(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science"

ii;-;! 



p 



/// ?r 



REPORT 



OF TUE 



THIRTY-SIXTH MEETING 



OF THE 




BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR TUE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HEM) AT 



NOTTTNOHAM IN AUGUST 18fi6. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1867. 



PRINTED BV 
TAYLOn AND FUANflS, HKD LION COURT, FLKKT STHF.ET. 

O 

n.KKK ! FLAMMAM. 





CONTENTS. 



Objects and llviles of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xx 

Treasurer's Account xxv 

Members of Council from commencement xxvi 

Officers and Council, 1866-67 xxx 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxxi 

Corresponding Members xxxii 

Report of the Council to the General Committee xxxiii 

Report of the Kew Committee, 1865-66 xxxiii 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xl 

Recommendations of the General Committee for Additional Reports 

and Researches in Science xli 

Synopsis of Money Grants xlv 

General Statement of Sums paid on account of Grants for Scientific 

Purposes xlvi 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee li 

Arrangement of the General Meetings lii 

Address of the President, W. R. Grove, Esq., Q.C., M.A., F.R.S. . . liii 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Second Report of the Committee for exploring Kent's Cavern, Devonshire. 
The Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell, Bart., Professor 
Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., Mr. John Evans, Mr. Edward 
VrviAN, and Mr. William Pengellt (Reporter) 1 

Preliminary Report on the Chemical Nature of Cast Iron. By A. Mat- 

thiessen, F.R.S 11 

a2 



iv CONTENTS. 

Pnge 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1865-66. By a Com- 
mittee, consisting of James Glaisher, F.R.S., of the Ro^'al Observa- 
tory, Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, &c. ; 
Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., &c. ; E. W. Bratley, F.R.S., &c. ; and 
Alexander S. Herschel, B.A. 16 

Report of the Committee appointed to Investigate the Alum Bay Leaf- 
Bed. By W. Stephen Mitchell, LL.B., F.G.S., Caius College, Cam- 
bridge 146 

Report of the Committee appointed to make Experiments on the differ- 
ence between the Resistance of Water to Floating and to Immersed 
Bodies. The Committee consists of John Scott Rttssell, C.E., F.R.S. ; 
James R. Napier; Professor Rankine, C.E., F.R.S. ; and W. Froude 148 

Report on Muscular Irritability and the relations which exist between 
Muscle, Nerve, and Blood. By Richard Norris, M.D 157 

Report on the Physiological Action of certain Compounds of Amyl and 
Ethyl. By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S 172 

Second Report on the Structure and Classification of the Fossil Crustacea. 
By Henry Woodward, F.G.S 179 

Second Report on the "Menevian Group" and the other Formations at 
St. David's, Pembrokeshire. By H. Hicks, and J. W. Salter, F.G.S. 182 

Report on Dredging among the Hebrides. By J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. 186 

Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of Exploring the 
Coasts of the Hebrides by means of the Dredge. — Part II. On the 
Crustacea, Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Actinozoa, and Hydrozoa. By 
the Rev. Alfred Merle Norman, M.A 193 

Notices of some Invertebrata, in connexion with the Report of Mr. Gwyn 
Jeffreys on Dredging among the Hebrides. By Joshfa Alder .... 206 

Report on the Ostracoda dredged amongst the Hebrides. By George S. 
Brady 208 

Report on Dredging in the Moray Firth. By the Rev. Walter Mac- 
GREGOR and Robert Dawson 211 

Report of the Committee on the Transmission of Sound-Signals under 
Water 212 

Report of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
By W. R. BiRT, at the request of the Committee, consisting of James 
Glaisher, F.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Sir John Herschel, Bart., 
F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Warren De la Rue, F.R.S., Rev. 
W. R. Dawes, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., J. N. Lockyer, 
F.R.A.S., H. S. Ellis, F.R.A.S., Herr Schmidt, and W. R. Birt, 
r.R.A.S 214 

Report ef the Rainfall Committee, consisting of J. Glaisher, F.R.S., 
Lord Wrottesley, F.R.S., Prof. Phillips, F.R.S., Prof. Tyndall, 
F.R.S., Dr. Lee, F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, F.R.S., R. W. Mylne, F.R.S., 
Charles Brooke, F.R.S., and G. J. Symons, Secretary 281 



CONTENTS. V 

Pago 

Keport on the best means of providing for a Uniformity of Weights and 
Measures, with reference to the Interests of Science. By a Committee, 
consisting of Sir John Bowring, The Right Hon. C. B. Adderley, 
M.P., Sir William Akmsteong, C.B., F.E.S., The Astronomee Royal, 
Samuel Brown, W. Ewart, M.P., Dr. Fare, F. P. Fellows, Prof. 
Feankland, Prof. Hennessy, F.R.S., James HErwooD, M.A., F.R.S., 
Sir Robert Kane, F.R.S., Dr. Leone Levi, F.S.A., Prof. W. A. Miller, 
F.R.S., Prof. Rankine, F.R.S., C. W. Siemens, F.R.S., Colonel Sykes, 
M.P., F.R.S., W. Tite, M.P., F.R.S., Prof. A. W. Williamson, F.R.S., 
Lord Weottesley, D.C.L., F.R.S., James Yates, F.R.S 352 

An Account of Meteorological and Physical Observations in Three Bal- 
loon Ascents made in the years 1865 and 1866 (in continuation of 
twenty-five made in the years 1862, 1863, and 1864), imder the 
auspices of the Committee of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, by James Glaisher, F.R.S. , at the request of the 
Committee, consisting of Colonel Syxes, The Astronomer Royal, Lord 
Weottesley, Sir D. Beewstee, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Lloyd, 
Dr. Robinson, Mr. Gassiot, Mr. Glaisher, Prof. Tyttdall, Dr. Fair- 
bairn, and Dr. W. A. Miller 367 

Report on the Extinct Birds of the Mascarene Islands. By a Committee, 
consisting of Prof. A. Newton, Rev. H. B. Tristram, and Dr. Sclater 401 

Report on various Experiments carried out by Captain W. H. Noble, R.A., 
imder the direction of the Ordnance Select Committee relative to the 
Penetration of Iron Armour Plates by Steel Shot, to which is added 
a Memorandum on the Penetration of Iron-Clad Ships by Steel and 
other ProjectUes 403 

Report on Isomerism among the Alcohols. By J. A Wankltn 456 

Report of the Committee on Scientific Evidence in Courts of Law, con- 
sisting of the Rev. W. V. Harcourt, Professor Williamson, The Right 
Hon. J. Napier, Mr. W. Tite, Professor Christison, Mr. Carpmael, 
Dr. Tyndall, Mr. James Heywood, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. Thomas 
Webster, Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., and Professor W. A, Miller : 
— Professor Williamson, Secretary 456 

Second Report on Maltese Fossiliferous Caves, «fec. By A. Leith Adams, 
M.A., M.B., F.G.S 458 



VI CONTENTS. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COxMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS and PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

Page 

Mr. AxEXANDKB J. Ellis on Plane Stigmatics 1 

— ■ — on Practical Hypsometry 1 

Dr. J. D. Everett's description of a New Proportion-Table, equivalent to a 
Sliding-rule 13 feet 4 inches long 2 

Mr. F. P. Fellows on cei-tain Eri'ors in the received Equivalent of the Metre, 
&c 2 

Professor R. IIarley on Tscliirnhausen's Method of Transformation of Alge- 
braic Equations, and some of its Modem Extensions 2 

• — - on Differential Resolvents 2 

"s Remarks on Boole's Mathematical Analysis of Logic . . 3 

Dr. PLtJCKEB on Complexes of the Second Order 6 

Mr. W. H. L. Russell on the Hyperelliptic Functions, Giipel and Weirstrass's 
Systems (3 

Mr. H. J. S. Smith on a Property of Surfaces of the Second Order (j 

'■ on the large Prime Number calculated by Mr. Banatt Davis (5 

Mr. G. J. Stoney on a Nomenclature for Multiples and Submultiples to render 
absolute Standards convenient in practice, and on the fundamental Unit of 
Mass G 

Mr. Charles M. Willich on the Partition of the Cube, and some of the 
Combinations of its parts 7 

Mr. J. R. Hind's Remarks on the Variable Star lately discovered in Corona 
Borealis 8 

Light. 

Mr. A. Claudet on Optics of Photography. — On a New Process for equalizing 
the Definition of all the Planes of a Solid Figure represented in a Photogi-a- 
phic Picture. Means of producing Harmonious and Artistic Portraits .... 

M. a. Cornu on a New Geometrical Theorem relative to the Theoiy of Re- 
flexion and Refraction of Polarized Light (Isotropic Media) '.) 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone and the Rev. T. P. Dale on Dispersion-equivalents . . 10 



CONTENTS. VU 

Page 

Dr. J. Janssen sur le Spectroscope de poche 10 

. sur le Spectre Atmospheriqiie Terrestre et celui de la vapeur 

d'eau 11 

Professor John H. Jellett on a Fluid possessing Opposite Rotatory Powers 

for Rays at Opposite ends of the Spectrum 12 

Mr. Cornelius Vabley on Comets, and especially on the Comet of 1811 . . 12 

Heat. 

Dr. J. P. Joxile's determination of the Mechanical Equivalent of the Thermal 
Unit by Experiments on the Heat evolved by Electric Currents 12 

Electeicitx. 

Mr. W. Hooper on the Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Hooper's 
India-rubber Insulated Wire 13 

Mr. E. Hopkins on the Depolarization of Iron Ships, to prevent the Deviation 
of the Compass 13 

Extract of a Letter from Senhor Capello, of the Observatory Lisbon, on 
Magnetic Disturbance, to Balfour Stewart, of the Kew Observatory. ... 13 

Mr. C. F. Varley on certain Phenomena which presented themselves in Con- 
nexion with the Atlantic Cable 14 

on a New Method of Testing Electrical Resistance , 14 

Meteoeologt. 

Sergeant Arnold on the Climate of Aldershot Camp 15 

Dr. Buys-Ballot on the Method adopted at Utrecht in discussing Meteorologi- 
cal Obsei-vations 16 

Mr. Francis' Galton on an Error in the usual method of obtaining Meteor- 
ological Statistics 16 

on the Conversion of Wind-charts into Passage-charts 17 

Mr. J. Park Harrison on the Heat attained bv the Moon under Solar Radi- 
ation : 20 

Professor Hennessy on the Diurnal Period of Temperature in relation to other 
Physical and Meteorological Phenomena 21 

on Meteoric Showers considered -wdth reference to the 

Motion of the Solar System 21 

Dr. W. J. Macquohn Rankine on a Table of Pairs of Stars for approximately 
finding the Meiidian 21 

Instruments. 

Mr. John Bro'wning on some Recent Improvements in Astronomical Tele- 
scopes with Silvered Glass Specula 22 

Mr. L. Casella on a New Anemometer 23 

Mr. A. Claudet on a Variable Diaphragm for Telescopes and Photographic 

Lenses 23 

on a Magnifying Stereoscope with a Single Lens 23 

Mr. J. Glaisheb's experiments off Ventnor with Mr. Johnson's Deep-sea 
Pressure-gauge 24 



VUl CONTENTS. 

M. F. Hofmann's Remarks on a new Telemeter ; a new Polaiimeter ; a new 

Polarizing Microscope ; and various Spectroscopes 27 

Mr. N, J. Holmes on the North Atlantic Telegraph 27 

Mr. J. T. Taylob on a Defect in the Demonstrating Polaiiscope, with a sim- 
ple and effective Remedy 28 

CHEMISTET. 

Address by H. Bence Jones, A.M., M.D., F.R.S., President of the Section. . 28 

Dr. J. Attfield on the Assay of Coal, &c., for Crude Paraffin Oil, and of 
Crude Oil and Petroleum for Spirit, Photogen, Lubricating Oil, and Pai-affin 83 

Dr. Baueb on the Action of Chlorine on Amylene 83 

Mr. Alfred Bird on the Purification of Terrestrial Drinking Waters with 
Natural Sulphate of Alumina 83 

Dr. Cbace-Calvebt on the Oxidizing Action of Carbon 34 

Mr. William Cbookes on Disinfection 34 

Dr. Daubeny on Ozone 37 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Refraction- and Dispersion-equivalents of Chlo- 
rine, Bromine, and Iodine 37 

Mr. J. M. M'^Gauley on the Nature and Properties of Ozone and Antozoue 
demonstrated experimentally 38 

Dr. H. Bence Jones on the Chemical Action of Medicines 38 

Mr. H. Lahkin on a Magnesium Lamp 40 

Drs. J. B. Lawes and J. H. Gilbert on the Accumidation of the Nitrogen 
of Manure in the Soil 40 

on the Sources of the Fat of the Ani- 
mal Body 41 

Dr. Stevenson Macadam on the Poisonous Nature of Crude Paraffin Oil, and 
the Products of its Rectification upon Fish 41 

Dr. T. L. Phipson on an Extraordinary Iron Stone 43 

Dr. Lyon Playfaib on the Origin of Muscular Force in Animals 43 

Mr. Peteb Spf;NCE on a New Process in the Manufacture of White Lead . . 44 

Mr. C. ToMLiNSON on some Phenomena connected with the Melting and Soli- 
difying of Wax 44 

Mr. J. F. Walker on a Phosphatic Deposit in the Lower Green Sand of Bed- 
fordshire . . , 45 

Mr. Walter Weldon on a Proposed Use of Fluorine in the Manufacture of 
Soda 45 



GEOLOGY. 

Address by Professor A. C. Ramsay, LL.D., F.R.S., &c., President of the 
Section 4(i 

Professor Ansted on Intermittent discharges of Petroleum and large deposits 
of Bitumen in the Valley of Pescara, Italy 50 

^— on a Salse or Mud Volcano on the flanks of Etna, commen- 
cing to erupt in the month of January last 50 

Mr. C. Spence Bate on an Attempt to approximate the Date of the Flint Fl.Tkes 
of Devon and Cornwall 50 



CONTENTS. IX 

Page 

Dr. Beke on the Island of St. John in the Red Sea (the Ophiodes of Strabo) 50 

Mr. Henby Bbigg, Jan., on the Occurrence of Flint Implements in the Gravel 
of the Little Ouse Valley at Thetford and elsewhere 50 

The Rev. P. B. Brodie on the Correlation of the Lower Lias at BaiTow-on- 
Sour, Leicestershire, with the same Strata in Warwick-, Worcester-, and 
Gloucester-shires, and on the Occurrences of the Remains of Insects at 
Barrow 51 

Mr. E. Brown on the Drift Deposit on the Weaver Hills 51 

Mr. F. M. Burton on the Occurrence of the Rhretic Beds, near Gainsborough 
and the surrounding Strata 51 

Dr. C. Le Ne-\T5 Foster on a Curious Lode or Mineral Vein at New Rose- 
warne Mine, Gwinear, Cornwall 52 

Dr. F. M. Foster on the Discovery of Ancient Trees below the surface of the 
Land at the Western Dock now under construction at Hull 52 

The Rev. J. Gunn on the Anglo-Belgian Basin of the Forest-bed of Norfolk 
and Suffolk, and the Union of England with the Continent during the Glacial 
Period 52 

Mr. Edward Hedley on the Sinking of Annesley Collierj' 53 

Professor Oswald Heer on the Miocene Flora of North Greenland 53 

Professor C. H. Hitchcock on the Geological Distribution of Petroleum in 
North America 55 

Sir Roderick I. Murchison on the parts of England and Wales in which 
Coal may and may not be looked for beyond the known Coal-Fields 57 

Mr. Henry Alleyne Nicholson on some Fossils from the Graptolitic Shales 
of Dumfriesshire 63 

Mr. James Oakes on a Peculiar Denudation of a Coal-Seam in Coates's Park 
CoUiery Gi 

Mr. Charles W. Peach's Further Observations on, and Additions to, the List 
of Fossils found in the Boidder-Clay of Caithness, N.B 6-1 

Mr. R. A. Peacock on a Gradual Change of Form and Position of Land on the 
South End of the Isle of Walney 60 

Mr. W. Pengelly on Raised Beaches GG 

Mr. W. H. Ransom on the Occurrence of Felis Lynx as a British Fossil .... GG 

Mr. Govier Seeley on some Characters of the Brain and Skull in Plesio- 
saurus GG 

on the Carstone 67 



on the Characters of Dolkhosaurus, a Lizard-like Ser- 



pent of the Chalk G7 

Mr. John E. Taylor on the Relation of the Upper and Lower Crags in Nor- 
folk 67 

Mr. W. ToPLEY on the Physical Geography of East Yorkshire 67 

Mr. J. F. W-A.LKEB on the Lower Greensand of Bedfordshire 67 

Mr. A. B. Wynne's Notes on the Physical Features of the Land as connected 

with Denudation G9 



CONTENTS. 



BIOLOGY. 

Page 
Mr. C. Spence Bate on the Dentition of the Common Mole (Talpa JEuropeea) 09 

Mr. Henry B. Brady on the Rhizopodal Fauna of the Hebrides 69 

Mr. Thomas Brown on the Application of the Greek and Latin Languages 
to Scientific Nomenclature 70 

Mr. Frank Buckland on Oyster Cultivation 70 

on the Scientific Cultivation of a Salmon River .... 71 

Dr. Carpenter on Comatula rosacea, C. celtica, and other Marine Animals 
from the Hebrides 72 

Mr. J. J. Cleater, a few thoughts, Speculative and from Observation, on 
Colour and Chromula 72 

Dr. T. S. CoBBOLD on the Entozoa of the Dog in relation to Public Health . . 72 

The Rev. F. W. Farhar on the Teaching of Science at the Public Schools . . 72 

Mr. R. Garner on the Power which some Rotifers have of attaching them- 
selves by means of a Thread 73 

Mr. George Duncan Gibb on Variations in tlie Great Arterial Blood-ves- 
sels 73 

Professor Oswald Heeb on the Miocene Flora of North Greenland 74 

Mr. H. Hennesst on the Probable Cause of the Existence of a North Euro- 
pean Flora in the West of Ireland, as referred to by the late Professor E. 
Forbes 74 

Jlr. John Hoare on the Oyster Fisheries in Ireland 74 

Mr. John Hogg on the BaUast-Flora of the Coasts of Durham and Northum- 
berland 74 

Mr. E. Ray Lankester on the Asexual Reproduction and Anatomy of 
Chcetoyaster vermicidaris (Miill.) 74 

Mr. J. K. Lord on the Indians of Vancouver Island 75 

Mr. Clements R. Markh am on the Results of the Cinchona cultivation in India 75 

Dr. C. M'Intosh on a New MoUuscoid Animal allied to Pelonaia (Forbes and 
Goodsir) 75 

on a Rare MoUuscoid Animal {Pdonaia cori~ugata) 76 

's List of Turbellaria and Annelida of North Uist 76 

Mr. W. MoGGRiDGE on the Zones of the Coniferae from the Mediten-anean to 
the Crest of the Maritime Alps 76 

■ — — on the Occurrence of Lemna arrhiza in Epping Forest . . 76 

Mr. O. Groom-Napieb on the Food and Economical Value of British Butter- 
flies and Moths 76 

on the Cause of the Variation in the Eggs of British 

Birds 77 

The Rev. A. Merle Norman on the Crustacea, Echinodermata, Polyzoa, and 
Ccelenterata of the Hebrides 77 

Dr. W. H. Ransom on the Stinicture and Growth of the Ovarian 0\'um in the 
Gasterosleus Leiuriis 77 

Dr. P. L. ScLATER on the Systematic Position of the Pronghorn (Antilocapra 
americana) 77 

Mr. John Shaw on the Distribution of Mosses in Great Britain and Ireland as 
aflfecting the Geography and Geological History of the present Flora 79 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 

Mr. w. Stewart's Notes on the Structure of the Eckinoidva regulariu, with 
Special Reference to their Classification 79 

Mr. W. Tennant on the Traces of an Irish Lake Dwelling, found by Captain 
L'Estrange, in the County of Cavan 79 

Professor AV. Tuiineb on a Remarkable Mode of Gestation in an undescribed 
Species of Arms 79 

Mr. A. R. Wallace on Reversed Sexual Characters in a Butterfly, and their 
Interpretation on the Theory of Modifications and Adaptive Mimicry 79 

Mr. N. B. Ward on the Poor Man's Garden 79 

Mr. Henry W^oodwahd on some points in the Structure of Limulus, Recent 

and Fossil 79 

Dr. E. Perceval AVright's Notes on Lithosia caniola 80 

— ■ — Botanical Notes of a Tour in the Islands of Arran, 

West of Ireland 80 



Physiology. 

Address by Professor Humphry, F.R.S 81 

Col. Sir J. E. Alexander on the Effects of the Pollution of Rivers 89 

Dr. Cobbold's Remarks on the so-called Cattle-Plague Entozoa 89 

Dr. J. Davy on the Colour of Man 89 

on the Question, Is the Carbonate of Lime in the Egg-shell of 

Birds in a Crystalline or Amorphous state 89 

Dr. Balthazar W. Foster's Note on an Addition to the Sphygmograph . . 91 

on a Peculiar Change of Colour in a Mulatto 91 

Dr. A. Gamgee on the Action of Carbonic Oxide in the Blood 91 

Drs. J. H. Gilbert and J. B. Lawes on the Som-ces of the Fat of the Animal 

Body 92 

Dr. W. H. Ransom on the Conditions of the Protoplasmic Movements in the 

Egg of Osseous Fishes 92 

Dr. Richardson on the Comparative Vitality of the Jewish and Christian 

Races 92 

's Physiological Demonstrations of Local Insensibility .... 92 

Mr. W. L. Scott on the Presence of Ammonia and its Ilomologues in the 

Blood 92 

on the Normal Existence of Quinine as an Animal Prin- 
ciple 92 

Dr. William Sharp on the Physiological Action of Medicines 92 

Dr. SiBSON on the Movements, Structure, and Sounds of the Heart 93 



Anthropology. 

Address by A. R. Wallace, F.R.G.S., &c 93 

Mr. J. Anderson's Recent Explorations in Chambered Cairns in Caithness . . 94 

Dr. J. Beddoe on the Stature and Bulk of the Irish, and on Degeneration of 

Race 04 

Vice- Admiral Sir Edward Belcher on Stone Implements of Esquimaux . . 94 



XU CONTEXTS. 

Page 

Mr. W. J. Black on Colonies in South Africa 94 

Mr. C. Carter Ei.ake on a Condyltis Tertius occasionally observed in the 

Skulls of Natives in the Indian Archipelago 94 

on Skulls from Round BaiTows in Dorsetshire 94 

on a Human Jaw from the Belgian Bone-Caves .... 95 

Mr. E. B. BoGG ou Fishing Indians of Vancouver's Island 96 

Mr. W. BoLLAERT on Ancient Engravings on Stone from Southern Peru. ... 96 

on Central American Hieroglyphs 96 

Dr. P. Broca's Eesearches into the Anthropology of Lower Brittany 96 

Dr. R. S. Chabnock on the People of Andon-a 96 

Mr. J. CoLLiNSON on the Indians of the Mosquito Tenitory 96 

Mr. S. P. Day on the Power of Rearing Children among Savage Tribes .... 96 

Mr. A. Ernst on the Anthropology of Caracas 96 

Mr. J. W. Flower's Notice of a Kjokkenmodding in the Island of Herm . . 96 

Mr. E. P. Haughton on the Land Dayas of Upper Sarawak 96 

Dr. J. Hunt on the Cranial Measm-ements, &c. of Modern Noi-wegians 96 

on the Principle of Natural Selection applied to Anthropology, 

in Reply to Views propoimded by some of Mr. Darwin's Disciples 96 

Professor Huxley's Remarks on two Extreme Forms of Human Crania .... 96 

Consul T. J. Hutchinson on the Indians of the Parana 96 

M. M. G. Lagneau on the Saracens in France 96 

Professor Leitner on Papers from Lahore 96 

Dr. Robert Mann on the Mental and Moral Characteristics of the Zidu 

Kafirs of Natal 96 

Mr. J. Plant on Human Remains from Poole's Cavern 97 

Dr. J. Shortt on the Habits and Manners of the Marvar Tribes of India. ... 97 

Mr. Edward B. Tylor on Phenomena of the Higher Civilization traceable to 

a Rudimental Origin among Savage Tribes 97 

Mr. C. S. Wake on the Antiquity of Man in relation to Comparative Geology 97 

Mr. T. Wilkinson's Notes on Madagascar 97 



GEOGEAPHY and ETHNOLOGY. 

Address by Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., LL.D., President of the Section 98 

Professor Ansted on the Physical Geogi-aphy of the Eastern Part of the Crimea 
and the Peninsula of Taman 99 

Capt. H. H. Godwin- Austen on the District of Lake Pangong, in Tibet 100 

Mr. Thomas Baines on the probable Lower Course of the Limpopo River, 
South-east Africa 100 

ou the Zambesi and its probable Westernmost Source . . 101 

Sir S. W. Baker on the Relations of the Abyssinian Tributaries of the Nile 
and the Equatorial Lakes to the Inundations of Egj-pt 102 



's Observations on the Character of the Negro Tribes of 



Central Africa 104 

Dr. Charles T. Beke on the Lake Kura of Arabian Geographers and Carto- 
graphers \ 104 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

Page 

Dr. Charles T. Beke on the Possibility of Turning the Waters of the Nile 
into the Red Sea 105 

Commander Lindsay Bbike, R.N., on the Eruption at Santorin, and its Pre- 
sent Condition 107 

Mr. P. B. Du Chaillu on the Physical Geography and Tribes of Western 
Equatorial Africa 107 

Dr. Chabnock on Andorra 107 

Mr. John Cra'vvfuhd on Ctesar's Account of Britain and its Inhabitants .... 107 

on the Migration of Cultivated Plants with reference to 

Ethnology 107 

on the Invention and History of Written Languages . . 108 

Ml". R. Dunn on some of the Bearings of Ai-chseology upon certain Ethnologi- 
cal Problems and Researches 108 

Sir Walter Elliott on a Proposed Ethnological Congress at Calcutta .... 109 

Col. F. J. Goldsmid's Notes on Eastern Persia and Western Beloochistan . . 110 

Mr. G. Grove's Report on the Palestine Exploration Fund 110 

Mr. Henry H. Howorth on some New Facts in Celtic Ethnology Ill 

Mr. W. H. Johnson's Explorations from Leh, in Cashmere, to Khotan, in Chi- 
nese Tartary Ill 

Mr. R. H. Major on Priority in Discovery of the Madeira Group 112 

Dr. R. J. Mann on the Kaffirs of Natal 112 

on the Physical Geography and Climate of Natal 113 

Mr. C. R. Markham on the Aleppy Mud Bank 113 

Sir R. I. Murchison on the Reported Discovery of the Remains of Leich- 
hardt in Australia 114 

Mr. W. G. PAxaRAVE on North and South Arabia 114 

Mr. Rowland William Payne on the Transvaal District of South Airica . . 114 

Mr. J. Reddie on the Various Theories of Man's Past and Present Condition 115 

Dr. H. Ronay on the Voguls 115 

Dr. Ryan on the North-east Province of Madagascar 116 

Mr. J. Thomson's Visit to the ruined Temples of Cambodia 116 

Col. Tremenheere's Notes on the Physical Geography of the Lower Indua. . 117 

Mr. F. Whymper on the Progress of the Russo-American Telegraph Expe- 
dition via Behi-ing's Straits 117 



ECONOMIC SCIENCE and STATISTICS. 

Addre.ss by Professor James E. Thorold Rogers, M.A., President of the 
Section jj7 

Mr. Thomas Browne on the Transfer of Real Property 124 

The Rev. William Caine on some of the Results of the Free Licensing System 
in Liverpool during the last four years 124 

Dr. Daubeny on the Nimiber of Graduates in Ai-ts and Medicine at Oxfoi-d 
for the last two centuiies , 127 

Mr. W. Felkin on the Lace and Hosiery Trades of Nottingham 128 

Mr. Q. Bell Galloway on Inventors and Inventions 131 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

Pass 

Mr. James Heyavood on the Subjects required in the Classical Tripos Examin- 
ation and in the Trinity College Fellowship Examination at Cambridge. . . . lol 

Mr. .1. G. Joyce on the Practicability of employing a Common Notation for 
Electric Telegraphy 131 

Professor Leone Levi on the State and Prospects of the Hate of Discount 
with reference to the recent Monetary Crisis 131 

Mr. E. Renals on the Influence of Science Classes in Mechanics' Institutions 1.31 

Mr. Geobge Senior on the Diminution of Accidents in Coal-Mines since the 
Appointment of Government Inspectors 133 

The Rev. C. Sewell on Hindrances to the Success of Popular Education . . 133 

Colonel Sykes on Statistics of the Charitable, Educational, Industrial, and 
Public Institutions founded by the Native Gentry of India during the last 
five years 133 

— on Modes of Banking in America, Manchooria, and China . . 134 

Mr. Charles Tebbutt on the Violation of the Principles of Economic Science 
caused by the Law of Distraint for Rent 13.5 

Mr. Joseph White on the Statistics of the General Hospital, near Nottingham 135 

Mr. Wilkinson on the Intoxicating Liquors consumed by the People of the 
United Kingdom in 1865 137 

Mr. F. .1. Wilson on a National Bank and Payment of the National Debt . . 137 

on the Occupation and Ownership of Waste Lands 137 

on the Classification of the v.arious Occupations of the 

People 138 

Rev. A. W. WoRTHiNGTON OR the Disproportion between the Male and 

Female Population of some Manufacturing and other Towns 138 



MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Addi-ess by the President, Thomas Hawksley, V.P. Inst. C.E., F.G.S 139 

Admiral Sir E. Belcher on the Application of the Expansive Power of 

moistened Vegetable Matter to the raismg of Weights 140 

M. M. Bergeron on a System of Pneumatic Propulsion 140 

Mr. N. P. Burgh on the Action and Effect of Flame in INlarine Boilers 140 

Mr. W. E. Carrett on an Hydraulic Coal-cutting Machine 141 

Mr. John Daglish on the Counterbalancing of Winding Engines for Coal 

Mines 141 

Mr. H. DiRCKS on Steam-Boiler Explosions, with Suggestions for their Inves- 
tigation 1*1 

Mr. William Fairbairn's description of the Means employed for removing 
and replacing in a new position the Iron Columns of a Fireproof Cotton Mill 141 

Mr. G. Fawcus's Improvement in Pontoon Trains 143 

Mr. J. B. Fell on Locomotive Engines and Carriages on the Central Rail 
Sj-stem for working Steep Gradients and Shai-p Curves, as employed on the 

]SIont Cenis 1-13 

:Mr, W. D. Gainsforb on an Invention for the purpose of attaining gi-eater 

Adhesion between the Driving-wheel and the Rail 143 

'.s Description of a Newly-invented System of Ordnance 144 

Captain Dovglas Galton on the Chabners Target 144 



CONTENTS. XV 

Page 

Mr. William Hooper on the Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Hooper's 
India-ruhber Insulated Wire for Submarine Cables 145 

Mr. G. O. Hughes on Rotary Enffines, with special reference to one invented 
by W. Hall 145 

Mr. Fredebick Ingle on recent Improvements in the Application of Con- 
crete to Fireproof Constructions 145 

Mr. Fleeming Jenkln on a New Arrancrement for pickino: up Submarine 
Cables f 145 

Mr. Samuel J. Mackie on Zinc Sheathing for Ships 146 

Mr. R. MusHET on the Treatment of melted Cast Iron and its Conversion into 
Iron and Steel by the Pneumatic Process 147 

Prof. W. J. Macquoen Rankine on the Theory of the Influence of Friction 
upon the Mechanical Efficiency of Steam 147 

; 's Remarks on the Experiments of the Com- 
mittee upon the Resistance of Water to Floating and Immersed Bodies. . . . 147 

Captain Wynants on Barytic Powder for Heavy Ordnance 148 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I., II., III. 



Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on the Difference between the 
Resistance of Water to Floating and to Immersed Bodies. 



PLATES IV., V. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface 
of the Moon. 



PLATE VI. 

Illustrative of the Report of the Committee on the Fall of Rain in the British 
Isles, 



OBJECTS AND RULES 



OP 



THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other institutions. Its objects are, — -To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquirj', — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers,— to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empii-e, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, sliaU be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shaU pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
Hshed after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annuai Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay luithout intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1866. - 6 

1 



xviii RULES or the association. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 1831 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Poimds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Aimual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following- 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates wiU be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Eeports, gmtis, or to purcliase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following specification, viz. : — 

1. Gratis. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845, a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a compo- 
sition. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Memhers' Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may pm-chase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, coic? o/' which more them 100 coj)ies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Eed Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall l)e received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed liy the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Officers 
of the Association. 

GENEEAl COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit dui'ing the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Beports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing thi'ee in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place -where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and "who 
are specially nominated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Yice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
ex-officio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Keports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be di-awn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF EECOMMENDATIOXS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Eeconunendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

All Eecommendations of Grants of Money, Eequests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, ruiless previously recommended by the Committee of Eecom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasiu'er, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPERS AIST) COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

62 



et 



a 

<o 

I 

to 





-a 

CO 

<u 
P-1 

ri3 



.2 S 

-t-> (D 



O 


<D 








s 


. 


aj 


< 


s 




6 


rd 


o 

o 


Z 
liJ 


f^ 


CO 

■ •— 1 


«3 
-4^ 


o 

iij 


m 


M 


a 


Q. 


[ii 


,=1 


o 


1 
Ul 

U 


< 



*^ Si 

o 
to Q 



o 

C3 



o 

OS 




Ww .a- 

V r" 9 -U 

ca w cj ^ 









o t^ * 

1 •'»" 

£ e « ^ 



— -^ ^• 
^ V u > 

"i — S .2 



07 

S 

o 

S2 



fe 


-tn 


<« 


Sdi 


« K 


s-< 


ws 






c-o 




■^•s 



a«wo 

3 •<; «J 
HBJOH 



05 

PS 
1^ 



P;<M 


w „ 


Si 


a 5 






o « 

003 


aa 


3g" 


• < 


,;>■ 


feO 


o 






z 


> 


a 


w 


o 



"^ o 






>4 

d 

Q 

^ c 
53 



|o - 



■ J 

■" § -d 



■Sd<»20a 

» -S W H .2 S 

H J « 'iK £-■ p. 



pi 








fo 








M 




35 


^ 
■^ 


d 


CO 


d 


o 


Z 


^1 


o 


a 




5 


U 


o 


c. 




73 


S 


O 


H 


h 


Ph 


s 


g 


a 


s 


s 


o 


o 




M 


5 




u 




a 




o 




ffi 




C5 





h - 






KW 



a, . « 
> : - 

t. J"'?' 






„ g'^ gen 

o "^ 

i^. o ^ 5 -; 

t»3 u u s^ Cj 

ood-na 

« -- c: i^ t'' 
K> so S 

QJ «J O *^ 



C3 • 

«-a . 

►JO . 

^ **- 23 

t- j= jj 

M . 
Oiv. 



la 



II 



< 

Ceo 

od 



a bi 






Co, 
W.C 

.►J 

p^ P5 « 

to" 



»> t- C ' M 

.COt„p-&l 

>^ , . c rt, 



•3QKa i 

cr . ^^^- ■■; 

F=; w^ -> .2 - 



O 
H 

<; 

a 

H 

o 
z 



^tJJ IB 

O .z 
§1 



Eh 





O 




, 


S 




z 


cr r 


^ 


K 






c 




S 



;?-g2 






»jpj 



.j : 
■dy; 

dd 



to 

.fa 

CO •> 



ra -c/3 

o S K 

H aJ < -^ 

g 5 w ^. S 

S"c-§| 

ffiM'g 2 5 

(4- . C rt ^ 

o c rt [1^ PQ 




S2 






^ 


o< 


z 


ro 


o 




VI 


■? 


z 


.< 




n 


P3 




o 


z 


PS 








PJ 


BS 


, 


3^ 


H 




> 




W 




a 





M . 

*J 
<» . 

PJH 

'pd 
<i ■ . 

c^~ 

^*fa 

g|w 

"S ►--° 
£ oE-i 

Pi « m 

!> o a 

ii >- a 
PS Pu i-s 



J3 



: :w- 

• 'tn' 

: :«' 

. . n 

. > 0^ 

: .PL< 
:w .- 

■03 73 

ipsps 



03 Cq-P 

Ph o .- 



a • 
j:03 

H_ Pk 

= p: 
la 



-.Si =3 

3 ,r 



^WPl. 
SCO r 

"r^d . 

w-fc< . ' c 

sM .-Si 

o . tH "-J C 

P . 4 J OJ '^ 
t. 'j^ pH .-2 • 

PU* „g.g 

o S s^ 2 

T O -C ^ S 

«;| § S 2 

Sosae: 
s ° "= £ -^ 

O ^- ^- C V3 

a S3 fea-3 

OJ [ji Cd *j t- 

(S t< p PS O 



Hco 

• O 



►J t! 
^ fco 

a:S 

hSu 
PS 

w.- 

03 P 1 



03-3« 

psis 

o;(iH03 

>^'o3" 

o o . 

■ M ^^ 

a .w - 

V pM 'H 

^ i2 

e.^ • 

> C tH 

¥;5 = 



£ a 



.a 



,-0 » 

K- i c a 

PO °(K[§ 
Q "rt T3 

" e-s 

o.S s 

°PkJ 

PS 

CO 



o c 



tc 






< 




CO 


1: 


en 

< 




o 


« 




III 




:^ cr 


CO 




.-cu 


_i 
< 
U 




Sims, Esq 
Arthur Bid 
Ransome, 


O 

_i 








S b ^< 




m 



feS 



do" a* n" 

§ ^^ 

.10 a 

> • 2 



: ; :». 

: : r*^ 
: : :« 

• ! • fe 

• ■■". - 
; :o»j 
: :pl;o 

• • ^ii 
'. '.'1 - 

: :«■< 
: ita" 
: : .-P5 

; -^s 

S' " t fc, Sad 
. . » to .-0 .a 



d 

(» 

pi • 

— '^ ra 
o ^'^ 

•^ 11 V 

o o • 

to !n U4 

J^ a 
o o ra 

b4 t4 o 



CO CO 

• do 

o - ^ 

■*-' ^ -S 

^ ss 

u en (u 
to . bo 

o"' o 

CJ • u 

OfflO 



i» 



PS 

d 

Had' 



:o5 : 
:ps : 
:f«< : 



« > g 



•CO 

•<< 

. :p3 

■ t2 • " 
: M ■« 

:0 :p5 
:§'".< 

■aOZ: 
•Op/S 

.'-'Mo 



al-^^ 



- .■■2<'^co?5 

PSO S^ r*;!^ 



j:n . 
do"^ 



;o- 






a 5«.5*.a 
■so a 






Sc 3 2 
P • 2 S « 

-g _ 

•a-aj= c- ^«-3 
g g.S>l= SS^ a 

CJ(U4)4)Sa'^ 



•i p. 



a -J >. « s o S 

a w o w fc. a ^T* 
"<; oS g" . 

„ O '^ [I. "^ -g •^ 

^'S'S a — ii > 

a « S5 S^ " 

aj oj a) «j 

.a J3 ^ .S .S .i! J= 
£^ H H M X c^ r^ 



•'i o 



<fe4 O 



o '^ 

o r 

P3 a- 

> a 



c» 

c5 

r r <u 
g- <! 8 
W go 

- 4. S 
S g^o- . 

3'.s;!S is 

qzPh o 

Q (u a (ii 
.£- g 



2^ 'f^ . X"'>^ 
do rS ,pf^.£ 

os^^,=5aa 

-• r .„--a "'^03 
Jdl^^-lS^'^r 

^^S5-Sg-a| 



r 4j 



„ .a 
S-a§- 

* ° o » 

pj fen 
o 



O 
■ai 

in 

o 
o 

oS 
Z" 

u 

SI 

"I 

"J " 

to CO 

H g- 

Z H 
S H 

2§ 

« gq 

^< 

o 

s 



CO 
CO 

03 



K 

iJ 



P - 
Eh « 

P5 « 

O 
PS 

o 



•.■^ 



:ps 
■fcj 

»ia 

-J 



p: ««i="* c" 

_• « j-> o r H «r 

>>W5 a 



: .CO 

: :d 
ico^ 
:q.o'' 



;co 



O 



f^p SpS 

• i a - 
O 10 o *i 



P4 



SJi o " 



r, "a .a rt ►'^ £-g JS 

Wj J ^ u - m en 

cj « wT'T! ° 3 £ 



"?co" 

pStf 



ddZ 



.M - 

tDJ3 
13 tj 

«l 

CJ O "^ 
M in —- 

" £ S 



PS 




[i. 




« 


„^ 


w 


CD 







- 


'# 


p 


a 




1 


«. 




c 




u 


en 


„ 


pi 


z 


u 


PS 

2 


(A 

u 

B 


PS 




s 


s 










<; 








►J 





SPS. 



5.0. 

■« C u. - .to . -^ 

.epgo : .-:^p^ 
a ^a-; -co _>* 

^Q r - ;«Ji 

Ip^^-^ :f^<^d 
- c *. s ■- ;"P a 

gOP^P^ .-.'='_ 
2 >»— « r< S » 

OJ C3 OJ O 2 -rj^ 13 

7, > '^ ^ — H O 
o gj • ti .a * 

5p5^c^J t;*^^* 

• >. • • o is t- ►- 

oaJw^>oo 
g;i-,HEHPiOli.P- 



**- a 
2D 

a ja 



2 S> 



r a 



jW tB« 

J-o2 a 
>-< a ^ ^ 

rt So 

Mow 



u 

Id 
<0 



< 
U 

o 



in 






6-x a" 

. P. 
■<<fi 






a- 


ri 


^ 








W 




*& 


w 

fe 


g 


cq 


<Uj- 


Q 


^ 


(J 




>, 


tt 




C 








> 
03 








fc^ 


C 


ja 



J 
Ui 






g"3 






O^^ I 







,- E^.a 






^^i| 


1- 




co'lll 




L., F.R 

of the C 
yor of N 
It of the 


Z 
111 

o 


-< 


in 
111 


^^§s| 


0. 


mOS r'S 


tj 


ioll"'^. 


> 


revely 
1, LL. 
sq., C 
Bell, : 
Esq.. 




H'SW E-a 




. =^ - n o 














t« 


■xa^z 



cctn 
<pi 

4) _>- 



Z 
ill 
9 

ill 

d: 

a. 



^> 

CQ ^ 

o ■< 






4J OJ 



2 C ?5 C ° 

- rt o -3 
J . ■ ^ "^ 

*J *J "^ t, 
J t) OJ 03 43 






IS t« - • 

fc- oil, 



73 g 






O 2 









.w 









- ?Q t* 

. S.J,< ° • 
■o :;5^^; P-PL,— 

■2 >.3 °'^M^ : 
•§ 1 J c .2 (5 >'p: 

Si S ° ° °'c .-a . 
*::sJh;iJ JO'S a* 

OcoocajO'S .. 
tf. tr. 6£. bij tj: tc tD g -a 

£ (5 S S (S S (5 .3 . 

H H b ^ H H t- ? >^ 



*ij3 


sa 


Kii 


. o- 


►^-Ji 


>J . 


u n 


K- t- 


►J -! 


m 


tn 


w 


>J 


PS 


-«! 


tD 


o 



-g a 



m C -< 

ft* O S 

l-H I) 5 

JO 5 
re '- 

•-1 



C o 



M-. S t-l * 



^•si 



o.Si 



H" Si 

S . .2 
*"* ^- . c 

S 3 3-S tn r/ « .- 

o 03 o W H m 

Q Q • • m C ^•■- 
(uojoo'^jraj'^_ 

O O K PS . S o-t! .2 
b; ffi H H -^ H ^ ►? h 



PS 



o 5 



o 




fe 


S 








> 


w 


a 


K 


D 


b. 


OJ 

r: 



P5 

d 

03 bi 

CJ aj t- J^ rt 
c d b • S 

t- E-' ct' w en 






r w 

■a'H 

• J§ 

CJ 



>-? ki 



«!5 



Hi 



a 
af 

o 

ij 
(J 

u 

« 

o 

w 
w 

D 
O 

W 

a 
^t 
w« 
■< 

PS 

C 
o 



H 



o 

I— ( 

krH 

pq 

o 

a 
<u 

S 

o 
o . 

gQ 

s < 
o H 

of 

'O 

^1 

aj ^^ — ' 

a> 00 

a, 

aj - 

S -" 

2 => 

g^ 

O 
O 
O 
< 

<A 
P 

CO 

<1 

P5 
H 

;^ 
w 
o 



=fj 



O (NO 

».o CO »n 
M to CO 



o 



1/3 

g 

a, 



Da 



to ; 73 

■*3 : CO 

.5 CA «4-l 

>H <u o 

CO ^ to 

+^ s 
, a) .H 

fcod- "2 
c „ .g 

a) •" -^ 
QJ (- , 

"o ^ 
c c - 

^ TS .5 

to c s- 

c ta « 

<= s; .5 £ o. ? 

rV3 ^ ^-1 (U ri O 

'am:sg vhS 
■« fg ° -'' 






to 

c 



s 

to 



^ m 



OKOOO 



ooo 
ooc 

•-0 to o 

i-H t-H 1/r 



OOOOOO OwOO oocooooo 
oooooo oooo oooooooo 



O O ic o O O 'C >c o »o O O O lO o o o o 
CI lo c>i o M o o» CI 1X5 iC' CI >-H iM lo w rs o 



w 



^ I 



:a 



rt 3-' 



Q 

o o 



;th4 9j 



-Ife 



r= S X.- 



; C S 



teg S S o 

c S o -:: a 



r rf O ^ 
. . >^ 03 

iJ 2 ■ — 






M :.2 



no ^ c3 Q 

CS K ll - . 

g-£ Si! i'g 

-^ (D O 



■so 



si 

3^ -T , *^ 



^W 



i O 



• CO 




















■t3 




d 




W 




a 








c 








. hn 








o 




Vh 




o 


c- 


00 17 


■T^ 


'^t 


Oj 



CO 



O.S^ 



c ^ !3 J ca 



.so 



fcxo 



'■f^ 

W 



■g o c 

=^ *^ ^ 
"o.Sf-r 



3J " S 

a i § 

s g c 
.2 i i-2 

«•-< to C M 

^ 'S '& ^ 

OPhP-i 



fcfc 



O <N 

O 



B 

pa t. 



c o 

'H -a 
5 c 
1-9 A 






•^I 



o o o o o 
o o o o o 



O p-l 00 CO o 
'^ »^ CO o »o 

"^ CO »>• o C-J 



00 
05 



CO 

cu 

O 
W 



6h 



P5 

O CO 



a S 



to"-^ 



o 

H 



poo 



ooo 

■w -*-» -ij 

• - ■ - iS 

'O TT -3 



CO O 
(N CM 



iC CO 



CO 



S3 N 



-^ c 



^ §3 



O to 

.S'.M - 

C ZJ ^ 
CO t-H 
•^ . w 

i/3 (u fH -a Ph 

« .2 -v, S "S §-'3 
3 o 0) -a ° »i a 

» to ca *jr c3 



0) 
3 
to 
o 
"a 
ca 
_. U 

O QJ 



XXVI 



REPORT 1866. 



II. Table sho-wing the Names of Members of the British Association who 
have served on the Coimcil in former years. 



Aberdeen, Earl of, LL.D., K.G., KT., 
F.E.S. (deceased). 

Acland, Sir T. D., Bart.,M.A.,D.C.L.,F.Il.S. 

Acland, Professor H. W., M.D., F.E.S. 

Adams, Prof. J. Couch, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Adderley, The Eight Hon. C.B., M.P. 

Ainslie, Eev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airy,G.B.,M.A.,D.C.L., F.E.S., Astr.Eoyal. 

Alison, ProfessorW. P.,M.D.,F.E.S.E. (deed). 

Allen, W. J. C, Esq. 

Anderson, Prof Thomas, M.D. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 

Ai-gyll, G. Douglas, Duke of, F.E.S. L. & E. 

Armstrong, Sir W. G., F.E.S. 

Ai-nott, Neil, M.D., F.E.S. 

Ashbm-ton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
(deceased). 

Atkinson, Et. Hon. E., late Lord Mayor of 
Dublin. 

Babbage, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 

Babington, Professor C. C, M.A., F.E.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Baines, Et. Hon. M. T., M.A., M.P. (dec""). 

Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd, Esq. 

Balfour, Professor John H.,'M.D., F.E.S. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 

Bath, The Most Noble the Marquis of 

Bath, The Venerable the Archdeacon of. 

Beamish, Eichard, Esq., F.E.S. 

Beecliey, Eear-Admu-al, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Bell, Isaac Lowthian, Esq. 

Bell, Professor Thomas, V.P.L.S., F.R.S. 

Belper, Lord, D.C.L., F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentliam, George, Esq., Pres.L.S. 

Biddell, George Ai-thur, Esq. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.E.S. 

Boileau, Su- John P., Bart., F.E.S. 

Boyle, Eight Hon. D., Lord Justice-General 
(deceased). 

Boyle, Eev. G. D., M.A. 

Brady,TheEt. Hon. Maziere, M.E.I.A., Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.E.S. 
(deceased). 

Brewster, Sir David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.E.S. L. & E., Prmcipal of the Uni- 
versity of Eduibm-gh. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart., 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 

Brodie, Sir B. C, Bart., D.C.L., P.R.S. 
(deceased). 



Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.R.S. 
Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Brunei, Sir M. I., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Buckland, Very Eev. WiUiam, D.D., F.R.S., 

Dean of Westminster (deceased). 
Bute, John, Marqius of, K.T. (deceased). 
Carlisle, G. W. Fred., Earl of, F.R.S. (dec"). 
Carson, Rev. Josejih, F.T.C.D. 
Cathcart, Lt.-Gen., Earl of, KC.B.,F.R.S.E. 

(deceased). 
Challis, Rev. J., M.A., P.R.S. 
Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D. (deceased). 
Chamberlain, John Henry, Esq. 
Chance, James, Esq. 
Chance, J. T., Esq. 
Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of 

(deceased). 
Chevallier, Rev. Temple, B.D., F.R.A.S. 
Chi'istie, Professor S. H., M.A., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Clapham, R. C, Esq. 
Clare, Peter. Esq., F.R.A.S. (deceased). 
Clark, Rev. Prof, M.D., F.R.S. (Cambridge.) 
Clark, Henrv, INI.D. 
Clark, G. T.; Esq. 
Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Gierke, Major S., Iv.H., R.E., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Clift, WilUam, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Close, Very Rev. F., M.A., Dean of Carlisle. 
Close, Thomas, Esq. 
Cobbold, John Chevaher, Esq., M.P. 
Colquhovm, J. C, Esq., M.P. (deceased). 
Conybeare, Very Rev. W. D., Dean of Llan- 

daff (deceased). 
Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 
Cork and Orrery, The Rt. Hon. the Earl of, 

Lord-Lieutenant of Somersetshire. 
Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Crimi, Walter, Esq., F.R.S. 
Cm-rie, WilUam Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 
Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Darbisliire, R. D., Esq.,B.A., F.G.S. 
Dartmoutli, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Daubeny, Prof. C. G. B., M.D.,LL.D., F.E.S. 
Davis, C. E., Esq., F.S.A. 
DelaBeche, Su- H. T., C.B., F.E.S., Director- 
Gen. Geol. Siu'v. LTnited Kingdom (dec"). 
De la Eue, Warren, Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Denison, The Et. Hon. M.P. 
Derby, Earl of, D.C.L., ChanceUor of the 

LTniversity of Oxford. 
Devonshire, W.,Duke of, M.A.,D.C.L.,F.R.S. 
Dickinson, Francis H., Esq. 
Dickinson, Joseph, M.D., F.R.S. 
DiUwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 



I 



MEMBEKS or THE COUNCIL. 



XXVll 



Donkiu, Professor W. F., M.A., F.E.S. 

Driiikwater, J. E., Esq. (deceased). 

Ducie, The Earl of, F.E.S. 

Dudley, The Right Hon. the Earl of. 

Dunraren, The Earl of, F.E.S. 

Egerton,Su-P. de M. Grey, Bart.,M.P.,F.E.S. 

Eliot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Eai-1 of. F.G.S. (dec*). 

EuniskiUen, WHliam, Earl of, D.O.L., F.E.S. 

Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C'.L. (deceased). 

Evans, The Eev. Charles, M.A. 

Fairbaii-n, WiUiam, LL.D., O.E., F.E.S. 

Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

Ferrers, Eev. N. M., M.A. 

FitzEoy, Eear-Admiral, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Fitzwilliam, The Earl, D.C.L., F.E.S. (dec"). 

Fleming, W., M.D. 

Fletcher, BeU, M.D. 

Foote, Limdy E., Esq. 

Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deceased). 

Forbes, Prof. Edward, F.E.S. (deceased). 

Forbes,Prof J.D.,LL.D., F.E.S., Sec. E.S.E., 

Principal of Universitj- of St. Andrews. 
Fox, Eobert Were, Esq., F.E.S. 
Frost, Charles, F.S.A. 
Fuller, Professor, M.A. 
Gallon, Francis, F.E.S. , F.G.S. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.E.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Gladstone, J. H., Ph.D., F.E.S. 
Goodwin, The Very Eev. H., D.D., Dean of 

Ely. 
Gourlie, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Graham, T.,M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S., Master of 

the Mint. 
Gray, John E., Esq., Pli.D., F.E.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (deceased). 
Gray, WiUiam, Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Prof Joseph Henry, D.C.L., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Griffith, George. M.A., F.C.S. 
Griffith, Sir E. Griffith, Bt., LL.D., M.E.I. A. 
GroTe, W. E., Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Hamilton, W.'j., Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. (dec") 
Hamilton, Sir Wm. E., LL.D., Astronomer 

Eoyal of Ireland, M.E.I.A., F.E.A.S. 

(deceased). 
Hancock, W. Feilson, LL.D. 
Harcourt, Eev. Wm. Vernon, M.A., F.E.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.E.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Harrowby, The Earl of, F.E.S. 
Hatfeild, WilUam, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.E.S. 
Henry, Eev. P. S., D.D., Presidentof Queen's 

CoUege, Belfast. 
Henslow, Eev. Professor, M.A., F.L.8. (dec""). 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Eev. Wm., LL.D., 

F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec''). 
Hereford, The Very Eev. the Dean of (dec''). 
Herschel, Sir John F.W., Bart., M. A., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 



Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Heywood, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
HiU, Eev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Eev. Edward, D.D., M.E.I.A. (dec''). 
Hincks, Eev. Thomas, B.A. 
Hinds, John Eussell, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Norwich 

(deceased). 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinsou, Professor Eaton, F.E.S. (dec"*). 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hogg, John, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 
Hooker, Joseph, M.D., F.E.S. 
Hooker, Sh- WUliam J., LL.D., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Hope, Eev. F. W., M.A., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Houghlon, Lord, D.C.L. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hugall, J. W., Esq. 
Hunt, Aug. H., Esq., B.A., Ph.D. 
Hutton, Eobert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Ibbetson,Capt.L.L.Boseawen,K.E.E.,F.G.S. 
IngUs, Sh- E. H., Bart., D.C.L., M.P. 

(deceased). ■ 
Inman, Thomas, M.D. 
Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor E., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Jardine, Sir Wilham, Bart., F.E.S.E. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F.E.S. 
Jellett, Eev. Professor. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Jemie, The Eight Eev. R, D.C.L. 
Johnston, Eight Hon. Wdliam, late Lord 

Provost of Edinbui'gh. 
Johnston, Prof J. F. W., M.A., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Keleher, WUliam, Esq. (deceased). 
KeUand, Eev. Prof. P., M.A., F.E.S. L. & E. 
Kildare, The Marquis of. 
Lankester, Ed\vin, M.D., F.E.S. 
Lansdowne, Hen., Marquis of, D.C.L.,F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Larcom, Major, R.E., LL.D., P.R.S. 
Lardner, Eev. Dr. (deceased). 
Lassell, William, Esq., F.E.S. L. & E. 
Latham, E. G., M.D., F.E.S. 
Lee, Very Eev. John, D.D., F.E.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh 

(deceased). 
Lee, Eobert, M.D., F.E.S. 
Leigh, The Eight Hon. Lord. 
Lefevre, Eiglit Hon. Charles Shaw, late 

Speaker of the House of Commons. 
Lemon, Sii- Charles, Bart., F.E.S. 
Liclifield, The Eight Hon. the Earl of. 
Liddell, Andrew, Esq. (deceased). 
Liddell, Very Eev. H. G., D.D., Dean of 

Chi-ist Clim-ch, Oxford. 
Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 



XXVIU 



REPORT — 1866. 



Listowcl, The Earl of. 

Liveing. Prof. G. D., M.A., F.C.S. 

Llojd, Eev. B., D.D., Provost of Trin. Coll., 

Dublin (deceased). 
Lloyd, Eev. H., D.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. L.&E., 

M.E.I.A. 
Londesborough, Lord, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Lowe, Edward J., F.E.S., F.L.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John W., Bart., M.A., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Luby, Eev. Thomas. 
Lyell.Sii-Charles,Bart.,M.A.,LL.D.,D.C.L., 

F.E.S. 
Lyttelton, The Eight Hon. Lord. 
M<^Callan, Eev. J. R, M.A. 
MacCullagh, Prof, D.C.L., M.E.I.A. (dec''). 
MacDonnell, Eev. E., D.D., M.E.I.A., Pro- 
vost of Trinity College, Dublin, (dec**). 
Macfarlane, The Very Eev. Principal, (dec''). 
MacGee, William, M.D. 
MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 
MacNeiil, Professor Sir John, F.E.S. 
Malahide, The Lord Talbot de. 
Malcolm,Vice-Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B. (dee<>). 
Maltby, Edward, D.D., F.E.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Durham (deceased). 
Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 
Marlborough, Duke of, D.C.L. 
Marshall, J. G., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
Mathews, William, Esq., Jun., F.G.S. 
May, Charles, Esq., F.E.A.S. (deceased). 
Meynell, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 
Middleton, Sir William F. F., Bart. 
Miller, Prof W. A., M.D., Treas. & V.P.E.S. 
Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., For. Sec.E.S. 
Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 
Moillet, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 
Monteagle, Lord, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 
Moody, T. F., Esq. 
Moody, T. IL C, Esq. 
Moore, C, Esq., F.G.S. 
Morley, Tlie Earl of (decea.scd). 
Moseley, Eev. Henry, M.A., F.E.S. 
Mount-Edgecumbe, ErnestAugustus,Earl of. 
Murcliison, Sir Eoderick I., Bart., G.C. St.S., 

D.C.L, LLD., F.E.S. 
Neild, Alfred, Esq. 
Neill, Patrick, M.D., F.E.S.E. 
Nelson, The Et. Hon. Earl. 
Nicol, D., M.D. 

Nicol, Professor J., F.E.S.E., F.G.S. 
Nicol, E«v. J. P., LL.D. 
Noble, Capt. A., E.A. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.E.S. (deceased). 
Northmnberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.G.,M.A., 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Ormerod, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S. 
Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 
Orpcn, John H., LL.D. 
Osier, Follett, Esq., F.E.S. 
Owen, Prof, M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 
Oxford, Samuel Wilberforcc, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of, F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Palmcrstou, Vise, K.G.,G.C.B., M.P., F.E.S. 
(deceased). 



Peacock, Very Rev. G., D.D., Dean of Ely, 

F.E.S. (deceased). 
Peel,Et.Hon.Su-E.,Bart.,M.P.,D.C.L.(dec'i). 
Pendarves, E. AV., Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Phillips, Professor John, M.A.,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Phillips, Rev. G., B.D., President of Queen's 

College, Cambridge. 
Pigott, The Et. Hon. D. E., M.E.I.A., Lord 
Chief Baron of the Exchequer in Ireland. 
Porter, G. R., Esq. (deceased). 
Portlock, Major-General,R.E.,LL.D., F.E.S. 

(deceased). 
Portman, The Lord. 

Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. (decf). 
Price, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 
Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Ramsay, Professor William, M.A. 
Ransome, George, Esq., F.L.S. 
Eeid, Maj.-Gen. Sir W., KC.B., R.E., F.R.S. 

(deceased). 
Rendlesham, Rt. Hon. Lord, M.P. 
Rennie, George, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Rennie, Sir Jolm, F.R.S. 
Richardson, Sir John, C.B., M.D., LL.D., 

F.R.S. (deceased). 
Richmond, Duke of, K.Q., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Ripon, Earl of, F.R.G.S. 
Ritchie, R«v. Prof., LL.D., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Robertson, Dr. 
Robinson, Capt., R.A. 
Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 
Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 
Robison, Sir John, Sec.R.S.Edin. (deceased). 
Roche, James, Esq. 
Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 
Rolleston, Professor. M.D., F.R.S. 
Ronalds, Francis, F.E.S. 
Eoscoe, Professor H. E., B.A., F.R.S. 
Rosebery, Tlie Earl of K.T., D.C.L, F.R.S. 
Ross, Rear-Admiral Sir J. C, R.N., D.C.L., 

F.R.S. (deceased). 
Rosse, Wm., Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 
Royle, Prof Jolm F., M.D., F.R.S. (dec"). 
Russell, James, Esq. (deceased). 
Russell, J. Scott, Esq., F.R.S. 
Rutland, The Earl of 
Sabine, Lieut.-GeneralEdward,R.A., D.C.L., 

LL.D., President of the Royal Society. 
Sanders, WiUiam, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Scholefield, William, M.P. (deceased). 
Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Sedgwick, Rev. Prof, M.A., D.C.L, F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux Jolm, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Sharpey, Professor, M.D., Sec.R.S. 
Sims, Dillwyn, Esq. 

Smith, Lieut.-Col.C. Hamilton, F.R.S.(dec<'). 
Smith, Prof H. J. S., M.A., F.R.S. 
Smith, James, F.R.S. L. & E. 
Spence, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 
Spottiswoode, W., M.A., F.R.S. 
Stanley, Edward, D.D., F.R.S., late Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt., M.P., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
St. David's, C.Tlurlwall,D.D.,LordBishop of 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes,'ProfessorG.G.,M.A.,D.C.L.,Sec.R.S. 
Strang, John, Esq., LL.D. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 



XXIX 



Strickland, Hugli E., Esq., F.R.S. (deeeasocl). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., F.E.S. 
(Symonds, B. P., D.D., Warden of Wadham 

College. Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Tayler, Eev. Jolm James, B.A. 
Taylor, Hugh, Esq. 
Taylor, Jolin, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Taylor, Eicliard, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Thomson, A., Esq. 
Thomson, Professor Sir William, M.A., 

F.E.S. 
Tindal, Captain, E.N. (deceased). 
Tite, WiUiam, Esq., M.P., F.E.S. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.E.S.E. 
Tooke, Thomas, F.E.S. (deceased). 
Tram, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 
Trevelyan, Sir W. C, Bart. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.E.S., F.G.S. (dec"). 
Turner, Eey. W. 

Tyndall, Professor John, LL.D., F.E.S. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Walker, James, Esq., F.E.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Eer. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S. 

(decea.sed). 



Warburton, Henry, Esq.,M.A., F.E.S. (dec"). 
Ward, W. Sykes, Esq., F.O.S. 
Washington, Captain, E.N., F.E.S. 
Way, A. E., Esq., M.P. 
Webb, J. C, Esq. 
Webster, Thomas, M.A., F.E.S. 
West, WilUam, Esq., F.E.S. (deceased). 
Western, Tliomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, Jolm Stuart,Lord,F.E.S.(dec"). 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.E.S. 
Whewell, Eev. William, D.D., F.E.S., Master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, (dec"). 
White, Jolm F., Esq. 
WilUams, Prof. Charles J. B., M.D., F.E.S. 
WilHs, Eev. Professor Eobert, M.A., F.E.S. 
Wills, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Wilson, Thomas, Esq., M.A. 
Wilson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester, John, Marqms of. 
Winwood, Eev. H. H., M.A., F.G.S. 
Wood, Nicholas, Esq. (deceased). 
WooUcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. (deceased). 
Worcester, Tlie Et. Eev. the Lord Bishop of. 
Wrottesley, Jolm, Lord, M. A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
YarreU, William, Esq., F.L.S. (deceased). 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.E.S. 
Yates, J. B., Esq., F.S.A., F.E.G.S. (dec"). 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1866-67. 



TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 

Sir HODERICK I. MUHCHISON, Eart, K.C.B., G-.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.E.8. 
Lieut.-Gcneral Edwaed Sabine, E.A., D.C.L., Pres. E.S. 
Sir Philip de M. Grey Egeetok, Bart., M.P., F.E.S. 

PRESIDENT. 

WILLIAM E. GEOVE, Esq., Q.C, M.A., F.E.S. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



His Grace The Duke of Devokshiee, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Derbyshire. 

His Grace The Duke of Eutland, Lord-Lieute- 
nant of Leicestershire. 

The Rt. Hon. Loi:d Belpee, D.C.L., F.E.S., F.G.S., 
Lord- Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire. 



The Et. Hon. J. E. Denison, M.P. 

J. C. Webb, Esq. 

Thomas Gbaham, Esq., F.E.S., Master of the Mint. 

Joseph Hookee. M.0., D.C.L., F.E.S., F.L.S. 

John Eussell Hinds, Esq., F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 

T. Close, Esq., F.S.A. 



PRESIDENT ELECT. 

HIS GEACE THE DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH, K.B., D.C.L., F.E.S., ETC. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 



The Eight Hon. The Eael of Airlie, E.T. 
Tlie Eight Hon. The Lord Kin>-aied, KT. 
Sir John Ogilvv, Bart., M.P. 
Sir Rodeeick I. Muechisok", Bart., KC.B., 

LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. 
Sir D.YViD Baxter, Bart. 



Sir David Brewstee, D.C.L., P.E.S., Principal 

of the TTniTersitj' of Edinburgh. 
James D. Foehes, LL.D., F.R.S., Principal of 
the United College of St. Salvator and St. 
Leonard, University of St Andrews. 



LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT DUNDEE. 

J. Henderson, Esq. 

John Austin Lake Glo.vg, Esq. 

Patrick Anderson, Esq. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT DUNDEE. 

Alexander Scott, Esq. 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 

Bateman, J. F., Esq., F.R.S. 
Beodie, Sir B., Bart., F.E.S. 
Ceaaitued, John, Esq., F.E.S. 
DelaEue.Waeren, Esq., F.E.S. 
Foster, Peter Le Neve, Esq. 
Galton, Capt. Douglas, C.B., E.E., F.E.S. 
Gassiot, J. P., Esq., F.E.S. 
Godwin-Austen, R.A.C, Esq., F.E.S. 
Hooker, Dr., F.E.S. 
Huxley, Professor, F.E.S. 
Jeffeeys, J. GwYN, Esq., F.E.S. 
Lubbock, Sir John, Bart, F.E.S. 
MiLLEE, Prof.W.A.,M.D.,F.E.S. 
Odling, William, Esq., M.B., F.E.S. 



OF THE COUNCIL. 

Peice, Professor, M.A., F.E.S. 
Eamsay, Professor, F.E.S. 
Eatvlinpon, Sir H., M.P., F.E.S 
SCLATER, p. L., Esq., F.R.S. 
Smith, Professor H., F.E.S. 
Smyth, Warington, Esq., F.E.S. 
Stanley, Et Hon. Lord, M.P., F.E.S. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., Sec. F.E.S. 
Sykes, Colonel, M.P., F.E.S. 
Sii-LVESTER, Prof. J. J., LL.D., F.E.S. 
TiTE, W., M.P., F.E.S. 
Tyndall, Professor, F.E.S. 
Wheatstone, Professor, F.E.S. 
Williamson, Prof. A. W., F.E.S. 



EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the General and 
Assistant General Secretaries, the General Treasui'er, the Trustees, and the Presidents of former 



years, viz. — 

Eev. Professor Sedgwick. 

The Duke of Devonshire. 

Eev. W. V. Harcourt 

The Earl of Eosse. 

Sir John F. W. Her.schid, 

Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart 



Bart. 
K.C.B. 



The Eev. T. E. Robinson, D.D. 



Sir David Brewster. 

G. B. Airy, Esq., the Astronomer 

Royal. 
Lieut.-General Sabine, D.C.L. 
The Earl of Harrowbv. 
The Duke of Argyll." 
Professor Daub(^ny, M.D. 
The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 



Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L. 
The Lord Wrottesley, D.C.L. 
William Fairbairn, Esq., LL.D. 
The Rev. Professor Willis. 
Sir W. G. Armstrong, C.B., LL.D 
Sir Chas. Lyell, Bart., M.A..LL.D. 
Professor Pliillips, M.A., D.C.L. 



GENERAL SECRETARIES. 

Francis Galton, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., 42 Eutland Gate, Knightsbridge, London. 
Thomas A. Hirst, Esq., F.E.S., Professor of Mathematics in University College, London. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 

George Griffith, Esq., M.A., 1 Woodside, Harrow. 
GENERAL TREASURER. 
William Spottistvoode, Esq., M.A., F.E.S., P.E.G.S., 50 Grosveuor Place, London, S.W. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 

Edmund Smith, Esq., Hull. 
Professor Sir W. Thomson, Glanfjoir, 
Richard Beamish, Esq., F.R.S., t'heUcnhnm. 
John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., Tweeds. 
John Forbes White, Esq., Aberdeen. 
Rev. John GrifBths, M.A., Oxford. 
Thomas Gill, Esq., Bath. 
I. C. Wright, Esq. 



William Gray, Esq.. F.G.S., Torlc. 
Prof C. C. Babii]gton,M.A., F.E.S., Cambridge. 
William Brand, Esq., F.dinhurqh. 
John H. Orpen, LL.D., DiihUn. 
William Sanders, Esq., F.R.S., Bristol. 
Robert M'Andrew, Esq., F.E.S., Liverpool. 
Robert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S.. Wanchexter. 
John Givyn Jetfreys, Esq., F.E.S., iSicansea. 
Robert Patterson.'Eeq., F.R.S., Belfast. 



.Tames Hevwood, Esq., F.R.S. 



AUDITORS. 

Dr. T.ThomRou. F.E.S. 



Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXXI 

OFFICEES OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PEESENT AT THE 
NOTTINGHAM MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

P/-esi"(7c«i;.— Professor Wheatstone, D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. 

Vice-Presidents.— 3. P. Gassiot, F.E.S. ; Eev. Charles Pritchard, F.E.S., Pres. 

E.A.S. ; Professor Eaukine, F.E.S. ; W. Spottiswoode, M.A., F.E.S. ; Professor 

Tyndall, F.E.S. ; Lord Wrottesley, D.C.L., F.E.S. 
Secretaries.— Fleamin^ Jenkin, F.E.'S. ; Professor H. J. S. Smith, F.E.S. ; Eev. S. 

K. Swann ; J. M. Wilson, M.A. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATIONS 

TO AGRICtTLTITEE AND THE ARTS. 

President. — H. Bence Jones, M.D., F.E.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Vrokssoi: Daubeny, M.D., F.E.S. ; H. Debus, F.E.S. ; W. A. 

Miller, M.D., V.P.E.S.; Lyon Playfair, C.B., F.E.S.; J. Stenhouse, LL.D., 

F.E.S. ; A. W. Williamson, F.E.S. 
Secretaries.— 3. LL Atherton, F.C.S. ; Professor Liveiug, M.A., F.C.S. ; W. J. 

Eussell, Ph.D. ; Joseph White, F.E.C.S. 

SECTION C. GEOLOGY. 

President— PxoiQssoY A. C. Eamsay, LL.D., F.E.S., V.P.G.S. 
Vice-P-esidents.—VvoiesBox Daubeny, M.D., F.E.S. ; Professor Harkness, F.E.S. ; 

J. B. Jukes, F.E.S. ; Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., G.C.St.S., D.C.L., 

F.E.S. ; Professor Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S. 
Secretaries.— R. Etheridge, F.G.S. ; W. Pengelly, F.E.S. ; T. WUson, M.D. ; G. H. 

Wright. 

SECTION D. BIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Huxley, LL.D, F.E.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— George Busk, F.E.S.; Dr. Davy, F.E.S. ; Dr. J. D. Hooker, M.D., 

F.E.S. ; Professor Humphry, F.E.S. ; Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S. ; Dr. P. L. 

Sclater, F.E.S. ^ Thomas Thomson, M.D., F.E.S. ; A. E. Wallace, F.L.S. 
Secretaries.— 3. Beddard, M.B. ; W. Felkin, F.L.S. ; Eev. H. B. Tristram, M.A., 

F.L.S. ; yf. Turner, M.B., F.E.S.E. ; E. B. Tylor; E. Perceval Wright, M.D. 

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. — Professor Humphiy, F.E.S. 

Secretaries.— Dv. Spencer Cobbold, F.E.S. ; J. Beddard, M.B. 

DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY. 

President.— Alfred E. Wallace, F.Z.S., F. Eth. S. 
Secretaries. — W. Felkin, jim. ; Edvrard Burnet Tylor. 

SECTION E. GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

P)-esident.—Six Charles Nicholson, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D., &c. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir E. I. Murchison, Bart., K.C.B., D.C.L., President of the Eoyal 

Geographical Society, &c. : Sir J. Liibbock, Bart., F.E.S. ; John Crawfurd, F.E.S. ; 

Major-General Sir A. S. Waugh, F.E.S., &c. 
Secretaries.— n. W. Bates, Esq., Assist. Sec. E.G.S. ; Eev. F. T. Cusins, M.A. ; 

E. H. Major, Sec. E.G.S. ; Clements E. Markham, Sec. E.G.S. ; D. W. Nash, 

F.S.A. ; Thos. Wright, Esq., M.A. 

SECTION F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Presidmit. — Professor Eogers, M.A. 

Vice-Presidents. — Lord Belper ; Sir John Bowling, F.E.S. ; William Farr, M.D., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. ; WiUiam Felkin, F.L.S. ; James Heywood, M.A., F.E.S. ; Colonel 

Sykes, M.P., F.E.S. 
Secretaries. — E. Birkin, juu. ; Professor Leone Levi, F.S.A., F.S.S. ; Edmund 

Macrory, M.A. 



xxxu 



REPORT — 1866. 



SECTION G. ILECHANICAL SCIEN'CE. 

Preshlenf.—Thoinns Ilawkslev, V.P. lust. C.E., F.G.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir W. G.' Armstrono-, C.B., F.R.S. ; J. F. B.xteman, F.R.S. ; 
William Fairbaim, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Capt. D. Galtou, R.E., C.B., F.R.S. ; Jolin 
Ilawkshaw, F.R.S. ; James Oldham^ C.E. ; Charles Vignoles, F.R.S. ; J. Whit- 
worth, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — P. Le Neve Foster, M.A. ; J. F. Iselin, M.A. 
M. 0. Tarbottom. 



Professor Pole, F.R.S. ; 



CORRESPONDING JMEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Camhriclge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

]M. Babinet, Paris. 

Captain Belavenetz, R.I.N., Cronstmlt, 

Dr. ir. D. Buys Ballot, Utrecht. 

Dr. D. Bierens de Haan, Amsterdam. 

Professor Bolzani, Kasan, 

Dr. Bergsma, Utrecht. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 

M. Boutig-ny (d'E^Teiix). 

Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 

Dr. Carus, Leipzig. 

M. Des Cloizeaux, Paris. 

Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslau. 

M. Antoine d'Abbadie. 

Geheimi-ath you Dechen. 

M, De la Rive, Geneva. 

Professor Wilhelm Delfls, Heidelberg. 

Professor Dove, Berlin. 

Professor Dumas, Paris. 

Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Pai-is. 

Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 

Dr. Eisenlohr, Carhruhe, 

Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 

Professor A. Escher von der Linth, 
Zurich, Switzerland. 

Professor Esmark, Christiania. 

Professor A. Favre, Geneva. 

M. L^on Foucault, Paris. 

Professor E. Fremy, Paris, 

M. Frisiani, Milan. 

M. Gaudry, Paris. 

Dr. Geinitz, Dresden. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U.S. 

Professor Grube. 

M. E. Hebert, Paris. 

Professor Henry, Washington, U.S. 

Dr. Hochstetter, Vienna. 

M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Janssen, Paris. 

Prof. Jessen, Med. -et Phil. Dr., Griess- 
loald, Prussia. 

Professor Aug. Kelmle, Ghent, Belgium. 

M. Khanikof, St. Petersburg. 



Professor Kiepert. 

Prof A. Kolliker, Wurzburg. 

Professor De Koninck, Liege. 

Professor Kreil, Vienna. 

Dr. Lamont. 3Iunich. 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Barou von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New York. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin, 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor P. Meriau, Bale, Switzerland. 

Professor vonMiddendortf,<S'/,Pt'to"s6M>y. 

M. I'Abbe Moigno, Paris. 

Dr. Arnold Moritz, Ti/lis, 

Chevalier C. Negri. 

Herr Neumayer, Munich. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

M. E. P(51igot, Paris. 

Prof B. Pierce, Cambridge, U.S. 

Gustav Plaar, Slrasburg. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Provost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor F. Romer. 

Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

M. Werner Siemens, Vienna. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

Professor J. A. de Souza, University of 

Coimbra. 
Professor Adolph Steen, Copenhagen. 
Professor Steeustrup. 
Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 
M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 
Dr. Otto Torell, University of Liaid. 
Dr. Van der Hoeven, Leyden, 
M. Vambery, Hungary. 
M. de Yemeuil, Paris. 
Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

GiMingen. 
Professor Wartmann, Geneva. 
Dr. Welwitsch. 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXIU 

Report of the Council of the British Association, presented to the 
General Committee, Wednesday, August 33, 1866. 

The Council have the honour to report as follows : — - 

The Council have received a Report from the Treasurer at each of their 
Meetings, and a Report for the year wiU be presented to the General Com- 
mittee this day. 

The Report of the Parliamentary Committee has been received for pre- 
sentation to the General Committee. 

The Kew Committee have presented to the Council a Report for the year 
1865-66, which wiU be laid before the General Committee this day. 

The Council have added to the list of Corresponding Members the names 
of the following Foreign Men of Science who attended the Birmingham 
Meeting, viz. ; — 



Capt. Belavenetz. 
Geheimrath von Dechen. 
M. Gaudry. 
Prof. Grube. 



Prof. Kiepert. 
Prof. F. Romer. 
Chev. C. Negri. 
Prof. Steenstrup. 



The Council recommend that the names of Mr. J. Hind, F.R.S., and Mr. 
T. Close, be added to the list of Vice-Presidents of the Meeting. 

In consequence of the resignation of Mr. Hopkins as Joint General Secre- 
tary, annoiuiced last year, the Council appointed a Committee, consisting of 
the General Secretaries and the Gentlemen who had formei'ly filled that 
office, for the pui-pose of taking into consideration and reporting to the Council 
on the advisability of nominating a Joint General Secretary. The Council 
have received the following Report, viz. : — 

'•' That Thomas Archer Hii'st, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Mathe- 
thematical Physics in University College, London, be recommended 
as highly qualified for Election as Joint General Secretary of the 
Association." 

The Council recommend that Mr. Hirst, F.R.S., be elected Joint General 
Secretary. 

The Council have been informed that invitations for future Meetings of 
the Association have been received from Dundee, Norwich, Plymouth, and 
Exeter, 

Report of the Kew Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science for 1865-66. 

The Committee of the Kew Observatory submit to the Council of the British 
Association the following statement of their proceedings during the past 
year : — - 

A Unifilar and Dip Circle for Captain J. Belavenetz, of the Russian Navy, 
Director of the Compass Observatory at Cronstadt, have been verified at Kew 
Observatory and forwarded to Russia. 

Three Unifiilars and three Dip Circles, ordered by Colonel Strange for the 
Indian Survey, have been verified. 

Dr. Kirk, who has gone out to Zanzibar on the African coast, has received 
instruction at Kew Observatory ; and a Dip Circle, a Unifilar, and an Azimuth 
Compass have been verified for him, and await his directions. 

In consequence of a representation from Mr. C. Chambers, Acting Super- 
intendent of the Observatory, Bombay, a correspondence has taken place 
between the Director of the India Store Department and the Chairman of 

1866. ' c 



XXxiv REPORT — 18G6. 

the Kew C!ominittee, the result of which is that the Committee have super- 
intended the consti-uction of an Anemometer, a Dip Circle, and a TJniiilar 
for the Bombay Observatory. These instruments have been verified, and are 
now in the hands of the India Board for transmission to their destination. 

The Admiralty have ordered a Unifilar and a Dip Circle for Captain Mayne, 
of Her Majesty's ship ' Nassau,' who is about to proceed to the Straits of 
Magellan ; these instruments have been verified at Kew Observatory, where 
Captain Mapie and several of his officers have likewise received instruction 
in magnetism. 

Dr. Buys-Ballot has ordered a Declination Magnetograph, which has been 
constructed by Mr. Adie, and forwarded to Utrecht, where it has safely 
arrived. 

A set of Self-recording Magnetographs and also a Barograph have been 
ordered by the Stonyhurst Observatory ; and the Rev. "Walter Sidgreaves has 
been at the Observatory receiving instruction in magnetism. The Self- 
recording Magnetographs for Stonyhiirst have been verified and dispatched 
to their destination. 

The set of self-recording instruments ordered by Mr. Meldrum of the 
Mauritius Observatory, are at present at Kew ; Mr. Meldrum intends to visit 
the Kew Observatory for the purpose of making himself further acquainted 
with the process of observing and deducing results previous to his return 
to the Mauritius. 

Mr. Ellery, of Melbourne Observatory, has likewise- ordered a set of Self- 
recording magnetographs. These have been constructed bj" Mr. Adie, and 
will be taken to Kew for verification when the set for Maui'itius have been 
removed. 

Professor Smimow (from Kasan) has received instruction in magnetism at 
the Observatory. 

The usual monthly absolute determinations of the magnetic elements con- 
tinue to be made by Mr. Whipple, Magnetical Assistant, and the self-recording 
magnetographs are in constant operation as heretofore, also imder Mr. Whipple, 
who has displayed his usual care and assiduity in the discharge of his duties. 

The photographic department connected with the self-recording instru- 
ments is under the charge of Mr. Page, who performs his duties very satis- 
factorily. 

A stoneware stove free from iron has been erected in the room containing 
the Kew magnetographs, and by its means this room has been heated through 
a range of 20° Fahr., in order to determine the temperature correction of the 
horizontal and vertical force magnetographs. The observations for this pur- 
pose are being reduced. 

The meteorological work of the ObseiTatoiy continues in charge of Mr. 
Baker, who executes his duties very satisfactoiily. 

Since the Birmingham Meeting 126 barometers have been verified. 
395 thermometers have likewise been verified, and 8 standard thermometers 
constructed at the Observatory. 

The Self-recording Barograph continues in constant operation ; and traces 
in dupHcate are obtained, one set of which is regularly forwarded to the 
meteorological department of the Board of Trade. 

An arrangement for a Self-recording Thermograph has been devised by the 
Superintendent and by Mr. Beckley, and, as a preliminary experiment, gave 
a very satisfactory curve ; the instrument is now being arranged in a suitable 
site. 

The instruments used by the late Mr. Appold for regulating the tempera- 



REPORT OF THE KEW COMMITTEE. XXXV 

ture and moisture of his apartments have been forwarded by the Royal Society 
to the Kew Observatory. 

The Indian pendulum observations are in active progress. Both Colonel 
"Walker and Captain Basevi are in correspondence with the Observatory in 
discussing questions relating to this work. 

The Superintendent has received JlOO from the Government Grant Com- 
mittee of the Eoyal Society for preliminary observation with Captain Kater's 
pendulum. These preliminary observations are in progress under the charge 
of ilr. Loewy as observer, and have the following points in view ; — 

(1) To see by the general agreement or non-agreement of the observations 
with each other whether Captain Kater's pendulum is still in a state to justify 
its adoption as an instrument to give a correct determination of the length of 
the seconds' pendulum. 

(2) To determine the true temperature correction of the pendulum, 

(3) To use Kater's pendulum, and also the Eoyal Society's invariable 
pendulum ISTo. 8, for the purpose of determining a curve of correction for 
atmospheric pressure, from inch to inch, at low pressures. 

The Superintendent has received £50 from the Government Grant Fund 
of the Royal Society, to pursue the experiments on a rotating disk. 

The Kew Heliograph, in charge of Mr. De la Rue, continues to be worked 
in a very satisfactory manner. During the past year 282 negatives have 
been taken on 158 days, and the usual number of positives have been 
printed from them. 

Since the last Meeting of the Association, the first set of the results ob- 
tained by this instrument have been published at the expense of Mr. De la 
Rue, under the following title : — " Researches on Solar Physics, by Warren 
De la Rue, B. Stewart, and B, Loewy ; first series ; On the Nature of Sun- 
spots." 

The present progress of the work of reduction wiU best be seen from the 
following letter, written by Mr. De la Rue, in answer to a request made 
through the Astronomer Royal by Padre Secchi, to know what was doing in 
this country in the subject of Heliography. 

" 110 BunhiU Eow, August 8th, 1866. 

" Mt dear Sir, — In reference to the extract from Padre Secchi's letter, 
I beg to supply the following information. 

" The pictures taken by means of the Kew Heliograph are all measured by 
means of my Micrometer ; the positions of the spots are then reduced to dis- 
tances in terms (fractional parts) of the sun's radius, and the angles of position 
corrected for any error in the position of the wires. 

" Pictures of the Pagoda are taken from time to time, and the measure- 
ments of the various galleries of the Pagoda serve to determine the optical 
distortion of the Sun's image, and the corrections to be applied to the Sun- 
pictures. 

" The heliocentric latitudes and longitudes of the spots are then calculated. 

" The areas of the spots and the penumbra are also measured, and the areas 
corrected for perspective are tabulated in terms (fractional parts) of the area 
of the sun's disk. 

" The areas of the spots (fee. on aU of Carrington's original pictures have re- 
cently been measured, and an account of these measurements will be shortly 
published. 

" Padre Secchi wiU be able to judge, from the foregoing statement, whetiier 
it will be worth while to undertake the work he proposes. 

c2 



XXXvi REPORT — 18G6. 

" The measurements obtainable from photographs are much more reliable 
than those from projected images. <' I am, 

" Yours very truly, 
(Signed) " Waeeen De la Rue." 

" E. J. Stone, Escj." 

The Association Tvill regret to learn the deaths of Dr. Sabler and M. Gussew, 
in consequence of Avhich the "Wilna Heliogi-aph is not at work. 

M. Smysloif of the Pulkowa Observatory has been appointed Director of the 
Wilna Observatory, by the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg. 
M. 0. Struvc having asked for information respecting the vrorking of the 
Heliograph, it has been suggested to him by the Kew Committee that it would 
be advisable for M. Smysloif to visit the Kcw Observatory, to see the instru- 
ment in operation. 

The sun-spots continue to be observed after the method of Hofrath Schwabe, 
of Dessau, and the valuable collection of drawings lent by this eminent ob- 
server remains at the Obsei-vatory. These have been supplemented by the 
beautiful series of detailed drawings of spots made by the Eev. F. Hewlett, 
which that gentleman has deposited at Kew. 

The apparatus for verifying sextants alluded to in the last Ptcport has now 
been constructed by Mr. Cooke, and is being erected at the Observatoiy. 

About three-fourths of the region of the solar spectrum between E and F 
has been mapped by the spectroscope belonging to the Chairman. The spec- 
troscope is now in London, the work appertaining to the staff at the Obser- 
vatory not permitting sufficient time for further observation with this instru- 
ment. 

The instrument devised by Mr. Broun for the purpose of estimating the 
magnetic dip by means of soft iron, remains at present at the Observatory, 
awaiting Mr. Broun's return to England. 

The Superintendeiit has received grants from the Eoyal Society for special 
experiments ; and when these are completed, an account will be rendered to 
that Society. 

The Eeport of a Committee appointed to consider certain questions relating 
to the Meteorological Department of the Board of Trade, and presented to 
both Houses of Parliament by command of Her Majesty, has been communi- 
cated to the Members of the Kew Committee, and has been otherwise widelj' 
circulated among the meteorologists of the British Association : the object 
of the Beport is expressed in the following terms : — 

*' Upon the death of the late Admiral FitzBoy, a correspondence took 
" place between the Board of Trade and the Boyal Societj- with respect to 
" the Meteorological Department of the Board of Trade. The result of that 
" correspondence was the appointment of a Committee, consisting of the fol- 
" lowing gentlemen, viz. Francis Galtou, Esq., F.E.S., General Secretary of the 
'* British Association for the Advancement of Science, nominated by the Pre- 
" sident and Council of the Eoyal Society ; Staff Commander Evans, E.IS"., 
" F.Pt.S., Chief Naval Assistant to the Hydrographer of the Admiralty, by 
" the Admiralty ; T. H. Farrer, Esq., one of the Secretaries to the Board of 
" Trade, by the Board of Trade, — to consider and report upon the following 
" questions : — 

" 1. "Wliat are the data, especially as regards Meteorological Observations 
" at sea, already collected by and now existing in the Meteorological Depart- 
*' ment of the Board of Trade ? 



REPORT OF THE KEAV COMMITTEE. XXXVll 

" 2. Whether any, and what steps should be taken for arranging, tabula- 
" ting, publishing, or otherwise maldng nse of such data, 

" 3. Whether it is desirable to continue Meteorological Observations at sea, 
" and if so, to what extent, and in Avhat manner. 

" 4. Assuming that the system of Weather Telegraphy is to be continued, 
" can the mode of carrying it on and publishing the results be improved ? 

" 5. What staff will be necessary for the above purposes ? " 

The authors of the lleport arrive at the following conclusions in respect 
to the ocean statistics, weather telegraphy, foretelling weather, and obser- 
vations affecting Avcather in the British Isles. 

" The collection of observations from the captains of ships is a function 
" which can probably best be performed through the medium of such agencies 
" as a Government OfRcc can command, and which was in fact well performed 
" by the Meteorological Department before its attention was devoted to the 
" practice of foretelling weather. We assume, therefore, that this function 
" will remain with the Board of Trade. 

" The digesting and tabulating results of observations is, on the other hand, 
" a function which requires a large knowledge of what the state of the science 
" for the time being requires, as well as exact scientific method. 

" This function is one that has not been satisfactorily performed by the Me- 
" teorological department. And we believe that it would be much better, as well 
" as more economically performed, under the direction of a scientific body — 
" such as a Committee of the Royal Society, or of the British Association, if 
" furnished with the requisite fimds by the Government — than it will be if 
" left to a Government Department. The establishment already existing at 
" Kew might probably be easily developed, so as to carry into effect such a 
" pirrpose. It would in that case become a meteorological centre, to which 
" all observations of value (by British observers), whether made on land or 
" at sea, and Avhether within the British Isles or not, would be sent for dis- 
" cussion and reduction. We have, therefore in the following estimates, as- 
" sumed that all meteorological observations made on land, Avliether at the 
" stations recommended by the Royal Society, or at the lighthouses or coast 
" guard stations, as well as aU observations at sea, shall be referred to and 
" discussed imder the direction of such a scientific body as we have men- 
" tioned ; and we have also assumed that the aid afforded by Government 
" would be in the shape of an annual vote, so made as to leave the Royal 
'•' Society, or other scientific body charged with the duty, perfectly free in 
" their method and in their choice of labour, but upon the condition that an 
" account shall be rendered to Parliament of the money spent, and of the re- 
"sidts effected in each year." 

The Kew Committee have examined this Report, and, speaking in general 
terms, they cordially acquiesce in the conclusions of its authors. They con- 
sider the proposed arrangement to fall within the competence of the Kew 
Observatory. 

In the last Kew Report it was stated that many experiments and observa- 
tions of a nature to advance science are made by the Committee under the 
sanction of the Association, the cost of each being defrayed by the pro- 
moters. 

The Committee consider that the suggested observations contained in the 
Government Report which has been referred to, would be merely an exten- 
sion of the usual practice of the Obseiwatory ; but in consideration of the 
magnitude of the work proposed, they suggest that the Council should bring 
the subject before the General Committee, -with the view of the Kew Com- 



xxxviii REPORT — 1866. 

mittee being authorized to discuss and make the necessary arrangements 
with the Board of Trade, should any proposal be made. 

The Committee are also desii-ous of bringing under the consideration of 
the Council, the expediency of proceeding in the formation of a memoir on 
the periodic and non-periodic variations of the temperatm-e at Kcw, as a nor- 
mal station of British meteorology. Similar works have for some years past 
occupied the attention of the most eminent amongst the continental meteo- 
rologists as being in fact the foundation of all scientijic knowledge of the 
climatology of their respective countries. A memoir on the periodic and non- 
periodic variations of the temperature at the magnetical and meteorological 
observatory at Toronto in Canada has been printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1853, but no such work has yet been systematically under- 
taken at Kew, although it is quite in accordance vrith the objects for which 
the Observatory was instituted, in familiarizing British meteorologists with 
a system of tabulation they have hitherto unduly neglected. DaUy photo- 
grams taken from the thermograph constructed under Mr. Stewart's direction 
will supply in the most unexceptionable manner the observational basis on 
which the memoir would be founded. 

To obtain such photograms would constitute a very small addition to the 
duties of the assistant by whom the daily photograms of the magnetical in- 
struments are taken. The tabulation from the daily photograms of the tem- 
perature would be the only increase of any moment to the ordinary present 
work of the observatory, and would require, possibly, the part services of an 
additional young assistant. 

The tabulation would supply twenty-four equidistant entries in every 
solar day. The tables containing these entries, together with the Photo- 
grams, after careful inspection by a proper auth&rity, would be preserved for 
subsequent use. Five or, at most, six years would constitute quite a sufficient 
basis for the determination of the periodic variations forming the first part 
of the proposed work, and would require about a couple of months of super- 
intending care on the part of the person who might be director of the Obser- 
vatory, when the observations of the five or six years should have accumu- 
lated. 

Nothing more than ordinary clerk's work under such general superintend- 
ence would be required. 

Should the Board of Trade be disposed to avail itself of the suggestion 
which has been made to them in respect to the Kew Obsei-vatory, the publi- 
cation which has been suggested would become one of its first important 
duties. 

J. P. Gassiot, 

Chairman. 
Kew Observatory, August 17, 1866. 



X) 






ll 



x> 



&5 



«H 



oeocoooocooooo 

F^ T— I r^ i-H ft 



^ o o o 

oj O O O 

O O o 

CJ O <-H o 



o 
o 
in 



o 
o 



o o 
o o 



O CO 

O f-H 



111 



13 



e 

cS 
3 

3 

to 

=^ M ^ 

- . O 

'S o 



s- : a 



«'« 



C1<0D 



0} 



c.S 
•,3 -a 

1! 

;-« CO 






■ j; 
I -^ 
; 05 

: 5^ 
: to 

: a 
: -3 
• c 



1-. to 

"" = CD 
-?^ 1 

56 I 



3 

3 
< 



a 

CM 



'2-^ to 

Cog' 
QJ <U J-S 



o 

CM 



o 
o 
O 

■a 
a 

CM 

to 

;3i 



CO o >o 


,-1 rjl 


o 




■* O —1 


to to 

1— ( 


Cl 




o o 00 

CM O CM 
to r- 


■* CM 

in M 


CM 
CM 





t" tj *-■ • ta s 

^ Q* - « S C 
ai ^^ ,« S^ *< pj 



'3 S -^ 
o « o 

H 



■* e« OJ 



^( to 

5S 



0° « S2 S3 

' 1"^ « =* cT " 

ca Ph :S 

pci p^ 3 



to ■ 



. <u 



Da 



<ia 



g o) & 
Co," 
u !- c 

«0-3 "> 
2 to >T3 

2 S tos 

« O C C9 

g 5 '3 CO 
o<g C o 



C <" o . 

-a euo 
S X - 

o -t^ ii 



*> S 3 
X 4) J 

_ o 

CO CD 

g t2 c 



CO jr 

^ ,0 
ca >" 



2 o o 



3 3^ 

o; Ui ca 

pSKica 



■s 



'^ 



3S 



u 



I3OO o 



•0 


■* 





























f-H 


i-H 




























«rt 


to 



























00 


CM 



























CM 






^ 
























I-H 








13 













in 























05 


in 

1— I 


in 







I-H 





i—t 


















^ 


CM 


-* 


00 




to 




1—4 




lO 













»— ( 




CM 




CM 








^H 




CO 








1 


: 






1 





1 





1 





I 

bo 












a) 

t3 






CU 




a 

u 




4.a 




c4 





















s 












to 






tA 






1 




> 


■• 


s 








s 




3 

-3 






H 











"r 




-fj 




£; 




_4) 




»-i 






Cl, 






, 



-a 


1 

< 


1/ 

C 







la 

•a 

3 

ca 




3 

ca 






CU 










> ■£ 

; 

* c 
. 

i " 

1 t3 





[ « 


-4J 

> 3 
• 


3 


T3 









si 






OS 


c 


'. ^ 

;^ 

si 

J" 

1 *■ 


2 


•J 

c 
c 


i C 
s c 


) S 

: t 

-3 
3. 


3 


aT 


SB 




a 





C+-I 



3 

_o 





to 

Cl-I 

■ 

■ 3 

• .2 

: ca 

• 

t3 


V 


I4 




c 
c 

•*• 
a 




3 
D 

i 

CO 




' 


2 
to 

_ 

- 13 




'tb 


"o 


«5 


i~ 
a 

-4- 

£ 


1 'C 
i > 


a 

+■ 
c 


> > 

CU 

-1^ 


to 






£ 


: t- 








^ 




(m 




u 




Jm 






£ 


< 






























I «£ 


: <s 








'H 




tt; 




c^ 




<4-f 






c 


; fc 




























J 


i 1 
























^ 




c 


J > 




























? 


: •- 




























a 


' ? 






























c 




























R 


i a 




























0: 


) V 
































13 
3 
ca 



o o 



.2 o 



ca .^ ^ 3 
lU S 3 ° 

.S^ CU i; 



o ■" - 

,^H a tn 

"*- S CU 

tu o *c 

« tS 3 

pa.2 ^ 

3 



o 

H 
H 
to 
W 

p4 



to 

_c 

%-» 

3 
S 

o 

a 

cS 

T3 

3 

ca 

3 



<U O u 






J3 



CO 

CO 
00 



s 
o 



Xl REPORT — 1866. 

lieport of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Nottingham, August 1866. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follo-n's : — 

Your Committee have to express their regret that another Session of Par- 
liament has heen allowed to pass away without any step having been taken 
by the Legislature to promote the study of science in our great pubhc schools. 

In the last Session, howevei-, an Act was passed to amend the Acts rela- 
ting to the Imperial Standards of Weight, Measure, and Capacity. 

The Act was introduced chiefly for the purpose of carrying out the recom- 
mendations of a Treasury Committee, which reported in 1864 ; and it M'ill 
effect some very useful reforms in the constitution of the Office having the 
custody of the Imperial Standards, whereby the whole organization of the 
Department will be placed on a more scientific basis. 

An Officer is appointed to be called the Warden of the Standards ; and due 
provision is made for the periodical comparison of the Imperial and Secondary 
Standards, a matter which had hitherto been very much neglected. A pro- 
vision is for the fu'st time made for defining the amount of error to be 
tolerated in Secondary Standards ; there is also a clause in which it is stated 
to be the dutj' of the Warden " to conduct all such comparisons, verifications, 
and other operations with reference to Standards of Length, Weight, and 
Capacity, in aid of scientific researches, or otherwise, as the Board of Trade 
from time to time authorize or direct." 

Your Committee have also to express their regret that no steps have as yet 
been taken to reorganize the Meteorological Department of the Board of 
Trade, and carry out the valuable suggestions of the Eeport of Mr. Francis 
Galton and his colleagues, presented to Parliament during the last Session. 

Your Committee will not fail to advocate such measures as may be neces- 
sary for placing this Department on a satisfactory footing. They wiU 
neither be unmindful of the part which they took in its original establish- 
ment, nor of the benefits which it has already conferred, and which, if suc- 
cessfully reorganized, it will continue to confer on Meteorological Science. 

In conclusion, we recommend that Sir Henry Eawlinson be elected a 
Member of our Committee. 

Weoxteslet, 

Chairman. 

loth August, 18G6. • 



recommendations of the genekal committee. xh 

Eecomhendattoiss adopted by the General Committee at the Nottingham 

Meeting in August 1866. 

[When Committees are appointed, tlic Member first named is regarded as the Secretary, 
except there is a specific nomination.] 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of ^000 be placed at the disposal of the Coimcil for main- 
taining the Establishment of the Kew Observatory. 

That it would be conducive to the interest of science if opportunity were 
taken in connexion with the Indian Survey now in progress, to establish 
Astronomical and Meteorological Observations at a considerable height on the 
Himalaya ; that for this purpose a powerful achromatic telescope and other 
instriiments, should be placed at the disposal of the Superintendent of the 
Indian Survey ; and that General Sabine, President of the Eoyal Society, 
Eev. C. Pritchard, President of the Eoyal Astronomical Society, The Lord 
Wrottesley, Professor Phillips, Mr. De la Eue, Mr. Huggins, and Mr. Brooke, 
with power to add to their number, be a Committee for the purpose of 
furthering this object ; and that the sum of <£200 be placed at their disposal 

for the purpose. 

That the Lunar Committee be reappointed, and consist of Mr. J. Glaisher, 
Lord Eosse, Lord Wrottesley, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Professor Phillips, Eev. 
C. Pritchard, Mr. W. Huggins, Mr. W. De la Eue, Mr. C. Brooke, Eev. T. W. 
Webb, Mr. J. N. Lockyer, and Mr. W. E. Birt ; and that the sum of ^120 
be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee on Electrical Standards, consisting of Professor 
Williamson, Professor Wheatstone, Professor W. Thomson, Professor W. A. 
MiUer, Dr. A. Matthiesscn, Mr. Fleeming Jenkin, Sir Charles Bright, Pro- 
fessor Maxwell, Mr. C. AV. Siemens, Mr. Balfour Stewart, Dr. Joule, and 
Mr. C. F. Yarley, bo reappointed, Avith the addition of Mr. G. C. Foster and 
Mr. C. Hockin ; that Mr. Fleeming Jenkin be the Secretary, and that the 
sum of XlOO be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee for the purpose of examining the late Dr. Eiimker's 
Astronomical Observations in the Southern Hemisphere, consisting of the 
Astronomer Eoyal, Lord Wrottesley, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Mr. W. DelaEue, 
and Mr. Glaisher (with power to add to their number), be reappointed; and 
that the grant of =£150, which has lapsed, be renewed. 

That the Committee, consisting of Mr. Glaisher, Lord Wrottesley, Professor 
Phillips, Mr. G. J. Symons, Mr. J. F. Bateman, and Mr. E, W. Mylne, be 
reappointed, for the purpose of continuing the Eeports on the Eainfall of 
the British Isles ; and that Mr. T. Hawksley be added to the Committee ; 
that Mr. G. J. Symons be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£50 be placed 
at their disposal. 

That the Balloon Committee, consisting of Colonel Sykes, Mr. Airy, 
Lord Wrottesley, Sir David Brewster, Sir J. Herschel, Bart., Dr. Eobinson, 
Mr. Fairbairn, Dr. Tyndall, Dr. W. A. Miller, and Mr. Glaisher, be reap- 
pointed ; and that £50 (remaining undrawn of the grant of £100 made at 
Birmingham) be placed at their disposal. 

That the Committee on Luminous Meteors and Aerolites, consisting of 
Mr. Glaisher, Mr. E. P. Greg, Mr. E. W. Braylcy, and Mr. Alexander 
Herschel, be reappointed, with the addition of Mr. C. Brooke ; that Mr. 



Xlii REPORT — 1866. 

Herschel be the Secretary, and that the sum of £50 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose of publishing the list of radiant-points already deter- 
mined. 

That it is desii-able to take advantage of the operations of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund for obtaining connected Meteorological Observations in 
Palestine ; that a sum of =£50 be placed at the disposal of the Kew Committee 
for providing the neccssaiy instruments ; and that the following gentlemen 
be a Committee to Eeport on the results : Mr. J. Glaisher, Lord Wrottesley, 
Mr. W. Spottiswoode, and Mr. G. Grove. 

That the Committee for reporting on the Transmission of Sound under 
Water, consisting of Dr. Robinson, Professor Wheatstone, Dr. Gladstone, 
and Professor Hennessy, be reappointed (with power to add to their number) ; 
that Professor Hennessy be the Secretary ; and that the sum of <£30 be placed 
at their disposal for fm'ther experiments. 

That Messrs. W. S. Mitchell, H. Woodward, and Mr. Robert Etheridge be 
a Committee for the purpose of continuing the investigations of the Alum 
Bay Leaf-Bed ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That Sir Charles LyeU, Bart., Professor Phillips, Sir J. Lubbock, Bart., 
Mr. J. Evans, Mr. E. Vivian, Mr. W. Pengelly, and Mr. G. Busk, be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of continuing the exploration of Kent's Hole, Torquay ; 
that Mr. PengeUy be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. W. S. Mitchell, Mr. Robert Etheridge, and Professor Morris be 
a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Leaf-beds of Bournemouth 
and Corfe Castle ; and that the Eossils obtained be placed at the disposal of 
the Curators of the Museum of Practical Geology for the purpose of their 
selecting a set for that Museum, and for the British Museum ; that the sum 
of <£30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Busk be appointed to aid the researches of Dr. Leith Adams on 
the FossU Elephants of Malta ; and that the sum of <£50 be placed at his 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. C. Spence Bate and Professor Phillips be a Committee for the 
purpose of aiding Mr. Henry Woodward in his Researches on the Fossil 
Crustacea ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. 

That Dr. E. Perceval Wright and Professor Harkness be a Committee for 
the purpose of assisting Mr. W. B. Brownrigg in investigating the Fossil 
Fauna of the Kilkenny Coal-Fields ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert H. Scott, Dr. Hooker, Mr. E. H.AVhymper, Dr.E. Perceval 
Wright, and Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bart., be a Committee for the purpose 
of exploring the Plant-beds of 'Novth. Greenland, and that a complete set of 
specimens be placed in the British Museum ; and that the sum of £100 be 
placed at their disposal for the pur2)ose. 

That Professor Phillips, Professor Huxley, and Mr. H. G. Seeley be a 
Committee for the purpose of assisting in di'awing up a Report on the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge of Secondary Reptiles, Pterodactyl cs, and Birds; 
and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. Edward Waller, Professor Wyville Thomson, 
and Dr. E. Perceval Wright be a Committee for the purpose of exploring the 
Marine Fauna of the North-west coast of Ireland ; and that the sum of £25 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENEKAL COMMITTEE. xliii 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffit-eys, Mr. E. M<= Andrew, Rev. A. Merle Norman, 
Mr. C. W. Peach, and Mr. E,. Dawson be a Committee for the purpose of 
exploring the west coast of Shetland by means of the dredge ; and that the 
sum of =£75 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Rev. H. B. Tristram, Sir John Lubbock, Bart., and Mr. H. T. Stainton 
be a Committee for the purpose of reporting on the Insect Fauna of Palestine ; 
and that the sum of <£30 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. Perceval Wright, Professor Newton, and Professor Rolleston 
be a Committee for the purpose of investigating the Flora and Fauna of the 
coast of North Greenland ; and that the sum of ,£75 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Dr. B. W. Richardson and Professor Humphry be a Committee for 
the purpose of continuing the investigations on the physiological action of 
the Ethyle and Methyle Series ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Sir Charles Nicholson, Bart., Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart., and Mr. 
Hogg be a Committee for the purpose of furthering the Palestine Explora- 
tions ; that Mr. Hogg be the Secretary ; and that the sum of .£50 be placed 
at their disposal for the pui'jjose. 

That Sir John Bowring, The Right Hon. C. B. Adderley, Sir William 
Armstrong, Mr. Samuel Bro^vn, Mr. W. Ewart, Dr. Farr, Mr. F. P. Fellows, 
The Right Hon. Earl Fortescue, Professor Frankland, Sir John Hay, Bart., 
Professor Hennessy, Mr. James Hejwood, Sir Robert Kane, Dr. Leone Levi, 
Professor W. A. MiUcr, Professor Rankine, Mr. C. W. Siemens, Colonel 
Sykes, Mr. W. Tite, Professor W. A. Williamson, Lord Wrottesley, Mr. 
James Yates, Mr. Yates Thompson, Mr. Hendrick, and Dr. George Glover be 
a Committee for the purpose of diffusing knowledge of the Decimal and 
Metric System of Moneys, Weights, and Measures, and that the same be 
requested to put themselves in communication with the International Statis- 
cal Congress to be held in Florence, when the adoption of a Common System 
of Moneys, Weights, and Measures is likely to be discussed ; that Professor 
Leone Levi be the Secretary, and that the sum of .£30 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. T. Hawksley, Mr. J. R. Napier, Mr. William 
Fairbaim, and Professor W. J. M. Rankine be a Committee to analyze and 
condense the information contained in the Reports of the "Steam-ship Per- 
formance " Committee and other sources of information on the same subject, 
with power to employ paid calculators or assistants, if necessary ; and that 
the sum of £100 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the Committee on the Patent Laws, consisting of Mr. Thomas Web- 
ster, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. John Hawkshaw, Mr. J. 
Scott Russell, Mr. W. Fairbairn, Mr. John Bethel, and Mr. P. Le Neve 
Foster, be reappointed ; and that the grant of £30, not drawn, be renewed. 

That Mr. Fairbairn and Mr. Tait be a Committee for continuing experi- 
ments with a view to test the improvements in the manufacture of iron and 
steel ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

Applications for Reports and Researches not involving Grants 

of Money. 
That the Rev. Professor Harley be requested to undertake an inquiry into 
the validity of the method proposed by the late Judge Hargreave for the 
resolution of Algebraic Equations, and to report thereon. 



Xliv REPORT — 1866. 

That Dr, Matthiessen bo requested to continue his researches on the 
Chemical Constitution of Cast Iron. 

That Dr. Paul be requested to continue his researches on the Application 
of Chemistry to Geology. 

That Professor Wanklyn be requested to continue his researches on the 
Isomeric Alcohols. 

That Mr. Thomas Fairley be requested to continue his researches on 
Polycyanides of Organic Iladicals. 

That Dr. Baker Edwards be requested to continue his researches on the 
Alkaloidal Principles of the Calabar Bean. 

That Mr. J. CJw.yn Jeffreys, Dr. CoUingwood, Kev. H. H. Higgins, Mr. 
Isaac Byerley, Dr. J. B. Edwards, and Mr. Thomas J. Moore be reappointed 
for the purpose of dredging the Estuary of the Mersey. 

That Mr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, Mr. C. Spence Bate, Mr. Jonathan Couch, 
Mr. C. Stewart, Eev. Thomas Hincks, and Mr. B. Howe be reappointed a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of investigating the Marine Eauna and Flora of the 
coasts of Devon and Cornwall ; and that Mr. C. Spence Bate be the Secretaiy. 

That Mr. J. Gwj'n Jeffreys, Dr. J. E. Gray, Mr. 11. M' Andrew, Mr. C. 
Spence Bate, liev. A. Merle Norman, Dr. E. Perceval Wright, and the Eev. 
Thomas Hincks be a Committee for the purpose of superintending the various 
Committees appointed by the British Association to dredge in the British Seas. 

That the Committee on Scientific Evidence in Courts of Law, consisting 
of the Rev. "W. V. Harcoiirt, Professor "Williamson, The Right Hon. J. Napier, 
Mr. W. Tite, Professor Christison, Mr. Carpmael, Dr. TyndaU, Mr. James 
Heywood, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. Thomas Webster, Sir Benjamin Brodie, 
Bart., and Professor AV. A. MiUer (with power to add to their number), be 
reappointed ; and that Professor Williamson be the Secretary. 

That the Committee to arrange and analyze the Tidal Observations which 
have already been made on the coasts and estuaries of Great Britain, and to 
make such further observations and investigations as the Committee may 
deem desirable for recording and exhibiting Tidal Phenomena, be reappointed, 
and that temperature be included in those observations ; such Committee 
to consist of Mr. J. Hawkshaw, Mr. J. F. Bateman, Mr. J. Oldham, Mr. W. 
Parkes, Mr. J. Scott Russell, Mr. T. Webster, Mr. C. Vignoles, Sir J. Rennie, 
Mr. W. Sissons, Mr. G. P. Bidder, jun., Avith Mr. J. F. Iseiin as Secretary. 

Involving Application to Government. 

That Sir Roderick Murchison, Bart., Lieut. -General Sabine, Admiral 
Ommanney, Admiral CoUinson, and Mr. ^Markham be a Committee for the 
pui'pose of representing to Her Majesty's Government the importance to 
Science of a further exploration of the North Polar Regions ; and that Mr. 
Markham be the Secretary. 

That the Kew Committee be authorized to discuss and,make the necessary 
arrangements with the Board of Trade, should any proposal be made respecting 
the superintendence, reduction, and publication of Meteorological Observa- 
tions, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the Com- 
mittee appointed to consider certain questions relating to the Meteorological 
Department of the Board of Trade. 

Communications to be printed in extenso. 
That Professor Mattcucci's letter to the President be printed entire in the 
Reports of the Association. 



RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. xlv 

That Captain Noble's paper " On the Penetration of Shot and resistance of 
Iron-clad Defences " be printed in extenso in the Reports. 

Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Purposes by 

the General Committee at the Nottingham Meeting in August 
1866. The names of the Members ivho ivould be entitled to call on 
the General Treasurer for the respective Chrants are prefixed. 

Kcxu Observatory. £ $. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment of Kew Observatory 600 

Mathematics and Physics. 

Sabine, Lieut.-General. — Instruments for observations in India 200 

Glaisher, Mr. — Lunar Committee 120 

Williamson, Prof.— Electrical Standards 100 

Airy, Mr. — lleduetion of Piimker's Observations (renewed) . . 150 

Glaisher, Mr.— British Rainfall 50 

Sykes, Col. — Balloon Experiments 50 

Glaisher, Mr. — Luminous Meteors 50 

Kew Committee. — Meteorological observations in Palestine . . 50 

Robinson, Dr. — Sound under Water 30 

Geology. 

Mitchell, Mr.— Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Beds 25 

Lyell, Sir C— Kent's Hole Investigation 100 

Mitchell, Mr.— Bournemouth Fossil Leaf-Beds 30 

Busk, Professor. — Maltese Caverns Elephants 50 

Bate, Mr. C. Spence. — Fossil Crustacea 25 

Wright, Dr. E. P.— Kilkenny Coal-field 25 

Scott, Mr. R. H.— Plant Beds of North Greenland 100 

Phillips, Prof. — Secondary Reptiles 50 

Biology. 

Jeffreys, Mr. — Marine Fauna, Ireland 25 

Jeffreys, Mr.— Dredging West Coast of Shetland 75 

Tristram, Rev. H. B. — Insect Fauna, Palestine 30 

Wright, Dr. E. P. — Coast of North Greenland, Flora and Fauna 75 
Richardson, Dr. B. W. — Physiological action of the Ethyl and 

Methyl Series 25 

Geography and Ethnology. 

Nicholson, Sir C. — Palestine Exploration 50 

Statistics and Economic Science. 

Bowruig, Sir J. — Metrical Committee 30 

MecJianics, 
RusseU, Mr. J. Scott. — Analysis of Reports on Steam-ship Per- 
formance 100 

Fairbairn, Mr.— Manufacture of Iron and Steel 25 

Webster, Mr. — Patent Laws (renewed) 30 

Total 2270 



xlvi 



REPORT 1866. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants 

for Scientific Purposes. 



£ s. d. 
1834. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions C2 

Britisli Fossil Ichthyology 105 

£167 



1836. 



Tide Discussions 163 

Briiish Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Tliermometric Observations, &c. 50 
Kxpeiinients on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

IlHin-Gauges 9 13 

lU'lVaction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Tliermoraeters 15 6 



£434 14 



1S3S. 

Tide Discussions 

Britisli Fossil Fishes 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 

Cast Iron (Strength of) 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 

Railway Constants 

Bristol Tides 

Growth of Plants 

Mud in Rivers 

Education Committee 

Heart Experiments 

Land and Sea Level 

Subterranean Temperature 

S team -vessels 

Meteorological Committee 

Thermometers 



267 



100 





31 


9 


16 


4 



1837. 

Tide Discussions 2S4 1 

Ciicmical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



£918 14 6 



29 

100 

100 

60 

19 1 10 

41 12 10 

50 

75 

3 6 6 

50 

5 3 



8 7 
6 

5 




£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological 'Observations at 

Plyniouih G3 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 0* 

Bristol Tides 35 IS 6 



£ s. d. 



Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 

Vitrification Experiments 9 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 

Land and Sea Level 274 

Steam-vessels' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue 

Animal Secretions 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 

Fossil Reptiles 118 

Mining Statistics 50 



11 





4 


7 








7 


2 


1 


4 








18 


6 








16 


6 


10 











1 























7 


8 


2 


9 









£1595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 

Heart Experiments 18 

Lungs Experiments 8 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 

Chemical and Electrical Pheno- 
mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnolical Observations 185 









13 


6 


19 





13 











11 


1 


10 





15 











15 

















17 


6 


1 


G 














7 











13 9 
£1546 16 4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 185 







8 











7 























12 


8 








18 


6 









GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xlvli 



£ s. d. 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re- 
duction of) 25 

Fo-^sil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs C2 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations 61 18 8 

Fishes of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leiih 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

£1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britanniaa 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 S 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 15 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' Engines... 28 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 59 

Stars (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 
Meteorological Experiments at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 
metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race 7 9 

£1449 17 « 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Reduction of Stars, British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 

tionsat Kingussie andlnverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological Ane- 
mometer at Plymouth 10 



£ s. d. 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 

'Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Cooperation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 

Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light IS 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Furni- 
ture and Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Eartliquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 II 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 
Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin's Instrument and Constant 
Indicator 69 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 




5 



8 




















4 


10 









1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness ...;.. 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



xlviii 



REPORT — 1866. 



£ 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Uaihvay 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and MoUusca of the 

iEgean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Morin's 

Instrument, 1842 10 

jE9Sr 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 30 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob- 
servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells... 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 20 

Earthquake Shocks 1843 15 

^£830 



s. 


d. 














17 


c 








11 


10 














10 


















3 



7 




3 


















3 


6 



12 8 



14 C 



18 11 



IG 8 



11 9 







17 8 



15 






































7 


























14 


8 



9 9 



1846. 
British Association Catalogue of 

Stars 1844 211 15 



£ s, d. 
Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computatioii of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Estat)lishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia 6 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 1 1 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 

Atmospheric Waves 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

iE685 10 



16 


7 








16 


2 








15 


10 


12 


3 




















7 


6 


3 


6 


3 


3 


19 


3 


6 


3 









1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 

Vitality of Seeds 4 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 

£208 



























9 


3 


7 


7 



8 6 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

Je275 i 8 



1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations ]3 9 

.£159 19 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 255 18 

Transit of Earthquake Waves ,.. 50 



OEXERAL STATEMF.NT. 



xlix 



£ s. 

Periodical Pliciiomena 15 

Meteorological Instiurnent, 

Azores 25 

~i345 IS 

1851. ^^ 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (incluilespart 

ofgrantin 1849) 309 2 

Theory of Heat 20 1 

Periodical Phenomena of Animals 

and Plants 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Etiinological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 

"£391 9 

1852. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory (including 

balance of grant for 1850) ... 233 17 
Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 2 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 

Strengthof Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory Ifi5 

Experiments on the Influence of 

Solar Radiation 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 
lida 10 

Dredging on the East Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 (T 

1854. ^=^iisi= 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 

Investigations on Flax 11 

Effects of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron 10 

Registration of Periodical Phe- 
nomena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

~£3S0 19 

1855. == 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements ]0 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 

Map of the World .'.., 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

1ei80 10 

1800. 



1.S5C. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Ubservatorv: — 

1S54 £ 75 0] 

ISjj £500 OJ 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 

Chemical Action of Light 20 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Pheno- 
mena 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 



575 









3 


9 



























£734 13 9 



1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments. . 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

ofCalifornia 10 

Experiments on Flax 5 

Natural History of Madagascar. . 20 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats 5 



£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Wave Experiments.. 25 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 

Dredging near Belfast 18 

Report on the British Annelida... 25 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motion in Fluids ... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 



























5 





13 


2 



U 











18 2 



1859. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Dublin 15 

Osteology of Birds 50 

Irish Tunicata 5 

Manure Experiments 20 

British Medusidre 5 

Dredging Committee 5 

Steam-vessels' Performance 5 

Marine Fauna of South and West 

oflreland 10 

Photographic Chemistry .'. 10 

Lanarkshire Fossils 20 

Balloon Ascents- 39 



£0()4 


































































1 


11 





11 


I 



1 



REPORT — 1866. 









6 












1860. £ s. d. 

Maintaining the Establishment 
of Kew Observatory 500 

Dredging near Belfast 16 

Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Inquiry into the Performance of 

Steam-vessels 124 

Explorations in the Yellow Sand- 
stone of Dura Den 20 

Chemico-niechanical Analysis of 

Rocks and Minerals 25 

Researches on the Growth of 

Plants 10 

Researches on the Solubility of 

Salts 30 

Researches on the Constituents 

of Manures 25 

Balance of Captive Balloon Ac- 
counts.., 1 13 6 

£1241 7 



72 
20 



1861. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Earthquake Experiments 25 

Dredging North and East Coasts 

of Scotland 23 

Dredging Committee : — 

1S60 ^50 0\ 

1S61 £22 J 

Excavations at Dura Den 

Solubility of Salts 20 

Steam-vessel Performance 150 

Fossils of Lesmahago 15 

Explorations at Uriconium 20 

Chemical Alloys 20 

Classified Index to the Transac- 
tions 100 

Dredging in the Mersey and Dee 5 

Dip Circle 30 

Photoheliographic Observations 50 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 10 

Alpine Ascents 6 

Constituents of Manures 25 



































5 1 





£1111 5 10 



1862. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 500 

Patent Laws 21 6 

MoUusca of N.-W. America 10 

Natural History by Mercantile 

Marine 5 

Tidal Observations 25 

Photohelionieter at Kew 40 

Photographic Pictures of the Sun 150 

Rocks of Donegal 25 

Dredging Durham and North- 
umberland 25 

Connexion of Storms 20 

Dredging North-East Coast of 

Scotland ;. 6 9 

Ravages of Teredo 3 11 

Standards of Electrical Resistance 50 

Railway Accidents 10 



£ s. (1 

Balloon Committee 200 

Dredging Dublin Bay 10 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Gauging of Water 12 10 

Steamships' Performance 150 

Thcrmo-Electric Currents 5 

£1293 16 6 

18G3. ~ 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee deficiency... 70 

Balloon Ascents (other expenses) 25 

Entozoa 25 

Coal Fossils 20 

Herrings 20 

Granites of Donegal 5 

Prison Diet 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Movements 13 

Dredging Shetland 50 

Dredging North-east coast of 

Scotland 25 

Dredging Northumberland and 

Durham 17 3 10 

Dredging Committee superin- 
tendence 10 

Steamship Performance 100 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Volcanic Temperature 100 

Bromide of Ammonium 8 

Electrical Standards 100 

Construction and distribu- 
tion 40 

Luminous Meteors 17 

Kew Additional Buildings for 

Photoheliograph 100 

Thermo-Electricity 15 

Analysis of Rocks 8 

Hydfoids 10 

£ 1608 3 id 

1864. "^ ~" 
Maintaining the Establisliuient 

of Kew Ubservatorv 600 

Coal Fossils .' 20 

Vertical Atmospheric Move- 
ments 20 

Dredging Shetland 75 

Dredging Northumberland 25 

Balloon Committee 200 

Carbon under pressure 10 

Standards of Electric Resistance 100 

Analysis of Rocks 10 

Hydroida 10 

Askham's Gift 50 

Nitrite of Amyle 10 

Nomenclature Committee 5 

Rain-Gauges 19 15 8 

Cast Iron Investigation 20 

Tidal Observations in the Ilumber 50 

Spectral Rays 45 

Luminous Meteors 20 

£1289 15 8 



KECOMMENDATIONS OF THE GENERAL COMMITTEE. 



1865. £ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Balloon Committee .; 100 

Ilvdroida 13 

Rain-Gauges 30 

Tidal Observations in the Humber 6 8 

Hexvlic Compounds 20 

Amvl Compounds 20 

Irish Flora 25 

American MoUusca 3 9 

Organic Acids 20 C 

Lingnla Flags Excavation 10 

Eurvpterus 50 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Researches 30 

Oyster Breeding 25 

Gibraltar Caves Researches ... 150 

Kent's Hole Excavations 100 

Moon's Surface Observations ... 35 

Marine Fauna 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire 25 

Dredging Channel Islands 50 

Zoological Nomenclature 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 100 

Bath Waters Analysis 8 10 

Jjnninous Meteors 40 

£1591 tTo 



1866. £ s. d. 
Maintaining the Establishment 

of Kew Observatory 600 

Lunar Committee 64 13 4 

Balloon Committee 50 

Metrical Committee 50 

British Rainfall 50 

Kilkenny Coal Fields 16 

Alum Bay Fossil Leaf-Bed 15 

Luminous Meteors 50 

Lingula Flags Excavation 20 

Chemical Constitution of Cast 

Iron 50 

Amyl Compounds 25 

Electrical Standards 100 

Malta Caves Exploration 30 

Kent's Hole Exploration 200 

Marine Fauna, &c., Devon and 

Cornwall 25 

Dredging Aberdeenshire Coast. . . 25 

Dredging Hebrides Coast 50 

Dredging the Mersey 5 

Resistance of Floating Bodies in 

Water 50 

Polvcyanides of Organic Radi- 
cals 20 

Rigor Mortis 10 

Irish Annelida 15 

Catalogue of Crania 50 

Didine Birds of Mascarene Islands 50 

Typical Crania Researches 30 

Palestine Exploration Fund 100 

£1750 13 4 














































































































































Extracts f rum Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific piir- 
poscs have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the fvmds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the en.suing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Eeport that 
the Eecommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call on 
the Trea.surer, William Spottiswoode, Esq., 50 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W., 
for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to time bo reqiiired. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to tlie members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



d2 



lii REl-ORT — 1800. 

General Meetings. 

On "Wednesday Evening, Angust 22, at 8 p. jr., in the Theatre, Professor 
John Phillips, M.A., LL.D., F.E.S., P.G.S., resigned the office of President to 
William R. Grove, Esq., M.A., E.E.S., who took the Chair, and delivered an 
Address, for which see page liii. 

On Thnrsday Evening, Angnst 23, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the 
Exhibition Building. 

On Friday Evening, August 24, at 8..'30 p.jr., in the Theatre, William 
Huggins, Esq., delivered a Discourse on the "Results of Spectrum Analysis 
as Applied to the Heavenly Bodies." 

On Monday Evening, August 27, at S..30 p.m., in the Theatre, Joseph 
Hooker, Esq., M.D., E.R.S., delivered a Discourse on "Insular Floras." 

On Tuesday Evening, August 2S, at 8 p.m., a Soire'e took place in the 
Exhibition Building. 

On Wednesday, August 29, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting 
took place, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, and the Grants of 
Money for Scientific purposes, were explained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Dundee*. 

* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, September 4, 1867. 



ADDRESS 

01' 

AVILLIAM ROBERT GROVE, Esq., Q.C, M.A., E.R.S., 

PRESIDENT. 



