cold. (2) In fog. 

(3' Opened valve ; one bug of ballast only. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 165 

Balloon Ascent, from Woolwich Arsenal, February 27, 1865 (continued). 



momcters ( 


free). 


Gridiron 
: Thermo- 
meter. 


Dry and Wet Therms, (aspirated) 


Hygrometers. 


Delicate 
Rlackencd- 
bulb Ther- 




Difference 


Dew-point 


Dry. 


Wet. 


Diff. 


Dew- 


Daniell's. 


1 Hegnault's 

















point. 


Dew-point. 


Dew-point. 


mometer. 

































1*0 


30-0 












30-5 








l'O 


30-0 




















°5 


31-0 












307 








o-S 


30-0 




















°'5 


3i - o 














3°'5 






0-5 


31-0 




















04 


3i - 9 




















ii 


31-2 




















as 


29-2 




















4 -o 


331 




















38 


34-0 




















33 


34-6 




















4' 3 


34'4 




















3'9 


35-1 




















3-8 


357 




















36 


36-4 




















3-6 


366 




















36 


367 




















3-3 j 


37-3 


















8. 


9 - 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 




(4) In cloud. (5) Out of cloud. 






(6 


) Just ovi 


^r some 


trees. 













166 



REPORT- — 1865. 



§ 4. Adopted Temperatures of the Air, the Wet-bulb, and tile Dew- 
point in Three Balloon Ascents. 



From all the observations of the temperature of the air, evaporation, and dew-point 
in Table I., a determination was made of these elements, with the corresponding reading or 
mean of readings of the barometer and heights, and then the next Table was formed. 

Table II. a.— Showing the adopted Reading of the Barometer, calculated 
Height above the Sea, Temperature of the Air, Temperature of the Wet- 
bulb Thermometer, and Temperature of the Dew-point, in the 



Twenty-third Ascent. — December 1, 186-i. 



Time of 

observa- i 

tion. 

A.M. , 


Reading! 
of the \ 
Baroxn 
reduced 
,o32°F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp. 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 

reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp. 
ot the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp. 

ot the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m s [ 


in. 


feet. 











li m s 


in. 


feet. 











1 1 35 O 




f ^ 


46-5 






3 33 


2 5'45 


4541 


32-0 


28-1 


9 -1 




30M5 


Jl 


46-2 


43-8 




34 c 


25-20 


4805 


32-0 


28-1 


9-1 


P.M. 


30-19 


:§ 




43-2 




40 


24-78 


5 2 45 


30-0 


27-2 


1 8-4 


I 15 




1 ^ £j 
° So 


46-8 


43-2 




41 


24-63 


5403 


29-5 


26-5 


16-5 


2 30 O 


30' IO 


I J 


48-0 


44-2 


40*0 


42 


24-60 


543i 


29-1 


26-1 


15-3 ' 


37 


29-95 


206 


48-2 


44-1 


39-6 


43 


24-95 


5063 


30-0 


27-2 


18-4 


38 


2961 


515 


48-0 44-0 


396 


44 


25-52 


4464 


31-2 


28-1 


19-8 


38 30 


29-38 


584 


47-5 


43-2 


38-5 


45 ° 


26-45 


3487 


32-8 


295 


22-9 


39 ° 


29"20 


890 


47-2 


43'3 


38-9 


46 


26-47 


347o 


33-0 


295 


22-5 


40 


28-85 


1230 


46-0 


42-0 


37'4 


46 30 


26-45 


3491 


33-0 


29-8 


23-I 


41 c 


28-45 


1618 


45 -o 


41-2 


36-8 


47 


26-20 


3759 


33-0 


29-7 


23-1 


42 c 


28^23 


1831 


43"5 


40-2 


36-3 


48 


26-00 


3973 


33-0 


27-3 


17-4 


43 


27-80 


2248 


43-0 


3^7 


37'9 


49 ° 


25-82 


4170 


33-0 


28-0 


15-0 


44 c 


27-40 


2636 


41 


36-0 


29-7 


50 


26-00 


3968 


33-0 


28-0 


,5-0 


45 ° 


26-70 


3298 


40-0 


36-0 


29-7 


51 


26-16 


3789 


32-7 


28-2 


19-2 


46 


26-42 


3570 


39'5 


34'9 


28-6 


52 


26-20 


3744 


32-4 


28-5 


20 - 


48 c 


26-19 


3804 


38-5 


33-0 


25-6 


53 ° 


26-20 


3744 


32-1 


28-7 


2I - 3 


50 c 


25-78 


4222 


38-0 


32-0 


23-8 






3759 


32-4 






51 ° 


25-68 


4324 


38-0 


32-0 


23-8 


54 


26-65 


3240 


32-5 


30-0 


247 


54 


25-30 


4630 


36-0 


29-1 


iS-7 


54 3° 


26-75 


3124 


32-5 


30-5 


25-O 


55 c 


25-19 


4742 


35'° 


28-5 


'5'5 


55 ° 


26-80 


3082 


32-8 


30-8 


2 9 -2 


57 


24-90 


503S 


33'° 


261 


12-5 


55 3° 


27-00 


2914 


33 - ° 


3"'i 


27-3 


58 c 


24-70 


5328 


3 1- 5 


26-1 


12-2 


57 


27-30 


2662 


34-0 


320 


28-5 


59 


24-70 


5328 


3i-5 


z6'i 


12-2 


58 


27'45 


2536 


34'5 


33-0 


30-5 


3 5 


25'5° 


449 6 


31-2 


26-5 


15-6 


59 


27-50 


2497 


35' 2 


33'5 


30-8 


6 30 


25-67 


43'9 


31-2 


26-5 


15-6 


'400 


27-30 


2691 


35'5 


33' 6 


3°'7 


8 


25-80 


4184 


33'° 


29-1 


213 


1 


27-30 


2691 


35 -6 


33-6 


30-5 


9 c 


25-85 


4128 


33'5 


29-8 


21-9 


1 30 


27'20 


2788 


35'7 


33'6 


3°'3 


10 


25-80 


4170 


34 - 5 


30-0 


22-4 


2 


27-14 


2847 


35-8 


331 


29-4 


14 


25-09 


4766 


32-2 


29-1 


22-0 


3 


27-25 


2744 


35-0 


33-0 


29-8 


15 c 


24-92 


4909 


31-8 


27-2 


16-6 


4 


27-40 


2603 


35'5 


333 


30-0 


17 c 


24-90 


495 1 


31-0 


27-1 


16-5 


5 ° 


28-co 


2039 


36-2 


34-8 


327 


23 


24-78 


5052 


30-2 


25-1 


9 1 


6 


2S-25 


1804 


37-1 


35'° 


32-3 


24 c 


24-72 


5122 


298 


25-0 


9-8 


7 


28-30 


1759 


37'3 


35'5 


33-0 


26 c 


24-70 


5'97 


30-2 


251 


8-9 


S 


28-42 


1644 


38-3 


36-5 


34-1 


27 c 


25-00 


4931 


30-2 


25-2 


8-9 


8 3c 


28-50 


1569 


3S-3 


37'° 


35'2 


32 c 


25-50 


4489 


3i*5 


28-1 


9-6 


9 c 


28-52 


1550 


38-7 


37*5 


35-8 
























1 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



167 



Table II. a. — Twenty-third Ascent. — December 1, 1864 (continued). 



Time of 

observa- 
tion. 

F..M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 31!° F. 


Height 

above the 
level of 
the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 
Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m s 


in. 


feet. 











h m s 


in. 


feet. 





O 





4 io o 28*60 


1475 


39"° 


38-0 


36-7 


4 20 


28*70 


1280 


42-0 


397 


364 


13 0! 28*70 


1381 


42 'O 


40-3 


368 


21 


28-80 


1208 


41*2 


397 


37'4 


14 28*80 


12S0 


42-1 


40-2 


37-9 


21 30 


28-82 


1 194 


413 


397 


37-2 


15 2S*6o 


139+ 


42-0 


39*5 


3 6 '4 


22 O 289O 


"37 


41'0 


40-2 


39-2 


15 30 


28-50 


145 1 


4i - 5 


39-2 


36-3 


23 O 29*12 


979 


41-1 


40-2 


391 


17 


28-35 


1532 


41-2 


38-7 


35"S 


25 O 




[■ ground ■< 








iS 028*40 


1496 


40-5 


39-0 


37-1 


33 c 




45-2 


43-0 


40-5 


19 oj 28-50 


1424 


41-5 


39'5 


37-0 















b. Twenty-fourth Ascent. — December 30, 1864. 



14 
»5 

15 
16 
16 
16 

'7 
18 
18 

»9 
19 
l 9 
20 
22 

2 3 
2 3 

24 

2 5 
26 

2 7 
2 7 



29-86 
29-80 
29-51 
29-25 
29-05 
28-95 
28-80 
45 28-50 

o 

o 

3c 
o 

JO 

45 



27*80 
27-60 
27-50 

2 7'45 
27-40 
27-16 
27-05 
27-05 
27-11 
27-40 

2 7-45 
27-68 

2775 
2 7'55 
-i 1 q ! 27-40 
27-21 
26-92 
26-71 

26-48 

26-28 

26*12 

15 1 26*12 

O 26'00 

2615 
26*15 
26-25 
26*50 
26-20 

27-65 

28-90 

28-95 
29*05 



29 
*9 

2 9 
3o 
3i 
3 2 
32 
33 
34 
34 
34 
35 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 



ground 
80 

355 
602 
782 
877 
1020 



'995 

2220 
2310 

2 355 
2410 

26 34 
2699 
2699 

2641 
2350 
2301 
2077 
2019 
2215 
2362 
2552 
2S22 
3018 



3228 

34 2 4 
3580 
3580 
3735 
3589 
3589 
3492 

3 2 49 

2570 

2133 

932 

837 

797 



42*5 


39-0 


34-S 


| 2 40 


29-18 


689 


35*2 


33'5 




42-1 


! 38-5 


34' 1 


41 


29-05 


1009 


35 - 9 


33-8 




41-0 


37'2 


32-4 


41 30 


1 28-90 


1369 


36*0 


33-9 


30*8 


40-0 


362 


31-2 


42 


1 28-72 


1669 


35'5 


338 


31*2 


39-0 


36-0 


32-0 


43 c 


'28-60 


1929 


35-5 


335 


311 


38-2 


35'i 


30-9 


43 3° 


28-52 


2129 


35-5 


33*2 


29-6 


37-2 


34-8 


3''5 


44 


28-48 


2219 


35-5 


33-2 


29-6 


36-2 


34-2 


31-2 


45 


28-32 


26S9 


34'9 


328 


29*4 






3 0- 5 


45 3° 


28-30 


2699 


34-5 


33'° 


3°'5 


... 




30-0 


46 


28*26 


2829 


34*2 


32-5 


296 


34-1 


329 


30-8 


47 


28-25 


2860 


34'° 


330 


31-2 


33-0 


32-0 


30-0 


47 3° 


28-24 


2946 


34*0 


33'° 


31-2 


3 2 '5 


32-0 


31-0 


48 


28-40 


2796 


34-0 


33° 


31 2 


32-7 


31-8 


3°'° 


48 30 


28-40 


2796 


34-0 


33-0 


31-2 


32-5 


3i'9 


30-7 


49 


28*40 


2796 


34-0 


33-0 


312 


32-2 


3 1- 5 


30-0 


49 3° 


2S*45 


2666 


34'5 


333 


31*2 


31-9 


30-5 


27*1 


49 45 


28*50 


2536 


350 


33-2 


3°'3 


31-9 


308 


28*3 


50 


28*60 


2276 


35'3 


33-2 


299 


319 


3°'5 


27-2 


50 30 


28*68 


2070 


35-6 


335 


3o-3 


319 


31-0 


28-9 


51 


28-85 


1621 


35-6 


33'5 


3°3 


3 I- 9 


312 


296 


5i 3o 


28-92 


1462 


35-6 


338 


311 


3 I- 9 


31-6 


30-9 


5i 45 


29-00 


1256 


35-8 


33-8 


30-8 


32-3 


32-0 


30-4 


52 


29-10 


1096 


36-0 


340 


31-0 


322 


32-2 


32*2 


53 


2 9 - 35 


556 


36-2 


34-0 


30-8 


31*5 


31-2 


30*4 


53 3° 


29-38 


511 


36-2 


34-5 


32-0 


3f3 


30-6 


28-9 


54 


2939 


495 


36-2 


34-5 


320 


29*5 


29-0 


27-3 


54 3° 


29-32 


556 


36-2 


34*5 


32-0 


28*8 


2o 3 


26-4 


55 


29-31 


565 


36-1 


34 - 5 


32-1 


... 




27-0 1 


57 


2960 


299 


38-2 


3 6 7 


347 


27-5 


27-2 


26'0 i 


57 3° 


29-31 


570 


38-2 


36*7 


347 


27-2 


26-5 


23-4 


58 30 


29-20 


670 


38-2 


35-5 


34"9 


30-0 


26-0 


134 


59 ° 


2895 


900 


37*2 


360 


34'4 


29-5 


26-2 


15-0 


300 28-78 


1056 


37*2 


36*0 


34 - 4 


31-5 


26'0 


12*2 


1 


28-62 


1203 


37-2 


357 


34*2 


29-5 


26-2 


15*1 


2 


28-55 


1266 


37*2 


35 -6 


33-4 


29-0 


27*2 


20*7 


2 3c 


28-60 


1216 


37'5 


35-6 


34*0 


28-2 


27*1 


22*7 


3 


28-70 


1116 


37-8 


36-2 


34-2 


28*2 


27-0 


22'3 


3 45 


29-05 


766 


37*8 


362 


34'° 


28*2 


28-0 


2 7'3 


4 ° 


29-42 


396 


38*2 


36-4 


33 - 9 


30*2 


29-7 


28-3 


5 


29-50 


316 


38*2 


364 


339 


33"° 


32-0 


30-0 


6 


29-63 


186 


38*2 


364 


339 


34-0 


3 2 '5 


29-8 


15 


29*82 


ground. 


38-2 


3-5-5 


34 -2 


34*5 


32-9 


30-2 '■ 















1G& 



REPORT — 1865. 



Table II. b. — Twenty- foukth Ascent. — December 30, 1864 (continued). 



Time of B 
obscrva- , 


cading 
of the 


Height _. Temp. Temp. 

ibovc the I r? 1 ' ..i .!. 


Time of Re ??; u « 


*** T 

\ h °vethc f h « 

'"' cl of Air. 
the sea. 


Temp, 
of the 


Temp, 
of the 


tion. 

P.M. t 


Snrom. 
educed 
> 32° F. 


level of 
the sea. 


ii tne 
Air. 


Wet- 
bulb. 


Dcw- 
loint. 


tion Barom. 

reduced 

P - M- to32°F. 


Wet- 
bulb. 


Dew- 
point. 


h m s 


in. 


feet. 


O 


— — 

O 





h ni s 


in. 


feet. 


O 





I 25 C 


30-27 


1 * f 


477 


42-4 


3 6 "5 


2 48 30 


27-72 


2360 41-2 


38-0 


34'° 


35 ° 




° 


47 - 5 


42-0 


35'9 


49 ° 


Z775 


2330 418 


38-0 


333 


52 


30 - 20 


) &> I 


52-1 


45-2 


38-0 


50 c 


27-80 


2281 1 


t3"° 


39'5 


35'3 


58 10 


30-13 


60 


51-8 


45* 


38.5 


5 1 °i 


28-05 


2035 


n-2 


39-0 


34-0 


58 2C 


30-00 


176 


5»"4 


44-8 


38-1 


54 c j 


29-31 


796 


M'J 


40-2 


355 


58 30 


29-92 


244 


51-0 


44' 1 


36-9 


55 


29-80 


322 


46-2 


41-0 


35-1 


59 ° 


29-65 


474 


49'5 


42-1 


34 - i 1 


56 


29-65 


460 


46-2 


41*0 


35-1 


20c 


29-30 


767 


47-2 


40-9 


339 


56 30 


29-45 


644 


46-0 


41-2 


357 


1 30 


28-98 


1085 


46-2 


40-1 


33-2 


57 3° 


29-14 


927 


44'5 


40-0 


347 


2 


28-52 


1543 


45-2 


40-1 


34-2 


58 


29-11 


957 


43'5 


39'5 


347 


2 30 


2821 


1851 


43'7 


38-9 


33* 


59 ° 


29-00 


1057 


43*5 


39-0 


33'6 


2 45 


27-78 


2279 


41-2 


37-1 


32"o 


59 3° 


2890 


1 148 


43-5 


38-5 


32-6 


3 










29-0 


300 


2892 


1130 


43-0 


38-5 


33"i 


3 3° 


26-98 


3074 








1 


2898 


1075 


43'° 


38-5 


33'i 


4 ° 


26-72 


3333 


35-5 


33'° 


29-1 


1 30 


28-99 


ic66 


43'5 


38-5 


33-1 


5 


26-42 


3632 


34-8 


32-0 


27-5 


2 


29-00 


1057 


43-5 


39-0 


35'3 


5 3° 


26-20 


3851 


34-8 


32-0 


27-5 


3 


29-07 


990 


43-5 


39'5 


347 


6 


26-05 


3990 


35-0 


31-6 


27-2 


4 c 


29'!! 


953 


43-5 


39'° 


353 


6 30 


26-00 


4040 


34-8 


30-9 


247 


5 


29-15 


926 


43'5 


39"3 


34' 3 


7 3° 


2562 


4418 


34'° 


29-2 


209 


5 3° 


29-50 


605 


43'5 


39° 


33-6 


8 30 


25-39 


4647 


34-0 


28-3 


lS-2 


6 


29-50 


605 


44-0 


393 


338 


9 ° 


*5'34 


4697 


34" 5 


28-5 


171 


7 


2961 


5 C 4 


44'5 


40-0 


347 


9 1? 


25-30 


4737 


35-2 


29-0 


I 9 -I 


8 c 


2963 


486 


45° 


40-2 


34-6 


11 


25-30 


4737 


38-2 

•* 


311 


21-6 


9 c 


29-68 


441 


453 


4°"3 


34-6 


11 30 


25-25 


4795 


38-2 


30-6 


20-3 


10 


29-75 


377 


45'9 


40-5 


34'4 


12 


2519 


4S55 


38-7 


30-6 


19-4 


11 


29-80 


322 


4-5 - 5 


40-4 


34-6 


12 30 


25-17 


4875 


3S7 


29-7 


177 


12 c 


29-80 


322 


46-0 


41-0 


35'3 


13 O 


25-17 


4875 


39-2 


29-4 


16-5 


12 30 


2965 


459 


46-0 


41-0 


35'3 


17 O 


25-08 


4965 


392 


29-2 


16-1 


13 


2932 


761 


45-2 


40-0 


34-0 


22 30 






38-2 


290 


16-6 


14 


29-30 


779 


45-2 


40-0 


34'° 


23 O 


25-30 


4S28 


38-2 


290 


16-6 


15 3c 


2915 


916 


45-0 


40-2 


346 


24 O 


25'3° 


4S28 


3S2 


29-0 


166 


16 c 


29*00 


1053 


44-2 


398 


346 


25 O 


25-30 


4S28 


382 


290 


16-6 


17 c 


2890 


1148 


43-2 


39-0 


34'° 


27 


[25-30 


4828 


38-2 


27-5 


13-0 


17 3c 


28-90 


1 148 


43-2 


39'° 


34° 


27 3 C 


i 2 5 - i5 


4840 


38-2 


27-5 


13-0 


18 


28-90 


1148 


43-2 


38-7 


33'3 


28 c 


25-22 


4847 


38-1 


27-2 


12-4 


19 c 


29-08 


978 


43-2 


38-5 


32-9 


29 c 


I 25-20 


4865 


38-2 


27-5 


13-0 


20 c 


29-10 


959 


43-2 


38-5 


32-9 


30 c 


25-20 


4S65 


38-2 


27'5 


130 


21 C 


29-30 


770 


43-2 


38-0 


318 


34 c 


25-60 


4408 


39-2 


29-5 


167 


22 C 


29-30 


770 


43-2 


38-0 


31-8 


34 2c 


25-60 


4408 


39'4 


30-0 


177 


23 C 


2930 


770 


43-2 


381 


32-0 


36 c 


25-50 


45'7 


39-2 


30-0 


17-9 


24 C 


2933 


742 


43-1 


386 


33"2 


38 c 


25-42 


4604 


39-2 


30-0 


17-9 


25 c 


2950 


582 


43'3 


39'° 


33'9 


40 c 


25-30 


4734 


41-2 


3i-5 


19-3 


26 c 


> 29-38 


698 


43'5 


39'° 


33'6 


41 c 


,25-30 


4734 


417 


3i-3 


18-5 


27 c 


> 29-20 


872 


43'5 


39-2 


34-0 








42-0 


31-0 


I7-5 


28 c 


> 28-30 


969 


43'3 


39'° 


339 


42 c 


> 25-50 


4538 


42-0 


31-0 


'7'5 


29 c 


> 28-72 


1375 


42-5 


37'5 


3i'4 


42 3c 


> 25-70 


433 2 


43-2 


32-5 


197 


30 c 


1 28-55 


1463 


42"o 


37'3 


31-6 


43 c 


> 25-90 


4136 


43 - 3 


33'° 


20-7 


30 3c 


) 28-25 


1689 


40-6 


36-5 


31-2 


44 ' 


) 26-60 


345° 


42-5 


35-5 


27-0 


3 1 < 


) 28-00 


1944 


39-6 


36-0 




45 < 


> 26-78 


3274 


42-0 


36-0 


286 


32 c 


> 27-90 


2046 


38-9 


35*5 


3 I- 3 


45 3< 


) 27-10 


2960 


417 


36-0 


28-9 


32 3c 


27-80 


2148 


38-0 


35'° 


30-9 


46 c 


> 2 7'35 


2715 


4°7 


35'5 


290 


33 < 


> 27-72 


2230 


37'9 


35'° 


31-0 


46 2t 


) 27-40 


2676 


40-5 


36-0 


30-2 


35 < 


) 2768 


2271 


37-2 


35'° 


3i'9 


46 3 c 


3 27-55 


2529 


41-0 


36-5 


30-8 


37 < 


> 27-50 


2 455 


37'2 


34'5 


307 


47 < 


3 27-70 


2382 


41-0 


37 - 5 


331 


38 y 


) 27-30 


2659 


36-5 


339 


30-1 


48 c 


> 27-72 


2360 


41-0 


38-0 


34'* 


39 < 


3 27-00 


2965 


360 


33'5 


29-7 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



169 



Table II. b. — Twenty-foubth Ascent. — December 30, 1864 {continued). 



Time of 

observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 
of the 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 




Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


Time of 
observa- 
tion. 

P.M. 


Reading 

of the" 
Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Height 
above the 

level of 
the sea. 


Temp. 

of the 

Air. 


Temp, 
of the 
Wet- 
bulb. 


Temp, 
of the 
Dew- 
point. 


h m s 


in. 


feet. 


O 


c 


h m 


s 


in. 


feet. 





O 





3 40 0, 2682 


3 '49 


35-2 


33'° 


29-5 1 


3 5i 


c 27-71 


2252 


34'2 


33-1 


3l"2 


4.1 o, 26-82 


3 '49 


35-2 


33-0 


2 9'5 i 


52 


c 


28-20 


1793 


35'5 


33-0 


29-2 


42 ci 26*78 


3190 


34-2 


32 - I 


28-4 


54 


c 


29-00 


1022 


42-0 


38-0 


33-1 


43 26-78 


3190 


34-2 


32-2 


28-7 , 


55 





29-30 


731 


42-5 


3S7 


34-0 


44 0. 26-61 


3360 


34-2 


32-0 


28-3 ; 


56 


c 


29-40 


634 


43-0 


39-2 


34-6 


45 ° 26-45 


3521 


33'° 


32-0 


30-0 


56 


30 29-47 


561 


43-8 


39'5 


34 - 4 


45 3° 


26-32 


3652 






1 


57 





29-56 


472 


437 


39-8 


35i 


45 4° 


26-20 


3772 


33-0 


32-0 


30-0 


57 


3 C 


29-70 


448 


44-0 


40-2 


357 


46 


2652 


34'5 


32-5 


320 


31-0 


58 





29-79 


331 


44-2 


40- 6 


36-4 


47 ° 


26-72 


3218 


32-5 


31-7 


3°'° , 


59 





29'So 


322 


44'4 


40-8 


36-6 


48 


2690 


3042 


32-5 


32 - » 


31-0 


59 


3 C 2985 


70 


44'5 


40-9 


36-7 


49 27-30 


2650 


3i-5 


320 


31-0 


4 


c 29-89 


ground 


44'5 


4 1 ' 2 


373 


50 27-32 


2637 


33-1 


32-7 


3 ,- 9 




1 











170 REPORT— 1865. 

§ 5. Variation op Temperature op the Air ■with Height. 

Every reading of temperature in the preceding Tables, or the means of 
small groups of readings when observations have been taken in quick succes- 
sion at about the same altitude, or when the Balloon has passed and re- 
passed through nearly the same space within a few minutes — as, for example, 
on December 1st, between 3 h 44 m and 3 h 49 m it fell from 4464 feet to 3470 
feet, and rose to 4170 feet — these readings, or means of readings, were laid 
down on diagrams, the points joined, and a curved lino made to pass through 
or near them, so that the area of the spaces between the original and tbe 
adopted lines on one side Avas equal to that of the spaces on the other side. 
Thus treated, temperature decreased with increase of elevation on December 
1st and 30th. On February 27th it was found to increase, after attaining 
the altitude of 4647 feet. On descending, the temperature at first declined, 
and at 4800 feet the reading was the same as at the same elevation on as- 
cending ; then a warm current was met with, and the readings at the same 
elevation were much higher than were noted in ascending, and continued so 
through a space of 2800 feet, below which they were lower than on ascend- 
ing ; in consequence of these differences no temperature has been adopted for 
these, and another ascent and descent were made, for which temperatures 
have been adopted. 

The numbers in the first column show the height in feet, beginning at the 
groimd and increasing upwards ; the numbers in the second column show the 
interval of time in ascending to the highest point; the notes in the third column 
show the circumstances of the observations ; the numbers in the fourth and 
fifth columns the observed and the approximate normal temperatures of the 
air ; and those in the next column the difference between the two preceding 
columns, or the most probable effect of the presence of cloud or mist on the 
temperature, or other local disturbing causes. 

The next group of columns is arranged similarly for the descent, and the 
other groups for succeeding ascents and descents. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864) AND 1865. 



171 



Table III. — Showing the Temperature of the Air, as read off the curve 
drawn through the observed temperatures, and as read off the curve of 
most probable normal temperatures, called adopted temperatures, and the 
calculated amount of disturbance from the assumed law of decrease of 
temperature. 

Twenty-third Ascent. 











Temperature of the Air. 








1864. 










































December 1. 

Height, in feet, 
above the mean 
level of the sea. 




Ascending 








Descendin 


i* 




Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
tempe- 
rature. 


Calcu- 
lated 
effect of 
disturb- 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
tempe- 
rature. 


Calcu- 
lated 
effect of 
disturb- 












ance. 










ance. 






























5400 






*sn 


29-5 


— 0*2 






29-3 


291 


4- 0-2 


5200 






3°'9 


30-8 


+ o-i 






29-6 


29-6 


o-o 


5000 






311 


317 


- o-6 






3o'o 


30 - I 


— o-i 


4S00 






32-5 


32-8 


- 0-3 






3°'S 


30-3 


4- 0'2 


4600 






33-6 


33' 6 


o-o 






31-0 


30-5 


+ o-s 


4400 






346 


35 1 


- o'5 






3i-4 


30-8 


4- o-6 


4200 






36-9 


36-2 


+ 07 






3. -8 


31-2 


4- o-6 


4000 






37'° 


37-1 


— o-i 






32-4 


31-7 


4- 0-7 


3800 


a 




38-6 


37 - 9 


4- 07 


•-3 




32-5 


3 2-I 


4- 0-4 


3600 


£V 




39'3 


38-6 


4- 07 




S 




32-4 


32-4 


O'O 


3400 


B 




39-8 


39" 2 


4- o-6 





32-5 


32-7 


— 0-2 


3200 




a! 


40-1 


39'7 


4- 0-4 


zr 


CD 


32*6 


33-1 


- ° - 5 


3000 


"to 


*o 


403 


40-2 


4- o-i 


3 


g 

p 


33-0 


33-6 


- o-6 


2800 





te 


407 


40-8 


— 01 




335 


34-1 


- o-6 


2600 

2400 


E 


CO 


CO 

E 

CD 


4I"2 

42-3 


4 I- 5 

42-2 


- 0-3 
4- o-i 






35° 
357 


34-5 

35'° 


+ o-s 
4- 07 


22CO 


JZ 


O 


43-0 


43-0 


O'O 




~s 


362 


357 


4- o-s 


2000 


g 


43'2 


437 


- o-s 


>n 




36-6 


36-8 


— 0-2 


180O 
160O 


5 




43-8 
45"5 


44"4 
45'° 


- o-6 
4- o-s 


3 




37 - i 
38-3 


38-0 
389 


- 0-9 

- o-6 


I4OC1 






45-8 


45-6 


+ 0-2 






41-6 


400 


+ i-6 


1200 






4<5'2 


46-2 


O'O 






41-2 


41- 1 


4- o-i 


ICOO 
80O 






46-8 


467 


4- o-i 






40-9 


41-9 


— I'O 






47-0 


47-2 


— o'2 






417 


42-4 


- 0-7 


600 






47-2 


47-6 


- 0- 4 






42-6 


43-0 


- 0-4 


400 






48-0 


47'9 


4- o-i 






43'4 


43"6 


— 02 


200 






48-2 


48-0 


4- 0-2 






45-3 


44* 3 


4- i-o 


O 






48-0 


48-0 


o-o 

1 






45"4 


45-1 


4- 0-3 



December 1.— The temperature of the air at the height of 400 feet was the 
BMne as on the ground, viz. 48°; on passing above this point the temperature 
declined to 47|° at 600 feet, very slowly to 45|° at 1600 feet ; a decrease of 
1 |° then took place in the next 200 feet, remained very nearly the same for 
400 feet more, and then declined to 41^° at 2600 feet, still decreasing gradu- 
ally to 38^° at 3800 feet, and then rather more quickly to 29^° at the 
highest point. On descending, the temperature increased very uniformly 
till 4000 feet was passed, then almost without change through a decline of 
800 feet, or to 3200 feet high ; increased 1° in the next 400 feet downwards, 
and 1^° in the succeeding 200 feet; after this the temperature increased by 
pretty even amounts, till the height of 1800 feet was reached ; here a warm 
current was entered, for by the time the balloon had descended to 1400 feet, 
the temperature had increased to 41|°; it then declined to 41° at 1000 feet' 



172 



REPORT 1865. 



after which it increased hy even amounts till within 200 feet of elevation, 
where the temperature was 45°-3, being only o, l less than that found on the 
ground. 

Table III. (continued.) 

TwENTr-FOUItTH ASCENT. 



1864. 








Ten 


pcratur 


e of the Air. 
















December 30 

Height, in feet, 






Ascendin 








Descending. 










Calcu- 


1 






Calcu- 


above the mean 
level of the sea. 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 

temp. 


Adopted 
tempe- 
rature. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
tempe- 
rature. 


lated 
effect of 
disturb- 












ance. 








ance. 






Just out 
of cluud. 



















2600 




Entered 


3*'3 


32-0 


+ 0-3 


H 

H 

O 


31-8 


31-8 


O'O 




g 


cloud. 








1 










2400 


■ 

O 

t<-> 


ii 

c = 

2"-o 


32-5 


3*"5 


o-o 


£ 




31-9 


319 


o-o 


2200 
2000 


"en 


<.s 


33-0 
34'i 


33i 

33-8 


— O'l 

+ o-3 


8 


Si , V° 3*'° 

p-r 32-5 32's 


O'O 

o-o 




1800 


"rl 




34-8 


34-S 


o-o 


V 


The balloon 


then 


1600 


O 




35-6 


356 


o-o 






turned |to asce 


nd. 


1400 


r4 




36-1 


36 1 


o-o 


M 










I2CO 


m 




3 6 '9 


36-9 


o-o 


09 










IOOO 






37-8 


37'6 


+ 0-2 


*a 










800 


s 




39'° 


39"° 


O'O 


B 










6co 


p 


Misty. 


4C0 


39'9 


4- o-i 












400 




40-9 


40-9 


o-o 












200 






41-6 


41-6 


o - o 


l 

















426 
296 


426 


O'O 

+ o-i 


1 


Above 
cloud. 








3600 




-o "io 


29-5 




In very 


29 'O 


293 


- 0-3 






M- 










dense 








3400 


£ 

* 




27"I 


27-4 


- 0-3 





cloud. 


28-4 


28-4 


O'O 


3200 


u-l 


Hi 


277 


277 


o-o 







28-4 


28-4 


o-o 


3000 


g 


dense 


288 


286 


-f 0-2 






28-3 


283 


o-o 


2800 


"cl 

CO 


cloud. 


29-5 


29-6 


— o-i 


ua 




28-2 


28-2 


o - o 






Just 




"b 










2600 


cl 

O 


entering 
cloud. 


31-0 


30-6 


+ 0-4 


O 


Out of 

cloud. 


282 


28-5 


- 0-3 


2400 


2 




ji'a 


3*'3 


— o-i 


=? 




29-0 


29-1 


— o-i 


2200 


rl 




32-2 


32 - 2 


O'O 


1>J 




30-0 


29-8 


+ 0-2 


2000 


"r) 




3*'5 


33-1 


- o-6 


2 




306 


30-6 


O'O 


1800 


3 










•*3 




311 


31-1 


o-o 


1600 















316 


316 


o-o 


1400 


f«H 














32-1 


321 


o - o 


1200 
















3 2 '5 


32-5 


o-o 


1000 
















33'o 


33'i 


— o-i 


800 
















34'* 


34-2 


o-o 


















The balloon ; 


then 


















turned jto asce' 


nd. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



173 



Table III. (continued.') 
Twexty-fourth Ascent (continued). 



1864. 








Temperature of the 


Air. 


















Dec. 30 (con). 

Height, in feet, 
above the mean 
level of the sea. 






Ascendin 


3* 




Descending. 


Between 

what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 
temp. 


Adopted 
temp. 


Calcu- 
lated 
effect of 
disturb- 


Between 
what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 

temp. 


Adopted 
tempe- 
rature. 


Calcu- 
lated 
effect of 
disturb- 












ance. 










ance. 


2800 


ft 





34'3 




34-4- 



— o-l 








34-0 




34-3 




-°'3 


2600 


■ 
O 




35'° 


349 


+o-i 


s 




35'° 


35'° 


O'O 


2400 






35*4 


35'3 


-+-0-I 







35-1 


352 


— - I 


2200 






35'5 


35'3 +°'2 


a 




353 


35-3 


O'O 


2000 


rA 


35b 


35'° o-o 


u 


ej 


353 


3 5'4 


— O'l 


1800 


rt 


3 


35-6 


356 i o-o 


-£> 




35*5 


35'5 


O'O 


1600 


49 


35-6 


35'6 o - o 


00 

3 


ft 




35-6 


35" 6 


O'O 


1400 


e 
O 


tl 


36-0 


35-8 4-0-2 


efr 





357 


357 


O - 


1200 


<4- 


■a 

a 


36-0 


36-0 


o-o 


S 





35'9 


35-8 


+01 


1000 


c* 


£> 


36-0 


36-0 


o-o 




Oj 


36-0 


35'9 


+o-i 


8co 


a 




35'9 


359 


o - o 


--J 




36-1 


361 


o - o 


600 

400 


s 










B 




363 

37'5 


36-4 

37-2 


— O'l 

+Q-3 


















The balloon then 
turned to ascend. 


1200 




13 


37-2 


37 - 2 ' o'o 


» 1^ j 


bd 


377 


37-6 


+ 0-1 


1000 


V a 


3 
O 


37'* 


37'4 -.o-a 


- »i hrj 

3 ^> 2 

-3 g 


377 


377 


O'O 


800 


a &d. 


O 


377 


377 o-o 


O 
3 


37-3 


37 - 9 


— O'l 


600 


, 2 * I 


£ 


38-2 


38-0 -f-O-2 j 


38-0 


380 


O'O 


400 


h cv" 


^ 


38-2 


38-3 , -o-i 




O 


38-2 


3S2 


o - o 


200 


a " 


w 







r 


|3 

ft 


38-3 


38-3 


o-o 













1 1 






38-4 


38-5 


— O'l 



December 30. — The temperature of the air was 42|° on the ground ; it 
declined 1° in the first 200 feet ; 0°- 7 in the second; 0°' 9 in the third ; l°-0 in 
the fourth ; l°-2 in the fifth, where it was 37°-8, or nearly 5° less than on the 
ground ; it then decreased by amounts varying from |° to 1° in every 200 feet, 
till 2400 feet had been passed, where the temperature was 32|°, declining to 
32^° at 2600 feet. The balloon then turned to descend, the temperature re- 
maining at nearly the same value, viz. 32°, for 400 feet, and increased \° on 
falling to 2000 feet, when the balloon turned to ascend, the temperature de- 
creasing very evenly up to 3400 feet : here a warm current was met with ; for 
the temperature increased 2|° in passing from 3400 feet to 3600 feet, the tem- 
perature there being 29|°. On descending, the temperature decreased to 28^° 
at 3400 feet, and remained veiy nearly at that value for the next 800 feet, 
but increased to 29° at 2400 feet and to 30° at 2200 feet; after this it in- 
creased about ±° for every 200 feet, till the balloon had fallen to 1000 feet, 
and 1|° whilst passing from that to 800 feet ; the balloon then turned to re- 
ascend for the second time, the temperature remaining at 36° whilst passing 
upward from 800 feet to 1400 feet 5 it then declined about i° in passing 
through the next 200 feet, and remained nearly at that value till 2400 feet were 
reached, and fell to 34^° at 2800 feet, when the balloon turned to descend, 
the temperature increasing from 34° at 2800 feet to 38°-2 at 300 feet ; on 
again ascending, the temperature did not vary until 600 feet was reached, but 
declined to 37 0, 2 at 1200 feet, and gradually increased to 38°-4 on the ground. 



174 



REPORT — 1865. 



Table III. (continued.) 
Twenty-fifth Ascent. 











Temperature of the Air. 








1865. 






























1 












February 27. 
Height, in feet, 




Ascending 








Descending. 












Calcu- 










Calcu- 


above the mean 
level of the sea. 


Between 
what 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 


Adopted 
tempe- 


lated 
effect of 


Between 
what 


Circum- 
stances. 


Ob- 
served 


Adopted 
tempe- 


lated 
effect of 




times. 


temp. 


rature. 


disturb- 


times. 


temp. 


rature. 


disturb- 












ance. , 










ance. 






























5000 




Above 


39'4 


33'4 


+ 6'0 






39'° 






4S00 




Cloud. 


3»-3 


33-1 


+ 5' 2 






38-4 






4600 






34"° 


33' 2 


-j-o-8 






39'5 






4400 






34-0 


33'4 


-j-o-6 






42-1 






4200 




•-d 


34-3 


336 


+07 






43'3 






40c 


£ 


3 



35'° 


33-8 


+ 1-2 






43 - i 






3800 


A 


*"o 


34-8 


34'' 


+07 


hrj 




43-0 






3600 


r^ 


l-H 


34-8 
35'i 


34-5 
35'i 


+°'3 

O'O 


O 
& 




42-8 






3400 


H 






42-5 






3200 
3000 


a 




35-8 


35-8 


O'O 


fc> 




42-0 
4i7 











37-2 


369 


+0-3 




On a level 
with 






2800 
2600 


i 




38-0 
39"4 


37-8 
387 


-|-0'2 

+07 


3 


cloud. 


4 I- 7 

41'2 






Below the 
level of 


2400 


• — 1 


Below 


40-4 


39-6 


-j-o-8 


r*- 


the cloud. 


42"0 






2200 




cloud. 


41'S 


407 


+o-8 


1*1 




43'° 






2COO 






42-8 


417 


+ i-i 


M 




43-2 






1800 


B 





43'9 


42-8 


J-i-i 






43' 2 






1600 




44'9 


437 


+ 1-2 


•a 




43-2 






I4OO 


£ 




4S - 5 


44-6 


+ 0- 9 


B 




43-2 






I2CO 






45-8 


45-6 


-fO'2 






43-2 






IOOO 






46-5 


466 


— O'l 






43-6 






80O 






47'° 


477 


-07 






437 






60O 






487 


489 


— 0'2 






45'3 






40O 






49'9 


50-0 


— o'l 






457 






200 






51-3 


511 


-f-0'2 












O 






52-3 


5 2 '3 


o - o 






The 

turn« 


jalloon 
d to as< 


then 
:end. 


3600 
34OO 




In 

cloud. 


33-6 
33'9 


33'5 

34'° 


+ 0-1 

-o-i 




In 
cloud. 


327 
32'6 


327 
32-8 


O'O 
— 0'2 


32OO 
3OOO 
2SCO 
2600 
24OO 


3 
d, 
b 




34-2 

35'7 
36-2 
367 
37-2 


34-8 
35'4 

359 

36-5 

37-2 


— o - 6 

4-0-3 
+0-3 
4-o - 2 

O'O 


3 


5 


In 
cloud. 


32*6 
32-6 
32-6 
327 
33'5 


32-9 
33-0 
33-1 
33'3 
33'5 


-0-3 

-0-4 

-°'5 
-o-6 

O'O 


In 

liazc. 




22CO 
2O00 


■3- 




37-8 
38-9 


38-0 
38-9 


— 0-2 
O'O 


E 


Below 


34'4 
34-8 


34'° 
34-8 


+ c'4 

O'O 




l800 


3 


Below 


40'o 


39-8 


+ 0'2 


S" 


cloud. 


35' 2 


36-0 


-o-8 


l6oo 


b 


cloud. 


41-1 


4C6 


+o-5 


-£-_ 




37'° 


37' 2 


— 0'2 


I40O 


a 




42-3 


41-4 


+0-9 


>X) 




3S9 


38-5 


+ o'4 


I20O 






43"° 


4 2 '3 


+07 


g 




4°"4 


39'9 


+c's 


IOOO 


A 




437 


43-2 


4-o-s 






42-0 


4 » '4 


4-o'6 


800 


a 






44 - 3 


44"° 


4-0-3 






42-6 


427 


— O'l 


600 




44-9 


44-8 


4-o-i 






43-2 


43'4 


— C'2 


400 


& 




457 


457 


O'O 






44' 1 


44- 1 


O'O 


200 
















44'5 


44'5 


CO 



















44' 5 


44'5 


O'O 



February 27. — The temperature on the ground was 52°-3, which declined 
1° on passing through the first 200 feet, and about 1^° in each space of 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 175 

200 feet up to 800 feet, where the temperature was 47° or 5°-3 lower than on 
the ground : the decline was then less rapid, for on passing through the next 
800 feet the whole decrease was 2°-l. The temperature then declined rather 
more rapidly to 35°-l at 3400 feet high ; at 3600 feet it was 34f °, and varied but 
little from this till 4000 feet had been passed ; it then decreased to 34° at 4600 
feet, when it suddenly became warm, the temperature increasing to 38|° on 
passing above 4S00 feet, and to 39^° nearly on reaching 5000 feet, the same 
temperature having been passed at 2600 feet. The balloon then turned to de- 
scend, the temperature at first decreasing to 3S°-4 at 4800 feet, being the same 
as noted on ascending : here a warm current was met with, and the tempera- 
ture increased rapidly ; when at 4200 feet it was 43°-3, being 9° warmer 
than was noticed at the same elevation on ascending ; this excess gradually 
diminished, till at about 2000 feet high the temperature observed during 
the descent was very nearly the same as. noted, during the ascent; and below 
this the temperatures were all lower by some -degrees than were recorded at 
the same elevation during the ascent : these differences seem to be chiefly 
owing to the presence of cloud situated between 3100 feet and 4100 feet 
high, or 1000 feet in thickness passed through in ascending, and seen at the 
same level, but not passed through in descending. The point where the tem- 
peratures noted were the same ascending and descending was a little below 
the cloud-plane ; at lower elevations, to the ground, the air was some degrees 
warmer under the cloud, during the ascent, than in the absence of cloud 
during the descent. The .effect of the presence of the cloud in this ascent 
seems to have been to cool the air several degrees ; and this cooling influence 
seems to have extended for nearly 1000 feet above the cloud, and for 500 
or 600 feet below ; nearer the earth the presence of the cloud seems to 
have exercised a warming influence. In the descent it will be seen that the 
temperature differed very little from 43°, from 4200 feet high to 1000 feet 
high, the depression' to 41°+ from 3000 feet to 2600 feet being evidently 
influenced by the passage through the cloud-plane. On ascending again, 
first haze was passed through, then cloud entered, giving readings differing 
but little from those met with in the first ascent. On descending to the 
earth, temperatures a little lower, owing apparently to the diurnal decrease 
of temperature at these altitudes, were met with, thus far agreeing with those 
during the first ascent ; and comparison with those during the first descent 
through a large break in the clouds gives a great deal of information upon 
the large influence exercised by the presence of cloud. 

In previous Reports a Table (No. IY.) was formed here, showing the 
decrease of temperature in every 1000 feet ; as no additional information at 
high elevations is given this year, this Table has not been formed. The 
residts of Table V. of preceding years are included in Table III. of this year. 



176 



REPORT 1865. 

Table VI. — Showing the Decrease of Temperature with every 





Dec. 1, 




Dec. 30 










Height, 

in feet, 

above the 

level o f the 


18()4. 




1864. 










State of the Sky. 


















sea. 


Generally 
clear. 


Cloudy. 










From 


To 


to 

s 

c 

<u 
CI 

< 


tr, 

s 

c 

u 



n 

OJ 

« 


fan 

B 

^3 

E 

a 

u 

< 


c 

c 
u 

n 

V 

O 


to 

c 
'B 
c 


U 

in 

< 


6, 

c 
-3 
a 

V 


05 

V 

P 


c 
p 

u 



w 

< 


g 

c 
u 

41 

■ 

CI 


A 

a 

c 

0) 


en 

< 


a 
•3 

u 

■ 
4> 


feet. 


feet. 








O 











3 











4900 


5000 


o'S 


OI 




















4800 


4900 


o-6 


- I 








• • 






.. 


• • 






4700 


4800 


0-4 


o - i 


* • 






• • 






• • 




•• 


• • 


4600 


4700 


0-4 


o-i 














.. 








4500 


4600 


07 


O'l 


•• 












• • 




•• 


• • 


4400 


45C0 


o-8 


O'l 


•• 






.. 






■ • 


•• 


•• 


• • 


4300 


4400 


o'5 


0'2 


•• 






• • 






• • 




■• 




4200 


4300 


o-6 


0-2 








• • 






■ • 




•• 




4100 


4200 


o'5 


0-2 


• • 










• • 


• • 




•• 


•• 


4000 


4100 


0-4 


0'3 














■ • 








3900 


4000 


0-4 


0'2 














■ • 




• • 




3800 


3900 


0-4 


0-2 












. 


• • 








3700 


3800 


04 


0-2 


•• 






• • 




• 


• • 




• • 


• • 


3600 


3700 


0-3 


o-i 














.. 








3500 


3600 


0-3 


o-i 


•• 






+ ro 


+°'4 


. 


• • 


• • 




3400 


3500 


0-3 


0-2 


•• 






■fl'I 


4-o-s 


• 


•• 




• • 


3300 


3400 


o'3 


0-2 


•• 






01 


o-o 


» • 








3200 


3300 


- 2 


0-2 








°'3 


O'O 


. 






' 


3100 


3200 


0'2 


0-2 


•• 






0-4 


O'O 


. 








3000 


3100 


0- 3 


0-3 


•• 






o'S 


+o-i 


. 




• • 




2900 


3000 


0-3 


03 


•• 






°'5 


4-0-1 


• 


• • 






2800 


2900 


03 


0-2 


•• 






o'S 


O'O 


. 








2700 


2800 


0-3 


0-2 


•• 






0-5 


01 c 


>'2 


03 


.. 


.. 


2600 


2700 


0-4 


0-2 


•• 






°'S 


0'2 < 


>"3 


0-4 


.. 


•• 


2500 


2600 


°'4 


0-2 


0-2 


O'O 


o'4 


0-3 c 


>"2 


01 


.. 




2400 


2500 


0-3 


0-3 


0-3 


o-i 


0-3 


0-3 < 


yz 


O'l 


• • 


• • 


2300 


2400 


0-4 


0-3 


03 


o-i 


0-4 


0-3 c 


)"o 


O'l 


• • 




2200 


2300 


0-4 


0-4 


0-3 


o-o 


0-5 


04 c 


)-o 


o - o 






2100 


2200 


0-4 


0-5 


0-3 


0-2 


0-4 


0-4 c 


>-I 


o-o 


.. 


.. 


2000 


2100 


0-3 


o-6 


0-4 


0-3 


°'5 


0-4 < 


)'2 


- I 


.. 




1900 


2000 


0-3 


o-6 


o'S 








0*3 c 


ro 


O'l 


.. 




1800 


1900 


0-4 


o-6 


°'5 








- 2 C 


>'o 


O'O 






1700 


1800 


0-3 


o'5 


0-4 








0'2 C 


)-o 


o - o 


.. 


• • 


1600 


1700 


03 


0-4 


0-4 








03 c 


)'0 


o-i 






1500 


1600 


o-3 


o'5 


0-3 








0-3 c 


)-I 


o-i 


• • 


.. 


1400 


1500 


o-3 


06 


- 2 






• • 


- 2 C 


>-I 


00 


• • 




1300 


1400 


0-3 


06 


0- 4 






• • 


02 c 


•I 


o-o 






1200 


1300 


0-3 


o'5 


0- 4 








0'2 C 


■I 


O'l 




1 


1 100 


1200 


0-3 


0-4 


0-4 








0-3 c 


•0 


O'l 


o-i 


O'O 


1000 


1 100 


0-2 


0-4 


0-3 








0-3 c 


•0 


o-o 


01 


01 


900 


1000 


0'2 


0-3 


07 








0-5 4c 


•I 


o-i 


O'l 


O'l 


800 


900 


0-3 


0'2 


o'7 








o'6 c 


•0 


o-i 


0'2 


o-i 


700 


800 


0'2 


0-3 


O'S 








.. 


. 


o-i 


01 


o-i 


600 


700 


o'a 


0-3 


0-4 










. 


. 


0-2 


0"2 


O'O 


500 


600 


0'2 


0-3 


0-5 










. 


. 


0-4 


O'l 


O'l 


400 


500 


ci 


0-3 


0-5 






.. 




. 


. 


0-4 


0-2 


O'l 


300 


400 


cri 


0-3 


0-4 






• • 




• 


• 


•• 


•• 


o-i 


200 


300 


O'O 


0-4 


0-3 










. 


. 






O'O 


ICO 


200 


o-o 


0-4 


0-5 










. 








o-i 





100 


o - o 


0-4 


o-s 










. 


. 






o-i 
























' - 1 


No. of c 


»1. 1. 





3. 


■i. 


1 


}, 


0. 




r. 1 


?. 


9. 


10. 


11. 

1 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1804 AND 1865. 
crease of 100 feet up to 5000 feet. 