If our rude predecessors, who at one time inhabited the caverns Avhich 
surround this town, could rise from thcii- graves and see it iu its present 
state, it may be doubtful whether they Avould have sufficient knowledge to 
be surprised. 

The machinery, almost resembling organic beings in delicacy of structure, 
by which are fabricated products of world-wide reputation, the powers of 
matter apphed to give motion to that machinery, are so far removed from 
what must have been the conceptions of the semibarbariaus to whom I have 
iJluded, that they could not look on them with intelligent wonder. 

Yet this immense progress has all been effected step by step, now and then 
a little more rapidly than at other times ; but, viewing the whole course of 
improvement, it has been gradual, though moving in an accelerated ratio. 
But it is not merely in those branches of natural knowledge which tend to 
improvements in economical arts and manufactiu'es, that science has made 
great progress. In the study of our own planet and the organic beings 
^nth which it is crowded, and in so much of the universe, as vision, aided 
by the telesco])e, has brought M'ithin the scope of observation, the present 
century has surpassed any antecedent period of equal duration. 

It would be difficult to trace out all the causes which have led to the in- 
crease of observational and experimental knowledge. 

Among the more thinking portion of mankind the gratification felt by 
the discovery of new truths, the expansion of faculties, and extension of the 
boimdaries of knoM'ledge have been doubtless a sufficient inducement to tho 
study of nature ; while, to the more practical minds, the reality, the cer- 
tainty, and the progressive character of the acquisitions of natural science, 
and the enormously increased means which its applications give, have im- 
pressed its importance as a minister to daily wants and a contributor to 
ever-increasing material comforts, luxury, and power. 

Though by no means the only one, yet an important cause of the rapid 
advance of science is the growth of associations for promoting the progress 
either of physical knowledge generally, or of special branches of it. Since 
the foundation of the Eoyal Societj', now more than two centuries ago, a 
vast number of kindi'cd societies have sprung up in this country and in 
Europe. The advantages conferred by these societies are manifold ; they 
enable those who are devoted to scientific research, to combine, compare, and 



liv KEPORT — 1866. 

check their observations, to assist, by the thoughts of several minds, the 
promotion of the inquiry undertaken ; they contribute from a joint purse 
to such efforts as their members deem most worthj^ ; thej^ afford a means of 
submitting to a competent tribunal notices and memoirs, and of obtaining 
for their authors and others, by means of the discussions wliich ensue, in- 
formation given by those best informed on the particular subject ; they 
enable the author to judge whether it is worth his while to pursue the sub- 
jects he has brought forward, and they defray the expense of printing and 
publishing such researches as are thought deserving of it. 

These advantages, and others might be named, pertain to the Association 
the 36th Meeting of which we are this evening assembled to inaugurate ; 
but it has, from its intermittent and peripatetic character, advantages which 
belong to none of the societies which are fixed as to their locality. 

Among these are the novelty and freshness of an annual meeting, which, 
while it brings together old Members of the Association, many of whom only 
meet on this occasion, always adds a quota of new Members, infusing new 
blood, and varpng the social character of our meetings. 

The visits of distinguished foreigners, whom we have pre^iously known by 
reputation, is one of the most delightful and improving of the results. The 
wide field of inquiry, and the character of communications made to the 
Association, including all branches of natural knowledge, and A'arying from 
simple notices of an interesting observation or experiment, to the most in- 
tricate and refined branches of scientific research, is another valuable charac- 
teristic. 

Lastly, perhaps the greatest advantage resulting from the annual visits 
of this great parliament to new localities is that, while it imparts fresh 
local knowledge to the visitors, it leaves behind stimulating memories, wliich 
rouse into permanent activity dormant or timid minds — an effect which, so far 
from ceasing with the \dsit of the Association, frequently begins when that 
visit terminates. 

Every votary of physical science must be anxious to see it recognized by 
those institutions of the country which can to the greatest degree promote 
its cultivation and reap from it the greatest benefit. You will probably 
agree with me that the principal educational establishments on the one hand, 
and on the other the Government, in many of its departments, are the insti- 
tutions which may best fulfil these conditions. The more early tlie mind is 
trained to a pui'suit of any kmd, the deeper and more permanent are llie 
impressions received, and the more service can be rendered by the students. 

" Quo semcl est imbuta recens servabit odorem 
Testa diu." 

Little can be achieved in scientific research without an acquaintance with 
it in youth ; you wiU rarely find an instance of a man who has attained any 
eminence in science who has not commenced its study at a very early 
period of life. Nothing, again, can tend more to the promotion of science 
than the exertions of those who have early acquired the yOos resulting from 
a scientific education. I desire to make no complaint of the tardiness with 
which science has been received at our public schools and, Avith some ex- 
ceptions, at our Universities. These great establishments have their roots 
in historical periods, and long time and patient endeavour is requisite be- 
fore a new branch of thought can be grafted with success on a stem to which 
it is exotic. Nor should I ever wish to see the study of languages, of history, 
of all those refined associations which the past has transmitted to us, ne- 



ADDRESS. Iv 

glected ; but there is room for both. It is sad to see the number of so-called 
educated men who, travelling by railway, voyaging by steamboat, consult- 
ing the almanac for the time of sunrise or full-moon, have not the most 
elementary knowledge of a steam-engine, a barometer, or a quadrant ; and 
Avho will listen with a half-confessed faith to the most idle predictions as 
to weather or cometic influences, while they are in a state of crass igno- 
rance as to the cause of the trade-winds or the form of a comet's path. 
May we hope that the sHght infiltration of scientific studies, now happily 
commenced, will extend till it occupies its fair space in the education of 
the young, and that those who may be able learnedly to discourse on the 
Eolic digamma will not be ashamed of knowing the principles on which the 
action of an air-pump, an electrical machine, or a telescope depends, and vrill 
not, as Bacon complained of his contemporaries, despise such knowledge as 
something mean and mechanical. 

To assert that the great departments of Government should eneom-age 
physical science may appear a truism, and yet it is but of late that it has 
been seriously done ; now, the habit of consulting men of science on im- 
portant questions of national interest is becoming a recognized practice, 
and in a time, which may seem long to individuals, but is short in the 
history of a nation, a more definite sphere of usefulness for national pur- 
poses will, I have no doubt, be proAadcd for those dulj' qualified men Avho 
may be content to give up the more tempting study of abstract science for 
that of its practical applications. In this respect the lleport of the Kew 
Committee for this year affords a subject of congratulation to those whom 
I have the honour to address. The Kew Observatory, the petted child of 
the British Association, may possibly become an important national establish- 
ment ; and if so, while it will not, I trust, lose its character of a home for 
untrammelled physical research, it will have siiperadded some of the functions 
of the Meteorological Department of the Board of Trade with a staff of skil- 
ful and experienced observers. 

This is one of the results which the general growth of science, and the 
labours of this Association in particular, have produced ; but I do not propose 
on this occasion to recapitulate the special objects attained by the Association, 
this has been amply done by several of my predecessors ; nor shall I confine 
my address to the progress made in physical science since the time when 
my most able and esteemed friend and predecessor addressed jou at Bir- 
mingham. In the various reports and communications which will be read 
at your 8ections, details of every step which has been made in science 
since our last Meeting will be brought to your notice, and I have no doubt 
fully and freely discussed. 

I purpose, with your kind permission, to submit to you certain A^ews of 
what has -within a comparatively recent period been accomplished by science, 
what have been the steps leading to the attained results, and what, as far as 
we may fairly form an opinion, is the general character pervading modei-n 
discovery. 

It seems to me that the object we have in view would be more nearly 
approached, by each President, chosen as they are in succession as repre- 
senting different branches of science, giving on these occasions either an 
account of the progress of the particular branch of science he has ciiltivated, 
when that is not of a very limited and special character, or enouncing his 
own view of the general j)rogress of science ; and though this will necessarily 
involve much that belongs to recent years, the confining a President to 
a mere resume of what has taken place since our last Meeting would, I 



Ivi KEPUllT — 1860. 

veutiu'C Antli difflclcncc to think, limit his means of usefuhics>s, and render 
his discourse rather an annual register than an instructive essay. 

I need not dwell on the common-place but yet important topics of the 
material advantages resulting from the application of science ; I -will address 
myself to what, in my humble judgment, arc the lessons we have learned 
and the probable prospects of improved natural knowledge. 

One word will give you the key to what I am about to discourse on ; that 
word is continuiii/, no new word, and used in no new sense, but perhaps 
applied more generally than it has hitherto been. We shall see, unless I am 
much mistaken, that the development of observational, experimental, and 
even deductive knowledge is cither attained l)y steps so extremely small as 
to form really a continuous ascent ; or, when distinct results apparently 
separate from any coordinate phenomena have been attained, that then, by 
the subsequent progi'css of science, intermediate links have been discovered 
uniting the apparently segregated instances with other more familiar 
phenomena. 

Thus the more we investigate, the more we find that in existing phe- 
nomena graduation from the like to the seemingly unlike prevails, and in 
the changes which take place in time, gradual progress is, and apparently 
must be, the course of nature. 

Let me now endeavour to apply this view to the recent progress of some of 
the more prominent branches of science. 

In Astronomy, from the time when the earth was considered a flat plain 
bounded by a flat ocean, — when the sun, moon, and stars Avere regarded as 
lanterns to illuminate this plain,- — each successive discovery has brought with 
it similitudes and analogies between this earth and many of the objects of 
the universe with which our senses, aided by instruments, have made us 
acquainted. I pass, of course, over those discoveries which have established the 
Copernicausystemas applied to our sun, its attendant planets, audtheirsatellites. 
The proofs, hoM-ever, that gravitation is not confined to our solar system, 
but pervades the imiverse, have received many confiimations by tlie labours 
of Members of this Association ; I may name those who have held the 
office of President, Lord Eosse, Lord AVrottesley, and f^ir J. Herschel, the 
latter having devoted special attention to the orbits of double stars, the 
former to those probably more recent systems called nebula?. Double stars 
seem to be orbs analogous to oiu* own sun and revolving round their common 
centre of gravity in a conic-section curve, as do the jilanets with which we 
are more intimately acquainted ; but the nebida; present more difficulty, and 
some doubt has been expressed whether gravitation, such as we consider it, 
acts with those bodies (at least those exhibiting a spiral form) as it does with 
us ; possibly some other modifying influence may exist, our present ignorance 
of which gives rise to the apparent diificulty. There is, however, another 
class of observations quite recent in its importance, and which has formed a 
special subject of contribution to the Eeports and Transactions of this 
Association ; I allude to those on Meteorites, at which oiu- lamented Member, 
and to many of us our vahied friend, Prof. Baden Powell assiduously laboured, 
for investigations into which a Committee of this Association is formed, and 
a series of star-charts for enabling observers of shooting-stars to record their 
observations was laid before the last Meeting of the Association by Mr. (ilaisher. 
It would occupy too much of your time to detail the eff'orts of Be.ssel, 
Sehwinke, the late Sir J. Lubbock, and others, as applied to the formation of 
star-charts for aichng the observation of meteorites which Mr. Alexander 
Herschel; Mr. Brayley, Mr, Sorby, and others arc noAv studying. 



AD])HKS>!<. Ivii 

Dr. Olmsted explained tlic tippearaucc oi' a point from wliich the lines of 
flight of meteors seem to radiate, as being the perspective vanishing point of 
their parallel or nearly parallel courses appearing to an observer on the 
earth as it a})proachcs them. The nuifornaity of position of these radiant 
points, the many corroborative observations on the direction, the distances, 
and the velocities of these bodies, the circumstance that their paths intersect 
the earth's orbit at certain definite periods, and the total failure of all other 
theories Avhich have been advanced, -while there is no substantial objection to 
this, afford evidence almost amoimting to proof that these are cosmical bodies 
mo^-ing in the interplanetary space by gra\itatiou round the sun, and some 
perhaps round planets. This view gives us a new element of continuity. 
The universe -would thus appear not to have the extent of empty space 
formerly attributed to it, but to be studded between the larger and more 
A'isible masses with smaller planets, if the term be permitted to be applied to 
meteorites. 

Observations are now made at the periods at which meteors appear in 
greatest numbers— at Greenwich by Mr. Glaisher, at Cambridge by Prof. 
Adams, and at Hawkhiu'st by Mr. Alexander Herschel — and every preparation 
is made to secure as much accuracy as can, in the present state of knowledge, 
be secui-ed for such observations. 

The number of kno-wn asteroids, or bodies of a smaller size than what are 
tenned the ancient planets, has been so increased by numerous discoveries, 
that instead of seven we now count eighty-eight as the number of recognized 
planets — a field of discovery with which tlie name of Hind ■v\'ill be ever 
associated. 

If we add these, the smallest of which is only twenty or thirty mUes in 
diameter, indeed cannot be accurately measured, and if we -\\'ero to apply the 
same scrutiny to other parts of the heavens as has been applied to tlie zone 
between Mars and Jupiter, it is no far-fetched speculation to suppose that 
in addition to asteroids and meteorites, many other bodies exist until the 
space occupied by our solar system becomes fiUed np with planetary bodies 
varying in size from that of Jupiter (1240 times larger in volume than the 
earth) to that of a cannon-ball or even a pistol-buUct. 

The researches of Leverrier on the iutra-mcrcurial planets come in aid of 
these views ; and another half century may, and not improbably will, enable 
us to ascertain that the now seemingly vacant interplanetary spaces are 
occupied by smaller bodies which have hitherto escaped observation, just as 
the asteroids had nntil the time of Olbers and Piazzi. Put the evidence of 
continuity as pervading the universe does not stop at telescopic observation ; 
chemistry and physical optics bring usnewproofs. Those meteoricl)odies which 
have from time to time come so far -v^-ithin reach of the earth's attraction as 
to fall iipon its surface, give on analysis metals and oxides similar to those 
which belong to the structure of the earth— they come as travellers bringing 
specimens of minerals from extra-terrestrial regions. 

In a series of papers recently communicated to the French Academy, 
M. Daubree has discussed the chemical and raincralogical character of 
meteorites as compared with the rocks of the earth. He finds that the 
similarity of terrestrial rocks to meteorites increases as we penetrate deeper 
into the earth's crust, and that some of the deep-seated minerals have a 
composition and characteristics almost identical with meteorites [olivine, 
herzolite, and serpentine, for instance, closely resemble them] ; that as we 
approach tlie surface, rocks having similar components with meteorites are 
found, but in a state of oxidation, which necessarily much modifies their 



Iviii REPORT — 1866. 

mineral character, and which, by involving secondary oxygenized compounds, 
mustalsochangetheirchemieal constitution. By experiments he has succeeded 
in forming from terrestrial rocks substances very much resembling meteorites. 
Thus close relationship, though by no means identity, is established between 
this earth and those wanderers from remote regions, some evidence, though 
at present incomplete, of a common origin. 

Surprise has often been expressed that, while the mean specific gravity of 
this globe is from five to six times that of water, the mean specific gravity of 
its crust is barely half as great. It has long seemed to me that there is no 
ground for wonder here. The exterior of our planet is to a considerable 
depth oxidated ; the interior is in all probability fi-ee from oxygen, and what- 
ever bodies exist there are in a reduced or deoxidated state, if so, their specific 
gravity must necessarily be higher than that of theii- oxides or chlorides, &c.: 
we find, moreover, that some of the deep seated minerals have a higher 
specific gravity than the average of those on the surface ; olivine, for instance, 
has a specific gravity of 3'.3. There is therefore no a priori improbability that 
the mean specific gravity of the earth should notably exceed that of its 
surface ; and if we go further and suppose the interior of the earth to be 
formed of the same ingredients as the exterior, minus oxygen, chlorine, 
bromine, &c., a specific gravity of 5 to 6 would not be an imlikely one. 
Many of the elementary bodies entering largely into the formation of the 
earth's crust areas lighter lighter than water, — for instance, potassium, so- 
dium, &c.; others, such as sulphur, silicon, aluminium, have from two to three 
times its specific gravity ; others, again, as iron, co^jper, zinc, tin, seven to 
nine times ; while others, lead, gold, platinum, &c., arc much more dense, — 
but, speaking generally, the more dense are the least numerous. There seems 
no improbability in a mixtiu-e of such substances producing a mean specific 
gravity of from 5 to 6, although it by no means follows, indeed the proba- 
bility is rather the other way, that the proportions of the substances in the 
interior of the earth are the same as on the exterior. It might be Avorth the 
laboiir to ascertain the mean specific gravity of all the known minerals on the 
earth's surface, averaging them in the ratios in which, as far as our know- 
ledge goes, they quantitatively exist, and assuming them to exist -ndtho^it the 
oxygen, chlorine, &c., with wliich they are, A^'ith some rare excejjtions, 
invariably combined on the surface of the earth : great assistance to the know- 
ledge of the probable constitution of the eartli might be derived from such an 
investigation. 

While chemistry, analytic and synthetic, thiis aids us in ascertaining the 
relationship of our planet to meteorites, its relation in composition to other 
planets, to the sun, and to more distant suns and systems is aided by another 
science, vi'i. optics. 

That light passing from one transparent medium to another should carry 
with it evidence of the soiu'ce from which it emanates, would, untU lately, havo 
seemed an extravagant supposition ; but probably (could we read it) every- 
thing contains in itself a large portion of its own history. 

I need not detail to you the discoveries of Kirchhoff,Eunsen,MiUcr,Huggins, 
and others, they have been dilated on by my predecessor. Assuming tliat 
spectrum analysis is a rehable indication of the presence of given substances 
by the position of transverse bright lines exhibited M-hcn they are burnt and 
of transverse dark lines when light is transmitted through their vapours, 
though Plucker has shown that with some substances these lines vary Avith 
temperature, the point of importance in the view I am presenting to you is, 
that while what may be called comparatively neighbouring cosmical bodies 



ADDRESS. lis. 

exhibit linos identical with manj- of those shown by the components of this 
planet, as Ave proceed to the more distant appearances of the nebulas we get 
but one or two of such lines, and we get one or two new bands not yet iden- 
tified with any known to be produced by substances on this globe. 

Within the last year Mr. Huggins has added to his former researches 
observations on the spectrum of a comet (comet 1 of 1S6G), the nucleus of 
which shows but one bright line, while the spectrum formed by the light of 
the coma is continuous, seeming to show that the nucleus is gaseous while 
the coma would consist of matter in a state of minute division shining by 
reflected light : whether this be solid, liquid, or gaseous is doubtful ; but tlie 
author thinks it is iu a condition analogous to that of fog or cloud. The 
position in the spectrum of the bright line furnished by the nucleus is the 
same as that of nitrogen, which also is shown in some of the nebulae. 

But the most remarkable achievement by spectrum analysis is the record 
of observations on a tcmporaiy star which has shone forth this year in the 
constellation of the northern crown about a degree S.E. of the star e. When 
it was first seen. May 12th, it wa.s nearly equal in brilliancy to a star of the 
second magnitude ; when observed by Mr. Huggins and Dr. MUler, May IGth, 
it was reduced to the third or fourth magnitude. Examined by these 
observers with the spectroscope, it gave a spectrum which they state was 
unlike that of any celestial body they had examined. 

The light was compound and had emanated from two different sources. 
One spectrum was analogous to that of the sun, viz., formed by the light of 
an incandescent sohd or Licjuid photosphere which had suffered absorption by 
the vapours of an envelo]3e cooler tlian itself. The second spectrum consisted 
of a few lu'ight lines, ■which indicated that the light by which it was formed 
was emitted by matter in the state of luminous gas. They consider that, from 
the position of two of the bright lines, the gas must be probably hydrogen, 
and from their brilliancy compared with the light of the photosphere the gas 
must have been at a vcrj' high temperature. They imagine the phenomena to 
result from the burning of hydrogen with some other element, and that from 
the resulting temperature the photosphere is heated to incandescence. 

There is strong reason to believe that this star is one previously seen by 
Argelander and Sir J. Herschel, and that it is a variable star of long or irre- 
gular period ; it is also notable that some of its spectrum lines correspond 
with those of several variable stars. The time of its appearance was too 
short for any attempt to ascertain its parallax ; it would have been important 
if it could even have been established that it is not a near neighbour, as the 
magnitude of such a phenomenon must depend upon its distance. I forbear 
to add any speculations as to the cause of this most singular phenomenon ; 
however imperfect the knowledge given us by these observations, it is a great 
triumph to have caught this fleeting object, and obtained permanent records 
for the use of future observers. 

It would seem as if the phenomenon of gradual change obtained towards 
the remotest objects with Avhich we are at ijresent acquainted, and that the 
further we penetrate into space the more unlike to those we are acquainted 
with become the objects of our examination, — sun, planets, meteorites, earth 
similarly though not identically constituted, stars diftering from each other 
and from our system, and nebiilae more remote in space and differing more in 
their characters and constitution. 

While we thus can to some extent investigate the physical constitution of 
the most remote visible substances, may we not hope that some further insight 
as to the constitution of the nearest, viz. our own satellite, may be given us 



Ix KEl'ORT — 18GU. 

by this class of researches ? The yiiesiiuu \vhether the inoou possesses any 
atmosphere may still be regarded as unsolved. If there be any, it must be 
excecdiuglj small in quantity and highly attenuated. Calculations, made 
from occultation of stars, on the apparent differences of the scmidiameter of 
the bright and dark moon give an amount of diiference •which might indicate 
a minute atmosphere, but which Mr. Airy attributes to irradiation. 

Supposing the moon to be constitiited of similar materials to tlie earth, it 
must be, to say the least, doubtful whether there is oxygen enough to oxidate 
the metals of which she is composed ; and if not, the surface Avhich we see must 
be metallic, or nearly so. The appearance of her craters is not unlike that 
seen on the surface of some metals, such as bismuth, or, according to Professor 
Phillips, silver, Avlieu cooling from fusion and just previous to solidifying ; and 
it might be a fair subject of inquiry whether, if there be any coating of oxide 
on the surface, it may not be so thin as not to disguise the form of the con- 
gealed metallic masses, as they may have set in cooling from igneous fusion. 
M. Chacornac's recent observations lead him to suppose that many of the 
limar craters were the result of a single explosion, which raised the surface 
as a bubble and deposited its debris around the orifice of eruption. 

The eruptions on the surface of the moon clearlj- did not take place at one 
period only, for at many parts of the disk craters may bo seen encroaching 
on and disfiguring more ancient craters, sometimes to the extent of three or 
four successive displacements : two important questions might, it seems to me, 
be solved by an attentive examination of s\ich portions of the moon. Bj' ob- 
serving carefully with the most powerful telescopes the character of the ridges 
thus successively formed, the successive states of the lunar surface at different 
epochs might be elucidated ; and sccondlj-, as on the earth we should look for 
actual volcanic action at those points where recent eruptions have taken place, 
BO on the moon the more recently active points being ascertained h\ the suc- 
cessive displacement of anterior formations, it is these points which should be 
examined for existing disruptive disturbances. Metius and Fabricius might 
be cited as points of this character, having been found by M. Chacornac to 
present successive displacements and to be perforated by numerous channels 
or cavities. M. Chacornac considers that the seas, as they are called, or 
smoother portions of the lunar surface have at some time made inroads on 
anteriorly formed craters ; if so, a large portion of the surface of the moon 
miist have been in a fused, liquid, semiliquid, or alluvial state long after the 
solidifying of other portions of it. It would be difficult to suppose that this 
state was one of igneous fusion, for this could hardlj* exist over a large part 
of the surface witliout melting up the remaining parts ; ou the other hand, 
the total absence of any signs of water, and of any, or, if any, only the most 
attenuated, atmosphere, would make it equally difficult to account for a largo 
diluvial formation. 

Some substances, like mercury on this planet, might have remained liquid 
after others had solidified ; but the problem is one which needs more exami- 
nation and study before any positive opinion can be pronounced. 

I cannot pass from the subject of lunar physics M'ithout recording the obli- 
gation we arc under to our late President for his most valuable observations 
and for his exertion in organizing a band of observers devoted to the exami- 
nation of this our nearest celestial neighbour, and to Mr. Xasmyth and Mr. 
De la Hue for their important graphical and photographical contributions to 
this subject. The granular character of the sun's surface observed by Mr. 
Nasmyth in lb6U is also a discovery which ought not to be passed over in 
silence. 



AODRKSS. Ixi 

Before quitting the subject of Astronomy I cannot avoid expressing a feeling 
of disappointment that the achromatic telescope, which has rendered such 
notable service to this science, still retains in practice the great defect which 
was known a centnry ago at the time of Hall and DoUond, namely, the inac- 
curacy of definition arising from what was termed the irrationality of the 
spectrum, or the incommensurate divisions of the spectra formed by flint 
and crown glass. 

The beautiful results obtained by Blair have remained inoperative from the 
cii'cumstance that evaporable liquids being employed between the lenses, 
a want of permanent imiformity in the instrument was experienced ; and 
notwithstanding the high degree of perfection to which the grinding and 
polishing object-glasses has been brought by Clarke, Cooke, and Mertz, not- 
withstanding the greatly improved instrumental manufacture, the defect to 
which I have adverted remains imremedied and an eyesore to the observer 
with the refracting telescope. 

We have now a large variety of different kinds of glass formed from 
different metallic oxides. A list of many such was given by M. Jacque- 
lain a few years back ; the last specimen which I have seen is a heavy 
highly refracting glass formed from the metal thallium byM. Lamy. Among 
all these could no two or three be selected which, having appropriate re- 
fracting and dispersing powers, would have the coloured spaces of their 
respective spectra if not absolutely in the same proportions, at aU events 
much more nearly so than those of flint and crown glass '? Could not, again, 
oily or resinous substances, such as castor oil, cauada balsam, &c, having much 
action on the more refrangible rays of the spectrum, be made use of in com- 
bination with glass lenses to reduce if not annihilate this signal defect ? This 
is not a problem to the solution of which there seems any insuperable diffi- 
culty ; the reason why it has not been solved is, I incline to think, that the 
great practical opticians have no time at their disposal to devote to long ten- 
tative experiments and calculations, and on the other hand the theoretic 
opticians have not the machinery and the skill in manipulation requisite to 
give the appropriate degree of excellence to the materials with which they 
experiment ; yet the result is worth labouring for, as, could the defect be 
remedied, the refracting telescope would make nearly as great an advance 
upon its present state as the achromatic did on the single lens refractor. 

"While gravitation, physical constitution, and chemical analysis by the 
spectrum show us that matter has similar characteristics in other worlds than 
our own, when we pass to the consideration of those other attributes of 
matter which were at one time supposed to be peculiar kinds of matter itself, 
or, as they were called, imponderables, but which are now generally, if not 
universally, recognized as forces or modes of motion, we find the evidence of 
continuity still stronger. 

When all that was known of magnetism was that a piece of steel rubbed 
against a particiilar mineral had the power of attracting iron, and, if freely 
suspended, of arranging itself nearly in a line with the earth's meridian, it 
seemed an exceptional phenomenon. When it was observed that amber, if 
rubbed, had the temporary po^^'cr of attracting light bodies, this also seemed 
something peculiar and anomalous. What are now magnetism and electricity ? 
forces so universal, so apparently connected with matter as to become two of 
its invariable attributes, and that to speak of matter not being capable of 
being affected by these forces would seem almost as extravagant as to speak 
of matter not being affected by gravitation. 

So -with light, heat, and chemical affinity, not merely is every form of 



Ixii REPORT — 18GG. 

matter with which wo nro acquainted capable of manifesting all these modes 
of force, but so-called matter supposed incapable of such manifestations would 
to most minds cease to be matter. 

Fiu'tlicr than this it seems to me (though, as I have taken an active part 
for many years, now dating from a quarter of a century, in promoting this 
^dcw, I may not be considered an imptu'tial judge) that it is now proved tliat 
all these forces are so invariably connected inter se and with motion as to be 
regarded as modifications of each other, and as resolving themselves objec- 
tively into motion, and subjectively into that something which produces 
or resists motion, and which we call force. 

I may perhaps be permitted to rccal a forgotten experiment, which 
nearly a quarter of a century ago I showed at the London Institution, an 
experiment simple enough in itself, but which then seemed to me important 
from the consequences to be deduced from it, and the importance of which 
will be nrach better appreciated now than then. 

A train of multiplying wheels ended "with a small metallic wheel which, 
when the train was put in motion, revolved with extreme rapidity against the 
periphery of the next wheel, a wooden one. In the metallic wheel was 
pliiced a small piece of phosphorus, and as long as the wheels revolved, the 
pliosphorus remained unchanged, but the moment the last wheel was stopped 
by moving a small lever attached to it, the phosphorus biirst into flame. 
Mj object was to show that while motion of the mass continued, heat Avas 
not generated, but that when this was arrested, the force continuing to ope- 
rate, the motion of tlie mass became heat in the particles. The experiment 
ditfcred from that of llumford's eannon-boring and Davy's friction of ice in 
showing that there was no heat while the motion was unresisted, but that the 
heat was in some way dependent on the motion being impeded or arrested. 
We have now become so accustomed to this Aiew, that whenever we find 
motion resisted we look to heat, electricity, or some other force as the 
necessary and inevitable result. 

It would be out of place here, and treating of matters too familiar to the 
bulk of ray aiidience, to trace how, by tlie labours of Oersted, Scebeck, Faraday, 
Talbot, Dagucrre, and otliers, materials have been provided for the generaliza- 
tion now laioAvn as the correlation of forces or conservation of energy, while 
Davy, Eumford, Bcguin, Mayer, Joule, Helmlioltz, Thomson, and others 
(among whom I woidd not name myself, were it not that I may be misimdcr- 
stood and supposed to have abandoned all claim to a share in the initiation 
of this, as I believe, important generalization) have carried on the work; 
and how, sometimes by independent and, as is commonly the ease, nearly 
simultaneous deductions, sometimes by progressive and accumidated disco- 
A-erics, the doctrine of the reciprocal interaction, of the quantitative relation, 
and of the necessary dependence of all the forces has, I think I may venture 
to say, been established. 

If magnetism, be, as it is proved to be, connected with the other forces or 
affections of matter, if electrical currents always pi'oduce, as thej- are proved 
to do, lines of magnetic force at right angles to their lines of action, mag- 
netism must be cosmical, for where there is heat and light, there is electricity 
and consequently magnetism. Magnetism, then, must be cosmical and not 
merely terrestrial. Could we trace magnetism in other planets and suns as a 
force manifested in axial or meridional lines, l. e. in lines cutting at right 
angles the curves formed by their rotation round an axis, it would be a great 
step ; but it is one hitlierto unaccomplished. The apparent coincidences be- 
tween the maxima and minima of solar spots, and the decennial or undecen- 



ADDRESS. Ixiii 

nial periods of terrestrial magnetic intensity, though only empu-ical at pre- 
sent, might tend to lead us to a knowledge of the connexion wo are seeking ; 
and the President of the Eoyal Society considers that an additional epoch of 
coincidence has arrived, making the fourth decennial period ; but some doubt 
is thrown upon these coincidences by the magnetic observations made at 
Greenwich Obsei-vatory. In a paper published in the ' Transactions of the 
E.oyal Society,' 1863, the Astronomer Royal says, speaking of results ex- 
tending over seventeen years, there is no appearance of decennial cycle in the 
recurrence of great magnetic disturbances ; and Mr. Glaishcr last year, in the 
physical section of this Association, stated that after persevering examination 
he had been unable to trace any connexion between the magnetism of the 
earth and the spots on the sun. 

Mr. Airy, however, in a more recent paper, suggests that currents of 
magnetic force having reference to the solar hour arc detected, and seem to 
produce vortices or circular disturbances, and he invdtes further cooperative 
observation on the subject, one of the highest interest, but at present re- 
maining in great obscuritj'. 

One of the most startling suggestions as to the consequence resulting from 
the dynamical theory of heat is that made by Mayer, that by the loss of vix 
viva occasioned by friction of the tidal waves, as well as by their forming, 
as it were, a drag upon the earth's rotatoiy movement, the velocity of the 
earth's rotation must be gradually diminishing, and that thus, unless some 
undiscovered compensatory action exist, this I'otation must ultimately cease, 
and changes hardly calculable take place in the solar system. 

M. Delaunay considers that part of the acceleration of the moon's mean 
motion which is not at present accounted for by planetaiy distiu-bauces, to be 
duo to the gradual retardation of the earth's rotation ; to which view, after 
an elaborate investigation, the Astronomer Royal has given his assent. 

Another most interesting speculation of Mayer is that with which you are 
familiar, viz., that the heat of the sun is occasioned by friction or percussion 
of meteorites falling upon it : there are some difficulties, not perhaps in- 
superable, in this theory. Supposing such cosmical bodies to exist in suffi- 
cient numbers they woTild, as they revolve round the sun, fall into it, not as 
an aerolite falls upon the earth directly by an intersection of orbits, but by 
the gradual reduction in size of the orbits, occasioned by a resisting medium ; 
some portion of force would be lost, and lieat generated in space by friction 
against such medium ; when they arrive at the sun they would, assuming 
them, like the planets, to have revolved in the same direction, all impinge in 
a definite dii'ection, and we might expect to see some symptoms of such in 
the sun's photosphere ; but though this is in a constant state of motion, and 
the direction of these movements has been carefully investigated by Mr. 
Carrington and others, no such general direction is detected ; and M. "Paye, 
who some time ago wrote a paper pointing out many objections to the theory 
of solar heat being produced by the fall of meteoric bodies into the sun, has 
recently investigated the proper motions of sun-spots, antl believes he has re- 
moved certain apparent anomalies and reduced their motions to a certain re- 
gularity in the motion of the photosphere, attributable to some general action 
arising from the internal mass of the sun. 

It might be expected that comets, bodies so light and so easUy deflected 
from their course, would show some symptoms of being acted on by gravita- 
tion, were such a number of bodies to exist in or near their paths, as are 
presupposed in the mechanical theory of solar heat. 

Assuming the undulatory theory of light to be true, and that the motion 



Ixiv REPORT ISGD. 

wliieli consfitiites liglit is transmitted across the intorpknetary spaces by a 
highly ehistic ether, theii, unless this motion is confiued to one direction, 
unless there be no interference, imless there be uo viscosity, as it is now- 
termed, in the mcdiiim, and consequently no friction, light must lose some- 
thing in its progress from distant luminous bodies, that is to say, must lose 
something as light ; for, as all reflecting minds arc now convinced that force 
cannot be annihilated, the force is not lost, but its mode of action is changed. 
If light, then, is lost as hght (and the observations of Stru-se seem to show this 
to be so, that, in fact, a star maybe so far distant that it can never bo seen in 
consequence of its luminous emissions becoming extinct), what becomes of the 
transmitted force lost as light, but existing in some other form ? So with 
heat : our sun, our earth, and planets are constantly radiating heat into 
space, so in all probability arc the other suns, the stars, and their attendant 
planets. AYhat becomes of the heat thus radiated into space ? If the uni- 
verse have no limit, and it is difficult to conceive one, heat and light should 
be everywhere uniform ; and yet more is given off than is received by each 
cosmicai body, for otherwise night would be as light and as wann as day. 
What becomes of the enormous force thus apparently non-recurrent in the 
same form ? Does it return as palpable motion ? Does it move or contri- 
bute to move suns and planets ? and can it be conceived as a force similar to 
that which Newton speculated on as universally repulsive and capable of 
being substituted for universal attraction ? We are in no position at present 
to answer such questions as these; but I know of no problem in celestial 
dynamics more deeply interesting than this, and we may be no further re- 
moved fi'om its solution than the predecessors of Newton were from the 
simple dynamical relation of matter to matter which that potent intellect 
detected and demonstrated. 

Passing from extraterrestrial theories to the narrower field of molecular 
physics, we find the doctrine of correlation of forces steadily making its way. 
In the Bakerian Lecture for 186-3 Mr. Sor])y shows, not perliaps a direct 
correlation of mechanical and chemical forces, but that when, either bjr solu- 
tion or by chemical action, a cliange in volume of the resulting substance as 
compared with that of its separate constituents is effected, the action of 
pressure retards or promotes the cliange, according as the substance formed 
Avould occupy a larger or a smaller space than that occupied liy its separate 
constituents ; the application of these experiments to geological incjuiries as to 
subterranean changes which may have taken jAnce under gi'eat pressure is 
oindous, and we may expect to form compounds under artificial compression 
Avhich cannot be found under normal pressure. 

In a practical point of view the power of converting one mode of force into 
another is of the highest importance, and with reference to a subject which 
at present, somewhat prematurely perhaps, occupies men's minds, viz. the 
prospective exhaustion of our coal-fields, there is every encouragement de- 
rivable from the knowledge that we can at will produce heat by the expendi- 
ture of other forces ; but, more than that, we may probably be enabled 
to absorb or store up as it were diffused energy — for instance, Berthelot has 
found that the potential energy of formate of potash is miich greater than that 
of its proximate constituents, caustic potash and carbonic oxide. This change 
may take place spontaneously and at ordinary temperatures, and by such 
change carbonic oxide becomes, so to speak, reinvested with the amount of 
potential energy which its carbon possessed before uniting witli oxygen, or, 
in other words, the cai-bonic oxide is raised as a force-possessor to the place of 
carbon by the direct absorption or conversion of heat from surrounding matter. 



ADDRESS. IxV 

Here we have, as to force-absorption, an analogous result to that of the for- 
mation of coal from carbonic acid and water ; and though this is a mere illus- 
tration, and may never become economical on a large scale, still it and similar 
examjiles may calm apprehension as to future means of supplying heat, 
should our pi-esent fuel become exhausted. As the sun's force, spent in 
times long past, is now retui-ned to us from the coal which was formed by that 
light and heat, so the sun's rays, which are daily wasted, as far as we are 
concerned, on the sandy deserts of Africa, maj' hereafter, by chemical or 
mechanical means, be made to light and warm the habitations of the denizens 
of colder regions. The tidal wave is, again, a large reservoir of force hitherto 
almost unused. 

The valuable researches of Prof. Tyndall on radiant heat afford many in- 
stances of the power of localizing, if the term be permitted, heat which would 
otlierwase be dissipated. 

The discoveries of Graham, by which atmospheric air, di-awn through films 
of caoutchouc, leaves behind half its nitrogen, or, in other words, liecomes 
richer by half in oxygen, and lience has a mucli increased potential energy, 
not only show a most remarkable instance of physical molecular action, 
merging into chemical, but afford us indications of means of storing iip force, 
much of the force used in working the aspirator being capable at any 
period, however remote, of being evolved by burning the oxygen with a com- 
bustible. 

What changes may take place in our modes of applying force before the 
coal-fields are exhausted it is impossible to predict. Even guesses at the 
probable period of their exhaustion are uncertain. There is a tendency to 
substitute for smelting in metallurgic processes, liquid chemical action, which 
of course has the effect of saving fuel; and the v/aste of fuel in ordinary 
operations is enormous, and can be much economized by akeady known pro- 
cesses. It is true that we are, at present, far from seeing a practical mode 
of replacing that granary of force the coal-fields ; but we may with confidence 
rely on invention being in this case, as in others, born of necessity, when 
the necessity arises. 

I will not further pursue this subject ; at a time when science and civiliza- 
tion cannot prevent large tracts of country being irrigated by human blood in 
order to gratify the ambition of a few restless men, it seems an over-refined 
sensibility to occupy ourselves with providing means for our descendants 
in the tenth generation to warm their dwellings or propel their locomo- 
tives. 

Two very remarkable applications of the convertibility of force ha^'e been 
recently attained by the experiments of Mr. "VVilde and Mr. Holz ; the former 
finds that, by conveying electricity from the coUs of a magneto-electric ma- 
chine to an electro-magnet, a considerable increase of electrical power may 
be attained, and by appljiny this as a magneto-electric machine to a second, 
and this in turn to a third electro-magnetic apparatus, the force is largely 
augmented. Of course, to produce this increase, more mechanical force must 
be used at each step to work the magneto-electric machines ; but provided 
this be supplied there hardly seems a limit to the extent to which mechanical 
may be converted into electrical force. 

Mr. Holz has contrived a Franldinic electrical machine, in which a similar 
principle is manifested. A varnished glass plate is made to revolve in close 
proximity to another plate having two or more pieces of card attached, which 
are electrified by a bit of rubbed glass or ebonite ; the moment this is effected 
a resistance is felt by the operator who turns the handle of the machine, and 

1866. e 



Ixvi REPORT — 1866. 

tlie slight temporary electrization of the card converts into a continuous 
flood of intense electricity the force supplied by the arm of the operator. 

These results offer great promise of extended apjjlication ; they show that, 
by a mere formal disposition of matter, one force can be converted into an- 
other, and that not to the limited extent hitherto attained, but to an extent 
coordinate, or nearly so, with the increased initial force, so that, by a mere 
change in the arrangement of apparatus, a means of absorbing and again 
eliminating in a new form a given force may be obtained to an indefinite 
extent. As we may, in a not very distant future, need, for the daily uses of 
mankind, heat, light, and mechanical force, and find our present resources 
exhaiisted, the more we can invent new modes of conversion of forces, the 
more prospect we have of practically supplying such want. It is but a month 
from this time that the greatest triumph of force-conversion has been attained. 
The chemical action generated by a little salt water on a few pieces of zinc 
wiU now enable us to converse with inhabitants of the opposite hemisphere 
of this planet, and 

" Put a girdle round about the earth in forty minutes." 

The Atlantic Telegraph is an accomplished fact. 

In physiology very considerable strides are being made by studying the 
relation of organized bodies to external forces ; and this branch of inquiry has 
been promoted by the labours of Carpenter, Bence Jones, Playfair, E. Smith, 
Frankland, and others. Vegetables acted on by light and heat, decompose 
water, ammonia, and carbonic acid, and transform them into, among other 
substances, oxalate of lime, lactic acid, starch, sugar, steariue, urea, and 
ultimately albumen ; while the animal reverses the process, as does vegetable 
decay, and produces from albumen, urea, stcarine, sugar, starch, lactic acid, 
oxalate of lime, and ultimately ammonia, water, and carbonic acid. 

As, moreover, heat and light are absorbed, or converted in forming the syn- 
thetic processes going on in the vegetable, so conversely heat and sometimes 
light is given off by the living animal ; but it must not be forgotten that the 
line of demarcation between a vegetable and an animal is difficult to draw, 
that there are no single attributes which are peculiar to either, and that it is 
only by a number of characteristics that either can be defined. 

The series of processes above given may be simulated by the chemist in 
his laboratory ; and the amount of labour wliich a man has undergone in the 
course of twenty-four hours may be approximately arrived at by an exami- 
nation of the chemical changes which have taken place in his body, changed 
forms in matter indicating the anterior exercise of dynamical force. That 
muscular action is produced or supported by chemical change would probably 
now be a generally accepted doctrine ; but while many have thought that 
muscular power is derived from the oxidation of albuminous or nitrogenized 
substances, several recent researches seem to show that the latter is rather 
an accomiDaniment than a cause of the former, and that it is by the oxidation 
of carbon and hydrogen compounds that muscular force is supplied. Traube 
has been prominent in advancing this view, and experiments detailed in 
a paper published this year by two Swiss professors, Drs. Fick and Wislicenus, 
which were made by and upon themselves in an ascent of the Faulhoni, have 
gone far to confii'm it. Having fed themselves before and during the ascent, 
upon starch, fat, and sugar, avoiding all nitrogenized compounds, they found 
that the consumption of such food was amplj- sufficient to supply the force 
necessaiy for their expedition, and that they felt no exhaustion. By appro- 
priate chemical examination they ascertained that there was no notable 



ADDRESS. 



Ixvii 



increase in the oxidation of the nitrogenized constituents of the bodj-. After 
calculating the mechanical equivalents of the combustion effected, they then 
state, as their first conclusion, that " The burning of protein substances cannot 
be the only source of muscular power, for we have here two cases in which 
men performed more measurable work than the equivalent of the amount of 
heat, which, taken at a most absurdly high figure, could be calculated to 
result from the burning of the albumen." 

They fiu'ther go on to state that, so far from the oxidation of albuminous 
substances being the only source of muscular power, " the substances by the 
biirning of which force is generated in the muscles, are not the albuminous 
constituents of those tissues, but non-nitrogenous substances, either fats or 
hydrates of carbon," and that the burning of albumen is not in any way 
concerned in the production of muscular power. 

We must not confuse the question of the food which forms and repairs 
muscle and gives permanent capability of muscular force with that which sup- 
plies the requisites for temporary activity ; no doubt the carnivora are the 
most powerfully constituted animals, but the Chamois, Gazelle, &c., have great 
temporary capacity for muscular exertion, though their food is vegetable ; for 
concentrated and sustained energy, however, they do not equal the carnivora ; 
and with the domestic graminivora we certainly find that they are capable of 
performing more continuous work when supplied with those vegetables which 
contain the greatest quantity of nitrogen. 

These and many similar classes of research show that in chemical in- 
quiries, as in other branches of science, we are gradually relieving ourselves 
of hypothetical existences, which certainly had the advantage that they might 
be varied to suit the requirements of the theorist. 

Phlogiston, as Lavoisier said with a sneer, was sometimes heavy, sometimes 
light ; sometimes fire in a free state, sometimes combined ; sometimes passing 
throiigh glass vessels, sometimes retained by them ; which by its protean 
changes explained causticity and non-causticity, transparency and opacity, 
colours and their absence. As phlogiston and similar creations of the mind 
have passed away, so with hypothetic fluids, imponderable matters, specific 
ethers, and other inventions of entities made to vary according to the re- 
quirements of the theorist, I believe the day is approaching when these will 
be dispensed with, and when the two fundamental conceptions of matter and 
motion will be found sufficient to explain physical phenomena. 

The facts made knowni to us by geological inquiries, while on the one 
hand they aff'ord striking evidence of continuity, on the other, by the breaks 
in the record, may be used as arguments against it. The gi'eat question 
once was, whether these chasms represent sudden changes in the formation 
of the earth's crust, or whether they arise from dislocations occasioned since 
the original deposition of strata or from gradual shifting of the areas of sub- 
mergence. Few geologists of the present day would, I imagine, not adopt 
the latter alternatives. Then comes a second question, whether, when the 
geological formation is of a continuous character, the different characters of 
the fossils represent absolutely permanent varieties, or may be explained by 
gradual modifying changes. 

Prof. Ansted, summing up the evidence on this head as applied to one 
division of stratified rocks, writes as follows : — " Pateontologists have endea- 
voured to separate the Lias into a number of subdivisions, by the Ammonites, 
roups of species of those shells being characteristic of different zones. The 
evidence on this point rests on the assumption of specific differences 
being indicated by permanent modifications of the structure of the shell. 

e2 



a 



Ixviii REPORT — 1866. 

But it is quito possible that these may mean nothing more than -wovld be due 
to some change in the conditions of existence. Except between the Marl- 
stone and the Upper Lias there is really no pala^ontological break, in the 
proper sense of the words ; alterations of form and size consequent on the 
occurrence of circumstances more or less favourable, migration of species, and 
other well-known causes sufficiently account for many of those modifications 
of the form of the shell that have been taken as specific marks. This view is 
strengthened by the fact that other shells and other organisms generally 
show no proof of a break of any importance except at the point already 
aUudedto." 

But, irrespectively of another deficiency in the geological record, which will 
be noticed presently, the physical breaks in the stratification make it next to 
impossible to fairly trace the order of succession of organisms by the evidence 
afforded by their fossil remains. Thus there are nine great breaks in the 
PalfBozoic series, four in the Secondary, and one in the Tertiary, besides those 
between Palajozoic and Secondary and Secondary and Tertiary respectively. 
Thus in England there are sixteen important breaks in the succession of strata, 
together with a number of less important interruptions. But although these 
breaks exist, we find pervading the worlis of many geologists a belief, re- 
sulting from the evidence presented to their minds, sometimes avowed, 
sometimes unconsciously imphcd, that the succession of species bears some 
definite relation to the succession of strata. Thus Prof. Eamsay says 
that " in cases of superposition of fossiliferous strata, in proportion as the 
species are more or less continuous, that is to say, as the break in the suc- 
cession of life is partial or complete, so was the time that elapsed between 
the close of the lower and the commencement of the upper strata a shorter or a 
longer interval. The break in life may be indicated not only by a difference 
in species, but yet more importantly by the absence of older and appearance 
of newer allied or unallied genera." 

Indications of the connexion between cosmical studies and geological re- 
searches are dawning on irs : there is, for instance, some reason to believe that 
we can trace many geological phenomena to our varying rotation round the 
Sim ; thus more than thirty years ago Sir J. Herschel proposed an explanation 
of the changes of climate on the earth's surface as evidenced by geological 
phenomena, founded on the changes of excentricity in the earth's orbit. 

He said he had entered on the subject " impressed with the magnificence 
of that view of geological revolutions which regards them rather as regular 
and necessary efforts of great and general causes, than as resulting from a 
series of convulsions and catastrophes regulated by no laws and reducible to 
no fixed principles." 

As the mean distance of the earth from the sun is nearly invariable, 
it would seem at first sight that the mean animal supply of light and heat 
received by the earth would also be invariable ; but according to his calcula- 
tions it is inversely proportional to the minor axis of the orbit : this would 
give less heat when the excentricity of the earth's orbit is approaching to- 
wards or at its minimum, ilr. CroU has recently shown reason to believe 
that the climate, at aU events in the circumpolar and temperate zones of 
the earth, would depend on whether the winter of a given region occurred 
when the earth at its period of greatest excentricity was in aplielion or 
perihelion — if the former, the annual average of temperature would be lower ; 
if the latter, it would be higher than when the excentricity of the eartli's 
orbit were less or approached more nearly to a circle. He calculates the 
diffei'ence in the amount of heat at the period of maximum excentricity of the 



ADDRESS. Ixix 

earth's orbit to be as 19 to^2G, according as the winter would take place wbeu 
the earth was in aphelion or in perihelion. His reason may be briefly stated 
thus : assuming the mean annual heat to be the same, whatever the excen- 
tricity of orbit, yet if the extremes of heat and cold in winter and summer 
be greater, a colder climate vnH prevail, for there will be more snow and ice 
accumulated in the cold winter than the hot summer can melt — a result, aided 
by the shelter from the sun's rays, produced by the vapour suspended in 
consequence of the aqueous evaporation ; hence we should get glacial periods, 
when the orbit of the earth is at its greatest excentricity, at those parts of the 
earth's surface where it is winter when the earth is in aphelion ; carboni- 
ferous or hot periods where it is Avinter in perihelion ; and normal or tem- 
perate periods when the excentricity of orbit is at a minimum ; all these would 
gradually slide into each other, and would produce at long distant periods 
alternations of cold and heat, several of which we actually observe in geo- 
logical records. 

If this theory be borne out, we should approximate to a test of the time 
which has elapsed between different geological epochs. Mr. CroU's compu- 
tation of this would make it certainly not less than 100,000 years since the 
last glacial epoch, a time not very long in geological chronology — probably it 
is much more. 

When we compare with the old theories of the earth, by which the 
apparent changes on its surface were accoimtcd for by convulsions and 
cataclysms, the modern view inaugurated by LyeU, your former President, and 
now, if not wholly, at all events to a great extent adopted, it seems strange 
that the referring past changes to similar causes to those which are Jiow in 
operation should have remained iminvestigated until the present century ; 
but Math this, as mth other branches of knowledge, the most simple is fre- 
quently the latest view which occurs to the mind. It is much more easy to 
invent a Deux ex macliind than to trace out the influence of slow continuous 
change ; the love of the marvellous is so much more attractive than the 
patient investigation of truth, that we find it to have prevailed almost uni- 
versally in the early stages of science. 

In astronomy we had crystal spheres, cycles, and epicycles ; in chemistry 
the philosopher's stone, the elixir vitse, the archseus or stomach demon, and 
phlogiston ; in electricity the notion that amber possessed a soul, and that a 
mysterious fluid could knock down a steeple. In geologj' a deluge or a volcano 
was supplied. In palaeontology a new race was created whenever theory 
required it : how such new races began, the theorist did not stop to inquire. 

A curious speculator might say to a palaeontologist of even recent date, in 
the words of Lucretius, 

" Nam ncque de coelo ceciclisse auimalia possuiit 

Wee terrestria do salsis cxisse lacunis. 
***** 

E uihilo si crcscere posscnt, 
(Turn) ficrcnt juveues siibito ex infantibus parvis, 
E tcrraque exorta rcpente ai-busta salii-cnt ; 
Quoi'ura nil fieri manifcstum est, omnia quando 
Paulatiiu crescunt, ut par est, semine certo, 
Crcscentesque genus servant" 

— which may be thus freely paraphrased : " You have abandoned the belief 
in one primaeval creation at one point of time, you cannot assert that an ele- 
phant existed when the first saurian s roamed over earth and water. Without, 
then, in any way limiting Almighty power, if an elephant Avere created 
without progenitors, the first elephant must, in some way or other, have 



ixx. REPORT 1866. 

physically arrived ou this earth. Whence did he come ? did ho fall from tho 
sky (i. e. from the interplanetary space) ? did he rise moulded out of a mass 
of amorphous earth or rock ? did he appear out of the cleft of a tree ? If he 
had no antecedent progenitors, some such beginning must be assigned to 
him." I know of no scientific writer who has, since the discoveries of 
geology have become familiar, ventured to present in intelligible terms any 
definite notion of how such an event could have occurred : those who do not 
adopt some view of continuity are content to say God willed it ; but would it 
not be more reverent and more philosophical to inquire by observation and 
eSperimeut, and to reason from induction and analogy, as to the probabilities 
of such frequent miraculous interventions ? 

I know I am touching on delicate ground, and that a long time may elapse 
before that calm inquiry after truth which it is the object of associations like 
this to promote can be fully attained ; but I trust that the members of this 
body are sufficiently free from prejudice, whatever their opinions may be, to 
admit an inquiry into the general question whether what we term species 
are and have been rigidly limited, and have at numerous periods been created 
complete and unchangeable, or whether, iji some mode or other, they have not 
gradually and indefinitely varied, and whether the changes due to the infiu- 
ence of surrounding circumstances, to efforts to accommodate themselves to 
surroiTuding changes, to what is called natural selection, or to the necessity 
of yielding to superior force in the struggle for existence, as maintained by 
our illustrious countryman Darwin, have not so modified organisms as to 
enable them to exist under changed conditions. I am not goijig to put for- 
ward any theory of my own, I am not going to argue in support of any 
special theoiy, but having endeavoured to show how, as science advances, 
the continiiity of natural phenomena becomes more apparent, it would be 
cowardice not to present some of the main arguments for and against con- 
tinuity as applied to the history of organic beings. 

As Ave detect no such phenomenon as the creation or spontaneous genera- 
tion of vegetables and animals which are large enough for the eye to see 
without instrumental assistance, as we have long ceased to expect to find a 
Plesiosaurus spontaneously generated in our fish-pond, or a Pterodactjdc in 
our pheasant-cover, the field of this class of research has become identified 
with the field of the microscope, and at each new phase the investigation has 
passed from a larger to a smaller class of organisms. The question whether 
among the smallest and apparently the most elementary forms of organic 
life the phenomenon of spontaneous generation obtains, has recently formed 
the subject of careful experiment and animated discussion in France, If it 
could be found that organisms of a complex character were generated with- 
out progenitors out of amorphous matter, it might reasonably be argued that 
a similar mode of creation might obtain in regard to larger organisms. 
Although we see no such phenomenon as the formation of an animal such as 
an elephant, or a tree such as an oak, excepting from a parent which 
resembles it, yet if the microscope revealed to ns organisms, smaller but 
equally complex, so formed without having been reproduced, it would render 
it not improbable that such might have been the case with larger organic 
beings. The controversy between M. Pasteur and M. Pouchct has led to a 
very close investigation of this subject, and the general opinion is that when 
such precautions are taken as exclude from the substance submitted to 
experiment all possibility of germs from the atmosphere being introduced, 
as by passing the air which is to support the life of the animalculse through 
tubes heated to redness and other precautions, no formation of organisms 



ADDRESS. Ixxi 

takes place. Some experiments of Dr. Child's, communicated to the lloyal 
Society during the last year, again throw douht on the negative results 
obtained by M. Pasteur ; so that the question may be not finally determined, 
but the balance of experiment and opinion is against spontaneous generation. 

One argument presented by M. Pasteur is well worthy of remark, viz. that 
in proportion as our means of scrutiny become more searching, heterogeny, 
or the development of organisms without generation from parents of similar 
organism, has been gradually driven from higher to lower forms of hfe, so 
that if some apparent exceptions still exist they are of the lowest and 
simplest forms, and these exceptions may probably be removed, as M. Pasteur 
considers he has removed them, by a more searching investigation. 

If it be otherwise, if heterogeny obtains at all, all wiU now admit that at 
present the result of the most careful experiments shows it to be confined to 
the most simple organic structures, such as vibrions and bacteria, and that all 
the progressive and more highly developed forms are, as far as the most en- 
larged experience shows, generated by reproduction. 

The great difficulty which is met with at the threshold of inquiry into the 
origin of species, is the definition of species ; in fact species can hardly be 
defined without begging the question in dispute. 

Thus if species be said to be a perseverance of type incapable of blending 
itself with other types, or, which comes nearly to the same thing, incapable 
of producing by union with other types oflPspring of an intermediate cha- 
racter which can again reproduce, we amve at this result, that whenever 
the advocate of continuity shows a blending of what had been hitherto 
deemed separate species, the answer is, they were considered separate species 
by mistake, they do not now come under the defiuition of species, because 
they interbreed. 

The line of demarcation is thus ex hypothesi removed a step further, so 
that, unless the advocate of continuity can, on his side, prove the whole 
question in dispute, by showing that all can directly or by intermediate 
varieties reproduce, he is defeated by the definition itself of species. 

On the other hand, if this, or something in fact amounting to it, be not 
the definition of species — if it be admitted that distinct species can, imder 
certain favourable conditions, produce intermediate offspring capable of re- 
production, then continuity in some mode or other is admitted, j 

The question then takes this form. Are there species or are there not ? 
Is the word to be used as signifying a real, natural distinction, or as a mere 
convenient designation applied to subdi\isions having a permanence which 
■wiU probably outlive man's discussions on the subject, but not an absolute 
fixity? The same question, in a wider sense, and taking into consideration 
a much longer time, would be applicable to genera and families. 

Actual experiment has done little to elucidate the question, nor, imless we 
can suppose the experiments continued through countless generations, is it 
likely to contribute much to its solution. We must therefore have recourse 
to the enlarged experience or induction from the facts of geology, palaeon- 
tology, and physiology, aided by analogy from the laws of action which 
nature evidences in other departments. 

The doctrine of gradual succession is hardly yet formularized, and though 
there are some high authorities for certain modifications of such view, the 
preponderance of authority would necessarily be on the other side. Geology 
and palaeontologj' are recent sciences, and we cannot teU what the older 
authors would have thought or written had the more recently discovered 
facts been presented to their view. Authority, therefore, does not much help 
us on this question. 



Ixxii KEFOKT — 1866. 

Geologicfil discoveries seemed, in the early period of the science, to show 
complete extinction of certain species and the appearance of new ones, great 
gaps existing between the characteristics of tlic extinct and the new species. 
As science advanced, these were more or less filled np ; the apparent dif- 
ficulty of admitting nnhmitcd modification of species would seem to have 
arisen from the comparison of the extreme ends of the scale where the inter- 
mediate links or some of them were wanting. 

To suppose a Zoophyte the progenitor of a Mammal, or to suppose at some 
particular period of time a highly developed animal to have come out of 
nothuig, or suddenly grown out of inorganic matter, would appear at first 
sight equally extravagant hypotheses. As an efi'ort of Almighty creative 
power, neither of these alternatives presents more difiiculty than the other ; 
but as we have no means of ascertaining how creative power worked, but by 
an examination and studj- of the works themselves, we are not lilcely to get 
cither side proved to ocular demonstration. A single phase in the progress 
of natural transmutation would probably require a term far transcending all 
that embraced by historical records ; and on the other hand, it niiglit be said, 
sudden creations, though taking place frequently, if viewed with reference to 
the immensity of time involved in geological pei-iods, may be so rare v.'ith 
reference to our experience, and so difficult of clear authentication, that the 
non-observation of such instances cannot be regarded as absolute disproof of 
their possible occurrence. 

The more the gaps between species are filled up by the discoveiy of inter- 
mediate varieties, the stronger becomes the argument for transmutation and 
the weaker that for successive creations, because tlie former view then 
becomes more and more consistent with experience, the latter more discor- 
dant from it. As undoubted cases of variation, more or less permanent, from 
given characteristics, are produced by the effects of climate, food, domestica- 
tion, (fcc, the more species are increased by intercalation, the more the di- 
stinctions slide down towards those which are within the limits of such 
observed deviations ; while on the other hand, to suppose the more and more 
frequent recurrence of fresh creations oiit of amorphous matter, is a multipli- 
cation of miracles or special interventions not in accordance with what we 
see of the uniform and gradual progress of nature, either in the organic or 
inorganic world. If we were entitled to conclude that the progress of dis- 
covery would continue in the same course, and that species would become 
indefinitely multiplied, the distinctions woidd become infinitely minute, and 
all lines of demarcation Avould cease, the polygon would become a circle, the 
succession of points a line. Certain it is that the more we observe, the more 
we increase the subdivision of species, and consequently the number of these 
supposed creations; so that new creations become innumerable, and yet of these 
we have no one well- authenticated instance, and in no other observed opera- 
tion of nature have we seen this want of continuity, these frequent ^cr salium 
deviations from uniformity, each of which is a miracle. 

The difficiilty of producing intermediate offspring from what arc termed 
distinct species and the infecundity in many instances of hybrids are used as 
strong arguments against continuity of succession ; on the other hand, it 
may be said long-continued variation through countless generations has given 
rise to such differences of physical character, that reproduction is difiicult in 
some cases and in others impossible. 

Suppose, for instance, M to represent a parent-race whose offspring by 
successive changes through cons of time have divaricated, and produced on 
the one hand a species A, and on the other a species Z, the changes here have 
been so great that we should never expect directly to reproduce an interme- 



ADDRESS. 



Ixxiii 



diate between A and Z. A and E on the one hand, and Y and Z on the 

other, might reproduce ; but to regain the original tj'pe M, we must not only 
retrooede through all the intermediates, but must have similar circumstances 
recalled in an inverse order at each phase of retrogression, conditions which 
it is obviously impossible to fulfil. But though among the higher forms of 
organic structure we cannot retrace the effects of time and reproduce inter- 
mediate types, yet among some of the lower forms we find it difficult to 
assign any line of specific demarcation ; thus as a result of the very elabo- 
rate and careful investigations of Dr. Carpenter on Foraminifera, he states, 
" It has been shown that a very wide range of variation exists among Orbito- 
lites, not merely as regards external form, but also as to plan of development ; 
and not merely as to the shape and aspect of the entire organism, but also 
Avith respect to the size and configuration of its component parts. It Avould 
have been easy, by selecting only the most divergent types from amongst the 
whole series of specimens which 1 have examined, to prefer an apparently 
substantial claim on behalf of these to bo accounted as so manj- distinct 
species. But after hanng classified the specimens which could bo arranged 
around these types, a large proportion would yet have remained, cither pre- 
senting characters intermediate between those of two or more of them, or 
actually combining those characters in different parts of their fabric ; thus 
showing that no lines of demarcation can be drawn across any part of the 
scries that shall definitely separate it into any number of groups, each cha- 
racterized by features entirely peculiar to itself." 
At the conclusion of his inquiry he states, — • 

I. The range of variation is so great among Foraminifera as to include not 
merely the differential characters \\hich system atists proceeding upon the 
ordinary methods have accovmlcd specific, but also those upon which the 
greater part of the genera of this group have been founded, and even in some 
instances those of its orders. 

II. The ordinary notion of species as assemblages of individuals marked 
out from each other by definite characters that have been genetically trans- 
mitted from original proto-types similarly distinguished, is quite inapplicable 
to this groTip ; since even if the limits of such assemblages were extended so 
as to include what elsewhere would be accounted genera, they would still be 
found so intimately connected by gradational links, that definite lines could 
not be drawn between them. 

III. The only natural classification of the vast aggregate of diversified 
forms which this group contains will be one which ranges them according to 
their direction and degree of divergence from a small number of principal 
family tj^^es; and any subordinate grouping of genera and species which 
may be adopted for the convenience of clesciiption and nomenclature must 
be regarded merely as assemblages of forms characterized by the nature and 
degree of the modifications of the original type, which they may have respec- 
tively acquired in the course of genetic descent from a common ancestry. 

IV. Even in regard to these family types it may fairly be questioned 
whether analogical evidence does not rather favour the idea of their deriva- 
tion from a common original than that of their primitive distinctness. 

Mr. H. Bates, when investigating " The Lepidoptera of the Amazon Valley ," 
may almost be said to have witnessed the origin of some species of Butterflies, 
so close have been his observations on the habits of these animals that have 
led to their variation and segregation, so closely do the residts follow his 
observations, and so great is the difficulty of otherwise accounting for any 
of the observed facts. 



Ixxiv REPORT — 1866. 

In the numerous localities of the Amazon region certain gregarious species 
of Butterfly (Heliconidea) swarm in incredible numbers, almost outnumbering 
aU the other butterflies in the neighbourhood ; the species in the diff'erent 
locahties being different, though often to be distinguished by a very slight 
shade. 

In these swarms are to be found, in small numbers, other species of butter- 
flies belonging to as many as ten diflferent genera, and even some moths ; 
and these intruders, though they structurally differ in toto from the swarms 
they mingle with, and from one another, mimic the HeHconideae so closely in 
colours, habits, mode of flight, &c., that it is almost impossible to distinguish the 
intruders from those they mingle with. The obvious benefit of this mimicry 
is safety, the intruders hence escaping detection by predatory animals. 

Mr. Bates has extended his observations to the habits of life, food, varia- 
tions, and geographical range of the species concerned in these mimetic phe- 
nomena, and finds in every case corroborative evidence of every variety and 
species being derivative, the species being modified from place to place to suit 
the peculiar form of Heliconidea stationed there. 

Mr. Wallace has done similar ser\dce to the derivative theory by his obser- 
vations and writings on the Butterflies and Birds of the Malay Archipelago, 
adducing instances of mimetic resemblances strictly analogous to the above ; 
and adding in further illustration a beautiful series of instances where the 
form of the wing of the same butterfly is so modified in various islets as to 
produce changes in their mode of flight that tend to the conservation of the 
variety by aiding its escape when chased by birds or predacious insects. 

He has also adduced a multitude of examples of geographical and repre- 
sentative species, races, and varieties, forming so graduated a series as to 
render it obvious that they have had a common origin. 

The effect of food in the formation and segregation of races and of certain 
groups of insects has been admirably demonstrated by Mr. B. D. Walsh, of 
North America. 

Dr. M'^Donnell has been led to the discovery of a new organ in electric 
fishes from the application of the theory of descent, and Dr. Fritz Miiller 
has published numerous observations showing that organs of veiy different 
structure may, through the operation of natural selection, acquire very 
similar and even identical fimctions. Sir John Lubbock's diving hymeno- 
pterous insect affords a remarkable illustration of analogous phenomena ; it 
dives by the aid of its wings, and is the only insect of the vast order it belongs 
to that is at all aquatic. 

The discovery of the Eozoon is of the highest importance in reference to 
the derivative hypothesis, occurring as it does in strata that were formed 
at a period inconceivably antecedent to the presupposed introduction of life 
upon the globe, and displacing the argument derived from the supposition 
that at the dawn of life a multitude of beings of high organization were 
simultaneously developed (in the Silurian and Cambrian strata). 

Professor A. De CandoUe, one of the most distinguished continental bota- 
nists, has, to some extent, abandoned the tenets held in his ' Geographic 
Botanique,' and favours the derivative hypothesis in his paper on the varia- 
tion of oaks ; following up a paper, by Dr. Hooker, on the oaks of Palestine, 
showing that some sixteen of them are derivative, he avows his belief that 
two-thirds of the 300 species of this genus, which he himself describes, are 
provisional only. 

Dr. Hooker, who had only partially accepted the derivative hypothesis 
propounded before the publication of ' The Origin of Species through Natural 



ADDRESS. IXXV 

Selection,' at the same time declining the doctrine of special creation, has 
since then cordially adopted the former, and illustrated its principles by 
applying them to the solution of various botanical questions : first, in refer- 
ence to the flora of Australia, the anomalies of which he appears to explain 
satisfactorily by the application of these principles ; and, latterly, in reference 
to the Arctic flora. 

In the case of the Arctic flora, he believes that originally Scandinavian 
types were spread over the high northern latitudes, that these were driven 
southwards during the glacial period, when many of them changed their 
forms in the struggle that ensued with the displaced temperate plants ; that 
on the returning warmth, the Scandinavian plants, whether changed or not, 
were driven again northwards and up to the mountains of the temperate 
latitudes, followed, in both cases, by series of preexisting plants of the tem- 
perate Alps. The result is the present mixed Arctic flora, consisting of a 
basis of more or less changed and unchanged Scandinavian plants, associated 
in each longitude with representatives of the mountain flora of the more tem- 
perate regions to the south of them. 

The publication of a previously totally unknown flora, that of the Alps of 
tropical Africa, by Dr. Hooker, has afforded a miiltitude of facts that have 
been applied in confirmation of the derivative hypothesis. This flora is found 
to have relationships with those of temperate Eui'ope and North Africa, of 
the Cape of Good Hope, and of the moimtains of tropical Madagascar and 
Abyssinia, that can be accounted for on no other hypothesis, but that there 
has been ancient climatal connexion and some coincident or subsequent slight 
changes of specific character. 

The doctrine of Cuvier, every day more and more borne out by observation, 
that each organ bears a definite relation to the whole of the individual, seems 
to support the view of indefinite variation. If an animal seeks its food or 
safety by climbing trees, its claws wiU become more prehensile, the muscles 
which act upon those claws must become more developed, the body will become 
agile by the very exercise which is necessary to it, and each portion of the 
frame will mould itself to the wants of the animal by the eflTect on it of the 
habits of the animal. 

Another series of facts which present an argument in favour of gradual 
succession, are the phases of resemblance to inferior orders which the embryo 
passes through in its development, and the relations shown in what is termedthc 
metamorphosis of plants ; facts difiicult to account for on the theory of fre- 
quent separate creations, but almost inevitable on that of gradual succession. 
So also, the existence of rudimentary and eff'ete organs, which must either be 
referred to a Jusiis naturce or to some mode of continuous succession. 

The doctrine of typical nuclei seems only a mode of evading the difficulty ; 
experience does not give us the types of theoiy, and, after all, what are these 
types ? It must be admitted there are none such in reality ; how are we led 
to the theorj' of them ? simply by a process of abstraction from classified exist- 
ences. Having grouped from natural similitudes certain forms into a class, 
we select attiibutes common to each member of the class, and call the assem- 
blage of such attributes a type of the class. This process gives us an abstract 
idea, and we then transfer this idea to the Creator, and make Him start with 
that which our own imperfect generalization has derived. It seems to me 
that the doctrine of types is, in fact, a concession to the theory of continuity 
or indefinite variability ; for the admission that large groups have common 
chai'acters shows, necessarily, a blending of forms within the scope of the 
group, which supports the view of each member being deriyed from some 



Ixxvi REPORT — 1866. 

other member of it : can it be asserted that the assigned limits of such groups 
have a definite line of demarcation ? 

The condition of the earth's surface or, at least, of largo portions of it, 
has for long periods remained substantially the same ; this would involve a 
greater degree of fixity in the organisms which have existed during such 
periods of little change than in those which have come into being during 
periods of more rapid transition ; for, though rejecting catastrophes as the 
general modus aijendi of nature, I am far from saying that the march of 
physical changes has been always perfectly uniform. 

There have been doubtless what may be termed secular seasons, and there 
have been local changes of varying degrees of extent and permanence ; from 
such causes organized beings would be more concentrated in certain direc- 
tions than in others, the fixity of character being in the ratio of the fixity 
of condition. This would throw natural forms into certain groups whicli 
would be more prominent than others, like the colours of the rainbow, which 
present certain predominant tints though they merge into each other by 
insensible gradations. 

While the evidence seems daily becoming stronger in favour of a derivative 
hypothesis as applied to the succession of organic beings, we are far removed 
from anything like a sufiicient number of facts to show that, at all events 
within the existing geological periods capable of being investigated, there 
has been any groat progression from a simj^ler or more embryonic to a more 
complex tyjjc. 

Prof. HiTxley, though inclined to the derivative hypothesis, shows, in the 
concluding portion of his address to the Geological iSociety, 1862, a great 
nunibcr of cases in which, though there is abundant evidence of variation, 
there is none of progression. There are, however, several groups of Vertebrata 
in which the endoskeleton of the older presents a less ossified condition 
than that of the younger genera. lie cites the Devonian Ganoids, tlie Mcso- 
zoic Lcpidostcidsc, the Pala?ozoic Sharks, and the more ancient Crocodilia 
and Laccrtilia, and particularly the Pycnodonts and Labyrinthodonts, as 
instances of this Avhcn compared Avith their more recent representatives. 

The records of life on the globe may have been destroyed by the fusion of 
the rocks, which would otherwise have preserved them, or by crystallization 
after hydrothermal action. The earlier forms may have existed at a period 
when this planet Avas in course of formation, or being segregated or 
detached from other worlds or systems. We have not evidence enough to 
speculate on the subject, but by time and patience we may acquire it. 

Were all the forms which have existed embalmed in rock, the question 
would he solved ; but what a small proportion of extinct forms is so preserved, 
and must be, if we consider the cii'cumstanccs necessary to fossilize organic 
remains. On the dry land, unwashed by rivers and seas, when an animal 
or plant dies, it undergoes chemical decomposition which changes its form ; it 
is consumed by insects, its skeleton is oxidized and crumbles into dust. Of 
the myriads of animals and vegetables which annually perish, we find hardly 
an instance of a relic so preserved as to be likely to become a permanent 
fossil. So again in the deeper parts of the ocean, or of the larger lakes, the few 
fish there are perish and their remains sink to the bottom, and are there fre- 
quently consumed by other marine or lacustrine organisms or chemically de- 
composed. As a general rule, it is only when the remains are silted iip by 
marine, fluviatile or lacustrine sediments that the remains arc preserved. 
Geology therefore might be expected to kecj) for us mainly such organic 
remains as inhabited deltas or the margins of seas, lakes, or rivers; here 



ADDRESS. 



Ixxvii 



and there an exception may occur, but the mass of preserved relics would be 
those of creatures so situated : and so we find it, the bulk of fossil remains 
consists of fish and amphibia, shell-fisli form the major part of the geological 
museum, limestone and chalk rocks frequently consisting of little else than 
a congeries of fossil shells. Plants of reed or rush-like character, fish Avhicli 
are capable of inhabiting shallow waters, and saurian animals form another 
large portion of geological remains. 

Compare the shell-fish and amphibia of existing organisms with the other 
forms, and what a small proportion they supply ; compare the shell-fish and 
amphibia of Palaeontology with the other forms, and what an overwhelming 
majority they yield. 

There is nothing, as Prof. Huxley has remarked, Uke an extinct order of 
Birds or Mammals, only a few isolated instances. It may be said the ancient 
world possessed a larger proportion of fish and amphibia, and was more 
suited to their existence. 1 see no reason for believing this, at least to any- 
thing like the extent contended for ; the fauna and flora now in course of 
being preserved for future ages would give tlio same idea to our successors. 

Crowded as Europe is with cattle, birds, insects, &c., how few are geologi- 
cally preserved ! while the muddy or sandy margins of the ocean, the 
estuaries, and deltas are yearly accumulating numerous cnistacea and mol- 
lusca, with some fishes and reptiles, for the study of future palteontologists. 

If this position be right, then, notwitlistanding the immense number of pre- 
served fossils, there must have lived an immeasurably larger niimber of unpre- 
served organic beings, so that tlic chance of filling up the missing links, except 
in occasional instances, is very slight. Yet where circumstances have remained 
suitable for their preservation, many closely connected species are preserved — 
in other words, while the intermediate types in certain eases are lost, in 
others they exist. The opponents of continuity lay all stress on the lost and 
none on the existing links. 

But there is another difficulty in the way of tracing a given organism to 
its parent form, which, from our conventional mode of tracing genealogies, is 
never looked ixpon in its proper light. 

Where are we to look for the remote ancestor of a given form ? Each of 
us, supposing none of our progenitors to have intermarried with relatives, 
would have had at or about the period of the Norman Conquest upwards 
of a hundred milUon direct ancestors of that generation, and if we add the 
intonnediate ancestors, double that number. As each individual has a male 
and female parent, we have only to multiply by two for each thirty years, 
the average duration of a generation, and it will give the above result. 

Let any one assume that one of his ancestors at the time of the Norman 
Conquest was a Moor, another a Celt, and a third a Laplander, and that 
these three were preserved while all the others were lost, he would never 
recognize either of them as his ancestor, he would only have the one-hundred 
millionth of the blood of each of them, and as far as they were concerned 
there would be no perceptible sign of identity of race. 

But the problem is more complex than that which I have stated ; at the 
time of the Conquest there were hardly a hundred million people in Europe, 
it follows that a great number of the ancestors of the 'propositus must have 
intermarried with relations, and then the pedigree, going back to the time of 
the Conquest, instead of being represented by diverging lines, would form a 
network so tangled that no skill could unravel it ; the law of probabilities 
would indicate that any two people in the same country, taken at hazard, 
would not have many generations to go back before they would find a 



Ixxviii REPORT — 1866. 

common ancestor, who probably, could they have seen him or her in the life, 
had no traceable resemblance to either of them. Thus tM'o animals of a very 
different form, and of what would be termed very different species, might 
have a common geological ancestor, and yet the skill of no comparative 
anatomist could trace the descent. 

From the long continued conventional habit of tracing pedigrees through 
the male ancestor, we forget in talking of progenitors that each individual 
has a mother as well as a father, and there is no reason to suppose that he 
has in him less of the blood of the one than of the other. 

The recent discoveries in palaeontology show us that Man existed on this 
planet at an epoch far anterior to that commonly assigned to him. The 
instruments connected with human remains, and indisputably the work of 
human hands, show that to these remote periods the term civilization coidd 
hardly be applied — chipped flints of the rudest construction, probably, in the 
earlier cases, fabricated by holding an amorphous flint in the hand and 
chipping off portions of it by striking it against a larger stone or rock ; then, 
as time suggested improvements, it would be more carefuUy shaped, and 
another stone used as a tool ; then (at what interval we can hardly guess) it 
would be ground, then roughly polished, and so on, — subsequently bronze 
weapons, and, nearly the last before we come to historical periods, iron. Such 
an apparently simple invention as a wheel must, in all probabilitj^, have been 
far subsequent to the rude hunting-tools or weapons of war to which I have 
alluded. 

A little stcp-by-step reasoning ■will convince the unprejudiced that what 
we call civilization must have been a gradual process ; can it be supposed that 
the inhabitants of Central America or of Egypt suddenly and what is called 
instinctively built their cities, carved and ornamented their monuments ? if 
not, if they must have learned to construct such erections, did it not take time 
to acquire such learning, to invent tools as occasion reqidred, contrivances to 
raise weights, rules or laws by which men acted in concert to effect the design ? 
Did not all this require time ? and if, as the evidence of historical times shows, 
invention marches with a geometrical progression, how slow must have been 
the earlier steps ! If even now habit, and prejudice resulting therefrom, vested 
interests, &c., retard for some time the general apphcation of a new invention, 
what must have been the degree of retardation among the comparatively \\n- 
educated beings which then existed ? 

I have of course been able to indicate only a few of the broad argiimenta 
on this most interesting subject ; for detailed results the works of Darwin, 
Hooker, Huxley, Carpenter, Lyell, and others must be examined. If I appear 
to lean to the view that the successive changes in organic beings do not take 
place by sudden leaps, it is, I believe, from no want of an impartial feeling ; 
but if the facts are stronger in favour of one theoi-y than another, it would be 
an affectation of impartiality to make the balance appear equipoised. 

The prejudices of education and associations with the past arc against this 
as against all new views ; and while on the one hand a theory is not to be 
accepted because it is new and prima facie plausible, still to this assembly' I 
need not say that its running counter to existing opinions is not necessarilj' 
a reason for its rejection ; the onus j)rohandi should rest on those who advance 
a new view, but the degree of proof must differ with the nature of the subject. 
The fair question is, Does the newly proposed view remove more difficulties, 
require fewer assumptions, and present more consistency with observed facts 
than that which it seeks to supersede ? if so, the philosopher wiU adopt it, 
and the world will follow the philosopher — after many days. 



ADDRESS. Ixxix 

It must be borne in mind that even if we are satisfied from a persevering 
and impartial inquiry that organic forms have varied indefinitely in time, 
the cmisa causans of these changes is not explained by our researches ; if it be 
admitted that we find no evidence of amorphous matter suddenly changed 
into complex structure, still why matter shoidd be endowed with the plasticity 
by which it slowly acquires modified structure is imexplained. If we assume 
that natural selection, or the struggle for existence, coupled with the tendency 
of like to reproduce like, gives rise to various organic changes, still our re- 
searches are at present uninstructive as to why like should produce Hke, why 
acquired characteristics in the parent should be reproduced in the offspring. 
Reproduction itself is stUl an enigma, and this great question may involve 
deeper thoughts than it would be suitable to enter upon now. 

Perhaps the most convincing argument in favour of continuity which could 
be presented to a doubting mind would be the difl[iculty it would feel in 
representing to itself any per saltiim act of nature. Who would not be 
astonished at beholding an oak tree spring up in a day, and not from seed or 
shoot ? We are forced by experience, though often miconsciously, to believe 
in continuity as to aU effects noAV taking place ; if any one of them be ano- 
malous we endeavour, by tracing its history and concomitant circumstances, 
to find its cause, i. e. to relate it to antecedent phenomena ; are we then to 
reject similar inquu-ies as to the past ? is it laudable to seek an explanation 
of present changes by observation, experiment, and analogy, and yet repre- 
hensible to apply the same mode of investigation to the past history of the 
earth and of the organic remains embalmed in it ? 

If we disbelieve in sudden creations of matter or force, in the sudden 
formations of complex organisms now, if we now assign to the heat of 
the sun an action enabHng vegetables to live by assimilating gases and amor- 
phous earths into growing structures, why should such effects not have taken 
place in earher periods of the world's history, when the sun shone as now, 
and when the same materials existed for his rays to fall upon ? 

If we are satisfied that continuity is a law of nature, the true exjiression 
of the action of Almighty Power, then, though we may humbly confess our 
inability to explain why matter is impressed with this tendency to gradual 
structural formation, we should cease to look for special interventions of 
creative power in changes which are difficult to understand, because, being 
removed from us in time, their concomitants are lost ; we should endeavour 
from the relics to evoke their history, and when we find a gap not try to 
bridge it over with a miracle. 

If it be tnie that continuity pervades all physical phenomena, the doctrine 
applied by Cuvier to the relations of the different parts of an animal to each 
other might be capable of great extension. All the phenomena of inorganic 
and organized matter might be expected to be so inter-related that the study 
of an isolated phenomenon would lead to a knowledge of numerous other phe- 
nomena with which it is connected. As the antiquary deduces from a monolith 
the tools, the arts, the habits, and epoch of those by whom it is wrought, so 
the student of science may deduce from a spark of electricity or a ray of light 
the source whence it is generated ; and by similar processes of reasoning other 
phenomena hitherto unknown may be deduced from their probable relation 
with the known. But, as with heat, light, magnetism, and electricity, though 
we may study the phenomena to which these names have been given, and 
their mutual relations, we know nothing of what they are ; so, whether we 
adopt the view of natural selection, of effort, of plasticity, &c., we know not 
why organisms shoidd have this nisus formativus, or why the acquired habit 
or exceptional quality of the individual shoixld reappear in the offspring. 



IXXX REPORT 1866. 

PhilosojAy ought to have no likes or dislikes, truth is her only aim ; hut if 
a glow of admiration be permitted to a phj'sical inquirer, to my mind a far 
more exquisite sense of the beautiful is conveyed by the orderly development, 
by the necessary inter-relation and inter-action of each element of the cosmos, 
and by the conviction that a bullet falling to the ground changes the dyna- 
mical couditions of the viniverse, than can he conveyed by mysteries, by con- 
vulsions, or by cataclysms. 

The sense of understanding is to the educated more gratifying than the 
love of the marvcUous, though the latter need never be wanting to the nature- 
seeker. 

But the doctrine of continuity is not solely applicable to physical inquiries. 

The same modes of thought which lead us to see continuity in the field of 
the microscope as in the universe, in infinity downwards as in infinity up- 
wards, will lead us to see it in the history of our own race ; the revolu- 
tionary ideas of the so-caUed natural rights of man, and « priori reason- 
ing from what are termed first principles, are far more unsound and 
give us far less ground for improvement of the race tliau the study of the 
gradual progressive changes arising from changed circumstances, clianged 
wants, changed habits. Our language, our social institutions, our laws, tlio 
constitution of which we are proud, are the growth of time, the product of 
slow adaptations, resulting from continuous struggles. Ilappilj- in this 
country, practical experience has taught us to improve rather than to remo- 
del ; we follow the law of nature and avoid cataclysms. 

The superiority of Man over other animals inhabiting this planet, of civi- 
lized over savage man, and of the more civihzed over the less civilized, is 
proportioned to the extent which his thought can grasj) of the past and of the 
future. His memory reaches further back, his cai^ability of prediction reaches 
further forward in proportion as his knowledge increases. He has not only 
personal memory which brings to his mind at will the events of liis indivi- 
dual life, — he has history, the memory of the race ; he has geology, the his- 
tory of the planet ; he has astronomy, the geology of other worlds. "Whence 
does the conviction to which I have alluded, that each material form bears 
in itself the records of its past history, arise? Is it not from the belief in 
continuity ? Does not the worn hollow on the rock record the action of the 
tide, its stratified layers the slow deposition by which it was formed, the 
organic remains imbedded in it the beings living at the times these layers 
were deposited, so that from a fragment of stone we can get the history of 
a period myriads of years ago ? From a fragment of bronze we may get the 
history of our race at a period antecedent to tradition. As science advances 
our power of reading this history improves and is extended. Saturn's ring 
may help us to a knowledge of how our solar system developed itself, for it 
as surely contains that history as the rock contains the record of its own 
formation. 

By this patient investigation how much have we already learned, which 
the most civilized of ancient human races ignored ! While in ethics, in 
politics, in poetry, in sculpture, in painting, we have scarcelj-, if at all, 
advanced beyond the highest intellects of ancient Greece or Italj% how great 
are the steps we have made in physical science and its applications ! 

But how much more may we not expect to know ? 

We, this evening assembled. Ephemera as we are, have learned by trans- 
mitted laboiir, to weigh, as in a balance, other worlds larger and heavier than 
our own, to know the lengtli of their days and years, to measure their enor- 
mous distance from us and from each other, to detect and accurately ascertain 




ADOKESS. Ixxxi 

the influence they have on the movements of our world and on each other, 
and to discover the substances of which they are composed ; may we not 
fairly hope that similar methods of reseai-ch to those which have taught us so 
much may give our race further information, until problems relating not 
only to remote worlds, but possibly to organic and sentient beings which may 
inhabit them, problems which it might now seem wildly visionary to enunciate, 
may be solved by progressive improvements in the modes of applying obser- 
vation and experiment, induction and deduction ? 

NOTES AND REPEEENCES. 
Page. 

hi. Herschel, Sir J. Astronomical Observations at the Cape of Good Hope, 
1847. 
RossE^ Earl of. Observations on the Nebulae, Phil. Trans. 1850, p. 499. 

BltAYLEY. ^ "" " "* ■ "' "■ 

I860, p. 

SoRBY. rijidem, 

Ivii. Olmsted. SUliman's Journal, July 1834, p." 138. The first suggestion ol 
a perspective vanishing-point for meteors seems to be due to Prof. Thom- 
son of Nashville. 

Herschel, ^\xexander. Eeports of the Meteor Committee of the British 
Association. 

Leverrier. Intramercurial Planets. Comptes Rendus, Paris. 1861, p. 
1109. > > > i^ 

Daubree. Comptes Rendus, Paris, 1866. Bulletin de la Soci6t^ Gt5olo- 
gique de France, Mars 1860. 
Iviii. PLiJCKER. Variation of Spectrum Lines with Temperature, Phil. Trans 
1865, p. 6. 
lix. HuGGEsrs and Miller. Spectra of Fixed Stars, Phil. Trans. 1864, p. 41.3. 
Spectrimi of Temporary Star, Proc. Roy. Soc. No. 84, 1866. 
HuGGiNS. Spectrum of Comet I., 1866, Proc. Roy. Soc. No. 80, 1866. 
Ix. Chacobnac on the Moon. Comptes Rendus, Paris, June 1866, p. 1406, 
&c. 
Ixii. RuMFOBD. Heat of Friction, Phil. Trans. 1798, p. 80. 
Davy'. Ibidem. West of England Contributions, p. 18. 
Joule. Phil. Mag. 1843 ; PhU. Trans. 1850. 
Lxiii. Sabine. Magnetism and Solar Spots, Proc. Roy. Soc. 1865, p. 491. 
Airy. On Solar Magnetism, Phil. Trans. 1863, pp. 313 & 646. ' 
Chambers. Idem, Phil. Trans. 1863, pp. 514-516. 
Mayer. Friction of Tidal Wave. See his papers collected and translated 

by Youman, New York, 1865. 
Delaunay. Acceleration of Moon's Motion, Comptes Rendus, Paris 
December 1865, January 1866. ' 

Airy. Idem, Notices Roy. Ast. Soc. April 13, 1866. 
Carrington. Observations on Spots on the Sun, 1863. 
De la Rue, Stewart, and Loewy. Idem, 1865. 

Faye. On the Dynamic Theory of Solar Heat, Comptes Rendus, Paris 
October 1862, p. 564. Constitution of Sun, Motion of Sun Spots, &c.' 
Comptes Rendus, Paris, January 1866, &c. ' 

Ixiv. Struve. Etudes d'Astronomie Stellaire, 1847. The passage in the text 
is so brief as to be obscure. See the idea elaborated, CoiTelation of Phy- 
sical Forces, 1867, p. 187. ^ 
See Con-. Phys. Forces, p. 84. 

Rerthelot. Formate of Potash, Institut, 1864, p. 332. 
Ixv. Tyndall. On Radiant Heat, Phil. Mag. November 1864 ; Phil. Trans. 
1866. 
Graham. Dialysis of Air, Phil. Trans. 1866, p. 399. 
Wilde. Increase of Magneto-electric Force, Proc. Roy. Soc. April 1866 
p. 107. ' 

1866. f 



Ixxxii . REPORT — 18G6. 

Page. 
Ixv. HoLZ. New Electrical Machine, Pogg. Annalen, 1805, pt. 1. p. 157. 
Ixvi. Carpentkh. Food and Force. Physiology, Treatise on. 
P>ENCK Jones. Idem, Proc. Roy. Inst. March 2.3, 1866. 
Playfair. Idem, Proc. Roy. lustit. April 28, 1865. 
E. Smith. Idem, Phil. Trans. 1861, p. 747. 
Fraxkland. Idem, Proc. Roy. Instit. 1866. 
Traube. Idem, Virchow's Ai-chiv, vol. xxiii. p. 196, &c. 
FiCK and Wislicenus. Idem, Phil. Mag. June 1866, Supplement. 
Ixvii. Lavoisier. QEuvres, vol. ii. p. 640. 

Ansted. Intellectual Obsener, August 1864. 
Ixviii. Ramsay. Addresses to the Geological Society, 186.3 nnd 1864. 

Herschel, Sir J. Geological effects of Variation in Earth's Orbit, Trans. 
Geol. Soc. 2nd Series, vol. iii. p. 295. Outlines of Astronomy, 1864, 
pp. 2;3.3-235. 
Croll. Idem, Phil. Mag. August 1864, and April 1866. 
Ixx. Pasteur and Pouchet. On Spontaneous Generation, Comptes Rendus, 

Paris, 1863 to 1865. 
Ixxi. Child. Proc. Roy. Soc. 1865, p. 178. 
Ixxiii. Carpenter. On Foraminifera, Phil. Trans. 1856, p. 227 ; 1860, p. 584. 
H. Bates. Butterflies of South America, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. 
p. 495. 
Ixxiv. Wallace. Butterflies of the Malay Archipelago, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. 
XXV. p. 1. 
Walsh. Proc. Entom. Soc. Philadelphia, 1864, p. 403. 
Fritz MiVller. Fiir Darwin, Leipzig, 1864 ; Annals and Magazine of Na- 
tural History, 1865. 
Lubbock. Diving Hymenoptera, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiv. p. 135. 
Logan. Eozoon. Communication to the Britit:h Association at Batli, 

1864. 
A. De Candolle. Yariabilitv in Oaks, &c., Bibl. Univ. de Geneve, No- 
vember 1862. 
Hooker. On Oaks, Trans. Linn. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 381. On Arctic Flora, 
Trans. Limi. Soc. vol. xxiii. p. 251. 
Ixxviii. Darwin. Origin of Species through Natural Selection, 1866, in which see 
also Dr. McDonnell's results. 
Huxley. Address to the Geological Society, 21st February, 1862. 
Lyell. Antiquity of Man, 1863. 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OE SCIENCE. 



Second Report of the Committee for Exploring Kent's Cave^'n, Devon- 
shire. The Committee consisting of Sir Charles Lyell^ Bart., 
Professor Phillips, Sir John Luhisock, Bart., Mr. John Evans, 
Mr. Edwakd Vivian, and Mr. William Pengelly (Reporter). 

In tlie Pirst Report of the Committee, presented to the Association at tlie 
Meeting held at Eirmingham in 1865, it was stated that Kent's Hole is 
situated in a small limestone hill about a mile eastward from Torquay 
harbour ; that though it has been known from time immemorial, it did not 
attract the attention of scientific inquii-ers until the year 1824 ; that it was 
partially explored by the Ecv. Mr. M'Enery from 1825 to 1829, by Mr. 
Godwin -Austen prior to 1840, and by the Torquay Natural History Society in 
184G; and that all the explorers had been vmanimous in stating that they 
found flint "implements," undoubtedly of human origin, mixed up with 
remains of extinct animals, in the ordinarj- cave-earth, beneath the floor of 
stalagmite. 

Having briefly narrated the circumstances which led to the exploration of 
the cavern under the auspices of the British Assoieation, the Committee pro- 
ceeded to state that they had selected for the commencement of their 
researches the large Chamber into which the most southerly of the two 
external entrances opens, having been guided in their selection by the acces- 
sibility of the Chamber, and by the indispensable fact that the deposits it 
contained were certainly intact; that these deposits were, in descending 
order — 1st, huge blocks of limestone which had fallen from the roof, and 
some of which were estimated to weigh 7 tons each ; 2nd, black mould or 
mud, varying from '6 to upwards of 12 inches in thickness, and lying 
between and beneath the limestone blocks ; 3rd, a stalagmitic floor, gra- 
duating downwards into a firm stony breccia, and averaging at least a foot 
in thickness; 4th, reddish ochreous loam, or "cave-earth," of unknown 
depth, having incorporated within it a large number of angular fragments of 

1866. 3J 



2 REPORT — 1866. 

limestone lying- confusedly without anything like an approach to stratification 
or symmetrical arrangement ; that blocks of limestone almost as large as those 
overljdng the deposits were met with everywhere in the black mould, in the 
floor of stalagmite, and in the cave-earth ; that though the stalagmite was 
everywhere firmly attached to the walls, a few instances occurred in which it 
did not extend quite across the Chamber, but that even in these exceptional 
cases the line of demarcation between the black mould and the cave-earth was 
sharp and well defined, there being no example of the commingling of the 
two ; and that the presence of a calcareous drip was more or less traceable 
throughout the cave-earth. 

They then described, somewhat in detail, the mode of exploration which 
had been followed uniformly from the beginning, and which rendered it easy 
to define accurately the position of every object of interest which had been 
met with, — that is to say, its distance in feet from the entrance of the 
Chamber ; its distance in yards, right or left, from a " datum " line crossing 
the middle of the Chamber from the entrance to the back wall ; and its 
depth in feet below the base of the stalagmite, to the extent of 4 feet, 
beyond w^hich the excavation had not been carried. 

Proceeding to a very general, but by no means exhaustive description of 
the contents of the various deposits, they stated that in the black mould 
were found numerous well-rounded pebbles, consisting of various kinds 
of rock, and probably derived from the neighbo\iring beaches ; whet- 
stones ; pieces of slate, some of which w^ere wrought into curvilineal shapes ; 
a spoon, a fibiila, a socketed celt, and other articles in bronze ; a large frag- 
ment of a plate of smelted copper ; numerous pieces of pottery which, though 
including one bit of Samian ware, were generally of a somewhat coarse 
character ; a comb, a spoon, a chisel, and other objects formed of bone ; 
spindle-whorls of various kinds of stone ; a few flint-flakes ; charred wood ; 
bones of various animals, such as the pig, deer, sheep, badger, fox, hare, 
rabbit, small Rodents, bat, birds, and diff'erent kinds of fish; shells of diff'erent 
species of Helix, as well as of many of the marme forms common on the 
coast; and hazel-nuts, generally perforated at one end. That the few 
remains yielded by the stalagmitic floor included charred wood, land and 
marine shells, and bones of various animals — all probably of existing species. 
That from the cave-earth had been exhumed a very large number of bones 
of Hyana sjjelcea, Felis spela'a, Ursus s^eJceus, Rhinoceros tichorliinus, EJejphas 
ITiimigeniiis, Fox, probably more than one species of Horse, and several species 
of Deer ; that those of the Hyaena were the most numerous, after which, 
those of the Horse and llhinoceros were, perhaps, about equally abundant ; 
that the remains of the Mammoth were those of very young individuals* ; 
that many of the bones occurred as fragments and mere splinters ; that a large 
number of them were scored with the teeth-marks of various kinds of animals; 
that some of the long bones were split longitudinally ; that some of those 
found beneath the large blocks of limestone were in a crushed condition ; 
that most of them were of a chalk-lilce whiteness, a few only being dis- 
colom-ed ; and that they were all of greater specific gravity than those found 
in the black mould. That lumps made up of cave-earth, small stones, com- 
minuted bone, and matter of probably fajcal origin were numerous and widely 
distributed. That, rejecting doubtful specimens and mere chips, nearly thirty 
flint " implements " had been found in the undisturbed cave-earth, under 

* Some of the teeth, &c., of Elephas prmi^cnius found in the cavern by the early 
explorers belonged to funy-growii animals. 



ON Kent's cavern, Devonshire. 3 

precisely the same conditions as the bones of the extinct animals with which 
they lay ; that, with the exception of three, they were all of the kind deno- 
minated flakes, the excepted specimens being wrought to an edge all round 
their perimeters ; that, like the bones, they were least numerous in the first 
foot below the stalagmite ; and that those most elaborately wrought were 
found in the third and fourth foot-levels — the greatest depth to which the 
excavation had been carried. 

In conclusion, the Committee stated that, unlike Mr. M'Enery, they had 
not succeeded in finding the remains of MacJiairodus latUIens or of Hipj)0])0- 
tamus major, nor had they detected any part of the human skeleton either 
in the cave-earth or in the overlying black mould, but that with these 
exceptions they had confirmed aU the statements of the early explorers. 

During the twelve months which have elapsed since the First lleport, just 
recapitulated, was drawn up, the Committee have carried on their labours 
■without interruption, the Superintendents have continued to visit the cavern 
daily, the original rigorous methods of excavation and examination have been 
itniformly followed, the results of each day's labour have been carefully 
registered, and at the commencement of every month a lieport of progress 
has been forwarded to Sir Charles Lyell, the Chairman of the Committee. 

The selected Chamber has been completely explored to the depth of 4 feet 
below the stalagmite. It measures about 62 feet from east to west, and 
something more than 30 from north to south. The limestone floor has been 
reached in several places, but elsewhere the deposits descend through wide 
fissures to probably considerable depths, and there is reason to believe that 
beneath the limestone there arc extensive undervaultings. 

In the inner or back wall of the Chamber, almost due west from the 
entrance, the workmen laid open the mouth of a Gallery, about 16 feet wide 
and extending westward for a distance of 29 feet, where it suddenly tei'mi- 
nates in a mere sht in the limestone rock. This Gallery has also been exca- 
vated in the same manner and to the same depth as the Chamber. 

A comparatively narrow passage leads out of the Chamber northwards, 
and must be traversed in proceeding, within the cavern, from one of the 
external entrances to the other. Mr. M'Enery termed it the " Passage of 
Urns," on account of the large amount of broken pottery which he there 
found in the black mould above the stalagmite. Since the completion of the 
exploration of the Gallery, the workmen have been occupied in excavating 
this Passage, a work now almost completed. 

AU the investigations of the Committee have been carried on in virgin 
ground. iN'o traces of the earlier researches have been encountered, the 
deposits being everywhere indubitably intact. 

Several blocks of limestoiie overlying the black mould have been met with 
in the Chamber and the Passage of Urns. Some of them were of great size, 
and one greatly surpassed the largest of those mentioned in the First Report. 
It measured 19| feet long, 9 feet broad, and 2| thick, or upwards of 430 
cubic feet ; so that its weight must have exceeded 30 tons. In order to the 
removal of this huge mass, it was necessary to blast it five times, each blast 
being very successful. 

From their characters and positions, as well as from the condition of the 
roof, it is obvious that, from time to time, the blocks were severed naturally 
from the limestone strata, perhaps by the action of acidulated water along 
planes of jointage, such planes being prevalent and well defined in the 

b2 



4 REPORT — 1866. 

Devonian rocks of the district generally. No such masses were found on the 
floor of the Gallerj'. 

The overlying black mould previously mentioned was found everywhere 
both in the Chamber and in the Passage of Urns; but not in the Gallery, except 
quite at the entrance, where there was a mere trace. It has continued to 
yield a large series of such articles as were mentioned in the First Report, 
few of which require to be particularized. The most interesting additions to 
the collection from tliis deposit are a series of spindle-whorls, a polishing 
stone, and a portion of a cake of smelted copper. 

The whorls are six in number, and, unlike any of tliose mentioned in the 
First lleport, are all formed of slate. Four of them are highly finished, and 
two are somewhat elaborately ornamented, but in different styles or patterns. 
No two of them are of the same size. The ornamented two were found lying 
together. Mr. Franks, of the liritisli Museum, to whom they have been sub- 
mitted, states that " the pattern on one of them resembles that on British 
pottery." 

The " polishing stone " is a quadrantal fragment of an oblate spheroidal 
pebble of fine-grained qnartzite, probably derived, directly or indirectly, from 
the famous " pebblc-bcd " occurring in the Triassic cliff immediately west of 
Budleigh 8altcrton, about thirteen miles nortli-casterly from tlie cavern. One 
of the flattened or polar surfaces, and also one of those at right angles to it, 
formed by the fracture of the stone, have undergone a considerable amount of 
artificial polish, as if they had been used in grinding, sharpening, or polish- 
ing. The stone was found under a large block of limestone, measuring 18 
inches in thickness, and cemented with stalagmite to other such blocks. 

The piece of copper difl'ers from that mentioned in the Fii'st Ecport only in 
being smaller. 

Some of the pottery found recently is so rotten as scarcely to hear handling, 
and when placed in water it resolves itself into a coarse mud. 

As has been already observed, it was stated in the Eeport sent in last year 
that in a few instances the floor of stalagmite did not extend quite across 
the Chamber. Tliesc gaps entirely ceased at about 42 feet from the external 
entrance, so that in the innermost 20 feet of the Chamber, as well as through- 
out the entire GaUery, stalagmite occurred everywhere in unbroken continuity. 
Its level, however, instead of being uniformly the same, was, on the southern 
side of the Chamber, invariably somewhat lower than on the northern side. 
In other words, immediately in front or east of the Gallery, it suddenly sank 
below the general level which it attained elsewhere ; but was, nevertheless, 
perfectly continuous with that which covered the other parts of the Chamber, 
without any indication of a line of fracture or severance. The Gallery pos- 
sessed two such floors, or, as they were termed by way of distinction, a " floor" 
and a "ceiling." The former or lowermost, like that elsewhere, rested 
immediately on the red cave-earth, and towards its base gradually became 
a strong breccia. It varied from 3 inches to upwards of 2 feet in thickness, 
and was strictly a continuation of that part of the floor of the Chamber with 
Avhich it was directly connected, and of which it was the immediate prolon- 
gation — that part, in f;ict, just stated to have been somewhat below the 
common level. The " ceiling," or uppermost floor, was of greater thiclcness. 
It extended from wall to wall across the Gallery without further support than 
that furnished by its own inherent cohesion. Its level was that of the general 
or comparatively high floor of the Chamber of which it was a continuation. 
Indeed a vertical north and south section through it showed that, at the 



ON KEXT S CAVERN, DEVONSHIRE. 5 

northern side of the mouth of the Gallery, the floor of the Chamber bifurcated 
and became two distinct floors, one above the other, and separated by an inter- 
space which varied from 6 inches to nearly 4 feet in height — the uppermost 
being the " ceiling," on the common level ; the lowermost the " floor," on the 
level of the depressed portion in the southern part of the Chamber. 

Immediately above the " ceUing " there is in the limestone rock a consider- 
able alcove. This branch of the cavern, therefore, is divided into three stories 
or flats — that below the " floor," occupied with cave-earth ; that between the 
" floor " and " cciHng," entirely unoccupied ; and that above the " ceiling," 
also without deposit of any kind. 

The nether surface of the "ceiling" is of a beautifully stainless cream- 
colour, and sends do^vn a profusion of small stalactites. When fii'st disclosed, 
the " ceiling " was siipposed to be a stratum of limestone in situ, completely 
invested with a mere fllm of stalagmite. In order to determine its true 
character, several holes were bored through it, when it was found to bo 
exclusively stalagmite throughout — granular and comparatively soft in the 
upper part, but highly crystalline towards the base. 

The origin of this mass is not a little puzzling ; for whUst on the one hand 
it seems necessary to suppose that it was formed on a basis, either of lime- 
stone i)i situ or of dctrital matter mechanically accumulated ; on the other, 
it is difficult to understand how this basis could have been removed so com- 
pletely as to leave behind no trace of stone or bone. Sueili " ceilings " occur 
iji the famous Brixham Cavern on the opposite shore of Torbay, but to their 
lower surfaces there cling numerous stony and other relics of the deposits on 
which they were moulded. After a careful study of the case, the Superin- 
tendents of the exploration incline to the opinion that the "ceiling" was 
formed as a floor on a deposit of fine earth which once filled the Gallery to 
the necessary height, or, in other words, to the prevalent level of the deposit 
in the adjacent Chamber; that this deposit, either by a considerable sub- 
sidence or by being washed out, was completely detached from the floor which 
overlay it ; and that subsequently a second and lower floor was formed in the 
GaUery, and additions were made to both the upper and the lower sm'faees 
of the " ceiling" or first floor. In support of this opinion, it may be stated 
that the cream-coloured stalagmite forming the lower surface of the " ceiling," 
instead of being characteristic of the entire mass, is but a sort of " veneer," 
nowhere more than an inch thick. On being stripped off it is found that, 
both in texture and in colour, it is strongly contrasted with the material to 
which it was attached. The newly exposed sui-face, and the surface only, 
has the exact colour of the cave- earth ; in fact it is soil-stained, and thus har- 
monizes well with the hypothesis. Again, the abruptly truncated character of 
its eastern end or commencement renders it not improbable that the " ceil- 
ing " is a remnant of a floor which formerly extended eastward into the 
Chamber, but which has there partially perished. Further, that a floor has 
been destroyed, either wholly or partially, is conclusively proved by the fact 
that a large number of fragments of stalagmite were met with, incorporated 
in the existing floor and also in the cave-earth below, both in the Chamber 
and in the Gallery. 

In each branch of the cavern yet explored, bones of various animals and 
pieces of charred wood have been found in the stalagmite, but by no means 
abimdantly. They have always been met with towards the base of the floor, 
and generally in the brecciated portion of it. The statement made in the First 
Report, that perhaps none of the animals represented in the stalagmite were 



6 REPORT 1866. 

extiuct, must be abandoned ; for several teetb of Jlycena spelcua, Rhinoceros 
tichorhinus, and a species of Bear, probably Ursiis spelceus, have occurred in 
it within the last twelve months, and, with one exception, all of them in the 
" floor " of the GaUery — a fact of considerable interest in connexion with the 
hypothesis that this floor is more modern than that found in the greater part 
of the Chamber. 

The ordinary red cave-earth, with a plentiful admixture of angular frag- 
ments and blocks of limestone, has been met with everywhere beneath the 
stalagmite. Nowhere has there been the least approach to stratification or 
a symmetrical arrangement of materials. Nor has an instance occurred of 
the black mould beneath the floor, or of its being commingled with the red 
loam. In some localities the earth has been more, and in others less, abun- 
dant than the stones. Indeed, in a very considerable portion of the Passage 
of Urns the former was found very sparingly, the accumulation being almost 
entirely small pieces and blocks of limestone lying loosely together. In such 
cases the stalagmitic matter had occasionally infiltered between the stones to 
a depth of from 1 to 2 feet, or even more, below its general level. Besides the 
pieces of limestone, the red earth also contained fragments of rock neither 
derivable from the cavern hiU nor, with the existing surface-configuration of 
the district, capable of being carried into the cavern by natural agency. None 
of them were angular, and most of them were weU rounded. A veiy large 
proportion of them were pieces of diff"ercnt varieties of Devonian schistose 
grit, prevalent in the district, and found in situ in Lincombe Hill, which, 
immediately on the south-west, rises to the height of 372 feet above mean tide, 
or upwards of 180 feet above the cavern entrances. Quartz -pebbles are also 
more or less abundant, and, no doubt, were derived, commonly, from the vein- 
stones which traverse the grits just mentioned. Amongst them, however, 
there are one or two which, from the peculiarly vitreous aspect of the quartz, 
Avere probablyderived from the ciystalline schists composing the southern angle 
of Devonshire, and which, at their nearest approach, at the Start Point, are 
upwards of fifteen miles from the cavern. Nor are these the only examples 
of distantly derived materials, for weU-rolled flints are by no means rare, and 
several examples of granitoid and other Dartmoor rocks have been met with. 
Many of these fragments are too small to have served any useful purpose, so 
that there is no probability of their having been selected by man. With the 
exception of such as occur on the recent, as well as the raised, beaches on 
the adjoining coasts, and occasionally in " pockets " and fissures in the lime- 
stone hiUs, the nearest locality in which flints are found in situ is Milbern 
Down, about five mUes distant, where, overlying beds of greensand, is a con- 
siderable accumulation of supracretaceous gravel, mainly composed of flint and 
Dartmoor detritus. There can be no doubt that the granitoid pebbles found 
in the cavern were primarily derived from Dartmoor, which, where nearest, 
is at a distance of not less than twelve miles. It is possible, however, that 
these, and the rolled flint and fragments of vitreous quartz also, are relics of 
gravel once widely spread over south-eastern Devonshire, and of which that 
on Milbern Down, already mentioned, is the nearest existing remnant. 

The uniform depth of foiu- feet below the base of the stalagmite, to which 
the excavation of the cave-earth has been carried, by no means extends 
everj^where to one and the same level. The lowest level reached is in the 
GaUery, where the deposit presents some peculiar features. Whilst the first 
and second foot-levels consisted of the ordinary red earth with the usual ad- 
mixture of angular fragments of limestone, the third and fourth feet, though 



UN Kent's cavurn^ Devonshire. 7 

not quite destitute of the red loam, were to a very large extent made up of 
the debris of the schistose grit, in the form of sand, small angular flakes, and 
pebbles occasionally 3 inches in diameter. 

As already stated, a large number of fragments of stalagmite were found 
embedded in the cave-earth. The first presented itself in the Chamber, at 
about 40 feet from the external entrance; and from tliis j^oint inwards to the 
extremity of the Gallery they were more or less abundant. In the Chamber 
they occurred chiefly, but not exclusively, in that southern portion of which 
the Galleiy may be regarded as the direct prolongation ; in other words, in 
that part where, if anywhere, the original ' stalagmitic floor had been de- 
stroyed and replaced by a more modern one. Some of these masses were of 
great size, occasionally .^measui-ing 5 feet long, 4 broad, and 4 deep, or 80 
cubic feet. They were generally composed of distinct laminae of highly 
crystalline prisms, having their longest axes at right angles to the plane of 
lamination. In one or two instances only were there any stony fragments 
incorporated within, or attached to, them. In the Gallery they were confined 
to the upper 2 feet of the deposit, but in the Chamber they occupied aU 
levels alike. Portions of stalactite were also frequently met with. An 
interesting case of this occurred at about 4 feet from the innermost end 
of the Gallery, where, within the first foot below the fioor, there lay a fine 
slab of old stalagmite, having incorporated vdthin it a fallen fragment of a 
conical pendant of stalactite, measuring 4 inches in diameter. Such ex- 
amples are wonderfully calculated to convince the observer that the time 
during which the cave-earth was accumulated, though probably very pro- 
tracted, was but a small portion of that represented by the entii'e history of 
the cavern. The case just mentioned takes the mind back to a time when a 
large stalactite, broken from the roof where it had slowly grown, fell on a 
floor of stalagmite which, in process of sealing up a subjacent deposit of de- 
trital matter, had attained the thickness of about an inch. The fallen mass 
lay undisturbed where it fell, until the floor, increasing gradually, and with 
periods of intermittence, to the thickness of 7 inches, succeeded in in- 
vesting it completely. Subsequently, but how long cannot be determined, 
the floor was brolten up by natural causes, and many of its fragments were 
embedded in a new deposit. One of the broken masses, containing the 
stalactite previously mentioned, was lodged in a comparatively narrow branch 
of the cavern, and covered with about a foot of cave-earth. Over this accu- 
mulation was formed a new floor of stalagmite, in which lay teeth of Ifyceiia 
sjyelcea, Rhinoceros tichorhinus, and a species of bear. After this floor was 
completed, a comparatively black muddy soil, averaging a foot in thickness, 
was introduced. 

Though a large number of bones have been found since the First Report was 
drawn up, they are by no means abundant everywhere. Thus remarkably 
few were met with in the third and fourth foot-levels in the Gallery ; in 
other words, they were almost cntiiely absent in that part of the deposit in 
which cave-earth was but sparingly present. This is not ascribable to the 
comparatively contracted character of the Gallery, or the distance from 
the external entrances, for in the two upper feet they occurred in average 
abundance ; indeed the last spadeful of true red loam found in the Gallery 
contained a fine canine of Hijcemi spelcea. Again, in the Passage of Urns, 
near, and lying between, the two external entrances of the cavern, where, as 
has been stated, the deposit was almost exclusively made up of loose angular 
fragments of limestone, there were but few bones, and the few which did 



8 REPORT — 1866. 

occur lay in tlic small patclies of cave-earth -wliicli here and there, chiefly in 
the lowest level, presented themselves. In sliort, though they occurred 
almost exclusively in the higher levels of the Gallery and the lowest of the 
Passa"e, in both they were found only -where the cave-earth was found. 
Where the latter is present, but not elsewhere, bones may -with considerable 
confidence be looked for. 

"Very many of the long bones have been split longitudinally, and, so far as 
is known, all the bones thus split, as well as many others, are distinctly scored 
Avith teeth-marks — probably those of the hyajna chiefly. It is difficult to 
suiipose, either a priori or from an examination of them, that less than human 
agency could have so divided them, and it is obvious that unless they were 
gnawed soon after they were riven, they would scarcely be Avorth gnawing at 
aU. 

So far as is at present known, the labours of the last twelve months have 
failed to add a new species to the list of animals given in the First lleport. 
llemains of Ilyajna still preponderate : the Horse and Ehinoceros are pro- 
bably next in prevalence ; no bones of either Maohairodus, Hippopotamus, or 
Man have yet been met with ; and, with one exception, the elephantoid relics 
are those of small individuals. Three teeth of Elephant, probably EJcphas 
^rrimiqenius, arc remarkable for their diminutiveness, even when compared 
with the smallest of those mentioned last year. Indeed one of them is no 
more than eight-tenths of an inch long. The others are somewhat larger, 
but are interesting from being peculiarly narrow in proportion to their 
lengths, and from their plates standing out in prominent ridges on the lateral 
surfaces. They were all found in the fourth or lowest level, but in three 
distinct parallels. 

Flint " implements " have been found in every branch of the cavern yet 
explored — the Chamber, the Galleiy, and the Passage of Urns. In the last 
they were just as numerous as in the other branches, occurring amongst the 
loose stones, where bones failed to present themselves. 

Omitting mere chips and very inferior specimens, upwards of 70 " imple- 
ments " have been found since the First lleport was drawn up, making, 
with those mentioned last year, something more than 100 specimens since the 
commencement of the exploration. About one-third of this total were met 
with in each of the first and second foot-levels below the stalagmite, and 
something more than one-sixth in the third foot. In short, up to this time, 
each level has been rather less productive than those above it — a statement 
differing from the corresponding one of last year. 

The " implements " are divisible into three classes : — 

1st. Mere ^rt/rf 3, probably struck off in making the more finished tools, but 
which, no doubt, would, from their sharp edges, be eminently useful for cut- 
ting or scraping. 

2nd. Lanceolate " implements," pointed at one end and truncated at the 
other. 

3rd. Oval " implements," convex on both sides, and worked to an edge all 
round the margin. 

The largest specimen of the first class is nearly 5 inches long, and 
in greatest breadth and thickness measures 2| inches and 1 inch 
respectively. It is a portion of a nodule of coarse-grained light-grey flint, 
and in one part retains the original unfractured surface. As in the case of 
several others of the same class, its edges are so sharj) and uninjured as to 
render it in the highest degree probable that it was struck off in the cavern, 



ON Kent's caa^ern^ Devonshire. 9 

and had neither heen used, nor exposed to the rolling or abrading action of 
Avater in motion. It was found in the Chamhcr, 53 feet from the external 
entrance, in the fourth foot-level below the stalagmite, which was from 12 
to 15 inches thick and extended uninterruptedly for considerable distances 
in every direction. 

The lanceolate " implements " are of two kinds — round-pointed and sharp- 
pointed. They are widest near the posterior extremity, and one surface has 
usually a central longitudinal ridge or keel, whilst the other is flat, or concave 
lengthwise, but which, whether Hat or concave, appears almost invariably to 
liave been produced at a single stroke. Of the round-pointed variety, a well- 
formed specimen was found in the Chamber, 46 feet from the entrance, in the 
upper part of the first level or foot of cave-earth, immediately below the 
stalagmite, which, at this part, was from one and a half to three feet thick. 
It measures about two inches long, and three-quarters of an inch broad ; it 
is strongly carinated on one side, and longitudinally concave on the other. 
A second and still finer " implement " measures nearly three and a half 
inches long, rather more than one inch in greatest breadth, and four-tenths 
of an inch thick. It diifers from the former in a few particulars. The cen- 
tral longitudinal ridge, at about an inch and a half from the hinder end, 
bifurcates symmetrically as if a small flake had been struck oft'. Hence the 
carinated side has three distinct surfaces, each of which is very slightlj- con- 
cave. There are several small facets, each produced, no doubt, by a separate 
and wcU-directed gentle stroke on the rounded anterior extremity, which 
seems too thick to render it probable that the "implement" could have been 
intended to be iised as a spear-head. Eut for these facets, the "implement," 
though beautifully and very symmetrically shaped, appears to have required no 
more than four strokes for its formation ; but in order to do this, the fracture 
must in each case have been remarkably clean. Indeed the beautiful smooth- 
ness by which all the surfaces are characterized suggests a doubt as to whether 
it may not have been produced by some degree of polishing. The small facets, 
however, are perhaps scarcely in keeping with this hypothesis. Its posterior 
extremity is not sharply truncated, but somewhat irregular, and both its 
lateral margins are slightly broken. It was found very near the centre of 
the Chamber, 2 feet deep in the red earth, and having over it a thick floor 
of stalagmite. Like the specimen previouslj- described, it is formed of very 
fine-grained flint of a light cream-colour. On one side it is longitudinally 
concave. 

The " implements " belonging to the second variety differ from these not 
only in being sharp-pointed, but in tapering more rapidly near the anterior 
extremity, in terminating in a thinner point, near which the keel, instead of 
being rectilineal, is gently curved, and the lateral margins, instead of being 
symmetrical, are one slightly convex and the other concave, conforming, in 
fact, to the deflection of the central ridge. In one specimen there are, on the 
flat side and near the point, several very small marginal facets. This fine 
" implement," or rather portion of one, is of whitened flint. It was found in 
the Chamber, 48 feet from the entrance, in the third level, beneath a thick 
floor of stalagmite. 

Amongst the lanceolate " implements " there is one sharply truncated at 
both ends, the point probably having been broken off. It is 3 inches long, 
but when entire must have measured another inch ; its greatest width some- 
what exceeds 1 inch. The flat side has been produced by a series of blows, 
and suggests the ideas that the stroke which detached the "implement" 



10 REPORT — 1866. 

from the flint core left this a somewhat irregular surface ; that a near approxi- 
mation to flatness, and especially smoothness, on this side was essential to 
the performance of the work for which the tool was to be used ; and that the 
requisite character was produced by numerous minute chippiugs carefully 
and skilfully directed. The obverse also contains evidence of a more than 
usual amount of work. It has two somewhat irregular and rudely parallel 
longitudinal ridges, as well as several facets. The lateral margins are not 
quite symmetrical. It is formed of fine-grained flint, of a light lead-colour 
inchning to whiteness ; and it was found in the Chamber, 49 feet from the 
external entrance, 3 feet deep in the red deposit, and covered with a thick 
stalagmitic floor. 

The only specimen of the thii'd or ovoid class found since the First 
Eeport was lu'cscnted is quite the finest "implement" which has been 
exhumed during the present exploration. It measures 4| inches long, 
3| inches in greatest breadth, and about 1 inch in maximum thickness. 
It is strictly oval in form, being wider at one end than at the other. 
Like the fine "implements" of the same class described in the former Eeport, 
it is formed of a somewhat coarse-grained greyish flint. The bilateral sym- 
metry of its outline is sensibly perfect. Its opposite faces differ somewhat in 
convexity ; each of tliem, and especially that Avhich is most convex, displays 
a large amount of chipping. This splendid tool was found 55 feet from the 
entrance, S feet from both the northern and the western wall of the Chamber, 
in the fourth foot of cave-earth, or the lowest yet excavated, beneath stalag- 
mite which was about a foot thick and extended without a break for several 
yards in every direction ; and it was dug out in the presence of one of the 
Superintendents and two gentlemen who accompanied him to the cavern. 

Besides the foregoing "implements," aU of which, as has been stated, were 
found in the Chamber, there is one which was met with 8 feet from the inner 
end of the GaUery, or 83 feet from the external entrance of the cavern ; and 
which seems to connect the lanceolate and ovoid classes, — resembhng the first 
in being pointed, and the second in being worked to an edge round its entire 
perimeter. Its dimensions are less than those of any oval, and its breadtli, 
in proportion to its length, exceeds that of any lance-shaped "implement" 
which the cavern has yielded. It is 3 inches long, and in greatest breadth and 
thickness measures an inch and three-quarters and four-tenths of an inch re- 
spectively ; it is nearly an inch and a quarter wide at the broad end, attains its 
maximum breadth about midway in its length, and has lost its extreme point. 
It is formed of fine-grained flint of a cream-colour, and difl'ers from all the 
other cavern " implements " in having what may be conveniently termed a 
" varnished" or "glazed" surface. This "implement," which seems to have 
experienced rough usage, was found in the second foot-level below the stalag- 
mite, which, in the Gallery, as already stated, is the lowest composed of true 
cave-earth. 

Though, as has been stated, the lower levels have, on the whole, yielded 
fewer "implements" than the upper, it is stUl true that "those found in 
the third and fourth levels are the most highly wrought ' implements,' " and 
also that " those in the fourth or lowest zone are the most elaborately flnished 
tools of the cavern series." In glancing over all that have been dug out 
during the present exploration, it appears that whilst there are several inter- 
esting tools from the first level, and a larger number from the second, neither 
of these zones has yielded an ovoid " implement ;" that from the third belt 
were exhumed the first oval and the two best lanceolate forms ; and that the 



ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF CAST IRON. 11 

two oval tools found in the lowest level are very decidedly the most carefully 
finished specimens which the cavern has yielded. In the present stage of the 
investigation, the Committee think it neither desirable nor necessary to enter 
into any arguments to prove the artificial character of at least many of the 
flints which they have found. Indeed they speak for themselves ; and in 
terms so unmistakeable that if they do not succeed in carrying con-s-iction to 
the mind of the observer, any words that could be employed must certainly 
fail also. 

It will be of interest, however, to call attention to certain other evidences 
of human existence found in the cave-earth. As already remarked, it was 
stated in the First Report that a whetstone had been found below the stalag- 
mite. Very shortly after that Ilcport was drawn up a second stone was met 
with, formed of a fragment of similar, though somewhat finer- grained, green- 
ish grit. Its form is not quite the same as that of the first specimen. Mr. 
Franks states that " it closely resembles some stones found in the Eruniquel 
caves, in form and material." It was lying in the first level of cave-earth, 43 
feet from the entrance, where the overlying stalagmite was 26 inches thick 
and extended many yards in every direction. 

Several pieces of burnt bone were found in tlie cave-earth in the Gallery — 
some near the extreme, and others near its inner end. One of them was 
fomid in the first, and one in the thii-d, but most of them in the second foot- 
level. In each ease the deposit was overlain by a thick cake of stalagmite. 
Burnt bones have been found in the red earth in several parts of the Chamber 
also. 

In conclusion, the Committee would remark that the careful and unremit- 
ting labour bestowed on the cavern during the last year and a half has pro- 
duced a large accumulation of facts, consistent with one another and with 
those recorded by the earlier explorers. Of the discoveries made, the uniform 
testimony is that beneath a thick floor of stalagmite, so difficult to work as to 
require excellent tools and untiring perseverance, there arc everywhere found, 
inosculating with bones of extinct mammals, and undoubtedly inhumed at the 
same time, human industrial remains, of a character so humble and so little 
varied as to betoken a very low type of civilization. 



Preliminary Report on the Chemical Nature of Cast Iron. 
By A. MatthiesseNj F.R.S. 

ly tlie Transactions of the British Association for 1863 it was pointed out, in 
a " Report on the Chemical Nature of Alloys," that alloys may be, when in a 
solid state,— 

(1) Solidified solutions of the one metal in the other; 

(2) Chemical combinations ; 

(3) Solidified mechanical mixtures ; 

(4) Or sohdified solutions of mixtures of any of these. 

It is important to clearly imderstand what is here meant by the term 
" sohdified solution," for in speaking of alloys they are generally considered 
to be either mechanical mixtures or chemical combinations. In the "Report 



13 REPORT 18G6. 

on the Chemical Nature of Alloys," I have defined the terms " solution of one 
metal in the other, as one Hke that of ether and alcohol ; for these two liquids 
may be mixed in any proportion, and they will not separate, by standing, into 
two layers," and " solidified solutions as a most intimate mixture, such as 
would occur in the sudden conversion of a solution of two liquids into a solid, 
and a much more intimate mixture than can be obtained by ordinary mecha- 
nical means — in fact a perfectly homogeneous diffusion of one body in another. 
An excellent example of homogeneous diffusion is furnished by glass, which 
is formed in a liquid state at a high temperature, and solidifies on cooling 
Avithout separation of the different silicates." 