177 



Fel 


.27. 




il 


\r 






, General mean 


(omitting; July 17, 


1862, August 31, 


1865. 






iuc;ui. 




1803 


, January 12, April 6, July 


3, 20, 27 


, 1864, 


















and February 27, 1865). 














State of the Sk 


y. 










Cloudy. 




Number 




Number 


Cloudy. 


Clear. 






















. 




si 




of 




of 






Space 






Space 


M 

c 


feb 

c 


c 


Cloudy. 


experi- 


Clear. 


experi- 




Number 


passed 




Number 


passed 


i 


t3 


e 




ments. 




ments. 


Mean. 


of 


through 


Mean. 


of 


through 


n 

u 


c 



V 












experi- 


for a 




experi- 


for a 


a 

to 




00 












ments. 


decline 




ments. 


decline 


< 


< 


B 














ofl°. 






of 1°. 


O < 


> 


3 







o 









feet. 







feet. 


* ' 


■ • 


• 


• • 


• • 


o'3 


2 


0-3 


20 


333 


0-3 


12 


333 


• ' 


• 


• 


• • 


• • 


• °'3 


2 


0-3 


20 


333 


0-3 


12 


333 


D'O 


• 


• 


O'O 




°'3 


2 


0-3 


20 


333 


0-3 


12 


333 


S"J 


* 


• 


ci 




o' 3 


2 


0-3 


20 


333 


o'3 


12 


333 


*>'I 


• 


• 


O'l 




o' 4 


2 


0-3 


21 


333 


°'3 


12 


333 


">'I 


• 


• 


O'l 




°'5 


2 


°'3 


21 


333 


0-3 


12 


333 


3*1 


• 


• 


O'l 




o' 4 


2 


0-3 


24 


333 


03 


12 


333 


3*1 


• 


• 


O'l 




0-4 


2 


03 


24 


333 


0-3 


12 


333 


3*1 

ri 

">'I 


• 


• 


o'l 




°'4 


2 


0-3 


24 


333 


0-3 


'4 


333 


. 


. 


O'l 
O'l 




0-4 
o*3 


2 
2 


0-3 
0-3 


25 

25 


333 
333 


°"3 
0-3 


M 
'4 


333 
333 


yz 


• 


• 


C2 


2 


9*3 


2 


0-3 


26 


333 


03 


H 


333 


y% 


• 




0'2 


2 


o"3 


2 


0-3 


17 


333 


0-3 


J 3 


333 


3*2 


• 




0'2 


2 


0'2 


2 


0-3 


27 


333 


0-3 


"3 


333 


>'3 c 


>■* < 


J'O 


0'2 


3 


0*2 


2 


0-3 


28 


333 


o*3 


'3 


333 


v 3 c 


>"3 < 


>'I 


0*2 


3 


0'2 


2 


0.3 


28 


333 


°"3 


1 3 


333 


>'3 c 


> - 4 < 


VI 


0'2 


3 


0'2 


2 


0.3 


28 


333 


03 


"3 


333 


-'4 c 


>"4 < 


ro 


0'2 


5 


0'2 


2 


°'3 


30 


333 


0-3 


*3 


333 


>'5 < 

»6 » 


>"3 < 


yo 


0'2 


5 


0*2 


2 


0-3 


3 1 


333 


0-3 


12 


333 


>'3 < 


yi 


0'3 


4 


0'2 


2 


0-4 


30 


250 


0-3 


12 


333 


>'5 < 


'"3 < 


yi 


0'3 


4 


03 


2 


0-4 


31 


250 


°'3 


12 


333 


>'4 < 


>'2 ( 


yo 


C2 


5 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


3 1 


250 


0-3 


12 


333 


>'4 < 


>"3 < 


i'i 


°'3 


7 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


34 


250 


03 


12 


333 


>'S <■ 


>'3 < 


yi 


°'3 


7 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


34 


250 


°'3 


12 


333 


>"5 c 


>"3 < 


VI 


C2 


9 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


37 


250 


o"3 


12 


333 


»"4 c 


»"4 * 


>'i 


0'2 


9 


o'3 


2 


0-4 


37 


250 


o"3 


12 


333 


'4 <: 


>"4 c 


>'2 


0'2 


9 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


36 


250 


o'3 


12 


333 


''S c 


'4 c 


>'3 


°'3 


9 


0-3 


2 


0-4 


36 


250 


o'3 


12 


333 


'5 c 


»'4 c 


>'4 


o'3 


9 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


36 


250 


0-3 


12 


333 


''5 c 
•5 c 

■6 c 
•■6 c 

'■5 t 
"S c 
•6 c 

'•5 < 
•5 c 


>'5 t 


> - 4 
>-6 
>-6 
>-6 
>-6 
>-6 


o'4 


9 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


36 


250 


°'3 


12 


333 


>'S « 


o'4 


7 


0-4 


2 


04 


34 


250 


o"3 


12 


333 


>"4 < 


03 


7 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


34 


250 


°'3 


12 


333 


>4 t 


o'3 


7 


0-5 


2 


0-4 


36 


250 j 


• °'3 


12 


333 


>"4 < 


0'3 


7 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


36 


250 ' 


03 


12 


333 


>'4 « 


0'3 


7 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


38 


250 \ 


0-4 


13 


250 


>'4 < 


>7 


0'3 


7 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


38 


250 


0-4 


13 


2<;o 


»'4 c 


>7 


o'3 


7 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


35 


250 


0-4 


10 


250 


»'S « 


>7 


04 


7 


°'4 


2 


°"4 


35 


250 


°'5 


10 


200 


'5 c 


>"S e 


>"7 


°'3 


9 


0-4 


2 


0-4 


37 


250 


o"5 


10 


200 


'5 « 


»'4 c 


>'8 


o' 3 


9 


o'3 


2 


0-4 


37 


250 


o-5 


10 


200 


'5 t 
•6 c 
•6 c 
•6 c 
S c 
•6 c 
•6 


»'4 c 


»"7 

.'6 


°"3 


9 


o'3 


2 


04 


33 


250 


°'5 


10 


2CO 


>'4 c 


o'4 


9 


o'3 


2 


0-4 


33 


250 


°'5 


10 


20O 


'4 c 


4 


°'3 


7 


o"3 


2 


04 


29 


250 


o'S 


10 


200 


'4 c 


»'3 


o'3 


7 


0-3 


* 


0-4 


29 


250 


o'S 


10 


200 


4 c 


"3 


o'3 


7 


o-3 


2 


°'5 


27 


2CO 


o'S 


10 


200 


'S c 


'4 


o'4 


7 


0'2 


2 


0-5 


27 


20O 


0-4 


10 


23O 


S 
6 


c 


"2 


o'3 


4 


0'2 


2 


o'S 


24 


200 


0-4 


10 


253 


c 


'I 


0'2 


4 


C2 


2 


05 


24 


200 


°'5 


10 


200 


• c 


'O 


o'3 


4 


0'2 


2 . 


o'S 


24 


200 


o'S 


TO 


200 


• c 


'O 


o'3 


4 


0'2 


2 


o-6 


24 


167 


o-6 


10 


167 


1 


3. 1 


1. 


15. 


16. 


17. 


18. 


19, 


20. 


21. 22. 


23. 


•*"*! 


-•->« 






















9 





178 



REPORT 1865. 



§ 6. Variation of the Hygrometric Condition op the Air "with Elevation. 
All the adopted readings of the temperature of the dew-point in Section 4 
were laid down on diagrams, and joined by lines drawn from one to the other. 
In the case of the temperature of the air, when thus joined, a curved line can 
be drawn through them, giving equal weight to every observation ; but this 
cannot be done with respect to the temperature of the dew-point, it being far 
more variable than the temperature of the air ; and the numbers in the fol- 
lowing Table are those read at every 200 feet, from the diagram formed 
simply by joining the points of observation. 

Table VII. — Showing the Variation of the Hygrometric condition of the 
Air at every 200 feet of Height. 

Twenty-third Ascent. 



1864. 

December 1. 

Height, in feet, 
above the mean 
level of the sea. 




Humidity 


of the Air. 




Ascending. 


Descending. 


Between 
what 

times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


rempe- 
ratuxe of 
;he dew- 
point. 


Elastic 
force of 
vapour. 


Degree 

of 
humi- 
dity. 


Between 

what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


Tempe- 
rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


Elastic 
force of 
vapour. 


Degree 

• of . 
humi- 
dity. 











in. 











in. 




5400 






i 5 -o 


■086 


S3 






i5'3 


•087 


• 54 


5200 






i3 - o 


•078 


45 






i6 - 9 


•093 


• 57 


5000 






I2 - I 


•074 


42 






18-4 


•100 


. 60 


4800 






I4"4 


•0S3 


45 






185 


•100 


58 


4600 






I78 


•097 


5° 






187 


•101 


59 


4400 






2C4 


•110 


55 






19-1 


•103 


59 


4200 






22'0 


118 


54 






193 


'104 


58 


4000 






237 


•127 


57 






196 


•106 


57 


3800 


S 




257 


•139 


59 






17-5 


•096 


5 2 


3600 






28-5 


•156 


65 




2 




159 


•089 


48 


3400 


a 




29-3 


•162 


66 


Q 


19-4 


•105 


58 


3200 




c3 


29 - 6 


•164 


66 


w 


23^0 


•123 


66 


3000 


en 


1j 


29-6 


•164 


66 


LA 




267 


"US 


86 


2800 


O 


£? 


296 


•164 


62 


3 




27-9 


•152 


79 


2600 


s 


*£ 


30*1 


•168 


65 


1 


•^ 


30-5 


•170 


83 


2400 


O 
m 




35'° 


•204 


76 


■*■ 




• — • 


30-9 


•173 


83 


2200 


a 






37-6 


•225 


81 


1*3 


(V 


31-4 


•176 


82 


2000 


36-9 


•219 


79 


g 


31-8 


•179 


82 


1800 




36-5 


•216 


76 


13 

& 




32-5 


•184 


83 


1600 


S-i 

PR 




36-9 


•219 


72 




347 


•201 


87 


1400 






37'i 


•221 


72 






36-8 


•218 


83 


1200 






37-6 


•225 


72 






37-2 


•222 


86 


1000 






38-6 


•234 


73 






39-0 


•238 


93 


800 






38-8 


•236 


73 






39'3 


•240 


9 1 


600 






38-5 


•233 


75 






395 


•242 


89 


400 






39'5 


•242 


72 






39 - 9 


•246 


88 


200 






395 


•242 


72 






4c 2 


•249 


82 









40-0 


•247 


74 






40-5 


•252 


83 



December 1. — The temperature of the dew-point on the ground before start- 
ing was 40°, or 8° below that of the air ; this difference slightly increased to 8|° 
at 1600 feet, when the air became more moist, the temperature of the air at 
2200 feet being 43°, and that of the dew-point 37|° ; these temperatures then 
separated suddenly, the difference between them at 2600 feet being rather 
more than 11°; this difference remained about the same until 3600 feet were 
passed, when it began to increase quickly up to 5000 feet, where it was 1 9°, 
the temperatures of the air and dew-point being 31°-1 and 12°-1 respectively, 
the degree of humidity being as low as 42. The air then became somewhat 
more moist, and the degree of humidity increased to 53 at 5400 feet ; at 
5000 feet, on descending, the temperature of the air was 30°, and that of the 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



179 



dew-point 18°-4, showing a difference of ll°-6, which increased gradually to 
12|° at 4000 feet; the air then suddenly became much drier, the degree of 
humidity being 48 at 3600 feet, and the difference between the temperatures 
of the air and dew-point was 164°. The air then became much more moist, 
and continued so till the ground was reached. The most humid state was' 
experienced at the height of 1000 feet from the earth. 

Table YTI. (continued). 
Twenty-fourth Ascext. 




180 



Report — 18G5. 



Table VII. (continued). 
Twenty-fourth Ascent (continued). 











Humidity 


of the Air. 






1864. 






































Dec. 30 (cont.) 

Height, in feet, 
above the mean 




Ascending 








Descending. 




Between 




Tempe- 


Elastic 


Degree 


Between 




Tempe- 


Elastic 


Degree 

of 
humi- 
dity. 


level of the sea. 


what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


force of 
vapour. 


of 
humi- 
dity. 


what 
times. 


Circum- 
stances. 


rature of 
the dew- 
point. 


force of 
vapour. 











in. 











in. 




2800 






2 9 '8 


•166 


84 






30-0 


•167 


85 


2600 






29-5 


•163 


80 






30-4 


•170 


83 


2400 


a 1 




29-8 


•166 


80 






30-1 


•168 


83 


2200 
2000 


A 




297 
30'° 


•165 
•167 


80 
80 


O hj 

"_3 


fcd 

CD 


30*1 
30-5 


•168 

•170 


82 
83 


1800 


^*- 


O 


30-9 


•173 


83 


^"3 


O 
4 


30-5 


•170 


82 


1600 


fc 


31'2 


•17s 


84 


1* 


O 


30-5 


•170 


82 


14CO 




O 


3°'7 


•172 


81 


13 -t* 




30-5 


'170 


82 


1200 


O 


pq 


3°*7 


■172 


8l 


3 3 


p. 


30-9 


•173 


82 


J 000 






3°'7 


•172 


81 






307 


•172 


81 


800 






30-8 


•172 


82 






30'2 


•168 


79 


600 






... 


... 


... 






29'6 


•164 


77 


400 








... 








33 - 5 
Thebal 
turned 


•192 
loon th 
to asce 


86 
en 

nd. 


1200 
IOOO 


hi 


3 


34-5 
346 


•199 

•200 


90 
90 




|U3 U> 


bd 




341 

34-0 


•196 
•196 


87 
87 


800 


la g 


O 


34"9 


•203 


9' 


3- V 

- 3 g 



3 


33-8 


•194 


86 


600 


Is 


35'° 


•204 


89 





33*9 


-1 95 


8S 


400 




O 


35"° 


•204 


89 


"SO 




33-8 


'94 


84 


200 


* O 


m 








r » 


a> 


33-6 


•193 


84 


O 






... 


... 








34"4 


•199 


,„ 



December 30. — The temperature of the dew-point on the ground was 34°-9, 
and the humidity 74, the former decreasing to 31 §° at 600 feet, where the 
humidity was 72 ; the dew-point then varied but little, and much less than 
the temperature of the air, so that the degree of humidity increased to the 
height of 2400 feet, then was smaller at 2600 feet. The balloon descended 
then to 2000 feet, then turned to ascend ; the air continued humid till 3200 
feet was passed ; the degree of humidity at this point was 94 ; above this point 
the air was much drier. During the subsequent successive ascents and descents 
the air in the lower atmosphere was found to be very humid. 



February 27. — The temperature of the dew-point on the earth was 38°, or 
14°-3 below that of the air, the air being consequently unusually dry, and 
particularly so for February, the degree of humidity being 59 only. On 
ascending, the air gradually became more moist, till the height of 3200 feet 
in the centre of cloud, where the degree of humidity was 78. On leaving 
the cloud below, the air became drier, and was the driest at 5000 feet high, 
where it was 37. On descending, the air was much drier down to 2600 feet 
than at corresponding heights during the ascent. No cloud was passed 
through, and at lower elevations the air was more moist than in the ascent. 
On ascending again through cloud, and descending also through cloud, the 
results were very similar to those noted in the first ascent, the most humid 
states being those in the cloud, which in the last descent were found but 
little short of saturation. 



ON THKEE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



181 



Table VII. (continued.) 
Twenty-fifth Ascext. 



1865. 

February 27. 

Heiarht, in feet, 
above the mean 
level of the sea. 


Humidity of the Air. 
















Ascendin 


?• 






Descending. 


Betwecr 

what 


1 Tcmpe-j E1 ; 
Cjrcum- raturc of, f . 
stances, the dew- 


Degree 

of 
humi- 


Between' _ „ ^"" VC } Elastic D T* 
! stances, the dew- humi- 




times. 


point. 


vapour. 


dity. 


times. 




point. 


"pour. dlty 











in. 











in. 




5C00 




Above 


15.8 


089 


37 






'5'8 


089 


37 


4800 




cloud. 


20"0 


•108 


47 






16-4 


•091 


39 


4600 






18-3 


•099 


51 






181 


•098 


4' 




4400 






iS-5 


"100 


52 






19-4 


•1C5 


39 


4200 






22'0 


118 


60 






2C5 


•110 


4' 


4000 




TJ 


267 


"'45 


7i 






218 


•117 


42 


3800 







27-5 


•15c 


74 


3 




237 


•J27 


46 


3600 


c 


"o 


27"6 


•151 


75 




3 




*55 


•138 


5° 


3400 
3200 
3000 


s 


c 
1— 1 


287 
293 
296 


• J5 8 
•162 
■164 


77 
78 
74 




2 7"4 
28-6 
28-8 


•149 

-I 57 
158 


55 

59 
60 


On a 

level 
with 




2800 


~h 




297 


•165 


72 


3 


clouds. 


29'0 


■160 


61 


2600 


O 

-4-» 




30-0 


•167 


69 







30-4 


•170 


66 


2400 


E 


Below 


31-2 


•i7S 


69 


O 


Below 
the 


32-6 


185 


69 


2200 


to 


cloud. 


32"2 


•182 


69 




level of 


3+"9 


•203 


73 


2000 


M 




327 


186 


68 




cloud. 


339 


•'95 


70 


1800 


s 




33"3 


■190 


66 


% 




33-8 


•194 


70 


1600 


p 

e 




33-8 


•194 


65 


►13 




337 


•193 


69 


1400 




338 


•194 


64 


5 




33'5 


■192 


69 


1200 






33'4 


•191 


62 






33 - 4 


191 


69 


1000 






33'4 


•191 


60 






345 


199 


70 


800 






337 


•'93 


60 






34-0 


•196 


69 


600 






34'° 


196 


57 






34'4 


•199 


66 


400 






347 


•201 


57 






353 


•206 


67 


200 






37-6 


•225 


60 






Thebal 


loon t 


lien 


O 






38-0 


■229 


59 






turned 


to asce 


nd. 


3600 




In 


3o'o 


•167 


87 




In 


3°"5 


•170 


9' 


34CO 




cloud. 


2S6 


•'57 


81 




cloud. 


309 


•'73 , 


94 


3200 
3000 






28-5 
297 


•156 
•,65 


80 
79 


s 




3C2 

3' 


•168 

-I 74 


9' 
94 


© 


2800 


b 

■* 

E 




30-0 


■167 


78 


In 


3i'° 


•174 ! 


94 


2600 


a 


3°"3 


•169 


78 




3 


cloud. 


31-9 | 


•180 


97 


2400 




3 ro 


•'74 


79 


w 




31-4 • 


•176 ! 


92 


2200 


fS 





30-9 


•173 


77 


-t* 


Below. 


31-0 


"'74 


87 


20CO 


m 1 






31-3 


■176 


74 


o> 


cloud. 


30-1 


•168 


83 


j8co 




Below 


31-2 


•175 


7i 


O 




29-2 


•161 


79 


i6co 





cloud. 


313 


•176 


68 


■*. 




30-0 


•167 


1400 


B 




3 ''4 


•176 


65 


O 




31-0 


•'74 


74 


1200 


M 




32*0 


•1S1 


66 


3 




32-0 iS 1 


72 


IOCO 


~rn 




327 


186 


65 


B 




331 -188 1 


71 


800 


g 




33'4 


191 


66 




33'8 194 


7' 


6co 







34-0 


•196 | 


66 






34'4 "'99 


72 


4C0 


A 




348 


•2C2 


66 






360 "212 1 


74 


200 








| 








366 '217 


74 



















37'3 ■ "22 3 


76 



The numbers in this Tabic having been found from experiments taken at 
different times in the year, and under different circumstances from those in 
previous years, can scarcely be combined with them, till we know more about 



182 



REPORT 1865. 



the general laws at the different seasons of the year. I defer for the present 
making any further use of them, particularly as their combination would not 
change the general Tables previously found. 

Table VIII. — Showing the Degree of Humidity at every 200 feet. 



Height 

above the 

level of 

the sea. 



feet. 

5400 
5200 
5000 
4800 
4600 
4400 
4Z00 
4000 
38CO 
3600 
3400 
3200 
3000 
2800 
2600 
2400 
2200 
2000 
1800 
1600 
1400 
1200 
1000 
800 
600 
400 
20O 
o 



Dec. 1, 1864. 



December 30, 1864. 



February 2", 1865. 



Wean. 



State of the Sky. 



Generally 
Clear. 



53 

45 
42 

45 
5° 
55 
54 
57 
59 
65 
66 

66 
66 

62 

65 
76 
81 

79 
76 
72 
72 
72 
73 
73 
75 
72 
72 
74 



54 
57 
60 
58 
59 
59 
58 
57 
5* 
48 
58 
66 
86 
79 
83 
83 
82 
82 
83 
87 
83 
86 

93 

9 1 

89 
88 

82 

83 



Cloudy. 



84 



62 
78 

92 
91,85 
9291 
91196 80 
96958 
IOO 9480 
92.92 80 
... 92 
... J90 

90 



Cloudy 



■■3 
a 



is 
83 
83 

Si 

83 

Si 
82 
82 
82 9c 
81 90 
7991 
77 S 9 
7689 



37 
47 
5i 
52 
60 

7i 
74 
75 
77 
78 
74 
72 
69 
69 
69 
68 
66 

65 
64 
62 
60 
60 
57 
57 
60 

59 



Generally 
Cloudy. 



37 

39 
4i 
39 
4i 
42 
46 
50 
55 

59 
60 

61 

66 

69 

73 
70 
70 
69 
6 9 

69 

70 

69 
66 

67 



87 
81 
80 

79 
78 
78 
79 
77 
74 
7i 
68 

65 
66 

65 
66 
66 
66 



Cloudy. 



9 1 

94 
9 1 
94 
94 
97 
92 

87 
83 
79 
78 

74 
72 

7i 
7i 
72 

74 
74 
76 

















V 






5 






V 






P. 






X 






4) 












O 










t>, 






■0 






3 


- 


a 


c 


a 




O 


... 


U 

53 
5i 


37 


2 


5 1 


43 


2 


5i 


46 


2 


54 


46 


2 


57 


50 


2 


5*> 


56 


2 


57 


60 


2 


55 


69 


6 


56 


78 


6 


62 


82 


6 


66 


80 


6 


76 


Si 


8 


7° 


83 


ic 


74 


82 


to 


79 


84 


10 


81 


82 


10 


80 


79 


8 


80 


77 


8 


79 


76 


S 


78 


?8 


10 


79 


77 


10 


83 


76 


10 


82 


73 


8 


82 


73 


s 


80 


72 


4 


77 


72 


4 


78 



1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.7.8.9.10.11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.17.18.19.', 

The numbers in this Table show, as in all similar experiments at all times 
in the year, that the moisture in the air is very different at the same elevation 
at different times ; and that the moisture on the same day was differently dis- 
tributed over different places. The most remarkable in this Table is that of 
the first descent on February 27, the balloon having ascended through clouds, 
descended through a break in the clouds, and then ascended and descended 
again through clouds, showing a marked difference at the same elevation in 
the degree of humidity of the air. These results are too few, and having 
been deduced from experiments made at a different season of the year from 
those previously made, had better be left till more winter ascents have been, 
made to combine with them. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



183 



7. Comparison of the Temperature of the Dew-point, as determined by 
different instruments and methods, and comparison of their eesults 
together. 



Table IX. — Showing the Temperature of the Dew-point, as determined at 
about the same height by dirferent instruments and methods, and compa- 



rison of the results together. 



Under 1000 feet. 















Dew 


■point' 




Temperature of the dew-point as deter- 














temperatures. 




mined by 


Calculated 
from 


Observed 1 
by 


)ry and Wet (free) 
above that by 


Dry and Wet 

(aspirated) 
above that by 


fa 

a >> • 








Height. 


^ 


















bocs-a 












5 


£» 








ft. 


in « 


ft. 




E' 2 5 
















M 0> 




























"'3. 


c to 


grom 
y and 


<3 
u 

'5. 


£2 s 
SB 

C to 


•3 a 

Site 


'c to 


3 a 
« 

c £■ 
tc to 














14 














rt t^ 
















p 


Q w 


pa 


tfS P 




PI 


rtX 


na 


EM 


Q 




d 


h 


m 


feet. 








o 





> 
















Dec. 


i 



1 



15 


ground 
ground 


40-4 
3 9 -i 






40-2 
4C0 






-r-o-2 
-°"9 














2 


30 


ground 


4C0 






4C0 


40 'o 




O'O 


O'O 








Dec. 


30 


2 


55 


565 


32-1 








32-5 . 






-0-4 








Feb. 


27 


1 
2 
3 

3 
3 
3 


52 

58 

6 

10 

'4 
24 


ground 

957 
605 

377 

779 
742 


38-0 

347 
338 
34'4 
34'° 
33-2 






35"° 
34'° 

34"o 
34-0 


34'2 • 
32*0 




-0-3 

— 0'2 

o-o 
-o-8 


+ 3-8 
4-2-4 









From 1000 to 2000 feet. 



Dec. 30 2 5i| 
Feb. 27 3 1 8 


1256 
1 148 


30-8 . . 
33'3 | •• 


■• 


3°'5 

33-0 


•• 


•• 


4-0-3 

4-0-3 









From 2000 to 3000 feet. 



Dec. 1 3 57 


2662 


28-5 




28-0 






+o-s 










4o 


2691 


307 




30'o 






4-0-7 










Dee. 30 2 22 


2634 


3o'o 






28-0 






4-2 - o 








2 44 


2219 


29'6 




3o'o 






-0-4 










Feb. 27 2 47 


2382 


33'i 




.. 


33'o 




• • 


+o'l 








2 49 


2330 


33'3 




34-0 


.. 




-07 










3 35 


2271 


319 




30-5 






4-1-4 











184 



REPORT 1865. 



Table IX. (continued). 
From 3000 to 4000 feet. 



Date. 


Height. 


Dew-point 
temperatures. 


Temperature of the dew-point as deter- 
mined bv 

• 


Calculated 
from 


Observed 
by 


Dry and Wet (free) 
above that by 


Dry and Wet 

(aspirated) 
above that by 


Daniell's Hygrometer 
above that by 
Regnault's. 


>> 

H 

O 


*- <u 

•a a 

« 3. 
p~ 


c 

■ s 

a s 

s to 
a >> 


3 S 

et 


Dry and Wet 
(aspirated). 


u 

V 

- a 
« g 

'c to 

rt >. 

PS 


c 

3 a 

a 

~ ** 


'c to 


^> 4) 

3S 

ca 

Sd to 


d h m 

Dec. i 3 46 

3 52 

3 54 

Dec. 30 2 33 

Feb. 27 3 45 

3 46 

3 4S 


feet. 

3470 

3744 
3240 

3735 
35 21 
34'5 
3042 




22'5 
20"0 
247 
I2'2 
30-0 
31 - 
3I-0 




3 




21-5 

20'0 

25^0 

IS'O 

3°"5 
307 




i4 - o 
30-5 


' 


3 




+ i-o 
00 
-0-3 
-2-8 
-°"5 

+0-3 




-r8 

+o-s 












From 5000 to 6000 feet. 









Fr 


am 


4000 to 5000 feet 












Dec. 


1 2 50 


4222 


23-8 






20 - 


.. 


• • +3'8 








1 




3 5 


4496 


156 






I 5 -0 


" 






+ o-6 












3 H 


4766 


22"0 






l6o 


.. 






+ 60 












3 17 


495 ' 


ib-S 






19-0 








-*'5 












3 49 


4170 


15-0 








15-0 








O'O 








Fob. 2 


■7 2 7i 
211 
2 17 
2 27 
2 34 


4418 
4737 
4965 
4828 
4408 


20'9 

21-6 
16-1 
13*0 
167 






.8-5 
15-0 
17*0 


19-0 
15-0 






+2-4 

+V-i 

-0-3 


+2-6 

— 2 - 










2 34^ 


4408 


177 






•• 


i6'o 






+ 17 









Dec. 1 2 58 5328 12-2! .. 1 i7 - o .. 1 


.. |- 4 'S| 






1 



Table X. 



Heights between 


Excess of Temperature of the Dew- 
point as determined by Dry and 
Wet Thermometers (free) 
above that observed by 


m % 

"S to 
rt >. 

OS 


H 
O 
O 
O 


u 

•fi 4) 

- *J 
-«-> I) 

9 a 

£2 

5,60 

tfK 


V> 

O 

d 


feet. feet. 
and ioco 

IOOO „ 2CCO 
2COO „ 3000 
3000 ,, 4000 
4000 „ 5000 
5C00 „ 6oco 




-0-3 

+o ; 5 
-0-4 
+ r6 
-4-8 


7 

5 
6 

7 
1 


O 

+ i-4 
+0-3 
+ i-o 
_o-6 
+ o-6 


4 

2 
2 

2 
4 



ON THKEE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1861 AND 1865. 



185 



Table XI. — Simultaneous readings of a delicate blaekcned-bulb thermometer 
fully exposed to the sun's rays, and of a delicate thermometer carefully 
shaded from the influence of the sun, the bulbs of the two instruments 



being Avitbin 3 inches of each other. 



December 1, 1864. 





Height 


Temperature of 


Excess of 




Time of obser- 


above 
mean 


Shaded 


Blackened- 


reading of 
Bluckened- 


Remarks. 




sea-level. 


Thermo- 


bulb Ther- 


bulb Ther- 








meter. 


mometer. 


mometer. 




h m < 


feet. 














ground. 


46-2 


56-0 


+ 9-3 


Sim shining. 


115 p.m. 


ground. 


46-8 


56 - o 


+9-2 




* 39 ° » 


890 


47-2 


47 "o 


— 0'2 


Sun shining brightly. 


41 „ 


1618 


45 "o 


44' 5 


-°'5 


Sun shining brightly. 


4 6 ° -> 


3570 


39 - 5 


40-0 


4-o-s 


Sun warm. 


5 1 ° » 


4324 


38-0 


39'° 


+ V0 




55 .. 


4742 


35-0 


35'5 


4-o-s 




3 5 ° » 


4496 


31-2 


33-0 


+ 1-8 




9 ° .1 


4128 


335 


29-5 


-4-0 




H ° » 


4766 


32-2 


3''5 


-c'7 




17 .» 


49 5 1 


31-0 


31-0 


O'O 




24 „ 


5122 


29-8 


30-0 


-f-O'2 




48 „ 


3973 


33'° 


3 3"° 


o - o 





December 30, 1864. 



2 34 30 p.m. 


3539 


29-0 


29-0 


39 ° » 


797 


34' 5 


34'5 


42 „ 


1669 


355 


35\5 


43 ., 


1929 


35'5 


35-5 



O'O 
O'O 

o-o 



February 27, 1865. 



I 58 


).in. 


ground 


, , 


52TJ 




58 20 


j) 


176 


5i '4 


52"0 


+ o-6 


59 


» 


474 


49'5 


5 I- 5 


+ 2-0 


2 6 30 


>i 


4 C 4° 


34 '8 


35-0 


-j-O-2 


28 


j> 


4847 


381 


38-3 


+ 0"2 


40 


)» 


4734 


41*2 


45'° 


+ 3-8 








A2'0 


43'5 


+ i-5 


42 


»> 


4332 


A2 - 


43-5 


+ i-5 


45 


j' 


3274 


42-0 


42-5 


+o-5 


49 


)) 


2330 


41-8 


4i - o 


-o-8 


56 30 


5» 


644 


46-0 


46-0 


O'O 



Sun shining faintly. 



Sun hot to sense. 



186 



REPORT 1865. 



December 1, 1864. 
Observations of the time of vibration of Evans's Magnet and Glaisher's 



Magnet. 



1864. 




Place of 


Height 

above 

sea-level. 




Evans 


s and Glaisher's Magnet. 








Arc of vibration. 


Mean time 






observation. 


No. of vi- 
brations in 


Time oc- 
cupied in 




of vibration 










At com- 




from each 


Magnet. 










each set. 


each set. 


mence- 
ment. 


At 
end. 


set of ob- 
servations. 




h 


m 




feet. 




s 







s 




Dec. 1. 2 


48 


In Balloon. 


3600 


28 


45-2 






1-614 


Glaisher. 


2 


52 


JJ 


4200 


5° 


119-5 


60 


5 


2-390 


Evans. 


2 


56 


jj 


4800 


20 


50-0 


loo 




2-500 


»j 


2 


56 + 


jj 


4800 


28 


68-4 


120 




2 '553 


„ 


3 


I 


jj 


5000 


34 


56-2 


40 




i'653 


Glaisher. 


3 


2 


jj 


50CO 


10 


232 


10 




2-320 


Evans. 


3 


7 


j) 


4100 


30 


5°'5 


80 




1683 


Glaisher. 


3 


12 


jt 


4300 


40 


933 


60 




2-333 


Evans. 


3 


l6 


jj 


4900 


20 


42-2 


10 




2"IIO 


» 


3 


20 


jj 


5000 


S* 


1238 


90 




2- 3 8l 


jj 


3 


30 


jj 


4500 


10 


24-1 


100 




2-410 


jj 


3 


37 


j) 


5000 


58 


140-0 


IOO 




2-414 


j» 


3 


47 


jj 


3600 


20 


47 - 3 


90 




2-365 


»j 


12 





Blacldieath. 


160 


80 


1652 


5° 




2-065 


jj 






jj 




60 


124-4 


5° 




2-073 


jj 






j» 




38 


550 


5° 




1-448 


Glaisher. 






jj 




40 


67-2 


5° 




i-68o 


jj 






j» 




20 


322 


5° 




1610 




Dec. 2. 




Koyal Ob- 




















servatory. 


160 


30 


590 


25 


3 


1-967 


Evans. 






*j 




10 


19-8 


27 


5 


1-980 


jj 






jj 




40 


81-9 


113 


38 


2-047 


jj 






j» 




20 


40-2 


40 


8 


2"OIO 








jj 




10 


I5-3 


80 


2 


I- 53 


Glaisher. 






>i 




30 


47 '3 


160 


30 


i'S77 


j> 






u 




20 


318 


150 


6 


1-590 


?j 






j» 




10 


'55 


140 


10 


1-550 


jj 






it 




20 


3»'3 


150 


3° 


1565 


jj 


1865. 




















Feb. 27. 




In Balloon. 


4900 


40 


899 


IOO 


20 


2-247 


Evans. 






jj 


4800 


38 


877 


150 


5° 


2-307 








South Ilan- 




















ningfielcl. 


no 


5° 


IOO'I 


150 


10 


2"C02 


jj 






j» 




5° 


lOO'O 


140 


10 


2-QOO 


JJ 



on three balloon ascents in 1864 and 1865. 187 

Heights and Appeabance of the Clouds. 
December 1, 1864. 

Before starting the sky was cloudy. 

At 3 h 50 m p.m.. at 3968 feet, the setting sun illuminated the topmost part 
of a dark stratus cloud with a very deep orange- colour ; not a cloud in the 
sky above altitude 15°. 

December 30, 1864. 

At 2 h 15 m p.m., at 602 feet. Misty all round. 

At 2" 19 m 45 s p.m., at 2355 feet. Approaching cloud. 

At 2 h 21 m p.m., at 2532 feet. Entered cloud. 

At 2 h 23 m 30 s p.m., at 2699 feet. Just out of cloud. 

At 2" 28 m p.m., at 2215 feet. Approaching cloud. 

At 2 h 28 m 30 s p.m., at 2552 feet. Just entering cloud. 

At 2 h 28 m 45 s p.m., at 2687 feet. Passed into cloud and lost sight of every- 
thing. 

At 2 h 30 ra p.m., at 3228 feet. Cloud dense and cold. 

At 2 h 31 m p.m., at 3424 feet. The sky was of a beautiful prussian-blue 
colour, with a beautiful sea of cloud below of varied surface, bright and shining. 

At 2 h 34 m 40 s p.m., at 3550 feet. In a very dense cloud. 

At 2 h 35 m 30 s p.m., at 2570 feet. Out of cloud below. 

February 27, 1865. 

At 2 h 3 m 30 s p.m., at 3074 feet. In cloud. 

At 2 h 4 m p.m., at 3333 feet. In a white cloud. 

At 2 h 5 m 30 s p.m., at 3850 feet. We are in cloud : the clouds below arc 
moving much more quickly than we are. 

At 2 h 7 ra 30 8 p.m., at 4418 feet. The clouds below appear to be moving 1ST. 

At 2 h 8 m 30 s p.m., at 4647 feet. The clouds below are moving at right 
angles to us. 

At 2 h 9 m 30 s p.m., at 4737 feet. Clouds have a very fine purple tinge over 
a very beautiful even surface. 

At 2 h 27 m 30 s p.m., at 4840 feet. Clouds very high above us. 

At 2 h 45 m p.m., at 3274 feet. Clouds on our level. 

At 3 h l m 30 s p.m., at 1075 feet. Upper clouds moving as before. 

At 3 h 38 m 30 s p.m., at 2659 feet. In haze. 

At 3 h 39 ra p.m., at 2965 feet. In tbicker haze. 

At 3 h 40 m p.m., at 3149 feet. In cloud. 

At 3 h 41 m p.m., at 3149 feet. Still in cloud. 

At 3 h 43 m p.m., at 3190 feet. Misty. 

At 3 h 44 m 30 s p.m., at 3440 feet. In cloud. 

At 3 h 45 m p.m., at 3521 feet. In fog. 

At 3" 46 m p.m., at 3415 feet. In cloud. 

At 3 h 49 m p.m., at 2650 feet. Out of cloud. 

Direction op the Wind. 
December 1, 1864. 

On the ground the wind was from the W.N.W., light and variable. 
On the ground at l h 15 m p.m., a pilot balloon first moved W., and after- 
wards N.W. 



188 report— 1865. 

At 2 h 40 m p.m., at 1230 feet. The balloon entered a S.W. current. 

At 2 h 57 m p.m., at 5038 feet, The Mind was W.N/W. 

At 3 h 33 m p.m., at 4541 feet. Smoke near the earth moving S., but after 
reaching 1000 feet, moving X. 

At 3 h 56 m p.m., at 2830 feet. The wind was W.NVW. The smoke below 
moved S. 

February 27, 1S65. 

On the ground before starting the wind was from the S. 
At 2 h l m 30 s p.m., at 1543 feet. The wind was 8.W. 
At 2 U 7 m 30 s p.m., at 4418 feet. The wind was W. 

At 2 h 2o m p.m., at 4828 feet. Entered a more southerly current, about 
S.W. 
At 3 h 32 m 30 s p.m., at 2148 feet. Changed direction, moving W., I think. 



OS THE PBOPAGATIOX OF SoUXD. 

December 1, 1864. 

At 3 h 49 m p.m., at 4170 feet. Heard voices. 

At 3 h 58 m p.m., at 2536 feet. Heard a clock stricke 4 h plainly. 

At 4 h 6 m p.m., at 1804 feet. Heard many voices. 

At 4 h 7 m p.m., at 1759 feet. Can hear cries of " come down." 

February 27, 1865. 
At 2 h l m p.m., at 877 feet. Bells sound very clearly. 

Gexebal Obseevations. 

December 1, 1864. 

At 2 h 3S m 30 s p.m., at 644 feet. A gun fired ; felt the shock. 

At 2 h 39 m 30 s p.m., at 890 feet. Sun shining brightly. 

At 2 h 42 m p.m., at 1831 feet. Report of proving guns at Woolwich ; per- 
ceptible vibration ; every rope vibrating ; and every instrument shaking. 

At 2 h 43 m p.m., at 2248 feet. Opened the valve ; nearly opposite Belvedere. 

At 2 h 46 m p.m., at 3570 feet. Sun warm. 

At 2 h 54 m p.m., at 4630 feet. Between Erith and Belvedere. 

At 2 h 59 m p.m., at 5328 feet. N early opposite Erith ; hills and dales di- 
stinctlv visible. 

At 3 h 9 m p.m., at 4128 feet. Sand out. 

At 3 h 15 m p.m., at 4909 feet. A little to the right, or nearly over Dart- 
ford. 

At 3 U 17 m p.m., at 4951 feet. Moving towards Cobham Park. 

At 3 h 33 m p.m., at 4541 feet. South of Greenhithe. 

At 3 h 34 m p.m., at 4S05 feet. In a line with Xorthfleet ; we shall pass 
over Cobham Park. 

At 3 h 46™ p.m., at 3470 feet. A chill to sense ; sand thrown out. 

At 3 1 ' 52"' p.m., at 3744 feet. A sudden chill again. 

At 3 h 53 m p.m., at 3744 feet. Sand thrown out. 

At 3 b 59 m p.m., at 2497 feet. Sand again thrown ouc. 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 189 

At 4 h l m p.m., at 2091 feet. Saw a railway train. 

At 4" 2™ p.m., at 2847 feet. A great deal of moisture on the balloon. 

At 4 h 3 m p.m., at 2744 feet. Nearly south of Gravesend. 

At 4" S m p.m., at 1044 feet. Cobham Park. 

At 4 h 9 m p.m., at 1550 feet. Moist to sense. 

At 4 h 13 m p.m., at 1381 feet. Moisture almost dropping from the balloon. 

At 4 h 14 m p.m., at 1280 feet. Approaching the Medway. 

At 4 h 15 m p.m., at 1394 feet. Ascending to a higher current to cross the 
river. 

At 4 h 17 m p.m., at 1532 feet. We can see Rochester Bridge and Castle. 
At 4 h 33 m p.m. On the ground at Delce Farm near Rochester. 

December 30, 1804. 

At 2 h 16 m 30 s p.m., at 1020 feet. Cold. 

At 2 h 19 m 30 s p.m., at 2310 feet. Dropped the grapnel. 

At 2 h 23 m 30 s p.m., at 2699 feet. Just over the wall of the river. 

At 2 h 24 m p.m., at 2641 feet. At least 150 vessels in sight. 

At 2" 26 m p.m., at 2301 feet. Our course is taking each bight of the river. 

At 2 h 27 m 15 s p.m., at 2019 feet. Sand out. 

At 2 h 28 m p.m., at 2215 feet. Cold to sense. 

At 2 h 29 m p.m., at 2822 feet. Very cold. 

At 2 h 29™ 45 s p.m., at 3128 feet. Much lighter ; very cold. 

At 2 h 32™ 15 s p.m., at 3580 feet. Sun brighter. 

At 2 h 34 m p.m., at 3610 feet. Sun obscured in mist. 

At 2 h 34 m 40 s p.m., at 3522 feet. In a very dense cloud. 

At 2" 36 ra p.m., at 2133 feet. Falling quickly, revolving in two minutes. 

At 2 b 38 m p.m., at 837 feet. We are about a mile north of Purfleet. 

At 2 h 41™ 30 s p.m., at 1369 feet. Moving towards Sea Iteach. 

At 2 h 58™ 30 s p.m., at 670 feet. Sand thrown out. 

At 3 h 3 m p.m., at 1116 feet. Moving direct for Sea Reach ; we must come 
down if we do not change our direction. 

At 3 h 6 ,u p.m., at 186 feet. Packed up all the instruments, cleared the 
tops of some trees, and came down within a mile of the river, near the Rail- 
way Station at Stanford-le-Hope. 

At 3 h 10™ p.m. On the ground. 

February 27, 1865. 

At l h 58 m p.m. We left the earth. 
At 2 h p.m.., at 767 feet. Over the river. 
At 2" 1™ 30 s p.m., at 1085 feet. Sun obscured by cloud. 
At 2 h 2 m 30 s p.m., at 1851 feet. Moving towards Barking Creek. 
At 2 h 3 m 30 s p.m., at 3074 feet, Cold. 
At 2 h 5™ p.m., at 3032 feet. Faint gleams of light. 
At 2 h 5™ 30 s p.m., at 3851 feet. Over water. 
At 2 h 0™ 30 s p.m., at 4040 feet. Sun shining faintly. 
At 2 h 9™ 30 s p.m., at 4737 feet. Over Barking level ; Tilbury line to our 
left, or N". 

At 2 h 11™ p.m., at 4737 feet. Sensibly warmer. 

At 2 h 12™ 30 s p.m., at 4875 feet. Over Dagenham Marsh. 

At 2 h 24™ p.m., at 4828 feet. Lowered grapnel. 

At 2" 25™ p.m., at 4828 feet. Entered a more southerly current about S.W. 

At 2 h 34™ p.m., at 4403 feet. Must come down. 



190 



REPORT 1865. 



At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
At 
left. 
At 
At 



2 h 36 m 
2 h 37 m 
2 h 41 m 
2 h 42'" 
3 h 5 m p 

3 h 38 in 
3 h 38 m 
3 h 39 m 
3 h 45 m 



p.m 
p.m. 
30 s p.m 
p.m. 
m. 



, at 4517 feet. 

, at 4580 feet. 



Sun again bright. 
Moving along Sea Beach. 



at 4600 feet. Sun hot. 

, at 4538 feet. Opened valve. 

at 926 feet. Neck of balloon tied up. 
p.m., at 1375 feet. 12 miles from Chelmsford, 
p.m., at 2560 feet. Water looks like polished steel. 
30 8 p.m., at 2659 feet. Country brightened up by the sun. 
p.m., at 2965 feet. We have only one bag of ballast. 
30 s p.m., at 3652 feet. Opened valve ; only one bag of ballast 



3 h 59™ 30 s p.m., at 70 feet 
4" 1™ p.m, 



Just over some trees. 



On the ground at South Hanningfield. 



Meteorological Observations made in connexion with the Balloon Ascent on 







December 1, 1864. — 


Royal Observatory, Greenavicu. 


Time of 

observation. 


Reading of 


Temp, 
of the 
dew- 
point. 


Ten- 
sion of 
va- 
pour. 


Degree 

of 
humi- 
dity. 


Direc- 
tion of 
wind. 


■S2 

O 

I" 

C 


<** 



. 

£ ° 


Remarks. 


Barom. 
reduced 


Thermom. 








to 32° F. 


Dry. 


Wet. 










<-3 


< 




h m 


in. 











in. 












Noon. 


30-003 


46-5 


43'9 


409 


•256 


82 


w.s.w. 










o 1 5 p.m. 


30-004 


46-7 


44-0 


40-9 


•256 


81 


w.s.w. 








Cloudless ; slight haze in N. 


o 30 „ 


30-001 


46-7 


43'5 


40-5 


•252 


80 


w.s.w. 








and S. 


45 .. 


30-004 


47-1 


44'2 


40-9 


•256 


80 


w.s.w. 








. 


1 „ 


30-005 


47 - 3 


44" 3 


41-0 


•257 


79 
81 
81 


s.w. 








Cloudless ; dense haze in the 


1 15 ». 


30-006 


47'3 


44"5 


41-4 


■261 


w.s.w. 








direction of Woolwich. 


1 30 ,, 


30*006 


47'3 


44"5 


41 4 


•261' 


w.s.w. 










1 45 .. 


30-005 


47'3 


44'3 


41-0 


•257 


79 


w.s.w. 








Cloudless. Haze is gradually 
clearing off, and a few light 
clouds are rising in the N. 


20,, 


30-002 


47'3 


44" 3 


41-0 


•257 


79 


w.s.w. 


I 





Light cirrus in the N. 


2 15 .. 


30-001 


46-g 


44-0 


40-8 


•255 


80 


w.s.w. 


2 





Light high cirrus in N. and 

N.N.E. 


2 30 „ 


30-002 


46-3 


43-6 


40-5 


•252 


Si 


w.s.w. 


4 





1 Light cirrus scattered about 
J the skj. 


2 45 » 


30-002 


46-3 


43'5 


40-4 


•251 


81 


w.s.w. 


4 





J „ 


30-002 


46-0 


43'5 


40-7 


•254 


82 


s.w. 


4 





Balloon rising in E.S.E. Lost 
to view at 3 1 ' 8 m , apparently 
falling. 


3 20 „ 


30-015 


44" 3 


42-8 


41-0 


•257 


89 


s.w. 


I 





Light cirrus in S.W. ; haze. 


3 3o ., 


30-021 


44'3 


42-5 


40-4 


•251 


96 


s.w. 








Cloudless, with the exception 
of a little cirrostratus in 
S.W. ; slight haze. 


3 45 i! 


30-024 


44-0 


42-3 








s.w. 








Cloudless, with the exception 
of a little cirrostratus in 
the horizon. 


40,, 


30-026 


43-6 


41-9 









s.w. 








\ 


4 '5 .. 


30-029 


43'4 


4 1- 7 








s.w. 








> Cloudless. 


4 3° » 


30-033 


43'3 


41-4 









s.w. 








) 



ON THREE BALLOON ASCENTS IN 1864 AND 1865. 



191 



Meteorological Observations made in connexion with the Balloon Ascent 
December 30, 1864. — Eotal Observatory, Greenwich. 



on 





Readine of 
























Temp. 


Ten- 






o<= 


<— 




Time of 
observation. 


Barom. 
reduced 
to 32° F. 


Thermom. 


of tbe 
dew- 
point. 


sion of 
va- 
pour. 


of 
humi- 
dity. 


Direc- 
tion of 

wind. 


■" 1 
c 

11 

B 


B 

g « 
2 c 

< 


Remarks. 


Dry. 


Wet. 


k m 


in. 


O' 







in. 






, 






1 op.m. 


29788 


38-8 


36-1 


3 2 "5 


•184 


79 


S.W. 


10 







I 15 " 


29785 


38-8 


36-2 


32-7 


•1S6 


80 


s.w. 


10 







1 3° » 


29784 


38-7 


36-0 


32-4 


•184 


79 


S.W. 


10 







1 45 » 


29781 


38-6 


36-0 


32-5 


•184 


79 


s.w. 


10 







2 „ 


24781 


38-5 


35-» 


3 2< 3 


•183 


78 


s.w. 


10 







a 15 .. 


29777 


38-5 


35*9 


32-5 


•184 


79 


s.w. 


10 







2 30 » 


2 9775 


38-4 


36-1 


33-0 


•188 


82 


s.w. 


10 







a 45 » 


29770 


38-6 


36-1 


327 


•186 


80 


s.w. 


10 







3 » 


29760 


38-6 


36-1 


327 


•186 


80 


s.w. 


10 







3 15 ,. 


2 9759 


38-4 


35*9 


32-5 


•184 


80 


s.w. 


10 







3 3° .. 


29757 


38-2 


359 


32-9 


•187 


81 


s.w. 


10 







3 45 >< 


29-818 


38-1 


35'5 


32-0 


•181 


79 


s.w. 


10 





Generally overcast; clouds 
broken. 


4°.. 


29744 


37'4 


35'2 


32-2 


•182 


82 


s.w. 


7 





Very dense clouds in S. ; 






















cirrus elsewhere generally. 






















. 1 



February 27, 1865. — Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich. 



30-017 
30-019 
30-014 

30-008 



29-997 
29995 



29-991 



29-975 
29-967 

29-965 

29968 



48-6 
489 
49-0 



487 

47'4 
47"9 

47'4 



28-988 47-1 
29-980 46-8 
46-3 

46-1 



45-9 
45-6 



43'4 

43'3 
42-9 



43-0 

42*2 
43'i 

42*2 



42-4 
42-4 
42-1 

42-0 



42-0 
41-6 



377 
37'2 
36-2 



36-8 

3 6 "4 

37-8 

3 6 "4 

37-1 

37"5 
37-2 

37'3 
37-5 
37-0 



■226 
■222 
•214 



•215 

■227 



•215 

•221 

•225 
■222 

•223 
■225 



66 

65 
62 



63 

66 
69 

66 

68 

70 
72 

72 
73 
73 



s.w. 

s.s.w. 
s. 



s.w. 



s. by w. 



s.s.w. 



s.w. 



s.s.w. 
s.w. by s. 
s.w. bys. 

s.s.w. 



s.w. 



s.w. by w. 