Before deducing the chemical nature of cast iron from what is already 
known, it will be as well to compare the physical deportment of the alloys 
of carbon and iron with that of other aUoys ; for instance, with those of tin 
and copper, and zinc and copper. Pure u'on is said to be very malleable, so 
is pure copper; iron alloyed with small quantities of carbon (malleable, wrought 
iron) is less malleable and harder than the pure metal ; so is copper, when 
alloyed with small quantities of tin or zinc, less malleable and harder than 
the piirc metal. Iron alloj-ed with from 1 to 2 per cent, of carbon has 
obtained its maximum state of hardness in conjunction with a certain 
degree of malleability and ductility (steel) ; copper alloyed with certain 
quantities of tin or zinc possesses similar properties, forming gun-metal 
and brass. 

Again, increase the amount of carbon in the iron and the mass becomes 
brittle and unworkable (cast iron) ; so also do the alloys of cojiper, and tin or 
zinc, when the amount of the latter exceeds that contained in gun-metal or 
brass by a few per cent. 

Leaving out of consideration the impurities of cast iron, let us first discuss 
the alloys of carbon and iron, and these we find may bo divided into two 
classes, viz. the white and the grey cast iron. 

Now the essential difference between these two forms is the state in which 
the carbon exists in them. In the one (white) it is said to be chemically 
combined with the iron, in the other (grey) mechanically mixed with the 
iron. As these, the white and the grey iron, may be converted into one 
another by re-fusion (for if certain sorts of white iron be fused at a low 
temperature and allowed to cool slowly, grey will be produced, and conversely, 
if grey iron be fused at a high temperature and cooled rapidly, white iron), 
it follows that the chemical combination of carbon and iron may be made to 
split up into its component elements simply by slowly cooling the molten mass. 
Bearing on this point are the following experiments made by Karstcn : he took 
a mass of cast iron and determined the amounts of so -called chemically com- 
bined and uncombined (graphitic) carbon in it ; ho then melted it and cast it 
in a mould, analyzed the outer and inner portion of it. The following are 
the results he obtained : — 

Carbon per cent. 

Combined. Uncombined. 

Before melting 0-78 3-25 

Outer (white) portion of casting 5" 10 i 

Inner (grey) portion of casting 0-Ql 3-16 

Now, can it be possible that the carbon is really chemically combined with 
the outer portion of the casting and not in the inner ? if this be so, it is I 
think the only case known of a chemical combination in which the elements 



ON THE CHEMICAI, NATURE OF CAST IRON. 13 

are so loosely held togcthei* that tiie various rates of cooling will determiuc 
their combination or decomposition. 

From the analogy of tlic alloys of carbon and iron with other aUoys, it is 
possible that the case is as follows ; namely, that the carbon and iron exist 
in the molten state as a solution of the one in the other — when in the white 
state as a sohdified solution of carbon iu iron, and when in the grey state as 
a mechanical mixture of carbon and iron. 

If the above assumption be correct, then the conversion of white into grey 
cast iron, and vice versa, may be easily explained ; for if in the liquid state the 
carbon and iron be only a solution of carbon and iron, then we can easily 
imderstand why the carbon, when the molten mass is heated to a high 
temperature and cooled slowly, crystallizes out, and when cooled quickly, not 
having time to crystallize out, remains homogeneously diffused through the 
iron ; as it is very probable that molten iron will dissolve more carbon at 
higher temijcratures than at lower ones. 

The two chief reasons for assuming that the carbon and iron exist in the 
state of chemical combination are, 

(1) That when white iron is dissolved in dilute acids, the carbon combines 
with the hydrogen, forming carburetted hj-drogen. 

(2) That different carbides of iron have been isolated. 

First, respecting the chemical behaviour of the carbon in the white 
iron, the following remarks may be made. If it be assumed that the carbon 
in cast iron is homogeneously diffused through the mass, then it must be in 
an exceedingly fine state of division — in fact in just the state for combining 
Avith other bodies; for it is well known that carbon as well as other sub- 
stances possess properties, when in a state of fine division, which they do not 
possess when in a more coherent form. Thus in the case of carbon, the more 
porous it is the more active it becomes in dechlorizing liquids and absorbing 
and condensing gases in its pores. Platinum is also a good example of this 
fact ; in a dense form, as in foil, it only possesses the property of condensing 
gases on its siirface to a very feeble extent ; in its spongy form it possesses 
this property in a very marked degree, and as platinum-black possesses it to 
a far greater extent than the spongy modification. 

As another example of the influence of the chemical activity of bodies when 
in a fine state of division, we may take the eases of iron, lead &c., these 
metals, when in a coherent form, undergoing when exposed to the atmosphere 
only a very slow oxidation, but when in a very fine state of division (reduced 
oxides) combining with oxygen instantly. 

The chemical behaviour of the constituents of alloys is sometimes diifei-ent 
when in an alloy from what it is when alone ; thus platinum y^hon. alloyed 
with silver dissolves to a certain extent in nitric acid. Now, taking the de- 
terminations of the eonducting-powers of alloys as a means of testing their 
cliemical constitution, I should with certainty say that there exists in the 
alloys of platinum with silver no chemical combination, for their observed 
and calculated eonducting-powers agree together better than for any other 
series of alloys. The curves representing the eonducting-powers of the alloys 
of these metals with one another possess the typical form of the alloys of that 
class of metals to which these belong. 

2ndly. With regard to the definite chemical combinations which have been 
isolated from cast u'on, it may be remarked that definite crystalline forms with 
alloys do not necessarily indicate chemical combinations. Cooke*, I believe, 
* Memoirs of the American Academy (new series), vol. viii. p. 27. 



14 REPORT 18G6. 

was the first to point out this fact "with regard to alloys, in a paper on the 
alloys of antimony and zinc. He showed that those containing 43 to 64 per 
cent, of zinc all crystallize in the same foim, but differently from the other 
alloys. With the alloys of gold and tin it has been shown* that well-de- 
fined crystals are not limited to definite proportions of the constituents, but 
are common to all gold and tin alloys containing from 27 to 43 per cent, of 
gold; and that crystals and mother-liquor never are of the same composition. 
Storer t has also experimentally proved that aU the copper and zinc alloys 
crystallize in the same form. 

These facts show that the ciystaUine alloys of carbon and iron do not prove 
the existence of chemical combination between them, more especially when 
we consider that several definite crystalline compounds of carbon and iron 
have been obtained. In all probability, by altering the conditions of cooling, 
&c., crystals of iron containing various amounts of carbon may be obtained 
from the same sample of cast iron. For the chemical combination theory of 
cast iron we have — 

(1) The evolution of carburetted hydi'ogens when white cast iron is treated 
with dilute acids. 

(2 The existence of definite crystalline forms of carbon and iron. 

Against it — 

(1) The analogy of the alloys of carbon and iron with the other aUoys. 

(2) The fact of carbon in such a fine state of division that it may exist in 
white iron (solidified solution) and may be able to unite with hydrogen at 
the moment of being set free (as in the case of platinum-silver alloys, where 
a portion of the platinum is dissolved by nitric acid). 

(3) We know of no other case where with two elements the different rates 
of cooling determine the chemical combination or decomposition (conversion 
of white into grey and grey into white cast iron). 

(4) That with alloys definite crystalline forms are not necessarily chemical 
combinations. 

That iron in a molten state will not dissolve more than about 5 ]ier cent, of 
carbon is analogous to the cases of lead and zinc, bismuth and zinc, ii:ercury and 
zinc. For it has been shown t that pure lead will only dissolve 1-0 per cent, 
a pui-e zinc, and pure zinc 1 -2 per cent, of pure lead ; that pure zinc will 
only dissolve 2-4 per cent, pure bismuth, and pure bismuth from 8-6 to 14-3 
per cent, pure zinc§. 

Now, although no actual determinations have been made, we may stxppose 
that the solvent power in the above-mentioned cases of the one metal for the 
other at higher temperatures will be greater than at lower ones ; hence, for 
instance, zinc (containing a small percentage of lead) might possibly be 
made to crystallize from a molten alloy of lead and zinc, containing, say, from 
2 to 2-5 per cent. zinc. 

Supposing the metals lead and zinc be melted together in equal parts, 
what takes place ? The zinc (according to the temperature) takes up a cer- 
tain amount of lead, and floats upon the lead which has taken up a certain 
amount (according to the temperature) of the zinc. If these two alloys were 
intimately mixed together (bj" stirring or shaking) and cooled rapidly, we 
might suppose that under certain conditions an almost homogeneous mixtui-e 
might be obtained ; or supposing we were rapidly to cool a solution of zinc 

* Memoii'S of the American Academy (new series), vol. T. p. 337. 

t Proc. Eoy. Soc. vol. xi. p. 433. ' % Ihul. p. 430. § lUd. 



ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF CAST IRON. 15 

in lead, we should produce a solid mass similar to what we termed a solidified 
solution. 

Again, if only a few per cent, of tin be added to the mixture, of, say, ten 
parts zinc in lead, a perfect alloy will be formed. 

Applying these facts to the alloys of carbon and iron, we are led : — 

(1) To look upon white iron (containing small percentages) as a solidified 
solution of carbon and iron ; 

(2) ^Tien containing larger percentages as a solidified solution of carbon 
and iron, with carbon dilfused through the mass in a very fine state of divi- 
sion ; 

(3) "When containing large percentages of carbon, together with certain 
other substances (manganese, to wit), as a solidified solution of carbon, iron, 
and the other substances. 

And to look on the grey modification as a solidified solution of carbon and 
ii'on, vnth. carbon (varying amounts of the graphitic modification) mechani- 
cally intermixed. 

Another point in favour of the above may be mentioned, namely, that it 
has been observed that the eonducting-power of the pure metal may be 
deduced from that of the impure one, where the conducting-power of the 
impure metal difi"ers from that of the pure one by not more than 20 per cent. ; 
this has been foimd to hold good only in cases where solidified solutions 
exist. 

IS'ow some experiments* have been made in this direction with various 
kinds of iron. The results obtained were as follows : — 

Specific conducting-power in terms of the B.A. unit foi* 

metre length and millimetre diameter. 

„ r\i 1 Deduced for 

N°- Observed. ^^^.^ ^^^^1 

5 7-472 8-207 

6 7-438 8-191 

7 6-75.5 7-863 

9 7-002 7-898 

13 0-322 7-855 

15 6-551 7-950 

The amount of impurities in 5, 6, 7 were, in 100 parts, — 

5. 6. 7. 

Sulphur 0-190 0121 0-104 

Phosphorus 0-020 0-178 0-106 

.Sihcium 0-014 0-160 0-122 

Carbon 0-230 0-040 0-020 

Manganese, | q.-^^q q.qoq 0-280 ' 
JNickel, Cobalt J 

No. 9. From a piece of sheet-iron. 

No. 13. Pianoforte wire. 

No. 15. Commercial iron wire. 

These data show that the alloys of iron follow in this respect the same 
laws as those, of other metals. 

« Phil. Trans. 1SG4, p. 369, 



16 REPORT — 186G. 

To see whether the above assumptions, as to the chemical nature of east 
iron, are correct, it is proposed — • 

(1) To make some pure iron. 

(2) To alloy the pure iron with various amounts of carbon and to test the 
physical and chemical properties of these alloj's. 

(3) To alloy the pure iron in ditferent proportions Avith other metals and 
metalloids. 

From the forgoing considerations I expect to be able to produce analogous 
alloys to iron and carbon with some of the other metals, having the peculiar 
properties of cast iron, steel, and wrought iron ; and probably some may be 
found to be much better adapted for certain purposes than the alloys of car- 
bon and iron — for instance less liable to become crystalline by age, &c. 

(4) To alloy the pure iron with various amounts of carbon, and to add to 
these alloys such substances as are found in the commercial irons so as to 
study their respective effects on the physical and chemical nature of cast iron, 
and more especially on their influence on the solvent power of iron for 
carbon. 

It is intended to investigate carefully the action of dilute and strong acids 
on the various alloys of iron and carbon, in order to see how far, and under 
what conditions, the carbon is evolved as carburetted hydrogen. 

The experiments will be made on a small scale, fusion taking place in one 
of De%ille's oxyhydi'Ogen furnaces, which gives an admirable means of experi- 
menting with refractory metals. 

The pure ii'on will partly be prepared from the oxalate, and partly by the 
electrotype process, and fused in lime crucibles. 

The experiments liave already been commenced, and I hope at the next 
Meeting of the Association to report good progress. 



Report on Observaiions of Luminous Meteor s,\^Qo-(S(S. By aCommittee, 
consisting of James Glaisiier, F.R.S., of the Roijal Observatory, 
Greenwich, Secretary to the British Meteorological Society, S^c. ; 
Robert P. Greg, F.G.S., S^c. ; E. W. Brayley, F.R.S., S^c. ; and 
Alexander S. Herschel, B.A. 

The Committee have the satisfaction to present in thcii' Report a marked 
degree of progress over their success in former years. Observations of three 
large meteors, at the Eoyal Observatory, Groen-n-ich, have been confirmed b}' 
descriptions of observers at distant places, so that tlie height and velocity of 
the meteors could be conclusively determined (Appendix I. 1, 2, 4) ; and the 
accounts of meteors continually communicated bj- observers to the Committee 
have led in other cases to obtaining the same satisfactory result. 

The Committee are particularly indebted to Mr. Warren De la Eue for a 
collection of excellent descriptions of the detonating firebaU of the 21st of 
November 1805, placed by Mr. "Warren De la Eue at the disposal of the Com- 
mittee, by which the earth-distance, the velocity, and the direction of this 
meteor in space could be determined. 

Exact determinations of the height, and other particulars of large meteors 
in diiFerent parts of the globe, arc collected in this Ecport, following the 
Catalogue, in Appendix II. llemarkablc statements regarding the large 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 17 

detonating meteor which appeared over the Dover Straits on the forenoon of 
the 20th of Juno 1S6G, with instrumental measui'emcuts of its ajiparcnt path 
by Mr. Francis Galton, will he found in this Appendix. 

The object of the Committee in providing star-charts to observers of the 
meteoric shower of jS^ovember last, was attained ; and accurate observations 
of luminous meteors under that date are presented in the Catalogue of the 
lleport. The radiant-point of the meteoric shower, during the period of its 
greatest activity, was situated within two degrees of the place which it oc- 
cupied in the interval of the greatest meteoric activity of the same shower in 
the year 1833 — a fact in itself demonstrative of the fixed uranographical 
character of the phenomenon (Appendix IV. 2). 

The height of the November meteors is shown in this Eei)ort to be the 
same as that of ordinary shooting-stars, or about sixty miles above the sur- 
face of the earth ; Avhilst with regard to their speed, they are three times 
swifter than those meteors which at the same time arrive from the direction 
of the constellation Taurus. 

Bearing in mind the strong probability that exists of the occurrence in the 
present year of a more extraordinary meteoric shower, on the morning of the 
]3th or on the morning of the 14th of November, than any that has yet been 
observed at the English observatories, the Committee during the past year 
judged it unadvisable to incur avoidable expense, or to exceed the means at 
their command by lithographing the charts of general radiant-points of shoot- 
ing-stars, exhibited two years ago at Bath, to the Meeting of the Ihitish 
Association, and these they now suggest might be printed, and distributed 
with advantage. 

The occasion of the return of the great November shower being one of very 
rare occurrence, the Committee, Avith the view of profiting by the opportunity 
thus afforded of observing the spectra of luminous meteors, have this year pro- 
vided themseves with spectroscopes, and have succeeded in aualj'zing the hght 
of shooting-stars by means of their prismatic spectra. Two spectroscopes 
were directed to be prepared by Mr. Browning, and were first used on the 
lUth of August last, and seventeen spectra were observed, A description of 
the observations, together with the discovery of the yellow sodium-line as the 
chief feature of tlie greater number of the train -spectra, will be found in the 
last Appendix of tlic lieport. 



1SG6. 



18 



REPORT — 1866. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour, 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1768. h ni 
Dec. 231 7 a.m. S. Atlantic 



1856. 
Aug. 6^10 45 to 
. and 11 15 p.m. 
Aug.llj 1 45 to 

' 3 15 a.m. 



Large 



Hawkhnrst 
(Kent). 



18.58. 
Scpt.25 



18G5. 
Apr. 20 

I 

Ji!iicr2 



July 3 
4 



Eveniiig .. .jLucknow, India. 



Large as a ' In'oom 
or a comet. 



In llie W. 



Pale green ...A very few First appeared ove 
seconds; i head, and vaiiibl 
very rapid. ed near the In 
rizou. 



8 10 p.m. Vi'eston - super • Large A little N. of E. 

Marc. I I I 

.Midnight... llawKluirst 
I (Kent). 



10 53 p m.^il.ld 
1 5 a.m. 



= 2ud mag.* {Orange yellow 1'3 second ...Commenced at 

Camelopardi. 



= 3rd mag.* 'Yellow O-I second ... 



13ogan midway b(L 
tween p Cassici 
peia; and e Co ' 
phei. 



A CATALOGUE 01' OBsEUVATIOXS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



19 



OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



)pearance; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Duration. Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

vhether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



t of a small white cloud 
issued a train of fire. 



to W. 



a flame. It passed 
ihind a strip of cloud,] 
sappearing and ap- 
aring again as quick 
thought. 



■3" 



Rcffiai'ks. 



Directed from 

yclx. 
Directed from 

ruin. 



Cassio- 



Followed at an interval 
of two minutes hy two 
loud explosions like 
cannon, after which the 
cloud soon disappeared 

Aug. Gth, eight meteors 
in 30 minutes ; three 
of the largest shot 
precisely from Cassio- 
peia ; a superb clear 
night ; one observer. 
Aug. 11th, a.m., fifty 
meteors iu 1"' 30'"; 
several very large and 
brilliant, with fine 
trains ; sky partially 
cloudy ; two obser- 
vers. " A few onl.\ 
were ' sporadic ; ' bul 
by far the greater 
majority diverged 
from a region near, 
but not in Cassiopeia. 

' On the whole, I should 
assign the cluster in 
the sword-liandle of 
Perseus, or a place 
some 2° or 3° north 
of that sjjot, for the 
vanishing-point. Cat- 
ches of distant light- 
ning all night, though 
from 1'' to 3'' a.m. 
there was not a cloud 
in the sky." 
The Sepoys said thnf 
it was as a ' gliaroo ' 
(broom or comet), to 
sweep away the Delhi 
or Lucknow raj. 

Fell somewhat obliquely 

No shooting-star visible 
in 15 minutes : clear 
sky ; no moon ; one 
observer. 



Observer. 



Cook's Voyage 
round the 
World.' (See 
Appendix II.) 

J.F.W.IIerschel, 
MS. 



llono- In one hour (12.15 to 
1.15 a.m.) one meteor 
only : clear sky ; no 
moon ; one observer. 



J. S. A. Ileibert, 
' Stirring times 
under Canvas ' 
(p. 230). 



Communicated 
byW. II.\\ood. 
Ilerschel 



A. S. 



Id. 



Id. 



C 2 



20 



llEPORT 18G0. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1S65. 1 h m 
July 5 Evening 



12 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Pietermaritz- Very large 
burg, Natal, 
S. Africa. 



9 57 pm 



15 11 40 p.m 



15 



16 



16 



11 42 p.m 



23 a.m 



42 a.m. 



[jan:!flale, West- ilrijrbter tlian 



moreland. 

Ilawkliurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



20 52 a.m. 
20 53 a.m. 

20 55 a.ai. 



20 

20 

20 
20 
20 

20 



1 5 a.m. 



1 11 a.m. 



1 IS a.m. 



1 -il a.m. 



[1)1.1 . 

[bid . 
[bid. 

(bid . 
(bid . 

(bid . 

(bid , 
(bid , 
lliid 
:bid 



= lst mag.if 

= 2nd mag.* 
=2nd mag.s 

= 3rd mag.it 
= 2iid mag.» 

=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



Venus. 

= 3rdmag.* AVbite 

— 2iid mag.)!- 



'White 



= 2ndma!!r.* ^Vbite 



White , 

While 
White 

Dull 
White 

White 

White 
White 
White 



.Vug. 2 11 jO p m. Souiliauiptou 



3 12 14 a.m. 



Ibid 



= .1nl mag.* Dull . 

rSrd uia^.K- Yellow 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

AzinuUh. 



0-7 second , 

0-7 second 

0" second 
0-9 second 

0'8 second 
0'3 second 

0*4 second 
0-5 second 

0-5 second 

0/ second 

06 second 

0'4 second 

0'5 second 
0'8 seconil 



:2nd mag.» tWhite OG second 



(n the west par| 
tliesky; altH| 
about 20° or | 

Commenced ap 
llerculis. 

Disappeared at 
Corona;. Coi 
halfway froi 
llerculis. 

Commenced 
(I, 0) Aquili 

Disappeared 

Corona;. Co 

lialfway fro^ 

llerculis. 
From \ to « ! 

dromeda:. 
From n Tar 

to M Can 

pardi. 
From /3, halfw^ 
j I Cephel. 
Fri)m I Cei 

halfway to 

Custodis. 
. From r Cust 
! halfway to ' 
I laris. 
.From a Lyra! 
I Draconis. 
.From / to Kf 

.From a to If 

pbci. 
. Began at i Pej 
.From J- (9 

j)entis, Z •■\' 

10 i Qi, y) 

uchi. 
From near a ' 

pbei. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



21 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Lengtli of 
Path. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



.•ft a long streak bcliiiul it 



10° 



ft a streak for 1 second 10° 



'A verj' raagnificent'Dr. Mann, Ab- 
meteor burst over stract of Me- 
Maritzburg on the teorological 
evening of the 5th. Observations 
This meteor passed at Pieterina- 
from east to west, and ritzburg, 1865. 
was attended by a 
loud report. It was 
seen beyond Fort Not- 
tingham, quite up to 
the base of tlie Dra- 
kensberg. An interval, 
differently estimated 
between one and three 
minutes, intervened 
between the flasli of; 
light and the sound." 



Directed from i Pcgasi, 
From a radiant in Per- 
seus. 



J. C. Melville. 



Directed from 5 Ilcr- A. S. Ilcrschel. 

culis. I I 

Id. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

rd. 

Id. 
Id. 

jid. 

Id. 



Id. 



i I l'^- 

train or sparks Directed from «•; Cygni Id. 

, Swift meteor Id. 



ft a streak for 1 second 



8°. 



Directed from d Cassio- 
peia;. 



Id. 



22 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
All":. 3 



Hour. 



Place of 
Oljscrvation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



ni s 
25 a.m. 



Solent (Isle of=lstmag.jf iWliitc 1 second From y Pegasi to 



12 31 a.m 



Wigl.t). 
ibid 



Piscium. 

= 3rJ ma;;.* iWliite 0-7 second ...From a Lacert 

halfway to |3 P 
gasi. 

3|12 40 a.m. Ibid '=2nd mag.-x<- Yellow 0'8 second ... From « Cygni to' 

(tt, 16) Lyrae. 

3;12 45 a.m. Ibid =3rd ra.ig.if Dull From 4 (».-, Q) C 

phei to \ [8, 
j j Ursaj Jlirioris. 

12 50 a.m. Ibid =2nd mas.« White 0-0 second ... Appeared at g (t, 

Cygni ; com 
|- of the way 
a Lyra:. 

= lstmag.» White 0-8 second . . . From c to L Cam 

I I j lopardi. 

= 3rd m_ag.it iWliite 0-4 second ...From (3 Cassiope 

to i (e Ceph 



55 a.m. 
58 a.m. 



3 I 35 a.m. 



ibid , 
Il.'id , 

Ibid . 



25 



=3rd mag.: 



p Cassiopeiae). 
White 0-5 second ... From BAG 72581 



1 43 a.m. i'lnglish Channel = 3rd mag.;;- ... 

(near Isle of 

Wight). 
8 57 p.m. Weston - super - =3rd mag.if Blue ,a 

Mare. 



25 10 2 p.m. Ibid, 



Velio w l"l second 

0*5 second 



-1st macr.» 



Vellow '0'75 second , 



30 7 46 p.m., Primrose Hill ... =lstmag.* Ivuildy 



Sept. 3 



9 35 p.m.;llawkliurst 
(Kent). 



COO a.m. Halton, near 

1 llastint's. 



10 p.m. Royal 01)scrva- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



--3rd mag.* ^Wliitc 0'8 second 



Appeared much White 

brighter than 

the planets. ! 

= lst mag.* iBkiish white. 



7 10 35 p.m.lllawlshurit ' = 3rdmag.-^' White 05 second 

I I (Kent). I : 

7 10 45 p.m. Ibid ' = 2ndmag.-x- Orange yellow 05 second 



7 11 20 p.m. 



Ibid , 



:2nd mag.;t While 05 second 



14 9 24 30 Royal Observ.i- =3rd mag.-:;- 'White Very rapid 



p.m. 



tory, Green 
wich 



? Ccphei. 



To 7r Ursas JIajor 
halfway from 
Custodis. 
«= 5= 

From 302° - 12 

•to 300 - 24 

From 335° - 1 
to 332 - 12 

Commenced at 
Aurig£e. 

Disappeared at 
Draconis; ci'iu 
I of the wayuc 
/3 Draconis. 

From the Dolpli 
to the S.V\'. li 
rizon. 

From a point abo 
5° above c, to i 
point aljout ! 
much beneath 
Ursa; JIajoris. 

From S to -^ (/■>, 
Draconis. 

From i- (a Hon 
rum, a Laccit, 

to A (,;, ^) r 

gasi. 
From a Lyvfe, lia 
way to 8 III 
culis. 

Disappeared 2- I) 
low S Pcrsei. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEKA'ATIOXS 01' LUMINOUS METEORS. 



23 



ippearance ; Train, if any,! Length of 



and its Duration, 



Path. 



lo tra-u or sparks 



.eft a streak for 2 sccoufls'. 

i 

train or sparks '. 



train or s narks 



train or sparks 

eft a streak for 1 second 



train or sparks 



train or sparks 



train or sparks 



train or sparks 

oken train of sparks 
distinct nucleus 



obular ; like the moon: 
disappeaicd ijuickly. 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether llorizoiital, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer 



.\.. S. Ilerochci, 



Beams of Aurora in the 
north, reaching up to 
Polaris. Very strong 
auroral light in thai 
direction. 

.luroral light still strong 
in the north. 



Directed from a Cygni.- 



Fine clear night ; full 
moon. 



I'ell vertically down 



Id. 

(d. 
Id. 

lid. 

[Id. 
Id. 

t 
Id. 

I 

j 

i 
Id. 

:\V. H. Wood. 

Id. 

T. Crumpleu. 

A. S. Herschel. 



Inclined 



A momentary view of Communicated 
the meteor IjeiiiudbyA.S. Herschel. 
trees. I 

F. Trapaud ; 
Ernest Jones. 



J train or sparks ' A. S. Herschel. 

) train or sparks I I ' Id. 



I train or sparks 



G° Directed from Polaris. 



Three meteors in one [d. 
hour : clear sky ; moon 
nearly full ; one ob- 
server. 



Arthur Harding. 



24 



BEFORT 18GG. 



1865.! h ni s 
Sept.l4J 9 30 p.m. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



14 



9 45 p.ra, 



14 10 p.m. 



15 

15 
IG 
10 
16 

16 
16 



16 

16 
16 
16 

16 
16 



9 50 p.Di, 

11 15 p.m. 

1 25 a.m. 

1 37 a.m. 

2 2 a.m. 

2 a.m. 

2 8 a.m. 



2 19 a.m. 

2 22 a.m. 

2 28 a.m. 

2 29 a.m. 

2 32 a.m. 

9 p.m 



Weston - super • 
Mare. 

R. Obsen'atory, 
Greenwich. 

Weston . super -I 
Mare. 



= ]st maR.* 



Blue 



= 2n(lmag.* Blue 

= 2nd mag.* Blue 



Duration. 



I second 



1 second .. 
05 second 



Primrose Hill ...! = Capclla Bluish wliitc... 8 second 



10 Instantly 
afterwards. 

16 9 10 30 

p.m. 
16 10 20 p.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

[bid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ilardwick 

(bid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



= 2n(l mag.* White 

I 
= 3rdmag.* White 

= 2ndniag.» [White 

= 2iid mag.* White 

= 2n.d niag.» White 

= Sirius White 

= 2nd rang.* White 



:3rd mag.^f 
= 3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.» 



White 
White 
Red ... 



0'4 second 
0*5 second 
0-5 second 
0'8 second 

0"7 second 
0-6 second 

0'6 second 

07 second 
0-6 second 
2-5 seconds 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



«= I = 
From 331° - 1 
to 325 - 10, 
Commenced 3 
of 7 Bootis. 
«= £ = 
From 335° - 1° 
to 340 — 3. 
From V Piscium 






1-j' below 



to 

i 



to 



o< 



i 

i 



2nd mag.* White 5 second 



Larger than a 1st 
mag.«. 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.», di-| 

minisliing. | 

First seen as Istj Fine yellow, al 
mag.*, soon in- about §fls 
creasing to great- of its course 
est splendour of, changing to, 
? , but after ils! I think, a 
change of colour, pinkish hue. 
proceeding more 
feebly, as though 
burnt out. 



Pcgasi. 
,.. I Disappeared at 

I llcrculis. 
...From T Cephei 
j 35 Draconis. 
... From « to 1° S. 

I h Ursa; Majoris, 
...iFrom i (Polaris, 1 
Camclopardi) tc 
\ Draconis 
...From b to L Came- 

i lopardi. 
... Disapjicared mil 
; way Ijetwccn iai 
iy Monoccrotis 
I course halfway 
from 1' Orionis. 
... Disappeared at 
Ctti ; course half> 
way from y Cet 
... From e Custodis 

I Cephei. 
...From c to I (a, ffj 

Cassiopeiae. 
...'From X Fersei tc 
j ^ (4 Lyncis, L\ 
I Canielopardi). 
...jFrom p Persei to y 
i Triangulas, and 
onwards lialf asj 
far again. ; 

Crossed the Galaxvi 
in a line from ji 
Cephei towardstjj 
Andromedic. 'I 
From y Pegasi tf'j 

, cium, 

iMear a Pegasi 



Slow course of 

3 seconds, 
or perhaps 

4 seconds. 



From Gloria Pre. 
derici to near ) 
Andromedie. 



A CATALOGUE OF OnSERVATIOXS OF LUMIXOUS METEORS. 



25 



ppearancc ; Train, if any, 
aud its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



eft a train of 15°; half a 
second, fading from the 
ends to the centre. 

train or sparks 



o train or sparks 

eft a streak for 2 seconds 
train or sparks 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Fell perpendicularly 



Observer. 



W. II. M-ood. 



Directed from Polaris . 



Train vivid blue; more 
intense as it faded 
away. 



eft a streak for 2 seconds 

eft a streak for C seconds, 
where it disappeared' 
with a flash. 



eft a streak for 1 second 



eft a streak for half a 
second. 



idistinct nucleus, sur- 
rounded by red sparks ; 
died out gradually. 
2ft a streak for 2 seconds 



ttle or no tiain, but 
pear - shaped (being 
larger than ? ), and 
sparkling at its narrow 
end when it changed 
colour. 



10° or 15°. 



Radiant, /3 Aurigrc 



A bright meteor. Ra- 
diant, Polaris. 



Radiant, /3 Auriga; 
Radiant, v Orionis 



Radiant, /3 Aurigaj 
Radiant, /3 Auriga; 



Radiant, in the W. 



Radiant, /3 Aurigae , 



Very ill seen, by oblique 
vision oulv. 



W. to E. 



Path a little curved ; 
couve.x, I believe, to 
Polaris. 



Very ill seen 



A superb eifect, causing 
nie to turn right roiim! 
from eyepiece of tele- 
scope. 



Arthur Harding. 
W. H. Wood. 

T. Crumplen. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

T. W. Webb. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



2G 



REroRT — 18GG. 



Date. Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



18G5. [ h m s 
Sept.1710 12 p.m. I'rimrosQ Hill 

17 10 26 p.m. ibid 

17 11 2 30 [bid 



:2\ ir.ag.w AYliite 



-\}j Ujaj.;*- While O'l second 



(1-5 seccud 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



= 3r:! inas'.^i 



p.m. 

17|ll 3 p.m., Ibid 

17 11 18 p.m. [bid 

1711 21 p.m.'fbid 

I 

17 11 30 p.m.l!)id.. 



18; 1 8 a.m. ilawkhnrst 
i (Kent). 



18 
18 

18 

IS 



1 11 a.m. Ibid . 
1 15 a.m. Ibid , 
1 22 a.m. Ibid , 



:3rd niag.it ..., 

:3rd mag.-it ^Yllite 

1 
:3rd mag.jf 'White 

:3rd mns-.if Bluish 



:2ik1 mag..t White 



:2nd nias-.» i White 

■1 

:2 nd mag.* White 

:2ud map;.-!: V>''lii(e 



1 30 a.m. Ibid =:3rd mag.» Orange yellow 



IS 1 38 a.m. 



18 

18 

18 



Ibid , 



= 3rd n:aa;.'i Red 



0-7 second 
0'4 second 
0'5 second 
-1 second 

0'5 second 
0'5 second 
0'5 second 

1'5 second 

I 'a second 



1 40 a.m. Ibid =3rd mag.* i5right \Yliite... 0-G second 



1 50 a.m. [bid =3rd niag.w 



2 1 a.m. 



10 10 p.m 



Ibid , 



: White 



=:3rd niatr.-:!- 



O'G second 



Red 09 second 



Tooting, Surrey. 



18 11 1 p.m. Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



18 11 6 p.m.Ibid 



= 3rd mag.^ 



=2nd mag. 



White 



White 



0*5 second 



e. . 



From « Ilcreulis to 
E Herculis. 

Commenced 2 ^-"be- 
low /3 Aquarii. 

From Z Cassiopeia 

■to l-" beyond D 
Camelopardi, 

From yAndromedsE 
to a. Persei. 

From Pleiades to 
(?, )/) Aurigaj. 

From j8 to e A 
dromedas. 

From a. CassiopeH 
to y Andromedsc. 

Commenced at 1 1 
Herculis; course; i 
halfway to (rller-ij 
culis. 1 1 

Commenced at »; ' 
Cassiopeife. 

Close to [i Draconis 



Disappeared at | 
(« AndromedaB; 
[3 Pegasi) ; half- 
way from TT An- 
dromedos. 

Disappeared at « 
Arietis ; course 
three - quarters 
of the way from 
y Ceti. 

From 2° under y 
Ceti to E Psal- 
terii. 

From e Custodis tc 
TT Cepliei. 

l^rom t to f Ursa 
Majoris. 

Disappeared at i 
Tauri ; coursf 
lialfway from ; 
Arietis. 

From y Pegasi 
nearly across « 
Pegasi, passinj 
about lialf a dc 
gree below tha j 
star. 

Commenced at 
Dracoi'.is. 



0'3 second ... From ^ Cygni to i 



Pegasi. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



27 



Appearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

wlietliev Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Left a short tram of 1^°... On a line produced to Sky very clear : several T, Cruniplcn. 

I between B and Cller-I others seen during the 

' culis. I evening. 

Kite-shaped; left a slights^ Directed from y Aquarii 

train. I ' I " 



Left a short train of 3° ...i. 



Left a short train of 2' 
.Vo train or sparks 



Xo train or sparks 4= ; very Directed from a, Cassio- 

I short path.' peias 
No train or sparks Nearlv sta- 
tionary 
No train or sparks 



Radiant, in Cygnus j[d. 

[d. 

Id. 

Id. 

A. S. Ilcrscliel. 



I. 



Radiant, E G ; branch 
in Cvguus. 



Left a streak for J a second , 



■^uclens surrounded by red 
sparks. 



luclens surrounded with 
red sparks. 



appeared brighter and 
larger by far than Venus 
at her brightest. 



From Radiant, T in 

Cetus. 



From Radiant, T in 

Cetus. 



Radiant, in Cassiopeia .. 



Id. 



Radiant, E G ; branch Id. 

in Cygniis. 
Radiant, in Cassiopeia.. Id. 



Radiant, /3 Auriga; . . . . 
Radiant, in Cassiopeia. 



Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



From Radiant, in the "\V.]Twenty-four meteors in [d, 
one hour : clear sky ; 
no moon ; one observer. 



About one-sixth of the Left an exceedingly lu 



arch of the sky 



niinous, almost daz- 
zling train. 



11. W. Jacks 



Directed from a Aurigae. Note.— That x Draconis A. S. Ilerschcl 



Radiant, /3 Aurigoe. 



early stationary i ; Radiant, a Cygni 



is as bright and a 
little brighter than ?; 
Ccphei to-night. 



Id. 



28 



REPORT 186G. 



I8G5. h m s 
Sept.18 11 17 p.mJHawldiurst 
I I (Kent). 



Date. 



Ilcur. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



1811 25 p.m. Ibid, 

I I 

18 II 30 p.m. Ibid, 



=2iid mag.if 

;2ndniag.» 

:1st mag.--- 



18 11 3G p.m. Ibid 



18 11 53 p.m. Ibid 



19 



= 2nd mag.» 
= 2nd niajr.* 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



8 15.30 
p.m. 



[.othbury, Lon- One-fiftli apparent 
don. ' si'^c of the moon 



19, 8 21 p.m.;Eton Street, 
Primrose Hill. 



19 



19 



19 



19 



19 



=4tli majr.- 



\A'hite 1 second ...:From a Lacerlse to 

f (A Laecrta;, -n 
Cygni). 

White 0"8 second ... From /uAndromcdir 

to 4' Pcgasi. 
From a Piscium to 
1 5 Ceti, and ball 
' as far again. 

1 second From -J (r, s) Pi- 

; I scium, halfway 

] ] to t Aquarii. 

White 0-5 second ... [From tt; to y Cygni 



Yellow 1 "4 second 

AVhite .... 



White 0'3 second 



9 24 p.m. Weston - super - =2nd mag.s 
Mare. 



9 26 p.m. Ibid = 3rd mag.* 



9 28 p.ni 



Royal Observa-l = lstmag.». 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



9 40 p.m. Weston -'super - 
Mare. 



9 50 p.m. 



Ibid. 



=2nd mag.* 



= 3rd ma?.: 



I31ue 



0'5 second 



Blue 0-5 second 



Blue 2 seconds... 



Blue 05 second 



iBhic 



0-5 second 



19 10 p.m. Ibid, 

I 1 

19 10 2 p.m., Ibid. 

19 10 15 p.m. Ibid, 



— Istmag.v Blue 0-5 second 

i ! 

= 2ndraag.«- 'Blue 0-5 second 



= lst mag.* !YclIow 1 second 



19 10 17 p.m. 

20 5 a.m. 
(local time.) 



Ibid =3rd mag.# Blue 

Paraelet, Aubc, Large and bri'liant 
France. 



0'5 second 
Rapid 



Disappeared about 
35° altitude. 



FromyAndromed.'c, 
3° on towards 
1^ below /3 An. 
dromedse. 
«= f = 
From 335° - 1 = 
! to 340 - 3, 

! I 

From 123° + 02° I 
to 113 + 5G. 

From a point about 
2° below a Dra- 
I conis towards d\ 
Ursic JIajoris. 
«= t = 

From 2G0° + 52' 

to 271 + 28. i 
, From 305° + 1 1° 

to 300 - 2. 

From 42° + 40° 

to 26 + 34. 
, From 335' - 1" 

to 329 - 8. 
, From 90° + G'/ ; 

to 149 + G6, ; 
, From 322° + V 
J to 318—7. 

From N. to S 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



29 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Brightest at the middle of 
its course ; left a streal 
for half a second. 

Left a streak for 2 sees..., 



brightest at the middle of 
its course. No train or 
oparks. 

Nil train or sparks 



Loft a streak for 
seconds. 



Buvst into numerous 
sparks, like the explo- 
sion of gunpowder. 
Left a long train of 
light which was visible 
lor several seconds. 



Length of 
Path. 



r. 



12^ 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Radiant, a, Cygni. 



Radiant T, in Cetus. 



Radiant T, in Cetns. 



Radiant, v Orionis 



' Passed horizontally fioni 
' N.N.E. to N.N.\V. 



.\. S. Herschcl. 



Id. 
Id. 



'Id. 



N'carly horizontal 



Twenty - two meteors Id. 

in one hour : clearj 

sky ; no moon ; one! 

observer. i 

Communicated 

l)y T. Cruraplen, 



Large meteorat8.15p.ni.'T. Crumplen. 
Light seen at Eton! 
Street. 



Tail 10°; lasted 2 sees. 



. luminous body, dividing 
itself into two larj' 
stars, whicli afterwards 
burst into sparks. 



!iV. to S. 



W. II. Wood. 

Id. 

Arthur Harding. 

\V. II. Wood. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Four or five 

afterwards a sound 
like a clap of tliun- 
der was heard which 
lasted five or si.\ mi- 
nutes. The sky wa; 
slightly overcast, but 
not sufficiently to 
hide the stars. 



minutes: Les Mondes, ls( 
ser. vol. ix. 



p. 400. 



30 



REPORT — 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



I 



18S5. h m s 
Sept.20^ 7 39 p.m. Eton Street, [ = Arcliirus 
Primrose II ill.' 



20 S 12 p.ra.lHawkhurst 

I I (Kent). 
20 8 20 p.ni.ilbid 



Colour. 



Duration. 



White 



20 8 22 p.m 



Ibid , 



= 3rd mag,* iWhite 

= 3rdma!r.Ji- Kviiile 



OG second .. 

O'G second .. 
0'7 second .. 



= 2ad masr.i 



20 9 43 p.m.; Royal Observa-| = lst mag.-;; 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

20 9 41 p.m. Ibid =3rd ma; 



21; 8 30 p.m. 



22 



Weston - super - 
Mare. 



7 57 p.m. Dipley, Ilamp- 
1 shire. 



= 2nd mag.-x 



ijright white...' 1"5 second ; 
very slow 
motion. 

Bluish white... Very rapid .. 

IJIuc J second 



151 ue 



Larger than Jupiter Vivid white 



22 9 30 p.m. Royal Observa- =2nd mag.* 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Blue 



23 10 15 p.m. 'Weston - super - 
Mare. 



24 



7 48 p.m, 



2-1 7 48 -f 
p.ni. 



24 7 43 45 
i p.m. 

24^ 7 50+ 
p.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



— 3rd mag.s ... 
= 3rd mag.«- ... 



1 second 



I second +.. 



5Iue 1 second 



0-9 second 



Ramsgate (Kent) As bright as Jupiter W],iteorbluish 35 seconds 



Royal Oljserva- Larger and brighter 
tory, Green-' than Jupiter 
wich. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



24 7 55 p.m. Ibid 



Sirius 



Bluish white. . 2-3 second 



■.ds. 



White 4 seconds. 



= 3rd mag.if ' 0-8 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From midway be- 
tween \ and c 
Draconis to -},'^ 
above S Ursa', 
Majoris. 

From T liereulis to 
c Coronas. 

From A Draconis to 
r Ursa; Minoris 

From Xj Herculis 
to 2 (a Herculis, 
( Ophiuchi). 

Fell vertically from 
a point about 3° 
E. of a Aquilae. 

From the direction 
of Corona; Bo- 
realis to a point 
between e and y 
Bootis. 

«= S= 

From 197° -f 45° 

to 211 -f 19. 

Path may be taken 
as similar to that 
ofoneonSeptera- 
l;er 24th. 

From a point abo 
3° E. of 6 Pegai 
to a point 2 
above e Pegasi 
a— = 

From 1 60° + C8° 

to 158 + 54. 

Disappeared at 
Cassiopeiaj. 
Course -J of th| 
way from a Ta 
randi. 

From a point nefki 
a Aqiiarii heltt' 
Aqnila, across tlii 
MilUy Way, to i 
point near rOphii 
uclii ; disappear 
ing a few degree 
above Jupiter. 

First seen near 
Aquarii, disap 
pearcd near 
Capricnrni. 

From /3 Piscium 
I- .\quila;. 



'lom I to 5 (X, V.) 
Iloncrum. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVA.TI0NS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



31 



ippparance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



icft a train of T 



!o train or sparks ' 

Fo train or sparks 

i.ucleus a stellar point;. 
no train or sparks. 



Direction ; noting also 

vhether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Kite-sliaped, very bril- 
liant. 



T. Crumpleii. 



Uadiant, in Cassiopeia A. S. Iicrscbel. 

.'Uadiant, in Cvtrnus Id. 

I ! 
;A sin!!;ular meteor Id, 



10- 



Perpenuicula 
[ncliiieu .... 



Verv bril- 
liant. 



train 



15= 



Arthur Harding. 
lid. 

W. II. "Wood. 



) train or sparks 



arly resembling the 
planet Jupiter, followed 
by a train of light ahQiit 
i° in length. 



Radiant, in Cassiopeia . 



The n:eteor finally ex- Mrs, Crumplen. 
jilodcd into a number; 
of fragments. 



Arthur Harding. 

W. II. Wood. 
A. S. Ilerschel. 



nt train 



30 '4- 



lowed hy a train of red 40- ... 

parks 3° long, and dis-! 

ppcaring gradually, 

eaving a faint streak o;i 

ts whole course for h a 

econd. 

train or sparks 



Path parallel to the 
Ecliptic. 



I'rom Radi.int, T in Pi- 
sces. 



iiadiant, in Andromeda 



Identical \vifh the nextS. Gorton. 
(Greenwich, 7'' 48'" 
45" p.ni-)- 



Very brjglit meteor (sec 
Appendix I.). 



W. C. Nash. 



[dcntical with the ])re-| A. S. Iicrscbel. j 
ceding (Greenwich 
7'' 48'" 45' p.m.). 



Id. 



32 



REroRT — 18GG. 




2-1 8 25 p.ni 



24 8 30 p.m. 



2J 



21 



8 30 p.m 



8 30 p.m 



Frome, Somer. 
setshire. 



Royal Observa. 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Dipley, AVincli- 
held, Hants. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



= 2n(l mag.* iWliite 0" 7 second 



:3rd mag.; 



Large and brilliant 



Yellow 0-8 second 



riiree times as Flame-colour, 
great as Jupiter. 



3 seconds. 



rUreo times as I'ale blue 1*5 second 

bright as Jupiter. 



2i 

24 

24 
24 



I'welve miles 
south of Man- 
chester. 



9 5 p.m. 

9 19 p.m. 

9 20 p.m. 

9 2G p.m. 



Hawlilinrst 
(Kent). 

[bid 

Ibid 

Iljid 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From y tor Pisciuin 
and onwards a 
far again. 

From jj Pegasi t| 
i (/3 Pegasi, 
Andromeda'). 

First appeared at 
Draconis ; di^a] 
peared at a poin 
in R.A. 10'', > 
Decl. 75°. 

From the directio 
of the centre c 
Bootis (abov 
Arcturus) tc 
wards N. ; disl 
appeared beloi| 
Ursa Major. 

Passed 2^° belo' 
a Corona;, an 
16° onwards, 
along a line pre 
duced 3° abov 
Cor Caroli. 



As brightasJupiter. White; very Slow motion; 
Small clearly de- luminous. 2 or 3 sees, 
fined disk. 



[n the soutbei 
skv, about S.V , 
to'S.S.W. ; fro 
altitude bare 
20"; fell about e 



= lstmag.* White 1-1 second ...From 1° S. of 



= 3rd mag.* 



Bright yellow 1 second 



Andromeda; 
2° S.of?Pega 

From i; to J (n, 
Persei. 



= 3rdma''.* White 1 second From e I.accrfrc t 

I I ! (f,r)Cygn,. 

= 3rdmag.* Yellow 0-/ sc-ond ...X'omnieiiced at 

I I Pegasi. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



33 



ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Patii. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



strain or sparks Short path.. 'Radiant T, in Pisces 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



.A. S. Herschel. 



) train or sparks I ' Id. 



ke a ball of fire, after- 
wards breaking up in a 
beautiful manner, and 
leaving large sparks in 
its train till it appeared 

! to burn itself out. 

Inf train, many sparks, 



tabular; threw off a 
luiuber of red and 
)iange sparks. Train 
Token into sparks; en- 
lured 1 second. 



Curved. 



15° or 16° 




A crackling noise, re- ' The Times.' 

seinbling that of al 

rocket in tiie air,J 
, could be distinctly 

heard. | 

Path not very accurately Thomas Wright, 
observed. 



;^ot seen quite at com- T. Crumplen. 
mencemenr. PatiiJ 
well observed; nu-| 
cleus burst into frag-' 
mcnts ; no noise 
lieard. 



.Uany shooting-slars in Communicated 
a few minutes. by R. P. Cte". 



I South, 

f a streak on its whole 

'nurse for 10 seconds, 

•hich faded from the 

nds towards the centre. 

B;htness gradually in- 

reased, and disappeared 

t maximum brightness. 

Strain or sparks 



H train or sparks 



Radiant, /J Aurigae ' A. S. Herschel. 



Radiant.V,in C.issiopeia • id. 



From Radiant Up in Pe- 
gasus. 



Id. 
'id. 



34 



REPORT — 186G, 



Date. 



1865. 



Hour. 



h m 



Sept.24; 9 29 p.m, 
24 10 55 p.ni 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



= 2nd mag.* 



24 11 15 p.m. Ibid 



25 



7 25 p.m. 



Winclifield, 
Hampshire. 



Brighter than a 1st 
mag.* 



=3rd mag.* 
! = 2nd niag.s 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Yellow 

Bluish white., 



White 
White 



2a 8 53 p.m.'Wiiichfield Rail-' = Arcturus 

I I way Station. ; 

25 8 12 p.m. VVolverton, i.Vppeared as large 

Staeev Hill. as a rocket. 



25 8 12 

25 8 28 
25' 8 34 



p.m. Hawkhurst =2nd mag.* 

! (Kent). 



p.m. Ibid =lstmag.# 

I I 

p.m. Ibid =2ndmag.<f 



1-2 second ...'From a. .i\.rietis, ; 
1 of the wav t( 
i Algol. 
2-5 seconds ...! From a Persei ti 
c Camelopardi 
and onwards t 
far again. 
From \ (p Dra 
conis, Cepheii 
to Cygni. 
From Polaris to 
Ursae Minoris. 



0-8 second 



White '0*4 second .. 

I 



White 2-2 seconds 



From Camelc | 
pardi to 9 Booti; I 
Slow motion ; Started about d\i 
3 seconds. north. 



p.m. 



Ibid. 



25 11 
25 1 1 17 



p.m 



Ibid 



p.m. Eton Street, 

Primrose Hill. 



Two-thirds of moon 



25 8 56 p.m. Ibid =2ndmag.# 

25 9 20 

I 

25'l0 50 
25 10 59 



p.m. Weston - super 
Mare. 

p.m. Hawkharst 
(Keut). 



= 2nd mag.if 



White 



White 



White 



0'8 second 



0"7 second 



0-6 second 



Violet 4 seconds. 



White 



0-6 second 



= 2nd mag.* Bright white..! 1-3 second 



= 3rdmag.i^ White 



07 second 



= lstmag.» ......White 04 second 



26 8 55 p.m.'Kilvington, Large and verv 

Thirsk (York- brilliant, 
shire). 



Very slow 
motion. 



From /3 Cassiopeia I 
to 7 Pegasi. ,1 

From P to N Cairni 
lopardi. i 

Disappeared at \ 
Cygni ; coun t 
halfway from 1 
Pegasi. 

From Polaris to 
(e Ursse Minori' 
V, Cephei). 
«= 5=1 

From 19.5° +53' 
to 295 0, 

From p CameW I 
pardi to 7r Urs 
Majoris. 

From \ {a Vulpj J 
cula;, aSagittsjj 
to Altair. 1 j 

From 0. Pegasi to( | 
Delpliini. ' 

From ); Cygni '- \ 
midway betwei ^ 
Delplunus and| 
Aquilae. 

First appeared clo \ 
to the horizo; 
Passed betwe 
^ and 7 Andr, 
medic, aud neai 
reached «Aquil 
close to whi 
star it disa,; , 
peared. I I 



ii 



A CATALOGUK OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



35 



Viipearance; Train, if any. Length of 
and its Duration. i Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Jrightness increased gra- Radiant T, in Pisces ... 

dually, disappeared a1 1 I 

greatest brightness. I | 

;o train or sparks Radiant T, in Pisces 



In one hour seventeen 
meteors: clear sky; no 
moon; one observer. 



Observer. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



o train or sparks 



.Radiant, Polaris 



1 ight train, equal toleugth 
: of path, faded gradually. 
oft an exceedingly bril- 
liant train for 2 seconds 
"f 1 distinctly crimson 

ule. 
ii a streak on its 
whole course for half a, 
second. 

ft a streak for 2 seconds,j 
which faded from the| 
amis towards the centre. 



Id. 



[d. 



Well-observed by promi- 
nent stars. Shooting- 
stars very frequent. 
Seven radiant from 
Polaris ; and several 
5° below Delphinus. 

Fine meteor ; train faded 
from ends to centre. 

Numerous shooting- 
stars dining the even- 
ing. 



Radiant, Polaris A. S. Ilerschel 



I Radiant, /3 Auriga; 



ft a streak for 2 seconds 



Radiant R (branch in 
Pegasus). 



T. Crumplen, 



Id. I 

The Times.' ! 



Id. 



Id, 



train or sp.irks Radiant, in C.n 



assiopeia. 



[d. 



,\V. Il.Wood. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



Eleus a small bright Radiant, in N.W. 

mint. I I 



Id. 
'id. 



train or sparks I Radiant R (branch in, 

I I Peg.isus). I 

fin equal to length ofj ' ! iT. Crumplen. 

ath, very luminous,! 
lulured I second. 



^ first increased rapidly- 
1 briglitness, afterwardsi 

I !:raained constant for. 
)me time, and at length' 
ecreased very gi-adually' 
I brilliancy ; left a traiii; 
illy GO' in length. 



!W. Klngsfey. 



u ji 



,^ t 



3G 



REPORT 186G. 



Date. Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. j Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



! ISO."), h in s 

Sopt.'iG 8 55 p.m. Hawkliurst 'Uiigliter tlian « White :^i seconds 



(Kent) 



l.vric. 



26 9 p.m. tJIackheath =lstmag.» White I second 



26 9 18 p.m. Ibid ' = Jupiter ' Bluish white .. U seconds. 



26 9 19 p.m.'lilastliourne Brighter than Ju- Grcyiih white, .J to 4 sees. 

I (Sussex). I ])iter is at its then emcrali! 

j brightest. grceu. l 



26 9 20 p.m. 



2t 9 21 p.m 



Weston - super - i, apparent dimie- Violet colour.. 4 seconds. 
Mare. I ter of the moon. ' I 



From a point near' 
ff Lyncis to a 
point between y 
and S Ursa; Ma- 
joris. (Approxi, 
mate positions, 
1 taken the next 

evening.) 
[From a point near 
j ip Aquarii, passed 
between c and ( 
Aquarii. 
iDirected from To- 
! laris to a poini 
I just below S Ursa 
I Majoris. 
In Bootes; frow 
R. A. 14" 25" 
Decl. N. 28°, tc 
R. A. 14'' 20" 
Decl. N. 15°. 
«= t* = 
From 19.5' + 53= 
to 295 0. 



Ulaekhcath Urighter tlian Ju- Blue ; very 5 seconds. 

pitcr. i brdliant. 



20 9 35 p.m. Lamberhurst, =2ndmag.* White j 4 second 

1 Sussex. i I 
20 9 41 p.m Ibid =lstmag.» White 1 second .. 



26: 9 54 p.m. Royal Observa- =2nd mag.» White I second.., 

tory. Green- I 

I wich. 1 ' 

26 10 41 p.m. Havvkhurst |=3rd mag.» lYellow 8 second 

I (Kent). I I 

2j 11 55 p.m. Eton Street, =12 mag.* Pale blue 0-5 second 

I Primrose Hill. 



27 9 35 p.m, 



Ibid, 



27 9 35 30 Royal Observa- 
p.m. 1 torv, Green- 

wic'li. 



:4tli mag.# 0'5 second 



= 3rdniag.» White Very rapid 

' motion. 



From a point aboui 
3° E. of e Her 
culis, passed t( 
the right of <) 
llerculis, am 
disappeared ii 

I the neighbour 
hood of I and . 

j Ophiuchi. 

I From .V {13, fi) to <|l 
Andromeda;. {|i 

From a Equulei t 
fl Aquari ; aui| i 

I onwards u1)outai 

I far, continued. 

Directed from 
Draconii to .j. 
llerculis. ; 

From \ to r Pi' 
scium. 

From jj Cygni t 
between /3^and 

I I.yrje. 

From a Persei to 
Mnscx. 

Directed from 
Aquila; to a poini 
a little W. of . 
an d/3 Capricorn 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 37 



ppcarance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



t first no alteration in its 
tliglit; then gradually 
(liminislied until it dis- 
ajipeared; left a streak 
nn its whole course fori 
3 seconds. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



10° Inclined 



Observer. 



Commnnicated 
byA.S.Herschel, 



cVrthur Harding. 



<iain 25° Inclined ' ifd 



isappearrd almost, but 
not quite as suddenly 
m it appeared. 



1 Iiially increased, and 
icn again gradually de- 
creased, as if by the; 
cHi'ct of distance ; a lon^ 
train attended the me-' 
teur. 



30° Inclined 



Sky free from clouds 
(Identical with the 
preceding meteor.) 



Illuminated the sur- 
rounding country 
with a light as in- 
tense as that of full 
moon. 

(Identical with the 
preceding : see Ap- 
pendix I.) 



G. F. Chambers. 



Communicated 
by W. H. Wood 



I 



.'Arthur Harding. 



' *'■'''" »'■ ^I'a'^'^s : A. S. IlerEchel. 

tr.'.in or spaiks ' ' I U 



")(rain 15° 

) train or sparks .. 



Nearly perpendicular . 



I 
.i5°. 

.!3°. 



> train Il2° 



Inclined 



Several shooting-stars 
to - night. Radiant, 
near a Persei. 



Arthur Harding. 

A. S. Herschel. 
T. Crumplen. 

Id. 

Arthur Harding. 



3« 



KuroKX — 1860. 



Date. 



I 1865. 
3ept.28 



28 
28 



Hour, 



Place of 
Observation. 



I 



h m 

1 12 a.m. 



1 18 a.m. 
1 19 a.m. 



Hawk hurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 
ibid 



Apparent Size. 



28 1 22 a.m. Ibid 



2> 1 26 a.m. Ibid ... 



28 1 34 a.m. Ibid 



= 3rdmag.* 

— 2ndmag.« 

= 2ndniag.* 

= 2nd laag.t 

= 3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



Yellow 

Bright white., 

White ..* 

White 



Duration. 



0-4 second ... 

0-4 second ... 

C'4 second .. 

0*4 second .. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



.iYellow :0-7 second .. 



:2udmag.«- ^Bright white, 22 seconds 

then red. 



28i 1 33 a.m. Ibid ;=3rdmag.K 



I 
28 137 a.m.'ibid ' = 2ndmag.i;- 



Dull. 



White 0/ second .. 



28, 1 4.5 a.m. Ibid =3rd raag.tf ;Whito 0-3 second 



28 10 4 p.m.jibid ! =2nd mag.:;- White 

i I 

28 10 20 p.m. Ibid :^3rdmag.)t !Yellow 

i 

28 l!^ 42 u.m.-Ibid 



O'G second .. 
0-/ second .. 



28 10 44 p.m. 



Ibid , 



= 2nd mag. v 'Yellow 1-2 second ., 

=.3rd niag.it White 1-4 second . 



2-11 5 p.m. Ibid = 2nd mag.* White il-2second .. 

It ' I I 

I 



28 11 11 p.m. Royal Observa- =3id mac 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



28 11 22 p.m. Ibid 



28 
28 



11 26 p.m.Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
11 2S p.m.llbid =3rd niag.» 



Bluish white.. .;Lcssthanl sec 

I 

I 



= lstmag.4; Blue Isecond 



= 2nd mag.* 



28 11 40 p.m. 



Ibid , 



White 1 second ... 

Yellow !1*3 second 



= 3rd mag. ~- 'White 0-6 second 



28 11 46 p.m. Royal Observa-! = l»t mag.it Bluish white... i second 

tory, Greeli- 
wich. 



Frora4(y,A)Lyn« 

to K Ursae Ma 

joris. 
From 6 to ij Cephtf 

and onwards a 

far again. 
From «, halfway 

to 9 Ursse Ma 

joris. 
From ©Andromeda 

to i {a Andro 

medie, j3 Pegasi) 
From t to V An 

rigje. 
From I Draconis 

halfway to 

Urssc Majoris. 
From ^ (z, a) Ursi 

Majoris to k Dra 

conis. 
From ); to ^ Persi 

Appeared at rPeisi 



Commenced at 
Draconis. 

Commenced at 
Camelopardi. 

From m Custodis t 
i (K, P) Cam 
lopardi. 

From i (e, S) Urs 
Minoris to 
(P, Q) Camel 
pardi. 
.'['rom I (/3, 
Cephei to 
Cygni. 

From the direci 
of S Cygni to 
point near 'C i 
quilre. 

From the directic 
of 6 Cygni, fell 
below and L 
yond a Lyra;, j 

From X Cephei to 
(y, t,) Draconi.^ 

From -i (tt Pega 
a Lacertjc) to 
(<^» r) Cygni. ^ 

From S to i} C; 
siopeia;. 

FellverticallyintJ 
N., from the ( 
rectiou of Polar 
disappearing ai 
Ursae Majoris. ' 



A CATALOGUE 01' OBSEKVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METKOUS. 



39 



Uppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path, 



'o train or sparks 
train or sparks . 
train or sparks , 
o train or sparks . 
train or sparks . 



ucleus drawing a train 
of red sparks ; grew 
g;radual]y less. 
o train or sparks 



;ft a streak for 1 second 
train or sparks 



train or sparks 
train of sparks 
a train or sparks 

D train or sparks , 



10° 



ift a streak for 2 seconds 



} train 



10° 



B.train 12° + 



a train or sparks 
train or sparks 



train or sparks 

lint train 12° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observ 



From Radiant F, in Au^ 
riga. 

From a Radiant in Ce- 
pheus. 



From a Radiant in Cas- . 
siopeia. I 

From a Radiant in Cas- . 
siopeia. i 



A. S. Ilerschel, . 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



From Radiant T, in Ce-j Id. 

tns. I 

iFrom Radiant Qj, in Id. 

Hercules. 



From Radiant F, in Au 

riga. 
Directed from Pleiades. 



Directed from a Cygui 
Directed towards Capelia 

From Radiant T, be- 
tween Pisces and 
Get us. 

Uadiaut, ia N.W. ... 



Ill 30 minutes thirteen 
meteors: clear sky; no 
moon; one observer. 



Radiant, Polaris 



Radiant F, near ft Au- 
rigae. 



Radiant E, in Lacerta...| 
Radiant T, in Pisces . 



Radiant R (branch in 

Andromeda). 
Perpendicular 



ild. 

ild. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

VV, C. Nash. 



40 



KLPOllT 1866. 



Date. 



186 
Sept.29 



Hour. 



h m 

6 .56 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Royal 01)serva- 
lory, Green- 
wich. 



3(1 11 5 p.m. lla«kliiiist 

(Kent). 
30 11 25 p.m.ilbid , 



Apparent Size. Colour. Duration 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1st mag.« Bluish white... 5 second 



:3rd mag.* Vellow 0*4 second 

= 3rd majf.it Yellow iO/ second 



Oct. 7 8 30 p.m. 



12 9 25 p.m 



Royal 01l6er^■a-' = 2nd mag.» Blue J second 

tory, Green-' ! 

wicli. j 

Ihid • 



12 10 17 p m. Weston - super 
Mare. 



= 2iid mag.» 
= 3rd ma-.» 



While 1 second ... 

I31uc 1'5 second 



12|10 18 p.m. Ibid 



13 G 30 p.m. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



:2nd mag.» jlJlue 1 second .. 

:2nd mafr.* iRIue li second 



13i 8 29 p.m. Ilawkburst l = 3rd mag.» 

(Kent). 



13 8 30 
15 6 35 



Yellow 0-6 second 



p.m. Ibid —3rd raag.n Yellow Q-G second 



15 
15 
IC 



p.m. Weymouth 



=2nd D!ag.» 



Blue 1 second 



7 15 

8 17 
12 50 a.m. Ibid 



p.m. Ibid =3rd mag.# White Rapid 



p.m. Ilawklinrst 
(Kent). 



:3rd ni8g.» 



White 1-3 second 



=3rd mag.* White 0-5 second 



16 1 2 a.m. Ibid =2nd mag.# White O'G second 



ir About 
p.m. 



10 8 45 



10 iMcntnne, .Mpest Large meteor 
Maritimes. 



p.m. Weston - super - =lst mag.* 
Mare. 



Travelled 
moderate 
speed. 




Fellperpendicula 
in the W., fnfl 
the direction 
y Bootis, disaj 
peared at samJ 
altitude as Arc 
turns. 

I From ^ to a Perse 

^From oCustodis U 
P Camelopardi. 

I From the direction 
of e Cassiopeia 
I towards Polaris. 
Fell vertically fron 
a point just below 
Draconis. 
a = (- = 
From 28^ + 24° 
to 40 -f 28. 
From 0° -f 15" 
to 5 -f 1. 

1 Passed across . 
Cassiopeite to < 
point 10° belov 
Polaris. 
Disappeared at { 
(i, X) Aquilse. 



From 1° E. of (ij 
Pegasi to ( I 
Aqiiarii. I 

From a point abouill 
10=" below 12 Ca. 
num Venatico. 
rum, passed to. 
wards A returns. ; 
...From /t Androrae<> 
1 dae towards j; j 
Andromed<e. i 
.. Commenced at J (i//i( 
I X) I'iscium; course' j 
halfwayto 7 Pegasi. I 
...Commenced at >l ) 
I Draconis; coiirs« ; 
I halfway toe Ursa- , 
Majoris. 
...From /3 Cassiopeia 
I to-J(7r,, 7r.,)C'ygiii 
at From a point in d' 
tus or Pisces, no( 
! far from .\ries, tc i 
a point not fai 
from Altair. 



From 191° -f 58° 
to 182 +b3. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



41 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



J train or sparks 
a train or sparks 



I train or sparks 



> train 



train or sparks 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



8° Perpendicular W. C. Nash 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



From Radiant R^, in Tlic previous night over- A. S. Ilerschel 

1 Musca. cast. 

From Radiant R, in An- In tliirty minutes two Id. 

I dromeda. meteors : clear sky ;' 

I moon I full. 

8° Sliglitly inclined from 

i horizontal. ; 



ini train 'lJ>° 'Perpendicular, 



VV. C. Nash. 
Arthur Hardinir. 



. W. H. Wood. 

[d. 

W. C. Nash. 



I train or sparks ilO° 



Ift a streak on its whole 
•ourse for 2 seconds. 

I' lowed by a very di 
•tinct train of light, 
vhich remained visible 
mtil the meteor disap- 
leared. 



10° Horizontal 



Curved slightly The time is correct to 

one or two minutes. 



Directed from ^ Aquilse In one hour and thirtyjA. S. Herschel, 
minutes, sixteen me- 
teors : sky generally 
clear ; one observer. 

fn the next 30 minutes. Id- 
four meteors : clear 
sky ; one observer. 

No stars visible in the Arthur Harding, 
track of the meteoi'. 



Inclined i lid. 



Four meteors in forty. A. S. Herschel. 
five minutes ; clear 
sky ; one observer. 



Radiant (i/Orionis). 



Id. 



Id. 



70° or 80°..;E. to W., following D. A. Freeman, 

nearly the line of the ; Ast. Reg,, Dec, 



equator. 



18C5. 



W. II. Wood. 



42 



REPORT 18GG. 



Date. 



1865. 
Oct. 19 



Hour. 



h m 
10 15 p.m. 



19 10 40 p.m, 



19 10 56 p.m, 



20^ 7 1 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



:2nd mas'."- Bluish white 



Colour. 



Ibid. 



Weymouth 



2010 3 p.m. 

2010 43 p.m. 

20 10 45 p.m. 

20 10 49 p.m. 

20 10 56 p.m. 



20 10 57 p.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid 

Ibid 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



:1st ma!?.* 



=2nd mag.» 



= Jupiter 



White 



Yellow 



Bright blue... 



= 3rd niag.i' 
=:3rd mag. « 

= 3rd mag.* 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Lessthanlsec. From direction off 
Cygni, passed a 
cross X Lyife. 

1'5 second ... First appeared a, 
i {a, () Dra 
conis. ;; 

0*5 second ... From r to p Perseij 



= 3rd mag.* 

=2nd niaa;.« 



= 3rd mas;.* 



White 0-4 second 

White 0'7 second 



Yellow 

Yellow 
Yellow 



1*2 second 



06 second 
O'O second 



Yellow ll second 



20.10 58 p.m. Ibid =2rid mag.;;- Oranare colour O'S second 

I ! i i ! 

2010 59 p.m. Ibid =3rd mag.* White 0-7 second 

I ! I ' 

20.11 I p.m.llbid = 3rd mag.* Orange ^2 second 



20 
20 
20 
20 



11 2 p.m. 
11 4 p.m. 
II 6 p.m. 



Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



= 3rd mag.* 
= lst ma;;;.* 



:3rd mag.» 



11 19 p.m.llbid = 3rd mag.* 



2011 22 p.m. 
20ill 30 p.m. 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 



White 0-5 second 

White 0'8 second 

White ;0-8 second 

White 0*7 second 



=2nd mag.if Orange colour 0-9 second 

= 2nd mag.» Orange colour 0'8 second 



20 11 36 p.m. Ibid = 3rd mag.* 



20 1140 p.m. Ibid =3rd mag.v .. 



White 
White 



0"6 second 
0-9 second 



2 seconds From the direcj 

tion of Polaris I 
passedjust belov ' 
S Ursa; Minori. , 
to a point i 
little beyond t 
Lyrae. 

From J (k, Y) to ^ 
Draconis. 

From E, Psalterij 
to ^- (S Ceti, ij 
Eridani). ; 

Appeared at o Cetj 



From (c to fl! Dra 1 1 

conis. 
From -J {k \.\ m i- 

Ursae Majoris 

to \ {v, (p) Ursa 

Majoris. 
From ^ (e Lyncisi| 

p Camelopardi 

to /i Ursse Ma 

joris. 
From .V (a, c) to . ^ 

Tauri. ' j 

FromSCamelopard 

to e Persei. 
From A to J [jj, u^ 

Persei. '; 

From e Cassiopeiaj|o 

to >• Custndis. 
From i Eridani t(;l, 

4~^ under e Ceti. 
From Ursae Maja 

to X Draconis, 
From K Aurigaei ^ 

halfway to 1! 

Lvncis. 
From ^ Andromedej |. 

to a Lacertse. , 
From/SAndromeds; |, 

toi(/3,)7)Pegasi! 



From X ^o e Aui^ 

rigje! 
From c Camelopard 

to c Draconis. 



I 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEEVATTONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



43 



ipcarance; Train, if any, 
and its.Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



ain 



6°. 



4°. 



gfht train of white coloiir^35° to 40 



train or sparks 
train or sparks 

train or sparks 

train or sparks , 
train or sparks . 

train or sparks , 



't a streak for 1 second 



irkling brushy appear- 

nce. 

train or sparks 



t a streak for 2 seconds 
t a streak for 1 second 
t a streak for 2 seconds 

a streak for 3 seconds 
t a streak for 3 seconds 

; a streak for 1 second 
; a streak for 2 seconds 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Perpendicular 



Directed from »; Dra- 
conis. 



From Radiant O, in 

Orion. 
From Ivadiaut 0, in 

Orion. 

Directed from J, Ceti, 
Radiant T, in Ce- 
tus. 

From Radiant 0, in 
Orion. 

From Radiant F, in Au- 
riga. 



From Radiant R,, in 
Musca. 



From Radiant 0, in 
Orion. 



The previous three nights 
generally overcast. 



Serpentine course. Ra- 
diant, Polaris. 



From Radiant 0, in 

Orion. 
From Radiant 0, in 

Orion. 
From Radiant 0, in 

Orion. 

From Radiant 0, in 
Orion, 

From Radiant 0, in 
Orion. Another, = 
1st mag. star in Ge- 
mini. 

From Radiant 0, in 
Orion. 

From Radiant O, in 
Orion. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Nine meteors in forty, 
five minutes : clear 
sky ; one observer. 



W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



Id. 



Arthur Harding. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 
td. 

Id. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
;Id. 
ild. 

'id. 
!ld. 

Id. 
Id. 



44 



REPORT — 18GG. 



Date. 



18G5 
Oct. 20 



20 

20 



20 

20 
20 



20 



20 
21 

21 
21 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 41 p.m 



11 43 p.ni 

11 43 30 

p.m. 



II 47 p.m 

11 48 p.m, 
11 57 p.m. 



11 58 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Hawkliurst 
(Kent). 



[bid 
Ibid, 



Ibid, 

Ibid . 
Ibid. 



Ibid , 



=3rd mag.4f 

=3rd mag.» 
=:4th inag.» 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Wliite '0'7 second 



White 0-C second 



Wliite 



=:2nd mag.« White 0*5 second 



0'9 second 



=2nd mag.* [White. 

= 2nd mag.x- Yellow 



0'8 second 
0-7 second 



= lst mag.* 



12 p.m. Ibid =3rd mag.i;- ... 



12 130 Ibid =lstmag.» 

am. 



12 4 a.m. 



Ibid =3rd niag.tf 



12 9 a.m. Ibid =3rd mag.» 



21 12 18 a.m. 



21 
21 
21 

21 



12 19 a.m. 
12 38 a.m. 
12 33 a.m. 



12 43 a.m. 

25i 6 1 p.m. 

25 8 43 p.m. 

28 10 38 p.m. 



Ibid, 

Ibid . 
Ibid , 
Ibid , 

Ibid., 



= 3rd mag.% 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.» 



= 2nd mag.« .. 



= 2nd mag.* 



Bayswater JThree times a- 

bright as a 1st 

mag.-» 

Weston - super - =lst mag.s;- Briglil blue ... 1-5 second 

Mare. 



Orange colour 0'8 second 



Wliite 0*5 second 

Orange colour 08 second 



White 



0'6 second 



White O-o second 



White 

White 
White 
White 

White 

Blue 



0"4 second 

00 second 
O'G second 

1 second .., 



0"7 second 
2 seconds 



Ilawkliurst 
(Kent). 



:3rd mag.* .... 



White 0-5 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Trom i- (L, c) Ci 
melopardi to Pc 
laris. 

From Polaris to 
Draconis. 

From e Uisnc Ms 
joris, on a lin 
continued to 
Draconis, disay 
pearing 6° shoi 
of that star. 

From e Persei t 
J (jit Persei, i 
Auriga;). 

From () to -^ (9, m 

\ Ceti. I 

lOn a line from | 
to 9 Aurigae 
beginning 5 
before r, an 
ending 5" beyon 
6 Aurig.T. ; i 

From.^(a,j;)Ceph(J 
to Cygni ; b( 
ginning 5° befor 
the former, an 
ending 5° beyon 
the latter point. 

From T to 9 An 
dromedae. I 

From c^ Piscium tj 
3- (/3 Piscium, j 
Pegasi). I 

From /3 to 33 Cygr [ 
i I 

From \p to J- ( 
BAG 7582, 
Cephei). 

From e Lyncis to 
(D Ursx Majorii 
p Camelopardi),j I 

From ^ Aurigae t|| 
$ Persei. j I 

From a to y Urjt, I 
Majoris. j j 

Began at i Cancril j 



From /3 Aurigse t 
j ff Lyrius. 

'From y Ursje M' 
noris, curved bt 
neath Polaris. ■ 

a^ 3=1 

From 0° + 8' 

: to 3 + 6.1 

From h Lyncis to! 

Ursse Majoris. 



il 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LtTMIKOUS METEORS. 



45 



ipeavance; Train, if any, 
ajid its Duration. 



Length of 
rath. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



ft a Streak for 2 seconds From Kadiant 0, in 

Orion. 

ft a streak for 1 second 'From Radiant 0, ii. 

Orion. 

ft a streak on i^s whole; !From Radiant L, in Lee 

course for 2 seconds. 



ft a streak fur 2 seconds 
ft a streak for 2 seconds 



ft a streak for 4 seconds 



ft a streak for 1 second 
ft a streak for 3 seconds 

ft a streak for 1 second 
rt a streak for 1 second 

't a streak for 1 second 

't a streak for 2 seconds 
't a streak for 2 seconds 
train or sparks 



rt a streak for LJ second 



train 



From Radiant Ry, in 
Musca. 



From Radiant 0, iji 
Orion. 



From Radiant 0, in 

OriDii. 
From Radiant 0, in 

Orion. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



!.V. S. llerschel. 



Id. 

( 
Id. 



From Radiant 0, in 

Orion. 
From Radiant 0, in| [( 

Or'.ou. 



Id. 



Id. 
.Id. 

.'id. 



From Radiant 0, ii 

Orion. 
From Radiant 0, ii. 'id 

Orion. 



From Radiant 0, in 
Orion. 

From Radiant F, in 

I Auriga. 

From Radiant O, in 

Orion. 
Directed from J- (/3, k) 

Geminorum. Radiant 

O, in Orion. 
From Radiant F, in 

Auriga. 



Curved. 



Id. 

Id. 

I 
I 
Id. 

I 
Id. 



In 2 hours 13 minutes 41 Id 
meteors : clear sky ; no 
moon ; one observer. 

Lost sight of behind a 
house. 



I train or sparks 



Arthur Harding. 
W. H. Wood. 
A. S. llerschel. 



40 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



18G5. I h m s 
Oct. 28 10 55 p.m. Hawkliurst 
(Kent). 



Nov. 5 8 19 p.m 



8 34 p.m. 



Regent's Park, =lstmag.« 
London. 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.* 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



5 8 40 p.m.jRegent's Park, 
London. 



6 Between 6 

I and 7 p.m 
8 7 20 p.m. 



7 40 30 
p.m. 



= Sirius 



Colour. 



White 



Duration. 



White 

Red and yellow 



0-G second ... 



0'5 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From E Psaltcrii 
S Eridani. 



From 1/ Musca: t 
I (y, (t) Ai'ietis. 
1'5 second ... «= o = 

i From 90° -f 82 
I to 98 + 55 



= lstmag.» Wliite 



Lancaster i Large meteor 



.:0-5 second ... From s Custoi 
j . to TT Ursje .\I 

I joris. 



9 
12 

12 



Greenwich =2ndmag.)r Yello 



Blackhesth 



= 3rd mag.* Yellow- 



Momentary . . , Directed from 
point about . 
above « Hercu 
towards ft L\Ta 



0-3 second .. 



9 40 p.m. Ibid =4th mag.s Bluish 

I ' I 

G 40 p.m. Brook, Norwich Bright as Venus ...Wliite 



-[ij second 
1 second .. 



10 45 p.m. 



12 10 55 p.m. 
12 11 17 p.m. 



Cambridge 'Bright meteor. 



12 
12 
12 
12 



11 22 p.m. 

11 22 30 

p.m. 
U 31 p.m. 



Ibid iSevcral bright me- 
teors. 
3rd mag.* 



From apoint alltt 

above and to tl 
j N. of a. Color 

Boicalis, towaic 

horizon. 
! 
• .'Appeared near 

Eridani. 
.;From ^ to /3 Urslj 
j ^Majoris. ' 

■ 'Crossing the la 
I star of the tail i; I 
I Ursia Major. I 



Flimwell, Sussex 
Ibid 



Brighter than 

I Venus. 
Ibid Brighter than 

I Venus. 
Ibid =3rdmag.» Rapid motion 



Blue 



Blue 



11 46 p.m. Ibid =lstmag.» 



Rapid motion 



From near Capel'> 

to the Pleiades. 
Disappeared 1< 
below ft Arietis , 
-Moderate Disappeared at | 

speed. I Ononis. ■ 

From 8'^ below /3t! I 

y Geminorum. 

From Aldebaran i 

38 Arietis. 



12 11 49 p.m. Ibid 



13 12 a.m. Hawkhurst 
I (Kent). 



As bright as Jupiter Moderate 
speed. 



:1st mag.*. 



From 11° W. ( 
Pollux. 



White 



1-5 second ... From oUrsaeMajor 

! to m Custodis, 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



47 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



i Direction ; noting also 
Length of whether Horizontal, 
Path. ! Perpendicular, or 
Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



o train or sparks 
eft a slight train 



ih a slight train 



A. flash only 



I train 

I train or sparks 



it a phosphorescent 
streak. 



QO 



Three meteors in thirty A. S. Herschel. 
minutes : half-moon ; 
clear sky ; one ob- 
server. 



E. to W. 



Slightly inclined to 
zenith. 



Tail 10° 1 sec. ; meteor 
increased in intensity 
and showed a red 
crescent on anterior 
hemisphere. 



T. Crumplen. 
W. H. Wood. 



T. Crumplen. 

Manchester 'Ex 
arainer& Times.' 
Thomas Wright 



fnclined 'il- 



/ 



I 



I train or sparks 



a train , 



20^ 

10° 
30° 



Perpendicular I Id. 



Horizontal, left to right 
Inclined 



Seen also at Manchester Communicated 
by A. S. Her. 
schel. 
W. H. Hudson. 



Id. 

F. Hewlett. 



a train 



ik for 2 seconds 



23° 
20° 

18° 



Course halfway from the 'id. 

Pleiades. 1 | 

Course halfway from thei Id. 

Pleiades. 

Id. 

Id. 
lid. 



X 



A. S. Heischel. 



I 



48 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude anil 

A.ziniuth. 



18G5. h 
Nov. 13 12 



ni Si 
1 a.m. 



Flimwell, Sussex 



1312 
13 12 
13 12 
13 12 



2 a.m. 

9 a.m. 

11 a.m. 

11 30 

.m. 



Ibid 

Wisbeach 



= lst mag.# 

= 2nd mag.» 
= 1st map;.* 



iJlue 



Newcastle - on - 

Tyne. I 

Hawkhurst ' — 1st mag.;!- 

(Kent). 



Very rapid ...iFrom k Ursse M« 
[ joris nearly t 
' Cassiopeia. 

Began -1^ W. of 

Geminorura. 
3J seconds ...From ^ Gemiiiorm 
to ^t Lyncis. 

From Pleiades t 

S.W. ofArie-. 

White 1-3 second ... From r Ursae M. 

joris to (o Ceiilic 



! Vellow 



13 12 11 30 Wisbeach 

I a.m. 
13 12 13 30 
a.m. 



= lstniaK.» Vellow 



13 

13 

13 

13 
13 

13 
13 
13 



Hawkhurst Bright as Jupiter... Orange colour 

(Kent). 



2 seconds 

1-8 second .. 



12 18 a.m.llbid. 



12 18 30 
a.m. 

12 19 10 
a.m. 

12 24 a.m. 
12 25 a.m. 

12 25 a.m 
12 27 a.m 



= 2ndmag.» 'White 1-2 second 



Flimwell, Sussex; — 1st mag.* 



Wisbeach. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Flimwell, Sussex 



12 27 30 

a.m. 

13 12 28 a.m 



Wisbeach. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid, 



t Moderate 
speed. 



= 2iulmag.» White . 

1 
] 

Bright as Venus ... Vellow 

Brighter than Yellowish 
Venus. 



= 2nd maff. 



li second 



I 4 second ... 

.Moderate 
speed. 



i 



= 2nd mag.* iWhite 

.\vhite 



= 2nd maa:.* 



= 2nd mag » White 



13 12 29 a.m. Flimwell, Sussex Brighter than 

Ju|iiter. 



13 
13 
13 



12 34 a.m. 



Ilawkhnrst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



12 36 a.m 

12 41 a.m. 'Flimwell, Sussex 



= 3rd mag.* White 

= lstuiag.* White 

= 2nd mag.* 



IJ second ... 
0-5 second ... 

I second 

1-2 second ... 

.Very slow mo- 
tion. 

0-7 second .. 

. I second 

, Rapid motion. 



13 12 42 a.m. 



Newcastle - on - 
Tyne. 



From /3 Cancri to 

(A,i)Monoceroti- 

To K Leonis ; threi 

quarters of tli 

way from e L( 

onis. 
From 1 ° under 

Monocerotis t 

^ Leporis. 
From about 10° W 

of y Geminorui 

to K Orionis, an 

onwards. 
From I Cancri 

through i Lynci 

to near e Came) 

lojiardi. 
First appeared at, 

Sceptri. 
From \ery near 

Orionis towaK 

S.W. 
FromaCanisMindi 

to near « Tauii. 
First appeared at 

Canis Minoris, 
From J (y, S) to 

Cancri. 
From 2 Persei to , 

(e Persei, y Ai 

dromedas). 
Appeared 

4 ° below 

Pleiades. 
From 1° N. of « t.j 

9 Geminorura. i 
From e to /3 Canij 

Majoris. | 

Appeared near Rigii 



aboi|i^ 



13 12 42 30 Flimwell, Sussex =2nd mag.* 
a.m. ! 



From IB Tauri, paij 
Pleiades, and i| 
of Aries, downtjl 
W. horizon. 1 1 
• Rapid motion.. Appeared about 3|i 
below Rigel. | 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIOr'Ji Of LUMINOUS METEORS. 49 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Direction ; noting also 
Length of wliether Horizontal, 
Path. j Perpendicular, or 
Inclined. 



ift afine train' 50° 



Remarks. 



10° 



i;ft a train 30° 

ail; I 

ft a streak for 3 seconds 



I Identical with the pre- 
ceding meteor. 



Observer. 



F. Hewlett. 
Id. 



light train. 



Upwards towards Lynx' 

-Vearly horizontal I U n. Miller. 

't. p. llarkas. 



Horizontal 



I ft a green streak for 
5 seconds. 



"t a streak for 2 seconds ., 



Identical with Cam- A. S. Hcrschel 

bridge No. 3, 12'' 11" 

32' a.m. (See Ap 

pendix IV. 2). 
Nucleus coruscant 



t a train 25° 



in on the whole course'20'' (Nearly perpendicular 



Streak decidedly green.. 



Identical with Hawk- 
hurst, 121' 18" a.m. 



r-shaped; left a streak 20° IDirected from /3 Cancri 

ir 4 seconds. 

t a very fine train 25° 



' a train of 15° 

I a streak for 2 seconds 6°. 



I a yellow train for 

seconds. 

I a streak for 2 seconds 



' a train 130. 



a streak for 1 second 
a streak for 2 seconds 



S. H. Miller. 
A. S. Ilerschcl. 

Id. 

F. Howlett. 

S. H. Miller. 

A. S. Herschel. 



Identical with Hawk- F. ITowlctt. 
hnist, 12'' 21"' a.Di. 



Directed from » Cancril. 



20° 



20'' 



860. 



inwards ^^ 

rards S ; S 

okedjthus -^f^ 



Downwards 

tow 

crooked 



S. II. Miller. 
A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 
Id. 

F. Howlett. 



A. S. Herschel. 
td. 
Towards S.W I Ip. Hewlett. 

T. P. Barkas. 



Towards S.W. 



F. Howlett. 



50 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
Nov. 13 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



h m s 
12 44 a.m. 



13 12 44 30 
am. 

13il2 44 30 

a.m. 
12 4G a.m. 



13 



13 12 46 a.m, 



Flimvrell, Sussex 

flawkliurst 
(Kent). 



Wisbeach. 



= 2n(i mag.* 



Brighter than 
Venus. 



Hawlthurst 
(Kent). 



Cor Corali . 
= 1st mag.* 



Flimwell, Sussex = 1st mag.jt 



13il2 48 a.m. Newcastle - on - 

i i Tyue. 
13:12 48 a.m.Ibid 



Colour. 



Greenish white 



Yellow 
Greenish 



13 12 51 30 
a.m. 

13 12 53 30 
I a.m. 

13!l2 51 15 

a.m. 
13 12 54 30 

I a.m. 
1312 54 45 

' a.m. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Sinus NMiite 

I 
1 

i 
Flimwell, Sussex' = 1 st mag.;f 



Hawkliurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



= 2nd mag.« 
= 3rd mag.» 



White 
White 



Ibid, 



= 2ndmag.» 'White 



13 12 57 a.ni. Newcastle - on -' 
Tyne. I 



13 
13 
13 



1 a.m. 

1 15 

a.m. 
1 1 30 

a.m. 



Flimwell, Sussex Bright as Jupiter. 
Ibid iBright as Jupiter. 



Ilawkhurst 
(Kent). 



13 1 3 a.m Wisbeach 
Ibid 



= 2nd mag.* White 



13 1 4 45 
I a.m. 



= lst mag.« Light blue 

= lst mag.# iWhite 



13 1 6 a.m. Flimwell, Sussex 



13 1 6 30 

a.m. 



I Ilawkhurst 

(Kent). 



13 1 7 a.m. Flimwell, Sussex 

1 
1 



= lst niag.» 



1 7 45 

a.m. 



13! 1 8 a.m. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Flimwell, Sussex 



= 3rd mag.* .... 
Bright as Jupiter. 



Yellow 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Appeared about 4° 
above Rigcl. 

2 seconds First appeared at 

a. Leonis. 



Rapid 

1-5 second .. 



Very rapid 
motion. 



a Canis Minoris t^ 
near a, Tauri. 

From h Ursfe Ma- 
joris to \ (Po- 
laris, « Tarandi). 



1-4 second 



= lstmag.» Bluish white.. 

Bright as Jupiter...' 



From near k Ursa, 

Majoris, nearlj' 
1 to Cassiopeia. 

'From y Geminoruir 

j to Pleiades. 
iFromy Geminorun 

to Pole-star. 
1 second From 'C, Leonis 

halfway to 54 

Leonis Minoiis. 

Fiom 10° below 

j Prooyon to 3^ 
j above Sirius 

1 second From q to n Mo 

1 nocerotis. 

jFrom I Ursm M» 

I joris to e Lyncis 
From a to y Dra 

conis, and 4' 

further. 

From a little nortl 

of Castor, througl; 

Aldebaran. 

From near, and a' 

bove/cto/SOrionis 

.\ppeared near Ri 

gel. 
From y Triangul; 

to \ {p Pisciuni , 

S Andromedse). ■ 
i i(S, ^) to » Eri,) 

dani. 
From near /3 Canii 
Minoris to -J- (i| 
OrioniSjjtiEridani 
Appeared betweei 

a and /3 Gem' 

norum. 
From I Geminoruiil 

to \j/ Cancri. 
From K Ursse Mai 

joris to Cassiol 

peia. ' 

From K Ursse Mai 

joris to g Camel 

lopardi. 
Appeared near 

Cassiopeia:. 



Moderate 
speed. 

Moderate 
speed. 

P2 second 



I3 second 

2 seconds, 



1 second 

Rapid motion 

I'l second .. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



51 



Appearance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 




20° 


Towards S W 




F. Howlett. 
A. S. Herschel. 

S. H. Miller. 
.4. S, Herschel. 

F. Howlett. 

T. P. Barkas. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

F. Howlett. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Id. 

T. P. Barkas. 

F. Howlett. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

S. II. Miller. 
Id. 

F. Howlett. 

A. S. Herschel. 
F. Howlett. 

A. S. Herschel. 

F. Howlett. 


Almost stationary ; left a 
streak at the place foi 
15 seconds. 

Train for H second 


3° 


Directed from /t Leonis 
Horizontal ... 









Streak 2^ seconds 






Identical with Cam- 
bridge, 12'' 4G'" 2- 
a.m. (See Appendix 
IV. 2.) 

Identical with Hawk- 
hurst, 121^ 46'" a.m. 


Left a fine train 


15° 




Train 






Train 








Left a streak for 4 seconds 








28" 




Identical with Hawk- 
hurst, 12'' 54'" 15^ 
a.m. 








Left a streak for 3 seconds 








Left a streak for 3 seconds 


* 






Left a train 











15° 






Left a train 


30° 


Towards W 




Left a streak for 2 seconds 
























1 

[^fo train or sparks 


10° .... 


Towards N.E. part of 
horizon. 


Identical with Hawk- 
hurst, 1'' 6"" 30' a.m. 


No train or sparks 




teft a very long train 


00° 




Identical with Hawk- 
hurst, l'' 7" 45' a.m. 


1 

Lett a streak for 3 seconds 




. 




38° 


Towards N. point of ho- 
rizon. 


Identical with Hawk- 
hurst, 1^ 8'" 4.5' a.m. 


^ 





e2 



52 



REPORT — 1866. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or | 
Altitude and * 
Azimuth. 


18G;.. 
Nov. 1 3 

13 
13 

13 

13 

13 
13 
13 
13 
13 

13 
13 

13 
13 

13 

13 
13 


h m s 
1 8 45 
a.m. 

1 14 a.m. 

1 14 15 
a.m. 

1 15 a.m. 

1 16 30 
a.m. 

1 18 a.m. 

1 18 15 
a.m. 

1 13 45 
a.m. 

1 23 a.m. 

1 24 45 
a.m. 

1 2G 15 
a.m. 

1 28 15 
a.m. 

1 29 a.m. 

1 30.54 
a.m. 

1 31 a.m. 

1 32 a.m. 

1 33 30 
a.m. 


llawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Flimwell, Sussex 

llawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Wisheach (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 

llawldiurst 

(Kent). 

Ibid 


= 3rdmag.* 

— 1 st ma" * 


Orange 


1-2 second ... 

Rapid motion.. 

0-9 second ... 

2 seconds ... 

1 second 

0-7 second ... 
0-9 second ... 
09 second ... 
Rapid 


From p Cassiopeia} 
to 1 1} Cephei, 
c Lacertac. 

Appeared at /3 Ge- 
minorum. 

From 2" above Pol- 
lux, halfway to k 
Aurig.x. 

From 1 (y, tt) Eri- 


= 3rdmag.* 

= 2ndmag.» 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rdmag.» 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 2ud mag.* 

— 2nd map' * 


Wliite 


White 


Vellow 


dani) to i (? 
Eridani, E Psal- 
terii). 
From r Monocero- 


White 


tis to a point in 
R.A. 125°, S. 
Decl. 17°. 
From X Canis Mi- 


(bid 


White 


noris to 2" W. of 

25 Monocerotis. ' 
From e Hydrae to I 

{<T Ilydrae, p Mo- . 

nocerotis). 
From ^ {it, t) Ursae i ! 

Majoris to -J (K, 1 

P) Camelopardi. ; 
From (S Canis Mi- 1 

noris to e Ori- 

onis. 


Ibid 


White 


Flimwell, Sussex 

llawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 




= 2nd mag.s 

= 2nd mag.» 

Brighter than a 1st 
mag.* 

= lstmag.* 

= lstmag.» 

= 3rd mag.* 


White 


0-8 second ... 

0-9 second ... 

1 second 

OC second ... 

2 to 3 seconds 

07 second ... 

0-5 second ... 
0-7 second ... 


White 


joris to a point; 
in R.A. 220-i°, 
N. Decl. 60°. 
From 4 (», ^) Ursae 


Ibid 


White 


Majoris to Ca- 
melopardi. 
From Persei to o 


King's Cross 
(London). 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

King's Cross 

(Loudon). 
Ibid 


Uluish 


Andromed.x. 
From h Leonis Mi- 


White 


noris to i Ursse 
Majoris. ' 

Appeared about 5°i 
above a Orionis,' 
and passed about 
the same dis- 
tance above h 
Orionis towards 
y Eridani. 

From »j Tauri to ^ 


White 




{a, a) Arietis. 
From a to ^ (v, |>' 


= lstmag.* 


Bluish 


Tauri. 
From a Orionis to 






3° below m Mo- 
nocerotis. 














!' 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



53 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



No train or sparks 



Left a train 15° 



Left a streak for 1 second . 



Left a bright streak 



Left a streak for 2 seconds 



Left a streak for 1 second 



Left a short bright train 
for 2 seconds. 

Left a streak for 2 seconds 



Left a train . 



Left a streak for 2 seconds 



Left a streak for 2 seconds 



40° 



^eft a streak for 5 seconds!. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



^eft a train for 3 seconds.. 2j° 



-.eft a streak for 1 second . 



jcft a bright train for 1 sec. 



Towards Aldebaran 



Identical with Cam- A. S. Herschel. 
bridge.No. 53, l''8'"37' 
a.m. (SeeSuppt.toCat.; 
and Appendix IV. 2-) 



F. Howlett. 
A. S. Herschel. 



S. H. Miller. 



lA. S. Herschel. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Very exact observation.. 'p. Howlett. 



Identical with Cam-lA.. S. Ilersclicl. 
bridge,No.70,l''24"'5G- 
a.m. (SeeSuppt.toCat.; 
and Appendix IV. 2.) 



InclinedS.E.toS. byW. 



From Radiant in Taurus 



Identical with Cam- 
bridge,No.75,l''27™37- 
a.m. (SeeSuppt.toCat.: 
and Appendix IV. 2.) 



Id. 



Id. 



T. Crumplen. 



A very brilliant meteor, jf. Rikatcheff. 
Identical with thr 
next. 



Identical with Green- 
wich, 1'' 30"" 54- 
a.m. (See Appendix 
IV. 2.) 



A. S. Herschtl. 

T. Crumplen. 
Id. 



54 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1865. 
N'ov.l3 



13 
13 
13 

13 
13 
13 



13 

13 
1.3 

13 
13 

13 

13 
13 

13 

13 
13 

13 



h ra s 
1 35 a.m. 



1 36 a.m. 

1 37 25 

a.m. 
1 42 50 

a.m. 

1 49 a.m. 
1 54 a.m 
1 54 a.m 



1 55 a.m, 



1 55 45 
a.m. 
1 59 a.m 



2 1 15 

a.m. 
2 3 38 

a.m. 



2 3 40 
a.m. 

2 4 30 

a.m. 
2 4 48 

a.m. 

2 4 50 
a.m. 

2 5 a.m 

2 8 a.m 



2 9 20 

a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Uawlihurst 
(Kent). 



King's Cross 
(London). 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd mag.*. 



Planetary disk=to 

Venus. 
Bright as Jupiter... 



Colour. 



White 



Ibid. 
Ibid, 



King's Cross 
(London). 



Ibid, 



= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.» 
= lst niag.» 
= Sirius 



White 



White 



Duration. 



0-8 second 



0-7 second 
0-8 second 



White 

Wliite 

Silvery white.. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
King's Cross 

(London). 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

King's Cross 
(I,ondon). 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



:bid , 



(bid. 



Ibid 



= 2nd mag.* 

=3rd mag.« 
= 2nd mag.» 

=2nd raag.» 



Brighter than a Is 
mag.* 



:lst man;.* 



White 



Yellow .... 
Bright blue . 



1 second 
1 second 
1 second 



0-8 second 
0*8 second 

1-5 second 
2 seconds.. 



White 



Brighter than a 1st Blue 
mag.« 



= 2nd mag.* 



= lst mag.* 



:1st mag.* 



Yellow 

White . 
White . 



= lstmag.* White 



1 second 



1^ second 

0*8 second 

M second 
0"8 second 

09 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From Q Camelo- 
pardi to 1° below 
Polaris, and 4-i 
further. I 

From S to E Leonis 
I 

! 

From «toyPiseiuin 

From e to ^ (X, v) 
Tauri, and on asj 
far again. 

From b Muscie to| 
y Piscium. 

From I (a, c) Tauri 
to ^ (X, k) Ceti. 

From £ Gemino- 
rum to y Ono- 
nis, and across S 
Orionis, which 
star it totally 
obscured. 

From »|/ Cancri to 
i («, /3) Canis 
Minoris. 

From r N. of m 
Monocerotis. 

Disappeared at y 
Leonis, course 
halfway from 
Procyon. 

From 6 Persei to ! 
Cassiopeia;. 

From the direction 
of y Cassiopeiae 
to a point mid' 
way between j3 
and r) Pegasi. 

From g Lacertas to 
g llonorum. 

Centre at (i Canis 
Minoris. 

Disappeared be- 
tween ft Cancri 
and Procyon. 

From a Auriga; to 
b Tclescopii. 

From e Geminorum 
to B Tauri. 

Disappeared at 2° 
S. of ? Ursa; Ma- 
joris, one-third 
of the way from 
^ Leonis. 

From Procyon to d 
Monocerotis. 



A CAT.iLOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MEXEOKS. 



i)0 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Left a streak for 2 sccondfl 



Left a streakfor 1^ second 



Left a very bright streak i. 
for 3 seconds. | 



ueft a streak for 1 seconii 



Isew gradually less; no|. 

train or sparks. j 

V. meteor with a very fine . 

wavy train, I 



jcft a streak for 3 seconds:. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



A, S. Ilerschel. 



T. Cruinplcn. 



Further view obstructed ' 
by buildings. 

Left a streakfor 5 seconds I Three bright njeteon A. S. Ilerschel. 

nearly together. 



Id. 

!ld. 
Id. 



The luminous streak onlj 15° 

seen, 
eft a fine train for 1 sec. About 15^., 



Good observation 



T. Crumplen. 



Id. 

.;A. S. Ilerschel. 
. T. Crumplen. 



Radiant, 5 Persei ' jA. S. Herscbel. 

Arthur Harding. 



|jrew gradually less ; no . 
II train or sparks. 

jcft a broad streak for'. 
! 3 seconds. 

jeft a bright streak fur 3 . 
II seconds. I 



.eft a bright streak for 3 
seconds. 



Directed from y Leouis 

Directed from v Ge- 
minorum. 



riiis meteor vras very 
similar to the one al 
1" 35'" 30' a.m. Iden- 
tical with the next. 



Identical with the pre- A. S. Ilerschel. 
ceding. (See Ap- 
pendix IV. 2.) 



Identical with the next 



T. Crumplen. 
VV. C. Nash. 



Radiant, g Persei Identical with the i)re-'A. S. Ilerschel. 

ceding. (See Ap-I 

pendis IV. 2.) 

, Id. 



lid. 



• [Identical with the fol- Id. 
j lowing. (See Ap- 
pendix IV. 2.) 



56 



KEPOUT — 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
Nov. 13 



13 

13 
13 

13 

13 

13 

13 
13 

13 

13 

13 
13 

13 



Hour. 



li m s 
2 9 27 
a.m. 



2 15 15 

a.m. 

2 16 15 

a.m. 
2 18 30 

a.m. 

2 19 45 
a.m. 

2 20 20 
a.m. 

2 22 a.ro 



2 28 15 
a.m. 

2 30 15 
a.m. 

2 33 a.m 



2 33 10 

a.m. 



2 37 a.m 

2 37 10 
a.m. 



2 41 15 
a.m. 

2 47 a.m 



13 2 48 20 
a.m. 
2 52 a.m, 



13 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Royal Observa- 
tor}% Green- 
wich. 

Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

[bid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Iloyal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Ilawkluirst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



As bright as Sirius. 



=2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.» 
= 2nd mag.» 

=2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 



= Sirius 



Colour. 



Blue 

White 

White 
White 

White 



Duration. 



2 seconds 

0*7 second 

0-8 second 
0-7 second 

0'7 second 



White 0-7 second 



= lst mat;.* 



Brighter than a ls( 

mag.* 



= Sirius 



=:lst mag.*. 



= 2nd mas;.* 



= lst mag.# 



: Sirius 



= Sirius 



Orange 1 second 



White 1 second 



White 



White 



I second 



White . 



White 



Blue 



White 



Greenish white 



Brighter than 1st \yhite 

mag.jf 
Bright as Jupiter. 



Greenish white 



1 second 



1 second 



0'7 second 



1 second 



0-6 second 



I second 



0-6 second 
0-6 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Passed from 5' 
below Procyon 
disappeared near 
Sirius. 

From A Ursae Mi- 
noris to f Dra. 
conis. 

From r Custodis to 
near e Cephei, 

From X Draconis to 
i (e,_ ?) Urs.T 
Minoris. 

From (T Ursae Ma- 
joris to * Ta- 
randi. 

From X Draconis to 
i {e,_l) Ursa; 
Minoris. 

From 1J° S. of w 
Leonis Minoris 
to ? Ursae Ma- 
joris. 

From L Camelo- 
pardi to y Cas 
siopeise. 

From 1° S. of i 
Monocerotis to 
I (/3 Eridani, /3 
Orionis). 

From 9 Aurigae to 
■^ (y Andro- 
medae, v Per 
sei). 

Through the centre 
of the Trian- 
gle «, /3, y Trl 
anguli. 

From Q Hvdrae to 
1°E. ofrMono 
cerotis. 

Passed a few de. 
grees W. of < 
Hydrae, and 7' 
onwards towards 
the horizon. 

From Camelo. 
pardi to k (k Ce. 
phei, Polaris). 

Disappeared at I 
Geminorum,half. 
way from y Can- 
cri. 

From to Cassio- 

peiae,and5°further 

Disappeared at ^ 
(A, (i) Ursffi Mi- 
noris, two-thirda 
of the way from 
j8 Ursae Majoris 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



57 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a fine train for 2 sees. 

Left a streak for 2 seconds 

jeft a streak for 4 seconds 
jeft a streak for 3 seconds 



Length of 
Path. 



20° 



iCft a streak for 3 seconds 



jeft a streak for 4 seconds 



jeft a streak for 3^ sees. 



<eft a streak for 3 seconds 



•eft a broad bright streak 
for 5 seconds. 



left a streak for 2 seconds 



eft a train . 



eft a bright train for 2J 
seconds. 

eft a streak for 4 seconds 



eft a streak for 3 seconds 

3ft a streak for 6 seconds ; 
faded gradually from the 
ends towards the centre. 



10° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Inclined 



Inclined ; directed from 
a Leonis. 



Remarks. 



Identical with the pre. 
ceding. 



Three other bright me- 
teors about the same 
time. 



Good observation 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Ilerschcl. 



Id. 
[d. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



Four other bright me- Id. 
teors about the same- 
time. 



Identical with the fol 
lowing. (See Ap 
pendix IV. 2.) 

Identical with the pre 
ceding. 



Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



Id. 



Id. 
Id. 



58 



REPORT 1866, 



Date. 



13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 

13 

13 

13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 



13 
13 

13 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m 
4 16 

a.m. 

4 22 

a.m. 
4 30 

a.m. 
4 37 

a.m. 
4 42 

a.m. 

4 59 
a.m. 

.\bout 
a.m. 

5 7 
a.m. 

5 12 

a.m. 
5 16 

a.m. 
5 18 

a.m. 
5 26 

a.m. 
5 39 

a.m. 
5 44 

a.m. 
5 42 



s 
12 



12 



Streatham, near 
London. 



[bid, 



14 I [bid. 

i 



43 

22 

49 

5 

17 

12 

48 
17 
40 
48 
30 
p.m. 



5 42 
5 42 

About 
p.m. 



p.m. 
p.m. 



Ibid 
Ibid, 
[bid , 
[bid, 

Ibid, 

Ibid. 
Ibid, 
[bid. 
[bid. 
[bid. 
Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



= Sirius 

=Procyon 

As bright as Jupiter 

=Vega Lyrse 

As bright as Jupiter 

As bright as Venus 

Apparent size of 
the moon. 

=f, apparent di- 
ameter of tlie 
moon. 

Apparent size of 
the moon. 

.As briglit as Venus 



Colour. 



Yellow 1 second 



Duration. 



Yellow 

Yellow ..., 

White 

Yellow ..., 
Pale yellow . 
White 



Blue 



1 seconds. 

2 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From 1 14° 

to 102 

From 137'= 

to 126 

From 116° 

to 98 

From 150° 

to 147 

From 185° 

to 192 

From 100° 

to 150 

From 187° 

to 160 



+ 30° 
4- 20. 

+ 2° 
— 4. 
+ 20° 
+ 19. 
+ 20° 
0. 
+ 28° 
+ 57. 
+ 2P 
+ 10. 
4-25" 
+ 62. 



:Sirius 
= Sirius 



Primrose Hill, 
London. 



Nearly as bright as 

Venus. 
= Sirius , 



From 3rd mag.* to 
= 3x ? at max- 
imum. 



Marlcet Drayton, Very bright 

Salop. 
Near Plymouth.. A fine meteor , 



Reddish purple 

Purplish yel- 
low [.'].' 
Orange colour 



Yellow 

Golden yellow 
Blui&h white... 



From 153° + 22° 
to 1 75 -f 20. 



From 156° 
to 167 
From 124° 
to 118 
From 196° 
to 205 



+ 26° 
+ 20. 
+ 27- 
+ 24. 
+ 56° 
+ 64. 



White ... 



25 seconds , 



White 



to 159 

From 114° 

to 100 



5 42Tauuton Large meteor 



Moved slowly, 

I especially to- 

iwardsflieclose 

Pale green ...A few seconds 



13 5 45 p.m. Boulogne liar- 13rillitnt meteor 
hour. 



Slow and dig- 
nified motion. 



From 150° +34° 
+ 34. 
+ 10° 
- 2. 
From 120° +22° ||L 
to 100 + 8. ' 
From below <^ 
Draconis, pass- 
ing between a 
Lyrfc and y Dra- 
conis, and on to- 
wards B ller- 
culis. 
FromE.toW.,40°a- 
bove the S. horizon. 
From E.N.E. to 
S.W. 



Commenced at an 
altitude of 4.'i 
or 50' in tl'.t 
E., passed in ;j 
slightly northern 
direction over- 
head, and disap- 
peared in the N\'. 
at the same a!(i 
ti;de. 

Crossed the moutb 
of the liarboMi 
in a westerly di 
rection at an ele- I 
vaiion of 30° or 
35°. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



59 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



eft a train 7° in length. 



itt a train 3° in length.. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



jft a train for some se- 
conds 10° in length. 
5ft no train 



:ft a bright and lasting 
train 10° in length, 
ift no train 



;ft a broad train all 

along its course 1 j° 

■wide. 

ft a train upon its 

wliole course for one 

minute. 

"ft a train for half a ml 

nu(e. 

'ft a train for several 

seconds. 

;ft a train for 4 seconds 

3° in length. 

:ft a train for 2 seconds 

5° in length. 

:ft a train for 3 seconds.. 



" Size of a large pear ". 



■ft a bright but evanes- 
cent train. 

kite sparkling train ; 
endured 1 second. 



N'early50°. 



luminous streak ; burst 

like a rocket. 

irst twice ; disappeared 50° 

suddenly. 



Observer. 



" Size of an orange ' 



Inclined downwards ... 



Horizontal 



.tpeared much larger, 
when vertical, than pre- 
viously or subsequently,' 
surrounded by a pale 
green halo, which at oiie! 
moment had a faintlyl 
spangled appearance. ! 



uitillations tinged with 
red. 



Globular; threw off a 
number of sparks. 



S. B. Kincaid. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
T. Crumplen. 



Seen also at Oswestry... Communicated 
by T. Crumplen 



Nearly horizontal 



Cloudy and dark; few 
stars could be seen 



Id. 



W. M. Kelly. 



Communicated 
by T. Crumplen. 



60 



REPORT — 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1865. h m s 
Nov.l3 Shortly be- 
fore 6 p.tn. 

13A few mi- 
nutes be- 
fore 6 p.m. 

13 About 6 
p.m. 



13 



13 



9 to 12 p.m. 



9 53 p.m. 



13 10 44 p.m, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Farnworth, near 
Bolton, Man- 
chester. 

Sandbach, Che- 
shire. 



Apparent Size. 



Manchester . 



Weston • super 
Mare. 



llawkliurst 
(Kent). 



Wisbeach. 



13 About 10 50 Haverstock Hill, 



13 



p.m. 
10 50 p.m. 



1310 50 p.m 



13 10 55 p.m. 



13 11 17 15 

I p.m. 
1311 26 30 

I p.m. 

1311 35 15 

p.m. 
1311 41 p.m. 
1311 47 15 

p.m. 
1311 50 p.m. 



Great Yarmouth =3 X ? 



London. 

Islington Green 
Loudon. 



Large meteor 
Large meteor 

Large meteor 



Bright as Venus 



= Sirius 



Large meteor 



= 3 or 4 times ^ . 



Cambridge 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Colour. 



White, then 
red. 



White 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From S. to W., 
high up above 
the horizon. j 
Not very rapid Commenced high 
up, due E., and 
disappeared due 
S. I 



motion. 



Moderate 
speed. 



Ruddy 5 seconds 



Very bright . 



Very bright . 



Large and brilliant Red, green, 
and yellow 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 

Ibid. 



= 3rd mag.» 
= 2nd raag.» 

=:2nd mag.# 

= 3rd mag.* 
=:2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.» 



Yellow 05 second .. 

White 2-75 seconds, 

Yellow 08 second .. 



Yellow <0-4 second 

Yellow 0-4 second 



Yellow 2 seconds. 



Disappeared at 2|' 
Ursae Majoris. 



From near /3 Gemi- 
norura tlirougli 
Cancer to the 
horizon. 

Its path com menced 
in or a little E. 
of Orion. 

From E. to AV., 
passing through 
the square in 
Ursa Major. 

From E. to W., a 
path of 35^ the 
centre passing 
just below y 
Ursae Majoris. 

From about the 
middle of the 
square of the 
Great Bear to y 
Cygni. 

From r to V Tauri.. 

From V Aurigae, 
passed >j Tauri 
to V Pisciura. 

Disappeared at Pro, 
cyon. 

From to 7 Ononis 

From 12 Lyncis to 
L Camelopardi. 

Appeared at \p Dta- 






A CATALOGtTE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LrMINOUS METeORS. 



61 



Appearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



rraversed the heavens like 
an ordinary shooting- 
star. 



Broke o>it rather stronger 
about the middle of its 
course, and then seemed 
to srow smaller. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



'tloriiontal! E. toW.. 



icft a streak for 2 seconds 



Perfectly horizontal ; 
parallel with the plane 
of the horizon. 



Remarks. 



Ohscrver. 



15"= 



«ft behind it a very bril- 20° or 30°. 

liant yellowish - white 

trail of light. 
■eft a long streak ; threw 

off sparks. 



xactly like a large rocket 



ery like a rocket 



train or sparks 



N 



Perpendicular . 



Nearly horizontal ; E. to 
W. 



35= 



Horizontal 



Horizontal 



rain on whole course for50° I Directed from/) Lyncis. 

2 seconds. 



eft a streak for 2 seconds 
train or sparks 



6°. 



'lb'= 



' Examiner and 
Times.' 

Lewis Evans. 



Communicated 
by R. P. Greg 



iky partially clear. NojW. H. Wood, 
meteors seen from 
12'' to !•> on the 14th, 
occasionally clear in 
the E. and N.; two me- 
teors were recorded. 
From 1" 15"" to 4'' SO"" 
a.m., the sky was com- 
pletely overcast, and 
observations were 
then discontinued. 



Like a rocket 



T. Humphrey. 



S. H. Miller. 



J. W., 'Morning 
Herald.' 

Communicated 
by T. Crumplen. 



Id. 



.Id. 



Directed from X UrsDe 
Majoiis. I 



Directed from \ Persei. 



A. S. Herschel & 
H.T.Humphrevs. 
Id. 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

[d. 



62 



REPORT 1866. 






Date. 



1865. 
Nov. 13 

13 



Hour. 



h m s 
11 53 10 

p.m. 
11 54 30 

p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



14 12 40 

I a.m. 
H'l2 3 10 

I a.m. 

14 12 5 a.m. 



Ibid , 
Ibid , 



11 

14 

14 
14 
14 
14 



12 13 a.m 



12 14 a.m. 



12 24 30 

a.m. 
12 30 40 

a.m. 
12 33 40 

a.m. 
12 34 30 

a.m. 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

llawliburst 

(Kent). 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.jt 

=3rd mag.« 
= lst mag.» 



Colour. 



Duration. 



=4th mag.» 
= lst mag.« 



Weston • super - =lst mag.* 
Mare. ! 



White 1 second ... 

i 
White l"5 second 

White 0-5 second 

i 
White 1'3 second 



Position, or I 
Altitude and ' 
Azimuth. Ai 



From B to y Tauri 



From X to 0- Dra- 
couis. 

Across Polaris .. 



il 



From 1° S. of ? to 
X Tauri. 



Ha'.vl^hllrst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid 
Ibid , 



14 

14 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 



12 36 a.ra.'Wisbeach. 



12 37 50 
a.m. 

12 39 a.m. 

12 42 20 

a.m. 
12 44 a.m. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



1-5 second ...I «= ^ = 

jFrom 127° + 19° i 
I to 112 - 0. ' 
From 1° above Pro- 
cyon to 1° above 
d MoMOcerotis. 
a= t = 

From 123° + 5° 
to 104 + 8. 

2nd mag.» Orange yellov.-il second iFrom j8 Triangula;, 

j t to e Muscae. 

White '1 second Lvppeared at v|/ 

Ursa; Majoris. 
Yellow Il second 



Dark .... 

White 14 second 

Orange I'S second 



Bright as Jupiter... 

=:2nd mag.* 

4xVenus 



=3rd mag.* 



= lst mag.*. 



= Sirius 



Ibid As briglit as Jupiter 



Emerald green 2 seconds 



Yellow 



White 



Yellow 



Ibid 



12 48 


50 


a.m. 




12 49 


30 


a.m. 




12 52 


20 


a.m. 




1 


a.m. 


4 34 


2 


a.m. 




4 34 


15 


a.m. 





'=3rd mag.* 



Ibid jBrighter than a 1st 

I mag.* 
Ibid As bright as Jupiter 

Ibid As bright as Jupiter 



Ibid . 



Streatham, near 
London. 



ibid, 



Brigliter than a 1st 

mag.* 
= Regulus 



=Altair 



Orange yellow 



Rapid 



White 

White 

Greenish white 

White 

Orange yellow 

Yellowish 
white. 



1-2 second 

1"4 second 
1 second ... 
O'o second 
1"3 second 
1*4 second 
1'3 second 
I "5 second 



From y Triangula; 

to P Andromedae. 
Disappeared 4° s. 

p. 6 Leonis. 



Yellow 



From near^ Leonit 
Majoris, between 
V, d Leonis Mi- 
noris. 

From Ursa; Ma- 
joris to \ (c, K) 
Camelopardi. 

From k Lyncis to o 
Leonis Minoris. 

Appeared at y Le- 
onis. 

Fro:n ^ (e, I) On- 
onis to j3 Eridani. 

From e Cephei to 
g Honornra. 

From Ursae Ma- 
joris toy Cephei. 

From ? Geminorum 
to (/; Orionis. 

First appeared al 
« Draconis. 

From 142° -{-34° 
to 140 -f29. 

From 124° + 22° 
to 98 + 19. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS, 



63 



1; 

Appearance ; Train, if any, 
1 and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


[jeft a streak for 2 seconds 

Jeft a streak for 2 seconds, 
which appeared to be 
divided longitudinally. 


1 




1 


A.S. Herschel & 
H.T.Humphreys. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

A. S. Herschel & 
H.T.Humphreys. 

W. II. Wood. 

A. S. Herschel & 
H.T.Humphreys. 
Id. i 

Id. 

Id. 

S. H. Miller. 

A. S. Herschel & 
H. T. Hum- 
phreys. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
S. B. Kiiicaid. 

Id. 








15° 


E to W 




jcft a streak for 3 seconds, 
which faded from the 
ends towards the centre. 






Very good observation.. 






Left a broad yellow streak 
for 2 seconds. 













irew gradually less ; left 
no streak. 










Directed from k Leonis. 




Irew gradually less ; left 

no train. 
Hffused a strong light in 

the sky lilte lightning ; 

streak red ; duration 2 

seconds. 






G' 


Directed from ^ Leonis.. 




15° 






eft a streak for 2 seconds 

train or sparks ; grew 
gradually less. 












Good observation 


3° 


Directed from ? Leonis 


|,, 












Exact observation 


eft a broad very bright 
streak for five seconds, 
eft a streak for 3 seconds 

eft no streak ; grew gra- 
dually less, 
eft no train 


i 










10° 


Directed from jS Aurigae 








:ft no train , 

















64 



REPORT — 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
Nov. 14 



15 



15 



Hour. 



h m 

5 30 a.m. 
until sun- 
rise. 



8 38 + 
p.m. 



8 bi p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Greenwich Park 



West Ilendon, 
Sunderland. 



15 About 10 40 Wimbledon 



17 
17 



p.m. 

7 47 p.m 

8 30 p.m 



(Surrey). 



Primrose Hill 
(London). 



Greenwich 



18 About 4 30 Wimbledon 
(Surrey). 



18 



18 



4 30 p.m. Cambridge 



Apparent Size. 



=2nd mag.« 



=3rd raag.» 



Nearly = Sirius ... 



= 2nd mag.« 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Bluish white... I second 



Bluish white., 



:1st mag.* 



White 



Bluish white.. Less than 1 sec 



3 seconds 



0-5 second ... 



Nearly as bright as 
Jupiter. 



5 20 p.m. 



18 6 4 30 
p.m. 



Royston 



Blackheath 



.V brilliant meteor. 



A conspicuous me- Yellowish 
teor. white. 



=3rd mag.» 



White 



I 



From a point aboui 
3" above /3 Au 
rignc. Disap- 
peared a little tt 
the S. of e Au- 
rigae. 



J 



Vanished 2° or 3" 
below and to the 
left ol\p Aquarii. 



Passed about 1|' 
above Polaris, 
Course 

«= ?= 

From 152° -f 53° 

to 337 +40. 

From » Vulpecula; 
to 2h° below ^ 
Aquilx. 1 

Passed across «| 
Aquarii from the 
direction of P 
Equulei. 

li 



Passed somewhal 
below Polaris. 



2'5 seconds ... In the western por- 
tion of the hea- 
vens. 

2 seconds ...'From a little W. o 
II, to 2^° below 
<y Ursse Ma-j 
joris. I 

1 second iFell vertically pasi 

If Draconis to 
wards <// Ursa 
Majoris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEKVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



65 



Vppparance; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whetlier Horizontal, 

Perpen'iicular, or 

Inclined. 



left no train 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Curved 



/5 




eft a conspicuous train 
of phosphorescent light. 



sft a train on its whole 
course. 



3ft no train 



le meteor divided near 
the end of its course into 
two bright objects, one 
following the other. 
:ft a train of light of a 
pale green colour. 



ke a rocket with a short 
tail. 



From E.N.E. to W.S.W, 



Inclined a little down- 
wards to the right. 

Inclined at an angle of 
45°. 



iOrange-coloured shoot- Communicated 
ing-stars = 1st and byW. H.Wood 
2nd mag. stars ; some 
brighter. Fell verti- 
cally from an altitude 
of about 25°, N. or 
N.W., at the rate of 
twelve per hour. Sky 
clear ; radiant fx Le- 
onis. 



Thomas Wright. 



T.W. Backhouse. 



/ 



F.C.Penrose. 



ft no train 



J-SiJG. 



T. Crumplen. 
W. C. Nash. 



Communicated 
by F. C. Penrose, 



Horizontal 



Perpendicular , 



Very luminous ; seen in Communicated 
strongtwilight. This ob- by T. Crumplen, 
server saw the meteor of 
.NTov. 13th,5''42'"p.m, 



Centre of track opposite 
K Draconis. 



Id. 



Thomas Wright. 



J. 

i 



66 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



1865. h m s 
Nov.18 6 14 30 Blackheath 
p.m. 



6 59 30+ 
p.m. 



18 

18^ 9 23 p.m, 



18 9 45 + 
p.m. 



18 9 45 + 

! p.m. 
21 Eveniug ... 



Ibid 

Greenwich 

Granchester 
(Cambridge). 



Ibid, 



21 



21 



Finchley, near 
London. 



6 p.m.|Oundle (Notts). 



Apparent Size. 



=3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.« 

A. bright meteor. 

A bright meteor. 



Three times larger 
and brighter than 
Venus at its 
brightest. 

Unusually brilliant 
meteor. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



White 3 seconds 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Bluish i2 seconds. 



Blue 3 seconds 



6 p.m. 



21 



21 



Wisbeach (Cam- 
bridgeshire). 



6 p.m. Norwich 



Twice the apparent 
size of Jupiter, 



Meteor blue 
tail white. 



. Passed midway he- 
I tween /it and 
Lyrse towards 9 
Draconis. 

From 7 Cygni to a 
point near ft 
Cygni. 

From the direction 
of Capella to- 
wards a Ononis. 

Course parallel to 
and just below 
/3, y Ursae Ma- 
3 oris. 

Near t Ursae Ma- 



I jons. 

Passed dkectly 
overhead. 



A few mi- Harpenden, St, 
nutes past Albans (Herts), 
6 o'clock. 



21 A few mi- Near Liverpool;! Large meteor 
nutes after! Lat. N. 5."^° 24'i 



Very large meteor.. 



21 



6 p.m. 



39", Long. W. 
2^ 59' 30". 



Colours vivid; 
changing. 



About 4 sees... From i° below i 
Ceti to V-' below 
S Aquarii ; com- 
mencing to the 
east of I Ceti, 
and disappearing 
some distance 
below S Capri- 
corni. 
.\ppeared within 5^ 
of the Pleiades 
[ ? if 4' Aquarii] , 
and moved across 
the sky full south. 



At least 2 or 3 
seconds. 



6 5 p.m. New Brighton, Large and brig&t. 
I Liverpool. 



Moved slowlv. 



:ll 



started near th( 
zenith, and dis-' 
appeared S.W, 



II 

First appeared S.E. 
at altitude about 
58°. Disap. 

peared on the 
southern meri- 
dian. 

The meteor was; i 
first seen S.E. at|| 
altitude about 
25° or 30^ and 
went out at thf 
same altitude 
S.W. ,1 

Like a Roman-canJ I 
die baU. ' ' 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



67 



"ipp' arance ; Train, if auy, 
and its Duration. 



jufl a faint train. 



Length of 
Path. 



10= 



a faint train 15 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Inclined 



eft a faint train. 



ell no train 



liash. 



Slightly inclined from 
perpendicular. 



20° 



10= 



No path 



)llowed by a tail some 6°| 
or 8° long, but did not 
burst. 



Inclined 



Inclined 



N.E. to S.W. 



shape like a blunt spear 
head, drawing a tail of 
white light, and sparks 
behind it. 



30° 



,et gradually increasing 
;o dazzling brightness 
t suddenly changed to 
;he red glow of dull ig 
lition, and finally disap 
leared. 



Cloudy and rain falling ; 
stars invisible ; the 
meteor was above 
the clouds and shone 
through them . 

Approximate position 
taken the following 
evening. 



Inclined 15° from horj 
zontal. 



ball of intensely brilliant About 30°.. Descending in S.W. 
light, leaving behind it 
a brilliant arch or bow 
of light. 



IE. to W. 



tfered only from a fire- 
vork in its perpendicu- 

ir fall. 



Thomas Wright. 



Id. 



Thomas Wright ; 
Arthur Harding, 

W. H. Hudson. 



Id. 

J. H. Heal. 



Communicated 
by Hugh 
Weightman. 



The 'Times,' 
Nov. 24th. 



Sky calm and clear. 
The meteor cast a 
shadow of the ob- 
server on the ground 



Norwich 
cury.' 



' Mer- 



The ' Times,' 
Robert Lynn. 



Mathew M. 
Brown. 



H. Bower. 



F 2 



G8 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1865. 
Nov.21 



h m 
6 5 



s 
p.m 



21 
21 
21 



G 5 



p.m 



6 5 p.m 
6 5 p.m 



21 
21 

21 



6 5 or 
6 6 p.m 

6 6 p m. 



6 8 30 
p.m. 



21 6 9 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Near Craiifoni 
(Middlesex) ; 
N. lat. 51° 29' 
40", W. long. 
O'" 21'. 



Three times as 
bright as Venus 
at its brishtest. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Nottingham Park 
(Nottingham) 

Near Bedford .. 



Weston • super - 
Mare. 



Oxford 



Northolt 
(Harrow). 



Colebyfield, 
\Viml)ledon 
(Surrey). 



Shoeburyness 
(Essex). 



Large meteor 



Large fireball 



Very large 



Brilliantbluish Slow speed; First appeared at 
white ; tail duration an altitude of 

reddish. about 10 se- 40° above the 

conds. eastern horizon.] 

Passed to the S. 
of, and lower 
than the con- 
stellation Cassio- 
peia, almost ver- 
tically overhead, 
and disappeared 
about 25° above 
the horizon due 
W. 



Brilliant blue. 



Larger and brighter 
than Venus ap 
pears. 

Large meteor 



6' of arc in width ; 
j; diameter of the 
moon. 



Very large meteor. 



Blue 



White or 
greenish, 
shading into 
blue. No 
change of 
colour du 
ring its ap 
pearance. 



Speed 15° per 
second. 



About 7 sees. 



Appeared in tli 
E.N.E. orE.,aii 
disappeared S.' 

Appeared at an aH 
tude of about 30 
or 40° in the E. 
and disappeared 
N.E. 



In the S., not many 
degrees above the 
horizon. 

Traversed the slcy, 
and disappeared 
on the horizon 
due W. 

From an altitude of 
76° 5', a little 
northward of the 
zenith, to a point 
in R. A. 18'' 0", 
N. Decl. 45°; 
about8°N.W.of 
a Lyrx. The 
positions mea^ 
sured with aa 
equatorial tele- 
scope soon after 
disappearance. 

Appeared in the ze 
nith, and passed 
at an altitude of 
70° behind a thin 
baud of clouds, 
reappearing im- 
mediately, and 
disappeared at 
an altitude of 30° 
behind a dense 
pack of clouds, 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS AIETEORS. 



69 



Appearance; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Duration. i Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Like a Roman-candle ball, 
followed by a tail from 
2i° to 3° in length. 
The throwing off of the 
matter forming the tail 
could be distinguished. 
Disappeared without 
bursting. 



E. to W. 



'resented the same ap- 
pearance as at Cranford. 



jlobular 



jcft a train 8° in length- 



Disappeared 

stantlv. 



almost 



30= 



in- Almost sta- 
tionary. 



.ike a ball of fire 



'ear-shaped, surrounded 
liy an edge of purplish 
liglit, and by a halo 
c ;used by thin cloud, 
\vhich hid the tail. Dis- 
appeared suddenly with 
out any previous loss of 
li'^ht. 



leserabled a comet, being 
followed by a train. 



Remarks. 



Sky hazy, and principal 
stars, with the excep- 
tion of those of Cas- 
siopeia, obscured. No 
noise accompanied or 
followed its appear- 
ance. 



Very brilliant 



Inclined downwards to- Very rough positions 
wards the left from 
perpendicular. 



/ 



Due E. to W. 



^o-- 




S. to N., with a tendency 
to W. 



Light of meteor very 

startling; lightning at 
8 p.m. 

Cast a light as bright, 
but colder in colour 
than moonlight. A 
loud report like that 
of a cannon some 
miles off was heard 
about 2" 20' after 
the meteor disap- 
peared. 



Obsen'er. 



WarrenDelaRue, 



R. A. Tucker. 



Communicated 
by T. Crumplen. 

Communicated 
by W. H. Wood 



S. S. Burnet. 



T. H. Gordon. 



F. C. Penrose. 



The 'Times,' 
Nov. 24th. 



70 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
Nov.21 



21 



21 



Hour. 



h m s 
6 9 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



6 10 p.m. 

About 6 15 
p.m. 



D anbury 
(Essex). 



Hill 



21 About 
p.m. 



21 7 11 

p.m 

21 
21 

22 

22 

p.m 
21 G 39 



6 15 



Copse Hill, 
Wimbledon. 

Observatory, 
Cambridge. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 






Apparent diameter^ Bright yellow jFrom within 20° a 

the zenith ; de 
scended in 
south - westerl 
direction ; disap 
pearing behind 
black cloud nea( 
the W. horizon. 



8 48 
10 1 

7 17 



45 

p.m. 
p.m. 

p.m. 



At least twice as' Yellower than, 
bright as any, Venus, 
planet. | 

Two or three times; Flame- 
brighter thai) coloured. 
Venus. 



i diameter of full 



Greenwich 



II 11 15 
p.m 



24 6 45 
24 8 20 



p.m 
p.m, 



Weston - super 
Mare. 

Blacklieath 
(Kent). 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Greenwich 



White, with 
red tail. 



= lst mag.#. 



= 4th mag.* 



= 2nd mag.v 



= lst mag.» 



Blue 



Dark-coloured 



Bluish white. 



Duration notFrom /3 Aquarii, 
less than 4 across o Aquila 
or 5 sees. to 6 Aquilse. 



Very short du 
ration. 



2 seconds. 



From an altiludt 
of 55°, between 
magnetic and due 
N. ; shot down'i 
wards towardi 
the W.N.W. hoi 
rizon. 

Passed between /E 
and 6 Delphini 
and disappearec 
a little below i 

■ Aqnilae. 

From 39° +27° 
to 28 23. 

1 second ;Appeared near b 

passed by 2, am 
disappeared i 
little above 1 
Orionis. 



0-5 second 



Yellow 



Ladywell, Lewis- 
ham. 



Ibid, 
Ibid. 



24; 8 37 p.m. Greenwich 



= 2nd mag.« 'Blue 

= 3rd raag.^- Bluish white., 



= 2nd mag.-it Blue 

Twice as bright as Yellow 
Venus. 



= 3rd mag.* 



Blue 



2 seconds 

1 second 
^ second . 

1 second . 
4 seconds. 

1 second ., 



a= ( = 

From 210° + 06° 
to 228 38. 

From r towards o 
Cygni. 

From the directioi 
of I Herciilis 
disappeared nea 
y Draconis. 

Disappeared a littli 
below /3 Auriga;. 

From the direc 
tion of ti Lyncis 
passed across ) 
Ursx Majoris 
and a few degree 
beyond. 

From the directioi 
of the Pleiade 
towards 'C Tauri. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



71 



Appearance ; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Duration. j Path. 



.V ball of fire, followed by 
a tail of the same width 
10° in length. The Ivjdv 
bright yellow ; the tail 
green, blue, and dusty 
yellow. 



'Left a track behind it afterl 
the nucleus disappeared. 

Followed by a long 
flickering tail. Re- 
mained invisible be- 
hind a cloud whilst 
4 or 5 seconds were 
counted, and then re- 
appeared again. 

A ball of fire, followed by 
a long tail. 



Left a faint train. 



Left no train 



Left a train 10° in length. 
The meteor increased 
from a 3rd to a 1st 
magnitude star. 

Left no train 



Left no train 

Left a. train 
Left a train 

iLeft no train 



10° 



10° 
6° 

10° 
30° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



E. to W., perpendicu- 
larly down. 



Inclined 



Nearly perpendicular . 



Inclined 
Inclined 



Inclined ; directed from 

e Persei. 
Inclined 



Inclined 



Remarks. 



Cast a glaring light ; the 
streak remahicd visi- 
ble a few seconds after 
the meteor had disap- 
peared. Air very 
clear, and the stars 
very bright. 

Cast a light on the 
road like the flash of 
carriage lamps. 

The light was sufiicient 
to have read a watch. 



Seen through a break 
in the clouds ; shortly 
followed by a hail- 
storm. Light suffi- 
cient to pick up a pin. 



Descended with a wa- 
ving motion. 



J. Ludlow. 
H. Todd. 



Observer. 



The ' Standard,' 
Nov. 23rd. 



Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel, 



Thomas Wright. 

W. H. Wood. 
Thomas Wright. 

W. H. Wood. 

Arthur Harding. 
F. Trapaud, 

Id. 
Id. 

Arthur Harding. 



72 



REPORT — 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
Nov.24 



24 



26 
26 



27 
28 
28 

28 

28 

28 

Dec. 2 



Hour. 



h ra s 
9 9 42 
p.m. 

9 13 or 
9 14 p.m. 



1 25 p.m. 
8 30 p.m. 



4 40 a.m 
3 7 a.m 
3 25 a.m. Ibid 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Observatory, {Large meteor 
Cambridge. j 



Cheltenham 



West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 
Lewlsham .... 



2iid or 3rd mag. at 
first; before reach- 
ing head of Orion 
broke out to size 
of Jupiter, but 
speedily extin- 
guished. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



= lst mag.» 



Weston - super - 

Mare. 
Cromer (Norfolk) 



3 29 a.m. Ibid, 



3 35 a.m. Ibid . 



4 13 a.m. Ibid 



9 47 30 
p.m. 

Evening . 



= lst mag.» 

As bright as Venus. 
= 3rd mag.* 



= 3rd map;.* 



= 3rd maR.* 



= 2nd maGr.» 



= 1st mac:.* 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Blaenafon, [Large and very 



Orange colour 



Yellow 



Yellow 



White, then 

yellow. 
White 



1 second 



White 



Yellow 



0"5 second 
1*5 second 
0-5 second 

0-6 second 

0*5 second 



Yellow, then '^'2 seconds 
oraiige-red. 



Pontypool. j bright. 



Bright blue . 



Crimson-red at 
the last. 



1 second 



7 30 p.m. Vannes (France) Size of the full Head and train Slow speed 



8 10 55 p.m. lla'.vkliuist 

(Kent). 
8 10 55 30 Ibid , 
p.m. 



moon. 



bluish white;! 
sparks red. 



Crossed the S.meri. 
dian at an altitudji 
of about 25°. 

Began some when 
between a and jC 
Tauri ; disap- 
peared in head ol 
Orion, or perhaps 
between a, and y 
Orionis. 

Passed S Herculis.. 



From a point mid- 
way between Ca- 
pella and j3 Au-j 
rigae to a point a| 
little below the 
Pleiades. 

From \ to 7r, Ori- 
onis. 

From Draconis 
Herculis. 

From 54 Leon; 
Minoris to y| 
Leonis, and 5°j 
beyond. 

From V Ursaj 'Mi. 
noris to g Dra- 
conis ; 5° before 
and after. ' 1 

From i to a Canuml 
Venaticorum, and 
onwards as far 
again. 

From ^ (Procyon, 
m Monocerotis) j 
to i (B, D)ll 
Hydrse, 

From the direction 
of a. Cassiopeia; 
towards ?/ Pe- 
gasi. 

From altitude 

about 40°, N-S., 
to a somen hat 
less altitude, 
N.W. 

From a. Andromeda; 
to Arictis. 



= 3rd mag.* Yellow I-l second ...Trom v to X Gemi- 

I ] I norum. 

= 2iid mag.* : Red and white 0-8 second ...From Polaris to t 

Draconis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



73 



ppearancc ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



lazing like 
caudle ball. 



a Roraan- 



;ft a fine train 



Direction; noting also 

^vhether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Nearly horizontal, per- 
haps slightly down- 
wards ; E. to W. 

Inclined a little to left 
of vertical. 



30" 



ft a streak 8? in 
length. 

lobular, no train or sparks, 
uilw gradually less. 
n a faint train for 5 a 
second. 



1 ft a bright streak for 2^ 
seconds, which faded 
from the ends towardsj 
the centre. 

1ft a faint streak for ^ a 
second. 



' tiaiu or sparks; grew 
(laduallv less. 



It no train '25 



Vertically down 
Inclined 



D)ke up into numerous , 
mall fragments. 



Inclined 



ind or elongated, with 
very luminous envelope 
id train ; broke into a 
lass of sparks. 



Lt no train 

Strain or sparks 



W. to E. 



Remarks. 



ObseiTcd between shut- A. Graham. 

ters whilst waiti 

for a transit. 
Oblique vision ; details T. \\. Webb. 

only approximate. 



Observer. 



In one hour, ten me- 
teors seen. Clear sky ; 
no moon ; one ob- 
server 
Atl0hl3"'and 10>' 17'" 
a.m., very bright mock- 
suns ; the first on the 
left, the second on the 
right of the sun. 



T.W. Backhouse. 
F. Trapaud. 



\V. H. Wood. 
A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



Arthur Harding. 



Of the same size and ap-i J. J. Jones, 
pearauce as that of 
the l-lth November. 



3'" 30' afterwards 
report was heard 
which shook the 
houses. (See Ap- 
pendix II.) 

At 111' Qm tiie si.y ije, 

came overcast. 
Four meteors in fifteen 
minutes ; sky clear ; 
no moon ; one ob- 
server. 



Comtc de Linien, 
and M. Gar- 
nache. 



A. S. Ilcrschcl. 
Id. 



74 



UEPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1865. 
Dec. 8 



11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 
11 4 p.m. Hawkluirst 
(Kent). 



8 5 p.m. 



8 30 p.m. 
(local time.) 



6 4 57 
p.m. 



6 17 36 
p.m. 



6 20 42 
p.m. 



6 25 49 

p.m. 



6 28 2 
p.m. 



7 15 
p.m. 



7 4 58 
p.m. 



West Ilendon 
(Sunderland). 



Charleston, U. S. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



= 3rd ma?;.* 



= 2nd mag.* 



Orange colour 



=Aldebaran 



=2nd mag.» 



= 1st mag.* 



Tvrice as bright 
Jupiter, 



Twice as bright 
Jupiter. 



as 



= 3rd maa:.» 



=3rd mag.* 



Colour. 



Duration. 



White 09 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Yellow 



Bluish 



Yellow 



Bright yellow 



Bright yellow 



From TT Ursje Ma 
joris to p Came 
lopardi. 



Near (?and/tPers' 



3 seconds. 



2 seconds. 



3 sees. ; very 
slowmotion. 



5 seconds. 



Bluish white., 



Bluish 



5 sees. ; very 
slowmotion. 



03 second 



Momentary 
duration. 



From a point 3 
below and S. c 
a Andromeda- 
passed betwee 
(i and r Pegas 
and disappeare 
a few degret 
above e Pt 
gasi. II 

From a point aboiil 
1° above Polaris 
disappeared aboi 
2° above r Dr; 
conis. 
From a point aboi 
3° above « Dn 
conis ; disaf 
peared about 2 
above e Ursi 
Majoris. 
From about 3° Ti^ 
of T Aquarii 
past S Aquari 
and disappeare 
about 8° W. ( 
Fonialhaut. 
From about 1° b( 
low ji Cygiii 
passing W. of 
Aquilae, and dii 
appeared 10° bi 
low and E. of i| 
Antinoi. { i 

From a point 
few degrees abo\ 
the Pleiades to 
point a few di 
greees below 
Arietis. 
From about 3 
above to aboi 
3° below 
Cygni. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



75 



.ppearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



reft a slight train 



Length of 
Path. 



sft a fine train for 1 sec. 



36° 



ift no train 17 



ift no train 



ft no train 



ft a splendid yellow 
train for 3 seconds after 
the disappearance of the 
meteor. 



ft no train 



it DO train 



15° 



15° 



40° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Hoiizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Moon just rising ; 
meteors scarce. On 
the previous and fol 
lowing nights the sky 
was overcast. 



Inclined 



Almost horizontal 



iV meteoric flash, fol 
lowed by an explo 
sion at an interval of 
about one minute. 
(See Appendix II.) 

Very wavy motion ... 



Inclined 



Almost perpendicular... 



A. S. Herschel. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



American Journ. 
of Science, Mar. 
1866. 



Thomas Wright. 



Inclined 



Nearly horizontal 



Inclined 



This was a most splendid 
meteor. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Clouds rising in the E.. 



W. C. Nash. 



Cloudy after this time Thomas Wright, 
throughout the re- 
mainder of the night. 



EEPORT — 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
Dec. 13 



14 



Hour. 



h ni s 
7 20 p.m. 



8 9 6 

p.m. 



14 
14 

14 
14 

14 

14 



8 21 53 
p.m. 



14 



Place of 
Observation. 



West Hendon 
(Sunderland). 



Royal Observa. 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Ibid. 



8 37 40 llbid 
p.m. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Brigbterthan Sirius; Yellow 



=2nd mag.x 



8 44 46 
p.m. 

9 6 28 
p.m. 



9 38 15 
p.m. 

10 15 p.m 



Ibid . 
Ibid . 

Ibid. 

Ibid , 



:3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



=i2nd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 



Blue 



10 17 p.m. Ibid 



14 10 19 p.m. 



Ibid, 



=:3rd mag.* .... 
2nd mag.* .... 



Blue . 
Blue . 

Blue , 
Blue , 

Bluish 



Duration. 



2 seconds. 



1 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1| 



Momentary ., 



=3rd mag.* 



Twice as bright as 
a 1st mag.*. 



Bluish white. 



Bluish 



Blue 



2 seconds 

Rapid motion 

Momentary .. 



More than 
second. 



Momentary .. 



5 seconds. 



Vanished near tt 
Draconis. 



From a point 
little to the left 
of p Ursse Ma- 
joris ; passed 
about 2° left 
of i Ursae Ma- 
joris, and disap 
peared about 4' 
above i Ursae 
Majoris. 
From the direction 
of E Lyncis ; 
disappeared 
little above D 
Lyncis. 
Passed parallel to 
a line joining 
I and 6 Ursse 
Majoris, and 
about 2° above 
those stars. 
From 9 Ononis to 
wards a Leporis. 
Passed parallel to a 
line joining L 
and p Camelo- 
pardi. 
From the direc. 
tion of /3 Cas- 
siopeise, past r 
Cassiopeife. 
1 From a point 2° E. 
of 6 Geminorum; 
passed between I 
and 8 Gemino- 
rum, and disap- 
peared 3° below 
the latter star. [ 
From a point about' 
1° above Castor ; 
past that star 
towards the N.E. 
horizon. 
From a point 1^ or' 
2°VV.ofcLacertae; 
moved parallel to 
a line joining r| 
and 6 Cygni (on) 
the west of thosei 
stars), to about! 
10° beyond the 
latter star. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEEVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



77 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a slight train before 
it vanished. 



Left a faint train. 



Left no train 
Left no train 

Left no train 
Left no train 

Left no train 



Left a faint train. 



|Left no train 



Left a train . 



Length of 
Path. 



20° 



10° 
4°... 



4°. 



12° 



35° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Latter part of course 
curved. 



Inclined at an angle of 

45°. 



Inclined at an angle of 
about 10° from hori 
zontal. 



Inclined 
Inclined 



Remarljs. 



Slow in motion 



Almost perpendicular. 



Inclined 



\lmost perpendicular. 



Very slovy motion 



Observer. 



T.W. Backhouse. 



Arthur Harding. 



Arthur Harding 
and Thomas 
Wright. 



Arthur Harding. 

Id. 
Id. 

Thomas Wright. 



Arthur Harding 
and Thomas 
Wright, 



Thomas Wright. 



Arthur Harding. 



78 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



1865. 
Dec. 14 



14 



Hour. 



h m s 

10 56 p.m. 

11 5 p.m. 



14 11 9 p.m. 



20 



21 

24 
24 

25 
25 



27 

1866. 
Jan. 6 

6 

6 



6 56 30 
p.m. 



7 55 p.m. 



8 30 to 

9 30 p.m. 

11 52 p.m. 



7 8 p.ra, 
7 34 p.m. 



20 to 
20 p.m, 

5 p.m, 

28 p.ra 

44 p.m, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkhurst 

( Kent). 
Ibid 



Ibid . 



Blackheath 

(Kent). 



Weston - super 
Mare. 



Ibid. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 



Weston - super 

Mare. 
Ibid 



Ibid . 



Ibid. 



8 48 p.m. 



8 54 p.m. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Ibid, 



Apparent Size. Colour 



-2nd mag.* 
: 2nd mag.* 

:1st mag.* 

:1st mag.* 



:3rd mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 

:2nd mag.* 
: Venus 



=2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 



=2nd mag.# 



White 
White 

White 

Bluish 



Duration. 



Blue 



White . 

White . 
Yellow 



Red .... 
White . 
Yellow 

Blue , 
Blue . 



0-5 second 
0'5 second 

0-5 second 

2 seconds 



2 seconds 



0*7 second 



1 second ..., 
2"5 seconds , 



1-5 second 
0'5 second , 
1'3 second , 

Momentary , 
1 second .... 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From n Tarandi to 
T Cephei. ! 

Disappeared at yl 
Cancri. Course 
halfway from I 
Geminorum. 

Appeared midway 
between S Leonis 
and 54 Leonis 
Minoris. 

From a point about 
4° above j3 
Pegasi ; passed 
between that 
star and ?; 
Pegasi, and dis 
appeared about 
3° above X Pe- 
gasi. 

From a point in 
R. A. 81°, N. 
Decl. 26° to a 
Tauri. 



Disappeared at 
Monocerotis. 



From a Arietis to a 
Ceti. 

«= cf = 
From 307° + 49° 
to 292 33. 



From r Pegasi to n 

Cygni. 
From h Tarandi to 

r Custodis. 
From T Geminorum 

to 66 Aurigse. 

From the direc- 
tion of 5 Cas- 
siopeia; to- 
wards a Andro- 
niedaj. 

From the direc- 
tion of TT 
Cygni towards y 
Cygni. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



79 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



No train or sparks 
No train or sparks 



A. stationary flash ; no 
streak left. 



Left no train 



Length of 
Path. 



10° 



^0 train or sparks 



I'ear-shapecl ; inner bordei 
red, thus- 



sparkled; left a red 
streak 8° long for 4 
seconds. 



Direction ; noting also 

■whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



8° 'Directed from (/ Gemi- 

norum. 



fo train or sparks 



fo train or sparks ; grew 
, gradually less. 

train 



Remarks. 



Three meteors in thirty 
minutes : clear sky ; 
no moon ; one ob- 
server. 

Foggy 



Observer. 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

Thomas Wright. 



Sky fine and clear ; in 
one hour no meteors 
seen. 

One meteor only seen 
in one hour. Sky 
generally clear (occa 
sionally hazy) ; no 
moon ; one observer. 



10° 



,0 train 10' 



Inclined 



Sky fine and clear ; in 
one hour no meteors 
seen. 

Slow speed 



W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

W. H. Wood. 
Id. 



Four meteors in one 
hour : clear sky ; no 
moon ; one observer. 



Id. 

Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 

Arthur Harding. 
Id. 



80 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1866. 
Jan. C 



h :n 
9 59 



p.m. 



6 10 4 p.m. 



10 5 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 



Apparent Size. 



Tvrice as great as 
Jupiter. 



Far brighter than 
Venus appears at 
its brightest. 



Brilliant blue. 



Wisbeach (Cam- Twice as bright as 
bridgeshire). Venus. 



7 43 p.m 
5 54 p.m 

8 15 to 

8 35 p.m. 

9 22 p.m. 



West Ilendon, 
Sunderland. 

Blackheath 
(Kent). 



Hawkhurst 



(Kent). 



Blackheath 

(Kent). 



:3rd mag.« 
=3rd mag.» 



= 2nd mag.* .... 



Colour. 



Duration. 



5 seconds 



Bright blue... 



Orange colour 



Bluish white... 



Bluish 



Scarcely Isec., 
very fast. 



From a point 
about 1° above 
and N. of /u| 
Cygni ; disap-i 
peared a feWi 
degrees N. of e\ 
Pegasi. ] 

Passed very near tl 
Eridani, and dis-j 
appeared withini 
l°or2°of7rCet).! 



4 seconds 



Less than half 
a second. 



3 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



* 



No exact note of' 
position preserved. 



Vanished about 4t 
to the right of \ 
Pegasi. 

From the directiod 
of a, passed be-j 
tween ? and 
Orionis. 



From a point 3° 
4° N. of K CI 
siopeiae ; fell 
wards S Cephefi 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



81 



Appearance; Train, if any, Length of 



and its Duration. 



Path. 



Left a fine yellow train for 20° 
3 seconds. , 



Increased in brightness 
from first to last ; 
disappeared suddenly. 
Had a bright sparkling 
train, and left a lumi- 
nous streak from R. A. 
3" 2"' S., Decl. 11°,! 
to R. A. 2'' 45", S.| 
Decl. 14°, for a third 
part of a minute, at 
least, if not longer, 

j though very faint. 

■Left a train for 10 seconds 



^Tanished rather gradually 



'Left no train 



Left no train 



20° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Sky cloudless 



Observer. 



Thomas Wright. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



Nearly perpendicular ... 



M 







Fell vertically down 
[ncliued 



This was a remarkable 
shooting - star. Its 
appearance is repre- 
sented very nearly in 
the sketch. It showed 
three distinct stages : 
the central part dis- 
appeared first, then 
the head ; and the 
train, in the shape 1 
have represented, 
brightened up. 



S. H. Miller. 



Perpendicular . 



Four small meteors seen 
in 20 minutes. Sky 
bright and clear ; no 
moon ; one observer, 
On the nights of the 
9th and 10th the sky 
was overcast. 



T.W. Backhouse, 
Thomas Wright. 

A. S. llerschel. 



Thomas Wright. 



83 



REPORT 18G6. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1866. 


h m 












Jan. 8 


9 46 p.m. 


Blackbeath 


=3rdmag.* 


White 


I second 


From a point a 












little above | 














Ursa; Minoris ; 














passed r Ursae 
Minoris, to- 
wards 6 Dra- 
conis. 


8 


10 5 p.m. 


Ibid 


= 2iid mag.it 


Bluish white... 


2 seconds ... 


From about 1 " 
above and W. 
















of j; Oriouis ; 














disappeared aj 














few degrees be- 














low and E. of j8 














Orionis. 


Q 


Evening ... 


Sunbury (Mid- 
dlesex). 


Laree meteor...... 




Considerable 


Across the constel- 


•7 


■-.dl** O AiA^/W^^*-'* V * ■ 4 • ■ 




velocity. 


lation of Orion. 


9 


9 14 p.m. 


Blackheath 


= 2ndmag.* 


Bluish white... 


Haifa second.. 


From a point a 
little above Sirius; 
disappeared about 
1° above and be- 
yond j3 Canis Ma- 
joris. 


9 


9 35 p.m. 


Ibid 


= 2nd mag. » 


Bluish white.. 


2 seconds 


From about 5° 
above and S. of 
















a Pegasi ; dis- 














appeared about 














5° below that 














star. 


9 


9 38 p.m. 


Ibid 


= lstmag.« 


White 


I second 


From a little above 
e ; passed mid- 


















way between e 














and ff, and dis- 














appeared a little 














below M La- 














certse. 


31 


Evening ... 


A llf mnnf ftTi 


Much brighter than 
the fixed stars. 




Very rapid 
speed. 


Passed above a 


X 1 


/\lnIllUIIlUil 

(Derbyshire). 




house, appa- 














rently at no 














great altitude. 


11 


9 52 p.m. 


Hay (S. Wales). 


Atfirst = 2ndmag.#, 
afterwards twice 
as bright as Si- 
rius, but looking 
much larger; di- 
ameter about 10'. 


Deep yellow; 
train whiter 
in colour 
than the 
head. 


4 or 5 seconds 


From altitude a- 
bout 15°, E.S.E. 
in Monoceros : 
the meteor 
passed exactly 
across a Orionis, 
and proceeded 
as far as the 
head of Aries, 
when it disap- 
peai'ed behind. 
The termination 
of its course not 
seen. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOHS 


83 






Direction; noting also 






Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


whether Horizontal, 
Perpendicular, or 


Remarks. 


Observer. 






Inclined. 




Left no train 


6° 


Inclined 


Thomas Wrisht. 


Left no train 


5° 


Pcroendirular 




Id. 


Burst into fragments, 
which proceeded on- 




« 


• 


J. Gale. 








wards in the same 










direction, hecoming 










dimmer. Left no 










train. 










Left no train 


6° 'Sli[>-I)tlv inrlinpfl 




Thomas Wright. 
Id 


Left no train 


10° 


—o J 

Perpendicular 


Seen through trees 


Left no train 


8° 


Curved 


Id. 


jeft a tail of light in its 


Reached 


Perfectly horizontal ; 


Very brilliant. "Whe- 


' Derbyshire Ad- 


track of considerable 


quite 


about S.E. to N.W. 


ther the meteor vertiser.' 


length. 


across the 




became extinguished ^ Alpheus Slight. 




heavens. 




or became lost in 
space, could not be 
described. 


Like a projectile, leaving More than 


E.S.E.to W.N. W., rising 


The train strongly visi- T. W. Webb. 


■ a train of 5° or more, 


60° while 


obliquely upwards. 


ble after the meteor 




wiiich was dense and 


in sight. 


Rectilinear while in 


was hidden by the 




continuous with the 




sight. 


house: soared through 




head, but speedilv 






the sky with a very 




faded. Like a bomb- 






majestic effect. 




shell fired from London 










into Ireland. 










1 










1 











g2 



84 



REPORT— 1866. 



Date. 



1866. 
Jan, 11 



11 



11 



11 



11 



11 
11 



11 



Hour. 



h m 3 
9 53 30 
p.m. 



9 54 p.m. 
9 55 p.m. 



A few mi 
uutes be- 
fore 10p.m. 



10 p.m, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Bedford 



Ashford 



Westminster 
Bridge, 
London. 



Ticeliurst 
(Sussex). 



10 p.m. Bradford 

(Yorkshire). 
About 10 30 Hawkhurst 
p.m. i (Keut). 



11 33 p.m. 



Ibid, 



11111 3S p.ni.lbid, 



Apparent Size. 



At first equal to a 
2nd mag.* ; in- 
creased conti- 
nually in bright- 
ness, being final- 
ly larger and 
brighter than 
Sirius. 



Brighter than 
Venus at its 
maximum. 



Large meteor 



Large meteor 



Much brighter than 
a star of the 1st 
magnitude. 



Splendid meteor . 



.\3 bright as Venus 
at its brightest 



= 2nd mag.* 



= 1st mag.* 



Colour. 



Yellow 



Duration. 



Bright orange 
colour. 



Quite blue 



Head and tail 
brilliant 
white. 



White 



White 



3 seconds. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



About 1 sec. 
while ir 
sight. 



From a point a few 
degrees below 
the Pleiades to 
a Piscium. 
Centre of path 
opposite y Ari- 
etis. 



6 to 8 seconds. 
Glided as 
swiftly as 
an arrow. 



First appeared near 

ft Orionis ; passed 

about 2^ above 

y Pegasi. 

From E., or two 

points N. of E 

to W. 



From over the di- 
rection of Lam- 
beth pier ; dis- 
appeared behind 
the houses of 
Parliament. 

From altitude 15°, 
E. bv S. ; passed 
20° " S. of the 
zenith to altitude 
5° due W. 

Zenith. 




West. 
Several sees... 
2 5 seconds .., 



1*5 second ; 
I very slow 
I motion. 



East. 

Apparent course 
from S.E. to W. 

Disappeared mid- 
way between « 
Hydra; and / 
Sextantis: course 
halfway from a 
Cancri. 

Disappeared at i 
Gcmitioruni. 



White 0-6 second 



. I From a Tarandi to 
I r Gustodis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



85 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 


Length of 
Path. 


Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 




35° 


Inclined 


This meteor, when first 
seen, was about the 
size of a second 
magnitude star ; 
but throughout the 
whole of its course 
it continued to in- 
crease in bright- 
ness, until at the 
time of its disap- 
pearance it was 
larger and brighter 
than Sirius. 


Ernest Jones. 
T. G. E. Elger. 


Left a bluish train 20° in 
length for 1 second. 




/ 








Like a Roman-candle ball ; 
disappeared without cn- 
plosiou ; left no trace. 


Complete 
arc of the 
sky. 




Among some large 
meteors seen by 
the same observer, 


'The Standard,' 
Jan. 15th. 
E. M. 




Like a comet; exploded 
at last. 






none was remem- 
bered that took such 
a complete circuit of 
the heavens. 


Communicated 
by T. Crumplen. 








Like a sky-rocket, followed 
by a train of light like 
the tail of a comet. It 
gradually disappeared, 
leaving the whole length 
of its path visible by a 
luminous streak, which 
1 remained some seconds 
after the disappearance 
of the meteor. 


Nearly the 
whole 
arch of 
the hea- 
vens ; or 
100°. 


Apparently in a semi- 
circle, from E. by S. 
to W. by N. 


Whether the meteor 
became exhausted or 
disappeared beyond 
the range of vision 
couM not be deter- 
mined. Clear star- 
light night. Altitudes 
and positions mea- 
sured on the 15th. 


R. Covington. 


! 


Over^of the 
heavens. 


E. to W 




Communicated 

by R. P. Greg. 
A. S. Herschel. 


Disatinearcd craduallv 




Imperfect view through 
a frosted window- 


1 












pane. 




Left a train for i a second 

i 

; Disappeared suddenly ; no 
! train or sparks. 


5° 


Directed from m Mono- 
cerotis. 


Two small meteors 
seen in the last 
half - hour. Clear 
sky ; no moon ; one 
observer. 


Id. 
Id. 




r 

u 




. 







86 



REPORT 18GG. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place i,f 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 

1 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or j 
Altitude and 1 
Azimuth. 


1866. 
Jan. 11 

13 
15 
15 
16 

16 

16 
19 

22 

24 
24 


h m s 

11 52 p.m 

12 4 a.m. 
9 19 p.m 
9 47 p.m. 
7 55 p.m. 

9 53 30 
p.m. 

10 4 p.m. 

9 24 15 
p.m. 

About 7 53 
p.m. 

11 55 p.m.; 
11 59 p.m. 


Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 


=3rd mag.» 

=3r(lmag.* 

= lst mag.# 


White 


0-5 second ; 
very swift. 

0-8 second ... 
Momentary . . . 
1 second 


From (Cor Caroli. 
S Ursje Majoris) 
to )j Ursse Ma- 
joris. 

Appeared at 67 
Ursse Majoris : 
course three- 
quarters of the 
way to ? Ursae 
Majoris. 

From a point 1° 
or 2° above (3 
Ursae Minoris ; 
past y Ursae Mi-i 
noris towards >; 
Draconis. 

From about 3° E. 


White . 


Blackheath 

Ibid 


Bluish white.. 
White 


=2nd mag.« 

=3rd mag.» 

= 2ndmag.* 

= 2ndmag.* 

= 3rdmag.# 

Brilliant meteor ... 

= 3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.# 


West Ilendon 
(Sunderland). 

Greenwich 

Ibid 


Orange colour 
Yellow 

Yellow 


of Aldebaran;' 
passed on the E. 
side of that star 
to a point 1° E. 
of c Tauri. 
Vanished near m 
Lacertae. 

From a point one- 
third of the di- 
stance from 9 An- 
dromeda;, mea- 
suring towardsi 
P Andromedae : 
passed midway 
between S and « 
Andromedas. 

Passed between the 
Pleiades and ? 
Persei. 


Momentary ... 

Momentary ... 
1 second 

3 seconds ... 

>3 second ... 
1-3 second ... 


Ibid 


Bluish white... 

Silvery blue ; 
the frag- 
ments red. 

White 

Orange yellow 


Torquay 


of Pollu.v ; pass-i 
ed midway be- 
tw^een y and v 
Geminorum, to- 
wards a Orionis. 

From a few degrees 
below tlie Pleia- 
des to a few de-[ 
grees below the 
moon. 

Disappeared at ^i 
(13, J/) Ursae Ma- 
joris. 

From a to ^ (c 
Ursa; Majoris, 
3 Canum Vena- 
ticoruni). 


Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

[bid 





A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LtTMINOtlS METEORS. 



87 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



I No train or sparks 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Left a streak for 1 second 



Left no train 



Left no train 



Left a small train 



Left no train 



10° 'Line joining /3 and y 

Ursne Minoris, paral- 
lel to track of meteor. 



Seven meteors counted 
in one hour. Frosty ; 
clear sky ; no moon ; 
one observer. 

One meteor in 15 mi 
nutes. Clear sky ; 
no moon ; one ob- 
server. 



About 12°... 



/ 



Left a slight train 6 



Nearly perpendicular , 



E. to W. ; horizontal . 



10= 



30° 



Left no train 4° 



Reached a distinct maxi> 
mum, with sparks at 
the last part of its flight. 



Slightly inclined from 
horizontal. Line join- 
ing y and V Gemino- 
rnm, at right angles 
to track of meteor. 



Directed from Ursoe 
Majoris. 



A report as of a distant 
gun was heard at an 
interval variously es- 
timated at 15 to 45 
seconds. 



A. S. Herschel. 



[d. 



Thomas Wright. 



Id. 



T.W. Backhouse 



Ernest Jones. 



Id. 



Thomas Wright. 



'Torquay Direc- 
tory,' Jan. 24th, 



A. S. Herschel. 
(d. 



88 



EEPORT 1866. 



Date. 



18G6 
Jan. 25 



25 



31 



Feb. 2 

2 
2 



Hour. 



h m 
12 2 a.m, 



12 17 a.m. 



10 p.m. 



5 45 p.m. 

5 55 p.m. 

6 4 p.m. 
6 56 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Hawkfaurst 

(Kent). 



Ibid. 



2 9 5 p.m. 

9 36 p.m. 

6 56 p.m. 

7 34 p.m. 

8 23 p.m. 



10 
10 



7 16 p.m. 
7 30 p.m. 



Sandhurst, 
Melbourne, 
Australia. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Greenwich 



Weston • super 
Mare. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

Primrose Hill 
(London). 

West Hendon 
(Sunderland). 



Greenwich 



Primrose Hill 
(London). 

Ladywell 
(Lewisham). 



Apparent Size. 



= 2nd mag.» 
= 2nd mag.» 



Large and brilliant 
as a rocket. 



= 3rdmag.». 



= lst mag.* 

=3rd mag.if 

= lstmag.5t 



=Sirius ; then = 
3rd mag.» 



= 3rd mag.# 

= Polaris.... 
= 3rd mag.jf 
= 2nd mag.» 

=j3 Aurigic 
= 3rd mag.« 



Colour. 



White 

White 

Yellow 

Yellow 

Yellow 

Bright blue.. 



Orange, then 
deep red. 



Yellow 



White 

Orange colour 
Bluish white 



Duration. 



0-6 second ... 



I'l second .. 



Duration 
nearly a 
minute. 



1 second ... 

1"2 second 
1 second ... 

1 second ... 

2 seconds... 

0*8 second 
Momentary 



White 



Bluish 



1 second 



0"7 second 



0-5 second 



Positiopj or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From ^ (m, o) Cus- 
todis to 6 Cassio- 
peise. 

From 6 Leonis to I 
(», ?) Virginis. 



Passed nearly over 
head, from an 
altitude of about 
45° in the W. 
to an altitude of 
about 20° in the 
E. 

From y to /3 Pi- 
scium and on- 
wards as much 
beyond. 

From 9 Tauri to tTj 
Ononis. 

From a Aurigae to 
(3 Tauri. 

Passed across y 
Eridani ; centre 
of path near that 
star. 



From K Draconis to 
t] Ursse Majoiis. 



Disappeared at c 
centre of course 
at I Cephei. 

x= ^= 

From 195° + 30° 
to 203 + 36. 
Between the 

Hyades and j 

Aurigae. 
From a point a 

few degrees E. 

of Cor Caroli ; 

passed that star 

towards >; Ursse 

Majoris. 

From * (j3 Au-I 
rigoe, a Gemi- 
norum). 

Appeared about 2° 
below A, and 
disappeared be- 
tween Z and 9 
Draconis. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEKVATTONS OF LUMINOtJS METEORS. 



89 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



No train or sparks 
No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 



Left a streak for 1 second 
No train or sparks 



Gradually relaxed its 
speed, and changed 
its appearance ; like 
a substance burning 
out. 

No train or sparks 



Left no train 



Left a bright train 3° in 
length. 



Left no train 



15° 



8°..., 



15= 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



E. to \V. ; inclined . 



Remarks. 



Four meteors counted 
in 35 minutes. Clear 
sky ; half moon ; one 
observer. 

Although the full moon 
■was shining brightly, 
the meteor was stili 
extremelv brilliant. 



Inclined' at au angle of Line of flight nearly pa- 
45°. idllel to line of Orion's 



/ 



Inclined downwards 
slightly to left. 



45° 
the 



At an angle of 
downwards to 
left. 

Slightly inclined from 
horizontal. Line 

joining Cor Caroli 
and t} Ursaj Ma- 
joris, parallel to 
track of meteor. 

Inclined to the left, to- 
wards 7} Cassiopeiae. 



belt. 



During the hour from 
8 to 9 o'clock p.m., 
Feb. 7th, bright au 
rora. 

Five meteors in 30 mi- 
nutes. Clear sky ; 
no moon ; one ob- 
server. 



Observer. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



Id. 



Illustrated Mel 
bourne Post,' 
Feb. 23rd. 



A. S. Herschel. 



Id. 
Id. 
W. C. Nash. 



W. H. Wood. 

A. S. Herschel. 

T. Crumplen. 
T.W. Backhouse 
Thomas Wright. 



T. Crumplen. 



F. P. Trapaud. 



90 




REPORT 1866. 






Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 


1866. 
Feb. 10 

10 

11 

13 

13 

13 
13 

13 

13 
1? 

19 


h m s 

8 33 p.m. 

9 16 p.m. 

52 a.m. 

12 15 
a.m. 

■ 

7 11 p.m. 

8 16 p.m. 

9 18 5 
p.m. 

9 25 35 
p.m. 

9 45 55 
p.m. 

10 p.m. 
9 23 p.m. 


Tooting (Surrey) 

Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Greenwich 

London 


= 2ndmag.» 

Twice as bright as 
Sirius. 

= 2nd mag.* 

Five times as bright 
as a Persei, 

— Sirius 


Yellow 


0-5 second ... 

Very rapid 
motion. 

Momentary ... 

3-5 seconds ... 


From a point n( 
1' ; passed alm( 
midway betwe 
5 and y Di 
conis. 

From a point I 
or 3° W. of 
Cephei towar I 
a Cygni. 

From K Urs.-c M 
joris towai 
Castor. 

From near Polar 
passing betwe'l 
b and \ Persr 
and onwards , 
very near ^Tau! 

1 

Disappeared 1° le 
of 6 Lacertae. 

Disappeared \° le 
of 1 1 Lacertx. 

From the directic 
of 6 Cassiopeia 
passed across tl 
zenith, midwj 
between Capel 
and e Aurigse ti 
wards 9 A u rigs 

Passed across 
Ursae Majoris t 
a point 2° < 
3° beyond thi 
star. 

Passed across ' 


Brilliant blue.. 

Bluish white... 

Pale blue to 
white, and 
finally 
orange. 

Yellow 


West Ilendon, 
Sunderland. 

Ibid 


= Sirius 


Deep orange... 




Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid 


= 2nd mag. » 

= 4thmag.# 

= 3rd mag* 

= 3rd mag.» 

= 3rd mag.# 


Yellow 

Bluish white... 

Bluish white... 
Blue 


Less than 05 
second. 

0-5 second ... 

05 second ... 
0"5 second ... 

0-6 second ... 


Ibid 


Weston - super • 
Mare. 

Ilawkhurst 

(Kent). 


Cassiopeiae, ar 
disappeared at 
Cassiopeiae. 
From R.A. 87', I 
Decl. 3° to 
Orionis. i 

,.,„.J 

melopardi. 1 


White 





A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 



91 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Left a slight train 



Left no train 



Left no train 8 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



10° 



The meteor separated into 
two parts, apparently 
from the accumulation 
of matter at the rear of 
tlie nucleus. 



Train of bright sparks 
2° or 3° long, Tanish 
ing at the same time 
as the head. 

iV sparltling train, about 
5^ long, vanishing with 
the head. 

Left no train 



35° or more 



E. to W.; slightly in- 
clined from horizontal, 



Perpendicular , 



Remarks. 



Faint auroral light 



Inclined downwards to Began as a 5tli raag.« 

left. [ and gradually in- 

i creased in brightness 



[iCft no train 



Left no train 



Very short., 

About 20°... 
12° 




Observer. 



Ernest Jones. 



Arthur Harding. 



W. C. Nash. 



T. Crumplen. 



7° or 8° 



'V.lmost stationary meteor.. 



Down, a little to tBe 
right. 



Towards N., near the 
zenith ; directed from 
\ Ursae Majoris. 



Inclined ; directed from 
y Cephei. 



Very rapid motion 



T.W. Backhouse 

[d. 

Thomas Wright. 



From i^ to b^ a.m., on 
the 2 1st, a superb 
display of aurora bo- 
realis between N.E. 
and N.W. parts of the 
horizon. 

One meteor in 30 mi- 
nutes. Clear sky ; 
crescent moon ; one 
observer. 



W. C. Nash. 



VV. C. Nash and 
Ernest Jones. 



W. H. Wood. 



A. S. Ilerschel. 



92 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Feb. 22 



22 



Hour. 



1866. h m s 



23 
-Mar. 1 



8 30 p.m. 



8 45 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Sandwick, 
Scotland. 



Kirkwall, 
Scotland. 



9 36 p.m. West Hendon, 
Sunderland. 



OUIIU 

9 16 p.m. Eltham 



7 



11 9 51 

p.m. 



11 28 p.m. 
n 15 p.m. 

11 28 p.m. 

U 29 p.m. 

11 52 p.m. 

11 58 p.m. 

8 15 43 
p.m. 



== ] St or 2nd ma^.<^ 
As bright as Venus 



Greenwich 

Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid , 

Ibid , 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Blackheath 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Larger than the 
moon. 



Larger than the Blue 
moon. 



yellowish 
white. 



= 3rd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.» 
= 3rd mag.» 

3rd mag.ff 

= lst mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.» 
= 3rd mag.* 



White . 

Yellow 
White , 

White . 
White . 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Rapid 



Very quick 
0-7 second 



White .. 

White .. 
White .. 



0-7 second ... 

0-6 second ... 
08 second ... 

0*6 second ... 

11 second ... 

2-2 seconds ... 
0-6 second ... 
Lessthanlsec. 



•1° or 3° left of )8 
Andromedse. 

Point of appear- 
ance about 10° 
N.of a UrsaeMa- 
joris (at altitude 
about 50° in 
N.N.E.). 



Passed about 1" \ 
below a Hydrae; i 
centre of path I 
nearly opposite ' 
that star. 

From \ to i Bobtis ' 

Disappeared at y 
Persei. Course i 
three-quarters of 
the way from d^ 
Camelopardi. 

From j3 Leonis to 
^ a Leonis, v 
Virginis, and 4 
beyond. 

Disappeared at i. 
Path I of the 
way from « Ursx 
Majoris. 

From 1 2 to^Lyncig, 
and onwards halt 
as far again. 

From Cor Caroli, | 
of the way to ^ 
Ophiuchi. 

Fell vertically from 
a point near I 
Persei almost to 
j3 Trianguli. 






A CATALOGUE OF OBSEttVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



93 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



&e body of the meteor 
gradually became blue 
as it passed to S.E. A 
tail of fire followed the 
meteor in its course. 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



N.E. to S.W. 



eft a fine train 



N.E.toS.W |a remarkable fireball 

(Seen also at Ballater, 
and described as i 
remarkably large me 
teor.) 
The light of the me- 
teor was so vivid 
as to dim the gas- 
lights in the houses 
The meteor exploded 
with a loud report 
which sounded like 
distant thunder, and 
was heard at an in- 
terval of 2 minutes 
after the disappear- 
ance of the meteor. 



Observer. 



About 7" 



ift no train 



) t lain or sparks 
■) train or sparks 

ii train or sparks . 

train or sparks . 

train or sparks . 
^ train or sparks ., 

i 



Downwards, 5° to the 
right. I 

Inclined 



Symons's 
Monthly Me- 
teorol. Mag. 



A. Iverack, 
Journ. Scot 
Meteorol. Soc, 
July 1866, 
vol. i. p. 374. 



^ 



E. to W. ; inclined at 
an angle of 20° from 
horizontal. Directed 
from e Virginis. 



Moon shining brightly ; 
cirro-cumulus clouds. 
Meteor seen this side 
of the clouds. 



T.W. Backhouse. 
W. C. Nash. 



I no train 



30° Perpendicular , 



Id. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
VV. C. Nash. 



94 



REPORT — 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



1866. b m 8 
Mar.12 10 39 p.m.illawl;hurst 
(Kent). 



1211 p.m. 
1211 12 p.m. 



1211 23 p.m. 



Ibid, 
Ibid, 



Greenwich 



1211 25 p.ra 
1211 30 p.m. 



Hawkburst 

(Kent). 
Ibid 



12 11 33 p.m. Greenwich 



1211 36 p.m. Hawkburst 
(Kent). 



12 11 42 p.m 
1211 45 p.m 



1211 58 30 
p.m. 



13 



Ibid, 



[bid. 



Apparent Size. Colour. 



14 10 3 p.m. Ibid 



14 10 7 pm. 



Ibid ... 



14 



10 9 p.m 



Ibid 



= 3rd mag.» 



l=:3rd mag.» 
:2nd mag.it 



= 3rd mag.» 



Yellow 



Yellow 



= 3rd mag.* 



White 



Yellow 



Yellow 



= 3rd mag.* .Yellow 

I 
[ 

= lstmag.« Bluish. 



=2nd mag.* 
= 2iid niag.» 

= 2nd mag.# 



White 
White 

White 



Greenwich '= 2nd mag.* 

8 26 p.m. Ibid 



=2nd rcag.» 

= 3rd mag.* 
=2nd mag.* 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1 second From X Draconis 

to K Camelo- 
pardi. 

0-8 second ... From w to tt Ursae 
Majoris. 

0-4 second ... From k Draconisli 
to i (N. Came.') 
lopardi, b Ursje 
Minoris). 

Momentary ...jFrom a point a few i 
degrees below e 
Cassiopeiae ; fell 
nearly vertically. 



0-S second ... From f, halfway tc 

d Bootis. 
0-8 second ... From -\ (y, I) Ursa 

Majoris to X Dra^ 

conis. 
2 seconds From a point jus, 

below S ; passe< 

midway betweei 

Z, and y Vir 

ginis. 
1-3 second ...From S Virgin! 

to I (?, V 

Bootis. 
1-2 second ... Began midwa 

between S Sei 

pentis and 

Bootis. 
0-5 second ...iDisappeared at 

Draconis. 



Bluish ^ second 



Bluish white.. 



Blue 



0'7 second 



1-5 second ... 



Blue 1 second 



= 2p.d mag.* 



Bluish white., 



Rapid motion.. 



I 



Poiut of appea 
ance midway b 
tween ji and 
Serpentis. 

Passed across 
and disappear 
close to a Dr 
conis. 

From a point ji 
below S Di 
conis. 

From a point abcl 
3° W., and abo 
Polaris; fell i 
wards y Ceph( 

From the dir 
tion of X to 
point just 1 
low tc. Ursoe J 
joris. 



A CAT.4L0GITE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOns. 95 



ipearance; Train, if any, Length of 
and its Dnration. Path. 



train or sparks 



train or sparks 



train or sparks ; bright- 
;st at the middle of its 
lalh. 



't no Irain 



train or sparks 
train or sparks 



train or sparks 



train or sparks <''>°- 



htest at middle of its 
ith. 



a slight train 



sa train and sparks at 7°. 
•iappearance. 



no train 15 



ino train 



<ino train 



12° 



15° 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Nearly perpendicular , 

^ . s 

Cassiopeia. 



A. S, Ilerschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

Ernest Jones, 



; a fine train 10° Directed from (3 Lconis 



Probably same as the 
preceding meteor. 



Directed from \p Bootis.' 



A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Ernest Jones. 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 



llalfnay from jj Urea; 
Majoris. 



S. to N., nearly hori- 
zontal. 



Seven meteors in one Id. 
hour. Clear sky; 
no moon ; one ob- 
server. 



Perpendicular . 



Ernest Jones. 



\y. C. Nash. 



Arthur Harding. 



-N'early vertical I|d, 



Inclined 



Id. 



96- 



REPORT— -1866. 



Date. 



1866. 
Mar. 15 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h ra 
11 50 p.m. 



Enys, Penrhyn 
(Coriiwall). 



16 
16 

17 
17 



17 
17 



Apr. 10 



8 16 p.m 
10 12 p.m. 

10 47 p.m 
10 47 p.m. 

10 52 p.m. 

11 p.m. 

9 29 p.m. 



Greenwicli 



Blackheath 



Lewisliam 



Ibid 

Greenwich 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Size of the moon... Bluish 



Slow speed .., 



Ill the N. 



Greenwich = Venus 



=2nd maff.* Bluish white... 



= Rigel 



Yellow 



Greater than 1st 
mag.« 



:2nd mag.* 
=3rd mag.>' 



Yellow 

Brilliant blue. 



Bluish white., 
Bluish white.. 



second 



3 seconds. 



1 second 

3 seconds ... 



Royal Observa-=2ndmag.# Blue 

t'ory, Green- 



11 8 45 p.m 



13 9 57 p.m. 



14 9 21 p.m. 



wicli. 
Blackheath 



From a point ne; 
e Geminorun 
fell towards 
Tauri. 

Fell from a poi' 
a little abo 
X Persei, ai 
passed a litt 
N. of Andr 
medte. 

Passed across 
Cassiopeipe (abo 
5" beyond). 

Passed between 
and y Cassii 
peiae, and d 
appeared ne 
6 Cassiopeife 



5 second 
second 






= 3rd raag.ft 



Royal Observa-=3rdraag.if 
tory, Green- 
wich. 



Ibid, 



= 4th mag.» 



Bluish white.. 



Bluish white.. 



Bluish white.. 



1 second 
1 second 

secoud 



Rapid motion 



Passed from k LyI 
towards /3 Lyi 

Passed across i 
Geniinorum ( [ 
beyond), fr 
the direction I 
6 Gcmincrum ■ 

Disappeared 
tween j; anc 
Draconis. 

Passed midway •■ 
tween o andS 
Persei : centnll 
track betwir 
those stars. 

From the direcii 
of «; disappeai 
near Ursse )v 
joris. 

Fell vertically f < 
a point 2° I 
and above i 
laris. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OV LUMINOUS METEORS. 



97 



j Direction ; noting also 

Appearance; Train, if any, Length of j wheiher Horizontal, 



and its Duration. 



Path. 



Drew a long train. The 
latter portion of the 
path only seen (see 
sketch : * 1, panes of 
glass 12^- inclies by 9^ 
inches ; » 2, termina- 
tion seen through trees 
of a distant fir planta- 
tion; distance one mile). 



iCft no train 7° 



'ine traiu for 1 second ... 15'^ 



ine train 



line train for ^ second 



b train 
train 



eft no train 



.eft no train 



=ft no train 5° 



15° 
30° 

8°.., 
10° 

10° 



Perpendicular, or 
Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



'Light enough to pick up E. Rapson, com 




a pin, or as light as on 
a rainy day, 



municated hy 
J. S. Envs and 
II. C. Sorby. 



About 6°.., 



Nearly perpendicular .. 



Directed from a Ursa3 
Majoris. 

From a Ursae Majoris. 



Inclined 



W. C. Nash. 



The path of this meteorThoinas Wright, 
was slightly curved, 
thus- 



; 



A very large and bril- 
liant meteor. 



W. C. Nash. 



Same as the preceding Thomas Wright, 
meteor. 



Nearly vertical. From 
direction of j3 Ursie 
Miuoris. 

Inclined , 



ft no train 



20° 



Inclined Id 



Id. 

VV. C. Nash. 

Arthur Harding. 
Thomas Wright. 



Perpendicular . 



Arthur Harding. 



ni86G. 



H 



98 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 


Hour. 


Place of 
Observation. 


Apparent Size. 


Colour. 


Duration. 


Position, or ' 
Altitude and 1 
Azimuth. 


1866. 
Apr. 14 

16 
16 


h m 

9 36 p.m. 

10 3 p.m. 
10 IG p.m. 


Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

Ibid 


= lstmag.* 

=2ndmag.» 

=3rd mag.if 


I-^liii^sli wliitp .. 




1 
From 7 Cancri ; 
passed across e 
and j; Hydrae, 
to a point a 
little above and 
south of a Hy- 
drje. 
Appeared midwav 


Bluish 


1 second 

1 second 


Blackheath 


Bhiish white... 


between S am 
7] Hydr«, ami 
passed towards (, 
Monocerotis. 
From a point aboul 
midway betweei 
j; and y Virginis. 


17 
17 

17 

17 

17 

18 
19 


8 42 p.m. 

8 47 p.m. 

9 13 p.m. 

10 14 p.m. 
10 18 p.m. 

10 41 p.m. 

Evening ... 


Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

York 


= 3rd mag.* 

About the size of 
Jupiter. 

=:2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.» 

= 2ndmag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 


Blue 


1 second 

About 1 sec... 

2 seconds ... 


From near /( and v 


Fine orange 
colour. 

Blue 


Canuni Venati 
corum towards ■) 
Bootis. 

Commenced at ai 
altitude of 23' 
40' ; azimutl 
18° 14' W. fron 
N. ; disappeare( 
at altitude 10° 
azimuth 23° Vi 
from N. 

From a point abou 
4° from d Caiiui: 
Venaticorum ; 
passed acros 
that star tc 
wards e Ursi 
Majoris. 

Disappeared 2" o) 
V Cygni tc 
wards y. 

Disappeared vcr 
near Andre 
meda;. 

Passed across , 
and /3 Cancri. 


Royal Observa- 
tory, Green- 
wich. 

West Ilcndon 
(Sunderland). 

Ib'd 


Yellow 


Yellow 




Greenwich 

Observatory, 
Paris. 


Bluish white... 


1 second 










19 


10 40 p.m. 


Gla'so-ow 


= 3rd mag.^ 


Yellow 


I second 


From S Corona; t| 
o Herculis. 




21 
21 


10 21 p.m. 

(approx.) 

10 23 p.m. 
(approx.) 


Blacliheath 

M)id 


=3r(l mag.* 

= 2n(l mag.* 


Bluish while... 
White 


.^ second 

1 second 


Prom the directio; 
of ?; past t( 
wards e Bootis. 

Moved on a pat; 
parallel to a lir 
joining a and 
Ccroiix. , 







I 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



99 



Aiipearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



I Left no train 



Patli. 



Direction ; noting also 
Length of whetlier Horizontal, 
Perpendicular, or 
Inclined. 



25° 



Left no train 10= 



Left no train iS 



Left no train 



Barst into many fragments 



15° 



Unl train 



12° 



ine train 9°. 



urst twice , 

train or sparks 

I 
left no train jo. 



:ft no train 



Remarks. 



Slightly curved 



Observer. 



Arthur Harding. 



Inclined 



Inclined 



Ernest Jones. 



Thomas Wright. 



Arthur Hardin-r. 



No report or noise heard T. H. ^yaller 



To the right, a little 
downwards. 

Perpendicularly down- 
wards. 



Inclined 



Arthur Harding. 



Moved slowly T.W. Backhouse 

Id. 



W. C. Nash. 



A considerable fireball...lLe8 Mondes, 2nd 
Ser., vol.ii. p. 7. 

In one hour, 3 meteors : A. S. Herschel. 
sky chiefly clear; no' 
moon J one observer. 



Inclined 



Thomas Wright. 
Id. 



100 



iiEPORT — 18GG. 



Date. 



186G. 
Apr. 23 



May 4 



Hour. 



a m 
10 55 p.m. 



10 52 p.m. 



4 10 54 p.m. 



4' 11 20 p.m, 



4 11 38 p.m. 



4 11 45 p.m. 



1 40 p.m. 



9 53 p.m, 



11 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



London 



!= a Gemiuorura... 



Hawkhiivst 
(Kent). 



Ibid, 



Ibid . 



Ibid, 



Ibid, 



10 50 p.m. 



11 11 14 p.m. 

I 
ll|ll 18 p.m 



11 



11 25 p.m 



11 11 32 p.m. 
11 11 45 p.m. 

11 11 53 p.m. 



Ladyw ell, Lewis- 
ham. 



Blackheath 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



=3rd mag.* 



= 3rd maa:.* 



= 3rd ma,!'.* 



= 1st mas.* 



:3rd raag.» 



=3rd mag.» 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.« 



Ibid . 
Ibid . 

Ibid. 

Ibid , 
[bid 

Ibid , 



= 2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.s 
= lst mag.* 

=2nd niag.» 



Colour. 



Duration. 



White 



Yellow 



White 



White 



Yellow, tlien 
reddish. 



= 2nd mag.* 

:2nd mag.* 



White . 
Blue . 
White . 

Yellow 

White . 
Yellow 

White . 

White , 
White , 

White 



2 seconds 



0'9 second 



06 second 



0-7 second 



r2 second 



0*4 second 



^ second 



1 second 



0-8 second 

0*5 second 
I -5 second 

0*6 second 

1 second .. 
1 second .. 



0-7 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

A/irauth. 



From near and 
above a Gemino- 
rum to H° be- 
low 1] and ? A u- 
rigie. 

From I (Y Draco- 
nis, S Ursa: Ma- 
joris) to y Ursa; 
Majoris. 

From b Canum Ve 
naticorum to x 
UrsK Majoris. 

Disappeared at p 
Camelopardi : 
course halfway 
from K Dra- 
conis. 

From w to A Comae 
Berenices ; com-j 
mencing half as 
far before v Co- 
mae. 

From ij Draconis to 
^ (y, v) Ursse 
Minoris. 

Fell vertically from 
a point midway 
between a and ^i 
Librae. 

From a point 1° or 
2° E. of i3 Librae; 
fell past y Librse, 
and disappeared 
near /3 Scorpii. 

Disappeared at i 
Draconis ; course 
halfway from d 
BoiJtis. 

Disappeared at li 
Tarandi. 

From M Camelo-' 
pardi to i {c 
Camelopardi, rr, 
Custodis). 

Appeared at e Ce- 
phei ; course % 
of the way to i 
Cassiopeia;. 

From p to g Came4 
lopardi. ' 

From S Cephei t«i 
-J {p Cassiopeiffiij 
« Honoruni). ,i 

From II to ? Drall 
conis. J 






A CATALOGUE OF OnSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOKS. 



101 



Appearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Globular ; left a slight 
train. 



Length of 
Path. 



No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 



No train or sparks 



Disappeared gradually 



1^0 train or sparks , 



^eft no train 



fo train or sparks 



;0 train or sparks 



About 30°. 



To train or sparks 10° 

To train or sparks 



rew gradually brighter 
and then less; no train, 
isappeared suddenly ; no 
train or sparks. 



train or sparks 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Hoiizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



To right, inclined down- 
wards. 



Remarks. 



Obser^ 



Perpendicular . 



Eight meteors in 1 hour 
clear sky ; moon in 
third quarter ; one 
observer. 



10° Fell perpendicular 



Descended with a wa- 
vering motion. 



Directed from x I^'"*'- 
conis. 



Very swift 



[Nearly stationary 



Twelve meteors counted 
in one hour. Sky 
nine parts clear ; 
no moon ; one ob- 
server. 



T. Crumplen. 

A. S. Herschel. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

F. Trapaud. 

Thomas Wright. 

A, S. Herschel, 

id. 

id. 

Id. 

Id. 
h\. 

Id. 



102 



REPORT 186G. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1866. h m s 
May 16 9 57 p.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



Blackheath 
(iCent). 



16 11 p.m. Greenwich 
(approx.) 



10 38 1 
p.m. 



17 10 41 36 
p.m. 

17 11 8 36 
! p.m. 

18 10 46 44 
p.m. 



18 



18 



10 51 34 
p.m. 



10 53 30 
p.m. 



18 11 5 45 
i p.m. 



18 11 11 9 
p.m. 

18 11 11 34 

p.m. 

18 11 29 49 
p.m. 

18 11 40 52 
j p.m. 

1811 a 59 
p.m. 



Ibid. 

Ibid, 
Ibid. 



As bright as Venus 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green, 
vficli. 



Ibid, 



Ibid 



Ibid , 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



=2nd mag.ie Bluish white 



As bright as Venus., 



= 3rd mag.* 
==:3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.* 

=3rd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



= 2nd mag.» 



Ibid iBrighter than a 1st 

mag.*. Nearly 
equal to Venus. 



Ibid. 
Ibid , 
Ibid, 
Ibid . 



Bluish white... 



Blue 



Bluish white... 0'4 second 



3 seconds 



1 second 



2 seconds. 



White 

Bluish white... 

Bluish white... 



i second .., 
0"4 second 

0'3 second 



Blue 1 second 



Bluish white... 1 second 



Yellowish 
white. 



I 



= lst mag.* 

= lstmag.» 

=:lstmag.* ...... 

=::lst mag.* 



1'5 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



1 second 



Bluish white., 

i 

Bluish white...! 1* second 
Bluish white... h second .. 



Bluish white.. 



1 second 



From a point a 
little below and! 
W. of TT Leonis ; 
passed midway 
between e and 
1] Hydra; towards 
Procyon. 

In S., above Scor-J 
pius. 



First seen 7° or 8°; 
below /3 Leonis :j 
moved westward,' 
passing close to! 
Regulus. 

Disappeared close! 
to /i Virginis. \ 

Disappeared near 
t Virginis. | 

Fell from the di- 
rection of ?, past 
Boiitis, towards 
Saturn. ! 

Moved past Polaris: 
and u) Cephei.t 
Line joining' 
those stars paral-! 
lei to track ofi 
meteor. j 

From the direc-j 
tion of c Bocitis,! 
across tt and ?; 
Boiitis. j 

From a point 1°, 
or 2° S. of 
S Crateris to 
a point about 
the same dis-l 
tance from /3| 
Hydra;. 

Passed from near 
fi Vrae Minoris 
to a point near 
g Camelopardi. 

Fro.^l e LyrK to, 
a point near • 
Cygni. 

From « Cephei to a , 
point 2= E. of • ' 
Cassiopeiae. ! 

From y Draconis 
towards Ce- 
phei. 

From j3 to ? Ophi- , 
uchi. 



I 

A CATALOGUE OF OBSEKVATIONS OF 


LUMINOUS METEORS 


103 


Appearance ; Train, if any 
and its Duration. 


, Length of 
1 Path. 

1 


Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 


Remarks. 


Observer. 


! 

Left no train 


30- 


Inclined 


1 


Thomas Wright 
and G. W. Farn- 
comb. 

W. C. Nash. 

Id. 

1 

Id. 

Id.' 

W. C. Nash ; 
Thomas Wright. 

Thomas Wright. 

Arthur Harding. 

Ernest Jones ; 
Thomas Wright. 

W. C. Nash ; 
Ernest Jones. 

Id. 

W. C. Nash ; 
Ernest Jones ; 
Thomas Wright. 
W. C. Nash. 

W. C. Nash ; 
Thomas V.'right. 











N'o train noticed 


25" or more 
5° 


Inclined slightly from 
horizontal, 

Directed from Arcturus 
Directed from e Virgini? 
Perpendicular 


End of path not seen on 
account of obstacles. 


Left no train 


'Left no train 


1 

5° or 6' ... 

12° 




Left no train 






5° 


Inclined 




1 

-.eft no train 


15° 


Ii'.clincd 




1 
1 

i^eft no train « 


10° 


I'erpeudicular 




1 

1 

'ine train ; lasted one 


to° 






1 second after the me- 
; teor's disappearance. 

(jCft a fine train 


18° 


Inclined 




iCft a fine train 


14° 


Vearlv Dcrnendicular 






7° or 8° .. 






jeft a fine train 


22° 


[nclined 




1 








1 
( 

1 











104 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



1866. 
May 18 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m s 

11 44 19 

p.m. 



18 11 45 14 
p.m. 



18 
18 
19 

19 



19 



19 



11 47 49 
p.m. 
p.m, 



12 



26 25 
p.m. 



30 a.m. 



1 a.m. 



2 50 a.m. 



20 11 23 p.m. 



Junel3 12 30 to 
12 45 a.m. 



20 



♦ 20 



10 40 a.m, 



Royal Observa- 
tory, Green 
wich. 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid, 

Ibid , 



Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mag.» 



= 2nd mag.* 



= lst mag.*.,, 
=2nd mag.jf 
=2nd mag.* 

=2nd mag.» 



London =3rd maa-.ff 



= lst mag.» 



Colour. 



I Position, or 
Duration. | Altitude and 
' Azimuth. 



Yellow 



Bluish while... 



Bluish white... 
Bluish white... 
Bluish white... 



Bluish 



1 second 



0-5 second 



I second .. 
0'5 second 
1 second .. 



tJ second 



Bluish white... 1 second 



Ibid |=3rd mag.* 



White 



White 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 

East Hill, Hast- 
ings. 



10 45 a.m. Folkstone 



Very bright meteor 



Large meteor 



1*2 second 



05 second 



From a Coronse 
Borealis ; passed 
midway be- 

tween 2 and t 
Boiitis. 

Moved past y and 
j3 Opbiuchi. 
Line joining 
those stars paral- 
lel to track of 
meteor. 

Fell past j; and v 
Bootis. 
... Moved past a. and 
6 Opbiuchi. 

From I Coronae 
Borealis ; past 
TT Herculis to. 
wards k Her 
culis. 

From the direC' 
tion of /3 Urss 
Majoris ; passed 1 
between /t and 
X UrsM Majo-j 
ris to a pointj 
near d Leonis 
Minoris. 

!From a point 2° 
or 3° left of X 
Ursa3 Majoris ; 
fell vertically 
towards the ho- 
rizon. 

From \ (y, A) Bo- 
otis to y Ursael 
Majoris. 

jFrom V to r Cygni 






Traversed the sky 
at an elevation 
of about 45''. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



105 



Appearance; Train, if any, Length of 
anrl its Duration. Path. 



jeft a fine train 



20° Inclined 



eft no train 



eft no train 5" 

eft no train 6" 

3ft no train , 10' 



ft a fine train 



20° 



20° 



train or sparks 
train or sparks , 



i g-shaped ; left a long 
reak in the sky visible 
ir about 5 minutes. 

I' a perfect train of 
noke, which remained I 
stinctly visible for! 
■me time, and gradu 
ly dispersed over the 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

JncHned. 



Perpendicular . 

Inclined 

Inclined 



Inclined 



Perpendicular , 



N.E. to S.W. 



From N. to S. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



W. C. Nash ; 
Thomas Wright. 



Id. 

Thomas Wright. 

Id. 

Id. 

Ernest Jones. 



W. C. Nash. 



'V. S. Herschel. 



One meteor in thirty Id, 
minutes ; clear sky ; 
half moon ; one ob- 
server. 

'A strict watch keptid 
for meteors ; none 
seen ; clear sky ; no 
moon. 

Followed by two reports 



like thunder imme- 
diately afterwards. 

Seen shining brightly. 
Atmosplicre quite 
clear. Four or five 
minutes afterwards 
a double report 
was heard much 
louder tlian two 
pieces of ordnance 
fired on the heights 
of Dover. 



J. Shudy, Coast- 
guard Report,! 
Hastings. 

The 'Times,' 
June 21st. 



]0G 



IIEPOIIT — 1860. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



1806. 
June20 



h m 
10 45 a.m. 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



Duration. 



20 10 45 a.ra 



Dover Castle . . J Brilliant meteo: 



Boulot'ne 



20 



20 



20 



10 45 a.m 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Disappeared bi 
hind a risin 
ground ; le 

a thin line < 
smoke whic 
marked its pat 
for about or 
minute. 



Ticehurst, Sussex Half as large as the 
moon, and very 
much more bril- 
liant than the 
moon when seen 
in the day. 



10 15 a.m. 



10 45 a.m- 



Flight not ra- 
pid ; motion 
smooth and 
regular 
gliding 111 
its course as 
a heavy 



might 



PenshurstjKent. 



Steyning, Sussex 



The length of the 
meteor 'ivas about 
once or twice the 
apparent diameter 
of the moon. 

Large meteor, very 
bright. 



2011 p.m. 
(Paris time) 



Boulogne 



body 

be supposed 
to do. 
\Yhite and red .Motion rapid 
more tlian 
2 seconds. 



Almost white, 10 seconds 



Appeared in E. 
N. at an altitu 
of 15°, and d 
appeared in S. 
at an altitude i 



About 35° abc 
the horizon. 



It 



tail red. 



steady 
tion. 



Came from 
N.E., and pas; 
into the S.W. 



Position of the tr£s 
from altitude C 
magnetic azirai'i 
(E.fromN.)9::i 
to altitude i\: 
magnetic azira'ii 
(E. from N.) 19 



A CATALOGUE Ol' OBSEHVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



107 



Lppcarance; Train, if anyj Length of 
I and its Duration. " | I'aih. 



Direction; noting also 

wlietlier Horizontal, 

Per;)sndicular, or 

Inclined. 



From a point N.W. to S. 



Remarlvs. 



n about 30 seconds, 
a loud report was 
heard from the di 
rection in which it 
disappeared. 



Tllowed by a short train, 
ivhich appeared to draw 
o a point behind the 
lead, and rapidly died 

)Ut. 



[; advancing end was;80° 
'rilliant led, with a| 
vhite or shining en- 
elope or head. 



flowed I)y a very long 
ery tail. Presented an 
.rcofa very large circle. 



Ling narrow smoke-like 
ain remained in the 
ity, where a final puff 
arked the place of 
cplosion with perfect 

. iStinctness. 



N.W. to S.E., nearly 
parallel to the horizon, 
but with a slight de- 
chne to S.E. 

N.E. to S.W 



A loud report shook the 
houses; the first re- 
port was sharp and 
decisive, but there 
ensued a dull noise 
which lasted several 
seconds, and which 
appeared to recede 
equally on all sides. 
From a window was 
seen a long strip of 
vapour, not very 
high up and of a 
uniform pattern, very 
delicately traced,! 

which was noticed! 
by others a con- 
siderable time pre-1 
vious to the first 
shock. 
The day was fine but 
partially clouded, and 
the sun shone out 
very clearly and warm 
at intervals. (See Ap- 
pendix II., C.) 



Observer. 



Evening 
' Times, 



Mail,' 
&c. 



Communicated 
by Sir J. Iler- 
schel ; Hes- 
keth Smith, 



Communicated 
by R. Coving 
ton. 



Moved across the clear J. Nasmyth. 
sky, and disappeared 
beliii:d a mass of 
clouds ; no report 
heard. 

Sun very bright, and : 
a clear sky. A rail- 
way train near pre- 
vented anything else 
being heard. 

An explosion, followed ; 
by a low and con- 
tinued rumbling, was 
heard. The meteor 
itself was not seen. 
(See Appendix II., 6.) 



Edmund Young. 



F. Galton. 



108 



REPORT 1866. 



1866. 
June20 



Date. 



Hour. 



h in 
11 p.m. 



2012 21 a.m. 
'(local time.) 
24 11 13 p.m. 



July 5 About noon 



Place of 
Observation. 



Wrotham, Maid- 
stone, Kent. 



Delft (Holland). 
Derby 



Hawlthurst 
(Kent). 



nil to Ibid 

11 30 p.m. 



15 



50 a.m. Primrose Hill 
(London). 



15 11 20 p.m. Ibid 



1511 37 p.m. 



Ibid, 



1610 35 p.m. Birmingham 



1610 42 p.m. 



Ibid, 



1610 46 p.m.jlbid , 
1610 45 p.m.llbid. 



16 



11 p.m, 



Ibid, 



Apparent Size. 



fjarge meteor 



One quarter of the 
apparent dia 
meter of the 
moon. 



Large meteor 



Colour. 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



Golden 



Pure white ; 
intense light 
but colour- 
less. 



2 seconds ; 
very rapid. 



Silvery white. 



First appeared nej 
/3 Lyrse, an 
passed across 
Herculis and 
Coronse ; disaj 
pearing behiii 
buildings in tl 
W.S.W. 

Moved along thes! 
above the upp 

edge ofa dark clou 



= 2ndor3rdmag.« 
= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.» 
= lst mag.*.. 



= 2ud mag.* 



Light orange 
colour. 



White 



0-8 second 



Three rather brig'i 
shooting - star.' 
near y Pegasi. 

Commenced at 
Lyrse. 



Yellow 0-5 second ... 



Yellow 1 second 



White 



= 2nd mag.* Blue . 

= 3rd mag.* 'Yellow. 

= 2ndmag.* White , 



0*5 second 



fl-5 second 



From a. Aqui 



to k Scuti S 

biesii. 
From 6 Aquilae 

a point in R. 

263"^, N. De 

9°. 
From S Cygni to 

point in R. 

295°, N. De 

32°. ; 

From a. Cygni to' 
Sagitta?. 
0-7 second ... From 42 (Fl.) D 
conis to 1^ D 
eonis. 
1-2 second ...iFrom 2° S. nfi 
I Camelopardi | 
1°N. ofj;Ui 
Majoris. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



109 



Lppearance; Train, if any, 
aud its Duration. 



Length of 
Path. 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



onical in form. Four 
times as long as broad, 
lie head was an ellipsoid, 
with its major axis per- 
pendicular to the appa- 
rent course of the me- 
teor, followed by a very 
slender tail 1° or 8° in 
length. 



Nfearly 00° 



A shock like that of a 

heavy body falling! 
over head shook the 
houses and windows, 
and startled labourers 
in the fields. There 
were two reports, the 
first from S.W., the 
second from N.E. or 
E.; the second sound- 
ed like an echo of the 
first. 
For noonday, it was The 'Times,' 
marvellously distinct.! R. P. 
Apparent course a per- '^'o sound was heard The ' Times,' 



feet right Hue. 



:fl slight trains 



About 5° , 



during or after 
disappearance. 



its 



Seen in sunshine. 



^ 



Ct 



' v- 



Lvra. 



t a train . 



1 t a train 



Inclined downwards to 
left. 

Directed from k Lyrae... 



No meteors visible in 30 
minutes : clear sky ; no 
moon ; one observer. 

Radiant, near y Pegasi.. 



J. Vertu. 



Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel, 

A. S. Herschel. 
T. Crumplen. 



Radiant in Cassiopeia or 
Perseus. 



Short path, curved to-|ld. 
wards a Lyrae. 



^ train or sparks 
^ train or sparks 



Lt a streak on its whole, 
I ourse for \\ second. ' 



Radiant in Cassiopeia or 
Perseus. 



Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



110 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



18G6. 
July 17 

17 

17 



Hour. 



17 
17 

17 

17 

18 

Aug. 4 

4 
5 

5 

5 



h m 

8 52 p.m. 

11 p.m 
11 20 p.m. 

11 29 p.m 



Eidfjoid.Norway, 



Place of 
Observation. 



Apparent Size. 



Far brighter than 



N. lat. 60° 20', the full moon. 
W. long. 7° 8'. 



Hawkhurst 

(Kent). 
Ibid , 



Ibid. 



U 37 p.m. Ibid. 
11 38 p.m. Ibid. 



11 58 p.m. 
11 23 p.m. 

9 54 p.m. 

10 5 p.m. 
9 56 p.m, 

9 57 p.m 

10 42 p.m. 
9 20 p.m. 



Ibid . 
Ibid , 



Primrose Hill 
(London). 



Ibid . 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid . 



9' 40 p.m. Ibid 



About 8 15 
p.m. 



8 15 p.m. 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Bristol 



= 2nd mag.* 
= 1st mag.» 

= 2nd mag.» 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 



= 3rd mag.» 



= /3 AquiliE ... 
= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.* 

= a Aquila: .. 

= lst mag.* 



= a Lyra;. 



White 



Colour. 



Bright green. 



White, then 
deep red. 

White, then 
red. 



White 
White 

White 
White 



Duration. 



0-9 second ... 

7 seconds ; 
well counted 

1-1 second ... 
0-6 second .. 



0*4 second ; 
very swift. 



0'3 second ; 
very swift. 

0*6 second .. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth, 



Rapid 



Yellow 
White . 



White .... 
White .... 
Pale blue. 



Nearly half as large 
as the moon and 
much brighter. 



Large meteor 



0*5 second ... 
Rapid 



Disappeared ii' 
W.N.W., perhap 
20° in altitude. 

From to « Cepht 

From 13 OphiucW 
to i (tt, 0-) Ss] 
gittarii. 

Disappeared at 
(j',cr); coursehali 
wayfrom r] Cygn 

Commenced near 
Cassiopeise. 



From fi Draconis t 
V^ Herculis. 



From TT to K Lvr 



From to a All 
droraedae. 



Centre of path b( 

tween p, o Tau 

Poniatovii. 
Commenced at 

Aquilae. 
From near 

Aquilae, to near 

Aquarii. 
Commenced nei, 

ft, y Lyrse, 



\ 



t 



0-5 second .. 

Moved slowly. From y Delphini.' 



From near y Cy| 
to a. Aquilae. 



Pale blue Rapid motion 



'iVhite or yel- 
lowish. 



3 seconds 



Appeared at « Lyr 

From alt. 25°, 85. 
muth AV. from 
110°, to alt. K, 
azimuth W. fro 
S. 65°. Appro; 
mate positioi 
measured someda 
afterwards,fr9 i 
bearings. \ 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



Ill 



ppearance; Train, if any,' Length of 
and its Duration. Path. 



rain 5° or 10' long ; also At least 50' 
smoke. I 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



train or sparks 



rightest at middle of its 
path ; grew gradually 
less. No train or sparks 

^ft a streak for 2 seconds 



ift a streak on its whole 
course for 2^ seconds 



ightest at the middle of 

its course. Left no 

streak. 

ft a streak on its whole 

course for 2 seconds. 



ft a streak on its whole 
course. 



2°. 



15° or 20°.. 



(See Appendix II., 7). 



Observer. 



Directed from Algol 



10° 



ft a broad streak on its;5° 

ivhole course. 

't a long bright streak., 



y bright, planetary ap 
leaiance. 



10° or 12°.. 



ght planetary disk.:20° 
jeit a train 5° in' 
sngth. j 

ie-shaped : grew gradu- 8°. 
llv less. 



Directed from Perseus. 



Downwards, parallel to 
the Milky Way. 



Fifteen meteors in one 
hour : clear sky ; no 
moon ; one observer. 

Meteors with streaks, 
shooting from the 
10th of Aug. radiant 
in Perseus and Cassi- 
opeia since the 15th, 



Seven meteors in thirty 
minutes : clear sky ; 
no moon ; one ob 
server. 



Slightly upwards, 
wards ? Aquilae. 
Downwards to left . 



to 



Downwards, almost at 
right angles to Milkv 
Way. 

Downwards, crossing 
the Milky Way. 



i-h longer than broad, 50° 
ipering behind to a! 
lil • Disappeared with- 
it bursting. Left a 
rcak for some seconds. 



Directed 
Cygni. 



towards 



Directed towards /3 

Herculis. 
Inclined 



y 



A perceptible planetary 

disk. 
Cloudy on the night of 

the 6th. 

Occurred while record- 
ing the previous me- 
teor. 

Two small meteors at 
lO'' 10™; no others 
seen for 10 minutes. 

Followed by a smaller 
meteor from y Del- 
phini within 15 sees. ; 
path more horizontal, 
to left. 

Path intercepted by 
buildings. 

Seen in full tvrilight. 
Passed in its transit 
behind a tree, through 
the branches of which 
it shone as brightly 
as a lantern. 



T.W. Backhouse, 

A. S. Herschel. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Communicated 
byA.S.Herschel 



Communicated 
by W. 11. Wood, 



112 



KEPORT 1866. 



Date. 



1866. 
AuR. 8 



8 



Hour. 



Place of 
Observation. 



h m 
11 20 p.m. 



Binuiiigliam 



11 27 p.ni.jlbid. 
811 31 p.mJlbid, 



11 33 p.m. Ibid . 

11 35 p.m. Ibid. 

11 39 p.m.]Ibid. 

U 43 p.m. Ibid , 



8 11 49 p.m. 
8 11 51 p.m. 



7 a.m. 



9 
9 

9 
9 
9 

9 
9 
9 

9 



7 a.iQ. 

12 a.m. 

9 47 p.m. 

10 22 p.m. 

10 26 p.m. 



Ibid .. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



10 40 p.m. 
10 56 p.m. 

10 57 p.m. 

11 p.m. 



Ibid . 
Ibid, 



Primrose Hill 
(London). 

Birmingham 



9!ll 3 p.m. 



Ibid, 



9 11 6 p.m. Ibid 



Apparent Size. Colour, 



Duration. 



= 3rd mag.» 



Blue '1 second 



As bright as Sirius.. Brilliant blue.. 075 second .. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



= 2nd mag.* 

= 2nd mag.* 
= 2ud mag.* 
= 2ndmag.» 
= 3rd mag.« 



Blue 



0-5 second ..- 



= 1st mag.* 

= 2ndmag.» 

As bright as Sirius. 



= 3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.» 



Blue 'o-5 second 



Blue 
Blue 
Blue 



White 

Blue 

Orange colour 



Blue 
White 



4 second ... 
0-5 second . 
0-5 second . 

0'5 second . 
0-75 second ... 
0'75 second ... 

0-3 second ... 
0-25 second.., 



Brighter than 1st 

mag.» 
= lstmag.» ... 



= 2nd mag.# 



Brilliant blue..! 1 second 

Orange colour 0*5 second .. 
Yellow 0-6 second .. 



From to X Aqua 



From 50° + 33 

to 48 +25 
From -J (a Ceplu 

Polaris) to P( 

laris. 
From \.\ndroraet 

to a Cephei. 
From a Cephei 

Polaris. 
From a Triangi 

to « Arietis. 

From 5° - 1 
to 318 - 14 
From y Ursae M 
noris to Cor Caro 
From a to 

Aquarii. 
From V Persei 

R. A. 60°, : 

Decl. 35°. 
From V Persei 

Musca. 
From 9 Ursae M 

joris to R. 

115°, N. De(. 

50°. 
From a Lyrse to 

Ophiuchi. 
From p to OS Booi 



= 2ud mag.» Orange colour 05 second 



= 2nd mag.» 



Yellow. 



= lstmag.» Pale blue 



= 3rd mag.» 



3rd mag.* 

.As bright as Sirius. 



Blue 



Blue 



0-5 second .. 
0-5 second .. 



1 second 



05 second .. 



Brilliant white 0-3 second ; 
very rapid. 



From a, Bootis 

R. A. 220°, 

Decl. 10°. 
From d to a Ur 

Majoris. 
From e Cygni tc 

Delphini. 
Commenced 

from X PerseiJ 

From « Triang 
to R.A. 20°, 
Decl. 15°. 

From I Draconis' 
a Coronae. 

From kT Ophiu 
to R.A. 219", 
Decl. 6°. 



A CATALOGtTE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOTTS METEORS. 113 



pearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



't a train 



t a train . 



t a red train 



1 eor sparkled , 



( a tram 



Length of 
Path. 



i a broad bluish streak 
r I of a_ second, fading 
aduallv'. 



10° 



'5or increased in sizel, 
d flickered. i 



66. 



f" 



Direction; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Observer. 



Directed from S Persei. 



Directed from /3 Cephei 

Directed from d Andro- 

medaa. 
Directed from (3 Cephei 

Directed from (3 Cephei 

Directed from S Persei.. 



Directed from b Came- 

lopardi. 
Directed from d Persei. 



Directed from v Persei.. 
Directed from v Persei.. 



Distant lightning in N 
at 10k 25"° p.m.; cloudy 
and showery until 11'" 
10™ p.m., then clear. 



This meteor and the 
following were simul 
taueous. 



W. H. Wood. 



Id. 



.[Directed from k Persei 
.Directed from (3 Cephei 
jDirected from 6 Persei, 



' a train ! Directed from x Came- 

I lopardi. 



Twelve meteors observ 
ed, and recorded, per 
hour, by one observer. 

Sky clear at 10 p.m. ... 



Clouds gatliering. 



Directed from P Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from x Persei!Night of the 8th rainy, 
towards a point 3^°| Two other small me- 
below Polaris. teors from Perseus. 

Dhected from k Persei..! 



Directed from 8 Persei..! 

Directed from P Persei. .lAngular path thus 



Id. 

Id. 
Id, 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id, 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

T. Crumplen, 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 




114 



REPORT 1866. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1866. h ra 
Aug. 911 11 p.m. 

11 12 p.m 



9 
9 

9 

10 
10 

10 

10 
10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 



Place of 
Observation. 



Primrose Hill 

(London). 
Ibid 



11 18 p.m. 

11 27 p.m 

11 57 p.m 

6 a.m. 

14 a.m. 

21 a.m 

9 49 p.m. 

9 50 p.m. 

10 10 p.m. 

10 17 p.m. 

10 19 p.m, 

10 21 p.m. 

10 22 p.m. 



Birmingham 
Ibid 



Ibid . 



Ibid 



Primrose Hill 
(London). 

Birmingham , 



10 10 31 p.m. 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 



10 40 p.m 
10 52 p.m. 
10 52 15 „ 
10 55 p.m. 
U 3 p.m. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid . 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Apparent Size. 



=3rd mag.* 
:2nd mag.* 



=2nd mag.* 
= 2nd mag.* 

= 3rd mag.* 

:3rd mag.* 
= lst mag.* 



Colour. 



White 



= Sirius 



= Sirius 

= 3rd mag.* 



:3rd to 4th mag.* 
=3rd mag.* ... 
:3rd mag.* ... 
:2nd mag.* ... 



= lst mag.* 



= lst mag.- 



Wliite 
Blue 

Blue 



Blue .... 
Pale blue . 



Brilliant 
yellow. 



White 
Blue 

Blue 

Red ... 

Blue 

Blue 



Red 



:3 rd to 4tb mag.* 
:2nd mag.* . 
:3rd mag.* . 
:1st mag.* . 
■■n •••• 



Duration. 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



0-5 second ., 
0*5 second ... 

0"5 second ... 

0'5 second 
0-4 second 



Red H second 



1 second , 

1 second 
1 second 



1 second , 



Blue 0-5 second 

Red 



0-5 second ... 

0'5 second .., 

O'G second .., 

0'5 second ,. 



1'5 second ; 
slow motion. 
Blue 05 second ... 



Orange 'l second .., 

Brilliant white'l'3 second 



First appeared ne, i 

y Draconis. 
First appeared 

y Andromed; 

Passed betwei | 

/3 and K Persij 

and onwards t 

wards the li 

rizon. 
From X Persei to 

Cassiopeiae. 
From e Ursae M 
joris to R. A. 19: 
N.Decl. 43°. 
From y Piscium 1 

R. A. 350°, I 

Deal. 3°. 
From [X Bootis 

j3 Herculis. 
Centre of path 

below /S' Ur; 

Majoris. 
From R. A. 27-1 

N. Decl. 24°, 

y Ophiuchi. 
From fi Bootis to 

Serpentis. 
From a Coroi 

Borealis to 

Serpentis. 
From R. A. 308 

S. Decl. 1°, to 

Capricorni. 
From R. A. 353 

N.Decl. 29°, 

a Pegasi. 
«= S= 
From 276° — 8 
to 275 - 18 
From (3 Aqnarii 

R. A. 300°, 

Decl. 6°. 
From € Aquila 

R. A. 276°, 

Decl. 2°. 
From R. A. 24! 

N. Decl. 54°, 

j3 Herculis. 
From a Draconis 

j3 Bootis. 
From to ft S( 
! pentis. 
From /3 Bootis to 

Serpentis. 
From f3 Draconis 

TT Herculis. 

S-- 
From 327° - 1 

to 322 -2: 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



115 



Appearance ; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



Lent^tb of 
Path. 



10^ 



/cft a momentarv streak 25° 
20° in length. 



.eft a train , 



eft a broad bluish streak'lO° 
eft a train 



:ft a train . 



'ft a train 



|e meteor increased from 
■ 2nd raag.# Left a 
irain (?). 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Directed towards ^ (/3, 
y) Ursfe Minoris. 

Inclined downwards to 
left. 



Directed from k Persei. 



Directed from Camelo 
pardus. 



Radiant, near a Lyrae. 

The longest flight of the 
evening. Skyremarl 
ably clear. 



Observer. 



T. Crumplen. 
Id. 



Directed from near B 
Camelopardi. 

Directed from K Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from H Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from H Came- 
lopardi. 



Meteors scanty for the 
night. 



Sky overcast 



Directed from M Came 
lopardi. 

Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from P Persei. 



Sky clear from Q* 30' 
p.m. A fine night. 



Directed from B Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from c Came- 
I lopardi. 

■Directed from M Came- 
j lopardi. 



i Directed from ;; Came- 
j lopardi. 

Directed from h Came- 
lopardi. 



Rain at IP 10™ p.m. 
Stars visible in places. 



W. H. M'ood. 
Id, 

Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 
Id, 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

~~T2 



IIG 



REPORT 186G. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1866. h m 
Aug. 10 11 4 p.ni 



10 11 19 p.m. 



10 



Ibid . 



11 31 p.m. 



10 11 32 p.m. 



10 
10 



11 39 p.m. 
II 42 p.m 



10 11 49 p.m 



10 
11 

11 
11 

11 

11 

11 

11 

11 
1] 
11 
11 

11 



11 54 p.m 



Place of 
Observation. 



Primrose Mill 
(London). 



Birmingham 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid . 
Ibid. 



3 a.m. Primrose Hill 
(London). 



6 a.m. 

7 a.m. 

16 a.m. 

16 a.m. 



Birmingham 
Ibid 



Ibid 



Primrose Hill 
(London). 



1 7 a.m. Ibid 



19 a.m. BirminRham 



20 a.m. Ibid . 

21 a.m. 'ibid 

22 a.m. Ibid 

24 a.m.1bid . 



26 a.m. 



Ibid 



Apparent Size. 



= lst mao;.*. 



= lstmag.». 



= 2nd ma?.* 



: 1st mag.*. 
= 3rd mag.* 
= Sirius .... 



= Sirius 



Colour. 



Duration. 



I'ale blue . 



Pale blue , 



Blue . 

Blue . 
Blue . 
Yellow . 



= lst mag.*. 



^n. 



= 2nd raag.s 
= 3rd mag.* 



=3rd to 4th mag.* 
-V- 



Brilliant 
yellow. 



Orange 



0-5 second . 

0'5 second . 
1 second .... 
0'2 second . 

0-?5 second . 



Vivid pale blue 



White 

Blue 



-V- 

= Sirius 



Blue 

Vivid pale blue 

Vivid pale blue 
White 



= 2nd mag.» 
=3rd mag.* 
= 3rd mag.» 
= 2nd mag.» 

= 3rd msR.* 



1 second 



0-5 second . 
0*75 second . 



1 second 



0*75 second . 



Red . 
Blue 
Blue 
Blue 

Blue 



1 second .., 
0"5 second 
1 second ... 
0'5 second 

0-5 second 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



FromD to ^ (i, 4^) 
Ursa; Majoris. 



From near i Her- 
culis, passed mid- 
way between I 
and e Quadrantis 

From c Pegasi to /: 
Aquarii. 

From e Pegasi to i 

Aquarii. 
From ^ to i3 Ce 

pliei. 

From 337°+ 8^°! 

to 335 +10-5 
From e Andro 

medx to R. A 

355°, N. Decl 

15°. 
From V Andro 

medx to /3 Pe 

gasi. 
Passed from |3Ursi 

Minoris to aboii 

10° below J 

Lyrse. 
From rf to a Urs: : 

Majoris. 
From S to over 

Ursae Majori; 

and 3° beyond. 
From the Head ( 

the Lynx to 

Draconis. 
From ); Ursas M 

noris to b Quai'; 

rantis, andratW 

beyond. 
First appeared at 

Persei. 

From 6 AquilsB t 

1?. A. 275°, r 

Decl. 0°. 
From a Lyra; to ! 

Herculis. i 

From ? Draconis t 

t Herculis. 
From $ Draconis ( 

TT Herculis. 
From R. A. 312i 

N. Decl. 7°, tO! 

Pegasi. 
From 2 Aquarii i 

i (y Aquarii, 

Capricorui). 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEKVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



117 



Appearance ; Train, if any, Lengtli of 
and its Duration. Path, 



Left a long bright streak.. 



10" or 12° 



jeft a train . 
jeft a train . 
jch a train . 

iCft a train . 
i$ft a train . 



15= 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Directed from B Came-'Thnnder-storm, and a 



eft a long and lastingj 
streak, tapering from 
the centre to the ends. 



eft a long and lasting 20" 
train, tapering from the 
centre to the ends. 



lopardi. 



Radiant, a Lvrse 



Directed from M Carae- 
lopardi. 



cloudy sky all the 
earlier part of the 
night. 
Another from the same 
radiant shortly after. 



Observer. 



T. CrumpJen. 



Id. 



Directed from c Came- 
lopardi. 



Rain at 1 1" 25" p.m. W. H. Wood. 

Stars visible in south 

and in the zenith. 
Sky clearing Id. 



Directed from 5 Persei. 



Directed from H Came- 
lopardi. 



Conformable to B Ca- 
melopardi. 

Inclined downwards to 
the left. 



Directed towards .n 
point 5'^ above Capella. 

Directed from D Camc- 
lopardi. 



Four other meteors 
about midnight, radi- 
ating from ii Carac- 
lopardi. 



Directed from p Persei. 



Directed from D Came 

lopardi. 
Directed from b Came- 

lopavdi, 



I 



Directed from S Persei. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

W. H. Wood. 
Id. 

Id. 

T. Crumplen. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 



118 



KEPORT — 1866. 



Date. 



1866. 
Aug. 11 

11 

11 

11 
11 

11 
11 
11 
11 

11 



11 



11 



Hour. 



h m s 

26 15 
a.m. 

30 a.ra, 

31 a.m 

37 a.m, 

38 a.m, 

42 a.m. 

44 a.m 

44 15 
a.m. 

51 a.m. 

53 a.m. 



Place of 
Observation. 



59 a.m. 



1 a.m, 



Birmingham . 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 



16 10 5 p.m. Nseru-Fiord, 
Norway. 
N.lat. 60'58', 
W.lonK.G°50'. 



20 9 16 p.m. 



About 7 45 
p.m. 



Sept. 1 10 29 p.m. 



Bergen, Norway 



Hawkhurst 
(Kent). 



Sunderland , 



Apparent Size. 



Colour. 



= 3rd to 4th mag.^ 
■1st mag.* 



= 3rd mag.* 



= Sirius . . . . 
= 2nd mag.* 

= lst mag.*. 
= 1st mag.*. 
= lst mag.*. 



Brighter than a 
1st mag.* 



= 1st mag.* 



:1st maa;.*. 



= 2nd mag.* 



Blue 

White 

Blue 



Brilliant 
white. 
Blue ... 



Blue . 
Yellow 
Blue . 
White . 

Blue . 



White 



Blue 



Brighter than a Ngarlv white. 
1st mag.* 



= 2nd to 3rd mag.* 



Nearly = tl . 



= 3rd ma.c;.» 



Yellow 



White 



Yellow 



Duration. 



0-5 second 
0-5 second 
1 second .. 



1 second 
1 second 



0"5 second 
0-5 second 
1 second ... 
1 second .., 



1^ second 



0'5 second 



O'TS second , 



2 seconds. 



Very quick 



Position, or 

Altitude and 

Azimuth. 



From y Pegasi to 

R. A. 357°, N. 

Decl. 8°. 
From rj Dracouis 

to R. A. 237° 

N. Decl. 51°. 
From t Draconis 

to ^ Ursae Mi 

noris. 
From e Aquilse to 

j; Serpentis. 
From R. A. 347°, 

S. Decl. 10°, to 

d Aquarii. 
From S to 1° above 

6 Capricorni. 
From a Delphini to 

S Aquilse. 
From X. Pegasi to y 

Delphini. 
From R. A. 71 

N. Decl. 50°, to 

Capella. 
Path parallel and 

equal to the last. 

Distance about 



From R. A. 51°, 
N. Decl. 28°, to 
R. A. 44°, N 
Decl. 19°. 

From R. A. 51', 
N. Decl. 28°, to 
R. A. 47°, N 
Decl. 13°. 

From R. A. 8'' 40™, 
N. Decl. 69°, to 
R. A. 7" 30'", N 
Deci. 65°. 



Disappeared near/i 
Persei. 



Centre of path 10° 
west of, and on 
the same level ai 
the moon. 

Path 2° below [i 
Ursae Minoris. 



I 



A CATALOGtTE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



119 



ppearance; Train, if any, 
and its Duration. 



;ft a train . 



Length of 
Path. 



:ft a train , 



ft a train . 



V 



"¥ 



a yellow train 1° 
ng, 3° or 4° above 
!ic place of disap- 
earance for one or two 
^conds. 
Lake of light 



12° 



Direction ; noting also 

whether Horizontal, 

Perpendicular, or 

Inclined. 



Remarks. 



Directed from D Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from K Came- 
lopardi. 



Observer. 



Directed from S Persei. 
Directed from y Persei. 

Directed from y Persei. 



Directed from H Came- 
lopardi. 

Directed from H Came 
lopardi. 



Conformable to B Ca- 
melopardi. 




Downwards . 



Perpendicular 



Began and ended about 
1° higher than the 
last (see fig.). 



Sky overcast at 1'' lb" 
a.m. Nights of the 
nth and 12th over- 
cast. 



W. H. Wood. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



rhe train was as bright 
as the head. 




Seen through 
clouds. 



hazy 



T.W. Backhouse 



Id. 



A. S. ITersehel. 



T.W. Backhouse, 



l:iO 



REPORT — 186G. 



Supplement to Catalogue. — Observations of Luminous 









Apparent point of com- 


Apparent point of com- 


Direction hy 






1865, 


0) <n 


mencement. 


mencement from globe. 


bour of ima- 




No. 


Nov. 13th A.M., 
G. JI. T. 


13 p 








ginary dial ; 
VI hour 
vertical. 




Azimuth 
VV. from S. 


Altitude. 


n.A. 


N. P. D. 






Ii ra s 




O 1 


o / 


li m 


O / 


h 




1. 


12 9 


1 


244 55 


44 9 


8 35 


43 30 


H 




2. 


10 8 


2 


11 35 


02 40 


3 19 


64-20 


4 




3. 


11 32 


2 


292 35 


46 59 


6 33 


66 20 


2i 




4. 


13 38 


2 


276 5 


26 29 


6 37 


52 40 


3 




5. 


14 4 


2 


116 35 


55 9 


23 52 


36 20 


8 




6. 


14 41 


1 


274 35 


46 29 


7 24 


57 40 


n 




7. 


15 1 


2 


115 35 


44 9 


22 53 


<3 30 


8 




8. 


17 6 


. •• 


187 35 


19 9 


14 47 


31 10 


H 




9. 


17 21 


3 


339 35 


34 9 


4 54 


90 


3 




10. 


18 30 


3 


47 35 


46 9 


2 36 


73 20 


6 




11. 


21 8 


2 


223 35 


19 39 


10 59 


53 


9 




12. 


21 35 


2 


223 35 


19 39 


10 59 


53 


9 




13. 


22 3 


2 


70 35 


36 39 





08 20 


5 




14. 


23 56 


2 


232 5 


16 9 


11 53 


48 30 


H 




15. 


25 20 


1 


263 5 


39 9 


9 35 


55 10 


12 




16. 


25 25 


3 


51 35 


21 9 


48 


93 50 


4 ; 


17. 


27 55 


3 


75 35 


52 9 


1 2 


58 20 


4 




18. 


28 19 


2 


42 5 


43 9 


1 30 


74 20 


4 




19. 


30 14 


3 


9 35 


43 39 


3 31 


83 40 


3 




20. 


31 2 


3 


236 5 


15 59 


11 3 


57 10 


H 




21. 


33 24 


3 


242 5 


27 39 


10 29 


50 20 


5 




22. 


34 26 


3 


335 35 


42 9 


5 21- 


87 50 


4 




23. 


34 41 


1 


165 5 


19 9 


17 45 


35 10 


8 , 




24. 


40 17 


3 


1 5 


30 39 


3 55 


96 


5 




25. 


42 10 


2 


IGO 35 


37 9 


19 54 


22 20 


7 




20. 


43 27 


3 


211 5 


18 39 


13 4 


41 39 


H 




27. 


43 28 


2 


26 35 


26 39 


2 40 


97 30 


5 




28. 


44 30 


n 


276 5 


14 9 


9 22 


83 


n 




29. 


46 2 


1 


290 35 


44 39 


7 14 


68 30 


2i 




30. 


46 27 


2 


177 35 


42 9 


16 56 


10 12 


9 




31. 


46 33 


3 


191 5 


51 9 


8 53 


55 


6 




32. 


47 21 


3 


191 5 


51 9 


8 54 


6 55 


• • * 




33. 


47 25 


3 


42 5 


42 9 


2 17 


78 50 


4 




34. 


51 41 


2 


266 5 


20 9 


9 45 


71 40 


4 




35. 


63 35 


3 


332 35 


29 9 


6 4 


94 20 


5 




36. 


54 8 


2 


151 35 


50 9 


22 38 


18 40 


7 




37. 


54 25 


2 


332 5 


42 39 


5 44 


82 10 


4 




38. 


54 41 


n 


215 5 


42 9 


11 7 


26 10 


H 




39. 


56 10 


2 


159 35 


23 ZO 


18 50 


32 10 


- 8 




40. 


58 44 


3 


292 3) 


21 39 


8 28 


85 40 


4^- 




41. 


59 50 


3 


243 20 


19 54 


11 7 


58 20 


8| 




42. 


1 25 


1 


127 20 


49 9 


23 38 


33 30 


3 




43. 


48 


2 


10 5 


22 9 


3 45 


103 






44. 


1 1 


1 


30 35 


20 9 


2 35 


102 20 


• •• 




45. 


2 9 


1 


147 35 


8 39 


19 .30 


51 50 


n- 




40. 


3 


3 


13 35 


27 9 


3 47 


98 20 


4 




47. 


5 27 


1 


236 55 


30 29 


10 57 


46 30 


9 




48. 


5 27 


3 


108 35 


65 9 


1 53 


37 30 


n- 




49. 


6 33 


3 


322 5 


24 9 


6 56 


96 


4 




50. 


6 34 


3 


330 35 


19 9 


6 31 


103 40 


4i 





A CATALOGUE OF OBSEIIVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



121 



Meteors at the Observatory, Cambridge, 1865, 'No\. 13th, a.m. 



No. 



1. 

2. 

.3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24, 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 

31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 

43. 
44. 

45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 



Direction 

referred to an 

hour-circle 

through the 

pole (0°;, 

round the 

circle through 

the W. 



Notes. 



286 10 
112 5 
105 35 
142 40 
172 50 
263 50 
186 40 
273 16 

102 20 
151 50 
309 50 
309 50 
110 10 
295 10 

47 50 

91 16 

75 50 

94 50 

84 6 

299 50 

194 40 

134 40 

224 5 

149 20 

177 20 

283 30 

133 55 

172 50 

103 30 
261 36 

281 45 



Left a train . 



Left a train . 
Left a train . 
Left a train . 
Left a train . 



Observer, 



I Left a slight train 

Left a slight train 

Left a train 

Left a very short train 



jLeft a slight train 



95 


20 


160 


10 


166 


25 


144 


30 


136 


50 


313 


30 


216 


20 


169 


30 


302 


30 


28 


10 





201 20 
HI 35 
315 

152 20 
142 20 

153 



Positions doubtful 



As bright as Jupiter; fiuetrain 



Left a short train. Nos. 30-32 
computed R. A. and N. P. D 



J. C. Adams. 

A. Graham. 

J. C. Adams 

Id. 

A. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

A. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

II. Graham. 

A. Graham, 

J. C. Adams. 

Id. 

A. Graliam. 

J. G. Adams. 

Id. 

H. Graham. 

A. Graham. 

H. Graham. 

Id. 

J. C. Adams. 

Id. 

H. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

H. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

Id. 

A. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

Id 

A. Graham. 



As bright as Jupiter; finetrain 
Left a short train 



Moved slowly through 5° of 
arc. 



Left a train 

Rough positions 



Id. 

Id. 

H. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

II. Graham. 

A. Graham. 

H. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

A. Graham. 

J. C. Adams. 

Id. 

A. Graham. 

H. Graham. 
Id. 

A. Graham. 
H. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
A. Graham, 
H. Graham. 
Id. 



References. 



No. 3, identical with Hawk- 
hurst, 12" 11'" 30" A.M. 
See Appendix IV. 2. 



No. 29, identical with Hawk- 
hurst, 12" 46'" A.M. 
See Appendi.\ IV. 2. 



123 



REPORT 1866. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors at tlie 







t-. 


Apparent point of com- 


Apparent point of com- 


Direction by 






)8G3, 


<U n 


mencement. 


mencement from globe. 


hour of ima- 




No. 


Nov. 13th, A.M., 
G. M. T. 


II 

C 

to 










ginary dial ; 
12 hour 
vertical. 




Azimuth 
W. from S. 


Altitude. 


R.A. 


N. P. D. 






b m s 




O ( 




h m 


/ 


h 




51. 


1 6 47 


2 


213 20 


45 9 


11 3 


23 20 


9^ 




52. 


7 21 


3 


51 5 


24 9 


1 30 


94 10 


H 




53. 


S 36 


1 


30 35 


51 39 


3 25 


72 40 


5 




54. 


10 22 


3 


50 5 


21 41 


1 41 


94 


4'^ 




55. 


10 34 


1 


65 5 


19 9 


49 


89 40 


4 




56. 


11 51 


2 


219 35 


28 9 


12 16 


37 53 


Si 




57. 


12 4 


3 


19 35 


23 9 


3 30 


97 10 


44 




58. 


13 8 


1 


137 35 


49 9 


23 30 


28 50 


7h 




59. 


13 44 


3 


187 5 


53 9 


9 42 


4 24 


H 




60. 


14 40 


3 


5 5 


30 12 


6 


96 20 


4i 




61. 


14 40 


2 


33 5 


53 9 


3 28 


71 20 


4J- 




62. 


15 12 


1 


190 35 


28 9 


15 10 


25 20 


8i 




63. 


16 25 


1 


183 35 


13 9 


16 26 


39 30 


9 




64. 


16 39 


2 


321 5 


22 9 


7 8 


98 


4 




65. 


18 5 


3 


147 5 


55 39 


20 


19 29 


7 




66, 


18 27 


3 


303 5 


20 9 


8 20 


92 20 


4 




67. 


18 5 


2 


180 


52 13 







8 




68. 


23 34 


■ • * 


348 5 


62 14 


5'"i'5 


64 40 


1 




69. 


24 n 


1 


63 35 


37 39 


1 43 


74 20 


5 




70. 


24 55 


1 


240 35 


39 9 


10 25 


44 50 


10 




71. 


23 6 


• •■ 


53 5 


28 39 


2 3 


87 30 


• . * 




72. 


26 32 


1 


112 5 


42 9 





46 20 


6 




73. 


27 29 


2 


227 5 


18 29 


12 30 


55 20 


H 




74. 


28 16 


1 


191 35 


58 9 


7 51 


8 52 


n 




75. 


27 37-t- 


1 


46 35 


52 9 


2 50 


66 


5 




76. 


29 54 


1 


196 5 


46 54 


12 45 


12 


8J 




77. 


30 20 


3 


317 42 


26 9 


5 45 


100 


4 




78. 


31 22 


2 


28 5 


32 9 


3 30 


92 


4 




79. 


32 15 


2 


172 35 


19 9 


15 5 


34 


8 




80. 
81. 


33 32 
33 44 


2 
2 




29 "9 


"2 30 




4| 
4 




"46 35 


89 




82. 


34 50 


2 


349 35 


61 39 


5 28 


66 


4 




83. 


36 23 


2 


229 35 


25 9 


12 24 


44 50 


8J 




84. 


38 7 


1 


134 35 


16 9 


21 


51 






85. 


38 22 


. .• 


47 5 


23 9 


2 20 


93 40 


4" 




86. 


39 55 


3 


165 35 


47 9 


22 8 


12 


7 




87. 


41 2t 


3 


101 35 


39 9 


29 


54 


6 




88. 


41 27 


3 


181 5 


38 39 


18 


34 


8 




89. 


42 2 


2 


30O. 5 


35 9 


8 23 


77 40 


7 




90. 


43 40 


2 


209 5 


32 39 


13 30 


28 20 






91. 


43 46 


3 


S3 5 


24 9 


33 


75 


4' 




92. 


43 51 


3 


100 35 


53 39 


1 37 


43 40 


8 




93. 


43 53 


3 


31 5 


20 9 


3 15 


102 


8 




94. 


46 5 


1 


51 35 


19 9 


2 


96 


5 




95. 


46 51 


1 


82 35 


20 9 


30 


79 


4i 




96. 


49 2 


1 


34 35 


32 9 


3 23 


90 


H 




97. 


51 5 


2 


134 5 


19 39 


21 55 


49 


7 




98. 


52 19 


1 


153 5 


14 9 


20 7 


44 


8 





A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



123 



Observatory, Cambridge (continued). 



No. 



51 
52, 
53, 
54, 

55. 
56, 
57, 

58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 
95, 
96. 
97. 
98. 



Direction 

referred to an 

hour-circle 

through the 

pole (0°), 

round the 

circle through 

the W. 



Notei. 



343 10 
106 30 
119 50 
106 55 
86 10 
292 53 
123 10 
166 
271 58 
131 52 
114 20 
262 45 
273 27 
152 
12'5 39 
150 55 











38 





115 


20 


349 


10 



128 20 
280 30 
1 34 
120 50 
309 30 
127 35 
103 15 
231 50 



93 


35 


126 


55 


289 






93 20 
162 50 
132 10 

241 11 

242 50 
278 55 
201 

ioi 10 
lOG 10 
111 55 
114 35 
174 25 
216 30 



Left a train . 



Motion very slow 



Observer. 



Left a short train 



Left a fine train 
Left a train 



Rough observation 
Left a train 



Left a short train ... 
Tlirou!;h North Pole 



Left a train . 
Left a train . 



Computed R. A. and N. P. D, 

Left a fine train 

Left a train 



Through Polaris . 

Left a train 

Left a train 



A flash 



Left a short train 



Rough observation . 
Left a train 



Left a train 

Left a train 

Left a short train 



J. C. Adams. 
A. Graham. 

Id 

H. Graham. 
A. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
II. Graham. 
A. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
H. Graham. 
A. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
Id. 

H. Graham. 
A. Graham. 
H. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
H. Graham. 
' A. Graham. 
J. C. Adams 
H. Graham. 
A. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
A. Graham. 
II. Graham 
J. C. Adams. 
H. Graham. 
Id. 

J. C. Adams. 
A. Graham. 
H. Graham. 
A. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
A. Graham. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

J. C. Adams. 
H. Graham. 
J. C. Adams. 
A. Graham. 
Id. 

H. Graham. 
Id. 

A. Graham. 
Id. 

H. Graham. 
A. Graham. 



References. . 



No. 53, identical vf ith Hawk- 
hurst, !'■ S"" 45' A.M. 
See Appendix IV. 2. 



No. 70, identical withllawk- 
hurst, 1'' 24" 45" a.m. 
See Appendix IV. 2. 



No. 75, identical with Hawk 
hurst, l'> 28" 15» a.m. 
See Appendix IV. 2. 



124 REPORT — 186G. 

APPENDIX. 

I. Meteors doubly obseryed. 

(1.) 1865, September 24th, 7" 8™ 45^ p.m., G. M. T, 

The meteor observed at Greenwich, Kamsgate, and Hawkhiu'st (see Cata- 
logue), commenced its course sixty-seven miles above the coast of France, in 
the zenith of a place in N. lat. 49° 57', E. long. 2° 12', and disappeared 
thirty-eight miles above the English Channel, in N. lat. 50° 26',_E. long. 0° 
23'. Path ninety-one miles in four seconds, dii-ected from a point in E. A. 
2°, N. Docl. 2°, near the first point of Aries. Velocity twenty-three miles 
per second. The meteor is a good example, triply observed, of the group of 
meteors directed from the radiant in Pisces or Cetus, described in the 
Monthly Notices of the Eoyal Astronomical iSociety for December 9th, 1864. 

(2.) 1865, September 24th, 8" 30" p.m., G. M. T. 

The meteor observed at Greenwich and at Manchester, at From e in Devon- 
shire, and at Winchfield in Hants, commenced its course thu'ty-four miles in 
the zenith of a place seven miles east of Bath, and disappeared thirty miles 
above a point four miles south of Gloucester. 

The course of the meteor, prolonged onwards, would nearly touch lEan- 
chester, where it was seen to descend with a slight inclination, and a short 
course in the S.S.AV. This observation necessitates a small correction. The 
course appears actually to have been from thirty-eight miles over Bath to 
twenty-seven miles over Gloucester. Velocity twenty-four miles per second. 
Path thirty-six miles in 1^ second, directed from some part of the C(mstellu- 
tion Capricornus, not far from a point in right ascension 20'', south declination 
30°, described by Dr. Neumayer, at Melbourne, as a point of the highest in- 
terest, and deserving particular attention with the view of determining further 
points of radiation. 

(3.) 1865, September 26th, 8^ 55™ p.m., G.M.T. 
The meteor observed at Thirsk, in Yorkshu-e, and at Hawkhurst, com- 
menced its course about 107 miles above a part of the North Sea, in N. lat. 
54° 55', E. long. 2° 43', and disappeared seventy-six miles above the neigh- 
bourhood of Sheineld. Path 200 miles in Si seconds. Velocity fifty- seven 
miles per second. Direction from a point near Auriga, in right ascension 69°, 
north declination 25°, This meteor is one of a group of meteors directed from 
a radiant in Auriga, described in the last-mentioned Number of the Monthly 
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. It appears from this No., and 
from No. 1 of this Appendix, that the velocity of the meteors from Auriga is 
nearly three times as great as that of the meteors directed from Cetus or 
Pisces. 

(4.) 1865, September 26th, 9" 21'" p.m., G.M.T. 
Notes of the meteor, seen by Mr. Harding, of the Eoyal Observatory, Green- 
wich, on the evening of the 26th of September last, were received, first, from 
Eastbourne, and second, from Weston-super-Mare, in Somersetshire. Over 
the latter county it appears to have attained its greatest brilliancy ; but at 
what altitude above the earth can only be roughly estimated from the obser- 
vation at Eastbourne, compared with that near Greenwich. The height indi- 
cated is from about fifty to about thirty miles above the surface of the earth. 
The radiant-point, or direction of its flight, was from about the position 
of Polaris, a region from which a wide group o| meteors take their course in 



A CATALOGtJE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 125 

a remarkably definite manner during the month of August, and more especi- 
ally in September. 

(5.) 1865, November 13th, S^ 42™ p.m., G. M. T. 

The following account of the meteor is communicated by Mr. T. Crumplen. 
" "When fii-st seen, it had the appearance of a star of the 3rd magnitude, 
rapidly increasing in splendour until its maximnm light was at least equal to 
three times that of the planet Venus. Numerous sparks were thrown off as 
it passed along, the nucleus exploding just before it disappeared. Its flight 
was certainly retarded during its passage ; it was visible over a large area, 
obsei-vations having reached me from places as widely separated as Boulogne 
and Market-Drayton. 

'•■ From these I conclude that the meteor was first seen about eighty miles 
in the zenith of a place midway between Aylesbury and Stoney Stratford, 
moving in a W.S.W. direction, passing south of Cirencester and just north of 
Cleveland, ending about the same height over Hartley Quay — a path of some 
1G5 miles iu 2^ seconds. The velocity is certainly very great — sixty-six miles 
per second ; but I am convinced that it was not less. This will serve for a 
sufficient indication of the height of these meteors, which we must consider 
to be part of the great November zone." 

The height and velocity are both above the average. It should be borne 
in mind that small errors of observation may sometimes lead to exaggerated 
estimates, both of the height and velocity of a meteor's flight. 

(6.) 1865, November 18th, 4" 30™ p.m. 
The appearance of the meteor seen in twilight by Mr. F. C. Penrose at 
Wimbledon, is also announced from Cambridge (see Catalogue) among the hst 
of meteor-observations for November, communicated by Mr. T. Crumplen. 
Particiilars of the apparent path of this meteor at other places, if they can 
still be obtained, would lead to determining its real height and velocity, and 
of what meteoric shower the fii'ebaU formed a part. 

(7.) 1865, November 21st, 6i^ 5™ p.m., G. M. T. 
The eastern coast of England is for the third time visited by a detonating 
meteor of large size, within a day before or after the date of the 20th No- 
vember (i-. Eeport, 1865, p. 121). For the means of ascertaining its direct 
distance from the earth, the path that it pursued, its velocity, &e., the Com- 
mittee are mainly indebted to the accounts collected from distant places by 
Mr. Warren De la Hue, by whom the meteor was observed near Cranford. 
It was also seen, and the position of its point of disappearance was noted by 
Mr. F. C. Penrose, F.E.A.S., at Wimbledon. A loud report like that of a 
cannon followed its disai^pearance, at an interval of 2 minutes and 20 seconds. 
The meteor was observed by the Assistant at the Observatory of Cambridge, 
Mr. H. C. Todd, and at Oxford and at Liverpool, as well as at other places more 
near to the seat of the explosion, which was over the Thames valley. The 
meteor traversed the entire length of the valley of the Thames, a distance of 
about seventy-five miles, from the Nore (height about forty-one miles) to 
Henley-on-Thames (height twenty-seven miles) in 6^ seconds, at a velocity, 
therefore, of about eleven and a half miles per second. Sound, with its or- 
dinary velocity in common air, would take 2 minutes 50 seconds to traverse 
the distance from the latter point to the station where Mr. Penrose observed 
the meteor at Wimbledon. The direction of the meteor was from a point in 
the neighboxu-hood of the constellation Taurus, betv^'ecn Taiu'us and the head 
of Cetus. 



126 REPORT— 1866. 

The meteor of the 19th November, 1861 (v. Ecport 1862, p. 79), as seen 
at Woodford, at first appeared stationary for two seconds at a point in Cetns. 
The epoch of the 19th — 21st November accordingly deserves attention, 
partly as one for which the direction of the detonating meteors has been as- 
certained, and partly because their frequent returns within very narrow limits 
of time about that date makes it jn-obable that, like the meteors of the 10th 
of August and 13th of November, they exist as a group of bodies revolving 
in a fixed orbit round the sun. 

(8.) 1866, January 6th, O" 59" p.m., G. M. T. 
The meteor seen and recorded at the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, ap- 
proaches nearly in time and general description to that recorded at Sunder- 
land and at Wisbeach. It is, however, distinct ; and the radiant-region L H 
roughly represents the general direction of the two meteors, Avhich was 
from between Leo Minor and the Head of Leo. 

(9.) 1866, January 11th, 9" 55" p.m., Greenwich time. 
A meteor of very extraordinary length of path, generally observed in Eng- 
land. Eeferred to the stars at Bedford, and at Hay (S. Wales), the visible 
path appears to have been either truly horizontal, or otherwise slightly inclined 
a little upwards, the meteor performing its transit at a height of eighty-five 
to ninety-five miles above the earth. The direction of flight was from 
E.S.E. to W.N.W., on a direct line from Po-ris to Cork, hut 2)>'ohalJi/ extend- 
ing beyond tJie limits of either of those places at the beginning and end of 
its luminous track. Assuming the distance of the meteor from Ticehurst to 
have been only fifty miles (instead of ninety, as iviferrcd from the other ob- 
servations), the altitudes (as measured at Ticehurst) of 1 5° at first appear- 
ance in the east, and 10° at disappearance in the west, give not less than 
450 miles as the length of the meteor's course. Half as long again as this, 
or nearly 700 miles, would not be an exaggerated statement of the extrava- 
gant length of path of this, certainly, very remarkable meteor. It may 
be compared in this respect to the meteor of 1758, described by Pringle, and 
to the meteor of the ISth of August, 1783. The meteor observed at the 
Greenwich Observatory about the same time, or two minutes earlier, is 
distinct, and crosses the path of the other at an angle. Both meteors were 
directed from a radiant region L H, near the confines of Leo and Hydra. 

(10,) 1866, June 20th, 10'^ 45'" a.m., Greenwich time (see Appendix II. C). 

Notwithstanding this great aerolitic meteor appeared by day and in bright 
sunshine, exact observations of its apparent path wore obtained at Ticehiu'st 
by the schoolmaster of the village, Mr. E. Covington, and at Boulogne, by 
Mr. F. Galton, the Secretary of the Eoyal Geographical Society. Instru- 
mental measurements at those jjlaces show that the meteor first came into 
sight at a distance of fifteen miles above the town of Calais, and that when. 
it disappeared near Boulogne (about midway between that town and the town 
of Montreuil, in Somme) its distance from the earth was only four and a half 
miles. The following statement which appeared in a daily journal, if correct, 
shows the violence of the shock which was felt at Boulogne. " The vibration 
caused by the exjilosion at that place was so great that an ill- constructed 
scafFokliDg fell to the ground, and one man at work upon the scaffolding was 
killed, and another seriously injured by the fall." 

Although the meteor was of unusiial dimensions, no meteorites are reported 
to have been found. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 127 

II. Laege Meteoes. 
(1.) 1768, December 23rd, 7^ a.m. (local time). 

A very clear description* of the phenomeuon attending the faU of a meteorite 
appears in the account of Cook's Voyage round the World, published under 
the title of " A Voyage round the World in His Majesty's Ship Endeavour, 
in the years 1768-71 (London, 1771)." Professor Miller, of Cambridge, who 
communicates the extract, accompanies it with the remark that "the passage 
must have escaped the notice of Mr. Greg, and of aU other meteor historio- 
graphers." 

Page 25. for Date and Place.—" Thiu-sday, Dec. S, 1768, having pro- 
cured aU necessary supplies, we left Eio Janeiro, etc." 

Page 26, " December 23rd we observed an eclipse of the moon ; and about 
7 o'clock in the morning a small white cloud appeared in the west, from 
which a train of fii-e issued, extending itself westerly : about two minutes 
after we heard two distinct loud exi)losions, immediately succeeding each 
other like cannon, after which the cloud soon disajjpeared." 

(2.) 1861, March 4th, 9'^ 38'" 30^ a.m., Melbourne mean time. (Results of 
Meteorol. Observations in Victoria, S. Australia, 1858-62, by Dr. G. 
Neumayer ; p. 141.) 

A large meteor in bright daytime, seen in nearly the whole S.E. part of 
Australia. The meteor was seen at sea, on board of the ' Constance,' thirty 
miles S.W. of the Otway. 

From the measurements of Captain Sdrderbergh, and from various obser- 
vations made thi-oughout the country, Dr. Neumayer adduces the following 
facts relative to the occurrence : — 

miles. 
Height of the meteor above the earth when first seen . . 64-6 
Height of the meteor above the earth when bursting . . 10-0 

Distance from Colar when first seen 77-2 

Distance from Colar when bursting 73'0 

Diameter 0-18 mile, or 1190 feet. 
No mention is made by Dr. Neumayer of any detonation having been heard. 

• (3.) 1865, December 7th, 7'^ 20™ p.m., G. M. T. 
(Paris Observatory Bulletins, Jan. 5th and 6th, 1866.) 