10 
10 
10 



10 
10 

10 



Light cirrocumulus and a little 
stratus in S.W. horizon. 
Haze in N. 

Cirrus, and cirrocumulus in 
the zenith. Dense cirro- 
stratus and cumulostratus 
in horizon, gradually spread- 
ing over the sky. 

Cirrus ; clear sky in the zenith ; 
cumulus and cumulostratus. 

Dense clouds almost entirely 
cover the sky. Balloon first 
seen at 2 s ; and was visible 
for about 4"" ; seen due E., 
and appeared moving in a 
northerly direction. 

Sky generally covered with 
dense clouds, excepting a 
little clear in the zenith. 



Generally overcast ; clouds 
broken slightly in the air. 

Clear sky and light cirrus in 
the zenith ; dense clouds in 
theN. 

Generally overcast, with the 
exception of a little clear in 
the S.E. 

Uniformly covered with cirro- 
stratus. 



19.2 report — 18G5. 

Interim Report of the Committee on the Transmission of Sound under 
Water, consisting of the Rev. Dr. Robinson, Prof. Wheatstone, 
Dr. Gladstone, and Prof. Hennessy. 

When the Committee on. Fog-signals stated at the Meeting of the British 
Association last year that no success had attended their efforts to induce the 
Board of Trade to undertake experiments on the subject, it was thought 
advisable to change the mode of procedure. The Parliamentary Committee 
was requested to press on the Government the expediency of instituting such 
experiments, while the Committee was reappointed for the purpose of making 
experiments on the transmission of sound under waer — a line of inquiry 
suggested by us in our memorial to the President of the Board of Trade, 
June 18, 1803. The sum of =£30 was placed at our disposal, and to this the 
Government-Grant Committee of the Royal Society have added £100. 

The subject of the production of sound under water, and its transmission 
through that medium, had previously engaged the attention of one of our 
number, Professor Wheatstone, and we naturally wished to be guided in our 
first trials by his experience. A long and serious illness unfortunately 
delayed the commencement of that gentleman's experiments ; but the inves- 
tigation has been fairly begun this summer. The results hitherto arrived 
at are instructive and promising, but they are not sufficiently precise to 
warrant their publication. We have therefore only to report progress, and 
to ask the British Association to give us the opportunity of bringing our 
results before them next year. 



On the Rainfall of the British Isles. By Gr. J. Symons, M.B.M.S. 

In my previous reports on the progress of rainfall-investigations I have 
scarcely referred to what had been done before I undertook the collection and 
organization to which 1 have now devoted nearly six years. 

I purpose to supply the omission on this present occasion, and to divide my 
Report into the following divisions :■ — ■ 

1. What had been done prior to 1860. 

2. What has been done since 1860. 

3. What remains to be done. 

4. A few particulars respecting the rainfall of the last fifty years, and 

the fall in 1864. 
1. What had been done prior to 1860. — Raving been almost wholly en- 
gaged during the past year in clearing up arrears, and in thoroughly classifying 
the materials hitherto collected, the imperative necessity of circulating 
amongst engineers, meteorologists, and rainfall-observers a complete index of 
the collected observations has been brought prominently before me. I have 
therefore prepared such an index, and annexed it to this lleport. Besides its 
general usefulness, it will be specially so in. two respects. (1) Every station, 
whether discontinued or not, being entered, with the years between which 
observations have been obtained, and with observer's name, and height above 
sea-level, any one, whether engineer, agriculturist, or physicist, can ascer- 
tain with the greatest ease exactly what observations have hitherto been col- 
lected. In order to facilitate reference, the stations are arranged alphabetically 
in counties; and there are also provided general indexes of England and 



i&Jttport British Asrocia&on 



i 




Aioited ~Hnz 
ftym fnt fpotj 
ImJs tc the namt 
ttation 



BHITISH ffiAIHFAUL 
S IA " oisrs , 
Aug. 1865, 

Only stations Jatawn to be aetiutlfy ,<r work 
are meurhecL—ifiote supplied with wttntn ■ 
try fhe British, Assoeiatfon aretfwvn th-itsQ 
other* thus • 




■ 






> 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 193 

Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. (2) Those who are willing to help on the 
completion of the collection will see at once what I have, and what I have not ; 
and thereby they will be saved much needless copying and I much corre- 
spondence. 

A barren index, however, throws little light on the history of rainfall-in- 
vestigations. Before entering on this I desire to meet at the very outset an 
objection sometimes raised, viz., that we cannot trust very old observations, 
and therefore 1 may be busy collecting useless materials. I maintain that 
we can trust them, and have the pleasure of knowing that my friend Mr. 
Glaisher fully agrees with me on this point. I think them far more reliable 
than many modern ones ; for in the 17th and early part of the 18th century, 
to measure the fall of rain was esteemed a serious undertaking, only to be 
accomplished by first-class men. The repeated reference to the height of 
their gauges, their diameter, and the number of pounds and ounces troy cor- 
responding to an inch of rain over the area of the " tunnel " of their gauges, 
and the details frequently given, combine to render it certain that they took 
every reasonable precaution to secure accuracy. The results they obtained, 
and which they would hardly credit, we of the 19th century know to be just 
what was due to the situation of the gauges. Another point to be remem- 
bered is this : — it is not intended to use any old observations in determinino- the 
absolute mean fall at any place, or, in other words, in determining the 'geo- 
graphical distribution of rain ; that will be done from recent observations with 
tested instruments. The old observations will only be used for determining 
the existence or otherwise of secular variation, and for that purpose an in- 
accurate gauge would do as well as a perfect one. 

The earliest observations I have yet obtained are those of Mr. Townley, of 
Townley in Lancashire, extending (with two intervals) from a.d. 1677' to 
1705, or twenty-eight years. Mr. Townley believed his to.be the first made 
in England ; I do not feel sure that they were so. The- only other observer in 
the 17th century whose observations have yet been obtained was the Rev. W. 
Derham, of Upminster, near Romford in Essex, who began in March 1696^ 
and has left a series of yearly totals (months also for some years) for nine- 
teen years. 

The longest and most perfect record at present obtained was kept by 
Thomas Barker, Esq., of Lyndon in Rutland; it extends from 1736 to 1794 
or fifty-nine years. It is doubtful if so long a record will ever again be kept 
by one person, with one gauge, and without interruption. 

Erom Table I. it will readily be seen how sudden and great has been the 
increase of observers during the last thirty years, and especially durino- tho 
last five, in which one finds the results of the recent grants of this Associa- 
tion. From 1677 to 1800 the returns never number more than twenty-six 
per annum, and averaged only four ; and in subsequent ten-yearly periods the 
numbers average, up to 1810, 15 ; to 1820, 21 ; to 1830, 40 ; to 1840, 103 ; 
to 18o0, 1/8; to 1860, 366; and at the present time the returns number 
rather more than a thousand. It is right to mention that no records have vet 
been obtained for 1687 and 1688, 1694 to 1696, 1717 to 1721, 1724 and 
1 / 25, since which time there is no year without one or more complete registers • 
that is to say, rain-records go back complete 140 years, and with intervals 
about fatty years more, or nearly 200 years altogether. 



1865. 



194 REPORT — 1865. 

Table I. 
Number of Records obtained for eacb year from 1677 to 1864. 





Number. 




Number. 


-a 








a « 


T3 








"5 * 


Year. 


c 

ca m 










Year. 


B 
CO 








0) ( C9 




_ "5 




*d 




.s| 




a 2. 


T3 

d 


*Q 




C 'S 

— c 




u 


e3 

Q 


3 

.2 


4a 


— - — 
a u o 




« ca 


a 
o 






no: 




a 


5 




O 
H 


EH 








U 


o 


OH3 fc 


1677. 


1 






1 




1720. 


, , 




t , 


, . 




1678. 


1 


, . 


, , 


1 




1721. 


. , 


. . 


. . 


. . 




1679. 


1 


• • 


•• 


1 


3 


1722. 
1723. 
1724. 


1 

1 






i 

i 




1680. 


1 




.. 


1 




i| 








1681. 


1 


, , 


, , 


1 




1725. 


. . 


, , 








1682. 


1 


, , 


• • 


1 




1726. 


1 


, , 


, , 


i 




1683. 


1 


, , 


, , 


1 




1727. 


1 


, , 


. . 


i 




1684. 


1 


, , 


, , 


1 




1728. 


1 


a . 


• . 


i 




1685. 


1 


, , 


, , 


1 




1729. 


3 


, , 


, , 


3 




1686. 


1 


( , 


, , 


1 















8 


1687. 




, , 


, , 


, , 




1730. 


3 


, . 


. . 


3 




1688. 




, f 


, , 


, , 




1731. 


3 


1 


. . 


4 




1689. 


1 


• • 




1 


8 


1732. 
1733. 
1734. 


4 
4 


1 

1 




5 
5 




1690. 


1 






1 


5 


1 




6 




1691. 


1 


t f 


, , 


1 




1735. 


4 


1 


, , 


5 




1692. 


1 




, ^ 


1 




1736. 


2 


, , 


, , 


2 




1693. 


1 


t , 


, , 


1 




1737. 


2 


, . 


. , 


2 




1694. 




t t 


t , 


, , 




1738. 


2 


, , 


. , 


2 




1695. 






# # 


, , 




1739. 


2 


, , 


, . 


2 




1696. 


, , 


, , 


. , 


. . 














36 




1697. 


2 


, , 


. , 


2 




1740. 




• ■ 


. . 






1698. 


2 


, , 


, , 


2 




1741. 




, , 


• . 






1699. 


2 


• • 


•• 


2 


10 


1742. 
1743. 
1744. 












1700. 


2 






2 












1701. 


2 


, , 


, , 


2 




1745. 




. . 


, , 






1702. 


2 


, , 


, , 


2 




1746. 




. , 


. , 






1703. 


2 


, , 


t t 


2 




1747. 




. . 


. , 






1704. 


1 


, , 


f t 


1 




1748. 




• , 


, , 






1705. 


1 


, , 


, , 


1 




1749. 


2 


, , 


, , 


2 




1706. 


1 


, , 




1 














11 




1707. 


1 


, , 


t t 


1 




1750. 


2 


, , 


, , 


2 




1708. 


1 


. , 


, , 


1 




1751. 


2 


. a 


. . 


2 




1709. 


1 


• • 


• t 


1 


14 


1752. 
1753. 
1754. 


2 
2 


•• 


•• 


2 
2 




1710. 


1 






1 


2 


t t 


t , 


2 




1711. 


1 


, , 


• » 


1 




1755. 


2 


. , 


. , 


2 




1712. 


1 


, , 


, # 


1 




1756. 


2 


. . 


. , 


2 




1713. 


1 


, , 




1 




1757. 


2 


, , 


. . 


2 




1714. 


1 






1 




1758. 


2 


. . 


. . 


2 




1715. 


1 






1 




1759. 


2 


, , 


, i 


2 




1716. 


1 






1 















20 


1717. 




, , 




, , 




1760. 


2 


, . 


. , 


2 




1718. 


, # 


, , 


, , 


, , 




1761. 


2 


, , 


. . 


2 




1719. 

i 








•- 


7 


1762. 
1763. 


3 
1 






3 
1 











ON 


THE 


RAINFALL OF THE 


BRITISH ISLES. 




19. 


Year. 


Number. 


1 
Year. 


Number. 


a 








IS — 


-a 
a 
a ^ 








- .2 




■a 3 


"d 


. 




c '3 




<xsj> 


T3 


. 




C3 '3 




° ~a 


s 


■a 




.5 c 




e a 


a 


ns 




.5 a 






o 


c 


"a 


■ "_ ■ ' 

a S'S 






etf 

Za 

o 


a 


73 


■3 8-g 




Q 


Q 


V 


O 


°"S - C 




c 


O 


u 


o 


r ° "a 'C 






cn 


1-1 


H 


H 




» 


t» 


HH 


H 


H 


1764. 


1 


.. 


.. 


1 




1815. 


8 


10 


1 


19 




1765. 


2 


1 


, , 


3 




1816. 


11 


10 


, , 


21 




1766. 


5 


1 


, , 


6 




1817. 


14 


11 


1 


26 




1767. 


9 


1 


. . 


10 




1818. 


16 


11 


1 


28 




1768. 


5 


1 


. . 


6 




1819. 


17 


11 


1 


29 




1769. 


4 


1 


, | 


5 















209 












39 


1820. 
1821. 


22 
25 


11 

9 


1 
1 


34 
35 




1770. 


2 


1 




3 






1771. 


2 


2 


, , 


4 




1822. 


24 


9 


1 


34 




1772. 


2 


2 


» , 


4 




1823. 


24 


9 


2 


35 




1773. 


2 


6 


. , 


8 




1824. 


27 


10 


2 


39 




1774. 


4 


6 




10 




1825. 


28 


12 


1 


41 




1775. 


5 


7 


, . 


12 




1826. 


32 


9 


1 


42 




1776. 


5 


7 


, , 


12 




1827. 


32 


12 


1 


45 




1777. 


7 


5 


, , 


12 




1828. 


31 


15 


1 


47 




1778. 


7 


3 


. . 


10 




1829. 


32 


16 


1 


49 




1779. 


6 


3 




9 














401 








84 


1830. 
1831. 


37 
46 


19 
25 


1 
1 


57 
72 


1780. 


6 


3 




9 




1781. 


7 


2 


. . 


9 




1832. 


52 


31 


1 


84 




1782. 


8 


2 


. . 


10 




1833. 


6) 


32 


1 


93 




1783. 


7 


2 


. . 


9 




1834. 


63 


33 


1 


97 




1784. 


10 


1 


. , 


11 




1835. 


64 


42 


3 


109 




1785. 


11 


3 


, , 


14 




1836. 


71 


49 


3 


123 




1786. 


11 


2 


, , 


13 




1837. 


81 


45 


4 


130 




1787. 


14 


2 


, , 


16 




1838. 


90 


39 


6 


135 




1788. 


17 


4 


. . 


21 




1839. 


88 


36 


5 


129 




1789. 


18 


3 




21 














1029 












133 


1840. 
1841. 


95 

89 


38 
39 


6 
9 


139 
137 


1790. 


19 


5 


, , 


24 






1791. 


20 


5 


1 


26 




1842. 


99 


38 


9 


146 




1792. 


18 


5 


1 


24 




1843. 


93 


39 


10 


142 




1793. 


14 


5 


1 


20 




1844. 


128 


42 


13 


183 




1794. 


8 


4 


1 


13 




1845. 


145 


42 


13 


200 




1795. 


8 


7 


1 


16 




1846. 


144 


41 


12 


197 




1796. 


8 


3 


2 


13 




1847. 


160 


46 


12 


218 




1797. 


8 


3 


3 


14 




1848. 


148 


44 


12 


204 




1798. 


8 


2 


4 


14 




1849. 


155 


46 


10 


211 




1799. 


5 


4 


3 


12 














1777 












176 


1850. 
1851. 


180 
212 


54 
53 


11 
13 


245 

278 


1800. 


5 


3 


2 


10 






1801. 


6 


4 


1 


11 




1852. 


238 


57 


15 


310 




1802. 


5 


4 


1 


10 




1853. 


237 


71 


14 


322 




1803. 


5 


5 


1 


11 




1854. 


223 


89 


15 


327 




1804. 


5 


6 


1 


12 




1855. 


266 


107 


16 


389 




1805. 


4 


7 


1 


12 




1856. 


286 


121 


16 


423 




1806. 


5 


5 


1 


11 




1857. 


297 


130 


13 


440 




1807. 


6 


7 


1 


14 




1858. 


309 


135 


13 


457 




1808. 


20 


9 


1 


30 




1859. 


327 


131 


14 


472 




1809. 


19 


11 




30 














3663 












151 


1860. 
1861. 


411 

466 


122 
134 


19 

26 


552 
626 


1810. 


18 


7 


.. 


25 






1811. 


6 


10 


, , 


16 




1862. 


507 


192 


32 


731 




1812. 


6 


11 


1 


18 




1863. 


564 


206 


47 


817 




1813. 


5 


7 


1 


13 




1864. 


671 


240 


56 


967 




1814. 


6 


7 


1 


14 

















p2 



196 



REPORT 1865. 



The collection of these records has heen spasmodically attempted hy several 
persons, Dr. Dalton being among the earliest and most successful : he, in the 
year 1799, submitted to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 
by far the best paper on rainfall published until many years after. Still, 
owing probably to the absence of postal and other means of communication, 
his paper by no means included all that had been done up to the time of his 
■writing it. 

The following list (Table II.) of old stations prior to 1800, is not only 
handy as such, but also available as a check on the completeness of Dr. 
Dalton's search, and of my own. The result appears to be that the Doctor, 
who undoubtedly took great pains with his Table, and most truly described it 
as " the most complete hitherto published," had not half of the records then 
existing, and which I and my friends have hunted up. On the other 
hand the Doctor has one station, " Crawshawbooth near Haslingden," of 
which I can get no information. 

Table II. — Showing the Stations at which the Fall of Eain was measured 
previously to the year 1800. 

ENGLAND. 



Cornwall . . 
Cumberland 

Derbyshire 
Devonshire 



Counties. 



Durham . , 

Essex 

Gloucester 

Hampshire 



Hertfordshire 
Kent 



Lancashire 






Stations. 



Ludgvan 

Carlisle 

Keswick 

Chatsworth 

Plymouth 

j? 

Darlington 

Upminster 

Bristol 

Andover 

Fyfield 

Selborne 

Ware 

Chislehurst 

Dover 

Townley 

Bury 

Crawshawbooth 1 
near Haslingden J 

Lancaster 

Liverpool 

„ "Walton 

Manchester 

„ Holme 

„ Salford 

Fellfoot 



Years in hand. 



1762, 1767-71 

1767 

1788-94 

1777-99 

1731-35 

1767 and 1768 

1734 and 1735 

1697-1716 

1774-78 

1785-89 

1784-92 

1780-93 

1787-91 

1729 and 1730 

1789-93 

1677-86,89-93,97-1704 
1797-1799 

None 

1784-93 

1775-92 

1791-99 

1784-92 

1794-99 

1765-69 

1786-93 

1788-91 



-2 « 
ft 






6 

1 

7 
22 

5 

2 

2 
19 

4 

5 

8 
13 

5 

2 

5 
23 

3 

None. 

10 
17 

9 
9 
6 
5 
8 
4 



5 
1 

7 
15 



? 
3 

7 
9 
5 

5 

9 



10 

18 



8 
3 



ON THE RAINFALL OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Table II. ENGLAND (continued). 



197 



Counties. 



Stations. 



Tears iu hand. 



a 



fciB 

*•* 2 

^ 2 . 



Middlesex . 



Norfolk ..!.".'! 
Northampton . . 
Northumberland 

Rutland 

Somersetshire . . 
,, . . . . 

Surrey 

Westmoreland . . 



Yorkshire 



Banffshire . . 
Dumbarton 
Dumfries . . 



Edinburgh 



Elgin . . . 
Forfar . . . 
Lanark . . . 
Peebles. . . 
Perth ... 
Roxburgh 
Selkirk . . . 



Antrim 

Dublin 

Londonderry 
Longford . . . 



Edmonton 

Crane-ct., London 
Royal Society . . . 

Temple Bar 

Norwich 

Oundle 

Widdrington . . . 

Lyndon 

Bridgewater . . . . , 

Minehead , 

South Lambeth . . . . 
Kendal , 



Benson Knott . 
Waith Sutton . 
Leeds, Barroby . 
Garsdale 



1792- 
1729 
1787- 
1795- 
1749- 
1726- 
1722- 
1736- 
1767- 
1782, 
1782- 
1788- 
1767- 
1790- 
1789- 
1772- 
1777- 



■96 
35 
99 
99 
-62 
39 
23 
94 
69 



92 
92 
■99 
91 
93 
81 
79 



SCOTLAND. 



Gordon Castle 
Kirkintillock 
Dumfries 
Langholm .... 

Dalkeith 

Edinburgh . . 



Hawkhill 

Urquhart 

Dundee 

Glasgow 

Peebles 

Belmont Castle . 
Branxholm . . . 
Wool 



1799 

1788 

1776- 

1773- 

1773- 

1785- 

1 795- 

1796- 

1731- 

1771- 

1795- 

1790- 

1765, 

1766- 

1789- 

1773- 

1773- 



93 

■77 

77 

95 

99 

99 

35 

76 

97 

95 

75, 

79 

95 



85, 88, 95 



83 ... 
76,80. 



Belfast 

Dublin 

Londonderry 
Edgworthston 



IRELAND. 

1796-99 
1791-99 
1797-99 
1798.... 



5 

7 
13 

5 
14 
14 

2 
59 

3 

1 
11 

5 
13 

2 

5 
10 

3 



1 
1 

18 
5 
5 

11 
5 
4 
5 
6 
3 
6 
5 

14 

/ 
11 

5 



4 
9 
3 
1 



13 
14 

1 
21 

3 

9 

11 

5 
6 
3 



After Dr. Dalton's collection in 1799 there was a long interval in which, 
though observations were steadily continued, no one seems to have thought of 
collecting and discussing them. Dr. Dalton's averages were (and, I am s^rry 



198 report — 1865. 

to say, are still sometimes) constantly quoted, and no notice was taken o 
subsequent observations. This is the more to be regretted since some of the 
gauges quoted by Dr. Dalton were on roofs, others on the ground, and no dis- 
tinction was made between them. 

I am not at present aware of any extensive collection between 1799 and 
1840, or thereabouts, when Mr. Joseph Atkinson, of Harraby near Carlisle, 
published a rain-map of the British Isles : to my great vexation I cannot ob- 
tain a copy ; and there is not one in the British Museum. It only gives the 
mean fall, and contains only two or three places besides those I possess ; but 
it is provoking that a copy of so recent a publication (1841 or 1842) cannot 
be obtained. During the last ten or twenty years several collections have 
been made, those of Mr. Glaisher for the British, and Dr. Stark for the Scot- 
tish, Meteorological Society having been published, with other meteorological 
details, quarterly by the Registrars-General of the respective countries. The 
prize offered by the Marquis of Tweeddale for an essay on rainfall, and 
awarded to Mr. Jamieson, of Ellon, led to the collection of the yearly fall at about 
twenty British stations, and the collection in Mr. Beardmore's splendid ' Ma- 
nual of Hydrology' completes the list of my precursors. The two last ha^e 
been published since 1860, but it seems appropriate to notice them here : 
the most copious of these Tables, however, did not contain a tenth of the ex- 
istent observations. 

It is a singular fact, that, with the exception of the last two works, no notice 
has ever been taken of the position of the gauges, on which so much depends 
that a West-country roof record will often be less than an Eastern -counties 
ground-record ; that is to say, the difference due to elevation is often greater 
by far than that due to a hundred miles geographical distance. Paramount 
as is the importance of distinct information on this point, it is never referred 
to in any of the old or many modern Tables. 

This omission naturally leads me to refer to the variation in the amount 
collected according to the height at which the gauge is placed above the sur- 
face of the ground. This was first noticed in 1705 ; and in 1 766 Dr. Heberden, 
F.R.S., placed a gauge on the square tower of Westminster Abbey, another on 
the roof of an adjacent house, and a third in a garden, and found the fall to be, 
— garden, 22-61 ; roof, 18-14; abbey-tower, 12-10. These experiments were 
promptly repeated at "Bath, Liverpool, Middlcwich, and elsewhere;" but I 
have not been able to find any notice beyond the simple fact that " the results 
were similar to those at Westminster." (This shows how much is either still 
buried, or lost altogether.) Shortly after this, the Hon. Daines Barrington 
erected two gauges in the vicinity of Bala, in North Wales — one at Eennig, 
and one on the summit of Bochyraidr (1700 feet?) — and ascertained therefrom 
that the decrease did not depend on actual elevation, but on the height 
above the surface of the ground. This subject, I need hardly remind mem- 
bers of this Association, was carefully investigated by our esteemed President, 
Professor Phillips, when living at York in 1832; in fact it was one of the 
first subjects this Association took in hand. 

The heavy fall of rain in mountainous districts was noticed at a very 
early period ; but very little was done, until a comparatively recent date, 
towards systematic observation and the determination of the laws governing 
the distribution of rain in mountainous districts. Mr. Bateman's observa- 
tions in the Derbyshire and Yorkshire hills, followed as they were by the 
elaborate investigations carried on by the late Dr. Miller in the Lake-dis- 
trict, have left for future examination only the subsidiary and minor vari- 
ations to which the laws they deduced are liable. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 199 

2. What has been done since 1860. — Having thus described what had been 
done previously to 1860, I proceed to mention briefly what has been done 
since then ; and if it seems that this portion is egotistical, I reply I cannot 
help it : it would be strange indeed if the one person who has devoted him- 
self solely to the subject were not mixed up with most of its ramifications. 

In the first place, then, it has already been stated that prior to 1860 
there had been no general collection of all reliable rainfall-records ; this 
was the primary object I had in view, knowing that without such a col- 
lection it was impossible to determine, with any approach to accuracy, 
either the geographical distribution or secular variation of British rainfall. 
To what an enormous magnitude this collection has grown may be inferred 
from the Tables attached to this Report ; but as a ready means of enabling 
engineers and others to estimate the stores awaiting them, I may say that, 
supposing the lists closed at once, I believe the publication of the monthly 
values and discussion of the observations would fill two of the bulky annual 
volumes of this Association. Of course bulk is a poor test of value ; but I 
wished to give some better description than that of " twenty-three folio 
volumes of MS.," which are already full. I should not omit to state whence 
these observations have been copied. Most of them have been obtained from 
the observers, many of whom have sent me registers of ten, twenty, thirty, 
and even more years in length ; some are from privately printed papers, 
others from magazines, scientific journals, and Transactions of the Royal and 
other Societies. Particulars as to the position of the gauge are always care- 
fully noted along with the observations, when they can be obtained. I had 
not been at this work very long before I felt the desirability of publishing 
some information of a reliable character, and at the close of 1860 I published 
a Table giving the total depth in that year at 168 stations, being more than 
double the number ever previously collected ; this Table has grown into an 
annual volume, both by giving additional information on the undermentioned 
and other subsidiary investigations, and by its increased body of contributors, 
now numbering over 1000. 

Next to compiling the general Tables and annual reports, the most trouble- 
some, but probably also the most important, work is the examination of the 
gauges actually in use, both as to their own accuracy and also as to the suita- 
bility of their position. I need not point out how necessary this is ; it must 
be evident to everybody that until it is done there will be liability to all sorts 
of errors in deducing results from observations with gauges either themselves 
incorrect, or badly placed. I do not wish to be discursive ; or I coidd quote 
man} - positions in which I have found gauges, nothing less than absurd. (Very 
gross errors are now impossible, owing to the number of new tested gauges 
interspersed among the old ones and available as checks upon them.) This 
examination of the gauges in situ involves an amount of travelling which takes 
far too much time and too much money for me to make any very great progress 
with it. However, I have visited 113 ; and if this Association will find the 
needful funds, I will endeavour to double the number before I draw up the 
next annual Report. 

Next to personally visiting each gauge, the best plan is to test the gauges 
before the opticians send them off to their destinations. Of the exact number 
thus tested I have no record, but believe it to be about 300, a number easily 
mentioned, but by no means so easily examined. 

At the outset of the investigation an attempt was made to collect returns 
of the number of rainy days or days of rain ; but it was speedily found that 
utter want of uniformity prevailed, and that it was useless to attempt to do 



200 report — 1865. 

anything with them. After consulting the observers, each of whom was 
asked to send in his or her definition of a rainy day, the plan I recommended 
was to count as a day of rain every one on which O01 inch fell. How this 
will work remains to be seen ; but it is certainly a step in the right direction — 
that is to say, towards uniformity. 

Another point noticed at an early period was the unequal geographical 
distribution of the stations, some parts of the country being amply provided, 
while in others the gauges were fifty or sixty miles apart. Thanks to the 
,£55 granted by this Association, this state of things no longer exists ; how it 
has been removed may be learnt from my previous Reports, or from the 
accompanying Map. Of course there are still great inequalities, but they are 
as nothing compared with what existed in 1859. 

It remains to notice the series of experimental gauges which have been 
recently started to settle various disputed points. Reference has already been 
made to the decreased amount of rain caught in gauges placed on high build- 
ings, and to the experiments of Dr. Heberden and Professor Phillips on the 
subject. On finding that (owing to the previous absence of any rainfall 
centre, if I may so term myself) the gauges throughout the kingdom were 
at all sorts of elevations, from 90 feet downwards, it was evident that 
some means must be devised for correcting these observations and redu- 
cing them to what they would be if made at one uniform level. Many of 
the gauges being elevated on pillars or pedestals, it was urged, and with 
apparent reason, that as all previous elevation experiments had been made 
upon, and in the vicinity of, buildings, the laws of decrease deduced there- 
from were not, or at any rate might not, be applicable to gauges mounted 
as above described. In order to test this point, Colonel Ward, of Calne, 
kindly undertook the cost and trouble of mounting a set of gauges on part 
of his lawn, a description of which I read to this Section at the Newcastle 
Meeting ; they are now eleven in number, and at heights varying from level 
with the ground to 20 feet above it. In order to check the applicability of 
the Cable results to other localities, a similar but less extensive set of gauges 
lias been established near Manchester by the Rev. J. Chadwick Bates. 

It was rather singular that, although, as before stated, rainfall has been 
measured in this country nearly two hundred years, there had been prior to 
1860 no published experiments on a comprehensive scale to determine the 
best size and form of gauge. It would be inappropriate here to enlarge to 
any extent upon the various theories put forth upon the subject ; and I will 
only remark that the gauges principally issued by the Scottish Meteoro- 
logical Society are but 2 or 3 inches in diameter, while a high Scottish 
authority '•' has no faith " in anything less than a foot in diameter. Mr. 
Olaisher's gauges, everybody knows, are 8 inches in diameter, Luke How- 
ard's 5 inches, and the Royal Engineers' are 1 foot square. An exhaustive 
set of experiments have therefore been undertaken on this point also, by 
Col. Ward and Mr. Bates, the gauges varying from 1 inch to 2 feet in dia- 
meter — square gauges, turf-gauges, snow-gauges, &c, being also tried. Col. 
Ward has altogether 29 gauges at work ; and Mr. Bates has, I believe, 13, 
beside the thermo-rain-gauge mentioned below. 

Reference was made in the earlier part of this Report to the peculiarly 
heavy rainfall in mountainous districts, which had been carefully observed in 
Cumberland during the years 1844 to 1853. It was felt that it would be 
very interesting to ascertain if similar physical configuration received similar 
fall in other parts of the country, and that the district round Snowdon 
appeared very suitable for the experiments. Favoured by the assistance of my 
friend Mr. Rogers Field, of Hampstead, and that of Captain Mathew, of Wern, 



OX THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 201 

Carnarvon (who really did most of the work), we now have returns from more 
than thirty tested gauges in that district, at elevations varying from 15 feet 
to 1100 feet. Simultaneously with the establishment of these, the Cumber- 
land gauges have been reestablished by Mr. Isaac Fletcher, F.ll.S. ; so that we 
now have for the first time full records from both districts. At present 
the Welsh records are far below the Cumberland ones ; whether this is due to 
the fact that the wet places in Snowdonia have yet to be found, or whether 
the deficiency is due to the Cumberland gauges lying near the track of the 
centres of British cyclones, or to some other cause, has yet to be determined. 

3. What remains to be done. — On this point it is not so easy to speak 
clearly and decisively as on the preceding ones, because every one knows 
that just as an investigation progresses so do new branches claim attention. 
Some of the leading items may, however, be easily specified. In the first 
place, the collection of old observations must be rendered as complete as 
possible, by diligent search at the British Museum, in the libraries of the 
various scientific societies, and elsewhere. As an illustration of the meaning 
of that simple word " elsewhere," I may mention that on the day I was 
writing this Keport I received a note from the Secretary to the Board of 
Northern Lights, respecting the rain-records kept at their lighthouses, with 
copies of the current returns of which I have been favoured during the past 
three years. From this note I find that the returns have been kept ever 
since 1813, but that they have never been tabulated or discussed. As far as 
I can at present tell, there seems to be about fifty years' records of twenty- 
five stations ( = 1250 yearly records) to copy out. This T have ordered to be 
done ; but of course the expense will fall upon me. This however, is, only 
quoted as a specimen of the work to be done in collecting. After it, will 
come the discussion, which will also occupy a considerable time. The current 
returns for each year have of course to be examined and prepared for publi- 
cation at its close (this takes two persons six weeks). About 900 gauges 
remain to be visited ; and this involves perhaps 10,000 miles' travelling, much 
of which must be on foot, and all of which involves a heavy expenditure of 
time and money. I need not dwell on the testing of new gauges, since the 
time so occupied is comparatively trivial. A more serious item will be the 
analysis and discussion of the experimental-gauge records of Col. Ward and 
Mr. Bates, and the mountain gauges of Mr. Fletcher and Capt. Mathew. I 
have been already much helped by volunteer labour ; perhaps some careful 
person, who does not mind voluminous work, will relieve me of one or other 
of these discussions. 

In drawing this section of my report to a close, I may just mention a few 
other matters I have in hand : — The construction of a cheap and accurate 
gauge for ordinary use : the one here shown is the last improvement and 
most compact I have seen ; and the maker, Mr. Apps, of 433, Strand, under- 
takes to supply them at 10s. M. each ; so I hope no one will say they use a 
home-made gauge because the opticians charge so much. Mr. Apps is also 
making a self-recording gauge, to show the exact duration and intensity of 
each shower. The Kev. J. Chadwick Bates has at Castleton Moor started a 
thcrmo-rain-gauge for ascertaining the temperature of falling rain, on which 
the variation according to elevation is supposed to depend. Then I have on 
hand some experiments suggested by Mr. Smith, of Jersey, for measuring, by 
nitrate of silver, the percentage of sea spray mingled with rain-water at 
West-country stations. 

I close this programme of work to be done, trusting that I have shown 
that far more remains to be done than I have yet accomplished, and that, if 
I am only efficiently supported, important points may be cleared up. Into 



202 



REPORT — 1865. 



financial matters I believe I must not enter ; but there can be no harm in 
stating that by what has been done I have lost over ,£300, and a lucrative 
post ; and inasmuch as it is impossible for me to continue under such con- 
ditions, the " work to be done " will not become " work done" unless I am 
protected from further loss. The Royal Society have recently granted £50 
towards the general expenses of the investigations ; the observers naturally 
think that by observing they do their share, at the same time they have 
subscribed about £150 ; but the total of £200 by no means meets the outlay 
of so extensive a work as mine. 

4. A few particulars respecting the rainfall of the last fifty years, and the 
fall in 1864. — And first with reference to the fall during the past half 
century, to an examination of which I gave some little attention during 
the last spring. The accompanying diagram* best explains the result of this 

Eainfall 1815 to 1864 — Mean of Ten Stations. 



40 in. 



30 in. 



20 in. 




Oin. 



igiiiiimmiDiimiiii 



10 in. 



!■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■» 

■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■aaHNHi 

■■HHBHMHHBBBMHBBI 
■■■■■■■HHHHBIBIHHill 

■BBBBBBBBaaBBBBBBBflflBBB! 

■■■■■BRaBaDBBBBBBSBBBBHI 
IBBBBBBBBBBOBBBflBBBBBBBI 
IBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBI 
" laaaBBBBBBBBBBBaBBI 

JBBBBBOBBaiBaBDBBSl 
IBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 
IBBBBBBBBBBBBBB9BH 

_ JgBBflBBHBGHBBBBBBBi 
flBIMBEBHBaBBBBBBBBBBBBI 




BBBBBBBBBBBBBHBB 

BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBi 
BBBBBBBHHBBBBBB 
■ ■■■■■DNUIMIi 



aBBBBBBBBBBBBBBl 
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBi 
BBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 



BBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 

SBBBBBBBBBBBBBBI 



20 in. 



10 in. 



in. 



[„. Mi— .■■■■■ —.^■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ ■HBiq 

temporary investigation. I wish to emphasize that word temporary very 
strongly, because one can never be sure that a partial investigation, based 
on a few records, yields the same result as if all were combined, as I hope 
eventually to have them, when, instead of discussing the variation in half a 
century, we may hope to discuss the records of two centuries. 

So much interest is now taken, both in and out of Parliament, in questions 
of drainage, water-supply, and the condition of our rivers, and I am so con- 
stantly urged to give some information on the point, that 1 rather feel as if 
I was acting the part of the dog in the manger, in gathering volume after 
volume of rainfall-observations and yet deducing no results. My objection 
has been, that though much has been collected, as much (or more) remains 
to be done, and I have a great horror of incomplete work ; but not having 
hitherto had the least assistance, and seeing no prospect of getting any except 

* It is almost superfluous to state that the total fall in each year is shown by the top of 
the column, whether black or shaded, the difference being only made to show prominently 
the years above and below the dotted average line. 



ON THE RAINFALL OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 



203 



by paying clerks' salaries out of my own pocket, it will be some years before 
the inquiry can be completed. Under these circumstances, it seemed un- 
reasonable to persist in my refusal of an interim investigation, and I have 
therefore drawn up the following statement. 

My object has been to determine (1) whether the decreased annual fall of 
rain which has been observed at Greenwich is a local variation, or whether 
it prevails generally throughout the country ; (2) (having ascertained that 
the present, temporary investigation shows it to be general) to ascertain in 
what districts the decrease is most marked. 

Unfortunately there are very few continuous records extending back 
more than about thirty years. A few, however, are available and, having 
carefully interpolated for one or two missing years, I have been able to form 
the following Table from the mean of ten widely separated stations — one in 
each of the following counties : Devon, Kent, Middlesex, Surrey, Essex, 
Lincoln, Lancashire, York, Edinburgh, and Argyll. 

It may be well to add that on carrying the examination back to 1800, the 
fall seems to have been less than it was about 1815, when the following more 
reliable Table commences. 





Mean depth of Eain at ten stations, 1815-1864. 




Year. 


Depth. 


Year. 


Depth. 


Year. 


Depth. ' 


Year. 


Depth. 


Year. 


Depth. 


1815 


2712 


1825 


26-57 


1835 


28-56 , 


1845 


27-S7 


1855 


23 37 


181G 


29-26 


1826 


23-76 


1836 


33-49 


1846 


29-57 


1856 


25-89 


1817 


29-73 


1827 


29-53 


1837 


2454 


1847 


25-80 


1857 


25-70 


1818 


30-34 


1828 


33-02 


1838 


2711 


1848 


35-98 


1858 


22-79 


1819 


30-46 


1829 


28-70 


1839 


31-27 


1849 


28-51 


1859 


28-53 


1820 


24-63 


1830 


30-83 


1840 


24-67 


1850 


26-35 


1860 


33 34 


1821 


29-92 


1831 


32-28 


1841 


33-51 


1851 


26-70 


1861 


26-98 


1822 


26-63 


1832 


2(1-20 


1842 


25-53 


1852 


35-53 


1862 


30-37 


1S23 


3109 


1833 


29-71 


1843 


30-40 


1853 


27-38 


1863 


26-93 


1824 


30-91 


1834 


24-52 


1844 


23-72 


1854 


22-38 


1864 


2211 


Mean 


28-999 


Mean 


28-512 


Mean 


28-280 


Mean 


28-607 


Mean 


26-601 



Several curious results may be noticed in this Table : for instance, in the 
first ten years, seven were above the average of fifty years ; in the next ten, 
six ; in the next, five ; in the next, four ; in the last, three. Again, out of the 
first twenty-five years, sixteen were above the average ; and in the next, six- 
teen were below it. 

Means from the above values. 



Five-year Means. 


Ten 


-year Means. 


Years. 


Mean. 


Difference. 


Years. 


Mean. 


Difference. 


1815-1819 


29-38 


+ 1-18 


1815-1824 


29 00 


-f -80 


1820-1824 


28 62 


+ -42 


1825-1834 


28-51 


+ -31 


1825-1829 


28-32 


+ -12 


1835-1844 


28 28 


+ -08 


1830-1834 


28-71 


+ -51 


1845-1854 


28-61 


4- -41 


1835-1839 


•28 99 


+ -79 


1855-1864 


26-60 


-1-00 


1840-1844 


27-57 


— -63 








1845-1849 


29-55 


+1-35 


1820-1829 


28-40 


+ -26 


1850-1854 


27-67 


- -53 


1830-1839 


28-85 


+ -65 


1855-1859 


25-26 


-2-94 


1840-1849 


28-56 


+ -36 


1860-1864 


27-95 


-•25 


1850-1859 


26-47 


-1-73 



Mean of 25 years, 

)» » 
„ 50 „ 



1815-1839 = 28-80. 
1810-1864 = 27-60. 
1815-1864 = 28-20. 



204 report— 1865. 

From these Tables we find that when, as in this case, local irregularities are 
neutralized by the combination of observations from a large tract of country, 
rainfall- records evince a regularity not before expected, the main and marked 
feature being the drought in the years 1854 to 1858 ; omit these five years, 
and the records run in five-year means without a single departure of an inch 
from the average. But it will not do thus to omit them ; they were excep- 
tional, but are part and parcel of the whole, and must by no means be sepa- 
rated, but the whole carefully examined. For several reasons it seems better 
to take the ten-year means ; and from them we find that the annual fall in 
each ten years from 1815 to 1854 was nearly equal, and always greater than 
in the last ten years, 1855 to 1864, and, moreover, that the ten years 1845 
to 1854 had a rainfall (28-61) nearly identical with the mean (28-60) of the 
preceding thirty years, 1815 to 1844. Hence it is evident that at any 
stations where observations have been made continuously from 1845 to 1864, 
we may take the ten years 1845 to 1854 as representing the forty years, 
1815 to 1854, and the difference between the first and last ten years as 
representing approximately the decrease of rainfall at that place. 

The results of this investigation are condensed in a Table, and laid 
down on a map* (not printed), which shows the percentage by which the 
rainfall in the last ten years fell short of the mean of the previous ten ( = 40) 
years, the numbers being enclosed by a ring in those few cases where the fall 
in the last ten exceeded the previous ten. It will, I trust, be evident to all, 
that though there are some stations which yield discordant results, yet the 
general harmony is quite equal to what could be expected of a preliminary 
investigation. Still the results are only those of a partial examination of the 
question, and of course may be proved fallacious by observations subse- 
quently received. The leading features at present seem to be (1) a decrease 
averaging 4 per cent, over the whole British Isles, but unequally distributed, 
the decrease being exchanged for an increase in parts of Ireland and the 
south of Scotland. (2) In England, although the amount of decrease varies 
up to 18 per cent., it never falls below an excess (if the expression may be 
allowed) of 2 per cent. (3) Although at first the figures seemed very dis- 
cordant, yet on drawing the lines shown on the map referred to, someorder 
seems to become evident, viz. that the maximum deficiency has existed along a 
line running nearly S.W.-N.E. from Cornwall to the Wash. Proceeding north- 
westward, the deficiency becomes less, until the parallel line running through 
the centre of Ireland, and passing into the North Sea at Edinburgh, marks a 
district in which no deficiency has existed, but, on the contrary, an excess of 
nearly 10 per cent. The next districts follow nearer to each other, and seem 
to involve the eventual adoption of W.-E. instead of S.W.-N.E.: possibly this 
is not really the case, but due to errors of observation at the lighthouses, 
whence most of the values herein assigned for Scotland are derived ; or it 
may arise from the modifying influence of Ireland not being felt in those 
higher latitudes. I might further point out that the deficiency seems in 
some degree connected with the large drainage operations in the midland and 
eastern counties of England; but until, either by my own efforts, or the 
assistance of this Association, the observations are rendered more complete, 
it is not safe to attempt to determine the causes of the recent fluctuations. 

The next point (and one on which I reserve full particulars for the next 

Report, so that 1864 and 1865 may be considered together) is the rainfall of 

1864, which, as everybody knows, was far below the average in most parts of 

England ; and in the eastern counties scarcely half the usual quantity of rain 

* The map can be seen at Mr. Symons's residence, 136 Camden Road, N.W. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



205 



fell ; in Cornwall also, and in Devon, where ordinarily water in abundance 
runs to waste, great inconvenience and loss arose from its deficiency. The 
most singular case was that of the Pentland Hills and the south-east of Scot- 
land generally, where the drought was equally severe, but in less than a 
week the rivers rose from almost the lowest point previously known, to a 
higher level than had been known for eighteen years. The Edinburgh 
Water- works reservoirs had been so empty that the city was put on short 
supply ; the floods of October 22-24 came and almost filled them ; the rivers 
rose, and carried away farm-produce, buildings and bridges ; and the rain- 
returns for that district eventually show a yearly total nearly as much above- 
the average as our English returns are below it. 

Explanation of Arrangement ami Symbols used in the following List. 

The stations are classed primarily into countries, secondarily into counties 
(which are in alphabetical order) ; and in each county the stations are ar- 
ranged alphabetically under their own name, if a well-known one, as " Want- 
age ;" if the place is not one generally known, they are placed under that 
of the nearest well-known name : for example, " Tiverton (Hayne)," H ayne 
being the absolute place of observation, and being near to Tiverton. When 
a station is on the edge of a county, and the most prominent adjacent town 
is in the next county, the station is classed under its own name, and that of 
the town is in brackets : thus, " Stotfold [Baldock]." The column headed 
" Elevation " states the height of the gauge above mean sea-level. An 
asterisk (*) prefixed to a station shows that the gauge was tested by 
Mr. Symons before it was used ; a dagger (f), that it has been visited, tested, 
and its position examined. The letters B.A. indicate its having been 
supplied out of the grants made by the British Association. The column 
headed " Observer" is added principally as a means of identifying the returns 
when there are two or more in the same place. The column headed 
" Period" states the years of which the monthly fall has been collected; the 
letters C and T denote respectively the commencement and termination of 
the register ; in all other cases there may be, or are, additional years con- 
stantly accruing. A bar between the date thus, 1846-52, shows that every 
year from 1846 to 1852 is in hand ; a bar at the end thus, 1851-, shows 
that every year from 1851 to the present is in hand, and that the register is 
still kept up. When no date is given, no observations have been obtained. 
When a date is given in parenthesis (1840-8), it indicates the date during 
which I behove it to have been at work. 



ENGLAND. 

Bedfordshire. 



Station. 



Ampthill 

Bedford (Britannia Farm) 
(Harpur Street)... 

(Observatory) 

(Cardington Staff gauge) 

(Obs. gauge) , 

(36 ft. + ground) ... 

(Sharnbrook) 

Potton (Sutton Park) 

Stotfold [Baldock] 

Woburn (Aspley) , 



Eleva- 
tion. 



112 

IOO 
IOO 

136 



220 
460 



Observer. 



W. S. Slinn, Esq, 
Mr. T. Bowick... 

Dr. Barker 

Admiral Smyth... 
Mr. M'Laren 



B. S. Stedman.Esq. 
Sir J. M. Burgoyne 
W. Denne, Esq. .., 
Rev. G. W. Mahon. 



Period. 



C 1865- 
C 1865- 

C1851- 

1831, 1833-38 
C 1846- 

C 1848- 
C 1848- 

C 1864- 

1864- 

C 1856- 



206 



REPORT 1865. 



Berkshire. 



Station. 



Abingdon (Kington Bagpuze) 
„ (Long Wittenham) 

Hungerford 

Ma idenhead ( White Waltham ) 
Newbury 

„ (Greenham) 

Reading ( Aid worth ) 

,, (Mortimer Lodge) . 

Sandhurst 

Wallingford (The Castle) ... 
(Moulsford) ... 

„ (Streatley) 

Wantage 

Windsor (CumberlandLodge) 

„ (Parkside) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



170 
320 



500? 

246 

175 
200 
100 

200 



A. Murdoch, Esq. 

Rev.J.C.Clutterbuck 

Rev.T.E.Blackwell 

J. Silver, Esq. ..., 



J. Ward, Esq 

Rev. J. T. Austen , 



Dr. Collins 

J. K. Hedges, Esq. 
Mr. J. B. Spearing 

Rev. J. Slatter 

E. C. Davey, Esq. 
Major-Gen. Hood 
W. Menzies, Esq... 



Period. 



1845 
! 1851- 

1838-44,1846-49 

1859-60. 

1845 imp. 
! 1865- 
01838-41,1843-481 

(1832-9). 
C 1817- imp. 
C 1863- 
C 1861-63 T 
C 1862. 
C 1865- 
C 1862- 

1862- 



BuCKIXGHAMSHIRE. 



Amersham (Latimer) 

Aylesbury 

„ (County Asylum) 
Fenny Stratford (Linslade).. 

Hartwell House 

„ Rectory 

High Wycombe 



Newport Pagnel . . 
Slough (Chalfont) 
Wendover 



250 
290 



Dr. King 

T. Dell, Esq 

Dr. Miller. 
Mr. J. Osborne. 



1848-50 
1838-39, 



841 



Abington Pigotts 

Cambridge (Beech House) ... 
(Christ College) 
„ (Observatory) ... 

( „ new gauge) 

Deeping Fen 

Fulbourne 

Outwell Sluice 

Ely (Stretham) 

Swaffliam Bulbeck 

Wisbech (North Brink) 

„ (Observatory) 

.. ( „ 8 ft.) 

( „ 35 ft.) 

(St. Mary's) ... 



Altringham (Bowden) 

Birkenhead (Woodside) 

Frodsham (Kingsley) 

Handford (Quarry Bank) . . 

Hyde 

„ (Kingston Mills) 

Knutsford ( Alderley) 

Macclesfield 

„ (Park Green) .. 

,, (Bollington) 

v, (Bosley Minns) 



130 1 

46 


"88 

88 


"16? 


11 

8 
18 


45 
10 



Dr. Lee 




Rev. C. Lowndes . . . 
J. G. Tatem, Esq.... 
S. L. Kent, Esq. ... 
R. Littleboy, Esq.... 

Rev. T. Skeen 


1860-63 

1829, 33, 1836-40 
C 1823-37,1839-42 
C 1864- 

(1860) 

1838-39, 1 g 4 i 


G. Pigott, Esq. ...*.. 

J. Nutter, Esq 

Rev. J. Hays. 
Prof. Adams 


C 1863- 
C 1862- 

1860-63 imp. 
C 1864- 


Rev. J. H. TJsill ... 

R. Lunn, Esq 

Mr. Stanlev 


C ig6i- 

1852-56, 1858- 

1S64- 

1842-3,1845,1849 
C 1859- 
C 1861- 
C 1863- 
C 1862- 
C 1863 


Rev. L. Jenyns ., 
A. Peckover, Esq.... 
S. L. Miller, Esq.... 

H. J. Little, Esq.... 



Cheshire. 



'93 
295 

350 

539 

500 

1279 

1210 



A. Nield, Esq 

W. Armistead, Esq. 

Rev. R, Tyas 

J. Henshall, Esq 

Mr. Ashton 

H. H. Clayton, Esq. 

Rev. E. Stanley 

M.S.&L. R, 1 

W. Jefferey, Esq. ... 
M.S. &L.R 



1838 

1861- 

1860- 

1831-40. 