A fireball exploded at a height of thirty-eight miles over the mouth of the 
Loire with a report likened to that of a cannon fired ofl" at a distance of a few 
miles (at Vaunes), and to a slight shock of an earthquake at La Roche-Bernard. 
The meteor was visible over an extent of the coast from Brest to Bordeaux, 
whence M. Gruey obtains from observations the following approximate 
elements of its path. The meteor jiroceeded, from a point about fifty-five 
miles above the sert at Quimpcr, descending at an inclination of about 15° 
from horizontal towards the E.S.E., a distance of eighty miles in 15 or 20 
seconds, to the point of its explosion, thirty-five miles above the mouth of 
the Loire. Velocity not less than ten miles per second. 

The diameter is reckoned by M. Gruey at ISO yards, but it is added that 
the eff'ect of irradiation would Idc to considerably diminish this amount. 

No meteorites were discovered, although the explosion was considerable, 
and the size and the luminosity of the fireball were quite unusual. 



* The punctuation is strictly given as in the original. The passage is also found 
Barrow's small editioa of Cook's Voyages. A. and C. Black, Edinb., 1860, p. 19. 



in 



128 



REPORT — 1866. 



(4.) 1865, December 9th, 8" SO"' p.m. (local time). 
At Charleston, South Carolina, U. S., the sky being overcast and a slight 
rain falling, but unattended by thunder or lightning, a brilliant and strong 
light was for a moment perceived. A sentinel waEiing his rounds was 
enabled by the light to detect a boat with two persons leaving the fort, and by 
leveUiug his piece to oblige it to retiu-n. Half a minute or a minute after- 
wards, an explosion, and a loud jarring sound were heard ; the fireball itself, 
if such was the nature of the phenomenon, was hidden by clouds. 

(5.)* 1866, March 11th, 0" 20'" a.m. local time:— 
(March 10th, W 50"' p.m., G. M. T.) 

A yellow or reddish fireball, half the apparent size of the full moon, fol- 
lowed by a broad train of dull red colour, exploded into fragments near 
Liibbccke (forty miles east from Miiuster) with a report loiid enough to be 
plainly heard at Miiuster. People at Liibbecke were awakened from their 
sleep ; the report 's^'as likened to a discharge of artillery followed by that of 
musketry, and by a rushing sound Idee the arrival of a railway train. The 
light was sufficient to have counted money : the meteor, as drawn by Pro- 
fessor Heis upon a map, was visible in the surrounding districts of Liibbccke, 
Westphaha, and Hanover. 

It commenced its course at a height of thirteen miles (British) above 
Miete, terminating at three-and-a-half miles (British) over Oldendcrf in Liib- 
becke. Path, thii-ty miles in four to five seconds, dii-ected from azimuth W. 
from 8. 50°, altitude 20° ; velocity seven miles per second. At Liibbecke 
the report succeeded its disappearance in little more than a quarter of a 
minute. No meteorite in the neighbourhood is reported to have fallen. 

(6.) 1866, June 20th, 10" 45"> a.m., G. M. T. 

1. As observed at Penshurst. 

Dear Sii-, — In case you should not have seen the great meteor of lO*" io"* 
A.M., June 20th 1866, I send you a rude sketch of the appearance as seen by 




The Great Meteor, as seen from Penshurst, 10'' 45'" a.m., June 20, 1860. 
(Elevation 30°. Direction of flight from N.N.E. to S.E.— Jas. Nasmyth.) 

* A Pamphlet by Prof. Hcis, with map of meteor's coiu'^c (8yo. Hallo, 180G, 11. W. 

Schmidt). 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOES. 129 

me from here. I had a fine vieAv of it for about t^vo seconds as it skimmed 
majestically across a bright blue portion of the sky, which was in other parts 
covered by white clouds. I heard no sound, although I listened very atten- 
tively for it ; but the wind was blowing through the trees, and so might have 
drowned the sound to me. 

The brilliant orange-red with rose tint on the after part (h), and bright 
white light at the forward end (a), gave it a most wonderfiil aspect when 
surrounded by the blue sky. 

The drawing, although roughly made, is, I may say, generally faithful. 

The elevation was about 30° ; the inclination of the axis, about 5° ; the 
length of the strikingly visible portion, about 1° 30' ; the white vapour veil, 
perhaps 8° or 10° long, but, as it faded very gradually, one could not assign 
an exact length to if. The red taU appeared to flame and flicker consider- 
ably. 

If it had made its transit at night, it would have lit up the whole of 
England ; but such a meteor seen in bright sunshine gives it a very special 
character of interest. 

I am, &c., Jas. Nasmtth. 

Penshurst, June 22nd, 1866. 
To A. 8. Herschel, Esq^. 

2. As seen at Brighton. (From Mr. Galton's MS.) 

"We saw T. point behind us; we turned, and saw a thing like a comet 
passing through the air ; a bright ball of fire with a bright tail was what it 
looked like. As it got near the cliif which lies to the east, it got smaller and 
then vanished into space. Some people heard it go off like a gun when it 
disappeared. T. says it was much larger at first ; it went fast and straight 
across between us and the town. 

"A meteor passed over Brighton at 10|- a.m. on June 20th; it came from 
N.W. and travelled rapidly, and disappeared S.S.E. The policeman on Kemp 
Town slopes described it as shaped like a ginger-beer bottle ; one half of the 
bottle was a strong blood-red light, the other half of the body was like a thin 
white vapour, and the extremity of the object was a thin white cloud like a 
comet's tail, but not luminous. So transparent was this tail, the blue sky 
could be traced through it. The meteer burst, or rather deployed (spread 
itself) and wholly disappeared ; no sparlcs, no sound. 

" The coastguard on drill at Signal Station, near Brighton, saw the meteor. 
The body of it appeared liJfe a bottle, half of it a very remarkable deep-red 
fire ; the rest of the body and a tail, a long train of very thin white vapour. 
When it broke or spread and disappeared, the body, as the sailors call it, as- 
sumed a sort of grey hue, which they think was the blue sky seen through 
the thin white vapour. There was total absence of aU noise or sparks ; at the 
moment when immediately over their heads, the " body " (the light part of it) 
seemed to " quiver," but there was no pause in its course. The " quiver " 
was, only, if possible, less than an instant." 

3. As seen at Ticehurst (near Hurstgreen, Sussex). 

Eespected and dear Sir, — A meteor of rather remarkable character, I 
should think, was seen by my schoolboys to pass this morning at lO*" 4-5" 
A.sr. through a clear opening of the clouds, appearing in E. by N. at an alti- 
tude of 15°, and disappearing in S.E. at an altitude of 5°. All agree that it 
appeared half as large as the moon and of a bright yellow colour, very much 

18G6. K 



130 REPORT — 1866. 

more brilliant than the moon when seen in the day. Its flight was not rapid*, 
and its motion smooth and regular, gliding as a heavy body might be sup- 
posed to do. It was attended by a very short train, which i-apidly died out 
and appeared to form a point behind. No noise or explosion was heard. Its 
path was very slightly curved ; but I think there is no dependence to be placed 
on this. The day was fine, but the sky was partially obscured by large bright 
floating clouds, high above which was a stratum of a different kind — cirrus 
probably. The sun shone very clearly and warm at intervals, but for a few 
days previously we have had strong west winds. 

I am, &c., E. Covington. 
Ticeliurst ScJioolhouse, June 20th, 1866. 
To A. S. Hersehel, Esq. 

4. As seen at Boulogne. 

To the Editor of the ' Times.' 

Sir, — I was at Boulogne this morning at 11 o'clock (Paris time), when an 
explosion followed by a low and continued rumbling was heard in the Hotel 
des Bains, where I was then staying. The people in the house ran in alarm 
from their rooms into the courtyard, asking one another what had happened ; 
then observing through the gateway that similar crowds were also collecting 
in the street and by the harbour, and were equally puzzled as to the source 
of the noise, I went out and found myself in ample time to see the long, 
naiTow, smoke-like train of a meteor hanging in the sky. The final puff' that 
indicated the place of explosion was marked Avith perfect distinctness, but the 
point where the train fiji'st commenced was hidden from my view by a block 
of houses. I leisurely noted the necessarj' bearings, and then, running to my 
room, returned with a small travelling " altazimuth " I had by me, and 
measured them. The results were : — for the first point in the train that I 
could see, altitude 62°, magnetic azimuth (E. from N.) Qb° ; for the final 
puff, altitude 40°, magnetic azimuth (E. from N.) 195°. 

I doubt the error in any of these observations exceeding one degree ; I feel 
sure it does not exceed two degrees. The average breadth of the train of 
smoke was about one degree. A comparison of these measurements with any 
set taken elsewhere — and doubtless you wiU receive some other communica- 
tions — will at least indicate the path of the meteor, and will accurately fix 
its height above the earth at the time of explosion. 

(Signed) Francis Galton. 

London, June 20th. 

5. As seen in France. (From the ' Morning Advertiser,' June 26th.) 

The meteor described as having shot through the clouds over Folkstone on 
the 20th June, flamed amazement through all the toAvns in the northern 
deiiartmeut of France. It crossed over Boulogne, Calais, Hazobrook, Aire, 
Lilies, Bombourg and other places, and ultimately burst over St. Omer with 
an explosion like the roar of artillery. The peaceful inhabitants imagined 
an explosion of the neighbouring powder-magazines at Esquades. It is 
known to have exploded between the towns of Boulogne and St. Omer; 
but, though dUigent search has been made, none of the fragments have been 
discovered. 

* One boy, who saw tbe meteor from first to last, was asked to point with a stick towards 
the place whence it appeared to him to move. Moving the stick as the meteor appeared 
to him to do, the time in which he described the whole course of the meteor's flight, up to 
the point of disappearance, was 3j seconds. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 131 

6. The explosion at Calais. (Extract from a letter to the ' Times,' from 
H. B. M. Consul at Calais, Beaumont Hotham.) 

Sir, — The information of the explosion of a powder-mill near St. Omer, 
though transmitted by telegraph from St. Omer to Calais, and though officials 
here were informed of the " explosion," and the St. Omer fire-engines were 
actually sent for, turned out to be incorrect. The meteor was of a very ex- 
traordinary description ; but the powder-mill, at least, was a canard. 

(7.) 1866, July 17th, &" 52'" p.m. (local time), Eidfjord, Norway. 

It was quite light when the meteor appeared, far too light for any stars to 
be visible, and yet the meteor was ■^^eiy bright. I have no doubt it would 
have given very much more light than the moon, yet it was only about one- 
third the apparent diameter of the moon. 

I first saw it at an altitude of perhaps 45° ; and after that it went aboiit 
50°, increasing in brightness as it went. The latter part of its course was 
at an angle of 45° downwards to the right. It had a bright tail 5° or 10° 
long, of a different colour from the head, I think fiery ; it vanished with the 
head ; but I very soon saw a white train, perhaps 20° long, somewhat ser- 
pentine, exactly like white smoke, doubtless illuminated by dayhght alone, 
as I do not think that it was at aU self-luminous. It was consequently very 
faint to my naked eye. Some of the party saw it before I did, and say that 
it was simply curved and not serpentine. 

It rapidly became more serpentine, and perhaps two minutes after the 
disappearance of the meteor was of this shape : — 




It continued to grow more serpentine tiU it disappeared, part of it remain- 
ing visible twelve minutes. 

I remain, yours truly, 
Sunderland, Sept. 10th, 1866. T. W. Backhouse. 

To A. S. Herschel, Esq. 

III. Aerolites. 
(1.) 1860, January 16th. Stonefall at Kusiali, Kumaon, India. 

(2.) 1865, January 19th. StonefaU at Mouza Khoona, Sidowra, Gorruck- 

pore district, India. 

(3.) 1865, August 12th, 7'' p.m. Stonefall at Dimdrum, county of Tipperary, 
Ireland (Scientific Papers from E. I. Academy's Proceedings, vol. i. p. 230). 
Meteor not seen. A report like a cannon-shot and buzzing noise was heard, 
-and the stone fell into the ground, where it lay, half buried in the earth, milk- 

k2 



133 REPORT — 1866. 

■n-arm, AVeiglit 4 lbs. 14 ozs. ; specific gravity 3-07 to 3-57 in different 
parts of the stone, which has the form of a three-sided pyramid ; the base 
fr-eshly broken ; the faces vitrified, and separated from each other by sharp 
edges of the crust as distinctly as if ruled v.'ith a ruler. Of the earthy portion of 
the meteorite, that which is soluble in muriatic acid is nearly pure olivine ; 
the insoluble portion is a higlily siliceous mineral. The proportions arc — 

Nickel-iron (Chladnite) 20-GO (Fe 19-57; Ni 1-03) 

Protosidphuret of iron (Troilite) . . 4-05 

Chrome iron ore 1"50 

Mineral soluble in muriatic acid . . 33-08 (FeO 5-89 ; MgO 14-81) 

Mineral insoluble in muriatic acid . . 40-77 



100-00 



(4.) 1865, Aug-ust 20th, 1'' 30" p.m. Erinpoorah, India, 
(Extract from an Agra newspaper.) 
I send you the foUomng account of an aerolite, together with a photo- 
graph of the same, kindly taken by Dr. Eddomes, of the Erinpoorah Irregular 
Force, On Sunday, August 20th, 1865, about l*" 30"" p.m., a loud report was 
heard at Erinpoorah, as if a heavy gun had been fired in the cantonment. A 
child in the line caUed out " look, look, there is a lota* flpng over." At the 
same time a similar report was heard at 8aro\\'li, twenty-four miles south of 
Erinpoorah, and a borah then saw what he took for a baU of fire pass over 
his head. The same loud noise was heard at the same time in Aboo, distant 
fifty- four miles south of Erinpoorah ; and there it was followed by a second 
report, or, as is more likely, a loud reverberation of the first. Some men were 
digging a tank at the time near the village of BheenwaU in Marwar, about 
thirty-eight miles from Aboo, when they were suddenly alarmed by a loud 
rusliing noise and a ball of fire near them, throwing up the earth like a shell. 
Of course they aU bolted, but, finding that nothing further occurred, retm-ned 
to the spot, wlicre from a hole three or four feet deep they dug out this aero- 
lite : weight 3:j lbs. The appearance of this stone exactly corresponds with 
the account given of Aerolites in Brandt's Dictionary of Science. 

(5.) 1865, August 25th. Shergotty, India. 
(Extract from Calcutta Gazette.) 

A stone fell from the heavens accompanied by a very loud report, and 
buried itself in the earth knee-deep. At the time, the sky was cloudy and 
the air calm, no rain. The stone has been forwarded by the Government to 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

(6.) 1865, August 25th. ll*- 30™ a.m. Aumale, Algeria, 
(Comptcs Kendus, 1866, January Sth, vol. Ixii.) 
A meteorite fell near the small stream Oued Soufflat, thirty-two miles 
north of the town of Aumale, an explosion like the roar of artillei-y first 
proceeding from a cloud in the air. The stone then fell, penetrating in fallow 
land 8 inches, and burying itself 12 inches deeper in hard calcareous earth, 
where it remained too hot to be extricated by the hand. Its figure when dug 
oiit was a four-sided pyramid, 14 inches high, truncated at the top ; the base 
8 inches by 6 inches, the . upper face 4 inches square. It weighed about 
50 lb, A second of the same size fell at a place about twelve miles N. by 

* A round vessel used in India to hold or carry water. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 133 

E., in N. latitude 36° 27', E. longitude 3° 40', which cut off branches from a 
shrub, excavated a hole 1 yard wide and 1 foot deep, and afterwards rolled 
down the mountain-side into a pathway, where it was found. The specific 
gravity is 3-56 ; the crust is thin, dull black, and rough. The stones attract 
the magnet, and contain about 10 per cent., by weight, of metallic iron alloyed 
with nickel. Sulphiu-et of iron is also present, Avith chromc-irou in smaU 
octahedral crystals. The meteorites contain soluble salts of soda (carbonate 
and chloride ), and consist in their earthy portions of double silicates of iron 
and magnesia, partly attackable and partly unattacked by miuiatic acid. The 
greenish-grey spherules, verj'^ hard and compact, with crystals of Enstatyte and 
Peridote, and other minerals scattered through the stone, are described Ity 
M. Daubrce as they appeared under the microscope. 

(7.) 18G6, May 30t]i, 3" 45™ a.m. St. Mesmin, Aubo, France. 
(Comptcs Ecndus, 1866, June 18th, vol. xlii.) 

A reddish meteor, drawing a long train of red fire, as seen from Nangis 
and Bray-sur-Seine, burst over the " banlioue '' of St. Mesmin. Its disap- 
pearance was followed, at intervals of about twenty seconds towards the E., 
and of three, four, or five minutes towai'ds the W.S.W., fi'om which quarter 
the meteor came, by three cannon-like reports. After a clattering noise and 
a noise like rolling thunder that gradually died away, an aerolite 1 pound 
in weight strack the earth with a loud shrieking noise* in a railway-cutting 
at Haute de la Garenne, two yards from the rails, and penetrated 9 inches 
into the sloping bank. A second, nearly half a mile from the first, was dis- 
covered at Bas-le-Brun, which weighed 5 pounds ; and a thii-d, weighing 
4 pounds, fell one mile from the other two. An indentation, about half an 
inch in width with a fresh surface, upon the smallest, is covered -with thin 
thread-like lines of the perfectly fused dull black crust, where an angle of the 
meteorite is supposed from this circumstance to have been broken oft' during 
its flight in the air. The specific gravity is 3-56 ; and the stones contain 5 or 
6 per cent, by weight of metallic iron combined with nickel. Protosulphuret 
of iron and chrome-iron ore are also present. The earthy portion of the me- 
teorites consists of about 60 per cent, of a mineral which is impure olivine, 
and about 40 per cent, of highly siliceous mineral unattackable by muriatic 
acid. 

(8.) 1806, June 9th. Shortly before 5" p.m. (local time). 

Stoncfall ; Khyahinya, Xagy Eerezna, Hungary. (Vienna Acad. 
Sitzungsber., July 12th, and October lUh, 1S66.) 

Two scientific persons, commissioned by the government from Pesth, after 
inquiry upon the spot into the circumstances of this stonefall, gave their 
report, of which the foUoAving is the substance : — 

The stones struck the earth in great numbers on an area 1200 yards in 
length, in lat. 49° N., long. 22° E. from Greenwich. The meteor was seen 
at distances varying from thirty to seventy-five miles from the place of fall. 
At Eperies, fifty-five miles west from Knyahinya, it presented the appear- 
ance of a burning birch-rod. The handle, which was directed foremost, was 
deep red : and the meteor shot over Saros and Zemplin to a point due east, 
where it burst, scattering its fragments in aU directions, and houses shook 

* Am experiment by which most of the different noises made by mctoorilos in falling, 
such as humming, buzzing, shrieking, &.i4, can be imitated, may be made by projecting 
fragments of iron of different shapes from a common sling. 



134 



REPORT-^--1866. 



with the explosion. At Knyahinya the report was like that of a hundred 
cannons. 

A dense cloud, ten times the apparent width of the sun, marked the path 
of the fireball, extending itself towards Unghvar, a distance of twenty-five 
miles S., 5° W. from EJayahinya ; and it remained visible for fifteen minutes. 
Two or three minutes after the report was heard, a rattling sound came from 
the direction of the streak, and labourers at work in the fields saw stones fall. 
These, when picked up, were ice-cold, and emitted a strong sulphurous odour, 
that might be perceived at a distance of a mile round the place of fall. At 
least sixty stones were found, and the largest buried themselves obliquely at 
an angle of 30° or 35° to the horizon. Thirty-five fragments of the aerolite 
were sent by the Commissioners to Pesth. 

A perfectly incrusted stone was forwarded to Dr. Haidinger at Vienna, 
who cites the stonefall of Knyahinya, with that of Stannern, as a proof that 
aerolites, in their native orbits, occasionally consist of a swarm of separate 
stones, bound together by their mutual gravitation, while yet revolving in an 
orbit, like one body round the sun. The stone is marked by depressions upon 
its surface, like a perfect aerolite, and in its interior parts presents a marbled 
appearance, like the stones of ParnaUee and Assam. The specific gravity is 
3-520. 

lY. 

(1.) MeteDric showers of October, 1864, and 1865 compared with previous 

Meteoric showers. 
The exact date of the October shower is not fixed, but varies between the 
15th and 26th of October. On the 18th of October 1864, and again on the 
20th of October 1865, shower-meteors were observed at Hawkhurst, diverg- 
ing from a particularly weU defined radiant, at v Orionis, which preserved its 
place almost fixed in two successive years. The following is a comparison 
of the meteors mapped with those of other showers. The Table shows that 
a large percentage of the meteors mapped in the October shower were far 
more conformable to a radiant-point than was the case with the meteors in 
any of the other well-known and previously-examined showers. The initials 
M. N. refer to the Eoyal Astronomical Society's ' Monthly Notices.' 



Sign of Radiant, and date of 
observation. 






2 



<u 

p 

s 




Jfeteors mapped 

excluded from 

tiie mean. 


en Cj 

£.5 
S3 


Meteors retained. 


Reference to 
tlie original obser- 
vations. 


Approximate 

position of 

Radiant. 


-1 

B 


e 
V 

g 

•I) 




1 
1 
1 



R. A. 


N.Decl. 


K3 (1864, Jan. 2nd) 




234 

277 

105 

94 

90 

qo 



51 

35 

30 

27 

16 

15 


26 
16 
17 
23 
19 
14 


12 
7 
Nos.10,12,14 
Nos. 5,12,15 
Nos. 10,11,12 
Nos. 15, 18, 19 


14 
9 

14 
20 
16 
11 


54 
56 

82 
87 
84 
84 



2-0 

3-4 

2-5 

3-0 

1-6 

1-4 




4-1 
6-0 
6-0 
7-0 
3-0 
4-0 


1 

Rep. 1864, p. 30 
Ibid. pp. 40-42.' 
M.N.xxv.p.l62 
Ibid. p. 165. 
Ibid. p. 37. 
M.N. xxvi. p. 5;, 


DGi (1864,Apr.l9thand20th) 

r 1863, Dec. 12th and 13th.. 
G^ 

L 1864, Nov. 28th, Dec. 9th. 

ri864, Oct. 18th 


0- 

1865, Oct. 20th 













A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



135 



The meteors observed at Hawkhui'st, from whicli the mean deviations of 
the first two places of the list were taken, were figured upon a map ; and a 
list of the selected observations (only) is annexed in the following Tables, of 
which the particulars have already^been given fully, or in part, in the Cata- 
logue of the Eeport for 1864. 



Selected List of Conformable Meteors observed at Hawkhurst, 
1864, January 2nd (fig. 1). 



2 <U 




Magnl- 


Length 


Dura- 




Apparent path. 




Mean 
devia- 


The meteors are 
selected from 26 












1864, Jan. 2nd. 


per 

stare. 


of visible 
patli. 


tion of 
flight. 


Began. 


Ended. 


tion 

from 

Radiant. 


meteors originally 
entered upon a map. 












K.A. 


N. Decl. 


R. A. 


N.Decl. 






h m s 




o 


sec. 






o 




o 




1. 


9 32 


1 


15 


1-6 


162 


25 


150 


15 


41 




2. 


10 24 45 


5 


23 


1-2 


106 


39 


95 


20 


0-5 




3. 


10 34 


2-3 


12 


11 


355 


67 


9 


56 


2-0 




4. 


10 40 30 


>1 


20 


11 


158 


50 


134 


39 


4-1 




5. 


10 48 15 


3-5 


27 


***•*( 


66 


70 


60 


47 


1-V 




6. 


11 15 15 


2 


16 


1-5 


92 


29 


85 


13 


M 


Train, 2 seconds. 


7. 


11 20 30 


2-3 


11 


1-3 


176 


15 


169 


7 


2-4 




8. 


11 25 30 


2 


40 


20 


167 


21 


140 


- 8 


1-9 




9. 


11 28 50 


3 


8 


1-0 


210 


65 


191 


67 


3-3 




10. 


11 45 45 


3 


15 


1-3 


72 


74 


66 


51 


2-8 


Train, 1 second. 


11. 


11 53 30 


4 


14 


1-2 


111 


8 


106 





1-8 




12. 


11 57 


2 


10 


10 


137 


3 


129 


- 8 


0-0 




13. 


11 57 30 


3 


12 


0-7 


41 


55 


42 


49 


1-9 




14. 


12 3 


3 


18 




297 


70 


339 


64 


0-0 




Mean values... 




17 


1-25 










20 





Selected List of Meteors observed at Hawkhurst, 1864, April 19th and 20th 

(fig. 2). 



V . 




Magni- 
tude as 


Length 
of ap- 




Position of apparent path. 


Devia- 
tion 


The meteors are 


?,s 


Hour, G.M.T., 


tion of 








selected from I" 


,ss 


1864, April. 


per 


parent 


visible 


Began. 


Ended. 


from 


meteors originally 

entered on a map. 

Streak, &c. 






stars. 


path. 


flight. 








Radiant. 




















R.A. 


N. DecL 


R.A. 


N.Decl. 






1. 


h m s 
19th. 11 12 


3 




16 


sec. 
0-8 


o 

181 


o 

78 


c 

134 




63 


o 

00 




2. 


12 17 


2 


14 


09 


253 


65 


223 


75 


4-0 




3. 


12 40 


1 


5 


0-8 


252 


18 


248 


14 


2-3 


Train, 1 second. 


4, 


12 53 .0 1 


10 


0-7 


278 


62 


276 


73 


10 




5. 


12 59 


2 


8 


0-7 


238 


39 


227 


39 


4-0 




6. 


14 25 


2 


6 


0-7 


277 


39 


281 


44 


2-5 




7. 


14 29 30 


2 


15 


09 


273 


41 


276 


49 


5-5 




8. 


14 55 30 


3 


10 


0-6 


301 


23 


308 


15 


6-0 




9, 


20th. 10 55 


1 


15 


1-2 


230 


49 


208 


46 


5-8 


Train, 2 seconds. 


Meau values... 




11 


0-8 










3-4 





136 



REPORT 1866. 



Fig. 1. 




Radiant K, j 1864, January 2ud. E. A. 234°, N. Decl. 51°. 



Fig. 2. 




Radiant D Gi; 1864, April lOtli to 20tli. E. A. 277°: N. Decl. 35^ 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 137 

(2.) Meteoric shower of 1865, November 13th, a.m. 

Mr, W. H. Wood reports at Weston-super-Mare : — On the night of the 
12th of November, from b^ to 8'' p.m., and again at 11'' 30™ p.m., the sky 
■was clear at intervals, but no meteors were seen. After midnight the sky 
continued overcast untU the morning. On the night of the 13th, imtil l*" a.m. 
on the morning of the 14th, the sky was partially clear, but no meteors were 
scon. It then clouded over completely until 4'' 30'" a.m., when personal 
watching was abandoned, no symptom of a meteoric shower having appeared 
up to this time. From o** 30'" a.m. until sunrise the sky was clear (commu- 
nicated), and orange -coloured meteors appeared, falling at the rate of 12 per 
hour, from a general altitude of 25^ in the N. and N.N.W., vertically down. 

Mr. H. Holiday reports at Torquay : — On the night of the 12th of No- 
vember, at 9'' P.M., Cassiopeia was visible through a break in the clouds. 
The sky was afterwards examined at intervals throughout the night, and was 
foimd constantly overcast. On the night of the 13th the sky was very cloudy, 
and watching on this night was abandoned. 

Mr. T. Crumplcn reports at London : — " This morning [the 13thJ the sky 
became almost cloudless at l"" 15"" a.m. There were fewer meteors than one 
might expect to see ; but those I saw were of all magnitudes, varying from 
Venus at its brightest to fifth-magnitude stars. The radiant in Leo came out 
very well ; I also suspect a radiant near o Taui'i." 

Mr. George Knott thus describes the meteors on the morning of the 13th 
of November, at Cuckfield, in Sussex (see Monthly Notices of the Man- 
chester Lit. and Phil. Soc, Phys. and Math. Section, Dec. 7th, 1865) : — Two 
observers watched the southern half of the sky. " Between 12'' and l** a.m. 
we counted 39 meteors, giving an average of rather more than 0*6 per minute ; 
the next 55 minutes added 61 to the number, giving an average of 1*1 per 
minute. After half an hour's interval we resumed our watch at 2'' 25"" a.m., 
and between that hour and 3'' 5"' a.m., when we ceased observing, we noted 
55 meteors, showing that the average had risen to 1-4 per minute. The ob- 
servations of the last 40 minutes showed very clearly that the radiant-point 
was in the immediate vicinity of the star ^ Leonis, or perhaps between that 
star and e and /( of the same constellation — the neighbourhood, in fact, of what 
the Rev. C. Pritchard happily terms the " apex of the earth's u<ay." The 
paths of a few meteors seemed to suggest a second radiant-point in the neigh- 
bourhood of /3 Tauri, but the observed flights were too few to afford satisfac- 
tory evidence on the point." 

Mr. K. P. Greg reports at Manchester : — " On the night of the 12th, during 
the hour from 11'' to 12'' p.m., I saw only two meteors. It then clouded over, 
but became quite bright again a few minutes before 1'' a.m. Between 1'' and 
2'' A.M. I saw a considerable number, of which I mapped some 20 or 30, but 
had not time to enter all the particulars. The radiant-point was not quite 
a definite one, some nearer Leo Minor than Leo. Hardly any were visible, 
except near the radiant-point ; say from Ursa Major to Canis Minor. These 
November meteors were very phosphorescent, in fact nothing else,— even tlie 
larger ones. I saw two from Cassiopeia, the regular radiant, as different as 
possible in appearance. At 2'' ^.m. it clouded over." 

Observations of the same shower, by Mr. T. P. Barkas at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, Mr. S. H. Miller at Wisbeach, and Mr. S. B. Kincaid at Streatham, 
near London, wiU be found in the Catalogue of this Eeport. 

On the morning of the 13th of November, the meteoric shower was ob- 
served at the Greenwich and Cambridge Observatories, and at Hawkhurst, 
with a view to determining the heights and velocities of the meteors. The 



138 



REPORT 1866. 



hourly number of the meteors is stated by Mr. Glaisher and Professor Challis 
to have exceeded all before recorded at either of those two observatories. 
JSIore than 2.50 meteors (279) were recorded at Greenwich, from shortly after 
midnight until shortly after 5"^ a.m. 

Nearly a thousand meteors are computed to have been visible at Greenwich 
during the hours from 1'' to 5'' a.m., appearing in greatest abundance diuing 
the hoiir from 1'' to 2" a.m. Nearly two-thirds (172) left Imninous trains 
visible for several seconds after the disappearance of the meteors. Their 
unusual number, and the appearance of leaving luminous streaks, agree with 
Olmsted's description of the famous meteors of the 13th of November 1833, 
and leave no doubt that the meteors were a partial return of the meteoric 
shower of that year. 

The number of meteors of the first class (16) recorded at Hawkhurst dming 
the hour from midnight to 1 o'clock on the morning of the 14th, was nearly 
equal to the number (17) recorded, imder equally favourable circumstances, 
during the same hour on the morning of the 13th. 

The following are the hourly numbers of meteors observed at -the three 
places during the progress of the shower : — 



Hours of Observation, a.m. 


O^ to li' 


11 to 211 


2hto3i 


3'ito4h 


4ito5h 




"Greenwich, Nov. 13 ... 


23 


91 


66 


48 


45 


Total number 
of meteors 
observed at 


Cambridge, Nov. 13 ... 

Ha-wkhurst, Nov. 13 ... 

_Hawkhurst, Nov. 14 ... 


41 
17 
16 


57 
21 


33 







The meteors here recorded, with the exception of six meteors observed at 
Greenwich, were equal to stars of the 3rd magnitude or upwards. More 
than half the total number of the meteors were equal to or brighter than 
Ist-magnitudc stars. The number of observers was six at the Greenwich 
Observatory, three at Cambridge, and one at Hawkhiu'st. The sky was for the 
most part cloudless throughout the time, and the moon rose at about 4'' a.m. 

Amongst the list of shooting-stars seen at Hawkhurst, seventeen were 
identical with meteors observed at Greenwich. Fifteen other meteoi's of the 
list were identical with meteors seen at the Observatory at Cambridge. The 
heights and velocities of ten of these accordant meteors were calculated 
(Tables I., II.) ; and this is also the number of accordances calculated by 
Drs. Hcis and Behrmann, of meteors observed on the same night between 
Miiuster and Gottiugen. The average height of the middle of the apparent 
paths differs httle, at both places, from sixty miles above the surface of the 
earth. 

Tables I. and II. contain the apparent and computed paths observed at 
Hawkhurst, Greenwich, and Cambridge. Table III. contains the paths of 
10 meteors similarly observed by Dr. Heis and Dr. Behrmann, on the night 
of the 13th of November, and computed by Dr. Behrmann (Astr. Nachr. 
vol. Ixvi. p. 331-332). 

The average velocity of 11 meteors dii'ected from Leo is 55J English mUes 
per second. The average velocity of 4 meteors directed from Taurus or 
Perseus is nineteen miles per second. As the former radiant-region is hardly 











Table I 


. — Appai 


ent Paths. 








139 






Observed at Hawkhurst. 


Observed at (C) Cambridge, (G) Greenwich, 




















Adopted points on observed 




§ 


Date and 
hnnr 1865 


'i 




Ende-^ 


■a 


d 


I 


apparent path. 








Nov. 13th, 


n 










is 




m 








£ 




Greenwich 
time, A.M. 


V 00 

3 d 










o 


u 


c to 


Began. 


Ended. 


O 


0) 


a 


11 


3 


il 




1 

a 


■s 
'a 


•I" 




6 




S 


.2 








■<^ 


^ 


<^ 


y 






<^ 


< 


<^ 


<! 


fi 




h m s 




O 


o 


o 





sees. 






o 










1. 


11 32 


1 


220-2 


48-2 


174-5 


55-0 


3 


c. 


2 


296-0 


48-0 


342-4 


49-2 


with 


2. 


46 2 


1 


222-2 


50-2 


180-3 


57-0 


2-5 


c. 




302-4 


46-4 


338-8 


48-3 


with 


3. 


1 8 37 


2 


126-5 


49-5 


139-5 


35-0 


none 


c. 




31-4 


50-7 


34-4 


46-9 


none 


4. 


1 24 56 


2 


213-5 


29-3 


197-3 


24-8 


2 


c. 




244-3 


37-4 


236-1 


411 


with 


5. 


1 27 38+ 


1 


107-0 


55-3 


101-8 


38-5 


5 


c. 




44-6 


54-2 


55-9 


,38-9 


very fine 


6. 


1 30 54 


3 


37-3 


58-3 


53-8 


46-3 


1 


G. 




343-3 


45-2 


352-2 


38-1 


3 sees. 


7. 


2 3 38 


1 


135-2 


28-4 


125-3 


21-8 


3 


G. 




130-3 


50-7 


116-8 


15-3 


very fine 


8. 


2 4 48 


2 


43-8 


82-8 


305-6 


80-5 


none 


G. 




339-4 


57-3 


314-7 


38-9 


1 sec. 


9. 


2 9 27 


, 1 


323-0 


38-7 


342-0 


33-1 


3 


G. 


Sirius 


323-0 


.38-7 


344-7 


21-0 


2 sees. 


10. 


2 37 10 


2 


306-3 


28-8 


314-3 


25-3 


2 


G. 


1 


287-3 


29-3 


308-8 


17-5 


with 



Table II. — Computed Heights, Velocities, &c 





Beginning. 




End. 




Height 
of centre 


Length 
of path 


Dura- 
tion at 


Velocity 
in B. S. 


Region of Radiant- 
















S 


N. Lat. 


Long, from 
Greenwich. 


Height 

inB.S. 

miles. 


N. Lat. 


Long, from 
Greenwich. 


Height 
inB. S. 
miles. 


in B. S. 

miles. 


in B. S. 
miles. 


Hawk- 
hurst. 


miles 
per sec. 


point. 




o 


o 




c 










sec. 






.. 


51-7 


1-5 E. 


75-5 


51-6 


0-4 E. 


53-7 


64-6 


53-9 


1-3 


40-9 


Leo 


'• 


51-6 


1-5 E. 


72-3 


51-5 


0-5 E. 


55-1 


63-7 


44-7 


1-5 


29-8 


Leo 


•• 


51-5 


0-6 W. 


67-7 


51-7 


0-5 W. 


44-0 


55-8 


27-9 


1-2 


23-2 


Taurus or Perseus 


:. 


529 


2 6 E. 


88-6 


52-7 


1-4 E. 


56-9 


72-8 


61-0 


0-8 


76-2 


Leo 


'. 


51-4 


1-3 W. 


114-5 


51-4 


2-0 W. 


86-1 


100-3 


41-6 


1-0 


41-6 


Leo 


'■ 


50-7 


0-1 E. 


49-3 


50-7 


0-1 W. 


35-2 


42-2 


17-2 


0-7 


24-5 


Leo 


• 


51-9 


0-8 W. 


43-3 


52-4 


2-8 W. 


68-5 


55-9 


96-1 


1-0 


96-1 


Leo 




51-9 


0-4 E. 


56-7 


52-0 


0-6 E. 


47-4 


52-1 


14-7 


0-8 


18-4 


Perseus 


'• 


48-9 


2-9 E. 


146-9 


49-6 


1-2 E. 


68-1 


107-5 


120-6 


0-9 


134-0 


Leo 


1. 


50-6 


1-3 E. 


24-8 


50-6 


1-2 E. 


19-9 


22-3 


8-4 


0-7 


12-0 


Leo 




Mean heights ... 


74-0 






53-5 


63-7 











Table III.- 



-Heights &c. 



of JSTovcmber Meteors observed at Gottingen and Miinster. 



4» . 

(3 u 

& a 


Date, 
1865, 
Nov. 


Hour, Gettingen 
mean time, p.m. 


Magnitude 

as per 
stars, &c. 


Streak, 

if any, 

left. 


Height in B. S. 
miles. 


Height 
of centre 
of path 
in B. S. 


Length 
of path 
in B. S. 


Velocity 
in B. S. 

miles 


Region of 
Radiant-point. 


^3 






rt e 










At be- 
ginning. 


At end. 


miles. 


miles. 


per see. 








h m s 


















1. 

2. 


13th 


8 30 12 


1-2 




59-8 


51-0 


55-4 


48-9 


44-5 


Cassiopeia 


" 


10 24 3 


1-2 




89-5 


252-1 


170-8 


254-6 


53-0 


Leo 


3. 




10 28 15 


1-3 




40-9 


38-1 


42-5 


12-2 


17-4 


Perseus 


4. 




10 32 44 


1 


with 


80-9 


31-2 


56-1 


159-6 


55-1 




5. 




10 41 55 


3-5 




72-4 


501 


61-3 








6. 




10 58 39 


2^-1 


with 


86-4 


47-6 


67-0 


198-0 


66-0 


Leo 


7. 




11 20 


?-l 


with 


90-0 


44-6 


C7-3 


73-2 36-6 


Leo 


8. 
9. 




11 12 2 


?-l 


with 


80-3 


44-2 


62-3 


33-0 


16-5 


Perseus 






1-2 


with 


73-2 
94-3 


62-2 
32-9 


67-7 
63-6 








10. 


I4th 
















Mea 


a heights ; 






76-0 


44-6 


60-3 




Omiting heig 


hts of No. 2. 


' 























14.0 REPORT — 186G, 

20°, and tlie latter more than 100° removed from the " apex of the earth's 
wai/," it follows that the earth's motion of translation is plainly recognized 
as the result of observation, by its effect of increasing the speed of the meteors 
from the former radiant-point to 55| miles per second, and diminishing the 
speed of the meteors from the latter radiant-point to nineteen miles per 
second. 

The position of the radiant-point in some part of the constellation Leo was 
noted, ^vith the following results, at Greenwich and at Hawkhurst— to which 
are added the positions of the same radiant-point observed by Dr. Hois, and 
by observers in America, on the morning of the 13th of November 1865 : — 

Plac:" iind Observer's name, and Position of Radiant in Leo, 

Hour of Observation. 18G.5, Nov. 13tb, a.m. 

Greenwich (1" to 5" a.m., Mr. Glaisher) . . R. A. 160°, N. Decl. 30° 

Hawkhurst (1" to 3*^ a.m., Mv. Herschel) . . ,,148 „ 23 

Miinster (0" to 0" 30"" a.m., Dr. Hois) . . „ 148 „ 24 

JSTewhaven, U. S. . . (Prof. H. A. Newton) ,148 „ 23 

Philadelphia, U. B. (Mr. B. V. Marsh) ,,148 „ 24 

The four latter positions are in remarkably close agreement with the 
position of the same radiant-point (R. A. 148° 10', N. Decl. 23° 4-5') observed 
by Professor Aiken at Emmettsburg, Md., U.S.A., from 4'> 45™, to 0'^ 45™ 
A.M., on the 13th of November 1833. (Am. Journ. Sci., 1st Series, vol. xxvi. 
p. 330.) 

(3.) Meteoric Shower of January 2nd and April 20th, 1866. 
The January and April showers, in 1866, as shown by observations con- 
tained in the Catalogue, were completely in default. 

(4.) Meteoric Shower of May 18th, 1866. 
Meteors of the first class (7=lst-mag., 2=2nd-mag., 3=3rd-mag. stars) 
were observed at the Eoyal Observatory, Greenwich, towards midnight, on 
the 18th of May 1866, falling at the rate of 12 per hour. The radiant-point, 
although somewhat indefinite, was distinctly the radiant Q^ (No. XXa) of 
Dr. Heis and Mr. Greg, between Corona and the Head of Hercules. The date, 
on account of the possibility of a connexion existing between shower meteors 
in May and the star-showers of November, merits attention, with the view of 
determining further points of radiation. 

(5.) Meteoric Shower of August 1866. 

A period of about 103 years, noticeable in the returns of the August 
meteors, would bring two star-showers of the years 830 and 833 a.d., cited 
by Biot from the Chinese Annals, into immediate relation with the pheno- 
menon of the 10th of August, 1863, to which the first or second of these star- 
showers might correspond. 

The hourly niTmber of meteors on the night of the 10th of August, 1800, 
was not greatly above the ordinary scale of the phenomenon. A large meteor 
appeared in daylight over the south of England at 8'' 15™ p.m., on the even- 
ing of the 8th ; and a large fireball was oliserved at Hawkhurst at 0'' 42"', 
on the morning of the 10th. 

At the Iloyal Observatory, Greenwich, the sky was clear on the 7th, and 
175 meteors were observed. Two meteors were observed through a break in 
the clouds on the 8th. The sky was again clear on the 9th, and 113 meteors 
were mapped in a few hours. On the night of the 10th, 24 meteors were 
observed through breaks in the clouds. The radiant was in Perseus. 

At Eichmond, near London, on the night of the 1 0th of August, the clouds 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 141 

began to break at midnight ; and the sky was completelj^ clear at 0'' 15™ a.m. 
on the 11th. Between the hours of 11" 55"" p.m. on the 10th, and l"* 5"" a.m. 
on the 11th, Mr. J. Browning counted 26 meteors — six fii'st-class, leaving 
trains (3 blue, 2 yeUow, 1 white). A third part of the sky was in view 
throughout the time. 

At London, Mr, T. Crumplen reports meteors very scanty on the 9th. There 
was a tluinderstorm on the 10th, with cloudy and unsettled weather until 
ll*" P.M. The sky v\'as afterwards clear at intervals. Electrical-looking 
clouds and distant lightning were conspicuous through the night as in pre- 
vious years. A few meteors were observed radiating from B Camelopardi and 
a Lyras. 

At Birmingham, Mr. W. H. Wood reports : — " The present return of the 
August meteors has exceeded the ordinary scale of the phenomenon in point 
of numbers, and exhibits a radical and probably a physical difference in the 
nature of the substance composing the meteoric shower, as compared with that 
of August 1864. In the latter, various tints of j-eUow and red were its cha- 
racteristics, whilst the present shower is almost entirely composed of blue 
meteors of the smaller class, the proportion of colours being as follows — 

Eed, Orange or yellow. Wliite. Blue. Total. 

5 11 12 42 70 meteors ; 

and the proportion of magnitudes being — 

= Jupiter. =Siriu8. = 1st mag. =2iiclmag. = Orel mag. 

1 9 14 22 34 

Total, 80 meteors. 

" One-foiu'th part of the meteors left phosphorescent trains. 

" The prolongation of the meteors' paths towards the points of origin, indi- 
cated two areas of radiation whejice the entire shower emanated — one radiant 
area about h Persei, and the other about D Camelopardi. 

" The rate of appearance recorded by an unassisted observer was as foUows : — 



Aug. 8th, IQi^ to 






10th, IP P.M. to 


IP P.M. 


9th, P.M. 


10th, P.M. 


11th, P A.M. 


our 12 


12 


16 


20 



and these numbers are probably less than half the real ratio." 

At Hawkhurst, on the nights of the 9th and 10th, the sky was remarkably 
clear to unaided vision. Bright meteors were frequent, and a large fireball 
biirst overhead on the morning of the 10th. The meteor itself was not seen ; 
but a streak was left for 20 seconds, and the flash of light resembled that of 
lightning ; no report was heard. The hourly number of meteors for an un- 
assisted observer was about 15 per hour on the 9th, increasing to very nearly 
30 per hour on the morning of the 11th. On the night of the 11th the sky 
was overcast. 

Observations of August Meteors, 1866, with the Spectroscope. 

Mr. Browning having constructed three binocular spectroscopes for the 
British Association, on a plan approved by the Committee, for examining the 
spectra of meteors in the next I^ovembcr shower, the instruments were em- 
ployed by Mr. Glaisher, Mr. Herschel, and Mr. Browning, to examine the 
spectra of meteors on the 9th and 10th of August. Owing, however, to a 
delay in the delivery of the instrument at Greenwich, observations of meteor- 
spectra could not be commenced until the 10th. At the Royal Observatory, 
Greenwich, and at Richmond on Thames (Mr. Browning's station), the sky 



142 REPORT — 1866. 

on the night of the 10th was for the most part cloudy, and all attempts to 
catch the spectrum of a meteor pi'oved in vain. 

Spectrum observations were begiln at Hawkhurst on the evening of the 9th ; 
and the sky proving remarkably clear for this kind of observations, they were 
continued, imtil daybreak, on the following nights of the 9th and 10th. 

No difficulty was found in mapping the coiu'se of the meteors in the spec- 
troscope by the stars, of which a whole constellation, as for example the seven 
stars- of Ursa Major, are seen in the instrument at once. The brightness, 
duration, and length of path, and whether the meteor left a streak upon its 
course, could also be noted in the instrument as readily as with the unassisted 
eye ; so that by this means the apparent paths of 17 meteors were noted in 
six hours, of which all, or all but one, diverged from Perseus and Cassiopeia. 
The proportions of magnitudes were as follows : — 

=Sirius. =l8tmag. =2nd mag. = 3rd mag. == 4th mag. 

2 4 4 4 2 

The spectroscope being so held that the cpurse of the meteors was parallel 
to the refi'acting edges of the prisms, the appearance of their meteoric spectra 
was found to be, in general, altogether different from the view of the same 
meteors obtained by the naked eye. N'evertheless in one instance (No. 8) 
the appearance of a meteor in the spectroscope was unaltered, being that of 
an ordinary bright shooting-star, leaving a slender yellow streak upon its 
course. In some cases (of the most conspicuous streaks), the appearance of 
the brightest and last fading portion of the streaks in the spectroscope was 
the same as to the naked eye, being a bright-yellow-coloured, slender line. 
Lastly, when the spectrum of the meteoric streak was diflPiise, a bright-yellow 
very slender line was frequently observed in the spectrum on the side towards 
the red, which either faded away simultaneously with the diffiise portion of 
the spectrum, or, more commonly, remained visible alone after that portion 
of the spectrum had disappeared. The bright-yeUow line was observed in 
eight cases among 1 7 meteoric spectra. Its presence in a very conspicuous 
form in many of the streaks leads Mr. Herschel to the conclusion that the 
metal sodium is abundant in the 10th of August meteors. The following 
account of the original discovery of a yellow line strongly resembling that 
of sodium in the train-spectra of the August meteors, is taken from Mr. 
Herschel's description of the observations, in the ' Intellectual Observer ' 
for October, 1866, where it is accompanied by a tinted plate : — 

" All the necessaiy preparations having been made, and with the prospect of 
a considerable meteoric shower at hand, a watch for meteors was commenced, 
in order to observe their spectra, on the night of the 9-lOth of August last. 
Expectation on the first night was not destined to be disappointed, and six 
meteors were observed to pass across the field of view. Notes of the peculia- 
rities were made, and of the general appearance of their spectra, and are 
briefly as follows : — 

" Auc/ust 9th. — No. 1, S'^ 40" p.m. About equal to a fourth-mag. star. 
Passed across the body of Cygniis in half a second, leaving no streak. The 
spectrum exactly resembled that of a fourth-mag. star (o Cygui), close to which 
the meteor passed, the conclusion being that the meteor might be a solid body 
heated to ignition. 

" August 10th. — No. 2, 0'' 27" a.m. Nearly as bright as Sirius. Com- 
menced near Polaris (in the field of view), and shot 15° or 20° (beyond the 
field of view) along a line dii'ected from Cassiopeia, leaving a streak on its 
whole course for four seconds. The latter part of the meteor's course was 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 143 

soon with the naked eye. In the specti'oscope, two images of the meteor and 
of the streak were visible, one refracted, and one accidentally reflected at the 
side. These two images of the meteor and of its streak could not be distin- 
guished apart, at least in their general appearance, — the conclusion beiug that 
the hght, both of the nucleus and of its luminous streak, was homogeneous, 
and that its luminous suhstance was a gas. 

" No. 3, 0'^ 42'" A.M. A very brilliant fii-eball with a flash like lightning 
biu'st overhead, leaving a streak from 6 Cygui, halfway to a Lyra, for twenty 
seconds. A cloud unfortunately dimmed the streak. In the spectroscope, 
as far as cloud would permit any judgment of the streak to be formed, its 
aspect was the same as to the unassisted eye. The light of the streak was 
therefore probably homogeneous, and the strealc itself prohaUy a luminous gas. 

" No. 4, 1'' 15™ A.M. About equal to a second-mag. star. Shot in three- 
quarters of a second from 6 Cassiopeiae, halfway to o Honorum, and then 
turned round the quarter of a ciixle to u Honorum, where it vanished, leav- 
ing a streak for half a second on its course. In the spectroscope, the general 
appearance of the meteor and of the streak in the field of view was the same 
as that of the purely reflected image by the side, — the conclusion being, as 
before, that the light, both of the meteor and of the streak, was homogeneous, 
or that the luminous substance of the meteor was a gas. 

" No. 5, 1*^ 40" A.M. About equal to a second-mag. star. Passed slowly 
through a short path near (d Tauri, directed from Cassiopeia ; duration one 
second, leaving a streak at the place for three seconds. The spectrum of the 
meteor and streak was qiiite equally diffused over a space about |° in width ; 
its colour greyish white ; the diffuse train-spectrum vanished without further 
change, — the conclusion being that in this case tlie train might, like the nuclem, 
he composed of heated sparks. 

" No. 6, 2^ 15™ A.M. Equal to a first-mag. star. Shot on the same course 
as No. 2 ; duration one second, leaving a bright streak for four seconds. The 
spectroscope was turned towards the streak before it disappeared. The train 
was widened by the prisms to a greyish-white band, somewhat greater than 
a quarter of a degree in breadth. It faded from sight without further change, — 
the conclusion in this case also being that the train might possihly he composed 
of heated sparks. 

" Three spectra in the foregoing observations appeared homogeneous, like 
that of a luminous gas (Nos. 2, 3, 4) ; and three were continuous or diffuse 
(Nos. 1, 5, 6), like that of an ordinary spark. The question, accordingly, 
whether luminous meteors might or ruight not contain solid substance, re- 
mained undecided, when daylight beginning to appear put a stop to further 
observations. 

" The following night observations could fortunately be resumed ;, and the 
perplexing appearance of the meteor-spectra on the previous night received a 
truly surprising and most satisfactory explanation, in the repeated aj^pear- 
ance in the spectra of the streaks of a yellow line, unmistal-eahhj that of the 
metal sodium in comhustion. 

" Two observers being'engaged to watch on this night, one checked the ob- 
servations of the other with the naked eye. The troublesome reflected image 
in the spectroscope could accordingly be dispensed with, and it was kept out 
of sight ; so that the views obtained of the meteor-spectra came as nearly to 
perfection as could be wished. 

" August 10th, continued. — No. 7, 4^^ 22"" p.m. Equal to a first-mag. star. 
Shot from y Cephei to I Draconis in three-quarters of a second, leaving a 
bright streak for five seconds on its course. The meteor first appeared in the 



144 KEPORT — 1866. 

field of view, and passed out of it. The brightest portion of the streak, how- 
ever, was brought into the middle of the field of view, where it occupied an 
excellent position (parallel to the refracting edges of the i)risms) for viewing 
its prismatic spectrum. A slight effect of distortion (produced in the prisms) 
caused it to appear somewhat bent, like a bow, across the field of view. The 
spectrum presented the appearance of a narrow line of light, exceedingly 
brilliant, of a golden-yellow colour, and not more than 5' in width. It faded 
gradually along its whole length, and disappeared in about two and a half or 
three seconds. Its description, noted in the register, kept for the purpose at 
the time, was — "neither double, triple, nor midtiple, nor continuous, hut 
'purely and positively monochromatic." 

" Auyust 11th. — No. 8, 0'' 15"" a.m. Equal to a third-mag. star. Shot from 
/3 Cephei to S Draconis in three-quarters of a second, leaving a luminous 
streak for two seconds. The spectrum of the streak was a remarkably slender 
orange-yellow line of no appreciable breadth, without any continuous spectrum 
near to it, or any other neighboirring bands or lines. It was very bright, 
remaining in sight two seconds, and it gradually faded away until it vanished. 
The spectrum of the nucleus appeared to be undisttnguishably the same as 
that of the streak. 

" No. 9, 0'^ 20™ A,M. Equal to a third-mag. star. Shot from a Cephei to 
33 Cygni (Fl.) in three-quarters of a second, leaving a streak for one second 
and a half. The spectrum of the streak was dull grey, diffuse, about -}° in 
width, with a yellow line included in it o>i the side toiuards the red. The 
yellow line and the diffuse band disappeared together. The spectrum of the 
nucleus appeared to be appreciably the same as that of the streak. 

" No. 10, 0'* 33™ A.M. Equal to a fourth-mag. star. Shot from p CassiopeifB 
to o Honorum in half a second, leaving no streak. The spectrum of the 
nucleus appeared to be concentrated into a few faint lines with wide intervals 
between them ; but this description is very uncertain. 

" No. 11, O*" 33™ A.M. Equal to a third-mag. star. Eeturned about half- 
way along the course of the preceding meteor in half a second, leaving no 
streak. The spectrum of the nucleus was a concentrated point of yellow 
light, having all the appearance of an ordinary yellow shooting-star. 

" No. 12, 0'' 42™ A.M. Equal to Sirius ; colour white. Shot from <■ Trian- 
guli to ri Piscium in one second and a quarter, leaving a streak for four seocuds 
on its course. In the spectroscope the meteor slowly crossed the middle of 
the field of view, on a course directly parallel to the refracting edges of the 
prisms, producing a very superb spectrum. The spectrum of the nucleus was 
red, green, and blue, extremely brilliant. The tryin-spectrum was diffuse, 
1° in width, in which a thin bright orange-yellow line was plainly seen on 
the side toiuards the red. The diffuse portion of the train-spectrum faded in 
about two seconds, apparently following the nucleus. The sodium line re- 
mained extremely bright for not less than two seconds longer, and faded 
gradually along its whole length, when it also disappeared. The singular 
characters of this spectrum were most distinctly and beautifully seen, and the 
long endurance of the sodium line, after the rest had disappeared, was leisurely 
M^atched. 

" No. 13, 1'' 23™ A.M. Equal to a third-mag. star. Shot from P Camelo- 
pardi to a Draconis in half a second, leaving a streak for two seconds on its 
course. The train -spectrum was a diffuse band of greyish light ^° wide, 
somewhat brighter on the side towards the red, and it so vanished. The 
spectrum of the nucleus was appreciably the same as that of the strealc. 
" No. 14, 1'' 55™ A.M. Equal to a first mag. star. Shot from o Custodis to 



b 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOtTS METEORS. 145 

3° below Polaris in three-qviarters of a second, leaving a bright streak for 
three seconds. The meteor first appeared in the field of view, and passed out 
of it. The spectrum of the early portion of the streak, behind the nucleus, 
was a greyish diffuse baud |° in width. The spectrum of the nucleus was 
appreciably the same. The brightest part of the streak, before it faded, was 
brought into the field of view, weU situated parallel to the edges of the 
prisms, and in the middle of the field for about two seconds. Its appearance 
was that of a golden-yellow line of light about 5° iu length, some 4' in width, 
tapering gently towards the ends, and perfectly sharp and well defined. It 
was unaccompanied by any continuous spectrum, or any bands or other lines, 
and it so disappeared from the ends towards the centre. 

" No. 15, 2^ 15™ A.M. Equal to a second-mag. star. Shot from ;u to a An- 
dromedse in three-quarters of a second, leaving a streak for two seconds. 
The train-spectrum was a diftuse greyish-white band, |° in width, and about 
6° or 7° long, and faded away without any further change. The spectrum 
of the nncleus showed prismatic colours. 

" No. 16, 2*^ 16" A.M. Equal to a second-mag. star. Shot from 6 Cassio- 
peiae to /3 Andromedis iu half a second, leaving a streak for two seconds and 
a half. The meteor was seen ■«'ith the unassisted eye. The last-fading por- 
tion of the streak was examined in the spectroscope, where it appeared more 
widely difi^used than when seen with the naked eye. Its colour in the spec- 
troscope was a dull greyish white. 

" No. 17, 2'" 27"* A.M. Brighter than a first-mag. star. Shot from a Cas- 
siopeise to o Honorum, leaving a streak for two seconds and a half. The 
train-spectrum was a diftuse greyish-white band |° in width, not sensibly 
brighter in any part, and it so faded. The spectrimi of the nucleus was 
bright red and green. 

" Daylight at this time began to appear, and observations were obliged to 
be discontinued ; the streaks of the August meteors might, however, already 
be plainly divided into two classes. In the majority of cases, a bright yellow 
line, having the unmistakeable appearance of the sodium line, was clearly 
visible in the spectrum. In a smaller number of cases the spectrum was 
merely a diff"use and greyish light band, or orcUnary spectrum of weak inten- 
sity, resembling the spectrum of the glowworm's light. It will be interesting 
to observe this form of meteoric spectrum, should it be more common among 
the " phosphorescent " streaks of the November meteors than it was in August 
last, when only five such purely "phosphorescent" streaks were noticed 
entirely free from sodium light. 

" The spectra of the meteor-nuclei were seen in a few cases only Avith 
distinctness, as they were in general overpowered by the brightness of the 
sodium light whenever that was present. When the streaks were phospho- 
rescent only, and free from sodium light, the nuclei in general presented 
highly-coloured spectra, Hke the spectrum of solid matter at a glowing white 
heat, or like the spectrum of an ordinary gas-flame containing white-hot 
solid particles of carbon. A better night for observing nucleus-spectra would 
be the 12th of December, when meteors leaving no trains are plentiful; and 
they are for the most part very biilliant, radiating from some part of the 
constellation Gemini. 

" That which spectral examination of the August meteors has most certainly 
brought to light is the existence of an extraordinary quantity of the vapour 
of sodium in their luminous streaks ; so that many of the streaks, especially 
the most conspicuous and the most slowly-fading amongst them, consist of 
nothing else but soda-flames for a great proportion (that is to say, the latter 

1866. L 



146 REPORT — 1866. 

portion) of the time that they continue visible. Their condition is then 
exactly that of a flame of gas in a Bunsen's burner, freely charged with the 
vapour of burning sodium, or of the flame of a spirit-lamp newly trimmed 
and largely dosed with a supply of moistened salt. 

<' Itis difficult to believe that the vapour of the metal sodium exists in such 
considerable quantities at the confines of the atmosphere. It is much more 
reasonable to suppose that it is brought into the atmosphere by the meteors 
themselves, so as to be deposited in the luminous trains that mark their 
course. The material of the August meteors is, therefore, probably a mineral 
substance in which sodium is one of the chemical ingredients. Such is the 
rather satisfactory termination of an experiment which it will be very easy 
to repeat whenever an abundance of meteors on the night of the 10th of 
August offers an equally favourable opportunity for examiaing their spectra 
by the aid of the meteor spectroscope. 

"The connexion believed by adherents of Chladni to exist between shooting- 
stars and aerolites is now shown, at least in August, to extend itself in some 
measure to their chemical composition. The meteorites of Aumale, which fell 
on the 25th of August 1865, were found, on analysis by M. Daubree, to con- 
tain soluble salts (chloride and carbonate) of sochum. A circumstance so un- 
common in the composition of aeroUtes, allies the meteorites of Aumale very 
closely with the sodium -bearing streaks of the meteors of the 10th of August. 

" In this manner, each new acquisition of knowledge, however unforeseen 
may be its origin, tends to support the theory of Chladni, and to confirm the 
belief that shower-meteors and shooting-stars are actually aerolites of small 
dimensions. In whatever manner aerolites and shooting-stars are related to 
each other in their astronomical and other peculiarities, they wlH evidently 
require a vast number of further experiments to unfold their real source." 



Report of the Committee appointed to Investigate the Alum Bay Leaf- 
Bed. By W. Stephen Mitchell^ LL.B., F.G.S., Caius College, 
Cambridge. 

Thk bed known to geologists as the " Leaf-bed," or " Pipe-clay bed," of 
Alum Bay, is the band of white clay which occurs in the lower Bagshot beds 
in Alum Bay, about 200 feet from their base (No. 42 in Memoir of the 
Geological Survey). It is about 6 feet thick ; but one portion only, a few 
inches in thickness, contains the plant-remains. No other oi-ganic remains 
whatever have been noticed. 

The occurrence of these plant-remains was first observed by Mr. Prestwich 
(see Geol. Soc. Journ. 1847, p. 395), and since then collections have been made. 

Dr. P. de la Harpe, of Lausanne, examined these, and gave a notice of 
several species in a paper on the " Flore tertiaire de I'Angleterre," which 
appeared in the ' Bulletin de la Societe Yaudoise des Sciences NatureUes ' 
for June 1856. In December 1860, in conjunction with Mr. J. "W. Salter, 
F.G.S., he prepared the list which is published in the memoir of the Geological 
Survey of the Isle of Wight. 

This list includes the collections from '■ the same strata worked at Bourne- 
mouth and Corfe Castle, in Purbeck, Dorset ; " yet for the compilation of it 



ON THE ALUM BAY LEAF-BED. 147 

the total number of specimens that could then be brought together from the 
three localities was but about 300. 

It is therefore no matter of surprise that in larger collections since made 
many fresh forms are met -with. 

At our last Meeting at Bii-mingham I exhibited drawings of some few of 
the most striking new forms, and mentioned that both Dr. P. de la Haroe 
and Dr. Oswald Heer urged the importance of a more careful examination of 
this flora. 

A committee for this purpose was appointed, and the sum of ^20 was 
placed at our disposal. Through the kindness of Professor Sedgwick and 
the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, we obtained the services 
of Mr. H. Keeping, now at the Woodwardian Museum, who has had much 
experience in the working of this bed. 

I went down to Alum Bay last September with Mr. Keeping, and remained 
there during the working to note the appearance of the leaves when first 
turned up. 

In the majority of instances, not only the outline, but the venation, even 
the most delicate, is at first clearly visible, though a few houi's' exposure to 
the air almost obliterates the more dehcate marks. A washing with a solution 
of isinglass often preserves them ; indeed in some instances it brings them out 
even more sharply ; but, unfortunately, it often fails. There are some speci- 
mens on which I partly traced the venation with pencil as soon as they were 
exposed ; now, after an interval of ten months, they are so faded that the 
part not pencilled is harcUy, if at all, to be made out. It is much to be 
regretted that there is this difficulty in preserving the specimens, and we 
shall be very glad to receive suggestions for their treatment. All our speci- 
mens have had the usual isinglass wash, though I fancy it somewhat 
obscures the character of the surface of the leaves. I cannot speak with 
certainty on this point ; for, as I had not anticipated such a result, I did not 
record the character of the surfaces among the notes I made on the spot 
btiU, from comparing the recoUection I have of the appearance of the leaves 
when first turned up with their appearance now, I am ahnost certain this is 
the case. This I the more regret as the character of the surface of a leaf is 
often a useful help in determining its genus . I hope to have an opportunity 
of again examining this bed ; and I shaU endeavour to take both drawings 
and complete descriptions of the leaves before the air and light have in anv 
way injured them. ^ 

After a fortnight, bad weather put a stop to our work. We had, however, 
succeeded in obtaining a good collection, numbering altogether some 470 

specimens. The leaves are, on the whole, well preserved, but the bed in one 

part yielded forms so indistinctly marked as to be ahnost worthless. 

I have in course of preparation descriptions of aU the leaves in this, as 

well as m my own coUection, which I will lay before one of the learned 

societies of London*. 

Were they now complete, this would not be the suitable place for reading 

them ; and the publication of them in a report, without drawings, would 

much lessen their value. 

I have brought drawings of some of the leaves, wHch show that the aid 

afforded by this Association for examining this bed has helped us to obtain 

not only finer specimens than Dr. P. de la Harpe and Mr. Salter had at thei^ 

disposal, but also many fresh forms, 

* The Palaontographical Society has undertaken the pubHcation of a monograph 

J.2 



148 REPORT — 1866. 

I decline to attempt to fix the mimber of new species, or even genera, which, 
we are able to add to the list in the Survey Memoir ; for not only is the deter- 
mination of fossil leaves at all times very unsatisfactory, but that list was not 
intended for a monograph, and has neither drawings (except a few) nor the 
exactness of description requisite for identification. Then, too, the nomen- 
clature of fossil leaves is very unsettled, the same leaf having often half a 
dozen different names. 

With regard to the species of fossil leaves, I believe the word " form " 
might often with advantage be used where "species" is now universally 
employed. "Species" is applicable only to the entire plant; "form" is 
applicable to individual leaves. When we consider the variation often met 
with in leaves growing on the same tree, I think we see reason for great 
caution in determining what " forms " represent the existence of distinct 
" species." 

[Mr. Mitchell exhibited photographs and drawings of some of the larger 
and more interesting leaves]. 



Report of the Committee appointed to make Experiments on the differ', 
ence between the Resistance of Water to Floating and to Immersed 
Bodies. The Committee consists of John Scott Russell, C.E., 
F.R.S. ; James H. Napier; Professor Rankine, C.E., F.R.S.; 
and W. Froude. 

The following Heport describes the experiments made by the Committee. 

The Committee held sevei'al meetings in the course of the winter and 
spring of 1864-65, and agreed to a programme of experiments, of which the 
following is a summary : — 

" 1 . Two models to be made of painted wood, designated respectively as 
A and B. 

" 2. The models to be ship-shape, and each of them to consist of two equal 
and similar halves joined together at the middle water-line. 

Elements of Models. 

A. B. 

Length 4 feet 4 feet 

Breadth, J- of length 0-571 foot 0-571 foot 

Total depth 0-571 foot 0-364 foot 

Form of midship section Circle Elhpse 

Area of midship section 0-256 sq. foot 0-163 sq. foot 

Eatio of those areas 1 : 0-6366 

Form of water-lines of fore body Harmonic curves 

Form of water-lines of after body Trochoids 

(Stem and stern-post at first intended to 

be vertical straight lines, but afterwards 

rounded off to prevent the corners from 

being chipped.) 
Length of fore body : length of after body : : 3 : 2 3:2 

Mean girth 1-45 feet 1 foot 

Displacement when half immersed 17-228 lb. 10-986 lb. 



ON THE RESISTANCE OF WATER. 149 

" 3. Model A to be in two parts, joined at the circular midship section, so 
that by turning the after-body through a right angle about a longitudinal 
axis the water-hnes can be converted into buttock-lines, and vice versa. 

" 4. Experiments to be made according to the method formerly put in prac- 
tice by Mr. Scott Russell, in which the uniformity of the propelling force is 
maintained by means of a regulating weight hanging from a pulley, under 
which the hauling cord passes ; the model to be guided in a straight course 
by means of a stretched wire. 

" 5. Those experiments to be made principally at speeds not exceeding the 
natural speed of the wave corresponding to the length of the model, viz. 
about two knots per hour, or 3-38 feet per second; but a few experiments 
may be made at higher speeds. 

" 6. The experiments to be made on each model under two circumstances, 
viz., with the model immersed as nearly as may be to the middle water-line, 
and with the model totally immersed." 

The programme of experiments having been thus drawn up by the Com- 
mittee, the superintendence of its execution was undertaken by Mr. Scott 
Eussell, as being the only member of the Committee resident in or near 
London. 

Full-sized drawings of the models having been prepared in conformity 
with the programme, the models were made from those drawings*. 

The actual execution of the experiments was entrusted by Mr. Russell to 
Mr. J. Quant, Naval Architect, who performed that duty with a skill and 
assiduity which the Committee desire to acknowledge in the highest terms. 

The experiments were made upon a lake in Blackheath Park, the use of 
which for that purpose was liberally granted by Dr. Joseph Kidd. 

A platform was laid down near the water's edge, and on it was erected 
a trestle ; in the crosspiece at the top, two brass wheels were made to 
turn in sheave-holes ; on the outside and against the platform in the water 
an oak pole was fixed, on which pole, a little above the water, another brass 
wheel was made to turn, care being taken that the inside of the rim of this 
wheel was in a perpendicular line with the outer rim of the outer wheel 
in the top of the crosspiece ; from the oak pole to a length of about 98 
feet, where another pole was fix;ed in the water, was stretched a wire, 
about 9 inches above the surface of the water, to act as guide for the model 
when running, two forks being fixed on the model for that purpose. At a 
distance of 20 feet from the outer pole was driven a stake into the bed of the 
lake, exposing its top above the water ; at 25 feet from the fii'st stake, a 
second was driven, and at 25 feet from the second, a third. In commencing 
an experiment, a silk cord was passed over the wheels, and, when geared 
round the lower wheel, the end was fixed by a hook to the model. The 
model was then drawn, by means of another cord, to the outer pole ; and on 
its arrival there this cord was unhooked, and the model held by a boy seated 
on the top of the pole. The propelling weight was then suspended between 
the two top wheels in the trestle on the platform, by means of a pulley 
under which the cord passed ; and whilst the boy yet held the model, the 
propelling weight was hoisted up to a height of 6 feet fi-om the ground. The 
word " go " was then given, the model set free, and the propelling weight 
allowed to fall to within a few inches of the ground, and there held by 
steadUy hauling in the cord till the model arrived at the platform. While 
the model was running, observations were taken as to the time when it 

* Both drawings were exhibited at the Birmingham Meeting and also Model B. Model 
A, being in use, was not sent to Birmingham. 



150 REPORT— 1866. 

passed each post*. The first 20 feet were intended to enable the model to 
acquire a uniform speed by the time it arrived at the first jjost. 

A drawing of the apparatus just described was shown at the Birmingham 
Meeting. 

As the form of model A when half immersed is of itself unstable, it was 
partly hollowed out, and made stable by the help of leaden ballast. It was 
found impossible to make satisfactory expeiiments with this model at deep 
immersions, because it then became too heavy to be trimmed with that de- 
gree of delicacy which was requisite for the experiments. With model A, 
therefore, the bow and stern were combined in various ways ; and the under- 
water experiments were made with model B. This model floated exactly at 
half the depth when sohd, and with that immersion the experiments were 
taken as given in the following Tables. It was afterwards hoUowed out, and 
then loaded to such an extent as just sensibly to tend to sink. Some runs 
were taken with this model as deep as 15 inches ; and at that time it was to 
a slight extent hanging on the wire, so as to meet with a little additional 
friction : these runs are marked with an asterisk. 

WhUc model B was being hollowed out, the run was lengthened to 150 feet, 
so that iu each subsequent experiment four observations of speed could be 
made. 

The following Tables show the observations as made when the models were 
running. 

The first column gives the number of the experiment ; the second column, 
the weight suspended as before mentioned, plus the weight of the pulley and 
spindle, the sum being called the " propelling weight." The resistance of the 
model iu each case was of course approximately oiu-lmlf of this proj)elling 
weight. 

The third and fourth columns give the times occupied by the model to run 
thi-ough the first and second spaces of 25 feet each ; the fifth column gives 
the mean of the two former coliunns ; the next three columns are the three 
preceding reduced to speed in feet per second ; the next column is the mean 
of the runs made with the same propelling weight, in feet per second. 

The phenomena that take place at high speeds are described and illustrated 
by sketches, 

Plate I. 

Plan of the Lake " Fleur de Lis" at Blackheatli, on which the experiments were taken. 
A is the platform on which the trestle was erected for the propelling weight. Tlie 
line A B shows the guiding wire. B is the starting point from which the assistant 
started the models ; and between A and B, parallel with the wh-e and about 9 inches 
away from it, are placed, at equal intervals, the poles which serve to mark the time of 
the passhig models. C is the station of a boat, by means of which the assistant com- 
municates with station B. A vertical section from A to B in this plate is given on 
Elate III. 

Plate IL 

Contains the body-plan, profile, and waterlmes of Model A. Prom aft, at the height of 
half the depth, the spindle is seen round which the bow or stem was turned at will, 
as was reqmi-ed for the experiments. 

Plate III. 

The upper drawing shows the body-plan, profile, and waterlines of Model B. The waterhnes 
of both models in the bow are pure curves of lines, and in the stem trochoids. The 
lower diagram on this plate represents a section of the experimental station A B, 
shown on Plate I. A is a ti-estle erected to carry the propelUng weight, wliich is 
maintained at the stationary heiglit shown on the diagram ; and the propelling line 
passes over a pulley near the level of the water. 

* With a stop-watch lent for the purpose by Mr. Frodsham. 



n.if,' 1. 




hiiiTi-o-ycii by J ^V.J,c>wr^' . 



i'i«"'.,'i- ii,r i.„i.,--i-u„-,i.. u„:-,m„M.r.,,i, I 




r^ Knfnvuv V 4 f^ 



Brradtt, ', nf ih 



Dnittn by J.ifuiuil: 








•umwJ h f ir C-r. 




"-,. 



±f-±m 



'aK^ i^tnavnM t t 






■//////J fM/f/ ■ 







r^^ 


^_^_ 






■ . \ 










i 
V 










'A 








r-^~===-- 


■ 


- 

^ 


-' ! 




'■■ i 


H 






ON THE RESISTANCE OF WATER. 
Model A. 



151 



D 






01 







»c 


is 


c 

■s 

fl-c 
--" c 


{ ( ) 


*c 


bo 


t. 


OJ 


aj 


ta ^ 


m &■ 1 oi i. 




3 





00 




a 




"sl 


0. GD 


\ J 




a, 


I14 


B 




a 


0) 

3 


1-^ 

00 




s 


g V y 

1 


I. 


•437 


13 


12 


'o'5 


1-9' 


. 2-0 


3 2- 


2- 


\ 


2. 


•687- 


' 9 1 8 


8-5 


2-7- 


' 3-1 


1 2-94 




Position 1, a. 


3- 

4- 

S- 

6. 


10 

9\ 
< 8 


6 


9 
9-21 


2'5 

■ 2-6: 

3-12 


3-1- 
2-7' 
31: 

4-i< 


I 2-8i 

7 2-70 

. 3-12 

; 3-86 


•2-81 
J 


Area of immersed section=0-14 square 
foot. Weight of model, 18-728 lb. 






7 


3"5^ 




)■ ' - X 


7- 


ri87- 


1 


7 
6 


8 


27? 


3"5' 
4-J( 


' 3'i7 
3-64 


[3-53 




!^^M 






T 


3 12 




^==0^ — 


^^^^^^^^S^^^^^^ 


9- 

10. 

II. 


2-187 


. 7 
6 
6 


6 
6 

5-5 


575 


3-57 
4-16 

4-16 


4-i( 

4-ie 

4-54 


3-86 
4'i6 
4-35 


/ 

J4-25 




) 

Position 2, b. 




















12. 


•437- 


14 


13 


13s 


1-78 
1-66 


1-92 
1-78 


19 

1-72 


} r8i 


Area of immersed section =0-128 


13- 


15 


14 


J J 

14-5 


square foot. Weight of model, 17-228 
lb. 


14- 
IS- 


•687- 


II 


10 


10-5 


2-27 
2-08 


2'5 


2-38 




12 


9'S 


10-75 


2-63 


2'35 


2-32 


•^ ja. 


i6. 

17- 


( 


12-5 
12 


10 
13 


11-25 

12-5 


2 
2-o8 


^'5 
1-92 


2-25 

2 


J 


^^^^^^^^^ 


^^S^fci. 





^^E 


i8. 




13 


13 


13 


1-92 


1-92 


1-92 






19. 




13-5 


13 


13-25 


19 


1-92 


1-96 






20. 




14 


I3-S 


1375 


178 


19 


1-84 






21. 


-437. 


IS 


14 


14-5 


1-66 


1-78 


172 


-1-82 




22. 




IS 


IS 


15 


1-66 


1-66 


1-66 






23- 




14 


13 


13-5 


1-78 


1-92 


1-85 






24. 




14 


13 


13-5 


1-78 


1-92 


1-85 




Position 3, c. 


26. 


/ 


10-5 


IO-2 


10-35 


2-38 


2-45 


2-41 


/ 


Area of immersed section =0-1 28 


II 


95 


10-25 


2-27 


2-63 


2-45 


\ 


square foot. Weight of model, 17-228 


^7- 


yn 


10-5 


9-5 


10 


2-38 


2-63 


2-50 




lb. 


28. 
19. 

JO- 


-687- 


10 

10 

8 


9'5 
9-5 

7-5 


975 

975 
775 


2'5 
2'S 
3-12 


2-63 
2-63 

333 


2-56 
2-56 
3-22 


-2-49 


Y -K?r 








""""":.;:-:'!1W8 ^^z 


5'- 




8-5 


7-8 


8-15 


2-94 


3-34 


3'»4 


' 


^ ' 1 "'K^'tl^f ffl1ji|t^HBl||t||ijMHJiin&^M 


i2- 




7-S 


6-75 


7-12 


3-33 


370 


3-51 




=-- 


53- 


1-187- 


7'S 


7 


7-25 


3-33 


3-57 


3 '45 






i4- 


8 


7 


7-5 


3-12 


3-57 


3-34 


■3'37 




iS- 
(6. 




8 


7 


7-5 


3-12 


3-57 


3-34 






, 


7-S 


7 


7-25 


3-33 


3-57 


3-45 


/ 




17- 
18. 


187 - 


6 


^'S 


575 


4-16 


4-54 


4-35 






6 


S'S 


575 


416 


4-54 


4-35 




9- 


. 


S'S 


5"S 


5-5 


4-54 


4' 54 


4-54 


4'39 




.0. 


6 


5-5 


575 


4-16 


4-54 


4-35 


; 


.1. 


/ 


i8- 


^•i 


165 


1-38 


1-66 


1-52 






.2. 




i6-5 


14-5 


15-5 


1-66 


1-72 


169 






3- 
4- 
5- 
.6. 


■437-1 


16-5 
16-5 
17 

17-5 


1475 
15-5 

is-s 
152 


15-62 
16 

16-25 
16-35 


1-66 
1-66! 
1-47 
1-42 


17 
1-61 
i-6i 
1-64 


1-68 
1-63 
1-54 
i'S3 J 


.1-59 


Position 4, d. 
Area of immersed section=0-128 
square foot. Weight of model, 17-228 
lb. 


7- 
8. 


7 


13 
13 


11-75 
11-6 


12-37 


1-92 


i-12 


2-02 








123 


1-92 


i-i5 


i-03 




V - -™- 


9- 
0. 


•687 J 


12 

13-5 


11-8 
11-5 


II-9 

12-5 


i-o8 
1-9 - 


i-ii 

1-17 


i'o9 
ro3 


!-2'03 


^^^^^^^^^^m 


I. 




13 


11-6 


12-3 


1-92 : 


J-I5 


i-03 




\ .^^^^^^^^^^^jVzi^^^B 


2. 


». 


12-5 


12-2 


'^•35 


I : 


1*04 


1-02; 


/ 





152 



REPORT 1866. 







.2 






a 


S5§ 


■s 




"S 

a 




1 


'a; 




a 




^ 00 


!-' 




01 




Cm 
O 

S! 


a 


■4^ 


2 


8 


CJ 








•0 









g 


s 


0) 


a; 


aj.« 


Si 


a* 




53- 


u 


& 


H 


s 




0. 


g 


g 




f 


12 


II 


ii-S 


2-o8 


2-2Z 


2-17 


\ 




54- 




13-5 


13-2 


13-35 


1-85 


1-76 


I -80 






55- 




12 


IO-5 


11-25 


2-o8 


2-38 


2-23 






56. 




13 


11 


12 


1-92 


2-27 


2-09 






57- 


■437- 


14-5 


12 


13-25 


1-72 


2-08 


1-90 


•I-98 




58. 




14 


13-5 


1375 


1-78 


1-85 


i-8i 






59- 




12-5 


II-2 


11-85 


2 


2-23 


2-II 






60. 




14-5 


13 


1375 


1-72 


1-92 


1-82 




Position 5, e. 


61. 


V 


13*5 


12-5 


13 


1-85 


2 


1-92 


) 


Area of immersed sectiou==0*14 


62. 
63. 


/" 


10-5 
10 


10 

8-S 


10-25 
9-25 


2-38 

2-5 


2'5 
2-94 


2-44 
2-72 




square foot. M^eiglit of model in lb., 

18*728. 


64. 




10 


9"S 


975 


2-5 


2-63 


2-56 






65. 
66. 


•687- 


10 
9 


9 
9 


9"5 
9 


2-5 

2-77 


2-77 
2-77 


2-63 
2-77 


■ 2-54 


• -^-iT 


1 




J«^ 








M' • '"^'^■'-"■'^ ' -.-*£ 




67. 




10 


10 


10 


2-5 


2-5 
2-38 


2'5 







. _„- --:^,i^j':T-- 




68. 




11-5 


10-5 


1 1 


2-17 


2-27 




' ■ ■ :— 


69. 


V 


10 


10 


10 


2-5 


2'S 


2'5 




. 


70. 
71- 
72- 
73- 


1-187- 


9 
8 

8-5 
9 


8 
8 

7-5 
8 


8 
8-5 


2-77 
3-12 

2-94 

2-77 


3-12 

3-12 

3-33 
3-12 


2-94 
3-12 
3-13 
2-94 


-3-19 


■^ 


1 


■ 


JS. 






d 


-^-^ji|Pi^^__^^:- 


t 


74- 




7'5 


7-2 


7*35 


3'33 


3 '47 


3-40 






75- 




7 


6-75 


6-87 


3-57 


370 


3-63 






76. 




8-5 


8 


8-25 


2-94 


3-12 


3-03 






77- 


\ 


8 


7 


7-5 


3-12 


3-57 


3'34 


I 




78. 


/ 


6 


6 


6 


4-16 


4-16 


4-16 


\ 




79- 




6 


6 


6 


4-16 


4-16 


416 






80. 
81. 


2-187- 


6 
6 


6 
6 


6 
6 


4-16 
4-16 


4-16 
4-16 


4-16 
4-16 


■ 4-16 




82. 




6 


6 


6 


4-16 


4-16 


4-16 


) 




83. 




6 


6 


6 


4-16 


4-16 


4-16 


Position 6,/. 


















Area of immersed section =0-128 




















square foot. Weight of model in lb., 


84. 




13 


12 


12-5 


1-92 


2-o8 


2 


-\ 


17-228. 


85. 


■437 


14 


13 


13-5 


1-78 


1-92 


1*90 


1-83 


. -^ -sr 


86. 

87. 


15 
15 


14 
14 


14-5 
14-5 


1-66 
1-66 


1-78 
1-78 


1-72 
1-72 










||«ilililii|Miiriil_^ 


^, 


88. 




13 


12 


12-5 


1-92 


2-o8 


2 




Posifion 7, y. 


89. 


•687 


14 


13 


13-5 


1-78 


1-92 


i-8i 


1-88 


Area of immersed section =0-256 


90. 


13 


13 


13 


1-92 


192 


1-92 
1-82 




square foot. Weight of model, 34-456 


91. 




14-5 


13 


1375 


1-72 


1-92 


, 


lb. 


92. 
93- 




10 


II 


11-5 


2-5 


2-o8 


2-29 






ri87- 


10-5 


10 


10-25 


2-38 


2'5 


2-42 


■2-37 


■ -< JSC 


94. 

96. 

97- 


2-187 


10-5 
8"5 


10 
8 
8 
8 


10-25 
8-25 
8-5 
8 


2-38 
2-94 
2-76 
3-12 


2-5 

3-12 
3-12 

312 


2-42 
3-03 
2-94 
3-12 


3'03 




..__ --r^^»:;.^ 


h^ 





ON THE RESISTANCE OF WATER. 



153 



98 

99 

100 

lOI 

102, 



1-187 

2-187 I 



13 

12 

12 

8 



S 



13 

II 

14 

8 



13 
11-5 

13 



1-92 1-92 

2-o8| 2-27 

2-08 1-78 

3"I2 3-12 

3-12 312 



^ 



1-92 
2-17 

1-93 

3-12 
3-12 



Position 8, h. 
Area of iminei-sed section and weight 
of model tl!? sjune us in posilioii 7. 

< X 



[3"'2 I J 




Hemarks on Model A. 

In Position 1 the model at high speeds raised -waves before and behind. 

In Position 2 higher speeds -were impracticable, the stern lifting itself out 
of the -water ; in fact, -with the propelling -weight -687 lb., there -was a little 
-wave propagated. In this position the model -was exactly half trim, there 
being ample stability in this position. 

In Position 3, with the last propelling weight, a beautiful -wave -was 
formed, also -with the last -weight but one, but not so large. 

In Position 4 further experiments -were fruitless. Its path or course 
-was so irregular that taking down quantities -was impossible. It may, how- 
ever, be remarked, comparing Position No. 3 -with Position No. 4, that the 
latter has more resistance than the former. 

In Position 5, with a propelling -weight of -687 lb., a wave -was formed as 
shown in the sketch, and these waves became larger as the propelling weight 
increased. 

In Position 6 further experiments were abandoned, the phenomena being 
the same as in Position No. 2. 



154 



REPORT — 1866. 

Model B. 



1 
a 

a 

M 

o 
u 


1 

c 

'Z 



£ 

ca 



4) 

a 


0/ 

§ 

00 

a 




.9 


^ . 

si 

oi a 


a. 


^ 


rn 


H 


EH 


12-5 


GO 


CO 


s 


103. 


/ 


13 


12 


1-92 


2-o8 


2 


104. 




125 


12 


12-25 


2 


2'oS 


2-04 


105. 


■437 -1 


'5 


14 


14-5 


1-66 


,•78 


1-72 


106. 




14-5 


13 


1375 


172 


1-92 


1-82 


107. 


l^ 


13 


13 


13 


1-92 


1-92 


1-92 


108 


/ 


9 


8 


8-5 


2-77 


3-12 


2-94 


109. 




10 


9 


9'5 


2-S 


277 


2-fa3 


110. 




8 


7 


T5 


3-12 


3-57 


3-34 


III. 




10 


9 


9"5 


2-5 


2-77 


2-63 


112. 


•687- 


9 


8 


P 


2-77 


3-12 


2-94 


113. 


8 


9 


2'5 


3-12 


277 


2-94 


114. 




7 


9 


8 


3-57 


2-77 


3-17 


115. 




9 


8 


«-5 


2-77 


3-12 


2-94 


lib. 




8 


10 


9 


3-12 


2-S 


2-8i 


117. 




10 


9 


9S 


2-S 


2-77 


2-63 


118. 




6-S 


6 


6-25 


3-84 


4" 1 6 


4 


119. 


1-187] 


7 


6 


6-5 


3-S7 


4-16 


3-86 


120. 




6-5 


6 


6*25 


3-84 


4-16 


4 


121. 




4' 5 


4 


4-25 


5-55 


b-25 


5-9 


122. 


2-187 ■ 


6 


S 


5-5 


4-16 


5 


4-58 


123. 


.V5 


5 


5-25 


4".54 


5 


4-77 


124. 


^ 


6 


5 


S'5 


4*1 6 


5 


4-58 



s- 




- 1-90 



.2-99 



!► 



Tositio7i 1, i. 
Area of immersed midship section = 
0-08 1 6 square foot. Weiglit of model = 
10-986 lb. 



3*95 

4-95 
J ) 



331 



iriiifflWiMir'r"rii 



"With the propelling -weight 1-187 lb. the model raised a -n^ave in the bow 
and stern ; and these waves became larger as the weight increased. 




Position 2, ]c. 
Area of immersed midship section 
=0-0810 square foot. Weiglit of mo- 
del, 10-98U lb. 




{From the propelling -weight -687 lb. 
upwards, the model raised waves ; and 
those waves became larger as the speed 
increased, and spread themselves hori- 
zontally in the form of a wave-line. 



ON THE RESISTANCE OF WATER. 



155 



151 
152 

153 

154 

156 

158 

159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 



a 



a 



•437 



•687^ 







14-5 


14 


14 


14 


14 


12 


14 


13-5 


13 


11-5 


14 


12-5 


13s 


12-5 


14 


13 


14-5 


14 


IS 


14 


IS 


14 


15 


IS 


IS 


14 


14-5 


I4-S 


11 


10-8 


"■s 


n 


II 


i°-S 


11 


10 


12 


II 


ii-S 


10 


10 


9'S 


IO-5 


9 




The experiments from No. 1-51 to No. 172 were taken with the lengthened 
run. The acceleration with the larger weight was nearly one second every 
five and twenty feet ; hence the difference when the quantities are compared 
with Position 1. The unseasonable weather made it necessary to stop the 
above experiments and commence those in which the model was entirely im- 
mersed. 



173- 


/ 


19-4 


19-6 


20 


20-2 


198 


174- 


1 


21'2 


21-6 


20-6 


21-4 


21-2 


175- 
176. 


•437 ■ 


19-2 


196 


20-4 


20-6 


i9'95 


19-7 


19-8 


19 


19-5 


19-5 


177- 




19-8 


21" 


20-6 


21-2 


20-65 


ijH. 




20-4 


19-2 


i8-8 


19-4 


I9"4S 


179. 




II-6 


II-8 


12-6 


13-8 


12-45 


180. 




16-4 


17-2 


i6-8 


20 


17-6 


181. 




13 


12-8 


121 


1^-5 


12-6 


182. 




15-8 


1^6 


14-6 


I5'4 


i5'35 


.83. 


•687 J 


11-2 


iS-8 


14-8 


M'l- 


14-05 


(84. 




18-8 


16 


11-6 


losi^; 


-15-46 


:8s. 




22-9 


272 


32-4 


25-5 


27 


:86. 




19-8 


29-8 


32-6 


21-4 


25-9 


87- 


I, 


23 


16 


14-2 


14" 


16-8 


88. 




II-3 


11-2 


10-2 


10-4 


10-77 


89. 




lo-i 


10 


10 


9-2 


9-82 


90. 




9-8 


94 


8-8 


8-8 


9-2 


9'- 


1-187 ■ 


II-2 


II 


IO-8 


9-8 


10-7 


92. 


12-2 


io*4 


10-6 


10-4 


109 


93- 




II 


II-6 


IO-2 


104 


10-8 


94- 




13-6 


14-4 


13-6 


138 


13-8^ 


9i- 


L 


13-5 


132 


13-4 


13-6 


13-42 


9b. 


/ 


8 


9 


8-6 


8-6 


8-SS 


97- 
98. 




9 "4 


9-6 


9 


9 


9-25 


2-187 • 


10-4 


II 


10 


9-6 


10-25 


99- 


10-4 


II 


10 


106 


10-5 


DO. 




II-8 


12-2 


11-2 


II 


11-55 


31. 


V 


7-4 


7-2 1 


6-2 


6 


6-7 






156 










REPORT- 


-I8G6. 














1 
•1 

■s 


i 
1 

bo 

a 

3 
%■ 

u 


Cm 



1 



s 

EH 


-a 
S 


.2 



1 


.s 
§ 


ii 
si 

-4-1 CO 

c 

DO 


^0 

tM if 

r; 

is 

CO 


h 
ii 

"St 
a— 


4^- 

0. 


ii 

i to 

s 


Qi 

a 



§ 


202. 
203. 
204. 
205. 
206. 
207. 
208. 
209. 
210. 
211. 
212. 
213. 
214. 
215. 
216. 
217. 
218. 
219. 
220. 


-687 ■ 

1-187 • 

> 
2-187 ■ 


15-8 
12-6 

12-6 

14-2 
14-8 

12*2 

IO-6 
IO-8 

112 
10 

IO-8 

1I"2 

7-8 

7-2 

7-6 
7-6 
7-8 
8-0 
7-8 


15-2 

12-8 
14-4 

14-8 
11 

11-6 

10-6 

9-6 

9-8 

10-4 

10-2 

7-6 

7-6 

7-8 

7-8 

7-6 

7-4 
7-8 


15-6 
11-8 
13-8 

15-4 
14-2 
10-4 

9-2 
10-6 
10-2 
10 

9-2 
10 

8 

7-8 

7-6 

7 
7-6 

7 '4 
7-6 


15-8 

12 

14-6 

15-8 

X4'6 
9-6 

10-2 
8-8 
9-8 

10 
9-4 
9-4 
7-8 
8-6 

7 
7-6 

7-4 

7-6 

8 


15-6 

12-25 

13-85 

15-2 

14-6 

10-8 

10-4 

10-2 

10-2 

995 
9-85 

IO-2 

7-8 
7-8 
7-5 
7-5 
7-6 

7-6 
7-8 


1-5 I 
1-98 

1-76 

17 

2-04 

2-36 

2-32 

2-23 

2-5 

2-4 

2-23 
3-21 

3-47 
3-28 
3-28 
3-21 

3-12 
3-21 


1-6 
1-95 

1-72 
1-62 
17 

2-27 
2-15 

2-36 

2 

2-55 

2-4 

2-45 
3-28 
3-28 

3-21 
3-21 

3-28 

3-38 

3-21 


1-6 

2-15 

I 09 

1-62 

1-76 

2-4 

2-71 

2-36 

2-45 

2-5 

2-71 

2'5 

3-12 

3-21 

3-28 

3-57 

3-28 
3-38 
3-2S 


I-5I 

2'5 

I-7I 
1-51 
171 

2-6o 

2-45 
2-84 

^•55 

2-66 
2-66 

3-21 

2-9 

3'57 
3-28 

3-38 
3-28 

3-12 


1-55 1 
2-14 

1-62 [ ?, 
I -62 " 
17W 
2-31 1 
2-41 

2'47 m 
2-4S )■ Ti- 
2-51 «^ 
2-54 

2-46 ; 

3-2oh 

3.2II 

3-33 ! NO 

3-331 \ •:; 

3-28j 
3-29I 
3-20 


The area of the midship section, and the 
weight of the model were the same as in 
the preceding Table. 


^ 


1 














SI 


[jm:^ 


lAE 


Y. 















Model A. 



Speed, in feet per second. 



a. 
b. 
c. 
d. 
e. 
/■ 

i 



t. 

k. 

711. 

n. 



Half immersed. Stem and stern vertical, bow foremost . 
Stem vertical, stern horizontal. „ 

Stem horizontal, stern vertical. ,, 

Stem and stern horizontal. ,, 

Stem and stern vertical, stern foremost . 
Stem horizontal, stern vertical, stern foremost 

Wholly immersed. Stem and stern vertical, bow foremost 

Stem vertical, stern horizontal, bow foremost 

Model B. 



Half immersed. Stem and stem vertical, how foremost 

, ^tern „ 

Wholly immersed. „ » .. bow „ 

stern „ 



2 

1-81 

1-82 

1-59 

1-98 

1-83 



2-81 


3'53 


2-32 




2-49 


3-37 


2-03 




2-54 


3-19 


1-88 


2-37 




2-01 



4-25 

439 
416 

3-03 
3-12 



Speed, in feet per second. 



1-90 


2-99 


395 


2-II 


2-94 


3'54 


1-24 


1-56 


2-25 




1-72 


2-45 



4'95 
4-66 

2-71 
3-26 



In the preceding statement the Committee have given simply the observed 
facts, deferring for the present to draw from them any general conclusions. 



ON MUSCULAR IRRITABILITY. 157 

Report on Muscular Irritability and the relations lohich eoeist between 
Muscle, Nerve, and Blood. By Richard Norris, M.D. 

Muscular irritability is commonly recognized and defined as that property 
of niiiscular tissue by virtue of which it contracts under the influence of 
stimuli. 

This property is said by Du Bois Reymond to bear a definite relation to its 
electromotor powers. He says, " the diminution of the muscular current 
after death is proportional to the diminution of the excitability of the muscle; 
both the electromotor force and the excitability have the same tei'mination, 
'('. e. in the rigor mortis, caiised, as Brueck has proved, by the coagulation of 
the fibrin contained in the muscles external to the blood-vessels." As a 
general summary of his researches on this question, Du Bois Reymond again 
says, " the electric power of a muscle is always proportioned to its contracti- 
lity, inasmuch as those agents which do not influence its contractility exert 
no influence on its current." 

Matteucci has asserted " that the muscular current continually decreases 
after the death of the animal, or after the sejiaration of the muscle from the 
body " *. 

Taken in concert, these statements of Matteucci and Eeymond amount to 
this : muscular ii-ritabiHty continually decreases after the removal of a muscle 
from nervous and blood influences. This view of the gradual decline of 
muscular irritability after somatic death is concurred in by physiologists 
generally. Certain researches in which the author of this paper has been 
long engaged, have led him to doubt the accuracy of this conclusion as a ne- 
cessary and fundamental truth. 

As the consideration of the subject opens up a considerable range of ex- 

* By the death of an animal the author of this paper understands the loss of the pro- 
perty of excitability or neurility on the part of the ganglionic nervous masses, without 
power of restoration, in fact molecular death of the vesicular nervous tissue. It is certain 
that the phenomena of life, as manifested by animals, may be again aroused into exhibition 
BO long as the ca-pacity for molecular life ))ersists in the nervous system, notwithstanding 
that both respiration and circidation may have long ceased. In a chapter on death, p. 905 
of Carpenter's ' Principles of Human Physiology,' the following passage occurs: — " A surer 
test, however, is afforded by tlie condition of the muscular substance ; for this gradually 
loses its irritability after real death, so that it can no longer be excited to contraction by 
electrical or other kind of stimulation ; and the loss of irritability is succeeded bv the 
appearance of cadaveric rigidity. So long, then, as the muscle retains its irritability and 
remains free from rigidity, so long we may say with certainty that it is not dead ; and the 
persistence of its vitality for an unusual period affords a presumption in favour of the 
continuance of some degree of vital action in the body generally ; whilst, on the other 
hand, the entire loss of irritability and the supervention of rigidity afford conclusive evi- 
dence that death has occurred. " 

On this the present writer would remark that although the persistence of muscular 
irritability affords strong presumptive evidence of the existence of .systemic life, yet it 
cannot be invariably relied upon, inasmuch as the irritability may in cases of excessive inter- 
stitial change increase after the molecular death of the nervous masses and the final arrest 
of the. Mood-current. On the other hand, universal rigor mortis, the result of the absence 
of blood or suitable nutritional plasma, is a certain evidence of death whenever the circum- 
stances of the case imply that the nervous system has also been subjected to a simultaneous 
absence of itsjiroper nutrition, inasmuch as it appears to be a law without exception, that, 
if muscular and nervous tissues be simultaneously shut off from their source of nutrition, 
the molecular life of the nervous tissue is the fli-st to succumb. It is, however, possible 
to conceive of certain spasmodic affections of the minute arteries supplying muscular 
tissue in warm bloods inducing rigor rapidly, in the same manner as deligation of arterial 
trunks ; and if at the same time it should happen from any collateral circumstance that 
this condition of vascular spasm did not extend to the nervous masses, somatic death 
■would not necessarily be implied even by the existence of rigor. Universal putresceuce is 
therefore the only absolute evidence of death. 



158 REPORT— 1866. 

perimental inquiry, it is conceived that it may be most efficiently discussed 
in its various bearings by an attempt to support the following propositions, 
mainly derived from the study of phenomena which are best and most con- 
stantly seen in cold-blooded animals, but which nevertheless, under favour- 
able circumstances, may be observed in warm-bloods, and, in special patho- 
logical conditions, in the case of man himself : — 

1. That the property of ii'ritabihty in muscle is capable of a high de^ee 
of exaltation above the normal standard, and that the highest degree of sus- 
ceptibility is attained in cold-bloods long after death, or under conditions 
tantamount to death, as before defined. 

2. That the forces of nerve and muscle, the neimlity of the former and 
the irritability of the latter, are not only independent of each other for their 
existence and maintenance, but actually possess an antagonistic relation; 
that is to say, nerve-tissue, instead of producing, is, when in action, constantly 
concerned in maintaining a condition of things which diminishes muscular 
irritability, and that not simply when it is engaged in the production of 
motion. Hence muscular tissue, relieved from the operation or influence of 
nerve-tissue, gradually acquires exalted contractile powers either in the pre- 
sence or absence of the blood. 

3. That the blood, or the nutritional plasma derived therefrom, not only 
furnishes the materials by which musciilar irritability is maintained, but is 
likewise the determining cause of that polar arrangement of the muscular 
molecules which maintains or restores the elongated or relaxed state. 

It is a well-obsei'ved fact in physiology, that after the death of animals the 
irritability of the muscles frequently exhibits itself in an abnormal manner. 
In the living animal or the amputated limb, the contractions which are in- 
ducible by the application of stimuh, such as galvanism, pinching, or striking, 
are of a pulsatory character ; that is to say, the contraction is limited in extent 
and speedily gives place to relaxation ; but in the cases where the peculiarity 
alluded to is present, the contractions following on such stimuli are more ex- 
tensive and persistent, and simulate very perfectly contraction induced by 
volition. The same pecuHar exalted susceptibility has also been witnessed in 
man after death from certain forms of disease, more particularly in cholera 
and yellow fever. 

Dr. Bennett Dowler, by experimenting upon amputated limbs, proved the 
dependence of this phenomenon upon muscular irritability alone. It is as- 
serted, not only that in some of these cases the movements can be excited by 
mechanical stimulation, but that they not unfrequently occm- spontaneously, 
and strongly resemble the actions of the living state. Carpenter quotes the 
case of an Irishman, aged 28, in whom the following series of movements took 
place spontaneously not long after the cessation of the respiration : — " First 
the left hand was carried by a regular motion to the throat and then to the 
crown of the head ; the right arm followed the same route on the right side ; 
the left arm was then carried back to the thi-oat and from thence to the breast, 
reversing all its original motions, and finally the right hand and arm did exactly 
the same." This hyper- irritable condition of the muscular system attracted 
the notice of Dr. Brown Sequard, and he found it to present itself more con- 
stantly in young animals. This experience of Brown Sequard's is conform- 
able with my own ; but I have also been fortunate enough to observe it in 
cold-bloods with sufficient frequency to enable me to study it. It is well 
known that in many particulars the young of warm-bloods are analogous to 
the cold-bloods ; and one of these is the length of time that muscular irrita- 
bility persists. 



• ON MUSCULAR IRRITABILITY. 159 

I will now cite two or three experiments in illustration of this exalted 
state. 



April 7, 1863.— A frog carefully etherized, was placed upon his back, and 
the heart was excised. The frog was then left till the following morning, a 
*period of 13 hours. At this time the webs and toes were in a diied stale ; 
but the muscles responded with extreme readiness to slight blows, but were 
n^ thrown into contraction when pinched by forceps. They were very 
susceptible to weak galvanism. These observations on the muscular system 
having been made, the nervous system was tested by removing the head and 
attempting to irritate the cord. Galvanizing the cord would not excite the 
muscles even when a copper wire was thrust low down into its substance. 
The cord, in fact, seemed quite incapable of either initiating or conveyin^^ 
any stimulus to the muscles. The sciatic nerve was now raised upon a glass 
tube, and it was found that it could not be excited by the strongest galvanism 
The neurility or special life of the nervous system was in fact gone; ivMle 
the peculiar life of muscular structure, viz. its irritability, had become preter- 
naturally exalted. 

Another frog having been etherized till incapable of exhibiting any reflex 
phenomena (that is to say, until the nervous system was temporarily extin- 
gmshed), the muscular system was stm, under these conditions, highly sensi- 
tive to galvamsm. The frog did not recover from the etherization. It was 
aUowed to remam aU night ; and its muscles were stiU foimd susceptible to 
galvanism in a high degree, but not to other modes of stimulation. The 
nervous matter of the cord was now broken down and removed, and the body 
placed m a little water to prevent desiccation. It was again left aH nio-ht • 
and on the foUowmg morning the muscles were found to be exceedinqh, sus- 
ceptible to slight bloivs or pinching s including not only the skin but also a small 
portion of muscular substance. These motions simulated in their extent and 
power volitionid movements. They were excited with the utmost ease, and 
seemed to ordinary observers to be purposive acts resulting from sensation. 
Ihese effects were observed 36 hours after the etherization of the creature 

May 18, 1863.— A frog having died in spacing, the muscles were found 
to be somewhat susceptible to sHght blows, and very susceptible to galvanism 
A portion of the calvarium was removed so as to aUow the brain and cord to 
be tested. A copper wu-e was thrust into the canal, and an attempt made to 
galvanize the cord, but with no result ; ndthor did any contraction take place 
durmg the fina destruction of the cord. In fact, the nerve-tissue was dead 
and could not be stimulated. This frog being left in this condition for 15 
hours, the muscles of the thigh of one limb were found to be peculiarly 
susceptible to the influence of both sHght blows and galvanism ; and when a 
contraction was excited, the limb wasforcibhf raised or draivn up, and re- 
mained so for several seconds. After a few minutes' experimentation, in which 
many contractions were produced, the force appeared to be exhausted ■ hence 
It seemed that the force Tvhich confers contractiHty AacZ accumulated to a 
certain pitch or intensity, and ivas used up in the act of contraction. The fol- 
i^flaa "" Tn ""tT^ observation, from my experiment-book. 9 a.m. August 
Id, 1866. 'On taking up this frog, noiv dead, and touching the limb, with 
my finger, which during ife had been paralyzed by section of its nerve, ^'^ was 
suddenly shot out as if alive. I placed the body down, and one or two appa. 
rently spontaneous movements of smaU extent afterwards occurred. On touch- 
ing the skin gently with the point of a needle, by the slight pressure upon 
the muscle beneath, movements of the Hmb were also induced ■, but this Lh 
degree of exaltation very rapidly disappeared, after which the muscles were 



160 REPORT— 1866. ■ ,\ 

found ordinarily sensitive to galvanism." It is necessary to state that the 
limb exhibiting these effects had been paralyzed, so far as nervous influence 
is concerned, for 63 houi-s, and deprived of blood for at least 6. 

We have here, then, three examples in which this phenomenon has been _ 
produced artificially, and one iu which it occurred naturally. In all of them • 
the leadinrj feature is, that the nervous and vascular functions ceased to e,vi^ 
long prior to the production of the exalted state of the muscular system — i]lj#^ 
case 13, in another 15, and in a third 36 hours ; and in the last example 
nervous influence had been absent for 63 houi'S, and blood for 6 hom-s. We 
must not hastily infer from these experiments that it is simply necessary to 
destroy these functions iu order to secure this hyper-irritable condition of 
the muscular system. 

It is needless to say that cold-bloods may be destroyed in numerous ways 
which altogether prevent the exhibition of this peculiarity. Thus, if the head 
be cru-ihed, the condition of the nei-vous system, which arrests suddenly the 
action of the heart, appears also to impair the powers of the general system of 
muscles, and causes rigor to supervene at a comparatively early period. 

Again, in death by stiychnia the irritability of the muscles is diminished 
and they pass quickly into the state of rigor, the flexors of the lund limbs 
prior to the extensors. 

In death by CO" the irritability is depressed and rigor comes on quickly. 

Muscles subjected to chlorine lose their irritabiUty very quickly indeed, 
and the state of rigor follows more rapidly than in any of the other cases. 

Prolonged action of weak ether vapour removes every trace of irritability, 
and paves the way to early rigor. 

Again, if after the section of the spinal cord at the junction of the atlas 
and occiput the creature can still control his limbs (as frequently happens 
with frogs), the post mortem exaltation of the muscles will be much less 
likely to occur than if the section was lower down, so as to completely 
paralyze them*. 

* In the existing condition of neural physiology it may perhaps be desirable to offer some 
explanation of the above remarks. To those who are pi-actically engaged in physiological 
experiment, it must be apparent that our present views of the functions of the cerebro- 
spinal system await considerable modification, if not reconstruction. Certain it is that to 
deprive" some vertebrates of their entire cerebral organs is by no means to destroy their 
capacity for wilHng and feeling. To Mr. Gr. H. Lewes belongs the credit of having first 
prominently brought forward this highly important fact, in an admirable and logical essay 
on the nervous system, to be found in his second volume of ' The Physiology of Common 
Life.' Since perusing this essay I have repeatedly made experiments upon the matter, both 
in private and publicly before my class and colleagues, with the most unequivocal results. 
The matter is so important that I may be pardoned the insertion of an illustrative experi- 
ment. On March 30, 1863, 9.50 a.m.', I struck ofi', with a sharp chisel, the head of a frog. 
At 10 o'clock the creature spontaneously drew up its extended limbs into the normal flexed 
position beneath its body, and then moved itself round in a circular manner three or four 
times. It then remained quite stUl for five minutes, and then again turned round a fourth 
of a circle after the fashion of the unmutilated animal. At 10.8 made another turn, and 
afterwards commenced to r/iove freely about the table as ifveri/ little had happened. " 10.40. 
This frog has executed several S2)ontaneous leaps. At 11.45 I found it still crawling about. 
If in leaping it came down on its back, which it seemed liable to do, by struggling it soon 
righted itself. 1.20. This frog is even more vigorous, and leaps and moves about more 
freelv than before." I now cut off the upper portion of the spinal column and included cord; 
the trog was tremulously convulsed, but after a short time drew up its limbs, and moved 
again spontaneously. The removal of the last portion put a stop to the action of the 
larynx. Of such experiments as these I possess numerous records ; but the above is suffi- 
cient for our purpose. It will'occur to the reader that Marshall Hall laid particular stress 
upon what he deemed to be a cardinal fact in neural physiology, viz. that no spontaneous 
movements ever occurred in decapitated animals. On the truth of this observation he based 



ON MUSCULAR IRRITABILITY. 161 

The general deduction -warranted by the experiments seems to he, that 
any mode of death which tends to inteifere with the processes generating 
muscular force, either by acting directly on the muscular tissue or indirectly 
by exciting the nervous tissue to the consumption of muscular force, is op- 
posed to the production of this exalted state ; on the other hand, modes of 
death which quietly destroy the nervous system by sedation or by with- 
hoMing its nutrition (blood), and at the same time do not interfere materially 
with the muscular system, seem favourable to its production. 

The extensive character of the contraction which takes place during this 
exalted state of muscular tissue appears to result from a propagative action : 
e. g., in the most sensitive state it is simply necessary to include the smallest 
portion of a muscle within a pair of forceps, or to touch a single spot with the 
point of a fine needle, to excite contraction in a considerable portion of the 
muscular mass. As in the case of the heart, a few fasciculi immediately 
subjected to stimulation contract, and in the act excite contraction in con- 
tiguous fasciculi ; and in this way the effect rapidly spreads throughout the 
muscle, and, by calling into i^lay a large number of elements, induces a marked 
and continuous contraction allied to that produced by the medium of the 
nerves. 

The nervous stimulus seems to differ from other modes of stimulation in 
the effect produced, mainly in the fact that it can call at once into effective 
action considerable masses of muscular structure by virtue of the minute 
distribution of its filaments among the muscular elements. In the ease be- 
fore us a similar effect seems to be brought about by a preternatural degree 
of exeitabihty on the part of the muscular tissue itself. 

In dealing with my second proposition, it is not my intention to recapitu- 
late the many arguments which have been adduced to" show the independence 
of muscular iriitability of nerve-force. I wish simply to demonstrate that 
in all cases where nerve-influence may be considered in active operation 
there is a diminution of muscular irritability, and that, conversely, when 
that influence is cut off from muscle, there is a tendency in the muscular 
force to accumulate. In all animals there is a marked distinction in the states 
of the nervous and muscular systems during mental activity, and the condition 

his theory of reflex or excito-motory action. The arguments of Dr. Hall may be briefly 
summed up thus:— If cold-blooded animals or the young of warm-bloods be decapitated, 
or their brains removed, irritants applied to their bodies will still induce movements. That 
the animals have lost the power of volition is maintained on the ground thai they perform 
no spontaneous movevients ; and inasmuch as volition is the secojid link in the cliain of which 
sensation is the first and motion the last, the creatures cannot possess sensibility ; there- 
fore the movements which follow irritation, however purposive or adapted to ends they 
may seem, are not the result of either sensation or volition, inasmuch as these are proper- 
ties of the brain alone ; therefore they result from a purely mechanical arrangement, the 
principle of the operation of which is that any excitation applied to the extremities of 
sensory nerves is conveyed to the nervous centre and there reflected on to a motor nerve, 
which in its turn stimulates muscle into action, no sensation whatever being perceived. In 
respect to these opinions of Dr. Hall, I would remark that, whether or no the absence of 
spontaneous movement proves the absence of volition, it is quite certain that the converse 
is true, viz. that the presence of spontaneous movement proves the existence of volition ; 
and, as seen in the above experiment, the decapitated trunk gives all the evidence we can 
have or ever do have of the possession of both volition and sensation : the whole theory of 
Marshall Hall is completely disproved and subverted, and the brain can no longer be re- 
garded as the exclusive seat of these powers. In order to secure success in this expe- 
riment, certain precautions are necessary. 1. No anesthetic should be used, as it materially 
decreases the chance of recovei-y. 2. The hemorrhage must be trifling. 3. Tiie nervous 
tissue must be cut, not crushed. To achieve these conditions, the angles of the mouth 
.should be slit sufficiently far back to allow of the removal of tlie head by means of a sharp 
chisel ; the lower jaw, tongu?, and principal vessels are then uniutcrfered with. 
1800. ji 



163 REPORT — 1866. 

in wliich volition is cut off from its nervous associations. Ey the state of 
mental activity, I mean simply the waking state of an animal, in contradi- 
stinction to the condition which obtains dming profound sleep, fainting, or 
complete etherization. 

During the waking state the muscular sj'stcm of an animal is maintained, 
through the medium of the nervous, in a condition of slight contraction, in 
which the muscles firmly balance or steady each other, and thus the will 
holds firm possession of the muscular organism. It would appear that this 
active volitional state involves a constant expenditure of neuro -muscular 
force. In profound sleep and allied conditions this psycho-neui-al influence 
ceases to operate upon the muscular system ; hence we find the head falls 
forward upon the chest, the arms sink down, the fingers relax ; if the person 
is standing he may fall down, or if sitting slide from his chair ; the eyes 
become closed, &c. 

In fainting and death the same powerless, flaccid condition of the muscular 
system is seen in excess ; yet in all these cases the elasticity and irritability 
of the muscular system still exist. 

Sleep, fainting, deep etherization, and death seem to represent different 
degrees of what may be called functional neural paralysis, in contradistinc- 
tion to purely muscular, iu which the irritability of the muscular tissue is 
diminished or gone, while the nexirUity of the nervous centres and nerves 
remains. 

When we reflect that the mere waking state of animals involves a con- 
stant expenditure of both nervous and muscular force, the importance of 
sleep for their reaccumulation becomes obvious. It is not, therefore, alone 
in the production of motion that the will consumes ueuro-muscular force, 
but also in the maintenance of the normal position of the animal ; for few 
muscles of the body are during the waking state iu a condition of non-con- 
trol or laxity; most are subjected to continuous stimulation of a mild form. 
In the tremulousness of old age, or after exhausting disease, we mtness the 
effect of deficiency of this tonic power. 

Whenever the mind has to make a greater effort than usual for the accom- 
plishment of an act, it is an evidence that the forces of the sj^stem are below 
par, and do not respond with their accustomed delicacy to the influence or 
stimulus of the Avill ; in such cases the animal is said in common parlance to 
be tired or fatigued. 

The degree of stimulation exercised by nerve upon muscle may be normal 
or abnormal ; and in proportion to the severity of the stimulation will be 
the rapidity ^vith which irritability -nail be cojisumed and rigor mortis 
supervene. 

There appear to be three conditions of nerve in resjiect to the muscular 
tissue : — 

1. It may exist as a mere structure, i. e. functionally inactive. 

2. It may be in that condition vrhich enables an animal so to control its 
limbs as to maintain any required position. 

3. It may be concerned in producing actual movement. 

The two latter conditions appear to be degrees of the same kind of action. 

We wish to ascertain by dii'cct experiment whetiier all or any of these 
conditions of nerve are concerned in exhausting muscular irritability. 

This is by no means an easy matter ; for although we have abundance of 
experimental evidence from the negative stand-point, that u-ritability is ex- 
alted, in the ahsence of nerve-influence, it is difficult to devise reliable experi- 
ments in siipport of the positive proposition. The reasons of this wiU become 



ON MUSCULAR IRRITABILITY. 163 

more obvious as we proceed to review the interesting experiments which 
clear the ground. It will be well to bear in mind the conditions necessary 
to a successful experiment, as the bearing of the after remarks wiU be more 
apparent. 

1. The source of irritability, viz. the blood, must be cut off from two sym- 
metrical limbs of the same animal. 

2. The possibility of nervous supply must be cut off in one limb and 
retained in the other. 

Three animals (in all respects similar) so situated must be taken. 

One must be placed under conditions which enable the limb with the nerve 
intact to remain in a flaccid, uncontrolled state, equivalent to the condi- 
tion of volitional paralysis ; another must be caused to maintain continuous 
control over the limb, without the induction of motor acts ; the third to 
exercise the Hmb and contract the muscles. 

These conditions being achieved, we have to note in which of these cases 
rigor mortis of the limb supplied with nerve sets in earlier than in the other 
limb deprived of both nerve and blood. This will furnish us with the com- 
parative rate at which the irritability is exhausted in limbs so situated. 

The next question is, whether such an experimental combination is pos- 
sible. 

At the very threshold an insurmountable obstacle meets us in the tase of 
■warm-blooded animals ; for in them to cut off the supply of blood is to induce 
immediate paralysis, which is rapidly succeeded by the condition of rigor 
mortis. This is weU illustrated in the effect of deligation of the abdominal 
aorta. Diu-ing the early stages of the paralysis thus induced in the hind 
extremities, both the nerves and muscles are susceptible to the stimulus of 
galvanism, and sensation is likewise perfect. Why, therefore, is it that 
volition is unable to influence these limbs ? The same, and similar experi- 
ments upon cold-bloods enable me to answer this question. I find that if, in 
these creatures, the cii'culation be cut off from a limb in which the nerve is 
still allowed to remain, the paralysis is not immediate — in fact, does not come 
on for a period of from one to three hours, the frog during this interval being 
able to xise the limb ; but at length we get the same condition of complete 
paralysis which obtains at once in the warm-bloods. The following experi- 
ment will Ulustrate this : — 

August 11, 6 P.M. 1866. — ^A large frog was taken and thoroughly ether- 
ized. The arteiy supplying one of the hind limbs was taken up and tied, 
and then cut below the ligature. The hgature was applied to prevent 
general bleeding. The nerve was then raised up out of the way, and the 
whole of the structui-es of the thigh were cut through to the bone, leaving 
the nerve intact. The skin was then brought together with sutures. In 
rather over an hour the frog began to respire, and I found he possessed 
sensibility in the Kmb, and was also able to move it a Little. 10 p.m. The 
frog seemed to have complete control over the partially amputated limb in 
all those muscles still possessing bony connexions. 8 a.m. Aug. 12. The 
limb was found to be completely paralyzed, but quite flaccid. It possessed 
very little irritability — quite a marked difference in this respect between the 
two Umbs. The limb is now dragged after the body at full length. Its 
sensation api^ears ferfect. 4 p.m. The paralyzed limb is now void of all 
in-itcdnlity, as tested by galvanism. It is, hotuever, still flaccid, and the sen- 
sibility to pain normal. 9 a.m. Aug. 13. The paralyzed limb is now in a 
state of riyor, and there is an entire absence of sensation. 

In this case, as in others of the kind, we observe there is a gradual dimi- 

m2 



164 REPORT — 1866. 

nution of muscular irritability. But this wiU not account for the paralysis 
for we have many examples in which frogs would move their limbs by voli- 
tional effort, where the m uscles are far less irritable, and rapidly passing into 
a rigid state ; such examples are furnished by certain stages of thermal 
tetanus. The following experiment wiU throw light upon the real causes of 
the paralysis. 

August 10, 4 P.M. Compression was exercised upon the abdominal aorta 
of a frog. It was then ascertained by the microscope that the cii'culation in 
the limbs was completely arrested. The sciatic nerve of one limb was then 
divided. The paralysis of this Umb was complete. The creature had per- 
fect control over the limb deprived of blood, hut with the nerve intact. In 
about an hour afterwards it was observed tliat, although quite vigorous, it 
had lost all control over this limb. I tested the muscles of both limbs for 
irritability, and found them in both cases tolerably sensitive. The distal 
extremity of the cut nerve is also ii-ritable. 10 p.m. The limb possessing 
its nerve remains perfectly paralyzed, and is, with the other limb, dragged 
after the frog at fuU length. The tourniquet was now removed from the 
aorta, and the creature placed in water. At this time the muscular irrita- 
bility was at a very low ebb. At 8 a.m. Aug. 11, the frog was much in 
the same condition ; the limb in possession of its nerve and artery was still 
completely paralyzed, although the muscles of both limbs had acquired in- 
creased susceptibility to galvanism. On examining the webs, I fomid a free 
circulation now going on in both limbs. The sensation in the skin of the 
paralyzed limb possessing the nerve is perfect. 1 p.m. No return of motor 
power in the anatomically perfect Umb. 9 a.m. Aug. 12. The limb is stiU 
paralyzed, but the muscles are very irritable, in fact, more than normallij so. 
At 8 a.m. Aug. 13, the firog was placed under the influence of strychnia, to 
ascertain if the nervous impulses generated by the drug would pass over the 
nervous obstruction and contract the highly irritable muscles. Not the 
slightest effect, however, was produced. 

This experiment shows that in thus ciitting off blood from a limb we in- 
terfere seriously with the functions of the motor nerve ; and as in animals 
deprived of blood the excitability of nerve-tissue is always first to perish, it 
is legitimate to assume that this degradation of the nerve is the primary 
effect of cutting off the blood from a limb, and therefore the cause of the 
paralysis. This functional degradation of the nerve being brought about 
immediately in warm-bloods and gradually in cold bloods, is consistent "with 
aU our knowledge of the differing degrees of vital persistence possessed by 
these classes respectively. This experiment further proves that the nerve 
may sufter past restoration by prolonged absence of blood, but that the mus- 
cular irritability may be completely restored — in fact, exalted. 

The question as to the part of the motor neive (tlie trunk or the terminal 
branches) concerned in the paralysis is one of extreme interest. Inasmuch 
as the sensory fibres still convey their impressions, it seems probable that the 
defect in the nerve must lie in its ultimate distributions to the muscular 
tissue ; otherwise we should have to consider that the motor fibres of the 
trunk of a nerve are dependent upon the general circulation of a limb for 
their integrity, and that the nutrition of the sensory fibres of the same trunk 
is maintained in some other way. There seems to be a remarkably interesting 
analogy between this form of paralysis and that induced by the action of the 
woorara poison*. 

* How is it that the terminations of the motor nerves in muscles are so interfered with, 
wliile neither the trunk or its ramifications, nor the muscular tissue, appears to be affected 



ON MUSCULAR IKKIT.VBlLITy. 165 

Comprehending now more fully the nature of the paraljsis which results 
from depriving limbs of blood, we are in a position to see that whatever in- 
fluence nerve may exercise in exhausting irritability, when the source of its 
replenishment is cut off, must necessarily he exercised prior to the accession of 
the paralysis ; for this form of paralysis affecting the ultimate distributions 
may be regarded as equivalent to the absence of nerve-tissue ; and under 
such circumstances the irritable muscular tissue represents the condition and 
capacity of living muscle freed from nerve-influence. 

It is clear, then, as the terminal distributions of the nerves to the muscles 
of warm-bloods hecome at once insensible to the stimulus of volition, that the 
nerve in these cases can have no influence in hastening rigor by exhavisting 
irritability, and the accession of rigor mortis here must therefore be referred 
entirely to absence of the blood ; for in these cases we are not even distiirbed 
by speculations as to the possible influence exercised upon the muscle by 
the mei-e jjresence of living nerve-tissue in a state of inaction. 

We see, then, that the question with which we started is one capable of 
solution only by experiments upon cold-bloods carried out in the manner 
previously indicated ; for in these only is it possible for nervous influence to act 
uponmuscidar irritability in the absoice of the blood, and in. these tor a limited 
period only, but, nevertheless, sufficiently long to prove whether or not the 
mere presence of inactive living nerve climinishes muscular irritability, or 
whether the loss of irritability is appreciable only when the muscle is either 
controlled or induced to contract by nervous influence. Space will not permit 
me to recite the complicated experiments by which the necessary conditions 
were achieved, and I must content myself in this place by briefly stating the 
deductions arrived at. 

1. Mere presence of living nerve in a state of inaction neither hastens nor 
retards the accession of rigor, and therefore has no influence on irritability. 

2. The condition of nerve concerned in simple muscular control and in 
contraction leads to earlier rigor mortis, and therefore possesses the power of 
exhausting irritability. 

Leaving now this aspect of the question, we proceed to inquire what 
evidence do we possess that muscular irritability is capable of abnormal ex- 
altation in the absence of nerve, or in those uncontrolled powerless states of 
the muscular system which, from the absence of volitional impulse, are equi- 
valent thereto. 

First, we have the fact that if one limb of a frog be paralyzed by sec- 
tion of its nerve, after a certain jyeriod has elcqised it will be found more 
susceptible to the various forms of external stimulation than the other limb ; 
and if such an animal be killed or happen to die, the limb in which the nerve 
is intact «dll lose its irritability, and pass into the state of rigor, long prior 
to the limb the nerve of which has been divided. 

Dr. Radclrffe remarks, " Many experiments might be mentioned, all of 
which seem to show more or less clearly that the disposition to convulsive 
muscular contraction is inversely related to the supply of nervous influence 
to the muscles." Vide ' Lancet,' 1863, vol. i. p. 321. This is in the main cor- 
rect, but it renders no support to the inhibitory theory of nervous action as 
propounded by its talented author. The readiness tvith which muscle contracts 
is cdwuys in direct proportion to the amount of force accumulated in its struc- 
ture, or, in other words, to its irritability. It is not that the absence of nerve 

past restoration? Is there any intermediate tissue differing from nerve or muscle -wjiich 
forms the bond of union between them ? 



166 REPORT— 1866. 

produces a greater proclivity to contraction in the mnsele, but that tLe muscle 
in the absence of nerve can accumulate the force on which irritability depends. 
In all the experiments in which muscle contracts more readily in the absence 
of nerve, the element time is an important ingredient ; for if its influence be 
excluded, the opposite condition, viz. tJuif 7in(scJe contracts more readily in the 
presence of nerve-injluence, is the normal law, as I hope shortly to show. 

To the fact that muscle relieved from nerve-influence acquires additional 
contractile energy I add the further important observation, that it retains its 
irritability not uufrequently for days after its fellow has passed into the 
state of rigor mortis. 

The experiment just cited also tends to show that the presence of nerve in 
action keeps down muscular irritability and initiates rigor mortis, as before 
demonstrated ; for we see that when blood is circulating equally thi-ough two 
limbs, the irritability of the one cannot be maintained at the same standard in 
the presence of the nerve. If rigor mortis could be regarded as a contraction, 
it might be supposed, in accordance with old notions, that the dying nervous 
system had something to do \\'ith its premature induction ; but as rigor is a 
mere setting of the muscular tissue, this idea has not a shadow of probability * ; 
besides the rigor will supervene in the limbs simultaneously in cases in which 
the death of the animal succeeds immediately the section of the nerve. 

Dr. Brown Sequard has fui-nished us with a most beautiful experiment which 
bears intimately upon the present question, and which also has been used by 
Dr. Eadcliffe to siipport the proposition, " that the state of muscular relaxation 
is more readily disturbed by contraction, and tliat the contraction itself is more 
powerful when the muscles are receiving a diminished supply of nervous in- 
fluence." The experiment is as foUows : — Two frogs (A and B) are taken and 
their spinal cords divided low down in the ccr^ical region so as to remove the 
lower limbs from the control of the brain and medulla oblongata. In such 
cases the reflex (?) contractions induced by pinching the toes are capable of 
raising heavier weights than could be raised by the hind limbs when the 
frogs were in their normal condition. Thus they raised before division of the 
cord GO grammes. Immediatdy after division A raised 20 and B 10 grammes 
only. In five minutes A raised 45 grammes and B only 30 ; thus they pro- 
ceed increasing rajndly in power, till in four hours A can sustam 140 grammes 
and B 130. At the cud of twenty-four hours they are found to have reached 
their maximum point, \\z. 150 and 140 grammes respectively. 

The first point worthy of notice in this important experiment is, that a 
degree of shock was produced by the operation in frog A measured by a loss 
of power equivalent to 40 grammes, and in frog B to 50 grammes. This 
diminished power would be entireh" due to loss of nervous force and muscular 
irritability, chiefiy the former, — partly the direct result of severe injuiy to the 
nervoTis centres, and partly of loss of blood and depression of the heart's 
action. 

Secondly, it would be at this period, wheu A could raise but 20 and B 10 
grammes onlj' while suffering from shock, that the nervous influence would 
he at its lowest ebb ; and if the muscles possessed a fail' amount of irritability 
(which they certainly do) after such operations, this should be, if Dr. Rad- 
cliife's views are correct, the period at which the (jrealcd weights conld be 
raised ; for the period of profoundest nervous shock admitting of neural ex- 
citement of the muscles would be the one in which the miuimum degree of 
nervous influence exists. 

'' See mj paper on that subject in Brit. Assoc. Report for 1865, Trans, of Sfect. p. 109. 



ON MUSCULAR IRRITABILITY, 167 

But it is evident that the muscular and nervous systems progressively 
acquire force from this shock -point, stopping not at their normal amount, 
but reaching a marvellously abnormal degree of exaltation, and this under 
the very conditions 1 have pointed out as leading to nervous and muscular 
exaltation, viz. the absence of the exhausting principle of volition or nerve 
in action. 

We see, then, by these experiments that muscles possess no abnormal 
powers immediately after they are liberated from nerve-influence, as in section 
of the sciatic, or after they are removed from the influence of the upper part 
of the cord, but that these are gradualhj acciuired, many hours being con- 
sumed in reaching the maximum degree. The correct explanation, therefore, 
of Sequard's experiment would seem to be, not that muscle contracts more 
readily in the absence of nervous influence, but that, in the absence of voli- 
tional or other excitement, both the nervous and muscular systems can accu- 
mulate their own special forces, and that to an extent that can never become 
apparent under normal life conditions. Thus, in the experiment, 60 grammes 
measure the nervo-museular force of the frogs when unmutilated. After the 
operation the frog B suflers more from shock, and the sum of its nervo- 
muscular force is represented in consequence by just half that of the other, 
or one-sixth of its normal force ; A possesses after the operation one-third of 
its normal force. The nervoiis system gradually recovers from the influence 
of shock, but is no longer stimulated by volition, and therefore no longer 
controls the muscles in the usual way ; consequently they remain flaccid or 
paralyzed, and this gives them an opportunity of accumulating force, which 
they gradually do till they acquire nearly three times their normal amount. 
The exact proportions in which this acciimulated force is divided between the 
nervous and muscular systems is a delicate subject for future consideration. 

The fact is here broadly stated, that the psychical principle of volition do- 
minates and exhausts both the nervous and muscular systems, and that in the 
absence of this influence they acquire exalted powers*. 

I propose now to turn for a short time to a consideration of the part which 
the blood plays in connexion with muscular contraction. The following is 
the proposition which I shall endeavour to maintain : — 

That the blood or nutritional plasma derived therefrom not only furnishes 
the materials by which muscular contractility is maintained, but is likewise 
the determining cause of that polar arrangement of the muscular molecules 
which maintaius or restores the elongated or relaxed state. 

* In June 1866, Professor Frankland read a paper to the Eoyal Institution of Great 
Britain " On the Source of Muscular Force," which contains the following passage : — 
" The combustible food and osvgen coexist in the blood which courses through the muscle ; 
hut when the muscle is at rest there is no chemical action between them. A command is sent 
from the brain to the muscle, the nervous agent determines oxidation. The potential 
energy becomes active energy, one portion assuming the form of motion, another appear- 
ing as heat. Here is the source of animal heat, here the origin of muscular foioer. Like 
the piston and cylinder of a steam-engine, the muscle itself is only a machine for the 
transformation of heat into motion." The reader will at once perceive that tliis idea of 
muscular force being generated only during nervou,s action is quite incompatible with tlie 
experiments and views of the author of this paper. There can be no doubt that chemical 
action is constantly taking place between certain elements of muscle and blood, and thctt 
force is being continuously stored, nervous action being concerned in its consumption, and 
discharge ratlier than its formation. As to heat, it is certainly generated in other portions 
of the body besides the muscidar structures ; and if nervous action is necessary to oxidation, 
how is this heat produced ? 

The piston and cylinder are a means of regidating mere repellent force ; but muscle is a. 
mechanism having the power to convert some fluid, which is either electricity or a close 
correlate, into a source of botli repellent and attractive power ; for it is only by assuming 
two such forces that the phenomena of elongation and contraction can be explained. 



168 BEPORT— 1866. 

Last year, when treating iipon the question of rigor mortis, I drew the 
attention of the Section to a form of muscidar contraction induced in cold- 
bloods by the irritant action of such vapours as ether, chloroform, bisulpliuret 
of carbon, amylene, &c. I pointed out that they were the most extreme 
forms of contraction of which these muscles were capable. The persistent, 
in most cases permanent character of the contraction at once associated it 
with the forms of tetanus induced by water of certain temperatures and by 
the discharge from Ruhnikorft'''s coil. The extreme delicacy of this mode of 
exciting muscular contraction by ethereal vapours has enabled me to perform 
some very interesting and instructive experiments. 

I have succeeded in proving, by experiments in which the nervous 
system has, as far as possible, been removed, and, better still, by experiments 
on isolated muscles, (1) that both chloroform and warm water act directli/ 
vpon and produce universal contraction of the muscular tissue, which, accord- 
ing to the circumstances of its induction, may or mail not he permanent ; (2) that 
when the nervous and vascular systems are present they complicate the 
result, and furnish us with illustrations of most important physiological prin- 
ciples. 

Taking first Tiieemal Tetaxfs, I find two normal limbs ((. e. supplied with 
both blood and nerve-influence) contract simultaneously. Two limbs de- 
prived of both blood and nerve-influence also contract simultaneously. Of 
two limbs, the one having neither nerve nor blood, and the other both nerve 
and blood, the latter contracts first. Of two limbs, the one having 
neither nerve nor blood, and the other blood only, the former contracts fu'st. 
In CnLORoroKJi Tetaxus the same holds good as in the first two examples 
of thermal tetanus ; but of two limbs, tlie one having neither blood nor nerve, 
and the other having both blood and nerve, the former contracts first. Of 
two limbs, the one having neither blood nor nerve, and the other nerve 
but no blood, the latter contracts first. 

An analysis of these various results shows that both v»'arm water and chlo- 
roform exercise an excitant action upon the nervous system of the frog, 
which tends in both cases in the direction of muscular contraction, but which 
of itself alone is too weak to bring about such an affection of muscle, and, 
further, that the warm water is more powerfid in this respect than the chlo- 
roform. It also aftbrds evidence of the important i)rinciple, that certain 
elements of the blood in the interstices of the muscular tissue oppose a 
powerful obstacle to such agencies as tend to throw muscular tissue into a 
state of contraction. 

Mxiscle when dynamically perfect is related, on the one hand, to certain 
stimuli, as nerve and external agents, which tend to induce contraction, and, 
on the other, to some of the elements of blood, which bring about its elongation ; 
but its degree of proneness to fall into contraction appears to be directly pro- 
portionate to the amount of force generated in it by the blood — in other 
words, to its irritability ; and although the galvanometric evidences of the 
existence of force are masJced during contraction by the derived electro- 
motor currents taking on the negative variation, yet this by no means 
proves (as some suppose) tliat the hlood-gcneratcd forces are absent; for we 
have previously seen in explaining Scquard's experiment that the contractive 
energy, i. e. the tendency of the molecules of muscles to approach each other, 
may be increased two-and-a-half times, which is at once proof that they do 
not approach by virtue of any lyermanent force which they possess as mere 
physical atoms ; for such force would be a fixed and not a varying quantity. 
It is evident therefore that both the power of contraction and of elongation 
is derived from the blood; and not the elongating force alone; and we must 



ON MUSCULAR IRRITABILITY. 169 

not, with Dr. Eadcliife, fall into the error of considering that muscle neces- 
sarily passes into a state of contraction in the absence of an elongating force; 
for experiment shows that the most perfectly relaxed state of muscle is com- 
patible with the absence of every trace of irritabilitj'. 

I shall nowproceed to narrate several experiments in which the relation 
which blood bears to muscular tissue is more fully displayed, and by which it 
is made evident that the blood gives the poAver by which the elongated or, 
relaxed state of muscle is maintained. 

Exp. 1. — A frog is moderately chloroformed; when removed from the 
vapour, particular note is made that the limbs are perfectly flaccid or relaxed, 
and that the heart is beating. The heart is now exposed and excised, and in 
a few seconds or miautes, accorchng to the amount of chloroform imbibed by 
the tissues, the Umbs ivill spontaneoushj extend and become rhjidhj tetanic. 

Another fi'og was slightly chloroformed, and the observation made that 
the heart was still actiag, and that the whole of the muscles were quite 
flaccid. The structures of one thigh Avere then cut through to the bone, so 
as to sever all nervous and vascular connexions. The muscles of this limb 
gradually commenced to contract, and in a fcAV minutes the leg and foot were 
extended and the webs stretched out. The muscles of the other limb and 
the trunk generally remained in a completely relaxed state. After the lapse 
of some minutes I observed a tendency in the unmutilated hmb to extend, 
and in the fore feet to approach the central line of the body, and to clasp, 
as in tetanus of the male frog. Directing my attention to the heart, I 
could not detect any pulsation, and I therefore removed the parietcs of the 
chest ; the access of air reexcited the action of the heart, and very quickly 
the muscles of the unmutilated limb and general trunk became again flaccid. 
The heart again losing power, the condition of contraction a second time 
came on, and gradually became more and more complete. On reexamining 
this frog after the lapse of an hour, I found that the muscles had again 
become flaccid— this time not only in the unmutilated limb, fore feet, and 
muscles of the trimk, but also in the limb which, as far as its soft parts were 
concerned, was completely amputated. Not the slightest trace of irritability, 
however, was now detectable. Nothing could be plainer than the teaching 
of this experiment. The muscular tissue was subjected to a dual influence :— 
first, the chloroform tending to excite it to contract; secondly, the blood, 
or certain of its elements, tending to maintain it in the relaxed or elongated 
state ; and accordingly as one or other of these influences prevailcct, the 
muscles became alternately contracted or relaxed. After the cessation of the 
circulation the antagonism was feebly continued bctAvecn the evaporating 
traces of the chloroform on the one hand, and the interstitial juices of the 
muscle on the other, the balance of power being so nicely adjusted that the 
interstitial nutrition Avas just capable of restoring the relaxed condition, but 
incapable of conferring the slightest degree of irritability upon the muscles. 
It is rarely that we obtain this exact balance of the influences ; for if the 
amount of chloroform in the muscles is too large, the condition of permanent 
contraction obtains ; and if too small, there are shght evidences of returning 
irritability after the muscle has become elongated. 

Another satisfactory mode of exhibiting this function of the blood is to 
compress the abdominal aorta of a frog, and, having ascertained by the 
microscope that the circulation in the lower limbs is securely arrested, oil all 
parts of the body, Avith the exception of one limb, expose this to the vapour 
of chloroform, protecting as much as possible all other portions of the body 
from its influence. This limb wiU after a time shoAV a disposition to con- 



170 REPORT — 18G6. 

tract. It should then be removed from the vapour ; and when it has become 
fully extended, the tourniquet should be taken off; the blood will then 
gradually find its way into the limb, and restore the flaccid elongated con- 
dition. 

In this experiment we have the contrast of two limbs without blood, one 
of which is under a contracting influence ; and we get an excess of chloro- 
form in the tissues of one limb and protect the animal to a great extent from 
being generally aiFected. As might be expected, this state of contraction 
is never so easy to produce when an animal possesses its full complement of 
blood ; for although the blood may be stagnant in the vessels, it will supply 
for a considerable time the elements which oppose the coutracting-powers of 
the chloroform ; hence, if we would produce the state of contraction under 
such conditions, an amount of chloroform is demanded in the tissues which 
ordinarily destroys the animal. But by adopting the plan of allowing the 
ingress of the chloroform only through the limb which Ave wish to afl'ect, we 
overcome this obstacle and retain the heart in such a condition that the 
circulation can be restored and the contractive state dissipated when the 
mechanical impediment is removed from the aorta. 

In concluding this paper, I propose to take a hasty survey of the various 
aflections of muscular tissue as they have presented themselves in my expe- 
riments. 

Let us take as an illustration the gastrocnemius muscle of the frog in the 
elongated or uncontractcd state. 1. It may exist in this elongated or un- 
contracted state mth all its dynamical powers in a state of integrity. This 
is its normal condition, as we see it in the absence of stimuli. 2. It may 
exist in this state when deprived of dynamical power, or, in other words, in the 
absence of irritability. 3. Both these conditions of elongation may be asso- 
ciated with softness or flaccidity of the muscular structure, — the former neces- 
sarily so ; the latter not, as the fixity of rigor may prevail. 

Now let us take the same muscle in a state of complete contraction. 
1. It may exist in this state of contraction with its dynamical powers per- 
fect. This is true in those normal contractions which quickly give place to 
relaxation. 2. It may exist in this state when deprived of dynamical power, 
as seen in the forms of permanent contraction induced by warm water and 
ethereal vapours. 3. In a state of softness, or in a hard coagulated state. 
The soft state is represented by normally contracted muscle, severed from 
one of its attachments. The hard state is induced by ethereal vapours and 
extremes of temperature. 

As with the state of elongation, so with that of contraction, the truly 
dynamical state is one of softness. 

The dynamical conditions on which irritability depends may therefore 
exist both in the elongated and in the contracted state, and may also be non- 
existent in both of these states. Properly speaking, irritability is no more the 
tendency which a muscle exhibits to contract than the disposition it shows 
to relax or elongate subsequently to contraction ; in fact a comprehensive 
definition must include both these conditions. Nor is either of these states 
to be regarded (as far as muscle alone is concerned) as conditions of rest ; 
for they are both active states so long as the muscle is a vital structure, and 
both inactive when the dynamical power of muscle are absent. 

As yet there seems to be no reliable experimental evidence to show that 
muscle per se, ever contracts spontaneously, i. e. in the absence of a stimulus ; 
but there are plenty of indications that the same agent is a greater stimulus 
at one time than another ; nor is there anv evidence to show that muscl& 



ON MUSCULAK IKRITABILITV. 171 

will contract on the -withdrawal of elongating inflnences, but abundance to 
the contrary in the fact that it will remain in the elongated state in the ab- 
sence of all susceptibility. Contraction and elongation would seem both to 
be dependent on the existence of polar forces, which have a certain relation, 
on the one hand, to excited nerve and external stimuli, and, on the other, 
to some of the elements of the blood, — excited nerve and external stimuli in- 
ducing the attractive, which involves contraction, and the blood the repulsive 
polar attitude essential to elongation. 

The attractive state of the muscular molecules which represents contrac- 
tion, is the condition in which force is exhausted by the association of unlike 
polarities ; while the state of elongation being that in which every molecule 
is opposed to every other, force may be accumulated. In proportion to the 
amount of force accumulated in the molecules Avill be the intensity of their 
contractive or elongative energy ; and also in proportion to their charge will 
be their proclivity to disturbance — in other words, their susceptibility to 
stimuli. 

When a stimulus can no longer act, it is because the force is exhausted. 
If the chemistry of the muscle be not absolutely arrested, the power to 
contract under a stimulus will return. If at the moment of its action a 
stimulus be so excessive as to induce the attractive state of the molecules, 
and at the same time to destroy the force-producing powei's of the muscle, 
the molecules will remain in the state of approximation, simply because there 
is an absence of any power to rearrange them. Conversely, if the force- 
producing powers be destroyed during the state of elongation, the molecules 
remain apart. 

Muscle, therefore, as a dead structure, has no tendency to remain in either 
one or other of these states preferentially. The loss of irritability is the first 
evidence we possess of a series of chemical changes which culminate in such 
a coagulation of the muscular juices as to cause fixity, or setting of the 
muscle. When these changes take place in the elongated muscle, the fixed 
condition is produced which we recognize as rigor mortis ; when, on the 
other hand, they take place in the contracted muscle, they induce the fixed 
hard condition of the muscular structure seen in ethereal and thermal con- 
tractions. 

Substances which affect muscular tissue may be classified as pure stimu- 
lants, stimulo-coagulants, and depresso-coagulants. All substances possess- 
ing the coagirlant property arrest the chemical reactions between the mus- 
cular tissue and the blood, by which the fluid on which irritability depends 
is generated. The stimido- coagulant class is represented by the irritant 
action of chloroform and the ethers generally, and by extremes of tempera- 
ture ; the depresso-coagulant by chlorine, carbonic acid gas, and the sedative 
action of very dilute ether- vapour. 

It is possible, therefore, to have rigor mortis, or coar/ulative setting, in both 
elongated and contracted muscles. 

While, therefore, my researches contradict the theory which refers the 
phenomena of living muscle to statical electricity as an elongating power 
simply, contraction being regarded as due to an inherent attractive power of 
the muscular molecules, they are singularly in accordance with the con- 
clusions of Du Bois Eeymond, who regards every elemental part of muscle 
as a centre of electromotor action, containing within itself positive and 
negative elements, arranged in a dipolar series, — and seem to fiU iip a gap, by 
showing that the repulsive attitude of this series is maintained hy the blood. 



173 REPORT — 1866. 

Beport on the Physiological Action of certain Compounds of Amyl 
and Ethyl. By Benjamin W. Richardson, M.A., M.D., F.R.S. 

In two previous Eeports to the Association, I dwelt especially on the action 
of certain of the compounds of amyl. The first Report dealt exclusively 
with the substance known as the nitrite of amyl. The second lleport had 
further reference to the same body, and also to amylene, amylic alcohol, and 
the acetate and iodide of amyl. In some degree these Reports were com- 
plete as far as they went ; that is to say, the facts presented Avere sufficient 
to demonstrate what visible physical influences -were exerted on dead and on 
living matter by these representatives of the amyl scries ; and as I care- 
fully separated the facts from the speculations that were fairly to be founded 
on them, the Association expressed its satisfaction by requesting me to con- 
tinue researches in the same direction but with a wider object. I was de- 
sired in the next Report to repeat what might require repetition, but specially 
to pay attention to the etlii/l-comjyounds, with a view to determine, if that 
were possible, whether there was any analogy in physiological action between 
the analogous compounds of the two series. 

SUMMARY OF PAST RESEARCHES. 

Before I enter on new ground, it will be advisable for me to recall the 
main facts described in previous years and bearing on the amyl series. 

1. It was shown that the nitrite of amyl when inhaled was the most poAV- 
erful excitant of the circulation at the time known. It was demonstrated 
that during such inhalation the action of the heart was doubled in rapidity 
in thirty seconds, in men and warm-blooded animals : further, it was proved 
that this intense action was immediately followed by deep suffusion of the 
skin, by Lreathlessness like that produced by runnhig, by a peculiar sensation 
of fulness and throbbing in the head, and ultimately by failure of muscular 
power of the extremest kind. It was also proved that there was no destruc- 
tion of the nervous sensibility, that in animals there was an obvious expres- 
sion of sensibility up to the moment of death. Lastly, it was shown that in 
cold-blooded animals, such as frogs, the nitrite of amyl suspended animation 
for hours, and even days, — and that, in young warm-blooded animals, after 
exposure to it until they seemed to be dead, the action of the heart continued 
for so long a period as eigliteen hours. 

2. In respect to amylene, it was shown that the vapour of it was antiseptic, 
even when freely admixed with air ; physiologically tested on living animals, it 
is found to be capable of administration by being inhaled. It does not provoke 
local irritation, but it rapidly produces collapse and total insensibihty to 
pain. At the same time it seems to interfere less with consciousness than 
other narcotic vapours. This fact is of peculiar interest, because the appa- 
rent consciousness exhibited by the subject is not shared in by himself, it 
is an objective, not a subjective phenomenon. The person under the influ- 
ence of the vapour may perform acts which have all the semblance of conscious 
acts ; but when he recovers he has no recollection of anything that has oc- 
curred. The state thus induced is very much like the phenomenon of som- 
nambulism ; and I ventured to suggest that in this experiment we had a 
key to tlie cause of the disease somnambulism, viz. that there was possibly 
formed in the body of the somnambulist, by a faulty digestion, a substance 
of similar action to an aniyl-compound. Am3'lene I showed was a good 
anaesthetic, and many surgical operations have been performed under its in- 



ON THE PHYSIOLOOrCAL ACTION OF AMYL ANP ETHYL COMPOUNDS. 173 

fluence, but it enters into no chemical combination with the tissues. This is 
due to its great insolubility in the blood and animal fluids. Amylene requires 
9319 parts of water for its solution. 

3. Of ami/lic alcohol it was shown that, like amylene, it was antiseptic. 
When the vapour of it is inhaled, it produces first irritation of the nostril, 
and next drowsiness and a kind of coma, but without insensibility to pain. 
In this comatose state there is developed a peculiar muscular action, a series 
of rigors which increase in force under any degree of excitement ; but it is 
almost impossible to destroy life by its means. Animals brought to the verge 
of death and seeming past all recovery begin to rally so soon as they are 
placed in the open air. 

4. The acetate of amf/l was shown to produce the same kind of symptoms as 
those produced by amylic alcohol ; it also preserves organic substances from 
putrefaction. It is used for flavouring-purposes under the name of essence 
of pears. 

5. The action of the iodide of amyl was shown to be somewhat difierent 
from that of any of the other compounds. When inhaled it induces mixed 
symptoms, resembling in part those produced by the nitrite of amyl, and in 
part those produced by amylic alcohol. It causes excitement, great tremor 
of muscles, and during recovery a singular motion of the animal in a circle ; 
it also excites salivation, and renders the extremities of the animal red and 
vascular during inhalation. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of the papers named above, 
one special point attracted most attention. A question first was asked by 
Dr. Heaton, of Leeds, and afterwards by Professor Wanklyn : — Whether the 
difierences of symptoms observed in dealing with diff'erent compounds of the 
amyl series turned actually on a change in the base itself, or on the combi- 
nation of the base with a new compound. To take an illustration : was, 
for instance, the nitrite of amyl so peculiarly active simply because it was an 
amyl-compound, or because it was the nitrite of amyl ? 

This question is one of the chief (if not the chief) questions answered in 
the present Report. It was considered in the last Report in the following 
terms : — " The base amyl is, if I may use the expression, the keynote ; but 
variations are introduced as new elements are added. The order of varia- 
tion is most interesting. We take a simple hydrocarbon, the hydruret of 
amyl, and we have an almost negative body, acting not unlike nitrogen, and 
partly destroying motor force and consciousness, but no more. We introduce 
the element oxygen into the inquii-y by using the hydrated oxide of amyl 
or the acetate, and there is added to the above-named phenomena violent 
and persistent tremor. We move from this to another compound, and brin» 
iodine into the field, and the phenomena now"embrace free elimination of 
fluid from the body, vascularity of the extreme parts, with increased action of 
the heart and of respiration. We change the combination once more to bring 
nitrogen and oxygen into operation with the base, and the vascular action is 
raised beyond what is seen from any other known substance, to be followed 
by a prostration so profound that the still living animal might for a time 
pass for dead." 

NEW EESEARCHES. 

In the past year I have repeated the experiments conducted originally with 
the compounds of amyl, the compounds themselves being most accurately made. 
The result has been to confirm the facts previously observed, in all their 
integrity. In two directions I have extended these researches, with the 



174 



REPORT 1866. 



object of trying to make the substances under notice of practical utility to 
mankind. 

Nitrite of Amtl as a Remeby. 

I first experimented to ascertain whether nitrite of amyl, which, as we have 
seen, exerts so decided an effect in quickening the action of the heart when it 
is inhaled by the living animal, might be turned to account as a means for 
stimulating the heart into action in cases where that organ has suddenly 
ceased to beat, as in cases of fatal fainting, in drowning, in sunstroke and 
lightning-stroke, in death by chloroform, and in suffocation from other nar- 
cotic vapours. To test this, the substance was introduced into the body in 
two ways — by artificial respii'ation, and by transfusion directly into the heart 
through the arteries. By neither of these methods could any decided effect 
be produced. By the first (the artificial respiration) a spasmodic action of the 
diaphragm and a peculiar action of the muscles of the nose are produced for a 
short time ; but the effect is very transient. By the second, the effect seemed 
to be that the action of the heart was the more decidedly and rapidly para- 
lyzed. In one case, in connexion with my friend Mr. Gay, after repeating in 
the dissecting-room the experiment of the injection of a dead limb of the 
human subject with oxygenated blood, I introduced a free current of a blood 
containing one minim of the nitrite of amyl to the eight ounces. The muscles 
were by this means evenly and steadily injected, and the odour of the amyl- 
compound was distinctly perceived ; but there was no sign of muscular action 
in response to the injection, and muscles laid bare and subjected to irritation 
were still quiescent. 

For these experiments I invented a new instrument for transfusion, which 
works so simply and effectually that I may be excused, perhaps, if I diverge 
for a moment to describe it : the practical physiologist wiU find it of great 
value in many inquii-ies. This instrument, as shown in the diagram, con- 




sists of a glass cylinder (A), with a flexible tube (B) running from its lower 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF AMYL AND ETHYL COMPOUNDS. 175 

part or chamber, for insertion, by means of a quill or hoUow probe, into the 
vein to be injected : the upper part of the cylinder is provided with a stopper, 
through which a tube passes, connected vnth. a small pari- of hand bellows (D). 
Within the cylinder is a small hollow ball (E), or safety-valve regulator, 
which floats if there be fluid in the cylinder ujitil the fluid allows it to descend 
to the constricted lower part of the cylinder, when all fm-ther passage of fluid 
is prevented. The flow of fluid along the escape-tube can be checked, or set 
at liberty at pleasure by the clip (C). 

In using this iustiniment, first place the fluid to be injected in the cylinder 
(A) and let a little run through the escape-tube (B) to displace aU the air ; next 
close the escape-tube by means of the clip (C) ; then, having opened the vein 
or artery, whUe it is being pressed upon from above, insert and fix the quill 
or hollow probe at the end of the escape-tube, and, when all is ready for the 
fluid to flow, remove the clip and raise the cylinder two or three feet above 
the subject. The ordinary liuid-pressure will now usually suflice to carry the 
fluid into the body equably and gently ; but if there be any obstruction, the 
merest pressure of the lower ball of the hand bellows will remove it. As the 
fluid descends, the hollow ball goes down with it to within three inches of 
the bottom of the cylinder, where it is opposed by the constricted neck, and 
where it effectually closes in all that is below it, so that no air can possibly 
get into the blood-vessel. 

Eeverting to the experiments related above, they, although negative as 
regards the particular object in view during their performance, teach an 
interesting and usefid physiological lesson. They illustrate that when in the 
living body the nitrite of amyl, after its inhalation, excites the heart to such 
vigorous action, producing suffusion of the skin and the other extreme 
symptoms of excitation, the effect is conducted solely through the nervous 
system. I believe that the action of the nitrite, telling, at the moment of 
inhalation, tipon the extreme filaments of the olfactory nerves, as well as on 
the pneumogastric tracts, communicates a peculiar and rapid motion, which 
traverses them and, without any indirect action on the blood, reaches the 
heart, giving to it impulse and vehemency of action. 

^ The expciience of every-day life tells us that the heart may be thrown into 
similar activity by impressions or influences communicated from the external 
world to the senses, and through them to the heart. The influences of 
sounds, harsh or melodious, of sights, appalling or fascinating, are well known, 
from the manner in which they come upon us. From their invisibility of 
action, if I may be allowed such an expression, we are prone to look on them 
as immaterial agents: they are not so; thoroughly understood they are 
as material as a physical blow, or the impress of a liquid or gaseous sub- 
stance. 

Nitrite of amyl is one of those substances which enable us to realize this 
connexion between the really material and the seemingly immaterial influences 
which surroimd us. We take an appreciable quantity of it, say, half a grain, 
and inhale it from paper, and at once we feel a quickened action of the circula- 
tion so decisively that we trace the effect immediately to the cause: we could, 
if we Hked, quicken the heart to absolute silence by pushing the cause far 
enough. Here there is no mistake, no possibility of mistake. But we can 
modify the experiment and refine upon it. By admixing the vapour of am- 
monia with that of amyl, and difiPiising the combined vapours through a large 
space of air confined by walls and closed windows, we can charge a room 
with a compound which the olfactory sense, as such, does not detect, but which 
teUs with active and peculiar force upon the heart. In this way an invisible 



176 REPORT— 1866. 

and, as it would seem to the unlearned, an immaterial agency acts by known 
rules and in obedience to the human will*. 

The day will soon come when we shall know the mode bj^ which these agencies 
act upon the body through the nervous expanse : we shall follow out the living 
organism as so much matter moveable and transformable or transmutable, 
built in, and I had almost said upon, a refined medium, itself unchangeable, 
all-pervading, and establishing a bond of union between our own material 
parts, ourselves, our planet, our ^^niverse. We shall see how this fluid, itself 
physical, subjected to various influences, is disturbed, and how it communi- 
cates such disturbance to the grosser matters which it permeates ; then a 
vast number of strange and, as they now appear to us, conflicting phenomena 
will resolve themselves into a single and simple law, and physiology, in its 
wholeness, the science of the sciences, will be the most useful and the most 
exact. 

I have said that when the motion of the heart has once been stopped, the 
influence of the nitrite of amyl ceases ; that the nitrite can quicken the living 
action, but cannot restore the lost action. These are the facts as they stand 
at the moment ; but I must add as a qualification that the negative result may 
perchance be due to inadequacy of experiment, and that new and continuous 
experiment may change the argiiment. 

The Amtls as Antiseptics, 

The second new line of inquiry to which the amj'l-compounds were 
subjected, was to determine whether they could be turned to account, practi- 
cally, as antiseptics. I had already found that every one of the series is 
preservative, and I therefore took one (the acetate) and subjected it to special 
inquiry. The reason for taking the acetate (essence of pears) was that it 
is most easily obtainable, is comparatively innocuous, and is removed entirely 
from any organic substance by the process of cooking. 

The experiments Averc made in the following manner :— 

1. By placing organs of soft texture of dead animals, such as the spleen, 
kidneys, and liver, in lightly closed earthenware chambers, in which the 
acetate of amyl was also placed, in a small open dish, or in cloth or sawdust. 

2. By painting over the substance to be preserved with a mixture of size 
and acetate of amyl. 

3. By injecting the body of a rabbit through the arteries with a fluid con- 
sisting of glycerine, water, and acetate of amyl. 

4. By subjecting the quarters of a sheep to a solution of acetate of amyl, 
and then burying the parts in melted fat or melted size. 

The results of the experiments are as foUow : — 

By the first method, animal substances may be preserved fresh when the 
temperature is below 46° Fahr. for three weeks ; and when the tempe- 
rature is above 46° and under 65° for a week. When the temperature is 
over 65°, the eftect of the acetate is very uncertain. The change that takes 
place in the meat when the effect of the acetate ceases, is a change differing 
from ordinary putrefaction ; it is a process of white odourless softening. 

The second method, that of painting over the surface with a gelatinous 
envelope containing acetate of amyl, was not successful. 

The third method, that of injecting the tissues by the arteries, is a good 
method. The body keeps well, even when exposed to the air at 60°, for four- 

* I could make every heart in a room rise ten beats, at least, within a minute without 
diffusing a detectable odour, as surely as I could vary the motion of a steam-engine by 
movins tlie lever. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF AMYL AND ETHYL COMPOUNDS. 177 

teen days. I liave no doubt that animals injected in this way might be 
transported wholesale, if enclosed in boxes, during a voyage of three weeks 
or a month. 

The last method, that of bringing the structure into close contact with the 
amyl-compound, was not successful. I gathered from all these experiments 
that as antiseptics the amyls require to be so applied that they diffuse through 
the tissues, and that they continue to act until they are carried away. 

ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF SOME COMPOUNDS ■ 
OF THE ETHYL SERIES. 

Turning from these amyl-compouuds, I have next to rej^ort on some of the 
bodies belonging to the ethyl series. For many centuries the ethers have 
been known and studied as substances possessing peculiar powers over animal 
bodies ; and of late years their use as anaesthetic substances for general and 
local i)urposcs has given to them additional interest. 

The compounds of ethyl which I have specially studied are the oxide, the 
acetate, the nitrite, and hydrofluoric ether. 

Oxide of Ethyl. 

The first of these, commonly known as pure ether, rectified ether, or 
sulphuric ether, is a substance that has been of great intez-est to the modern 
physiologist, owing to the fact that it has been applied largely for producing 
general insensibility to pain by the process of inhalation, and more recently 
by the local process of evaporation. 

Although largely demanded for the first of these processes, the oxide of 
ethyl that has been sold for the purposes of the medical physicist has been 
most imperfect. The absurd rule of the Pharmacopoeia, which allowed a cer- 
tain small admixture of alcohol with ether, was the loophole through which 
the most flagrant abuses were permitted to find way. In fact, when at the 
commencement of the present year I required oxide of ethyl on a large scale, 
I could not for many weeks obtain any pure specimen that was not specially 
made for me : there was Jio uniformity either in respect to specific gravity, 
boihrig-point, or reaction. These facts fully accoimt for the great diversity of 
the opinions that have been expressed- relative to the action of ether on the 
bodies of men and animals. The process for obtaining a pure oxide of ethyl 
is nevertheless very simple, and demands only care, patience, and honesty. 
Since February last, two thousand pounds weight of absolute ether have been 
sent out from one London house alone, that of Bobbins and Comj)any of 
Oxford Street. 

The piire substance is a colourless, almost inodorous fluid ; its specific 
gravity is 0-716 to 0*720 ; and 88° Fahr. may be taken as its mean boiling- 
point. 

"With a pure and reliable oxide of ethyl, I have been enabled to study 
the physiological action of the substance with a precision not before attained. 

To produce a decided efiect on the body of a warm-blooded animal by 
means of ether, it is best to administer the substance in the foz-m of vapour, 
charging the air with from twenty to twenty-five per cent., and sustaining 
the supply steadily. The sensations produced are from the first pleasurable ; 
there is expansion of idea in relation to space and to objects, then confusion 
with a peculiar sensation of sweetness in the mouth, and at last oblivion. 
The ether being withdrawn, recovery is very rapid indeed, so rapid that there is 
scarcely any perceptible stage of recovery : it is a sudden awaking to complete 
consciousness. In this respect ether closely resembles amylene in its action. 

1866. If 



178 REPORT— 1866. 

If inferior animals bo subjected to absolute etber, and the influence of the 
vapour on their lungs, heart, and blood be carefully obscryed, we find that the 
lungs undergo a slight congestion, that the heart is filled with blood on both its 
sides, and the venous blood in its transit through the pulmonic circuit ceases 
to become arterialized. At the same time there is no destruction of the parts 
of the blood, and the process of coagulation is unaltered. T\Tien death is 
induced by pure ether, the event occurs by arrest of respiratory power. It 
occurs much in the same way as in death by drowning or by suffocation in 
carbonic acid. It is a great point to state, and it is most strictly true, that 
absolute ether has no directly poisonous action upon the heart. I have seen 
good pulsation of both sides of the heart for forty-five minutes after what 
may be considered the death of the animal. For this reason the action of 
absolute ether contrasts most favourably with chloroform. Chloroform kiUs 
by its paralyzing action iipon the heart : hence when chloroform becomes 
deadly, it is inevitably deadly because it becomes impossible to remove it from 
the parts on which it acts to destroy. Ether, on its side, when it begins to 
cause embarrassment, is acting simply xipon the respiration; and it is only 
necessary to cease to administer it to ensure recovery. 

On the whole, after a most careful comparison of the action of absolute 
oxide of ethyl with the action of other volatile substances possessing 
ansesthetic properties, I claim for it that it is the safest of all known anaes- 
thetics, that any indifferent effects arising, in past times, from its employ- 
ment were due to badness of the article, and that science, not less than regard 
for human life, bids us, when a general ansesthetic is absolutely necessaiy, 
go back to ether as the safest agent. 

In order to ascertam what would be the effect of actually impregnating 
the whole body of an animal with absolute ether, I injected one ounce of it 
into the aorta of an animal (a rabbit) already rendered insensible by the 
vapour. The result was that the fluid injected began to boil rapidly in the 
tissties with a free escape of ether-vapdm-, followed by a sudden, almost in- 
stant stiffness affecting the muscles of the whole body. This effect was due 
to the rapid extrication of heat from the tissues. It was a kind of general 
freezing of the tissues. 

Acetate of Ethyl and Hydeoflttoeic Ethee. 

The acetate of ethyl and hydi-ofluoric ether are chiefly remarkable for 
their powerful solvent action on all the tissues of animals. They, can neither 
of them be safely administered by inhalation, but both of them may admit of 
being largely and usefully employed for the destruction and removal of 
morhid growths. Directed on the blood they break it up absolutely, destroying 
alike the corpuscles, the fibrine, and the albumen. In short, hydrofluoric 
ether may be looked on as a universal solvent of the animal tissues ; nothing 
escapes its action except the gelatinous structiires, and these not altogether. 

iSTiTEiTE OF Ethyl. 

The nitrite, or more correctly the hyponitrite of ethyl, nitrous ether, is 
made in a similar manner to nitrite of amyl, the difference being that the 
nitrous fumes are passed through ordinary alcohol. The fluid when pure is 
of a light amber-colour ; the specific gravity is U-OoO, and the boiling-point 
G0° Fahr. The physiologist who would work with it, should mix it with 
absolute ether in fixed proportions — say, of ten, twenty-five, or fifty per cent. 
It is so volatUe that without this precaution it cannot be readily employed. 

The action of nitrite of ethyl, as Professor Wanklyn suggested last year, 



STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 179 

is closely analogous to the action of nitrite of amji. Inhaled in quantities 
of not less than a grain, it induces the same sensation of fulness of the head, 
rapid action of the heart, and some suffusion of the skin. Animals subjected 
to it in the proportion of fifteen minims diffused as vapour through a cubic 
foot of air, die almost instantaneously from sudden failure of the heart, but 
even up to the moment of death they retain their consciousness and sensi- 
bility. The nitrite, consequently, is in no sense to be regarded as an 
anaesthetic. 

Precisely as the nitrite of amyl, nitrite of ethyl, when it kills, leaves the 
lungs entirely collapsed and so perfectly white that one could assume they 
had been carefully washed free of blood. This effect is due perhaps to the 
rapid contraction of the pulmonary capillaries. The blood is changed in 
colour, the arterial blood being rendered very dark, and the venous of a deep 
chocolate tint* ; the muscles are also all left blanched, as if the death had 
occurred from loss of blood. 

It will be remembered that, in describing the action of nitrite of amyl, I ex- 
,plained that in cold-blooded animals the substance suspended their animation, 
and that frogs that had been rendered powerless by it, and to common obser- 
vation inanimate, would sometimes spontaneously recover even so long as nine 
days after the administration. This same phenomenon I have observed with 
nitrite of ethyl, together with another even more singular. It is this. If a 
young animal, say a kitten, be subjected so suddenly to the nitrite as to fall 
senseless and to appearance dead in or within the minute, it will remain in the 
same state for six or even ten minutes, yielding no evidence of life : it will 
not breathe, and the most delicate auscultation will fail to detect motion 
of the heart. But after a. period vaiying from six to ten minutes it wUl 
spontaneously recommence to breathe, and with every movement of expiration 
a breath sufficient to dull a mii-ror wlU pass from the nostril. As the breath- 
ing recommences, the heart also begins its work, making a series of distinct 
intermittent strokes. This condition, looking like an actual return of life, 
will last so long as half an hour, and will then cease gradually, the animal 
lapsing again into a state of actual inertia or death. 

In concluding this Report I would place the facts I have collected, in 
respect to the ethyl series, as follows : — 

1. Oxide of ethyl, or pure rectified ether as it is commonly called, is the 
best of all known agents for the production of general anaesthesia by 
inhalation. 

2. The peculiar difference of action between the oxide of ethyl and the 
nitrite of ethyl is due to the introduction of a new element, nitrogen, into 
the latter compound. This difference of composition makes the nitrite approach, 
in action, bodies of the alkaloidal class, strychnine and its analogues. 



Second Report on the Structure and Clafisification of the Fossil 
Crustacea. By Henry Woodward, F.G.S. 

I HAVE now to submit a Second Report upon the Fossil Crustacea, which 
have for some years past occupied my attention. Since the last Report 
made to the British Association in Birmingham in 1865, I have described and 
figured a new liassic Crustacean from the Lower Lias of Charmouth — the 



* The coagulation of blood is not modified. 



n2 



180 REPORT— 1866. 

^ger Marderi — a genus hitherto characteristic of the Soleuhofen Slates of 
Bavaria*. 

The following new genera and species of Crustacea were communicated 
by me to the Geological Society on the 23rd May last, and will appear in the 
next part of the ' Quarterly Journal' of that Society : — 

" 2. ' On a new Genus of Phyllopodous Crustacea from the Moffat Shales 
(Lower Silurian), Dumfriesshire.' 

" The fossil described consists of the disk-shaped shield or carapace of an 
Apus-like Crustacean, the nearest known form to it being Peltocaris apty- 
clwkles, Salter, from which, however, it is at once distinguished by the 
absence of a dorsal furrow. 

" A line of suture divides the wedge-shaped rostral portion of the shield 
from the rest of the carapace, the two parts being seldom found together. 
From its strong resemblance to Discina, the author proposed for it the generic 
name Biscinocaris, and named the species Bron'mana, after Mr. D. J. Brown, 
who first drew his attention to it. 

" 3. ' On the Oldest known British Crab (Palceinachus hngijies, H.W.) from 
the Forest Marble of Malmesbury, Wilts.' 

" The author stated that three genera and twenty-five species of Brachy- 
urous Crustacea had ali-eady been described by Professor lleuss and H. von 
Meyer from the Upper White Jura of Germany ; but as no limbs or abdo- 
minal segments had been met vd\h, it was more doubtful where to place 
them than the species now described, which had nearly all its limbs in situ, 
and a portion of the abdomen united to it. Palmmichus closely resembles 
the common Spider-crabs (the Maiadce and Lejptopodidce) living on our own 
coasts. 

" 4. ' On the Species of the genus Eryon, Desm., from the Lias and Oolite 
of England and Bavaria.' 

" The g(;nus Eryon of Desmarest was established for certain extremelj'^ broad 
and flat forms of Astacidce found in the Soleuhofen limestone near Munich, 
and first described in 1757. The late Dr. Oppel has recorded fourteen 
species, two of which, E. Barrovensis and E. (C'oleia) antiqims, are from the 
Lias of England. Mr. Woodward gave descriptions and figures of E. Barro- 
vensis, M'Coy, and five other species, namely: — E. crassichelis, E.Wilmcoiensis, 
and E. Brodiei, from the Lower Lias ; E. Moorei, from the Upper Lias of 
Ilminster ; and E. Oppeli, from the lithographic stone of Solenhofen." 

The plates exhibited form (with one other) the first part of the Monograph 
on the Merostomata for the Palceontographical Society, and wUl be published 
shortlyf. 

I have lately had the opportunity to examine specimens of Limuli from 
the Coal-measures of Kilmaurs, Dudley, and Coalbrook-dale, and am happy 
to state that they have enabled me in the most satisfactory maimer to de- 
monstrate the connexion between this division of Crustacea and the older 
Euriipterida on the one hand and the recent King-crabs on the other. (See 
Eeport, Section DJ.) 

The forms which occur in this zone (the Pennystone Ironstone) differ 
from Limulus in the less anchylosed condition of their segments and the 
possession of three well-marked divisions, representing the head, thorax, and 
abdomen, the latter being represented by three anchylosed segments, and 
having the intervening segments of the thorax free and unarticulated. 

* See Geol. Mag. 1866, vol. iii. p. 10, pi. 1. 

t They have since (Dec. 1866) appeared. 

j Also Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xiiii. p. 28. 



STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE FOSSIL CRUSTACEA. 181 

The best example of this is the Belimtrus regina of Baily, from the Irish 
Coal-measures ; then follows the B. trilobitoides, of Bnckland, the B. an- 
thrax, Prestwich, the B. arcuatus, Baily, and lastly, the B. rotundatus of 
Prestwich. By placing these forms in the order indicated, we find a gradual 
change from the less to the more anchylosed condition of the body-segments, 
which attains its greatest concentration in the recent Limulus. 

But besides these, we have in Hemiaspis a form more separated into distinct 
segments than is Belinurus regina ; so that the passage from. Eurypterus to 
Belinurus, and from that again to Limulus proper, seems capable of being 
bridged over, and we are justified in placing them in the same order, though 
separated into distinct subdivisions. 

We have adopted Dr. Dana's name of Meeostomata for the order, making 
the first suborder, EtriiTPTEBinA, to contain : — 

A. 

1. JPterygotus, Agassiz, having 14 species. 



2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 


Slimonia, H. W., 
Stylonurus, H. "W., 
Eurypterus, De Kay, 
Dolkliopterus, Hall, 
Bunodes, Eichw., 
ArtTiropleura , Jordan, 

B. 

Hemiaspis, H. W., 




3 
6 

20 
1 
1 
1 


8. 


» 


5 



51 species. 
Second suborder, Xiphosttba, to contain : — 

A. 

1. Belinurus, Konig, having 5 species. 

B. 

2. Limidus, Miiller „ 14 „ 

19 species. 

I characterize the order Meeostomata as Crustacea having the mouth fur- 
nished with mandibles and maxillae, the ai^pendages to which fulfil the func- 
tions of limbs, becoming walking- or swimming-feet, and organs of prehension. 

Suborder Euetpteeida, Huxley, 1859. — Crustacea with numerous free 
thoracico-abdominal segments, the first and second of which bear one or more 
broad lamellar appendages upon their ventral surface, the remaining segments 
being devoid of appendages ; the anterior rings united into a carapace bearing 
a pair of larval eyes near the centre, and a pair of large marginal or subcen- 
tral eyes ; the mouth furnished with a broad postoral plate or metastoma, and 
five pairs of moveable appendages, the posterior of which form great swim- 
ming-feet, — the telson or terminal joint being extremely variable in form, and 
the integument characteristically sculptured. 

XiPHOsuEA (Gronov.). — Crustacea having the anterior segments welded 
together to form a broad convex buckler, upon the dorsal surface of which are 
placed two larval frontal eye-spots, and two large lateral compound eyes. 
Beneath this shield-like covering is j)laced the mouth, furnished -with a 
small labrum and a rudimentarj' metastoma, and six pairs of moveable appen- 
dages. Posterior segments of the body more or less free in the fossil 
species, but anchylosed together in the recent species, and bearing upon 
their ventral surfaces a series of broad lamellar appendages. The telson or 
terminal segment ensiform. 



183 REPORT— 1866. 

I have prepared a Table wliich gives the species in detail, with theii- geo- 
logical position and locality (it includes ten genera and seventy species*); 
also representations of all the genera save three, which require further con- 
firmation before they can be figured otherwise than as fragments. 

The geological range of this order is as follows : — We find there are 37 
species in the Upper Silurian ; 7 in the Lower, and 8 in the Middle Devonian ; 
1 in the Lower Carboniferous, and 7 in the Upper ; 1 in the Permian of Eussia ; 
1 in the Trias of Germany ; 7 in the Lithographic stone of Solenhofen ; 1 in 
the Tertiary Brown Coal of Saxony ; and -i living species inhabiting the shores 
of Molucca, Japan, China, the East Indies, and the eastern shores of North 
America. They have been met with geologically in the State of New York, 
especially in Biifi'alo county ; in Ireland (Kiltorcan, fragments only) ; in For. 
farshire, Lanarkshire, Fifeshire, and Caithness in Scotland; in Hereford- 
shire, Worcestershire, and Stafi'ordshire ; in the islands of the Baltic (Oesel 
and Gothland) ; in Bavaria, Saxony, Poland, and as far east as the govern- 
ment of Pei-m and the Ural Mountains ; so that their geological distribution 
is quite as wide as that of their living congeners. 

The Limuhis of the Upper White Jura cannot, so far as we are acquainted 
mth it, be weU separated generically from those of the present day. How 
vast, then, must have been the period represented between the lifetime of the 
BeUnunis of the Coal-measures and that of the Limulus of the Oolites ! and 
yet we should be unwilling to doubt their relationship by descent. Each an- 
tecedent period, then, must have been infinitely greater as we recede to the 
Wenlock, where the first traces of Pfenjgotus occur. 



Second Report on the " Menevian Group" and the other Formations at 
St. David's, Pembrokeshire. By H. Hicks, and J. W. Salter. 
F.G.S. 

Tnn work of the past year has not been confined to procuring fossil speci- 
mens, although that object has been kept steadily in view. 

The extent and direction of the various beds has been particularly noted ; 
and a much greater area than was formerly suspected has been found occu- 
pied by the respective lower fossil groups Menevian, Ffestiniog, Tremadoc, 
and the great Arenig or Skiddaw group — formations which have only of late 
years been accurately explored. 

Above these rocks, and forming their upper limit, we have in the St. 
David's promontory the Llandeilo flags, a formation that does not need a 
special description, since it is already well known to us in the ' Silurian 
System,' and under the name of Lower Bala in Prof. Sedgwick's works. 

The fossU-bearing strata in the neighbourhood of St. David's are mostly 
exhibited in coast sections ; and the grant has been very useful in enabling 
Dr. Hicks to employ boat-service in the work. Without boats, indeed, it 
would be impossible to make sure of the succession, so much have the strata 
been disturbed and faulted, and also in many parts covered by drift. But 
the series, once accurately defined by this examination, could be tested by 
reference to roadside and brook sections, where the beds are weathered ; and 
hence we can now offer a tolerably accurate map of all the formations, and 
extend it over a larger part of the district. Moreover in all about sixty-five 

* This Table ha:- since been published bv the Pala:ontographical Society, — Dec. 1866. 



ON THE MENEVIAN GROUP. 183 

or seventy new or partly described species have been found peculiar to this 
region, and these wait for description. 

That the additions to the geology of St. David's during the last few years 
may be more clearly understood, it is well to state what formations are now 
known to be present in the promontory that forms the north shore of St. 
Bride's Bay. The Sui'vey Map does not profess to subcUvide the slate-rocks 
and volcanic grits, but only to separate these as a mass fi'om the purple aud 
grey sandstones coloured as Cambrian rock (the Harlech group of Professor 
Sedgwick). 

In ascending order we have then : — 

1. The Harlech Group (Sedgwick), consisting of purple and greenisli-grey 
sandstone, passing above into grey sandstones (not grits) which arc fossili- 
feroiis. 

This mass of piirple and greenish-grey flags forms the axis of the promon- 
tory, thrown into a violent anticlinal along the line of the so-called 
" syenite," which is partly altered Cambrian rock, and partly crystalline 
rock, perhaps syenite in some places. 

2. The Menevian Group, 1500 or 1600 feet thick, of dark-grey (and even 
black) flags and shales, alternating in its upper and larger portion with sand- 
stone. This is the great fossUiferous group. 

3. Ffestiniog Group (Sedgwick). — Hard siliceous sandstone with grey flaky 
slate, containing LinguleUa Davisii. 

4. Tremadoc Group. — Sandstones and earthy slates, much like those of 
the Ffestiniog group, but of a bluish-grey colour and more uniform texture. 

5. Arenig or Sliddaw Group. — A thick series of iron-stained slates and 
flags, interlined throughout by felspar hues and felspathic ashes, containing 
large Trilobites and shells of new species, and Graptolites like those of 
Skiddaw. 

6. Llandeilo Flags. — Black slates, with felspar beds and interbedded trap, 
fossils abundant. 

"We may now give a few explanatory details, as brief as possible, respecting 
each of those formations : — 

1. Concerning the Harlech group, it must be noted that the sections on 
the south coast (Caerbwddy for instance) show a distinct passage down- 
wards into the central syenitic mass, so gradual as to induce the belief that 
the mass of rock is no other throughout than altered Cambrian beds. jSTear 
St. David's the same thing is visible. Altered purple beds close to the town 
are succeeded by rock apparently crystalline, but showing distinct rounded 
grains cf quartz (as minute pebbles) throughout the mass. It is e\-idently 
a slightly altered grit or conglomerate. In other places further east, the 
rock is certainly melted in its central portions, but passes so gradually into 
olive shales thi-ough hardened flinty beds and horustones, that no true 
boundary can be traced. 

The series of sandstones, purple, green, and grey, which succeed arc laid 
down with tolerable accuracy on the Survey Map (except where bounded by 
the prevailing faults). All the accessible localities have been searched for 
fossils, but with no success until the highest portion was reached ; immediately 
above the topmost purple bands, 160 feet or so of these top beds contains 
fossils, not many species, but of the geneva, Faradoxides, Conocoryphe, Ag- 
nostus, Them, and a new genus, Oyrtotheca. 

These are of much the same character as those of the next group, though 
the Trilobites differ specifically. 

2. Menevian Group. — The list of fossils belonging to this group is now 



184 REPORT— 1866. 

extended to more than forty species. Their distribution remains precisely 
the same as that elaborated in the last Eeport. The greater number of 
species occur with the largest Parado.vides, P. Davklis, -which is the upper- 
most of the three forms knoTvn ; P. Ilulsii occurs at the base of the really 
dark shnles, close upon the grey beds of the Harlech group just mentioned, 
in which group, 200 feet down, lies, as before noted, the P. Aurora. 

It is worth notice that these three species, with their accompanying 
smaller forms {Conocornphe, Theca, Agnostus with each), keep close to their 
own particular domains, the species of Paradoxldes being never found mixed 
together. This may serve to show how veiy perceptible a change of fauna 
may occur within moderate limits ; for the section is perfectly continuoiis, and 
yet these TrUobites are confined to narrow bands and do not reappear. 

A species of Orthis, Avith few large plaits, has been found this year, the 
minute predecessor of aU the OrtJiis tribe. Hitherto nothing but horny 
species of Brachiopods {Lingida and Dixcina) has been known to occiu- in 
these old beds ; and one or other of these go dovra to the very base, while the 
Orthis is only found above the limit of the highest Panidoxides-hc(is. 

[Tlie fossils exhibited gave a general idea of this old fauna ; a much 
larger series is sent to the British Museum and Jermj-n Sti-eet.] 



.3. "With respect to the Ffestiniog group, or true Lingula-flag beds, we find 
this formation occupying its right place, at the very top of the Mencvian 
group. It occurs in a faulted patch in A\Tiitesand Bay ; and forms a bold but 
narrow syncUual at the mouth of Solva Harbour and the Cradle Eock. It 
also occurs, of diminished thickness, in the district lying between the granite 
of Brawdy and Asheston and the syenitic axis. Upon it lies a trough of — 

4. Trcinadoc Ucds, or what we regard as such. They have only this 
year been worked out fully. And lying as they do upon the ti-ue Lingula- 
fiag and under the Arenig or Skiddaw slate, they can hardly be anything 
but Tremadoc beds. They graduate by insensible degrees from the Lingula- 
Sandstones, first as bluish-grey slate, and then earthy grey thick-bedded rock 
of a peculiar tough texture, and contain the following fossils : — 

C'ahjmene, 2 species. 

Homalonotus, 1 species. 

Asaplius, a giant species and a smaller one, the former all but undistin- 
guishable from the Asaphus Homfragi of the Tremadoc rocks. 

OrfJioceras, with peculiar arched str'je. 

jS'ucida or Ctcnodonta, 2 or 3 species. 

Orthis Carausii, a coarse-ribbed fossil, highl}- characteristic of these beds. 

Orthis, a fine-ribbed species like 0. elcgantula. 

Bellerofhon, Lingida, Obolella. 

Now this fauna is wholly unlike the deep-water fauna of the Tremadoc 
region. It is evidently a thin formation, depoeited in much shallower water 
and this may be the reason of the great change in the fauna. 

But there is something peculiar in the absence of the recognized ujjper beds 
of the Lingula-Jlags as they exist in North Wales. Instead of a recurrence 
of black slate for the Upper Lingida-jlags and lower portion of the Tremadoc 
grovp (forming a very thick set of formations deposited in deep water), we 
have only a thin series of comparatively shallow water accumulatioiis, 
marked by abundance of worm-tracks, and the fossils above quoted. This 
gives a marked character to the series, and indicates the following succession 
up to this point : — 



ON THE MENEVIAN GROUP. 185 

(1) Shallow -water or sJiorc beds for the Harlech group. 

(2) Slow depression for the Menevian group. 

(3) Shallow-iuater or shore accumulations for the Lingtda-Jlag. 

(4) Gentle depression for the Tremadoc. 

(5) And, lastly, deep and decided depression of the sea-bed to receive the 

next great formation — the Ai'cnig Eocks (Lower Llandcilo,Murchison). 

5. Arenig or Skiddaw Itoclc. — A formation at least a thousand feet thick, of 
vertical beds of black shale, seen in Whitesand Bay, and occupying also more 
than half of liamsey Island, where they lie in a clistinct trougli of Tremadoc 
and Lingula-jlags; and everywhere characterized by the following fossils : — 

^glina, 2 species. 

Ogi/gia, 2 large species. 0. peltata and 0, hullata. 

Asaphus, a large species. 

Trinucleus, 2 species. 

Ampyx, n. sp. 

Agnostus, Orthis, Lingula, Theca, Bellerophon. 

And, lastlj', branched and twin Graptolites, viz. Dendrograpsus and Di- 
dgmograpsus. 

No Graptohtes occur beneath the Skiddaw group in Britain. And though 
all these species, except the Graptolites, arc distinct from the fossils of the 
same strata in North Wales and Shropshire, the probable reason is, that the 
latter were in shallow water, while ours is evidently, like the Skiddaw slate, 
a deep-water series. We may therefore expect these species to be found in 
Cumberland. 

Eamsey Island is worth a visit ; for the exhibition of the three sets of rocks 
(Lingida-JJag, Tremadoc, and Arenig) is very complete on the north side of 
the island, and fossils are abundant. 



G. To complete the geology of St. David's, one must go to the overlying Llan- 
dcilo flags of Abereiddy Bay. These line slate-quarries are full of fossils. 
Trilobites of well-known forms, familiar to us at Builth and LlaudeUo, crowd 
the slaty bands, and Graptolites in myriads, principally the species called 
the tuning -forhgraxytolite {Didym. Murehisonce). The chief TrHobite is Ogygia 
Biichii ; but there are many other Builth species, and some very rare ones, 
Barrandia Cordai, for instance. A few words on the faults of the district, 
which are literally innumerable. 

E. and W. faults, sometimes of large amount, but not much indicated on 
the surface. 

N.N'.W. ones, more conspicuous as lines of valley and marsh; often shift- 
ing the strata much, and gi^Hing outline to the coast. 

N.E. faults, freqiient, but not of very large amount ; have not been well 
observed. 

N. and S. faults, believed to be the latest, and they give much impress to 
the features of the district, forming short valleys, and shifting the strata, but 
less than the others. 

Summary of the facts stated. 

1. AVe have two axes of elevation in the promontory, viz. the granite of 
Brawdy and Asheston on the south-east, and the so-called St. David's syenite 
in the centre. The latter is chiefly altered rock. 

2. Between these two axes, and on either side of them, the purple and 
grey Cambrian rock forms a steep trough, supporting black shales of the 
Menevian group, followed by Lingula-flag and Tremadoc rock, and on the 
north side of the coast Arenig or Skiddaw rocks covered by Llandeilo Aug. 



186 KEPORT— 1866. 

3. The conditions of deposit seem to be, that the Harlech group was 
nearly uniform with that of North Wales, but, being of finer grain, indicates 
a somewhat deeper-water deposit. The Menevian, Linfjula-Jlacj , and Trema- 
cloc rocks are all much thinner, and, as a rule, of more even deposit, than in 
North Wales. They, too, seem to have been formed far out at sea, but pro- 
bably in no great depth of water. 

The depression in the Arenig and Llandeilo groups seems to have been 
greater, and particularly in contrast with the conditions of deposit in North 
Wales and Shropshire, where shore accumulations were being everywhere 
laid down. But in this respect they are more like the Skiddaw slates, some 
of whose fossils they include ; and the presence of repeated beds of lava, ash, 
and ashy slate lends no countenance to the idea that these beds were subject 
to the oscillations of a shallow sea ; for the deposits are remarkably tranquil, 
fine-grained, and regular. Beds of fossils occur at intervals only in the 
Ai'enig and Llandeilo rocks, and are then plentiful, as in other deep-sea de- 
posits. But the Tremadoc rocks, being apparently laid down on a stationary 
sea-bed, present us with conditions wholly unlike those of the same period 
in North Wales, and, perhaps as a consequence of this, with a very different 
set of organic remains. 

The Harlech, Menevian, and Ffestiniog group have each large and well 
stratified beds of true contemporaneous volcanic rock, as well as many in- 
traded beds. j ^y SALTEK. 

HENRY HICKS. 



Report on Dredging among the Hebrides. 
By J. GwYN Jeffreys, F.R.S. 

This exploration lasted nearly two months, viz. from the 24th of May to the 
14th of July in the present year. It comprised Sleat Sound, Lochs Alsh, 
Duich, Slapin, and Scavaig, and the Minch from Croulin Island to Loch Ewe. 
I had a good cutter yacht, the master of which had been emploj'ed by me for 
many years as dredger and took considerable interest in the work, an active 
and willing crew, four serviceable di'edgcs, 300 fathoms of new rope, ma- 
chinery for hauling up the ili-edges, a large tub, sieves, and various other 
apparatus. The Hydrographer of the Navy obligingly supplied me with such 
charts as I required, to show the depths and nature of the sea-bottom in the 
district which I proposed to examine ; and these were of great use in dredging, 
as well as for navigation. The weather was too fine ; we Avere often becalmed 
for many hours together : and instead of steady breezes, we had too many of 
those squalls which are so prevalent, and occasionally dangerous, in the He- 
brides. 

The Hebridean seas have been often searched, but not explored, by zoolo- 
gists. Their great extent, and the number of lochs and inlets which indent 
the coast in every direction, would render necessary an immense deal of 
money, time, and patience for a complete investigation. There is little pro- 
bability that the subject of the present Report will ever be exhausted. 

The Invertebrate fauna of this district is of a northern character, although 
there are a few exceptions. Such are, among the Mollusca, Troclms umhili- 
caluis, Phasianella pidla, liissoa caiiceUata or cvcmdata, Odostomia lactea or 



ON DREDGING AMONG THE HEBRIDES. 187 

Ohemnttzia elegantlsshna, and Phurohranchus ^lumula. These may be re- 
garded as southern forms. The first and third occur as far north as Storno- 
"way ; the second ranges to Dunnet Bay in Caithness ; of the fourth I dredged 
a single specimen in the upper part of the Minch ; and the last lives between 
tide-marks in the Isle of Mull. As a set-off to the above, I would mention 
the following species, which have now for the first time been found so far 
south as the Hebrides, viz. Jlontacuta tumidula (a new species, which I 
will presently describe), Troclms occidentcdis, var. pura, Jeffre)/sia (jhhidaris, 
and Odostomia eximia. The first is Swedish ; the second is Zetlandic, Scan- 
dinavian, and North American, although it has also been prociu-ed in the 
Orkneys and on the Aberdeenshire coast ; the third is Zetlandic, and the 
foui'th Zetlandic also and Norwegian. It must be borne in mind, as regards 
the extent of geographical distribution, that the southern extremity of the 
Shetland Isles is distant about 200 miles from the northern extremity of the 
Hebrides, " as the fish swims." Besides the four last-named species, the 
following seem to reach their most southern limit in the Hebrides : — Lima 
elliptica, Lcda ijygmcm, and Troclms Groenlandieus. Leda pygmcea has 
indeed been dredged on the coast of Antrim ; but I am now inclined to re- 
gard the specimens thus obtained as quaternary fossils. Tethea cranium (a 
sponge not before known south of Shetland) occurred in tolerable numbers 
on the Ross-shire side of the Minch. Species of Mollusca, inhabiting the 
Hebridean seas, which are in the main northern (although they have been 
found somewhat further south, and some of them occasionally even in the 
Mediterranean), are — Argiope cistellida, Pecten striatus, Mytdus phaseulinus, 
Modiolctria nigra, Crenella decussata, Nunda tenuis, Leda minuta. Area pec- 
tunculoides, Montacuta ferruginosa, Oyamium minutum, Cardium minimum, 
Cypritia Islandica, Asiarte compressa, Tellina pusilla, Scrobicidaria nitida, 
Thracia convexa, Mya arenaria, M. truncata, Chiton Hanleyi, C alhus, C. 
ruber, G. mctrmoreus, Tectura testudinalis, T. fidva, Propilidium ancyloides, 
PunctttreUa Noachina, Emarginida crassa, Scissurella crispata, Trochus 
Jielicinus, Lacuna divaricata, L.puteolus, L.palUdula, Rissoa albella, Jeffreysia 
diaphana, J. opalina, Odostomia minima, 0. albella, 0. inscidpta, 0. diaphana, 
Velutina plicatilis, V. laevigata, TricJtotropis borealis, Purpura lapiUus, Buc- 
cinum undatum, Trophon Barvicensis, T. truncatus or Batvffius, Fusus anti- 
quus, P. gracilis, JVassa incrassata, Mangelia turricida, Defrancia scabra, 
Cylichna nitidida, Amphisphyra hyalina, Philine scabra, P. pruinosa, and P. 
quad rata. 

I Por certain species, which are almost peculiar to the Hebrides, I am not 
aware that any locality has been recorded between that district and the 
Mediterranean. Such are Axinits ferruginosus, Poromya granidata, Necera 
abbreviata, N. costcdata, and Cylichna acuminata. The iirst three of these 
were described by the late Professor Edward Forbes, in the Report to the 
Association in 1843 on ^gean Invertebrata. Another Hebridean species 
{Nucula sidcatci) is not found southwards nearer than the coast of Spain. 

Some of our most conspicuous and prized shells, that are also of a 
northern type, are wanting in the Hebrides. Saxicava Norvegica, Natica 
Groenlandica, Buccinum Humphrey siayium, Buccinopsis Dcdei, Fusus Norve- 
gicus, F. Turtoni, and F. Berniciensis, are in this category. All the above 
(■with the exception of Buccinum Humphrey sianum, which inhabits Shetland 
and the coasts of county Cork) are met with on the Dogger bank ; and the 
first two are fossil in the Clyde beds. Six out of the seven being univalves, 
I would venture to surmise that their non-existence in the western seas of 
Scotland may ha^c arisen from the circumstance that the diffii'i'iou of uni- 



188 REPORT— 1866. 

valves is slower than that of bivalves. The spawn of the former is attached 
to the spot Avhere it is shed, or in a few cases (e. g. C'cqnthis and Caljiptra'a) 
it is hutched within the shell of its sedentary parent ; so that the fry form 
a colony, and need not roam to any distance, provided their station yields a 
sufficient supply of food and has the other requisites of habitability. Not so 
with hivalves. These shed their ova into the water, or else (as in some of the 
KolUa family) hatch them within the folds of the mantle, whence they are ex- 
cluded on arriving at maturity. Their fry swim freely and rapidly by means of 
numerous encircling cilia. The metamorphic state lasts many hours. During 
that period they can voluntarily traverse considerable distances, or they maj- 
be involuntarily transported by tidal and oceanic currents. Time is the only 
element necessary for their widest dispersion over the adjacent seas, if no bar- 
rier intervenes. Should, however, such an obstacle present itself, whether in 
the shape of previously existing dry land, like that which separates the North 
Sea from the Atlantic, or from an iiphcaval and drying-iip of the neighbour- 
ing sea-bed by geological or cosmical causes, the further diffusion of any 
marine animals in that direction must necessarily be stopped. An opposite 
result would doubtless be produced by a sinking and submersion of dry land 
below the level of the sea, whercljy the diffusion of such animals would bo 
greatly facilitated. This appears to have been the fluctuating course of 
events since the formation of the Coralline Crag, which was probably the cradle 
or starting-point of our moUuscan fauna — a period long antecedent to the 
last glacial epoch, and incalculably far beyond the advent of man, unless his 
origin is much more remote than it is at present supposed to be. I am not 
inclined to attribute the northern character of some of the Hebridean mollusca 
to the persistence of wliat have been called " boreal outliers.'' The idea 
savours more of poetry than of philosophy or fact. The boreal or truly 
arctic species whicli once flourished in this district have become quite ex- 
tinct, probably in consequence of one of those revolutions above suggested, by 
Avhich the sea-bed was converted into dry land. These boreal species consist 
chiefly of BliynchoneUa psittacea, Pecten Islandlcus, Astarte crebi-lcosiata or 
depressa, Tellina calcaria, Mi/a tnincata,\ax. Uddevallensis, Trochus cinereiis, 
and Asti/ris IloIhbUii. ; and I have lately, as well as on a former occasion, 
dredged them on the coasts of Skyo and West Eoss, at depths of from 30 to 
60 fathoms, or 180-360 feet. They had a semifossilized appearance. Not 
one of the above-named species has ever, to the best of my knowledge and 
belief, been found in a living or recent state in any part of the British seas. 
All of them occur in post-tertiarj' or quaternary deposits on the west coast of 
Scotland, from a few feet above high -water mark* to 320 feet above the present 
level of the seaf. The greatest subaerial height (320 feet), being added to 
the greatest submarine depth as above (360 feet), gives an extent of elevation 
and subsidence equal to 680 feet. But as Pecicn Islandicus, for example, 
now inhabits the arctic ocean at depths varying from 5 to 150 fathoms, let 
us take the average of these depths, viz. 77g fathoms or 465 feet, and add 
it to the 680 feet. This would make 1145 feet, and probably represent 
the height at which the sea-level may be supposed to have stood when P. 
Islandicus lived on the highest fossiliferous spot noticed by Mr. Watson. 
The non-fossiliferous boulder-clay, indicating the simultaneous presence of 
arctic land which was also subject to glacial conditions, is stated bj' Mr. 

" British Association Ecport, 1862, Trans. Spc-t. p. 70 : Jeffreys " On an Ancient Sea- 
bed and Bead] near Fort William, Inverness-sliire." 

t Transactions of the Koyal Society of Edinburgh. 1864, p. 526: Kev.E. B.Watson, 
" On the Great Drift-beds with Shells in the gouth of Arrau."' 



ON DREDGING AMONG THE HEBRIDES. 189 

Watson* to be about 800 feet higher than the mean deposit. The height of 
the layer of sea-shells on Moel Tryfaen in Carnarvonshire (evidently the 
remains of an ancient beach) exceeds that of the similar deposit at Cardigan 
by more than 1300 feet ; and the difference of height observed in the case of 
other fossiliferous deposits in the north of England (e. g. Manchester and 
Kelsey Hill) shows that the disturbing movement has been iinequal, and pro- 
bably not synchronous, over the same area. It would seem that the extent of 
such oscillation has not altogether amounted to 2000 feet in the British Isles, 
taking Moel Tryfaen as the greatest height, and the Shetland sea-bed as the 
greatest depth, at which quaternary shells of recent species occiu-. The 
Scotch and Irish deposits, however, are on the whole far more ancient than 
those of Wales and England, judging from their geographical nature ; the 
former are chiefly arctic, and the latter merely northern. Whether other 
parts of the North Atlantic sea-bed have undergone a much greater change 
of level since the tertiary epoch is not so well established. Dr. G. C. 
WaUich, in his admirable and philosophical treatise t, with which all marine 
zoologists and geologists are, or ought to be, familiar, believed that certain 
starfishes which he had procured at a depth of 1260 fathoms (7560 feet) in 
lat. 59° 27' N., long. 26° 41' W., about halfway between Cape Farewell and 
the north-west coast of Ireland, were originally a shallow-water species, but 
had gradually, and through a long course of generations, accommodated them- 
selves to the abnormal conditions incident on the subsidence of the sea-bedj. 
The starfishes in question, which he refers to the OpMocoma yramdata of 
Forbes {Asterias nigra of 0. F. Miiller), appear, however, to belong to a diffe- 
rent species, which inhabits deep water. In an important paper by Professor 
Sars, on the distribution of animal life in the depths of the sea§ , he states 
that Ojyhiocoma nigra (0. granulata, Forbes) is certainly found in shallow 
water, viz. from 2 to 30 fathoms, on the coast of Norway, but never at a 
greater depth so far as is yet known, and that it does not range north of the 
firth of Drontheim. He is of opinion that Dr. Wallich's species is Ophiacantha 
spinidosa of MiiUer and Troschel, a well-known and Groenlandic species, 
which is not littoral, but rather a deep-water kind, viz. from 20 to 190 
fathoms ; and he infers from Wallich's own account that the last-named 
species, instead of Ophiocoma nigra or granulata, was the one taken by the 
* Bulldog '-sounding in 1260''fathoms. Dr. Wallich also adduces his discovery, 
at a depth of 682 fathoms (4092 feet), in lat. 63° 31' N., long. 13° 41' W., of 
two testaceous Annelids, which he assumed to belong to " known shallow- 
water forms," as further evidence of an extensive submergence of the North 
Atlantic sea-bed. These Annelids were named by him Serpula vitrea and 
Spirorhis naiitihides. But Professor Sars disputes their being shallow-water 
species. The former he identifies with his Serpula polita ( = Placostegus 
tridentatus, Fabricius) ; the latter is referred by Morchlj to the Serpula 
spirorhis of Linne. The one is regarded by Sars as a deep-water and not 
littoral species, being found on the Norwegian coast in 20-300 fathoms ; the 
other has a wide bathymetrical range, from low-water mark to 300 fathoms. 
I suspect, moreover, that there has been some mistake in the determination 
of the Sjnrorbis, and that it belongs to another species than that to which 
WaUich has assigned it. As to the accuracy of his statement that he pro- 

* Loc. cit. p. 524. 

t The North Atlantic Sea-bed, 1862. 
\ Loc. cit. p. 41. 

§ Vid.-Selsk.Forhandl. 1864: Hr. Sars, " BemEerkninger over det djriske Livs Udbred- 
ning i Havets Dybder." 

II Naturhist. Tidsskr. 1863 : " Kevisio critica Serpulidarum." 



190 REPORT— 1866. 

cured living starfishes fi-om a depth of 1260 fathoms, under the circumstances 
which he has described (viz. " convulsively embracing a portion of the 
sounding-line, which had been paid out in excess of the akeady ascertained 
depth, and rested for a sufficient period at the bottom to permit of their 
attaching themselves to it"), no reasonable doubt can be entertained. I have 
myself seen a number of Antedon (or Comatula) celtieus clinging to the rope 
several feet fi-om the dredge when it was taken up from about 60 fathoms. 
These starfishes must have crawled up the rope while the di'edge was in 
motion or being hauled in, because no part of the rope had lain on the ground. 
Dr. Carpenter teUs me that Antedon rosaceiis has the same habit of crawling 
up and clasping a rope in shallow water. 

The greatest depth marked on the Admiralty charts in any part of the 
Hebridean sea-bed which I examined is 132 fathoms. Here I got several 
kinds of living Foraminifera. Xineteen years ago I di'edged near the same 
ground, in 116 fathoms, a fine cluster of one of the compound Tunicata, 
Diazona Hehrid'iea, of a greenish-pink colour. I do not mention this as a 
great or even considerable depth. 8ars* and Korenf have done much more 
on the coasts of Norway ; their dredging-explorations extended to 300 
fathoms. In the paper from which I have extracted the above remarks as 
to the distribution of animal life in the depths of the sea. Professor Sars has 
enumerated no less than 52 species and distinct varieties of animals found by 
him at the depth of 300 fathoms. They may he thus classified : — Porifera 
(Sponges) 2 ; llhizopoda (Foraminifera) 19 ; Polypi (Actinozoa) 7 ; MoUusca 
(Polyzoa 8, Tunicata 1, Mollnsca proper 10) 19; and Yei-mes (Annehda) 5. 
He has also specified several Euhinoderms, Cirripeds, and Crustacea as in- 
habiting somewhat less depths, viz. from 200 to 2.50 fathoms. The obser- 
vations of the learned Norwegian zoologist confirm those of Sir James Ross 
and Dr. AYallich, namely : — 

1st. That the temperature of the sea is uniform (39°-5 Fahr.) over the 
whole globe, below a certain line which forms an isothermal curve, with but 
slight oscillations caused by changes of the atmosphere. This curve has its 
greatest depth at the Equator, but reaches the surface of the ocean in lat. 
56° 62', and dips again as it approaches the pole from this point. 

2nd. Although the pressure of the water is enormous at great depths, and 
in 300 fathoms is equal to about 56 atmospheres or 840 lbs. on the square 
inch X, yet the most brittle and delicate animals (such as Polyzoa and Polyps) 
inhabiting such depths do not appear to suffer the slightest injuiy. Their 
structui'e is porous and permeable by liquids, or accessible to an endosmotic 
influence by which the pressiu'e is easily resisted. 

3rd. The want of light has always been considered an obstacle to the exist- 
ence of animal life at great depths — not so mucli because light is dii'ectly 
essential to animal life, as on account of its indirectly contributing to its 
maintenance. It is generally supposed that animals are dependent on vege- 
table life. This latter (as is well known) cannot exist without light, under 
the influence of which the absorption of carbonic acid and the evolution of 
oxygen are eftected. Light, however, exerts no such influence on animal life. 
Sea-weeds (the true Alga)) disappear in about 200 fathoms ; and the only 
vegetable organisms which descend to a greater depth, say 400 fathoms, are 
DiatomaceEe. It may be observed, with respect to the action of light in 
producing colour in animals, that although intensity of light may produce 

* Eeise i Lofoten og Finmarken, 1849. t Nyt Mag. Naturw. 1856, 

X The Norse skaalpuud is 10 per cent, more tlian the English lb, avoirdupois. Sixteen 
Norwegian square inches are equal to seventeen English square inches. 



ON DREDGING AMONG THE HEBRIDES. 191 

a corresponding intensity of colour \inder ordinary cii'cumstances, yet the 
diminution or absence of light in the sea is not necessarily followed by a 
diminution or absence of colour in marine animals. Those taken from con- 
siderable depths have frequently vivid colours. The animal of Lima excavata 
(a comparatively gigantic species), from 300 fathoms, is of the same bright 
red colour as those of L. Loscombii and L. hians from shaUovs^ water. It has 
been shown that violet and blue rays of light (and probably actinic rays) 
penetrate deepest in water. I will not here repeat what I have already 
published* on this interesting subject; but I may add that all the animals 
recorded as living at great depths are zoophagous, none of them phyto- 
phagous. The deep-sea di-edgings of the Swedish Expedition to Spitz- 
bergen in 1S61 yielded some valuable results. Adjunct-Professor ToreU 
and Professor Keferstein communicated some short and imperfect notices to 
the no^.thern journals ; but Professor Loven has lately given us fuller infor- 
mation, which is published in the Transactions of Scandinavian Naturalists 
at their ninth meeting held in 1863 1. A Brooke's lead and a ' Bulldog ' 
machine, with several improvements, were used on this occasion. Depths 
from 6000 to 8400 feet (1000-1400 fathoms+) were thus explored. The 
sea- bottom at these depths was covered with a fine greasy-feeling material 
of a yellow-brownish or grey colour, rich in Diatomacete § and Polythalamia, 
and nearly devoid of sand. Professor Loven was furnished with the notes of 
Messrs. Chydenius and Malmgren, made during the expedition, and with all 
the animals discovered in those great depths. The latter comprised : — Anne- 
lida, viz. species of Spiochcetopterus and CirratuJus ; Crustacea, viz. a Cuma 
which appeared to be identical with C. rubicunda, LUljeborg, and an Apseudes ; 
Mollusca, viz. a Cylichna ; Gephyrea, viz. a fragment of Mijriotroclms RinTci, 
Steenstrup, and another allied form with large and fewer star-wheels, and of 
smaller wheels of the Mi/riotrocJws-typc ; a species of Sipunculus resembling 
8. margaritaceus, Sars ; and, lastly, a sponge, in which were found a Cope- 
pod or Ostracod, and a fragment of a Cuma resembling C nasica. In the 
opinion of Loven these animals indicate, so far as can be judged by so small 
a number, that in the abysses of the glacial seas there lives a fauna which 
does not greatly differ from that which lives on the same kind of bottom at 
much less depths. Proceeding upwards to the surface, from 50 or 60 fathoms 
the regions or zones have a greater variety of animals, even over the same kind 
of bottom. Taking this into consideration, and also recollecting that in the 
Antarctic seas, at measui'able depths, there are forms of Mollusca and Crus- 
tacea which exhibit partly generic, partly almost specific identity with north- 
em and hyperborean forms, the idea occurs to him that, in depths of 60-80 
fathoms and thence down to the greatest from which we hitherto know any 
animal life, at least wherever the bottom is covered with a soft and fine mud 
or clay, there exists from pole to pole, in all latitudes, a deep-sea fauna of the 
same general character, many species of which have a very wide distribution. 
He also thinks it probable that in the vicinity of both poles such a uniform 
fauna approaches the surface ; while in tropical seas it occupies the depths 
of the ocean, the coast line there being represented by vast regions of distinct 
faunas, the circumferences or areas of which are much more limited. The 

* British Conchology, vol. i., Intr. pp. xlviii-1, and vol. ii. Intr. pp. viii-xi. 

t Stockholm, 1805, p. .384. 

X The Swedish foot makes only 974 English foot. The Scandinavian fathom is 6 feet. 

§ This does not quite agree with the accounts of Wallich and Sars, which give 400 
fathoms as the limit of vegetable life ; but it does not appear that the Diatomacese ob- 
served by Loven had actually lived on the sea-bottom. They might have been pelagic 
and floating kinds. 



193 EEPORT— 1866. 

sea-bottom, at cousiderable depths, differs in its composition. Professor Sars 
noticed that large Erachiopoda, stony corals, and Poljzoa, as well as certain 
Mollusca (e. g. Anomia and Saxicava), which are peculiar to a hard or even 
to a rocky bottom, inhabit a depth of 300 fathoms ; and Dr. Wallich found 
a living Scypula attached to a stone at the depth of 682 fathoms. Captain 
Beechey's dredgings off the Mull of Gallowaj', in l-iS fathoms (as reported 
by the late Mr. Thompson of Belfast in the Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History for September 1842, p. 21), yielded live specimens of Chiton 
fasc'icidaris, C. cinercus, Trochits miUegranus, and Tnplion Barvkenf^is, all of 
which are inhabitants of hard or stony, and never of soft ground, besides dead 
shells of the same and similar species. The Hebridean sea-bed, at very 
moderate depths (which Dr. Wallich would call " shallow water "), mainly 
consists of a soft and more or less tenacious mud, mixed with stones of dif- 
ferent sizes, and resembling in its composition the boulder-clay or 'glacial 
drift of Scotch geologists. It tells us of rocks ground down by glaciers year 
after year in an arctic region — of the mud produced by such attrition being 
carried into the sea in the thawing-season by overwhelming floods, " non sine 
montium clamore " (see Dr. Kane's description of the great Humboldt gla- 
cier) — of its dispersion over the sea-bed by the action of tides and currents — 
of the deposit thus formed being inhabited by a variety of animals of a high 
northern tj'pe during a long and quiet course of time — of the sea-bed being 
elevated by slow degrees above the surface of the water by an agency which 
we cannot satisfactorily explain, but which may have been volcanic or perhaps 
caused by steam * — of the consequent extermination of these marine animals 
— of an interval during which the raised sea-bed was dry land — of a gradual 
amelioration of the climate — of another oscillation of the earth's crust in 
a downward direction, when the surface of the land, covered by its former 
deposit, again became the bottom of the sea — and of a fresh succession of life, 
which is still in existence. Thus a cycle of similar events continually recurs. 
Nothing is lost or altogether perishes ; all the old materials are iiscd iip, and 
assume new forms. It is the fashion to quote Lucretius. I will only indulge 
in two lines ; they seem not to be inapplicable to the present subject : — 

" Hue accedit uti quicque in sua corpora rursum 
Dissoluat natura neque ad nilum interemat res." 

The kind assistance of Mr. Alder, Dr. Carpenter, the Rev. A. M. Norman, 
Messrs. Henry and George Brady, Dr. M'Intosh, and Mr. Peach — all of them 
experienced zoologists — enables me to supplement this report with notices of 
other departments of the invertebrate fauna, which have resulted from the 
last grant made to me. Several new species, especially among the smaller 
Crustacea, have occurred ; and our knowledge of geographical distribution has 
been not a little advanced by the work. Mr. Norman's services especially 
deserve acknowledgment. 

I have made my usual contribution to the British Museum. 

Description of a new species of Montacuta. 

MoNTAcuTA TUMiDULAf, Jeffreys. 

Shell rhomboideo-oval, rather gibbous, thin, semitransparent, glossy, and 
prismatic ; sculpture, numerous and close-set, delicate, microscopical con- 
centric strias : colour yellowish : epidermis fine and silky : margins, on the 

* Vide Mr. R. A. Peacock's pamphlet ' On Steam as the Motive Power in Earthquakes 
and Volcanoes, and on Cavities in the Earth's Crust.' Jersey, 18G6. 
t Somewhat swollen. 



OV HEBRIDEAN CEUSTACEA^ ECHINODERHATA, POLYZOA, ETC. 193 

posterior side extremely short and sloping downwards, without any of the 
angularity which characterizes M. bklentata ; in front gently curved ; on the 
anterior side considerably expanding and rounded ; on the back rising to- 
wards the anterior end : heals small, calyciform, bhmt and prominent, 
incurved, bnt not having any indentation below them ; they are placed 
close to the posterior side, which is the shortest and not one-sixth the size of 
the anterior side : li'inge-line rectangular, occnpying about one- third of the 
circumference : cartilacjc as in J/, bklentata : hiugc-plate narrow and strong, 
thicker in the middle, not excavated so deeply as in the last-named species, 
and scarcely at all in the right valve : teeth, in the right valve shoi't, trian- 
gular, slightly inclining inwards, not widely separated ; in the left valve 
long, erect, laminar, and parallel with the hinge-line ; the anterior teeth 
are the largest in both valves : inside iridescent and polished, very finely 
marked (more distinctly on the anterior side) with slight lines which radiate 
from the beaks : srars irregularly oblong, conspicuous. L. 0-075. B. 0-1. 
Habitat. Muddy ground in the Minch, off the north-west coast of Eoss- 
shire, in 50-60 fathoms. I there found only a single dead specimen ; but 
twenty years ago I dredged another in Skye, which I deferred noticing until 
quite satisfied of its differing from M. bidentata. [Since this Eeport was 
presented, Mr. Dawson has found two more specimens in some of the di-edged 
sand which I had sent him.] Among the shells procured by Professor 
LiUjeborg in Bohuslan, on the south coast of Sweden, I observed two or three 
specimens of the present species, one of which he kindly gave me. 

This shell is smaller than M. bidentata ; it may also be distinguished from 
that species by its narrower shape, being convex instead of compressed, 
having a glossy surface, and by the posterior side being extremely small, with 
almost a perpendicular truncation. That side in 31. bidentata is invariably 
squarish, and more or less angulated. The teeth in the right valve of M. 
tumidida are much smaller, and less widely separated by the cartilage-pit ; 
they are triangular instead of leaf -like, and slightly incline inwards instead 
of being erect. 

M. truncata of Searles Wood, from the Coralline Crag, is a comparatively 
large, squarish, and flattened shell, and has long cardinal teeth. 



Report of the Committee appointed for the purpose of Exploring the 
Coasts of the Hebrides by means of the Dredge. — Part II. On the 
Crustacea, Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Actinozoa, and Hydrozoa. 
By the Rev. Alfred Merle Norman^ M.A. 

Mr. Jeffreys having, in his Eeport upon the MoUusca, already given to the 
Association an account of the district investigated by the Committee, aud of 
the scope of their dredging-operations, it is unnecessary that I should add 
more on that subject; and I shall therefore proceed at once to lay before 
you a brief summary of the results of the dredging with respect to the Crus- 
tacea, Echinodermata, Polyzoa, and Ccelenterata, 

Although the Hebridean seas had been frequently dredged by the natu- 
ralists who were well acquainted with the Mollusca, they had been scarcely 
at all examined by any one conversant ■nith the other branches of the marine 
invertebrate fauna ; aud the result of the recent investigations has thus been 
most important. This will be at once evident when it is stated that, in addi- 

1866. 



194 REPORT— 1866. 

tion to the knowledge which has been gained in the extension of the range 
of many rare and local species, not less than seventy-two species are in the 
present Report for the first time announced as members of the British fauna. 
These additions to our lists include 63 species of Crustacea [Macroural, 
Stomapoda 2, Amphijioda 8, Isopoda 1, Cladocera 1, Ostracoda 37, Cope- 
poda 13], 6 of Polyzoa, 1 of Actinozoa, and 2 of Hydrozoa *. 

The Crustacea obtained number two hundred and twelve species. Among 
them were two well-known southern forms, Xantho florida and Xantho rivu- 
losa, which we little expected to find so far north ; the latter, however, has 
been met with by Prof. Loven in Sweden, though neither had previously been 
found on any part of the Scotch coast. They occurred in company between 
tidemarks at Tobermory, and X. rivulosa was also found at Oban. Another 
southern species, Cmngon sculptus, which had not before been found north of 
Arran in Ireland,' was dredged in the Minch ; and with it was associated 
Crangon serratus, ISTorman, described by me at the British Association Meet- 
ing in 1861, from two specimens procured on the Haaf off Shetland. This 
species had not again been taken in our seas until the present time ; but it 
has been redescribed by Professor Sars, from the Norwegian coast, i;nder 
the name of Grangon ecMnulatus f. X\\ Hippolyte, also dredged in the Minch, 
appears to be an undescribed species. It approaches to //. turgicla of Ki-oyerJ, 
but differs in many particulars, and especially in the telson, which has no 
less than nine pairs of lateral spines, and terminates in thirteen spines, of 
which the nine central are subequal in length and ciliated on both margins. 
Dorypliorus Oordoni (Bate), which has hitherto been regarded as very rare, 
occurred in abundance. Of the Cumacea there were found two species, 
recently added to our fauna, Diastylis hispinosa. Say (=Z>. hicornis, Bate), 
and Ihidorella (Endora) emarginata, Kroyer, together with two new forms, 
one a Diastylis allied to D. hiplicata, G. 0. Sars, the other a new Iphitlwe, 
which has a crest of from 13 to 20 spines on the dorsal line of the cara- 
pace. 

Several Norwegian Amphipoda, including some genera of great interest, 
were for the first time met with in our seas, namely, Ampelisca carinata, 
Bruzelius, A. macrocepluda , Lilljeborg, and A. tenuicomis, Lilljeborg, Eriopis 
elongata, Bruzelius, and Mara Loveni, Bruzelius. There were also found an 
undescribed Anonyx, and two forms which it is impossible to assign to any 
genera which have been hitherto established ; for these I propose the names 
Euonyx cJielatus and Microprotop^is macidatus. The genus Euonyx is allied 
to Anonyx, but is distinguished by having the first pair of gnathopods fur- 
nished with distinct chelaj, and the second pair more strongly formed than 
the first, with a weU-devcloped subchelate hand. This is a parasitic species 
living on Echinus esculentus. Microprotopus is allied to Microdeuteropus, 
but has the first gnathopod feeble, the second largely developed in the male, 
and subchelate, and the last uropods single-branched. 

Three parasitic Isopoda were taken — Gyge Hip)polytes, Kruyer, Ph-yxus 

* If to these we add Montacuta tumidula, n. sp., described in Mr. Jeffreys's Eeport, and 
the Poraminifera eninnerated by Mr. H. B. Brady as occurring for tlie first time in our 
seas, viz. Lagena Jcffrcysii, H. B. Brady, n. sp., L. Lyellii, Sequenza, L.j)idchella, H. B. 

Brady, n. sp., L. gracillima, Sequenza, L. crenata, Parker and Jones, Poli)trcma , sp., 

Hauerinu compressa, D'Orb., Trochammina squamata, Parker and Jones, T. gordialis, 
Parker and Jones, ValvuUna conica, D'Orb., Cristallaria cidtrata, Montfort, and Mar- 
gimdina rcqyhanus, L., we have a sum total of eighty-five species added to the British 
Fauna in this expedition. 

t Sars, Vid. Selsk. Forh. i. Christiania, 1861, p. 186. 

X Monographisk. Frems. Sljegten Hippolytes Nordiske Artcr, 1842, p, 100. 



ON HEBRIDEAN CRUSTACEA, ECHTNODERMATA, POLYZOA, ETC. 195 

ahdominalis, Kroyer, and PUurocrypta GalatJiece, Hesse : the first was found 
imder the carapace of Doryplwrus Gordoni ; the second under the abdomen of 
Hippolyte securifrons, Norman, and H.pusiola, Ki'oyer ; and the Pleurocrypta 
was buried under the carapace of Galathea intermedia, Kroyer ( = (?. dispersa. 
Bate). 

Ostracoda were obtained in extraordinary abundance, and inchided no less 
than sixty-five species. This number will, perhaps, be the more appre- 
ciated if I refer to the fact that the total number of forms of this order of 
the Crustacea described in ' Baird's History of British Entomostraca ' only 
amounts to nineteen. Mr. G. S. Brady, who is engaged in preparing a mono- 
graj^h of these bivalve Crustacea, will present a separate report on the species 
met with ; but I may here mention that thirty-seven are either wholly new 
to science, or, what is stUl more interesting, species previously known as 
Tertiary and post-Tertiary Fossils, and now for the first time met with in a 
recent state, or such as have been described by Norwegian naturalists from 
the Scandinavian seas. 

A number of Copepoda recently described by Clans, were also met with. 
These include many genera which were previously unrecognized in our fauna : 
— the genus Dactylopus, represented by tishoides, Stroemii, tenuicornis, cinctus, 
and hrevicornis ; Thalestrls, embracing mysis, Helgolandica, harpacticoides, 
and hngimana ; Longipedia coronnta (a very curioi;s and interesting form), 
Eupelte gracilis, Clefa serrafa, and PorceUklium Jimhriatum and dentatum. 
At Tobermory was discovered Dyspontius striatus, Thorell, a very remarkable 
genus with an enormously developed proboscis, which is almost equal in 
length to the rest of the animal. 

A small freshwater loch near Stornoway contained, among other species, 
Drepanothrix hamata, G. 0. Sars, a genus allied to Macrothrir, which may 
be at once distinguished from aU allies by the presence of a largely developed 
spine in the middle of the dorsal margin of the carapace. It is now first 
announced as British, but has been previously taken by myself in Darden 
Loch, Northumberland, and by Mr. G. S. Brady in St. Mary's Loch, Selkirk- 
shire. 

The Echinoderms number thirty-four species. In addition to the common 
Antedon rosaceus, Linck, Antedon Celticus of Barrett was procured in deep 
water, both in the Minch and in Sleat Sound. This very fine species was 
previously only known to us from the two type specimens dredged by Messrs. 
MacAndi-ew and Barrett ten years ago in the Sound of Skye, and described 
in the ' Annals of Natural History ' *. It is the largest member of the genus 
found in our seas, and is distinguished at a glance from rosaceus, Milleri, 
and Sarsii by the great length of the slender dorsal filaments, and also by 
the vertical position which the arms assume. In this pecuharity it resembles 
Antedon Eschrichtii, but diflfers from the other English species, in which the 
arms are always carried horizontally, or nearly so, and are incapable of 
being brought into contact with each other throughout their entire length. 
Only a few specimens were met with in Sleat Sound, and these were as- 
sociated with A. rosaceus. In the Minch A. Celticus occurred gregariously, 
living in about sixty fathoms, in company with another rare British Echino- 
derra, Holothuria intestinalis, Ascanius. The only previously known British 
example of this species was procured many years ago by Professor Forbes 

* Comatula Woodwardii, Barrett (Ann. Nat. Hist. 2ncl series, vol. xix. p. 33, pi. 7. 
fig. 1), Comatula Celtica, Barrett (Ann. Nat. Hist. 2nd series, vol. xx. p. 44), Antedon 
Celticus, Norman (Ann. Nat. Hist. 3rd series, vol. XT. p. 104). 

t Trans. Eoy. Soc. Edinb. vol. xx. p. 309, pi. 9. fig. 1. 

o2 



19S REPORT— 1866. 

near tlic same spot ; and as his figure and descviptionf were scarcely sufficient 
for positive identification, the rediscovery of this Holothurian is important. 
As among the rarer of the other Echinodermata which were obtained may 
be mentioned Psolus phantcqnis, Thyone fusus, and raphanus, Thi/onidhon 
commune yonng (?), and InjaJimnn, Cuciimaria lacfea, fusiformis, and Hynd- 
manni, Brisso2)sis lip'ifera,Asterias hhpida, Porania pidviUus,Opk'mra affinis, 
awA Amphiura Badii, Jillformis, and Chiajii. 

The Polyzoa include sixty-six species. In the Appendix wiU be found 
descriptions of many new forms : — a Scrupocellaria differing from S. scru- 
posa in ha\dng larger cells, which do not bear any spines, in the propor- 
tionately larger vibracular capsules, and in the form of the mandible of the 
avicularium, which is blunter and shorter ; aLepralia, allied to the incrusting 
Lepralia-Y\kc state of Eschara Lnndshorovii ; another remarkable on ac- 
count of its much elevated collar-like peristome ; a new EscJiara, and an 
Alecio allied to A. dilatans. There is also an uudescribed Alcyonidium : but 
the species of this genus are very difficult ; and not having examined the 
present form in a living state, I have not attempted to define it. One or two 
small fragments of Brettia pellucida, Dyster, give a second locality for this 
Polyzoan, at a considerable distance from Tenby, where the type was found. 
Several rare northern Polyzoa, which had not previously occurred to the 
soiith of Shetland, are now traced southwards to the Minch — C'aherea EUisii, 
Fleming, Lepndia polita, Norman, Leprcdia laqueata, Norman, Idmonea At- 
lantica, Eorbes, Hornera horecdis, Busk, &c. ; and on the other hand we were 
greatly surprised by the well-known Eschara foUaeea turning up ia this 
northern locality, since it is an- essentially southern species, which has not 
previously, I believe, been noticed to the north of Cape Clear. 

Turning to the Actinozoa, the neighbourhood of Skye is the well-known 
habitat of Pavonaria rpuidrangularls, although the only place which produced 
it during the recent dredging was Loch Alsh. The rediscovery of Rhizoxenia 
agglomerata, Forbes* — although a mere fragment was obtained — is well 
worthy of special mention ; but perhaps the most interesting of all the results 
of the expedition is the occurrence of a second species of Pennatida in oiu- 
seas, which will be described by Mr. Alder under the name of Pennatula 
mollis. 

The Hydi'ozoa are not numerous, amounting to only thirty-two species, 
Sertidaria (data, Hincks, and Calicella fastlgiata. Alder, had up to the 
present time been regarded as peculiar to Shetland ; the little Sertidaria 
fusiformis, Hincks, and the pretty Phimidaria tuhidifera, Hincks, not known 
previously on the Scotch coast, have now their range considerably extended 
northwards ; and in the Appendix there are characters of two Halecia, new 
to science, one of which, Halecium genictdafum, is remarkable on account of 
its flexuous hydrosoma, which is bent alternately right and left between the 
hydi'otheca;, and on account of the great length of the simple tubidar hydi-o- 
thecae ; the other, Halecium sessile, may be distinguished by its very small 
and perfectly sessile hydrotheca;, and by the veiy large non-retractile poly- 
pites. 

The Sponges have not as yet been determined. It is, however, worthy of 
mention that three species peculiarly characteristic of the Haaf of the Shet- 
land seas were living in the Minch, enjoying the companionship of many 
other of their northern friends. These species were Tetliea cranium, Midler, 
Isodictya infund ibuliformis, Linn., and Phal-ellia ventiJahrum, Linn. 

Appended will be found a catalogue of all the species found, descriptions 

* Sarcodidyon agglomerata, Forbes, Trans. Eoy. Soc. Ediu. vol.xx.p. 309, pi. 9. fig. 3. 



ON HEBRIDEAN CRUSTACEA, ECHlNODERMATAj POLYZOA, ETC. 197 

of such as are new to science, and a list of all those -which are now for the 
first time recorded as li\'ing in our seas, with references to the eeveral authors 
by whom they have been described. 



Crustacea. 



Stenorhynchus longirostris, Fabr. 
Inachus Dorsettensis, Pcnn, 

leptochira, Leach. 

Hyas coarctata, Leach. 
Eurynome aspera, Venn. 
Xantho florida, Leach. 

rivulosa, Eisso. 

Cancer pagurus, Linn. 
Carcinus inajiias, Linn. 
Portunus puber, Linn. 

depurator, Linn, 

liolsatus, Fabr. 

pusillus, Leach. 

Ebalia tuberosa, Fcnn. 

Crancbii, Leach. 

Atelecyclus septemdentatus, Mont. 
Pagiirus Bernbavdus, Linn. 

Prideauxii, Leach. 

pubescens, Kroyer, 

Irevis, Thomp. 

Porcellana platycheles, Fcnn. 

longicornis, Linn. 

Galathea squamif'era, Leach. 

intermedia, Kroner. 

Andrewsii, Kin. 

Munida Bamffia, Feiin. 
Crangon vulgaris, Linn. 

Allmani, Kin. 

• sculptus. Bell, 

nanus, Kriii/cr. 

serratus, Norman 

(= echinulatus, Sars). 

spinosus, Leach. 

Hippolyte varians. Leach. 

■ pusiola, Krcii/er. 

securifrons, Norman. 

cultellata, Norman, n. sp. 

pandaliformis. Fell. 

Pandalus anuulicornis, Leach. 

brevirostris, EathJce. 

Doryphorus Gordon!, Bate. 
Mysis flexuosa, Midler. 

vulgaris, Thomp. 

Diastylis bispinosa, liaij 

( = D. bicornis. Bate), 

lamellata, Norman, n. sp. 

Eudorella * emargiuata, Kroycr 

(= Cyrianassa ciliata, Norman, 
Tphithoe serrata, Norman, u. sp. 
Tali tr us locusta, Linn. 
Orcbestia littorea, Mont. 
Montagua marina. Bate. 
Lysianassa Costre, M.-Edw. 

■ Audouiniana, Bate. 

Anonyx HolboUii, Krbyer 

(= A. denticnlatus. Bate), 



i)- 



Anonyx gulosus, Kriiijcr 
{=A.. HoVooWu, Bate). 

longi])cs, Bate. 

melanophtbalmiis, Norman, u. sp. 

Euonys chelatiis, Norman, nov. gen. et sp. 
Callisoma crenata, Bate. 
Nicippe tumida, Bru:;. 
AmpeUsca cTquicornis, Bru~. 

~ carlnata, Bru~. 

• teuuicoriiis, LiUJ. 

macrocephala, Lillj. 

Ilaploops tubieola, Lillj. 
Monoculodes carinatus, Bute. 
Qidiceros parvimauus, Bate cf' West. 
Pliosus pluniosus, HolboU. 

Holbtillii, Kroi/er. 

Urotboe marina. Bate. 

elegans. Bate. 

Acantbonotus Owenii, Bate. 
Dexamine spinosa, Mont. 

tenuicornis, Fathkc. 

Vedlomonsis, Bate &( West. 

Atylus bispinosus, Bate. 
Calliope Fingalli, Bate cf' West. 
Eusiriis Helvetii, Bate. 
Leucotboti articulosa, Mont. 
Aora gracilis. Bate. 
Microdeuteropnsanomalus,i?rtr'^Ac, <? & ? . 

Websterii, Bate. 

versiculatus. Bate, (J & ? . 

Microprotopus maculatus, Norman, nov. 

gen. et sp. 
Protomedeia Wbitei, Bate, 
Melita proxima, Bate. 
Mrera Loveni, Bruz. 
Eriopis elongata, Bruz. 
Eurystbeus ei-ytbropbthalmus, Lillj. 
Gammarus marinus. Leach. 

locusta, Linn. 

Meganian-a longimana, Leach 

Otbonis, M.-Edw. 

Ampbitboe rubricata, Mont. 

■ littorina, Bate. 

Ccrapus difformis, M.-Eclw. 
Arcturus longicornis. Sow. 
Gyge Hij)polytes, Kroyer. 
Pbi'vxus abdominalis, Kroyer. 
Pleurocrypta Galathea?, Hesse. 
Ja?ra albifrons, Leach. 
Oniscoda maculosa, Leach. 
Idotea tricuspidata, Fesm. 

emarginata, Fcdjr. 

Spbreroma Prideavixiana, Leach, 
Cyniodocea (?) truncata, Leach. 
Cirolana cylindi-acea, Mont. 
Nebalia bipes, Fair. 



<?&?. 



* The name EudorelLa is here proposed as a substitut* for Eudora of Bate, the latter 
name having long been employed by Peron and Lesueur for a genus of Hydrozoa. 



198 



BEPORT 1866. 



Paracypris polita, Sars. 

Pontocypris mytiloides, Korman 
(=:P. serrulata, G. 0. Sars). 

acupunctata, Brady, n. sp. 

trigonella, Sars. 

Bairdia obtusata, Sars. 

complanata, Brady, n. sp. 

inflata, Noriiian. 

Cjthere Tiridis, Midler. 

conresa, Baird. 

albomaculata, Baird, 

lutea, Midler. 

badia, Norman. 

tenera, Brady, n. sp. 

villosa, Sars. 

concinna, Jones. 

angulata, Sars. 

limicola, Korman. 

Finmarchica, Sars. 

cuneiformis, Brady. 

quadridentata, Baird. 

emaciata, Brady, n. sp. 

tuberculata, Sars. 

Dunelmensis, Norman. 

antiquata, Baird. 

Jonesii, Baird. 

Cytheridea punctillata. Brady. 

papillosa, Bosquet. 

dentata, Sars. 

? subflavescens, Brady, n. sp. 

elongata, Brady 

( = C. angustata, Baird). 
Cytheropsis declivis, Norman. 
Ilyobates praetexta, Sars. 
Losoconcha tamarindus, Jones 
(=C. liEvata, Norniayi). 

impressa. Baird. 

guttata-, Norman. 

Xestoleberis aurantia, Baird. 

depressa, Sars. 

Cytherura gibba, Midler. 

nigrescent, Baird. 

acutieostata, Sars. 

angulata, Brady, n. sp. 

producta, Brady, n. sp. 

undata, Sars. 

celliilosa, Norman. 

clathrata, Sars. 

Fresliwater 

Daphnella brachyura, Liivin. 
Daphnia longispina. Midler. 
Drepanotkrix bamata, G. 0. Sars. 
Polyphemus pediculus, Linn. 
Eurycercus lamellatus, Midler. 
Cbydorus sphsericus, Miiller. 

globosus, Baird. 

Camptocercus macrourus, Miiller. 



Cytheropteron nodosum, Brady, n. sp. 

pimetatum, Brady, n. sp. 

? multifoTum, Norman. 

Bathocythere simplex, Norman. 

constricta (?), Sars. 

Pseudocythere caudata, Sars. 
Sclerochilus contortu-s, Norman. 
Paradoxostoma variabile, Baird. 

abbreviatum, Sars. 

ensiforme. Brady, n. sp. 

— ^- flexuosum, Brady, n. sp. 

Xoi'mani, Brady, n. sp. 

Hybernicum, Brady, n. sp. 

pulebellum, Sars. 

Bradycinetus McAndrei, Baird. 

teres, Norman. 

Cylindroleberis Marise, Baird. 
Pbilomedes interpimctus, Baird 

(=P. longicornis, Lilljehorg). 
Polycope orbicularis, Sars. 
Cytberella Scotica, Brady, n. .sp. 
Thalestris mysis, Clax'S. 

Helgolandica, Claus. 

barjiactoides, Claus. 

longimana. Clans. 

Dactylopus tisboides, Claus. 

Stroemii, Baird. 

tenuicornis, Claus. 

cinctu-s, Claus. 

brevicomis, Claus. 

Harpacticus clielifer, Miiller. 
Longipedia coronata, Claus. 
Eupelte gracilis, Claus. 
Westwoodilla nobilis, Baird. 
Cleta serrata, Claus. 
Tisbe fureata, Baird. 
Porcellidium fimbriatum, Claus 

dentatum, Claus. 

Alteutha bopyroides, Claus. 
Dias Icngiremis, LillJ. 
Cetochilus septentrionalis, Goodsir. 
Anomalocera Pat«rsonii, Tcmpleton. 
Dyspontius striatus. Thorell. 
Balanus poreatus. Da Costa. 
Verruca Strcemia, Miiller. 
Sacculina carcini, Tho?nj). 
Pycnogonum littorale, Strbm. 



Species. 

Acroperus harpa, Baird. 
Alona quadrangularis, MiiUer. 
Alonella elongata, G. 0. Sars. 
Peracantha truncata, MiiUer. 
Cypris ovum, Jurine 

( = 0. minuta, Baird). 
Diaptomus Westwoodii, Ltibhock. 
Cyclops serrulatus, Fischer. 



EcMnodennafa. 



Holothuria intestinalis, Ascanius. 
Psoitis phantapus, Linn. 
Tbyone fusus, Miiller. 

rapbanus, Bub. ^- Kor. 

Tbyonidium commime, Forbes ^Goods. (?) 



Tliyonidiiun hyalinvim, Forbes. 
Cucumaria lactea, Forbes cf Goodsir. 

fusiformis, Forbes Sf Goodsir 

(=C. elongata, Bui. ^-Kor.). 
.Hyndmanni, Thomp. 



ON HEBRIDEAN CRUSTACEA, ECHINODERMATA, POLYZOA, ETC. 



199 



Eoliinocardium ovatuin, Leske. 
Brissopsis lyrif'era, Forbes. 
Ecliinocyamus pusillus, Miiller. 
Echinus esculentus, Linn. 

Flemingii, Ball. 

miliaris, Lcske. 

Asterias rubens, Linn. 

hispida, Penn. 

Sticbaster roseus, Miiller. 
Cribrella sanguinolenta, Miiller. 
Solaster papposus, Li7in. 
Pabnipes placenta, Penn. 
Porania pulvillus, Miiller. 



Brettia pellucida, Dyster. 
Sabcornaria farciminoides, Jbknst. 
Scrupocellaria serupea, Busk. 

scruposa, Litm. 

inermis, Norma')!, n. sp. 

Hippothoa cateuularia, Johnst. 

divaricata, Lamx. 

jEtea recta, Hincks. 
Gemellaria loriculata, Linn. 
Caberea Ellisii, Fleming. 
Bugula ayicularia, Pallas. 

Murrayana, Bean. 

Flustra foliacea, Linn. 
Flustrella liispida, Fabr. 
Membranipora membranacea, Linn. 

pilosa. Pall. 

^-^ coriaeea, Esjjer. 

imbellis, Hincks. 

Pouilletii, Aud. 

Flemingii, Busk. 

lineata, Linn. 

Lepralia crystallina, Norman, u. sp. 

auriculata, Hass. 

■ concinna, Busk. 

trisi^inosa, Johnst. 

coocinea, Abildg. 

■ linearis, Hass. 

ciliata. Pall. 

Hyndmanni, Johnst. 

variolosa, Johnst. 

laqueata, Norman. 

nitida, Fabr. 

Peachii, Johnst. ■ 



Astropecten irregularis, Penn. 
Opbiura lacertosa, Penn. 

albida, Forbes. 

affinis, Liitken 

( = 0. Normani, Hodge). 
OpbiopboHs aculeata, Miiller. 
Ophiocoma nigra, Midler. 
Auijjbiura Ballii, Thomp. 

elegans. Leach. 

filiformis, Miiller. 

Cbiajii, Fo}-bes. 

Antedon rosaceus, Linck. 
Celticus, Barrett. 



Polyzoa. 



sp. 



Lepralia ventricosa, Hass. 

poHta, Norman. 

innominata, Couch. 

])unetata, Hass. 

Pallasiana, Moll. 

simplex, Johnst. 

Malusii, Aud. 

byaUna, Linn. 

ansata, Johnst. 

unicornis, Johnst, 

coUaris, Norman, n. 

Cellepora pumicosa, Linn 

■ ramulosa, Linn. 

dichotoma, Hincks. 

cervicornis, Fleming. 

Hassallii, Johnst. 

Palmicellaria elegans. Alder. 
Eschara foliacea, Ellis cf Sol. 

Skenei, Ellis # Sol. 

quineuncialis, Norman, n. sp. 

Retipora Beaniania, King. 
Patinella patina, Linn. 
Heteroporella hispida, Fleming. 
Diastopora obelia, Fleming. 
Tububpora serpens, Linn. 
Idmonea Atlantica, Forbes. 
Hornera borealis, Busk. 
Alecto granulata, M.-Edw. 

major, Johnst. 

■ compacta, Norman, n. sp. 

Crisia eburnea, Linn. 

Alcyonidium , n. sp. 

Aracbnidia hippotbooides, Hincks. 



Adamsia palliata, Forbes. 
Actinia mesembryantbemum, Ellis. 
Tealia crassicornis, Midi. 
Caryopbyllea Smitbii, Fleming. 
Pennatula molUs, Alder, n. sp. 



Hydractinia echinata, Fleming. 

Eudendrium ? 

Perigonimus (sessilis, Wright 1) . 
Tubularia indivisa, Linn. 
Campanularia Jobnstoni, Alder. 

Hincksii, Alder. 

vei'ticillata, Linn. 



Actinozoa. 

Virgularia mirabilis, Linn. 
Pavonaria quadrangularia, Pall. 
Alcyonium digitatum, Linn. 
Ebizosenia catenata, Forbes. 
agglomerata, Forbes. 

Ilych'ozoa. 

Obelia genicidata, Linn. 

Calicella fastigiata. Alder. 

Lafoea diunosa, Linn. 

Reticularia serpens, Hass. 

Coppinia arcta, Balyell. 

Halecium geniculatum, Norman, n. sp. 

sessile, Norman, n. sp. 



200 REPORT — 1866. 

Sertularia polyzonias, Linn. Sertularia argentea, Ell. 8^ Sol. 

tenella, Alder. fusiformis, Hincks. 

alata, HincJcs. Antcnnularia antennina, Linn, 

pinaster, Ell. &f Sol. 1 ■« r, n Plumularia falcata, Linn. 

Margareta, Hass. J ° '' f ■ tubulifera, Hincks. 

falla:s, Johnst. myrioiihyllum, Li7in. 

abietina, Linn. • piniiata, Linn. 

filicula, Ell. S( Sol. setacea, Ellis. 

opereiilata, Linn. frutesceiis, Ell. cf- Sol, 

Class Cktjstacea. 

Hlpioohjte culteUatci, Norman, n. sp. 

Carapace gibbous, anteriorly keeled and toothed. Eostrum about equal 
to the carapace in lengtVi, not twice as long as the eye, and shorter than the 
antenna! scale, nearly horizontal, cnltellate, above with five nearly equal- 
sized teeth, posterior to which are two others on the carapace ; below with 
four teeth, all anterior to the fifth tooth of the upper margin. Pront margin of 
carapace with three pairs of spines ; the first large, above the eye ; the second 
below the eye ; the third small, at the infero-anteal angle. Third abdominal 
segment somewhat gibbons, but not dorsally produced ; fourth with a small 
spine on the lateral margin ; fifth with the infero-posteal angle produced into 
a conspicuous spine. Second gnathopods reaching the end of the antennal 
scale. First pcreiopods reaching the middle of the last joint of second gnatho- 
pods ; second pcreiopods Avith seven-jointed wrist, left as long as right, longer 
than second gnathopods. Telson furnished with nine jjairs of lateral spines, 
and terminated in thirteen spines, of which the outermost pair but one are 
the longest, and the nine spines between this pair are subeqiial in length, 
and ciliated on both margins. Colour pink, beautifully spotted with crimson. 
Length, exclusive of antennse, rather more than an inch and a half. One 
specimen dredged in the Minch. 

Dlastylis lamellata, Norman, n. sp. 

Female. — Ccphalothorax very large, deep and wide in the gravid female, 
vicAved laterally almost subgiobular, with the dorsal margin boldly arched ; 
viewed dorsallj', remarkably wide, ovate, greatest breadth in the centre. Cara- 
pace having a sliort, blunt, horizontal rostrum ; sculptured Avith three oblique 
raised lamella), the liindmost just at the border of the carapace, and continued 
round the dorsal margin, the two others are equal distances apart, not con- 
tinued across the back ; on either side of the central dorsal line is a series of 
what appear in spirit-preserved specimens to be lucid spots; possibly, however, 
they may be coloured markings in the living animal. The second and third 
cephalothoracic segments raised into dorsal lamella of corresponding character 
to those of the carapace ; the anterior dorsal margin, sixth segment, and the 
posterior margin of the jn-eccding one denticulately serrate. Superior an- 
tennre having the three joints of the peduncle subeqtial in length, the internal 
and longer filament shorter than the last joint of the peduncle. The fii'st 
pcreiopods have the basal joint narrow and much bent, its inferior margin 
fringed with pltimoso setaj and furnished with a row of spines ; penultimate 
joint very long and slender, eqitalling in length the three preceding articu- 
lations and as long as the basal joint ; terminal joint half the length of the 
penultimate ; palp two-thirds as long as the basal joint, not furnished Avith 
any spines. Second pcreiopods having the su2)erior margin of the basal joint 
furnished with spines, the last and the antepenultimate joints subequal, and 
more than tAvicc as long as the penultimate ; palp reaching beyond the third 



ON HEBRIDEAN ClirSTACEA, ECHINODERMATA^ POLYZOA; ETC. 201 

joint, its basal portion not spined. Telson twice as long as the preceding seg- 
ment, suddenly contracted near the base, the last part narrow and linear, 
having four pair of lateral and two much larger terminal spines. Peduncle 
of ui-opods narrow and slender, as long as the telson, and about one-sixth 
longer than the rami, furnished with about eight spines on the inner margin ; 
interior ramus slightly longer than exterior, having nine spines on the inner 
margin (6 on first, 2 on second, and 1 on third joint), and a long terminal 
spine ; exterior ramus terminating in three sette, of which the central is the 
longest (the interior not quite terminal), and having four sinnes, and ono 
other seta on the outer margin, but none on the inner. 

Length 3 lines. Dredged in Sleat Sound, and also off Tynemouth, jSTor- 
thumberland. Nearly allied to Diastylis hi^lkata, G. 0. Sars, but apparently 
distract. 

IjphiiJwe serrata, Korman, n. sp. 

Animal greatly elongated and very slender. Cephalothorax shallow and 
much compressed, dorsally keeled throughout, equal in length to six abdo- 
minal segments, and twice and a half as long as deep ; rostrum long, slightly 
bent upwards, apex obliquely truncate, crenated and ciliated ; latero-anterior 
margin with only two or three minute spines ; a deep sinus on the lower por- 
tion of the front margin ; dorsal line with a crest of spines (13-20), which 
sometimes extend almost to the posterior margin of the carapace, sometimes 
are obsolete on the hinder portion ; the spines gradually increase in size for- 
wards, and the two or three anterior spines are more widely separated from 
each other than the rest. Superior antennae shorter than the rostriim, having 
the last joint of the peduncle longer than either of the preceding, and four 
times as long as the very short two-jointed internal filament ; external fila- 
ment very minute, one-jointed. Second gnathopods having the lower margin 
of the basal joint denticulate, and its lobe reachiag to the middle of the 
third joint ; lobe of third joint smaller than is visual in the genus, but bearing 
several long plumose setae, the most distal the longest. First pereiopods having 
both margins of basal joint denticulated ; extended beyond the rostrum, which 
reaches the middle of the penidtimate joint ; last and antepenultimate joints 
subequal, and about one-third shorter than the penultimate. Second pereiopods 
five-jointed, ha\ang a large spine at the termination of the second and third 
joints; last joint as long as the two preceding. Telson semicircular, termi- 
nating in spine-like points and two setae. Uropods strongly formed ; pediincle 
of moderate length (not twice as long as last abdominal segment), furnished 
with 12-14 long slender spines on the inner margin ; rami shorter than the 
peduncle, and subequal ; interior with basal joint swollen, having five spines 
on the middle margin, the distal one very lai-ge ; second joint having twelve 
spines on the inner margin and apex, and three setae on the outer margin ; 
all the spines of the rami are ciliated, and the two terminal spines are deve- 
loped to such a length that they are intermediate in form between spines and 
seta3 ; outer ramus flattened, having about twelve plumose setae on the inner 
margin and round the apex. Length about five luies. 

Pemale specimens dredged in Sleat Sound. 

Anonyx melanophthalmus, Norman, n. sp. 

Eye black. Superior antennae having the first joint of the peduncle nearly 
as long as the two succeeding joints taken together, filament with nine arti- 
culations ; appendage five-jointed, the first very long, equalling the first long 
joint of the filament. Inferior antennae having last two joints of peduncle 



202 REPORT— 1866. 

furnished with tufts of hair on the upperside ; filament short, equal in length 
to last two joints of peduncle, seven -jointed. Eirst gnathopods short ; wrist 
excessively short, forming a little projecting hair-tijjped lobe on the posterior 
margin, and much shorter than preceding joint (meros) ; hand oblong, as 
long as the wrist and meros taken together, with only two fine seta) on the 
anterior, and a few spine-like setoD on the posterior margin, slightly nar- 
rowed towards the palm, which is not at all oblique ; nail very large, haraig 
one or two fine sette on the iipper margin. Second gnatliapods with wrist 
and meros subequal, and each longer than the hand, meros having posterior 
and wrist anterior margin covered with fine down -like setse ; pad of wrist 
finely scaled ; hand much narrower than the wrist, having both margins 
beset with fine downy seta3 ; terminal brush of hair not dense ; nail well 
developed, and infero-posteal angle of hand produced so as to form with the 
nail a little chela. Last pereiopods not having any of the joints below the 
basis posteriorly produced. Branches of last uropods slightly longer than the 
peduncle, outer terminating in three spines and having two or three smaU 
spines on the margin ; inner terminating in a single spine, and having only 
one very fine seta on each margin. Telson having a wide but shallow cleft, 
which does not extend more than one-thii-d of its length ; each portion is 
terminated by a single spine, and there are also two pairs of spines on the 
upper surface. Posterior angles of abdominal segments rounded and not 
serrate. Fourth abdominal segment with a dorsal sinus. 
Dredged in Sleat Sound. 

Euonyx, Norman, nov. gen. 

Differing from Anonyx in having the first gnathopods chelate, and the 
second stronger than the first, subchelate, nail large and strong. Posterior 
uropods two-brajiched. Telson cleft. 

Euonyx chelatus, jSTorman, u. sp. 

Superior antennse bent directly downwards ; first joint of peduncle very 
large, concave above (thus giving the front of the head, the antennrc being 
bent downwards, an emarginate appearance); second and thi;l joints very 
short,? and much naiTowcr than the first ; filament ten-jointed ; appendage 
six-jointed, reaching to the end of the third joint of the filament. Inferior 
antennaj having the last two joints of the peduncle subequal, not furnished 
with any sjiines or hairs; filament twenty-jointed, not twice as long as the 
peduncle. First gnathopods having hand and wrist about equal to each other, 
long, narrow, parallel- sided, nearly naked, having only very few seta3 ; in- 
ferior distal angle of hand greatly produced, so as to form in conjunction with 
the nail a slender horizontal chelate claw ; nail large, strong, furnished with 
two or three bristles on the upper margin near the point. Second gnathopods 
more strongly developed than the first, having the wrist furnished with tufts 
of hair on the posterior margin ; hand shorter than wrist, having several 
rows of long sette on anterior, and two similar rows on the posterior margin ; 
palm oblique, well-defined, concave ; nail large, strongly curved, simj^le. 
Pereiopods very stout and strong, having the basis largely developed and 
extending do^vnwards to the middle of the meros ; posterior margin of meros 
also largely developed outwards and downwards into a process which, in the 
posterior, extends beyond the carpus ; the whole of the anterior side of the 
legs is beset with numerous strong spines ; the nail is large, very strong, and 
has a cilium on the inner side near the extremity. Eami of last uropods 
flattened and nearly twice as long as peduncle, margras plain ; iiuier ramiis 



ON HEBRIDEAN CRUSTACEA, ECHTNODERMATA, POLYZOA, ETC. 203 

one-jointerl, outer terminated in a flattened spine. Telson divided almost to 
the base, but the two portions] are in contact A\^th each other to the apex, 
margins smooth. Fourth abdominal segment has a deep sinus on the anterior 
portion of the dorsal margin, and behind this a large hump-like elevation. 
Animal pure white. Dredged parasitic on Echinus escuhntus, L., in Sleat 
Sound. 

Microprotopus, Norman, nov. gen, 

Antennae with secondary appendage. First gnathopods subchelate. Second 
gnathopods larger than fu'st, subchelate, greatly developed in (^ , much smaller 
in $ . Uropods terminating in simple spines, those of last pair with a single 
ramus. Telson tubular. 

Microprotopus maculatus, lforman,n. sp. 