1863- 

1815-24. 

1855- 

1850- 

1850- 

1850- 



* M. S. & L. R. denotes gauges kept for the Canal Department of the Manchester, Shef- 
field and Lincolnshire Railway Company. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



207 



Cheshire (continued). 



Station. 



Macclesfield(Bosley Reservoir 
Marple (Aqueduct) 

„ (Top Lock) 

H ,- Soc. gauge 

Mottram (Hill End) 

(Matley's Field) .. 

Nantwich ( Wrenbury) 

Newton , 

Northwich , 

Parkgate (Willaston) 

Runcorn (Weston Point) ... 

Staleybridge (Arnfield) , 

(Sandy Vale) ... 

(Godley) 

Tarporley (Alpraliam Green) 

Thelwall [Warrington] 

Whaley 

Woodhead l 

,, (Brinks Edge). 

„ (Brushes) 

,, (ButterleyMoss) 

,, (Crowden Hall). 

„ (Rakes Moss) ... 

„ (Windyate Edge) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



59° 
321 

543 

680 
399 

396 
42 

'5 

575 
320 
500 

■96 
602 
680 

1500 
480 

1750 
700 

1620 

1700 



Cornwall. 



Observer. 



M.S.&L.R.. 



ManchesterMemoirs 
M.S.&L.R 



Mr. Hardacre. 

M. S. &L. R 

E. L. Williams, Esq. 
— Waring, Esq. ... 
E. L. Williams, Esq. 
J. F. Bateman, Esq. 



J. F. Bateman. 

A. Winkfield, Esq. . 

J. Atkinson, Esq.... 

M. S. &L. R 

J. F. Bateman, Esq. 
Manchester Memoirs 



Period. 



1850-52, 1855- 
1851- 

1840, 1844-7, 59- 
1844-47 
C 1860- 
1851-5 imp., 1857 

1851- 
C 1863- 
C 1861- 
C 1S63- 

1855- 

1844. 

1854- 
C 1864- 

1861-63 T 

1850- 

1855- 

1847 

1845-51 

1846-48, 1850-51 
1846-51 

1846-47 
1845-51 







325 
390 
230 
800 

580 
460 
120 

115 

570 

■96 

"50? 
94 

210 
100 
300 

80? 

90 


Capt. Liddell, R.N. 


1850- 
C 1865- 

1841, 42, 45, 60- 

1860- 

1842-43 




(65 ft.) 




,, (Warleggan) 

Callington (Pentillie) 




Rev. D. Clements... 
Rep.R. Corn. Pol. S. 
A. Coryton, Esq. 
Miss Pearse .... 










1862- 




,, (Lantefflos) 


Rev. J. Wilkinson . 

H. M. Harvey, Esq. 
M. P. Moyle, Esq. . 
C. U. Tripp, Esq.... 
Gardeners' Chronicle 

Rev. Sir H. Moles- 
worth, Bart. 

Mr. Giddy 


1863- 
C 1835-57 T 
C 1865- 
C 1841- 
C 1864- 

1850-53 

1855 imp. 

1864- 

1855 imp. 

1855-61 T 

(1859) 
1821 28 






* 


















Padstow(S. Petroc Minor)... 
,, (S. Minver) 










W.H.Richards.Esq. 
Rev. W. Borlasse ... 


C 1859- 
1833 

'855-57 
1762, 1767-71 
C 1856- 

1859- 

C 1863- 
C 1865- 

1848-53, 1855 
1855 

1862- 












„ (Ludgvan) 




Redruth (Tehidy) 






# 


St. Austell (Trevarna) 


W. Coode, Esq. ... 




St. Columb (New Quay) 







1 See also Derbyshire. 



208 



REPOKT 1865. 





Cornwall {continued). 






Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




St. Germans (Port Eliot) . . . 

„ (Tideford) . , . 
Scilly (St. Mary's) 


5° 
3° 

475 

65 

190 

56 
3°3 


Mr. Lynch. 

Rev. T. Hullah 

J. G-. Moyle, Esq.... 

Rev. A. Thynne . . . 
K. Whitley, Esq. ... 


C 1861-64 T 
C 1855-62. 
1841-43 imp. 

C 1864- 

1 8 52-5 3 
C 1857- 
C 1838- 

1837-50 

C 1853- 




Scilly 


* 


Stratton. 

„ (Kilkhampton) ... 
Truro (Alverton) 




,, (Penarth) 




„ (Royal Institution) ... 
Wadebridge (St. Breocke) ... 

„ (Treharroek Ho.) 




Rev. Sir H. Moles- 
worth, Bart. 
F. B. Hambly, Esq. 



Cumberland. 
South Mountain Districts *. 



Brant Rigg 



Crummock Lake . 
Ennerdale Lake . 
Eskdale Foot 
„ Head .... 

Esk House 

Gatesgarth 

Gillerthwaite .... 

Great End 

Great Gable 

Langdale Head 
Loweswater Lake . 

Mosedale 

Sea Fell Pike .... 



Seathwaite. 



(10 in.) 

(22 in.) 
Seatollar Common 

Sparkling Tarn 

Sprinkling Tarn . . 
Stonethwaite 



Stonywath 

Stye, The 

„ (Head Tarn) 

Wastdale Head 



695 
924 

260 
246 



2550 

326 

396? 

3000 

2925 

250 

336 

624 

3200 

3166 

422 

422 

405 
1388 
1900 
1985 

33° 



94 8 
1472 
1448 

247 

247 



I. Fletcher, Esq. ... 
Dr. Miller. 



I. Fletcher, Esq. 
Dr. Miller 



I. Fletcher, Esq. .., 
Dr. Miller 



I. Fletcher, Esq. ... 



Dr. Miller 

I. Fletcher, Esq. ... 

Dr. Miller and Mr. 

Dixon 



Dr. Miller 

I. Fletcher, Esq. 

*» 

Dr. Miller 



I. Fletcher, Esq. ... 

Dr. Miller 

I. Fletcher, Esq. .... 
Dr. Miller 



Cumberland. 



Alston 
Brampton . 
n 

Carlisle . 



(Croft House) . 



(Shaddongate). 
(Cemetery) .... 
(O. S. Office) . 



370 

40 

40 

114 

123 



J. Coulthard, Esq.. 



Mr. Pitt 

Mr. Cameron 

Capt. James, R.E. .. 



864- 

846-53 T 

845-53 T 

845-46. 

846-49. 

847-53 T 

865- 

845-53 T 

846-51 T 

865- 

846-53 T 

845-52 T 

844-53 1 

865- 

864- 

846-53 imp. T 

865- 

846- 

845-53 T 
846-53 T 
846-53 T 
864- 
864- 

847-53 T 

844 imp. 

850-53 

864- 

846-53 T imp 

864- 

845-53 T 



1851-52 imp. 
1851-imp. 
1851-2, 1854-55 

1767 

i 8 5i-53 
1801-24 T 
186c- 
1859-61 T 



1 A copy of the Table of the monthly fall at Dr. Miller's Mountain Stations in 1844 is 
very much wanted by Mr. Symons. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



209 



Cumberland {continued). 



Station. 



Carlisle (Ilarrabv) 
„ (Scalebyj... 
,, (Scotby) ... 

Cockermouth 



(8 ft.) 

„ (Bridekirk) ... 
„ (Highani) 

(WhinfellHall) 

" it 
Derwentwater (Crow Park)... 
Keswick 



Eleva- 
tion. 



„ (Bassenthwaite Hall) . . . 

,, (Mirehouse) 

Linginell 

Maryport (Tarnbank) 



,, (Broughton Moor) 

Penrith 

„ (Crewgarth) 

„ (Edenhall) 

„ (Greystoke) 

Silloth 

Tirrill 

Whitbeck 

Whitehaven 

„ (Round Close)... 

„ (St.James'Church) 

„ (Bootle) 

„ (Braystones) . . . 

„ (Flosh, Cleator) 



Wigton 



(Holme Rook). 



(Broolcfleld School) 



1 20? 

100 

127 

158 

164 



266 



250 
250 
210? 
300 

225 

230 
410 



28 



90 

4S0 
90 

87 

36 

240 



[30 



Observer. 



J. Atkinson, Esq. .. 
R. A. Allison, Esq.. 
Mr. J. Clark........ 

Dr. Miller 

Dr. Dodgson 

>j 

Rev. J. Carter. 

T. A. Hoskins, Esq 

W. Robinson, Esq. 

H. C. Marshall, Esq 
Mr. Crosthwaite . . . 



Dr. Miller 

T. S. Spedding, Esq, 

Dr. Miller 

I. Fletcher, Esq. ... 



Period. 



Mr. Bird 

J. P. Spedding, Esq 
Mr. Bowstead 



Rev. F. Redford ... 



Rev.T. Ormandy .. 
Dr. Miller 



Rev. A Wilkin 

J. D. Watson, Esq. 
T. Ainsworth, Esq. 

Rev. C. Pratt. 
Rev. R. Matthews 



Belper 

Buxton 

Chapel-en-le-Frith 



R.M.Lidbetter,Esq. 
Derbyshire. 

J. G. Jackson, Esq. 

G-. Drury, Esq 

965 M. S. & L. R. 



„ (Combs House) 

1, ( „ Moss or Ridge) 

,1 ( ,, Reservoir) 

11 ( n „ Soc. gauge) 

Chatsworth 



Chesterfield 



(Brampton) 



Derby 



186."). 



(All Saints Church). 

( Mickleover) 

(Morley) 



1669 
710 
850 

404 

404 
248 



140 

180 

349 



Manchester Memoirs 



Mr. Stewart 

Mr. Taplin 

M. S. & L. R 

Rev. J. M. Mello.. 
J. M. Hewitt, Esq. 
Mr. Swanwick 



J. Davis, Esq. 

Dr. Hitchman. 
Rev. S. Fox. 



1851 
C 1863- 

1851 

1845-50 
C 1861- 
C 1864- 



C 1856- 
C 1829-33 T 
C 1864- 
C 1788-94 

1845- 
C 1865- 

1847-52 

1854- 

1850-53 
C 1863- 
C 1863- 

1849-51 
1851-54 

1850-52 
C 1864- 

1846-51 
C 1855- 

1 845 total only. 
C 1864- 
C 1833-53 

1846-48 

1844-53 T 
C 1863- 
C 1864- 

1844-53, 1855- 
61, 1863 

1845-52 
1854. 
C 1861- 



C 1865- 
1840, 1844-47 
1851-54, 1858- 

1855 ' m p- 

1847, 1851- 

1840,1844-47,1850- 
1844-47 
1777-93 

C 1860-63 

1865- 
1855- 

C 1864- 

1809-35 
1837 

C 184.3- 

C 1862 T 



210 


REPORT — 1865. 
Derbyshire (continued). 






Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




Derby (Ockbrook) 


270 
500 

1500 

300 

1600 

238 

170? 
200? 

939 

1700 

>EV0NSIH 

584 
3i 

40 

"96 
6go 

500 

250 
200 
200 

95° 

900 
1400 
1400 
1596 
1360 
1200 

62 
118 

*95 
146 

180 
184 

i55 

140 

160 

141 

5° 


Rev. M. A. Smelt... 

Rev. C. Newdigate 

Hon. Rev. 0. Forester 

Manchester Memoirs 

P. Arkwright, Esq. 

M. S. & L. R. 

Mr. Windle 


C 1865- 




„ (West Hallam) 


C 1861- 




Glossop (Hillfoot) 


1839, l8 4°> ,8 4* 




(Hurst} 


1842-4 imp. 




( ,, Brook) 

Hathersage (Bamford) 

Hay field (Kinder Scout) 

Matlock (Willersley Castle) 


1839-42 
1839-41 
1839-41 

1858- 


M 




C 1864- 






T. C. Cade, Esq. ... 

Rev. U. Smith 

M. S. & L. R. 
Manchester Memoirs 

RE. 

Miss Trovte 


1864- 




Stoney Middleton 


C 1865- 




Woodhead (Station) 1 


C 1851- 




(Black Clough)... 
I 
Bampton (Huntsham Court) 


1849-51 

1859-62 
C 1857- 




T. Mackrell, Esq.... 
Rev. H. S. Pinder . 

Rev. J. H. Kirwan . 
Rev. J. H. Gossett.. 

J. Divett, Esq 

Mr. Scott 


# 


„ (Bratton Fleming) 

„ (BrauntonLighthouse) 

Bideford (Appledore „ ) 

(Buckish) 


C 1865- 

1855 imp. 

1855 imp. 
C 1865- 




(Northam) 


C 1865- 


+ 




ig52, 1856- 




(Holne) 


1861 




Rev. T. Hullah .... 
F. Sullivan, Esq. 

Mr. H. Matthews... 
Rev. J. Huyshe .... 
C. R. Collins, Esq. .. 

H. Terrell Esq 

H. H. Treby, Esq. .. 
Dr. Roome 


C 1851-56 T 










Buckland Monachoruni 


1857-58, i860 T 


* 
+ 


Chumleigh (Chawleigh) 

„ (Witheridge) 

Collumpton (Bradninch) ... 

(ClystHydon)... 

„ (Strath Culme) .. 

Dartmoor(Burrator,Sheepstor) 

(Lee Moor) 


1857-59 
1855 imp. 
C 1841- 

C 1847- 
C 1864- 

«85 5-58 
C 1860- 


„ (Prison Roof) 

„ ( „ Reservoir) . 
„ (North Hessary Tor) 

., (Prince Town) 

„ (RoughTorConsols) 


C 1853- 


t 
t 


Mr. Watts 


C 1862- 




C 1862- 


Gardener'sChronicle 
P. J. Margary, Esq. 
Mr. T. Lancaster . . . 
Mr. Mould 


1838-40 
1852 


t 




C 1857- 




1852-53 




(Stoke) . 


C 1817-29 T 








1847-58 


4- 


„ (Brampford Speke) . . . 
(High Street) 


W. H. Gamlen, Esq. 
W. H. Ellis, Esq.... 
if • ■• 
G. Kennaway, Esq. 
Mr. Parfitt 


C 1865- 
1860- 






C 1S64- 


4. 




C 1864- 






C 1817- 








I 840-42 


t 




W. Vicary, Esq. ... 

)> ' * ■ 

R. Dymond, Esq. .. 


C 1861-64 T 


t 




C 1860-64 T 


f 




C 1S60- 


t 


„ (St. Thomas) 


C 1814-61 



1 See also Cheshire. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



211 



Devonshire (continued). 



Station. 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



Period. 



t 
*BA. 

t 
t 



BA. 

t 



Exinouth (Bystoke) 

Hartland 

Honiton 

,, (Broadhembury) 

„ (Otterhead) 

(Overday) 

Ivybridge (Torrhill) 

Kentisbury (WestlandPound) 

Kingsbridge (The Knowle).. 

Bedford ( Hex worthy ) 

Milton Abbot (Beckwell) .. 
„ (Edgecumbe) 



„ (Endsleigh) 

Moreton Hampstead (Chag- 

ford) 

Newton Bushel (High Wick) 

North Tawton 

Plvmouth 



„ (Compton Hartley) 
„ (Flora Place) ... 
„ (Whimple Street).. 

(Ham) 

Plyrapton St.M.(Goodamoor) 

(Ridgeway) 

„ (Saltram) ......... 

Sidmouth 



„ (Blackmoor) . . . 

,, (SaleombHillHouse) 
South Molton (Castle Hill).. 

„ (Meshaw) 

South Sydenham 

Tavistock 



„ (Bradstone) 

„ (Library) 

( ., New) 

„ (Mount Tavy) 

Teignmouth 

„ (Westbrook) . . . 

„ (Bishop'sTeignton) 

Tiverton (Cove) 

„ (Hayne) 

Topsham (Clyst St. George).. 

Torquay (Lamorna) 

(Melville) 

(South Town Villa).. 

(Woodfield) 

Torrington (Great) 



280 



600 



240 
930 
H3 



660 

250? 

45° 
30 
30 



94 
580 
116 

96 



30 

74 
150 
472 



273 

61 

5° 
100 
450 
400 

205 



150 
450 



E. Divctt, Esq. 
Rev. T. Chope 



Rev. W. Heberden 

Miss Beadon 

R. T. Abraham, Esq 
J. Widdicomb, Esq 

Mr. Smith 

Mrs. Harris 



Mr. Easterbrook 
H.Clark, Esq. ... 



Mr. Cornelius ... 
R. L. Berry, Esq., 



Dr. Barhani 



Dr. Huxham 

Dr. Farr 

Miss Molesworth , 



Mr. Jeffery 

Rev.C.T.Trelawney 
H. H. Treby.Esq.... 
Miss Phillipps ... 

Mr. Snow 

Dr. Cullen 



Dr. Mackenzie ... 
W. Strahan, Esq. 
A. North, Esq.... 

Mr. Saul 

Rev.W.H.Karslake 



Mr. Windeatt 

Dr. Barram 

Rep. Cor. Pol. Soc. 
Mr. Merrifield 



J. Carpenter, Esq. 
W. C. Lake, Esq. ... 

Miss Clark 

Rev. S. M. Scroggs. 
W.N. Row, Esq. ... 
W. H. Gamlen, Esq 
Rev. H. Ellacombe , 
W. PengeUy, Esq. .. 
T. G. Braden, Esq. 
Rev. C. Maiden ... 

E. Vivian, Esq 

Rev. S. Buckland... 



Dorsetshire. 



Beaminster (Netherbury) ... 

Blandford 

Bridport (The Cedars) 

Cerne Abbas (Melbury House) 



120? 



85 



Rev. C. B. Mount... 

W. Shipp, Esq 

A. Stephens, Esq. ... 
Earl of Ilchester ... 



C 1860-63 T 
C 1864- 

1841 imp. 
C 1837- 
C 1856-63 T 

1862 
C 1857- 

1855 imp. 
C 1857- 
C 1863- 
C 1863 

1860-63 T 

1832 
C 1863- 
C 1862- 

C 1851- 



1826-34, 1838 

1731-35 imp- 

1767-68 

1864- 

1841 imp. 

1864- 

1842- 

1834- 

1857- 

1855- 

(1843-?) 



C 1865- 
C 1864- 
C 1861, 1863- 
C 1851- 
C 1861- 

1858 
1838-42 



1840, 1842 

1844- 

1865- 

1864- 

1860-62 T 

1859- 

1864- 

1862- 

1853-64 T 
C 1865- 
C 1864- 



C 1865 T 

1860-1, 1864 
C 1863- 



C 1857-65 T 
C 1864- 
C1855- 

1852-54 imp. 
q2 



212 



REPORT — 1865. 

Dorsetshire {continued). 



* 
*B.A. 



tB.A. 



Station. 



Dorchester 

(Little Bridy) ... 

(Upwey) 

,, (West Lodge) ... 
„ (Abbotsbury) ... 

Forde Abbey [Chard] 

Gillingham 

Portland (The Grove) 

„ (Breakwater) 

Shaftesbury 

„ (Fontmell Magna"; 
„ (Sutton Waldron) 

Sherborne 

Wareham (Encombe) 

Wimborne (Chalbury) 



Bishopwearmouth 
Darlington 



„ ( Long Newton) . . . 

„ (Dinsdale) 

,, (Raby Castle) ... 

Durham 

(Esk) 

,, (Ushaw College) ... 
Gateshead(BurghfieldGrange) 

Seaham Hall 

Sunderland (Esplanade) 

(Field House) .. 
(HendonHill).. 
(West Hendon) . 



Washington 

Winston (Stubb House) 
Whorlton 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Billericay 

Braintree (Booking) 

Colchester 

„ (BroomHillHouse) 

(Birch Hall) 

(Frating) 

Dunmow 

Eppnig 

Harlow ( Sheering) 

Hedingham Castle 

Ley ton 

Plaistow 

Rochford (Clements Hall) ... 

Romford (Upminster) 

Saffron- Walden (Ashdon) ... 
Witham (Dor wards Hall) ... 



348 

70 



no? 

220 
5* 



120 
150 



Observer. 



J. Jowett, Esq 

II. S Eaton, Esq.... 

J. Miller, Esq 

Mrs. Wyndham . . . 
Earl of Ilchester. 

G. Miles, Esq 

T. Thompson, Esq. 

Dr. Houghton 

J. T. Leather, Esq. 
T. Ackland, Esq. ... 
W. J. Salkeld, Esq. 
Archdeacon Huxt able 

J. Kidd, Esq 

O. W. Farrer, Esq. . 
Rev.G.H.Billington 



Durham. 
130 Dr. Ogden 



140 



339 

600 

68 

100 

"85 
120 
125 
125 
130 
120 
458 



Mr. Richardson ... 

F. H. Dyke, Esq. 
Rev. J. W.Smith... 
Mr. M c Intosh. 

M. R. Dolman, Esq. 
Rev. T. Chevallier . . 
Rev. J. Gillow 

G. Wailes, Esq. ... 
R. Draper, Esq. ... 
Dr. Pyle. 

Rev. G. Iliff 

J. W. Mounsey, Esq, 
T.W.Backhouse.Esq 



J. Watson, Esq. . 
T. Dodgson, Esq. . 
Rev. A. Headlam. 



Essex. 



55? 

80? 
234 
360 
100? 

93 
"25? 

300 
20 



F. Carter, Esq 

S. Tabor, Esq. ....'.. 
Army Med. Corps. 

Capt. Walker 

C. G. Round, Esq. ., 
Rev. R. Duffield ... 
H. E.Cockayne.Esq. 
H. Doubleday, Esq. 

Rev. E.Hill 

L. A. Majendie, Esq. 
J. G. Barclay, Esq. . 
L. Howard, Esq. ... 
A. Holt White. Esq. 
Rev. W. Derham ... 
Rev. J. T. Walker .. 
H. Dixon, Esq 



Gloucestersii ire. 



Period. 



C 1865- 
C.855- 
C 1862- 

1852-53 imp. 

C 1861-64 T 
C 1832- imp. 
C 1851-58 T 
C 1856- 
C 1864- 
C 1864 T imp. 
C 1864 T 
C 1863- 
C i 8 6o- 
C 1865- 



C 1835- 

1734-35 lm P- 
C 1859- 

C 1865- 

1850- 

C 1861- 

1864- 

C 1862- 

1854- 

C 1862- 

C 1859-60 imp. 

C 1860- 

1856-59 

1856-58, i860 

1856- 



C 1865- 
C 1851- 

C 1864- 
C 1S65- 
C 1854-62 T 
C 1851- 
C 1S22- 
C 1863- 

1864- 

1861, 1863 

1806-12 
C 1863- 

1697-1716 
C 1858- 

1847- 



Berkeley 
Bristol .. 



Rev. C. T. Pratt 



C 1865- 

1774-78 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Gloucestershire {continued). 



213 



Station. 



Bristol ( Institution) 

„ (ParkEow) 

„ (Small Street) 

Cheltenham (Charlton Kings) 



„ (Hospital) ... 

Cirencester (Further Barton) 

„ (Royal Aer. Coll. ) 

Clifton 



Frampton-on-Severn (Saul 

Lodge) 

Gloucester ( Ayslum) 

,, (BarnwoodHouse) 

„ (Clarence Street).. 

„ (Gas Works) 

„ (Quedgeley) 

(The Spa) 



„ (Twigworth) 

(Waterworks)... 

„ (Whitcomb Court) 

Stroud (Bedford Street) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



98 

140 
40 



200 
446 

192 

242 

42 
100 

60 



5° 
84 

5° 



Eev. C. T. Pratt . . 
C. W. Bragge, Esq. 

Eev. F. H. Potter . 

Dr. Williams 

Mr. Moss 

Mr. Moon 

T. C. Brown, Esq. . 

W. C. Burder, Esq. 



W. B. Clegram, Esq 

Dr. Williams 

Dr. Wood 

C. J. Fowler, Esq.... 
R. Spinney, Esq. ... 
J. C. Hayward, Esq. 
A. Price, Esq 



W. B. Clegram, Esq. 
Mr. Richardson. 
A. Bubb, Esq. 
J. Bateman, Esq. ... 
Dr. Paine. 



Period. 



1860-61 
C 1859- 
C 1855- 
C 1864- 
C 1864- 

1833-39 

C 1862-63 T 
C 1844- 

C 1853-65 T 
C 1853-65 T 

C 1862- 
1860-62 
1864- 
1858-59 
1837 imp. 
1849- 

C 1860- 

C 1864- 
1858-62 T 



C i°6 S - 



Aldershofc 

,, (25 ft.) 

„ (Bourley) 

Alresford ( Arle Bury) .... 

(New) 

Alton (Newton Valence) 



„ (Medsted) 
Andover 



„ (Abbots Ann) 

(Fyfield) 

Basingstoke (Sherborne) 

„ (Strathfield Turgess) 

Christehurch (Bournemouth) 

(Mudieford House) 

Fareham 

(North Brook)!!! 
Gosport 



Havant ( Leigh Park) 

Isle of Wight (Carisbrook) . . . 

(Newport) 

(Osborne) 

( » ) 

(Parkhurst) 

(Ryde) 

( » ) 

(St. Lawrence) . 

( „ ) 

( Ventnor) 

Lyndhurst 

Petersfield 



Hampshire. 




325 


J. Arnold, Esq 


C 1858 


35° 




C 1864 


370 


E. Shaw, Esq 


1864- 


80? 


F. Marx, Esq 


1862- 




Mr. Fielder 


1861 




Rev. J. White. 






W. Curtis, Esq. 




680 


Rev. M. A. Smelt... 


C 1863-64 T 




Mr. Holt 


C 1785-89 
C 1847-62 T 


*77 


Rev. F. H. White .. 






1784-92 




Rev. C. H. Cholmely 




169 


Rev. C. H. Griffith .. 


1862- 


30? 


Dr. Falls 


1862-63 
1864- 


10 


F. Moser, Esq 


8 


R. Porter, jun., Esq. 


C 1861- 


26 


H. Sharland, Esq.... 


C 1 860- 
1837-40,1842,1856 




J. H. Maverly, Esq. 


1841-42 


40? 


W.H.Stone, Esq.... 


C 1864- 

1847-48 imp. 


24 


J. C. Bloxam, Esq. . . 


1841-56 


172 


J. R. Mann, Esq. ... 


1852-56 imp. 


172 


Army Med. Corps. 


C 1858- 


no 


B. Barrow, Esq. ... 


1860 


'5 


R. Taylor, Esq. ... 


C 1860- 




Rev. C. Maiden 


C 1865- 




W.T.King, Esq. ... 


C 1865- 


150 


Dr. Martin 


C 1840- 
1860, 62, 63 








Dr. Peskett 


C i860- 



214 


REPORT 1865. 

Hampshire (continued). 






Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




Petersfield (Heath Lodge) . . . 

„ ( . ,. ) ... 
(Liss) 


200 
200 

500? 

500? 

20 

74 

92 

230 

«S 

102? 
156 

300? 

112 
... 

EREFORE 
I58 

194 

160 

450 
250? 

700? 
229 
150? 

[ertpori 

370 

250 

90? 

250 
242 

82 
266 

300 

300? 

380? 

200? 
190 


Rev. M. A. Smelt ... 
Rev. H. Haigh .... 
G. E. Coryton, Esq. 
Army Med. Corps. 
Gilbert White, Esq. 
T.Bell, Esq 


C 1857-63 T 
C 1864- 
1853- 










Selborne (The Wakes) 


C 1780-93 T 




( „ ) 


C 1851- 
C 1848-61 




Southampton (Gas Works)... 
(O.S.O.) 

( ,, ) 

(Bassett Wood) 
(Cadland) 
„ (Eling House) 
(Netlev) 


Mr. Sharp 


* 


Col. Sir H. James. . . 

J. Bullar, Esq. , 
E. Drummond, Esq. 
W. C.Spooner,Esq. 
Army Med. Corps . . . 
R.C.Hankinson,Esq. 

Mr. Sharp 

Rev. S. M. Scroggs . 
Rev. W. W. Spicer . 
J. B. Yonge, Esq.... 
Army Med. Corps. 

SHIRE. 

E. J. Isbell, Esq. ... 

W. Cook. Esq 

T.Curley, Esq 

A. Thompson, Esq. . 
H. Lawson, Esq, . . . 
J. Pendergrass, Esq. 
Rev. H. C. Key 
R.R.Boddington,Esq. 
Rev. T.S.Hewitt... 
E. P. Southall, Esq. 
J. M. Herbert, Esq. 

SHIRE. 

W. Squire, Esq. . . . 
Rev. A.P. Sanderson 

T. Jones, Esq. 

W. C. Baker, Esq. . 
Rev. R. P. Davies . 

W. Lucas, Esq 

N. Beardmore, Esq. 
H. Wortham, Esq. . 
Mr. Bogue 


1855- 

1855- 

C 1865- 

(1863-) 

1848- 




„ (Shirley Warren) 

Winchester (Gas Works) 

(Hurslev) 


1862- 
C 1842-47 T 
C 1861-63 T 




„ (Itchen Abbas)... 
„ (Otterbourne) ... 


1850-62 
1864- 


* 


B 

Hereford (Blue School) 

(EignHill) 


C 1863- 
C 1864- 
C 1864- 

1858, 1861-3. 

18-16-4.1 


* 


„ (Broomy Hill) . . . 








„ (Pool Cottage) ... 
( Stretton) 


C 1818-43 T 
1860- 




Kington (Titley or Burches) . 


C 1841-52 
1861- 




„ (West Lodge) ... 


C 1857- 

1852 

1856-57 imp. 
C 1848- 
C 1865- 

1852, 1854-56 

C1833- 
C 1864 
C 1859- 
C 1864- 

1850- 
1861- 

C 1842- 

CI853- 

1852-55, 1859 

1864- 

1787-91 

1854, 56-59 T 
1818-20 imp. 
1820 imp. 
C 1861- 




I 

Ba 1 dock (Hinxworth) 




Berkhampstead 




Buntingford ( Aspeden ) 

Chipping Barnet (Totteridge 

Park). 
Hatfield House 




Henielhempstead(Nash Mills) 
„ (Kensworth) 

Hertford (Bayfordbury) 

(Parkeate) 




Hitchin 




Hoddesdon (Fields Weir) . . . 




St. Albans (Gorhambury) ... 

„ (Rothamstead) . . . 

( „ small gauge) 

Stevenage 




J. B. Lawes, Esq.... 

C. B. Pearson, Esq. 
J. B. Denton, Esq. . 

R. Littleboy, Esq. . 
Capt. Beaufoy 

»» 

D. Carnegie, Esq. . 
R. Littleboy, Esq. . 
R. Clutterbuck, Esq 
C. Trueman, Esq. 




„ (Woodfield) 








,, (Bushey Heath) ... 
( „ Roof) 




(Eastburv) 




„ (Hunton Bridge) . . . 

„ (Watford House) ... 

Welwyn (The Hall) 


C 1 860-64 T 
C 1857- 






ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 
Huntingdonshire. 



215 



Station. 



Conington Rect. [Peterboro] 
Huntingdon (Ramsey) ... 

„ (Wistow) 

Kimbolton (Hamerton) ... 

St. Ives (Earith) 

St. Neots (Tetworth) 

„ ( WarSsley) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Bexley Heath (Danson Hall). 

(Welling) 

Canterbury 

,, (Chartham) 

„ (Patrixbourne) 

Chatham 

Chislehurst 

Crossness 

Dover 



„ (Castle Keep) 

„ (Castle Street) 

Edenbridge(NewFalconhurst) 

Greenwich 

„ (Observatory) 

„ ( „ , various gauges) 

Hythe 

„ (Horton Park) 

„ (Saltwood) 

Lamberhurst (Court Lodge) . 
„ (Scotney Castle) 

Lewisham 

Maidstone 

„ (FantRoad) ... 



Margate (Acol) 

,, (R. Sea-B. Infirmary) 
Ramsgate (Trafalgar Place) . 



Sandgate 

Seven Oaks (River Head) ... 

(River Hill) 

Sheerness 

Shorncliffe 

Staplehurst (Hunton Court) . 

,, (Linton Park)... 

Tunbridge 



Wells 

Walmer 

Westerham (Chartwell) 
West Wickham 



Woolwich . 



170 



Observer. 



Rev. G. Heathcote . 

Lady Bayning 

Rev. T.Woodruff... 
Rev. A. P. Stopford 

Mr. Brown 

H. M.Kaye, Esq. ... 
Rev.W.M.H.Elwyn. 



Kent. 



150 



97 



512 
16 

400 

'55 

280? 
200? 

60 

60 
25 

25 
520 



200? 
125 

80 

400 
300 
500? 



Mr. H. Johnston. 
H. S. Wollaston, Esq. 
Army Med. Corps. 
C. J. Drew, Esq. . . 
Rev. M. A. Smelt... 
Army Med. Corps. 

J.W.Bazalgette.Esq. 
Army Med. Corps. 

Mr. Mantell 

H. J. Poulter, Esq. 

J. G. Talbot, Esq. . 
W. Rogerson, Esq. . 
J. Glaisher, Esq. . . . 

H. Mackeson, Esq. 
J. Kirkpatrick, Esq. 
G. S. Court, Esq. 
W.C. Morland, Esq 

E. Hussey, Esq. . . . 
J. Glaisher, Esq. 

F. Dobell, Esq 

J. H.Baverstock, Esq. 

Dr. Fielding 

E. S. Lendon, Esq. . 
V. W. Maude, Esq. . 
C. J. Fowler, Esq. . 
R. Cramp, Esq. 
T. Du Boulay, Esq. 
Rev. J. B. Murdoch 
J. T. Rogers, Esq. . 
Army Med. Corps. 



Mr. P. Goddard 
Mr. J. Robson . . 
Dr. Fie:ding 



Army Med. Corps. 
J. C. Colquhoun, Esq. 
Rev. J. T. Austen... 
W. Steuart, Esq. ... 
Army Med. Corps. 



Lancashire. 



Blackpool (South Shore) 

Bolton-le-Moors (The Folds) 

„ (Belmont)... 

„ ( „ Old Lyons) 



29 
286 
800 



G. Sharpies, Esq. .., 
H. H. Watson, Esq. 
H. Baylis, Esq 



Period. 



1864- 

1836-42 imp. 
C 1864- 
C 1853- 

1862-63 

1862- 
C 1863- 



1852- 

1864- 
C 1855-56 T 

1729-30, 1731-35 
C 1864- 

1789-93 imp, 

1863- 

1859-61, 1864- 

1864- 

1833,1838-51 
C 1815- 
Various. 

C 1858- 

C 1862- 
1862- imp, 

1856- 
C ,857- 
C 1848-57 T 
C 1864- 
C 1864- 

1860 imp, 

C 1864- 

C 1865- 

1860- 



1858- 

C 1855- 

C 1857- 
1840, 1848-49 
1840-43 imp. 

C 1862- 
C 1848- 
C 1861- 



C855- 
1831- 

C 1X^3- 
1844 



216 



REPORT 1805. 



Lancashire (continued). 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




Bolton-le-Moors (Heaton) ... 
,, (Vale Bank) 
Broughton in Furness. 
Burnley ( Townley) 


500 

300 

450 

3i3 
320 

170 
88 
60 

25 
155 

474 
150 

"34? 
600 

455 
30 

114 
120 

82 
103 

23 
5 2 

194 

130 

324 
"5 
312 
320 
263 

106 
104 
295 


H. Baylis, Esq 

J. Watkins, Esq. ... 

R. Townley, Esq.... 

W. Wanklyn, Esq. . 

T. Norris, Esq 

T.R. Croasdale, Esq. 

T. Norris, Esq 

J. B Binyon, Esq. . 
Mr. Nash 


C .859- 
C 1863- 

1677-86,1689-93, 

1697-1703 

1861-63 

1830-45 T 
1861, 1863 
1797-1801 
1861-63 
C 1860- 












(Rock Street) 






t 

t 


Cartmel (Pit Farm) 


(Allithwaite) 


(Aynesome) 


H. Remington, Esq. 
D. Ainsworth, Esq. 
A. Beardsley, Esq. . 
Mr. Wilson . 


C 1854- 

1864- 

C 1849- 
C 1855- 

1850- 
C 1865- 

1854 imp. 

i853-57 
C 1860-62 T 




„ (Back barrow) 


t 
t 


(Holker) 


Clitheroe (Downhani Hall)... 


R. Assheton, Esq 

J. G. Marshall, Esq. 
R. J. Bywater, Esq. 

Rev. W. Dawson . . . 
J. Hill, Esq 










(Rampside) 




Grarstang (Blcasedale) 




,, (Vale House) 


J. Jackson, Esq. ... 

Rev. A. Christopher- 
Bon 


C 1863- 

1800-02, 1804-17 








(South Road) 
(Caton) 


C 1849-51 T 
1861- 


t 


W. Roper, Esq. ... 
Rev. A. Christopher- 
son 




„ (Hest Bank ) 


C 1852- 

1860-63 

1864- 

1784-93 

1826 imp. 

1845 

1775-1792 

1842 

1861-63 T 

1840-41 
C 1864- 

1846- 

1860 T 
C 1791-1801 

1838 imp. 

1802-04 

1784-92, totals. 

1808-10 




R. B. Peacock, Esq. 
C.H.Lethbridge.Esq. 
Dr. Campbell 

Mr. Hutchinson ... 
W. Lassell, Esq. ... 
W. Lassell, jun.,Esq. 

Mr. Abrahams 

J. Hartnup, Esq. ... 

W. Lassell, Esq. ... 
Mr. Holt 




„ (Hornby Castle) ... 




Liverpool 








(Dock Offices) 
„ (Starfield) 




,, (Brook) 




„ (Observatory) 

( ,, ) 




(SandfieldPark) ... 
„ (Walton) 






Nicholson's Journal 
Dr.Dalton 












Manchester 






1794-1840 
1830-53 T 
1850- 
C 1853- 
1S25-39T 

1854- 
C 1861- 




„ (Market Street) . . . 
(Piccadilly) 


J. Casartelli, Esq 

M. S. & L. R. 

J. Casartelli, Esq 

L. Bucham, Esq. ... 

J. F. Bateman, Esq. 
T. Mackereth, Esq. 
M. S.&L.R 

J. F. Bateman, Esq. 

G. Lloyd, Esq 

G. V. Vernon, Esq. 

J. Curtis, Esq 

W. Horrocks, Esq. 




,, (Ardwick) 




■i ( » Green) 

,, (Crumpsal). 

„ (Denton) 




(Eccles) 




(Fairfield) 


1840, 1845-47,1851- 
1845-47 
1854- 

1765-69 
1850- 
C 1862- 

1860- 




„ ( „ Soc. Gauge) 
„ (Gorton) 




,, (Holme) 


t 
t 


(Old Trafford) ... 
,. ( » ) 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



217 



Lancashire (continued). 



Station. 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



Period. 



Manchester (Rhodes Wood). 

„ (Sale) 

,, (Salford) 

Middletou ( Slattocks) 

„ ( „ Soc. gauge).. 
Oldham (Brushes Clough) . . 

,, (Gas Works) 

(Royton) 

.. ( .. ) 

,, (Strines Dale) 

„ (Waterhouses) .. 

Ormskirk (Rufford) 

Preston (Fish wick) 

„ (Holme Slack) 

„ (Howick) 

„ (House of Correction) 
.. ( ., ) 



Eadcliffe (Mount Sion) .... 

Rochdale 

„ (Castleton Moor) . 
ii ( ., Exp. gauges) 

(Castle Hill) 

„ (Heywood W. W. Res.) 

„ (Moss Lock) 

( „ Soc. gauge) 



Southport (Virginia Farm).. 

Todds Brook 

Ulverston 



Waith Sutton 

Warrington 

(Penketh School) 

„ (Winwick) 

„ (Walton Lea) ... 

Whalley (Stonyhurst) 

Wigan (Waterworks Resery.) 

„ (Standish) 

Windermere ( Fell Foot) 

„ (Wray Castle) ...! 
Yealand [Burton on Kendal].' 



520 
134 

45° 
450 
950 
600 
484 
480 
800 

345 

38 

i54 

H3 

72 
140 
187 

250 

475 

500 
900 
500 
500 



620 
98 



33 



381 
225 
300 

250 



J. F. Bateman, Esq 

J. Curtis, Esq 

Mr. Walker 

Manchester Mem. . . 



J. Taylor, Esq. . 
Mr. Heap 



J. Taylor, Esq. .. 

M.S. &L.R 

J. Porter, Esq. . . 
T. Oddie, Esq. .. 
J. Newton, Esq. 
T. Norris, Esq. .. 
Mr. Hesketh 



Army Med. Corps. 

H. Eaton, Esq 

M.S.&L.R 

Rev. J. C. Bates . 

Mr. Ecroyd 

C. E. Cawley, Esq. 
Manchester Mem. 



R. Stokes, Esq 

Manchester Mem... 
J. H. Matthews, Esq 



Manchester Mem. . . . 
T. G. Rylands, Esq. 
L. J. Reynolds, Esq. 
E. Rothwell, Esq. . . . 
G. Crosfield, Esq. 
Rev. W. Sidgrcaves 
J. L. Hunter, Esq. . 

»» 
Manchester Mem. . . . 
Dr. Dawson 



Leicestershire. 



Appleby School 

Bel voir Castle [Grantham] 

Leicester (Museum) 

(Hotel Street) ... 
Loughborough (Emanl.Rect.) 

,, (Belton) 

(Rothley) 

„ (Woodhouse).. 

Market Harbro' (Fleckney).. 

Melton Mowbray 

(DalbyHall) 

(Waltham) 

Owston [Oakham] 

Thornton (Reservoir) 

,, (Vicarage) 

Wigston Grange 



34° 
237 

220? 
150? 

300? 
210 



54o? 
580? 
420? 
500? 
220 



Rev. B. F. Falkner 
W. Ingram, Esq. .. 

J. Payne, Esq 

H. Bi'llson, Esq. .. 
Rev. R.J. Bunch... 

Rev. R. Dalby 

Rev. R. Burton ... 

Rev. J. Hiley 

J. B. Putt, Esq. ... 
Rev. C. A. Holmes 
E. B. Hartopp, Esq. 
Rev. G. E. Gillett... 

Miss Gilford 

J. Bevins, Esq 

Rev. R. S.Adams... 
T. Burgess, Esq. . . . 



1855- 

1855-61 T 

1786-93 

1833-40,1845-47 

1844 

1861- 

1860- 

1836- 
C 1865- 

1859- 
1845-47,1850- imp. 
C 1847- 
C 1850- 
C 1861- 
C 1845- 
C 1849- 
C 1848- 

1862- 
1863- 

C 1863- 

Various. 

1832-47 
C 1848- 

1825-40, 1844-47 

1844, 1846, 1847 

1843 
C 1861-63 T 

1847 
C 1864- 

1852-58 imp. 

17S9-93 

1849-55 
C 1S65- 

1 844 imp. 

C 1846- 
C 1863- 
C 1858- 

1788-91 
C 1849- 

1826 imp. 



C 1864- 

1855- 

1856-63 imp. 
C1861- . 
C 1S61- 
C 1863- 
C1860- 
C j86 5 - 
C 1863- 
C 1861- 
C 1863- 
C 1860- 
C 1864- 
C ,855- 
C 1857 T imp. 
c i 8 35-43. 1845- 



218 



REPORT — 1865. 
Lincolnshire. 



Station. 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



Period. 



*t 
t 



Boston 

») 
Brigg 



(Appleby Hall) 

( „ Vicarage)... 

„ (Barnetby) 

„ (Ferriby) 

( „ Sluice) 

Gainsborough (Belmont Ho.) 



Grantham . 



(Grate Burton) . 
(Stockwith) .... 



Grimsby 

Horncastle (Vicarage) 



„ (Minting Vicarage) 

Lincoln 

„ (Coleby) 

Market Deeping (Greatford 

Hall) 

„ (Wytham on the Hill) 

,. ( » ) 
Market Rasen 

New Holland 

Sleaford 



„ (Heydour Vicarage) 
„ (South Kyme) 

Spilsby (Welton-le-Marsh) . . 

Stubton [Newark] 

Wainfleet (Croft) 



Camden Town 

Chiswick 

Colney Hatch 
Edmonton ... 



(Lower) 

Enfield (Back Hill).. 

„ (Vicarage) . . 

Finchley Eoad 



10 
10 
16 



Si 

"38 
76 
96 
21 

179 

42 



26 
100? 



100 
18 

5* 
46 



80? 



Dr. Adam 

W.Veall, Esq 

M. S. &L.E 

Mr, Usher 

Rev. J. E. Cross . . 

M.S.&L.E 

Nicholson's Journ. 

Mr. Smith 

T.Dyson, Esq 

M.S.&L.E 



J. TV. Jeans. Esq.... 

Mr. Eead 

M.S.&L.E 

Eev. W. H. Milner 
Nicholson's Journ. 
Eev. F. Bashforth. 

M. S. &L.E 

Eev. T. T. Penrose 



Capt. Peacock ... 
Gen. Johnson . . . 
A. C. Johnson, Esq. 
M.S.&L.E. ... 



Mr.B. Heald ... 
Eev. H. S. Neucatre 
Eev. Gordon Deedes 
Eev. H. S. Neucatre 
Eev. A. Wright... 
G. Nevile, Esq.... 
Eev. A. Wright. . . 



C 1864- 

1830-56, 1860-64 
C 1859- 

1849-55 

1858- 
C 1859- 

i8c8-io 
C 1860- 
C 1851- 
C 1859- 

1860- 

1855- 
C 1851- 

1851 
C 1859- 
C 1863- 

1808-10 

C 1859- 

1855-61 

1860- 
C 1820-62 T 
C 1864- 
C 1859- 
C 1859- 

1864- 

1826-39 T 
C 1865- 
C 1840- 
C 1864- 
C 1862- 

1862- 



Hackney 

Hammersmith 

Hampstead 

Harrow-on-the-Hill 

Highgate 

London (Bryanstone Square) 
(Chiswell Street) ... 

„ (Crane Court) 

„ (Gray's Inn Eoad)... 

„ (Guildhall) 

., ( „ ) 

„ (Hatton Garden) ... 

„ (Mile End) 

(OffordEoad) 



Middlesex. 




100 


G. J. Svmons, Esq. 


C 1858- 




Eoyal Hort. Soc. . . . 


1825- 




E. G.Rose, Esq. ... 


1857- 




C. H. Adams, Esq. 


1792-96 






1 8 1 1 , 181 6-40 






C 1860- 


89 


W. Mylne, Esq. ... 


1864- 


no 


Eev. J. M. Heath.... 


1849- 


270 


G.W. Moon, Esq.... 


C 1860-61 T 


306 




C 1860-61 T 


40 
12 


Dr. Tripe 


1856-58, 1860- 
1856-58, 1860- 


F. J. Burge, Esq.... 


360 


E. Field, Esq 


C 1862- 


375? 
394 


Dr Hewlett 


1864- 
C 1862- 


J. Cutbush, Esq. ... 


93 


C. 0. F. Cator, Esq. 


1861- 




W. Fletcher, Esq.... 


1850-59, 1861- 




Eoy. Soc. Trans. ... 


1729-35 


55 


Mr. Strachan 


C 1862 T 


5° 


W. Haywood, Esq. 


C 1857- 


123 


,, 


C1857- 




Mr. B.C. Woods... 


1838 imp. 




F.Charrington, Esq. 


C 1862- 


90 


Mr. Strachan 


C 1864- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



219 



Middlesex {continued). 



Station. 



London, (Somerset House) ... 

,, (Spring Gardens) ... 

„ ( ,. )••■ 

,, ( „ )••■ 

„ (Temple Bar) 

„ (WestminsterAbbey) 

„ ( „ House) 

„ ( „ Garden) 

(Whitehall) 



NottingHill 

Paddington 

Poplar 

St. John's Wood (Lit. Soc.)... 
„ (Melina Place) 

Spring Grove 

Tottenham (Vicarage) 



„ (Lordship Lane) 
Twickenham (Observatory) . . . 
Usbridge (Harefield Park) . . . 
Winchmore Hill 



Eleva- 
tion. 



150 

36 
95 
95 



65? 

25? 



25 
161 



70 
60 
24 



Observer. 



Philos. Trans. 



J.W.Bazalgette,Esq. 



Bent's Met. Jour. 
Dr. Heberden ... 



J. C. Haile, Esq. .. 
Nicholson's Journ. 



Lady Bayning 

S. B. Blunt, Esq. ... 

Mr. Gaster 

H. J. Montague, Esq 

G Leach, Esq 

T. E. Wyatt.Esq.... 
Rev. J. S. Winter... 

Fowler 

W. D. Howard, Esq 

A. Wiss, Esq 

W. Vernon, Esq. ... 
Mrs. Feltham 



Period. 



Monmouthshire. 



Abergavenny 

Chepstow 

Monmouth 

Newport (Abercarn) 

„ (Glanusk Park) ... 

„ (Isca Foundry) 

„ (Llanfrechfa Grange) 
Tredegar (Blaina) 



5° 
160 



360 
1 1 00 



Dr. M'Cullough 
J. G. Wood, Esq. 



Rev. D. Charles .. 
Sir J. Bailey, Bart. 
J. Laybourne, Esq. 
F. J. Mitchell, Esq. 
H. Soper, Esq 



Norfolk. 



Acle .... 
Cromer 
Diss .... 



, , (Dickleborough) 

Downham Market (Bexwell) 

„ ,, (Fincham) 

East Dereham (Mattishall)... 

Hunstanton 

Lynn (Hillington) 

Norwich 

(Grey Friars) 



(Institution) 

(Carron House) .. 
(Clench wharton) .. 

(Cossey) 

(Felthorpe) 

(Hiverland) 

(Honingham) 

(Stoke Holy Cross) 
(Thorpe) 



no 


180 


60? 


'55 
60 


5° 


100 


... 


no 


... 



Rev. R. W. Kerrison 
— Ccoper, Esq. 
Dr. Stewart 



Rev. E. J. Howman 

Rev. W. Blyth 

Rev. J. M. Du Port 

Mr. Rippingale 

Rev. H. Ffolkes .. 

Philos. Trans 

W. Brooke, Esq. .. 
C. Evans, Esq. 
W. Brooke, Esq. .. 
J. J. Colman, Esq. 

Rev. F. Currie 

H. Culley, Esq. .. 
— Fellowes, Esq... 
Lady Bayning 



J. J. Colman, Esq. 
W. Birkbeck, Esq. 



1774-81 

1812-27 

1863 

1863 

1863 

1795 
1766 
1766— 
1766- 

C 1854- 
1808 
1817 
1836- 

C 1865 

1854 

C 1862- 

1857- 

1852- 
C 1864 
C 1861- 
1842- 
1847 
C 1863- 
C 1864- 
C 1858- 



1787-1809, 
, 1 829-42 T 



1S07 
67 imp. 
67 imp. 
67 imp. 
60 
10 
21 
42 imp. 

56 
63 T 

57 i m P- 

62 T 
45- 



C 1863- 
C 1861- 

1859 
C 1864- 

C 1865- 
C 1865- 
C 1863- 



C 1865- 
C 1860- 

1862-63 

1 840 imp. 
1864- 
1864- 
1863- 
1856- 
1865- 
1749-62 
C 1836- 



1861-62, 1864. 

1853-59 
1862- 
1848-55 
1835-42 imp. 
1843- 



220 



REPORT 1865. 



Norfolk (continued). 



Station. 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



Period. 



*£.A. 
*B.A. 



t 



Reepham 

Swaffham 

Thetford 75 

(Watton) , 

Wells (Burnham) j 102 

(Egmere) 1 150 



(Holkham) 



T. Aldate, Esq 

C. J. Drury, Esq. , 

Dr. Bailey 

Mr. Martin 

H. E. Blyth Esq.. 
B. Overman, Esq.. 



( 



) 



39 I J. Davidson, Esq. 
43 



Northamptonshire. 



Brackley , 

Kettering 

Northampton 

„ (Althorpe House) 

( „ ) 

(Holdenby) 

,, (Yardley Hastings) 

Oundle 

,, (Southwick) 

Peterborough (Marholm) ... 

Potterspurv[StoneyStratf'ordj 

Towcester (Blakesley) 

Wansford (Kings Cliff) 

Weedon Beck 

Wellingborough 



398 



310 

180? 
124 



Eev. B. F. Falkner 

J. Wallis, Esq 

Mr. Ellick 

Mr. Jakeman 



Rev.C.H.Hartshome C 

Rev. E. W. Prichard C 

Mr. Ellick j C 

G. Lynne, Esq ' 

Rev. R.S.C. Blacker C 

Rev. R. E. Crawley C 

Rev. F. H.White... C 
M. J. B. 
Rev. J. S. Winter.. 



Allenheads [Alston] 

( .. ) 

( ., ) 

Alnwick (Glanton Pike) 

„ (High House) 

„ (Howick) 

,, (Roddam) 

Bellingham (Hesleyside) 

,, (Otterbourn) ... 

Berwick (Cheswick) 

By well 

Deadwater,55°17'N.2°38 , W. 

Hexham (Bingfield) 

, , (Newborough) 

,, (Ovingham). 

,, (Parkend) 

Morpeth (Brenckburn Priory) 

„ (Cresswell) 

„ ( Widdrington ) 

Newcastle-on-Tyne (O. S. O.) 

,, (Institution) 

„ (Stamfordham)... 

11 ( H Church) 

„ (West Denton)... 

(Wylam) 

/'(Camphill) 

(Fawcett) 

(Green Crag) ... 

■{ (Hallington) 

(Vallcv N. Tyne) 

(Whittle Dean)... 

v (Woodford) 



M. Sharman, Esq. . . 
Northumberland. 

Rev. W. Walton .. 
T.J. Bewick, Esq... 



-a 
u 
o 

& 



1400 

1369 

'375 

534 

400 

120 

545 
420 

95 
87 

410? 



277 
200? 



187 

400 

250 
96 



400 



380 



F.Collingwood, Esq 

Mr. Scott 

Earl Grey 

Mrs. Roddam 

W.H.Charlton, Esq. 
Rev. T. Wearing ... 
J. D. Selby, Esq. ... 

Mr. Dawson 

Mr. Scott 

Capt. Orde 

Rev. H. Wastell ... 

M. A. Ridley, Esq. 
C. H. Cadogan, Esq, 
B. Cresswell, Esq. 



Lieut. Sit well 

W. Lyall, Esq 

Rev. J. F. Bigge ... 

G. C. Atkinson, Esq. 

D. D. Main, Esq. ... 



1865- 

1865- 

1840-63 T 

1865- 

1S40- 

1853- 

1848- 

j86o- 



S64T 

863- 

863- 

841- 
827 
864- 
862- 

860-62 T 
726-39 
859-62 T 
865- 
824-46 T 

864- 
840 imp. 
860- 



841-43 

854- 

852- 

862- 

860- 

864- 

861- 

863- 

865- 

842,1 845~49imp 

855- 

862- 

864- 
821-24 

846-52, 1860- 
864- 

722-23 imp. 

852, 1856-62 T 

865- 

854- 

865- 

845-52 T 

854- 

864- 

864- 

864- 

864- 

864- 

864- 

864- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



221 



Northumberland {continued). 



Station. 



North Shields (Eosella Place) 

( » ) 

„ (Low Lights) 

„ (Tynemouth) 

(Wallsend) ... 
(Whitley) ... 

Shotley 

Wooler (Lilburn Tower) 

„ (Middleton Hall) 

„ (Millfield) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



120 

124 

20 

61 

100 

83 
309 
290 
240 
200 



Observer. 



R. Spence, Esq. .. 

J. R. Proctor, Esq. 
P. J. Messent, Esq. 
R. R. Deas, Esq. ... 
Rev. R. F. Wheeler 

Mr. Routledge 

E. J. Collingwood... 
J. T. Leather, Esq. 
G-. A. Grey, Fsq. 



Nottinghamshire. 



Nottingham 

„ (Beeston Observatory) 
„ ( „ Meadow) ... 

„ (Bromley House) 

„ (Highfield „ ) ... 

»> ( >> " ) 

„ (West Bridgeford) ... 
Retford 

» (East) 

„ (West) .'.. 

Southwell 

,, (Oxton) 

Worksop 

(Welbeck) 



162 
184 

52 

5° 

5° 

200 

127 



Nicholson's Journ. 
E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Mr. W. Barker 

R.N.Harris, Esq.... 
E. J. Lowe, Esq. ... 

>» 
Nicholson's Journ. 

M. S. &L. R 

J. S. Piercey, Esq. 
Rev. D. Butterfield 
W. W. P. Clay, Esq. 
H. Sherbrook, Esq. 

M. S. &L. R 

Mr. Tillery 



Oxfordshire. 



Banbury 



(High Street) 



„ (Grimsbury) 

„ (Neithrop)' 

Bicester 

„ (Heyford Warren) ... 

,, (Stratton Audley) ... 

Chipping Norton (Kingham) 

Enstone (Radford) 

Henley-on-Thames 

Oxford (Radcliffe Observatory ) 
•• ( i> ,1 ) 
" v » i» ) 
» ( " >i ) 
„ (Rosehill) 



340 
345 

320 
470 
220 



270 

83 
234 

210 



J. Jarvis, Esq 

T. Beesley, Esq. ... 

W. Johnson, Esq 

T. Beesley, Esq. ... 

f J 

W. Johnson, Esq... 
Rev. C. B. Muunt... 

G. Glen, Esq 

Rev. J.W. Lockwoud 
Rev. E. W. Winter 
T. F. A. Byles, Esq. 
Rev. R. Main 



Rev. J. Slatter 



Oakham (Enipingham) 



Rutlandshire. 

Mr. Fancourt 



(Lyndon) 
(Ryhall) 



Burford [Tenbury] 

Church Stretton (Acton Scott^ 



J. » (Longnor)... 

i. ,, (Woolstaston) 

Cleobury Mortimer (Mawley 

Gardens) 



T. Barker, Esq.... 
Rev. C. Potchett 



Shropshire. 

Lord Northwick 



Rev. D. Carr. 
Mr. Hunter. 



Period. 



1S56-58 

1860- 

1862- 

1864- 

1863- 

1864- 

1859- 

1860- 

1864- 

1864- 



1808-10 

C 1861- 

1836, 1839 imp. 

1860- 

1860- 

1808-09 
C1855- 

1860- 
C 1858- 
C 1844- 

1862- 
C 1855- 

1840- 



1850-63 
C 1851-57, 1860- 
C 1861- 

1862 imp. 

1862 
C 1853-60 T 
C 1865- 
C 1865- 
C 1865- 
C 1863- 
C 1864- 
C 1815- 

1851- 



C 1848-61 T 



1828,1833,1836-41 
1844-61 
1736-94 
1865- 



1847- 

1852-53 imp. 
1852 imp. 
1852 
C 1865- 



222 



REPOKT 1805. 





Shropshire {continued). 






Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




Cleobury Mortimer (Mawley 
T Farm) 


600 

1000 

47i 

430 

450 

400? 

192 

200 




C 1862-64 T 






Bev. J. B. James . . . 
Eev. A. E. Lloyd... 

Miss Elwell 


1852- 






1856- 




„ (Whittington) 

Shifnal (Badger) 


1852 imp. 




fFvelith") 


1863- 




„ (Haughton Hall) 

„ ( „ Vicarage) 


H. C. Marshall, Esq. 
T. Howells, Esq. ... 
Eev. B. Banning ... 
Eev. J. E. Yeadon. . . 


C 1847- 
C 1835-46 T 
1860- 




(Highfield) 


1860- 
C 1865- 


*B.A. 




1864- 



Somersetshire. 



Axbridge (Sidcot) 

Barrow Gurney Eeservoir . 
Bath (Larkhall) 

„ (Axford Buildings) . . . . 

„ (Batheaston) 

„ (Hospital) 

„ (Swainswick) 

„ (Literary Institution). 

„ (Weston) 

Bridgewater 



Brislington (Bristol] ... 
Burnham (Highbridge) 

Chard (Tudbeer) 

Frome (Beckington) ... 
„ (Mells) 



„ (North Hill) 

Glastonbury (Street) 

( .. ) • 

Harptree (Sherborne Eeserv.) 

Ilchester 

Ilminster (South Petherton) 

Langport (Long Sutton) 

Minehead 

Eadstock (Eectory ) 

,, (Downside College) 

Shepton Mallet (Doulting).. 
Taunton (College School) . . 

„ (Fulland's School) 

„ (Paul's House) 

,, (Wey House) 

Watchet (Kilton) 

Welhngton (Foxdown) 

Wells (Dinder) 

Weston-super-Mare 

Wiveliscombe 



250 
310 

150 

226 

56 



198 

45 
181 



265 

300 



100 
100 
360 

30 

150 

250 
601 



38 

40 



140 
8 



H. Dymond, Esq... 
C. W. Bragge, Esq. 

C. S. Barter, Esq... 
A. Mitchell, Esq. . . 
C. S.- Barter, Esq... 

Eev. F. Lockey 

C. P. Eussell, Esq. 



A. Haviland, Esq. . . 
Dr. C.J. Fox 



Mr. Hull 



Mr. Eaynes 

Eev. J. Horner 

Mr. Boycott 

Mr. W. S. Clark ... 

Mr. J. Clark 

C. W. Bragge, Esq. 
J. W. Bourne, Esq.. 

W.Blake, Esq 

E. Palmer, Esq. ... 
Mr. Atkins 



Eev. T. B. Snow 



Eev. W. Tuckwell 

W. Eeid, Esq 

Dr. Gillett 

F. H. Cator, Esq.... 

Mr. Govett 

W. Elworthy, Esq. 
Eev.T.J.Bumpstead 

Mr. Boycott 

B. Boucher, Esq — 



854- 

855- 

841-43 imp. 

855-61 T 

862- 

862- 

834- 

862- 

767-69 

860 T 

848- 

S55 imp. 

859- 

845-48 

852-62 

865- 

859-63 T 

860-62 

861- 

855- 

863- 

864- 

856- 

782 

1841) 

863- 

855 imp. 

865- 

865- 

855- 

864- 

831-58 

865- 

863- 

863- 

864- 



Staffordshire. 



Dudley (Abberley Street) 
„ (Brierley Hill) .. 
Knypersley [Congleton] . . 
Leek (Church Lane) 



560 
500 
59 1 



H. B.Biden, Esq... 



J. Forbes, Esq. 
Mr. Farrow ... 



C 1865- 
C 1861-64 T 

1863- 

1856- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



223 





Staffordshire 


{continued). 






Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 






500 
350? 

440 
55° 

500 

47° 
521 

400 
S3 1 

S3i 

553 


J. Forbes, Esq 

Eev. Sir C. P. Ligh- 


1863- 










C 1864- 








,, (Etruria)... 

„ (Stanley)... 
Uttoxeter (High Wood) 
Wincle [Macclesfield] 


J. Forbes, Esq, 

J. F. Bell, Esq 

J. Forbes, Esq 

H. Ward, Esq 
W.H.Ford, Esq.... 
T. W. Gifford, Esq. 
Rev. B. S. Maiden 
Lord Wrottesley ... 

»» 


1863- 
1863- 
1864- 
1864- 
1860- 
1863- 

1864- 
1858 

1859- 
1843- 




Wolverhampton (Oaklands) 
(Goldthorne Hill) 

(Patshull) 




„ (WrottesleyObserv.) 

„ ( „ mean of 

two gauges) 

„ ( „ Osier's gau.) 



Suffolk. 



Brome [Diss] 

Bury St. Edmunds — 

„ (AbbeygateSt.).. 

„ (Beech Hill) 

(Barton Hall) .. 
,, (BotanicGardens) 

(Culford) 

„ (Fornham Hall). 

,, (Thurston Lodge) 

(Nether Hall) ... 

(Westley) 

Eye (Yaxley) 

Hadleigh (Aldham) 

Ipswich (Grundisburgh) 

Lowestoft (Carlton Colville) . 



„ (Gisleham) 

„ (Burgh Castle) ... 

(Hopton Hall) ... 

Mendlesham (Thwaite) 



10 
70 



Lady Bayning 1843-47 imp. 



E. Skepper, Esq. .. 
H. Turner, Esq. .. 

Mr. Allan 

E. Skepper, Esq. .. 

Mr. Grieve 

Mr. Halliday 

Rev. W. Steggall .. 
W. C. Bassett, Esq. 
R. Burrell, Esq. .. 
Rev. W. H. Sewell 
Rev. J. H. Lloyd.. 

P. Harris, Esq 

G. Edwards, Esq... 

Sir F. Crossley 

Rev. J. Jodrell 

C. Cory, Esq 



Mr. Whistlecraft .. 



Surrey. 



Bagshot 

„ (Duke's Hill) 

„ (Park) 

„ (Windlesham) 

Battersea 

Betchworth (Brockham) .... 
(The Holmes) . 

„ (Buckland) .... 

Brixton Hill 

Caterham 

Clapham (Cedars Road) .... 

Cobham Lodge 

Croydon 

„ (Waddon House). 

Dorking (Box Hill) 

(Bury Hill) 

„ (Deepdene) 

„ (Denbies) 

„ (Kitlands) 



43° 

230 

205 

13 

130 

300 



37° 
100 



500 
377 

600 
580 



Dr. Blount 

H.J.B.Hancock.Esq. 
Sir J. Clark, Bart.... 

G. Dines, Esq 

J.B.Faunthorpe.Esq 
W. Bennett, Esq. . . . 
E. T. Bennett, Esq. 
Rev. W. F. Hotham 

Miss Sweeting 

Dr. Westall 

H. Doxat, Esq 

Miss Molesworth . . 

Dr. Westall 

S. Courtauld, Esq. 
E. Boorman, Esq.... 
A. K. Barclay, Esq. 

Mr. Whiting 

Mr. Drewett 

D. D. Heath, Esq. 



1860- 

1861- 

1859- 

1863- 

1858- 

1847 

1834, 1860-63 

1860-63 T 

1860- 

1865- 

1851- 

1860- 

1864- 

(1865) 

1862- 

1858-64 T 

1864- 

1830- 



1860- 
1865- 
1864- 
1864- 
1856- 
1860- 
1861-63 



1865- 

1862-63 

1859- 

1824- 

1860- 

1865 T 

1864- 

1852-59 

1851- 

1861 

1S52- 



22 i 


REPORT 1865. 

Surrey [continued). 






Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 


t 


Godalming (Dunsfold) 

„ (Wonersh) 


19 

70 
120 

SUSSE 

316 

'95 
12 

22 

9 

200 

5° 

20 

12 

284 

554 
70 
61 

260 
250 
10 
300 
340 

80 
450 
500 

60 
212 

10 

10 

120 

45 

245 
200 
301 


W. L. Woods, Esq. 

B. Stewart, Esq. ... 
T. Chalk, Esq. 

Dr. Martin. 

J. G. Marriage, Esq. 

Dr. Thomson. 

G. Dines, Esq 

R. Coleman, Esq 

W. F. Harrison, Esq. 

X. 

J. C. Fletcher, Esq. 
Rev. M. Smelt ... 
H. Upton, Esq 

J. Graham, Esq. ... 
J.A.Hingeston, Esq. 
Mr. Mossop 


1861- 
1860 T 
C 1856- 








Reigate. 






(Ham, Red Hill) 


1860-63 




South Lambeth 


1782-92 
C 18 58-64 T 
C 1861- 
C 1856- 

1846-52, 1860- 
1860-63 
C 1860- 




Wandsworth (St. Ann's Hill) 
(South Fields) 
Weybridge (Heath Bartropps) 

Arundel (Dale Park) 




,, (Slindon) 








( ) 


C 1863 

C 1845-52 T 

«855-57 
1790 
C 1859- 
1808-10 












„ (Upper Brunswick PL) 


Dr. Kebbel 




Nicholson's Journ. 
W. Hills. Esq. 
Dr. Tyacke 






Ci8 35 - 

1854- 

C ,834- 

C 1864- 

1860-63 

C 1850- 

1842-43 

C 1845- 
C 1834-49 T 

1860- 
C 1856- 
C 1862- 

1863- 
C 1865 




„ (West Gate) 




W. L. Woods, Esq. 

G. M.'Fort, Esq. ... 
Rev. G. H. Woods. 

H. Paxton, Esq. ... 
Rev. G. II. Woods 
F. Padwick. Esq. ... 

E. S. Bigg, Esq. ... 
J. A. Han key, Esq. 

T. Dyke, Esq. ... 
Dr. AUnatt. 

— Phillips, Esq. ... 

F. Webster, Esq. .. 
Mr. Banks 




(Bepton Hill) 

„ (Funtington) 




„ ( Westbourne) , . 
,, (West Dean) 

(WestThomey) ... 
Crawley (The Hyde) 




Cuckfield i Balcombe Place)... 
Eridge Castle 


# 


Forest Row 




Frant 






(1838) 
(1842-46) 
C 1861- 








(Battle) 


t 




C 1 846- 




Mr. Field 


1862 


t 

t 
t 
♦ 


(Fairlight) 


J. Rock, Esq. 

J. A. Langham, Esq. 

E. Field, Esq. 

J. C. Savery, Esq. . . . 

)» 

J. Rock, Esq 

Rev. J. Gorham ... 
J. Macleod, Esq. ... 

Mr. W. Smith 
Rev.C. Holland ... 
Major Vidler. 
Mr. S. Boorman ... 
Hon. I. J. Carnegie 
C. L. Prince, Esq.... 
Capt. W.Noble ... 


C 1857-63 T 
1861 T, imp. 

C 1859- 
1860-62 
1860-62 

C 1865- 

C 1860- 


„ (High Street) 

, , ( High Wickham ) . . . 
„ (St.Leonard'sMarina) 
„ ( „ 39 Tower)... 
„ (Otley House) 






1856-57 1859, 
i860, 1863- 
1852 
C 1862- 




„ (Landport Cottage) ... 
Petworth Rectory 










Robertsbridge (Salehurst) ... 
Rogate (Fair Oak) 


C 1864- 

1860-63 

1850, 1852, 1856- 
C 1856- 




Uckfield 




„ (MaresfieldForestLod.) 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Sussex (continued). 



221 



Station. 



Uckfield (Maresfield Rectory) 

„ (Buxted Park) 

„ (Moulsey Gore) 

„ (Newick, Beechland).. 

„ ( „ Ketches) ... 
Worthing 



Eleva- 
tion. 



250 
2 00 



Observer. 



Eev. E. Turner. 



R Brodie, Esq., 



(Findon) 150 



Miss Shiffner 

Dr. Barker 

Rev. Dr. Cholmelej 



Period. 



1859- 

1856-57, 1859- 
C 1863- 

1862- 
C 1865- 

1853-61 
C 1864- 



Warwicksiiire. 



Birminghaui (Phil. Institute). 

„ (Midland „ ) 

„ (Bloomsbury St.) 

(Camp Hill) ... 

„ (Edgbaston) ... 

„ (Moseley) 

(WellingtonEd.) 
Coventry (Walsgrave-on-Sour) 

Henley-in- Arden 

Leamington (Upper Parade) 
,, (Stoneleigh Abbey) 
Rugby j 



490 

557 
340 
425 
510 
481 
450 



195 
3i5 



Dr. Ick 

C . J. Woodward,Esq 

D.Smith, Esq 

T. L. Plant, Esq. ... 
W. Southall, Esq.... 
T. L. Plant, Esq. ... 
T. Southall, Esq. 
Rev. H. H. Pinniger 
Gr. E. Dartnell, Esq. 
S. U. Jones, Esq. . . . 

Mr. T. Bowick 

F. Fuller, Esq 



Westmoreland. 



Ambleside (Lesketh How) 
(Lough Rigg)... 
(Low Nook) ... 



Appleby 
Bowness. 

(Craig) 

„ (Craigfoot). 
Brougham Hall [Penrith] 
Eusemere Hill [Penrith] . . . 
Grasmere 

„ (Lancregg) 

Great Strickland [Penrith] . 

Halsteads [Penrith] 

Kendal ' 



1865 



,, (Benson Knott) .. . 

„ (Selside) 

„ ( „ Low Bridge 
House). 

„ (Waith Sutton) 

Kirkby Lonsdale 

„ (Vicarage) 

„ (Biggins House). 

(DaltonHall) ... 

» (Rigmaden) 

n (Whelprigg) 

,, Stephen 

Lowther Castle [Penrith] . . . 

Milnthorpe (Sedgwick) 

Patterdale 

Troutbeck (The How) 



200 
580 
150 
242 



516 
360 
240 
300 

700 



149 



736 



209 
210 

400 ' 

'55 



840 

500 
470 



Dr. J. Davy 

E.B.W.Balme,Esq 
J. C.Wilson, Esq... 
Dr. Armstrong 



Adm. Sir T. S.Pasley 

W. Brougham, Esq. 

Mrs. Angas 

J. Green, Esq 

Sir J. Richardson.. 
H. H. Plumer, Esq. 
W. Marshall, Esq. . 

Dr. Dalton 

Nicholson's Journal 
S.Marshall, Esq. .. 
J. Gough, Esq 



Manchester Memoirs 
W. Harrison, Esq. . 

Rev. H. Ware 

A.B.Tomlinson,Esq. 
E. G. Hornby, Esq. . 
E. Wilson, Esq. . . . 
Mrs. Gibson. 

T. Mason, Esq 

J. Parkes, Esq.,C.E. 
J.Wakefield, Esq.... 

Mr. Sinclair 

J.Wilson, Esq 



1836-45 imp. 


1862 


C 1861- 


C 1853-63 T 


C ,855- 


C 1864- 


C 1853-60 T 


C 1865- 


C 1865- 


C 1862- 


1858-62 T 


C 1854- 


1844, 1848- 


1863- 


C 1859- 


C 1856- 


1847-52 imp. 


1852 


C 1863-64 T 


1S62 


C 1859-61 T 


C 1864- 


1820-33, 1863 


C 1788-92 T 


1808. 


C 1809- 


1787-99 imp. 


1790-91 imp. 


1849-53 


1789-93 


C 1S63- 


C 1864- 


1864- 


C 1864- 


C 1864- 


C 1865- 


1860, 1863- 


Imp. 


1863- 


1844- 



R 



226 



REPORT 1865. 



Wiltshire. 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 


t 


» ( » ), Expe- 
rimental gauges 


282 

zoo 

500 

456 

300 
435 

400 ? 


Col. Ward 


C 1861- 


*t 




"Various. 




Chippenham (Badminton) ... 
Devizes (Gore, Lavington) ... 


Mr. J. Trotter 

F. Stratton, Esq. . . . 
Mr.R.Hayward,Jun. 
W.C.Merriman,Esq. 

Rev. T. A. Preston . 

G. Fort, Esq 


C 1861- 

C 1865- 

1864- 




Marlborough 

(College) 


C 1861- 
C 1864- 

1860-63 
C 1830- 
C 1862-63 
C 1865- 

1861- 




(Woodford) 


Archdeacon Hony. . . 
H. Hinxman, Esq. . . . 
E. E. Dymond, Esq. 
Mr. Fryer 








Trowbridge (Holbrook Farm) 




W. J. Mann, Esq. 
Mr. Boycott 






(Winkfield) 
Warminster 


C 1858-59 T 

C 1857-59 T 

1855-60 
C i860- 




Rev.W. Slatter 
F. Singer, Esq. 
Rev.W. Slatter 




,, (Chapmanslade) 
,, (Longbridge Deveril) 



t 

* 
*B.A. 

t 
t 



Worcestershire . 



Kidderminster (Spring Bank) 

Malvern, Great 

West 



Northwick Park [Moreton-in- 
Marsh] 

Stourbridge 

Tenbury (Brockleton) 

„ (Orleton) 

Worcester (Gas Office) 

„ (Railway Offices) .. 

)> (. " " ) •• 

(Lark Hill) 

„ (Belmont House).. 



500 
900 



125 



>57 



Rev. C. Trotter. 

Dr. Williams 

II. Hartland, Esq. 



Lord Northwick . . . 
R. Leach, Esq. 

Rev. J. Miller 

T.H.Davis, Esq. ... 
F. N. Gosling, Esq. . 
E. Wilson, Esq. ... 

N. Edis, Esq 

W. Burgess, Esq. . . . 
T. M. Hopkins, Esq. 



1S62- 
C 1861 



1859- 

1850-52 
C 1831- 
C 1865- 
C 1858- 

1855-56 

C 1854- 



Yorkshire, East Riding. 



Driffield (Middleton) 

, ( , ) 

„ (Nafferton Lodge)... 

Filey 

Hull (Baker Street) 

„ (Beverley Road) 

„ (Manor House Street).. 
„ (Tranby Park, Hessle) . 

„ (Roos, Hedon) 

Market Weighton (Holme-on- 

Spalding Moor) 

Patrin gt on 

„ (Keyingham) 

Pocklington (Huggate) 

Wheldrake [York] 

(Thicket Priory). 



150 
87 

10 
12 



32 
32 



36 
26 



Rev.H.D.Blanchard 
W. C. Laybourne.Esq. 

D. Philliskirk, Esq. . 

A. O. Atkinson, Esq. 

J. Smith, Jun., Esq. 

W. Lawton, Esq. ... 

F. Hoare, Esq 

Phillips' Yorkshire . 

G.Dunn, Esq 

W. B. Pugh,Esq. ... 
M. Harrison, Esq. 

Rev.T.Eankin 

Rev. R. B. Cooke ... 
Miss M. D. Jefferson 



1834 imp. 

1843- 

1S64- 

1865- 

1864- 

i857-.; 
1849- 
1863 
1834 



C 1860- 
C 1846- 

1842-63 T 
C 1S44-65 T 
C 1865- 



Yorksiiire, North Riding. 



Helm si ey (Beadlam Grange) 

Ley burn 

Malton 



200 
650 

73 



J. H. Phillips, Esq. 
G. M.Wray, Esq. .. 
H. Hurtley, Esq. . . . 



1856, 
C 1863- 
C 1859- 



1862- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



227 



Yorkshire, North Riding (continued). 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




Malton (Brandsby) 


21 
120 

55° 
9 1 

20 

33° 
184 

35°? 

HIRE, Wl 

I50O 

1200 
IOOO 
IOOO 

37° 
634 
496 

389 

320 

30 

475 

1300 

135° 
1375 

880 
268 

300 

1425 

487 

420 

800 

95° 
850 
600 
410 

55° 
780 

34° 
108 

127 


F. Cholmelly, Esq. 

G. Turn bull, Esq. .. 
W. Fallows, Esq. .. 
W.F.Bolcklow.Esq 
W.T.Jefferson, Esq 
Earl of Zetland 

Dr. Hickson 


1834 imp. 

1841-42 
C 1864- 

1864- 
C 1864- 

1S42- 

1832-41,1844- 
1849 

i860 

1859- 

1863- 
C 1864- 
C 1S65- 

1841 imp. 

1819-40, 1845- 

1844-47 

1831-40, 1845- 

1844-47 

1834 
C 1862- 
C 1852- 

1850-63- 
C 1865- 

1863- 

1863- 
C 1864- 

1853 imp. 
C 1860- 

1852 

1863- 
C 1865- 
C 1852-61 T 
C 1856- 
C 1852- 

1832-40, 1845- 

1844-47 

1862- * 

1828-40, 1845- 

1844-47 
C ,853- 
C 1829- 
C 1861- 

1859-60, 1862- 
1859, 1863- 

1859-60, 1862- 
C 1859- 
C 1858- 

1852-63 

1863- 

1845 imp. 
1772-81 
1844- 
C 1864- 
1820-37 
1842- 

R 2 










#B.A. 


„ (Marton Hall) 






Richmond (Aske) 








a6 


t 










C. C. Oxley, Esq. .. 
Earl of Zetland 






„ (Upleatham) 




♦B.A. 


Whitby 




*B.A. 


YORKS 

Barnsley (Felkirk) 


A. S. Palmer, Esq.... 

st Riding. 

Rev. J. B. Graham . 

Manchester Memoirs 
s» 
n 

Rev. T. Steniforth... 
C. Gott, Esq 






BlackstoneEdge[Todmorden" 

„ (Whiteholme) 

„ ( „ Soc. gau.) 
(Toll Bar) 


-47 




( „ Soc. gau.; 

Bolton -by-Bolland [Clitheroe] 

Bradford (Mechanics' Inst.) .. 

„ (Chellow Dean) ... 

(Horton Hall) , , , 

,, (Queensbury) 

„ (Queensgate) 


47 


t 

* 


Mr. G. Abbey 
W. Foster, Esq. . . . 
J. M'Landesborough 
E.B.W.Balme.Esq. 
Mr. J. Howorth . . 

J.W. Childers, Esq. 

■ — Cooke, Esq 

T. Eendall, Esq. ... 
L. J. Crossley, Esq. . 
G.W. Stevenson,Esq. 

n 

11 
Manchester Memoirs 

11 11 
R. Richardson, Esq. 
Manchester Memoirs 

11 11 
G.W. Stevenson, Esq. 
J. Waterhouse, Esq. 
Dr. Bainbridge 

J. F. Bateman, Esq. 

n 
C. Hare, Esq. 
A. Clay, Esq 






Dewsbury (Mirfield) 




* 


Doncaster (Magdalens) 






„ (Cantley) . 

,, (Owston) 










t 


Halifax (Dean Clough Mills) 
(Hunter's Hill) 
„ (Midgeley Moor) . . . 
,, (Ovendon Moor) ... 
„ (Ripponden, Blk. Hou.) 
» ( „ ,i Soc. gau.) 
„ (South Owram) 
„ (Sowerby Bridge) . . . 
.. ( » ,1 Soc. gau.) 

„ (Warley Moor) 

(Well Head) 


47 
47 


t 


Harrogate 






High Flats. 
Holmfirth(Bilberry Reservoirs) 
,, (Boshaw Whams)... 
,, (Holme Styes) 
Huddersfield (Long wood) ... 

Ingleton (Clapham) 






W. T. Walker, Esq. 
A. Shackleton, Esq. . 

G. Lloyd, Esq. 
E. Filliter, Esq 
H. Roberson, Esq.... 
H. C. Marshall, Esq. 
11 






Keighley (Braithwaite) 
Leeds 






„ (Barrowby) 






„ (Eccup) 

„ (Harewood Bridge) . . . 
„ (Headingley) 




t 


„ (Holbeck) 











228 



REPORT 1865. 



Yorkshire, West Riding (continued). 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 


t 
t 


Leeds (Holbeck Manor Road) 
„ (Leventhorpe Hall) . . . 
„ (Philosophical Hall)... 
„ (Red Hall) 


95 

9° 
137 
452 
238 
206 
500 
764 

717 

1075 

954 

135 

135 

30 

186 
172 
640 
540? 
1150 

498 
750 

337 
600 
170 

336 

1 100 

188 

430 

500 
364 

74 
456 

61 
"5 

5° 
40 


E. Filliter, Esq .... 
J. T. Leather, Esq. .. 
H. Denny, Esq 

F. W. Stow, Esq. ... 
W. Peel, Esq. 

H. Thorns, Esq. ... 
R.C.Taylor, Esq.... 


1849- 

1855- 
C 1823-63 
C 1857-62 T 




„ (Wind Hill) 


1861-62 




Otley 


C 1860- 




„ (Ben Rhydding) 

(Chevin") ... 


1860-62 
C 1861-63 




(Ilklev - ) 




1865- 






M. S. &L.R 


1850-55 imp., 1859- 




,, (Dunford Bridge). . . 
Pontefract (Ackworth Moor- 
top) 




1860- 






1852-57 imp., 1859- 




J. Brown, Esq. 

Luke Howard, Esq. . 

C. O.F. Cator,Esq. 

F. W. Stow, Esq. ... 

W. M. Burman, Esq. 
Rev. J. Boyd 


* 


( „ School) 

„ ( ,, VUla). 

„ (Ferrybridge) 

„ (Kii'k Smeaton) ... 


1854-57 
fC 1842-53 T 
\C 1858-63 T 

1 842-46 

1864- 
C 1865- 






C 1864- 




Rotherham — 

„ (Wath-upon-Dearne) 
„ (West Melton) 

Saddleworth (Station) 


1862- 
C 1861- 




E. Greenwood, Esq. 
Rev. G. Venables ... 
E. Greenwood, Esq. 


1853- 




,, (Standedge) ... 


C 1864- 

1850- 
1777-79 
C 1837- 






J. Tathani, Esq 

Rev. W. Bovd 
Rev. J. Stansfeld. 
W.J.Simmonite.Esq. 
D. Doncaster, Esq. . 
>i 

M.S.&L.R 






1853- 










Sheffield 






„ (Broornhall Park)... 
„ (Crookesmoorside) . 
„ (Doncaster Street) .. 
CThe Edee) 


IS53- 

1864- 

1864- 

C 1860- 






J. Gunson, Esq. ... 
M.S.&L.R 


C 1836- 






1850, 1855-57 imp. 






R.H.Sidgewick, Esq. 
J. Heelis, Esq. 

J. Fielden, Esq 

Manchester Memoirs 
F.R.Carroll, Esq.... 
T.Wilson, Esq 


1858- 
C 1863- 




* (Woodlands) 






Stansfleld Hall [Todmorden]. 
Stubbins [Todmorden] 


1864- 
1825-40 

1853- 

C 1863- 




Tiekhill 


C 1859- 


t 

t 


Wakefield (Prison) 


W. R. Milner, Esq. . 
Nicholson's Journal 


1848- 


(The Heath) , ... 
York (Boothaml 


1808-10 
1831- 


(Coney Street) 


Prof. Phillips. 

» 


C 1864- 















WALES. 

Anglesea. 



Beaumaris (Henllys) ... 

Llandyfrydog 

Llanfairynghornwy 

Menaifron [Carnarvon] 



150 
92 



Miss Hampton 

H. Webster, Esq. ... 
I. Williams, Esq. ... 
Rev.W.W.Williams 



C 1864- 
C 186C-63 
C 1865- 
C 1865- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

Brecknockshire. 



229 



*B.A. 



# 
*B.A. 

# 
* 



t 
t 

*t 
* 
* 
# 



* 

# 

*t 
* 
# 
* 
# 
#B.A. 



*t 



Station. 



Criekhowell (Buckland) 
Hay (Pen-y-Maes) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



Mrs. G. Holford 
Capt. Brown 



Cardiganshire. 



Aberystwith 
Cardigan ... 



Frongocli 

Goginan 

Lampeter 



12 

iS 

855 

290 
420 



T.Paul, Esq 

G. B. Osborne, Esq. 
Miss Parry. 
H. Thomas, Esq. .. 
,, ... 

Bev. J. Mathews .., 



Carmarthenshire. 



Carmarthen 

„ (Gaol) 

„ (Plas-cwrt-hyr). 

Llandissillio (Bhydwen) .... 

Llanelly 

„ (Bridge Parade) .... 
„ (Pont Amman) .... 



70 

78 

150 

150 

20 



J. Rowlands, Esq... 
G. Stephens, Esq. . . 
W. E. Gwyn, Esq... 
H. S. Morgan, Esq. 

E. Bagot, Esq 

J. H. Jenkins, Esq. 
E. S. Morris, Esq. .. 



Carnarvonshire. 



Bangor 

„ (Llanfairfechan)' 

„ (Llanllechid) 

Beddgelert (Sygun) , 

Bethesda (Brynderwen) , 

,, (Penrhyn) 

Bettws-y-coed 

,, ,, (Minvie) 

Carnarvon (Plas Brei-eton) .. 

Hendre 

Llanberis (Dinorwic Quarry) 

1, (Glyn Padarn) ... 

(Roy. Vic. Hotel)... 

Llangybi (Cefn) 

Llanllyfni (Cilgwyn) 

Llanystyndwy (Talarvor) ... 

Port Madoc 

Pwllheli 

Sam (Aberdaron) 



105 
140 

330 

500 

1200 

70 

85 
90 

850 

377 
320 
200 
500 

5° 

30 

34° 



Rev. J. H. Purvis , 

R. Luck, Esq 

Rev. J. Evans .... 
Mr.T. Searell .... 
J. Francis, Esq 



Rev. I. "W.Griffith.. 
Capt. W.D.Lowe... 

T.Turner, Esq 

F. Ball, Esq 

G.Ellis, Esq 

W. W. Craig, Esq. .. 

Mr. Williams 

Rev.S.GA.Williams 
W. Hayward, Esq. .. 

Dr. Roberts 

Capt. Mathew 

J.T.Evans, Esq. ... 
Mr. Jones 



Denbigh (Plas Clough) 

Llandudno (Warwick House) 
Wrexham (Gwersyllt Hill)... 



Denbighshire. 

J.H.S. Harrison, Esq. 

80 Dr. Nicol 

350 W.Lassell,Jun., Esq. 



Ha warden 

Holywell (Maes-y-dre) 
Mold (Bryn Alyn) 

„ (Gwynsanny) 

Rhyl 

„ (Gas Works) 



Flintshire 

260 
400 



Dr.Moffatt 

J. Williams, Esq 

Rev. R. B. Cooke ... 
P. D.Cooke, Esq. ... 
Mr. E.Evans 



Period. 



Glamorganshire. 



Cardiff 

Cowbridge (The Ham) 



5° 
55 



Dr. Vachell .. 
G. W. Nicholl, 



Esq. 



1861- 
1860- 



C 1864- 
C 1864- 

1863- 
1863- 
1855- 



C 1864- 
C 1863- 
C 1864- 

1859- 

C 1864- 

1 842 imp. 
C1865- 



1861- 

1864- 

1865- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

(1865) 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1865- 

1863- 



C 1865- 
C 1859- 
C 1863- 



C 1850- 

1858- 

C 1865- 

1852 
C 1860-64 T 
C 1865- 



1863- 
1864- 



230 



REPORT 1865. 



Glamorganshire (continued). 



Station. 



Eleva- 
tion. 



Observer. 



Period. 



* 
*B.A. 



*B.A. 

* 

* 

* 



*B.A. 



*B.A. 



*B.A. 



Merthyr-Tydvil (Trondyrhiew 

House) 

Swansea (Wind Street) ... 

„ (Harbour Office) 

» (AUtygrug) 

„ (Graigarw) 

„ (Penllegare) 

„ ( Yniscedwyn) . . . 

„ (Ystalyfera) 



500 



700 
356 

276 

368 

5* 



E. W. Scale, Esq. ... 



J. W. James, Esq... 
J. Rogers, Esq 



J. D. Llewellyn, Esq. 

D. Smith, Esq 

J. Rogers, Esq 

J.W. Gutch, Esq.... 
— Moggridge, Esq. 



Merionethshire. 



Bala 

„ (Llandderfell) 

Corwen (Rhug) 

Dolgelley 

„ (Brithdin) 

„ (Llanelltyd) 

Festiniog (Blaenyddol) 

Moentwrog (Cam-y-coed) 

Talgarth Hall [Machynlleth]. 

Towyn 

Trawsfynedd 700 



43 



500 

20 

600 

iS 
150 

18 



Capt. Mathew .... 
W. Pamplin, Esq. . 
J. Wagstaffe, Esq. 



J. Hill, Esq 

H. Moon, Esq 

G. Carson, Esq 

Rev. W. H. Trendel 
C. E. Thruston, Esq. 

Dr. Williams ! C 1864- 

Mr. Jarrett I C 1864 



C 1863- 

1844-45 
C 1862- 

1852 

1852 

1852 
C 1852- 

1836-39 imp. 



C 1865- 
C 1865- 



C 1865- 
C 1864- 
C 1861-62 T 
C 1864- 
C 1864- 
C 1864- 



Berriew (Henllys) 

Llanidloes (BroomclifT) 
Machynlleth 



Montgomeryshire. 

Miss Williams 

T. F. Roberts, Esq. 



Rev. J. Evans 



Haverford West 

Kilgerran 

Pembroke Dock 

Tenby (Caldy Island) 



Pembrokeshire. 
60 



30 



E.P.Phillips 

Rev. D. Evans 

E. Chevalier, Esq.... 
Mr. Fletcher 



Radnorshire. 



Presteign 1 

Rhayader (Cefnfaes) | 880 



Capt. Haman 
Mrs. Jones .. 



C 1864- 
C 1865- 
C 1861-62 T 



1849- 
C 1865- 
C 1860- 
C 1865- 



C 1865- 
C 1858- 



CHANNEL ISLANDS. 



Guernsey 
Jersey 



(Fort Regent) 

(Gorey, Rockmount). 

(Millbrook) 

(St. Heliers) 

(St. Lawrence) 



90 
45 
5° 



Dr. Hoskins 

Dr. Fung 

Serjeant Wiseman. 

Capt. Tompson 

P. Langlois, Esq. . . . 
A. W. P. Smith, Esq. 
G. Gibb, Esq. 



THE ISLE OF MAN. 



Balasalla 

Calf of Man . 
Point of Ayr. 



Douglas Head 



100 

3 2 5 

2 7 



J. Burman, Esq. . . . 
Bd. of North. Lights 

R. Stewart, Esq. . . . 
Bd. of North. Lights 



1847 

1843- 

1850-56 

1864- 
1858- 
1864- 

1848 



C 1853-61 T 

C 1824- 
C 1822- 

1824-30 
C i860- 



ON THE RAINFALL OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 



231 



SCOTLAND. 

Aberdeenshire. 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 






112 

"5 

103 
161 

55 

ICO 

163 
420 
420 
656 
680 
11 10 

360 

213 
307 
300 
64? 
506 
l 34 

"3 5? 

9"5 

713 


Aberdeen Herald . . . 

T. D. Gray, Esq. ... 

Rev. A. Beverley . . . 

,, ... 


1842 






1856-59 imp. 




„ (Ashley Place) ... 

( „ )••• 

„ (Gordon Hospital) 
„ (Grammar School) 

( „ ) 
„ (Marischall College) 
„ (North Broadford) 

(Kemhill) 


C 1864- 
C 1864- 
C 1837-41 




Eev. A. Beverley ... 
,, ... 

Eev. A. Beverley ... 
Mr. W. Smith ... 
A. Cruickshank, Esq. 

R. Catto, Esq 

Rev. J. Farquharson 


C 1864- 
C 1864- 

1829-37 T 

1863 T 
C 1850-54, 1858 


t 


„ (Rose Street) 

(Wallfield) 


C 1860- 
C 1864- 




Alford 


1835-42 




(Balflui'*') 


1843-48 






J. W. Paterson, Esq. 
Mr. J. G. Michie .. 

Mr. Howitt. 

Mr. W. Hay 


C 1861- 




,, (Coldstone) 


C 1863- 






1856- 




Ellon (Castle) 






(Tillvdesk) 


C 1861- 




Fraserburgh (Lonmay) 


Statistical Account . 

Rev. J. Davidson ... 
Rev. G.Peter 

Bd. of North. Lights 
Mr. D. Sturrock ... 

Bd. of North. Lights 

Mr. A. Walker 

W. N. Fraser, Esq. . 


1832 imp. 
1821-29 imp. 






C 1862- 




„ (Kenmay Manse) ... 


1863- 

1864- 

C 1813- 






C 1862- 




Old Deer (Manse) 


1863- 




Peterhead 


1808-10 imp. 






C 1827- 




Strathdon (Castle Newe) 


C 1849- 
1864- 



Argyllshire. 





82? 


Bd. of North. Lights 
A. Buchan, Esq. ... 


,, (Camusinas) . 


Campbelltown (Devaar) 


75 


Bd. of North. Lights 


„ (Southend) ... 




Statistical Account . 


Can tire (Mull of) 


279 

500 


Bd. of North. Lights 


Dalmally (Bridge of Orchy) . 


A.E.M c Dougall,Esq. 


(Drishais) 


250 
80 




Dunoon (Castle Toward) ... 


Mr. W. Milne 


(Haft on) 


40 


Mr. D. Doig 


(Kirn, Oak Bank)... 


J. Richardson, Esq. . 


FortWilliam(Rosse Parsonage) 




Rev. W. Simpson... 




30 
300 

74 
106 


Mr. J. Caie 


(Glenarv) 


Statistical Account . 
Bd. of North. Lights 


Islay (Rhinns of ) 


„ (M c Arthur's Head) ... 


»j 


„ (RhuVaal) 






Jura Sound (Fladda) 


20 




Lismore (Mousedale) 


37 
60 






A. Maclean, Esq. ... 




'4 


Bd. of North. Lights 


Lochgilphead (Baltimore) ... 


• •* 


Statistical Account . 


„ (Calton M6r) . 


65 


Mr. J. Russell 


,, (Kilmartin) ... 


64 


Mr. H. Gillies 


„ (Kilmory) 


100 


Sir J. P v Orde,Bart. 



C 1849- 

1864- 

C 1854- 

1831 

C 1S13- 
1864- 
1862- 

1824- 

CI853- 

C 1865- 
C 1865- 

1833, 1860- 
1834, 1835 

C 1826- 
C 1861- 
C 1859- 
C 186c- 
Ci8 3 3-45,.i848- 

1862-63 imp. 
C 1860- 

1833-40, 1S42-55 
C 1855- [imp. 

i36 t -62, 1864 

1835-37, 1849- 



232 



REPORT 1865. 



Argyllshire {continued). 



Station. 



Lochgilphead (Kilmory) 

,, (Otterhouse) ... 

Lochgoilhead (Glen Croe) ... 

Moile, The 

Mull ( Aclmacroish) 

„ (Bunessan) 

*B.A. „ ( „ Ardfinaig).. 

,, (Erray, Tobermory) .. 

„ (Some) 

,, Sound of 

, , (Torosay Castle) 

„ (Ulva) 

Oban (Manor House) 

Isle of Seil (Easedale) 

Stuckendroin 

Tarbert (Stonefield) 

Tiree (Hynish) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



ioo 
130 

320 



12 
18 

10 
90 



Observer. 



Sir J. P. Orde, Bart. 

Dr. Rankin 

A.E. M l Dougall,Esq. 

T. Bell, Esq 

J. Campbell, Esq.... 

Mr. Maclean 

J. Campbell, Esq. 

— Robartson, Esq. . 

Mr. Pettigrew ... 

Bd. of North. Lights 

Mr. J. Pettigrew 

F. W. Clark, Esq 

Capt. Bedford ... 

Mr. Whyte 

A. E. M'Dougall.Esq. 

C. G. Campbell, Esq. 

Bd. of North. Lights 



Period. 



Ayrshire. 



Ayr (Auchendrane House) , 

„ (Gadgirth) 

„ (O.S.O.) 

Blair 

Galston Muir 

Girvan 

Irvine (Auchen's House) 
Largs (Brisbane House) . . . 

„ (Mansfield) 

Mauchline (Beechgrove) ... 

„ (Catrine) 

„ (Some Manse) 



Banff (Literary Institution) . 

„ Castle 

Fochabers (Gordon Castle) . . 



94 

150 

150 

IS 

125 

30 

400 

250 



E. Cathcart, Esq. .. 
J. J. Burnett, Esq. 



Capt. Blair, E.N. 



Mr. Paterson — 
Mr. John Dunlop. 

Mr. Beveridge 

Dr. Campbell .... 
Major Adair 



Banffshire. 



Mayen House 
Portsoy 



60 



Statistical Account 



Gardener'sChronicle 
J. Bissett, Esq. 



C 1862- 
C 1858- 

1864 imp. 

1857-58 

1835-37 
C 1865- 

(.865-) 

1862- 

1862 
C 1858- 

1849- 

C 1855- 
C 1857-62 T 
1864- 

1847- 
C 1842- 



C 1856- 

1857-59 imp. 

1857 imp. 
C 1863- 

1832-3 
C 1862- 

1808-09, 1811-12 

1844- [imp. 

1842- 

1863- 

1830-36 

1830-36 



1832 

1831-32 imp. 
1 799-1 807 imp. 
1828-41 
1847-48 



Berwickshire. 



Coldstream (Milne Graden) . . , 
Dunse (Abbey St. Bathans) .., 

„ (Mungos Walls) 

Lauder (Thirlestane) 

St. Abb's Head 



Cumbrae (Milport) 



Lam lash (Eilbride) 

Pladda 

Rothesay (Cotton Mills) . 



(Mount Stewart House) 



450 
267 
558 
211? 

Bute 

5° 

55? 



Mr. Ren wick 

Rev. J. Wallace ... 
Mr. J. Thomson ... 
Mr. J. Whitton ... 



1856-62 
1835-39 T 
C 1857- 
1861- 



Bd. of North. Lights C 1 862 



J. Miller, Esq. 



Dunnethead 1 300? 

Pentland Skerries | 72? 



Bd. of North. Lights 

Sharp, Thompson & 

Co. 

40 

Caithness. 

Bd. of North. Lights 



1859- 
(1860-) 
1833-35 imp. 
C 1813- 
1835, 1840, 
1860-61 
1803-45 



C 1831- 

C 1813-45,1848- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



233 





Caithness (continued). 






Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 


#B.A 


Thurso 


60? 
127? 




C 1865- 
C 1862- 

1840 
C 1849- 




„ (Holburnhead) . 
Wick 


Bd. of North. Lights 
Statistical Account.. 
Bd. of North. Lights 




„ (Noss Head) 







Clackmannanshire. 



Alloa 

„ (Craigwood Cottage) ... 
Dollar Academy 



67 



170 



Dr. M c Gowan . 

Mr. Bald 

Mr. Westwood . 



Dumbartonshire. 



Dumbarton (Cardross) 

Gareloch (Row) 


5° 
75 

5° 

9i 

100 
80 

10 


J. W. Burns, Esq... 
G. S. Thomson, Esq 


Kirkintilloch 


Loch Lomond (Ardvoirlich I.) 

„ ( „ II.) 

„ ( „ HI.) 

„ „ (BallochCastle) 

„ „ (Luss) 

„ „ (Stuckgown)... 
Loch Long (Arddarroch) ... 

„ „ (Ardincaple) 

„ „ (Arrochar) 


A.E.M c Dougall,Esq 

') 
A. L.D.Brown, Esq 
A.E.M c Dougall,Esq 
Capt. Ainsworth . . . 

J. White, Esq 

Lord Campbell 

A.E.M c Dougall,Esq. 



Dumfriesshire. 



Annandale (Annan) 

„ (Applegarth Manse). 

„ ( „ School). 

„ (Dalton) 

„ (Dry fesdale, Lockerbie) 

„ (Hutton Corrie Sch.) 

„ (Johnstone Goodhope) 

„ (Kirkmichael) 

„ (Kirkpatrick juxta) ... 

„ (Loch Maben) 

„ (Moffat, Evan Water 
School) 

„ ( „ Town) 

,, (Wamphray) 

Dumfries 

„ (March Hill Cottage) 

, , (Crichton Asylum) . . . 