Mcde. — Eye small, round, crimson, situated on a lobe between the bases of 
the two pairs of antennae. Antennte subequal, superior having peduncle 
reaching a little beyond the peniUtimate joint of the peduncle of the in- 
ferior antennte ; basal joint stouter than, but equal in length to, the second; 
third joint shorter and more slender than the preceding ; appendage minute, 
two-jointed, not so long as first joint of filament, which consists of nine or 
ten articulations, and is of about equal length with the peduncle. Inferior 
antennae stronger than the superior, and, as well as the superior, furnished 
with scattered hairs, but no spines. Mandible with a three-jointed palp. 
First gnathopods having the hand of equal length to the wrist, but broader, 
"widening from the base to the extremity, palm oblique, concave ; nail well 
developed, simple, extending rather beyond the palm. Second gnathopods 
having the wrist very short, hand greatly developed, as long as, or even longer 
than the whole of the rest of the leg, oblong, jjalm whole length of hand, 
slightly concave, with a tooth-like process (wanting in the young) at the 
base, and two large teeth on the distal third ; finger large, strong, curved, 
fully as long as the hand; the inner margin under a high power of the 
microscope is seen to be finely crenated, or, rather, rasped like a file. Uropods 
furnished with a few simple spines ; the penultimate pair extending beyond 
the last, Avhich have only one branch ; this branch is rather longer than 
the peduncle, and is furnished with two or three spines on the inner margin, 
and terminates in two spines and a cUium. Telson tubular ; apex truncate, 
slightly emarginate, and having one or two hairs at the angles. 

In the female the first gnathopods are of nearly the same form as those of 
the male, but the hand is rather narrower : the second gnathopods are wholly 
different; the wrist and two preceding joints are verj' short, the former, 
however, is the more developed, and assumes a caliculate form at its termina- 
tion from its having a projecting seta-tipped lobe both in front and behind ; 
hand subquadrate, narrower than the wrist, with a row of long scattered 
setse down the centre ; palm sHghtly obhque, concave, with a few fine frin- 
ging setae, and a single spine at the angle ; nail as long as the palm, strong. 
Colour yellowish, more or less covered with umber -broAvn spots ; these spots 
are seen under the microscope to be dendritic ; they often form bauds across 
the segments, or at times so coalesce as to make the whole animal appear of 
a brown coloiu-. Length two lines, Foimd at Tobermory in Midi, among 
Laminariae. • 

Class POLTZOA. 

Sarupocellaria inermis, Norman, n. sj). 
Cells regularly ovate, wholly unspined, and not furnished with any oper- 
culum or suboral avicularia ; mandible of lateral avicidaria very short and 



204 REPORT— 1866. 

blunt ; ovicell globular, smooth, inclining inwards ; vibracular capsules of 
moderate size, erect, bUobed ; vibracula long, arising from between the lobes 
of the capsules. Height half an inch. Dredged in deep water in the Minch, 
also at Shetland. Differs from S. scrvposa in haying the cells larger, not 
furnished with sjnnes, and in the vibracular capsules, which are propor- 
tionately large, and the mandible of the avicularia being shorter and blunter. 

Eschara quincuncialis, Norman, n. sp. 

Polyzoary white, smooth, polished, cylindrical. Cells distant, in linear series, 
regularly arranged in quincunx, swoUen, mammiform. Apertures keyhole- 
shaped, rounded above, with a small sinus below, immediately beneath which 
a small inconspicuous avicularium is sometimes present. Ovicell small, with 
1-4 round perforations. 

The specimen described is apparently a fragment, and is not more than a 
quarter of an inch long. It is, however, manifestly distinct from aU the 
Eschane with which we were previously acqiiainted. Dredged in deej) water 
in the Minch. 

LepraUa coJlans, Norman, n. sp. 

Cells small, crowded, linearly arranged, not in quiucimx, granular, not 
punctiu'ed round the margin ; mouth arch-formed, rounded above, truncate 
below ; peristome greatl}^ elevated into a frUl-like plate which surrounds the 
sides and lower margin of the mouth, within which there is no denticle ; 
ovicell globular, of moderate size, punctate. 

In small patches on old shells and stones from the Minch, coast of Antrim, 
Guernsey, and Shetland. It will be evident from the foregoing list of 
localities that this species is widely distributed on our coasts. It has been 
hitherto mistaken (Ijy Mr.Busk, Mr. Alder, and myself) iov L. eximia, Hincks, 
in common with which species it has the peculiar collar-formed peristome ; 
but having recently had an opportunity of examining Mr. Hiucks's typical 
and onlj' known specimen of L. e.vimia, I found it to be a wholly different 
form from that which is now described. 

Lepralia crystallhui, Norman, n. sp. 

Cells short, obovate, of moderate size, and moderately tumid, not regularly 
arranged, nor separated from each other by raised lines, nor areolated at the 
margin ; white, crystalline, punctate, punctures round, few, equally distri- 
buted on aU parts of the ceU ; mouth triangular, lateral walls much raised, 
margined above with five spines (rarely present), a small avicularium at the 
lower angle of the mouth, with short rounded mandible directed downwards ; 
a bifid tooth-like process within the mouth ; oviccU globular, crystalline, 
punctate. 

On shell and stone in very small patches. The Minch and Shetland in deep 
water. Nearly allied to L. Landshorovii, as compared with which the cells 
are smaller, shorter, more convex, less regularly disposed, not separated from 
each other by distinct raised lines, more regularly pimctate than is usual in 
L. Landshorovii, in which the punctures are often absent from the centre 
of the cell ; the mouth also is more angular. 

• Alecto compacta, Nonnan. n. sp. 

Polyzoary narrow at the base, thence rapidly widening and irregularly 
ramifying, branches wide and short, their terminations rounded ; remarkably 
flat, and closely appressed to the shell. Cells very small, irregularly scattered 
and separated from each other, shortly tubular, scarcely raised above the 



ON HEBRIDEAN CRUSTACEA, ECHINODERMATA; POLYZOA, ETC. 205 

level of the polyzoary, all inclining towards distal extremity of branches, 
thouo-h bending slightly towards the side of the polyzoary to which they are 
nearest. Colour white. On stone and shell. The Minch and Shetland in 
deep water. 

A. conipacta approaches more nearly to A. dilatans than to the other de- 
scribed species, but is much smaller and more delicate in all its parts, and 
depressed flat to the surface instead of being raised in a swollen cushion-like 
manner. A. dilatans is usually tinged with violet, while A. com^acta is 
always white, and approaches in many respects to a Diastopora. 

Class Htdrozoa. 

Hahciimi c/enicidatiim, Norman, n. sp. 
Hydrosoma slender, branching, the branches (in tyi)e specimen) all in the 
same plane ; branchlets flexuous, bending alternately right and left between 
the hydrothecfe (as in Laomedea genicidata) ; one hydrotheca to each internode; 
the internode terminating immediately above the hydrotheca and marked by 
a single stricture, or more rarely two. IIydrotheca3 diverging at about an 
angle of 45° from the ccenosarc, miich elongated, simply tubular, fully two- 
thirds as long as the internodes of the coenosarc, and 3-6 times as long as 
their own diameter ; a constriction near the base, at the point where the more 
strongly developed chitine of the base of the hydrotheca is exchanged for a 
membrane of more delicate structure. Height an inch and a half. Dredged 
in deep water in the Minch. 

Ilalecium sessile, Norman, n. sp. 

Hydrosoma slender, irregularly branching, branches not in the same plane ; 
branchlets having alternate hydrothecte, and a single constriction above each 
hydrotheca. Hydrothecae very short and perfectly sessile, not rising at all 
separately from the hydrosoma, of the lateral projections of which they are 
mere openings, without being raised into any tube. Polypites large, not re- 
tractile, very narrow at the base, where they rise from the hydrotheca, thence 
gradually widening to near the summit, where they suddenly swell into a 
wide campanulate mouth surrounded by long and slender filiform tentacles ; 
the polypites rise above the hydrotheca to a height (exclusive of tentacles) 
which is not less than five times its diameter, and far overtop the level of the 
succeeding hydrotheca. Height ijrobably an inch and a half, though the 
fragments obtained are not more than half that length. Dredged in deep 
water in the Minch. 

The following is a list of the species which are now for the first time re- 
corded as members of the British Fauna. 

Hippolyte cultellata, Nornmn, n. sp. Mrera Loveni, Bru::* 

Diastjlis lamellata, Norman, n. sp. Eriopis elongata, Bru::* 

Ipliithoe serrata, Norman, n. sp. Pleiirocrypta Galathea?, Hc&&e'i\ 

Anonyx nielanophthalmus,.A'bnw«?i, n. sp. Paracjpris polita, Sars §. 

Euonyx chelatus, Norman, nov. gen. et sp. Pontooypris aciipunctata, Brady, n. sp. 

Ampelisca carinata, Bruz. * trigonella, Sars §. 

tenuicornis, LilljA Bairdia obtusata, Sars §. 

macrocephala, Lillj. t ■ complanata, Brady, n. sp. 

Microprotopus maculatus, Norman, nOT. Cytliere viridis, il/«/fer ||. 

gen. et sp. tenera, Brady, n. sp. 

* Bidrag till kannedomen cm Skandinaviens Ampliipoda Gammaridea, 1859. 

t Ofvers. af Kougl. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandl., 1855, pp. 123, 137. 

\ Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Cinquieme Serie, torn. iii. (1865) p. 226, pi. 4. 

§ " Oversigt af Norges Marine Ostracoder," Vid.-Selsk. Forhand. 1865. 

II Entomostraca, p. 64, tab. vii. figs. 1, 2 (and of jSars, but not of Lilljeborg). 



206 REPORT— 1866. 

Cythere villosa, Sars*. Polycope orbicularis, Sars*. 

concinna, Jones\. Cytherella Scotica, Brady, n. sp. 

augulata, Sars*. Thalestris mysis, C7f«/.s ||. 

Finmarchica, Sars*. Helgolandica, Claxis I 



cuneiformis, Brady, n. sp. harpactieoides, Claus ||. 

emaciatii, Brady, n. sp. Dactylopus tisboides, Claus ||. 

tuberculata, Sars *. tenuicomis, Claris ||. 

Cytberidia punctillata, Brady +. cinctus, Claus %. 

dentata, Sars*. brevicornis, Claus^. 

? subflavesceus, Brady, n. sp. Longipedia coi-onata, Claus ||. 

Ilyobates prwtexta, Sars*. Eupelte gracilis, Claus ||. 

Xestoleberis depressa, Sars*. Cleta serrata, Claiis\. 

C'ytberui-a gibba, Midler §. Porcellidium fimbriatum, Claus ||. 

aeuticostata, Sars *. dentatum, Claus **. 

angidata, Brady, n. sp. Dyspontius striatus, ThordlW. 

producta, Brady, n. sp. Drepauothrix hamata, G. O. Sars\\. 

undata, Sars*. 



clatbrata, Sars*. Scrupocellaria inermis, Norman, n. sp. 

Cytberopteron nodosum, Brady, n. sp. Lepralia crystallina, Norman, n. sp. 

punctatum, Brady, n. sp. collaris, Norman, n. sp. 

Bathooytbere constricta (?) Sars*. Esebai-a quincuucialis, Norman, n. sp. 

Pseudocytbere caudata, Sars *. Alecto compacta, Norman, n. sp. 

Paradoxostoma abbreviatum, Sars *. Alcyonidium , n. sp. 

ensiforme, Brady, n. sp. 

flexuosum, Brady, n. sp. Pennatula mollis, Alder, n. sp. 

Normani, Brady, n. sp. 



Hybernicum, Brady, n. sp. Halecium geniculatum, Norman, n. sp. 

pidcbellum, Sars *. sessile, Norman, n. sp. 

P.S. — It will be observed that the Hst of Ostracoda given in the foregoing 
Eeport differs from that of Mr. G. S. Brad_y. This arises from the fact that 
the Reporter has had an opportunity of revising the lists at a much later 
period (May 10, 1867), when further time had allowed a more complete exa- 
mination to be made of the material collected. The present lists, in the 
drawing up of which he has been assisted by Mr. Brady, have thus been 
rendered more full and more correct. 



Notices of some Invertebrata, in connexion with the Report of Mr, 
Gwyn Jeffreys on Dredging among the Hebrides. By Joshua 
Alder. 

A Serpula lately dredged by Mr. Jeffreys in the Hebrides, on the fragment 
of an old shell, possesses some interest in a physiological point of view, on 
account of the peculiar character of its shell. It is slender and strongly 
carinated through the greater part of its length, not unlike the common 
Serpida triquetra, but rather more slender. Near the mouth, however, there 
is an oblong bulbous swelling of the same substance as the shell, but rather 
less compact and more brittle ; this terminates in a double arch in front. On 

* " Oversigt af Norges Marine Ostraeoder," Vid.-Selsk. Forhand. 1865. 

I" Entomostraea, oftbe Tertiary Formation, p. 29, pi. 4. fig. 7. 

X Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist. .3rd series, vol. xvi. (1865), pi. 9. fig. 9-11. 

§ Entomostraea, p. 24, pi. 7. fig. 10-12. 

II Die frei lebenden Copepoden, 1863. 

•[ Die Copepoden-Fauna von Kizza, 1866. 

** Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Entomostraken, 1 Heft, Marburg, 1860, p. 8, tab. ii. 
figs. 19-22. 

+t Bidrag till kannedomen on Krustaeeer som lefva i arter af slagtat Ascidia, S. 1859. 

It Om de i omegnen af Chinsfciania forekommende Cladocereu, 1861, p. 14, and Andet 
Bidi-ag, 1862, p. 51. 



ON HEBRIDIAN INVERTEBRATA. 207 

examining its structiire, we find that this bulbous portion consists of two 
cells, divided from each other by a thin wall of shell, and that the triangular 
tube of the general body is continued through its base, with the mouth of the 
tube opening generally immediately below it. In one instance, however, the 
tube is continued for a short distance in front of the sweUidg. Mr. Jeffreys 
suggests that this protuberance may be an egg- ease, which I think is very 
probable, as there is a small external aperture in front of each partition, 
which apparently communicate with the tubular portion posteriorly. I am 
not aware that any similar structure has been before observed in the tabular 
Annelids ; and I therefore now take the opportunity of bringing the circum- 
stance under the notice of naturalists, in order that it may be investigated 
by those more immediately connected with the study of this department of 
zoology. The species appears to be a new one ; but it is impossible to speak 
with certainty in the absence of the animal inhabitant of the tube. In one 
individual two of these protuberances have been formed, one behind the other. 

Pennatfla mollis, n. sp. I 5^ 'l? .5 ■ ^ • * f " 2- 

Pohjpary 4 or 5 inches long, of a brick-red colour, variegated with darker 
red streaks, slender, rather soft and flaccid. Stem slender, rovmded, smooth, 
and very slightly bulbous at the base, occupying from one-third to half the 
length of the compound body. Rhacliis smooth in front, except an undu- 
lating line of tubercles running at the base of the pinnae on each side ; the 
back of the rhachis has a smooth groove in the centre, on each side of which it 
is set with small pointed granules, smaller and less crowded than ia P. plws- 
fliorm. Pinnce compressed, flaccid, slightly fusiform, about half an inch long 
in the centre of the rhachis, but decreasing towards each end ; these terminate 
in a rather obtuse point at the apex, and diminish gradually to minute pro- 
cesses below ; they are placed a Httle further apart, are less triangular, and 
have a narrower base than those of P.pTiosjpliorea. Polype-cells cylindrical, set 
in a single row on the front margin of each pinna, and terminating as usual 
in eight denticles ; they are rather shorter and less spiculose than in P. phos- 
pTiorea, and number about twelve in each row of the longer pinnee. This species 
has considerable resemblance to the Pennatula phosphorea of our coast, the 
difierences between them, though weU marked, being only comparative. It 
is larger, more slender, and much softer and more flaccid in all its parts than 
that species. This latter character arises principally from the fewer spicula 
in its composition, from which cause also it is of a paler and duller red, the 
colouring-matter being principally confined to the spicula. The pinnae are not 
so crowded as in P. pliosphorea, and are less fii-mly and broadly set on the 
rhachis, leaving a little more space in front. 

It is probable that this may be Pallas's Pennatula rubra, var. /3, of which 
he says, " Datur varietas, in oceauo praesertim, longior, gracilior, pianis 
angustioribus, magisque distantibus, caliculis pinnarum rarioribus et promi- 
nentioribus." There can be little doubt, however, that this species is distinct 
from the P. rubra of Pallas, which is the P. p>7iosp7iorea of British authors, and 
probably also of Linne. The differences between them are as great as is 
usual in other species of this genus. 

This is an interesting addition to our faiina, one species only of Pennatula 
having been previously known as British, 

Ttjnicata. 

Ascidia mentula. I Ascidia plebeia. 
venosa. | aspersa. 



208 



REPORT — 1866. 



Ascidia depressa. 

intestinalis. 

parallelogramma. 

Molgiila arenosa. 
CyBtliia tessellata. 

sqiiamulosa, young. 

echinata. 

Cj'ntliia tubei'osa, 
informis ? 



Doris tuberculata. 

Jolmstoni. 

Dendronotus arborescens. 



Cyntliia violacea. 

grossularia. 

Clavellina lepadiformis. 
Diazona Ilebridica. 
Parascidia Flemiuffii. 



Dideninimi gelatinosum. 
Botiyllus ? 



NUDIBE AK'CniATA . 



Hero foiinosa. 
EoUs ? 



Report on the Ostracoda dredged amongst the Hebrides. 
By George S. Brady. 



List of Bjpecies. 



Paracypris polita, G. 0. Sars. 
*Pontocypris mytiloides, Norman. 

acupuuctata, n. sp. 

*Bairdia inflata, Norman. 

obtusata, G. O. Sars. 

complauata, n. sp. 

*Cy there lutea, Miiller. 

* viridis, Midler. 

* pellucida, Baird. 

* badia, Norman. 

* albomaciilata, Baird. 

* couvexa, Baird. 

* angustata, Miinster. 

subflavescens, n. sp. 

* veutricosa, G. O. Sars. 

* A'illosa, G. O. Sars. 

Finmarcliica, G. 0. Sars, 

* angulata, G. O. Sars. 

* tuberculata, G. O. Sars. 

* coucinna, Jones. 

quadridentata, Baird, 

emaciata, n. sp. 

* limicola, Norman. 

* Duuelmensis, Norman. 

autiquata, Baird. 

* Jonesii, Baird. 

multifora, Norman. 

complexa, n. sp. 

*Cytlieridea papillosa, Bosquet. 
*— — puuctillata, Bradt/. 



*Cytlieridea inermis, G. 0. Sars. 

* dentata, G. O. Sars. 

*Cytheropsis declivis, Norman. 
Ilyobates prtetexta, G. O. Sars. 
*Loxoconcba granulata, G. O. Sars, 
impressa, Baird. 



guttata, Normun. 
tamarindus, Jones. 



*Xestoleberis depressa, G. O. Sars, 
Cytlierura nigrescens, Baird. 

* uudata, G. O. Sars. 

humilis, n. sp. 

* acuticostata, G. 0. Sars, 

* elatlirata, G. O. Sars. 



*Cytheropteron latissimum, Norman, 

tricorne, Bornemann. 

*Bytliocy there simplex, Norman. 

flexuosa, n. sp. 

coustricta, G. O. Sars. 

Pseudocythere caudata, G. 0. Sars. 
*Selerochilus contortus, Norman. 
*Paradoxostoma variabile, Baird. 

abbreviatum, G. 0. Sars. 

Cypridina teres, Norman. 

MacAndrei, i?«(rf/. 

Philomedes Marife, Baird. 

longieornis, Lilljeborf/. 

Polycope orbicularis, G. O. Sars. 

Cytherella Isevis, n. sp. 

Scotica, u. sp. 



Sixty species in all, of which nine are new to science ; fifteen {Paracypris 
polita, Ci/there vcntricosa, C. Finmarclnca, C. ancjulata, C. eoncinna, C. emaciafa, 
OytJiericiea inermis, C. dentata, Ihjohates prcete.vta, Cytlierura clathrata, G. 
acuticostata, C. unclata, Bytlwcythere constricta, Pseudocythere cauclata, Poly- 
cope orbicularis) are new to Britain, though they have been (loscribed as 



ox OSTRACODA DREDGED AMONGST THE HEBRIDES. 209 

inhabitants of other seas, and one {Ciitheropteron irlcorne) is now for the 
first time noted as occurring in a recent state. It should, however, be men- 
tioned that, of the fifteen species here named as new to our seas, eleven were 
previously represented in my collection by specimens (unrecorded) from other 
parts of the British coast. 

A sjiecies closely allied to Ihjohates pratexta (/. r/lacialis, MS.) has been 
found by Messrs. Crosskey and Robertson pretty abundantly in the fossil 
state in the oldest deposit of glacial clay which has come under their 
notice, and it is worthy of remark that the recent species now dredged is 
much smaller and apparently more poorly developed than the fossil one, 
though in general character and appearance so much like it as to make me 
suspect that the one may possibly be the lineal descendant of the other. If 
this be so, it forms an interesting contrast to C'>/theridea jp^'P'^^osa, the 
living specimens of which are mostly much finer than those of the tertiary 
period. C. ixtpRlosa is an abundant species in many districts — in Loch Fyne, 
for instance, it occurs in immense numbers and of fine growth — while Ihj- 
ohates prcetexta appears to be rare, and is probably confined to our uorthern 
seas. We may therefore infer that the one species is verging towards ex- 
tinction, at least in our latitudes, while the other is thriving, and for the jire- 
sent successful in the " struggle for existence.'' Of the sixty species here 
catalogued, thirty-two are known to occur in the glacial clays of Scotland ; 
these are marked with an asterisk, and it may be noted that the two sjiecies 
which perhaps occur most abundantly in the older clays, Cytlieridea punc- 
tillata and CyOiere concinnci, do not appear to be of frequent occurrence at 
the present day, and are confined to northern habitats. 

As to the geographical distribution of the various species, it may be re- 
marked that sixteen of the number are essentially northern in their range, so 
far as our present knowledge extends ; these are Bairdia obtusata, B. compla- 
wita, Ci/there concinna, C. angidata, C. Dmielmensis, Cytlieridea papUlosa, 
C punctillata, C inermis, C. dentata, Ilyohates prcetex'ta, BytJiocythere sim- 
plex, B. jlexuosa, Pseudocy there caudata, Cytherella lavis, C. Scotica, and 
Cypridina Mac Andrei. None of these have been found (except one or two 
specimens of Cytlieridea punctillata) in any locality south of the Dogger 
Bank, and most of them are confined to the shores of Scotland. On the 
other hand, our list includes one species which attains its highest develop- 
ment in more southern localities, such as the seas around the Channel 
Islands, the south coast of England, and the south-west of Ireland. This is 
Cythere emaciafa, of which only one specimen, and that a poor one, has been 
detected in the Hebridean gatherings. 

It is impossible at present to institute any satisfactory comparison between 
the recent Ostracoda of our seas and those of the Continent, as, except in 
Scandinavia, scarcely anything has been done amongst this group by conti- 
nental natiiralists. In general terms, however, it may be said that the 
Ostracoda of the K^orthern British seas exhibit a close approach to those of 
Norway. 

Descriptions of new Species, 

PoNTOCrPEtS ACtrPtTNCTATA, n. Sp. 

Oblong, subreniform, highest in the middle, height equal to half the 
length. Anterior extremity rounded, posterior obtusely pointed. Dorsal 
margin arched, sloping more steeply behind than in front, ventral mai'gin 
deeply sinuated at the anterior third. Outline, as seen from above, com- 

1866. p 



210 REPORT— 1866. 

pressed, oval, widest in the middle. Surface minutely punctate. Colour 
purplish brown. Length J- in. 

Hah. The Minch, 45-60 fathoms ; and in shell sand from Eoimdstone. 

Baikdia complanata, n. sp. 

Subreniform, highest in the middle, greatest height equal to about half the 
length ; anterior extremity evenly rounded, posterior narroAved and some- 
what obliquely rounded. Dorsal margin boldly arched, highest in the 
middle and sloping steeply behind ; ventral gently sinuated in front, and 
slightly convex behind. Outline, as seen from above, compressed, oval; 
greatest width in the middle, and equal to about one-third of the length. 
Shell smooth, colour pale ochreous or w^hite. Length J^- in. 

Hah. The Minch, 45-60 fathoms. 

CVTHEEE (?) SUBPLAVESCENS, U. Sp. 

Oval or subtriangular, highest in the middle, greatest height eqiial to 
more than half the length, rather tumid. Extremities rounded and nearly 
equal in width. Superior margin arched, somewhat gibbous in the middle, 
inferior margin rather convex. Seen from above, oval, widest in the middle, 
obtusely ])ointed in front, rounded behind, width equal to nearly half the 
length. Shell smooth, pale j-ellow, finely and closely punctate. Length 

Hah. The Minch, 45-60 fathoms. 

Cttheke ejiaciata, n. sp. 

Qiiadrangular, higher in front than behind, length equal to more than 
twice the height. Anterior margin slightly rounded, often fringed with 
eight or nine teeth ; posterior narrowed, cmarginate above, produced and 
toothed below. Superior and inferior margins Hcarly straight. Outline, as 
seen from above, oblong, widest behind, nearly thrice as long as broad. 
Surface marked with large pits arranged longitudinally ; along the middle of 
the valve a conspicuous elevated rib ; a less distinct ridge within the ventral 
margin, and another smaller obhque rib behind the antero-dorsal angle. 
Length J^y in. 

Hah. Hebrides (locality doubtful), and many other places in Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

Cytheee complexa, n. sp. 

Ehomboidal, excessively tumid below, somewhat higher in front than 
behind ; greatest height equal to two-thirds of the length. Anterior margin 
rounded ; posterior obliquely truncate below, and produced into a short blunt 
beak above ; dorsal margin straight, slightly sloping from the front ; ventral 
margin straight. Seen from above the outline is triangular, with deeply con- 
stricted sides, pointed in front, and centrally mucronatc behind. Surface 
rather coarsely reticulated; one tubercle situated near the anteiior hinge, and 
two larger ones with an intermediate connecting ala a httle above the ventral 
margin. Length -^ in. 

Huh. Uncertain (probably Loch Alsh). 

Oytherura ucjiilis, n. sp. 

Subrhoraboidal, nearly equal in height throughout ; anterior niiirgln ob- 
liquely rounded, sloping steeply above ; posterior obliquely truncate. Supe- 
rior margin very gently arched, sloping steeply behind, inferior straight or 



DREDGING IN THE MORAY FIRTH. 211 

slightly sinuous. Seen from above the outline is oblong, subquadrilateral, 
obtusely pointed in front, truncate and mucronate behind. Surface irregu- 
larly -waved ; a conspicuous rib parallel to the ventral margin, which gives 
off in front of the middle another ridge running toward the anterior hinge, 
which again sends forward from its middle a short longitudinal rib. Length 

BtTHOCTTHEEE ? FLEXTJOSA, n. sp. 

Elongated, compressed, siliquose ; greatest height in the middle, equal to 
about one-thir-d of the length. Superior margin arched, sloping steeply do^vn- 
wards in front, more gently behind. Extremities obtusely pointed. The 
ventral margin slightly concave in front, then curving upwards to the poste- 
rior extremity. Seen from above compressed oval, widest in the middle, 
and tapering equally to the extremities, which are somewhat mucronate. 
Surface smooth, i)ellucid, with white clouded patches. Hinge-processes 
feebly developed. Length -^ in. 

Hcib. The Minch, 45-60 fathoms. 

Ctthetiella ScoTicA, n. sp. 

Elliptical, equal in height throughout, height equal to nearly two-tliirds 
of the length ; right valve considerably larger than the left ; anterior and 
posterior margins obliquely rounded, superior and inferior margins nearly 
])arallel, gently siuuated in the middle. Outline, as seen from above, sub- 
conical ; greatest width at the posterior extremity, equal to less than half 
the length, obtusely rounded, and emarginate in front, rounded behind. 
Surface marked with very small punctte. Length yL in. 

JIab. The Minch, 45-60 fathoms. 

CtTHEEELLA LiEVIS, U. Sp. 

Valves elliptical, broader in front than behind, greatest height equal to 
two-thirds of the length, broadly rounded in front ; rather narrowed, and 
oblifpiely rounded behind; dorsal margin gently arched, sloping steeply 
behind;" ventral margin straight, or very shghtly incurved. Seen from 
above the valves are compressed, broadest at the posterior third, and rounded 
at each extremity ; smooth, opaque-white. Length -Jy in. 

Hab. The Minch, 45-60 fathoms. 

Only two detached valves of this species were found, but they are suffi- 
ciently distinct from C. Scotka, the only other British species, to require 
separate description. 



Report on Dredging in the Moray Firth. 
By the Rev. Walter Macgregor and Robert Dawson. 

The Committee appointed by the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science for dredging the Moray Eirth engaged the same vessel as they 
did last year, and sailed from Macduff on the 13th of July. They contmued 
at sea for fifteen days. During the whole time the weather was most im- 
favourable, and in consequence the dredgings were in a great measure con- 
fined to the western part of the Eirth. So stormy was_ the weather on the 
18th, that the vessel was obliged to run into Cromarty Eirth. 

In the Eeport laid before the Association at their Meeting of 1865, the 
number of MoUusca belonging to the district was set down at 259. Smce 

p 2 



212 PERORT— 186G. 

that ileeting 13 species have been added to the Est, distributed as follows : 
— Of the Cephalopoda, EJedone octopodia, Sepiola Rondeletii, Lollgo vulgaris, 
and Bepla officinalis ; of the Prosobranchiata, Mangelia hrachystoma, M. ne- 
bula and M. lipvigata (besides M. pjiramidalis in a fossil state), Defrcmcia 
purpurea, ani liissoa costata \ of the Laniellibranchiata, Area pectunculoides 
and Leda pygnicm (two valves of each), both dredged off the Ord of Caith- 
ness, and Scrobicularia nitida. 

It may be worth mentioning, that in Cromarty Baj- the dredges were put 
down in four fathoms of water, and brought up alive Rissoa costuta in 
abundance, Natica Alderi, Leda minuta, Arinus jlexuosus, iScrohicuJaria 
nitida, Corbula gihba, and Panopea plicata. 

Of the Crustaceans (Brachyura) found on this and former occasions, maybe 
mentioned Hyas coarctatus in spawn (July, October, and November), Eury- 
nome aspera, Portunus puher, P. depurafor, P. marmoreus, Ebalia Pennantii, 
E. branchii, Atelecyelus heferodon in groat numbers, and Lithodes Maia. 

Of Anoraoura are the following : — Pagurus lo'vis, Porcellana platychelex 
(one specimen) and P. hngicomis in great abundance, Galathea strigosa and 
G. disperse, Munida liondeletii, CaUianassa suhterranea, Gebia deltura, Ca- 
loearis Macanlrea>, Nephrops norvegicus, and Pandalus annidicornis. 

The examination of the Stomapoda has yielded Vaunthomsonia cristata, 
Ewlora, n. s., and Bodotria arenosa. 

The Amphipoda normalia, so far as examined, have given Ampelisca 
Gdimardii, Urothoii viari)ius, Ampliitho'e rabricata, and Corophium BonelU, 
Many of this class remain unexamined. 

Of the Isopoda aberrantia may be mentioned Tanais Dulongii. The Iso- 
poda are Cerolana hertipes, u^ga bicarinata, and Rocinela Banmonieiisis. 

A Holibut was caught, and off it was taken Lepeophtheinis Idppoglossi. 

The Annelida are as yet unexamined. 

Few species of the Echinodermata came up, the only noteworthy one 
being Bi'yssiopjsis lyrifer. One specimen of Uraster rubens may be men- 
tioned for its size. It measured 18| inches across. 

The Polyzoa and Hydrozoa yielded nothing worthy of remark, except a 
fine specimen oi Rhizostoma pulmo. 

The only specimen of the Actinozoa dredged was a very young Adamsia 
palliata. As the ActinioB, not contained in the former Keport, are mentioned 
in the 'Actinologia Britannica,' it is deemed unnecessary to enumerate them. 

The Committee have to return their warmest thanks to Dr. Gray, 3Ir. 
Bate, Dr. Bowerbank, and the llev. A. il. Norman. Without their help, so 
freelj- and so kindly given, this Keport, as well as the former, would not have 
been half so complete. The Committee have to express their regret that the 
weather was so unpropitious, as they have every reason to think that much 
more would have been accomphshed had they reached one or two of the 
banks on which they were anxious to dredge. 



Report of the Committee on the Transmission of Sound- Signals under 

water. 

At the last Meeting of the Association a Committee, consisting of the Eev, 
Dr. Robinson, Professor 'V^Tieatstone, Dr. Gladstone, and Professor Hennessy, 
was appointed to Report on the transmission of sound-signals under water. 

In the year 1826 M. Colladon made acoustical experiments in the Lake of 
Geneva, which it is unnecessary to further describe, as a detailed account of 



ox TRANSMISSION 01' SOUND-SIGNALS UNDER WATER. 213 

them lias been given by Professor Hennessy in a Report, printed in the volume 
of the Eeports of the Association for 1801*. 

If these experiments should lead to an available means of communication 
between two ships in company at sea, or between a ship and the coast during 
foggy weather, an important purpose would be accomplished. 

At first the attention of the Committee was directed to repeating M. Col- 
ladon's experiments, substituting for the bell he employed cyHndrical bars of 
steel, from 6 to 8 feet in length, and from 1 inch to 1| inch in diameter; 
these were supported on, or suspended from, their nodal points, and struck 
■with hammers of different weights at one of their ends, so as to excite them 
longitudinally. These experiments were made in the large water-trough of 
the Polytechnic Institution, and subsequently in the ornamental waters of the 
Eegent's Park : the available distance in the former case was about seventy 
yards, in the latter about half a mile. Employing CoUadon's ear-trumpet, 
the sounds were very distinctly heard, and even at the short distance in the 
Polytechnic, the sounds through the air were separated from those heard 
through the water by a distinct interval. The character of the sound was, 
however, very different in the two cases ; that transmitted through the water 
being more abrupt, though in both cases they were mere blows or impulses, as 
the method of excitation was not intended to produce continuous musical 
sounds. Though the sounds were not of a character produced by any musical 
instrument, yet a pitch could be recognized in them in the same manner as a 
pitch can be perceived in blows made at different parts of a table. By select- 
ing two bars of different lengths, the sounds produced by each might be com- 
bined in the different orders of succession, which constitute the telegraphic 
alphabet. We did not extend these experiments further on account of the 
expense which would be incurred by the purchase of a sufficient number of 
bars to enable us to ascertain the best dimensions for the effective production of 
the required sounds, and also in the expectation that we might, by the opera- 
tion of some members of the Association, obtain the temporary loan of such 
materials. 

Professor Hennessy, who resides on the sea-side, near Dublin, is willing to 
undertake such further experiments as would be required for testing the 
application of sound-signals in extensive spaces out at sea. On this point Dr. 
Gladstone has already made a few experiments at Eastbourne. He and his 
children had taken two boats when there was considerable movement on the 
surface, and the sounds were produced from one boat while they were listened 
for from the other. Musical sounds appeared to be immediately stopped, while 
a blow struck end ways on an iron bar could bo heard at a great distance. 

Soimds produced in the air did not seem to penetrate through the water ; 
but the sound of breaking waves on the shingle of the shore was distinctly 
heard throiigh the water. This noise heard through the water resembled a 
series of sharp ticks, and could be easily distinguished at a considerable dis- 
tance. The detection of this kind of sound is manifestly interesting with 
reference to the guidance of vessels approaching a coast during the prevalence 
of a fog. Such noises, though extinguished in their passage through air 
during a fog, would still be transmitted through water, so as possibly to act 
at certain parts of the coast as a natural fog-signal. 

The attention of the Committee has been specially directed to the produc- 
tion of musical sounds under water. The instruments which appeared to be 
most available for this purpose were Cagniard de la Tour's Syren, and pipes 
or whistles, in which the vibrations were caused by currents of water in masses 

* Thirty-first Eepcrf, p. 173. 



214 REPORT 1866. 

ot the same liquid. "WTieii limited volumes of water were employed, powerful 
sounds were obtained in both cases ; but in large reservoirs we met with 
an unexpected difRculty, for we found that musical sounds, which could be 
heard through considerable distances in air, became totally extinguished at 
very short distances from the point of origin in water. Even when sounds 
were produced with considerable intensity in a confined vessel, as a pail or 
tub, when the vessel was plunged in a large reservoir the sound communi- 
cated to the air became remarkably deadened, and the intensity was more 
diminished as the instrument was placed at a greater distance beneath the 
surface of the water. The rapid extinction of musical sounds in water ren- 
ders it almost hopeless to employ them for communicating signals in that 
medium. 'SVe must therefore, if this investigation is to be continued, revert 
to experiments similar to those of M. Colladon, and confine ourselves to the 
transmission of shocks or impulses communicated to bars or pieces of metal 
of various forms and dimensions. 



Report of the Lunar Committee for Mapping the Surface of the Moon. 
By W. R. BiRT, at the request of the Committee, consisting of 
James Glaisher, F.R.S., Lord Rosse, F.R.S., Sir John Herschel, 
Bart., F.R.S., Professor Phillips, F.R.S., Warren De la Rue, 
F.R.S., Rev. W. R. Dawes, F.R.S., Rev. T. W. Webb, F.R.A.S., 
J. N. LocKYER, F.R.A.S., H. S. Ellis, F.R.A.S., Herr Schmidt, 
and W. R. Birt, F.R.A.S. 

In the Eeport which I had the honour to present to the Members of the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science at Birmingham, the 
steps taken by the Committee appointed at Bath for ensiu'ing as full and 
accurate a Register of Lunar Objects as could be obtained, wei'e described in 
detail with the Forms issued by the Cominittee for obtaining this object, to 
which were added a few notices of the more remarkable features of the Lunar 
Siu'faee which had presented themselves in the course of observation. 

It was in the first instance proposed to construct an outline 5[ap of the 
Moon's Surface foiu- times the area of that of Beer and Miidler, or 75 inches 
in diameter ; every object entered in the Eegister to be inserted on the Map : 
the outline of a Map of this size was exliibitedto the Section. 

In the Resolution reappointing the Committee, tlie object expressly men- 
tioned, is that " of making further progress in mapping the surface of the 
Moon ;" and while the Committee has not lost sight of the objects contem- 
plated in its original appointment, it has, in consequence of some remarks 
of the President of the Association, Professor Phillips, when the Report was 
read, mainly directed its eflfbrts to the construction of an accurate outUne Map 
of 100 inches in diameter. 

In noticing the progress made in this department of its labours, it may be 
well to glance at the materials at present available for the purpose. These 
are, well- determined positions of the First Order, and existing Photographs. 

In Appendix I. will be found the rectangular coordinates of all the posi- 
tions of the fii'st order determined up to the time of Beer and Miidler. I am 
not aware that any have been determined since, unless Herr Schmidt, of 
Athens, may have added to the number, but his measures are as yet un- 
publisned. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 215 

Of existing photographs, I am a^yal•e of only ouo that can be emploj'ed 
in connexion with positions of the first order for obtaining an approximation 
to the true places of unmeasured points ; but this, which was taken by "Warren 
De La Eue, Esq., on October 4, 1865, at 9'' 0"^ 4% G. M. T., represents 
the disk at an epoch so near that of mean libration, which occurs only once 
in three years, that the abscissas X may be measured on it without appre- 
ciable error, and the ordinates Y require but a small correction. I now 
proceed to notice the work done under these heads. 

My first step was to project orthographically on one sheet of paper a 
.quadrant of the moon's disk of 50 inches radius. The quadrant chosen as 
the most convenient was the fourth. After laying down the meridians 
and parallels, I inserted in this quadrant all the points of the first order, 
amounting only to twenty-three (see Appendix I.). It is greatly to be regretted 
that these points are so few, and that the triangles of which they form 
the points are so large, as in employing photographs taken at any other 
epoch than that of mean libration, or, indeed, by using any method, so far 
as I am aware, except determinations of the first srder, libration enters so 
extensively, that even at short distances from these points the results of 
measures become very uncertain ; and as the formula; for computing the 
existing libration at any given epoch are only available for determining the 
selenographical longitude and latitude of the centre of the apparent disk at 
that epoch, and do not assist in the determination of the position of any other 
point except by the aid of direct measures and the computation of certain 
angles, it is the more important to augment the number of positions of the 
first order. With this view, I have prepared from Lohrmann's work, ' Topo- 
graphic der Sichtbaren Mondoberflache,' compared with Beer and Madler's 
' Der Mond,' a modification of the forms adopted by those selenographers for 
this purpose according to the method of Encke, which necessarily includes 
the computation of the libration. (See Appendix II.) 

The twenty-three points of the first order in Quadrant IV. were carefully 
laid down by du-ect measurement from the equator and first meridian, and 
checked in every case by measuring from point to point the sides of the 
triangles formed by them, and given by Beer and Miidler in ' Der Mond,' pp. 
80-82. Taking the moon's semidiameter equal unity, the greatest error (a 
solitary instance) amounted to -0008, which is much less than errors arising 
from contraction &c. of the paper employed. In addition to points of the 
first order, several of the second order have been inserted. 

The coincidence of the equator of the photograph of October 4, 18(35, 
enlarged to 10 inches in diameter, with that of the moon was next ascertained. 
At mean libration the moon's equator is projected on the disk as a straight 
line, and if the i^hotograph be taken at the exact instant of mean libration, 
the moon's equator will coincide with a straight line across the disk equally 
distant from each pole. The appearance of the moon Avhen full difi'crs, as 
is well known, fi-om that which is presented at the various phases ; many 
prominent objects quite disaj^pcar, and it is not so easy to pick out those 
that can be seen as when they are near the terminator. I was able, how- 
ever, to ascertain, with some degree of precision, the following points : — South 
of the Equator— Messier, Theophilus, Dollond, Albategnius, Herschel, and 
Gassendi ; North of the Equator — Picard, Dionysius,- Linne Aristillus, Pico, 
and Kepler. Appendix IV. contains the measures of these points from the 
apparent equator on the photograph, and the comparison of them with the 
abscissse of the same points given by Beer and Miidler. The mean diff'erence 
for those south of the equator is -0019, and for those north of the equator 



216 REPORT— 1866, 

•0052, moon's scmitliamctcr = 1-0. It is consequently assumed that measures 
for latitude south of the equator will not involve any great error in trans- 
ferring them to the larger scale of 100 inches. The lihration in latitude 
= _0° 20' + ; in longitude — 0° 40' +, 

The measures of the above-named points, fi-om the apparent central meri- 
dian for longitude, were, as might he expected from the greater amount of 
lihration in longitude,, not so accordant with the ordinatcs as those for latitude 
Avere with the abScissDe ; the mean of the most accordant differences west of 
the meridian amounts to as much as -OlOo, while east= -007. A correction 
of -020 has consequently been applied to all measures west of the meridian. 
Under these circumstances, it is considered that as close an approximation as a 
combination of direct measurement with measures on photographs taTien at or 
near the epoch of mean lihration will afford, has been obtained for the basis of 
the Map. Still, for obvious reasons, it would be well to augment positions of 
the first order, especially as outlines laid down from a photograph taken at 
full moon differ materially from those furnished by a photograph taken at an 
earlier or later phase. 

Among the forms issued by the Committee last year was one (Form No. 2) 
for aiding in the formation of a catalogue of lunar objects by symbolizing 
them (see Report, 1 865, p. 288), by means of which each area of 5° of latitude 
and 5° of longitude is distinguished by a distinct symbol, IV A", IV A/^, &c., 
for example. Every object discernible on the photograph of October 4, 1865, 
between 0° and 15° of longitude and 0° and 10° of latitude, has been carefully 
measured, and inserted on the projection of Quadrant IV. above-mentioned, 
the areas included being IV A«, IV A.^, IV Ay, IV A ?, IV A-J, and IV A^. The 
angular points bounding the portion of the surface thus measured are as 
follows : — The centre of the moon's visible disk in mean lihration, and the 
region between Ptolcmaus and Albategnius on the east, and Dollond and 
Theon Senior on the west. This region forms part of the mountainous 
district between the Sinus Medii and Hare TranquiUifatis, and is characf 
terized by great diversity and irregularity of surface. As the direction in 
which the light is received from the moon when full is nearlj' the same — but 
reversed — as that in which it falls upon the surface from the sun, it is clear 
we have on the photograph of the full moon the " ground markings " on the 
visible disk destitute of all hypsometrical affections, and the light and shade 
indicate the reflective power of the surface only. There are a variety of 
degrees of reflective power ; but from an attentive consideration of the pho- 
tograph, they maj' generally be regarded as Jive, from the bright white surface 
surrounding many craters to the dark surfaces of the Maria. A tracing of 
the markings thus laid down has been executed, in which a conventional 
mode has been introduced for distinguishing the variety of tints. This 
tracing is very useful for comparing the features of the full moon with those 
observed at earlier and later phases, and some interesting results have been 
obtained, to which allusion will be made presently. 

If the features of the full moon only were laid down on a map, the student 
would be utterly unable to recognize any of the minute details which are 
•seen near the terminator. In the absence of a photograph taken sufficiently 
near the epoch of mean lihration for the coordinates of each object as seen 
near the terminator to be measured, that it maj- at once be transferred to 
its proper place on the Map (opportunities for obtaining such a photograph 
will not occur until 186S),the mode that presents itself for dealing with the 
more minute details is to measure on another photograph such details from 
the nearest point of (he first order, having identified as nearly as possible the 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE 01' THE MOOX. 217 

corresponding prominent featiu-es in the two photographs. As before re- 
marked, the photograph of October 4, 1865, is that of full moon ; the one 
employed for the smaller and more striking detail is that taken by AVarren 
De La Eue, Esq., on February 22, 1858, enlarged on glass to 8-75 inches in 
diameter. On neither of the six ai'cas above mentioned does a point of tho 
first order occur, and the nearest to areas IV A*, lY A^ is the central moun- 
tain of Albatcgnius in IV A-^. From the veiy nature of the apparent changes 
effected in the visible disk by libration, it is clear that such measures as those 
just alluded to cannot possess much claim to accuracy when referred to the 
mean projection, except ivhen made in the immediate neighhourlwod of a point 
of the first order, or near a point that has been well identified ; all other 
positions can only be considered as approximate ; indeed, when the lines 
measured approach the tenth part of the moon's scmidiameter in length they 
are quite useless; still, with a proper amoimt of care the approximation 
capable of being attained may be sufficiently close for all the purposes of a 
map, especially if all well-detcrmiucd positions be distinctly indicated. The 
reader may easily convince himself of the difiiculty of combining portions of 
photographs taken at differing intervals from the epoch of mean libration by 
simply making enlarged tracings of such portions and supervising the one on 
the other ; he will soon see they will not fit ; added to this is the effect 
produced by variation of distance ; two photographs taken at mean libration 
will not quite agree, the features of that taken at perigee will manifestly be 
larger than if it were taken at apogee. 

Notwithstanding these difliculties, numerous objects have been inserted on 
Areas IV A«, IV A.^, IV A ^, and IV An from the photograph of February 22, 
1858, and other sources, and a drawing made of the area IVxi^. This has 
been enlarged to a scale of 400 inches = moon's diameter*. Each object, as 
it is inserted in the map and drawing, is entered in Form No. 3. (See Eeport, 
1865, p. 296.) Appendix III. contains a catalogue of these objects. The num- 
bers in each of the above-named areas are as follows: — IV A", 88, IV A/^, 21, 
IVA^, IMjIVAi, 25. 

There are a few points of interest which attach to the features thus in- 
serted. It is well known that Tycho is the centre of the most magnificent 
system of rays or lucid bands on the moon's surface, and that this system is 
seen to the greatest advantage at the time of full moon ; accordingly, the 
photograph of October 4, 1865, furnishes the best means for depicting under 
that aspect, the rays emanating from Tycho. Three of these rays cross the 
areas above-mentioned; the two eastern rays cross the areas IV A«, IV A?, 
and the west ray crosses the areas IV A/^, IV A''. These rays Avill be referred 
to in Appendix III., which contains an abbreviated catalogue of the objects 
alread}- mapped and inserted in the drawings ; nevertheless it may be proper 
to mention here that all three are coincident with ranges of high land, as seen 
in the photograph of Febniary 22, 1858, which in some places are much 
broken, and in others rise into rocky eminences. The middle of these rays 
passes along the east border of Albatcgnius, and the western along the west 
border. The west border of Ptolempeus forms part of the eastern ray. 

Another feature bearing remotely on the above-nam.ed areas is the exist- 
ence of two " raj-- centres" in the neighbourhood of Fvirncrius. These ray- 
centres are depicted bj^ Hevelius in his Sclenographia, figs. and P, similar 
as Beer and Mitdler remark to two pairs of crab-claws, the rays going north- 

* It was exhibited at the Meeting. 



318 REPORT — 18G6. 

ward. It appears from ' Der Mond/ p. 375, that Boer and Miidlcr not only 
saw one of the northern branches extending from Furnerius A about fifty-five 
English miles, but also traced a southern and hrvjhtcr branch from this crater 
extending as far as ninety English miles. They appear to be silent as to 
any radiating streaks. Beer and Miidler also speak of one near Stevinus. I 
have not yet been able to identify Beer and Miidler's positions. These " ray- 
centres " are quite perceptible on the photograph, and the rays can be well 
traced as far as the neighbourhood of Godin and jigrippa. The rays from 
the easternmost centre bend round, and form branches of parabolic curves. 
In areas III A^, IV A^, and IN Ayi, there is a considerable parallelism be- 
tvreen several of the mountain-ranges and valleys, and these are seen on the 
photographs, taken when Copernicus is near the terminator, gradually to fall 
into the curves formed by the rays from the east centre. The valleys and 
mountain-ranges are particvilarly specified in Appendix III. 

The occurrence of" light-centres," hitherto, I believe, unnoticed*, is another 
feature of much interest. There are in the mountainous district before men- 
tioned, between the Sinus Mcdil -AnAMare TranquiJlitaiis, four such centres. 
They appear to be subordinate to ray-centres, are generally in immediate 
connexion with craters, the interiors of which are very bright, and the light 
spreads more or less regularly on all sides of them, as if the surface around 
them consisted of strongly reflective materials. The north border of the 
crater and light- centre IV A'' •^, which is very deep, is cracl-ed, and the crack 
appears to penetrate the depth of the crater. This crack forms the south 
part of the rill Xo. 362 of Schmidt's Catalogue, and is connected with a 
"fault" which extends as far as and dislocates the west border of Rha^ticus 
in the neighbourhood of the equator. If the crack, rill, and fault ori- 
ginated at an epoch when IV A'' ^ was in a state of activity, the con- 
vulsion of the interior must have been considerable, IV A'' " being about 7° 
south of the equator, although nothing in comparison with that which 
produced the bands issuing from Tycho and the two ray-centres in the south- 
west. 

* During the passage of these sheets tlirongli the press, the Kev. T. AY. Wobb called 
my attention to Beer and Miidler's remarks on the crater "Euclides," as showing that it 
belongs to the class of " light-centres." Mr. Webb has kindly favoured lue with a trans- 
lation, and Beer and Miidler's observations arc so much to the point that I gladly insert 
them. For the original consult ' Der Mond,' p. 313. 

" Euclides especially distinguishes itself among the liy Id-surrounded (which are by no 
means to be confounded with the radiating) craters. It is encompassed by a very bright 
lumuious area, rather triangular than circular, brightest at its foot, but losmg itself in- 
definitely on eveiy side. It may be perceived as far as Iv and £, aud consequently about 
6 miles (27'6 miles English) away to the north. The whole lucid spot is quite flat and 
hes in tlio level of the Mare, witli the exception of some vei-y inconspicuous hills that are 
of no importance iii comparison with the wall of Euclides. 

" This altogether peculiar icliitish nimbus sliows itself only near a few craters of the 
moon's surface, of which not one has more than li mile (about 7 miles EngUsh) in dia- 
meter, and they almost aU lie between T 30' and 46° of longitude, and between the 
equator and 15° of latitude. The radiating ring mountains are coUectively much larger, 
do not show their gi-eatest brightness immediately at the foot, and extend this brightness 
in long streaks. Craters with a brighter neighbourliood, which generally arises from sur- 
rounding terraces, show themselves in abundance, but we may soon convince otu-selves by 
mere inspection that this has nothing in common with the here mentioned appearance. 
The craters belonging to this class are collectively very deep, strictly circular, never less 
than 1° bright, little differing in respective magnitude, and extremely obvious under every 
iUummation. The luminosity near Mosting c is quite of another natui-e, and that near 
Lichtenberg does not show itself on every side, is fainter, and light-red rather than 
whitish." 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 219 

The four areas I Y A", TV A/3, lY X'i, and IV A 'J are characterized by sevc- 
rd faults; the particulars of those- in IV A* and IV A ^ will be found in Ap- 
pendix III. 

In the Eeport presented at Bii-mingham, allusion A^as made to the measure- 
ment of the diameters of craters for the determination of magnitude. It is 
worthy of remark that measures have been taken of some of the larger craters 
inserted in areas IVA/^ and IV A*?, and upon comparison these measures have 
been found to agree nearly with those taken from the photograph. 

During the past year Herr Schmidt, of Athens, has issued a catalogue of 
425 rills ; 278 of these have been discovered by himself. They consist of 
rills, crater-rills, crater-rows, and valleys with some faults. In the cata- 
logiie of objects on area IV A^, which forms part of Appendix III., are ei"ht 
not to be found in his printed catalogue. Four of these have been disco- 
vered since July 20, 1866. The great fault crossing the area from Tycho is 
not included. 

The number of series of observations of the moon's surface as described in 
the last Eeport (Report, 1865, p. 303), now amount to 490. The progress of 
the actual work as regards the registration of the objects observed, and others 
of a conspicuous character on the moon's surface during the past year, is 
shown in the following digest. 

At the Bath Meeting 386 objects were symbolized and registered ; at the 
Birmingham Meeting 785 ; and at the jN'ottingham Meeting 1321 ; of these 
536 were symbolized and registered in the fifty weeks betM-cen the Meetings 
of the Association at Birmingham and Nottingham. 

The 1321 objects are disposed over the moon's surface as follows : — 

396 on 70 areas in Quadrant I. 

346 „ 86 „ „ „ II. 

163 „ 53 „ „ „ III. 

416 „ 62 „ „ „ IV. 

Total 1321 271 areas* on the moon's surface. 

Previous to the Meeting at Birmingham, the regions and groups that 
had been the subjects of special observation were : — On Quadrant I. the rill 
system of Triesnecker ; the great riU of Ariadaeus ; the Plain of Dionysius ; 
the walled formation Posidonius, and the Mare Crisium, especially the craters 
on its surface. (See Ptcport, 1865, pp. 292, 293.) On Quadrant II. the 
Teneriffe Mountains, Plato, and its neighbourhood, and the valley J. J. 
Cassini. On Quadrant III. the walled plain Gassendi, and the tableland 
" Terra Photographica " (De La Rue). 

The extension of the Register by the addition of 536 objects during the 
past year, has reference, first, to the symbolization of points of the first 
order. Beer and Miidlcr have expi-essed these points in their Hst — which I 
have of course followed — too vaguely, and it requires some searching in the 
topographical part of ' Dor Mond ' to find the exact object intended. By 
appending the symbol, as I have done in Appendix I., when the Register is 
sufficiently advanced for publication in a consecutive from, the identification 
of each point will be easy. Second, the mapping out of the areas IVA", 
IVA/5, IVAT',_IVA^, IVA'', and IVA^, has necessarily involved the symboliza- 
tion of the objects on this part of the moon, so that to the above-named regions 
that of Hipparchus and its neighboui-hood may now be added. 

* The reader -will find a description and symbolization of these areas in the Eeport of 
the Lunar Committee presented at Birmingham. (Eeport, 1865, p. 287 et seq.) 



220 



REPORT 1866. 



Appendix I. 
Points of the First Order. 



Zone. 



I. 

I. 

]. 

I. 

III. 
V. 
V. 
V. 

vir, 

VII. 

VI [. 

IX. 

XI. 

XI. 

XI. 

XI. 

XIII. 

XIII. 

XVII. 

XVII. 

XVII. 

XVII. 

XIX. 

XXIII. 

XXIII. 

XXIII. 

XXV. 

XXV. 



Quadrant I. 



Symbol. 



Name. 



Lat. N. 



I J)a2 

IB«» 
lA*" 
IAy« 

I CO 2 

lAf^a 
IC^' 
I A" 2 
IB^a 

1BP3 

lAfi 
IFy2 
IF«2 

lEV 
1G»3 

I K ^2 

IE?4 

IEt2 

IFvS 

IQaZ 
IFirS 

ILfa 

II»2 
II?2 
IK"! 



Schubert A ' 2 

Maskelyne 

Dionysius .... 

Agrippa 

Taruntius 

Hansen A 

Manilius 

Picard 

Plinius 

Proclus 

Vitruvius 

Conon 

Romer 

Le Monnier A 

Linne 

Cleoraedes A .. 
PosidoniusA .. 

Aristillus 

Cassini A 

Cepheus A 

StruveB 

Cnrg 

Hercules 

Endyniion G .., 
Aristotelis C .., 

Archytas 

Thales 

Democriius ... 



Long. W. 



X». 



Y*. 



2 

2 

4 

5 

'3 

14 

14 

J5 

16 

17 
21 

^5 
25 
27 
28 

31 

33 

40 

40 
43 

44 
46 

56 
57 
58 
61 
62 



27 42 
31 38 

5° 55 

4 i5 

40 10 

17 19 

26 54 

27 44 

17 20 
9 8 

36 10 
31 27 

18 SI 

59 30 

47 13 
23 58 

35 39 
45 27 

22 44 

59 *o 
20 14 

57 9 

23 22 

28 30 
26 3 

24 I 

58 24 
8 21 



34 
5 



77 J5 5« 
29 34 58 
17 8 40 

10 22 13 

45 58 24 
74 o 8 

8 46 56 

53 52 8 
23 23 28 

46 31 
31 2 

I 57 18 
36 19 6 
29 3 50 

11 32 28 

54 17 25 
29 7 24 

I o 42 
4 8 55 

45 39 42 
64 47 4 

27 3' 57 
38 23 26 
54 18 26 
23 33 41 
4 13 3 
49 12 23 
33 3° 21 



•04295 
•04409 
•C4970 
•07099 
•09879 
•22985 
•24949 

•24974 
•26369 
•27819 
•30229 
•36689 
•42758 
•43824 
•46618 
•47562 
•52389 

•55567 
•64784 
•65592 
•68629 
•7C651 
•72405 
•83364 
•84277 
•85173 
•88273 
•88406 



■97449 
■49332 
•29442 

■'7955 
•71550 

■93563 
•14824 
•78208 
•38287 
•69704 
•49165 
•03173 

■53540 
•43665 
•17697 
•71427 

■4'455 
•01468 
•05512 
•53986 
65802 
•32714 
•42834 

■44856 
■21516 

■03854 
■35573 
■25797 



Quadrant II. 
Lat. N. 



Long. E. 



I. 

IIL 

IIL 

IIL 

IIL 

IIL 

V. 

VI L 

IX. 

]X. 

IX. 

IX. 

XL 

XL 

XL 
XIIL 
XIIL 
XIIL 
XVIl. 
XVII. 
XVIL 
XIX. 
XXI. 
XXV. 
XXVII. 



II Al^ 

II c^'-' 

11 A?' 
IIP/ 2 
II 0?=* 
II A' - 
II A" 2 

II er^ 



u2 

j<J12 



II A^ 

lie 

"^ 

II B 

II E^^* 

II f;^ 

II F*^, 
II F*/ 

II g" 
HE*' 
Iippi 

II G"' 

IIEX'o 
IIK«2 

III'^' 



Gambart A..., 

Reiner 

Bode 

Kepler 

Olbers 

Copernicus.... 
Eratostlienes . 
T. Mayer .... 

Pytheas 

Seleucus 

Euler 

Aristarcbus . 
Timocbaris.... 

La Hire 

Delisle 

Wollaston .... 
Licbtenberg . 

Carlini 

Ilcraclides .... 

Harding 

Laplace A .... 

Pico 

Uarpalus 

Pythagoras A. 
Epigenes H . 



o 
6 
6 

7 
7 
9 
14 
15 
20 
20 
22 

23 
26 
27 

29 

30 

31 

33 
41 
43 
43 
45 
52 
63 
67 



50 


30 


30 


37 


37 


54 


46 


13 


55 


16 


20 


57 


25 


46 


32 

1 A 


30 



14 3 
54 21 
57 51 

17 17 
42 44 

18 25 

59 20 
17 15 
25 20 

22 45 

7 46 

8 41 
16 21 
28 7 
28 41 

3 'i4 
53 30 



18 45 12 

54 43 41 

2 30 48 

37 42 18 
77 32 31 
55 48 
32 II 
28 49 41 
20 34 13 
65 48 19 
28 56 59 
47 12 9 
12 59 44 
25 9 40 
34 47 57 
46 54 14 
5 
o 



'9 
II 



67 
24 
34 1 
70 52 
26 33 



3 
46 



33 

31 

36 20 



9 
43 

61 36 45 
10 31 o 



•01469 

•11335 
•11549 
•13520 
•13781 
•16245 
•24919 
■26794 
•34586 
•35683 
•39016 
■39536 
•44951 
■45875 
■49984 

■50434 
•52134 

•55017 
•65776 
•68385 
•68545 
•71287 
•79310 
•89150 
•92647 



•32138 
•81115 

■04356 
•60597 
•96729 

■33634 
•19368 

•46455 
•32968 
•85211 

•44567 
•67397 
•20086 

•37777 
•49430 
•63052 
•78601 
■33982 

•42144 
•68933 

■32558 
•11223 
•42005 

•39854 
•06869 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 
Appendix I. (TabJe continued). 



221 



Quadrant III. 

Lat. S. Long E. 



Zone. 


Symbol. 


11. 


Ill B"^ 


11. 


IIIA^2 


11. 


III B* ' 


11. 


III C" 2 


IV. 


III A? 3 


IV. 


IIIB?' 


IV. 


Ill A' 2 


VI. 


IIIA^' 


VI. 


III B" • 


VIII. 


III C^ 1 


VIII. 


IIIB<^* 


X. 


inA'* 


X. 


IIIC^ 


X. 


IIIA^'^ 


X. 


IIID^i 


X. 


IIIC"^' 


XII. 


HIE* 2 


XI[. 


IIIF"2 


XIV. 


IIIF«2 


XIV. 


IIIE12 


XIV. 


IIIF12 


XIV. 


III G>i > 


XVIII. 


III F" J 


XVIII. 


IIIE<^2 


XVIII. 


IIIF'^i 


XX. 


III EX 2 


XXII. 


III L^ 1 


XXIV. 


III 1 92 


XXIV. 


III K?2 


XXVIII. 


IIIIP2 



Name. 



Landsberg .... 

Lalande 

Flamsteed ..., 
Griraaldi A..., 

Herschel , 

Euclides 

Parry A , 

Alphonsus A , 

Billy 

Criiger 

Gassendi 

Bullialdus ... 
Eichstadt B 
ThebitA ... 
Eichstadt ... 

Byrgius 

Hesiodus B 
Campanus ... 

Vitello 

Hell 

Ramsden . . . 
Fourier B . . . 

Drebbel 

Tycho 

Hainzel A ... 
Maginus A ... 
Phocylides E 
Clavius C ... 
Scheiner A ... 
Moretus 



Lat. N. 



4 
4 

4 
5 
7 

9 
iz 

13 
i6 

i6 

20 
20 
21 



29 51 
20 3 

30 48 

54 27 
37 6 
10 21 
19 44 
59 21 
59 45 
45 37 

55 4° 
iS 56 

31 15 
17 34 



21 39 I 



24 
26 
27 
30 
3» 
3* 
32 
40 
42 
42 

49 

54 

57 

59 
69 



22 43 

50 26 

36 50 

o 20 

58 59 

25 48 
40 50 

47 21 
52 19 

59 26 

57 17 
34 48 
16 47 

58 26 
45 *5 



Long. W. 



26 33 49 

8 44 23 

44 12 8 

70 53 28 

297 

29 15 47 

IS 39 40 

3 14 28 

49 57 40 

66 40 15 

39 31 37 
22 611 



X*. 



70 27 

5 47 

77 17 

63 30 

16 59 35 

27 27 I 

37 8 26 

8 19 54 

31 41 55 
56 49 40 
48 12 39 
II 52 25 
29 24 45 

7 5 5° 
55 34 35 
14 40 26 
26 36 13 

7 8 38 



•00868 

■07557 
•07864 
•08555 
•09789 
•12485 
•162:0 
•22477 
•24185 
•28836 
•29117 
■34910 

■35054 
•36312 
•36894 
•41277 
•45150 
•46351 
•50010 
•52967 
•53627 
•53996 
•65328 
•68036 
•68187 

■76553 
•81493 

•84132 

•86580 

■93823 



.44716 
•15151 
•69502 
•94141 
•03737 
•48500 
•26638 
•05509 
•74288 
•87925 
■60885 
•35260 
•88256 
•09392 
•90665 
•81515 
•26077 
•40847 
•52264 
•12291 

•44351 
•70451 
•56449 

■15079 

•35839 
•07949 

•47807 

•13693 

•22407 

•04303 



Quadrant IV. 
Lat. S. 



Long. W. 



IL 


IV B^' 


H. 


IV A* 2 


II. 


IV B^' 


IV. 


rvB''2 


IV. 


IV c»' 


IV. 


IV C"! 


IV. 


IV B" 


VI. 


IV A" 1 


vr. 


IV B^' 


VI. 


IVA^2 


VI. 


IV A"' 


X. 


IVC^i 


X. 


IV A" 2 


X. 


rvcx2 


xn. 


IV E''' 


x[r. 


IV F^ 2 


XIV, 


IV E* 2 


XIV. 


IVGi^ 


xvin. 


lYfr2 


XVIII. 


IVEo-2 


XVIII. 


IV G^' 


XX. 


IV F?* 2 


XXVI. 


IV K^' 



Censorinus..., 
Delambre .... 

Messier 

Capella 

Langrenus .... 
Lapeyrouse A. 
Goclenius ..., 

DoUond 

Theophilus.... 
Albategnius 
CvrillusA ... 

B'iot 

Sacrobosco A 
Petavius A ... 

Werner 

Piccolomini 
Lindenau ... 
Furnerius A 

Faliricius 

Maurolycus A 

Vega A 

Pitiscus A ... 
Mutus 



o 
I 
I 

7 
8 

9 

9 

10 

II 

II 

13 

22 

23 

24 
27 
29 
31 
33 
42 
43 
44 
49 
63 



26 


35 


47 
58 


17 
55 


32 


41 


22 


29 


23 


20 


58 46 1 


14 


59 


21 


3 


21 


20 


3° 
20 


3 
16 


42 
38 


5 
51 


45 


42 


10 


50 


52 
6 
8 


6 

4 



23 


20 


56 

58 

6 


54 

43 

5 



32 21 31 


•00773 


17 15 9 


•031Z0 


47 9 li 


•03458 


34 48 14 


•13130 


60 34 9 


•14561 


73 52 41 


•16313 


44 27 2 


•17329 


14 II 53 


•17794 


26 18 16 


•19682 


3 58 13 


•19689 


22 41 20 


•23346 


50 4 24 


■38007 


15 40 55 


■40197 


59 15 48 


•41733 


2 58 10 


•465S0 


31 35 22 


•48756 


24 29 31 


•52797 


57 51 52 


•54612 


40 46 


■67086 


13 40 47 


■6S694 


68 44 


•70646 


29 32 49 


•76581 


29 21 50 


■89181 



•53520 

•29644 

■73274 
•56582 

•86165 
■94779 

•6S970 
•24136 

■43447 
•06788 

■37657 
•70932 

•24749 
•78111 
•04584 
■45519 

•35206 

■70937 
■48424 
•17186 

■65955 
•31712 
•22183 



* In the last Report (Report, 1865, p. 295) will be found an explanation of the coordi- 
nates X and Y, with the formulae for computing them wlien the position of the object on 
the moon's surface has been determined. 



232 REPORT— 1866. 

Addenda to Appendix I. 

Beer and Madler, with the view of determining the position of the north- 
pole of the moon, ascertained by measures of the First Order, direct and 
differential, the latitudes and longitudes of the following points (all moun- 
tains): — Euctcmon c and I, Gioja y, three with high northern latitudes and 
~ west longitudes considerably exceeding 90°, Anaxagoras i within 5° of the 
pole and 108° east longitude, and Gioja a within 2° of the pole and 7° east 
longitude ; the last comes within the orthographical projection mean libra- 
tion, the others are not visible in mean libration. The drawing of these and 
neighbouring points (without the parallel and decUnatiou- circles) forms 
Table I. of Beer and Miidler's ' Beitriige zur physischen Kenntniss der himm- 
lischen Kor2)er im Sonnensysteme.' The observations and results are recorded 
on pp. 6G and 67. The best time for comparing the drawing with the moon is 
when she has high south latitude. 

Lat. Long. 

Euctemon e 78 1 46 N. 126 37 35 W. 

Euctemon Z 83 16 27 N. 118 40 W. 

Gioja y 86 44 33 N. 174 46 33 AV. 

Anaxagoras i 85 24 N. 108 14 35 E. 

Giojaa 88 4 41 N. 7 2 9 E. 

Appendix II. — Deteemhtation op Points op the Eiest Oedeb. 
Explanation of Terms used in this Appendix, 

LiBRATiox nr lATirrDE arises principally from the northern and southern 
parts of the lunar globe coming alternately into view in consequence of the 
inclination of the plane of the moon's orbit to that of the ecliptic. 

LiBKATioN IN lONGiTTJDE aiiscs from thc same hemisphere of the moon 
being constantly directed, not towards the earth, but towards the other focus 
of the elliptic orbit of the moon, in conseq.uence of which, while the moon 
describes the perigean portion of her orbit, the first meridian, from which 
all seleuographical longitudes are reckoned, is gradually transferred from 
west to east. The same meridian is transferred from east to west during the 
period that the moon describes the apogean part of her orbit. The same 
hemisphere being directed always towards the other focus of the elliptic orbit, 
is the result of the uniformity of the rotation of the moon on her axis. 

Geocentric latitude and longitude of the moon's centre is the latitude 
and longitude of the moon's centre as seen from the earth's centre reckoned 
from and on the ecliptic. 

Selenocenteic latitudes and longitudes are latitudes and longitudes of 
points on the moon's surface as seen from the centre of the moon. Lati- 
tudes are reckoned from the moon's equator, and longitudes are reckoned 
071 the moon's equator from the point at which the moon's equator intersects 
the ecliptic. This point, which is the ascending node of the moon's equator, 
is rigorously identical with the descending node of thc moon's orbit. 

Belenogeaphical latitudes and longitudes are the latitudes and longi- 
tudes of points of the moon's surface reckoned as on the earth's surface 
from the equator of the moon and the fii-st meridian. See fig. 6, p. 228. 

General Principles. 

1. The great importance of augmenting the number of points of the first 
order — for the purpose of mapping the surface of the moon on a large scale, 
and more especially for drawing up monograms of special portions on a still 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



223 



larger scale, in each of which, there should be a point of the first order — 
being apparent, this Appendix contains a form of computation based on 
Encke's method, and modified from Lohrmann's and Beer and Miidler's 
works, and as libration enters as a necessaiy element into the calculation, it 
is preceded by an investigation of libration in latitude and longitude. For 
the MS. from which the greatest part of this investigation is taken I am in- 
debted to A. C. Eanyard, Esq., of Cambridge. I must, however, remark that 
the formulae are derived from the ' Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch fiir 1843.' 

2. The investigation of libration consists of three parts, viz., that of the 
angle C, or the angle which the meridian passing through the middle of the 
moon's apparent disk makes with the circle of declination ; that of libration 
in latitude and that of libration in longitude. The meridian passing through 
the middle of the apparent disk should be carefully distinguished from the 
fii'st meridian on the moon's surface, from which all selenographical longi- 
tudes are reckoned both east and west. 

3. It wiU greatly assist in the conception of libration if the following 
principles be borne in mind. 

Three planes being supposed to pass through the moon's centre, viz. the 
plane of the moon's equator, the plane 
of her orbit, and a plane parallel to the 
plane of the ecliptic, the last will lie 



Fig. 1. 
moot's Orbif 




■^■foon's jSquator 



between the others, and will intersect 
them in the line in which they in- 
tersect each other. 

In consequence of this law the 
longitude of the ascending node of the 
moon's equator on the ecliptic always 
diflfers by 180° from the longitude of 

the ascending node of the orbit. The inclination of the moon's equator to 
the ecliptic is 1° 32' 9", the inclinatioji of the plane of the orbit is about 5° 9'. 

Investigation of tlie angle C. 
4. Conceive the moon's centre to be the centre of the celestial sphere. In 

Fig. 2. 

p Moon'sFole. 



Earth's Pole. 



Moon's 




[m Equator. 



fig. 2, 1' is the pole of the moon's equator, ISTj p m the mOon's' equator, Y" 2^i e 



224 - REPORT— 1866. 

is the great circle parallel to tlie earth's equator, v its pole, Y'N'^c is tho 
great circle parallel to the plane of the ecliptic. 

5. In the spherical triangle T N^ N^ the angle N'j 7" N'^ = w the obliquity 
of the ecliptic, the angle y N, Nj=I, the inclination of the moon's equator 
to the ecliptic, and X'^^—'^y the longitude of the ascending node of the 
moon's equator. 

This last quantity is obtained by adding 180° to the longitude of the 
ascending node of the orbit given in p. 242 of the ' Nautical Almanac' If 
the sum exceed a whole circumference, 300° must be subtracted. 

G. Let the angle N.^ N, e=i, the inclination of the moon's equator to the 
earth's equator, ^yhich is equal to the arc m e or P tt. 

7. Let T 1^1= S'> the distance fi-om the first point of Aries of the 
ascending node of the moon's equator on the earth's equator, or the right 
ascension of the ascending node of the moon's equator on the earth's equator, 
and N N2=A, the arc between the two nodes on the moon's equator, or the 
arc on the moon's equator from its ascending node on the earth's equator to 
its ascending node on the ecliptic. 

Then, by known formulas in spherical trigonometry, 

^ cos|(w-I)^ ?3 ^ ^ sin^(a,— I) 83 

tan A=— — T7 — TT\ t'™ "o') ^^^^ li=^-7— 1 / , tn tan -y 
cosg(w + i) .:: sm 3 (w + i; z, 

. i sin Hw— I) . ?3, ^ a , t) ^ - a -n 

sm —= ;=^3 sin-^' A = A + B, £3 =A— B. 

2 sm B 2 

These are the formuloe for calculating the values of i A and S ' given on 
p. X of the ' Nautical Almanac' 

8. Let a, fig. 2, be any point in the celestial sphere, of which the posi- 
tion is given by the selenocentric longitude 1, reckoned from T to N^, and 
then along the moon's equator to p, and by the selenocentric latitude, 
ffp=(j,^. Also, let the coordinates of the same point referred to the plane 
parallel to the earth's equator be T ra- = a,, and w a=S^, and let the angle 
P(r7r = C'; then in the triangle P tt (t, P Tr=:i, P <7 = 90°-(/,„ tt (r = 90°-S„ 
the angle tt P (r=90°- N, ^^ = 90°- (N^^^ + N^N.,) = 90°- (1,- ?S +A) 
{•.• r N,= ?8 }, and the angle Ptt (r=180°-w f =180°-(90°-N, ^!r)=90° 
4-N,Br=90°+ai-g'; {•.• rN^=83'}. Hence 

sin C _ sin (90° - (1, - gg + A) ) ! cos (1, - gg + A) 
sin i ■ sin (90°-^J ~ cos S, ' ^^' 

sin C sin(90° + g,— £3') _cos(g,- £3') 

sin i ~ sin (90°— ^J cos cp^ 

9. The equations in section 8 relative to the angle C arc general, the 
point a- not having been defined. If, however, we suppose that <r and a-^ 
represent those points on the moon's surface that are cut by the line joining 
the centres of the earth and moon, and that <r is situated on the hemisphere 
turned towards the earth, <r^ wiU be situated on the opposite or superior 
hemisphere. Now i^;=the selenocentric latitude of the point <r, and this is 
equal to the selenocentric latitude of the centre of the apparent disk, as o- is 
in the line joining the centres of the earth and moon, but this is equal to 
the geocentric latitude ivlth opposite slr/ns, i.e. if i'=the moon's geocentric 
latitude ^1 = — V. 

In adapting the formulce in section 8 to the position of tr, viz. towards 
the earth, let a' and h' be the moon's apparent M, and N.P.D. corrected for 
parallax, then by the definition of the point ir, a^ =180° + a', 0, = — ?>', 
%^= —l', and 1^=1+ 180°, Idiifering from \, the moon's geocentric longitude 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



225 



by a small angle found subsequently. These substitutions being made in the 
formulae for sin C, and changing C into C, we have 

(?-?8+A) 



sin C= — sill i cos 



cos 



sin 



. cos(a'— £3') 

1 71 '^ 

cos b 



which are the formulae on p. s of the * Nautical Almanac ' for computing the 
angle C. 

10. The angle C changes sign with cos («'— 8 ') and i, the change of sign 
of i being due to the motion of the moon's nodes. It does not change sign 
with the changes of sign of I' and V . It is positive when the northern part 
of the circle of declination is to the west of the moon's meridian. 

11. In fig. 3, from Lohi-mann, we have MP, the moon's pole; EP the 

Fig. 3. 



90 i 



IBOi 




■■4o T- 



2,10° 

earth's pole ; M the centre of the apparent disk ; (MP) (E P)=i the inclina- 
tion of the moon's equator to the earth's equator ; (E P) M=p', the N.P.D. of 
the moon's apparent centre 90° + ^'; (MP) M=a, the distance of the moon's 
apparent centre from the moon's pole=P cr, fig. 2, =90° — ^i ; the angle 
(MP) (EP) M=A the inclination of i to jy=90°+a'— £3' (see section 8), 
or 270°+ £3' — a' (see Lohi-mann, 'Topographic der Sichtbaren Mondobcr- 
fljiche,' p. 27) ; the angle (E P) (M P) M=B the inclination of i to a=90°— 
Q,— ?3 + A) (see section 8) ; the angle (E P) M (M P) = C the inclination of 
p' to a (see section 8, angle P(r7r=C'). 

The formulae for computing the angle A and the sides i and ^' are given 
above. The Gaussian formulae for obtaining the values of B and C, with 
the side a are as follows : — 

t„„ 1 /-n p^ cos|Asin|(2y-i) (1) 

tan g (B-L)=g^ | A sin | (^Z + i) (2) 

tan 1 (V.^V\ cos I ^ COS I (/-^) (3) 

*^2^^ + ^^-sin|Acosi(2y + i) (4) 

B=i(B + C) + i(B-C) C=i(B + C)-i(B-C), 

sinia='iii4A!^^iii!l±i!. 
^ cosi(B-C) 

1866. Q 



22Q 



REPORT — 1866. 



These formulae are employed in the following computations for determin- 
ing the angle C and points of the first order. 

Investigation of Libration, 

12. In mapping the surface of the moon the orthographical projection ia 
iised in which the centre is charactemed by 0° of latitude and 0° of longi- 
tude. This point, of course, is that in which the moon's equator and first 
meridian intersect each other. We have consequently to deal with two points, 
a- or the centre of the apparent disk, which is the only point recognized in 
the computations of libration, and the point of intersection of the first meri- 
dian and the equator. These points coincide only when the line joining the 
centres of the earth and moon passes through the centre of the apparent disk 
in mean libration, which occurs in periods of 2-997 years. 

13. At any other epoch than that of mean libration the point <r is removed 
more or less from the point of intersection of the equator and first meridian, 
consequently as tr is the only point of the moon's surface turned towards the 
earth to which the comiratations of libration refer, libration in latitude =: the 
selenogi-aphical latitude of the apparent centre, and libration in longitude = 
the selenographical longitude of the same point. 

14. When the moon passes the ascending node as seen from the centre of 
the earth, the moon's equator appears as a straight line on the apparent disk, 
and may be thus represented on the orthographical projection. Libration in 
latitude then=0°. As the moon passes from the ascending node to the 
greatest north latitude, the southern parts of the moon come into view, aiid 
the equator is projected on the apparent disk as the lower segment of a 
narrow ellipse, as given in an inverting telescope. All the appearances de- 
scribed in this Appendix are inverted, lower for upper, &c. The east limb or 
margin of the moon is seen in the telescope opposite to the right hand. The 
greatest libration in latitude = the moon's latitude + the inclination of the 
moon's equator to the ecliptic a b, fig. 1, p. 223. Were the moon a transparent 
globe and the equator marked on it, the equator would be seen as a long, 
narrow ellipse, widening and closing up between the passages of the nodes, so 
that at the passage of the descending node the libration is again = 0°. 

Kg. 4. 




The same phenomena take place as the moon describes the portion of 
her orbit south of the plane of the ecliptic, but in the opposite sense, the 
northern parts coming into view. From this it will be seen that libration in 
latitude changes its sign every lunation at the passages of the nodes. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 227 

15. To calculate the librations of the centre of the apparent disk, it will be 
necessary, fii-st, to determine the selenocentric coordinates of the point or, as 
referred to the great circle 7" N, c, fig. 2, parallel to the plane of the ecliptic. 

In fig. 5 let the angle at ^^^=1, the inclination of the moon's equator 
to the ecliptic, N^ m, as before, fig. 2, representing an arc of the moon's 

rig. 5. 



A a 




equator, and N^ C (c fig. 2) an arc of the echptic. As the arc N^ M is the pro- 
jection on the ecliptic of the arc subtending the angle at the moon's centre, 
contained between a line parallel to the nodal line and the line joining the 
centres of the earth and moon, it must be equal to the difference of the geo- 
centric longitude of the moon and the longitude of the ascending node of the 
moon's equator ?3, Let .•. X be the moon's geocentric longitude, then 
N^ M=\— ?g . Let A' be an arc measured from T to N^, fig. 2, and then 
from N^ to L", fig. 5, so that N"^ L"=A'- ?g , and L"jp = Z-A' { •.• I is also 
measured from 7"}. Also let L"M=B', the arc subtended between the 
moon's equator and the ecliptic, of which the greatest value =1° 32' 1", and 
the angle N'^L" M=0, the inclination of A'— JS to B' ; then by the right- 
angled spherical triangle L" N^ M we have 

tan (A'— ?S) = tan(X— ?S), secl, 

tan B' =sin (\ — ?3 ) tan I, 

cos 0=cos (\— ?8 ) sin l=a', in the ' Nautical Almanac,' 

COS I 

sin 0= — ,, and by the right-angled spherical triangle 

COS Jj 

L" crp, putting /3, the geocentric latitude of the centre, for <r M, 

tan (Z— A')=cos tan (/5— B'), 
sin ^j=sin 6 sin (/3 — B'). 

Formulce for Lihration in Latitude. 

16. Libration in latitude, or the selenographical latitude of the centre of 
the apparent disk, is equal to the angle subtended between the point o-, the 
centre of the apparent disk, and the point p the abscissa on the moon's 
equator, to which it is referred, so that a- p is equal to the perpendicular 
dropped from the centre of the apparent disk upon the moon's equator. This 
angle is equal to the distance of the moon's apparent centre from the 
moon's pole, minus 90°, and is consequently equal to 0° when the moon is 
in either node. 

_ 17. As — 6'=^j (see section 9), it follows that 6'=B'— ^, for 0j, or ft—'S! 
(i. e. a-p), is the Ubration in latitude apart from its sign. As ^^ is positive 
when the point tr,^ (see section 9) is above the moon's equator (for which 
Z,=/\ nearly), it will in the same case be negative for the point or (see section 
9) (for which Zj=\ + 180° nearly), but in the case supposed the libration 
in latitude is negative ; hence if V= this libration, 6'= — 0,=B'— /3, which 
is the expression in the ' Nautical Almanac' 

q2 



228 



KEPORT — 1866. 



Lohrmann (Topographie der Sichtbaren Mondoberflache, p. 27) gives 
b'= (a— 90°), a being equal to the distance of the moon's apparent centre 
from the pole (see section 11). This formula i? employed in the following 
computations for determining points of the first order. 

Since the greatest value of B' is about 1° 32', and the greatest value of 
(3 about 5° 5', it foUows that b' must change sign in each lunation (see sec- 
tion 14). 

Investigation of Lihration in Longitude. 

18. Libration in longitude, or the selenographical longitude of the appa- 
rent centre of the disk, is equal to the angle formed at the moon's pole 
between the first meridian, or that from which all selenographical longi- 
tudes are reckoned, and the circle of latitude (Moon's pole a-p'Lin fig. 6) 
passing through the apparent centre of the disk. This angle is equal to the 

Fig. 6. 



Moons Pole 




^^cii, 



iptic 



selenocentric longitude of the apparent centre of the disk, reckoned on the 
moon's equator from the ascending node of the moon's equator on the 
ecliptic (which is equal to the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit 
+ 180°), minus the distance of the first meridian from the same point (see 
fig. 6), where ?S (K^ fig. 2, p. 223) represents the ascending node of the 
moon's equator on the ecliptic, L the selenocentric longitude of the apparent 
centre «r, and L' the distance of the first meridian from ?g , or its seleno- 
centric longitude. The distance of the first meridian from the ascending node 
of the moon's equator on the ecliptic is, from the uniformity of the moon's 
rotation, at all times equal to the moon's mean longitude, minus the longi- 
tude of the ascending node of the orbit, or plus the supplement of the longi- 
tude of the ascending node. Libration in longitude vanishes when the moon 
is in the Kne of the apsides. 

19, "When the moon passes the point of perigee, the first meridian, 0°, 
of selenographical longitude appears as a straight line, which cuts the centre 
of the apparent disk. Libration in longitude then = 0°. Should the passage 
of the perigee coincide with that of either node, the first meridian is pro- 
jected at right angles to the equator, also a straight Une ; and the apparent 
disk is in a state of mean libration, and may be represented on the ortho- 
graphical projection, subject to the necessary distortion in the regions about 
the limb. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



229 



The distortion on the orthographical projection arises from the greater 
foreshortening of objects near the limb, as seen from the earth, than the 
true orthographical projection will represent. 

20. During the passage of the moon from perigee, at which point her 
motion is quickest, to apogee, where it is slowest, the motion in her orbit 
is shiver from day to day, while her motion in rotation continues uniform ; 
the consequence is, that while passing from perigee to mean distance the 
first meridian is transferred eastwardly (see fig. 7), which is inverted, where 
E" represents the earth, W P E o the moon's equator when she is in perigee, 
being its intersection with the first meridian, W o' E' the segment of the 

Fig. 7. 




moon's equator presented to the earth at a given distance from perigee, c o'. 
a radius from the moon's centre to the first meridian, the angle E"co'= 
the quantity gained by the axial over the orbital motion = the difference 
between .the moon's true and mean longitudes nearly =librati on in longi- 
tude, by which the western portions come into view, and the first meridian 

Pig. 8 




230 KEPORT— 1866. 

is projected as a curve east of the centre of the apparent disk. At the point 
of mean distance the two motions coincide in value, but only momentarily 
so, the greatest libration towards the east is attained, the orbital motion 
becomes slower than the axial, and the first meridian returns westwardly, 
attaining its mean position at the passage of the apogee. In consequence of 
the small difference of the period of the revolution of the apsides and half 
that of the nodes, the equator will not appear as a straight line across the 
apparent disk, when the first meridian returns to its mean position, and 
therefore the point of 0° latitude will not be found at the centre of the appa- 
rent disk ; the divergence will be greater at the end of every period either of 
the passage of the nodes or apsides, increasing for a period of about eighteen 
months, after which the divergence will decrease during another period of 
eighteen months, and at the end of three years (nearly) the state of mean 
libration wiU be again attained. 

Libration in longitude from apogee to perigee is the opposite to that above 
described, from which it foUows that libration in longitude changes sign 
every lunation. 

21. The mathematical portion of this investigation may be treated under 
two heads, viz., the method adopted in the ' Nautical Almanac,' and that 
adopted by Lohrmann. Eor the method adopted in the ' Nautical Almanac ' 
we again refer to fig. 5, the reasoning being as follows : — 

Since I is a very small angle, the equation tan (A' — ?3) = tan (X — S) 
sec. T (see section 15) gives by a known formula of expansion A'=\ + sin 

2(X— ?3)tan^ — , the rest of the terms being insignificant. The second 
term is A \ in the ' Nautical Almanac' Because T is very small, and 

COS I 

B' is always less than I, sin or ^, will be very nearly = to unity. Also 

because I — A', (p^, and /3 — B' are all small arcs, we may substitute the arcs 
for theii' tangents and sines. Hence 

Z-A'=cos 9 (/3-B)=«' (/3-B') and ^^=/3-B'; 

consequently ?=\ + sin 2(\— ?3 ) tan^ r- + — 

^ J- 

It' 
= A+A\ + ^; 



and as the libration in longitude Z' = ? — Z^, where l^^\he moon's mean lon- 
gitude, the libration in longitude=X-|- A X + p — Z^; but since, as mentioned 

■^ . 
in section 9, — h' is to be substituted for tp^, the expression becomes 

Z'=X-|- A X— — — ?„, as in p. X of the ' Nautical Almanac' 

a' 

22. Lohrmann, whose symbol for the moon's mean longitude is l,*and 

for the libration in longitude is 1', gives, in ' Topo§|^phie derSichtbaren 

Mondoberfliiche,' p. 28, the following formula for computing the libration in 

longitude: r=L — L' (see section 18 and fig. 6). NowL=270°-|-B— A and 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OP THE MOON. 



231 



L'=l+supp. £3 (see section 18). For the formulae used in computing B see 
section 11, and for A see section 7. These formulae have been employed in 
the following computations of points of the First Order. 

The principal part of the libration in longitude is l—\ (see section 9), 
which, besides changing sign in each lunation with respect to east and west, 
changes sign also with respect to north and south by the motion of the moon's 
apsides. 

Application of the foregoing investigations to the motion on the apparent disk 
of the point at ivhieh the Equator i^ifersects the First Meridian. 

23. It now remains to inquire how the point of intersection of the moon's 
equator and first meridian will be affected by the changes in latitude and 
longitude which the centre of the apparent disk is perpetually undergoing ; 
for as only the latitude and longitude of this single point are determined by 
the formulae for computing the Hbrations, we do not appear to have at pre- 
sent the means for tracing out on the moon's disk the curves representing 
the moon's equator and first meridian for any other epochs than that of mean 
libration, when, as before mentioned, they cross the disk in two straight lines 
intersecting at the centre ; and this inquiry is perhaps the more important as 
showing how necessary it is, for accurately mapping the surface, to have good 
determuiations of points of the first order. Taldng, therefore, the spot on 
the moon's surface at which the equator and first meridian intersect each 
other, we may inquire the path it will describe on the apparent disk during 
the changes of libration through one revolution of the nodes. 

24. In fig. 9 let W E N S represent a small circle concentric with the limb or 
margin of the apparent disk of the moon, W E being a portion of the equator. 

Fig. 9. 




and N S of the first meridian in mean libration at the passage of the descend- 
ing node and perigee respectively, and o the point of intersection of the two 
(0° of latitude and longitude), and o' the position occupied by the point o by 
the joint effect of both librations, o E will consequently represent the greatest 
excursion of the point o in longitude, and o S that in latitude, the equator 
being projected in the curve e' o' q, and the first meridian in co'm. The 



232 



REPORT 1866. 



displacement of o being in the line o o', the libration of the centre of the appa- 
rent disk /T will be W in longitude and N in latitude. It is easy to see that 
the path of the point of intersection of the equator and first meridian, a short 
time before and after the epoch of mean libration, wiU be in a very narrow 
ellipse, the line o' o" being the major axis, which does not, however, retain its 
position on the apparent disk, but revolves around the central point. 

25. This eUipse opens out and undergoes changes of form proportional to the 
interval elapsing from the epoch of mean libration until the epoch when the 
greatest excursion of libration in longitude towards the east (of the point of 
intersection of the equator and the first meridian) coincides with the passage 
of the ascending node when the equator is represented as a straight line 
across the apparent disk and the first meridian by the curve cEm in fig. 10^ 

Fig. 10. 




where the libration of the centre of the apparent disk is nothing in latitude, 
but west in longitude. When the first meridian returns to its normal posi- 
tion, the eqiiator is represented by the curve E" N q (fig. 10), and the point of 
intersection is situated at o" (nearly) ; the libration of the centre in this case 
is nothing in longitude but south in latitude. 

26. At this epoch, intermediate between two of mean libration, the path 
of the point of intersection of the equator and first meridian may be re- 
presented by the four diagonals, of which o' o" (fig. 10) is one, or, perhaps more 
correctly, by a wavy ellipse ; for as the values of the two librations diiFer in 
amount, the circle W E N S is not a true representation of the excursions of 
the intersecting point E and W, N and S ; so when the greatest deviation 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 233 

from mean libration occurs, the real path of the intersecting point on the 
apparent disk is a wide ellipse, which gradually contracts to a narrow ellipse 
as the epoch of mean libration is approached. This will be the case propor- 
tionally with every point on the apparent disk, and the displacement will be 
in every possible direction and at every conceivable angle with the centre of 
the apparent disk. This suggests that by far the most effective mode of de- 
termining positions on the moon's surface is by measures for points of the 
first order ; for let x' y' represent the measures in right ascension and decli- 
nation from the east and north limbs of the point E, x and y wiU be the 
corresponding rectangular coordinates necessary to determine the selenogra- 
phical position when the librations of the centre and the other elements are 
ascertained. 

Computation of Points of the Fikst Order. 
Measures. 

In order to compute the selenographical coordinates of a point on the moon's 
surface (its latitude and longitude), the following measures are necessary : — 

Between five and ten measures of the distance of the point from the illu- 
minated north or south limbs ; also from the Uluminated east or west limbs as 
the case may be. 

The moon's diameter in the direction of the line drawn through both cusps, 
which may be assumed perpendicular to the ecliptic as the moon seen from 
the sun, departs at the utmost only 50" from the plane of the ecliptic. 

These measures require to be corrected for refraction according to the fol- 
lowing formulae. 

The measured diameter in micrometer revolutions, which call D, is to be 

multiplied by the factor ( l-|-^^^-^iii J, in which w'= the angle which the 

line of the cusps makes with the vertical circle passing through the moon, 
dr= the difference of refraction in seconds for 10' in the altitude of the moon 
(within the narrow space of the moon's disk the difference of refraction may be 
assumed proportional to the difference of altitude) ; dr may be taken from the 
' Connaissance des Temps.' 

The formulae for correcting the measured distances (also in micrometer 
revolutions) of the point from the moon's limbs are as follows : — 
In the declination circle, 

AA . dr . cos n 
25-12x10 ' 
in the parallel, 

A^' . dr . sin n _ 
25-12x10 ' 

n representing the inclination of the apparent declination circle to the ver- 
tical circle passing through moon's centre, and A/i, A/i' the differences of alti- 
tude of the measured point and the tangents at the respective limbs. When 
southerly the correction is + for heights and — for depths, and the reverse 
when northerly. 

Having obtained these measures and corrected them, the following elements 
for the time of observation should be taken from the ' Nautical Almanac' 

Elements. 
a. = the true right ascension of the moon. 
6 = the true declination of the moon. 



234 



REPORT 1866. 



IT = the moon's equatoreal horizontal parallax, 
E= the moon's true semidiameter in seconds. 

The following elements, already comijuted, will be found in the ' Nautical 
Almanac,' page 491, year 1867; 489, year 1868 ; 490, year 1869 ; 493, year 

1870. 

i = inclination of the moon's equator to the earth's equator. 

A = arc of the moon's equator from its ascending node on the earth's 

equator to its ascending node on the ecliptic. 
S '= M. of the ascending node of the moon's equator on the earth's equator. 
1 =: moon's mean longitude. 
Por the formulae see ante, sect. 7, p. 224. 
In addition, — 

p = log of earth's radius at the place of observation. 
(j)' = latitude of the place of observation corrected for the spheroid. 
.& = sidereal time of observation converted into arc. 

E.vample. 

Taking Lohrmann's example, we have, 1823, October 22, 0" 35"" 15% time 
time Dresden, 

Thoophilus from the N. limb 48-32 

)) ), E- J) 5561 N 

Moon's semidiameter 38-79=E', 

aU in micrometer revolutions corrected for refraction. 

Fig. 11. 




In fig. 11 let F be the measured point, then x= the coordinate in the 
parallel, and 3/= the coordinate in the declination circle. Accordingly, 

ar=+16'-82, y = —9'-5S. 

The values of the above-named elements at the time of observation were 
as under: — 



a = 50 44 54 


i = 22 55 34 


a =+22 59 22 


A = 109 38 6 


TT = 58 48 


£3'= 3 30 36 


11= 16 1 


1 = 57 35 1 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 235 

Latitude 51° 3' 0" N., longitude O'^ 45" 40' E. of Paris Observatory, from 

whence o / /< - 

a>'= 50 51 53 

log p= 9-9991353 
log (p sin 0')= 9-8888055 
Iog(pcos0')=9-79927O3 
J& = 34 35 45 
Parallax in Right Ascension and Declitiatlon. 
The next step is to obtain the apparent right ascension and declination of 
the moon. 

Also p'=JS".P.D. of moon's apparent centre =90 + S', S'N,— ^'8,+ 

A= inclination of iiop'= 90°— £3 ' + a', or 

=270°+ £3 '-a'. 
Let a! = the moon's apparent right ascension ; 
1'= the moon's apparent declination; 
then for a' we have pcos0'sin,r . , .. 

tan (a'-a)= tan a"= .; 22ii__ ,, ^^^^l^cos (a-^)=«. 

^ ^ 1— pcos0sm7r / Q. cos 6 

— -! i- — — cos(a— & 

cos a 

a = 50 44 54 
^ = 34 35 45 



logo cos d,' 9-79927 logP""'^ '""^ 8-06829 

cos 2 



(a-d)= 16 9 9 

9-79927 lo| 

log sin ,r 8-23308 logcos(a-^) 9-98251 

ar. CO. log cos S 0-03594 sum=logji 8-05080 

sum = 8-06829 n 0-01124 

log sin (a-^) 9-44434 (l-«) 0-98876 

ar. CO. log(l— «) 0-00491 

sum = log tan a" 7-51754 



a. 



I II 

+ 11 19 



ec 50 44 54 

sum = a 50 56 13 

For h' we have 

^^j^g_psin£8W 

tana'= ^_22ii xcos(a'-a), fl^^^^=.J^, 

^_pcos^^^m. cosS 

cos g ^ ^ 

log p sin 0' ,9-88880 log (tan a— ^-) 9-61266 

log sin TT 8-23308 ar.co. log(l— n) 0-00491 



ar. CO. log cos ^ 


0-03594 


sum = log tan S' 


9-61757 


sum = log Jc 


8-15782 


/ = 90°-g' 


22 30 58 


tang 
k 


0-42426 
0-01438 


67 29 2 


diiF. = tan S-Jc 


0-40988 


a' + 90° 
£3' 


140 56 13 
3 30 36 






A 


137 25 37 



236 



REPORT 1866. 



Lihrations of Centre. 

Having found the apparent right ascension and declination of the moon, also 
the apparent N.P.D. of the centre, and the angle A, we proceed to compute 
the following quantities : — 

1' = the selenographical longitude of the apparent centre = libra tion in longi- 
tude*. 
b'=the selenographical latitude of the apparent centre = a — 90°= libra- 

tion in latitudef. 
C = the angle which the meridian of the middle of the moon's disk makes 
with the declination circle. See section 4 et seq., and figs, 3 and 11. 
For the formulae see section 11. 



Angle C and b'. 






11 27 47 
33 44 31 

68 42 48-5 



log cos |A 
logsin|(2?'— i) 

sum (1) 

sum (2) 



9-55996 
9-57877 

9-13873 
9-82034 



difr.=logtan|(B-C) 9-31839 

log cos |A 9-55996 

logcos|(y— i) 9-96630 

sum (3) 9-52626 

sum (4) 9-81723 

diff.=logtan|(B + C) 9-70903 



sum (2) 
log cos |(B— C) 
1, 



diff.=logsin^a 



9-82034 
9-99079 

9-82955 



O / // 

22 16 44 
45 12 18 



log sin |A 
logsinKp'+i) 9-85103 

sum (2) 9-82034 



9-96931 



log sin |A 
log cos g(p' + i) 

sum (4) 

KB-C) 
KB + C) 

B 

c 



9-96931 

9-84792 

9-81723 



11 45 31 

27 5 59 

38 51 30 
-15 20 28 

42 29 5 

84 58 10 

- 5 1 50 



For the selenographical longitude of the moon's apparent centre, we have 
r^L — L', where L= the selenocentric longitude of the moon's appai-ent cen- 
tre, and L' = 1 -1- supplement of a . See Section 22. Now 



L=270°— E-A, Sup. £3 = 



o 

67 



8 20 



A + B 

L=270°-B-A 
L'=l+ sup. S 

L-L'=r 



270 
148 29 3(5 



A 

B 



109 38 6 
38 51 30 



121 30 24 
124 43 21 


A-HB 148 29 36 


-3 12 57 


1 57 35 1 

Sup £3 67 8 20 



L' 



124 43 21 



* + wlien W. of the first meridian, 
t + wlien N. of equator, — wlien S. 



when E. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 

Collecting the results, we have 



337 



b' = - 5 1 50 
1'=- 3 12 57 
C = -15 20 28 



Determination of the Arc fi. 

Having determined the selenographical latitude and longitude of the appa- 
rent centre of the moon's disk, and also the angle which the meridian of the 
middle of the disk makes with the circle of dechnation, we may ascertain the 
latitude and longitude of the measured point by the aid of the arc yu (fig. 12) 
on the spherical surface of the moon, which connects the measured point with 
the apparent centre M. 



Fig. 12, 



£_aL 




For this object the following elements are required : — 
Fig. 11, p. 234. /= the polar coordinate of the measui-ed point = sni r,i 
fig. 12. 
„ „ u= the inclination of/ to the apparent declination circle. 
For obtaining the values, we have 

Fig. 11, p. 234,/= .jpj— , Unu= ^. 
Fig. 12. n=m — \p. 

Fig. 12. E"= the distance of the moon's centre, C, from the place of ob- 
servation, A. 

^=sin;/'. 

For — - we have 

E 

1 E" sin TT 

E^~E3-663' 
in which 

E"= the moon's apparent semidiameter, to be computed by the following 
formula : — 



R" = 



,, cos S' T, 
cos a . K 

cos 6 



-, pcosd»'sin7r . Q.X /I ^" 

i— ^-- cos(a — 3)=(1 — m) 

cosS ^ ^ ^ ' 



238 



REPORT — 1866. 



The computation of the value of fi is as under 



log cos «" 
log cos h' 

ar. CO. log cos S 
log sin TT 
ar. CO. log(l— m) 
ar. CO. log 3-663 

sum = log J,,, 

log/ 
sum = log sin \p 



0-00000 
9-96557 

0-03594 
8-23308 
0-00491 
9-43616 



logo? 
log 2/ 



1-22583 

0-97909 



diff. = logtanM 0-24674 
u 60 27 55 



7-67566 logy 0-97909 

9-69752 ar. CO. logeosM 0-30720 

7-37318 ar. CO. logR' 8-41123 

' sum = log/ 9-69752 



FormulcB for and Calculation of \ and /3. 

We are now in a position finally to determine X 
the -eelenographical longitude, and /3 the selenogra- 
phical latitude of the measured point by the aid of 
the following angles, C, \", and x (see fig. 13) for 
X=X"+r, and tan /3 = cos\" tan(x + b'). 

C'=u-f C= the inclination of the plane of the arc 
p, to the apparent latitude circle of the moon (see 
fig. 11, p. 234). 

„, , - „ tan C sin v 

tan v= tan u cos U , tan X = ; -^, 

^ ^ cos(x + 6) 

X"+ when W— when E, x+ 'w^ten C is N, —when 

Uomputation. 



29 53 23 

8 7 
29 45 ] 6 
Fig. 13. 



D Pole 




2) Equator 





u 60 
C 15 


27 55 

20 28 




sum = 


C 75 


48 


23 


in 4th Quadrant. 


log tan fi 

log cos C 


9-75713 
9-38952 




log 
log 


tan C 0-59701 
sin X 9-14243 


sum = log tan X 


9-14665 ar. 


CO. 

m= 


log 
=log 


30s(x+6') 0-01130 


X 


7 58 45 su 


tanX" 9-75074 


b' 


5 1 50 






X" + 29 23 34 


sum =log(x+b') 


13 35 






1' - 3 12 57 


logtan(x + b') 
log cos \" 


9-36370 
9-94016 


X + 26 10 37 
ft - 11 22 55 


sum =: log tan ft 


9-30386 






Therefore , 



Theophilus is situated in 26 10 37 W. long, 
and 11 22 55 S. lat. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 239 

Appendix III. 

1st. Description of Map and Instructions for observing. 

2nd. A catalogue of objects photographed and observed in areas IV A" 
and IV A^. 

3rd. The full-moon aspect of areas IV A* and IV A^. 

4th. A discussion of the lines of upheaval and depression in areas IV A" and 
IV A^- 

British Association Outline* Map of the Moon, Zones II and IV, 
Areas IV A" and IV A^. 

The present portions of the map include areas IV A*, IV A^ and parts of 
IV A^^ and IV A'' ; they are in outline on a scale 200 inches, equal to the 
moon's diameter. On these portions upwards of 200 objects are distinctly 
specified, and, as indicated below, their relative degrees of visibility pointed 
out. The scale of 200 inches to the moon's diameter appears to be the 
smallest that can be used with advantage in the present state of selenography. 
It allows every facility for inserting synonyms as well as various numerical 
data, also for exhibiting with clearness the relative position of each object. 
In some few instances objects, the precise nature of which is doubtful, are 
inserted without a numerical reference, and some mentioned in the catalogue 
are omitted, as their outhnes require careful determination. In the spaces 
more or less blank there are small objects which await insertion when they 
have been observed with adequate power, and their relative positions ascer- 
tained. Without doubt much of the outline requires modrftcation, as it is 
difficult to catch in the small intervals afforded for observation that correct- 
ness in fonn and outline which is desirable, and instances of fine definition 
in which it might be attained are rare, and occur at varying states of libra- 
tion, and at different degrees of illuminating and visual angle : while, how- 
ever, much may be achieved by the aid of photography, yet the evident relief 
indicating heights and depths, and the diversity of light, shade, and shadow 
interfere to no little extent in fomitng a judgment of the true outline, espe- 
cially as no two photographs are Hkely to exhibit the same object under similar 
circumstances ; still it is hoped the following catalogue of objects on areas 
IV A" and IV A^, and the map will be mutually intelligible, and contribute to 
a closer study of the moon's surface, if it be only to detect the errors in either. 

These portions of the map, as well as the accompanying catalogue, contain 
all the known objects, 202 on an area of 50 superficial degrees, as shown 
in existing photographs, and ascertained by personal observation. They are 
issued with the twofold view of assisting observers in becoming acquainted 
with the physical aspect, and also for enlarging the boundary of our know- 
ledge of the moon's surfiice. They are printed red that observers may the 
more readily insert additions and corrections in hlach. 

The basis of the map, as AveU as the principle upon which it is constructed, 
is fully explained in the Report presented to the British Association at its 
Meeting held in Nottingham, 1866 ; it may, however, be important to men- 
tion that all positions, except those of the first order, are derived from Mr. 
De la Rue's photograph of October 4, 1865, which was taken so near the 
time of Mean Libration, that the coincidence of the Equator of the photo- 
graph with that of the moon is sufficiently close to allow of direct mea- 

* This map is not intended to be a perfect or complete Lunar IVfap, but only a guide 
to observers in obtaining data for the construction of a complete map. 



240 KEPOKT— 1866. 

sures of every object on the photograph. In the case of the first meridian, 
a small correction has been applied. The points of the first order, which 
are most scrupulously regarded, are found in Appendix I. of the above- 
named Keport. In laying down those in quadrant IV., the greatest error 
discovered in checking them amounted only to -0008, the moon's semi- 
diameter being equal to unity. 

The following abbreviations are employed on the Map. 
The Arabic numerals, except in cases of measiu-ement, refer to the area of 
twenty -five superficial degrees indicated — and in quoting to be preceded — 
by the symbol of the area (see Brit. Assoc. Report, 1865, p. 288). 

The small Greek letters refer to the same objects indicated by them on 
Beer and Madler's Map of 37 inches diameter. The Roman capitals and 
small letters preceded by B. & M. are of similar import. 

Points of the first order. 
X Points of the second order. 

o Craters, 

w Depressions. 

A Mountains. 

N.B. The arrow-head 18 1 Y Y^ ^^^■- i ■, n • 

directed towards the V | Mountam slopes and Valley sides, 

lowest point. J ** Very conspicuous objccts. 

* Easy objects. 

t Difficult objects. 

J Objects rarely visible. 

B. & M. Beer and Madler. 

L. S. Lohrmann's Sections. 

L. M. Lohrmann's Map. 

S. R. Schmidt's RiUs. 

Eng. ft. EngHsh feet. 

Metres. 

Dotted lines in some instances indicate the bases of mountains, the crests 
being shown by continuous lines, also the lowest parts of valleys ; in others 
the interior feet of crater slopes as in HaUey, where the dotted line points 
out the base of the interior E. slope, in others lucid markings or streaks 
which require further observation. 

Some attempt has been made to indicate differences of level by inscribing 
on the map the words " high level," " higher level," " lower level," and " low 
level ;" thus the level S. of HaUey is very much higher than that of the floor 
of Hipparchus N. of HaUey, and that of Albategnius marked "low level" is 
the lowest ; the words higher and lower being comparative bettveen high and 
low. This difference of level is brought out in a very marked manner by an 
oblique illumination. 

The space between every 5° of latitude north and south constitutes a 
zone numbered from I. to XXXVI. (see Report, 1865, pp. 288-290). 
For the employment of the map, each zone may be divided into five sub- 
zones of 1° ; and if to every observer tivo were allotted, so that half of the 
area selected by each were to overlap half of the adjoining areas of two sub- 
zones, observations, additions, and corrections will be received from two in- 
dependent observers. As it is very probable that in some instances ob- 
servers may have but little previous acquaintance either with the aspect of 
the moon's surface as regards " detail " or with methods of observation, 
the following instructions for observing the objects, also for correcting and 
adding to the map and catalogue, are drawn up upon this probability. The 



AO'^liepoTt Biit Assoc 

Lu:N 



TlhteW^ 



AREA IV A a 



WEST 




I.UNAH MAP 







/y<7/<- f. 



AREA IV At, 




l.r.NAH .MAT 



ZONE IV 

-I" smiTii 3° 



AKKA IV At, 

1" o° 




1 tnplic* = Woorfu UluRirli 



ON MAPPING THE StTHFACE OF THE MOON. 241 

localities of IV A« and IV A? may be easily ascertained by reference to exist- 
ing maps, the large formations, Hipparchus, Albategnius, and Ptolemsus, 
being sufficiently indicated. 

The plate contains a portion from Beer and Madler's map corresponding to 
areas IV A« and IV A^. The smaU circle above on the same scale represents 
one degree at the centre of the disk in mean libration. The large circle be- 
low represents a similar area on the scale of 200 inches to the diameter, that 
of the British Association Outline Map. It contains 279-27 square miles 
(English), and is seen under an angle of 16"-277 + . 

It jf ojily at the centre of the disk that one degree is seen under an ano-lc 
of 16"-277; in other parts of the disk the reduction is in the proportion°of 
the angle subtended at the centre x cosine of the angular distance from the 
centre ; thus at a distance of 12° from the centre, 16"-277 x cos 12°=15"-922 
and at a distance of 60^, 16"-277 X cos 60°=S"-139. " ' 

The arrangement of subzones to each observer in zone II. area IV A* is as 
follows :—J}-o. 1, S. lat. 0° to 1°; No. 2, 0° to 2°; No. 3, 1° to 3°; No. 4, 
2="^ to 4°; No. 5, 3° to 5°; and No. 6, 4° to 5° S. lat. : No. 6 of area IV A» 
will be allotted to No. 1 of zone IV area IV A?, the numbers of which are 
as foUows :— No. 1, S. lat. 5° to 6°; No. 2, 5° to 7°; No. 3, 6° to 8° ; No- 4 
7° to 9° ; No. 5, 8° to 10° ; and No. 6, 9° to 10° S. lat. 

The very high probability, if not certainty, that the crater " Linne " has 
undergone a physical change since it was first figured by Riccioli in 1653, 
induces the belief that if lunar objects were observed upon a regular system 
from time to time, other instances of {)iferre<l physical change may be detected, 
especially among the smaller features. With this view, the objects in each 
area of two subzones, arranged in the order of their visibility, as far as ascer- 
tained, are specified, that observers may have as little trouble as possible in 
selecting objects for observation. 

The folloflning numbers refer to the accompanying catalogue. Those 
marked vrith two asterisks (**) are conspicuous, those with one (*) are easy, 
those with a dagger are difficult (f), and those with a double dagger (J) are 
very difficult, and but rarely seen. Nearly the whole of the objects recorded 
in area IV A^ have been observed with an aperture of 4} inches, object- 
glass by Cooke, power 230. The exceptions are mostly noticed. It is re- 
commended that conspicuous objects should be examined first. 

Area IV A*. 
^ No. 1. Lat. 0° to 1° S.— 1**, 43, 46, 47, 49, 58, 59, 60, 65, 66, 68, 70, 
/2, /4, 85, 87. 

No. 2. Lat. 0° to 2° S.— 1**, 11, 15, 19, 38, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 
49, 50, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 72, 74, 77, 78, 84, 85, 
87. 

No. 3. Lat. 1° to 3= S.— 2**, 10**, 4*, 5, 11, 15, 16, 19, 20, 31, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 58, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 73, 
77,78,83,84,86. 

No. 4. Lat. 2° to 4° S.— 2**, 10**, 4*, 5, 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 10, 20, 21, 
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 49, 54, 56, 
57,67,73,77,81,82,83,86. >>>,,>,, 

No. 5. Lat. 3° to 5° S.— 2**, 10**, 51**, 6*, 7*, 9*, 18*, 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, 
14, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 42, 49, 
52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 67, 71, 73, 79, 80, 81, 82, 88, 75t, 76J. 

No. 6. Lat. 4° to 5° S.— 51**, 6*. 7*, 9*, 18*, 3, 17, 22, 23, 24, 28, 33, 
34, 35, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 71, 79, 80, 81, 88, 75$, 76+. 

1866. g 



243 REPORT — 1866. 

Area IV A2. 

No. 1. Lat. 5° to 6° S.— 47**, 24*, 49*, 58*, 11, 38, 39, 81, 96, 100, 
101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 111, 112, 113, 114, 85+. 

No. 2. Lat. 5° to 7° S.— 47**, 24*, 28*, 37*, 49*, 56*, 58*, 60*, 61*, 
11, 27, 38, 39, 46, 48, 57, 59, 80, 81, 85, 86, 96, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 
105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114. 

No. 3. Lat. 6° to 8° S.— 1**, 4**, 6**, 7**, 16**, 25**, 29**, 3*, 28*, 
30*, 31*, 37*, 49*, 56*, 60*, 61*, 11, 1 3, 14, 27, 44, 45, 46, 48, 57, 59, 80, 
81, 86, 88, 92, 98, 99, 107, 108, 109, 110, 114. 2t, 15t, 18t, lOf, 21t, 
22+ 9t 20''' 62+ 63"*" 64+. 

"no. 4. Lat 7° to 9°''s.— 1**, 4**, 5**, 6**, 7**, 16**, 25**, 29**, 33**, 
77**, 3*, 30*, 31*, 32*, 37*, 43*, 61*, 65*, 13, 14, 23, 26, 27, 42, 44, 45, 
54, 66, 78, 79, 83, 84, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 99, 107, 2t, 15t, 
18t, 19t, 21t, 22t, 76t, 89t, 8t, 9t, 20t, 71+, 62+, 63+, 64+. 

No. 5. Lat. 8° to 10° S.— 5**, 16**, 17**, 25**, 33**, 34**, 36**, 67**, 
77**, 10*, 12*, 32*, 43*, 52*, 55*, 65*, 75*, 23, 26, 35, 40, 41, 42, 50, 
51, 53, 54, 66, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 78, 79, 82, 83, 84, 87, 90, 91, 93, 94, 
95, 97, 99, 72t, 76+, 89t, 8i, 9+, 71t. 

No. 6. Lat. 9° to 10° S.— 17**, 33**, 34**, 36**, 67**, 10*, 12*, 52*, 
65*, 65*, 75*, 35, 40, 41, 42, 50, 51, 53, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 78, 82, 83, 
87, 97, 72t. 

Observations, 

Identification. — The first step is to identify the objects in each pair of 
subzones, "which may be best exemplified by the following record of observa- 
tions for this purpose. 

y 

Identification of Objects in Subzones No. 3. Area IV A . 

1866, October 16, 7'' 15" to S"- 30™, G.M.T. No. 500. Day elapsed of the 
Julian Period (D. J. P.) 2402891, moon's latitude north 4° 54' Apogee + 92^, 
Perigee —201'', Eoyal Astronomical Society's Sheepshanks telescope. No. 5, 
2|-inch aperture, po"^ver about 150. 

Definition good, terminator grazing east edge of Ptolemseus. 
IVA?^ '. Very conspicuous, but outline more circular. 
4. Quite conspicuous. 
6. Veiy conspicuous. 
" 7. Quite conspicuous. 
25. Its individual character and slight depression discernible, but this 
telescope appears to bo unable to bring out its features strongly. 

29. Quite easy ; the spur is not so distinct. 

3. Conspicuous, border illuminated, interior filled "with shadow. 
28. Just perceptible, but not very distinct. 

30. Scarcely discernible. 

31. Just perceptible. 

13, 14 & 15. Not at all distinct, but some indications of the crater-row. 
27. Just perceptible. It is not very striking, and "o-ould by no means 
arrest the attention with this aperture and power. 
2. Not visible -with this aperture nor power. 
18, 19. Not visible with this aperture nor power. 

21. Not "dsiblc with this aperture nor power. 

22. Not visible with this aperture nor power. 

9. Not visible with this aperture nor power ; the shadows of IV A?^ ' 
and IV A? 5 project slightly. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 243 

20. Wot visible. There is, ho-wever, some indication of depression or 
excavation on the interior slope of IVA?^, just south-west of the 
promontory stretching towards the crater-row 13-19. 

In this manner every object may be sought for, and either identified, or if 
it be beyond the power of the telescope to show it, recorded as such, and so 
far as the pair of subzones extends, the capability of the telescope to reach 
only certain objects determined. These may be arranged — for the ielescope 
employed — in classes of conspicuous, easy, difficult, veiy difficult, and invi- 
sible; and in thus becoming fully acquainted with the objects in the paii" of 
subzones he has selected, tlie observer will find that he has employed his 
time to great advantage ; indeed he will be surprised that, by regularly exa- 
mining his portion to identify the objects already on record, he has become 
thoroughly acquainted with all the prominent features of the region. 

In work of this kind the observer will find it very advantageous to exa- 
mine his subzones under similar conditions of illumination, which recur 
roughly in periods of fifty-nine days, but more acciu'atcly in fifty-nine days 
eighty-eight minutes; and these periods -uill afford an interval of about eight 
months, during which, in eveiy alternate month, should the sky be clear, he 
will see the objects similarly illuminated (very nearly). The numbers in the 
sixth column, headed " days elapsed of the Julian Period," on p. xx of each 
month in the Nautical Almanac, wUl facilitate the computation of these 
periods. Thus, if on January 13, 1867, at 6 p.m., he notices the Terminator 
or Light boundary to pass over any particular spot, 5Q'^ V" 30™ afterwards 
the Terminator wiU very nearly be on the same spot. Now the day elapsed 
of the Julian Period (written short D. J. P.) on 

January 13, 1867, is 2402980 6 

Add ^. . 59 1 30 

March 13, 1867 2403039 7 30 

Upon referring to the column for March it will be found that on the 13th, 
at 7'' 30" P.M., the same phase will recur ; and in a similar manner it may 
readily be found that on May 11th, 9'' 0", July 9th, 10'^ 30", and September 6th, 
12'' 0", the Terminator -will be nearly in the same part of the disk, so that on 
those evenings the observer can resume his examination or other kind of 
observations under nearly similar cii'cumstances. 

Corrections. — ^When he has become familiar with his ground, the ob- 
server may proceed to examine the map and catalogue critically. For ex- 
ample, he may carefully ascertain if the relative position of the objects on 
the portion of the map furnished him be correct, and whether the alignments 
generally agree ; for this purpose, a pair of cross wires in the field of the eye- 
piece, by which he can readily determine objects in tlie same line, wiU be 
found useful. It is important to notice particularly the outlines of objects, 
as should he be satisfied after observing them under differing circiunstances 
of light and libration * that correction is needed, such correction should be 
made on the map either in ink or a different colour from that of the map. 

New Objects. — As the Terminator passes over the portions of the sub- 

* Libration, in a popular sense, signifies the displacement of an object as regards its 
mean position on the moon's surface, in which it can be observed only once in three years. 
When the moon has north latitude, all objects appear north of their mean places, and 
■when she has south latitude south of them. When the moon is passing from Apogee 
to Perigee they are west, and when she is passing from Perigee to Apogee they arc east 
of their mean positions. 

e2 



244 REPOKT — 1866. 

zones selected, as well as at other times, all objects observed that are not to 
be found on the map nor described in the catalogue, should bo inserted ])ro- 
Yisionalljs their relative positions having been carefully determined by align- 
ment or otherwise. 

Drcnuhir/s. — When opportunities occur, drawings should be made of groups, 
especially such as are indicated of conspicuoiis and easy visibilitj'. (Difficult 
objects may be sketched when definition is very fine.) Eeaumur, Khirticus 
IV A« '° IYA«^i with the group near IVA?1, also IVA?25, IV A? ^8, Hal- 
ley, and Horrox are very suitable for this purpose. 

Measurements. — The most important are for determining points of the 
first order, and consist of mcasiires taken with the micrometer between the 
apparent east or west and north or south limbs of the moon and the object; 
the subject is fully treated with an example of the computation in Ap- 
pendix il. Report, 1866. The mountain IV A? 29^ ^nd the craters IV A?'', 
IV A^ ^, and IV A? ^^, appear to be very suitable as points of the first order. 

Measures may also be taken for magnitude : see Report, 1 865, p. 295. 
The following measures of Halley in a dii'ection perpendicular to the paral- 
lel, the object being made to run between the wii-es, may serve as an 
example : — 

1866, June 23, 8" 10" to S'' 25"" G. M. T. 

10-317 9-692 ,r _^ 10-3112-9-7148 .„qq9 

10-307 9-717 ^^'^''' ■■■■ 2 "^^^ 

10-321 9-727 Diouysius 

10-316 9-697 on* o-iA 10-2366-9-7732 



10-295 9-741 



8-0 to 8-10 = ^" "^""7'' '^^^=-2317. 



The magnitude is determined by dividing the measure of the object by 
that of the standard, thus: Halley =-2982, and Dionysius = *2317, therefore 

2982 
the magnitude of Ilalley=——— =1-287. 

In reading the micrometer head, the value of the fixed wire from which 
the positive readings are made, is reckoned equal to ten revolutions, there- 
fore the negative readings are equal to nine revolutions + the readings of the 
micrometer head, and as the diftereuce between the two readings will equal 
twice the measure of the object, it follows that the mean of the positive — 
the mean of the negative readings — divided by 2, will equal the measure of 
the object. 

For the reception of the observations above specified copies of Form 
No. 1 (Report, 1865, p. 287) will be supplied, and when corrections and 
additions have become sufficiently numerous, duplicate copies of the map 
wiU be furnished. 

Each observation should be accompanied by references to the following 
data : — Greenwich mean time ; day elapsed of the Julian Period (D. J. P.) ; 
the moon's latitiido to the nearest minute, and the moon's nearest distance 
from Apogee to Perigee with the sign— before or -|- after. At the time of 
the observations given on p. 242, the moon had passed Apogee 92 hours and 
wanted 201 hours of Perigee. Objects were therefore west of their mean 
positions. 

It is desirable that returns should be made at specified intervals not ex- 
ceeding six lunations. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 245 

Catalogue. 

In the following Catalogue every feature seen on the photographs (as well 
as some of the more minute detail discoverable by the telescope) is described. 
The descriptions include all the points of interest that have presented 
themselves in the examination of this part of the moon's surface, either by 
the aid of photographs or by means of personal observation ; and some at- 
tempt has been made to assist in obtaining a more correct representation of 
the moon's surface, by giving the measures in seconds of arc of the objects 
catalogued, and in the case of craters the deduced apparent magnitudes, the 
crater Dionysius being considered as the standard. These measures and de- 
duced magnitudes can only be regarded as roughly aj^prosimate, the epochs 
being mean distance and mean libration ; they cannot consequently be ex- 
pected to coincide with any actual measures ; for as the epoch of mean libra- 
tion cannot be coincident with that of mean distance, measures made at mean 
distance wiU not agree with those made at mean libration. The basis of 
measurement is as follows : — the semidiameter of the moon 15' 32"*27, as 
given by Oudemans from occultations and direct measurements by the helio- 
meter (see Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. xxvi. 
p. 260), has been adopted, and as this gives lS64"-54 for the diameter, a 
scale has been adapted to the datum 100 inchcs=18G4"-54. Eutherford's 
photograph, from which the measurements have been taken, is 20-875 inches 
in diameter, and as the measures are readily convertible from 20-875 to 
100 inches, thej^ are at once referred to mean distance, irrespective of the 
actual position of the moon, either as to distance or libration, and, as before 
stated, can only be considered as approximate ; nevertheless it is hoped they 
may be of some service both in obtaining a better acquaintance with the moon's 
surface, and also contributing to its being more accurately represented. 

The magnitudes /or the epoch of the photograph have been deduced as de- 
scribed in my last Eeport (Eeport, 1865, p. 295), but the values are pro- 
bably too small, as the measured diameter on the photograph of Dionysius 
appears to be excessive, the crater being surrounded by a fringe of light*. 
As most of the measures for magnitude have been made in a direction at 
right angles to a line joining the north edge of Dionysius and the south edge 
of Agrijjpa, the deduced magnitudes may be easily corrected at any futui-e 
time by measurements in the same direction. 

It is proper to remark that the positions have been laid down and the 
magnitudes in the first instance determined by a scale, radius =50 inches, all 
measures being expressed in parts of this scale, radius=umty. For the 
expression of aU quantities in seconds of arc the measurements have been 
re-made, and directly referred to the scale, 100inches=1864"-54, quite irre- 
spective of the scale 50 inches = radius. The magnitudes have been deter- 
mined on both scales, and the resulting mean adopted ; some discrepancies, 
however, will be found between the mcasiircs in seconds of arc and the 
magnitudes, which, as before stated, are the resiilts of two sets of measures, 
while the value in seconds of arc depend on one only. The greatest number 
of differences in this respect occur amongst those objects that range between 
3" and 4", but as they do not materially interfere with the gradations of 
magnitude which range between 0'"-00 and 0"-70, it is considered best to 

* This fringe of light appears to vary in size, the differences in above 70 sets of mea- 
sures of the diameter of Dionysius in various directions inchidcd hy an angle of 50" 
amounting to about G" or 4" more than can be accounted for by the varying distances of 
the moon. 