Eskdale (Canobie School) . . . 

,, (Carlesgill) 



( „ Hill Top)... 

(Eskdalemuir) 

(EttrickPenTop)... 

(Ewes) 

(Langholm) 



(Westerkirk) 

Kippoch 

Liddesdale (Whithaugh) 

Nithesdale (Closeburn, Wal- 
lace Hall) ... 

„ (Drumlanrigg) 

„ (Durrisdeer) 



180 
224 

296 
680 

374 
239 

338 

171 

549 
348 
317 

70 
182 
140 

370 

1 1 64 
612 

2265 
407 
270 

420 

400 

206 

1S6 

459 



Mr. Scott 

Eev. W. Dunbar , 



Mr. R. Little. 



Dr. Copland . . 

Mr. Hogg 

Dr. Gilchrist 
J. Little, Esq. 



Trans.Roy.Soc.Edin 
J. Little, Esq 



J. Little, Esq. 



Mr. M c Intosh 

Edinb. Phil. Journ 



1856 
C 1838-53 T 
C 1839-58, 1862- 



1864- 

1857 imp. 

1781-88 imp. 

1864 

1864 

1864 

1862- 

1864 
C 1863- 
C 1848- 

1832-34 

1862- 



C 1865- 
C 1827-51 T 
C 1854-55 
C 1854-55 
C 1854-55 
C 1854-55 
C 1854-55 
C 1854-55 
C 1854-59 
C 1854-55 

C 1854-55 

C 1854-55 
C 1854-55 

1776-93 imp. 

1850- 

1860- 
C 1855, i860, 1862- 

1844, 1 846, 1848, 
1850, i860, 1862- 

1856-60, 1862- 
C 1855-60, 1862- 

1856-60, 1862- 
C 1855-60, 1862- 
C 1855-60,1862- 

1773-77 
C 1855-60, 1862- 

1832 
1864 

C 1855-59 

1856-62, 1864- 
C 1855-58 



234 



REPORT 1865. 



Dumfriesshire {continued). 



Station. 



Nithesdale(Glencairn,Hastings 

Hall) 

,. (Keir) 

„ (Kirkconnel) 

„ (Morton, Thornhill) 

„ (Penpont) 

„ (Sanquhar) 

„ (Tynron,Auehenbrack) 
,, (Wanlockhead) ..., 
„ ( » ) .». 



Eleva- 
tion. 



354 
i5S 
534 
244 

195 

499 

629 

1400 

r 33° 



Observer. 



Mr. Reid 
Mr. Dawson , 



Period. 



Edinburgh. 



Barn ton 

Calder (Cobbinshaw Loch). 

„ (Colzium) 

Colinton (Fernielaw) 

Costorphine 

Dalkeith (Park) 



Edinburgh 



(one mile from) 
(Botanic Gardens) 
(Canaan Cottage) 
(CharlotteSq.,Green) 
( „ Roof) 

(Hawkhill) 

(March Hall)... 
(Nelson Monument) 

(Observatory) 

(O.S.O., No. 1)... 
( „ No. 2)... 
(Prince's Gardens) 
(Regent's Terrace) 

/'(Black Hills) 

( „ Spring) .... 
(Cape Law Hill).... 

(Clubbiedean) 

(Crawley Cottage) . 
(Glencorse Cottage) 
( „ Filters). 
( „ Island). 

(Harlaw) 

(Logan Lee) 

(Swanston) 

( (Torbray Hill) .... 

Inchkeith 

Musselburgh (Inveresk) .... 



n3 
S3 



a 

<o 
P4 
d 

S a 



C3 



Covesea Skerries 

Elgin 

„ (Ashgrove) 

,, (Anderson'slnstitution) 
„ (Urquhart) 

Forres 



863 
500 
183 



250 
100 
246 
230 
300 

270 



197 
386 



760 
787 



807 
171 

555 

182? 

60 



J. Deas, Esq 

Ed. Phil. Journal. 

J. Leslie, Esq 

A. Paterson, Esq. 
Mr. W. Thomson . 



Medical Essays. 



Capt. Kerr 

Dr. Playfair? . 
Dr. Rutherford. 

Mr. Adie 

J. Leslie, Esq. . 



Trans. Roy. Soc. Ed 
A.K.Johnstone, Esq 



Capt. O'Grady 
Mr. Adie 



J. Leslie, Esq., and 
A. Ramsay, Esq. 



Bd 

Mr. 



of North. Lights 
M'Auslane... 



Elgin. 

59? 
28 

33 
38 

53 



Bd. of North. Lights 

Dr. Geddes 

W. Topp, Esq 

Mr. J. Martin 



Mr. M'Farlane 



1855-59 

1855-59 
1855-59 
1855-59 
C 1855-58 
C 1855-58 
C 1855-59 
C 1855-60 T 
1859- 



1 804-9 
C 1850- 

1856, 1859-61 
C 1850- 

1851- 

1773-77.1807-12, 

1822-24 

1731-35 

1792 imp. 
1808 
1812 
1852 

1785-95 
1796-99 

1795-1805, 1822-47 

1850- 

1847- 

1771-76 

1862-63 
18 1 8-21, 1829 imp. 

1817-18 imp. 

1854-58 T 
C 1858-61 T 

1860- 

1847-49- imp. 

1847 imp. 

1850-54 imp. 
1847-49 imp., 1864- 

1831-45 

1846- 

1852-59 

1849-54 
C 1854- 

1847-49 imp. 

1864- 

1847-48 imp. 
C 1813- 

1837- 



C 1846- 
1856-61 
1862- 
1835-38, C 1862- 

1795-97 i m P- 
C i860- 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 
Fife. 



235 



Station. 



Burntisland 

Dunfermline (Waterworks). 

Isle of May 

Kirkcaldy (Abbotshall). 

Leven (Nookton) 

Markinch (Balfour) : 

Pittenweem 

„ (Balchrystie) 

St. Andrews 



Eleva- 
tion. 



8° 
182? 

80 
129 

75 
135 



Observer. 



Mr. Macbean 

Bd. of North. Lights 

W.M'G. Miller, Esq 

Mr. Dewar 

Mr. Tennant 

Mr. Forgan 

Statistical Account 



Forfar. 



Arbroath (Kepty Eoad) 








»i 


(Constitution Eoad) 








(Hill Head) 




(Kinloch) 




(Manse) 


j> 


(Powder Magazine) . . . 


» 


(Somerville Place) ... 
CTavhank'* 








(Asylum) 


» 


(Bridge Street) ... 
(High Street) 
(Museum) 


»» 





65 

35 

60 
44° 

500 
45o 

55° 

240 

5° 

218 

20 
200 

25 

21 

8 

150 



A. Brown, Esq 

Bd. of North. Lights 
Mr. Proctor 



R. Adamson, Esq... 

Mr. Fairweather .. 
R. Adamson, Esq... 
J. Leslie, Esq 



R. Adamson, Esq. 
J. Kerr, Esq 



Mr. Gibb 

J. Aberdein, Esq. ... 

Dr. Howden 

D. Scott, Esq 

Mr. Leigh ton 

Mr. Campbell 

Mr. Wyness 



Haddingtonshire. 



Drem (Dirleten) 

,, (Fenton Barns) 

Dunbar (Thurston) 

Gififord (Yester) 

Haddington (East Linton) 

(Millfield) ... 

Prestonkirk (Smeaton) 



ICO 

320 

420 

90 

140 

■ 100 



C. Stevenson, Esq. 

G. Hope, Esq 

Mr. Mossman 

Mr. Shearer 

Mr. Storie 

Mr. Doda 

Mr. Black 



East Inverness-shire. 



Beauley (Beaufort Castle) 

„ (Belladrum). 
Fort Augustus(Inverie House) 
,, (Knoydant) ... 

Inverness (Culloden House) 

„ (Gordonville) 

(High School) 

„ (Royal Academy) 

Kingussie 

(Laggan) 

,, (Rothiemurchus)... 

Loch Lochy (Clunesj 

Moy (Tamitin) 

Strath Errick (Farraline) ... 

„ (Migovie) 

Urquhart (Corrimony) 



40 



104 



3° 
800 



700 i 

700 
320 



Lord Lovat 



Mr. McDonald 

J. Band, Esq 

A. Forbes, Esq. ... 
W. Carruthers, Esq. 
J. Robertson, Esq. . . 

M. Adam, Esq 

Mr. Rutherford ... 
Mr. A. M'Intosh ... 
W. Grant, Esq. ... 
Mr. A. C. M c Intyre 

Mr: M l 'Dougall 

Capt. Fraser 

Mr. M c Leod 

T. Ogilvy, Esq 



Period. 



863- 

853-59 
817- 

857- 

857- 
831- 
841-51 
835-36 



844- 

840-52 T 

856- 

836-39 imp. 

853- 

850- 

790-95 

836-41 

838 

836-41 

837-40 

836-41 

856- 

836-45 imp. 

836-38 

856- 

842-56 

864- 

864- 

858- 

857- 

861- 



1844- 



1841- 



847 

863 

840- 

856- 

856- 

835- 
83,- 



860-63 

865- 
865- 

855- 

865- 

865- 

829-31 

841-43 

865- 

865- 

865- 

865- 

864- 

865- 

863- 



52 imp. 



236 



REPORT — 1865. 

West Inverness-shirk. 



*B.A. 



Station. 



*B.A. 
*B.A. 

*B.A. 



N 



Barrahead 

Glen Quoich 

Harris (Island Glass) 

Skye (Kyleakin) 

(Oronsay) 

(Portree Moss Bank) . . . 

( „ Poor House)... 

( „ Prison) 

( ,, Waternish Manse) 

(Raasay) 

(Rona) 

(Sligachan) 

Uist (Baleloch) 

„ (Loch Maddy) ... 
S. Uist (Ushenish) 



Eleva- 
tion. 



640? 
700 

is? 

30 

60 

*8o 

196? 

'9 

30 „ 
157? 



Observer. 



Bd. of North. Lights 

Mr. Ballingal 

Bd. of North. Lights 



T. Fraser, Esq.... 
Mr. M c Grigor ... 

Mr. Grant 

Rev. J. Lamont. 
G. Rainey, Esq. 
Bd. of North. Lights 
Mr. M c Kenzie ... 
Rev. J. A. Macrae 
C. Shaw, Esq. ... 
Bd. of North. Lights 



Period. 



1833- [1863- 
1853-56,1858-59, 

C 1813- 

C1857- 

C 1857- 
1863 T 

C 1865- 

C 1860- 



1851- 

1857- 

1864- 

1860-65 T 

1859- 

1857- 



KlNCARDINESIIIRE. 



Banchory House [Aberdeen] 

„ Ternan (Strachan) 

Brechin (The Burn ) 

Fettercairn 

(Balnakettle) 

(Bogmuir) 

Girdleness [Aberdeen] , 

Lawrencekirk 



99 

200 
237 

450 
200 
86? 



A. Thomson, Esq.... 

Mr. M c Connachie. . . 

Col. M c Inroy 

Mr. A. C. Cameron 

D. Scott, Esq 

R. Vallentine, Esq. 
Bd. of North. Lights 
D. Robie, Esq. ... 



1835-49,1855-57, 
1859- 
C 1854- 

1843- 
C 1862- 
C 1858-63 T 

1860- 

C1833- 

1856 



Loch Leven 



Kinross-shire. 
..I ... I Mr. Farnie 



,| 1842-56, 1860- 



Kirkcudbrigiitshire. 



Cargen [D ivmfries] 

Carsphairn 

Castle Douglas (Slogarie) .. 

( ,. ) •• 

Dalbeattie 

Kells (Kenmuir Castle) 

Kirkcudbright (Little Ross) 

New Galloway (Glenlee) .. 

„ (Waterside) .. 



85 



300 
800 



30? 



P. Dudgeon, Esq.... 

Mr. Hannah... 

T. R. Bruce, Esq.... 



Mr. Grieve 



Bd. of North. Lights 
W. Maxwell, Esq... 
P. Dalziel, Esq 



Lanarkshire. 



Airdrie (Auchengray) .... 

„ (Hillend House). 

Avondale (Gilmourton) . 



Douglas Castle 



Glasgow 



(Uddington)... 



(Baillieston) 

(Cessnock Park) 

(Ibroxholm) 

(Macfarlane's Obs.) 
(Observatory) ... 

(O. S. O.) 

(Park) 



650 
620 

600 

783 
75 



230 

34 

20 

80 

200 

166 



Dr. Rankin 

Mr. Thomson 

Beardmore' s Hy dro- 

[ lo gy 

Mr. Russell 

Mr. Anderson 



Mr. P. Jarvie ... 
R. Hart, Esq. .., 
Messrs. Gardner 



Prof. Grant 

Major Bayly ... 
Messrs. Gardner 



C 1859- 
C 1865- 

1864- 

1864- 
C 1865- 

(1832-38) 
C 1843- 
C 1865- 
C 1865- 



C 1856-58 T 
C 1852- 
1845-47 

C 1860- 

1862- 
i7 6 5> '775-78, 1788, 
1795,1805 imp. 

1851 
C 1856- 

1850- 

1846-50, 1854-60 
C 1801-37 

1856-62, 1864 
C 1855-62 T 

1843-51 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



237 



Lanarkshire {continued). 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




Hamilton ( Auchinraith) 

.,(,,) 

,, (Both well Castle) 


150 

147 
1280 

LiNLITH 
165 

ruE Ork 

27 

55 

190 

8 

78 

94 
21 

29 

5° 

Peebl 

600 
1150 

PERTHSf 

823 

35° 
370 
170 
172 
100 
133 
300 

150 

345 
247 

130 

100 

463 
60 

270 
1800 


R. Ker, Esq 


C ,853- 
1833-46 
1807-21, 1844 
1830 imp. 
1813-20 imp. 

1857-59 

C 1858- 
C 1851- 
C 1851- 
1863- 
C 1865- 
C 1860-61 T 




D. Alston, Esq 

Mr. Turnbull 

GOW. 

KEYS. 

Bd. of North. Lights 

J. G. Heddle, Esq. 
Rev. 0. Scott 




Lead Hills 1 




New Liston 




: 

Hoy (Cantick Head) 




„ (Graemsay, High, E.) ... 
„ ( „ Low, W.)... 
,, (Melsetter) 


#B.A. 


Pomona (Holme Manse) 

„ (Inganess Cottage) 


t 


Mr. J. G. Iverach 
Rev. C. Clouston ... 

Bd. of North. Lights 
— Traill, Esq. 
Bd. of North. Lights 
D. Balfour, Esq. ... 

ss. 

[IRE. 

J. S. Hepburn, Esq. 
Mr. Wylie 


C 1862- 


t 
t 


„ (Sandwick Lawn)... 
( „ North Park) 


1840- 

1862- 
C 1854- 
C 1865- 

C 1814-21, 1823- 
C 1856- 

1811 imp. 

1765-79 

1857-59, 1861-62 
C 1850- 

C 1863- 
1861 


#B.A. 






Sanda (Start Point) 




Shapinsa (Balfour Castle) . . . 








,, (Stobo Castle) 




Pennycuick (North Esk Res.) 

Aberfeldy (Black Hill) 

(Bolfracks) 








C 1861 




Annat Cottage [Dundee] 

Auchterarder House 


Mr. Gorrie 


C 1846-57 T 
C 1860- 




Lieut. -Col. Hunter 
J. S. Hepburn, Esq. 
Mr. Wylie 




„ (Colquhakie) . . . 

„ (Trinity Gask).. 
Blairgowrie (Bosemount) ... 

,, (Clunie Manse) 
Callander (Blairhoyle) 

,, (Lanrick Castle) . . . 

,, (Leny) 


1857- 
C 1856- 

1863- 

1834-36- 
C 1862- 




Mr. Gibb 




Rev. W. Macritchie 
Mr. Munro 




J. B. Hamilton, Esq. 
Rev. A. J. T. Morris 
Mr. M'Owen. 

J. Finlay, Esq 

J. B. Murdoch, Esq. 
J. Stirling, Esq. ... 

D. Carnegie, Esq.... 
J. M. Gale, Esq. . . . 

,, ... 

,, ... 

,, ... 


1853-62, 1864- 
1852-55, 1860- 
C 1863- 




Crieff (Muthill) 








Doune (Deanston) 


CI837- 

1853-60 

1852- 

1846-47 T 

1853-54, 1859- 
C 1853- 

1855 imp. 
Ci8 53 - 
C 1853-55,1857- 




,, (Gartincaber) 




Dunblane (Kippenross) 

Errol. 

LochEarnHead(Balquhidder) 

,, (Stronvar) ... 

Loch Katrine ( Aberfoyle) . . . 

„ (Bridge of Earn) 

( „ Turk) 

„ (Glen Finlas) ... 



1 See also Dumfriesshire, Wanlockhead. 



238 



KEPORT 1865. 



Perthshire (continued), 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 




Loch Katrine (Glen Gyle) . . . 
,, (Ledard) 


380 

1500 

3 2 5 

420 

275 
830 

300 

204 

79 

66 
185 

20 
129 

130 
80 

200 
792 

Ienfrew 

600 
700 
700 

55° 
310 

280 
296 

30 

5° 
120 

600 
560 
800 

54° 
472 

180 

35° 

35° 

693 

379 
85 

160 
62 


J. M. Gale, Esq. ... 

1) 

), ... 

J. M. Gale, Esq. ... 
Rev.G.D.R.Munro 
Mr. Stewart 


C ,853- 
C 1853- 
C 1861- 
C 1861- 

1846-48 imp. 
C 1861- 
C 1861- 
C 1865- 

(1813-18) 

1860-61 


*B.A. 


,, (Loch Dhu) 

( „ Drunkie) 
„ ( „ Lubnaig) 
„ ( „ Vennachar) 
(Tunnel Hill Top) 
Logierait 




(Mouline) 




Meigle (Belmont) 




( „ Castle) ... 
Perth Academy 


Mr. Robertson .... 
Dr. Miller 


1789-95, 1799 
1852-54, 1856- 

C 1845-62 

C 1817-25 

1815-30,1832-43 

1815-30, 1832-41 
1830-36 imp. 
C 1812-16 T 




„ (Early Bank) 


Rev. R. Gordon ... 
Earl Gray 




„ (Kinfauns) 




„ ( „ Castle) 

„ ( „ Tower) 

„ (Methven) 




Rev. R. Gordon ... 
Mr. Halliday 

Rev. W. Mather . . . 
Mr. M'Laren 

SHIRE. 

J. Arneil, Esq. . 
Mr. Scott 




„ (Rose Bank) 




„ (Scone Palace) 


1860- 




St. Fillans (Dunira). 


C1833- 

1857-61 imp. 

1864- 

1862, 1864- 
1854-58, 1861- 
1854- 

1854-58, 1860- 
1854-58, 1860- 
1849-50, 1852 

1833 

1 846-49 

1847-55 

1853- 

1820-38 

1836-37 imp. 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

1864- 

l8 35-39. J841-55 

1827-33 

1860- 

i8 3I 

1831-52 

1831 

l8 3i-33. J835-37 
C 1865- 

1841-50, 1860- 

1836 imp. 
1849-50 imp. 
1858- 
1861 62 




Tyndr urn ( 5 6°2 4 'N. , 4V W.) 

] 

Eaglesham (Cross Keys) 

„ (Revoch) 




Gorbals (Black Loch) 


J. M. Gale, Esq. ... 

)) 

>» 
)> 
J) 

Capt. M'Kellan 

J. Gardner, Esq. ... 

P. Morison, Esq. ... 

.» 
». 
». 

». 

J. C. Burns, Esq. . . . 
W. Mather, Esq. ... 

Statistical Account 

Mr. Stewart 




„ (Middlefon) 




„ (Ryat Linn) 




(Waulk Glen) 




Greenock 








(Bagatelle) 




„ (Hamilton Street) 
,, (Infirmary) 




„ ( „ Garden) 
„ (Shaws W. works I.) 
,. ( „ II.) 
,» ( „ HI.) 

>, ( „ iv.) 

,, ( ,, Everton Cottage) 

„ ( ,, Meanof 5 gauges) 

Johnstone (Castle Semple) . . . 

„ (Kilbarchan) 




,, (House) 




„ (Old Gauge) 






* 


Lochwinnoch (Lochside Ho.) 
Mearns (Nither Place) 
Paisley. 

„ (Back Thornly Muir) 
,, (Craig Park) 




„ (Ferguslie House) ... 
„ (Locherfield) 




Mr. Hardie . 




„ (Nether Craigs) 


Statistical Account 
j. 


C 1834-36 
1836 imp. 



ON THE RAINFALL OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 



239 



Eoss-sniRE, East. 





Station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. Period. 




Cromarty 


45° 
28 

90 
48 
61 


Mrs. Matheson , 1 1862- 
Bd of North Lights f! rS/ifi 




Dingwall 


Statistical Account 
K S. M'Kenzie, Esq. 
J. Boyd, Esq. 
A. E. Maclure, Esq. 
— ■ Gordon, Esq. . . . 
Mr. Maclean 


j83°-35 
C 1865- 
C 1865- 
C 1865- 

1862-63 
C 1865- 
C 1830-56, 1861- 


*B.A. 

• 


„ (Brahan Castle) .. . 

„ (Free Church Inst.) 

Invergordon Castle 




Tain 


*BA. 


„ (Fearn) 




Tarbetness 


Bd. of North. Lights 



Koss-siiire, West. 



Applecross 

Lewis (Bernera) 

„ (Butt of) 

„ (Galson) 

„ (Stornoway) 

„ (Lewis Castle) 

„ (Uig Lodge) 

Loch Broom 

„ Duich (Inverinate Ho.) 

„ „ (Shiel House) 



Hawick (Borthwick Brae) . . . 

„ (Branxholin) 

„ (Falnash) 

„ (Goldielands) 

,, (Kirkton) 

» (Langraw) 

,, (Linton) 

,, (Lynnwood) 

„ (Menslaws) 

„ (Sillerbit Hall) 

Jedburgh (Sunnyside) 

Xelso 

„ (Springwood Park) ... 

Makerstown 

„ (Garden, 6£ ft.)... 

„ (Greenhouse, 18 ft.) 
„ (Observatory) ... 

,, (Blagden Cur) ... 

,, (Grange of Hownam) 

Boxburgh (Sunlawshill) 

Yetholm (Mowhaugh) 



Bowhill 

Eoberton (Wool) . 



Bressay (Lighthouse) 

,, (Manse) 

East Yell 

Sumburghead 



50 
15 

65 

31 

70 

30? 


Dr. Haynes 


C 1865- 
C 1859- 
C 1863- 

1856-58 imp. 
C 1859- 

1853- 

C 1865- 

C 1864- 

1860 

C 1860- 
1773-83 
1862- 
1862- 


Mr. Matheson 

Bd. of North. Lights 

Eev. J. Gunn 

Bd. of North. Lights 

SirJ.Matheson.Bart. 

Mr. J. M'Kay. 

Mr. M'Leary 


100 

30 

XBURGH 
800 

800? 
5°5 


Mrs. Matheson 
A.E.M'DougalLEsq. 

shire. 

A. E. Lockhart, Esq. 
Trans.Eoy.Soc.Edin. 
Mr. Turnbull 
Dr. Elliot 


Mr. Welsh 


1862- 


570 


Mr. Oliver 


1862- 




Mr. Barton 


1863- 
1862- 


387 


Mr. Nixon 


Mr. Cockburn 

Mr. Elder 


1862- 
C 1865- 
C 1864- 

I 840-43 

1864- 

1855-59 

1832-45 

1837-45 

C 1842-45,1847-53 
1 842-44 
1840-43 imp. 
1862-63 
1863- 

1856- 
1773-76 

C 1859- 
C 1849- 
C 1858- 
C 1822-24, 1826- 


333 
120 
130 
213 


G. Hilson, Jun., Esq. 
Tweedside Nat, Club 
Sir G. Douglas, Bart. 
Mr. Hogg 


171 
192 

1783 
367 

612 


Trans.Eoy.Soc.Edin. 

Tweedside Nat'.' Club 
Trans.Eoy.Soc.Edin. 

Mr. Carter 


ELKIRKS 
597 

E SHET) 

72 

12 
I76 
265 


HIRE. 

Mr. Mathieson 
Trans.Eoy.Soc.Edin. 

-.ands. 

Bd. of North. Lights 
Eev. Z. M. Hamilton 

Mr. Mathewson 

Bd. of North. Lights 



Stirlingshire 

Ben Lomond | 1 800 

Drymen | 



J. M. Gale, Esq. 
Eev. A. Lochore 



C 1853- 
1834-37 



240 



REPORT 1865. 



Stirlingshire {continued). 



*B.A. 



*B.A. 



Station. 



Fintry Hills (Source of the 

Endrick) 

Millfield (Gardens) 

„ (House) 

Monteith (Cardross) 

Polmont 

Stirling (Ordnance S. O.) 

,, (Polnaise Gardens)... 

Strathblane (Carbeth) 

„ (Mugdock Res.) .. 



Eleva- 
tion. 



75° 
165 
169 



233 

12 

470 

320 



Observer. 



J. Miller, Esq. 

Mr. Scott 

Mr. Wyber . . 



Mr. Gorrie 

W.Smith, Esq.. 
J. M. Gale, Esq. 



Period. 



SUTIIERLANDSHIRE. 



Cape Wrath 

Golspie (Dunrobin Castle) .. 

Helmsdale 

Lairg (Invershin) 

Scourie 

Tongue House 



355 
6 

34 
20 
20 
33 



Bd. of North. Lights 

Mr. Mitchell 

Mr. Campbell 

Mr. Young 

J. Simpson, Esq. ... 
J. Crawford, Esq. . . . 



1853-55 T 

1863- 

1849-54, 1856-59 

1860- 

(1821-37) 

1858-60 

1852- 
C 1815- 
C 1862- 



C 1829- 
C 1860- 
C 1865- 

1863- 

C i856-6i,i862imp. 
C 1856- 



WlGTONSIIIRE. 



Corsewall 

Mull of Galloway 

Stranraer (Castle Kennedy). 

„ (South Cairn) .... 

Wigton (North Balfern) .... 



22 



209 



Bd. of North. Lights' C 1816- 
C 1S32- 

Mr. Burnett I 1837 

Mi-. Kennedv ! C 1S59- 

W.MacLelland.Esq. C 1865- 



IRELAND. 



Antrim. 



*B.A. 

t 

t 



Antrim 

Belfast (Harbour Office) . 

„ (Linen Hall) 

„ (Queen's College). 



150 

47 



Eev. J. H. Orr , 

O. Shaw, Esq. . 

Mr. Stevens ..., 
Mr.Bell 



12 

58 
Armagh. 

I Armagh Observatory | 247 | Eev. Dr. Robinson . 

Cavan. 



C 1864- 

1863- 
C 1796-99 T 
Ci8i2-32imp.i835- 

1851- 



1836- 



*B.A. 



*B.A. 



Bawnboy (Owendoon) i 218 

Belturbet (Redhills) ! 

Cavan i 230 



G.HL'Estrange.Esq 
Rev.E.B.W.Venables 
J. Price, Esq , 



Ennis . . . 
Killaloe . 



Clare. 

35 
128 



(5 in. -f- ground) 123 

Cork. 



Rev. S. L. Breakey 
Rev. C. Mayne 



C 1864- 
C 1864- 
C 1863- 



C 1864- 
C 1846- 
1861-63 



#B.A. 



Cork (Qneenstown) 

,, (Queen's College) . 

,, (Royal Institution). 

D unman way 

Fermoy 



65 

80 



Dr. Scott I 1844-48 imp, 

Prof. England 1862- 

R. Caulfield, Esq.... 1838, 1851-52, 1860- 

Mr. Donovan C 1865- 

Mr. Campbell. 



ON THE RAINFALL OP THE BRITISH ISLES. 
Donegal. 



£41 



Station. 



Letterkenny 
Milford 



Eleva- 
tion. 



107 
230 

Down. 



Observer. 



Rev. H. Kingsmill. . 
Rev. A. Delap 



Period. 



Ardglass Castle 

Ban bridge (Milltown) 

„ ( „ 40 ft.)... 

„ (Bann Reservoir) . . . 

Downpatrick (Seaford) 

Holywood (Green Mount) ... 
Lurgan ( Waringstown) 



200 
240 
440 
208 



A. Beauclerk, Esq. 
J. Smith, jua., Esq. 



190 
Dublin. 



G. W. Kyle, Esq. 
T. Waring, Esq. 



Dublin 




(Black Rock) 


»1 


(Broadstone Station) 
(Clonsilla) 


)J 


(College of Surgeons) 
(Glasnerin) 




(Monkstown) 




( „ 40ft) ... 
( „ 90 ft.) ... 
(Phoenix Park) 




( „ ) 


J* 

n 


(Trinity College) 
(Vicar's Lodge) 



95 

95 

220 

66 
100 
140 
200 
166 

42 
89 



A. Semple, Esq. . 
T. Bewley, Esq. 

J. Price, Esq 

Dr. Kirwan .... 
J.Price, Esq 



D. Moore, Esq. 
A. Pirn, Esq.... 



Capt. Wilkinson, R.E 

Rev. Prof. Galbraith 
S. Yeates, Esq 



C 1864- 
C 1864- 



C 1861- 

1864- 

C 1861- 

1863- 

(C 1865-) 

C 1861- 



1823-24 

1840- 
C 1863- 

1791-1808 
C 1863- 

1839-44 ' 
J 860- 

C 1859- 

C 1864- 

C 1861- 

C 1837-52 T 

C 1853-55, l86l ~ 

C 1841-60, 1863- 
1843-60, 1862- 
1835-39 imp. 



Fermanagh. 



Enniskillen (Florence Court) 
„ (Royal School, Portora) 



300 



Earl of Enniskillen 
Mr. Steel. 



Galway. 



Galway 

„ (Drainage Office) 

„ (Prospect) 

„ (Queen's College) 

Gort (CregPark) 

Outerard (Innishambo) ... 



40 
40 

2 5 
130 



J. Price, Esq 

G. H. D'Arcy, Esq. 



Prof. Curtis 

R. J. Lattey, Esq.. 
J. D'Arcy, Esq 



Kerry. 



Killarney 

>> 

Knights Town (Valentia). 



Mr. Spillane , 



Inistogue (Woodford) 

Kilkenny 

„ (Gowran Castle) .. 
Stoneyford (Inisnag) 



30 I The Knight of Kerry 

Kilkenny. 

Rt.Hon.W.F.Tighe- 
Messrs.Duffy &Boyd 
Rt.Hon.LordClifden 
Rev. J. Graves ...... 



i 8 44-45. 1854,1856- 



C 1863- 
1852-60 
1838 imp. 

C 1861- 

C 1864- 

C 1864- 



C 1865- 

C 1865- 

i86j- 



200 



King's County. 



Cangort Park [Roscrea] 

Parsonstown (Birr Castle) .. 
Tullamore 



340 H. B. Trench, Esq. 

200 Earl of Rosse 

235 H. J. B. Kane, Esq. 



Limerick. 



Limerick 



1865. 



(Blackwater) | 52 



Rev. C. Mayne , 
S.Caswell, Esq.. 



C 1865- 

1863- 

C 1865- 

C 1865- 



C 1863- 
1862- 
1850- 



1861 
C 1864- 



242 



REPORT — 1865. 

Londonderry. 





Station. 


EleTa- 
tion. 


Obserrer. 


Period. 






120 

150 


H. E. Morrison,Esq 
Dr. Cuthbert 


C 1864- 






1797-1800 imp. 




„ (Literary Association) 


1861- 




D. Watt, Esq 


1862- 




Longford. 






... 


H. Edgeworth, Esq. 


(1865) 






1798, 1807-08 






1862-63 T 






M.W.O'Connor.Esq. 


C 1864- 




Mayo. 






130 


G. H. D'Arcy, Esq. 
— Guineas. Esa. 


C 1863- 






1852-56, i860 










Meath. 




... | J. D. Fanell, Esq. ...| (C 1861-) 


Q 


ueen's County. 




236 | M. Hanlon, Esq. ...| C 1844- 




Eoscommon. 




... | H. Smyth, Esq | C 1864- 




Sligo. 




'45 

45 
5° 


Mr. O'Dowd 


C 1864- 








C 1833- 






Et. Hon. J. Wynne... 


C 1863- 






C 1863- 




TlPPERARY. 




300? 




C 1865- 








C 1864 T 


* 


Tipperary (Bally tristreen) ... 


J. Bolton, Esq 


C 1865- 
C i86a- 


11 \-"r- — oo — - — "/ 


Tyrone. 




| 260 | Eev. J. C. Maxwell C 1861- 




Waterf 


ORD. 


1840-49, 1852, 1860- 
C 1841- 






140 




„ (Eathculliheen) ... 




1859- 




Westmeath. 




| 150 | J. Price, Esq | C 1863- 




Wexford. 


*B A 




8S 
1 


Earl of Courtown . . . 
J. D. Farrell, Esq... 
C. M. Palliser, Esq. 


C 1864- 






1863- 




„ (Eeclaimed Lands) 


1863- 




WlCKLOW. 






2<o 1 E. Barrineton. Esa. 1 C i8«- 











ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS FOR IRON SHIPS. 213 

On the Strength of Materials considered in relation to the Construction 
of Iron Ships. By William Fairbairn, LL.D., F.R.S., fyc, and 
Thomas Tate, Esq.*. 

V. In the following investigation it will be assumed that, under the action of 
equal forces, the extension of the fibres of a beam will be equal in amount to 
their compression, and that the amount of the extension or compression, as 
the case may be, is proportional to the magnitude of the force producing it ; 
and in order to render this hypothesis more fully in accordance with the fact 
that the ultimate resistances of the two forces of compression and extension 
in a beam are in almost all cases different, it will be further assumed that the 
material reaches its ultimate limit of resistance to the one force before it 
reaches its ultimate limit of resistance to the other force. 

Section I. 
On tlie Qualities of Iron hesl adapted for Iron Ships, especially Ships of War. 

2. The work expended in the elongation or compression of a bar is equal 
to one-half the force multiplied hy the corresponding elongation. Moreover, 
for bars of the same material, the work varies as the solid content of the bar ; 
that is, 

U=mKL, (1) 

where TJ— the work of elongation, K= the section of the bar in square 
inches, L= its length in feet, and u a constant for each class of material, 
being the work done upon a bar .1 foot long and 1 square inch in section. 
Hence 

u= mriKV (2) 

which determines the value of u from experimental data for different kinds 
of material, where P is the strain in lbs., and I is the extension of the bar 
corresponding to this strain. 

3. The value of u, determined for different kinds of material, gives us a 
comparative measure of their powers of resistance to a strain of the nature of 
impact, or of dynamic effect; hence the coefficient u may be called the 
modulus of dynamic resistance, or, as Tredgold named it, the modulus of resi- 
lience. It is presumed that the best kind of iron for resisting the impact of 
shot or shell is that whose modulus of dynamic effect is greatest. 

4. The values of u, determined by Mr. Fairbairn's experiments for different 
plates or bars of iron, show that the dynamic resistance of thick plates to 
rupture is about twice and a half that of thin ones, that the resistance of 
thick steel plates is about one-tenth greater than that of the Low Moor iron 
plates A, and that the resistance of these latter plates is one-half greater than 
that of the rolled plates D. 

5. Similarly the work expended in the deflection of a bar supported at its 
extremities, by a force applied at its centre, is equal to one-half the pressure 
multiplied by the corresponding deflection ; and, moreover, we also have 

U=mKL, (3) 

where u, the modulus of dynamic resistance, being constant for the same kind 
of material, gives us a comparative measure of the resistance of different kinds 
of material to a force of impact tending to produce transverse rupture. 

* In this inquiry Mr. Tate has deduced useful formulae from Mr. Fairbairn's experi- 
ments — independent of other researches — on the strength of iron ships. 

s2 



244 report — 1865. 

Section II. 
Transverse Strains produced on a Ship under various conditions. 

6. The value of M, or the strain tending to rupture a beam, depends on 
the magnitude and the relative position of the pressures applied to the beam. 

When the pressure "W is applied at the middle of the beam A B, supported 

at its extremities (fig. 1), the pressure p- -i 

W °' 

on the support at A is equal to — ; and > ■ j 

A Q ' C n 

the moment M, of this pressure tend- Q w ** 

ing to rupture the beam at any point, 

W 

Q, is equal to the product of the pressure -^ by its leverage A Q ; that is, 

— 

M 1= ^xAQ (4) 

Now this will become a maximum when AQ=AC; that is, the greatest 
strain will take place at the centre of the beam, or at the point where the 
weight is applied. 

7. A beam AB, fixed at the extremity B, is acted upon by a series of ver- 
tical pressures, p v p 2 , p n , whose distances from B are respectively 

a 1} a 2 , a n . To find the value of M. 

Here the greatest strain must take place at B ; 

.-. TL=p x a x + . . . . .+p n a n =(p 1 + p n )QB), (5) 

where GB is the distance of the centre of gravity of all the pressures from 
the point of support B. 

8. A beam AB, supported at its extremities, is acted upon by a series of 
pressures on each side of the central pressures p 2 ,p 3 ,p v applied at the points 
E, F, H. To find the great- 
est value of M. Fl g- 2 - 

Let p 1 be the resultant of « |. « I D 1. 

the pressures applied be- a . * r ' * Ha *^ — jJ^X_gg_ b 

tween A and E, and p s the f^ D K Ci Q F H I J 

residtant of those applied jjj 4 

between B and H. p i l '* 

By the principle of the equality of moments, we get 

P lS =-L ( Pl x DB +p 2 X EB +p 3 x EB +p t x HB +p s x IB) 

A_b 

=«(*>■+ +A)GB=^? ( (0) 

which gives the pressure on the prop A, where "W is put for the sum of the 
pressures, and G is their centre of gravity. 

Supposing Q, lying between the pressures p 2 and_p 3 , to be the point corre- 
sponding to the greatest strain, or, in fact, the point where rupture would 
take place in a beam of uniform dimensions. 

Now when the lever AQ, turns on Q as a centre, we get 

M=P 1 x AQ-fo X DQ+p 2 x EQ) 

=*( P i-JPi— Pa) A Q+Pi X AD+p 2 X AE 
= A QJWxGB-ABCp 1 +^ 2 )} +p 1 AD+p 2 AE (7) 

by substituting the value of P x given in equation (6). 



M-- 



ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS FOR IRON SHIPS. 245 

Substituting the value of W X GB given in equation (6), and putting g r for 
the distance of the centre of gravity of p v p 2 from A, and g 2 for that of p 3 , p if 
p 5 from B, we get 

M= lt { (P*+P*+PJ9-^+PJ9i } +(Pi+ft)fc (8) 

By interchanging the symbols of this expression, the moment taken in re- 
ference to the pressure P 2 will be 

[= AB { CPi+i , 2>fl r -(P 3 +Pi+P 6 )ff2 } + (P 3 +P*+P s )ff 2 (9) 

This expression may be shown to be identical with the former by putting 
AB-AQfor BQ. 

Similarly, supposing the point Q to lie between F and H, we get 

U= TE { W x GB ~ AB Oi +P*+P*) } +f>, x AD +jp a x AE +_p 3 x AF. (10) 

Now, if the quantity within the brackets of equation (7) is positive, while 
that of equation (10) is negative, the value of M expressed by equation (7) 
will increase with AQ, attaining a maximum at F ; on the other hand, the 
value of M expressed by equation (10) will increase as AQ is decreased, at- 
taining a maximum at F ; hence it follows that the point F under these con- 
ditions will undergo the greatest strain, and equation (7) will express the 
maximum value of M by substituting AF for AQ, the test for the point F 
of greatest strain being as follows : — 

fx GB— AB 0^+^) = positive (P) 

¥x GB- AB ( Pl +p 2 +p s ) = negative (N) 

Example.— Let AB=40, p 1 = 6, p o = 10, p 3 =20, p t =8, p 5 =6 tons,DB = 
32, EB=25, FB=22, HB = 12, IB ="4. Then from (P) and (N) we find that 
F is the point of greatest strain, and from equation (7) we find M, the greatest 
moment tending to rupture the beam, to be 361 nearly. 

9. When W x GB=AB fa+pj, or (p a +p t +p t ) &=(*>, +J> 2 ) g lf eq. (7) 
becomes 

M=p I xAD+p 2 xAE (11) 

Now as this expression is independent of AQ, it follows that the value of M 
is the same for all points lying between E pj ff g 

and F. This remarkable result may be rea- ^ " 

dily verified by observing that in this case A E g ■ B 

When there are only two pressures, p 2 , p 3 , (J) q 

appUcd to the beam — that is, when p l —p i = ■** ■** 

p 5 =0 (see fig. 3), then equation (8) becomes 

M=f§(p 3 xBF-p. 2 xAE)+ i32 xAE (12) 

AU 

If p 3 X BF>p 2 x AE, then M becomes a maximum at F ; that is, AQ=AF. 

When p 3 x BF=p 2 x AE, then this expression becomes 

M=p 2 x AE, or p 3 x BF, (13) 

which, being independent of AQ, shows that the moment is constant for all 
points lying between E and F. 

10. When a ship has its load unequally distributed throughout its length, 
to find the point of maximum strain, &c, the ship being supported at the 
extremities A and B. 



24G 



REPORT — 1865. 



Fig. 4. 




A^D KHGiEQ 

Suppose the ship to be uniformly loaded over the parts AK, KE, &c, 
and let p x , p 2 , &c. he the loads over these parts respectively. Put £ = AB; 
Tc =AE ; fc=EF j A-.,=FB ; a=CB, the centre of gravity of EF being at C ; 
w — the weight of the mass over AE, r/ 1 = the distance of its centre of gra- 
vity from A ; w o= the weight of the mass over FB, g 2 = the distance of its 
centre of gravity from A ; %> 3 — the weight of the mass over EF ; x= AQ, the 
greatest strain being supposed at Q, ; then 



H^ X AQ-w x (AQ-^)-%2 x (AQ-AE) x| AQ-AE) 
= P r r- W , (^-grj -% (.r-/.-,) 2 ; 



,^r=R_ Wi _^» (.t-^) = 0, when M is a max. 5 



" a? =^-{ fc ( P i- w >) +2& ^»} 



(2) 



(3) 



Substituting the value of J > 1 given in equation (1), this expression de- 
termines the point Q of greatest strain ; and substituting the values of 
P £ and .v, here found, in equation (2), the maximum value of H will be 
determined. 

(1) 'Hw 1 <7 1 =?0 2 27 2 ,and& 1 =Z.'=£ 2 =s, then from equation (1) we get 

which, substituted in equation (3), gives a7=o '■> that is, the point of greatest 

strain is at the centre. 

Again, substituting these values in equation (2), we get 

M = T2 P 3 l + W tfi ( 4 ) 

(2) If 2p s =0, and w l c) l =w 2 g , then P ] = tc 1 , and M.=w 1 g J , which ex- 
presses the moment tending to rupture all points lyiug between E and F. 

11. Suppose the length of the ship to be divided into six equal spaces, 
AK, KE, EC, CF, FI, IB, the loads on each part being p v p„ P„, P& 2 3 *> Pe 
respectively; then 

AK=KE=&c. = g, and 

■ P 1 =^{p,xLB4- J p 4 xVB + &c.} 

= V2 {ft+^+^+TiPi+^i+llA } (5) 



ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS FOR IRON SHIPS. 247 

M=P^-^-^)-^-|)-^^-|) J (6) 

And to render M a maximum, we find 

»4{ ^'% p '- p ' }-~ (?) 

The values of P L and x, substituted in equation (6), give the greatest mo- 
ment, M, tending to rupture the ship. 

(1) If.p 5 =2V an ^jPi = 2 J 2> then equation (7) becomes #=o; that is, the 

greatest strain will be at the centre C. 

And from equation (5) we find P 1 =i> 1 +i> a +p 3 5 and substituting in 
equation (6), we get 

^=^(^+3^ + 5^3) (8) 

(2) If ^- be put for the sum of- the pressures, p v jo 3 , jo 3 , on each half of 
the ship, and let G x be the centre of gravity of these pressures, then 

w w w ^ 

M=P l x AC- J x $£=■% X AC— g x G,C 



.(9) 



= 2-xAG l5 

that is, the moment tending to rupture the beam at the centre is equal to the 
load on one half of the ship multiplied by the distance of its centre of gravity 
from the extremity. 

12. Now let us suppose that the ship is balanced upon its centre C (see 
fig. 4) ; then, in this case, the greatest strain will obviously be at the point 
of support C ; hence we have 

M=j Pl X DC +2> 2 X HC +p 3 x |EC ; 

but 

DC= T \ I, HC=^ I, and \ EC=Jj I ; 

...M= 3 ^(5 i > l + 3 Pa + i > 3 ); (10) 

or proceeding as in equation (9), we get 

[^xG^orf (l-AG,) (11) 

Comparing this expression with equation (9), it will be observed that as the 
load is accumulated towards the centre of the ship, AG t will be greater than 
G,C, and therefore (9) will be greater than (11). 

"W 

13. If the load be equally distributed, or j> 1 =j) a =&c.=-g, then AG^I of 

-=- and equation (9) becomes 

*4©-T. a*) 

and from equation (11) we get 

-KH)-? (13 > 

where the results of equation (12) and (13) are the same ; that is to say, the 



M= 



248 



REPORT — 1865. 



Fig. 5. 



moments tending to rupture the ship, in the two positions, are the same 
when the load is uniformly distributed throughout its length. 

14. "When the load has the form of a trapezoidal figure ADEFB, to find 
the greatest moment tending to rupture 
the b.e.am , AB supported at its extre- 
mities. 

Let AB = 7, AI=«, IB=a lt EI = e, 
AD = 6, BF = 6 i; AQ =.?,// = the weight 
of a unit of surface in the load. 

Now, observing that the moment 
of the surface ADEFB is equal to the 
moment of the rectangle AJLB minus 
the sum of the moments of the triangles 
DJE and ELF, we find, after reduction, 




> = fi { 3«?-«(«-&)( 2 «+ 3a i)-( e 



-AX*} 



When a 1 =a, this expression becomes 



^=^(6^+55 + 6,) 



12 



(14) 



(15) 



The, trapezoid ADRQ being composed of the rectangle ADVQ and the 
triangle DVB, we have 



,, ^ , x x e— 

M = P,a? — phx x g - g x ~ a 

e—b 



XXX n±x 



(16) 



Hence for the maximum value of M, 



dx-^-^ 



2a " 



! = 0: 



■-■■*&{*/*?*<**-*} 



(17) 



which gives the point Q where the greatest strain takes place. 

The values of P, and as being substituted in equation (16), we find the 
maximum value of M as required. 

(1) When a x =a, then P x is expressed by equation (15), and we get 

x= 7Zb { V*(«-&)(6« + 5&+& 1 ) + 6 a -6 } (18) 

Substituting these values in equation (16), we find the maximum moment 
required. 

(2) WTien 6, = b in the last equalities, we find x=a ; that is, the greatest 
strain will take place in the centre of the beam ; and from equation (16) and 
(15) we get 

■&=ya\2e + b) (19) 

Section III. 

Strength, SfC, of Beams. 

15. The moment of the forces tending to rupture a beam being always 
equal to the moment of the forces resisting rupture, the symbol M may be 



ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS FOR IRON SHIPS. 



249 



Fig. 6. 



-N. 



used to express either of these moments. It must be observed, therefore, 
that all the expressions hereafter given for M, the moment of rupture or 
the moment of flexure, as the case may be, are equal to the moment of the 
forces tending to break the beam. 

16. Let h equal the distance of the upper edge of the section of rupture 
from the neutral axis passing through the centre of gravity of the section ; 
7*, the distance of the lower edge from the neutral axis ; S= the resistance 
of the material, per square inch, to compression at the upper edge ; Sj = the 
resistance of the material, per square inch, to extension at the lower edge ; 
and I == the moment of inertia of the section about its centre of gravity ; 
then 

M =f'*o' OT |-Io (1) 

The value of I depends solely on the geometrical form of the transverse 
section of the beam. 

17. The following values of I for different sections of material will be 
found useful in calculating the transverse strength of a beam having a com- 
plex section, such as that of an iron ship. 

(1) For a thin plate, AB, about any axis, 
NCO, passing through its centre of gra- 
vity C, 

I o = T VE7 2 sin 2 0, 

where K is the area of the section, and I sin 
the projection of I, the length of the plate, 
upon the vertical or upon a line perpendicular 
to the axis. 

(2) For a hollow rectangle, 

where b= the breadth of the section, d= its depth, b l = the internal breadth, 
and rf,= its internal depth. 

(3) For an ellipsis about any axis NO passing 
through the centre C, 

WW 

where 2p=AB, the vertical depth of the section 
when the major and minor axes are equal, p=r the 
radius of the circle. 

(4) For a hollow circle, 

where d and cZ, are the external and internal 
diameters respectively. 

When the plate is thin, I =£foP very nearly, which also approximately 
expresses that of a hollow elliptical section, d being the vertical axis. 

(5) "When the depth of any surface is small as compared with its distance 
from the axis, 

I=aa, 2 very nearly, 

where «= the area of the section, and a= the distance of its centre of gravity 
from the axis about which the moment of inertia is taken. 

(6) The moment of inertia of a square is the same for all axes passing 




Fig. 7. 




250 



REPORT — 1865. 





through the centre, whatever may be the in- 
clination. Thus 

where 1= the length of the side. 

And for a square hollow girder of uniform 
thickness, T i n* 7 *\ 

where l x = the length of the interior side. 

(7) For a parallelogram CEFG about any axis AB passing through 
the centre, 

I = T \K{1 2 sin 2 (0, + 6) + e 2 sin 2 flj, Fig. 9. 

where Z=CG=EF; e=CE = GF; E= area of 
parallelogram; 0=angle GCE, 1 =angle B, the 
angle which the side CE or CE produced makes 
with the axis of moments. 

When 0=90°, or the surface becomes a rec- 
tangle, 

(8) For angle-iron AMRFE about any axis 
NO, 

where Z=AM=MR, Z 1= =EF=FL, x, x l = the 
distance of the centres of the squares MC and 
FC respectively from NO. Fig. 10. 

(9) If A and B be put for the moments of 
inertia of a surface about its two principal axes, 
perpendicular to each other respectively, then 
the moment of inertia of the surface about any 
axis passing through the centre will be 

I o =Acos s 1 + Bsin 2 1 , 

where t is the inclination of the oblique axis 

to the principal axis corresponding to the mo-0 c ST 

ment of inertia A. 

(10) For a plate KB in the form of a quadrant, about the axis NO parallel 
to the radius CB, 

I= TB { r\^ + 4e^-r l \r^ + 4e') } +§<r*-r 1 s ). Fig. 11. 

where r is put for the external radius of the plate, r t 
for its internal radius, and e is put for the distance of 
the axis NO from the radius CB. 

When the thickness of the plate is small as com- 
pared with its distance e from the axis, then 

I=lK(r 2 +4e 2 )+f<r 3 -r 1 3 ). 

Section IV. 

To find tlie Moment of a Complex Girder, such, as an iron sTiip, composed 

of a series of parts. 

18. Let a , a l9 a n represent the sectional areas of the portions com- 








ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS FOR IRON SHIPS. 251 

posing the transverse section of the heam ; a , « 1( . . . . a n the distance of the 
centres of gravity of these areas respectively from the upper edge AB of the 

section ; Q , Q p Q n the moments of inertia of these areas respectively 

about their respective centres of gravity ; h the distance of the neutral axis 
of the whole section from the upper edge. 
For the neutral axis we have 

q g + q lgl + ... +a «, t _l_ n 
h= a + a 1+ ....a n 1»A (1) 

The distance of the centre of gravity of the area a n from the neutral axis 
is (Ji—a n ), and so on to the others; hence we find 
I =Q + Q l + . . . Q n +a (7 i -a ) 2 + « 1 (7 4 - a .) 2 + . . . +ajk-*j 

= 2"Q„ + SX(^-0% • (2) 

where it will be observed that (h—a n ) 2 is always positive. 

Hence we have the following general theorem : — 

General Theorem I. — If the section of a compound girder be composed of a 
scries of sectional areas, the moment of inertia of the whole section, about its 
neutral axis, is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia of the different 
sections about their respective centres of gravity added to the sum of all the 
areas multiplied respectively, by the square of the distance of their centres of 
gravity from the neutral axis. 

N.B. — It may happen that the moment of inertia Q l of some part of the 
section can be most readily found by referring at once to the neutral axis 
NO of the whole section ; then, in this case, the value of Q 1 must be added 
to equation (2). 

19. If Q , Q x be taken as the moments of inertia of the sectional areas 
which meet or pass through the line of the neutral axis, or which may have 
a considerable depth, as, for example, the side plates of a tubular girder ; and 
supposing the. other sectional areas to be accumulated toward the upper and 
lower parts of the section of the beam ; then the depths of these sectional 
areas being small as compared with their respective distances from the 
neutral, axis, Q 2 , . . . ., Q n may be neglected without incurring any consi- 
derable error ; 

••• Io = Qo + Q 1 + 2X(7*-a„) 2 (3) 

And if Q , Q 1 be neglected, then 

I =2X(fc-«J 2 (4) 

Hence we have the following general theorem : — 

General Theorem II. — When the different depths of the sectional areas of 
a series of plates, forming a compound girder, are small as compared with 
the distance of their respective centres of gravity from the neutral axis, then 
the moment of inertia of the whole section is very nearly equal to the sum of 
all the areas multiplied respectively by the square of the distance of their 
centres, of gravity from the neutral axis. 

20. To determine the strength, Sfc, of a tubular learn, ABCD (fig. 12), 
composed of a series of cells AF, with angle-iron, at the top part, and of 
thick solid plates CD at the bottom part. 

Here the section of the beam may be divided into three portions, viz. the 
cells at the top, the bottom plates, and the side plates. 



252 



REPORT 1865. 



For the position of the neutral axis NO we 
have by equation (1), art. 18, 

7l =£(«o a o +«!<*, + tf 2 aj, (1) 

where a , a v a 2 are the areas of the material in the 
sides, in the top cells, and in the bottom plates re- 
spectively, and so on. 

If D = AC, the depth of the beam, then 
7 h =J)-h. 

From equation (2), art. 18, we get 

I =Q + Q 1 + Q 2 +«„(> t -O 2 

+ a 1 (h-* i y + a 2 (h-ccj, (2) 

where Q =the moment of inertia of the side plates 
about their centre of gravity, Q 2 that of the top 
cells, and Q, 2 that of the bottom plates. 

If the beam be loaded in the middle and sup- 
ported at the ends, then M=|WZ, and 

iWZ=M=|l or^I ; 



Fig. 12. 



W= 



4SI 



-J or Sk 

hi ° \l ' 




which gives the load corresponding to any assumed value of S or S r 
versely S or S x may be determined for any given load, W. 

(1) The following is a more simple and practical method of calculating 
(approximately) the strength of these beams. 

Putting a, rtj for the areas of the top and bottom parts respectively, g, g i for 
the distance of their respective centres of gravity from NO, and (i=g-]-g 1 , 
neglecting the side plates, for the position of the neutral axis, we have 

a ff= a iffi 

And from General Theorem II., art. 19, we get 

Io =a 9*+ a i9i*= a 9(9+9i) or a i9,(9+9d 
= agG or a^fi ; 

.-. M=t«5 , G or j^a^gfi 



(4) 
(5) 



= SaD X |jj or S^D X j±q 



(6) 



=S«D or SjfitjD nearly, 

taking K~. and 'Apr as constants, each being nearly equal to unity. 

Here the strength varies as the top or bottom areas multiplied by the depth. 
If K be put for the whole section, and taking ~rfr= I -^ — a constant, we 



get 



M=C(a+a 1 )D=CKD 

Here the strength varies as the whole section multiplied by the depth. 
When M=5WZ, we get 

_ 4SaD 4S,«,D 
W= — 7— or 



(7) 



I 



I 



(8) 



ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS FOR IRON SHIPS. 



253 



A similar formula may be derived for beams with double flanges. 

From the experiments on the model Conway tube we find S x = 16-5 tons ; 
hence we have 



wJ°p, 



(9) 



which is the formula usually employed for calculating the strength of these 
beams ; where W is expressed in tons, a t being the area of the bottom plate 
in inches, D the whole depth of the beam, and I the distance between the two 
supports expressed in the same units as D. 

In cast-iron beams with double flanges, as derived from the experiments 
of the late Mr. Hodgkinson, 



W _2KP 



(10) 



Strength of an Iron Ship. 
21. To determine the strength, <fcc, of an iron ship, the transverse section 
being represented in the annexed diagram, AB and EF the upper and lower 
decks, AD and BD ; the sides down to the bilge, LR, US, SD, &c. a series 
of plates, assumed to be straight, forming the bottom, and so on. 



Fig. 13. 



Or 




Ml 





Y G 3 




F 



O 




Having divided the section into a convenient number of parts, formulae (1) 
and (2), art 18, give the most exact method of calculating the moment of 
inertia of the whole section ; where the moment of inertia of each part about 
its centre of gravity must be determined, and so on. But the following method 
of calculation is more simple and sufficiently exact for all practical purposes. 

Put a, for the area of the material in the upper deck ; a 2 for that of the 
lower deck ; a 3 for the lower hold stringers ; a 4 for the bilge keelsons ; a. for 
the sister keelsons ; «„ for the middle keelson ; a 7 for the keel piece L ; a t 
for the plates LB,, LR X ; a 3 for the plates RSjR^ ; a 10 for the plates SD, S 1 D 1 ; 



254 



REPORT 1865. 



a for the side plates AD, BD 1 down to the top of bilge, d being their depth ; 
and so on, as before ; the equations (1) and (3), art. 18, 19, will become 



-io„ 



l =Qo+2j a ^- a J 2 = 1 Vo^+2:J « ! (7 i - a J 2 



(1) 

(2) 



where Q is the moment of inertia of the side plates about their centre of 
gravity. It will be observed that (Ji — a t J' is always positive. 

And we further have 

8 



M=|l 

h 



and 



' r ^o 



S= 



m 



R ma 2 

O, as — f — . 



(3) 



W 



Fiar. 14. 



If the plates AE, ED have not the same thickness, then Q, of formula (3), 
art. 19, must be retained, and Q and Q x calculated accordingly. 

22. If a ship is supported at its extremities, and the load distributed as de- 
scribed in art. 10, then equations (6) or (2), accord- 
ing to circumstances, will give the value of II in the 
foregoing formulas ; or if the ship be supported at 
the centre, then equations (10) or (11), art. 12, will 
give the value of M, and so on to other cases. 

To adopt a more summary though less accurate 
method of calculation, let AI) represent the section 
of the material of an iron ship ; the flange «, the 
section of the materials of the main deck ; the 
flange a. the section of the lower deck ; the flange 
a the section of the bottom ; a the section of the 
material in the side plates or rib, d being the 
depth, and so on, as before. In this case equations 
(1) and (2), art. 21, become 




I 




h=^(a u a + a l a. L + a.jt 2 + a 3 a 3 ), 



(5) 

l^^a^l + a.ih-ccJ + a^h-ccJ' + aXh-aJ + a.Xh-cc.Y (6) 

If we take d =~D, the whole depth of the section, « 2 = D, « =^ D, and 
a = 0, these formulas become 

h=l^a + a 3 )J) + a 2a2 ], (7) 

Io=«o{-iVD 2 + ^-P) 2 } + ^ 2 + ^-« 2 ) a + ^^-D) 2 (8) 

VTJien the depth and the amount of material in the transverse section are 
given, to determine the distribution of the material so that the beam may have 
the greatest strength. 

23. The first and most important condition of maximum strength is, that 
the material should be accumulated, as far as practicable, at the upper and 
lower edges of the beam. 

In tubular girders, where the material is accumulated at the upper and 
lower edges of the girder, the sectional areas at these parts should be in the 
inverse ratio of the ultimate resistances of the material in these parts re-» 
spectively. 



ON THE STRENGTH OF MATERIALS FOR IRON SHIPS. 255 

The results of experiments closely confirm the truth of this deduction. In 
wrought-iron girders, for example, the bottom section is about fths of the 
top section ; and in cast-iron beams the section of the bottom flange is about 
6| times that of the top flange, -which is approximately, in the case of cast 
iron, the ratio of the resistance of compression to that of extension. 

The next condition of maximum strength determines generally the relative 
amount of the material on each side of the neutral axis. The principle 
upon which this distribution of material depends is this : when the material 
at the upper edge of the beam is upon the point of yielding by compression, 
the material at the lower edge must at the same time be upon the point of 
yielding by extension ; hence 

S S. S h ..-.,. 

*=V or s;=*- ; (1) 

that is, the distances of the neutral axis from the upper and loiver edges of the 
beam should be in the ratio of the ultimate resistances of the material at these 
parts respectively. 

o 

If r=o-, and D=the whole depth of the beam, then 

£=-^-...(2), and^— (3) 

In the case of wrought iron, r=% nearly; that is, the ultimate resistance 
of wrought iron to compression is about £ of its ultimate resistance to ex- 
tension. 

24. To determine the area, a t , of the material in the transverse section of 
the upper deck (art. 22) so as to have a maximum strength with a given 
amount of material. 

The strains on a ship afloat are somewhat different from the strains on an 
ordinary fixed girder ; for it is found that the upper part of the transverse 
section of a ship when afloat is sometimes subjected to compression and at 
other times to that of extension. But of these two strains the former is 
generally the more violent. It will therefore be expedient, in calculating the 
distribution of the material in the section of an iron ship, to regard the upper 
portion of the section as that which is subjected to extension ; and therefore 
in this case we should have 

A= — —T' 
r-fl 

Making this substitution in equation (7), art. 22, and putting a -f a 1 + a 2 -f a 3 
for K, we get 

«i=^- {.(K+«.) D + «*«» } -(«»+«>+««) (1) 

If we assume r=l, then this expression becomes 

In one of our most approved iron ships, ffl =440 square inches, a 2 =156, 
a 3 =490, D=23| feet, a 2 =7| feet, required a v 

Substituting these values m equation (1), we find a v or the area of the 
upper deck, to exceed 300 square inches. Now in this iron ship the equivalent 
area of the upper deck is only about 230 square inches ; hence it appears 
that this portion of the ship should be about one-half stronger than it is, in 
order to have a proper distribution of the material. 



256 report — 1865. 

It may not be practicable in all cases to construct iron ships with such a 
large section of iron at the upper deck ; yet such should be the distribution of 
the material in the section in order to secure a maximum of strength with a 
given amount of material. 

In the distribution of the material there is another consideration of some 
importance ; and that is, that all bodies in the form of beams, whether hollow 
or solid, follow the same law as regards a transverse strain, viz. that in a beam 
uniformly loaded the strains are always greatest in the middle and progres- 
sively diminish to the points of support at either end. These facts arc self- 
evident, and show in the case of an iron ship that the same thickness of plates is 
not required when working from the centre at midships to the stem and 
stern. In fact, they should taper or be reduced in thickness according to 
a certain ratio of their distances from the centre till they reach the extremes 
at each end. Theoretically this is true ; but in practice we have to consider 
how much the thickness can be reduced without danger to the structure, and 
in general we may here observe that the reduction should not exceed one-third 
between the centres and the two extremes. Or, in other words, if we assume 
the strakes or sheathing plates of the bottom and round the bilge to the height 
of the interior floor, or one-fifth of the depth, to be seven-eighths of an inch, 
it then follows that their thicknesses may be safely and progressively reduced 
to five-eighths thick towards the bow and stem. The same reduction to 
five-eighths may be made from that point, one-fifth of the depth, to the 
neutral axis of transverse strains, or about halfway up the ship's side, when 
they shoidd again increase to seven-eighths thick for the top strakes at the 
deck, on each side, where they have to perform the office of stringers and 
columns under the action of the two forces of tension and compression. 

From these remarks it is obvious that a careful distribution of the material 
is a consideration of great importance in ship-building ; and although it may 
be necessary in some constructions to deviate somewhat from the absolute 
rule, yet it is nevertheless essential that the law of strains should be carefully 
observed, and weak parts sufficiently guarded against. 

Section V. 
On the Penetration of Iron Armour-Plates by flat-faced tempered Steel Shot. 

25. The experiments conducted at Shoeburyness seem to warrant the con- 
clusion that, in firing at strong armour-plates with cast or wrought-iron shot, 
about one-half of the effect is lost in distorting or in breaking up the shot 
itself, and, further, that with steel shot of tough temper nearly the whole 
of the work stored in it is expended upon the plate. 

Mr. Fairbairn's experiments on punching led to the following general laws 
relative to the resistance of iron plates to a force tending to rupture them : — 

The diameter of the punch being constant, the pressure requisite to pro- 
duce rupture varies, approximately, as the thickness of the plate. 

"When the thickness of the plate is constant, the pressure requisite to pro- 
duce rupture varies, approximately, as the diameter of the punch. 

And, generally, the pressure requisite to produce rupture varies as the 
thickness of the plate multiplied by the diameter of the punch, or, what 
amounts to the same thing, as the area of the shearing surface abraded in 
the process of punching ; that is, 

Vttrt, 

where P is the ultimate pressure in lbs., (the thickness of the plate in inches, 
and r the radius of the end of the punch. 



3j 'Report BrvaahAsso datum 286 



TlaXe 2 



Tiew of -portion of fixe S. W. Coast of Malta- from- the Secb, showrna the. relative 
-positions of the strata-, fossiUferons Caverns, and. Fault,, with the aXbuviaZ tie, 
-posit on flie surface of the depressed land '._ ■ Fi j / 







B B R r L l mest ™ Miocene Z ™ e " f Fmdt -marked ty — K™ and sliekensides C.Z.of Ditto. , 
ult / ? T , , -r . T-MTosiium* of the three Caves cnt.nn.m. eazovi* pfSUpha* ' 

VA^nsis.mppopvtcrna .Won ,hfi of A as recorded Man 4 Debris of the, Cave L Mahik Cure 
j.llluvium am] breccia cantouim,, remains of E Mehtensis. 6 Modem AHumon coverma 6 hlslet ofFOfla 
pmposed a, 6u ^per Limestone ffaeValak Cave Wppopotanu* Mvoxus &,. Z Mi£& late fyJaZrWOmte 
Jrvuola Land .shells &c. 3 Urudira love Elephas Mutmsis MvoaZis &c. ' mauensu 



Section of the coast showiru, the positions of the Middle and 

Mn.ndra Caves with reference to the downthrow and 

/psnUferous deposit thereon . sJStSZT 




-cr?_ 



i. Islet of FJil.i composed of the, 

cpi>ei- limestone 
B Drecda and red earth corvtaaana 

remazns of X:JXeitensis 

' '/,■,/, j „ Mln yuan coverings 



D. Bent and contorted Strata 

conse</uent cm die {LownHhro-w 
R. Section of Middle Carte 
F. Section, of Mruztihra Cave 



.rjVXriri-e fcuZp\ 



«*» 



x& 



w&l 



3 $■* Report British Association 186S 



Tla-tf- S 




A, Superficial drift containing trace*? of II vacus 3Iclitensis , and, masses of Ore parent rock, 
/Lower Limestone ,_B , Shelf of Stalactite containina land shells , teeth andhcmes of th, lain, 

Bodent Mvo.nts 3Ielitensis, Elephas Mclitensis ,and Birds hones C, Bed clay and rounded stones 

mostly ??i the centre , -with remains similar toB_D, A shelf of Stalactite and rounded stones at 

the oottom/JVi Bed loam hcaren of organic remains^. Yellow hand, Ditto G, Reddish black . 

loam, Ditto — H Wlate calcareous dnppina witJv a hlack seam an the, tap. Ditto ^The dark, 

majkinas indicate where oraanic remains ate found. 



Section at the farthest UrnCt of fa &.-a>a.-vation,,Mav 10. 1865 fFu?.4.) 
"West East 



FCa 5 




A, Superficial drift with fragments of -parent rock andremains of Myoazus Mclitensis _]3, 
Stalactue of roof — C.Red earth and rounded, stones wim organic, remains, Elephas, Mv, >.rus. 
Birds, &c._E,Yellow hand depending fi-orn D a gap in me roof 'with hi 'aclc seams 1& Z above & 
helow it_T>,Fossiliferaus deposit similar to C —G.Bardened shelf of Stalagmite wifhrowtded 
stones and org ante remains, chiefly Birds-R.Red, loamy devoid, of organic remains— I Band 
of ' yellow loam, Ditto- J, Reddish hlack loam, Ditto -K.White calcareous Stalagmite with a 

hlack seam on its surface at cc_L, Gaping horizontal fissui-es containing red earth 

~XL,£ast corner where the left ramus of the, lower jaw of E. Mclitensis was foxmR . 

Fig 5, Ground plan, of Cave, dark lines show the. eartent & course offhefossiUferous hand 

Z, The edge of a shelf of rock raider which, the. cave zs supposed, to eavtend inwards. 



Enaraved. bv JWLowr\ 



1 Sgis- 

: i 

l l ^ ft; ,-- 1 *, . / 



■\ 



i -' 






MALTESE CAVES. 257 

Now the work TJ expended in the penetration of a plate by a force vary- 
ing as the depth of penetration is expressed by the formula 

U=!Px T V; 

.-. ~U = Crf, (1) 

where the work requisite to penetrate a plate varies as the square of its thickness 

nmltiplied by the radius of the shot. 

Substituting the value of the constant C, deduced from the experiments 

with ordnance, we get 

U=24400jA (2) 

w v 
where TJ= t - — , the work in the projectile at the instant of impact. 

Hence we have for the depth of penetration by a shot with a given weight, 
size, and velocity, 

(3) 



-v; 



24400? 



From this formula it follows that a 100 lb. steel shot of tough temper, 6 
inches diameter, with the velocity of 1200 feet per second, will completely 
perforate an armour-plate 5 inches in thickness. This result is fairly borne 
out by the results of experiments with ordnance. 

If 3f inches be taken as the average radius of a shot, then formula. (3) 
becomes 

*«-*foV& (4) 

which may be regarded as a rough approximation of the damaging effect of 
shot not differing widely from this dimension. 



Maltese Caves. — Report on Mnaidra Cave. 
By A. Leith Adams, M.A., M.B., F.G.S. 

1. The strata composing the Maltese Islands belong to an early Miocene 
period ; and attain a maximum height of about 720 feet above the sea-level. 
They consist, from above downwards, of the Upper Limestone, underlaid by 
beds of Sand, Marl, Calcareous Sandstone, and last of all, a rather compact 
and durable rock called the Lower Limestone. The latter attains its greatest 
height on the south and south-west coasts, reaching an elevation of 300 feet 
above the sea-level. Several cliffs of this bed contain natural caves, one of 
which, the subject of this Report, was discovered by me in 1863. 

2. The Maltese strata are all more or less displaced by faults, whilst their 
exposed surfaces well attest the denuding effects of bygone atmospheric and 
aqueous agencies. This is very apparent in many situations ; indeed the 
generally bare aspect of the islands, and the accumulations of soil and frag- 
ments of rocks in the fissures and hollows, together with depressions existing 
here and there, fully testify to the great changes which the area underwent 
during and subsequently to the period or periods when the remains of its post- 
tertiary fauna were being buried in those situations. 

3. The alluvial deposits of the Maltese Islands consist — 1st, of a calcareous 
red clay, containing peroxide of iron, and similar to that of many of the other 
islands and along the shores of the Mediterranean ; and 2ndly, a blue marl, 
which is obtained from the degradation of the bed of that name, found in situ 

1865. t 



258 report — 1865. 

in the higher parts of the islands. Intermediate varieties of both, consequent 
on the destruction of the rock formations, are also common, but it is in the 
deposits of one or other of the first two sorts that the remains of the extinct 
fossil fauna are usually found. These are generally intermixed with angular 
or rounded fragments of the rocks, forming compact breccias or conglome- 
rates, which in the caves are often covered up by stalagmitic infiltrations and 
red earth ; again, in fissures and hollows, large and loose accumulations of 
red soil, stones, and animal remains, huddled together in great disorder, display 
states of arrangement clearly referable to aqueous agency, and that of no 
common order and intensity. 

4. Turning to the caverns, many may be said to be merely water-worn rents 
or fissures hollowed out at some period anterior to the introduction of the 
deposits and organic remains ; for in many I have examined there existed 
communications with the surface by means of either perpendicular or lateral 
rents, through which their contents might have been introduced, or at least 
water in sufficient quantity to have rearranged any remains that were lying 
on the floors of the caves. 

5. The subject of this Report I have named Mnaidra Cave*, after a re- 
markable ruin of that name in the immediate vicinity (supposed to have been 
constructed by the Phoenicians), and also to distinguish it from two other 
caves close by, one of which, viz. the "Middle Cave," is situated on a terrace- 
cliff within a few yards of the last and about 12 feet below it, whereas the 
third, called the " Hippopotamus" " or Malak Cave," opens on the same ter- 
race cliff with the " Middle Cave," and is 200 feet distant from the Mnaidra 
Cave. The latter stands on the edge of "a steep declivity overlooking the sea 
and above-mentioned terrace cliff, and is about 300 feet above the level of the 
former. Perhaps none of these caves maintain their original dimensions ; for 
although at the time of their discovery each opened independently of the 
other, I have since been enabled, in the cases of both the " Malak " and 
" Middle Cave," to trace their lower deposits outwards from their entrances 
to the edge of the cliff, a distance of from 60 to 70 feet. It will be under- 
stood, therefore, that all these caves were situated close together on the side 
of a limestone cliff which faces the sea on the south-west coast of the island 
of Malta. 

6. Nowhere in any of the islands forming the Maltese group is there a bet- 
ter illustration of the disturbances that have brought about the present insular 
condition of this area than at the point (represented in Plate II.) ; for along 
the base of the cliff there runs a fault by which the Upper Limestone of the 
series had been let down several hundred feet, and is now submerged, except- 
ing a narrow belt that fringes the coast and spreads out into a stony flat west- 
wards, whilst three miles out at sea the islet of Filfla forms its " outlier." 
On the surface of the depressed fragment, and washed by the waves, are 
masses of alluvial deposit and breccia formed of red earth, angular and par- 
tially rounded stones, of not only the parent rock, but also the Calcareous 
Sandstone and Lower Limestone, besides small portions of a black limestone 
rock, nowhere found in situ in the islands. These superficial deposits run up 
the incline towards the " fine of fault," and are to all appearance the " talus " 
or washings of the slope above the caves. From among this mass of breccia 
and loose red earth and stones, my learned friend Dr. Errington, Archbishop of 
Trebizond, assisted me in removing the upper jaw and teeth of the " Pigmy 



* 'Mnaidra' in Arabic means a "sheepfold," from the fancied resemblance this mega- 
lithic circle presents to a " sheep or cattle pen." 






MALTESE CAVES. 259 

Elephant" (Elephas melitensis), which were found jammed between large 
blocks of limestone ; their chipped and fractured condition, together with that 
of subsequent teeth and bones found in the same situation, clearly testify to 
the rough usage they had sustained from having been rolled along with stones 
and earth. The point therefore where the above remains were discovered 
was almost directly below the caves, and within a few feet of the sea- 
level. It is apparent, moreover, that the remains were deposited at a time 
when the depression was either taking place, or at least when it was below 
the level of the caves, else how could the fragments of the Lower Limestone 
have found their way into the deposit, seeing that the caves are situated at 
or about the uppermost limit of the Lower Limestone bed ? 

7. Before proceeding to give an account of the deposits of the Mnaidra 
Cave, it appears to me requisite that I should describe the chief particulars in 
connexion with the contents of the two other caves in its immediate vicinity, 
in order that the members of the Association may fully realize all the pheno- 
mena presented by the former. This I shall now do as briefly as possible. 

8. The Malak Cave was discovered in 1858, but its outlet was destroyed 
and deposits disturbed, and the greater portion of them removed before any 
geologist examined it. The quarrymen who found it stated to me that it 
formed a simple excavation of an oval shape, and had a small opening looking 
on the afore-mentioned terrace-cliff. Its roof was seemingly entire (but that 
has not been proved). On its floor there was a hard conglomerate formed of 
light blue and red clays, intermixed with very rounded and water-worn stones, 
belonging to the parent rock only. Throughout this deposit, in great disorder, 
were strewn teeth and bones of two species of Hippopotamus, together with a 
few bones of large birds. One solitary lower molar of the Pigmy Elephant 
was found by me among the debris. It was very much worn, and adhered 
to the rounded pebble with which it had doubtless been rolled. This is the 
only instance I know where the Pigmy Elephant's remains have been found 
in connexion with the Hippopotamus. Not allowing for w r hat had been re- 
moved by visitors and lost or destroyed, I counted the straight tusks of no 
less than thirty Hippopotami among the debris and in public and private 
collections, all I may add, procured from a deposit not exceeding a few yards in 
circumference, and certainly not more than three feet in thickness. No traces 
of gnawing were noticed on any of the remains I have examined, but many 
teeth and bones bore signal marks of having been much rolled. I may here 
state that in another deposit of Hippopotamus remains, found many years since 
at the entrance of the Melleha Valley, at the N.E. side of Malta (possibly 
also in a cave), they presented the exact appearances disclosed by those from 
Malak (t\ e. both as to the nature of the deposit and condition of the remains). 
Upon the top of the Hippopotamus remains of the Malak was a stalagmite 
sparsely mixed with red and blue clays, where abundant remains of the 
Gigantic Dormouse (JMyoocus melitensis) had been gradually introduced during 
the period that the cave was also being filled by calcareous drippings and soil. 
The bones of this rodent were also much broken and mixed in great disorder; 
teeth and jaws predominating, and just as I have seen the bones and teeth of 
the Egyptian Jerboa strewing the bottoms of caves in that country, after 
having been ejected in pellets from the craw of the Horned Owl (Stria: asca- 
laphus). So much for the Malak Cave, which, as regards the order and nature 
of its organic remains and deposits on its floor, differed entirely from the 
Middle and Mnaidra Caves. 

9. The deposits of the Middle and also the Mnaidra Cave were very simi- 
lar. On their floors at the entrances were found the usual white calcareous 

x2 



260 report — 1865. 

dripping with a black seam on its top, resembling coffee-grounds, and pos- 
sibly chiefly consisting of the droppings of Bats. Over this deposit there lay 
three feet of a reddish black loam, much hardened here and there by stalag- 
mitic infiltrations ; and over this a seam of yellow earth, from half an inch 
to three inches in thickness, preceded* by a bed of a brick-red clay, averaging 
from 3 to 4 feet, and also interspersed with shelves and hardened masses of 
dripping. 

So far, as regards Mnaidra Cave, not a trace of organic remains was visible ; 
and, excepting in the Middle Cave, two teeth (much worn) of the Miocene 
Shark (Careharodon megalodon) (a fossil found in the calcareous sandstone 
overlying that in which* the cave existed, and possibly washed out of it), also 
in the brick-red clay a jaw of Armenia, closely allied, if not identical with, 
A. pratmsis, and frog's bones, both caves seem so far to have been filled up 
at the same time, and subjected to exactly the same influences. The Middle 
Cave continued to receive red earth slowly until within 6 feet of its roof, 
where a shelf of stalactite, containing abundance of recent land shells, bones, 
and teeth of the Gigantic Dormouse, marked a period of prolonged tranquillity, 
which was again broken by an influx of red earth to within 3 feet of the 
roof, when the stalagmite filled it up. There was no appearance of fissure on 
the roof of this cave, but it had many lateral rents ; I did not, however, pene- 
trate beyond a few yards on account of the great difficulty in working the 
deposits ; I could see, however, that at no period in the history of the filling 
up of this cave was there any evidence of a large body of water having 
passed down it. 

Turning back to Mnaidra Cave, it was now very clear that a decided 
change had taken place in the mode and nature of its deposits ; for on the 
afore-mentioned shelf of stalagmite, and about halfway up, were rounded 
water- worn pebbles, interspersed among the red earth and calcareous infil- 
trations. Here were found many fragments and a few entire teeth of the 
Elephant, together with abundant remains of birds' bones of large dimen- 
sions, and teeth and bones of Myoscus melitensis. As the adit was being 
pushed inwards the fossiliferous deposit increased from 4 to 6 feet in thick- 
ness, and ran along the eastern wall, where it changed to a blue and red clay 
in nodides, whilst here and there depended masses of stalactite and dripping, 
in which were also found many Elephant's teeth and bones, associated with 
land snails of such species as Helix aspersa, H. candidissima, H. vermimlata, 
H. aperta, Bulimus decollatus, Clausilia syracusana, &c. As the tunnelling 
proceeded inwards another yellow seam began to appear about 4 feet from 
the bottom of the fossiliferous stratum, and to increase in depth until at the 
distance of from about 45 feet from the entrance it suddenly deepened and 
ran towards a depression on each side, and near the roof of the cave, where 
it measured 4^ feet in thickness. It was composed entirely of the same 
ochre-yellow earth as the underlying stratum before mentioned, and like it 
was totally devoid of organic remains ; moreover, from the manner in which it 
rose towards the opening on the side, there can be little doubt that it had 
been either partially or wholly introduced into the cave through the above 
epening. Although no alluvial deposit of the same description now exists 
in the surrounding area, there is every likelihood that it was obtained from the 
breaking up of the yellow variety of the calcareous sandstone, which has been 
entirely denuded from the surfaces around the cave, and for a little distance 
inland. On this yellow band lay another black seam, which thinned out on 

* [The author probably means ' succeeded.'— Cr. Busk.] 



MALTESE CAVES. 



261 



elevated parts of the floor, but was several inches in thickness in the hollows. 
Large pillars of stalactite depended from the roof, and one central mass at 
the furthest limits of the adit, with its lower end resting on the black seam, 
seemed to divide the cave into two parts. On the eastern side of this pillar 
there was a deposit of black earth lying on the seam, through which ran a 
stratum of organic remains fully a foot in depth, rising upward towards the 
above-mentioned gap on the side of the cave near the roof. In this corner, 
and on a surface not 2 feet square, lay the left ramus of the lower jaw and 
tooth of a young Pigmy Elephant with several detached teeth, one cervical 
and six dorsal vertebrae of the animal, besides bats' bones, and bones and 
skulls of large water birds, and a vast assemblage of the remains of the Dor- 
mouse, together with very perfect specimens of land shells, all huddled toge- 
ther among minute fragments and splinters of bones. Poth the deposit and 
organic remains in this side of the cave showed clearly that they had been en- 
veloped by the slow introduction of the black loam, which was soon hardened 
by calcareous drippings, in fact that the pillar of stalactite here divided the 
cave into a wet and dry side (Plate III. fig. 4). On the western or wet side 
of the pillar very different causes had evidently been at work. The soil there 
was loose and mixed with the rounded pebbles of calcareous sandstone, only 
the latter were larger than any I had met with before, but like them they 
were nearly all hardened by calcareous infiltrations. Among the stones and 
clay numerous teeth and fragments of tusks and heads of bones of the Ele- 
phant were found. The organic remains seemed most abundant near the 
bottom of this fossiliferous deposit, which varied from 6 to 7 feet in thick- 
ness, and from 5 to 6 feet in breadth ; but fragments of bones and plaits of 
teeth were met with even on the upper limits of the stratum close to the 
stalactite of the roof, which was upwards of 3 feet in thickness. 

Such was the sequence of the various deposits in the Mnaidra Cave from 
below upwards, and for the distance of 54 feet inwards to the limits of my 
excavations ; and how much further remains to be seen, as from the great 
heat of the weather and the Association's grant being expended, I have 
been obliged to defer any further researches until the return of the cold 
months, when I propose tracing the fossiliferous stratum to its limits. The 
Mnaidra Cave at its entrance measured 22 feet in height, and about 11 feet 
in breadth, when it gradually expanded and contracted, expanding a second 
time at the termination of the excavation, where its height was about the 
same as at the entrance, and breadth fully 13 feet. The sides of the cave 
were smooth, excepting where horizontal fissures formed gaping rents, into 
which the fossiliferous deposits had been washed, and much water and the 
finer portion of the clay introduced. The entire roof of this cave had evi- 
dently been cleared away from the entrance to the limits of the explorations, 
leaving merely the stalactite, and here and there a portion of the parent 
rock, the interstices being filled with soil drifted from the slope above, 
and composed of red earth and disintegrated fragments of the rock surfaces 
around. In this deposit I found remains of the great Dormouse, which I had 
previously met with in the stalactite on the roofs of other caves and superfi- 
cial deposits in other situations in the island, all leading towards the belief 
that the above-named rodent may have lived on the area up to comparatively 
modern times. 

10. With reference to the organic remains in this cave, it will readily be 
surmised, from what has been already stated, that the most prominent be- 
longed to Elephas melitensis and Myoxus melitensis, just as the Hippopotamus 



262 report— 1865. 

and the latter predominated in the neighbouring cave, with this exception, that 
in no instance were the remains of the rodent found in connexion with the 
Hippopotamus, whereas they were always intimately associated with bones 
and teeth of the Proboscidian, and not only in this cave, but in several other 
localities in the island. 

11. Of tbe teeth of the Pigmy Elephant, either entire or in fragments, and 
guessing what were destroyed by the workmen to be equal to one half, I 
surmise that the remains of upwards of fifty old and young Elephants were 
brought to light during the late excavations in Mnaidra Cave. They include 
individuals of all ages, from the calf to the adult. Many teeth were in 
good states of preservation, others were much decayed and broken, especially 
the " true molars." The large bones were nearly all reduced to fragments 
but vertebra? and feet bones were usually entire. Many articulating sur- 
faces of bones had their outer tables removed, and were firmly encrusted 
with stalactite, especially the specimens lying on a black seam and among 
the rounded freestones. It was clear, however, that they could not have 
been conveyed for any very long distance, as will appear from the specimens 
I have forwarded for the inspection of the members of the Association. 
Among the remains were found certain foot bones not referable, apparently, 
to this species, and at present undetermined ; these I forwarded in another 
collection, now, I believe, in Mr. Busk's charge*. 

12. The remains next in the order of frequency, and even, perhaps, more 
abundant than the last, were those of the Gigantic Dormouse (Myoxus Meli- 
tensis). The number of bones of this rodent brought to light during our ex- 
cavations was almost beyond conception. They embraced all ages, and were 
strewn about in great disorder, but were far more entire than any of the others, 
or than those I have referred to in connexion with the Malak Cave ; so much 
was this the case that I had seldom much difficulty in removing the greater 
part of skeletons, which enabled me to determine the relative dimensions of 
the animal with accuracy. Eor example, the total length of the skull, taken 
from many specimens, averaged in the adult from 2 - 3 to 2-5 inches ; length 
of the humerus 1-6 inches; length of femur 2-2. The hind foot from the 
extremity of the calcaneum to the tip of the last phalanx of the middle toe 
measured 0-7 inch. 

13. The avifauna of this cave embraced numerous remains of birds of 
various species, differing considerably in dimensions. Some of very large size 
were evidently water-birds. The collection I have forwarded for studyf. 

14. The Mollusca include the majority of the land-shells at present met 
with in the islands. The following have been identified by the late lamented 
Mr. S. P. Woodward :— 

Helix aspersa. Helix striata. 

„ vermiculata. Pmlimus acutus. 

,, candidissima. Cyclostoma ? 

„ aperta. Clausilia syracusana. 

The shells were found in such excellent states of preservation in the " Mid- 
dle Cave," and with the rodent's remains in the " Malak," also with the jaw 

* [So far as I have been able to determine these bones, they all appear to belong to one 
or other of the small Elephants. — Gr. B.] 

f [These bones have been subjected to the inspection of Mr. W. E. Parker, who has 
detected among them many remains of the Gigantic Swan, which he had already observed 
in the collection of Fossils from Zebbug brought by Captain Spratt. — Gr. B.] 



MALTESE CAVES. 263 

and bones of the Elephant in the corner east of the pillar of stalactite in 
" Mnaidra Cave," as to lead to a belief that they had crawled in and had 
been enveloped during the gradual filling up of the caves. 

15. From the evidences here adduced and other proofs too lengthy in 
detail for this Report, it would appear that the lowermost deposits and organic 
remains of the Malak Cave were not deposited at exactly the same time 
with those of the other two in the vicinity. Its clayey bottom and conglo- 
merate, formed solely of water-worn portions of the parent rock, seemed 
to indicate that the cave had at one time opened on the side of a river or lake, 
which occasionally washed its floor, whereas the lower deposits of both the 
Middle and Mnaidra caves show clearly that they were gradually filled by red 
earth and dripping from the roofs and sides, until some change in the phy- 
sical condition of the surrounding area caused the roof of the Mnaidra Cave 
to be in great part removed, when bodies of water either swept the organic 
remains into the cave, and beyond it into the breccias and deposits, forming 
below on the sinking portion, or else disturbed and rearranged whatever 
remains may have been lying on the floor of the cave on the western side of 
the pillar of stalactite, leaving the remains on the east side unaffected. This, 
however, will become more evident when the fossiliferous deposit has 
been worked out, which I am of opinion ought to be done, not only with 
the view of ascertaining that point, but in hopes of finding new forms, and 
especially remains of the carnivorous quadrupeds which undoubtedly roamed 
over the area at the same period with the River-horse and Elephant, as the 
bones found by Captain Spratt and others in the cave of Zebbug clearly 
show. Every relic, of course, with reference to this point must be in- 
teresting ; I therefore take the liberty of forwarding the lower jaw, femur, 
and tibia, appearing to belong to the " Common Weasel " (Mustela vulgaris), 
removed by me from a mass of clay that had been excavated from the deposit 
on the floor of the Zebbug Cave, where abundant remains of Elephas meli- 
tensis, &c, were discovered by Captain Spratt in 1859. It is the same 
locality described by that gentleman and the late Dr. Falconer at the Cam- 
bridge Meeting of the British Association in 1862. 

16. Taking into consideration all the facts and probabilities furnished by 
careful examination of the Maltese caves, fissures and alluvial deposits, and 
the physical aspects of the various localities, I think there can be little doubt 
that at a late geological epoch in the history of the Maltese islands large 
bodies of water flowed over, at least, the greater part of the island of Malta, 
washing whatever soil or organic remains then happened to be lying on the 
surface into gaps, hollows, and depressions. No sea-shells have hitherto been 
met with in the soils and superficial deposits to indicate that the islands had 
been submerged and reelevated ; on the contrary, from all appearances the 
last movement to which these islands were subject was a downward one. 
Unless, therefore, we suppose the giving way of lake barriers, divergence of 
rivers or streams, or the agencies of violent floods and freshets during 
changes consequent on oscillations of level, I see no other way of accounting 
for the phenomena represented by the above deposits and the fossil remains. 
In fact, I opine much the same conditions existed in Malta during the 
period of the fossiliferous deposits in Mnaidra Cave and others as obtained 
at Gibraltar when the " Genista " Cave was receiving its Pachydermata and 
other quadrupeds. 



264 report— 1865. 

Report of the Gun-cotton Committee, consisting of William Fair- 
bairn, LL.D., F.R.S., Joseph Whitworth, LL.D., F.R.S., James 
Nasmyth, C.E., F.R.A.S., J. Scott Russell, C.E., F.R.S., John 
Anderson, C.E., Sir William G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., 
Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S., Prof. W. A. Miller, M.D., F.R.S., Prof. 
Frankland, F.R.S., and F. A. Abel, F.R.S. 

After the report presented by this Committee at the Newcastle Meeting 
two years ago, the British Association, through a deputation headed by 
General Sabine, drew the attention of the Minister for War to the probable 
usefulness of Gun-cotton. In January 1864, the Government appointed a 
Committee to investigate the subject in all its bearings. This Committee 
consists of General Sabine as President, General Hay, Captain Brandreth, 
B.N., Commander Liddell, B.N., Colonel Boxer, E.A.., Colonel Lovell, R.E., 
F. A. Abel, Esq., T. Sopwith, Esq., Professor W. A. Miller, Professor G. G. 
Stokes, and Dr. J. H. Gladstone, with Major Miller, R.A., as Secretary; 
representing thus the army, the navy, military and civil engineering, as well 
as chemical and physical science, and comprising three of the members of 
the British Association Gun-cotton Committee. Experiments on an exten- 
sive scale, and in a systematic manner, have been carried on by this Govern- 
ment Committee, and are still in progress ; but no report has yet been published. 
Until that report is made, your Committee have suspended their labours. 



On the Horary and Diurnal Variations in the Direction and Motion 
of the Air at Wrottesley , Liverpool, and Birmingham. By A. 
Follett Osler, F.R.S. 

[A communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 

Anemometkical observations having been taken hourly with considerable 
accuracy for several years, and those at Wrottesley, Liverpool, and Bir- 
mingham having been recorded on exactly the same principle (originally 
commenced by Mr. Hartnup in 1852), I was desirous of tabulating the 
results from those stations on a plan which I thought might prove of some 
value in extending our knowledge of the motion of the air in these latitudes, 
and possibly of developing some further laws bearing on that subject. 
Having observed that the hourly records of certain currents obtained from 
the integrating anemometer seemed to exhibit some peculiar features different 
from those I had obtained from the registration of the force of the wind, I 
wished, in the first place, to carry out some investigations on the horary 
variations by taking out the amount of horizontal motion instead of the 
force ; the records of Dr. Kobinson's integrating instrument have therefore 
been arranged in conjunction with those of time and direction, these 
registers being peculiarly suited for accurate tabulation, much more so than 
those of the force, which are most available for examining storms and sudden 
changes and marked variations in the aerial currents. 

Besides these hourly results, I desired to investigate the records of the 
daily variations in the atmospheric currents throughout the year, with a view 
of ascertaining whether indications of any laws could be detected respecting 
their periodicity and amount. 

Accordingly I applied to Lord Wrottesley, who most kindly placed the 
whole of the valuable anemometrical records taken at his observatory at my 



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ON VARIATIONS IN DIRECTION AND MOTION OF THE AIR. 265 

disposal ; my friend Mr. Hartnup did the same, and furthermore aided me 
very greatly by allowing his assistants to tabidate, in the manner I required, 
the observations of the direction and horizontal motion of the air as recorded 
at the Liverpool observatory. I have worked out the Birmingham observa- 
tions on the same plan. 

To commence with the horary variations. These extend over a period of 
nearly eight years at Wrottesley and thirteen years at Liverpool. The 
amount of motion of each wind for each of sixteen points of the compass is 
taken note of for every hour, from the daily records, and tabulated for every 
month. Commencing with the N.N.E. wind, the number of miles of air 
from this point that passed between midnight and one o'clock in the morn- 
ing during the month of January in each year is tabulated ; next between 
one and two o'clock, aud so on through the twenty-four hours of the day. 
February is then treated in the same way, and thus through every month 
in the year, for each of the sixteen points of the compass, as shown in 
Table L, which is given as an example, exhibiting the amount of motion and 
duration of the south wind during each hour in December for each year. 

From the mean of the seven years thus obtained, the monthly curves of 
horizontal motion for each hour at Wrottesley are projected. See Plate IV. 
The means of the separate months are also combined so as to obtain averages 
for the seasons and the whole year. In Table II. an example of this is given 
in the horary variations in the S.E. wind at Liverpool. 

Plate V. exhibits the curves projected from tables so arranged for Wrot- 
tesley, and Plate VI. for Liverpool. 

Beginning with the N.N.E. (Plate IV.), and proceeding through the 
easterly points to S.E., the curves present no very striking features ; in some 
months they approach that of temperature, as the N.E. in April, the E.N.E. 
in February, May, and October, also the E. in February, May, June, Octo- 
ber, and November. The prevalence of winds having an easterly or north- 
easterly bearing during the spring and early summer is also seen, but their 
particular periods and amount are more perfectly shown in the diagrams of 
"Diurnal Variations" than in those which are prepared for exhibiting the 
horary variations. 

The S., S.S.W. and S.W. currents, or anti-trade-winds, are the next in 
order, and exhibit some remarkable features. Independently of the great 
and sudden increase in the amount of these, especially of the south, when 
compared with any of those from the east, it will be observed that they 
exhibit a striking peculiarity in the horary curves ; for while the greatest 
amount of air passes from the south before noon, diminishing rapidly for 
several hours after noon, with the S.W. the reverse of this takes place, the 
greatest quantity passing after noon and the least before — the intermediate 
wind, namely, the S.S.W. showing the most in the middle of the day. It 
will be observed that the winds on either side of these three, namely, 
the S.S.E. and W.S.W., partake of the same peculiarity, but in a less degree, 
the former having its maximum in the morning, and the latter in the 
afternoon. 

The west and north-westerly currents present variations that show the 
greatest difference between the amount of air that passes by day when com- 
pared with the night, and correspond most nearly with the curve of tempera- 
ture. The N.N.W. winds in the summer months, and especially in June 
and July, show the greatest extreme, while the winter months indicate the 
least difference between the day and night. 



266 



REPORT 1865. 



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R 






ON VARIATIONS IN DIRECTION AND MOTION OP THE AIR. 267 

On reference to the diagrams of the Liverpool horary variations (Plate 
VI.), it will be observed that the same general character of curves exists as at 
"Wrottesley, though the amount of air indicated as passing from the various 
points differs considerably. The amount of east and north-easterly winds re- 
corded is, however, much less, owing to the observatory being somewhat shel- 
tered on that side by the town. The peculiar horary variations which at Wrot- 
tesley are exhibited in the S. and S.W. winds, extend at Liverpool from the 
S.E. to the W.S.W., the former showing the greatest amount in the morning, 
the latter in the afternoon. The extension of these variations over so 
many points of the compass forms one of the most striking differences 
between the observations taken at this station and those at Wrottesley. 
~No doubt the course and valley of the river Mersey lying in a S.E. direc- 
tion, also the town of Liverpool situated to the N.W., would have a consi- 
derable influence in deflecting these south and south-westerly currents, and 
in giving them a more easterly bearing ; though probably there are other 
causes in action yet to be discovered. 

The west and north-westerly currents show the same peculiarities as to 
the difference between the amount of motion in the day and night as at 
Wrottesley, and at this station exceed that of any other wind. 

The integrating registers for Birmingham having been taken for only 
three years and a half, have not been engraved; they present much the 
same features in their horary variations as the observations taken at Wrot- 
tesley, the only difference worth mentioning being in the great S.W. or 
anti-trade-current, which has a rather more westerly bearing at Bir- 
mingham than at Wrottesley. 

The curves that have been obtained by projecting these integrating re- 
cords of horary variations, especially those of the south and south-westerly 
winds, differ much from those of force or velocity as given by me in former 
papers to this Association, when it was shown that the latter nearly 
coincide with the curves of temperature, the greatest force occurring at or 
shortly after noon ; but by subjecting the present observations to the test of 
velocity by dividing the number of miles of air that pass during each hour 
of the day throughout the year, by the number of hours occupied in passing 
(see Table II.) it will be found that the law as. to the period of greatest 
force or velocity is still correct, notwithstanding that some of the curves 
show a larger amount in other parts of the day. These curves are there- 
fore interesting and important, as showing that the different currents have 
forces acting on them producing horary variations, besides those of acce- 
leration from increase of temperature. In the last row of diagrams. Plates 
V. and VI., curves are projected on an enlarged scale, showing the horary 
variations in the velocity of the air at Wrottesley and Liverpool. 

The next series of observations have reference to the amount and direction 
of the various winds throughout the year. In tabulating these, it was neces- 
sary that each day should be recorded separately, for by throwing together 
an arbitrary term of days, as a month or even a week, many important facts 
would be lost. The records have therefore been tabulated so as to give the 
direction, duration, and amount of horizontal motion of the air for every day 
in the year for seven years, referred to sixteen points of the compass. Com- 
mencing with the 1st of January in each year, the number of hours that 
each current has lasted, and its amount of horizontal motion during the day, 
are obtained from the diaries in which the indications registered by the instru- 
ments are recorded, and this is repeated in rotation for every day during seven 



268 



REPORT 1865. 



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ON VARIATIONS IN DIRECTION AND MOTION OF THE AIR. 269 

years, thus sorting, as it were, all the winds. The mean amount of these is 
then taken for each day, as represented in Table III., showing the daily 
amount and duration of south wind during the month of January. 

From these Tables diagrams are drawn (see Plates VII. & VIII. ), repre- 
senting to a scale the comparative number of miles of air that passed from 
each point of the compass for every day in the year, taken from a mean of 
seven years, the length of the line being in proportion to the length of the 
current from each point on each particular day. An approximate meteor- 
ological division of the year is thus obtained, having reference to the currents 
that pass each station. 

When examining these diagrams it is important not to be misled by the 
extent of a current that was due to one or two years being mistaken for the 
type of a period of years. A space is therefore allotted under each day, 
which is divided into seven parts, representing the seven years. One of these 
divisions is then marked to indicate the year in which each wind occurred, 
the size of the mark having reference to its duration on its particular year. 
By these means the prevalence or otherwise of any wind at any period of the 
year is at once rendered conspicuous. 

The diagrams explain this mode of illustration. Thus at Wrottesley 
(Plate VII.*), commencing with the north-easterly and easterly winds, a re- 
markable cessation is observable towards the end of January and beginning 
of February, again at the end of June, also at the beginning of August and 
September, and in the early part of December, while the amount towards 
the end of February, and the prevalence in April, and more particularly in 
May, often extending to the early part of June, is very clearly shown. 

The S. to the W .S.W. winds have their maximum in January, increasing 
greatly towards the end of the month. They also prevail in the early part 
of April, during the latter half of July, and through the month of August, 
and more than any other current in September. 

The winds from the W. and N.W. prevail in March, towards the end of 
May and in June, especially in the latter half of that month. During the 
last four months of the year currents from these points are exceptional. 

On reference to the diagram representing the diurnal variations of the 
wind at Liverpool (Plate VIII.), it will be observed that there is the same 
cessation of the easterly and north-easterly winds at the end of January and 
beginning of February as at Wrottesley, also at the end of June, &c. The 
times of prevalence also occur about the same periods. The S.E. and S.S.E. 
winds, however, correspond to the periods of the S. and S.S.W. at Wrot- 
tesley, and the S.S.W. and S.W. at Birmingham. 

The W. and W.N.W. winds prevail with considerable regularity in March, 
also at the end of April and beginning of May, again at the end of May, and 
particularly at the end of June, extending into the early part of July, and 
at the end of August and first portion of September. The diagrams show 
better than any written description the features of each current. 