346 REPORT— 1866. 

give the resiilts of the measures as they stand; especially as the object is to 
indicate to sclenographcrs the work to be done, rather than to claim for the 
present work anything like perfection ; stOI it is hoped that no little progress 
is now being made in selenography. 

Wherever the word " crater " is used in the catalogue, it invariably signi- 
fies a pit, cavity, or more or less round depression, in which at sunrise or 
sunset a well-marked interior shadow is seen on the side next the sun, the 
opposite side reflecting more or less strongly the sun's rays. It is also 
retained with the same signification for all those objects designated craters 
by previous selenographers. 

It has been suggested to employ the term " cratcrlet" for the round white 
glistening objects which are so numerous, particularly in the mountainous 
regions of the moon, associating with it the idea of a more recent formation 
than the larger objects. These small objects frequently occur in rows, as 
mentioned by Schmidt (see Appendix to last Report, 1865, j)p. 305-307), and 
called by him crater-rills. It is in rills and crater-rills that Herr Schmidt 
is disposed to seek for new formations (see Eeport, 1865, p. 299), and recom- 
mends the particular study of them with this view. As it is important to 
have some distinguishing feature between ordinary craters (including even 
large formations) and craterlets, I would suggest for this purpose size or 
magnitude, all pits having a smaller diameter than mag. 0-3 or 5" being re- 
garded as " craterlets ;" bright craters exceeding 5" will form a class inter- 
mediate between " craterlets" and " light-centres." 

In a few instances objects are mentioned as bright or lucid spots, the exact 
nature of which it is difficult to determine. The recent obscuration or pro- 
bable filling up of the crater " Linnc " on the Mare Serenitatis, and a lucid 
spot having been seen in its place, suggests that such objects should be cai-e- 
fully observed, especially when the Terminator is near them. IV A^^'', 
ly A^^^, and IV A^ '"^ may be specified as examples. 

Aeka IV A*. 

Introduction, 

The positions in this area are more easterly than given by Beer and Miidler, 
or by Lohrmann. They are all taken in the fu-st instance from De La Rue's 
photograph of the 4th of October, 1865, G. M. T. 9'' 0" 4^ Libration in 
longitude at 11*^ 40'"-6 =— 0° 39'-7, and latitude =-0° 20'-9 ; so that the 
middle of the apparent disk was not very far distant from the point which is 
central in the orthographic projection. The libration in longitude was, how- 
ever, of an extent sufficient to remove the point 0° of longitude so far to the 
west as to require a correction of -020 to all measures on the photograph be- 
tween 0'^ and 15° of latitude. On making this correction for the ordinates Y, 
taken from the photograph, of Messier, TheophUus, and Dolloud, the south 
half of the central meridian exactly coincided. The central mountain of 
Albategnius diff'ered from the three ordinates above-mentioned -OlO. There 
does not appear to be any error in the mean of Lohrmann's seven measures, 
or in the computation as given by B. & M. of the ordinate Y of the central 
mountain ; still in this respect the photograph diff'ers from the computed 
quantity. The central mountain in Thcophilus lies in nearly the same 
parallel as that of Albategnius, the computed difi'erence of Y being '36659, 
the measured -37400, which also gives the position of the central mountain 
in Albategnius more castwardly than the computed. As the central moiui- 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 247 

taiii of Albategnius is the only ijoint of the first order south of the equator 
between 0° and 15° of south latitude and 0° and 10° west longitude, all posi- 
tions in this and the neighbouring areas are measured from it either directly 
or indirectly on the photograph (glass) of 1858, February 22 (De La Rue), this 
giving the features near the middle of the disk more distinctly than that of the 
full moon. It is to be regretted that points of the first order are so few ; the 
method of determining points of the second order involving a certain amount 
of inaccuracy, very few are found to coincide with the positions as given by 
measurements on the photographs. B. & M.'s points of the second order 
are indicated thus, x 7, &c. The crater IV A* * and the mountain-peak 
IV A^ 2^ on the east of Halley, may form suitable points of the first order for 

the areas IV A" and IV A^. There should at least be one point of the first 
order in each area. 

In the greater portion of this area three distinct levels may be recognized 
under suitable illumination ; that on the south-west consists of the northern 
part of Hipparchus. The central level is that surrounding the crater IV A* ^j 
it is lower than that of Hipparchus ; the surface of Eeaumur constitutes the 
third level ; it is on the east of the area. 

Two great lines of disturbance from Tycho can be traced on this area, of 
which the western is the most prominent, and appears as a lucid ray in full 
moon. It presents the character of a gently sweUing raised land across the 
smoother fioor of Hipparchus in the southern part of the area, and rises into 
somewhat lofty cliff's on the western borders of IV A" "^, and Rhaeticus in the 
northern. The eastern line of disturbance can be well traced to Tycho 
along the western borders of Ptolemaeus and Alphonsus through Arzachel, 
having in its interior produced a ridge on which a crater is opened, it is 
thence continued along the west border of Thebit and east border of Purbach, 
and crosses IV A" ^ and IV A* ^. In areas IV A", IV A^ a portion only of 
this line of disturbance apjiears lucid at the time of full moon. 

Points of the First Order. None. 

Points of the Second Order indicated thus x . 

X Y S. lat. W.long. 

IV A* * -04013 -05665 2 18 3 15 

IVA«5.. -04769 -02440 2 44 124 

IVA«s -07672 -00145 4 24 5 

IVA«7 -07527 -04726 4 19 2 43 

**1. EniETicus. — Lohrmann's map, 234, Sect. I., K. The part south of 
equator. 

Ehseticus is a well-marked walled depression, apparently of a nearly tri- 
angular form, situated on the equator. It is one of the few formations 
that can have both the sun and the earth in its zenith. Its walls are per- 
fect with the exception of two passes, one at its south angle, the other at its 
north-west. The west wall, which is the highest, is nearly straight, and 
forms part of the high land which appears in the full moon as the " Ray 
from Tycho" passing through the east border of Albategnius. This wall is 
dislocated by the fault IV A"? l^, IV A^ 20^ ly A« 72, ^nd it is near the point 
of dislocation that the north-west pass is found. 

The north and east walls form a somewhat semicircular mountain-range, 
but the north being the flattest, tends to impart to the formation a triangular 



248 REPORT — 1866. 

figure, and this is increased by the more gentle slope of the north interior as 
compared with the interior slopes of the east and west walls which arc steeper. 
The exterior slopes, although rugged, are much more gentle than the interior. 
The north wall is disturbed by the same fault that has dislocated the west, 
the effects of which may be seen in the crater Triesnecker. 

The level of the floor of this interesting formation is the lowest between 
jY^alO and the Sinus Medii. B, & M. mention and delineate a central 
mountain in Ehaeticus. Lohrmann also gives it. I observed and sketched 
it 1864, April 14, and again 1867, April 1]. On the west and south, and 
including the valley IV A" ^^ on the east, Eha^ticiis may be said to be partly 
surrounded by a second wall nearly equidistant from its centre, and about the 
same distance from the east and west walls as the length of the east and 
west diameter of Ehaeticus. The portion of the second wall on the west is 
parallel with the west wall of Eha?ticus, and is also the highest. 

Longest diameter from summit of north wall to the summit of south wall 
eastof "Pass" 29"-48. 

Shortest diameter at right angles to the longest, from summit of east to 
summit of west wall 27"*10. Eiccioli's Eha)ticus is situated between Stadius 
and Copernicus. 

**2. Reattmur. — A somewhat depressed plain surrounded by a " wreath" 
of mountains, V of Lohnnann, Sect. I. 236, of his map. 

Schmidt mentions a rill, No. 364, south to north across Eeaumur. I do 
not find it on the photograph. It was discoveied in 1853, May 14, with the 
Berlin refractor. 

3. HipPARcnrs.- — Lohrmann's map, 233. The north-east part. 

This formation, which is very strongly individualized by Lohrmann in his 
Section I. {Topoc/rapMc der Sichtharen Mondoherjlache'), and nearly as much 
so by B. & M., can hardly be said to possess so distinct a character, for it is 
onlj' when the terminator is in its neighbourhood that its real features are 
well seen. Indeed, B. ife M. describe it as an assemblage of diverse lunar 
forms, rather than a general T^hole, which arc onl}' seen to advantage near 
the time of sunrise and sunset ; for at these times, especially at sunrise, the 
interior surface, of a dark-grey and furrowed through by long shadows, sepa- 
rates itself distinctly from the brighter environs. According to later obser- 
vations, it appears to consist of a tract of land between two depressions, 
Albategnius, and the low land IV A" ' ' , which surrounds the crater IV A" ^. 
Of these depressions Albategnius is the lowest. The surface of Hi2)parchus 

is slightly convex, the highest point being near the formation IVA^^^. Its 
boimdaries differ vcrj- considerably from the ordinaiy boundaries of walled 
plains, so much so that it can scarcely be regai'ded as a formation of this class. 
As figured by Lohrmann and B. & M., its S.W. boundary commences near the 
bright crater IV A^ •'■^, and is continued in a nearly straight line to the valley 
IV A'' *'. This boundary is really that of the mass of high laud in which 
Halley, Hind, IV A** ^ and IV A'' ^, are opened, and which appears to be the 
highest in this part of the moon; and the boundary is continued as a high 
steep range of mountains E.S.E. along the steep crater rill IV A^^'^ on the 
north of Albategnius to the junction of the S.W. and west borders of Ptolc- 
ma^us and Alphonsus. The west border of Hipparchus coincides with the 
"fault" IV A'' ", IVA/5-", IVA« '2 (this fault extends as far as or beyond 
Triesnecker). The north boundary differs in a ver^' marked degree from the 
S.W., inasmuch as the land on the S.W. rises to a considerable elevation. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 249 

while on the N.N.E. it is depressed. The north boundary consists of cliffs 
which do not appear to rise much, if at all, above the surface of Hipparchus, 



HipiDarclius. 



N.N.E. 



their faces looldug towards the depressed land IV A* " . It is this feature 
which occasions the evanescent character of Hipparchus, so that in about 
forty-eight hours after the terminator has passed it, this boundary is no 

longer discernible. It is in the neighbourhood of IV A" ' that the cliffs be- 
gin to rise to any extent above the surface of Hijiparchus, and it is here that 
the east boundary commences. This boundaiy passes through IVA*'^, 
IVA^30^ the mountains IVA^37 and IV A^"', the west slope of IV A^^'^ to 
IV A^^"', where the S.W. boundary commences. 

The south angle of Hipparchus is filled with the formation IV A^ -^, which 
is shghtly depressed below its level, the land filling the angle between Alba- 
tegnius and Ptolemtseus being higher. 

*4. A crater just S.W. of a line joining the south point of Rhaeticus 

with the S.W. point of Eeaumur. H. of B. & M. 6"-18, mag. 0-37. 

Shown by Lohrmann. 

This crater, although neither large nor bright, is yet sufficiently conspicuous 

to form a point of the " First Order." Its position, second order, x 4, as given 

by B. & ]yi., is •0145 west of its position as measured on the photographs. 

This crater is very interestingly situated on the depressed land IV A* " , 
extending between Ilhaticus, Horrox, and Ecaumur, and is surroimded by 
mountains and cliffs disposed in a nearly circular form at an average dis- 
tance of 24"-73. These mountains, however, must not be regarded as 
b)' any means intimately connected with the crater ; for the ranges of 
which they form parts have over a very extensive area a general direction 
S.S.W.-Jf.jSr.E. ; but the interesting feature is, that with the exception 
of those to the N.E., the summits of the mountains in the neighbour- 
hood of IV A* ^ attain their greatest altitudes at or about the distance 
above named. We are not without numerous instances of craters being 
accompanied by strong evidences of their ha\'ing been centres of considerable 
disturbance ; and although but few radiating marks are foimd characterizing 
IV A" *, yet they are not entirely wanting, as doubtless large apertures wiU 
show ; so that it is not unlikelj' that while the general mountain formations 
originated by the operation of a force of a very extensive character, the out- 
burst which produced IV A* '^ might within its range of action have modified 
the surrounding surface. It is noteworthy that IV A* * and the group IV A* "^ 
are opened upon a " Eay from Tycho," which is coincident with the high 
ranges forming the west borders of Ptolcmocus and Alphousus, and also with 
the crater and ridge on Arzachel. It is probable some of the highest peaks'in 
the central portion of the southern hemisphere may be found on this ray. Its 
direction is S.S.E.-N'.N.W., and, as mentioned under IV A ^, is to be referred 
to a more recent convulsion than that which produced the lines of disturbance 
having a general direction S.S.W.-N.N.E. 

5. A mountain-peak on the S.W. border of Reaumur, A of B. & M. 



250 REPOET — 186G. 

Length of crest 8"-08. Position, second order, x 5, -0103 west of 

photograph. Not well shown by Lohrmann. 

This peak is a conspicuous object on the line of cliffs extending from tho 

east of Ptolemaeus past Herschel (III A^ ^), and the west rim of Reaumur 

to the S.W. end of the rill of Hyginus. See partial description in Notes 

on III A^. 

*6. A crater S.E. of Reaumur 8"-08, mag. 0-5. 
In consequence of the position of objects being more to the east in area 
rV A«, the west border only comes into IV A*. The crater is a conspicuous 
object on the line of cliflfe noticed imder IV A" ^. 92 Lohrmann, Sec. I. 

*7. A crater between Reaumiu' and HaUey, also between Herschel 
and Horrox. F of B. & M., 5"-71, mag. 0-34. Position second 
order x 7, '0139 west of photograph. 
This crater is placed by B. & M. and Lohrmann on the N.E. border of Hip- 
parchus, which is figured both by B. & M. and Lohrmann, as a plain sur- 
rounded by mountains (see ante, p. 248), 1867, Feb. 11, I found it, as figured 
by B. & M. and Lohrmann, opened on a mountain. It is probable that a 
mountainous connexion exists between Reaumur and IV A^^". 

8. The N.W. part of the line of cliffs from Ptcaumur to Herschel. 
*9. The N.W. part of a plain west of Herschel, the W of Lohrmann, 
Sect. L SeeIVA^24_ 
**10. A crater-form depression south of Rha^ticus. 

This depression, which is a very conspicuous and well-marked object on the 
photograph of February 22, 1858, is hardly if at all recognizable on B. & M.'s 
map or Lohrmanu's, Sect. I. Its form is sufficiently remarkable to arrest 
the attention. The southern part presents the appearance of a crater which 

is elongated, and contracted towards the north, from whence a valley IV A" ^^ 
extends towards Rhaeticus. 

The south end of IV A* '" forms a somewhat high cliff, IV A* ^*, as com- 
pared with its interior. The valley IV A* ^^ is excavated in this cliff; IV A* '^ 
is more particularly described imder IV A" ^^^ 

The west border of Rha3ticus, and also that of IV A* '^, the cliffs passing 
cast of Horrox and crossing Hipparchus with the formation IV A^ 2^, and the 

mountains continued as far as the crater IV A^ ^ on the east of Albategnius, 
together form a line of cliffs mth gently sloping faces towards the west by 
south. This line of cliffs comes out in the full moon as a " Ray" directed 
towards Tycho. It is weU marked, and more or less continuous, although in 
many places it suffers interruptions. 

11. The tract of low land surrounding IV A** discovered by W. R. 
Birt, 1866, Nov. 14. 

It is principally at the time of sunrise that this tract is perceptible as a 
depressed surface ; at other times, except that of sunset, it is scarcely if at 
all distinguishable from the surface of Hipparchus. 

12. A somewhat wide valley between IV A* ^^ and IV A* ^^ on the line 
of cliffs from IV A" ^ to IV A" '*'. The east and west sides rise into 
eminences; IV A*''" on the east is immediately between IVA* '^ 
and IV A" '^, its sloping sides forming respectively the east and west 
interiors of the depressions adjoining. An attentive inspection will, 
however, convince the observer that IV A* ^^ is a mountain eloping 



ON MAPPING THlil SURFACE OF THE MOON. 251 

in every direction, and that the depressions east and west present 
the characteristics of valleys in the line of cliffs on the south border 
of IV A* 1 ^, The eminence on the west is the east side of the val- 
ley IV A* 32. The approximate measures of IV A** ^^ are, length 
S.S.W.-N.N.E., 12"-0, breadth 9"-0. 

13. A bay in the south border of I V A* ^ l between IV A* ^ 2 and 
IV A* 28. 

14. A cliff or mountain-peak south of IV A** ^0. Shown by Lohrmann. 
From this cliff there are three divergent lines, one slightly west of south 

to IVA^58. ti^ig (rVA«49) forms the west foot of the cliff, IVA^^s, 
IV A* 23, IV A* ^ ** ; one nearly due south, but sHghtly inclined to east, this 
forms the summit of the cliff IV A^ 38^ which is furrowed by IV A^ ^^. The 
third passes thi-ough the mountain IV A ^ 37^ and in the south part of its 
course is coincident with the east edge of the shallotv and sinuous continua- 
tion of the vaUey IV A^ ^^. 

IYA«i4, iyA'«32^IVA'*l2^ IVA«30, IVA«1^ and IVA«28 exhibit 
a well-marked and characteristic line of cliffs south of the crater IV A* ^ ; a 
depression IVA«20^ not unlike IVA«*12 and IV A« ^ 3^ connects IV A* ^ 
with this line, to which, with the mountains around, IV A* ^, stands somewhat 
in the relation of a centre. 

15. A short mountain-range extending S.E. from the S.E. border of 
Rhfeticus. IV A* ^ and IV A^ ^^ with III A? ^^, the crater on the 
floor of PtoleniEeus, are in the continuation of this line. 

1 6. A mountain-peak on the west border of Reaumur. Length of crest 
7"-13 ; probably B. & M.'s /3. N'ot well shown by Lohrmann. 

17. A bright spot S.S.W. of IV A"* T, the north part. 5"-94, mag. 0-37 ; 
probably a crater in the east boundary of Hipparchus. Sec IV A^ 39. 

*18. A craterlet S.E. of Horrox. 2"-85, mag. 0-18. 

19. A mountain-peak on the N.W. border of Reaumur. Length 7"-13. 
lY^aie and IV A**^^ are in continuation with a slight break. IV A* ^ 

and IV A* ^^ are quite detached. None are shown well by Lohrmann. 

20. A depression between IV A* "* and IV A* ^3^ and also IV A* 28. 
Direction S.S.W. , length 12"-36, breadth 6"-66. Two rays proceed 

from the E.S.E. side ; the S.S.W. ray extends as far as IVA'*27^ and the 
N.N.E. ray nearly as far as IV A* 21. The depression consists of two parts, 
one to the S.S.W., the other to the IST.K.E., not very unlike two craters that 
had coalesced. This, however, is hardly likely to have been the nature of 
their origin, for they rather appear to be Jiolhws in the E.S.E. side of the 
chain of low mountains or cliffs running towards Hipparchus. Two summits 
in this chain are discernible, IV A* 30 at the W.N.W. end of the depression, 
IV A* ^3 and IV A«3l forming the S.W. part of IV A« 20. ^ somewhat 
similar formation, IV A^ ^4, but rather smaller, occurs near and to the south 
of the group IV A^ ^ ; both IV A* 20 and IV A^ ^"^ have the same direction. 

21. A mountain S.W. of IV A'* ^ with a spur running between IV A" ^^ 
and IV A** 27. HI figured by Lohrmann. 

22. A craterlet E.S.E. of IV A* ' 3"-6, mag. 0-21. Not in Lohrmann. 



253 REPORT — 186fi, 

23. A craterlct S.E. of IV A* 22 2"-85, mag. 0-18. 

IV A* '^, IV A* 22^ an(j ly }^«. 23 fQj,jji ^ short crater-row ; length 12"-4, 
which with IV A* ^4^ jy ^a. 26^ a,nd the mountains extending towards Ileau- 
mur, form an interesting group between IV A*" ^ and its surroundings, and 
IV A* *. It is, however, not nearly so consjucuous as the group IV A^ l. 

24. A somewhat shallow crater opening into the valley IV A* ^9, n jg 

in the line of disturbance IV A'=' 5— IV A« ". 6"-66, mag. 0-39. 

This line is very exactly in the prolongation of VIIT. S.S.W. of IV A^, but 
separated from it by the comparatively smooth floor of Hipparchus, which 
extends here over a wide space. 

25. A short mountain -range east of IV A* ^4 and IV A* ^^ ; length of 
crest ll"-0. It appears to take its rise at the east edge of IV A«* 24^ 
and nearly fills the angle of IV A" -^. 

26. A craterlet W.N.W. of IV A« 24^ 3".i^ mag. 0-18, shown by B. «S:M. 
but misplaced. Shown much larger by Lohrmann ? 

27. A short mountain-range, crest somewhat sinuous, extending from 
IV A* 24 and IV A* 26 towards IV A* ^^ j ie„gth of crest ll"-4. 

28. A short moxmtain-range west of IV A* "^ and IV A** 26^ direction 
S.S.W., length of crest 8"-5G, breadth of base 6"-18. The W.N.AV. 
slope appears to be more gentle than the opposite, and the crest is 
rounded. The north end of this mountain-range appears to bo 
B. & M.'s y, and Lohrmann's Sec. I. 33. 

29. The vaUey between IV A* 25 r^^^^ jy ^« 27^ apparently communicat- 
ing with IV A* 24. Shown by Lohi'mann. 

30. A mountain between the depressions IV A" ^2 and IV A'* ^^. 

31. A mountain at the S.W. end of IV A* 20. its west slope is pro- 
minent. Shown by Lohrmann, Sec. I. near 32 and 33. 

32. A short valley S.S.E. of IV A« !«, length 14"-74, breadth 5"-23. 
This valley is very exactly in the line of the similar valley IV A"? ^ ^ which 

pierces the line of cliffs IV A" '^, forming the south -Avest border of Hippar- 
chus. The surface of Hipparchus from IV A" ^^ to the cliff IV A* ^^, on which 
IV A* 22 is situated, appears to be smooth. The direction of the line joining 
the valleys (S.S.W.) is sensibly parallel with the lines VIII. S.S.W., IX. S.S.W. 
Area IV A^. The S.S.W. mouth of IVA^'^s ig blocked by the summit of 
the cliff IV A* 32 coincident with the " Eay from Tycho." 

33. The northern part of the cliff IV A ^ 38, 

The cliff, or rather the gently rising or swelling ground of which IV A^ 38 
is the southern extremity, extends lengthwise from the north of IVA^25^ 
where it is broadest, to the west of IV A''^^, where it merges into the cUff 
IV A* ^*. The west foot is well marked as it crosses Hipparchus. 

34. The east part of the interior slope of Horrox, IV AP ^^. 

35. A small hillock on the east of Horrox, 2"-38, mag. 0-16. 

ly A? 100^ IV A** ^^, and IV A* 35 arc upon the foot of the rising ground 
IV A^ 38^ ly A.« 33_ A faint ray connects IV A* 35 ^ith the mountain at the 
extremity of IV A* 32 in the direction of the dotted line. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 253 

36. A short mountain-rango nearly crossing IV A'* ^^, length of crest 
12"*36. Not well shown by Lohrmann. 

This mountain -range Vies ijrecisely in the direction of a faint ray, IV A* ^^, 
from IV A« 4. 

37. Two adjoining mountains on the west border of IV A* ^^. 

38. An elongated depression or valley in the north part of IV A* ^^ 
(see IV A* '*2). Not in Lohrmann. 

39. A mountain on the west border of IV A* ^^. 

40. A mountain-range, its south end projecting into IV A* 2^. 

41. A lucid spot west of IV A^ *, probably the south slope of an emi- 
nence on IV A* ^^. Not in Lohrmann. 

42. A line of fault extending north from IV A* ^ - which it crosses. It 
is continued east of IV A* ^^ as far as the range IV A* *^, and re- 
appears on the north side of IV A** ^^ in the ridge IV A* '*^. 

The surface immediately west of this fault is very greatly disturbed, ex- 
hibiting a series of somewhat intricate formations, which are ill figured both 
by B. & M. and Lohrmann. The most remarkable are IVA^^^, IV A* ^^j 
and IV A* ^^. As these formations a^jpear to be intimately connected, it may 
perhaps be better to describe them with the fault. IV A" ^^ is a consider- 
able depression, a little east of the line joining Ehaeticus and Horrox. Its 
west side, which is continued in a N.N.E. direction, as the west side of IV A* ^^ 
is rather considerably elevated. It is on the " Ray from Tycho," and is 
marked by the peaks IV A* ^^ at its south end, IV A'*37 (two) on its west 
side, and IV A"* ^^ at its junction with IV A«* ^8^ ^nd also the cliff IV A« ^0. 
An interior ledge on the west side is visible. The floor of IV A" ^^ is irregu- 
lar and rough, the east interior slope being seen under a suitable illumination 
rising from it. The most interesting feature of IV A** ^'^ is a ridge, IV A* ^^> 
nearly but not quite crossing it from east to west. A faint ray, IV A" ^^' 
extends between the east end of this ridge and the crater IV A* '^, and is 
continued (IV A* ^ ^ ) in a shghtly altered direction on the opposite side of 
IV A** *. The north part of the depression IV A* ^^ is connected with the 
south, round the west extremity of IV A* ^^. South of IV A" ^^ jg ^be val- 
ley IV A* ^2 ; the two, however, are not connected, although there is a par- 
tial depression in the south wall of IV A* ^^, for IV A* '^ is much deeper 
thanIVA«32. 

Eunning into IV A* ^^ on the north, is the depression IV A" ^^, closed at 
its soiith end ; both the east and west sides are somewhat elevated, but the 
north is entirely open, giving ingress to the narrow extremity of the moun- 
tain-range IV A** ^^. All the depressions to the south of Rhteticus are very 
unlike " craters," as a single glance at Horrox will sufficiently indicate. They 
appear to fill the space between two ranges of mountains which diverge from 
a point south-east of llhasticus. This space attains its greatest width in the 
neighbourhood of the mountain-range IV A" ^^, which nearly crosses IV A* ^^, 
and the two ranges imite at the south-west extremity of the valley IV A* ^'^• 
The axis of the larger irregular and partially blocked valley, extending from 



254 REPORT — 1866. 

Rhaeticus to the S.W. end of IV A** ^^, is parallel with the line of fault 
IV A« 42. 

The surface on the east of the south part of the line of fault is very dif- 
ferent. Between it and the mountains IV A* ^^ and IV A* ^l^ it appears to 
be generally smooth, but diversified by rays which in a measure, although not 
very marked, converge to IV A* ^ as a centre. Between IV A* ^ and 
IVA«38 is the lucid spot IVA«4l. 

43. A mountain-ridge in the continuation of the line of fault IV A* ^^j 
direction S. by W., face toward W. by N., length 23"-0. It has 
upon it three craterlets. 

44. The south of two craterlets near the south end of IV A« ^3 y.Q^ 
mag. 0-06. Not in Lohrmann. 

45. The north of two craterlets near the south end of IV A"'^^ l"-0, 
mag. 0-06. Not in Lohrmann. 

46. A craterlet on the north part of IV A« 43 i-'.q, mag. 0-06. 

47. A deep cleft on the south border of the Sinus Medii. 
The east side of this cleft is a continuation of IV A" ^3. 

48. The south part of the second wall of Rhaeticus. 

49. A line of fault extending fi'om the south part of IV A? ^^ to the 
west border of Rhaeticus, where it intersects the fault IV A" ^^> 
IV A/3 20^ ly A« 72, The portion between IV A« lo and IV A* » 
(Rhaeticus) is on the " Ray from Tycho." 

50. A cliff on the north part of the west border of IV A"* ^^. 
**51. The mountain-arm west of IV A* ^, IV A^ ^^, the north part. 

52. A curved mountain-range extending from IV A* ^^ to the east part 
ofthe vaUeylVA^'^g. 

53. A short shallow valley on the north border of IV A* ^, length 8"-56, 
breadth 9"-99. Lohrmann's Sec. I. 90. 

54. A chain of mountains extending from the west border of IV A* ^ 
to the south of Reaumur, length 1 3"'0. Shown by Lohrmann. 

55. A mountain between IV A<* ^^ and Reaumur, also between IV A* '^ 
and IV A« 80. 

56. A mountain N.W. of IV A<^ 55. 3".5. 

57. A craterlet on the south border of Reaumur. 3"-8, mag. 0-26. 

58. A valley east of and parallel with IV A* ^3. 

This valley is very interestingly situated with regard to Rhaeticus. It is 
about as far from the east border of Rhaeticus as the west portion of the second 
wall is from the west border, but unlike this portion, in its being depressed, 
instead of elevated above the surface. The directions of the two are also dif- 
ferent, the high west ranges being S.S.E., and the depressed valley south by 

west. Their directions produced meet at the south part of IV A^ ^^, but 
there are no indications of any connecting formations. The space between 
Rhaeticus and IV A* ^^ ig occupied by rugged ground, about the middle of 
which the ridge IV A** ^3 ig elevated. 

IV A* ^8 lies veri/ exactly in the line of depression IV A" ^ ^^ ly A" ^'^, 
iyA«i2^ the direction of which is south by Avest. This line of depression 
intersects VIII. S.S.W. in the mountain IV A^ ^9. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 255 

59. A ridge between IV A**^ and the north end of IVA««58_ ^his 
ridge is ou the line of cliffs between Ptolemaeus and the S.W. end 
of the rill of Hyginus, 

60. A craterlet north by east of IV A« ^^. 3"-5, mag. 0-21. 

61. A ray from IVA**> extending in a N.E. direction as far as the 
range of clifPs N.W. of Reaumur. Schmidt's riU, No. 365, N.W.- 
S.E., discovered by him in 1853, May 14, with the Berlin refractor, 
is near this ray. I do not find the riU on the photographs. 

62. A low ridge from IV A" ^ ^ to IV A* ^^, forming a depressed portion 
of the Hne of cliife from Ptolemaeus to the S.W. end of the rill of 
Hyginus. 

63. A mountain on IV A** ^^. Probably shown by Lohrmann. 

64. A curved mountain-range between IV A* ^^ and IV A* ^^. 

65. A curved mountain-range N.W. of IV A" ^^. 

66. A low ridge connecting IV A* ^^ with IV A* ^^. 

This low ridge is nearly parallel with the depressed portion between 
IV A'* 16 and IVA'«58 of the line of cliffs from Ptolemaeus to the rill of 
Hyginus. 

67. The S.W. border of Reaumur. 

68. A dark spot east of IV A** ^^, 

69. A dark spot north of Reaumur. 

70. A Hght spot north of IV A« 68. 

IY^a68^ IVA«69, and IV A« 'o form part of a Hne of cliffs north and 
N.W. of Reaumur. It is shown by Lohrmaim. 

71. A bright spot between IV A/^ 16 (Horros) and IVA« 17. 

72. Part of the "Fault" IV A*? n, IV A^ 20. 

This interesting " Fault," which is of considerable extent, takes its rise in 
the crater IV A" ^, the north border of which is cracked by it. The fault 
has dislocated the S.E. end of the mountain-chain TV A" i^, and produced 
the long narrow vaUey IV A" 1 1. About the middle of IV A" 1 1 it is inter- 
sected by the faiilt IV A*' ^^, which taking its rise on the east border of Hind, 
can be traced nearly as far as Godin. This fault, IV A" ^^, is coincident with 
the " Ray from Tycho" which passes through or along the west border of 
Albategnius, and also crosses the Mare Sereuitatis. It is on this Ray that 
Bessel is situated. Just north of the point of intersection of the two faults 
the ground rises, the crater IV A'^ i^ being included in the angle formed by 
the intersection. If ear the point of intersection the fault IV A" 1 1 enters the 
area IV A'^, in which it is designated as IV A'' ^^. On the extreme edges of 
the chffs formed by IV A/^ 20^ the smaU craters IVA/^^i and IV A/3 1^ have 
been opened. From IV A'^ 1 ^ the fault proceeds directly to the west border 
of Rhceticus, having dislocated IV Ai^ ^^, the west portion of IV A"' '^^. The 
west and north borders of Rhseticus have suffered very marked dislocations 
by this fault. Its effects are 7iot visible on the smooth surface south of 
Triesnecker, which — as well as the crater Uliert — has suffered by it, and 
much disturbance occurs in the same line as far as the Apennines. 

An interesting question as to priority of epoch suggests itself in coniiexion 
Avith these faults. The neighbourhood of IV A^ ^6 indicates that of the two 



256 REPORT— 186G. 

lines intersecting at that point, the one from Tycho is the most recent. Now 
the ray from Tycho, on which the fault IV A" ^^ occurs, is nearly parallel with 
the one on which IV A^^^ is found, and it may be of nearly the same age. 
The fault IV A" l ' , IV A/3 20^ IV A« 72^ ^i^ich intersects IV A" 23^ jg nowhere 
ohlitemtcd between IV A" 2 and the north border of Ehteticus, while in the 
neighbourhood of IVA/^l^ the fault IV A" 23 ^g obliterated, the elevated 
ground on which the crater is situated effacing it. Does this point to a more 
recent epoch than that of Tycho for the outburst of the crater IV A'' 2 ? Also, 
Is the fault IV A" 23 more recent than the ray from Tycho on which it 
occurs ? 

73. A rill from IV A'* 28 to IV A« ^<^, length 21"-87. Schmidt, N"o. 363. 
Schmidt discovered this rill in 1853, on May 14, with the Berlin refractor. 

He describes it as having a N.E. and S.W. direction, and extending from 
Hipparchus y to Eeaumur /3 of 13. & M.'s map. It is very faintly traceable 
on the photograph, and may probably be a crater-rill. 

74. A liU crossing Rha3ticus from S.E. to N.W. Schmidt, No. 366. 
This riU was also discovered by Schmidt in 1853, on May 14, with the 

Berlin refractor. There is another rUl more to the N. in Quadrant I. cross- 
ing Rh^ticus, probably Nos. 47 and 43 of Schmidt's Catalogue. These were 
discovered by him on the same daj-, and with the same instrument with 
which he discovered the above-mentioned rills, viz. Nos. 363, 364, 365, and 
366. Both the rills in Ehoeticus are apparent on the photograph. 
J75. The continuation of the shallow part of the vaUey IV A^ ^^. 
X7G. The depressed portion of the valley IV vV* '^■^ discovered by "VV. R. 
Birt, 1866, Nov. 14, with the Eoyal Society's achromatic of 4^-inch 
aperture, power 230. 
This object, as well as the valley of which it forms part, is very evanescent, 
being visible only about the time of sunjrise. 

77. A valley-like depression running S.W.-N.E. between the faults 
IV A^ 20 and IV A«« ^9, from IV A^ 30 to IV A« 78, 

78. A crater in the angle between IVA«*38 and IV A* "^8, length 
E.-W. 9"-03, breadth S.-N. 4"-76, mag. 0-42. 

79. A depression on the S.W. slope of IV A* ^*, most probably b of 
B. & M., length 4"-76. 

80. A mountain -range running between IV A* 23 ^nd IV A* ^^, length 
of crest 22"-82. Probably the S.E. side of Lohrmaun's 87, Sec. I. 

81. A depression on the S.w! slope of IV A* 54^ N.N.W. of IV A« '9, 
length 6"-66. 

82. A small depression north of IV A* ^3. 2"-3, mag. 0-15. 

83. The ray from IV A<* 4 to IV A« 3<^. 

84. A mountain-peak on the N.W. border of Eeaumur in conti- 
nuation of IV A'*^ 9, length 6"-18. IVA«'^ IVA«19, and 
JYA.««84 foi-m an almost continuous mountain -chain on the N.W. 
border of Eeaimiur, length 22"-35. This mountain-chain is con- 
nected with IV A^ 28 ty the rill IV A* ^3, 

85. A shaUow depression west of IV A'* 7o. 3' .33, 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 2o7 

Area IV A^. 
Introduction. 

The greater i)ortion of this area, which possesses much irregularity of 
surface, is principally oecupied by four groups of objects, viz., those on the 
rocky laud — partly surrounding a plain — in the angle formed by the N.E. 
border of Albategnius and the N.W. border of Ptolemseus; the crater group 
in the north angle of Albategnius ; the slightly depressed surface IV A^ 25 ; 
and the lower land north of the crater- row from IV A^ ' to Ptolemasus. 
These groups occupy nearly twenty superficial degrees, or about 6953 square 
miles. The remainder of the area, about 1857 square miles, is occupied with 
the much more level surface of the south part of Hipparchus and the region 
east of it. 

In the four groups of lunar objects above named there are no large craters ; 
the largest is IV A^', which measures 10"-94, mag. 0-70. The following 
arrangement shows the distribution of 41 as to size : — 

Between 1" — 2" 2"— 3" 3"— 4" 4"— 5" 5" — 6" 6"— 7" 7" -8" 

Objects.. 3 10 11 6 6 4 4 

Points of the First Order. None. 

Points of the Second Order indicated thus x . 

X Y S.lat. W.long. 



IV A^^. .. 


•13716 


•03486 


7 53 


2 1 


IV A? 10... 


•17250 


•08157 


9 56 


4 45 


IV A? 12. 


•16476 


•03012 


9 29 


1 45 



#*1. A crater situated on the rocky land between Ptolemaeus and Hip- 
parchus. Lohrmann, 235 on map, X in Section I., who describes it 
as of 16-1 English mUes in diameter, 7° of brightness, the floor 
being 5°, mag. 0^70. I suspect a central mountain in it. 
This crater is of irregular form and not round, as given by Lohrmann. A 
line between IV A^^ and IV A^^ measures 10"^94. The figure is that of a 
tery ii-regular trapezium; the sides, however, are not right lines, but more or 
less curved. The longest side, 12"-36, which is sensibly curved, is from 
south-east to north-west, the exterior slope facing the north-east. It in- 
cludes the promontory on the border towards IV A^ ' ^. The next longest 
side, 9"-03, is from south-west to north-east, the exterior slope facing the 
north-west. The two remaining sides do not much differ from this iu 
length. At the south end of the crater, and between the south-east and 
south-west walls, is a break or "pass," IV A^ 2^ ^o^ unlike the " gorge" at 
the north-west point of Rhaeticus. [Qi/. Is this "pass" at the south-west 
end of "Webb's Furrow, between the craters IV A^ * and IV A^ ^ ?] It is not 
shown by Lohrmann, but can be traced in the position queried on Be La Rue's 
and Rutherford's photographs. Just exterior to the south-west wall are the 
two craters, IV A? -^ and IV A^ 5. Exterior to the south-east wall, and lying 
close to it, are two dimples, IV A? ^ and IV A^ ^, not in any way indicated by 
Lohrmann nor by B. & M. From these a row of five eraterlets extend to the 
west border of Ptolemceus. B. & M. give and mention six ; probably they 
may include the dimples, as there is some doubt about IV A^ '3, the craterlet 
nearest the wall of Ptolemaeus, being really one, the rising ground tending to 

1866. g 



358 REPORT — 1866. 

produce sucli an appearance. Mr. Ingall has observed an excavation in the 
mountain-slope. 

At the north point of IV A^ Ms a crater, IV A^ ^, probably a little larger 
than either IV A^* qj. IV A^^, and this has a minute craterlet on the east, 
and also one on the west. 

The crater IV A^ ^ has a " furrow " crossing the interior of the south-east 
waU, in the direction of the crater-row IV A^^MV A^ '9 (see IVA^^O^^ 
It is worthy of remark that a prolongation of this crater-row and furrow will 
pass through the bright mountain IV A^^^. 

t2. A pass or " gully" in the south end of IV A'' ^. 'Eecorded in Obs. 
Bk. 1864, Sept. 22" 15"^ 45™ G. M. T. No. 292, p. 102, Roy. Soc. 4i, 
power 230. Definition " very good." 
*3. A depression or crater on the N.W. border of Ptolemteus, Length 
S.S.W. to N.N.E. 9"-03, breadth W.N.W. to E.S.E. 4"-76. 
**4. The N.W. of two craters S.W. of IV A^^ 5"-23, mag. 0-33. 
**-5. The S.E. of two craters S.W. of IV A^^ 4"-76, mag. 0-32. 
Lohrmann gives both these craters, and mentions them in his text (Topo- 
graphic der Sichtbareu Mondoberflache, erste Abtheilung, p. 55, Sec. I. X). 
Beer and Mjidler give only one. 

**6, A crater on the S,E. border of Hipparchus 6"'66, mag. 0-44. i of 

B. & M. 35. Sec. I. of Lohrmann. 

**7. A crater just north of IVA^l 6"-18, mag. 0-40 (Beer and Mad- 

ler's position of the second order K is indicated by 7 X on IV A^ ''). 

IVA^l, IVA?^ IV A^^ IV A^ 6, and IV A^^ form a very interesting 

and conspicuous group, the conformation of 1, 4, 5, and 7 contributing to 

its being easily found at some distance from the " terminator." 

iS. The S.W. of two small dimples just S.E. of IV A^ ^, estimated 3"-5, 
mag. 0-21, 

+9. The N.E, of two small dimples just S.E. of IV A^^, estimated 3"-5, 
mag. 0-21. 
IV A^' s and IV A^ ^ are both recorded in Obs. Bk. 1864, Sept. 22<' 16" 0™ 
G. M. T., No. 292, p. 103, Boy. Soc. 4i, power 230. Definition admii-able ; 
they are difficult objects. 

*10. A crater on the interior N.W. border of Albategnius 6"-18, mag, 
0-37. Position of second order X 10 on its S.E. margin, 
11. HipPAECHus. — Lolirmann's map 233, the S.E. part. 
The S.W. part is shown in area IV A''. The floor of Hipparchus 

is convea', the highest part being in the neighbourhood of IV A^ ^^, probably 
the cliff IV A? 38. 

*12. A crater south of IV A? i. Q of B. & M. ? Longer axis W.S.W.- 
E.N.E. 8"-56 ; shorter axis N.N.W.-S.S.E. 6"-66, rang. 0-46. 
Although a point of the second order, tliis crater appears to be wrongly 
placed by B. & M. There does not appear to be a crater either on the pho- 
tograph of February 22, 1858, or on Lohrmann's Section I., between IV A^^ 
and the angle formed by the walls of Albategnius and Ptolcmfcus. In this 
angle on the photograph is a crater, which I take to be B. & M.'s G. The 
position of second order, 12 X , comes upon its west margin. 

13. The S.W. of three cratcrlets cast of IV A?l 2"-85, mag. 0-18. f. of 
B. 6: M. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 259 

14. The middle of three craterlets east of IV A^l 2"-85, mag. 0-18. 
tl5. The ISr.E. of three craterlets east of IV A^ 1. 
These craterlets lie in a line from the east border of IV A^^ to the rocky 
border of Ptolemseus. On Sept. 22, 1864, these three were recorded, with a 
probable fourth. B. & M. give six, and say, in ' Der Mond,' p. 346, " a row 
of six craters." 1865, Jan. 5, fotir are quoted by Mr. Freeman of Mentone, 
with two very small ones. 1866, Feb. 22, I found five. The additional 
ones are IV A^^^ ^^^^ IVA^^9_ 

**16. The mountainous west border of Ptolemaeus. Lohrmann, Sec. 1. 16. 
**17. A mountain on the west border of Ptolemajus forms a terrace inter- 
mediate in altitude and position between the high rugged land at the 
N.E. of Albategnius and the smooth surface of Ptolemfeus, and 
has a slight, but very perceptible, depression on its summit, Avhich is 
not unlike a tableland. West of it is the deep hollow IV A^ ^ ' . 
tl8. A smaU craterlet N.E. of IV A^ '^ 
tl9. A small craterlet N'.E. of IV A^ ^^ 
These two craterlets complete the record of the crater-row from IV A^ 
to IV A^ ^''. Mr. Knott considers that IV A^ '^ is not a craterlet, but only 
a rise in the groimd, which produces a craterlike appearance. 

This crater-row may now be considered as well determined, and with the 
dimples IV A^ ''', IV A^ ^, will constitute a crater-rill, according to Schmidt, 
although not found in his catalogue. It is noteworthy that it occurs on the 
line of cliffs extending from Halley to Ptolemaeus, which is broken by. 
IV A^', IV A^^. IV A^^- is common to two lines of cliffs, which cross 
each other nearly at right angles. The magnitudes of IVA^'^, IV A^ , 
IV A^ 19 ^^r^YQ not been determined nor estimated. The length of the crater- 
rill from IV A^ ''^ to IV A^ '^ inclusive is 1.5"-22. It is not in Lohrmann. 
i20. A fuiTOW on the interior slope of the S.E. rim of IV A^^ length 
10"-94. 
This furrow was discovered on the 6th of December, 1864, by the Rev. 
T. W. "Webb, who thus mentions it in a letter under date of the 7th of 
December, 1864. Speaking of the row of craters extending from IV A^ 
to Ptolemy, he says, " There are but four, or at most five craters in their 
[B. & M.'s] row of six. I could readily count them but for the great 
agitation of the air ; the S.W. one, which seems to be Albategnius f of 
the map, is the largest ; they decrease somewhat towards Ptolemaeus. The 
direction S.W. is carried on by a furrow (I presume one of your dimples) 
through the wall, and visible on its interior slope to the junction of the 
two subcraters on the S.W. side of X (IV A^^)." 

On the 5th of January, 1865, Mr. Freeman at Mentone, the Alpes Mari- 
times, examined this locality, but could not find the furrow. Of the crater- 
row he says, " The four were too nearly in a direct line with IV A^ ^ to 
enable a furrow witliin the ring of 235 (L.) to connect them." 

On February 22, 1866, I obtained at Hartwell, with the equatoreal of 
o-9-inches aperture, a view of Mr. Webb's furrow; my observation is thus 
recorded : — ■" I saw also distinctly Mr. Webb's furrow on the interior of the 
S.E. border of X (IV A^ ^), which is a continuation of the crater-row, in which 
at least there are five craters." 

The existence of this furrow is accordingly confirmed, although it would 

s2 



2G0 REPORT — 18GG. 

seem that its appearance or visibility is rare, being seen, as many other 
objects are, only under particular angles of incidence and visual ray. Mr. 
Knott examined the locality on the 23rd and 24th of February, 1866. He 
does not mention it in his record, but says that '• Mr. Freeman's description 
of this region tallies better with my own seeings than that of Mr, Webb."' 

It is not unlikely that the S.E. rim of Lohrmann's X (IV A'' ^) may possess 
such a configuration as sometimes to throw the furrow out of sight. This 
might be produced by the interior slope being presented to the eye nearly in 
a vertical line. It clearl)- appears that this object may be placed amongst the 
most delicate and fugitive of the lunar features. 
f21. A small crater east of IV A^^. 
This crater appears on the photograph as elliptical ? The longer axis, 
E.-W., 4"-76 ; the shorter, N.-S., 2"-S5 ; mag. 0-23. It may be regarded 
as a craterlet. Lohrmann gives two here, none on the W. 
t22. A craterlet west of IV A^^ 2"-3S, mag. 0-16. 
Mr. Freeman mentioned these craterlcts to me in a letter bearing date 1865, 
January 21. On the 22nd of February, 1866, at HartweU, I recorded an 
observation of them, and remarked that B. & M. gave only the east crater. 
I, however, find in theii- map, close to the west border of IV A^^, a very 
small crater, and if the two be intended by B. & M. for the craters seen by 
Mr. Freemau and by me, the position of one, if not both, requires to be more 
accurately determined. They are given on tlie map as they align in the 
photograph. B. & M.'s craters lie S.E. and N.W. Mr. Freeman and I give 
them as seen in the telescope, east and west. 1867, March 15, seen as on map. 
23. The highest (?) point of the west border of Ptolemteus. 
Well shown by Lohrmann both in his map and Section I., but indifferently 
by B. k, M. The mountain presents a fine, bold and steep front W.N.W. to 
the high land situated in the angle between Albategnius and Ptolemseus, 
and extends N.N.E. to about the middle of IV A^^^. Length from the west 
edge of IV A^ ^^ to the promontory opposite IV A^ " 13"-79. At its W.N.W. 
foot is a valley, IV A^ '^, somewhat wide at first, but which gradually con- 
tracts towards the N.X.E., and terminates at a point where the rill, IV A^ '^> 
which furrows the slope of IVA^^^, also terminates. 

*24. A plain west of Herschel (III A^ ^), the S.AV. part. 
There are several objects on this plain. See p. 279, IV A^ ''^*, &c. 
**25. The formation between Ilalley IV A'''' and IV A^^. 
This is a very individualized formation on the south part of Hipparchus, 
measuring N.N.W.-S.S.E. from IV A'^^^-IV A^ ^2 j^jji^gi^.e^ 37"-09, and 
W.S.W.-E.N.E. from IV A? -"^-XS A^ ^ inclusive, about 34". Its boundary 
on the S.W. and south consists of a mountainous border, springing from the 
mountain IV A^ ^^ on the east border of Halley, which forms the N.W. part 
of the mountain-chain separating Albategnius from Ptolemteus, and of which 
the mountain IV A^ '-<' is the highest point. The N.W. (IV A^ 27) ^^^1 j^jg. 
boundaries appear to be depressed below the general surface, the N.W. some- 
what in the nature of a riU with two elevations, IV A^^^, IV A^^", on the 
S.E. side ; the N.E. has somewhat the appearance of a crater-row, two cra- 
ters being very apparent, IV A^^" and IV A^'*''; in addition there are two 
mountains, IV A^ ^^ and IV A^ "^^ At the east extremity of this formation 



ON MAPPING THE SUKFACE OH THE MOON. 261 

is the crater IV A^**, which is opened up in the rising and elevated ground, 
forming the east boundary. This elevated gToiind fdls the angle between 
Albategnius and Ptolemasus, and is marked " higher level." 

The interior surface of IV A^ ^'^ is slightly depressed and irregular. It 
is marked "lower level (2)," indicating that it is lower than the surface of 
Hipparchus "lower level (1)." On the west portion are two conspicuous 
mountains, one, IV A^ ^°, in the angle formed by the S.W. and N.W. boun- 
daries, and also in a line with the mountain IV A^ ^^ and the crater IV A^ " ; 
the other, IYA^^\ J^.E. of IVA^^°, and forming with it two elevations 
nearly parallel with the depression or broad rill, IV A^^', 

The mountain IV A^ ^^ forms the continuation of the east boundary from 
IV A^ *'. There are two (apparently) elevations, one nearly between IV A^ ^^ 
and IVA^32 (IVA^^^), the other between IVA^^l ^^^^ lYA^^. 

There are three conspicuous craters on this formation; one, IV A^^'*, 
S.W. of IV A^^ and two N.W. of IV A^^ viz. IVA^^s ^^^ IV A^ ''6, at 
the south foot of IV A? 28_ 

26. The mountain on the S.W. boundarj- of IV A^25_ 

27. A valley forming the IST.W. boundary of IV A^-^, length from 
IVA^29 to jY^^57 25".68. 

*28. A cliff forming part of the Jf.E. boundary of IV A^-^, length 
W.N.W.-E.S.E. 10"-94. 
**29. A mountain on the east border of Halley, height according to B. 
and M. 3543 English feet or 1080 metres ; it has a spur towards 
the N.E. ; length of spur 7"-13. 
This mountain is very suitable for a point of the first order. The spur 
towards the N'.E. inclines very considerably to the level of the valley IV A^ ^^. 
As the sun rises upon it, it is seen as a fine line of light. 

*30. A mountain on the west floor of IVA^^S^ length 8"-56. 
*31. A mountain on the north floor of IV A? -^, length 8"-56. 
*32. A mountain nearly S.S.W. of IV A^^ 4"-28, mag. 0-29. 
This mountain is longer than shown in the photograph. It is situated on 
the line of cliiFs from Tj'cho, and extends nearly as far north as IVA^"- 
It is the N.E. spur of Lohrmann's 20, Sec. I. East of and parallel with it is 
a crater-rUl containing three adjoining craterlets, IV A^^**, IV A^^', and 
IV A^^-. Another crater-rill branches from IV A^''^ to IV A^^^, contain- 
ing two adjoining craterlets, IV A^^'^ and IV A^*^^. 

**33. A craterlet at the extreme north point of Albategnius 3"-80, mag. 
0-26. It is opened on the crater rill IV A^^'^, at its western end. 
**34. A pear-shaped depression, as seen, under some aspects, on the north 
part of Albategnius, opening into a crater on IV A\ of which it 
forms the north part. 
This is imperfectly shown both by B. & M. and Lohrmann. It contains 
three craters, the south and largest, IV A^ ^', the middle one, IV A^^", and 
the north, IV A^". 

35. Albategnitts, the north part. 
**36. A crater on the K.E. border of Albategnius, length 8"-56. Its real 
form requires to be determined. Shown bv Lohrmann. 



^^ • REPORT 1866. 

*37. A mountain appearing as a bright spot jnst N.E. of IV A^ 2^, 
length N.N.W.-S.S.E. 11"-41. Well shown by Lohrmann. 

38. A cliff (apparently) on the high land crossing Hipparchus. It is on 
a " ray from Tycho." Not in Lohrmann. 

39. A bright spot S.S.W. of IV A" ^ See IV A« ^7. 

40. An isolated craterlet between IV A^^" and IVA^^a s^.qq^ 

mag. 0-22. 

41. A crater just S.E. of IV A^ ^3^ gr/.g^ j^^g. 0-41. 

This crater, of nearly the same superficial extent as IV A^**^, which adjoins 
it on the south-east, differs from IV A^ ^^ in an important particular ; 
IV A^^^ has a narrow border, and appears to be deejjer than IV A^^^, which 
is a shallower pit in a broad border, a class of crater of rather common occur- 
rence on the moon's surface. The magnitude of IV A^^^, 0-42, includes the 
broad border. IV A^ ^^ is remarkable for its apparent priority to the crater- 
riU IV A^ '^'^, which cuts completely through it, rendering the north part 
brilliantly white, while the smface tint of the south part is dark. It would 
appear that the north part of IV A^ "^^ has been raised, the crater-riU IV A^ ''^ 
occupying the very summit of the waU of Albategnius (see IV A^**^), from 
which the south slope is very steep. The crater is shown by Lohrmann. 

42. A craterlet a Uttle N.N.W. of IV A^^'' 3"-80, mag. 0-25; situated 

on the W.S.W. slope of the cliffs crossing Hipparchus. 
*43. A craterlet between IV A^^'' and IV A^* 4"-76, mag. 0-29. 

44. A craterlet W.S.W. of IV A? 6 3"-33, mag. 0-23; situated on the 

W.S.W. slope of the cliffs crossing Hipparchus. 

45. A craterlet X.W. of IV A^*^ ^i,.>jq^ ^^„_ o-29. 

46. A craterlet N.N.E. of IV A^'^^, estimated 3"-20, mag. 0-19. 

**47. The west mountainous border of IV A^^'^, length N". by W.-S. by E. 
18"'07. WeU shown by Lohrmann. 
48. A short mountaiu-range between IV A^^ and IV A^^, length 
N. by W.-S. by E. 14"-74. Shown by Lohrmann. 

*49. A craterlet on the south extremity of IV A^ *' 3"-33, mag. 
0-25. It is situated on the east side of the end of the mountain- 
arm, and is the c of B. & M., but not shown by Lohrmann. 

50. A crater on the north of Albategnius, between IV A^^* and 

IV A? 'ti, 5"-23, mag. 0-32. Shown by Loluinann. 
This is the middle one of the thi'ee craters which make up the pear-shaped 
depression as seen under some aspects on the north of Albategnius. See 
IV A^^*. It is not difficult with a suitable apertui'e and power. 

51. A crater between IV A^ '" and IV A^ 34_ 5r-.23, mag. 0-33. 
*52. A crater east of IV A^ ^^ adjoining it. 7"-13, mag. 0-42. 

53. A crater-form depression between IV A^^*^ and IV A^*'. 

54. An elongated depression between IV A^^ and IV A^^**; length 

S.S.W.-N.N.E. 8"-56, breadth uncertain, under 5". 
This depression occiu-s in the high land which fills the angle between 
Ptolemajus and Albategnius, and is S.E. of IV A^ ^^ J the direction — 

IST.N.E. -S.S.W. (somewhat inclining east and west) of IV A^ ^^ — is similar to 
that of numerous rents and fissures in this and other parts of the moon, and 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 263 

may probably be connected with the easternmost of the two " Eay-contres" 
in the neighboui'hood of Furnerius. This System of liays appears almost to 
rival that from Tycho in magnificence, but as it is nearer the Umb than 
Tycho, the rays which issue from the centre are not so apparent. There is 
also this peculiarity: a ray, which may be regarded as central, passes in a 
nearly rectiliueal direction towards the central part of the visible hemisphere, 
passing the north of Fracastorius and between Theophilus and CyriUus to 
Alfraganus, and is lost apparently in the light ground that surrounds 
Alfraganus ; but many of the irregularities of the smface, even as far as the 
rocky land bordering the smoother surface on which Triesnecker is opened, 
partake of the same direction, /. e. mountains and ridges in the neighbom-- 
hood of Godin and Agri2)pa are directed towards this ray-centre, and even 
the lateral valleys of the Apennines manifest the same general arrangement. 

The rays issuing from the ray-centre above-mentioned towards the north 
and south bend so as to form branches of parabolic curves, and it is this 
feature which constitutes the peculiarity before alluded to. 

The paraUeUsm of the vaUeys IV A*/ '^ lY A^ ^^, and III A^ 2 appears to 
connect them with this system ; for although the general direction of these 
valleys is not immediately towards the ray-centre, yet they appear to form 
portions of the prolongations of rays that converge to it. 

iy^254 coincides with and is prolonged in a line of upheaval j»assing 
through IV A^^ IV A^l (east side), IV A^^s^ IV A^49, ni A«2 (^est side), 
and the east boundary of Eeaumur. See IV. S.S.W.-N.N.E., p. 272. 

*55. A craterlet on the floor of Ptolemeeus, between the mountains 

IV A^ 1', IV A^ 16 3"-33, mag. 0-19. Well shown by Lohrmann. 
*o6. A mountain on the S.E. side of IV A^ 2^, length SSW-NNE 
9"-79. 

57. A mountain near the N.E. extremity of IVA^^^ leno-fh S S W- 
N-.N.E. 5"-23. ■ ' ■ 

These mountains, with the N.E. spur of IVA^^D^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^-^ boundary 
of the valley IV A^-'' ; it is uncertain if the mountains be isolated or con- 
nected by low ridges, but it appears probable that the surfaces of the valley 
IV A^27 and the depression IVA^^S ^^,^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ j^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^_ 

ther they form the lowest portion of Hipparchus, the levels of Ptolem^us 
and Albategnius being considerably lower. 

*58. A curved mountain-chain on the floor of Hipparchus, west of the 

chff IV A^ ^^. It is concentric with the S.W. border of Hipparchus 

Diameter N.W. to S.E. 20"-45. 

There is great reason to believe that this formation is an ancient and partly 

fined crater with a very broken Avail, as under an oblique illumination its 

surface is seen to be depressed, and it presents the crater character. The 

craterlet IV A? l"" appears to form a point in the line of ancient wall. 

59. A craterlet at the S.W. extremity of the mountain-arm enclosing 
the plain IV A^ ^4^ jjj ^? 14 ^^ ^^^ gQ^|.}^_ Diameter east to west 
4"-76,_ north to south 2"85, mag. 0-23. It requires further ob- 
servation. 

*60, The mountain-range between IV A^ ^^ and III A^ ^ jgngth S.S W - 
N.N.E. 13"-31. 

*61. A mountain north of IV A? '^ 8"-08. Lohrmann 34, Sec. I. 

IV A^ 3' and IV A^^^ are two conspicuous mountains, with the valley 



264 KEVOKT — 186G. 

IV A? ^^ betAvecn them, situated on the JST.W. border of the plain in Avhich 
the group IV A^ and surrounding objects are situated. 

+62. A minute craterlet at the S.W. end of IV A^^^, estimated l"-0, 

mag. 0-06. 
+63, A minute craterlet N.E. of IVA^^^, estimated l"-0, mag. 0-06, 
+64. A minute craterlet IST.E. of IV A^ ^3, estimated l"-0, mag. 0-06, 
These minute craterlets form a short crater-row at the closed extremity of 
the valley IV A^^^- They are inserted on the authority of Lohrmaun, who 
mentions them in his text, " Topographic der Sichtbaren Mondoberflache," 
Erste Abtheilung, auf Section I. p. 49, A. I have not yet seen them. Es- 
timated length of crater-row 5"-0. 

*65. A crater-form depression S.E. of Halley. 48, Sec. I. of Lohrmann. 
Length S.S.W.-N.N.E. 16"-64, breadth W.N.W.-E.S.E. 7"-61. 
66. A depression in which the mountain IV A^^^ is situated. 7"*6], 
mag. 0'46. Not shown by Lohrmann. 
**67. A cratcr-riU on the summit of the N.E. wall of Albategnius, dis- 
covered as such by Schmidt, on February 3rd, 1865. It is 'No. 
355 in his ' Catalogue of EiUs,' and extends from the west edge of 
IVA^33 to IVA^36^ ipjjgth W.N.W.-E.S.E. 21"-40. 
This crater-rill forms the N.E. boundary of the group of craters in the 
jiorth angle of Albategnius, and would appear to be the most recent in- 
stance of volcanic action in this locality, except tlic fault from Tycho. Itg 
extreme luhitencss, as compared -with the surface in its neighbourhood, the 
steepness of its S.S.W. and N.N.E. sides, and particularly its cutting through 
the crater IV A^ ^ ' , testify to the comparative recent epoch of its formation. 
See IV A^^^. It is a fine object at sunrise. 

68. A craterlet on IV A^^^ east of IV A^*'. 2"-61, mag. 0-15, 

69. A crater-form depression on the W.S.W. slope of the line of cliffs 

which cross the N.E. angle of Albategnius in a line with those 
crossing Hipparchus ; it is situated just S.S.E. of IV A^^^. 7"-13, 
mag. 0'42. It is shown by Lohrmaun. 

70. A crater-form depression on the E.N.E. side of the same line of cliffs 

7"'61, mag. 0"50. It is shown by Lohrmann. 
J71. A formation, somewhat of the character of a trapezium, on the line 
of cliffs extending from IV A? ^^ ^q jy ^? 29_ j^. ]^^^ ^ bright bor- 
der with a dark interior. Length, N.W. to S.E., 7"-61; breadth, 
S.W. to N.E., 4"-76. 
t72. A depression onlVA^^"^, apparently a crater. Elliptical, longer 
axis, east to west 8"-56 ; shorter, north to south 5"-71, mag. 0-44. 
This depression was seen, 1866, Sept. 19'' 8'' 0", G.M.T., with the Royal 
Society's 45-inch achromatic, power 230, as a very imperfect crater; the 
north rim appeared nearly perfect, but the south rim, if it previously existed, 
has been broken away by the convulsion that produced the deep hoUow 
iy^?97_ jt jg jjQ^ shown by Lohrmann. 

73. A small depression (not craterlet) in the elevated angle between 
IV A? 09 and IV? •'^*'. 2"-38, mag. 0-16. 

74. A craterlet on the crater-rill IV A^^^^ j^gt ggg^ ^f IVA^*''' and 

IV A? 3fi^ 4"-28, mag. 0-26. Lohrmann gives it larger than IV A^ ^''. 



ox MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 265 

*75. A mountain south of IV A? ^^, at the S.E. end of the crater-rill 

IVA?S2 5"-23, mag. 0-31. 
t76. A shght elevation, somewhat similar to a circular tableland, east of 
the depression IV A^ ^ '^ 5"-23, mag. 0-3] . Not in Lohrmann. 
**77. The slope of IV A? i** fronting the west, and south of IV A? ^, length 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. 12"-84. Lohrmann, Sec. I. 16. 

78. The valley at the W.N.W. foot of lYA^-^, nearly parallel with 

IV A? ^-i, length, S.S.W.-N.N.E., 12"-84. 

79. A rill furrowing the jST.E. portion of the W.N.W. slope of IV A? 23 , 
it communicates with the N.N.E. end of the valley IV A? '^, 
length 6"-18; discovered July 21, 1866, by the author on Ruther- 
ford's Photograph, and seen with the Royal Society's 4|-inch re- 
fractor, power 230, on the 18th of August, 1866. 

80. A crater-form depression at the N.W. extremity of the N.E. 
boundary of IV A? -^ 5"-23, mag. 0-31. Not in Lohrmann. 

81. A rill extending from the angle formed by the N.E. borders of 

IV A? ^f* and IV A? -^ to a point east of the cliff IV A? •*^ 16"-17. 

I do not find it in Schmidt's ' Catalogue of RiUs ; ' it was discovered, 

July 21, 1866, on Rutherford's Photograph. 
This rill is in continuation of the line of cliffs that crosses Albategnius 
andIVA^25_ r^^g elevations forming the JST.E. border of IVA^25 ^xaxe 
apparently slightly heaved the line of cliffs, and probably produced the rill, 
which runs but for a short distance. After crossing the central parts of 
Hipparchus, the cliffs, which to the south present their faces to the W.S.W., 
have them to the north, facing steeply the E.N.E. as well as "W.S.W. on the 
borders of IV A* ^^ g^^j Rhaeticus. The whole line of cliffs is well marked, 
extending from the east border of Albategnius to a point N".E. of Agrippa. 

82. A crater-rill on the N.E. waU of Albategnius 16"-17. It is probably 

No. 354 of Schmidt's ' Catalogue of Rills.' If so, it was discovered 
by him on the 17th of August, 1843. It is in the same line with 
IV A^ G7^ jjjj(j jjjQg^ probably the two formed one continuous crater- 
rill at an earlier epoch than that of the protrusion of the line of 
cliffs crossing IV A? ^5 ^nd Hipparchus, at which period the crater- 
rill was separated into the two portions, IV A?"'' and IV A?^ ^2. 
The earlier discovery of this rill, combined with the brightness and steep- 
ness of IV A^^^, which Schmidt did not discover until February 3, 1865, 
appears to point to a probable brightening and raising of IV A? "'' within the 

twenty-two years, otherwise the oversight of IV A? ^^ by Schmidt in 1843 is 
remarkable. 

83. A valley parallel with IV A? '^^, but a httle more than half ita 

length. Length, S.S.W. to N.N.E., 8"-08. 

84. A vaUey in the west border of Ptolemajus opening out to the plain 
between the mountains IV A^''' and IV? '", and running with a 
gradual ascent between IV A ?^ 23 and IV A? ^•', to the high laud 
bounded by the crater-rill IV A? ^3 to IV A? ^^ ; length about 1 6"-0. 

85. A valley between the two high mountains IVA?*" and IV A? 37 

length 64"-67. ' 



366 REPORT — 1866. 

This valley opens out into a shallow sinuous valley that crosses Hipparchus 
just east of the line of cliflfe, and enters a mountain-gorge just east of IV A* '^; 
the opening into the shallow valley on the plain of Hipparchus is partly 
obstructed by some low hills. The shallow valley is provisionally shown on 
the map, as it is not discernible on the photograph, and good drawings of 
it are required. It is only visible just after the passage of the morning, or 
just before the passage of the evening terminator, and is marked with a J. 

86. A small detached mountain N.W. of IV A?" 3"-33. 

87. A small depression at the foot of IV A?^^^ 3"-33, mag. 0-20. 

88. An imperfect crater between IV A? ^^ and IV A? ^6 5". 71^ mag. 0-34, 
t89. A ridge connecting IV A? ^^^ with IV A? 5, length 7"-5. 

90. A craterlet S.E. of the mountain IV A^ ^^. It is the most southern 

of thi'ee, forming a crater-rUl, estimated at 3"*0. 

91. An elongated crater east of the mountain IV A^ ^^ between IV A^ ^^ 

and IV A^^^ estimated at 5"-0. 

92. A craterlet just south of IV A? ^, the most northern of the crater- 

riUs east of IV A^ ^^ estimated at 2"-5. 
The above three objects form a crater-rill, estimated length 11"*0, not in 
Schmidt's printed Catalogue ; it was discovered by the author on the 18th of 
August, 1866. Lohrmann has /oh?- craterlets here. 

93. A craterlet N.W. of and adjoining IV A^ ^^ ; it is the south-eastern 

of a crater-riU between IV A? ^3 ^nd IV A^ ^2^ estimated at 2"-6. 

94. A craterlet between IV A^ ^1 and IV A.^ ^^, estimated at 2"-6. 

IV A^"!, IV A^ 3'^, IVA^9^ and IV A^''^ f^j.^^ ^ crater-rill, estimated 
length ll"-5 ; not in Schmidt's printed Catalogue. It was discovered by the 
author on the 18th of August, 1866. Lohrmann gives a mountain, 

95. A craterlet just south of IV A^ ^, estimated at 2"'5. 

This craterlet, with IV A^^", is in a line with the crater-row IV A^-*-"^ ^o 
IV A^-'-^, and a little inclined southwardly to the line of depression III. 
W.S.W.-E.KE. ; Webb's furrow IV A^ 20 jg ^^ ^j^^ gj^j^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ 
shown either by Lohrmann or B. & M. 

96. A valley extending from IV A? ^^ to IV A^^^ in the direction 

S.S.W.-N.N.E, It is not inserted in the map, as it has only been 
observed once, when its outline was not ascertained. It is slightly 
west of the line of depression and upheaval V. S.S.W.-K.N.E. 

97. A deep hollow of a very irregular form in the high land between 

Albategnius and Ptolemseus. It is situated, west to east, between 
the mountains IV A^'^ and IV A^ ^^, and north to south between 
the north rim of IV A^ ^^ and the high land between the east bor- 
der of Albategnius and the S.W. border of Ptolemaeus. Its inte- 
rior W. and N.W. slopes, which are very rugged, form the pre- 
cipitous descents from the summits of IV A^''^, the S.E. rim of 
IV A^ ^2, and the broken portion of IV A^ ^2; the west front of 
IV A? 17^ which does not appear to be so rugged, forms its interior 
east slope. It is not shown by Lohrmann. 

98. A steep point in the N.W. border of Ptolemaeus just north of 

IV A^ 3 ; it is indicated on B. &M.'s map by r/. Their measures give 



ON MAPPING- THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 267 

8672 English feet, or 2643 metres for its altitude. It appears to 

be on the line of cliffs on which the crater-row IV A^ ^^ to IV A^ "^ 
is situated. 
99. The steep interior slope of the east rim of HaUey, the west foot of 
the mountain IV A^ -^, is distinctly visible on the floor of HaUey as 
a curve projecting inwards. 

100. A craterlet on the north border of IV A? ^8 i".q^ ^^„_ q.iq 

101. A furrow crossing IV A^ ^^, .,t the foot of the cliff IV A?38_ The 

foot of the cliff with further indications of the furrow is continued 
past IV A" '^ to the west edge of IV A" '". It was discovered by 
the aiithor, Nov. 2, 1866, on Rutherford's photograph. 

102. A light spot just east of the vaUey IV A^ ^^ 3"-8, mag. 0-21. 

The strip of sm-face east of the vaUoy appears as a "ray" from IV A^^^. 
It is on this ray that IV A^ '"^ is situated. 

[103.] IV A''-**, a crater or depression on the west side of IV A^^^. It 
needs fiu'thor and careful observation. See p. 279, IV A ^. 

Summary of Hills, Crater-rows, and VaUeys registered as above not in 
Schmidt's printed Catalogue : — • 

S. to N. IVA^9"toIVA^^2_ Crater-row, discovered August 

18, 1866. 
S. to N. IVA^''°\ Furrow discovered November 2, 1866. 
S.S.W. to N.N.E. IV A^ ^2 to IV A^ ^*. Crater-row*. 
W.S.W. to E.N.E. IV A? *^ to IV A^ ^^. Crater-row. 

N.W. to S.E. IV A^ "^3 to IV A^^^ Crater-row, discovered August 

18, 1866. 

N.W. to S.E. IV A^"^. EiU discovered July 21, 1866. 

N.N.W. to S.S.E. IVA^^'. EiU discovered July 21, 1866. 

N.N.W. to S.S.E. IVA^84_ Yaiiey. 

N.N.W. to S.S.E. IV A^ 8^ VaUey. 

Area IV A". Full-Moon Aspect. 

One of the most interesting features of this area under the full- moon as- 
pect is the portion of a " ray from Tycho," which traverses it from N.N.W. 
to S.S.E. , and is coincident with the surface west of lihasticus, and also west 
of the depression IV A" ' O- The mountains IV A" "^ the cliff IV A* 1 ■*, and the 
south-west extremity of the valley IV A«^^ are crossed by this ray as well as 
the west boundary of IV A" '". As the ray passes east of Horrox and crosses 
the floor of Hipparchus, it is intersected by a short ray from Horrox towards 
E.S.E., which includes the depression IV A" ''. 

The depressed surface IVA*^' around the crater IV A"*, which is a 
blight spot at the time of full moon, exhibits a variety of middle tints that 
appear to be unconnected with any definite objects, as none are found corre- 
sponding with them when IV A" ' ^ is near the terminator. 

* Inserted on the iiuthority of Lohrmann. 



368 REPORT— 1866. 

Between IV A« 1 ' and the " ray from Tycho " is a dark strip interrupted by 
the slope of IV A* ^^. This dark strip passes over the west of Ehscticus and 
extends south from Ehreticus to IVA'^'". It is resumed in the depression 
IV A" ''^ it crosses IV A" ^^, and part of the valley IV A* ^s, traverses the 
■western interior of IV A"'", crosses the middle of the valley IV A" •'^, the 
south-west part of the depression IV A" '^, and is continued east of the bright 
ray from Tycho into the area IV A^. 

The interior of lieanmur is dark in the full moon. The south-west part 
is crossed by a strip somewhat lighter than the general surface ; the west and 
north-west mountain border is also somewhat lighter. 

From the mountain IV A" ^ on the border of Reaumur the tint character- 
izing the mountain border extends as far as the spot IV A* ^', and includes 
the mountain IV A* ^8. The crater-row? IV A«^ IVA«22^ and IV A« 23, 

with the spot IV A* '", IV A^'^^j appear as a large bright spot, from which a 
portion of a line of disturbance from Tycho appears as a ray which extends 
to IV A^ '^^ This bright ray is skirted by a dark strip, which is very promi- 
nent, in consequence of a light-ray parallel with that which extends from 
jY^a7 ^Q lYA^^^. This parallel light-ray appears to take its rise from 
IV A"*, and crosses IV A" 21, between IV A«'* and IV A" 2"; it is narrow, 
but from IV A'' 2 ' it becomes broader and brighter as it traverses the surface 
between IV A* 21 and IV A" ^^ : it is continued along the east side of the 
mountain-arm IV A^ '*^ in area IV A^, 

IV A?. Full-Moon Aspect. 

This area is crossed from N'.N.W. to S.S.E. at the time of full moon 
by a portion of a "ray from Tycho" sensibly parallel with the "fault" 
IV A" 2^*, which is just cast of, and thus nearly coincident with, the next 
westerly "ray from Tycho." Both rays traverse uneven ground of the 
nature of cliffs, having their slopes towards the west. In passing over the 
broken ground of IV A^ ^'^ the east ray is much broken, but it recovers its 
brightness in traversing the uneven rocky interior of the north-east wall of 
Albategnius. A lucid arm from the crater Hallcy traverses the south-west 
slope of IV A^ 26 jjjjjj jjj(j ci-ater-rill IVA^^S in which IV A^^'' is conspi- 
cuous as a bright spot ; it joins the " ray from Tycho " at the bright spot or 
crater IV A^^'', which appears to be the most elevated point of the north- 
east border of Albategnius. The crater IV A^*" appears as a bright spot 
just east of the "ray from Tycho," while the group of craters IV A^ '^^, IV A.^^^, 
IV A^'^*, IV A^'^", IV A^'", IVA^^°, IVA^'52 ^^ ^^^ north-west angle of 
Albategnius presents a tint intermediate between the darker portions of the 
siirface of this area and the bright rays. East of the " ray from Tycho" pass- 
ing over IV A^, both the high land in the angle between Ptolemseus and 
Albategnius, and the surface east of the cliff IV A^ ^^ on the floor of Hippar- 
chus, present the darkest tint, as well as a strip which, from the west of 
IV A^"*", extends to the west border of Ptolcmoeus. The east part of the 
mountain-arm IV A^ ^'^ is bright in full moon. Between the dark spaces just 
mentioned we have bright spaces intermingled -with middle tints ; a bright 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 269 

streak not unlike a " ray," extending from IV A^ ^^ (a bright spot), crossing 
jY^?48^ where it becomes brighter than usual, still further crossing the 
crater-row east of IVA^^, and proceeding to the high mountain IV A^''' 
on the west border of Ptolemseus, has been identified with a portion of a line 
of disturbance from Tycho. The group IV A^ ' , IV A^ '^, IV A^ ^, and IV A^ '' 
is also bright. It is worthy of remark that the general direction of these 
light and dark spaces is towards Tycho. 

Areas IV A«, IV A^, 
Directions of EiUs, Crater-rills, Crater-roivs, Valleys, Mountain-chains, ^"c. 

Since the year 1786 several endeavours have been made to render certain 
featm-es of the moon's surface especial objects of study, particularly the rills, 
the first of which— the remarkable wedge-shaped valley of the Alps — was 
discovered by Bianchini on Sept. 22, 1727*. Lohrmann, Miidler, Kinau, and 
Schmidt have carried on the study of rills during the interim, and the number 
now known exceeds 425. In the admirable ' Catalogue of Eills ' lately published 
by Schmidt, not only has the class been considerably augmciited by including 
large valleys, of which the first- discovered rill may be regarded as the type, 
but the dii-ection of each has been given in a very clear and distinct manner. 
I am not aware, however, that any attempt has been made to classify the 
" rills " according to direction, which may have an important bearing on the 
subject of the manifestation of the effects of those forces which have modified 
the surface ; for there can be no doubt that while the crater-form is appa- 
rently by far the most prominent feature, the directions of the rills, valleys, 
crater-rows, and mountain-chains indicate the lines in which the forces mo- 
difying the surface operated, it may be over wide-spread areas around foci 
of disturbance, such as Tycho, and other ray-centres; consequently an arrange- 
ment of these directions may in some degree contribute to our knowledge of 
the operation of forces on a minor scale which may have modified the features 
of smaller portions of the surface. 

It IS not my intention to imdertake a classification of the directions of 
Schmidt's 425 riUs, but simply, as this work proceeds, to arrange under each 
artificial area of 5° of longitude by 5° of latitude the directions of rills, cra- 
ter-rows, crater-rills, vaUeys, mountain-chains, or any feature that indicates 
the line in which the action of either upheaving or depressing forces has been 
manifested, thus laying the foundation of a more enlarged generalization at 
some future period. 

In the following Table of lines of upheaval and depression in areas IV A" 
and IV A^ the directions are expressed by the two opposite points of the 
lunar compass between which the line lies, regarding throughout the meridian 
as the starting line, and passing from south by west to north. In Qua- 
drants I. and IV. the arrangement will be from the meridian westward, and 
m Quadrants II. and III. from the meridian eastward. 

* Schmidt, in his ; Catalogue of Kills', ascribes the discovery of this interesting formation 
to ScLroter, who noticed it 1787, October 1, and delineated it in his Selenotopograpliische 
l-ragmente; but it was carefully observed by Bianchini on the date given in the te^t, and 
described and figured by Inn. in his ' Hesperi et Phosphori Nova Phtenomena,' printed at 
itome in lilii. Eianchini mentions it as indicated in Cassini's chart. 



270 



REPORT — 1866. 



Direction. 



Character. 



Objects and Remarks. 



S.byW.-N.byE, 

S.byW.-N.byE. 
S.byW.-N.byE. 

S. by W.-N. by E. 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. . . 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. .. 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. . . 



S.S.W.-N.N.E. 

S.S.W.-N.N.E. 



W.N.W.-E.S.E. 

W.N.W.-E.S.E. 



1. Depression . . , . 



2. Upbeaval and 

depression. 

3. Upheaval and 

depression. 



4. Upheaval . . . . 

1. Depression and 

upheaviil. 

2. Depression and 

upheaval. 

3. Upheaval and 

depression. 



4. Depression and 

npheaval, 

5. Depression . . . . 



1. Depression and 

upheaval. 

2. Depression and 

upheaval. 



IV A" f"*, IVA-^ss, IVA«i2^ IV A"' 7^ 

This line is continued in area IV A'' across 
Halley; it intersects S.S.W.-N.N.E. IV A^ 
No. 8 in the mountain IV A^^^, and merges 
into IV A" ^2 and IV A"'?, 
IV A"", IVA«i», IVA»32. 

IV A- 37, IV A'' ■'^ IVA«>8, IV A^'"!. 

The three lines which differ slightly in 
their inclination to the meridian all eon- 
verge to the nioimtain IV A^ ^9. 
IVA«35, IV A'' 39, IVA«50, and the east 

border of RhEeticus. 
IV A'' 7, IVA«2*, IVA«29, IVA-^^s^ 

IVA-^^', IVA«^ 
IV A" 2^ IV A"^ 27^ IV A" ^^, IV A"' ^\ 

IV A" 28, IV A'' 73^ IV A" '«, IV A" '9, 

IV A'' 84^ rVA^^S. Also the lucid spot 

IV A'' 71. 

These three lines are parallel with and 
close to each other, and agi'ee in direction 
with three somewhat similar lines in area 
IV A^ on the opposite side of Ilipparchus ; 
viz. S.S.W.-N.N.E. IV A^:' Nos. 8 and 9. 
See Table, p. 272, and the low hills on the 
N. W. side of the valley IV A^ 27. The middle 
lineS.S.W.-N.N.E.No.2of IV A'' andNo, 9 
of IV A^, can be traced on the S.S.W. in the 
direction of the crater C and ring d of B. & 
M. on area TV A*^. 
IVA"2o, IVA«i3, IV A""^ IVA^=^ and 

the west border of Ilalley. 
IVA»32, iVAi'8. 

The close coincidence of directioti of the 
lines of depression and upheaval on the 
N.E. and S.W. sides of Hipparchus appears 
to point to a more recent epoch for the for- 
mation of the floor than that at which the 
mountainous border was produced, and the 
very general direction S.S.W.-N.N.E. of 
the lines of disturbance in this part of the 
moon points to a still earlier epoch, when 
the surface was dislocated in lines running 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. 
IVA'^'^IVA'^32^ IVA"-i2, ivA-'^s, 

IV v^" 7, IV A" 22, IV A" 23, IVA''^'. 
IVA'^-'i, IVA''32_ IV A" '2, iVA'^so^ 

IV A'"-'', IV A" 28, IV A" 26, IVA<^24^ 

IVA«52, ivA«". 

These lines form a range of cliffs which 
is parallel with the line W.N.W.-E.S.E. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



271 



D'recliion. 



Character. 



Objects and Remarks. 



N.W.-S.E., 



1. Upheaval and 
depreasioii. 



N.W.-S.E. . . , 



N.N.W.-S.S.E. 



N.N.W.-S.S.E. . 



N.WW.-S.byE, 



2, Upheaval and 
depression. 

1. Upheaval ? . . . 



S.-N. 



2. Upheaval . . . 



1. Depres.sion . . . 



1. Upheaval and 
depression. 



IV A? 6 (see Table, p. 273) on the opposite 
part of liipparchus, and separates the higher 
level of Hipparchus from the lower level of 
IV A'" ^ If the two W.N.W.-E.S.E. 
rangc_ in IV A" and IV A^ were contempo- 
raneous in their origin, either the higher 
level of Hipparchus has been comparatively 
undisturbed, or the irregularities between 
the two lines of disturbance have been over- 
spread subsequent to their formation ; the 
apparently ancient crater which now ap- 
pears as a wreath of disjoined mountains in 
rV A^ '® is significant in this respect. 

^^^A«^ n^ A"'", iv a-^^ iv a''^ 

IV A« 16, IV A» «^ IV A"^ 6^ IV A"^ *^ 
IVA»*9, IVA»^7. 

This line forms part of a very extensive 
range of cliffs, which can be traced from 
the east border of Ptolemceus past the con- 
spicuous crater Herschel I across the area 
IV A", N. W. of the N.E. point of the bor- 
der of Rhaeticus, probably as far as the cra- 
ter Menelaus, on the south border of the 
Mare Serenitatis. With the exception of 
the small portion forming the N.E. border 
of Ptolemajus which faces the S,W., the 
faces of the cliffs are directed towards the 
N.E. In the N.W. part the range is parallel 
with a portion of the Apennines. 

In area TVA"^ this line with W.N.W.- 
E.S.E. No. 2, and S. by W.-N. by E. No. 4 in- 
close a triangular space more or less disturbed 
in which the crater IV A" ^ is prominent. 
IV A^'^ IV A"3i, WAa?, l\Ai^9 ^ through 

the N.W. border of Ptolemseus to the 

crater on its floor. 
IV A" 6^ IVA<^69^ IV A" 70. 

This short line prolonged across Reaumur 
intersectsW.N.W.-E.S.E.No.2,andN.W.- 
S.E. No. l,near rV A" =1 The crater in Ptole- 
masus is in the continuation of this line. 
IVA."'9,IVA'^64^IVA°'66^ 

This line is directed towards the west 
border of Thebit, and the east border of 
Purbach. 
IV A- 32^ IVA'^io, IV A-^^s^ RhiBticus. 

This line ot considerable depression lies be- 
tween the two faults W A'' *^ and IV A''*^. 
IVA^9», IVA^si, IVAf92^ IV A^^ and 

IVAffii. 

A line principally of depression (craters). 
There is quite a knot of craters east of 
IV A^32^ forming apparently a second point 
of upburst on the " Ray from Tycho,' the 



37^ 



REPORT 18G6. 



Direction. 



S.S.W.-N.N.E.. 



S.S.W.-N.N.E. . 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. . 

S.S.W.-N.N.E. . 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. , 



Character. 



S.S.W.-N.N.E. 

S.S.W.-N.N.E., 
S.S.W.-N.N.E 

S.S.W.-N.N.E. 



S.W.-N.E. 
S.W.-N.E. 
S.W.-N.E. 



W.S.W.-E.N.E. 



1. Upteaval and 
depression. 



2. Depression . . , 

3. Depression . . 



4. Depression and 
upheaval. 



5. Depression and 
upheaval. 



6. Depression and 
upheaval. 



7. Upheaval with 

depression. 

8. Upheaval ... 

9. Depression. . . 



1. Upheaval . 

2. Depression . 

3. Upheaval . 



1. Depression. 



Objects and Remarks. 



neighbourhood of IV A^^, and IV A^'^ 

being the Jirst as regards magnitude. 

IV A^ 9% IVA^^-^IVA^^^ IVA^^^ IVAf 3 

This is a line of upheaval with a depres- 
sion at each end in which the highest points 
— two mountains — are IV A^^^ and IV A^ "'. 
It lies in the same direction as the east wall 
of Albategnius, and extends N.N.E. into 

area III A^. 
IVAf%IVAf'2,IVAf78. 

In this line tlie crater FV A^ '^ is prominent. 
R'A^'", IVA^83_ 

The crater-rill IV A^ ^^ on the line 
W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2 c ses this line. 
IVA^es, IVAN'S IVA?5^ IV A^^ and 

IV A^' the east wall. 

This line is interrupted by the crater-rill 
IV A? 82. 

IVAf34, IV Af", IV A^^^ IV Af", 
IV Af", IV A? ' the west wall, IV Af7, 

This line is separated into three por- 
tions by the line of upheaval and depres- 
sion IV A^''7 W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2, also by 
the line of upheaval N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5. 
IV Af^-*, IVAf 5", IV Af^', IV A^6, IVA^ '7. 

This line prolonged N.N.E. will pass 
through IV A" *', as well as the point of up- 
heaval IV A^^^. 
IVA^es^IVA^ee, IVA^^s, 

This line is in continuation with the 
N.W. border of Albategnius. 
Halley, the E. border IV A^^^, W Af*^ 

IVAf57. 

This line is continued S.S.W. to the W. 
border of Albategnius. 
The vaUey IV A^ ^^ with Lohi-mann's three 

craterlets, IVAf 62, IVA^^s^ IVA^«^ 

IVA^eo. 

IVAf'o, IVAf-ioiVAf^*. 

WA^*", IVAf3'. 

These three lines are gi'eatly separated 
on the area IV A^. 
IV Af '«, IV Ai ", IV A^ ^", IV Af ", 

IV A^ 73^ IV Af 74, IV Af '2, IV Af 72, 

IV A^". 

This is a line of craters and depressions, 
the longest on the area. It hardly assumes, 
however, the character of a continuous line 
of depression, although the craters and de- 
pressions are near each other, bein^ inter- 
rupted by the line of upheaval N.N.W.- 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OP THE MOON. 



273 



Direction. 



Character. 



Objects and Eemarks. 



W.S.W.-E.N.E. 



2. Upheaval 



W.S.W.-E.N.E. 



3. Depression. 



W.N.W.-E.S.E. 
W.N.W.-E.S.E. 



W.N.W.-E.S.E. 

W.N.W.-E.S.E. 

W.N.W.-E.S.E. 
W.N.W.-E.S.E. 

1866. 



1. Depression. . . 

2. Depression on 

a line of up- 
heaval. 

3. Upheaval . . . 



4. Upheaval and 
depression. 



5. Depression . . . 

6. Upheaval ... 



S.S.E. No. 5, and also crossed by the N.E. 
wall of Albategnius, which is identical 
with the line of upheaval and depression 
W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2, at the point of cul- 
mination IV A^ ^^. It is not unlikely that 
the two uphea^-ing forces, whether contem- 
poraneous in their action or otherwise, pro- 
duced great disturbance in the north part of 
Albategnius, the result being the large 
group of craters in the south part of the 
area IV A^. The two main lines of disturb- 
ance are clearly W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2, 
N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5, of which N.N.W.- 
S.S.E. No. 5 appears to be the most recent. 
IVAf^fi, lYAi7\ IVAf32^ IVANS'. 

This line of upheaval is interrupted by 
the line N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5, and east of 
that line it cui-ves into S.S.W.-N.N.E. No. 
5. It forms a curve across the formation 

IVAf25 

IVAf9^ IV A^^ n"Af2», and the crater- 
row IV A< 'MV A^ '9. 
It would almost appear that this line of 
depression was due exclusively to the out- 
break that produced IV A^ ' and its sur- 
rounding group of craters; but the line 
W.S.W.-E.N.E. No. 2 being in exactly the 
same direction, in fact a continuation of it, 
and not only so, for this sameline iscontinued 
W.S.W. past Plalley, and E.N.E. on the 
N. W. border of Ptolemaeus, it would rather 
appear that the whole line of upheaval and 
depression resulted from the operation of a 
force that exerted itself over a much greater 
extent of area. 

IV A^ '», IV Af 51^ IV A^ '", IV A^ '^ 
IV A^^'', IVAf«2. 

This line has been interrupted by the line 
N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5. It is formed of 
Schmidt's crater-rills Nos. 355, 354. 
IVAf-*9, IVAf26. 

Nos. 2 and 3 appear to be portions o the 
same line of fault ; No. 3 being slightly N.E. 
of the continuation of No. 2, which indeed 
is continued on the N.W. side of HaUey. 
IVAf32^ IVANS', IVAfs^ IVAf93, 

IV Af". 

This appears to be of small extent and 
confined to the second point of upburst on 
the "Ray from Tycho." 
IV A^^ IV A^*, IVAf^ and the S.E. 

mouth of the valley IV A^ ^*. 
IV A^^^ IVAfso^ IVAf28^ IVAf«', 

IVA^'N. border, IV A^'^ 



274 



REPORT 1866. 



Direction. 



Character. 



Objects and Remarks. 



W.N.W.-E.S.E. 

N.W.-S.E. . . . 



N.N.W.-S.S.E. 
N.N.W.-S.S.E. 
N.N.W.-S.S.E. 



N.N.W.-S.S.E. 



N.N.W.-S.S.E. 



7. Upheaval 



1. Eill. 



I.Valley ... 

2. Upheaval . , 

3. Depression . 



4. Depression on 
a line of up- 
heaval 



5. Upheaval . 



N. by W.-S. by E. 1. Upheaval . . , 

N. by W.-S. by E. 2. Upheaval . . , 
N. by W.-S. by E. 3. Upheaval . . , 



These six lines traverse a nearly rectangu- 
lar area,boundedontheS.S.W. by W.N.W.- 
E.S.E. No. 1, on the N.N.E. by W.N.W.- 
E.S.E. No. 6, on the W.N.W. by S.S.W.- 
N.N.E. No. 8, and on the E.S.E.by S.S.W.- 
N.N.E. No. 1. The area thus enclosed is 
the most disturbed in this part of the moon. 
IV A^ ^* the longer axis. 

IVA^J'S. 

This rill, which is not in Schmidt's Cata- 
logue, was discovered on Rutherford's pho- 
tograph by the author on July 21, 18()6. It 
was observed with the Royal Society's te- 
lescope of 4j-inch aperture, power 230, on 
August 18, 1866. It lies in the line W.N.W.- 
E.S.E. No. 5. 
IVAf84. 
IVAf37, IVAf86. 

IV A^ ^^, which is just at the S.E. corner 
of the disturbed rectangular area before de- 
scribed, is in the same line of direction. 
IV A^7o, IV A^ ^^ IV A?«, IV Af 93^ 

IV A^ ^\ IV A^ 9^ IV A^ ^ IV A? «, 

IVAf^e, IVAf28^IVAfS'. 

These objects, with the exception of the 
rill IV A' ^', are on the east side of the main 
line ot fault N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5 ; the 
mountain IV A?^' is just east of it. 
IVA^«9, lYAi^^,TVi*^, IVAf9», 

IVA532, IVAf", IVA^'«. 

This is the main line of fault crossing the 
area. It appears as a portion of a lucid 
ray from Tycho in the full moon. 

It is noteworthy that these five lines of 
upheaval and depression are found in this 
area on the east of the main line of fault 
only, including it. 

IVA^'7jVA^", IVA^'^ 

Forming the west border of Ptolemaeiis. 
IV A^ "7. 
IVAf^«. 



General Remarks. — The most interesting feature resulting from this dis- 
cussion, confined as it is in extent, is the almost rectangular area of greatest 
disturbance on IV A^ crossed by two main lines of fault which intersect each 
other in the point IV A?36 . o^g, W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2 (IV A? 67, jy A? 8^), 
coincident with the north-east wall of Albategnius, having several craters 
opened on it, and running parallel with the S.S.W. and N.N.E. boundaries 
of the area; the other, N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5, which breaking through 
W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2 at the point of intersection, leads strongly to the 
conclusion that the line N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5 is the most recent, and this 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 



275 



line of fault appears to be connected with Tycho. It does not appear at pre- 
sent that W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2 is connected with any centre or point of 
outbreak, unless it may be with lY AJi^, of which we may have to say more in 
treating of that area. Another disturbed area occurs on IV A." between the 
lines W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 2, N.W.-S.E. No. 1 ; it is bounded on the west by 
the line S. by W.-N. by E. No. 4. The lines of disturbance at right angles 
to W.N.W.-E.S.E. are the most numerous, nearly 30 per cent, of the whole 
on the two areas, equal to 17688-35 square miles Enghsh ; and there is some 
reason to believe, as mentioned under IV A^^'', that the whole set maybe in 
connexion with the easternmost of the ray-centres in the S.W. portion of the 
moon, but a more extensive examination is necessary before this can be de- 
cided. Arranging the whole of the directions according to a percentage scale, 
we have as under : — 



Directions. 


Lines. 


Percentage. 


S.S.W.-N.N.E. ... 


14 


29-17 


W.N.W.-E.S.E. . . . 


9 


18-75 


N.N.W.-S.S.E. . . . 


7 


14-59 


S. by W.-N. by E. . 


4 


8-33 


N. by W.-S. by E. . 


4 


8-33 


S.W.-N.E 


3 


6-25 


W.S.W.-E.N.E. . . . 


3 


6-25 


N.W.-S.E 


8 


6-25 


N.-S 


1 


2-08 





The following Table exhibits the proportion in each area :- 



Directions. 


IV A". 


IV A^. 




Lines. 


Percentage. 


Line. 


Percentage. 


S. by W.-N. by E. 
S.S.W.-N.N.E. .. 
W.N.W.-E.S.E. . . 
N.N.W.-S.S.E. .. 
W.S.W.-E.N.E. . . 

S.W.-N.E 

N. by W.-S. by E. 

N.W.-S.E 

N.-S 




4 
5 
2 

2 

i 

2 


25-00 
31-25 
12-50 
12-50 

6-25 
12-50 


9 
7 
5 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 


28-125 
21-875 
15-625 
9-375 
9-375 
9-375 
3- 25 
3125 






Area IV A* = 8877-925 square miles English. 
Area IV A? = 8810-425 square miles English. 

It is worthy of remark that the directions giving the greatest numbers are 
at right angles to each other. That which is evidently the main line of 
fault, extending both N.N.W. and S.S.E. beyond the areas IV A* and IV A? 
is accompanied with the next greatest number of parallel lines of upheaval 
and depression, but confined to the eastward of the main Line of fault, while 
in the other directions the numbers are few. 

The point between IV A? 69, ly A^ ^0^ jy ^^ 36^ ^nd IV A^ ^4 appears to be 
a centre of disturbance, or point of upburst. There is one of a secondary 

character at IV A^ ^^, which is also a point of intersection of lines of upheaval 
and depression. 

t2 



276 REPORT— 1866. 



PosTSCEiPT. — 1867, April 12. 

In order to avoid any bias in the production of the outline, or in drawing 
up the catalogiie, I purposely abstained, except in a few special instances, 
from consulting either B. & M. or Lohrmann, so that the work, so far as it has 
proceeded, is perfectly independent of the labours of previous selenographers ; 
but while the foregoing sheets were passing throiigh the press, and after the 
areas lY A* and IV A^ were engraved, I very carefully compared them with 
Lohrmann's sections (the reader can make his own comparison with B. & M., 
the corresponding portions of their Map being given in the Plate). As it is 
not unlikely that some of the notes may be of interest, I take this opportu- 
nity of adding them. A few have already been inserted. 

IV A". — 2. Eeaumur. Neither B. & M. nor Lohrmann give any objects 
on this plain. 

7. The mountain-range on which this crater is opened is continued by 
Lohrmann towards his mountain 34, Sec. I. (IV A^"^*^), where he gives an 
opening into the plain west of IV A^-"* (Lohrmann's "W. Sec. I). IV A* '^, 
IV A^ ^^ is in the direction of this mountain-chain, and it may probably be 
the craterlet which Lohrmann shows on or near its south end. 

12, 13 are shown by Lohrmann as valleys opening into Hipparchus. In 
his ' Topographic der Sichtbaren Mondoberflache,' Sec. I. p. 45, he says, 
"The vaUey between 32 (IV A* ■''*') and 33 (IV A" ^8) unites the interior 
floor of Hipparchus with the plain of the Mare vaporum." 

I have not met with an opening — certainly not with one that would easily 
strike the attention — in the line of cliifs forming the N.E. boundary of 
Hipparchus. If I have interpreted Lohrmann's language correctly, it would 
appear that he considered that the floor of Hipparchus and that of the Mare 
vaporum (Sinus Mcdii, B. & M.) were at the same level. Now in my obser- 
vations of the region around IV A" '^ I found it depressed below Hipparchus, 
the line of cliffs forming the partition. The only valley which I have given is 
IV A-'^a^ south of IV A" '^ 1867, April 11, 1 found an opening in IV A* ^^ ; 
the surface is, however, inclined towards IV A" ^ ' . 

Query. Is IV A" ^^ UocTced towards IV A" , as shown by Lohrmann, by 
the mountain which appears to be the east side of the valley IV A* ^^ ? 

20. The mountain on the west of the south portion (IV A*"') appears to 
be figured by Lohrmann at the mouth of the valley between 32 and 33 of his 
Sec. I., but he does not in the slightest degree indicate the depression to the 
east. 

25. This appears to be the N.W. side of the valley which Lohrmann men- 
tions and figures in See. I. 87. 

32. This valley is shown by Lohrmann with a mountain-range within it. 
The interior mountain-range I have not seen. Lohrmann shows the S.W. 
mouth of the valley open, and exactly in the line of the valley TV AJ> ^^. 

43, 58. These formations are partially shown by Lohrmann with at least 
two additional mountain-chains ; IV A" '*^ appears, according to Lohrmann, to 
stand in a valley ; IV A* ^^ is ill figured. 

47. This cleft is well shown by Lohrmann, as well as the dark colour on 
the surface which is very marked in the photograph. 

53, Lohrmann, in his text, p. 55, speaks of this valley as connecting the 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 277 

plain W. Sec. I. (IV A"^, IV A^24^ ^jj-j^ g^ pj^^-^ ^^^^ ^^ Hipparchus. He 
gives four openings (valleys) in the mountainous border of this plain, viz. 88, 
89, and 90 of Sec. I., and another, which do not by any means appear pro- 
minently in the photograph. 

59. Lohrmann gives this as the N.E. extremity of a long mountain-range 
parallel with IV A* *^. 

61. Lohrmann gives a short low mountain-range which lies in the direc- 
tion of this ray ; or it may be IV A* ^^. 

72. This " Fault," which under a suitable illumination is quite apparent, 
is not indicated by Lohrmann, neither are the marked dislocations of the 
border of Rhaeticus shown. 

75. The north portion of this valley, with apparently a low mountain- 
range separating it from IV A* ''^, is shown by Lohrmann in Sec. I. 25. The 

valley IV A" ^^ as it enters IV A" ^^ has a darker tint in Lohrmann. 
77. Lohrmann shows a plain here. 

79, 81. Are these the two craterlets which Lohrmann places at the entrance 
of his vaUey, Sec. I. 87 ? 

80. Lohrmann mentions (p. 55) and delineates in this neighbourhood (pro- 
bably the lower part of the slope of IV A* ^^) a valley, 87, Sect. I., 7 German 
miles (.32-2 English miles) in length. This valley, with the individuahty 
ascribed to it by Lohrmann, has not arrested my attention. I am neverthe- 
less disposed to regard it as running between IV A"'''' and IV A* ^^. Lohr- 
mann also mentions and shows two craterlets at its entrance. 

The following objects occur in Lohrmann's Section I., 15, 30, 68, 69, 70. 
The following objects are not found in Lohrmann's Section I., 23, 38, 39, 
40, 41, 46, 57, 60, 64, 65, ? 66, 71, 73, 74, 82, 83, 84. 

IV A^. — 25. This formation is alluded to, although not individually de- 
scribed, by Lohrmann under 28, Sec. I., p. 44. The N.E. boundary is 
exceedingly iU figured by Lohrmann, and 34, with its two mountain-peaks, 
IV A^^' and IVA^'^'', is placed too far to the east. The valley IV A^^' 
between IV A^^' and IV A^^' is blocked on the S.S.E. by Lohrmann. 

27. This vaUey is well shown by Lohrmann. In it, just JST.W. of his 
mountain (IV A^^*^, IV A^^' shown as one), he has placed a craterlet, which 
I have not found, nor am I aware that it is mentioned in his text. 

31. This mountain is sho-vyn in Sec. I. of Lohrmann, but the semi-crater 
jY^?S8 jg absent. 

32. This mountain appears to be the N.E. spur of Lohrmann's 20, Sec. I., 
the south part of which he places in the position of Schmidt,'s crater-rill 355. 
I have not detected his N.W. spur, unless it be I V A^ ^ ' , which is a difficult 
object. Lohrmann gives four craterlets on the east side of the N.E. spur. 
I have seen three of them, viz. IV A^^O, IV A^^^ and IV A^^^^ 

33. 68. Both given by Lohrmann on Sec. I, IV A^^^ between his 48 and 
20, and IV A? ^** on his 20. 

40. It is uncertain if Lohrmann has this craterlet ; he indicates a very 
small depression of a similar nature not far from its locality. 

42, 43. Both these craterlets are given by Lohrmann on his mountain 19, 
Sec. I. I have not yet met with this mountain. 

47. Lohrmann shows IV A^ *^ as connected with a range running towards 



278 KEPORT— 1866. 

IV A^ ' (X of Sec. I.). This does not appear to be the case from the photo- 
graph. The whole of this portion of the map requires to be very carefully 
examined under good atmospheric circumstances at the telescope. I have a 
record 1864, July 24, of the valley 88, Sec. I. between the range above men- 
tioned and a parallel one. 

52. Shown by Lohrmann, hut not at all cori-ectly. It is quite detached in 
Sec. I. from the moimtain 20, on the south edge of which it is evidently 
situated. 

56, 57. Lohrmann gives these mountains as one, which he describes as the 
highest of the mountain-ranges near 28 of Sec. I. 

58. Lohrmann, Sec. I. p. 44, classes 25, 26, and 27 together as apparently 
belonging to low luall-mountains ; 26 I have not found ; 27 I describe as an 
ancient and partly filled crater (IV A^^^) with a slightly depressed surface; 
and 25 is the depression IV A"'*' in the valley IV A^**^. 

59. Lohrmann shows at the extremity of the mountain-arm IVA^ » 
which he extends further to the S.W., a craterlet ; this is probably IV A^ ^^. 

67, 82. Schmidt's crater-rills 354 and 355 are situated respectively upon 
the S.W. edges of Lohrmann's two mountains 19 and 20, Sec. I., which 
he places in the mountain-border of Albategnius. These mountains he 
separates in the Hne with IV A^ '■"', IV A^ 9', and IV A^ ^^. IV A^ *^, which 
he places on the south part of his mountain 19, is a little too far east as com- 
pared with mine ; and IV A^ ^^, which he places incorrectly with regard to 
IVA^'*2 (inasmuch as it is on the S.W. of TV A^'^% he throws a little 
too far to the east of the line IV A^ ^0^ IV A^ ^' , IV A^ ^2 ^ jg ^j^^, grater 
IV A^**^ which separates the riUs, and Lohrmann shows it with IV A^''* 
lower than the mountain-border and on the floor of Albategnius. There is 
no point of upburst indicated by Lohrmann such as is evident on the photo- 
graph. 

78. Given by Lohrmann opening into a plain at a higher level than the 

floor of Ptolemseus. On this plain Lohrmann places IV A^ '^^. This plain 
is entirely wanting in the photograph. 1866, Sept. 17, 8'' to 10'', I recorded 
the appearance of a plateau between IV A^'^^ and IV A^"^, intermediate in 
level between the high N.E. border of Albategnius and the low floor of 
Ptolemaeus, which I afterwards found was the summit of the mountain 
IV A^^^, and between it and the mountain IV A^*^^ was the deep hollow 
IV A^^^, seen very distinctly on the 19th of Sept. 1866. I have not met 
with Lohrmann's plain. The deep hoUow IV A^ ^^ is entirely wanting in 
Sec. I., in which the plain occupies the position of IV A^ ^^. 

84. Lohrmann shows this valley as hlocTced by a portion of the border of 
Ptolemseus between his 16, Sec. I., and the plain west of Ptolemaeus, i. e. "be- 
tweenIVA^l'^andIVA?23. 

The following objects, some very imperfectly, are found in Lohrmann, Sec. 
I., 10, 17, 26, 29, S3, 87. 

The following objects do not occur in Lohrmann, 30, 54, 79, 86, 88, 89. 

Addenda to Catalogue. 

86. A craterlet north of IV A« * ; estimated 2"-0 mag. 0-12. 
First seen 1867, April 11, -with the Eoyal Society's achromatic 4|-inch 
aperture, power 230. It is not in E. & M., nor in Lohrmann. 



ON MAPPING THE SURFACE OF THE MOON. 279 

87. The low central range in Rhaeticus, the south part. 

88. The mountain-range on which IV A* ^ is opened. Tt is S of B. & M. 
The dotted lines in areas IV A" and IV A^ indicate the west toot of this 
mountain-range, the east requires to be determined. 

IV A^.— 103. A craterlet east of IVA^^^^; estimated 2''-0, mag. 0-12. 
Not in Lohrmann, but shown by B. & M. 

104. A mountain on the plain IV A^ ^* shown very plainly by Lohrmann 
on Sec. I., and mentioned in his text (p. 55) as Ipng in 0° 30' of west 
long, and 5° 40' of south lat., direction north to south, estimated length 
6"-33, breadth 3". It is inserted from Lohrmann's sections, but does not 
appear on the photograjDh. 1864, July 24, I saw and sketched it. The in- 
strument used was the Hartwell Equatoreal, power 118, the eyepiece being 
furnished with a diaphragm having a narrow sUt, along which the object was 
allowed to pass, or kept in position by the clock motion. 

105. A hiU between the south end of IV A^ '"* and IV A^47 . estimated 
diameter l"-75. 

106. A hill between the north end of IV A^ 1"* and IV A^ *7 . estimated 
diameter l"-75. 

These two hiUs which are not seen on the photograph, are from Lohrmann, 
They are on his Sec. I., and mentioned in his text, p. 55. I saw and sketched 
them 1864, July 24. 

107. A slight elevation in and rather west of the centre of IV A^', seen 
with the Royal Society's achromatic, 4i-inch aperture, power 230, 1867, 
March 15, 7" 40", G. M. T. 

108. A bright spot on the north part of the mountain IV A^"'. 

109. A bright spot on the north part of the mountain IV A^'^^. Both 
spots were seen 1867, March 15, 7'' 45™, G. M. T., with the Royal Society's 
achromatic, 4|-inch aperture, power 230. 

110. A moimtain between IV A^^'' and IV A^*'' in the east border of 
Hipparchus. 

111. The south part of the mountain-range IV A* ^^. 

112. A craterlet near the south end of IV A* **^, IVA^''^; estimated 
3"-5, mag. 0-21. Shown by Lohrmann, but not by B. & M. 

113. A craterlet S.E. of IV A^^ 12. estimated 2"-0, mag. 0-12. Not in 
Lohrmann, but shown by B. & M. 

114. A depression N.E. of the north end of IV A^'^"; estimated length 
S.W.-N.E. 4"-0. Neither in B. & M., nor in Lohrmann. 

IV A^ 103 aj,^ lY A? 1 10 to IV A? 1 14, excepting IV A^ 1 ", were first seen 
by the author, 1867, April 11, with the Royal Society's 4|-inch aperture, 
power 230. The positions are confirmed by the photograph, although the 
objects are not sufficiently distinct in the photograph to be recognized inde- 
pendently of observation with the telescope. 

Lines of Upheaval and Depression. 

The south border of IV A^ ^^ is in the prolongation of the line of upheaval 
IV A?, W.N.W.-E.S.E. No. 6. 

IV A^ S.S.W.-N.N.E. No. 5.— IV A^ 18 ^^^ IVA^''^ are in continuation 
of this Une, which forms a gentle curve convex to E.S.E. 



280 



REPORT 1866. 



IVA^ N.N.W.-S.S.E. No. 5.— This well-marked "line of fault" from 
Tycho is continued across tlie area IV A* west of IV A* "^ and Ehaeticus. 

The careful study of the lines of upheaval and depression is particularly 
recommended to lunar observers as full of promise. It is not at aU unlikely 
that several of the " Rays from Tycho " will be found to possess the charac- 
ter of lines of volcanic energy. It is an interesting fact that the two points 
of upburst, IV A^ ^^ and IV Ay ^^, on the " ray from Tycho " crossing the area 
IV A^ occur in localities where several lines of upheaval and depression in- 
tersect each other. 

Concluding RemarJcs. 

We would again call attention to the Note on p. 239, to the effect that the 
present Map is not intended to be perfect or complete ; and we are the more 
anxious on this point, as various suggestions have been offered with the view 
of rendering it more efficient, with which we most cordially agree. At pre- 
sent the engraved portions of the Map are in outline, and will doubtless re- 
quire considerable modification, as observers work at the subzones (see pp. 
241, 242) which they may select. One suggestion, and a very important one, 
is, " that as the craters on the moon's surface are the leading objects, catch- 
ing the eye first, and giving points of reference to the region under obser- 
vation, it would greatly facilitate the work of observers if the craters were 
rendered more conspicuous in the engravings." The present imperfection of 
our knowledge of " detail" interferes materially with adopting any conven- 
tional mode of distinguishing one class of objects from another, further than 
as explained on p. 240 ; but as the Maps are intended for working-purposes, and 
are printed on paper that mil bear colouring, we would strongly recommend 
that each observer should, before commencing his observations, tint with a 
suitable colour the craters in his pair of subzones ; and if a few other conspi- 
cuous objects, as mountains, were desirable as points of reference, they might 
be tinted, but with a colour as much in contrast as possible. The portion of 
Beer and Madler's map, referred to on p. 241, does not accompany this Re- 
port. 



Appendix IV. 

Determination of the apparent Equator on De La Rue's Photograph, 1865, 

October 4* 9'^ 0"" 4'. 



Name. 


X.Pho. 


X,B.&M. 


DiflF. 


S. 


•035 
•200 
•190 
•173 
•096 
■286 

•253 
•054 
•470 
•560 
•718 
•147 


•035 
•196 
•193 
•178 
•098 
•291 

•250 
•051 
•466 

•556 
•713 
•13 s 


•000 
+•004 

— •003 
—•005 

— •002 

— •005 

+•003 
+•003 
+•004 
+•004 
-f-oos 
+•012 


Theophilus 


Albategnius 

DoUond 


Herschel 


Gassendi 


N. 


Dionysiu8 


Xiinn6 


Arstillus 


Pico 


Kepler 





ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 
Determination of the apparent First Meridian. 



281 



Name. 


Y.Pho. 


Y,B.&M. 


Diflf. 


W. 

Albategnius 

Theophilu8 


■079 
•451 
•754 
•262 
•803 

•313 
■191 
•023 

•6o2 
•028 
•601 

•105 


•068 
•434 

■733 
•242 
•782 
•294 

•177 
•015 

•609 

•037 
•606 
•112 


+ 011 

+•017 
+•021 
+•020 
+ •021 
+ •019 

+•014 
+ •008 

—•007 

— ■009 

— •OOJ 

—•007 


Messier 


Dollond 




Dionysius 


Xjinn6 




E. 
Gassendi 


Herschel •• 


Kepler 


Pico . ... 





The values of the coordinates are expressed in parts of the moon's aemi- 
diameter, which is equal to unitj'. See Report, 1865, p. 295. 



Report of the Rainfall Committee, consisting of J. Glaisher, F.R.S., 
Lord Wkottesley, F.R.S., Prof. Phillips. F.R.S., Prof. Tyndall^ 
F.R.S., Dr. Lee, F.R.S., J. F. Bateman, F.R.S., R. W. Mylne, 
F.R.S., Charles Brooke, F.R.S., and G. J. Symons, Secretary. 

It is satisfactory to state, that in all branches of rainfall investigations steady 
progress has been maintained, and order, regularity, and accuracy more fully 
established than at any previous time. Mr. Symons's last Report to this 
Association in the volume just published, contained an epitomized history of 
rainfall investigations from 1677 to 1865, the present one deals principally 
•with the progress made since the Meeting at Birmingham. The Rainfall 
Committee appointed at that Meeting having been fully impressed with the 
paramount importance of promptly collecting all the old rain records that are 
in any way accessible, directed that a circular should be sent to every news- 
paper in the United Kingdom ; and as the circulars had to be modified for 
each journal, and there are upwards of 1400 newspapers regularly published 
the preparation of these circulars was rather a tedious process, even to one 
pretty well used to voluminous work. They were, however, all ready at 
last, and posted simtiltaneously. It speaks volumes for the willingness of 
the press to help science, and for its disinterested public spirit, that these 
circulars (and troublesome ones to print too) were inserted by many himdred 
journals without a scruple or a word as to payment. The circulars were as 
follows : — 

British Rainfall. 
To the Editor of the 
Sir, — I have to ask yom- readers' attention for a few moments to a request 
on the above subject, the importance of which in relation to engineering and 
drainage questions is well known. It is now some years since I began col- 
lecting returns of the fall of rain — with what success I will mention pre- 
sently, but my main difficulty has been to find out the persons who keep such 
records, and one of the most obvious sources of assistance is the Public Press ; 
I now, therefore, ask from each and every journal in the British Isles their 
aU-powerful aid. When the collection was first organized in 1860, scarcely 
200 persons were known to observe and record the rainfall ; by steady per- 



i282 



KEPORT 1866. 



severance, and the aid of a portion of the press, the number has been raised 
until there are now more than 1200 places whence returns are regiilarly re- 
ceived. Still I know there are many more, probably hundreds, who have 
either never heard of the establishment of a central depot to which copies of 
aU rain records should be sent, or they have been too diffident to send them. 
It is of paramount importance to gather these, and make the Tables yet more 
complete. I therefore beg leave through your columns to ask every reader 
to think for a moment if he or she knows of any one who keeps, or has kept, 
a rain-gauge ; or who has any tables of rainfall (or old weather journals) in 
their possession. And if they do know of such persons, I ask them on behalf 
of science, of my fellow-observers, and on my own behalf, to use eveiy effort 
to secure theti- assistance, and to favour- me with their names and addresses. 
We want old records, we want records for the present year, and from many 
parts of the coimtry we want returns for the future, if a few persons will 
notify to me theii' willingness to assist, and to pay 10s. 6d. for the very 
cheap and simple gauge now supplied. 

To prevent needless correspondence, I annex a list of the places in Bedford- 
shire whence returns have been already collected for the years mentioned in the 
last column, and shall be very glad of any additions or corrections. Other 
counties, or the complete list for the whole countiy, shall be sent to any one 
willing to make good use of it. I may add that an influential committee of 
the British Association has been appointed to superiatend and assist in my 
investigations, and that they cordially support my present application. 

I am. Sir, your obedient Servant, 

136 Camden Eoad, London, N.W. G. J. Stmons. 

The Committee consists of J. Glaisher, Esq., F.E.S. ; Lord Wrottesley, 
F.R.S. ; Prof. Phillips, F.R.S. ; Prof. Tyndall, F.R.S. ; Dr. Lee, F.R.S. ; 
J. F. Bateman, Esq., F.E.S. ; E. W. Mylne, Esq., F.E.S., and myself. 

Bebfoedshibe. 



station. 


Eleva- 
tion. 


Observer. 


Period. 


AinntViill 


112 

lOO 
ICO 

136 

220 
460 


W. S. Slinn,Esq 

Mr. T. Bowick .... 


C 1865- 
C 1865- 
C 1851- 

1831,1833-38. 
C 1846- 
C 1848- 
C 1848- 

C 1864- 

1864- 

C 1856- 


Bedford (Britannia Farm) 


t „ (Harper Street) 


Dr. Barker 


,, (Observatory) 


Admiral Smyth 


Cardington (Staff gauge) 


Mr. M'Laren 


fObs. eausre') 


E. S. Stedman, Esq 

Sir J. M. Burgoyne 

W. Denne. Esq 

Rev. G. W. Mahon 


(36 ft 4- eround) 




Potton (Sutton Park) 


Stotfbld rBaldockl 


AVoburn TAoslev^ 





The practical results of the publication of upwards of a million copies of 
this circular were awaited with much interest. Many hundi-eds (if not 
thousands) of letters were received, but the majority of them referred either 
to observers with whom Mr. Symons was already in correspondence, or to old 
observations already collected. About 200 letters notified that the writers 
had recently procured rain-gauges, and would be happy to send the results 
in future ; and about 100 only contained what was (and is) most required, 
namely, old observations not previously collected — some of these were very 
valuable records ; but on the whole the result of the appeal was to confirm 
the belief that there are not now very many records in private hands of which 
copies are not already obtained and classified. 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. " 283 

Taking, as we may, the total number of additional stations at 300, it does 
not seem expedient to give yet a list of them, but rather subsequently to issue 
a supplement to the list in the last Report, or perhaps a completed reprint. 

Extraction and Classification of published Records. — We regret to say that 
absolutely nothing has been done in searching the Library of the Biitish Mu- 
seum during the past year. Eecords once there being safe, it has been judged 
more expedient to secure those from other quarters, where their safe custody 
is always uncertain ; the observers die, and the records are too often destroyed. 

Examination of Rain-gauges. — Ever since Mr. Symous's rainfall investiga- 
tions were commenced, he has made it a principal aim to visit as many as 
possible of the gauges actually at work, and by conversation with the ob- 
servers, and by examination of the accuracy of their gauges and the suitability 
of theii- position, to secure at once stronger personal intei-est in the work, 
and greater uniformity and accuracy in the mode of carrying it on. It is 
therefore with much pleasure that the details of 166 such visits are annexed 
to this Eeport, di'awn up, it is hoped, in such a manner as to afford a good 
general idea of the position of the gauges, and absolute knowledge of the 
degree of accuracy of each gauge at different points of its scale. Without 
entering at present on a minute analysis of the results of these examinations, 
it may be affiimed that they are on the whole immensely beneficial. As a 
rule, the gauges are found to be in error less than two per cent. ; and though 
now and then he comes upon gauges which are a disgrace to those who made 
them, these cases are altogether exceptional. A more frequent source of error 
is the proximity of trees and tall plants ; it cannot be too strongly impressed 
on observers, that they must keep a clear open space round their gauges. 

Inclined and Tijjping Funnelled Gauges. — At the last Meeting of this 
Association it was suggested by Mr. Varley and Prof. Phillips that we should 
ascertain the indications of a gauge whose mouth instead of being horizontal 
should be inclined, and kept face to wind by a vane. We are happy to be 
able to announce that Mr. Chrimes of Eotherham has erected, and regularly 
observed, a most exhaustive set of instruments for the investigation of this 
question. They are erected on a piece of exposed high land in the subiu-bs 
of Eotherham, and the gauges are read daily and 5 monthly. 

The instruments are — 

1. A gauge similar to one employed many years ago by Prof. Phillips, 
having one horizontal and four vertical funnels, facing E., W., N., and S. 
Of course if the rain is absolutely vertical it will only enter the horizontal 
funnel ; if coming absolutely horizontal, and from, say, due east, it wUl only 
enter the funnel facing east ; if at any intermediate angle, it will partly fall 
into two or three funnels, each being provided with separate pipes and taps ; 
the quantity caught by each is known, and the angle and point whence the 
rain fell can be easily calculated. 

2 to 5. Four gauges revolving by vanes, and having their funnels tilted 
towards the wind at angles of 22^°, 45°, 67|°, and 90°. 

6. A gauge similar to the above, except that the tUt of the gauge is not 
fixed, but, being supplied with levers, &c., varies with the pressure of the wind. 
In a dead calm the funnel is horizontal, and in a gale it will, it is hoped, be 
tilted to an angle of 70° or 80°. It should thus be always at right angles to 
the wind, and catch more than any other gauge in windy weather. 

7. A Eobinson's anemometer, to give the horizontal motion of the air. 

8. A set of gauges at different elevations— 10 feet, 15 feet, 20 feet, and 
25 feet above the ground ; two at each height, one for daily and one for 
monthly measurements. These, and also the above-mentioned gauges, are 
all 5 inches diameter. 



284 REPORT — 1866. 

The observations were submitted for discussion to Mr, Baxendell, F.R.A.S., 
who reports as follows : — 

Note on Mr. Chrimes's Rain-gauge Experiments, by Joseph Baxendell, Esq., 
F.R.A.S. — Comparing the quantity of rain received by the horizontal mouth 
of the five-mouthed gauge with that received by the 90° iuclined gauge, I 
find that the mean monthly angles of deviation from the vertical of falling 
rain were — „ , o , o , 

April .... 54 45 May .... 50 22 June .... 35 15 

The mean derived from the entire series of observations (not the mean of 

the monthly means) is 42° 13'. This value is greater than I was prepared 

to expect, but is borne out by the results of the other gauges ; thus, the 

greatest quantity of rain was, in every month, received by the 45° incUned 

gauge ; and comparing the results of all the inclined gauges, we obtain the 

following monthly values : — 

o o o 

April .... 56 May 53 June 37 

The mean daily movement of the wind on rainy days was 149 miles. 
Arranging the rainy days in two groups, the one including all the days when 
the movement of the wind was above, and the other all those when it was 
below the mean value, we find that with a mean daily movement of 103-8 
miles, the rain fell at an angle of 33° 38' from the perpendicular, and with 
a mean daily movement of 227-4 miles the angle was increased to 58° 21'. 

The five-mouthed gauge was in use two months earlier than the series of 
inclined gauges, and the mean monthly horizontal direction of the rain de- 
duced from its indications was as follows : — 

February S. 74 11 W. 

March S. 25 4 E. 

AprU N. 57 29 E. 

May N. 65 14 E. 

• June N. 46 36 E. 

If I understand the construction of the tipping-gauge aright, it ought to 
receive more rain than any of the other gauges, but the observations show 
that while in general it receives more than the horizontal and vertical 
gauges, it receives less than the gauges whose orifices are inclined at angles 
of 22|°, 45°, and 67|°. On days when the velocity of the wind is less 
than the average, the tipping-gauge receives less than either the 22^° or 
45° inclined gauge, and more than any of the other gauges ; but with the 
velocity of the wind above the average, it receives more than the horizontal 
gauge and less than any of the others. It appears therefore to be irregular 
in its action, and to require some modification before its results can be used 
with confidence in rainfall investigations. Josh. Baxendell. 

Cheetham Hill, Manchester, August 17, 1866. 

p.S. — So far as I can see at present, Mr. Chrimes's experiments do not 
throw any fresh light on the question as to the cause of the differences in the 
amounts of rain received by gauges at different elevations. 

Influence of River Mists on the Amount of Rain collected. — An observer of 
great practical experience once marked on his return " affected by a large 
pool adjacent to the gauge." Mr. Symons at once began speculating how 
much this could amount to ; and it has also often been questioned by those 
who, from an elevation, have seen the mist hanging over the windings of 
a river, so marked and well defined that its course can be traced for miles. 
Is it to these mists, or to the percolation of the water through the river 
banks, that their luxuriant vegetation is to be ascribed ? If to the mists, 



ON THE RAINFALL IN THE BRITISH ISLES. 



285 



should we not find the rainfall in the places they cover above that of neigh- 
boiiring stations ? By the cooperation of the Thames Conservancy Commis- 
sioners and the observer at Weybridge Heath (W. F. Harrison, Esq.), three 
gauges have been erected -with a view of testing the point*. There ■w'as 
obviously some little difficulty in deciding on the best mode of fixing the 
gauge in the middle of the river, yet where it should be safe from injury by 
the barges or mischievous people. Eventually it was fixed on the top of one 
of the guard piles protecting Shepperton Weir ; Mr. Symons felt at the time 
that, elevated 6 ft. above the water, 150 ft. from either bank, the gauge would, 
from its exposed position, catch too little, less even than the ordinary fall at 
that height, because of the great exposure, still he did not then see any better 
arrangement. On receipt of the following report from Mr. Harrison we are 
inclined next year to try if we can have the gauge moored floating on the 
stream, with its mouth only a foot or so above it. 

Rainfall Observations at three Stations at and near Weybridge, Surrey. 





1st Station 

(read daily). 

Bartropps, Weybridge 

Heath. 

Observer, 

W. F. Harrison, Esq. 


2nd Station 
(read monthly). 
Eev. Dr. Spyers's, Wey- 
bridge Village. 
Observer, 
W. F. Harrison, Esq. 


3rd Station 

(read monthly). 

Shepperton Weir. 

Observer, 

Mr. Thomas Yokins. 


Month 

of year, 

1866. 


Height of rim of gauge. 

Above feet. 
Mean sea-level... 150-26 
Ground 0-50 


Height of rim of gauge. 

Above feet. 
Mean sea-level ... 53-08 
Ground 0-66 


Height of rim of gauge. 

Above feet. 
Mean sea-level ... 41-79 
Ground