The last row of diagrams in each of the Plates VII. & VIII. represents 
the mean amount of horizontal motion of the air, without reference to direc- 
tion, for every day in the year — projected on the same scale as the separate 
winds. From these it will be observed that a considerable amount of mo- 

* In Plate VII. a, the portions of Plate VII. which exhibit the duration of each wind 
on every day throughout the seven years, are brought together in such close juxtaposi- 
tion, as to give a comprehensive view of the periods of prevalence of each wind during 
that term of years at Wrottesley. The points from N.N.E. to S.S.E. are repeated. 



270 



REPORT 1865. 



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% 



ON VARIATIONS IN DIRECTION AND MOTION OF THE AIR. 271 

tion takes place throughout the year, and that no period can he regarded 
as calm. The early part of January is, however, much calmer than might 
he expected, while the latter portion of that month and beginning of 
February are just the reverse, as is also March. The great increase ob- 
servable in the portion of the diagram that shows the amount of motion of 
the air that passes Liverpool at the end of June and beginning of July, is 
due to the very strong W., W.N.W., and north-westerly currents at that 
period of the year. At Wrottesley the same currents exist, and at the same 
period, but their violence is so much diminished as not to disturb the general 
averages. 

These observations seem to indicate, both from the diagrams of each day 
as well as from those exhibiting the horary variations, that there are three 
principal currents or groups of winds that may be classed together. First 
the north-easterly, prevailing mostly in the spring, and also appearing in 
the autumn. Whether they may be regarded as a temporary extension of 
the trade-winds will require further observations to determine. They possess 
some of the characteristics of that wind. 

The next group is the great south and south-westerly current, or anti- 
trade-wind, the peculiar horary variations of which and periods of greatest 
motion have already been referred to. 

The currents from the N.W., including those from "W. to N.N.W., form 
the last group. 

Although the north-west and south-west groups are in many respects 
distinct from one another, yet they often blend so much that it is not pos- 
sible to draw a definite line between them. 

Further observations on a more extended scale are required to define with 
accuracy the periods of prevalence or otherwise of the various currents, and 
to determine many interesting points regarding their course and action, 
which can now be only dimly shadowed forth. It is, however, hoped that 
what has here been done will aid in showing the importance of keeping a 
constant record of the movements of the air over as large an area of the 
earth's surface as can with convenience be arranged. The geologist, whose 
researches also extend over the whole earth, finds in the great globe itself a 
vast registering instrument, where the changes that he is studying have been 
permanently written, enabling him at his leisure to examine its records, and 
refer to periods so immeasurably distant that he may, by reversing his train of 
thought, have glimpses of eternity. The meteorologist, on the contrary, finds 
himself lost by reason of the ephemeral nature of the forces and conditions 
which he has to deal with ; he requires all the artificial appliances that can 
help him, to take note of and record the various changes that occur ; but of 
all the conditions, there are none more important than those of the great cur- 
rents of the atmosphere. A knowledge of the quarter from which the air 
arrives at given points on the earth's surface, and the duration of the current, 
will be a key to its various conditions of temperature, humidity, weight, and 
all the other features it may possess ; while to trace it onward, over a large 
area, will materially aid in unravelling the secrets of the producing causes, 
and the laws that determine its course. 



272 report — 1865. 

Second Report on the Physiological Action of certain of the Amy I Com- 
pounds. By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A.,M.D., F.R.C.P. 

At the last Meeting of the Association, I read before the Physiological Section 
a " Report on the Physiological Action of Nitrite of Amyl." On that occa- 
sion the members were good enough to express a wish that I should continue 
the inquiry. The present Report is the result. 

In accordance with the desire of the Committee, I have in this Report 
carried out a more general enquiry. Instead of confining myself to one spe- 
cial body in the amyl series, I have taken several of them, viz. amylene or 
valerene as one of the simplest of the type, amylic alcohol, acetate of amyl, 
and iodide of amyl. 

I hope, from the researches I have made, to leave in the hands of the 
Association a fair history of the physiological value of all these compounds. 

Before proceeding further, permit me to invite the attention of the Section 
to a very brief summary of the facts brought forward at our last Meeting, 
in 1864, respecting the nitrite of amyl. I showed then that nitrite of amyl 
was — 

1. The most powerful excitant of vascular action known. 

2. That in animals whose bodies admit of its spontaneous evaporation, 
the nitrite suspends animation ; and that in animals of higher organization 
it induces a condition resembling cataleptic insensibility. 

3. That it is not an anaesthetic. 

4. That the effects produced by it are developed on the motive powers of 
the organism, which it first vehemently excites, and then paralyses. 

5. That it arrests the process of oxidation. 

I shall not trouble the Section with further observations in detail on this 
compound, inasmuch as the report upon it, as a whole, is published in the 
Transactions of the Association. I pass therefore at once to the other 
compounds of the amyl series. 

Amylene. 

The substance called amylene was first separated by Balard, of Paris, 
twenty-one years ago. It attracted but little attention until 1856, when 
Dr. Snow having read of it, and learned theoretically its composition and 
physical characteristics, came to the conclusion, on theoretical grounds only, 
that it was possessed of anaesthetic properties. In process of time he ob- 
tained some of the fluid ; he found that his theory proved correct in prac- 
tice, and he was so satisfied with the action of the substance, that he em- 
ployed it as an anaesthetic in 238 cases. M. Giraldis, of Paris, also em- 
ployed it in seventy-nine cases. I used it myself in connexion with Snow 
in three cases, and many other physicians and surgeons' used it also. For a 
time, indeed, it seemed that amylene would in the end take the place of 
chloroform, but the promised success was marred by the occurrence of two 
fatal cases, from its inhalation, in the hands of Snow himself. 

Since that period, (July 30, 1857, date of the second fatal case,) amylene 
has fallen into entire disuse. Snow during the last year of his useful life 
'returned to chloroform, and I have occasion to know, from my intimate 
friendship with him, that the occurrence of the fatal accidents caused him 
as much anxiety as surprise. It has been suggested since Snow's- death 
that the specimen of amylene which he used was not pure, but was in fact a 
compound of various substances. This may be true, but it is certain that 
he had used the same specimen successfully in other cases, and I have experi- 






ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OP CERTAIN AMYL COMPOUNDS. 273 

mented on animals with a little that remained from the same store, without 
producing any dangerous symptoms. 

I introduce amylene to notice in this place, because it not only links itself 
naturally with the series, but is, in fact, a proper body of the series from 
which to date observations as to variation of action. 

Amylene is made by acting on pure fusel oil or amylic alcohol with 
chloride of ziuc ; it has also been obtained, together with hydruret of amyl, 
by the action of zinc on iodide of amyl. In the distillation of the amylene 
other products are almost certain to pass over, and I think I am right in 
saying that the substance has never been obtained actually pure for physio- 
logical purposes. It ought, -when quite pure, to be neutral to potassium, 
and to preserve that element from oxidation ; but, as far as I am aware, this 
degree of purity has not been secured. The liquid has an oily character, 
and an odour compared by most persons to raw whiskey. It boils at the 
temperature of the blood, 98° Fahr. ; it is soluble in alcohol and ether to any 
degree, it is soluble in water to the extent only of one part in 9319, and the 
specific gravity of its vapour, according to Snow, is as low as 2--I5. As a 
fluid it is nearly colourless. It is composed of two elements, C 10 H 10 . 

Antiseptic Properties. — Like the nitrite of amyl, amylene is antiseptic ; if 
dead tissue be placed in the pure vapour of amylene securely it remains un- 
changed, but the great difficulty consists in retaining the vapour in the 
• vessel. If 60 grains of amylene be placed in a jar having a cubic capacity 
of 80 inches, the ox-ganic substance to be preserved being previously put into 
the jar, sufficient amylene may be diffused by the warmth of the hand to 
enable the specimen to be kept in preservation. Animal tissues in amylene- 
vapour do not gelatinize as in ammonia ; they become soft, evidently from 
the action of water retained in them, but not offensive. Decomposed animal 
tissue placed in vapour of amylene does not become less offensive, although 
the process of putrefaction is for a time arrested. 

Amylene preserves blood from putrefaction so long as it is present in the 
mass. During the past weeks of extreme heat I have retained blood un- 
changed in my laboratory by simply treating it, from time to time, with 
sufficient amylene to render the odour of the substance detectable. After it 
has been for a time in contact with blood in a closed bottle, the odour evolved 
resembles rosemary so closely as not to be distinguished from it. 

Effects on Flowers. — Amylene prevents the decomposition of fresh flowers, 
but it is not applicable as a preservative, owing to the change it produces in 
colour. The leaves pass from green to a dirty brown, the yellow colour 
grows slightly dingy, and the red fades. The colour least influenced is 
yellow. 

Physiological Effects on Living Organisms. — Amylene does not in any de- 
gree irritate either the skin or mucous membrane ; it acts feebly when exhi- 
bited by the mouth or by injection under the skin. It is by inhalation only 
that we can bring out its actual properties. 

I have administered amylene in vapour to dogs, cats, guineapigs, and 
men. The symptoms presented in all are in the main the same. There 
is not the terrific excitement of the circulation which is seen when the 
nitrite of amyl is used, but there is some excitement, and there is quick 
inebriation. 

This is followed by powerlessness of the limbs, and sudden collapse and 
coma, with total insensibility to pain, but not always, and indeed rarely, 
with an equivalent loss of consciousness. In one case I saw a person who 
was under amvlene, and entirely senseless to a severe surgical operation, 

1865. v 



274 report — 1865. 

talking with considerable correctness on the topics of the day, seizing ob- 
jects with precision, and showing scarcely a perceptible gradation during re- 
covery from mental inebriation to perfect and sober consciousness. In a psy- 
chological point of view this fact is doubly interesting, for the expression of 
consciousness is but a semblance. The person on recovery does not remember 
the period when, to the bystander, he seemed as wide awake as one unaf- 
fected. To test this phenomenon I myself inhaled amylene alone, and, before 
inhaling it, made up my mind that I would test for sensibility by pinching 
my hand. I inhaled, sitting in an arm-chair, 10 grains of amylene from a jar 
holding 100 cubic inches of air ; the air was thus charged with rather more 
than 13 per cent, of amylene-vapour ; this quantity is small, except it be 
inhaled backwards and forwards in the manner I then followed, when the 
action is quickly decisive. Soon after inhaling I forgot myself altogether, 
but four minutes from the time I took up the jar I was quite conscious again, 
waking as if with a start. Ah ! I thought, this experiment will not do ; the 
amylene acts so quickly that there is no interval during which a man may test 
his own sensibility ; but turning now to my wrist, I found I was wrong in 
this suspicion, for there were deep marks of pinches in several places ; and 
further, the bottle containing the amylene-vapour had been replaced on the 
table with the stopper firmly adjusted, as I had intended. Thus I had, in 
fact, been performing acts of consciousness preconceived and carefully carried 
out without remembering any single fact connected with the process. 

I have seen a phenomenon nearly similar under chloroform, but never so 
marked as under amylene-. Snow had an experience of the same in kind. 
During a severe operation on a child under the influence of amylene, the 
child was playing with a ball, throwing it into the air, catching it with pre- 
cision, and talking and laughing the while. 

I presume that there is not one hearer present who, quite irrespectively of 
the special subject of this report, will not, on contemplating the pheno- 
menon just cited, be struck with the facts adduced. It is clear that the 
human mind, through its manifestations, may exhibit a mere objective con- 
sciousness apart from the ordinary subjective consciousness of daily life. It 
may exhibit a consciousness of which it is itself unconscious, and this under 
the mere influence of a volatile liquid obtained from common potato-starch, 
and which mixes so indifferently with blood at 96° Fahr., that one part only 
will combine with 10,550 parts of blood. 

Have we any analogous phenomena apart from experiment, and spon- 
taneous or natural like this ? You will all anticipate me when I say yes, 
there is the very counterpart in somnambulism. The somnambulist is in pre- 
cisely the same state as the experimentalist under this amyl-compound : he 
pursues acts of consciousness of which he is not self-conscious ; he presents to 
us, i. c, mere objective consciousness. Have we not here a key to the hitherto 
mastery of sleep-walking and acting ? I will not say it is certain, but the 
evidence is as clear as inferential evidence can ever be, that persons who are 
subjects of somnambulistic movements do, through some abnormal process of 
digestion or respiration of the starchy elements of food, produce in their 
own organisms by their own organic chemistry, an agent which, like amy- 
lene, destroys remembrance, and perhaps judgment and reason, but which 
leaves the brain still able to act and to direct the limbs to do things which 
they could not do better in the most wakeful hour. 

One might linger long on this subject, but I must leave it after noticing 
yet one other peculiarity of what may be called amylene dreaming. It is 
this, that during the period of insensibility the mind is capable of carrying on 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF CERTAIN AMYL COMPOTJNDS. 275 

certain proceedings upon winch it was predetermined. We have a similar 
phenomenon to this in our daily range of experience, in the fact that we can 
under pressure go to sleep determining that we will wake at a certain time, 
and do so almost to the minute. In both these cases it seems as though 
the dark sleep were pierced by one pervading conscious gleam of light 
which obeys the orders it has received, and watching the slumbering spirits 
around it, calls them forth into activity at the proper time, and then itself 
dies away. 

The insensibility produced by amylene is very complete but exceedingly 
transient ; recovery after the vapour is withdrawn is sudden, and it is 
therefore necessary to keep up the effect by constant inhalation of large 
quantities of the vapour. Between the period of full sensibility and com- 
plete insensibility there are three well-marked stages. The first is one of 
mild excitement, during which the face becomes red and injected; then a 
period of staggering inebriation ; and thirdly, a period of collapse and insen- 
sibility. Snow added a fourth stage of entire muscular relaxation, but I 
have myself not been able to follow it. During narcotism from this agent there 
is no convulsion, but not unfrequently there is a peculiar tremor of the muscles 
very general, but, if I may use the term, minute. Carried to an extreme, 
the vapour kills animals. The only structural peculiarity found after death, 
is engorgement of the right side of the heart. The lungs are healthy, and 
the blood is unchanged in its general physical properties. I would dwell 
on this last fact with emphasis in order to correct an error made by the 
reporter on amylene to the Academy of Medicine of Paris, to the effect that 
amylene removed the red colour from arterial blood, whereas chloroform does 
not. This is a mistake, founded obviously on an inference derived from imper- 
fect observation. When amylene is added in quantity to arterial blood drawn 
from the body, it does unquestionably produce darkness of coloiir ; but in the 
living animal, during its exhibition by inhalation, no such event occurs ; for 
I have taken the blood from artery and vein, and have compared the specimens. 
The colour of both bloods is normal, the period of coagulation is natural, and 
the corpuscles are unchanged. 

Owing to the fact that amylene is feebly soluble in water, and therefore 
feebly soluble in serum of blood, a very large percentage of it requires to be 
inhaled before any effect is produced. Snow estimated that the air must be 
charged with 40 per cent, in order to produce entire insensibility, and in 
fact he under- estimated the quantity by working on water at a temperature 
of 56° instead of 96° Fahr. I find that, instead of 40, 50 per cent, of the 
vapour actually is required. But as the blood at its ordinary temperature 
can only absorb ju-jjy-g-th part of the vapour of amylene, it cannot, even in 
an adult man, receive at any time more than from 4| to 5 grains. It is 
clear, too, from the rapidity with which recovery takes place, that the fluids 
of the tissues receive but feeble impregnation. 

In order to institute a physiological comparison, I tried the effect of the 
analogue of amylene defiant gas. Olefiant gas is the hydruret of acetyle, 
but, like amylene, it is a pure hydrocarbon ; its composition is different only 
in one respect, viz. that it is composed of four equivalents of carbon and 
four of hydrogen. As I had anticipated, the action was nearly the same ; 
to produce perfect insensibility, 50 per cent, of the gas was required in inha- 
lation. The effects also were transient. 

The effect of amylene on the muscular tissue was studied in various 
ways. As will already have been gathered, it reduces the muscular power, 
but the effect is not abiding. In fact amylene approaches the class of 

v2 



276 report — 18G5. 

negative narcotics, and enters into no chemical combination with the tissues. 
This fact led Dr. Snow to say that in action it almost resembled nitrogen. 
I should myself rather compare it to carbonic oxide ; only that carbonic 
oxide produces convulsive movements and vomiting, which amylene rarely 
does. 

When an animal has died from amylene, the peculiar odour of the sub- 
stance may be detected in the tissues for many days. This circumstance 
may seem at first sight to be opposed to the statements already made re- 
specting the feeble absorption of tbe vapour by the blood. However, there 
is no contradiction ; the phenomenon is due to the circumstance that amy- 
lene possesses the power of charging water with its own odour and taste 
when in extreme division. This fact was observed by Snow with his usual 
precision. "Amylene," he says, "requires 9319 parts of water for its 
solution ;" and, he adds, " the water which has dissolved this small quantity 
of amylene tastes as distinctly of it as amylene itself." I notice this pecu- 
liarity, as it might happen some day to be of service in medico-legal inves- 
tigations. 

Ajitiic Alcohol. 

Amylic alcohol, the hydrated oxide of amyl, is obtained in the fermenta- 
tion of potato-starch or starch of grain. It is an almost colourless fluid, 
and boils at 270° ; its density is 0-818. Its smell is sweet, nauseous, and 
heavy. In composition it difiei's from amylene in that it contains oxygen ; 
its chemical composition is C 10 H 12 2 . Its solubility in water is about the 
same as amylene. 

In action it resembles amylene in being antiseptic, and in changing the 
colour of flowers and plants. It acts on the body, whether administered by 
the mouth or by inhalation, but it is most effective when inhaled in minute 
subdivision from an atomizer. 

Administered by inhalation in small quantities, it produces in the first 
instance signs of irritation of the nostril and then of drowsiness, but there 
is no anaesthesia ; if the inhalation be continued, and the quantity increased, 
the symptoms of coma or sleep are more fully developed, but without any 
insensibility, and with almost immediate recovery on the animal being re- 
moved. Pushed further still, the animal sinks on its side and loses the use 
of the limbs. At last the coma becomes very profound, and it may be intensi- 
fied up to the point of insensibility. At this stage of the process, and some- 
times a little before it, a peculiar symptom is developed, viz. a universal 
tremor, accompanied with a very deep inspiration. There is no spasm, no 
pain, no rigidity, but in medical language rigors of an intense kiud. These 
rigors ai~e soon established in regular rhythm, and by maintaining the expe- 
riment cautiously, they may be kept up for several hours. I have seen them 
for one hour at the rate of sixteen in a minute as regularly as possible, and 
by reduction of the agent have lowered them to twelve, eight, and four per 
minute. All through the breathing is tranquil and the action of the heart 
good. The rigor occurs spontaneously in this manner, but it can be excited 
at any moment by touching the animal or blowing upon it, or even by a 
sharp noise, such as the snap of the finger. When the animal is reduced to 
entire insensibility, if it be laid in the open air, it begins to recover its sensi- 
bility at once, but the power to move is suspended for two or three hours, 
and the rigors also continue, but with decreasing force and frequency. 
Ultimately the animal recovers thoroughly, and is always very eager for food. 
When these urgent and, as they would seem, extreme symptoms are carried 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF CERTAIN AMYL COMPOUNDS. 277 

to their full extent, even an experienced observer would think that recovery 
were impossible ; but in truth the animal cannot be killed by any fair play 
with this vapour. In order actually to kill, it is necessary to complicate the 
experiment by actual reduction of air, or by closing the chamber and retain- 
ing the carbonic acid of the breath. Aniylic alcohol produces a crenate and 
slightly shrunken condition of the blood-corpuscles, and the red blood is 
slightly darkened by it, but no change is produced in the property of coagu- 
lation. The odour of the substance remains for many hours in the tissues. 
The oxide has little action on the skin. 

Acetate op Amyl. 

The acetate of amyl is made by distilling together 1 part of potato oil, 2 of 
acetate of potassa, and 1 of concentrated sidphuric acid. The distilled fluid is 
washed with alkali, and distilled from chloride of calcium. It boils at 272°. 
Its composition is C 4 H 3 3 . 

Acetate of oxide of amyl is a compound of oxide of amyl with acetic acid. 
It is a clear fragrant fluid, and is sold for flavouring purposes under the name 
of essence of pears. It acts like the other preparations in preserving organic 
substances. 

Physiologically the effects of the acetate of amyl may be induced feebly by 
subcutaneous injection, or by administration by the mouth, but best by inha- 
lation from the atomizer. It is very pleasant to inhale, and produces scarcely 
any irritation. "When inhaled by an animal, it produces the very same sym- 
ptoms as amylic alcohol ; indeed these are so closely alike, that I could not by 
mere observation of the symptoms tell which agent was being employed. It 
is quite possible to induce perfect insensibility to pain by this agent. The 
rigors, so remarkable as regards their regularity of occurrence, are presented 
in marked degree ; a touch or noise calls them into action, and the paralysis 
of the voluntary muscular system is complete ; but by itself the acetate does 
not destroy, and I have held an animal under its influence for ten hours with 
perfect recovery afterwards. 

I have inhaled the vapour myself in proportions varying from fifteen to 
twenty-five per cent, without any unpleasant symptom. It slightly quickens 
the action of the heart, and it produces a little irritation of the throat, such 
as follows the inhalation of vapour of vinegar, but, on the whole, the effect 
is pleasant. After a short time there is a gentle sensation of drowsiness, but 
no loss of sensation nor of consciousness, no faintness, no nausea, but a slight 
tremulousness of the muscles, the same unquestionably as the tremor which is 
seen in the more determinate manner in the lower animals. 

The acetate of amyl does not interfere with the process of coagulation of 
the blood, but it renders the blood darker in colour, and the corpuscles are 
made irregular and crenate. The odour of it does not remain long in the 
tissues. The acetate exerts a feeble action upon the skin, causing some vas- 
cularity and soreness when long applied. 

Iodide of Amyl. 

The iodide is made by distilling together 15 parts of potato oil, 1 of phos- 
phorus, and 8 of iodine. It volatizes, without being decomposed, at 294°. 

The iodide of amyl is a compound of amyl with iodine. Its composition 
isC 10 H n I. 

It is a slightly pinkish liquid, the odour is less agreeable than that of the 
acetate of amyl, but is more pleasant than that of amylic alcohol. It rapidly 
changes the colour of flowers and plants, and although it is an antiseptic 



278 report— 1865. 

when brought into contact with dead organic material, it is much less activo 
in this respect than any of the compounds which have up to this time been 
before us. 

The physiological action of the iodide of amyl is well illustrated when 
the substance is administered with the atomizer, but it may be admi- 
nistered by direct inhalation. The symptoms induced are peculiar, being a 
mixture of those brought out by the nitrite of amyl, the hydrated oxide and 
the acetate. In the first stage of inhalation there is a profuse flow of 
tears and increase of saliva, followed by rapid breathing and vehement action 
of the heart. In the second stage there is prostration of the muscular 
system with commencing rigors ; in the third stage there is entire prostra- 
tion, and precisely as with the oxide and acetate, there are regular series 
of general tremulous movements which can be excited at any moment by 
touching or by a sharp noise. During the tremor the limbs are agitated in 
movements which are so rapid that they cannot be counted. Pushed to 
a fourth degree, the breathing becomes paralysed, and the action of the heart 
intermittent and at last prolonged. But at this last degree, when extinction 
of life is within a second, there is no insensibility to pain. The merest prick 
causes expression of consciousness. Removed from the vapour, even when 
the existence of life is almost doubtful, recovery, if there be the faintest de- 
tectable action of the heart, is certain, and not only so, but it is rapid also. 
In the course of recovery the tremors quickly subside, but a special and 
curious phenomenon is commonly presented, consisting of a series of revolu- 
tions of the body in a circle. At first the animal moves round almost on its 
own axis ; as it regains power, it makes a little circuit, and then a wider 
one ; at length it moves less methodically in jerks, and last of all attains the 
straight line. It seems at no time to suffer anything, and yet always to be 
alive to what is passing. It eats food voraciously on recovery. I shordd 
add that during the whole process there is copious elimination of water from 
the lungs, skin, and indeed all the cniunctory organs. 

If the blood be examined microscopically before, during, and after the in- 
halation, several changes are observed. The colour of the blood is not 
darkened, but tbe fibrine appears to imdergo entire solution, while the blood- 
corpuscles in greater part retain their natural characteristic form. The 
dissolved condition of the fibrine lasts many hours, and if the skin be pricked 
the blood flows for an unusual time, but it is bright red in colour. When 
added to drawn blood, the iodide renders the coagulation loose and feeble, but 
does not stop the process altogether, possibly because its molecules do not 
come into such minute contact with the blood as when they are brought into 
union with the blood in the lungs. The upper surface of blood charged 
with the iodide becomes oxidized quickly in the air, and exhibits a bright 
red layer very deep and regular. ' 

The iodide causes little irritability of skin or of mucous membrane. It is 
not disagreeable to inhale, but it excites secretion of saliva. It also produces 
vascular redness of the extremities during its inhalation. 

In regard to the whole of the amyl-compounds, the properties of which 
I have investigated, I may state that, while they destroy the voluntary power 
of the muscles, they seem in no way to destroy the muscular irritability, the 
vis insita of Haller. This is proved by the facts that when the animal lies 
most prostrate any muscle or any group of muscles can be called into brisk 
action by the application of the galvanic stimulus, and that when an animal 
is actually destroyed by them, the muscular irritability remains for many 
hoiu-s after death. When the nitrite is employed as the destructive agent, 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF CERTAIN AMYL COMPOUNDS. 279 

the muscular irritability of the heart is retained in some cases for so long a 
period as eighteen hours; hence I think it follows conclusively that the 
influence of the poison is exerted mainly on the nervous centres, and that the 
stimulus to muscular action or the tension of force derived from those" centres 
is simply reduced or withdrawn. I conceive also it is another fair inference 
to suppose that the compounds exert their influence first on those portions 
of the nervous organism from which the motor power, as apart from the sen- 
sory and conscious, is derived. 

Before closing this descriptive section of my report, I would add that, in 
the experiments to which attention has been drawn, dogs, rabbits, and guinea- 
pigs were the animals subjected to observation. To make the experiments 
strictly fair, to forbid any suspicion to the effect that the differences or even 
the analogies observed were due to peculiarities of the animals, one animal, 
a strong guineapig, was subjected at intervals of ten days to the extreme 
action, short of actual death, of the various compounds submitted to exami- 
nation. 

Practical Conclusions. 

It remains for me now, in a few short paragraphs, to sum up the lessons 
which are taught by these experiences. 

I. — In the first place, something is added to our knowledge of therapeutics 
or rational principles of remedies. This is hardly perhaps the place to descant 
on special remedies for the treatment of disease, and I shall forbear on this 
point ; but I may state generally that, according to present knowledge, none 
of the amyl-compounds can be said to replace either ether or chloroform as 
anaesthetics : amylene, the best of the series, is known not to be free of 
danger, and it is less manageable than chloroform without being devoid of any 
of the objections of chloroform, except the one, that it does not so often 
produce vomiting. This advantage, though most important, is after all insuf- 
ficient as a single favourable recommendation. 

But there is one direction towards which our minds cannot fail to be di- 
rected, and following which we may expect useful results in a therapeutical 
inquiry, — I refer to the application of these substances as remedies in certain 
convulsive and spasmodic diseases, in which the symptoms are obviously in- 
duced by morbid sensibility or excitability of the motor tracts and centres of 
the nervous system. "When we know that in these agents we possess reme- 
dies which produce lessened action of the motor force resident in nervous 
matter, but which at the same time affect the consciousness in a secondary- 
degree only, and do not affect the muscular irratibility at all, we cannot but 
be impressed with the feeling that they would largely control the nervous 
excitation in cases where that is dangerously and fatally called forth. I 
refer more particularly to cases of tetanus or locked jaw. Here I think it 
would be rational to bring these agents into requisition as remedies, and 
comparing the agents one by one, and after studying carefully their effects, I 
should conclude that the iodide of amyl would on the whole be most pro- 
mising. It has the advantge of being readily administered by inhalation ; 
it produces less muscular excitement than the nitrite, and it is, I believe, 
chemically a safer preparation ; it does not so determinately check oxidation 
as the rest ; it promotes secretion ; it is more permanent in its effects than 
amylene, and it is less persistent than either the acetate or the amylic alcohol. 
In a case of hopeless tetanus I should have no hesitation in administering 
iodide of amyl until decided reduction of nervous excitability was indicated, 



280 report — 1865. 

nor do I doubt the possibility of sustaining such reduction of irritability for 
several hours. 

The iodide of aniyl might possibly also be found useful as a means for 
bringing forth the medicinal virtues of iodine itself in the many cases for 
which that element is now, under other forms, so usefully employed. It 
would make, for example, an excellent embrocation for glandular enlarge- 
ments, and would come in efficiently in other ways, as will occur to every 
medical practitioner. It is unnecessary, however, to dwell on these matters; 
having pointed out the physiological bearings of the question and framed the 
institute, I leave the practice to experience. 

II. — In the second place, a lesson is taught by these researches relative to 
the possible cause, or to some allied cause, of certain diseases as yet most 
obscure in reference to their causation. I showed last year that the nitrite of 
amyl produced a condition of system closely allied to the disorder known as 
catalepsy. On this occasion I have indicated that another of these compounds 
produces symptoms analogoiis to those which characterize the disease known 
as sleep-walking or somnambulism. But it will further occur to the mind 
of the philosophical pathologist that hysteria and certain sudden and as yet 
unexplored forms of paralysis of voluntary muscular power, following peculiar 
dyspeptic derangements, admit of explanation on the hypothesis of a perverted 
animal chemistry, and the formation in the organism itself of a substance 
made from the same organic material and approaching in character one of 
these amyl-compounds. If, as we know is the fact, a peculiar fermentative 
process of amylaceous material out of the body leads to the production of the 
base of the amyl series, it is hard to avoid the thought that in the body, 
where the zymosis of amylaceous matter is a constant process, no similar per- 
version should occur. 

III. — The last lesson suggested by this research relates to the modifications 
of action exhibited in animals by charging them with the same chemical base 
but with diverse compounds of the base. A very shrewd and profound 
question was asked me last year by Dr. Heaton of Leeds, when my report on 
the nitrite of amyl was read, to this effect : — Is the action of the compound 
due to the base, or to the compound' as a whole ? I was unable then to 
answer that question properly. Now I can answer it; and I do so by 
saying, that in the midst of the phenomena observed the base amyl is, if I 
may use such an expression, the key-note, but variations are introduced as 
new elements are added. The order of variation is most interesting. Vo 
take a simple hydrocarbon, the hydruret of amyl, and we have an almost ne- 
gative body acting not unlike nitrogen and destroying motor force and con- 
sciousness partly but no more. AVe introduce the element oxygen into the 
inquiry by using the hydrated oxide of amyl or the acetate, and there is 
added to the above-named phenomena violent and persistent tremor. AVe 
move from this to another compound, and bring iodine into the field, and the 
phenomena now embrace free elimination of fluid from the body, vascularity 
of the extreme parts with increased action of the heart and of respiration. 
We change the combination once more to bring nitrogen and oxygen into 
operation with the base, and the vascular action is raised beyond what is 
seen from any other known substance, to be followed by a prostration so pro- 
found that the still living animal might for a time pass for dead. 

It seems to me, but I put out the thought with the profoundest sub- 
mission, that in these experimental truths, so simple and yet so striking, 



ON THE LINGULA-FLAGS OF SOUTH WALES. 281 

we have presented to our minds a new line of therapeutical inquiry run- 
ning somewhat parallel with that line of inquiry so prominent amongst our 
learned and more exact brethren of the Chemical Section, which they follow 
under the term " the law of substitution." I would ask, — Is there not a 
physiological law to be worked out similar in character ? and might we not by 
looking into it become more sure and determinate in our knowledge and 
application of medicinal remedies ? "What if, after having learned the exact 
action on the economy of the organic bases, we followed the chemist, and 
by taking the compounds moulded on those bases, we learned their true phy- 
siological vahies '? Surely, if we did this, long though the labour should be, 
we might in time venture to lay down. 

" This osier cage of ours 
With baleful weeds and precious juiced flowers" — 

and without forgetting the words of that wise friar, whom we of physic still 
so blindly follow, 

" Oh rnickle is the powerful grace, that lies 
In herbs, plants, stones, and their true qualities," 

might begin to approach to that accuracy of knowledge, the absence of which 
makes us so weak and the charlatan so presumptuous ; the possession of 
which makes the other physical philosophers so proof against presumption 
and so proudly certain in their stupendous knowledge. 

In conclusion, were I a youth, just entering one of the best professions, I 
should be glad to devote my first years simply and solely to the branch of 
therapeutical research which I have here so faintly sketched out. As it is, 
I can but feel fortunate in that, supported by the fostering care of this Asso- 
ciation, I have been enabled to do even so much as turn the first sod in this 
great and novel field of labour, — I mean the investigation, physiologically, of 
the organic chemical compounds on a plan that aims at least at a principle in 
science, however obscurely it may have been propounded. To say I shall be 
happy to do more, and again to lay what I may have done before this Section, 
is to say the least I can in return for the kind consideration I have received 
at your hands. 



Report on further Researches in the Lingula-flags of South Wales. 
By Henry Hicks. With some Notes on the Sections and Fossils, 
by J. W. Salter, F.G.S., A.L.S. 

The district to which the following Eeport refers, and for the examination of 
which a grant was made at the Meeting of the British Association last year, 
is in the N.W. of Pembrokeshire, and in the immediate neighbourhood of 
the city of St. David's. The principal section occurs to the S. and S.E. of 
St. David's, along the north coast of St. Bride's Bay. It is, moreover, 
bounded by two well-marked faults, which run up in a JsT.-westerly direc- 
tion, and which serve rather to isolate it. One only of these faults is marked 
on the Survey Map, that forming its eastern boundary, and which may be 
seen running up almost immediately behind the now well-known creek of 
Porth-y-rhaw, and which cuts off the upper and principal part of the Middle 
Lingula-flags, leaving only a few hundred feet to rest conformably upon the 
Lower Lingula-flags. The western fault occurs directly to the south of 
St. David's, at a place called Nun's Well, and just at the spot where the 
Conglomerate and lowest Cambrian beds are exposed on the coast line, so 



282 report — 1865. 

that within the boundary of these two faults we have an exposed section of 
all the Lower Cambrian beds, the whole of the Lower Lingula-flags, and a 
part of the Middle Lingula-flags, following one another in true succession. 

I have taken three parallel sections across the hue of strike, as follows : — 

1st. Caerbwddy section, to the west of Porth-y-rhaw, including nearly the 
whole of the Lower Cambrian beds exposed in this neighbourhood, and above 
400 feet of the Lower Lingiila-flags. 

2nd. Porth-y-rhaw section runs along the east side of that creek, and in- 
cludes the uppermost beds of the Lower Cambrians, and nearly the whole of 
the Lower Lingula-flags. 

3rd, or Cradle Rock section, includes the remaining beds of the Lower Lin- 
gula-flags, and the Middle Lingula-flags as far as they are exposed here in 
true succession. It extends from a point inland of Porth-y-rhaw to the 
Cradle Rock — the latter an islet about midway from Porth-y-rhaw to the 
mouth of Solva Harbour. The first, or Caerbwddy section, cuts across the 
beds in a direction from N."W. by N. to S.E. by S., and includes about 1980 
feet of conformable strata, comprising, in ascending order, — 

Syenite. 

Fine-grained shales, altered. 

feet. 

1. Some Conglomerates (chiefly quartz pebbles in a purple ( kq 

base) | 

2. Greenish sandstones in thin beds 280 

3. Purple sandstones, massive 8(30 

[ A variable series. Yellowish sandstone and ) > Lower 

4. Upper Grey J shale in thin beds, and grey grit, with ( ,~ Cambrian. 

series . . 1 purple bands in thick beds, a few beds f ' 
( of purple slate among them J 

)a. Hard grey compact beds 100^ 

b. Black and dark grey striped shales, with I Upper 
interbedded trap 330 ( Cambrian. 

1980 

The lowest third, or base of the fossilifcrous scries, is especially worth 
notice, as resembling very nearly in lithological character the immediately 
underlying Lower Cambrian beds, and distinguished from them only by the 
absence of the purple bands. It must be understood also that the absence 
of these bands by no means contradicts us in assigning these fossiliferous 
beds (No. 5 a) to the upper portion of the true Lower Cambrian or " Harlech 
Grit" series, since many beds of the immediately underlying series are as free 
from purple colour as are any of these. Purple and red beds, moreover, are 
not found to be favourable for the exhibition of organic traces. In the true 
purple beds (No. 3), and, indeed, in the whole of the Lower Cambrians of this 
district, worm tracks only have as yet been found, though it is to be hoped 
that the presence and true position of the Ohlhamia will also be determined 
here ere long. 

As we ascend from the coarse-grained compact beds already mentioned, 
the beds gradually become darker in appearance, of a finer grain, and more 
flag-like ; the dip is very high, and often vertical. 

The 2nd, or Porth-y-rhaw section, extends along the east side of that 
creek, in a direction from N. by E. to S. by W., includes about 700 feet of 
strata, nearly all fossiliferous, and shows the most perfect section of the Lower 
Lingula-flags anywhere exposed in this neighbourhood. 

It begins in the Grey grit, or lowest fossiliferous beds (5 a), and upon 



ON THE LINGULA-FLAGS OF SOUTH WALES. 283 

these, in ascending order, lie the Grey flag with black bands, and the true 
black beds (5 b), all well marked, and easily traced through their transitional 
states into one another. The passage, moreover, is quite perfect. The upper 
part of this section contains a thick bed or two of trap, — a circumstance com- 
mon throughout the Lingula-flags in this district, as also occasionally in the 
Upper Grey series of the Lower Cambrian, though I have never seen it occur 
lower down. Mr. Salter has found it abundantly in the same beds in North 
Wales. 

The 3rd, or Cradle Bock section, is a continuation of the second. The first 
beds in this section are the thick sandstone ones which terminated section 2; 
and upon these we have thin alternating beds of sandstone and shale of a 
dark grey colour, fossiliferous, and occupying a thickness of about 250 ft. ; 
next, a series of beds still dipping in the same direction for about 450 ft., and 
composed of grey flaggy sandstone in thin beds, alternating at first with dark 
grey or black shale, and afterwards -with yellowish shale. These last are 
evidently the base of the Middle Lingula-flags. After this the beds curve into 
a synclinal, which is again repeated about 600 ft. further on, so that but a 
portion only of the Middle Lingula series is in consequence exposed here. 
The general section thus sketched includes about 3000 ft. of conformable 
strata, and may well be looked upon as the typical section. Several other 
sections are also exposed inland, and along the coast, but in no case do we 
find one so continuous or uninterrupted by faults. Again, all others that I 
have examined, and which I may say include all the chief Cambrian masses 
exposed in N.W. Pembrokeshire, tend in every case to prove the facts exhi- 
bited clearly in this one. In most cases I have found the lithological charac- 
ters of the beds, the thicknesses of the various series, and the fossils, when 
present, to tally in every particular with this section. 

In section 2, or that of the east side of Porth-y-rhaw Creek, we meet with 
all the principal fossil types. By means of a fault, the purple-stained beds 
(4) are immediately followed by a set of beds, excepting in colour, appa- 
rently identical with them, hard Grey grit (5 a) in thick compact beds, which, 
as in the first section named, appear to be the top of the Lower Cambrian. 
In these beds, and within a few feet of true purple beds, I found a new 
Parado.rides, now named P.Aurora ; associated with it a new Conocori^he, of 
large size ; a new TJieca, a LinguleUa, an Obolella, and fragments of Agnostus 
and JIurodiscus. Unfortunately the first two are very fragmentary as yet, 
but there is quite enough to pronounce them new ; and the Paradoxides is a 
very peculiar species. Fragments of these lowest fossils are also found in the 
creek to the west of Porth-y-rhaw, and through which I have taken section 1 ; 
and at two or three other places, where they hold exactly the same relation 
to the underlying purple beds, and to the series above. Though the purple 
band series have not yet yielded any definite traces of these higher forms of 
fossils, we arc scarcely, I think, warranted in looking upon that as proof of 
their absence ; neither is it, I think, likely that so rich, though limited, a 
fauna should come so suddenly into existence. About half a dozen only of 
the lowest beds are distinctly fossiliferous, the succeeding 150 ft. having 
yielded scarcely any traces as yet, though we may expect to find them. 

These last beds are much lighter in colour, being a grey grit, and having 
only a few narrow dark bands. Rather abruptly the beds now become darker 
in colour and of a finer grain,— a dark-grey flag. In these we meet with 
Parad. Hiclcsii, not a new species, but one described already as P. Forchham- 
meri, from some unknown locality in North Wales, according to the testimony 
of my colleague, Mr. Salter, who has been trying for the last twenty years to 



284 report — 1865. 

find out the true position and locality of this fossil. Associated with this 
second species of Paradoxides are three or four other trilohites, two or three 
shells, &c. 

From this point the beds become still darker in colour, black, flag-like, 
and slaty beds, full of fossils. A small cavern marks a good line for these 
highly fossiliferous beds, and here we meet with numerous new species, and 
even genera, which are not found elsewhere. The beds between the cavern 
and the traps are the chief repository of our species ; and I will mention 
more particularly as occurring there two or three new species of Sponge, a 
Cystidean or two of undescribed form, several minute Braehiopoda, which 
range through a considerable space, and a host of trilobites, of which the 
more conspicuous genera are Agnostus, Microdiscus, Conocoryplie of four or 
five species,'a new genus tEvinnys, allied to Harpides, a new genus Holo- 
cephalina, and last of all, the great Parad. Davidis, already well known to 
British geologists. It sometimes attains the length of 18 inches. 

The genus Theea here, as elsewhere, accompanies the primordial fossils ; it 
is in considerable abundance, and of two or more species. 

Prom a Table which contains the distribution of the fossils in these beds, 
and which has been carefully drawn up according to observations made by 
Mr. Salter and myself during the last three years, we are enabled to observe 
how that many of these species were very short-lived, whilst others on the 
contrary ranged through considerable spaces, more particularly the smaller 
species, such as Agnostus, Microdiscus, Lingulella, Obolella, &c. This Table 
also shows altogether 6 or 7 new geneva of trilobites and about 16 species, 
and with brachiopod and pteropod shells, Cystideae and Sponges, an addition 
■within the last three years to British palaeontology of about 33 new species. 

Notes on the Sections and Fossils. By J. W. Saltek, A.L.S.,F.G.S. 
I find but little to say regarding the fossils, my friend and colleague having 
forestalled me, and completed in a masterly way the section I roughly 
sketched out in 1862. The district around St. David's will soon become 
popular, as it exhibits the most accessible section of the Cambrian rocks, 
Lower and Upper, to be seen anywhere in "Wales. Those in the estuary of 
the Ffestiniog valley are perhaps more complete, but are not seen, except 
partially, in coast sections ; and nowhere in one continuous series. More- 
over, lying at lower angles of dip, they are extended over a much greater 
space. 

Of the following list of 33 species— an ample fauna for the purpose — 
I may say at once, there are none common to other horizons of the palaeozoic 
group, and as the thickness of the series is considerable, 3000 or 4000 feet, 
we only follow the precedent of older and better geologists by proposing a 
new name. The classic name of the district is Menevia, and we propose 
that the term ' Menevian' should stand for the Lower, as the ' Ffestiniog' of 
Prof. Sedgwick already stands for the middle and upper groups of the Lin- 
gula-flags. The 'Menevian' group, therefore, rests immediately on the 
'Harlech' or Bangor group of Prof. Sedgwick, and passes imperceptibly 
into it. 

The Cambrian groups will then stand as follows : — 

( Tremadoc group (Upper and Lower). 
Upper Cambrian (Lingula-flags) < Ffestiniog group (Lingula-flags). 

( Menevian group (Lower Lingula-flags). 

( Harlech group (Grey grits and purple beds). 
Lower Cambrian •! Longmynd group (sandstones and conglome- 

( rates). 



ON THE LIXGULA-FLAGS OF SOUTH WALES. 



283 



Fossils of the ' Menevian group,' or Lower Lingula-flag. 





Upper Grey series. 
Lower Cambrian. 


Black Slate series. 

Base of Upper Cambrian. 

Lower Lingula-flags. 




# 






















Davidis 


— 














































































Lingulella unguiculus 








""^™ " 






























































1 



This list will surely he increased. But it may serve already to show the 
near resemblance the group bears to other parts of the Lingula-flag or Upper 
Cambrian series in some points, and the wide difference in others. ATI the 
species are distinct. Many of the genera are only known here at present, 
e. g. Paracloxides, Microdiscus, Anopolenus, Erinnys, Holocephalina, and the 
peculiar sponge, Protospongia. The Cystidean may be different from others. 
But we cannot yet prove this, though it seems likely. 

In beds higher up in North Wales Olenus is found. But of this more 
hereafter. 

The " Menevian group" is distinguished by possessing the largest and 
smallest of Trilobites — those with the most multiplied segments, and those 
with the fewest. Paradoxides, Erinnys, and Olenus are the opposites in every 
respect of Agnostns with 2, and Microdiscus with 4 segments to the body. 
Indeed Erinnys (if it can be thoroughly separated from Harpides, which we 
doubt) has nearly the greatest number of free segments known in the order, 
more than Paradoxides ; but probably fewer than Harpes. 

* The length of the lines indicates the range of the species, long or short, as the case 
may be. 



286 report — 1865. 

"We have here a larger proportion of blind Trilobites, and those without 
facial sutures, than in higher formations. Agnostus, Microdisms, and Erin- 
nys are destitute of facial suture, and probably of eyes. HolocepTudina seems 
to have been furnished with very minute eyes, so far out as nearly to be lost. 
And Anopolenus, while it has immense eyes, has a most singular restriction 
in the development of the free cheeks, and is in many respects abnormal. 

The Braehiopods are such as we were led to expect. Minute and almost 
rudimentary forms of Lirigulce and Discince, with some kindred genera, form, 
with Theca, the whole of the shells. The Sponge seems to be a peculiar form ; 
yet not so different from the Silurian ones as at first supposed. The fibres are 
very rudimentary in structure. The Cystidean is as yet imperfectly known. 

Perhaps the most curious point about this fauna is the greater resemblance 
it bears to the Bohemian primordial group than is borne by any other 
member of the Lingula-flag. Tbe Paradoxides which mark several distinct 
horizons here, are not known in the Upper Lingula-flag. The species of 
Conoeoryplie resemble Bohemian and Spanish types. Erinnys or Harpides 
is like the Bohemian species. Holocepludina resembles Arionellus, &c. 

If from such scanty indications we may judge anything, it would be that 
the Bohemian primordial group represents our Lower, and not our Upper 
Lingula-flags. These last are rich in (Menus, a genus absent altogether from 
Bohemia, but abundant in Northern Europe. It is accompanied, according 
to Angelin, by Paradoxides in Sweden. But with us, the genera follow a 
very regular order. Paradoxides appears first, Anopolenus second, and then 
various species of Olenus last. 

Several of the forms above catalogued (Microdiscus, Erinnys, &c.) are 
found in beds' of the same age near Ffestiniog in North Wales ; and the great 
Paradoxides Davidis occurs in black slates on the same horizon at the gold- 
mines of Dolgelly, North "Wales (see Decades, Geol. Survey, No. 11, PI. 10). 
We have included in our list those species found in the uppermost grey beds 
of the Lower Cambrian ; but all may for the present be included provisionally 
in our ' Meneviaw group. 



Report of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
By W. R. Birt, at the request of the Committee, consisting of James 
Glaisher, F.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Sir John Herschel, Bart., 
F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Warren de la Rue, F.R.S., 
President of the Royal Astronomical Society, Dr. Lee, F.R.S., Rev. 
W. R. Dawes, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., J. N. Lockyer, 
F.R.A.S., H. S. Ellis, F.R.A.S., and W. R. Birt, F.R.A.S. 

The first object of the Committee appointed at Bath in the year 1864 was to 
prepare forms suitable for the registration of lunar objects, for recording 
original observations, for facilitating the formation of a catalogue, and for 
computing the coordinates of the positions of objects. The results of the 
labours of the Committee are now presented to the Association in the shape 
of Form No. 1, for recording observations ; Form No. 2, for facilitating the 
arrangement of objects in a catalogue ; Form No. 3, for recording the posi- 
tions, extents, heights and depths, brightness and alignments of lunar objects, 
with descriptions, synonyms and references to existing authorities ; and Form 
No. 4, for computing positions of the second order. The annexed form is 
that for recording general observations of the moon. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 287 

[Form No. 1.] British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Observatory, 



General Observations of the Moon, made at the 
By 
Telescope 



Eye Piece 



Tear and 
Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Subjects of Observation. 


Estimate 

of 
Brightness. 


Symbol 

of 

Reference. 








No. 







This Form is intended to be bound in volumes for use in observatories. It 
contains the usual columns for registering the year, month, day and hour of 
observation, a "wide column for the reception of the observations themselves, 
and two additional columns, one for the registration of the brightness of objects, 
the other for receiving a symbol of reference on which a word or two in ex- 
planation may be appropriate. 

Whatever object may be the subject of observation, either physical or 
micrometrical, as soon after the observations as may be convenient, the pro- 
per symbol of reference which is described in Form No. 2 is to be inserted in 
the last column against the name or description of the object observed ; and 
as Form No. 1 is intended as a chronological record of observations of all 
kinds, the entries in this column will indicate the proper sheets of Form No. 3, 
in which the data obtained by observation are to be entered. Employing a 
commercial simile, Form No. 1 is the day book, Form No. 3 the ledger, and 
Form No. 2 the directions for posting. 

A vast amount of detail having reference to the moon's surface has been 
accumulating since the time of Hevelius, but up to the present period a 
systematic arrangement of the objects discoverable on the surface has not 
been attempted ; for although Beer and Madler in their " Der Mond " have 
arranged the descriptive part of their work in quadrants, commencing with 
the north-west and ending with the south-west, it embraces only the most 
conspicuous objects ; numerous features, some even of large extent, are 
entirely passed over, and indeed those which have been noticed by Beer and 
Madler form a very small portion of the objects that may be detected with a 
telescope even of small aperture, or an object glass of two or three inches 
diameter. It is also not a very easy matter to arrange objects on the moon's 
surface, inasmuch as they are unlike those celestial objects which have been 
arranged in catalogues. The fixed stars, double stars, variable stars, and 
nebulae find a natural arrangement in the order of right ascension ; not so the 
objects on the moon's surface ; it is true they are invariably situated with 
regard to the central meridian of mean libration, but to arrange them in the 
order of selenographical longitude east and west of the central meridian, it 
is necessary that the position of each should be rigorously determined, a 
work that still remains to be done, and it may be many years before it can 
be accomplished. 

In order to meet this desideratum, the Committee have drawn up and 
issued the following Form (No. 2) for facilitating the arrangement of a cata- 
logue by means of symbols ; and in accordance with it more than 1000 
objects are now symbolized and entered in Form No. 3. 



288 



REPORT 1865. 



[Form No. 2.] British Association for the Advancement of Science. — Lunar 
Committee. — Table of Areas. 



Zones and Limiting Latitudes. 



Limitingj 


I. II. 


III. IV. 


V. YI. 


VII. VIII. 


longitudes. 


0° to 5°. 


5° to 10 3 . 


10° to 15°. 


15° to 20°. 


o o 

Oto 5 


A« 


A^ 


A* 


A* 


5 „ 10 


A/ 3 


A 2 


AP 


AP 


10 „ 15 


A X 


A 9 


K 


A" 


15 „ 20